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Full text of "Geography of the state of New York. Embracing its physical features, climate, geology, mineralogy, botany, zoology, history, pursuits of the people, government, education, internal improvements &c. With statistical tables, and a separate description and map of each county"

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jcr <ra. 

Entered according to Act of Consrew, in the year 1847, by 


In the Clerk'a Office of tbe District Court for tbe 9oatliera District of New Yoik. 

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In offering to the people of New York a Geography of their 
state, the compilers deem it proper to explain briefly the rea- 
sons which have led them to prepare such a work. 

They regard the geo^aphy of home as the first thing which 
shotdd be acquired by the pupil. It is the first impulse of the 
child, even in infancy, to acquaint himself with the objects 
around him, and with localities which possess an interest for his 
juvenile fancy. This disposition leads the school boy to famil- 
iarize himself with the villages, roads, churches and dweUings 
of his native county. 

We would cultivate this natural taste still farther ; we would 
place before the youth whatever is mteresting and important 
for him to learn, respecting his native county and state, and 
when he is familiar with this, we would lead him step by step, 
to other states and countries, till he has acquired a knowledge 
of the different countries and nations of the earth. 

Believing that the outline system of instruction affords the 
best means of impressing upon the mind the form of countries 
and the location of places, and, by the principle of association, 
aids in the recollection of historic facts, we have adopted that 
system in our work, and in addition to outline maps of each 
county, which have been inserted in the bpok, we have prepared 
a large Outline Map of the state, to accompany the work. In 
this, as well as the county maps, all the town lines are delineated. 

Regarding it as desirable that the benefits of the late Geolog- 
ical Survey should be extended as widely as possible among all 
classes, we have compiled, from the natural history of the state, 
brief sketches of the Geology, Mineralogy, Botany and Zoology 
of the state, and have prepared a Geological Chart, from the 
map published by the state geologists. 

We have also endeavored, by brief but comprehensive histor- 
ical sketches of the state, and of each county, and by official and 
other statistics, to render the work a valuable man u al for every 
class of citizens. 


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We do not profem to have attained complete acearacy, for 
such a result in a work like this is not to be. expected ; but from 
the ample resources which have been at our command, and the 
careAii examination which has been made of every part of the 
work, we cannot but hope that no material errors will be found 
in it 

In compiling this work, we have consulted the Gazeteers of 
New York, compifed by Messrs. Gordon and Disturnell; the 
New York Historical Collection of Messrs. Barber and Howe ; 
the Reports of the State Geologists, the Natural History of the 
State, and the various local histories of counties and towns; to 
the authors of which we acknowledge our obligations. 

We would also acknowledge the courtesy of the Hon. Secre- 
tary of State, in giving us access to the Dutch records, and the 
documents transcribed in Europe by Col. J. R. Broadhead ; and 
of the officers of the New York Historical Society, for their 
kindness in opening to us their valuable library. 

The friends, who, in the progress (^our work, have so readily 
communicated to us important facts relative to the history and 
productions of several counties of the state, also merit our 

With the hope that it may render the youth of the ** Empire 
State" better qualified tobeccnne useful and intelligent citizens, 
we leave the result of our labors in their hands. 

Hartford, March 20, 1847. 

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ft vffl be percei^edtliat we haveeatirelf diq^nwd wimqueitioniiatUfl wodC* 
We bave taken this course for the Allowing reaaona : 
IsL We wish to lead childien to tkink, 

3d. We believe that every competent teacher is qoaUfied to ftame his own 
qneatione* and to teach his pupils to do the same. Perhaps no ezereias can b* 
better calculated to induce the child to think, than that of requiring him to form 
questions on the subject of his lesson. 

3d. We ar6 satisfied that the use of printed questions tends to make superficial, 
rather than thcnrough scholars ; while by analysis, mental power and disciplina 
are acquired. 

4th. We do not think it desirable to require the pupil, tnoarioVy, to commit to 
momory the word* <mF the book ; he should rather be encouraged to treasure up 
the fiicts, andckith«tiiem in his own language. 

This work may, with propriety, be used both as a manual for study, and a feftd' 

Wlien used as a text book, we deem It hlg^y important that the rlnsscs sbould 
be so thoroughly drilled upon the state and county maps, by drawing them upon 
the slate and blackboard, as to be able to recognize them at a glance, and to name 
the riven, mountains, towns, and villages, of each county correctly. 

The {NTimary scholars may become well acquainted with the physical features 
of the state, by oral instruction upon the targe map, in classes ; or if permitted to 
use the book, by drawing the county maps upon their slates. The same course 
may also be adopted in the instruction of the more advanced classes. 

A thorough knowledge of the topography of the state, being thus attained, the 
scholars are prepared fbr the study of descriptive geography. The course of de- 
scriptive study for the younger classes may very property be ccmfined to the boun- 
daries, surface, mountains, lakes, rivers, climate, and villages. Ilie advanced 
classes may study the work in course. It will add much interest to the recita- 
tions by allowing the students to add such other incidents and historic ftcts which 
they may gather, as are not rebted in this wori^ The study of geology and mine- 
ralogy wHl be rendered highly instructive and interesting by collecting specimens^ 
which should be tabeled, thus forming a cabinet of minerals for the school room. 

Geographical definitions and brief descripticms, should be committed to mem- 
ory, and perfect recitirtlons required ; in more extended descriptions, and histori- 
cal sketches, the pupils wiO receive greater benefit, if encouraged to use tkeirmm 
language, rather than that of the book. 

When the work is used as a reading book, we would suggest that the first 
scholar in the class should propose a question from the first paragraph of the lee- 
son, to be answered by the second scholar, and he in turn should question the 
third, and so on, until the whole lesson has been analyzed. EHiould any scholar 
fidl of answering the question pn^xMed to him, let it be answered by the elass. 
This examination fwepares the schotais to read understanding and correcfiy. 

As an occasional exercise it may be weU for the teacher to require some mem- 
ben of the readimg ctass to draw upon the blackboard, maps of one or more coun- 
ties, from memory, the arrcMts ot which may be corrected by other membera of the 
class. Thisexercisemay be foUowed by descriptions of the surikee^ productions^ 
or history of the counties thus drawn. 

Schotan will find it a profitable and interesting exercise to fonn an atlas of the 
slate for preservation, by drawing the state and county maps by the eye* from the 
maps before them, or from recoOectton only. 

If these sottestions are ftdly carried out in practice, we believe ^that the youth 
who study this work, win attain a ftr more thorough and accurate knowledge of 
their own slate, tfaMi by any qmem of study heretofore piusoed. 

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I. Albany. 

II. New York. 

III. Kings. 

IV. Queens. 

V. Suffolk. 

VI. Richmond. 

VII. Westchester. 

VIII. Ulster. 

IX. Dutchess. 

X. Orange. 

XI. Montgomery. 

XII. Washington. 

XIII. Columbia. 

XIV. Clinton. 

XV. Ontario. 

XVI. Herkimer. 

XVII. Rensselaer. 

XVIII. Otsego. 

XIX. Saratoga. 

XX. Onondaga. 

XXI. Tioga. 

XXII. Schoharie. 

XXIII. Steuben. 

XXIV. Delaware. 

XXV. Chenango. 

XXVI. Rockland. 

XXVII. Oneida, 

XXVIII. Cayuga. 

XXIX. Essex. 

XXX. Greene. 

XXXI. Genesee. 

XXXII. St. Lawrence. 

XXXIII. Seneca 

XXXIV. Lewis. 

XXXV. Jefferson. 

XXXVI. AUegany. 

XXXVII. Broome. 

XXXVIII. Madison. 

XXXIX. Cattaraugui. 
XL. Chautauque- 
XLI. CorUand. 
XLII. Franklin. 
XLin. Niagara. 
XLIV. SulUvan. 
XLV. Schenectady. 
XLVI. Putnam. 
XLVII. Warren. 
XLVm. Oswego. 
XLIX. Tompkins. 

L. Erie. 
LI. Livingston. 
LII. Monroe. 
LIII. Yates. 
LIV. Wayne. 
LV. Orleans. 
LVI. Chemung. 
LVII. Fulton. 
LVIII. Hamilton. 
LIX. Wyoming. 


P Shawangunk Mountains. 
P in XXVII. Highlands of 

Black River. 
T Matteawan or Fishkill Mts. 
U Taghkanic Range. 
T Peterborough lUnge. 
EE Kayaderosseras Range. 

FP Highlands. 
GO Chateaugay Range. 
HH Clinton Range. 
MM Au Sable Range. 
PP Highlands of St. Law- 
rence County. 

* The moimtains are omitted on the niiaa map of the state in the book for 
want of jroom. They are inserted on the large map. 

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B East River. 
€ Hudson. 
F Mohawk. < 
G Susquehanna. 
H Delaware. 
I St Lawrence. 
K Allegany. 
91 Niagara. 
a Genesee. 

O Chemung River. 

a Tionghnioga. 

H Nerisink. 

S Croton. 

T Shawangunk. 

A A Schoharie Creek. 

CC Chenango. 

II [Jnadilla. 


J Lake Ontario. 
li Lake Erie. 
W Lake Champlain. 
X Lake George. 

Z Oneida Lake. 
BB Seneca Lake. 
BB Cayuga. 

BAYS, sotmns, tc. 

A New York Bay. 
D Long Island l^und. 

E Atlantic Ocean. 


SS Niagara Falls. 


;0: Capital of the State. 

^ County Seats. 

VUlages not County Seats. 

gdll Universities and Colleges, 

--j- Forts. 

y^ BatUe Fields. 

U FaUs. 

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PirncAL Fbatvbu or New Tom^ 
BounduiM, ... 



CuxATs or N«W TOKK. ...... 


OaoLooT Aim IfomAALooT, ------ 3 

ThbatarYiewortlieBockiorNowToik, ... - 9 

Mineralogy, S 

Mineral SprillSi^ 3 

BoTAjrr, -------- 3 

Zoology, .-------3 

ClM L Mammalia, 3 

CtaM IL Are*— Uid% 3 

Ckai m. RepCilee, - . - - . - 4 

iIV. AmpbiUa, -------4 

I V. Fidie^ - - - , - - 4 

I VL Cnnlacea, - _-.--. 4 

' dam vn. Molueea, ...... 4 

dam Vm. Infect^ -----..4 


Jhrtom CoumiAi. AnMnmnuTioii, ----- 4 

IMMoreiy and BeltlemeBC, - 4 

INnetor Minait*e Adminiemtton, .... 5 

Bireetor Van Twaefe AdnOniiCraaoB, ... .5 

Diieetor Kieft*e Adminitfration, - • . . 5 

flovwmor fltnyvewmfe Adminlidation, - 5 

EHaLum OoLOMiAL GovaamniiT, ..... 6 

Hie Slate Adminiflbation, - 7 

HrraaiuL InrEOTEMuiTa, - . . ^ . - g 

TuMMum or mm Pboplb. - Ifl 

Afrittoltiire, - - - - -.- - 10 

CkMumeree, - - - -.- -K 

Mamiftctorea, - -' IC 


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COlfTBNT0. Xt 

Govnnisirr or New Tokk, - - • > 103 

CMMtitutionofNewToifc, • - - - • 103 

GoveniiMiitofCouiitiM»ToW]N,aiid Yilligei, « - - 119 

POBUc Edvcatioh, - - - - - - . 130 

Origin and History of UMCtoomioii School fl^rtten, - • -130 

PrewnCConclitioBofOoiamonSebwdii, - - - • 131 

•fitate Nonnal Scbool, - . - * - - 133 

C% BclMwl OiganiaUioBB. ..... 134 

Univendtiei, CoDef 6f, and AcademiQii - - - 130 


Land Piiicha8M» 139 

L Auumr Couimr, ....... 131 

n. Nsw Yomx Couimr, - - - ^ - • - 139 

LoM iaioHD, ........ 152 

UL Knoa Coxnm, ----*-. 154 

IV. aosBiw, - - - - - * - - - 159 

V. SonoLK, ....... 104 

Vi SiCHXOMD. -..--..- 109 

Vn. WBrrcHBtTBK, - . . - - - - 173 

TPn. ULaran, - - - 181 

DL DoTciUBt, • - • - - - ' * 180 

XOeamib, 191 

XL MoilTOOKBBT, ..-..-.- 109 

Xn. WjkBBIlfOTOlCj ....... 904 

XBL CoLimBiA, ....... 300 

XIV. CuMTOii, - - ' i ' ' - - -314 

XV. Omtabio, -.--.-- 319 
XVL HBBXiMBm, - - -- • 333 

XVn. BsmsBLABB, - • 838 

XVm. C>nB«o» - - ... . -333 

XIX. Sakatooa, - - - - • - 339 

XX. OmmnAAA, - - - -- - - -348 

XXL Tio«A, • - - 354 

XXn. SCHOHAMIB, •- -- --357 

XXHL ftravBBB, ....... 303 

XXIV. DBL4WABB, ..-...- 300 

XXV. CnKAxao, ------- 309 

XXVL SocaoABv, ....... 373 

XXVn. Qnuuk, - - ; - * - 887 

XXVm. Catvca, .. - - 880 

XXDCEaasx, 990 

XXX. Gbbbmx, - - T- 395 

XJDO. GBBBiBB, - 999 

XTXII. ftr. La,wbbiicb, .------ 808 

XXXm. BmmQA, - '•^ 

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XXXIV. Lbwu, --..-.. -310 

XXXV. Jcmmaoii, ----.. . 313 
XXXVL Allboaht, --.... . 320 
XXXVII. Bboomk, - . - - - . . . 323 

XXXVra. Maduon, - - 326 

XXXIX. Cattakauoui, ...... 330 

XL. Chautau^ub, -.---. . 334 

XLI. CORTLAHD, ...... . 340 

XLH. Fkanklin, ---..-. . 343 

XUn. NiAOiJu, - - .- -*- - 347 

XUV. SuLLivAii, - . - .... . . 354 

XLV. SCHBNSCTADT, - - . - _ . . 357 
XLVI. POTMAK, - - " - . . ... 3§1 

XLVQ. Warrbk, - - . - ... . 364 

XLVm. OswBoo, ...... . 309 

XUX. ToMPKUfl, --..--- 373 

L. Ebib, - - 375 

LL IdTiMosTON, ...... u 383 

Ln. MONROB, -.-..._ . 3gg 

LIU. Tatbs, ....... . 393 

LIV, Watmb, . - 396 

LV» Orxbaks, ...... . 390 

LVI. Chbwuho/ --.-... . 402 

LVn. Fdlton, - ■- . . - . . 406 

LVUL Hamiltoh, ....__ , 4J0 

LDL Wtomiiio, ... . - . - . 4^3 

Tablb I. - . - . . - - . _ 427 

Tablb H. 

l^^^^ .423 

l^^^' 430 

Tablb V. - . - - - - . 431 

Tablb VLGownon of tbe Hate, ..... 432 

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8<taxn MUm, 4S.«B8, (exchislve of tin LalM.) Pomdatton. MOB^ttf. 
Date «r dISGOTexy, HW. ViJuation In t846, | 

Boundaries, New York is bounded North by Lake Ontario, 
the river St. Lawrence and Canada ; East by Vermont, Massa- 
chusetts and Connecticut 5 South by the Atlantic Ocean, New 
Jersey and Pennsylvania 5 West by Pennsylvania, Lake Erie 
and the Niagara river. 

Its extreme length from North to South is 310 miles; from 
East to West, induding Long Island, 408 miles; exclusive of 
that island 340 miles. It extends from 40^ 30' to 45°. North 
Latitude, and from 5"^ 05' East to 3<* 55^ West Loogitode from 

General Features. The Hudson and Mohawk rivers natu- 
rally divide the State into three sections, of unequal size. 

The first comprises Long Island, and that portion oi the State 
lying east of the Hudson river and Lake George, The second 
embraces all of the State lying north of the Mohawk and Os- 
wego rivers \ and the third and largest, the vast, fertile tract, 
south of those two rivers. These three sections may be called 
the Eastern, Northern and Southern. 

The ranges of mountains of these diifercnt seetiims are nu- 
merous, and some of them quite elevated. 

In the Eastern division, the Taghkaaie range ibrms the east- 
ern boundary of the state, from Lake Champlain to Putnam . 
(sounty. At this point it turns southwestward, and the Hudson 
forces a passage through it. 

On the west side of the Hudsdi it assumes the name of the 
Kittating mountains, and continues its course, into New Jersey 
and Pennsylvania, under that name. 

The Northern section, comprising that portion of the State 
lying north of the M(diawk and Oslrego rivers, has six ranges 
c^ mountains running northeasterly. 

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1. The Palmertown range, 8<mie portkms of wbkih have also 
received the names ofBlack, and Tongue znountams. 

Tbk range rises in the northern part of Saratoga Co., runs nortbeoat througli 
ttie toi^e of bni which aaparatfla Lake Geoiya fioin lAke Champlain, and 
finally terminates In bold and precipitous cUITs, at the shore at the latter lake, 
■oath of Ticonderaga. 

2. The Kayaderosaeras, or LuBeme moantains. 

These are about six miles wide and seventy long, running from Montgomery 
Ckx, through Saratoga and Warren couitifi^ skng die Western side of Lake 
George to Ticonderogs. 

The Hudson breaks through it on the line of Warren and Saratoga counties. 

3. The Clinton range. 

This extends from Montgomery Co. n<Mrtheast, through Fulton, HamiKon, Sar- 
atoga, Warren and Bnex couatits, to Point TremUeau on Lake Champlain. It 
is the largest range of mountains lying north of the Mohawk. At its most de- 
▼ated portion there are numerous distinct peaks* fonning a remaiimUe groap, 
known as the Adirondack. The Mohawk forces a' passage through its soaUi- 
westem extremity. This range divides the waters flowing into the St Lawrence, 
ftom those flowing into the Mohawk and Riyison. Its principal peaks are MounU 
Marcy, Mclntyre, McMarttn and Dial mountain. The flnt is the highest in tbe 
State, being 5467 feet above tide water. 

4. The Au Sable, or Peru range. 

This range commences in Montgomery Co., and, running parallel with the 
others through Fulton, Hamilton and Esses counties, tenuiMitea in the aouti 
part of Clinton county. 

It is one hundred and sixty miles long, and higher than the preceding mngeB. 
White Faee, its loftiest peak, is SOOO feet la height 

5. The Chateangay range. 

This is the k>nge8t and highest range in the state. CommeneiBg on ttie lini 
of the Kaa^sbergs, in Herkimer Co., it maimains an altitude of nearly 3000 fee 
through tbe counties of Hamilton, Franklin and Clinton ; and crossii^ tbe Canad) 
line terminates upon the Canada plains. 

6. A range commencing ten or twelve miles from the north 
em extremity o£ the Ohateaugay range, and trending along th( 
slope of the St. Lawrence. 

This has been little erolored, and is of less extent than the last The St. Begu 
Qrasse and other rivers descending into the St Lawrence divide it into aeven 
distinct portions. 

The Northern section has ako two smaller ridges worthy c 

1 . The Highlands of Black river. 

This ridge extends fhmi the sources of Black creek, west, and northwea 
•bout sixty milea^eoverittg much of the eocratry between Bhtek river on otie aid 
«nd the plains north of Oneida Lake on the other, its altitude ia given at fr«i 
twelve to sixteen hundred feet ; and it has frequently a rolliiig sur&ce unon j 
top of several miles in width. 

2. The Hassencleaver momitain. 

Hassencleaver ridge, extending from Herkimer county into Oneida, occuDii 
tfte space between the HigUands and the Mohawk river. It is twenty miles loi 
--about nine miles broad at ita base— awl has sa aliinrie varying fem «jaK» 
i»ine hundred feet, with a rolling surftea. ^*^ 

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PHV81GAL FfiATU&£«* 


The third, or SoQtham section may he flubdivided into two 
dktiiKt portioRs— the Eastern and the Western. 
The EiBustern division has three distinct ranges of mot]ntalns< 

1. The Highlands of Orange and Pntnam counties, running 
to the northeast, 

2. The 8hawangonk, running in a similar direetioni and skirt^ 
kig the valley of the Rondout. 

3. The Catdtill^ or Kaatsberg, whose <firection is northwest 
tiirough the counties of Ulster, Albany and Schoharie, to iba 
vsHey of the M(^wk. Those portions of this range lying in the 
comities of Albany and Schoharie, are called the Helderberg 

The southwestern section, also called western New York, 
gradually rises, from the shore of Lake Ontarioi till it obtains 
its highest elevation, in the southern tier of counties. 

Tbe Hrwt of the terraces, composinf this ascent, extends fh>m ihe Genewe river, • 
near Kocbester, to the faBe of Niagara, at Lewistown, a distance of eightjr miles, 
and from dk to ten miles in width. It is called the Ridge Road, and is supposed 
once to have formed the shore of Lake Ontario. II is about three hundred feet 
above tbe surflkce of the Lake. 

The second extends tnta this ridge road to the fkDs of the Genesee, «t Nuads 
And Foftagevine, where there is another abrupt declivity of nearly 900 ibet 

This surmoutttod, the ascent is gradual to the summit level, at a height of 
1500 to 2000 feet in the southern portion o( Chautauque, Cattaraugus, AUegany 
and Steuben counties. 

These terraces, though atf quite fbitile, are each characterised by a diffeiencs 
of BoO and of fbieet trees. 

Nora. The following table nresents the names, sitntioQ and elevatkm of 

tbe principal smnmits of these cutferent ranges. Feet 

Mount Iffarcy, Adirondack Group, Essex county, .... 5,4^ 

" Mclntyre, " " »• " . . . . 6,18? 

« MeMartin, " " " " about - • - 6,000 

Dial Mountain or Nfaiple Top, <* •<.... 4,000 

White Face, - • 4,856 

Mount Sewartl, Adirondack group, Franklin countji • • • 4,000 
Round Top, CatskHl mountains, Greene county, .... 3j&Mt 
High Peak, * •* " »••'.... 3.718 

Fine Orchard, " " « «• .... 3,000 

Shawangunk, . Orange " .... 1,866 

New Deacon, or Grand Sachem, HiglUinds, 1,6S6 

Butter Hill, " 1,580 

Old Beacon, " }i47i 

Breakneck HUI, .*.,... lA&t 

Anthony's Nose, " - • - . - . - l,lg 

Mount Defiance, near Ticonderoga, 760 

Fafindes, -^--fiSO 

Fort Putnam, near West Point, 600 

Harbor HiU, Long Island, - - - m 

Richmond Hill, Staten Island, 007 

Lakes. New York abounds in lakes or great beauty and sur- 
rounded by the most lovely scenery. 

Lake Srie, lying on tl^ western border of the state, is the 
most extensive. It is 268 miles in length, and from ao to 50 in ' 

Its surftu^ is greatfy elevated, being 565 feet above tide water, and 334 above 
Lake Ontario. Its greatest depth is 370 feet, though its mean depth does not 
exceed 130. Oidy 60 miies of ita coast He witiria the state, »nd tfaeae allbtd but 

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H 81«AT£ Off NIfiW VORtt. 

tlifM|MlMAoc%vis: BiiflklaBiKkloelc,t]id Ikn^ The tmouiit o/ ill 
navigation^ however) is ^evy great, and rapid^ fajwretirfng. fitting the awmnwit 
montlia, it is mt^mA to attMme of gzeat violence. Area of the kke 8080 eq. mllee. 

Nora. The amomu of bosineeB on Lake Erie is much greater than that uaon 
any other of ouir inland seas, to 1845 the amount of shipping, recistered, enrolted 
and licensed, forthe district of Buflklo alone, was about 26,000 tone; and thii 
was but a small portionof diat empii^ed upon the lake. 

Itt 1844 nioife than 40,000 tbiis of shipping were owned by the American ports 
on that lake, aside from &e English shippirtx, and that eemiag from other lakes. 
The ioorease is estimated at not leas than 10 per eent^ per annum. 

The entire lake trade of 1845 was esUmatedat «122,U0(),()0D, of which probably 
three^iburthB passed over Lake Erie* 

Several of the steamers (of which there are atthe hdndreda), emplojred en ^ 
lake, are of more than 1000 tons burthen ; and for oonveniencaand excellence of 
accommodations are unrivalled. 

Lake Ontario is the second in size and importancei lying upon 
the northwest of the State. 

It is of a very regular, eniptieal fbrm, 190 infles in length, 95 hi its extreme 
width, and about 485 in circumftrence. 

It is in some places over 600 feet in dejAh, having a mean depth of 493 feet, 
and in every part sufficient water for the largest vesseis. Its surfaee is 334 feet 
lower than that of Lake Erie, and 231 feet above the level of the Atlantic 

The commerce of Lake Ontario la extensive ; and its ports open usuaUy aariief 
than those of Lake Erie. Of these, the principal, lying in the state of JNew Yoik» 
are Oswego, Sacketts Harbor, and Poet Genesee or Charlotte. It is less sul^leet to 
violent storms and heavy swells than L^ Erie. Its area is 5400 bi|. milea. 

Lalce Champlain, forming a portion of the eastern boundary, 
is a long and narrow sheet of water, of gf eat beauty and con- 
taining a number of fine islands. Of these, Valcour and Schuy- 
ler, besides several smaller islets, belong to New York | tiM 
others to Vermont 

Its extreme length is 134 mUes ; its breadth varies firom 40 rods to 14 mileri ; 
and its depth ftom 54 to 383 feet In the winter it is usually entirely ckraed by 
ice for about two months. During the remainder of the year, large steamers 
and stoops navigate its waters, richly fireighted with the produce of the eounties 
along its shores. 

Lake George, or Horicpn, named by the Fi'ench, Lac Sacra- 
ment, on account of the purity of its waters, lies south of Lake 

It is two or three mites in breadth ftnd thirty-aixla length. Its surfhce Is 343 
feet above tide water. It discharges itself into Lake Champiahi by a descent of 
150 feet A steamboat plies upon its waters during the summer^ 

Hie kike is surrounded by hills, towering to the height of 1300 or 1500 feet 
Tbs numerous islands which stud its ptaicid sur&ce ; the tnoipateiiey of ita wa- 
ters, which reveals the pebbles beneath, at a depth of 40 feet ; and the rich and 
varied scenery which surrounds it all combine to render it one of the most de- 
lightfhl resorts hi the state, to the mvalid or the man of buahiess. 

The northern portion of the State abounds with email laked, 
seldom exceeding six or eight miles in length, and two or thre« 
in breadth. . Their number is probably not less than 200. 

fSome of these, among the Adirondack group of mountains, aio greatfy Novated. 
Avalanche lake, in Essek county, is 3000 feet Oolden lake, hi the same county, 
8750 feet and Baeket taOce, in Hamilton county, 1731 feet above tide water. 

The central portion has a chain of lakes of considerable size 
and importance. 

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Tbtf cztmd ttBougk the coqbUm of Oneida, O«we0o, OaoodHp, C^yoga, 
Bewea, Yatea, Ontario and UvingstOB ; and are huOy aurpaMed in beantiAilaBd 
pictiiresqiie acenery. 

The principal lakes in this chain are Seneca, Caynga, Oneida^ 
Crooked and Canandaigua. 

The fint four are navigated by steam and canal boata. Tbey are generally timm 
300 to 600 feet deep, and ttoax 400 to 700 feet above the mut^ce of the Attantie. 

The other lakes, connected with this chain, are Ononda^, 
Cross, Otisco, Cazenovia, Skeneateles, Owasco, Honeoye, Can* 
adice and Cfmesgs. 

Tlieaa are an email, bat aie .worthy of vAice^ ibr the beauliftil aeenery which 
mmriJMk them. Extenrive ealt apringa abound on the aborea of the Onondaga, 
whose waters are, notwithstanding, fresh. 

The only other lakes of importance are Otsego and Canade- 
raga in Otsego county, and Chautauque, in Chautaaque county. 

Rivers. The Hudson, 320 miles in length, is the largest river 
lying wholly in the State, and one of the finest navigable streams 
in the United States. It rises among the Adirondack group of 
mountains, and flows almost directly South to the bay of New 
York. It is navigable for steamboats of the largest size, and 
sloops, to Troy, 160 miles from its moutk 

In the number and magnificenee of its steamers, and in the extent of businesa 
done iqpon its waters, it is probably surpassed only by the Ohio and Mississippi 

The principal branches of the Hudson are, the Hoosick on the 
east side, and the Mohawk on the west. 

The Hooeick, rising in Berkshire county, Mass^ runs northwest and west, and 
(bmishes many fine mill seats. 

The Mohawk takes its rise hi Oneida and Lewie coimties. It pnnnea at ilrst 
a southerly course ; then, ehai«iag to east southeast, it forma the valley of the 
Mohawk. Its length ia about 130 miles. 

The Other tributaries of the Hudson are, on the east, Sdu'oon 
branch, the cutlet of Schroon lake ; Battenkill, Kinderhook and 
Croton rivers ; on the west, Wallkill, Rondout, Esopus, Kaat- 
erskill and Sacandaga, besides several smaller streams. 

The St. Lawrence forms the northwestern boundary of New 
York, for a hundred miles ; and is the outlet of the great Amer- 
ican lakes. 

It conveys to the ocean a laiger body of water than any other river in the 
world, except the Amazon. It is navigable for sloops as flur as Ogdensburg, 60 
miles ftom Lake Ontaria Betow this point, the frequent rapida render naviga- 
tion difficult and dangerous. 

The TlK>usand Islaikb lie near its junction with Lake Ontario, a portion of 
which, and some others belong to the United States. This group actuaDy exceeds 
1500 in number. 

The Oswego is the next in importance in the State. Its 
whole length is 120 miles. 

Under the name of Mud creek, it rises in Ontario coun^, and ilowhig easterly 
receives, through the Canandaigoa outlet, the waters of Oanandaigtia lake. Pn>- 
eeediiig esitwardly under the name of the Clyde, it receives the waters of Benees 

Digitized by Google 

18 «TA*r£ OF NEW YORlC. 

and Gsyuga falcei tbroucli their eommoH outlet, and eflsumes the name of Seneca 
river. Afker a stlH flutber enlargement by the waters of Onondaga lake, H takes 
the title of Oswego riyer ; and suddenly curving towards the northwest, ocAecti 
ftOB the Oneida river Us tribute of the waters of Oneida lake, and discharges itself 
into Lake Ontario. It has about 100 feet fkll after assuming the name of Oswego 
river, and ftirnishes, by its constant siy>ply of water, valuable mill privileges. 
Beven thousand square miles of territory are drained by its waters ; and, by means 
of the Oswego Canal and looks, it is navigable for its whole extent 

The AUegaoy river, o/oe of the soarces of the CHiio, takes its 
rise in Aiiegajiy county, and is navigahle for steai ers of small 
drafl from Olean, a distance of about 40 miles, to the siate line. 
- The Susquehanna and Delaware both take their rise in this . 
state, and, though not navigable to any considerable extent, 
afford fine seats for mills. 

The other principal rivers of the state are, the Niagara, which 
is the connecting link between Lakes Erie and Ontario, and 
forms the celebrated fklls of the same name ; 

The Grenesee, distinguished for its immense water power, 
and for being the feeder of the Gtenesee Valley Canal ; 

It is navigable ahnoet to Sochester, and is 145 miles in length, emptying into 
l4ike Ontario. 

The Black, the third river in size, lying wholly in the state, 
and also dischargmg its waters into Lake Ontario; it is 120 
miles in length, and navigable for 40 miles. 

The Chenango and the Chemung, important tributaries of 
the Susquehanna; 

The Oswegatchie, rising in Herkimer county, the principal 
tributary of the St. Lawrence. 

The other streams flowing into .the St. Lawrence are Indian, 
Grasse, Racket, St. Regis and Salmon rivers. 

Chazy and Saranac are the chief streams flovdng into Lake 


From die extent and diversity of its surftice, it is impossible 
to give a general description of the climate of New York, which 
would apply with equal truth to each section of the state. We 
can only say that it is subject to great extremes of heat and 
oold; and that, although in the same latitude, v^hich ki Europe 
IH-oduces the igt the olive and the grape, its more severe dl> 
mate admits oiSy of the culture of the hardier plants and grains. 

The state, though subject to sudden and severe changes, 
may be considered healthy. The number of deaths to the popu- 
lation is not greater than in the other states ; nor do malignant 
diseases prevail to any considerable extent. 

* The ftcta 6a which this article is baaed have been collected from a chapter 
on the climate of the atate in Gordon's Gazetteer; from the reports of the Re- 
f ems of the University ; and firoma paper in the (Quarterly Journiu'of Agriculture. 

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lu iw ewURi connCies; consuuption tnd otfter diseaMs of the lungs an tb^ 
fK^tdBag mahMlieir; ia the wescera coantiM, bilious aflTecdons are more preva- 
lent. Cholera Infantum is a common tnd Ihtal disease with children in the 
cities and large towB«» dnrisf the siunnier and autumn. 

It has been ascertained, by numerous observations made in this state and New 
England, that an elevation of surfkce of 350 feet produces a dimmution of heat, 
equal to the addition of a degree of latitude. Hence we see th« influence of our 
mountain systems upon the climate of the state. 

lo order to present more clearly the peculiar characterifftics of 
the eluiiate to the scholar, we shall divide the state ioto six dis- 
tricts, viz. 1st, Long Island; 2d, The valley of the Hudson; 3d, 
The valley of the Mohawk; 4th, The district north, and north 
east of the Mohawk, extending from Lake Ontario to Lake 
Champlain; 5th, The district south andsouthwestof the valley 
of the Mohawk, extending from the valley of the Hudson to 
the smaller Lakes; and dth, The country west of the smaUer 

The foDowiflif teble, prepared with great eve, exhibits the mean, or average 
tenperature ; the iaeaa annual maximum, or h^lKsC degree of heat; the mean 
annual wmmhhmb^ or lowest degree of tenpantore; Ike mvaiage aumai raafe of 
the Tbemoneler; and several otbsr pacticidar^ which show the length andibr- 
waidness of the seasons, and the progress of vegetation. It contains the reenlMi 
of observatiOM made at M diflerent piseet, for a period of 15 yean. 



Ix)cations of 

No. of 


*Peach hi bloom, - 
Currants in bloom, - 
Wumm bloom, - 
Cherry in bloom, 

Apple In bloomT - 
Ulac m bloom, - 

nay harvest coounenced. 
Wheat harvest commenced, 
First kiffing frost, - - ' 
First laMof snow, - 

March 19, 


Sept. 23 
Nov. 5, 









M^an annual minimum, below zero. 
Mean ann. range af the thermometer, 

120 00' 






We win now proceed to eonider the climate of the several district^ into which 
^*« bave divided the state, in their older. 

1st District. Leng hland, 

The chniate ef this diatriet is reniaricaUe for the aaifomiity of its temperature. 
1^ graatest heat of summer is on an average l^o less, and the greater cold of 
winter from lO*' to 18^ less, than in other parts of the state. 

The luring ia soowwtet backward, trees blooming a week later than m the in- 
terior of the state; yet stnwbeities ripen, and the wheat barv«8* eomnheneea 
«cHier than tike average of the slate. ^ 

* This is the average for the southern and middle portion of the *«ie only. 

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FIraat oeeun at a mndk immt period I 
SMt BunpUin. It if a ftdl 
ireeki, later tkan tlia av«cac« of ths fltate. 

2d District ne Vmliey of the midmm. 

ThiM valey U mnaffcaVte Ibr tbe great annual nmfe of tbe tbennooiefier; the 
iMat of Mimiier and the cold of winter belDg equally biteoM. Tbe average tem- 
perature of Albany if nearlr <<* Ufbo* thw tbat of the itate. The extreiaa cold 
of winter at Kindeihooic, LaMinghuigh, Cambridge. Salera and GranviUe. causes 
the meteury to iink l«o lower than in fba aouiheni towae of tlie i«lcy. The 
spring opens a week or ten daya ktet, U A»apy, and above that city, tbanst th» 
4ty of New York. 

3d District. Valley qf the Mohtavk. 

The aveiaga annual tei»pB»iwe of this vaiiey is 1^ lees than that of the stale. 
JloxtherXy and easter^ winds prevail in this section. The latter seems to be 
a diversion of the souths or south west wind, which prevails hi the vallef of the 

Utica, ih this di^riet, may he 09p4dei9d asn ftJc tep rs s wu at ivn of the fsnemi 
cBmate of the state» as its ten»perature is about the average temperature of the 

4th District. Mn-tk and ^arth East p/ the VaUe^ ^ftKe Mohawk, 

The climate of this ngion is ehaneleiiEed by a kvw average tenpemture, ex- 
treme cold in winter, gnat la^e of the thermonMter, backward i 
early frosts. 

Gouvemeur, in 0t Laarrane* Co. rapoits a kiwer degree of I 
winter, and with ope exception, a lower annual average of temperature, than any 
other town in the state, from which meteorological records have been received. 

Tbe average annual tepuperature of the whole district Js more than 2^ lower 
than that of tbe remainder of the i«MB. 

6fth District. The Begum SotUh of the Mohawk, extending to the 
emallet Lakes. 

The average annuafteraperature of this section is about 3^ lower than that of 
the slate, and the autumnal frosts occur from 4 to 13 days earlier. Vegetation la 
onifonnly backward, yet the lobin appears earlier than in other sectioos. 

Fompiqr, in Onondaga county, is the coldest ptawe reported, its annual tenqpera- 
tttK biing 3|<) lower than that of the state ; yet the cold of winter is not so in- 
tense, nor do the autumnal froets^ecur »s early there, as in the state generri^. 
dth District. That portion of the State tVeet of the mall Lakes. 

aim chmate of this section, like that of Long Iskilid, is characterized by uni- 
fcimity. The mean temperature does not di0er materiany from that of the 
whole state, but the average annual range of the thermometer is only 9^^^ while 
that of the state is 104O. 

Vegetation in the spring is somewhat ip advapce of the state generally, «oi^ 
responding with that of Albany. 

The prevalent tocal whMi of this region is fropp the soothweit. In the autumn 
It is violent throughout the whole sectkm, attA frequently attended with rain; but 
(m Lake Erie, probebly owing to its meeting with ot|»er currants of wind, it fre- 
quently manifests extraordinary fury in September and October, and occasionally 
produces disastrous shipwiechi. 

Tbe extreme heat of summer is very vailionn throughout the elate. Only 5 
places, out of M, show apdifference of over 30 from the average of the smte, 
which is 930. 

The average thne thieugMit the whole state^ from the bkwDuiw of the apple 
tree, to the fir* kilUng frost in autumn, is 174 days. On tiie west end of lioi^ 
Uand it is lt| days more; and hi 8t Lawxience county M ikye km Thesa 

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6eou>oy may be defined as that science which treats of the straC" 
tore ojf the eartbi and the substances which compose it. 

An examination of the banks of rivers, the sides of precipices, Slc,, 
shows that there are two kinds, or classes of rocks ; the one being de« 
posited in layers, or strata, of variable thickness, are called stratified 
roekSy and bear evidence of having been, at some remote period, de« 
posited as a sediment, Arom water ; the other irregular in shape, con- 
taining numerous crystals, and most of the metals in common use, and 
forming the basis of Uie lofty mountain chains, are termed wutraiified 
rocka^ and were undoubtedly brought into their present form by the 
action of fire, which then existed, and probably still exists, in the in* 
terior of the earth. 

Granite is the principal constituent of the unstratified rocks, and 
probably formed the original crust of the earth. It still exists below 
all the other rocks. Owing, however, to violent convulsions of na* 
ture, (such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, &c.,) which have 
occurred since the layers above it were deposited, it has in many 
places been forced up through fissures in these layers, so as to ap« 
pear on the surface, or has raised them up, so as to form mountains or 
nills. If these were still covered with water, or became again sub* 
merged by a subsequent convulsion, new layers were again deposited, 
frequently at considerable angles with the first deposit. 

The figure represents such an occurrence. 

^\\\\\\\\S\\"' ..... . \\x^ \N\\\\\N\\\- V w 

a, represents the unstratified rock upon wKich the layers 5, 5, had 
been deposited in a horizontal position ; but by a convulsion of na* 
tore, the whole mass had been upheared, and the granite had forced 


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its way to the surface ; being however still submerged, new layers 
c, e, were deposited, at an angle of nearly 45o with the first. 

Hypcrsthene and priinitiv6 limestone also occur among the un- 
■tratified rocks. 

The Stratihed Rocks are divided into six orders or systems, 
as they are called; viz., -^beginning at the lowest strata, or those next 
succeeding the unstratified rocks, we have, 

I. Trs Phimart, OB Primitive System, consisting of disinte- 

f rated granite, deposited by the waters ; and probably again modified 
y the action of the subterranean heat. 

The rocks, composing this system, are known as gneiss, mica schist, 
and hornblende. There is no evidence of the existence of either 
animal or vegetable life, during the period while this strata were de- 
positing. Nearly all the metals, used in the arts, are found in these 
rocks, and in the granite on which they rest. 

II. The TiLAifsrnoir System. This system embraces a ereat 
variety of formations, and occupies a large portion of the crust of the 
earth. Its lower strata consist of limestones, sandstones, and shales 
or slaty rocks. Above these, is a layer of sandstone, known as the 
old red sandstone, which is succeeded by a limestone, forming the 
bed of the vast coal formations, which furnish so large an amount of 
fuel to the world. Over these is deposited a magnesian limestone, 
and another layer of red sandstone, distinguished as the new red 

The period, when these deposits were made, was characterized by 
extraordinary luxuriance of vegetable life. The coal deposits are all 
of vegetable origin, and were reduced to their present form, by the 
influence of heat, decay and pressure. In the rocks belonging to 
this system are also found, in immense quantities, the lower orders 
of animals, shell fish, snails, and a few fishes, and amphibious rep- 
tiles. None of them, however, belong to species now known to be in 

III. The Secoitoart System, composed of oolitic limestone, 
greensand, and chalk. This system contains a large number of foe- 
ails, both animal and vegetable. Among the former are those gigan- 
tic amphibious animals, mostly belonging to the lizard and croc<^ile 
tribes, whose skeletons, found both on this continent and in Europe, 
have excited so much attention. There are also many shells, fishes, 
insects, and a few quadrupeds. Several hundreds of species of plants 
have been found in the secondary rocks. These fossils, vegetable 
and animal, with scarcely an exception, belong to extinct species. 

IV. The Tertiary System. This consists of deposits of clay, 
sand and gravel, in some instances hardened into rock, but generally 
containing evidence of the comparative recentness of its deposition. 
It contains an immense number of fossils, both animal and vegetable ; 
of these about 12 per cent, have been identified as belonging to ex- 
isting species, and the remainder generally bear a marked resem- 
blance to plants and animals now in existence, which the fossils of 
the earlier periods do not. 

V. The Diluvial Deposits, called also the erratic block group. 
In thi system are included the boulders, scattered so abundantly over 
many sections of the earth's sarfiu:e, and many of the more extensive 
deposits of sand, gravel and clay, which are evidently Uie result of 

Digitized by Google 

OfiOLO0T AVD lfrNERAt60T. S3 

t)i« rMMflM MfcioB of an orerwhelning ddiige. Thew d«positB con- 
tain numerous animal and vegetable forms, the creater part of which 
belong to existing species, although occasionally extinct races an 

VI. Thc Ajllutiai. Dbpostts, including the deltas, or earthy de- 
posits at the mouths of rivers, the beds of lakes which have be- 
come drained, the valleys of rivers subject to periodical inunda- 
tions, the shores of oceans, seas, 9lc. 

These also contain, in untold quantities, relics of animal and vege- 
table existence, but, with very few exceptions bdonging to races now 
known. The gigantic mastodon has been found in these deposits. 

We have been thus particular in noticing the fossils belonging to 
each system, because they serve as way-marks, by the aid of which, 
even the most unlettered may read the progress of the earth's history, 
from the period, when it was first setia Bftotion. a vast mass of molten 
panite, devoid of vegetable or animal life, to the present time, when 
Its green fields, and its innumerable hosts of livin||f and moving be- 
ings, attest with myriad voices, the power and wisdom of the great 

The whole of these formations do not exist in mtefy part of the 
world ; but wherever geological explorations have been nade, it has 
been found that the same order is observed; and, that, although 
some one, or more, of these systems are absent, those which are 
present follow the arrangement we have described. 

In the state of New York the secondary formation is wanting,* as 
well as the upper members of the transition system,* and in most 
parts of the state the tertiarv system. 

It will be seen, by the foUowing table, that coal is not laid down 
among the formations of the state. All the formations of New York, 
except the alluvial and diluvial deposits, and the beds of tertiary, on 
the St Lawrence, are below the coal measures ; the Catskill group, 
which is the highest member of the transition system in New Yow, 
being the layer immediately beneath it 

It IS true that there are layers of Anthracite, an inch or two in thick- 
ness, and extending over a few feet of surface, between the strata of 
rocks of an earlier era, in various parts of the state ; but coal does not 
exist in the state, in sufficient quantities to be of any practical value. 
This deft:iency, however, is abundantly made up by the vast coal 
fields of Pennsylvania and Ohio, which, by means of the extended 
systems of internal improvement, are rendered so easily accessible. 

The prevalence of limestone in nearly all the formations is worthy 
of notice, atTordinff, as it does, the basis rock best adapted to yield the 
mal^tals for fertilising the soil. 

The table exhibits the geological formations of the state, accord- 
ing to the arrangement adopted by the state geologisti in^eir late 

III., IV. and V. of this arrangement are comprised under the general 
head of the Transition system, heretofore described. 

* The ejDttenceof a amall bad of oolite in Saratoga county, and the *x>°|,^hat 
doubtijul en of the radaandatone of RocUanclcoanty, can acareely be conatderea 
aa ezeeptlona to thla alatemeiit. 

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' %»eiiM. 



IL AOuvial. 


In. DOinlaL 


DUavJal, including 

ClByi and MUMte. 

UL Old XiMl nnd 

EV. N«ir Tdk fimfr 


Lodlowvnie cbalea. 

HeUerbeig limeitone, 
Schoharie grit, 

Encrinal limestone, 

Oraen ehaly Umertoak, 
FemaoMnw ttmeMone. 


Onondaga salt and gypseous rocin, 

Medina sandflloiie, aoft, gnen and va- 

Trenton limestone, 
Birdseye limestone, 
Chazy limestone, 
Gateiferous sandrock, 

V. Ti«lilBiile,orTi- 

Light green shales, sometimes dark and 


Gneiss, hornblende, and mica slate, 
Taicose slate and steatite. 


Vm. UitfUatifled 

Gramte, ^rpersthene rock. 
Primary limestone, serpentine, 
Magnetic iron ore. 

There are in the state two tracts of primary and wuttat^ied 
rqdof. The first is nearly circular in form, and occupies the counties 
of Elssex, Warren aD4 Hamilton, and portions of Saratoga, Fulton, 
Herkim4l, Oneida, liewis, Jefferson, St Lawrence, Franklin and 
Clinton. The Black river forms its southwestern boundary, from 
Wilna, in Jefferson, to Remsen, in Oneida; county. 

The second is in the southeastern part of the state, of a somewhat 
triangular form, and comprises Putnam and Westchester, together 
Tf ith the larger part of New York, and part of Rockland, Orange and 
Dutchefs countief. 

The^ two «ectioi|9 tog»^er occupy nearly one third of the state. 

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ThejcemfMu extensve «nd valoaMe minet <»f iron, leadandplinnba* 
go, both in the northeattern and southeastern portions of the sUJbt. 
Their surface 19 generally broken and eleTated, towering up to tb« 
height of more than a mile abo^e tide water, in the Adirondack 
group, and attaininff a considerable, though less lofty altitude in the 
beetling clijf& which overlook the waters of the Hudson. 

The soil is lees arable and fertile than in the lands of the limestone 
formations, but is covered, except in the older counties, with a gigantic 
growth of oak, pine and hemlock timber. 

The gneiss cJf this system furnishes a fine building material, and 
under the name of ^anite, is abundantly quarried lor that purpose. 
The serpentine, primitive limest<me, and steatite, ate also Itfgely 
quarried ibr the purposes of the arts. 

These rocks abound in minerals of great interest to the mineralo- 
gist. Garnet, beryl, chrysoberyl, pyroxene, sphene, tourmaline, 
apatite, colophonite, scapolite, Labradorite, epidote, 9te. dtc. 

Geologists difEu in opinion, on thequestion, whether the Talghkanie, 
or Taconic system should be ranked with the Primary, or the Transi- 
tion system. It is composed of brown sandstone, limestone and men 
shales, or slaty rocks. It contains some minerals, and furnishes a 
fine limestoxie for building, but has few, or no fossik. The soil 
which overlays this system is generally good, and often highly 

Its ran^e is quite extensive, although frequently of no great vridth. 
It comprises nearly the whole of the counties of Washington, Rens- 
selaer and Columbia, part of Dutchess, Ulster, Greene, Albany and 
Saratoga, and trending westward occufties a narrow tract in Schenee- 
tady, Montgomery, Herkimer and Oneida, and expands more widely 
in Oswego and Jefferson counties. 

We next come to the New York system, as it has been appropri- 
ately named, comprising, according to the table, four distinct groups. 
We commence with the lowest of these, the Champlain Group. 
The constituents of this group are various kinds of sandstone and 
limestone, slate, conglomerate, and a peculiar stone, compounded of 
lime and sandstone, and hence called calciferous (or limebearing) 

Of these the Potsdam sandstone furnishes a beantiAil and durable 
building material, and is also used in the manufacture of^laas, and 
the preparation of sand paper. The Trenton and birdseye* limestones 
are used for the purposes of the arts. The Lorraine shales, and the 
Utica slate are employed for roofing, and to some extent for writing 
slates. The grey sandstt^ne and conglomerate furnish stone suitable 
for grindstones. 

llie rocks of this group, and particularly the limestones and slates, 
abound in fossils of the earlier periods ; encrinites, trilobites and nu- 
merous others, unlike any of the crustaceous animals now in exist- 

The soil, throughout the territory occupied by this group, is gener- 
ally good, and much of it is highly fertile, being constantly enriched 
by the decomposition of the limestone, slate and sandstone, wliich is 

* Thisnmestone receives its name from the ab mdaace of encrinlte* -vrhich U 
eomiiiiifl, which give It, when polished, an appearance somewhst resembling 
btrdseye mspie. 

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•flbeled by th« combined action of air and water.* Tke grottp occ«- 
piM a very comiderable, but irregular territory. It apoeara occa- 
•ionally in amall beds, then dips beneath the snrfaee, ana again ap- 
pearat as the snrfiMse rock, over an extensive tract In tha forms of 
Potsdam sandstone, calciferous sandrock, birdseye and Trenton lime- 
stone, and Utica slate, it bounds the great primary region of the 
northeast in every direction, varying in width from two to fifty miles. 
It also makes its appearance in narrow beds on either side of the 

The Ontario Group, which comee ifext in order* eoneists of three 
distinct portions; the lowest a marly sandstone, generally soft, and 
cither red, green, brown, or variegated, -decomposing rapidly, when 
exposed to the atmosphere, and denominated Medina sandistone; 
next, a series of soft, green, slaty rocks, also easily decomposed, and 
overlaid by clayey ami flinty limestones, altematinff with eack other, 
and finally terminating in tke limestone over which the Niagara 
pottrs ite resistless cataract ; and lastly a poup of limestones, contain- 
uuc gypenm or plaster of Paris, water lime and salt, known ae the 
Onondaga salt group. 

This group, considered with reference to practical purposes, is the 
most valuable of the transition s}[stem in the stete. It includes the 
ealt springs in Saline and ite viciai^, and at Montezuma, which yield 
so laree an amount of revenue to the state; the|[prp8um beds, which 
famish such inexhaustible resources for the fertilization of the soil, 
as well as for tbe various purposes of the arte, to which this valuable 
mineral is applied ; and the water lime, called, after its preparation, 
hydraulic eemeni^ a material indispensable to tKe proper construc- 
tion of canals, aqueducte, cisterns, and other masonry exposed to the 
action of water, and one which has proved of the greatest service in 
the construction of the public works of the stete. 

The fossils of this ^oup are numerous and interesting. Shells of 
bivalve molluscous animals, corallines and madrepores, together with 
unequivocal traces of vegetable existence, mark this era. 

Ite minerals are not numerous. Tbe clayey limestones contain 
iron ore ; fluor spar and selenite appear occasionally, and sulphur 
springs gush up from different sections. Ite soil is of unsurpassed 
and perpetual fertility, being constantly enriched by the slowly 
decomposing lime and gypsum. It is the granary of the stete, and 
before the wide prairies of the west waved with the golden grain, 
it supplied nearly the whole country with bread-stu&. The oak, 
beecii, maple, elm, butternut, hickory and black walnut, are the prin- 
cipal forest trees. The Onterio group commences at the southwest- 
ern extremity of Lake Ontario in Canada, and extends eastward with 
a medium breadth of twenty miles to ite termination in Montgomery 

The Helderberg series comprises four kinds of limestone and three 
of sandstone. Of these the Helderberg limestone is extensively used 
as a flagging stone, under various locaf names; it is also employed to 
some extent as a building material ; the Oriskany sandstone is also 
used as a building material ; it occasionally conteins lime. Of the 
remaining layers, one of the sandstones is dark, sbaly and brittle ; the 
other calcareous and abounding in fossils. Two of the limestones 
contain large quantities of fossils, and derive their names from that 

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ha ; in one the encrinite, one of the mftst baaatifiil of tin) i 
008 fossils, is predominant ; in the other, the pentamerufr who«« 
shell bears some resemblance, in form, to that of the common oyster. 
The remaining limestone is slaty and easily decomposed. 

The Heldefberg limestone is cavernous, and many of its ca?6S 
have been explored for a considerable distance. They contain stv 
lactites and stalagmites of great beaut^r. 

The principal minerals of this formation are bo^ iron ore, calcareous 
and fluor spar, jasper, sulphate of strontian« m great abundance, 
satin spar, alum, bitumen and small veins of anthracite. The soil, 
overlying these rocks, is generally either a fine clay, or sand lyii^ 
upon clay. Marl occurs quite frequently. By suitable cultivation it 
yields g(M)d crops of wheat and other grains. The timber is usually 
oak, chestnut, hickory, pine and hemlock. 

This group occupies a narrow tract, commencing in the western 
part of Orange county, and passing northeasterly through Ulster to 
the Hudson ; thence along the banni of that river, to Albany county, 
where it turns westwardly, passes through the centre of the state im* 
mediately south of the Ontario group, formin^^ the bed of most of the 
small lakes in western New York, and terminates on the shores of 
Lake Erie. 

The Erie Group is divisible into two portions, the lower, denomin* 
&ted Ludlowville shales, is composed of soft slaty rocks, alternating 
with thin beds of limestone, ana is easily decomposed ; the upper, 
called the Chemung j^oup, consists of thin, even beds of gray sand- 
stone, with intervening stales, or beds of slate. 

Some of the fossils, found in this group, possess great beauty, and 
show the approach to that period of vegetable luxuriance, which 
marks the coal formation. Ferns, and other vegetable fossils fre- 
quently occur, and the avicula, delthyris and other shell fish, strongly 
resembling some living species, are found imbedded in the rocks. 

The minerals of this group are few, and of no great importance. 
I^etroleum, or mineral oil, called, in some parts of the state, Seneca oil, 
occurs in several localities, and the shale is often so strongly impreg- 
nated with it as to burn quite freely. Carburetted hydrogen, or in- 
fiammable gas, also issues from the surface in a number of places, and 
in such qaantities, as to be used, in one or two instances, for illumin- 
ating villages, light houses, &c. 

The soil where the Ludlowville shales form the surface rock, 
though apparently rough and broken, is rendered fertile by the con- 
stant decomposition of the rock. It is well adapted to the culture of 
wheat and other grains. As we ascend, to the more elevated surface 
of the Chemung sandstone, we find a marked change in the character 
of the soil ; the white pine and hemlock take the place of the oak, 
njaple and beech of the lower lands, and attain a gigantic growth. 
These lands produce the grasses luxuriantly, and, as they become 
cleared, will afford pasturage to vast herds of cattle and sheep. 

The Erie group covers nearly the whole of Chautauque, Cattarau- 
Sl^s, Wyoming, Allegany, Steuben, Yates, Tompkins, Chemung and 
Ti(«a counties, together with portions of Broome, Chenango, Cort- 
land, Ontario, Livingston, Genesee and Erie, as well as a narrow 
tf»ct in Sullivan, Ulster, Greene, Schoh^ie find Otsego counties. 
This completes wh^t, for convenience, has been termed the New 

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York Tramttion syitem. The remaining group properly belongs to 
the TrauMition system of the English Geologist^ ana is by them de- 
nominated the Old Red sandstone, that rock being its principal con' 
stituent. The State Geologists, from the fact of its being the pre- 
dominant rock of the Catskill mountains, hare given it the name of 
the Catskill group. 

It consists of two distinct formations, viz., the Old Red sandstone 
overlying the Chemung sandstone, and the conglomerate strata, which 
are immediately beneath the coal bearing limestone of Pennsylvania. 
Between the layers of the former are interposed soft shales combined 
with mica. 

The sandstone is generally of a deep red color, and imparts the 
tame hue to the soil which covers it. It contains comparatively few 
fossils ; the scales and bones of some lizard-like fish have been dis- 
covered in it. 

The minerals of this group are few, and of but little importance. 
Bog iron ore and calcareous spar are those most worthy of notice. 
The conglomerate affords fine grindstones, and has been used to some 
extent for millstones. 

The soil is generally good ; the sandstone decomposing readily 
under atmospheric influence, mingles with the vegetable mould and 
renders it fertile. Hemlock, beech, maple, elm, basswood, butternut, 
Ibc. are the principal timber trees ; the oak is seldom found in this 

l^e Red sandstone of the Catskill group is mostly confined to the 
vicinity of the Kaatsbergs ; occupying the county of Delaware, and 
portions of Sullivan, Ulster, Greene, Otsego, Chenango and Broome; 
Dut the conglomerate extends westward, and caps the highest hills of 
the southwestern counties. 

The Diluvial deposits skirt the shores of the St. Lawrence, Lake 
Champlain, and the Hudson, and compose the surface of the northern 
half of Long Island. They consist of a stiff blue clay beneath, a 
yellowish brown clay above this, and sand on the surface. The ma- 
rine shells, found in these clays, belonging in some instances to ex- 
tinct species, show that these deposits were made at an earlier period 
than those thrown down by rivers or oceans, in modem times. To 
this system belong also the boulders, scattered so widely over the 

The Alluvial deposits, consisting of gravel, sand, loam, &c. thrown 
up by the waves, or deposited on the shores of lakes, and the banks 
of rivers, and still in the process of aggregation, constitute the last of 
the geological formations of the state. To these belong portions of 
the valleys of the rivers and lakes and the southern n;ilf of Long 
Island. The soil of both these classes of deposits is usually fertile. 

The class of rocks known as trap and porphjry, do not, in this state, 
constitute a separate formation. They occur either in columnar ma^es 
like the Palisades, on the west bank of the HudsonTnear New York, 
or in narrow veins or dikes, traversing rocks «f an entirely different 
constitution. They are evidently the result of the action of subterra- 
nean fire. Porphyry is only found occupying a tract of a few miles 
in length, on Lake Champlain. 

In connexion with the £kology of the state, the "Ridge road" is 
deserving of notice. This road consists of a bank of sand, gravel and 

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etter alkiTta} and lUlavial depo«itB» ▼aryifig In Height irtfm 100 to 150 
fret} ftnd extending alone the whole sonthern coast of Lake Ontario, 
at a distance of six or eiffnt miles from it, forming a natural highway. 
It is said that a somewhat similar ridge exists almig the northern 
shore of the Lake. 

That this ridge once,and at no very distant period, formed the south- 
ern shore of the lake, is proyed, hy the existence of small sand hil* 
locks» evidently heaped up by the action of the waveA; by the entire 
absence of Indian mounds and fortifications, on the north side of the 
ridge, and their frequent appearance, immediately south of it ; and 
above all, by the structure and composition of the ridge itself. 

The deep channels, cut in the rocks, by many of the rivers of the 
state, are also a subject of geological interest. Th6 Hudson, St Law- 
rence^ Oswego, and ROme of the northern streams, either have banks 
regularly sloping to the water's edge, or, if they occasionally pass 
through nar^'ow and precipitous defiles, have not won for themselves 
a passage, by the action of their waters upon the rocky barrier which 
opposed them, but have availed themselves of a route opened by 
some convulsion of nature. 

Such is not the case with the Mohawk, the Chenango, the Genesee, 
and the Niagara. Descending fVom elevated table lands, they have, 
by their ceaseless flow, hewn out a channel through the shales, slates 
and marly sand and limestones, in some instances 400 or 500 feet be- 
low the lisvel of the surrounding country. The constant action of the 
waters upon these decomposing rocks has also caused the falls of 
Niagara toreeede, as some geologists conjecture, a distance of five or 
six miles, and this recession is still in progress. 

Mjnerau>gy. We have already adverted to the minerals, pecu- 
liar to the different formations, but a somewhat more particular de- 
scription of the mineral wealth of the state seems requisite, in a work 
like ours. 

Among the useful metals, Iron is most abundant in New Yoirk. It 
is found in five forms. 

1st. T%e Magnetic O^cide^ most abundant in Essex, Clinton, 
Franklin, Warren, Orange and Putnam counties, but occurring also 
in considerable quantities in Lewis, St. Lawrence and Jefferson. 
This variety is adapted to the production of malleable iron and steel, 
and for this purpose is superior to any in the United States, and 
equal to most of the foreign ores. The quantity is immense, a single 
vein (the Sandfordyein in Newcomb, Essex county,) being estimatied 
by Prof. Emmons to contain ore sufficient to yield at least three mil- 
lions of tons, of malleable iron ; several other veins, in the same neigh- 
borhood, contain nearly as much more, and the mines of Orange coun- 
ty, though worked for nearly a century, are still very productive. 
This ore is confined to primary rocks. 

2d. 7%e Speeufar Oxides found in St. Lawrence, Jefferson and 
Franklin counties, imbedded in sandstone. This variety is well 
adapted to castings. Though less abundant than the preceding, it is 
found in large quantities. 

3d. T%<f Argillaeeous ore, called also hog iron ore^ found in vari- 
ous parts of the state, evidently deposited by alluvial and diluvial 
action, in the olay or gravel. It is principally used for castings. 

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30 9TATS OF J78W T<XRS:« . 

4ih, ne HenMUaU ore, frequently occurring in cryilShk of liaitas- 
tic and beautiful forms. Tbia ore occurs exteaaiyely in RichmoBd, 
Orange, Ulster, Putnam, Dutchess, Columbia, Warren and Wayne 
counties. It is also found in smaller quantities in Rockland and 
Westchester. It usually makes its ^pearance in the lower lime* 
stones of the transition system^ When combined wkh the magnetic 
oxide, it improves its quality. 

5th. The Carburet of Iron, called also Black lead. Plumbago and 
graphite, occurs abundantly in Dutchess county, and in consiiUrable 
quantities in Essex and Clinton counties. 

Lead is found, in immense quantities, at Rossie and its vicinity, in 
St Lawrence county, and less abundantly in the Shawaogunk moun- 
tains, in SuUivan and Ulster, and in Dutchess, Columbia, Lewis and 
Monroe counties. It does not seem to be confined to any particular 
geological era, occurring in nearly all the formations. 

Zinc and Copper occur in various parts of the state, but not in 
sufficient quantities to be of much practical value. 

Arsenic has been discovered in Putnam county. 

Manganese^ in the form of manganese wad, occurs in Columbia, 
Lewis and Dutchess counties, aoid is used to some extent for bleach- 
ing. Manganeaian garnet is found in New Yorlc county. 

BaryteB and StronHan are abundant in Sk;boharie and Jefferson, 
and probably exist in some of the other counties. 

Ahun, principally in the form of efflorescence, is found in several 
parts of the state. 

The existence and value of the deposits of |f^pnmi,and water liane^ 
has already been noticed, in speaking of the Onondaga salt group. 

Serpentine and its allied minerals, soapstone, tale, carhSnate, hy- 
drate and sulphate of magnesia^ (Epsom salts,) togetiier with a«- 
bestus and amianthus^ occur abundantly in Putnam, Orange, West- 
chester, Jefferson and St. Lawrence, and in considerable quantities io 
Monroe, Orleans, Genesee, Albany, Cayuga, E^sex, Rensselaer and 
Niagara counties. 

Those minerals,, which are only of interest to the mineralogist, are 
enumerated under the counties in which they occur. 

Mineral. Springs. These are of various kinds. 

1. Chalybeate Springs, The most celebrated of these, are those 
of Saratoga county, which are fully described in another part of the 
work. There are a few, but of no great strength or notoriety, in other 
parts of the state. 

2. Sulphur Springs, These are widely disseminated. Those at 
Avon,' in Livin^ton county, have attained the greatest celebrity. 
Those in the vicinity of Rochester, Monroe county, and Chittenango* 
Madison county, are perhaps next in importance. The State Qeolo- 
gists report sulphur springs in twenty-eight counties of the state. 

3. Brine Springs occur in every part of the Onondaga salt forma- 
tion, and are also found, though of less Strength, in other partei of the 
state. They are supposed to be impregnated by deposits of rock sadt, 
at some distance below the surface. Those in the towns of Salina and 
Montezuma are the most important and valuable. 

4. Jieid Springs^ or those in which the water is strongly impreg- 
nated with sulphuric acid, are found in Genesee, Erie and Orleans 

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5. Petri^fmg Springi^ no kigfaly chu^ed witk carbonata of lioM 
as to deposit it upon whatever the water falls* and thus ^Te it a coat* 
iog of limestone^ are fonnd in Madison and Saratoga counties. 

6. Oil 8]»ring9y the waters of which are covered with a tiiidc pelii« 
cle of PetrdetHn, or mineral oil» are firand in Cattaraugus and Allega* 
ny counties. 

1. Spritufs eeoMng-APUrogen Gat, The most celehrated of these 
are those (H New Lebanon, in Columbia county » and of Hoosick, in 
Rensselaer county. There is also one, of some note, near Canoga* in 
Seneca county. 

S. Springs evolving Carburetted Hydrogen, or it^mmtMe f «t. 
These abound in the neighborhood of Lake Erie, and the Niagara 
river. The village of Fredonia, and the light house at Barcelona, in 
Chautauque county, are illuminated by them. Springs of the same 
character are also found in Dutchess^ Oneida and Monroe counties. 

Marl, a valuable fertilizing agent, exists in vast beds in Madison, 
Monroe, Columbia, Dutchess, Greene, Onondaga, Ontario, Orange and 
Wayne counties, and in considerable abundance in Rensielaer, Wash 
ington, Saratoga, Albany, Schoharie, Herkimer, Cortland, Oneida, 
St Lawrence, Niagara and Erie counties. 

Peat is less widely distributed. It occurs, however, on Long Isl- 
and, and m Richmond, Rockland, Orange, Sullivan, Putnam, West- 
chester, Columbia, Clinton, Oneida and Cattaraugus counties. The 
attention of farmers should be directed to this, on account of its value, 
both for fuel, and as a manure. 

The gneiss and granite of the primary region, as we have already 
remarked, form elegant and durable building materials. The Pots- 
dam sandstone, &om its power of resisting atmospheric influence, 
and the facility with which it may be cut in any desired shape, is 
highly valued for building. The Chemung gray sandstone and the 
red sandstofie of Rockland county are also prized by builders. The 
Medina sandstone is more liable to decompoMtion, but is used to 
Bome extent. 

The limestone formations furnish a great number of varieties of 
marble, suitable not only for architectural purposes, but f6r the arts. 
The most celebrated ornamental varieties are the black marble of 
Glen^ falls, which equals any of the foreign varieties ; the Chazy 
black marble, considered as fully equal to the best Irish ; the varie- 
gated marbles of St. Lawrence and Rockland oounties ; the slate and 
dove colored of Otsego, Oneida and Onondaga ; the btrdseye of the 
Champlain group ; and the white marble of Westchester, Dutchess^ 
Columbia, WasfaingUm and St. Lawrence counties. The Singsing 
marble is largely employed, as a building stone, in New York city. 
The serpentine rocks, in several parts of the state, aiTord sldM, of suffi- 
cient size, to be used for the manufacture of furniture. The Utica 
slate, and some of the slate formations in the northern part of the 
state, furnish slates of excellent quality, both for roofing and writing. 

The gray sandstones and conglomerate of the Champlain and Erie 
groups, furnish grindstones of superior quality, and from the Sha- 
wangunk grits, millstones have been manufactured, which compared 
well with the French buhrstone. 

It will be seen, by the brief sketch we have given of the Geology 
and Mineralogy of the state of New York, that her mineral resoiurces 

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tre eq«d to her agricultiml, eommerciid and manuftctnring faotli- 
ties. True, she does not posseas coal, or so fiur as has yet been aseer* 
tained, the precious metals ; but the former is abundantly supplied 
by the neighboring states of Pennsylvania and Ohio ; and the latter, 
paradoxical as it may seem, have never conduced to the wealth, or 
prosperity of any state, which has possessed them. 

Her mines oliron, lead and plnmDago ; her salt^prings and beds of 
water lime and gypsum ; and ner quarries of gninite, sandstone and 
marble are, to her citizens, a more valuable inheritance than the gold 
and silver mines of Mexico, and will confer upon them a greater and 
more lasting prosperity. 


It would be entering into a far more elaborate view of the subject 
than the limits of this work permit, to trace out even an abstract of 
the vegetable wealth of New York. From its geographical po« 
sition, diversity of soil, surface, and climate ; its holding a middle 
place between the north and south, nearly all the great features of 
the United States flora are here produced. Immense forests still oc- 
cupy the uncultivated regions north and west, consisting mainly of 
pine, oak and beech, wnile the chestnut, hickory and maple, with 
a host of other less numerous, but not less valuable trees, are scat- 
tered over its territory. 

The mountain sides and woods are clothed with an undergrowth 
of shrubs; as the whortleberry, rhododendron an^ mountain laurel ; 
under whose shade, and in the open fields, flourish hundreds of more 
humble herbaceous plmttt among which will be found many that are 
rare and curious, as well as of fptft beauty and utility. 

Anemone, Ranunculus, and Violets, often before the snow has en- 
tirely disappeared, put forth their blossoms in every sheltered nook 
of wood and meadow. These, with the cowslip {Caltka palutiria)^ 
the- woodbine {AquUegia)f bloodroot (5angiitnarta), and many of 
that wide spread tribe, the Cmeiferae, or crosslike plants, serve to 
mark the opening spring. As the season advances, nature assumes 
much gayer colors. The beautiful blue Lupine {Lnpinua perenn^)^ 
Desmodiums, and the wild Sensitive plant {Castia niciitans), whose 
leaves close together, when touched by the hand, are frequent on 
sandy soil^ 

Common in our swamps and boggy ground, is the Side Saddle 
flower, or Hunter*s cup (Samuenia)^ bearing a single, nodding, 
dark red flower, a wonder by itself, but more so, when viewed in 
connection with the singular structure of its leaves. These are 
not flat, as in other plants, but hollow, and somewhat pitcher shaped, 
arranged in a circle around the hase of the stem, their open mouths 
turnd upwards to catch the falling rains. At the orifice of each leaf 
is a broad lip, furnished with short stiff hairs pointing downvirards, 
and forming a trap, for numerous insects, that seek the wafer, always 
contained in them. A luckless fly once entered, it is impossible for 
him to return ; and he is forced to go onwards, until dropping, he 
perishes in the water beneath. Of what use, in the economy of the 
plant, these dead insects are (the cup being often half filled with 

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tlieu) k oott M^yel« well knovrn; but ponibiy they serve in eoBM 
degree as Dutriment 

Another plant well worthy of notice for its elegance and exquisite 
fragrance, is the white Pond Lily (JV^frnpA^a w&rata). The roots, 
which are rou|;h and knotty, creep along the mnddy bottoms of ponds 
wid slow-flowing streams ; while the large round leaves, of a bright 
ftod gloesy green, cover the water above, in many instances for acres, 
cootrasting well With the pure white flowers. Like the primrose and 
wonderful £bur o'clock, which almost serve to mark the hour, 
Nymphaea expands its bods early in -the morning, and whether the 
day be clear or cloudy, before noon, regularly closes, and sinks beneath 
the surface. The leaf stalks are long and flexile, -varying with the 
depth .of water, and formii^, as every wandering school lK>y knows, 
a secure retreat for fish. 

Spatter Dock, or Yellow Pond Lily (Mtph^ adwenrn),, h common 
in every ditch, but an allied genus (J^ehunHum), or Sacked Bean, is 
rare ; Big Sodus Bay, Lake Ontsrio> is the only known locality in 
the state. 

In shallow Water^ along the Hudson, above the Highlands, and 
through the Western counties, is the VaUimeria or Tape Grass, re- 
markahle for the pecuHar spiral form of its stems, which alwavs per« 
mit the flower to float upon the surface whatever may be the rise 
of tide* 

Besides those just mentioned, the more frequent plants of low 
grounds and margins of streams are the Iris, Sweet Flag, or C^amus 
root {^cftnu ca/sm»tis). Yellow Lily, (Lilium Cmnademe), Forget-- 
me-not {MwsMia)^ whose bright blue flowers continue firom early 
spring till froet, Arrow leaf {Sm0i$tmrid), Cat-tail flag (^Tvphapa* 
luitrU), with numerous varieties of Rush (/iifi£ia), and Sedges 
{Carex)^ the last sometimes eaten b^ cattle, for want of more nutri- 
tious food. Virgin's bower (C^«mafts Ftrgtmona), a handsome in- 
digenous vine creeping over bushes and fonces is often cultivated for 
its quick growth and ^undant blossoms. 

In the lobelia tribe, we have the Cardinal Flower (I^ Cardinmli9)<, 
noted for the splendor of its scarlet blossoms ; Indian Tobacco {JL 
hiflata)y the grand panacea of the ThompSonians ; the L. Sypki* 
HHea, also used by them ; Water Glai Uole {L. Dorimanm), much 
less common than either of the preceding, and JU AWfa//it, con- 
fined to the sandy swamps of Long Island. 

In the deep recesses of woods ami swamps, the Arum and the 
Orchis tribes are met with. Of the former, Indian Turnip (jSrum 
triphyllvm), well known for its acrid root, and Water Arum (C«//n 
palustTUi)y are good examples. 

The Orchids, from the strange forms and brilliant colors of their 
contorted flowers, are well worth the tronble it takes to cultivate 
them. Phutanthera gr/mdiflora, or tall purple Orchis, is one of 
the most beautiful, although Aretkuaay Pofomo, our three spe- 
cies of Lady*s Slipper {Ct(pripedhun), and the graceftil White Lady's 
Tress, are not less deserving a place in the j^rden. 

Plants of the great group dmifMwtto, te which the Asters and Golden- 
Tods bdlong, forming one ninth of our entire flora, are characteristic 
of the autumnal vesetation. Some Asters are fine garden plants, 
but, like the whole tbus^ chiefly interesting for tketr goigeous appear* 

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ftBce-. From th« iweet flcented eoUeii^rod (BoNdagc 0tlm'a)i a fra* 
grant volatile oil, sometimes used in medicinei is distilled. Yarrow 
XjichUlea)^ Bonesct {Etipat&rium perfofiattim\ Tansy ( Tttnacetvm 
vuigare), and some few others are medicinal; most of the erder^ 
however ^are but weeds, as e?ery farmer who has had hia lands over- 
ran with Canada thistle and pigweed, can testify. The seeds of the 
Sunflower (fle/umMusannuM) yield, under pressure, an oil similar 
in quality and uses to that of linseed. Jerusalem Artichokes aiw 
the tuberous roots of the Bklianthiu tuberonu. They are too 
watery to be used as food. Neither of the two last are natives of the 
state, but they are occasionally found in waste places near habitations. 

An)?oHca, Sweet Cicely ( OimarrAisa), Sanicle (Sanicula}, Cicuta 
(Cieuta maculata), types of the order of umbelliferous plants are 
well known ; Wila Carrot (Dauetu carota)^ poisonous in its wild 
state, is, wbe» cultivated, the esculent carrot of the garden^ 

Poison Hemlock {Conium maeiUatum), by a draught of which 
Socrates is related to have died, with some other introduced and 
native plants, as the Milkweed {Asclepieis), Plantain, Canada Thistle^ 
Poke weed {Phytolacca deeandra), Thorn Apple (Datura Stramo- 
nmm), Oxeye Daisy {Chrf$anthemum), and DatideHon {Leanic 
4ion)i belong to^i class that might be named "wayside plants/' from 
their cornmonly occupying a position beside the roads and fences. 

Plantain (Plantago major) hss been called by the Indians " white 
man's footstep,** because it is found wherever he has placed his 
dwelling ; wad with a faithfulness not equalled in the human race, 
is constantly in his path. The more it is trodden down the wider 
does it spread, and the more luxuriantly does it grow. 

The Bglantine or Sweet Brier (Roga Bulnginasa), such a general 
favorite with the old and young, is a member of the large family 
Mnacem, of which our state can boast many representatives. Among 
these are the Rose, seven or eight species of Blackbe/ry (Rubus), 
Strawberry {fVagaria), Fivennger {Pot€ntiiia)f (one species of 
which (P. tridentata) is a little Alpine plant found only on the 
summitsof the mountains), Thornbush {CrattBgusy, Service berry or 
Shad bush (Jhuelimehier), Wild Plum and lofty Wild Cherry. The 
last is used m cabinet work, being as dark and heavy as some infe- 
rior kinds of mahogany. 

Of Labiate or the mint tribe, Spesmint, or Julep weed (Mentha 
Viridia), Peppermint (M. Piperita), Penny Royal, Catnep, -Balm, 
(Meli»8a) and Mountain mint {Pyenanthemum ineanwn), are very 
generally known. 

A few of the Nightshade tribe (Solanaeem), are natives of the 
state, such as Bittersweet ( Solatium dulcamara^ deadly Nightshade 
{8.JV%grwn), and Winter Cherry (PAysa/iff), wnich are all of suspi- 
cious appearance, and reputed poisonous. 

Buckwheat is one of the Polygonacem ; and of the same order are 
the common Sorrel {Rumex aeetotella). Water Dock (H. erigpm), 
and Smart weed (Polygontmi). 

Shrubby plants are numerous; many species are highly ornamental ; 
ethers, from their virtues, are admitted into the Pharmacbpteas; othetSy 
again, are poisonous. Of this latter class aro some of tne species of 
Sumach {Rhug) ; the most virulent of these, is the Swamp Sumach 
{RhM$ven€Hata% woipkm eontaetwitb which, or meie exposure to its 

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effluvium, being mSeienl ki maay caae* to cmse a most pmM enip* 
tion OB the skin. Mercury, orPoiaon Oak, ia leai active than tha pra- 
cediagy but aufficieotly ao, to cause all those who are easily afieeted by 
vegetable poisons to shun its neighborhood. The leaves of the com* 
mon Sumach (A. glabra)^ are UMd in the manufacture of morocco. 

The large flowering Hose bay (^I^ododendron moMimmm) is a 
vhrob from six to twelve feet in height, with broad and thick leaves, 
groi^g in tufks firom the extremities of the branches; and la^e 
•howy flowers, in dense terminal clusters. It is said to be the most 
beauUfol flowering shrub in the United States, and is sometimes 
cultivated in lawns and door-yards. 

The wild upright Honeysuckle {Azalea, or Bhododendron nudijl^' 
rum)i and the broad leaved Laurel {Kalmia latifolia) make Uie woods 
py by the profusion of their purple blossoms. The dwarf Laurel 
{Kabnia anguatifoiia), known also by the names sheep-poison and 
Umb-kiU, is a pretty little bush, but has a bad reputation, the leaves 
being said to poison sheep. . The last two are common in the southern 
counties, while in the west the glaucous Kalmia takes their place. 

The Elder {Samduetu CanadentU) and the Hazel {Corylu$ Amer* 
icaniM), prized for its nuts, which, thou|ch sweeter, ^si not equal in 
size, the filbert of Europe, are to be seen in every coppice. Whortle- 
berries are the product of several species of Foectmum. The ear- 
liest ia the market is the dwarf blue Whortleberry ( V, Penmyha- 
niea), (growing in sandy woods, and on hill sides and summits of the 
mountains. The Bilberry ( V, eorymbotum) is Iroquent in swamps 
and wet shady woods. The agreeably acid Cranberry, an almost 
indispensable article of food, is Uie fruit of two species of Vaedmmtii 
{V,oxyeoceu8 and V.maervcarpan), The former abounds in the 
northern and western parts of the state, and the latter, which is the 
common American cranberry seen in the market, is most ftequent in 
the south. 

The banks of every stream and rivulet are fringed vrith the Willow 
{8ali9\ Alder (wSMtis), and Spice wood (Laurm Benz&in). This 
last is a shrub easily recognized, by its smooth brittle branches and 
glossy foliage. The bark has an agreeably spic^ taste ; and a de- 
coction of the young twigs is often used, as a medicinal drink, in the 
spring of the year, in the moist thickets, conspicuous from its red 
fruit, is the Winter berry {Prinos), once used for the cure of fever and 
ague; but, for this purpose, it is much inferior to the Dogwood {Cor- 
muflerida)y which possesses many of the peculiar properties of Pe- 
ruvian Bark. 

Witch Hazel {HamamelU Virginiea) is, in the eyes of the super- 
stitions, a most notable shrub, because, in the moment of parting 
with its foliage, it puts forth a profusion of gaudy yellow blossoms, 
giving to November, the counterfeited appearance of spring. 

The most important vegetable productions of the state are un- 
doubtedly the forest trees^ of which we can boast numerous species. 
The cone bearers {Cani/ercte), which are nearly all evergreen trees, 
we well represented in our Flora. We have no less than nine species 
of Pines. Pitch Pine {Pimu rigida) forms nearly all the woodland 
of I/>ng Island, and covers a ereat extent of barren country, west of 
Albany ; it is serviceable for little^lse than fuel and making charcoal. 
White, or Weymouth pine (P. ttrobm) is met with in most parts of 

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the sUtet but chiefly on the head wsteM of the Ho^ion, DelaWftr«> 
ARegatty, and riven entering into Jjalce Ontario i indeed nearly all 
the western GQimties were once covered with dense forests of this 
noble tree, nor can We wonder that it is rapidly disappearing beneath 
the axe, when 65,0po acres must be amiually cleared^ to meet the 
demand for lumber, (550,000,000 feet of which are obtained from New 
York alone. Hemlock Spruce (jP. Canddeneis) aflbrds an inferior 
kind of timber, lasting well if protected from the weather ; bat in 
exposed situations it Warps, splits and soon decays. The bark is 
extensively employed In tannings and although inferior to oak, it 
makes very good leather. Balm of <^ilead, or Balsam Fir (P. Bai» 
9amea)t is not found lower than the Catskill mountains ; but is abund- 
ant in the northern counties, especially among the Essex mountains. 
The turpentine) sold under the name of Canada Balsam^ is ob- 
tained by, opening the blisters which form beneath the bark. Black 
Spruce (P. nif^ra) is employed principally for the yards and lighter 
spars of vessels, for which purpose it is admirably fitted by its light- 
ness and strength. White Spruce (P. alba) is a small tree found ia 
swamps, and on the sides of the northern mountains, rarely south of 
Catskill. The Indians split the small tough roots into fibres for 
sewing their bark canoes. Tamarack (P. Pttufula) differs from all 
other pines, in its leaves, which fall at the approach of winter. 

Belonging to the same natural family (Con^4?r<e) are the Red Cedar 
(/vn^tertw Ftrgmuma), noted for its great durability^ White cedar 
ICupretnu Tbuif0ide8) constituting the. cedar swatnps of Long 
Island ; Arbor Vibe ( ITtuya oeeidentali$), conspicuous along the 
banks of the Hudson for its cone like growth ; although it is sometimes 
found in swampy places, and then ie knowti by the name of White 
cedar. We have also the Yew (Taanu Canadensia)^ which is very 
difierent from the yew tree of Europe, though identical in Botanical 
character — with us it is a shrub of humble growth, trailing over 
rocks, and found in woods, beneath Uie shelter of taller everj^preens. 

The Oaks are almost, if not quite, equal in value to the Pines, and 
much more numerous, as regards species. White Oak (Quercus alba) 
is always Considered one of our most valuable timber trees. The 
wood is of great strength ^and durability, and is used when these 
qualities are required, as in ship building and heavy frame work for 
machinery. When sawed into plank, the wheelwright, the wagon- 
maker, and indeed, almost every mechanic, uses it more or less in his 
labor. Black Oak {Q. Hneteria) furnishes Quercitron bark, an 
article of export, and used in dyeing ; Scarlet Oak (Q. coecinea)^ and 
Black Chestnut Oak (Q. mantana)> are much prized by the tanner. 
Other species are Willow Oak (Q. phell^s), with narrow leaves; 
Chinquapin (Q. prinos), a dwarf species bearing edible acorns ; 
Swamp White Oak {Q. bieolor); Mossy Cup Oak (Q. olwatformis); 
Pin Oak (Q. palusiris) and Black Jack {Q. nigra); the last is indi- 
genous to Long Island only. 

The White Elm ( Ulmus JimeHeana) is a most graceful species, 
and when growing in moist rich soil one of the largestof our forest 
trees. The Slippery Elm (CT*. /u/va), a smaller tree, growing on 
higher ground, is well known for the mucilaginous properties of iti 
inner bark. Thomas' Elm (<7. raeemoMi), so named from the per- 

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son vrho first defscribed it, is rather frequent on river baliks in the 
middle and western parts of the state. 

Of the Ash {Frcunnus)^ we have only three species, the Wh ile. 
Black and Grey. White Ash {F. Americana) hz3 elastic, tough 
wood, and is o^d in the manufacture of carriages, agricultural im- 
plements, &c. From its splitting freely, it is much employed by the 
cooper for hoops. 

Sugar Maple (Acer $aecharinum) is a large and handsome tree* 
wellknbwnas furnishing the maple sugar which is obtained, by 
boiling down the sap, procured from the trees, during the months of 
February and March — Birdseye and Curled Maple are accidental 
varieties in the wood of this species. Red Maple (A. rtibrttm)^ 
White or Silver leaved Maple (A, dasyearptan). Mountain Maple, 
or Moose wood {jS. Spicatum and A. Penruylvanicum)^ are the 
only other species. 

The Walnut tribe are valuable, both for food and timber. Black 
Walnut (Juglans nigra), and Butternut (/. cinerea), occur in most 
parts of the state. Shell bark Hickory (Carya alba) bears the com- 
mon white walnut, so pleasant to crack by the winter fireside. The bark 
of this tree separates in long flat scales, with loose, detached ends, 
giving the trunk a ragged appearance; Moker-nut (C. tomentosa). 
Pig-nut (C.poreina) and Bitter-nut (C amara)9re the only remain- 
ingNew York species. 

The Beech {Fagus) and Chestnut (Cos/an^a) are both noble grow- 
ing trees. The wood of the Beech is heavy and compact, but not 
durable. Chestnut» on the contrary, though light and open grained* 
bears exposure, for a great length of time, without decay. The Amer- 
ican Chestnut is considered a variety of the European, difiering only 
in its smaller and sweeter nuts. 

The Canoe Birch is the Beiula papyracea. From the bark of this 
species, which readily peels off in long thin sheets, and slips of cedar, 
tne Indians manufacture their canoes. The wood of the Black Birch 
(Beiula lenta)^ is considerably used in cabinet making. The Dwarf 
Birch {Betuia nana) is an Alpine shrub, found only on the high 
mountains of Essex county. The Sycamore (Platanu8\ the Poplars, 
and the Willows, are of little value, except as shade trees. Not so 
the Locust {Rebiniapfettdo-aeaeia), a tree of rapid growth and grace- 
ftil form. Its wood is exceedingly hard and nearly indestructible, 
and is mostly used for trenails, and eate posts, and in ship-building. 
It is itct a native of the state, but is cultivated for sale, and as an 
ornamental tree. 

The Tulip tree (Liriodendran iTuHpifera) is the pride of our 
northern forests for its majestic growth, symmetrical form, and hand- 
some foliage. It not unfrequently rises to the height of seventy feet 
without a branch, and is covered in May or June with innumerable 
tulip shaped flowers. The Magnolia {Magnolia glauea) is found 
only in the swamps of Long Island, and there but sparingly. Its 
flowers exhale a heavy, but not unpleasant, j>erAirae. One other spe- . 
cies, the Cucumber tree {M. aeuminaia\ is not uncommon in the 
western parts of the state, and is thus named from the appearance of 
the seed cone. 

Of vast importance, as furnishing directly or indirectly the tooa of 
man and iniffials, fore the grassM; and^no class of plants is so wiaely 

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distributed as this. They form the principal portion of the herbage 
of the earth, giving to the hills and plains their lovely green. 

Though our IHora contains many native species, only a small num- 
ber are of value, our meadow grasses being, with few exceptions* 
of foreign origin. The principal of these are, Timothy {Phleum pra- 
tense), making the best of hay ; Sweet Vernal grass (Anthvxantkum 
odoratum)<t which, when half withered, gives out a pleasant odor of 
vanilla; Meadow grass {Poa ptatensis). Blue erass (P. eompressa) 
and Rough grass {JP. trivialis)^ most of which nave spread over all 
our pasture ground*. Wheat ( Triticttm), Rye (Seeale) and Oats 
(Jlvena)^ are extensively cultivated in all parts of tne state. Zixania 
aquatiea, or wild rice, a &vorite food of the Indians, and affording 
sustenance to myriads of wild fowl, is a native of the northern coun- 

The Wild Oat and Chess (Bromua), into which our fanners 
wrongly believe that wheat and rye degenerate, are common . Phrag^ 
mitest the largest grass of the northern states, looking at a distance 
like broom corn, grows by the river side, and borders of swamps and 

Some grasses are peculiar to the sands ; their matted roots, form- 
ing a thick sod, prevent the loose soil from being carried away, by 
the water or wind. Many others, by their annual decay, aid in fertili- 
zing the soil, that would otherwise be arid and unproductive. 

Ferns and Fernlike plants occupy a wide extent of territory. 
Most common of all is the Brake (Pteris), under cover of which the 
sportsman is sure to find the rabbit, or tne partridge. Maiden Hair 
{Miantum), a delicate fern, with dark brown polished stems, is not 
uncommon. The Walking Fern {Anplenium rhixopkyUum) is re- 
markable for striking root from the extremities of the fronds. The 
Climbing Fern {Lygffdium) is the only species of the tribe, with a 
twining stem, found in so high a latitude. The tall Osmunda {O. ein- 
namamea) grows in large bunches, in damp woods and low grounds ; 
sometimes attaining the height of a man. 

Club Moss (Lycopo(ftum)« a creeping evergreen, is in great request 
at Christmas time, to form festoons aiM wreaths. 

The Scouring Rush (ESquUettan) is used for polishing wood and 

In the report of the recent Geological and Botanical survey, ordered 
by the legislature, the whole number of species of flowering plants* 
in the state, is said to be about 1450. Of tnese, 1200 are herbaceous, 
and 150 may be regarded as ornamental. Of woody plants there are 
250 species, including about 80 that attain to the stature of trees. 
Of plants that are reputed medicinal, we have (native and natural- 
ized) IdO species. The naturalized plants exceed 160 species. 

We must here leave this short notice of New York plants, though 
we have, by no means, exhausted the materials, nor even touched 
upon many, that are most frequently met with, in a morning walk, 
lliose who would pursue the study must seek their information in 
two large volumes, written by Dr. Torrey, which form the Botanical 
part of the Natural History of New York. 

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Class I. Manumalia, 

By mammalia an meant, all those animals having warm blood, a 
doable heart, thai is, one with two auricles and two ventricles, and 
bringing forth their yotmg alive and snckling them. Beinff, with a 
few exceptions, four fooled animals, they are frequently called quad- 
rupeds. Natttralisti have divided these into a number of distinct 
orders, of which only^ise are found in this state. 

These are 1st, J^gupiata^ or pouched animals. One species, 
only, helongttts; to this o^er, is found in the state, viz. the opossum. 

2d, Camwara, or flesh eaters. Of these we have five species of 
bats; the mole and shrew mole; six species of shrews; the black 
bear ; the raccoon ; wolverine ; skunk ; fisher ; weasel, or black cat, 
called also PennaBt*s mairtin ; the pine martin, or American sable ; 
the small and the brown weasel ; tne New York ermine, or ermine 
weasel ; the mink, or minx otter ; the common otter ; the dog, about 
thirty varieties, five of which are native ; the common wolf, two va* 
rieties, the grey, and the black ; the panther ; the northern, or Cans- - 
da lynx ; the wild cat, or bay lynx ; the seal \ the hooded seal ; and 
perhaps, the walrus. 

3d, BotkHtiat or gnawers. Among these are the grey fbx; 
the red, striped, and flying squirrel ; the woodchuck, or Maryland 
marmot ; the deer mouse, or lAbrador rat ; the beaver ; the musv^ 
quash, or muskrat; the porcupine ; the Norway, or brown rat; two 
species of black rat; the common mouse; the* jumping mouse; six 
species of meadow mice ; the grey rabbit ; and the northern, or prairie 

4th, Ungtdata: animals whose toes are covered with a horny 
case, or hoof. Of these, we have the hog ; the horse ; the ass ; the ox ; 
the goat , the sheep ; the American or fallow deer ; the moose ; the 
stag, and the reinaeer. 

5th, Cetaeea, or the whale tribe. The only species of this or- 
der, known to exist in the waters of the state, are, the right whale ; 
the sperm whale ; the beaked whale, or rorqual ; the broad nosed 
whale ; the social whale, or black whale- fish, called also the howling 
whale, and bottle head; the common porpoise; the grampus, or 
thrasher, also called the blackfish whale ; and the sea porpoise. 

FifMii Mammalia, Of these, but three species, it is believed , have 
been found, viz, 1st the fossil elephant, of which but a single tooth 
has been discovered. 

2d, The American elephant, of which several teeth have been 
found in Monroe county. 

■ 3d, The mastodon, frequently, but improperly, called mammoth. 
Remains of this animal, and indeed skeletons nearljr entire have been 
discovered in some 15 or 20 localities in the state, in Orange, Ulster, 
Monroe, Suffolk, Livingston, Chautauque, Albany, Cattaraugus, Gen« 
esee, and Niagara counties. 

Class II. Avet— Birds, 

Six orders of birds are found in the state, viz. Ist, jSecijiniret, birds 
of prey, including eaelss, hawks, vultures, and owls. 

2d, Pa$$ere$^ birtto of paMage. These include most of thoss; 

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birdfl with which we are familiar, and whose departure for a more 
•outhern cltme in autumn, renders winter more cbeerlew, as their 
return in spring, makes the approaching summer more joyous and 

3a, Gallina, the cock trihe, including not only our domesticated 
fowls, but the wild turkey, grouse, prairie hen, &c. 

4th, GralliB, waders, 'ibis includes all thoee long lecged birds 
which obtain their subsistence on the borders of streams ; rate plover, 
crane, heron, poke^ Slc. 

5tha Lobipedes, lobefooted birds ; the coot, dipper, ifec. 

6th, JVatiitares, swimmers. This includes loons, gulls, gannets, 
wild dticks and geese, &c. 

The following catalo^e embraces all the birds, of these different 
orders* known to exist m the state. 

Order L AccmrRst. 
[Birds of pny,] 

FHBiUyl. VuUuridm. 
Yttlture tribe. 
Family a. fW 
Falcon tribe. 
Ctolden eacle. 
Brown ormM eagle, 
American flah hawk. 

Family*. AteUiHiiA 
KfBff Mier tribe. 
Belted king fisher. 
- iMjrS. - 


Family 6. Troe/MldA 
Humalnc bird tribe. 
1 thmated h 


Family s. CerthUUB, 
Wren tribe. 
White breasted nuthatch. 
Red bellied •* 

Red shouldered 
Broad winged 
Swallow taUed 

▲meriean ^rrow 
Blaie colored 

▲nwrican goshawk. 
Marsh harfler,_ ^ ., 
FunilyS. SMgidA 
Owl tribe. 
Great homed owl, 


Little screech 
Great gray, 
lioag eared 
Short earod 

Amsrlcaa bam '* 

Order n. Pabsbebs. 

[Birds of passage.] 


Varied creeping Vaibler, 
House Wren, 

Mocking " 
Marsh " 


Short billed" ^ , 
Family 7. J^arfte. 
Tomtit tribe. 
Crested Ut, 
Blackcap '* 
Cucotina *' 

Family 8. S^Mada. 
Blue bird tribe. 
Golden crested kinglet, 
Ruby crowned '^ 
Blue bird. 

Faaailyf. MsthIMa 
Tnrush tribe. 
Common mocking bird, 
Brown thrush. 
Gat bird, 

American Robin, 
Wood thrush. 

OIlTO backed *' 
Vamilyio. JL 

Tttlaxk tribe. 

lean Utiaik, 

^„nr f. «■■?«•<■? ^ New'Yoik water thrush, 

Spotted Canada WaxWer. 

SpoHad " 

Inaegroy " 

Blackburntan '< 

Bay breasted *' 

Black poU *< 


Blue. yeUow backed " 

Black throated, blue. '* 

Summer yellow Uia, 

Black throated gieea'*. 


Chestnut sided " 


Cape May '* 

Kentucky, " 

Hooded ** 

Green, black capped *' 

Blue grey gnat-catcher, 

Fly catchers. 
American redstart, ^ 

green crested tf 

Tellow bellied fly catcher, 
Wood pe wee, 
Phebe bird. 
Olive sided kingblnl. 
Great crested ** 
Family is. Virtmiis. 
Greenlet tribe. 
Tellow throated greenlet, 
White eyed 
Red eyed 
Tellow breasted chat. 

Family 14. Lanilda. 
Northem batcherfotrd. 

- - IS. Cbrvfd* 

. jlppoorwiu tribe. 
Family s Hinmdbm. 
Swallow tribe. 
OhUnney swallow. 
Purple martin, 
WhftebeUied swallow. 



(Golden crowned wagtail. 
Family tl. ayhricoUdm. 
Tellow throat, _ , 
Mourning WaiMer, 

Worm eating " 

Blue winged. 
Orange crowned, 


Common crow, 
Fish crow, 
Family is. QpUGoUda. 
Oriole tribe. ^ 
Common crow blaskblra, 





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„, ^ Finches. 
Blue Qroabeak. 

Fox colored sparrow, 


^ Bay winged, 

Jor f raasbird, 
^«^lte throated ** 
White crowned" 
Black tliroated buntlnc. 
Yellow winged ■" 
Varied •* 

PlfJd •• 

Tree bunting. 
Savannali ** 
Blue striped *' 
Seaside finch, 
Qsm head, 
Svncmp FtonA, 
{Yellowbird or 
jAmerican i^ld flndi, 
Pioe flnch. 
Lesser redpole, 
Meal7 '* 

Cardinal Gnwbeak, 
SChewink or 
,< Ground roMn. 

Red •• 

Black winged led Mid, 
^land snow 
▼hite ♦• " 

Homed lark. 
Pine ball finch, 
American ciosshill, 
White winged** 

Family la. PUHdm. 
^ (Boxers.] 
„ Voodpecker tribe. 



Downy " 

Yellow billed 

Bed ** ** 

Aictio ** 

Banded ** 

(Golden winged** 


Family i>. CueuOda. 
^ „ Cuckoo tribe. 
Yellow billed cuckoo. 
Black • " 


CuoUaa turtle dove. 
Onier m. Galuh a. 


CwnraoB cock. 
I^unilys. Tetrtumid^, 
.^.^nwte tribe, 
American quail. 
CojwHm partridge. 

; or Heath henTpr 
Spruce grouse. 

"* \ Hyperborean lobefiMC. er 

(Sea goose. 

Order IV. Grallje. 


Family l. CharadrUm. 

American ring plover, 
Piping " 

Wilson's •« 

Kill deer 

Golden " 

Turnstone ** 

American oyster catcher. 
Family <. OruMe. 
Crane tribe. 
American crane, 
Great blue lieron, 
Great white " 
T White crested" 
(or White poke, 
Blue heron, 
Lousiana " 
Green '* 
Small bittern, 
American ** 

Black crowned night bexon, 
YeHow ** «^ «» 
Family s. TanUOid^ 
_ Stoilc tribe. 
White ibis. 
Glossy " 
FCOttily 4. Seolopaeidm, 
Curlew tribe. 
Long billed curlew. 
Jack " 

Small Esqnimanz ** 

Purple •* 

Buir breasted " 

Curlew *• 

Black breasted " 

Schinz's '* 

Pectoral •* 

Red breasted ** 



Spotted sand lark, 

Grey " 

Yellow leg, 
(Solitary TaUer 

_i or Jack snipe, 

varied Tatler, 

Willet or stone curlew, 


Ring tailed nkarlia, 

(Dowitchee or 

I Red breasted snipe. 

Common American snipe, 

American wood cock. 
Family S. MaUidm, 
Rail tribe. 

Salt water meadow hen. 

Fresh •* 

Mud hen, 

New York lail, 


vilson's Holopoda. 

Order V. Loeiranaf .' 
ILobe footed binis] 

I^ly 1. 'p^dMpidm, 

Homed grebe or dl|»er. 
Crested grebe, 
Red necked " 
Dipper or pied ddbchick. 

Order VI. NATA-nmse. 


Family i7 AlddgB. 
PulllB tribe. 
Black GulUemot, 
Foolish *« or Mime, 
Sea Dove, 
Arctic Puflln, 
Razor biU, 
Family s. CoiyilMdm. 
Loon tribe. 
Great loon or diver, 
Red throated loon 
FamUy a. ProosttorW* 



i Wilson's Petrel, or 
J Mother Carey's ohlcten, 
Poric tailed Petrel. :^~^ 
FtenUyf. PeUetmUm. 
Pelican tribe. 

Doable crested coxmoiaaU 
Brown Pelican, 
American Gannet. 

Family s. iMidm. 
« ,. «, ^"11 *rtbe. 
Bbick Skimmer, 
Common tern, 
Cayenne, •* 
Black " 

Blarsh •* 

Arctic '* 

Sandwich ** 
Roseate ** 
Silvery ' •* 
Winter gull. 
Great black backed guH, 
Common American *' 
Laughing ** 

Fork tailed «* 

(Three toed ** or 

Arctic hawkguU, 
Pomarine ^' 

Family s. Anattdm. 
Goose and Duck tribe*. 
Buff breasted shelMrake* 
Red ** •• 


Florida Gallinule, Hooded 

FMnily •. R«cufvir«»«r«flj.canva»s back duck 

Avoaet tribe. Redhead 

Lawyer, Brs«|bm 

American Avoeet. Creek 


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( Broad bllted oMC or Black doek, 

, {Butter bU), ( Amerteaa Widgeon, or 

Id wife *' White winded coot, {Bald pate, 

Wood duck. European widfeon, 

WhiaUer, Blue winged teal, Wlldgooae, 

HarleQain " Graen " " White fronted gooae, 

0der " Pintalled duck. Brant. 

Klnc " Shoveller, or spoonbill, American awaa. 

Siirf duck or coot, Qnj duck, or Oadwall, 

Class III. ReptUe; 

There are but three orders of reptiles found in the state, viz. 

1st, Chelonia, The turtle tribe. Among the animals belonging 
to this order are the green turtle, which* though a native of warm 
climates, occasionally makes its appearance in the waters of New 
York bay, and Long Island sound ; the leather turtle, a gigantic spe- 
cies ; the soft shell turtle found in the Mohawk, and in the lakes ; 
the snapping, turtle; the salt water terrapin or mud turtle; tftie 
smooth terrapin, which resembles the preceding in its appearance 
and habits ; tne painted tortoise ; the spotted tortoise or speckled tur- 
tle ; the wood or fresh water terrapin ; the red bellied terrapin ; 
Muhlenburg*s tortoise ; the geoCTaphic, and the pseudo«geograpbic 
tortoise, both distinguished by tne geometric lines upon their shells; 
Uie mud tortoise, found only in the southern counties; the musk tor- 
toise, also called mud turtle, and mud terrapin ; the common box, gt 
checkered, tortoise, also called box turtle ; and Blanding's box tor- 

2d, Sauria. The lizard tribe. There are but two species of this 
tribe, known to exist in this state, riz. the blue tailed skink or liz- 
ard, called also the striped lizard, found in the southern counties ; 
and the brown swift, frequenting the woods, in every part of the state. 

3d, Opkidia. The serpent tribe. Most of these are harmless, 
only two species being venomous. 

Of the harmless species, we have the common black snake, from 
three to six feet long; the pilot black snake, or racer, found in the 
Highlands and Fishkill mountains ; the chain snake, also called racer ; 
the milk orHshicken Snake, also called house snake, checkered adder, 
Idc. ; the striped snake ; the ring snake, black and red, small ; the ^ass 
or green snake ; the brown water snake, or water adder — this snake has 
its tail tipped with horn, and is frequently regarded with dread, but 
without cause; the striped water, green water, or water garter 
snake ; the yellow bellied snake ; the small brown snake : the ribbon 
snake ; the red snake, very small, and found under stones and logs ; 
the hog nosed snake, called also deaf adder, spreading adder, &c 

The two venomous species are, the copper head, called also red ad- 
der, dumb rattlesnake, red viper, &.c. ; and the northern rattlesnake. 
The popular belief that the latter add a new rattle every year is erro- 
neous. Instances have been known where there were forty-four of 
these ^bulse or rattles on the tail of a single snake, and that not of a 
very large size. They are found abundantly, in the rocky and unset- 
tied portions of the state. The deer and the hog destroy them rap- 
idly — the latter eating them. 

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Class IV. JhnphUna. 

AnioBBlB liTiiig boefa on the land, and in the waUr. There are but 
four families of amphibia, in the state. 

1st, RanidiB. The tr^ tribe. The following are all the species of 
this family in the state: The common boll frog; the large northern buU 
frog, found in lakes George and Champlain, and their tributaries ; the 
sprio^ frog, the kind most usually eaten ; the marsh or pickerel frog, 
used for bait, and called also, from its spots, tiger, and leopard frog ; 
tfae shad frog, which makes its appearance in the early spring; the 
wood froK, a very nimble animal ; the hermit spadefoct, a singular 
animal, between a frog and a toed; the common American toad, a 
harml«w and useful animal ; Pickering^s hylodes, a very small toad ; 
the peeper or cricket frog, called in^ Savannah, the Savannah cricket; 
the northern, or common tree toad : and the squirrel tree toad. 

2d, Salanuaidridte, The salamander tribe. These are usuallv, 
though incorrectly, called lizards. Among them are the yellow bel- 
lied salamander ; the violet colored, the r^ backed, the painted, thto 
salpnon colored, the blotched, the long tailed, the eranulated, the 
striped baek, the red, the scarlet, and the blue spotted salamander. 

3d, Sirenid<s. The triton tribe. Of these we have the tiger tri- 
ton, with a tongue like a fish ; the common spotted ; the dusky, and 
the grey triton« 

4th, Jimpkiumidm, The proteus tribe. The banded proteus, or 
great water lizard, a very singular animal, having the body of a liz- 
ard, ttid the ^ills of a fish ; and the Alleghany hell-bender, another 
carious amphibious animal, very voracious, and from 12 to 24 inchet 
in length, are the only species of this family in New York. 

Class V. Fiahe$, 

The fishes, belonging to the state, are very numerous. 

Fishes are divided into two sub-classes, bomt and OAKTii<Aoiif- 
ouB. The first sub-class has six orders, viz. 

1st, PeeHnibranehi, having gills arranged regularly, like the 
teeth of a comb. This order embraces many of our common fish, 
botit in fresh and salt water. Those best known are the perch, bass, 
bullhead, sheepshead, porgee, pilot fish, mullet, black fish or tau- 
tauff, cunner, sucker, mackerel, fcc. &c. In all the fishes belonging 
to this order the rays of the fin are bony. The same arrangement of 
the gills occurs in the three succeeding orders. 

2d, Abdominal, those havine belly fins and ventrals. This ordw 
indudes the shad, herring, salmon, trout, catfish, pipe fish, dace, 
•hiner, carp, pike, pickerel, minnow, ate. 

"Hiis, and the four succeeding orders, have soft rayed fins. 

3d, Ju^irularf having shoulder fins, and ventrak attached to the 
bones of the shoulder. It includes the cod, haddock, hake, halibut» 
flatfish, flounder, turbot, sole, lumpfish, fcc. 

4th, Jipodai, without fins. This order includes the eel and 

5th, Lophobraneki, those having tufted gilhi. This order is 
■"wJl. comprising two species of pipe fish and the Hudson river 
■«* horse. 

6th, Pleetognatki, those having the gUls concealed under the 

Digitized by Google 



skin. The balloon fish, puffer, and globe fish are examples of this 

Sub-cla« II. Cartii«%ginou9 Fi»hks. These are divided into 
three orders, viz. 

1st. Eleutheropomi, those having free gills. This order is r^- 
resented in the state only by the sturgeon. 

2d, Piagtostomoy those having the gills attached. Thie includee 
the shark and ray tribes. 

3d, Cyelo9t9miy those havine circular openings on each side of the 
heck for respiration. This includes the lamprey, frequently called 
lam per eel. 

Fossil*. Fishes. Twenty-five species of these have been eamne* 
rated by the Messrs. Redfield. A number of them are extinct species. 

The following catidogue contains the names of all tiie fl^ies as yet 
discovered in the waters of this state: 

Sub-class I. Bony Fishes. 

Older I. PscnHnEAiicBL 

(Spine raved.) 
Punlly 1. Percld€^ 
Peroii fiunlly. 
American jrellow perch, 
Rou«rh •• •• 

Rough headed" " 

Sharp nosed ** ** 

Slender " »♦ 

Striped sea bais, 
Ruddy " 

LitUe whits ** 
Small black '* 
White lake 

Black Huron or black bass, 
Champlain Pickering, 
Yellow pike perch. 
Grey '• " 
Tesselate i darter, 

Black sea bass, 
FTesh water bass. 
Black do. ** 

Obscure do. " 
Common pondUsh, 
Black eared " '* 

Spineless jperch, 
narmed Uranoscooe, 
Northern Barraeuta, 
Cirrous Lepisoma. 
Family 3. TrigUdti. 
Gurnard family. 
Web fingered gamaid, 


Spinous " 

Sea swallow, 
ConuEncNa bullhead, 
Brasen " 

Smooth browed '* 
Greenland " 
American sea raven. 
Small sea scorpi<Mft, 
lotted " " 
Northern sebastes, 
Little star gater, 
American Aspidophore, 

Spotted wrymouth, 


New Vork 

ined stickleback, 

Four aptdgd uLlclL^eback^, 

HihL-cpsJi^ad facoJIy^ 

W lj. lie flab. 

Silvery Coirvlna, 
Hr-inded " 
■JunjfljuiHPd " 
Black Bhfi«pshe«d, 
k'ln^r fish, 
B[f; dmm, 
B^iiuicMl ' 
B^iukid CDrrtiUh, 
BpecklfHi rtdmduth. 
Yellow flnned " 
emJtrel flih. 
Banded prlBilpfunKr 
Jliick triple utll. 

Family 4. Bparidm, 
Paj-gee ffljnl^y. 
Bftiid pomee, 
RlioEDboJdal " 
Aculeated gilthead, 

(Bigporgee, or 

{ Scup. 

Family 5. ChetodentidA 

(Banded Ephippus, or 

^Three tailed porgee, 
Moon fish. 
Razor fish. 

FaDaUys. acemMrUm, 
Mackerel trfl>e. 
Spring Ma<ikerel, 
Fall " 

Spanish " 
Gommcni tunny, 
Striped bonlto, 
Spotted cybium, . 

( Silvery hair tail, or 

? Ribbon fish. 
Common sword fish. 
New York pilot fish, 
Northern crab-eater, 
Carolina llchia. 
Silvery trachlnote, 

\ Spinous " or 

f .Spinous doi7, 
Black pUOt, 
Southern canmxr 

Spotted canuix. 
K Hair finned blepharia, or 
\ Hair fisned doiy, 
( Rostrate argyrelose or 

( Blunt nosed shiner, or 

I Bristly dory. 

Banded serlole, 

Blue flak, 

BotUe headed dolphin, 

Spotted lampugus. 

Long finned harvest fish. 

Short fiiuwd " 

Family 7. TemtMd^ 

FamUyS. Atherintdm. 
Dotted silverside, 
Slender " 

Fuoilys. UuglUdm. 
Muliet ^mUy. 
Striped mullet. 
White " 
Spotted " 

Family 10. OoMdc 
Goby ftmlly, 
Sea weed blenny, 
Radiated shanny, 
Six banded chasmodes, 
American butter fish, 
Thick lipped eel pout. 
Bordered " " 
Sea wolf. 
Variegated goby. 

Family 11. Lofhidm. 
Toad fish family. 
American angler. 
Gibbous mouse fish. 
Smooth " 

Short nosed malthea, 

Common toad fish. 
Two spined toad fish. 
Family It. Labiidm, 

k Common bergall, or 

( Cunner, 
Spotted do. 

i New York tautaug, or 

i Black fish. 

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ISon rayed llsh<»r'* raxJ^^^monUm, ?SSi!e<?*"*^* 
4u ■* «-~vv^**"*2L?"**^^» pblM* rkmndM, 

Famuli mmriOm* 
^ dablsh faintly. 
Ooaanic catflsJi, 
JMlttien^s surlus. 
Great lake cattUb) 
(Conmion " at 
jHorn poat— ninfatef i 
Brown catfish, 

Brook tnhiti" 
Laie *' 

Mackinaw 8alm<mi 
Common sea " 
▲mericao sroelti 
Spotted TrottUet* 
Liile white flsh, 

Blade '* Lue white llshi 

Family s. Cyprtnidtt, Oommon shad sahndQ, 

CaqrfainUjr. Otsego " " 
Cammoo carpi fimiUyt. ChtmUm. 

Gold " ^ Herrlnft fuaflyi 

Common sackeri 

Homed " 

fale " 

Manel " 


new Yoilc sblnert 
BfiMSk ooeed daoei 
Spawn eater; 
Roach dacej 

^i?^%aded " 
Banded 'J 

Ba^y shiner, 
" »iporaalen, 

Striped kilUflsh, 

Transpareiit mlntioWi 
Barred " 

Champlain '* 


I'iedenuion pike. 
Banded Garfish, 
BUI teh, 
New York flying flshi 
g^ beafded \\ '2 

Common hflrrlnff, 


Green " 


Satin strtoed " 

Blue " 


American shad, 

American Alewllbi 


AntUmtial Herrlil|f( 

01ender " 

Spotted ahadine. 

Sjpotted thread herrlilCi 

River moon-eyer 

Lake " 



^ _ Bony Pikes, 
Builhlo bony pike. 
Flat nosed " " 

Order IIL Jcouiiak. 

FamUy iT CMidm, 
American cod. 
Twn " 

American hake, 
FUdn . burbot. 
Spotted *' 
New YorkFolIaeki 
Coal fish, 

American Codling, 

Family s. PUmida, 


JW w York u«». 

yjdte tSled remorat 
Indian " 

Common " 

Ortier IV. AwoAfci 


HuUhead " 
American «onci^f i 
^ew York ophidiuid< 
Aiw^ sAllaunce, 

Order V. LorRtfinAiKdtli 

P^' Mttdfih ft^piieSthf^*"* 

Order VL PiKcToaHATBt 

I^amilyi. QumnQdmtMm 

Rlloott fish Amlly. 
Spot-strtped ballooft Mhi 




Haiiy *« 

£ Common puAr« 

Small globe fish. 
Short hc«d fish. 

"ISiV** **«»««^<*». Halib«r*'''*^ 
Amert^P?,!iSa!^- ?S5.J^'^ H^^* 

Sub-class II. CartUagmoiua Fishis 

. ue fish faaiily. 
Orange file fish, 

S^mg finned " " 
Massftchosetts " '* 
Thread " " 

Long^talted unloom tO^t 
Dusky balistes. 


Older L ELBTrrac]ioPOMA.Mackerel porbeagle^ 

' American houtidfliht 
Basking shark, 
Spinous dog fish, 
•■« Hammer h6ad ifbark. 

Order. IL Plahiostoiia. j ^^ "««» ™» 

^ ftenUy BHUriimiim. 
Lake stuneiMii 
Bbort noeed ^' 
Sharp " " 

Family 1. 
^ Btaik 
Hueshttig si 

Common saw fish, 
ftmoilys. tuOadti. 
Clear nosed ny, 
Spoiled sUng^ 
PhcWy " " 

Broad sUngrayi 
Cow nose " " 
Hedgehog" '* 
Whip " •* 
Smooth skate, 

OKder m. CrcLoeTdMf 

Family Fttnmifx i dmi 
American sea lamptct^ 
Bluish " ''' 

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Class VII. Orfuimeea, 

The cltM Cru$i€tee€t embraces those animals having a covering of a 
dense calcareous substance, adapted to their form, wnich they usu- 
ally shed every year, and whicn is replaced by an exudation from 
the surface of the animal's body. . Ten ordefi of this class of animals 
are supposed to exist in the state^ though the existence of two of the 
ten is not determined with certainty. 

Order 1st, Deeapoda, those having ten feet, is the Ihoit numerous 
and best known. It embraces the various species of crab, lobster* 
fresh-water lobster, and most of the prawns or shrimps. There are 
in aU. twenty-seven species of this order. 

Order 3d» Sioniapoda, those having the feet converging towards 
the jaWs, is lesi numerous, containing but three species. It embra» 
ces the opossum shrimp and the AquiU. 

Order 3d, Amphipoaat those havine feet connected with both divi» 
iions of the body, comprising the sand flea, beach flea, and fresh-wa- 
ter shrimp. It has but four species. 

Order 4th, Lamipoda, has but two species, the whale louse and 
the sea measuring worm. 

Order dth, Jaopoda^ is considerably numerous, containing four» 
teen species. Seven of these are parasitic animals Which obtain a 
subsistence by attachment to other animals. Among them are the 
■alt and fresh-water barnacle ; two species of sow bug ; the pill bug; 
and a genus resembling the trilobite. 

Order dth, FmeUopoday contains five species, and embraces the 
horsefoot, or king crab, so abundant on the sea coast ; and parasites 
peculiar to the shark, the rock bass, and the alewife. 

Orders 7th and 8th, Phyllapoda and Lophyropa^ are not certainly 
known to exist in the state* 

Orders 9th and 10th, Branchiopoda and Oetrapifda, have but one 
species each, and those not known, except to the zoologist 

Class Vllt. Mollmta, 

iMotltuea is the name given to the class of animals whose bodies 
ire encased in shells. Many of these are known by the name of shell 

There are six orders, embracing a large nutnber of genefa and ape* 
cics, in the state. 

The 1st order is Cephtdopoda,, those having the head surrounded 
by feet. The cuttle fish , or squid, and the syphon formed spirula, be- 
Ioim; to this order. 

The 2d order is Pieropoda, having fins on each side of Ihe mouth) 
ind without feet. To this order belongs the clio« the food of the 

The 3d order is Ofuteropoda, having the feet under the body. 
The mollusca, belonging to this order» are very numerous in the state, 
and are arranged into eight sections or subdivisions, according to the 
structure of their gills or breathing apparatus. 

It comprises, in addition to many species known only to the natu* 
ralist, the family of slugs or snails, the animals inhabiting the turbi- 
nated shells, and those which yield the famous Tyrian purple dye. 

The 4th order, ^<fiAa/a, thooe having no distinct head, is divided 

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zooLoaY. 47 

into three sectioof, and comprises by hr the greater namber of shell 
fish with which we are familiar. 

In the 2d section, Lameliibranehia, those having leaf-like gills, of 
a semicircular form, we find the oyster, scallop, bloody clam, mussel, 
and the fresh-water clzm and musseL 

In the third section, Conehifera, those having single and distinct 
shells, we find the quahog, or common round clam, and the long clam. 

The Sth and 6th orders, Cirrhopoda, those havinf filamentous or 
thread-like feet, and 7\mieata, those covered with a leathery or 
membranous tunic instead of a shell, contain no species of general 

The researches of the state geologists have brought to light numer- 
ous genera and species of fossil m<dlusca, imbewled in the lime and 
sand stones of the state. The most remarkable and common of these 
are the various species of trilobite, the encrinite, the pentameras, Ibc. 

Class IX. In»eti$, 

No full account of the insects of this state has yet appeared. The 
naturalists of the adjacent states, of Massachusetts and Pennsylvania, 
have described most of those, which are inhabitants of the state— and 
relyiDg upon their descriptions, we shall mention some of those best 

The order Coieoptera, beetles, is very numerous. In Pennsylva- 
nia more than 1500 species have been discovered. The boring bee- 
tle, hammering beetle, tumble bug, ground beetle, horn bug, 
goldsmith beetle, and some others of brilliant colorii, are the most 

The order Orthoptera, includes the cockroaches, cridcetrand grass- 
hoppers, of which there are many species. The katydid, so well 
known by the peculiar sound produced by its wing covers, belongs to 
the latter family. 

The order Homoptera comprises the locusts ; one species of these 
is remarkable for remaining seventeen years in the grub state. 

The order Hemiptera, bugs, comprises many of those insects inju- 
rious to vegetation, particularly the May bug, the lady bug, the apple 
tree blight, &c. 

The order LepidopUra, butterflies, are very numerous, probably 
numbering not less than 1000 species. Among those ,tbat fly dur- 
ing the day, those best known are, the small yeUow winged butterfly, 
and the large yellow and black butter-fly. The variety, and beauty of 
their colors, attract univers^ attention. Some of the nocturnal spe- 
cies are very large. 

The order Arachntdee, spiders, though now usually considered as 
a separate class, may come in here with propriety. There are proba- 
bly between one and two hundred species of these in the state. Some 
of them are very large, and possessed of great beauty. The long legs, 
the clawed ^ider, the tick, nute, louse, &£,also belong to this order. 

The worms of the stats, and its antma/cK/e«, have not yet been 
made subjects of general investigation. 

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The bay of New York was firrt diwcvered in 1634, by Jean 
de Verrazano, a Florentine in the service of France. It does 
not appear, however, that Francis I. the monarch under whom 
this discovery was n^e, ever took advantage of it, or laid claim 
to the territory adjacent, in consequence of Verrazano's explor- 

On the 4th of Sept. 1609, Henry Hudson, an Englishman, in 
the service of (he States General of H<^and, again discovered 
it, and ascended the river, wiiich now Itears hip name, to a point 
a little below the present city of Albany. His ship, or yacht, 
was of about eighty tons burthen, and was called the Half Moon. 

Landing in Kngkmd on his return, he despatched an account 
of his adventures to the Dutch East India Company, with the 
request, that they would furnish him wkh the means of making 
another voyage. The English Government, however, deter- 
mining to secure his services, fOTbade' his sailing again in the 
service of Holland. 

Shortly after, he received the conunand of a ship, with direc- 
tions to explore the Northern coast of America, in the hope of 
finding a North West passage. Having discovered and entered 
the bay whkh now bears his name, his crew mutinied, and put- 
ting him with some of his men into a «naU boat, abandoned them 
to their fete. Whether they perished by the waves, by hunger, 
or by the inclemency of the climate, is unknown. 

The country thus discovered by Hudson, was inhabited by 
numerous roving tribes of Indians, of whom the Maquaas or 
Mohawks were the most formidable and warlike. The Man- 
hattans, who inhabited the island on which New York is situa- 
ted, were also a fierce and warlike nation. Between thirty and 
forty of these tribes occupied Long Island and the country wa- 
tered by the Hudson and Delaware rivers and their branches. 

In 1610, a ship was sent by some merchants in Amsterdam, to 
trade with the Indians of Hudson river, for furs, dbc. Other 
▼oyages were made during the succeeding years. In 1613, one 

Digitized by Google 


or two Binall tmcUog forts were ereeted on die river ; and four 
hoQfles were built on Manhattan Iiland, under the superkitend- 
ence oli Hendrick'Corstiaensen, who visited with his trading 
boats every creek, ixdet and bay in the vicinity, for the piffpooe 
g( securing ibr his erapioyers, the furs and produce of the 

On the 29th d*MarGb, 1614, the States General of die United 
Netherlands passed an ordinance, granting to aU origmal dkcov- 
erers of lands in North America, the exclusive privilege of 
tnakiyig four voyages to such lands as they had discovered, for 
the purposes of trade. Under this ordinance, ^e ships were 
deiq)atched, by a company of merchants, the same year. The 
command of these vesse'R v( as giv nto Adriaen Blok, Hendrk^ 
Corstiaensen and Cornehs Jacobsen Mey. They explored ex- 
t^isively the coast near New York. 

Blok discovered and named Block Island, south of Rhode 
Island, and also the East river, to which he gave the name of 
Hellegat, from the Hellegat river in East Flanders. 

Captain Mey proceeding southward, discovered and named 
Capes May and Henlopen, or Hindlopen. On the return c^'these 
riiips, a Capt. Hendrieksoa was left on the coast, to prosecute 

The tract of country extending from the Connecticitt to the 
Delaware river, received the name of New Netherlands ; and 
the exclusive right to trade there for three years from that date, 
Oct. 11, 16 li, was granted to the discoverers by the States 

The discoverers, upon the passage of this grant, formed 
themselves into a company, called the United New Netherlands 
Company. This company erected, the same year, a fort and a 
trading, house at an island, near the head of navigation on the 
Hudson, just below the present city of Albany, awl garrisoned 
it with ten or twelve men. Another fort was erected at the 
southern point of Manhattan Island ; and men were despatched 
in every direction among the Indism tribes, to induce them to 
trade with the company. 

In 1618, a flood in the North river, or Mauritius, as it was 
called, injured the con^iany's fort at Castle Island, near Albany, 
so much that it was deemed best to remove it to another posi- 
tion. Accordingly, a site was chosen on the NormanskiU, <^ 
creek, a few miles below. Here they made a treaty with the 
Five Nations. The charter granted to the New Netherlands 
Company, by the States General, having expired this year, 
(1618,) they petitioned for its renewal, but in vain. Private 
traders, principally the former partners of that company, con- 
tinued, however, to visit the country for the purposes of traffic* 

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At thii ])mod the attention of the Puritans, who afterwards 
settled at Plymouth, was atte'acted to this fertile uid beaatMul 
Goontry . Having: in vain applied to England, for grants of ter- 
ritory in the New World, they intimated, in the beginning of the 
year 1620, to the prominent individuals concerned in the trade 
to the New Netherlands, their desire to emigrate thither. This 
itttimati<m was roidily and willingly received by these traders, 
and a petition presented by them to the States General, for 
their approval of the project. War existing, however, between 
the States General and Spain, that body thought best, not to 
approve this proposition. 

In June, 1621, was passed the charter of the Dutch West 
India CtMnpa^y, an armed Mercantile Association, which was 
designed to extend the fame and power of the Netherlands ; and 
to render them formidable upon th& seas to Spain, their old and 
sanguinary enemy. This charter, though not particularly 
favorable to freedom, was as liberal in its provisions, as that of 
any other commercial association of that period. 

The West India Company having been fuUy orgam:«ed, 
sent out a ship called the New Netherlands, on the 20th of 
June, 1623, to their newly acquired possessions, under the 
direction of Cap t. Mey already noticed, and Adriaen Joriszen 
Tienpont The former of these, proceeded immediately to the 
Delaware, then called the South, or Prince Hendrick's river, 
and there established a fort, near the present town of GH^ouoes- 
ter, which he named fort Nassau. The same year a fbrt^ed 
post, called Fort Orange, was erected within the limits of the 
present city of Albany, a few miles above that erected in 1618, 
on the Normanskill. 


In 1624, Peter Minuit, of Wesel, in Westphalia, having been 
appointed director of New Netherlands, arrived in the country, 
bringing with him several families of Walloons, inhabitants of 
the frontier between Belgium and France. 

These settled on a bay of Long Island, near Manhattan Isl- 
and, called from them Wahlebocht, or the bay of the foreigners, 
a name since corrupted into Wallabout. Here Sarah de Ra- 
pelje, the first child of European parentage, whose birth occur- 
red in the colony, was born in June, 1625. ' * 
♦ The government of this newly established colony was vested 
in the director, and a council of five, who possessed supreme 
executive, legislative and judicial authority in the colony. 
The only other important officer of the government was the 
Schout Fiscal, who filled both the offices ot Sheriff and Attor- 
ney General. Under the superintendence of these authorities, 
the trade of the colony prospered. 

Digitized by Google 

nUTOtt ADtflNfSTRATlON. 61 

Id 1606, Staten hdand was pan^ased of the Indiaat; and in 
the same year^ the island of Manhattan was bought for the 
sam of twenty^foiif dollars. The fcnrt, upon this latter island, 
received the title of Fort Amsterdam, and the colony that of 
New Amsterdam* 

An affray occurred between some of Minuit's farm servants 
and an Indian, in which the latter was killed. No attempts 
were made to punish the murderers ; and this outrage after- 
wards led to serious consequences. The exports of the colony 
this year amounted to about $19,000. 

In the ensuing year, 1627, amicable correspondence was 
opened between the Dutch authorities at New Amsterdam, 
•ad the Pilgrim settlers at Plymouth. In this correspondence 
the English authority was set up by the Plymouth colonists 
over the region watered by the ConneetiGut, and denied by the 

Up to the year 1629, no colonies, properly so called, can be 
said to have been established in the New Netherlands. The 
settlements were simply trading estaUishments, in which the 
traflk in furs was the principal employment ; and the seU was 
hard^ cultivated in sufficient quantities to supply the wants of 
the traders. 

In Sept. 1628, Admiral Heyn, who had charge of the West 
India Company's fleet, captured the Spanish Plate ships, coo^ 
taining gold, silver, 4cc. to tho value of five millions of dollars. 
The directors of the company, elated by such unexpected good 
fortune^ were disposed to yield to any' measure apparently cal- 
culated to increase their wealth; and at the meeting of the 
company's council (commonly known as the XIX,) on the 7th 
of June, 1626, a measure was adopted, the effects of which are 
yet felt in the state. 

This meamire was, the passage of a grant to certain individ- 
uals, of extensive seignories, or tracts of land, with feudal 
rights, giving them power over the. lives and persons of their 
subjects. Certain restrictions aind limitations were made in 
this grant, which was called " The Freedoms and Exceptions, 
granted by the Assembly of the XIX, of the Priviliged West 
India Company, to all such as shall plant any colonies in New 

Under this grant Samuel Godyn and Samuel Bloemmaert pur- 
chased, soon after, a tract of land, thirty-two miles long, and two " 
miles wide, on the south-west side of Delaware Bay ; and on 
the 18th of April, 1630, Kiiiaen Van Rensselaer, a pearl mer- 
chant of Amsterdam, secured a tract on the west side of the 
Nwth river, embracing the site of the present cily of Albany. 

By subsequent purchase, in this year and in 1637, Mr. Van 

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62 tTATS or KSV YOltK* 

ReDMelaer became proprietor of a tract of land, iwfSAty4biSf 
mileB long, and fort jr-eight broad, now composiiig the conntief 
of Albany I Remsdaer, and part of die. county of Cotumbia. 

In 1630, Godyn and Bloemmaert also secured a tract, cm the 
opposite fidiore of the Delaware Bay , making a territory of sixty« 
focHT miles in circumference. Another of the compemy's direct' 
ors, Michael Paauw, purchased Staten Island, Jersey City and 
Ahasimus, now called Harsimus, with the lands adjacent 

This colony was called Pavonia: that on ^e Delaware^ 
Zwanendal, or the vatley of swans, and Mr. Van Rensselaer's, 

Active exertions were forthwith made to colonise these vast 
estates. Colonies were sent to Rensselaerwyck and Zwanen- 
dal ; and fortifications erected. Anxious, however, to partici- 
pate in the very profitable trade in fVirs and peltries, the Pa- 
troons, in the opinion of the other directors, soon transcended the 
limits prescribed, in the bill of Freedoms and Exceptions* 
Hence difficulties arose between the two parties, which mate- 
rially embarrassed the prosperity of the infant colonies. Minuit 
the director, was recalled, pertly prob6dl>ly from the maduna- * 
tions of Wouter Van Twfller, who, in the capacity of agent of 
the company, had visited the colony two years before, (1632^) 

On his way home in March, 1632, Director Minuit was forced, 
by stress of weather, to put into the port of Plymouth) England* 
The vessel was immediately seized, on her arrival, on a charge 
of having traded and obtained her cargo in countries eubject to 
Her Brittanic Majesty. Considemble diplmnatic correspondence 
ensued between the State officers of England and the Nether- 
lands ; and finally, the object of the English government, (the 
assertion of their title,) having been attamed, the vessel was 

During this period the dispute between the Patroons and the 
colony continued. In the latter part of the year, the Indians in 
the neighborhood of the Delaware Bay, conisidering themselves 
injured, came suddenly upon the colony of Zwanendal, and 
butchered in cdd blood all the colonists, thirty-four persons in 
number. The next year, Captain de Vries, the foimder of the 
colony, returned from Holland, and, finding himself unable to 
punish the treachery of the Indians, made a peace with them* 


In April, 1633, Wouter Van Twiller, a relation of the Pa- 
troon Van Rensselaer, having been appointed director of the 
settlement, arrived at New Amsterdam. About this time also 
Rev. Kverardus Bogardus, the first minister, and Adam Roe- 
landsen, the first schoolmaster, arrived in ^e colony. Van 

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TwiH^ seems to have been iU calculated to govern the cokmy, 
at so stormy a period as this. Addicted to &e use of intoxica- 
ting liquors, he only resorted to heavier potations, when the 
emergency called for sober and vigorous action. 

In the early part of his administration, the Dutch settlements^ 
on the Connecticut, were estabUshed. In 1614, Adrien Blok, 
one of the most enterprising captains in the employ of the New 
Netherlands Company, had discovered this river, and named it 
the Fresh Water River. 

In 1632, Hans Encluys, one of the servants of the West India 
Company, had set up the arms of the States General at Kievits 
Hoedc, now Saybrook Point, thus formally taking possession of 
the river. He had also purchased a tract of land, at that point, 
for the company, from the Indians. 

On the 8th of June, 1633, Jacob Van Curler, under the 
direction of Van Twiller, purchased territory along the Con- 
necticut river, embracing most of the site of the present city 
of Hsurtford, and several of the adjacent towns, of Tattoe- 
pan, chief of Sickenam (Little) River. On this territory he 
erected a fort or trading post, which he fortified with two 
pieces of cannon. 

On the 16th of September following, a vessel commanded by 
Capt. Wm. Holmes, and sent h}^ the Plymouth Colony, who 
had settled about Massachusetts Bay, ascended the Connecti- 
cut On passing the fort, Capt. Holmes was ordered to stop ; 
but being in stronger force than the Dutch, he persisted ; and 
proceeded, (though not without repeated protests from the 
Dutch authorities at New Amsterdam,) to erect, a little above, 
the frame of a house which he had brought round in his vessel. 

During this and the succeeding year, the contest between 
the Patroons and the Company continued to the manifest disad- 
vantage of both parties. 

In 1635, the English at Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay, 
sent several new colonies to the Connecticut river, one c^ which, 
under the command of Governor Winthrop, landing at Say- 
brook Point, tore down the arms of the States General, and 
carved a LufToon's face in its stead. They also refused to let 
the 'Utch laru , on the tract they had purchased in 1632 ; and 
erected on the very same tract, Saybfook fort. 

At the present site of Springfield, Mass., Mr. Pynchon estab- 
lished a trading house and a plantation: and the next year, 
1636, Hooker and his followers located themselves in Hartford. 


In 1637, the mal-administratwn of Director Van Twiller 
having come to the eare of the company, William Kiefl was 

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appointed in his place. Director Kieft arrived in New Amster- 
dam in March, 1638, and found the fort greatly dilajwlated ; the 
CMBpany's property wretchedly managed, and every thing be- 
tokening the prevalence of disorder. Director Van Twiller, 
however, had not suffered his own interests to be neglected ; 
his farms were well stocked, and his houses in good repair. 

The new director began, with a strong hand, to reform abuses, 
and to improve his colony ; but he was a man of headstrong 
temper, who would not brook control or advice, and possessed, 
at the same time, a weak and ill balanced mind. Like his pre- 
decessor, he was addicted to intemperate habits. 

In 1638, Peter Minuit, the first Director of the New Nether- 
lands, who had, af\er his dismission from that station, gone 
to Sweden, arrived on the coast with a Swedirfi colony, and 
settled upon the banks of the Delaware, within the limits of the 
territory claimed by the Dutch. 

Having erected a fort there, which he named Fort Christina, 
ciler the Swedish queen, Kiefi protested against his course, as 
an invasion of his territory : but from the weakness of his own 
colony, he was obliged to content himself with protesting. 

In the latter part of the year 1638, the restrictions which 
hitherto had been placed, by the company, upon the trade to the 
New Netherlands, were taken off, and free traffic encouraged. 
This measure gave a new impulse to trade and eroignration ; 
new forms were taken up ; and a number of gentlemen oi 
wealth and distinction removed to the colony. 

Persecution, too, drove many, from New England and Virginia, 
to settle among the more tolerant Dutch, who, though firm m 
their adh^ence to their own creed, did not deem it necessary 
to persecute those who differed from them in religious tenets. 

In the mean time the aggressive disposition of the English 
settlers still continued. They founded a colony at New Haven, 
notwithstanding Director Kieft's protests ; they occupied the 
fertile valley of the Tunxis (Farmington) river ; smd even went 
80 far as to plough and sow the company's lands around the Fort 
of Good Hope at Hartford, assaulting and severely wounding 
some of the men in charge of that post, whom they found at 
work in the fields. 

The commander of the fort, Gysbert Op Dyck, promptly re- 
mcmstrated against this unwarrantable procedure, but the Eng- 
lish justified themselves on the ground, that as the lands were 
unctdtivated, and the Dutch did nothing to improve them, " it 
was a sin to let such fine lands lie waste." 

Not satisfied with these aggressions, the Plymouth company 
proceeded to grant the whole of Lbng Island, to the Earl of Stir- 
ling ; and a settlement was soon afterwards e^eted, by Lyon 
Gardiner, at Gardiner's Island. 

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The Dutch, meantime, were active in establishing settlements, 
at the western extremity of the island. Lands were granted to 
settlers in Brooklyn, then called Breuckelen; at Gowanus, and 
at Gravenzande, now called Gravesend. 

In May, 1640, a company of emigrants from Lynn, Me^s., 
claiming authority under the Earl of Stirling's patent, com- 
menced a settlement near Cow Neck. The Director having 
learned this fact, despatched the Schout, or Sheriff, with a band 
of soldiers, to investigate the matter ; and, if they had actually 
commenced a settlement, to take them prisoners. This was ac- 
complii^ed ; and ailer examination, they were dismissed, on con- 
dition, that they should leave the territory of their High Mighti- 
nesses, the ^.ates General. 

In the autumn of the same year they returned, and founded 
the town of Southampton, L. 1. Other settlers, from the same 
quarter, soon after founded Southold. These settlements were 
not disturbed by the Dutch. 

This year, a most sanguinary contest commenced, with the 
Indians, which continued to disturb the colony for five years; 
and had well nigh depopulated it. The causes of this war were 
many. The Ir^ans saw, with dafly increasing envy and dis- 
Kke, the heritage of their fathers occupied by strangers. The 
settlers, often arrogant and selfish, deprived them of their real 
or imagined rights. 

In addition to this. Director Eieit, acting, as he alleged, under 
instructions received from Holland, proceeded. to lay a tax on 
the Indian tribes for the support of the colony. This aroused 
their indignation; and unfortunately, about this time, a robbery, 
committ^ by some of the servants oC the colonists, was attrib- 
uted to the Indians. Kieft's imprudent disposition led him to 
send a body of soldiers, to execute summary vengeance upon 
the supposed offenders. A number of them were inhumanly 
butchered, and their crops destroyed. 

This produced deep hostility of feeling, on the part of the 
Indians ; and {he following season, with the cunning character- 
istic of their race, they took measures for revenge. Unexpect- 
edly, they attacked Staten Islemd, and killed several planters. 
Kieft sought satisfaction, by exciting a war between the Indian 

Early in 1642, he determined to avenge a murder, which had 
been committed by one of the Indians. He accordingly called 
a council of twelve men, from among the citizens of New Am- 
sterdam, to aid him, in deciding upon the proper course to be 

This council advised patience afid forbearance ; and then pro- 
ceeded to take up the abuses of his government, and to ask for 
reforms. Kief% soon di«fiisaed-^im, forbade their meeting 

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again, and disregarding their advice, sent a company of soldien 
to attack the Indians. They were unsuccessful in finding theia, 
and a hollow peace was concluded between the two parties. 
This however did not long continue. 

In 1643, one of the Hackensack tribe, having been robbed by 
some of the Dutch, killed two of them in revenge. Kiefl de- 
manded the murderer, but the Indians refused to deliver him 
up. At this juncture the Mohawks, the most formidable tribe, 
in the territory bordering on the Hudson and the Lakes, de- 
scended the river for the purpose of levying tribute from the 
weaker tribes, in the neighborhood of New Amsterdam. 

These, terrqr strkken, fled to the Dutch for protection, and 
might have been won to sincere friendship, by kindness ; but 
having been received kindly for a few days, they lefl the colony, 
and scattered themselves among the adjacent tribes. 

It was at this period that Kiefl, forgetful of the dictates oi 
humanity, suffered himself to authorize a transaction whkh 
stains, most foully, his whole administration. At a dnmken 
revel on the 22d of February, 1643, a petition was presented to 
him by some of the most blood thirsty of the infaeabitanU, re- 
questing him to order the exterminatk>n of these Indians, thus 
deprived of a shelter and a home. Kieft readily complied, ai^ 
when the season of debauchery was past, refused to recall his 

Two parties of soldiers were sent out at night to surprise 
and destroy the unsuspecting red men. One hundred and 
ten wiBr^ killed, and thirty taken prisoners. Nor were these 
all warriors, who were thus butchered in their sleep. Women 
and children were cut to pieces, by the swords of these ruthless 
exterminators ; and neither age, nor sex were spared. 

The consequences, as might have been expected, were, that 
the farms and buildings of the Dutch were burned by the exas- 
perated Indians ; numbers of the settlers were killed ; and in a 
few weeks Kiefl was compelled to receive the inhabitants into 
the fort, as the only place which afforded protection, against the 
assaults of the savages. His course aroused the prejudices of 
the people against him ; and endeavoring to throw the blame of 
it upon others, he was threatened with assassination. 

In the autumn of 1643, the savages united together to drive 
the Dutch from New Amsterdam ; and almost daily, murders 
were committed by them. Kiefl was again compelled to submit 
to the association of the representatives of the people, with him- 
self in the government 

Having received a reinforcement, from the EngUsh settlers at 
Westchester, in 1644, under the command of Capt Underbill, 
several expeditions were undertaken against thek conmioD 
enemy, *in which some eight hundred were slain. These r^ 

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wAkB led the Indian tribes of Long Island, and the shore adja- 
c«it, (east of New Amsterdam,) to sue for peace; but it was 
not of long continuance. In 1645, however, a treaty was con- 
cluded, through the powerful interventioa of the Mohawks, with 
most c£ the Indian tribes. 

During this whole period, from 1640 to 1645, the English colo- 
nists were constantly pursuing a course of aggression, upon the 
territories claimed by the Dutch. Determined to harass the 
commander of the fort at Hartford, till he should be compelled 
to leave his post, they neglected no means of carrying into 
effect their resolution. They also proceeded to establish settle- 
ments, west of the Connecticut, wherever they could obtain a 

On their southern frontier, too, the Swedes were depriving 
them of their trade with the Indians, and securing the fairest 
lands, watered by the Delaware and its tributaries, for their 
ianns, notwithstanding these had been previously purcheised of 
the native proprietors, by the Dutch. 

The " Colonie" of RenJsselaerwyck, meanwhile, removed from 
'these troubles, and cultivating a friendly relation with the In- 
dian tribes, was peaceful and prosperous. The Patroon com- 
plained, indeed, that his rents were not punctually paid ; but the 
number of his bouweries, or farms under cultivation, and the 
amount of exports, showed conclusively, that its interests were, 
on the whole, well managed. 

Mindful of the religious improvement o£ his colonists, the Pa- 
troon sent over in 1642, the Rev. Johannes Megapolensis, as 
minister of the " Colonie,'' who labored among them efficiently 
and successfully for many years. 

Mr. Van Rensselaer never resided in his colony ; but confided 
its management to a Commissary Greneral, or Superintendent ; 
which office was filled by Arendt Van Curler or Corlaer, a 
most worthy and excellent man; and after him by Anthony de 

The office of Schout Fiscal or Sheriff and Attorney General, 
was also one of great importance, and was filled by Jacob Albert- 
sen Planck, and ailerwards by Adriaen Van der Donck. 

In 1643, a church was erected on what is now Church street, 
near Market street, or Broadway, Albany. 

In 1646, the venerable Patroon, Kiliaen Van Rensselaer, died 
at Amsterdam. His son Johannes succeeded him as Patroon. 

In 1647, two whales ascended tlie Hudson, one of which 
grovmded on an island at the mouth of the Mohawk^ causing 
great consternation among the honest burghers. 

The Assembly of the XIX. finding their colony at New Am- 
sterdam decreaamg in numbers and wealdi^ and verging towards 

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destnictioa, under theuusmaiiageinent of Director KJefl; resohr- 
ed to recall him ^ aiid in 1645 appoiiited m his place General 
Peter Stuyveeant, formerly Director of the Idand of Curacoa. 


Peter Stu)rvesant^ the successor of Kieft, in the government of 
New Netherlands, hadheen Director of the Dutch settlement at 
Curacoa and the adjacent islands; and had acquired a high 
reputation for military prowess. Having been wounded in the 
siege of St Martins, in 1644^ he returned to Holland for surgical 
aid. In 1645, his health having been partially restored, the 
West India Company appointed him Director of their colony ot 
New Netherlands. 

Changes, however, made at his suggestion, in the organization 
of the colony, and the difference of opinion which existed between 
the diflerent chambers of the company, reliative to the propriety 
of these chamges, prevented him from proceeding immediately 
to take cheurge of his post ; and it was not till the 27th of May, 
1647, that he entered upon the duties of his office. Meanwhile, 
the colony continued imder the misrule of Director Eaeft 

Though possessed of stern integrity and honesty of purpose, 
yet the strict military education which he had received, had imr 
pressed Governor Stuyvesant, with ideas of the necessity of 
rigid discipline, which soon involved him in contentions with the 
citizens. These, having tasted in their own coimtry , some of the 
blessingia of freedom, and witnessing, daily, the liberty enjoyed 
by their English neighbors, were desirous of making trial of a 
liberal form of government. 

His first controversy was with the guardians of Johannes Van 
Rensselaer, son of the first Patrbon, Kiliaen Van Rensselaer, 
who had deceased in 1646, leaving his son Johannes, then a 
minor, to the guardianship of Wouter Van Twiller, (the second 
Director,) and one Van Sleightenhorst This controversy was 
kept up for a long period, and finally terminated, by a reference 
to the States General 

While it was pending, in 1649 and J650, the Gemeente, or 
Commonalty of New Netherlands, instigated by Adriaen Van 
der Donck,* already mentioned as the first Attorney General of 
Rensselaerwyck, sent repeated remonstrances to the States 
Greneral, concerning the administration of Stuyvesant, and 
earnestlv solicited his recall. 

The States General, unwilling to act hastily, in a matter of so 
much importance, repeatedly appointed conunittees to investi- 
gate the charges made against him ; and on the 27th of April, 

* Van der Donck leemB to have been a man of eonaidemble ability and learn- 
ing, but poaMsaed of a reatlesa and ambitioua spirit. He had, previoosly to this* 
Srlod, created aome diaturbance at Rena^elaerwyck. He evidently postesaed 
e an of enliating the populaee in hia achemea. 

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1652, passed an order for hkieeaU. Just at this jimcture, a 
war with England commenced, and the States General, esteem- 
ing it highly important, that their interests in the New World 
should be protected, by an officer of courage and ability, on the 
16th of May, rescinded their resolution of the 27 th of April, and 
Stuyvesant retained his station. 

In order to compensate, as far as possible, for thus slighting 
the wishes of the people, the States General, in 1653, granted 
to the city of New Amsterdam, a charter of incorporation, 
making the city officers elective, and giving them jm'isdiction, 
except in capital cases. 

During this period the English, against' whom Kieft had so 
often protested, encroached still fiurther upon the bounds of thfr 
Dutch. They established settlements upon the Housatonic 
river, and at Greenwich, upon the main land ; and crossing over 
to Long Island, organized colony ailer colony, upon its fertile 

In vain Stuyvesant remonstrated; in vain he attempted to 
remove their settlements by force, or compelled the inhabit- 
ants to swear allegiance to Holland. For every remonstrance 
they had a reply ; and against the employment of force they 
made threats, which the more flourishing state of their edonies, 
he well knew, would enable them to fulfil. They seemed as 
much offended at his resistance, as the Dutch were by their 
aggressions ; and frequently, in their controversies, laid claim 
to the whole territory under the king's patent, or on account of 
Cabot's discovery. 

Wearied with these protracted disputes, Governor Stuyve- 
sant repaired to Hartford, in September, 1650, where the com- 
missioners of the colonies were in session, to adjust their diffi- 
culties, by a personal interview. Unsuccessful in this, he led 
the settlement in the hands of four deputies, two to be chosen 
by each party -, and, secure in the justice of his cause, appointed 
as his commissioners, two Englishmen, Willet and Baxter. 

On the 29th of September, the commissioners reported arti- 
cles of agreement, relinquishing to the English, half of Long 
Island, and all the lands on the Connecticut, except those actu- 
ally occupied by the Dutch, and prohibiting the Connecticut col- 
onists from settling within ten miles of the Hudson. 

Hard as were these conditions, Stuyvesant having once agreed 
to them, determined to maintain them in good faith, and obtained, 
their ratification, from the States General, in February, 1656. 
The EInglish government never ratified them, nor did the English 
colonists pay much regard to them, in their subsequent treat- 
ment of the Dutch, for in 1655 they seized, (under Cromwell's 
orders,) the fort at Hartfbrd, with all its eftecu; thus termina- 
ting, by force, the existence of that colony. 

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la 1653, a eharge of ooBspiracy between Gorernor Stay ve- 
nnt and the Indians, to massacre the inhabitants of all the New 
England colonies, was falsely preferred, by Connecticut and 
New Haven; and btkt for the firm resistance of Massachusetts, 
to so iniquitous a transaction, they would have proceeded im- 
mediately to destroy New Amsterdam. When this foul charge 
reached the ears of Governor Stuyvesant, it met with an in- 
dignant denial ; a denial, to the truth of which, his whole life 
gav^ the fullest evidence. 

In 1659, Massachusetts, pretending that the agreement made 
at Hartford, did not extend farther than twenty miles from the 
eoast, claimed the land on the Hudson, above the parallel of 42^, 
and demanded the right of free navigation of that river. 

On the southern frontier, too, the Swedes were not idle. To 
prevent their encroachments, Stuyvesant, in 1654, erected and 
garrisoned fort Casimir, on the Delaware, at the site of the 
present town of New Castle. Risingh, the Swedish governor, 
soon visited it ; and, having, under the guise of friendship, ob- 
tained admission, treacherously possessed himself of the fort. 

The West India compemy, indignant at this perfidious act, 
sent orders to Stuyvesant, to reduce the Swedish settlements on 
the Delaware. Accordingly, in September, 1655, he lefl New 
Amsterdam, at the head of a force of nearly 700 men j and on 
^e 16th, Fort Casimir, and on the 25th of September, Fort 
Christina, the head quarters of the Swedish governor, capitula- 
ted, without bloodshed. The terms oJQfered by the Dutch, to the 
conquered, were so favorable, that most of them remained in the 

During Governor Stuyvesant's absence, upon this expedition, 
a large body of Indians, deeming it a favorable opportmuty to 
plimder, came upon the defenceless plantations, murdered a 
number of the inhabitants, and robbed several farms. The re- 
turn of the Governor, however, put an end to their incursiona 

Fort Casimir, after its recapture, became the nucleus of a 
cobny, founded by the city of Amsterdam, and called New Am- 
BteL The terms offered to emigrants were so favorable, that it 
soon became a place of importance ; and in 1657, one Alricks, 
was appointed Lieutenant Governor of that, and the other 
Dutch possessions, on the Delaware. 

In 1656, Governor Stuyvesant, who was a zealous eind some- 
what bigoted supporter of the Reformed Dutch churdi, impris- 
oned some Lutherans, who had come into the colony, and per- 
sisted in the observance of their own forms of worship. In 
1658, he banished from the colony, a Lutheran preacher, who 
attempted to establish a church of hii own persuasion. At 
Vlissingen, (now Flushing,) where the doctrines of the dua- 
kers had ooadaaome progress, he attempted, but, of course, un- 

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8ueeefsfi41y, to eradicate them by fines, unpriBonment, aad ban- 
ishment. Their numbers increased with their persecution. 

In 1659, LfOrd Baltimore protested against the settlements on 
the Delaware, as being within the bounds of his patent To 
this protest, Stuyvesant replied on the 6th of October, setting 
forth the claims of the Dutch to the South, or Delaware river, 
and its coasts. 

In 1663, a body^ Indians attacked Fort Esopus, now Kings- 
ton, and killed sixty-five persons. Suspecting that several 
tribes were leagued together in these hostilities against the colo- 
nists, Stuyvesant assembled the magistrates of the adjacent 
towns, to confer on the measures necessary for the defence of 
the colony* Having recommended such measures as they 
thought advisable, the magistrates turned their attention to the 
civil condition of the colony, and urged in forcible language, upon 
the governor, and the West India Company, the right of the 
people to a share, in the administration of the government. 

In 1653, a convention of delegates from the difierent towns 
had met in New Amsterdam, and in similar terms had renuxi^ 
strated with the Governor and Company, against the abridge- 
ment of their rights, as citizens of Holland. But Stuyvesant, 
true to his military education, regarded such remonstrances, or 
petitions, with little favor. 

On the 30th of March, 1664, Charles II., King of England, 
regardless of the rights of Holland, granted to his brother 
James, Duke of Albany and York, the whole o^ the New Neth- 
erlands. The Duke forthwith despatched Colonel Nicolls, with 
three ships of war, and a sufficient force, to conquer his province. 

Governor Stuyvesant hearing of their approach, attempted 
to put the fort ajid town in a state of defence, but the sturdy 
burghers, tired of an arbitrary and despotic government, refu- 
sed to second his e^^ertions. When, therefore, the fleet I4;h 
peared before the city, and offered favorable terms, they ineisted 
upon a capitiriation. Governor Stuyvesant, angry at their want 
of spirit, tore the letter of Colonel Nicolls in pieces before 
them; nor could he be induced to sign the articles of capitula- 
tion, tiU the 6th of September, (1664,) two days after they were 

These terms were, perhaps, the most favorable ever ofifered 
to a captured city. The inhabitants were permitted to remain 
in the colcmy, if they chose, upon taking the oath of allegiance 
to the English crown; to retain or dispose of their property; 
to elect their own local magistrates ; and to enjoy their own 
forms of religious worship. The name of the colony and city 
was changed to New York. 

Governor Stuyvesant, soon afler the capitulation, went lo 
HoUand, but returned to New York in a few years, and spent 
the remainder of his life there. 

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CoLOifCL NiooLLS having thus acquired the peaceable possea- 
eion of the New Netherlands, was appointed by the Duke, Gov- 
ernor of the province, in the autumn of 1664. 

He appesn to hare been « man of prudence, moderation, and justice ; and 
though vested with almoet absolute authority, used it in promoting the good ot 
the proTinee. During hfs admin istnttioi^ an effort was made, but unsuccessliilly, 
to determine the boundary between New York and Connecticut. 

In January, 1665, a law was passed, requiring: the approval 
and signature of the Governor, to all deeds of lands purchased 
from the Indians, in order to render the titles valid. This was 
necessary, as the Indians frequently sold the same tract of land 
to different individuals. 

On the 12th of June, 1666, Governor Nicolls grazxted a char- 
ter to the city of New York. 

In 1667, he gave {dace to Colonel Francis Lovelace, who held 
the reins of government till 1673, when it was recaptured by 
the Dutch. 

Though somewhat arbitrary, and disposed to burden the people with heavy 
taxes, tl|e urbanity of his manners, and his desire for the wellhre of the coloay* 
caused CoL Lovetaxe to be regarded as a good governor. In 1670, on the petitioa 
of the Dutch inhabitants of the colony, he granted them permiasion to send to 
Holland for a minister, and guarantied his support from the public treasury. 

On the 7th of August (New Style) Captains EverCsen and 
Binckes, the commanders of a Dutch squadron, which had been 
cruising off the American coast, entered the harbor of New 
York. Governor Lovelace was absent in New England; and 
the fort and city were under the command of Captain Manning. 
The fort appears to have been much dilapidated, and scantily 
supplied with ammunition. 

The Dutch squadron demanded its immediate surrender. 
Captain Manning asked for delay j but the invaders replied that 
he should have but half an hour. At the end of that period they 
opened their fire upon the fort, which Captain Manning 
returned, as well as he was able, until his ammunition was 
exhausted. The Dutch, meantime, had succeeded in effecting a 
landing upon the island, in the rear of the fort ; and perceiving 
that further resistance was useless. Captain Manning surren- 
dered, without formal terms of capitulation.* 

* The above account of the capture of New York differs materially from thst 
of Smith, which has been copied by all succeeding historians ; but is fully sub- 
stantiatea by the documents obtained in England, by J. R. Brodbead, Esq. Cap- 
tain Manning was not, perhaps, a very elBcient officer, but he certainly did not 
merit the ej^thets of coward and traitor^ which have been so freelf bestowed 
upon him. The affidavits of the vritnesses in his trial, prove that his punishment 
[the breaking of his sword over his head, and incapacitation to hold office] was 
■ufflciently severe for his offence. 

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FMamtely Ibr the city, the INiteh eonmiMdeM irere mea at Hbenl feeUiig* ; 
tad miadftal of tlie coarleous treatment their coontrymen had received in 1664, 
thejr gnated eveiy privilege of citiseoe, to the inhabitame. 

The name of New York, they changed to New Orange, that 
of Albany to Williametadt, and the fort previously called 
Fort James* to William Hendrick. Captain Anthony Colve 
was appointed Governor. Connecticut protested against tiiis 
Invasion, but with as little success, as Governors Stuyvesont and 
Kief^ had formerly done, to her usurpations. By the treaty c€ 
February ^th, 1674, New York was restored to the English. 
It was not, however, given up by the Dutch, till the following 

Some doubts existing, relative to the validity of the Duke of 
York's patent, both on account o^ the Dutch occupation, and 
the fact, that it was wrested from that nation in tune of peace, 
he deemed it advisable to obtain a new patent, from his brother, 
ia 1674. 

In the autumn of this year, Major Bdmond Andross, after- 
wards so well known as the tyrant of New England, arrived ia 
New York, and assumed the office of governor. 

Hn admiaifltration in New York aeeoM to have been marked by few atrlkinf 
events. He won neitlier the love nor the hatred of the citizens ; and being ab- 
Knt a part of the time, attending to the more refractory New England coloniee, 
be dM not muiifeet, in his own state, the tyranny, which subsequently rendered 
IWB so odious. 

In 167j^, Nicolaus Van Bensselaer, a younger son of the first Patroon— <aoe 
over to New York, with a reconunendation from the Duke of YorlE, wlioee 
favor he had obtained, and wished to settle as minister ia Albany. Niewenhyt, 
who was, at the time, pastor of the Sefbrmed Dutch church, in that city, refused 
to recc^gnixe him. on the ground that he had received Episcofial ordination. Is 
the difficulty resulting from thif refusal, Andross took sides, tlK>ugh unsurreas 
fully, with Van Rensselaer. 

During Governor Andross* frequent absences, Mr. Brock- 
tolst, the Lieutenant Gfovernor, officiated. . 

In August, 1683, Colonel Dongan succeeded Anc&oss in the 
government of the colony ; and among his first acts, was one, 
granting permission to the people to elect an assembly, con- 
sisting of a council of ten persons, neuned by the proprietor or 
his deputy, 8uid a house of representatives, eighteen in number, 
elected by the freeholders, to aid in the administration of gov- 

In this year, the ten original counties were organized. 

In February, 1685, the Duke of York, on the death of his 
brother Charles II., ascended the throne, under the title of 
James II. Among the first acts oi this bigoted and shortsighted 
monarch, were his instructions to Dongan, to allow no printing 
press to be established in the colony. 

Colonel Dongan, mindftil of the necessity of keeping up friendly relaUons with 
the powerful confederation of the Iroquois, visited them in person, and by prea- 

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64 BTAI'fi Olf ITEW YOftK* 

«itti and addTMBM, won tlwir fnendaiiip and attaoee. Tbe lesait pridBli. «elltby 
the FroB6h among tlie Indiana, were, howsver » a foraiidable olMstaete to his taOr 
plete success, in his negotiationa with tbe savage tribes ; for, residing amoa^ tiiem, 
and conforming to their habits, they exerted a powerif^ influence in fiivor of thd 
French, who had been the hereditary enemies of tbe confederated tribes. 

C!o!onel Do&gan, though himself a Roman Catholic, was too shrewd a states- 
ttan fiot to perceii^a the injurious infloeiice exerted by the iHTieats upim tbese 
Indians, and accoidihgly attempted to prevent their contihaing among tbe tribes, 
^ut James, infhtuated by his zeal for Catholicism, forbade hhu to molest theuH 
Hhd ofdefed that he should rather aid them, ih their efibrts, to convert tbe indlaui 
to the cathoHc M\h. 

Ha. vaib, Doagaa remoitfltfatad ; lie otriy Irritateil his royal master, and in 1688 
was recalled. 

ADdross, who had preceded him, was designated as hie sue- 
cessoFi and New England was added to his jurisdiction. 

Preferring to locate himself, where he could more easily inspect the conduct 0t 
his New England sutijects. Governor Ahdross made Boston his residence, com- 
mitting the care of the colony ot New York, to his Lieutenant Governor, Colonel 
Nifibolson. The latter seems to have been much more mild in his admlaiatration 
than his chief, whose enormities so exasperated the people of Massachusetnit that, 
on the arrival of the news, at Boston, of the accession of William, Prince of 
Orange, to the throne, they immediately imprisoned Andross, and sent him to 
Sngfamd for trial. 

In New York, the intelligence of the accession of the Prince 
of Orange did not, at firi^t, prodtice a civil commotion. After 
a short time, however, a portion df the populace selected Jacob 
Leialer, a merchant of New York, of Dutch extraction, and the 
senior captain of the militia, as their leader, and proclaimed 
WilUam and Mary. This movement, though popular with the 
masses, was discountenanced by most of the prominent citizens, 
who were imwilling to acknowledge Leisler, as a leader. 
Colonel Nicholson, apprehending popular violence, escaped on 
board a vessel in the harbor, and sailed for England. 

On the 3d of June, 1689, finding himself surrounded by a large 
number of adherents, Leisler assumed the reins of government, 
associating with himself in the cares of state, his son-in-law, 
Jacob Milborne. 

In the spring of 1690, Milborne, at the head of a considerable 
force, went to Albany, to reduce that town [which had hitherto 
remained refractory], to allegiance to the government of his la- 
ther-in-law. At his first visit he was unsuccessful, but, at a sub- 
sequent period their fears of an Indian invasion, led them to 
submit to his jurisdiction. His confiscation of the estates of 
some of those who opposed him, excited prejudices which ter- 
minated in the ruin of both Milborne and Leisler. 

During Milborne'sabsence at Albany, a letter from the Eng- 
lish ministry arrived, addresse^d to "Francis Nicholson, Esq.: 
or, in his absence, to such as, for the time being, take care for 
the preserving of the peace, and administering the laws, in his 
majesty's province of New York, in America." This letter em- 

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powered the person addressed, to take charge of the govem- 
ment, calling in the aid of such of the inhabitants, as he should 
think proper, until farther orders. 

Leisler, being by popular election acting governor, very prop- 
erly assumed, that this letter was addressed to himself; and 
consequently, by advice of the citizens, who constituted a com- 
mittee of safety, selected a council from each of the counties, 
except Ulster and Albany, which had not yet submitted to his 

He also Bummoiiecl a eonveatioii of deputies, from tbooe portions of tiie province 
over wbich his influence extended. Hail convention laid some taxes, and 
adopted other measures, fw the temporary government of the colony ; and thus, 
for the first time in its existence, was the colony of New York under a tree 
government. The strong prejudices, however, which had been awakened by 
Leister's measures, soon produced in the minds of bis adversaries, a rancor and 
bitterness, which was perhaps never surpassed in the annals of any political con- 

This condition of things existed for nearly two years. To 
the horrors of civil commotion, were added the miseries of for- 
eign war, and hostile invasion. The French Court, being at 
war with England, had placed over its colonies in Canada, the 
aged but enterprising Count de Frontenac, the ablest and most 
formidable governor of their American possessions. 

This wily veteran at once determined to annoy his English 
neighbors, and accordingly despatched a force against Schenec- 
tady, in mid winter, which, afler enduring extreme hardships, 
reached that place in the dead of night, and with the utmost 
barbarity, butchered its sleeping inhabitants, in cold blood. 

Attempts were made to revenge this barbarous invasion, by an expedition 
against Q,uebec, of which Sir William Phipps and Fitz-John Winthrop, afterward 
governor of Connecticut, were the commanders ; but through mismanagement, 
and the sickness of the troops, the expedition was unsuccessful. 

Colonel Henry Sloughter, who had been appointed governor 
of New York, by King William, in 1689, arrived in 1691. His 
coming had been heralded, a few weeks b^ore, by one Ingoldsby , 
a captain of foot, who, without credentials of any kind, demanded 
that the fort should he surrendered to hkn. 

This demand, Leisler, with propriety, refused to obey; and 
when Colonel Sloughter, on his arrival, sent this same In- 
goldsby, to demand the surrender of the fort, Leisler asked a 
personal interview with him. His enemies, who had determined 
upon his ruin, seized upon this imprudent hesitation, as evidence 
of treason, and filling the ears of the weak-minded Sloughter 
with charges against him, they demanded his arrest. The next 
day he surrendered the fort, and was immediately arrested, and 
with his son-in-law, after a mock trial, condemned to death for 
high treason. 

Sloughter, however, hesitated to execute the sentence, and 

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wrote to the English ministry, for directions how to dHspose of 
them. Their enemies, thirsting for their blood, were deter- 
mined not to be thus foiled, and, persuasions havings failed, they 
availed themselves of the known intemperate habits of the gov- 
ernor, invited him to a banquet, and when he was completely 
intoxicated, induced him to sign the death warrant Ere he 
was recovered from his delmuch, the unfortunate prisoners 
were executed. They met death with heroic fortitude, and 
Leisler exhibited a martyr's spirit. 

Their estates were confiscated, but tbeir fullKients were soon after pardoned, 
fay an act of general indemnity. Tbe circumstances of Leisler** execution, roused 
the Indignation of those who had attached themselves to his party, and for many 
years after, tbe citizens of the state w^re divided into Leislerians and Antj- 

In June, 1691, Colonel Sloughter went to Albany, to hold a 
conference with the Indians. On his return he died, very sud- 
denly, in July, 1691 ; and, until the English government could 
appoint a successor, Ingoldsby, the lieutenant governor, as- 
sumed the government. The only event of importance, during 
his administration, was a conference with the Indians, with 
whom he concluded a treaty. 

In August, 1692, he was superseded by Colonel Benjamin 
Fletcher, who soon exhibited the unamiable traits of his char- 
acter. In his intercouse with the Indians, he fortunately suP 
fered himself to be advised by Major Peter Schuyler, a man, 
whose influence over them was unbounded, and who, in his in^ 
terviews with them, gave them a favorable impression of , the 

During most of Fletcher's administration, he was engaged in controversies with 
the assembly, principally in regard to appropriations for his expenses. He was 
empowered, by his commission, to take command of the militia of New Eng- 
land, as well as of New York ; but proceeding to Hartford for this purpose, he 
found himself thwarted, by the stubborn resistance of the people of Connecticut 

Richard, Earl of Bellomont, appointed in 1695, arrived as his 
successor in April, 1698. He was a man of great dignity, reso- 
lution and moral worth; and was sent out by the king to take 
measures for the suppression of piracy, which had at that period 
reached a fearful height. For this purpose the earl, before 
leaving England, at Uie recommendation of Mr. Livingston, 
commissioned Captain William Kidd, to sail in pursuit of the 
pirates, and endeavor to rid the seas of them. 

• Historians have differed materially in their estimate of the character of 
Leisler. Bv some he has been denounced as weak and vain; bv others ex- 
K^ed for his firmness and integiity. It is apparent from a careful examinatioa 
of his administration, that he was a man of honesty and integrity of purpose, 
but strongly prejudiced against the Roman Catholic faith, and not possessed of 
those traits of character, which would quality him for a successful governor, in 
the troublous times in which he lived. 

BCilbome was a man of considerable education, and undoubtedly poasessod 
areater abilities, and perbuis iess integrity, than his fother-in-law. It Is alleged 
that Leisler was very much influenced by him in his moasnres. 

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Captain Kidd accordingly saded for New York in April, 161NS, hat after cmlsiiig 
for a while, l)imielf turned pirate, and became the mo«t ftrocioue and daring of 
all the ocean marauders. Ketuming to America, in 1701, he mM hia ship, vti 
boldly appeared in fioetoo, where he was arrested, and seqt to England Px trial 
and execution. 

Lord Bellomont died in 1701, and John Nanfan, 'who bad been 
hia lieutenant {governor in New York, succeede4 hm in the 

The aihninislraUon of Lord Bellomont is atained by t|ie epftctmept of one law, 
which, fbr its bigotry and intolerance, is deserving of notice. In 1700, a law waa 
passed, directing that every Catholic priest who came into the colony, should be 
hanged. The design of this law was alleged to be, to prevent the CathoHc priests 
fitnn exerting an influence upon flie Indians, hostile to the English. 

The earl, as well as NanfEui, who was his kinsman, had es- 
poused the cause of the friends qF Leisler, and already two disr 
tinct parties bad been arrayed against each other. 

In 1701, on the petition of the Aimily of Leisler, to the queen, 
the sittainder was reversed, and £1000 granted his heirs, as a 
compensation for their losses,. 

Nicholas Bayard, one of the most active of those who had proeuved the death 
of Leisler, having attacked Ooveroor Naafta, and his measures in pubUe, and ex- 
hibited insabocdination to the government, was arrested, in 17d3, tried, convicted 
of high treason, and sentenced to death. But his prosecutors did not urge his im- 
mediate execution ; and on the accession of Lord Cornbury, he was liberated 
fipom prison, and the attainder reversed. 

On the 3d of May, 1702, Lord Cornbury, grandson of the 
Earl of Clarendon, and first cousin to the queen, arrived as 

Of an the Ctovemors of the colony under the English ciowb. Lord Combory 
received the unenviable distinction, of being the worst. Bapacious without a 
parallel, he hesitated not to apply the public money to his own private purposes ; 
and though notoriously vicious, yet he was so intolerant, that he sought to estab- 
lish the Episcopacy at all hazards, imprisoning and prohibiting ministers of other 
denominations, from exercising their functions, without his special license. He 
was, moreover, as destitute of gratitude, as of courtesy, ii^uring those most, fhnn 
whom he had received the greatest benefits. Bis manners werd as ignoble and 
undignified, as his conduct was base, and when this hopefld acion of royalty wan- 
dered about the streets clothed as a woman, [which was a common jMraetice with 
Um] the people felt that he had taken Calig^ for a model. 

So urgent were the complaints Eigainst him, that the queen, in 
December> 1708, felt her self compelled to revoke his commission. 
No sooner was he deposed from ofTice,nhan his creditors put him 
in jail, where he remained, till the death of his father, by eleva- 
ting him to the peerage, procured his liberation. He had at- 
tached himself to the Anti-Leislerian party. 

He was succeeded, in December, 1708, by John, Lord Lover 
lace, Baron of Hurley. The cheering hopes, to which the 
appointment of this excellent man gave rise, were doomed to 
sudden disappointment, as he died on the 5th of May, 1709. ' 

He was succeeded by the lieutenant governor, Ingoldsby, 
whose administration, of eleven months, is orfy remarkable for 

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another unmiceefiMrfiil attempt upon the French possessioQa in 
Canada, under the direetton of Colonel Nicholson. This oc- 
ourred in 1709. 

After the fafiure of tbis attempt. Colonel Schuyler visited England with five of 
the Iroquois sachems, in order to rouse the people to greater exertions, in defend- 
ing the colonies. 

In April, 1710, Lieutenant Governor Ingoldeby was removed 
from office, and Gerardus Beekman, the senior councillor, offi- 
ciated as governor, till the arrival of General Hunter, in June, 
1710. Three thousand Palatines, from Germany, flying from 
religious persecution in their own country, came over with 
Grovernor Hunter. 

The ensuing year, another expedilioD was commenced against Canadi^ by land 
and water. The squadron destined for its reduction was under the command of 
Gir Hoveden Walker, and the troops under Brigadier General Bill. Owing to 
mismanagement, they did not enter the St Lawrence sufficiently early in the 
season, and hairing unskilful pilots, several of the ships w«» wrecked In that 
river, and 800 soldters lost. The whole expedition proved a fiulure. 

As was to be eiq;)ected, the assembly did not feel inclined in all cases to pay 
in^ylicit deference to the governor's mandates ; and, in the eartier years of his 
administialioB, ^kyvemor Hunter bad several unpleasant coHisioBs with that body. 
After a time, however, both parties ozeroised a apiiit of mutual ft»ibeafance, 
which made their intercourw pleasant and advantageous to the cokmy. 

Measures were adopted, during his administration, to adjust 
the boundaries between the colony and the adjacent colonies of 
New Jersey and Connecticut; but no definite settlement was 

Few of the colonial governors resigned their office more generally beloved, or 
more ardently attached to the interests of the colony, than Govenior Hunter. 
The address of the assembly to him, at his departure, in 1710, In its tone of affec- 
tion and regard, stands forth alone, in these times of disti]BCtion, like a green and 
fertile oaais, amid the shiftily and arid sands of Sahara. 

During the period (a little more than a year) ^hich elapsed 
between the departure of Governor Hvmter, and the arrival of 
his successor. Colonel Schuyler, as senior member of the coun- 
cil, officiated in the ]:dace of the governor. Under his adminis- 
tration, a treaty, offaisive and defensive, ^as again concluded 
with the Iroquois. 

Governor Burnet arrived in September, 1720, and continued 
in office till his death, in April, 1728. 

One of the first acts of his administration, was one prohib- 
iting the sale of goods, suitable for the Indian trade, to the 
French from Gluebec and Montreal. 

This, though a very just and necessary measure, excited great bitterness of 
ibeling on the part of the merchants who were engaged in this traffic, and of 
course in the minds of their adherents. They petitioned Parliament for its 
repeal ; but were foiled, by the able manner hi which their finlse statements were 
exposed, by Dr. Golden, then a member of the council. 

During this excitement, another transaction affected Governor Bumet*s popu- 
larity. He interfered, at the request of one of the parties concerned, in an eceteri- 
astical difficulty, in Ae French church in Ne%v York dty, and of course drew 
upon hfanself the opposition of the other party. 

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The French ia Canada, under the vigorous government of 
the aged, but ambitious Count Frontenac, had formed the design 
of erecting a chain of military posts to the Ohio river, and along 
its banks ; thus confining, the English to the coast east of the 
Alleganies. In pursuance of this design, they proceeded, in 
17^, thou^ not without the most strenuous opposition, on the 
part of Governor Burnet and Colonel Schuyler, to erect a fort 
on Niagara river, which they called Fort Niagara. 

The next year, with equally violent opposition on the part of 
the French, Governor Burnet erected Fort Oswego, at the 
present site of the village of Oswego. 

Tbe new aaBemUy convened in 1797, were of a different poUtieal eomplezioll 
ftom their predeceaore ; and between them and the governor, there were firequeot 
and unpleasant contentions. These contentions continued tin the period of his 
death. His fine talents, profound learning, and unaffected kindness of heart, 
eauaed him to be esteemed even by his enemies, and his Ikutts were entombed 

Colonel Montgomery succeeded Governor Burnet, in 1728, 
and remained in office till his death, which occurred in 1731. 
During his government, viz., in October, 1728, the good will c£ 
the Iroquois was secured, and they were engaged to aid in the 
defence of Fort Oswego. In December, 1729, the king, con- 
trary to the wishes and representations of the best citizens in 
the colony, repealed the law, prohibiting the sale of Indian goods 
to the French. The boundary between Connecticut and New 
York was fully settled, and the line run, in May, 1731. 

^n July of the same year, Colonel Montgomery having de- 
ceased, Rip Van Dam, tbe senior councillor, administered the 
government, till August, 1732. During his administration, the 
French erected a fort at Crown Point, without any resistance 
on the part of the feeble and inefficient acting governor. 

On the first of August, 1732, Rip Van Dam was superseded 
by the arrival of Colonel Cosby, who remained in office till 
March, 1736, the period of his death. 

Historians have been much divided in their views of Governor Cosby. Some 
represent him as an arbitrary, tyrannical and unjust ruler. Others regard him as 
a man of mild manners, bat necessarily driven to harsh measures, by tbe turbu- 
lent spirits with whom he had to deal 

The act wliich caused the most serious difiiculties in his administration, was 
his demand that Rip Van Dam. who had officiated as lieutenant governor, pre- 
vious to his arrival should divide with him, the emoluments of his office. Mr. 
Van Dam offered to do this, provided Governor Cosby woujd also divide what he 
had lecei^ed from the colonies, before coming to thu country. Governor Cosby, 
who appears to have been somewhat avaricious, refused to do this, and commea- 
eed a suit against Van Dam, for the half of his salary. Mr. Van Dam attempted 
10 bring a counter suit, but the judges, who were in the governors interest, de- 
cUned entertaining it. 

The newspapers took up the controversy, and one, conducted by a man named 
Zenger, defended Van Dam. The attacks of this journal against the governor, 
provoked the latter and his cooncO, to such a degree, that they directed copies of 
the paper to be burned by the hangman, and indicted Zenger for UbeL At the 


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trial, his coimael, Henn. Alexander and 8mith, disputed the Jurisdiction of the 
court, and were stricken Arora the roD of attorneys in consequence. 

Andrew Hamilton, of Philadelphia, was employed to defend Zenger, and the Jury, 
without leaving their seats, gave a verdict of acquital. Hamilton was presented with 
the fireedom of the city, in a gold box, as an acknowledgement oi his services, in 
vplKriding the liberties of the people, against a governor appointed by the crown. 

During Governor Cosfoy'e administration, a Latin grammar 
school was founded in New York, by the assembly. 

But a few days previous to his decease, Governor Cosby 
suspended Rip Van Dam from the council, thereby preventing 
his acting as lieutenant governor, in the event ol' his death. 
This act had well nigh produced serious troubles in the colony ; 
for Mr. Clarke, who was next in order of seniority, having as- 
sumed the government, Van Dam oi^osed him, and himself 
appointed various officers. 

The two parties soon came into collision, and a civil war 
seemed inevitable. Each party prepared for such a result, 
when, on the very eve of a conflict, a commission arrived from 
England, confirming Mr. Clarke, in the office of lieutenant gov- 
ernor, and president of the council. 

This, of course, left the other party no alternative but submission. Gov- 
ernor Clarke exerted himself, to remove all Just ground of complaint, from the 
people. He sought every occasion to conciliate those who were hostile lo him ; 
and during the seven years he was in power, rendered himself lughly popular. 

In 1737, a company of Highlanders ofiered to settle on the 
shores of Lakes Champlain and George, if they could be coun- 
tenanced and aided by the assembly. As the colony would 
prove an effectual barrier to the French, on the northern fron- 
tier, the proposition wae cheerfully met, by many of the citizens ; 
but the assembly withheld th6 necessary aid, and the poor 
colonists were obliged to leave their lands, almost in a state of 

In 1741, occurred the Negro plot, so famous in the annals of 
New York. 

The evidence of the existence of such a plot seems to be meagre and insuffi- 
cient It is not improbable that a few profligate wretches, whites as weB as 
blacks, had meditated arson ; but the only proof of a pk>t to bom the city, was 
the testimony of a single abandoned woman, whose statements often contradicted 
each other, and were not corroborated by any of her associates. Tet saeh was 
the alarm and infatuation of the citizens, that on this woman*s testimony, 154 
Negroes and twenty Whites were imprisoned, thirteen Negroes were burned at the 
stake, eighteen or twenty persons hanged, seventy transported to foreign countries, 
ai^ fifQr discharged. . 

The people, always suspicious of the Roman Catholics, arrested and executed 
several Irishmen, who professed that ftith. and who happened to arrive in the 
colony about this time. Among others who were hanged, was one Ury. a Cath- 
olic priest, who was condemned on two charges ; one. that he was concerned in 
the conspiracy, and the other, that he was a Catholic priest. The charge of con- 
spiracy, he protested was untrue, nor was it proved against him. 

In September, 1743, George Clinton, son of the Earl of Lin- 
cpln, arrived in the colony, with a commission as governor. 

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The eneuing year, war was declared, between England and 
France, attd the colonists prepared to carry it on with vigor. 

In 1745, the colonies of New England and New York united 
in an attack upon the French fortress, at Louieburg; and New 
York furnished ten pieces of cannon, and £8000 towards the 
expedition. It wds surrendered in June, of that year. 

The colonies were seriously molested, during the year 1746, 
by the Indians, in the pay of the French, who attacked and re- 
duced the English fort at Hoosick, and also made an incursion 
upon the settlement at Saratoga, murdering and plundering aH 
"Who fell in their way. It was therefore determined to make a 
vigorous attack upon the French fortresses at Crown Point and 
Niagara, and also to send an army to capture Quebec. For 
this purpose New York raised £40,000, and solicited aid from 
England, which was promised, but not furnished. The enter- 
I^rise proved unsuccessful. 

The peace of Aix la Chapelle was concluded in 1748, and the 
colony, in the prosperity which followed for a few years, began 
to recover from its losses by the wars. 

In 1746, the assembly appropriated £2250. towards founding 
a college. 

During the jrean 1746 — 9, there were eomtaiit contenticMis, between the 
goveniof and aaBembly ; but in 1750 both parties manifested a more ccmcili- 
atiag spirit, an<t during the remainder of Governor Clinton's administration, they 
were on better terms. 

Grovernor Clinton resigned in 1753, and in October of that 
year, Sir Danvers Osborne a)*rived, as his successor. Deeply 
afflicted at the loss of an excellent and amiable wife, the cares 
of the government seemed, to this unfortunate gentleman, an 
intolerable burden; and on the 12th of October, 1753, five days 
afler his arrival, he put a period to his own existence. 

Mr. De Lancy, the chief justice, was appointed lieutenant gov- 
ernor, a short time previous to Governor Clinton^s resignation, 
and now assumed the reins of government. 

Desirous of retaining the affections of the people, and disposed to side with 
their representatives in those measures which were advantageous to the colony, 
while at the nme time he held his office at the will of the Encash government, 
Ifr. De Lancy had a difficult task to perform ; but the skill with which he concili- 
ated both parties, does honor to his ability, as a statesman. 

In 1754 a convention of delegates from the colonies of New 
Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Penn- 
sylvania, Maryland and New York, met at Albany, to devise 
some plan of common defence against the French, who had 
again commenced hostilities. 

At this convention Dr. Franklin, afterwards so eminent in the history of the 
Bcvohition, proposed a plan tor poUtical union, which was r^ected by the proym- 
eisl assemblies, on the gzmmd that it gave too much power to the crown, and by 
the y»t"*^ pwwnment, beeaiMe it gave too much power to the people. 

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In September, 1755, Sir Charles Hardy, an admiral in the 
British navy, arrived in New York, as governs. Being unao- 
iioainted with civil a&irs, he gave the management of these to 
Mr. De Lancy. In the spring of this year, the colonies had 
made extensive preparations for an attack on the enemy, but, 
owing to the ignorance of the commanders of the English forces, 
of the tactics of Indian warfare, the campaign was utterly im- 
sucoessfoL Braddock, who was sent against Fort Du duesne, 
(now Pittsburgh,) was killed, and his army routed, by a small 
body of Indians. Crown Point, and Niagara, both French 
posts, although assailed, were not captured. 

Nor was the campaign of 1756 more successful. The Eng- 
lish fort at Oswego was captured, 1600 men taken prisoners, 
and a large quantity of stores seized, by the French. 

The campaign of 1757 was still more unsuccessfoL Fort 
William Henry, on Lake George, with a garrison of 3000 men, 
was compelled to surrender. These repeated misfortunes awa- 
kenued the energies of the English. 

In 1758, William Pitt (Lord Chatham) was placed at the 
head of government, in England, and a new impulse was given 
to the energies of the nation. Success soon followed. In July, 
LouisbcHTg, which at the former peace had been restored to the 
French, was recaptured. Fort Frontenac, on Lake Ontario, 
(now Kingston, C. W.) was captured soon after, and the 
French compelled to abandon Fort Du Q^uesne. Greneral Aber- 
crombie attacked Fort Ticonderoga, but unsuccessfoUy. 

Stimulated by this success. New York, in 1759, exerted her- 
self to the utmost, and raised $625,000 in five months, and lev- 
ied a force of 2680 men. Ticonderoga was captured by Gteneral 
Amherst, early in the season, and Crown Point surrendered a 
few days later. In July, General Prideaux invested Fwt Niag- 
ara, and though he was killed in the attack, Sir William John- 
son, his successor in the command, succeeded in reducing it 
On the 13th of September, the brave Greneral Wolfo laid down 
his Hfe, in the moment of victory, when the English banners 
floated over the towers of Ctuebec 

The ensuing year the French, made an unsuccessful effort to 
recapture Quebec ; and on the 8th <^ September of that year, all 
the French possessions in Ccmada were surrendered to the 
British Government, and the French power extinguished there. 
Two small islandrs at the mouth of the St. Lawrence, St Pierre 
and Miquelon, alone were preserved to them, of their former 
vast possessions. 

During the progress of these events, in July, 1760, Governor 
De Lancy suddenly deceased. He was succeeded by Dr. Cad- 
wallader Colden, the preski«3t of the council, who in August, 
1761, was appointed Lieutenant Governor. In October -of the 

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same jear, Geoerid Robert Monkton arrived, with a Gtovernor't 
commission, but left on the 15th of the ensuing month, to com- 
mand an expedition a^inst Martinique, and the government 
again devolved upon Dr. Golden. 

It was daring his administration, that the difficulties between 
New Hampshire and New York commenced, relative to the 
territory, now known as the state of Vermont. 

By the original patent, granted to tbe Duke of York, this tract was included. 
New Bampriiire, however, claimed it under bet charter ; and, coitfending that 
tbe charter of the Duke of Yc»k was obeolete, proceeded to make extensive grants 
of land, to tbe settlers on tbe west side of the Connecticut Emigration pro- 
gressed rnpidy, and in 1763, 138 townships bad been granted, by New Bamp- 
sfalre, covering a la^ie portion of the present state of Vermont 

GoTemor Coldrai was not the man to sit by, and tamely submit, to what- he 
deenoed injustice to Mb c<4ony; He issued a proclamation, claiming jurisdiction 
as £eur east as the Connecticut, and ordered the sheriff to make returns to bim, of 
any persons, who had taken possession, under the authority of New Hampshire. 

The Governor of New Hampshire issued a counter proclamation, and the mat- 
ter waa telesned to the Crown, which decided in ikvor of New York. Tbe at- 
tempt to enforce this decision, and to induce tbe inhabitants to take out new 
deeds und« New York, was, with some exceptions, ineffective, and led to con- 
stant hostilities between the Vermont settlers, and the' government of New York. 

In 1764 the news of the passage of the Stamp Act, (which 
rendered all deeds, bonds, notes^ &c., invalid, unless written on 
stamped paper, which should pay a duty to the Crown,) excited 
universal indignation among the people. An organization was 
soon formed in this, as well as some of the adjacent states, 
called " The Sons of Liberty," which offered the most daring re- 
sistance, to this aggression upon the rights of the people. 

Governor Colden attempted to enforce the act, but the at- 
tempt called down the hostility of the people upon him, and but 
for his age, he would undoubtedly have suffered in person. As 
it was, his effigy was carried about the city, and hung upon a 
gaUows erected for the purpose, and his carriage and other 
property destroyed. 

When the stamps arrived, he was obliged to surrender them to 
the city corporation, and aweiit the action of the Governor, Sir 
Henry Moore, who arrived in July, 1765, and by the advice of his 
Council, was deterredfrom attempting farther to enforce the act. 

On the 1st Tuesday in October, 1765, a Congress composed 
of delegates from Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, 
New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, 
and South Carolina, met at New York, to take into considera- 
ti<m, the invasion of the rights of the colonies, by the Stamp Act. 

New Hampshire, Virginia, North Carolina and Georgia, did not send delegates, 
but two of them expressed their sympathy with the Congress, and tbe others had 
no meeting of their legislatures, in time to appoint delegates. This Congress 
made a declaration of the rights and privileges of tbe cokmies, and petitioned for 

The Stamp Act was repealed on the 18th of March, 1766 ; but 

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the offeittave declaration aecompaoied the repeal, that " Parlia- 
ment possessed the power, to bind the colonies in all cases, what- 

In 1767, Charles Townsend, chancellor of the English er- 
diequer, proposed a new bill, levying duties on glass, pG^)er, 
paints and tea. This passed, and the inhabitants entered, as 
they had previously done, into non-importation agreements, by 
which they pledged themselves to use none of these articles, 
nor, so ^ as it could be avoided, other articles of British manu- 
fecture. In 1769, five-sixths of these duties, and in 1770, all of 
them, were repealed, except the duty on tea. The people of 
New York, as well as of the other colonies, rigidly abstaining 
from the use of this beverage, no excitement was produced; and 
from 1770 to 1774 a period of calmness ensued, although the 
English government and the colonists regarded each other with 

Attempts were made, in 1767, to settle the boundary between MaasaehosettB 
and New York. Mastachusetts, under her charter, claimed to the Pacific Ocean, 
and bad repeatedly attempted to make settlements within the bounds of New 
York. The attempt to establish these settlements, had produced collision, and in 
mveni instances, bloodshed. Commissioners from the two cokmies met at New 
Haven, in October, 1767, and determined thut the Massachusetts line shoukl run 
twenty miles east of Hudson river, but could not agree in regard to the manner 
of running that line. 

In September, 1769, Sir Henry Moore deceased. His course, 
during the period in which he acted as Governor, had been pru- 
dent, mild, and dignified. He had, as far as possible, abstained 
from controversy with the assembly and people, interpreting his 
instructions from the government in England, as liberally as lay 
in his power. His death was much lamented. Governor Col- 
den again occupied his place, although very much advanced in 

Governor Dunmore assumed the government in November, 
1770 ; but his administration continued only a few months, and 
was marked by no important event. He was the first Governor 
supported by the Crown, a measure against which New York 
protested, as calculated to make the executive independent of 
the popular branch of the government During his short con- 
tinuance in office, a contest took place with the legislature, in 
regard to quartering the King's troops, to which the assembly 
were wholly averse, but to which, under the threats of the Brit- 
ish government, they were obliged to submit. 

Liberty poles had, at this period, be<m frequently erected in New York city, 
and as often cut down and destroyed by the British soldiery, who entertained the 
bitterest hostility to the citizens. After repeated efforts, the inhabitanU erected 
one upon private grounds, so frmly encased in iron, that the soldiers could not 
destroy it. 

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Lord Dunmore having been appointed Governor of Virginia, 
Governor Tryon succeeded him on the 8th of July, 1771. 

In 1772, the New Hampshire grants became a renewed source 
of serious disquietude to the colony. Grovernor Tryon offered a 
reward of fifly pounds for the apprehension of Ethan Allen, 
Seth Warner, and six other,s of the most obnoxious of the set- 
tlers ; and the New York assembly passed an act, declaring the 
opposition of these citizens to the government of New York, 
felony. AUen and his coadjutors, in return, hurled their defi- 
ance at the Governor, and those who were sent to arrest them. 

In the Spring of 1775, matters appeared to be approaching a 
crisis, in regard to this territory. A collision took place, be- 
tween the officers of New York, and the citizens of Westmin- 
ster county, Vermont, in which one man was killed, and several 
wounded. But for the occurrence of the battle of Lexington, 
at this juncture, probably a serious civil war would have en- 

The British government resolved, in 1773, to accomplish by 
cunning, what they had lailed to attain by torce. They remit- 
ted to the East India Company, the customary English duties 
on tea, and permitted them to ship it for America, with only a 
duty of three pence per pound, to be paid, on landing it, at any 
American port. They supposed that as this would make the 
price ol tea lower than in England, the colonists would not ob- 
ject to it; but the colonists saw, in this measure, the same prin- 
ciple, against which they had been contending. 

Tbe coarae adopted by the different eotonies, is weH known. In New York, ». 
meeting of " The Sons of Liberty** was called, on tbe receipt of the intelligence, 
and resolutions passed, that the tea should not be landed. Accordingly, when, in 
April, 1774, the tea ship, (the Nancy, commanded by C&ptain Lockyier.) arrived 
off Sandy Hook, the pilots, who had ataready received their instructions. reAised 
to bring her any nearer the city. The captain however came up, and was waited 
upon, by a committee, who informed him, that he must return immediately to 
England, with his cargo ; and for the purpose of preventing his sailors from de- 
serting, a strong guard was stationed near bis ship at Sandy Hook. Finding it 
useless to resist, he submitted to their commands. 

Meanwhile information was received that Captain Chambers, of the ship Lon- 
don, a man loud in his professions of patriotism, had brought out eighteen chests 
of tea, as a private venture. Being questioned by the committee, he denied it ; 
but upon their assuring him, that their evidence was so strong that they should 
search the ship, he confessed it, but attempted to apologize. His apologies did 
not avail. His tea was emptied into the harbor forthwith, and he permitted to 
withdraw. Embarking on beard Lockyier's ship, he sailed for England, to hide 
his shame and disgrace. 

About this period a committee of observation was organized 
in New York, consisting of fifty persons, who were invested 
with discretionary powers, with regard to the administration ot 

On the 6th of September, 1774, a congress from the different 

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colonies, met at Philadelphia. They adopted several resola- 
tionB, and prepared addresses to the King and both houses of 
Parliament, and to the people of Great Britain and Canada. 

To these addresses and resolutions prepared by Congress, 
the assembly of New York refused to give their assent. On the 
contrary, they addressed an exceedingly loyal and humble let- 
ter to the King, in which they represented their grievances, but 
without seeming much afflicted by them. They were undoubt- 
edly influenced to this course, by Governor Tryon, a man of 
very popular manners, and artfvd insinuating address, who had 
the skill, to mould the assembly to his will. 

Tbis Btep of New York exerted a very important influextce upon the fttfuie 
destiny of the colonies ; for the British Blinistry were upon the point of yielding 
to their just demands, when the news of the defection of New York reached 
them. Stimulated by this, they continued that course of aggression, which uM- 
maMe}y led to the estaUisfament of our liberties. 

GrovernoT Tryon sailed for England in April, 1774, and re- 
turned in June, 1775. 

In April, 1775, a provincial convention was convened at New 
York, and elected delegates to the 2d Congress, which assem- 
Ued at Philadelphia in May, 1775. 

The news of the battle of Lexington, (Mass,) on the 19th of 
Aprfl the same year, caused great excitement in the city of New 
York. At the desire of the committee of observation, a com- 
mittee of superintendence was elected by the citizens, consisting 
of 100 of the most respectable citizens ; and the arms in the city 
arsenal, and others ai)out to be shipped to Boston, were seized* 

Ticonderoga, Crown Point, and 8kened>orough, (now White- 
hall,) were captured in May, by Colonels Ethan Allen and 
Benedict Arnold, and the entire command of Lake Champlain 

Governor Tryon returned, in June, from England and was welcomed by the 
citizens ; but his strenuous exertions to pnunote the royal cause, soon rendered 
him unpopular, and in October, considering his personal safety endangered, he 
took refhge on board the Asia, a ship of war lying in the harbor. 

On the 22d of May, 1775, a. provincial Congress was convened 
at New York, and efficient measures were taken for the mili- 
tary organization, and defence of the country. Two regiments 
were authorized to be raised, bounties were offered for the man- 
ufacture of gunpowder and muskets in the province, fortifications 
were projected at Kingsbridge and the Highlands, and Philip 
Schuyler and Richard Montgomery were recommended to the 
Continental Congress for appointment, tiie first as a Major 
General, and the second as Brigadier General. 

Upon the a^KMi^inent of this Congress in September, for a month, they dele- 
gated their powers to a eomannittee of safety, composed of three members from the 
city, and one, ftom each of the other counties. 

Generals Schuyler and Montgomery, at the direction of Con- 
gress, undertook an expedition against Quebec, which, though 

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at first, promising a favorable result, finedly terminated unfortu- 
nately, in the death of Montgomery, and the repulse of the army. 

Many of the inhabitants (^ Try on county espoused the side oi 
the mother coimtry, under the direction of Sir John Johnson, 
son of Sir William, already mentioned, and made preparations 
to fight against the colony. General Schuyler waa ordered by 
Congress to disarm them ; and calling out the Albany militia, 
who rallied around his standard to the number of 3000, he pro- 
ceeded into that county, and dispersed about 600 loyalists. The 
loyalists on Long Island also entrenched themselves, but were 
disarmed, and their leaders secured, by the Jersey militia. 
These events occurred in the winter of 1775. 

July 9th, 1776, the provincial Congress met at White Plains, 
and took the title of" The Re^^eaeiUaiives of the State of New 
YorkJ^^ On the first day of their meeting, they received the 
Declaration of Independence, and immediately passed a resoln- 
tion, approving it Soon after, they enacted a law, that all per- 
sons, residing in the state, and enjoying the protection of its 
laws, who should be found guilty of aiding its enemies, should 
suffer death. 


In July, 1776, General Howe, and Admiral Howe, his brother, 
the British commanders of the land and naval forces, arrived 
at Staten Island. The inhabitants, at once, took the oath of alle- 
giance to the British Crown, and, together with a considerable 
number of loyahsts, from New Jersey and Long Island, were 
embodied as a part of the British forces. 

At this period, the troops under Washington were unaccus- 
tomed to discipline, not well clothed, nor prepared for efficient 
military duty ; and consequently not to be relied upon, in a direct 
battle witli the highly disciplined, and well appointed troops of 
England. From this fact. General Washington determined not 
to risk a general action, until his forces, by constant military 
exercise, and occasional skirmishes with the enemy, should ac- 
quire greater confidence in their own prowess 

It would have been fortunate, had he been able to maintain 
this position ; but unhappily, in a conflict on Brooklyn Heights, 
on the 27th of August of this year, in which, at first, only a por- 
tion of the army were engaged, the entire troops finally became 
enlisted, and the Americans were routed with severe loss both 
in killed and'prisDners. As the result of this unlbrtunate battle, 
Washington was compelled to evacuate New York city, and 
retreat towards Philadelphia, with one division of his army, 
while the other made its way northward, along the banks of the 

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Hudson. This event took place on the 12th (^ September. 1776. 
Previous to Washington's evacuating the city of New York, 
the public stores were removed to Dobb's ferry. 

On the 15th of September, the American General attempted 
to oppose the landing of the British forces, at Kip's and Turtle 
bays, but unsuccessfully, and with shameful demonstrations of 
cowardice on the part of the American soldiery. On the 16th 
of September occurred the battle of Harlaem heights, in which, 
thoufich but few troops were engaged, the action was close, and 
the Americans recovered their courage and spirit Washington 
having retreated into Westchester Co., a partial action took place 
at White Plains, on the 28th of October, in which the Americans 
suffered some loss. 

Forts Washington and Lee, the former on the upper part of 
New York Island, the latter nearly opposite on the Jersey 
shore, were garrisoned by the Americans ; but by tpo small a 
force to resist successfully the British troops ; and on the 16th 
of November, after a closely contested action, in iidiich the ene- 
my met with a severe loss, the American garrison wa§ com- 
pelled to surrender. With the remnant of his army, dispirited 
and disheartened, Washington retreated towards Philadelphia; 
but soon after, by his bold attack upon the Hessian forces at 
Trenton, he infused new courage into his troops, retrieved his 
own reputation, and turned the tSe of war. 

Amid all the dLBCouragemeats under wMcta tbe cauae c^ liberty lalxMed, the 
New York provincial Congress did not despair. On the 23d of December, 1776, 
they put forth an address to tbe people, tbe production of the gifted, patriotic, 
and pure minded Jay, which was admirably adapted to encourage and animate 
Che zeal of the friends of freedom. 

In May, 1777, Colonel Meigs, by a well devised and happily 
executed enterprise, took possession of, and destroyed a large 
quantity of the enemy's stores at Sag Harbor, L. I., and cap- 
tured ninety men. This enterprise was accomplished "with a 
force of only 234 men. Congress voted him a sword, for this 
gallant exploit. 

In January, 1777, the territory known as the New Hamp- 
shire grants, assumed the title of the State of Vermont, and 
soon after adopted a constitution. On the 12th of March, a con- 
stitution, for tiie state of New York, was reported by a committee 
of the provincial Congress, whkih, on the 20th of April, 1777, 
was adopted. 

A few of its more important provisions should be here noticed. They were. 
1 St, the requirement of A properQr qualification in the electors and the elected. 
Sd, The appointing power was vested in the Governor, and a council, of four per- 
BOBS, chosen ftom the senate. By this council, aheriffs. coroners, justices of tbe 
peace, Judges, both of tbe superior and inferior courts, mayors and recorders of 
the cities, and all the officers of state, were appointed. This immense amount of 
patronage, thus thrown into the hands of five individuals, proved a very serious 
•vil. 3d, The Governor was invested with the power of proroguing the legisla- 
ture when he saw fit. This eontstitution was revised and amended in 18S]. 

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On the 23d of March, 1777, a detachment of 800 British 
troope landed at Peekskili, and set fire to the principal store- 
houses there; but finding^ that a lar^ force of Americans were 
approaching, they retreated. O the 26th of April, Governor 
Tryon, with 2000 troops, tories and regulars, proceeded to 
Danbury, Ct, and burned eighteen iiousep, and a quantity of 
stores ; but was attacked by the Americans, and compelled to 
retire with considerable loss. 

Under the new constitution, George Clinton was elected 
Gfovernor ; but, being at that time in the service of Congress, 
he did not meet the assembly, at its session. John Jay was 
appointed Chief Justk^e, C. R. Livingston, Chancellor, John 
Morin Scott, Secretary of State, and Comfort Sands, Audi- 
tor General 

At ttae adoption of the state constitution, there were fourteen counties in the 
fixate, viz. New York, Richmond. King's, aueeu's, Suffolk, Westchester, Dutchess, 
Orange, Uteter, Albany, Tryon, Charlotte, Cumberland, and Gloucester. The last 
two, together witii part of Albany and Charlotte counties, were within the 
limits of the present state of Vermont The first six were mostly under the do- 
minion of the British, the Highlands being the limit, and were governed by Gen- 
eral Tryon tiU 1778, when he was succeeded by General Sobertson. The Brit- 
ish had garrisoned most of the border posts, from which they kept up a sangui- 
nary and relentless warfore, upon the settlers, during the whole struggle. 

General Schuyler and Rev. Mr. Kirkland were, about this 
time deputed to hold a conference with the Iroquois, who, un- 
der the instigation of Sir John, and Colonel Guy Johnson, and 
the Butlers, as well as the famous Indian chief Brant, wisre 
making serious ravages on the frontier settlements. As the 
restdt of this conference, the Oneidas remained faithful to the 
Americans, while the remainder of the tribes, under the influ- 
ence of the Johnsons, took up arms, on the side of the British. 

Determined to leave nothing undone, to effect the entire sub- 
jugation of the rebel colonies, the Enghsh Ministers sent out a 
well appointed army, the flower of the Engli^ soldiery, to< 
gether with a numerous body of German troops, under the com- 
mand of General Burgoyne, an experienced officer, of known 
bravery, and of high reputation. 

General Burgoyne was directed to start from Q,uebec, and, 
scouring the coimtry with his Indian allies^ to effect a junction 
with Howe, at some point on the Hudson. As this would cut 
off all communication between New England and the other 
colonies, it was thought, that the work of subduing that section, 
would be comparatively easy. 

For the purpose of effecting this object. General Burgoyne 
detached Colonel St. Leger, with 1600 regular troops, tories, 
and Indians, to harass and destroy the frontier settlements. 
St Leger arrived, without opposition, before Fort Schuyler, 
which he besieged. 

Meantime, he des^patched Sir John Johnson, with a body of 

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tories and Indians, against General Herkimer, who Mras ad* 
vancing to the aid of Colonel Gansevoort, the commander of the 
fort They met at Oriskany. Herkimer's force was small and 
undisciplined. The battle was a severe one ; Herkimer was 
wounded at the first fire ; but the British were obliged to with- 
draw, defeated. Soon after, by a successful artifice, Arnold 
compelled St. Leger to raise the siege of Fort Schuyler, and re- 
treat into Canada, with the loss of his Indian aUies.^ 

Burgoyne had pursued his march, with the main body of his 
army, thus for, in triimiph; but soon, his fortune began to 
change. The Americans, under General Schuyler, had ob- 
structed his progress, from Lake Champlain to the Hudson, by 
felling trees, destroying the reads, &c., so that he was necessa- 
rily a long time employed, in the transportation of his artillery 
and stores. 

Finding that these were not sufficient, to last through the campaign, he dis- 
patched Colonels Baum and Breyman, with more than 1500 chosen troops, to 
obtain stores at Beimington. These were met, and defeated, on the lOtfa of Au- 
gust, 1777, by the Green Mountain boys, under General Stark, and Colonel War- 
ner, and over 1000 killed, wounded, and taken prisoners. This loss materially 
impeded Buigoyne's progress, disheartened his army, and prepared the way for 
his defeat and surrender. 

On the 19th of September, a fierce and bloody battle was 
fought between the American forces, imder General Gates, 
(who had now succeeded General Schuyler,) and Burgoyne's 
army, which resulted in severe loss on both sides, and the 
maintenance of their ground by both armies. The loss of the 
British, however, was much the largest. In this contest, Gen- 
eral Arnold and Colonel Morgan distinguished themselves, by 
acts of the most daring personal bravery. 

Burgoyne now fortified his position, and sent to Sir Henry 
Clinton, for reinforcements and supplies. The American army 
also entrenched themselves strongly, on Bemis' Heights, Sa- 
ratoga Co. On the 7th of October, Burgoyne, finding his stores 
failing, and receiving no intelligence from Sir Henry Clinton, 
resolved to attack the American entrenchments, aiul attempt 
to force his passage through to the Hudson. The battle was 
a severe one, but he was defeated, with the loss of 200 killed and 
wounded, and about the same number taken prisoners. 

On the 17th of the same month, after repeated attempts to 
escape firom his perilous position, finding himself surrounded on 
every side by a victorious enemy. General Burgoyne surren- 
dered to General Gates, his entire army, consisting of 5792 men, 
together with 5000 stands of arms, 42 field pieces, and large 
quantities of ammunition. This splendid victory did much to- 
wards achieving our nation's independence. 

On the 17th of November following. Congress ad(H>ted the ar- 

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state: administration. 81 

tkles of confederation, for the different states. These were ap- 
proved, hy the legislature of New York, February 6th, 1778. 

The repeated incursions of the Indians upon the frontier set- 
tlements, particularly the cruel outrage at Wyoming, called 
loudly for retributive justice. But their crimes were still to aa- 
eume a deeper dye. In November, 1778, Colonel Alden, the 
commander at Cherry Valley, received intelligence that an at- 
tack was intended, upon that place. With a fatal and unac- 
countable stupidity, he paid no attention to the report. On the 
10th, the Indians and tories, under the command of the blood- 
thirsty Walter Butler, and the Indian chieftain Brant, ap- 
proached the settlement, killed Colonel Alden, butchered about 
twenty of the inhabitants, mostly women and children, took 
nearly forty prisoners, and, afler plundering and burning all their 
houses, departed. 

To punish these depredations, Generid Sullivan, in August, 
17T8, at the head of an efficient force, vi^ted the country of the 
Seoecas, destroyed eighteen of their villages, laid waste their 
whole territory, and most signally defeated them. 

In April of the same year, Colonel Van Schaick attacked the 
Onondagas, who had been the most troublesome of the border 
trft>es, destroyed their villages, took between thirty and forty 
prisoners, and killed twelve of the Indians. These severe 
blows, for a time, put these trft)es in check. 

On the 28th of September, 1778, two detachments of the 
enemy's troops, went by Sir Henry Clinton, sm-prised a pert of 
Colonel Baylor's regiment of cavalry, stationed at Tappan, by 
night, and butchered axty-seven out of one hundred and four 
men, unresisting and asking for quarter. 

In May, 1779, Sir Henry Clinton made an expedition in per- 
son, up the Hudson, compelled the garrison at Verplanck's 
Point to surrender, after a short but spirited resistance, and 
toojc possession of Stoney Point, which was abandoned by the 
Americans. At his return, he garrisoned both forts. 

On the 16th of July, 1778, General Washington commia- 
fiioned Greneral Anthony Wayne to storm the British fort at 
Stoney Point, a strong fortress, which was the resort of tory 
refugees, who sallied out occasionally, and ravaged the neigh- 
boring settlements. The fort was carried at the point of the 
bajronet, and with trifling loss. Owing to the weakness of the 
American force, however, it was soon found necessary to aban- 
don it, and it was afterwards re-occupied by the enemy. 

Soon after, Major Lee made a daring and successful expe- 
dition against Paulus Hook, (Powles Hook,) now Jersey City, 
and captured the British garrison, consisting of 150 men, di- 

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rectly under the guns of the British ehxpa of war, lying in the 
Hudson river. 

General Arnold had been, thus far, distinguished in the Revo- 
lution, for his reckless daring, his chivalric bravery, and his ap- 
parently ardent patriotism ; but amid all, the private character 
of the man was known to be vicious and corrupt. His reputa- 
tion was stained by dishonesty, rapacity, and meanness. In 
consequence of a severe wound, received in the last battle with 
Burgoyne, he was disabled from active service, and in the sum- 
mer of 1778, General Washington assigned to him the com' 
mand of the city of Philadelphia. His extravagance, reckless- 
ness, and dishonesty, drew down upon him the displeasure of 
the citizens, who were loud in their complaints against him; 
and in March, 1779, he resigned his command. 

In April, he married Miss Shippen, a lady who had been a 
distinguished belie, had received the attentions of the British 
officersr during their occupancy of that city, and was at heart a 
loyab'st. Through her correspondence with some of the Brit- 
ish officers, an opportunity was ofiered to Arnold, to communi- 
cate with the enemy ; and he finally took the resolution to sell 
himself, and his country, for British gold, in order to rid himself 
of his pecuniary embarrassments. To make his treachery more 
valuable, in August, 1780, he solicited, and obtained the com- 
mand of the strong and important post of West Point, the key 
of the Hudson. 

In order to settle finally the terms of his treachery, Sir Henry 
Clinton despatched Major Andre, an Adjutant General in h^ 
army, (who had been Mrs. Arnold's correspondent^ and with 
whom, over a feigned signatmre, Arnold had also corresponded,) 
to have an interview with the traitor, and agree upon the de- 
tails of his infamous treason. They met, made their arrange- 
ments, and parted ; Arnold to return to his post, and Andre to 
New York. 

Before reaching that city, however, the latter was arrested 
by three militia men, and having been convicted by a Court 
Martial, was hanged as a spy. Arnold succeeded in making 
his escape, though not in surrendering the important post which 
he conmxanded, and his base treachery was rewarded by the 
British Government, with the office of a Brigadier General, 
and the sum of £10,000 sterling. But he was never trusted im- 
plicitly by the British, and so strong wasUie feeling of loathing, 
on the part of the British officers, of his meanness, that many 
ol them refused to serve under him. 

In tlie bope of securing him and bringing him to a Just puniahment ; and with 
a view to save the gifted, but unfortunate Andre, from the ikte be had broogbt 

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vfotk feuJioBelf, Geneial Wanhington oommiMionwl Mr. Clmnpe, a Bergwut Bfi^r 
in Major L«e*8 regiment, to proceed to the Britiab camp, profeatedljr as a deser- 
ter, and to endeavor to seize the person of AmoUL The attempt was unsuc- 

In 1780, 81, Brant, the Mohawk chief, in conjtinction with 
Sir John Johnson and Walter Butler, made several incursions 
upon the frontier settlements, in the Schoharie and Mohawk 
valleys. In Au^st, a force under Colonel Marinus Wiilet pur- 
sued and routed these marauders, and killed Butler, whose sav- 
age cruelties had rendered him notorious. The remaining 
scenes of the war of tile Revolution, mostly occurred in the 
southern states, and therefore do not come within the scope of 
this historical sketch. 

In 1782, the English Qovemment resolved to relinquish the 
hopeless contest with their colonies. On the 30th ^f November 
of that yectf, provisional articles of peace were agreed upon; 
and on the 25th of November, 1783, the British troops evacu- 
ated New York, and Washing on, with his army, entered in 
triumph. On the 4th of December, Washington took an affec- 
tionate farewell of his officers ; and afler resigning to Congress, 
then in session at Annapolis, Meuryland, his commission, retired 
to Mount Vernon, to spend the remainder of his days in retire- 
ment and domestic felicity. 

Events which traisspired, soon after the Revolution, demons 
strated, most conclusively, that the compact, which had con- 
nected the different states of the Union together, during the 
war, would not suffice, to maintain that connection, in time of 
peace. In 1787, therefore, in accordance with a resolution of 
Congress, delegates were elected from this state to meet those 
of the other states, in convention at Philadelphia, in May, to 
frame a new constitution. The delegates chosen from this state, 
were Messrs. Yates, Lansing, and Alexander Hamilton. 

Tbe constitutioB prepared by ibis eonvention was not at first satis&ctotfy to a 
majority of the citizens of New York. But the'' powerful exposition and de- 
fence of it, by Mr. Hamilton, John Jay and others, in the essays published under 
the title of ** The Federalist,'* tended to bring about a change of feeling, in regard 
to it; and on tbe 2d«h of July, 1788, it was ratified, in convention, by the state, 
not, however, without the recommendation of several amendments, which were 
not adopted. 

During this period, and until 1795, George Clinton, whose 
services in the Revolution had been so eminent and valuable, 
held the office of Governor. 

'A general orgemization act was passed, in 1788, by the legis- 
lature, dividing the state into fourteen counties, which were 
subdivided into townships. The western and central p<N-tions 
of the state, now free from the hostile inroads of savages, pros- 
pered, and rapidly increased in population and wealth. 

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In 1790, the difficulties, which for tw«ity-8ix years, had exist- 
ed between New York and Vermont, and which had been the 
cause of bloodshed and bitter hostility, between the citizens of 
the two states, were amicably adjusted. 

]^t for tlie patriotism and prudence of her leaden, Venaont would piobablf 
have been, to this day, an iotegral portion of thi British empire. In addition to 
other and more patriotic motives, it cannot be denied that the Jealoaqf of the in- 
creasing inllaeoce of the southern states in Congress, tended to predispose New 
York ftvoraUy, to a settlement. 

Commissioners having been appointed, by both states* in 1789, 
met and reported in October, 1790, in favor of the payment, by 
Vermont, to New York, of the sum of f30,000> for the extinction 
of the land claims, held by the latter ; and that New York, upon 
such payment, should relinquish all claims, either to land) or 
jurisdiction, in Vermont, and acquiesce in her admission to the 
Union. This report was approved by both states, and in 1791, 
Vermont was received into the confederacy. 

In 1791, the agriculture of the state received a new impulse, ftom the oifaiit- 
sation of a society for the promotion of agriculture, arts and raanufiictures. 

The same year, a committee was appointed by the legislature, to inquire into 
tte most eligible method, of removing obstmctions firom the Hudson and Htdiawk 
rivers. The next year, (1792.) two companies were formed, styled the Northerm 
and Western Inland Lock Navigation companies, to improve the navigation of the 
Hudson and Mohawk, and to connect the Oneida and Ontario lakes with the lat- 
ter, and Lake Champlain with the former. For the purpose of aiding them in 
tills enterprise, the state became a subaeriber to their slock, to the amoant of 
•92,000. This, though productive of no great practical results, was the ftiat step, 
in that system of inteftial improvement, so al^ advocated and carried out, by the 
genius and perseverance of De Witt Clinton. 

During this period manufactures did not prosper; and our 
country was supplied with most of the products of art, from 
England and France. In 1785, Governor Clinton having de- 
cUned being a candidate for re-election to the office of Gover- 
nor, John Jay, whose patriotic services in the Revolution, as a 
statesman, have been already noticed, was chosen his successor. 

The legislature, in 1796, granted to the Oneida, Cayuga, 
Onondaga, and Brothertown Indians, $9852, to extinguish their 
title, to certain lands previously possessed by them. In 1798, 
Governor Jay was re-elected, and continued in office tiU 1801. 
The legislature passed, in 1801, another general organization 
, act, by which the state was divided into thirty counties. 

In 1801, a convention was caUed, by an act of the legislature, to amend the 
constitution. Cotonel Aaron Burr was elected President of the conventton. By 
the act, under which the convention assembled, they were limited, in their 
amendments, to two points : the first, as to the number of the members of each 
house of the legislature, and the second, the determination of the qaestioa, 
whether the right of nomination to office, should be vested ezclosively in the 
Governor, or in the Governor and Council Jointly. The coaventkm decided apcw 
the latter interpretation of the constitution. 

The same year, 1801, Governor Jay having refused to be 
again a candidate for office. Governor Clinton was again elect- 
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ed to the chief magistracf. In 1804, Governor Clinton being 
elected Vice President of the United States, Morgan Lewis 
was chosen as bis successor. Daniel D. Tompkins succeeded 
Mr. Lewis as Governor, in 1807. Tiie same year, Albany was 
made the capital of the State. 

In Aus^ust, 1807, Robert Fulton made his first trip with the 
Clermont, the first steamboat which ever plied successfully the 
waters of the World.* In this enterprise he wels aided by 
Robert R. Livingston, one of the most distinguished statesmen 
of the state or nation. 

The embargo Iftid this year by Congress, on aB American ihippii^, at Mr. 
Jeflbrson** recomm^Bdation, in onltr to counteract the injurtoue effeeta of tbt 
British onten bi eouncU, and Napoleon*! Bertin and Milaa decieee, boie kiri 
upon New Toiftc. and excited mueli opiKMUtioa, flir a period. 

Gkivernor Tompkins wias re-elected in 1810. 
The difficulties between Great Britain and our own country, 
to which we have already alluded, had for several yean been 
the subject of anxiety and bitter feeling ; and every year they 
had aasumed a more unpleasant character. In addition to the 
injuries already inflicted by Eng^land, on our commerce, as a 
neutral power, she claimed the ri^ht to search our merchant 
vessels ; and if her officers found on board of them, men, whom 
they ehoae to regard as British subjects, they seized them bjA 
c<MiipeUed them to sex ve in their navy. 

Our government remonstrated, but remonstrances proved 
unavailmg ; the outrage upon our national flag was repeated. 
Under these circumstances our statesmen conceived that they 
had no alternative, but to declare war upon that nation. Ac- 
cordingly, on the 19th of June, 1812, ti»e President, being duly 
authorized by Congress, prodaimedwar against Great Britain. 
Deeming it of the greatest importance to subjugate the Can- 
adas, and thus deprive the enemy of their strong holds, meas- 
les were taken to concentrate a large force on the northern 
frontier of this state, and the' eastern border of Michigan. 
General Dearborne was appointed to the command of the 
forces, and by his direction, Genercd Harrison assumed the 
command of the north western division, making Detroit his head- 
quarters. General Stephen Van Rensselaer, having his head- 
quarters at Lewistown, commanded the central division, and 
the commander-in-chief, the eastern, making Plattsburg his 
lAace of rendezvous. 

" There are three other competitors for the honor of iotmducinc steamboat 
v«i\nLtlonto the notice of the world, viz. John Pitch, of Hartford, Conn., Robert 
I^ l^evene, of New York, and Mr. Smns, of Philadelphia. AU undoubtedly 
desenre credit for the construction of Teasels propelled by steam ; but u la ne- 
JieTedthat to FoUon andLhringaton belonjrsthe honor of havinff deroonetraieo ine 
l>net\cablUt7 and advantages of thia mode of navigation. 

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Stpflrienee mtam pfoved tbat, wilbrtimftCely, pride of opinloa is •ometimes 
■tronger Omu k>T« of country. A large nunoritjr of the citixem of this, and tbe 
adjacent fftates, were loud in their denunciatioiu of tbe war ; and if tbey did not 
afford direct aid to the fbe, they weahened tbe bands, and diaeouraged tbe hearts 
of these who were to contend with the enemy ; and fkimished grounds of scra- 
pie, by which the timorouB and fltint-hearted JuatUled their cowardice. Under 
such adverse influences, oflkers of known ^>irit, and tried courage, ftbered in 
meeting the foe, and surfendered to a force inferior to their own. 

The first considerable action of the war was disgraceftil to 
our boasted prowess. Greneral Hull, deputed to carry aggres- 
nve war into Canada, and to take Ibe British post at Maiden, 
seemed panic-struck at the approach of the enemy. Forgetting 
his former renown, as a brave soldier, he returned to Detroit 
without striking a blow; and on the 16th of August, 1812, 
surrendered his whde force, consisting of about 2000 troops, 
occupying a strongly fortified garrison, together with the whole 
territory of Michigan, to General Brock, whose entire army c(m- 
sisted of only 700 British troops, and 600 Indians. 

General Van Rensselaer, with his command, was stationed 
at Lewiston, below the Falls. His troops, (principally militia,) 
often urged him-to give them an oppcMrtunity of displaying their 
prowess by facing the enemy. Determining not to remain inac- 
tive, he deq)atched his aid-de-eamp. Lieutenant Colonel Van 
Rensselaer, a brave and meritorious, but somewl^t rai^ offi- 
cer, with about 225 men, to attack the British post of Q^ueeos- 
town, on the opposite shore of the Niagara river. 

The attack was successfol at the outset, and but &» the 
shameful cowardice of the troops remaining upon the America& 
shore, woukL uadoubtedly have terminated in a brilliant victory . 

Such were the pivtended CMstitatknal scruples of tbe lenainiag troops as to 
the propriety of crossiag over to the •aenqr's territory, that when ordered to re- 
hiforce Lieutenant Colonel Van Benseelaer, they preferred to see their brethren 
in arms cut to pieces, lather than nuyve to their relief; and thus neaxly the 
whole force which had crossed tbe river, were either killed, or taken prisonera. 

General Van Rensselaer, disgusted with his army, ^oon after 
resigned his commission, and was succeeded by General Alex- 
ander Smyth, of Virginia. 

Thifl officer al>peai« to have been a mere braggart, for after iMuing a pro- 
dwnation. announcing the wonderful deeds he intended to perfonn, he HamOy 
oidered his troops into winter quartera. without accomplishing any tbinff. 

In January, 1813, occurred the battle of the River Raisin, in 
Michigan, one of the most sanguinary contests of the war. In 
tois conflict, the British General, Proctor, acquired lasting in- 
ftmy from his inhumanity to the American troops, who had 
surrendered; giving them up to tbe savages for torture and 
inassacre, in violation of his solemn pled^ to General Win- 
chester, the AmericaA commander. 

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In PAruary, 1813, Captain Forsyth, commander of fte Amer- 
ican fwces at Ogdensborff, crossed the St Lawrence, tapm- 
«mt of some prisoners whom the English had taken from his 
n^f^^fi'A*'^™'^**^*? "» capturing some military stores and 
about fifty prisoners. In revenge for this act tiie BriH=i. ^. 
^'nif <;J February 1813 closed the sfLateJcf^^ 
Z^'t!^^'' ^'''^^' T^ ^\ Offdensburg. Forsyth, however, 
with his forces, made good their retreat • 

On Ae 27th of April. 1813, General Dearborne made a sue- 
cessful attack upon York, now Toronto, (Canada West), aS^ 
by the squadron of Commodore Chauncey, After a short re- 
sistance. It was captured, together with a large quantity of mili- 

^f^\ ^^^ ^^^^ *^^^^^^«^ ^^^ ^ ^^ice, consisted rf 
about 1700 troops, under the command of General Z. M Pike 

wi^h!°r''.'*S ?^' "^^ hid a train of combustible, to their magazine 
with the fiendish design of ihus destroying the invaders The w-h^m*^- -1' 
part, -uoeessful; and the brave and nobtehearted^ was Stt^ ^TX 
«o», at the head of his troops, in the moment of triumph. ^ tZJffiSte^ 
fcf a moment, but mUied instanUy. and drove the foe iVorthe fiSi^e bS2 
kjjm this action ,in KBed. wounded, and prisonen, about 750. ?he i^eS 

Early in May, 1813, the Americans evacuated the Ibrt at 
iT f"'* J^^% removed to Pour mile creek, a short distance 
b^ow Fort Niagara, and, in connection with a force of 100 men 
who were landed from two armed schooners despatched to co^ 
operate with them, took possession of some military stores at 
that place, belonging to the enemy, and then proceeded in safety 
to Fort Niagara. ' 

Ctathe 27thof May, a descent was made, by Commodore 
Chauncey, upon Fort George, which surrendered, aller a short 
contest The American loss in killed and wounded, was 150 : 
the British, in killed, wounded, and prisoners, 386, beside 507 
mMitia men, released on their parole. 

On the 23d of June, General Dearborne sent Lieutenant 
Colonel Boerstler with 570 men, to Beaver Dam, to disperse 
a body of the enemy. When within about two miles of that 
place, he was attacked by the foe, who, in ambuscade, had 
awaited his approach. After a short contest, he succeeded 
in driving them into an open field, and sent an express to Gen- 
eral Dearborne for reinforcements ; but before they could arrive^ 
he was surrounded by a superior force, and compelled to sur- 

During the period occupied by these enterprises, the enemy 
were not idle. About the last of May, Commodore Chauncey 's- 
fleet having left Sackelt's Harbor, for Fort George, Sir George 
Prevost made a descent upon the town, with 1000 troops, but 
was repulsed with considerable loss. On the 19th of June, the 
British landed and burned the village of Sodus, where some 

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military stores were deposited. On Uie Mowing day, tliey 
made an onsucceaaful attempt to land at Oswego. On the 2d 
of July, they again attacked Sackett's Harbor, but with no bet- 
ter success than before. On the 11th, they crossed over to 
Black Rock, and succeeded in capturing some stores. 

Meantime, both parties were seeking to secure the exclusive 
control of Lake Erie. Commodore Perry, by extraordinary 
exertion, had built and equipped an American squadron of 
nine vessels, carrying fifly-four guns; and Commodore Bar- 
day l^d prepared a British squadron of six vessels, mounting 
sixty-three guns. 

The two squadrons met on the 10th of September, 1813, 
near the western extremity of the lake. Owing to a calm at the 
commencement of the action, the Lawrence, Conunodore 
Perry's flag-ship, was exposed to almost the whole fire of the 
enemy, and soon disabled. 

At this juncture, when the foe were ready to triumph, Perry, 
with four of his men, leaped into a boat, flag in hand, and a 
gentle breeze springing up at the time, brought the Niagara, 
to which he had transferred his flag, into action. Through ^e 
exertions of Captain Elliot, her commander, the remaimler of 
the vessels were brought up, and the Niagara led the way 
through the enemy's line, supported by the rest of the sqi^ulron, 
pouring successive broadsides into five of their vessels, in a 
short time, the entire fleet of the enemy surrendered. 

Commodore Perry communicated to General Hanruon tbe foOowuig inteOJgeiice 
of his Tictory : ** We bave met the enemy, and they are ours.** 

This victory resulted in the evacuation of Detroit, by the Brit- 
ish army, which was pursued and overtaken by General Harri- 
son, on theTiver Thames, about eighty miles from Detroit At 
this point was fought, on the 5th of October, the battle of the 
Thames, one of the most brilliant of the campaign. At this bat- 
tle, Tec\unseh was killed, auad the Indian force dispersed. 

Preparations were now made b> the American army for an 
attack on Montreal *, and for this purpose, the divisions, com- 
manded by Generals Wilkinson and Hampton, were ordered to 
form a junction on the St. Lawrence. General Wilkinson 
moved down the river^with his troops, early in November, and 
on the 19th of that month, a severe, but indecisive action was 
fought at Williamsburgh. Both parties claimed the victory. 
The American loss in killed and wounded was about 300 ; the 
British, about 200. Owing to some misunderstanding, the 
junction of the two divisions was not efiected, and soon aRer, 
they went into winter quarters. 

In December, General McClure, commanding at Fort George, 
hearing of the approach of a large British force, dismantled 

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and abaadaned the fort, haivingprevMWMly bonied the CanRdian 
village of Newark, now called Niagara. 

On the 19th of this month, the British crossed the river and 
carried Fort Niagara bj storm ; and to revenge the burmng of 
Newark, they proceeded to liiim Lewistown, Youngstown, 
Manchester, now called Niagara Falls' Village, and the Tus- 
carora Indian village. On £e 30th, they croaaed again, and 
burned' Black Rock and Bufialo. These villages were Qaly 
guarded by small bodies of militia, who could oppose no effectual 
resistance to the marauders. 

On the 3d of July, 1814, Generals Scott and Ripley with 
about 3000 troops, crossed the Niagara river and took Fort 
Erie, without opposition. The next day, Genercd Brown ad- 
vanced, with the main body of his forces to Cbippeway, about 
two miles south of the Falls. Here, on the 5th, General Riall, 
at the head of the British army, advanced to give them battle. 
The contest was severe, but resulted in favor of the Americans. 
The enemy lost nearly 500 men ; our own troops, 338. 

General Riall, after his defeat, withdrew to Q,ueenstown, 
and afterwards to Burlington Heights. Here he was reinforced 
by General Drummond, who took the commsuod. The enemy 
appeared before the camp, just before sunset, on the 25th of 
July. The American army immediately formed in the order 
of battle, at Lundy's Lane, about half a mile north west from 
the Falls ; and there, amid the eternal roar of Niagara, the 
two infuriated hosts continued in deadly conflict, till past mid- 

This was the most hotly contested action of the war ; GeDBial Scott led tin 
ikdvance, and first engaged a body of the enemy, greatly his superior in nomben, 
for aat hour. > Both parties were then reinforced, and the action renewed with 
P««tef taty than before. The British artiUery was so placed upoB an emhienea, 
M to rake every part of the American army ; and it became evideat tbal the 
naOt of the battle depended on the capture of that battery. 

General Seott rode up to Colonel MiOer and inquired, ** can yon storm that 
bettsry v* **l can try, Sir ;'* waa tlie laeonie reply ; and in a few momentB, be 
was seen at the head of Jais regiment, impetuously chaiging upon the artilleif^ 
^ ranks thinned at every step by the cannon balls. 

The enemy resisted bravely, but could not withstand the charge. Three times 
flwy rstained to the attack; but their battery was tomad against them with mur- 
derous force ; and no sooner did they come within its range, than the deod^ 
^^ wielded with unerring aim, mowed them down by platoons. 

General Drummond was himself wounded, and the army 
driven from the field. The British force engaged in this battle, 
was nearly one third greater than the American. The loss of 
the enemy was 878 ; of the Americsui troops, 858. 

Generals Brown and Scott having both been wounded in the 
battle, the command devolved oh Genercd Ripley, who thought 
it prudent to retire to Fort Erie. Here, on the 4th of August, 

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he was besieged by Qoneral Dnmisioiid, at the head offive 
thousand men. Meanwhile, General Gaines arrived at the 
Ibrt and took the command, as senior ofiicer. On the 15th, the 
British made an assauh on the fort, but were repulsed with the 
loss of nearly 1000 men. On Ae 17di of September, General 
Brown having recovered and taken the command, a sortie was 
made from the fort, and the advanced troops of the besiegers de- 

Boon afler, hearing that Generad Izard was on his way with 
reinforcements, the enemy raised the siege and returned to Fort 
Cteorge. In November, Fort Erie was abandoned and dis- 
mantled by the Americans, who, crossing the river, went into 
winter quarters, in the neighborhood of the Lakes. 

Meantime, events were occurring in the eastern part of the 
state, which materially hastened ^e termination of the war. 
General Wilkinson went into winter quarters at French Mills, 
now Fort Covington. In the latter part of winter, he broke up 
his encampment and removed to Plattsburg. On the 30th of 
March, 1814, he penetrated into Canada, ajod attacked a body 
of the enemy at LaCoUe Mills, on the Sorel river, but was re- 
pulsed with some loss, and returned to Plattsburg, where he was 
soonafler superseded in command by General Izard. 

Early in September, Sir Greorge Prevost advanced towards 
Plattsburg with an army of 14,000 men, mostly European vet- 
erans, who had served under Wellington. At the same time. 
Commodore Downie appeared on Lake Champ}ain with seven- 
teen sail, mounting ninety-five guns, and carrying 1020 men. 
To oppose this force, Creneral Macomb had only 1500 regular 
troops, and about 2500 militia ; and Commodore McDonough, a 
squadron of fourteen sail, mounting eighty-six guns, and carry- 
ing 820 men. 

The two armies engaged in battle on Sunday, the 11th oi 
September. The action between the land forces and the squad- 
rons commenced simultaneously. The British made the great- 
est exertions to cross the Saranac, but were repulsed at every 
attempt, with severe loss ; and their squadron having beea cBp- 
tured, and mostly destroyed, they retreated precipitately, leav- 
ing behind them large quantities of mflitary stores. The entire 
loss of the British, in this action, including killed, wounded, pris- 
oners, and deserters, was estimated at 2500. The remaining 
battles of the war were fought at the south. 

On the 24th of December, 1814, the treaty of Ghent was sign- 
ed by the commissioners of the two countries, and on the 17th 
of February, 1815, this treaty was confirmed by the President 
and Senate. 

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Of the events which have transpired in this state since the 
war, there are so many living witnesses, that we shall give 
hat a brief notice. 

The canal project, which, during the war, had been forgotten^ 
or neglected, was soon revived. In 1816, some steps were 
taken for l»ringing it before the legislature ; and in 1817, the 
petition of more than 100,000 citizens of the state, asking that 
laws should be passed for its construction, was presented to that 
body, and action taken thereon. The same year, the Erie and 
Champlain canals were both commenced and vigorously pros- 
ecuted to their final completion, which occurred, the latter in 
1823, and the former in 1825. 

In 1817, Giovernor Tompkins was chosen Vice President of 
the United States, and De Witt Clinton, the ardent and zealoua 
friend of the system of internal improvements, was elected hia 
successor. Governor Clinton was re-elected to the same ofSce,. 
in 1S20. In 1821, a convention was called by an act of the legis- 
lature, to revise the constitution. This convention met at Alba- 
ny on the third Tuesday of June, 1821. The result of their 
deliberations, was the constitution, under which the state has 
been governed up to the year 1846. This constitution was 
ratified by the people, in December, 1821, by a majority (^ more 
than 33,000. 

In 1822, Mr. Clinton having declined the nomination, Joseph 
C. Yates, at that time Judge of the Supreme Court, was chosen 
Grovernor. Mr. Clinton was re-elected, however, to that olfice, 
in 1824; and again in 1826. In 1825, the completion of the Erie 
Canal, and the union of the waters of Lake Erie and the Hud- 
son, was celebrated with gr^eat rejoicings. 

In 1826, the anti-masonic excitement commenced. 

The circumstances which ted to it were these.* Wiliam Morgan, a Royal 
Arch Vaaon, anl a printer by trade, said to be a native of Virginia, bad taken np 
his rendeBce in the vilafe of Satavia, GenMee oounty. Not having been sue- 
eeasfol in buaness, he, probably fiom pecuniary consideratioDs, determined to 
poblisb a pamphlet, containing a disclosare of the secrets of Masonry. His in- 
tentions were discovered by some of his feBow Masons, who eommiinieated them 
to odMVB of their own and a^facent lodges. 

On the 11th of September, 18S6, Mr. Cheesebrough, master of a loclge of Bfar 
sons at Canandaigua, Ontario coun^, procured a warrant from Jeffrey Cliipmaa, 
a justice of the peace in Cuiandaigua, to arrest Morgan on charge of stealing a 
iMrt and cravat Be with others then proceeded to Batavia, arreited Morgan, 
and bnMvbt Ua to Canandaigua, before Justice Chipman, who forthwith dia- 
charged him, al not guilty. 

He was then arrested, on a smaH debt doe to one Aarob Ariiley, which 
CbeeflriMrough alleged had been assigned to him. Hie Justice ruideved Judgment 
i.iot two dollars, on which, upon the oath of Cheesebrough, he in- 

• The account of Morffan*s abduction is abridged from Judge Hammond's Po- 
Htkal BMory of New Vork. 

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Msntly iMiied ezttcatioA, and Uofgan waa eommittedto cloae coafinannnt in 

During the night of the 13th of September, he was dandestin^ taken ftcm 
Jail, by a number of M8son% thrown into a covered carriage, gagged and conveyed, 
on the evening of the Mth, to the Canada mde of the Niagara river, thence taken 
back to the American aide, and left in confinement in the magazine of Fort 
Niagara. Be remained there till the 39th of September, in charge of Colonel 
King, of Niagara county, and one Ehaha Adams, at which time he disappeared, 
and has never since been heard ot. The ahnost anivereal impression has pre- 
vailed that he was murdered at that time, by the direction of membera of tin 
Masonic ftatemity. 

Measures were instantly taken to investigate this outrage ; but the committees 
appointed for this purpoee, found theras^es constantly thipAtrted, by members of 
the Masonic order, at this time in its most flourishing condition in this state. 
This opposition to an act of justice, excited the most intense feeling, among 
tilose members of community not connected with the Masons ; and the ezcite- 
ttent, which, in communities less influenced by moral princ4>le, would have 
fwompted to deeds of violence, here found v«at at the ballot box ; and for a nua»- 
ber of years, the anti-masons of Western New York, constituted a formidable 
political party. 

Ere this excitement heid reached its highest intensity, Gov- 
ernor Clinton died, very suddenly, while conversing wiUi some 
friends, on the 11th of February, 1828. This painful event 
caused a deep sensation throughout the community. 

Governor Clinton, though possessing some fltulti, had been an able and zealous 
friend of his native state. No man ever did more to promote her bast Intevesia 
Amid discouragements which would have appalled ordinary men, he steadl^ ad- 
vocated and accomplished measures which time has proved eminently conducive 
to her welfhre. It is sufficient proof of his patriotic foresight, that amid th* 
ridicide of his associates, he dared to stake his reputation, on the success of the 
QTstem of internal iBq;>rovemenia. He has left an enduring record of his feme in 
the hearts of the people, whom his enlightened measures have endowed with 
plenty and prosperity. 

On the decease of Governor Clinton, Greneral Nathaniel 
Pitcher, the Lieutenant Governor, officiated the remainder of 
the term. In Novemher, 1828, Martin Van Buren was elected 
Governor, and Enos T. Throop, Lieutenant Governor. Mr. 
Van Buren being appointed Secretary of State, in March, 
1829, resigned his office, and Mr. Throop became acting Gov- 

During the session of the legislature, in the winter of 1828-9, 
on the recommendation of Governor Van Buren, the Safetgr 
Fund Banking Law was passed. The main features of this 
law were conceived and drawn up by Joshua Forman, Rsq, 
and by him communicated to Governor Van Buren, who by die 
aid of Thomas Olcott, Esq. of Albany, matured apd presented 
it to the legislature. 

In the autumn of 1830, Mr. Throop was elected Governor of 
the state. During his administration, there were a great num- 
ber of applications to the legislature, for aid to construct canals 
in different sections of the state, involving very large expendir 


tttfeit, and ot doubtful pecuniary profit. Some of tfaede, Qoveiil* 
tiT Throop opposed as prepiatiu« and unwise ; and his opposi- 
tion to them, though probably judicious, materially affected his 
popularity said rendered his re-election iii7probaUe. 

In 1832, William L. Mcurcy was chosen Governor, and John 
Tracy, Lieutenant Oovemor. During the session of 1833, the 
bi^l authorizing the construction of the Chenango canal, a work 
attended with great expendkures, and which was strongly op- 
posed, passed the legislature. Mr. Marcy Euid Mr. Tracy were 
re-elected to office in 1834, by a large majority. 

A law was passed, in 1835, directing the enlargement and 
improvement (k the Erie canal, and the construction of doubts 
locks. This law has involved the state in a debt of some mag* 
nitude, but when the proposed improvements are completed, 
they will unquestionably greatly increase its revenues. 

At this session of the legislature, also, the bill to provide the 
schools of the state with libraries, was passed ; a bill Which it is 
hoped, will be of incalculable service to its youth. Governor 
Marcy and Lieutenant Governor Tracy, were, for a third timoi 
elected to their ret^jective offices. 

In 1838, the pecuniary depression of the country produced a 
change in the politics of the state, and WiUlam H. Seward of 
Orange county, was chosen Governor, and Luther Bradish of 
Franklin county, Lieutenant Governs. 

In 1840, the same gentlemen were re-elected. 

In 1842, William C. Bouck, of Schoharie county, was elected 

In 1844, Silas Wright of St. Lawrence county, who for a 
Bomber of years had repres^ited the State in the United States 
Senate, was^ected Governor, and Addison Gardiner of Suflfolk 
county. Lieutenant Grovemor. 

In June, 1846, a convention, elected by the people, to revise 
and amend the constitution o[ the state, commenced its sessicm 
at Albany, and in October following, reported the constitution 
whidi is found in this work, lor the action of the peot^e in the 
ensuing month of November. It was odopted by the people by 
a majority of more than 20,000 votes. 

In November, 1846, Jcrfm Young of Livingston county, was 
elected Groveroor and Addison Gardiner of Suffolk county, 
Litotenaat Governor. 


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The system of In^rnal Improvement, in which New York 
has taken the lead, forms an important poi'tion of her history* 
It is interesting to trace the progress of the first of these mighl^ 
enterprises, which, in its completion, excited the astonishment 
and admiration of the whole confederacy, and even ^ the states 
of Europe. 

in lt84, Christopher Golies proposed to the legislature to 
improve the navigation of the Mohawk. In 1785, he received 
$125, to make investigations relative to this enterprise. He 
again came before the legislature in 1786, but became discour- 
aged from want of success. 

The subject was referred to by Governor Clinton, in his 
speech to the legislature^ at the opening of the session of 1791 ; 
and cm act passed concerning roads and inlemd n&vigatimi, di* 
recting the commissioners of the land office, to cause the krnds 
between the Mohawk and Wood credc, in Herkimer county, 
and between the Hudson river and Wood creek, in Washington 
county, to be explored, and th^ probable exp^ise of canals, be- 
tween these points, estimated. 

The commissioners reported in 1792, and Governor Clinton 
communicated their report, by a message, in whidi he consid- 
ered the practicability of ejecting the object of the legislature, 
at a moderate expense, as ascertained. 

Mr. Adgate, Mr. Williams, Mr. Livingston and Mr* Barker, 
were the most efficient advocates of this m^isure in the legisla- 
ture. Mr. Elkanah Watson also wrote a number of essays (m 
the subject, and, this year, the Western and the Northern Inland 
Lock Navigation Companies were chartered. G«neral Schuy* 
ler, Thomas Eddy, Jeremiah Van Rensselaer, Barent Bleecker, 
Elkanah Watson, and Robert Bowne, were among their most 
efficient advocates. • 

In 1796, the Western Company compkced a canal, two and 
three fourth miles long, at Little Falls, and another, one and 
one quarter miles long, at German Flats ; cmd, in 1797, a canal 
from the Mohawk to Wood creek, one and .three-lburth miles 
long, in all, less than seven miles, with nine locks. 

In 1796, finding a reconstruction of their work necessary, tb^ 
employed Mr. Weston, an English engineer; and when their 
canal would admit a passage from Schenectady to the Oneida 
lake, they had expended nearly $450,000. The tolls, how- 
ever, were so high, that few used their canal» The Niagara 

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cibmpaay was kieorporaled in 1798, to make a ogmgM»wm& 
munieatiaa betweea Lakes Erie and Ontario. It, howev^> 
never went into operation. 

The distinguished Governeur Morris s^ema first to have ooo- 
ceived the idea of a oontinuotis canal between the Hudson and 
Lake Erie. He alluded to it, in a lett^ to a fnend, in 1600, 
and communicated it to the late Simeon De Witts, the surveyor 
general, in 1803. His i^n, however, was, to have the canal 
constructed with a uniform declivity of six inches to a mile, and 
without locks, except on the slope of the Hudson. This i^an 
aAerwards proved impreu^ticable. 

In 1807-8, Jesse Hawley, Esq., wrote a series of essays, which 
were published in the Genesee Messenger, wrgvag the impor- 
tance of such a canal, and its immediate construction. 

In 1808, Joshua Forman pres^ited to the legislature, his mem- 
orable resolution, in which, after reciting in the preamble the 
various reasons for such a step, he proposes the appointment oi 
a joint committee, to take into consideration the propriety of 
exploring and cauong to be surveyed, the most eligible and dit- 
reet route for a canal, to connect the waters of the Hudson and 
Lake Brie, to the end that Congress may be enaUed to appro- 
priate the necessary sum for the construction of such a work. 

This resolution passed, but so little idea had the legislature 
of the sum requisite for such a survey, that they appropriated 
only $600 for the purpose. The committee appointed were, 
Thomas R. Gold, William W. Gilbert, Obadiah German, and 
James L. Hogeboom, on the part of the house, and John Tay- 
lor, John Nicholas, and Jonathan Ward, on the part of the 
senate. James Geddes, Esq., at that time a land surveyor, 
niade the exploration and survey, under the direction of the 
surveyor general, and, in 1809, reported in fiivor of such a 

In 1810, on motion of Jonas Piatt, Esq., Governeur Morris, 
DeWitt Clinton, Stei^en Van Rensselaer, Simeon DeWitt, 
William Nwth, Thomas Eddy, and Peter B. Porter, were ap- 
P<^ted commissioners, to explore the whole route for inland 
navigatk>n, from the Hudson river to Lake Onterio and Lake 

De Witt Cttnton, at that tbne a member of the seuBte. waa induced to lend a 
ftvoxaUe ew to ttato great pcqjeet, by tbe repieeentatioiis of Mi. Piatt and Ifr. 
Sddjr, the tattter of whom a^tpeani first to have advised this plan of action. 

The commissioners reported, in 1811, in favor of a canal, and 
estimated its cost at $5,000,000. They reconunended that the 
construction of it should be offered to the national government. 

The same year a biU was passed, giving power to the com- 

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#6 mifATm oir nsur iroftK. 

-mmriaoffru, (to wlMm were added Robert Fvlten and R. R. 
. JUvingtrton), to c<NMider aH matters relative to the ffikaid nayi- 
gatioQ of the state ; to make applicatioo to the genera! govem- 
nent, and to any of the states or territories, for aid or coopera- 
tion; to ascertsusi on ^at terms loans could be obtained^ and 
at what price the rights of the Western Inland Lock Naviga- 
tion Company conkl foe porchased. 

The general government having declmed to offer aid in the 
eoterprise, and the adjacent states and territories affisrding wAy 
their good wishes, the commissioners in 1812, proposed that the 
state should construct the canal without foreign assistance ; and 
a bill was passed, directing them to procure loans and grants of 
land on the proposed route, but forbidding them to commence 
the canal. ' 

During the period from 1812 to 1815, the war with Great 
Britain diverted all thoughts from this enterprive, to the more 
tirgent one of defending their own firesides fVom ruthless inva- 
sion ; but, when peace returned, again this great undertaking 
engaged the hearts of community. The Hc^and Land Com- 
pany had granted to the commissioners more than 100,000 
acres of land ; and individuals some 7000 or 8000 more, towards 
the completion of the work. 

In 1815, those opposed to the canal were so fhr in the ma- 
jority, as to obtain the repeal of the act authorizing the com- 
missioners to borrow 85,000,000. 

This was, for the time, a virtual abandonment €€ the canal 
policy ; but, with the peace, the hopes-and energies of its friends 
revived, and, in 1816, D. D. Tompkins, then governor, recom- 
mended the consideration of the enterprise to the legislature, 
while a host of petitions, ably drawn up, and numerously signed, 
Were brought before that body, praying them to proceed in this' 
great enterprise. Among the most forcible crC these, was the 
petition from New York, drawn up by De Witt Clinton. 

The report of the canal coanoiaaioiierB was ftiD of Interest They recommenleii 
tte eomtnictioB of the middle sectiOD lint, as It wixdd be a aomee of profit, and 
would divert the trade ftom the St. lAwrence. 

A bill was proposed to commence the canal immediately, but 
was modified in the senate, and finally passed, giving the coib- 
missioners pow^ to take the preliminary measures, such as 
causing a thorough survey and estimate of the expense of the 
route to be made, employing engineers, making further efibrts 
to obtain aid, either from the general, or state governments, 
and arranging for loans and grants of land. 

in 1817, a IhH was passed, authorizing the immediate eeof 
■truction of these works ; although in view of their magnitude. 

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AenoM eawticns of hope and fear iwtripmfaated in Him uAakt 
of the legkdature. There were -Aoine who oi^iosed tho panage 
<^ the ML. Under the new act, Stephen Van Rensselaer, De- 
Witt Clinton, Samuel Young, Joseph EUicott, and Myron 
HoUey, were appointed comndssioners. 

So much distruat in regard to the result of the enterprise was fek, hjr time 
Uring remote from the line of the canals, that they insisted on the introduction of 
a clause in the bill, levying a tax of $250,090, upon the lands eontigaoas to then. 
This, however, was never collected, as the means provided by the eommii-' 
siooers^ proved amply sufficient, Widioot resorting to direct taxation. 

The ground was first broken for the Erie eanal, on the 4th 
of July, 1817, at Rome, with appropriate ceremonies. De Witt 
Clinton, then governor of the state, was present, and took part 
in the services on this interesting occasion. 

In 1818, the governor congratulated the legislature on the progress of the en- 
terprise, and urged them to persevere in its prosecution. Laws were passed, 
during the session of this year, authorizing the construction of the Chiftenango 
canal, and a navigable feeder to the Erie canal ; also, the examination of Buffalo 
creek, with a view to the construction of an artificial harbor on die western ter- 
minus of the canal. 

An act was likewise passed, improving the financial scheme 
of the previous year, and authorizing the conmussioners to ob- 
tain a fiirther loan of one million of dollars. 

In IS 19, measures were taken for the commencement of the 
Oswego canal. In October, of the same year, that portion of 
the Erie canal extending from Utica to Rome, was opened for 
navigation; and the Champlain canal admitted the passage ot 
boats. From this period all open opposition to the enterprise 

In 1820, the property, right and tide of the Western Inland 
Lock Navigation Company was transferred to the state, for the 
sum of $150,828. Messrs. Young, Holley , Seymour, and Bouck, 
were designated as acting canal commissioners, and received a 
salary for their services; while the remainder of the commis- 
sioners received no salary, and retained only advisory powers. 

An act was passed in 1822, directing the construction of a 
navigable canal, to c<Hmect the Erie canal with the Onondaga 
lake and Seneca river. This, in connection with the act of 1819, 
completed the plan of what was afierwaids known as the Os- 
wego canaL 

In Jnlf, 1883, the Brie canal was nsvigabte firora Schenectady to RocbesCer. 
The price of wheat, west of the Seneca river, in coiBe<|ueiice of the fhcilities tf- 
ftmled by the canal, had already advanced filty per ce&L 

In 1824, the Champlain canal was reported as finished. Aeto 
were passed, auihoriasing further k>an8 for the completicm of the 
firiaeaoal ; for theconstruetionof a canal toconnectliake ChaniK 

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yfadn with the 8t Lawrencey and for fixing the termmi of tbe 
Srie eanal, at A&any and Buflcdo. 

Joflt aft tlM elose of tiM niiMioii, by a moot luigeiieioaa party maaauvre, lis 
Witt Clinton was removed from the office of canal commissioner. This was a, 
short lived triumph, howeVer, as ih the succeeding autumn, he was elected gov- 
ernor, by a large majority, and of coufse became one of the canal commiasioBem, 

In 1835, Governor Clinton congratulated the legislature on the prospect of the 
speedy completion of the Erie canal, and proposed the extension of the sjrstem of 
inteinal in^Hrovecnenta, to render the Susquehanna, the Delaware, and other riven 
in the state, navigaUe, thus affording fiacihties for bringing into market, tbe.agd- 
cultural wealth of the state. 

The canal was completed in October, 1826, and on the 4th of 
November, the first canal boat from Lake Erie, having reached 
New York, the^occasion was celebrated with rejoicings, such, 
perhaps, as have seldom been equaled in this or any other state 
of the union. 

The difiisrent trades and professions of the city, each with suitable badges and 
jbaimeBs, joined in the long procession ; an immense squadron of ships, steamers, 
barques, tLC^ assembled in the bay, to witness the ceremony of the wedding of 
Lake Erie with the Atlantic ; and amid numerous ceremonies, and eloquent ora- 
tions, the g^ shouts of the people went up, as with one voice. Medals were 
atraek, coaunamorative of the interesting evrait, and forwarded to the soldiers 
a»d officers of the revolution, «ad to distinguished men, in oujr own, and other 

The whole cost of the Erie and Champlain canals was 
$9,130,000; the canal debt, at their completion, was $7,738,000 ; 
and its interest $413,000. The income arising from tolls, the 
year afler the completion of the canals, was estimated at $750,- 
000, exceeding, very considerably, the interest of the debt. In 
1835, the debt of the canal was extinguished, mainly from the 

The year 1826 was the commencement of the railroad policy 
in the state. In that year, Stephen Van Rensselaer and others 
received a charter for the construction of a railroad from Al- 
bany to Schenectady, with the right of enjoying the profits of 
the enterprise for fifty years. 

The state reserved to itself, however, tbe power of purchasing the road, by 
paying to the company the excess of the cost, with interest thereon, over the 
yroflts of the work, lliis featare has been incorporated in aH raaroad ebarteriB 
MBce granted. 

In 1827, the legisJature made an appropriation in aid of tbe 
Delaware and Hudson canal, and determined on the most fea- 
sible route for connecting the Brie canal and Susquehaima 

An act was passed in 1832, chartering a compeuiy, to con- 
fltruct a railroad to connect tiie Hudson with Lake Erie, ran- 
Bing through the lower tier of counties; and in 1896, a loan of 
the puMiceredit to the amoimt of $3,000,000, was granted to 
the company^ 

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IM'TfeHMAL tttPAOlTBllCllTS. 99 

In 1633. an act was passed authorizing the construction of the 
Chenangro canal, a work involving a large expenditure, but 
which) en its completion, opened a market to a large agricuitvurai 

In 1835, it was found that the size of the Erie canal was inad^ 
equate to the business transacted upon it; and that the locks 
were worn by use, and required enlarging, and to be made 
double, to facilitate transportation. The legislature, therefore* 
tbessuae year, authorized the application of the surplus reve- 
nues, arising from the tolls, to be applied to the enlai^ement of 
the canal. 

In 1836, the legislature directed the construction of the Gene* 
see river and Black river canals, which were soon ailer com- 
menced. The financial distress in 1837-8, produced some delay 
and timidity in regard to internal improvements. But, in 1838, 
$4,000,000 were appropiated to the enlargement of the Eric 
canal, and the credit of tiie state loaned to the Catskill and Can- 
ajoharie, the Aiiburn and Syracuse, and the Ithaca and Owego 
raihoad companies, to the amount of $8,000,000. The loan to 
the New York and Erie railroad company was modified at tltt 
eame time. 

Since liiat period, several companies have constructed rail- 
roads, forming a continuous line between Albany,and Buffalo, 
and ^e whole distance (about 400 miles) is run in less than 
twenty-four hours. 

The Black River Ceuaal is as yet incomplete, and the Genesee 
Valley Canal is only finished as far as Dansviile. The New 
York and Erie Railroad, afler long delays, is now in progress 
of construction, and will be completed, probably, in two or three 
years. The Harlaem Railroad is also rapidly progressing 
toward Albany. It is in contemplation to unite this with the 
Housatonic Railroad. 

Railroads have also been projected from New York to Albany 
along the Hudson liver ; from Ogdensburg to Plattsburg ; from 
aome point on the Harlaem Railroad to New Haven, Conn. ; 
emd from Bufialo to Erie, Pennsylvania. 

In this connection, too, the Magnetic Telegrai^ should be 
mentioned. Telegraph lines have been constructed fVom Al- 
bany and Troy to Buffalo, and by way of the Housatonic Rail- 
road, to New York city, and others are projected. The facili^ 
ties afforded for business transacdons, by this instantaneous 
mode of transmitting intelligence, appear almost incredible. It 
is indeed one of the most wonderful discoveries of the {^resent age. 

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100 BTifTfi 0ir £iBW ironic* ^ • 


In three of the four great departments of naticmtl mdnstry, NeW 

York occupies the firitt rank, tier fertile lands, under the skillful 
and scientific cultivation they have received* render her preeminent 
in the culture of the soil ; her commerce is greater than that of any. 
other state of the confederacy ; her sails whiten every sea^ and bring 
the productions of every clime to her marts ; in mamifacttites, she 
divides the palm witik her sister states, Massachtisetts and PenMyl' 
vania; in mining operations, though distinguished, she is inferior to- 
Pennsylvania, and the new states of Missouri, Wisconsin and Iowa. 

1. AoRicuiiTUiiE. New York, thoueh usually reckoned as one of 
the gram growing states, might»from tne diversity of its surface, and 
the attention paid to the rearing of cattle, be ranked* with equal pro- 
priety, among the grazing states. Its mountainous districts afi<^ 
rich and ample pasturage for the immense herds o€ cattle and sheep 
which dot its hills ; and the quantity, or quality, of its dairy productSf 
•re exceeded by no state of the union. 

Herkimer, Oneida, Orange, Delaware, Jefferson, Chenango, Chan- 
tauque, Onondaga, Madison, St. Lawrence, Otsego, Steuben, Dutch- 
ess, Erie, Tompkins. Washington, Ulster, Westchester, Oswego, 
Schoharie, Cayuga, Allegany, Cortland, Monroe, Wayne, Saratoga^ 
Rensselaer and Putnam, are the most productive dairy counties. 

The most prolific grain counties axe Monroe, Ontario, Livingston^ 
Niagara, Dutchess, Columbia, Orleans, Genesee, Cayuga, Onondaga* 
Wayne, Oneida, Seneca, Yates, Montgomery, Jefferson and Albany. 
In most of these counties, wheat is the principal grain ; in a few, oats 
and corn are the chief crops. 

The state Agricultural Society, the county societies connected with 
it, and the numerous and ably conducted agricultural journals, have 
done much for the improvement of this department of national in- 
dustry, in the state. The most improved oreeds of cattle, horses, 
sheep, and swine, have been imported ; every new implement of 
husbandry, which possesses real value, and every improvement in 
farming, is readily adopted. 

Under the influence of this commendaUe zeal, mtich of that por- 
tion of the soil, which is naturally sterile, has been reclaimed ; th« 
wilderness has become like a garden, and the desert been made to 
bud and blossom as the rose. 

2. Commerce. In commerce. New York not only stands fore- 
most among the American states, but she occupies a very high post* 
tion among the commercial nations of the world New York city, 
her principal seaport, is second only to London in commerce, and 
when her vast lake and internal commerce is added to this, it will be 
seen that she has but few rivals in this department 

New York has an extensive trade with all the commercial states of 
Europe ; with Arabia, India, China, Japan, and the dependencies of 
each ; with the various ports on the coast of Africa and Sotith Amer- 
ica ; with New Holland, uid the islands of the Pacific and Indian 
oceans; with the West Indies, and the various ports of our own 

The internal commerce of the state is principally confined to the 
transportation of emigrants and their furniture ; Uie conveyance of 

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the vast amount of agricultural produce of this state, and the western 
states and territories, to tide water, and the return of ^oods for this 
produce. This commerce has increased, with a rapidity far beyond 
the expectations of the most sanguine^ and is yearly increasing, at a 
ratio of at least ten per cent 

3. Manufactures. New York has not engaged so extensively 
in the manufacture uf the fibrous fabrics, (cotton » woollen and silk 
goods), as Massachusetts, aUhough the number of manufactories is 
great, and annually increasing. Yet, in the preparation uf those arti- 
cles which first engage the attention of a new state, after its forests 
are, in a measure, cleared, and its people begin to provide for their 
own necessities, she stands foremost among the manufacturing states 
of the union. 

In the manufacture of flour, whether we regard the quai^ity or the 
quality, she has no equal in the world. The manufacture of lumber 
is also extensive, and for some years to come will undoubtedly in* 
crease. The tanning and manufacturing of leather is largely carried 
on, in some counties of the state. Salt is made in larger quantities 
than in any other portion of the union, and of superior quality. 

The production and manufacture of iron is becoming an important 
interest, yet here she must yield the palm to Pennsylvania. Her 
foundries are the largest in the United States. Distilled and malt 
liquors are still produced in very large quantities, amounting to 
more than five millions of dollars per annum; the amount ot 
these, hawever, is rapidly decreasing. Brick and lime kilns are very 
numerous. The other more important manufactures of the state, ar« 
glass, soap, candles, paper, hats, caps and bonnets, machinery^ hard* 
ware and cutlery, carriages, wagons and sleighs, furniture, &c, 

4. Mines. The only mines of importance are those of iron and 
lead. The ores of iron are extensively diffused throughout the state^ 
The magnetic oxide occurs in vast beds in the counties of E^ssex, 
Clinton, Warren, and Franklin, and in some portions of St. Law- 
rence. This is a valuable ore, and furnishes a vast proportion of the 
malleable iron used in the state. The specular oxide occurs princi- 
pally^ in St. Lawrence county, and is mainly used for castings. 

There are also, in Putnam and Orange counties, mines of magnetic 
oxide, and in several of the western counties, particularly those bor- 
dering on lake Ontario, are large beds of argillaceous ore, which is 
well adapted to castings. 

The principal lead mines are those of Rossie, St. Lawrence cottnty, 
and Wurtzboro', Sullivan county, but from the abundance and cheap- 
ness of the western ore, they cannot 8ucccssfull> compete with it 
in market. Sulphurets of copper and zinc have also been discovered 
in considerable quantities, in St. Lawrence county, and other sec- 
tions, hot hav« not been smelted to any extent. 

Marble, granite, sandstone, serpentine, gypsum, ochres, th« 
limestone of which the hydraulic cement is made, and marl, are all 
found abundantly in the stat6, and applied to the purposes of the 
arts, of agriculture, and of architecture. The geological survey of 
the state has been of great service, in developing its mineral and 
agricultural resources. 

The statistics of the aCTiculture, commerce, manufactures, and 
mines of the state, are exhibited in Tables I., II., III. and IV., at the 
close of this work. 

Digitized by >^00QIC 

102 8TATS or NBV YOAK. 


The Government of the state, like that of the United States, is di- 
vided into three departments, viz. the legislative, executive and ju- 

The legislative department consists of a Senate of 32 members, and 
a House of Assembly of 128, the former elected for two years, the lat- 
ter for one. ' 

The executive consists of the Governor and Lieutenant Governor, 
who are the chief executive officers, and are elected by the people 
for a term of two years ; and the Secretary of State, Comptrt>ller, 
Treasurer, Attorney General, State Engineer and Surveyor, holdmg 
office for two years ; three Canal Commissioners, and three Inspect 
tors of State Prisons, holding ol5ce for three years. The latter are 
called administrative officers. 

The judiciary comprises the Supreme Court, composed of at least 
32 judges, (four in each of the eight districts,) a Court of Appeals, 
composed of eight judges, and a County Judge for each of the coun- 
ties of the state, who also, (except by special enactment to the con- 
trary,) performs the duties of surrogate. There are also justices of the 
]>eace, and judges in other courts, not of record. These judges are 
all elected by the people. 

Provision was made by the legislature of the state, durina^ the ses- 
sion of 1846, for holding a convention, to revise the constitution of 
tile state ; and delegates'having been elected by the people, met at 
Albany, about the first of June, 1846, and in October ensuing, reported 
a revised constitution, which was adopted by the people, at the elec- 
tion in November of the same year. 

The following is the constitution thus adopted. 


Adopted J^Tonember 3, 1846 . 

We the people of the state of New York, grateful to Almighty God for our flree- 
dom, in order to secure its bieasings, do estaUish this Constitution. 


fiw. 1. No meiHber of this slate shall be disfranchised, or deprived of any 
of the rights or privileges, secured to any citizens thereof, unless by the law of the 
land, or the judgment of his peers. 

Sec. S. The trial by jury, in all cases in which It has been heretofore nsed, 
slndl remain inviolate forever. But a jury trial may be waived by the parties in 
all civil eases, in the manner to be prescribed by law. 

Sec 3. The free exercise and rajoymoit of religious iwofossioB woA wonliip, 
without discrimination or preference, shall forev«r be allowed in this state to all 
mankiad ; and no person shall be rendered incompetent to be a witness on ae- 
cottut of hii opinions on matters of religioas bdief ; but the liberty of conscience 
hereby secured shaD not be so construed as to excuse acts of licentiousness, or 
Justify practices inconsistent with the i^ace or safety of this state. 

Sec. 4. The privilege of the writ of habeae eorpue shall not be suspended, un- 
less when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require its 

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eOMftTlTUTION. 168 

Sm. S. Esceanve btai ttmH not be x«qwbre<, nor acMrive fines inpOMd, aor 
•hail cruel and unosHBl piiwHlimftnte be iaflicte^ new etaaB witnenee be uafeaMa- 
abty detained. 

See. ^. No penon ihall be b^ to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous 
crime, (except in cases of iBopeacbment, and in cases of militia wben in actual 
service ; and in tbe land and naval forces in time of war, or wtaich this state umj 
keep, with consent of CkMigress, in time of peace ; and in cases of petit tauceny, 
under the regulation of the legislature,) unless on inresentment or indictment of a 
grand jury, and in any Uial. in any couit whatever, the party accused shall be al> 
lowed to appear and .defend in person, and with council, as in cimik actkms. No 
person shall be suli^t to be twice put m Jeopanty for the same offence ; nor 
shall be be compelled, in any criminal case, to be a witness against himself; nor 
be deprived of life, libera, or property, without due process of law; nor shall 
private property be taken for public use without Just compensation. 

See. 7. Wben private property diall be taken for any pubhc use, the compen- 
sation to be made therefeir, when such compensation is not made by the stale, 
shadl be ascertained by a Jiiry, or 1^ not less than three commissioners, appointed 
by a couEt of record, as shall be prescribed by law. Private roads may be opened 
in the manner to be prescribed by hiw ; but in every case, the-necessity of the 
road, and the amount of all damage to be sustained by the opening thereoC shaH 
be first determined by a Jury of freeholders, and such amount, tog^her with the 
expenses of the proceeding, shall be paid by the person to be benefited. 

See. C Every citizen may freely speak, write, and pubfish his sentiments on 
aB subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that right; and no law shall be passed 
to restrain or atoidge the Ubwty of speech, or of tlie i»eis. In an criminal prosecu- 
tions or indictments for libels, the truth may be given in evidence to the jury ; 
and if it diall appear to the jury that the matter charged as libeDous is true, and 
was published with good motives, and for justifiable ends, the party shiUl be ac- 
quitted; and the jury shall have the right to determine the taiw and the fiict. 

See. 9. The assent of two-thirds of the members elected to each branch of the 
legislature, shall be requisite to every biU appropriating the public moneys or 
properQr for local or private purposes. 

See. 10. No law sfaaB be passed, abridging the right of the peo{de to assembtef 
and to petition the government, or any department thereof; nor shall any divorce 
be granted, otherwise than by due judicial proceedmgs ; nor shall any tottery here- 
mitet be authorized, or any sale of lottery tickets aBowed, within this state. 

See. 11. The people of this stile, in their right of sovereignty, are deemed to 
poesosD the original and ultimate property in and to all tends within the jurisdic- 
tioD of the slate; and nU lands, the title to which shall fttil, ftom a defect of heiis, 
simll revert, or escheat to the people. 

See. 13. AH feudal,teniBes, of every description, with all their incklents, are 
dedaied to foe aboUshed, saving, however, an rents and services certain, which 
at any time heretofore have been lawfully created or reserved. 

See. 13. Afl lands wttfain this state are dechued to be aUodial, so that, subject 
only to the liability to escheat, the entire and absolute property is vested in tbe 
owners, according to the nature of their respective estates. 

See, 14. No lease or grant of agricultuial land, for a k>nger period than twelve 
years, hereafter made, in which shall be reserved any rent or service of any Imid, 
staan be valid. 

See. 15. AH fines, -quaiter sales, or other like restraiets upon alienation re- 
served in any grant of tend, hereafter to be made, shaU be void. 

See. IC. No purchase or contract for the aate of lands in this state, made 
since the fooitsenth day of October, one thousand and seven hundred and sevenr 
ty-five ; or which may hereafter be made, of at with the Indians, shafl be valid, 
■nleas made under the authorfty, and with the consent^ tbe legislature. 

See. 17. Such parts of the common law, and of the acts of tbe legisteture of 
the colony of New Yorii, as together did form the hiw of the said cotony, on the 
nineteenth day of April, one tbousaad, seven hundred and seventy-five, and the 
rescriutioai of tJie Coi«re8S of the mid cotony, and of tbe convention of the state 

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of New Yofk, ia tone «i tlw Mill dsjr of A|iffl, om kkeunnd, »ren Innidred 
•ad ■ u f wi ty-aeyen, wbieb iMrve jnt nace eipiMd, or been repealed or altered, 
and Bach acts of the legiatature of this state as are now in force, shall be and con^ 
tinae the law of tfafs slate, sal^eet to such atteratioBS as the legislatare shall 
Biake concerning the same. But all such parts of the coauaon law, and sueh of 
the sakl acts, or parts thereof aa are repngiauit to this Constitutiom are herebf 
abrogated; and the legWature, at its first s e ss io n after the adoption of tbis Con- 
stitution, shall iqipoiBt three coannissionerB, whose duty it rindl be to reduce into 
a written and sysleasfttic code, the whole body of the law ci this state, or so 
aiucb aad such parts thereof aa to the said commiarioners shaB seem practicable 
and expedient And the said cooanisBioaers shaD specify such alteratiOBs and 
amendmenta therein aa they shaD deem fnoper, and they shall at afi timea make 
report to the legisiatnre, when called upon to do so ; and the legislature shall pass 
laws, regulating the tenure of office, the filling of ▼aeancies therein, aad the com- 
pensation of the said eonanisrioaers; and shaH also provide for the publication 
of the said code, fvior to ita being presented to the legiriatnre for adoption. 

8te. 18. AH granilB of land within this state, made by the King of Great Brit- 
ain, or persona acting under his authority, after the Iburteenth day of October* 
one thouaaad, aeven hundred aad seventy-fiTe, shall be null and void ; and nothing 
contained in this Constitution shaO alltet any gimnta of land witiun'this state, made 
by the authCNrity of the said King or bis predecesBors, or shall aanal any charters to 
bodies politic and corporate, by him or them made, before that d&y ; or shall affect 
any such grants or charters since made by this state, or by personsaeting under its 
authority, or shaH impair the obligation of any debu contracted by this state, or 
individuals, or bodies ctNrporate, or any other rights of proper^, or any enfts, ac- 
tions, rights of action, or othw proceedings ia courts (^justice. 


See. 1, Eveiy male citiaea of the age of twenty-one years, who shaD have been 
a citizen for ten days, and an inhabitant of this state one year next preceding any 
rieeticm, and for the hst four moatliB a resident of the county where he may 
oflTer his vote, shall be entitled to vote at such Section, in the election district of 
which he shall at the thne be a resident, and not elsewhere, for all officers that 
aow are or hereafter may be elective by the people ; but such citizen shaU have 
been for thirty days next proceeding the election, a resident of the disfrict from 
which the t>ffieer is to be chosen, for whom he olfors his vote. But no man of 
color, unless he shaH have been for three years a citizen of thw slate, and for one 
year next preceding any election shall have been seizM and possessed of a free- 
hold estate of the value of two hundred and filfy doitaufs, over and above aD debts 
and incumbrances charged tbereon, and shall have been actually rated and paid 
a tax thereon, ahali be entitled to vote at such electioa. And no perscm of color 
ahan be solilect to direct taxation unless he shall be seized and possessed of aueh 
real estate as aforesaid. 

See. 3. Laws may be passed, excluding fkom the right of saffiage, all persons 
who have been, or may be, convicted of bribery, of larceay, or of any inAunous 
crime ; and for depriving every person who shaD make, or became directly or in- 
directiy interested in any bet or wager depending upon the result of any election, 
ikom the right to vote at sueh election. 

Sec. 3. For the purpose of voting, no person shaU be deemed to have gained 
or lost a residence, by reason of his presence or absenee, while employed in the 
service of the United States ; nor while engaged in the navigatioa of the waten 
of tbis state, or of the United States, or of the high seaa; nor while a student of 
any seminaiy of learning ; nor while kept at any atans house, or other asyhnn, at 
jiublic expense ; nor while confined in any public prison. 

See. 4. Laws shafl be made for aseertaiaiag, by proper prooih, the citizens 
who shaD be entitled to the right at sufflage hereby estabkMied. 

See. 5. AU elections by the citizens, shaH be by ballot, except for such town 
officers as may by law be directed to be otherwise chosen. 

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AmncuB m . 

iSee. 1. The legislative power of this etate ahaU be veeted in a Senate And 

Ste. S. The Senate shall eonsist of thirty-two members, and the senators shaD 
be chosen for two years. The Assembly shall consist of one hundred and twen- 
ty-eight members, who shall be annually elected. 

See. 3. The state shall be divided into thirty-two districts, to be called senate 
districts, each of which shall choose one senator. The districts shall be num- 
bered from one to thirty-two inclusive. 

District number one shall consist of the counties of Suffolk, Richmond and 

District number two shall consist of the county of Kings. 

Districts number three, number four, number five, and number six, diaU consist 
of the ci^ and county of ll<^ew Tork ; and the board of supervisors of said city 
and county shall, on or before the first day of May, one thousand eight hun- 
dred and forty-seven, divide the said city and^county into the number of senate dis- 
tricts to which it is entitled, as near as may be of an equal number of inhabitants, 
excluding aliens and persons of color, not taxed, and consisting of convenient and 
of contiguous territory ; and no assembly district shall be divided in the forma- 
tion of a senate district The bocutl of supervisors, when they shall have com- 
pleted such division, shall cause certificates thereof, stating the number and 
boundaries of each district, and the population thereof, to be filed in the office of 
tbd Secretary of State, and of the clerk of said city and county. 

District number seven shall consist of the counties of Westchester, Putnam, 
and Bockland. 

District number eight shall consist of the counties of Dutchess and Co- 

District number nine shall consist of the counties of Orange and Sullivan. 

District number ten shaU consist of the counties of Utoter and Greene. 

District number eleven shall consist of the counties of Albany and Sche- 

District number twelve shall consist of the county of Rensselaer. 

District number thirteen shall consist of the counties of Washington and 

District number fourteen shall consist of the counties of Warren, Essex, and 

District number fifteen shaU consist of the counties of St Lawrence and 

District number sixteen shaU consist of the counties of Herkimer, Hamil- 
ton, Fulton, and Montgomery. 

District number seventeen shaD consist of the counties of Schoharie and 

District number eighteen shall consist of the counties of Otsego and Che- 

District number nineteen shaU consist of the coun^ of Oneida. 

District number twenty shall consist of the counties of Madison and Os- 

District number twenly-one shall consist of the counties- of Jefferson and 

District number twenty-two shall consist of the county of Onondaga. 

District number twenty-three shall consist of the counties of Cortland, Broome, 

District number twenty-four shall consist of the counties of Cayuga and 

District number twenty-five shall consist of the counties of Tompkins, Sen- 
eca, and Yates. 

District number twenty-six shall consist of the counties of Steuben and 

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JMrtrict Dombeff twenCjr-MveB stall eenriat «f tbe county of Monroe. 

District number twenty-eight shaUcoDBiBt of the counties of Orleans, Geneeee^ 
and Niagara. 

District number twentynune shall consist of the counties of Ontario and 

District number thirty shall consist of the counties of AOegaqy and Wyo- 

District number thirty-one shall consist of the county of Erie. 

District number thirty-two shaR consist oi the counties of Chautauque and 

See. 4. An enumeration c^ the inhabitants of the state shaO be taken, un- 
der the direction of the legislature, in die year one thousand, eight hundred and 
fifty-five, and at the end of every ten yean thereafter ; and the said districts shall 
be so altered by the legislature, at the first session after the return of every enu- 
meration, that each senate district shall contain, as nearly as may be, an equal 
number of inhabitants, excluding aliens, and per86n8 of color not taxed ; and shaH 
remain unaltered until the return of another enumeration ; and shaH at an timea 
consist of contiguous territory ; and no coun^ shall be divided in tbe formation 
of a senate district, except such county shall be equitably entitled to two or mere 

Sec. 5. The meaibers of Aasembly sbaB be apportioned among the several 
counties of this state, by the legislature, as neariy as may be, according to the 
number of their respective inhabitants, excluding aliens, and persons of color not 
taxed, and shaH be chosen by single districts. 

The several boards of supervisors, In such counties or this state, as are now 
entitled to more than one member <^ Asseblmy, shall assemUe (m the first Toes- 
day of lanuary next, and divide their respective counties into assembty districts, 
equal to the number of members of Assembly to which such counties are now 
severalty entitled by law, and shaO cause to be filed in the oflices of the Secretary 
or State, and the clerks of their respective counties, a description of such assem- 
bly districts, specifying the number of each district, and the population thereof; 
according to the last preceding state enumeration, as near as can be aacertained. 
Each assembly district shall contain, as nearly as may be, an equal number of in- 
habitants, excluding aliens, and persons of color not taxed, and shall consist of 
convenient and contiguous territory ; but no town shall be divided in the forma- 
tion of assembly districts. 

The legislature, at its first session, after the return of every enumeration, shaB 
rerapportion the members of Assembly, among the several counties of this state, 
in manner afbresaid, and the boards of supervisors, m such counties as may be 
entitled, under such re-apportionment, to more than one member shaH assemble, 
at such time as the l^slature making such re-apportionment shall prescribe, and 
divide such counties into assemUy districts, in the mianner herein directed ; and 
the apportionment and districts, so to be made, shall remain unaltered, until an- 
other enumeration shaB be taken, under the provisions of the preceding section. 

Every county, heretofbre established and separatdy organized, except the 
county of Hamilton, shaH always be entitled to one member of the Assembty, and 
no new county stall be hereafter erected, unless its population shaB entitle it to 
a member. 

The county of Hamflton shall elect with the county oit Fulton, untO the popu- 
lation of tta county of Hamilton shall, according to tta ratio, be entitled to a 

Sec. 6. Tta memtars of the legislature shaD receive, fbr ttair servicea, a sum 
not exceeding three dollars a day, firom the commencement of tta soiMii>n ; tat 
aaeh pay stall not exceed, in tta aggregate, three hundred dollars fbr p6r diem 
aUowance, except in proceedings Ar impeachment. Tta limitation as to tta ag- 
gregate compensation, shall not tata effect until tta year one thoiwand, eight 
hundred and^ forty-eight Wtan convened in extra seseioii, by tta Governor, 
they shaH receive three doOars per day. Ttay shaH also receive Uie sum of one 
dollar for every ten miles ttay staU travel, in going to, and returning fkom, their 

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ptece of meeting; «• the moat vmml route. The epeelDer of the A m e mli ly ilial, 
in Tirtue of fait office, receive an Bdditi<»al compenention» equal to one-third of 
his per diem aDowance as a member. 

80c 7. No member of the leg iateture shaU receive angr eivii a ppo in tme n t 
within this state, or to the Senate of the United States, ftom the Governor, the 
Governor and Senate, or ftom the Legislature, during the term far wUeb he shall 
have been elected ; and aD such appointments, and aD votes given Ibr anf such 
meniber, for any socb office or appointment, shall be void. 

See, 8. No person, being a member of Congress, or holding anjr jodlcia] or 
miiaary office under the United States, shall hold a seat in the tegislsture. And 
if any person shaO, after his election as a member of the legishiture, be elected 
to Ck>ngresB, or appointed to any office, civil or military, under the government 
of the United States, his acceptance thereof shaU vacate his seat 

See. 9. The elections of Senators and members of Assembly, pursuant to the 
proviaions of thw Ckmstitutaon, shall be held on the Tuesday sncceedhig the flcst 
Monday of November, unless otherwise directed by the legisbture. 

Sk, 10. A majority of each bouse shall constitute a quorum to do business. 
Each house shaU deteimine the rules of its own proceedings, and be the Judge 
of the elections, returns, and qualifications of its own memben ; shaU choose its 
own offieen ; and the Senate shall choose a temporary president, when the Lieo- 
tenant Governor shall not attend as president, or shall act as Governor. 

See, 11. Each bouse shaU keep a Journal of its proceedii^s, and pubUah the 
same» eicept such parts as amy require secrecy. The doors of each bouse sbaB 
be kflft open, accept when the public weltere shaU require secrecy. Neither 
bouan shall, without the consent of the other, a4)oum Ibr more than two days. 

See. 13. For any speech or debate, in either bouse of the legistatnra, Oe mem- 
ben ahaO not be questioned in any other place. 

See. 13. Any bill may originate in either house of the teglshitore, and aD Mlir- 
paased by one house, may be amended by the other. 

See. 14. The enacting cfaune of all bins shall be, **The people of the state of 
New York, represented in Senate and Assembly, do enact as fbDows," and nobiw 
shall be enacted except by blH. 

See. 15. No bill shall be paased, unless by the assent of a aM^ority of aH the 
members elected to each branch of the tegialatiwe, and the question upon the 
final pasmge, shall be taken immediately upon its hut reading, and the yeaa and 
nays entered on tite Journal. 

See. Ifi. No private or k>cal hill, which may be pasMd by the legidsture, shaU 
embrace more tlum (me sufegect, and that shaU be expressed in the titte. 

See. 17. The legislature may confer upon the boards of supervisors, of the 
several eounties of the state, such flirther powers of toeal legidUion and admin- 
iatiation, as they shaO from time to time prescribe. 


See. 1. The executive power shaU be vested in a Governor, who sbaB hold 
his office for two years ; a Lieutenant Governor shall be chosen at the same time, 
and for the same term. 

See. 9. No person, except a citizen of the United States, shaU be eligible to 
the office of Governor ; nor shall any person be eligible to that office, who shall 
not have attained the age of thirty years, and who shall not have been five years 
next pracedbig his election, a resident witbm this state. 

See. 3. The Governor and Lieutenant Governor shaU be elected at the times 
and piacei of choosing memben of the Assembly. The persons respectively 
having the highest number of votes for Governor and Lieutenant Governor, shall 
be elected ; but In case two, or mon, shall have an equal, and tite highest, num 
ber of votes for Governor, or for Lieutenant Governor, the two houses of the 
legisianwe^at ita nexA annual session, shaU forthwith, by joint baUot, choose one 
of the said penonB,ao havhig an equal and the highest number of votes for Gov- 
ernor, er Uenlenant Goviemor. 

^.4. The Oovennr shall be commandsi^n^hief of the mimary and naval 

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force* of tli« itoie. He ahaU have power to eonven* tlie togiitataze, (or tbe Sen- 
ate only,) OQ extnuudinary occaeioiu. He eball communicate, by message, to tbe 
legislature, at every session, tbe condition of tbe state, aad recommend soch mat- 
ten to them, as be sbaU judge expedient. He sbaU traasai^ all necessary busi- 
ness witb tbe officers of government, civil and military. He sbafl expedite all 
sacb measures^ as may be resolved upon by the legislature, and shall take care 
tbat the laws are &itbfully executed. He sbaH, at stated times, receive for bis 
services, a compensation to be established by law, which shafl neither be inevea*- 
«d nor diminished, after his election, and during his continuance m office. 

8m. 5. Tbe Governor shall have the power to grant reprieves, commutations 
and pardons, after conviction, for aH offences^ except treason and eases of impeach- 
ment, upon such conditions, and with such reatrictiona and limitations, as he may 
think proper, subject to such regulations as may be provided by law, rehitive to the 
manner of af|>lying for pardons. Upon conviction for treason, he duifl have 
power to suspend the execution of the sentence, until the ease shall be reported 
to tbe legislature, at it» next meeting, when tbe legisk&ture shall either pardon, or 
commute the sentence, direct the execution of the sentmce, or grant a farther 
reprieve. He adiall annually communicate to the legiriatare, each case of re- 
pfieve, commutation, or pardon, granted ; stating the name of the ciuivict, the 
crime of which he was convicted* the sentence, and its date, and the date of the 
commutation, pardon, or reprieve. 

Sec, 6. In case of the impeachment of the Governor, or his removal fh>m of- 
Aee, death, inability to discharge the powers aad duties of the said office, resigna- 
tkat, or absence from the Bta*e, the powers and duties of the office shall devolve 
upon the Lieutenant Govomor, for the residue of the term, or until the disability 
Shan cease. But when the Governor shaB, with the consent of the legisiatQie, 
be out of tbe state, in time of war, at the head of the military force thereof, he 
ehall continue commandeiHn-chief of all the military force of the state. 

Sec 7. The Lieutenant Governor shall possess the same qualifications of eli- 
gibility for office as the Governor. He shall be President of the Senate, but shall 
only have a casting vote therein. If, during a vacancy of the office of Governor, 
the Lieutenant Governor sball be impeached, displaced, resign, die, or become Ut- 
eapab^ of performing the duties of his a(Bce, or be absent from the state, the 
President of the Senate shall act a« Governor, until the vacancy be ffiled, or tbe 
dteabiUty shall cease. 

See. 8. The Lieutenant Governor shall, wbfle actii^ as sudi, recmve a com- 
paaaation, to be fixed by jaw, and which shaU not be mcreased or diminished, 
during bis continuance in office. 

See. 9. . Every bill which shaU have passed the Senate and Assembly, shall, be- 
fore it becomes a law, be presented to the Governor ; if he approve, he ahaB mga 
it ; but if not, he shall return it, with his objections, to that house in which it shall 
have originated ; who shall enter tbe obijections, at large, upon their journal, and 
proceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration, two-thirds of the mem- 
bers present shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objec- 
tions, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be re-considered ; and if ap- 
proved by two-thirds of all tbe members present, it sball become a law, notwitb- 
atanding tbe objections of the Governor. But in all such cases, tbe votes of both 
houses sbaU be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the members, 
voting for and against the biU, shaU be entered on tbe journal of each house respec- 
tively. If any bill shall not be returned by tbe Governor, within ten days, (Sun- 
days excepted,) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shaH be a law, 
in Hke manner as if he had signed ft, unless the legislature rtiall, by their a4joum- 
ment, prevent its return ; in which case it shall not be a law. 


Stc. 1. The Sacrotaiy of State, ComptroOer, Treasurer, and Attomay Oeiianl. 
ahall be chosen at a general eleation, and.ahall hold ttmhr offices for two years. 
Bach of the officers in this Article named, (except ilie SpaalBBr of the Assembly,) 
ikaDi at stated tiraes^ during hia contianaiiee in office, veoehw for hta sarvio«a, a 

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comiwnwtion, vrbidb rtkall not be increased or diminished, during Ibe term' (br 
wlilcii he sfaaO have been elected ; nor shaD lie receive, to his use, any flws dr 
perqttiBites of office, or other compensation. 

See. S. A State Engineer and Surveyor shall be chosen at a geneial election, 
and riian hold his ofSce two yeare, but ho person shall be elected to said office 
who 18 not a practical engineer. 

See. 3. Three Canal Commissioners sliall be chosen at the genersl election, 
which Bhall be held next after the adoption of this Constitution, one of whom 
shall hold his office fbr one year, one for two years, and one Ibr three years. The 
Commiflsloners of the canal ftmd shall meet at the Capitol, on the first Monday of 
January, next alter such election, and determine by lot, which of said Commis- 
sioners Shan hold his office fbr one year, which Ibr two, and which ftw three 
years ; and there riiall be elected annually, thereafter, one Canal Commissioner, 
who shaH hold his office for three years. 

Sec. 4. Three Inspectors of State Prisons, shall be elected at the general elec- 
tion, whieh shall be held next after the adoption of this Constitution, one of whom 
Shan hold his office for one year, one for two years, and one fbr three years. 
The Governor, Secretary of State, and Comptroller, shall meet at the Capitol, on 
the llTBt Monday of January, next succeeding such election, and determine by lot, 
which of said Inspectors shall hold his office ibr one year, which fbr two, and 
which for three years ; and there shall be elected annuaOy, thereafter, one bispec- 
tor of State Prisons, who shall hold his office fbr three years ; said Inspectors shall 
have the charge and superintendence of the State Prisons, and shall appoint all 
the officers therein. All vacancies in the office of such Inspector, shall be flOed 
by the Governor, tiO the next election. 

See. 5. The Lieutenant Governor, Speaker of the Assembly, Secretary of 
State, Comptroller, Treasurer, Attorney General, and State Engineer and Surveyor, 
shaD be the Commiadonera of the Land Office. 

The Lieutenant Governor, Secretary of State, ComptroBer, Treasurer, and At- 
torney General, shall be the CommissionerB of the canal fUnd. 

The Canal Board shall consist of the Commissioners of the canal ftaod, the 
Slate Engineer and Surveyor, and the Canal Commissioners. 

See. «. The powers and duties of the respective boards, and nf the sevoral 
officers in this Article mentioned, shall be such as now are or hereafter may be 
prescribed by law. 

Sec. 7. The Treasurer may be suspended fkom office- by the Governor, during 
the recess of the Legislature, and until thirty days after the commencement of 
the next session of the Legisbture, whenever it shall appear to him that such 
Treasurer has, in any particular, violated his duty. The Governor shall appoint 
a competent person to discharge the duties of the office, during such suspension 
of the Treasurer. 

See. 8. All offices fbr the weighing, guaging, measuring, culling or hispecting 
Any merchandize, produce, manufacture or commodity, whatever, are hereby 
abolished, and no such office shaU hereafter be created by law ; but notUng hi 
this section contained, shaH abrogate any office created fbr the purpose of pro- 
tecting the public health or the interests of the State in its property, revenue, 
tons, or purchases, or of supplying the people with correct standards of weights 
ahdneasure^Tor shaU prevent the creation of any office for such purposes here- 


See, 1. The Assembly shaU have the power of impeachment, by the vote of 
the majority of aU the members elected. The court fbr the trial of impeach- 
ments, Shan be composed of the President of the Senate, the Senators, or a major 
part of them, and the Judges of the court of appeals, or tiie major part of them. 
On the trial of an impeachment against the Governor, the Lieutenant-Governor 
'^attnol act as a member of the court No Judicial officer shaU exercise his 
office after he shall have been impeached, until be shaU have been acquitted. 
Before the trial of an impeachment, the members of the court shafl take an qbUi 


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110 8TATB or WEW YORK. 

or aiinaaltei, tralyaad inputaaVr to t^ the impWK'.lmwiiVttCcortiBg to eri- 
deiic« ; aii4 no penoD sboU be coDvictaii, wittaoiut tte coBCurreiice of two-tbink 
of the membera present. Judgment in cases of unpeachmeot sbaU oot extend 
Autber tbaa to removal firom office, or remoTa} from office and disqualification 
to bold and eqoy any office of honor, trust or profit under this State ; but the 
party impeached shall be liable to indictment, and punishment according to law. 

See. 3. There shall be a Court of Appeals, composed of eight judges, of whom 
four shall be elected by the eleeton of the State for eight yean, and Ibur^ selected 
from the class of Justices of the SupremeCourt having the shortest time to serve. 
FroTisioii shall be made by low, for designating one of the number elected, as 
chief judge, and for selectiag such Justices of the Supreme CkHirt, Arom time to 
time, and for so elMaifying thoee elected, that one shall be elected eveiy second 

Sec. 3. There shaB be a Supreme Court having general jurisdictioB in law 
and. equity. 

Sec. 4. The Stale shall be divided into eight judicial districts, of which the 
city of New York shaB be one ; the others to be bounded by county lines and to 
be compact and equal in population as nearly as may be. There shaD be four 
Justices of the Supreme Court in each district, and as many more in the district 
composed of tlie city of New York, as may from time tQ time be authorized by 
law, but not to eiceed in the whole such number in proportion to its population, 
as shall be in conformity with the number of such judges in the residue o( the state 
in proportion to its population. They shall be classified so tbat one of the justices 
of each district shall go out of office at the end of every two years. After the ex- 
piration of their terms under such classification, the tenn of their office shall be 
eight years. 

See. 5. The Legislq(tuie shaB have the same powers to alter and regulate tbe 
jurisdiction and proceedings in law and equity, as they have heretofore possessed. 

See. 6. Provision may be made by law for designating firom time to time, one or 
more of the said justices, who is not a judge of the court of appeals, to preside at 
the genera] terms of the said court to be held in the several distriels. Any three 
or more of the said justices, of whom one of the said justices so designated, shall 
always be one, may hold such general terms. And any one or more of the justices 
may boki speeiti terma and circuit courts, and any one of them may preside in 
courts of oyer and terminer in any county. 

Sec. 7. The judges of the court of appeab and justices of the supreme court 
shaB severaUy receive at stated times for their services, a compensation to be 
establidied by law, which shaU not be increased or diminished during their con- 
tinuance in office. 

See. 8. They shall not hold any other office or public trust. AH votes for 
either of them, for any elective office (except that of justice of the supreme court, 
or judge of the court of appeals,) given by the Legislature or the people, shafl be 
void. They shaD not exercise any power of appointment to pubhc office. Any 
male citizen <^ the age of twenty-one years, of good moral character, and who 
possesses the requisite qualifications of learning and ability, shaB be entitled to ad- 
mission to practice in aB the courts of this state. 

See. 9. The classification of the justices of the supreme court ; the times and 
place of holding the terms of the court of appeals, and of the general and special 
terms of the supreme court within the several districts, and the circuit courts and 
courts of oyer and terminer within the several counties, shaB be provided for by 

Sec. 10. The testimony in equity cases shaB be taken in like manaeras in 
cases at law. 

Sec. 11. Justices of tbe supreme court and Judges of tbe court of appeals, 
may be removed by concurrent resolution of both Houses of (he Lepalature, if 
two-thirds of aB the members elected to the Assembly, and a majority of all the 
members elected to the Senate, concur therein. All judicial officers, except tboee 
mentioned ia this BectioD> and except justices of the peace, and judges and ju»- 

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CONrPITtTTlOjr. Ill 

tieea otiaittkatoanB aotof moorI may be removvil bsrtiieSeaite on tbe i^eom- 
toendatioa of dte Govomot ; bat no remoiral abafi be made by virtue of ttoBBtM^ 
tiosi, unless tbe canoe thereof be entered on tlM Journals, nior unless the pdriy 
eomplBined of, shall have been served with a copy of the eonfplaint against hini» 
knd slKdl have had an opportunity of being heard in his defence. On the ques' 
tion of removal, the ayes and noes shall be entered on the Jonmais. 

Stt. 13. The jndges of the court of appeals shall be elected by the electora of 
the state, and the Justices of the supreme court by the eieeton of the several judi- 
cial difltrietSk at such times as may be prescribed by law. 

<See. 13. Ja case the office of any Judge of the court of appeate, or Justice of 
the supreme court, shall become vacant befbre the eipiration of the reguUtt term 
for which he was elected, the vacancy may be filled by appointment by the GoV- 
amor, until it shall be supplied at the next general electicm of Judges, when it shall 
be filled by election for the residue of the nnexpifed term. 

See. 14. There shall be elected in each of the counties of this state, except 
the city and county of New York, one county Judge, who shall hold his office for 
fbor years. He shall bold the county court, and perform the duties of the office 
of surrogate. The coimty court shall have such Jurisdiction in cases arising hi 
justices courtB, and in special cases, as the Legislatafe may prescribe; but shall 
have no original civil jurisdiction, except in such special cases. 

The coffiity Judge, ^ith rwo Justices of the peace to be designated according to 
kw, may hc^ courts ot sessions, with such criminal jurisdiction as the Legisla- 
(ttre shall prescribe, and perform such other duties as may be required by law. 

The county judge shall receive an annual salary, to be fixed by the board at 
sopervisors, which shall be neither increased nor diminished during his continu- 
ance in office. The Justices of the peace, for services in courts of sessions, shad 
be paid a per diem allowance out of the county treasury. 

In counties having a population exceeding forty thousand, the Legislature may 
provide for the election ot a separate officer to perfonn the duties of the office of 

The legislature may confer equity juriddictlon, in special cases, upon the county 

Inferior local courts, of civil and criminal jmrisdiction, may be established by 
the Legislature in cities ; and such courts, except for the cities of New York and 
Bufldo, Shan have an uniform oi^anization and jurisdiction in such cities. 

iSSee. 15. The Legislature may, on application of the board of supervisors, pro^ 
vide for the election of local officers, not to exceed two in any county, to dist- 
charge the duties of county judge and of surrogate, in cases of their inability, or of 
a vacancy, and to exercise such other powers, in special cases, as may be provided 
by law. 

Sec. 16. The Legislature may reorganize the judicial districts at the first session 
after the return of every enumeration under this Constitution, in the manner pro* 
vkled for in the fourth section of this article and at no other time ; and they 
may, at such session, increase or diminish the number of districts, but such in- 
crease or diminution shall not be more than one district at any one time. Each 
district Shan have four justices of the Supreme Court ; but no diminution of the 
districts shall have the efiect to remove a judge from office. 

Sec. 17. The electors of the several towns, shall, at their annual town meet- 
ing, and in such manner as the Legislature may direct, elect Justices of the peace, 
whose term of office shall be four years. In case of an election to fiO a vacancy 
occurring before the expiration of a fuH term, they shall bold for the residue of the 
unexpired term. Their number and classification may be regulated by law. Jup 
tices of the peace, and judges or justices of inferior courts not of record, and their 
clerks, may be removed after due notice and an opportunity of being heard in 
their defence by such county, city or state courts, as may be prescribed by law, 
for causes to be assigned in the order of removal. 

Sec. 18. All judicial officers of cities and villages, and all such Judicial offi- 
cers as may be created therem by law, shall be elected at such times and in such 
manner as the Legislature may direct 

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«0». If . ClsrtBortteM««ral6oiiiitietof IhiifliatesteH Iwcteitaiaf theStt- 
pfsme Court, with aach powen and duties as ahsH be prescribed by law. A cleck 
for tbe Court of Appeals, to be ex ofBcio eleik oftbe Bupreaie Court, and to keqp 
bis offiee at the seat of govenunent, abaU be cboseD bf tbe eleetors of the State ; 
be sbafi bold bis office for tbfee years, and bis compeosatioii sbaS be fixed by law 
and paid out of tbe pubUe IVeaMry. 

See. SO. No judicial officer, except Justices of the peace, sbafl receive to bis 
own use, any fern or perquisites of office. 

See, 31. Tbe Legisfaiture may authorize tbe judgments, decrees and deeisioas 
of any local inferior court of record of original civil jurisdiction, establisdied in a 
city, to be removed for review directly into the Court of Appeals. 

See, 33. Tbe Legisteture sbaB proTide for tbe speedy publication of aH statute 
laws, and of such judicial decisions as it may deem expedient. And aH laws and 
Judicial decisions sball be free for pubUcation by any person. 

See* 88. Tribunals of conciliation may be established, with such powers and 
duties as may be prescribed by taiw, but such tribunals sball have no power to 
render judgment to be obligatory on tbe parties, except they voldntarify submit 
their matters in difference and agree to alnde tbe Judgment, or assent thereto, in 
tbe presence of such tribunal, in such oases as shall be prescribed by law. 

See. 34. The Legislature at its first session after tbe adoption of this Gonsti> 
tution, shall provide for tbe appointment of three commissicmers, whose duty it 
shall be to revise, reform, simplify and abridge the rules and practice,^pleading8. 
forms and proceedings of the courts of record of this state, and to report tbereoa 
to tbe legislature, subject to their adoption and modification from time to time. 

See. 35. Tbe Legislature, at its first session after tbe adoption of this Consti- 
ttttion, shall provide for tbe oiganization of the Court of Appeals, and for traae- 
ferring to it tbe business pending in the Court for the Correction of Errors, and for 
the aDowanee of writs of error and appeals to tbe Court of Appeals, from the judg- 
ments and decrees of the present Court of Chancery and Supreme Cvurt, and of 
the courts that may be organized under this Constitution. 

See. I. After paying tbe expenses of collection, superintendence and ordinary 
repafars, there shall be appropriated and set apart in each fiscal year, out of the 
revenues of the state canals, commencing on the first day of June, one thousand 
eight hundred and forty-six, the sum of one million and three hundred thousand 
dollars^ until the first day of June, one thousand eight hundred atid fifty-five, and 
from that time, the sum of one million and seven hundred thousahd dc^Iars in each 
fiscal year, as a sinking flmd, to pay the interest and redeem the principal of that 
part of the state debt called the canal debt, as it existed at the time first aforesaid, 
and including three hundred thousand dollars then to be borrowed, until the same 
Shan be whoUy paid ; and the principal and income of th6 said sinking fVind shall 
be sacredly applied to that purpose. 

See. 3. After complying with the provisions of the first section of this article, 
there shall be appropriated and set apart out of the surplus revenues of tbe state 
canals, in each fiscal year, commencing on the first day of June, one tiiousand 
eight hundred and forty-six, the sum of three hundred and fifty thousand doUara, 
until the time when a sufficient sum shall have been appropriated and set apart, 
under the said first section, to pay the interest and extinguish the entire principal 
of the canal debt ; and after that period, then the sum of one million and five hun- 
dred thousand dollars in each fiscal year, as a sinking fond, to pay the interest and 
redeem the principal of that part of the state debt called the CJeneral Fund debt, 
including the debt for knns of the state credit to railroad companies which have 
foiled to pay the interest thereon, and also the contingent debt on state stocks 
loaned to incorporated companies which have hitiierto paid the interest thereon, 
whenever and as for as any part thereof may become a charge on the Treasury 
or General Fund, until the same shall be wholly paid ; and the principal and in- 
come of the said last mentioned sinking fund shall be sacredly applied to the pur- 
pose aforesaid ; and if tbe payment of any part of the moneys to the said sinking 

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fund abaB at mvf time be defened, by veaaon of ttie priority recognized in the first 
section of this article, the sum so deferred, with quarterly intereat thereon, at the 
then current rate, shall be paid to the last mentioned sinking fUnd, as soon as it 
can be done consistently with the just rights of the creditors holding said canal 

See. 3. AAer paying the said expenses of superintendence and repairs of the 
canals, and the sums appropriated by the first and second sections of this article, 
there sh&U be paid out of the surplus revenues of the canals, to the Treasury of 
the State, on or before the thirtieth day of September, in each year, for the use 
and benefit of the General Fund, such sum, not exceeding two hundred thousand 
dollan, as may be required to deftay the necessary expenses of the state ; and the 
remainder of the revenues of the said canals shall. In each fiscal year, be applied, 
in such manner as the Legislature shall direct, to the completion of the Erie Ca- 
nal ^ilaiqgement, and the Genesee VaBey and Black River canals, until the said 
canals shall be completed. 

if at any time after the period of eight years ftom the adoption of this Consti- 
tuti<ni, the revenues of the state, unappropriated by this article, diall not be suffi- 
cient to defray the necessary expenses of the government, without continuing or 
laying a direct tax, the Legistoture may, at its discretion, supply the deficiency, in 
whole or in part, from the surplus revenues of the canals, after complying with 
the provisions of the first two sectiona of this article, for paying the interest and 
extinguishing the principal of the Canal and General Fund debt ; but the sum thus 
appropriated from the surplus revenues of tiie canals shall not exceed annually 
three hundred and fifty thousand doDars, including the sum of two hundred thou- 
sand dollars, provided for by this section for the expenses of the government, until 
the General Fund debt shaB be extinguished, or until the Erie Canal Enlargement 
and Genesee Valley and Black Biver Canals shall be completed, and after that 
debt shall be paid, or the said canals shaH be completed, then the sum of six hun- 
dred and seventy-two thousand five hundred dollars, or so much thereof as shall 
be necessaiy, may be annually appropriated to defray the expenses of the govern* 

See. 4. The claims of the state against ai^ incorporated company to pay the 
interest and redeem the principal of the slock of the state, k)aned or advanced to 
such company, shall be fairly enforced, and not released or compromised ; and the 
mtmey 8 arising from such claims shaH be set apart and applied as part of the 
sinking fund provided in the second section of this article. But the time Umited 
for the fulfillment of any condition of any release ai eompromise heretofinre made 
or provi^d for, may be extended by law. 

See. 5. If the sinking funds^ or either of them, provided in this article, shall 
pcove insufilcient to enable the state, on the credit of such fond, to procure the 
means to satisfy the elahns of the creditors of the state, as they become payaUe, 
the liegislature shall, by equitable taxes, so increase the revenues of the said fbnds 
as to make them, respectively, sufficient perftotly to preserve the public fiiith. 
Every contribution or advance to the canals, or their debt, fh>m any source, other 
than their direct revenues, shaH, with quarterly mterest, at the rates then cur- 
rent, be repaid into the Treasury, for the use of the Mate, out of the canal reve- 
nues, as soon as it can be dene consistentiy with the Just rights of the creditors 
holding the said canal debt 

See. 6. The Legislature shaH not sell, lease, or otherwise dispose of any of the 
canals of the state ; but they shall remain the property of the state and uhder its 
raanagonent, fiMever. 

See. 7. The Legislature shall never s^ or dispose of the salt springs, belong- 
ii^ to this state. The lands contiguous thereto and whichmay be necessary and 
convenient for Uie use of the salt springs, may be sold by authority of law, and 
under the direction of the commissioners of the land office, for the purpose, of in- 
vesting the ni<»ieys arising therefhai in other lands alike convenient ; but by 
such sale and purchase the aggregate quiuttity of these lands shaH not be dimui^ 

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Sec 8. No money* dnll ever be paid ovt of the troaimry of this etiEte, or any 
of its funds, or any of the fiinds under its management, except in pursuance of an 
appropriation by law ; nor unless such payment be made within two years next 
after the passage of such appropriation act ; and every such law, making a new 
appropriation, or continuing or reviving an appropriation, shaO distinctly specify 
the sum appropriated, and the object to which it is to be apphed ; and it shaH not 
be sufficient for such law to refer to any other law to fix such sum. 

See. 9. The credit of the state shall not, in any manner, be given or loaned to, 
or in aid of any individual, association or corporation. 

See. 10. The state may, to meet casual deficits or failures in revenues, or for 
expenses not provided for, contract debts, but such debts, direct .ynd contingent, 
sini^y or in the aggregate, shall not at any time, exceed one miUicm of dollars ; and 
the moneys arising from the loans creating such d^ts. shall be applied to the pur- 
pose for which they were obtained, or to repay the debt so cc«itracted, and to no 
other purpose whatever. 

See. 11. In addition to the above limited power to contract debts, the state 
may contract debts to repel invasion, sapptem insurrection, or defend the state in 
war ; but the money arising frixn the contracting of such debts shall be applied 
to the purpose for which it ww raised, or to repay such debts, and to no other 
purpose whatever. 

See. 12. Except the debts specified in the tenth and eleventh sections of this 
article, no debt shall be hereafter contracted by or on behalf of this state, unless 
such debt shall be authorized by a law, for some single woric or ofevject, to be dis- 
tinctly specified therein ; and such law shall impose and provide for the collection 
of a direct annual tax to pay, and sufficient to pay the interest on such debt as it 
ftOs doe, and also to pay and discharge the principal of such debt withhi eighteen 
years from the time of the contracting thereof 

No such law shaH take effect until it riiall, at a general Section, have been sub- 
mitted to the people, and have received a majority of all the votes cast for and 
against it, at such election. 

On the final passage of such bill in either house of the Legislature, the question 
shall be taken by «yes and noes, to be duly entered on the Journals thereof, and 
Shan be: ** Bhall this bill pass, and oi^t the same to receive the sanction of the 

The Legislature may at any time, after the approval of such law by the people, 
if no debt shall have been contracted in pursuance thereof, repeal the same ; and 
may at any time, by law, forbid the contracting of any IVirther debt or liability 
under such law ; but the tax imposed by such act, in proportion to the debt and 
Uibiltty which may have been contracted, in pursuance of such law, liiall remain 
in force and be irrepeafc&ble, and be annually collected, until the proceeds thereof 
Shan have made the provision herein before specified to pay and discharge the in> 
terest and principal of such debt and liability. 

The money arising fhim any loan or stock creating such debt or habiUty, sfaaH 
be applied to the work or object specified in the act authorizhig such debt or lia- 
hiUty, or for the repayment of such debt or liability, and for no other purpose 

No such law shall be submitted to be voted on, within three months after its 
passage, or at any general election, when any other law, or any bill, or any amend- 
ment to the Constitution s|iaH be submitted to be voted for or against 

See. 13. Every law which hnposes, continues or revives a tax, ahaB disthictly 
state the tax and the object to which it is to be appUed ; and it shall not be sofll- 
cienttoreferto any other law to fix such tax or object. 

See. 14. On the final passage, m either house of the Legislature, of every act 
which imposes, continues, or revives a tax, or creates a debt or charge, or makes, 
contaaoes or revives any appropriation of public or trust-money or property, or re- 
leases, discharges, or commutes any claim or demand of the slate, the question 
shall be taken by ayes and noes, which shall be duly entered on the Journals, and 
three-fifths of all the members elected to either house, shall, in aU such cases, be 
necessary to constitute a quorum therein. 


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See. 1. ConxMTBUonfl may be formed under geoeral laws; but shaU not be 
created by special act, except for municipal purposes, and in cases where in the 
judgment of the Legislature, the oCyects of the corpomtion cannot be attained un- 
der iieaerai laws. All general laws and special acts passed pursuant to this sec- 
tion, may be altered fhwi time to time, or repealed. 

Sec. 2. Dues from corporations shall be secured by such individual liability of 
the corporators, and other means, as may be prescribed by law. 

See. 3. The term corporations, as used in this article, shall be construed to in- 
clude all associations and Joint-stock companies having any of the powers or 
privil^^es of ccnrporatioQs not possessed by individuals or partnerships. And all 
eorporatioiis shall have the right to sue, and shaU be subject to be sued, inaU courts 
in like cases as natural persons. 

Sec. 4. The Legislature, shall have no power to pass any act granting any 
special charter for bankii^ purposes ; but corporations or associatimis may be 
'foimed for sudi purposes under general laws. 

Sec. 5. The L^idature shaU have no power to pass any law sanctioning in 
any manner, directly or indirectly, the suspension of sjpecie payments, by any per- 
aoa, aflsociation or corporation issuing bank notes ctf any description. 

See. 6. The Legislature shall provide by law for the registry of all bills or 
notes, issued or put in circulation as money, and shafl require ample security for 
tJae redemption of the same in specie. 

See. 7. The stockholders in every corporation and joint-stock association for 
haiiriwg purposes, issuing bank notes or any kind of paper credits to circulate as 
money, after the first day of January, one thousand eight hundred and fifty, shall 
he individually responsible to the amount of *heir respective share or shares of 
stock in any such corporation or association, for all its debts and liabilities of every 
kind, contracted after the said first day of January, one thousand eight hundred and 

See. 8. In case of the insolvency of any bank or banking association, the bill- 
hcdders thereof shafi be entided to preference in payment, over aU other creditors 
of such hoBk or association. 

Sec. 9. It shaU be the duty of the Legislature to provide for the organizatiota 
of cities and incorporated vilkiges, and to restrict their power of taxation, assess- 
ment, borrowing money, contracting debts and loaning their credit, so as to pre- 
vent abuses in assessments, and in contracting debts by such municipal corpora- 


See, 1 . The capital of the Common School Fund ; the capital of the Literature 
Fund, and the capital of the United States Deposit Fund, shall be respectively pre- 
served inviolate. The revenue of the said Common School Fund shall be applied 
to tlie 8ui^>ort of common schools ; the revenues of the said Literature Fund shall 
be applied to the support of academies, and the sum of twenty-five thousand dol- 
taHB of the revenues of the United States Deposit Fund shall each year be appro- 
piiated toand made apart of the capital of the said Common School Fund. 


See. 1. Sherifik, clerks of counties, including the register and clerk of thd city 
and county of New York, coroners, and district attorneys, shall be chosen, by the 
electors of the respective counties, once in every three years, and as often as vacan- 
cies sbaO happen. Sheriffs shall hold no other office, and be ineligible for the next 
three years after the termination of their offices. They may be required by law, 
to renew their security, from time to time ; and in default of giving such new 
security, their offices shall be deemed vacant. But the county shall never be made 
responsible for the acts of the sheriff. 

The Governor may remove any officer, in this section mentioned, vrithib the 
term for which he shall have been elected ; giving to such officer a copy of the 
charges against him, and an opportunity of being heard in his defence. 



S§c. S. AB couaty officen wboM election or appointmant is not puvided for, 
by this Constitution, shall be elected by the electors of the respective counties, or 
appointed by the boards of supervisors, or otiwc coun^ authorities, as the Legisla- 
ture Shan direct Att city, town and village officers, whose election or appoint- 
ment is not provided for by this Constitution, shall be elected by the electora, of 
such cities, towns and villages, or of some division thereof^ or appointed by such 
authorities thereof, as the Legidature shall designate for that purpose. AK other 
officers whose electima or appointment is not provided for by this Oonstitutiten, and 
all officers whose offices may hereafter be created by law, shall be deeted by the 
people, or appointed, as the Legislature may direct 

See. 3. When the duration of any office, is not provided by this Constitution, it 
may be declared by law, and if not so declared, such office shall be held, during the 
pleasure of the authority making the appointment. 

Sec. 4. The time of electing aH officers named in this article shall be prescribed 

See. 5. The Legislature Shan provide for filling vacancies in office, and in case 
of elective officers, no person appointed to fill a vacancy sbaB hold his office by 
virtue of such appointment longer than the commencement of the p<ditical year 
next Bttcceedhig the first annual election after the happening of the vacancy. 

. See. 6. The political year and legislative term, shall begin on the first day of 
January ; and the Legislature shall every year assemble on the first Tuesday in 
January, unless a different day shall be appointed by law. 

See. 7. Provision shall be made by law for the removal, for misconduct et mah 
versation in office, of all officers (except Judicial) whose powers and duties are not 
local or legii^tive, and who shall be elected at general elections, and also for sup- 
plying vacancies create by such r^movaL 

See. 8. The L^^ture may declare the cases in which any office sfaaH be 
deemed vacant, where no {Hrovision is made for that purpose in this Constitalion. 

See. 1. The ndlilia of this state, ahaH at all times hereafter, be armed and dis- 
ciplined, and in readiness for service ; but aQ such inhabitants of this state, of aqy 
religious denomimtion whatever, as from scruples of conscience may be averse to 
bearing arms, shall be excused tbereHrom, upon sucli conditions as shall be pre- 
scribed by law.. 

See. 3. Militia officers riiall be chosen, or appointed, as follows :— captains, 
8C^ltems>and non-commissioned officers shall chosen by the written votes of the 
members of their respective companies. Field officers of regiments and separate 
battalions, by the written votes of the commissioned oi^een of the respective regi- 
ments and separate battalions ; brigadier generals and Mgade inspectOTS, by the 
fidd officers of their respective brigades; major generals, brigadier generals and 
commanding officers of regiments or separate battalions, shall appoint the staff 
officers to their respective divisions, brigades, regiments or sepamte battalkms. 

See. 3. The Governor riiall nominate, and with the consent of the Seaate, 
appoint an maya generals, and the commissary generaL The a4)utant general and 
other chieft of staff departments, and the aids-de-camp of the ctxnmander-in-cliief 
shaU be appoiirted by the Governor, and their ccMamassions shaU expire with ttie 
time for which the Governor shaU have been elected. The commissary general 
shall hold his office for two years. He shaU give security for the fkithful execu- 
tion of the duties of bis office, in such manner aqd amount as sbaU be prescribed 

See. 4. The Legislature shaU, by taw, direct the time and manner of electing 
militia officers, and of certifying their elections to the Governor. 

See. 5. The commissioned officers of the militia sball be conuntseioned by the 
Governor ; and no commissioned officer shall be removed firom office, unless by 
the Senate on the recommendation of the Governor, stating the grounds on which 
such removal is recommended, or by the decision of a court martial, pursuant to 
law. The present officers of t^ militia shall hold their contmisRiQns suhfect to 
removal, as before provided* 

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See, t. 4ji eate the mode of eieetionaad appointment of BdUtiaoffieen 
directed, abaU not be found conducive to the improvement of tiie militia, tbe Le- 
Sisktiire may abolish the lame, and provide by law for their appointment and 
removal, if two-thirds of the members present in each house shall concqr therein. 


See. 1. Members of the Legislature and all <^een, executive and Judicial, 
except 0uch inferior officers tts may be by law exempted, shall, before thfty enter 
on the duties of their respective offices, take and subscribe the following oath of 
affirmation: — 

*" I do solemnly swear (or affirm, as the case may be) that I will suppwt the 
Constitution of the Unit^ States, and the Constitution of the state of New York ; 
and that I win faithfully discharge the duties of the office of according 

to the best of my ability.'* 

And no other oath, deelaration, or test shall be jequired as a qualification for any 
office or publie trust 


See. 1. Any amendment or amendments to this Constitution may be proposed 
in the Senate and Assembly ; and if the same shall be agreed to by a majority of 
the members elected to each of the two houses, such proposed amendment or 
amendments shall be entered on their journals, with the yeas and uaya taken there- 
on, and referred to the Legislature to be chosen at the next general election of 
Senators, and shall be published for three months previouir to the time of making 
such choice, and if in the Legislature so next chosen, aforesaid, such proposed 
amendment or amendments, shall be agreed to, by a majority of aU the members 
elected to each house, then it shall be the duty of the Legislature to submit such 
propoaed amendment or amoidments to the people, in such manner and at such 
time as the Legislature shall prescribe ; and if the people shall approve and ratify 
such amendment or amendments, by a majority of the electors qu^ified to vote for 
uembeiB of the Legislature, voting thereon, such amcaidment or amendments shall 
become part of the constitution. 

See. 3. At the general election to be held in the year eighteen hundred and sixty- 
six, fmd in each twentieth year thereafter, and also at auch time as the I/egislature 
may by law provide, the question, '* Shall there be a Convention to revise the Con- 
stitution, and amend the same T* shall be decided by the electors qualified to vote 
for members of the Legislature ; and in case a majoriQr of the electors so qualified, 
voting at such election, shall decide in fiivor of a Convention for such purpose, the 
Legislature at its next session, shall provide by law for the election of delagatas to 
such Convention. 


See. 1. The first election of Senators and Members <rf Assembly, pursuant to 
the provisions of this Constitotion, shall be held on the Tuesday succeeding the 
first Monday of November, one thousand eight hundred and forty-seven. 

The Senators and Members of Assembly who may be in ofilce on the first day of 
January, one thousand eight hundred and forty-seven, shall hold their offices until 
and inehkhi^ tbe thiity-first day of December following, and no k>nger. 

See. 2. The first eiectiop of Governor, and Lieutenant-<Sovernor under this 
Constitution, shall be held on the Tuesday succeeding the first Monday of Novem- 
ber, one thousand eight hundred and forty-eight ; and the Ciovemor and Lieutenant- 
Governor in office when this Constitution shall take effect, shall hold their respect- 
ive offices unta and including the thirty-first day of December of that year. 

See. 3. The Secretary of State, Comptroller, Treasurer, Attorney General, 
District Attorney, Surveyor General, Canal CommissionerB, and Inspectors of State 
Prisons, in office when this Constitution shall take effect shall hold their respective 
offices until and including the thirty-first day^of December, one thousand eight 
hundred and forty-seven, and no longer. 

See. 4. The first election of Judges and clerk of the Court of Appeals, Justices 
of tiie Sopreme Court and coimty Judges, shaU take place at such time between 



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the fint Tueaday of April and the second Toeriay of Jtme, one thoonnd tiight 
himdied and forty-eeren, aa may be prescribed by law. The laid courts shall 
fefpectively enter upon their duties, on the first Monday of July, next thereafter ; 
but the term of office of said Judges, clerk and Justfces, as declared by tlds Consti- 
tution, fh»ii be deemed to commence on the first day of January, one thousand 
•ight hundred and forty-eight 

iS«c. y On the first Monday of July, one thousand eight hundred and forty* 
seven. Jurisdiction of all suits and proceedings then pending in the present supreme 
court and court of chancery, and all suits and proceedings originally commenced 
and then pending in any court of common pleas, (except jn the city and county of 
New York,) shall become vested in the supreme court hereby established. Pro- 
ceedings pending in courts of common pleas, and in suits originally ccMumenced ia 
Justices courts, shall be transferred to the county courts provided for in this Consti- 
tution, in such manner and form, and under such regulation as shall be provided 
by law. The courts of oyer and terminer hereby established, shall, in their re- 
spective counties, have Jurisdiction, on and after the day last mentioned, of all 
Indictments and proceedings then pending In the present courts of oyer and termi- 
ner, and also of all indictments and jNroceedings then pending in the present courts 
at general sessions of the peace, except in the city of New York, and except in 
cases of which the courts of sessions hereby estabHshed, may lawAilly take cogni- 
sance ; and of such indictments and proceedings as the courts of sessions hereby 
established, shall have Jurisdiction, on and after the day last mentioned. 

See. 6. The chancellor and the present supreme court shall, respectively, have 
power to hear and determine any of such suits and proceedings ready on the first 
Monday of July, one thousand eight hundred and forty-seven, for hearing or decis- 
ion, and shall, for their services therein, be entitled to their prerent rates of com- 
pensation, until the first day of July, one thousand eight hundred and forty-eight, or 
tmtfl an such suits and proceedings shall be sooner heard and determined. Mas- 
ters in chancery may continue to exercise the functions of their ofilce, in the court 
of chancery, so tong as the ChanceOor shaH continue to exercise the functions of 
his office, under the provisions of this Constitution. 

And the Supreme Court hereby established, shall also have power to hear and 
determine such of said suits and proceedings as may be prescribed by law. 

See. 7. In case any vacancy shall occur in the office of chancelk>r or Justice of 
the present Supreme Court, previously to the first day of July, one thousand eight 
hui^red and forty-eight, the Govwnor may nominate, and by and with the advice 
and consent of the Senato, appoint a proper pers(Hi to fill such vacancy. Any 
Judge of the court of appeals, or Justice of the supreme court, elected under this 
Constitution, may receive and hokl such l^)pointment 

See, 8. The offices of chanceDor, Justice of the existing supreme court, circuit 
Jndge, vice-chanceUor, asststant vice-chaneeBor, Judge of the existing coun^ courts 
of each county, supreme court coaunissioner, master in chancery, examiner in 
chancery, and surrogate, (except aa herein otherwise provided,) are abolished from 
and after the first Monday of July, one thousand ei^t hundred and fiMly-seven, 

See. 0. The Chancefior, the Justices of the present supreme court, and the 
circuit Judges, are hereby deckured to be severally eligibte to any office at the first 
election under this ConstituticHi. 

See. 10. SherifEb, clerks of counties, (including the register and clerk of the 
city and county of New York,) and Justices of the peace, and coroners, in office, 
when this Constitution shaU take effect, shall hold their respective offices until the 
expiration of the term for which they were respectively elected. 

See. 11. Judicial officers in office when this Constitution shall take effisct, may 
continuf to receive such foes and perquisites of office as are now authorised by 
law, until the first day of July, one thousand eight hundred and forty-seven, not- 
withstanding the provisions of the twentieth section of the sixth article of this 

See. IS. AD tocal courts eslaUished inany city or viUage, inchidingtfae Supe- 

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rior Gouzt, Common Pleas, Sessions and Surrogate's Courts of the city and county 
of New York, sbail remain, until otherwise directed by the Legislature, with their 
present powers and jurisdictions ; and the judges of such courts, and any clerk* 
thereof in office on the first day of Januaiy, one thousand eight hundred and forty- 
seven, shall continue in office until the expiration of their terms of office, or until 
the Legislature shaO otherwise direct 

See. 13. This Constitution shall be in force from and including the first day of 
Jianuary, one thousand eight hundred and forty-seven, except as herein otherwise 

Done ID convention, at theicapitol, in the city of Albany, the ninth day of OctO" 
ber, m the year one thousand eight hundred and forty-six, and of the Independence 
of the United States of America, the seventy-first 

In witness whereof, we have hereunto subscribed our names. * 

and Delegate fh)m the county of Chenango. 

JA.1IKS P. Stakbuck, ) 

H. W. Strohs^ > Secretaries^ 

Fa. Bkokr. ) 



Each town elects, annually, a supervisor, a town clerk, three or 
five assessors, a collector, two overseers of the poor, a town superin- 
tendent of common schools, not more than five constables, one sealer 
of weights and measures, as many overseers of highways as there artf 
Toad districts in the town, and as many pound masters as the electors 
may deem necessary. 

The supervisors of the different towns of the county, thus elected, 
constitute a boards which meets annually for business, and holds spe- 
cial meetings when necessary. They are authorised to receive, ex- 
amine, and adjust all accounts against the county, or the several 
towns, raise money to defray them, joaake orders concerning the cor- 
porate property of the county, elect the county superintendent of 
common schools, &c. 

The other officers of the counties are, the treasurer, county clerk, 
sheriff, coroner, district attorney, county superintendent of common 
schools, county sealer of weights and measures, road commissioners, 
inspectors, &.c. By the provisions of the new constitution, most of 
these officers are chosen for three years. 

The cities are governed by a mayor, recorder, and common council. 
The latter is composed of one alderman, and one assistant alderman, 
for each ward of the city. These officers have judicial powers con- 
ferred on them, in offences not punishable witn death. They also 
perform the duties of supervisors in their respective cities. 

There are nine cities in the state ; viz., New York, Albany, Tmy, 
Hudson, Schenectady, Utica, Buffalo, Rochester, and Brooklyn. 

The incorporated villages are governed by a president and board of 
trustees, usually five in number. There are about 150 incorporated 
villages in the state. 

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OniGiir AND History of the ConMoif School Stbtem. 

Though less zealous in the cause of [Mtpular education than the 
early settlers of New England, yet, ere the forests had been felled, or 
the Indian war-whoop ceased to be heard, in the neighborhood of the 
white settlements, the sturdy Hcdlanders began to provide for the 
education of their children. 

In 1633, Adam Roelandsen, the first schoolmaster of New Amster- 
dam, arrived in that city. In 1642, the Patroon, Van Rensselaer, 
sent over a schoolmaster for his " colonic." 

The first classical school, or academy, was established in New 
York city, the teacher being sent out from Holland, by the Dutch 
West India Company. In all the Dutch setdemetits, provision was 
early made for schools. 

In 1687, a Latin school was opened in the city of New York, under 
the sanction of the EngUsh government. In 1702, the first legisla- 
tive action, relative to education, occurred. This act provided for 
the establishment of a grammar school, and appropriated jC50 per 
annum, for seven years, for the support of a teacher. 

Another act was passed, in 1732, to encourage a public school, in 
th^ city and county of New York, (ox, teaching Latin, Greek and 

Under this act a free school was established, and endowed with 
j£40 a year, for five years ; and ten scholars were to be sent from 
New York, two from Albany, and one from each of the other coun- 
ties, making twenty in all This school was the germ of Columbia 

In 1743, Rev. Mr. Dunlap, of Cherry Valley, Otsego county, estab- 
lished the first grammar school in the state, west of Albany. Be- 
tween 1746 and 1756, several acts were passed, authorizing the raising 
of moneys, by lottery, for founding a college in New York, and, in 
1754, King's college was chartered. 

After the establishment of the state government, the interest of the 
people was again awakened to the necessity of popular education. 
On the 1st of May, 1784, an act was passed, changing the name of 
King's college to Columbia college, and establishing the board of re- 
gents o( the university of New York. 

In 1789, lands were specially set apart, in the several new town- 
ships, for the promotion of literature, and the support of common 
schools. The proceeds of certain lands were also appropriated, in 
1790, by the regents, to the institutions under their care. Their in- 
come, arising from this source, in 1792, was increased by the grant 
of £1500 per annum, for five yens. 

In 1793, the regents, in their report, suggested the importance of 
establishing schools in various parts of the state, for instructing chil- 
dren in the lower branches of education. These suggestions were 
renewed for the two years following, andkin 1795, a common school 
system was established. 

- In 1795, $50,000 annually, for five years, was appropriated from 
the public revenues, for encouraging and maintaining schools, in the 

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varioud cities and towns, to be expended mupb as the public moneys 
for schools are at the present day. 

In 1801, an act was passed,^ authorizing the establishment of four 
lotteries, to raise the sum of $25,000 each, one half to be paid to the 
regents of the "University, and the other to the state treasury, to be 
applied for the use of common schools. This was the foundation of 
the literature and common school fund. 

In 1805, the nett proceeds of 500,000 acres of the public lands, 
and 3000 shares jof bank stock, were appropriated as a fund for the 
use of common schools, to accumulate till the interest should amount 
to $50,000 per annum, after which, the interest was to be distributed, 
as Uie legislature should direct 

In 1811, preparatory measures were taken to organize the school 
system, and in 1812, an act was passed for that purpose. Gideon 
Hawley, Esq., was appointed superintendent of common schools, in 
1813. From 1819 to 1827, farther appropriations of lands, stocks, and 
money, for the increase of the school fund, were made j and $100,000 
ordered to be annually distributed, while an equal sum should be 
raised by tax. 

In 1838, the sum of $105,000 per year, from the annual revenue of 
the United States deposit fund, was added to the amount previously 
distributed. Of this amount, $55,000 was to be expended yearly, 
in the purchase of suitable books for district libraries. During this 
year, the common school system was reorganized, and, with the ex- 
ception of a few amendments, assumed its present form. 

Presekt CoKDmoir or Common Schools. 

Funds. By a provision of the constitution, the proceeds of all 
lands belonging to the state, with the exception of such as may be 
reserved for public use, or ceded to the United States, ti^ether with 
the fund known as the common school fund, are declared to consti- 
tute '* a perpetual fund, the interest of which shall be inviolably ap- 
propriated, and applied to the support of common schools, throughout 
tiie state." 

Of these state lands, as yet unsold, there remain about 350,000 
acres, lying mostly in the northern part of the state, and valu^ at 
about $175,000. These constitute the unproduetwe portion of the 
school fund. 

The productive capital of the fund amounts to upwards of two 
millions of dollars, and consists of bonds, mortgages, bank and state 
stocks, and money in the treasury, and yields a sufficient revenue to 
admit of the annual appropriation, and distribution of $110,000 among 
the several school districts. 

An equal amount, viz: $110,000, was, by an act passed in 1838, 
devoted to the same purpose, from the United States deposit fund. 
An additional sum of $55,000, was also granted for the purchase of 
district libraries ; by an act passed in 1843, this may be expended, 
under certain restrictions, for maps, globes, and other school appara- 
tus. The whole sum appropriated, beside the above $55,000, is 
$220,000, which is applied to the payment of teachers' wages. 

The year succeeding any enumeration of the inhabitants, state or 
national, an apportionment of this sum is made out, among the sev- 
eral counties, towns, and wards, according to their population, and 

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the monby pftid over to the treasorer of each county, for distribution. 
A certified copy of the apportionment is then forwarded to each of 
the county clerks, to be laid before the board of supervisors, who are 
required to raise, annually, by taxation, a sum equal \p that thus re- 
ceived. They may also raise any additional amount, not exceeding 
twice the amount of the apportionment, which the electors of any 
town may vote to raise, for school purposes. The amounts thus 
raised are to be paid over to the town superintendents, for distribu- 
tion amon^ the districts. 

In addition to these sums, many bf the towns annually receive in- 
comes from local funds, arising either from the sale of school lots, 
reserved in laying out new townships, in 1789, or from bequests, flbc. 
In most of the large cities, large additional amounts are also raised, 
under special acts, providing for the organization and support of com- 
mon schools. 

The a^gr^te amount of funds applicable to school purposes,may 
be stated as follows. 
Apportioned from state funds .... ^75,000 
Equal amount raised by taxation .... 275,000 
Sums raised by voluntary vote of towns - - - 20,000 

Sums raised under special acts in cities ... 200,000 
Local funds 20,000 


Amount raised on rate bills $450,000 

Total amount annually raised, from all sources, — _ 
for common schools $1,240,000 

This is exclusive of the large amount invested in school houses, 
furniture, fuel, apparatus, text books, &c. 

. Dittriets and their officers. The entire territory of the state has 
been divided into about 11,000 school districts, each averaging nearly 
four square miles. The voters of each district choose three trustees, 
of whom one holds his office for one year, one for two, and one for 
three years, a district clerk, collector and librartan, who hold their 
office one year each. 

Town SuperintendenU. The tovni superintendents of common 
schools are annually elected, by the people of each of the towns, at 
their annual town meetings, and have the general supervision of the 
common schools in their respective towns. 

County Superintendents, The county superintendent is the next 
officer in the gradation of the system, and is appointed, once in two 
years, by the board of supervisors of each county. Either they, or 
the state superintendent, may remove him fVom office, for neglect of 
duty, or misconduct. Each county is required, by law, to have one 
county superintendent, and where the number of districts exceeds 
150, two may be appointed. 

These officers are charged with the iceneral supervision of the 
schools of the county, or of that section of the county, for which they 
are appointed. Their compensation may not exceed $500 a year ; 
one half of which is paid by the county, and the other half by the 
state, out of the annual surplus of the common school f\ind. 

Within a few years past, the county superintendents, in addition 

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to tiieir duties specified by law, have called periodical meetings of 
the town superintendents, teachers, officers and inhabitants of dis- 
tricts, for the purpose of mutual consultation, and the improvement 
of the condition of the schools ; they have organized and held teach- 
ers'* institutes, in the spring and autumn, for the purpose of prepar- 
ing the teachers for the more efficient discharge of their duties. 

In conjunction with the town superintendents, they select the 
pupils, which the county is entitled to send to the state normal 
school ; and deliver famiUar lectures on topics connected with public 
school education, in each district, during their several visitations. 

They also meet annually, in convention, for the purpose of mutual 
consultation with each other, with the head of the department, and 
with the friends of education, from this, and other states. 

State Superintendent. The secretary of state is, by virtue of his 
office, superintendent of common schools. He maintains a corres- 
pondence with all the subordinate officers, and has a general over- 
sight over the whole. To him are referred, for final decision, all 
questions arising, relative to the common school laws, on appeal from 
the decisions of the county superintendents. 

He is required to report, annually, to the legislature, the condition 
of the schools in the several counties, and to do all in his power ^ to 
promote the interests, and extend the benefits, of popular education 
throughout the state. He appoints one of the clerks of the state de- 
partment, as his deputy, who aids him in the discharge of l^s duties, 
and who, in case of his absence^ or the vacating of the office, becomes 
acting superintendent. 

For a full exposition of the duties of all the officers of the common 
school system, reference ma^ be had to the common school law, a 
copy of which may be found in each district 

Statistics of the Common Schools. From the last annual report of 
the state superintendent, made to the legislature, in January, 1846, 
we gather the following statistics : 
Whole number of children between the ages of five and sixteen, in 

the state, Jan^ 1845, 690,014 

Whole number, of all ages, under instruction the whole or a part of 

theyear, 1845, T36,045 

Average annual increase of children between the ages of five and 

sixteen, since 1815, is more than 18,000 

Average annual increase of children of all ages, receiving instraction, 80,540 
Avenge number of moattas in which schools have been kept durhig 

the year 1845, 8 

Amount of public money paid for teachers' wages in 1845, - $629,856 04 
Amount paid on rate bills for the same purpose, ... 458,127 00 

Total, - $1,087,983 94 

Amount expended for district libraries, $95,159 35 

Number ofvolumes in district libraries, Ifit July, 1845, - - 1,145,250 

Average annual incraase of votaimes, 100,000 

N«mber of pupila in attendaBce at private and select schools hi 1845, 56,058 

State No&iiai< Schoou 

By an act, passed by the legislature of 1844, $9,600 was appropri- 

ated for that^ear, and #10,000 annually, for five years thereafter, and 

until otherwise directed by law, for the establishment and support 

of a state normal school, for the instruction and practice of teachers 

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of common tchods* in the tcieDce of education* and in tlie ait of 

This institution is located in the city of Albany, and placed under 
the direction of the state superintendent of common schools, and the 
regents of the university. This board appoint an executive commit- 
tee, of five persons, of whom the state superintendent is one, ear egi- 
cio^ to superintend the general interests of the school, to carry into 
effect the laws enacted for its regulation, and to report to the board 
annually. _ 

By the regulations of the executive committeeT superintendent, 
and board ofregents, each county of the state is entitlea to a number 
of pupils equal to double its representation in the house of assembly, 
making in all 256 pupils ; to be selected by the county and town su- 
perintendents. No charge for instruction or for books is made ; and 
each pupil receives a sum sufficient, on a liberal estimate, to defray 
his or her traveling expenses, to and from the institution* 

The board of instruction consists of a principal, a professor of 
mathematics, a teacher of vocal music, one of drawing, and six sub- 
ordinate teachers, in the various branches, deemed requisite to the 
complete preparation of teachers of common schools. 

Connected with the institution are two experimental schools, com- 
posed of fifty children each, between the ages of five and sixteen, and 
under the general supervision of a teacher, specially appointed for 
this purpose. Into these, the more advanced pupils of the normal 
school pass, in succession, for a period of three or four weeks each, 
to test their practical abilities, as educators, before their final grad- 

No definite term of instruction is prescribed. Each pupil is re- 
(^uired to complete a specified course of studies, to the full satisfac- 
tion of the principal and board of instructors, by whom, and the ex- 
ecutive committee, diplomas, setting forth that fact, are conferred, 
semi-annually, in the months of March and September. 

The institution is furnished with a large and Well selected library, 
and all the scientific apparatus requisite to a full and thorough course 
of instruction, in the various branches of a sound, English education. 
The number of students, of both sexes, in 184B, exceeded two 

Crnr Schooi< Organizations. 

1. City ofJSTew York, In the city of New York, the common 
schools are divided into three classes, viz: 1st, Public and Primary 
schools, under the care of the public school society ; 2d, Ward 
schools, under the management of the commissioners, inspectors and 
trustees of the respective wards ; 3d, Corporate schools, conducted 
by officers, elected under their respective charters. 

These are all subject to the general supervision of the county su- 
perintendent, and to the inspection and management of the boaird of 
education, which consists of two commissionere, two inspectors, and 
five trustees in each ward. These officers are elected by the people ; 
the commissioners and inspectors hold their offices for twoyeara, 
and the trustees for five years. They all participate in the public 
money, and in that raised by the genersd and special laws, for school 

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The PuUie School Soekty was iocorpontted by the legieletave, io 
1805, and up to the year 1843, had the entire control of all the com- 
men schools in the city. They have eighteen public, and fiity^fonr 
primary schools, beside two public and four primary schools for col- 
ored children. In these schools, in 1846, 22,500 children were in- 
ntnicted, at a cost, for tuition, of a little more than j^73,000. 

There are three normal schools, also, under the control of this 
society, intended for the instruction of the monitors, and junior 
teachers of the schools ; these normal schools are held on Saturday 
of each week, and during a portion of the year, in the evenings of 
the other days of the week. To each of the primary and public 
schools, a well selected library is attached. 

The ward schools occupy from twenty to twenty-five buildings, 
comprising upwards of fifty schools, and having more than 25,000 
children under instruction. There are, beside, thirteen corporate 
schools, mostly connected with benevolent institutions, and embra- 
cing upwards of 2000 scholars. 

The a(^egate number of children taught in all the public schools, 
during some portion of the year, exceeds fifty thousand ; and it is 
suppMed that about 30,000 more attend the various select schools in 
the city. 

The amount of public money annually expended for common 
schools, is as follows: 

Apportioned by the state ..... $3.5,000 00 

An equal amount raised by tax .... 35,000 00 

One twentieth of one per cent, on the valuation of 

real and personal property .... 114,61063 

Raised under special acts ..... 8,36066 

Total $192,971 29 

2. City of Rochester. The common schools of .this city are under 
the control of a board of education, consisting of two commissioners 
for each ward, annually elected by the people of the several wards, 
and a city superii^tendent, chosen by them. 

The schools are entirely supported by taxation, no charge being 
made for instruction or text books. There are in the city, sixteen 
school houses, all substantial buildings, furnished with ample play 
grounds, and other conveniences. In these edifices there are be- 
twenn forty and fifty schools, under the care of sixteen male, and 
thirty female teachers, and comprising about 6000 children, nearly 
all that are cf suitable age, residing in the city. 

3. City of Buffalo, The mayor and aldermen of the city are, esr 
offieio, commissioners of common schools; and are required annually to 

rint a city superintendent. The schools are free, being, as in Ro- 
- Jer, entirely sustained by taxation. The number of districts is 
fifteen, and the schools are under the care of fifteen male, and thirty- 
six female instructors, having, in attendance, about 7000 children. 

4. City of Hudgen, The members of the common council are 
here, also, ex officio, commissioners of common schools. They ap- 
point tHree superintendents, who, together, constitute a board of ed- 
ucation for the city. An amount, equ^ to four times the apportion- 
ment from the state funds, is raised by tax > and the remaining ex- 

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penses are defrayed by rate* bills, against those who sead to the 

5. Ciiy of Brooklyn. Here, too, the common council are, from 
their office, comnussioners of common schook ; the general manage- 
ment of which is committed to a boani of education, consisting of 
two members from each district appointed by the common council. 
They are divided into three classes, one of which a&nually goes out 
of office. The schools are free, deriving their support from assess- 
ments on the taxable property of the city. 

6. Ciiy of Utiea, The board of Commissioners for common 
schools in this city, consists of six members, two of whom are elect- 
ed annually. THey hold their office foT three years. The rate bills 
may not exceed $2.00 per term. The remaining sums necessary for 
the support of schools* beyond the state apportionment, are raised by 

7. City of Seheneetady. The Schenectady Lancasterian school 
society has the general control of public education, in this city and 
receives, and disburses the public money applicable to this purpose. 

8. City of Albany. The public schools of this city are under 
the supervision of a board of commissioners, nine in number, ap- 
pointed by the Mayor, Recorder, and such of the Regents as may re- 
side in the city. The members of this board, hold office for three 
years, one third going out of office each year. 

The schools are not entirely free, the sum raised by tax being only 
twice the amount received from the state ; but the indigent are ex- 
empted from the payment of rate bills ; and a certain number of indi- 
gent pupils, who have attended the district schools at least two years, 
are supported at either of the academies of the city, or at the state 
normal school. Instruction in vocal music is provided in all the 
schools. The number of school districts is ten, and children in- 
structed about 3000. 

The city of Troy, and the villages o{ PougHkeejuie and William&- 
burghi have separate local systems, similar to those above described. 


Regents of the Univeraity. These institutions are, by law, placed 
under the supervision, and subject to the visitation of a board, organ- 
ized by the legislature in 1784, under the title of " Regents of the 
University of the state of New York.*^ This board consists of twen- 
ty •one persons ; of this board, the Governor and Lieutenant Gover- 
nor are, ex officio^ members, and the others are appointed by the le- 
gislature, and hold office, during its pleasure. 

Its officers are, a Chancellor, Vice Chancellor, Secretary, and 
Treasurer, elected by the board. It is their duty to examine, and re- 
port to the legislature, the modes of education, discipline^ number 
of students, course of study, funds, debts, &c., of the institutions un- 
der their charge. 

They are also empowered to fill vacancies in the offices of presi- 
dent or principal of these institutions ; to confer degrees, under cer- 
tain circumstances, above that of Master of Arts ; to apportion the 
annual income of the literature tfund, among the several senate dis- 
tricts ; and to incorporate academies, on compliance with such terms 
as they may prescribe. 

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^ The IMerature Fund, appropriated to the sujJport of this clato of 
mstitutidtis, amounts to ^68,990 57, consisting of state, bank, and 
insurance stocks, and money In the treasury, besides 9625 acres of 
land, valued at ^4300. It yields an annual revefaue of about 075,000. 

Of this amount, $40,000 is ^divided among the academies of the 
rtate ; ^9000 to the university of the city of New York; $7000 to 
Geneva college, including its medical department; $3000 to Ham- 
ilton college ; $1000 to the Albany medical college; $2300 to Gen- 
esee Wesleyan Seminary; #10,000 to the state normal school, and 
tfce balance to the purchase of books and apparatus for the various 
academies, m pursuance of the provisions of an act passed in 1834. 

UntveraUiea and Colleges. There are at present, in this state, 
lour incorporated universities, viz : the University of the city of New 
York, organized in 1832; the Madison University, at Hamilton, 
Madison county ; the Rochester University, and the Buffalo Univer- 
sity ; the three latter incorporated in 1846. 

Th^ are also four colleges; Columbia College, in the city of 
«ew York; Union College, at Schenectady; Hamilton College, at 
Clinton, Oneida county, and Geneva college, at Geneva, in Ontario 
county. s » » 

In addition to these, there are five medical schools, viz; the Col- 
lege of Physicians and Surgeons in New York city; the Medical 
JJepartment of the University of the city of Ne>v York; the Albany^ 
Medical College; the Medical Department of Geneva College, and 
Uie Medical Department of the Buffalo University, organized in 1846. 

•detuUmies, There are 179 incorporated academies in the 
state, comprising upwards of 25,000 pupils of both sexes. The 
aggregate value of the land and buildings belonging to these institu- 
tions, exceeds $1,000,000; the value of the libraries belonging to 
tnem, $60,000, and of their apparatus, $56,000. The aggregate 
amount paid foctuition, during the year 1845, was over $200,000; 
ine number of teachers employed, over 600; and the number of stu- 
aents gratuitously instructed, over 20O. 

The branches of study taught, embrace, in addition to those ordi- 
narily pursued in common schools, the higher departments of mathe- 
matics and natural Philosophy, with their various applications to 
practical uses; the langQages, ancient and modern; the physical sci- 
ences ; moral and intellectual philosophy ; history in its widest and 
most comprehensive range; natural theology; political economy; 
vocal, and occasionally, instrumental, music; drawing, and other ac- 

.. ^^^J® are several female academies and seminaries ; among which, 
™ Albany Female Academy, and Female Seminary, the Troy, Rut- 
fftJi*' m-^**® ^^H ^^ ^^"^ '^ot\i, Poughkeepsie. Amsterdam, Schenec 
"«y»Uinton, Utica, Auburn, Ontario atCanandaigua, Batavia, Le Roy, 
^A and Rochester Female Seminaries, are the most prominent. 
\\. rSl^Sical Seminaries. Of these there are nine, viz: the Ham- 
uion Theological Institution, now forming a department of the Mad- 
*!P° University, in Hamilton, Madison county, under the patronage 
oi the Baptist denomination, but open, without distinction, to studente 
ot every religious denomination, designing to prepare themselves for . 
the gospel ministry; the Oneida Conference Seminary, founded by 
toe Methodists, and located in the village of Cazenovia, Madison 

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oottoty; tli« CS^neoee Weileytn Seminary, at Lima, Livtugston 
county; Auburn Theological Seminary, (Presbyterian;) theHartwick 
Theological Seminary, (Lutheran ;) the Theolc^cal Seminary of the 
Associate Reformed Church of New York, at Newburgh, Orange 
county ; the Greneral Tbeolosical Seminary of the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church in the United States, located in New York city ; the 
Union Theological Seminary, in the same city ; and the Roman Cath- 
olic Ecclesiastical Seminary, at Rose Hill, in Westchester county. 
Collegiate SehooU. There are seven of these institutions, located 
in different sections of the state. St. John's College, a Roman Cath* 
olic institution, pleasantly situated at Rose Hill, Westchester Co., 
about twelve miles from New York city, numbers 115 pupils; St. 
Paul's College, St. Thomas' Hall, and St. Ann's Hall, at Flushing, 
Lon^ Island, are under the patronage of the Protestant Episcopal de» 
nomination ; the latter is specially designed for the education of 
youn^ ladies ; the Poughkeepsie Collegiate School, is located in the 
flourishing village of Poughkeepsie, and has a high reputation ; the 
Black River Literary and Religious Institute, is a well ordered and 
flourishing seminary, situated at Watertown, Jefiereon county, and 
averages about 200 pupils ; and the New Brighton Collegiate School, 
situated on the heights, overlooking the village of New Brighton, on 
Staton Island, six miles from New York. 

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IH the deflcripHon of the seveiti counties, references are made to the Manor 
of Senssefeierwyclc the Livingston Manor, the Kayaderosseras Patent, the Har- 
denburgh Patent, Phelps* and Gorham^s Purchase, the Holland lAnd Company^s 
Purchase, the Putteney estate, the Mititary tract, Bhigham^s Purchase, Morris* 
esute, ice. 

The first three of these, are fhlly described in the general historical sketch, and 
in the description of the counties of Albany, Rensselaer, Columbia and Saratoga. 

The Hardeubwrgh Patent was granted at an early date to a Dutch citizen of 
wealth, and comprised the larger part of Delaware and SuOivan counties. 

Pkeips^ and Oorham't /^vrciUMe included the Holland Land Company's purchase, 
the Pulteney estate, and the Morris estate. 

The hi^ry of this purchase is as follows : 

The second charter of Massachusetts, granted by William and Mary in 1691, 
bounded the territory of that colony westwantly, by Ae Pacidc Ocean : thus 
dividing the present state of New York into two parts, separated from each other, 
by a section of the width of the state of Massachusetts. 

Ttie cotony of New York, under the grants made to the Duke of York and 
Albany in 1664, claimed the whole extent of territory, at present included under 
her jurisdic^n. These conflicting claims gave rise to long and harassing dis- 
putes, and protracted legal proceedings, but on the 16th of December, 1786, the 
controversy was settled, by a convention between the two states, concluded at 
Hartford, Conn. 

By this convention, Massachusetts ceded to New York, an claim to the gov- 
ernment, sovereignty, and Jurisdiction, of tiie lands in controversy ; and New 
York granted to Massachusetts, the right of pre-emption, (or first purcbase,) from 
the Indians, and when so purchased, the fee shnple of the soil, of all that par) of 
tiie state, lying west of a meti^ian drawn through Seneca lake, except a tract one 
mile wide, along the shores of Lake Srte, and the Niagara river ; a territory how 
comprising thirteen entire counties, and the larger part of Wayne county, and 
containhug nearly 600,000 inhabitants. 

On the first of April, 1788, the state of Massachusetts contracted to sen to 
Oliver Phelps and Nathiaoiiel Gorham, the right of pre-emption, to the whole of 
tills vast tract, forthe sum of one minion dollars, to be paid in three equal hutal- 

On the 8th of July, of the same year, Messrs. Phelps and Gorham made a treaty 
with the Indians in the neighborhood of Canandaigua, by which the Indian title 
was extinguished to the tract lying east of the Genesee river, and a tract extend- 
ing twelve miles west of that river, from York, in Genesee county, northward to 
the lake. This tract was confirmed to the coatractocs, hy the Massachusetts legis- 
fature, in NovMiber, 1788. 

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Iq Febraaiy, 1790, Mobab. Phelps and Gorhara, having paid 96416,666, on Cfae 
purchase money, and being unable to pay the third instalment, at the time agreed, 
proposed to the state of Massachusetts, to surrender to tlie state the remaining 
portion, to which the Indian title was not extinguished, and should the amount 
already purchased of the Indians, prove more than one-third of the whole tract, 
to pay for the excess, at the average price of the whole. This proposition was 

On the 18th of November, 1790, Messrs. Phelps and Ooiliam sold to Bobert 
Morris, aU of their tract east of the Genesee river, except the portion already sold 
to settlers, and two townships reserved to themselves. The tract thus sold, con- 
tained 1,264,000 acres, and Mr. Morris paid about $200,000 for it 

The lands surrendered to the state of Massachusetts were sold to Samuel Og< 
den, and by him to Robert Morris, who extinguished the Indian title for the sum 
of $100,000. Mr. Morris, by this purchase, became possessed of the greater part 
of the tract, originally purchased by Messrs. Phelps aiid Gorham. 
^ Mr. Morris, soon after, sold to a cooqNmy formed in Holland, a portion of the 
land thus purchased, comprising 3,200,000 acres, and including the present coun- 
ties of Erie, Niagara, Chautauque, and Catt&raugus. This compcuqr was known 
as the H<rfluMi Land €k>mpany, and their tract as the Holland Purchase. They 
established a land office at Batavia, and sold the land' to actual settlers^ Those 
lands which remained unsold, were, after a time, transferred to other associa- 
tions, but by fkr the larger part, are now owned by the inhabitants. 

The tract purchased of Phelps and Gorham, by Mr. Morris, was sold by him, to 
^ir William Pulteney, and hence called the Pulteney estate. It con^rised nearly 
all of Steuben, Yates, and Ontario counties, the east range of townships in AUe' 
gany, and the principal part of Xivingston, M6nroe, and Wayne counties. About 
one-third of the whole tract had been sold to companies and individuals, previous to 
Sir William's purchase. Mr. Williamson was appointed his agent, and opened land 
offices at Geneva and Bath. To his energy, public spirit, and liberality, the peo- 
ple of those counties are much indebted. 

The tract lying between this estate, and the HoUand purchase, was retained by 
Mr. Morris, and sold by him to actual settlers. It embraced portions of Orleans, 
Genesee, Wyoming, ai^ Allegany counties, and contained 500,000 acres. 

The MilitanTf tracts or rather frocte, for there w^e two to which this name was 
applied, were bounty lands, granted by New York, to her soldiers, who bad served 
during the revolutionary war ; an appMpriation of 600 acres was made to every 
private soldier, and larger quantities to the officers. 

The act, granting these lands, was passed in 1786, and the grant was made, 
with the proviso, that the Indian title should first be extinguished. The lands 
thus granted, comprised the present counties of Onondaga, Cortland, Tompkins, 
Cayuga, Seneca, and part of Oswego, and Wayne. It contained 1,680 000 acres. 
As, however, the Indian title was not immediately extinguished, the legislature, 
the same year, appropriated twelve northern townships in the present counties 
of Clinton, FrankUn, and Essex, containing 768,000 acres, to the location of 
revolutionary patents. This was called the Old MUiUxry traeL The Indian title 
to the other traat, however, being extinguished in 1780, the greater part of the 
bounty lands were, located in Onondaga, and the acUacent counties. 

Btngkam^g Purchase was a tract some twenty miles square, lyii^ pwtly in 
Broome county, and partiy in the state of Pennsylvania. It was purchased by 
Messrs. Bhigham, Wilson, and Cox, of Philadelphia, in 1785. Immediately north 
of this, was another purchase, made the succeeding year, by a company fiom 
Massachusetts, and containing 230,000 acres. There were six^ proprietors in 
this company. 

Large tracts of land are also held in the counties of Jefierson and St Law- 
rence, by the Messrs. Van Rensselaer, and Govemeur Morris; and m different 
sections of the state, by Gerrit Smith, Esq., of Peterboro, Chenango county, and 
the heirs of the Messrs. Wadsworth, of Livingston county. • 

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Square Miles, 915. 
Oxganized, 1983. 

Population, 77,368. 
Taluation, 1845, 915,603,161. 


1. i^^banj, 1686. 

2. Watervliet, 1788. 

3. Rensselaerville. 1790. 

4. Coeyinans, 1791. 

5. Bethlehem, 1793. 

6. Berne, 1795 

7. Guilderland, 1803. 

8. Wcsterlo, 1815. 

9. Edoz, 1822. 

10. New Scotland, 1832. 

Mouniaina^ g. Helderberg Hills. 

J2toer«, &c. C. Hudson. F. Mohawk, h. Norman's kill. c. Co- 
eymans creek, d. Haivnakraus kill. e. Provost creek, f. Foxes 

Fall9, b. Cohoes falls. 

CUU9 and Villages, Albany, West Troy, Coeymans, Rensselaer- 
ville, Cohoes. 

Boundaries. North by Schenectady and Saratoga counties ; 
East by the Hudson ; South by Greene ; and West by Scho- 
harie county. 

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Surface. The surface is much varied. Along the Hudson, 
extends an alluviai valley, ffonk a fourth of a mile to a mile in 
width. From this valley the land rises abruptly, 140 feet, and 
thence a table land gradually ascends, to the bcise of the Hel- 
derberg hills. Along the Mohawk, the surface is rugged and 

The Helderberg hills extend through the western part of the 
county, uniting, on the south, with the Catskill range. 

They am from 400 to 500 fe«t in height* and very precipitous. Their eleva- 
tion iM quitu uniform, dnplaylng no iaolated peaks. 

Risers AND Streams. The county is well watered. Besides 
the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, which partially bound it, the 
Norman's kill, Coeymans creek, Haivnakraus kill. Provost 
creek, Foxes' creek, Boxa kill, Vlamans kifl, and the Fa- 
troon's creek, are the principal streams. 

Most of these, as weR as several smaDer streams, have valuable waterfiins, af- 
fording great ibcilities for manufkcturing. 

The Cohoes, or Great Falls of the Mohawk, at the village of 
Cohoes, lie partly in this, and pardy in Saratoga county. 

The river biire descends, at a single leap, 70 feet, and then pursues its way, 
over the rocks, in the channel, which its waters have cut through the soUd rock, to 
the d^th of more than 100 feet, to the Hudson. Few cataracts possess more 
picturesque beauty. 

Railroads. The Troy and Schenectady, and the Mohawk 
and Hudson railroads, cross the northeastern section of the 
county, and the Catskill and Canajoharie, the southeastern. 

Climate. The climate is quite variable, being subject to 
great extremes of heat and cold. Though unfavorable to those 
affected with pulmonary diseases, it is considered as generally 

Geology and Mineralogy. The geological formation of the 
county is transition ; gray wacke and slate are the prominent 
characteristics of the banks of the Hudson and Mohawk.^ In 
the Helderbergs, are fond lime and sandstone, both abounding 
in organic remains. 

In the elevated table lands, lying between the Helderbergs 
and the Hudson river, are thick beds of blue and yellow marl, 
of clayey consistence, and destitute of fossils. They are cov- 
ered with yellow sand. 

Bog iron ore is found, in numerous localities, in the county. Marl, and water 
limestone, also abound. There are several mineral springs, some of which eon- 
tain sulphuretted hydrogen, others carbonic acid gas, iron, and magnesia. 

Epsom salts are found at Coeymans Landing, and petroleum in Guilderland. 
In the limestone ctiffii of the Helderbergs, are several extensive caverns, contsun- 
iug quartz and other crystals, stalnctites and stalagmites of great beauty ; calcare- 
ous spar, bitumen and alum also occur in the county. 

Soil and VcGETABLiB Productions, A portion of the soil is 

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fertile and productive, ajul most of that, which was naturally 
sterile, has, by the skill of the husbandman, been made to yield 
abundant returns. Considerable tracts, however, are not sus- 
ceptible of cultivation. 

The timber of tbe county is princiually pine, hemlock, oak, hickory, e)m, chert- 
lint, and birch. 

Pursuits. Agriculture is the pursuit of a majority of the in- 
habitants. This may be reckoned as one of the graift growing 
counties, although not one of the most productive. 

OatB, com, rye, buckwheat, and barley, are the principal grains ; potatoes are 
raked in considerable quantities. The western part is fltvorable to graeing, and 
butter is there largely produced. The number of sheep in tbe county is large, 
and increasing annually. 

Manufactures 9\ao occupy the attention of a large number of 
tjie citizens of the county. In 1845,, these considerably exceeded 
two and a half millions of dollars, of which about two millioas 
were produced in the city of Albany. • 

The principal articles roanufltctured were, iron ware, floor, malt liquora, 
coaches and sleighs, machinery, cotton and woollen goods, brick, coi«|9ge, oi} 
and oil cloths. 

Commerce, The navigation of the Hudson river, and the 
Erie and Champlain csmcds, furnishes employment to large 
numbers, and this commerce is increasing, in a rapid annual 

Tolls were received, in 1845, in tbe county, upon produce valued at about 
twenty-seven millions of dollars. About thirty-five steamers, seventy tow boats, 
and d30 sloops and schooners, beside scows, Jcc, are employed in the Albany 
trade, on the Hudson. The total amount of shipping, belonging to the county, 
is about 60,000 tons. 

Staple Productions. Oats, corn, rye, barley, buckwheat, 
butter and wooL 

ScHOouB. There are, in the coimty of Albany, 160 district 
school houses. In 1845, schools were taught, on an average, 
tea months. During that year, 14,600 c^ilcLren were instructed) 
at an expense of about 9^5,000, for tuition. The district librar 
lies contained about BQ^OOO volumes. 

There were also, in the county, the same year, 111 unincorporated private 
schools, with 3,856 pupils ; three academies, and two female seminaries, with 637 
pupils ; one state normal school, with 294 pupils ; and one medical college, with 
114 students. 

RcLiGious Denominations. Methodists, Dutch Reformed, 
Baptists^ Presbyterians, Episcopalians, Roiqan Catholics, 
Friends, Unitarians, Lutherans, Congregationalists, Universal- 
ists, and Jews.* 

History. When Henry Hudson ascended the North river, 
in 1609, he despatched Hendrick Gorstiaensen, with a small 

* The reUgious denominations are given, throughout this work, in the srdsr 
of their numbers, beginning ^th the most numerous. 


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crew, in a boat, to ascertain the highest point to whidi that river 
was navigable. Corstiaensen penetrated as far as Troy, of 
Lansingbupgh, but landed at the present site of the city of 

In 1611, or 12, he returned and erected a trading house, on 
Boyd's island, a short distance below the Albany ferry. In the 
ensuing i|»ring, this was so much injured by Ae ice and the 
freshet, tl^ he was compelled to abandon it He then erected 
a fort, on a hill, about two miles south of Albany. 

In 1623 a fort was erected near the present Fort Orange 
Hotel, in the city of Albany, mounting eight large cannon.'*' It 
was named Fort Orange, in honor of the Prince of Orange, 
who, at that time, presided over the Netherlands. 

This fort wai intended to soHwrve the double porpoee, of affording eonvenient 
■ecommodations fat the tzaffie with the Indiana, and also of senring as a protec- 
tion againtt audden attacks from them. It was only occupied during the autumn, 
and winter, by the tradera, whose object was trade, not colonization. 

In 1630, Kiliaen Van Rensselaer, a wealthy pearl merchant, 
of Amsterdam, purchased, through his agents, a large tract of 
land, including most of this, as well as several of the adjacent, 

Over this extensive tract, he possessed all the authority of a 
sovereign, and, anxious to improve it to the best advantage, he 
sent a colony here, in 1631, well provided with whatever was 
necessary, to commence a new settlement To his estate he 
gave the name of Rensselaerwycl^ 

It is believed that he never visited his colony. The administration of Justice, 
and the management of its financial aifairs, he committed to a comrniwary gene- 
ral Fortunate in the selection of these, his colony prospered much more than 
that at New Amsterdam, and it was to the good offices of Van Curler, or Coiiaer, 
Iht first commissary, ^t the colonists at New Amsterdam were indebted, more 
than (mce, for their preservation frcm destruction, at the hands of the savagee. 
This excellent man cultivated the most friendly relations with the Indians, and so 
strong was their affection for him, that, ever after, they applied the name of Cor- 
laer to the governors of New York, as the highest title of respect 

In 1642, Mr. Van Rensselaer sent over the Rev. Johannes 
Megapolensis, as minister of Rensselaerwyck, supporting him 
at his own expense. The first church was erected the suc- 
ceeding year, and furnished with a bell and pulpit, by the Dutch 
West India Company. In 1646, the venerable patroon died, at 
Amsterdam. His son Johannes, then a minor, succeeded him. 

During the administration of Grovernor Stuyvesant, serious 
difficulties occurred between him and the agent of the patroon, 
which were finally referred to the states general of Holland, for 
decision. Afler ]Ve w York came into the possession of the Eng- 

* Stone piecea^ they are called in the original Dutch records ; meaning, ac- 
cording to Judge Vanderkemp, that they were loaded with. stone, inat^ of 
hron balls. They werA of very large calmer. 

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liedk, the name of Beaverwyek, which had been bestowed upon 
the settlement, was ehan^d to Albany, that beings one of the 
titles of the Duke of York. The right of soil was confirmed to 
the patroon, by a new patent, but the government was retained 
in the hands of the governor of the colony. 

In 1686, Governor Dongan granted a charter to the city of 
Albany, and Peter Schuyler, the. friend of the Indians, was 
elected the first mayor. 

In 1689-90, the citizens of this county refused to submit to the 
administration of Leisler and Milborne, but were at length 
compelled, by the fears of an Indian invasion, to yield allegi- 
ance. No sooner, however, did Colonel Sloughter arrive, 
than he was welcomed by the people of this county, whose at^ 
tachmenl to Leisler had never been ardent, or sincere. 

In an the treaties with the Indian tribes, the citizens of Albany bore a con- 
■pieuous par, and so entirely had they won the confidence of the savages, that 
from the date of its settlement, the connty was never invaded, by these sons of 
the Arrest The Schuyler family, for aev&nl generations, exerted a powerful in- 
fluence over the Indians. 

During the revolution, the Albany committee nobly sustained 
their countrymen, in their opposition to British sway, and al^ 
forded aid, in tn>ops and money, to the suffering inhabitants of 
Trypn county, to assist them in repelling the frequent attacks of 
the merciless horde of tories and Indians, who ravaged their 

Burgoyne had boasted, at the commraocement of his campaign, that his army 
shoold revel upon the qtoils of ARnny. but he aafy viaited the city as a captive. 
Sir Heniy Clinttm twice attempted to invade it, but met with sufficient obstacles 
to prevent his success. 

It became the capital of the state in 1S07. Since the intro- 
duction of steamboats, and the completion of the canals, the 
growth of the city and county have been rapid, and the lines of 
railroads, which connect it with Boston and Buffalo, are giving 
it a still greater impulse. 

The extensive manor of Renssdaerwyck, occupyhig a territory twenty-four by 
forty-eight miles in extent, descended, by entailment, to the eldest male descendant 
of Kjliaen Van Sensaelaer. The last proprietor was the late patroon, Stephen 
Van Rensselaer, a roan, whose munificent patronage of every olject which could 
benefit his fellow citizens, or aid in diffusing happiness among men, has embalmed 
his memory. 

At his death, the manor was divided between bis two sons, Stephen and William 
P. Van Rensselaer, the former receiving the portion west of the Hudson, and the 
latter, that lying east of the river. 

The lands had usually been granted on permanent leases, the rental being pay- 
aUe in produce. Some personal services were usually required, by the terms of 
fbe lease, but vddom exacted by the patroon. The effort, on the part of the 
IHWsent pn^etOEB, to enforce the collection of the rents, was met by strenuous 
opposition, on the part of the tenants, w|k> formed themselves into armed organiza- 
tSoBfl, and in their conflict with the olficeia of the law, several individuals were 

These oiganizstions have, of lat«, assumed a pcditical character. Both the 

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proprieton and the tenants have ■ought redresB from the legidature, hut as yet 
no decisive action has been taken, by that body. The inconsistency of the feudal 
tenure, with the spirit of our institutions, will be admitted by aU ; but there n 
great diAcuity hi legislating justly upon the subject 

Cities and Villages. Albany city is situated on the west 
bank of the Hudson, 145 miles aboYe New York. It appears to 
great adYantage, from the river, rising rapidly from the 
bank, and exhibiting its public buiMings in bold relief! The 
alluYial Yalley of the Hudson extends about a quarter of a mile 
from the river bank. From this valley, a bluff rises abruptly, 
140 feet, and, in the distance of a mile, about eighty feet more. 
Upon this bluff, are situated most of the public buildings. 

In 1845, the city had 116 streets and lanes. It is divided into 
ten wards, each of which elect annually, an alderman and aar 
sistant alderman, who together form the common council of the 

The public buildings are, many of them, degant and costly. 
The Capitol, erected at an expense of 8120,000, is a fine free- 
stone edifice. The State Hall, built of white marble, and fire- 
proof, is an elegant building, of the Ionic order, surmounted by 
a dome. It cost 8350,000. The City Hall stands near it, and 
is also a fine Grecian structure, of white marble, surmounted 
by a gilded dome. The Albany Academy, an elegant huilding 
of Nyack freestone, c^)poBite the state hail, cost, including the 
grounds, more than $100,000. 

This building, and the capitol have hi^ parks, in fhwt, surrounded by sub- 
stantial iron fences, and planted with ornamental trees and shrubbery. 

The Albany Female Academy is a chaste, marble building, 
erected at a cost of about 930,000. The Albany Exchange, of 
massive granite ; the Museum, of marble ; the Medical College, 
of brick, and well adapted to the purposes, to which it is applied ; 
the State Normal School ; and the State Geological rooms, oc^ 
cupyingthe old state hall, are the other principal buildings. 

Several of the churches, also, are deserving of notice for their 
architectural beauty. Among these, we may mention the Mid^ 
die Dutch church, on Beaver street ; the Pearl street Baptist 
church, a finely proportioned structure, in the Ionic style, and 
surmounted by a splendid dome ; the Hudson street Methodist 
church, one of the most chaste and beautiful models for a 
church in the United States; the Pre^yterian, and Roman 
Catholic churches, in Chapel street, &c., ^c. 

Among the hotels the Delavan House, stands preeminent lor 
simple grandeur and chasteness of architecture. It was eompde- 
ted in 1845, and cost about ^200,000. The Eagle, Congress 
JEiall, Mansion, Townsend, American, Carlton, Stanwix Hall, 
and the Franklin House, are also well conducted hotels. 

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The State Library, founded by the munificence of the state, 
has an excellent collection of works on history^ geography, and 
general literature. An extensive law library is connected with 
it The entire collection niunbers over 15,000 volumes, and is 
accessible to all, without charge. 

The Albany Library, founded in 1792, and now numbering 
about 9,000 volumes, occupies, apartments in the Albany fe- 
male academy. The Albany Institute is a scientific institution, 
designed to encourage attention to history, and general science, 
in the city and state. It has a valuable library, of nearly 2000 
volumes, in the building of the Albany academy. 

The Toung Men's Association occupies a fine suite of rooms 
in the exchange. It has a well conducted reading room, a 
library of 3200 volimies, and sustains a course of lectures each 
winter. The number of its members is over 1500. It was the 
first institution of the kind in the state. 

The Alms House has connected with it, a fine farm of 150 
acres, cultivated by the inmates. There are in the city, two 
Orphan Asylums, supported by private charity, which provide 
for the support and education of about 150 children ; and a num- 
ber of other benevolent societies. 

The Albany Academy, founded in 1813, has eight teachers, 
and about 200 pupils. The Albany Female Academy, founded 
hi 1814, has twelve teachers, and about 275 pupils. The 
Albany Female Seminary has six teachers. There are nu- 
merous other schools, of considerable reputation. The public 
schools have nine school houses, costing between $30,000 and 

The Albany Medical College is a flourishing medical school, 
having an able faculty, and one of the best anatomical museums 
in the United States. It has seven professors. 

The State Geological Rooms, in the old state hall, contain 
the splendid collection of the state geologists, arranged, in the 
lower rooms, in the order of the successive strata, and in the 
upper, in the order of the counties. Here, too, are specimens 
of the mineral and vegetable treasures of the state, appropri- 
ately arranged, and a large collection of the quadrupeds, birds, 
fishes and reptiles of the state. They are open, free of expense, 
to all. 

At the junction of the Erie canal with the Hudson, the citi- 
zens have constructed an extensive basin, to protect the boats 
from the winds, and give them greater facilities for discharging 
their cargoes. 

The city is largely engaged in manufactures. Its iron found- 
ties are among the largest in the country. More stoves are 
manufactured here, than in any other city, or town, in the union. 

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Coaches, sleighs, hats, caps, and boimet8,,are also largely man- 
ufactured ; the three latter articles, to the amount of nearly one 
million of dollars, annually. It has extensive manufactories of 
pianofortes. Leather is produced to the amount of more than 
^400,000 per annum. Population in 1845, 41,139. 

fVest Troy, in the town of Watervliet, is a thriving .village, 
possessing excellent hydraulic privileges, which it derives from 
the surplus waters of the Erie canal. It is a convenient depot 
for merchandise, from its facilities for transportation, and is 
largely engaged in manufactures, having twenty-five or thirty 
manufacturing establishments. The United States arsenal, es- 
tablished herein 1813, is the largest arsenal of construction, in 
the United States. 

Attftched to the ^staUishment, are about 100 acres of Isuid, containing thirty- 
eight buildings, for workshops and storehouse^ It constantly em^doys about 200 
officers, soldiers, and workmen, and manuftictures annually, munitions of war, to 
the amount of about $100,000. The grounds are enclosed by an iron fence in 
ftont, and a wall of stone on the sides and rear. 

The Erie and Champlaln canals Ibrm a junction, a short dis- 
. tance above the village, and a bridge and two ferries connect it 
with Troy. Population in 1845, about 6000. 

At Neakayuna in the same township, is a community of 
Shaking Quakers, established in 1776, by Ann Lee, the founder 
of the sect. This was the first Shaker establishment in the 
United States. 

Cohoea village, also in this town, possesses one of the finest 
water privileges in the state, and its advantages for manufac- 
turing, are hardly surpassed. It is estimated, that at the lowest 
stage of the water, there is sufficient to run 1,000,000 spindles. 
Population in 1B45, over 2000. 

Rensselaerville, in the town of the same name, is situated on 
Foxes creek. It has some manufactures, and about 1000 in- 

Coeymans is a small manixfacturing village, having a good 
landing, and some trade with New York. It has also some 
manuTaetures. Population 1000. 

* From this town, in 1779, Captain Deitz, and two lads named John and Rob^xt 
Brlce, were taken as captives by the Indians, and suffered all the barbarities 
which the malice of the saTsges could inflict. Captain Deitz died at Montreal, 
from the effect of theh: cruelties: but the boys were exchanged at the close of 
the war, and returned home. This is believed to have been the nearest ap- 
proach made to Albany, by the Indians during the Revolution. 

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Square Miles, 33. 
Organized, 1683. 
Population, 391,323. 
Valuation, 1845, $239,995,517. 

The city and county are of equal extent.* 

Rwers. B. East River. C. Hudson River, 
a. Harlaem River, q. Spuyten Duy- 
vel Creek, n. Hellgate. 

Bay9. A. New York Bay. 

Islands, d. Randall's, p. Barn. s. 
Blackwell*s. v. Governor's, e. Bed- 
low's, j. Ellis'. 

ForU, Castle Garden, or Castle Clin- 
ton. Fort Columbus, on Grovernor's 
island. Fort Wood, on Bedlow's 

Battle Fields. Kip's and Turtle Bay. 
-Harlaem Heights. Fort Washington. 

Unwersities. Columbia College. Uni- 
versity of New York. 

Cities. New York City. 

Boundaries. North by Westches- 
ter county; East by Westchester 
county and Long Island; South by 
Long Island and the waters of New 
York bay ; and West by New Jersey. 

Its territory extends to low .water mark on 
the Jersey side of the Hudson, as weU as to the 
none point on the Long Island side of the East 
nver, and the Westchester side of the Harlaem. 

Surface. The lower part of the 
county, though originally rough and 
broken, has been graded and levelled, 
and now rises gradually, from the 
shores of the Hudson and East riv- 
ers, towards the centre of the city. 
The upper part is still hilly, and has 
extensive marshes. 

Rivers. The East river, or strait, 
and the Hudson, or North river, wash 
its eastern and western shores, af- 
fording fine andiorage, and sufficient 
depth of water, to permit the largest 

* The numbers refer to the wards. 






9 is\ir 

8 I4\ 

^ e 

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Bbips to come up to the wharves. The Hariaem river is a nar- 
row strait, connecting by means of SpuytenDuyvel creek, East 
river with the Hudson. Several small streams water the up- 
per portions of the county, but none of them are of sufficient size 
to be worthy of notice. The original name of the island was 
* Manhattan, a word of doubtful etymology, but of late years, it 
has been known by the name of New York Island. 

BATa The upper, or New York bay, proper, is one of- the 
finest harbors in the world> affording anchorage ground suffi- 
cient for the navies of the world. The lower bay, or harbor, 
is also spacious, but not so completely land locked as the upper. 

It furnishes, however, convenient and secure anchorage 

Kip's and Turtle bays, on the east, and Striker's bay, on the 
west side of the island, are small inlets, only worthy ofhotice, 
for their historic interest 

Islands. Randall's, Barn, and Blackwell's islands, in the 
East river, and Governor's, Bedlow's, and Ellis', in the harbor, 
with some smaller islands, belong to the county. 

On Governor's island are Fort Columbus, and CasUe WiBiam ; mi Bedlow'fl^ 
Fort Wood. There are also other fortifications, on Long Island and Staten Island, 
intended, Hke these, for the defence of the harbor. 

CuMATE. The climate of New York county is, from its situ- 
ation, more equable than that of the inland counties, generally. 
The sea breezes waft a refreshing coolness, over the heated 
streets in summer, and temper the intense cold of the wintry 
blasts. In healthfulness, it occupies a very high rank, among 
the great cities of the world. Its ratio of deaths, to the popula- 
tion, is less than that of any of the large cities of Europe. 

Geology and Minerals. The rocks of this county, with the 
ezc/eption of a small section at the extreme north, are primitive. 
Granite characterizes the river banks, and huge boulders of it 
lie scattered over the surface. Dolomite, (a species of marble), 
bog iron ore, and oxide of manganese, are the principal mine- 
rals, applicable to use in the arts. 

Among those interesting to the mineralogist, may be enumerated fine specimens 
of tremolite, pyroxene, mica» tourmaline, serpentine and aqiianthus. Some speci- 
mens of pjrrltes, epidote, lamellar feldspar, stilbite, garnet, staurotide, graphite, &e., 
have also been met with. Marble is abundant, and extensively quarried, in the 
northern part of the island. 

Soil and Vegetable Productions. The soil is generally fer- 
tile, but too costly to be devoted to agricultural purposes. Gar- 
dens, of considerable extent, are cultivated, in the upper part of 
the island. 

The island was originally well wooded, but most of the timber is -now cat oC 
Oak, pine, hemlock and chestnut, were the principal forest trees. 

PuRsurrs. Manufacturing is the pursuit of a majority of the 
inhabitantfii of the county. The articles manufactured are nu- 

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merous, aad amounted, m 1845, at nearly aa ean be aaeertainedi 
to between eighteen and twenty mffliona of dollars, giving 
employment to more than sixty thousand persons. 

Chmmeree. In commerce, this county surpasses every other 
city or county on the continent, and is the second city in the 
world, iQ commercial importance. 

In 1845, the registered, licensed and enrolled shii^mg of the 
county, amounted to 550,359 tons. The shipping, entered the 
same year, amounted to over one million tonsi and the clearan- 
ces, to about the same amount 

This commerce ia extended to every part of the globe. N<^ only de the ibliNi 
of this port visit tbe vaiious ports of our own countryf and Eun^, but their sails 
flutter in the breezes of China, and Japan ; their flag is known on the coasts of 
Arabia, Persia and India, and their trade sought by the swarthy sons of Alhca 
and New Holland, and by the natives of the unnumbered isles, that gem the wide 
expanse gf the Pacific Wherever there is an opportunity for traffic, there the 
American flag is the first unfurled. 

Directly, or indirectly, this commerce fiunlsbes the means of support, to many 
thousands of her own citisens, and also to millions in other counties and states. 

The great system of internal navigation, so nobly begun and 
carried on by the state, has Eilso brought immense we^th into 
the city. 

The amount of produce brought to the Hudson, from aU the canals, in 1845, the 
greater part of which came to New York, was over ibrty-five millions of dollars, 
slid the amount, which was cleared from the Hudson river, the same year, (most 
of which was from New York), was over flf^-five miUioas, making a total inter- 
nal trade, of about one hundred millions of dollars per annum. 

Agriculture is not an object of great attention^ Horticulture 
furnishes employment to a cons^erable number of persons, in 
the upper part of the island. 

Eddcation. The common school system of the city of New 
York has been already described. (See^page 124.) 

It (miy remains to say, that more liberal and ample provision, for fomidiiBg a 
thorough education, even to the most indigent, is nowhere made. The child of 
the poorest emigrant may obtain, f^ee of expense, if be chooses, as Aill instruction 
in the sciences, as the son of the wealthiest citizen in the city. 

In addition to the coomion schools, there axe twen^-eight incoipofatad schooto 
and academies in the county, seventeen of which are female seminaries. These 
are wen conducted, and attended by large numbers. There are also several hun* 
dred private and select schools, attended, it Is estimated, by more than 30,000 

There are two colleges in the city ; viz : 1. Columbia College^ 
founded in 1754. and amply endowed. It has a presidfsnt emd 
ten professors, 104 students, and a library of 14,000 volumes. 
The grammar school, connected with it, has between 200 and 
300 pupils. The college edifices are located at the foot of Park 

2. The University of the city of New York, located on Wash- 
ington square. The imiversity edifice is of white marble, in the 
odjegiate Gothic style, and is one of the finest buildings in the 



140 8TATB OF NSW TOftK* 

city. Its coet vnm nearly 9300,000. It has a inresldeiiti and 
eloTen professors, 143 students, and a valuable library. Con- 
nected with it» is a large and flourishing grammar bc^ooL 

A medical department to cOmiected wiih the univentty. It is in a ptompetom 
condition, and occopieft a fine granite building,' formerly known ae tbe Stuyresailt 
Institute. This department has seven professors, 407 students, and a valuable 

Besides these, there afe several professional scboob In the ^city. Tbe CkiBege 
of PbyMcians and Suigeolis, in Crosby street, was fomided in 1807, and has al- 
ways maintained a high rank, among the medieai scIkx^ of our country. It hae . 
■even professors, 379 students, and an extensive and valuable museum and library. 
The College of Pharmacy is a recent institution, designed ibr the educadon ot 

The Genera] Theological Seminary of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the 
United States, occupies two elegant gothic buildings, of etotte, in the upper part of 
Ihe City, has five professors, seventy students, and a Mbrary of 7300 vohiraes. It 
was founded in 1810. The Union Theok>gical Seminary of the Presbyterian 
Church, situated in Um'rersity Place, was foim^ed in 1836, has nz professors, 119 
students, and a library of over 16,000 volumes. 

REuoiods Denominations. Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Bap- 
tidtS) Methodist Episcopal, Dutch Reformed, Roman Catholics, 
Methodists not Episcoi^, Jews, CongregationalistS) Lutheransi 
Universalists. Friends, Unitarians, New Jerusalem Church, 
Christians and Moravians. Number of churches 217, of cler- 
gymen 282. 

HtSTORT. The leading facts, connected with the settlement 
bf New York, or New Amsterdam, as the city was called by the 
Dutch, have been already stated, in the general historical 
sketch. Prom the time of its discovery, in 1609, by Henry Hud- 
son, up to the year 1625, no permanent settlement of emigrants 
seems to have been made. 

Companies of adventurers had Visited Manhattan Islat^, erected trading houses, 
for carrying on the traffic in furs with tihe natives, and when their ol^ts wero 
fiiecomplished, had returned to Hottafid. A fow, perhaps, food of this roving life, 
had remained, and acquired that kttowledge of the Indian character, which ena* 
bled them, more succesrfully, to secure his peltries. None, howevw, settled as 
colonists, or procured, fVom its native proprietors, a title to the soil, except for tlie 
erection of>Jtheir trading houses. 

In 1614, the Governor of Virginia, Sir Thomas Dale, in order 
to keep the restless spirits of his colony employed, fitted out 
an expedition under Captain Argall, against the French settle- 
ment at Acadia^ (now Nova Scotia.) Returning from his 
cruise, Argall entered the bay of New York, and compelled the 
few Dutch traders, whom he found there, to swear Ibalty to the 
English crown. 

After the formation of the Dutch West India Company, they 
took immediate measures for establishing a permanent colony y'^ 
at this important post. 

Vnd^ their fostering care, bouweries, or ftrms, were soon taken up, and a bqIh 
Btential fort being erected, the tude dweOiafs of the setttofi hffan to «lius«f 

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Under tbe adiBimstration of Minuit, it prospered and increas- 
ed in populcUton and importance. Tl^ intemperance and quu*- 
relsome tempers of the next two Governors, Van T wilier and 
Kieft, brought serious evils upon the- in&uai settlement The 
ijijustice of the latter to the Indians, having roused their enmi* 
ty, had well nigh exterminated it, in 1643 dLDd 44. 

Wretchedness and want stared the colonists ia the face, and 
but for the vigor and energy of Governor Stuyvesant's adminis* 
tration, they would perhaps have abandoned the settlement. 

In 1642, the Stadt Huys, or city Hall, was erected. It was 
bmlt of stone, and was taken down in 1700. The same year, 
the first church, (Dutch Reformed,) was erected in the fort. 
In 1653, the city of New Amsterdam was incorporated, by the 
States General of the Netherlands, audits officers were elected 
by thepeoi^e. 

In 1653, it was rumored that the New England colonists in- 
tended to attack New Amsterdam : measures were consequent- 
ly taken to put the city in a state of defence;" and during that, 
and the succeeding year, a palisade of boards about twelve 
feet in height was erected, and an embankment of earth 
thrown up against it. 

Fond of tbeir ease, however, the good citizens did not maintain their fortifica^ 
tionB, in such pofection, as to make them of any great avail, against an invading 

In 1655, Governor Stuyvesant, with the greater part of the 
inhabiteaits of the city, capable of bearing arms, engaged in the 
expedition against the Swedes, on the south, or Delaware riv&t. 
While they were absent on this expedition, the city was invaded 
by the In^ans, several of the bouweries plundered, and a few 
killed. The Indians, however, did not venture within the city 
walls. In 1656, it was laid out into streets, and then contaiaed 
120 houses, and 1000 inhabitants. 

In 1664, hearing of the approach of the English fleet, Governor 
Stujnresant summoned the citi2»ns of New Amsterdam, to aid 
hiin in repelling the threatened invasion, but his arbitrary sway 
had produced so much disaffection, that they were not averse to 
any change, which promised to increase their civil and religious 

' They consequently made but little preparation for the defence 
(^ the city, and when Col. Nicolls demanided its surrender, offer- 
ing favorable terms of capitulation, they insisted upon a compli- 
ance with them. 

In vain Gov^nor Stuyvesant remonstrated, threatened and 
refused to sign the treaty of capitulation ; the sturdy burghers 
were bent on submission to English rule, and he was, at length, 
compelled, though with the utmost reluctance, to affix his sig- 
nature to the instrumei^ As has been ab^eady stated, (see 

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page 61,) the name of the eitf and county was chained, imme- 
diately after the eai^nlation, to New York, in honor of the 
Duke of Ywk. 

Under the mild and benefieent adminktration of Colonei 
Nicoils, and his succeesor, Grovemw Lovelace, the city prosxter- 
ed, and increased in pc^^iulationand wealth. 

It was agsun the Dutch, in July, 1673, and during' 
the administration of Governor Colve, martial law was main- 
tained. The name of the city was changed to New Orange, and 
^of the fort to William Hendrick. 

^ In Oct 1674, it was again surrondered to the English, and the 
old name of New York resumed. The assessors' valuation of 
property in the city, in 1688, was £78.231, (about 6320»000.) In 
1690, a Congress, of the commissioners of the several colonies, 
was held at New York, In 1694, there were sixty ships, twenty- 
five sloops, and forty boats, belonging to the city. 

In 1696, Trinity church was built. This building was burned 
in 1776. The first Lutheran church was built in 1710, on the 
site lately occupied by Grace church. It was erected by some 
Palatines, who had fied from persecution in Germany. 

In 1711, a slave market was established in Wsdl street, near 
East river. The next year, an insurrection occurred among 
the negroes,- and nineteen were executed. In 1725, the first 
newspaper was published in the state. It was called the New 
York Gsusette. . In 1732, the first stage commenced running, 
between New York and Boston cHJce a month, occupying four- 
teen days in the journey. The same distance is now traversed, 
by steamboat and railroad, in nine hours. 

In 1740, the New York Society Library was founded. Du- 
ring the two succeeding years, the yellow ffever prevailed in the 
city, to an alarming extent. In 1741, the Negro plot, which has 
been described, in the genered history of the state, occurred. It 
occasioned great alarm in the city, as, of the 12,000 inhabitants 
it then contained, one-sixth were slaves. For the succeeding 
thirty years, the growth of the city was rapid, both in wealth 
and population. The New York Hospital was founded, by sub- 
scription, in 1769. 

In August, 1776, the city fell into the hands of the British. It 
had, at this time, a population of 30,000. In September of this 
year, occurred a disastrou^^re, which consumed one>eighth of 
the houses of the city. During their stay in the city, the British 
troops destroyed all the churches, except the Episcopal, or used 
them for hospitals, prisoner's barracks, or riding schoola They 
evacuated the city, and General Washington entered it, in N<h 
vember, 1783. A large number of the tory inhabitants, left 
with the British army, apd their estates were confiscated. 

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In 1788, the adoption oi' the new Constitutioa of ^e United 
8tatej3, was celebrated by a grand proceesicHi, and in 1780, 
Washington was inaugurated, as the first President, in the open 
^lery of the old City Hall, facing Broad street. 

In December, 1790, the population of the city was about 30,000. 
Free schools were estabhshed in the city, in 1797, though not 
incorporated, till 1805. In 1801, the total valuation of real estate 
in the city was a little short of^ $22,000,000. 

The erection of the present City Hall was determined on, 
during the next year, 1802, and the corner etpne laid in Septem-^ 
ber, 1803. The population of the city in 1800, was 60,000, hav-"' 
ing doubled in ten years. In 1807, the first successful attempt 
at steamboat navigation, was made on the Hudson, by Fulton 
and Livingston. 

In 1810, the population of the city was 96,000, beiog an in- 
crease of 36,000 in ten years. In 1815, the news of peace with 
Great Britain, was celebrated, with great rejoicings. In 1822, 
the yellow fever made its appearance. Great consternation 
was felt by the inhabitants, and large numbers left the city. 

In 1826, the completion of the Erie canal called forth an ex- 
traordinary triumphal procession. The population, in 1830, 
was 202,000. In 1832, the cholera raged fearfully in Ae city. 
More than 10,000 persons fell, as its victims. In December, 
1835, occurred the great fire, which destroyed property, to the 
amount of nearly $18,000,000. Severe as was this loss, the 
failures in consequence, were comparatively few. 
^ The^ame 3rear, (1835,) the citizens voted to construct an 
aqueduct, from the Croton river to their city, for the purpose of 
supplying themselves with pure water. This magnificent en- 
terprise was so far completed, in 1842, that water was introdu- ~ 
oedinto the city^ on the 14th of October, of that year, amid the 
rejoicings of the inhabitants. In July, 1845, another disastrous 
fire occurred, whkh destroyed property to the amount of about 
six millions of dollars. 

The only important battle, on New York i^nd, was that of 
Harlaon Heights, on the 16th of September, 1776. Afler the 
disastrous battle of Long Island, on the 27th of August, it be- 
came evident that the American army must evacuate New 
Yo]^. Accordingly, Washington ordered the troops to retreat, 
toward the north part of the island. 

On Sunday, the 15th of September, the British, alter station- 
ing their ships in the Eastand North rivers, so as to cannonade 
por lines, emnmeneed landkig in force, at Turtle bay : -the 
American troops in the vicinity fled, without making any attempt 
at resistance. Meantime, several brigades <tf General Put- 
nam's division were in the city: by his exertions, they suc- 

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ceeied in pamag Ae enem^, with very triStiag hms. The in- 
teaae heat, however, prov^ fatal to a nim^r. 

Waahiai^ton then ordered the troope to occupy the heights of 
Harlaem, — a strong position. On the morning ^ the 16th, sev- 
eral parties of the enemy appeared, on the plahis, in front of the 
American canq>. Lieutenant Colonel Knowlton's rangers, who 
had been skirmishing with an advanced party, came in and re- 
ported, that a body of the enemy were under cover of a small 
eminence, at a little distance. 

Willing to raise the spirits of our men, Washington detached 
Colonel Knowlton with his rangers, (selected, mainly, from the 
Connecticut regiments,) and Major Leitch, with three compar 
nies of choice Virginian troops, to attack them in the rear, while 
a feigned attack should be made in front 

The action was successful, and greatly inspffited our troops, 
but the two brave leaders, Ejaowlton and Leitch, fell early in 
the conflict. Our loss was four or five killed, and iorly wound- 
ed; that of the British more than twenty killed, and seveDty- 
eight wounded 

DE8CBn>noN or thb cmr. Streets, squases, dbc. The city 
covers the whole island. The portion which is densely built, 
lies south of Twenty-third street, being about three miles in 
length, and varying in breadth, from hsdf a mUe, to two and a 
<]uarter miles. In this territory, there are over 350 streets, and 
on the island more than 480. 

There are a number of public squares, but not so many as the 
dense population requires. The principal are ; 1st, the Battery «« 
a crescent shaped park, containing about eleven acres, with 
gravelled walks, and grass plats, well shaded vfiih trees* It 
affords a fine view of the shipping. Castle Clinton, connected 
with it by a bridge, has been transformed into a garden and am- 
I^theatre, capable of containing 10,000 persons. 

2d. The Bowhng Green is a small dUipse, enclosed by an iron 
fence, having a fine public fountain, which is made to fall over 
a rude pile of rocks. 

3d. The Park is a triangular area, of about eleven acres^ laid 
out with walks, i^anted w^ trees, and surrounded hy a massive 
iron fence. It contains a number of pubHo buildings. In the 
southern angle, is a magnificent fountain, playing within a basia 
100 feet in diameter. 

4th. Washington Square, or the Parade Ground, contains not 
quite ten acres. It is neatly laid out and finely diaded. 

5th. Union Place is an elliptical area, of conaderable extent, 
at the northern termination of Broadway, adorned with trees 
and a fine fountain. 

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Tmapkiiis Square, and Bellevtie,ift the eastern pert of the 
city, are places of considerable resort. The latter contains the 
new almshouse. 

Hudson Square, or St. John's Park, belonging to Trinity 
church, is a beautiful park of four acres, highly ornamented, and 
has a fountain. In the upper part of the city, several squares 
are reserved, but not yet regulated. 

PuBuc Bummif OS. Many of these are among the finest 
models of architecture in the country. 

The City Hall, akeady referred to, located in the Park, is a 
magnificent structure, and shows to great advantage. It is 216 
feet long, and 105 wide. 

Its archit^ture is Grecian, the miccessiTe itories being Ionic, OorintliiaB, and 
Composite. The ftont and ends are of white marble, and the rear of bit>wn fcee 
■lone. From the centre rises a lofty cupola, which overlooks the whole city, 
where a watchman is Rationed, to give the alarm of fire. It contains elegant 
fooms for the Governor, the Common Council, and the Superior Court, besides 
ttumeioasofllces. Its cost exceeded half a million of doDars. 

The Merchant's Exchange, in Wall street, is one of the most 
imposing and costly structures, on the American continent. It 
is built of blue Q,uiney granite, and is absolutely incombustible. 
Its length 18 200 feet, width 144, and height seventy-seven feet, 
to the top of the cornice, and 124, to the top of the dome. 

On the Wan street front is a receesed portico of eighteen massive columns, each 
of a single block of granite, thirty-eight feet high, four feet four inches in diameter, 
snd weighing about forty-three tons. The exchange or rotunda iir the centre, is 
capable of hoMing 3,000 persons, being, including the recesses, 100 feet in diame- 
ter, and eighty-seven feet high to the top of the dome. Hie dome rests on eight 
Oorinthian columns, of polished Italian marble, each for^-ooe feet high, and four 
feet eight inches in diameter. The cost of the building is estimated at $1,800,000. 

The Custom House, extending from Wall to Pine streets, is 
a magnificent Doric building, of white marble, after the model 
of the Parthenon, at Athens. 

Brick, (granite and marble, are its only materials. It has a portico on sach 
front, of ei^t Doric columns, five feet eight inches in diameter, and thirty-two fbet 
high. The great business ban, is a circular room, surmounted by a dome, that is 
supported by sixteen Corinthian pillars, each thirty feet high. The cost of the 
buiUing, including the ground, was $1,1 75,000. The number of officers emptoyed 
here, is 354. 

The Hall of Justice, on Centre street, is a massive structure, 
of Hallowell granite, in the Egyptian style of architecture, of 
which it is an admirable specimen. 

Its gloomy and heavy aspect, however, have acquired for it the title of ''the 
Sgyptian tombs.'* Beside rooms lor the Pohce, and other courts of the city^ it 
includes the House of Detention, or prison, containing 148 cells. 

CnoRcnEs. Trinity church, completed in 1846, is one of the 
most costly and magnificent churches in America. * It is con- 
structed of brown sandstone, in the perpendicular Gothic style. 
Its fi9>ire IB 283 feet in height, and is of stone throughout 

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The length of the MkUngk 192 feet, and its breaitb ei^h^* 

Grace church, on Broadway, two and a half miles north of 
Trinity, is a Gothic structure, of rare beauty, erected in 184& 

St John's church, mi Yarick street, is one of the finest imto- 
portioned churches in the city. It cost 9200,000, and has a 
steeple 220 feet in height 

St Thomas' clnnrchi in Broadway, the church of the Ascen- 
sion, and the church of the Transfiguration, in the upper part 
of the city, are also fine edifices. The Dutch Reformed churdi 
on Washington square, and that in Lafayette place, are good 
specimens of church architecture, the former in the Gothic, and 
the latter in the Grecian style. 

The Scotch Presbyterian church, in Grand street, is a hand- 
some edifice of the Ionic order, with a portico of mx massive 
columns. It cost $114,000. 

The RutgeHs street church, and the Duane street church, 
are both well ivoportioned, and imposing buildings. The Beek- 
man street church has a lofly and elegant steeple. The Roman 
Catholic church, in Barclay street, is a substantial granite 

The Romcui Catholic Cathedral, in Prince street, is a very 
large edifice of sandstone. The French Protestant church, in 
Franklin street, is built of white marble. It is of the Ionic order* 
The first Baptist church, in Broome street, is a fine Gothic 
edifice, with a very imposing interior. 

The^Chapel of the New York University, (usually occupied on 
the Sdt»bath, as a place of worship,) is one of the most perfect 
specimens of Gothic architecture, ever erected in this country. 

Hotels. The Astor House is an immense granite building, 
with three fronts, one on Broadway, of 201 feet, another en 
Barclay street, of 154 feet, and the third on Vesey street, of 
1461 feet, and cost about $800,000. It contains 303 rooms. 
The United States Hotel is a fine marble building, seven stories 
high, containing 225 rooms, and cost $350,000. 

The Franklin House, Howard's Hotel, Judson's, Rathbone's, 
the City. Croton, Carlton, the Pearl street House, and many 
others, are extensive and elegant buildings, furnishing ample 
accommodation, for the thousands who visit the city, for busi- 
ness, or pleasure. 

Railboads, 4oc, Three lines of Railroads connect directly 
with New York city : via. the Hariaem railroad, now progress- 
ing rapidly towards Albany ; the Long Island Railroad, extend- 
ing from Brooklyn to Greenport, and the New Jersey, extend- 
ing to Philadelphia, and forming a part of the great chain 
connecting with Wilmington, Ncnrth CaroUna. This road has 

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fleveral branches ; one to Morristown, and another to Patterson, 
New Jersey. 

Besides these, there are three others, connecting, by steam- 
boats, with the city, and at no great distance from it. These 
are the NeW York and Erie railroad, commencing at Piermont ; 
the Camden and Amboy, commencing at Amboy, New Jersey, 
and the Housatonic, at Bridgeport, Conn. 

Lines of steamboats, also, ply between this city and Albany, 
Troy, Newborgh, Poughkeepsie, Hudson, Catskill, and other 
places on the Hudson river : Norwalk, New Haven, Hartford, 
Norwich, Stonington and Providence, Newark, New Bruns- 
wick, Elizabethtbwn, &.c. as well as to the several small villa- 
ges on Long Island, and Staten Island. 

Steamers also leave for England, every month, and lines of 
packets, for London, Liverpool, Havre, New Orleans, Mobile, 
and Havana, every week. 

Water Works. The Croton Water Works deserve to be 
considered as one of the most magnificent enterprises of modem 
times. The water is brought from the Croton river, a stream 
in Westchester county. 

A dam 350 feet long, sevens feet wide at bottom, and seven at top, and forty 
feet high, bas been constructed, creating a pond five miles long. From this dam, 
tbe aqueduct proceeds, through bills and over vaUeys, to the Harlaem river, which 
it crosses on a massive stone bridge, 1450 feet long, erected at a cost of $900,000 1 
thence it crosses several streets, and follows the tenth Avenue down, from 151st 
street to 107th street ; here crossing a square, it follows the 9th Avenue, to 88tb 
street, where it curves and enters the receiving reservoir, in 85th street 

The aqueduct is a hollow cylinder of brick, laid in hydraulic cement The re- 
ceiving reservoir is thirty-^igbt miles from the Croton dam. It covers thirty-flve 
acres, and will contain 150 millions of gallons. Frbm this reservoir tbe water is 
conducted in iron pipes, along the 5th Avenue, to the distributing reservoir, on 
Mumy Hill, in Fortieth street 

lliis reservofar covers four acres, is constructed of stone and cement, is forty- 
three feet high from the street, and contains twenty millions of gallons. From it, 
the water is distributed over the city, in iron pipes, laid so deep under ground, as 
to be secure from the frost The supply of water is ample, both fpr the use of the 
inhabitants, and for fires. There are 1400 fire hydrants,, and 600 free hydrantSL 
No city in the worid is bet'er supplied, with pure and wholesome water, than New 

PuBUc iNSTrrtJTiONs OP THE crTY. The American Institute 
was incorporated in 1S29, for the encouragement of agriculture, 
manufactures, commerce and the arts. 

It has a suite of rooms in the second story of the New City Hall, where it has a 
library, models for machinery, dec It holds an annual fiur, every autumn, which 
ia visited 1^^ not less than 20,000 persons. 

The Mechanics' Institute has far its object, the instruction of 
mechanics and others, in science, and the arts. 

The Institute has established annual courses of popular lectures, and has a 
library, reading room, museum, and collection of chemical and philosophical appar* 
atus. A male and a female school have been established, under the superintead- 

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ence of Hm bosid, tbe fomer in 1838, tlie totter in 1839 ; both of wbieli, lave 
been eminently mecenfbl. 

The American Art Union is an incorporated association, for 
the promotion of the fine arts. Its rooms are at 322 Broadway. 
The Chamber of Commerce was established for the regulation 
of trade, &c in 1768. 

Scientific Societies. The most important of these are the 
Lyceum of Natural History, founded in 1S18, for the advance- 
ment of knowledge in Zoology, Botany, Mineralogy, G^logy, 
and Conchology ; 

It bas a large library, and extensive and valuable coDectionar in every depart- 
ment of natural history, whicli are an arranged for gratuitous exhibition, at its 
rooms No. 650, Broadway. 

The New York Historical Society, occupying rooms in the 
University building ; its library is a very valuable one, of over 
12,000 volumes^ besides a collection of coins and medals. 

The Ethnological Society, founded in 1842, for investigations., 
in history, languages, geography, &c ; 

The New York Medical Society comprising the great body of 
the educated physicians of the city ; its object is improvement 
in medical science. 

The National Academy of Design, established for the benefit 
of living artists. They annually exhibit a large collection of 

Libraries. The New York Society Library was estabUshed 
in 1754. It has a fine building on l^oadway, and a library of 
40,000 volumes. 

The Mercantile Library Association has a fine suite of rooms 
in Clinton Hall, a Kbrary of more than 21,000 volumes, and aa 
elegant reading room. 

The Apprentices Library at 32 Crosby street, contains 12,000 
well selected volumes. 

The New York Law Institute Library was established in 
1828, and has a valuable Ubrary of about 3500 volumes of select 
law books. 

Benevolent Institutions. Hospitals. There are two hos- 
pitals in the city. The New York HosfHtal, founded by sub- 
scription, in 1769, is a noble institution. It hfis extensive build- 
ings And grounds, and good accommodations for 250 patients. 
It has ten visiting, aXid as many consulting physicians. 

The City Hospital, at Bellevue, is supported by the Municipal 
government of ibe city. It has accommodations for between 
200 and 300 inmates, and is under the management of a physi- 
cian, and several assistants. 

The City Dispensary afibrds aid to about 20,000 indigent pa- 
tients smnually. The Northern and Eastern Dispensaries ad- 

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miuister relief to from 5000 to 10,000 each. The New York 
Eye IdSrmary treats over 1000 indigent patients, for diseases of 
the eye. The Bloomingdale Lunatic Asylum^ located at Bloom- 
ingdale, has about 200 patients. It is connected with the New 
York Hospital. 

The City Lunatic Asylum, on BlackwelPs Island, has from 
300 to 400 indigent patients. There is also a Lunatic Asylum 
on Murray's-Hill, Fortieth street The Institutwn for the Blind, 
on the ninth Avenue, has about sixty pupils. 

The Deaf and Dumb Asylum, on Fiftieth street, has a princi- 
pal, eight professors, and not far from 150 pupils. Its buUdings 
are large and commodious. 

There are also six Orphan Asylums in the city, and several 
institutions for aged and indigent females. 

Societies are adso founded, for the protection and benefit of 
emigrants, who throng, in such vast numbers, to the city. 

From its central position, and intimate connexion with other 
sections of the country, New York city has been made the head 
qoarters, of numerous benevolent institutions, whose measures 
are intended to benefit the whole country. The most prominent 
of these are the American Bible Society, the' American and 
Foreign Bible Society, the Methodist Book concern, the Amer- 
ican Tract Soeiety, the Home and Domestic Mission Societies, 
the Seaman's Friend Society, the Society for ameliorating the 
condition of the Jews, the American Temperance Union, the 
Moral Reform Society, the Americaa and the American and 
Foreign Anti-Slavery Societies, the Ameriean, and the Ameri- 
can Baptist Home Mission Societies, dec. &c 

Places op Amusement. • These are numerous. Beside two 
museums, each containing extensive collections of curiosities, 
there are several public gardens, where there are frequent ex- 
hibitions, picture galleries, four large, and two or three lesser 
theatres, &c. &c. 


purposes of government and police, the city is divided into 
eighteen wards, each of which elects, annually, an alderman 
and assistant alderman, who, together, form the Common 
Council, and with the Maycn:, administer ^e government of the 

The police of the city, whose duty it is to preserve order, ar- 
rest criminals, prevent riots, felonies, and other misdemeanors, 
give cUarm of j^es, &c., are 800 in number, and are distributed 
through the wards, according to their population. 

In eadli ward is a station house, and the police force of the ward, are under 
the control of a captain of poUce, and two assistants. There are six police jos- 
tiecfl, who hold courts, in three different sections of the city. The whole police 
force, is under the direction of a chief of police, whose rooms are in the new 
C^ flail in the Park. 

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B0SINB88 OP Particular Streets. Wall street has become 
the great rendezvous of bankers and brokers. Pearl street, of 
wholesale dry goods dealers. South street, of wholesale flour 
and produce dealers. Chatham street, of dealers in clothing. 
Broadway is a fasbicmable promenade ; and the Bowery, Grand, 
and Canal streets, contain most of the retail stores. 

Stores, &c. There are in the city, 1981 wholesale, and 
about 4000 retail, dry goods stores, employing a capital ofmore 
than sixty millions of dollars. There are twenty-seven bauoks, 
with an aggregate capital of 1125,563,600, besides four saving 

There are sixty ^seven fire &md marine insurance companies, 
of which twenty-two are on the mutual principle. The remain- 
der have a capital of about fourteen millions of dollars. There 
are twelve life insurance companies, four of them on the mutual 
principle, the remainder have a capital of $19,000,000. There 
were, in 1846, 106 hotels and coffee houses. 

Such is an imperfect view of the great commercial metropotis of our countrf. 
Her growth, thus fiir, has outstripped the expectations, and predictions of the 
most sanguine ; and judging of the future by the past, we are compeUed to believe, 
that ere the close of the present century, she win be, in peculation and commer- 
cial importance, what Lcmdon now is. . 

Hot resources are unequaUed, and her capacity for accommodating and sop- 
porting an immense population, unsurpassed ; and when the cities of the old world 
have sunk to decay, New York, fulfilling the promise of her youth, will flomish, 
queen of cities, and mart of the world. 


Square miles, 1448. ^Population, 145,119. 

Long Island forms so disUnct a portion of the state, that it 
merits a distinct description. It extends from 40*^ 34' to 4P 16' 
north latitude, and from 2® 58' to 5^ 3' east longitude. It is 
140 miles long, with an average breadth of 12 or 15 miles. 

Surface. A chain of low hilis divides it centrally, north of 
which, the country is rough and broken, but south of it, is al- 
most a perfect plain, apparently produced by the washing up 
of the sand from the ocean. This surface is somewhat sterile, 
but produces heavy pine timber. 

Rivers, Bays, &c. There are few streams worthy of note, 
on the island, although as a whole, it is well watered. The Pe- 
conic, Connecticuti and Nissiquogue, are the only ones of im- 

Its bays are numerous. On the southern coast, the Great 
South bay extends from Hempstead to Brookhaven, a distance 
of more than 70 miles. It is from two to five miles wide, and is 

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8e|>arated from the ocean, by a beach of sand, varying in width 
from a few rods to half a mile, broken only by a few narrow in- 
lets, which are constantly changing in depth, with the action of 
the waves. 

At the eastern extremity of the island, the Great Peconicbay 
has divided it into two peninsulas, of une<)ual length. Gardiner's 
bay, between Shelter and Gardiner's island, Airnishes a fine 
dnd commodious harbor. 

Smithtown bay, on the northern shore, is an open roculstead, 
of no great depth Of water, and improtected from the winds, 
by projecting headlands. Huntington bay is smaller, but af- 
fords a fine harbor. Hempstead harbor, Ne;v York harbor, 
and Jamaica bay, are the only other bays worthy of notice. 

Lakes. There are numerous small lakes, or ponds, scattered 
over thejsurface of the island, some of them at short distances 
from the shore. They are very uniform in their height and 
temperature, being' seldom frozen in winter, and maintaining a 
most delicious coolness in summer. Eonkonkama, Great Pond, 
Fort Pond, and Success or Sacut Pond, are the principal. 

Islands. A number of islands adjacent to Long Idand, are 
inchided in its^ territories. Of these, Shelter, Gardiner's, Plum, 
Robbin's and Fisher's islands, toward the eastern extremity, 
and Riker's, Coney, Barren, &c., at the southwestern, are the 
principaL A part of these are inluJ>ited. 

Railroad. The Long Island railroad traverses the whole 
length of the island, and furnishes to its inhabitants easy and 
speedy access to New York city. 

History. Previous to its discovery and settlement by the 
whites, Long Island seems to have been densely populated by 

HiMoriaDB have enumerated the names of foarteeo or fifteen tribes, of which 
the principal were the Canarsee, Bockaway, Merikoke, Marsapeague, Secatogue, 
•nd Patohogue tribes on the soath side ; the Matinecock, Nissaquogue, Setaoket, 
and Corehaug, on the north side ; and the Shinecock, Manhaaset, and Montauk, 
l^'omtbe Canoe Place to Montaak Pofait Of these tribes. Ibe Oanarsee were sub- 
ject to the Iro(|aoi8 ; the others were tributaries to the Montauks, Whose sachem, 
Wyandancb, was regarded as the grand sachem of the island. The Pequots, 
however, had crossed over ftom the northern shore of the sound, and levied a 
iKavy tribute on these tribes ; and after that warlike people were subdued by the 
English, the Long bland Indians paid tribute to the EagUflh, and sought their 
alliance and protection. 

The division of the Island, between the Dutch and English, 
was long a bone of contention. At length, by the treaty of 
Hartford, made in 1650, it was settled that the English should 
hold all of the island east of Oyster bay, and that the remainder 
should belong to the Dutch. After this date, the eastern part 
of the island was under the government of Connecticut, till 1664, 
when the Duke of York claimed it as a part of his patent. 

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Square mitoa, 76. 
■ 1683. 

YahiAtion in 184A, t30,750,47S. 


1. Brooklyn, 1788^ 3. New Utrecht, 1788. 5. Flatlanda, 1788. 

2. Gravesend, 1788. 4. Flatbiwh, 1788. a.^'Bushwick, 1788. 
JItoerf, &c. B. East River. JS. Atlantic Ocean, r. Jamaica Bay. 

i. Wallabout Bay. 
BafjfM, 6bc. A. New York Bay. a. NanrowB. d. Coney Island. 
FarU. Hamilton. Lafayette. 
Battle Fields, Battle of Long Island. 
dtiee and Wlagea. Brooklyn, Flatbush, Williamsburgh. 

Boundaries. North by East river, and New York harbor; 
East by dueens county ; South by the Atlantic ; West by New 
York bay, and the Narrows. 

ScBFACB. On the northeast, for three or four miles back 
from the Bast river, it is hilly. Brooklyn Hei^^hts ibrms the 

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termiiiati(Mi of the rid^. which rxmB through the islancl. On the 
southeast, a sandy plain extends to the ocean. 

BivBRS, dtc. Tiiere are no streams of importance. The 
chief bays, or indentations of the cocust, are Gravesend bay, 
Gowanus cove,, and the Wallabout bay. Plumb inlet, ahd 
Rockaway inlet, on the south, communicate with several ponds 
in the interior. 

Geology and Mineralogy. A considerable portion of the 
Ibnnation of the county is alluvial. The northern portion is 
granite. Large boulders are found scattered over this, and the 
adjoining counties. They are mostly granitic. 

The priacipttl mineEab are bematitic iron ore, iron pyrites, lignite, porcelain 
elay» magnetic icon sand, and garnet sand. Tbere is also some peat, and a few 

Soil and Vegetable Productions. The soil of this county 
is possessed of greater natural fertility, than that of the other por- 
tions of the Island, and it is highly cultivated. It is well adapt- 
ed to horticulture, smd fruits and flowers arrive at great perfec- 
tion. The grape is extensively cultivated, throughout the 
county. Little timber is found. 

PuRsurrs. Manufactures are the pursuit of a majority of the 
inhabitants. The principal articles are distilled liquors, (to the 
amount of $ 1,680,000,) cordage, iron ware, oils, flour, oilcloths, 
leather, glass, ale, &c. 

Agriculture, and particularly horticulture, receive considera- 
ble attention. Corn, oats, butter, potatoes, fruit, and market 
vegetables, are produced in large quantities. 

Its commerce is large, but being included under the reports 
for New York city, it is difficult to ascertain its amount with 

Schools. There are twenty-four public schoolhouses in 
the county, in which schools were taught, the whojjer twelve 
months, in the year 1845. During that year, 8891 children 
received instruction, at an expense of 8^17,095, for teachers 
wages. The libraries contamed about 1 3,000 volumes. 

The scbool organization of the city of Brooklyn has been already described, (see 
page 126.) 

There are alio ninety-nine select schools, containing 3516 pupils ; one acade- 
my, and two female seminaries, with 150 pupils. 

Relioiods Denominations. Methodists, Dutch Reformed, 
Presbyterians, Episcopalians, Roman Catholics,. Baptists^ Con- 
gregationalists, Universcdists, Unitarians, and Friends. Nunir 
ber of churches, 75, of clergymen, 85. 

KsTOBY. The first settlement, in this county, was made by 
a small party of Walloons, or Waaloons, from the borders of 
France, in 1625, on the shores of Wallabout bay, (called from 
them Waalebocht or the bay of the Walloons.) 

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Here, on the 17tfa of June, 1635, Sarab, eMeat daughter of Geoif e Jansen de 
BapaQe, was bora. She was the first chiid of white parents bora within the limits 
of the state of New York.* 

^ Within the succeeding thirty years, settleH)ent& had been made 
in Brooklyn, Platbush, Flatlands, Gravesend, New Utrecht, 
and Bushwick.! 

Gravesend was settled by English emigrants, who fled fh>m persecution in New 
England. Of these, the most dfstinguiabed was the Lady Moody, aqd her bod, 
8ir Henry Moody. 

These towns were each organized tinder a separate govern- 
ment, administered by an oii^r, or officers, sq)pointed by the 
Dh-ector General. 

None of them enjoyed any thhig likr a j«presentative government, and in tbe 
4ays of Governor Stuyvesant, any attempt on their part, to chum a share in iti 
administration, was flrowned down, with the utmost severity. After New Y(^ 
feu into the bands of tbe English, they were allowed to partieipate in the Jmpei^ 
feet representative government of that period. ,. . ' 

During the early part of the Revolution, Kings county was 
the scene of many interestinnc incidents. Here occurred, on the 
27th August, 1776, the battle of Long Island, which threw such 
gloom upon the rising hopes of our countrymen, in the outset 
of the revolutionary struggle* 

The British ministry, determined, if possible, to close the war 
by a single blow, had concentrated a large forc/e in the neigh- 
borhood of New York, well equipped, and furnished with all the 
munitions of war. 

Congress had assembled a force of near 27,000 men upon Long 
Island, but thty were undijBciplined militia. More than one- 
fourth of them were. invalids, and the remainder but scantily 
supplied with guns and ammunition. 

Oto the 22d of August, the British fleet approached the Nar- 
rows, and landed the troops at Gravesend and New Utrecht, 
without resistance. 

Dividing here, into three sections, under the guidance of in- 
habitants of these and pther towns, who loved the gold aC the 
British, more than their own country, they proceeded, by three 
distinct routes, to invest the American camp, which lay princi- 
pally on Brooklyn heights. 

* There is a tradition extant, that daring the infancy of this darah Rapalje, Min- 
idt, the Dutch Governor, being on a hunting excursion, with some aaaocjates, 
near tbe Wallabout bay, entered the cabm of Rapalie, to find something to satisfy 
his hunger. Finding no one at home, and no food, except an Indian dampUng, 
they devoured that, whep tbe wife of Rapalje, with her Infant in her arms, en- 
tered, and berated them soundiv for their mtrusion, and particularly, for devour- 
ing the fopd she nad reserved for her infant.. Tbe Governor, to appease her an- 
ger , promised her a milch cow, on tbe arrival of the ships from Hotlandi aa a com- 
pensation for ber dumpling. On tbqir arrival, in addition to the cow, he gave her 
twenty morgen, (oearly forty acres,) of land, for pasturage for her cow. 

t These towns werenatned by the Putch, Breukelen, Bfidwout, Amersfoort, 
Gravenzande, Nieuw Utrecht, and Boswyck, 

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One division of the British army took the road leading along 
near the Narrows, another, that parsing through the village of 
Flatbush, and the third passed by the way of Flatlands. 

Descending, on the morning of the 27 th, to the village of Bed- 
ford, General Clinton, who commanded one wing of the British 
army, carried aa important point, and an attack was made on 
the three sides of the camp at once. Suitable precautions seem 
not to have been taken, by the American officers, to avoid sur- 
prise, and although, when thus surrounded, they fought brave- 
ly, defeat was inevitable. 

Attempting to retreat, they were driven upon the enemy's 
forces on every side, and those who fought were slain, while 
those who atten^^ted to fly were made prisoners. 

The loss of the Americans was variously estimated at from 
HOD to 3300^ in killed, wounded, and prisoners. The British 
loss was less than 400. On the night of the 29th, General 
Washin^rton t^ilently drew off his troops to New York, and from 
this time till the close of the war, Kings county was in the 
bands of the British^ 

The prison sbipfl, in which the American prisoner! of war were confined, 
during the revohition, were stationed in Wallabout bay. In these ships, nearly 
11,000 American citizens perished, from disease and starvation, through the in- 
taanMnity of the British officers who had charge of them. 

They were crowded into these ships in such numbers that to obtain fresh air 
was impossible ; robbed of their clothing, fed upon the most loathsome and putrid 
provisions, and scantily supplied even with these, allowed no drink but the most 
fetid bilge water, and when sick, unattended by either physician or nurse. 

Yat, amid the horrors of socha condition, the most distressing of which it it 
possible for the human mind to conceive, our noble countrymen preferred death, 
with aU its horrors, to a traitor's life, with plenty ; and very few of them couM be 
persuaded to enlist in the British army, although they were aissured that they . 
should be amply ^ provided with food, and soitabte clothing. Their heroism, and 
the brutal inhumanity of their Jailors, diould go down to the latest posterity. 

CrriEs, y tLLAGfis, &c. Brooklyn city, the seat of justice for 
Kings county, is situated at the west end of Long Island, direct- 
ly opposite the lower portion of New York city. Its location is 
a commanding and delightful one, and its growth, within a few- 
years past, has been rapkl, beyond precedent in the state. 

It is the residence of very many of the business men of New York city, who 
prefer its pure air, and quiet streets, to the more crowded and bustling squares of 
the great metropolis. It is remarkable for the neatness and taste displayed in its 
private residences. 

The city haB a number of literary and scientific institutions of 
a high order. The principal of these are the Brooklyn Insti- 
tute, formed by the union of the Brooklyn Apprentices' Library 
Association, the Brooklyn Lyceum, and the City Library ; this 
institution has a large library > and is in a highly flourishing 
condition; the Lyceum of Natural History, which is engaged, 
with commendable zeal, in the investigation of the physical 

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sciences; the Hamilton Literary Association, and the Franklin 
Literary Association, both composed ofyoungf men desirous of 
improvement. There are eiso several academies and female 
seminaries of distinction. 

The United States Government have a navy yard at Walla- 
bout bay, covering forty acres of ground, and well provided with 
all the necessaries, for the construction of the largest ships of 
the line. They are constructing a dry dock here, at an immense 
expense. Connected with the yard, is a Naval Lyceum, com- 
posed of officers of the United States navy, and possessing a 
large library and museum. 

The Greenwood Cemetery, situated in the south part of the 
city, contains more than 200 acres of land. Its situation is de- 
lightful, and comprises every variety of surface, which iscalcvt- 
lated to make it attractive, as a place of repose for the dead. 

The harbor of the city is extensive, and its depth sufficient to 
allow the largest vessels to come to its wharves. The Atlantic 
dock, now in progress of construction, is a stupendous work, and 
one of the most remarkable monuments of private enterprise 
and wealth, in the country. Population, 62,000. 

WUliamsbm^ghy taken from Bushwick, and organized as a 
distinct town in 1840, is favorably situated for business, and 
from its proximity to New York, has had a rapid growth. It is 
the residence of many of the business men of the metropolis, 
and is fast increasing in population and wealth. It is connected 
with New York by three steam ferries. Population, about 

Flatbusht in the town of the same nan^e, is a pleasant 
though small village. Erasmus Hall, located here, and incor- 
porated in 1787, is one of the oklest and most ably conducted 
academies in the state. The battle of Long Island was fought 
mostly within the limits of this town. 

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Square miles, 396. 
Organized, 1683. 

Fopaliidon, 31,949. 
Vahiation, 1945, 911,568,350. 


1. Flushing, 1788. 4. Newtown, 178S. 

2. Hempatcad, 1788. 5. North Hempstead, 1788. 

3. Jamaica, 17S8. 6. Oyster Bay, 1788. 

JRinerg^ Sfc, D. Long Island Sound. E. Atlantic Ocean. B. East 

-ays. j. Oyster Bay. r. Jamaica Bay, k. Flushing Bay. L Gow 
tillages. North Hempstead, Flushing, Jamaica, Newtown. 

fiocNDARiES. North by Long Island sound and the East 
ri/er ; East by Suffolk comity ; South by the Atlantic Ocean, 
Bad West by Kings county. 

Surface. The northern portion of this county is rolling, but 
^th no high hills. Harbor Hill, the highest elevation in the 
wunty, is 319 feet above the ocean. The great Hempstead 
Piiain ei^nds through the central portion of the county. 

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RiTBRS, Ac. The county is well watered, but none of the 
Btreams are ofconsidcrabte size. 

Bays and Hahbors. These are numerous, both on the 
northern and southern coasts. The principal on the north, are 
Flushing, Hempstead, Little Neck, Cow, Oyster, and Cold 
Spring, bays. On the south, are Jamaica, Rockaway, and part 
of the Great South bay. 

Thete lisya abottiid with » great wiety of flih, oyttera, &c^ and at cectuD 
Matont, large numbera ot wild fowl congregate here, the talciAg of which affonb 
ample antuaemeiit t« the sportsman. 

Islands. Riker's island, on the northern coast, Hog idaod, 
Cow island, and several others in Jamaica bay, on the south- 
ern, are the principal. 

Ponds. Succe^, or Sacut pond, in Flushing, is the only one 
worthy of special notice. 

This pond is very deep, and its waters of remarkable puri^ and eoldne* 
P«rch are very abundant in it. They were first put into its waters by Doctor 
flamuel L. fifitchelL 

CuBiATE. Like that of the Island generaUy , it is mild, equa- 
ble and healthy. The seasons are early, and the frosts occur 
late in autumn ; consequently, fruits attain great perfection. 

Geoloot and Minerals. The geological character of the 
county alluvial and diluvial, the boulders are mostly granitic In 
the southern portion of the county, there are no rocks, nor even 
stones, of more than a few ounces weight. There are few min- 
erals of importance. 

Soil and VEOBTAauB Productions. The soil of the northern 
portion is very fertile, and perhaps under as high cultivation as 
that of any other part of the state. The southern part is sandy 
and naturally sterile, but by judicious management, it has 
been made to produce tolerable crops. 

The timber is principally oak, hickory, chestnut, and locust in 
great abundance. The latter was originally introduced from 
Virginia. In the ncHthern part, the apple, pear, peac}i,xherry, 
&c., thrive well. Wheat, corn, and grass, are also ^"^rite 

PuRfiorrs. Agriculture and horticulture are prominent pij^ 
suits of the inhabitants of this county. Large quantities of 
corn and oats are raised. Butter, pork, and wool are produced 
in abundance. Shrubs, fruit trees, and rare exotic plants are 
sent from the nimierous gardens and nurseries in the county, to 
all parts of the Union. 

Fishing, and fowling, are also the employments of many of the 
inhabitants. Manufactures are not extensive. The most con- 
siderable are flour, woollen cloths, distilled liquors, and leather. 

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airisEtrs COUNTY. 161 

Tbe commerce of the county k e<»fined to the coaatkig trade, 
and carried on through the ports of Flushing, Glen's Cove^ Oys- 
ter Bay, and Cold Spring. Steamers ply between New York, 
and Flushing, Glen's cove, and Rockaway. 

Stjiple Pboductions. Corn, oats, butter, wool^ fruit trees, 
and flowers. 

Schools. The county has seventy public schoolhouses, in 
which schools were taught, in 1846, an average period of ten 
months. In them 4960 children received instruction, at an ex- 
pense of $15,346. The school Hbraries contained 13,803 vol- 

' B€Mde these there wece thiity-«iz private schools, with 708 pupils, four sead- 
emies and three female seminaries, wUh 272 pupils. Chie of these is a collegiate 
school, of a high order. 

Reugious Denominations. Methodists, Episcopalians, Bap- 
tists, Frieiids, Dutch Reformed, Presbyterians, and Roman 
Catholics. Total number of churches, 59, of clergymen, 43. 

History. The first settlement made in this county, was at 
Hempstead, by a company of emigrants from Stamford, Conn., 
in 1644. This company acknowledged the Dutch jurisdictioB, 
and obtained a patent from Grovemor Kieft. The place was 
first called Hemsteede. 

In the spring of 1645, a company of Englishmen who had 
previously resided in Vlissingen, in Holland, emigrated to this 
country, and locating themselves in Queens county, founded 
the town of Flushing, called by them Vlissingen. They, too, 
obtained a patent, from Grovernor Kiefl, for their lands. Be- 
tween this period and 1656, settlements were commenced at 
Oyster bay, Newtown, and Jamaica. 

A considerable number of Friends having settled in Vlissin- 
gen, Governor Stuyvesant, animated by thespirit of intolerance 
BO prevalent at that day, issued an order requiring the people 
of the town to cease giving them any countenance, or enter- 
taining them. 

To this Order, the people of that town sent a dignified remon- 
strance. Gov. Stuyvesant, however, persisted in his intolerant 
measures, inflicting heavy fines, protracted imprisonment, and 
severe corporeal punishment, on those who prc^essed the Qua- 
ker faith, as well as upon all who assisted or sheltered them. 
Some thirteen or fourteen prominent individuals were thus 
made to feel the weight of his displeasure. 

One of the sufierers, having nf&mifested more firmness than 
the rest, in the avowal of his sentiments, was sent by the Gov- 
ernor, a prisoner in chains, to Amsterdam. He was liberated 
from confinement, and sent back by the West India Company, 
and made the bearer of a letter fVom the company to the perse- 

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163 8TATB OP MlfrW YORK. 

eating Oovemof , which, for the noble ■entimetits, in regard to 
religions iiberty » which it avows, deserves to be written in lett^s 
of gold. 

But the intolerant spirit of the Dntch governor did not stop 
here. The Lutherans also fell under the ban of his dis];4eatmre, 
and he banished them from the colony. 

Tbifl Mgotry did noch toward rendering the people dissatisded with U» away 
of ttae director, and but for tbe incoraioa ot the Engliah, in 1664; tliey wo 'id, in 
an probabflty, have thrown off their allegiance, by a civil revolution. In tbe ex- 
cliange of masters, however, there was little ebe than an exchange of tyruits. 
Religious iotoleianee still prevailed, under a new form. 

In 1702, Lord Cornbury, having taken refuge in Jamaica^ 
from yellow fever, (at that time epidemic in New York city), 
occupied the residence of Rev. Mr. Hubbard, the Presbyterian 
minister of the place, which was courteously tendered him, by 
its occupant, as the best dwelling in the village. 

With characteristic ingratitude, he dispoesessed this clergy- 
man of his pulpit, in which he placed an Episcopal .minister, 
whom, on his return to New York city, he ordered to occupy 
Mr. Hubbard's parsonage. Twenty-six years elapsed, before 
the Presbyterians were able to recover . possession of their 
church edifice. 

In 1707, Lord Cornbury imprisoned two Presbyterian clergy- 
men, in this county, for preaching without his license, and fin^y 
liberated them, on the payment of a fine of $500. 

I>urhig the Revc^ution, a majority of the inhabitants of this 
county took the oath of allegiance to Great Britain. British 
troops" were stationed in different portions of the county, and 
the people were obliged to furnish them with large quemtities of 
wood and provisions. 

^ There were ntany^ however, whose hearts beat with true loyalty to the cause 
of their country, and who rejoiced, when she sttcceededin throwing off the yoke 
of foreign oppressicNii. 

It was rather, perhaps, the misfortune than the fitult of the people of this 
county, that, exposed as they were, without defence, to the hostile power of the 
enemy, they yielded to a force they could not oppose. 

Yet this was made a subject of reproach to them, and in 178i, a tax of 
XlOOiOOO was levied upon the southern district, to be appropriated, as a com- 
pensation, to the other parts of tbe state, on account of their not having been 
able to take an active part in^ the war ; and Queens county, in addition to her se^ 
vere tosses from the British, was obliged to atone for her own sniafortunes. 

-Villages. Nobth Hempstead, the seat of justice for the 
eounty, is situated near the southern boundary of the town of 
the same name. It is an inconsiderable village, aiid. was ser 
lected for the county seat, frcftn its being the geographiccd cen- 
tre of the county. 

Flu$hing village, in the town of Flushing, situated at the head 
of the bay of the same name, is one of the most beautiful villa- 
ges in the 8tate« It is a favorite summer residence of merchants 

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and others, from the city of New York, and has many noble 
villas and country seats. Population 2600. 

Its schools are highly celebrated. St. Ann's .Hall, a female sem- 
inary of a high order, St. Thomas' Hall, and Si. Paul's college,. 
about three miles from the* village, a collegiate school for boys, 
^te among the most distinguished. These schools are under 
the direction of Che Episcopalians. The Friends have also a 
flourishing seminary, and there are several well conducted select 

The nurseries and botanic gardens here, have long held the 
first rank in our country. The Linnean Botanic garden was 
established, by Mr. Prince, in 175Q, and still maintains a high 
reputation, while the new nursery of the Messrs, Prince, the 
Bloodgood nursery, the Commercial garden and nursery, and 
the Florail and Pomological nursery, contend with it for the palm. 

In this town is still standing the Bowoe mansion, where the celebrated George 
Fox, the apostle of the Friends, spent much of his time. Near it stands the an- 
cient and venerable oak, under the canopsr of wlueh he proclaimed his views, 
with an eloquence which won many hearts. 

Jamaica village^ in tjie town of that name, is situated on the 
line of the Long Island railroad, twelve miles east from the city 
of Brooklyn. It is a beautiful villetge, with many facilities for 
intercourse with the adjacent towns. The railroad company 
have here a large manufactory, for the construction and repair 
of their cars. It al@o contains Union Hall academy, an old and 
flourishing institution, a female seminary of some reputation, 
. and several select ischools. The Union race course is within 
the limits of this town. Population about 2000. 

Hempstead village is delightfully situated, on the southern 
margm of the great Hempstead plain, in the town of the same 
name. For beauty, and salubrity, it hsua few equals. The 
Hempstead seminary has a fine and costly edifice, and is in a 
flourishing condition. The village is a favorite summer resort. 
Population about 1800. 

There are several other villages in the town. Rockaway 
beach, or Far Rockawayj is a headland projecting from the 
southern shore of the town, on which the restless surges of the 
ocean beat, with ceaseless vehemence. 

Near Rockaway is a pleasant and thriving little village. 
N«ar the Methodist church, stands a marble monument erected 
to the memory of 139 unfortunate emigrants, whose bodies were 
washed ashore from the wrecks of the ships Bristol and Mexico, 
in the winter of 1836-7. In these two melancholy shlpwrebks 
215 persons were lost. 

Newtown^ Astoria, Oyster BQ:y, Glen Cove^ arid Norwichi are 
villages of some importance. Lloyd's neck belongs to the town 
of Oyster Bay. 

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tkfaue Mitet, 976. 
, 1683. 

Population, 34,579. 
Valuatioii, 1845, $5,063,618. 


1. Brookhaven* 1788. 6. Smitbtown, 1788. 

2. East Hampton, 1788. 7. Southampton, 1788. 

3. Huntington, 1788. 8. Southold, 1788. 

4. Islip, 1788. 9. Riverhead, 1792. 

5. Shelter Island, 1788. 

Rivers, a. Connecticut creek, b. Nissiquogue River, c. Sampawan's 

creek, d. Conesqua River, v. Peconic. 
Bays, fye. E. Atlantic Ocean. D. Lon^ Island Sound, f. Great 

South Bay. e. Great Peconic. g. Gardiner's, j. Smithtown. m. 

Huntington's, n. Shinecock. o. Great West. 
Ponds, h. Ronkonkama. 
blands, 8re. q. Fisher's, r. Gardiner's, s. Robbins*. t. Plumb. 

u. Shelter, p. Montauk point 
Villages. Riterhead. Sag Harbor. Greenport. 

Boundaries. North by Lon^ Island Sound ; East and Soath 
by the Atlantic Oceon ; and West by Clueens county. 

Surface. Toward the northern shore, the surface is hilly 
and broken. The southern portion is lerel and sandy. There 
are no hills of considerable altitude in the county. The Great 
Peconic bay, extending nearly into the centre of the county, di- 
vides it into two peninsulas. 

Rivers. The county is not well watered. The Peconic, Con- 
necticut, Nis8iquogue,'Sainpawan'8 and Conesqua rivers are the 

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Bayb, &c. The Atlantic Ocean washes its fiouthern and 
eastern shores, and Long Island sound its northern* Its most 
considerable bajrs are Huntington, Smithtown, Gardiner's, 
Great Peconie, Shinecock. Great West, and Ghreat South bays. 

Ponds. Ronkonkama pond lies at the junction ol' the towns 
of-IsUp, Smithtoini and Brookhaven. 

Islands. Shelter , Gardiner's, Fisher's, Robbins' , Plumb, and 
the GuU islands on the coast belong to this county. 

CuMATE. Similar to that of the Island generGdly. The pre- 
vailiBg winds are from the southwest. The atmosphere is at 
all times moist, and the cold of winter is accompanied by a de- 
gree of chilliness^ which renders it unpleasant. The longevity . 
of its inhabitants is greater, however, than that of any other 
portion of the state. 

Geology and Minerals. The geological formation of this 
county does not difi'er from that of the other counties of the 

It is a disputed point, wlietber the fomiatioQ of the whole county is ttlluvial 
<Mr lioL That of the toutbem portion is undoubtedly so^ and the immense granite 
and gneiss boulders imbedded in the soil, would indicate that the northern part 
might be also. 

It is the ofrinlon of oiany emineDt geologisia, that the northern portion of the 
■dand once formed a part of the coast of Connecticut, and that it was rent fnun 
the main, either by the force of the waves, or by some convulsion of natul«. 

Hematite, iron pjrrites, lignite, clay, suitable for making porcelain ware, mag- 
netic iron sand, and garnet, are the principal minerals. 

Soil and Vegetable Productions. Portions of the soil of 
this cotHity are barren wastes of sand, producing little except 
pitch pine timber. Other portions on the southern shore are 
composed of sand dunes, or small hillocks of sand, affording no 
sustenance to any vegetable, except an occasional tuft of coarse 
grass. There are large ^acts, however, of highly fertfle land, 
which, manured with ashes, seaweed, and the fertilizing moss- 
honker, or whitefish, yield ample crops, to repay the husband' 
man for his toil. 

The timber of the county is chiefly pitch pine, oak, hickory, chestnut and 
tocust The bay berry, or wax myrtle, abounds In Riverhead. 

Pursuits. Aericuititre is the piirsuit of a majority of the in- 
habitants. The preparation of lumber and wood, for market, 
occupies considerable attention, though less now than formerly. 
Corn and oats are raised to some extent, and in some parts of 
the county, there are extensive dairies. 

The fisheries also afford employment to many of the inhabit^ 
ants. The whale fishery is extensively prosecuted from Sag 
Harbor and Greenport. A considerable number of vessels are 
employed in the codfisheries, and numerous smacks, &c., in the 
coast fisheries. The entire amount of shipping, enrolled in this 
district, in 1846, was 28,348 tons. 

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The mafttykctw^e^o^abia county are not extensive. Flour, 
woollen and cotton goodi^ and leatW, are the most important 

Staplb Proddctions. Oil, fifiii, corn and oats. 

Schools. There are in the county 1^ district school-houses* 
The schools were maintained, in 1846, nine months; 9117 chil^ 
dren received instruction, at a coat of $17,953. The district 
libraries contained 19,728 volumes* 

There were, in addition, forty-six s^ect flebools, with 634 pupib; sev^m 
scademifls and one feoiale sonlnarjr, attended by 119 schdan. 

REUGI0U3 Denominations. Methodists, Presbyter^ns, Con- 
gregationalists, Baptists, Episcopalians, Universaikts and Ro- 
. man Catholics. There are seventy-nine churches, and eighty* 
two clergymen. 

History. This coimty was peopled mostly by em^rants from 
New England, and the inhabitants have retained, in a great de- 
gree, to this day, their primitive simplicity of manners and habits. 

Southold was the first town settled in the county, and the first 
to adopt a municipal organiziation, on the island. Its settlers 
removed here from New Haven, and remained under the juris- 
diction of that colony, until it was included in the charter of 
Connecticut, in 1662, after which, it became a dependency of that 
colony, till 1676, when Sir Edmund Andross insisting on his 
right to jurisdiction over it, the people submitted, somewhat \m- 

Southampton and East Hampton were also included vmder the 
government of New Haven and Connecticut, until this period. 

Smithtown was purchased by Richard Smythe, of Narragan- 
sett, Rhode Island, who obtained a patent from Governor An- 
dross, in 1677, and removed here and founded a settlement. 
Gardiner's Island was settled by Lyon Gardiner, in 16355* 
Shelter Island in 1652, by James Farrett and others ; and Brook- 
haven in 1655, by emigrants, mostly from Boston. 

In 1673, Colve, the Dutch governor of New Netjierlands, at- 
tempted to reduce these towns to subjection to the Dutch au- 
thority at New Orange [New York]. This effort called forth a 
sharp remonstrance from John Winthrop, the then governor of 
Connecticut, and a spirited correspondence ensued, which re- 
sulted in a partial compromise, on the part of the Ehitch gov- 

In 1674, however, the English sway was resumed, and in 
1676 the county came imder the government of the colony of 
New York. In 1699, the pirate Kidd secreted a portion of his 

• Mr. Gardiner was a man of fine education, and exerted a powerful influ- 
ence over the Indians, and the white settlers on the island. Wyandanch, the 
powerful. sachem of the Montauks, regarded tarn with the utmost rerereoce 
and affection. 

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ill-gotten treasures on Gardiner's Island, in this county. These 
were seized by order of the Earl of Bellomont, the same year.. 

Durin;^ the revolution, the people of Suflblk county were de- 
cidedly patriotic in their sentiments, and though under the dom- 
ination of the British, they maintained their affection for their 
country, and consequently suffered severely from her enemies. 

It deserves to be recorded, to the honor of East Uampton, that eveiy man in 
the town, capable of bearing armd, signed a solemn pledge, on the 6th July, 1775, 
not to. submit to British taxation. The other towns were nearly unanimous in 
their resistance to oi^ression. 

Oil the aifit of May, 1777, the British ha vmg collected a con- 
siderable quantity of provisions andf military stores at Sag Har- 
bor, General Parsons formed the design of destroying them, 
and c<Mnmitted the enterprise to Lieutenant Colonel Meigs. 

That officer proceeded directly to Guillbrd, but on account erf 
the roughness of the weather, could not embark till the 23d, 
when he left Guilford, at one o'clock, P. M., with 170 men, in 
thirteen whale boats. They arrived at Southokl about six 
o'clock, P. M., transported their boats over land to the bay, and 
arrived, at twelve o'clock at night, within four miles of Sag 
Harbor. Securing their boats under a guard, they marched di- 
rectly for the village, and attacking the outposts with fixed bayo- 
. nets, they proceeded immediately to the shipping. 

An armed schooner, with twelve guns and seventy-nine men, 
lying here, fired upon them for thrse-lburths of an hour, bwt 
without effect Twelve brigs and sloops, (one of which was 
the vessel above referred to), 120 tons of hay, corn and oats, 
ten hogsheads of rum, and a large quantity of merchandise, 
were completely destroyed ; six of the enemy were killed, and 
ninety taken prisoners. Not one of Colonel Meigs' force was 
either killed or wounded. 

At two o'clock in the aiternoon, he returned to Guilford, hav- 
ing been absent only twenty-five hours. Congre&s voted a 
sword to Colonel Meigs, and Washington addressed him a let- 
ter of thanks, through General Parsons. 

In retaliatk>n for the capture of Major General Silliman, by 
the British, in May, 1779, a party of iwenty-five vdunteera set 
off from Bridgeport, Conn., on the 4th of November of the same 
year, to capture Hon. Thomas Jones, then judge of the supreme 
e<»urt, who was noted for his attachment to Great Britain. 
They succeeded in their object, and captured three other jwris- 
oners. These were exchanged, in May, 1780, for Major Gen- 
eral Silliman, and other prisoners. 

On the 21st November, 1780, Major Benjamin Tallmadge at- 
tempted an enterprise against Fort St. George, a British stock- 
ade post near Mastic, on the southern shore of the island, in the 
town of Brookhaven. Embarking at Fairfield, Conn., with 

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eighty men, he crossed the soimd to Old Man's harbor, where 
he remained concealed through the day, and at night marched 
for theYort, which he readied about two o'clock in the morning, 
and carried immediately, at the point of the bayonet, taking 
fifty-four prisoners, and destroying several vessels laden wim 
stores. On his return he stopped at Coram, and burned three 
hundred tons of hay, which had been collected by the British. 
He arrived at Fairfield, on the evening of the 22d, with his pris- 
oners and booty, without the loss of a single man. 

In October, 1781, Major TaUmadge attacked Fort Sloogo, 
a British post at Tredwell's bank, in Smithtown, and destroyed 
it, taking a number of prisoners. 

During the late war with Great Britain, the enemy repeatedly 
seized vessels in Long Island sound, and on the coast, and. 
either wantonly destroyed them, or demanded sm exorbitant 
price for their ransom. In one of their incursions 'fi>r this pur- 
pose, at Riverheadj in May, 1814, they were repulsed by the 
militia, with severe loss. 

ViLLAQES. Ri?£RBEAD, the seat of justice for the <K)unty, is a 
small viUage on Pecooic river. 

Sag Harbor, the largest whaling port in the state, and the 
most populous village in the county, is situated on the boundaj'y 
line between Southampton and East Hampton, the larger-por- 
tion of it being in the former town. Its site is sandy and sterile, 
but its harbor is excellent. It was first settled in 1730. 

In 1845 there were sixty-one ships and barks belonging to this 
port, engaged in the whaling business, employing a capital of 
more than $3,000,000, and a number of smaller vessels in the 
home fisheries and coasting trade. It suffered severely, from 
a disastrous fire in 1845, but was soon rebuilt, in a better man- 
ner than before. Population 362 L 

Greenport, the terminus of the Long Island railroad, has 
Bpmmg up since 1827, and has had a more rapkl growth, than 
any other viUage in the county. It had twelve sMps, engaged 
in the whaling business, in 1845. Population about 1200. 

HurUingUm, in the town of the same name, is a small but an- 
cient village, with an incorporated academy. It has a fine 

Oyster Ponds, or Orient, and SotOhold, are growing settle- 

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Square Mflei, 63. Popiilatioii, 13,673. 

Organized, 1683. Valuation, 1845, $1,373,279. 


U' Castleton, 17S8. 3. Sonthfield, 1788. 

2. Northfield, 1788. 4. Westfield^ 1788. 

Bays, A. New York Bay. a. The Narrows, b Arthur Kull Sound. 

c. Staten Island Sound, q. Newark Bay. w^ Raritan. x. Lower 

Arte. Tompkins. ^Richmond. 
VUlagf, RicBitfoirs. New Brighton. Tompkinsrille. Ftctory- 


BoDNDARi£9. North by Newark bay and Arthur KuD sowid ; 
Bast by New York bay and the Narrows ; South by the Lower 
bay and Raritan bay ; and West by Staten Island sound. It em-* 
braces Shooter's idand, and the Islands of meadow on the west 
side of Staten island. 

SoRFACE. Richmond county is ^piite elevated and much bro- 
ken. There are a lew miles of marsh, however, on the west- 
•ra coast, extending back ^ora Newark bay. The northa*n 
shore of the island is very bold, affording some delightftil pros- 
pects and beaaUfvd sites for building, some ef which are occu- 
pied. The southeastern extremity is more level. 

Bats, &c. New York bay on the north connects with New- 

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ark bay by means of the Arthur Kull sound, Staten island * 
sound, seldom exceeding half a mile in width, bounds it for fif- 
teen miles on the west. New York bay on the east is contracted 
at Sig-nal hill into the Narrows which divide it into the upper 
and lower bays. That portion of the upper bay lying northeast 
of the island is known as the quarantine ground, where vessels 
from warm climates are obliged to lie at anchor, under quaran- 
tine regulations, till permission is- given by the health officer for 
them to proceed to the city. 

Cum ATE. The climate is less subject to extremes than in 
many sections of the state. The sea-breezes moderate alike the 
heat of summer and the cold of winter. Its inhabitants are 

Geoloqy an d Mineralogy. Staten Island is based upon prim- 
itive rock, which rises near its centre into a ridge, running lon- 
gitudinally throiigh it, with a breadth of from one to two miles. 
Boulders of green-stone, sand-stone, gneiss, granite, &c., appear 
in some sections sparingly, but on the northeast part of the 
island in considerable abundance. 

Steatite, containing veins of talc, amianthus, and alabesfear, covers the granite 
of the ridge. This approaches in many places within one and a half feet of the 
surface. Brown hematitic iron ore, of a superior quality, is abundant, as well as 
a granular oxide of iron. Chalcedony, jasper, Ignite, erystalized pyrites, asbestos, 
amianthus, dolomite, Brucite, Gurhofite, talc and serpentine, are the other prin- 
cipal minerals. 

There is a single chalybeate spring, of no great strength, in the county. Ma- 
rine fossils have been found in the alluvial portions of the island. 

Soil and Vegetable Proddctions. The soil of the county 
with proper culture produces fair crops, particularly of oats, 
corn and grass. Land, however, commands a high price per 
acre, even when taken in farms. 

Oak, htckcMcy, wahmt, and chestnut trees are abuttdant <m the' ridge, but tiiejr 
are flraall, and chiefly -of after growth. 

Pursuits. The attention of the people is divided between ag- 
riculture, manufactures and commerce. Manufoetures are al- 
most entirely confined to the dyeing and printing of cloths. 

Fisheries are a source of sustenance and profit to many of its 
inhabitants. Large quantities of fine oysters and clams, shad, 
l^erring and mossbonkers, or white-fish^ are annually take!ii 
from its waters. 

MBsy of its citizens are engaged in business in the city of New 

■ Schools. The pubiie school-booses are foorteen. The 
schools were taxight in 1846 on an average ten months, And 
vnere attended by 1915 scholai's. The wages oi teachers 
amounted to. $5^5; the libreiriefl contained 4463 volumefi. 
There are tweotjHsix private schools with 716 pupik. ^ 

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•RfiuoiotTs dbnominations. Methodist^i Episcopalians, Bap- 
ttBts, Dutch Reformed and Roman Catholics. There are 
twenty-one churches and twenty-four clergymen. 

HisTomr. Staten Island vms purchased from the Indians, in 
1630, by Womer Van T wilier, as a^ent for Michael Paauw, 
one of the directors of the Dutch West India Company, together 
with a large tract of land in Bergen county, New Jersey. PaaKcvr 
named his " Colonic" Pavonia,* probably from the abundance 
of wild turkeys, regarded by the first settlers as a species of 

For some reason, Paauw seems soon to have relinquished his 
claim to the island , and it reverted to the company. In January, 
1639, David Pieterszen De Vries, the pioneer in the settlements 
on the Delaware, commenced a colony on the island. Through 
the short sighted policy of Governor Kieft, in regard to the In- 
dians, their revengeful disposition was roused, and in the ab- 
sence of De Vries, hia colony was cut off. 

In 1641, CometisMelyn, an unprincipled adventurer, claimed 
the island under an aUeged grant from the West India Compa«- 
ny, and commenced a colony upon it, but the settlers were soon 
dispersed by the Indians. In 1651, the Indians sold it again to 
Augustin Herman, and in 1657, to the Baron Van Capellan, 
who founded a colony, which was broken up by the Indians. 

In 1655, during Governor Stuyvesant's invasion of the Swe* 
^ dish settlements on the Delaware, the Indians made a descent 
trpon Staten Island, and mEussacred sixty-seven persons, which 
must have embraced nearly the whole white population. 

In 1656, Melyn obtained the exclusive title to the island, and 
claiming to be independent of New Amsterdam, gave Governor 
Stnyvesantand the colonists much trouble. In 1659 he convey- 
ed his rights to the company. 

- In 1664, the ooonty, together with the rest of the colony, fell 
into the hands of the English, and soon became the home of 
numerous emigrants. In 1667, the first court of jvistice wa4 
established here. In 1670, it was once more purchased of the 
Indians by Governor Lovelace. In 1683, it contained 200 fanu^ 
lies. It was then organized as a county. Soon ai^er this time 
ft received an accession of inhabitants from the Huguenots, who . 
fled from their native land on account of persecution. 

On the fourth of July, 1776, Sir William Howe seized the 
island, and issued from thence his proclamations to the inhabit 
ants of Long Islaoid ] and on the 22d of August, Icuided his troops 
without oppositibn, on the Long Island shore, opposite South* 
field. The island was held by the British, during the whde 
revolutionary struggle. 

• Pavonla signifies the land of peacocks. 

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On the 21st of August, 1777, Gen. Sullivan, with a force of 
about 1000 men, undertook an expedition against the English 
forces on Staten Island He captured about 150 prisoners, but, 
ih>m the terror of the boatmen who ccmveyed his troops to the 
idand, he was pressed by the British and thirteen of his men 
)dl!ed, and the rear gvArd of one division numbering 136 men, 
taken prisoners* beibre they could effect a passage to the main 

In November, 1777, another euriM'ise was attempted by Gen- 
eral Dickinson, and in the winter of 1779-80, a third by General 
Stirling ; both were unsuccessful. 

Preparatory to the war of 1812, Forts Tompkins, Richmond 
and Hudson, were erected at the Narrows, which comidetely 
command the entrance to the upper bay. On Signal hill, back 
of the forts, is a telegraph, communicating with New York city. 

From the time that the English obtained possession of this 
island, up to the year 1833, a controversy had existed between 
New York and New Jersey, relative to the jurisdiction over it 
Tfaifl controversy was at length happily laminated in that year, 
l^ commissioners, who decided in favor of New York, but yield- 
ed to New Jersey the jurisdiction over a portion of the adjacent 

VUiLAOEs, Ac. RicHMOfTD, the county seat, is a small village 
in the town of Westfidd, near the centre of the county. Cos- 
ileton, upon the Kills and New York bay, is the most hiUy town 
in the county. The great beauty of the prospects, thesaiubritj 
of climate, and purity of water which its great elevation secures, 
' and the convenience of access to New York city, has within the 
last few years much increased the value of its laiids. It has 
three considerable villages, all finely situated; Tompkinsville, 
New Brighton and Factoryville, 

Tompkm»ville contains three hospitals connected with the 
Quarantine department, and the country seat of the ],ate Vice 
President, D. D. Tompkins. New Brighton has ^ young ladies' 
seminary and a boarding School for boys. It is distingui^ed 
for its beautiful country seats. At FactofyvUle is an extensive 
dyeing and printing establishment 

In Northfield is located the ' * Sailors' Snug Harbour," founded 
by Robert R. Randall, in 1801, who left for this purpose twenty* 
two acres of land, in the fifteenth ward of New York city. The 
INrincipal edifice, with its wings, is 225 feet in length, and is 
usually the home of about 100 infirm and aged seamen. Con* 
nected with it is a farm of 160 acres. An elegant monument to 
the memory of the founder fronts the edifice. 

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Square mites, 470. Population, 47,578. 

Organised, 1880. Valuati(», 1845, $10,OM,917. 

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1. Bedford, 179S. ' 12. Poundridge, 17S8. 

2. Cortland, 1788. 13. Rye, 1788. 

3. East Chester, 1788. 14. Scarsdale, 1788. 

4. Greensburgh, 1788. 15. Somers, 1788. 

6. Harrison, 1788. lt>. Westchester, 1788. 

6. Mamaroneck, 1788. 17., White Plains, 1788. 

7. Mount Pleasant, 1788. 18. Yonkers, 1788. 

8. New Rochelle, 1788. 19. Yorktowo, 1788. • ■ 

9. North Castie, 1788. 30. New Castle, 1791- 
10. North Salem, 1788. 21. Lewisborough, 1788. 
IL Pelham, 1788. • 22. Ossinsing, 1845. 
Mountains. T. Southern termination of the Matteawan mountains. 
MioerSy icc O. Hudson. B. East. S. Croton, a. Harlaem. 

e. Bronx, d. Sawmill «reek. 
Bays, ^c. D. Long Island Sound, h. Tappan Bay* i. HaverstraW- 

k. Peekskill. 
Ponds, f. Croton. 
fkMTts. Fort Schuyler. 

Battle-fields. Verplank's Neck. Stoney.Point White Plains 
Villages. White Plains. BEtroKD. Singsing. Peekskill. Tar- 
ry town. Dobb's 'Ferry. 

Boundaries. North- by Putnam county; East by the state of 
Connecticut and Long I^nd Sound ; South by East river add 
Harlaem river; West by the Hudson river. 

Surface. The surface of Westchester county is hilly, bein^ 
broken by numerous ridges, generally of no great elevation^ 
Thegeneralcourse of these rWges i^ from fouth-west to north- 
east. The Matteawan mountains - enter the north-western 
corner of the county, and irom thence cross the Hudson. 

A high ridgCy forming the watershed of the county, passes 
from Mount Pleasant on the Hudson, eastward through New 
Castle,. Bedford,' Poun^idge and. Salem,/ into Connecticut. 
The south-eaet^n portion of this county, upon the Sound, be- 
comes more level. 

Rivers, &c. The East river, fipd Long Island Sound wash 
the south-eastern shore of the county ^ and the Hudson the. 
western. The other principal streams are the Croton river, 
which furnishes a supply of water, to New York city, Bronx 
and Sawmill rivers, and Mamarone<;k ereek. 

Bays. Tappan, Hayerstraw and Peekskill bays are only ex- 
pansions of the Hudson, upon the western boundary of the 

Ponds. Croton Pond is a beautiful little lake, five 'miles in 
length, formed by the Croton dam, which was erected for the 
purpose of forming a reservoir, for the water conducted to New 
York by the Croton aqueduct, ' 

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Railkoad. The Harlaem ratkoad extends through the 
Qoimty to its northern boundary. 

CuMATf . Its climate is mild and healthy. 

•GfiOLOOY AND Minerals. This county is wholly primitive in 
its formation. Gneiss and primitive limestone are the prevail- 
ing rocks.^. 

The latter fumisfaes in vmst abundance, an excellent building material, wbicli, 
under tbe nan^e.of Singsing marUe, is extensively used in New York city, Brook- 
lyny Albany and Troy. It is liable, however, to become stained by the action of 
tlie sea air, owing In part to to coataining Aiinute grains of iron pyrites. 

Jltfagnetic iron ore, iron and^copper pyrites, green malachite, sulpbnret of zinc, 
galena and other lead ores, native silver in small quantities, serpentine, garnet, 
beryl, apatite, tremolite, white pyroxene, chlorite, black tourmaline, Sillimanite, 
monazxte, Brucite, epidote and q>hene, are the principal among the numerous min- 
erals found within its borders. Peat is found abundantly, and of good quality, in 
Bedford. " 

Soil AND Vegetable Paobuctions. As the county is based 
upon primitive rock, its soil is naturally sterile, but by skiUful 
husbaindry it has been rendered, produccive. It is not adapted 
to wheat : summer crops succeed well, and by the use of plaster 
it yields good returns in grass. Much of the land is devoted to 
the raising of market vegetables. 

The timber of tbe cooaty is prineipaBy oak, chestnut, hickory^ maple, kjc. 

PoRsun'su Agricidture, and particularly Horticultore, is thia 
pursuit of a majority of the inhabitants. But little wheat is 
raised; corn is extensively cultivated, and carried in large- 
quantities to New York city, in the ear. 

Rye, oats, potatoes and turnips sure also largely produced, as 
well as Ihe garden vegetables adapted to the New York market* 
The rearing of calves, lambs, pigs and fruits for the same 
market, is also a source of great profit to the agriculturists* 
Butter and milk are also produced in considerable quantities. 

Marmfaciures. The facilities for manufactui'ing in this 
county are very generally improved, but there is not as much: 
variety in the manufactures as in some other counties of the 
state. Iron, wooUen goods, fl^ur, leather and paper arethe 
principal articles. 

Commerce. A considerable coasting trade is carried on be- 
tween the port& on the Hudson and on the Sound, and New 
York city. Much of the produce of the county is also trans- 
ported to New York by the Harlaem railroad, and by steamers 
on the Hudson. 

Alines, Under this head we may enumerate the extensive 
niarble quarries at Singsing, Kingsbridge, and a copper mine 
in Mount Pleasant, formerly extensively wroaght, but now 

Staple Productions. Corn, oate, rye, pork, calves, lambs, 
fowls, garden vegetables, butter and milk. 

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176 ST4TS OF K^W TO&K* 

ScHooLB. There are in the eorxafy 149 district school-hooaefl. 
In 1846, schools were taught an average period of nine months, 
and 8512 children received instruction, at an expense of nearly 
f 23,000. The number of volumes in the district libraries was 

The flame year there were eigbty-nine private schools, with 1354 scbobtt ; Ave 
academies, and two female seminaries, with 196 pupils, an^ Sl John's Ck)U^, a 
ceBegiate school, with thirteen instmetors and 115 students. 

Religious Denominations. Methodists, Episcopalians, Pres- 
byterians, Friends, Baptists, Dutch Reformed, Roman Catho- 
lics, Congregationalists, and Universalists. Total number of 
churches, 111 ; of clergymen, 101. 

History. The first settlement in this county was probably 
made in 1642 or 1643, by Mr. Throgmorton, and thirty-five asso- 
ciates, in the town of Westchester. Mr. Throgmorton emigra- 
ted hither from New England, and commenc^ his settlement 
with the approbatimi of the Dutch, who named it Eastdorp. 
The promontory on which Fort Schuyler now stands, received 
its name of Throg's point from this gentleman, fai 1648, the 
territory now included in the town of Yonkers, was granted to 
Jonge Heer Van der Donk.* 

The boundary line between New York and Connecticut was 
the cause of almost incessant bickering during the Dutch and 
the earlier part of the English colonial administration. This 
settlement of Eastdorp, as well as others in this county, were 
claimed by Comiecticut. 

In 1681, a settlement was made in Bedfbnl, at a place called 
the Hop Ground, under a Connecticut license, and in 1697, a 
patent was issued for the town by the Connecticut Colonial As- 
sembly. In 1700, however, the settlement was attached to New 
York by order of King William. A patent was granted to 
Frederick Philips, for the tract known as Philips' patent, which 
was south of the Croton river, and was about twenty miles 

In 1689, Governor Leisler purchased the manor of Pelham, . 
including the present town of that name and New Rochelle, 
from the heirs of Thomas Pell, to whom it had been granted in 
1666, for the Huguenots, who fled hither firom France, on account 
of persecution. 

Governor Leisler was warmly supported in his administration 

by the citizens of this county, sind particularly by those of Elast 


In 1697, the two tracts of land, known as the Cortland manor, 

' lying in this county, and consisting of more than 86,000 acres, 

were granted to Stephanus Van Cortland. This patent, as 

* Probably Adriaen Van der Donk, the words Jonge Heer beiAg merclj ui« 
tide of the Individual. 

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UBual at^Uiat time, gave to the manor the right of representation 
in tiie assembly. 

Pasedng over the period from 1700 to 1T75; during which few 
incidents of interest are recorded by historisuis, we find this 
county deeply concerned in the events of the revolution. After 
the disastrous battle of Long Island, and the evacuation of New 
York city by the American army, in September, 1776, General 
Washington had entrenched himself in a strong position at 

li'inding it impossible to dislodge him from this post, General 
Howe, the commander of the British forces determined to cut 
off his communication with the eastern provinces, and then, if he 
declined an engagement, to shut him up on the island of New 
York, or its immediate vicinity, whence it would be impossible 
for him to retire without serious lose. 

Accordingly leaving a sufficient force in New York city, the 
British Creneral embarked with a large body of troops, for 
Throg's point Landing there, and having remained a' few days, 
to receive further reinforcements, and remove obstructions frcan 
the roads over which he intended to pass, he marched to New 
Rochelle, where he left a corps of German troops, to secure the 
lower road leading to Connecticut. He, himself, proceeded 
slowly and cautiouSy towards White Plains, the post of the 
Highlands, which commanded the other road leading to the 

Meantime General Washington's army occupied a position 
parallel to and west of the river Bronx, extending from Kings- 
bridge nearly to White Plains. During the progress of the 
British army, he sent out frequent parties to skirmish with the 
enemy, and thus accustomed his troops to meet a foe, who had 
hitherto inspired them with dread. 

Upon their approach, however, the American commander 
called in all his troops, and took a strong position near White 
Plains, on the west side of the Bronx. His right wing, being 
more exposed than the remainder of the army, was protected 
by a battery, erected on a hill, about a mile distant from the 

Oh the morning of the 28th of October, the English army ad- 
vanced in two columns, and having driven in the outposts, at- 
tacked the American camp. Perceiving the importance of the 
battery which protected the right wing of the Americans, the 
British commander resolved to capture it. After a desperate 
conflict and severe loss on both sides, it was carried by the^ 

Night put an end to the conflict. Washington improved the 
interval in strengthening his entrenchments, and the next morn- 
ing awaited an attack. The British general delayed for further 

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reinforcements, and wh^ these arrived, a storm prereated an 

Meantime, on the night of the ist of November, Wa«hiogton 
abandoned his encampment, and removed to a stronger position, 
near North Castle, some seven or eight miles north of White 
Plains. Finding it impossible to dislodge him from this, the 
British general withdrew from the pursuit, and determined to 
reduce the posts, still held by the Americans, in the neighbor- 
hood of New York city. 

The principal of these were Fort Washington, on New York 
island, and Fort Lee, on the New Jersey side of the Hudson. 
Despite Washington's efforts to prevent it, he succeeded in 
capturing both these forts, though not without severe loss, and 
the American general was compelled to retreat, with a con- 
stantly diminishing army, into New Jersey. 

In March, 1777, the Americans having collected a quantity of 
military stores at Peekskill, Greneral Howe sent a powerfiii ar- 
mament up the river, to destroy them. The American troops, 
finding it impossible to defend them, set fire to the stores axid 
abandoned the place, leaving the British a barren victory. 

In August, 1777, while General Putnam's head quarters 
were at Peekskill, two noted British spies, Strang and Palmer, 
were detected in the camp of the Americans, and hanged at 
Oak hill, in the town of Cortland, near Peekskill village. Sir 
Henry CKnton interfered in behalf of the latter, by sending a. 
flag of truce, demanding his release. General Putnam's reply 
was characteristic ; it was as follows : 

Head Quarters, 7th August, 1777. 

Sir,--Nathan Palmer, a lieutenant in your king's service, was 
taken m my camp as a spy, he was tried as a spy, he was con- 
demned as a spy, kad you may rest assured, sir, he shall be 
hanged as a spy, I have the honor to be, &c. 


His Excellency Grovernor Tryon. 
P. S. Afternoon. He is hanged. I. P. 

With a view of making a diversion in favor of General Bur- 
g03me, then closely besieged by General Gates, Sir Henry 
Clinton in October, 1777, ascended the Hudson with a force of 
between 3000 and 4000 troops, and landed at Yeiplank's point, 
a short distance below Peekskill. 

From thence he proceeded secretly across the river and gain- 
ed the rear of forts Clinton and Montgomery, in Orange county . 
By his adroit manoeuvres he succeeded in deceiving General 
Putnam, and prevented his affording aid to those forts, which 
might have prevented their surrender. 

AfW the capture of the forts, the British again crossed the 
Hudson, burned Continental village, where military stores to a 

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Vrfi^V^llBBl>En C0UN7Y. 179 

eonsiflerable amount had been deposited^ and proceeded up the 
river to commit similar ravages upoa the towns ofthe adjacenl 
counties. They were, however, soon compelled to return to 
New York. 

During the whole war ofthe revolution, this county was neu- 
tral groimd between the two contending armies— th^ British 
lines being generally in the neighborhood of Kingsbridge, and 
those of the American army in the neighborhood of White 

The territory between these two armies was infested by a 
gang of marauders attached to each army. That belonging to 
the British army was principally composed of tories ofthe most 
infamous character , who were denominated * * Cow boys." T he 
American gang were equzdly unprincipled, and had received 
the title of" Skinners." The inhabitants of the county were 
plundered by each in turn, and dispirited by their sufieriogs and 
losses, looked on all whom they met, as ^)ee. 

It was in this county that in September, 1780, Andre was 
captured, on his return from the interview in which Arnold had 
consummated his treason. 

The place of bw capture was in the town of Greensburgh, about a fourth of a 
mile north ofthe village of Tanytown. The names of his captors were Isaac Van 
Wart, John Paulding and David. Williams. They were militia men, and had been 
on an exffedition to rescue some property taken the previous night by the Cowboyt. 

They were concealed for tbis-object, when Andre, disguised as a citixen, passed 
on the road near them, on horseback. 1 hey stopped him, and, losing . his preseno^ 
of mind, he exclaimed, " Gentlemen, I hope you belong to our party." One of 
them enquired, " what party V* Andre replied, " the lower party." They answered 
^ we do," and Andre at once declared himself a British officer, on urgent business, 
and begged to be suffered to proceed without d^ay. 

Paulding ^n informed him that they were Americans, and Andre immediate^ 
product the pass with which Arnold had fUrnished him, and professed that his 
former statement] was a falsehood, invented to enable him to eiscape from arreA 
by the Biatiah patioles. 

Tlittii su^ncioaa, were, however, aroused, and they insisted upon searching him, 
and found papers in his stockings, proving his real character and his purposes. He 
oflTered them immense rewards if they would permit him to escape, but in vain. 

Tbey defivered him to their commanding officer, Ckdonel Jamieson, then sta- 
tioned at North Castie, who imprudently suffered him to apprise Arnold of his 
arrest He was tried by a court martial and sentenced to be hunga» a spy, and 
was accordingly executed at Tappan, October 2d, 1780. 

Each of his captors were rewarded by Congress with a farm worth $1250, an 
annuls oi fSOO for life, and an elegant silver medal with the iiucription on one 
side "Fidelity," and on the other **Amor vincit Patris," — ^The Love of countiy 

Villages. White Flaws, one ofthe county seats, is apleasant 
village on the Bronx river. It has an academy and a female 
seminary, both in a prosperous condition. 

Bedford, the other half shire village, in .the. town ofthe same 
name, is a^small place, only important as being the county seat. 
It has a female seminary. . 

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i9ui£«tfi^, i&thetownof Oannsin^, kdeli^ilMlfBitaai^ ob 
the l»uik of the Hudson. From the viiiage, the prospect of Hud- 
son rhrer, forming Tappan bay, in connection with the distant 
mountains, and the lofty wail of the palisades, is hardly sur- 
passed by any other in the Union. 

The'' Mount Pleasant academy and female seminary are both 
excellent institutions, well located, and occupjring elegant 

The Croton aqueduct bridge, a noble structure, here crosses 
the Singsing creek by a single arch of eighty-eight feet span, 
and is 100 feet in height. 

There are several extensive quarries of marble, worked by 

Tbe Moont Fleaaant State Prison located here, on the bank of the Hudson, is ap 
fanmense marble ftnicture. The main building is 484 feet long, forty-four wide, 
and fire stories high, containing 1060 cells. Connected with it are w or fcsiHips d 
different kinds, and apartments for the keepers, — all built of mwrble. 

The female prison, also of marble, of the Ionic order, stands on elevated ground, 
and has nearly 100 cells, besides apartments for the matron. AH thcsse buiUings 
were erected by the convicts. 

The name given to the town, Ossinsing, is of Indian origin, 
and signifies *' the place of stone." Population about 2600. 

Pe^shillf in the town ot Cortland, is pleasantly situated on 
Peekskill bay, a beautiful expansion of the Hudson. It is famous 
for having been the head quarters of both Washington and Put- 
ncun. The small one story house occupied by the latter, is still 
standing. The Peekskill academy, located on Oak hill, near 
the village, is situated but a short distance Irom the ^pot where 
the tory spies, Strang and Palmer, already mentioned, were 
executed. The village has some manufactures. Population, 

Tarrytown, in the town of Greensburgh, is finely situated on 
the Hudson, and contains the Irving Institute, and the Green- 
bank female seminary, both schools of high reputation. The 
village has some trade with New York city. Population about 

The capture of Andre near this village, has been already noticed. Near it too is 
thefitr famed ** Sleepy Hollow," whose legend, Washington Irving has rendered 

Mr. Irving resides about two miles below tbe village, in ^ an ancient Dnteh nan* 
sion, known as the Van Tassel house, which the former proprietor forfeited by his 
adherence to the British interevts. 

New Rochelle is pleasantly situated on Long Island Sound, 
and is a favorite resort fbr the fashionable from New York, 
during the summer months. Its first settlers were Huguenots, 
who named it from their native residence, Rochelle, in France. 
Many of their descendants still reside here. It has one male 
and two femsde boarding schools. Steamboats ply between the 
village and New York, daily. 

DoWs Ferry is only worthy of notice from its historic interest. 

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9wf vikM, lOtft. PopoJation, 48,907. 

Ofganised, 1683. Valuation, 1845, •9,S98,98S. 

1. Hurley, 1788. 
3. Kingston, 1788. 

3. Marbletown, 1788. 

4. Marlborough, 1788. 

5. New Paltz, 17S8. 

6. Rochester, 178$. 

7. Shawangunk, 1788. 

8. Woodstock, 1788. 


9. Plattekill, 1800. 

10. Shandaken, 1804. 

11. Wawarsing, 1806. 

12. Esopus, 18U. 

13. Saugerties, 1611. 

14. Olive, 1823. 

15. Rosendale, 1645. 

16. Lloyd, 1845. 

h. Blue. i. Southern 

M&imiahu, P. Shawangunk mountains. 

' termination of Kaatsbergs. 

Mhrtra, fyt, C. Hudson river. V. Shawangunk. a. Esopus creek 

f. Rondout. g. Wallkill river. 
jnim. Honk's falls. 
Laket. k. Shin's lake. 
Battle Fields. Kingston. Wawarsing. 
Villages. KiirosTOir. Rondout. Saugerties^ or Ulster* New Paltz. 



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BouNDABiEs. North by Delaware and Greene eoantiea ; Kami 
by the Hudson mer ; South by Orange county ; and West by 
Sullivan ootinty. 

Surface. Mountainous. The Shawangunk mountains enter 
the county from Orange, and traverse it in a north-^wterly 
direction, for nearly thirty miles, approacluaig the Hudson at 

The Blue mountains, a continuation of the Allegany chain, 
enter the county from Sullivan county, and spread over its west- 
ern section, mingling in the northern part with the Catri[fli 
range. They are said to rise, in smne pktces, to the height oi 
2000 feet Between these and the Shawangunk mountains, is 
a broad valley through which flows the Rondout creek. 

Rivers, fiieside the Hudson which washes its eastern border, 
the principal streams of the county are the Wallkili and Sha- 
wangunk rivers, and Esopus and Rondout creeks, vrith their 
tributaries. The Nevisink river also takes its rise in this county . 

Falls. The Rondout, at Honk's fidls, descends by a sue- 
session of cascades, 200 feet, sixty feet of which is by a single 

Lakes. In the northern and western section of the county 
are several small lakes or ponds. One of the most important 
of these is Shin's lake, the source of one of the tributaries of 
Esopus creek. 

Canals. The Delaware and Hudson Canal extends through 
the county. ^ 

Climate. The mountainous districts are somewhat cold and 
subject to early frosts. The climate in the valleys is mild and 
delightfuL The county is considered salubrious. 

Geology and Minerals. Nearly the whole county belongs 
to the transition formation, being based upon slate, which is 
overlaid with limestone. The primary rockis, porticularly gran- 
ite, occasionally appear on the surface, but only in beds (Ismail 

The minenlB are Uae limestone, containing fooili^ mach lued at a boiiding 
material ; hydraulic lime of fine quality, and in great abundance ; excellent mar- 
ble ; marl, date, tolpbor, alum, plumbago, (owaBy called black lead,) zinc ore, 
■•vaik of tbe miBeial pigmentfl, milkrtonea, laid to be IMto iflferklr to tiM F^^ 
peat, 4cc. There are also several sulphur springs of sona calebrity. A nnmbe*' 
of skeletona of the mastodon have been discovered in this county. 

Soil and Vegetable ProductiojUb. The soil varies with the 
surface, being barren upon the mountains, fertile on the lower 
hills, and composed of a deep vegetable mould, of exhaustless (et- 
tility, in the extensive valleys. The ap^cation of marl, which 
is abundant in the county, would render those portions naturally 
sterile, highly productive. It is well adapted to grazing. The 

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timber of the county is oak, hickory, black wahiut, pine and 

PoRsurrs. A majority of the inhabitants are eng'aged in ag* 
riculture. More attention is devoted to the rearing' of cattle 
and to the daky, than to the grain culture, although com, oats, 
and buckwheat are raised in considerable quantities. 

Manufactures are also a popular pursuit. The manufactures 
of the coxmty amounted, in 1845, to nearly two and a half mil- 
lions of dollars. Leather, lumber, flour, iron, cotton and 
woollen goods, hydrauKc cement, oil, paper, furniture, white 
lead, and distilled and malt liquors, are the principal articles 

Commerce, The Delaware and Hudson canal brings to tide 
water immense quantities of coal and lumber, most of which is 
flltipped for New York, and other ports. This business gives 
employment to about 600 canal boats, and eighty sloops and 
schooners. Several steamboats are also owned in the county, 
and ply between the ports on the Hudson and New York city. 

Miv-es. The quarries of marble and limestone furnish em- 
ploy^aent to considerable numbers. 

Staple Productions, Butter, com, oats, buck^dieat, wool, 
and lumber. 

Schools. There were in the county, in 1846, 181 district 
schoolhouses, in which schools were taught an average period 
of nine months each. 11,547 children received instruction at a 
cost for tuition of about $20,000. The district hbraries contain- 
ed 26,780 volumes. 

There were in the countj, the same year, forty private schools, with 811 
pupils; two academies and two female seminaries with 135 pupils. 

Reuoious Denominations. Dutch Reformed, Methodists, 
Baptists, Presbyterians, Friends* Episcopalians, and Roman 
Catholics. There are seventy churches, and sixty-one clergy- 
men, of all denominations. 

History. A trading house, or fort, was probably erected in 
this county as early as 1615or 16, in the neighborhood of Kings- 
ton. At how eeirly a period settlements were made in other 
sections of the county is imcertain. The frequent references to 
the setUements at Esopus, as the vicinity of the fort was called 
'in tfafe Dutch records, show that it had early become a location 
of some importance. 

Bituated about midway between the city of New Amsterdam and the eolony 
of Benasekierwyck, whose inhabitants did not always maintain the most Mendly 
velationB with etch other, and with the Indians, it was more exposed to Indian 
hostilities than most of the other settlements. 

In 1657, Yander Donk, the ex-attorney general, who resided 
at E8opus» slew a squaw ibr stealing peaches from his garden, 
and her tribe revenged the murder by killing several of the 

Digitized by Google 

184 8TATS or NBV TOEK. 

white eettiers. From this and other causes much Ml feeliag 
arose between the natiTes and the settlers, and in June, 1663, 
the Indians made a descent upcm the settlement, and killed and 
carried captive sixty-five persons. 

Circumstances rendered it probable that a conspiracy had 
been formed by the Indiaiis to extirpate the Dutch colonists. 
Grovernor Stuyvesant summoned the magistrates of the differ- 
ent towns, to consult with him relative to measures oi defence. 
Their views not coinciding with his own, herepaired to Esopus* 
and took the field in person against the savages, who, on the 
approach of Martin Creigier, one of his captakis, hadfiedtothe 

Sending out parties of wary and experiencQcl soldiers, Qov, 
Stuyvesant npt only kept them in check, but destroyed most of 
their mountain fastnesses, and so far subdued them that they 
asked for a truce, and, on the 15th of May following, a treaty 
of peace was concluded with them. 

Wawarsing and some of the adjacent towns were settiedby 
the Huguenots, in the latter part of the seventeenth century, or 
the beginning of the eighteenth. 

The convention, which formed the fii'st constitution of the 
state, met at Kingston, in a chamber of the ho^use of Mr. James 
W.Biddwin. • ^ 

In October, 1777, during Sir Henry Clinton's expedition up 
the Hiidson, for the relief of General Burgoyne, he despatched 
General Vaughan to Kingston. He landed and burned the 
village, at that time the third in the state for wealth, popula- 
tion, and elegance. Only one house escaped the fiames. Sev- 
eral tories were executed at Kingston during the Revolution. 

In 1778, two men, Anderson and Osterhout, were taken cap- 
tives by the Indians, and carried toward Binghamton. On 
their way they succeeded in killing their captors, and, after 
almost incredible hardships, returned to their houses ia the 
town of Wawarsing. 

In May, 1779, a party of Indians descended upon a small set- 
tlement of the Huguenots, on the Fantine kill in Wawarsing, 
and kSled eleven of the inhabitants and burned several dwell- 
ings. They were pursued by Colonel Cortlandt with his regir 
ment, but without effect. Soon after, another ikmily were 
killed in the sfune vicinity. 

In August, 1781, a large force of Indians and tories, some 400 
or 500 in number, made an attack upon the village of Wawar- 
sing, and burned and plundered it. The inhabitants had had 
timefy warning and were in the fort. The Indians in this expe- 
dition took but one scalp, while several of their own number 
were killed, and but for the tardinesd of Colonel Cantine, they 

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m^ht have been signally routed. Other similar occurrences 
took place in some of the other towns of the county. 

ViXtLAGEs. Kii«GST0N, the cOuuty seat, is pleasantly situated 
on a plain, three miles west of the landing on the Hudson. The 
Ksopus creek flows through the village. It was anciently called 
Esc^ms, and, as has been already noticed, was early settled by 
the Dutch. 

It was burnt by the British in 1777, but soon re-built It has 
considerable trade with New York, and some manufactures. 
Its business is not concentrated upon one street, but scattered 
over the whole village plat It has a flourishing academy, and 
a female seminary. Pojpulation 2500. 

RondouU also in the township of Kingston, is situated on the 
Rondout ereek. It is the place of deposit and shipment of the 
coal and lumber, brought to the Hudson, by the Delaware and 
Hudson canal. Nearly 200,000 tons of coal, and several mil- 
lions of feet oi lumber, as well as large quantities of hydraulic 
cement, and quick lime, are annually exported from this port. 
A steam ferryboat plies between this place and Rhinebeck, in 
Dutchess county, and also one to Kddyville, in this county. 
The United States Government have erected a light house 
here. Population about 1800. 

Eddyville, in the same town, is a small but thriving manu- 
facturing village. 

Ulsterrtille, in the town of Saugerties, id a village of recent 
growth, being founded in 1826, and incorporated in 1831. Its 
immense -water power, derived from the falls on Esopus creek, 
has rendered it one of the most flourishing manufactiHring vil- 
lage& in the state. 

There is hp extensive rolling and slitting mill here^ employ- 
ing 250 workmen. Axes, paper, white lead, starch, and bricks 
are also manufactured in large quantities. A beautiful bridge, 
with one arch of 260 feet span, crosses the Esopus creek in this 
village. A steamboat, and several sloops, ply between the 
village and New York. Population, 25Q0. 

New PaUz, is a small but thriving agricultural hamlet It 
has a flourishing aceulemy. New Paltz landing, now included 
in the town of Lloyd, is a pleasant village, nine miles from the 
viUage of New Paltz. 

Wawar^ing and Naponoch^ in the town of Wawarsing, are 
places of some historic interest. 

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Fopalttioo, 55434. 
Valuation, 1845, f 19,784,944. 

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1. Amenia, 1788. 10. SUnford, 178& 

2. Beekman, 1788. 11. Dover, 1807. 

3. CliDtoD, 1788. 12 Redhook, 1812. 

4. Fishkill, 1788. 13. Milan, 1818. 

5. Northeast, 1788. 14. Hyde Park, 1821. 

6. PawHng^ 1788. 15. La Grange, 1821. 

7. Ponghkeepsie, 1778. 16. Pleasant Valley, 1821. 

8. Rhinebeck, 1788. 17. Pine Plains, 1823. 

9. Washington, 1788. 18. Unionvale, 1827. 

MouHtain$, F. F. Highlands. T. Matteawan, or FishkiU Moun- 
tains. U. Taghkanic range, e. Old Beacon, f. New Beacon, or 
Grand Sachem. 

Miven, Creeks, Sfe, C. Hudson river, a. Ten Mile creek, b, 

FishkiU. c. Wappinger's. 
Xtokes, ^e. g. Stissing*s Pond. h. Whaley's. 
VilktgeB, PouoBWBEPSiE, FishkiU, Matteawan, FishkiU Landing, 

Pleasant VaUey, Hyde Park, Rhinebeck. 

BonNSARns. North by Columbia county ; Bast by the state 
of Connecticut ; Sbuch by Putnam covmty ; and west by Hudson 

Surface. The surfhce is diversified, but generaUy moun- 
tainotQs, or hilly. Two great valleys intersect the county ; the 
eastern bounded by the Taghkanic and the Matteawcm, or Fish- 
kiU mountains ; the western, lying between the latter and the 
high banks of the Hudscm river. Beside these, there are nu- 
merous rolling ridges of less elevation, runmng through the 
valleys parallel to the mountain ranges. 

The mountains rise in some places to the height of about 
1700 feet. The river range presents some of the highest peaks 
of the Highlands. The Old Beacon, near the FishkiU landing, 
is 1471 feet, and the New Beacon,* or Grand Sachem, half a 
mile fa/ther south, 1685 feet, above tide water. The prospect 
from the top oft latter is "^ry extensive and beautiful. 

KifERs, &rc.. The principal streamd are, Ten Mile, FishkiU, 
Wappinger'fi, and Crom Elbow creeks, with their tributaries ; 
several of the smaller hu ams also possess valuable mill sites. 
The Fishldll is about twenty miles in length. Wappiager's creek 
is about thirty-five miles long. 

CuMATE. The climate is agreeable and healthful, though, 
from the elevations of some portions oi the county, it is colder 
than some of the adjacent counties. 

Geology and MinLERALOor. The eastern part of the county 
is primitive. Granite and gneiss are the prevailing constituents. 

• TXese moimtaiiis rtto«tvad their names from tbe aigaaX fires lit upon their tops 
dnriiig the Revolution. 

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188 8TilT£ or HKW TORj:. 

West of these, the country belongs to the TaconJc system ; 
slate and limestone being the principal underlying rocks, and 
frequently cropping out upon the surface. 

Tbe county abounds in minerals. Iron ore, of rare purity and im eltraoidf- 
nary abundance, exists on tbe western elopes of the mountains ; boCb tbe hem*- 
title and magnetic ores occur in tbe ceun^r. Lead «nd zinc are also Iboad iA 
considerable qutfhtitiesL Grapbfte, or black load, is obtaiined in great abunduice 
from a mine in FishkUL Marble, peat, and xnorl, are Ibund in almosl every pact 
of tbe county- Garnet, gieen actinolite» talc, antbopbyllite, granular epidote. And 
Gibbslte are the other principal minerals. 

In Dover is a cavern which, firom its almost perfect Gothic arch, lias received 
the name of ** the Stone Church.** 

Soil and Yeoctable Proddctions. The soil in general, is 
very fertile, though portions of the mountednous districts are 
somewhat sterile. 

Gypsam is too much relied upon as a fertilizing agent, while tbe equaDy valor 
able lime and marl upon, and beneath the soil are neglected ; a beneficia] change 
is however taking place in this respect Tlie timber is principally oak and chea^ 
nut with seme hickory. Tbe coun^ is well adapted to the rearing of cattle and 
sheep, and the culture of grain. 

PcRsoiTs. Agriculture is the pursuit of a majority of the in- 
habitants of this county. In the production of corn cuid oats, it 
stands first in the state, and maintains a respectable rank in the 
production of other grains. In the growth of wool and the pro- 
duction of butter, it occupies a high j-ank ; in the number of 
its swine too it exceeds any other county m the state. Flax and 
potatoes are also raised in great abundance. 

Manufactures. Dutchess county is extensively engaged m 
manufactures. The most important articles are cotton and 
woollen goods, including prints, iron ware, flour, malt liquors, 
cordage, leather, oil, paper, &c. The entire value of manuiac- 
tured products in 1845, exceeded two and half millions of dol- 

Oymmerce. The whale fishery is prosecuted from Pough- 
keepsie, and employs several large ships. Some eighth or ten 
steamboats, and a considerable number of sloops, schooners and 
barges, are employed in the coasting trade. 

Mines, <fc. In Beekman, Dover, Fishkill, and Pawling, are 
extensive iron mines; in Fishkill a large mine of Plumbago ; in 
Dover extensive quarries of white and black marble j and in 
'Poughkeepsie numerous and extensive lime-kHns. 

Staples. Corn, oats, butter, wool, beef, and pork. 

Schools. In the county are 210 district school-houses, in 
which, in 1846, schoojs were maintained an average period of 
nine months. 12,854 children received instruction at an ex- 
pense for tuition of about 3^27,962. The district libraries con- 
tained about 28,000 volumes. 

There were also in the county, eighty-three private schools, with 1155 scholan: 
Ibur academies, and two female seminaries, with 2(^8 pupils, and (me c<dlesiata 
•cbool,Srith about 130 pupiK 

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X>tTTCH£88 COfTNTT. 180 

Reuciods Denominations. Methodiets^ Friends, Baptists, 
Presbyterians, Dutch Reformed, Episcopalians, Congregation- 
alists, Roman Catholics, Universalists, and Unitarians. There 
are 103 churches, and ninety-four clergymen of all denominations 
in the county. 

History. The precise period when Dutchess county was 
first settled, does not seem to be satisfactorily ascertained. The 
first settlement was made at Fishkill, by the Dutch. In 1683, 
the number of its inhabitants was sufBcient to authorize its or- 
ganization, as a separate county. It was however very small, 
and) for nearly 20 years, was considered in the light of a depen- 
dency upon Ulster county. 

In 1689, its inhabitants, like those of Ulster, took part against 
Xieisler, but afterward submitted to his administration. 

A large tract, extending from the Hudson to ''the Oblong," 
and some eight or ten miles in width, comprising part of the 
towns of Hyde Park, Pleasant Valley, Washington, and Ame- 
nia, was granted to nine proprietors at a very early date, prob- 
ably about the commencement of the eighteenth century. It 
was called the " Great Nine Partners." 

In 1711, one Richard Sackett lived on this tract, and with his 
family remained the only settlers upon it till 1724, when some 
German families, from the East Camp, on Livingston's Manor, 
in Columbia county, removed here. 

In 1702, the first house was built inPoughkeepsieby Myndert 
Van Kleek, a Dutchman, and one of the early emigrants to the 

In 1731, the boundary difficulties whkh had long existed be- 
tween New York and Connecticut, were terminated by a com- 
promise; Connecticut relinquishing to New York a tract called 
" the Oblong,"lying mostly in this county, and containing about 
60,000 acres, in consideration for which, she received a. tract on 
the southwestern corner of her territory, extending into West- 
chester county. 

Two patents were issued for " the Oblong," one in London 
the day after the settlement, to Sir Joseph Eyles and others, 
the other in New York, some few months later, to Hawley 
dc Co. These two patents were the subject of much fitigation, 
and the source of no small amount of party animosity. 

In 1741, several families from Connecticut emigrated to the 
northern part of the county. About the same time a conskiera- 
Ue number of Friends firom Long Island settled in the eastern 

In the troublous times which preceded the Revolutk>n, Dutch- 
ess county took the side of liberty, and fbrnished from among 
her citizens, some of the most brilliant and useful actors in that 

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tmrfyl eooiieL Such were Montgomery) Ae hero of Q^athec^ 
the Schenckfl, and others of imperiflhable renown. 

Daring the revolutionary war, apart of the American arm/ 
were stationed for a bondderable time at Fiahkiil, under the 
command of General Putnam, and afterwards of General Par- 
sons. Their barracks were about half a mile south of the 

Villages. PoDOHKEEraiB, the county seat) in the town of the 
same name, is fii^ly situated on the elevated bank of the 
Hudson, about equally distant from New York and Albany. 
During the Revolution, and after its close, the legislature of the 
state frequently held its sessions here. The convention of the 
state, which adopted the Federal Constitution, also met here in 
1788. The buikUng occupied by that body has since been used 
as a brewery. 

Poughkeepsie is regularly laid out, and has many elegant pub- 
lic and private buildings. It has considerable commerce with 
New York and other home ports. 

It is also largely engaged in manufactures. Of these, ma- 
chinery, malt liquors, flour, carpets, cutlery, &re arms, silk, 
pins, iron and brass ware, sash and blinds, and bricks in large 
quantities and of superior quality, and the principal 

The Poughkeepsie colk^^te school is a fine institution, un- 
surpassed in the beauty of its situation, and the elegance of its 
edifice. This building is 77 by 137 feet, mcdeled after the Par- 
thenon at Athens, and surrounded by a massive colonnade. 
Its cost, exclusive of the extensive and beautiful grounds, was 
f4O,000. The Dutchess county academy, also located in the 
village, is an excellent chartered institution. Beside these there 
are four female seminaries. Population about 9000. 

FiMciU Landing, m the town of Fishkill, U situated on the 
Hudson, directly opposite Newburgh. It has much dehchtftil 
■ceneiy, and is a place of considerable trade. Population abcmt 

Fishkill Village, in the same town, is a picturesque and beau- 
tiful hamlet. The Fishkill academy, located here, is a flourish- 
ing chartered institution. Population 800. 

Matieawan, in the same township, is an important manu^tur- 
ing village. Large quantities of moleskins, beaverteens, and fus- 
tians are produced here. It has alto an extensive iron and 
brass foundry, ^leveral machine shops, flouring mills, and other 
manufactories. The Highland Gymnasium, a celebrated board- 
ing scho<d for boys, is located here. Population about 2000. 

* In tbe old atoae cboich ia the town of FisbUU, Enocb Croaby the pedler 
■py, (the "Harvey Birch" of Caper's novel, "The Spy,"] was confined, and 
mum thence he aiade hie escape In an ejttaordfanury and mysterions manner. 

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Gienhami^mBd FrankkMUde, in the same lawn, are flourub* 
ms manqfacturing villages. 

Pleasant Vallgy, on Wa^inger's creek, in the town of the 
same name. Is a maoufactnring ^age of some importance. It 
m iinoeipallj engaged in the maimfaclare of cotton goods. 
Population 70a 

H^de Park is a heautiful village, situated on the Hudson, and 
has some commerce and mamtfitctures. Population 700. 

Rkinebeck, in the town of the same name, is a large and thri- 
ving village, with several manufactories. The Rhineheck and- 
emy Is a highly floorishing institotion. Population 1900. 


Valuation 1845, tll,91t,430. 

1. Cornwall^ 1788. 
3. Goshen, 1788. 

3. Kinisink, 1788. 

4. Montgomery, 1788. 

5. Newburgh, 1788. 

6. New WmdMxr, 1788. 

7. WalUdU) 1788. 

8. Warwick, 1788. 

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9. Deer Park, 1798. 13. Moufit Hope, 18t?5. 

10. Blooming Grove, 1799. 14. Hamptonburgh, 1830. 

11. Monroe, 1799. 15. Chester, 1845. 

12. Crawfofd, 1523. 

Mountaina, fyc. T. Matteawan. P. i^awaogunk. d. Baro. e. 

Crow's Nest. f. Butter Hill. 
IUber$, 8fc. C. Hudson. H. Delaware. JR. Nevisink. V. Sbaw- 

angunk. g. Wallkill. a. Murderer^s Creek, 
LakeSf ire, i. Long Pond. b. Drowned Lands. 
F\9rtM, West Point. Clinton.- Montgomery. 
Battle Fields. Minisink. Montgomery and Clinton. 
Colleges. West Point Military Academy. 
Villages. Newburgh. Gosheit. West Point. Montgomery. 

Boundaries. North by Sullivan and Ulster counties ; East by 
Hudson river and Rockland county; South by Rock}etnd«ounty 
and the state of New Jersey ; and west by Sullivan county and 
the Delaware river. 

Surface. Mountains, hills and plains diversify the surface of 
this county. The Matteawan mountains, or Highlands, cross 
its southeastern border diagonally; the Shawangfunk range 
stretches along its western boundary; and, parallel to them,' 
run a chain of low hills called Comfort bills. Between these 
and the Highlands extends a level YSkliey, with occasional 

Upon the banks of the Hudson, in this county, are some cfT 
the highest points of the Highlands. Bare mountain is 1350 
feet, the Crow's Nest 1418 feet, and Butter Hill 1529 feet above 
tide water. The eastern face of the latter is an admost perpen- 
dicular precipice. 

Rivers. Beside the Hudson, which forms a portion of its 
eastern boundary, the principal streams are the Wallkill (or 
Waalkill), the Shawangunk and Neyisiiik rivers, and Murder- 
er's creek. The Wallkill, for about twenty miles of its course, 
flows through a marsh, known as the ** Drowned lapds." The 
Delaware river just touches a portion oi'thc western boundary. 

Ponds. In the south part of the county are several ponds of 
jsonsiderable size. Long pond, on the New Jersey line, is the 
largest, and is some nine miles in length. 

Railroads and Canals. The New York and Erie railroad 
passes through the county, affording a daily communication 
with New York city, while the Delaware and Hudson canal 
crosses its western border. 

Climate. The climate of the county is mild and agreeable. 
In the vicinity oV the Drowned lands, fevers prevail in autumn; 

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OftANG£ COUNTY. 198 

but the county ^enendly is remat kab]y healthy. The spring 
opens about two weeks earlier than in the counties west of it. 

Geology and Minerals. The southeastern portion of the 
county, including the Highlands, is of primitive fbrmation, and 
eontains granite, sienite, hornblende, and primitive limestone. 
The remainder belongs to the transition system, being chiefly 
eomposed of slate, limestone and graywacke, of which the first 
and last are mostly found on the hills, and the second underlying 
the valleys. The Shawangunk mountains are composed mo«t^ 
of graywacke, in which the millstone grit prevails. * 

It abounds in minerals of rarity and value. In the towns of 
Monroe and Canterbury, are vast beds of magnetic iron ore. 
Hematitk iron ore is also abundant and of excellent quality. 

Among the mineral! of interest may be enumerated spinel (a q^ecies tit ruby) 
of extraordinary beauty ; fine Labradorite, a new mineral ; Ilmenite, a rare and 
interesting mineral, found more abundantly faera tiian in any other known local- 
ity ; zircon, apatite, fibrous epidote, tourmaline, serpentine, CUntonite, Boltonite, 
■eapolite, idiocrase, Bocbolzite, white iron pyrites, sphene, pyroxene, hair brown 
bomblende* and many othen of less importance. Their principal locahUes aie in 
the towns of Monroe, Cornwall, Warwick and Deer Park. Excellent peat is found 
in the Drowned Lands and other low lands. 

Bones of the Mastodon have been discovered in several places in diis county. 
An entire sheteton of this gigantic animal, \xy for the most perfbet hitherto dis- 
covered, was disinterred in Coldenham, in 1845. The tocality had evidently onee 
been a marsh, and the animal, in attempting to cross it, had sunk in the mud, and 
was unable to extricate himself His length is stated at thirty-three feet ; length 
of tusks ten feet ; length of skull three feet ten inches ; weight of head and tusks 
693 pounds ; weight of all the bones 8003. The contents of the stomach were 
found within the skeleton, consisting of crushed twigs, Jbc. 

This skeleton is now in the museum of the Harvard University. The skeleton 
of the Mastodon, in Peale's museum, Philadelphia, was taken from the town of 
Montgomeiy, in this county, and bones of othen have IJieen discovered in Chester 
84k1 other towns. 

Soil and Vegetable PaoDUCTioifek The soil is chiefly clay 
and gravelly loam, and is for the most part fertile, but better 
adapted to grazing than to the culture of grain, except the aliu- 
vial lands in the southern part. The vast marsh of the Drowned 
lands, when drained, ftirmshes asoil of great depth and fertility, 
and is annually covered with the most luxuriant vegetation. 

T|ie tioriber of the county is prineipaBy oak, chestnut, hickory, naple, blaek- 
walnut, ehn, hcc. The county produces apples and other fruit in perfection, and 
a great variety of the natural grasses. Owing to the rapid and precipitous 
course of the WaDkili, befbre entering the Drowned Lands, and its sluggish pro- 
gress through them, many plants, belonging to a mora southern climate, are found 

Pursuits. AgricuUure mainly engages the attention of the 
inhabitants. Orange county stands in the first rank among the 
dairy counties of the state. More than 4,100,000 pounds of but- 

* The first treatise on the Botany of New York, and we believe the first botanical 
work by an American aadior, was the Plants Coldenhamin, by Governor Gol- 
den, of Coldenham, near Newburgh. It was pubUsbed st Upsal, in Sweden, to 1744. 

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ter were made in 1845, and about seven and a half mOlions of 
quarts of milk sent to New York city, the same year. Large 
quantities of wool and pork are produced. Conaidterable atten- 
tion is also paid to the rsusiog of corn, oats, lye^aod buckwheat. 

Horticulture, and especially market gardening^, is receiving 
increased attention. 

Maawfactures also furnish employment to a considerable num- 
ber of the citizens of the county. The principal articies are cot- 
ton and woollen goods, flour, distilled and matt liquors, leather, 
iron, oil cloth and paper. In 1845, these amounted to nearly 
92^,000 in value. 

Newburgh has considerable commerce with New Y<»k. 
Much of the produce of the county is also transported to that 
city by means of the Delaware and Hudson canal and tlie Erie 

Mines. The iron mines in the towns of Monroe and Corn- 
wall, are scarcely surpassed in vadue by any others in 4he state. 
Iron mines were worked in the county as early as 1751. 

Staple Productionb. Butter, milk, pork, wool, com and oats. 

Schools. There are in the county 180 district school-houses. 
The average length of the schools, in 1846, was nine months. 
11,847 children received instruction, at a cost, for tuition, of 
$26,672. There were in the district libraries 27,639 volumes. 

In addttion to ttaeae, tiiere were u Oie coan^ Mventy-two private flcliooli, with 
1335 Kbolan, eigtit academiea, and one feuMte MoUnaiy, wJilli398 iNi|rilB,«ndoiM 
BBilitaxy academy, with about S50 cadets. 

Reuoious Denominations. Presbyterians, Methodists, Dutch 
Reformed, Baptists, Friends, Episcopalians, Roman Catholics 
and Congregationalists. There are ninety churches and nine^- 
five clergymen of all denominationB. 

History. It seems to be uncertain at what date the first set- 
tlements were made in this county; but from the early date of 
the settlement at Esopus, (Kingston), in the adjacent county of 
Ulster, and the advantages afforded by the soil and surface of 
Orange, both to the agricuhuraiist and the trapper, it may be 
reasonably concluded, that the Dutch emigrants located them- 
selves in the county, at a very early period. 

In 1659, the mineral wealth of the county had been so far ex- 
plored thsit mines of copper w we extensively wrought, i»robably 
either in Deerpark or Minisink. The ore was exported to Hdi- 
land, and with it a large quantity of iron pyrites, which the in- 
habitants of the county mistook for gold. 

In 1669 a bloody battle was fought, in the town of Mhiisink, 
between the whites and Indians. 

The county was organized in J683, and then included Rock- 

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land. A 4degate from the county sat in the colonial house of 
aosen^iy, or^^nized for the firvt time that year. 

In 1689 the citizens embraced the cause of Leisler, and sent 
deputies to a convention called by liim. Under the colonial 
government the delegates from Orang^e county were remarka- 
ble for their firm adherence to the principles of liberty. At the 
commencem«[it of the revolution^ a majority of the people em- 
barked with zeal in the cause of their country. 

Sarly in the revolution. Forts Clinton and Montgomery were 
erected, by the Americans, in the southeast part o^this county. 
They were separated from each other by a sm&dl stream, the 
boundary line between two towns -, Fort Clinton being in Man- 
roe, and Fort Montgomery in ComwalL 

They weie intended to prevent the British from ascending 
the river, and in addition to other obstructions in the river, an 
iron chain was extended from Fort Montgomery to a point on 
the opposite side^ in the county of Putnam. These ibrtifications 
were under the command of Gen. Israel Putnam. 

In October, 1777, Sir Henry Clinton, being determined to af- 
ford succor to General Burgoyne, ascended the river with a 
force of more than 3000 troops, attacked and carried by storm 
both these forts, alter a brave and inrdonged reststcmce on the 
part of the garristm (which consisted of only 600 men), and, 
breaking the chain, proceeded up the river. The British lost in 
this attM^ about 250 men, and the garrisons nearly the same 

The ensuing year the fcort and batteries at West point, (a 
mudi more eligible position) were erected,* and a larger chain 
8tret<^ed across the Hudson, from that fortress to Constitution 
Island, under the direction of Captain Machin. 

The construction of the fort and batteries was entrusted, it is 
said, to French engineers, belonging to the army of Count Ro- 
chambeau. The work was superintended by Kosciusko, a Polish 
nobleman, of thorough military education, whose love of liberty 
had led him to espouse the cause of our country. 

After the erection of this fortress, and the extension of the 
new chain across the river, the Britii^ never attempted to pass 
it The possession of so important a post, was to them, how- 
ever, an object of great solicitude ; and, ia 1780, they had well 
nigh accomplished it. The command of it had been assigned to 

* The site of tke fort at West Point was selected by General Putnam, and 
the first grocmd broken for the fortification in January, 1778, by General Par* 
sons, when the snow lay on the earth two feet deep, ft was mainly by the 
strenuous exertions and great pessonal popuJority of Gov. George Clinton, that 
the materials for its coastruction were obtained. . 

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General Arnold, in the autumn of 1779, nM it was here that bk 
infamous treason was consummated. Suitable measures were 
taken, after the discovery of his treachery, to secure it 

In July, 1779, a party of Indians^nd tories, under Brant, made 
an attack on the village of Minisink, burning ten houses and 
several other buildings, and killing and capturing a number of 
the inhabitants. Those who were able to escape fled to Goshen ; 
where the militia of that and the adjacent towns soon collected, 
to pursue the enemy, and recapture the prisoners and spoils. 

Aware of the subtle character of his foe, Colonel Tusten, 
their commander, opposed the pursuit, until a larger force should 
be collected ; but his prudent foresight was regarded as cow- 
ardice, and it was decided to proceed immediately. The waiy 
Brant had expected pursuit ; and, when he ascertained that the 
militia were approaching, he stationed a part of his troops in am- 
buscade in such a position, as to enable him to surround them. 

Thus hemmed in by a superior force, this unfortunate band 
fought bravely, but in vain ; death met tiiem on every side ; and 
of about 180 men, in the ftdl vigor of life, who started upon that 
expedition, but thirty escaped from the tomahawks of the enemy. 
Most of these were fVom the principal families of the county. 
Goshen, in particular, suflered severely ; forty-four of her beet 
citizens being slain. A monument was erected to their memory 
on the anniversary of the battle, July S2, 1822. 

The American army, never well supplied, either with food or 
clothing, during the revolution, were, at its close, in a state of 
great destitution. They were paid in a depreciated and almost 
worthless currency, and the apathy of congress, in delaying to 
make suitable provisions to reward their tofls and sacrifices, 
disposed them to revolt 

To prevent so dangerous an event, and at the same time to 
secure justice for his suffering troops, Washington remained 
with them m winter quarters at Newbargh, during the winter 
of 1782-3. The house which he occupied, as his head quarters, 
is yet standing, and is now the residence of the Hasbrouck 

The officers of the array, early in the winter, addressed a 
memorial to congress, stating their necessities, and asking for 
just compensation. Early in March, 1783, a ccMnmunication 
was received from their committee, informing them that their 
requests had ngt been granted. 

On the 10th of March, an anonymous notice was circulated, 
calling a meeting of the officers on the following day, " to see 
what measures should be adopted to obtain that redress of 
grievances which they seem to have solicited in vain." 

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The same day an anonymous paper, written with extraordi- 
nary ability, and admirably ccdculated to excite the passions and 
rouse the indignation of the officers, against the continental 
congress, was put in circulation. 

The writer,^professing to be himself a sharer in their suffer- 
ings, depicted, in strong terms, their deplorable condition, and 
the shameful neghgence of congress; and exhorted them "to 
Buspect the man who would advise to more moderation and 
longer forbearance," to threaten the congress in the event of 
peace, with civil war— and, if war continued, with an abandon- 
ment of their country to its fate. 

This eloquent, but dangerous p?per C written, as was subse- 
quently ascertained, by Major John Armstrong, afterward secre- 
tary of war, at the instigation of General Gates,) had well nigh 
produced the most serious consequences. It required all Wash- 
ington's prudence and firmness to check the rising spirit of rebel- 
lion incited by it. 

To prevent the ill effects of a meeting, assembling under the 
infhience of so much excitement, he issued a general order, dis- 
approving of the meeting on the 11th, and calling one on the 
15th of March. 

The Einonymous writer seized on this incident, to address an- 
other letter to the officers,* insinuating that the commander-in- 
chief sympathized in their views, and was only restrained, by 
motives of delicacy, from openly expressing that sympathy. 

This opinion Washington labored privately to remove, by 
conversation with the officers, and, at the meeting on the 15th, 
General Gates being in the chair, he openly canvassed the prop- 
ositions contained in the anonymous address, showed their 
folly and wickedness, and so far changed the current of popular 
opinion, that the officers voted unanimously, that "they viewed 
with abhorrence, and would reject with disdain, the infamous 
propositions" contained in that address. Thus narrowly did the 
country escape the horrible calamity of anarchy «.nd civil war. 

Villages. Newburgh, the larger of the two shire villages of 
the cotmty, was first settled by Gterman emigrants, in 1701, and 
named by them from Newburgh, in Germany. The bank of the 
Hudson, on which it is situated, is quite steep, rising 300 feet in 
a short distance. When seen from the river, the village pre- 
sents a fine appearance. 

It has many nieat public and private buildings, and considera- 
ble trade ; although a portion of that, which formerly centred 
here, now reaches New York by the New York and Erie rail- 
road, and the Delaware and Hudson canal. Two or three 

- This and the preceding addreaa ve usually termed tbe " Newburgh letters." 

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steamboats, and several sloops and schooners^ ply re^arly be- 
tween the Tillage and New York. It has a flourishing academy, 
a high school, and two female seminaries. 

In the village and town, are eighteen or twenty manufacto- 
ries. The steam cotton mill, at the village, is said, in extent 
and perfection, to equal any single cotton mill in the United 
States. Population about 6000. 

Goshen, the other half-shire village, is justly celebrated for 
the product of its dairies. The New York and Erie railroad 
passes through it. The Farmer's Hall academy is a flourishing 
chartered institution, and has a female seminary connected with 
it Population about 1000. 

Middletown^ in the town of Wallkill, is a new and flourishing 
villsige, on the line of the railroad. It has a large iron foundry. 
Population about 1400. 

West Pointy in the town of Cornwall, is worthy of notice, not 
only ibr its important fortress, to which we have already ad- 
verted, but as the seat of the United States Military Academy, 
established here, in March, 1802. The object of this institution, 
is to prepare young men for oflicers in the afmy. 

The course of instruction is very thorough, the discipline 
rigid, and the examinations severe. The months of July and 
August, in each year, are devoted solely to military exercises ; 
for which purpose, the cadets leave their barracks, and encamp 
in tents on the plain, under the regular police and discipline of 
an army, in time of war. 

The course of study comprises, the Latin and French lan- 
guages, an extended course of mathematics, civil engineering, 
and the art of fortification. The term of study is four years; 
and so rigorous are the exeuninations and discipline, that only 
about one third of those who enter, complete the course of 
study, and graduate. The number of instructors is thirty-four ; 
of cadets, about 250. They are entirely supported by the United 
States government. 

Three monufhents have b^n erected here ; one to the mem- 
ory of the Polish hero Kosciusko, whose garden is still shown 
on the premises ; another to Colonel Wood, an early graduate 
of the institution, who fell at the sortie of Fort Erie, in 1814; 
and a third, to the deceiased oflMsers and cadets of the academy. 
Population of the village, about 900. 

Canterbury^ in the town of Cornwall, and Montgomery, in the 
town of the same name, are thriving villages, and are engaged^ 
to some extent, in manuiaetures. 

WaMenf in Montgomery, is a manufacturing village. Chw 
ter, in the town of the same name, is a noted mart for the ^e 
of live stock. Here, too, is an acaidemy of some reputation. 

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Square Mfles, 356. FOpoatfon, 29,643. 

Organized, 1778. ValnkUioii, 1845,' f 3,696,2741. 


6. Minden, 1793. 

7. Glen, 1823. • 

8. Root, 1823. 

9. Mohawk, 1837. 
10. St. JohnsYiUe, 1837. 

Range, e. Anthony's Nose. f. 


Canagoharie, 1788. 

Charleston, 1788. 

Palatine, 1788. 

Amsterdam, 1793. 

Florida, 1793. 
Mbuntaihs. J J. An Sable 

Hill. j. Otsquaga Hills. 
Jti»erB and Creek$. F. Mohawk River. AA. Schoharie Creek, b. 

Cayadata. c. Bowman's or Canajoharie. d. Otsquaga. h. East 

Canada, i. Garoga. 
JBaiile Field. Stone Arabia. 
Villagea, Fonda. Amsterdam. Can^oharie. Fort Plain. 

BouNOABiBs. North by, Fulton ; East by Saratoga and Sche- 
nectady ; South by Schenectady, Schohsirie and Otsego ; and 
West by Herlomer, counties* 

Surface. Hilly and somewhat^ mountainoufi. The valley of 
the Mohawk ibrnurthe central portion of the county, while on 
the north and south, the hills attain a considerable elevation. 
The Au Sable range enters the county from the north, and 
fimns, on the-banks of the Mohawk, the peak known as Antho^ 
ny's Nose. Crossing the river, this range terminates in the 
town of Root. 

Flint hin occuines the southeastern part, bdrdering on Sche- 

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nectady county. In the southwest are the Otsquaga hills. 
The valleys of the Mohawk, and some of its tributaries, spread 
out in fertile alluvial plains or flats. 

RivMn. The county is well watered. The M<4iafHc river. 
East Canada, Schoharie, Bowman's, Otsquaga, Garoga and 
Caya uta creeks, are the principal stream?. 

Canals and Railroads* The Erie canal runs along the 
south side of the Mohawk, and ^e Utica and Schenectady rsitt- 
road upon the nwth. 

The CLIMATE resembles that of the valley of the Mohawk 
generally. It is nrild and healthful. 

Geology and Minerals. The surface rocks of tl is county 
all belong to the transition formation. In the southern part, 
the Lorraine shales, and Hudson river group, (the Taconic sys- 
tem of Prof Elmmcms,) are predominant. Along the Mohawk, 
the Utica slate prevails, and is accompanied by a narrow tract 
of the renton limestone. North of this, the Onondaga salt 
rocks are seen on the surface. 

Pearl 8|wr, calc spar, sulphate of barytes, calcareous tufii, brown spar, quaits 
crystals, agate, chalcedony, garnet, sulphurets of zinc and lead, and oxide of tita- 
nium, are the principal minerals. As yet, none of these have been obtained in 
sufficient quantities to be of any practical value. In the town of Root, is a tauge 
cavern, called Mitchell's cave, containing fourteen apartments, some of them 500 
feet below the surface, an^ profUsely adorned with stalactites and stalagmites. 

Soil and Vegetable Productions. The soil i? generally 
productive, conosting of a gravelly or clayey loam, frequently 
mingled with disintegrated lime or slate. Grass anid grains of 
all descriptions flourish. The forests a:e composed chiefly of 
oak, beech, ash, maple, and hemlock. 

PuRsorrs. AgricuUtire is the leading pursuit of the inhabi- 
tants. Considerable grain is raised, and much attention paid 
to the products of the d >iry. 

The manufactures of the county are limited, consisting mainly 
of flour, distilled liquors, leather, and woollen goods. 

The commerce of the county is confined to the transportation 
of its produce upon the Erie canal, and the Utica and Schenec- 
tady railroad. 

Staple Productions. Oats, corn, barley, potatoes, butter, 
cheese and wool. 

Schools. In 1846, there were in the county 118 public schools, 
with 8604 scholars. The annual term of instruction in the^ 
schools averaged nine months, ftnd the amount expended fw 
tmtion was f 15,369. The district libraries contained 18,043 

There were also in the county, eleven select schools, with 135 pupils ; ibtm 
academies, and one female seminary, withr 314 studeatft 

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RfiUGHOos I^NOMiNATioNs. Dutch Reiorined, Methodists, 
Presbyterians, Baptists, Umversalists, £pi8c<q)alian8, Uoitari- 
ans, md Friends. There are in the county forty-three churches, . 
and fbrl^-fiix clergymen of all denominations. 

History. The jSnglish Episeopaliana commenced missiims 
among the Mohawks in this county as early as 170^. The first 
setUements were laade in 171^ or about that time, by German 
emigrants, a portion of the same band who settled Schoharie 
comtty, and by other persons from Albany and Schenectady 

It had been the home of the Mohawks, whose three casties 
were all, it is believed, wi^iin the limits of thia county. In Jan- 
uary, 1693, the French, whose hatred to the Iroquois was invet- 
erate, made a descent upon these castles, and captured them alL 

The Indians at Schenectady sent to Albany for assistance to 
pursue the enemy. Colonel Peter Schuyler, the friend of the 
Indians, with a body of militia, started for the pursuit, overtook 
the French, and had a severe skirmish with them. The French 
lost fifty-nine in killed. and wounded. It is related that the In- 
dians ate the bodies of the Frenchmen whom they killed. 

Fort Hunter, a somewhat important militar/ post in early 
times, was erected m 1710, at the junction of the Mohawk and 
Schoharie rivers, m the town of Florida, by Capt. John Scott 
A chapel was erected near the fort which was endowed by 
Queen Anne, and hence called dueen Anne's chapel. A stone 
parsonage was also erected near it, to which was attached a 
glebe of 300 acres, the gift of the Indians. 

The fort having become dilapidated at the time of the Revo- 
hition, the chapel was fortified, and called Fort Hunter. It 
was taken down about the year 1820^ to make room for the Erie 

The first settlement in the town of Amsterdam was made m 
1716, by the widow and children of Philip Groat of Rotterdam, 
who was drowned in the Mohawk, near Schenectady, on his 
way thither. 

In 17)t^, colonies had been extended along the Mohawk as far 
as the German Flats, in the county of Herkimer ; but few of the 
settlers, however, had located far from the river. 

The subsequent growth and prosperity of the present county 
of Montgomery, are due, in a great meeusure, to the enterprise 
of Sir William Johnson.'*' 

* This tsztraordinary man was bom in Ireland, in 1714, of highly respectable pa- 
rentafe. His uncle. Admiral Warren, bad acquired a title to a tract of some 
16»00d acres, in the present town of Floiida, and sent young Johnson over to act 
as his agent for the disposal of H, about the year 1736. 

Boon after arriving in the colony, he was appointed by the British OoTemment, 

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Daring the Revokition, this comity, (theneafied Tryon cmm- 
ty, and embracing all tkat part of the state, tying east of a naeri- 
dian, drawn through the centre of Schoharie county,) safiered 
severely from the repeated incmrsions of the tories and lodkam, 
led by Sir John Johnson, the bloodthirsty Walter Butl^, and 
the Mohawk chieftain Brant 

Scarcely a settlement, on either side of Ihe Mcrfiafwk, esesped 
partial or entire destraction; and lew families, who had es- 
poused the cause of their country, but were called to rnoom 
over friends and relatives, inhumanly butchered by these sav- 
age warriors. Neither age nor sex were ^)ared; neither 
beauty, wealth, accomplishments, nor amialnhty of diaraeter, 
served to shield the unfortimate settlers from the tomahawk 
and the scalping knife. 

The towns of Fort Plain, Canaj<^iarie, Palatine, Glen, and 
Root suffered most severely ; many c^ those who escaped death, 
being carried into a long and distressmg captivity. 

At Stone Arabia, a severe and bloody coi^lict took place in 
October, 1780, between Sir John Johnaoa, and the garrison of 
Fort Paris, (a stockade fort in Stone Arabia. ) General Robert 
Van Rensselaer, of Claverack, (Columbia county,) was in the 
rear of the enemy, with a force of nearly 1000 men, aad ordered 
Colonel Brown, the commander of the fort, to attack them in 
front, m^iile he pressed upon their rear. 

agent for the Iroqoois, or Six Nations. HaTing acquired their language, and adopt- 
ed to a cemddenble extent their dress and bafoits, he 8o<mi obtainea great inflif 
enee over them, and was chosen one of their head sachems. This power he used 
in such a way as to secure their attachment to the British Government, and at 
the same time to advance his own personal interestsc 

During the French wars, he was active as an officer, and in 1757, the troops under 
his command, at Lake George, having repulsed and defeated the French force un- 
der Baron Dieskaa, he was Icnighted by the King, and received a donatioa of 
XdOUO steriing. 

In 1759, General Frideaux being kiUed at the siege of Port Niagara. Sir Wffliani, 
who was second In command, assumed the direction of the forces, and carried the 
fortress. In 1760, he led a body of 1000 In(fians against Montreal, and was active 
in an eminent stadon at the surrender of Canada. 

He was twice saarried. By his first wife, <a German womano he had one aon 
and two daughters. His son succeeded to his title as Sir John Johnson. EBs 
daughters were married to Colonel Guy Johnson, (a distant relative of the bar* 
onei,) ahd to Colonel Daniel Claud. His second wife was MoUy Brant, sister of 
the celebrated MohawH chieftain, by whom he had several children. 

His first residence was in the town of Amsterdam, about three miles west of the 
village. It is a massive stone edifice, and is to this dav called Fort Johnson. About 
ten years before his deam, he erected a building, which he named Johnson Hall, 
within the limits of Fulton county, where he resided the remainder of his Ufe. 

Fort Johnson, after this period, was occupied by his son. Sir John Johosoo. 
He also erected houses for his sons-in-law, Colonel Guy Johnson and Colonel 
Clans, in the town of Amsterdam. 

iSir William Johnson died very suddenly, in July, 1774, not without suspicion of 

His son and successor, as well as his sons-in-law, and indeed his whole ftmily, 
embraced the side of the British, in the Revolution. Sir John vros the scourge of 
the Mohawk and Schoharie valleys, during that contest. After the Revolution, 
their estates wers eenflseated. • 

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Sir John's fotce did nvft amotint to more than 500 men, while , 
Aat of Colonel Brown was about 200, and had General Van 
Rensselaer fulfilled his part c^the duty, the whote British force 
mi^ht have been captured ; but through his negligence and cow- 
ardice, if not treachery, tiie brave troops of Colonel Brown 
were suffered to contend, single handed, with the enemy, till 
they were n^iy all slaughtered, while General Van Rensse- 
laer's troops were within hearing of the action, but were not 
suffered by him, to afford aid to their suffering brethren, or to 
pursue the enemy, on their retreat, when, as was ailerwards 
aekiiowledged by ^em, they would have surrendered, had they 
had i&e opportuuity. 

A relationship by marriage, which existed between General 
Van Rensselaer and Sir John Johnson, is supposed to have been 
the eause of this disgraceful conduct on the part of the former. 

Montgomery county received its present name, (in honor of 
the brave hero of duebec,) in 1784, soon after which, a large 
portion of its territory was formed into other counties, and this 
process of curtailm«[>t has continued, till from being the largest, 
it hasbecome one of the smallest counties in the state. 

Villages. Fonda, the county seat, is a small but pleasant 
TiUage, in the town of Mohawk. It has some manufactures* 
Population 400. 

Amsterdam was incorporated in 1830. It is situated in the 
town of the same name, on the north bank of the Mohawk, and 
oomiected with the little village of Port Jackson, on the Erie 
canal, by a fin^ and substantial bridge. It has a flourishiDg 
academy, and female semkiary, and several mcmufacturing es- 
tablishments. Population 1700. 

Canajoharie is a thriving village, in the town of the same 
name, located on the south bank of llie Mohawk. It was incor- 
porated in 1829, and has a weU conducted academy. Here is 
an extensive quarry, from whence is obtaioed an excellent qual^ 
ity of limestone, much used in the construction of locks on the 
Erie Canal. The village is the proposedterminus of the Cate^ 
kill and Canc^harie railroad, which is partly finished. Popu- 

Fort Plaiuy in the town of Minden, was incorporated in 1834, 
and is a j^ace of considerable business. Here too, are extensive 
Mmestone quarries. Population 1400. 

Caughnawaga^ in the town of Mohawk, is principally worthy 
of notice for its stone ohurch, now converted into an academy. 
This venerable building was erected in 1763, by voluntary con- 

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BquafB nilei, 807. 
OrsftBiaed, 177S. 
Poputetioii, 40^54. 
ValuMiom 184^ $S,M1,847. 


1. Argyle, 1788. 

2. Cambridge, 1788. 

3. Ea8ton,17$S. 
4- Fort Ann, 1788. 

5. Granville, 1788. 

6. Hampton, 1788. 

7. Hebron, 1788. 

8. Kingsbury, 1788. 

9. Salem, 1788. 

10. Whitehall, 1788. 

11. Hartford, 1788. 

12. Greenwich, 1803. 

13. Putnam, 1S06. 

14. White Creek, 1815. 

15. Jackson, 1815. 

16. Fort Edward, 1818. 

17. DrefNlen, 1822. 

Mountains. U. Tashkanic range. 
Y. Peterborough range, 1. 
French, or Luzerne mountains. 

jRt««r«, fyc. C. Hudson river, a. 
Wood creek, b. Pawlet river, 
c. Poultney, or Fair Haven riv- 
er, d. Batten kill. f. Black 
creek, g. White creek, k. 
Hoosick river, i. Moses kill. 

FalU. Baker^s falls. Great falls. 

Lakn. W. Lsdce Champlain. 

X. Lake George, j. Big Pond. 
Fortt. Fort Edward. Fort Ann. 
Battle FieldSi Kingsbury. Fort 

Ann. Whitehall. 
Villages. Salem, Sandt Hiuu, 

Fort Edward, Whitehall, Union 

village, White Creek. 

Boundaries. North by Essex county and the state of Ver- 
mont ; East by Vermont ; South by Rensselaer county ; West 
by Saratoga and Warren counties, and Ledce George. 

Surface. Three distinct ranges of mountains ar« found in 

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this county ; viz. the Taghkanic, extending along its eastern 
bcMindary, with an average width of about five miles ; the Peter- 
borough, with a variable height, running from north to south, 
through the centre of the county, broken through by the Hoo- 
«ck, Pawlet, and Poultney rivers, and the Batten kill, and 
maintaining a breadth of from six to eight miles ; spurs of this 
rid^e extend toward the river in Greenwich and Easton; and 
iastijT, the Pahnertown range, here taking the name of French, 
or Luzerne mountains, and occupying the narrow peninsula 
which separates Lake George from Lake Champlain. 

These ranges, interspersed with occasional i^eys, render 
the face of the county diversified aad picturesque. 

RrvERs, &c. The county is abundajQtly watered. Beside 
the Hudson, the principal streams are, the Hoosick, Pawlet, 
and Poultney, or Fair Haven rivers, Batten kill. Wood creek, 
Moses kill, White and Owl creeks. 

Falls. Baker's falls, on the Hudson, have an almost per- 
pendicular descent of fifty feet, at the village of Sandy Hill. 
Great falls, on the Batten kill, have a total descent of sixty 
feet, in the towns of Easton and Greenwich. 

Lakes. Lakes George and Champlain form portions of the 
boundary of this county. Long Lake, in Argyle, is three or four 
miles in length. 

Can lib. The Champlain canal crosses the Hudson at Green- 
wich, and connects with Lake Champlain at Whitehall, fiir- 
nishing 32 miles of navigation in this county. 

Clim ATK. Cold, but hecdthful. The spring opens some two 
weeks later than in Orange, Dutchess, and the lower counties 
on the Hudson. 

Geology and MmsRALs. The northern part of the county is 
primitive, and the underlying rock chiefly granite. On the 
shores of the lakes there is an admixture, and apparent confu- 
sion of all the formations, probably the result of some convul- 
sion of nature. In the southern part of the coun^, the rocks 
are principally transition, intermixed with occasional patches of 
primitive. Limestone, graywacke, and slate, alternate upon 
the surfeoe in this section. 

Hagnetie and hematiUc iron ore, mAri, lime, niaiMe, water lime, grapbite, lain- 
dtor vgj€fKSUBt nHMive feldipar, and epidote, are Uie principal minerate of the 

Soil and VfiOETABLE Productions. The soil is generally 
good, afid produces fine cr4)ps of wheat, but is better adapted to 
graziiig than the culture of grain. The principal timber is oak, 
hickory, chestnut, maple, butternut, pine, and hemlock. 

PuiuHTmi. The people are, f^pthe most part, engaged in cLg- 
rtctffttcra^ pursuits. Oats, corC flax, and potatoes are largely 
10 ^ 

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raised, and considerable quantities of wheat, rye^ and barley. 
Butter, cheese, wool, and pork are produced in great abundance. 
In the quantity of wool grown, it was, in 1845, the second 
county in the state. 

Manufactures are increasing in importance. Flour, lumber, 
cotton and woollen goods, leather, and iron, are the principal 
articles manufactured. 

Co mmerce. T he Champiain and Hudson canal afibrds a con- 
venient mode of transportation to the produce of the county, 
which is well improved. The tolls received on produce pass- 
ing through this county in 1845, were about $70,000. 

Staple Productions. The staples of the county are pota- 
toes, oats, corn, flax, butter, cheese, wool, and pork. 

Schools. The county contained, in 1846, 246 district school- 
houses, in which were taught 13,414 children, at an expense of 
$16,950 for tuition. The schools were maintained, on an aver- 
age, eight months each. Number of volumes in the district 
libraries, 27,656. 

It had also twenty-two select schools, with 327 scholars, and five academies, 
with 345 pupils. 

Religious Denominations. Presbyterians, Methodists, Bap- 
tists, Congregationalists, Episcopalians, Roman Catholics, and 
Universalists. Churches, eighty-eight Clergymen, seventy- 

History. The first settlement in the county was made at 
Argyle, in 1742, by eighty- three families of Highlanders, who 
emigrated from Scotland, imder the direction of Capt.Laughlin 
Campbell, who had obtained a grant of 30,000 acres from Gov- 
ernor Clarke. These emigrants were intended to serve as 
defenders of the frontier, from incursions of the French and 

As they were scantily provided with food and clothing, appli- 
cation was made to the colonial legislature for aid, till they 
should be able to sustain themselves. This the house of assem- 
bly refused to grant, on the ground, it ie said, that they had 
discovered that the Governor and Surveyor General insisted 
upon their fees and a share of the lands. 

Captain Campbell sought redress, but in vain, and with the 
remnant of his fortune, purchased a small farm in the province. 
His unfortunate followers were rescued from starvation, by en- 
listing in an expedition against Carthagena. 

In 1755, Fort Edward was erected, by Generals Lyman and 
Johnson, and in 1756, Fort Ann. 

Salem was settled the same year, by two companies of emi- 
grants, one from Scotland and. Ireland, the other from New 

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Sngiand. In 1764, Alexander Turner and others, who had re- 
oeiired a ^ant in 1761, settled in the town of Salem. Not far 
from the same period, settlements were made in Kingsbury. 

In 1758, an obstinate and bloody battle occurred, between a 
body of 500 American troops, tinder the command of Major 
(afterwards X3enerai») Putnam and Major Rogers^ and a party 
of Fr^iich and Indians, under the command of a French olficer, 
by the name of Molaire. The battle ground was two miles 
north of the village of Kingsbury. 

The French commander had stationed a part of Ms troops in 
ambuscade for the Americans, and hoped to surprise them ; but 
Putnam, with the coolness which always characterized him, 
maintained his position, and a fearful conflict ensued. Putnam 
was taken captive by the Indians, but the bravery of the Ameri- 
can troops prevailed, and they finally routed the enemy, who 
lefl ninety dead behind them. The Indians bore off Putnam as 
a prisoner, to Canada, inflicting on him the most cruel tortures ; 
and but for the interposition of the French commander, would 
have burned him at the stake. 

In May, 1775, Whitehall, then called Skenesborough, fVom 
its first settler, Major Skene, was seized by a detachment of 
volunteers from Connecticut. In 1777, the Amer can force sta- 
tioned there, not being sufficient to protect it against Burgoyne, 
the fort, stores, and a large number of batteaux loaded with 
provisions, were burned by the Americans, to prevent their fall' 
ing into his hands. 

In July, 1777, a severe skirmish took place at Fort Ann, be- 
tw^en the 8th British regiment and a body of 400 or 500 invalid 
American troops, under the command of Colonel Long. The 
British suffered severely, and would have been taken or de- 
stroyed but for the want of ammunition on the p€u-t of the 

On the 27th of July, 1777, Miss Jane McCrea was murdered 
by the Indians near Fort Edward.* 

* The foOowing yerskm of this tragical affair is compiled irom Neilson's " Bur* 
fc^De's Campaiffn," and is professedly derived from the most authentic sources. 
It will be seen that it differs materially from the accounts heretofore published. 

Bliss BicCrea was the dauchterof a New Jersey clergyman, and bad come, soma 
years before, to reside withhei brother on the west bank: of the Hudson, five or 
six miles below Fort Edward. l>a;nd Jones, her suitoi. resided about five mUes 
above, on the same side of the river. He had embraced the royal cause, and vraa 
in the army of Burgoyne. On the 26th of July, 1777, Miss McGrea came from her 
brother's to tbe house of Peter Freel, who lived close under the walls of Fort Ed- 
ward, on a vidt. She remained there over night, and the next morning went to 
the house of Mrs. McNeil, aflenvards Mrs. Campbell, a cousin of General Frazer, 
who vroa at that time in Burgoyne's army. This house was at a distance of about 
elffhty rods from the fort. While at the house of Mrs. McNeil, the commander 
of the fort sent out a party of fifty men, to reconnoitre the position of the enemy. 
When about a mile flomthe fort, this party fen into an ambuscMie of Indians, about 

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908 STATS OP KfiW rOEK. 

Villages. Sandt Hill, in the town of Kin^flinurf , is a half 
•hire village of this coanty. It was incorporated in 1810. The 
village i* well laid out, the streets enclosing a triangular area 
in the centre of the village, which was once the scene of Indian 
barbarities* The Hudson furnishes an immense water power 
which is but partially improved. Population 1200. 

Salem, the other half shire village, was incorporated in 1803. 
It is situated in the midBt of a fertile agricultural region, and is 
celebrated as a mart for wooL The Washington Academy is 
an old institution, and has sent out a consideraMe number of 
eminent scholars. Population 800i 

Whifehallf in the town of the same name, is eligibly situated 
at the foot of Lalie Champlain, of which it is one of the princi- 
pal ports. It is connected with the Hudson river by means of 
the Champlain canal, as well as by several lines erf* stages run- 
ning to Troy, Albany, and Saratoga; and with Montreal l^ 
steamers which ply daily upon the lake. Thus iavor&My situ- 
ated ibr commerce, its growth has been rapid and healthfVd. 
Population about 2500. 

Union Village t situated in the towns of Greenwich andEas- 
ton, is a thriving and pleasant manufacturing viHage, with a 
flourishing academy, and a number of large manufactories. 
Population 1400. 

North White Creek is a pleasant village, in the town of White 
Creek, in the midst of an agricultural region. It is a great mart 
for wool Population 750. 

Cambridge, in the town of the same name, is the seat of 
Washington Academy, a flourishing and higWy popular insti- 

Fort Edward and FortAnnwre small villages, worthy of no- 
tice principally on account of their historic interest 

200 in namber, and fled towards the foru The Indians pimaed and IdUed eigltt* 
een of Cheir namber. As thejr passed the house of Bfrs. McNeil, six of the In* 
dians rushed in and seised Mrs. McNeil and Miss McCrea, and horried with them 
to the main body of the Indians. Both of the ladies were placed upon horses, 
which they had probablv stolen from the vicinity. . 

As they ascended a hiU about a mile from the fort, Miss McCrea was shot by one 
of the Indians, and felt from her horse. The savage who shot her. scalped her, 
and havinc secured the most valuable articles of her clothing, rolled her body 
down the declivity of the hoi. On the ensuhif dav her bddy, and that of a younc 
American officer who had also been killed by the Indians, were found and buried 
near a smsll creek about three miles from Fort Edward, by the Americans from 
die fort Mrs. McNeil was not killed, but plundered of most of her clothfaig, and 
brouf ht to the British camp. Jones. Miss McCrea's suitor, had never sent for her, 
nor is it certain that he knew that she was in the vicinity of the fort He is re- 
ported to have been killed at the batde of Bemis' Heif hts, on the 19th of Septem- 
ber foUowtaic. 

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Bquar* milei, 6S4. 
Otgndx/Bd, 1786, 

nipulation, 41«416. 
YaluatioB, 1845, 98^5,483. 

Digitized by Google 



1. Hudson, 1785. 11. Taghkanic, 1803. 

2. Canaan, 1788. 12. Austerlitz, 1818. 

3. Claverack, 1788. 13. Ghent, l«l8. 

4. Clermont, 1788. 14. New Lebanon, 1818. 

5. Germantown, 1788. 15. Stuyveeant, 1823. 

6. Hillsdale, 1788. 16. Copake, 1824. 

7. Kinderkook, 1788. 17. Gallatin, 1630 

8. Livingston, 178a 18. Stockport, 1833. 

9. Chatham, 1795. 19. Greeaport, 1839. 
10. Ancram, 1803. 

Mountains. V. Taghkanic range. 

Rivers and Creeks. C. Hudson river, b. Claverack creek, c. Co- 
pake, d. Ancram. g. Roeliff Jansen's. h. Vallitje. i. Kinder- 

Falls. Kinderhook falls. 

Lakes and Ponds, k. Copake lake. 1. Charlotte, m. Fish, 
j. Whiting*s pond. 

Vtllages, Hudson. Kinderhook. New Lebanon. Valatie, or 
VaUilje. Columbiaville. 

Boundaries. North by Rensselaer county ; East by the state 
of Massachusetts and Dutchess county ; South by Dutchess 
county ; and West by the Hudson river. 

Surface. The surface of Columbia county is greatly varied, 
but may be regarded as composed of two long and broken val- 
leys, on the east of which the Taghkanic range forms a natural 
boundary between the county and the state of Massachusetts ; 
the high banks of the Hudson form the western boundary, and 
the Peterborough mountains constitute the dividing ridge 
through the centre of the county. 

The western valley rises on me north end sou^^, causing its 
waters to flow towards the centre ; while the eastern, being 
highest in the centre, sends its streams north and south. The 
western valley being much the broadest, gives the county the 
form of a basin, retaining all the waters that rise in it, and dis- 
charging them into the Hudson, through the Kinderhook and 
RoelifFJansen's creaks. 

Rivers. The Hudson is the principal river; the other 
streams of the county are Kinderhook, Claverack, Copake, 
Roeliff Jansen's and Vallitje creeks. 

Lakes. Fish, Whiting^s pond, Copake and Charlotte, are 
the only lakes worthy of notice. 

Railroads. The Hudson and Berkshire, and the Chreat 
Western railroad pass through the county; find the route of 
the Harlaem railroad is laid out through it. 

CuMATE. The climate varies with the sur&ce. In the val- 
leys it is mild and pleasant, with early seasons : on the moun- 



tains, it is colder and more backward. The county is rcigarded 
as very healthy. 

Geology and Minerals. The Taghkanic mountains, in the 
eastern part ot the county, are primitive, and composed mainly 
oi* granite, and granL.lar limestone. The remainder of the 
county is transition, and its principal rocks are graywacke and 
blue limestone, below which, for the most part, lies a bed of 

The minerals are, iron ore of superior quality, lead ore, sulphuret of copper, 
oxide of manganese, sulphuret of zinc, heavy spar, peat, marl and marble. 
There are several mineral springs, both sulphurous and chalybeate, in the county. 
Those at Lebanon are much frequented, and considered as possessing valuable 
medicinal properties.* The sulphur springs in the town of Stockport are attract- 
ing considerable attention. 

Soil and Vegetable Productions. Portions of the county 
are highly fertile, while others are less productive. The marl 
and lime which abound in the county, furnish ample means for 
enriching it, to the highest degree of productiveness. The 
timber of the county is principally pitch pine, hickory, oak, ma- 
ple, elm and. chestnut. 

Pursuits. Agriculture is the leading pursuit. Much atten- 
tion is given to the culture of grain and tlie rearing of cattle. 
The growth of wool is very large. 

Manufactures are also an important pursuit in the county. 
The principal articles are cotton and woollen fabrics, including 
prints, flour, iron and brass ware. 

Cmmerce. An active trade is carried on from Hudson and 
the other river towns of the county, with New York and other 
home ports, employing a number of steamers, sloops and 
barges. The produce of the inland towns finds its way to a 
market by the railroads. 

Mines. There are some iron mines in the county. 

Staple Productions. Oats, potatoes, corn, rye, butter, 
cheese €uid wool. 

Schools. In 1846, there were in the county, 184 district 
school -houses, in which schools were taught, an average period 
of nine months. 11,275 scholars received instruction, at an ex- 
pense for tuition, of about $22,038. The district libraries num- 
bered 22,540 volumes. 

There were, the same year, in the county, twentynsix select schools, with 435 
pupils, and four academies with 338 students. 

* The following is the late Dr. Meade's analysis of the waters of the New 
Ifebanon spring. 

Two quarts of water contain grs. 

Muriate of lime, 1 

Of gases. Nitrogen g?s, 13 cubic inches. Muriate of soda, (common salt,) 1 3-4 
Atmospheric air, 8 " '* Sulphate of lime, 11-2 


Carbonate of lime, 3-4 



Reuqiocs Denomxnation& Methodistg, Dutch Reformed, 
Baptists, Presbyterians, Friends, Episcopalians, Jews, Luther- 
ans, Shakers, Universalists, Congregationalists, Unitarians, 
and Roman Catholics. The whole number of churches is sev* 
enty-four ; of clergy men, six t>. 

History. This county was originally a portion of two man- 
ors. The manor of Rensselaerwyck included all except the 
seven southernmost towns, which constituted the manor of Liv- 
ingrston, granted in 16S4, 1685, and 1666, and confirmed to the 
proprietor in 1714. 

In 1710, a company of seventy German families, part of those 
sent over by Queen Anne, settled in the jM-esent town of Gcr- 
m^ntown, which they called East Camp. In 1725, an arrange- 
ment having been made between George I. and the proprietor 
of the Livingston manor, a tract of 6000 acres was secured to 
them, of which forty acres were to be reserved for the use of a 
church and school, and the remainder divided equally among 
the inhabitants. 

The other six towns, Clermont, Livingston, Taghkanic, Gal- 
latin, Copake, and Ancram, still constitute the Livingston 
manor. The leases are generally long, and the rents payable 
in produce. The northern towns, niostly belong to the manor 
of Rensselaerwyck. 

Difficulties have frequently occurred between the propriett}rs 
of these manors and their tenants* In 1766, the military forces 
were called out to quell the disturbances in the town of Clav- 
erack, in the Rensselaer manor, and a conflict ensued in which 
several lives were lost. Similar occurrences have taken lAaee 
within a year or two past. 

The county was mostly settled by Swedish and Dutch «ni- 
grants, with the exception of Germantown, already mentioned, 
and Hudson, which was founded in 1783, by entens-iskig citizens 
of Rhode Island and Nantucket 

The manorial system has perhaps prevented, in some degree, 
ihe full development of the capabilities of the county ; yet it has, 
with slight exceptions, uniformly enjoyed a high degree of pros- 

ViLUiGEs. Hudson city, the capital of he county, is pleas- 
antly situated on the bauoks of the Hudson, here about fifly 
feet above ihe level of the river. It was formerly largely en- 
gaged in commerce, but the interests of this, as well as aH our 
other commercial ports, were greatly injured by the action d* 
the French and English, relative to neutral vessels, and the 
course necessarily adopted by our. government in return, prior 
to the late war with Great Britain. 

Afler recovering from the severe losses occasioned by these 
events, the citizens of Hudson engaged in the whale finery. 

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but with indifferent success. The tsoastin^ trade is prosecuted 
to some extent. 

There are some manufactories here, principally of sperm oil 
and candles, malt liquors, iron, and carriages. The Hudson 
Academy is an old chartered institution, and the Hudson Female 
Seminary, is a new and flourishing school. The Hudson Luna- 
tic Asylum is a private institution, but well conducted, and en- 
joying a large amount of patronage. 

The city is supplied with excellent water, by means of an 
aqueduct. The Hudscm and Berkshire raHroad adds materially 
to the business facihties of the city. Population, 6,657. 

VakUie is an important manufacturing village, in the town g£ 
Einderhook, situated at the junction of the Valatie (a corruption 
of Vallitje) and Kinderhook creeks; here a]*e four ]&rge cotton 
mills, two iron foundries, and several other manufactories. 
Population, 1600. 

Kinderhook viUage, in the town of the same name, is delight- 
fully situated on a plain, five miles east of the Hudson. It has 
several manufactories, and a flourtehmg incorporated academy. 
It is the birth place of ex-President Van Buren, and his beautir 
ful country seat, Lindenwald, is about two miles south of the 
village. Population, 1500.. 

Columinaville, in the town of Stockport, is a manu&cturing 
village of some importance. Its manufactures consist mainly 
of cotton sheetings. The Hudson River Seminary, a manual 
labor institution, is located here. There are in the town of 
Stockport, several other manufacturing villages. The principal 
are Glencadia, Springville, Hudson Print Works, and Chitten- 
den's Fails. 

New Lebanm Shaker Fi22age,in thetown of New Lebanon, 
called by the inhabitants the '' Village of the Millennial Church,'' 
is situated on the west side of the Taghkanic mountains. This 
is one of the largest settlements of this singular people. They 
have here a very large church, arched over throughout itJ3 en- 
tire extent; tendweUing houses for their families, or commu- 
nities, which consist of from 60 to 150 persons each, and nu- 
merous workshops and manufactories. Their grounds are 
highly cultivated, and their society prosperous and wealthy. 
This settlement was founded a few years after that at Neskayu- 
na, noticed under Albany county. Population about 6C)0. 

Two and a half miles from this village, are the New Lebanon 
springs, which are a fashionable resort for invalids and pleasure 
seekers, during the summer ; the scenery here is very delightful. 


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BtpmnmXkmr 933. 
OqaniMd, 1788. 

Fopubtion, 31,378. 
ValuBtton, 1845, tl,6M,140. 

1. Platteburtfh, 17S5. 

2. Champlam, 1788. 

3. Peru, 1 792. 

4. Chazy,1804. 

5. Mooers, 1804. 

6. Beekmantown, 1^20. 

7. EUenburgh, 1830. 

8. Saranac, 1834. 

9. Ad jSable, 1837. 
It). Blackbrook,1837. 
11. Clinton, 1842. 

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Mountains, il. Au Sable range. OG. Chateaugaj. 1. Lyon, 
m. Rand Elill. 

Rivers, a. Great Chazy. b. Little Chazy. c. Englisli. d. Sal- 
mon, e. Little Au Sable, i. Au Sable, j. Saranac. 

Falls, Sheffield. 

Lakes. W. Lake Champlain. g. Chateaugay. h. Chazy. 

Battle Fields. Plattsburgh. Lake Champlain. 

Villages. Pi.a.tt9b(JR(«h. Chazy. Redford. Clinton. Peru. 

BonNDARi63. North by Canada East ; Ea«t by Lake Cham- 
plain ; South by Essex county ; and West by Franklin county. 

SuRF\cE. A plain^ about eight miles in width, extends along 
&6 eastern border of this county^ inclining gently to Lake 
Champlain. West of this, the surface becomes hilly and 
broken, giving rise to the Au Sable range of mountains ; still 
farther west, the Chateaugay, which have their origin in Can- 
. ada, rear their lofly and wooded ridges. Their course is from 
north-east to south-west 

Rivers. The principal rivers in the county are the Au Sa^ 
We, Saranac, Great Chazy, Little Chazy, English, Sahnon, 
and Little Au Sable. 

Falls. The Au Sable has a number of falls within a few 
miles of its mouth. At Birmingham, the water plunges over a 
precipice eighty feet in height, and then flows through a ravine 
of two miles in length, and an average width of fifty feet, with 
perpendicular walls of granite from seventy-five to 150. feet 
high. The Saranac has also a number of fails, three of them 
exceeding in perpendicular descent, forty feet each. 

Lakes. Lake Champlain washes the eastern border of the 
county. The other principal lakes are Chateaugay and Chazy. 

CuMATE. In common with the northern counties generally, 
it has a rigorous climate. The winters are long, and snow falls 
to a great depth. 

Geology and Mineralogy. The county is wholly of primi- 
tive formation, except a narrow strip of limestone, along the 
shore of the lake. Hypersthene, granite and gneiss, are the 
prevailing rocks. 

bob ia the most abundant and valuable mineral. Both bog and magnetic oret 
occur in large quantities. Black marble is found near Plattsburgh, of excellent 
quality. Peat is very plentifUL In Beekmantown, is a sulphur spring, and also 
one of carbonated water. 

Soil and Vegetable Productions. In the level section upon 
the lake, the soil is principally a clayey loam, and is very pro- 
ductive. As the country rises, it becomes less fertile. 

The summer crops are best adapted to the soil. 

Tlie forests are covered with a deifte growth of timber, of oak, pine, maple, 
hemtock, Jec. Large quantities of sugar are produced from the maple. 

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PuRsuiTa The inhabitanta are for the most part engaged in 
agricultural pursuits. Some grain is raised, but the rearing of 
cattle and sheep is a more ^Lvorite and profitable business. 
The preparation of lumber for market also furnishes employ- 
ment to many of the citizens. 

Manufactures are increasing in importance, but are, at pres- 
ent, chiefly limited to the manufacture of pig and bar iron, oails, 
glass, flour, lumber, and woollen goods. 

Commerce, The shipping of the Champlain district amount- 
ed, in 1845, to 3192 tons, the greater part of which is owned id 
this county. Several steamers i^y on the lake, as well as 
sloops, schooners, dba 

Mines, There are extensive iron mines in the county. The 
marble quarries, near Plattsburgh, are in high repute. . 

Staples. Butter, cheese, beef, pork, corn and potatoes. 

Schools. 138 district schools were maintained in the county 
an avjETage period of six months, in 1846. Q»8958 was expend- 
ed for the instruction of 8056 children. The school libraries 
numbered 14,460 volumes. 

There were also in the county, nineteen private schools, with 537 pupils, and 
three incorporated academies with 191 students. 

Religious Denominations. Methodists, Presbyterians, Con- 
gregationalists. Baptists, Roman Catholics, Friends, and Epis- 
copalians. There are thirty-three churches and forty-five cler- 
gymen of all denominations. 

History. At the close of the French war, this county was 
visited by numerous specvdators, in quest of pine and oak tim- 
ber ; but no permanent settlements were established till 1765, 
or 1766, when a grant having been made to two officers of the 
British Navy, Messra Stewart and Freswell, of 2000 acres of 
land, in two tracts, one situated in Plattsburgh, and the other 
ki Peru, a few families removed here, but were so<m driven off 
by the revolutionary war. The descendants of one of them, 
however, (Mr. Hay,) still occupy his property. 

Grants were also made previous to the revolution, to two 
gentlemen named Beekman and Deane, with each of whom 
several partners were associated. A settlement was made in 
Deane's patent, in 1768, (though not by purchase from him,) by 
Mr. James Framboise. Being driven out by the enemy in 
1776, he served in the American army through the war, and, in 
1784, returned to his farm, which is still held by his family. 

A Grerman nobleman, Count Vredenburg, who had married 
a lady of the Queen's household, in England, obtained a grant 
of 30,000 acres of land, which he located on Cumberland bay, in 
the present town of Plattsburgh. He resided here, in great 

Digitized by Google 


splendor, for several years, previoos to the revolution, at the 
commencement of which he sent his family to Montreal, but re- 
mained himself, for some time, on his estate, and at leng^th ' ys- 
teriously disappeared. It was supposed, that he was robbed and 
murdered. His house, and a saw mill which he had erected, 
some three miles from his residence, were burned, at the time 
of his disappearance. 

In July, 1783, Lieutenant (afterwards Major General) Ben- 
jamin Mooers, with two other officers, and eight men, ascended 
the Hudson in a boat, from Fishkill landing, and, taking the 
route by way of Lake George, and Lake Champlain, reached 
Point au Roche, nine miles above Plattsburgh, on the 10th of 
'August, and commenced a settlement. 

In 1784, Judge Zephaniedi Piatt, and several others, who had 
formed a company, for the purchase of military warrants, loca- 
ted their lands on Cumberland bay, and laid out the town of 
Plattsburgh, reserving ten lots, of 100 acres each, as gids to 
the first ten settlers, \dio should remove thither, with their^ 
fiimilies, and another hundred acre lot for the first male child, 
born in the settlement. 

These gills were soon claimed, and the settlement prospered 
steadily from this period. During the late war with Great 
Britain, one of its severest battles occurred within the limits of 
this county— we allude to the battle of Plattsburgh, and the 
simultaneous naval conflict, between the squadrons of Commo- 
dore Pownie and Commodore McDonough, on the 11th of Sep- 
tember, 1814. 

In this battle, a force of 1500 regulars, and about 2500 militia, 
under General Macomb, defeated and routed a force of 14,000 
weU appointed, and veteran troops, the victors of a hundred 
battle fields ; and the squadron, under the command of Commo- 
dore McDonough, destroyed a force, considerably its superior, 
on the lake. The loss of the British land forces, was more than 
2000, in killed, wounded, prisoners, and deserters ; that of the 
Americans, not more than 150. 

On the kdce, the English loss was about 1000, in killed, wound- 
ed, and prisoners; that of the Americans, 110. The British 
commander. Commodore Downie, was killed, in the naval 

The mineral wealth of this county, and its vast forests of val- 
uable timber, will undoubtedly continue to attract emigrants 
hither, and no where will industry receive a more ample reward. 
Villages. Plattsburgh, in the town of the same name, is the 
county seat, and is situated at the head of Cumberland bay. It 
has numerous manu&ctories, and is the proposed terminus of 

Digitized by >^00QIC 


the Ogdensburgh and Lake Champlain railroad ; several rail- 
roads are now in the coarse of coastruction, which will probably 
eonnect this road with Boston, and other ports on the Atlantic. 

Platteburgh is a United States military post, and the govern- 
ment have erected extensive stone barratries here, and a perma- 
nent breakwater for the protection of the harbor. 

The Saf anac here furnishes a fine water power, descending 
by a succession of falls, about forty feet. The manufactures of 
the village are prmcipally cotton and woollen goods. Popula- 
tion, 2500. 

Near the rfOBge are the niiiw of the temporary barracks and breast works, 
oeeupied by the troops of G«iieral Macomb, during the late war wkh Great Brit- 
ain. One mile north of these is the house occupied by the British eomaander, - 
General Prevost, as his head quarters, during the siege. Between this and the 
yillage, the marks of cannon shot can stiU be seen on the trees and other 
dileets. At a distance of about five miles fkom the village, on a hill overlooking 
the TiUaga of Beekmantown, is the spot where the British troops met the first 
repulse in their approiu}h to Flattsburgh, on the 6th of September. In this skir- 
mish, sereral of the British officers and about 100 men were killed. The British 
camp was north of the Saranac river. 

ClintonviUef on the Au Sable river, situated partly in this 
afid partly in Essex county, is a thriving, village, largely enga- 
ged in the various manufactures of bar and roUed iron, nails, 
chain cables, &c. which are produced here, in large quantities. 
The Arnold Hill mine, near the village, furnishes magnetic iron 
ore of very superior quality. Population, 1000. 

Peru is a flourishing village, in the town of the same name. 
Population, 900. 

Bedford f in the town of Saranac, is famous for its manufac- 
ture of crown glass, which is of superior quality. Population, 

diazy is a small, but thriving village, in the town of the same 
name. It has some manufactures. The Chazy blade marble, 
quarried near this village, bears a high reputation. 

Champlain f in the town of the same name, is a village of some 
importance. The village of Keeseville, on both sides of the Au 
Sable, is partly located in this town, and, in point of importance, 
is only second to Plattsburgh. It is more particularly described 
in Essex county. 

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Squan MHea, ei7* 
Oiganized, 1789. 

Fopulatioiv 42,592. 
Valuation, 1845, «12,624,438. 


9. Seneca, 1789. 

10. Victor, 1812. 

11. Manchester, 1821. 

12. Hopewell, 1822. 
IS. anadice, 1829. 

14. West BloomfielcU 1833. 

15. South Blooinfield» 1836. 

1. Bristol, 1789 

2. Canandaigua, 1789. 

3. East Bloomfield, 1789. 

4. Farmington, 1789. 

5. Gorham, 1789. 

6. Naples, 1789. 

7. Phelps, 1789. 

8. Richmond, 1789. 
I&oer9. a. Mud Cteek. h. Canandaigua Outlet c. Flint Creek, d. 

Lake*. BB. Seneca, h. Canandaigua. e. Honeoye. f. Caneadea 

or Canadice. g. Hemlock. 
Colleges, Geneva. 
Village*. Canakdaigua. Geneva. Vienna. Port Gibson. 

BouNDARiEfl. North by Monroe and Wayne counties ; East 
by Seneca county and Seneca lake ; South by Yates and Steu- 
ben counties ; and West by Livinflrston and Monroe counties. 

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SuBPACE. The surface of Ontario county is diversified, being 
naturally divided by a north and south line, taking the Capan- 
daigua lake in its course. The whole eastern portion is spread 
out in beautiful plains and gentle undulations. The western 
pcNTtion comprises numerous swells of rich rolling leuad, inter- 
spersed with fertile vales. In the southwestern portion of the 
county, these swells form some bold elevations, towering into 
highlands, having an altitude of twelve or fourteen hundred 

Rivers. Mud creek, Canandaigua outlet, Flint creek and 
Honeoye, are the principal streams. 

Lakes. Canandaigua lake is fourteen miles bng, from one 
to two broad, and surrounded by diversified and beautiful 
scenery. The other lakes are Seneca, Honeoye, Caneadea 
and Hemlock. 

Canals. The Erie canal just touches the county at Port 
Gibson, and the Seneca and Cayuga canal commences at 

Railroads. The Auburn and Rochester railroad has a cir- 
cuitous course, from east to west, through the county. 

Climate. The climate is mild and equable. 

In ■ome sections remittent and intennittent tB^en prevail in autnnui, but the 
county, as a whole, is decidedly healthy. . It is well adapted to the growth and 
perfection of the peach, apple and other fruits. 

Geology and Minerals. Slate is the underlymg rock of the 
county, but it is generally covered with limestone, and, on the 
higher hills, with graywacke. In the southern part, the clay 
slate sometimes appears on the surface. In the west it alter- 
nates with the limestone, ibrming an excellent soil. The 
county lies mostly within the limits of the Ontario group. 

Water lime, gypsum and marl are abundant Ironore is also found in laige 
quantities. Sulphur springs exist in Manchester. One of the most interesting 
features in the mineralogical history of this county, is the carburetted hydrogen 
or inflammable gas, in Bristol and Canandaigua. 

The gas forces its way through fissures in the rocks, and in Bristol thipugh the 
waters of a stream, where it is most abundant ; when lighted it bums witb a 
steady,, brilliant flame, till extinguished by storms, or by dengn. The gas has the 
odor of pit coal, and bums without smoke, but deposits a small quantity of bitu- 
minous lanq>black. The hillocks where it appears are destitute of verdure, and 
no plant will live within its influence. There are sunilar springs in East Bloom- 
Held and Richmond. 

Soil and Vegetable Phoddctions. The constituents of the 
soil render it quite fertile, and the northern and central towns 
are peculiarly adapted to the raising of wheat and other grains. 
It also yields grass and fruits abundcmtly. 

The timber is prlneipally oak, chestiiat, hickory^ with beecb, n^ple, and some 
pine in the southern pMt. 

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PniisDiTS. The people generally are engaged in tiUing the 
earth, and find a rich return for their toil, in the abundance it 
produce«i. More wheat is raised in this county, than in any 
other in the state. It also produces more wool. All kinds of 
fruit congenial to the climate, are produced in large quantities. 

The manufactures of the county are limited, as it has com- 
paratively little water power. They are chiefly flour, the var 
rious woollen ^ibrics, leather, malt and distilled liquprs. 

Its commerce is confined to the transportation of its produce, 
and that principally on the Seneca lake. 

Staples. These are, wheat, wool, oats, barley and butter. 

Schools. In 1846, there were 220 district schools, which 
were taught an average period of e^t months, and contained 
14,t>17 pupils. The amountpaidfor tuition was $21,519. There 
were 27,106 volumes in the school libraries. 

Tbere were in addition, thirty-five select icbools, witli 706 tcfaobn, two aead- 
emies, and one female seminary, with 346 pupils, and one coQege with eight pro- 
fessors, and, including both departments, 360 students. 

Reugious Denominations. Methodists, Baptists, Presbyte- 
rians, Cengregationalists, Episcopalians, Friends, Universal- 
ists, Dutch Reformed, Unitaricms and Roman Catholics. To- 
tal churches seventy-six— clergymen ninety-five. 

History. The whole of this county, as well as the counties 
of Steuben, Genesee, Allegany, Niagara, Chautauque^ Monroe, 
Livingston, Erie, Yates, and the western half of Wayne and 
Orleans, was included in the lands ceded by New York to Mas- 
sachusetts, and by that state to Messrs. Gorham and Phelps, 
in 1787. 

In 1788 Oliver Phelps, one of the proprietors, left Granville, 
Massachusetts, to expl<H^ this far distant and unknown coun- 
try, amid the tearful adieus of his family and friends, who 
parted with him, not expecting his return. 

On his arrival at Canandaigua, he assembled the chiefs of 
the Six Nations, and purchased from them their title to two 
and a half millions of acres of land. In 1789, he opened, at 
Canandaigua, the first land ofiice in America, for the sale of 
forest lands to settlers. 

His system of surveys by townships was subsequently adopt- 
ed by the. United States government, in their surveys of new 
lands. Almost the whole of the lands of this county were thus 
sold to actual settlers, a large proportion of whom were from 
New England. 

With a soil of extraordinary fertility, and a thrifty and indus- 
trious population; possessing scenery of unrivaled beauty, and 
removed from the danger of hostile incursions, the growth of 

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this county has been* rapid and prosperoas, since its first set- 

Villages. Ca;«andaigoa village in the townof Canandai^a, 
vas laid out by Messrs. Gorham and Phelps, in 1788, and is the 
eounty seat. It is delightfully situated, on an ascent, at the 
northern extremity of the lake of the same name, commanding 
a fine riew of that beautiful sheet of water. Its buildings, many 
of them handsome, are principally situated on a single broad 
street, running north and south, and are surrounded by h^hly 
cultivated gardens. 

The Caoandaigua academy, located here, was founded by the 
munificence of Messrs. Gorham and Phelps, and is amply sus- 
tained by the libersdity of the inhabitants. It is also the seat of 
the Ontario female seminary, an ancient and respectable insti- 
tution. Population about 3000. 

Geneva, in the town of Seneca, was founded by Messrs. An- 
nin and Barton, in 1794. In the beauty of its situation, it is 
unrivaled among the many beautiful villages of western New 
York. Situated at the northwest extremity of Seneca lake, its 
principal street runs parallel with the shore of the lake, at an 
elevation of about 100 feet, and from many of its residences ter- 
raced gardens extend to the banks of the lake. 

It has some manufactures, but is chiefly distinguished for its 
.refined society, and for the advantages it affords as a retreat for 
the scholar, the retired merchant, or the gentleman of fortune. 
The college, here, has an able corps of instructors, and is rising 
in reputation and usefulness. In beauty of location it is not 
surpassed by any institution in the United States. It has a 
flourishing medical department. There is also in this village a 
female seminary. Population about 4000. 

East and West Vienna, in the town of Phelps, are thriving 
villages, situated one mile distant from each other, on the out- 
let of Canandaigua lake. They are in the midst-of a fine agri- 
cultural region and have some manufactories. East Vienna 
has a female seminary. The Auburn and Rochester railroad 
passes through the village. Population 1500. 

Bushvilley partly in this county and partly in Yates, is a vil- 
lage of some importance. Population about 800. 

Port Gibson, in the town of Manchester, is the only place 
where the Erie canal toudies the county. 

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Square Miles, 1370. 
Population, 37,434. 
Organized, 1791. 
Valuation, 1845, 96,573,473. 


1. German Flats, 1783. 

2. Herkimer; 1788. 

3. Schuyler, 1792. 

4. Norway, 1792. 

5. Fairield, 1796. 

6. Frankfort, 1796. 

7. Litchaeld, 1796. 

8. Warren, 1790. 

9. Manheim, 1797. 

10. Newport, 1806. 

11. Rossia, 18()6. 
13. Columbia, 181. 

13. Wiftfield, 1816. 

14. Danube, 1817. 

15. Salisbury, 1817. 

16. Ohio, 1823. 

17. Stark, 1828. 

18. Little Falls, 1829. 

19. Wilmurt, 1837. 

Mountains. GG. Chateaugay. j. 

Otsquaga. i. Hassencleaver. 
Mivers. F. Mohawk, a. Black. 

h. East Canada Creek, f. West 

Canada Creek, b. Beaver, c. 

Falls, g. Trenton, t. Little. 
La/ces. d. Moose. 
Villages. Herkimer. Little 

Palls. Fairfield. 

^ Boundaries. North by St. 
Lawrence county; East by 
Hamilton, Fulton and Mont- 
gomery ; South by Otsego ; and 
West by Oneida and Lewis 

Surface. The surface is di- 
versified, and crossed by moun- 
tains in every direction. The 
Chateaugay range enters the 

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county from the northeast, and rosfi flouthweet and unites with 
the Otsqua^a Hills, which form the dividing ridge between the 
Mohawk and Susquehanna. 

This ridge is broken through, by the Mohawk river, at Little 
Falls. It varies in height from 700 to 1200 feet. TheOtsquaga 
Hills run from east to west, extending across the whcrie south- 
ern portion of the county. They are about 1000 feet high. 

Between the Chateaugay mountains and the western line of 
the county, are the Highlands of Black river, which are broken 
through by West Canada creek. The Hassencleaver moun- 
tain, an isolated summit, having a base of eight or nine miles, 
and a height of 800 or 1000 feet, also occupies its central 

The northern portion is elevated and rugged, but has not 
been thoroughly explored. The dividing ridge, between the 
waters of the St. Lawrence and the Mohawk, crosses it. 

Rivers. The Mohawk passes through the county from east 
to west. Its principal tributaries are the E^ast Canada and 
West Canada creeks. The latter, in a course of sixty miles, 
faDs 1220 feet, or on an average twenty-three feet to the mfie. 
The Black, Moose, Beaver, aiui the head waters of the Oswe- 
gatchie river, all aid in draining the northern portion o£ the 
county. • 

Falls. The Little Falls, at the village of that name, on the 
Mohawk, deserve notice. They received their name in contra- 
distinction to the Great Falls of the Mohawk, at Cohoes. They 
extend, upon the iv er, three-fourths of a mile, the fall in that 
distance being forty-two feet, divided into two rapids, each of 
nearly a fourth of a mile in length, and separated by a stretch 
of deep water. 

The beauty of the &U is very much increased by the depth of the dver bed, 
below the adjacent banks of the defile, through Which it passes. This defile is 
tbotit 100 rods wide, two miles in length, and rises from 360 to 400 feet above the 
river, which has worn for itself this deep channel through the crumbling roclEi, 
which compose the mountain. The sceneiy is highly picturesque and beautiful 

Trenton Falls, on the West Canada creek, are described un- 
der Oneida county. 

i AKSS, There are numerous small lakes scattered over the 
northern part oi' the county, among which Moose lake is the 

Canals and Railroads. The Erie canal, and the Utica and 
Schenectady railroad, pass through the county, on either side 
of the Mohawk. "*.. 

Climate. The cUmate, owing to the numerous mountains, is 
cold, but healthy. 

Geology aud Minerals. The qorthern part of the county is 

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primitive, the rocks bein^ either g^raiute or ^eisB. (te the bor- 
ders of the East and West Canada creeks, as well as in some 
other eections» this is overlaid with limestone and slate. South 
of the Mohawk, the prevailing rock is date, covered with sand- 
stone, or limestone, except at Fort hUl, where the granite again 
makes its appearance. 

Its minerals are quarts, eiyatals of rare size and beauty, heavy spar, ealcare- 
oos spar, pearl and brown spar, sulfdiuret of zinc, galena, iron and copper pyrftes, 
bog mm ore, fibrouv celestine, tourmaline, and anthracite, thoui^ not in sufficient 
quantities to be of any practical vahie. Fossils, of great beauty and perfection, are 
found in the vicinity of Tfenton HUBb, and petri&ctions on the Otsquaga ereek, in 
thetiywii of Stark. 

Soil and Vegetable Productions. The soil is generally 
arable, and some portions of it highly productive. It is better 
adapted to grass than to grain. The northern portion is said to 
be barren and rniproductive. 

The timber is principaOy oek, hemlock, pine,, beech/ chestnut, black birch, hick- 
ory, butternut, elm and maple. Pine and hemlock are abundant in the northern 

PuRsnrrs. A^HcuUwre is the pursuit of a majority of the in- 
habitants. From the hilly character of the surface, more atten* 
tion is necessarily paid to grazing, than to the culture of grain, 
and Herkimer stands in the front rank of grazing counties. Its 
cheese is particularly celebrated, ajad almost one fourth of the 
whole amount produced in the state, is made in this county. 
More than eight millions of pounds mere made in 1845. It also 
ranks high in the production of butter, wool and pork. 

Some attention is paid to manufactures , for which the water 
&lls of the principal streams afford fine facflities. The principal 
articles are leather, cotton and woollen goods, flour, lumber and 

The transportation of its jproduoe upon the Erie canal, consti- 
tutes the only commerce of the county. 

Staples. Cheese, butter and wool 

Schools. There are 200 public school-houses, in which schools 
were taught, in 1846, an average period of eight months, and 
11,800 children received instruction, at a cost, for tuition, of 
$15,459. The district libraries numbered 22,750 volumes. 

The comity has also thtity-three select schools, with 443 pupils, three academies, 
md one female seminary, attended by 321 papils. 

Reuoioos Denominations. Methodists, Baptists, Dutch Re- 
formed, Umversaiists, Presbyterians, Congregationahsts, Epis- 
copalians, Roman Catholics, Unitarians and Jews. 

History. A tract of land, twelve miles square, lying between 
the East and West Canada creeks, in this county, constituted 
the royal grant, which Sir William Johnson obtained of old 
King Hendrick, and ^diich was all^nvards confirmed by the 

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king of England.* Another of '^^ ^^k) acrep, 1/iog in the north- 
ern part of the county, was granted in 1770, and called the Jer- 
•ey field patent. 

The fertile tract now known as the German Flats, waa 
patented by a company of German Lutherans, in 1725. It con- 
sisted of a little more than 9000 acres of excellent land. Their 
residence was called Burnet's field, after Governor Burnet. A 
church was erected here, previous to the revolution, and a par- 
sonage of stone, wluch having been fortified, received the name 
of Fort Herkimer. 

In common with the adjacent counties of Montgomery, Ful- 
ton, Otsego, Oneida and Schoharie, Herkimer suffered from 
the incursions of the savages and tories, during the revolution- 
ary contest. The brave old general whose name it perpetuates, 
died at his residence, in Danube, in this county, in August, 
1777, of wounds received at the battle of Oriskany. 

In 1778, the village of Herkimer was burned by the Indians 
and tories, under the direction of the Mohawk chieflain. Brant, 
Fortimately their approach had been discovered by the inhabit- 
ants, who fled to Forts Dayton and Herkimer, for protecti<m. 
Two individuals, however, were killed, every house and barn 
destroyed, and the cattle, horses and sheep driven away by the 

In 1780, a party of Indians and tories visited Little Falls, for 
the purpose of destroying the mills there, which were of great 
importance to the inhabitants. They accomplished their object, 
killed one man, and took five or six prisoners. Two of the oc- 
cupants of one of the mills, concealed themselves in the race- 
way, beneath the water wheel, and after the conflagration of 
the mill, and the departure of the Indians, made their escape. 

Villages. Herkimer, the county seat, is handsomely situa- 
ted in the valley of the Mohawk, in the town of the same name. 
It has a fine hydraulic power, sufficient to drive a large amount 
of machinery. The academy here is in a flourishing condition. 
The county buildings are on the most improved models, com- 
bining security and comfort. Population about 1000. 

Little Falls, situated on both sides the Mohawk, in the town 
of that name, is celebrated for the beauty crC its scenery. It is 

* The wa^ in which this land was obtained, was said to be the foUowinc . Sir 
William haying received, from England, several rich suits of uniform, the old 
(Sachem, Hendrick. viwted him somi after, and spent |he night. In the mominf 
he came to Sir William and said, " Me dream last night." '* And what did yon 
dream t" inqufared the baronet. "Me dream yon |;ive me one fine suit of ciothes,*' 
was the reply. The baronet, of course, compfied with his request. 

Not lone after, he returned the visitt and in the morning, said to his Indian 
taost. ** I A-eamed last night." " Ah." said th« Indian, *< Wh|it (fid you dreamV 
** I dreamed," replied air William, ^ that you gay* me sach a piece of tend,'' 
(describinff it). " Well," said the old Sachem, ** Me give it you, but me n* 
dream with you again ; you dream too hard for me." 

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lar^Iy engaged in manufactures, and has an academy for the 
education of both sexes, for which the citizens have erected a 
noble granite edifice. Its houses, mostly of stone, are remark- 
able for their neat and substantial appearance. 

Here is a deep cut on the canal, of two miles, through solid 
rock, which presented an obstacle to the Erie canal, only sur- 
passed by that at Lockport. The canal constructed by the 
Western Inland Lock Navigation Company, in 1802, is con- 
nected with the Erie canal at this place, by a magnificent aque- 
duct of white marble. The finest quartz crystals in the United 
States are found here. Population about 3000. 

Fairfield is a pleasant rural village, the seat of an academy 
of considerable distinction. The coUege of physicians and sur- 
geons, of the western district, was former^ located here, and 
occupied a fine building. This medical school, though formerly 
highly popular, has recently been discontinued. 

Mf^wky in the town of German Flats, is situated on the 
line of the canal. It is a flourishing village, and furnishes a 
good market for the produce of this section of the county. Pop- 
ulation 800. 

Newport, in the town of the same name, is a thriving village, 
with considerable manu&ctures. Population about 600. 

Frankfort, in the town of the same name, has some manu&c- 
tures. Population 600. 

MidcUeville, in the town of Fairfield, Wintony in the town of 
Salisbury, and Russia, in the town of the same name, are vil- 
lages of some importance. 



Bquare MOea, 696. Population, 63,338. 


Valuation, 1845, 918,634,2^8. 

1. Hoosick, 1788. 

2. Pittstown, 1788. 

3. Scaghticoke, 1788. 

4. Stephentown, 1788. 

5. Petersbureh, 17<^1. 

6. Greenboflb, 1792. 

7. Schodac* 1795. 

8. Troy City, 1796. 

9. Nassau, 1806. 

10. Berlin, 1806. 

11. Brnnswick, 1807. 

12. Grafton, 1807. 

13. Lansinbnrgh, 1807. 

14. Sand Lake. 

Mauntamt. Y. Peterborough, g. WilliamstowD. 

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Mwert and Creeks. C. Hudson Kiver. k. Hoosick. b. Tomhenick 
Creek, i. Kinderhook. h. Vallitje. e. Wvnantokill. f. Poes- 

Falls. Hoosick. 

VUlagea. Troy City. Greenbush. Lansinghurgh. Scaghticoke 
Hoosick Falls. 

BoDNDAitiss. North by Washington county; East by the 
states of Massachusetts and Vermont; South by Columbia 
county ; and West by the Hudson river. 

Surface. The surface of the county is diversified. From 
the valley of the Hudson it rises, somewhat precipitously, more 
than 200 feet. Thence the county is rolling, to the base of the 
Peterborough mountains. These mountains attain their high- 
est elevation near the centre of the county, subsiding into mod- 
erate hills, at the northern and southern extremities. This 
ridge is separated from the Taghkanic range, here called the 
Williams town mountains, by a valley from one to three miles 
in width. 

Rivers. This county is abundantly watered. ' Beside the 
Hudson, its principal streams are, the Hoosick river, Tom- 
henick, Kinderhook £uid Vallitje creeks, Wynantskill, and Po- 

Railroads. The Western Railroad, which connects Boston 
and Albany, terminates at East Albany. The Troy and Green- 
bush Railroad connects this with Troy. The Troy and Sara- 
toga, and the Troy and Schenectady Railroads, both terminate 
in this county. They cross the Hudson at Troy, on a noble 
bridge, 1650 feet in length. 

CuMATE. The climate of the county is mild, but exposed to 
great extremes of temperature. It is considered healthful. 

Geology and Minerals. The county is wholly of the trans- 
ition formation. The basis rock is clay slate, upon which is 
imposed limestone, ^ray wacke, and some red sandstone. 

Boofing date is exteiwiveljr quarried in Hoosick, Stephentown, and Troy. Iron 
i0 found in several places, but is little wrought. Marl, of superior quality, ii 
abundant in Sand Lake, and Scagiiticoke. Epsom salts are found in Lansingburgh ; 
in the same vicinity are quartz crystals of great beauty. There are several sul- 
phur qNings in the ceunQr. 

Soul, and Vegetable Productions. There is considerable 
variety in the soil, but a loam, composed of sand and clay, and 
quite fertile, extends over the greater part of the county. Con- 
siderable tracts are well a4apted to wheat, but grass ajsd sum- 
mer crops succeed better in the uplands, in the northern and 
eastern sections. The principal timber is oak, hemlock, spruce, 
chestnut, and hickory. 

Pursuits. Agriculture is extensively and profitably pursued. 
The productions of the dairy are large* The rearing of cattte, 

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horsM, and cheep, receives much attention. It is the largest 
flax ^owins: coanty in the state. 

The Manufactures of the county are numerous and varied. 
The principal articles are flour, cotton and woollen goods, 
various kinds of iron ware, leather, carriages and sleigh^ 
railroad cars, malt and distilled liquors, oil, &c. 

Ckimmerce. The commerce of the county is quite extensive, 
and is carried on principally through the ports of Troy, Lan- 
•ingburgh, and Greenbush. 

Staples. Flax, oats, potatoes, corn, butter and wooL 

ScBOOLS. In 1846, there were in the county, 192 district 
school-houses, in whkh schools were maintained an average pe- 
riod of nine months, and 13,040 children received instruction. 
The wages of teachers amounted to $21,83 . The number of 
volumes in the district l^aries was 26,921. 

There were also seventy-flve private scboolB, with 1933 pupils, six academies 
and two female seminariee, with 556 students, and the Rensselaer Institute. 

Reugious Denominations. Methodists, Presbyterians, Bap- 
tists, Dutch Reformed, Episcopalians, Roman Catholics, Uni- 
versalists, Unitarians, Friends, and CongregationalistB. There 
are nioety^ive churches, and eighty clergymen. 

History. All the towns of this county, except Scaghticoke, 
Pittstown, Hoosick, the north part of Lansingburgh, a^ part of 
Troy, belong to the Manor of Rensselaerwyck. The farms are 
generally rented at the rate often bushels of wheat for the hun- 
dred acres. 

Pittstown was probably settled at an earlier period than any 
other portion of the county, emigrants having located there in 

Scaghticoke was also settled by Dutch and Gierman families 
at an early period, probably about 1700. The first settlement 
on the present site a[ Troy, was made in 1720, by Derick Van- 
derheyden. He obtained a lease of 490 acres, now constituting 
the most densely populated portion of the city, for three and 
three-quarters bushels of wheat and four fat fowls annually. 

His descendants continued to occupy the land, and from them 
it assumed the name oi' Vanderheyden's ferry, which it con- 
tinued to bear till 1789, when the more clasdc ai^)eiiaticm of 
•* Troy" was substituted ior it. 

On the 16th August, J 777, a portion of die battle of Benning- 
ton was fought within the limits of Hoosick, in this county. 

A cantonment was erected at Greenbush, for the United 
States troops, during the late war with Great Britain. 

Cmss AND Villages. Troy City, the seat of justice for the 
eounty, is pleasantly situated on the Hudson, six miles north of 
Albany. It was laid out in 1789, and made the county seat in 

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179L It id well built, with wide and well shaded streeta. The 
court house, and several of the other public buildings, exhibit 
ffreat architectural merit. 

It is largely engaged in manufactures of almost every descrip- 
tion ; cast and bar iron, nails, cotton and woollen goods, coaches, 
•teighs, wagons, railroad cars, flour, distilled and malt liquors, 
leather, cordage, steam engines, machinery, Ac, are the 
princti>aL The entire vaJue of its manufactures exceeds 
9^,000,000 per annum. 

The schools of Troy have long maintained a high rank. The 
Rensselaer Institute, founded by, and named after, the late P»- 
troon, is an excellent practkal school, designed to furnish young 
men with a thorough mathematical education, and to fit them 
for the practice of civil engineering. 

The Troy Female Seminary, begun in Middlebury, Vermont, 
in 1814, and removed to Troy in 1821, has long ranked among 
the first institutions of its kind in the country. Nearly 6000 pu- 
pils have been educated in it, many of whom have afterwards 
become teachers in various parts of the Union. 

Its former and present principals, have won for themselves 
the highest reputation a^ instructors. It has twenty-four teach- 
ers and other officers, and more than 200 pupils. 

The Troy Academy is also an excellent institution. 4 

The Lyceum of Natural History has a fine library and cabi- 
net, and is well conducted. The Young Men's Association pos- 
sess a large and well selected hbrary, a cabinet and reading 
room, and sustain a course of lectures annually. 

The city is connected with Schenectady, Saratoga, and East 
Albany, by railroads, and by means of the last with the great 
Western Railroad to Boston. Excellent McAdamized roads 
have also been constructed to Albany and to Bennington; the 
Erie and Champlain canals, here forming the Junction canal, 
bring immense quantities of lumber and produce to the dty, and 
receive in return manufactured goods. 

The commerce of the city is quite large. Three large and 
seven or eight smaller steamboats, about sixty sloops and 
schooners, and twenty-five or thirty barges, are owned here, 
and employed in transporting produce and manufactured arti- 
cles to New York. There are also several lines of packets iky- 
ing to other ports, together with a large number of packet and 
freight boats, on the Erie and Champlain canals. Population 

The village of West Troy, on the west bank of the Hudson, 
though in another county, may almost be considered a suburb 

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of Troy, with wLich it is connected by ^ fine hndge and two 

Latuingburght in the town of the same name, is three miles 
fiorth of Troy. It was settled before that city, and was for a 
considerable period the more important viUage. It has exten- 
sive manufactories. By means of a lock, in the state dam across 
the Hudson, sloops ascend the river to the viUag^e. The Lan- 
flingburgh Academy was one of the first institutions of the kind 
established in the state. The viUage is one of the oldest in the 
state, having been organized in 1771, and incorporated in 1787. 
Popudation 3500. 

Scaghticoke Point, in the town of Scaghticoke, is a thriving 
manufoeturing village; cotton, linen, and hemp goods, powder, 
and powder Jcegs, are largely manufactured here. Popula- 
tion 1400. 

Greenbtish is a thriving village in the town of the same name, 
opposite the city of Albany. The great Western railroad, and 
the Troy €md Greenbush railroad terminate here. The United 
States barracks, erected in 1814, were on an eminence about a 
mile southeast of the village. They were very extensive, having 
been intended for the accommodation of 5000 troops, but are now 
in ruins. Population 1200. 

Hoosick Falls, in the town of Hoo8ick,ns a thriving manufac- 
turing village. Population 500. 

Nassau and Berlin^ in the towns of the same names, are vil- 
lages of some importance. 

Schodac Landing, in the town of Schodac, is a thriving 

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SquBie mflef, 899. 
Oiganized, 1791. 

Population, 50,509. 
Vahiation, 1845, 95,408,040. 

1. Otsego, 1788. 

2. Cherry Valley, 1791. 

3. Richfield, 1792. 

4. UnadilU, 1702. 

5. Burlington, 1792. 

6. Butternuts, 1796. 

7. Milford, 1796. 

8. Oneonta, 1796. 

9. Pittsfield, 1797. 

10. Springfield, 1797. 

11. Worcester, 1797. 
M&untttmu. m. Kaatsbergs. 


12. Middlefield, 1797. 

13. Exeter, 1799. 

14. Plainfield, 1799 

15. Hartwick, 1802. 

16. New Lisbon, 1806. 

17. Decatur, 180S. 

18. Edmeston, 1808. 

19. Maryland, 1808. 

20. Westford, 1808. 

21. Laurens, 1810. 

22. Otego, 1822. 

a. Mount Independence. 

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Mhen, Il.Unadilla. 6. SusquehanDa. b. Butternut creek, c. 

Otsdewa. d. Otego. e. OtsegQ, f. Cherry Valley, g. Schene- 

yafl. h. Elk. 
Lakes, i. Summit, j. C inaderaga or Schuyler, k. Otsego. 
Battie FUlds. Cherry Valley. 
Villages, Coopbb«town. Cherry Valley. 

BocNDARiEs. Nortii by Oneida, Herkimer and Mont^mery 
counties ; East by Schoharie and Delaware ; South by Dela- 
ware ; and Vilest by Madison and Chenango counties. 

Surface. The surface is greatly diversified by mountains, 
hills, valleys and plains. The Kaatsbergs extend along its 
eastern border, connecting, a little above Cherry Valley vil- 
lage, with Mount Independence, whose summit, more than 2000 
feet above tide water, affords a noble prospect, oi^ening, insome 
directions, nearly 100 miles in e^ctent. 

At this elevation, a narrow table land ru' s along the northern 
confines of the county, forming the western continuation of the 
Kaatsbergs, and decHens gradually toward the south, divided, 
however, by the streams, into numerous high ridges and deep 

There are six principal valleys thus formed, viz. Cherry Val- 
ley, the valley of the Elk credt, that of Schenevas creek, the 
valleys of the Otego and Butternut creeks, and of the Unadilla 
river. The direction of these valleys is generally south-south- 

Rivers. This county is well watered. The Susquehanna, 
which forms nearly half its southern boundary, is the principal 
stream. It takes its rise in Summit lake, whose waters also 
discharge, in seasons of flood, into the Mohawk. Its course 
through the county is placid, the descent, in the distance of 
forty-five miles, probably not exceeding ^ve feet to the mile. 

The Unadilla, a branch of the Susquehannah, washes the 
eastern border of the county. The Cherry Valley creek, on 
whose banks such deeds of blood were committed, in Hie early 
settlement of the county, is also a tributary of the Susquehanna, 
as are the Schenevas, Otego, Otsdewa, and Butternut creeks. 

Lakes. Otsego lake is nine miles long, and from one to three 
wide. The hills which encircle it are elevated from 400 to 500 
feet above its surface. This lake is 1188 feet above tide water. 
The purity of its waters, and the rich and varied scenery which 
surrounds it render it an attractive summer resort 

Canaderaga, or Schuyler's lake, is a beautiful sheet of water, 
five miles long, and from one to two wide. 

Summit lake is the source of the Susquehanna. It is a 

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smaU ho4y of water, but has aa altitude, above tide water, of 
ia46 feet 

Cromhorn pond, on the Cromhom mountain, in Maryland, is 
three miles circumference, and is one of the highest ponds in the 

Climate. Owini^ to the elevation of tl is county the climate 
is cooler than in some other portions of the state. The diver- 
sity of its surface insures a perfect drainage, and renders it 
highly salubrious. 

Gbology and Miniirals. This county belongs to the transi- 
tion system. It is underlaid with clay slate, over which is . 
graywacke slate, sandstone, and in the north limestone. 

In Clierry Valley and Springfield, gray marble of good quality is found. It if 
susceptible of a bigli polish, and abounds with animal fossils. Magnesia is one 
of its constituents. The graywacke also furnishes an excellent building material. 
Inhere are some suH>hur springs in the county ; that at Richfield is highly impreg- 
noted, and often visited for Its medicinal qualities. «. 

Soil and Vbqbtable Productions. The soil is very fertile. 
The timber of this section i^ principally oak, white pine, hem- 
lock, beech and maple. Oats, corn, barley, wheats hops and 
potatoes are the principal crops. 

FuRsorrs. Asricutture^ particularly the rearing of cattle, 
horses and sheep, and manufax:ttiTe9 are the principal pursuits. 
There are no mines, but some extensive marble quarries near 
Cherry Valley. 

The Susquehanna is the only navigable stream in the county, 
and is mainly used for the transportation of lumber, of which 
eonsiderable quantities are sent to market annually. 

The manufactures of the county are numerous, and increas- 
ing in quantity and value with great rapidity. The most impor- 
tant are flour, lumber, cotton and woollen goods, (including 
prints,) leatilier, iron, &c. In 1845. they exceeded ^1,100,000 
in value. 

Staple Productions. Wool, beef, pork, butter, cheese, and 
lumber, are the principal productions. 

Schools. There were in the county, in 1846, 316 district 
scl^ool-houses, in which schools were tat^ht an average period 
of eight months ; 16,859 scholars were instnicted during the 
year, at an expense for tuition of about S19,385. The district 
libraries contained 31,366 volumes. 

There were the same year, in the county, thrity-niae private schools, with 653 
pu|^ and three academies with 323 students. 

Reuoioi^s Denominations. Baptists, Methodists, Presbyte- 
rians, BiMscopalians, Congregationalii^,- Friends, Universal- 
ists, and Unitarians. There were, in 1645, eighty-eight 
churches of all denominations, and ninely^eight clergymen. 

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HuTOftT. The early history of this county cootams many 
events of thrilling interest The first settlement in the county, 
was made in 1739, by Mr. John Lindesay, a Scotch gentleman 
of some fortune and distinction, who, in conjunction with three 
other gentlemen, had obtained a patent for a tract of 8000 acres, 
in the present town of Cherry Valley. The place for several 
years was called Lindesay's Bush. 

Mr. Lindesay sedulously cultivated the friendship of the Mo- 
hawks, with whom this section was a favorite hunting ground, 
and soon had reason to rejoice that he had done so, for in the 
winter of 1740, his stock of provisions was exhausted, and on 
account of the depth of the snow, he was unable to procure sup- 
plies from the distant settlements, but the friendly Indians 
brought food on their backs, and thus administered to his wants. 

In 1741, by the persuasion of Mr. Lindesay, Rev. Samuel 
Dunlap, an Irish clergyman of education and talent, was in- 
duced to emigrate, with several of his friends, to the number in 
all of about thirty persons, to this county. Soon alter their ar- 
rival, provision was made for the erection of a church, a school- 
house, and a grist and saw-milL 

Mr. Dunlap opened, in 1743, a classical school for boys, the 
first in the state west of iVlbany. 

The settlement progressed but slowly for the next ten years. 
Mr. Lindesay was not weU adapted to the management of an 
infant settlement, and ailer expending his fortune in the enter- 
prise, necessity compelled him to abandon it He entered the 
army, and died in New York, afler serving a few years as 

A few years later, small settlements were made at Spring- 
field, Middlefield, Laurens and Otego. 

In 1772, when the county of Tryon was formed, the whole 
population of Cherry Valley was somewhat less than three hun- 
dred ; and of the entire western portion of the state, ( Tryon 
county comprising all that portion of the state lying west of a 
line drawn through the centre of Schoharie,) but a few thou- 

' A number of the inhabitants had served in the French war, 
and had suffered from the hostile incursions of the Indians. 

During the Revolution, the inhabitants of this county, as well 
as those of the frontier settlements generally, were agitated 
with fear of the tories and Indians, but though t>flen alarmed, 
they did not suffer from the devastating eflecte of the border 
wars, in their own settlements, till the autumn of 1778. 

Rumors of an intended attack of the Indians and tories hav- 
ing reached the inhabitants in the spring, they fortified the 
church, and Colonel Alden, with a portion of an eastern regi- 

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meaU was statioiied to defend the settlement The siiiBmeri 
and two of the autumn months passed, without the appearance 
of the enemy ^ and believing themselves secure) the fanners left 
the ibrt, and returned to their homes. 

On the 6th of November i Colonel Alden received intelligence 
from Fort Schuyler, of the approach of a large force of Indians 
^nd tories towanl Cherry Valley ; on the dissemination of this 
intelligence, the settlers requested permission to remove into 
the fort, or at least to deposit their most valuable property there. 
Colonel Alden denied both requests, and with the most crim*' 
inal apathy} considering the report \mfbunded, took no efficient 
measures to ascertain its truth. He stationed scouts in differ- 
ent districts, but they, actuated by the same feelings with their 
commander, kindled a fire* lay down to sleep, and were all cap- 
tured by the enemy. 

On the night of the lOth of November, 1778, the enemy, un- 
der commaiid of the brutal Walter Butler, and Brant, the Mo- 
hawk chieftain, encamped within one mile of the fort» and on 
the morning of the 11th, approached it 

Colonel Alden, in addition to his other imprudences, had 
lodged the officers of his garrison in different houses in the 
neighborhood. By means of their prisoners, the enemy discov- 
ered in which houses they were lodged, and took them all 

Colonel Alden himself was not in the fort, and on receivmg 
intelligence of the commencement of the attack, was still incred*- 
ulous, but ordered the guard to be called in, and went toward 
the fort. Dearly did he pay for his apathy and incredulity ; he 
was among the first victims of the cruel massacre which now 
took place. 

The (kmily of Mr. Robert Wells, consisting of twehre per- 
sons, were all murdered in cold blood, and one of the tories 
boasted that he had killed Mr. Wells while at prayer. 

The wife and one daughter of the Rev. Mr. Dunlap, the har- 
dy iHoneer of the settlement, already mentioned, were also sa- 
crificed, and himself only spared through the importunity of an 
Indian. The wife and four children of Mr. MitcheU, were also 
inhumanly butchered by the wretches. Thirty-two of the 
inhabitants, mostly women and children, and sixteen continental 
soldiers were killed, and a large number made prisoners ; all the 
houses and other buildings of the settlement were burned; and 
the sun, which that morning looked on a quiet and happy vil- 
lage, in that beautiful valley, shed its last rays that evening 
upon smouldering ruins, and lifeless corses weltering in their 

A conference was held at Unadilla in this comity, between 
General Herkimer and Brant, the year previous ta this " 

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ore, in which the General attempftd, though onsoocenAllljr, to 
dissuade the Indiana from taking part in the contest 

Since the close of the RevohiUon, the progress of thia coontf 
has been rapid, and its quiet undisturbed by the warwhoop « 
the Indian, or the battle-cry of the white warrior. 

Villages, &c. Coopebstown, the county seat, is a village in 
the town of Otsego. It is situated at the southern extl*emity of 
Otsego Lake, and in the beauty of its scenery, and the salubrity 
Of its clknate, has few equals among the lovely villages ot cenr 
tral New York. 

The town is largely engaged in the manufacture of cotton 
goods and paper. Population 1400. 

Cherry Valley, whose thrilling story has already been nar- 
rated, received its name from its situation, and the great abun* 
dance of the wild cherry in its vicinity. It is a pleasant village, 
situated in a delightful valley. 

The Cherry Valley Academy, a flourishing chartered insti- 
tution, is located here. Population 1100» 

HarttDick is principally distinguished for its Luth^an Theo- 
logical and Classical Seminary, a flourishing and well conducted 

Springfield, so called from a large, deep spring in the town, 
has an agreeably diversified surface, and comprises several vil' 
lages. It has some quarries of very good marble. 

SaU'tpring^nlle has its name from a small brine spring near 
it, from which salt was manu&ctured during the Revolution, 
It is worthy of notice for its distance from the great salt springs 
of the state, and its elevation above tide water. 

The Chyle is a noted limestone sink, in this town, eighty 
yards in circuit and about twelve feet deep ; it is oval in form. 
Afler rains or thaws, it is filled with water, which gradually 
discharges itself by small orifices below, giving the water a 
whirling motion. 

Vnadilla is pleasantly situated on the Susquehanna. It has 
two fine covered bridges, each 250 feet in length, resting on 
three curches. It has Edso conserable lumW trade. A species oC 
sandstone is quarried here for grindstones. Population about 

GUberisville, on the Butternut creek, is a thriving manufac- 
turing village^ and has a flourishing academy. 

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SQOBTe mSlet, 890. PopulaUon, 41,477. 

Organized, 1791. Vahiation, 184^, •l,§43^13. 

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1. Ballstown, 1788. 11. Edinburgh, 1801. 

2. Hallmoon, n88. K. Hadley, 1801. 

3. Saratoga, 1788. 13. Malta, 1802. 

4. Stillwater, 178S. 14. Moreau, 1803. 

5. Charlton, 1792. 15. Waterford, 18r6. 

6. Galway, 1792. 16. Corinth, 1818. 

7. Milton, 1792. 17. Wilton, 1818. 

8. Greenfield, 1793. 18. Day, 1819. 

9. Providence, 1796. 19. Saratoga Springs, 1819. 
10. Northumberland, 1798. 20. Clifton-park, 1828. 
Mountains, m. Palmertown Mountains. £E. Kayaderosseras. 
Rioers. C. Hudson River. F. Mohawk, a. Sacandaga. c. Kaya- 
derosseras or Fish Creek. 

Falls, b. Cohoes. k. Hadley. n. Glens, o. Bakers. 
Lakes, f. Saratoga, g. Round, h. Long. i. Owl. 
Battle Fields. Bemis* Heights. Schuylerville. 
Villages. Ballston Spa. Saratoga Springs. Waterford. Scboy- 
lenriUe. Mechanicsville. 

Boundaries. North by Warren county; East by Hudson 
River ; South by Albany and Schenectady ; and West by Mont- 
gomery, Fulton, and Hamilton counties. 

Surface. The surface of this county is much diversified and 
may be divided into mountainous, hilly, and plain lands. Tlie 
Pahnertown mountains enter the county a few miles west ot 
Glen's Falls, and sink to its general level near Saratoga Springs. 
The Kayaderosseras range crosses the northwestern corner, 
and is broken through, in the town of Day, by the Sacandaga 
river. South of that town, a lateral spur, extending in a smith- 
erly directi(Hi, unites with Flint Hill of Schenectady county. 
The hilly portion lies east of the mountains, while the lev^ em- 
braces the eastern and southeastern sections of the county. 
. Rivers. The Hudson is the main river, forming its eastern 
and a large portion of its northern boundary line. It receives in 
its course, from this county, the Sacandaga, Fish creek, and the 
Mohawk river which waters it on the south. 

Falls. The " Great Falls" of the Hujdson are formed by the 
Palmertown mountains crossing this river in the town of Co- 
rinth. After a rapid of a mile and a descent of thirty feet, the 
river has a perpendicular fall of thirty feet more. There is a 
remarkable sluice 120 yards above, twelve yards long and fbur 
wide, through which the great body of the water flows with 
great velocity. Parts of Glen's, Baker's, and Cohoes falls are 
also in this county, particular descriptions of which are given 
under Warren and Albany counties. 

Lakes. Saratoga lake, at the junction of the towns of Malta, 

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Stillwater, Saratov and Saratoga Springs, is cine miles long 
and three unde. 

The shore immediately around the lake is marshy, rendering 
it inaccessible except in a few pi ic s ; the country back rises 
into lofty ridges and ibrms a vast an phitheatre < ^picture^que and 
cultivated ismdscape. The fine fish which inhabit its waters, 
and the game that frequent its banks, are objects of much attrac- 
tion to the spor sman. The visito >» to the neighboring springs 
often resort her , and find ample accommodations at the public 
houses on the western shore. A steamboat plies its waters. 

Snake Hill projects into the lake from the east, and rises 200 
feet above i s su i' ce. 

Round lake, four miles in circumference, Long lake, in the 
town of Ballstown, five miles long and one wide, (a beautiful 
sheet of water, abundantly supplied with fish,) and Owl lake, 
are the other lakes worthy of notice. 

The Champlain canal runs through the eastern border of the 

Climate. The county is subject to extremes of heat and 
cold. The sandy nature of the soil, in the eastern and southern 
sections, renders the heat of summer intense, while its location 
at the junction of the Mohawk and Hudson valleys, causes the 
cold of winter to be equally severe. It is however considered 
healthy. The principal diseases are of a pulmonary nature. 

Geology and Minerals. This county comprises primitive, 
transition, and alluvial formations, and aflbrds to the geologist 
a rare field of observation and interest. The mountains are 
primitive in their formation, consisting pribcipally of gneiss, 
granite, and hypersthene. Fragments of these rocks, corres- 
ponding with those in place, in the form of boulders and peb- 
bles, are scattered over the whole county. The trsmsition for- 
mation borders the primitive, upon the east and^ south, and ap- 
pears in the valley between the great mountain ridges. It con- 
sists of pudding stone, sandstone, limestone, argillaceous and 
grajrwacke slate, and graywacke. The argillaceous slate, a 
ft*agile and crumbling rock, underlies the greater part of the 
county not included in the primitive region. 

At the southern termination of Palmertown mountains, two 
miles north of Saratoga Springs, occurs a bed of oolitK lime- 
stone, extending across the valley which separates the Palmer- 
town firom the Kayaderosseras mountains. It is the only known 
locality of this formation in the state. 

The diluvial and alluvial deposites include the pine plains, ex- 
tending from the northern to the southern limits of the county. 
They also cover the transition formation, and border the streams. 
They consist of sand, clay, marl, and rounded fragments of 

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■tooe, and in many portions of tiie coonty are deposited to an 
unknown depth. 

Bog iron ore, nagneflia, ebryw)terj1, graaite, tonmialiM, miea, feldipv, apa- 
tite, and fliaplille or Mack lead, are the principal minerale. 

But the mott remarkable of the minerai prodoctions of this 
oounty, are its springs. These are principally acidulouB, saline 
and chalybeate ; there are however a few sulphurous waters. 
There are fifty or sixty of the acidulated mineral springs. 
They are quite uniform in their temp^ature, being generally 
about 50^ Fahrenheit. Their composition is also very similar. 
They contain carbonic acid, and atmospheric air, from tho-ty- 
five to forty cubic inches to the pint of water ; and from thir^ 
five to seventy-five grains of solid matter, consisting of chbnde 
of sodium, (common salt,) carbonates of soda, magnesia, lime, 
and iron, and cenerally iodine and bromine in minute quantities. 
One or two of the springs contain but slight traces of iron, and 
iodine in larger quantities. 

The principal springs are the Congress, Washington, Put- 
nam's, the Pavilion, Iodine, and Union springs at Saratoga; the 
Public Wdl, the New Washington, and the Park springs at 
Ballston Spa. The analysis oi several is subjoined.* 

* The foOowing ia an analysts of one gallon (two hundred and thirty-one cubic 
inches,) of water from the foUowfaig springs. 

OoHoanM Spaxiro. 


Chloride of sodium 963.829 

Carbonate of soda ..... 7.20O 

** lime 86.143 

♦♦ magnesia 78^1 

" iron ^l 

Sidphateofsoda ...... .661 

Iodide of sodium ^ ._a 

Bromide of potasshimS - - - - 6.930 

«WJca .472 

▲lamina .321 

Total grafais 643.996 

Carbonic acid gas * • . . - . 281.66 

AUDosphericair ...... 5.41 

<3aseoas contents 290.06 
looiMB Spamo. 

Chloride of sodium • • . ' . • I37. 

Carbonate of lime ..... 26 

*♦ iwn . - - . . 1 

« magnesia 7^; 

** soda - - - . . g. 

Hydriodate of soda, or Iodine • • • • 3.6 

Total grains 244.6 

Carl>onic acid gas ..... 33^ 

Atmo^^ric air ^ 

Cubic inchea ^Z 

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Their virtues were known to the Indians, but they carefulff 
concealed them from the whites* In 1767» their afieetion ibr 
Sir William Johnson, who had been a long time ill* led them to 
communicate them to him. They guided him to the High Rock 
fi|Hrang, in the town of Saratoga Springs, and. the use of the 
ouneral waters for a. few weeks, completely restored his health. 

In 1773, the first attempt was made to establish a house for 
the accommodation o£ visitors. It was unsuccessful The fol- 
lowing year, one John Arnold established a rude tavern near 
the High Rock spring. He was succeeded by one Norton, who, 
during the Revolution, abandoned his tavern and joined the 
British army. Afler several changes, it passed into the hands 
of a Mr. Bryant, who must be regarded as the first permanent 

In 1783, General Schuyler opened a road to the High Rock 
spring* from Fish creek, and the succeeding year built a smaU 
frame house near that spring, where he spent five or six weeks 
every summer, during the remainder of his life. 

Veoejable Productions The soil upon the mountainous 
portion is light and barren, and on the plaiins, excepting some 
aEuvial bottoms, which are highly ferUle, sandy and productive 

Patilxon Fountain. 
^ Grains. 

^Chloride of aodlwm . , - . . QS»M 

CarbonaM of magneaia . . > . 63.60 

" Uuie 60.24 

•* soda ...*.. 4.70 

Oxide of lion, ...»». 8.10 

Iodide of Bodiam ? nvs 

Bromide of potasaium < *'' 

Silica ... .....<» 

Alumina . % > . • - • .25 

Total graiiui 961.74 

Carbonic add Ras . . - . . 490.DI 
Atmospheric air 8.09 

Total cubic inches 488.10 



CWoride of sodium e9JS3 

Hi'carboBate of soda ' • -, - -^ 18.067 

Bi-carboaate of magnesia . - - • - 42.048 

Carbonate of lime 41.51 

Hydriodateofsoda 0.7 

Carbonate of iron .. .. ^ . . 3^71 

Bilez and alamina •..•>..- 1.25 

Solid contents in one gaUdn 197.099 
The gas which it emits in great abandance is pure carbonic acid, probably com- 
bined with a small quantity of atmospheric air. 

* This High Rock spring is enclosed in a conical rock of tula (lime) about four 
feet high and twenty-seven feet in circiunference at its base. The water in UbiM ts 
mrm. feet eight inches in d^pch, and rises within two feet four inches of the top. 

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of Ught crops. The timber of the uplands ie oak, hiekory, and 
chestnut; of the plauis, maple, beech, ash, ehn, white and yd* 

Pursuits. The people are mainly engaged in agrtcuHure* 
and large quantities of grain are annually produced. Most of 
the improved lands are under a careful and profitable cultiva- 

Mannfiictum. These are chiefly confined to the southern 
section, yet they form an increasingly important interest. Flour, 
lumber, cotton and woollen goods, and iron, are the leading 

Staple Productions. Oats, potatoes, corn, and butter. ' 

Schools. There were 216 public schools, taught on an aver^ 
age eight months, during the year 1846, having in attendance 
1 1,714 scholars, and paying their teachers $16,005* The num- 
ber of volumes in the district libraries is 25,532. 

T!ie number of private tcbooli is forty -four, attended by 898 popib. There 
are also four academies and one female seminary, with 306 students. 

Religious Denominations. Methodist ^, Baptists, Presbyte- 
rians, Episcopalians, .Dutch Reformed, Congregationalists, 
Friends, Unitarians, Universalists, and Roman Catholics. The 
number of churches of all denominations is ninety-six, of cler- 
gymen, eighty-nine. 

HisTORV. The settlements in this county were made at a 
very early date. 

Van Schaick'fi patent, comprising the town of Waterford and 
the adjacent country ; the Saratoga patent north of this, embra- 
cing a tract six miles square on the Hudson, and the Apple 
patent lying on the Mohawk and extending three miles back 
into the woods towards Ballston lake, were granted about the 
year 1700. 

The patent of Kayaderosaeras, embracing nearly the whole 
of the county not previously conveyed, was grant^ in 1702, to 
a company of thirteen individuals, of whom David Schuyler and 
Robert Livingston were the most prominent. 

The exact date of the first settlement on the other patents is 
uncertain > on the Kayaderosseras they were made as early as 

In 1747,* the Indians from Canada attacked the settlement at 
Fish Creek, now Schuylerville, burned the viUage, and killed 
thirty families. After the conquest oT Canada, settlements 
were rapidly made,, but confined, for some years, to the neigh- 
borhood of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers. 

Much of the land in this county is still holden under the an- 
nual rent of fifteen or twenty cents per acre, payable to the 

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snccessors of the company to whom the KayaderoBseras patent 
was granted. 

This county is particularly distinguish'^d for the events of 
General Burgoyne's campaign in 1777, and his surrender which 
took place within its limits. The general circumstances con- 
nected -with this campcugn have been already narrated ; but a 
more particular notice of some of the events which transpired 
in this county may with propriety be introduced here. 

After the defeat of Colonels Baum and Breyman at Benning- 
ton, GJeheral Burgoyne had employed his troops in transport 
ing military stores from Ticonderoga to Fort Edward, until the 
12th of September. 

Meanwhile General Schuyler, who had retreated from Fort 
Edward to Stillwater, and thence to the islands at the mouth of 
the Mohawk, had received considerable reinforcements. On 
the 19th of August, he was superseded by General Gates, who 
decided to return to Stillwater, which place he reached with his 
army on the 9th of September. He immediately selected a 
strong position on Bemis' Heights, and proceeded to fortify his 

On the 13th and 14th, Burgoyne crossed the Hudson, and 
encamped on the heights and plains of Saratoga. On the 17th 
he approached within four miles of the American camp, and oa 
the 19th advanced against the left wing of the American army, 
designing if possible to drive them from their position. The ac- 
tion, at first partial, at length became general, and both i^des 
being repeatedly reinforced, the conflict continued till night. 

The English remained near the battle field ; the Americans 
retired in good order to their camp, but ;i short distance from 
the scene of carnage. Both parties claimed the victory ; the 
English because they held the battle ground ; the Americans 
because they had maintained their position. The Britii^ loss, 
however, was considerably greater than that of the Americans, 
and in their circumstances, to fight without a decisive victcnry, 
was defeat. 

The day afler this battle. General Burgoyne took a position 
almost within cannm shot of the American camp, fortified his 
right wing, and extended his left t the r 1 1 . Both parties re- 
tained their position until the 7th of October ; Burgoyne in the 
hope of receiving aid from Sir Henry Clinton, to whom he had 
sent the most pressing entreaties for assistance ; and General 
Gates in the confidence of receiving new reinforcements daily. 

Receiving no further intelligence from Sir Henry, and find- 
ing himself compelled to diminish the rations of his soldiers, the 
Briti^ General determined to test again the strength of his 

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Accordingly he selected 15ro choice trcx^, whom he com- 
manded in person, aided by three of hie bravest generals. With 
these he advanced to the attack, while a corps of rangers, In- 
dians, and provincials were ordered to take a .circuitous route» 
and show themselves in the rear of the American camp. 

General Gates pei'ceived the design oi' the enemy and made 
such an arrai)gement of his forces as effectually to defeat Gen- 
eral Burgoyne's project ; while at the same time, he despatched 
Colonel Morgan with his corps to a wood which commanded the 
right flank of the enemy. 

Having succeeded in reaching this, unperceived by the Brit- 
ish, Colonel Morgan awaited t .e moment when they were en* 
ICaged with the American force in front to pour a deadly and 
incessant fire upon their right flank. 

Meantime, GH^neral Gates ordered another division to inter- 
cept the retreat of the enemy to their camp. In the attempt to 
IN*event this movement General Frazer,one of Burgoyne's most 
eflicient officers was mortally wounded, and the astiilery corps 
routed. Finding the fortune of the day against him, the British 
General retreated to his ca closely pressed by the Ameri- 
can army headed by the impetuous Arnold, who, with more 
than his usual, rashness forced tlieir entrenchments ; but being 
wounded and having his horse killed under him, was compelled 
to retire. That portion of the British camp occupied by the 
German troops, was carried by a Massachusetts regiment be- 
longing to Arnold's division. 

Darkness put an end to the conflict The advantage gained by 
the Americans was decisive. The loss of the British in killed, 
wounded, and prisoners was heavy, and among the number 
were several officers, of distinction. Their camp too was pene- 
trated by the enemy. 

During the night Burgoyne withdrew with his army to a 
stronger position on the river heights. Aware that his adver- 
sary would soon be compelled to surrender from want of in-ovi- 
sions. General Gates did not risk another assault, but contented 
himself with posting strong bodies of troops at every avenue by 
which retreat was possible, and awaited the result. 

Burgoyne attempted a retreat, but could only reach the heights 
of Saratoga near SchuylerviUe, where he encamped. Strong 
bodies of American troops guarded the Hudson and forbade the 
eflbrt to cross. Driven to desperation, he determined as a last 
resource to abandon everything excep»t the arms and provisions 
which his soldiers could carry, and crossing at or above Fort 
Edward, press on by forced marches to Fort George. 

General Gates had foreseen and prepared for this movement ; 
in addition to the strong guards placed at the fords of the Hud- 

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son, he had formed an entrenched camp on the high grounds 
between Fort Edward and Fort George. On learning this fact, 
thfe British Qeneral found himseli* compelled to surrender, and 
accordkig^Iy on the 17th of October the treaty of capitulation 
was signed, and the British army piled their arms on the plains 
of Saratoga, east of the village of Schuyler ville. 

Congress awarded to General Gates and his army their 
thanks, and presented him with a medal of gold, struck in com- 
memoration of the event. 

Villages. Ballston Spa, in the town of Milton, the seat of 
justice for the coimty, is pleasantly situated, and is celebrated 
for its mineral waters, which are similar in character to those 
of Saratoga. It has a number of manufactories, and consider- 
able business. It is connected with Schenectady, Troy, and 
Saratoga Springs, by raihoad. Population, 1500. 

Scaratoga Springs, situated on a sandy plain, in the town of 
the same name, is one of the most noted watering places in the 
world. Broadway, its principal street, is wide and shady, and 
during the summer, constantly thronged with the gay and fash- 
ionable, who resort hither for pleasure and relaxation. It has 
several fine hotels, which during the summer are crowded with 
visitors. There are also several academies and female semin- 
aries, and some manu&ctories. It is connected with Troy and 
Schenectady by railroad. Population, 3500. 

miere are eighteen or twenty springs in the town, of which Congress, Put- 
nam*8, Pftvilion, Iodine, HamiltoB, and Flat rock, are the principaL They are 
regarded as efficacious in bilious and scrofulous diseases. 

Waterjbrd, at the confluence of the Mohawk and Hudson 
rlTcrs, and at the head of sloop navigation on the latter, com- 
bines to a great extent, the advantages of raibroad, river and 
canal transportation, and hydraulic power. It is largely engaged 
in manufactures, which, with its agricultural products, annually 
amount to between one and two millions of dollars. A bridge 
800 feet in length connects it with Lansingburgh. The Wa- 
terfbrd sand used for castings, 'is esteemed the best in the 
country. Population, about 1800. 

Meckcmiesville is a small but thriving manufacturing village, 
in the town of Stillwater. Population, 600. 

Stillwater, in the town of the same name, is distinguished for 
the battles fought between Greneral Gates emd Burgoyae, near 
Bemis^ Heights, in 1777, and Sckuylerville, in the town of Sar- 
atoga, for the surrender of the latter, which took place a short 
distance east of that village. 

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,711. Populatkm, 70,175. 

Otganixed, 1194, ValuatkMi, 1845, $15,546,1«'*. 

1. Lysander,1789. 
3. Manlius, 1789. 

3. Marcellus, 1789.' 

4. Onondaga,. 1789. 

5. Pompey, 1789. 

6. Fabius, 1798. 

7. Camillus,1799. 

8. TuUy, 1803. " 

9. Otsego, 1806. 


10. Cicero, 1807. 

11. SaUna,1809. 

12. Spafford, 1811. ' 

13. Lafayette, 1825. 

14. Clay, 1827. 

15. Elbridge, 1829. 
1(5. Van Buren, 1829. 

17. Skeneateies, l83a 

18. De Witt, 183.V 

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Mi9ers» a. Oswego River, d. Cbittenango Creek, c. Onondaga. 

b. Limestone, e. Nine Mile. j. Oneida river, k. Seneca. 
JLakcB. f. SSuneateles. Z. Oneida, g. Onondaga, b. Otisco. 

i Cross. 
VUiageg, SYmACUSS. Manlius. Skeneateles. Salina. Geddes. 


Boundaries. North hy Oswego county and Oneida lake; 
East by Madison county 5 South by Cortland ; and West by 
Cayuga counties. 

Surface. The northern portion of the county is level; the 
southern hilly, but arable. 

The watershed, or height of land dividing the northern and 
southern waters of the state, passes through the southern por- 
tion of this county. ' 

Rivers. The Seneca, or Oswego river, with its tributaries, 
drains most of the north-western portion. TThe other principal 
streams, flowing northward, are the Oneida River, Cbittenan- 
go, Limestone, Butternut, Onondaga, and Nine Mile Creeks. 
The Tioughnioga and Cold Creeks, running southward, have 
their source in this county. 

Lakes. Oneida lake forms a portion of the northeastern 
boundary. Skeneateles lake, lying mostly in this county, is a 
beautiful sheet of water, surrounded by picturesque scenery, and 
abounding in fish. Its trout are particularly celebrated for their 
jaize and abundance. The lake is iSfteen miles in length, and 
from half a mile to one mile in width. 

Onondaga lake, situated toward the centre of the county, is 
eight miles long, and from two to four wide. It abounds in fish. 
Most of the salt springs are near its banks. 

Otisco and Cross are the only other lakes of importance. 

Cum ATE. The climate of this county is mild and agreeable, 
more uniform than in some other parts of the state. The dis- 
eases of the county are principally of a bilious type. 

Geology and Minerals. The northern portion of the county 
is comprised in that geological formation known as the Ontario 
group or division, consisting of marly sandstone, soft green 
shales, and the gypsum and salt rocks, (limestone,) loiown as the 
Onondaga salt group. South of this, limestone containing gyp- 
sum predominates, and still farther south, slate is the prevailing 

Salt is the most valuable aiKl abundant mineral production of thjs coimty. The 
nit i» obtained from springs, (probably charged with salt from some deep seated 
locality of the mineral,) in the town of Salina. 

Oxide of iron, g3rp8am, marl, water limestone, or hydraulic cement, selenite, 
fibrous gypsum, fluor spar, and serpentine, are also found in the county. Sulphur 
I exist in Manlius and many other parts of the county. The marble from 

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r of enerkikM »id otber foMilB wbich it contaiB^ preinite a beM- 
tif ul birdMire appearance, wbich readen it a vakiahie iMuidiiig f^^TJ*' 

Soil and VfiGBTikBLE Production& The soil k a oalcareeuB 
loam, intermingled with vegetable mould, and is highly fertile. 
Mapk, basBwood, beech, hemlock and pine, are the principal 
forest trees o£ the county. 

Pursuits. Agriculture is the occupation of a majority of the 
inhabitants. The soil of the 'county seems equally well adapted 
to grazing and the culture of grain. Large quantities of all the 
grains, as well as flax, potatoes, and other vegetables are raised. 
In 1845, more barley was raised in this county than in any other 
in the state. Large quantities of butter, cheese, wool and pork, 
are also produced. 

The county is also largely engaged in manufuctures. In 
1845, they amounted to nearly two and a half millions of doUare, 
consisting principally of flour, lumber, cotton sind woollen goods, 
iron, distilled and malt liquors, leather and paper. 

Commerce. The junction of the Oswego and Erie canals, in 
this county, gives it a somewhat extensive commerce, both with 
the Hudson river and the Lakes. The tolls received at Salina, 
in 1845, amounted to over $52,000, indicating a business of 
more than $2,000,000. 

Mines. Under this head may be included the salt works in 
the town of Salina. At five different points in this town, salt is 
produced by the evaporation of brine from the springs.* 

In 1840, the amount of salt thus manufactured was 2,622,305 
bushels. The springs belong to the state, which receives two 
mills per bushel ibr pumping the water, and six cents per bushel 
duty on the salt. Nearly 11,000 men are employed in the busi- 

The production of hydraulic cement, so largely used in canals 
and cisterns, which is extensively prosecuted in this county, also 
belongs to the head of mines. 

Staple Productions, Salt, butter, barley, oats, wheat, 
wool, and hydraulic cement 

Schools. There were in this county in 1846, 304 school dis- 
tricts. The schools are taught on an average eight months 
each. 1^30,857 was expended for the tuition of 24,325 children. 
The district libraries contained 37,586 volumes. There were 
also in this county thirty-six unincorporated private and select 

* The concentration of the brine is accomplished In two ways, vis. 1st, hj solar 
evaporation, for which purpose large shallow vats are constructed, and provided 
with movable roofs, to protect them^from rains ; dd, by boiling, which is accom: 
pushed by means of immense shallow bodera. cirystalltzation takes place, thougb 
In different degrees, by lM>th processes ; in the former, the crystals are larger, 
and the variety knovm in the markets, as coarse salt, is produced. The latter pro- 
duces the fine or table salu 

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8ehc)dfi, with 693 pupils, and seven aca lemie?, with 338 pajMis. 

Reuchous Denominations. Methodists, Baptists, Presbyte- 
rians, Episeopedians, Congregationalists, Roman Catholics, 
Dutch Reformed, Unitarians, Jewt, Universalists, and Friends. 

History. In the town of Pompey, a stone was found some 
years since, about fourteen inches long, twelve broad, and eight 
thick. It had a figure of a serpent entwined about a tree, and 
this inscription. 

LeoX De 

vixi52a- I to 


This inscription has been interpreted— Leo X. by the grace 
(or will) of God, sixth year of his pon ficate, 1620. L. S. the 
initials of the person buried, (as it was undoubtedly a sepulchral 
monument,)— the cross, an indication that he was a Catholic, 
and the character O perhaps a rude intimation that he belonged 
to the mascMiic fraternity. The date is correct, Leo X. having 
been elected Pope in 1513-14. It seems probable that some 
Spanish adventurers, in quest of gold or silver, lured by the 
report of the salt wrings, and lK)ping to find there the object c^ 
their seeurch, had wandered hither from Florida, which had been 
discovered and explored in 1502. One of the number dying 
here, his companions erected this simple memorial to mark 
the place of his burial. 

In 1655, Father Dablon, a French Jesuit, e8tabli3hed himself 
at one of the Onondaga villages, in the i^resent town of SaJina, 
as a missionary. The succeeding year, the governor of the 
French possessions in Canada, at his request, sent a colony of 
fifty men, under the command of the gieurDupuys, to settle on 
the banks of the Onondaga Lake. 

For a time the Indians were friendly, but. at length they be- 
came hostile, and the colonists were compelled to escape by 
stealth. Having secretly prepared boats sufik^ient to transport 
tkemselves and their e&cts, one of their number succeeded in 
inducing the Indians to make a feast, and when, afler a hearty 
repast, all had sunk into a profound slumber, he and his comrades 
availed themselves of the opportunity to escape, and ere the 
Indians had awaked, they were beyond their reach. 

In 1666, a French settlement was formed, in the northwestern 
part of the town of Pompey, and flourished for three years, 
-when a party of Spaniards arrived in the village, and quarrel- 
ing with the French, instigated the natives to destroy them. 
The Indians, looking with no favorable eye on either, destroyed 
both, leaving not a survivor to tell the manner of their death. 

In the Onondaga Hollow, in the town of Onondaga, formeriy 
stood the town, castle, and council house, of the Onondaga 

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Indians, the most formidable aod hif hiy civilized tribe of thB 
Iroquois confederacy. Here the great council fire was always 
kept burning, and all matters of importance to the interests of 
the confederacy were decided. All the leagues and treaties 
with the whites were made here, and from this tribe was select- 
ed the ^rand Sachem, or principal civil chief, while the Mo- 
hawlts furnished the principal war chiefs. 

Garangula, Thurensera, Decanesora, and Sadekanaghtie, 
were the most celebrated among their orators, in their early in- 
tercourse with the whites. 

Black Ketde was the most renowned of their warriors, and 
more than once he carried war and devastation among the 
French settlements, even to the gates of their citadels. He 
was treacherously murdered in 16^, by a party of Algonquins, 
at the instigation of the French. 

In 1696, Count Frontenac, with his usual subtlety, attempted 
to seduce the Five Nations from their good faith toward the Eng- 
lish, and induce them to form a separate treaty of peace with the 
French. Failing in this, he determined to avenge himself on 
the Onondagas, whom he regarded as the principal instigators of 
the opposition to his wishes. Accordingly on the ninth of July, 
1696, he set out on an expedition against them, with a large force. 

The Onondagas, not receiving seasonable succors from the 
other members of the confederacy, and finding themselves, 
(though numbering about 1500 warriors,) unable to cope single 
handed with so formidable a force, abandoned and set fire to 
their dwellings, and left to the French commander a barren 

The Onondagas, after the return of the French, repossessed 
themselves of their beautiful valley and reared again their coun- 
cil house and csusde. They were the fast friends of the English, 
and under the direction of Sir John Johnson, took part with them 
in the revolution. In consequence of their predatory incursions, 
Colonel Van Schaick was despatched by General James Clin- 
ton, to lay waste their towns. As before, they retired at the ap- 
proach of the invading force, and destroyed their town and cas- 
tle; only one of their number was slain. 

In a few weeks after, they revei^ed this attack, by an invasion 
of the settlement of Cobelskill, Schoharie coimty, in which they 
butchered several of the unarmed inhabitants. During the late 
war with Great Britain, they took up arms on the side of the 

The first permanent white settier in the county was a Mr. 
Webster, who came here in 1786, and settled in Onondaga 
Hollow, intermarrying with the Indians. In 1788, he obtained 
permission from the Indicms for Messrs. Danforth and Tyler to 

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establish themselves in the same valley. This coimly was 
originally part of the Military Tract In the spring of 1788, set- 
tlements were made in several towns of the comity. In 1790, 
Manlius was settled. Since the commencement of the present 
century, the growth of the comity has been very rapid. 

.K-,. .-.^ USE, the county seat, is situated in the town 
of Salina, on the Erie canal, at its junction with the Oswego 
canal. It was incorporated in 1825, and owes its rapid growth 
to the facilities for trade afforded by the canals, and to the ex- 
tensive salt springs in its neighborhood. 

From half a million to a million of basheli? of salt are annually 
produced here ; beside iron ware, leather, machinery, flour, &c. 
Population, nearly 10,000. 

It has several extensive and well conducted hotels ; its public 
schools are of a high order; and its substantial buildings and 
numerous manufactories indicate the enterprise of its inhab- 

Salina, in the same town, possesses the most productive salt 
springs in the state, yielding from one to two millions of bushels 
annually. Its population is about 3000. 

Geddes and Liverpool^ in the same township, the former on 
the Erie, and the latter on the Oswego canal, are ^iriving vil- 
lages, containing productive salt springs. 

SkeneateleSf in the town of the same name, is pleasantly 
situated at the foot of Skeneateies lake. Its site commands 
a fine view oi the lake, for a distance of seven or mght miles. 
Its growth has not been rapid, but healthy, and it is one of the 
most flourishing villages of the county. Population, about 1500* 
Manlius, in the town of the same name, is situated on the 
Cherry Valley turnpike. It has a flourishing incorporated acad- 
emy, several manufactories, and about 1200 inhabitants. 

J I dan, in the town of Elbridge, is situated on the Erie canal, 
and is engaged to some extent in manufactures. Population, 
about 1200. 

Onondaga Hollow, in the town of Onondaga, is pleasantly 
situated on the great western turnpike, four mUes south of Syra- 
cuse. The Onondaga academy located here, is an old and 
flourishing institution. Population, about 800. 

About three miles south of the village is the Onondaga Indian 
reservation, where reside the remnant d'that once powerful tribe. 
The legislature, in April, 1846, granted the sum of $300 for 
the erection of a school-house for the children belonging to this 
leservation, and a well cond^ted school is now maintained 

Fayettecille^ in the town of Manlius, has an incorporated 
academy, and is a thriving village. Population, 900. 

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flfon* BBflei; 500. 
Chguiisad, 17M. 

Populatioii, 32,456. 
VaiuaCioB^ 1945^ $1,801,81]. 

1. Owegq, 1791. 6. Newark, 1823. 

2. Tioga, 1800. 7. Bajton, 1824. 

3. Spencer, 1806. 8. Nichols, 1824. 

4. Berkshire, 1808. 9. Richford, 1833. 

5. C&ndor, 1811. 

Rheri, Sec, G. Sasquehanna. a. West Owego Creek. 

Owego. c. Cattotong. d. Caynta. 
Villagei. Owego. Rushville. 

b. East 

Boundaries. North by Tompkins and Cortland; East by 
Broome; South by the State of Pennsylvania ; and West by 
Chemung and Tompkins counties. 

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BoRfAOfl. This, like the other couotieii horderiag on the 
Pennsylvania line, is elevated. Apparently it was once levels 
bat it is now cut into hills and valleys by the eastern branch of 
the Susquehanna, and its tributaries, which afibrds abundance 
of water for the convenience of the farmer, and in many in- 
stances, it may be used for manufacturing purposes. On either 
side o{ the Susquehanna, are lofty swells of heavy rolling land, 
yet the creeks are frequently skirted with broad valleys. 

Rivers. The Susquehanna, having a south-west course 
through the southern part, and its branches the East and West 
Owego, Cattotong and Cayuta creeks, flowing southerly, are 
the principal streams of the county. 

Railroads. The New York and Erie railroad will probably 
pass through the valley of the Susquehanna. The Ithaca am 
Owego railroad is already in operation, connecting the two 
villages whose name it bears. 

CuMATB. The county has a low temperature, owing to the 
elevation of its surface. It is regarded as healthy. 

Geology and Minerals. This county lies wholly within the 
Chemung sandstone formation, except a small tract of the old 
red sandstone upon its southern border. 

Rs mioerate are few. Marl is ibund in tbe town of Spencer, whicb is Irarned 
for lime. Ttere are sefveial sulpbiir springs in llie county. 

Soil and Vegetable Prodoctions. The soil is mostly fertile, 
<)onsi8tiQg of a light gravelly loam, with occasional patches of 
iR^l and clay. Grass succeeds better than grain in the high' 
lands, but the valleys yield large crops of wheat and com, while 
the other crops thrive almost every where. White pine, hem- 
lock, spruce, oak, maple, and beeeh are the principal timbei, and 
bave a dense growth. Maple sugar is produced in considerable 

PuRsonv. Agriculture. The people are for the most pert 
cagaged in agricultursd pursuits. Some grain is raised, and 
conskl^able attention paid to the products of the dairy. 

Man;irfacture8. The only manufactures oi' importance are 
those of lumber and flour. 

Commerce. The products of the county find their way to 
nisffket, by the Susquehamia river, and the Idiaca and Owego 

Staple Productions. Oats, corn, potatoes, wheat and butter. 

Schools. This oounty has 139 district schools, taught in 
1846, an average period of e^ht months each, having ^1 
scholars, and paying their teachers over 89,329. The school 
libraries contained, the same year, 12,744 volumes. 

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It kMiriM pctvaas mIiooI^ with SM pupal, and one «Bademy, wMi 1S5 ftu- 

IIeuoiods Denominations. Methodistei, Baptists, CoDgre- 
gationaliets, Presbyterians, aiul Episcopalians. The entire 
number of churches is thirty-two, of clergyman, Ibrty-two. 

History. Tioga county was taken from Montgomery county 
in 1694. Its name signifies a point or promontory in the river, 
a junction of waters. It was the Seneca name for the Chemung 

The towns of Richfbrdi Berkshire and Newark were part of 
the tract known as the " Massachusetts ten townships," which 
were ceded to that state by New York. 

Barton, Tioga, Owego, and Nichols, were granted by the 
state to military claimants. Considerable portions of these 
townships were sold at eighteen cents per acre. 

The county was settled by emigrants from New Hampshire, 
Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, and 
Pennsylvania. The first settlement was made in 1785, at 
Owego, by James McMaster and William Taylor, who cleared, 
the first season, tenor fifteen acres, and raised a crop c^ com 
from the same land. n 

A few years after its first settlement, there was a great fam- 
ine in this section of country. It occurred just before harvest- 
ing, and for six weeks the inhabitants were without bread of 
any kind. Meanwhile they subsisted principally upon roots, 
and though they became very much emaciated and feeble, none 
died of hunger. It was occasioned by the arrival of a greater 
number of settlers than usual, and a scarcity in Wyommg that 
season. Famine is at present little dreaded in this region. 

ViLLAGEH. OwEQo ViLLAOB, in the to^wp of Owego, is pteas- 
antly situated on the north side of the Susquehanna, and is the 
county town. It was commenced in 1785^ and laid out into 
lots^ in 1794 or 1795. It is advantageously situated for trade, 
has'a large water power, and by means of the Ithaca and Owe- 
go railroad, and the Susquehanna river, a ready access to 

Besides the court house, jail, and county clerk's office, it hai 
four churches, an incorporated academy, and a number of stores 
and manufactories. A bridge a fourth of a mile in length 
crosses the Susquehanna at this place. 

This village takes its name from the Owego creek, which 
'empties into the Susquehanna^ear it Population 2500. 

Rushviile or Nichols Village, in the town of* Nichols, Can- 
dffr, Newcarky Richfield, and Spencer , in the towns of the same 
names are all thriving villages. 

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Square mikM, 621. 
Organized, 1795. 

Population, 32.488. 
Valuation in 1645, f 1,8H1«6. 

1. Schoharie^ 1788. 

2. Blenheim, 1797. 

3. Broome, 1797. 

4. Cobleskill, 1797, 

5. Middleburgh, 1797. 
6.. Sharon, 1797. 
7. Jefferson, 1803. 
Jibuntams. m. Kaatohefgs. 

Miners, Sfc. A A. Schoharie Creek, c. Cobleskill. f. Foxea Creek. 

8. Carlisle, 1807. 

9. Summit, 1819. 

10. Fulton, 1828. 

11. Conesville, 1836. 

12. Seward, 1840. 

13. Wright, 1846. 

14. Esperance, 1843. 

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Lake; Sfc. e. The Vly. 
Battle FMd9. CobleskiU. Middleburgh. 
VUlageM, ScHOHARiK. EsperaDce. 

Boundaries. North by Montgomery and Schenectady; East 
by Schenectady and Albaoy; Soath by Delawsu-e and Greene, 
aiid West by Delaware and Oteego counties. 

Sdrpace. Mountainoua. The county is divided into two un- 
equal sections by the Schoharie kill or creek. The main branch 
of the Kaatsbergs or Catskill mountains cross the sooth part of 
the county, through Broome, Blenheim, Jefferson, and Summit, 
to the line of Otsego coun^, broken through, however, by the 
Schoharie creek. 

A spur from the same range passes northward, through 
Broome, Middleburgh, and Schoharie, into Schenectady and 
Montgomery countiei^ This spur is called the Middleberg, 
fit)m its position between the Helderbergs and the main range 
of the Kaatsbergs. 

The mountains west of Schoharie creek maim;ain an eleva- 
tion of from 2000 to 2600 feet. The Middleberg is 1700 feet 
high, -at its most elevated pcnrtion, in the south part of the 
county, but declines gradually towards the east, tiU it mingles 
with the Helderbergs. 

Rivers and Creeks, The Schoharie creek with its tribu- 
taries, the Cobleskill, Foxes and Brecdtabeen creeks, are the 
principal streams in the county. 

Bowman's creek, and the Catskill and Charlotte rivers, also 
take their rise in this county. 

In the town of Middleburgh is a large marsh, called the Ylaie 
or V)f , which is the source of the Catskill. 

CuMATE. From the elevation of its surface, the climate of 
Schoharie county is.eoI4» but healthlbl. 

Geology and Minerals The rocks of this county are tran- 
sition, consisting of slate, graywacke, and limestone. The lat- 
ter, however, predominates, and is generally the surface rock 
of the county. Portions of the Helderberg series, and the Erie 
and Catskill groups occupy the county. The last two are coin 
fined to the southern parti 

Water limestone is found in great abundance in the northera and central por- 
tions of the coun^. 

On the west side of Schoharie creek, in the town of Schoharie, are found beds 
of massive strontianite. of extraordinary beauty. It wHs regarded by the inhabi- 
tants as marble for many years. Arragonite, heavy spar, and calcareous spar, are 
also found in the water lime formation. Portions of the water limestone have be«n 
excavated for lithographic Mmca, and are said to be equal in quality to the Germui. 

Fine specimens of 6brous sulphate of barytas and earbomte of lime are fouw) 
in CarliBle, and fibrous cele8tine,>and erystallized iron pyrites, m Schoharie. Bog 

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inn ore oeeuni m the same viciaity. Cfticareom tufli lUiKNmdB on tbc ride of tbe 
nuHiatains. Aidiydrous solpbate of lime has been discovered in Sharon. 

Gebhard^s cavern, or Ball's cave, in the town of Schoharie, contains numerous 
aparteieats abounding in stalactites and stalagmites of great beauty ; some of the 
apartments are large and magniAcent. 

Ocagaragee cavern, m the d^nie town, has numerous large apartmmts, highly 
decorated with spars and stalactites. There ar^ other caves in the vicinity, of 
less extent. 

There are several siflphur springs ; those at Sharon hav« attained considerable 

Soil and Vegetable PaoDUCTioNs* The flats in the valley 
of Schi^iarie creek, are eunong the most fertile lands in the 
state. The county generally is fertile, and some sections are 
adapted to wheat ; some portion of the southern^ towns is ster- 
ile and sandy. 

The timber eonsists of oak, me^le, elm, linden, ash, poplar, 
hickory, walnut, white pine, and hemlock. The two latter 
prevail i i the southern part of the oounty. 

Pdbsdits. Agriculture is the employment of a majority of 
the inhabitants. Oats, rye, barley, wheat, corn, buckwheat, 
Qeas, potatoes, and flax, are raised in large quantities, and 
batter and wool produced to a very considerable extent. 

Manufactu7'ess;eneTslly have not attained any great impor- 
tance. The facilities afforded by the hemlock forests, have led 
to the extensive tanning of leather. The quantity prepared in 
the county, in 1845, exceeded in value $400,000. Flour and 
lumber are also manufactured to some extent. 

The county has no commerce and no mines. 

The Staple Probuctions are oats, tye^ barley, wheat, corn, 
peas, butter, and wooL 

ScBOOLS. There are in the county» 184 school-houses. In 
1846, schods were taught, cm an average, nine months; 11,043 
children received instruction, at an expense for tuition of $13,726. 
The district libraries contained 17,985 volumes. 

Ther« wen also in the couhty; twent^rfive private schools, v^ith 334 seholan, 
and two academies with ninety-four pupils. 

Relioious Denominations. Methodists, Baptists, Lutherans, 
Dutch Reformed, Presbyterians, Unitariancu and Universalists. 
Nomba* of churches fifty-eight, of clergymen fifty-sii. 

HiBTORy. The first white settlements in this county were 
made in the spring of 1711. 

The benevolent dueen Anne formed the design of estabUsh- 
inff a colony of Germane, the families of German soldiers who 
had served in the English wars, in her transaUantic posses- 
sions; She accordingly sent them over to New York, and 
thence to Albany, and permitted them to select for themselves, 
from the unoccupied lands of New York, a tract suited to their 

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tastes. They sdected the ^aVy of the Schoharie, aiid the 
Q,ueen'8 ag^ent accordingly purchased for them, about 20^000 
acres of fertile land, along that creek. 

Industrious and frugal, these hardy settlers soon acquired a 
competence, and perhaps in no- part of the stat , -< t tiiie com- 
mencement of the troubles which preceded the Revolution, 
could there have been found a more peaceful and happy settle- 
ment. Highly cultivated farms, and substantial dwellings greet- 
ed the eye of the traveller in every dsrection. 

But in those exciting times, difi'erences of opinion prevailed, 
and when the conflict came on, the citizens of Schohaire county 
were found arrayed in hdstility against each other, and, oft 
times, members of the same family met in deadly strife* 

The patriots of Schoharie county seemed, in an especial man* 
ner, to have excited the hostility of the enemy. Again and 
again did the marauding hordes of toriee and Indians, under 
the command of Sir John Johnson, Brant, and the infamous 
Walter Butler, descend upon the farms of the hapless citizens, 
mprdering and scsdping all whom they met, without regard to 
age or sex, plundering and burning their dwellings, and making 
that fertile and beautiful valley a desolate and gloomy waste. 

On the 1st of June, 1778, a bloody conflict took place at Cob- 
leskill, in which about fifty whites, regular troops and militia, 
contended with a force of 350 Indians, under the command of 
Brant, until twenty-two of their number were killed, aiid eight 
or ten more severely wounded. 

A short distance from Middlebtrrgh village are still visible the 
remains of the old Middle Fort, which was quite noted in the 
annals of the border wars in this comity. On the 17th of Octo- 
ber, 17^0, it was attacked by Sir John Johnson with «r force of 
800 tories and Indians. 

The garrison of the Ibrt consisted of about two hundred eon- 
tinentEd troops, and between one and* two hundred militia. 
Their supply of ammunition was scanty, and the commander of 
the fort. Major Woolsey, entirely unfitted for his station. 

The garrison, however, determined to defend the fort to the 
last, and when Major Wocdsey proposed to surrender, they op- 
posed it, and as he was so much overcome with fear as to be a 
subject of derision to the' garrison. Colonel Vrooman, a mihtia 
officer in the fort, took the command. 

Af\er continuing the attack through the greater part of the 
day, without effect, Sir John withdrew down the vaHey of the 
Schoharie, bumiiig all the houses and other buildings in his 
route. In this action: the loss of the British was heavy, while 

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that of the garrison was but four wounded, two of whom afler- 
ward died. 

There were two other forts in Schoharie county, the Upper, 
five miles southeast from the middle, on the Schoharie creek, in 
the town of Fulton ; and the Lower, near the village of Scho- 

Many other incidents connected with these incursions are 
deeply interesting, but pertaining only to individual conflicts, 
must necessarily be omitted. 

Justice, brntevvr, reqidrM tbat we slxmld notice, in pftMing, the brave and 
fearle«» ScholMirie rifleman. Timotbf Murphy, whose services to the cause of 
freedom were-numerous, and rendered with a «heerfutaiess and devotion worthgr 
of an praise. Buch, ww his skill in the use of his tifle, that the fbeman wbo 
came within its range, was ahrays sore to "bite the dust'" 

After the Revolution, quiet was restored, and die beautiful 
valley of the Schoharie was soon again lined with farms and 
dwellings, which indicated the thri^ and competency of their 

The Grerman language is still spoken by maoy of the older in- . 
habitants, but their children receive an English education. 

Villages, &c. Schoharie, in the town of the same name, is 
a small village situated in the midst of a region rich in min^ 
rals. Its public buildings are neat and substantial Population 
about 500. 

Esperance, the only incorporated village in the county, is in 
the town of the same name. It has some manufactures. Pop- 
ulation about 500. 

Sharon Springs^ in the town of Sharon, and near the boun- 
dary line of Schoharie^ Otsego, and Montgomery counties, has 
recently become a place of fashionable resort The sulphur wa- 
ters are said strongly to resemble those of the White Sul- 
phur springs of Virginia. There is also a chalybeate spring 
here. The Pavilion, a fine hotel, was erected in 1836, and 
during the season is usually thronged with visitors.* 

* The following is Dr. Chilton's analysis of the waters of these springs. 

Sulphate of raasnesia, (Epsom salts,) - - • 42.40 

" Ume 111.62 

Chloride of sodluin 2.34 

" magnesia ----- 2.40 

Hydrosalpbyret of sodium ) ooo 

*• ealcinmS " " " " ""** 

Total 160.94 

Solpboretted hydrogen gas, 16 cubic inches. 


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Biiiian MilBs, 1400. 
Organised, 1700. 

Fopulatioii, 51,070. 
ValuatioB, 1845, $6,172,414. 

1. Addison, 1796. 

2. Bttth, 1796. 

3. Cani9teo» 1796. 

4. Dan«ville, 1796. 

5. Painted Post, 1796. 

6. Wayne, 1796. 

7. Reading, 1806. 

8. Pulteney, 1808. 

9. Troupsburg, 1809. 

10. Conhocton, 1812. 

11. Howard, 1812. 

12. Orange, 1813. 

13. Prattsburgh, 1813. 

14. Hornellsville, 1820. 

15. Wheeler, 1820. 

16. Cameron, 1822. 

17. Tyrone, 1822. 

18. Urbana, 1822. 

19. Erwin, 1826. 

20. Hornby, 1826. 

21. Jasper, 1827. 
22.. Greenwood, 1827. 
23 Woodhull. 1828. 

24. Campbell, 1831. 

25. Bradford, 1837. 

26. Lindlev, 1837. 

27. Caton,'lS37. 

28. Avoca, 1843. 

29. Hartsvifle, 1843. 

30. Thurston, 1843. 

31. West Union, 1843. 

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*iv€rs, O. Chemung river, a. Canisteo. b. Conhocton. c. Ben- 
nett's creek, d. Tuscarora. j. Mad. k. Five Mile. 1. Twelve 
Mile, q, Cowanesqua. r. Canaacraga. s. Tioga river. 
.ZlMkes, BB. Seneca, m. Crooked, n. Little, o. Mod. p. Loon. 

Triages. Bath. Corning. Painted Post. Hammondsport. Hor- 

Boundaries. North by Livingston, Ontario and Yates coun- 
tAes ; East by Seneca lake ancf Chemung county ; South by the 
State of Pennsylvania^ and West by Livingston and Allegany 

Surface. This county belongs to the great table land, which 
extends through the southern tier of counties ; owing, however, 
to the perishable character of the rocks on which it is based, 
the rivers have worn deep valleys, whose precipitous banks, 
frequently 400 or 500 feet in height, give it a greatly diversified 
sorfsuse. The general elevation of the table land is about 1500 
feet above tide water. An irregular ridge on the west sepa- 
rates the waters of the Susquehanna from those of Genesee 

Rivers. The principal stream of the county is the Chemung, 
formed by the union of the Tioga, the Canisteo, and the Con- 
hocton. The name of the river means ** a horn in the water,*' 
and is said to be derived from an immense horn or tusk which 
protruded from the bank t^ the river many years since. These 
gtreams are navigable during the freshet season. Their prin- 
cipal tributaries are Bennett's and Tuscarora creeks, of the 
Canisteo; and Mud, Five Mile and Twelve Mile creeks, of 
the Conboeton. The only other streams of any size are the 
Canascraga and Cowanesqua. 

Lakes. Seneca lake forms the eastern boundary of the 
county for about eight miles. Crooked lake extends into it from 
Yates for about the same distance. Little, Mud and Loon are 
the names of the other lakes. The latter has a subterranean 
outlet half a mile long. 

Railroads. The Corning and Blossburg railroad entermg 
the county from the south, terminates at Corning, which is sit- 
uated at the head of the navigable feeder of the Chemuig ca- 
nal. The New York and Erie railroad will pass through this 

Cjlimate. The surface is so much elevated that the winters 
are generally cold and severe, and the seasons backward. The 
county, however, is generally healthy. 

Geology and Minerals. The surface rock of this county, 
to ti^e depth of nearly 1000 feet, is the Chemung group of scmd- 

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Btones and shales^ It has some beds oibog iron ore, and several 
sulphur springs. 

Soil and Vix^etable Productions. Most of the soil is pro- 
ductive. The uplands are well adapted to grazing. The allu- 
vial flats of the Chemung river comprise the richest lands in 
the county, and are said to exceed those of the Mohawk in fer- 

The county north of the Conhlcton river, and east of Five 
Mile creek, is covered chiefly with oak, chesnut, hickoi^, black 
walnut, yellow and white pine timber j between the Canisteo 
and Conhocton, beech, maple, white pine, and hemlock, are the 
prevailing forest trees, except a narrow tract on the Canisteo, 
where oak prevails. South of the Canisteo, beech, maple» 
white pine, and hemlock, are predominant. The oak and yel- 
low pine lands produce, excellent wheat; the other lands are 
better adapted to grass. 

PuRSDiTS. il^ricw^fwre is the chief pursuit. Grain is largely 
produced on the alluvial lands. Great numbers of cattle and 
sheep are raised on the table lands. The lumber business is 
an important branch of industry. 

Manufactures are increasing in importance. Lumber is 
largely manufhctured in the southern part of the county, ' Flour, 
leather, and fulled cloths, are also produced in considerable 

The Commerce of the county, by means of the spring naviga- 
tion of the rivers, the navigable leader of the Chemung canal, 
and the facilities afibrded by the Corning and Blo^m'g railroad 
is qmte large and increajsing. * 

Staple Productions. Wheat, oats, corn, potatoes butter 
wool, and lumber. 

Schools. In this county there were, in 1846, 326 district 
schoolhouses, in which schools were maintained an average 
period of seven months. The number of scholars in attendance 
was 19,771, and the sum expended lor their tuition $20,918* 
The district libraries contained 30,125 volumes. 

There were also twenty-four private scboola, with 626 pupils, and one acade- 
my and one female seminary, wi^l;i 148 students. 

Reugiods Denominations. Methodists, Presbyterians, Bap- 
tists, Episcopalians, Universalists, Unitarians, and Roman 
Catholics. There are seventy-five churches, and 1 14 clergymen 
of all denominations, in the county. 

History. This county is indebted to the enterprsie and en- 
ergy of Mr. Charles Williamson, the agent of the Pulteney 
estate, for its early settlement and rapidgrowth. Finding emi- 
grants unwilling to settle upon the elevated lands of this county 
while the more alluring flats of the Genesee remained in mai^ 

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ket, he resolved himself to set the example of emigraticm to 
this section. Accordingly, in 1792, with two companions, he 
cut his way through the forests, and located at Bath. In 1796, 
the population in the vicinity had increased so rapidly , tiiat Mr. 
WiUiamson estabHshed a theatre at his new settlement. The 
succeeding year, the county was organized, and named alter 
Baron Steuben, the Prussian Greneral. The same year a news- 
paper was established at Bath, and called the Bath Gazette. 
The population of the county at this time was about 800. The 
whole county, except the town of Reading, belonged to the Pul- 
teney estate. The emigrants were mostly from Pennsylvania, 
except in the town of Prattsburgh, which was settled by New 

In tha present town of Erwin, formerly stood the Painted 
Post, so famous in our early Itldian annals, erected by an In- 
dian chief, (probably during the first French war,) to com- 
memorate his victory over the whites, and the number ofeeidps 
^ and prisoners, he had taken. 

Villages. Bath, the county seat, was laki out by Mr. Wil- 
liamson in L79@. It is on the north bank of the Conhocton, has 
regular and parallel streets and two public squares, and is re- 
garded as one of the moat pleasant villages of western New 
York. Here is a dourisluhg female seminary. Population 1500. 
Coming y situated on the south side oftheChemung' river in 
the town of Painted Post, is admirably located Ibr trade, being 
at the junction of the Corning and Blossburg railroad, with the 
navigable feeder of the Chemung canal, and also on the pro- 
posed route of the New York and Erie railroad. Its coal trade 
is already very great, and its growth has be^ rapid. Popula- 
tion 1200. 

Hammondsport, situated at the southern termination of 
Crooked lake in the town of Urbana, is a thriving village. A 
steamboat plies between this place and Penn Yan. It has also 
a communication with New York, by means of the Crooked 
and Seneca lakes, Cayuga, Seneca, and Erie canals. Popu- 
lation 1000. 

Painted Post, in the town of Elrwin, is a flourishing village 
at the junction of the Conhocton and Tioga rivers. It has a 
large amount of hydraulic power, which is in part ai^lied to 
manufacturing purposes. The painted post above defBcribed, 
is m this village. Population 600. 

HomellsviUe is a village of Considerable importanee, situated 
on the Canisteo in the. town of the same name. 

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Bqmre miles, 1M2. 
Ofpnixad, 1707. 

PopulaUon. 36,990. 
ValuatioB, 1845, $3,478,913. 

1. Harpersfield, 1788. 

2. Middletown, 1789. 
3- Colchester, 1792. 

4. Stamford, 1792. , 

5. Franklin, 1792. 

6. Walton, 1797. 

7. Delhi, 1798. 

8. Roxbury, 1799. 

9. Kortright, 1793. 


10. Meredith, 1800. 

11. Sidney, 1801. 

12. Tompkins, 1806. 

13. Hancock, 1806. 

14. MasonWUe, 1811, 

15. Davenport, 1817. 

16. Andes, 1819. 

17. Bovina, 182a 

18. Hampden, 1825. 

Mountains, h. Blue. m. Kaatsberg. ti. Pine. 

Mivert. 6. Snsquehanna. H. Delaware, a. Mohawks or West 

Branch Delaware, i. Little Delaware river, j. Papachton Branch. 

k. Big Beaver kill. q. Oleout creek, r. Charlotte river. 
Villages. Dei^hi. Franklin. Hobart. Deposit. Walton. 

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Boundaries. North by Oteego and Schoharie; East by 
Sdioharie and Greene ; South by Ulster and Sullivan, and the 
state of Pennsylvania; and West by Pennsylvania, Broome and 
Chenango counties. 

Surface. Delaware county has three distinct ranges of 
mountains passing through it from southwest to northeast ren- 
dering its suriace very jough and broken.^ The southeast ridge 
is a continuation of a range of the Kaatsbergs. The second 
ridge runs between the Papachton and the Mohawk branch of 
the Delaware river ; while the third, from twelve to eighteen 
miles in width, is bounded by the Charlotte river and the Sus- 
quehanna. The two latter are collectively known as the Blue 
mountains. A part of the eastern ridge has received the name 
of the Pine mountains. The surface of the summits and sides 
of the hills £ure extremely irregular, and broken by numerous 

Rivers. The Mohawks, or main branch of the Delaware, has 
its source in Schoharie county, running thence in a southwest- 
erly direction nearly 70 miles, through the center of the coun- 
ty« to Port Deposit, where it takes a southeasterly course, and 
ferms the boundary line between New York and Pennsylvama. • 
Its principal tributaries are the Little Delaware and the Papach- 
ton branch ; the latter is sixty-five miles long and receives the 
Big Beaver kill. The Chajlotte and Susquehanna form portions 
of the northern boundary. 

Rrilroads. The New York and Erie railroad is in process 
of construction, through the southeast corner of thecouhty. 

CuMATE. The climate of this county is subject to sudden 
and extreme changes of temperature, yet it is not unfriendly to 
health. The cold is severe in winter. 

Geology and Mineralogy. The surface rock of this county 
is the old red sandstone of the Catskill group underlaid by the 
shales and sandstone of the Portage and Chemung group. 

Its minerals are few. Bog iron ore bas been discovered in considerable beds ; 
copper extensively difflised, but in small quantities. There are several mineral 
springs, and a brine spring near Delhi. 

Vbgetabls Productions. The soil is as varied as the sur- 
face, but generally of a good qtiality. On the hills it is a sandy 
loam, and in some places stoney. In the valleys is a rich deep 
mould, and of lasting fertility. It is better adapted to grass 
fhan the raising of grain. The county is densely timbered 
with beech, birch, maple, ash, elm, basswood^ pine, wild 
cherry, butternut, hemlock, and small quantities of oak. 

pDRBtrrrs. Agriculture chiefly engages the attention of the 
people of thilB comity; considerable quantities of grain are 
produced, and it is exceeded by few counties in the number of 
cattle reared. It is second only to Oneida in the manufacture 
of butter. 

Digitized by LjOOQlt: 

268 STATfi or HEW YORK. 

Manufactures. Tb« water-power of this county Is abtm- 
dant, but little improved. Its principal manufactured articles 
are leather, flour, lumber, and ioiled cloths. The lumber ia 
floated to market on the Delaware and Susquehanna rivers. 

The CoTnmerce of the county is not large, its rivers being 
only navigable in the spring. 

Staple Proddctioiis. Butter and cheese, oats, potatoes, 
rye, wool, and lumber. Increased facilities for conveying them 
to market will be afford^ by the railroad now constructing. 

Schools. In 1846, there were 288 public schools in session, 
on an average, seven months each, expending for tuition 
$14,013, and numbering 12,501 pupik. The district libraries 
contained 24,027 Volumes. 

There are twenty-three luiincorporated private schools, attended by 343 scbot- 
•tt, and two ineorpomted academies witb 134 studeats. 

Reugiods Denominations. Methodists, Presbyterians, Con- 
gregationalists. Baptists, Episcopalians, Dutch Reformed, and 
Unitarians. The whole number of churches, is fifty-eight, of 
clergymen seventy-seven. 

History. The county, west of the Mohawks branch, was ori- 
ginally held by several proprietors, but east of that river ivas 
comprised in the Hardenburgh patent. In 1768, William, John, 
Alexander, and Joseph Harper, with eighteen others, obtained 
a patent for 22,000 acres of land within its limits. The Har- 
pers soon ailer moved from Cherry Valley, and founded the set- 
tlement of Harpersfield. 

In the spring of 1780, a party of Indians and tories under the 
command of Brant, destroyed this settlement. Most of the in- 
habitants had previously fled, a few only remained to make su- 
gar. Several of these were killed, and nineteen made prison- 
ers and carried to Niagara. After the war the place was re- 
built, and Colonel John Harper, who had distinguished himself 
by his bravery and humanity during the war, spent the remain- 
der of his days there. 

Villages. Delhi village is the county seat, and contains, be- 
sides the county buildings, two churches, an, academy, and a 
number (^manufactories. Population 800.- 

Franklin is the seat of the Delaware Institute, incorporated 
April 25, 1835. Population 700. 

Hobarty in the town of Stamford, is a village of some impor- 
tance. It has some manufactories. 

Deposit, in the town of Tompkins, is a great lumber mart. 
Much of the lumber which is floated down the Delaware dar> 
ing the spring freshets is deposited here. It is on the proposed 
route of the New York and Erie railroad. Population 600, 

Walton, in the town of the same name, is a small but thriv- 
ing village on the Delaware. 

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Square miles, 804* 
Organized, 1798. 

Population, 39,900. 
Valuation, 1845, $4,133,350. 

1. Barabridge, 1791. 
8. Norwich, 1793. 
3. Qsfera» 1793. 

4. Greene* 1798. 

5. ColDmbua, 18a5. 

6. Coventry, 1806. 

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7. German, 1806. 14. Smyrna, 1808. 

8. Pharaalia, 1800. 15. Guilford, 1S13. 

9. Plymouth, 1806. 16. McDonough, 1816. 

10. Preaton, 1806. 17, Otselic, 1817. 

11. Sherburne, 1806. 18. Linklaem, 1&23. 

12. Smithville, 1806. 19. Pitx^her, 1827. 

13. New Berlin, 18J7. 

Mhfers. II. Unadilla river. CC. Chenangoi G. Susquehanna. 

h. Otselic. a. Geneganslette creek, e. Canasawacta. 
VUlagei. NomwicH. Oxford. Sherburne. 

Boundaries. North by Madison county ; East by Otsego and 
Delaware ; South by Broome ; and West by Broome and Cort- 
land counties. 

ScRPACE. This county is comprised in the extensive table 
land, which occupies so larg^e a portion of southern and western 
New York. The force and velocity of its principal streams, 
however, have cut deep and broad channels through the rodcs, 
and thus formed wide and beautiful alluvial valleys, giving the 
county an apparently diversified surface. The table land be- 
tween the Unadilla and Chenango rivers is 1B30 feet above tide 

Rivers. The Chenango, a beautiful stream, and its tributa- 
ries, the principal of which are the Geneganslette and Canasa- 
wacta, ilrain the central portion of the county. The Unadilla 
washes its eastern border, while the Susquehanna crosses its 
southeastern, and the Otselic its northwestern corner. 

Canals. The Chenango Canal passes through the county 
in the broad valley of the Chenango river, furnishing a conven- 
ient outlet for its abundant produce. 

Climate. Mild, healthful, and pleasant 

Geology and Minerals. The western part of this county 
belongs to the Chemung sandstone group; the eastern part to 
the old red sandstone of the CatskiU group, and a «m<dl tract at 
the north to the limestone of the Helderberg series. 

There are few minerals in the cbun^, the geological formations not being 
ftvorable to their productjk)n. There are two or three sulphur springs which 
have some reputation to the treatment of cutaneous diseases. 

Soil and Veqetable Prodvctions. The soil on the table 
lands is admirably adapted to grazing ; in the alluvial valleys it 
is a rich, gravelly loam, yielding abundant crops of grain. The 
principal forest trees are beech, maple, basswood, elm, butter- 
nut, black cherry, and in the south, hemlock and pine. ' 

Pursuits. AgricuUwi^e is the leading pursuit. Great atten- 
tion is paid to the rearing of cattle, horses and sheepu Butter 

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and cheese are largely produced, particolarly in the southern 
towns. The county ranks among the first in the state in the 
production of butter, eheese, wool and flax. 

Manufactures are receiving increasing attention. At pres- 
ent, however, the most importjuit are those ol[ flour, lumber, 
leather, ^iled cloths, and cotton and woollen goods. 

The commerce of the county, through the medium of the 
Chenango canal, and the Susquehanna river, is large and con- 
stantly increasing. 

Staple Productions. Butter, cheese, wool, flax and oats. 

Schools. In 1846, there were in the county 287 district 
school-houses, in which schools were maintained an average 
period of seven months, at an expense for tuition of 516,283; 
14,750 scholars attended these schools. The district libraries 
contained 26,598 volumes. 

There were also thirty-five select schools, attended by 658 pupQs, and Ibur 
iaeorporatied academies, with 416 etudentft 

RBLiQfODS Denominations. Baptists, Methodists, Congre- 
gatibnalists. Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Universalists, and 
Friends. The entire number of churches, is eighty-three ; of 
clergymen, ninety-four. 

History. Chenango was formed from the counties of Tioga 
and Herkimer, in 1798. The first settlement was made in Ox- 
ford, in 1790; another was made at Bainbridge, in 1791. The 
latter towm^ip was granted hf the state of New York, to Ver- 
mont, as a compensation for losses of individuals who had suffer- 
ed on account of grants made by the state of Vermont, before 
the settlement of her difficulties with New York. Most of the 
early settlers of the county were from New England, and a 
majority of them from Connecticut. 

The first settlers in the village of Greene, were a party of 
French emigrants, some of whom wer'e men of distinction in 
their own country. After some years, however, owing to pecu- 
niary difficulties, they became discouraged, and removed to 
Pennsylvania. An academy was established and incorporated 
at Oxford, in 1794. The town of Sherburne was settled by a 
party of twenty families, from Connecticut, who organized 
themselves into a church before emigrating. They arrived at 
their location on Thursday, and by the succeeding Sabbath had 
erected a log meeting-house, in which they met for worship^ 
and it js said that not a Sabbath has since passed without divine 

ANTiauiTiEs. Ijq the town of Greene is a remarkable mound, 
which, before it was disturbed by the plough or spade, was 
at)out seven feet high, and nearly forty feet iii diameter. It 

Digitized by >^00QIC 


cootained human bones, fliat arrow-lieadt, and utensils oi the 
natives; and was piobably the place where the slain of some 
sanguinary battle had been entombed. In Oxford, are the re- 
mains of a iartj about three-fourths of an acre in extent. Trees 
of more than 200 years' growth were standing on this fort when 
it was first discovered. Its position was admirably calculated 
for defence. When or by whom it was erected is imknown. 
The Indian traditions oa this subject are by no means definite. 

Villages. Norwich, in the town of the same name, is the 
seat of justice for the county. It is pleasantly situated on a 
neck of land formed by the Canasawacta creek and the river. 
It is surrounded by a rich agricultural district, whose produce 
finds here a ready market. The Chenango canal connects it 
with Utica and Binghamton. It has a considerable number of 
manufactories. Here is a flourishing academy, and a female 
seminary. Population, ItiOO. 

Oxfordf in the town of the same name, is situated on both 
sides of the Chenango. It is in the midst of a fine agricultural 
country, and has considerable trade. The academy here is an 
M and flourishing one, founded in 1794. Population, 1300, 

Sherburne, in the town of the^same name, is a pleasant incor- 
porated village, on the line of the canaL It has a chartered 
academy, and considerable trade. Population, 700. 

Cfreene, in the town of the same name is a flourishing villai^e, 
situated on the Chenango river and Canal It has considerable 
manufiu^tures• Population, 800. 

New BerlifiBud Bainbridge, in the towns of the same names, 
are thriving and important villages. 

Smithville and Smyrna, are also villages of some impcurtance. 

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, 13,741. 
VBiuatkni, 1845, $8,«I4,MS. 


I. Haverstraw, 118B. 3. Clarkfitown, 179I. 

a. Orangetown, 1788. 4. Ramapo, 179t. 

Mountains, T. Matteawan. d. Clo9ter. e. Nyack Hills, f. Dun- 

Rivers. C. Hudson* c. Hackensack. a. Ramapo. Saddle. 
Firt-ts. Stony Point. 
Pillages. NswCirr. Haverstraw. Piermont. 

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Boundaries. North by Orange county; East by Hcid«<ni 
river ; South by New Jersey ; and West by New Jersey and 
Orange county. 

SuRFACfi. The surface of this county is very much broken, 
rising in the west and north-west into the Highlands, or Mat' 
teawan ridge. The Cioster mountain, or Palisade range, enters 
from Bergen, New Jersey, and receding on the west, forms the 
Nyack Hills. The summits of some of these rise to the height 
of 1000 feet Between these hills and the Highlands, is a valley 
formed by the Saddle river « Dunderberg and Caldwell moun- 
tains, are in the north part, opposite Peekskill. 

Rivers. Rockland county sends forth the Hackensack river 
and its branches, draining the Nyack vedley, and Saddle river, 
a tributary of the Passaic. The Ramapo, also a tributary of 
the Passaic, crosses the county ki the town of Ramapo. 

Clibiate. The climate of this county is healthy | agreeable 
in summer, but cold in winter. 

Minerals and Qeoloot. The Nyack Hills belong to the 
Catskill group, being based on red sandstone and capped 
with greenstone. The Palisades are^omposed entirely of trap 
rock. The Matteawan range is primitive ; granite, gneiss, mica, 
feldspar, hornblende, d&c. are its principal constituents. South 
of the Highlands, tho whole country is underlaid with red sand- 
stone, supposed by some of the Geologists to be the new red 

Limestoiie is abai^lant in tlie valleys, and magnetic iron ore in tbe hills. The 
other principal minerals are calcareous spar, seqientiiie, actinc^ite, zinc ore, 
green and fed copper ores, datholite, stflbite, airijefltus, Prehnite, Thompsonite, &c. 

Vegetable Productions. Notwithstanding the roughness 
of the surface, ^e soil is rich and highly cultivated, amply re- 
warding the labor of the husbandman. This county is well 
adapted to the jculture of both grass and grains. 

Pursuits. Agriculture is the leading pursuit, particularly in 
the more fertile valleys. 

Ma/nufacture9 are also carried on to some extent Iron wire, 
nails, sheet iron, and lead, cotton and woollen fabrics are the 
principal articles. 

Commerce. Some shipping is owned on the Hudson, by the 
inhabitants of the county, of whom a considerable number are 
engaged in commercial pursuits. Ice is extensively exported 
to New York from this county. 

Staple Productions. These are corn, potatoes, oats, buck- 
wheat, rye, and ice. 

Schools. In this county, there were ia 1846, thirty-nine com- 
mon schools, averaging nine ponths' instruction each, at an eX' 

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pense of about ^271, and having 2501 pupils. The district 
librariBs numbered 6418 volumes. 

Tbere are eight private schools, Bamberh!^ 149 leholBn. 

Religious Denominations. Methodists, Dutch Reformed , 
Presbyterians, Baptists and Friends. The number of churches , 
of all denominations, is thirty-two ; of ministers, twenty. 

History. This county originally belonged to Orange, and 
many of the early settlements were mack within its limits. 
Orangetown was originally the county seat, before its division, 
and remained so till 1737, when Goshen, now in Orange county, 
was made a half shire town. In 1774, the court-house and jail 
in Orangetown being burned, the county seat was removed to 
New City. During the revolution, this little county was the 
scene of many thrilling events. 

On the 27th of September, 1778, Colond Baylor, the com- 
maader c^a troop of cavalry , had crossed the Hackensack with 
his regiment, and taken post at Tappan ; on the night of the 
28th, they were surprised by a British force, under General 
Gray, who attacked them in a barn, where they had their quar- 
ters, and sixty-seven out of one hundred and four privates were 
butchered. The orders of the British guard were to give no 
quarter ; about forty were made prisoners through the human- 
ity of one of the British c£4)tains. After the capture of Forts 
Montgomery and Clinton, (the latter of which was in the limits 
of this county,) by Sir Hejnry Clinton, in 1777, General Wash- 
ington directed a fortification to be built at Stoney Point, a com- 
manding promontory on the Hudson, and another at Verplank's 
Point, opposite the former, on the east bank of the Hudson ;^ 
the latter was first completed, and both were garrisoned by the 

In May, 1779, Sir Heniy Clinton ascended the river; the for-- 
tress at Stoney Point being unfinished, the garrison abandoned 
it at his approach, and the garrison at Verplank's Pcnnt, or Fort 
Fayette, as it was called, being surrounded by a superior force, 
were compelled to surrender. Sir Henry immediately caused 
both forts to be strongly fortified, and manned them with efficient 
garrisons. General Washington determined to recover them, 
and accordingly despatched General Wayne, with a sufficient 
corps of light Gantry, on the fifteenth of July, to stotm the fortress 
at Stoney Point. The hill on which the fortress was erected, 
extends into the Hudson, and is surrounded by it on three sides. 
The other side was a deep morass, passable only at ene point, 
and this enfiladed by the batteries of the fort. A passage to the 
fortress was also practicable at low wft-ter, along the beach, but 
this too was commanded by the guns of the (brt. 

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Notwithstaoding these oW tacles, Wayne aod his brave asso- 
ciates commenced the attack a little after nightfall of the six- 
teenth of July, with unloade 1 muskets and fixed bayonets, and 
notwithstanding the terrible fire of tbe eqemy, the two columns 
which had taken the two routes above described, met in the 
centre of the fort. The British garrison was captured with a 
loss to the Americana of fifteen Idlled and eighty-three wound- 
ed, and to the British of sixty-three killed, and 543 taken pris- 
oners, beside military stored to the value of nearly $160,000. 

The subsequent attack upon Fort Fayette on Verplank's Point, 
was unsuccessful, and on this account a larger force than could 
be spared from the American army, being required to defend 
Stoney Po if, it was abandoned, and soon ai\er occupied by 
Sir Henry Clinton, who retained il during a considerable period. 

In 1780, the trial and imprisonment of Andre tookj^ace in the 
Tillage of Nyack, in this county. He was tried in the oW Dutdi 
church, since torn down, and confined in the ancient stone man- 
sion adjacent. His execut took place at a distance of about a 
quarter of a mile from the village, not far from the New Jersey 
line. He was buried near the place of his execution. In 1831, 
his remains were disinterred, by order of the I>ukcofyork, un- 
der the superintendence of Mr. Buchanan, the English consul 
at New York, and transmitted to England. 

Dobbe' Ferry, in this county, was also a place of considerable 
importance during the revolution. Washington's head quarters 
were for a time near this hamlet. 

New City, in the town of Clarkstown, contains the coort- 
house, jaU, and county offices. Ft is a mere hamlet. 

Piermontf on the Hudson, in the townof Orangetown, is a 
village of recent growth, and is principally distinguished i5 the 
eastern terminus of the New York and Erie railroad. This route 
of travel is connected with the city of New York by a regular 
line of steamboats. A larger amount of milk is probably sent 
to New York from this port than from any other on the river. 
The steamboat pier is about one mile in length. The Palisades 
terminate here in a steep and precipitous bluff. Population, 

ffaverstraWj in the town of the same name, is a thriving vfl- 
lage on the river, engaged in the coasting trade with New York. 
The fortress of Stoney Point wasjn the limits of this town. 

Nyctck, a village in Orangetown, is handsomely situated on 
Tappan bay, skirted by the Nyack hills on the west Its celeb- 
rity as the place whgre Major Andre was executed, has been 
before noticed. Population, about 1000.. 

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Square liiiles, 1101. Population, 84,776. 

Orgmiized, 1798. Valuation, $11,807,289. 

1. Whitestown, 1788. 

2. Steuben, 1789. 

3. Paris, 1792. 

4. Westmoreland, 1792. 

5. SaDgerfield, 1795. 



6. Floyd, 1796. 

7. Rome, 1796. 

8. Bridgewater, 1797. 

9. Western, 1797. 
10. TVenton, 1797. 

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11. Augusta, 1798. 19. Vienna, 1807. 

12. Deerfield, 1798. 2<J. Lee, ISll. 

13. Remscn, 1798. 21. Utica, 1817. 

14. Camden, 1799. 22. Marshall, 1819. 

15. Vernon, 1802. 23. Annsville, 1823. 

16. Verona, 1802. 24. Kirkland, 1827. 

17. Boonville, 1805. 25. New Hartford, 1827. 

18. Florence, 1805. 26. Marcy, 1832. 

27. Ava, 1846. 

Mountains. P. Highlands of Black River, i. Hassencleaver moun- 

Hivers and Creeks F. Mohawk river, a. Black, c. Saghdaquida, 
or Sauquoit creek, d. Lansing's, e. Wood. f. West Canada, 
j. Oneida, k. Oriskany. s. Fish. t. West branch of Fish. 

Falls, g. Trenton Falls. 

Lakes, Z. Oneida. 

Battle Fields. Fort Schuyler. Oriskany Creek. 

Forts. Fort Stanwix. Fort Schuyler. 

Colleges, Hamilton College, In Kirkland. 

Cities and Villa tfes. Uric a. Roms. WnrrESBORo'. Clinton. 

Trenton Falls. Oriskany. -^Vaterville. 

Boundaries. North by Lewis and Oswego counties ; East 
by Herkimer ; South by Madison and Otsego ; and West by 
Madison and Oswego counties. 

Sdhpace. Oneida county hsis a diversified surface. The 
valley of Oneida Lake extends eastward nearly forty miles, 
through the centre of the county, and the streams which water 
the county so abundantly, flow for the most part, through broad 
and beautiful valleys. The Highlands of Black river rise to an 
elevation of about 800 feet, in the northeastern part of the coun- 
ty, and in the eastern section the Hassencleaver has an eleva- 
ticm of 1200 feet. In the southern part, a ridge of no great height 
divides the waters of the Mohawk from those of Sie Susque- 

Rivers, dbc. The Mohawk and Black rivers, Lansing's, 
Fish, Oriskany, Ondda, Saghdaquida, Wood and West Canada 
creeks, are the principal streams. Several of these furnish, by 
their rapid descent, valuable hydraulic power. 

Falls. Trenton Falls, on West Canada creek, are much 
celebrated for their picturesque beauty, sukL the wild and roman- 
tic scenery which surrounds them. The whole descent is 312 
feet, and this is accompUshed by six distinct falls, all within a 
distance of two miles. 

Lakes. The Oneida Lake forms part of the western bounda- 
ry of the county. Its shores are low and swampy. Its waters 
abound with excellent fish. 

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Canals and Railroads. The Erie cahal passes through the 
central portion of the county. In its whole course through this 
and the adjacent county of Madison, there are no locks. The 
Oneida Lake oanal connects the Erie canal with Oneida Lake ; 
the Chenango canal extends from the Erie canal at Utica, ix3 
Binghamton, in Broome county ; the Black river canal is de- 
signed to connect the Erie canal with Black river. ^ 

The Utica and Schenectady, and Syracuse and Utica railroads 
pass through this county. 

Climate. The climate is generally mild and quite uniform. 
The temperature is about an average of that of the state. 

Geology and Minerals. From its extent and situation this 
county embraces a greater variety of geological formations than 
almost any other in the state The primary system occupies 
that portion of the county east of Black river. It consists prin- 
cipally of granite, and Black river and Trenton limestone. 
Bordering upon these we find the Utica slate and the Hudson 
river group of shales and sandstone. To these succeed the 
Oneida slate, which indeed is found in almost every part of the 
county ; the Clinton and Lockport groups of limestone, rich in 
fossils ; the Onondaga salt group, consisting here mainly of red 
and green shales; the Helderberg limestones; the Oriskany 
sandstone, forming the surface rock of the valleys of the Sagh- 
daquida, Oriskany, Skenandoa and Oneida creeks ; the Marcel- 
his shales appearing at a few points in the extreme southern 
part of the county ; and the Hamilton group of limestones. 

Argillaceous iron ore, gypsum, water limestone, peat, marl, calcareous spar, 
eoccolite, blende, or sulpharet of zinc, and tabular spar, are the principal miner- 
als. There are numerous mineral springs, mostly sulphurous, in the county. 

Soil and Vegetable pRODUCTioNg. The soil is every where 
productive, and in the valleys possesses extraordinary fertility. 
The crops, both of grass and grain, are abundant, and the county 
ranks among the first in the state, in its agricultural products. 
Hops are very successfully and extensively cultivated. The 
timber of the county is principally maple, beech, birch, elm, 
black walnut, and basswood, with some oak, hemlock, and pine. 
Large quantities of sugar are manufactured from the maple. 

PuRsurrs. Agriculture is the pursuit of a majority of the in- 
habitants. Nearly equal attention is paid to the culture of grain 
and to the rearing of cattle, horses and sheep. Wheat is not 
produced in so large quantities as in some of the more western 
counties, but oats, com, barley, hops and potatoes are largely 
cultivated. In 1845, nearly four millions of pounds of butter, 
and more than three millions of pounds of cheese were made in 
the coimty. The clip of wool was also very large. 

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Manufactures are also a prominent purpuit, being prosecuted 
to a greater extent than in any other county in the state, except. 
Kings and New York. Cotton and woollen goods are largely 
manufactured. Flour, lumber, distilled liquors, leather and iron 
ware, are also produced in very considerable quantities. In 
1845, the manu^tures of the county amounted to nearly 

(Commerce, The commercial relations of Oneida county are 
quite extensive. The Erie canal affords the means of trans- 
portation for its abundant produce ; the Oneida lake canal opens 
a route to Lake Ontario ; the Chenango canal brings the agri- 
cultural productions of the southern counties hither, on their 
way to tide water ; and the completion of the Black river canal 
will also add largely to the commerce of the county. 

Staple Productions. Butter, cheese, oats, barley, corn, 
hops, potatoes, wool and sugar. 

Schools. There were in the county in 1846, 399 district 
school-houses, in which schools were taught an average period 
of eight months each. 23,735 children received instruction, at. 
an expense for tuition of 829,063. The district libraries con- 
tained 23,983 volumes. There were also eighty-seven unin- 
corporated select schools, with 912 scholars, ten academies and 
four female seminaries, with 624 pupils, and one college ivith 
nine professors and 126 students. 

Reugious Denominations. Methodists, Baptists, Congre- 
gationalists, Presbyterians, Episcopalians, Roman Catholics, 
Friends, Universalists, Dutch Reformed and Unitarians. The 
total number of churches in 1845, was 160; of clergymen, 202. 

History. This county was the home of the Oneida Indians, 
one of the bravest tribes of the Iroquois, and the only one which, 
during the revolution, maintained friendly relations with the 
United States. 

During the French war (in 1758) forts were erected at Rome 
and at Utica ; the former was called Fort Stanwix, the latter 
Fort Schuyler. Fort Stanwix, on the present site of Rome,, 
was, from its situation at the portage between Wood creek and 
the Mohawk river, a post of considerable importance, and was 
fortified at an expense of more than ^250,000. At the com- 
mencement of the revolution, however, it was very much dilap- 

In 1766, Rev. Samuel Kirkland, a native of Connecticut, and 
a graduate of Princeton college, New Jersey, settled among the 
Oneidas, as a missionary. Through his influence they were 
restrained from engaging on the side of the British during the 
war of the revolution. 

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Mr. Kirkland remained among the Indians during the war, 
was interpreter to the American officers who visited them, and 
officiated as chaplain to the army during Sullivan's campaign. 
After the revolution he settled again in Oneida county, and the 
legislature of the state granted him the township of Kirkland, 
as an acknowledgement of his valuable services to the state of 
his adoption. 

Judge Dean, the efficient Indian agent during the revolution, 
was also an early settler. He was a native of New England, 
but spent several years of his boyhood among the Oneida In- 
dians, by whom he was adopted. He subsequently graduated 
at Dartmouth college, intending to become a missionary to that 

The demand for his services during the revolution prevented 
his fulfilling that intention, and he accepted the office of Indian 
agent and interpreter, and in that capacity rendered efficient 
aid to the American cause. The Oneidas granted him, at the 
close of the war, a tract of land on Wood creek about two miles 
square, which he subsequently exchanged for a similar tract in 
Westmoreland. On the extinction of the Indian title, in 1788, 
the latter was confirmed to him by the state, and he resided 
upon it during the remainder of his life.* 

* Two or Uiree years after Judge Dean's removal to WestmorelaDd, an incident 
occurred which furnishes a parallel to the often related rescue of Captain John 
Smith, by Pocahontas. 

It was a custom among the Indians^ that when one of their number had been 
murdered by a member of another tnbe, the blood of some one of the offending 
tribe must be shed, as an atonement for the offence. The same custom extended 
to tbeir intercourse with the whites. 

At this period, an Oneida Indian had been killed by some unknown white man, 
who had escaped. The chiefs assembled to determine what was to be done. 
After several days consultation, they decided that the life of Mr. Dean must be 
forfeited, as an atonement for the murder. 

Accordingly, the chiefs, eighteen in number, came to his dwelling at midnight, 
and informed him that they luui decided to sacrifice him for the murder of their 
brother, and that he must now prepare to die. In vain he remonstrated, pleading 
hrs past services to their tribe, and urging that he was an adopted son of the 
Oneidas, and therefore not liable to such a doom. In vain did he represent the 
hapless condition of his wife and helpless babes. 

The old chiefs heard him patiently, but their decision was unalterable. He 
had nearly abandoned all hope of escape, when his attention was arrested by the 
pattering of a footstep without the door. Soon the latch was raised and a squaw 
entered ; she was the wife of the senior chief, and in Mr. Dean's boyhood, had 
adopted him as her son. 

The entrance of a woman into a solemn council was, according to Indian eti- 
quette, at war with all propriety. The chiefs however remained silent. Soon 
another came, a sister of the first* and the wife of another chief; and presently a 
third, also the wife of a chief. Each stood near the door in silence, closely wrap- 
ped in her blanket. 

At length the presidinff chief bid them " begone." The squaw who first entered, 
replied, that they must first change their determination, and not kill the good white 
man, her adopted son. The command to go was repeated, when each of the 
squaws threw otf their blankets, and brandistiinj^ a knife in their extended hands, 
declared that they would destroy Uismselves, it one hair of the white man's head 
was touched. The chiefs were astonished at the whole proceeding, and regarding 
it as an evident interposition of the Great Spirit in his behalf, reversed their 
decree, and Mr. Dean's life was spared. 

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Some yesTB previous to the revolution two men named Roof 
and Brodock established themselves in the vicinity of Rome, and 
were engaged in the cafrying trade. They were compelled to 
leave during the revolution, but aD:erward returned and re- 
sumed their farms. 

Early in the summer of 1777, news hvaing reached the county 
that an expedition was intended against the settlements in the 
Mohawk valley, under the command of General St. Leger, 
Fort Stanwix at Rome, was repaired, garrisoned, supplied with 
provisions, and its name changed to Fort Schuyler. 

On the 2d of August, 1777, the garrison consisted of 750 men, 
under the command of Colonel Gansevoort, and they had suffi- 
cient ammunition and provisions for a six weeks' siege. At that 
time the fort was invested by General St. Leger, who demanded 
its surrender. The demand was indignantly spurned by the 
garrison. Hearing of the investment of the fort. General Her- 
kimer assembled about 800 militia, and hastened to relieve the 
beseiged garrison. On the evening of the 5th of August, he 
arrived at Oriskany creek, and despatched two expresses to 
Col. Gansevoort, notifying him of his approach, and requesting 
him to make a sally from the fort at the time of his intended 

These expresses arrived safely on the forenoon of the 6th, 
and a signal cannon having been fired, Colonel Marinus 
Willet, the second in command, sallied from the fort with 
250 men, and succeeded in carrying the camps of Sir John John- 
son and the Indians, capturing their stores, baggage, ammuni- 
tion, dtc, without the loss of a single man. 

The attack d* General Herkimer was less fortunate. St 
Leger having heard of his approach, stationed a force in ambus- 
cade on his route. The militia, heedless and self confident, 
rushed on tOl their vanguard were surrounded by the enemy. 
Those in the rear then fled, but the remcunder fought with the 
utmost desperation. Their assailants were mostly Indians and 
loyalists, and in many cases the two parties were perscmally 
known to each other, and private hate was added to national 
hostility. Rage supplied the place of arms ; no quarter was 
asked or given on either side. Early in the batde General 
Herkimer was wounded ; but seating himself on his saddle, and 
leaning against the trunk of a tree, he continued to order the 
batde with the utmost composure. The conflict continued for 
six hours ; at the end of that time the tories and Indians retreat- 
ed, leaving the militia masters of the field. The loss in killed 
and wounded on both sides was very great. That of the 
Americans was nearly 200 killed, and about the same number 

After this battle, St. Leger again summoned the fort, but was 

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again defied. Finding, however, that they must be reinforced 
or eventually surrender, Col. Willet and Lieut. Stockwell, of 
the garrison, volunteered to go to the head quarters of General 
Schuyler, at Stillwater, and obtain aid. 

They left the garrison on the night of the 10th of August, 
creeping on their hands and knees through the enemy's camp, 
and after numerous hair breadth escapes, succeeded in reaching 
Gen. Schuyler's camp and procuring the necessary assistance. 

General Learned and Gteneral Arnold were despatched on 
this service. The latter, hastening on in advance with 900 
troops, captured a tory refugee named Han Yost Schuyler, 
whom by promises and threats he induced to go to the camp of 
St Leger, and alarm the Indians by exaggerating the number 
of his troops. A friendly Oneida Indian was also sent on the 
same errand. The stratagem was successful. The Indians, 
already dissatisfied, abandoned St. Leger at once, on receiving 
the intelligence of Arnold's approach, and thus deserted, he 
raised the siege and retreated with the utmost haste, the Indians 
phmdering his troops whenever they found opportunity. 

One of the most prominent of the early settlers of this coimfy 
was Judge White, the founder of Whitestown. He was a na- 
tive of Middletown, Connecticut, and one of the proprietors of 
the Saghdaquida patent. He removed here in 1784, with his 

In 1788 the town of Whitestown was laid out, and comprised 
all that part of the state lying west of a line drawn north and 
south through the city of Utica, a tract of country now contain- 
ing more than 1,100,000 inhabitants. The same year a treaty 
was made with the Oneidas, by which they ceded to the state 
the whole of their lands, except a few trifling reservations. 

Judge White lived to see the wilderness where he had first 
Ibcat^ himself, densely populated, and the privations of the 
settlers exchai^edibr plenty.* Judge Sanger was another of 
the early settlers who located in New Hartford. 

The town of Steuben was granted by the state to Baron Steu- 
ben, for his services during the revolution. He resided here 
during the latter part of his life^ and was buried here. 

* A little incident which occurred soon after the war, illustrates the Indian 
character very forcibly. An old Oneida chief named Han VerrT, who, durinc the 
revolution, had acted with the British, but who was quite friendly to Judge VVhlte, 
came one day with his wife and a mulatto woman to his house, and asked permls- 
sioDto take the little gnnd-daiighter of the judge home to his c«bia for the night, 
making it a test of t^ strength of his frieodsnip. Judge White consented, con- 
sidering it best CO manifest confidence in the Indian, although he felt many mis- 
• swings, and the mother of the child could hardly be prevailed on to part with it. 
The succeeding day was one of deep anxiety to the family of the ludge— but iu»t 
at sunset the Indian and his squaw reappeared wiih the child, c2ad m a complete 

The c^'ence which tlM judge mamfcsled te them, secured their w»rm and 
perfloaiient firiendshifi. 

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CiTiEB AND Villages. Utica, situated on the south side of 
the Aft)hawk, on the site of old Fort Schuyler, is a thriving and 
business city, in the midst of one of the most fertile and wealthy 
sections of the state, having a central location. ■ Its locality being 
on a gentle declivity to the north, cdmmands a beautiful pros- 
pect of the Mohawk valley. The streets are spacious, and the 
buildings neat and commodious. Being connected with Albany 
and Troy, and with Syracuse, Rochester and Buffalo by rail- 
road and canal ; with Bingham ton by the Chenango canal, and 
by stages, with the northern and southern counties of the state, 
it is the centre of an extensive business. It is also engaged in 
manufactures. Several large steam mills have recently been 
erected for the manufacture of cotton and woollen goods. 

The New York State Limatic Asylum, located here, is a noble 
institution, and when completed will surpass in extent and conve- 
nience any other in the United States. A farm of 160 acres is 
attached to it. The Utica Academy, and the Utica Female Sem- 
inary, are both excellent institutions, and have a high reputa- 
tion. The Young Men's Association possess a good hbrary 
and have maintained a course of lectures for some years. The 
museum contains a fine collection of curiosities and antiquities. 

The early growth of Utica was slow; in 1794 it contained but 
three or four houses. It was incorporated as a village in 1798, 
and received its present name. It was chartered as a city in 
1832. Population 12, 1 90. 

Rome, on the site of Fort Stanwix (the new Fort Schuyler) 
is situated at the junction of the Black river and Erie canals. 
The Utica and Syracuse raili:oad also passes through it. The 
village has some mariufeictories, and is largely engaged in the 
forwarding trade. The United States government have an ar- 
senal, ^nagazine, and a number of workshops here. The Rome 
Female Seminary is well sustained. Population 2800. 

Whitesboro', in the town of Whitestown, also a county seat, 
was incorporated in 1813. It is a pleasant village, finely deco- 
rated with shade trees, and is engaged in the manufacture of 
cotton goods. It has also a very large flouring mill and an ex- 
tensive pail and tub manufactory. 

The Whitesboro' Academy is a large and flourishing nastitu- 
tion. The Oneida Institute, a manual labor school of a high 
order, intended for a boarding school, is also located here ; con- 
nected with it is a farm of 114 acres. The students are re- 
quired to labor three hours per day. Population 2000. 

OHskany is a large manufacturing village in the same town. 
Broadcloths and cassimeres are, the principal articles of manu- 
facture. Population 1200. 

Neto York Mills y in the same town is an important vUlage 

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ONfilDA COtJNTY. 286 

largely engaged in the manufacture of* cotton goods* topula* 

Wdtervill'\ in the town of Sangerfield, is a thriving tillage^ 
engaged in the manufacture of woollen goods, carriage springs^ 
starch, and musiced instrument])). Population 1000. 

Trenton Falls in a^small village, worthy of notice for the 
picturesque and beautiful falls on the West Canada creek, from 
which it derives its name. Trenton, in the town of the same 
name, is a somewhat larger village, incorporated in 1816. 

Clinton, in the town of Klrkland, is pleasantly situated on the 
Oriflkany creek, nine miles from Utica. The Uterary institu- 
tions of this village and its vicinity, have given it a wide celeb- 
rity. Hamilton College, sitdated a mile west of the village, 
was founded by the exertions of the venerable Kirkland, aiid is 
now in a prosperous condition. It has four fine stone edifices. 

The Clinton Liberal Institute is a chartered institution. The 
edifice is of stone, ninety-six by fifty-two feet, and four storied 
high above the basement, for the male department, and a smaller 
building for the female department. It is conducted by si^ 
teachers. There is a farm attached to this institution, for the 
benefit of' such students as may desire to defray the expense of* 
their education by manual labor. 

The Clinton Grammar school, and the Clinton Domestic 
seminary, a female institution of some note, are also located 
here. In the vicinity are several manui'actories. Population 

New Hartfordy in the town of the same name, and Oriskany 
Falls, in the town of Augusta, are flourishing manufacturing 

Vernon, in the town of Vernon, Sattquoit, in the town ofPa- 
ris, and Hampton, in the tdwn of Westmoreland, are thriving 

Oneida CasUeion, a post village in the town of Vernon, oc- 
cupies the place where the councils of the Six Nations were 
formerly held,— the large white walnut tf eee under which they 
assembled are still standing in full vigor, and often, by the au- 
tumnal blasts, sing the requiem of that almost annihilated race 
of the aborigines. 


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Bquaie Miles, 648. Populatioii, 40,663. 

OrganiEed, 1790. 

Valoatioii, 164$, 99,766,050. 


1. Anrelius, 1789* 12. Conqucrt, 1821. 

2. Geneva, 1789. 13. Summer Hill, 182K 

3. Scipio, 1789. 14. Victory, 1821. 

4. Sempronius, 1789. 15. Ira, 1821. 

5. Brutus, 1802. 16, Auburn, 1823. 

6. Cato, 1802. 17. Fleming, 1823. 

7. Locke, 1S02. 18. Springport, 182a 

8. Owasco, 1802. 19. Venice, 1823. 

9. Sennet, 1807. 20. Ledyard, 1823. 

10. Mentz, 1808. 21. Moravia, 1833. 

11. Stirling, 1812. 22. Niles, 1833, 

JRwers. a. Owasco Outlet b. Salmon Creek, c. Owasco Inlet e. 

Little Sodus Creek, k. Seneca. 
Lakes, Sfc, J. Lake Ontario. DD. Cayuga, d. Owaaca. f. Skene- 

ateles. g. Duck. i. Cross. 1. Little Sodus Bay, 
VtUaget. Auburn. Aurora. Cayuga. Montezuma. Moravia. 

BouwDARiEs. North by Lake Ontario ; East by Oswego, On- 
ondaga and Cortland counties ; South by Tompkins county ; 
West by Cayuga lake, and Seneca and Wayne counties. 

Surface. The southern section of the county has an irregular 
surface, rising into ridges on the shores of Cayuga and Owslsco 
lakes. Poplar ridge, the watershed of the county, is between 
these two lakes, and has an elevation of 600 feet The north- 
ern part is comparatively level, yet has a rolling appearance, in 
consequence of numerous gravelly hills, which seem like mounds 
formed by art. 

Rivers. The principal streams are the Seneca river, Salmon 
and Little Sodus creeks.^ The Seneca has a very sluggish 
course through a marshy country. 

Lakes. Cayuga lake on the western border, Skeneateles on 
the eastern, and Owasco in the centre, are the largest lakes. 
Besides these it has Cross, Duck and Otter lakes, and Lock 

Bats. Little Sodus bay is an inlet of Lake Ontario. 

Canals. The Erie canal crosses the county a few miles dis- 
'tant from the Seneca river, and parallel with it. 

Railroads. The great line of Railroad between Albany and 
Buffalo also passes through this county. 

CuMATE.- Mild and temperate, much moderated by the nu- 
merous bodies of water around and within it It is regarded 
as salubrious. 

Geology ano Mineralogy. This county embraces quite a 
variety of IbrmationB. On the borders of Lake Ontario is found 
^e Medina sandstone ; immediately south of ! this the Clinton, 

Digitized by >^00QIC 


Niagara and Onondaga limestone groups ; next the Helderberg 
eeries, and in the extreme southern part of the county, the Lud- 
lowviile slaty rocks. 

Gypsum, water limestone, sulphate of Darytes, Epsom salts, fluor spar, sulpbate 
of iron, and pure sulphur are the principal minerals. 

Petroleum or loineral oil is found on Cayuga lake. Valuable brine springs 
occur in Montgomery. Here are also sulpbur springs, and a chalybeate spring has 
been discovered in the town of Sennet. 

Soil and Vegetable Prodoctions. The soil of this county, 
in consequence of its peculiar geological structure, is rich, and 
its lands are among the most fertile and highly culiivated in 
the state. Wheat yields the most abundant crops; and fruits 
thrive in great perfection. The timber consists of oak, beech, 
butternut, elm, poplar, basswood, pine and hemlock. 

PuR8ciT8. The attention of the inhabitants is chiefly turned 
to agriculture. Large quantities of the various kinds of grain 
and wool are annually produced, and considerable numbers of 
cattle reared. 

Manufactures. The principal articles of manufacture are 
flour, wodden and cotton goods, leather and lumber. Sail is 
manufactured in consklerabie quantities. 

Commerce. It has a considerable amount of commerce— be- 
ing connected by the Cayuga lake with the souihern counties— 
by the Erie canal and Auburn and Syracuse railroad with the 
Hudson and Lake Erie, and by the Cayuga and Seneca canal 
with the Seneca lake, and the country bordering on it. 

The Staples of the county are wheat and other grains, pota- 
toes, butter and wool. 

Schools. The common schools, in 1846, numbered 256. 
They were taught an average period of eight months, attended 
by 16,781 scholars, at an expense for tuition of nearly ^21,312. 
The number of volumes in the school libraries was 29,718. 

The number of private schools was thirty-five, having in attendance 658 pu- 
pils. It has atao four academies and one female seminary, with 388 scholars, and 
one theological seminary with seventy-one students. 

Religious Denominations. Baptists, Presbyterians, Meth- 
odists, Friends, Universalists. Congregationalists, Episcopali- 
ans, Dutch Reformed, Unitarians, and Roman Catholics. 
There are in all seventy-seven churches and eighty clergymen. 

HisTOiRY. The first settlements in this county were made in 
Aurelius, Genoa and Scipio,. about the time the Indian title was 
extinguished, in 1789. The first settlement at Auburn was 
made in 1793, by Col. John L. Hardenburg, from whom it was 
named Hardenburg's corners. It received its present name in 

In Moravia, settlements were commenced in 1794* At ^t 

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time there were still some Indians residing on the flats. The 
county has had a rapid and prosperous growth, and in its zeal 
ibr public improvements ranks among the first counties in the 

Villages. Auburn, file shire town of the cotmty, and one of 
the most flourishing villages in the state, is situated on the out- 
let of Owasco lake. Though irregularly laid out, its streets are 
spacious, 8und many of its buildings elegant. Besides the county 
buildings, it contains seven churches, a male and a female sem- 
inary, and the Auburn Theological seminary, under the control 
of the Presbyterians, which has four professors, seventy-one 
students, and a library of 5000 volumes. 

The Auburn State Prison, located here, is a massive granite 
building, erected at an expense of over half a million of dol- 
lars. The main building has a front of 276 feetj and is three 
stories high besides the basement. The two wings, one on 
either end, are each 242 feet long, and forty-five wide. The 
whole is enclosed by a solid stone waU, from sixteen U} forty feet 
high, and three feet thick. The number of prisoners is about 
700, who labor in work shops during the day, and are confined 
in separate cells at night. Population 6171. 

Moravia is a thriving incorporated village, in the town of the 
same name. The Moravian Institute is a chartered institution 
of some note. Population 600. 

Aurora, in the town of Ledyard, lies upon the Cayuga lake, 
and is hardly surpassed in the beauty of its location, by any vil- 
lage in western N^w York. The Cayuga academy is a 
flourishing institution. Steamboats stop here several times a 
day on their route between Ithaca and Cayuga bridge. Popu- 
ulation 500. 

Cayuga is a pleasant village on the eastern bank of the Cayuga 
lake. A daily line of steamboats plies between this place and 
Ithaca, connecting the Ithaca and Owego and the Auburn and 
Rochester railroads. A toll bridge, and a railroad bridge, each 
of them upwards of a mile in length, here cross the Cayuga lake. 
Montezuma. A number of saline springs are here found, 
fi*om which salt of the best and purest quality has been manu- 
factured ever since the earliest settlement of the country. The 
Montezuma marshes commence about a mile west of the village, 
and are known as the Paradise of wMsquitoes. Population 700. 
Weedsport is a thriving village on the canal in the town of 
Benton. It has a large amount of business. Population 800. 

Port Byron, in the town of Mentz, is a large village, on the 
Erie canal. It has one of the largest flouring establistment* in 
the state, beside several other manufactories. Population 1000. 

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Bqimie Hites, 1162. 
Organized, 1790. 

POfMilatkm, S5,102* 
ValuaUon, 1845, $1,483,136. 

1. Crown Point, 1788. 

2. WilUborough, 1788. 

3. Jay, 1790. 

4. Elizabethtown, 179& 

5. Chetiterfield, 1803, 
d. Schioon, 1804. 

7. Ticonderoga, 1804. 

8. Minerva, 1804. 


9. Essex, 1805. 
10. Lewis, 1805. 
lU Moriah, 1808. 

12. Keene« 1808. 

13. Westport, 1815. 

14. IVilmtngton, 1821. 

15. Newcomb, 1828. 

16. St. Armand, 1844. 

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Mpuniam*. ££. Kftyaderossenifl. GG. Chateaugay. HH. CliDton. 
JJ. Au Sable. 

Peak: g. White Face. k. Mount McMartin. m. Mount Mcln* 
tyre. n. Mount Marcy. o. Mount Defiance, (in T iconderoga). 

MHven, C. Hudfon. a. Bouquet, c. Boreas, d. Indian, e. Adiron* 
dack. f. Schroon. i. Au Sable, j. Saranac. q. West Branch. 

ttok^B, W. Champlain. 1. Schroon. r. Paradox, s. Pharaoh, t 
Crane Pond« u. Harries Lake. v. Rich. w. Delia, h. Teralt. 

J. Sanford. z. Placid, j^ Auger Pond, b; Warm. e. Rattlesnake. 
__Black. 21 Long. 

fort8. Ticonderoga. Crown Point. 

Villages. Euzabetktown. Westport. KeeseviUe. Ticonde- 
roga. Essex. 

Boundaries. North by Franklin and Clinton countiee ; East 
by Lake Champlain ; South by Warren county ; and West by 
Hamilton and Franklin counties. 

ScRFACB. The surface of this county is mountainous. Three 
distinct ranges cross it, and a fourth touches its western bound- 
ary. The Kayaderosseras ran^e, beginning at Crown Point, 
passes over the southeastern towns. The Clinton range ex- 
tends through the central portion, the Au Sable passes through 
the northwest section, and the Chateauga^ forms a portion of 
the northwestern boundary. 

In the towns of Keene, Newcomb, and Moriah, a group of 
lofly peaks, known as the Adirondack group, extends from the 
Au Sable to the Clinton range. Mounts Marcy, Mclntire, Mc- 
Martin, Dial mountain and White face, are the principal of 
these peaks. Mount Marcy is 5467 feet, or more than a mile, 
above tide water. Mount Mclntire 6183, ^hite face 4S55,>and 
Dial mountain 4900 feet high. 

It is a characteristic of the mountains of this county, that their 
«des are iht ecipitous and broken. Between the ranges of the 
mountains ate extensive valleys, through which flow large 

The Adirondack pass, about five mfles from the Adirondack iron woifca, de- 
mands a euraory notice. At an elevation of aome 3500 feet above tide water, a 
narrow gorge extends quite through the mountain, whose massive perpendicular 
waBs a thousand ftet in height, rear themselves on eitiier hand is gloomy sub- 
limity, as if proudly deQ^ng the puny ait of maa. The pass is ne^riy a mile in 
length, and rises in height from 500 to 1000 feet 

RivfiRs. The principal rivers of the county are the Au Sable, 
the Saranac, the Bouquet, the Hudson and the Schroon, with 
their tributaries, and Putnam creek. 

JUakes. No county in the state probably possesses so great a 
number of lakes and ponds as Essex. The character of its sur- 

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face is such as to produce this result ; in its deep chaBins emd 
mountain gorges, its ravines and deile, bounded by walls of ever 
during granitCi the waters which fall upon the hills, or the 
product of the mielting snows upon its lofly peaks, gather and 
remain, till they have attained sufficient height to overflow the 
barriers which restrain them. 

It is said that there cu'e in the county nearly one hulked lakes 
and ponds of considerable size. Of these the most important 
are Schroon, Paradox, Teralt, Rich, Harries, Delia, Sanford, 
Pharaoh and Placid lakes, and Augur pond. 

Climatb« The temperature is loW, particularly on the moun- 
tains. In the valleys it is more mild, but the frosts are early 
and severe. It is not well adapted to the raising Of f^uit, or 
those grains and crops which require a long summer. 

GEOLocy AND Minerals. The rocks fn this county are pri- 
mary, with the exception of a narrow belt of transition on Lake 
Charaplain. They are principally hypersthene, granite, pri- 
mary limestone, gneiss, hornblende, and magnetic iron ore. 

Iron is found in immense quantities in almost eveiy part of the county. The 
principal veins are the Penfield, the Adirondack ores, and the Sanfnrd vein. The 
latter is estimated to contain at least 3,000,000 tons of pure iron. It is in fact ft 
mass of pure iron, ore, unmixed with rock or earth. The iron of this county, in 
an the qualities which render that metal valuable, is unsurpassed by any in the 
United States, ahd being situated in a densely wooded couhtry, and with a con- 
venient access to the lake, can be smelted and conveyed to narket as advantage- 
ously as any in the country. 

There are in the county, and particularly on the shores Of the lakes, fossil veg- 
etables and shells. The other principal minerals are Plumbago, marble of the 
Verd Antique variety, Labradorite, calcareous spar, pyroxene, hornblende, serpen- 
tine, Bcapolite, tabular spar, Brucite, ...apatite, tourmaline, sphene, colophonite^ 
graphite, zircon, garnet, epsom saks, porcelain clay, and pearl spar. 

Vegstable Prodi^tions, Soil, &c. The soil, though broken, 
is rich and fertile. The timber is very abundant, and of large 
size, sonsisting of white and black oak, white and yellow pine, 
maple, beech, hemlock, poplar, walnut, butternut, birch, ash, 
elm, basswood, cherry, fir, spruce, &c. 

Upon Mount Marcy, the gigantic beech and hemk)ck gradually diminish in size 
to mere shrubs, and the former, unable to sustain the weight of its stem, creeps 
On the ro<5ky surface of its ^vSited summit The forests abound With game, asd 
the waters with fish. 

Pursuits. A majority of the inhabitants a*e devoted to agri- 
cultural pursuits. The greater part of the county is adapted 
to grazing, and in some of the valleys grain succeecte weft. Po- 
tatoes, oats, together with some wheat, com and rye are 
grown. Butter and wool are produced in considerable quan- 

The preparation of. lumber for market is a promineixt pursuit 

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with the inhabitants. The amount of lumber and timber ex- 
ported is very large. 

Among the manufactures^ that of iron is the most impor- 
tant 5 it is smelted from the ore in large quantities. 

The c mmcrce of the county upon the lakes is very consider- 
able, and every year increasing. 

Staples. Iron, lumber, butter, wool, and potatoes. 

Schools. There were in the county, in 1846, 167 school- 
houses, in which 7925 children were taught an average period 
of six months, at an expense for tuition of ^8758. The district 
libraries contained 13,774 volumes. 

There were also in the county twenty private schools, with 270 pupils, 9xid two 
academies, with ninety students. 

Religioos Denominations. Methodists, Congregationalists, 
Baptists, Presbyterians, Roman Catholics, and UniversaUsts. 
The number of churches of all denominations in the county is 
forty-two, and of clergymen, twenty-nine. 

History. In 1731 a fort, called Fort St. Frederick, was 
erected by the French, at Crown Point, on the bank of Lake 
Champlain ; it was afterward blown up, but the place was again 
fortified, and retained as a military post. 

In 1756, the French erected Fort Ticonderoga, named by 
them Carillon. In 1758, General Abercrombie, with a large 
force, composed of British and provincial troops, attacked the 
fortress, but was repulsed, with the loss of nearly 2000 killed 
and wounded. Among the former was Lord Howe, who was 
universally beloved by the troops. 

In 1759, both Ticonderoga and Crown Point were abandoned 
by the French, on the approach of the Enghsh forces. The 
British general garrisoned Ticonderoga, and caused a fort to be 
erected at Crown Point, which was likewise garrisoned by 
English troops. 

In 1775, both fortresses were, captured by a corps of Connec- 
ticut and Vermont volunteers, under the command of Colonels 
Ethan Allen,* Seth Warner and Benedict Arnold. Crown 
Point was evacuated the next year. 

On the eleventh of October, 1776, the disastrous expedition 
against Canada was terminated, by the capture of the lake fleet, 
under the command of General Arnold, near Crown Point. 

In July, 1777, Ticoilderoga was besieged by General Bur- 
goyne; with great labor and difficulty that oflicer succeeded in 

* U is related that when Colonel Allen, who had rushed into Fort Ticonderoga, 
sword in hand, ordered the commander of the fort to surrender, he enquired "by 
what authority *" Colonel Allen iumi'cdiately replied, '• 1 demand it in the name 
of the great Jehovah and the continental coni^ress.*' 

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erecting a battery upon Mount Defiance, which overlooked and 
enfiladed the fort Greneral St. Clair, its commander, was thus 
compelled either to surrender, or evacuate the fort immediately. 
He chose the latter alternative, and made his escape, though 
with some loss. It was then garrisoned by the BritislL 

In October, 1777, the garrison, hearing of General Bur- 
goyne's surrender, returned precipitately to Canada. Neither 
of the fortresses have since been occupied. 

This county was chiefly settled by emigrants from Vermont, 
and other New England states. Considerable portions of it are 
yet covered yirith the primeval forests. 

Villages. Elizabethtown is a small village, situated in the 
midst of beautiful and picturesque mountain scenery. It is the 
county seat Population 350. 

Keeseville, lying upon both sides of the Au Sable river, and 
being partly in this county and partly in Clinton, is a large and 
flourishing manufacturing village. Iron, and woollen and cotton 
goods, are largely manufacture here. It has also flouring mills, 
saw mills, a brewery, machine shop, tannery, d:'C. The falls of 
the Au Sable give it a fine water power. Here iis an incorpo- 
rated academy. Population 2200. 

WeatpoTt is a thriving village on the lake. It has a flourish- 
ing incorporated academy. Population 700. 

THconderoga, about two miles from the old fort of that name, 
is well situated for manufactures, having a valuable and exten- 
sive water power, very uniform in its supply, and being advan^ 
tageously situated for commerce. Population 700. 

Ess*'a: is a thriving village and has some commerce. Popu- 
lation 700. 

WUUbonmgh, in the town of the same name^ Au Sable 
Forks and Jayville, in the town of Jay, are growing and impor- 
tant villages. 

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Square Miles, 563, Population, 31,957. 

Organized, 1800. Vjauation, 1845, fS.Oeg.OTS. 


1. CatskUl, 1788. 7. Athens, 1805. 

2. Coxsackie, 1788. 8. New Baltimore, 1811. 
S. Durham, 1790. 9. Hunter, 1813. 

4. Windham, 1798. 10. Lexington, 1813. 

5. Cairo, 1803. 11. Prattsville, 1833. 

6. Greenrille, 1803. 

Mountains, i. Catskill. n. Pine. 

Bivtrt. AA. Schoharie kill. C. Hudson, a. Catskill Creek, d. 

Kaaters kill. g. BaUvia kill. 
Falla. On the Kaaters kill east branch, three falls. 
Villages. Catskiix. Cozsackie. Athens. New Baltimore. 

Boundaries. North by Schoharie and Albany ; East by Hud- 
son river; South by Ulster ; West by Delaware and Schoharie 

Surface. The county of Greene has a very hilly and moun- 
tainous surface. The Catskill mountains running centraUy 
through the county, divide it into two sections, of whkh the 
eastern and northern is the most arable. 

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The eastern fronts of the mountains are precipitous, while 
upon the west their declivities are more gentle. The Pine 
mountain, or Kaatsbergs, form the southwestern boundary. 
The principal peaks of the Catskill mountains are Round Top 
and High Peak, which have elevations from 3000 to 3800 feet 
above tide water. 

Rivers. The principal streams are Catskill creek, Kaaters- 
kill, Schoharie kill, and Batavia kill. The Hudson forms its 
eastern boundary. 

CuMATE. This county has much diversity of climate. The 
peaks of the moimtains are covered with snow nearly a month 
later than the valieys, and the summer is shorter, but when 
vegetation commences, it is more rapid than near the Hudson. 

Geology and Mineralogy. The transition and red sand- 
stone formations prevail in this county. The predominant rocks 
of the Catskill division are conglomerates, red and gray shales, 
slates, slaty and coarse grits ; greenish gray and chocolate col- 
ored gray sandstone, known as the Catskill or North river flag 
stone, is abundant. The Helderberg range, consisting of water 
and common limestone and pyritous slate, predominates in the 
north portion of the county. The Hudson river group, compo- 
sed of slate, shales, shaly and thick bedded grits occupies the 
eastern eind southeastern part 

Copper, lead, zinc, iron and coal, have been found in smaU quantities. Calca- 
reous spar and quartz crystals also occur. 

Vegetable PRooncTioNs. The mountains are sterile — the 
uplands produce excellent grass, while the valleys are rich, 
yielding good crops of grain. The timber consists of oak, hick- 
ory, cherry, sofl and sugar maple, and on the hills beech, birch, 
and in some places, spruce and hemlock. In the mountainous 
districts the tr«es are of great size. 

PuRsurrs, Agriculture is the principal pursuit of the inhab- 
itants. Comparatively little grain is raised. The products of 
the dairy are large. Many of the farmers are turning their at- 
tention to wool growing, for which the county is well adapted. 

Manufactures, Leather is manufactured to a greater amount 
than in any other couhty in the state. Theother manulactures 
are flour, lumber> paper, fulled cloths, &c. 

Commerce, Catskill, Athene, Coxsackie and New Baltimore, 
are largely engaged in the coasting trade. 

The Staple PRODOcrioNS of the county are butter, oats, corn 
and buckwheat. 

Schools. There were in this county, in 1846, 170 common 
echoois, giving instruction to 9071 children, an average period 
of eight months each, at an expense for tuition of $13, 147. The 
district libraries contained 19,713 volumes. 

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There were also thirty-three select schools, with 601 scholars ; four academies 
and one female seminary, with seventy-seven students. 

Reugious Denominations. Methodists, Presbyterians, Bap- 
tists, Dutch Reformed, Episcopalians, Friends, Roman Catho- 
lics, Lutherans, and Unitarians. There are in the county, sixty- 
fbuF churches, and sixty-four clergymen. 

History, Greene county was settled in the latter part of the 
seventeenth century, by the Dutch. Cairo and Cozsackie were 
the principal settlements. Shortly before and after the revolu- 
tion, many families removed from New England into the county, 
and a majority of the present inhabitants claim a puritan de- 

It is a matter of regret that so little effort has been 'made to 
investigate the early history of a coimty , undoubtedly possessing 
80 much historic interest. 

The Hardenburgh patent comprises most of the towns of 
Windham and Lexington. 

Athens was laid out in part, in 1790, by Edward Brockholst 
Livingston, and R. C. Goodrich. 

Villages. Catskill village, in the town of the same name, 
was incorporated in 1806. It is the seat of justice of the county, 
situated on ^he left bank of the Catskill creek, nearly one mile 
irom the Hudson, and is principally built upon a single street, 
about half a mile in extent. 

It is a port for steamboats and sloops, the creek being naviga- 
ble from a short distance above the village, to the Hudson, 
opening a direct commimication with the city of New York. 

This village is sustained by a wealthy farming community in 
its own, and adjoining counties ; also by a considerable manu- 
facturing interest. 

In the business season of the year, Main street, and the 
wharves indicate great activity in trade and commerce. 

The prospect of the' Hudson from this village is obscured by a 
high bluff running parallel with the river, yet this bluff affords 
desirable sites for residences, some of which are occupied and 
highly improved. 

The location of this village is important, being the terminus 
of a number of stage routes, some of which communicate with 
the valley of the Susquehemna. Its public buildings are neat, 
and its general appearance that of industry. It has an academy, 
and a select school for young ladies. Population 3000. 

Athens, in the town of the same name, pleasantly situated 
opposite the city of Hudson, was incorporated in 1805,— it is ex- 
tensively engaged in manufactures, especially of brick and lime. 

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A considerable namber of sloops are owned here, which ply to 
and from New York. A steam ferry connects it with the city 
of Hudson. Population 1500. 

CoxMoxikie Landing, in the town of Coxsaclde, is a thriving 
Tilla^, engaged in the coasting trade, and in the manufacture 
of brick. It has an academy of some note. Population 1500. 

PrcUisvilU, lying on the Schoharie kill, meunifactures more 
leather than any town in the United States. It received its 
name from Hon. Zadoc Pratt, who established extensive tan- 
neries here. The village is also engaged in other manufactures. 
Population 1200. 

The " Mountain House," so widely celebrated as a summer 
resort for travellers, is within the limits of the town of Hunter. 
It is situated on the Pine Orehsuxl, a peak of the Catskill 
mountains, twelve miles from the village of Catskill, and at an 
elevation of 2212 feet above the Hudson. 

The prospect from this point is one of the most extensive and 
beautiful in the workL The majestic Hudson, with its green 
islets, its numerous sails, its cities, villages, and highly culti- 
vated farms, is visible, on a clear day, for sixty miles in extent, 
while in the distance, the dim outlines of the Taghkanic moun- 
tains bound the horizon. 

About two miles west of the '^ Moimtain House" are the 
Kaaters kill Falls, upon a stream issuing from two lakes in the 
rear of the hotel The waters leap over a perpendicular bar- 
rier, 175 feet, and pausing momentarily upon a rocl^ ledge, 
plijinge down eighty-five feet more, and are hid from the view, 
in the dark ravine through which they seek the valley of the 

The scenery around, the deep green forests, the rugged cliflBs, 
covered with ivy and summer foliage, and the extended pros- 
pect, add to the sublimity of the waterfall, and render this one 
of the most picturesque and magnificent scenes in nature. 

New BaUimore, Cairo and Coxsackie are villages of some 
importance, in the towns of the same names. 

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Bqaxre miles, 473. Popubtion. 88,845. 

Organized, 1803. VahiaOoii, 1845, f5,873,385. 


8. Elba, 1820. 

9. StaflToTd, 1820. 

10. Alabama, 1826. 

11. Darieo, 1632. 

12. Oakfield, 1842. 

13. Pavilion, 1842. 

d. Oak Orchard, r. Tonawanda. 

1. Batavia, 1802. 

2. Alexander, 1812. 

3. Bethany, 1812. 

4. Le Roy. 1812. 

5. Pembroke, 1812. 

6. Bergen, 181S. 

7. Byron, 1820. 

Creeks, b. Black creek, c. Allen*s 
FaiU on Allen's Creek in Le Roy. 
Villages. Batatia. Le Roy, 

Boundaries. North by Orleeuis and Monroe ; East by Mon- 
roe and Livingston ; South by Wyoming: ; West by Erie and 

SuRf ACE. The suifauje of this county may be considered as a 
table land, inclined toward the north, and divided into two sec- 
tions. The first embraces the northern portion, from five to 
eight miles in breadth, and includes the Tonawanda swamp. 
Separated from this by a rocky ridge, the second gradually rises 
to the southern boundary of the county. 

Rivers. The general direction of its streams is north-east 
and north-west, of which Tonawanda, Allen's, (so called after 

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Indian Allen who had his residence ia this neighborhood,) Oak 
Orchard, Black and Murder Creeks, are the principal. 

Railroads. The Tonawanda railroad, entering the comity 
in the town of Bergen, has a southward course through Bata- 
via, to Attica. The Batavia and Rochester connects this with 
the eastern lines. 

CuMATE. Mild, temperate and equable. At the early eet- 
Hepient of the county, intermittent and remittent fevers prevail- 
ed, but they are now very rare. 

Geology and Mineralogy. The whole county is comprised 
in the transition formation. Its principal rocks are the different 
varieties of limestone, sandstone and calciferous and marly 

The minerals are few in number ; the most important are gypsum, aigUlaceouB 
iron ore, marl and peat 

Soil and Vegetable Productions. The soil is chiefly a 
sandy or gravelly loam, higlily productive in grass, summer 
crops, and especially in wheat. The timber of the county is 
oak, elm, beach, maple, birch, &e, The maple is very abun- 
dant, yielding large quantities of sugar. 

Pursuits. The inhabitants are principally employed in agri- 
culture. Wheat is extensively raised. 

Manufactures. Flour, lumber, leather, woollen cloths, and 
potash, are the' principal articles of manufacture. 

Commerce, The railroads furnish the principal means of 
transpk)rtation within the county. 

Staples. Wheat, potatoes, oats, wool, corn and butter. 

Schools. The county, in 1846, contained 166 district schools, 
which were in session an average period of nine months each, 
and were attended by 9,316 scholars. $12,506 was paid to 
teachers, and the libraries contained 19,458 volumes. 

There were also seventeen private schools, attended by 431 pupils; three 
academies, and two female seminaries, with 360 students. 

Religious Denominations. Methodists, Baptists, Presbytfr' 
rians, Congregationalists, Episcopalians, Universalists, Unita- 
rians and Friends. The total number of churches is fifty ; of 
clergymen, sixty-seven. 

History. Nearly the whole of this county lies within the 
Holland Land Company's purchase, from whom the present 
inhabitants hold their titles. Some small tracts in the southern 
part of the county, still belong to tlie successors of that com- 

A tract of 87,000 Eicres, comprising the towns of Sweden and 
Clarkson, in Monroe county, and part of Bergenand Le Roy, in 

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this county, and known as the Triangle tract, was sold by Rob- 
ert MorriBi to Messrs. he Roy, Bayard and McEvers. 

The first settlement in the county was at Batavia, about the 
commencement of the present century. The Hdlaad Land 
Company erected their land office here in 1801. In October, 
1804, tlie settlement contained from twenty to thirty houses, 
mostly built of lo^s. It was at that time very sickly. The fer- 
tility of its soil and its adaptation to the culture of grain, caused 
a rapid immigration, and it was organized as a county, in 1802. 
It then comprised, however, the present counties of Allegany, 
Chautauque, Niagara, Erie, Cattaraugus, Orleans, Wyoming, 
and the western portions of Monroe and Livingston. 

Villages. Batavia village, the county scat, was incorpo- 
jrated in 1823. It is laid out in a plat, two miles square, and has 
over 300 buildings, a female seminary, the office of the Holland 
Land Company, and a number of manufactories. 

Le Roy, in the town of Le Roy, is a thriving village, situated 
on Allen's Creek, and incorporated in 1834. The village lots 
are spacious, and the dwellings are genersdty built of stone, pre- 
senting a very neat appearance. The rapid growth of this vil- 
lage is due to the hydraulic power of the creek, which has three 
considerable falls. 

The first fall at the village, is eighteen feet, the second about 
a mile below, twenty -seven reet, and the third within two miles, 
eighty feet, affording great facilities for manufacturing purposes. 
A number of sites are occupied by flour, oil, and other mills. 

It is a remarkable fact that much of the water of this creek 
disappears before it reaches the highest fail, which is supposed 
to supply the Caledonia spring in the adjoining town, in Livings- 
ton county. It has about 2000 ihhabit-ants. Here is a flourish^ 
iog female seminary. 

Alexander is a village of some importance, in the town of the 
same name. It has an incorporated dassical school Popula* 


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2,717. FOpolatioii, 03^5i. 


Vakiatioii, 1845, •3,645^08. 

1. Lisbon, 1901. 

2. Oswegatchie, 1802. 

3. Madrid, 1802. 

4. Massena, 1802. 

5. Hopkinton, 1805. 

6. Brasher, 1805. 

7. Canton, 1805. 

8. Russel,1805. 

9. De Kalb, 1806. 

10. Potsdam, 1806. 

11. Stockholm, 1806. 

12. Gouverneur, 1810. 

13. Louisville, 1810. 

14. Rosue, 1813. 

15. Parishville, 1814. 

16. Pierrepoftt, 1814. 

17. Fowler, 1816. 

IS. Morristown, 1821. 

19. Norfolk, 1822. 

20. De Peyster, 1825. 

21. Edwards, 1827. 

22. Hammond, 1827. 

23. Lawrence, 1828. 

24. Hermon.. 1830, 

25. Pitcairn, 1837. 

26. Fine, 1842. 

27. Colton, 1842. • 

28. Macomb, 1842. 

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BT. I.AVftBKC8 COtTKTY. 308 

•W'otmM^. FP. Higitlftiidt of St. Lawrence county. 

Mitert^. I. Stt LawrenC^^. a. Oswegatchie. b. Indian, c. Grasse. 

d. Racket, e. St. Regis, f. Deer. g.. East branch Oawegatchie. 

h. West branch Oawegatchie. 
JLake9. k. Black. 
^alls. On the St. Regis, in Brasher, HopkintcMi and Pariihville* 

On the Racket, at Potsdam, Coiton and St. Rejris. On the Grasse^ 

at Canton and Piefrepont. On the Oswegatchie) at Canton and 

Ports. Ogdensburgh. 
Baitle ^Uids. Ogdensburgh. 
ViliQget. Canton. Ogdensburgh. Roetie. Brasher's ialls. Poti- 

dam» Gouyemeur* Waddington. Massena. Norfolk. 

B00MDARIE&. North by the river St. Lawrence ; East by 
Franklin county ; South by Hamilton and Herkimer ; and West 
by Lewis and Jefferson countied, and the St. Lawrence river. 

Surface* The surface of this coimty is agreeably diversified. 
Along: the bank of the St. Lawrence river, fot a difiteCnce of 
seventy -five miles in length, and from thirty to forty in breadth, 
the county consists of gentle swells, broad valleys, or extensive 
plains. Farther south it rises into hills, and finally assumes 
a mountainous character, in the southeast, where are situated 
tiie Highlands of the St. Lawrence. 

Rivers. The principal streams of the county besides tiie St. 
Lawrence, are the St. Regis, Racket, Grasse, Indian, Oswe- 
gatchie and Deer rivers, which by their long and circuitotui 
courses and numerous tributaries, abundantly water it A nat- 
ural canal, six miles long, connects the Oswegatchie and Gh^assd 
rivers, in the town of Canton. 

Falls. Most of these streams have numerous falls or rapids, 
fbmishing a large amount of water power. 

Lakes. Black Lake is the only one of importance. There 
are many extensive marshes. 

Climahe. The climate is less variable than in most counties 
of the state. The air is clear, and the seasons uniform, c<HBpeii- 
sating for the severe cold of winter, and contributing to tfa^ 
heal£ of its inhabitants. 

Geoloot and Minerals. That portion of the county lymg 
along the St Lawrence, for a width often or fifteen miles, he* 
longs to the tertiary, or rather the alluvial formation, consisting 
of clay and gravely this is succeeded, at a distsmce of fifteen or 
twenty miles from the river, by a belt of Potsdam sandstone, 
running nearly parallel to the St. Lawrence, and varying in 
width from &ire to ten miles ; the remainder of the county be- 
longs wholly to the primary formation, and consists of hypers- 
thene, gneiss, granite and primitive limestone. 

Digitized by Google ' 


Specular iron ore is found In this county in immfiniie qoantitiee, and is iBurgel^ 
manuftctnred. The umgnetie and bog iron ores are also quite abundant. Gra- 
phite or Mack lead is ftnind in several localities. Lead exists in vast quantities in 
the neighbortiood of Eossie. Zinc and copper occur ftequently. Marfaie, ser- 
pentine, and other tbaaa of carbonate of lime are deposited in Tarious parts of 
the county ; steatite or soapstone is plentiAiL The other principal minenils are 
phosphate of lisae, sulphate of barytes, quartt crystals, Bmcite, talc, pyrDxene, 
hornblende, asbestus. feldspar, albite, Labradorfte, mica, tpinO, tourmaline, zircon, 
Babiqgtonite and sphene. 

Soil and Vegetable PRODucTioNfl. The greater portion of 
the land is of excellent quality. The eoil consists of a dark veg- 
etable mould, often underlaid with lime and marl, and is very 
productive of grasses, grains, ^& Much of the county is yet 
covered with dense forests of oak, beech, maple, basewood, but- 
ternut, ash, elm, hemlock, white and Norway pine. In the 
marshes white cedar, tamarack and black ash, are the principal 
trees. From the maple, large quantities of sugar are manu^- 

Pursuits. The people are chiefly engaged in agriculture* 
Great numbers of cattle are reared, and much attention paid to 
the products of the dairy. They are becoming interested in 
manufactitreSf which at present are mostly Ikuted to flour, 
lumber, fulled cloths, potash and leather. 

Commerce, The commerce of the county is increasing in 
value and importance. Ogdensburgh is the principal port. 
The shipping of the Oswegatchie disjtrict amounted, in 1845, to 
about 1500 tons. 

Staple Productions. Butter, cheese, potatoes, oats, com, 
peas, wheat, sugar, wool, potash and lumber. 

Schools. There were 402 common schools in the coimty in 
1846> taught an average period of seven months each, and 
attended by 22,263 children. The teachers were paid $22,023. 
The libraries contained 33,191 volumes. 

The number of select schools was twenty-three, with 303 scbohn; of acade- 
mies, ftnir, with 34S students. 

Religious Denominations. Presbyterians, Methodists, Con- 
gregationalists, Baptists, Episcopalians, Universalists and Ro- 
man Catholics. Total number of churches, seventy-five ; of 
clergymen, 125. 

History. The French erected a fort at Oswegatchie, in this 
county before 1740, whidi they named Fort Presentation. 
This fort was captured by General Amherst, in 1760. 

The first permanent settlement in the county seems to have 
been made in 1796, by Judge Nathan Ford, at Oswegatchie. 
At that time the Oswegatchie Indians had a village near hifi 
settlement, and attempted several times to drive him away, but 
without success. The next settlement was made at Canton, by 

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fiir. StfUmoD Foot, in 1799. These were wxm sneeeeded faj 
others, mostly from New En^^and, end a line of settlements 
was speedily formed alon^ the river. Much of the land in the 
eounty is held by the Mtsars. Van Rtnsselaer, Goa^rernenr 
Morris and otiier wealthy capitalists. 

Duriiiff ihe late war with Great Britain, some interestin^T hir 
eide&ta occurred in this county. On the second of Oetob^, 
1812, the British, in retaliation for die destruction of a large 
quantity <^ their sicMresat Gananoque, Canada, by Captain For- 
^th, commeneed a heavy cannonade upcm Ogdendiurgh, from 
their batteries at Prescott, a Canadian village, on the opposile 
bank of the St Lawrence. ThSy continued the cannonade for 
two days, and on Sunday, the fourth of October, attempted to 
storm the town. 

For this purpose, sdxmt 1000 men were embarked in forty 
boats ; as they approached the American shore, Gteneral Brown 
ordered his troops to fire upon them. They did so, and for two 
hours the Kitish attempted to land, but the galling fire of the 
Americans was too severe to be endured, and at length they 
were compelled to retreat to Prescott, with the loss of three 
boats and a number of men. The American force engaged in 
this contest, was only about 400 men. 

On the twenty-first of February , 1813, the British again attack- 
ed Ogdensburgh with a large force, and, though encountering the 
most determined resistance, succeeded in driving out the Amer- 
ican troops, and capturing the village. 

Two schooners, two gunboats and the soldiers' barracks were 
destroyed, and the enemy returned to Canada. The army of 
Greneral Wilkinson embarked for the campaign of the autumn 
of 1813, from Morristown, in this coimty. Since the war, the 
increase of population in this county has been exceedingly rapid. 
Its population has nearly quadrupled in twenty-five years ; and 
from its extraordinary facilities for manufactures, mining and 
agriculture, its future growth must necessarily be rapid. 

In 1838, this county and the Canada shore opposite, was the 
scene of some of the exploits of the Canada Patriots, (so called.) 
The battle of Prescott was fought at Windmill Point, nearly 
oiHWsite Ogdensburgh, and severalof the citizens of New York, 
who had aided '* the Patriots,'* were taken prisoners and execu- 
ted, and others bemished to Van Dieman's Land. 

Antiquities. In the town of Gouverneur, is an ancient Indian 
fortification, consisting of an embankment, enclosing three acres, 
and containing some remains of rude sculpture. 

Vn^LAOEs. Canton village is the county seat It is situated 
on Grasse river, and contains l>esides the county buikiings, an 

Digitized by VjVJOV IC 


aeademy » and 80ib« manufiietories. A fine wooden bridge, with 
three piers, croflses the river here. Population* 1300. 

Ogdentburghj in the town of Oawegaichie, and at the mouth 
of O^wegatcl]^ river, was incorporated in 1317. It is a flour- 
ishing village of about 4000 ii^iabitRnts. It has an academy is 
a very proi^Mroiis condition. It is at the foot oi rioop navi^- 
tioo (m the 9t Lawrence, and-k the termkms of the proposed 
Ogdensburgh and Plattsburgh railroad. 

iV#iiam, incorporated in 1831, is the seat of the St. Law- 
rence academy, a chartered institution, with two large stone 
edifices, each four stories high. It has also several manufiicto- 
ries. Population, 1200. 

Rostie is celebrated for its valuable and inexhaustftile lead 
mines. Population, 800. 

Brashfnr^s Falls, on the rapids of Deer river, is finely situated 
lor mamiiacturing^ purposes. 

WaddingUm is a manufacturing village in the town of Madrid. 
It was incorporated in 1839, and is rapi&y increasing in popu^ 
latioUi. A bridge connects it with Ogden's island, in the St 
Lawrence. Population, 600. 

Gouvemeur is the coldest place in the state. Here is located 
the Grouveraeur Wesleyan Seminary* Population, 600. 

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Square miles, 308. 
Population, 24,97S. 
Organized, 1804. 
Valuation, 1845, $5,674,034. 


1. Ovid, 1789. 

2. Romulus, 1789. • 

3. Fayette, 1800. 

4. Junius, 1803. 
5 Covert, 1817. 

6. Lodi, 1826. 

7. Seneca Falls, 1829. 

8. Tyre, 1829. 

9. Waterloo, 1829. 
10. Varick, 1830. 

Ilwers. c. Clyde, k. 

Lakes. BB. Seneca. DD. 

Falls, Seneca. 
Villages. Watkri.oo. 

Ovid. Seneca Falls. 

Boundaries. North 
by Wayne county ; East 
by Cayuga coiHity and 
Cayuga Lake ; South by 
TompkiOs oounty ; and 
West by Seneca Lake 
and Ontario county. 

ScRFAca The surface 
"^ of this county rises from 
the lakes, whkh bound 
it on either side, to an altitude of 1200 or 1300 feet above tide 
water, and presents a pleasing diversity of beautifbl valleys and 

Rivers. The Seneca outlet is the principal stream, connect- 
ing Seneca and Cayuga lakes. The Clyde crosses its north- 
eastern comer. 

Palls. The Seneca outlet has a descent of forty-seven feet, 
at the village of Seneca Falls. 
Lakes, The lakes are Seneca and Cayuga. 

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Cah ALs. The &ie canal passes through the town dt' Tyre, 
in the north-east corner of this county, and the Cayuga and 
Seneca canal (tosses the county, through the towns of Seneca 
and Waterloo, connecting the waters of the Seneca and Ga3ruga 
Lakes, and the £rie canal, at Montezuma. 

Railroads. The Auburn and Rochester railroad passes 
through this county, most of the distance running parallel with 
Seneca outlet and canal. 

CuifATE. Mild and temperate. The situation of the county 
between two considerable bodies of water, prevents the long 
continuance of snow in winter, and essentially modifies the 
climate. It is considered healthy. 

Geology and Minerals. The rocks of the nor thera section 
of this county, belong to the Onondaga salt group; those of the 
central, to the Helderberg limestones; and the southern to the 
Ludiowville shales of the £rie group. 

GypMim, or pkuter of Puu is found in eztenrive beds near Seneca faBsi and is 
largely expOTted. Variegated marble oeeurs near Seneca lake. Petndeom or 
Beneca oil is found floating on the Seneca lake, and on aprii^ near it A pool 
twenty feet in diameter, near Cayuga, constantly gives off nitrogeD gas in laige 

Soil and Vegetable Productions. The soil is mostly a 
calcareous loam and mould of excellent quality, fuid well 
adapted to wheat and grass. Fruit is cultivated to a conrader- 
able extent, and attains great perfection. Oak, maple, beech, 
dm, butternut, and in the highlands, pine and hemlock, are the 
principal forest trees. 

PoRscrrs. The pe<^le are largely engaged in the culture of 
wheat and grass, and the rearing of cattle. 

Manufacturer are increasing. The principal articles are 
flour, cotton and woollen goods, distilled liquors, and leather. 

CoTmnerce. The county has considerable commerce, both by 
way of the Seneca and Cayuga lakes, and by the Erie canal. 
Gypsum and agriciiltural products are largely exported. 

Staple Productions. Wheat, oats, com^ hops, plaster of 
Paris, wool and butt^. 

Schools. In 1846, there were 110 common schools, taught, 
on an average, nine months each, and attended by 8065 ebil- 
dren. The teachers' wages amounted to $13,023, and the dis- 
trict libraries to 14,956 volumes. 

Tbere were also twenty-tvro seleet schook, witb 299 seliolara, and three acad- 
emies, with 348 students. 

Religious Denominations. Methodists, Presbyterietfis, Bap- 
tists, Dutch Reformed, Episcopalians, Friends, and Roman 
Catholics. The whole number of churches is thirty-eight, of 
-lergymen, forty-six. 

Digitized by Google 


History. The first settlers in Seneca county were Messrs. 
Horatio Jones and Lawrence Van ClieO who located them- 
sc^lves at Seneca Falls, in 1784 or 1785. Mr. James Bennet 
settled at West Cayuga, in 1787. Colonel Mynderse, who es- 
tablished himself in Seneca Falls in 1795, founded the village of 
that name in 1816. 

The county belonged to the Military Tract, granted to the sol- 
diers of the state, by tke legislature, and the land titles are de- 
rived from them. The Indian title to these lands was not ex- 
tinguished till 1789. Its growth has been rapid since its first 

Villages. Waterloo village, in the town of Waterloo, is a 
half shire town, lying on the north side of the Seneca outlet, and 
incorporated in 1824. It is a very flourishing manufacturing vil- 
lage, containhig, besides the county buildings, a number of 
churches and a chartered academy, occupying a fine building, 
and amply provided with apparatus for the illustration of the 
natural sciences. Large quantities of limestone are quarried 
in the vicinity. The Cayuga and Seneca canal, and the Au- 
burn and Rochester railroad, both pass through the village. 
Population 3200. 

Ovid, a half shire village, was incorpoi^ted in 1816. It is sit- 
uated on elevated ground, about midway between the lakes, and 
eommandfl a fine and widely extended prospect. It has a char- 
tered academy. Population 700. 

Seneca Falls was incorporated in 1831, and, like Waterloo, 
is situated on the Seneca outlet, the canal and railroad. It de- 
rives an abundant hydraulic power from the Seneca outlet, the 
water of \diich is constant and steady, and is applied exten- 
sively to manufacturing purposes, by means of four dams hav- 
ing a total fall of forty-seven feet A flourishing academy is 
k)cated at this village. Population 3000. 


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gquare milM, 1133. 
OrgMUsed, 1805. 

pofHilatioii, 20,418. 
Valuation, 1845, $1,675,000. 

1. Leyden, 1797. 

2. Lowville, 1800. 

3. Turin, 1800. 


4. Harrisburg, 1803. 

5. Martinsburgh, 1803. 

6. Denmark, 1807. 

Digitized by Google 


7. Pincknev» 1808. 11. West Turin, 1830. 

8. Watson, 1821 12, Croghan, 1843. 

9. Greig, 1828. 13. Oreeola, 1842. 
10. Diana, 1830. 

Bimers, a. Black, b. Beaver, c. Moose, e. Independence Creek, 
f. Deer. g. Otter, i. Fish. }• Salmon, k. Indian, h. West 
branch of Oswegatchie. 

Lakes, o. Fish. 

Falls. Falls on the Black river, at Denmark and Greig. 

VUlagef^ Mastinbburg. Lowville. Copenhagen. 

Boundaries. North by JefTersoo and St. Lawrence counties j 
East by Herkimer ; South by Oneida, and West by Oswego 
and Jefferson counties. 

Surface. The county ie divided by the Black river into two 
nearly equal sections. The eastern ascends somewhat rapidly, 
from the river, to the mountainous region on its eastern line. 
Tlie western is rolling and frequently hilly, rising from the Black 
river, for six or eight miles, and then inclining to the south and 
west. Broad alluvial flats are found along the Black river. 

Rivers. Black and Beaver rivers, Independence, Moose, 
Deer, Otter, Fish, Salmon, and Indian creeks, and the west 
branch of the Oswegatchie, are the principal streams. 

Falls. Black river has a fall of sixty-three feet, in the town 
of Leyden, and Deer creek of 175 feet, in the town of Denmark. 

Canal. The Black river canal, when finished, will unite with 
Black river just below the high faUs at Leyden. 

Climate. The climate of Lewis county is coU, but healthy. 
The winters are long, but the uniformity of the temperature 
renders them less unpleasant, than would be expected. 

Geology and Minerals. The country east of the Black 
river is primitive in its character. The rock underlying this 
portion of the county, and frequently appearing on the surface, 
is granite. West of the river, the whole county is underlaid 
with a fine compact limestone, which appears every where, 
on the borders of the streami?. The Utica slate also occupies 
a narrow belt in the western part of the county. 

Iron ore is very abundant and of a superior quality ; lead ore, (galena,) also 
occurs in considerable quantities. The other minerals worthy of notice are, sul- 
ptauret of zinc, (blende,) very beantiftri quartz crystals, scapoUte, tabular spar, 
green coeolitet feldspar, sphene, crystallized pyrites, calcareous and fluor spar, 
manganese, and Rensselaerite. Probably few counties in the state are richer in 
mineral wealth. 

Soil and Yeqetable Productions. The soil is various, 
composed of a fertile alluvium, or a gravelly, sandy, and clayey 
loam. It is susceptible of a profitable cultivation, and furnishes 
fine grazmg. The timber is principally pine, spruce, hemlock, 

Digitized by Google 


beech, maple, elm, a«h, with iome white oak and walnut. The 
eastern section still has extensive forests. From the maple, 
are manufactured considerable quantities of sugar. 

Pursuits. Agriculture is the chief employment of the inhab- 
itants ; the products of the dairy are large. 

Manufactures. The county has abundant water power, but 
as yet it is but litOe improved. Flour, lumber, leather, a»d 
fulled cloths, are the chief articles of manufacture. 

Commerce, There is little or no commerce ; the completion 
of the Black River canal will aid materially in bringing the pro- 
duce of their rich and fertile lands to market. 

The Staples of the county are butter and cheese, wool, po- 
tatoes, oats, and wheat. Considerable quantities of barley, 
buckwheat, flax, hops, and sugar, are also produced. 

Schools. The district school-houses in the county, in 1846, 
were 150 in number, in which were instructed 6139 pupils. 
The average length of the schools was seven months. The 
teachers wages, $6196 ; the number of volumes in the district 
libraries, 11,886. There were six private schools with eighty- 
three scholars, and one academy with sixty-two pupils. 

Religious Denominations. Methodists, Baptists, Presbyte- 
rians, Congregationalists, XJniversalists, Roman Catholics, 
Episcopalians, and Friends. The total number of churches is 
thirty-seven, of clergymen, Ibrty-four. 

History. The whole of this county was originally owned 
by Alexander Macomb. The western part was afterward 
sold to a company of capitalists in New York city, and the east- 
ern to a French company at Paris. The first settlers were 
pioneers from Connecticut and Massachusetts, who made their 
way, in 1797, from Utica and Fort Stanwix, (now Rcrnie,) at 
that time small settlements, by a line of marked trees, to the 
Ms of Black river, and from thence to the town of LowviUe, 
where they established themselves. Their families followed, 
the succeeding winter, through snow so deep as to make it 
necessary to break paths for the cattle and teams, while moth- 
ers, shod with snow-shoes, bore their infants in their arms. 
For some time after, the farmers were obliged to go forty miles 
to null, carrying their grain upon their shoulders. 

Villages. Martinsbcrg, in the town of the same name, con- 
tains the county buildings, a female semim^y, and a ntonber of 
factories. Population 800. 

LowvUle is a village of some business in the town of Low- 
yille. It has an incorporated academy. Population 800. 

Copenhagen, in the town of Denmark, is isituated cm both 
sides of Deer river. It is a flourishing village, atid engaged in 
manufactures. Population about 500. 

Digitized by VjOO VIC 


Oisanized, 180«. 

PUpidation, 64,999. 
VakiiOkm, 1845, $,0,536,051. 

1. Ellisbnrgh, 1797. 
3. Champion, 1600. 

3. Houndafieldy 180a 

4. Watertown, 1800. 

5. Wilna, 1800. 

6. Adams, 1S02. 

7. Brownville, 1809. 

8. RutiaDd, 1803. 

Digitized by >^00QIC 


9. Lorraine, 1904. • 15. Pamelia, 1819. 

10. Rodman, 1804. 16. Alexandria, 1821. 

11. Le Ray, 1806. 17. Orleans, 1821. 

12. Henderson, 1806. 18. Philadelphia, 1821. 

13. Antwerp, 1816. 19. CUyton, 1832. 

14. I^me, 1817. 20. Theresa, 1842. 

Bnera and Creeki. 1. St. Lawrence River, a. Black River, h. 

Indian Rirer. d, Chaumont Creek, e. Perch, f. Stoney. g. 

Lake$, ifc. J. Ontario, i. Perch, j. Yellow, k. Hungry Bay. L 

Black River, m. Chaumont BayT 
JklandB. n. Gallop Island, o. Stoney. p. Grenadier, q. Fox r. 

Carlton, s. Grindstone, t. Wells. 
FaJU. On the Indian river. Op the Black river at Champion, 

Rutland, and Watertown. Long Falls, Wilna. 
ForU. Sacketts Harbor. 
VUlageB, Watertowk. Sacketts Harbor. Brownville. Cornelia. 


Boundaries. North by the St. Lawrence River, and St. 
Lawrence county ; East by Lewip county ; South hy Oswego 
county, and West by Lake Ontario. 

Surface. The surface of Jefferson county may be divided 
into two terraces, the broader of which is on the northwest. 
The Ridge Road, extending from the Niag^ara river, at a dis- 
tance of from six to ten miles from the lake, and undoubtedly 
indicating the ancient limits of Lake Ontario, is here^about 100 
feet in height. The surface between this and the lake is level 
or gently undulating. From this ridge the county has a gentle 
descent toward the southeast, where an elevated ridge crosses 
it, and gives it a broken and hilly appearance. 

RivER& The chief streams of the county, beskles the Sl 
Lawrence, are the Black and Indian rivers, Chaumont, Perch, 
Stoney, and Sandy creeks. 

Falls. There is a series of falls in the Black river, com- 
mencing at the Long fails in Carthage. 

Lakes. The chief lakes are Ontario, Perch, and Yellow. 

Bats. Hungry, Black Riv^, and Chaumont bays are inden- 
tations of greater or less extent, upon the lake coast. 

Islands. Along its western line are situated Gallop, Stoney, 
Fox, Grenadier, Carlton, Grindstone, and Wells islands. 

CuMATE. Equable and healthy. The winters are cold, but 
witliout sudden changes. The summer heats are moderated 
by the lake breezes. 

Geology and Minerals. The primary formation is confined 
to two or three small districts in the county, principally in the 

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north and norlheast part In Alexandria, there is a small tract 
where the primitive rocks are near the surface. They are 
granite, primitive limestone, gneiss, and hbrnbiende. The 
greater part of the county, however, belongs to the transition 

TlM aider of amng'eiBeBt of (be cooki of this Ibnuttion, kere, is the foUowias, lie- 
tfnniog at the norttaeni part of tbe county : Potsdam Bandstone, extending to a point 
a little aouth of Thereiia falls ; calciferous sand rock and birdseye limestone, ap- 
pearing as far south as the Black river ; Trenton fimestone, extending through 
Boundsfield, Adams, Watertown, and Rotland, and succeeded by a nturrow belt of 
the Utaca slate ; this is followed by the Lorraine shales, lying in Bodman. lat- 
nuna, and Pinckney. In the southern line of towns, the gray sandstone occurs in 
small quantities. 

Bog iron ore, spathic iron, specular iron, arragonite, eacoxene, pyrites, celes- 
tine, terenite, tremolite, fluor spar, ^een matecbite, toormaHne, strontianite, idio- 
ciase, apatite, pyroxene, and massnre heavy spar, tufiiy peat, and graphite in six 
sided tablets, are the principal minerals. 

There is a cave in the town of Pamelia, nearly opposite Watertown, contain- 
ing a number of apartments, and some fine spars. It has been explored for 
nearly half a mite. 

Soit AND Vegetable PRODucTioNe. The soil is generally a 
fertile sandy loam, with s<»ne clay and gravel, and susceptible 
of a high degree of cultivation. In the basin on the northwest, 
wheat grows abundantly, but the higher lands in the southeast 
are more favorable to grazing. The forests abound with oak, 
maple, beech, birch, walnut, ash, elm, hemlock, pine, tamarack, 
and red and white cedar. The cranberry grows abundantly in 
the swamps, and forms an article of export. 

PuBsoiTs. AgriciUture is the leading pursuit of the people. 
Great numbers of cattle and swine are reared for the east- 
ern market ; the products of ^he dairy are very large. Pota- 
toes, oats, corn, wheat, rye, barley, and flax are produced in 
great abundance, and the wool-growing interest is not neg- 
lected. The county ranks among the first for agricultural pro- 
ducts in the state. 

The manufactures of the county are extensive and rapidly 
increasing. The principal articles are flour, Imnber, iron, 
leather, distilled liquors, potash, and woollen goods. The 
value of articles manufactured ia the county ia 1845, was nearly 

The commerce of this county is large and constantly increas- 
ing. About one half of its produce finds its way to a market 
down the St. Lawrence ; the remainder through the Oswego 
and Erie canals, enters the Hudson, or through the Welland 
and Western canals, and the great lakes, is distributed over the 
Mississippi valley. The shipping of this county amounts to 
about 5000 tons. The completion of the Black River canal will 

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316 STATE or «KW YOfl#. 

open a more ready and odnvenient cotiveyance forlhe produce 
of portions of the county. 

Staple Pboductions. Butter and cheese, potatoes, oats, 
oorn, wheat, wool, A^x, barley, and peas. 

Schools. There were 368 district schools in the couaty, in 
1846. The average len^ of tlie schools was seven months^ 
number of scholars, 22,86&— amount of teachers' wages, 1^,141 
— and number of volumes in the school libraries, 37,552. 

Tbere aie atoo fifty-fonr private scImmIs, with 1089 acbolanir and two acade- 
mies, with 173 pupik. 

Rbuoious' Denomeimations. Methodists, Bai^ts, Presbyte- 
rians, Congregationalists, Episcopalians, Universalists, Roman 
Catholics, Dutch Reformed, Unitarians, Friends, and Je¥r& 
Tiiere are ninety-two churches, and 106 clergymen of all de- 
nominations in the county. 

History. The first settlement made in this county by whites, 
was at Ellisburgh, in 1793, by Mr. Lyman Ellis. The next was 
at Champion, i^ot lom^ ai^r, by settlers from Ccmnecticut. The 
third was at Watertown, in 1800, by Mr. Henry CoiRn, of New 
Hampshire. In the succeeding year, emigrants ffom New Eng- 
land settled in Adams, Rodman, BrownviUe, and Houndsfield ; 
and the year afler in 3acketts Harbor and Rutland. Mounds 
and fortifications of great antiquity, and exhibiting a high de- 
gree of architectural skill, are scattered over every part of the 

At the commencement of the late war with Great Britain, 
Sacketts Harbor was selected as the principal naval depdt of the 
lake frontier, on account of the excellency of its harbor. 

On'the twenty-second and twenty-third of April, 1813, General 
Dearborn, with a force of 1700 men, embarked from this port, 
to attack York, {now Toronto,) Canada West. Theassaidt cm 
York was successftil, though the brave Greneral Pike, by whom 
it was }ed, lost his life by the explosion of the magazine. But 
the withdrawal of so large a body of troops from Sacketts Har- 
bor, left tlie important military stores there exposed; and as 
might have been expected, the British forces at Kingston, 
availed themselves of the opportunity, to make a descent upon 
that village. 

On the twenty-ei^th of May, 1813, they appeared off the 
harbor, with four ships, one brig, two schooners, two gun boats, 
and thirty-three flat bottomed boats, containing in all 1200 
troops. The alarm of their approach had been given, and Gen- 
eral Brown had made every exertion in his power to defend the 
harbor. The British suffered themselves to delay, in the at- 
tempt to capture some boats, coming from Oswego with troops, 
and thus the militia from the vicinity had time to assemble ; but 

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not more than 1000 troofM could be <solIected in all, oTwIioia 
more than 500 were raw militia, and about 200 more, invaHds. 
General Bro^m arranged the militia behind a breast* work, 
hastily thrown up, to oi^pose the landing of the enemy. In the 
rear of these he had stationed a part of the regular tro<q»8. 
The regular artillerists occupied Fort Tompkins, and Lieuten- 
ant Chaunoey, with a small corps, defended the naval stores aft 
Navy Point. 

The British made an effort to land, but were at first repulsed 
with severe loss; but aller the second fire, the militia became 
panic struck, and abandoning their breast work, fled in the ut- 
most confusion. Colonel Mills, their commander, was killed in 
the attempt to rally them. 

Meantime the enemy effected a landing, and commenced their 
march towards the village, but met with the most desperate op- 
position. Findings however, that he was likely to be overpow- 
ered by the superior force of the enemy, General Brown con- 
certed a stratagem which gained him the day, and compelled 
the enemy to retreat. Learning that the militia, whose flight 
had prevented success in the onset, were still in the neighbor- 
hood, he hastened to them, put himself at their head, ordered 
^em to follow him, and passing silently through a distant wood, 
in the direction of the enemy's boats, induced the British com- 
mander to believe that he intended to cut off his retreat. 

Alarmed at this, and believing the American force superioi^ to 
his own, in pmnt of nimibers, the British general withdrew his 
fbrces with the utmost precipitation, leaving his dead and 
wounded behmd him. He was not pursued, because pursuit 
would have exh&ited the weakness of the American force. 

While the battle was at its height, intelligence was brought 
to Lieutenant Chauncey, that the Americans were about to sur- 
render, and accordingly he, in compliance with his orders, set 
fire to the stores and shipping, to prevent their facing into the 
hands of the enemy. Learning his error j however, he made 
the utmost eflbrt to arrest the flames, and succeeded in saving 
a considerate portion. The British loss was severe in this ac- 
tion, three of their field officers being killed, and not less than 
150 wounded, killed and prisoners. The American bss was 
about the same in number> 

After retreating to their shipping, the British demanded the 
surrender of the village, which was promptly refnsed. 

On the thirtieth of May, 1814, a number of boats coming from 
Oswego, with cannon and rigging for the new vessels, building 
at Sacketts Harbor, and well manned with sailors, riflemen and 
Indians, were pursued into Henderson harbor, by five British 
guri)oatB, manned with about 200 English marines and sailora 

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Ciqitaia WwAaey, of the American navy, had comaiand of the 
Amerkan boats, and landing ae quickly as possible, stationed 
a part of his riflemen and Indians in ambuscade on each side of 
the road, and placed a small body of militia in front of the land- 
ing*, to contest the passage of the enemy. His stratagem was 
fluccessfuL The British rushed on, and the militia fled before 
them, but the party in ambush poured upon them so deadly 
a fire as to compel diem to surrender, with the loss of twen^ 
killed, and forty or fifty wounded. The number of prisoners was 
137. Five gunboats, armed with heavy cannon, were also cap- 

After the war, the extraordinary facilities afforded by the 
county, for sustaining an abimdant population, gave it a rapid 
growth, and it is now (me of the largest counties in the state. 

Its population quadrupled between 1810 and 1840, and is^still 
taat increcusing. 

Villages. Watertown, the seat of justice for the county, is 
a large and flourishing manufacturing village, situated at the 
falls of the Black river. 

Perhaps no village in the United States possesses more ex- 
tensive and easily availaUe hydraulic privileges. 

The Black river here has a fall in the space of a mile, of 
e^hty-eight feet, over seven artificial dams and five natural 
cascades, each of which can be used foir manufacturing purposes. 

The volume of water is estimated at 10,000 cubic feet per 
second — being sufficient to keep in motion more than onemillioa 
of spindles. But a small portion of this immense water power, 
is employed; yet the manufactories of cotton and woollen 
goods, flour, leather, paper, machinery, pumps, sash, wagcxis, 
and carriages are extensive. 

The Jeflerson County Institute, located here, is a highly 
flourishing and well conducted seminary. It has about 180 
pupils. There are several other schools of considerable repu- 

The village has also a " Young Men's Association for Lite- 
rary Improvement," which is in a flourishing condition, and has 
accumulated a respectable library. Population 4200. 

Sacketts Harbor, in the town of Houndsfield, is an important 
village, having one of the best harbors on Lake Ontario. It has 
also some manufactories, propelled by water power, furnished 
by a canal, extending from the Black river, near Water town, 
to the lake at this place. 

The United States government has erected extensive stone 
barracks here for troops. They occupy a lot of about forty 
acres, surrounded by a fence, on three sides, and the fourth 
open to the water. In the military burial ground, attached to 

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the barracks, is a monument to the brave and lamented €rene- 
ral Pike, and others, who fell on the nor. hern frontier, during the 
kte war with Ghreat Britain. 

The government has also a ship yard, and ship houses, in 
one of which is the frame of a ship of llie line, commenced 
during the war of 1812. 

During the war, Sacketts Harbor increased with great rapid- 
ity ; but at its close, it experienced a decline, from which, how- 
ever, it has revived, amid the general prosperity of the county. 
Population 2000. 

Brownville, in the town of the same name, is a thriving man- 
ufacturing village, situated oh the Black river, four miles below 
Watertown, Population 1000. 

Dexter, in the town of Brownville, is a growing and impor- 
tant village. Its harbor has been improved by the United States 
government, and it has now considerable commerce and some 
manufactures. Population 1000. 

Adams, in the town of Adams, is situated on both sides of 
Sandy creek, which here affords a good water power. It has a 
young ladies seminary, in a flourishing condition. Population 

Carthctge, in the town of Wilna, is a village of considerable 
importance. A large quantity of iron is annually manufactured 
here. Population 606. 

In the same town is a natured bridge, twelve feet in width, 
and six feet above the water, extending over the Indian river. 
There is a small settlement near it. 

Cape Vincent, at the head of the St Lawrence, is a lake port 
of some importance. 

Belleville and EUisburgh^both in the townof Ellisburgh, are 
thriving villages. 

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Sqiiara Miles, about 1050. 
OisBiiixed, 1806. 

jPopul^km, 31,011. 
Valuation, 184&, 94,337,756. 

1. Angelica* 1805. 

2. Alfred, 1»)8. 

3. Caaeadea, L808. 

4. Ossian. 1808, 


5. Friendship, 1815. 

6. GentrevilK 1819. 

7. Independence, 1821. 
S. Cuba, 1822. 

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9. Hume, td22. 18. Grore, 1827. 

10. Allen, 1823. 19. Rushford, 1837. 

11. Scio, 1S23. 20. Birdsall, 1829. 

12. Andover, 1824. 21. Amity, 1830. 

13. Belfast, 1824. 22. Genesee, 1830 

14. Almond, 1825. 23. CUrksviUe, 1835. 

15. Bolivar, 1825. 24. We«t Almond, 1835. 
le. New Hudson, 2825. 25. Granger, 1837. 

17. Burns, 1826. 26. Wirt, 1837. 

Mwer§, N. Genesee Btver. e. Angelica Creek, i. Black, j. Cold. 

o. Cafiascraga. p. Little Genesee. 
VUiaget. Akoeuca. Friendship. Cuba. Rushford. 

Boundaries. North by Wyoming and Livingston; East by 
Steuben; South by the state of Pennsylvania, and West by Cat- 
taraugus county. 

Surface. This county forms a portion of the elevated table 
land which extends through the southern tier of counties, but 
the deep chaj^nels, worn in the rocks which underlie the county, 
by the Genesee and other streams, and the long narrow valleys 
thus farmed, give its otherwise level surface, q^ broken appecu*- 
ancte. The height of the table land is from 1200 to 2000 feet 
above tide water. It declines gradually toward the north. 

Rivers. The principal streams are the Genesee river, An 
gelica. Black, Cold, Canascraga and Little Genesee creeks. 

Canal. The Genesee vcdley canal, has been commenced, but 
is not yet completed. 

Railroad. The line of the New York and Erie Railroad has 
been laid out across its southern portion. 

Cumate. The elevation of the surface produces, a low tem- 
perature. The winters are long, and the snows heavy. The 
county is generally healthy. 

Geology and Minerals. This county lies wholly within the 
Chemung sandstone formation, though the tops of some of the 
highest hills are capped with the old red sandstone, and con- 
glomerate of the Catskill groups. 

Like the rest of thu formation, it possesseB few mioeralB of interest There m, 
however, some bog iron ore and hydrate of manganese, associated with caka- 
reouB tofo. At Cuba is a petroleum, or Seneca oil spring, which has attracted 
considerable attention. The shales of this vicinity are ail bitsuninoua. 

Soil and Vegetable Productions. Much of the soil of the 
county is fertile, eonnsting of a clayey and sandy loam; but it is 
generally moist, and better adapt^ to grass than grain. The 
forests are quite dense, and the timbec is of large size, consisting 
of oak, maple, beech, basswood, ash, elm, hemlock, white and 
yellow pine. 

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ass STATS or vmw tor^k. 

PuRinTiTSL The people are mainly devoted to A^ncuUttral 
porsuiu, partieillarly to ramng cattle and sheep. The productitf 
of the dairy are quite lar^. 

Manufactures are prindpaliy confined to lumber, flour, Med 
doths, leather, oil and potash. 

Otmmerce* The county has little commerce. 

Staple pRomTCTioNa Butter, cheese, oats, potatoes, wheat 
and wooL 

SoHQOLa In 1846, there were in the county, 234 district 
schools, averaging^ seven months' instruction each, expending 
for tuition, •13,979» and attended by 13,946 children* The libra- 
ries contained 20,595 volumes. 

The number of private acboota was eiglit» wiUi 142 sebolars; of academies 
two, with 329 pupib. 

Religious Denominations. Baptists, Methodists, Presbyte- 
rians, Congregationalists, Episcopalians and Unitarians. Total 
number of churches sixty, of clergymen, eighty-seven. 

History. Allegany county was taken from Genesee, April 
seventh, 1806. The two western tier of towns are within the 
Holland Land Company's purchase. The interest of that com- 
pany has been purchased by another, since formed. The rest 
of tiie county is comprised in the tract constituting the Morris 

It was first settled by Philip Church, in 1804. In 1838 a 
remarkable tornado passed over the western section ; of a dense 
forest of 400 or 500 acres, scarcely a single tree escaped unin- 
jured. The wind for the space of twenty miles lefl traces of its 
devastation, yet, strange to tell, though several individuals were 
buried under the ruins of their houses, none lost their lives. 

In 1846, the towns of Eagle, Pike, Portage and Nunda, were 
taken from this county and added to Wyoming and Livingston 

Villages. Angelica, located in the town of the same name, 
is the county seat. It is a pleasant village and has some man* 
ufactures. Population 1000. 

Cuba is a flourishing village. In this place is a spring, firom 

ihe surface of which is collected the famed Seneca oil, so much 

, used for rheumatism and sprains. It was highly valued by the 

Indians, and a square mile around the spring has been set apart 

ffw the Seneeas. Population 800. 

FrienMiip is a village of considerable importance, on the 
proposed route of the Erie railroad. Population 800. 
, i?iM^^/«>r<2 is a thriving and important village. It lis increasing 
in population quite ratpidly. Population 1000. 

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Square Miles, 637. 
Ofganized, 1806. 


Population, S5,808. 
ValuaUoo, 1845. 93,087,167« 


1. CheBEUgo, 1721. 7. Vestal, 1823. 

2. Union, 1731. 8. ConkUn, 1824. 

3. Lble, 1801. 9. Barker, 1831. 

4. Windsor, 1807. 10. Nauticoke, 1831. 

5. Sandford, 1821. 11. Triangle, 1831. 

6. Colesville, 1821. 

Mountains, e. Oquaga. f. Binghamton. g. Randolph. 
Mivers. CC. Chenango River. G. Susquehanna River. Q. Tiough- 
nioga River, a. Nanticoke Creek, h. Otselic. 

Pillages, BiWGHAMTON. 

BoUNDABiEs. Bounded North by Cortland and Chenango; 
Bast by Delaware ; South by the state of Pennsylvania, and 
West by Tioga county. 

BcltFACE. This county forms the eastern termination of the 
great table land of the southern tier of counties. Like the othet 
portions of this elevated plain, its surface is much broken by nu- 
merous streams, which have worn deep valleys through the soft 
and peris^ble sandstones which underlie it. The general ele- 

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334 8TATB or NKW TOKK. 

vation of the sorfree m from 1400 to 1600feet obtrre tide water, 
and the valleys kre depressed from 300 to 400 feet below this 
level la the eastern part the Randolph, Binghamton and 
Ocjuaga mountains rise above the general level The Sasque- 
' hanna sweeps around the base of the latter, making a very ex- 
tensive bend. 

Rivers. The Susquehanna, Chenango^ Otselic, Tioughnioga 
and west branch of the Delaware, are the principal rirers of the 

Canal. The Chenango canal enters the county with the 
Chenango river, and terminates at Binghamton. 

Railkoad. The route of the New York and Erie railroad has 
been kid out through the county. 

CuMATE. The climate is salubrious, but from the great ele- 
vation of the coimty, necessarily cool Large bodies of snow 
foil during the winter, and cx>ntinue late in the spring. 

Geology and Minerals. The eastern and southern parts of 
the county belong to the Catskill gron|), and are composed prin- 
cipally of the old red sandstone and congiomer$ite — the western 
is comiNrised in the Chemung group, and consists mostly of grey 
■andstooe and slaie. 

SpeeUneiwi of garnet, toiinnaline, agate, pofphyry, Jasper, Jce^ have be«i cfA- 
leetad fkvm tlie pebMea on the banks of the Susquehanna and Chenango rivers. 
There are several su^w and one or two brine springs. 

Son. AND Vboetable pRODOCTiONd. The broken character of 
the soil renders the county generally better adapted to grazing 
dian to the culture of grain. In the valleys of the streazns, oats 
and corn Uirive well, cmd wheat is raised to some extent The 
principal timber trees are the white and pitch pine, oak, beech, 
maple and hickory. Much of ^e surface of the county is yet 
covered with wood. 

PuBBurrs. Agriculture is the chief pursuit of the inhabitants. 
Much attention k paid to the products of the dairy. Some grain 
is also raised, and summer crops thrive well 

Matrufactures, The water power of its many, streams fur- 
nishes abundant fecilities lor manufacturing purposes, which 
the people of this county are beginning to hnprove. The New 
York and Brie railroad will, when oi)ened, give a new impetus 
to its manufhcturing interests, by afibrding increased ^flities 
for transportation. 

Lumber and flour, fldied cloths ^md leather, eoostilute the 
chief articles of manufacture. 

Staple Productions. Butter, oats, corn and potatoes. 

Schools. There are in the county 170 district schools, which 
in 1S46, averaged seven months instruction each. $8676 vtbb 

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paid for tuitknir; and the school libraries contained 13,800 vol- 
umes. The number of children taught was 8285. 

There are sixteen select scbcx^, attended by 166 pupils ; and one academy, 
with 212 students. , 

Religious Denominations. Presbyterians, Baptists, Congre- 
gationalistP, Episcopalians, Universalists and Roman Catholics. 
There are forty-six churches, and sixty-one ministers, of all de- 
nominations, in the county. 

History. During SuUivan's campaign, in 1779, he encamped 
at or^near the present site of Binghamton, in this county, for 
several days, awaiting the arrival of the detachment under ftie 
command of General James Clinton. No settlement was made 
in the county, however, till 1787, wheaCaptain Joseph Leonard 
removed here from Wyoming, Pennsylvania. He was soon 
followed by Colonel William Rowe, who emigrated from Con- 

The land in the southern part of the county liad been granted 
a few years previously, to Mr. Bingham, an eminent banker of 
Philadelphia, associated with whom was a Mr. Cox ; and that 
now composing the northern towns of the county, was purcha- 
sed in 1786, or perhaps earlier, by a company from Massachu- 
setts. The amount of land belonging to this company was 
230,000 acres. Having obtained a grant from the Massachu- 
setts legislature, (this being a portion of the ten townships ceded 
to Massachusetts by New York,) they purchased the title from 
the Indians, by a treaty, concluded at the Forks of the Che- 

By the enterprise and good management of General Whitney, 
the agent of Mr. Bingham, the settlements flourished and in- 
creased rapidly in population. In 1806, Broome county was set 
off from Tioga, as a separate county, and named in honor of 
John Broome, at that time Lieutenant Governor of the state. 

A large proportion of the emigrants were from New England, 
and probably a majority from Connecticut. 

Villages. Binghamton, formerly Chenango Point, is the 
shire town of the county. It is rapidly increasing in business, 
and has become already an important inland town. It is much 
engaged in manufactures, and furnishes a ready market for the 
produce of the surrounding country, which is mostly shipped by 
canal to the Hudson, and by the Susquehanna to Philadelphia. 
The New York and Erie railroad will soon be opened to this 
place, and contribute still ferther to its prosperity. Toll bridges 
constructed of wood', cross the Chenango and Susquehanna 
rivers, from this village. Population, nearly 4000. 

Chenango Forks, Windsor and HarpersvUle are viUages <A 
some importance. 

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Aioare iDil6i» 58S. 
Oignizfldt 1800. 

Population. 40,087. 
TahntioB, 1845, 06,490^1. 

I. Brookfield, 1795. 

^. Cazenovia, 1795. 

3. De Ruyter, 1798. 

4. Hamilton, 1801. 

5. Sullivan, 1803. 
e. Eaton, 1807. 

7. Lebacnon, 1807. 


8. Madison, 1807. 

9. Nelaon, 1807. 

10. Smithfield, 1807. 

11. Lenox, 1809. 

12. Georgetown, 1815. 

13. Fenner, 18^3. 

14. Stockbridge, 1839. 

BwerSy Bcc. CC. Chenango river. 11. Unadilla. k. Oriskanj Creek, 
a. Cowasalon. b. Canaseraga. d. Chittenango. }. Oneida. 

Lakts. Z. Oneida, e. CazenoTia, or Linklaen. 

Marshes, f. Great Swamp. 

Dhiversities, Madison University. 

Villages. Mobrisyiuu:. Hamilton. Cazenovia. Canastota. Chit- 

Boundaries. North by Oneida LsJce; East by Oneida and 
Otsego cbunties; South by Chenango comity, and Wert by 
Onondaira and Ccn-tlaDd countieo. 

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fiotPACE. Diversified, and generally hillf; except where the 
^eat swamp extends for a distance of eight or ten mile»i along 
the b<»ders of Oneida Lake.^ 

The elevated ridge or watershed, which divides the waters of 
the Sttsqndianna from those flowing north, crosses this county 
near its centre. The hills are, however, generally rounded, 
and susceptible of cultivauon. This ridge is about 1500 feet 
above tide water. 

Rivers. On the south, the county is drained by the Chenan- 
go, Otselic and Unadilla rivers* On the north by the Oriskany, * 
Oneida, Cowasalon, Chittenango, and Ganaseraga creeks. 
The Erie and Chenango canals pass through the county. 

Lakes. Oneida Lake forms the northern boundary of the 
county; Cazenovia, or Linklaen lake, called by the natives 
Haugena, is a beautiful sheet of water, four miles long by 
one broad, surrounded by a fine waving country. There are 
several small ponds on the dividing ridge. 

Cumate. Healthful^ but cool, and very subject to untimely 

Geology anb Minerals. Slate is the basis rock of the coun* 
ty. It is, however, ov^erlaid for the most part with limestone, of 
tiiat formation denominated the Onondaga salt group. Along 
the Oneida Lake, sandstone appears, and is found in bould- 
ers throughout the county. Fresh water limestone, containing 
fresh water shells, is found near the great swamp. 

A^Ulaceous iron ore occurs in large quantities, in Lenox, and I0 tuedfiMr 
castings ; water lime and gypsum are abundant in Sullivan and Lenox ; su^hur 
and tvine springs are found in the same towns, and in the former is a magnesian 
spring, and several otheis so highly charged with carbonate of lime as to form 
incrustations on whatever ie cast into them. Marl exists in large quantities, in 
the northern part of the county. 

Soil anp Vegetable Pbodcctioms. The soil is geuersdly 
fertile ; in the valleys highly so : adapted to grain in the north, 
and to grazing in the south. 

The timber is'jimilar to that of the acUacent counties, conststhig principally of 
hemlock, maple and beech. The sugar maple is abundant, and yields large quan- 
tities of sugar. In the great swamp, cedar, tamarack, <tc. are the principal trees. 

Pursuits. Agriculture is the principal pursuit of the inhabit- 
ants, whose attention is divided between the culture of grain 
and the rearing of stock. 

Hops, bats, corn and barley, are more largely cultivated than 

Manufactures are considerably extensive, for which the fine 
water power of the Chittenango and other streams, furnishes 
ample facUities. Flour, lumber, woollen goods, distilled liquoi s, 
leather, ir<m arid potash, are the principal articles manufactured. 

The commerce of the county is confined 'to the transportatbn 

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of ito produce and mami&etiires, upon the Erie and Ch^nisgo 

Staple Pboduotionb. Hops, cheese, butter, wool, oats, su^^ar 
and potash. 

SoBOoiA There are in the county 234 district school- houses. 
The sdiods were taught in 1846 an average period o( eight 
inonths ; 13,523 children received instruction at an expense of 
9 15,721. There were 26,456 volumes in the district libraries. 

Ttere wwe, ftlio, in the comttf, fiMty-^tavee private tthooM, with ie79 pupils, 
had four academies, with 198 pupils. There is one Uniremity in the coimDT, 
chartered io 1846, and called Madison University. It has in aB its departments 

RELiGions DfiNOBnNATiotts. Baptists, Methodists, Congrega- 
tboalistt, Presbyterians, Universalists, Friends, Dutch Reform- 
ed, and Episcopalians. 

There are eighty-one churches, and ninety-four clergymen, 
of all denominations, in the county. 

History. Madison county originally formed a part of Che- 
nango county, from which it was taken in 1806. The first set- 
tlement in the county was made at the village of Eaton, in the 
town of the same name, by Mr. Joseph Morse, in 1790. 

In 1793, Colonel John Linklaen, agent for a company in Hol- 
land, settled in Casenovia. This Holland Company owned a 
large portion of the county, and their agent sold most of it to 
New England settlers. The growth of the county was not 
rapid until the completion of the Erie and Chenango canals 
by which a market was opened for its produce. 

ViLLAOEs. MoRiusyiLLE, in the town of Eaton, is the seat of 
justice for the county. It is situated on the Cherry Valley turn- 
pike. It was settled principally l^ emigrants from Connecticut, 
and has some manufactories. Population, about 800. 

Eaton, another village in the same town, has a number of 
manufactories. Population, about 700. 

Cdzenovia village* in the town of the same name, is pleasantly 
situated on the south-eastern margin of Linklaen lake. It is 
well laid out, and has some manufactures and considerable 
trade. The Oneida Conference Seminary, located here, is 
under the direction of the Methodist Episcopal church, and is a 
flourishing and well conducted institution. Here is also a high 
school and a seminary for young ladies. The village contains 
nearly. 2000 inhabitants. 

Hamilton villeige, in the town. of the same name, isprmcqwdly 
noted as the seat of Madison University, formerly the Hamilton 
Literary and Theological In8titutk>a This mstitution was in- 
corporated in 1819, and commenced operations in 1820. It 
received, a charter as an University in IS4A* It is wdl endow- 

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ed, has an able corps of professors, and is in a lu^hly prosper- 
ous condition^ 

There is also an academy of some distinction, in the village. 
Population, aboat 1600. 

Chittenango, in the town of Sullivan, is largely engaged in 
the manufacture of water-lime, or hydraulic cement. It has 
also other manufactures. There is a sulphur spring of some 
note, one mile south of the village. It has also other springs, 
charged with carbonate of lime, and celebrated ibr their petri- 
fying quality. 

In this village is an academy, under (he patronage of the 
Dutch Reformed Church. Population, 1000. 

Canaatoiai in the town of Lenox, is a thriving and busy vil- 
lage, on tbe canal and railroad. It derives its name from the 
Indian appellation, given to a cluster of pines, which united their 
branches over the creek, which passes through the village, la 
this village is a high school of some celebrity; Popolatiofn, 
about 1300. 

De Ruyler is a small but pleasant village, in the town of the 
same name. Here is located the ** De Ruyter Institute," a 
flourishing literary institution, under the direction of the Sev- 
enth Day Baptists. Population, 500. 

Madison, in the towQ of the same name, is a thriving village. 
Population, 600. 

Clockville, in the town of Lenox, and Bridgepcrt, in the 
town of Sullivan, are villages of some importance. 

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flqnure mflw, 1939. Fopulatioft, 30,3M. 

Oifuiiied, 1806. Valqatioii, 1845, $3,035,315. 















\ i 















1. Oleaa, 1806. 

2. FarmersYille, 1812. 

3. Franklinville, 1812. 

4. Perrysburgh, 1814. 

5. Great Valley, 1818. 

6. LitUe Valley, laiS. 

7. EUicottYille, 1820. 

8. Yorkshire, 1820. 

9. Freetlom, 1820. 

10. Hinsdale, 1820. 

11. Connewango, 1823. 

12. Otto, 1823. 

13. Ashford. 1824. 

14. Randolph, 1826. 

15. Machias, 1S27. 

16. Napoli, 1828. 

17. Lyndon, 1829. 

18. New Albion, 1830. 

19. Mansfield, 1830. 

20. Burton, 1831. 

21. Leon, 1832. 

22. Dayton, 1835. 

23. Persia, 1835. 

24. C6ld Spring, 1837. 

25. Humphrey, 1837. 

26. Portville, 1838. 

27. CarroUton,l842. * 

28. Rice, 1846. 

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Mmer$. K. AUegany. ». Connewango Creek, b. OiL «. Great 

ValJej. e. Coid Spring, f. Cattaraugus, g. SouUi Branch, 
n. Ischua. 

Zdikes. L Lime. m. I^hua Creek Besef voir. 

Villages, Eulioottvii^e. Clean. Hinsdale. Lodi. 

Bound ABIES. North by the counties of Erie and Wyoming; 
East by Allegany county j South by the state of PennsylvaDia, 
BDd West by Chautauque county. 

Surface. The surface of the county is elevated and much 
broken. The high grounds in its centra divide the waters of 
the Allegany from those of the Chautauque Creek. The valley 
of the Allegany river is from one to two miles in breadth, and 
has a depression of 700 or 800 feet below the flpeneral surface of 
the county. North of this river, the land rises for S&een or 
twenty miles, and attains the summit of the very irregular ridge 
which commences at Perrysburgh, on the north-west, and ter- 
minates at Farmersville, on the east. 

RivERa The Allegany river, Cattaraugus, Oil, Great Val- 
ley, Cold Springy South Branch, Connewango and Ischua 
creeks, are the principal streams of the county. 

Lakes. Its lakes are Lime lake and Ischua creek reservoir. 

Railbqads, The line of the New York and Erie raihroad 
crosses the southern part of the county. 

CuBfATE. From the elevation of the surface, the climate is 
cold but healthful. 

Geousgv and Mineralogy. This county is wholly within the 
Erie group. In the northern part, the Ludlpwville slate is the 
sur&ce rock, wkh occasional alternations of limestone. In the 
central and southern portions, the Chemung sandstone predom- 
inates. On the highest points in the county, the conglomerate 
of the Catskill group is occasionally found. 

The Rock City, situated seven miles from EUicottviile, and 
near the line between Great and Little valley, is a remarkable 
--natural cmriosity. 

The rock here is conglomerate, and by the removal and disin- 
tegration of portions of it, large masses from fifteen to thirty-five 
feet high, have been Idt standing isolated, and are separated by 
aHey» and passages of various widths. The whole area covered 
by these hUicka is over one hundred acres. The scene is in the 
faigheist degree imposing, and impresses upon the beholder die 
convlction^hat die name has not been Improperly chosen. 

The Miiienk are a«t numeioiui ; thti most TaliudUe ans peat, mail, bog iron 
one apd mangaveee. Tbere are akKx aotae saline and sulphur springs ; petroleum 
or mineral oil, similar to jtte Seneca oil, found in Cutia, Allegany counQr, bas been 
discoveiied at Freedom. 

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Soil and Vegetable Pbodoctionb. The soil is well adapted 
to grazing. Grain thrives better in the northern section than 
in the southern. 

Probably no region of equal extent in the United States has 
produced more valuable timber. The forest trees consist chiefly 
of pine, oak, hickory, ash, elm, linden, chestnut, walnut, beech, 
maple and hemlock. The maple is abundant, and affords large 
qnantitiea of sugar. 

FuBsuiTS. The people of this coimty are an agricultural 
community, pa3ring more attention however, to the productions 
of the dairy, and the rearing of cattle, them to the raising of 

Manufactures. These are in their infancy, and chiefly con- 
fined to lumber, flour, fulled cloths, and leather. ' 

The manufacture of lumber is prosecuted to a greater extent 
than in any other county in the state, 200 million feet being 
exported from the county annually. 

Commerce, The Allegany is navigable for arks and small 
s^mboats, at high water, to Olean; large quantities of lumber 
are exported from this county to Pittsburgh and Cincinnati, by 
this channeL 

Its STAPLES are lumber, potatoes, oats, butter and cheese. 

Schools. The county had, in 1846, 234 district schools, which 
were in session an average period of six months each. The 
number of children taught was 11,914; the amount paid for 
tuition $10,870, and the number of volumes in the districtlibra- 
ries, 16,087. 

There were twelve select schoob, with 264 scholars. 

Religious Denominations. Baptists, Methodists, Prec^yte^ 
rians. Episcopalians, Congregationalists, and Unitarians. The 
number of churches of all denominations, is thirty ; of clergymen, 

HiSTOBY. This county belonged originally to the HoUarid 
Land Company's purchase, and the titles of most of the inhabit- 
ants are derived from that Company. The first settlement in 
the county was made oarlyin the present century, at Olean, by 
Major Hoops, of Albany, who nained it afler General Hamilton, 
" Hamilton on the Allegany." 

The next settlement was in the present town of Persia, in 
1813. The growth of the county has been quite rapid. Corn- 
planter and Big Kettle or Ganoth-jowaneh, two of the most dis- 
tinguished of the Seneca chiefs, resided in this counly.^ 

A tra£t along the Allegany river, extending through the 
towns of Cold Spring, Little Valley, Great Valley and Carrdl- 
ton, is still held as a reservation by the Indiians, 

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The Society of FrieDds in Phfladelf^ia) have taken great 
pains to instni<^t the Indians of this county, in the arts of civili- 
zation, sending instructors among them, and establishing settle- 
ments in the vicinity. Some of the Indians are now quite 
wealthy, owning well stocked farms, and large saw milk. 

VthLAGEsi. Elucottville, the county seat, is situated in the 
ttmoi of the same name. It was incorporated in 1837, and con- 
tains besides the county buildings two extensive land offices. 
The scenery around the village is beautiful. The town receiv- 
ed its name from Joseph ElUcott, late principal agent of the 
Holland Land Company. Population, 800. 

Ijodi is a thriving -manufacturing village on Cattaraugus 
creek, in the towns of Persia and Collins, in Cattaraugus and 
Erie counties. The water power is abundant, and only in pan 
occofoed. Population, 900. 

At HinsdeUe, is to be the junction of the New York and Erie 
railroad, and the Genesee Valley canal. The state is construct- 
ing a large basin here. An incorporated academy is located in 
tMs village. Population, 600. 

Qlean is advantageously situated on the north side of the Al- 
legany river, in the town of the same name. Large quantities 
of lumber an^ other produce are annual^ exported from this^ 
place. It Is to be the terminus of t)ie Genesee Valley canal. 
Populatwn, 500. 

Pranklinmlle, in the town of the same name, is a thriving 
village, -aiid has some manufactories. Population, 600. 

Cadiz t in the same town, is a village of some importcmce. 


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gqture Wtot, 1017. - Population, 46,548. 

Oiganlzed, 1808. Valuation, 1045, $4,586,982. 

1. Chaiitaaque, 1804. 

2. Pomfret, 1808. 
3* ElUeott, X812. 

4. Gerry, 1812. 

5. Haaover, 1812. 

6. Portland, 1813. 

7. Harmony, 1816. 

8. Ripley, 1817. 

9. Clymer, 1821. 

10. Ellery, 1821. 

11. Stockton, 1821. 
T2. ^iwti, 1893. 

TOWJfS. ' * 

13. ViUenora, 1823. 

14. Mina, 1824. 

15. EUineton, 1825. 

16. Carroll, 1825. 

17. Sheridan, 1827. 

18. French Creek, 1839. 
X9, Chjurlotte, 1329. 

20. Westfield, 1829. 

21. Cherry Creek, 182». 

22. Arkwright, 1829, 

23. Poland, 1832. 

24. Shenmn, 1832. , 

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B^ers. a. Twenty Mile Creek, b. Chautanque. c. Canadawa. d. 

Walirat. e. Silver, f. Cattaraogas. g. Chaatauque Outlet, hi 

Casadaga Creek, j. French. k.Connewango. 
Lmk€», L. Eric. o. Chantauque. p. Casadaga. q. Bear, c . Finley. 
V%ila^e8, Mayville. Jamestowa. Westfield. Dunkirk. Fre- 

doma. Fayette. Van fiuren. 

BooNOARiSfl. North by Lake Erie and Erie county ; East by 
Cattaraugus county ; South and West hy Pennsylvania. 

Surface. The suriace is hilly and elevated. Through its 
centrtd portion, at a distance of from three to six miles from 
Lake !^rie, and nearly parallel with it, runs the dividing ridg« 
which separates the waters of the lakes from those discharging 
into the Gulf of Mexico. This ridge is elevated from 800 to 
1400 feet above tide water. From this altitude it declines to the 
northwest, toward the lake, and on the southeast toward the 
Connewango creek and the Allegany river. The land lying on 
Lake Erie is a rich and fertile alluvium. The hills throughout 
the county are nowhere precipitous, but capable of cultivation 
to their summits. 

Rivers and Creeks. The principal streams are tiie Conne- 
wango cfeek, which drains the eastern and southeastern por» ' 
tions of the county, and uniting with the waters of the Chau- 
taaque outlet^ in Poland, forms the Connewango river ; Catta- 
raXigus creek, which separates this county from Erie ; Silver, 
Walnut, Canadawa, Chautauque, Twenty Mile, North and 
South branches of. French creek, Great and Little Broken 
Straw and Casadaga creeks. Most of these streams furnish 
vahiable mill privileges. 

Lakes. Lalke Erie forms the northwestern boundary of the 
county. Chautauque lake, which gives its name to the county, 
was so called by the Indians from its form ; the Indian name 
Chautaucpia signifying a pack tied in the middle. 

It is a beautiful sheet of water, eighteen miles long, and from 
one to ^ye in width. It is 726 feet above Lake Erie, and 1291 
above tide water. Its waters are remarkable for their clear- 
ness and purity, and are abundantly stocked with fish. Two 
steamers ply upon it. It is probably the highest body of water 
in the world, navigated by steam. 

The Casadaga lakes, three in number, each about a mile in 
extent ; Bear lake, and Finley's lake, are the only other lakes in 
the county. 

Railroads. The New York and Erie Railroad will pass 
through this county, and terminate at Dunkirk. Several other 
railroads have been chartered, but have not been sonstrueted. 

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CuMATE. The county has a high reputation for the aahar 
brity of its climate. Fruits thrive well here, and attain great 
perfection both of eize and flavor. From the elevation of itg 
surface, the winters are long, but the cold is somewhat mode- 
rated by the proximity of the lake. 

Geology and Minerals. This county belongs entirely to the 
Chemung sandstone group. The rocks of the county consist of 
alternate layers of sandstone smd slaty rocks. In Harmoi^, 
Carroll, and some other sections, this sandstoDefnmishesafine 
boiiding material ' The crest of the dividing ridge is occasion- 
ally crowned with the con^omerate of the Oatskill group. 

Bog iron ore has been found in seTeral loealitiefl, but in do grettt quantity. 
Melt marl ia abundant in the vicinity of the Caaadaga lakes. Alum and coppeiaa 
are spontaneoudy formed in tbe town of Sheridan. 

Mineral Springs. Sulphur springs are quite numerous in the neighborhood of 
Lake Erie. One in Mina is considerably visited. The inflammable Bprings, or 
those containing carburetted hydrogen gas, are worthy of notice. There are a 
number of these along the shores of Lake Brie. The village of Fredonia. in tbe 
town of Pomfret, is lighted by this natural gas. It also Aimishes material for tbe 
light house at Barcelona, and might be employed in tiie same way at numerous 
other points ak>ng the shores of the lake. It is entirely free ttom any unpteawaHt 

Soil and Vegetable Prodoctions. The soil is generally 
very good. The section on the shores of Lake Erie, extending 
back for a distance of three or four miles, is a rich alluvium, 
highly fertile, and well adapted to grains and fruit. The up- 
lands are better fitted for grass, and yield abundant crops. 

The timber of the county is oak, maple, beedi, black wahiut, 
butternut, hickory, with some pine and hemlock. 

On Walnut creek, about a mile from its mouth, formerly stood a black wataiot 
tree, 150 feet in height, thirty-six feet in circumference at its base, and tapering 
regularly eighty feet, to the first limb. This enormous tree was blown down m 
1832. It wad supposed to be more than 500 years old. The butt, nine feet in 
length was excavated, and used for a grocery, at Buffalo. When the Erie ««■! 
was opened, it was transported to New York and exhibited to thousands. 

Pursuits. Agriculture is the pursuit of a majority of the 
inhabitants. More attention is paid to the rearing of stock and 
the produce of the dairy > than to the culture of grauL The 
principal grains cultivated are corn, oats, wheat, and some 
barley and buckwheat. Large quantities of flax and potatoes, 
are also raised. In the latter crop it occupied a high rank 
among the counties of the state. 

Manufactures, The county is not very largely engaged in 
manufactures. Flour, lumber, leather and iron, are the princi- 
pal articles, and their entire value is between 1^700,000 and 

Commerce^ The county has some commerce. VanBuren, 
Dunkirk, Barcelona andPoitlaod ara its ivincipal harbors. 

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Ptas^z Phoikiotions. ^ Butter, cheese, wod, p(»'k, potatoes, 
flax, corn and oats. 

Schools. There are in the county 308 public schoob. la 
1846, schools were taught an average period of seven months— 
18,376 children received instruction, at a cost of $17,d8L The 
district libraries contained 30,010 volumes. 

Thefe are in tbe county thirty-one unineorpomted lehoolB, with S63 popfla; 
and five academies, att^ided by 336 itudenta. 

Rruoious Denominatidns. Baptists, Methodists, Congrega- 
tionalists, Presbyterians, Unitarians, Episcopalians, Umversal^ 
ists and Friends^ There are seventy-three churches, and 106 
clergymen, of all denominations. 

Hi3TOHY, Tradition relates that the French early established 
a post at Portland, in this county ; but at what time is not cer- 
tainly known. The only Indian settlement within the limits of 
the coimty, when first explored, was in the present town of 
Carroll, on the Connewango creek. 

In 1732, a party, consisting of about 800 British and Indians, 
with a train of artillery and other munitions of war, spent the 
months of June and July around Chautauque lake, constructing 
canoes, and making other preparations to descend the Allegany 
liver and atta^ Fort Pitt, now Pittsburgh. For this purpose 
they obstructed the channel of the Chautauque outlet, in order 
to raise the waters of the lake. 

The first purchase of lands made ia this county, for the pur- 
pose of settlement, was in 1801, in the town of -Ripley, by Gen. 
John McMahan. No settlement was effected, however, tilt 
1803, when Col. James McMahan, brother of the general, ioea* 
ted himself in the town of Westfield. The same year Edward 
McHenry settled in the same neighborhood. 

In 1796 one Amos Settle had located in Hanover, bat re- 
moved in 1800 from the county, and did not return for several 
years. John McHenry, bom in 1802, was the first child trf*white 
parents born in the county. 

The privations of the early settlers were very great Often 
they were compelled to subsist upon the precarious products of 
the chase, for months, without tasting bread or other provisions. 

In 1804, the first town was constituted, and embraced the 
whole of the present county. In 1808 the county was provis- 
ionally organized ; but not having a sufficient number of inhabit- 
ants to entitle it to a separate organization. It remained attached 
to Genesee county till 1811. 

The whole of this county was uicluded in the Holland Land 
Company's purchase, and from that (Company and its successors, 
the titles to the property were derived. 

Digitized by Google 

338 0TA9B OF WfMW TORK« 

Darius' the war of 1S1!^» the lake coast Wad several Uifies in- 
vaded by small parties of the enemy, who, however, never ac- 
eomplished any feats of valor in the county. A party of British 
landed at Dunkirk, in 1813, to deposite some property which 
they had plundered from the coast above. Twelve of the boat's 
crew deserted, immediately on landing, leaving only the officer 
who commanded the boat, and a single sailor, whom the miUtia 
soon compelled to return to their vessel 

In 1614, an armed schooner pursued some lake boats into 
Cemadawa creek, and attempted to capture them, but wajs re- 
piiked by the niUitia. About 200 of the Chautauque militia 
were called out by Qovernor Tompkins, for the defence of Buf- 
falo; undisciplined and unaccustomed t^ withstand regular 
troops, they fled early in the action, but were pursued, and a 
nun^r killed and scalped by the Indians. Ten or twelve of the 
citizens of the county fell in this retreat, and others were se- 
verely wounded. After the close of the war, the growth of the 
county was extraordinarily rapid. 

In 1835 the Holland Land Company sold out the lands, to- 
gether with the outstanding and expired contracts, to Trum- 
bull, Carey and others of Batavia. They had made a like sale 
of their lands in Genesee county, and the new company had 
compefled such of the settlers as were unable to complete the 
payments on their farms, to pay an additional sum per acre, as 
the price of forbeeurance. This exaction was known as the 
Genesee tariff. It soon became generally understood, that the 
principles of this tariff were to be applied to Chautauque county. 
Meetings were held by the citizens who felt themselves ag- 
grieved, and definite information demanded from the company, 
as to their intentions. 

Afler dome delay the company announced their determination 
to exact the principal and compound interest from all who 
would immediately pay for their lands, and to require 25 per 
cent advance from those ^o asked for an extension of time in 

These exactions, at ^lis period, would have deprived many oT 
the settlers of their farms, and reduced them to ruin. 

Upon learning the demands of the company, resolutions^were 
passed by the citizens, denouncing their course and declaring 
their determination not tq submit to iU On the sixth of Febru- 
ary, 1836, a mass of people, tnostly from the interior towns, 
assembled at Barnhart's inn, about two miles from Mayville, 
about four o'clock in the afternoon, armed with axes, crow- 
bars, 4&C. ; and having orgahized, proceeded to Mayville, about 
eight o'clock in the evening. They attacked the office of the 
Land Company, demolished the wood buildlngj and Anally 

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forced open the stone vault, containing the company's books 
and papers, carried them to Barnhart's, and burned them in 
the highway. 

From this time^ till 1833, all intercourse between the Land 
Company and the settlers ceased. In that year a sale was ef- 
fected of the property, to Messrs. Duer, Morrison and Seward, 
(late governor of the state,) and by them an office was opened 
in Westfield, and the outstanding claims adju&ted to the satis- 
ikction of all parties. 

ViLLAGCs. Mayvilsle, the county seat, is a flourishing village, 
in the town of Chautauque. It was incorporated in 1830. It is 
beautifdlly situated, commanding a fine view of the lake. Its 
public buildings are neat and substantial. 

The Mayville academy was incorporated in 1834, and is a 
well conducted institution. A steamboat plies betwe^ this vil- 
lage and Jamestown, daily, during the summer. Populaticm-dOO. 

Jamestvwn, situated on the outlet of Chautauque lake, in the 
town of Ellicott, is the largest village in the county. It has a 
fine hydraulic power, which is extensively used in manufac- 
turing. Lumber, wooden ware> sash, lath, flour, cloth, &c., 
are msuiufactnred here. The Jamestown academy was incor-^ 
ported in 1836, and is in a prosperouji condition. This village 
was incorporated in 1827. Population 1700. 

Fredorda is a beauti&l village, ii\ the town of Pomfret, four 
miles from Lake Erie. It has some trade, but is chieliy remark- 
able for its Inflammable spring,- which furnishes a sufficient 
quantity o( gas td Kght the vfllage brilliantly. It was incorpo- 
rated in 1829. The academy here, established in 1824, was the 
first in the county, and sustaiols a high reputation. Popula- 
tion 1000. 

Westfield, in the town of the same name, incorporated in 
1833, is situated on Chautauque creek, one and a half miles 
from Lake Erie. It is a thriviog, busy village, and has a fine 
academy, incorporated in 1837. Population 1000. 

Dunkirk, on Lake Erie, in the town of Pomfret, has been 
designated as the western terminus of the New York and 
Erie railroad. It is a village of some business. The United 
S Gates government have expended about $80,000 in the im- 
provement of its harbor, which is now commodious for vessels 
drawing eight or nine feet water. It is open usually somewhat 
earlier than that of Buflialoi Population 1000. 

Fayette, at the mouth of Silver creek, in the town of Hano- 
ver, has a -good steamboat landing, and some trade.. Pop. 700. 

Portland has a good harbor. Barcelona has a light house, 
iUumioated i^dth the gas evolved from an inflammable spring 
near it. 

Digitized by VjOUVIV:: 


SqoBra Blilefl, 500. 
OrganiMd, 1806. 

Poputation, 25,087. 
TaluaXfon, 1845, 9fi,318,3lffi. 

1. Homer, 1794. 

2. Solon, 1798. 

3. Virgil, 1804. . 

4. Cincinnatus, 1804. 

5. Preble, 1808. 

6. Truxton, 1808. 

7. Scott, 1815. 


8. Freetown, 1818. 

9. Marathon, 1818. 

10. Willett, 1818. 

11. Cortlandville, 1829. 

12. Hartford, 1845, 

13. LApeer, 1845. 

Mwerf. Q. Tioughnioga. a. Cold Creek, fa. Ote^ie. 
Viilag€$. CoRTx.ANi>. Homer. 

BouNDAracs. North by Onondaga county; East by Madlsou 
and Chenango; South by Broome and Tioga; and West by 
Tompkins and Cayuga counties. 

The sdhpace is elevated, and gently sloping to the south. 

Digitized by VjiJOV IC 


forming a part of the high central sectioa of the state. Its 
northern boundary lies on the watershed, or dividing ridge be* 
tween the waters flowing into Lake Ontario, and the tributa- 
ries of the Susquehanna river. The broad valleys of the 
streams^ and the rounded and fertile hills, give the suriace an 
agreeably diversified aspect. 

Rivers. The Tioughnioga, rising near its northern boundary » 
with its tributaries, waters neaurly the whole county. The Ot- 
selie, its main branch, drtuns the southeastern section. Both 
streams are navigable for small boats, when swollen by the 
heavy rains of spring and autumn. 

Climate. Healthy and equable. From the elevati<»i of its 
surface^ the winters are long and much snow falls. 

Geology and Minerals. Slate is the basis rock of the county. 
On the north this is covered with Onondaga limestone, or the 
limestone and slate of the Helderberg series. On the south 
and east the Chemung sandstone and shale are the surface 

The minerals of the county are salt, bog iron ore, and marl. There are also 
some sulphuretted hydrogen springs. 

SoiD AND Vegetable Productions. The soil is generally a 
gravelly loam, intermingled with the dismtegrated lime and 
slate, and is quite fertile, yielding good crops of grass and grain. 
The timber is chiefly oak, maple, beech, basswood, butternut, 
elm, and chestnut. Groves of pine and hemlock eire found in 
the southern part of the county. 

PuBsurrs. Agriculture is the principal pursuit of the inhab- 
itante. Much attention is paid to the rearing of cattle ; consid- 
erable quantities oS grain are also raised. The products of the 
dairy are large. 

Manufactures are increasing in importance in the county. 
The principal articles are flour, lumber, cotton and woollen 
goods, leather and potash. 

Staple Productions. Butter, cheese, wool, oats, corn, and 
flax. Considerable quantities of wheat, barley, buckwheat, po- 
tatoes, and pork are also produced. 

Schools. The whole number of district schools in the county 
is 180. In 1846, these were taught, on an average, seven 
months, and 9,273 children received instruction during tiie year 
at an expense of $9470. The district school libraries contained 
15,197 volumes. 

There are in the county twenty-«i^ private schools, with 443 pupils, and two 
academies with 233 seholam. . 

Religious Denominations. Baptists, Methodists, Presbyte- 
rians, CongrcgationaJists, and Episcopalians. There are in the 

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county forty-five churches,, and fifty-four clergymen of aH de- 

History. Cortland county comprises a portion of the Military 
Tract, or lands given hy the state of New York to her Revolu- 
tionary soldiers. It was principally settled by emigrsmts from 
the eastern states, who removed here after the Revolution. 
Homer, the oldest town^ was organized in 1794. 

The county received its nameTrom General Peter Van Cort- 
laadt, who was a la .,'e landholder here. It was taken from 
Onondaga in 180a 

Villages. Cortland, in the town of Cortlandville, is the^ 
largest village, and the seat of justice for the county. It is 
pleasantly situated on the north branch of the Tioughnioga, and 
has a number of fine public buildings. The Cortland female 
seminary is a Nourishing institution. 

The private residences of the citizens are neat, and many of 
them elegant Population 1500. 

Homer, in the town of the name, is a beautiful and 
thriving village on the Tioughnioga. It has an old and flour- 
ishing academy of high reputation, with six teachers, and de- 
partments for both sexes. In 1846, a large and enthusiastic 
meeting of its alumni and friends was held, attended with ap- 
propriate exercises. 

The village is one of the most beautiM in centaral New York. 
It is eonoderably engaged in manufactures.. The churches, 
four in number, and the academy, occupy a public square six 
acres in extent Population 1400. 

TVuxton and Virgil^ in the towns of^, the same names, are 
villages of some importance. The former has some manufac- 

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fiquaie miles, 1557. Population, 18,693. 

Ofganiced, 1806. Valuation, 1845, $1,584,97». 

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1. Malone, 1805. 9 Duane, 1828. 

9. Chateaugay, 1805. 10. Westville, 182^ 

3. ConsUble, 1807. 11. Belmont, 18S3. 

4. DicktiMon, ISOS. 12. Bombay, 1833. 
6. Bangor, 1812. 13. Franklin, 1838. 

6. Fort Covington, 1S13. 14. Burk«, 1843. 

7. Moira, 1827. 15. Harrietstown, 1843. 

8. Brandon, 1828. 

Mountain*. GG. Chateaugay. g. Seward, h. Adirondack. 
Ri»en. a. Deer. b. Salmon, c. Tront, d. Chateaugay. e. St 

Regis, f. Racket j. Saranac. 
Lakes, i. Upper Saranac. 1. Lower Saranac. k. Tupper. 
Fort$, Co V i ngton . 
Villages, Maloite. Fort Covington. 

BoDNDARiEB. Nofth by Canada East ; East by Clinton and 
Essex coanties; south by Essex and Hamilton counties, and 
West by St. Lawrence county. 

Surface. Elevated and mountainous, in the southern and 
southeastern sections, where the Chateaugay range crosses it; 
elsewhere it is undulating or level. Mount Seward, and the 
Adirondack group, are peaks of this range. Mount Seward has 
never been ascended, but its height is computed at about 5000 

Numerous lakes are formed in the valleys of the mountain 

Rivers. The principal rivers are Ssdmon, Trout, Chateau- 
gay, St Re^is, Deer, Racket, and Saranac. 

Lakes. Upper and Lower Saranac, Tupper, and numerous 
others of less importance. 

CuMATE. The high latitude, and elevated surface oftfus 
county render the climate rigorous. The winters are long and 

Geoloot and Minerai^. The mountainous district is prin- 
cipally of the primitive formation, -and is composed of hyper s- 
thene, granite and gneiss. The two latter, indeed, form the 
surface rocks of a large part of the county. The transition for- 
mation, however, extends over the northernslope of the county, 
and is mainly composed of the Potsdam, sandstone, very fine 
specimens of which are quarried in Malone, Chateaugay, Moira, 
and Bangor, tn the northeast corner of li'ranklin township, the 
calciferous sand rock makes its appearance. 

The principal minerala are magnetic iron ore, found .in FrankHn, Diane, and 
Malone townships, purple scapolite, green pyroxene, graphite in six Mded tables, 
bog iron ore, tufk, peat, and massive pyrites. 

Soil and Vegetable Phodoctions. The soil of the north- 

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em towns is prob^blj equal in fertility to any in Uie state. The 
Bouthern townships are less productive. It is mainly a sandy 
loam, occasionally mixed with clay, and much of it encimibered 
with stone. 

It is not well adapted to wheat, but grass, oats, barley, corn, 
end the escnient roots, thrive luxuriantly. 

The forests, which cover the central and soutiiern portions, 
are very dense, and consist of white and yellow pine, hemlock, 
oak, beech, birch, basswood, elm, and white cedar. 

PuR^niTs, Agrictdture is the employment of the greater part 
of the iohabitants, and their attention is particularly directed to 
the raising <^ cattle, and the cultivation of summer crops. The 
preparcUion of lumber for market, is also the occupation of a 
eoDsiderabie number of the citizens of the county. There is 
some comiTurce on the Salmon river, the only navigable stream, 
and a few mines. The iron ores already mentioned will eventn- 
al(y furnish employment to considerable numbers. 

STAPLE& Potatoes, oats, wheat, corn, butter and wooL 

Schools. In 1846, there were 130 district schools in the 
county, in which 6190 scholars were taught The schools were 
maintained an average period of seven months, and $6,041 ex- 
pended for tuition. The district libraries contained 10,290 

Tbere were also seven aeleet acboots, with wven^-ibur pupils, and two acade- 
mies, with 113 students. 

Religious Denominations. Presbyt^ians, Roman Catho- 
lics, Baptists, Universalists, iQlpiscopalians, and Congregation- 
alists. There are twenty churches, and twenty-nine ministers 
of ail denominations. 

History, This county was the home of the St Regis tribe 
of Indians, who, under the direction of the Frenclv were so 
often engaged in hostile incursions upon the colonies of New 
England and New York, in the latter part of the seventeenth 
and commencement of the eighteenth centuries. The tribe 
have still a reservation of eleven miles in length and three in 
breadth, in the county, lying in the towns of Bombay and Fort 

A daughter of Rev. John Wilhams, of Deerfield, Massachu- 
setts, who, with his family, was taken captive by this tribe in 
1704, remained with the Indians, after her lather's return, mar- 
ried one of the chiefs, and one qI[ her descendants was a lew 
years since chief of the tribe. 

The first settlers were Canadians, who bcated at French 
MiQs, now Fort Covington about the year 1800. 

In April, 1804, Messrs. Besjaima Roberts, of. Wincbestor,^ 

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Vermont, Wfltiam Bailey, and Nathan Beman» cmmneBced a 
flettlement at Chateau^y. 

S<MHi after, Mr. Nathan Wood, ^ Vermont, settled in Ma- 
lone. Constable was settled about the same time. 

The first standard captured from the enemy, in the late war 
with Great Britain, was taken at Bombay, by Major G. D. 
Young, a natire of Connecticut, on the 22d of October, 1812. 

Major Young was commandant of a detachment of the Troy 
volunteers stationed at French Mills, (now Fort Covington,) 
and having learned that a party of the enemy had arrived at 
the village of St Regis, and that more were shortly expected, 
resolved to surprise them before they could be reinforced. He 
accordingly marched a detachment in the night to the vicimty 
of the village, surrounded the enemy, and captured forty pris- 
oners, with their arms, equipments, &c., one stand of colors, 
and two batteaux, without the loss of a single man. 

A skirmish took place on the 2dth of October, 1813, at Cha- 
teaugay, between the British light troops and Indians, and a 
detachment of American troops, under Greneral Izard, in 
which the latter were repulsed with the loss of fifly men. 

la February, 1^14, a ctetadiment of British and Indians, nam- 
berizig about 2300 men, made an incursion into Malone, and 
penetrated as far as Chateaugay Four Comers, when, hear- 
ing of the approach of American troops, th^ retreated in great 
confusion, suffering severely in their flight, from a storm of 
snow and hail. Upwards of 200 men deserted during this 

Fort Covington, in this county, was erected during the last 
war, and a part of the army wintered here in 1813—14. 

Villages. Malone, in the town of the same name, is the 
scat of justice 'for the county. It is situated on both sides ai 
the Salmon river, which here furnishes a large amount of water 
power, and is surrounded by a fertile country. In the vicinity 
are extensive veins of valuable iron ore. The viHage has 
several manufactories of cotton goods, leather, scythes, pails, 
&c. The Franklin academy, located here, is in a flourishing 
condition. Population 1000. 

Fort Comngton, located at the head of navigation, on Sal- 
mon river, is a flourishing village, largely employed in the lum- 
ber trade, and has an incorporated academy and several manu- 
lactories. The fort here was an important military post during 
the war. The village was then known as the ** French 
Millfl." It received its present name in honor of Gteneral Cov- 
ington, who was skdn at tiie battle of WilHamsburgh, Novem- 
, bcr 13th, 1813. Populatkw 1000. 

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Square miles, 484, 
Oiganisedt 1806. 

Population, 34,550. 
Vataation, 1845, $4,086,089. 

1. Carabna, 1808. 

2. Hartland, 1812. 

3. Niagara, 1S12. 

4. Porter, 1812. 

5. Lewiston, 1813. 

6. Royalton, 1817. 


7. Wilson, 1818. 

8. Somerset, 1823. 

9. todtport, 1824. 

10. Newfane, 1824. 

11. Pendleton, 1827. 

12. Wheatfield, 1829. 

lUoers, Sre. M. Niagara River, a. Eighteen Mile Creek, b. John- 
son's, c. TuBcarora. f. HoweVs. r. Tonawanda. 

Falls. SS. Niagara Falls. 

Lakes. J. Lake Ontario. 

Battle Fields. Niagara. 

Fifrts. Niagara. Schlosser. 

Villages. Lockpobt. Lewiston. Niagara Falls Village. Yoangs- 

Boundaries. North by Lake Ontario ; iSast by Orleans and 
Genesee counties; South by Erie county, and West by Niagara 

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Surface. Like most of the other counties lyin^ on Lake On- 
tario, Niagara county is divided by the Ridge Road and the 
mountain rklge, into three terraces, of wliich the two northern- 
most rise gradually from the lake shore to the mountain ridge ; 
while the southern declines almost imperceptibly toward Tona- 
wanda creek. The surface is therefore srenerally quite level, 
having no more than sufficient inequality to secure its effectual 

Rivers. The county is well watered. Besides Niagara riv- 
er, which forms its western boundary, the principal stresuns are 
Tonawanda creek, which divides it from Erie county, Tusca- 
rora. Eighteen Mile, Johnson's and HowePs creeks, falling into 
Lake Ontario ; and Cayuga creek, a tributary of Niagara river. 

Falls. This county, conjointly with Niagara district. Can- ' 
ada West, includes the world renowned cataract of Niagara. 

To portray fkitty tlie wonders of tbis stupendous waterfaB, exceeds the powers 
of tbe haman inind, and requires a language commensurate with its grandeur and 
magnificence. We sball therefore only attempt to describe tbe different dements 
which combine to render it tbe moet extraordinary of natural wonders, and leave 
It to tbe imagination of the reader to group them into one harmonious whole, 
although nothing but an actual view of the falls, ^m several points, can give any 
adequate conception of its surpassing beauty and sublimity. 

For a distance of three^urths of a mile above the fiiBs, the river, over two 
miles in breadth, hurries forward in a succession of rapids, whose roar, combined 
with that of the cataract, may B(»Aetime8 be heard for a distance of twenty miles. 
The descent accomplished by these rapids, is between fifty and sixty feet, and 
their imposing grandeur strikes the beholder with admiration and awe. As tbe 
waters approach the foil, the width of the river is compressed to about half a 
mile. Uete it suddenly turns to the eastward, making almost a right angle in its 
course, and, immediately below the fells, is contracted to a width of only seventy- 
aix reds. Ih consequence of this bend, the view of the cataract from the Ameri- 
can side ia more in profile than that on the Canada side, where a short distance 
below the fiJls a front view is presented, giving the visitor at a glance an idea of 
its vast magnificence. 

Just above the fa]lfl,in the middle of the river, lies Goat or Iris Island, half a 
mile long, and about rnie-fourth of a mite wide, containing seventy-five acres. 
I'his has been connected with several adjacent small islands, by bridf^ and these 
again with the American shore. Iris island hi heavily timbered, and has a num- 
ber of fine waHcs, and a large garden. 

It extends over the cataract, and presenta a waD of parpendicolar lock, sepa- 
rating the crescent or Canaidian fall, from llie American portion of the cataract 
This latter is again divided by Luna island, a small islet. There are thus three 
distinct cascades, one on the Canadian, and two on the American side. 

The lower fitll, or that nearest the American shore, is more than 300 yards in 
width, and 164 feet in height The central foil, extending from Luna to Iris isl- 
and, has the same height but is only twenty yards in breadth. Both have a 
gentle curve bi their outline. 

Flrom the compamtive shallowness of the waters on the American aide, they 
are constantly dashed into foam, ere they reach the precipice. 

On the Canadian side of Iria island, is the great Horse Shoe or Crescent fol, 

over which pour seven-eights of the volume of water conqKwing this n^gfaly 

stream. It is about 700 yards in width, and 158 feet in height Tine deep greea 

of its biDowB is only relieved by the crests of white foam which surmount them. 

To the QMsctator, staodiiv on Iris island, tiie oatanttt is veiled in a cloud of ahnost 

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iil» «i4 all Itwn ptp to^xploie Hi apfiftrtiitly nMMMNMble deptha 
aeem Aitite. But ia the clear miniig^ this mist ia tQe Mxucaof new aurpriae and 
admiration ; the rainbow, '*tbe crescent of the abyas,'* with its everchanging buea^ 
apana tbe iaqienetrable cknid, and adda new beauty to the acene. The view 
tnm TMilarocki q» the Canadian aide, ia more distinct, and gives the spectator 
a better comparative v^ew of the three fiiBa. 

Terrapin Bridge, 300 feet froip Goat island, extends ten feet over the fkUs, and 
near ita end, in the water, and upon the edge of the precipice, a stone tower, 
forty-five feet high, haa been erected. The view of the fiill from the top of this 
tower ia very grand, but requires some steadiness of nerve. 

Tbe banks of the river below the precipice constitute an ahnoat perpendicular 
wan, nearly SOO feet in height, requiring artificial means for descending to the 
water's edge. For this purpose, three staircases have been erected. The first 
ia on the main land, on the American side, giving access to the ferry. Recently 
a raihvay, moved 6y hydraulic powec, has been constructed, tD fhcilitate the de- 
scent. The river is crossed in safety in a row boat, propeBed by a sii^le person. 

A aecond staircase was erected in 1839, on the perpendicular face ot Iris isl- 
and, at tbe expense of the late Nfcbolas Biddle. A rude but strong flight of com* 
ttfon atepfl leads down a steep declivity of about forty feet, to the head of the Biddle 
iteir case, which is in tbe form of a hexagon, enelestng triangular steps, that wind 
spirally roond a bige and solid oaken shaft. The descent accomplisbed by these 
is about 80 feet. Faths lead from the foot of these stairs, to the river brink, to 
the verge of the British fall, and to tbe Central iall, and the Cave of the Winds 
behind it 

The tbbd staircase is on the Canadian ride, and conducts the visitor under the 
ovetlHingfaig ledge ef I\gifaie rock. Here he wiH find a path leadte^ nader.the 
Great Crescent fall, by which, if he chooses to venture, he may pass, for a dis- 
tance of about 150 feet, behind this vast mass of waters. 

The depth ef the river, a short distance betow the cataract, is $50 feet The 
quantity of water poured over tbe fiiDs has been variously esllBated. Dr. Dwigfat 
eonputed it ai more than 100 milUpas of tons per hour. 

Ab6ut three miles below the &118, is a whirlpool, produced by the prcsjeetion ef 
a rocky promontory, against which the waters of the river have, for ages, hurled 
their angry billows in vain. In this whirlpool, timber and the dead bodies of men 
or animals, which have been precipitated over the cataract, are often retained fnK 
days, and sometimeafor weeks, ere they pass the narrow outlet' About a mile 
below this is a deep ravine, where formerly there was another whirlpool, but the 
waters, after centuries of unceasing action, wrought out for themselves a more 
quiet passage. Thia gk>omy dell was, some eeventy-five^w eighty years since, the 
scene of a fearftil tra^y, which will be lelated m the histodcal akatch of the 
fioun^. It is. called ** (he devil*s hole.** . 

LiAKBd. Lake Ontario fonas the northern boundary of the 

Canals. The Elrie canal passes through the southeastern 
and southern p m ons of' the county, 

RAn^ROABS. The Buffalo and Niagara falls railroad connects 
Niagara Ms with the lines of railroad from Albany. . There is 
also a railroad connecting Lockport and Niagara falls with a 
branch extending to Lewiston. 

GuMATS* Owing to the vicinity of the lakes, the climate is 
mild and equable. It is considered healthful. Here, as in Erie 
county, irui^ flourish ia greater perfection, and vegetation is 
earlier than in the same parallels in the eastern counties. 

Geology and Minsbalb. The Medina sandstone is the basis 
rock c^ the county, and makes its appearance near the Lake 

•® Digitized by VjUU^IC 


shore; above this appears the Clinton group of liflieston^; the 
Niagara group forms the surface rock of the second terrace, and 
abounds in fossils ; the Onondaga salt group appears as the sur- 
face roclc of the third terrace, and contains as usual large quan^ 
titles of gypsum, and numerous brine springs. 

Bog iroft ore is found in yarious parts of the couxity ; copper, in minute quan- 
titiea. has been discovered near Lockport ; sulpl^ate of strontian. calcareous spar, 
anhydrous sulphate of lime, selenite, pearl spar, and occasionally fluor spar, and 
■ulpburet of zinc, are found at Loclcport. Sulphur springs are nimieroas ; some 
of them have considerable reputation. The brine springs are too we^ to be of 
much practical value. There Is also a chalybeate spring, and one emitting car- 
boretted hydrogen gas. in sufficient quantity to maintain a steady flame. Shell 
marl is found in the swamps. 

Soil and Vegetable Productions. The soil is highly fertile, 
yielding grains and grasses in abundance. Fruit is cultivated 
here in great perfection. The timber is mainly oak, beech, ma- 
ple, tamarack, ash, &c. 

Pdrsoits. a majority of the inhabitants are engaged in agri- 
eultw^al pursuits. The culture of wheat and the othisr grains, 
occupies the attention of most of the farmers of the countjr. 
Butter and wool are also produced in considerable quantities. 

^hidriuinuf.ctures of the county are numerous, and constant- 
ly increasing in value and importance. Flour is manufactured 
in large quantities. Lumber, cotton and woollen goods, iron 
ware, potash and leather, are the other principal articles pro- 
duced. Their value, in 1846, was nearly two millions of dollars. 

Commerce. The commerce of the county is quite extensive, 
both on the lake. and on the canal. Lewiston is the principal 
port on the Niagara river. 

Staple Productions. Wheat is the great staple of this 
county. The other principal sigricultural products, are oats, 
com, potatoes, peas, butter and wool. 

Schools. In 1846, there were m the county 158 district 
school-houses, in which schools were maintained an average 
period of eight months each. 11,919 children received instruc- 
tion, at an expense for tuition of §15,034. The number of vol- 
umes in the district libraries was 16,612. 

823 pupils were instructed in twenty-nine select schools^ There were also in 
the coun^one academy, and one female seminary, with 185 stodenta. 

Religious Denominations. Methodists, Presbyterians, Bap- 
tists, KpiscopaHans, Friends, Gongregationalists, Universalists, 
Dutch Reformed, Lutherans, and Roman Catholics. There 
are ^y churches and fifly-nine clergymen of all denominations, 
in the county. 

History. In 1697, M. de la Salle erected a palisade fwt at 
or near the site of Fort Niagara. 

In 1712, the Tusearora Indians removed to this county from 

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Morth Cardina, and vadttd tb^nselves with the Iroquois eon- 
federaey, which thenceforth assumed the name of " the Six Na^ 
tions.** They still hold a reservation of about 5000 acresi 
lyix^ ia the town of Lewiston. They are about 300 in number, 
and are mostly in prosperous circumsteuiGes. They have a 
church and school, both under the direction of the Americaa 
Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. 

In 1725, the French ereoted a fort at the mouth of the Niagara 
river, in this county, in pursuance of their design, of connecting 
their Canadian settlements with those on the Mississippi, by a 
chain of military posts. 

Here their efficient emissaries, the Jesuit missionaries, won 
the affections of the simple hearted red men, by their ready 
compliance with their dress and customs; and extolling the 
power and gruideur of the French monarchs, incited them to 
deeds of aggression and bloodshed against the English. Not 
long afler the erection of this fort, a stockade fortress, since 
known as old Fort Schlosser, situated about a mile above the 
&l]s, was also erected. 

In 1759, Fort Niagara was captured from the French, by the 
British army, under the command of Sir William Johnson. It 
was rebuilt and garrisoned anew the same year. 

During the revolution, it was held by the British, and from 
its time-stained walls, issued numerous bands of Indians and 
tories, bound on expeditions of bloody revenge, or lawless piun« 
der, to the hapless valleys of the Schoharie cuid Mohawk. To 
this place, too, they brought the prisoners and scalps they had 
iedcen, to ckum the reward which a British ministry offered for 
these evidences of their own inhumanity. 

In 1796, this fort was surrendered to the United States. At 
diat time there was but one white family, beside the occupants 
of the fort, within the present limits of the county. 

During the late war with Great Britain, the American garri- 
son, obnsitfting of 370 men, were surprised by an unexpected 
attack ft*om a force of more than 1200 British troops, who cross- 
ed the river, and after a brief but severe struggle, captured the 
fivrt. ^xty-five of the garrison were killed, and twmty-seven 
ineces of Ordnance, with a large quantity of military stores, fell 
into the handa of the captors. In March, 1815, it was again 
surrendered to the United States. On the 14th of September; 
1826, Morgan, of antimasonic notoriety, was confined in the 
magazine of the ibrU 

rten ean be no doabi ttet during its oeeupttcy by tlie Freneh, ft wMocca^ 
nonaQy usedasapruonforBtate offendeiB; and ftom tba« time «?,tlpclD«of 
ttie lerolntioD, deed« of crime and blood were committed tticre, whicb tbe Ugbt 
of the Judgment day alone wiU reveal 

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36t STATB or vBir tork. 

On tbe 17th of September, 1703, a compnoy ef troope, rnnit- 
bering with the teamsters, about 175 men, were esoorting a 
quantity ofstores to Fort Schlosser, and had reached the ravine 
known as the I>evil's Hole, on the Niagara river, when they 
were beset by a party of Bene -a 1 dki is who were then in the 
French interest, and all bot two murdered, or dashed to pieces 
in their foil over the precipice. 

One, a drummer, was saved by the strap of his drum being 
caught in the branchesof a tree, in hie ML ; the other, a man l^ 
the name of Stedman, being well mounted, forced his way 
through the hostile crowd and fled, at the utmost speed of his 
horse, to Fort Schlosser. His clothes were riddled with balls, 
but he was unhurt The Indians considered his escape as mirac- 
ulous, and gave him a large tract of land, embracing all that he 
had rode over in his flight. 

In December, 1913, the British burned Lewiston, Youngs- 
town, Manchester, (now Niagara Falls viUage,) and the Tusca- 
rora Indian village, alleging the burning of Newark, in Canada 
West, by the Americans, as an excuse for their barbarity. 

Early in December, 1837, alter the failure of the attack of the 
''Canadian patriots,". (so called,) on Toronto, McKenzie and 
Sutherland, two of their leaders, who had escaped to the Uni- 
ted States, together with some twenty-five of their adherents, 
took possession of Navy island, in the Niagara river, above the 
Falls, and remained there nearly a month, bidding defiance to 
the Jritish troops, who were coi^regated on the Canadian 
shore, to the number of 3000 or 4000 men. 

The ranks o£ the "patriots" were constantly remfwoed by 
volunteers from the xVmeriean frontier, until they munbered 
about 600. The British fired upon them, and kilted one man; 
the fire was returned, and preparations made (o erosa into Can* 
ada, when by the interposition of General Scolt, the island^ was 
evacuated, and the patriot army dispersed. 

It was during ^e occupation of tys island, that Mr. Wells, 
of Buffalo, the proprietor of a small steamboat, called the Car- 
oline, formed the project of running his steamer as a ferry boat, 
between Navy iidand and old Fort Schlosser, in order to accom- 
modate the numbers who wished to pass and repass daily. 

Accordingly, on the 29th of December, the boat conmieneed 
running, and having made several tripe during the day, was 
moored at mght, beside the wharf at Schlosser. Numbers, 
who had been attracted by curiosity to the pls^e, were unable 
to obtam lodgings at the tavern, the only dwelling in the vicinity, 
and sought accommodations on board the boat 

About midnight, the watch on board the steamer observed 
a boat approachmg; he hailed, but before he could ghre the 

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idann, a body of javwd meo ftom Canada, ruiAied on board, 
crying^ ^* cut them down, give no quarter ;" no resistance was 
made on board the boat; all who eould do so, escaped to the 
shore. Five persons were known to be killed. 

The boat was cut from her moorings, towed out into the 
stream, set on fire, and suffered to drift down the river, and over 
the falls. It was supposed thai several persons were on board 
at the time she went over the cataract. This outrage produced 
great excitement on the frontier, and had iveU nigh involved 
our government ki a vmr with Great Britain. 

ViLiiAOis. LocKPOBT, tfic county seat, w a large and busy 
village in the town of the same name. It was founded in 1821, 
and incorporated in 1829. The Brie canal here descends, by 
five massive double locks, sixty ^t. Before preaching these 
locks, m its progress eastward, tlw canal p^ses, ^r several 
miles, through a deep cuUing ef limestone, where the walls 
of rock, on either haM, rise twenty or thirty ^tet abov6 the 
level of the canaL. The descent of the caiial furhi^hes an im*- 
mense water power, which is partiallf improved. The village 
has a great variety of mmiufaetures. ' Several v^y large flour 
mills are in operation. Populalion, 6800. ' 

Niagara Falls Village is a beautiful and thrivin|r place, 
deriving mudi of its importance from, ifo proximity to the cata- 
ract. It has been proposed to devote the waters of the Niagara 
at this place, to.manufaoturing purposes, but it is to be hoped 
that such a project may never be carried into execution. PopY> 
lation, 1000. 

. LewMon, in the town of the same name, has considerabte 
trade with Oswego, and other ports on Lake Ontario. Here is 
also a ferry across the Niagara river, to dueenstown. It is the 
head of steamboat navigation on the river. Population, 900. 

Ymmg^stmDn is a thriving little village in the town of Porter. 
It has a good steamboat landing, and is connected with the vil-^ 
kge of Niagara, in Canada, by a steam ferry. Population, 700. 

ANddleport, in Uie town of Royaltoo, is a village of some kn- 

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flqnu* nilM, 919. 
Ofxanized, 1809. 

Popidatuw, 16,727. 
Valuation, 1845, $l,468,SBa 

1. Mamakatinff, 1799. 
3. Lumberland. 1798. 

7. Bethel, 1809. 

8. FaUtburgh, 1826. 

9. Cochecton, 1828. 

10. Forrestburgh, 1838. 

11. CoUikooD,lS42. 

3. NeTiaink, 1798. 

4. Rockland, 1798. 

5. Thompson, 1804. 

6. Liberty, 1807. 
Mbmntaiiu, P. Shawangunk mountains. 

Bwer$, H. D^aware river. R. Nevisink. a. CoUikoon. e. Mon- 

gaup. g. Bashe'skill. k. Beaver kill. i. Little Beaver kill. 
FalU. On the Mongaup and Nevisink^ Fallsburgh and Forrestburgh. 
Lakes, h. White Lake. 1. I^ng Pond. m. Round, n. Sand. 
Canah. Delaware and Hudson canal. 

VUlage$, MoNTicsuxi. Bloomingsburgh. Wurtzborough. Fallt- 
burgh. Cochecton. 

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BouNOARiES. Ndrth hy Delaware aod Ulster couoties ; East 
by Ulster and Orange ; South by Orange county and the Dela> 
ware river ; and West by the Delaware river. 

Surface. Hilly and mountainous. The Shawangunk moun- 
tains occupy the eastern section of the county. T he western face 
of theses mountains is precipitous, but they descend by a gentle 
declivity on the east. The remainder of the county has an ele- 
vated surface^ divided into numerous ridges, by the streams 
which intersect it 

Rivers. The Delaware forms the south-western boundary of 
the county ; the other principal streams are the Collikoon, Mon- 
gaup and Nevisink rivers, Bashe's, Beaver and Little Beaver 

Lakes. The county abounds with small lakes, among which 
are White Lake, Long Pond, Round Pond, and Sand Pond. 

Canals. The Delaware and Hudson canal passes through 
the valley of Baahe's kill 

CuMATE. Coki but healthy. Vegetation is about two weeks 
later than in Ulster and Orange counties. In some parts of the 
county frost occurs every month. 

GieoLoOT AND Minerals. This county comprises several 
geologksal formations of interest. The western hedf, and a por- 
tion of the northern section, belong to the old red sandstone 
fwmation, or Catskill group ; the eentral and southern porti )ns 
are composed of the Chemung sandstone and shales ; as we 
proceed eastward we encounter successively the limestones of 
the Hamilton group, the Helderberg limestones, the gray Sha- 
wan^unk sandstone and grit, which forms the largest portion of 
the surface rock of the county ; and the Hudson river slate. 

The oiuHber of minerals is not lar^e. In the vicinity of Wurtzborougb, and in 
other parts of the counly, mines of lead ore have been opened, wfaicta promite to 
be {NToductive and valuable. Ciyatallized iron and coppet pyrites, sulpburet of 
zinc, and quartz crystals of great beauty, bave been found in connection with the 
lead at these localities. The red sandstone affords, in some places, a fine building 

Son. AND Vegetable Productions. The soil of the uplands 
is fertile and well adapted to the production of the grasses and 
more hardy grains. In the valley of the Delaware it is cold and 
wet. The county is well adapted to grazing. The timber con- 
sists principally of pine, hemlock, beech, maple, linden, oak and 
tulip tree. But little more than one tenth of the soil is under 

Pursuits. The people of this county are mostly 'devoted to 
agricultvre. But little grain is raised, and that principally 
corn, oats and buckwheat The products of the dairy receive 
considerable attention. 

Manufactured. Leather and lumber are extensively manu- 

Digitized by >^00QIC 


fiictcired. The latter finds its way to market by tlie DelMrare 

Commerce. The Delaware ^nd Hodeoo canal furBMilies an 
easy mode of traneportation far the produce of the eastern sec- 
tk>n of the county. The Delaware river k nawigMe in the 
spring, and immense quantities of lumber are rafted dowa it. 

Mines, There are lead mines near WurtsdMirouiph, in the 
town of Mamakftting. 

Staples. Oats, corn, butter, beef, pork, lumber and leather. 

ScBOOLS. In 1846, there were in the county, 118 district 
sehool-houses, in which 6338 children were instructed at an ex- 
pense for tuition, of Q8793, The schools were in session an 
average period of eight months each. The district libraries 
contained 10,379 volumes. 

Tbaro were Bin dgiit aeleet tebook, willi 178 tdiolui, and om MaAemr wllh 

Reuoioos Denominations. Methodists, Presbyterians* Dutch 
Reformed, Baptists, Congregationaiiste, Episcc^ialianB, and 
Friends. Total number of churches, twenty-eight ; of clergy* 
men, twenty-three. 

History. In 1777, or 1778, several persons having been killed 
by the Indians in Rochester, Ulster county, the commander of 
the garrison at Honkhill, in Wawarsiiig, who had two or three 
hundred troops under his ciMimiand, determined to intercept the 
Indians on their return, and pimish them for their barbarities. 
He accordingly called for vo^teers, and Lieutenant John Gra- 
hams offered his services. They were accepted, and with a 
lieutenant's guard, consisting of twenty men, he made his way 
to a place since caUed Qrahamsville, in the town of Nevisink. 

Uiu)racticed in the arts ol' Indian war&re, they were no match 
for their wily foes. The Indians decoyed them from their posi- 
tion, induced them to waste their fire upon a single Indian, and 
then shot them down, euid scalped them. But three of the num- 
ber escaped to carry to tiie garrison the intelligence of the loss 
of their comrades. 

The town of Mamakating belonged to the Minisink patent, 
and was settled by the Dutch at an early period. The remain- 
der of the county belonged to the Hardenburgh patent, and was 
not occupied till near the commencement of the present century. 
The emigrants, with the exception of those who located at 
Mamakating, were mostly from die eastern states. The county 
was named in honor of General Sullivan, of revolutionary 

Villages. Monticello, in the town ofThompson, was found- 
ed in 1804, by Messrs. S. F.and J. P. Jpnes, and made the county 
seat at the organization of the county in 1809. Population, 700. 

Bloomingsburgh is a pleasant village, in the town of Mama- 
Digitized by vjouviv:: 



fMtii^* It kiatlMiiiidirt^rafiiieftgricuitureleoiHiiiT. Itluui 
anacadeinjr. Popolatkni, ^00. 

If^aizbtnv^hj in the same town, is a flourishing viUage, 
numxA after the projector of the Ddaware and Hudson canal. 
Near the village is a lead mine of considerable ioaportaace. 
PofmbitioD, 500. 

lAberty, FalUhurgh and Cochectm^ in the town^ of the same 
names, are villages of considerable importance. 


ffqoare miles, 186. 
Ofi»Qiased> 1809. 

Population, IMIO. 
Valuation, 1845, iS,7M,«il. 

1. SdiesMtady, 1«84. 4. Ntskavuna, 1809. 

2. Princeton* 1798. 5. GlenviUe, 1820. 
2« DttaiM8bai|;h, 1801. 6. Rotterdam, 1820. 

Muter*, AA. Schoharie kilL F. Mohawk river, a^ Norman's kill. 

Xoto. e. Maria. 

CitUi and Viliagei, ScHEirBcrrAinr. Duanesbuigh. Bottecdam. 

BouNOAAiBs. North by Montgomery and Saratoga ; East by 
Saratoga ; South by Albuiy and Schoharie ; and West by Scho- 
harie, counties. 

ScitFACB. The sucfiiee of Schenectady county is agreeably 
diversified with hills, plains and vidley& Flint hiU extends 

Digitized by >^00QIC 

358 BTATK or hbw toax. • 

llirovi^h a part of the sotithern section, and a spm of the Kaya^* 
derosieras rang^e passes throuafh the town of GrlenviUe, nearly to 
Schenectady. On the banks of the rivers are extenshre flats* 

RiYERS. The Mohawk, Schoharie kill and Norman's kill, are 
the principal streams. 

Lakes. Lake Maria is a small body of water in Duanesburgh. 

Cakals. The Erie canal crosses the Mohawk near the east- 
em line of the county, and passes alongf the south west bank of 
that river. 

Railroads. It has four lines of railroads, the Mohawk and 
Hudson, Troy, Sarato^^ and Utica railroads, all centering in 
the city of Schenectady. 

CuMATfi. The elimate of tills county is mild and salubciouB, 
but subject to considerable extremes of temperature. 

Geology and Minerals. The Hudson river group, consisting 
of grits and shales, or slaty rocks, is the prevailing surface rock 
of this county. The Utica slaie makes its appearance in the 
neighborhood of Glenville. The whole county is overlaid by 
clay and gravel, to the depth of from fifly to one hundred feet. 
I Bog iron ore occurs near the Une of Albany county. There are several loca}- 
itlM of calcareous spar, one of which reseiiri>le8 arragonite. C^oairtz cryscab and 
common Jasper are alsd found in tte ^ounty. 

Soil and Vegetable Productions. The soil is various. The 
extensive alluvial tracts along the Mcilawk ^nd other streams, 
are exceedingly fertile. The hills and plains are dther a l%ht 
mndy or clay loam, leds fertile, and sometiqnes barren.. 

Pine and pak are the principal forest tretfs^ ,- 

PuiiaoiTs. AgrictUture is the leading pursuit of the Inhabit- 
ants; Wheait and barley are extensively raised. -The rearing 
of cattle occupies some, attention. 

Manufactures are quite limited. Floor^ cotton goods, iron 
and leather are the principal articles. 

Commerce. By means of its canal and railroads this county 
enjoys ample facilities for the transportation erf* its produce. 

Staple Productions. Oats, potatoes, corn, barley, rje» bock' 
wheat, wheat, butter and cheese. 

SonooLs. This county had in 1846, seventy-five common 
schools, with 9614 pupils. They were taught an average pe- 
riod of eight months, at an expense of $4960. The district 
Uftnraries numbered 7115 volumes. 

There were two select schools, with twenty-two scholars ; an academy witt 
108 pupils, and s coDege, with tf even- piDfiMson sad $43 studentSL 

Religious DBMOMiifATioNS. Dutch Reformed, Presbyterians, 
Methodists, Baptists, Episcopalians, Universalists, Roman 
Catholics and Friends. The whoJe number of churches is 
twenty^four, of clergymen, thirty-four. 

Digitized by Google 

8GH«KCOTAt>7 CaPMTT. 359 

HurroftF; TWa county was one of the first ecttled in the 
i^e. PreviouB to the year 1620 several Dutch traders estab- 
lished themselves here, to traffic with the Indians Ibr furs. 

The first grant of lands was made in 1661, to Arendt Van 
Corlaer and others, on condition that they purchased the soil from 
ih& natives. The deed was obtained in 1672, and signed by 
four Mohawk chief& It comprised a part of the presezut city of 

In November, 1665, Governor Nichols granted to Mr. Alex- 
ander Lindsay Glien, a Scotch gentleman of ancient and noble 
descent, a tract lying on the Mohawk, and comprising most of 
the present town of Glenville, Mr. Glen resided for a number 
of years in Albany and Schenectady, and in 1690 removed to. 
his patent, where, in 1713, he erected a country seat, which he 
named Scotia, and which is still standing. 

According to tradition, Neskayuna was settled in 1640. A 
l»atent for land in this town was granted to Harmon Vedder, in 

On the eighth of February, 1690, the village of Schenectady, 
then containing sixty-three houses and a church, was burned, 
and sixty-three of its inhabitants murdered, twenty-seven car- 
ried captive, and others perished, from the severity of the sea- 
son, in the attempt to escape. 

The marauders who thus rushed upon the sleeping and de- 
fenceless inhabitants, like wolves upon the sheep fold, were a 
party of 200 Frenchmen and about fifty Indians, from Canada, 
who had nearly perished from hunger and cold in their murder- 
ous expedition. 

Having plundered and destroyed the village, they commenced 
their return, but were pursued by the Albany militia and the 
Indians friendly to the English, and twenty-five of their number 

In 1748, the Ctmadian Indians made'another hostile incursion 
into the county, and killed a Mr. Daniel Toll, who had gone 
about three miles from Schenectady, in search of some stray 
horses. On receiving intelligence of his murder, about sixty 
young men, from Schenectady, started in quest of the enemy. 
They were soon surprised by a party of Indians in ambush, and 
more than half their number were killed. The remainder suc- 
ceeded in reaching a house near by, where they kept the enemy 
at bay, till the Schenectady militia came to their aid, when the 
Indians fled and returned to Canada. Thirty-two young men, 
of the best families of Schenectady , fell in this afi'ray. 

The county was, with few exceptions, settled by the Dutch, 
and remained a part of Albany county until 1809. 

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Cmss Asm Vilulobs. Bcbbnbctadt city, the aeat of justice 
Sat the county, it flitoated on the south bnuich of the Mohawk 
river, fifteen miles northwest of Albany. As has been abeady 
stated, it was founded at a very early period. 

Previous to the construction of the Erie canal, it was a i^ace 
of voTy considerable business, as goods intended for the western 
trade were shii^^^ed upon the Mohawk at this j^aee. After the 
completion of the canal, most of this trade was transferred to 
Albany ; but the numerous railroads which now center here, 
have given it a new impulse, and its business and' population 
have materially increased within a few years past. 
. The city has some manufactories--4he principal are flour, 
paper, cotton goods, iron, leather, tobacco, malt liquors, &c. 
Population 6555. 

Union College, which is located here, was founded in 1795, 
and received its name from the fact that its founders were mem- 
bers of different religious denominations. It has a corps of 
eleven professors, and three principal edifices, two of brick and 
one of stone. Its apparatus is very complete, and its library 
large and valuable. It is amply endowed, and has property to 
the amount of 9450,000. Attached to the college fauiidmg is a 
tract of land, 250 acres in extent, a part of whidi is laid out in 
walks and pleasure grounds. Its situati(Hi is highly picturesque. 

Rotterdam is a small manufacturing village, in the town of 
die same name. 

Dnaneslmrgh is a village of some important. 

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89nnMttM,»16« rbputation, 13,9d8. 

OisaBixed, 181S. ValuatioB, 1845, i3,0S«,3I9. 


1. Kent, 1788. 4. Pattewon, 1705. 

2. PbiUpstown, 1788. $. Southeast, 1795. 

3. Carmek 1795. 6. Putnam Valley. 1838. 
Mouatamt. FF. Higfalftads. U. Taghkanic Range. 

JPemka, «. Antfaony's N«e. d. Snxar Loaf. e. BuUHiU. f. Break- 

seek Hill. 
lUverB. C. Hudson River. S. Croton. b. Peekskill. 
Zakes, Src Mahopack Pond. i. Sbaw*8 Pond. 
VUlmge: Gabmxu Cold Sprtag. 

Boundaries. North by Dutchess cocmty $ East by tSie state 
of Connecticut ; South by Westchester county, and West fay 
the Hudson river. 

ScRFACE. Putnam is one of the most mountainous counties 
in the state. The hiUs are not, however, ^eiaenlXfy vhrxxpt or 
precipitous, but rounded and susceptible of cultivation almost 
to thefr summits. It is well adapted to grazing. 

The Highlands ext^nA across the western part of the coonty. 
The range commences at the river, in the southwest eomier of 
Phfiipstown, and takes a northeasterly course, extending into 
Ihitchess county. In Philipstown there are several considera- 
ble pedes, the movt prominent of which are> Anthony's Nose, 
Sugar Loaf, BuU HiU, Breakneck HiU, and High Peak. The 
highest of these peaks is 1580 feet above the level of the HudsoiL 

In the eastern part the Taghkanie range actends thniiigh H^ 
count/, ikwa north to south. 

RiVffita Betide the Hudson, which forms the western bound- 
ary of the eouBfty, the Croton river and its braacfaes, and the 
Peekskill, are the cmly streams worthy of notice. 

Digitized by >^00QIC 


Lakbi. Mahopaek and Shaw's pond j, in the town of Car- 
mel, are the only bodies of water of importanoe. The first u 
nine miles in circwafereooe. and has two islands; the other is 
much smaller in extent 

The cumatb is healthful, though cooL 

Gbologt AMD Minerals. This county belongs to the south- 
eastern primitive district of the state. Granite, gneiss, and 
primitiTe limestone are the principal rocks. In the town of Pat- 
terson, and at several other points in the county, beds of trans- 
ition limestone occur. They are, however, of email extent. 

Hie principal minerals of tliie county are iron ore, of Ike oHSBecie and beoMi- 
titic varieties, in great abundance, and of superior quality ; copperas, arsenic, 
copper ores, chcorae iron ore, serpentine, asbestua, dolomite, tremolite, pyroxene, 
acapoUle, epUole. aiicon, splien«» albite, graphite, peat, and phospliate of lime. 

Soil and Vegetable Productions. As might be expected 
from its geological character, the timber is principally oak, 
chestnut, ash, maple, hickory, &c. The soil is perhaps natu- 
rally sterile, but treated with plaster, produces luxuriant crops 
of blue grass, herds-grass, and clover. The appearance of the 
forms indicate that the owners are possessed of competence. 

P0R8DITB. Agriculture is the principal pursuit of the inhab- 
itants. Considerable attention is paid to the dairy, and to the 
rearkig of cattle, sheep, swine and fowls. Much of the pro- 
duce exposed for sale in theNew York markets is brought fhim 
this county. 

Manufactures receive smne attention. 

The West Point foundry, at Cold Spring, is the largest in the 
United States, and employs more than four hundred men. 
There are one or two other foundries in the county. The other 
manu&etures are of comparatively little importance. There 
are iron mines in Philipstown, Putnam Valley and Southeast. 

Omunerce* There is but one good landing on the Hudson in 
this county, that of Cold Spring. Some ouxunerce is carried 
on from this point 

Staple Productions. Butter, h^^ wool and mutton are 
the principal staples, Calvea, lambs, fowls, &c, are also car- 
ried to the New York market in laige quantities. 

ScBOOLB. There are in the county sixty-three puUic schools. 
In 1846, these sohools were taught on an average nine months ; 
3345 €hiklren received instruction, at an expense of 96562. The 
libraries of the ditftrkt contained 8618 volumes. There were 
also, ten inrivate schools, with 124 pupils. 

Rbuoiods DBiioiaNATioif& Methodists, Baptists, Presbyte- 
rians, Episcopalians, Roman Catholics and Friends. 

Hibtort. This county was settled at an early period, but re- 
mained attached tn Dutchess tili 1812. At the base of the Sugar 

Digitized by Google 


Loaf, in Phdipstown, stands Bererly house, formerly the red* 
dence of Col. Beverly Robinson, a loyalist^ who, during the rev- 
olution, went with his family to New York, and thence to Great 
Britain. His estate was confiscated by the l^islatore, and his 
family banished. This-hoiise was the head quarters of Greneral 
Putnam, General Parsons, and the traitor Arnold. It was here 
that Arnold received the intelli^rence, that his treason was re- 
vealed, and from the landing on this estate he made his escape 
on board the British sloop Vulture. 

From the feot of the peak called Anthony's Nose, to Fort 
Montgofmery, a chain and boom were stretched, by order of the 
continental congress, in the autumn of 1776, for the purpose of 
obstructing navigation, and preventing the enemy from ascend- 
ing the Hudson. This chain was broken the same year, by the 

In 1778, Cs^tain Machin, the engineer who had constructed 
the former chain, superintended the making of another, of twice 
its diameter, which extended from West Point, to a battery at 
Constitution Island. This was never broken by the enemy, but 
was taken up every autumll, and replaced in the spring. It 
weighed 186 tons. 

Villages. Carmel, in the town of the same name, is the seat 
of justice for the county^ In picturesque beauty, and healthful- 
ness of situation, Carmel is surpassed by few villages in the 
state. Declining gradually to the shore of Shaw's lake, a beau- 
tiful sheet of water,, it presents one of the loveliest landscapes 
on which the eye can rest ^ Population 350. 

Cold Spring, on the bank of the Hudson, in Philipstown, 
is a thriving village, supported mainly by the mammoth iron 
foundry, about a mile from the landing. Population 1500. 

SoiUheast is a well watered and fertile town. Joe's Hill, a 
noted (eminence, extends west from Connecticut, into the centre 
of the town. 

Iron ore is abundant in this (own, and of good quality. There 
are several ponds of considerable size. 

d by Google 


I. QnMMbfOffgh, nm. 

5. Lnzerae, 1792. 

3. Athol, about 1800. 

4. Bolton, about 1805. 

6. Johnfburgli, 1805. 

6. Hague, 1807. 

7. Choalar, about 1809. 

8. CaldweU, 1810. 

0. Warrensburgh, 1813. 
10. Horicon, 1838. 

Mouniam». EE. KajaderoaBeraa. HH. ClintoD. m. Luzenie. 

lK«€r«. C. Httdaon. e. Jeaaup't Crook, f. Schvoon Branch. 

Zakea. X. Georgo. 1. Schroon. d. Brant 

A//#. k. Hadley. n. OUn'a. o. Bakor't. 

Battle Fkld, Caldwell. 

f^frt. Fort George. 

VUlaget. Caiawsll. Glen*s FaUs. 

d by Google 


BoomAwlEB. North by Essex ; East by Washinirlon ; South 
by Saratov, and West by Hamilton county. 

Surface. This county, with the exception of a small portion 
on the sooth, has a very elevated and rugged surface. The Lu- 
xerae or Palmertown range of monntains traverses the eastern 
section, the Kayaderosseras the central, and the Clinton range 
the western portion of the county. Many of their summits at- 
tain an altitude of from 800 to 1200 feet. The towns of War- 
renaburgh and Luzerne, are comparatively level. 

RfVERil. The Hudson, Schroon Branch and Jessup's creek, are 
the principal streams. They have a southerly direction through 
Ae county. 

Falls. Hadley, Jessup's, and Glen's falls, are on the Hudson, 

Laces. Lake George, which has already been described, and 
Schroon lake are the most important 

Climate. Cold but healthy. 

Qeologt akd Minerals. With the exception of a small bed 
of Trenton limestone, in the valleys in the southeast part of the 
county, the whole county is primitive — composed of gneiss, with 
some hypersth^ie, granite and primitive limestone. Serpentine 
is also fbund in veins between the predominant rocks. 

lion is condderabljr abnndiint Tbe msgnetie ore is flrequent, but does not 
oecnr in laffe bhwms; porcekiin tlty, Usek msTMe of Tery fine qiiallly, (ftom 
tke vieinityef Glen*! FOt.) rerd fntiqne, bkck lead or (mphile^and peast, are tto 
most important of tbe oaeAil minerals. Besides tbese, floor, xircoa, pyrites, tmm- 
mve feldspar, tourmaline, rutile, rhomb spar, ^aaxte Giystals of great beauty, ^d 
ealeaxeous spar occur in seraral localities. 

Soil and Vegetable Production&. The soil oC the greater 
part of the county is sterile. Some fertile land, however, is 
found in the narrow valleys, and in the level portions above 
m^itioned. A heavy growth of timber covers its hills, consist- 
ing of pine, spruce, fir, cedar, oak, maple, beech, elm and ash. 

PuRsnrrs. Agriculture is the leading pursuit; but the settle- 
ments are sparse, and in many sections the gigantic timber 
is not yet fefled. Many ol* the inhabitants are engaged in pre- 
paring lumber for market The county seems to be very well 
adapted to grazing ; com, oats and potatoes also succeed well. 

The nuinufacturea are those common to a new country; 
lumber, leather, potash, flour and fulled cloths. At Glen's FaUs, 
marble is also largely manufactured. The quantity of lumber 
sent to market from this county is very great. 

The commerce of the county is mostly confined to the trans^ 
portation of its own productions to market, by the Champlain 

The Stapixs are lumber* corn, potatoes^ oats, butter and 

Digitized by Google 

366 8TATB OP NSW TOftK. 

Sca&ouL la 1846, there were 115 digCrict aehoolp, ^ustaiaed 
an average period of six months each, and at an expeDse for 
teachers wages of $4869. The number of scholars was 4993, 
and of volumes in the school libraries 7951. There were eleven 
private schools, with 525 scholars, and one academy, with 
ninety-five pupils. 

RcuGious Denominations. Baptists, Methodists, Presbyte- 
rians, Friends, Universalists, and Episcopalians. The whole 
number of churches is twenty-eight, of clergymen, thirty -lour. 

History. In the French war of 1754—63, a number of inter- 
esting events occured in this county. 

In August, 1755, General Johnson, (afterwards Sir William,) 
led a force of about 5000 troops, incliuiing 1000 Indians, under 
the command of Hendrick, the celebrated Mohawk chieHain, to 
attack Crown Point About the last of the month he encamped 
at the south end of Lake George, and made preparations to 
convey his troops, by water, to the foot of the Lake. The Ba- 
ron Dieskau, the commander o£ the French forces, meantime, 
had descended the lake in search of his antagonifit. On the 8th 
of September, General Johnson received intelligence of his ap- 
proach, and despatched Colonel Williams, with 1200 men, to 
attack him. 

Taking advantage of the dense forests, Dieskau had formed 
his troops in a ereacent, and Williaqis erelong found himself 
Burrounded by the enemy. He soon fell, as did Hendrick, both 
fighting with the utmost bravery. Lieutenant Colonel Whiting,' 
of New Haven, Connecticut, the second in command, ordered 
a retreat, which he conducted with such skill and intrepidity, 
that his troops returned to the camp without disorder, and took 
their places in the ranks. 

Dieskau pressed on in pursuit, but halting his men, to arrange 
them for the onset upon the English camp, the English forces 
recovered their firmness and awaited his attack without dis- 
order. The Indians, in the employ of the French, were soon 
driven of!* by the cannon, and fled. 

Dieskau led up the main body of his troops, but in vain ; they 
were repulsed again and again, and after an obstinate action of 
five hours, the English, leaping over the breastwork, engaged 
the French hand to hand, and soon put them to flight. Dies- 
kau was mortally wounded and taken prisoner. The loss of 
the French was very severe. The British commander. Gene- 
ral Johnson, was wounded in the early part o^ the cotiflict, and 
resigned the command to<jreneral Lyman. 

For this success, the first which had attended the English 
arms during the war. General Johnson was rewarded with a 
baronetcy and a donation of £5000. 

Digitized by Google 

The day foHowinf the brittle, a detach t: ent from Fort Ed- 
ward attacked the fugitives of Dieakau's army, on French moun- 
tain, and killed the greater part of them. 

Sir William did not proceed after this vi t y to Crown Point, 
which if attacked might have heen easily carried, but satisfied 
himself with erecting and ibrtifying Fort William Henry at the 
head of Lake George. 

In August, 1757, this fort was taken by the Marquis de Mont- 
calm, the commander of the French forces. Colonel Monroe, 
who commanded the garrison, made a brave resistance, but the 
failure of General Webb to send him reinforcements, and the 
want of ammunition, at length compelled him to capitulate, 
which he did on the most honorable terms. 

No sooner, however, had the French obtained possession of 
the fort, than the terms of capitulation were most shamefully 
broken; the Indians rushed upon the defenceless troops, and 
plundered and murdered them without resistance. Montcalm 
had promised an escort, but it was withheld, and they were 
compelled to flee, as best they might, from the murderous as- 
saults of savages thirsting for blood. The wounded and the 
women and c^dren were the first to fall victims to their bar- 
barity, but the more able-bodied did not escape. It was com- 
puted that nearly 1500 were thus butchered. 

The fort was destroyed by Montcalm. Fort George was 
erected as a substitute for it, on a more commanding site, but 
was never the scene of any important action. Burgoyne de- 
posited most of his stores here in 1777. 

Many interesting incidents also occurred during the French 
war, along the shores of the Horicon lake. At Sabbath-day 
Point, in 1756, a party of Provincial troops defeated a force of 
French and Indians, who attacked them. Here, too. Lord Am- 
herst, with his army, stopped on a Sabbath morning for re- 

Rogenr Rock, is noted as the place \diere that boW and fear- 
less partizan eluded the pursuit of the Indians, and gave them 
^e impression that he had escaped down the face of the pre- 

The name of Piermm^s hland, marks the spot where Eng- 
lish prisoners were confined during the French war. Howe*0 
Point, the spot where that brave and much lamented youBff 
nobleman landed, immediately previous to the battle of Ticon- 
deroga; in which he was slain. 

The first settlement in the county was made about 1770, at 
Luzerne and Queensburgh. Johnsburgh was settled in 1790. 

The Jessup patent, in 5ie southern part of the county, com- 

Digitized by Google ' 


prised 40,000 acres of land. It was granted In 1774, to a faur^ 
eompauf. The town of Caldwell was founded by Mr. James 
Caldwell, a large landed proprietor. In most parts of the 
eoonCy the population is sparse. 

ViLLAQCs. Caldwell, the shire town of the county, is de- 
lightfully situated on the southern extremity of Lake George. 
It abounds with interesting associations connected with the 
early history of this county. Population 900. 

htn dif Fond, a short distance southeast of the Tillage, com- 
memorates by its name the bloody conflict of September 6th, 
1755. The bodies of nearly 1000 of the dain, mostly French- 
■len, were thrown into it. 

Gleris FqUm, located on the north bank of the Hudscm, in 
the town of Q,ueensburgh, was incorporated in 1839. It is 
largely engaged in the manufacture of marble, linae, and hm- 
ber. The marble is (bund on both sides of the river, and is 
hi^y prized for the beauty of its color, (black) and its free- 
dom from flaws. The falb at this place have a total descent of 
fifly feet, afibrding great hydraulic power, and presenting a 
picturesque and beautiful landscape. A bridge €00 feet in length 
crosses the river just above the falls. The navigable feeder 
of the Champlain canal passes throu|^ the village. Here is 
an incorporated academy, and a female seminary. Peculation 

Chester, in the town of the same name, is a pleasant villa^, 
situated in the midst of a fertile country. The " Sione Bridg^ 
in the northern part of the town of Chester, is a great natural 
curiosity. The stream which it crosses, enters the county from 
Essex* about thirty rods above the bridge, where it foils over a 
rocky precipice into a natural basin ; thence, turning to the east, 
it divides into two branches ; the northern passing under an arch 
of granite forty feet high and about eighty feet chord, diminish- 
ing in siae as the stream descends ; this branch may be followed 
156 feet from the entrance ; &e southern and larg^ branch forces 
its way through the rock, by a passage which is exj^red with 
great difficulty, being at times narrow and confined, and at 
others evening into caverns of great depth, and thirty or forty 
feet in diameter. At the distanee of 247 feet from the entrance, 
the two streams, having united during their subterranean pas* 
sage, again make their appearance, beneath a precipice fifty- 
four feet high, which terminates the bridge^ Tl^ «r^ on Uida 
side is five feet high and ten wide. 

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TbpulBtloii, 48,441. 



t. Mexico, nU3. 
% Redaeld, 1800. 

3. WilUamstowD, 1804. 

4. Volncy, 1806. 

5. Hannibal, 1806. 
«. Richland, 1807. 

.7. Constantta, 1806. 

8. Scriba, 1811. 

9. New Haren, 1813. 

10. Orwell, 1817. 

11. Oswego, 1818. 

12. Granby, 1818. 

13. Haatinga, 1825. 

14. Albion, 1825. 
lA. Sandy Creek, 1825. 

16. Boylston, 1828. 

17. Parish, 1828. 

18. Amboy, 1830. 
19* Palermo, ia32. 

20. Scbroeppel, 1832. 

21. West Monroe, 1839. 

22. Greenboro, 1844. 

JU»er$, a. Oswego River, i. Oneida Outlet b. Little Sandy Creek. 

e. Salmon River, d. Salmon Creek, e. Deer Creek, h. Oswego 
• Falls. 

Itokes and Bow, J.Ontario. Z.Oneida, k. Fish. 1. Mexico Bay. 

f. Little andy Creek Bay. 
Battle Fields. Sacketts Harbor. 
Aff«. Oswego. Ontario. 

Villagea. Pvi.aski. Oswjbgo. Fulton. Mexico. 

Digitized by >^00QIC 


Boom DAR1B8. North by Lake Ontario and Jefferson county ; 
East V Lewifl and Oneida ; South by Oneida Lake, Ononda^ 
and Cajru^ counties, and West by Cayuga and Laike Ontario. 

SuBFACB. The southeastern, southern and western portions 
of the county are level, the interior rolling:,- and the northern 
portion rising into hills. A ridge, 110 feet in height, runs wes- 
terly through the county, about eight miles north o{ the south- 
em boundary, forming the watershed or dividing line between 
the northern and southern waters. The Oswego breaks through 
this at the great. faUs at Fulton in the town of Vainey. 

RtVEB». The Oswego is the principal ^ver of the county. 
The other important streams are Salmon river, Salmon creek. 
Little Sandy and Catfish creeks, flowing into Lake Ontario ; 
Scriba and Bay creeks, flowing into Oneida Lake, and Scott 
and Black creeks, tributaries of the Oswego. The west branch 
of Fish creek, from Oneida county^ drains some of the eastern 
towns of this county. 

Lakbs, Bats, Ac. Lake Ontario washes the whole north- 
western boundary of the county. Oneida lake forms nearly one- 
third of its southern boundary. Fish lake, and several other 
small ponds add to its pickresque beauty. Mexieo bay is aa 
indentation ^f Lake Ontario some ten miles broad. Little 
Sandy Creek bay is a small land-locked kdet from the lake 
in the northwestern part of the county. 

The Osweigo canal, which connects the Erie canal with Lake 
Ontario, passes through the southwefitem portion of the county, 
following the valley of the Oswego river. 

CuMATE. The climate, influenced by its proximity to the 
lake, is more uniform than in some of the other counties. Fruits 
thrive well It is considered healthful 

Geology and Minerals. The geological formations of 
this county are v ry simple. The basis rock is a slaty sand- 
stone, making its appearance on the surface in the northwest 
section of the county. Grey sandstone overlies this on the east, 
extending into Lewis county. Red sandstone comes next in 
order, and covers the southern portion of the -county, except a 
narrow strip along the south border. The Clinton group, 
'(limestone,) occurs in several sections of the county, but is gen- 
erally thickly covered with alluvial deposits. 

The county has no mineralB of Importance. There is a single locality of bog 
nron ore, and some weak brine springs, in the red sandstone formation. 

Soil and VEosTiBLE Productions. The soil is generally 
rich and fertile, but better adapted to grazing than the growing 
of grain. The timber is oak, pine, beech, basswood, ash, but- 
ternut and hemlock. The grass crops are very large and of fine 

Digitized by Google 

osW£Sgo county. 371 

PuRsuiTfl. Agriculture is the pursuit of a majority of the in- 
habitants. The culture of grain and the rearin* of cattle, 
sheep, and swine, each receive a large share of attention. The 
county is usually reckoned one of the first a[^ the grazing coun- 
ties. Oats and corn are raised to a greater extent than wheat. 

Manufactures, Some attention is paid to manufactures, and 
such is the amount and convenience of the hydraulic power <^ 
the county, that we may anticipate a great increase in this re- 
spect, when the county becomes more fully setded. At present', 
flour, leather, and fulled cloths, are the principal articles pro- 

Commerce, The commerce of this county is large, Oswego 
being one of the best ports on Lake Ontario. Much of the Can- 
ada trade enters the state from this direction, as well as that 
from Lake Erie by the Welland canal. The commerce on th6 
canal is also very large.* 

Staple Productions. Butter, c' eese, wool and oats. 

Schools. There are 272 district school-houses in the county. 
In 1846, schools were taught on an average eight months. 
17,143 children received instruction, at an expense of $17,838. 
The district libraries contained 24,511 volumes. 

There were in the county, twenty-two private iM^hools, with 403 (mpils, and theee 
academies, with 178 itudents. 

RcuGious Denominations. Baptists, Methodists, Presbyte- 
rmfis, Congregafionaiists, Episcopalians, Dutch Reformed, and 
Roman Catholics.. There are fifty-two churches, and seventy* 
two clergymen of all denominations in the county. 

History. In 1722, under the direction of Governor Buraet, 
a trading housn was erected at Oswego, on the east side of the 
river. In 1726, in order to prevent the encroachment of the 
French, Governor Burnet erected old Fort Oswego, on the 
west side of the river. In 1755, Fort Ontario, on the east side 
of the river, was constructed, under the direction of Governor 
Shirley. On the 14th of August, 1756, both these forts, with a 
garrison of 1600 men, and a large quantity of ammunition, were 
surrendered to the French, under Montcalm, who had be- 
sieged them with a well appointed force of 5000 men, and met 
with stubborn and long continued resistance. 

In 1759, the pentagonal fort, called Fort Oswego, was built. 
The post was surrendered to the United States, by the British 
Government, by the treaty of 1794. 

During the late war, its garrison, commanded by Lieutenant 


Tonnage enrolled and licensed, 1845, - - . - tons» 11,410 

FloarAippod at Oswego, 1846, - - • - * 44.660 

Prqttertj shipped for other states hj^wtif of Oswcf o, '; 7K4*® 

ToHs on thsO^ego canal, 1846, . . . ^ •66,947 

Digitized by VjOUV IC 

S?l 8TATB or NSW irOAK. 

(MonA Mitehett, with an efiective force of less tfaaa 900 mea, 
•lutaioed an attack from the British force, which copsisted of 
more than 3000 troops, for two days, and A • lly retreated in 
food order, with a low durins ^^ whole conflict of o ly forty- 
§bm in kitted and wounded* while the loss of the enemy was 
835. The British, chagrined at their want of suc^ es ^ , e acua- 
ted the fort in aboat twelve hours. 

Fort Oswego, on the east of t^ e river, occ\4>ie8 a station 
a little north of Fort Ontario, and has recently h&m repaired 
bgr the United States government It is one of the most import 
tant military posts on the lake. 

The settlemenc of the county did not commence till after the 
Revolution. The towns west of Oswego ri r belonged to the 
Military Tract, and were granted by the state to officers and 
soldiers of the New York line. 

The townships on Uie east side of the river constitute a part 
of " Scriba's patent." These lands were originally grant^ by 
the state to Nicholas Roosevelt, of New York, but he not com- 
plyi ich the terms of the purchase, a large portion of them 
were sold to George Scr&a, a native of Germany, and then an 
opule merchant in New York. The town of Richland, part 

f Volney, and about one half of Scriba, were purchased by 
Messrs. Alexander Hamilton, J. Lawrence, and J. B. Church. 

Vm^oEa. OswEQo village, situated o ot sides of the 
Oswego river, in the towns of Oswego and Seriba, is the half 
ahire tawn of the county. As the terminus of the Oswego ca- 
nal, it is a place of considerable importance, having an exten- 
sive forwarding trade. It has an inexhaustiUe water power, 
and is largely engaged in manufactures. Its flour u ills are of 
great size. The harbor is artificial, and is formed by two piers, 
extendin from the mouth of the river, one 1250 feet long, the 
other 250. These were erected by the general government, at 
an expense of 993,000. The village is regularly laid out and 
well built Population about 500a 

Pdlaski, the other county seat, is a small but thriving vfllage, 
in the town of Richland. It has valuable water privileges, as 
yet but partially improved. Population 800. 

Mexico^ in the town of the same name, is a thriving vSlage, 
situated on Salmon creek. It -has some manulSkctures, and an 
academy <^8ome note. Population 600. 

OrweiL The fells of the Salmon river ^t this place are wor- 
thy of notice. The stream is about ten rods wide, and after 
rushing over rocks for about two miles, plunges perpisudicularly 
107 feet The banks of the stream are eighty feet high above 
the feUs, and about 200 bek>w them. 

riMon ii a large and busy village, in the town of Ycrfn^, en- 
gaged in manufactures, for which the fklls in the Oswego, for- 
&i8h ami^ focilitaes. Population 2400. 

Digitized by VjiJOV IC 


Bquure Mileff, 580. 
Ofgaaized, 1817. 

Population, 39,108. 
Valuatioii, 1845, $4,001,719. 

1. Vlyaaes, 1801. 6. Hector, 1812. 

2. Dryden, 1803. 7. Groton, 1817. 

3. Caroline, 1811. 8. Lansing, 1817. 

4. Danby, 1811. ' 9. Enfield, 1821. 

5. Newfield, 1811. 10. Ithaca. 1821. 

Bivers. a. Fall Creek, b. Salmon, c. Six Mile. e. Halsey's. 
Falls, f. Taghannuc falls In Ulysses. Falls at Ithaca. 
Lakes, BB. Seneca. DD. Cayuga. 
Villages. Ithaca. Trumansburgh. 

BoDN DABiES. Nortli by Seneca and Cayuga counties ; East 
by Cortland and Tioga; South by Tioga and Chemung, and 
West by Chemung eounty and Seneca lake. 

Surface. Tompkins county forms a portion of the great table 
land of Western New York. Its southern portion is most ele- 

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374 STATE or ifBir tors. 

▼ated, Twixig from 1^00 to 1400 feet above tide water whfle on 
tlie shores of Cayuga and Seneca lakes it is 800 or 960 feet 
lower. 500 feet of this depression, however, occurs within two 
■riles of the lakes, where the streams running northward M 
over the led^e of the Chemung sandstone, which forms the limit 
of the highest terrace of the table land. 

RiTERS, &c. Salmon, Fail, Six Mile, and Halsey's creek are 
the only streams of importance. By their rapid descent, they 
furnish extensive and valuable hydraulic privileges. 

Falls. The most remarkable falls in this county are the Tag- 
hannuc, upon Halsey's creek, at the distance of one mile from 
Cayuga lake. The whole descent, within a short distance, is 
300 feet The water falls, in a single cascade, over a precipice 
216 feet in height, with a sheet of water sixty feet wide and two 
feet deep. The falls around Ithaca also possess great attrac- 
tions to the lover of the wonders of nature. Fall creelt has a 
descent of 438 feet within one mile. On the Cascadilla, is a faU 
of 100 feet, in the form of a gigantic stairway. 

Lakes. Seneca lake forms a portion of the Western boun- 
dary of this county, while Cayuga lake indents it on the north 
for a distance of srisout eighteen miles. The scenery at the south- 
ern extremity of the latter is highly picturesque. 

Railroads. The Ithaca and Owego railroad extends from 
Ithaca to Owego, the county seat o£ Tioga county. It is 
twenty-nine and a half miles in length. The proposed route of 
the New York and Erie railroad is through this county. 

CuMATE. The climate of the county is mild and agreeable, 
modified in some degree, perhaps, by its proximity to the Sen- 
eca and Cayuga lakes. Fruits thrive here in great perfection. 
It is regarded as healthful. 

Geology AMD Minerals. The whole county, with the ex- 
ception of two small tracts on the shores of the Cayuga and 
Seneca lakes, in the towns of Lansing and Hector, belongs to 
the Erie group, and consists in the north, of the LudlovTville 
shales, and in the south of the Chemung sandstone. The two 
iaaall tracts, to which we have referred, are patches of lime- ^ 
stoneybelonging to the Hamilton group, which appear, beneath ' 
the sandstone, near the shores of the lake. 

It has but few minerato. Marl and gypsum occur in considerable quantities. 
Calcareous tu& has been found, near It&aca, investing moss, &c. and producing, in 
popular phraseology, petrifactions. There are two or three so^pinr springs, of no 
great reputation, in the county. 

Soil and Veoet able Productions. The soil is, from the 
geological structure of the rocks; highly fertile, and does not re- 
quire, in most p^rts, the addition of any fertOizuig agent to 
maintain or increase its productiveness, the decomposed rocks 
affording a sufficient stimulus. The hiHs are productive to their 

d by Google 

mameOiUt and ttfibrd hixciriaiit frazio^, while the vaHe^ yield 
large crops of grain. Fruit is extensively and profitably cultiva^ 
ted. The timber consists of oak, white and yellow pine, hem^ 
lock, beech» maple, basswood, elm, ash, poplar, cherry and 

PuRBOiTs. Agriculture is the pursuit of a majority of the in* 
habitants. Oats, corn, buckwh^t, wheat and potatoes ar6 
raised in con«kierable <ioantities ; the products of the dairy are 
very large, and much wool is grown by the farmers. 

Aiamufactures also occupy the attention of a considerable 
number of the inhabitants. Flour, oil, woollen goods, lumber, 
leather, .distilled liquors, paper and potash, are the principal 
articles produced. The manufactures of the county in 1945| 
amounteid to nearly one and a half millions of dollars. 

Commerce* Its commerce is quite extensive. By means of 
the lakes, it has a direct communication with the Erie canal, 
while by the Ithaca and Owego railroad the produce of the 
counties south of it, is brought to a m&rket, and the manufhctures 
of the county distributed over Tioga and Chemung counties, 
and northern Pennsylvania. 

STAPi^a Butter, cheese, wool, oats, buckwheat, wheat and 

Schools. In 1846, there were in the county 215 district 
schools, which were in session an average period of eight 
months, furnishing instruction to 12,881 children, at an expense 
ibr tuition of $21,045. The number of volumes in the district 
librfloies was 24,648. 

There were also teyeiiteeii privifte schools, with 407 scholan, and two M»A- 
emiea, with 331 pupils. 

Reugious Denominations. Methodists, Baptists, Presbyte- 
rians, Episcopalians, Congregationalists, Unitarians, Dutch Re- 
formed, Universalists and Friends. The whole number of 
churches, is seventy-four ; of clergymen, seventy-five. 

History. The towns of Newfield, Danby, and Caroline, 
were purchased of the state, by Messrs. Watkins and Flint 
The remainder, (except a small portion in the northeastern 
part of the town of Dryden, which belonged to the ten town- 
ships granted to Massachusetts,) formed a portion of the Mili- 
tary Tract, and the settlers derived their titles through the sol- 
diers' patents. The county was organized in 1817, and was 
named in honor of the late Daniel D. Tompkins, formerly 
Governor of the state, and Vfce President of the United States. 
Previous to the completion of the Erie canal, it was in a lan- 
guishing condition, but since the opening of the canal, its agri* * 
cultural and manufacturing intereste have greatly prospered. 

Digitized by Google 

Sf5 0TATB 0# »Bir YIXftK. 

Ito earif MtdeM were chie4f from New Bnglaiid. Thefeittd* 
era of the town of IjuwAng, were Germaos from Pemuyivviua. 

Vhxaobs. ItHACA village, in the town of the same name, ii 
the seat of justte lor the coontyt It ts'sitimted partly on the 
alluvial flats bordering CAyuga. lake, (from which it is about <nie 
anda half miles distant, ) and partly upon the hilli, which form a 
natural amphitheatre around it It is r^^larly laid oat, its 
buildings are neat and tasteful, and its streets well, shaded. 

It is finely located for trade, communicating freely by means of 
the lake and canal) with eastern and western New York, and 
by the railroad and the Susquehanna river, with the coal region 
of Pennsylv^a. The completion of the firie railroad will Btitt 
further increase its facilities Ibr business. Its lumber trade is 
very great 

In available hydraulic power for manu&ctnring purposes, it 
is second to no village in New York. It is already largely en- 
gaged in manufacturing. Here is located an incorporated acad* 
emy, with spacious buildings* for the instruction of both sexes, 
a large Lsuocasterian school, and numerous selei^ schools, in a 
flourishing condition. Population, 4200. 

Trumanaburgk, in the town of Ulysses, is a flourishing vii* 
lage, with some manufactories. Population, 1000. 

Danby, in the town of the same name, is a thriving villBge. 
Population, 500. 

Dryden, in the town of the same name, Burdetie, in ths 
town of Hector, Ludhwville, in the town of Lansing, and New* 
fields in the town of the same name, are iriUages of some im* 

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Square iiii]ea» 876. 
OrgABized, 1831. 

Fopulation, 78,635. 
Taluation, 1845, $11,831,969. 

1. New8tead,180i. 

2. Aurora, 1804. 

3. Clarence, 1808. 


4. Buffalo, 1810. 

5. Kden, 1812. 

6. Concord, 18 la. 

Digitized by Google 


7. Htmburgh, 1819. 15. Alden, 18^. 

8. Boston, 1812. 16. Golden, 1827. 

0. Amherst, 1818. 17. Lancaster, 1833. 

10. HoUand. 1818. 18. Black Rock, 1837. 

11. Wales, 18ia 19. Brandt, 1838. 

12. Collins, 1821. 20. Chictawaga, 1838. 

13. Erans, 1821. 21. Tonawanda, 1838. 

14. Sardinia, 1821. 

JRieer«» Ire. M. Niasara river, b. Ellicott's creek, d. Seneca. 

f. Cattaraufl^ua f. Cauquaga. h. Two Sisters, e. CazenoTe. 

1. Buffido. n. Cayuga, p. Murder Creek, r. Tonawanda Creek. 
LakeS' L. Erie. 
Mands. W. Grand Inland. 
Battle t%eU9, Lake Erie. Buffalo. 
Citiei and Villages. BurrALo. Black Rock. Williamsville. 

SpringviUe. AuroraviUe. 

BoDNDARTCs. North by Niagara county ; East by Genesee 
and Wyomizig ; South by Cattaraugus and Chautauque coun- 
ties ; and West by Lake Erie and Niagara river. 

Surface. This county lies upon the great western plam. Its 
northern half is level or gently undulating ; the southern is hilly, 
particularly along the streams; the dividing ridge which sepa- 
rates the waters flowing northward, from the tributaries of Cat- 
taraugus creek, passes through the southern tier of towns. 

Rivers. The county is well watered; Tonawanda creek 
forms its northern boundary. Its principal tributaries are Mur- 
der and Ellicott's, or Eleven mile, creeks. Bufllilo creek, formed 
by the union of Seneca, Cayuga, and Cazenove creeks, waters 
the central portion of the county. The other streams are 
smaller: the principal are Cauquaga, or Eighteen mile, Two 
Sisters, Delaware, and Little Buffalo creeks. 

Lake Erie forms a portion of its western boundary. 

Grand Island, in the Niagara river belongs to this county. 

CuMATE. From its proximity to the lake, the climate ie 
moist, warmer in winter and cooler in summer, than some other 
portions o£ the state. The vegetation is from eight to ten days 
earlier than in the same parallels in the eastern part of the 

Geologt and Mi!fERALS. The Onondaga salt group, (lime- 
stone,) is the basis rock of this county. It appears on the sur- 
face in the northern tier of towns. The Helderberg series suc- 
ceed this in the towns of Buffalo, Chictawaga, Lancaster and 
Alden, and these in their turn give place to the Hamilton group 
of limestones. In the southern half of the county, the Casha- 
qua, or Ludlowville shales, and the Chemung sandstones form 
the surface rocks. 

Digitized by Google 


Tbe limestoiie is extensively quarried in the neighborhood of Niagara river and 
the Lake. It is not, however, generally smceptible of a high polish, but makes a 
fine buUding material when hammer-dressed. Water limestone is found oq 
Grand Island. Petroleum springs rise a few miles southeast of Cayuga creek. 
Iron pyrites, copper ores in small quantities, and water limestone are the principal 
minerals. There is a sulphur spring about four miles from BuflsJo, and one on 
Grand Island, containing free sulphuric acid in a very diluted state. The bitumin- 
ous shale, in which the petroleum springs rise, is so thoroughly impregnated with 
bitumen that it bums freely when ignited. Geodes, or masses of impure lime- 
stone, exhibiting fantastic and singular forms, occur in this as well as in some of 
the other counties. 

Soil and Vegetable Productions. The soil is generally 
^ood, eonsisting of warm, sandy, gravelly loam, occasionally 
mingled with clay, and well .adapted to whedt ; in the southern 
part it is more clayey, and is very productive of grass. 

The timber is large and abundant in the southern part, con- 
listing of oak, beech, maple, linden, elm, ash, poplar, hemlock, 
white pine, butternut, black walnut, wild cherry, &c. In the 
north it is principally diminutive oaks and underwood. The 
peach and other fruits attain extraordinary size and per- 

Pursuits. Agriculture is the pursuit of a majority of the in- 
habitants. The culture of grain and of grass occupy nearly 
equal attention. 

Manufactures also form the occupation of a large number of 
the inhabitants. Flour, lumber, cloths, iron, leather, malt 
liquors, distilled liquors and potash, are the principal articles 
manufactured. The flour mills produced, in 1845, flour to the 
value of more than a million of dollars. The entire value of the 
manufactures of the county, during the same year, was over 

The commerce of Erie county is very extensive. Buffalo and 
Black Rock, the principal lake ports, carry on a large trade with 
all the states situated upon the upper lakes, and with Canada. 
The shipping of these ports amounted, in 1845, to 25,000 tons. 
In addition to this, the immense quantities of produce, manufac- 
tures and furniture transported on the Erie canal and its branch- 
es, are here transhipped. 

Staple Productions. Butter, cheese, oats, wheat, corn, 
wool, beef and pork. 

Schools. There are in the county 291 school districts. In 
1846, the schools were tanght on an average eight months. 
The same year, 24,523 (jhildren received instruction at an ex- 
pense of $30,539. The district school Iftraries contained 31,032 

There were fifty-seven private schools, with 1304 pupils ; and three acade- 
mies, with 244 students. The school system of Buffalo has been already descri- 
bed, (see page 135.) 

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Rbuchoub Denomui ations. Baptists, MethodisU, Pre^^rte- 
rians, Congregatioiialists, R<xnan Catholics, Friends, Einsco- 
paiians, Universalists, Dutch Reforoned, Unitarians and Lu- 
therans. There are in the county ninety-four churches, and 
one hundred and twenty-five clergymen, of all denominations. 

HisTORT. The whole county, except a strip a mile wide, on 
the Niagara river, is within the limits of the Holland Liand 
Company's purchase. 

Its settlement dates since the commencement of the pres(^at 
century. Buffido, the first town in the present limits of the 
county, was laid out in 1801, but its increase was very slow until 
1812, when it became a military post In December, 1813, the 
British made a descent upon this county, and burned Bu&lo 
and Black Rock. These villages were soon rebuilt. 

In 1816-17, a number of persons from Canada and the United 
States took possession of Grand Island, in Niagara river, now 
forming a portion of the town of Tonawanda, sind dividing the 
land between themselves, gave out that they were an independ- 
ent community, and amenable to neither government. After 
the question oi'the boundary was settle, they were expelled by 
force, under the authority o£ a law of the state;, their houses 
being destroyed by the sherifi*and posse of Erie county. 

In 1825, Major Noah, of New York, a learned Jew, and editor 
of a newspaper in that city, formed the design of building a ci^ 
of refuge, upon that island, colonizing it with Jews, and making 
it a resting place for that dispersed people. He erected a mon- 
ument, which is still in existence, upon the island. But the Eu- 
ropean R€d)bins did not sanction the scheme, and it failed of 

Red Jacket, Sagoyouwatha, or Keeper Awake, as his name 
signifies, the most eloquent and intelligent of his nation, was one 
of the chiefs of the Senecas, and resided on the Bufi^lo reserva- 
tion. He was warmly attached to his tribe, and opposed the 
whites with the utmost daring, until he saw that resistance was 
vain. He died in 1832. 

Mary Jemison, che Seneca white woman, was buried in this 

The completion of the Erie canal, in 1825, brought a vasttkie 
of emigration into this county, and it has now become the fourth 
county in the state in population. 

Cities ano Villages. Buffalo city, the county seat of Erie 
county, as has been already stated, is a city of modern growth, 
laid out at thie commencement of the present century, and con- 
tained in 1817, but one hundred houses. It owes its growth to 
its advantageous commercial position on the lake, rendering it 
the depot of the immense quantities of produce, which find their 

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nfzy ihroush that cfaannel, from the boundless prairies of the 
west, to tide water, and to the great western railroad whi^ 
connects with Boston. '^ 

In 1845, the amount of produce coming from other states by 
way of Buffalo, was 233,135 tons, of which 118,6U tons were 
flour. Probably about one half this amount of goods, furniture, 
4ui, was shipped at Buffalo, for other states. The tolls receiv- 
ed at Buf&lo, in 1845, amounted to $482,000. 

The harbor of Bufiido is spacious and convenient for vessels 
of light draught : it is obstructed by the ice in the spring, till a 
later period than the ports on the Canada side. It has been 
proposed to construct a ship canal across the isthmus, from the 
lake to Bu&lo creek, which would in a measure obviate this 

The United States government have expended nearly 
9100,000 in the improvement of this harbor* the construction of 
a mole, pier, &c. and the erection of a light house. Considera- 
ble sums have also been expended, for the same purpose, by the 
citizens. Buffiik) is largely engaged in manufoctures of various 
descriptions. The present population of the city is somewhat 
over 36,000. It was chartered as a city in 1832. 

Bl€^ Rock, a village in the town of the same name, is about 
three miles north of Buffalo, on the Niagara river. The harbor 
is formed by an immense stone pier, or mole, more than a mile 
in length. 1^ means of this the Erie canal is supplied with wa» 
ter for nearly half its length. This work was erected by the 
state ofNew York, at an expense of $300,000. It also furnishes 
a fine water power, which is employed for flouring mills, saw'- 
mills, ^c. Black Rock is extensively engaged in manufactures. 
The lower or northern terminus of the Erie canal is here : the 
town increases rapidly in population, and now numbers about 
5000 inhabitants. It was burned t>y the British in December, 

AuroravUle, in the town of Aurora, possesses fine water 
pbwer on the Cazenove creek, as yet, however, not fully im- 
proved. The Aurora seminary is a flourishing institution. 
Population, 1000. 

WiUtmmmU€f in the twwn of Amherst, is iei thriving village. 
Large quantities of water lime, X hydraulic cement,) are manu- 
factured here. Pc^nilation, about 1000. 

^pringtiUe is a flourishing manufacturing village, in the 
town of Concord. It Jtias a number of &ctories, and an ineorpo^ 
rated academy. Popiidation, 1200. 

Titna'wanda is a new town, comprising Grand Idand and a 
portion of the main hind, as well as some other small 'islands. 
The island was purchased some years since by a company cidled 

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the East Boston Company, who erected here extensive saw* 
miUt, lor the porpose of preparing ship timber, but In the gen- 
eral depression of .business in 183<>-7, mey were forced to sub- 
pei^ operations. The village of Whitehaven was built mainly 
by this company. 


milM^ •boot 56S. 

Population, 37,345. 
Vahutttoii, 1845, 88,573,889. 

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1. Avon, 1789. 9. Groveland, 1812. 

2. Geneseo, 1789, - 10. Springwater, 1816. 

3. Lima, 1789. 11. Mount Morris, 1818. 

4. Sparta, 1789. 12. Conesus, 1819. 

5. Caledonia, 1802. 13. York, 1819. 

6. Leicester, 1802. 14. Portage, 1827. 

7. Livonia, 1808. 15. North Dansvilie, 1846. 

8. Nunda, 180S. 16. West Sparta, 1846. 

Hivers. N. Genesee, a. Cashaqna. b. Coaesus Outlet c. Out- 
let of Hemlock Lake. d. Honeoye Creek, r. Canascraga. 

Lakes, f. Conesus. g. Hemlock. 

Battle Fields. Qeardstown. 

Villages, Gene^eo. Mount Morris. Dansvilie. Avon Springs. 
FortageviU«. Nunda. Moscow. Lima. 

Boundaries. North by Monroe ; East by Ontario ; South by 
Allegany and Steuben ; and West by Wyoming and Grenesee 
counties. * 

Surface. This county is situated on the northern slope of 
the great dividing ridge which separates the tributaries of the 
Susquehanna and Ohio, from the waters flowing into the lake. 
The southern portion of the county is about 800 feet above 
Lake Ontario, and the descent toward the lake, though for the 
most part gradual, is divided into two terraces, the one, nearly on 
a line with the Portage falls, in Wyoming county ; the other, a 
continuation of the mountain rid^e of Ontario. This inclined 
plane is, however, intersected by the valley of the Genesee river, 
which, with a width of from two to four miles, has a depth, in 
the soathern part of the county, of not less than 400 feet. A 
ridge of still greater elevation, traverses the section between 
the Conesus and Hemlock lakes, bearing northeast. 

RiVers. The Genesee river is the great stream of this coun- 
ty, and receives all the waters which rise in, or flow through it. 
Its principal tributaries are the Canascraga and Cashaqua 
creeks, and the outlets of the Conesus and Hemlock lakes. 

The Honeoye outlet forms a portion of the eastern boundary 
of the county. 

Lakes. Conesus and Hemlock are the only lakes of impor- 
tance in the county. The former is nine miles long and nearly 
a mile broad. It is well stocked with fish, and is said to be more 
than 300 feet deep. 

Hemlock lake is six miles long and one mile wide. It lies 
partly in Ontario county. 

Climate. The climate is mild and temperate ; more uniform 
than in some other sections of th« state. It is regarded as very 

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Geology and Minerals. About two-thirds o£ the couaty, 
upon the north, belong to the Ontario group, consisting princi- 
pally of the limestone of the Onondaga salt group, which, in 
some cases, approaches very near the surface. In the southern 
portion, the Ludlowville and Cashaqua shales are the prevail- 
ing rocks, though intermingled with limestone. 
■ Bog inm on occon in the county. Gypsum is abundant Some brine springs 
htve been discovered, tboagfa not of great value. The sulphur springs of Avon* 
have a high and deserved celebrity, in numerous diseases, and rank among the 
best sulphur springs in the United Slates. 

Soil and Vegetable Productions. The soil is generally 
highly fertile, and weil^adapted to the growth of grain. In the 
north it consists princiixEdly of sandy loam, intermingled with de- 
composed limestooe, which renders it perpetually fertfle. 

In the north, the oak prevails, but is occasionally interspersed 
with other timber ; in the south, oak, maple, elm, basswood, but- 
ternut, walnut, ash, hemlock, white pine, dec, are the principal, 
forest trees. 

Pursuits. Agriculture. The culture of grain, and the rear- 
ing of cattle and svnne, form the principal pursuits of the inhab- 
itants of this county. Manufactures are, however, rising in 

* The following are analyses of th« salpbnr springs of Avon. That of the Up- 
per spring was made by Professor Hadley, of Fairfieki, and that of the Lower, by 
Dr. 8. SsBsliary, Jr. of Avon. 

VFPBR spsnco. 

Carbonate of lime, - « - . . 8 

Sulphate of lime, • • . . • - 84 

Muriate of soda, ..... i8.4 - 

Amount of saline ingredientB. 136.4 

One gallon contains per volume. eub. io. 

Sulphuretted Hydrogen, • • • . 12 * 

Carbonic acid gas, • • • * . . • 6.6 ' 



Carbonate of fime, • . . . . 29.33 

Chloride of calcium, - - - . . a4i 

Sulphate of lime, - - - . . 57,44 

" m«nesla. 49.61 

" aoA. . - „ .. :. 13.73 

Amount of saline ingredients, 158.68 

Carbonic acid gas, - - . . . ^^^ 

Sulphuretted hydrogen, - . . . laofi 

Nitrogen, - - . . - 6.42 

Oxygen, - . - - , . - 66 

Gases, 19.92 

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jgttfiori&DCid* The principal articles manufactured are flour, pa- 
per, lumber, distilled liquors, cloths, &c. 

Commerce. The Genesee Valley canal furnishes a conven- 
ient mode of transportation, for the produce of the countyy to tide 
water. There are no mines in the county. 

Staple Productions. Wheat, pork, and cattle are the great 
staples oi' the county. Large quantities of butter, wool, oats, 
and corn are also exported. Hemp and flax are grown largely 
in the Genesee valley. 

Schools. There are 193 school-houses in this coimty. The 
schools were taugh(, on an average, nine months during the 
year 1846, and 12,677 children were instructed, at an expense o( 
1(19,502. There were 25, 121 volumes in the district libraries. 

There ware twenty-four pdvate iclioole, with 196 po^ila, aad three aeadeaiici, 
with 165 aoMientB. 

Religioos Denominations. Presbyterians, Methodists, Bap- 
tists, Episcopalians, Dutch Reformed, Universalists, Unitari- 
ans, Congregationalists, Lutherans, Roman Catholics, and 
Jews. There are seventy-two churches, and ninety-two cler- " 
gymen of all denominations. 

HisTOKY. The banks of the Grenesee river in this county, 
were the favorite residence of the Seneca Indians, for a long 
period before the i^te man had trod that beautiful valley. In 
civilization, this tribe were more advanced than the Indians gen- 
erally, and were considered Toremost in the arts of peace, among 
the allied tribes. They cultivated their fields, built cabins for 
themselves, and when they could not obtain a supply of food 
from the forests or the lakes, looked to the products of their 
soil for sustenance. 

In 1687, the Marquis de Nonville, governor of Canada, en- 
raged at the firm adherence of this tribe to the English, collect, 
ed a large force of French and Indians, and commenced an ex- 
pedition against them. Following the course of the Genesee, 
he approached their villages with the intention of destroying 
them, and subjecting the captives he might take to the torture; 
but the wfly Senecas were too crafty for the French commander. 
They stationed 500 warriors in ambuscade on his route, and 
having thrown his troops into disorder, by a well directed vol- 
ley of musketry, rushed upon them, tomahawk in hand: The 
battle was fierce and bloody ; the Senecas were at length re- 
pulsed, but not without severe loss on the part of the French. 
De Nonville could not be pbrsuaded to follow them till the next 
day, and then found that they had destroyed their villages, and 
removed their wives and chfldroi beyond his reach. Two old 
men, all that remained, were carried away, killed and eaten by 
his savage allies. 

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De Nonville returned to Canada, establishing, in his route, a 
fort at Niagara, which he ^rrisoned with 100 men. This fort 
was 80 closely invested by the Indians, that eghty-eighi out oi 
the hundred perished from starvation, and bui for the aid of a 
party of friendly Indians, the rest would have shared the same 

In 1779, General Sullivan terminated his ^campeugn on the 
banks of the Genesee, in this county, ailer sending a detaeh- 
ment to Little Beardstown, now Leicester. It was in this town 
that the brave Lieutenant Boyd met with his melancholy fate, 
being executed with the most horrible tortures by the Indians, 
at the instigation of the infamous Butler, after his life had been 
guarantied by Brant. 

Ebenezer Allen, known as Indian Allen, the first miller of 
Rochester, a monster of wickedness, settled here soon afler the 
revolution, but in a few years removed. 

The principal founders and benefactors of the county were 
William and James Wadsworth, who emigrated from Connec- 
ticut in 1790. They purchased large tracts of land, which, by 
the rapid tide of immigration, soon became very valuable. Many 
of the early settlers were from Qonnecticut, and their enterprise 
and industry has made them wealthy. 

Villages. Geneseo, in the town of the same name, is the 
seat of justice for the county. It is pleasantly situated, about a 
mile from the river, on the terrace back of the flats. It ,is well 
built, and has considerable trade. The Geneseo academy, for- 
merly the Livingston county high school, of which Mr. Wads- 
worth was the chief benefactor, is locat^ here. It has a spa- 
cious building, and is well endowed. 

In this town are situated the Wadsworth farms, located on 
the broad alluvial flats of the Genesee, and celebrated for their 
fertility and superior cultivation. The mansion of the late 
James Wadsworth is, perhaps, unsurpassed in the state for the 
beauty of its location. Population 1600. 

Avon, in the town of the same name, has become a favorite 
resort of late for invalids and pleasure seekers, from all sec- 
tions of the country. The hesding virtues of its justly cele- 
brated springs were known to the Senecas, long before the 
country was visited by the whites. Red Jacket, a distinguished 
Seneca chief, was accustomed to resort to them. Population 

Upon Uie Genesee flats in this town, tbe Mecboacan, wild potatoe vuMtOrman 
of the ground, (Convolvulus panduratus,) is found abund^Uy. It has a large 
bulbous root, three or four feet in length, and frequently six or eight inches in di- 
ameter. It is a mild cathartic, resembling rhubarb in its effects. 

There is a pond on the flats irregularly circular in form, a neck of laadniBa Jnio 
It and expands within the circle, and upon this are remains of Indian fbrtiflcattona. 

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Lima, situated iD the town of the same name, is a beaotiflil 
villain, remarkable for the neatness of its dwellings. The Gen- 
esee Weslejran'seimnary, located here, is under the-control of 
the Methodists. It was incorporated in 1834, and placed under 
the visitation of the Regents of the Univerei y in 1836. It is 
well endowed, and in a highly flourishing condition. Popula- 
tion 600. 

Mount Morris J in Oie lown of the same name, is a finely sit- 
uated, thriving village, settled in 1804, by emigrants from Con- 
necticut. It is considerately engaged in manufactures. Popular 
tion 1400. 

DansvilUy in the town of North Dansville, at the head of the 
Genesee valley, forty-five; miles from Rochester, is a large» 
thriving and busy village. It is extensively engaged in manu- 
factures, and has an abundant supply of hydraulic power. Pa- 
per, flour, leather, iron, cloth, and lumber, in large quantises, are 
among its principal manufactures. A branch of the Genesee 
Valley canal extends to this village. Population 1800. 

NimcUij in the town of the same name, on the proposed 
line of the Genesee Valley canal, is a place of considerable 
business. It has a flourishing academy, and several manu-^ 
factories. The town in which it is situated was annexed to 
Livingston county, by the legislature, in 1846. Population 
liOO. - . . 

PoTtageville is in the town of Portage, on the west bank of 
the Genesee river, where it enters tlie gorge, and is surrounded 
bjr beautiful and picturesque scenery. It has great facilities for 
manufacturing. This town, hke the preceding, was taken 
from Allegany in 1846. The falls and tunnel here are worthy 
of notice. Population about 1000. 

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OriuUied, 1891. 

Population, 70,899. 
Vahiatioii. 1845, •14,351,43«. 

1. Chili, 1802. 

2. Gates, 1802. 

3. Greece, 1802. 
' 4. Parma, 1808. 

5. Riga, 1808. 

6. Penfield, 1610. 

7. Mendon, 1812. 

8. PeYrinton, 1812. 

9. Sweden, 1S13. 
10. Brighton, 1814. 
JHhers. N. Genesee, a. 

d. Honeoye. e Salmon, 
^aiU, p. Genesee Falls. 


11. Pittsford, 1814. 

12. Ogden, 1817. 

13. Rochester, 1817. 

14. Henrietta, I6l8. 

15. Rush, 1819. 

16. Clarkson, 1819. 

17. WheaUand, 1821. 

18. Irondequoit, 1837. 

19. Webster, 1838, 

Sandy Creek, b. Black Creek. C.Allen, 
f. little Salmon, h. Irondeqnoit. 
Honeoye Falls. 

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ftONROB COUNTY* ' 889 

Lake* and Bays, J. Ontario, i. Teoroato, or Irondequoit Bay. j, 

Braddock's Bay. k. Duck Pond. I. Long Pond. 
Ciiie$ and VUlages, RocHBsTfiR. PittsCord. Brockport. 

BoDND ARIES. NoFth by Lake Ontario ; East by Wayne coun- 
ty ; South by Ontario and Livingston counties, and West by 
Genesee and Orleans counties. 

Surface. This county, like Orleans and Niagara, is divided 
into terraces by the Kidge-Road, and the mountain ridge, which 
cross it from east to west. The surface as a whole declines 
gradually towards the lake. The terrace, at Rochester, is 270 
feet above Lake Ontario, and sixty-four feet below the upper 
terrace, which is nearly on a level with Lake Erie. 

Oil the shores of Irondequoit bay, and Irondequoit creek, are numerous conical 
sand hiBs, sometimes singlef, at others united, and rising to an average height of 
200 feet 

Rivers. The Genesee is the principal stream. Its tribu* 
tsuries are the Honeoye creek, from the east, and Black, and 
Allen's creeks, from the West 

Sandy, Salmon, Little Salmon, Rush, and Irondequoit creeks, 
flow directly into the lake. 

Bays. Teoronto or Irondequoit Bay, Duck Pond, Long Pond, 
and Braddock's, or Bradlow's Bay, are the principal of the nu- 
merous inlets of e lake, upon the coast of this county. 

The name of the first (Teoronto) is of Indian origin, and signifies ''the place 
where the waves gasp and expire.** 

CuMATE. ' The climate of this county, influenced by the near- 
ness to the lake, is mild and equable, and the thermometer 
has a less average range, than in most parts of the state. Pul- 
monary affections are, however, becoming increasingly preva- 

Geology and Minerals. The basis rock of the county ig the 
Medina sandstone, which is widely expanded, and makes its ap- 
pearance at the surface along the shore of the lake. Above this 
lies the Clinton group, thinner than in Wayne ; next the Niag- 
ara group, abounding in fossils ; next the Onondaga salt group, 
-which is well developed in some parts of the county, and con- 
tains numerous beds of gypsum. 

There are several salt springs in the county, but the brine is not sufflcientlj 
strong to render them valuable. Suiphur springs are numerous, but few of them 
are visited. The Monroe springs, five miles from Rodiester, are the most cele- 
brated. There are also springs strongly impregnated with sulphur in the town of 
Ogden. There is a mineral spring at Riga containing iron. 

Marl is abundant in Wheatland, Chili, and Rig». Gypsum occurs in teige 
quantities in Wheatland. A bed of argillaceous iVon ore extends flrom the Gen- 
esee river to the eastern limit of the county, but it is little worked. 

Blende and galena, the sulphurets of lead and zinc, Are also found in the county 
in small quantities. Fire stone, a magneaian earth used fbr lining stoves and 

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iie-ph6«a, it fbimd ftbunluitiy ia Ogden and Sweden. There ki MMiie Bmeitoiie 
mitable for building. 

Soil and Vegetabi^ Proddctions. The soil is gravelly 
loam, usually (^ great depth, and by the aid of disintegrated 
limestone, is rendered perpetually fertile. 

Tie timber is mainly oak, beech, and maple, frequently .very 
dense, but in the oak openings more sparse. In the swamps 
are black oak, pine, and tamarack. 

Tbe Geneiee wheat, so abundantly raiaed in this eounty, ia found, on analyiiii 
to contain moie nccbarhie matter than that of the southern atatea, and to cooh 
bine with lese water in tbe composition of bread. The superiority of iia flour is 
too well known to need remark. 

Pursuits. Asrnculture holds a high rank among the pur- 
suits of the people of this county. It is the largest grain county 
in the state. In 1845, there were raised in the county 1,338,000 
bushels of wheat, besides large quantities of other grains. 

Manufactures are also in a highly flourishing condition. 
The county contains, perhaps, the largest flouring mills in the 
world, and produces flour annually to the value of more than 
two and a half millions of dollars. Lumber, cloths, iron, pa- 
per, and leather are also extensively manufactured. 

Ccmmerce, A steamer plies on tue Genesee, between Ro- 
chester and Avon, in Livingston county. SteaiQers from the 
lake ascend the Genesee to Carthage, which is the port of Ro- 
chester 5 the Erie canal receives a large portion of its immense 
freights from this county. There are no mines of importance. 

Tbe Staple Production is wheat. Considerable quantities 
of butter, wool, and pork are also produced. 

Schools. There are in the county 240 school-houses. The 
schools were taught, during the year 1846, an average perk>d 
of nine months. 19,448 chSdren received instruction, at a cost 
of $33,994. The libraries of the districts contained 34,468 vol- 

There were sixteen private schools in tbe county, attended by 297 chiidren, and 
eight academies and female seminaries, with 432 pupils. 

The organization of the Rochester city schools has been described at page 125. 
Tlie^ Rochester universi^ was incorporated in 1846. 

Reugious Denominations. Baptist?, Methodists, Presby- 
terians, Congregationalists, Friends, Universalists, Episcopa- 
lians, Roman Catholics, Unitarians, Dutch Reformed, and Lu- 

History. This county was settled principally by emigrants 
from New England, with a few from other states, and other 
sections of New York. 

In 1726, a station was established at Teoronto or Iroode- 
quoit bay, to secure the Indian trade. 

In 1796, the first permanent, settlement was made at Han- 
ford's landing, where was erected the first house in this county, 

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-ffv^nX of (3en«see ri^r^ Indian AHen, «o n6t0rt<m8 in the his- 
tory of this region, erected a grist mitl and saw mill on the 
hundred acre lot on which part of the city of Rochester now 
stands, in 1789, receiving a deed of a hundred acres of land ad* 
joining, from Messrs. Phelps and Gorham, tiie proprietors, for 
his encouragement. 

In a few years, these decayed and were abandoned. Roches- 
ter was not settled till 1811, and was laid out as a village in 

In 1813, the Seneca Indians held a great sacrifice and thanks* 
giving of several days continuance, on the present site of Ro« 

The terror inspired by the incursions of the British and their 
savage allies, during the late war, prevented the rapid settle- 
ment of the county.* After the close of that war, however, its 
growth was astonishingly rapid. The completion of the Erie 
canal, by opening a market for the productions of its fertileAsoil, 
gave a new impulse to its prosperity, and it is now one of the 
most populous counties in the state. ' 

Cities and Villages. Rochester city lies on both sides of 
the Genesee river, seven miles from Lake Ontario. It is finely 
situated and handsomely built. The streets are generally wide 
and well paved. The two sections of the city are connected by 
several bridges, and by the splendid aqueduct of the Erie csuial. 
It has many fine edifices, among its churches and public build- 
ings^^ ■ 

* In 18 14, Sir James Yeo, with thirteen vessels of various sizes, menredofTtin 
mouth of the Genesee river, threatening the deatniction of the infant settlement 
There were but thirty -three people in Rochester capable of bearing arms. They 
asiiembied, together with the tew who could be gathered from the other settlements, 
and harried down to the mouth of the river. The militia were undisciplined ana 
not in uniform, but they were brave and determined. They were marched and 
eoQnldr>marched through the woods, in order to deceive the enemy in regard to 
their numbers. Presently an officer was sent from the British fleet with a flag of 
truce. He was received by ten of the most soldierlike of the militia, who, in order 
to be ready for action, kept fast hold of the triners of their muskets. The Brit- 
ish officer expressins tiis surprise at this, the officer, to rectify his mistake, order- 
ed his men to ground arms. This astonished the British officer still more, and 
beUeviag their ignorance to be feigned, be hurried back to the fleet, fully satisfied 
that a plot was laid for them. 

In the afternoon of the same day another officer was sent with a flag of trnee, 
the object of the enemy being, if possible, to obtain the provisions stored there, 
without endangering their own safety. Captain Francis Brown was deputed with 
a guard to receive the flag. The officer was still suspicious, and finally asked that 
the luilUary stores and provisions should be given up, on the condition that the set- 
tlement! were q)ared bv Sir James Yeo. '* No," was the prompt reply of the 
patriotic Brown, ^* Blooa knee deep first." While this parley was in progress, an 
American officer with his staff, on their return from Fort Niagara, were accident- 
ally seen, passing firom one wooded point to another. This c<mfirmed the suspi- 
cions of the British officer, and on hts return to the fleet, a vigorous attack was 
made upon the vfood§ with bomb shells and balls, which were returned with some 
effect by a msry old six pounder, which had been fhrbished and remounted for 
the occasion. 

After a few hours. Admiral Yeo slipped his cables and ran down to Pulteneyville, 
where, to his mortiflcation, he learned how be had been outwitted by a handful of 

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TMi cify owwiA* raiHd j:row& ta the. vast hydraoiicpowar 
ereated by tibe falk of ^ Genesee river, which amount to 268 
iS^et within the boiHide of the city, there bein^ tfiree iaDs of 
ninety-eix, twen^, and 105 feet, besides rapids. The passa^ 
of theBrieeaQBltfaroophthe^y, and the nav^abiHtf of the 
Genesee river, above and below thefaUs, render it aoentral 
pcMOtlbr the iramense trade of the lertde counties bj which it is 

ester was laid oat in 1812 by Nathaniel Rochester, 
Charies Carrol and William Fitzhngh, and received the name 
of the senior proprietor, {n 1816 it nmnbered but ^1 inhabit- 
ants ; and in 1817 it was incorporated as a village, under the 
name of Rochesterville. In 18^ it received a charter as a city, 
and now (1846) has a population of more than 25,000 inhab- 

The quantity, as well as the quality of the flour manufactured 
here, entitle the city to rank among the first flour maricets in the 
world. Between one and two mSlions of dollars are invested 
in this business. 

Brockport, a village in the town of Sweden, is pleasantly sit- 
uated on the line of the canal. It has a large trade, particularly 
in grain. The collegiate school edifice, erected by the citizens 
at an expense of S 25,000, is a noble stone building, five stories 
high. Population 2000. 

Wheatland is appropriately named ; the fertility of its soil 
and its adaptation to the culture of grain is such as to render it 
the granary of the county. It is rich also in gypsum and marl. 

ScoUsviUe, in this town, was founded by Isaac Scott, in 1800. 
It is a thriving village, and has some manufactures. Popula- 
tion 600. 

Mumfinrdstille and OwrbellsmUts are small villages in the 

West Mendcm, in the town of Mendon, is a manufaoturing 
village of some importance. 

P<ytt Genesee, at the mouth of the Genesee river, in the 
town of Greece, has a customhouse, lighthouse, several large 
warehouses, &c. Its hartxir is good, having thirty feet water 
within the bar. It has some trade. 

Pituford, in the town of the same name, is a thriving village 
on the canal Population 800. 

* Aboot the cooimeiicemem of the pr<»eQt centorr, it wm proposed iaihe lef< 
islalure of New York, to build a bridge across the Genesee river, at the present 
Bile of Rochester. The project was strongly opposed, and one member remarked 
that it was "a God-forsaken place, inhabited only by mfuknls, and v4atede|il]r 
by strajfgUng trappers, through which neither man nor beost could gsttop wUhout 
fear of stamttion, bt f*?er and ague." ^^^ 

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ttquttn ntllBg. ISO. FopulMioii, SO J77. 

Of^uiiMd, 1899. 

ValwUoB, •4,807,936. 


1. Jerusalem, llSd, 5. Milo, 1818. 

2. Middlesex, 1789. 6. Barrington, 1822. 

3. Benton, 1803. 7. Starkey, 1824. 

4. Italy, 1815. 8. Potter, 1832. 

MherB. a. Crooked Lake Outlet, c. Big Stream, e. Flint Creek. 

f. West. 
Lakes. BB. S<dneca. h. Canandaigua. m. Crooked. 
VUlages, PenmYan. Rushville. Bellona. Dresden. 

BouNDARiEB. North by Ontario county ; Ekust by Seneca lake ; 
South by Steuben county, and West by Crooked and Cananda- 
igua lakes, and Ontario county^ 

Surface. ' The surface of this county is greatly elevated. It 
lies on the northern declivity of t^e ridge which separates the 
waters of the Susquehanna from those flowing into the lakes 
and the St. Lawrence. The southern extremity of the county 
is elevated from 1200 to 1300 feet above tide water, and in the 
town of Barrington attains the height of 1600 leet. From this 
height it descends to the surface of the Cancmdaigua and Sen- 
eca lakes— the former of which is 670, and the latter about 420 
feet above the level of the ocean. 

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The hills, however, are never abrupt, but generally geady 
waving, and rounded at their summits. 

Rivers and Creeks. The priocipal streams of the county are 
Flint creek, Crooked lake outlet, connecting Crooked and Sen* 
eca lakes ; West river, a tributary of Canandaigua lake, and 
Big and Rock streams flowing into Seneca lake. The Crooked 
lake canal follows Uie course of the outlet. 

Lakes. Seneca lake forms the entire eastern boundary of the 
county. Two-thirds of Crooked lake Be within its limits, and 
Canandaigua lake forms its northwestern boundary. 

CuMATE. The climate is temperate and healthful, and for the 
cultivation of fruit is not surpassed by that of any county in the 

GEotOGT AND MiNERAL». The LudlowviUe shale is the pre- 
vailing rock, and approaches the surface hi the southern part 
of* the county. The soil above this is a marly day, highly 
fertile, and particularly favorable to grass^C/rope. The northern 
portion of the county belongs to the great central limestone for* 
mation, but the limestone sdter nates with slate. 

Sulphate of iron (coppcrag) is found natire in the eastern part of the county. 
Tbere is a valuable sol^hur spring near the foot of Crooked lake. An inflanuna' 
He gas spring has b<en discovered nest Bushvifle, and a very productive brin« 
q^ring has been found at the Big stnam fidto,near Dundee, iathe town of Starkey. 

Vegetable Productions. The timber of the county is large, 
but not so dense as in some other sections. It consists of oak, 
hickory, chestnut, black and while walnut, wild cherry, maple, 
beech, linden, poplar, ash, &c. The apple, pear, plum, cherry, 
melons and grapes, are all very successfully cultivated here. 

PoRSDiTs. Agriculture is the pursuit of a majority of the in- 
habitants — the elevated and diversified surface of the county 
renders it well adapted to grazing, In portions of it, however, 
grain is successfully cultivated. 

ManufactureM are attracting some attention. The principal 
articles manufactured are flour, lumber, woollen cloths, oil, dis- 
tilled liquors and leather. 

The commerce of the county is confined to lake and canal nav- 
igation, and is not very extensive. There are no mines at im- 

Staple Productions. Wheat, oats, com, bariey, butter, 
wool and pork. 

Schools. There are in the county 106 public school houses. 
In these, schools were taught an average period at seven months, 
in 1S46. The number of volumes in the district libraries is 
13,644; 6536 children were instructed during the year, at an 
expense of f 8789. 

There were in the county eighteen private schools, With 218 pupils, and om 
atadenqr, with twenty-six scbolan. 

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TATE8 COrHTT. 396 

Religious Denoarnations. Metiiodkrte, Ba4>ti8t8, Presbyte- 
iana, Episcopalians, Congregationalists and Dutch Reformed. 
There are forty-five churchesi and forty-one clergymen, of all 
denominations, in the county. 

HisTORir. This county was entirely included in the Massa- 
chusetts ijrant, and formed a portion of the Pulteney estate. 
The first inhabitants were from New England and Pennsylvania. 

This county was the residence of the celebrated Jemima Wil- 
kinson, during the latter part of her life.* 

Villages, &c Penn Yan, the seat of justice for the county, 
is a village in the town of M ilo. It is pleasantly situated at the 
foot of Crooked lake, arid received its name from ttie circum- 
stance that its original inhabitants were Pennsylvanians and 
Yankees, in equal numbers. Population 2500. 

Jerusaleniy one of the earliest settled towns in the county, 
is fertile and well cultivated. Bluff poitt is a high bold tongue 
of land extending between the arms of Crooked lake. The 
landscape, which spreads itself before the beholder, from this 
iofiy headland, is one of the most pkjturesque and beautiful 
afforded by the scenery of the smaller lakes. 

Starkey is a hilly but well watered town. The falls of Big 
stream, in this town, are worthy of the attention, both of the ge- 
ologist and traveller. The stream, after dashing over a rapid 
half a mile in l^igth, leaps down 140 feet, into a basin eight or 
ten rods in diameter, from whence its foaming waters find their 
way to the lake, by a channel some eighty rods in length. 

Dundee is a busy and thriving village in the town of Starkey. 
It has some manufactures. Population 1000. 

* Jemima Wilkinson, or as she styled herself, the *' Unircraal Friend," was 
bom in Camberland, Rhoda Island, aboul the year 1763. She was educated 
among the Friends. When about twenty-threejrears of a^e, she was taken sick, 
and daring her illnesB an apparent suspension of life occurred. After her recov- 
ery flbe professed to have been raised from the dead, and to have been invested 
with divine attributes, and authority to instruct mankind in religion. She also pre- 
tended to foretell future events, and to possess the power u> heal the sick and t» 
work miracles ; and if anv person who made application to her was not healed, 
she ascribed it to a want of wtii. She asserted that those who refused to believe' 
her clatmis, would be forever punished for their incredulity, ^le possessed ex* 
traordinoiry beBUity* and dioiurh illiterate, discovered great tact in maintaining her 
extraordinary pretensions. Her memory was said to be very retentive. She set- 
tled at Milo, in this county, with her followers, in 1790, and sobseqiientty removed 
to BtuflT Point, ^where she died, in 1819* The settlement at Milo numbered about 
forty familes, and was then the largest in the whole Oenesee country. A few of 
her disciplefi still remain at BlnfiT Point. 

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Square milea, 57S. 
Oq(atiJzed, 1823. 


Popalatioii. 43,515. 
T^luation, 1845, $6,818,533. 


9. Savannah, 18^. 

10. Arcadia, 1825. 

11. MsffioQ, 1825. 

12. Buder, 1826. . 

13. Huron, 1826. 

14. Rose, 1826. 

15. Walworth, 1829. 

1. Palmyra, 1789. 

2. Sodna, 1789. 

3. Williamson, 1802. 

4. Ontario, 1807. 

5. Wtilcott, 1807, 

6. Lyons, 1811. 

7. Galen, 1812. 

8. Maeedon, 1823. 
Itioersy Sfc, a. Mud Creek, b. Canandaif^ua River, c. Clyde. 
Lakes and Bays. J. Ontario, d. Sodus Bay. e. Port Bay. f. East 

Bay. h. Crusoe Lake. 
Villages. Lyons. Palmyra. Newark. Clyde. Pulteneyville. 

BoDNDARiES. North by Lake Ontario; East by Cayuga 
county ; South by Seneca and Ontario, and West by Monroe. 

Surface. The surface is much diversified. The Ridge Road 
extends through the county, from east to west, at a distance of 
from four to eight miles from the shore of Lake Ontario, and at 
an elevation of 140 feet above it. North of this road, the deseent 
to the lake is gradual and nearly uniform ; south of it, and ex- 
tending to the mountain ridge, the surfkce is raised into low 
hills of gravel and sand, seemingly by the action of the waves of 
the lake, which, perha^xs, at some remote period, covered this 
whole region. 

The mountain ridge forms, here, the watershed of the county. 

Digitized by VjOUV IC 


dividing the waters whkh flow into the lalee from those which 
run southerly. 

Rivers. The principal streams of the county are Mud creek 
and the Canandai^ua river or outlet. The length of each of 
these streams is about my miles. They unite in the town of 
Lyons and form tiic Clyde, a tributary of the Seneca river. 

Bays. The lake coast is indented by three considerable bays, 
viz ; Sodus bay, Port bay and East bay. The first of these af- 
fords a very good harbor for vessels of light draft. 

Crusoe lake, in the town of Savannah, is a shallow pond, oDe 
cmd a iialf miles in circXimference. 

CuwATB. The temperature is rendered agreeable by the ex- 
tent of surface exposed to the lake. The county is generally 
coneadered healthy. 

Geology and Minerals. The Medina sandstone appears on 
the surface along the shore of the lake. As the land rises, this 
is succeeded by the Clinton, Niagara and Onondaga groups— all 
limestones. South of the Ridge>Road, the county is traversed 
by numerous long, narrow, parallel ridges of sand and gravel, 
from twenty-five to thirty feet high. 

JLentieular iron ore and bog lion ore are foand in considerable qnantitiet. 
Gypeum, mari, gypseous marl, and water limestone are abundant Sulphur springs 
and weak brine springs occur in several localities. The latter were formerly of 
considerable importance. In 1810, 50,000 bushels of salt were manufactured 
from tbem. In Woloott, specimens of heavy spttr have been discovered. 

Soil and Vegetable Productions. The soil of this county is 
very fertile, and experience has proved, that the process of cul- 
tivation renders it increasingly so, by producing disintegration 
and decomposition of the earths of which it is composed. The 
timber is similar to that of the other counties on the lake, con- 
sisting of beech, maple, elm, black and white oak, white walnut, 
some hemlock and pine, black and white ash, &c. 

Pcrsoits. Agriculture is the principal pursuit of the inhabit- 
ants. The diversity of the surface renders grazing and the 
culture of grain nearly equally profitable, and both are practiced 

Manufactures are increasing in importance in the county. 
Large quantities of flour and lumber are produced, and the 
manufactures of iron, glass, leather, distilled and malt liquors, 
pot and pearl ashes, employ a considerable amount of capital. 

The commerce of the county is not large, vessels of light draft 
only being able to cross the bar, at the mouth of the Sodus bay, 
on which the principal landings are situated. 

There are some iron minesj or quarries, as they are denom- 
inated, in which considerable quantities of the lenticular iron ore 
are obtained. 


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Staplb Probuctions. Wheat, corn, oato, potatoes, fex, 
wool, butter, cheese and pork. 

ScHOOua. The wh<^ number of school-houses m the wmntj 
M 227 The puWic schools were maintained on an aver- 
^ eight months during the year 1846; 15,296 chiWren re- 
cS^edkistrtiction, at a cost of $17,635 for tuition. Thedistnrt 

libraries contained 25,760 volumes. 

There were in the county thirty-one private achoote, with 671 fwpita. 

Reugiocs Dbsomwations. Methodists, Baptists, Pre^^ 
rians Friends. Episcopalians, Cwigregationalists, Dutch Re- 
formed, Universalists, Unitarians and Lutherans. There arc 
in the county seventy-two churches, and eighty-nine clergymen, 

History The settlement of this county dates smce the revo- 
lution. About two-thirds of its territory, including one q^rter 
of the towns of Galen, Rose and Huron, and all west of thesfe 
was included in the Massachusetts grant to Messrs. Phelp» and 
Gorhom, and formeda part ctf the Pulteney estate. The other 
third belonged to the Military Tract. The emigrants were 
from New England, N^w Jersey, Pennsyhrania, England, Scot- 
land, and Germany. During the late war with Great Bntam, 
Sodus, and PulteneyviUe, (a village in the town of Willwun- 
son ) were invaded by the British, smd the formerbumt. They 
were repulsed in each instance, before obtaining the provisions, 
which were the object of their incursicms. 

In 1829 or 30, the Mormon delusion cMriginated at Palmyra, m 
thw county. Joseph Smith, the reputed prophet and founder of 
that system, resided in the town of Manchester, in Ontano 
county, and his leadkig disciple, Martin Harris, was a mnfty 
farmer of Palmyra. By money furnished by this man, Smith 
was enabled to publish the first edition of the bodk of Mormon, 
or the*Mormon Bible, as it has since been called. In the autumn 
of 1830, Snnth removed to Kirtland, Ohios afterward to Mis- 
souri, and finally to Nauvoo, Illinois. 

Villages. Lyons, the cwmty seat, is a pleasant village in 
the town of the same name. It was first settled in June, 1798, 
by Mr. Van Wickle and about forty other emigrants from New 
Jersey and Marylwid. It has a fine hydraulic power, obtained 
by a canal of half a imle in length, from the Canandaigua out- 
let. The mill privileges aflBbrded by this canal are well im- 
proved. The High school here is an excdleni kistitution, sur- 
passed by few academies in the state. Population about 2000. 

PcUmyra, one of the earliest settled towns in the cmmty, has 
a village of the same n^ame withki its Omits, situated on the Erie 
canal. It is a place of considerable business, and extensively 
•ngag«l in the lumber trade. It is considered ooe oT the most 

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beautiful villages on the canaL Its streets are ornamented with 
fine shade trees. Here is an incorporated academy. Pop. 2200. 

Clyde, on the river of the same name, a village in the town of 
Qalen, is a thriving, busy place. It has a number of manufac- 
tories. The high school here is incorporated and comprises two 
■ohool districts, which have united for greater efficiency. It is 
in a flourishing condition. Popuhition 1200. 

i9m&i» contains within its limits the principal hafbor of the 
oeunty. At the mouth oi the bay in this town, the United States 
government have erected a pier, a mile in length, for the im* 
provement of the harbor. The town was burned during the late 
war with Great Britain. Population about 500. 

PulUneyviUet a village on Lake Ontario, in the town of 
Wiliiamson, was also invaded by the British, but their fears of 
the American riflemen prevented them from doing much injury. 
Population 500. 


, 37». Population, S5,845. 

Organised, 1834. ValuaUon, 1345, 94,761,054. 

1. Murray, 1806. 
3. Ridgeway, 1812. 

3. Gaines, 1816. 

4. Barre, 1818. 

5. Shaby, 1818. 


6. Clarendon, 1821. 

7. CarltoB, 1823. 

8. Yates, 1822. 

9. Kendall, 1838. 

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Bkterw, 9fe, a. SAndy Creek, b. Johnson'*, d. OakOrcbcurd. 
Lake; J» Ontario* c. Jefferson. 
PUUges* Almjom. Afedina. 

BoDNDABl£0. Nofth by Lake Ontario ; East by Monroe coun- 
ty ; South by Geneaee, and West by Niagara, counttes.* 

ScRFACfi. The county has three distinct terraces, the first 
rising gradually from the shore of the lake, to the height of 130 
feet, is about seven or eight miles broad, and is terminated by 
the Ridge^Road. The second, from one to three miles in 
breadth, rises from the ridge more precipitously, to about the 
same height, and is terminated by a ledge. The third extends 
into Genesee county -, its ascent, of about 140 feet, is quite rapid. 
The elevation of this highest terrace above the lake, is, there^ 
fore, about 400 feet.