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THE 

GEOLOGICAL MAGAZINE 

NEW SERIES. 

DECADE IV. VOL. VIII. 
JANUARY — DECEMBER, 1901. 



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THE 

^ ^OEOLOUICAL MAGAZINE 

OS, 

ponthlii louiiital of (^hU%^'- 

WITH WHICH IS INCORPORATED 

"THE G^EOLOG-IST." 

NOS. CCCCXXXIX TO CCCCL. 

EDITED BY 

HENRY WOODWARD, LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S., F.R.M.S., 

LATE OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY; 

PRESIDENT OF THE PAL^ONTOGBAFHICAL SOCIETY, 

VICE-PRESIDENT OF THE ZOOLOGICAL AND MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETIES ; 

MBMBEE OP THE LYCEUM OF KATURAL HISTORY, NEW YORK ; AND OP THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL 

SOCIETY, PHILADELPHIA; HONOEAKY MEMBER OP THE YORKSHIRE PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY; 

OP THE GEOLOGISTS' ASSOCIATION, LONDON; OP THE INSTITUTION OF MINING AND 

METALLURGY, LONDON; OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETIES OP EDINBURGH, 

GLASGOW, HALIFAX, LIVERPOOL, AND SOUTH AFRICA; CORRESPONDING 

MEMBER OP THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF BELGIUM; OP THE 

IMPERIAL SOCIETY OP NATURAL HISTORY OF MOSCOW; OP 

THE NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY OF MONTREAL; 

AND OF THE MALACOLOGICAL 

SOCIETY OP BELGIUM. 

ASSISTED BY 

ROBERT ETHERIDGE, F.R.S. L. & E., F.G.S., F.C.S., &c. 

WILFRID H. HUDLESTON, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., F.L.S., F.C.S. 

GEORGE J. HINDE, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.G.S., &c. 

AND 

HORACE BOLINGBROKE WOODWARD, F.R.S., F.G.S., &c. 



NEAV SERIES. DECj»lDE TV. VOL. "VIII. 

JANUARY— DECEMBEK, 1901. 



LONDON : 
MESSRS. DULAU & CO., 37, SOHO SQUARE, W. 
1901. 



HERTFORD : 
PRINTED BY STEPHEN AUSTIN AND SONS. 



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i/BRARl 



LIST OF PLATES. 

PLATE FACING PAGE 

I. "Wenlock Limestone Trilobites 5 

II. Geological Views in Central France 60 

III. Geological Views in Central France 62 

IV. Geological Views in Central France 64 

V. Portrait of Professor Lapworth,LL.D., F.R.S 289 

VI. Lake Louise and Mirror Lake 97 

VII. Ordovician and Silurian Fossils 110 

VIII. Cirripedes and Trilobites 145 

IX. Diagram to illustrate Periodic Oscillations of Sea-level . . . . 172 

X. Pine-board and Oak Eroded by Sand-blast of the Shore .... 193 

XI. Gasteropoda, Wenlock Limestone, Dudley 249 

XII. Cretaceous Crustacea from Faxe, Denmark 501 

XIII. Portrait of Dr. Gustaf Lindstrom 333 

XIV. Portrait of the Rev. Professor Bonney, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S. , etc. 385 

XV. Silurian Gasteropoda 355 

XVI. Siberian Anthracomyce, etc 436 

XVII. Devonian Fossils, Lynton 539 

XVIII. Devonian Fossils, Torquay 540' 



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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT. 

PAGE 

Impressions of Echinoderms in Triassic Sandstones 3 

Photograph of the Bottom of a Flask containing Spherulitic Structure ... 15 

Belitmras kiltorhensis 53 

Wing of Fouqnca cmnhrcHsis from the Coal-measures 66 

Bone Needle from Cave on the River Wye 103 

Skull of Ochotona [Lagomys) pHsillus from Cave on the River Wye . . . . 104 

Skull of Bicrostonyx {Myocles) torquatus from Cave on the River Wye . . . 104 

Upper Molars of Bicrostonyx [Myodes) torquatus from Cave on the River Wye 104 

Lower Molars of Bicrostonyx {Myodes) torquatus from Cave on the River Wye 104 
Lower and Upper Molars of Lemmus {Myodes) lemmus from Cave on the 

River Wye 104 

Neolithic Implement from Tras, Pahang, Malay Peninsula 134 

FoUicipes polymerus, G. B. Sowerby 147 

■Catophragmns polymer us, Darwin 147 

Brachylepas cretacea, H. Woodw., gen. nov 149 

Black Shale with Biplograptus from Carabaya, Peru 195 

Arms of the Royal Hammerers 288 

Estheria anomala, T. R. Jones, sp. nov 353 

Diagram of Area of Earthquake of September 22, 1900 360 

Map of Lake District of Central Africa 363 

Map of Lake Tanganyika 366 

Diagram to illustrate lines of Volcanic Action 367 

Diagram- Section on the East side of Ruwenzori 368 

Left Ramus of Mandible of Palceomastodon BeadnelU, Andrews 401 

Dentition of Mosritherium Zyonsi, Andrews 404 

Mandible and Lower Teeth of Bradytherium grave, Andrews 406 

Left Upper Cheek-teeth of Bradytherium grave, Andrews 408 

Fleurotoma prisca, Solander, sp 410 

Diagram- Section illustrating Limburgite 413 

Diagram- Section illustrating Limburgite 416 

Vertebrae of Gigantophis Garstini, Andrews 437 

Vertebra of Mwriophis Schweinfurthi, Andrews 439 

Left Humerus of Psephophorus eocesnus, Andrews 441 

SkuU and Mandible of Stereogenys Cromeri, Andrews 443 

Diagram of Divisions of Carapace in a Brachyuran Decapod Crustacean . . 491 

Encrusted Block in the Ecca Shale, Ladysmith, Natal 550 

Relative Position of Travelled Blocks, Ladysmith 551 

Sigmoidal Folding in Devonian Rocks, Hele Bay, Ilfracombe 553 

Strabops Fletcheri, Beecher ; Cambrian, Missouri 562 



THE 



GEOLOGICAL MAGAZINE. 

NEW SERIES. DECADE IV. VOL. VIII. 
No. I.— JANUARY, 1901. 



o:EiXG-Ti<rj^Xj JLT^TIC^LES. 



L — Note on the Structure of Sarsens. 

By rrofessor J. W. Judd, C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., V.r.G.S., etc. 

[^Introductory Note. — After the publication of my paper on the 
Sarsens, or Sarsen Stones, in the Wiltshire Archifiological and 
Natural History Society's Magazine, vol. xxiii (188G), pp. 122-154, 
many friendly communications gave me further information on the 
subject, and additional references to published facts and opinions. 
From this correspondence, and my own notes made in the countr}', 
I propose to utilize much that seems to be of interest. The most 
important of these additions to our knowledge of the Sarsens is the 
following memoir on their constitution and structure by my fi-iend 
Prof. Dr. J. W. Judd, C.B., F.R.S., etc., of the Royal College of 
Science, who most obligingly examined with care the microscopical 
structure of manj' specimens from authenticated localities. With 
his kind pex'mission this valuable communication (dated March 9th, 
1888) is here printed. — T. Eupert Jones.] 

THE microscopic examination of a series of thin sections, cut 
from the Sarsens, shows that their minute structure varies as 
strikingly as does the appearance of their fractured surfaces. 
Microscopically, the Sarsens are seen to be made up of two kinds 
of materials, clastic fragments of crystalline minerals and a cement 
(base or matrix) of a microcrystalline or cryptocrystalline character. 
The relative proportion of these two constituents varies very widely 
in different cases. 

The Sarsens with saccharoid fracture stand at one end of the 
series. An admirable example from Camberley, North Surrey, is 
seen to be almost wholly made up of sand grains, with very little in 
the way of cement visible. Much of the cementing material in this 
rock is ferruginous, and the rock is more incoherent than is the case 
with most Sarsens. 

At the other end of the series stand the Sai'sens exhibiting 
a fracture resembling that of some cherts. Under the microscope 
the greater part of their mass is seen to be made up of excessively 
minute and imperfectly developed quartz, microlites, and these 

I)EC.\UE IV. — VOL. VIII.— NO. I. I 



2 Professor J. W. Judd — Structure of Sarsens. 

occasionally exhibit a tendency to the spherulitic arrangement. 
A beautiful example of this kind of Sarsen is one from Poxwell 
Eing, near Dorchester. In this case the original sand grains seem 
to have almost wholly disappeared, and an aggregate of grains of 
secondary quartz has been formed, which crystallize out freely 
on the sides of cavities. In parts, the section shows admirable 
spherulitic structure, and the iron-oxides have separated into small 
globular masses. The appearances exhibited, are strikingly like 
those of some flints with highly crystalline structure. 

All the other sections examined show the detrital crystalline 
particles enveloped in more or less of the fine-grained secondary 
matrix. The detrital grains consist mainly of quartz. By far the 
greater part of these quartz grains exhibit the bands of liquid 
cavities so characteristic of the quartz of granites and gneisses ; 
corroded quartz grains with glass or stone cavities, evidently derived 
from quartz-felsites, occur, but are much less rare, as are also the 
polysynthetic grains, some of which may have been derived from 
schistose rocks. With the quartz grains are a few unmistakable 
particles of flint, but these are never numerous. Felspars and other 
minerals are usually rare. Sometimes the grains appear to be well 
rounded, and at other times they seem perfectly angular; but it is 
probable that in all cases a considerable amount of corrosion of the 
surfaces of the grains has taken place. Only in one or two doubtful 
cases have I seen what could be taken as a deposition of secondary 
silica upon, and in optical continuity with, the detrital quartz. 

In a specimen from the valley of the Kennet (Enborne Lodge 
gravel-pit) we have perfectly angular quartz grains embedded in 
a nearly compact cement — one which can be resolved only under 
very high microscopic power. 

A very remarkable variety of Sarsen is one from Staple-Fitzpaine, 
about 10 miles west of Taunton. In this rock the grains are much 
larger than in any other Sarsen that I have examined ; they are 
markedly angular, and though quartz grains form a majority of the 
whole, yet felspars and other minerals occur much more usually 
than in the other specimens examined. If this should be found 
to be the rule with Sarsens from the most westerly localities, it 
would indicate that the granitic and metamorphic rocks which 
yielded the materials of which they are composed lay to the west 
of the London Basin. 

[In a subsequent letter (February 27th, 1S89) Professor Judd 
states that this " specimen from Staple-Fitzpaine has a fragment of 
whitened flint in it. The microscopic characters of which are 
unmistakably those of a silicified Chalk-mud full of fragments of 
Globigerina."] 

The cement of the flint-conglomerate of Hertfordshire consists of 
quartz grains, with a few grains of flint, embedded in a crypto- 
crystalline siliceous groundmass. There is no very striking 
resemblance between the cement of this conglomerate and that of 
any of the Sarsens which I have examined. 



Professor R. Burckhanlt — Triassie Stcaifishes. 3 

IT. — Note on certain Ijipressions of Echinoder^is observed on 
THE Sandstone Slabs in which the Skeletons of HyperO' 

BAPEDO.V GORDOXI AND BhYNCBOSAURUS ARE DRESERVED. 
iBy Prof. Rudolf Bukckhaiidt, rii.D., of the University of Basel, Switzerland. 

WHEX searching for traces of the dermal structure preserved 
in the specimen of Eyperodapedon in the British Museum 
(Natural History) in London/ my attention was drawn to certain 
spots where the matrix showed projections and pits of a polygonal 
shape, whicli I detected when I took the photographs of this Triassie 
reptile. Primarily occupying myself with the matrix of the principal 
slab, in which the skeleton is enclosed, I quite thought I had only 
to deal with dermal structures similar to those discovered in 
lilujncliosaurus. 

One of these spots, lying between the ninth and tenth ribs of the 
left side, particularly attracted my attention. This I was at first 
inclined to regard as a dermal ossification, the pentagonal chai'acter 
of which was unquestionable. On closer insj^ection I found, 
however, the whole of the matrix densely covered with similar 
structures, a circumstance which became still more perplexing in 
proportion as I discovered their immense numbers, which were 
equally abundant at a considerable distance from the body, and also 
in the matrix of the counterpart which had not been touched by the 
chisel. The matrix of the Ehynchosaurian fossils from Warwickshire 
also showed the same character ; indeed, I found some on these slabs 
in even better condition of preservation. 

^ ,^ . - 7 < '^ ^ 



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Prints of EdurnHkun^ \n tlie Tru^-iL S iml-t>me^ dI Win\itk--hne and Elgin. 
From a specimen in the British Museum (Natural History), x 3. 

Actual petrefactions they were not, but simply the hollow 
impressions leaving a film behind, between the coarse grains of the 
sand. In size they vary between 3 mm. and 3 cm. in diameter. 
The matrix is crowded with these bodies, which are deposited over 
each other, all of them lying in the same plane as the skeleton of 

^ See " On H>/pcrod<'pcdon Gordoni " : Geol. Mag., 1900, Nov. and Doc. 



4 Professor R. Burchhardf — Triassic Starfishes. 

Hyperodtqjedon. Those facing the observer with their upper sides- 
have left teat-like i^rojections in the stone ; others appear as funnel- 
shaped depressions made by a massive bod}'. 

In shape they are star-like pentagons, of about the same form 
as the bodies of Euryalidje. 

In diagonal opposition to the main portion of the star-shapecT 
bed lies a small pentagonal plate consisting of five parts, whicb 
radiate from a central piece. I believe I have also detected some 
radiating stride on the outer pentagon in a few exceptionally well- 
preserved examples, as well as some finer strife, skirting the margin' 
of the extreme pentagonal radially, where they arrange themselves- 
in regular order. Besides these pentagons I noticed some series of 
smaller segments of about ^ ram., which to tlie number of six unite 
with each other, though rarely more, in which latter case they are 
very difficult of detection. 

The conclusions I have ai'rived at as to these structures, and ta 
which I give expression quite reservedly to specialists engaged in. 
this branch of geology, are as follows : — 

These pentagonal forms are empty caverns left by Echinoderms- 
of a Eurylaid shape, having peripheral arms, either simple or 
forked. To whatever group of Echinoderms they may belong will 
be a matter of investigation by specialists. Under no circumstances 
are they parts of ITyperodapedon. The two pentagonal sets of which 
they are composed, together with their projecting limbs, are forms- 
which do not resemble any other type of the classes of invertebrates. 
In favour also of this inference is their enormous quantity and the 
great diversity in their sizes. The extreme delicacy of these 
impressions is probably the reason why my examination of the 
slabs did not yield a better result, as might have been the case if the 
stones had been more recently quarried or specially prepared for this- 
purpose. 

That no remains of their external skeletons are preserved, is in> 
no way detrimental to this hypothesis, as a corollary to this is found 
in the case of those hollows left by Elgin reptiles, which E. T. 
Newton so admirably described from casts taken from their natural 
moulds. No other fossils having been found in these localities except 
reptiles, is also an argument in favour of such an interpretation as 
the above. 

From a like presence of these casts in both localities, the Elgin 
sandstones, which Smith Woodward quotes as " supposed Trias." 
should be of the same age as the sandstones belonging to the Upper 
Triassic of Warwickshire and Shropshire. 

Interesting as may be the task of pursuing this highly attractive 
geological question, it is a matter of real regret that I am compelled 
to deny myself the pleasure of conducting the investigation of this 
subject further. I must confine myself here to the statement only, 
that I have good reason for believing that I have observed similar 
petrefactions of organic origin in some rather imperfect fragments 
from the Maleri deposits in India. 



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G.M.Wbodwa-r3 dele tilth, West.Newnianimp. 

Wenlock Limes bone Trilo"bites. 



F. R. Cowper Reed — Undcscribed TrUohites. 5 

HI. — WOODAVARDIAN MuSEUM NoTES : SaLTEr's UnDESCKIBED 

Species. II. 

By F. 11. CowPER Reed, M.A., F.G.S. 

(PLATE I.) 

LiCHAS scuTALis, Saltei*. (PI. I, Figs. 1-4.) 

1873. Llchas smfalis, Salter MSS. : Cat. Camb. Sil. Foss. Wooclw. Mm., p. 130 
(« 9.54). 

1877. L'ichas vcrrHCosus, Woodward : Cat. Brit. Foss. Cnist., p. 43. 

1878. lAchas sciitalis, Edu'ell MSS. : Cat. Camb. Sil. Foss. Miis. Tract. Geo!., p. 84. 
1891. Llchas vcrrxcosKs, Woods: Cat. Type Foss. Woodw. Mus., p. 147. 

rilHERE are three specimens of this species in the Woodwarfliaa 
X Museum, viz. : (1) Salter's fine original specimen (a 954) from 
"the Wenlock Shale of Malvern, belonging to the first part of the 
Fletcher Collection, acquired prior to 1873; (2) a poor .specimen 
probably from the same collection and horizon, locality unknown ; 
and (3) an almost perfect specimen, also from the Wenlock Shale 
of Malvern, belonging to that part of the Fletcher Collection 
recently presented by Mrs. Fletcher. Tliis specimen will be 
designated the Fletcher specimen in distinction to Salter's original 
specimen. Both these specimens show almost the whole trilobite 
preserved in excellent condition, and from them the following 
ilescription has been drawn up. 

Diagnosis. — Head-shield broadly parabolic, nearly twice as broad 
as long, and slightly produced backwards at genal angles ; strongly 
convex from back to front and from side to side, slightly flattened 
between the eyes across the middle portion of the posterior half; 
anterior half of head-shield bent down very steeply to margin, 
almost at a right angle to posterior lialf ; sides bent down as steeply 
in front, but less steeply towards genal angles, where they flatten out. 

Glabella wide, occupying nearly whole middle third of head- 
shield ; forms most elevated portion of head-shield, but is not 
swollen nor raised with independent convexity above fixed cheeks. 
Median lobe much expanded in front, its narrow laterally-projecting 
tongues overlapping anterior lateral lobes ; constricted strongly at 
level of anterior lateral furrow, behind which it gradually decreases 
in width with nearly straight sides to the base of anterior lateral 
lobes, where it again expands a little. Behind this point the median 
lobe is only weakly marked off from the two pairs of posterior 
lateral lobes, but is traceable in the Fletcher specimen to the 
straight occipital furrow, where it has nearly double the width it 
possessed between the anterior lateral lobes. 

Anterior lateral lobes large, of broadly oval shape, rather wider 
in front than behind, where the furrow which defines them is very 
faint. They extend about two-thirds the whole length of the 
glabella with their longer axes obliquely directed inwards, and 
with a gentle convexity of their own, bending down strongly in 
front with the median lobe and at the sides with the general 
curvature of the head-shield. In front they are separated from the 



6 F. R. Coiqwr Reed — Undescribed Trilohitcs. 

marginal furrow of the Lead-shield by the lateral projections of the 
median lobe. 

Middle lateral lobes subquadrate in shape, small and indistinctly 
defined, being marked off in front from the anterior lobes by a very 
faint depression sweeping round the hinder end of the latter lobes 
and representing the middle lateral furrows. They are still more 
indistinctly marked oif posteriorly from the basal lobes by weak 
grooves, while their outer sides are defined by the faint axal furrows 
and their inner sides by the continuation of the anterior lateral 
furrows to the occipital segment. 

Basal lobes likewise weakly marked off from the rest of the 
glabella and fixed cheeks, but relatively large, being nearly the size 
of the middle lobes ; subrhomboidal rather than triangular in shape. 
owing to the basal (posterior lateral) furrow starting, not from the 
level of the occipital furrow but a little way in advance of it. 
The posterior side of the basal lobes is marked off from the occipital 
segment by the strong deep occipital furrow. 

Occipital ring flattened and very broad in the middle behind the 
straight portion of the occipital furrow at the base of the median 
lobe of the glabella, but with its lateral portions only about half 
the width, and bent backwards behind the basal lobes. 

Axal furrows strongly marked only along the outer side of the 
anterior end of the anterior lateral lobes, being posteriorly very 
weak, as above mentioned. Behind the jDoint where they pass into 
the marginal furrow which bounds the glabella in front they arch 
outwards, curving round inwards posteriorly as they define the 
anterior lateral lobes, to the base of which they nearly extend with 
a deeply impressed course. Here the middle lateral furrows pass 
imperceptibly into them. Behind this point the axal furrows 
become very weak, and curve outwards along the outer side of the 
middle and basal lobes to end in the occipital furrow. 

Anterior lateral furrows arise far forwards, curving round the broad 
anterior end of the anterior lateral lobes, and then run with nearly 
a straight course backwards along the inner side of these lobes, 
slightly converging. At the posterior end of the latter each furrow 
bends a little outwards to end in a small pit from which the middle 
furrow starts. About half-way along the inner side of these anterior 
lobes there is a slight outward kink in these anterior furrows, from 
which a faint groove runs outwai'ds a little distance across the lobe, 
such as has been noticed in Lichas ornatiis (Angelin),^ Lichas 
anglicus (Beyr.), and other species. Behind the pits at the base of 
the anterior lobes the anterior lateral furrows are traceable as faint 
slightly divergent grooves (especially clear in the Fletcher specimen),, 
which finally meet the occipital furrow at the inner posterior angle 
of the basal lobes. 

Middle lateral furrows weak and short, starting from the pit on 
the anterior furrows and curving round the base of the anterior 
lobes to merge imperceptibly into the stronger axal furrows. 

1 Schmidt: Rev. Ostbalt. Silur. Trilob., Abth. ii (18S5), p. 109, t. vi, fig. 18^. 



F. R. Coiqjcr Reed — Undcscrihed Trilohites. 7 

Basal farrows extremely faint. As mentioned above, they are 
not straight lateral prolongations of the median portion of the 
occipital furrow, as is the case in many species, but they arise 
a short distance in front of it on the backward continuation of the 
anterior lateral furrow, and curve slightly forwards to join the axal 
furrow nearly at right angles. 

In Salter's original specimen there is in addition to the above 
furrows a shallow transverse depression arched backwards, extending 
across the neck of the median lobe at the base of the anterior lateral 
lobes and between the pits on the anterior furrows. A similar 
transverse groove is seen in Lichas palmatas (Barr.), L. scaber 
(Beyr.),' and L. anglicus (Beyr.). 

Occipital furrow composed of a central straight portion, not 
deeply impressed, and of lateral portions curving strongly backwards 
and strongly marked behind the basal lobes. 

Fixed cheeks small, with an anterior wing forming a very narrow 
strip between the axal furrow and the facial suture. At the base 
of the anterior lateral lobes of the glabella, where the axal furrow 
bends in, the cheeks increase in width, expanding behind the eye 
and entering into the general convexity ot the head-shield. 

Eye-lobes of moderate size, prominent, horizontally-extended 
outwards on a level with the general convexity of the glabella, 
and situated just in front of the base of the anterior lateral lobes. 
A short furruw separates them from the fixed cheeks. In front 
of the glabella is a flattened horizontallj^-extended border of 
moderate width, widening a little laterally as it passes into that 
of the free cheeks, and marked off by a shallow marginal furrow. 

Free cheeks triangular in shape, with an inner strongly convex 
portion abruptly elevated above the flattened broad border, and 
marked off behind by the occipital furrow and scarcely in front by 
the very weakly-defined marginal furrow which circumscribes its 
base and joins the occipital furrow at nearl}'^ a right angle. This 
inner convex portion of the free cheek bears the eye at its summit, 
but nearer the front than the anterior border. 

Eye semicircular and prominent, rising up vertically with a high 
visual surface beneath the overhanging eye-lobe. 

Border of free cheek flattened, rapidly increasing in width from 
the front to the genal angle, owing to the inward course of the 
marginal furrow. Genal angles slightly produced into blunt points. 

Ornamentation. — The glabella, occipital ring, fixed cheeks, and 
the convex portion of the free cheeks are ornamented with tubercles 
of moderate size, rather sparinglj'^ distributed. On the flattened 
border of the free cheeks, particularly near the genal angles, there 
are also a few similar tubercles. 

Thorax.— The thorax in the Fletcher specimen is nearly perfect 
and shows nine narrow segments, but in Salter's original specimen 
it is not so well pi'eserved and only seven segments can be dis- 
tinguished. In each case the specimen has its head and tail strongly 
bent upwards, and this has caused the body to break across at the 

1 Barrande : Syst. Silur. Bohem., vol. i (18.31), pi. xxix, fig-s. 7 and 24. 



8 F. R. Coicper Reed — Undescrihed Trilohites. 

junction of the head and thorax, forcing back the head over the 
first few segments of the body and concealing them. In the Fletcher 
specimen there are indications of one segment being thus covered, 
making the actual number of thoracic rings to be ten. 

Axis of thorax gently convex, broad, tapering gradually to the 
pygidium, each ring consisting of a simple narrow band, apparently 
devoid of ornamentation. The anterior rings of the axis appear to 
be wider than the corresponding pleurae, but the posterior ones to be 
narrower. Axal furrows weak. 

Pleurge semicylindrical, horizontally extended as far as the 
fulcrum, but then bent downwards, flattening again towards their 
extremities, which are separate and free. The fulcrum is distant 
from the axal furrow about one-third of the length of the pleura, 
and is obtusely rounded. Each pleura curves gently forwards to 
the fulcrum, then bends more strongly backwards, and again bends 
forward slightly towards its extremity. The surface of each pleura 
is marked along its inner portion by a nearly median furrow, which 
runs straight outwards to the fulcrum and then curves backwards 
over the outer portion to the point, dividing this outer portion into 
a flattened anterior and an elevated posterior part, but near the end 
the whole breadth of the pleura is flattened. The extremity is 
bluntly pointed. There are a few obscure traces of tubercles on the 
pleurae. 

Pygidium.- — Broad and roughly pentagonal, gently convex from 
side to side, having its lateral lobes bent down, but flattened along 
its margin. Its component segments are closely fused together, and 
only the two anterior pleuraa on each side are marked out. 

The pygidium is arched forwards in front ; posteriorly it is 
forked, and each side is angulated by the projection of the extremities 
of the second pair of pleurte. 

The posterior margin lying in the fork is rather less than half the 
anterior width of the pygidium. The re-entrant angle is about 135°, 
and the sides meet the lateral borders at an angle of a little over 
90° at the obtusely rounded divergent points of the fork. (In the 
Fletcher specimen these points are rather more acute.) 

Axis cylindrical, convex, and prominent, being strongly raised 
above the lateral lobes. Its posterior end is pointed and prolonged 
to reach the posterior margin of the pygidium at the re-entrant 
angle, sloping down rapidly to the level of the flattened border. 
The cylindrical portion of the axis measures only about two-thirds 
the total length of the pygidium. 

First axial ring only distinct, and marked oflf behind by a strong- 
continuous furrow. Very obscure traces of four or five rings behind 
it. Axal furrows well marked on each side of the cylindrical portion, 
but very faint behind it and scarcely traceable to the margin. 

Lateral lobes of pygidium, bent down on each side of the axis and 
consisting of a convex inner portion and a flattened marginal portion. 
Each lateral lobe measures anteriorly about 1\ times the width of 
the axis. 

First pair of pleuraj distinct, each pleura expanding. outwardly to 



F. R. Coiqyer Reed — Utidescribed Trilohites. 9 

<1ouble its axial width, and with a squavely truncated extremity, 
not projecting beyond the margin. A straight diagonal furrow 
marks the surface, but does not reach the extremity, and the outer 
anterior angle of the truncated end is flattened as in the pleurte of 
the thorax, as if for roUing-up. The groove separating the first from 
the second pleura runs obliquely backwards and outwards at an 
-single of about oO° to the front margin of the pygidium, curving 
gently forwards at its outer end. 

Second pair of pleura3 distinct, each pleura increasing rapidly to 
<louble the width possessed by the first pleura on the margin ; end 
broad, truncated, and with posterior angle projecting beyond the 
margin as a distinct tooth ; posteriorly marked oif by weak furrow 
making an angle of about -lo^ with front margin of the pygidium. 
A median, slightly oblique furrow traverses the surface of the pleura, 
but stops short of the margin. 

The position of the projecting ends of this second pair of pleura? 
• is about half-way along the lateral margins of the pygidium. Behind 
them the margin takes a slight curve inwards to the points of the 
posterior foric. 

The lateral lobes behind the second pair of pleural show no 
-segmentation or fun-ows, but probably are composed of two pairs of 
pleura?, one ending at the lateral pointed extremities of the posterior 
margin and the other at the axal furrows in the re-entrant angle. 

A few scattered tubercles are visible on the flattened marginal 
portion of the lateral lobes, especially near the posterior angles. 

Measurements. 



Leiig'th of head -shield 

"Width ot head-shield 

Leng'th of glabella 

AVidth of glabella at frout eud 

Widtli of glabella at level of eyes 

Width of glabella at iieck-fuirDW 

Width of thorax 

Width of axis of thorax 

Length of pygidium ... 

Width of pygidium at front end 

Width of pygidium between posterinr angles 

Width I if axis of pygidium ... 

I = Salter's specimen. II = Fletcher's specimen. 

N.B. — In the Fletcher specimen the hypostome is also seen in its 
proper position on the lower surface of the upturned head. It is 
subjDentagonal in shape; its length is less than its breadth, which 
is greatest across the middle. Tlie central portion, which is also of 
greater breadth than length, is marked off by a continuous furrow 
from the border, is gently convex, and occupies about two-thirds of 
the whole length of the hypostome ; its anterior end is strongly 
arched forwards, and its sides and posterior edge are nearly straight 
and parallel respectively to the lateral and posterior margins of the 
hypostome. A pair of faint short furrows run obliquely inwards 
from the lateral angles. The border is broad and flattened, extending 



I. 


II. 


mm. 


mm. 


lo-O 


11-.) 


•Jci-o 


21-0 


ll-o 


8-5 


lO-.') 


10-0 


s-2.5 ... 


7-0 


9-0 


9-0 


about i■l■^) 


19-0 


.. nncertiiiu ... 


S-0 


11-.3 


lO-O 


lS-0 


18-0 


es 9-() 


8-0 


G-0 


6-0 



10 F. R. Coicper Reed — Viidescrihed Trilohites. 

down the sides of the central portion from the lateral angles and 
round the posterior margin, where it is broadest and slightly 
excavated. The posterior angles are obtusely rounded. 

Measurements. 

mai. 

Length of hypostome ... 7*0 

Width of hypostome across middle ... ... 9-5 

Length of central portion 5-0 

"Width of central portion ... ... ... 7"0 

"Width of posterior border ... ... ... 2'0 

Rebiarks. — To none of the other British species of Liclias from 
the Weniock Series does L. scutalis show any close resemblance. 
L. verrucosus (Eichw.)/ with which it has been confounded, belongs- 
to a lower stratigraphical horizon, and differs in the following 
particulars, — the shape of the median lobe of the glabella, the 
form and size of the basal lobes, the course of the axal furrows, 
the position of the basal furrows, the course of the occipital furrow,, 
the absence of a transverse groove across the median lobe of the 
glabella, the position of the eye and eye -lobes, the shape of 
the pygidium and the furrows on its lateral lobes, the shape of its 
axis, etc., etc. In fact, Z. verrucosus is so utterly different from 
L. scutalis that it is surprising that they were ever considered 
identical or even closely allied. It is needless to enter into a minute 
comparison of the two species, as their specific separation is obvious. 

Schmidt (loc. cit.) remarks that Z. scutalis is quite distinct from 
Z. verrucosus (Eichw.). 

The species which shows most points of resemblance is Barrande's 
L. ambiguus- from Etage Ee2, which is more or less equivalent 
to our Weniock. This species has a glabella with anterior 
lateral furrows continued down to the neck - furrow, with weak 
middle and basal furrows, and with axal furrows having the 
same general course and development as Z. scutalis, though less 
curved inwards in the middle. The anterior lateral lobes are 
closely similar, even to the indentation on the inner side, but they 
are less oblique ; the middle lobes are rather less distinct, and the 
basal lobes are only separable from them by their more swollen 
character. There is also a somewhat similar shallow depression 
across the neck of the median lobe. The smaller convexity of the 
head-shield and the greater parallelism of the sides of the glabella are 
points of difference. The occipital segment is also narrower, and the 
occipital furrow has a different course. The thorax of Z. ambiginis 
is unknown. It is in the pygidium that we find the most striking 
points of resemblance : the shape of the axis and its continuation to 
the posterior margin, the presence of only two pairs of pleuras on 
the lateral lobes with their furrows, the projection of the extremities 
of the second pair beyond the margin, the smooth unfurrowed 
posterior portion of the lateral lobes, the flattened margin, the- 

1 Eichwald: Beitr. z. Iveuntn. RussL, Bd. viii (1843), p. 63, t. iii, fig. 23. 
Schmidt: Rev. Ostbalt. Silur. Trilob., Abth. ii (1885), p. &2, t. ii, figs. 1-11. 

2 Barrande: Syst. Silur. Bohem., vol. i (1851), p. 60b, pi. xxviii, figs. 16-21. 



F. R. Cowper Reed — Undescnbed Trilohites. 11 

posterior fork. The pygidium differs in being relatively narrower, 
in possessing a shorter axis with more rings, in the extremities of 
the first pleura3 projecting beyond the margin, and in the posterior 
margin being less deeply excavated. 

Proetus Fletcheri, Salter. (PI. I, Figs. 5 and G.) 

1873. Froetus Fletcheri, Salter: Cat. Camb. Sil. Foss. Woodw. Mas., p. ISi 

(« 825, n 828). 
1877. Froetus Fletcheri, Salter: Woodward, Cat. Brit. Foss. Crust., p. 56. 
1891. Froetus Fletcheri, Salter: Woods, Cat. Type Foss. Woodw. Miis., p. 151. 

This species, which is recorded by Salter (loc. cit.) from the 
Wenlock Limestone of Dudleys is mentioned by him after 
Pr. latifrons (McCoy) as "a broader species in all parts, more like 
Pr. Byckholti (Barr.) than Pr. latifrons (McCoy)." 

There are three specimens of Pr. Fletcheri in the Woodwardian 
Museum, which were labelled by Salter a 825 (2) and a 828, and are 
thus entered in his "Catalogue." But mounted on the same tablet 
are seven other unlabelled specimens of Proetus, of which only one 
belongs to this species, all the others showing points of difference. 
There are four other specimens of the true Pr. Fletcheri in the 
Woodwardian Museum, three of which are from the Fletcher 
Collection and the other from the Leckenby. 

The specimens from which the following description is drawn up 
are those three labelled by Salter a 825 (2) and a 828. 

Diagnosis. — General shape longitudinally oval, more than twice 
as long as broad. 

Head-shield broadly parabolic, about twice as wide as long, gently 
concave posteriorly, moderately convex from side to side, bent down 
in front. Genal angles produced into spines. 

Glabella very broadly oval, as broad as long, more than one-third 
the width of the head-shield at base, narrowing slightly towards the 
obtusely rounded anterior end, which reaches the anterior border of 
the head-shield ; gently convex from side to side, bent down steeply 
in front of eyes.^ Surface marked by two pairs of furrows, but 
anterior pair generally obsolete. Basal pair of furrows short, weak, 
shallow ; curve slightly backwards ; situated at level of middle of 
eye and at more than one-third the length of glabella from neck- 
furrow. Anterior pair of furrows when present very weak, directed 
obliquely backwards from level of anterior end of eye. 

In Salter's specimen a 825 (here figured PI. I, Fig. 5) there is an 
additional pair of small pit-like impressions on the glabella, situatetl 
behind the basal furrows and close to the occipital furrow, and about 
half-way between the axal furrows and the median line of the glabella. 
I have not noticed them preserved in the other specimens, but they 
may be compared with somewhat similarlj' placed basal pits on tlie 
glabella of some specimens of Pr. boheiuicus (Corda).'- 

1 Owing to this strong downward bend of tlie front end of the glabella, the shape- 
seems to be subeircnlar in Fig. 5. 

2 Earrande: Svst. Silur. Eohem., vtd. i (18.V2;, p. 452, pi. xvi, figs. G, 7. 



12 F. R. Coicper Reed — Undcscrlbed Trilohltcs. 

Axal furrows weak in front of the eye, and passing into the 
■marginal furrow at the front end of the glabella. Between the eye- 
lobe and glabella, and posterior to the eye, they are deep and strong. 

Occipital furrow stronger than axal furrows, and arched forward 
in the middle and at each side in front of the lateral occipital nodule. 

Occipital ring rounded, considerably wider than a thoracic axial 
I'ing, and furnished with a small median tubercle and a pair of 
lateral nodules, which are sharply circumscribed, of oval shape, 
swollen, prominent, and occupying nearly the whole width of the 
occipital ring at the base of the axal furrows. 

In front of the glabella is a raised and rounded border, well 
<lefined by a strong marginal furrow. 

Fixed cheeks with narrow anterior wing and large, semicircular, 
horizontally - flattened eye - lobe, strongly elevated to nearly the 
height of glabella. Eye-lobes reach from anterior lateral furrows 
of glabella to behind basal pair, but do not project enough laterally 
to cover whole upper surface of convex eje. Posterior wing of 
fixed cheek small and triangular, owing to course of facial suture. 
Occipital segment of cheek rounded, raised, and narrower than 
occipital ring behind glabella. 

Facial sutures cut anterior border of head-shield at a distance 
apart equal to basal width of glabella. From these points of section 
they curve backwards and slightly inwards to front of eye, then 
■bend out and circumscribe eye-lobe, and behind it curve sharply 
■outwards to cut neck-ring obliquely at an angle of 20°-30°, reaching 
the posterior margin close to the base of the genal spine. 

Free cheeks triangular, furnished with broad, rounded, and striated 
'border, continued backwards at the genal angle into the genal spine, 
which is broad at the base, tapers rather rapidly to its pointed 
extremity, and is less than half the length of the head-shield. It is 
ornamented with longitudinal striations. The marginal and occipital 
furrows meet each other at the genal angle at an angle of nearly 
•60°. The inner portion of the free cheeks is strongly elevated and 
convex, with steep anterior but gentler lateral and posterior slopes. 
On the summit it bears the large prominent eye which extends for 
nearly two-thirds the length of the glabella. A shallow groove 
encircles base of eye, and runs round it from the level of the occipital 
furrow to the anterior lateral furrow of the glabella. 

Thorax about equal in length to head-shield, consisting of ten 
segments, with a broad, gradually tapering, cylindrical axis, nearly 
half as wide again as the pleural portions. Rings of axis simple, 
regular, and devoid of ornamentation. Axal furrows distinct, but 
not deeply impressed. 

Pleuras semicylindrical ; each consisting of an inner, straight, hori- 
zontally-extended portion and an outer, longer, extra-fulcral portion, 
which is bent gently downwards and backwards at an angle of 45°. 
Inner portion crossed by diagonal furrow, making an angle of about 
20° with the straight anterior edge. This furrow divides the inner 
portion into two unequal parts, of which the posterior is much 
the larger. On the extra-fulcral portion the furrow is obsolete, and 



F. R. Cou-pcr llecd — Unde-'^cribed Trilohitcs. 1 -li- 

the anterior part of the pleura is flattened into an articulating surface 
which passes underneath the preceding pleura. Fulcrum well- 
marked and angular, at the junction of the inner and outer portions 
of the pleura. Extremities of pleuras truncated and rounded. 

Pygidium semicircular, about two-thirds the length of the thorax ; 
with simple entire margin, and distinct raised border. The anterior 
edge of pygidium resembles that of a pleural ring, the inner part 
being short and straight and the outer part oblique with an 
articulating surface. Lateral and posterior margins incurved and 
concentrically striated below. 

Axis conical, strongly elevated above the flattened lateral lobes, 
and tapering more rapidly than axis of thorax to an obtusely pointed 
extremity, reaching the marginal furrow inside the raised boi'der. 
Seven to eight rings recognizable on axis, of which only the three 
first are clearly separated by strong intersegmental furrows, the 
posterior ones being more or less indistinct. Lateral lobes gently 
bent down on each side, and marked with three or four pleune 
with inner horizontal portion generally distinguishable, but devoid 
of fulcrum. A weak longitudinal furrow runs down the centre of 
each pleura. 

Border of pygidium distinct and raised slightly above level of 
lateral lobes, narrower at anterior lateral angles and behind axis 
than in middle of sides. It is marked off by a shallow marginal 
groove, and in one specimen {a 825 of Salter's Catalogue) the 
pleuras and their furrows are faintl}' traceable across it, but in some 
individuals it is vei'y indistinct. 

Ornamentation. — The whole surface of the head and pj'gidinm is 
finely granulated. 

Measure3ients. — Salter's specimen a 82o : — 

luiu. 

Length of whole trilohite 22-(» 

Length of head-shiekl ... ... ... ... 8-0 

Length of thorax 8-0 

Length of pygiihuni ... ... ... ... 6*0 

Wkitli of head-shiekl at hase lo-o 

Width of pygidium ... ... ... ... lO'o 

Width of glahella at base 6-0 

Eemarks. — This species resembles Pr. holiemicus, Corda,^ in the 
following particulars : (1) shape, relative size, and proportions of 
glabella; (2) presence of lateral nodules and median tubercle on 
occipital ring ; (3) relative proportions of thoracic axis and pleura- ; 
(4) characters of pleura? ; (5) shape of pygidium, pygidial axis, and 
border; (6) granulated test. 

Pr. hoJtemicns diflfers, however, in having a semicircular rather 
than parabolic head-shield, in possessing very short genal spines, 
smaller eyes and eye-lobes, and a relatively narrower border to the 
head-shield ; in the presence of three pairs of lateral furrows on the 
glabella ; in the greater length of the thorax ; and in the smaller size 

1 Coi-da: I'ri.dr. Eulun. Trihib. (1S47), p. 73, ])1. iv, fig. 4:'.. Banaude : Syst. 
Sihir. Bohem., v..l. i (1852), p. 452, pi. xvi, ligs. l-l--). 



14 Henrij Basseii, Jan. — Projja ration of Sp/ierulites. 

of the pygidial pleuree. On the other hand, Pr. Byclcliolti (Barr.),^ to 
which Salter saw a resemblance, agrees in the shape of its head- 
shield, in the faintness of the lateral furrows of the glabella, in the 
size of the genal spines ; in the median tubercle on the occipital ring ; 
in the relative size of the eyes ; and in the general aspect of the 
pygidium. But it differs in the shape and proportions of the glabella 
and of the thorax ; in the absence of lateral occipital nodules ; in 
the shape of the pleuree ; in the more rapidly tapering axis of the 
pygidium ; and in the smooth test. Pr. Fletclieri shows, thei'efore, 
a much closer resemblance to Pr. hohemicits than to Pr. Byckholti. 

EXPLAXATIOX OF PLATE I. 
'Fig. 1. — L'tchas scutaUs. Salter's origiual specimen, a 954 ; Weulock Limestone, 

Malvern, x IJ. 
Fig. 2. — Lichas scutalis." Fletcher Collection siiecimeu ; Wenlock Limestone, 

Malvern, x 1^. 
Fig. 3. — Lichas scutalis. Hypostome of Fletcher Collection specimen, x 2. 
Fig. 4. — Lichas scutalis. Outline restoration, x 2k. 
Fig. 5. — Proetus Flctcheri. Salter's specimen, a 825 ; "Wenlock Limestone, Dudley. 

X 2. 
Fig. 6. — Proetus Flctcheri. Side view of same specimen. 

XoTE. — The two figured specimens of Lichas scutalis are bent up at the head and 
tail, causing some foreshortening of these parts in the figures, and the ends of the 
■pleuTce to be widely separated. 

IV. — Note on the Preparation of Spherulites. 
By IIexry Bassett, Jun. 

LAST February, while working in the Chemical Laboratory of 
University College, London, I had occasion to make some 
•sulphanilic acid. This was done in the usual way by heating a mixture 
of 100 grammes of concentrated sulphuric acid and 30 grammes of 
aniline to 180°-190° C. in an oil bath for four hours. The flask 
containing the mixture was left in the oil bath to cool, and on 
examining it the next day I was surprised to find that the solid mass 
inside had developed a beautiful spherulitic structure. As I believe 
this has never been observed before, it may be Avorth a description. 

In colour the material is a bluish (or sometimes greenish) grey, 
and it is practically a mass of spherulites, some of which are an 
inch in diameter. They are mostly well developed, and are slightly- 
lighter in tint than any intervening portions of the mass in which 
a spherulitic structure is only faintly visible. They consist of 
concentric layers, alternately nearly white and pale blue in colour, 
with rather ragged edges, as may be seen in the figure. Adjacent 
spherulites, or sometimes even what are apparently simple ones, 
often exhibit sharp divisional planes like joints, from the one having 
grown up against another as they were developing from independent 
centres. Though these centres cannot in all cases be seen, there is 
■sufficient evidence in others to justify applying this explanation to 
all. The mass, judging from the position of the spherulites, seems 
to have started crystallizing from a number of independent points, 
both on the surface of the glass and on the surface of the molten 
mixture. 

1 Barrande : Syst. Silur. Bohem., vol. i (1852), p. 439, pi. xv, figs. 15-19. 



I 



Henry Basseft, Jnn. — Prepat-atlon of SpJteniUtes. 



15 



As piire sulphanilic acid is colourless the bluish-grey colour must 
be due to the production in the course of the reaction of a small 
quantity of impurity, which is of the nature of an aniline dye. 

When we come to study the spherulites more closely we find that, 
not only do they exhibit an alternation of colour in concentric shells, 
])ut also that near the upper surface of the mass, as incomplete 
«pherulites developed downwards these were prolonged as a kind 
of film on the surface of the glass above the solid mass, this film 
no doubt being originally caused by the adherence to the glass of 
a small quantity of liquid when the vessel was shaken. An 
examination of this thin section (as it were) of a spherulite shows 
that the pale bands in the solid mass are continued on the surface 
of the glass as bands of closely packed crystals, while the dark 
bands coincide with the bands on the glass where there are very 




Photograph of the bottom nf a flask containing tlie spherulitic structure. 

few crystals. It is thus quite obvious that the alternate dark and 
light rings of the spherulites have been caused by a zoning out 
of the sulphanilic acid, the interstices having been filled up by the 
blue, very viscous magma (for only about 40 per cent, of the mass 
is sulphanilic acid, the rest being chiefly sulphuric acid). On this 
supposition the rings would be formed as follows : — A ring of 
radiating crystals would first be formed round some nucleus, but as 
the surrounding magma would thus be deprived of most of the 
sulphanilic acid it contained in solution, this ring would be succeeded 
by a ring where there were very few crystals, then another ring 
with a great many crystals would follow, and so on. The formation 
of these spherulites would thus be very analogous to the formation 
of ' Napoleonite ' and spheroidal granites, to take extreme cases^ 



16 Henry iJa-^aetf, Jun. — Prcjxn-ation of SpJierurttes. 

while even spherulites in glassy igneous rocks often show similar 
colour-banding. This zoning out of the sulphanilic acid accounts 
for the ragged edges of the rings, while the existence of a hollow 
at the top of the mass where the spherical surface of the spherulites 
can be seen also points to the liquid magma having thus been 
soaked up. 

I have since several times repeated the experiment, and find that 
the spherulitic structure is developed every time, provided that the 
liquid is allowed to cool slowly, although even when cooled quickly 
one or two may be formed. The size of the spherulites obtained 
varies greatly ; on one occasion I prepared one which was two inches 
in diameter, but, as is so often the case in nature, the moderate-sized 
ones are generally the prettiest. Sometimes, after having left the 
flask to cool, I found next day that the material had not all solidified,, 
but that there was a floating crust with spherulites growing 
downwards and also a solid layer at the bottom with spherulites 
growing upwards, thus confirming the opinion as to independent 
development from the two surfaces which I had formed from the- 
examination of the first batch obtained. I should add, however, 
that the spherulitic structure is not always developed on the free 
surface of the mass, nor have I been able to prepare again the 
spherulitic films (if I may so call them) on the sides of the flask. 
The time taken for the mass to crystallize completely varies from 
one to three days, depending, I imagine, on the amount of impurit}' 
present. When the crj^stallization takes place very slowly it is very 
beautiful to watch the small spherulites gradually growing in a dark, 
almost black, magma, until finally it is completely transformed into 
spherulites. In this intermediate state the specimen looks very 
much like spherulitic obsidian. 

When the spherulites are formed very slowly the zones, which 
are so noticeable in specimens which have formed more quickly, 
are not nearly so frequent or well-marked. This perhaps is due to 
the fact that, as the crystallization is so slow, diffusion is able to 
prevent the magma round the centres of crystallization becoming 
exhausted. 

I may add that the sulphuric acid present renders the mass very 
deliquescent, so that in order to preserve it the flask containing it 
should be sealed off in the blowpipe flame. 

After about two months' keeping the mass begins to recrystallize, 
and, in course of time, the original structure is entirely obliterated 
and replaced by an immense number of small spherulites about 
1 mm. in diameter. This molecular change is curious, but the fact 
that not even the external form of the original spherulites is pre- 
served, is probably due to the presence of fluid, which, Avhen 
recrystallization took place, was able to escape and collect at the 
bottom of the flask. 

Mj' thanks are due to Mr. Coomara-Swamy for having very 
kindly photographed the structure for me. This figure, however, 
does not represent the best specimen, for the shape of the vessel 
in which that had been formed was unfortunately unsuitable for- 
photographing. 



J, W. Stntlter — Sources of YorJi-a/iire Boulders. 17 

V. — The Sources and Distribution of the Far-Travelled 
Boulders of East Yorkshire. 

By J. W. Stather, F.G.S. 

ABOUT ten years ago, when studying the drifts of East Yorkshire, 
Mr. G. W. Lamplugh counted and I'oughly classified the larger 
boulders of Flamborough Head and other selected localities on the 
coast. This work has been continued by members of the Hull 
Geological Society, who have up to the present time recorded nearly 
four thousand boulders, of twelve inches and upwards in diameter. 
To avoid possible eiTor, arising from the moving beach and other 
causes, only the boulders actually in place in the clay were noted, or 
such as had obviously recently fallen from the cliffs. The whole 
of the coastline from Spurn to Flamborough has been surveyed in 
this way, and also portions of the coast north of Flamborough as far 
as Saltburn. The lists thus prepared have been published from 
time to time by the Hull Geological Society and by the Erratic 
Blocks Committee of the British Association. 

These lists bring to light several interesting and previously 
unnoticed facts with regard to the distribution of the far-travelled 
boulders, especially when the lists obtained at Dimlington and 
Eedcliff in South Yorkshire are compared with the lists from 
Upgang and Saltburn in the north. Before, however, discussing the 
statistics of the boulders, it will be advisable to give a brief 
description of the localities where the lists were compiled. 

(i) Dimlington is situated on the sea-coast near the southern 
extremity of Holderness. The cliffs average about eighty feet in 
height for upwards of tvvo miles, and are entirely composed of 
glacial material, chiefly boulder-clay. Here were noted 334 boulders 
of twelve inches and upwards in diameter.^ 

(ii) Eedcliff is on the north shore of the Humber, near North 
Ferriby, and is twenty-four miles west-north-west of Dimlington. 
The cliff continues along the Humber side for two-thirds of a mile 
with an average height of eighteen feet, and together with the 
adjacent beach is composed of boulder-clay. The boulders recorded 
here were 373 in number.- 

(iii) Upgang is one and a half miles north of Whitby ; the cliff 
sections are one hundred feet or more in height, and consist largely 
of boulder-clay. In this neighbourhood Mr. Lamplugh counted and 
classified two hundred boulders of twelve inches and upwards in 
diameter, the majority of which were of local origin ; the percentages 
given in the table below are based on his list.^ 

(iv) The cliffs between Saltburn and Eedcar present the most 
northern exposure of boulder-clay on the Yorkshire coast. These 
sections yielded 133 boulders of twelve inches and upwards in 
diameter.* 

• Trans. Hull Geol. Soc, vol. iii, p. (J. 

^ rroc. Yorkshire Geol. and Polytech. Soc, vol. xiii, pt. 2, p. 211. 
^ Ibid., vol. xi, i)t. 3, p. 403. 

* Trans. Hull Geol. Soc, vol. iii, p. 7. 

DECADE IV. — VOL. VIII. — NO. I. 2 



18 



J. W. Stather — Sources of Torkshire Boulders. 



After eliminating all the local boulders from the lists, at the 
above-mentioned localities, the relative proportion between the 
several groups of far-travelled boulders is as follows : — 



Groups. 


I. 

DiMLINGTON. 


II. 

Eedcliff. 


III. 

TJPGANG. 


IV. 

Saltburn. 


1. Carboniferous limestones 

and sandstones 

2. Basalt (Whin Sill) 

3. Magnesian limestone 

4. Granite, gneiss, etc 


per cent. 

55 

32 



13 


per cent. 

59 

30 



11 


per cent. 

70 
24 



1 


per cent. 

73 

20 
7 
01 




100 


100 


100 


100 



It will be seen from the above table that among the far- 
travelled boulders of the East Yorkshire drift deposits, Carboniferous 
rocks (group 1) take numerically the leading position ; and the 
Carboniferous area west and north of the Tees is generally regarded 
as their place of origin. Group 2 consists of boulders of black 
basalt, very plentiful in East Yorkshire and very easy to distinguish. 
The source of these basalts is undoubtedly the Whin Sill. It is 
clear, then, that groups 1 and 2 have travelled into our district 
from practically the same area; nevertheless, it will be seen, on 
referring to the above table, that the relative proportions of the 
boulders from the two groups vary considerably from point to 
point. Thus, while both groups probably decrease numericalhj 
southwards, the percentages show that the basaltic group increases 
relatively from Saltburn southwards. The obvious explanation seems 
to be that large boulders of basalt bear transjDort better than similar 
masses from the Carboniferous sedimentary rocks. 

The Magnesian limestone (group 3) occurring in the East York- 
shire boulder-clays is matched by the rock found in situ at Eoker, 
near Sunderland. This limestone is rarely found except as pebbles 
in South Holderness, but these grow perceptibly in numbers and 
size northwards. Large boulders begin to appear north of Scar- 
borough, and at Whitby and Saltburn they form from 5 to 7 per cent, 
of the foreign boulders present in the clays. 

Besides the above-mentioned rocks, the East Yorkshire drifts, 
especially in the southern parts of Holderness, are rich in boulders 
of igneous rocks of widely diverse types, and these are included in 
group 4. Phillips long ago pointed out that in the drifts of the 
Yorkshire coast there were rocks from the English Lake District ; 
and it is now certain also that the Cheviots and Scandinavia are 
well represented ; but the source of by far the greater number of 
the rocks included in this group is not yet known. The table 
shows that the boulders of group 4 diminish both numerically and 

1 This group was not represented by any boulders of the requisite size in the cliff 
sections when this table was compiled, but several large boulders of Shap granite 
were seen in the gardens and about the town, which had probably been derived 
from the neighbouring drifts. 



J, W. Stather — Sources of Yorkshire Boulders. 19 

jDvoportionately novtliwards, the figures being 13 per cent, at 
Dimlingtou and 1 per cent, at Whitby. This northward decrease 
of the group as a whole is all the more noteworthy when we 
renaember that the Shap granites and the Cheviot porphyrites, both 
included in group 4, increase rapidly in the same direction. This 
seeming anomaly arises, I think, from the influence of the boulders 
from Scandinavia. x\mong the boulders of South Holderness occur 
very commonly rocks which agree with certain well-known types 
of Scandinavia ; of these the best known are the augite-syenite 
(laurvikite) and the rhomb-porphyry. These types, although not 
by any means unknown in the drifts of North Yorkshire, are much 
rarer there than in the south. For instance, at Dimlington one 
hundred specimens of the Scandinavian rocks above named would 
be found to one of Shap granite, while, on the other hand, at Robin 
Hood's Bay or Eunswick Bay (both near Whitby) the Shaps out- 
number the Norsemen by at least twenty to one. Seeing, then, that 
the known Scandinavian rocks in group -i are much more common in 
the south of the county than in the north, and that the distribution 
of the unidentified rock types included in the same group agrees in 
this respect with the Scandinavian rocks, I think it may be fairly 
inferred, tliat these unidentified rocks ai'e probably largely from 
Scandinavia also. 

Mr. Harker arrived at a similar conclusion when examining 
Mr. Lamplugh's Flamborough specimens.^ He regarded the bulk 
of the granitic and gneissic specimens as having been derived 
either from Scandinavia or from the Scottish Highlands, and 
remarks : " Among these are some undoubted Norwegian rocks, 
while none can be pointed out as certainly brought from Scotland. 
It may be, then, that the whole of the doubtful rocks are also of 
Norwegian origin." 

It is worthy of note with regard to the smaller boulders and 
pebbles of the boulder-clay and gravels of East Yorkshire that 
among these the percentage of the far-travelled rocks is much 
higher than among the larger boulders. There are certain types 
also among the smaller specimens which seldom appear as large 
boulders. Among these is a fairly definite group of rocks, which 
are known among East Yorkshire collectors as poiyhjrites, and are 
referred with some confidence to the Cheviot Hills. The evidence 
in support of this conclusion may be briefly stated as follows : — 
(1) The erratics seem to match the descriptions of the Cheviot 
rocks published by Mr. J. J. H. Teall and others. (2) Pebbles of 
these rocks increase, both in numbers and in size, as we approach 
the Cheviot district, (o) During a recent excursion (July, 1900) to 
the Cheviot Hills, arranged by the Yorkshire Geological and Poly- 
technic Society, many rocks similar to these East Yorkshire erratics 
were seen in place. 

There is still another note to be made with regard to the Cheviot 
boulders, and that refers to their vertical distribution. I think it 
will be found, that the Cheviot rocks are more plentiful in the 
1 Proc. Yorkshire Geol. and Polytcch. Soc, vol. xi, pt. 3, p. -109. 



20 R. H. Tiddeman — Formation of Eeef KnolU. 

upper clays along our coast than in the lower beds. But however 
this may be, it is quite certain that the somewhat scanty drift that 
reaches farthest up the valleys on our coast, and climbs the eastern 
flank of the Yorkshire wolds, and the Oolitic moorlands, is, as far as 
the foreign boulders are concerned, composed almost entirely of 
rocks from the Cheviot area. The Scarborough district supplies 
a good example of this rule. The comparatively low ground 
adjacent to the sea is covered with thick drift full of boulders of 
the usual types. On the other hand, Seamer Mooi', which is a mile 
and a half west of the town and six hundred feet in height, is 
capped by drift, the foreign pebbles of which are largely porphyrites. 
It must not be understood from this, however, that other types are 
entirely absent at high levels. Occasional specimens from probably 
all the groups are found wherever the drifts extend. But the rule 
is, that at high levels and along the western margin of the drift 
generally, the porphyrites prevail. And if we follow that very 
ill-defined line which separates the drift areas from the driftless, 
it will be generally found that the outermost fringe of straggling 
pebbles on the fields is largely composed of porphyrites. 

All the facts respecting the distribution of the boulders of 
East Yorkshire, as far as I have seen, appear to agree vpith the 
supposition put forward by Mr. Lamplugh in his paper on the drifts 
of Flamborough Head,^ viz., that the North Sea ice-sheet attained its 
maximum development and reached farthest inland before the ic& 
flowing from the north-west had reached this part of the coast, and 
that the North Sea ice dwindled away as the flow from the Pennine- 
Chain and the Cheviots gained strength. 



VI. — On the Formation of Eeef Knolls.^ 

By R. H. TiDDEMAx, M.A., F.G.S. 

(Communicated by permission of the Director-General of the Geological Survey.) 

AT the meeting of the British Association at Newcastle in 1889 
I brought out my interpretation of the probable origin of the 
limestone knolls of Yorkshire.-^ 

It was shown that the Lower Carboniferous Eocks in the North 
of England had two distinct types — that the Yoredale or Northern 
type extended from the Craven Faults to the Tyne, and that the 
Southern or Bowland type occupied the country from the Craven 
Faults to near the Western Seaside plain and extended south as 
far as Derbyshire. Without now recalling the two tables of the 
succession there given, I mentioned specially the curious construction 
of certain mounds of limestone which I called reef-knolls, gave my 
reasons for supposing that they had been gradually built up on 
a slowly sinking sea bottom by the gradual accretion of animal 
remains somewhat in a similar manner to coral reefs. I also showed 
that from the enormously disproportionate thickness of rocks in the 

1 QJ.G.S., vol. xlvii, p. 428. 

2 Eead before the British Association, Section C (Geology), Bradford, Sept., 1900. 

3 Eeport Brit. Assoc, 1889. 



B. 11. Tiddeman — Formation of Reef Knolk. 21 

iirea of the downthrow side and from other considerations there was 
every reason to suppose that the Craven Faults were actually taking 
place during the formation of those rocks. 

My friend Mr. J. E. Marr, F.E.S., has in a most courteous way, 
■whilst taking my geological mapping as for the most part correct, 
found reasons for dissenting from all the groundwork on which it 
was founded.' In combating Mr. Marr's views I offer no opinion 
on knolls of other localities or other ages which he brings forward 
in support of his views. I speak only of the Carboniferous knolls 
of which I have written, and with which I am well acquainted. 
Speaking generally, 1 think the differences between us may be thus 
summarized : — 

1. Mr. Marr disagrees with my reading of the succession and 
thickness of the rocks on the south side of the Craven Faults, and, 
whilst I consider that we have two distinct successions of different 
thickness caused by a difference in the rate of submergence in the 
two districts, and by shallower and deeper seas, he regards the 
Tocks on both sides as having been one series of like thickness in 
orderly sequence to the north, but, so to speak, shuffled by earth- 
movements on the south of those faults and repeated several times 
by overthrusts. 

la. In illustration let us take a pack of cards, say arranged in 
suits as representing the regular country on the north side, and 
several packs similarly ai"ranged to represent the greater thickness 
on the south side. Shufifle these last to represent the supposed 
disturbance and overthrusting. Shall we always find after 
shuffling the same general succession ? Yet over a tract reaching 
from Draughton to Chipping and from Settle to Derbyshire, we do 
get such a general succession, and that does not at all resemble the 
succession on the north side of the faults. The overthrusting to do 
this effectually must cover the whole of this wide area comprised in 
three or four counties, and not confine its operations to a narrow 
disturbed belt near the Craven Faults. Is Mr. Marr prepared to 
3nake his orogenic movements extend over so large an area, and 
thereby arrange the whole country, which they bi*eak up, into so 
orderly a disposition? 

2. Mr. Marr regards the great difference between the black and 
white limestone, the form and constitution of the reef-knolls, the 
abundance in them of perfect fossil forms in a well-preserved state, 
the conglomerates and breccias which accompany them, as all being 
the result of what he calls orogenic movements ; in other words, of 
the folding repetition and overthrusting of the rocks, with here and 
there relief of pressure. More especially is the last called in as 
being the reason for the abundant and well-preserved fossils and the 
change of the limestones. 

It is extremely difficult for me to accept these views. If we could 
believe that a black, well and thinly bedded limestone can by any 
^physical change be converted into a white crystalline mass with 

' Quart. Joui-n. Geol. Soc, vol. Iv, pp. 327-3G1. 



22 R. H. Tiddeman — Formation of Reef Knolh. 

little visible bedding, but with abundant fossils in a perfect state^ 
we have still to learn what has become of the shales which ar© 
almost always present with the black limestone. If squeezed out, 
as might be suggested, they would at least leave partings behind, 
and the rock would be moi'e bedded than it is; 

Mr. Marr contemplates the likelihood of several different lime- 
stones being shifted together to make one reef-knoll, but if so, are 
we not as likely to get the thin sandstones of the Pendleside Grit 
sandwiched into them as well? Yet sandstones and shale-beds are 
unknown in the reef-knolls. 

Mr. Marr makes a number of statements about what he calls the 
Vs of the Middle Craven Fault. His opinion is that this is a great 
thrust-plane dipping gently north, and that the Coal-measures are 
forced beneath the limestone, and so on along its course. A bed of 
coal in the limestone at Ingleton is regarded by him as having been 
forced up from underlying Coal-measures by pressure, and not as- 
originally interbedded. Unfortunatelj' for these views, there are no 
proper Vs or dipping planes of faulting indicated in the map. The 
sinuous track of the Craven Fault is not so drawn to accommodate- 
any theory, but is merely put where the exposures of rock show it 
to run. Its wanderings are either dictated by or stand in relation 
to the two principal lines of jointing in the limestone, which range 
W.N.W. and N.N.W. Sometimes one direction, sometimes the 
other, has the mastery. At Clapham the line is absolutely straight,. 
and does not curve up-stream as suggested by Mr. Marr. The coal- 
seam mentioned is well known to me. On searching it I found 
several Producti, fairly perfect, embedded in it and filled with it, and 
the conclusion I came to was that it was either a coal-seam which 
had grown on a reef and been submerged, or a deposit of seaweed. 
These Producti seem to disagree with the injection theory. Such 
coal-seams are found occasionally in the limestone. One near 
Kirkby Lonsdale has been worked for coal. 

Mr. Marr has mentioned two places where knolls of grit occur. 
I do not admit that a knoll of grit can have anything in common 
with the reef-knolls of Craven unless it be the external form ; but if 
such structures were made by earth thrusts and abounded, it would 
no doubt be a strong point in favour of his views. One of these 
grit knolls is said to be in the canal at the back of Shipton Castle. 
I think this must be an error. I know of no sandstone in that 
locality, though I know it well. I have consulted others who are, 
as geologists, conversant with Shipton, competent to form an opinion,, 
and they agree with me that nothing but limestone and shales occur 
in that canal at that point. The beds there are certainly contorted, 
but they are not sandstone, and contortions do not necessarily imply 
reef-knolls. 

I feel unable to regard Mr. Marr's 'model knoll' as in any respect 
resembling what I have called reef-knolls. That is, according to his 
views, a broken plication of a thin hard bed of limestone in a mass 
of softer shale, the shale surrounding its broken fragments. The 
knolls to which I allude are almost solid limestone from top to base. 



J 



Notices of 3Iemoirs — H. J. L. Beadnell — Geohgi/ of Egypt. 23 

They have no alternations of hard and soft beds, and, so far as I have 
seen, no repetition of beds by folding. The evidences of movement 
on their flanks, if any, are not more than one would expect from the 
vertical pressure of a more or less plastic shale upon what is at least 
a less plastic limestone. 

I admit fully that there are abundant evidences in the district of 
faulting, of great pressure, and quite likely of overthrusts ; but to 
say that these have given to these rocks a change of chai'acter, or are 
responsible for the order of their succession, appears to me to be 
invoking an unnecessarily powerful but yet inadequate force. Sucli 
thrust-planes as are implied would meet the geologist in the field 
at every turn, and force themselves into recognition. They would 
admit of easy mapping, and no statement of their existence would 
be complete without some such systematic recognition. 



2^0Ticss OIF nycEnycoiiRS- 

I. — On some Eecent Geological Discoveries in the Nile 
Valley and Libyan Desert.' By Hugh J. L. Beadnell, 
F.G.S., F.R.G.S. 

IN this paper the author draws attention to some interesting 
discoveries made by him during the last three or four years 
while attached to the Geological Survey of Egypt. AVhen the 
latter Survey was established in 1896 the publications and maps, 
both geological and geographical, of the Eohlfs Expedition of 
1873-74: still remained the only source of information on the greater 
part of Egypt. 

In his geological reports Zittel, the geologist of the Eohlfs 
Expedition, calls special attention to the absence of any uncon- 
formity between the Cretaceous and Eocene deposits, in fact 
mentioning this as one of the most important results obtained. 
More extended researches have, however, enabled the author " to 
bring forward incontestable evidence from at least two areas in the 
Libyan Desert, namely, Abu-Eoash, near Cairo, and Baharia Oasis, 
that instead of this perfectly gradual petrographical and palteonto- 
logical passage, undisturbed by any unconformity, from the upper- 
most marine Chalk into the oldest Tertiary beds, thei'e is as a matter 
of fact a strongly marked unconformity, representing a long lapse 
of time in the process of sedimentation. During this period the 
Cretaceous was elevated into land, often witli intense folding and 
faulting, and underwent considerable denudation before subsidence 
led to the entire or partial submergence of the area below the sea, and 
allowed the deposition of successive beds of Eocene in a markedly 
overlapping manner." 

The accompanying table is compiled chiefly from the work of 
Professor Zittel and the Geological Survey of Egypt. 

1 Abstract of a paper read (with the permissiou of Captaia 11. G. Lyons, R.E., 
F.G.S., the Director-General of the Ej,n'ptiau Geological Survey) before the Inter- 
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Notices of Memoirs — H. J. L. Beadncll — Gcologi/ of Egypt. 25 

The author then discusses separately several t^'pical localities, 
Avhich may be briefly alluded to. 

Abu-Eoash. — This peculiarly interesting Cretaceous complex, near 
■Cairo, lias been described by Walther and Schweinfurtli as having 
been brought into position among the Eocene deposits by faults 
along its four sides. This view, however, is strongly opposed by 
the author, who maintains that the fault theory is absolutely 
untenable, " as a most casual examination of the boundary of the 
■Cretaceous, at almost any point where its junction with the Eocene 
was visible, instead of suggesting the existence of faults, yielded 
■indubitable evidence of their absence, and the presence instead of 
a well-marked unconformity." At some points "the upper surface 
of the white chalk of the Cretaceous shows a most irregularly 
eroded surface, which is covered by a bed of rolled pebbles, some- 
times a metre thick, the latter being overlaid by a thick bed of 
Eocene shelly limestone, followed b}' a series full of characteristic 
Upper Mokattam fossils," The author further points out the 
existence in this area of Danian beds, the uppermost member 
(White Chalk) being apparently homotaxial with the White Chalk 
of Baharia and Farafra. 

Baharia Oasis. — Of the remarkable sand belt which occurs 
between the Nile Valley and this oasis, the author says : — " This 
sand belt has a total breadth of five kilometres, and runs slightly 
west of north and east of south (parallel, in fact, to the normal 
direction of the wind). Its origin is much further north, probably 
in the neighbourhood of the oasis of ]\Ioghara, while to the south 
it runs, as far as known unbroken, into the depression of Kharga, 
whence, after a slight break, it continues southwards. Its length 
■is thus certainly over 350 kilometres. The dunes are composed of 
light-yellow, siliceous, well-rounded sand-grains. The steepest sides 
■ are those facing west, which have an angle of 30^-31°. It is 
a remarkable sight, this narrow band of sand dunes extending across 
the open desert as far as the eye can reach, maintaining an almost 
exactly straight course, an even breadth, and with sides as well 
defined as if drawn with the edge of a ruler." 

The author's work shows that, contrary to original ideas, there is 
•in reality a remarkable development of Cretaceous rocks in the 
•oasis of Baharia and the surrounding desert on the west and south 
•«ides. 

The lowest beds, consisting of sandstones, claj's, and marls, attain 
a thickness of 170 metres, and are of Cenoraanian age. Above theni 
come limestones and variegated sandstones (-15 metres), followed by 
white chalk of Danian age, 40 metres thick. (See Table.) 

As at Abu-Roash, the junction between the Cretaceous and 
Eocene is unconformable, the deposits of the latter overlapping 
•successively the different beds of the former. 

The author, in discussing the age and origin of the peculiar 
ferruginous quartzites which so constantly cap the numerous 
isolated hills within the depression, brings forward evidence which 
tends to show that these " were deposited in a lake which formed 



26 Notices of Memoirs — IT. J. L. Beadnell — Geology of Egypt. 

here when there existed only a slight depression in the Eocene and 
Cretaceous rocks, ages in fact before erosion had carved out the 
depression to its present form. The large amount of ferruginous 
material and general character of the beds point to freshwater 
lacustrine deposition and precipitation. Lithologically they are 
often exactly similar to the Oligocene beds of the Fayum and Jebel 
Ahmar, and to the deposits on the road between Feshn and the 
oasis, and it may be that they are of the same age." 

The author states that the igneous rocks of Baharia are of Post- 
Cretaceous, probably Oligocene, age, contemporaneous with the 
basalt sheets of the Fayum, of Abu-Eoash and the desert to the 
west, and of Abu-Zabel ; and that the andesites of the Libyan 
desert at Bahnessa, Gara Soda, and Jebel Gebail were likewise 
erupted at the same time. 

After describing the important folds which occur in Baharia the 
author continues: — "The Cretaceous beds as a whole evidently 
form a large anticline .... which has its axis more or less- 
parallel to the syncline already described. It is continued into the 
north end of Farafra, where the dip is well marked . . . - 
Yet the Eocene beds forming the plateau are in general quite 
horizontal, even in close proximity to inclined Cretaceous beds 
. . . . it seems certain that the Cretaceous beds, after the 
deposition of the White Chalk of Danian age, underwent upheaval, 
denudation, and finally depression, before the deposition of the 
earliest Tertiary beds. 

"In this part of Egypt it appears that the subsiding Cretaceous- 
land had the form of a long, flat, irregular ridge of anticlinal 
structure, extending from Dakhla oasis through Farafra, Baharia,. 
and Abu-Roash. The northern end of this ridge was the last to 
subside and receive Eocene deposits, which accounts for the fact 
that in Farafra the Cretaceous is overlaid, always unconformably, 
by the Esna Shales of the Lower Libyan, in Baharia by limestones 
of the Upper Libyan, and at Abu-Eoash by still younger beds of 
Lower and Upper Mokattam age." 

The author finds other evidence which " suggests the probability 
that there was another period of possibly even more important 
earth-movements in Post-Eocene times. In this case, it seems not 
unlikely that the folding was closely connected with the important 
series of earth-movements which took place in North-East Africa' 
and South- West Asia in early Pliocene times, and which gave rise to 
the formation of the chief topographical features of the countr}', such 
as the Nile and Jordan valleys and their attendant series of lakes." 

The author's theory as to the origin of these wonderful depressions- 
in the Libyan desert is interesting, and may be quoted in full. He 
writes : — " Baharia is a self-contained depression without drainage- 
outlet, so that the ordinary methods of removal of disintegrated 
material do not here appl3^ Next, we have a large, flat, anticlinal 
ridge of Cretaceous beds, with at least one subsidiar}^ sharp, parallel, 
synclinal fold, overlaid by more or less horizontal beds of Eocene 
limestone. Since the elevation of this part of North Africa into dry 



Notices of Memoirs — H. J. L. Beadnell — Gcologij of Egypt. 27 

land in late Tertiary times, denudation must have gone on con- 
tinuously over the whole surface of the country. 

" The most important denuding agent at the present day in the 
Libyan desert is wind-borne sand, the erosive action of which is 
very powerful and at once apparent to eveiy traveller in these 
regions ; but in the past there may have been, and probably were, 
other eroding agencies as well at work on the surface of this part of 
North Africa. Imagine, then, the general planing down of the 
country little by little through a long interval of time, until the 
anticlinal ridge of Cretaceous beds was reached, with its attendant 
soft sandstones and claj's. As soon as the latter were exposed the 
action of denudation would have rapidly quickened, chiefly by the 
breaking up of the constituents of these beds by changes of tempera- 
ture, rains and frosts, and the removal of the resulting sand and 
dust by wind. In this way must these wonderful depressions have 
been formed. 

" Generalizing, then, we may say that where there have been 
extensive deposits of soft beds, and these have become exposed b}^ 
the action of denudation, there large depressions have been cut out. 
The existence of soft Cenomanian sandstones and clays is thus the 
primary cause of the existence of the depression of Baharia, the soft 
Esna shales have played a similar role in that of Farafra, while, 
again, Dakhla is cut out in a thick series of soft beds of Danian age. 
The other oases and depressions probably owe their existence largely 
to the same cause." 

Farafra and Dakhla Oasis. — In Farafra the author's chief additions 
to our knowledge were rather geographical than geological, although 
some evidence is brought forward to show that the very fossiliferous 
clays on the road between Farafra and Dakhla are somewhat younger 
than the age assigned to them by Zittel. 

In Dakhla oasis thick and extensive highly phosphatic bone-beds 
of considerable commercial value were discovered. 

Fayum. — It was in this province that there existed, some 2,000 
years before Herodotus, the celebrated Lake Moeris, the exact site 
of which has led to so much discussion. The author shows that 
the geological evidence, in the shape of clays with numerous fresh- 
water shells and fish-remains, of the same species as those at present 
inhabiting the existing lake, proves that the ancient lake occupied 
the lowest part of the depression, i.e. that now occupied by the Birket 
el Qurun and a considerable area of the low surrounding country. 
His position, in fact, closely agrees with that assigned to the lake by 
Major Brown, who bases his conclusions chiefly on considerations 
of level. 

An extensive series of fluvio-marine beds, with intercalated sheets 
of basalt near the top, is shown to overlie the Upper Mokattam 
formation throughout the north part of the Fayum. This series is- 
provisionally regarded as Oligocene. At the top come the silicified, 
wood- bearing sandstones, which stretch northwards across the desert 
to beyond the latitude of Cairo. 

Within the Fayum depression, high up on the slopes or summits- 



128 Notices of Memoirs — II. J. L. Beadnell — Geology of Egypt. 

■ of the surrounding ridges, are found extensive raised beaches, 
probably of marine Pliocene age, at which time the sea stretched 
far up the Nile Valley. 

'Nile Valley. — la conclusion, some highly interesting facts are 
brought forvvai'd with regard to the Nile Valley itself, which the 
author summarizes as follows: — "The general north and south 
direction of the Nile Valley in Egypt, the remarkable high, lofty, 
wall-like cliffs by which it is hemmed in, the absence of any true 
river deposits at any considerable height above the river, the almost 
•entire absence of hills or outliers of the plateau within the valley, 
the proved existence of bounding faults throughout a long stretch 
of the valley, lead us to infer that the formation of this gorge was 
brought about by faulting, rifting, and folding, and not cut out in 
the usual way by river action." 

Between Cairo and Assuan the Nile Valley floor is covered for 
the most part with deposits of comparatively recent geological age, 
which may be divided into (1) Marine, Pliocene ; (2) Lacustrine, 
Pleistocene ; and (3) Fluviatile, Recent. 

The marine Pliocene deposits, discovered near Esna by Mr. Barron 
and the author in 1897, consist of a thick series of limestones and 
interbedded conglomerates. In the limestones numerous foraminifera 
were found, and have been described by Mr. F. Chapman. 

The lacustrine series consist of fresh-water deposits of the most 
variable nature, including gravels, conglomerates, clays, marls, lime- 
stones, and tufas. They have been mapped and examined by the 
author throughout a large length of the Nile Valley from Qena to 
Cairo. Calcareous tufas, crowded with the most beautiful impressions 
of leaves and twigs, abound in places. At Isawia the limestones of 
the series are of considerable commercial importance, supplying the 
material for the construction of the great dam at Assiut. Finally, 
the fluviatile deposits include the Nile mud and other recent 
accumulations. 

In conclusion, the author shows the probable date of the formation 
of the Nile Valley gorge to be Lower Pliocene, and refers it to the 
same great series of earth-movements which determined and formed 
the main physical feature of North-East Africa and part of Asia. 
After the deposition of the Pliocene beds a gradual elevation led to 
the final retreat of the sea, the valley then becoming the site of 
a series of fresh-water lakes in which were deposited large quantities 
of calcareous tufa, which enclosed the numerous leaves carried into 
the lakes from the surrounding forests. 

Finally, "in later Pleistocene times drainage must have become 
well established down the Nile Valley, and a river, the youthful 
Father Nile, commenced its cai'eer by carving out a channel through 
the valley deposits, before, owing to changed conditions, it finally 
•took to depositing layer upon layer of ' Nile mud,' thus forming the 
:strip of cultivable and inhabitable country without which the Land 
•of Egypt, as we know it, would be non-existent." 



Notices of Memoirs — Vegetation of tJie Coal Period. 20' 

II. — British Association for the Advancement of Science. 
Bradford, 1900. Joint Discussion, Sections C and K. On 
THE Conditions under which the Plants of the Coal 
Period grew. 

1. Flora of the Coal-bieasures. By K. Kidston, F.R.S.E., F.G.S. 

LEAVING out of consideration a few genera of which we possess 
little or no definite knowledge, the flora of the Coal-measures 
consists of Ferns, Calaraites, Lycopods, Sphenophylleai, Cordaites, 
and Conifera^. 

In genera and species the Ferns are probably more numerous than 
the whole of the other groups, and contain representatives of the 
Eusporangiate and Leptosporangiate members of the class. The 
Eusporangiate, or those ferns whose sporangia are unprovided with 
an annulus, were more numerous in the Carboniferous period than 
at present, though in the Coal-measures they do not appear to have 
been more numerous than the genera with annulate sporangia. Tree 
ferns, though not very common, are more frequent in the Upper 
than in the Lower Coal-measures, in the lowest beds of which they 
seem to be very rare. 

The Calamites are largely represented throughout the whole of 
the Coal-measures, AsteropJnjUites {Calamocladtis) and Annnlaria-. 
probably being their foliage. 

Lycopods are also very numerous, and are represented by many 
important genera — Lycopodites, Zepidodendron, LepidopMoios, 
Bothrodendron, and Sigillaria, with their rhizomes Stigmaria and 
Stigmariopsis. These genera contributed largely to the formation 
of Coal. 

The genus Sphenophyllum was also frequent during Coal-measure 
times, and forms a type of vegetation essentially distinct from any 
existing group. 

The Gymnosperms are represented by Cordaites, Conifera), and 
Cycads. 

The Cordaites had tree-like trunks and long yucca-like leaves. 
They are plentiful in tlie Coal-measures, and, like the arborescent 
lycopods, must have been a prominent feature in a Carboniferous 
forest scene. 

The Conifera^, so far as I have seen, are only represented by 
a single specimen of Walchia from the Upper Coal-measures ; and 
though Cycads have been discovered in the Upper Coal-measures on 
the Continent, I am not aware of any British species which can be 
referred with certainty to this group. 



2. The Origin of Coal. By A. Strahan, M.A., F.G.S. 
The deposition of the Coal-measures was due to the subsidence of 
large portions of the earth's crust to a depth often amounting to 
several thousand feet. The subsidence, being unequal, led to tlie 
formation of coal-basins, parts of the margins of which are still 
recognizable. That the intervening areas rose no less rapidly than 
the basins sank is proved l>y the vast denudation suffered by the 
earlier Palaeozoic rocks during the Carboniferous period. 



■30 Notices of Memoirs — Vegetation oj the Coal Period. 

The subsidence was counterbalanced during Coal-measure times 
by sedimentation, for the occurrence of marine beds among deposits 
of a generally estuarine aspect proves that the surface was maintained 
at or near sea-level. The Carboniferous sediments consist, in the 
majority of coalfields, of marine limestones in the lower part, of 
marine grits and conglomerates in the middle part, and of estuaro- 
marine sandstones and shales in the upper part. The sequence is 
due, firstly, to the admission of the sea to the subsiding areas ; and 
lastly, to the restoration of level brought about by sedimentation and 
denudation. But there is evidence also of the sedimentation having 
been more or less spasmodic. Thus the Limestone Series generally 
consists of repetitions of small groups of strata, each group being 
•composed of sandstone, followed by shale, shale followed by lime- 
stone. Similarly the Coal-measures present repetitions of sandstone 
followed by shale, shale by coal. Limestone in the one case and 
coal in the other are therefore comparable in this respect, that each 
represents an episode when sedimentation had come to a pause. 
Early views as to the origin of coal, namely, that it was formed of 
vegetable matter drifted beyond the region to which the finest 
mineral sediment could reach, were in accordance with these facts. 

More minute examination of the strata, however, revealed proofs 
of land-surfaces in the Coal-measures, and it was generally accepted 
that the coal-seams represent forests in the place of their growth. 
The evidence may be summarized as follows : — 

(1) Rain-pittings, sun-cracks, and footprints prove that the surfaces 
of some of the beds were exposed to the air. 

(2) Erect tree-trunks of large size, in some cases attached to large 
■spreading roots, are not uncommon. Land-shells, millipedes, and 
the skeletons of air-breathing reptiles have occasionally been found 
within the hollow trunks.^ 

(3) The underclays of coal-seams are traversed in all directions by 
^branching rootlets, unlike the drifted fragments in the bedding 

planes of the other strata. They were described as an invariable 
accompaniment of coals, and as being the soils in which the coal- 
forest was rooted. 

(4) Coal-seams, with thin minute partings, persist over vast areas, 
and it was thought impossible that so wide and regular a distribution 
of vegetable matter could have been accomplished by drifting. 

(5) The chemical composition of the coals was believed to prove 
that the vegetable matter underwent partial decomposition in the 
open air before being submerged or buried. 

This evidence, however, though it proves the existence of land 
surfaces, is not conclusive of the coal-seams being forests in place of 
growth. The rain-pittings, sun-cracks, and footprints occur, not in 
the coals, but in the intervening strata. Of the erect tree-trunks 
a large proportion occur in sandstones devoid of coal, a few only 
having been found to stand upon an underclay, or to be associated 

1 C. Brongniart and others have shown that air-breathing insects of the orders 
Neuroptera, Orthoptera, Thysanura, and Homoptera, were very numerous in the 
Coal-period in Europe and America. — Edit. Geol. Mag. 



Notices of Jfenioirs — Vegetation of the Coal Period. 31 

-with seams of coal. Vast areas of coal have been worked witliout 
any such trunks having been encountered. The majority of the 
trunks, moreover, are destitute of spreading roots, and are believed 
to have been floated to their present positions. The land-shells, 
insect and reptilian remains, are of extremely rare occurrence. 

The underclays do not resemble soils, inasmuch as they are 
perfectly homogeneous, and lie with absolute parallelism to the other 
members of a stratified series. They are not always present beneath 
coal-seams, but, on the other hand, often occur in them or above 
them. Frequently they have no coal associated with them. The 
rootlets in them have no connection with the coal, which is a well- 
stratified deposit with a sharply defined base. 

The persistence of the partings and characters of the coal over 
^vide areas is in favour of their being subaqueous deposits, for on so 
large an expanse of land there must have been river-systems and 
variations in the vegetation. The stream-beds, known to miners as 
• wash-outs,' are not proportioned in size to the supposed land- 
surfaces. 

Subaerial decomposition of part of a mass of vegetable matter 
would take place whether it were floating or resting on dry land. 
tSpores, which enter largely into the composition of many coals, 
would travel long distances either by wind or water. 

Some coal-seams show clear proof of a drifted origin, as, for 
example, those which are made up of a mass of small water- worn 
chips of wood or bark. Other seams pass horizontally into bands 
of ironstone, and one case has been observed of a coal changing 
gradually into a dolomitic tufa, doubtless formed in a stagnant 
lagoon. Putting aside exceptional cases, the sequence of events 
which preceded the deposition of a normal coal-seam seems to have 
been — firstly, the outspreading of sand or gravel with drifted plant- 
remains, followed by shale as the currents lost velocity. The water 
was extremely shallow, and even retreated at times, so as to leave 
the surface open to the air. The last sediments were extremely 
fine, homogeneous, and almost wholly siliceous, and in them a mass 
of presumably aquatic vegetation rooted itself. This further im- 
pediment to movement in the water cut off all sediment, and the 
material brought into the area then consisted only of wind-borne 
vegetable dust or floating vegetable matter carrying an occasional 
boulder. Lastly, the formation of the coal-seam was brought to 
a close by a sudden invasion of the ai'ea by moving water. The 
mass of vegetable matter, often after suffering some little erosion, 
was buried by sandstone or shale rich in large drifted remains of 
plants or trees, and the whole process was recommenced. 



Z. Botanical Evidence bearing on the Climatic and other 

Physical Conditions under which Coal avas forsied. By 

A. C. Seward, F.R.S. 

Botanical investigations into the nature and composition of the 

vegetation which has left abundant traces in the sediments of the 

Coal-measures may be expected to throw some light on the natural 



32 Notices of Memoirs — Vegetation of the Coal Period . 

conditions which prevailed during that period in the earth's history 
that was par excellence the age of coal production. The minute^- 
examination of petrified tissues has rendered possible a restoration 
of the internal framework of several extinct tj'pes of plant-life, and 
has carried us a step further towards the solution of evolutionary 
problems. It is possible, even with our present knowledge, to 
make a limited use of anatomical structure as an index of life- 
conditions, and to restore in some degree from structural records the- 
physiological and physical conditions of plant-life characteristic of 
the close of the Carboniferous epoch. 

(1) Evidence furnished hy the Coal-period Floras as to Climatic and' 

other Physical Conditions. 

The uniformity in the character of the vegetation has no doubt 
been somewhat exaggerated ; e.g., the Glossopteris flora of Australia, 
South Africa, and South America. The existence of botanical 
provinces in Upper Palaeozoic times. 

A comparison of the Coal-period vegetation with that of the 
present day as regards (i) the relative abundance of certain classes 
of plants, (ii) the geographical distribution of certain families of 
plants during the Carboniferous epoch and at the present day. The 
importance of bearing in mind the progress of plant-evolution as 
a factor affecting the consideration of such comparisons. The 
possible existence of a Palceozoic Mountain flora of which no 
records have been preserved. 

(2) The Form, Habit, and Manner of Occurrence of Individual Plant& 

as Indices of Conditions of Growth. 
Comparison of Calamites and horse-tails. Fossil forests of 
Calamites. Psaronius stems in situ and bearing roots at different 
levels, suggesting growth in a region of rapid sedimentation. 
Vertical stems either in loco natali or drifted. Climbing plants 
possibly represented by Sphenophijllum, some species of ferns and. 
MeduUosefe. Function of the so-called Aphlehia leaves of ferns. 

(3) Anatomical Evidence. 

The value of evidence afforded by anatomical features. Eisks of 
comparison between structural character of extinct and recent plants. 
Structure considered from the point of view of evolution, as the 
result of adaptation to external conditions, and to mechanical and 
physiological requirements. 

(o) Spores and leaves. — Abundance of spores provided with 
filamentous or hooked appendages ; adaptation of spores to floating 
or to wind-dispersal. The leaf structure of Calamites, ferns, etc. ; 
presence of stomata, palissade tissue, and water - glands ; the 
' parichnos ' or aerating tissue in the leaves of Lepidodendrete and 
Sigillarie^. 

QS) Stems and roots. — Absence of annual rings of growth. The 
large size of water-conducting elements connected with rapid transport 
(e.g. Sphenophyllnm) or with storage of water (e.g. Megaloxylon). 
The chambered pith of Cordaites, quoted as evidence of rapid 
elongation, of little or no physiological significance. Abundance- 



Notices of Memoirs — Vegetafiun of tlic Coal Period. 33 

of secretory tissue. Auatomical characteristics of a Lepidotlendroid 
type of stem ; great development of secondary tissue in the outer 
cortex, little or no true cork, lax inner cortex. Lacunar tissue in 
the roots of Calamites ; hollow appendages of Stigmaria. Indications 
of xerophytic characters may be the result of growth in salt marshes. 

(4) Evidence as to the Manner of Formation of Coal. 

(a) The structure of calcareous nodules found in coal-seams ; the 
preservation of delicate tissues, the occurrence of fungal hyphse, and 
the petrification of Stigmarian appendages as evidence in favour 
of the subaqueous accumulation of the plant-debris found in the 
calcareous nodules. 

(6) Ordinary coal microscopically examined. Spores, fragments 
of tissues, bacteria, and the ground substance of coal. Coal found in 
the cavities of cells in carbonized tissues. Suggested non-vegetable 
origin of the matrix of coal. ' Boulders ' and coal-balls included in 
coal-seams. 

(c) Boghead, Cannel coal, and Oil-shales. Recent investigations 
of Bertrand, Eenault, and others. The structure and mode of origin 
of torbanite, kerosene, shale, etc. Suggested origin of Boghead 
from the minute bodies of algee [fleurs d'eau), spores, etc., embedded 
in a brown ulmic substance found on the floor of a lake. Absence 
of clastic material. Cannel coal characterized by abundance of 
spores. 

{d) Paper-coal of Biissia. — The paper-coal of Culm age in the 
Moscow basin consists largely of the cuticles of a Lepidodendroid 
plant. Bacterial action as an agent in the destruction of plants and 
as a factor in the production of coal. 



4. By J. E. Mark, F.E.S. 

(1) What is coal Y — A non-scientific term introduced into scientific 
nomenclature for substances of divers character, and, therefore, 
probably of different modes of origin. 

(2) Was the Carboniferous period one where conditions suitable to 
formation of coal were unusually loidespread? 

Coincidence at this period of dominant giant cryptogams, extensive 
plains of sedimentation, and suitable climatic conditions. Such 
coincidence never occurred before or after the Carboniferous period. 

(o) What loorlc shoidd be done in order to advance our hwioledge 
of origin of coal ? 

In the past light has been thrown on coal-formation by chemical, 
petrological, palgeontological, and stratigraphical studies, and these 
should be continued. 

(a) Chemical. — Importance of study of chemical composition of 
fire-clays and other accompaniments of coal in addition to coal itself. 

(h) Petrological. — Dr. Sorby's work on origin of grains of 
mechanically formed rocks (sandstones, etc.) should be continued. 

(c) Palaontological. — Studies of faunas and floras throwing light 
on physical and also on climatic conditions. 

DECADE IV. — VOL. VIII. — NO. I. 3 



34 Notices of Memoirs — On Strike-Majis. 

(d) StratigrapJiical. — Much detailed work is required in many 
parts of the world to discover over what periods coal-formation 
occurred in exceptional amount. Tendency at outset to refer all 
Upper Palaeozoic coal-formations to the Coal-measures. 



IIL — On the Construction and Uses of Stkike-Maps.^ By 
J. LoMAS, A.R.C.S., F.G.S. 

IN studying the deformations which a series of rocks have undergone, 
we are apt to regard the vertical movements as all-important, 
and neglect the horizontal movements to which they have been 
subjected. This is largely owing to the difficulties experienced 
in picturing such horizontal movements and representing them 
on a plan. Lines dependent on surface inequalities confuse the 
worker when he seeks to use the ordinary geological maps for this 
purpose. It is easy to get rid of these lines by projecting the 
strikes of the beds on to a horizontal plane. We then have the 
appearance that would be produced if the country were planed down 
to a horizontal surface. The outcrops would coincide with the 
strikes, and any deviation from straight lines would indicate 
horizontal movements. Vertical movements would also be shown 
on such a plan by the closing up of outcrops of beds of equal 
thickness. All the data necessary to represent these features 
on a strike-map are given in the ordinary Geological Survey 
sheets. To construct such a map, first trace the dips given 
on the geological map and draw short lines at the points of the 
arrows, at right angles to the direction of dip. We thus have 
represented the strikes of the beds at a number of points. Now 
it is necessary'- to connect these up by lines to show the strike at 
intermediate places. It would not be safe to connect one line with 
another, as the strikes may refer to different beds. In order to 
overcome this difficulty, draw a series of lines parallel to the strike 
line on both sides of it. On doing this for all the positions it will 
be found that the lines either connect themselves in linear series, 
or we have represented a series of tangents to curves which become 
evident when the lines are prolonged in the direction of the strike. 
Care should be taken not to connect in the same line strikes with 
dips in contrary directions, and it is well to represent the dip side of 
the strike lines by a short mark i . When the amount of 

dip is known, as well as the direction, we can represent the 
steepness of the folds by suitable shading, either by hachures or 
closeness of strike lines. As an illustration I exhibit strike maps 
of the district about Clitheroe, including the well-known knolls 
at Worsa and Gerna. The anticlinal ridge just north of Chatburn 
is clearly shown, and the strata dipping with wavy folds towards 
the Kibble on the north and Clitheroe on the south. The Salt Hill 
quarries are excavated in this southern slope at a place where the 
fold becomes acute. The knolls at Worsa and Gerna appear like 
whirls or eddies, such as may be seen in a stream when the flow is 
obstructed by boulders in the stream bed. 
1 Eead before the Eritish Association, Section C (Geology), Bradford, Sept., 1900. 



Notices of JTeinoirs — G. Ahhott — Magnesian Concretions. 35 

3V. — The Coxcretionary Types in the Cellular Magnesian 
Limestone of Durham.^ By G. Abbott, M.R.C.S. 

A SSOCIATED with the Cannon-ball bed near Sunderland is 
j\_ a cellular limestone which is much more extensive, and exhibits 
^till more remarkable physical features. Although described by 
Professor Sedgwick more than sixty years ago with other magnesiau 
beds in the North of England, it is still compai'atively unknown. He 
divided the concretions in these strata into four classes, but I have 
been unable to find any classified collection except the one in the 
Newcastle Museum, and even in this series it is only partially done. 

My own studies at Fulwell and Hendon lead me to suggest a new 
classification, with five primary forms, viz. : (1) rods, (2) bands, 
(3) rings, (4) balls and modified spheres, (5) eggs. Combinations of 
these forms constitute the major part of these massive beds, and 
frequently a bed of less than a foot thick shows examples of several 
different combinations. These I place in ten classes, though they may 
have to be added to. The chief types are (1) tubes, (2) ' cauliflowers,' 
(3) basaltiform, (4) irregulai', (5 and G) troughs and bands (two 
kinds), (7) ' floral,' (S and 9) ' honeycomb ' or coralloid (two kinds), 
(10) pseudo-organic. 

I exhibit photographs on the screen showing both the primary 
forms and the combinations as seen (wherever possible) in the 
undisturbed rock sections. 

My own conclusions are as follows : — 

1. That the rod structure is secondary to the formation of the 
conspicuous bands which run across the beds at various angles. 
(These bands need to be distinguished from the bands mentioned 
among the ' primary forms.') The conspicuous bands act as planes 
of origin for the ' rods,' and do not cross through the long axes of 
the rods themselves. They appear never to cross the bedding 
planes, though occasionally they follow them and also the outline 
of the joints. The question therefore arises, whether this does not 
give us a clue to the age and sequence of the changes which have 
occurred in these beds, and whether the previous existence of joints 
does not mean that the beds were already above the sea-level when 
the changes commenced. 

2. The rods invariably start from the last-mentioned bands, and 
may be seen at every possible angle. As they have grown upwards 
and obliquely as well as downwards the term ' stalactitic ' is a very 
misleading one to use. As Mr. Garwood stated long ago, these beds 
" present many points which appear irreconcilable with the theory of 
their stalactitic origin." 

3. The first step in the series of changes which have taken 
place was probably an orderly but unsymmetrical arrangement of 
amorphous molecules of calcium carbonate which separated them- 

. selves from those of the carbonate of magnesia. 

4. The internal architecture is due to such arrangement of 
amorphous particles of lime which has since been coated with an 

^ Eeud before the British Association, Sectiou C (Geology), Bradford, Sept., 1900. 



36 Notices of Memoirs — A. C. Seward* s Jurassic Flora. 

outer crystalline layer. In some cases, however, the entire mass- 
has undergone a complete subsequent change into a crystalline- 
structure. 

5. Peai'l-spar (crystals of the combined carbonates) is seldom met 
with. I failed to find any. 

6. In the Fulwell beds there are very few fossils, and where met 
with, as at Mai'sden, concretionary action is seldom traceable near them. 

7. The specimens at Fulwell which arouse the most interest 
are coralloid masses (' honeycomb ' of the quarrymen). They are 
confined, so far as I could discover, to a stratum, about 1^ foot thick, 
above the marl bed, and lie in close juxtaposition to each other, 
which accounts for their peculiar external shape. 

In conclusion I would point out the close resemblance which exists- 
between the ' lines ' and ' planes ' in these concretionary beds, and 
the ' lines ' which shoot across congealing water. In some respects- 
the architecture of the magnesian beds compares with the ice- 
decorations seen on our window-panes in frosty weather. 



V. — The Jurassic Flora of East Yorkshire.^ By A. C. 
Seward, F.R.S. 

THE plant-beds exposed in the cliff sections of the Yorkshire 
coast have afforded unusually rich data towards a restoration 
of the characteristics and composition of a certain facies of Mesozoic 
vegetation. Eich collections of plants from Gristhorpe Bay and 
other well-known localities are found in the British Museum (Natural 
History), also in the Museums of Scarborough, Whitby, Cambridge, 
Oxford, Manchester, York, Newcastle, Leeds, and elsewhere. Th& 
Natural History Museum, Paris, contains several important York- 
shire plants, some of which have been described by Brongniart and 
Saporta. The following species have been recognized from the East 
Yorkshire area : — 

MarcJiantites erectiis (Leek., ex Bean MS.) ; Equisetites columnaris,. 
Brongn. ; Equisetites Beani (Bunb.) ; Lycopodites falcatus, L. & H. - 
Cladophlebis denticidata (Brongn.) ; C. haiburnensis (L. & H.) ; C lohi- 
folia (Phill.) : Coniopteris arguta (L. & H.) ; C. hjmenophylloides 
(Brongn.) ; G. quinqueloha (Phill.) ; Dictyophi/llum rugosum, L. & H. ; 
Klulcia exilis (Phill.) ; Laccopteris polypodioides (Brongn.) ; L. Wood- 
wardi (Leek.) ; Matonidium Goepperti (Ett.) ; Pacliypteris lanceolata, 
Brongn. ; Biiffordia Goepperti (Dunk.) ; Sagenopteris PhilUpsi 
(Brongn.) ; Sphenopteris Mtirrayana (Brongn.) ; S. Williamsoni, 
Brongn. ; Tceniopteris major, L. & H. ; T. vittata, Brongn. ; Todites- 
Williamsoni (Brongn.); Anomozamites Nilssoni (Phill.) ; Araucarites 
Phillipsi, Carr ; Baiera gracilis, Jimib. ; B. Lindleyana (Schimp.) ;. 
£. Phillipsi, Nath. ; Beania gracilis, Carr ; Brachypliyllum mammillare, 
Brongn. ; Cheirolepis setosus (Phill.) ; Cryptomerites divaricatus, 
Bunb. ; Ctenis falcata, L. & H. ; Czehanoioslcia Murrayana (L. & H.) ; 
Dioonites Nathorsti, sp. nov. ; Ginkgo digitata (Brongn.) ; G. ichithi- 
ensis, Nath. ; Nageiopsis anglica, sp. nov. ; Nilssonia compta (Phill.) ; 

1 Eead before the British Association, Section C (Geology), Bradford, Sept., 1900.- 



Befieics — The Bntcina)i Collection hi the Sheffield Museum. 37 

y. viediana (Leek., ex Bean MS.) ; N. teniunervis, Natli, ; Otozamltes 
iu'iminatus (L. & H.) ; 0. Beani (L. & H.) ; 0. Bunhtiryaims, Zign. ; 
O. Feistmanteli, Zign. ; 0. graphicus (Leek., ex Bean MS.) ; O. obtusus 
(L. & H.), var. ooliticus ; 0. parallelns (Phill.) ; Fagiophyllnm William- 
*oi«* (Brongn.) ; Fodozamites lanceolatiis (L. & H.) ; Ptilozamites 
(Leek., ex Bean MS.) ; Taxites zamioides (Leek.) ; WilUamsonia 
gigas (L. & H.) ; W. pecten (Phill.). 

The English flora is eompared by the author with Eha^tie, Jurassic, 
and Wealden floras of other regions ; a eomparison is made also 
between the fossil flora and the vegetation of the present day. 

VL — On the Fish Fauna of the Yokkshire Coalfields.^ By 
Edgar D. Wellp.urn, F.G.S. 

ONLY the Lower and Middle Coal-measures are present. The 
author described the Lower Measures, their extent and general 
characters, with their beds of marine and fresh-water origin. The 
Middle Measui-es and their general character : formed in a series of 
fresh-water lake basins. The author described the fish-remains, 
where found and in what state of preservation. Elasraobranchs, 
Teleosteans (and in some cases Dipnoans), commingled, i.e. marine 
and fresh-water types in the same beds ; Elasmobranchs found in 
marine and fresh-water beds ; Dipnoi only found under fresh- water 
conditions. Teleostean orders, Crossopterygii and Actinopterygii 
found in both fresh- water and marine beds. The conditions under 
which coal was deposited was shown to have a bearing on the 
occurrence and habits of the fishes. The swim-bladder of Co3la- 
canths, and its peculiar use to them under certain conditions. The 
Elasmobranchii were represented by eleven genera and twenty-three 
species ; Ichtbyodorulites by seven genera and eight species ; Dipnoi 
by two genera and two species ; and the Teleostomi by twelve 
genera and thirty-three species. A tabular list of fish-remains was 
given showing their stratigraphical distribution ; several new fish- 
bearing coal shales were recorded, the distribution and vertical 
range of the Yorkshire coal-fishes being thus greatly extended ; 
several genera and species new to Yorkshire, and others new to 
science, were referred to by the author. 



I^ IE "V IIB AAT' S. 



-I. — Catalogue of the Bateilvn Collection of Antiquities in 

THE Sheffield Public Museum. Prepared by E. Howarth, 

F.R.A.S., F.Z.S., Curator of the Public Museum and Mappin Art 

Gallery. 8vo ; pp. xxiv and 2o4, with 2G2 illustrations in the 

text. Published by order of the Committee. (London : Dulau 

& Co., 1899. Price 3s. Qd.) 

rilHE very valuable and interesting collection which forms the 

X subject of this excellent Catalogue is not only entirely British, 

but is confined to Derbyshire, Staftbrdshire, and Yorkshire, and is 

the work of three generations of Batemans of Middleton Hall, 

1 Kead before the British Association, Section C (Geology), Bradford, Sept., 1900. 



38 Revieivs — The Bateman Collection in the Sheffield Museum. 

Derbyshire, from 1759 to 184:7, assisted by Mr. Samuel Carringtou 
in Staffordshire, Mr. James Euddock in the North Eidiug of York- 
shire, Mr. Stephen Glover in Derbyshire, and Mr. Samuel Mitchell 
of Sheffield, an antiquary of wide erudition. 

Following the Collection, the Catalogue is arranged as under, viz. : 

Celtic Period : Stone and bronze weapons and utensils, Nos. 1-526, 
pp. 1-89 ; urns and other pottery, Nos. 757-896, pp. 91-156 • 
miscellaneous objects, crania, querns, Nos. 897-985, pp. 157- 
174 ; tools, personal ornaments, Nos. 527-598, pp. 175-190. 

Eomano-British Period : Nos. 599-687 and 986-1117, pp. 191-218. 

Anglo-Saxon Period : Nos. 688-756, pp. 219-231. 

Miscellaneous Objects ; Nos. 1118-1288, pp. 232-254. 

In his excellent Introduction Mr. Howarth observes that : '•'Eecords- 
of the dead are almost the only means whereby any reliable account 
can be constructed of the life and customs of the earliest inhabitants 
of Britain, with whom writing was unknown ; pictorial art, if not 
quite beyond their skill, was of the simplest kind, and their 
dwellings were of such a temporary and unsubstantial character that 
all traces of them vanished before the historical period. The care 
of the dead forms their most lasting memorials, and it is thes& 
sepultural mounds that furnish the principal information respecting 
the early Britons. Derbyshire has contained many conspicuous 
examples of ancient barrows, tumuli, or grave-mounds, and, 
fortunately, amongst the Bateman family there were men of leisure^ 
means, and knowledge, with the taste for exploring these sepulchral- 
storehouses and carefully preserving them ; and it was chiefly owing 
to the labours of Mr. Thomas Bateman that the collection which 
bore his family name w^as formed." (p. v.) 

"Under the Celtic Period are grouped all those objects found in 
the burial-places, or in any way associated with the ancient Britons, 
■whether belonging to the round-headed or long-headed races, two 
distinct types which may have sprung from two different groups 
afterwards associated together. Authorities agree in regarding tlifr 
earliest race inhabiting these islands as Celts, and as the exact 
indications of time are few there is the freer scope for the imagina- 
tion. Let us take it, then, that 1600 years before Christ, Britain 
was inhabited by a Celtic race of long-headed men of low mental 
development and small stature. The Phoenicians traded with Britain 
for tin, lead, and skins, 600 years before Christ ; and about 500 b.c. 
Hecatus, a Greek writer, describes Britain as an island opposite the^ 
coast of Gaul about as large as Sicily. 

"In or about the year 350 b.c. the Belga?, a tribe descended from 
the Scythians, invaded the island. They were men of larger stature^ 
than the Celts, their heads were round rather than long, and they 
were inured to the dangers and hardships of wai*. The Belgfe^ 
conquered and occupied the southern and south-western counties, 
driving the Celts to the north and north-west. When the Eomans- 
invaded the island, first in 55 b.c. under Julius C^sar, and about 
a century later in the reign of Claudius, the Belga^ were the tribes. 



Heviews — T/ie Bcifeman Collection in the Sheffield Museum. 30 

first encountered. The skulls found in the barrows mainly belong 
to the round-headed type, some of them being mesaticephalous, 
representing the characters of the two types." (p. vi.) 

It is interesting to notice the "very great care and trouble 
expended over the construction of many of the grave-mounds, 
probably those in which were deposited chiefs of tribes or important 
individuals of the community, for it is impossible that these huge 
mounds, which sometimes contain only a single interment, and 
never very many, could have been constructed for all the people 
who died. It is these barrows or tumuli which furnish the evidence 
of the customs, habits, and rites of these ancient people. 

" The chief characteristic of a Celtic place of burial is a large 
mound, sometimes circular, in other cases oval, and more rarely 
long-shaped, the latter being regarded as the most ancient. These 
mounds dififer considerably in dimensions, from 20 to 200 feet in 
diameter and from 1 to 24 feet in height. They were usually 
placed in a conspicuous position on or near the summit of some 
natural elevation of the land. The mounds of earth and stone are 
called barrows, and are formed of materials from the immediate 
neighbourhood of the situation in which they were placed. In 
some cases a mound of stones or a cairn was erected over the 
dead." (p. vii.) 

Burial by Cremation. — '• Where the bodies were cremated the 
ashes were afterwards carefully collected together, tied up in some 
fabric, and placed on the ground ; or they were covered by or put 
into an urn, and frequently placed in a cist or in a cavity hewn in 
the rock." 

Ordinarrj Interment. — "Inhumation was the more common mode 
of burial, the body probably being wrapped in some skin or garment, 
for although these have long since perished, pins, buttons, and other 
articles found in barrows indicate that they were used as fastenings 
for sepulchral clothing of some kind. Some barrows contain burnt 
and unburnt bones, one body having been interred in the position in 
which it died, while the others were burnt ; and it may be inferred 
from these occurrences that the sacrifice of human life at the death 
of a chief was practised amongst the ancient Britons, as is the custom 
in recent times with many uncivilized races. The wife, children, or 
slaves may thus have been immolated to keep the head of the family 
company in a future world." (p. viii.) 

Objects found in Celtic Tumuli and Barroios. — "The contents of the 
graves lead strongly to the supposition that belief in a future state 
was held by these jirimitive people, provision evidently being made 
for them to carry on their work and amusements. Besides the 
cinerary urns, which were obviously intended to contain the cremated 
bones, other vessels of three distinct types have been found with 
interments, both of burnt and unburnt bodies. These are generally 
known as food-vessels, drinkiug-cups, and incense-cups, though it 
must not be inferred that they were strictly used for the purposes 
implied in those names." (p. viii.) 

" Implements and weapons, both in stone and bronze, are 



40 Revieics — The Bateman Collection in the Sheffield Museum. 

frequently found in barrows, as also personal ornaments in the 
shape of necklaces, glass beads, buttons, bronze and bone pins. 
Numerous examples of these finds are recorded, amongst them being 
some pieces of red ochre, the rouge of that period, used for decorating 
the body. Although the use of iron was then unknown, pieces of 
rubbed and polished iron-ore have been found in barrows, as if they 
had some special significance as charms. 

" Stone and bronze weapons are sometimes found in the same 
grave, the two materials evidently being used at the same period, 
probably this marking the time when bronze first came into use 
and before it had been generally adopted. A leaf-shaped dagger is 
the principal bronze weapon found in a grave, bronze implements 
being much less numerous than those of stone. The pins in bronze 
and bone and the buttons in Kimmeridge Coal show that some 
form of dress was worn which these were intended to fasten." (p. ix.) 

Mr. Howarth draws the following conclusions : — " It would appear 
from the teachings of the tombs of the ancient Britons that they 
were in a serai-savage state, without any fixed religion, with the 
sagacity to make tools, vessels, weapons, and implements for daily 
use. That the use of stone only gradually gave place to the use of 
bronze from an acquired knowledge of the properties of the ores 
of copper, tin, zinc, and lead. While no special differentiation 
of purpose is shown in their manufactures, yet they indicated 
a separation of certain objects for distinct uses. Clothing was worn 
amongst them, consisting of skins and probably manufactured stuffs, 
such as jute and flax. They cultivated the soil to a certain extent, 
and had domestic animals for labour and sustenance. While 
believing in a future state, their ideas of religion were of a very 
vague character, and they still practised certain barbarous rites 
which belong only to savages. The period which is covered by the 
history of Celtic barrows probably extends over many hundreds of 
years, and they show the advance the people had made during that 
time, ranging through the later or neolithic stone-period to the 
opening of the age of bronze, the people of the PalsBolithic period 
being much more ancient than the architects of these barrows, and 
of a much more primitive type." (p. xviii.) 

Space does not permit us to give a fuller notice of this very 
excellent and well-illustrated Catalogue and Guide to one of the 
most valuable collections of its kind to be seen in any museum in 
this country. We venture to suggest to the author that the very 
beautiful necklaces, said to be of ' Kimmeridge Coal,' figured on 
p. 59 (J. 93, 431, G. 79), p. Gl (J. 93, 434, G. 113), and p. 63 
(G. 158), were really originally made of jet from Whitby, which, 
owing to damp, etc., have lost their pristine lustre and become decom- 
posed by age and long interment in the earth, until they resemble 
Kimmeridge Coal or ' Brown-coal ' in aspect. We compliment 
Mr. Howarth upon the production of this excellent Catalogue of the 
Bateman Collection, and the Committee of the Sheffield Museum in 
authorizing the publication with such ample illustrations. The 
Collection itself is well worthy of a pilgrimage to Sheffield, nor is it 
the only one to be seen in this admirable Museum. 



i 



Reports and Proceedings — Geological Societg of London. 41 

31. — The Geology of the Country between Atherstone and 
Charnwood Forest. By C. Fox-StranCxWAYs, F.G.S. With 
Notes on Chaknwood Forest by Professor W. W. Watts, 
M.A., F.G.S. 8vo ; pp. 102. (London : printed for H.M. 
Stationery Office, 1900. Price 2s.) 
f pmS Memoir, which has been written in explanation of the New 
1 Series map, Sheet loo, contains a good deal of detailed 
information of practical value respecting the northern part of the 
Warwickshire Coalfield and the southern part of the Leicestershire 
Coalfield. A number of records of borings and sinkings are given. 
Professor Watts contributes a summary of the interesting observations 
which he made while mapping in detail the old rocks of Charnwood 
Forest. These he groups in the ' Charnian System,' whose position 
in the great Pre-Cambrian sequence cannot at present be determined. 
Among the other rocks dealt with by Mr. Strangways are the 
tStockingford Shales (Cambrian), the Permian and Trias, the Glacial, 
and more recent deposits. With the aid of Mr. Whitaker he con- 
tributes a useful geological bibliography of Leicestershire. 



Geological Society of London. 

I. —November 7, 1900.— J. J. H. Teall, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., President, 
in the Chair. The following communications were read : — 

1. "Additional Notes on the Drifts of the Baltic Coast of 
-Germany." By Professor T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S., 
and the Eev. E. Hill, M.A., F.G.S. 

The authors, prior to revisiting Riigen, examined sections of the 
Drift to the west of Warnemiinde, with a view of comparing it with 
that of the Cromer coast. Where the cliffs reach their greatest 
elevation, two or three miles from that town, they are composed of 
a stony clay, which occasionally becomes sandy. At intervals, 
however, sand interbanded with clay occurs, filling what appear to 
be small valleys in the Drift. A layer of grit and stones, occasionally 
associated with a boulder, occurs once or twice between these sands 
and clays. The valleys are excavated in the great mass of stony 
clay which extends for four or five miles to the west of Warnemiinde; 
and the synclinal slope of the layers and the contortion of the under- 
lying bedded sands indicate that the mass filling them has been let 
down as a whole, either by solution of the Chalk beneath the Drift 
or by the melting of underlying ice. Of these two hypotheses the 
authors view the latter with the more favour, but it also has its 
difficulties. 

In Eiigen, Arkona was visited ; here Chalk occurs, apparently as 
a sort of island in the Drift. At the well-known locality by the 
lighthouse it seems to overlie a drift, but on closer examination the 
latter appears more probably to have filled a cavity excavated in the 
Chalk, this apparent inlier of Drift probably being only a remnant 
of a much larger mass; therefore it is likel}' that this part of the 



42 Reports and Proceedings — Geological Society of London. 

coast nearly corresponds witli a pre-Glacial chalk-cliff against whicli 
the Drift was deposited. 

In the Jasmund district the authors lay special emphasis on three 
points: — (1) The 'inliers' of Drift appear to occupy valleys 
excavated in the Chalk ; (2) these valleys can be traced for some 
distance inland; (3) the steep walls of Chalk towards which the 
Drift dips sharply, and against which it ends abruptly (usually OU' 
the southern side), often trend gradually inland, as if the present 
coastline had passed obliquelj'^ across an old valley. In one or 
two instances the Drift is slightly twisted up against this steep 
face of Chalk. The authors call attention to cases where the Drift 
clearly rests against old surfaces and cliffs of Chalk ; and to one in 
particular, which was not visible in 1898, where (o) clay, (h) sand,. 
and (c) clay occupy a shallow valley, and have assumed a synclinal 
form. The authors give reasons to show that neither solution of 
the Chalk, nor ice-thrust, nor folding, nor even faulting, can 
satisfactorily explain the peculiar relations of the Drift and Chalk 
in Eiigen ; and they can find no better explanation than that offered^ 
in their previous paper. 

2. " On certain Altered Eocks from near Bastogne and their 
Eelations to others in the District." By Catherine A. Eaisin, D.Sc. 
(Communicated by Professor T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, LL.D., F.E.S.^ 
F.G.S.) 

Professor Eenard, from the petrographical study of specimens, 
and Professor Gosselet, after description of the district and its- 
stratigraphy, have attributed the changes in these rocks to 
mechanical disturbances. Dumont had previouslj'^ described many 
examples and inclined to the view of contact-alteration, which was 
favoured by Von Lasaulx's discovery of a granite in the Hohe Venn 
and M. Dupont's identification of chiastolite from Libramont. 

The present paper treats especially of the garnetiferous and 
hornblendic rocks, giving the full petrographical and field details 
of a few examples. It points out that the eflects of pressure are- 
evident over the whole district, while mineral modifications 
resembling the results of slight contact-action are found in certain 
areas. In a few cases these modifications are more marked, and 
sometimes increase as we approach veins composed of quartz, 
felspar, and mica, such as might be connected with a concealed- 
granite. 

The peculiar garnetiferous and hornblendic rocks, although 
occurring within the zone of alteration, are extremely limited, 
often forming patches or bands a few feet across. Thej'^ diff'er, as 
described in the paper, from ordinary contact-altered rocks. The- 
evidence, in the authoress's opinion, is in favour of Prof. Bonney's 
suggestion that they are due to some form of hot-spring action. 

II.— Nov. 21, 1900.— J. J. H. Teall, Esq., M.A., F.E.S., President, 
in the Chair. The following communications were read : — 
1. " A Monchiqnite from Mount Girnar, Junagarh (Kathiawar)." 
By John William Evans, D.Sc, LL.B., F.G.S. 



Reports and Proceedings — Geological Society of London. 43 

After a brief account of tbe rocks of the moncbiquite tj'pe, in 
wbicb ferromagnesian silicates are embedded in an isotropic matrix 
with the chemical constitution of analcime, the author describes aU' 
example from Mount Girnar, where it is associated with a nepheline- 
syenite intrusive in a mica-augite-diorite. 

The most striking feature of this rock is the occurrence of 
colourless spheres of various sizes up to about 1 mm. in diameter. 
The rest of the rock is mainly composed of a hornblende of the 
barkevikite type ; a pale-green augite is also present. Both the 
spherical spaces and the interstices between the ferromagnesian 
silicates are usually filled with an isotropic material which has th© 
composition and most of the physical properties of analcime. This 
material does not, however, show the anomalous double-i'efractiou 
which is characteristic of that mineral, nor has it any crystalline 
outlines, being simply an allotriomorphic glass-like groundmass. It 
contains a large number of acicular inclusions, most of which do not 
affect polarized light ; they exhibit a parallel arrangement in one or 
more directions, and appear to indicate a high degree of symmetry. 
Cleavage - cracks with similar orientation may be occasionally 
observed. As it is clearly a crystalline body, its isotropic nature 
refers it to the cubic system, and its identity with analcime maj' 
be considered proved. It is evident that this mineral, growing 
outward from different centres, has formed the spherical spaces by 
pushing aside the previously crystallized minerals until they came 
into contact one with the other, and has afterwards crystallized in 
the interstices between them. 

The presence of a groundmass of analcime (or one having the 
same composition) in all the members of the widely distributed' 
inonchiquite group of rocks implies the occurrence in dift'ei'ent 
localities of a residuary magma of uniform composition, which 
remains liquid after the other constituents of the rock hav& 
crystallized out. Analcime must, therefore, represent an eutectic 
compound. If the cooling were sufficiently rapid the magma 
would consolidate as a glass, as may be the case with some 
monchiquites. On the other hand, where such a magma has 
separated and cooled slowly enough, a nepheline-syenite will be 
formed. 

At some points the analcime in the spheres and in the interstices- 
has become decomposed into alkali-felspars and nepheline, as in the 
IDSeudo-leucites of Dr. Hussak, so that in these places the rock 
might be described as a hornblende-tinguaite. In other parts much 
of the analcime has passed into cancrinite. 

The presence of a mineral of the eudialyte-eucolite group is also 
noticed. 

2. "The Geology of Mynydd-y-Garn (Anglesey)." By Charles A. 
Matley, Esq., B.Sc, F.G.S. 

Mynydd-y-Garn, a hill of less than 600 feet elevation, stands 
above the village of Llanfair-y'nghornwy in North-West Anglesey. 
The mass of the hill is an inlier of sericitic and chloritic phyllites 
(Garu Phyllites), surmounted by a massive conglomerate (Garu. 



44 Reports and Proceedings — Geological Society of London. 

'Conglomerate), and surrounded by black slates and shales of 
apparently Upper Llandeilo age. The general dip of all the rocks 
is northerly and north-easterly. 

The Garn Phyllites are usually green altered shales and fine 
gritty rocks, and are intensely contorted near their southern 
boundary. Even whei-e not contorted they show under the micro- 
scope evidence of powerful earth-movement. They are considered 
by the author to be part of the * Green Series ' of Northern 
Anglesey. They are cut oflf to the west and south by a curved 
fault, probably a thrust, which brings them against Llandeilo slates 
and breccias. 

The Garn Conglomerate, Grit, and Breccia, a formation perhaps 
400 feet thick, rests upon the Garn Phyllites and contains fragments 
derived from them, as well as pebbles of quartz, grit, gneissose and 
granitic rocks, etc. It passes up gradually into black slates, from 
which a few Upper Llandeilo fossils have been collected. In the 
black slates an oolitic ironstone or ferruginous mudstone has been 
found, which may perhaps be on the same horizon as the similar 
I'ock recorded by the author in Northern Anglesey. 

On the eastern side of Mynydd-y-Garn is another group of rocks, 
ihe Llanfair-y'nghornwy Beds, which the author correlates with 
the basal part of his Llanbadrig Series. They consist of phyllites 
resembling those below the Garn Conglomerate, but they contain 
also beds and masses of quartzite, grit, and limestone. They are 
much broken, and partly in the condition of crush-conglomerates. 
They have been thrust over the Llandeilo black slates, and the 
thrust-plane has been traced to the coast at Forth yr Ebol. This 
■thrust is continuous with that which forms the southern boundary of 
1;he ' Green Series ' of Northern Anglesey. 

The district around Mynydd-y-Garn has been affected since 
Llandeilo times by two powerful earth-movements, acting one from 
the north, the other from the north-east. The first-mentioned 
prevailed in the area west and north-west of the hill, where the 
pre-Llandeilo rocks are frequently shattered to crush-conglomerates. 
Around Mynydd-y-Garn itself and east of it the principal direction 
of movement has been from the north-east; south of the hill the 
structure is perhaps the result of the interference of these two 
movements. 

3. " On some Altered Tufaceous Ehyolitic Eocks from Dufton 
Pike (Westmorland)." By Frank Eutley, Esq., E.G.S. With 
Analyses by Philip Holland, Esq., F.I.C., F.C.S. 

The specimens described were collected by the late Prof. Green 
and Mr. G. J. Goodchild from the Borrowdale volcanic series which 
constitutes the central mass of Dufton Pike, and the chief interest 
attaching to them is their alteration, probably as the result of 
solfataric action. One of the rocks, which has the composition of 
a soda-rhyolite, contains felspai', augite, magnetite, and possibly 
spinel or garnet, scapolite, and ilmenite. The porphyritic crystals of 
felspar are much corroded, and are sometimes mere spongy masses in 
-which mica and opal-silica have been developed, together with small 



Reports and PvoceeiU)i(js — Geological Socktij of London. 4-> 

quantities of carbonates. In a second example, felspar fragments- 
appear as a meshwork of rods which extinguish simultaneously,, 
and are embedded in an isotropic groundmass crowded with globu- 
lites and little rods. A faint streakiness, which cannot be fluxion- 
structure, passes through the matrix of the rock and the meshwork 
of the felspar fragments without deflection. Analyses of the rocks 
and diagrams constructed from their molecular ratios correspond 
closely with those of soda-rhyolite and potash-rhyolite respectively. 



III.— Dec. 5, 1900.— J. J. H. Teall, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., President, 
in the Chair. The following communications were read : — 

1. " On the Corallian Rocks of St. Ives (Hunts) and Elsworth." 
By C. B. Wedd, Esq., B.A., F.G.S. (Communicated by permission 
of the Director-General of the Geological Survey.) 

Starting 2| miles south-west of Elsworth, the author traces the 
Elsworth Rock at intervals through Croxton, Yelling, Papworth 
Everard, etc., to Elsworth, and thence towards Fen Drayton and 
near Swavesey. The Oxford Clay is found to the west of it, and the 
Ampthill Clay to the east. Frequent fossil lists are given, and 
the character of the rock is described at the different exposures. 
Again, from Haughton Hall, west of St. Ives, the ' St. Ives Rock ' 
is traced through that town and towards Holywell. The actual 
connection with the Elsworth Rock cannot be seen owing to an area 
of fen. But that the two rocks are identical the author considers 
is proved by the consistency of the two rocks, the absence of any 
other rock-bed, the dip of the strata, and the presence of Ampthill 
Clay above. The Corallian strata of the area appear to have been 
deposited more slowly than the Oxfordian strata. Of the two 
zonal ammonites of the Corallian, the dominant form in the Elsworth 
Rock and in the stone-bands of the Ampthill Clay is of the i^licatilis 
and not \\\q i^erarmatus t3'pe. 

2. "The Unconformity of the Upper (red) Coal-measures to the 
Middle (grey) Coal-measures of the Shropshire Coalfields, and its 
bearing upon the Extension of the latter under the Triassic Rocks." 
By William James Clarke, Esq. (Communicated by W. Shone, 
Esq., F.G.S.) 

The Upper Red Measures have a much greater extension in the 
Shropshire Coalfields than the productive measures below. In the 
Shrewsbury field they are the only Carboniferous rocks present, and 
rest on pre-Carboniferous rocks. 

When the sections of collieries at and near Madeley are plotted 
on the assumption that the base of the Upper Carboniferous rocks 
is horizontal, the Lower Measures are found to be bent into a 
syncline rising sharply to the north-north-west and more gently to 
the south-south-east. A second syncline, broader and deeper, 
extends from Stirchly towards Hadley, but the westerly rise is often 
hidden by the boundary-fault of the coalfield. This phenomenon is 
known locally as the ' Symon Fault ' ; and instead of taking Scott's 
view that it represents a hollow denuded in the Lower Coal-measures, 
the author considers it due to folding: before late Carboniferous times. 



46 . Obiiuari/ — Mr. C. J. A. Jfei/er, 

A third little syncline occurs at the Inett and Caughley. Similar 
phenomena are exhibited in the Forest of Wyre Coalfield, where 
a series of unproductive measures come in between the Lower and 
Upper Coal-measures. The axis of the folds runs east-north-east- 
ward, and their amplitude and length diminish in proceeding from 
north-west to south-east. Inter-Carboniferous folds also occur in 
-the North Wales and North Staffordshire fields. 

3. "Bajocian and Contiguous Deposits in the Northern Cottes- 
wolds : the Main Hill Mass." By S. S. Buckman, Esq., F.G.S. 

After giving comparative sections at Cleeve, Leckhampton Hill, 
and Birdiip, to show the disappearance of three horizons at the 
second locality and five more at the third, the author interprets the 
absence of the beds as due to ' pene-contemporaneous erosion,' 
brought about by the elevation of rocks, due to small earth- 
movements along a main south-west to north-east axis and subsidiary 
axes north-west to south-east. In the Northern Cotteswolds the 
beds which come in at Cleeve disappear, while there is a development 
of the Harford Sands, the Tilestone, and the Snowshill Clay above 
the Lower Trigonia-Gvit. A series of detailed sections along the 
main hill-mass is given. On tracing the rocks from west to east 
across the Northern Cotteswolds, the whole of the Inferior Oolite 
<lisappears, except quite the upper portion, which rests directly on 
Upper Lias, and the Upper Lias itself undergoes denudation ; 
eastward the latter thickens again, and basal beds of Inferior Oolite 
I'eappear. Thus the axis of an important anticline is along the 
Vale of Moreton. The general result of the observations does not 

■ confirm Professor Hull's view that these members of the Jurassic 
are thinning and disappearing eastward. The observed phenomena 
were really brought about by contemporaneous erosions ; whereof 
the principal one occurred before the deposition of the Upper 
Trigonia-Grit. A revised map of Bajocian denudation is given, 
and it is shown that, owing to anticlinal axes along the Vales of 
Bourton and Moreton, pene-contemporaneous erosion must have 
had considerable influence in determining the position of these 
valleys. Such erosion is likely to have taken place along similar 
lines at different times, and therefore may be connected with folds 
in Pala30zoic rocks and may have a bearing on the thickness of 
rocks overlying the Coal-measures. A table of the dates of the 

■ chief erosions in Jurassic times is appended to the paper. 



OBITTrJLI?.3r. 



CHARLES JOHN ADRIAN MEYER. 

BoEN May 23, 1832. Died July 16, 1900. 

By the death of Mr. Charles Meyer we have lost a geologist who 

■ has contributed largely to our knowledge of Cretaceous rocks and 

fossils. He belonged to a family in whom a love of natural history 

was inherent, and from the time of his leaving school until his 

appointment to the Civil Service he greatly assisted in the pre- 

.paration of a new edition of H. L. Meyer's " Illustrations of British 



Obituary— Mr. C. J. A. Meyer. 47 

Birds." Always a careful and patient observer, he acquired a close 
acquaintance with the habits and song-notes of British birds, and 
never ceased to take an interest in them. 

In July, 1857, he was appointed to a post in the Accountant 
General's Office of that time, in a division which was subsequently 
transferred to the Chancery Courts under the title of the Supreme 
Court Pay Office. At that time his family lived near Godalming, 
and his attention was attracted to the fossils to be found in an old 
quarry in the Lower Gi'eensand near the house. These interested 
him so much that he began to study them and the rocks containing 
them, and this laid the foundation of that interest in geology which 
bore good fruit in after years. From that time he always devoted 
his short holidays to visiting places of geological interest, chiefly 
along the south coast, and almost always where rocks of Cretaceous 
age were to be seen. 

He had a remarkably keen eye for fossils, and knew the value of 
recording the exact bed from which they came ; hence his notebooks 
contain carefully measured sections, and his published papers show 
that he had always the correlation of beds in different places before 
his mind. 

He gradually gathered together a fine collection of Cretaceoits 
fossils, comprising many thousand specimens, obtained entirely by 
his own hands. It comprises fossils from the Lower Greensand, 
Gault, ' Upper Greensand,' and Blackdown Beds, from the Devon- 
shire Cenomanian, and from the several stages of the Chalk, and it 
contains many unique specimens. This collection, by the generosity 
of his sister. Miss C. Meyer, has been presented to the University of 
•Cambridge, together with a smaller but fine collection of London 
Clay fossils collected by his brother, Mr. Christian H. Meyer, C.E., 
during the dockyard extension works at Portsmouth. 

The first paper published by Mr. C. J. A. Meyer was a note on 
the age of the Blackdown Beds in 1863, and from that time to 1878 
he contributed frequently to the pages of the Geological Magazine 
and of the Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society. A list of 
his papers is given below, but two of the most notable may be 
specially mentioned. 

In his paper " On the Relations of the Wealden and Punfield 
Formation " he took a view which was opposed to that held by 
another well-known geologist, and maintained it with such success 
that it is now generally accepted as correct. 

His paper on the Cretaceous Eocks of Beer Head is really a very 
condensed account of his exploration of the Devon cliffs from 
Sidmouth to Lyme Regis. He visited this coast again and again, 
collecting carefully from every bed in the succession; and as he 
was practically the first to explore this fine collecting ground, he 
obtained a lai-go number of excellent specimens, especially from 
those beds which he numbered 10, 11, and 12, and which lie at the 
base of the Chalk. He continued to collect from these clifi's for 
many years after the publication of his paper, and the value of his 
researches was acknowledged by Messrs. Jukes-Browne and W. Hill 



48 Ohitiumj—Mr. C. J. A. Merjer. 

in their paper on the "Delimitation of the Cenomanian" (189G)^ 
when he communicated to them a list of the many additional fossils- 
he had obtained from these beds, with notes on some of the species. 

Specimens from his collection have been figured by Messrs, 
Davidson, Lycett, and Woods in the volumes of the Palaeonto- 
j^raphical Society, and no doubt others will appear in the monograph' 
Mr. Woods has undertaken. 

Mr. Meyer was distinguished for his quiet and courteous manner, 
his habit of patient enquiry and of accurate observation, and by his- 
willingness to impart any information that he possessed. When we 
remember that his life was really spent in the routine of office work, 
and that all his scientific work was done in his evenings and in his- 
short holidays, we may well wonder that he did so much, and 
regret that he was not able to give more time to a pursuit for whicb 
he was so well qualified. 

We are indebted to Miss C. Meyer for some of the information' 
in the above notice. 

LIST OF PAPEES. 

Meyer, C. J. A. 

Age of the Blackdown Greensand. (Geologist, vol. vi, 1863, pp. 50-56.) 

Three Days at Farringdou. Position of Sponge-gravel. (Geologist, vol. \\i, 1864^ 

pp. 5-11.) 
A New Species of TerebrateUa, from the Bargate Stone {T. trifida). (Geologist,. 

A'ol. vii, 1864, pp. 166-7.) 
Notes on Brachiopoda from the Pebble-bed of the Lower Greensand of Surrey ; with 

descriptions of the new species, and remarks on the correlation of the- 

Greensand Beds of Kent, Surrey, and Berks, and of the Farriugdon Sponge- 

gravel, and the Tourtia of Belgium. (Geol. Mag., Vol. 1, 1864, pp. 249-257.) 
On the Discovery of Ophiura WethcreUi at Heme Bav. (Geol. Mag,, Vol. IL 

1865, p. 572.) 
Notes on the Correlation of the Cretaceous Pocks of the South-East and West of 

England. (Geol. Mag., Vol. Ill, 1866, pp. 13-18, PI. II.) 
Notes on Cretaceous Brachiopoda, and on the Development of the Looj) and Septum; 

in TerebrateUa. (Geol. Mag., Vol. V, 1868, pp. 268-272.) 
On the Lower Greensand of Godalming. (Geol. Assoc. — separate paper, 20 pp. 

Eead before the Association 4th Dec, 1868.) 
Note on the Passage of the Eed Chalk of Speeton into an imderljing Clay-bed- 

(Geol. Mag", Vol. VI, 1869, pp. 13-14.) 
On Lower Tertiary Deposits recently exposed at Portsmouth. (Quart. Journ. Geol.. 

Soc, vol. xxvii, 1871, pp. 74-89 ; Phil. Mag., vol. xli, 1871, p. 546.) 
On the Wealden as a Fluvio -lacustrine Formation, and on the Eelation of the 

so-called ' Punfield Fonnation ' to the Wealden and Neocomian. (Quart. 

Joiu'n. Geol. Soc, vol. xxviii, 1872, pp. 243-255.) 
Further Notes on the Punfield Section. (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxix, 1873,. 

pp. 70-76.) 
On the Cretaceous Eocks of Beer Head and the adjacent Cliff -sections, and on the 

relative Horizons therein of the Warminster and Blackdown Fossiliferous- 

Deposits. (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxx, 1874, pp. 369-393.) 
Micrasters in the English Chalk. — Two or more species? (Geol. Mag., Dec II,. 

Vol. V, 1878, pp. 115-117.) 
Notes respecting Chloritic Marl and Upper Greensand. (Geol. Mag., Dec. II,. 

Vol. V, 1878, pp. 547-551.) 
An Excursion to Guildford. (Eeport in Proc. Geol. Assoc, vol. v, 1878, pp. 161 , 163.) 

Meyee, C. J. A., k Jukes-Bkowne, A. J. 
Chloritic Marl and Warminster Greensand. (Geol. Mag., Dec. IV, Vol. I, 1894,. 
pp. 494-495.) 



THE I 

GEOLOGICAL MAGAZINE. 

NEW SERIES. DECADE IV. VOL. VIII. 
No. II.— FEBRUARY, 1901. 



HER MOST GRACIOUS MAJESTY 

QUEEN VICTORIA 

PASSED AWAY 22 JANUARY, 1901, 

BELOVED AND MOURNED BY ALL HER PEOPLE, AFTER 
A GLORIOUS REIGN OF 64 YEARS. 



OE,IC3-I3iT^^Xi ^A^K-TIGLES. 



I. — British Pleistocene Fishes. 
By E. T. Newton, F.R.S., F.G.S., etc. 

rpHE search for small vertebrates in deposits of Pleistocene age 
J_ has, within tlie last few years, been prosecuted with much zeal 
by several workers, and has brought to light the remains of many 
species of mammals, as well as birds, reptiles, and amphibia ; the 
bones in some instances occurring in great numbers. The I'emains of 
fishes, however, have but rarely been found with the bones of other 
vertebrata, and never in any abundance. Some interesting discoveries 
of fish-remains have nevertheless been made; but the records of 
them are scattei'ed through various publications, and it seems very 
desirable to bring all this information together. 

It is sixty years since Sir C. Lyell,^ in a paper read before the 
Geological Society (January, 1840), first made known that remains 
of fresh- water fishes had been fountl, by himself and Mr. J. B. 
Wigham, in the fresh- water deposit which occui's in the cliff's at 
Mundesley, Norfolk. These remains had been examined by the 
Rev. Leonard Jennings and Mr. Yarrel, and were referred by them 
to Perch, Carp, Pike, and Trout. 

In the following year (January, 1841) Sir C. Lyell ■ made 
a further communication to the same society, in which he stated that 
the fish-remains noted in the eai'lier paper, together with some 
additional specimens from the same locality, had been submitted to 
M. Agassiz, who thought the Perch, Pike, and Trout diifered from 
the living species, and that the remains referred to Cai'p were really 

• Proc. Geol. Soc, vol.iii (1843), p. 171. Loud. & Edinb. Phil. Mag., May, 1S40. 

^ "Oa the Frusli-water Fossil Fishes of Afundesley as determined bv M. Agassiz " : 

Proc. Geol. Soc, vol. iii (1843), p. 362. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. viii (1842). p. 61 . 

DECAUK IV. VOL. VIII. — NO. II. 4 



50 E. T. Newton — British Pleistocene Fishes. 

a species of Leuctscus. No statement was marie as to the nature of 
the remains which had been found, nor what became of the specimens. 

M. Agassiz seems to have been impressed with the idea that 
DO fossil forms could be identical with living species, and this, 
apparently, led him to attach greater importance to the slight 
differences, which he saw between the Mundesley remains and the 
corresponding parts of living fishes, than would be allowed by 
naturalists of the present day. Certain fish-remains, more recently 
obtained from these fresh -water deposits at Mundesley, which in 
all probability represent the same forms as those found by Lyell, 
cannot, I think, be separated from living species. 

In the year 1854 Professor J. Morris' recorded Esox sp., from 
the Pleistocene of Copford, Essex : the specimens were jaws and 
teeth in the colleclion of Mr. Brown, and they are now preserved in 
the British Museum, South Kensington (Nos. 36,658-60). Other 
reinains of Pike from Copford were presented to the British 
Museum by the Eev. 0. Fisher (No. 4,848). 

Twenty years elapsed before Mr. William Davies' recognized, in 
1874, the remains of Pike in the collection of Sir Antonio Brady, 
from the Brickearth of Ilford, specimens which are now in the 
British Museum, South Kensington (No. 45,810). These remains 
■were doubtfully named JSsox lucins ?, but were acknowledged to be 
inseparable from that species, and in 1890 were so named, without 
douht, by Messrs. A. Smith Woodward and C. Davies Sherborn.' 
During Mr. Clement Reid's * Geological Survey of the " Country 
around Cromer," he obtained a number of specimens from the 
classical Mundesley river bed, and among them remains of Pike, 
Esox hidns (M.P.G.— C.R. 665-6). Since the Survey Memoir 
was published, Mr. Eeid has collected from the same place scales 
and teeth referable to Perca fliwintiHs (M.P.G. — C.R. 666) and 
a tooth of the genus Zeuciscus (M.P.G. — C.R. 869). We are 
thus able to confirm the occurrence of thi'ee of the forms recorded 
by Sir C. Lyell ; and there seems no sufficient grounds for referring 
them to other than recent species. Two or three different kinds of 
scales remain at present unidentified, but none of them can be 
definitely named Salmo, the fourth genus mentioned by Sir C. Lyell. 

Mr. Reid's researches in the neighbourhood of Holderness,* York- 
shire, enabled him to record Perca flaviatilis from both Hornsea 
(M.P.G.— C.R. 1.119) and Withernsea (M.P.G.— C.R. 1,071). 

In the year 1888 Mr. G. W. Lainplngh^ gave an account of 
a deposit at Sewerby, near Bridlington Quay, which yielded bones 
of Elephas, Rhinoceros, Hippopotamus, etc., and is doubtless of 
Pleistocene age. With these mammalian bones were also found 
vertebrae of fishes, which almost certainly belong to Codfish. This 
record is the more interesting as it is the only known instance of 

> Catalogue of British Fossils, 2nd ed. (1854), p. 326. 

* Cat. Pleistocene Vert. Coll. Sir Ant. Brady, 1874, p. 61. 
' rataloo:ue of British Fossil Vertebrata. 

* Mem Gaol. Surv., 1882, p. 126. 

* Mem. Geol. t^urv., 1885, pp. 82 and 85. 

* " An Ancient Sea Beach near Bridlington Quay " : Brit. Assoc. Report for 1888. 



E. T. Newton — British Pleistocene Fishes, 51 

marine fish-remains being found in a British Pleistocene deposit. 
Tlie proximity of the sea would easily account for the presence of 
these fish bones, as well as for the marine molluscs which were 
found with them ; but it also suggests the possibility of a more 
recent introduction. Mr. Lamplugh's careful work is, however, 
a guarantee that the fish bones were cotemporary with those of the 
Mammoth, and the condition of the specimens, which are now in 
the Jermyn Street IMuseura, is precisely the same. 

Two teeth, probably of Pike, found by Mr. B. B. Woodward in 
the Crayford Biickearth in 1891, are now in the British Museum. 

In the year 1891 Mr. F. C. J. Spurrell presented to the Museum 
of Practical Geology a number of specimens from the Brickearth of 
Erith, and among these were some teeth of Esox hicius (No. 5,646). 

Mr. Clement Raid's most interesting work on the series of strata 
found at Hoxne,' in Norfolk, not only brought to light a large 
number of plants, but also of small bones of vertebrata, among which, 
from Bed E, were remains of Perca fluviatilis (M.P.G., 6,084) and 
Leiiciscns rntilus (M.F.G., 6,083). In the following year, 1897, the 
results of Mr. Eeid's similar reseai'ches at Hitchin^ were published, 
:and from beds on the same horizon as D and E at Hoxne he was 
able to record Perca fluviatilis, Esox lucius, Tinea vulgaris, Leuciscus 
■erijtTirophthalmus. and L. rutilus (M.P.G., 6,301). 

For some time past Mr. M. A. C. Hinton and Mr. A. S. 
Kennard have been searching the various Pleistocene beds at 
•Grays Thurrock, and have obtained a good number of bones and 
teeth of small vertebrates, among which are many belonging to 
fresh-water fishes. Some account of these was read before the 
Essex Field Club ' on October 27th, 1900. About a dozen otoliths, 
which agree most nearly with those of the Euflf, are provisionally 
referred to Acerina vulgaris ? ; a number of teeth doubtless belong 
to the Pike. Esox lucius ; several pharyngeal bones and numerous 
isolated teeth are referi'ed partly to Boach, Leuciscus rutilus, and 
partly to Dace, L. vulgaris ; one tooth has the characteristic curved 
and creuulated crown of the Rudd, L. erijthrophthalmus ; and there is 
a single vertebra, having the peculiar tubular neural arch found in 
the Eel, which is with much hesitation named Anguilla? vulgaris? 

There is a series of small vertebrata from Grays Thurrock in the 
Brown Collection in the British Museum (No. 28,079), among which 
are remains of fishes referable to Pike, Rudd, and probably Dace. 

Many otoliths of fishes have been collected by Mr. Clement Reid 
from Pleistocene beds on the foreshore at Selsea ; they belong to 
about sixteen different forms, but none of them have been definitely 
recognized as of living species. It is almost certain that the greater 
number of these otoliths have been derived from the denudation of 
Eocene strata in the neighbourhood, and they cannot, therefore, be 
included among the British Pleistocene fishes. 

The discoveries of Pleistocene fish-remains on the Continent have 

1 Brit. Assoc. Report for 1896. 

- I'roc. Hoy. Soc, vol. Ixi (1897), p. 45, 

2 Essex Naturalist (ia tlie press, not yet publit>bed). 



52 Professor G. A. J. Cole — On Belinurus Jdltorkensis. 

been even fewer than in England. Dr. Alf. Nehring,^ in his "Ueber- 
sicht Uber 24 mitteleuropaische Quartiir-Faunen," mentions the 
following : — From (1) " Westeregeln bei Magdeburg " (p. 474), Esox 
Indus; (2) "DieRauberhohleamSchelmengraben zwischen Niirnberg 
und Eegensburg" (p. 488), Silurus glanis, Esox luciiis, Cyprinus carpio ;. 
(3) "Der Hohlefels im Achthal bei Ultn " (p. 490), Cyprinus carpio 
(or Perca fluviatilis) ; (4) " Die Fuchslocher am Eothen Berge bei 
Saalfeld" (p. 495), Esox litcius; (5) " Die Hohle von Balvein West- 
falen" (p. 504), Esox Indus. The age of the specimens from the 
first two localities is doubtful. 

Dr. A. Smith Woodward has kindly called my attention to 
Professor F. Bassani's - record of Anguilla vulgaris, Cyprinus carpio, 
and Leuciscus aula from beds at Pianico, Lombardy, which 
Dr. Forsyth-Major assures me are of early Pleistocene age. 

British Pleistocene Fishes at present known, 

With the Localities from which they were obtained and the Collection* 

in which they are preserved. 

B.M. = British Museum. M.P.G. = Museum of Practical Geology. 
H. & K. = Collection of Messrs. Hinton and Kennard. 

Perca fluviatilis, Linn. (Perch) : Mundesley, Hornsea, Withernseaf 

Hitchin, Hoxne (M.P.G.). 
Acerina vulgaris'?, Cuv. & Val. (Ruff) : Grays ThuxTock (H. & K.). 
Salmo sp. (? Trout) : Mundesley {fide Lyell). 
Esox Indus, Linn. (Pike) : Erith, Hitchin (M.P.G.) ; Copford, Ilford 

(B.M.) ; Grays Thurrock (B.M. and H. & K.). 
Leuciscus rutilus, Linn. (Roach) : Mundesley ?, Hitchin, Hoxne 

(M.P.G.) ; Grays Thurrock (H. & K.). 
Leuciscus vtdgaris, Flem. (Dace) : Grays ThuiTock (B.M. and H. &K.), 
Leuciscus erythrophthrdmus, hinn. (Rudd) : Hitchin (M.P.G.) ; Grays 

Thurrock (B.M. and H. & K.). 
Tinea vulgaris, Cuv. (Tench) : Hitchin (M.P.G.). 
Anguilla? vidgaris?, Turton (Eel) : Grays Thurrock (H. & K.). 
Gadus morhua?, Linn. (Codfish) : Sewerby (M.P.G.). 



I 



II. — On Belinurus kiltorkensis, Baily. 

By Professor Grenville A. J. Cole, M.E.I. A., F.G.S. 

N 1899 Messrs. Rupert Jones and Henrj' Woodward^ stated that 
Belinurus "has not at present been found in rocks of earlier age 
than the Coal-measures." Belinurus grandcevus, described in the same 
paper, was referred, with probability, to the Lower Carboniferous. 
A writer (" R. W. E.") in the Ottawa Naturalist^ for January, 
1900, thereupon called attention to the record of Belinurus from the 
Kiltorcan Beds of Ireland. This record is founded on Mr. W. H. 

1 Zeitscli. d. Deutsch. geol. GeselL, 1880, p. 468, where reference -will be found 
to the original records. 

' Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat. vol. xxix (1886), p. 344. 

' " Contributions to Fossil Crustacea " : Gbol. Mag., 1899, p. 389. 

* Quoted in Geol. Mag., 1900, p. 177. 



Professor G. A. J. Cole — On Bclmitrus kiltorkensis, 53 

Baily's discovery* of "a well-marked head (or carapace), to which 
is attached portions of two of the thoracic segments," Dr. Henry 
Woodward,- in 1878, accepted this determination, on the basis of 
sketches furnished to him by Mr. Baily, who had by this time 
discovered a second, though distorted, specimen. The Kiltorcan 
Beds, it may be remarked, are of Upper Old Ked Sandstone age, 
•and are part of the ' Yellow Sandstone Series,' which passes con- 
formably up into the Lower Carboniferous Shale. They are not, 
therefore, of such high antiquity as the writer in the Ottaioa 
Naturalist suggests. 





Fig. 1. — Sketch of the less imperfect specimen of Brlinuriis kiltorhcnsis, Baily, 
showing the principal features visible with a platyscopic lens. Natural size. 
The carapace is viewed from the under side. 

Fig. 2. — Sketch of the distorted specimen, viewed from the upper side with the aid 
of a platyscopic lens. Natural size. The details of the central portion are 
best seen in this example, though the whole is greatly broadened. 

The question having thus been raised, I obtained the permission 
of the Director-General of the Geological Survey to examine the 
specimens preserved in the collections in the Dublin Museum. 
Mr. Baily's specimens have, at some later time, been relabelled 
«s ' Limuloides '; but the carapace is certainly not of the hemiaspid 
type. It presents the continuous unnotched margin shown in 
]\Ir. Baily's original drawing. The better specimen is, I feel 
confident, presented to us from the under side, and shows more 
detail than has hitherto been attributed to it. The flat border, 
Imra. wide, is followed by a smoothly curving region, from which 
the protuberances rise which correspond in part to the glabella in the 
trilobites. The form of these is best seen from the annexed 
sketches, which, like Mr. Baily's, have been made from the original 
specimens. The distorted example is seen both as an external cast 
and in relief, and the four elevated portions stand out distinctly 
on it. They seem to have been highest at their margins, a rim 
thus occurring about a depressed area on each. This feature is also 
seen in Mr. Griesbach's drawings of the better known species of 
Helinurus.^ 

The eyes indicated by Baily are based on a thickening that occurs 
on the edge of the ' glabella,' where it descends to meet the 
-smoother lateral area. The evidence is slight, but agrees with what 
ss already known of BeUnurus. 

There are indications of radial ribbings on either side of the 

' "On Fossils obtained at Kiltorkan Quarry, Co. Kilkenny": Report Brit. Assoc, 
ior 1809, p. 75. 

* " British Fossil Crustacea" (Paheontographical Society), p. 238. 
^ *'Brit. Foss. Crust." (I'lil. Soc), pi. .\\.\i. 



54 Professor T. Bupert Jones — History of Sarsens. 

'glabella,' like those that have been attributed to impressions of 
the limuloid limbs. 

The ' pleuree ' (if we may use the nomenclature adopted in th© 
case of trilobites, with which these forms provide so valuable a link) 
are furrowed, while in Heniiaspis (Limuloides) they are unfurrowed. 
Traces of three segments are preserved in the more perfect specimen. 
Even the somewhat abrupt posterior bend, so characteristic of the 
pleurae of Helinurus reginoi, is noticeable in the first segment of 
Belinnrus Jciltorlcensis, and was doubtless repeated in the others. 

Frotolimulus (Prestwichia) erieusis, described from the Devonian 
of Pennsylvania by H. S. Williams and A. S. Packard,^ is only 
known by its under surface ; but the cephalic shield does not 
resemble that of the Kiltorkan specimens. 

I feel, then, that Belinurus may safely be regarded as occurring 
in the Upper Old Ked Sandstone of Ireland, which some authors have 
proposed to include in the Lower Carboniferous Series. There seems- 
no reason to depart from the determination made by Mr. Baily and 
Dr. Woodward thirty years ago, a determination that has become 
widely known through the works of Zittel and other paleontologists. 



III. — History of the Sarsens. 

By Professor T. Rupert Jones, F.R.S., F.G.S., etc. 

Additional Notes. — These further references and fuller quotations 
are here given with the view of making the History of the Sarsens, 
or Sarsen Stones, more complete and more easily available, 
especially by indicating the chronological succession of observed- 
facts and published opinions. 

§ 1. Origin and Constitution of the Stones called ' Sarsens.' 

§ 2. Fossils in Sarsens. 

I 3. Localities. I. In the Counties north of the Thames : (1) Northamptonshirep. 
(2) Suffolk, (3) Essex, (4) Hertfordshire, (5) Buckinghamshire, (6) Oxford- 
shire, (7) Middlesex. II. In the Counties south of the Thames : (8) Kent, 
(9) Surrey, (10) Hampshire, (U) Berkshire, (12) Wiltshire, (13) Dorset. 
(14) Somerset, (15) Devon. 

§ 4. Bibliographic List. 

§ 1. Origin and Constitution of Saksens. 

(See also Part i in Wilts Mag., 1886, p. 126.) 

1819. G. B. Greenough, in his " Critical Examination of the 
First Principles of Geology," p. 112, says that the Grey weather 
Stones (' Grey wether sandstone,' etc., p. 293), scattered over the 
southern counties of England, have been evidently derived frona 
the destruction of a rock which once lay over the Chalk. 

1871. In the Transactions of the Newbury District Field Club, 
vol. i, p. 99, Sarsens are referred to as "indurated blocks of sand- 
stones and conglomerates." 

1882 and 1885. Sir Archibald Geikie, treating of siliceous 
cements in sandstones, writes, "where the component particles are 

^ Packard, " Carboniferous Xiphosurous Fauna of JYorth America": Mem. Nat.. 
Acad. Sci. Washington, vol. iii (1886), p. 150. 



i 



Professor T. Rupert Jones — History of Sarsens. 55 

bound together by a flinty substance, as in the exposed blocks o{ 
Eocene sandstone known as ' Grey-weathers ' in Wiltshire, and 
which occurs also [Landenian, sandstone] over the north of Franca 
towards the Ardennes" ('-Textbook," 2nd ed., 1885, p. 162). 

In a letter, Sir Archibald has obligingly stated that the first and 
best account on which the reference to the above was b ised is by 
Dr. C. Barrois, Ann. Soc. Geol. du Nord, vol. vi (1878-9), p. 8GG. 
See also his short paper in the Assoc. Fran^aise, 1879, p. 6G6, 
Gosselet quotes Barrois in his gi'eat work " L'Ardenne," 1888, p. 829. 
Further references are also given by these two authors. 

188o. The Rev. A. Irving, taking it for granted that a large river 
in Eocene times flowed from a region of Palceozoic rocks in the west, 
in the direction of the Thames Valley to the east, said that the detritus 
would be quartzose and feli^pathic ; the felspars would ultimately be 
decomposed by the agency of carbonic acid, and gehitinous liyilnted 
silica would be produced. (Proc. Geol. Assoc, vol. viii, pp. 150, 157.) 

1887. The Rev. A. Irving, in a letter dated March 6th, LS87, 
writes : — " You have overlooked one point which I have tried to bring 
out in some relief — the fact that the surface acquires a poicelhiuous 
texture, not duo to cementation by iron (for from the sup^rtioial 
layer tlie iron is entirely leached out), but to an actual change of the 
material by a solution-process. I suggesteil (three or four years 
ago) C 0^ as the chief assent ; but later work has shown me that the 
organic acids contained in pea It/ water have played a far more 
potent part in this sub-metamorphic change." 

1888. In the Geological Magazine, Dec. Ill, Vol. V, 
Dr. T. G. Bonney states that the Sarsens of the Tertiaries are of 
concretionary origin : " In the Sarsen Stones, and with matrix of 
the Hertfordshire Pud<1ingstones, tliei e is chalcedonic silica converting 
sandstone into quartzite" (pp. 298-300). 

1888. J. Prestwich: "Geology," etc., vol. ix, p. 342. "These 
sands [of the Woolwich and Reading Series] also occasionally 
contain concreted blocks in irregular local beds of sandstone, 
sometimes with very liard siliceous cement." Footnote at p 342 : 
" Mr. Whitaker and Prof. Rupert Jones think that in Berkshire and 
Wiltshire they [the Sarsens] are more frequently derived fiom the 
Bagshot Sands." The ' Puildingstone ' of Bucks and Herts is here 
referred to the Reading Be<ls. Further on, at p. 3G4, it is stated 
that Sarsens occur in the Bagshot Sands of Frimle}' and Chobham. 

N.B. — Concretionary action has produced in many Sarsens 
mammillations on a large scale, which show on some surfaces 
irregular, coalescent, smooth swellings, with shallow, valley-liUo 
slofjcs and depressions, like those on the so-called ' bowel-stones ' 
of the Lower Greensand near Aylesbury. H. B. Woodward's 
"Geology of England and Wales," 2nd ed. (1887), p. 377. Such 
mammillated Sarsens occur in Suffolk, Wiltshire, and elsewhere. 

N.B. — The convexity of the lower face of a Sarsen l}'ing in its 
original sand-bed is due to the concretionary formation of tiie stone. 

1901. J. W. Judd's "Note on the Structure of Sarsens" 
(Gkol. Mag., January, 1901, pp. 1, 2) gives definite descriptions 



SS Professor T. Rupert Jones — History of Sarsens. 

bf the intimate constitution of many Sarsens from authenticated 
localities. 

N.B. — Besides the Tei'tiary sandstones, other and older white 
sandstones have yielded large and small blocks, now on the surface 
or in superficial deposits ; for instance, Upper and Lower Greensand, 
Ijiassic sands, Millstone Grit, etc. 

§ 2. Fossils. 
(Refer also to pp. 142-147 of Part i in Wilts Mag., 1886.) 
1871. Professor John Phillips, in his " Geology of Oxford," 1871, 
p. 447, states : — " I have never found shells in any of these stones 
lying in their native beds, and have some scruple in mentioning that 
they do occur in a layer in one of the blocks at Stonehenge. But, 
as 1 did not choose by chiselling that monumental stone to attract 
attention to it, probably it may for many years to come escape all 
injury except that which it must suffer from the strokes of time." 

1878. In the churchyard of Sandhurst, a large Sarsen perforated 
with pipe-like holes lies at the foot of the old yew-tree there. 
(T. E. J., Trans. Newbury Distr. F. Club, vol. ii, p. 249.) 

1887. C. 0. King suggested that in the Avebury district the 
Sarsens were more particularly perforated by rootlets, and that, if so, 
the shoals or sandbanks formerly bearing the trees were better 
conditioned for the vegetation than other parts of the formation. 

1888. J. Prestwich : " Geology," etc., vol. ii, p. 344. The 
indications in the Sarsens of the former presence of rootlets, possibly 
of Palms, are here mentioned. 

1888. The same kind of fossil tubular marks in Sarsens may be 
seen in some blocks on the side of the Newbury-Hermitage road, or 
Long Lane, west of Coldash Common. 

1897. Eootlet-holes, mostly vertical, occur in a Sarsen in a brick- 
field near Watford, Herts. — C. D. Sherborn. 

N.B. — The perforations due to rootlets have been widened on the 
exposed surfaces of the stones by water-action and blown sand, so as 
to leave the surface variously pit-marked. — T. R. J. 

N.B. — Analogous pipe-like i-emains of rootlets occur as long, 
small, vertical holes, in the Hastings sand-rock, East Cliff, Hastings 
{Geologist, vol. v, 1862, pp. 135, 136, fig. 9; and Geol. Mag., 
1875, p. 589) ; in the Triassic (?) Sandstone of South Sweden ; and 
in some of the estuarine, Jurassic shales of Yorkshire, near Whitby 
(A. C. Seward) and near Scarborough. — T. E. J. 

§ 3. Localities. 

L (1) Northamptonshire. — 1896. Mr. Edwin Sloper observed in 
a pit at the Northampton Brickworks at Blisworth a Sarsen that 
had evidently fallen from the base of the Drift overlying the Lias 
claj' there. This Sarsen was to be cared for by being placed in the 
gardens of the Hotel at Blisworth. It consists of a white sandstone 
with siliceous cement, and with filamentous cavities, which are 
faintly stained with limonite. 

(2) Suffolk. — 1889. Sarsens are abundant in the neighbourhood 
of Nayland, at corners of cross-roads and elsewhere. Fine-grained 



4 



Professor T. Rupert Jones — Hidory of Sarsens. 57 

•saccharoldal, ami stained. Many with large and small tubular holes, 
some of which are split open and form furrows on the surfaces, often 
due to old natural splitting. 

1889. Hartest Green, Suffolk. A large brownish Sarsen (5 ft. 8 ins. 
X 5 ft. 2 ins. X 3 ft. 6 ins.), much rounded (almost like a boulder), 
fine-grained and whitish inside, where wounded bj' blows of stones. 
Much pitted naturally on the outside. Flattened at the top, and 
worn smooth by boys' play. It was taken years ago out of a field 
now occupied by Mr. Griggs, and recpiired eight horses to drag it. 
It is stated in a letter from a resident there that " it measures 12 feet 
round (probably touching the ground for 6 feet of its length), and 
about 4 feet across, weighing 5 of 6 tons." It is not alluded to 
as a boulder by the Committee on Boulders, etc. (British Association). 

1889. At Newton Green there is a large Sarsen stone (4| X 
•3x2 feet) by the side of the pond next to the " Saracen's Head " 
Inn, which shows on one side a ' bowelly ' surface, and the other 
«ides split flat. 

1889. One stone (3 feet long) with bowelly surface, and with 
tubules, is at Frost Farm, Stoke, near Nayland. Near Nayland, at 
the corner of cross-road from Bures to Colchester, there is a Sarsen 
7ft. Gin. long, roughly oval in outline. By the side of the high 
road near the Popsey bridge, a little east of tlie Anchor bi'idge. Nay- 
land, a Sarsen standing on the bank (3 X 1^ feet) shows a natural 
surface with a large hole, also a boldly mammillated surface 
(bowelly). Its upper end and sides are split flat; lower end buried. 

1889. In a letter dated Ipswich, September 12th, 1889, the late 
Dr. J. E.Taylor obligingly informed me, with regard to some Sarsen 
stones found at Ipswich, that " the Reading stone-bed specimen [not 
a Sarsen] is highly calcareous, but I have found no traces of 
Foraminit'era in it. The mammillated stone is purely siliceous. . . 
.. . The siliceous stones are abundant hereabouts ; the others not 
so. I got them both [the stones referred to] during the excavation 
of the deep sewers in one of tlie streets of this town." 

(3) Ussex.—lSdQ. T. V. Holmes : Proc. Geol. Assoc, vol. xiv, 
p. 190. A large Sarsen is here mentioned that has been removed 
from the Glacial Gravel at Writtle Wick, near Chelmsford. A note 
on the possible origin of the word Sarsen is also given. 

1896. A. E. Salter: Proc. Geol. Assoc, vol. xiv, p. 394. In the 
Epping Forest gravel A. E. Salter noticed " Sandstones and Sarsens, 
both large, various, and plentiful. At Epping Forest I saw three, 
measuring 9 in. by 5 in., 12 in. by 6 in., and 20 in, by 5 in. 
respectively." In the high - level Glacial Gravel at Witherthorn, 
four miles east of Ongar, "large Sarsens (2 ft. by 1^ ft.) " (p. 395), 
At Woodton, in the Yare Valley, "a block of Hertfordshire Pudding- 
•stone was found " (p. 399), 

(4) Hertfordshire. — 18d7 and 1899. The Eev. Alex. Irving 
describes both Sarsens and Herts Pmldingstones as common in the 
^tort Valley (Herts and Essex). He refers both to the Bagshot 
Series, the latter particularly to the Pebhle-beds ; and he states that 
both rocks are agglutinated by the same kind of siliceous cement 



58 Professor T. Rupert Jones — History of Sarscns. 

(Proc. Geol. Assoc, vol. xv, pp. 196 and 236). He duly mentions 
that Mr. Whitaker regards the Hertfordshire Pudding-stone of the 
neighbourhood under notice as having, in part at least, been con- 
solidated pebble-beds of the Woolwich and Reading Series, like 
those at Addington, near Croydon. See also Mr. Whitaker's Address- 
to the Herts Nat. Hist. Soc., Proc., vol. x, pt. 4 (September, 1899), 
p. 116. 

(5) BucTcinghamsJiire. — 1890. A row of coarse, gravelly Sarsens 
lies along the side of the road up to the church at Badenham. They 
were placed there by the Eector, who said that such stone underlies 
the Rectory house and lawn cl()s>e by ; and some blocks of it were 
still lying about there. In the cliurch tower, up along the re-entrant 
angles of the buttresses and tower, numerous ordinary fine-grained 
Sarsens are built in with the flint-work. Professor Prestwich said, 
June 21st, 1890, that the coarse-grained Sarsens at Bradenham cam© 
from the base of the Tertiaries. 

In Buckinghamshire Sarsens are known as 'Wycombe stones,' and 
in the Bagshot district as ' Heath stones.' 

(6) Oxfordshire. — 1871. Professor J. Phillips regarded the 
Sarsen stones as concretionary portions of extensive sand-beds once 
overlying the district with its previously excavated Chalk valleys. 
The loose sands were carried away by denudation, and the solid 
portions suffered displacement. Some containing flint pebbles and' 
fragments lie on the north side of the Wiltshire downs. Some larg& 
Sarsens are found in the Drift, for instance at Long Wittenham, 
near Abingdon. See his " Geology of Oxford and the Valley of the 
Thames," 1871, pp. 447 and 462. 

(7) Middlesex. — 1891. Horace B. Woodward, in the Geol. Mag.^ 
Dec. Ill, Vol. VIII, pp. 119-121, succinctly described a very large 
Grey wether, of irregularly quadrangular form, that was found 
lying in the London Clay, at the bottom of the Thames 
Valley Gravel, at Moscow Road, Bayswater, in enlarging the 
cellarage of the '* King's Head." It was 9 ft. 6 ins. long, and at 
least 2 ft, 8 ins. thick. Mr. H. B. Woodward remarks that Sarsen* 
have been found in many places at the same horizon in the base 
of the Thames Valley Gravel — at the Law Courts in the Strand,. 
and near Kew Bridge ; at Ealing in the Brent Valley ; at II ford, and 
at Grays ; but not usually of large size nor common. He notes 
also that Sarsens and Hertfordshire Puddingstone occur in the 
Brickearth in Buckinghamshire, derived in Glacial times from the 
wreck of Woolwich Beds and Bagshot Sands. The Thames Valley 
got its gravel mainly from the Glacial Drift. The Bayswater Sarseu 
is six miles distant from nearest known Glacial Drift ; and, he says,. 
*' it is quite possible that this particular block may have been 
derived directly from an outlier of Bagshot Sands, or it may hav© 
been left as a relic of Preglacial denudation near the spot where it 
has now been found." 

1895. At the Grove, Stanmore (the residence of Mrs. Brightwen),. 
large Sarsens have been collected from the neighbourhood and made 
into a grotto. Que slab measures about 6 X 3 X 2 feet; another^ 



Miss M. S. Johnston — Geological Notes on Central France. 59> 

about 6x6x2 feet. The surfaces of these two large slabs bave 
been deeply scored by ruiiuing water, and pierced in all directions 
by rootlet and other holes. — C. D. S. -• 

1896. In the Proc. Geol. Assoc, vol. xiv, p. 158, Mr. Alien 
Brown states that " a large tabular water- worn Sarsen, and a portion 
of it broken off in Quaternary times," were found in the gravel at 
Hanwell ; and that another Sarsen occurred at the base of the 
gravel at the back of Hanwell Station. 

1900. In " The Pits," old gravel workings, an allotment, now- 
wooded, belonging to William Sherborn, Esq., and formerly part of 
Bedford Common, Middlesex, there is a large Sarsen, measuring 
about 5x5x2 feet, from one end of which a block about a foot 
thick was removed. — C. D. S. 

1900. In front of the roadside inn (the " GrifEn ") at Totteridga 
or Whetstone, near Highgate, stands a short thick Sarsen, abuut 
25 inches high above ground, and 20 inches broad at top and 
18 inches below. It is locally said to be as large again below th© 
surface ; and to have been used as a ' whetstone ' for their weapons 
by the soldiers going to the Battle of Barnet (1471). — A. 0. Brown. 

1900. Horace B. Woodward describes a Greywether from the 
Gravel of South Kensington, in the Geol. Mag., December, 1900^ 
p. 543 (with figure). It measures 3 ft. 10 ins. X 3 ft. 3 ins. X 2 ft., 
and is in many respects analogous to the specimen from Bayswater 
described above. A smaller one has just been found on the same 
spot (January 23, 1901). 

[To bt continued.) 

IV. — SoMK Geological Notes on Central Feance. 

By M. S. Johnston. 
(PLATES II-IY.) 

1 THOUGHT, perhaps, some readers of the Geological Magazine 
might be interested in a few notes taken during the Inter- 
national Geological Congress excursion to the Massif of Central 
France and the region of the Gausses, and on the chief rocks there, 
with the best places for finding examples. 

- By making Clermont Ferrand a starting-point, the Piiy de Dome 
may be visited first. The road winds its way up from the extensive 
plain of Limagne. This plain, of Teitiary age, extends all along the 
foot of the Monts Domes from Brioude to the Loire. It is formed 
by an alluvial deposit left by an ancient lake of the age of the Paris 
Basin, whose waters at periods of high level probably flowed into 
Lac Limagne. The Monts Domes rise abruptly from this plain, 
their basalt flows forming in places preci})itous cliffs. 

At Royat, the great basalt flow of Quaternary age is reached, at 
the foot of which abundant mineral springs gush out. On either 
side of the lava rise rounded hills of granite; the typical granite 
of these hills is grey and coarsely crystalline. 

The Pay de Dome is composed of tracliyte. The typical rock 
contains large crystals of sanidine, and is very acid, having G2 per 
cent, of silica. M. Michol-Luvy is of opinion that the trachyte is- 



^0 Miss M. 8. Johmton — Geological Notes on Ceniral France. 

« (lyke which has been buried in the scoria, projected from the 
crater, of which every vestige has been obliterated. On the north 
side of the Puy de Dome there is a curious sandy scoriaceous 
deposit, containing small rounded grains and specular iron. The 
grains are considered by M. Michel-Levy to be lapilli from the 
volcano. Down the side of the Nid de Poule there is a large 
(deposit of scoria and bombs of various forms. 

The Puy de Pariou is a scoriaceous cone, with an immense lava 
stream of andesite flowing round the eastern side of the cone to the 
basaltic plateau of Prudelles, which imposed so great a barrier that 
the stream divided and flowed down to the Limagne plain on either 
side of the plateau. Between Puy de Pariou and Prudelles, at 
Le Cressigny, a cordierite gneiss may be found, while the Pliocene 
basalt of Prudelles contains zeolites. 

Proceeding from Royat by train to La Bourboule, the confines of 
Mont Dore massif are entered upon. The line runs round the north 
•of the Monts Domes. At Volvic a fine andesitic stream is crossed ; 
■this stone is much quarried for building purposes, whose durable 
■qualities are well seen in the cathedral ot Clermont Ferrand. 

On arriving at La Bourboule, the first section of interest is at 
.a short distance from the station at Lusclade, where rhyolites, 
.perlites, phonolites, and trachytes are found. One section of rhyolite, 
■facing the road to Mont Dore and at a small gorge, shows remarkable 
•stratification, the rhy'olite being of two kinds, glassy and fibrous. 
Up the gorge the rhyolite becomes perlitic, and masses of ophitic 
basalt from the heights above have fallen into the bed of the stream. 
Phonolites without nepheline, with nosean and haiiyne, are found 
a few 3'ards further to the south. 

The district of Mont Dore is formed by two principal centres 
of eruption — one at the Pic de Sancy, the other between the 
.Banne d'Ordenche, Puy de la Croix Morand, and Puy de I'Angle, 
overlooking the gorge mentioned above. The Pic de Sancy is 
trachytic, and fine porphyroidal trachyte may be found on its 
inorthern slopes. In the ravines of the Grande Cascade and 
Egravat remarkable sections are seen, tuffs and conglomerates of 
i:rachyte or andesite alternating with compact flows of different 
rocks, as trachytes, andesites, basalts, and labradorites.^ The greater 
part of the massif is formed of materials of every size from fine 
cinerites to conglomerates. 

Cinerites containing vegetable remains are well exposed on the 
west side of the valley of the Dore, to the north-west of Mont Dore 
Jes bains. At the Kavin de la Grande Scierie is an interesting- 
example of denudation and successive volcanic phenomena. The 
ibottom of the ravine is of cinerite, which rises on either side and 
iis capped by porphyritic trachyte. x\fter the first erosion of the 
valley a stream of lava poured down it, partly filling it, and which 
was in its turn eroded and has left its mark in a bank of andesite on 
both sides of the ravine. A little further on is a basaltic dyke rising 

^ A labradorite of French geologists is a basic andesite of English geologists. 



Gf.oi.. Mag. 1901. 



Dec. IV, Vol. \III, I'l. II. 




Fig. I. — The Orgues de Boit, left bank of the Dordugne. 






■, ir»»- 




^^. 




Fig. 2. — rroiiioiUoiy of Basalt, Carlal. 



GEOLOGICAL VIEWS IN CENTRAL FRANCE. 



Miss M. S. Johnston — Geological Notes on Central Fnmce. 61 

as an isolated hill in the centre of a circular valley. This is the 
Roche Vendeix. 

After traversing some woods the road opens on to a fine 
panorama, an immense circle bounded by the mountains of Mont 
Dore, the Cantal and Cezallier, and the hills of lesser heights, the 
Orgues de Bort and the Limousin. The village of Latour is built 
on a basaltic promontory. The columns of basalt are magnificent ; 
their broad tops serve as excellent foundations to the houses, and are 
especially well seen in the small hill, on which once stood a castle. 

Here the road descends into the valley, and the sceneiy is changed. 
Eounded and striated hills of granite betoken the presence of 
ancient glaciers, and between them stretch marshy fields of peat, 
whose undersoil is formed of scratched pebbles and erratic blocks of 
every size. The glaciers were of Pliocene age and when the 
volcanoes of Auvergne were at their highest. The glaciers have 
scooped out curiously shaped valleys, and the moraines lie along 
successive hills, whose contours are rounded and lowered as fur 
as La Pradelle, when the materials spread themselves out over 
a flat tableland, which constitutes the plateau of Lanobre and 
extends to the Orgues de Bort, whose precipitous escarpment 
dominates the left bank of the Dordogne. It may be added that 
at Bagnols erratic blocks, forming immense heaps, repose oa 
rounded, polished, or striated cordierite gneiss. 

From Bort a short drive brings one up to the Orgues de Bort; 
these 'orgues' are of phonolite (PI. II, Fig. 1). A cap of phonolite, 
rising in immense columns, overspreads a hill of augen gneiss. Many 
of the ' eyes ' in this gneiss are very large and in regular and con- 
tinuous layers. 

The view from this hill is very fine. The massifs of Mont Dore 
and the Cantal are both seen ; the Dordogne and the Rhue have cut 
narrow precipitous valleys on the north and east, but on the south, 
after the junction of the two streams, the valley widens and there 
are some small glacier-formed lakes, which are filling with peat. 

On leaving Bort by train for Aurillac the line, a marvel of 
engineering skill, winds between the spurs of the Cantal, which 
the train crosses, ascends, and descends in constant succession. 
Before reaching the slopes of the Cantal a small Carboniferous 
deposit is crossed, in which mines are worked at Chanjpagnac. 

Aurillac is built on the banks of the Jordanne, and on 
crossing the railway to the south of the town the alluvial terraces 
of Quaternary age, with the rounded hills of mica-schist rising- 
above them, are very noticeable. There is also in this valley other 
evidences of glacial action, and at Vezac a Quaternary moraine 
is prominent, forming waterfalls and rapids in the small stream. 

The next interesting section on the road to Carlat is an andesitio 
conglomerate at Cahanes. This conglomerate is found in great 
blocks amongst tuft's and andesitic dust, and forming a high hill. 
The theory concerning this deposit is, that it may be the projection 
of what was the last effort of the volcano. From this hill is also, 
seen u wonderful promontory of basalt. This promontory is furnK'(f, 



'62 Miss M. S. Johnston — Geological Notes on Central France. 

of very regular columns and overlies a Pliocene river bed, situated 
some hundred feet above the valley of the Goul. The basalt is 
Itreached in places; the largest, as seen in PI. II, Fig. 2, has 
caused the andesitic breccia below to be seen. 

After leaving Carlat the road takes a sharp turn to the south, 
and a section of cinerite, with loose felspar crystals, is found near 
ihe top of a hill overlain by concretionary Miocene sand. 

Tlie I'oad now continues around the southern spurs of the Cantal, 
which presents new vistas of beauty at every turn, and on reaching 
Cui'ebourse a magnificent panorama of the valley of the Cere is 
obtained. At a short distance from Curebourse and above Vic-sur- 
Cere is the celebrated section of Mougudo of compact cinerite, 
containing fossil plants. About twenty-two species of plants have 
been found there, in the shape of leaves, twigs, trunks, and 
wood opal. 

The road now follows the valley of the Cere, where there is an 
abundance of volcanic breccia, mostly capped by columns of basalt. 
At Thiezac, near St. Jacut, is a noticeable section across the valley 
and one which may be easily distinguished at sight. On the north- 
-west side the highest rocks are of andesite, then a band of 
porphyritic basalt, beneath this a mass of breccia, with dykes of 
andesite and labradorite overlying the mica-schists. The formation 
■of the small hill, on which stands a white statue of the Virgin, is 
a dyked breccia, while on the south-east side of the Cere rises 
a dome of trachyte and phonolite, tilting the breccia containing 
andesite and cinerite dykes, and capped by andesite and Oligocene 
basalt. 

The two most striking features now in the landscape are the peak 
of the Puy Grion, a w^eathered phonolite dyke on the left, and the 
Plomb du Cantal, the highest summit in this region, and situated on 
the edge of the crater ring on the right. The lateral ravines and 
the flanks of the cirques are riddled with dykes, as are also the cliffs 
along the valley of the Allagnon, which is reached by the tunnel 
-of Lioran, three-quarters of a mile long. 

At a waterfall not far from Lioran a trachyte called the ' roche 
de deuil ' is to be found, and at Laveissiere, a short distance further 
on, the base of an ancient volcano may be seen resting on 
Oligocene limestone. The Rocher de Bonnevie rises in successive 
tiers of basaltic columns above the town of Murat, and there is also 
a fine example of columns, showing various directions of contact 
cooling in the hill below Bredon church. In the village of Bredon 
aTe cave dwellings, which were inhabited as late as fifteen years ago. 

From Murat a good excursion can be made to the Puy Mary 
(PI. Ill, Fig. 3). The road leads up the valley of the Chevade to the 
"Gol d'Entremont, where there is a large exposure of augitic andesite, 
with haiiyne, which is used for tiles. Many of the specimens are 
good sounding clinkstones. At this point the road descends and 
crosses the valley of the Dienne, which has its origin at the foot 
of the Puy Mary, and is a good example of a glacially and aerially 
denuded valley. 



m 



Geol. Mac. 1901. 



Dec. IV, Vol. VIII, I'l. III. 





ViG. 3. — Puy Mary and the Valk-y 







b'lO. 4. — I'lionolilc Hills in llif Mryai, \ clay. 



GEOLOGICAL VIEWS IN CENTRAL FRANCE. 



Miss M. S. Johnston — Geological Notes on Central France. 63 

The peak of the Puy Mary is capped by an andesite, with 
■porphyritic felspars and horublende, overlying a band of porphy- 
roidal basalt, which is situated on a mass of breccia; the whole 
three deposits being dyked by phonolite, basalt, and andesite. 
From the top of this Puy a fine view of the crater of the Cantal 
is obtained. The Cantal massif was formed by one crater, the 
remains of which may be traced from the Puy Mary ; its ring 
is eight miles in diameter, the highest points being the Plomb 
<le Cantal, the Pay Mary, and the Puy Chavaroche. In the centre 
of the crater are several cone-shaped hills of phonolite, the Puy 
Orion being the highest. These are weathered dykes, phonolite 
having the peculiarity of weathering into cones, as will be observed 
in PI. Ill, Fig. 4 of the phonolite hills of the Megal district. 

The order of deposition in the Cantal region is — Miocene basalt, 
trachyte, and phonolite ; andesitic breccia ; andesitic and phonolitic 
flows ; and finally, the plateau basalt. 

On leaving the Cantal district and proceeding by train to Le Puy, 
another volcanic area may be studied, that of Velay. The chief 
points to be noticed along the line are the union of Quaternary 
moraines from the valleys of the Allagnon and AUange at 
Neussargues, and at Mei'dogne a remarkable basaltic rock over- 
spreading cinerites, containing Miocene flora ; at this point also the 
valley casts off its glacial character, and narrows itself between walls 
of gneiss, often amphibolic. At Leuipdes the plain of the Limagne 
is reached, but soon the line turns to the south, and after Arvant 
it passes over some part of the Oligocene plain and then on to the 
gneiss again. At Darsac is to be seen a characteristic view of 
the plains of basalt, with the scoriaceous cones of the axis of the 
Velay chain in the distance. 

The plain in whicli Le Puy is situated bears striking evidence 
of tlie wearing away of volcanoes. In the centre are two isolated 
rocks of breccia, the Roches Cornel lie and Aguilhac, surrounded 
by Oligocene deposits. From the Roche Corneille is seen the plain, 
whose edges rise on all sides in terraces and hills, first of ravined 
'Oligocene deposits, tlien of volcanic remains. Over the hills to the 
south and east are the Mezen and Megal peaks. On the north, 
in the middle distance, is a small volcano which has been cut in 
half; the crater pipe and outer slopes can still be clearly traced. 
The hills of Polignac and Denise are both of interest. At Denise 
the hill is composed of a pipe of scoria, often containing granite, and 
two varieties of breccia, one of Middle Pliocene age, the other of 
the age of Elephns meridionalis : in the latter was found the ' Man 
of Denise,' but how he got there is still a vexed question ; his 
skeleton has been placed in the Le Puy Museum. 

The Loire flows along to the east of Le Puy, but in early 
Quaternary times the principal river flowed away to the west 
on the south of the town. 

The Megal and Mezen district is one of the most interesting 
round Le Puy. This region is the oldest volcanic area of the Velay, 
and is composed almost entirely of basalt and phonolite ; indeed, the 



64- Miss M. S. Johnston — Geological Notes on Central France. 

latter is so abundant that it is called ' le pays des phonolites,' and 
the rock gives a characteristic appearance to the landscape (PI. Ill, 
Fig. 4). Some of the best sections for obtaining it are at Lardeyrol,. 
specimens without nepheline ; at Mont Pidgier, containing a vast 
quantity ; at Boussoulet and Montvert, a phonolite rich in nepheline 
and EBgyrine; near Estables the ' rocher d'Aiglet'; and the Mezen 
peak itself is mainly composed of this rock. 

On the road from Le Puy to Blavozy are several excellent 
sections of arkose of Eocene age and Oligocene sandy clays and 
spotted marls, while at Blavozy itself there is a very large deposit 
of arkose, in which great crystals of orthoclase from the older 
granite appear. At Queyrieres is found a good Miocene trachyte. 

There are a few glacial lakes in this district, the chief one being 
that of St. Front, crater-form in shape and worn in the basalt. 

Large crystals of orthoclase and hornblende can be picked up 
in the labradorite tuffs of Besseyre, many of the hornblende crystals 
being very nearly perfect in shape. Between Coubon and Le Puy 
may be noticed the lava streams from the Mont Jonet of Quaternary 
age, overspreading those of the Garde d'Ours, which was an active 
volcano in Pliocene times. 

- The geologist may now, if he chooses, pass from the land formed 
by the internal fires to that deposited in the waters, by driving 
from Le Puy to Mende, a distance of ninety-two kilometres. One 
first traverses igneous and metamorphic rocks as far as Mont Lozere, 
at which point the Liassic and Jui'assic plateaux are reached, and 
where the road makes a rapid descent into the valley to Mende. 

The rocks to be noted en route are first the bombs containing 
peridotite found in a cone at Tarreyre. Basaltic plateaux are 
crossed until one arrives at Langogne. The hills on the west 
side of the valley of the Allier are of porphyritic granite; here 
the felspathic crystals of orthoclase are very large. 

From Chateauneuf de Kandon one perceives the Gausses, of 
Secondary age, rising against the crystalline mass of Mont Lozere. 
The Gausses are immense undulating barren plateaux of limestone 
of Jurassic age. There are frequent depressions called ' sink-holes,' 
and the whole country from Mende to the Gevennes on the south 
is supposed to be riddled with caverns ; some with underground 
streams, as at Bramabiau and Padirac, others, where there is an 
entire absence of running water and where they are slowly filling 
with stalactitic materials, as at Dargilan, 

PI. IV, Fig. 5 is a view taken from the pathway up to Dargilan, 
the entrance of the cave being at the top of the cliffs in Middle 
Jurassic dolomitic limestone ; the rounded formation on the top 
of the precipitous cliff is of Kellaway age. The Gausses are also 
cut up by caiions, that of the Goi'ge de Tarn being the largest. The 
river of this gorge is fed by underground springs, and its sides 
are weathered out into pinnacles and buttresses. 

In the Dourbie gorge, not far from Milhau, is Montpellier-le- 
Vieux. The limestone on the top of the Gausse Noir has been worn 
away either bv weathering or, as some think, by underground! 



H. A. Allen — A South. Wales Coal-measure Insect. 05 

streams and afterwards aerial denudation. Here is the most wonderful 
representation of an old city, with its ramparts, castles, and halls ; 
there are, of course, many fantastically sculptured rocks, but the 
Chateau Gailliard is a marvel, of which only the eye can form 
any idea. 

At Eglazine, in the Tarn gorge, is a basalt flow which has half 
filled a denuded volcanic neck of breccia. In the basalt, which 
is Pliocene in age, are lai'ge crystals of augite and inclusions of 
olivine. The breccia also contains well-developed crystals of various 
minerals. 

The Tindoul (near Eodez) and Padirac (near Eocamadour) caverns 
have very deep holes or ' puits ' to the entrance of the underground 
galleries. The one at Padirac is 245 feet ; the Tindoul is a little 
less (PI. IV, Fig. 6). 

The Bramabiau is situated near the east and west fault which 
brings up the crystalline rocks of the Cevennes above those of 
Jurassic age. This fault is very well marked by the configuration 
of the country, as to the north of it are the table-like causses, to the 
south rises the jagged outline of the Cevennes. The Cevennes are 
the watershed of the Mediterranean and the ocean rivers, and their 
south-east and north-west slopes present different aspects. From 
Mont Aigoual, on the south and east, are seen narrow and steep 
gorges in endless successions ; the spurs of the mountains, running 
out in long rows, give the appearance of waves of the sea. On the 
north and west the valleys are broader and less steep, and the 
mountains have flatter tops. 

Mont Aigoual is formed by a granite intruded into the Cambrian 
sandstone, which has been metamorphosed into gneiss and schists. 
The granite is porphyritic, containing large orthoclase crystals, 
sometimes four or five inches long. 

An excursion to these parts may be ended at Eocamadour, 
a curious little village clinging to the precipitous side of a canon 
and celebrated during many centuries for its pilgrimages. 



V. — On an Insect from the Coal-3ieasures of South Wales. 
By H. A. Allex, F.G.S. 
rpHE rarity of insect remains from the Carboniferous rocks of the 
X British Isles is demonstrated by the small number of genera 
and species included in the lists published by such authorities as 
Dr. Henry Woodward ^ and Mr. S. H. Scudder.- A portion of a wing, 
with a neuration unlike that of any specimen yet described, having 
recently been exhumed, it may be deemed not unworthy of notice. 

The specimen was obtained by Mr. G. Eoblings from the top of 
the four-foot seam in the Lower Coal-measures of Llanbradach 
Colliery, Cardiff. A fragment of shale split into two pieces exposes 
nearly the Avhole of a wing lying almost flat ; the distal portion of 

^ Quart. Jouvn. Geol. Soc, vol. xxxii (1870), p. 6o. Geol. Mao., 1887, p. 49, 
PI. II ; ibid., p. 433, PI. XII. 

- Mem. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. iii (1883), pp. 213-224. 

DECADE IV. A'OL. VIII. — XO. II. 5 



66 H. A. Allen — A South Wales Coal-measure Insect. 

it, as far as the broken line in the figure, is seen on one half of the 
shale, and a little more of the basal part on the other. The base is 
wanting, and what remains of the basal portion has suffered much 
injury. The length of the fragment, measured from the apex, 
is 41 mm., and the greatest breadth of the wing, measured from 
the costal to the posterior margin, is 13 mm. 




vn IX 

"Wing of Fouquea cambrensis, n.sp., from the Coal-measures of South Wales, x 2. 

The costal nervure (the vena marginalis of Heer), numbered I in 
the Figure, is marginal. 

The subcostal (v. mediastina), II, is simple, and is situated about 
midway between the costal and the anterior branch of the radius. 
It curves gently towards the costal margin, and dies out at about 
12 ram. from the apex of the wing. 

The radius (v. scapularis), III, is bifurcated near the base; its 
anterior portion is simple, curves gently towards the costal margin, 
then turns rearward, and dies out near the apex of the wing. The 
posterior portion of the radius is situated slightly in advance of the 
long axis of the wing, and runs nearly in a straight line towards the 
apex. It gives off a bifurcated branch at 15 mm., a simple one at 
10 mm., and a second simple branch at 8 mm. from the apex of the 
wing. All these branches of the posterior portion of the radius 
reach the posterior margin of the wing near the apex. 

The median (v. externo-media), V, is forked at a short distance 
from the base ; the anterior branch runs parallel with the radius for 
a distance of 6 mm., and then divides into two minor branches, 
which reach the posterior margin by a slight curve. The posterior 
branch of the median runs straight towards the margin, produces 
a few branchlets, and, 9 mm. from its point of bifurcation, sends an 
offshoot direct to the margin ; 4 mm. further the branch bifurcates. 
All the branches of the median join the apical half of the posterior 
margin. 

The cubitus (v. interno-media) , VII, is directed towards the middle 
of the posterior margin until within a distance of 2 mm., where it 
turns sharply in the direction of the apex. A simple branch is 
given off at 5 mm. from the margin, and a few branchlets may be 
seen running out from the main branch. 

Nearer the base faint indications of nervures occur which may 
form the anal system {v. analis), IX, but, on account of the injured 
condition of the wing, their origin cannot be traced. 



11. A. Alien — A South Wales Coal-measure Insect. 67 

Over the areas between the principal nervures there is a delicate 
Teticnlation. No transverse nervules are present, with the exception 
of a few faint traces in the costal area. The specimen assumes the 
colour of the shale in which it is embedded. 

Of the few wings known from the British Carboniferous rocks, 
those of Lithomnntis carbonnria, from the Coal-measures of Scotland, 
described by Dr. H. Woodward,' to a certain extent resemble our 
specimen, but diifer in the shape of the area situated anteriorly to 
the subcostal nervure, i.e. the costal area, which in L. carbonaria is 
narrow near the base and increases in width towards the apex, 
whilst in our specimen the reverse obtains. The difterence in the 
«hape of the M'ing and in the neuration will not admit of the 
specimen above figured being referred to L. carbonaria, H. Woodw, 

For corresponding reasons this new specimen cannot be placed 
with Lithomantis GoJdenbergi, Ch. Brongn.,- notwithstanding the 
fact that the costal area is somewhat similar in shape. The posterior 
or branched limb of the radius is situated much further from the 
anterior margin than in either of the two species of TMliomantis 
mentioned, and bears fewer branches. 

Gryllacrls (Coryclalis) Brongniarti, Mant., from Coalbrookdale, 
<liffers from the South Wales specimen in its neuration, especially in 
the radius, which bifurcates much nearer the apex of the wing, and 
also in the transverse nervules, which are strongly marked. 

In the simplicity and general appearance of its neuration our wing 
much resembles Dicti/oneura simiosa, Klivei',-' but in that species the 
important subcostal nervure is directed towards the apex and does 
not curve towards the costal margin. M. Kliver's specimen lacks 
both base and apex, and therefore the above-mentioned character may 
perhaps be deceptive. 

The genus Foiiquea, to which our specimen may be referred, is 
<lescribed by Ch. Brongniart,^ who states that " it agrees with 
Lithomantis in its neuration, but diifers greatly in the reticulation ; 
the nervules which unite the nervures are so numerous that they 
anastomose and form a veritable network." 

The shape of the wing, the position of the longitudinal nervures, 
and the reticulation in our specimen bear a general resemblance to 
Fouquea Lacroixi, from Commentry, but neither of the two species 
figured by C. Brongniarf^ exactly agree with it, since in both of 
them the branches running from the principal nervures to the 
posterior margin are more numerous. The cubitus also shows 
a considerable difference. 

The specimen differs from any described form that has come under 
my notice, more especially in the cubitus. The injui-y to the base 
of the wing is most unfortunate, and it is consequently impossible 

' Uuait. Jouni. Geo). Sot-., vol. xxxii (1876), p. 60, pi. ix, fig. 1. 

* Rech. Insects Fossilcs, pi. xxxvii, ligs. 1, 2. 

' Pahnontographica, Bd. xxix (1883), p. 260, t. ii, fig. 4. 

* "Rocli. lusectes fossiles dos Temps prim.," p. 372 ; St. Etk-uiif, 1893. 

* Op. cit., pi. xxxv, figs. 10, 11. 



68 E. Greenly — Denudation in North Wales. 

to trace any of the principal nervui-es to their source, but the wing; 
is otherwise in a good state of preservation. 

It will be placed, provisionally, in the genus Fouquea, Ch. Brongn.^ 
and, in order to note the principality in which the wing was found, 
I propose the name Fouquea cambrensis. 

The specimen has been presented to the Geological Survey 
Museum, London, by Mr. Eoblings. 

VI. — Kecent Denudation in IS ant Ferancon, Nokth Wales. 
By Ed-vvakd Greenly, F.G.S. 

READERS of this Magazine may remember that early last 
August there were descriptions in many provincial and even 
in some London newspapers of an extensive ' landslip,' which had 
occurred on the side of the mountain called Carnedd Dafydd, on 
the eastern side of the valley of Nant Ffrancon, in North Wales. 
The impression conveyed was perhaps somewhat exaggerated, and 
yet the phenomenon was on a scale quite large enough to be of 
geological importance. 

In a brief but vividly written article in the Geological Magazine 
for January, 1900, my friend Mr. J. R. Dakyns described a number 
of cases of denudation on an important scale that had come under 
his observation. It may be well, therefore, in the same way, and 
under a similar title, to preserve a record of this landslip. There 
was almost incessant rain from the 5th to the 10th of August, with 
streams all in heavy spate and floods in many districts, and on 
August Gth (I believe) at about 4 p.m. two torrents broke out on the 
side of Carnedd Dafydd, carrying with them a great deal of debris, 
and blocking the road in the valley for many yards. The spot is 
on the eastern side of the valley, nearly opposite the house called 
Pentre, shown on the Geological Survey and old Ordnance Maps. 

The mountain side here is composed of the Bala volcanic series, 
alternations of various igneous rocks with hard grits, resting, with 
a south-easterly dip, upon a thick mass of softer and rather homo- 
geneous black slates. The volcanic series form a great range of 
crags along the brow of the mountain some hundreds of feet in 
height, cut into huge buttresses and deep recesses, while the dark 
slates give rise to long uniform steep slopes extending from the 
foot of these crags to the bottom of the valley, and along theni 
the road is carried at a height at this point of about 200 feet above 
the alluvial plain. These slopes are covered with great sheets of 
scree, resting upon loose glacial debris, which, though rising here 
and there into moraine-like mounds, have for the most part, and at 
the point where the landslip occurred, a pretty uniform slope. 

As we pass up the valley from the north we see nothing but two 
streams of stones, grey and fresh-looking, near the road. They do not 
extend far up the slopes, and appear, indeed, rather insignificant; but 
this is due to the great depth of the valley, and when we arrive at 
the place where they cross the road they are much more imposing 
in appearance. From this point we see that they are fans of debris 
spread out at the ends of two long channels, which, light grey and 
evidently quite newly cut, are conspicuous features all down the 



E. Greenly — Denudation in North Wales. 69 

slopes from the foot of the crags. The northern one can be traced 
by the eye a little way up into the crags themselves, but from below 
we cannot tell whether the two channels, which disappear behind 
a great rocky buttress, have or have not a common origin. 

The northern stream of debris crossed the road, broke down the 
wall, and poured over on the other side a fan or cone of great stones 
all the way down to the alluvial plain, while the finer material was 
spread out upon the alluvium itself, and some even reached as far 
as the river Ogwen. This fan is about 58 yards wide at the road, 
and begins a considerable distance above it, the angle at its top 
being a moderate one. 

Some of the debris is very coarse. I measured one block of 
felsite 12x6 X 4 feet, standing on its narrow side, a little way 
above the road. How far this had been carried by the torrent, I do 
not know ; it may have been embedded in the drift before, but from 
its position on the fan it must have travelled a good many yards. 

The southern stream crosses the road about 175 yards further on, 
and is about 33 yards wide at that place. It is more conspicuous 
in the distance than the other, and the amount of material at the 
road is very great, but it does not go so far down into the valley, the 
debris stopping on the steep slopes and not reaching the alluvium. 

Above these fans the work has been wholly erosive. At the head 
of the northern one the channel cut in the drift and scree seemed to 
mo to be more than 20 feet deep, and I think that it was cut down 
to the solid slate here and there. On the steep rocky slopes at 
the crag's foot the gully had been swept very clean and white. 
Whether the erosive work afi"ected solid rock as well as drift, 
I cannot tell. I saw no sign of a rock-fall in the crags, and to 
ascertain whether there was any it would be necessary to go some 
way up into the gully. The material of the fan, however, did not 
seem to me quite angular enough to suggest any great fall of solid 
rock, considering the short distance of transport. 

Whether this be so or not, it is clear that torrential denudation, 
the work of only one afternoon, and probably of a very short time 
in that afternoon, has cut channels through 20 feet or more of drift 
and scree on the mountain side, moved blocks of felsite of as much 
as 28S cubic feet, and spread out fans of stones and debris a quarter 
of a mile in length. 

The fans and channel would be well worth being photographed. 
In the Windsor Magazine of November last there is an account of 
a disaster near Driffield in the Chalk wolds of Yorkshire, said to 
have been caused by a ' waterspout.' The article is illustrated by 
photographs, not only of damage to buildings, but of channels and 
fans of debris very like these; and the point of origin is there quite 
clear. These views, indeed, are of considerable geological interest. 

In view of the great importance of the subject of denudation, it 
really seems a pity that instead of occasional papers, there should 
inot be some kind of regular organization for collecting and recording 
descriptions of what is actually going on at the present time. 



70 Dr. F. A. Bather — Alleged Prints of Triassic Echinoderms. 

VII. — Alleged Prints of Echinoderbis in Triassic Reptilipeeous- 

Sandstones. 

By F. A. Bather, M.A., D.Sc, F.G.S. 

IN the Geological Magazine for January, 1901 (n.s., Dec. IV, 
Vol. VIII, pp. 3, 4), Professor Burckhardt describes certaia 
markings in the sandstone matrix of specimens of Hyperodapedon 
and Bhynchosaurus in the British Museum, from Elgin, Shropshire, 
and Warwickshire (the last, however, not being, as implied by 
the legend to the figure, represented in the Museum). He 
believes that these are hollow imprints " left by Echinoderms of 
a Euryalid shape, having peripheral arms, either simple or forked," 
but he appeals to specialists to decide to which group of Echinoderms 
they are due. Since these marks are said to be exceedingly numerous,^ 
and since Dr. Burckhardt uses them as evidence of contemporaneity,^ 
I thought it my duty, as the specialist nearest at hand, to examine 
these statements without delay. 

Any student of Echinoderms would probably gather from Professor 
Burckhardt's description that the impressions were those of Penta- 
crinid columnals, with a pentagonal lumen, and with occasional 
cirri. The outlines drawn by Dr. Burckhardt do not really agre& 
with that of the disc of a Euryalid ophiuran, nor does the paucity 
of alleged arm-structures confirm that suggestion. The asserted 
abundance of the pentagons also favours the idea that they are due 
to Crinoid columnals, for many sandstones filled with imprints of 
those structures are known from all parts of the world and all ages, 
including the Trias. The only difficulty that a reader would find 
in accepting this conclusion would be, that these immensely 
numerous and by no means minute appearances have escaped the 
notice of all the eminent geologists and palaeontologists who have 
devoted to these sandstones the most anxious and pertinacious' 
scrutiny. 

Examination of the actual specimens, in which I received the kind 
help of Dr. A. Smith Woodward, has led to very difiFerent results. 
In common with those of my colleagues whom Professor Burckhardt 
endeavoured to convince, I am absolutely unable to distinguish the 
appearances described and drawn by him. Anyone that looks long, 
enough at a rough sandstone surface can make out as many patterns 
as there are faces in the fire. But a scientific question is not to 
be decided by the vote of a majority, and the fact that we cannot 
see may only show that our senses are deficient. Fortunately there 
is other evidence. 

Professor Burckhardt himself adduces the "hollows left by Elgin- 
reptiles " in favour of his interpretation. But these hollows are all 
quite smooth and are iron-stained darker than the matrix, in these- 
respects resembling the hollows left by Echiuoderra fragmetits in 
many another sandstone. Moreover, the fractured rock surfaces of 
the British Museum specimens under discussion do show imprint* 
in places, whether of dermal armour and scales, or abdominal ribs, 
or perhaps fragments of some other creatures ; and all the marking* 



E. J). Wellhurn — On C<xlacanthus. 71 

clearly recognizable as of organic origin have a smooth surface. 
But wherever or whatever the uuirkings perceived by Dr. Burckhardt 
may be, their whole surface is adinittedly rough with " the coarse 
grains of the sand," and they show no distinctive colour. 

" In size " these impressions are said by Professor Burckhardt to 
"vary between o mm. and 3 cm. in diameter." Now Echinoderm. 
plates or tests of this area must have had an appreciable thickness, 
and this thickness would be manifest in their hollow casts, since the 
rock has undergone no extrao-rdinary pressure. Therefore the spaces 
should be visible in section wherever the rock is broken at a sharp 
angle. But Dr. Burckhardt, who had a piece of the matrix specially 
chipped off for examination, will doubtless admit tliat such is not 
the case. 

If the matrix did contain impressions or moulds of Echinoderm 
objects of the nature described by Professor Burckhardt, one would 
certainly expect to find them lying roughly parallel to the plane of 
stratification, and we are indeed told that these bodies are " all of 
them lying in the same plane as the skeleton of Uyperodnpedony 
But the skeleton in question is a large, irregular object, and the 
exposed surfaces along which the matrix has been fractured ai-e not 
in any one plane, but lie at various angles. There is no trace of 
lamination, and if any objects ever did lie on the rough fracture- 
surfaces, they must have been deposited in most irregular fashion, 
and the sandy floor of the Triassic lagoon in which these reptile 
skeletons lay undisturbed must have been unlike any sea-bed before 
or since. But it is well known that the Elgin sandstones are quite 
objectionably like dozens of other sandstones, and one cannot doubt 
that were Professor Burckhardt to pursue the geological studies he 
finds so attractive, he would discover equally clear or equally obscure 
appearances, in many rocks besides those "fragments from the Maleri 
deposits in India." 

We conclude, then, that the phenomena described by the learned 
professor are mainly subjective, such objective basis as they possess 
being furnished solely by the mechanical arrangement of sand-grains 
and the natural irregularity of a broken surface. 

VIII.— On the Pectoral Fin of C(ELACAifTHU^, 
By Edgau D. Wellburn, L.R.C.P., F.G.S., F.R.I. P.II., etc. 

AMONG the fossil fishes of the Talbragar Beds (Jurassic?) 
described by Dr. A. Smith Woodward in a memoir of the 
Geological Survey of New South Wales (1895), there is the ventral 
portion of the abdominal region of a Coelacaiith fish, having one of 
the pectoral fins well shown. The fin is shown in counterpart, and 
is thus described : — " It exhibits, as usual, the characteristic ohtuso 
lobation and the large fringe of articulated attenuated dermal rays, 
and is unique in displaying some of the endoskeletal supporting 
bones. These elements seem to have been well ossified, though 
with persistent cartilage internally. At the base of the fin there 
occurs a broken fragment of bone ' incapable of determination ; but 
* My specimen would point to the fact that thi8 is a fragment of the clavicle. 



72 Notices of Memoirs — Underground Waters of Craven. 

in the lobe of the fin itself there is a series of four well-defined, 
hourglass-shaped supports. Of these bones the anterior three are 
much elongated, and nearly equally slender, while the fourth is 
much more robust and expanded at its distal end. The four elements 
radiate from the anterior half of the base of the fin ; and it seems 
very probable that some smaller cartilage behind and near the distal 
border of the lobe have disappeared from lack of ossification. The 
fin-rays gradually increase in length from the anterior border to the 
middle of the lobe, whence they decrease again backwards, and 
finally become extremely delicate." 

In my collection there is a specimen of Coelacanthus tingleyensis, 
Davis, from the Cannel Coal, Middle Coal-measures, Tingley, York- 
shire, crushed vertically, which exhibits the pectoral fins, and one, 
the left, shows characters very similar to those given by Dr. Smith 
Woodward. The clavicle is well shown and springing fi'om a point 
about its centre ; and opposite to the process which is usually seen 
on these bones there are six basal supports, of which the anterior 
four are elongated and more or less uniform in thickness, the 
fifth is more nearly hourglass-shaped, and the sixth (fourth of 
Dr. Woodward ?) is more robust and widely expanded distally. No 
supports are seen posteriorly to the sixth, but as the dermal rays 
extend some distance behind this point, and as the lobe of the fin 
has here sufi'ered somewhat from crushing, it seems highly probable 
that there were two, if not three, supports posterior to the sixth, but 
that they have in the specimen been destroyed during fossilization. 
At tiicir distal extremities each support is opposed to two or more 
of the dermal rays, which, as pointed out by Dr. Woodward, 
"increase in length from the anterior border to the middle of the 
lobe, whence they decrease backwards, and finally become extremely 
fine." All the rays are closely articulated distally. 

From the above it will at once be seen, as pointed out by 
Dr. Woodwai'd, that the pectoral fin of Ccelacantlms is a striking 
contrast to that of the existing Crossopterygian Polypterus, the 
basalia more closely approaching that of the Actinopterygii. 



JsroTXCDZES oip DvniBnvnoTK-s, 



I- — The Movements of Underground Waters of Craven.^ — 
I'irst Eeport of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. W. 
Watts (Chairman), Mr. A. R. Dwerrtuouse (Secretary), Pro- 
fessor A. Smithells, Rev. E. Jones, Mr. Walter Morrison, 
M.P., Mr. G. Bray, Rev. W. Lower Carter, Mr. W. Fairley, 
Mr. P. F. Kendall, and Mr. J. E. Marr. (Drawn up by the 
Secretary.) 

THE Committee is carrying out the investigation in conjunction 
with a Committee of the Yorkshire Geological and Polytechnic 
Society. The present is merely an interim report, as the work is 
still in progress. 

' Bead before the British Association, Section C (Geology), Bradford, Sept., 1900. 



Notices of Memoirs — Underground Waters of Craven. 73 

It was decided that the first piece of work should consist of an 
investigation of the iindergronnd flow of water in Ingleborough. 
This hill forms with its neighbour, Simon's Fell, a detached massif, 
which is peculiarly suitable for investigations of this nature. The 
summit of the group is formed of Millstone Grit, then follow 
Yoredale Shales and Sandstones, the whole resting on a plateau of 
Carboniferous Limestone. Many streams rise on the upper slopes 
of the hills and flow over the Yoredales, but without exception their 
waters are swallowed directly they pass on to the Carboniferous 
Limestone, to reappear as springs in the valleys which trench the 
plateau. 

The Committee first turned its attention to tracing the water 
which flows into Gaping Ghyll hole. It was generally believed 
that the water issued at a large spring immediately above the bridge 
at Clapham Beck Head and immediately below the entrance to 
Ingleborough Cavern. On April 28 specimens of the water from 
this spring were taken for analysis before the introduction of any 
test. Two cwt. of ammonium sulphate was then put into the water 
flowing into Gaping Ghyll, and at the same time the amount of the 
water was gauged and found to be equivalent to 251,856 gallons 
per diem. A few hours later a second quantity of 2 cwt. of the same 
substance was introduced. On the same day 1^ lb. of fluorescein in 
alkaline solution was put into a pot-hole known as Long Kin East, 
about 1,^00 yards north-east of GapiTig Ghyll. 

In view of the important influence which the direction of the 
joints in the limestone had been found to exercise over the flow of 
underground water,^ the direction of the joints in the limestone 
clints in the neighbourhood of Long Kin East was taken, and was 
found to be N.N.W. to S.S.E., and to run in such a direction as to 
lead to the probability that the water would reappear at the springs 
at the head of Austwick Beck, and these were consequently watched. 

The ammonium sulphate put in at Gaping Ghyll reappeared at 
the large spring at Clapham Beck Head on tlie morning of May 3, 
and continued to flow until the evening of May 6, when the water 
again became normal. Thus the time occupied by the ammonium 
sulphate in travelling from Gaping Ghyll to Clapham Beck Head, 
a distance of one mile, was about five days. No ammonium sulphate 
was found in any of the other springs in Clapdale. This result 
proved beyond doubt that Gaping Ghyll was connected with Clapham 
Beck Head. 

The fluorescein put in at Long Kin East showed itself at Austwick 
Beck Head, but not at any of the neighbouring springs, on May 11, 
having taken over thirteen days to travel, the delay being probably 
due to the small amount of water flowing at the time of the 
experiments. 

These results are of considerable importance, as they definitely 
reveal two lines of divergent movement of these underground 
waters, and indicate a subterranean watershed of much interest. 

^ See previous invcstigatious of the Yorks. Gcol. and Polyt. Soc. Committee. 



74 Notices of Memoirs — Underground Waters of Craven. 

The influence of the master-joints of the Carboniferous Limestone 
in determining the direction of flow of these underground waters 
was also, as at Malham, clearly shown. 

The next set of experiments was carried out by the joint Com- 
mittee on June 8 and following days. 

In order to confirm the results in connection with the Gaping 
Ghyll to Claphara Beck Head flow, and further to ascertain moro 
definitely if there existed any connection between Gaping Ghyll 
and the smaller springs in Clapdale, 10 cvvt. of common salt was 
put into the waters of Gaping Ghyll on June 4, and a further 10 cwt. 
on June 5, samples of the water from each of the springs being 
taken several times a day until June 25. 

One pound of fluorescein in alkaline solution was introduced into 
the stream flowing through Ingleborough Cave on June 8 at 10 p.m.^ 
at the point where the water plunges down a hole in the floor of the 
cave, and marked ' Abyss ' in the 6-inch Ordnance map. Five cwt. 
of ammonium sulphate was introduced into a sink on the allotment, 
about 500 yards north-east of Long Kin East, on June 9, at 3 p.m. ; 
and at 3*15 p.m. on the same day 1 lb. of fluorescein in alkaline 
solution was poured into the stream which flows past the shooting- 
box on the allotment and sinks near the Bench Mark 13201. 

The fluorescein introduced into the abyss came out of Claphami 
Beck Head, and possibly at Moses Well and other springs ia 
Clapdale, but this point requires further investigation, the evidence 
being as yet somewhat unsatisfactory. The salt from Gaping Ghyll 
appeared at Clapham Beck Head on June 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, and 
21, being at its maximum on June 18, but not at any of the other 
springs. 

The ammonium sulphate put into the sink on the allotment 
appeared at Austwick Beck Head on June 22, the other springs ia 
the neighbourhood being unafifected on that day ; but on the 24th 
and 25th there were slight increases in the amount of ammonia in 
two small springs in Clapdale, viz., the small spring below Clapdale 
Farm and Cat Hole Sike. As one of these streams is close to the 
farmyard, and the other was at the time nearly dry and flowing 
through pasture land, no importance is attached to these slight 
increases. Of the fluorescein put in below the shooting-box no 
trace has since been found, and the same is the case with ^ lb. of 
methylene blue introduced into Grey Wife Sike, above Newby Cote. 

Several most interesting problems still await solution in this area, 
one of them being the relations of the Silurian floor which underlies^ 
the Carboniferous Limestone of the plateau to the flow of under- 
ground water. The two sinks Gaping Ghyll and Long Kin East 
are only about 1,300 yards apart, and yet the waters of the one take 
a direction quite distinct from those of the other, and eventually 
emerge in a separate valley, the distance between the springs being 
1^ miles apart, the great mass of Carboniferous Limestone known as 
Norber, a hill upwards of 1,300 feet in height, lying between the 
two valleys. In Crummack Dale it is seen that the Silurian rock» 



Nodces of Memoirs — Underground Waters, N. W. Yorks. 75' 

form a ridge running in an approximately nortb-west and south-east 
direction, and unconformably overlain by the Carboniferous Lime- 
stone. If this line be continued it separates the Gaping Ghyll to 
Clapbam Beck Head flow from that of Long Kin East to Austwick 
Beck Head. Thus it appears that this ridge of Silurian rocks forms 
an underground water-parting, which the Committee hopes to bo 
able to ti'ace for a considerable distance across the area. 

The magnitude of this undertaking will be to some extent realized 
whfn it is stated that upwards of 400 samples of water have been 
tested for common salt, ammonium, and fluorescein, making in all 
upwards of 1,200 tests. The whole of the grant of £40 has been 
spent upon the investigation, and a small sum in addition. The 
experiments which have been carried out have indicated which are 
the most suitable reagents for use in difi'erent cases, and it is 
consequently hoped that future investigations will be carried out 
at rather less cost than has been the case up to the present. The 
Committee ask to be reappointed, with a grant of £50. 



IL — The Underground Waters of North-West Yorkshire.'^ 
By Rev. W. Lower Carter, M.A., F.G S., Hon. Sec. Under- 
ground Waters Committee, Yorkshire Geological and Polytechnic 
Society. 

Part I. The Sources of the Aire. 



T 



Malham are traversed by two branches of the Craven Fault with 
the downthrow to the south. Malham Tarn lies on Silurian, and 
its overflow sinks in the limestone directly the northern fault i» 
crossed. The drainage of the area to the west of the Tarn 
disappears at the Smelt Mill Sink. The drainage of the area east of 
the Tarn is carried off by Gordale Beck, along the course of which 
some water sinks into the jointed limestone. To these three sinks 
correspond three principal outlets, the stream at Malham Cove, 
Aire Head Springs, and the springs at the bottom of Gordale. 

The history of previous investigations is then given. From the 
centre of Malham Cove a dry limestone gorge runs in a northerly 
direction to the Tarn. Up to the beginning of this century flood- 
waters were known to traverse this valley and discharge over the 
Cove. There are several sinks along the line of this dry valley. 
Now all the overflow is taken by three sinks south of the Tarn. 

Yarious efforts have been made to trace the connection between 
the sinks and outlets. Flushes of water from the Tarn have been 
shown to aff'ect Aire Head before Malham Cove. Experiments by 
introducing chaff, bran, magenta, and uranin into the sinks failed to 
show any traces at the outlets. 

The present investigation was carried out during 1899, by a 
Committee of Engineers, Chemists, and Geologists, appointed by 
the Yorkshire Geological and Polytechnic Society. Flushes of 
water were sent down from the Tarn to the Tarn Water Sinks. 

* Read before the British Association, Section C (Geology), Bradford, Sept., 1900. 



vfS Notices of Memoirs — Underground Waters, N.W. Tories. 

Aire Head Springs responded in two hours. With lai-ge flushes 

a rise in Malham Beck was also observed. 

, The chemical investigations were as follows : — 

Ammonium sulphate was put in below the Malham Tarn Sluice 
on June 22, and appeared at Aire Head from July 4 to 11. Distinct 
traces were also found at Malham Cove on the same dates. 

Common salt and fluorescein, put in at the Smelt Mill Sink between 
June 22 and 28, appeared at Malham Cove from July 4 to 11. 
, Fluorescein, put in at Tranlands Beck on June 22, appeared at 
Scalegill Mill on June 23. 

. Ammonium sulphate, put into upper Gordale Beck on August 26, 
appeared at the springs below Gordale Scar on September 7. 
,. Common salt, put into Cawden ' Burst ' on September 18, appeared 
at Mire's Barn from September 23 to 27. 
■ Fluorescein put into the bottom of Grey Gill Cave was not traced. 

A geological investigation of the area showed that the limestone 
is traversed by two sets of prominent joints, of which the master- 
joints, which run in a north-west to south-east direction, are very 
well developed. These master-joints are found to largely determine 
the flow of the underground waters. The direction of these master- 
Joints unites the Smelt Mill Sinks and Malham Cove directly, and 
that may be taken as the direction of flow. A parallel line from 
Malham Tarn Sinks would bring the water from them to Grey Gill, 
a dry valley in the escarpment to the east of Malham Cove. No 
evidences of moving water were found there. 

To the south of the Mid-Craven Fault the jointing of the lime- 
stone is found to be variable ; but prominent joints were found 
bearing in a north-east and south-west direction. If the Tarn water 
followed these joints on crossing the fault it would traverse a 
direction almost at right angles to its previous course, and following 
the limestone in its bend underneath a synclinal of Yoredale shale, 
would be likely to reappear at Aire Head Springs, which is the 
nearest point for re-emergence on the southern side of the anticlinal. 

The master-joints north of the Mid-Craven Fault would similarly 
<!arry the water which sinks into the bed of Gordale Beck south- 
eastward into the limestone, and if, as it nears the fault, it followed 
a set of joints running at right angles to the previous set, it would 
oorae out at the springs at the foot of Gordale Scar, which was 
found to be the case by the chemical tests. Gordale itself turns in 
this direction from some cause. 
: The conclusions of the Committee are : — 

1. That Malham Cove Spring discharges the water from Smelt 
Mill Sink and the limestone area west of the dry valley; and under 
certain conditions some of the Tarn water. 

2. That Aire Head Springs discharge the main portion of the 
water disappearing down Malham Tarn Water Sinks. 

3. That Gordale Beck Springs discharge the water sinking in 
Upper Gordale. 

4. That chemicals put into Cawden 'Burst' appeared at 
Mire's Barn. 



Notices of Mcnnoirs — Ingk'horourjh Cdces and Pof-/io/es. 77 

5. That Tranlands Beck Sinks discharge at Scalegill Mill. 

6. The investigations show that within the area the main direction 
of underground How is along the master-joints of the limestone. 

III. — The Caves and Pot-iioles of Inglebouougu and the 
District.^ By S. W. Cuttriss. 

THE portion of Yorkshire to which this paper refers is contained 
in Sheets 49, 50, and 60 (New Series) of the 1-inch Ordnance 
Survey. The great Craven Faults which traverse it in a north-west 
to south-east direction have produced a difference of level of the 
strata of several thousands of feet ; the limestones on the south 
side of the Faults being far below the surface. 

The Silurian slates and grits form the basement beds, and are 
exposed in several of the valleys. On these rests the Carboniferous 
Limestone, which has a thickness of about oOO feet from the base to 
the present exposed surface on Ingleborough. The name Carboni- 
ferous Limestone is here applied only to distinguish a particular bed 
of rock in the district. Above this are a series of thinner limestones, 
shales, and sandstones (the Yoredales of Professor Phillips), capped 
by Millstone Grit. 

Towards the west the Carboniferous Limestone has been cut off' 
by the Dent Fault, while the Craven Faults determine its extension 
towards the south. The main line of fault passes through Ingleton, 
Clapham, and Austwick to Settle, then eastwards by Malham. 
North of this is another fault, near the first at Austwick, but about 
1^ miles apart at Malham. Further north the most interesting 
caves and pot-holes are found in an area comprising the Leek Fells, 
Kingsdale, Chapel-le-Dale, Hibblesdale, and around Ingleborough. 

The whole area may be divided into three sections : — 

1. The Yoredales, comprising the rocks of that name. These 
limestones being comparatively thin, and intercalated with beds of 
shale and sandstone, the caves ai"e small and obstructed with earth, 
through which the water percolates. They are at an elevation of 
from 1,300 to 1,600 feet, and do not materially aff"ect the drainage 
of the ground. 

2. The Southern Carboniferous, including the Carboniferous Lime- 
stone between the two Craven Faults. Although part of the same 
formation as the Carboniferous Limestone north of the Fault, yet 
the caves in the two sections differ entirely in their characteristics.^ 
Here they are distinguished by an absence of running water, the 
walls are covered with a considerable thickness of calcareous deposit, 
and their entrances ai*e blocked with clay and rock debris. The 
well-known Victoria and Attermire Caves are included in this section. 
A further characteristic is the entire absence of pot-holes — vertical 
chasms in the ground caused by falling water enlarging the rock 
fissures. 

3. The Main Carboniferous, which includes the remainder of the 
Carboniferous Limestone within the area defined. Here there are no 

' Read betorc the IJritish Association, Section C (Geology), Bradtord, Sept., 1000.. 



78 Notices of Memoirs — C. B. Wedd — CoralUan Limestones. 

dry caves, all being active drainage channels. Pot-holes also are 
•very abundant. In the Leek Fell and Kingsdale districts the caves 
are almost without exception those of engulfment, while in Chapel- 
le-Dale and Ribblesdale they are chiefly caves of debouchure. The 
•first-named are usually low at the entrance. The passages then 
increase in height to 20 feet or more, but rarely exceed G feet in 
width, usually much narrower. Some may be traversed a quarter 
of a mile or more, such as Lost John's Cave, which terminates in 
a subterranean pot-hole over 100 feet deep. The caves of debouchure 
are much more numerous. The mouth is generally wide and shallow, 
with a flat roof. A cascade or waterfall is usually found some little 
distance in, beyond which the passage is a simple water-worn 
channel, gradually shallowing and broadening until too low to 
permit of further progress. 

The pot-holes occur at or near the top of the limestone, at between 
1,100 and 1,300 feet elevation, and always where there are surface 
streams, which fall into the chasms. Over thirty have been named, 
nearly all of which have been descended by the writer and friends, 
members of the Yorkshire Kamblers Club, many of them for the 
first time. Half the number are over 100 feet deep. Gaping Ghyll, 
on Ingleborough, attains a depth of 350 feet, and was first descended 
by Monsieur E. A. Martel, in 1895. Rowten Pot, in Kingsdale, 
was conquered in 1897, and found to be 365 feet deep, thus being 
the deepest known pot-hole in the country. 

No evidence of the presence of the Silurian rocks has been found, 
the lowest observable rock being either light or black limestone. 
The average Summer temperature in both caves and pot-holes is 
48° Fahr. 

The writer has prepared a special map of the district on whicb 
are shown all the known caves and pot-holes, with the surface 
streams. Such a map illustrates in a forcible manner the interesting 
fact that the entire surface drainage of Ingleborough is swallowed 
up by the limestone. Not a single stream from the higher levels 
continues an uninterrupted course into the valley below. 



IV. — The Outcrop of the Corallian Limestones of Elswoeth 

AND St. Ives.^ By C. B. Wedd, B.A., F.G.S. 

(Communicated by permission of tlie Director-General of the Geological Survey.) 

THE ferruginous and oolitic limestones known as the Elsworth 
and St. Ives Rocks are now generally believed to be one and 
the same, an opinion supported by my own work in that district 
recently. The limestone in question has long been known to occur 
at St. Ives in brick-pits, being well exposed to the west of the town. 
It was known also to occur throughout the village of Elsworth. 
Mr. Cameron noticed a fossiliferous rock outcropping near Hilton, 
between Elsworth and St. Ives. No other surface exposures were 
known, but a similar rock was found in the railway cutting at 
Bluntisbam, north-east of St. Ives, at Swavesey, east of the same 

* Read before the British Association, Section C (Geology), Bradford, Sept., 1900. 



Noticefi of 3Iemoii's — W. Gib.son — Ooal-D/oas/ire-'i. 79 

!j)lace, and Bourn, soutb of Elswortli, and a few other localities, 
And like rock was found in Wells. 

The outcrop can be traced almost continuously from a mile west of 
the brickyard at St. Ives, striking eastwards along the northern flank 
of the Ouse valley, and passing north of St. Ives to Needingworth ; 
here it bends abruptly southwards to Holywell and forms a gentle 
rise. The southern part of the village of Holywell stands on 
a gravel-capped escarpment of the rock ; a collection of fossils in the 
Woodwardian Museum, Cambridge, agreeing closely with those of 
the Elsworth and St. Ives Rocks, was believed to have come from 
Holywell. East of Holywell the outcrop must cross the Ouse valley; 
I found traces of the rock in a drain some distance west of Swavesey. 
From here, south-westwards, it is not seen again till it appears at 
the surface between Hilton and Conington, where a rock was noted 
by Mr. Cameron. Southwards from here the outcrop crosses a valley 
to the rising ground west of Elsworth, through which village 
a narrow tongue of the rock runs still further south. The main 
outcrop, however, flanks the northern slope of the drift-capped high 
ground to the west, and can be traced along the slope through 
Papworth Everard, westwards to Yelling, following the contour of 
the ground. At both of these localities there are good and highly 
fossiliferous exposures in streams. Thence the outcrop disappears 
southwards under drift, but the rock maybe seen again to the south, 
less than two miles south of Croxton, in a ditch in the valley of the 
Abbotsley Brook. 

To the north, east, and south-east of the line of outcrop of this 
limestone, the ground is occupied by Ampthill Clay, to the west by 
'Oxford Clay. It will thus be seen that the Elsworth and St. Ives 
Kocks, besides agreeing closely in their fauna, outcrop along the 
same line of strike, with Ampthill Clay above and O.Kford Clajj^ below. 
The dip is always small, and the rock at Bluntisham, if it reaches 
the surface at all, does so probably as an inlier, though it may be 
directly connected at the surface with the outcrop east of St. Ives. 



T. — On Eapid CnANGEs in the Tiiickness and Ciiauactee of 
THE Coal-measures op Noutji Staffokdsiiire.' By W. 
Gibson, F.G.S. 
(Communicated by permission of the Director- General of the Geological Survey.) 

YARIABILITY in thickness and character of the strata is 
universal throughout the Carboniferous period, but is nowhere 
■more marked in the Midlands than in the coalfield of the North 
Staffordshire Potteries. 

This important coalfield consists of two portions. On the east 
the productive measures lie in a well-marked syncline, while on the 
west the strata rise in a sharp anticline extending from Silverdale 
to Talke. The two productive areas are separated by a strip of 
ground two and a half miles broad, composed of barren upper 
jneasures. 

' Read before the British Association, Section C (Geology), Bradford, Sept.. 1900. 



80 Notices of Memoirs — E. D. Wellbiirn — Millstone Fish. 

A notable difference in the thickness of the strata and nature of 
the coal-seams characterizes these structurally distinct areas. In the 
centre of the syncline, near Shelton, the vertical distance between 
the highest ironstone, or summit of the productive measures, to the 
Bullhurst coal, or lowest workable seam, is about 1,300 yards. On 
the anticline at Apedale only 800 yards of strata separate the same 
horizons. This makes a remarkable decrease in thickness of 
500 yards of strata in a distance of under three miles. The 
reduction in thickness westward of the productive measures is 
continued, though in a less degree, in the upper barren series, but 
owing to the absence of shaft sections the amount cannot be definitely 
stated. It is known, however, that the red marls forming the lower 
portion of the upper barren series are more than 1,000 feet thick 
near Etruria station on the Shelton property, and about 850 feet 
thick near Silverdale, on the south-eastern limb of the anticline. 
With the decrease in thickness a change has taken place in the 
lower coals of the productive series. The seams which are house or 
steam coals on the east change into gas and coking coals on the west. 

This great variability seems to show that separate areas of deposit 
were being marked out by local movements of elevation and 
depression, and thus fulfilling in North Staffordshire the conditions 
characteristic of the Carboniferous of the Midlands generally, as 
pointed out by Professor Lapworth.^ 

In North Staffordshire it happens that the areas of maximum and 
minimum deposit correspond with a syncline and anticline. If this 
be true generally, and not merely a local coincidence, we may expect 
the coals in the unexplored coalfield which lies at the surface to the 
west of the anticline, and which represents the eastern margin of 
the great synclinal of Coal-measures beneath the Cheshire plain, to 
be of a different quality from those in the anticline, while the 
thickness of the measures will be increased. 

VI. — On some Fossil Fish from the Millstone Grit Kocks.- 
By Edgar D. Wellburn, F.G.S. 

THE Millstone Grits are naturally grouped into three divisions, 
viz. : (1) Eough Eock ; (2) Middle Grits ; (3) Kinder Grits at 
base. The Middle Grits, consisting of grits, sand, shales, are sub- 
divided into A, B, C, and D beds, A being uppermost. The Pennine 
Anticline is mostly composed of these rocks, and on the Lancashire 
side at the head of Calder Valley, on the south side in a quarry 
at the summit, there is a good exposure of the D shales; in these 
the majority of fish remains were found ; a few occurred at the same 
horizon at Wadsworth Moor, Sowerby, Kilne House Wood, and 
Eccup, Yorkshire. The majority are in nodular masses, few in 
shales, and are associated with a marine fauna. The fish-bearing 
beds were formed under marine estuarine conditions. They are 
of great geological and zoological interest, as largely increasing 

1 " A Sketch of tlie Geology of the Birmingham District " : Geol. Assoc, 1898, 
p. 364. 
- Eead before the British Association, Section C (Geology), Bradford, Sept., 1900. 



Eevieic8 — Geikie's Geology of Fife and Kinross. 81 

our knowledge of the fish fauna in rocks whose yield of fish remains 
has hitherto been extremely limited ; and zoologically inasmuch as 
(1) one genus and several species are new; (2) one Lower Old 
Ked Sandstone fish is present; (3) the occurrence of the Lower 
Carboniferous types, Orodus, Paephodus, Fristodus. The author 
made some remarks on the fish remains, and exhibited a table of 
their stratigraphical distribution. 



IR E AT- I E "W^ S. 



L — The Geology of Central and Western Fife and Kinross. 
(Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Scotland.) By Sir 
Archibald Geikie, F.R.S., D.C.L., etc., Director-General. With 
Appendix of Fossils by B. N. Peach, F.R.S. 8vo, cloth ; pp. x, 
284. (Glasgow: printed for H.M. Stationery Office, 1900. 
Price 5s. 6d.) 

rnmS well-printed memoir is in the main a description of the 
_L geological formations which are represented in Sheet 40 of 
the Geological Survey map of Scotland, which was published iu 
1867. The ground was surveyed in part by the author, and in part 
by Mr. H. H. Howell, Prof. John Young, Prof. J. Geikie, and 
Mr. B. N. Peach, when Murchison was Director-General. It is not 
surprising, therefore, that the nomenclature, especially of the igneous 
rocks, has undergone considerable changes, noticeable when we 
compare the tablets on the map with the table on p. 13 of the 
memoir. Much additional information on the coalfields has, however, 
in recent years been obtained by Mr. J. S. Grant- Wilson, and the 
Director-General has himself revisited the area from time to time. 
Consequently every effort has been made to bring the information 
up to date by personal observation, and with the help of other 
workers whose publications are listed in the Appendix. It is 
needless to add that in point of style the memoir bears the 
most favourable comparison with any previously published by the 
Geological Survey. 

The country described is a highly important one, extending from 
the Firth of Tay west of Tay bridge to the Firth of Forth at 
Queensferry. It is composed chiefly of Carboniferous rocks and 
Old Red Sandstone, with numerous interstratified and intrusive 
igneous rocks. In the northern part is the Ochil chain, formed 
mainly of hard lavas of Lower Old Red Sandstone age ; the central 
part, in which lies Loch Leven, is hollowed out of comparatively soft 
red sandstones forming the plains of Kinross and the Howe of Fife ; 
and in the southern part there is again a belt of hilly ground, more 
varied and broken than that in the north, and composed mainly of 
Carboniferous rocks with hard eruptive sheets, which form the 
Lomond Hills and other prominent heights. 

While perusing the very interesting Introductory chapter it would 
have been useful to the reader to have had a small map depicting 
the main outlines of the geology and topography, witli the names of 

DECADE IV. VOL. VIII. — NO. 11. (i 



82 Reviews — -Jukes-Browne 8f Hill — Gault and U. Greensand. 

the cliief hill ranges, rivers, and lakes. In succeeding chapters 
the author gives a full account of the strata, entering into many 
particulars concerning the eruptive rocks, and recording detailed 
sections of the coal-bearing strata in the Carboniferous Limestone 
series and Coal-measures. In this great series the highest division 
is the " Upper or Barren Red Sandstone Group," composed of red, 
purple, grey, yellow, white, and variegated sandstones, shales, clays, 
and marls, with some thin limestones and poor coals. Many fossils 
have been obtained in this group by Mr. J. W. Kirkby, including 
fishes (Diplodus, Megalichthys, etc.), Crustacea (Bellinurus, Eurypterus, 
Prestwichin, etc.), as well as molluscs such as Antliracomya and the 
annelide Spirorbis pusillus, Full lists of them and of fossils from 
the other formations are given by Mr. Peach in the Appendix ; 
special mention being made of the long and enthusiastic labours of 
Mr. Kirkby. 

Sir A. Geikie remarks that " The topogi-aphy of the whole region 
has been profoundly modified by the geological events of the Ice 
Age. So tliick was the mass of ice which then descended from the 
Highlands, that it passed over the lofty ridge of the Ochils and the 
other hills to the south, and turned eastwards into what is now 
the Firth of Forth and the North Sea." Of the glacial deposits, 
and also of Recent deposits and the latest changes, many interesting 
descriptions are given ; and there is a final chapter on the Economic 
Minerals. Some detailed notes on the petrography of the Igneous 
rocks are contributed by Mr. Herbert Kynaston, in an appendix. 

II. — Memoirs of the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom. 
The Cretaceous Rocks of Britain. Vol. I. The Gault and 
Upper Greensand of England. By A. J. Jukes-Browne, B.A., 
F.G.S. ; with contributions by William Hill, F.G.S. Royal 
8vo ; pp. xiv, 499, with 85 figures and 5 plates. (London : 
Wyman & Sons, 1900. Price 9s.) 

IN the preface Sir Archibald Geikie, the Director-General of the 
Geological Survey, states that the present volume is the first 
of two in which the Upper Cretaceous Rocks of England will be 
described by Mr. Jukes -Browne, who has been collecting the 
materials for the subject since 1884. Owing, however, to his 
unfortunate ill-health, he has been unable to complete the necessary 
field-work, but this obstacle has been overcome by the assistance of 
his friend and coadjutor Mr. William Hill, who has examined the 
outcrops of the formations in the South and East of England, and 
in addition has carried out a series of important researches on 
the mineral and organic constituents of the deposits by means of 
microscopic sections and the examination of I'esidues after treatment 
with acid. 

The strata described in this volume have, since early da3S, attracted 
the attention of many of our British geologists, amongst whom may 
be reckoned William Smith, Thomas Webster, William Phillips, 
Dr. Mantell, Dr. Fitton, Sir R. Murchison, and R. A. C. Godwin- 
Austen. At a more recent period, Mr. C. J. A. Meyer, Mr. F. G. H. 



i 



Edi-ieus — Jakes-Bfoicnc ^' Hill — Gault and U. Greeiiaand. 83 

Price, Dr. Charles Barrois, ilnd others have studied their stratigraphy 
and fossils in more detail. They have also been described in some 
of the previously published memoirs of the Geological Survey, as in 
those on the Isle of Wight by A. Strahan, on the Isle of Purbeck by 
A. Stralian, those on West Suffolk and West Norfolk by W. Whitaker 
and A. J. Jukes-Browne, and that in the neighbourhood of Cambridge 
by W. H. Penning and A. J. Jukes-Browne. Chemical analyses of 
the rocks, besides those already published, have been made by 
Professor J. B. Harrison, Mr. Berry, and Dr. W. Pollard. Mr. V. 
■Chapman has determined the foraminifera of the Gault, whilst the 
author and Mr. E. T. Newton, assisted by Mr. H. A. Allen and 
Dr. Kitchin, have revised the synonymy of the rest of the fauna. 
The author has made use of the knowledge to be obtained from the 
above and other writers on the geology of these rocks to add to his 
own observations, and thus render the monograph as complete as 
possible. 

The first chapter contains the introduction to the Upper Cretaceous 
Series, which is regarded as consisting of the following four stages 
■or groups of strata : — 

4. Upper Chalk. 

3. Middle Chalk. 

2. Lower Chalk. 

1. Gault and Upper Greensand (Selbovnian). 

The combined thickness of these stages where the series is most 
fully developed, as in the Isle of Wight, is about 1,900 feet. The 
Upper Series, on the whole, succeeds conformably the Lower 
Cretaceous Series, but there is evidence of a very general subsidence 
of the region at an early period of the Upper Series, which produced 
an overlap of the Low'er Greensand by the Gault. In deep borings 
in the East of England, the Gault is known to rest directly oa 
PalEeozoic rocks, whilst in a westerly direction it is deposited 
successively on Wealden, Jurassic, and Kha^tic beds, and in the 
Haldon Hills Greensand rests on the lower part of the New Red 
Series. The general dip of the Upper Cretaceous is easterly, but 
this is interrupted by several anticlinal flexures with an east and 
west direction, which produce local dips to the north and south. 
The most important of these are (1) that traversing South Dorset 
and the Isle of Wight, which is believed to be continuous with the 
anticlinal axis of the Pays de Bray; (2) a series of local and 
parallel flexures in a tract extending from the Vales of Wardour 
and Warminster through Central Hants and the southern part of 
Sussex ; and (3) the anticlinal axis which runs through the Vales 
of Pewsey and Kingsclere. 

Chapter ii, giving an historical account of the Chalk, Upper 
Greensand, and Gault, mainly deals with the origin of the term 
' Upper Greensand.* The name ' Greensand ' was used by William 
Smith and T. Webster for the greensands, including also the Malm 
or Firestone, between the Chalk and the Gault. Subsequently, 
W. Phillips and Dr. Mantell mistook the sands below the Gault 



84 Reineus — Jukes-Broicne Sf Hill — Gault and U. Greensand. 

(Lower Greensand) for the Greensand of William Smith, whicb 
gave rise to much confusion. The true succession of the beds 
was pointed out by Dr. Fitton in 1824, who suggested the name of 
Merstham Beds for the firestone and greensand above the Gault and 
ShanMin Sands for the sands below. The proposition of Webster 
that the beds should be respectively called * Upper Greensand ' and 
' Lower Greensand ' finally prevailed, and these terms were adopted 
by the Geological Survey in 1839 and have since continued in 
general use. 

It was not until a later date that the accepted character of the 
Gault and Upper Greensand as definite and distinct formations of 
the Cretaceous System was called in question. Mr. Godwin-Austen 
stated in 1850 that the Upper Greensand was a purely conventional 
name, and that the diflferences between the fauna of the Devizes and 
Blackdown Beds (Upper Greensand) and that of the Upper Gault 
of Folkestone are only such as might be expected between arenaceous 
and argillaceous portions of the same zone. He further added that 
the Gault was not an independent formation, but merely the accumu- 
lation of a given condition of deep-sea, synchronous as a whole 
with that portion of the Cretaceous deposits which we call Upper 
Greensand. Godwin-Austen's views were supported and confirmed 
by the investigations of Meyer, Price, Dr. Barrois, and more especially 
by the author of this memoir, who maintained that the Gault and 
Upper Greensand were merely difiierent lithological facies of one 
group of deposits. For the new group the name ' Selbornian ' is 
proposed by Jukes-Browne after the well-known Hampshire village 
made famous by Gilbert "White the naturalist. The name is the 
more appropriate as the village is situated on the Malmstone, and 
the Gault clays are well developed near by. The author does not 
propose that ' Selbornian ' should supersede the terms Gault and 
Greensand, but that it should be employed in a similar relation to 
them as the general term Wealden to the Weald Clay and Hastings 
Sands. It is strange that this new term, though constantly used 
throughout the memoir, should not have found a place on the 
title-page. In justification of its introduction the author states — 

" As a matter of fact gaidt clay and greensand are only two of 
the different kinds of deposits that make up the group for which 
the name Selbornian is now proposed ; it is only by a stretch of the 
imagination that malmstone can be called greensand, inasmuch as 
an ordinary malm contains but a small proportion of quartz sand and 
still less glauconite, so that it is not a sand nor is its colour green. 
There are large areas over which the formation is really a tripartite 
one, and could actually be mapped as consisting of Gaidt, Malmstone, 
and Greensand ; there are also areas where it consists wholly oif 
Gault, i.e. of grey clays and marls ; others, again, where it consists 
entirely of sand and sandstone ; and finally, there is a large area 
where it is neither the one nor the other, but is represented by red 
chalky limestone and red marl." 

Chapter iii, on the value of zones in the Cretaceous System, comes 
in here somewhat parenthetically, but, as hinted in the preface, it 



Reviews — Jukes-Browne 8^ Hill — Gault and U. Grcensand. S-j 

nifiy be regarded as in some measure introductory to the completed 
monograph on the Cretaceous System. In it the author places on 
record some of the conclusions drawn from a study of the zones in 
this system, " especially with respect to the proper conception of 
a zone, the use of an index species, and the limitations which must 
be placed to the zonal method." To give a succinct explanation of 
a zone is by no means easy; the author says that "perhaps it may 
be defined as a band of sedimentai'y material within which certain 
species ai-e either restricted or are specially abundant, and during the 
formation of which certain species acquired their greatest exuberance 
and their greatest geographical extension. More than this, however, 
is implied by the modern idea of the term zone, for a zone is only one 
of several successive zones ; it is not merely a specially fossiliferous 
band in a thick mass of sediment, but is a subdivision of such a mass 
or group of beds ; such a group being generally divisible into two, 
three, or more zones, one succeeding another." The above definition 
seems to us open to much criticism, which, however, cannot be 
entered on here ; we should prefer the shorter definition of Mr. J. E. 
Marr, here quoted : " Zones are belts of strata, each of which is 
characterized by an assemblage of organic remains, of which one 
abundant and characteristic form is chosen as an index." 

A general account of the Gault and Upper Greensand (Selbornian) 
is given in Chapter iv, and it is claimed that the clays, marls, sands, 
and sandstones of this Selbornian stage fall naturally into three 
groups or sub-stages : (1) Lower Gault; (2) Upper Gault and Devizes 
Beds ; (3) Warminster Beds. 

Hitherto it has been usual in England to consider the clayey beds 
containing Ammonites interruptns as the base of the Gault, and 
the underlying sandy beds as belonging to the Lower Greensand. 
In the uppermost beds of these lower sands at Folkestone and in 
three other localities in the South of England Ammonites mammillatns 
has been met with, whilst in France the same species occurs in 
a zone of fossiliferous sandy beds in association with Am. interruptns, 
and by French geologists these beds are included in the Albian as 
part of the basement bed of the Gault. The author considers this 
will justify placing the sands with this fossil as the base of the 
Gault in this country, although it has never been found hero 
associated with Am. interruptns. 

The zone of clays with phosphatic nodules at its base, containing 
Am. interruptns, forming bed 1 of Mr. Price, is about 10 feet iu 
thickness at Folkestone and from 20 to 50 feet in the Midland 
Counties. The upper part of the Lower Gault, which includes 
Price's beds 2-7, is placed in the zone of Am. lautus. It can be 
distinguished near Devizes, and is believed to form the larger part 
of the Lower Gault in Oxfordshire and the adjoining counties. 
The thickness of the Lower Gault in different parts of tlie country 
varies between 34: feet and 200 feet, but there is much difficulty in 
determining with certainty where a line can be drawn between the 
Lower Gault and the Upper in many areas. 

The next division comprises the Upper Gault and Upper Greensand 



86 JRemeu's — JuJies-Browne /' Hill — Gcmlt and U. Grcensand. 

(in part) — the Merstliam or Devizes Beds, which are placed in thd^ 
zone of Ammonites rostratus. The lower portions of this zone con- 
sists of marly clays, and above these are the well-known beds of 
Malnistone or Firestone, siliceous rocks with a considerable amount 
of silica in the colloid state, which has been derived from the 
spicules of siliceous sponges. This Malmstone occupies a large area 
in the South of England estimated at nearly 4,000 square miles. 
It extends from near Westerham, Kent, on the east, and from its 
thickness along the western outcrop the author believes that it 
stretched originally far to the westward over the counties of Oxford,^ 
North Wilts, and Gloucestershire. This Malmstone passes into 
a fine-grained micaceous sandstone. 

In the Isle of Wight and in the South- West of England, a large 
portion of this zone of Am. rostratus consists of fine soft sands with 
intermediate beds of hard calcareous sandstone ; in some places the 
cemented materials take the form of oval or rounded doggers or 
burr-stones. Again, in the Blackdown Hills of Devonshire and 
near Stourton in Wiltshire, the sands of this zone contain siliceous 
nodular accretions, formerly worked for whetstones, the silica in 
which is derived from sponge remains. 

The third division of the Selbornian comprises the highest portion 
of the Upper Greensand, and as this is most highly developed near 
Warminster it is known as the Warminster Beds, and included iit 
the zone of Fecten asper and Cardiaster fossarius. The zone of 
Pecten asper near Warminster includes three sets of beds : (1) Green- 
sand and sandstone ; (2) fine grey sand with layers and nodules 
of chert ; and (3) a light greensand with calcareous concretions, 
which forms the highest portion of the series and contains the 
well-known Warminster fauna. The author states that no Ammonite 
or other Cephalopod has yet been found in this zone which does not 
range into the Chalk above or into the beds below. 

Pecten asper, the principal index fossil of this zone, has a wid& 
distribution both in this country and in France. In England it has 
been found in the Malmstone of Hampshire, that is, in the zone of 
Am. rostratus, and occasionally it occurs in the same zone in France. 
In the zone distinguished by its name it is found near Warminster 
and other places in Wiltshire, also in Dorset, and the Isle of Wight. 
It passes up into the Chloritic Marl, and occurs in the nodule bed at 
the base of the Chalk near Chard, and in certain beds of Cenomanian. 
age in Devonshire. In France also this species is common in the 
' craie glauconieuse,' the equivalent of our Lower Chalk. Its mere 
occurrence, therefore, cannot be considered as proof that the bed 
containing it belongs to the Upper Greensand. 

The Warminster or Pecten asper division of the Upper Greensand 
is confined to the south-western and south-central counties from 
the Isle of Wight to Buckinghamshire. Its maximum thickness 
is estimated at 60 feet, but where the chert beds are not present 
it is reduced to about 12 feet. The well-known chert beds of the 
Undercliff in the Isle of Wight are included in this division. 

Chapters v-xxii give detailed descriptions of the varying features. 



4 



Revieu-fi—Juhcs-Broinic 4" EilJ — Gault and IT. Greenland, 87 

of the zones of the Selbornian as they" are exposed in different 
counties, beginning with the easterly exposure on the coast at 
Folkestone to its most westerly extension on the Haldon Hills, near 
Exeter, from thence returning in a north-easterly direction through 
the counties of Wilts, HerUs, Oxford, Buckingham, Cambridge, 
Norfolk, Lincoln, and York. The changes in the character of tlie 
beds in areas not far removed are somewhat striking : we can only 
briefly mention some of them. 

Beginning at the well-known coast section at Folkestone, the 
Lower Gault (excluding the debateable G feet of sand of the Am. mnm- 
millatns zone) consists mainly of grey and dark fossiliferous clays, 
about 29 feet in thickness. The lower portion of the Upper Gault 
is likewise of marly clays, having a thickness of 50 feet, and tiiese 
are overlaid by glauconitic sands and buff marls with but a few 
fossils, 27 feet in thickness. Thus the total thickness of the 
Selbornian at this spot is 106 feet, and the materials are mostly 
marly or clayey. 

In Surrey the Lower Gault consists of clays somewhat similar 
to those in Kent, but fossils are comparatively scarce in them. No 
definite boundary' between the Upper and Lower Gault is known : 
the upper beds are of a more sandy character, and they are succeeded 
by the ]\Ialm and Firestone (Merstham Beds), representing the Upper 
Gault and Upper Greensand, which are 60-80 feet in thickness 
in the west of the county. The author considers that the entire 
thickness of the Malmstone belongs to the zone of Am. voslralns, 
together with the 8-10 feet bed of greenish sand which comes in 
between the Malmstone and the base of the Chalk Marl, and that 
the zone of Pecten asper is not represented. We do not find any 
reference to the excellent section of the Merstham Beds exposed 
in the last two or three years in the new cutting of the London, 
Brighton, and South Coast Railway at Merstham. 

The Selbornian is well shown in the coast sections of South 
Dorset and Devon from Golden Cap to Axmouth. The lowest beds 
are, at Golden Cap, pebbles, sands, and sandy clays, resting on the 
Lias, nearly 30 feet in thickness; they contain Gault fossils, and are 
referred to the upper part of the Lower Gault ; above these is a series 
of greenish and yellowish glauconitic sands, about 100 feet in thick- 
ness, which may represent the zone of Am. roslratiis, and over these 
are some thin chert beds. Further westward, at Black Ven, the 
sandy beds representing the Gault, containing some obscure fossils, 
reach a thickness of about 180 feet, and the overlying chert beds, 
belonging to the highest division of the Upper Greensand, are 40 feet 
in tliickness. 

At VVhitecliff, South Devon, the sands below the chert beds, 
forming the lower division of the Upper Greensand, contain the 
same fossils as occur in the Blackdown Beds, and are inchnled in the 
zone of Am. rostrutns. They are less than 90 feet in thickness. At 
Hooken Cliff and Whitecliff, the chert beds of the highest division 
of the Upper Greensand reach a maximum thickness of 70-80 leet : 
they contain species of JExogyra and Oibitolina coucava, but Feclen 



88 Meviews — Jukes-Browne 8f Sill — Gauli and IT. Greensand. 

asper has not been found in them or in the topmost bed of calcareous 
sandstone. 

In Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire the Lower and Upper 
Gault clays have been proved by borings in various places to reach 
a thickness of 14^230 feet. Fossils occur in the Lower Gault 
which elsewhere in the South-East of England are only found in 
Upper Gault ; for example, Am. rostratus, Am. varicosus, and 
Am. cristatus ai*e associated with Am. lautus, Am. splendens, and 
Am. tuberculatus. The Upper Gault becomes marly, and passes into 
a micaceous marl and malmstone. 

At Stoke Ferry in West Norfolk the Lower and Upper Gault 
is represented by a blue clay about 56 feet in thickness ; more than 
half of it probably belongs to the zone of Am. rostratus. North- 
wards the clay is replaced by calcareous material and gradually 
thins out, so that at Hunstanton there is only about 3^ feet of 
red earthy limestone between the sands of the Lower Cretaceous 
and the Lower Chalk. The author and Mr. Hill maintain the view 
put forward by them in 1886 that the Eed Chalk is the actual 
stratigraphical equivalent of the Gault. They also agree with 
Dr. Barrois that the zone of Peden asper is wanting in Norfolk, 
and that there is a direct passage from the Bed Chalk to the 
Chalk Marl. 

The Red Chalk is shown again in Lincolnshire and in Yorkshire, 
where it gradually passes into a stiff red marl with calcareous 
nodules. Mr. F. Chapman has recorded 86 species of Foraminifera 
from this rock in Norfolk and Yoi-kshire, and 52 of these, or about 
60 per cent , have been found in the Gault of Folkestone, whilst only 
25 occur in bed 2 of the Chalk Marl of Eastwear Bay, thus indicating 
that the Red Chalk has a closer relation to the Upper Gault than 
to the Chalk Marl. 

In Chapters xxiv and xxv Mr. W. Hill describes the microscopical 
structure and the mineral ingredients of the Gault, Red Chalk, 
Greensands, Malmstones, etc. The Gault marls and clays consist 
in part of very finely divided, apparently structureless material, 
without reaction in polarized light between crossed nicols ; in part 
of fine detritus of quartz, mica, and glauconite, with entire and 
fragmentary tests of organisms. Thin microscopic sections of the 
Gault do not give good results, and its characters were best 
ascertained by washing and sifting different samples. 

The coarser particles of quartz, mica, and felspar fragments form 
but a small proportion in typical Gault clays. Zircon, rutile, 
tourmaline, magnetite, ilmenite, garnet, and cyanite were also 
recognized by Mr. Teall. The glauconite occurs in irregular 
rounded and mammillated grains, seldom more than 0*5 mm. in 
diameter, also as minute cylindrical rods, apparently moulded in 
the canals of sponge spicules. Marcasite (disulphide of iron) is 
also present in the form of small spherules, cylinders, and irregular 
masses. 

Mr. Chapman has determined 265 species and varieties of 
Foraminifera from the Gault at Folkestone, and 66 species of 



Reviews — E. Dale's Peak of Derby shwe. 89 

Ostracoda are also present with tliem. The tests of the Ganlt 
Foraminifera have been but little altered in fossilization, and they 
differ but slightly in appearance from those in recent deep-sea 
deposits. MoUuscan shell fragments and prisms occur in all 
Oaults, but siliceous organisms such as sponge spicules are rare. 
Mr. Chapman has estimated the mean depth of the Lower Gault sea 
at 830 fathoms and that of the Upper Gault at 866 fathoms, basing 
his conclusions on the Foraminifera, but Mr. Jukes-Browne considers 
these estimates to be excessive. The Gault, on the whole, bears con- 
siderable resemblance to the Blue and Green Muds of modern seas. 

Typical Malmstone is shown by Mr. Hill to consist principally of 
colloid silica with usually a small proportion — 10-12 per cent. — 
•of quartz sand ; other varieties are more or less calcareous. Besides 
quartz sand, mica and glauconite are present in varying amounts. 

The characteristic organic remains of the Malm and Firestone 
(Gaize), and also of the beds and nodules of chert, are tlie detached, 
microscopic spicules of disintegrated siliceous sponges, of which these 
rocks are mainly composed. In the Malmstone the spicules are 
mostly of colloid silica, but in the cherts they are generally of 
ohalcedonic and crystalline silica. Frequently the spicules are 
partially or entirely dissolved, leaving minute empty hollows, and 
the rock is then of a light porous character. The dissolved silica 
«f the spicules is, in the Malm rock, often deposited in the form of 
very minute globules or discs, in the cherts it forms a hard glassy rock. 

The occurrence of such thick and widely extended masses of 
Malmstone in the zone of Am. rostrntus and of the chert layers and 
«aodules in the highest part of the Upper Greensand in the so-called 
zone of Pecten asper, both largely derived from the remains of siliceous 
sponges (they have been termed Sponge-beds by Hinde), forms the 
most striking feature of the Selbornian stage. 

In Chapters xxvi-xxix the underground extensions of the Gault 
and Greensand, as shown by various deep borings in the London 
and Hampshire Basins and the Eastern Counties, are referred to ; 
the characters of the equivalent formations in Northern Franco are 
given, with lists of fossils compiled by Dr. Barrois, Mr. Price, and 
M. Delatour ; the physical and geographical comlitions under which 
the Gault and Upper Greensand were deposited are discussed, and 
the water supply and economic products are enumerated. 

In an appendix critical remarks on some species of fossils are 
contributed by Mr. E. T. Newton and Mr. A. J. Jukes-Browne, 
and these are followed by an elaborate and exhaustive list of fossils 
of the Selbornian, showing the particular zones and indicating also 
the localities where they occur. 

III. — The Scenery and Geology of the Peak of Dekbyshirb. ^ By 
Elizabeth Dale, pp. 106 and index, with 16 plates, 16 views, 
and a map. (London : Sampson Low, Marston, & Co. Price Ss.) 
'■pHIS is a tall, attractive-looking volume, with numerous illustra- 
X tions and plates ; the former, however, have had scant justice 
■done to them, and the original photographs have suffered much in the 



90 Reviews— E. Dale*s Peak of Derhyshire. 

process of reproduction. The plates, as is stated in the preface^ 
are very largely borrowed from previous works ; but why are they not 
numbered in direct sequence, and why does the map include only 
the southern escarpment of Kinder Scout, 'the Peak'? In the 
preface the authoress states that her object has been to make the 
book serve as an introduction to the study of the science of geology ; 
consequently the book treats of a much wider subject than one 
might judge from the title, and we are dealing with a work on 
elementary theoretical geology, with illustrations drawn from a 
certain district. But even so, the authoress has not stuck to her 
text, for the country illustrated and described is larger than the 
Peak, and takes in other parts of Derbyshire and North Stafford- 
ahire. It had been better, we think, to have given the book its 
proper title, in the interests of the possible purchaser, who, misled 
by the title, finds himself let in for a pof poiirri of bygone and 
current geological views and speculations, rather than a description 
of the glorious scenery of the Peak and its geology. 

Chap, i (pp. 1-15) starts, ah initio, with the nebular hypothesis, and 
then proceeds to explain vs^hat is meant by the order of superposition, 
dutifully reproducing the time-honoured illustration of the pile of 
books. Of course there follow tables of sequence of strata, and a short 
account of the greater subdivisions of stratified rocks and their 
contents ; and the last two pages conclude with a brief account of 
the 1 inch geological map of the rocks round Buxton, as seen in 
a bird's-eye view of the country from Grinlow. This is not perhaps 
the best way of commencing the study of geology. Miss Dale is 
eminently conservative, and while mentioning recent views, prefers^ 
to take the 1 inch map of the Geological Survey and the corresponding 
memoir as the basis of her work, many of the illustrations and 
several quotations from the latter publication being given. 

Chap, ii (pp. 16-39) treats of the Carboniferous Limestone, and 
includes a long account of the swallows and underground streams- 
so common in limestone districts. Many observations are open to 
criticism ; for example, we are told (p. 17) that "it is unlikely that 
such a pure limestone could have been formed near a land area of 
any size." The word ' near ' is not exact ; but limestones are being 
laid down within distances of Continental coasts, which cannot b& 
said to be far. Again, we learn that above Odin Fissure the shales- 
are seen resting on the limestone with a junction which is called by 
geologists ' unconformable.' "We have always regarded this section, 
as evidence of a small landslip, for the shales are certainly not in 
place. At p. 19 we are told that carbonate of lime is soluble in water 
containing carbon dioxide or any acid. This is not chemically 
correct, for most acids^decompose CaCog, and do not effect a simple 
solution. We look in vain for any account of the stratification of 
the limestone or the succession of its beds ; indeed, the amount of 
stratigraphical geology in this chapter is very small, and palgeontology 
suffers no less. 1'he whole subject of the fossils is scamped ; the few 
representations given had been better omitted. But we are informed 
that figures have been given "that the collector may have some idea 



Berietrs—E. Bale's Peak of Derbi/s/iin: 91 

of their original appearance " (the italics are ours). The figures are 
somewhat grotes(j[ue libels on the fossils. Of what use can it be to 
depict Produclns giganteus — Miss Dale prefers to keep the fossil 
feminine — as a shell 1^ inch across? Or what peculiar characteristics 
oi Aviculopecten are supposed to be demonstrated hy tig. IG, which has 
not seemed worthy of a specific name? An eri'or has arisen with 
regard to the shell called Rhynchouella pugniis (fig. 13), which is 
evidently B. plenrodon, and Oiihis rcsuinnuta (fig. 14), which is probably 
a large example of 0. Michelini, but is certainly not typical of the 
species it is supposed to represent. In all, eight spt^cimens of various 
fossils are drawn on pi. iii, but only one has a specific name. We meet 
the curiously inexact statement that " of moUusca there are com- 
pai'atively few. The bivalve forms are represented by several 
extinct species of Pecten and by an extinct genus called Aviculo- 
pecten." We have been told on the same page that " all the 
fossils are the remains of animals now extinct." Further on, wo are 
told that "a genus with a straight shell has been called Orthoceius." 
We would ask in all sincerity, is this the sort of thing which 
will help the study of geology? Palajontologists, however, need 
not despair, for Miss Dale, speaking of the Carboniferous sea, 
tells us (p. 39) that " at the surface and in the depths of this sea, 
lived and died countless numbers of animals such as man has never 
seen "; and in the orthodox higher flights of imagination with which 
certain authors have seen fit in the past to close their accounts of the 
geology of the Coal-measures, we are told (p. 104) that " on the 
ground beneath is a carpet of delicate green, composed of countless 
smaller ferns and unknown flowerless plants, amongst which dart 
lizards and now and then a scorpion." One is, however, tempted 
to ask Miss Dale if the imperfections of the geological record aro 
really as great as we are led to infer from these excerpts. 

Miss Dale prefers to call the shales and thin limestones between 
the grits and the massif of limestone, Yuredale, and to them devotes 
chap, iii (pp. 40-59). We note that she follows the old 1 inch 
Survey map, and regards the beds as of great thickness and ast^umes 
faults to account for any succession wheie there does not appear to 
be room for such a mass, e.g. along the line of the London and 
North- Western Railway. We are tempted to ask why similar faults 
are not necessary on the eastern limb of the anticline near Eyam, 
and further south between Youlgrave and the Grits or belweeu 
the Grits and the limestone boundary at Matlock and W^inster. 
Personally we think that the thickness of this series has been greatly 
overestimated. Is there also a series of Yoredale sandstones as well 
as Farey's grit? We regret that no continuous sections of these 
beds from the various brooks are given, but as in the description 
of the limestone, it does not seem to have been part ol the 
authoress's plan to give any original account of the local geology. 
The pakeontology of the shales, a subject of the highest importance, 
is only mentioned to be dismissed, and only one locality where 
"chiefly species of Gonialites, Aviculope.cten, and plant-remains" 
were found is ^iven. A careful search will reward the worker in 



^2 Reviews — E. Dale's Peak of Berbf/shire. 

these beds, and a fairly large fauna, very widely spread, is to be 
found in them. 

Chap, iv (pp. 60-84), on the Millstone Grit, strikes us as one of 
the best parts of the book, and included in it we find a brief account 
of the evolution of rivers. On p. 83 is a statement, however, which 
may cause misconception : " We know that even yet the Millstone 
Grit is of exceeding thickness, although thousands of feet have been 
removed by denudation." But Miss Dale surely does not mean that 
the Grit series was ever thicker than it is at present, i.e. between 
the limits of the base of the Coal-measures and the top of the Upper 
Limestone shales, and in the interest of accuracy one is tempted to 
ask — and surely one has the right to do so, for the book purports to 
be an introduction to the science of geology — how thick is an exceeding 
thickness? Miss Dale is fond of awe-inspiring superlatives. We 
are also told that the " Coal-measures once extended over the 
Pennine anticline." Did they ? And where is the evidence for the 
great volcanoes which are said to have existed to the north-east 
and on the higher ground, round the swamps which became the 
■coalfields ? 

Chap, v (pp. 85-105) treats of the Coal-measures at length ; it 
discusses the fossil botany, various theories of the origin of coal, and the 
climate of the Coal period, and ends with a picturesque description 
of the scenery of the period. By the way, why are we told " over 
all the land and water hangs a thick pall of grey cloud " ? Did not 
the Carboniferous flora require the aid of the sun to fix carbon? 
One plate of Coal-measure fossils is given ; fig. 45 is said to be 
Naiadttes, but the drawing has no resemblance whatever to any 
species of that genus ; it may possibly belong to Carbomcola, though 
the drawing looks more like Nucidana. Fig. 47, a cast of the pith- 
cavity of the stem of a Calamite, is not very clear, because we do not 
"tjuite see how the pith-cavity should bear fairly large branches ; and 
should not the fish scale be spelled Ehizodopsis both in the plate 
and the text ? 

Chap, vi (pp. 106-127) deals with the Glacial Period, and we 
gladly appreciate Miss Dale's local work on this subject. 

Chap, vii is devoted to post-Glacial deposits and early Man, and 
ends with an allusion to Pithecanthropus erectus. 

Chap, viii deals with the development of geology and its relation 
to modern thought, and in our opinion is utterly out of place in 
a book of the kind. It is as equally unnecessary to allude to the 
past struggles between knowledge and those who demanded a literal 
interpretation of the Bible, as it is to talk in a volume which 
purports to be a description of local geology and scenery, of tran- 
scendental theology. Timeo Danaos et dona ferentes ; somehow or 
other we distrust textbooks of science which have excerpts from 
religious books at the commencement. 

The work of the book is unequal, here condescending to the 
almost pedantic explanation of terms, there dealing with theories 
which have little or no application in the Peak district proper, 
^nd we confess we cannot quite see for what class of reader this 



Reportis ami Proceedings — Geoloylcal Sooieti/ of London. OS- 
discursive book is intended. " Of the making of books there is no 
end," and there is a real need for accurate and thorough work 
on local geology and scenery, but a treatise of very elementary 
theoretical geology is quite another thing. W. II. 



I^.EI=•OI^Ts j^isTiD :F>i?,OG:BEiDiisra-s. 



Geological Society of London. 

I.— December 19, 1900.— J. J.H. Teall, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., President, 
in the Chair. The following communications were read : — 

1. " On the Igneous Eocks associated with the Cambrian Beds of 
the Malvern Hills." By Prof. T. T. Groom, M.A., D.Sc, P.G.S. 

The Cambrian beds of the Southern Malverns are associated with 
a series of igneous rocks which have commonly been regarded as 
volcanic, but are probably all intrusive. They consist of a series- 
of bosses, dykes, sills, and small laccolites intruded into the Upper 
Cambrian Shales and into the Hollybush Sandstone. The dykes 
appear to be confined to the sandstones, the sills and laccolites- 
chiefly to the shales, while the bosses are found in both. The rocks 
consist of a series of ophitic olivine-diabases, a related series of 
porphyrltic olivine-basalts, and a series of porphyritic amphibole- 
bearing rocks of andesitic habit, but probably to be classed with 
the camptonites. The three types have a different distribution, and 
do not appear to be connected together by intermediate gradations ;. 
the amphibole-bearing and the olivine-bearing rocks differ in their 
mode of occurrence. According to existing analyses, the former 
range in chemical composition fi'om sub-basic to basic, and the latter 
from thoroughly basic to ultrabasic. All the rocks have a local 
stamp, but are probably most nearly related to the camptonitie 
rocks of the Central English ]\Iidlands. Intrusion took place at 
a period not earlier than the Tremadoc, and probably not later 
than that of the May Hill Sandstone. 

2. " On the Upper Greensand and Chloritic Marl of Mere and 
Maiden Bradley in Wiltshire." By A. J. Jukes-Browne, Esq., B.A., 
F.G.S., and John Scanes, Esq. 

The district dealt with is on the borders of AViltshire and 
Somerset. The general succession is as follows : — 

feet. 

Lower Chalk, with Chloritic Marl at the hasc "200 

Sands with calcareous coucretions ... ... ... 3 to 8 

Sands with siliceous concretions (cherts) 20 to 24 

Coarse Greensand ... ... ... .-• ... ... l-""' 

Fine f^rey and huff sands about 120 

Sandy niarlstone 1& 

Grey marl and clay (Gault) 90 

The chert-concretions and the sands in which they occur consist 
very largely of spicules of lithistid sponges. One of the sandstone- 
beds has yielded several species of Necrocarciuns, and may be the- 



;94 Reports and Proceedings — Geological Society of London. 

chief source of the Crustacea which hi^ve been quoted from the 
Warminster Greensaud. Above the chert-beds, and below the 
horizon at which Stauronema Carteri comes in, is a variable set of 
beds which include a layer of concretions known as cornstones or 
popple-stones. These beds are very rich in fossils, and include at 
Maiden Bradley a layer of phosphatic nodules. They contain the 
Eye Hill fauna of the Warminster Greensand, and it is proposed to 
<3all them the zone of Ctdopygns columharius. In Southern Wiltshire 
there is usually a complete passage from this zone into the Chloritic 
Marl ; and as the cephalopoda of this zone are all Chalk Marl 
species, the natural inference from the local evidence would be 
to place the plane of separation between the Selbornian and 
■Cenomanian stages at the base of the G. columharius beds. In 
Dorset, however, the break above these beds is so very marked and 
strong that the authors think that the beds with the Eye Hill fauna 
must be retained in the Selbornian. It is one of those cases in 
which the palteontological and the stratigraphical breaks do not 
coincide. 



lL_Jan. 9, 1901.— J. J. H. Teall, Esq., M.A., F.E.S., President, 
in the Chair. The following communications were read : — 

1. " The Geology of South-Central Ceylon." By John Parkinson, 
Esq., P.G.S. 

In this communication the author endeavours to give some account 
of the relations between the various granulitic rocks of Ceylon. 
A series of more or less isolated sections were studied, the rocks in 
each considered under separate heads, and conclusions put forward 
relative to the whole. Two sections are described to the west, and 
one to the north, of Kandy, in which the rocks are of a well-marked 
type. As a rule they are strongly, often coarsely, banded ; and the 
relation of the light and dark bands is such as to leave the author to 
conclude that this structure arose "through the streaking together of 
the component parts of a magma which had undergone differentiation." 
The darker parts are characterized by the presence of green horn- 
blende in varying quantity, associated with brown mica. Locally 
garnets are abundant, and pyroxene is found in some slides. A fourth 
section, south of Matale, is of importance, since it is believed that 
here a granulitic rock resembling some described under the section 
which follows (Section V) is intrusive in a crystalline limestone. 
Modifications in the intruder are described, which are supposed to 
have arisen through the local incorporation of some of the older rock. 
Under Section V rocks from Newara Eliya, Ohiya, and Bandarawella 
are grouped together. These are often banded and vary considerably 
in coarseness, but are distinguished, with few exceptions, by 
a greenish colour accompanied by a greasy lustre, and usually by 
the presence of garnet. Hornblende, magnetite, and biotite are 
associated with this mineral, and a pleochroic augite is not uncommon. 
The structure of all the rocks described is granulitic ; that is, 
characterized by the irregularity in the outlines of the grains which 



I 



Correspojidcncc—Pt'ofessor T. G. Bonnoij. 9;") 

build up the rock, and by the inclusion of one mineral by another. 
Porphyritic felspars are recorded from several localities. 

The author concludes that the rocks of Section V are nearly related 
to those described in the earlier part of the paper, and points out the 
close resemblance of the whole to the Charnockite Series of Southern 
India. 

2. " Note on the Occurrence of Corundum as a Contact-Mineral at 
Pont- Paul, near Morlaix (Finistere)." By A. K. Cooraara-Svvamy, 
Esq., B.Sc, F.L.S., F.G.S. 

The intrusive granite of Pont-Paul, near Morlaix, contains highly 
altei'ed fi-agments of sedimentary rock. The minerals found in 
them are biotite, muscovite, corundum (first recorded by Professor 
Barrois in 1887), plagioclase, andalusite, pyrite, magnetite, silli- 
nianite, green spinel, and zircon. The corundum forms sharply 
idiomorphic tabular hexagonal crystals, striated and slightly stepped 
on the basal plane, and blue in colour. Iron-oxide is a constant 
inclusion. The inclusions have probably been to some extent 
injected with felspathic material. The original sediment was 
probably poor in silica and rich in alumina, and there has been 
sufficient molecular freedom for the formation of well-shaped crystals 
of corundum, comparatively free from inclusions. Sillimanite and 
zircon are the only other minerals which exhibit crystalline form. 

G o 12, s,ESi=>oisrnDEisrc s . 

YORKSHIRE BOULDERS. 
Sir, — The value of IVlr. Stather's paper on the sources and dis- 
tribution of Yorkshire boulders (p. 17), which is very great, is not 
enhanced by the concluding paragraph. The Scandinavian Ice-sheet 
seems to affect some geologists as King Charles' head did Mr. Dick. 
]\Iay I then ask Mr. Stather two questions :—(l) What route did 
the Scandinavian Ice-sheet take when it anticipated the Norsemen 
by invading England? (2) What caused it to retreat before the 
advance of the British Ice-sheet ? It was no doubt very polite to 
give place to the ' weaker vessel,' but as the British hill districts 
are smaller than and to the south of the Scandinavian, I should have 
thought nature would not have allowed courtesy to supersede law. 

T. G. BONNEY. 



FREDERICK WILLIAM EGAN, B.A. 

Lorn July 31, 1830. r>iKi> January G, 1!)01. 

Mr. Egan was born in Dublin on July 31st, 183G, and was the 

third son of the late Mr. W. J. Egan, of Rockville, Dundrura. 

Receiving his early education at Mr. Flynn's school in Harcourt 

Street, he entered Trinity College, where in due course he took 



96 Obituary— F. W. Egan. 

his degree of B.A. and a diploma in Engineering. Commencing 
professional life as a railway engineer, be did considerable work in 
connection witb tbe Great Nortbern, Great Southern, and Dublin. 
Wicklow, and Wexford Railways, then in course of construction, 
In 1868 be quitted tbe somewhat desultory employment of railway 
engineer for a more permanent position on the staff" of tbe Geological 
Survey of Ireland, being appointed assistant geologist on tbe 
nomination of tbe late Professor Jukes, F.E.S. In 1890 be was 
promoted to tbe grade of geologist on tbe recommendation of tbe 
present Director-General of tbe Survey, Sir A. Geikie, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
His work was always characterized by the great care be bestowed 
on it, no details being too insignificant for his attention, and while 
he did not seek fame as an independent essayist, his contributions to 
tbe Official Memoirs and other reports furnish a mass of information 
which has often proved of considerable economic value. In the 
Summer of 1899 he met witb an unfortunate accident, being 
violently thrown off a car while travelling in tbe execution of his 
duties, and sustained severe injuries, from which he never fully 
recovered. Some six months ago bis complaint assumed a malignant 
form, which terminated in his death, after a long period of much 
suffering, on tbe 6tb January. In personal character Mr. Egan 
was one of the kindliest and most lovable of men, and beyond 
the circle of his own family and immediate friends none will 
regret bis loss more than his colleagues of tbe Geological Survey, 
to whom he was much endeared by bis unfailing amiability', 
obligingness, and thorough good-nature. — Irish Times, January 11th. 



IJVCISGIEJXjIjJLIiTiEOTJS. 



The Directok-Genekal of the Geological Survey of the 
United Kingdobi.— The announcement has just reached us (January 
15tb) that Sir Archibald Geikie has intimated bis intention to retire 
from tbe post of Director-General of tbe Geological Survey of tbe 
United Kingdom, an office which be has so ably filled for tbe past 
twenty years, on March 1st next. In 1855, at tbe age of 20, Sir 
A. Geikie became an Assistant on tbe Geological Survey of Scotland, 
and be was made Director for Scotland in 1867. In 1881 he was 
appointed to succeed Sir Andrew Ramsay as Director- General of tbe 
Geological Survey of tbe United Kingdom. He has seen forty-six 
years' service, but is now only in bis 66tb year. (See bis life, 
Geol. Mag. 1890, p. 49.) Early in March he will be entertained 
by bis friends at a complimentary dinner. All who wish to attend 
should communicate witb Mr. E. W. Rudler, Museum of Practical 
Geology, 28, Jermyn Street, London, S.W. — We rejoice to learn that 
Sir A. Geikie has no intention of retiring from active participation 
in geological work, and that neither bis hammer nor his pen are to 
be laid aside for some years to come. 



Geol. Mag., 1901. 



Dec. IV, Vol. VIII, PI. VI. 




tlG. I. 





"^-^o ' 




^^jj,v • ■ ■ • . ■_ 


■ ^-^^^:-^- -•-•^^^■vt: 


,^s^?^ 

















Fig. 2. 



1, LAKE LOUISE; 2, MIRROR LAKE. 



THE 

GEOLOGICAL MAGAZINE. 

NEW SERIES. DECADE IV. VOL. VIII. 



No. III.— MARCH, 190L 



I. — Some Lake Basins in Alberta and British Columbia. 

By J. Parkinson, F.G.S. 

(PLATE VI.) 

FOE several years cai'eful study has been given to numerous lake 
basins in England and elsewhere, with the result that many 
previously considered as rock basins have not survived the ordeal. 
Professor Bonney,^ who has always opposed this hypothesis in the 
case of large lakes, has described four authentic examples from the 
Lepontine Alps, three of which I had the advantage of visiting with 
him ; and some few weeks before, Mr. Brend - described others 
from Caernarvonshire. 

It may therefore be of interest to call attention to two lakes in 
the Canadian Rocky Mountains and one from the Selkirk Range 
which may lay claim to the rather rare distinction of being true 
rock basins. We will take the former first. The country between 
the Columbia River on the west and the infold of Cretaceous rock, 
known as the Cascade trough, on the east in the neighbourhood of 
Banff, is one of the most delightful that a traveller can enjoy. The 
east-bound train on the Canadian Pacific Railway, after leaving 
the Columbia River at Golden, the northern end of the Columbia 
Kootanie Valley, follows the course of the Kicking Horse River 
until the watershed between the Pacific and Atlantic slopes is 
reached a little to the west of Laggan. With the exception of a long 
strip of country between the Ottertail Mountains and the Vermilion 
Range to the south of the Kicking Horse River, which is mapped as 
" igneous intrusive," ^ the whole of the country comprised in the 
area specified above is sedimentary. The line of the railway passes 
over the Canadian Quartzite series to Silver City on the Bow River, 
some seventeen miles to the east of Laggan. To the east of this, 
again, lies the north-west Cretaceous fold. 

' Geol. Mag., 1898, p. 15. 
2 Geol. Mag., 1897, p. 404. 

' '* Reconnaissance Map of a portion of the Rocky Mountains between 49° and 
61°30"" : Canada Geol. Surv., 1885. 

DICADE IV. VOL. YIII. NO. III. 7 



98 J. Parkinson — Lake Basins in Alberta ^ British Columbia. 

The geological structure of this district is described by Mr. E, G. 
McConnell/ and it will be sufficient to refer to the salient points. 
Mr. McConnell divides this region into two nearly equal parts, 
taking the western side of the Sawback Eange as the line of 
division. To the east of this line the dip is consistently to the 
west, due to the fact that a thrust from that direction has produced 
a series of roughly parallel ridges, which have been " tilted and 
shoved over one another into the form of a westerly dipping 
compound monocline." Eundle and Cascade Mountains, near Banff, 
are examples of this type. On the western side as far as the 
Columbia Eiver no reversed faults are found, and " ordinary and 
overturned folds play the most important role," The lakes which 
form the subject of the present note lie in the latter division some 
two miles to the west of Laggan (5,008 feet). They are three in 
number. Lake Louise, the largest, a mile and a quarter long, lies 
at a height of 5,645 feet above sea-level, and Lakes Mirror and 
Agnes, overlooking their larger confrere, at heights of 6,500 feet 
and 6,820 feet respectively. They have been described from the 
point of view of the explorer and climber by Mr. Walter D. Wilcox, 
in his interesting and admirably illustrated book " The Canadian 
Eockies," from which the figures in PL VI are taken. At the end of 
this work an excellent map of this region is given, and he has also 
recently published a contour map and detailed study of Lake 
Louise.* Mr. Wilcox refers to Lake Agnes as being certainly a rock 
basin, and remarks elsewhere - that only two rock-basin lakes were 
observed by him, " one of which was a typical cirque lake," no 
doubt Lake Agnes. This little lake is about a third of a mile long 
and about 150 yards across, and is surrounded on three sides by 
mountains. The upper end is a cirque, its terminations culminating 
in two horn-like peaks. This occupies the upper third of the cliff, 
the middle third is precipitous rock, the lowest talus. On the left 
bank the mountain slopes are steep. A peculiar dome-shaped hill, 
the Beehive, 7,350 feet, and ridge, a continuation of the same, form 
the right bank of Lake Agnes and overlook the left bank of Lake 
Louise. The shape of the lake is modified by talus, but there is 
no possibility of hidden outlet, nor can we find sign of glacial 
deposits. The opening of this sack-shaped valley, with its tiny lake, 
is wide, and formed of thickly bedded quartzite. The outflow streara 
is nearer the left bank of the lake, and the rock floor slopes gently 
down to it. A shallow groove has been worn away in the quartzite, 
and the discharge stream empties as a small waterfall into Mirror 
Lake below. The latter is rather less satisfactory from the 
geologist's point of view. It is circular in shape and about 
150 yards in diameter for the most part, no doubt surrounded by 
live rock, but modified in shape by talus and quite possibly by some 
glacial deposits. Whether the latter have dammed the exit is 

^ Canada Geol. Surv., 1886, n.s., vol. ii, p. 310. 

^ "A Type of Lake Formation ia Canada" : Jonru. Geol. Chieaao, vol. vii (18991, 
p. 253. 



'/. Parlcinson — Lalic Basins in Alberta if British Columbia. 99 

difficult to say, unless sonndings were taken, but live rock ((jiiartzite) 
outcrops on the trail leading down to Lake Louise, not far below the 
level of Mirror Lake. No exit stream can be found, and the over- 
flow is said to find its way to Lake Louise by underground channels ; 
a statement I see no reason to doubt, but the fact is unfavourable to 
the hypothesis that Mirror Lake is a true rock basin. 

The valley in which Lake Louise lies, 850 feet below, is clearly 
blocked at the lower end of the lake by drift, but Wilcox states that 
the bottom of Lake Louise is 230 feet below the very lowest part of 
its dam. and the lower surface of its glacier must have ascended this 
slope upon entering the Bow Valley. It is possible, then, that the 
lake is a true rock basin. 

One other example, also of a dubious nature, remains to be 
mentioned, viz., that from the Selkirks, near the Great Glacier, 
and some 1,500 feet above the station of Glacier on the C.P.R., 
directly overlooking the valley. It is called Lake Marian. Moun- 
tains rise abruptly, with talus strewn around their bases for nearly 
half the circumference of the lake ; in front, where the pine-clad 
slopes plunge down to the valley beneath, a quartzite outcrops. 
Tiiis, or a crushed grit, is the common rock of the ascent from 
Glacier, with some outcrops of broken silvery slate. On the re- 
maining (eastern) side live rock, if it exists, is concealed by surface 
soil and undergrowth, and the level is low. At first I thought Lake 
Marian to be a true rock basin, but subsequent reflection inclines 
me to the belief that glacial deposits may exist. The slopes on the 
south-eastern side of the lake in the dii'ection of Mount Abbott are 
not precipitous, and it is possible that here a glacier left material 
sufficient to retain the water. 

We are left, therefoi-e, with but one clear and certain example 
of a rock basin, and it remains but to consider as briefly as may 
be what causes operated in its formation. And firstly, differential 
earth movements, as suggested by Mr. Brend for the Caernarvonshire 
tarns, may be considered. The bedding of the rocks forming the 
walls of the lake is remarkably well defined, and not far removed 
from the horizontal, but on looking at the right bank from an 
advantageous position, it becomes apparent that a slight dip up the 
lake exists which is greater at the lower than at the upper end. As 
the change, though slight, is abrupt, a small fault probably exists 
at this point. 

The cirque is no doubt pre-Glacial, but it is possible that the 
configuration of the country has been altered in quite late times. 
Dr. .T. W. Spencer, in his well-known work on the "Origin of the 
Basins of tlie Great Lakes in America,'" has demonstrated ' terrestrial 
warpings ' more recent tlian the episode of the Upper Till. On the 
western side of the continent Dr. G. M. Dawson - mentions terraces 

1 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xlvi (1890), p. 530. 

• "The Superficial Geology of British Columbia": Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, 
vol. xxxiv (1878), p. 89. See also Dr. G. M. Dawson. " On the Plivsioirraphical 
Geology of the Rocky Mountain Region iu Canada'': Trans. Roy. Sol-. Canada, 
vol. vii"i (1890), sect. 4, p. 68. 



100 J. Parkinson — Lake Basins in Alberta ^ British Columbia. 

on the Fraser and Thompson Eivers in British Columbia, from 
2,400 to 3,000 feet. Of these he says : " Many of the higher are 
accumulations along the shore of a great sheet of water ; most of the 
lower have been carved out of deposits which at one time filled 
the valleys from rim to rim, and more or less completely levelled 
up the broken surface of the country, by the gradually receding 
waters of a lake or of the sea, and eventually by the rivers them- 
selves deepening their channels to their old pre-Glacial levels " 
(p. 112). He concludes that the interior of British Columbia was 
submerged 4,000 to 5,000 feet during the formation of the Boulder- 
clay (p. 108). 

The second hypothesis ascribes sufficient erosive power to a glacier 
in descending a sharp declivity such as the cirque at the head of 
Lake Agnes. Such plunging action is appealed to by Professor 
Bonney to explain the rock basins of Lakes Cadagno, Tremorgio, 
and others on the Lepontine Alps. In the case of Lake Agnes 
a glance at the map shows that here is ample gathering-ground for 
ice. The line of the Continental watershed lies a mile and a half 
to the west, with summits ranging, in the case of Pope's Peak, to 
9,595 feet. Mount St. Piran, to the north, has a height of 8,580 feet. 
These between them form the north and north-north-west walls 
of the tarn. If any erosive action can be ascribed to ice, the 
present instance would afford an excellent opportunity for the 
display of its power, and it is quite possible that this is the true^ 
explanation. 

At the time of my visit to Lake Agnes a third possibility 
occurred to me which may have some value, at least, as a con- 
tributory cause. The quartzite forms the lower bed in the walls 
of the lake, and must also occupy its floor, for the little waterfall 
of discharge passes over it for some distance below the level of the 
lake surface. The superincumbent beds are of a slaty nature, rather 
finely bedded, and broken. This, taken in conjunction with the 
dip of the whole up the lake, seemed to me to make it at least 
possible that the ordinary agents of denudation in working out the 
valley and its cirque-like head might form a basin which would 
retain water, simply from the fact that there was a greater thickness 
of less resisting material at the upper than at the lower end. I put 
this on record merely as a suggestion, but we may perhaps suppose 
some such process as the following. In early days the valley would 
incline steeply down to its lip, its bottom occupied by a stream 
attaining at certain times of the year to the dignity of a torrent of 
some dimensions. When worn down at its lower end to the level 
of the more resisting quartzite, the erosive action of the water would 
be checked at that point, but the constant freshets concentrated on 
its upper end by reason of the cirque-like disposition of the clifi' 
would prevent the removing power of the water being materiallj'^ 
lessened at the valley head. This process would go on possibly 
with increasing slowness, but with a tendency analogous to that 
ascribed to a glacier in descending a steep slope. 

My sincere thanks are due to Professor Bonney for his kindness 



Dorothy Bate— A Bone Cave on the River W>/r. 101 

in reading the manuscript of this paper, and for many valuable 

suggestions. 

DESCRIPTION OF PLATE VI. 

Fig. 1 .—Photograph taken from the glacial deposits at the lower end of Lake Louise, 
and looking towards Lakes Agnes and Mirror. The cirque at the head of the 
former is well seen. The rounded promontory in front of the cirque is the 
"Beehive." To the right of this lies Mirror Lake, its position concealed bv 
the upper part of the belt of forest. The point x is the same in both figures. 

Fig. 2. — Minor Lake. The waterfall of discharge from Lake Agnes is the whiti; 
speck amongst the trees below the mark x . 

II. — A SHORT Account of a Bone Cave in the Carboniferous 
Limestone of the Wye Valley. 

By Dorothy M. A. Bate. 

rPHE bones of Pleistocene mammals and birds, a list of some of 
X which is given below, were found in a small cave in an out- 
lying part of the Forest of Dean, close to the river Wye, where it is 
flanked by steep and wooded hills that rise abruptly from either 
bank. At short intervals along the sides of these hills limestone 
cliffs and boulders stand out bare and white among the surrounding 
trees. The slopes below are strewn, and in places completely 
covered, with pieces of rock of all sizes that are continually becoming 
loosened and fall from the outstanding crags above, in which are 
numerous cracks, holes, and caves, the last, as a rule, being only of 
small size. 

The mouth of the cave in which these remains were found is 
situated half-way up the face of one of the cliffs. It is completely 
concealed from view by a thick growth of trees and bushes. This 
probably accounts for its being little known and not previously 
explored for animal remains, though, unfortunately, several human 
jaw-bones lying on the floor of the cave were taken away by some 
boys while searching for jackdaws' nests. Some time ago the 
greater part of the floor was dug up by miners looking for iron-ore. 
This was a most unfortunate occurrence, as in this way the position 
of the upper layers of earth and rock forming the floor of the cave 
has been considerably obscured. At the same time the bones 
contained in these deposits were mixed, specimens undoubtedly 
differing greatly in age being found in close proximity ; furthermore, 
some of the bones of species now living bore a very fresh appearance. 

The walls of the cave have not been disturbed, for here numerous 
minute bones are found in a good state of preservation. These were 
lying even in exposed situations where they might easily have been 
destroyed. This is perhaps the most curious feature of the cave, for 
at its inner end on every ledge and in every crevice were found 
small bones, most of them belonging to one or other of the smaller 
species of voles and mice. These remains have disappeared from 
the ledges near the entrance, doubtless on account of exposure to 
wind and wet, and to the presence of jackdaws, which nest in large 
numbers in all the cliffs. 



102 Dorothy Bate — A Bone Cave on the Rker Wye. 

The cave consists of two chambers, the larger of which 
penetrates the cliff for about thirty yards, only decreasing slightly in 
size from the entrance, which is large. The floor is partially' covered 
with a layer of earth, which in one place is about a foot and a half 
thick. As already remarked, its original disposition has been more 
or less altered by the workings of the miners. This earth contained 
great quantities of small skulls and bones, the commonest among 
them belonging to Microtus agrestis and If. amphibius. 

Owing to lack of time 1 was unable to penetrate below this earth 
except where some of the rock had alreadj^ been removed. Portions 
of the walls several feet above the present level of the floor are 
encrusted with numberless small bones, impossible to extract in 
good condition owing to the hardness of the limestone. If pieces 
of rock were broken away similar bones were certain to be found 
loose in any soft or crumblj'^ places. In fact, they were plentiful 
throughout the cave — in the earth, on the ledges, in the walls, 
and even on the surface of the floor. The bones embedded in 
the rock, as well as those concealed in the earth, were found 
extending right up to the mouth of the cave. These must have 
accumulated at a time when the cave was considerably larger than it 
now is. This it undoubtedly was at one time, for, as the face of the 
cliff has gradually been worn away, the slope below has become 
strewn with fragments of rock of all sizes. Another proof of this is 
that in its present state it would be impossible for such animals 
as sheep and deer to reach the cave. Yet the bones of these animals, 
and of others for whom it would be as difScult of access, are found 
buried in the earth. It is now evidently inaccessible to foxes and 
badgers, as there are no holes used by them here, although they 
are to be seen in almost every other cave I have visited in the 
district. 

The smaller chamber opens into the main cave near the inner end 
of the latter, and runs almost parallel with it towards the face of the 
cliff. It has now no direct connection with the outside, although 
there is an opening in the cliff with which it was probably formerly 
connected. It is possible that the present entrance has only lately 
been made. The roof is very low, forcing one to crawl on hands 
and knees. Part of the floor has been disturbed in the same way as 
in the outer chamber, but, unlike it, there is little of the earth in 
which the greater number of the small bones were found. Probably 
the real mouth of this cave has been closed up by the roof at this ^^ 
point giving way, the rock having been loosened by water. At the ^Bi 
end nearest the face of the cliff there is always a certain amount of ^^ 
water to be seen dripping from the wall. The rock over which it runs 
down to the level of the floor has been formed into a series of ridges, 
somewhat resembling those left on the sand by the receding tide, 
though they differ in being higher and sharper and closer together. 
This has a very striking appearance when a light is thrown on 
its ribbed surface, which looks black and highly polished, and is 
always glistening with moisture. "Wherever this water penetrates 
it leaves a deposit of stalagmite, which causes the rock to become 



Dorothy Bate — A Bone Cave on the River Wye. 103 

extremely bard, tlius making any excavation a difficult task, and in 
some places it is impossible to detacb bones from the rock intact. 

The cave contained the teeth and jaw-bones of six small mammals 
that are now extinct in Great Britain. These are : Microtis ratticeps, 
M. arvalis, M. nivalis, Lemmus lemmus, Dicrostonyx {=iMyodes) torquatus, 
and Ochotona [^Layomijs) pttsillus. At the present day these species 
are found chiefly in colder and more northern countries, the pika 
being confined to the steppe regions of Eastern Europe and Siberia. 
No remains of the reindeer or other large northern forms were 
found, though from the presence of the lemmings and some of the 
voles this might have been expected. Eemains of the reindeer and 
mammoth have been taken from a somewhat similar cave situated 
not two miles distant. See British Museum (Natural History) Coll. 
Eemains of the following animals were found in this cave : — 
noma. — I have already mentioned that some jaw-bones were found 
on the floor of the cave, but I have been unable to secure one or to 
trace their present whereabouts. I procured one clavicle, several 
vertebrte, and a number of digital phalanges. The only implements 
found were a bone needle, or hairpin, and a portion of a copper ring. 




Boae needle, one-third less than original specimen. 

The needle, which Sir Henry Ho worth considers belongs to the 
Bronze Age, is a very fine specimen in a perfect state of preservation. 
It is five inches in length and has a circular hole pierced through 
its broader end, from which it gradually tapers to a blunt point. 
The larger end has the appearance of having been cut straight across 
with some sharp instrument. 

Bhinolopkus hipposideros. — Two lower jaw-bones and a portion 
of one skull of this bat were among the remains found in the cave. 

Talpa Europcea.— One upper jaw of this species and two mandibular 
rami were found in the cave together with several pelvic bones. 
There is a considerable difterence in the size of these two rami, one 
of which, the larger, still retained a milk tooth. Fossil remains of 
this mole have been found in the Norfolk Forest Bed as well as in 
Pleistocene deposits. Mr. W. J. Lewis Abbot found numerous 
bones belonging to this species in the Ightham fissure in Kent. 

Sorex araneus.—The upper jaws of the common shrew were 
fairly plentiful, one or two skulls being found in an almost perfect 
state of preservation. They varied much in size, a considerable 
difference being noticeable between the largest and the smallest 
specimens obtained. The lower jaw-bones were less numerous ; 
perhaps on account of their small size they were easily passed over 
when buried in the earth. Less than half a dozen were secured, all 
of them retaining ther full number of teeth. Kemains of this shrew 
have been found in the Forest Bed and in caves. 



104 Dorothy Bate — A Bone Cave on the River Wye. 



Neomys ( = Crossopus) fodiens. — One upper jaw of the water-shrew 
was found which still retained its full number of teeth. Its remains 
have occurred in the Norfolk Forest Bed. 

Microtus amphibius. — Jaw-bones and portions of skulls of the water- 
vole were numerous in the cave earth. Many of the rami were 
preserved in an almost perfect condition. Its remains have been 
found in Pleistocene deposits and in a number of caves in England. 

Microtus agrestis. — Remains of the field-vole were more plentiful 
than those of any other of the species found in the cave. Similar 
remains have been found in many caves in England. This vole 
is still living in Britain and extends over the middle and north of 
Europe, being commoner in the northern part of its range. 

Microtus ratticeps. — One or two portions of skulls and about 
a dozen rami of the northern vole were found in this cave, and 
agree with recent specimens in the British Museum. In a few of 
the lower jaw-bones the teeth resemble the figure of M. gregalis 
given by Dr. Nehring in a paper published in 1875, but the presence 
of intermediate forms between this and the typical M. ratticeps makes 
it probable that all in this series ought to be referred to the latter 
species. Fossil remains of M. ratticeps have been found in England 
in the river deposit at Fisherton, in caves in Somersetshire, and in 
the Ightham fissure in Kent. It no longer occurs in Great Britain, 
but is now found in Northern Europe and Siberia. 




Fig. 1. — Palatal view of skull of Ochotona {Lagomys) pusillus. 

Fig. 2. — Dorsal aspect of part of skull of Dicrostonyx [Myodes] torquatus. 

Fig. 3. — View of upper molars of Dicrostonyx {Myodes) torquatus. 

Figs. 4-6. — View of lower molars of Dicrostonyx {Myodes) torquatus. 

Figs. 7, 8. — View of (7) lower and (8) upper molars of Lemmus {Myodes) kmmus. 

Microtus arvalis. — Several jaw-bones, upper and lower, may be 
referred to this species. Their upper teeth are easily distinguished 
from those of M. agrestis by the character of the second molar, but 
the lower teeth of these two species resemble each other very closely. 



H 



Dorothy Bate — A Bone Cave on the River Wye. 100 

Remains of this field-vole have been found in the Forest Bed and in 
fissures near Frome and at Ightham. It is no longer living in Great 
Britain, but is the commonest field-vole of Central Europe, its range 
extending as far as Western Siberia. 

Microtus nivalis. — Two mandibular rami, which I have compared 
vkrith recent specimens in the British Museum, are referred to this 
species. A third might possibly also belong to this vole, but is too 
imperfect to admit of certain identification. At the present day it 
is not found in Britain, but inhabits the Alps of Central Europe, 
where it is not found at a lower elevation than 3,000 feet above the 
sea-level. By Dr. Selys Longchamps it is said to occur in the 
Pyrenees, and may possibly also be found elsewhere. The only 
record of the fossil remains of this species being found in England 
is that of Messrs. Blackmore and Alston, who doubtfully referred 
to this species a jaw-bone found in the river deposit at Fisherton, 
near Salisbury (P.Z.S., June, 1874). 

Evotomys ( = Microtus) glareolus. — Part of one skull and several 
mandibular rami of the bank- vole were found in the cave earth. 
In one or two of the rami, which belonged to immature animals, 
the teeth had not yet developed roots. Its remains have been found 
in the Forest Bed, in many caves, and in Pleistocene river deposits. 
At the present day its range extends to the Arctic circle. 

Lemnms ( = Myodes) lemmiis. — Portions of five upper jaws of the 
Norwegian lemming were found in the earth together with eight 
lower jaw-bones, only one of which contained the full number of 
teeth. This species is no longer found in Britain, its range at the 
present day being confined to the Scandinavian peninsula and 
Eussian Lapland. Its remains have been found in a cave in 
Somersetshire and in the Ightham fissure in Kent. 

Dierostomjx torquatus. — Nearly a dozen well-preserved mandibular 
rami of this species were found, but only a portion of one upper 
jaw. The Arctic lemming occurs in the Pleistocene of England 
and the Continent, but is now entirely confined to the Arctic regions. 

Ocliotona ( = Lagomys) pusilbis. — Portions of eight or nine skulls 
of this species were found together with nineteen lower jaw-bones. 
The remains of this tailless hare are interesting, as no representative 
of the family is found in the British Islands at the present day. 
This pika now only inhabits Eastern Russia and Siberia. Its fossil 
remains have been procured from several other caves in England : 
at Bleadon, Brixham, and Kent's Hole. 

Zepus timidus (Z. variabilis). — Portions of a skull and lower jaws, 
both retaining teeth, are referred to this species. Remains of the 
mountain hare have been found in several caves, in the Mendip 
Hills, and at Knockninny and Shandon in Ireland. 

Mus sylvaticus. — Eighteen lower jaw bones and portions of about 
seven or eight skulls are referred to this species, which is still found 
widely distributed over temperate Europe, and extending to Western 
Siberia and the Caucasus. Its remains have been found in tlie 
Forest Bed and at West Runton, Norfolk. 

A great number of small limb bones, most of which probably 



106 F. R. Cou'per Heed — Salter's Undescrihed Species. 

belong to the small rodents, were found scattered over the cave 
and buried in the earth with the other remains. Some other 
remains are referred to the dog, sheep (which appears to have been 
considerably smaller than the ordinary domestic variety), a species 
of small deer, several bones of Eana temporaria, and three snail 
shells, probably Helix hortensis. Dr. Andrews kindly identified 
the remains of birds found in the cave. They belong to five 
species, remains of all of which have occurred in other caves in 
Britain. They are Tardus sp., probably Turdus viscivorus, pigeon sp.. 
Anas boscJias, Lagopiis scoticiis, and Perdix perdix. 

I wish to express my thanks to Dr. Andrews and Dr. Forsyth 
Major for the very kind and valuable help I have received from 
them, especially in assisting me to determine the extinct forms, 
and also for Dr. Forsyth Major's kind advice in selecting those 
which have been figured in the text. 

III. WOODWARDIAN MUSEDM NOTES : SaLTER's UnDESCRIBED 

Species. III. 

By F. R. CowPER Reed, M.A., F.G.S. 

(PLATE VII.) 

Phacops {Odontocheile) caudatus, var. corrugatus, Salter. (PL VII, 

Figs. 1, 2.) 
1873. Salter : Cat. Camb. Sil. Foss. Woodw. Mus., p. 93 {a 461). 

There are six specimens of this variety in the Woodwardian 
Museum, all of which come from the Woolhope Limestone, of 
Littlehope, and were labelled by Salter. Five of them are more 
or less perfect head-shields, and the other is a pygidium in a good 
state of preservation. 

The head-shield shows the general characters of Ph. caudatus, 
var. a, indgaris,^ but the arrangement of the tubercles on the frontal 
lobe of the glabella is peculiar, and resembles that of Ghasmops, for 
they form a V-shaped pattern, six or seven large tubercles com- 
posing each arm of the V. The arms of the V enclose an angle 
of about 30° to 40°. A few other large tubercles occur on the 
frontal lobe close to the V, and starting from its apex show an 
obscure radial arrangement. The margin of the head-shield, where 
the shell is preserved, exhibits an ornamentation consisting of 
closely-set, rather coarse granulations. The front margin is pro- 
duced into an obtuse point. 

The main characters of the pygidium are similar to those of the 
typical variety of Ph. caudatus. The axis, however, shows ten 
distinct rings with a less distinct eleventh one, and a short, faintly 
annulated, terminal piece. The rings are less strongly defined in 
the middle, owing to the transverse furrows being comparatively 
weak in the middle while deeply impressed at the sides. 

On the fourth and seventh axial rings is a pair of small oval areas, 
slightly raised above the general surface and finely pitted (the 
so-called 'cutaneous glands' of Salter, op. cit.). There are faint 
1 Salter: Mon. Brit. Trilob. Pal. Soc. 1864, p. 51. 



m 



F. R. Coxcper Reed — Salter's Undescribed Species. 107 

traces of similar ' glands ' on several of the other rings. The whole 
axis, as well as the lateral lobes, is also ornamented with minute pits. 
The lateral lobes show seven distinct pairs of pleurae, ending 
abruptly on the smooth narrow margin, but separated by strongly 
raised ridges. The surface of each pleura is excavated, and bears 
a furrow, in front of which the surface is shai'ply ridged up. 
The furrow is close to and nearly parallel to the posterior 
edge of the pleura. On the ridge along the anterior edge of the 
furrow on each pleura, there is a so-called ' cutaneous gland ' 
situated similarly to those figured by Salter ^ for Ph. caudatus. On 
the first pleura this gland is near the axis ; on the second it is near 
the outer extremity ; on the third it is placed half-way along the 
length of the pleura ; and on the fourth it is near the axis. Those 
on the fifth, sixth, and seventh pleurae repeat the arrangement of 
the second, third, and fourth. A few tubercles are also found 
scattered irregularly over the lateral lobes. The pygidial margin 
was produced posteriorly into an aculeate mucro, but it is broken 
off short in our specimen. 

Measokements. 

mm. 

Leugtli of pygidium 22-0 (wmws mucro). 

Width of ditto 24-0 

Width of axis of pygidium (at front end) ... 8-5 

Length of ditto 18-0 

Affinities. — Lindstrom's species Fh. ohlusa,- from the Gotland 
beds, bears comparison with this variety of Ph. caudatus, but 
though the furrowing of the glabella is closely similar, the V-shaped 
arrangement of the tubercles seems to be absent and also the 
'cutaneous glands' on the pygidium. The true significance and 
function of these so-called glands is at present unknown, but, if we 
may presume on our scanty knowledge of these structures to make 
a suggestion, they appear to be similar to the maculaj on the 
hypostomes of most trilobites which Lindstrom^ after a detailed 
study has recently concluded had a visual function. It may be 
that these pygidial structures were organs of phosphorescence. 

Encrinukus multiplicatus, Salter. (PI. VII, Fig. o.) 
1873. Encrinurus miiUiplicatuii, Salter: Cat. Camb. Sil. Foss. Woodw. Mus., 

p. 51 {a 226). , ,^ 

1891. EnvriHurus multiplicatus, Salter (Woods) : Cat. Type Foss. ^^ oodw. Mus., 
p. 144. 
The original specimen is very imperfect, and consists of only 
a partially preserved pygidium, so that the description of this 
species must be somewhat incomplete. It is labelled as having been 
found in the Middle Bala at Barking, Dent, and is preserved in 
a tough dark-grey limestone. The pygidium has an elongated and 
pointed form somewhat like E. miUiiseymeiitatus (Forth), and possesses 

> Salter : Mou. Brit. Trilob. Pal. Soc, 1864, p. 52, woodcuts 11 and 12. 
2 Ofv. k. Vet. Akad. Forhandl., No. 6, 1885, p. 41, pi. xii, tigs. 3, 4, 7, 8, and 
pi. xiii, lig-. 1. 

^ Kongl. Svensk. Vet. Akad. Handl., B. 34, No. 8, 1901. 



108 F. R. Cowper Reed — Salter'' s Undescribed Species. 

a long narrow axis tapering very gradually to its posterior extremity. 
There are sixteen complete axial rings of gradually decreasing size, 
extending for about two-thirds the length of the axis, and followed 
by about twelve much narrower rings of equal size, interrupted in 
the middle by a narrow smooth area, and extending to the point of 
the axis, which is thus segmented along its whole length. 

Only one of the lateral lobes is preserved, but this shows the 
eleven pleurae of which it is composed, and is bent down rather 
strongly towards the posterior end. The anterior pleurEe curve 
weakly backwards, but the posterior ones more strongly, and the 
last one, which starts at the level of the sixteenth axial ring, runs 
back alongside of the axis to the posterior margin. Each pleura 
appears to be provided with a shallow median longitudinal furrow. 

There are obscure traces of small tubercles on the surface, but 
the ornamentation is very indistinct. 

Measurements. 

mm. 

Length of pygidium 12-0 

Width of ditto (estimated at) 10-0 

Affinities. — The most closely allied species might appear at first 
sight to be J^. multisegmentatus, Portlock,^ but the resemblances lie 
more in the large number of the segments than in the characters of the 
parts of the pygidium. For the segmentation of the axis is different, 
and the course of the pleurae is not the same. The segmentation 
of the postei'ior part of the axis more resembles that of J^. punctatus, 
though the anterior part with its complete rings is quite different, 
and is similar to that in Portlock's species. As far as the axis is 
concerned, it thus seems to share the characters of these two species. 

Turrilepas ?? ketleyanus, Salter. 

1873. Turrilepas hetleyanus, Salter: MS. Cat. Camb. Sil. Foss. Woodw. Mus., 

p. 129 {h 730). 
1891. Turrilepas ketleyanus, "Woods : Cat. Type Foss. Woodw. Mus., p. 132. 

The two original specimens are very poorly preserved and fi'ag- 
mentary and the plates seem to be displaced from their original 
position, and the description, therefore, is far from satisfactory. 
The specimens are from the Wenlock Limestone of Dudley, and 
were presented to the Woodwardian Museum by Mr. C. Ketley. 

Diagnosis. — Two vertical rows of loosely arranged, alternating 
plates of regular (?) shape, followed above by a closely imbricated 
mass of irregular plates. There are four or fi^ve plates in each of 
the vertical rows, but their shape is somewhat doubtful, as their 
edges appear to be broken in most cases, but they seem to be 
transversely oblong (not triangular), with their upper and lower 
edges sub-parallel, and the outer edge rounded ; they are also 
slightly arched from side to side, and their surface is marked by fine 
strise parallel to the outer edge and by minute pits and granulations. 

' Portlock : Geol. Eep. Loud., 1843, p. 291, pi. iii, fig. 6. Tornquist : Undersokn. 
Siljans. Trilobitf., 1884, p. 24, pi. i, figs. 18, 19. 



F. R. Coivper Reed — Salter's Undescribed Species. 109 

la the upper mass of closely packed plates only the minute pits and 
granulations are visible. These upper plates appear to be triangular 
and to bear a carina. 

Remarks. — It is extremely doubtful if this fossil is the remains 
of a crustacean, and it has been suggested with much probability 
that it represents the column of one of the Anomalocystidaj.' The 
supposed shape of the plates in the double row cannot be regarded as 
of much value, owing to their imperfect condition. It is unfortunate 
that Salter chose to attach a specific name to such exceedingly 
unsatisfactory specimens. 

GASTEROPODA. 

SuBULiTES PUPA, Salter. (PI. VIT, Fig. 5.) 

1873. Ilacrochelltis pupn, Salter : Cat. Camb. Sil. Foss. Woodw. Mus., p. 156 

(a 869). 
1891. Macrochiliim pupa, Woods: Cat. Type Foss. Woodw. Mus., p. 106. 

There is one specimen in the Woodwardian Museum from the 
Wenlock Limestone of Dudley (Fletcher Collection), labelled 
Macrocheiliis pupa (a 869) by Salter. Only the three lower 
whorls are preserved, and these show no ornament ; the two apical 
whorls are broken off. The shape of the mouth is also well seen. 
The regulai', elongate, fusiform shell, the shallow suture-line, the 
slight convexity of the whoi'ls and their want of ornamentation, 
the large body-whorl, equal in length to about half the shell, and 
the narrow elongate apertui'e, interiorly acuminate, show that it is 
comparable to Subidites ventricosus (Hall),^ described and figured 
also from the Wenlock of Sweden by Lindstrora.' It cannot be 
assigned to the genus Macrochilina, on account of the shape and 
characters of the mouth and the shallowness of the suture-line. This 
species has also been found by Professor Hughes in the Lower 
Llandovery of Blain y cwm. 

Measurements. 

mm. 

Length of specimen 35'0 

Estimated length when perfect 40-0 

Width of body-whorl 18-0 

Trochus cALYPTRiEA, Salter. (PI. VII, Fig. 4.) 

1873. Emmphalus calyptrcea, Salter: Cat. Camb. Sil. Foss., p. 157 (« 862). 
1891. Euomphalm calyptrcea, Woods : Cat. Type Foss. Woodw. Mus., p. 103. 

The one small original specimen (a 862) from the Wenlock 
Limestone of Dudley is all the material we possess. It is imperfect, 
but the body-whorl is well preserved and shows the essential 
features. 

Diagnosis.— Shell small, trochiform, obtusely conical, of several 
whorls (probably four or five), which are sub-ventricose. The body- 
whorl has an angulated, rather prominent umbilical edge, and its 
umbilical surface is flattened at right angles to the rest of the whorl, 

1 H. Woodward: Geol. Mag., Dec. II, Vol. VII (1880), p. 193, PI. VI, and 
Woodcut, Fig. 6, p. 197. 

2 Hall: Pal. N.Y., ii (1852), p. 347, pi. 83, fig. 7. 

» Lindstrom : Sil. Gastr. Pter.. Gotl., 1884, pp. 193, 194, pi. xv, fig?. 19-21. 



110 Br. R. S. Traquai)' — Fifeshire Carboniferous Fishes. 

slightly raised in the centre and more so towards the aperture, which 
appears to be subcircular, with the inner lip strong and thickened. 
Surface of whorls ornamented by transverse, obliquely curved, 
reo-ular, and equidistant lamellar ribs. Umbilicus small and 
apparently closed. 

Kemarks. — This form certainly does not belong to the genus 
Enomplialus. Its whole appearance is trochiform, and it bears 
a close resemblance to Trochus Stiixbergi (Lindstrom),^ but differs 
by the umbilical surface being flatter, by the marginal ridge being 
less developed, and by the greater strength and regularity of the 
o-rowth-lamellEe on the surface. Its ornamentation is not so 
coarse as in Tr. imdulans (Lindstrom),- but the shape of this species 
and its umbilical surface are very similar. The characters of the 
mouth and umbilical surface distinguish it from Callonema obesum 
(Lindstrom),^ with which at first sight it bears some resemblance in 
shape and ornamentation. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE VII. 

j'j(j_ 1. Phacops [Odontocheile) cauclalm, var. eorrugatus, Salter. Head-shield 

(«481), X 1^. Woolhope Limestone, Littlehope. 

PiQ. 2. Ditto. Pygidium («461), x 2. "Woolhope Limestone, Littlehope. 

Pifj. 3. — Emrinurus multiplicatus, Salter. Pygidium [a 226), x 3. M. Bala, 

Barking, Dent. 
Fig. 4. — Trochus calyptrcoa, Salter sp. (a 862), x 2. "Wenlock Limestone, Dudley. 
Fig. 5. — SuhuUtes jnipa , Salter sp. (^869), x If. "Wenlock Limestone, Dudley. 



lY. Notes on the Lower Carboniferous Fishes of Eastern 

Fifeshire. 

By Dr. R. H. TaAauAm, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

(Bead before the Eoyal Physical Society of Edinburgh, January 16th, 1901.) 

OT much has as yet been done in the way of cataloguing the 
fossil fishes of the Lower Carboniferous rocks of Eastern 
Fifeshire. A few species and localities were noted by the late 
Eev. Thomas Brown in I860* and by Mr. Kirkby in 1880,^ and 
the late Mr. Eobert Walker published a paper in 1872 ° in which 
he described what he supposed to be a new species of Amhlypterus 
(A. anconoeechmodiis) from the Oil-shale works at Pitcorthy, near 
Anstruther. In this paper Mr. Walker drew attention to the 
abundance and variety of fish-remains in the oil-shale and ironstone 
worked at that locality, promising to describe them in detail after- 
wards — a promise which he was never able to fulfil. After his 

1 Sil. Gastr. Pter. Gotl., p. 147, pi. xiv, figs. 59-69 (especially tig. 62). 

2 Op. cit., p. 148, pi. xvi, figs. 8-10. 

3 Op. cit., p. 189, pi. XV, fig. 27. 

* " Notes on the Mountain Limestone and Lower Carboniferous Eocks of the 
Fifeshire Coast from Burntisland to St. Andrews " : Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinb., 
vol. xxii (1860), pp. 385-404. 

5 " On the Zones of Marine Fossils in the Calciferous Sandstones of Fife " : Quart. 
Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxxvi (1880), pp. 559-590. 

6 " On a new species of Anillyjjterus and other Fossil Fish-remains from Pitcorthy, 
Fife" : Trans. Geol. Soc. Edinb., vol. ii, pt. 1, pp. 119-124, with plate. 



Geol.Magl901. 



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G.MWoodward del. et 3itK. West.NewroariMap 

Ordovician and Silurian Fossils 



Dr. R. H. Traqunir —Flfcshire Carhoniferous Fishes. Ill 

death in 1881, his important collection of fish-remains from tliis 
and other localities in East Fife was acquired by the Edinbur<'h 
Museum, and largely forms the basis of the present list. 1 myself 
have also done some collecting in this region ; and a good many 
years ago the Museum acquired a number of specimens collected by 
Mr. W. T. Kinnear at Ardross, some of which are of great interest. 

The district in question is comprised in sheets 41 and 49 of the 
Geological Survey Map of Scotland. All the species here noted 
are from Lower Carboniferous rocks, the horizons represented being 
the Upper part (Oil-shale group) of the Calciferous Sandstone Series 
and the Lower part of the Carboniferous Limestone Series. Here 
I may note that in 1890 ^ I included the Teleostomi and Dipnoi 
of the region in a list of the fishes of these orders occurring in Fife 
and the Lothians, published by the Royal Society of Edinburgh. 
The present list, however, includes the Elasmobranchs as well, 
and also a few additional species now described as new. 

CALCIFEROUS SANDSTONE SERIES. 
Elasmobranchii. 

1. Pleuraeanthits horridnl us, Traq. Pitcorthy. 

2. Diplodiis parvuliis, Tmq. Pitcortliy. 

3. Cladodus Knictispidatm, Traq., n.sp. Near Rock and Spindle. 

4. CallopristodHs pcct'matKs (Ag.). Rocks east of St. Andrews ; Pitcorthy. 

5. OracantJiKs armigerus, Traq. Teeth, at Ardross. 

6. Gyracanthns, sp. Rocks east, of St. Andrews ; Pittenweem. Not sufficiently 

well preserved for specific determination. 

7. SpJioiacaiithus serrulatus (Ag.). Pitcorthy. 

8. Sphcnacajithus Fifensis, n.sp. Rocks east of St. Andi-ews. 

9. EiiphijarinithHS semistriatus, Traq. Ardross. 

10. Trinf>/f/ii/(s ftrcxatus, Ag. Pitcorthy. 

11. Ti-isti/c/i ins minor, Toriloc'k. Pitcorthy. 

12. Cynopodius crcnulatiis, Traq. Pitcorthy. 

13. Acanthodes sulcatus, Ag. Ardross. 

Tkleostomi. 
Crossopterygii. 

14. Rhlzodns Hihberti (Ag.). Rocks on shore cast of St. Andrews ; Pitcorthy. 

15. Mhizodifs ornatns, Traq. Pitcorthy ; Pittenweem. 

16. Strepsodm striatulm, Traq. Pittenweem. 

17. Strepmdus minor, Traq. Pitcorthy. 

18. Owlacanthopsis curta, n. g. and sp. 

Actinoi)teriigii. 

19. Elonivhthys Hobisoni (Hibbert). Pitcorthy. 

20. Elonichthys striatum (Ag.). Pitcorthy. 

21. E/onichfhys pecfAnatKS, Traq. Ardross. 

22. R/iadinic/it/n/.s oriiai'issimus (Ag.). Kiness Burn, near St. Andrews. 

23. MddiinchtJnjs ctriNofn^ (Ag-)- Pitcorthy ; Corn Ceres, near Kilrenny. 

24. Rhadunchth'ys hrcvls, Traq. Pitcorthy. 

25. Nematopfy chins GrecuocJd (Ag.). Pitcorthy. 

26. Gonat()duspunctafus{Ag.). Pitcorthy. This is the Amblyptcnts auconoccchmodK.s 

of R. Walker. 

27. Eurynotits crenatiis, Ag. Pittenweem ; Pitcorthy ; Corn Ceres ; Keidy Mouth, 

east of St. Andi'ews. 

1 " List of the Fossil Ganoidei and Dipnoi ol Fife and the Lothians " : Proc. Roy. 
Soc. Edinb., vol. xvii (1890), pp. 385-400. 



112 Dr. R. H. Traquair — Fifeslnre Carhoniferoiis Fishes. 

Dipnoi. 

28. Gtenodiis interraptus, Barkas. Pittenweem. 

Incerta sedis. 

29, Eucentrurus paradoxus, n. g. and sp. Ardross. 

CARBONIFEROUS LIMESTONE SERIES. 
Elasmobranchii . 

1. Petalodus acuminatus, Ag. Ladedda, near St. Andrews. 

2. Oraeanthus armigerus, Traq. Largo Ward. 

3. Sphenacanthus serrulatus, K^. Denhead Ironstone, Denhead, near St. Andrews ► 

4. Acanthodes, sp. Denhead. 

Teleostomi. 
Crossopterygii. 

5. Rhizodus Hibberti {A.g.). Denhead. 

6. Bhizodus ornatus, Traq. Denhead. 

7. Megaliehthys, sp. Denhead. 

8. Monichthys Bobisoni (Rihhext). Denhead. 

9. Hlonichthys pectinatus, Traq. Denhead. 
10. Eurynotus crenatus, Ag. Denhead. 

The above list contains all the species, thirty in number, which 
are contained in the Natural History Department of the Edinburgh 
Museum or in my own collection. Mr, Kirkby, however, records 
Ctenacanthus, sp., from near the Eock and Spindle, and Pcecilodiis 
obliquus, Ag., from a marine limestone of Calciferous Sandstone ag© 
on the coast near Randerston Castle. 

Notes on Species. 

Biplodus. — I have found small Diplodus-teeth. in shales on the 
shore at Pittenweem, but which can hardly be safely identified 
with any known form or considered as new. 

Cladodus unicuspidatus, n.sp. — Base flat below, depth from back 
to front about two-thirds the width from side to side, contour more 
convex in front than behind. A single slender pointed cusp arises 
from the middle of the front of the base, and is erect, straight when 
seen from the front, sigmoidally recurved when viewed laterally, 
covered with delicate raised ridges, which increase in number 
downwards by intercalation. No trace of lateral cusps. Height of 
cusp of most perfect specimen -j^ inch, width of base laterally about 
the same. 

Under the term Mbnocladodus, Professor Claypole ^ has separated 
from Cladodus, Agassiz, two species from the Cleveland shale, on 
account of the apparent want of lateral cusps. Allied to Cladodtis, 
and also possessing only one cusp, are Lambdodus and Hyhocladodus 
of St. John and Worthen.^ The present teeth, however, agree so 
closely with Cladodus in all respects, save the want of lateral cusps 
and the comparatively short lateral extent of the base, that I prefer 
leaving them with that genus for the present. 

A cluster of these teeth was found by myself many years ago 
in a septarian nodule on the shore near the Eock and Spindle, east 

1 American Geologist, vol. xi (1893), p. 329. 
- Geol. Surv. Illinois, vol. vi. 



Dr. R. H. Traquair — Fifcs//ire Caydoniferons Fishes. IV* 

of St. Andrews. Owing to the hardness of the matrix it was 
impossible to work out the superficial configuration of the teeth, 
except in two instances where they happened to be covered by 
white carbonate of lime. 

Sphenacantlms Fifensis, n.sp. — Length of the largest specimen, 
5f inches ; greatest antero-posterior diameter, | inch ; implanted 
portion reaching up to 1 {; inches in front and 2£ inches behind ; 
form straight and tapering ; posterior area slightly concave, its 
margins showing traces of abraded denticles ; anterior margui of 
exserted portion formed by a sharp median ridge ; sides ornamented 
by straight ribs or rounded ridges, which increase in number 
proximally by bifurcation, and are not nodose. 

This spine, of which there are several specimens in the Walker 
Collection, Edinburgh Museum, differs from Sph. serrtdatiis, Ag., 
by the multiplication of the lateral ribs by bifurcation instead of 
intercalation. The want of nodosity' of these ribs is of no con- 
sequence, as the greatest difference occurs in this respect in different 
individuals of Sph. serrulatus, and also of the closely allied Coal- 
measure form Sph. hyhodoides (Egerton). In a hard calcareous 
sandstone from the coast east of St. Andrews. 

Coelacanthopsis curta, n. g. and sp. — Of this interesting fish only 
one specimen has been obtained, and that one is unfortunately 
deficient at the caudal extremity- What remains measures 2 inches 
in length, and in this the length of the head is contained three 
times, being also equal to the greatest depth. The head bones 
are crushed and scarcely decipherable. Vertebral axis notochordal ; 
abdominal region extending for ^ inch behind shoulder-girdle ; no 
ribs are seen, but there is distinct evidence of the ossified air-bladder 
characteristic of the Coelacanthidse. Neural arches united with the 
neural spines, which are long, very slender, and closely placed ; 
haemal arches and spines similar in condition and configuration. 
On the dorsal aspect and just above the termination of the abdominal 
cavity a set of slender interspinous bones commences, these being 
short at first but rapidly increasing in length, until they are as long 
as the neural spines, and then the fish suddenly breaks up about 
2 inches from the tip of the snout. Attached to the distal 
extremities of these interspinous bones are fin-rays, very short 
anteriorly, and still short at the point of truncation of the specimen. 
It is probable that similar elements existed on the hernial aspect 
of the skeleton, but have been lost. Paired fins not preserved, 
except a few imperfect rays where the ventrals ought to be. 
Indications of the presence of scales feeble. 

Strikingly new as this little fish is specifically, a word or two 
must be said as to its family and generic relationships. The ossified 
air-bladder and the configuration of its neural and hfemal arches 
and spines at once indicate that its family position is in the Coela- 
canthidfe, but its differences from any known genus of this famil}- 
are very strongly marked. We have, firstly, the abbreviated form of 
the fish, which is certainly not entirely due to post-mortem shortening 
up, as the skeletal parts in front of the place where the specimen 

DECADE IV. VOL. VIII. — Xo. III. 



114 Dr. R. H. Traquair — Fifeshire Carboniferous Fishes. 

is truncated lie nearly quite undisturbed ; secondly, the great pro- 
portional length of the neural and hgemal spines ; thirdly, ihe 
apparent absence of the two separate dorsal fins with their compound 
supporting ' axonosts,' characteristic of the Coelacanthidce. These 
may have been lost in the present specimen, but the tips of the 
neural spines come so close up to the dorsal margin that there 
would not have been room for the last-named elements if of the 
form prevalent in the genera of this family. Fourthly, the median 
fin which we see beginning just opposite the posterior termination 
of the abdominal cavity corresponds, in its relation to its supporting 
elements, to the caudal of Ccelacanthiis, but is immensely further 
forward in its commencement. It is unfortunate that, owing to 
the truncation of the fish shortly after the commencement of this 
fin, we cannot see the extremity of the tail, but enough is shown 
in the specimen to prove its novelty, both specific and generic. 
The acquisition of more perfect specimens is, however, urgently 
to be desired, as it is clear that if the dorsal fins with their compound 
axonosts are really wanting in this form a change must be made 
in the received definition of the Coelacanthidas, as well as of the 
Actinistian group of the Crossopterygii. 

From Ardross, collected by Mr. W. T. Kinneai*, and now in the 
Edinburgh Museum. 

Eucenlrnrus ■paradoxus, n. g. and sp. — This extraordinary little 
organism measures 2f inches in length, of which ^ inch may be allotted 
to the head, f inch to the body, and 1^ inch to the tail. The head 
is a mass of calcareous matter, in which something suggestive of 
a broad curved mandible can be seen, but admits of no further 
description. The body, f inch broad in front, is composed of a greyish 
film, which when examined by a strong lens is seen to consist 
entirely of minute, slender, slightly curved, and sharply pointed 
spinelets. The tail is tapering in form, consisting of amorphous- 
looking calcareous matter, but on each side (assuming that the 
creature is crushed vertically) is a conspicuous row of double 
spinelets arranged exactly opposite each other. From a common 
base arise two spinelets, which ai'e placed close together and nearly 
parallel to each other ; one of them, the anterior, being only half 
the length of the posterior one, which just behind the body may 
attain a length of -iVinch, though towards the end of the tail they 
become smaller; both of the spinelets are slender, slightly curved, 
round in transverse section, smooth externally, sharply pointed, and 
traversed internally by a central tubular pulp cavity. No trace 
either of internal skeleton, or of limbs, or fins of any sort can 
be seen. 

This strange organism is another of the problems of Palseozoic 
ichthyology, as it is scarcely possible to indicate its systematic 
position with any degree of certainty. The nature of its dermal 
armature would incline us to the belief that it is a Selachian, though 
all other evidence to that efi'ect is wanting. 

From Ardross, collected by Mr. W. T. Kinnear, and now in the 
Edinburgh Museum. 



Professor T. Rupert Jones — Hidory of Sarsens. 115 

V. — History op the Sarsens. 

By Professor T. Rupert Jones, F.R.S., F.G.S., etc. 

{f!o)icli(dedfromp. 59.) 

II. (8) iTeni.— 1862. Mr. W. H. Bensted, in the Geologist, vol. v 
(1862), pp. 449, 450, states : " The Druid Sandstone, of which 
Kit's Coty House, Stonehenge, and many other Druidical remains are 
composed, is found scattered in great blocks over the surface of the 
Chalk Hills, or buried superficially in beds of clay retained in the 
hollows on the summits of the escarpments." These stones, he 
added, are the same as the Grey wethers of Berks and Wilts ; and 
are occasionally pebbly, like the Hertfordshire Puddingstones. 

1872. In Fergusson's "Eude Stone Monuments," 1872, pp. 116- 
120, some of the best specimens of Sarsens that remain as relics 
of prehistoric monuments in Kent are noticed, especially those near 
Aylesford, on the Medway. 

1894. Thomas Wright, in his "Wanderings of an Antiquary, 
chiefly in the track of the Romans in Britain," 1894, pp. 17(5-178, 
describes in detail some large circular pits that have been filled 
with flints and capped with broad Sarsens, on Aylesford Common ; 
these, he thought, were probably sepulchral, and may have had 
a chamber opening out of the side at the bottom. 

1900. Some small Sarsens from the gravel of the Darent at 
Shoreham, in Kent, show many perforations of rootlets. — E.. A. B. 

(9) Surrey.— 1'&14:. T. Webster: Trans. Geol. Soc, vol. ii, 
pp. 224, 225. At Pirbright, Surrey, loose blocks of stone similar to 
what have been called Grey wethers. Many loose masses of this rock 
lie scattered on the surface of the Chalk country, particularly in 
Berkshire and Wiltshire. Stonehenge chiefly composed of it, and 
found on the spot. No doubt close resemblance to the siliceous 
cement of the Hertfordshire Puddingstone. 

1847. J. Prestwich. The position of the Sarsen Stones in the 
Bagshot Sands : Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. iii, p. 382. In the 
Lower Bagshot Sands, " a few concretionary masses of saccharine 
sandstone, which are more compact and harder than those in the 
Upper Sands," and by no iiieans so abundant. " Sandstone 
concretions at o " in the diagram, fig. 3, of Frimley Kidge, in the 
UiDper Sands, at p. 382. 

1876. The Sarsens in the artificially picturesque rockery of the 
waterfall at the east end of Virginia Water are said to have been 
brought from the neighbouring heath ; and those of the adjoining 
cavern or grotto from a cromlech there. Murray's " Handbook of 
Surrey," 2nd ed., p. 137. 

1895. A Sarsen-stone footbridge over a streamlet at Frimley 
Green, Surrey, carries the footpath from the fields on one side of the 
stream that runs down a lane, to the path along the other side of 
the little stream, which runs beside the lane from Frimley Green, 
and across some fields to the border of Surrey and Hants near the 
Farnborough Station. The length of the l)ridge-stone is 4^^ or 
5 feet; the width is about 21 feet equally all along; thickness 



116 Professor T. Ruperf Jones — History of Sarsens. 

varies from 6 to 9 inches. The stones supporting the bridge and 
bank are laid regularly ; they are all Sarsens, and others lie about 
irregularly. One lies near the fence just beyond the path on the 
further side of the bridge. — C. T. E. Jones. 

1898. H. W. Monckton, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. liv, 
pp. 185-193, treating of some gravels in the Bagshot district, notes 
that Sarsens occur at the base of these gravels, which are of the 
Glacial Period, and were probably of fluviatile origin. Sarsens 
with rootlet marks occur at Easthampstead. He doubts if any 
Sarsens occur in the Upper Bagshots, and supposes that probably 
most were derived from the Woolwich and Eeading Sands. All the 
Sarsens must have been water- worn, or weather-worn before thej"^ 
were left in the gravel. 

N.B. — At Camberley, in North Surrey, a Sarsen having a partial 
polish on one of its sides was noticed, and the polish is ascribed to 
the contact and rubbing of the dried stems of grasses and other 
plants (with siliceous tissue) moved by the wind. — T, E. J, 

In Buckinghamshire Mr. Upfield Green, F.G.S., has observed both 
pebbles and prominences on pudding stones, smoothed and' polished, 
on the sides of water holes, in the Brickearth near Great Missenden. 

1900. Sarsen at Ballard's Farm, Croydon, a white saccharoidal 
sandstone with siliceous cement. Dr. G. J. Hinde has kindly given 
me the following notes on this large typical Sarsen near Croydon, 
which is visited by geological classes from London. Its dimensions 
are: length 4 ft. 10 ins. ; width at one end 2 ft. 9 ins., at the other 
2 feet ; thickness at one end 1 ft. 8 ins., at the other 11 inches, and at 
another place 14 inches. It lies in a grass field on Ballard's Farm, 
on the south side of the bridle-path leading from Ballard's Lodge to 
the Addington Hills ; and near to the outcrop of the sand-and- 
pebble beds of the Woolwich and Eeading Series, of which indeed 
it is probably a concreted portion, like the similar blocks in the 
Caterham Valley. 

(10) Hampshire.— 18Q2. Captain H. Blundell (Staff College) 
noticed a large Sarsen in a ploughed field, about 4 miles from 
Winchester and 1 mile from Martyr Westley Eectory. It is 12 feet 
long, 10 broad, and 8 deep, " and bears a strong polish on a great 
part of one side," glaciated or polished by the friction of siliciferous 
stems of wheat. " The other side is hollowed out apparenth^ 
by water." ^ 

1898. Mr. A. E. Salter has seen a Sarsen in the gravel at Lee-on- 
the-Solent (Stubbington) : Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. liv, p. 194. 

(11) BerTcshire. — 1787. Daines Barrington made some remarks 
on the Greywethers in Berkshire {Archoeologia, iii, p. 442). 

1813. In W. Mavor's " Eeport on the Agriculture of Berkshire," 
1813, at pp. 34, 35. The Sarsen Stones, or Greywethers as the 
country people call them, are irregularly scattered over the Berk- 
shire and Wiltshire Downs. They are pretty numerous in a valley 
near Ashdown Park and on the road from thence to Lambourn. 

1 See also Lieut. -Col. Nicolls on '* Sarseus," Southampton, 1866: Geol. Mag.,. 
Vol. Ill, pp. 296-298, PL XIII. 



Professor T. Rupert Jonea — Hkfory of Sarmis. 117 

1854. T. Eupert Jones, in a lecture on the Geology of Newbury, 
treated of the occurrence of "the great blocks of Druiilstone, 
■Grey wethers, or Sarsen-stones as the onhj remaining wreck of the 
Lower Tertiaries of this area" ; and further broken up in the gravel 
of the vicinity. 

1869. J. Adams, in a lecture on the Geology of Newbury 
(newspaper, December, 1869), referred to a traditional trace of an 
ancient cromlech near Hangmanstone, for people say that there 
was a cave made of large stones, but it was pulled to pieces by 
the farmer. 

1869. The Sarsens of Berkshire now existing as relics of pre- 
historic monuments, especially in Wayland Smith's Cave, and the 
groups in Ashdown Park, are the subject of a paper by Mr. A. L. 
Lewis in the Trans. Internat. Congress of Prehistoric Archseol. at 
Norwich, 1869, pp. 37-46. See also Fergusson's '• Rude Stone 
Monuments," 1872, pp. 121, etc. 

1887. Mr. Walter Money, F.S.A., referring to Sarsen Stones 
in letters, notes that a writer in the Gentleman's Magazine for 
1760 mentions that two Roman milliaria or milestones were to be 
seen near Aldworth ; and this statement is confirmed by Hearne, 
Rows Mores, and other authors. " These milliaria are now to be 
seen" (says the writer in the Gent. Mag.) "between Streteley 
and Alder, one of which lies a mile from Streteley, and by countrj' 
people is supposed to be placed by the Giants (as they call them) in 
Alder [Aldworth] Church." He refers to the monumental effigies of 
the De la Beche family. A few years ago I investigated this subject 
for the late Mr. Thompson Watkin, of Liverpool, and found that one 
of these milliaria stood, not so many years ago, between Westridge 
Farm (two miles from Streatley) and Aldworth, in a bank, and 
that it was a large Sarsen Stone ; and another I heard of as being 
seen in Kiddington Bottom, one mile west of Streatley. One of 
these, I learned, had been broken up for road-metal, and the other 
was said to have been taken away by a gentleman at Wallingford 
to be placed on his lawn. 

Another statement is that many years ago the stone was taken 
from its original position by the side of the Roman via from 
Westridge to Streatley, and removed to a more convenient spot 
about a quarter of a mile distant, where probably it still remains. 
This stone, of Kisrantic size, was removed by the occupier of the 
farm at Westridge with a team of eight horses. 

There is still a very large Sarsen Stone by the side of the Roman 
way from Newbury to Streatley, between Ilainpstead Norris and 
Aldworth, which was probably used as a milliarium. It is curious 
that in Brittany and other places on the Continent, as well as m 
England, where prehistoric stone structures are found, that^there 
are stories of the imprints of giants' hands or feet, as the Friar's 
Heel at Stonehenge ; and there is a story told at Aldworth at 
the present day, that one of these milliaria (that in Ki.ldington 
Bottom), between Aldworth and Streatley, had been thrown hitlior 
by one of the Aldworth giants, and that the print of the giant s 



118 Professor T. Rupert Jones — History of Sarsens. 

.hand, made when he grasped the stone, may yet be distinctly 
seen. This corroborates the writer of the account in the Gent. Mag» 
of 1760. 

Last year, on going over the Lambourn Downs, I was struck by 
seeing a huge Sarsen Stone, evidently roughly squared, about 5 feet 
out of the ground, by the side of the road. It has every appearance 
of a milestone of the last century ; and on examining its face next 
to the road, I found that a flat face or panel had been cut as if to 
receive a plate or letters ; but neither Mr. Barnes, who was with 
me, nor myself could trace any letters at all. There is little doubt 
that this is a Eoman milestone, as this ancient road leads direct to 
TJffington Castle and White-horse Hill. This stone is called 
' Hangman's Stone,' the same story being told about it as of the 
Haugmanstone near Chaddleworth, and about similar stones else- 
where in England. The stone (4' 6" long, V wide, and 1' 6" high 
at each end) in Hangmanstone Lane is lying down, but the Lambourn 
stone is vertical as with ordinary milestones. It is not known as 
a boundary stone. 

There are a great number of Sarsen Stones in the neighbourhood 
of Ashbury, at the western extremity of Berks, on the northern 
slope of the Downs, where they enter this county from Wiltshire ; 
and it is singular that hamlets in this parish have the names of 
Id-stone, Od-stone, and King - stone Winslow, and just beyond is 
the parish of Bishop-stone (Wilts). Possibly the boundaries of 
these places were indicated by stones, presumably Sarsens, from 
their being so abundant at hand. 

At Lambourn the boundary wall of the churchyard is built of 
Sarsens ; some of them are 5 feet in height. Others are used as 
stepping-stones and for margins in the Bourn at Upper Lambourn. 

Large Sarsens are still visible close to some old churches, as at 
Compton Beauchamp, East Shefford, and Merlstone, a tithing of 
Bucklebury ; and they may be remains of material accumulated 
for pagan temples, at places now occupied by Christian churches. 

" There was, and probably is, a row or avenue of Sarsen Stones 
in Whiteknights Park, Eeading, leading to the Wilderness, which 
were said to have been supplied by the Kennet Eiver Navigation, 
in early times, from the neighbourhood of Hungerford and 
Marlborough."— W. M. 

1887. J. E. Hedges. There are many Sarsen Stones collected 
by Mr. Hedges for grotto-work at Wallingford Castle. Some are 
perforated by rootlet marks. 

1887. Numei'ous Sarsens, small and of irregular shape (probabl}' 
from the gravel in the neighbourhood), are arranged around a flower- 
bed at Theale Eailway Station. — T. E. J. 

Dr. Silas Palmer noted several large Sarsens observable at Hill 
Green, about 1 mile west of Leckhampstead Street, which is 6 miles 
nearly north of Winterbourne, 1 mile south-west of Peasemore, 
and about 2 miles north-east of Poughley in Welford Wood, and 
2 miles north-east of the Hangmanstone in Hangmanstone Lane. 
These are cared for by Mr. Harold Peake, of Westbrook House,. 



« 



Professor T. Rupert Jones — Bistort/ of Sarsens. 119 

Boxford ; and Mr. Walter Money regards tliem as probablj^ remnants 
of a chambered Long Room. 

1887. In 1887 a buried or subterranean group of large Sarsens 
was discovered by Mr. liobert Walker at Middle Hole, a quarter 
of a mile north-west of Middle Farm,' about 2 miles north of 
Lambourn. Mr. F. J. Bennett (of the Geological Survey) gives the 
following description in his letters : — 

A large leaning or nearly prostrate stone at the top of the group 
of stones had probably once been vertical, but had fallen down. 
The stones had been placed in a round pit-like hole, extending at 
least 10 feet north and south of the central stone (once upright). 

A square excavation, more than 20 feet deep, was made, and some 
hundred Sarsens were taken out, weighing from a quarter to six 
hundredweight each ; and there were left in the hole some stones of 
from 3 to 7 tons weight. In the hole the stones were iu three 
irregular piles. The central heap rested on a very large flat stone ; 
the others were at the two sides. The intervals were occupied by 
a stiff reddish clay with pottery, burnt and broken bones, wood- 
ashes, and burnt earth. There is a large flat stone lying in the 
valley not far off. 

This north and south valley, or rather combe, in which this 
accumulation of Sarsens was found, has been cut down by 
denudation through the ' Chalk-rock ' and the ' Melbourne Rock,' 
both recognizable in the side-slopes, and is floored with ' chalk- 
rubble.' 

This does not appear to be one of the deep, well-like pits, lined 
with stones, tiles, clay, or wood, excavated for the purpose of 
marking boundaries in Roman times. It may have been sepulchral ; 
for Thomas Wright, in his "Wanderings of an Antiquary, chiefly iu 
the track of the Romans in Britain," 1894, pp. 176-178, describes 
in detail some large circular pits that have been filled with flints, 
and capped with broad Sarsens, on Aylesford Common ; these, he 
thought, were probably sepulchral, and may have had a chamber 
opening out of the side at the bottom. (See ante, p. 115.) 

1892. "A trail of large blocks of sarseustone is prolonged by 
Hagbourne village to a line about 100 feet lower, on to the outcrop 
of the Upper Greensand. Other slopes along these Downs exhibit 
similar trails of sarseustone." (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, xlviii, 
1892, p. 313.) 

At Newbury, Sarsens are frequent in the ' pitched ' crossings of 
pavements at openings of yards; some are paved with squared setts. 
Worn, subangular, small Sarsens are plentiful in the gravel-pit 
south of the town. — T. R. J. 

189G. W. Whitaker refers to the Sarsens at Streatley : 1 roc. 
Geol. Assoc, vol. xiv, p. 175. 

(12) Wiltshire.— 17(^7. Sir Joseph Banks, in his "Journal ot an 
Excursion to Eastbury and Bristol, etc., in May and June, 17G< 
(reproduced with notes by S. G. Perceval in the rroceedings ot 

1 Eeferred to at p. 149 of pt. i. 1SS6. 



120 Professor T. Rupert Jones — History of Sarseiis. 



the Bristol Naturalists' Society, new series, vol. ix, pt. i, 1898), 
refers to the Sarsen Stones as follows : " Observed between Silbury 
and Marlborough the Stones called Grey weathers, which in one 
particular valley were scattered about in great numbers on the 
surface of the ground. The people in that neighbourhood were 
breaking great numbers of them, either to mend the roads or build 
houses, which gave me an opportunity of examining them and 
bringing away some pieces, which I found to be of a very hard 
and fine-grained Sand Stone. Whether it is found in beds in any 
part of this countrey I will not venture to say, but remember that 
some time ago, in seeing General Conway's place near Henley 
[Oxfordshire], I saw a large heap of such stones, some of them of an 
immense size ; and, on asking where they were got from, was told 
that they were found scattered all over that countrey, lying on the 
stratum over the Chalk at different depths, and that those I saw had 
been got togethei*, at a large expence, for some work to be done in 
the General's grounds — I think a bridge." 

N.B. — This heap of large Sarsens must not be confused with the 
dolmen from Jersey reconstructed by General Conway in his 
grounds in the same locality, for the latter was necessarily only 
of granitic and such like rocks, native to Jersey. See also " The 
Channel Islands," by W. T. Austin & E. G. Latham, 1862; 
J. Fergusson's "Rude Stone Monuments," 1872, pp. 51, 52; and 
W. C. Lukis in the Trans. Internat. Congress Prehistoric Archasol. 
Norwich, 1869, p. 221. 

1833. In the Gentlemari's Magazine, vol. ciii, p. 542, is a notice 
of a paper read by Dr. G. T. Clark to the Bristol Philosophical 
Society, in which he alludes to the " Grey weathers " as being 
" scattered over the Chalky Downs of Wiltshire." 

1863. W. H. Hudleston, in the Proc. Geol. Assoc, vol. vii, p. 138, 
gives a succinct account of the four kinds of stones that constitute 
the concentric rings of Stonehenge. The huge Sarsens composing 
the outer ring he described as consisting of a compact quartzose 
rock, derived from the Tertiary Sands. " These are, in fact, siliceous 
doggers or concretionary slabs of enormous size, which have hardened 
in situ [in their original beds], and have resisted the atmospheric 
agencies of destruction. Several fragments were picked up of this 
material, which seemed to bear the marks of roots or something 
of the sort. It is by no means improbable, therefore, that the 
decomposition of vegetable matter, and consequent formation of 
humus, and the various organic acids which arise from its gradual 
alteration into carbonic acid, may have had something to do with 
the concretionary action. The influence of these organic acids on 
silica has been the subject of interesting investigations in America." 

1871. Dr. Joseph Stevens, "On the Geology of North Hamp- 
shire," mentions the occurrence of a Greywether grindstone at 
St. Mary Bourne, Wilts. (Trans. Newbury District Field Club, 
vol. i, p. 86.) 

1874. C. E. Davy, in a paper contributed to the Newbury 
District Field Club, "Letcombe Castle," 1874, p. 23, describes 



I 



Professor T. Rupert Jones — Il'n^fory of Sarsen^. Til 

a naturally-shaped, angular, pyi-amidal, water-worn fragment of 
Sarsen Stone as a prehistoric sacred stone. 

1876. A critical account of the lithology of Stonehenge, by 
N. Story Maskelyne, was published in the Wilts Archaiol. Nat. 
Hist. Soc, Mag., vol. xvii, pp. 149, etc. 

1881. With regard to the carrying and raising large blocks of 
stone, the late Dr. V. Ball gave details and an illustrative plate of 
the method used among the hill-tribes of India. (" Economic Geology 
of India," 1881, p. 544, pi. viii ; see also note in Pt. i, 188G, p. 125.) 

1887. In a Reading newspaper (July 29, 1887) it was stated 
that at Wardour Castle " the picturesque grounds are ornamented 
with a pretty grotto and rockery, constructed from a number of 
curious-shaped stones, which formed a prehistoric circle at Totbury," 
said to have been at or near Place Farm. This circular work is 
recorded as having had a large central stone, 12 feet high and 4 feet 
wide. (Britton's Topog. and Hist. Descript. Wilts, 1814 ; and 
W. H. Jones, Wilts Mag., vol. vii, 1863.) 

1887. The Stones of Stonehenge were the subject of Mr. W. 
Whitaker's remarks in the Proc. Geol. Assoc, vol. ix, p. 530. 
'• Dividing them roughly into two sets, the natives and the foreigners 
{the former, of course, being the bigger), the latter are mostly of 
igneous rocks, and must have been brought from a long distance ; 
the largest of these, the altar stone, is a sandstone, but unlike any 
sandstone of the neighbourhood. The natives are all greywether- 
sandstone, or Sarsen stones which have been shown to be derived 
from some of the older Tertiary beds, here probably from the 
Bagshot Sand, which in these western parts comes nearer to the 
Chalk than further east. Their occurrence, therefore, points to 
a vast denudation of Tertiary beds, masses of clays and sands, tliat 
once spread far and wide over the now bare plateau of Chalk, 
having been slowly swept away, leaving behind only those hardened 
parts of the sands, that could withstand the denuding agents, as 
witnesses of the former extension of the beds." 

1890. Treating of some constructions by a prehistoric (Neolithic) 
people in Wiltshire, Mr. F. J. Bennet alludes to the abundant local 
occurrence of Sarsens ("Sketch History of Marlborough in Neolithic 
Times," March, 1892, pp. 4, 8). He also indicates how Sarsens were 
used by the Neolithic folk in the boundary walls of the terraces of 
cultivatable ground in Wiltshire. That they were used afterwards 
in the building of houses, castles, churches, etc., is well known. 

1894. Pebbles and flint-breccia in some Sarsens from Marlborough 
Forest in Professor Prestwich's collection, seen July, 1S94. 

1896. From Avebury a white saccharoidal sandstone, with 
siliceous cement, and containing an irregular, coarse, brush-like 
group of sub-parallel, tubular, and filamentous cavities, probably 
due to rootlets, stained with iron oxide. — F. Chapman. 

1901. The block that fell this Winter at Stonehenge contains 
a layer of flints. It is No. 17 L (the lintel) of the map of Stonehenge 
by the Archaeological Society of Wiltshire. — W. Cunmugtou, 
January 9, 1901. 



122 Professor T. Riiperi Jones — History of Sarsens. 

(13) Dorset. — 1842. J. Sydenham : " Baal Durotrigensis : 
A Dissertation on the Antient Colossal Figure at Cerne,. Dorset- 
shire, etc.," 1842. In a footnote at p. 18, the Sarsens at Little 
Mayne (referred to at pp. 136 and 161 of ray paper in the Wilts 
Mag., 1886) are recognized as relics of circles and parts of avenues. 

1871. E. H. W. Dukin, " Megalithic Eemains in South Dorset," 
in the Eeliq. Quart. Archeeol. Journ. and Review, 1871, 
pp. 12-15 (separate copy), refers to the stones at Little Mayne. 
Mr. C. Warne also (1872) notices those old stones in his " Antient 
Dorset," quoting Sydenham's " Baal Durotrigensis." 

1871. Poxwell, Pogswell, or Pockswell, is a village about 
5 miles north-east of Weymouth, on the Wareham Road, and at 
about a quarter of a mile south-east of the church is a small circle 
of rough Sarsens, brown in colour, with much quartz-crystals in 
cavities. The stones are much split on the surfaces in squarish 
irregular segments, with something like gaping fissures. (Dukin, 
1871, and T. R. J. 1887.) 

Amongst the Sarsens of Dorset, many of them now relics of 
ancient structures, but originally scattered over the surface of the 
country, there are evidently many conglomerates. The grooved, 
or probably holed and broken, stone at Tennant Hill Circle, consists 
of a "hard puddingstone or conglomerate" (Dukin, 1871, p. 12). 
The circle at Winterbourne Abbas is described (ibid., pp. 4 and 5), 
partly after Stukeley ; and it is stated there are " ten stones of 
a very hard sort, full of flints ; the tallest to west eight feet high, 
the north seven feet broad, six feet high " (op. cit., p. 5). The 
usual ridiculous belief in devil handiwork still exists in Dorset 
and Cornwall (op. cit., p. 9). 

1887. At Fordington Green, Dorchester, at the east end, at the 
corner of a house bearing the Ordnance Survey Bench-mark, is 
a Sarsen ; the top is three-faced (4 feet where widest, and 2 ft. 7 ins. 
high), the sides rounded. This stone some people removed not very 
long ago, but others had it brought back and replaced. — T. R. J. 

(14) Somerset. — 1888. Many Sarsens in the country around 
Taunton along the roads and lanes, and in villages at corners, farm- 
gates, etc. 

In the Castle grounds at Taunton, in the gardens of the 
Archaeological Society, there is a Sarsen that has been set up as 
a memorial stone to one of their officers. It is somewhat triangular 
in outline, 4 ft. 6 ins. high, and 6 ft. 2 ins. at its widest part near the 
base. Smoothly rounded and irregularly pitted on one face, and flat 
(apparently split) on the other. It bears a tablet with inscription 
to the memory of W. A. Jones, who was Secretary to the Society for 
20 years. It also refers to the donation for buying the grounds for 
the Society, made by the friends of Mr. W. A. Jones. — W. Bidgood. 

1888. Numerous Sarsens are passed on the road from Taunton 
for about 10 miles to Staple Fitzpaine, where in a hedge-bank are 
several such stones, one of which, 5 feet long, and 4 feet high or 
thick, above ground, with its surface rounded and water-worn, is 
locally known as the ' Devil's Stone ' ; for, having knowledge of the 



Professor T. Rupert Jones — Iltsfori/ of Sarseus. 12'5 

intended building of a cliuvch there, be gathered a few rocks as he 
came thither, but, getting tired, slept on the bank, until he awoke 
in the morning, and to his astonishment saw the fine tower of the 
church already up and finished. In his hurry to get up, his satchel 
broke, the stones fell out, and one in particular remains there now ! 
This is the most western of the Sarsens that I know of. — T. R. J. 

The microscopic structure of a piece of one of the blocks at or 
near Staple Fitzpaiue, which had the appearance of a Sarsen, is thus 
described by Mr. Fred. Chapman, A.L.S. :— " This rock is largely 
composed of angular and subangular chips of quartz and chert, 
cemented by a kind of paste of fine quartz sand and limonite. 
The included fragments are very variable in size, the angular 
predominating over the subangular. A fair proportion of the 
fragments are of secondary quartz ; some clear, others with strings 
of gas-cavities. There are a few chips of a somewhat brecciated 
rock, not unlike a decomposed rhyolite in character. There is at 
least one fragment of flint in the section examined. The chert 
fragments, possibly of Cenomanian age, contain a few examples of 
Globigerina cretacea. One of the larger pieces included in this 
Sarsen (?) is a chert, crowded with Radiolaria, in a generally good 
state of preservation, some of the organisms bearing long spmes 
beset with smaller spines. Dr. G. J. Hinde, who has been good 
enough to examine the slide, thinks that there is not enough 
evidence for the identification of genera, but that the chert is most 
probabl}' of Palceozoic age." 

1888. In the Museum of the Bath Institute I saw a somewhat 
water-worn block of light-coloured saccharoidal sandstone, looking 
very much like a Sarsen; chips of this stone show an ochreous tint 
and siliceous cement. The Rev. H. H. Winwood, F.G.S., Honorary 
Curator of the Museum, informs me that it came from the Victoria 
Gravel-pit, on the right of the Somerset and Dorset Railway, where 
the road crosses the line at South Hill. It measures 33 inches in 
length, 16 inches where it is broadest, and 4 to 7 inches in thickness. 
With other similar blocks it lay at the base of the gravel on the blue 
Lias clay. At first he was inclined to regard it as having been 
derived from the Millstone Grit of the Wick and Bristol district ; 
but he has since seen sarsenic pebbles and blocks in the Gravel, and 
he noticed a large Sarsen at the Westbury Ironworks. Near Uown- 
head, in the Mendips, he has observed numerous siliceous blocks 
having the appearance of Sarsens; but others just like them lying 
on the north slope of the Mendips at Ashwick, contain Liassic fossils. 
Great caution, therefore, is necessary in determining these somewhat 
similar siliceous blocks of Pala30zoic, Secondary, and lertiary age 

respectively. — H. H. W. , , • i ^ j 

(15) Devon.— In 1822 Dr. Buckland described the large, isolated, 
siliceous blocks, scattered about on the hills near Sidmouth, as being 
much like the Hertfordshire Puddingstone, but having the mcliuiecl 
flint "mostly angular" and not rounded. In 182G he referred to 
these in Devon, and others in Dorset and elsewhere, as being tne 
same as the recognized Greywethers. (Trans. Geol. Soc, ser. ii, 
vol. ii, pp. 12G, 127.) 



124 Professor T. Rupert Jones — History of Sarsens. 

Bibliographic List of Works treating of Sarsens, 
Corrected, Enlarged, and Continued from the Wilts Mag., 1886, 

pp. 153, 154:. 

1644. Richard Symonds' Diary of the Marches Ivcpt by the Royal Army, etc. 

Edited by C. E. Long for the Camdeu Society, 1859, p. 151. 
1656-84. John Aubrey's Nat. Hist. Wiltshire. Edited by J. Brittou, 1847, p. 44. 
1656-84. John Aubrey. The Topographical Collections, etc., by J. E. Jackson, 

1862, p. 314. 
.1673. Marlborough Corporation Accounts, by F. A. Carriugton. Wiltshire 

Archasological and Natural History Society's Magazine, vol. iii (1857), 

p. 111. 
1787. Daines Barrington. Archa3ologia, vol. viii, p. 442. 

1813. W. Mavor. Report on the Agriculture of Berkshire, pp. 34, 35. 

1814. T. Webster. Trans. Geol. Soc. London, vol. ii, pp. 224, 225. 

1819. G. B. Greenough. Critical Examination of the First Principles of Geology, 

pp. 112 and 293. 
1823. W. Buckland. Reliquiae DiluviansB, p. 248. 
1833. W. D. Conybeare and G. T. Clark. Gentleman's Magazine, vol. ciii, 

pt. 2, p. 452. 
1833. G. A. Mantell. Geology of the South-East of England, pp. 48-50. 
1836. W. Buckland and H. De la Beche. Trans. Geol. Soc, ser. ii, vol. iv, p. 4. 
1847. J. Prestwich. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. iii, p. 382. 
1852-3. W. Cunnington. Devizes Gazette, June, 1852, and June, 1853. Quoted 

by W. Long, Wilts Mag., vol. iv (1858), p. 334, etc. 
1854. J. Prestwich. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (paper read May, 1853), vol. x, 

p. 123, etc. 
1854. T. R. Jones. Lecture on the Geological History of the Vicinity of Newbury, 

Berks, p. 21. 
1858. W. Long. On Abury. Wilts Mag., vol. iv, p. 334, etc, quoting 

W. Cunuiugton. 

1858. A. C. Ramsay and others. Mem. Geol. Surv., Explan. Sheet 34, p. 41, etc. 

1859. A. C. Ramsay and others. Catal. Rock -Specimens, etc., Mus. Pract. 

Geol., 2nd ed., p. 288. 
1859. G. P. Scrope. Wilts Mag., vol. v, p. 110. 

1859. J. L. Ross (quoting R. Faulkner). Ibid., p. 168. 

1860. R. Hunt. Mem. Geol. Surv. Great Britain, Mining Statistics, p. 167. 

1861. E. Hull, W. Whitaker, aud others. Mem. Geol. Surv., Explan. Sheet 13, 

p. 47, etc. 

1862. H. W. Bristow and W. Whitaker. Ibid., Explan. Sheet 12, p. 51, etc. 
1862. A. C. Ramsay and others. Catal. Rock- Specimens, etc., Mxis. Pract. 

Geol., 3rd ed., p. 163. 

1862. "W. Whitaker. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xviii, p. 271, etc. 

1862. "W. H. Bensted. Geologist, vol. v, pp. 449, 450. 

1863. 0. Fisher. Geologist, vol. vi, p. 30. 

1864. W. Whitaker. Mem. Geol. Surv., Explan. Sheet 7, p. 71, etc. 

1865. T. Codrington. Wilts Mag., vol. ix, p. 167, etc 

1866. W. Long (quoting W. Cunnington's paper of 1865, which was not printed 

in full). Wilts Mag., vol. x, p. 71, etc. 
1866. A. C. Smith. Wilts Mag., vol. x, p. 52, etc 

1866. W. T. Nicolls. Geol. Mag., Vol. Ill, p. 296, etc. 

1867. G. Maw. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxiii, pp. 110, 112, 113. 

1868. J. Adams. Lecture on the Geology of the Country around Newbury. 

JSfeivhurij Neivs, December, 1868. 

1869. A.L.Lewis. Trans. Internat. Congress Prehist. Archteol. for 1868, p. 43. 
1869. John Adams. Wilts Mag., vol. xi, pp. 274, 277, etc. 

1869. W. Cunnington. Ibid., p. 348. 

1869. Anon. (Stukeley's notes.) Ibid., p. 344. 

1870. T. Codrington. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxv, p. 535. 

1871. J. Adams. Trans. Newbury District Field Club, vol. i, pp. 104-107, 151. 

1872. J. Fergusson. Rude Stone "Monuments, pp. 92, 95. 

1872. W. Whitaker. Mem. Geol. Surv., vol. iv, pp. 309, 323, etc. 



A. B. IlHut—Tlic A<je of the Earth. 120. 

1873. J. Adams. Geol. Mag., Vol. X, n. 198, etc. 

1873. T. 0. Ward. Geol. Mag., Vol. X, p. 425. 

1874. Joseph Stevens. Twenty-tirst Auuual Report, Brighton and Sussex Nat. 

Hist. Soc., p. 14, etc. (read October 9th, 1874). 
1874. R. F[alkner]. Geol. Mag., Dec. II, Vol. I, p. 96. 

1874. Bryan King. (Stukeley's notes.) Wilts Mag., vol. xiv, p. 230. 

1875. Joseph Stevens. Jonrn. Proc. Winchester' and Hampshire Scient. Lit. 

Soc, vol. i, pt. 4, p. 224, etc. (read March 9th, 1874). 
1875. Joseph Stevens. Report of the Marlborough College Nat. Hist. Soc. 

1875. T. Rupert Jones. Geol. Mag., Dec. II, Vol. II, p. 588. 

1876. T. Rupert Jones. Ibid., Vol. Ill, p. 523. 

1876. N. Story Maskelvne. Wilts Archajol. and Nat. Hist. Soc. Mao-., v„i. ^vii 

p. 149. 
1876. E. T. Stevens. Jottings on Stonehcuge, etc. (i)rivatclv printed). 

pp. 128, 205, etc. ^ i - i /. 

1876. W. Long (([uoting Symonds, 1G44). Wilts Mag., vol. xvi, p. 68, etc. 
1876. H. B. Woodward. Geologv ot England and Wales, pp. 252, 363 ; 

2nd ed. (1887), p. 449. 
1878. A. C. Ramsay. Phys. Geol. Geogr. Gt. Brit., 5th ed., p. 350. 
1878. T. Rupert Jones, trans. Newbury Dist. Field Club, vol. ii, p. 248. 

1880. A. Irving. Nat. Hist. Sandhurst, pp. 80, 87. 

1881. J. A. Phillips. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxsvii, p. 18. 

1881. T. Rupert Jones. Proc. Geol. Assoc, vol. vi, pp. 330, 436-7. 

1882. A. Geikie. Textbook of Geologv, p. 342 ; 2nd ed. (1885), p. 329. 

1883. W. H. Hudleston. Proc Geol." Assoc, v(d. vii, p. 138. 

1884. A. C. Smitli. Guide to the Antiquities of North Wilts, pp. 27, 28, 127-9, 

134, 150, 211. 

1885. W. Carruthers. Geol. Mag., Dec. Ill, Vol. II, p. 361, etc. 

1884. A. Irving. Report Brit. Assoc. Meeting in 1883, p. 505. 

1885. A. Irving. Proc. Geol. Assoc, vol. viii, pp. 156-160. 

1885. W. Whitaker. Geology of the Country around Ipswich, Hadleigli, and 

Felixstowe, pp. 9, 15, 16, 94, etc. Mem. Geol. Surv. 

1886. T. Rupert Jones. Historv of the Sarsens. Wilts Arclneol. and Nat. Hist. 

Soc. Mag., No. 68, December, 1886, vol. xxiii, pp. 122-154. 
1887- A. Irving. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, voL xliii, p. 380. 

1887. W. Whitaker. Proc. Geol. Assoc, vol. ix. p. 53(i. 

1888. T. G. B(mney. Geol. Mag., Dec III, Vol. V, p. UW. 

1891. H. B. Woodward. Geol. Mag., Dec. Ill, Vol. VIII, pp. 101-121. 
1894. J. Prestwich's Collection. Conglomerate and Flint ]5rcccia from Marl- 
borough. 

1896. W. V,''hitaker. Proc. GeoL Assoc, vol. xiv, p. 175. 

1897. Percy Richards. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. liii, pp. 421, 426. 

1897. A. Irving. Proc. Geol. Assoc, vol. xv, p. 196. 

1898. A. Irving. Proc. Geol. Assoc, vol. xv, p. 236. 

1898. A. E. Salter. Quart. .lourn. Geol. Soc, vol. liv, p. 194. 

1898. H. W. Monckton. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. liv, pp. 185-193. 

1898. W. Whitaker. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. liv, j). 193. 

1898. W. H. Shrubsole. Quart. Jom-n. Geol. Soc, vol. liv, p. 194. 

1900. H. W. Monckton. Proc Crovdon ^Micros, and Nat. Hist. Club, p. xv. 

1900. T. E. Lones. Trans. Herts Nat. Hist. Soc, vol. x, pp. 160, 162. 

1900. II. B. Woodward. Geol. Mao., Dec IV, Vol. VII, p. 543. 

1901. J. W. Judd. Geol. Mag., Dec IV, Vol. VIII, p. 1. 



VI. — The Age of the Earth and the Sodium of the Sea.' 
By Arthuk R. Hunt, M.A., F.G.S. 

PROFESSOR J. JOLY, iu his interesting paper estimating the 
geological age of the earth from the amount of sodium 
contained in the sea,' mentions in an appendi.K seven possible errors 
which may render his estimate a minimum, and seven others which 
may render it a maximum. Neither among the former errors 
' Trans. Rov. Dublin Soc, vol. vii (1399), p. 23. 



126 A. R Hunt— The Age of the Earth. 

guarded against in the appendix, nor in the body of the paper, 
does there appear any reference to the possibility of sea- water being 
absorbed by the surface rocks of the globe, either by capillary 
attraction, as maintained by Daubree, or by means of fissures, as 
contended by De la Beche. 

The possibility — nay, the probability — of sea-water obtaining 
access to the deep-seated and heated regions of the globe was 
admitted by Lyell, De la Beche, and Daubree, and by other 
eminent geologists ; and although to a large extent neglected at the 
present time, the arguments in favour of the hypothesis seem 
worth considering. 

My own attention was attracted to the subject as follows : — From 
1879 to 1889 inclusive, I wrote seven papers on the detached blocks 
which lie strewn on the bottom of the English Channel. The 
primary object of the enquiry was to ascertain whether the blocks 
represented a prolongation of the Dartmoor granite, as commonly 
supposed, and whether they were in any way related to the meta- 
morphic rocks of the neighbouring headlands of the Start, the 
Prawle, and the Bolt. 

I commenced the investigation in the full expectation that the 
connection with Dartmoor would be proved at once. 

I secured thirty-four crystalline rocks from the Channel, and 
a large collection from Dartmoor. Not a single speck of tourmaline 
or crystal of chloride of sodium did I detect in the twenty granites 
and gneisses from the Channel ; while not a single slice from 
Dartmoor failed to indicate chlorides, and very few of the Dartmoor 
rocks from which they were cut (if any) were without tourmaline. 
The fluid inclusions in the Channel rocks were of a different type 
from those in the Dartmoor rocks. The two series of rocks seemed 
absolutely distinct. 

This most unexpected result greatly excited my curiosity, and 
I sought to find some explanation. Finally, in 1889, I hazarded the 
suggestion that sea-water had gained access to the Dartmoor granite 
in Carboniferous times ; and in 1892, after an examination of the 
South Devon schists, I, for entirely different reasons, threw out 
the suggestion that they also had been influenced by the presence of 
sea- water during their metamorphosis. 

These suggestions were not only almost universally rejected by 
geologists, but they caused considerable umbrage, so I discontinued 
the enquiry, and put away my microscope. 

However, before bringing my own work to a conclusion, I 
examined the older authorities, and found that both Lyell and 
De la Beche maintained the hypothesis that sea-water reached the 
heated rocks, and that subsequently the late Mr. J. A. Phillips and 
M. Daubree were of the same opinion ; and, strange to say, they all 
had different reasons for their belief. My own conclusions were also 
based on entirely independent evidence ; and, indeed, so far as 
appears from the records, all the observers thought out the problem 
independently from different points of view. Lyell relied on the 
steam emitted by volcanoes, De la Beche appealed to his mineral 



A. E. Hunt— The Age of the Earth. V27 

veins, Phillips pointed to hot salt-springs transforming the rocks at 
considerable though accessible depths, Daubree relied on experiment, 
while I have been impressed by the characteristics of the vein rocks 
of Dartmoor with their abundant sodium (as chloride and silicate), 
and with the chlorite, amphibole, and albite of the green schists. 

The conclusions of De la Beche seem the most noteworthy, seeing 
that he was necessarily ignorant of the fact that the vein rocks of 
Devon and Cornwall are charged with salt and brine. In 1839 
that acute observer wrote — "There is, therefore, nothing imreason- 
able in supposing that a large proportion of the Cornish and Devon 
fissures, now wholly or in part filled up, were opened either beneath 
the sea or in such situations that portions of them were so placed 
that it entered freely into them " (Eeport on Geology of Cornwall 
and Devon, p. 378). Subsequently De la Beche cites an instance 
of water filtrating through hard basalt, filling its internal cavities 
with liquid, and setting iip crystallization of ' mesot3'pe ' (loc. cit., 
p. 392). In 1851 De la Beche touches on the chemical combinations 
of the chlorides in the fissures (Geol. Observer, p. 770). 

In January, 1873, the late Mr. J. A. Phillips read a most interesting 
paper to the Royal Society, which was subsequently communicated 
to the Philosophical Magazine. In it the author discusses the 
composition and origin of the waters of a salt-spring at Hiiel Seton 
mine, with a chemical and microscopical examination of certain 
rocks in its vicinity. The water is shown to be derived from the 
sea, and to enter into chemical combination with the minerals of 
the rocks through which it passes, producing brown hornblende, 
pale-green actinolite, and chlorite. Another salt-spring, in the now 
abandoned Huel Clifford mine, was 1,320 feet below the sea, and 
issued at a temperature of 125° F. As Mr. Phillips does not refer 
to De la Beche, he seems to have overlooked De la Becho's views, 
just as I unfortunately overlooked at first both De la Beche and 
Phillips. The result, however, is that all three identical conclusions 
were arrived at independently, and all on different grounds. Had 
De la Beche lived to learn that the quartz in his fissures actually 
contained brine and crystals of salt, and that the felspar of his veins, 
instead of being the orthoclase of the main mass, was triclinic, and 
more or less a soda-felspar, he would have realized with what 
unerring sagacity he had hit his mark. 

In 1880 Daubree published his invaluable '■ Geologie Experi- 
nientale," of which work the third chapter is headed—" Experiences 
sur la possibilito d'une enfiltration capillaire au travers des matiores 
poreuses." 

Daubree shows experimentally that bottom heat greatly accelerates 
the passage of water through rocks in the face of a strong counter- 
pressure of steam. He incidentally admits that such water may 
be salt water, and that it would be capable of producing great 
mechanical and chemical effects. But this is incidental ; his object 
is to explain the origin of volcanic steam, not to follow up the new 
combinations of the sodium which the steam leaves behind in the 
bowels of the earth. 



128 B. B. Newton — Geology of the Malay Peninsula. 

Lord Kelvin ' and Professor Joly agree in assuming that because 
melted basalt is lighter than consolidated basalt the chilled surface 
of a lava ocean would sink : Lord Kelvin further assumes that all 
minerals crystallizing out of a melted basalt vrould also sink : 
I would, however, venture to submit that the gases imprisoned 
in the chilled surface layers would buoy them up, and that a good 
many minerals, lighter than the magma, on rising to the surface 
would form a scum or slag which, by blanketing the glowing lava, 
would thereby check radiation. I have no especial interest in the 
controversy as to the age of the Earth, and go no further than to 
suggest that these points should be allowed their due weight in 
the argument. 

The application of the above sea- water hypothesis to the cases 
of Dartmoor and the schists is a somewhat intricate question, and 
not worth discussing so long as the main principle is rejected. 



VII. — Notes on Literature bearing upon the Geology of 
THE Malay Peninsula ; with an account of a Neolithic 
Implement from that country. 
By E. BuLLEN Newton, F.G.S., of the British Museum (Natural History). 

IN view of the interest lately shown by geologists and others 
engaged in the Malay Peninsula through Mr. H. F. Bellamy's 
discovery of Triassic Lamellibranchs in that area, a brief account of 
the principal works on the geology of that portion of South-Eastern 
Asia may prove of service. More particular reference will be made 
to the sedimentary rocks, purely mineral papers being excluded 
from consideration. 

One of the earliest records on this subject is by William Jack,^ 
who in 1822 observed a red sandstone at Singapore which he regarded 
as " the chief secondary rock " of the district. He further mentioned 
that the Island of Penang was entirely of granitic structure. Some- 
what later the following remarks were made by J. Crawford : ^ "At 
Singapore a secondary formation is discoverable, and varieties of 
sandstone and shale form the principal rocks, together with con- 
glomerate, argillaceous sandstone and gray limestone." 

In 1847 Colonel James Low,* speaking of the same rock at 
Singapore, stated that " the sandstone lies immediately under the 
Oolitic beds, and would be therefore New Eed Sandstone." The 
discovery of a bituminous coal on the southern coasts of the Island of 
Junk-Ceylon off the Malay Peninsula was reported by J. K. Logan ^ 

' Trans. Victoria lust., vol. xxxi, p. 24. 

2 W. Jack, ' ' Notice respecting the Rocks of the Islauds of Penang and Singapore ' ' : 
Trans. Geol. Soc. London, ser. ii, vol. i, pt. 1 (1822), p. 165. 

^ J. Crawford, " Geological Observations made on a Voyage from Bengal to Siani 
and Cochin China" : Trans. Geol. Soc. London, ser. ii, vol. i, pt. 2 (1824), p. 406. 

* Col. Jas. Low, "Notes on the Geological Features of Singapore": Journ. 
Indian Archipelago, vol. i (1847), p. S3. 

5 J. R. Logan, "Notice of the Discovery of Coal on one of the Islauds on the 
Coast of the Malay Peninsula " : Quart. Joiurn. Geol. Soc, vol. iv (1848), pp. 1, 2. 
"On the Local and Relative Geologv of Singapore, etc.": Journ. Asiatic Soc. 
Bengal, vol. xvi (1847), pp. 519-557, 667-684. " Sketch of the Physical 



E. B. Nen-ton — Geology of the Malaij Peninsula. 129 

during tbc following year, but no geological age was assigned to the 
material. This author likewise contributed a number of papers between 
1847 and 1851 on the geology of the Malay region, dealing more 
particularly with that division of it which embraces Singapore and 
the adjacent islands. He observed that limestone, sandstone, and 
clays are the predominating stratified rocks along the western coast 
from Junk-Ceylon to Penang ; and that argillo-micaceous and argil- 
laceous schists, associated with sandstones and common clays and 
shales of various colours, occur between Southern Selaugor and Johore. 

During 1879 Mr. Patrick Doyle' referred to the granitic rock 
of the Malay Peninsula as being " overlain generally by sandstone, 
and frequently also by laterite or cellular ironstone, and to the 
north by limestone." 

In 1882 Mr. D. D. Daly- mentioned that "the alluvial tin deposits 
permeate the whole length of the Malayan Peninsula " ; and among 
other items of geological interest, the occurrence of limestone caves 
at Batu in Selangor was pointed out. The following year Mr. A. H. 
Keane ^ remarked that " as far as has been ascertained, the main 
geological formations [of the Malay Peninsula] would appear to 
be Lower Devonian sandstones and unfossilized clay-slates, with 
a basis of stanniferous granite everywhere cropping out. Although 
no trace has been found of recent volcanic action, there are several 
isolated and unstratified limestone masses from oOO to 2,000 feet 
high, of a highly crystallised character, with no fossils of any kind." 
In the same year M. J.-E. de la Croix' alluded to the presence of 
three groups of rocks in the Perak district of the Malay Peninsula : 
(a) the eruptive series, which constitute the mountain masses ; (6) the 
sedimentary beds, which occur at intervals in detached fragments ; 
(c) the alluvium formation, which completely covers the plains. 
The sedimentary strata are represented by sandstone and limestone, 
both of which are unfossiliferous and consequently of unknown age, 
although stated to be anterior to the granites, which are eruptive and 
metamorphosed. 

In 1884: the late Eev. J. E. Tenison- Woods'^ referred to a "Paleeozoic 

Geography and Geology of the Malay Peninsula " : Journ. Indian Archipela^'". 
vol. ii (1848), pp. 83-138. " Notices of the Geology of the East Coast of Johore " : 
Journ. Indian Archipelago, vol. ii (1848), p. Q2o. ' "The Rocks of Pulo Ubin "' : 
Verhandel. Bataviaasch Genootsch. Kunst, 'Wotcnschap., vol. xxii (1849) 
[read 1847], pp. 3-43. "Five Days in Nauiug" : Jouru. Indian Archipelago,, 
vol. iii (1849), p. 282. "Notices of the Geology of the Straits of Singapore": 
Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. vii (1851), pp. 310-344, pi. xviii (=geological map). 

1 Patrick Doyle, "On some Tin-deposits of the Malayan Peninsula": Quart. 
Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xx.vv (1879), p. 229. 

^ D. D. Daly, " Surveys and Explorations in the Native States of the Malay 
Peninsula " : Proe. Roy. Geogr. Soc, n.s., vol. iv (1882), pp. 393-412. 

^ A. II. Keane: " Malay Peninsula," an article in ihi' Encyelopadia Britannica, 
9th ed. (1883), vol. xv, p. 321. 

* J.-E. do la Croix, " Le Royaumc dePcrak" : Bull. Soc. Geogr. Paris, scr. vii, 
vol. iv (1883), pp. 342-348, with a plate containing geological map and sections. 

8 J. E. Tenison- Woods, " Geology of the Malaysan I'eniusula " : Nature, vol. xxx 
(1884), p. 76. " Phy.sical Geography of the Malaysan Peninsula": Naturr, 
vol. xxxi (1884), p. 152. "The Geology of Malaysia, Southern China, etc.": 
Nature, vol. xxxiii (1886), p. 231. 

DECADE IV. — VOL. YIII. — NO. III. 9 



130 It. B. Newton — Geology of the Malay Peninsula. 

sandstone clay-slate" in the Malay Peninsula whicli he thought had 
not been previously noticed ; and subsequently the same writer 
described the country as an elevated granitic axis with PalEeozoic 
schists and slates at its base, mentioning also the occurrence of 
detached masses of weathered limestone without fossils. 

In speaking of the gold deposits of Pahang, Mr. H. M. Becher ^ 
stated in 18&3 that "the gold-quartz formation of Pahang traverses 
an extensive series of sedimentary rocks. .... These rocks, 
probably of Paljeozoic age, are for the most part thinly bedded 
slates with some sandstones, and fewer dark-coloured, impure 
limestone beds." Alluvial beds of modern origin were also 
referred to. 

Dr. Koto- followed in 1899 with a brief allusion to this area, 
and, quoting from a previous author, mentioned the occurrence of 
" granites, old-looking sandstones, and slates," extending down to 
Singapore. 

Finally, the present writer ^ described and figured theLamellibranch 
remains discovered by Mr. H. F. Bellamy in a sandstone obtained on 
the Pahang Trunk Eoad near the Lipis Eiver. A study of this fauna 
proved it to be of Upper Triassic age ( = Ehaetic), the matrix being 
termed a ' Myophorian Sandstone,' on account of the prevalence 
of the genus Myophoria. These shells, the first recorded fossils 
from the Malay Peninsula, were determined as under : — 

Chlamys Valomensis, Leymerie, sp. Mytilus allied to M. minutus, Goldfuss. 

Fteria Fahangensis, E. B. Newton. Mt/opJioria ornata, Miinster. 

Gervillia inflata, Schafhautl. Myophoria incequieostata, Klipstein. 

Pteroperna Malayensis, K. B. Newtou. Myophoria Malayensis, R. B. Newton. 

Actinodesma Bellamyi, K. B. Newton. Myophoria, sp. 
Pleurophorus elongatus, ? Moore. 

Among unpublished observations it may be of interest to re- 
produce, from a letter of recent date, an account of the geology 
of the Eiver Tui District, situated in the Pahang division of the 
Malay Peninsula, written by Mr. E. M. W. Swan, F.G.S., who is 
carrying out mining operations in that area. The Tui is described 
as a small branch of the Eiver Jelai, which joins the Lipis Eiver 
at Kwala Lipis, from which place it is about ten miles due north. 
Thanks are due to Mr. Swan's brother (Mr. Archibald A. Swan) 
for permission to include this new matter in the present paper. 

" In order to explain the geology of the place where we are 
working it is necessary to say a few words on the geology of this 
part of Pahang, The common rock of the country is a clay slate, 
or perhaps more properly shale, for the cleavage of the rock 
coincides with the original bedding planes, although these have been 

1 H. M. Becher, "The Gold-quartz Deposits of Pahang (Malay Peninsula)" : 
Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., vol. xlix (1893), p. 84. 

* Dr. B. Koto, " On the Geologic Structui-e of the Malayan Archipelago " : 
Journ. Coll. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, Japan, vol. si, pt. 2 (1899), p. 85. 
1>V B,. B. Newton, "On Marine Triassic Lamellibranchs discovered in the Malay 
Peninsula" : Proc. Malac. Soc. London, vol. iv (1900), pp. 130-135, pi. xii. 



R. B. Newton — Geology of the Malay Peninmfa. 131 

accentuated by pressure at right angles to them. These slates rest 
on a basin in granite, and by a movement of this rock they have 
been highly tilted, so that the average dip is about 80°. The 
underlie here is westward, while nearer the dividing range of the 
Peninsula it is eastward. The dip changes along a line about 
ij^ miles westward from here. The strike of the slates is extremely 
regular, and is parallel to the main dividing range, or 8° to 81° west 
of the magnetic north. The mass of slate rock is penetrated by 
numerous intrusions, which consist generally of granite or green- 
stones. All the known mineral deposits of any value in Pahang 
are either included in these intersecting rocks, or occur in close 
proximity to them. The intrusions generally take the form of large 
lenticular masses, which are often some miles in width. The 
main axis of these masses is always parallel to the strike of the 
slates, and the intrusive rocks sometimes show a cleavage produced 
by side pressure, parallel to the cleavage of the slates. 

" These intrusions are highly developed in some parts of the 
country. There is a granite intrusion 1^ miles to the westward 
of the Tui. This is succeeded to the eastward by a belt of slate 
about a mile in width, and then we have a belt of intrusive rock 
about a mile in width, and it is on this that the Tui flows. 

"Overlying all these rocks, and resting on their upturned edges, 
is a deposit of crystalline limestone, which was originally very 
extensive, and of great thickness. It certainly has been some 
thousand feet thick, and there is some evidence which seems to 
show that it has overlain even the tops of the main dividing range. 
But only a few isolated patches of this limestone now remain, 
the rest having been eaten away by the comparatively rapid action 
of denudation. The limestone in which we are mining is a small 
patch which remains in the bottom of an ancient valley. Tradition 
indicates that the Chinese have exported much gold from this part 
of Pahang, and there is good reason to believe that most of this 
gold has been derived from the limestone, and has been left on the 
surface when that rock has been dissolved away. I feel fairly 
certain that such has been the origin of practically all the gold 
exported from the Tui valley. 

"The clay deposit was composed of fine yellow clay, which 
contained some spherical nodules of iron oxide, and rarely some 
fragments of quartz. The gold was not distributed through the 
mass, but occurred in occasional streaks or veins, which could not be 
distinguished by the eye 

" This clay deposit, which covers the whole of the limestone in 
the valley to a depth of about twenty feet, is the product of 
decomposition of the greenstone which forms the sides of the valley, 
and the peroxide of iron nodules which accompany it had their 
source in the hornblende of that rock." 

Kkmarks.— From the foregoing notices it would appear that the 
Malay Peninsula is largely composed of plutonic rocks more or less 
covered by sedimentary strata, of which sandstone, slates, and 



132 B. B. Neuion — Geology of the Malay Peninsula. 

limestone form a very considerable part. The fossils discovered bj- 
Mr. Bellamy have enabled the writer to refer the sandstone to 
a Triassic age, but the horizon of the limestone and slate deposits 
still remains doubtful. Quite recently, some samples of the lime- 
stone wei'e submitted to the writer for microscopical examination 
by Mr. Archibald A. Swan, which his brother, Mr. R. M. W. Swan, 
F.G.S., had collected and sent home from the River Tui District ; but 
they, unfortunately, exhibit no organic structures, and are therefore 
practically useless for determining their period of deposition. This 
limestone^ is of blackish colour, very much fissured with calcite 
and quartz, and possessing slickensided surfaces ; a microscopical 
section with the aid of polarized light exhibiting the brilliant 
coloration of its partial siliceous structure. In the neighbourhood 
of the quartz veins, gold, blende, stibnite, and galena are more or 
less observable. It occurs in a basin-shaped area situated on the 
upturned edges of contorted slates of unknown age, which themselves 
rest on a granite base. It is more than probable that this limestone 
may crop out elsewhere in the neighbourhood of a less crystalline 
character, and with palajontological features ; but until such a dis- 
covery takes place it is premature to assume its definite geological 
age. Should it ultimately prove to be of Carboniferous age, then 
it would probably form a continuation of that limestone found in 
Sumatra (Padang) which has yielded to Brady ^ and other authors 
the foraminiferal genus of Schwagerina ( = Fusulina of Brady). 

In referring again to the sandstone rocks of the Malay Peninsula 
it may be mentioned that they represent part of the great Triassic 
development which is such an important feature in the geological 
structure of Eastern Asia, and which extends through European 
countries to Northern Africa, thence to Asia Minor, the Himalayas, 
and to portions of the Chinese Empire, Japan, and Siberia. It is 
found also in the East Indian Archipelago, especially Sumatra, 
Eotti, and Timor ; and, moreover, it is present in New Caledonia 
and New Zealand. ' In all these regions the occurrence of Triassic 
rocks has been accurately demonstrated by the palseontological 
investigations of Stoliczka, Griesbach, Volz, Koken, Eugene 
Deslongchamps, Rothpletz, Naumann, Zittel, Loczy, and others. 

Neolithic Implement. — -Whilst writing on the geology of the 
Malay Peninsula, it may not be out of place to allude to a Neolithic 
implement from that country which was presented to the Geological 
Department of the British Museum by Mr. W. Leonard Braddon, 
M.R.C.S., diiring the latter part of 1896. Two examples exist of 



1 Specimens of the limestoue have been presented to the Mineral Department 
of the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) by Mr. A. A. Swan, a few examples being 
retained for reference in the Geological Department. 

2 H. B. Brady, " On some Fossil Foraminifera from the West Coast District, 
Sumatra" : Geol. Mag., 1875, p. 537, pi. xiii, fig. 6. 

^ See Lapparent's map illustrating the Triassic distribution, " Traite de Geologie." 
4th ed. (1900), p. 1042. 



a. B. Neictoa — Geologi/ of the Malay Feninsii/a. 13:j 

this implement celt, both of which were found in a clisnsed mine at 
Tras, Pahang, having probably been utilized for mining purposes 
in connection with the production of tin, which largely abounds in 
this region. 

They are similar in shape, being long, narrow, and of rectangular 
section, with an inclination to a convex upper surface caused by 
a gentle declivity at each end ; widening vei'y gradually to the 
cutting end, which thins off into a moderately sharp, chisel-shaped 
edge. The opposite and rather narrower extremity is more or less 
of a wedge pattern, and somewhat tapering thereby, suggestive of 
the implement having been fixed to a wooden handle to carry out 
the functions of a ' pick ' or similar instrument, an idea further 
strengthened by the fact that near the same end are some coarse 
scoring marks which run in various directions, resembling furrows, 
most probably produced by the process of shafting with a strong 
vegetable fibre. Similar scored lines are observable on some 
Malay implements in the British Museum Collection at Bloomsbury. 

The rock composing these implements outwardly resembles 
a material of igneous origin, but Mr. G. T. Prior, M.A., of the 
Mineral Department, British Museum, assures the writer that such 
is not the case. It is more probably a mudstone or an indurated 
slate, which under the microscope is seen to exhibit a fragmentary 
structure with occasional crystals of felspar. Nor can any organisms 
be traced in it such as the minuter forms of life, Eadiolarians or 
Foraminifera. It is a rock of extreme hardness, very closely 
grained, and of a densely dull, black colour where fractured, and 
having a clear metallic ring when struck. 

Externally, the implements are partially coated with a thin layer 
of light colour, which is easily powdered away by scraping, and 
which has possibly been produced by entombment in an alluvial 
deposit ; in other places smooth, polished surfaces are seen, evidently 
the result of former handling and usage. 

According to Sir John Evans, F.R.S., similar chisel-like implements, 
but of various rock structures, occur very rarely in Britain and 
Ireland, more commonly in Denmark and North America, and 
sometimes in Siam and the Malay Peninsula. (Vide " The Ancient 
Stone Implements, Weapons, and Ornaments of Great Britain," 
2nd ed., 1897, p. 121.) 

Beyond the occurrence of these implements nothing further 
appears to be known of the Neolithic period as affecting the Malay 
Peninsula. The cave explorations undertaken by Mr. H. N. Ridley 
yielded no other relics connected with man's history at that time, for 
we read in his report : '' It was to be hoped that remains throwing 
light on the Stone-age men of the Malay Peninsula might have been 
found in the caves, but as yet nothing has been found anywhere in 
the Peninsula except the axes themselves" (" Caves in the ^lalay 
Peninsula": Rep. Brit. Assoc. Bristol, 1898, pp. 571-582, 1899). 
Although the literature on this subject is apparently very restricted, 
the writer would gladly welcome any additional references known 
to students of Ethnography. 



134 R. B. Newton — Geology of the Malay Peninsula. 

Dimensions of best example : Length, 12 inches ; width of 
chisel end, If inches ; width of narrower end, li inches ; central 
depth, ^ inches. 



A 




Illustrations of a Neolithic Implement obtained by Mr. "W. L. Braddon from 
a disused mine at Tras, Pahang, Malay Peninsula. Figures drawn one-third 
natural size, 

A. — Lower surface, showing scored markings. 
B. — Side view showing slight convexity of upper surface. 

C. — Eectangular section of the less perfect specimen, which measures 1 inch iu 
central depth. 



Reviews— Geology of South Wales Coalfield. 135 

VIII. — Origin of Coal. 
By J. E. Dakyns, Esq. 

IN his interesting paper on " The Origin of Coal," published in 
the Geological Magazine for January, 1901, p. 29, Mr. Strahan 
says : " the Limestone Series generally consists of repetitions of small 
groups of strata, each group being composed of sandstone, followed 
by shale, shale followed by limestone." It is not stated whether 
this is intended to be an upward or downward succession ; but 
if the former is meant, as it seems to be, the sequence is very 
different from that which exists in many parts of the country. 
Amongst the Yoredale Kocks proper — by which I mean the beds 
in the valley of the Yore and in such parts of the neighbourhood 
as contain rocks of a similar type — the usual upward succession 
is sandstone followed by limestone overlaid by shale. That is to 
say, the limestones very often have basement sandstones, and are 
nearly always immediately overlaid by shale. There are some 
cases in which limestone is overlaid by sandstone, but these are 
quite exceptional. 

As it seems from recent discussions at Bradford to be not generally 
known, I may as well state that the Yoredale type of beds does not 
exist south of the Craven fault ; as a matter of fact, it dies out 
between Kettlewell and Grassington. 

Mr. Strahan also says that " underclays do not resemble soils, 
inasmuch as they are perfectly homogeneous." Now on many parts 
of the Millstone Grit moorlands in Yorkshire, the hill peat rests 
on yellowish clay, formed by the decomposition of the underlying 
rocks. This clay (which may be called the peat underclay) looks 
BO like a Coal-measure underclay, that one is led to think that both 
had a similar origin, however different may have been the circum- 
stances. Of course, when an underclay occurs in the midst of a coal, 
or on top of coal, it cannot have been formed by decomposition of 
underlying rock. In such cases, which are exceptional, it must have 
been drifted somewhat. But even if all underclays were drifted, 
that would not prevent their having been the seats on which coal- 
forming plants grew, and the striking resemblance of peat underclays 
to coal underclays makes me think that the latter clays were the 
seats on which the coal plants grew. 



IS, IE V I E ^W S. 



I.— Geology of the South Wales Coalfield. Part II : 

The Country around Abergavenny. By Aubrey Strahan, 

M.A., F.G.S., and Walcot Gibson, F.G.S. ; with Notes by J. K. 

Pakyns, M.A., and Prof. W. W. Watts, M.A., F.G.S. Memoirs 

of the Geological Survey. 8vo ; pp. 103. (London : printed for 

H.M. Stationery Office, 1900. Price 2s.) 

rnmS memoir is written in explanation of the New Series map 

JL sheet 232. It includes a brief account of the Silurian rocks 

of part of the Usk iulier, and a fuller account of the Old Bed 



136 Revieios — Geological 8urvey of Canada. 



Sandstone which stands out boldly in the ' Sugar Loaf.' The result 
of the resurvey of these rocks has been to show that there is a well- 
defined plane up to which a Ludlow fauna and a Ludlow type 
of sediment extend, while above it the Old Eed type with Lower 
Old Eed fossils only have been recognized. Locally there is no 
gradation from Silurian to Old Eed Sandstone. On the other hand, 
no break has been found in the Old Eed Sandstone, although the 
fossils show that both Lower and Upper divisions are present. It 
is remarked that the formation is " not necessarily purely lacustrine 
or fluviatile." 

From the Old Eed Sandstone upwards there is perfect conformity 
with the Carboniferous strata. The Carboniferous Limestone with 
its base of Lower Limestone shales is a variable group, 500 feet 
thick in the western part of the district and about 100 feet in the 
eastern part. Professor Watts describes some of the oolitic bands 
of limestone, and also an interesting mass of dolomite. Mr. Strahan 
found that the white oolitic limestone in one area underwent a con- 
siderable change in mineral character, and this proved to take place 
both along the outcrop and vertically. Analyses showed that the 
change was due to the replacement of a portion of the carbonate 
of lime (about 30 per cent.) by carbonate of magnesia, and to a re- 
crystallization of the whole rock, whereby all organic structure, 
even the oolitic grains, were obliterated, and the rock became a true 
crj^stalline dolomite. Eeference is made to the probable connection 
between the dolomitization and faults which would have afforded 
means for the circulation of mineral waters. Full accounts are given 
of the Millstone Grit and Coal-measures, including the iron -ores, 
which are now but little worked. The coals are more extensively 
worked now than formerly, and are being followed southwards 
under the deeper parts of the basin. 

In the account of the Glacial Drifts a description is given by 
Mr. Gibson of a transported mass of Millstone Grit which forms 
a small hill upwards of 200 yards in length, and was found to be 
based on stiff glacial till. " The hill, therefore, is merely a huge 
bouldei', bearing witness to the great carrying power of the ice." 



■^ 



11. — The Geological Survey of Canada. 

1. — Eeport on the Geology and Natural Eesources of the 
Country traversed by the Yellow Head Pass Eoute from 
Edmonton to Tete Jaune Cache, comprising Portions of 
Alberta and British Columbia. By James MoEvoy, B.A.Sc. 
Geological Survey of Canada, Annual Eeport, Vol. XI, Part D. 
8vo; pp. Id-Md, with map. (Ottawa: S. E.Dawson, 1900.) 

THIS report is descriptive of an exploration which extended from 
Edmonton westward through the Yellow Head Pass in the 
Eocky Mountains, down the Eraser Eiver to Tete Jaune Cache, 
and thence to the head-waters of Canoe Eiver, a tributary of the 
Columbia. A map on a scale of 8 miles to 1 inch accompanies the 
report ; it embraces the whole of the area traversed, and extends in 



Reviews — Geologiad Snrvei/ of Canuibf. l;"*)? 

latitude from 52° 36' to 53° 45' N. and in longitude from 113° L»0' 
to 119° 35' W. There are also views of the mountainous scenery 
characteristic of parts of the Athabasca and Fraser Rivers. 

The writer enumerates the various expeditions that have penetrated 
this region, including those of the Hector-Palliser expedition (1859), 
and the better known journey of Lord Milton and Dr. Cheadle 
(1863, "The North- West Passage by Laud"), as well as the later 
one undertaken by Dr. A. R. C. Selwyn in 1871. 

The formations met with in tlie district explored were as follows : — 

Tertiary ... Paskapoo Beds. ) ^ 

t?A i Tt A \ Laramie. 
^ , I Edmonton ceds. \ 

Cretaceous ... | pi^rre and Fox Hill. 

Devono-Carboniferous. 

ri ■> ' S Castle Mountain Group. 

Cambrian ... t> -d- cj • 

( Bow Kiver Series. 

ArchtBan ,.. Shuswap Series. 

The Upper Laramie (Paskapoo Beds) were identified on the west 
bank of the Pembina Eiver, and consisted of about 50 feet or more 
of thick beds of yellowish-grey sandstones. The Lower Laramie, 
as distinguished % its fossils, was met with on Sandstone Creek, 
a small tributary of the Athabasca River, where a section showed 
that the rocks consisted of clayey sandstones, associated with coarser 
sandstones, carbonaceous shales, and seams of coal. 

Cretaceous rocks were represented by rather coarse green sand- 
stone, interbedded near the mountains with greenish conglomerate, 
with (further eastward) black argillaceous shale, including thin 
seams of lignite. These rocks were seen in ascending Prairie 
Creek, a tributary of the Athabasca, the mouth of which is about 
ten miles from that of Sandstone Creek. 

Owing apparently to the imperfect evidence afforded by the 
fossils the succeeding group of rocks bears the dual title Bevono- 
Carhoniferous. These were seen in three sections : — (1) 2,160 feet 
thick in Folding Mountain, the first foot-hill of the Rockies, where 
limestones, siliceous shales, and quartzites are brought up in 
a " sharply folded, slightly overturned anticline." (2) In_ Roche 
Miette, described as a notable landmark in view at a great distance, 
standing on the east side of the Athabasca River, a few miles below 
Jasper Lake. Here, in a section 3,300 feet in thickness, limestones 
and shales occur, the former holding the few and seemingly not 
very characteristic fossils which served to indicate the horizon of 
the' beds, viz. Devonian. The following were the fossils obtained: 
Atrijpa reticularis; Diphyphijllum, sp. ; Cyrtina, sp. ; Spirifer (or 
Spirifei-ina), sp. ; cast of elongated spiral Gasteropod. (3) Carboni- 
ferous rocks were met with near Henry House on the Atliabasca 
River, some 15 miles south of Jasper Lake. Here, again, the 
evidence upon which the age of the rocks is based is somewhat 
scanty, judging by the few fossils enumerated, as follows : Eeticnlana 
setigera? ; Productus (very finely ribbed) ; Spirifer, sp. ; Dielasma 
(cf. D. formosa, Hall). These were obtained in an exposure ot 



138 Revieivs — Geological Survey of Canada. 

"black shales and flaggy cream- weathering limestone," three miles 
below Henry House. 

Eocks of undoubted Cambrian age were met with on the north- 
east side of the valley between Tete Jaune Cache and Canoe Kiver. 
"The squeezed conglomerate of the lower part of the series may 
be without much hesitation assigned to the horizon of the Bow 
Eiver Series [Lower Cambrian'], while the overlying schists and 
argillites probably belong to the same series, but may include, 
towards the top, beds of the upper division of the Cambrian or 
Castle Mountain group." No granite or other plutonic rocks were 
met with in the vicinity of the route traversed. 

A great series of mica-schists were seen on the south-west side of 
the valley opposite Tete Jaune Cache, on Mica Mountain. The 
whole series, though differing somewhat from the Shuswap Series 
of the southern interior of British Columbia, shows the main 
characteristics of that series, and may be classed as such. The 
age of this series, as given by Dr. Dawson, is Arclicean. The line 
of contact between these rocks and those of Cambrian age on the 
opposite side of the valley is hidden by superficial deposits. 

The glaciation of the mountainous part of the region surveyed is 
briefly described, and evidence is found for the statement that the 
valley of the Athabasca contained a large glacier flowing north- 
ward down the stream. After the glacier had disappeared the 
valley was occupied by a large lake standing at a level of 550 to 
600 feet above that of Jasper Lake, or 3,260 feet above sea-level. 
A long, distinct terrace, composed of silt and sand on the west side 
of Jasper Lake, marks this level. 

The report concludes with a brief account of the distribution of 
the principal trees and of the game, large and small. 



2. — On some Additional or Impeefectly Understood Fossils 
FROM THE Cretaceous Eocks of the Queen Charlotte 
Islands, with a Eevised List of the Species from these 
Eocks. By J. F. Whiteaves, LL.D., F.G.S., F.E.C.S. Mesozoic 
Fossils, Vol. I, Part IV, pp. 263-307, pis. xxxiii to xlix. 
(Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, November, 1900.) 

AS explained in the Prefatory Note by the Director, Dr. G. M. 
Dawson, the present memoir is an illustrated description of 
two collections of fossils from the Cretaceous rocks of the Queen 
Charlotte Islands, made by Dr. C. F. Newcombe, of Victoria, British 
Columbia, in 1895 and 1897. It contains also a revision of the 
nomenclature of some of the fossils previously collected from the 
same rocks by Mr. James Eichardson in 1872 and Dr. G. M. Dawson 
in 1878. A brief summary of its contents will suffice, and this may 
be taken from Dr. Whiteaves' prefatory remarks. The revised list 
of species at the end of the memoir shows that 89 species of marine 
invertebrates are now known from the Lower Shales of the coal- 
bearing rocks of the Cretaceous system in the Queen Charlotte 
Islands. Of these one is a Coral [Astroccenia) ,ihxQQ are Brachiopods; 



Reviews — Geological Surre;/ of Canada. 139 

representing the genera Terehratula and Ehynclionella, one is a 
Crustacean (Homolopsis), and the rest are MoUusca. The Cephalo- 
poda are much more numerous, both in species and individuals, than 
the Gasteropoda, and the Ammonites are specially abundant. The 
latter seem to be remarkable for the presence of several species of 
Desmoceras (inclusive of Puzozia), and for the absence of Baculites, 
and of the numerous species of Pachydiscus which are so character- 
istic of the Vancouver Cretaceous. The number of species ot 
Pelecypoda appears to be much larger even than that of the 
Cephalopoda. 

The Canadian species have been in many instances compared 
with the original types contained in museums in the United States 
and in Europe. Thus every effort seems to have been made to 
ensure the utmost degree of accuracy in the identification of the 
fossils described in this work, which, it may be mentioned, appears 
fourteen years after the previous (third) part. The new species are 
well illustrated in the seven lithographic plates by Mr. L. M. Lambe. 

3. — Genekal Index to the Eeports op Progress, 1863 to 1884. 
Compiled by D. B. Dowling, B.A.Sc. Svo ; pp. 475. (Geological 
Survey of Canada, Ottawa : S. E. Dawson, 1900.) 

THOSE who have researches to undertake in any subject having 
a voluminous literature know well the value of that time-saving 
adjunct, a good index. The arrangement of the one before us is as 
follows : — Part I (pp. 5-20) contains the Eeports, so classified that 
any country or district in a province can be found in its chronological 
order, the counties being set alphabetically under their respective 
provinces. The reports indexed date from 1863 (a summary from 
the commencement of the Survey) to 1884. 

Part 11 (pp. 21-34) contains an alphabetical list of the " special 
examinations " of ores, minerals, or fossils that have been subjected 
to assay, analysis, microscopical examination, or scientific description. 

Part III (pp. 35-475) forms the great bulk of the volume, and 
is termed "General Index to Reports, 1863-84." The arrangement 
in this part under reference to a place is usually chronological, 
commencing with the earliest, while under a subject the references 
are alphabetical, or in the case of substances of frequent occurrence, 
as gold, iron-ores, coal, etc., the localities may be grouped under 
provinces. 

Special publications on palfeontology and botany, which are issued 
by the Survey from time to time, are not included in this Index, 
but the " List of Publications " brought out at intervals supplies 
this deficiency. 

We doubt not that the present Index will prove of great use to 
all who require to consult the publications of the Geological Survey 
of Canada, and they will not be chary of their commendation of the 
compiler whose zeal and industry made its completion possible. 
May his example be followed by many ! 

Arthur H. Fookd. 



140 Reports and Proceedings — Geological Society of London. 



Geological Society of London. 

I. — January 23, 1901.— J. J. H. Teall, Esq., M.A., F.E.S., 

President, in the Chair. 

After the formal business had been taken, the President, 
having requested all those present to rise from their seats, said : 

" I feel sure that the Fellows will desire to express their 
deep sense of the grievous loss which this nation has sustained 
in the death of our late beloved and most gracious Sovereign, 
by assenting to the immediate adjournment of the meeting." 

The meeting was accordingly adjourned. 



II.— February 6, 1901.— J. J. H. Teall, Esq., M. A., F.E.S., President, 

in the Chair. 

Dr. P. A. Bather, in exhibiting rock specimens, microscope 
sections, and photographs illustrating blavierite, ophitic diabase, 
falsi tic porphyry, petro-siliceous breccia, and other igneous and 
metamorphic rocks of the Mayenne, said that the specimens had 
been collected by him in the course of an excursion of the Eighth 
International Geological Congress, under the guidance of M. D. P. 
Oehlert. In the basins of Laval and Coevrons were many peculiar 
rocks due to the folding and crushing of stratified rocks penetrated 
by eruptive dykes. The tectonic features were illustrated by the 
maps of M. Oehlert and by the photographs. The slides were 
prepared in the Mineralogical Department of the Natural History 
Museum, where all the specimens would be preserved. 

Mr. E. T. Newton exhibited some graptolites, which had been 
obtained by Mr. Herbert J. Jessop in the course of a prospecting 
expedition in Eastern Peru. The locality was in lat. 13° 40' S. and 
long. 72° 20' W. ; Limbani, near Crucero, in the neighbourhood 
of the Eio Inambari. The graptolites are closely related to 
Diplogj-aptus foliaceus, and indicate deposits of late Ordovician age. 

Mr. A. K. Coomara-Swamy exhibited and commented on a lantern 
slide showing spherulitic structure in sulphanilic acid. This had 
been described and figured by Mr. Henry Bassett, Jun., in the 
Geological Magazine for January, 1901, pp. 14-16. 

The following communications were read : — 

1. " On the Structure and Affinitiesof the Ehjetic Vlant JVaiadita." 
By Miss Igerna B. J. Sollas, B.Sc, Newnham College, Cambridge. 
(Communicated by Professor W. J. Sollas, M.A., D.Sc, LL.D., 
F.E.S., V.P.G.S.) 

This plant, the remains of which are found in Gloucestershire, 
was considered to be a monocotyledon by Buckman, but a moss by 
Starkie Gardner. Material supplied by Mr. Seward and Mr. Wickes 
has given the authoress ground for the belief that Naiadita is an 
aquatic lycopod, and that it is the earliest recorded example of 



Heporta and Proceedings — Geolocjical Society of London. 141 

a fossil member of the Lycopodiacece, resembling in proportions and 
outward morphology the existing representatives of the group. 
The specimens described show stems, leaves, and sporangia whicli 
appear to be borne laterally on the stem and to be embraced by the 
bases of the leaves. Stomata do not appear to occur, and the 
association of leaves of different types leads to the conclusion that 
the three described species are in reality but one. The stems 
consist mainly of long, thin-walled tubes covered with an epidermis 
of long rectangular cells ; the leaves, in vertical section, show only 
a single layer of complete cells. The absence of stomata and 
cortical tissue may be explained, if the plant was submerged when 
living ; but it is possible that the lower tissues of the leaf are lost, 
together with any stomata which may have been present. 

2. " On the Origin of the Dunmail Raise (Lake District)." By 
Eichard D. Oldham, Esq., F.G.S. 

The author considers that the gap through the Cumberland hills 
is a natural feature whose remarkable character has not attracted 
the attention which it deserves. In form it is an old river-valle}', 
now occupied hy much smaller streams than that which formed it. 
A windgap of this character cannot have been formed hy recession 
of watersheds or capture through erosion, for in such a case the 
stream on one side or the other of the watershed must necessarily 
fit its valley, while in the Dunmail Raise there is a misfit on both 
sides. The gap was in existence before the Glacial Period, and 
consequently cannot have been formed by ice. So, by a process 
of exclusion, the explanation is arrived at, which fits in with the 
surface forms, that the gap of the Dunmail Raise was formed by 
a river, which flowed across the hills from north to south, and cut 
down its channel -pari passu with the elevation of the hills. The 
final victory of upheaval over erosion, whereby this river was divided 
into two separate drainage systems and the barrier of the Dunmail 
Raise upheaved, may have synchronized with a diversion of the 
head-waters and consequent diminution of volume and erosive 
power. It is pointed out that this explanation comes into conflict 
with previously published theories of the origin of the drainage 
system of the Lake District, inasmuch as the elevation postulated 
seems too slow to be explicable by the intrusion of a laccolite ; and 
that the existence of a large river crossing the area of upheaval, 
and the maintenance of its character as an antecedent river-valley 
for a long period, show that the surface was originally a penei)lain 
of subaerial denudation, and not a plain of marine sedimentation or 
erosion. From this it follows tliat the course of the main drainage 
valleys may not have been determined by the original uplift, but, 
with the exception of those which are old river-valleys, whose 
direction of flow has been reversed on the northern side of the 
uplift, may have been formed by the cutting back by erosion into 
the rising mass of high ground — in other wonls, that the principal 
valleys of the Lake District may be subsequent, not consequent 
in origin. 



142 Correspondence — G. W. Lamplugh. 

C!Oias,Es:poisriDEisrcs. 

NAMES FOE BRITISH ICE-SHEETS OF THE GLACIAL PERIOD. 

Sib, — It has often occurred to me that the discussion of our 
British Glacial phenomena would be facilitated by the adoption of 
regional names, such as have been found so useful in this respect in 
North America, for the different portions of the confluent ice-sheets 
by which our Islands were partly surrounded and covered at the 
period of maximum glaciation. I have especially felt the want 
of such names in describing the supposed condition of the basins 
of the North Sea and of the Irish Sea in Glacial times. The term 
' Scandinavian Ice-sheet ' often applied to the North Sea ice-field 
appears to me to be misleading, since it seems to imply that the basin 
was occupied solely by the outflow of glaciers from Scandinavia, 
whereas it is far more probable that it was maintained and 
augmented principally by the snowfall upon its own surface. The 
term 'Irish Sea Ice,' sometimes used to denote the ice-sheet filling 
that sea-basin, is likewise objectionable, as I found in a recent 
discussion where it was understood to imply the marine ice of 
a frozen sea. 

After due consideration and discussion with colleagues interested 
in the subject, I am inclined to think that the term ' East British 
Ice-sheet ' will be found suitable for the mass which occupied the 
bed of the North Sea off our eastern coasts, and spread thence, in 
places, inland. This will then find its complement in the term 
' West British Ice-sheet ' for the land-ice which filled the basin 
of the Irish Sea, and encroached upon our north-western lowlands. 

We already speak of the ' Pennine Ice ' for the great confluent 
glaciers which covered the greater part of the Pennine region, 
and of the ' Lake District Ice ' for the masses of that region, and 
these terms need no revision. 

Then, for the ice which overspread the greater part of Scotland to 
the exclusion of the ' East British ' and ' West British ' sheets, we 
might apply the general term ' Caledonian,' with such local sub- 
division as may be hereafter found convenient. Aud, similarly, the 
' Hibernian ' (or ' Ivernian ' ) would be that which covered Central 
Ireland, and the 'Cambrian' that which shielded the greater part of 
Wales. 

More restricted local terms might still be introduced to distinguish 
well-defined portions of these sheets, and the lobes into which they 
probably split towards their termination. 

I shall be glad to learn whether the terms above suggested are 
likely to be approved of by glacialists who hold the 'land-ice 
theory ' in regard to our drifts. G. W. Lamplugh. 

TONBRIDGE. 

January 20, 1901. 



Obituary — James Bennie, 143 

CHEVIOT PORPHYRITES IN THE BOULDER-CLAY OF EAST 
YORKSHIRE. 

Sir, — I can confirm Mr. Stather's opinion ' (expressed in the 
Oeological Magazine for January, 1901) that the porphyrites of 
the East Yorkshire Boukler-clay were probably derived from the 
Cheviots, When I was stationed at Bridlington Quay on the 
Geological Survey, Mr. C. T. Clough, who mapped the Cheviots, 
came to the Quay in order to identify, if possible, the far-travelled 
erratics in the Boulder-clay. We examined the shore and cliffs 
from Bridlington Quay to Filey, and found a large number of 
porphyritic rocks, which Mr. Clough said might very well have 
come from the Cheviots. J. R. Dakyns. 

Snowdon View, Nant Gwynnan, Bkddgelert, Carnarvon. 
February 11, 1901. 

MUSEUM EXHIBITION CASES. 

Sir, — The new Geological Museum now being erected here will 
have high windows aud a long south aspect. The effect of this 
will be that the sun will fall suddenly on glazed cases and as 
suddenly pass off them, thus by the expansion and contraction of 
the air causing dust-carrying currents to force themselves through 
every chink. From this cause it costs about three times as much to 
keep cases and specimens clean on the side exposed to the sun as 
it does in the shaded part of a museum. This may be obviated by 
elastic diaphragms (which would hardly allow sufficient movement 
for such large cases as ours) or by small sliding shutters packed 
with cotton-wool something like Tyndall's respirators. 

Can any of your readers refer us to museums in which such 
a system has been tried or give us any advice on the subject before 
our cases have been built ? T. McKenny Hughes. 

WOODWARDIAN MuSEUM, CAMBRIDGE. 

Fehrmri) 19. 1901. 



OBITTJ^^ia"^- 



JAMES BENNIE. 
Born September 23, 1821. Died .Tanvary 28, 1901. 

We regret to record the death of Mr. James Bennie, at the 
age of 79 years. For many years he was one of the fossil 
collectors of H.M. Geological Survey, and was well known to 
local geologists in the west of Scotland. In early life, before he 
joined the Survey, he was employed in a paper manufactory in 
Glasgow, where he devoted his leisure hours to the examination 
of the glacial, interglacial, and post-glacial deposits of the west of 
Scotland. He likewise collected fossils from the various Carboniferous 
horizons in that region. The results of his labours were published 
in the Transactions of the Glasgow Geological ^Society, and^ his 
glacial researches were communicated to Dr. CroU in 1867, as 
acknowledged in the '^ Life and Work" of that investigator. His 
Survey career, which commenced in 1869, was marked by his great 

> See "The Sources and Distribution oi the Far-Travelled Boulders ol East 
Yorkshire," by J. W. Stather. 



144 Miscellaneous. 

knowledge of the fossiliferous bands in the Carboniferous rocks of 
Central Scotland. He paid special attention to the occurrence of 
micro-organisms in the weathered shales of that series, which resulted 
in the discovery of many forms new to science, described and figured 
by various specialists. He was the first to record the occurrence 
of Holothurians in the Carboniferous rocks of Scotland, and was 
likewise the first to obtain the remains of Arctic plants in the silt 
and peat of vanished lakes that formerly occupied hollows in the 
Boulder-clay. With the remains of Arctic plants he discovered 
fragments of a phyllopod Crustacean, which is now found living only 
in fresh-water lakes in Greenland and Spitzbergen. Two years ago 
he received the Murchison Fund from the Geological Society of 
London, in recognition of his work. Quiet and unobtrusive in 
manner, and fond of literature, he showed throughout his life a keen 
love of nature. — Scotsman, January 30. 



nvnisc:BiL.Xi^^isrEOTJs. 

The New Director of the Geological Survey of the United 
Kingdom and of the Museum of Practical Geology, Jermyn 
Street, London. — We have just been informed that J. J. H. Teall, 
Esq., M.A., Vice-President of the Royal Society, President of the 
Geological Society of London, has been appointed to succeed 
Sir Archibald Geikie, F.R.S., as head of the Geological Survey. 
Mr. Teall is an eminent Petrologist and the author of many 
important papers on geology ; he has published a most valuable 
monograph on British Petrography, with which special branch of 
the science his name will always be connected. He is universally 
esteemed amongst geologists, and especially by the members of the 
staff of the Geological Survey, for his geniality and urbanity to all 
his fellow-workers. As President of the Geological Society he has 
also won golden opinions. 

The New Professor of Geology at University College, 
GowER Street. — The Eev. Professor Thomas George Bonney, D.Sc, 
LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S., who succeeded Professor John Morris, F.G.S., 
in the chair of Geology at University College, in June, 1877, and 
has occupied that post with such eminent success for 24 years, 
retires this month and is succeeded by Mr. Edmund Johnstoner 
Garwood, M.A., F.G.S., of Trinity College, Cambridge, a gentleman 
already distinguished by his geological observations and writings 
in the Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, the Geological 
Magazine, the Royal Geographical Society's and other scientific 
journals. Mr. Garwood has done excellent field work in the Alps, 
the Himalayas, in Spitzbergen ; and in writing upon the Magnesian 
Limestone and the ' Great Whin Sill,' and the Life-zones of the 
British Carboniferous Rocks. He has been for some years a Lecturer 
at Harrow, and as a University Extension Lecturer is well known 
and esteemed by the scientific public. 

Although Professor Bonney is relinquishing the Chair of Geology 
at University College, he intends still to pursue his scientific and 
literary work and will continue his clerical duties as heretofore. 



GeolMa^.lSOl 




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THE 



GEOLOGICAL MAGAZINE. 

NEW SERIES. DECADE IV. VOL. VIII. 
No. IV.— APRIL, 190L 



I. On ' PvHGOilA CRETACEA,'' A CiRRIPEDE, FKOM THE TJPl'KK 

CiiALK OF Norwich and Makg.\te. 

By Hexky AVoomvARD, LL.D., F.E.S., V.P.Z.S., F.G.S. 

(PLATE VIII, Fics. 1-,).) 

IN the year 18G5 I noticed the occurrence of what appeared to be 
a sessile Cirripede from the Upper Chalk of Norwich, and 
referred it to Leach's genus Pijrgoma. For this unique example the 
name of Pyrgoma cretacea was then proposed/ and afterwards, in 
1868, it was more fully described and figured by me in the 
Geological Magazine.- I also pointed out that Charles Darwin, 
in bis Monograph on the Fossil Cirrepedia,' had described a fossil 
form belonging to this genus under the name of Pijnjoma anglicum, 
from the Coralline Crag of Ramsholt, Sufiolk, a species found living 
off the south coast of England and of Ireland, Sicily, Madeira, Cape 
de V^erde Islands, etc. ; while Michelotti had named, but not 
described, a species (^Pyrgoma iindata) from the North Italian 
Tertiary strata. 

The only other form of sessile Cirripede known, which extends 
back in time to the Chalk formation, is the genus Verruca, which 
M. Bosquet of Maestricht first described in 185o from the Chalk of 
Limbourg under the name of Verruca prisca.* This species was 
likewise discovered by J. de C. Sowerby in the Upper Chalk of 
Norwich, and described under the same name by Charles Darwin.'' 
Like the genus Pyrgoma, Verruca occurs fossil (Verruca StrOmia) in 
the Glacial beds of Scotland, the Ked and Coralline Crag of Suffolk, 
and recent on the shores of Great Britain and Ireland, etc. 



' Brit. Assoc. Birmiiigli;ini (18U.3), Reports, p. 321. 
^ Geot.. Mag., Dec. I. Vol. V (1868), pp. 258-9, PI. XIV, Fi?:s. 1, 2. 
=* " The Fossil Balanick- aud Verrucithe " : Pal. Soc, 1854, p. 30, tab. ii, liir. 7. 
* J. Bosquet: " Mou. Crustaccs toss. terr. Cret. Diiche de Liinbourj,'."' p. 14, 
fii^s. 1-7. Darwin makes a distinct family for this c^emis— the Vkku ucid.v;. 
^^ Men. Pal. Soc, 18.54, p. 43, tab. ii, ds;. 10. 

nECAUE IV. — VOL. VIII. — NO. IV. !<• 



146 Dr. H. Woodward — A Neio Ciry'i'pede from the Chalk. 

Darwin, in describing the genus Pyrgoma,^ says: — "The shell 
consists of a single piece, generally without suture, even on the 
internal surface ; and this is the case, at least, in P. anglicum, in 
extremely young colourless examples : nevertheless, in some speci- 
mens of this very species, and of P. conjngatmn, there were traces of 
two, but only tivo, sutures on the sheath, one on each side towards its 
carinal end. The shell is often much depressed or actually flat ; in 
P. anglicum, however, the shell is steeply conical. The outline is 
rather oval. The surface is furnished with more or less prominent 
ridges, radiating from the orifice, which is oval and small." (See 
PI. VIII, Fig. 5.) '-The shell," he adds, " is unusually thick." 

"The basis, in all the species, is more or less regularly cup-formed 
or sub-cylindrical. In P. grande it penetrates the coral (on which 
it is fixed) to a surprising depth ; but this is not the case with 
P. anglicum, in which the basis is generally exserted, as it is in 
a slight degree in P. grande." 

Of the opercular valves in the Chalk species, so important and 
essential in the study of any of the Cirripedia, we still remain in 
ignorance. I should not, therefore, have ventured to reopen the 
previous description of the so-called ' Pyrgoma cretacea,' had it not 
happened that a new and important light has been thrown upon it, 
quite unexpectedly, through the discovery in the Chalk of Thanet of 
a second specimen by my friend Dr. Arthur Eowe, M.S., M.E.C.S., 
F.G.S., of Margate. This gentleman's admirable researches on the 
zones of the English Chalk have greatly added to our knowledge of 
its detailed stratigraphy, whilst, by the application of the dental 
engine for the development of minute and delicate organisms 
preserved in the Chalk, he has made geologists acquainted with 
a host of beautiful and novel organisms, among which the present 
addition to our knowledge of the form hitherto known as ' Pyrgoma 
cretacea ' is not, as I hope to be able to show in the sequel, the least 
interesting and instructive contribution. 

Towards the close of last year. Dr. Eowe brought me the specimen 
which is the subject of the present communication, and which is figui'ed 
(enlarged three times) on PI. VIII, Fig. 4a. The original specimen 
obtained from the Chalk of Norwich, and described by me in 1865 
(see PL VIII, Fig. 3), consists of nearly half the circumference of 
the conical walls of the shell, the opercular valves and the basis 
being absent. 

I attributed the absence in the Norwich specimen of the character- 
istic cup-formed basis, usually seen in Pyrgoma anglicum and other 
species of that genus, to the readiness with which the conical walls 
of the shell separate from the basis, owing to a cleft covered by 
a membrane which may be observed all round between the lower 
edge of the shell and the basis in many of the species. In referring 
this Cretaceous Balanid to Pyrgoma, I was influenced by the 
following considerations, namely : (1) the steeply conical form of 
the shell-wall (see PL VIII, Fig. 3) ; (2) the rounded approximate 

^ A Monograph of the Subclass Cirripedia, etc. : The Balanidre aud Verrucidse, 
p. 3.55. Eay Society, 1854. 



Dr. H. Woodward— A New Cirripede from the Chalk. 147 

rafliating ribs which ornament the surface; (.3) the thickness of the 
shell-wall ; (4) the absence of sutures. 

On turning to Dr. Rowe'.s specimen from the Margate Chalk, we 
notice the close reseml)lance of the shell-walls (PI. VIII, Fig. 4rt, 
c. and r.) with the Norwich example, the external surface in*both 
being marked by strong radiating vertical costa3, crossed at regular 
intervals by well-marked transverse rings, forming with the costse 
a delicate reticulated ornamentation like basket-work on the surface. 
In Dr. Rowe's specimen the opposite curved portions (r. and c.) appear 





,' / 



Fig. 1. — T'oHicipes pohjiiwrHx, G. B. SowerLy. Living-: Upper Califoruia, Pacific, 
etc. (Alter C. Daiwiu's figure, op. cit., pi. vii, fig. 2.) " f'a])itulum with 
two, tliree, or more whorls of valves under the rostrum ; latira regularly 
graduated in size from the uppermost to the lowest ; scales of the peduncle 
arranged in close whorls." The range of the genus extends from the Rhnctic 
beds ; the Great Oolite, Stonesfield and Eyeford ; the Oxford Clay, the Gault, 
Upper Greensand, Upper Chalk, the Eocene Tertiary, Isle of Wight ; the 
Tertiary of Messina ; and living in tlu; seas of Europe, etc., at the present day. 

Fig. 2. — Cntnphraf/miift pobjmcrHs, Darwin. Living: Australian Coast. (.\ftcr 
C. Darwin's figure, op. cit., j)!. xx, figs. An-Ae.) '' Interior compart nu'nts 
eight, with several exterior whorls of small supplemental compartments ; 
basis membranous." " In large old specimens there arc ten, or even more, 
whorls of compartments, but it is scarcely possible to count them with any 
accuracy." This genus does not occur in a fossil state. 

Fig. 2a. — External view of one of the imbricated scales or valves, from the second 
whorl, counting from the inside. 

at first sight to have been forced apart, or else that two additional 
lateral compartments of the shell-wall have fallen out and been lost ; 
but this does not seem to have been the case. Tlio important 
difference lies in the fact that, whereas in the Norwich specimen 
(PI. VIII, Fig. 3) the shell-wall is exposed and bare to its basis, in 
the Margate specimen the base is concealed by a fpiite undisturl)ed 
semicircular quadruple row of shelly imbricated scales (PI. VIII, 
Fig, 4a, i.s., i.s.), analogous to those at the base of the capitulum of 



148 Dr. II. Woodward — A New Cirripede from the Challx. 

Pedunculated Civripedes (LepadidjB), such as PolUcipes mitella 
(PL VIII, Figs. 2a, 2b) and F. pobjmerns (Woodcut, Fig. 1), but 
which are absent in ordinary sessile forms (Balanidee). 

Thus, in Dr. Eowe's specimen we have presented to us a Cirripede 
of the greatest interest, offering a most important connecting link 
between the more ancient Pedunculata or Lepadidje and the more 
modern Opekculata or Balanid^. 

Turning to the genus Catophragmiis of Sowerby (Woodcut, Fig. 2), 
we find a sessile Balanid which assists us in the interpretation of 
Dr. Rowe's most interesting Chalk Cirripede, and also that Charles 
Darwin had, in 1854, already pointed out the significance of the 
structure of the shell in Catophragmiis as a means of bridging over 
the interval between the sessile and pedunculated forms of Cirripedia 
which Dr. Eowe's specimen had suggested to my mind Avhen he first 
placed it in my hands at the end of last year. " This genus of 
Catophragmiis," writes Darwin,^ " is very remarkable among sessile 
Cirripedes, from the eight normal compartments of the shell being 
surrounded by several whorls of supplemental compartments or 
scales : these are arranged symmetrically, and decrease in size, but 
increase in number towards the circumference and basal margin. 
A well-preserved specimen has a very elegant appearance, like 
certain compound flowers, which when half open are surrounded 
by imbricated and graduated scales. The Chthamalin^, in the 
structure of the mouth and cirri, and to a certain extent in that 
of the shell, fill up the interval between the Balaninee and 
Lepadida? ; and Catophragmus forms, in a very remarkable manner, 
the transitional link, for it is impossible not to be struck with the 
resemblance of its shell with the capitulum of Pollieipes (see 
Fig. 1). In Pollieipes, at least in certain species, the scuta and 
terga are articulated together; the carina, rostrum, and three pairs 
of latera, making altogether eight inner valves, are considerably 
larger than those in the outer whorls ; the arrangement of the latter, 
their manner of growth, and union, all are as in Catophragmus. If 
we in imagination unite some of the characters found in the 
different species of Pollieipes, and then make the peduncle so 
short (and it sometimes is very short in P. mitella) that the valves 
of the capitulum should touch the surface of attachment, it would be 
impossible to point out a single external character by which the two 
genera in these two distinct families could be distinguished : but 
the more important differences in the arrangement and nature of the 
muscles, which are attached either to the opercular valves or surround 
the inside of the peduncle, would yet remain." 

Although Dr. Eowe's Cretaceous Cirripede lacks the opercular 
valves, it enables us to conclude, from the presence of the thi'ee or 
four rows of imbricated scales around the base of the capitulum, that 
this form must at once be removed from the genus Pyrgoma, with 
which, as one of the Balanina?, it has onl}' a very remote affinity. 

1 A Monograph of the Subclass Ch-ripedia : The Balauida', etc., pp. 48-5-7, 
pi. XX, fig. 4. Ray Society, 1854. 



Dr. H. Woodtcai'd — A New Cirn'pede from the ChaJk. 149 



Nor can we place it. as I at first couceived to be possible, in 
Darwin's subfamily ChthamalinEe, which embraces Chthamalus, 
Chamccsiylio, Pachylasma, Octomeris, and Catophragmns, all of 
which are very irregular and aberrant forms of lialaninge, of 
which the same author observes that they differ in many important 
respects from the Balaninai proper and approach the Lepadidaj, 
as, for instance, in the supplemental whorls of imbricated scales or 
compartments in Catophragimts, etc. 

We should, I think, rather regard this Cretaceous type as an 
ancient pedunculated Cirripede, which, judging from the form and 
thickness of its carina and rostrum, appears to be assuming a more 
sessile condition of growth, and by a later and further modification 
may have become completely so. 

From the undisturbed triple or quadruple arrangement of imbri- 
cated scales enclosing the base it is quite certain that the carina (c.) 
and rostrum (r.) (PI. VllT, Fig. 4a) could not have united to form 
a conical shell-wall like that in Fijrgoma anglicim (PI. VIII, Fig. 5), 
as I originally supposed, nor do I think it could have had other 
lateral compartments between r. and c. to complete the shell-wall 
on the Bfdnmis type of structure, the large size of the scales in the 
centre suggesting rather that they were the sub-latera, as in the 
capitulum of Follicipes. It seems much more probable that the 
scuta and terga and perhaps a small and narrow latus took part, as 
in PolUcipes, in building up the capitulum, the basis of which was 
protected by a series of imbricated shelly plates. In point of fact 
we have here a Follicipes which has abandoned its peduncle, and 
whilst still retaining the rows of imbricated scales at the base of its 
capitulum, has settled down into the preliminary stage of becoming 
a permanently sessile form. 



. = rostrum. 

.s. = imbricated scales. 

.1. = sub-latera. 




= carma. 

= imbricated scales at 
base of capitulum. 



s.l. 
Fig. Z.—Bmchyh'pa.vyetacca, geu. nov. (capitidum restored). Tlicori-inal figure 
of Dr. Rowe's specimen is here reproduced aud restored by tlie ;«ddit.ou ot 
/ latus • «. scutum ; t. tergum. The rostrum {r.) and caruia (c.) aud the 
imbricated scales [\.s., i.s.) are copied from the origmal figure. 

As Lepas was the name originally given by Linnaeus to embrace 
both the pedunculated and sessile species, the designation Brachjhpas 
may serve to express the present type, which embraces characters 
apparently common to botli divisions of Cirripedia. The trivial 
name cretacea is of course retained. 

, The new form should, I think, be placed in a separate family, 
intermediate between the Pedunculata and Operculata, as— 



150 Dr. H. Woodward — A New Cirripede from the Chalk. 

Family BEACHYLEPADIDiE, 
BEACHYLEPAS, gen. nov., 1901. 
Non Pyrgoma (as applied by H. "Woochv., 1865, Brit. Assoc. Eep., p. 321). 
Valves about 100 in number ; latera of lower whorl numerous ; 
lines of growtb directed downwards ; peduncle absent. 

Braohylepas cketacba, H. Woodw. (PI. VIII, Figs, 'ka, h.) 

Capitulum with three or four whorls of valves under the rostrum ; 
apparently only three rows under the carina ; snb-latera larger than 
the rest. The base on the side figured shows about fifty-four ' 
shelly imbricated plates or scales forming eighteen vertical rows, 
arranged partly in three and partly in four rows ; they are smaller, 
narrower, and more pointed under the rostrum (r.), and largest and 
broadest in the centre below the latus (see restoration, Fig. 3, I.), 
as we see is the case in PoUicipes polymeriis (Woodcut, Fig. 1), 
where the latera are regularly graduated in size from the upjDermost 
to the lowest of the series. The scales under the carina (c.) are 
larger than those beneath the rostrum (r.) ; but they are narrower 
and more pointed than those of the lateral series (which are 
reproduced enlarged on PI. VIII, Fig. 46). The scales have 
a strong median ridge with lateral divaricating lines, giving the 
free-edges a delicately plicated border. The median ridge is narrower 
and sharper in the scales beneath the rostrum, and broadest on the 
lateral scales. 

The carina (c.) is marked by strong vertical ridges, which ai'e 
crossed by numerous finer encircling bands, running parallel to the 
base, giving to both the carina and rostrum a delicate reticulated 
surface. The walls of both are thick, and so far as can be seen 
quite smooth on the inner surface. On the opposite aspect of the 
carina to that drawn, the base of the capitulum is seen to be nearly 
wholly exposed and bare, save for the presence of three of the 
shelly scales which remain in situ adhering to the carina, the 
largest of which is 4 mm, in length. The semicircular wall of 
the carina measures about 17 mm. near its base around its outer 
face, and its height on the side not covered by the sheath of 
imbricated scales is 8^ mm. The I'ostrum is considerably smaller 
than the carina; it measures 15mm. around the outer surface near 
the base, and is 6 mm. in height. 

The sheath of imbricated scales covers the base of the rostrum, on 
the side drawn in the Plate, 2 mm. deep, and extends also 2 mm. 
below the base of the rostrum, the whole series of scales being 
a little over 4 mm. deep. 

Viewed from above, the body-cavity, enclosed in the convexities 
of the carina and rostrum, is seen to be oval, being 8 mm. long by 
6 mm. broad. The walls of the capitulum are very steep, the carina, 
which is also much the highest, seeming almost to overhang at its 
summit. 

1 That is, 54 plates on the side figured ; if perfect, there would have been an equal 
number on the other side, or about 108 in all. 



Dr. II. Woodicard — A Neir C impede from the Chalh. 101 



The imbricated scales or plates, which extend below the base of 
the rostrum and carina, spread outwards at a considerably wider 
angle than the capitulura. The attached valve of some small mollusc 
is seen adhering to the imbricated scales below the rostrum. 

From the disparity in the proportions of the rostrum and carina, 
and the absence of alas, we arrive at the conclusion that the terga 
and scuta were not mere opercular valves, but formed a part of the 
capitulum ; that latera were also present is proved by the increase 
in size of the sub-lateral scales, which are much larger than those of 
the rostral or carinal series (see PI. VIII, Figs. 4a, h). 

There can, I think, be no reasonable doubt that Brachjlepas forms 
a distinct family, from which at a later period probably the modern 
Operculata have arisen. 

The place of Brachjlepas in the phylogeny of the subclass may be 
indicated as follows : — 



CIURIPEDIA. 



Pedunculata 
i^Lepadidce) 

Lepas Scalpeihon rulUcipes 



Ol'EltCULATA 

{Balanida; etc., etc.). 
Catophraymiis Balanus, etc., etc. 



SealpcUitiii (Gault) 




Bkachylepas (Chalk) 



PoUicipes (Rb;i.'tic) 



Tiirr'ibpds (Sihiiiiin) 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE VIII, Eigs. 1-). 
Fig. l.-BaJanusncmen,K... Recent : British (^d nat.) -}. (See also Darw^^^^^^ 

" Balanidtc " p. 277, pl. vii, fij?- 5. r. rostrum ; c. car ma ; r.l. rostro- lateral 

compart^ut;^. lateral con^artmeat ; I.e. earino - h.teral compartment. 

i. basis ; Oi'. opercular valves. /tj„,*\j /. ,..,rin'i • 

YiG.^2a.-Follic\pesmitcUa,Unn. Recent: East Indies (Ad nat.) .. '' • ™ ; 

/ ter-ura s scutum ; r. rostrum ; /. latus ; s.r. sub-rostrum ; s.c. .ub-cauna . 

belween ;.>•.■ and L'- the valves ot the lower latera are seen ; p.. pednneular 



Fig 2r-F;ur of the lower latera, with some of the peduncular scales onlar.q:ed. 

fU'OT Map Dec I Vol. V, 1868, p. 'iJ^S, PI. XI\ , tigs. 1,2). t r >m tlie 
Chalk '1 Norwich/' Preserved in' the British Museum (Natural History). 
Enlarsred twice natural size. 



Fig. 



152 Dr. H. JFoodivard — Carboniferous Trilohites. 

Fig. 4:a.—Brachylepas cretacea. Specimen obtained and developed by Dr. Arthur 
Rowe, M.S., M.R.C.S., F.G.S., from the Chalk of Margate. Enlarged 
three times natnral size. Original preserved in Dr. Eowe's cabinet, c. carina ; 
r. rostrum; i.s., i.s. imbricated scales at base of capitulum. 

Pig. 4i. — Sub-lateral scales, enlarged six times natural size. From the centre of 
series just below the latus (see restoration in text, Fig. 3, /). 

Fig. 5. — Pyrgoma angUcum, Leach (viewed from above). From the Coralline Crag, 
Eamsholt, Suffolk. Enlarged four times natural size. Eecent : Great Britain, 
Europe, Cape de Yerde. (Copied from Darwin's " Balauidie " : Pal. Soc. 
Moil., 1854, tab. ii, fig. la.) 



II. — Note on some Carboniferous Trilobites. 

By Henry Woodward, LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. 

(PLATE VIII, Figs. 6-S.) 

THE problems of life which the biologist is called upon to solve 
present so many and such varied aspects that they are never 
likely to become exhausted, or to weary by reason of their monotony. 
Among these the appearances and disappearances of groups in time 
(like the players on Shakespeare's mimic stage) are certainly not the 
least interesting questions awaiting solution. 

In the case of the Trilobita, we are indebted to Walcott in 
America, Hicks in Wales, Lapworth in England, Peach and Horns 
in Scotland, Nathorst in Sweden, Mickwitz in Russia, and Holm in 
Lapland for extending the Olenellus zone back in time to the Lower 
Cambrian, thus giving to the Trilobites a vast increase in antiquity, 
without by any means reaching the dawn of life of this group. 

The existence of Trilobites in the Carboniferous Limestone wasl 
made known as early as 1809, but no upward extension has occurred! 
during the lapse of nearly one hundred years, save their discovery 
in the Culm of Waddon-Barton, Chudleigh, and Barnstaple, Devon- 
shire,^ still within the Lower Carboniferous series. One is tempted 
to ask, did they survive beyond the seas of the Lower Carboniferous 
period, and, if not, what was the cause of their extermination ? To 
these inquiries our researches have at present yielded no reply. 

It seems difficult to understand why the conditions which pre- 
vailed in the seas during the slow building up of the vegetable 
deposits of the Coal-period on the adjacent low-lying lands were 
inimical to the life of the Trilobita, seeing that near those old lands 
several species of small king-crabs (Limidi) were living, larger 
Eurypterus - like Crustaceans, small aquatic forms of Cyclus, 
numerous Brachyurans (the first lobsters), Antlirapalcemon, Pygo- 
cepJialus (a Stomapod), with Phyllopod and Ostracod Crustaceans 
in great abundance : apparently offering an undoubted cei'tificate as 
to the salubrity of this marine resort. Yet the Trilobites disappeared. 

Although limited in the number of genera and species, the 
Carboniferous and Culm Trilobites form a most elegant and attrac- 
tive group, but they do not display that great variety of form or 
ornamentation which characterized their predecessors in Silurian 
times. 

1 H. Woodward, "Trilobites from the Culm of Devon" : Pal. Soc. Mou., 1884, 
Carboniferous Trilobites, pp. 59-70, pi. x. Also Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. li 
(1895), pp. 646-9. 



Dr. II. Woodtcard — Carboiiiferoii.'i Tri/olj/ies. lo-"} 

Since I published my monograph on Carboniterous Trilobites 
(1883-1884, Pal. Soc. Men., pp. 1-SG, pis. i-x), I have given in this 
Magazine for 1894 (Dee. IV, Vol. I, pp. 481-489, PI. XlV) 
descriptions of two new species, namely, IViillipsia Vau-der-GrachtIi 
and P. Folleni, from the Carbonaceous shale, banks of the Kiver 
Hodder, Stonyhurst, Lancashire. 

In November, 1895, I examined a number of specimens sulimitted 
to me by Dr. G. J. Hinde and I\Ir. Howard Fox. from the Culm of 
Devonshire and from a white siliceous rock at Ilannaford Quarry, 
near Barnstaple. These represented forms already described as 
Ph'llipsia Leei, Ph. minor, Ph. Cllffordi, Phillipsia'? (a larval form), 
Grifjitltides acanfhiceps, G. lov/jispiims, Proetns sp. A, Proetus sp. b 
(Q."J.G.S., vol. li, 1895, pp. 646-649, pi. xxviii, figs. 1-8). 
Mr. J. G. Handing, Miss Partridge, and Mr. A. K. Coomara- 
tSwamy, F.G.S., have also sent me specimens from Barnstaple for 
examination, some of which I hope to figure and notice shortly. 

Last year, when visiting my friend Mv. E. Howarth, F.K.A.S., 
F.Z.S., the energetic Curator of the Public Museum, Weston Park, 
Sheffield, I discovered that this museum possesses a most excellent 
series of Trilobites from the Carboniferous Limestone of Derbyshire, 
of the existence of which I was previously unaware. 

The collection was derived from two sources: — (1) Pui'chased 
with the geological collection of the Rev. Urban Smith, vicar of 
Stoney Middleboro' (near to Eyam), Derbyshire, an ardent geologist 
who during many years' residence in this district formed a large 
collection chiefly obtained from the Carboniferous Limestoue of his 
own immediate neighbourhood. The specimen H. 88. 1103, 
Griffithides longiceps, Portlock, figured on our PI. VIII, Fig. 6, 
enlarged three times nat. size, is from this collection. (2) The 
second collection was purchased as a part of the museum of Thomas 
Bateman, Esq., of Middleton Plall, near Bakewell, Derbyshire. 
Mr. Bateman wrote several books on the antiquities of Derbyshire 
and Yorkshire, and his archaeological and geological collections were 
purchased for the Sheffield Museum (see lieview of Mr. Howarth's 
Catalogue of Bateman Collection, Geol. Mag., 1901, p. 37). The 
specimen H. 93. 118, of G. longiceps, figured on our Plate (PI. VIII, 
Figs. 7, S, enlarged three times nat. size), is from the Bateman 
Collection. From the Carboniferous Limestone of Wettin Hill, 
Derbyshire. 

It is most rare to meet with specimens from the Carboniferous 
Limestone, such as the two here figured, in which the head, thorax, 
and abdomen (or pygidium) are preserved united in the same 
individual ; the thoracic segments are very commonly absent, and 
the head-shield and pygidium are usually luund separately, so that 
their description is often attended with considerable difficulty and 
uncertainty. 

I set out with the full conviction that the above exanq)les, the 
details of which are so remarkably well preserved, entitled them to 
specific distinction ; but after more careful study 1 can only conclude 
them to represent a more slender variety of G. lowjicrps. the axis ot 



154 Messrs. Barron 8f Hume — Eastern Desert of Egypt. 

wliich is distinctly narrower than that figured by me in 1883 (Pal, 
Soc. Mon., pi. vi, figs. 7 and 8). 

The description given at pp. 33-34 closelj' agrees with our present 
specimens, save in one particulai', namely, the axis is there stated 
to be equal to half the entire breadth of the thorax, whereas in 
Fig. 6 of our Plate VIJI it is shown to be exactly one-third the 
entire breadth of the thorax. This form might therefore be 
recognized as Griffithides longiceps, var. angusta, H. W. 

The following is a list of the Trilobites from the Carboniferous 
Limestone in the Sheffield Museum, all from Derbyshire : — 
Phillipsia Derbiensis, Martin, sp., 1809. 
,, gemmuUfera, Phillips, sp., 1836. 
,, JEichwaldi, Fisher, sp., 1825. 
Griffithides globiceps, Phillips, sp., 1836. 

,, Carringtonensis, Etheridge MS. (H. W., 1884). 

,, longispinus, Portlock, 1843. 

,, seminiferus (a very good specimen in 'Rotten stone'), 

Phillips, sp., 1836. 
,, longiceps, Portlock, 1843. 

,, ,, var. angusta. (PL VIII, Figs. 6-8.) 

Bracliymetopus Ouralicus, De Verneuil, 1845 (a large series of very 

good detached head-shields and pygidia). 
Proetus, sp. ind. (some small detached pygidia). 

Some large detached pygidia in this collection may be new. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE VIII, Figs. 6-8. 

Fig. 6. — Griffithides longiceps, Portlock, var. angusta, H. "W. Carboniferous Lime- 
stone: Stoney Middleboro'. 

Figs. 7, 8. — G. longiceps, var. angusta. Carboniferous Limestone: "Wettin Hill, 
Derbyshire. 

Figures enlarged three times natural size. Original specimens preserved in 
the Sheffield Museum. 



III. — Notes on the Geology of the Eastern Desert of Egypt, 
By T. Barron-, A.E.C.S., F.G.S., etc., and W. F. Hume, D.Sc, A.E.S.M., etc... 

(By permission of the Under-Secretary of State for Public Works, and the 
Director- General of the Survey Department.) 

The paper is divided into two parts, viz. : — 

1. Sedimentary Rocks. 

2. Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks. 

Part I. — 1. Pleistocene and Eecent. («) Igneous Gravel and Conglomerates. 

[b] Newer and older Beach Deposits. 

2. Pliocene. Nile Valley Limestones and Conglomerates. 

3. Miocene Beds. 

4. Eocene Limestones and Shales. 

5. Cretaceous Limestones. 

6. Nubian Shales and Sandstones. 

1. (a) Igneous Gravels, etc. — These consist of granite, gneiss, and 
many other igneous and metamorphic rocks similar to those met 
with in the Red Sea Hills, and occur up Wadi Qena and spread 



i 



Mentis. Barron ^' Ilionc — Eastrvn Desert of E<ji/iit. 



•JO 



out in a fan-shaped delta at its mouth. Although ahundant in 
this wadi, the^'^ are unknown in the side-valleys, even where they 
are now connected with the igneous hills. Tiie explanation of this 
is as follows : — East of Qena the Eocene plateau has heen hrokeu 
up into a series of outliers, which until quite recently were connected 
by a long ridge, the sole break being that where Wadi Qena passes 
between the main plateau and the outlier of Abu Had. Previous 
to the formation of the latter fracture, the southern end of Wadi 
Qena was a bay, in which flint containing conglomerates and Pliocene 
limestones were being deposited, but when the above-mentioned gaj* 
was formed, the drainage from the Red Sea Hills passed through to 
the Nile Valley. Similar gravels cover the Red Sea Coast-plahi. 
The age of these beds has now been shown to be Post-Pliocene, 
as there is a marked unconformity between theui and the latter, 
and also because on the Coast-plain they are found underlying and 
overlying limestones containing Pleistocene fossils. 

This throws a strong light on the age of the Nile. Mr. Beadnell 
found these gravels on the western side of the valley, and they are 
apparently continuous under the Nile alluvium, thus showing that 
the Nile as a river is later than these gravels, and could not have 
begun to flow until late Pleistocene times. These gravels are alsa 
suggested as the origin of the igneous pebbles reported by Professor 
Judd in the Royal Society's boring at Zaqaziq. All the rocks 
mentioned can be matched from the gravels near Qena. (Since thi;' 
paper was read similar pebbles, but worn thin as by long rolling,^ 
have been found in cuttings in the lake deposits to the north of 
Heluan.) The theory of the derivation of the pebbles from the 
northern part of the Red Sea Hills is untenable, as it is known that 
Wadi Qena received all the drainage from that area in early 
Pliocene times. 

These gravels are believed to have been deposited in a fresh-water 
lake, a series of which were formed as the sea retreated down the 
Nile Valley. 

1. (6) Baised Beaches and Coral Reefs.— Five series are recognized, 
of which the youngest is below sea-level, their succession being as 
follows : — 

(1) The coral reefs at present forming in the Red Sea. 

(2) The raised beaches and lower coral reefs which flank the coast, 

varying in height from near sea-level to 2o metres above 
the sea. . .. 

(3) A higher coral reef series on an average four to seven kilo- 

metres from the sea, and at various levels between Ho and 
170 metres. 

(4) A disturbed coral reef dipping 20 degrees eastward, closely 

related to the previous one. 

(5) An old coral reef in which the affinities are as mucli 

Mediterranean as Erythranvn, regarded at present as Miocene. 

Along the shore ' storm-beaches ' are common ; in some places the 

shells form well-marked zones; while the higher beaches and reels 



156 Messrs. Barro)i (^' Hume — EasteDi Desert of Egypt. 

are distinguished more or less from the lower by a different fauna. 
The disturbed reef has been formed previous to the formation of the 
parallel ranges of Jebel Esh and Zeit, thus bringing up the fault- 
movement to very recent times. 

In this area there is an inversion of the stratigraphical arrangement, 
the higher beds being the older, the reefs being formed during 
-a period of secular elevation. There is also apparently a long break 
between the two reefs, the explanation suggested being as follows : — 

The first great Tertiary earth-movement in the Ked Sea region 
was previous to the Upper Miocene and subsequent to the Eocene, 
•the latter being faulted, and beds of the former deposited in the 
troughs produced. Later, as the result of further movements, coral 
reefs were formed on the sides of the igneous hills, but as soon as 
(owing to continued elevation and denudation) valleys had formed, 
down which torrents carried masses of pebbles, etc., the conditions 
became unfavourable for the formation of true reefs, and only gravels 
were deposited. This view assumes the existence of marked pluvial 
conditions, as maintained by previous writers, and it was only when, 
the present desert conditions set in that the reefs again began 
to grow. 

2. Pliocene, — Mayer-Eymar and Dawson have both regarded the 
Nile Valley as an arm of the sea in recent times as far up as Assuan. 
A foraminiferal limestone, found by Mr. Barron near Erment and 
which has been described hy Mr. F. Chapman, contained two out of 
:five species described not older than Miocene, while one is not 
known before Pliocene times, thus proving the above theory. Beds 
of the same age are found in Wadi Qena. They form a plateau 
consisting of flint conglomerates, white limestone, and at the base 
marls and fissile sandstones which vary greatly, the limestones 
being lenticular and thinning out to the east. The conglomerates 
are formed by the denudation of the Eocene limestone. The 
succession of these beds is as follov^^s : — 

(1) On the boundai'y-line with the Eocene rocks, breccias of flinty 

and cherty limestone with lenticles of limestone interbedded. 

(2) Conglomerates of well-rounded pebbles. 

{3) Pure white limestones, perhaps partly siliceous. 
(4) Marls and clays. 
(o) Sandy clays. 

These beds are regarded as Pliocene on three grounds — (1) They 
have no resemblance to known Miocene beds in Egypt ; (2) they 
are identical in all essential particulars with the foraminiferal series 
of the Nile Valley; and (3) the Pleistocene gravels are younger and 
unconformable to them. 

These beds owe their origin to the faulting which produced the 
Nile Valley and Wadi Qena, and there must have been a subsidence 
of at least 400 metres to allow of their deposition. 

The Pliocene has been a period of great movement marked by the 
formation of the great rifts such as the Eed Sea, with the invasion 
of the fauna of the southern seas, the Grulf of Suez, the great scarp 
of the Ked Sea Hills and its parallel ranges, and the main trend of 



J/cix/'.s. Barron ^' Ilxmc — Eastern Desert of Eijupt. 157 

the Nile Valley and Wadi Qena, the two latter being in part arms of 
tlie sea extending far into the land. 

3. Miocene Beds. — There are no new facts to be added to the 
results obtained by Mitchell and Mayer-Eymar in this area. 

4. Eocene Beds. — These can be divided into two main series — 
(a) a thick group of limestones which are locally named Serrai 
Limestones, and (b) a thick group of shales, marls, and marly 
limestones termed by the Survey the ' Esna Shales.' 

(a) The summit of the plateau is a bed containing a small 
nnmmulite, underlying which is a nodular limestone forming 
a distinct, precipitous, undercut cliif 3 metres high. Beneath this 
are limestones with flint-bands having a thickness of 200 metres, 
and having at their base a chalky limestone weathering pink. The 
total thickness of this series is 22o metres. 

ih) The Esna shales are composed of yellow limestones (Pecten 
Marls) forming the base, succeeded by green shales, in the middle 
of which is a limestone, the total thickness being 122 metres. 
The Eocene here belongs to the ' Libysche Stnfe ' of Zittel or 
Londinian stage. 

By the discovery of the unconformity between the Eocene and 
Cretaceous strata in Wadi Hammama, the presence of hitherto 
unsuspected Eocene has been proved on the eastern side of the 
Eed Sea Hills, such as the faulted area of Jebel Duwi and Nakheil, 
near Qosseir. and the limestone range of Jebel iMellaha, near Jebel 
Zeit. The former is a bold white cliff facing south and dipping 
away at angles of 15 to 20 degrees, and is the result of complicated 
folding and strike- and dip-faulting, the flinty series being some- 
times tilted at angles of 40 degrees, and lying in succession against 
Nubian Sandstone, metamorphic rocks, and granite, as in Jebel 
Hamrawein. Jebel Nakheil is an Eocene and Cretaceous syncline 
in which the succession is the same as that near Qena. Other 
outliers are noted in Wadi Hamrawein, the country north of 
Wadi Saga, at the confluence of Wadi Safaja and Wadi Wasif, and 
to the north-west of Wadi Um Taglier. 

Jehel Mellaha. —Fvofessov Zittel, in his map, following Schwein- 
furth's researches, refers the whole series to the Cretaceous, but the 
latter seems to have become aware of the presence of Eocene later. 
This range is composed of the same beds as Jebel Nakheil. 

The Eocene beds have covered the whole of the Eastern Desert 
north of lat. 26° N., but have been entirely removed except where 
let down by faults. They are everywhere unconformable to the 
Cretaceous rocks. 

5. Cretaceous Limestones.— Mtev pointing out some gross errors 
recently published by Dr. M. Blanckenhorn, the most important 
points to be noted arc these : — 

(1) The occurrence of a Cretaceous plateau at Wadi Hammama 
containing numerous Cephalopoda, Ptijclioceras. etc., and a coprolite 
bed aboul: one metre thick, and extending over 20 kilometres to the 
north, where it runs to gromid at the foot of Abu Had. The coprolite 
bed contains 50 per cent, phosphate of lime. 



158 Jfessi's. Barron Sf Hume — Eastern Desert of Egijpt. 

(2) There is a distinct unconformity between the Esna Shales 
and the Cretaceous. 

(3) Cretaceous Plateau at the foot of Jebel Duioi. — This was 
hitherto scarcely known, and differs from the previously described 
area in the absence of the Ptyclwceras, etc., and by their replacement 
by large Nautili, associated with Libycoceras Ismaeli and beds of 
Trigonoarca mnltidentata, etc., below which comes a bed crowded 
with Ostrea Villei. A strong unconformity is also here present 
between these beds and the Eocene. At the north end of this 
range, near Saga Plain, the coprolite beds are of unusual thickness. 

(4) Confluence of WacU Safuja and Wadi Wasif — Here there are 
two well-developed coprolite beds, and a veiy prominent layer of 
BacuUtes. The conclusion arrived at is that the Cretaceous lime- 
stones of the area described are of shallower-water origin than those 
occurring to the north in Wadi Araba, and entirely Carapanian in 
age, being characterized by the abundance of their oysters, their 
well-marked coprolite beds, and small thickness. This main type 
is of great palgeontological variability, the beds near Qena, Qosseir, 
and Mellaha differing in essential particulars. 

Gypseous Deposits near the Bed Sea. — These occur only in the 
' Eaised Beach ' area, and are almost always intimately connected 
with the limestones of this series. They crop out from under these 
beds, and, by their invariable unconformit}' and constant height 
above sea-level, suggest a " plain of marine denudation." They 
are the Lower Eocene and Cretaceous Limestones which have 
been altered, not from below as has been previously believed, but 
from above, as will be shown in tlie Report on Western Sinai by 
Mr. Barron. 

6. The Nubian Shales and /Sandstone. — These consist of soft green 
and black carbonaceous shales and marls, and dark-brown and red 
sandstone. The former being easily weathered are accountable for 
the formation of the large plains which are met with in the areas 
occupied by this series. The sandstones show evidence of ripple- 
marking, sun-cracks, rain-prints, and worm-tracks. In the softer 
upper beds, the vertebrse of a (?) Mosasaurus and pieces of fossil 
wood in excellent condition were found. It is everywhere 
unconformable to the underlying igneous rocks. 

The age of the deposit in this district is Santonian or Lower 
Senonian, as shown by a bed of oysters found in the sandstone near 
El Geita by Mr. Barron. No traces of Carboniferous fauna have 
been discovered. It is later than the igneous range, and not earlier 
as maintained by Eloyer and Mitchell. 

Part II. 

Igneous and Metamorphic Eocks. — These rocks, forming a wide 
band running parallel to the Gulf of Suez and the Red Sea, 
practically constitute the mass of the Red Sea Hills. The latitude 
of 27 degrees N. closely agrees with an important geological 
boundary, the granites playing a considerable part among the 
components of the mountain ranges north of this line, while south 



Mcs.irs. Barron ^- If time — Eastern Dc^rrt of EijiipL 109 

of it the metamorphic rocks become increasingly prevalent as 
the Qena-Qosseir road is approached, the granite forniing sharp 
isolated ridges rising abrnptly from among low hills of sheared 
diabase or slates. Almost on the southern edge of the area, well- 
marked gneisses and schists give rise to the range of Meeteg, whose 
rugged peaks dominate the upper portion of Wadi Sodmein. 

Metamorphic Rocks. — In the following pages only the most 
important new facts can be touched upon, these being briefly as 
follows : — 

Gneiss, etc., near Qosseir. — The northern track from Qena to 
Qosseir, after passing through a granite and dolerite region, suddenly 
enters a district composed of a grey, slightly schistose rock, breaking 
off into long splinters. Through it run numerous solution veins 
of quartz, bands of calcite and carbonate of iron, all of which have 
been extensively worked. These dates, having a distinct satiny 
lustre, and forming low ridges on the western edges of the two high 
ranges of El Rebshi and Meeteg, dip steeply south-west, but at the 
base of the former mountain system are replaced by underlying 
green phyUites, into which numerous dykes of dolerite have been 
intruded, quartz veins being also common. 

The main range of Meeteg itself is composed of a still older 
series of quartz-mica schists, the j'ounger members of which are 
of a yellowish colour, splitting readily into blocks more or less 
cubical in outline. Near the base of the mountain small veins 
of granite penetrate into the schists, in some places being pinched 
into these in a lenticular manner. The core of the range is com- 
posed of a massive red and closely banded grey gneiss, which, 
in a fine section displayed in the upper portion of Wadi Sodmein, 
is seen to be successively overlaid by a gabbro, mica-schists, a massive 
dark dolerite, hornblende-schists, and reddish-white mottled slates. 
From a little north of this point the valley wanders through a maze 
of hills of grey and green colour, consisting of micaceous, chloritic, 
and hornblendic 'schists,' capped by beds of dolerite and diabase, 
crushed or uncrushed. A question of terminology makes a difficulty, 
as the same term schist is here applied to these rocks in tlie foothills, 
which are far less compact than the typical varieties occurring iu 
the main range. 

Sheared Diabases and Dolerites.—The Wadi Sodmein section is 
useful because it shows the relative age of the gneiss and the sheared 
diabases, ashes, and other volcanic rocks, which occupy an enormous 
area of the southern portion of the Red Sea Hills, viz. 2,500 square 
kilometres approximately, being the main constituent of the region 
to the north-west and west of Qosseir, except where sedimentary hills 
have been faulted in. The sheared diabases and compacted ashes 
chiefly occur in this district, but further west, as in Wadi Atolla, 
are replaced by massive dolerites, which in many other localities 
are found in close association with volcanic members of many 
diflferent types. This volcanic series is by no means limited to 
the area above mentioned, but reappears throughout the whole of 
the Red Sea region at most unexpected localities. Tims, in the 



160 Messrs. Ban-on 8f Hiuiie — Eadern Desert of Egypt. 

central range, dolerites and other basic rocks are seen capping some 
of the highest granite hills, still remaining as a thin coating, which 
otherwise has been almost entirely removed by denudation. Again, 
the base of the same range is fringed by a belt of the same character, 
the presence of which is probably directly referable to faulting on 
a large scale. 

South-west of the central range, too, extends the Fatiri El Iswid 
district, consisting of range after range, in which dolerites, serpentines, 
compacted ashes, now practically slates, and agglomerates play an 
important part. While on the south of lat. 27° N. these rocks 
only give rise to low hills of complex character, to the north 
of that line they take part in the formation of scenic features of 
the first magnitude, rising to 1,800 metres in Jebel Dokhan, and 
composing some of the principal longitudinal ranges forming the 
eastern boundary of the Red Sea Hills. 

The members of this volcanic series are of somewhat different 
character from those previously mentioned, dark andesites being as 
conspicuous as the dolerite sheets associated with them, while the 
sheared diabases have been replaced by tuffs and asbes far less 
compact than those near Qosseir. The agglomerates, too, are very 
striking in the El Urf chain, where blocks of ' imperial porphyrj'^ ' 
ai-e included among the rock fragments. Indeed, the most interesting 
member of this series is the imperial porphyry of Jebel Dokhan, 
typical specimens of which are withamite, containing andesites, 
though the same mineral is present in some of the tuffs. 

Relative Age of the Volcanic Series. — It has already been 
stated that the dolerites, diabases, etc., rest upon the Metamorphic 
Schists and Gneisses, and are younger than the latter, but it 
is equally possible to show that the giieissose granites and 
diorites, which underlie them over wide areas, are of still later 
date. Thus, to take a few typical cases, a mass of mica-diorite has 
been intruded into the agglomerate, while in Wadi Esh, near 
Qosseir, the sides of the valley are formed of grey granite which, is 
overlaid by the compact dolerite, but the former has sent numerous 
veins into the latter. Other examples will be mentioned in the 
report, but one of the best is close to the pass leading from AVadi 
Um Sidri to Um Messaid, where a dyke of red microgranite in the 
andesite has for a time prevented another vein of grey granite from 
penetrating into the lava, but finally, after running parallel for 
a short distance, the latter lias succeeded in bursting through, and 
has sent long veins and branches into the porphyry. 

Granites. — The rocks of granitic character in the Red Sea Hills 
are sharply divided into two groups, giving rise to very different 
types of scenery. The most prominent variety is a coarse red 
granite, poor in mica, which forms some of the finest summits north 
of and on the latitude of 27 degrees N., these being usually 
characterized by steepness, the mountains being seamed by bouldery 
ravines which cause the crests to have a highly serrated outline, 
while nearly all the lower country consists of bouldery ridges of 
a gneissose biotite, or hornblende granite, which, has its south-eastern 



Professor T. G. Bonnet/ — Schists in Lcpontine Alps. 161 

boundary along a line joining Eas El Banul and Missikat El Qukli 
ranges. This gneissose granite is especially conspicuous owing to 
the abundance of the dykes of quartz-felsite and dolerite which vein 
it, in a north-east and south-west direction, the differential weathering 
of the two giving rise to a typical alternation of parallel ridges and 
sandy valleys to which the name ' dyke-country ' may be applied. 
Where the above two varieties come in contact, it can be clearly 
seen that the red granite is the younger of the two. 

General Eecapitulation. 
We are now in a position to give the general succession for the 
Arabian Desert between Jebel Gharib and the Qena-Qosseir line. 

1. The metamorphic are older than the igneous rocks. 

2. The gneiss of Meeteg is the oldest member of the metamorphic 
series, the schists coming next in order, followed by slates, grauwacko 
(altered ash), sheai-ed diabases, and dolerites. 

3. Volcanic action had already begun during the period of 
formation of the grauwackes and slates, as the sheared diabases and 
dolerites are in places closely associated with them, but the main 
mass of the dolerite is younger than the slates. Thus the next in 
succession is a volcanic series in the south, consisting mainly of 
dolerites and sheared diabases, and in the north of dolerites, 
andesites, tuffs, and agglomerates. 

4. These are themselves underlain, and in most cases intruded 
into, by a third series, a qiiariz-diorite or grey granite, in many 
cases gneissose. 

5. Through the volcanics and grey granite rise masses of red 
granite, which may be almost contemporaneous with dykes of quartz- 
felsite and dolerite, seaming the members of the preceding series. 

IV. — Schists and Schistose Rocks in the Lepontink Alps: 

Reply to Criticisms by Professor A. Heim. 

By Professor T. G. Bonxey, D.Sc, LL.D., F.E.S. 

SOME three years ago, on referring to the twenty-fifth volume 
of the "BeitrJige zur Geologischen Karte der Schweiz," I found 
Professor Heim had devoted a few pages (pp. ol6-319) of that 
work to my criticisms of his attempts to prove that Jurassic rocks 
had been metamorphosed into schists containing authigenous garnets, 
staurolites, etc. Had he brought forward any new fact of importance 
or pointed out any serious error in my work I should have loplied 
at once, but as he was unable to do this, and as the justice of one of 
my criticisms was indirectly admitted in the petrographical appendix 
by Dr. C. Schmidt, I allowed more pressing and interesting matters 
to take precedence of one which had become chiefly personal. 

On reading Professor Heim's remarks I perceive that we labour 
under a similar disadvantage, viz., that neither is a master of the 
language in which the other writes. He complains of a difticulty 
in understanding ray meaning, though I think it was plain enough 
to most of my English friends. I am in the same position, l)ecause 
he appears to me to avoid the direct issues and to repeat assertions 



DECADE lY.— VOL. VIII.— NO. IV. 



11 



1'62 Professor T. 0. Bonney — Schists in Lepontine Alps. 

whicla I have challenged. So, before going further, I will state the 
dispute as clearly and concisely as I can. It arose out of a paper 
read at the London Meeting of the International Geological Congress 
in 1888.^ Then, or soon afterwards, Professor Heim made the 
following assertions : (1) that at Guttannen stems of a plant of 
Carboniferous age had been found in a gneiss ; (2) that near 
Andermatt a crystalline marble was associated with a Jurassic 
limestone, so that they must be of the same geological age ; (3) 
that in the Lepontine Alps a transition could be traced between 
fossiliferous Jurassic rocks and schists with authigenous garnets, 
staurolites, etc. 

I have disputed the accuracy of all these statements. As regards 

(1) it is now admitted that the supposed stems are not organisms, 
but merely imitative markings. Hence this assertion is invalidated, 
but, as I have apparently made a mistake as to the nature of the 
rock, neither side in this controversy can ' score honours.'^ About 

(2) there is nothing fresh to be said. I have discussed Prof. Heim's 
evidence, which he has not been able to strengthen, and think 
myself justified in claiming a verdict of 'not proven,' even if I have 
not shown his interpretation to be improbable. ^ My remarks 
accordingly will be confined to (3). Here sections are more 
numerous ; the issue is simpler, and the initial difference between 
us largely concerns matters of fact. In the first place, Prof. Heim 
maintains that I have misunderstood him, and that he never affirmed 
those altered Mesozoic sedimentary rocks to be true crystalline 
schists. The very lax use of the term ' schist ' by Continental and 
some English authors undoubtedly leads to confusion in expression 
as well as in thought, and I am prepared to admit that it might some- 
times be difficult to draw a hard and fast line between a schistose 
rock (i.e. cleavage followed by a certain amount of secondai-y 
mineral development) and some foliated schists. This, however, 
does not really affect the present issue. Professor Heiru asserted 
that certain schists with authigenous garnets, staurolites, etc., were 
proved to be of Jurassic age, not only by stratigraphical evidence, 
but also, where the minerals were less well developed, by the 
presence of fossils. I asserted that the schists with garnets, etc., 
were both truly crystalline and belonged to a group distinct from 
the Jurassic rocks in question ; that this group could be shown to 
be much older than the Trias, and to differ in important respects 
from the fossiliferous schistose Jurassic rocks, which never contain 
authigenous garnets, etc., but only certain hydrous silicates, pre- 
senting a merely superficial resemblance to garnets, staurolites, etc. 
In other words, I gave reasons to show that Professor Heim's 
interpretation of the stratigraphical facts was untenable, and his 
identification of the important minerals was incorrect. 

^ Compte Rendu de la 4"^ Session, p. 80. See also Nature, Sept. 27 and Oct. 4, 
1888, and Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xlvi (1890), p. 236. 

* Geol. Mag., 1900, p. 215. 

3 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xlvi (1890), p. 67 ; vol. 1 (1894), p. 285 ; vol. liii 
(1897), p. 16. 



Profc-isor T. G. Bonne// — Schists in Lepontinc A/jis. 16-"5 

Passing now to the stratigraphy, I claim to have proved — 

(a) That the schistose and fossiliferous Jurassic rocks in the 
Scopi and Nufeuen districts overlie the rauchwacke.' 

(b) That this rauchwacke (commonly a friable yellowish lime- 
stone, sometimes including layers of gypsum, but without any 
marked indications of metamorphism) often contains fragments of 
crystalline rocks corresponding with those which are elsewhere 
associated with the black garnet-bearing schists. Also, that this 
rauchwacke differs conspicuously from the cr3'stalline limestone or 
dolomite, which occurs both on the northern side of the Campolungo 
Pass (south of the Val Bedretto) and in association with similar 
dark schists above Binn in the Biunenthal. 

(c) That the rauchwacke generally overlies the group of ciystal- 
line schists, and where it is apparently interstratified with them 
a closer examination always suggests that it is a later rock ' nipped ' 
in by overfolding and thrust faulting. 

(d) In the noted Val Canaria section, where, according to Professor 
Heim, crystalline schists- are included in a fold of which an ordinary 
rauchwacke forms the base, not only does this rauchwacke contain 
fragments of more than one variety of the schists supposed to overlie 
it, but also the band of black garnet-bearing schists occurs three 
times, and the other beds are not in pairs. These facts prove 
a simple fold to be impossible,' and if faults be once admitted the 
key of Professor Heim's position is surrendered. 

In addition to this I have shown, from stratigraphical, chemical, and 
microscopic evidence, that the schistose Jurassic rocks and this group 
of schists, locally garnet-bearing (a group which I have examined 
in many places from the Viso to the Gross Glockner, and to which 
I refer in my papers as the 'Upper Schists'), are quite distinct one 
from the other; the only possible confusion arising from s[)ecimeus 
either badly preserved or in which their distinctive characters have 
been locally obliterated by extreme pressure. This, however, 
is no ground for asserting contemporaneity. In such rocks the 
metamorphism has been destructive, not constructive. 

I pass, then, to the mineral differences. The group of schists, of 
which the dark one containing garnets is a member, consists, as 
I have shown elsewhere, of truly crystalline rocks, no less in the 
Val Canaria section than in the rest of the Alps, and never affords 
a trace of a fossil. Here and there in its dark schists are little 
streaks of crystalline calcite. These to a lively imagination may seem 
the ghosts of departed belemnites, but to a niore prosaic mind they 
appear only a vein product. The rocks are true crystalline schists, 
no <loubt of sedimentary origin, but greatly metamorphosed. They 

' (iuart. Jnurn. Gcol. Soc. vol. xlvi (1890), p. 219. and vol xlix (1893), p. 89. 

- I suppose troiii Avhat I liavo read that Professor Heim will rctiiso to call these 
rocks crystalline scliists. If so, there is no crystalline schist— either garnot-micu, 
calc-mica, stanrolitc-niica, or (luartz-mica schist— in any part ot the Alps that 

I know of. ,,,-.• M 1 i 

^ The situation ot tlie outcrops and their breadths make it impossihlo to escane 
this ditficnlty by supposin.tr one black garnet schist to have been the top bed and to be 
doubled back on itself. 



164 Professor T. G. Bonneij — Schists in Lopontine Alps. 

have been affected by pressure, but they were crystalline scbists 
before that acted, for the larger minerals are sometimes distorted 
or even crushed, the garnets in one or two localities being distinctly 
cleaved. Pressure, in fact, has injured more than it has originated 
the crystalline condition. But the Jurassic rocks are only schistose ; 
they have been affected by pressure, and it has produced the usual 
mineral changes on a comparatively small scale. But besides this, 
in some localities a number of ovoid and of rudely prismatic bodies 
have formed (the Tcnoten and prismen of Von Fritsch), These, which 
occur along with fossils (belemnites, bits of crinoids, etc.), are not 
either garnets or staurolites, but only very impure silicates, more or 
less hydrous ; some probably belong to the chloritoid, others perhaps 
to the scapolite group, with possibly a third mineral of the same 
general character.^ Professor Heim asks almost in a tone of triumph ^ 
whether I have not seen " die Verquetschungen und die Veriinderung 
(Marmorisirung) in der Structur der Belemniten .... die 
ganz mit der Umiinderung des Muttergesteines parallel geht." 
Certainly I have : indeed have mentioned it (loc. cit., p. 219). But 
by this question he shows that he can have given very little time to 
the study of metamorphism. Otherwise he would have known that 
this ' marmorosis,' notwithstanding its fine name, proves but little, 
for calcite is one of those minerals which are always ready to 
crystallize, and particularly so when it is ' organic' We constantly 
see this illustrated in rocks (especially Paleeozoic) from English 
localities. There are no signs of pressure, yet fragments of 
fossils may be often found under the microscope to become partially 
or even wholly crystalline, to the obliteration of the original 
structure. I have also seen tests or spines of echinids from the 
Chalk break as if they were crystalline calcite, and a fractured 
stalactite showing the cleavage surface of large crystals.^ Professor 
Heim, however, seeks to minimize my criticisms by intimating 
that I am a prejudiced witness, and have from the first shown 
signs of a distinct bias (tendenz). Of this I am convicted by 
my own confession, because I stated that, when I saw the 
specimens on which he rested his case, and which he exhibited at 
Burlington House in 1888, " ' Still, I was not quite satisfied 
. for it was very difficult to understand how such a fossil 
as a belemnite could have retained its characteristic form while 

' Dr. Schmidt admits the presence of clintouite (which name is now appHed by 
Dana to the group inchiding the species of chloritoid), and assigns the knoten and 
piismen to zoisite. Both minerals are so full of impurities that it is veiy difficult to 
come to any conclusion, but neither reminds me of zoisites, nor is any close relationship 
suggested by the analyses (quoted on p. 233 of my paper) ; and after reconsideration 
of my specimens I see no reason to change what I wrote in 1890 (Quart. Jouru. Geol. 
Soc, vol. xlvi, pp. 232-234). Dr. Schmidt's petrographical description will be 
found in Beitrage, vol. xxv, Anhang, pp. 41-65. 

- Beitrage, ut supra, p. 317- 

^ Though I think that, as a rule, I can distinguish a marble belonging to a group 
of crystalline schists from an ordinary Palaeozoic or later limestone, even if 
pressure modified, I put more reliance on any sOicates which may be associated with 
the calcite, and do not feel quite happy unless I can trace the rock into some schist 
composed largely of these. 



4 



Fro/essor T. G. Boniiei/ — Scliisfs in Lepontine Alpa. 165 

molecular changes of such importance were taking place in the 
matrix of the rock.' Er sieht hier eine Thatsache, an der er zweifelt, 
weil sie ihm unerkliirich vorkommt!" Well, then, I will tell 
Professor Heim why I was not quite satisfied. In the first place, 
if it be a sign of bias to reason inductively from cai'eful and 
numerous observations, and to rely on the conclusions thus obtained 
so far as to view with some suspicion any new phenomenon which 
distinctly contradicts them, I admit the charge, and that un- 
blushingly, for I believe this to be the method of science. The 
latter is said by a good authority to be organized common-sense. 
If in every-day life a number of credible persons agreed in stating 
that something had occurred — say a man had done an action which 
they had witnessed — should we not be justified in cross-questioning 
rather severely anyone who suddenly appeared to swear an alibi? 
Now all my work, and it was considerable, undertaken with the 
sole desire of discovering the truth — work which had obliged me to 
discard almost everything I learnt when young — had led me to 
conclusions different from what Professor Heim was asserting.' 
Inasmuch, then, as his " Mechanismus," while greatly impressing 
me in some respects, had created suspicions of his trustworthiness as 
a guide in petrology, I submit that I was justified in thinking it 
possible he might have made a mistake. The ' Thatsache ' was ia 
reality little more than his assertion. 

But he will say that I was shown the specimens. Yes ; and if 
Professor Heim had seriously worked at petrology he would know 
that conclusions founded on hand-specimens are much less trust- 
worthy than those arrived at by examination of rocks in the field 
or under the microscope. Speaking for myself, I refuse, when the 
matter is difficult, to express an opinion on a hand-specimen, but 
require to have a slice prepared for the microscope. Moreover, it 
appeared to me, when looking at his specimens, that the matrix of 
the two sets, those with belemnites and those with real garnets, 
was somewhat different. Professor Heim would no doubt set down 
this to ' bias,' but it is really the almost unconscious eft'ect of that 
experience which most perso'ns acquire by long work at a particular 
subject. It is very similar to the power which enables a specialist 
to make a diagnosis of something which a physician, who has worked 
along other lines, would not perceive. 

But he quotes another phrase to convict me of bias. "It was 
very difficult to understand how such a fossil as a belemnite could 
have retained its characteristic form while molecular changes ot such 
importance were taking place in the matrix of tlio rock. 11ns 
remark is evidently not intelligible to Professor Heim, so i will 
endeavour to enlighten him. The results of contact-metamorphism, 
to which I have paid considerable attention, most nearly resemble 
the crystalline schists. In them, so far as my experience goes, 

' I may add that the general tendenz to minimize the effect of ' 'ly>';|"';;-™'«^2n 
morphisni, 
important 
After ten 
which 




166 Professor T. G. Bonney — Schists in Lepontine A/ps. 



I 



garnet, and still more staurolite, are not formed until the materials 
of the rock have undergone such great molecular changes as to 
obliterate all traces of a sedimentary origin and convert the rock 
into a fairly coarse crystalline aggregate of quartz, brown and w^hite 
mica, andalusite, and other minerals.^ Under such circumstances, 
I believe that any calcareous organism, if it did not disappear and 
supply its lime to some silicate, would become unrecognizable. 
Only in one case, that of the Bastogne rock, have I seen well-formed 
garnets in a matrix apparently not very greatly altered. These, 
however, are rather abnormal specimens, and, as it has been latelj^ 
demonstrated, occur under very abnormal circumstances.- My bias, 
then, was due to experience, which showed me the antecedent 
improbability of what Professor Heim was asking me to believe. 

There was yet one other reason for my scepticism. In 1883 
I crossed the Gries Pass to the Tosa Falls, wishing to see an Alpine 
route of some historical interest, and with no definite geological aim, 
for I had but recently begun to make any special study of the 
'upper schists.'^ Here are some extracts from my diary. Going 
up the Eginenthal I observed occasionally loose blocks " of a dark 
slaty or schistose rock, with rounded spots and irregular long 
darkish crystals, which I took for a kind of ' knoteu schiefer ' and 
got a specimen."^ Later on I write — "At the head of this [upland 
basin] there is evidently a great piece of well-bedded rock, not highly 
metamorphosed, apparently folded in the more crystalline rock. To 
this apparently the ' knoten schiefer ' belongs, for it was all about 
here, some of it being rather more schistose than what 1 had seen 
below." Again, on reaching the top of the pass, I record the presence 
of dark mica schist with garnets, "looking more highly altered than 
that below." From the Tosa Falls I crossed to the Binnenthal aud 
studied the crystalline schists in that district.^ Thus I was aware 
that in the Lepontine Alps two rocks existed in which some 
superficial resemblances were associated with real and important 
differences. In other words, I knew that Nature had been laying 
traps, so that exceptional caution was needed. 

1 think, then, I may claim that my ' bias ' was the result of 
knowing certain facts in petrology and Alpine geology better 
apparently than Professor Heim, and thus was more than justifiable. 
May 1 ask, in conclusion, that if he thinks he can refute any of the 
statements in this paper he will abstain from fighting under the 
shelter of an official publication. There I cannot reply to him ; so 
the combat is one Ubi tu pulsas, ego vapulo tantum. 

^ Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xliv (1888), p. 11. 

- See Miss C. A. Eaisin: Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. Ivii (1901), p. 55. 
A museum specimen labelled PjTeneite (from that mountain range) appears to be 
another instance. 

2 See Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xlv (1889), pp. 96-99. 

* This is a transcript of my field notes, in which I do not pick my phi'ases. 
I probably should not now use the words ' knoten schiefer.' What I meant to 
express was that it seemed in about the same state of alteration as a chiastolite slate. 

5 A fortnight later I paid my first visit to the Val Piora. 



H. W. Peanon— Oscillations of Sca-kvel. 107 

V. — Oscillations in the Sea-level. (Pakt I.) 

By H. W. Pearson. 

(PLATE IX.) 

WHEN man first began the study of the earth's surface, he 
encountered at the very beginning, along the borders of the 
sea-coasts, on the lowland plains, and even on the hills, certain 
puzzling phenomena, difficult of explanation. These perplexing 
observations seemed to testify, by means of ancient raised beaches, 
fossil oyster and mussel shells, dessicated salt marshes, fragments 
of wrecks, and even by ancient anchors in the hills, that at some 
unknown time in the past the sea had " formerl}' been where the 
land now was." 

Straton of Lampsacus and Eratosthenes (between 200 and 300 b.c.) 
explained these facts by supposing that the Mediterranean and the 
Euxine had once been dammed by barriers at the Pillars of Hercules 
and at Byzantium, and that hy the breaking down of these barriers 
"much that was formerly covered by water had been left dry." 

Strabo (54: is.c. to 24 a.d.), holding Straton and Eratosthenes to be 
in error, insisted that explanations of these facts must be found 
either in inundations caused by upheavals of the sea bottom, or iu 
actual subsidence of these lands beneath the level of the waters and 
their subsequent upheaval, his preference being given to the first- 
named cause, as he deemed that the humidity of the bottom would 
render it more liable to shifting. 

Here was raised, iu the early morning of scientific investigation, 
the greatest problem of geology, or of geography, and such little 
progress has been made in the settlement of this question during the 
two thousand years that have since passed over our heads, that 
to-day if it is asked, are these evidences of former submergence and 
upheaval due to changes in the sea-level itself, or are they due to 
movements in the crust of tlie earth, no man can make certain reply. 

That this uncertainty has real existence can be seen from the 
examples of opposing opinions herein quoted. 

Celsius in 1730, in explanation of the apparent upheaval of the 
Baltic shores, affirmed a variable sea-level. Play fair in 1802 and 
Von Buch in 1807, adopting the second hypothesis of Strabo, 
affirmed movement in the earth's crust. 

Sir J. A. Picton contended that the level of the sea had not 
changed, that it is the land alone which has altered its level 
(Proc. Liverpool Geol. Soc, vol. vi, p. 38). Sir Charles Lyell 
insisted " that the level of the ocean was invariable," and that the 
"Continents are inconstant in their level, as has been demonstrated 
by the most unequivocal proofs again and again, from the time of 
Strabo to our own time" ("Principles," 9th ed., Appleton, p. ol8). 
Le Conte says, " we may look upon the sea-level as fixed 
("Elements," p. 138). 

In opposition to these statements of Picton, Lyell, and Le Conte, 
James Geikie says, " the more recent raised beaches may be hkely 
enough due to oscillations of the sea-level itself, and not necessarily 
to movements of the land" (" Pre-historic Europe," p. 525). 



168 H. W.Pearson — Oscillations of Sea- level. 

N. S. Sbaler also says, that some of the apparent upheavals and 
depressions of the land may be due to absolute changes in the sea-level 
(" Geological Eecord," 1875, p. 178) ; and these men are supported 
in their rejection of the old theory of Strabo, which had been adopted 
by Playfair, Von Buch, and Lyell, by Edouard Suess, Dr. Schmick, 
and Trautschold, the latter claiming that " many of the phenomena 
of sedimentation and deposition attributed by geologists to a sub- 
sidence of the crust are, in fact, due to periodic oscillations or 
upheavals of the oceanic surface " {Science, vol. iii, p. 342). 

These citations demonstrate that the matter of the permanency 
of the sea-level is to-day one of the unsettled questions of geology, 
and I believe it to be more fundamental in its nature than any other 
unsolved geological problem. It should be of interest, then, to learn 
why these conflicting opinions between our great geologists have 
existence. Why have the teachings of Playfair, Von Buch, and 
Lyell, adopted^for three-fourths of a century, been in the last quarter 
of a century questioned from every direction ? 

Investigation allows us to answer this question. The old beliefs, 
in the absence of knowledge, were based on infei'ence. The latest 
beliefs, rejecting inference, are based on observation, on an enormous 
accumulation of facts, that were entirely unknown to Playfair and the 
other disciples of Strabo, and these facts it is impossible to explain 
through the older theory. 

For instance, Playfair's argument, on which the theory of an 
invariable sea-level rests, is as follows : — " In order to depress or 
elevate the absolute level of the sea by a given quantity, in any one 
place, we must depress or elevate it by the same quantity over the 
loTiole surface of the earth [my italics], whereas no such necessity- 
exists with respect to the local elevation or depression of the land " 
(" Principles," 9th ed., p. 523). 

Now the very foundation of this argument, a position unimpeach- 
able in the time of Playfair and of Von Buch, is to-day absolutely- 
untenable. The hypothesis of Adhemar, the knowledge that great 
masses of ice at one time existed in the Northern Hemisphere, and 
that submergence of the Northern, coexistent with emergence of 
the Southern Hemisphere, must have been the necessary consequence, 
as demonstrated mathematically by Dr. Croll, by Lord Kelvin, by 
Archdeacon Pratt, by Fisher, Heath, Woodward, and many others, — 
these arguments, I say, teach us that the contention of Playfair, Von 
Buch, and Lyell, valid perhaps in its day, is no longer to be accepted, 
and if the theory of a variable sea-level is to be rejected, reasons 
more solidly grounded must be accorded us. 

It seems now impossible to reject the idea that upheaval of the 
sea surface in the north, and subsidence in the south, may be going 
on at one and the same time, and in addition to this the writer has 
shown how a local upheaval of the oceanic surface in one hemisphere 
may, nay must, be coexistent with a local depression of this surface 
at some point in the same hemisphere, provided the slightest variation 
of flow in the oceanic currents shall take place. (See The American 
Geologist, Sept. 1899, p. 192.) 



H. W. PfarsoH — Oacillatiom of Sea-krc/. 169 

To this point my discussion has heen general, my object being 
merely to show the present uncertainties as to our knowledge 
relating to changes in the sea-level, and to call attention to the 
fallacies on which the arguments of Playfair and Von Buch were 
founded. I would now introduce a branch of the same subject not 
alluded to in the previous argument. It is this : — 

It is admitted by all, that most of the lowlands of the Northern 
Hemisphere have at some time in the past been submerged to less 
or greater depth beneath the sea. The evidences of great 
submergences, such as those discussed by Chambers in his " Ancient 
Sea Margins," or by Prestwich in his " Traditions of the Flood," 
or as shown by McGee in his " The Lafayette Formation," will not 
now be considered. To these submergences we are as yet unable 
to assign a date. I would study, then, those minor relative changes 
in sea and land, both of depression and elevation, that have occurred 
since historic times, changes upon which a date and the approximate 
amount of movement can be fixed, with the object of determining 
whether these upheavals and submergences show any evidence of 
being periodic in their nature. We may attribute these changes 
either to movement in the earth or to movement in the sea, it is 
immaterial which ; the only question is, have these oscillations 
shown regular cycles in their occurrence. 

If some period could be discovered which governed these minor 
changes, it would seem that the law controlling this period might 
be found, and the establishment of law, if such existed, and the 
consequent elimination of chance, might enable us to determine with 
more certainty than at present whether the actual responsibility for 
these recent changes should be placed upon an unstable earth or 
upon a shifting sea. 

This question of recent periodic oscillations in the sea-level was 
forced upon me by certain facts, impossible to explain otherwise, 
derived from many years' study of the raised beaches of the world ; 
these facts, owing to the nature of this paper, I cannot now set 
forth, but they assured me in the strongest manner that a regular 
<:yde had existed at the time these raised beaches were formed, and that 
its present existence was almost a certainty. I therefore commenced 
search for this periodical vibration of the oceanic surface in the 
records of history and tradition, in the ancient cities of the old 
world, in the registered changes in the coastlines of all countries, 
including the American coasts since the time of Columbus. 

The data thus collected are almost unanimous in tlieir testimony ; 
they point unerringly to a vibration period in the soa-level of about 
€40 years, an interval of about 320 years existing between periods 
•of high and of low water. 

The data inform us as well that at periods of high-water tlie 
submergence increased in amount going north ; they tell us that at 
previous periods of low-water the sea stood lower than at present ; 
and finally, they assure us that, following the law of change which 
has guided these vibrations in the past, we must expect lugher water 
in the north in the immediate future. This raised sea-level m tho 



170 S. W. Pearson — Oscillations of Sea-level. 

north should culminate within 200 years, while the advance should 
be visible within a few decades. 

The points in the curve illustrating the variation in level of the 
surface of the sea were sought for and found under a system of 
reasoning adopted after consideration of the results obtained from 
the investigation of the raised beaches before mentioned. This 
investigation furnished me certain testimony strongly opposed to all 
my prepossessions, yet, if I had interpreted the records correctly, 
I felt compelled to adopt as logical conclusions the following 
theories : — 

1. Since the carving of these ancient terraces there had been no 
movement of the earth's crust, but these terraces lay in position 
exactly as originally traced. 

2. The date of these beaches is unknown, but they certainly 
antedate the historical period. I must therefore conclude that since 
the dawn of history no upheaval or subsidence of the earth's crust 
can have occurred, and explanation of the observed recent sub- 
mergence and emergence of lands must be sought for in vertical 
movements of the sea itself, rather than in upheavals or depressions 
of the crust. 

3. I had reason to strongly suspect, in fact I regarded it as almost 
certain, that at the time of deposition of these terraces alternate 
rising and falling of the sea-level had occurred, that the traces of 
this movement were plainly discernible, that I had good cause to- 
suspect the present existence of these same cycles of alternate ascent 
and descent in the sea-level, and that if these oscillations existed they 
should be uniform in direction of movement over one hemisphere. 

Impressed, then, with the logic of the facts which had led up to 
these conclusions, facts which are set forth in other papers, I started 
on a new research, seeking for evidence of these suspected cycles, 
of the approximate dates of their maxima and minima, and of the 
amount in feet of their vertical vibration. 

The apparent absurdity of entering upon such a labour as this is 
manifest. On all sides we see evidences of alleged upheavals or 
depressions of laud : we know, for instance, that Scandinavia, 
Scotland, all of Northern Asia, Alaska, and Texas are now rising 
out of the sea; we are told that the coasts of New Jersey, Long 
Island, Cape Breton, and Greenland are now sinking beneath the 
sea. Here were undeniable facts directly opposed to each other and 
to my assumption that these movements must be universal in kind 
over either hemisphere. 

These conflicting facts, which seemed to deny and refute these 
other facts mentioned, as obtained from the raised beaches, and to- 
the accumulation of which I have devoted so many years' labour, 
seemed to assure me of failure from the first ; but notwithstanding 
the discouraging outlook, search was undertaken for evidence of 
these periodic vibrations in the oceanic surface, no hope being 
entertained at that time, however, of finding explanation of those 
discordant motions, existing in the same hemisphere, to which 
attention has been called. My only hope was that these fluctuations 
might be found periodic in their nature. 



//. IF. Pfiarsoii — Osci/hifions of Sea-krcl. 171 

At the beginning I bad been led to suspect some physical 
connection between the periodic swing in the magnetic needle and 
these oscillations in the level of the sea ; therefore, as the half-period 
in the motion of the agonic line is about 320 years, 1 commenced 
search for evidence of a period of universally higher water in the 
north, culminating about 320 years distant in the past, or about tlie 
year 1570. 

As my investigations progressed I soon met an obstacle. I found 
that the study of the Temple of Jupiter Serapis by Babbage, Forbes, 
Lyell, and others, demonstrated that the high-water was receding 
in Italy in the years 1508 to 1511 (see "Physical Geography," by 
A. J. Jukes-Browne, p. 46), and consequently my culminating point 
of 1570 must be moved backward to some period probably anterior 
to 1500, and my assumption that the present low-water period was 
now at its central position also needed adjustment ; we must have 
passed the low-water minimum. 

I next sought proofs that the emergence of the Temple of Serapis 
was coexistent with a corresponding emergence of every part of the 
Mediterranean shore-line, and these proofs are in incontestable 
existence ; many of them I submit herewith, hundreds of them for 
lack of space I withhold. George Maw discovered " evidence of 
upheaval, in a uniform rise of about 25 feet in distant parts of the 
Mediterranean, of an old coastline, exactly corresponding with the 
amount of emergence of the shell-bored columns of the Temple of 
Serapis," and tliis testimony of Maw (see Kep. Brit. Assoc, for 
Advancement of Science, 1870, p. 80) I have verified by a hundred 
items of evidence perhaps unknown to him. 

Satisfied at length tbat the elevated sea-level was certainly 
uniform over the Mediterranean, I extended my investigations to 
the shores of England, France, Holland, and the Baltic, to the 
Americas, and to the shores of the Pacific, seeking as before for 
evidences of a raised sea-level, central about the year loOO. 

England supplies a wealth of evidence. I found that Queen 
Elizabeth in 1562 was granting many descriptions of land in the bed 
of a creek or waterway ' swawed ' or dried up, " by reason of the 
receding waters" (" History of Romney Marsh." HoUoway, p. 141), 
at the same time, nearly, that Ferdinand and Isabella, for the same 
reason, were conveying land in Italy, that had likewise '^ dried up " 
(Brown, " Physical Geog.," p. 46). 

Having thus collected much evidence that the sea-level was 
falling in the period subsequent to 1500, I next sought data as to 
its rise at some earlier date. Much evidence as to this movement 
was found. For instance, in 1427 we find Henry VI perplexed and 
disturbed " by the excessive rising of waters in divers parts of the 
realm," and urging that remedy should be '-hastily provided 
(" History of Eomney IVIarsh," p. 130). 

Testimony such as this, as to the epoch of Henry ^ I. combined 
with a great mass of similar evidence, like the progressive sub- 
mergence during the same period of the Fens of England and the 
lowlands of Holland, led me to believe that the waters in 142* were 



172 H. JV. Pearson — Oscillations of Sea-level. 

rising, and as I knew they were falling in England, Italy, and 
France about 1500, my conclusion was that somewhere between 
these dates, say from 1450 to 1475, I must expect to find the 
culminating period of that particular epoch of northern submergence. 

From this preliminary examination I was led to believe that 
a high-water period must certainly have existed over the greater 
portion of the European shores, culminating not far from the year 
1450. I therefore entered upon a more extended search for data, 
not only as to this particular epoch of an elevated sea, but for those 
■other and more ancient changes which I had been led to suspect 
as stated. 

For many years I pursued this search, carefully collecting and 
indexing every notice as to change of sea-level encountered in my 
readings, regardless of date or direction of movement. The data 
thus accumulated seem to me conclusive ; periodic vibrations in the 
ocean level are certain beyond question. The present cycle appears 
to have a period of about 640 years, while the evidence points to 
a period of about 500 years only at about the time of the Christian era. 

A portion of the data which have been used in establishing this 
curve (see Diagram, next page) is submitted herewith. Hundreds, 
however, of the facts used as ordinates are omitted, that this paper 
may not be swollen to unreadable size. 

When this material had been mapped out, it was found that 
-300 points or more were aggregated in a compact body, central 
about the year 1475, and that each of these points bore testimony 
to a period of high-water at some part of the earth's surface north 
of the Equator ; another aggregation of points, less numerous and 
each one indicating a low-water period, was found bunched between 
the years 1100 and 1200, central about 1150 to 1175. I thus laid 
out all these accumulated facts each in its pi'oper place and position, 
and at the end found a dense haze of dots central about the years 
825 and 325 a.d. and 250 B.C., these clouds representing high-water 
periods, and similar swarms of dots, each representing proofs of low- 
water, central about the years 600 and 100 a.d., with occasional and 
conflicting points, scattered indiscriminately along the line. 

At this point, then, to complete my curve it was but necessary 
to draw a sinuous line through these preponderating masses of dots ; 
this curve was drawn, and the result is shown in the accompanying 
Diagram. 

I now examined as to what weight these conflicting points might 
have towards weakening my confidence in the general accuracy of the 
curve. Much labour has been given to this subject ; many of these 
dots were removed by investigation, others I attribute with good 
reason to erosion of shore-lines or to accretion to shore-lines, as is now 
going on all over the world, and finally I decided that not one of these 
■conflicting points could be depended upon as making serious objections 
to the correctness of our curve. The information was too uncertain 
in its nature; it lacked that element of the positive, the known, 
which pervaded the great mass of evidence on which the curve had 
been based. 





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174 Notices of Memoirs— Dr. D. H. Scott— Fossil Plants. 

For instance, Heligoland in the year 800 is sLown in Myers' map 
to be of great size ; this is in conflict with our curve, as the year 
600 being near the high-water period, the island should have been 
email in size. On investigation we find that we have testimony 
equally strong that the island was small at that time. The description 
of the island by Adam of Bremen shows that it was not much larger 
than now in the time of Charlemagne (768 to 814), ("Principles," 
9th ed., p. 329). (For this map of Heligoland in 800, see Von Hoff's 
" Geschichte," etc., vol. i, p. 56.) 

Another item tending to invalidate our curve is the legend as to the 
submergence of lands now beneath the sea in Cardigan Bay, Wales. 
Pennant states that these lands — the Cantre'r Gwaelod — were over- 
whelmed by the sea about the year 600 (Pennant's " Tours in Wales," 
vol. ii, p. 274). In "The Gossiping Guide to Wales," however, we 
read, " We are not aware that any date is assigned " to this disaster 
(p. 37). It seems that what little is known of this inundation is 
derived from a poem by one Prince Gwyddno, who flourished between 
the years 460 and 520. There is no evidence that Gwyddno witnessed 
the event he describes, and it can be readily surmised that he merely 
reduced to verse the current traditions of an event that may have 
occurred three or four generations before his time. If this was the 
case, the Sarn Badrig and its attached legends would be evidence 
confirmatory of our curve. In any case we are assured that the date 
fixed by Pennant is uncertain and offers no reliable testimony 
against us. 

{To be continued in our next Nitmber.) 



nsroTXGES OIF nvniEiMioiss- 

On the Structure and Affinities of Fossil Plants fro^i 
THE Palaeozoic Eocks. IV. The Seed-like Fructification 
OF Lepidocarpon, a Genus of Lycopodiaceous Cones from 
the Carboniferous Formation. By D. H. Scott, M.A., 
Ph.D., F.R.S., Hon. Keeper of the Jodrell Laboratory, Eoyal 
Gardens, Kew. 

A SHORT account of the new genus Lepidocarpon has been given 
in a note communicated to the Royal Society last August ; ^ the 
present paper contains a full, illustrated description of the fossils in 
question, together with a discussion of their morphology and affinities. 

The strobilus of Lepidocarpon Lomaxi, the Coal-measure species, is, 
in its earlier condition, in all respects that of a Lepidostrohus, of the 
tj'pe of L. Oldhamius. 

In each megasporangium, however, a single megaspore or embryo- 
sac alone came to perfection, filling almost the whole sporangial 
cavity, but accompanied by the remains of its abortive sister-cells. 
An integument ultimately grew up from the sporophyll, completely 
enclosing the megasporangium, and leaving only a narrow slit-like 

1 "Note on the Occurrence of a Seed-like Fructification in certain Palaeozoic 
Lycopods": Eoy. Soc. Proc, vol. Ixvii, p. 306. 



Bevioics — Prof. W(.in-$c](e)ielc — The Graphifc Jlijies of Ccijlon. il') 

opening, or miciopyle, along the top. As shown in specially favour- 
able specimens, both of Lepidocarpon Lomaxl and of L. WUdiamim, 
the more ancient Burntisland form, the functional megaspore became 
filled by a large-celled prothallus, resembling that of the recent 
Isoetes or Selaginella. The whole body, consisting of the sporophyll, 
bearing the integumented megasporangium and its contents, became 
detached from the strobilus, and in this isolated condition is identical 
with the 'seed' described by Williamson under the name of Cardio- 
carpon anomahim, which, however, proves to be totally distinct from 
the Cordaitean seed so named by Carruthers. 

The seed-like organs of Lepidocarpon are regarded by the author 
as presenting close analogies with true seeds, but as dift'ering too 
widely from the seeds of any known Spermophyta to afford any 
proof of affinity. The case appears rather to be one of parallel or 
convergent development, and not to indicate any genetic connection 
between the Lycopods and the Gymnosperms, or other Phanerogams. 



I^ IHJ "V I IE "W S. 



E. Weinsciienck. Zur Kenntniss der Grapiiitlaoeustatten. 
HI, Die Graphitlagekstatten der Insel Ceylon. Abb. 
k. bay. akad. Wiss., CI. ii, Bd. xxi, Abth. 11 ; Miinchen, 1900. 

PROFESSOR Weinschenck has examined a series of rock and 
vein specimens from the graphite mines of Ragedara, Ampe, 
Pushena, and Humbuluwa, in Ceylon, collected by i)r. Griinling. 
He discusses the nature of the granulitic rocks and tlie mode of 
occurrence and origin of the graphite. 

A general petrographical description of the granulitic rocks^ is 
givenf illustrated by three plates of microphotographs. .^lassive 
habit, granulitic structure, and variable chemical composition are 
<;haracteristic. Except in the more basic varieties, intorgrowtlis of 
two felspars are very noticeable. The granulitic rocks include 
a continuous series ranging from aplites (weiss-steine) to pyroxene- 
plagioclase rocks (trapp-granuliten) and even pyroxenites. A rather 
oily lustre and greenish colour are very characteristic features. The 
xjonstituent minerals are in a remarkably fresh condition, except^ in 
the immediate neighbourhood of the graphite veins. It is interesting 
to note that Professor Weinschenck does not mention any pleochroic 
monoclinic pyroxene. , • i i 

There are certain other rocks in Ceylon which include coarse- 
grained dolomites and ' cipolins,' containing blue apatite and contact 
minerals such as forsterite, chondrodite, phlogopite, and spinel, and 
also the peculiar andalusite, sillimanito, and corundum bearing rocks 
described by Lacroix. 

The o-rauulitic rocks show no trace of tlie operation ot dynamic 
causes;" they are regarded as an eruptive mass which may form 
a single unit or be compound in character. Ihe occurrence <>f 
coarse crystalline dolomites in the midst of the granulitic series 
seems to show tliat different eruptive units are separated l)y contact 



176 Reviews — Prof. Weinsdtencli — The Grapldle Mines of Ceylon, 

rocks. The existence of still younger eruptive masses of granite haa 
not yet been demonstrated, for tlie few rocks as yet described from 
Ceylon as granite are rather varieties of the granulitic series. 

Professor Weinschenck compares the Saxon and Ceylon granulites,. 
thinking with. Naumann that the former are truly eruptive rocks. 
Had the Ceylon rocks been studied before those of Saxony this view 
would have been more widely held. They differ from the Saxon 
rocks chiefly in their non-schistose character and coarser grain. 
Lehmann regarded the peculiarities of the Saxon granulites as the 
result of dynamo-metamorphism. He regarded the microperthitic 
intergrowths of two felspars as the result of such a process, but as 
these are characteristic of quite unaltered rocks in Ceylon they ma}"- 
also be original in the Saxon rocks. The absence of sericite in 
the latter presents a difficulty to those who favour the dynamo- 
metamorphic view. Lehmann supposed that its place was taken by 
biotite, but this mineral is not infrequently an original constituent 
in Ceylon rocks. Garnets are characteristic of typical granulites,. 
and their presence is the result of chemical peculiarities in the 
magma or peculiar physical conditions obtaining at the time of its 
consolidation. The chemical composition of Ceylon and Saxon 
granulites resembles those of truly igneous rocks. Perhaps in 
Saxony we are dealing only with the outer margin of an eruptive 
mass intruded into surrounding schistose rocks, while in Ceylon 
the heart of the eruptive mass is exposed. In both cases there has 
been extensive magmatic differentiation, and this may be considered 
characteristic of granulites in general. 

It is only in immediate contact with the graphite veins that the 
granulite matrix is chemically altered and finally impregnated with 
graphite. Fragments of rocks included in the veins are also speciallj^ 
affected. In the altered rocks the felspars are largely changed to 
nontronite, a feature associated with the occurrence of graphite in 
the Passau district also. The pyroxenes change to a fine scaly 
material with aggregate polarization. Mica and garnet alter les& 
readily. Impregnation with rutile and titanite is characteristic, as 
in the .Bavario-Bohemian area. Beside the rock fragments, pieces 
of various minerals occur in the veins — quartz, pyrite, orthoclase, 
raicroperthite, apatite, biotite, augite — the formation of these being- 
previous to that of the graphite, while calcite, and sometimes biotite, 
seem to have been deposited contemporaneously. 

In the Passau district (Bavaria) the formation of nontronite and 
impregnation with graphite affect the whole schistose complex, 
while in Ceylon the graphite occurs in veins. This difference 
depends chiefly on the harder and more massive character of the 
Ceylon rocks. In Ceylon, Siberia, and Cumberland the graphite 
occurs in veins; in Passau and Taconderoga (U.S.A.) in veins and 
beds ; in Bohemia in beds : these differences depend on the varied 
character of the matrix and not on different modes of origin of the 
graphite. Emanations of carbon monoxide, with or without 
cyanogen-bearing compounds, may have given rise to the graphite 
veins ; while the introduction of iron oxide and manganese peroxide 



Reports and Proceedings — Geological Society of London. 177 

in their neighbourhooil may argue that metal carbonyls were also 
present. 

Finally, Professor Weinschenck would suppose the following to 
have been the sequence of events in Ceylon :— A fluid magma 
intruded into beds of unknown age consolidated as a peculiar 
' schlierig ' rock, while contact - metamorphic structures were 
developed in surrounding beds. Contraction-joints developed on 
cooling, allowed the formation of pegmatites, including pure quartz 
veins to some extent. But, contemporaneously with the formation 
of the pegmatite, there were emanations of carbon monoxide and 
cyanogen-bearing compounds, which followed the same paths as 
the pegmatites and then gave rise to the graphite veins. The 
system of veins traversing the whole massif played in later 
mountain movements the role of buffer, the soft yielding mineral 
absorbing the mechanical effects, and thus the Ceylon granulites 
remained unaltered by dynamic changes. 

I have attempted in this review merel}'^ to give an abstract of 
Professor Weinschenck's views as expressed in his important paper. 

A. K. COOJIAUA-SWAMY. 



Geological Society of London. 

I. — February 15th, 1901.— J. J. H. Teall, Esq., M.A., V.P.R.S., 
President, in the Chair. 

Annual General Meeting. 

The reports of the Council and of the Librai-y and Museum 
Committee for the year 1900. proofs of which had been previously 
distributed to the Fellows, were read. The Council stated that, 
although there was a decrease in the number of Fellows, the financial 
prosperity of the Society continued undiminished. 

The report of the Library and Museum Committee enumerated 
the increasingly extensive additions made to the Society's Library. 

Tlie reports having been adopted, the President handed the 
Wollaston Medal, awarded to Professor Charles Barrois, F.M.G.S., 
of Lille, to Sir Archibald Geikie, for transmission to the recipient, 
addressing him as follows :— Sir Archibald Geikie, — 

lu these days ot specializatiou tew men are eudowed with tliosi^ faculties which 
enable them to contribute with marked ability to all branches of our many-sided 
science ; but amono- those few Professor Barrois must unquestionably be ranked. 

In the monograph on the Calcaire d'Erbray and many otlier papers ho lia.s 
established his reputation as a paLeontologist ; in uumeroas memoirs on the Granitic 
and Metamorphic Rocks of Brittanv he figures as an accomplished petrologist ; 
while in the many geological maps of' the same district he has constructed a lasting 
monument to his skill and energy as a geological surveyor. 

His published work represents a vast accumulation of facts carefully <ibsoryed, 
clearly described, and lucidly arranged. More than this, it is often full of suggestive- 
ness. He has had the satisfaction of initiating lines of research which have hrcu 
followed up with great success by others. • i • , 

It was he who first taught us how to zone our English Chalk by the aid ot the 
fossils which it contains, and the friendships which he formed during the progress 

DECADE IV. — VOL. VIII. — KO. IV. *- 



178 JRejJorts and Proceedings — Geological Society of London. 

of that work have heen strengthened by the lapse of time. He might repeat with 
truth the words of another visitor to these Islands from the other side of the Channel : 
veni, vidi, vici. 

In his recent publications on Brittany he has correlated the breadth and character 
of the metamorphic zones surroiinding the granitic masses with the thickness of the 
cover under which the intrusions took place, and has suggested ideas that may prove 
of great importance in connection with such questions as the origin of the crystalline 
schists and igneous magmas. 

But he has aided the progress of geology in other ways than as an original worker. 
The illustrious pupil of an illustrious master, he has contributed to maintain the great 
reputation of Lille as a centre of geological teaching ; while his extensive knowledge 
and exceptional organizing ability have ever been at the disposal of the International 
Geological Congress and kindred associations. 

Many years have elapsed since I had the privilege of making his acquaintance, and 
it is therefore with the greatest pleasure that I now ask you to transmit to him 
the "Wollaston Medal, which has been awarded to him by the Council as a mark 
of their appreciation of the great services that he has rendered to all branches of 
Geological Science. 

Sir Archibald Geikie replied in the following words : — Mr. 
President, — 

It has been to my fi-iend Professor Barrois a matter of very keen regret that he is 
prevented from being here to-day, to renew his personal relations with the Fellows 
of the Geological Society, and to receive from them the highest distinction which it is 
in their power to bestow. We must aU deeply sympathize with him in the causes that 
deprive us of his presence. Bowed down by one of the greatest afflictions that can 
befall a father — the death of a son in the full bloom and promise of early manhood — 
he has manfully struggled with his numerous duties, until at last his health has given 
way under the strain. Let us hope that he may soon be restored to his former 
vigour, and be able to resume the researches in Brittany and the detailed description 
of them on which he has so long been engaged. He has asked me to receive this 
Medal for him, and I count it a great privilege and honour to be the intermediary 
between the Geological Society of London and one of the most distinguished and 
Avidely esteemed geologists of Eiu'ope. Professor Barrois has sent a letter of thanks, 
which 1 will now read :— 

" Mr. President, — 

' ' Allow me to express my gratitude for the new honour which the Geological 
Society has bestowed upon me, by the award of the "Wollaston Medal, as I cannot 
but recall that the Council has on a former occasion encouraged me in my scientific 
work by the award of the Bigsby Medal. 

" I have since made long wanderings along the Channel clift's on both sides, from 
chalk to granite, for the sake of science, in the steps of De la Beche, Fitton, Godwin- 
Austen, and the founders of stratigraphical geology ; and it is for me a very unexpected 
event to see my name written to day, for ever, with theirs, in the Proceedings of the 
Society. 

" No distinction can be more gratifying to a geologist than to receive its highest 
award from the Council of the illustrious Society which for nearly a century has 
extended our knowledge in every branch of geology, and promoted progress in every 
part of the earth. I so greatly appreciate this great honoui-, that I feel as if the 
work that I have been able to accomplish Avas too small to merit the Wollaston 
Medal, granted as a reward, but rather as a friendly incitation to go on in my labour — 
' upward and onward.' " 

Charles Barrois. 

"Lille, February 9th, 1901." 

The President then presented the Balance of the Proceeds of the 
Wollaston Donation Fund to Mr. Arthur Walton Eowe, M.B., M.S., 
of Margate, addressing him as follows : — Dr. Rowe, — 

It will, I am sure, be a source of gratification to you to be associated with 
Professor Barrois on the present occasion, for you have done much to confirm and 
extend the principles which he first applied to the elucidation of the structui-e of the 



Report'i and Proceedings— Geological Society of London. 179 

English Chalk. Wc recognize, however, that, although your work has heen of very 
great stratigraphical importance, your main object is biological, and that the task 
you have set yourself is that of working out the evolution of organic forms during 
the Upper Cretaceous period. 

lu your paper on Micrastcr you have set an example which I trust will bo followed. 
You have shown how it is possible to deal with a vast mass of mnterial, so as to 
bring out the maiu facts of evolution, without burdening science with hosts of new 
names and long lists of synonyms. 

By the application of the den'tal engine to the preparation, and of micro-photography 
to the illustration, of fossils, you have also rendered signal service to science. 

The Council of the Geological Society, in making this award, have been desirous 
of expressing their gratitude to you for the work that you have alreadv accomplished, 
and their lively sense of favours to come. 

In handing the Miivchison Medal, awarded to Mr. Alfred John 
Jukes-Browne, B.A., of H.M. Geological Survey, to Mr. W. Whitaker, 
for transmission to the recipient, the President addressed him as 
follows : — Mr. Whitaker, — 

Mr. Jukes-Browue, whose absence we all deeply regret, has aided the progress 
of geology in many ways. His numerous writings ou the Upper Cretaceous Rocks 
are too well known to make it necessary for me to refer to them in detail. He has, 
from the first, recognized the enormous importance of associating pala-ontological 
with stratigraphical work, and by original research, as well as by a critical study 
of the writings of othei's, has made himself master of the geology of that period 
to which he has especially devoted himself. 

But he possesses also a good all-round knowledge of geology. Ilis Handbooks on 
Physical and Historical Geology have been of great service to students, and his 
suggestive work ou the Building of the British Isles has been the means of directing 
attention to many problems of considerable theoretical interest. 

There is yet another way in which he has rendered great service to geology, and 
that is as a stimulator of work in others. I am siu"e that no one will be more ready 
to acknowledge this than Mr. William Hill, with whom Mr. Jukes-Browne has 
been so long associated. 

In recognition of these many services to our science, the Council have awarded to 
him the Murchison Medal, which I, an old College friend and fellow-student, now 
a-^k you to transmit to him with our heartiest good wishes. 

Mr. Whitaker, having expressed his gratification at the privilege 
of receiving the Medal on behalf of an old colleague and valued 
friend, read the following extracts from a letter wliich he had 
received from Mr. Jukes-Browne : — 

" I beg you to convey to the Council of the Geological Society my deep appreciation 
of the honour conferred upon me by the award of the Murchison ^Medal, and my 
great regret that the state of my health makes it impossible for me to be present in 
person to express my acknowledgments. 

" That such work as I have been able to accomplish should be thought worthy of 
this high reward is not onlv a present gratification, but will be an incentive to show 
myself more worthv of such recognition. I feel also that I have been specially 
fortunate in mv friends, and that without the assistance of two of them in particular 
—Mr. W. Hill and Professor J. B. Harrison— many of the investigations in which 
I have been concerned w'ould have been iucomj)lete. 

" I should like further to sav that the pleasure of receiving the :Murchison Medal 
«m the present occasion is much enhanced by the knowledge that the Wollaston 
Medal is at the same time awarded to my old friend Professor Harmis. whose zonal 
work among the Cretaceous rocks of England and France has addid so much to our 
knowledge of those rocks." 

The President then handed the Balance of the Proceeds of the 
Murchison Geological Fund, awarded to Mr. Thomas Sargeant 
Hall, M.A., of Melbourne, to Professor J. W. Judd, for transmission 
to the recipient, addressing him as follows :— Professor Judd,— 



180 Heports and Proceedings — Geological Societg of London. 

In awarcliug the Balance of the Proceeds of the Murchison Fund to Mr. Hall, 
the Council is desirous of recoguizing the value of his many contributions to Australian 
Geology, and especially of his detailed researches on the Zonal Distribution of the 
Graptolites of Victoria. His work has thrown much light on the Lower Palaeozoic 
history of Australia ; while his discovery of the coincidence of the Ordovician 
auriferous belts with certain graptolitic zones is an illustration of the bearing of 
palseontological research on economic questions. 

His application of the zonal method of research to the Kainozoic deposits of 
Victoria has done much to elucidate the later geological history of the colouy, and 
his bibliographic labours have, I am told, greatly facilitated the work of his scientific 
colleagues in Victoria. We hope that this award will be of some assistance to him 
in further researches. 

In presenting the Lyell Medal to Dr. Eamsay Heatley Traquair, 
F.E.S., of Edinburgh, the President addressed him in the following 
words : — Dr. Traquair, — 

The Council of the Geological Society, in presenting you with the Lyell Medal, 
desires to express its sense of the great value of your many contributions to 
Palaeontology. More than thirty years have elapsed since the publication of your 
first papers on Fossil Fishes, and during the whole of that period you have been 
giving evidence of your keen insight into the structui'e of these interesting forms of 
life. I can only refer to one or two of youi" more important works. 

Your memoirs on the structure of the Palajoniscidaj and Platysomidaj are, I believe, 
masterpieces of descriptive palteontology, and must for ever remain most vahiable 
works of reference. Of great importance, from a geological point of view, have been 
your researches bearing on the fish fauna of the Old Eed Sandstone of Scotland. 
You have not only shown the complete divergence between the fauna of the Orcadian 
Series and that of the Lower Old Red Sandstone south of the Grampians, but you have 
also pointed out that in certain areas the fishes in different divisions of that formation 
are arranged in life-zones — a fact which has been of service to the field-geologist. 

Your last, and perhaps your greatest, work is yoiir monograph on the remarkable 
Fossil Fishes from the Silurian rocks of the South of Scotland. Your keen insight 
and wide knowledge of fossil ichthyology enabled you to show, among other points, 
that the group of the Heterostraci, which hitherto contained only the Pteraspida;, 
must be considerably enlarged, and that a transition could be seen from the shagreen- 
covered Coelolepidffi to the plate-covered Pteraspidce. You have also arrived at the 
conclusion that the Heterostraci, though not actual Selachians, liad in all probability 
a common origin with the primitive Elasmobi'anchs. These results must be of the 
highest interest to biologists. 

I have great pleasure in handing to you the Medal, together with our best wishes 
that you may long be spared to carry on your most valuable researches. 

Dr. Traquair replied as follows : — Mr. President, — 

Permit me to thank the Coimcil of the Geological Society for the honour which 
they have this day conferred upon me, and you, sir, for the kind words which you 
have spoken regarding my work. 

I am much gratified to hear that some of that work has been of use to the 
stratigraphical geologist, as it is indeed impossible for the paleontologist who has 
himself collected in the field to avoid taking an interest in his subject from the 
geological standpoint also. 

The impulse, however, which led me to take up Fossil Fishes as a speciality was 
entirely biological. While still a boy at school I broke open an ironstone nodule 
containing a piece of a Palaeoniscid fish, and was thereupon seized by an intense 
curiosity to know how the bones of its head were arranged. As I did not find the 
information that I desired in the books, I resolved some day to try and work out 
the problem myself. Need I remark that, when in due time I got fairly to work 
on the subject, I found that fossil ichthyology presented a field sufficient to supply 
not only myself, but many others, with original work for our lifetimes ? 

If the work that I have accomplished in this field falls far short of the realization 
of early dreams, it is still gratifying for me to find that I have been able to do enough 
to merit this expression of the Society's approbation. 



1 



Rejjorts and Proceedimjs— Geological Society of London. 181 

In presenting one lialf of the Balance of the Proceeds of the Lyell 
Oeological Fund to John William Evans, D.Sc, LL.B., the President 
addressed him as follows : — Dr. Evans, — 

Half the Balance of the Proceeds of the Lyell Fund has been awarded to you, in 
reeognition of the importance of your geological work during the last ten years. 
Your visit to an almost unknown part of Brazil, and several years' residence in India, 
have enabled you to make observations and to collect specimens of great value to 
•our science. The papers which you have already published in our Journal on the 
Matto Grosso district, and on tlie Calcareous Sandstones and Monchiquites of North- 
western India, are evidence of your capacity for original work. 

We trust that this award may aid you in publishing the results of investigations 
that you are known to have carried out while engaged in the Survey of the State 
of Junagarh (Kathiawar), and will encourage you in further work. 

In handing the other half of the Balance of the Proceeds of the 
Lyell Geological Fund, awarded to Mr. Alexander McHenry, of 
the Geological Survey of Ireland, to Sir Archibald Geikie, for trans- 
mission to the recipient, the President addressed him as follows : — 
Sir Archibald Geikie, — 

Mr. McHenry's claims to recognition are well known to you, and the fact that 
you receive the award of a moiety of the Balance of the Proceeds of the Lyell 
Geological Fund on his behalf is a proof that you cordially endorse the action of 
the Council. For forty years he has laboured to advance our knowledge of Irish 
Geology as a member of the Geological Survey, first as a collector of fossils and 
rock -specimens and afterwards as a member of the Surveying Staff. Most of his 
work has been published in the Maps and Memoirs of the Geological Survey, to 
which he has devoted himself, as you yourself have said, with admirable loyalty 
and enthusiasm. One of his most useful labours has been the preparation, in 
conjunction with his former colleague, Professor Watts, of a Guide to the Collection 
flf Kocks and Fossils belonging to the Geological Survey of Ireland. His extensive 
and accurate knowledge largely contributed to make this work a most valuable 
compendium of Irish Geology. "We hope that this award will act as an encourage- 
ment to him and be of some assistance in further work. 

Sir Archibald Geikie, in reply, said :— Mr. President, — 

On the part of my old colleague, I have to express to the Geological Society his 
best thanks for the recognition of his work which is expressed in this award. Next 
to myself he is the member of the Geological Survey who has been longest on 
the staff. His whole life has been devoted to his official duties, and he has only 
now and then ventured to make his appearance in non-official print. His labours 
are thus chronicled in the Maps, Sections, and Memoirs of the Geological Survey 
of Ireland, and are probably familiar to comparatively few geologists. He lias 
been content honestly and strenuously to do his duty with a loyalty that has never 
flinched, and with aii enthusiasn) that seems to wax higher as the years go past. 
To such a man you mav well believe that recognition from the Geological Society is 
as precious as it is unlocked for. It will nerve him with fresh energy for the task 
of revision of the Superficial Deposits of Ireland on which the Survey is about to 
enter ; for it will show him that his work is not only known to his colleagues, but 
is appreciated by tlie leaders of (leological Science here. 

In presenting the Bigsby Medal to Mr. George William Lamplugb, 
of H.M. Geological Survey, the President addressed him as follows :— 
Mr. Lamplugh, — 

In 1891 the Council of the Geological Society recognized the value of your work 
on the Glacial Deposits of Yorkshire and on the Speeton Clay by an award trom 
the Lyell Fund. Since that time you have still further extended our knowlcilge ot 
the Lower Cretaceous rocks of Yorkshire and Lincolnsliiro, and have lurnisliea 
Professor Pavlov with material which has enabled him to throw consi.lcral.le ligUt 
on the physical conditions and migrations of the Cephalopod launa during me 
period represented by these rocks. 



182 Reports and Proceedings — Geological Society of London. 

Your early work was done in the midst of an active and successful business career, 
which you gave up, somewhat against the advice of your friends, to join the 
Geological Survey and devote aU your energy to the progress of science. Of late 
years you have been working in the Isle of Man, and the map of that island which 
you have produced is a striking proof of your skill as a geological surveyor. Its 
publication leads us to look forward with great expectations to the forthcoming 
memoir. 

In awarding to you the Bigsby Medal, the CouucU feel that they are placing it in 
safe hands. You have done much, and they confidently expect that you will do more. 

Mr. Lamplugh replied in the following words : — Mr. President, — 

It is not without a proper sense of responsibility that I receive this Medal. The 
terms of the award leave no doubt that, while it is intended to some extent as 
a recognition of work already done, it is essentially intended as an incentive to further 
work, and implies a certain obligation in this respect, which you, sir, in your engaging 
words have not attempted to lighten. The recipients of this Medal in the past have 
always fulfilled the obligation, and it wiU indeed be a satisfaction to me if it be in 
my power to prove my fitness for the trust reposed in me by this award. 

You have made reference to my altered circumstances since the time, ten years 
ago, when my earlier work received kindly recognition from the Council of this 
Society ; and it may, therefore, be permitted me to confess that, in deciding to devote 
my whole energies to geological research, I felt some misgiving lest the studies which 
had proved so congenial as a recreation should take on another aspect when made 
the main occupation of my life. But the misgiving has proved groimdiess ; the 
wider opportunity, so far from blunting my interest in these studies, has brought 
fresh zest, and on every side has opened up ■vistas of promising work for the future. 

The President read his Anniversary Address, in which he first 
gave Obituary Notices of several Fellows and Foreign Members 
deceased since the last Annual Meeting, including Professor 0. M. 
Torell (elected F.M. in 1883), Professor A. Milne-Edwards (F.M. in 
1899) ; the Duke of Argyll (President in 1872-74) ; Mr. C. Tylden- 
Wright (elected a Fellow in 1857), Mr. G. C. Greenwell (el. in 1858), 
Mr. G. H. Morton (el. in 1858), General Pitt-Rivers (el. in 1867), 
Professor G. H. F. Ulrich (el. in 1867), Mr. J. Thomson (el. in 
1868), Mr. C. J. A. Meyer (el. in 1869), Mr. W. P. Sladen (el. 
in 1872), Dr. John Young (el. in 1874), and Dr. W. Waagen 
(el. in 1881). 

He then dealt with the evolution of petrological ideas during the 
nineteenth century, especially as regards the igneous rocks. The 
discussions as to the origin of basalt and granite were referred to, 
and it was shown that the controversy regarding the latter rock 
had contributed largely to the clearing up of our ideas as to the 
nature of plutonic phenomena. 

The solution theory propounded by Bunsen was especially empha- 
sized, and its modern developments were briefly sketched. It was 
suggested that the next great advance will, in all probability, be the 
result of experiment, controlled by the modern theory of solutions, 
and carried out for the purpose of testing the consequences of that 
theory and discovering the modifications which may be necessary to 
adapt it to igneous magmas. The bearing which recent work on 
alloys had on petrographical problems was also referred to. 

The problem of the origin of petrographical species was next 
considered, and the growth of ideas on the subject briefly sketched. 
It was pointed out that although magmatic difi'erentiation is accepted 
by many as an important factor in producing different kinds of 



Reporta and Proccedinga — Gcohjical Suciety of London. 1S3 

igneous rocks, it does not rest on any assured experimental basis. 
Differentiation dependent on, or connected with, the crystallization 
of definite minerals was reviewed more favourably ; but it was 
pointed out that all theories of differentiation which are based on 
unaided molecular flow are subject to the criticism that the time 
required to effect any important differentiation appears to be too 
great. 

Reference was also made to recent work on the modification of 
igneous magmas by the inclusion and assimilation of rocks through 
which they pass ; and the conclusion was reached that the origin 
of species, so far as igneous rocks are concerned, is a problem 
the final solution of which has been handed on by the nineteeuth 
century to its successor. 

The ballot for the Couucil and Officers was taken, and the followiu^ were declared 
duly elected for the eusuino; vear: — Council: W. T. Blanford, LTj.D., F.R.S. ; 
Sir John Evans, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D.. F.R.S. ; Professor E. J. Garwood. M.A. ; 
Professor T. T. Groom, M.A., D.Sc. ; Alfred Ilarker, Esq., M.A. ; R. S. Ilerries, 
Esq., M.A. ; William Hill, Esq. ; W. H. Iludlestou, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S. ; 
Prof. J. W. Judd, C.B., LL.D., F.R.S.; Lieut.-Gen. C. A. MoMahon, F.R.S.; 
J. E. Marr, Esq., M.A., F.R.S.; Professor H. A. Miers, M. A., F.R.S. ; Rijrht 
Rev. John Mitchiuson, D.D., D.C.L. ; IL W. Monckton, Esq.. F.L.S. : E. T. 
Newton, Esq., F.R.S. ; G. T. Prior, Esq., M.A.; F. W. Rudler, Esq. ; Professor 
H. G. Soeloy, F.R.S., F.L.S.; Professor W. J. Sollas, M.A., D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S.; 
J. J. H. Teall, Esq.. M.A., F.R.S. ; Professor W. W. Watts, M.A. ; W. Whitaker. 
Esq., B.A., F.R.S. ; K. B. Woodward, Esq., F.R.S. 

Officers:— Prcsldoit: J. J. H. Teall, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. Vice-Presidents: 
J. E. Marr, Es(i., M.A., F.R.S. ; II. W. Monckton, Esq., F.L.S. ; Professor 
H. G. Seeley, F.R.S., F.L.S. ; W. Whitaker, Esq., B.A., F.R.S. Secretaries: 
R. S. Herries, Esq. M.A. ; Professor W. W. Watts, M.A. Fnreir/n Stcretary : 
Sir John Evans, K.O.B., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S. Trea-wrer: W. T. 
Blanford, LL.D.. F.R.S. 

II. —February 20, 1901.— J. J. H. Teall. Esq., M.A., V.P.R.S., 
President, in the Chair. 

The Address, which it is proposed to submit to His Majesty the 
King, on behalf of the President, Council, and Fellows, was read as 
follows, and the terms thereof were approved : — 

'•TO THE KLXG'S MOST EXCELLENT M.UESTY. 

"May it ple.\se your M.uesty, 

"We, your Majesty's most dutiful and loyal subjects, the President, 
Council, and Fellows of the Geolo-ical Society of Loudon, humbly be- leave to otter 
to your Maiostv our most profound and heartfelt sympathy in the great sorrow wlucl. 
has fallen on vou in the death of our late h.-lovrd Sovcnign Queen Victoria and to 
most resp(K'tfullv express the deep gric^f tliat we, in com.non with all your .Majestj s 
subjects, feel at'the great loss which has befallen the nation. « ♦ . 

'•'While thus exFessing our grief, we most humbly beg leave to offer to ) our 
Majesty our most sincere and unfeigned congratulations on your Majesty »> »«^e8»ion 
to the throne of your ancestors. Our knowledge ol the grea interest » ^ our 
Majesty has always taken in all matters relating to the wellaie of yon. ^utjectH 
makes us feel with confidence that seience will continue to advance during )our ic g n 
as in that of Her late Majesty of In-ioved memory. ^^ e reeall with p r u e that )our 
Majesty's father, the late Prince Consort, was lor many years a J^ellovv ot tni* 

^°" And we shall ever pray that your Majesty may long be spared to reign over 
a happy and contented people." 



184 Reports and Proceedings — Geological Society of London. 

Professor J. B. Harrison, alluding to a series of views of parts of 
the interior of British Guiana, which he laid on the table, remarked 
that the photographs had been taken by his colleague, Mr. H. I. 
Perkins, F.G.S., Acting Commissioner of Mines in British Guiana, 
during their recent geological investigations into the structure of 
the goldfields of that colony. The views well illustrate the general 
characteristics of the densely wooded country in which the gold- 
bearing areas occur, and give some idea of the difficulties which 
affect the work of the mining prospector and of the field-geologist 
in that colony. 

Several of the photographs illustrate rapids, cataracts, and falls 
which so frequently occur along the courses of some of the vast 
rivers of that part of South America, and show the differing forms 
of weathering of various igneous rocks and of horizontally-bedded 
sandstones and conglomerates in the tropics. 

Among the photographs are several fine views of the Kaieteur 
Falls on the Potaro Eiver, a tributary of the Essequibo. These 
falls, which were discovered by a Fellow of the Geological Society, 
Mr. C. Barrington Brown, in the course of his geological recon- 
naissance of the colony about thirty years ago, occur near the 
escarpment of the great sandstone formation which is so largely 
developed in the Guianas and in Bi-azil. The falls are over a ledge 
of very coarse siliceous conglomerate, some 18 or 20 feet thick, 
which overlies a thickness of about 1000 feet of almost horizontally- 
bedded sandstones. The river above the falls is about 400 feet 
broad and from 18 to 20 feet deep, and falls vertically, as a great 
curtain of water, for 740 feet, into a vast chasm at the extremity 
of a deep valley which it has eroded for a distance of about 17 miles 
from the escarpment of the sandstones. During the first 3 or 
4 miles of its course from the falls through the valley, the river 
descends for about 400 feet by a series of cataracts and rapids. 
The valley, which is eroded in places through the sandstones into 
the underlying igneous rocks, is of surpassing beauty, and offers 
many features of marked geological interest. One of the views, 
taken when the water was low after a long-continued drought, 
shows very clearly the great cave which the spray of the falling 
water has cut out from the softer sandstone strata. 

Others of the views show the somewhat primitive methods 
employed in prospecting and in working the placer-claims for gold. 

Professor Edward Hull made a communication, illustrated by 
lantern-slides, on the submerged valley opposite the mouth of 
the Eiver Congo. The position of this submerged valley has been 
ascertained by Mr. Edward Stallybrass and Professor Hull, by 
contouring the floor of the ocean with the aid of the soundings 
recorded on the Admiralty Charts. The sides of the valley are 
steep and precipitous and clearly defined, the width varying from 
2 to 10 miles, and the length across the Continental platform being 
about 122 miles. It is continuous with the Valley of the Congo, 
and its slope is uninterruptedly downward in the direction of the 
abyssal floor. The steepness of the sides indicates that they are 
formed of very solid rocks. 



Rejiorts and Proceedinys — Geological Society of London. 185 

Several other submerged valleys off the coast of Western Europe 
were described for comparison. In most cases the landward end 
of the submerged river-channel is filled with silt, etc., for some 
distance from the mouth of the actual river ; but, farther out, its 
course becomes quite distinct towards its embouchure at the edge 
of the Continental platform. Among the valleys specified were 
those off the mouth of the Tagus and the Lima, the Adour, and the 
Loire, and those in the English and Irish Channels. 

The following communication was read : — 

" The Geological Succession of the Beds below the Millstone Grit 
Series of Pendle Hill and their equivalents in certain other parts 
of England." By Wheelton Hind, M.D., B.S., F.R.C.S., F.G.S., 
and J. Allen Howe, Esq., B.Sc, F.G.S. 

Part i of this paper consists of a detailed account of the ground. 
Many detailed sections are given, showing in each case the exact 
fossiliferous horizons. The geological succession between the massif 
of limestone and the Millstone Grit Series on Pendle Hill is shown, 
by various sections, to contain a characteristic limestone series, 
easily distinguished by palseontological and lithological characters 
from the White or Clitheroe Limestone. This calcareous series is 
found to be very constant over a certain definite area, and to contain 
a zonal fauna. 

By various sections the extent of the deposit is shown, and it is 
demonstrated that the deposit occupies a basin, of which the Pendle 
district covers the maximum area of deposit, for the sequence thins 
out rapidly north-wes and south. But although the beds thin out, 
a calcareous series with a typical zonal fauna is always present. 
Beds containing this fauna are traced from County Dublin, the Isle 
of Man, Bolland, Craven, the Calder and Mersey valleys, to Derby- 
shire and North Staffordshire. It is shown that this series, for 
which the term Pendleside Series is proposed, occupies a basin 
about the size of the area indicated above, and that the beds are 
lithologically distinct from the Yoredale Beds of Wensleydale, and 
contain a different fauna. 

Part ii discusses the question in detail, from a pal^ontological 
point of view. Several goniatites and Posidonomijn Becheri are 
shown to be characteristic of the lower part of the series, while 
Avtculopecten papyracens, Posidoniella lavis, and certain goniatites 
have a wider distribution in the series. 

The faunas of the Yoredale Beds of Wensleydale and the I endle- 
side Series, generally mapped as Yoredales, are shown to be entirely 
distinct ; and the Yoredale Series of Wensleydale is shown, on 
palseontological and stratigraphical grounds, to be the eciuivalent ot 
the upper part of the massif of limestone. , , a 

The migration of certain families of fossils from the nor h to the 
south, brought about by a slow change of environment, is shown l.y 
tables, and lines called 'isodiectic lines ' are drawn to ropresent this 
distribution. It is shown that the Nuculidje are found in the owest 
Carboniferous beds in Scotland, but come in at successively higher 
horizons as the beds range southward. 



186 Corresjjondence — Rev. 0. Fisher. 

These facts and comparative thicknesses are the basis of an 
argument as to the local distribution of land and water in 
Carboniferous times ; and it is shown that the peculiar change in 
type which Carboniferous rocks undergo in passing from north to 
south is due entirely to physiographical conditions, and not to any 
theoretical assumption of contemporaneous faulting. It is shown, 
moreover, that the Craven Faults per se have had nothing to do 
with this change of type. The correlation of the limestone knolls 
of Craven with the Pendleside Limestone is demonstrated to be no 
longer tenable. 



ooiei2,ESi='ODNr3D:E32src:E. 

ME. A. E. HUNT ON THE AGE OF THE EAETH AND THE 
SODIUM OF THE SEA. 

Sir, — In the volume of this Magazine for 1900 I reviewed 
Professor Joly's theory, that the age of the earth can be calculated 
by comparing the amount of sodium now in the sea with the time 
rate at which rivers are at present conveying sodium down. Among 
other matters I suggested that the salinity of rivers might be partly 
due to sodium derived from sedimentary rocks, which had formerly 
come from the sea. This would of course lengthen the computed 
age of the earth. 

Mr. Hunt now suggests that "sea- water reached the heated rocks," 
and he appears to consider that much of the sodium, which the 
Dartmoor granites (at any rate) contain, was derived from the sea. 

This is turning Professor Joly's theory round about. Professor 
Joly derives the salts of the sea from the igneous rocks. Mr. Hunt 
derives the salts of the igneous rocks from the sea. 

My object in this letter is to direct attention to the difficulty of 
explaining the undoubted abundance of water, which is extravasated 
by volcanoes, to absorption from the ocean or from anj' other 
external source. I have gone into my objections to this view 
(whatever they may be worth) in my "Physics of the Earth's 
Crust" (2nd ed., p. 144), where I have, in a note, given an account 
of Daubree's experiment, to which Mr. Hunt refers. 

Since, alas ! my two friends have passed away, it may be 
permissible to say, that I was on a visit to my dear friend Pro- 
fessor Prestwich shortly after he had published his paper on " The 
Agency of Water in Volcanic Eruptions," and Professor John Morris 
was my fellow-guest. We two were talking about Prestwich's 
theory that the volcanic water was derived ab extra, and that 
water could enter into combination with molten rock. Morris said, 
"Water would not be so foolish !" This was not a very scientific 
reason, but it was putting his own idea pretty strongly. He also 
told me that he had tried to dissuade Prestwich from publishing his 
views of volcanic energj^, but without success. 

My own opinion is that water has been a constituent of the liquid 



Correqmuleiicc—Profi'Sfior T. G. Bonnoj. 187 

interior of the earth from the very first, aucl that it simply makes 
its escape at a tremendous pressure whenever a way is opened for it 
through the solid crust. 0. Fisher. 

Harlton. 

March 5, 1901. 



NAMES FOR BRITISH ICE-SHEETS. 

Sir, — May I suggest to Mr. Lamplugh that to propose names for 
British Ice-slieets before proving that they have existed is rather 
like counting chickens before the}^ are hatched. At present we 
know neither the ancient extent of land-ice in our Island, nor in all 
cases what are indisputable traces of it. Wliere faith is strong this, 
no doubt, seems a detail, but to sceptics it appears important. 

If, however, we admit that there was an East British Ice-sheet, 
" maintained and augmented principally by the snowfall upon its- 
own sui'face," how are we to explain the presence of Scandinavian 
rocks at Cromer and other places on our East Coast ? Of that ice- 
sheet the Dogger Bank would be centre and highest part. This- 
tract is crossed (a little north of its centre) by a line drawn from 
Flamborough Head to the Naze of Norway. Over an area measuring 
about 70 miles from east to west, and 12 miles in the opposite 
direction, it rises above the ten-fathom contour-line (the minimum 
depth being 7 fathoms). The twenty-fathom line is very near to 
the other one at the south-west end, but then recedes from it so as- 
to enclose a long bank which stretches in a north-easterly direction, 
almost half-way across the North Sea, and the thirty-fathom line on 
the northern side extends from the Yorkshire coast to Jutland. 
North and north-west of this limit are soundings down to 49 fathoms, 
and those over 40 fathoms are rather common. In the great channel 
off the south-west of Norway they are often over 200 fathoms (for 
particulars see this Magazine, 18*99, p. 282). Thus the ice of the 
Dogger-fjeld (would not that have been a better name ? ) must have 
descended from its central plateau down slopes about 250 feet in 
vertical height on the north and north-west, and about half that 
amount down those from the south-west to the south-east. This mass 
of ice flowing outwards towards nearly all points of the compass, 
and buttressed on the western side by the Caledonian ice, which it 
would try to 'shoulder' in that direction, would surely defend onr 
shores from the inroads of the Scandinavian ice-sheet, however 
nimbly it might climb the steep slope of the above-mentioned 
channel. Is it, then, a mistake to identify Scandinavian rocks in 
East Anglia ; for if the Dogger-fjeld existed they could not have 
travelled on floating ice ? 'i'- ^^- Ronney. 

CONCRETIONS OF CALCITE IN MAGNESIAN LIMESTONE. 
Sir,— The well-known globular concretions from the Magnesiai! 
Limestone of Durham occur in many collections under the name 
of 'dolomite ' or ' magnesian limestone.' Professor Garwood, how- 
ever, effectually showed (Geol. Mag., 1891, p. 43G) that tliese 
concretions are due to the crystallization of calcite in a ground of 



188 Correspondence — Prof. G. A. J. Cole — A. StraJian. 

magnesian limestone, and that the 5 to 15 per cent, of magnesium 
carbonate contained in them is a mere impurity, when compared 
with the 30 per cent, in the matrix from which they have arisen. 
It is interesting to come across a similar statement made in 
1817, though we waited long for Professor Garwood's numerical 
proofs, and for a complete account of the mode of origin of the 
concretions. Mr. N. J. Winch (Transactions of the Geological 
Society of London, vol. iv, p. 9) remarks that "botryoidal masses of 
fetid limestone devoid of magnesia, in balls varying from the size 
of a pea to two feet in diameter, imbedded in a soft, marly, 
magnesian limestone, are found at Hartlepool, etc." Winch had 
given a specimen some twelve years before to James Sowerby 
(" British Mineralogy," table 38), and the passage above quoted 
was incorporated by Conybeare & Phillips in their " Geology of 
England and Wales," 1822, p. 306. Grenville A. J. Cole. 

Dublin, 3[arch 1, 1901. 

SUCCESSION OF STRATA IN THE YOREDALE ROCKS. 
Sir, — Mr. Dakyns is right in his criticism on the succession 
I quoted for the Yoredale strata of the Yore "Valley. It is true that 
the sequence, though there are many exceptions, is usually — 
Shale. 
Limestone. 
Sandstone. 
But this may be put in another way. The series as a whole is 
made up of repetitions of this threefold cycle, and may with equal 
correctness be regarded as consisting of repetitions of the cycle — 
Sandstone. 
Shale. 
Limestone. 
We have, therefore, the same evidence of intermittent and more or 
less rhythmic sedimentation which I claimed for the Coal-measures. 
But there is this difference, that whereas in the Yoredales the cycle 
commences with inactivity (limestone) and proceeds to rapid 
sedimentation (sandstone), in the Coal-measures it commences with 
activity (sandstones and conglomerates) and proceeds to stagnation 
(coal-seams), the order being — 
Coal. 
Shale. 

Sandstone and conglomerate. 
Both formations result from rapid sedimentation over a subsiding 
area, but whereas the Coal-measures are essentially estuarine, the 
Yoredale rocks of the type developed in the Yore Valley bear every 
sign of having been laid down in open sea ; the one was a product 
of the shallowest water, the other of comparatively deep water. 
Herein probably lies the explanation of the reversal of order of 
events. 

I am obliged to Mr. Dakyns for the correction. 

A. Strahan. 
March 6, 1901. 



Con-e.y)ondence — J. E. 3larr — IL Biil/cn Nricfon. 189 

KVAl'ORATIOX AND SUBLniATlOX. 

Sir, — As long ago as September, 1900, I observe that the writer 
who reviewed my book on '-The Scientific Study of Scenery" in 
this Magazine criticizes my use of the term suhUmafiou. 

He says: "In alluding to the evaporation of snow and camphor 
the process is referred to as ' sublimation.' In Watt's Dictionary 
of Chemistry sublimate is defined as ' a body obtained in the solid 
state b}' the cooling of its vapour.' " 

Nevertheless, I believe that I use the term correctly, and in 
support of this assertion let me further (juote Watt's Dictionary 
(1894 edition, vol. iv, p. 524). Sublimation is there defined as 
" The passage of a solid body, when heated, to the state of va^wur 
without melting." 

I take this opportunity of thanking the writer for the appreciative 
notice, which contains many suggestions which I should gladly 
utilize, if a second edition of ray book should be called for. 

J. E. ]\Iakr. 

Camiuuuge. 



MALAY PENINSULA LIMESTONE. 

Sir, — Since the publication of my paper in last month's 
Geological Magazine,' where I compiled some notes on the 
geology of the Mala}^ Peninsula, and took occasion to remark that 
in the absence of fossils it Avas impossible to correlate the limestones 
of that country with any definite horizon, some further samples of 
the same rock have been submitted to my notice by Dr. Henry 
Woodward, F.K.S. 

This new material was collected a few years back by the late 
Mr. H. M. Becher, at Gua Sai, Penjom, Pahang, and is of precisely 
similar appearance to the paler-coloured limestones obtained by 
Mr. R. M. W. Swan from the River Tui District, which he found 
associated with those of a dark variety referred to in my paper. 

The ' Becher ' specimens are important from the fact that they 
exhibit organic structures, a feature pointed out by Dr. G. J. Hinde. 
F.R.S., on a manuscript label dated January 7th, 1899, who thus 
describes them: — "Very fine-grained bluish limestones. The ojily 
organisms recognizable are Crinoidal stem-joints. Tliere are traces 
of other organisms with which the rock seems to have been filled 
originally, "but they are now nearly obliterated and are not 
determinable." 

This report, however, leaves us still without a clue as to the age 
of the limestone, and we shall require more accurate palreontological 
evidence before that desirable point can be permanently settled. In 
the meantime mention may be made of the presence of an obscure 
Crinoidal fragment on one of the weathered surfaces of this rock, 

1 "Notes on Literature beariut? upon the Geology of the Malay reninsula : willi 
an account of a Neolithic Implement from that i-ountry " : Oeoi.. Mao.. 1!»01. 
pp. 128-134. 



190 Obituary— Dr. G. M. Damon. 

exhibiting a portion of tbe stem witli fragmentary brachial 
extensions, the whole organism covering a space of nearly three 
inches in length. My colleague, Dr. F. A. Bather, has kindly 
examined the specimen, but without any satisfactory result, on 
account of its poor preservation; he is, however, inclined to regard it 
as of Palfeozoic age. Further efforts should now be made to obtain 
more suitable fossils from these interesting limestones of the Malay 
Peninsula, so that their geological age may be finally determined. 

R. BuLLEN jSTewton. 
British Museum (Natural History). 
Jfarch 19, 1901. 



OBITTJJ^I^^". 



DR. GEORGE MERCER DAWSON, 

C.M.a, LL.D., Assoc. R.S.M., F.R.S., F.G.S., F.R.S. Canada, 
Director of the Geological Survey of Canada. 

Born August 2, 1849. Died March 2, 1901. 

This eminent geologist, whose portrait and life we published in 
the Geological Magazine for May, 1897, pp. 193-195, died at 
Ottawa, after an illness of only two days, at the early age of 
51 years, sincerely regretted by a large circle of friends. 

Dr. Dawson was the son of Sir William Dawson, F.R.S., for many 
years Principal of McGill College, Montreal ; and was, since 1875, 
one of the staff of the Geological Survey of Canada, of which he 
speedily became Assistant-Director, and in 1894 Director. He was 
educated at McGill College, Montreal, and at the Royal School of 
Mines, London. Here he obtained the Duke of Cornwall's Scholar- 
ship, and the Edward Forbes medal and prize. He was, in 1873, 
on the North American Boundary Commission. On the Geological 
Survey he did much personal work in British Columbia and the 
North- West Territory, covering in his mapping many thousand miles 
of area. Dr. Dawson was one of the Commissioners for the Behring 
Sea Arbitration, spending the Summer of 1892 inquiring into the 
conditions and facts of seal-life, and his services were of the greatest 
value. He received the thanks of the Governor-General-in-Council, 
and was made a C.M.G. He received the Bigsby Gold Medal from 
the Geological Society in 1891, and in 1890 the degree of LL.D, 
from Queen's University and from McGill University in 1891. In 
1897 he was awarded the Gold Medal of the Royal Geographical 
Society for his work as a whole. 

Canada may well be proud of Dr. G. M. Dawson as one of her 
most brilliant men of science, whose loss she will long deplore, nor 
will he fail to be remembered in this country also as a son of that 
great Motherland whose name can never die. 



Ohltuari/—C. F. Liltkcn—Ii. Crahj. 191 

CHRISTIAN FREDERIK LUTKEN. 

Born at Soii.0, Octobeu 4, 1827. Died at Copenuaokx, Feiiuuauy 6, 1901. 
Professor Lutken, whose death, some two years after his 
resignation of the Directorship of the Zoological Museum at 
Copenhagen, removes another veteran from the ranks of the aihnirably 
trained and hard-working Scandinavian naturalists, was best known 
as a describer and classifier of living animals. But while, in 
common with the leaders of palaeontology, he insisted that " only 
from the organization of the living form can we learn to uiulei'stand 
that of the extinct,'''' so also he was at one with the more eminent 
zoologists in recognizing that only by a study of extinct forms can 
we perceive the true I'elationships of the living. And it is because 
he put his creed into practice for over half a century that the close 
of his labours calls for the affectionate regret of geologists. That 
a notice should appear in this Magazine is moreover specially 
appropriate, since it was to it that he turned on the few occasions 
when he desired to address English readers in their own language. 
We allude to his notice of Loven's memoir on Leskia viiraltilis 
(Geol. Mag., 1868, p. 179), his notes on the Ophiuridas (1870, p. 79), 
and his criticism of Professor Kner's writings on the Ganoids and 
on Xenacanthus (1868, pp. 376 and 429). His own great memoir 
on the classification of the Ganoids appeared in Palaontographica 
(1873-75). Fi'om his many allusions to fossil Echinoderms we 
may select as early evidence of his penetration the constant 
opposition that he raised to the idea that the anus of the stalked 
echinoderms was a proboscis or mouth, and his severe criticism 
(oddly overlooked by later writers) of the division of the Crinoids 
into a Paljeozoic and a Neozoic group. As a systematist the 
characteristics of his work were thoroughness, accuracy, and caution : 
qualities less showy than lasting. He was not a brilliant speculator 
on the phylogeny of unknown forms, but an advocate of, and an 
adept in, the synthetic method : " I mean that method which, giving 
up all preconceived ideas, patiently puts genus to genus, until 
families are formed, and family to family after their natural affinities, 
until the whole systematic building stands before us." It is work 
of this nature that will stand, that will vindicate the claiuis of 
paleontology to be heard, that will justify systematic /.oology as 
a serious attempt to solve the problems of life, and tliat will keep 
«cience itself from the ridicule of the unlearned. We can ill spare 
such workers; but Lutken was a leader and a teacher as well as 
a student, and his monument is to be found not only in the books 
that he has left, nor even in the rich and well-arranged museum of 
Copenhagen, but also in the school of active and earnest zoologists 
that will long do honour to Denmark. E- A. B. 

ROBERT CRAIG. 
We regret to record the death at Gleuganiock, on the 14th 
January, of Robert Craig, in the 80th year of his age. Mr. Craig 
took an active interest in geology, and from his occui-ation as 



192 MisceUaneoHs. 

a quarryinaster and burner of lime he had exceptional opportunities 
for the pursuit of the science. During the past forty years he 
contributed many papers to the Transactions of the Glasgow- 
Geological Society, more especially on the Drift deposits and 
Carboniferous rocks. In his own neighbourhood, from his literarj-- 
and scientific tastes, he was known as " The Sage of Beith." 



1\^TS GIBXiXj-iLIsriEO TJ S . 



Geological Survey of the United Kingdom.— We have 
already notified the appointment of Mr. J. J. H. Teall as Director 
in place of Sir Archibald Geikie, Director-General. The further 
appointments are two Assistant-Directors : Mr. H. B. Woodward 
(for England and Wales) and Mr. John Home (for Scotland). 
District Geologists : Mr. C. Fox Strangways, Mr. Clement Eeid, and 
Mr. Aubrey Strahan (for England and Wales) ; Mr. B. N. Peach 
and Mr. W. Gunn (for Scotland) ; and Mr. G. W. Lamplugh (foi-^ 
Ireland). 

'Blood Eain' in Sicily. — A telegram despatched from Palermo 
yesterday stated that since the previous night a dense lurid cloud 
had hung over the town. The sky was of a sinister blood-red hue 
and a strong south wind was blowing, and the drops of rain which 
fell were like blood. The phenomenon, which is known locally by 
the name of * blood rain,' is attributed to dust from the Sahara 
Desert having been carried there by the wind. Similar atmospheric 
conditions are reported from Eome. The sky had a yellow tint 
yesterday, and a violent sirocco swept over the citj^ At Naples 
showers of sand fell, and the phenomenon of the ' fata Morgana ' 
was observed. — Morning Post, March 11, 1901. 

Vienna, March 12. — Ked and yellow snow has fallen in many 
parts of Austria, including districts so far north as Prague. The 
coloured snow lies several inches deep, and makes a weird and 
unearthly efi'ect. Scientists state that southern winds of extra- 
ordinary force have carried the red and yellow sand of the Sahara 
across the Mediterranean to Southern Europe in such an enormous 
quantity that even here in Austria the colour of the snow has 
thereby been changed. — Morning Leader, March 13, 1901. 

Eeptilian Eemains from Patagonia. — At the meeting of the 
Zoological Society on March 5th, Dr. A. Smith Woodward, F.L.S., 
F.Z.S., F.G.S., read a detailed description of the remains of Miolania 
from Patagonia, which were briefly noticed by Dr. Moreno in the 
Geological Magazine for September, 1899. He regarded them 
as indicating a Chelonian only specifically distinct from the typical 
Miolania of the Australian region. In the same formation in 
Patagonia were found the skeleton of a new extinct snake and the 
jaws of a large carnivorous Dinosaur, which were also described. 
The discovery of Miolania in South America seemed to favour the 
theorj'^ of a former Antarctic continent ; but it should be remembered 
that in late Secondary'- and early Tertiary times the Pleurodiran 
Chelonia were almost cosmopolitan. 



THE 



GEOLOGICAL MAGAZINE. 

NEW SERIES. DECADE IV. VOL. VIII. 



No. v.— MAY, 1901. 

I. — Sand-blast of the Shoee and its Erosive Effect on Wood. 
By T. Mellard Re.-vde, C.E., F.G.S., F.R.I.B.A. 
(PLATE X.) 

1MLE effect of the natural sand-blast of the desert in eroding soft 
and hard rock has long been known, and attracted much 
attention, but I cannot call to mind any account of the effect of 
blowing sand impinging upon wood. 

From seven to eight years ago a boat-house was built b}' the 
Blundellsands Sailing Club on the sandhills at the Altmouth, about 
8 or 9 feet above high- water mai*k of spring tides. Afterwards, for 
better access thereto, a sloped road was built up of timbers from the 
shore level, leading to a level gangway about 10 feet above the shore, 
also made of timbers. This gangway was 6 feet wide and 12 feet 
long, with close-boarded sides about 2 feet high formed of roughly 
sawn pine boards and split-oak staves. This formed a trough having 
a direction about west-north-west, and really became a wind-gap. 

The effect of the sand-blast on the southern face of the northern 
side has been most striking and curious. The boat-house has just 
been taken down and re-erected at a lower level, and my sons, 
members of the club, have brought me a sample of the pine boarding 
and of the split-oak staves from the north side of the old gangway. 
These are reproduced in the Plate from photographs by Hartley Bros., 
Waterloo. The general effect of the sand-blast has been to remove 
from one-eighth to three-sixteenths of an inch of wood over a large 
part of the surface of the pine board (PI. X, Fig. 1). and to develop 
the structure of the wood in a remarkable manner. The grain being 
very irregular, the differential effect of the impinging sand-grains 
on the harder and softer portions is most instructive. 

It will be observed that the large hard knot stands out above the 
general surface of the wood, and that the grain around the knot is 
picked out in a surprising manner. The knot itself is carved and 
polished. Perhaps the most instructive feature is ilwr^fffeet t>f-Uie 

DECAT)E IV. — VOL. VIII. — NO. V. r/^^* 1'^ 'Co \\ 



194 T. Mellard Recide — Erosive Action of Sand-blasts. 

three nails in preserving the wood in the rear or lee of the nails, the 
course of the sand-blast having been from left to right. These are 
vpire nails that fastened the board horizontally to the upright posts. 
The heads of these nails mark the original sawn surface of the board, 
and indicate well the amount of the general denudation the board 
has undergone. In the year 1875 I contributed a short article to 
this Magazine on " Wind Denudation," describing little ridges of 
sand on the shore left on the leeside of fragments of shells, or 
sometimes whole shells, which have protected the sand from the 
general denudation which always takes place in the upper moist 
part of the shore during a strong breeze. These little ridges 
I ventured to call ' eolites.' The wood ridges left in the rear of 
the nail heads are the counterparts of these eolites, but they are 
actually carved out of the board by the mechanical battering of the 
sand-grains, whereas the eolites are due to the wind first drying 
the surface of the sand and then blowing the grains away, except 
where protected by the shell fragments. 

Another interesting feature is the rope-like appearance caused by 
the truncation of bundles of fibres, shown by the minute transverse 
markings on the photograph. This happens only where the grain is 
not parallel to the surface of the wood. 

The effect on the oak staves is equally characteristic. Here, in 
consequence of the regularity and parallelism of the grain, grooves 
have been cut by the sand with the precision of a planing machine 
(Fig. 2). 

Since the preceding was written another pine board has been 
brought to me. It measures 2 ft. 6 in. x 6f in. The timber is 
rather harder than in the one already described, and the grain more 
regular. The sand has cut grooves of segmental section from three- 
sixteenths to half an inch wide, deeply undercut on one side, the 
ridges between the grooves being like a knife edge. There are 
hardly any of the transverse markings to be seen, the grain being 
parallel to the surface, and the whole has a smooth polished surface 
to the touch. 

It is interesting to find that the continual attrition of these 
quartzose sand-grains, many of them much rounded, in time cuts 
deeply into the wood and develops the structure by differential 
action on the harder and softer parts it operates upon, and also 
polishes the surface. The time the wood has been exposed to the 
blast is about seven years. What the velocity of the grains was in 
a high wind I have no means of judging, but no doubt the air 
currents were intensified in this wind-gap, and it must not be taken 
as representative of the whole shore. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE X. 

Fig. 1. — Portion of a pine board, 1ft. lin. x 5 in., eroded by sand-blast of the shore. 
Fig. 2. — Portion of a split-oak stave, 5| in. x 2| in., ,, j, ,, 



E. T. Nenion — Graptolitesfrom Peru. 195 

II. — Note ox Graptolites from Peru. 
By E. T. Xewtox, F.R.S., F.G.S., etc. 

ME. HERBERT J. JESSOP, who has recently returned from 
a journey in Eastern Peru, kindly placed in my hands, for 
examination, some specimens of graptolites which he had obtained 
on the River Macho, one of the tributaries of the Inambari, near the 
celebrated mountain Capac Oreo, or Monte Bello, in the province of 
Carabaya, Peru (lat. 13° 40' S. ; long. 70° 10' W.). The locality is 
situated on the north-east of the main watershed, and the rivers flow 
eventually into the Amazon. The difficulties of travelling make it 
likely that a long time will elapse before other specimens are 
forthcoming from this locality ; it seems desirable, therefore, that 
some account of these should be published. 




Fig. 2. 



Fi«;. 1. 

Fig. 1. — Fragmout ot bhak slialo with Diplograptus ; natural size ; Carabaya, Peru. 

From a photon-raph kiuiUy taken by Mr. A. Strahan. 
Fig. 2. — Spccimeu marked ou Fig. 1 ; enlarged U times. The \irgula lias been 

added from another example. 

Mr. Jessop tells me that the pieces of black shale containing the 
graptolites wei"e portions of a mass of rock about two feet square 
and one foot thick, which was not found in place, but loose upon 
the ground ; its unrolled and unweathered condition convincing him 
that it could not have travelled far from the parent bed. Similar 
shaly rocks are in place near by, but he was prevented from making 
a careful exploration. The specimens obtained seemed to him 
sufficiently interesting to be brought home, notwithstanding that 
everything had to be carried by the men for many miles, the place 
being inaccessible for horses or mules. 



196 E. T. Netdon — GraptoUten froui Pent. 

The whole mass of shale seems to be full of these graptolites, for, 
wherever split open, many white examples are displaj'ed upon the 
surface of the black shale (Fig. 1), all of which are referable to the 
genus Diplograptiis, and although differing somewhat in width thej' 
are so similar in other respects that they can hardly represent more 
than one species. The longest and most perfect specimen (Fig. 2) 
does not exceed 25 mm. in length and 3 mm. in width at the widest 
part; but this example has no projecting virgula, such as is seen on 
other specimens extending perhaps 4 or 5 mm. beyond the thecce. 
Some examples are a little narrower, while one is as much as 5 mm. 
wide. The polypary has a small radicle and two cornua at its 
proximal end, and thence increases somewhat rapidly in width for 
about a third of its length and then decreases slightly and very 
gradually to the distal extremity, from which, in several specimens, 
a virgula extends. In one instance the virgula may be traced 
throughout the length of the polypary. The theca3 diverge from 
each side of the axis at an angle of rather less than 45° ; the 
apertural margin is nearly at right angles with the axis, and the 
outer free margin is in most cases slightly convex; but there is some 
variation in all these particulars, even in the same polypary. There 
are 11-13 thecas in 10 mm. These Peruvian Diplograptids very 
closely resemble the D. truncatus of Lapworth,^ and Professor 
Lapworth, who saw the specimens for a few minutes, was good 
enough to point out this near resemblance. The small differences 
which may be noticed, namely, the distinct virgula, the somewhat 
smaller thecte, and the less oblique apertural margin, as well 
apparently as the shorter polypary, probably indicate that specific 
difference which one is led to expect from the widely separated 
habitats of the two foi'ms ; at the same time one hesitates to give 
them a new name, and would prefer to record them as Diplograptiis, 
cf. truncatus, Lapw., and as probably of Bala age. 

Little is known of the geology of the immediate area from which 
Mr. Jessop obtained his graptolites; but David Forbes, in his paper on 
"The Geology of Bolivia and Southern Peru,"- not only gives a large 
area of Silurian rocks extending from the south-east to the north-west 
border of his map, which is perhaps within a hundred miles of Monte 
Bello, but says that these Silurian strata extend as far as Cuzco, and 
this would be as far north and well to the west of the district now 
in question. David Forbes does not aj)pear to have visited this area 
himself, and the fossils collected further south, which were described 
by J. W. Salter, were said to indicate beds of Upper Silurian age, and 
probably Lower Silurian also. The fossils doubtfully referred to 
the Lower Silurian certainly left much to be desired. No graptolites 
were found, and consequently a most important guide to the age of 
these old rocks was wanting. 

D'Orbigny, during his travels in Bolivia,^ found certain graptolites 
at Tacopaya, near the Eio Grand (lat. 19° S. ; long. 63° 40' W.), 

1 Proc. Belfast Nat. Field Club, ser. ii, vol. i, pt. 4, Appendix, p. 133, 1876-7. 

2 Quart. Joui-n. Geol. Soc, vol. xvii (1861), p. 53. 

•^ "Voyage dans I'Ameriqxie Meridionale " : Pala^out., vol. iv (1842), p. 23. 



E. T. Newton — GyaptoUtesfroiii Pern. 197 

which he named GraptolUes dentatns ; but finding that they had 
two branches, united them with Graptoiites (now Bidijmogrnptus) 
Mnrchisoni ; Grap. foUaceus was likewise included, and as this is 
a Diplograptid there must be much doubt as to the specific identity 
of his Bolivian forms, although the published figures leave little 
doubt as to their belonging to the genus J)ichjmograptas, and 
consequently point to beds of Llandeilo or Arenig age ; that is, if 
we are right in using the zonal distribution of Old Woidd Graptoiites 
as an index for those of Central South America. 

Both Cambrian and Silurian fossils have been described from 
Northern Argentina (hit. 23^° and 25° S.) by Professor Kayser,^ and 
from Portezuelo manj' examples of a Didymograptus are noticed 
which he thinks may be the same form as that brought fi'om 
Bolivia by D'Orbigny, thus again pointing to Llandeilo or Arenig 
rocks a long way to the south-east, and confirming the occurrence 
of strata of that age in the central part of Sonth xlmerica. 

M. J. Balta, in his note on "Fosiles de Carabaya," - mentions the 
occurrence of graptoiites and annelid burrows at Huayna Tacuma, 
Santo Domingo, in the province of Carabaya. I am unable to find 
this locality on any map I have consulted, but Mr. Jessop tells me 
there is a Santo Domingo a few miles from where his graptoiites 
were found, and this is probably the place indicated. M. Balta refers 
his graptoiites to Diplogrnptiis palmeus, Barrande, and D. pristis, His., 
and he remarks that only Lower Silurian rocks have at present been 
observed in South America. The genus Diplograptas, however, is not 
confined to Lower Silurian (Ordovician) deposits, and if the reference 
of specimens to D. palmeus and B. pristis be correct, then, while the 
latter points to beds of Bala age or the uppermost part of the 
Lower Silurian, the former, B. palmeus, indicates Upper Silurian 
rocks, that is, strata of Llandovery or Tarannon age ; moreover, 
Salter had already in 1861 recognized Upper Silurian fossils among 
those brought over by David Forbes. 

The Diplograptus obtained by Mr. Herbert J. Jessop, whether 
referable to D. truncatus, Lapw., or to a new but closely allied 
species, may be taken as indicative of beds near the uppermost 
part of the Lower Silurian. 

So far as we can judge from the evidence of the graptoiites now 
known to occur in Central South America, there are in that country 
deposits of Ai'enig or Llandeilo age with the characteristic Bidijmo- 
graptus Murclnsoni ; beds approximately of Bala age, with Biplo- 
graptus pristis and Diplograptus near to truncatus ; and possibly strata 
of Llandovery age, as indicated by D. palmeus. It is to be hoped 
that before long definite graptolitic evidence of Upper Silurian 
rocks will be obtained by the discovery of some characteristic 
Monograptids. 

1 Zeitsch. deiitsch. Geol. Gcsell., vol. xlix (1897), p. 274. 
- Eev. Cii.'Ui', Lima, vol. i 'ISOS), p. 7. 



198 Dr. W. F. Hume—Eift Valleys of Eastern Sinai. 

Ill, — The Eift Valleys of Eastern Sinai. ^ 
By W. F. Hume, D.Sc, A.E.S.M., F.G.S., etc. 

IN this paper the author deals with some of the results obtained 
in the course of a survey of Eastern Sinai during the season 
of 1898-99, his remarks being based on a map carefully prepared 
by his colleague, Mr. H. G. Skill, F,R.G.S., and on his own 
topographical and geological observations. 

The region speciall}^ under consideration is bounded on the west 
by the central range of Sinai, which is familiar to every Indian 
traveller, forming as it does a prominent rock-wall to the east of 
the Gulf of Suez. This mountain mass in reality consists of a series 
of narrow crests separated by few but high moimtain passes, and 
capable of being traversed only by heavilj^ loaded camels at two 
points, viz. at the head of Wadi Tarfah and Wadi Plebran. If this 
range be crossed, and Mount Sinai (Jebel Musa) itself ascended, 
the view to the east is decidedly disappointing. To the north-east 
the long white limestone wall of Jebel Gnnnah runs more or less 
east and west, far to the east breaking into isolated masses, and 
ending in the fine truncated cone of Jebel El Ain. South of, and 
parallel to it, extend sandy plains and precipitous plateaux of 
sandstone, these being succeeded by an apparently flat or undulating 
granite plateau (the rift- valleys in it being hidden), out of which 
sharp-peaked mountain masses rise as isolated projections or long 
ridges. To the south-west is a mountain-wall, which hides all the 
southern land from view, and constitutes the most important scenic 
feature in Eastern Sinai, extending across the country from the 
Central Kange to the Gulf of Akaba. This Transverse Divide claims 
special attention, not only from the fact that it sepai'ates two different 
types of country, but also because at many points these two regions 
are at markedly different levels, there being an abrupt fall to the 
south. The divide is also crossed by five passes, which all have this 
remarkable feature in common, viz. : that the valleys they connect form 
Jive roughly straight lines, all parallel to one another and to the Gidf of 
Ahaha, that is, running in a direction someiohat west of south. Two 
of these are then specially considered with a view to showing that 
they belong to the category of Eift Valleys, of which the Gulf of 
Akaba is itself a striking example, it being premised that these are 
not necessarily single depressions, but rather a series of basins or 
grooves separated by barriers, which, though higher than the main 
valley, are of no great altitude compared with the bordering hills. 
Thus, the Shelala Um Eaiyig rift is shown to have a length of over 
72 kilometres, being almost perfectly straight and bounded by very 
steep slopes throughout the greater part of its course. 

The geological features are still more striking, the hills on the 

* Abstract of a paper read by permission of Sir William Garstin, Under-Secretary 
of State for Public Works, and Captain H. G. Lyons, R.E., Director- General of 
the Egyptian Survey Department, before the International Geological Congress- 
at Paris, August, 1900. 



D)'. W. F. Hume— Rift Valleys of Eastern Sinai. 199 

two sides being frequently of diffei'ent geological structure, this 
contrast having often a very marked effect upon the scenery', as, 
for instance, where the rift separates the granite range of Ashara 
from the felsitic hills of Feraui, the former rising in sharply peaked 
red-coloured crests scored by wild gorges, while the latter are of 
dark-green colour, and possess less rugged outlines. 

Still more noteworthy is the presence of sandstones in the valley 
itself, having all the typical characters of the Nubian Sandstone, 
yet situated 25 kilometres south of the main mass of that formation ; 
similarly, at the head of Um Raiyig, a ridge of Cenomanian lime- 
stone, with sandstone at its base, block the valley, being enclosed 
between two walls composed of Nubian Sandstone resting on granite. 
Still further to the north the reverse is met with, a granite ridge 
running north and south, rising steeply through the surrounding 
sedimentaries. The examination of the relations of the beds over 
the area shows that the actual displacement of strata in the 
production of the rift varies from 200 to 600 metres (2,000 feet). 

The Eaib Melhadge rift is in some respects even more striking, 
the granite range extending far further to the north on its eastern 
than on its western border, which for some distance is formed by 
lower country, geologically a complex of granite, sandstone, and 
Cenomanian limestone. As a result, in the upper part of Wadi 
Eaib, Cretaceous limestone forms low ridges dipping steeply eastward 
at the foot of a granite range, which rises immediately above them 
to a height of over 300 metres. Descending Wadi Eaib the 
conditions become simpler, the Nubian Sandstone on the west giving 
way to granite cliffs, and the valley becoming a bi'oad highway 
bounded on both sides by precipitous height. Yet scattered all 
along its course are low hills of white Nubian Sandstone, and in one 
place Cenomanian limestone, so that the surprising result is realized, 
that Cretaceous fossils were collected from a limestone on both sides of 
which tower granite cliff's to a height of over 500 metres (themselves 
in places capped by Nubian Sandstone), the extent of dislocation being 
here at least 700 metres. Further to the south, the same rift gives 
rise to a Coastal Watershed Eange of some importance. 

The other valleys are considered to be rifts on account of their 
parallelism to those already described, while they also must have 
been produced by the same series of movements which gave rise to 
the Gulf of Akaba. 

Correlation of Eastern Sinai Rifts with those of neighbouring 
districts. — In returning from Eastern Sinai the writer was struck 
by the resemblance of the western valleys to those already 
described, the clefts, viz. Nagb Hawa and El Watiyeh, which 
break through the granite hills, barring the Sinai convent region 
to the north, being the continuations of remarkable lines of depression 
which can be traced far to the north-west. One of these, which 
includes the Convent Valley and runs to Wadi Suwig, is especially 
straight and well defined, but, in common with the other western 
valleys, is parallel, not to the Gulf of Akaba, but to the Gulf 
of Suez. 



200 D)\ W. F. Hume — Geology of Eastern Sinai. 

The conclusion arrived at is as follows : — To the toest of a north- 
south, line (practically longitude 34° E.) extend a series of N.W.- 
S.E. rifts, the Suez type, which include not only the Western Sinai 
valleys and the Gulf of Suez, but also Wadi Qena, and in all 
likelihood part of the Nile Valley itself; while to the east of 
this line is an Akaba rift-series, not only giving rise to the Gulf 
of Akaba, but to all the important longitudinal valleys of Eastern 
Sinai, and probably producing effects on the opposite coast of 
Midian comparable for extent and interest to those of Egypt itself. 
A third, or transverse, type of dislocation is also considered, special 
attention being called to the regularity and parallelism of the valley 
directions. Thus, in a space north of the transverse divide, the 
valleys run mainly east-of-north, west-of-south, or north-east, while 
in other parts of the eastern side of the peninsula the dominant trend 
is slightly east-of-north, west-of-south, or south-east. On the western 
side, on the contrary, they run north-west and south-east, or south- 
west. Many of these transverse valleys a:-e in places deep clefts, 
bounded by precipitous rock-walls, but the geological evidence of 
rifting is wanting. The general conclusion is thus stated, after 
a summary of the leading results : — The principal features of 
Southern Sinai have been produced by dislocation rather than 
erosion, fracture in three directions, either directly proved or in 
the highest degree probable, having determined the general struc- 
ture of the country. It is, in fact, the meeting-point of two great 
longitudinal rift-systems, parallel to the Gulf of Suez and Gulf of 
Akaba respectively, traversed by a third or transverse tyj)e, the 
result being the apparently intricate maze of sharp crest and deep 
valley characteristic of this region. 

Note. — It should be observed that the Akaba system of rifts does 
not extend far south of lat. 28° N., the ranges to the east of the Eed 
Sea being apparently also of the Suez type. 



IV. — Geology of Eastern Sinai.^ 

By W. F. Hume, D.Sc, A.E.S.M., F.G.S., etc. 

rpHE paper under consideration deals briefly with the geological 
JL features of Eastern Sinai, and more especially with the 
characters of the sedimentary rocks developed in that region, 
a short note on the igneous rocks being also appended. The subject 
is treated under the following headings : — 

I. Pebble Gravels, Travertine, etc. 
II. Coral Eeefs. 

III. Cretaceous Limestones of Cenomanian age. 

IV. Nubian Sandstone. 
V. Igneous Eocks, etc. 

I. Pebble Gravels. — Attention is here again called to the 
remarkable development of high gravel terraces in the principal 

1 Eead by jDermission of tbe Egyptian Government before the International 
Geological Congress, August, 1900. ' 



Dr. W. F. Hmne — Geology of Emtet-ii Sinai. 201 

valleys, these beiug often over twenty metres liigb, the gravels being 
characterized by the fact that they contain fragments of all shapes 
and sizes derived from tlie surrounding hills, largely embedded in 
a sandy matrix consisting of materials of the same derivation, their 
source being thus strictly local. While found in almost all the 
principal valleys and many of the side tributaries, they are often 
particularly well developed at points where longitudinal and transvei'se 
depressions cross one another. Their probable age can be but 
determined on the coast of the Gulf of Akaba, where they are found 
to overlie raised coral-reefs containing such typical Pleistocene or 
recent forms as Laganum depressum and Heterocentrotns mammillatus. 
The gravels are therefore not earlier than the Pleistocene, thus 
agreeing with the conclusion arrived at by Mr. Barron for those 
on the west coast of the Red Sea. 

One of the most striking features connected with these gravel 
plateaux is the perfectly flat nature of their upper surfaces, even 
in the upland wadis, a character which appears inconsistent with 
their having been produced by rushing torrents, but in accordance 
with the hypothesis of their formation in lakes or marine fjords. 
Unfortunately, no shells having been obtained in these beds, their 
mode of origin still remains doubtful. 

Attention is also called to several special varieties of these 
gravels, the most notable being : — 

(a) The Manganiferous Pebble Gravels of Sherm, in which the 
cementing material of the conglomerate consists of the hydrous 
black oxide of manganese, psiloinelane, the beds being in places 
as much as four metres thick, while underneath are strata coloured 
red by ferruginous ochre. These gravels are closely connected with 
a core of red granite, ending abruptly where the latter is no longer 
exposed at the surface, and only overlying it along the edge where 
it faces the sea. It is of interest to note that the S.S. " Pola " 
expedition found manganiferous deposits forming on the floor of 
the Gulf of Akaba, a fact which also suggests the marine origin 
of the Sherm Gravels. 

(fo) Oolitic Valley Deposits. — An oolitic rock is described from the 
neighbourhood of Ras Muhammed, whose components closely agree 
in their characters with oolitic grains found by Professor Walther 
at the mouth of Wadi Dehese, near Suez, and whicli he believed to 
be a marine deposit in statu naticendi, mineral fragments being 
enclosed by successive calcareous layers. 

In Wadi Hashubi, where these beds are best developed,, they are 
composed of grains of quartz and orthoclase, cemented by carbonate 
of lime, which frequently surrounds them in a series of concentric 
coats, while the strata themselves also show traces of ripple-marking 
and very fine sun-cracks. In the lower part of the valley they are 
often strongly current-bedded, and contain lenticular masses of 
pebbles, while in its upper part they give rise to striking ravines, 
bounded on both sides by vertical walls of the light-coloured sand- 
rock. An interesting feature, too, is the height at which these beds 
are met with, a typical example being still present at 696 metres 



202 Dr. W. F. Humc—Geolocji/ of Eastern Sinai. 

above sea-level, so that, if its marine origin be admitted, a differential 
movement of at least 2,000 feet has taken place in the southern end 
of the peninsula during comparatively recent times. 

(c) Gravels cemented by Calcite. — At the mouth of Wadi Nasb, 
near Dahab, the gravels composed of igneous rocks are cemented 
together by crystalline calcite developed in scalenohedra (dog-tooth 
spar), while in the hills themselves the igneous fragments are 
enclosed in well-marked travertine, especially in the smaller water- 
courses. 

The theoretical deductions which maj' help to explain the presence 
of the various types of gravels are thus summarized : — 

1. In South-Eastern Sinai earth-movements have produced three 
high watershed lines, only one of which is now broken through. 
If these were formed at the same period all the water draining into 
the basin enclosed by them would collect to form nan-ow lakes. 
This would account for — 

(a) The flat character of the plateaux. 
(&) The absence of marine organisms. 

2. A marine depression, resulting in the invasion of the sea, and 
amounting to at least 700 metres, is also suggested, and might 
account for — 

(c) The oolitic beds of Wadi Hashubi. 

{d) The manganiferous gravels of Sherm. 

(e) The travertines of the higher valleys. 

(/) The calcite-cemented gravels of Nasb. 
This hypothesis would also account for their flat character, and only 
the absence of marine organisms prevents the absolute acceptance of 
the view that many of these gravels were laid down beneath the 
surface of the sea. Indeed, it is of interest to note that Mr. Beadnell 
has obtained these calcite-cemented gravels and travertines in his 
Nile Valley lacustrine series, thus affording an additional reason for 
not arriving at hasty conclusions regarding the marine origin of those 
in Sinai. 

3. A subsequent elevation, accompanied by earth - movements 
resulting in the uptilting of the older coral-reefs, brought the 
formation of these special features to a close, the gravels subsequently 
formed being now distributed irregularly over the surface, in places- 
overlying the oolite beds, and being interbedded with the younger 
Pleistocene coral-reefs. 

II. Coral Eeefs and Raised Beaches. — This portion of the 
paper opens with a correction of Professor Waltber's statement that 
the Gulf of Akaba is poor in coral-reefs, it being pointed out by the 
author that his colleague, Mr. Skill, had now practically mapped 
continuous reefs from Dahab to Ras Muhammed. This Fringing Reef 
and the isolated coral terraces, up to 25 metres high, standing only 
a little way back from the sea-shore (viz. the Loioer Coral Series) , 
are first considered, and shown to be typically Pleistocene, the 
raised beaches which in many places line the shore being closely 
associated with them. The Upper Coral Limestone or Older Fossil 
Eeef of Walther, though apparently overlying the lower one, is- 



Dr. W. F. Rumc — GeoJotjn of Eastern Sinai. 203 

evidently of okler date, the coral having undergone much alteration 
and being now of a dirty brown colour, though still in large measure 
possessing the cavernous character of a modern reef. The fauna of 
these beds has not yet been fully studied, but there is sufficient 
evidence to show that we have here a remarkable combination of 
Pectens of older aspect and Mediterranean character, associated with 
modern Erythraean species similar to that revealed by a study of 
Mr. Barron's collection of shells from the older reef on the west 
side of the Eed Sea (see R. Bullen Newton, Geol. Mag., Dec. IV, 
Vol. VII, pp. 500-514 and 544-560, Nov.-Dec, 1900). Thus, in 
one bed of this series, Pecten Vasseli, Fuchs, and Chlamys latissima, 
Brocchi, are associated in the same bed as Echinus verruculatus, 
previously only recorded from Mauritius (identified by Dr. Gregory). 
South of Sherm there is a tilted series of coral-reefs, rising nearly 
200 metres above sea-level, whose fauna, although very obscure, is 
probably very early Pleistocene, judging frona similar beds occurring 
on the west side of the Gulf of Suez. It is of special interest to 
note that these older reefs are only present at the southern end of 
the Gulf of Akaba. 

After maintaining the general proposition that the coral-reefs 
here are formed in a region of elevation, the question is raised (on 
the ground of the observation made by Walther that an apparently 
dead coral-reef was present metres below the present one), 
whether this elevation is being continued, and it is pointed out 
that the formation of bays at the mouths of several of the principal 
valleys suggests that a small local depression is at present taking 
place in the Gulf of Akaba, which thus differs from neighbouring 
regions. The writer then considers the series of questions which 
Professor Walther set himself to answer in his " Die Korallenriffe 
der Sinai-halbinsel," and agrees with him — (1) that a coral-reef 
(sensu stricto) does not attain any great thickness ; (2) as to the 
role which detrital materials play in filling up a coral-reef; and 
(3) the passage of coi'al limestone to dolomite by the increase of 
magnesia. On the other hand, he has been unable to accept 
Walther's view as to the basis of a coral-reef, the latter laying 
stress on the importance of compact sedimentary rocks as a base 
compared with igneous rocks, while in the paper under discussion, 
after pointing out that the fringing reef of the Gulf of Akaba is 
largely founded on igneous or metamorphic rock, the writer main- 
tains that the deposition of a coral-reef is practically independent of 
the nature of the rock forming its base, red granite, diabase, sand- 
rock, and marls (probably also gneiss and hornblende - granite) 
having been noted as its basal members. 

III. Cenomanian Limestones ; IV. Nubian Sandstone. — This is 
a description of the relations and characters of the strata at the 
northern end of the area examined, limestones forming the main 
escarpment of Jebel Gunnah overlying a highlj'^ characteristic striped 
series of green marls containing such typical Cenomanian fossils 
as Hemiaster cnhicus, Pseudodiadema variolare, and Heterodiadema 
libycum. These marls are themselves only the surface capping of 



204 Br. W. F. Hume — Qeologij of Eastern Sinai. 

a thick series of white sands, which are now cut deeply into by 
ravines, giving rise to battlements and castellated ridges, sometimes 
over 100 metres high, forming one of the most striking features on 
the road from Sinai to Akaba. These are based on a series of 
variously coloured ferruginous sandstones, forming broad, low, 
smooth plateaux, themselves resting on a planed-down surface 
of granite. Unfortunately these sands and sandstones are all 
unfossiliferous. 

The thicknesses in Jebel Gunnah are as follows : — 

metres. 
Compact limestones, -with few fossils ... 100 

Striped Cenomanian marls 20 

Sands and sandstones ... 207 

Total thickness ... 327 (over 1,000 feet). 

The most important points noted are: — (1) The Nubian sandstones 
resting on a planed-down surface of granite; (2) the Cenomanian 
beds belong to Professor Zittel's ' Africano - Syrian ' series, which 
since Mr. Beadnell's discovery of these beds in Baharia Oasis are 
shown to have an enormous extension north of latitude 28° N., 
while Dr. Schweinfurth has shown them to be of great thickness to 
the north of the Red Sea Hills ; (3) the dip and present position 
of the beds show that these strata once extended over the whole of 
the present igneous mountain region; (4) the Carboniferous sand- 
stones of Western Sinai are apparently absent. 

Y. The Igneous Eocks of Eastern Sinai. — After a brief 
general description this portion of the paper lays stress on the 
importance of dyjfes of every petrographical variety, which, though 
the youngest members of the igneous series, never pass into the 
Nubian Sandstone, so that thej'^ are at least Pre-Cretaceous. While 
generally trending N.N.E. and S.S.W., there is frequently a second 
system, running practically at right angles to this direction. Though 
in general aspect resembling the mountains on the opposite side of 
the Red Sea, the fundamental rocks of the central axis of the 
peninsula are granitoid gneiss and hornblende-granite, not the red 
granite which forms many of the main summits in the Eed Sea 
Hills. The latter is, however, also widely distributed in the 
peninsula itself. 

Of special interest are beds of andesite, tuff, and agglomerate, 
which form some of the principal summits, capping the granite and 
gneiss, while in the Ferani range, etc., this Volcanic series is closely 
associated with a metamorphic type, varying from spotted slates and 
slightly foliated mica-schists to dark-green chlorite and hornblende- 
schists pierced by innumerable dykes of dolerite. Some special 
points are dealt with in closing, such as the development of gneisses 
on a magnificent scale in Wadi Um Gerat, the importance of 
tourmaline-granite in some of the southern summits, the presence 
of splierulitic felsites forming dykes in many parts of the district, 
and the probable absence of the basalt recorded near Sherm by 
Burckhardt. 



Dr. HoM—Thc Glacial Period and Oscillation of Land. 205 

V. — The Connection of the Glacial Pekiod with Oscillation 
OF the Land, especially in Scandinavia. 

By Dr. Nils Olof Holst. Translated by F. A. Bather, D.Sc. 

[In a recently published paper ' Dr. N. 0. Hoist, of the Geological 
Survey of Sweden, has given a detailed description of the Post- 
Glacial deposits of the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Bothnia. The 
paper is accompanied by a map showing the chief points of observation. 
The determination of the different horizons depends on (1) the 
stratigraphy; (2) the sub-fossil diatomaceous flora; (3) the sub- 
fossil higher flora. The stratigraphical evidence is in the form 
of numerous sections, taken all along the coast. The diatoms are 
used chiefly, but not solely, to distinguish the marine from the 
fresh-water deposits ; their determinations, nearly 3,000 in number, 
are due to Professor P. T. Cleve and his daughtei", Dr. Astrid Cleve. 
The remains of the higher plants have been determined by 
Dr. Gunnar Andersson. 

The fresh-water [Ancijlus) epoch and the salt-water (IJtorina) 
epoch are divided by the author as follows : — 

1. The oldest Ancylus epoch, the deposits of which age in 
southern Sweden partly are barren, partly contain Arctic plants. 

2. The middle Ancylus epoch, of which the deposits contain 
the remains of fir and birch. During this epoch the land-ice melted 
away from the lower parts of central Sweden, and the sea came 
into the Baltic, making the water temporarily salt. 

3. The youngest Ancylus epoch, or the older half of the oak 
epoch. 

4. The Litorina epoch, or the younger half of the oak epoch, 
when the present communication with the sea was opened, and the 
water of the inland sea, which during the Ancylus epochs had been 
fresh as a rule, now became salt. 

The fact that the climate became temporarily colder in the middle 
of the Litorina epoch is established b}' finds of boreal diatoms : 
Navicula semen, N. amphibola, Pinnularia streptonqjhe, etc. 

Wider interest attaches to the concluding pages (113 et sqq.), in 
which the author deals with the question of oscillation of the land 
in Scandinavia and with the explanation of the Glacial Period, on 
which matters he expresses some new views. We therefore ofter 
a full translation of this part of Dr. Hoist's memoir.] 

I HAVE elsewhere - shown that the events immediately connected 
with the melting of the Scandinavian land-ice occuri'ed in rapid 
succession. The same was the case with the oldest Post-Glacial 
events. Thus it has been demonstrated in the present paper that 
the Glacial marine clay and sand, deposited along the present coast 

1 "Bidrag till kiiunedomeu om Ostersjcins ocli Bottuiska Vikens postglaciala 
geologi": Sveriges Geoloo-iska Uiulersokning, Alliaudl., scr. C, No. 180. 8vi>; 
128 pp., 1 map; 1899 (published March, 1901). 

* N. 0. Hoist, "liar det funnits mer iin en istid i Sverige?": Sver. Geol. 
ITnders., 1895, ser. C, No. 151, see pp. 36-39. German translation by W. Wolff, 
" Hat es in Schwedeu mehr als eine Eiszeit gegeben r" pp. 38-42 ; Berlin, 1899. 



206 Dr. N. 0. Hoht—The Glacial Period and 

of Blekinge and of the Kalmar district, were exposed by elevation 
of the land and were weathered before the deposition of Post-Glacial 
beds upon them had begun. It was this elevation of the land that 
connected Scania with Denmark and permitted the immigration of 
the larger land animals.^ It appears as though not only this 
elevation, but also the succeeding depression, during which the 
oldest Ancijlus beds were deposited in the government districts of 
Blekinge and Kalmar, took place in the former district before the 
Arctic plants had found time to immigrate thither. But when this 
depression reached the neighbourhood of Kalmar, the Arctic plants 
were already there. In Blekinge and the Kalmar district there 
followed an elevation, probably of less importance, and it was not 
until the succeeding depression, which marks the beginning of the 
middle Ancylus epoch, that southern Sweden saw the deposition of 
beds that can be paralleled with the oldest Post-GIacial beds of 
central Sweden. But these latter lie without break conformably on 
the Glacial beds. This implies that southern Sweden incurred two 
elevations and their succeeding depressions, in which central Sweden 
had no share. No explanation of these facts is more natural than 
that southern Sweden, relieved of its ice-load, rose ~ and began to 
■oscillate, loJiile the land-ice continued to keep central Sweden depressed. 
In other words, this means that there was a clear and definite con- 
nection on the one hand between the weight of the land-ice and the 
depression of the land, on the other hand between the removal of 
the weight and the elevation of the land. But this is a result 
pregnant with the most important consequences for the whole of 
glacial geology. 

It is clear that the depression, if dependent on the weight of the 
land-ice, should yield evidence of having been greater tlie nearer 
one comes to the centre of the ice ; in other words, the nearer one 
comes to those regions where the ice-load was greatest. A glance 
at a map indicating the extent of the depression shows at once that 
such was the case.^ While in the south the curve of depression 

1 That the aurochs abeady existed in the province of Kalmar at the beginning of 
the fir period, i.e. at the beginning of the middle Ancylus epoch, has been proved 
on a preceding page. But the only Post-Glacial elevation of importance that 
occurred in southern Sweden before that period was the very one that immediately 
followed the deposition of the Glacial marine beds. 

- It is quite probable that this elevation during the oldest Post-Glacial Period also 
reached northern Germany. If such was the case, may it not in part have been the 
reason why the Vistula and Oder during that period did not flow into the Baltic but 
had their outlet through the Elbe? Cf. F. WahnschafPe, "Die Ursachen der 
Oberflachengestaltung des norddeutschen Flachlandes" ; Stuttgart, 1891. 

It is also very probable that the same upward pressure of the land outside the 
periphery of the land-ice took place in North America, and that this affords the 
•correct explanation of many phenomena which otherwise appear inexplicable. 

3 See Gerard De Geer, " Om Skandinavieus geografiska utveckling," 2. Kartor, 
pis. 2, 3, 4 ; Stockholm, 1896. The criticism must, however, be passed on these 
plates that they do not, as they ])rofess, give the depression-curves for different 
epochs of the melting of the ice, but that all three show only the same thing, namely, 
the extent of the depression at the time of the final melting of the ice. According to 
the plates, the depression during the melting of the ice remained the same for a long 
period, while, on the contrary, all the facts tend to prove that throughout that time 
the extent of the depression altered very rapidly. 



■ 



Oscillations of Land in Scandinacia. 207 

that crosses the southern Baltic, and in the east that which passes 
by the southern end ot Lake Ladoga, both mark zero, as one proceeds 
from south to north or from east to west tlie curves mark higher 
and higher numbers, until the greatest depression known, so far as 
established by ti'acing the highest Glacial marine coastline, attains 
in northern Sweden no less than 280 metres.^ Lately, indeed, it 
has been said that in Norrland the Glacial marine coastline is at 
a lower level in the interior than near the present coast. But if 
that is the case, we may recall the fact that the highest Glacial 
coastline was formed at different times in different places. It is 
therefore quite possible that the apparently abnormal conditions in 
Norrland spring from nothing else than the formation of the Glacial 
coastline, first at the coast and afterwards at the interior, for the 
simple reason that " the ice did not melt from the interior of 
Norrland until the elevation had been in progress for some time." - 
The conditions in Norrland are therefore in no way opposed to 
the rule that increased depression and increased ice-load point in 
the same direction. 

Scandinavia under its load of land-ice may be compared to 
a depressed spring. When the load is removed the land tends to 
resume its original position. This explains the great rapidity with 
which the land rose at the close of the Ice Age, a rapidity for which 
in my above-quoted paper of 1895 I gave conclusive evidence, 
although I then did not fully understand what caused the rapid rise 
of the land. But although this demands a certain elasticity in the 
crust of the earth, yet it cannot be supposed that this elasticity was 
so great as to permit the land, pressed down as it was during a large 
part of the Ice Age, to regain the state of equilibrium in which it was 
at the beginning of the Ice Age ; some of the upward tension must 
in the meantime have been neutralized. The highest Glacial marine 
coastline therefore marks only the final result of the depression at 
the moment when the ice melted. Now the position of this line 
no less than 280 metres above sea-level is alone enough to show 
that the depression was considerable. But for the reason just 
mentioned this height indicates only a part of the Glacial depression. 
This line of argument has already led us to the conclusion that at 
the beginning of the Ice Age Scandinavia lay mucli higher than now. 
But that this elevation was in itself enough to aftbrd a simple and 
natural explanation of the Glacial Period will be proved in the sequel 
by more conclusive evidence. 

From what has been said it is clear that the Glacial and Post- 
Glacial changes of level in Scandinavia (and the same applies to 
North America) are due to a special cause, and therefore cannot be 
compared with volcanic or continent- building oscillations. All 
attempts to generalize from such comparisons are foredoomed to 
failure. 

' A. G. Hogbom, " Till fr§,g,in oin deu scnglaciala hafsgriinseii i Xorrlaud" : Geol. 
Foren. Stockholm FiJrhaiull., 1899, x\i, p. o95. 

■ A. G. Hogbom, " Om hogsta mariua gransen i norra Sverige" : Geol. Foren. 
Stockholm ForhandJ., 1896, x'viii, p. 188. 



208 Dr. N. 0. HoM—The Glacial Period and 

No better success has attended the attempts to discover the cause 
of the Glacial Period in directions other than that here indicated. 
Especially is this true of the struggles after some far-fetched 
astronomical explanation of this terrestrial phenomenon. The 
geologist who perambulates the universe in searcli of such 
explanations may be likened to an erudite bookworm who turns 
his study upside down in search of his pencil, which all the time 
is behind his ear. 

To the view here stated as to the cause of changes of level in 
Glacial and Post-Glacial times, I have been led by my own researches, 
and my ideas already tended in this direction before I realized that 
T. F. Jamieson, and other geologists after him, had expressed views 
almost identical with my own. Subsequently I have perused 
Jamieson's writings on this subject more closely, and, with sincere 
admiration for his acumen, have found that so early as 1865,^ 
supported by comparatively few observations, he put forward the 
leading idea which in 1882 - he developed in more detail, and which, 
confirmed as it now is by more numerous observations, can without 
hesitation be accepted as the only correct one. 

From the papers by Jamieson I think it right to make the 
following instructive extracts : — 

" It has occurred to me [Jamieson] that the enormous weight of 
ice thrown upon the land may have had something to do with this 

depression [the great glacial depression] We don't 

know what is the state of the matter on which the solid crust of 
the earth reposes. If it is in a state of fusion, a depression might take 
place from a cause of this kind, and then the melting of the ice 
would account for the rising of the land, which seems to have 
followed upon the decrease of the glaciers." (Q.J.G.S., loc. cit.) 

"Assuming the specific gravity of the ice to have been 875, 
compared with water as 1,000, or in other words to have been 
seven-eighths of the weight of water, then the weight of a mass 
of ice 1,000 feet thick would be 378 pounds to the square inch, or 
equal to fully 25 atmospheres, and would amount to 678,675,690 
tons on every square mile. If the ice was 3,000 feet thick, it 
would at this rate amount to over 2,000 million tons on the square 
mile." (Geol. Mag., 1882, p. 403 ; Jamieson here quotes some 
geologists who have supposed that the thickness of the ice has been 
much greater, and then he continues as follows : — ) " It is evident 
that a thickness of even 3,000 feet of ice will give us a weight hy 
no means despicable, a weight which would require a marvellous 
rigidity indeed in the earth beneath it to sustain such a load with- 
out yielding in some degree " (p. 404). 

"That the crust of the earth is flexible and elastic the phenomena 
of earthquakes sufficiently demonstrate. The surface heaves like 
the billows of the sea, sometimes causing trees to bend so as to 

1 T. F. Jamieson, " Ou the History of the last Geological Changes in Scotland" : 
Quart. Joiuu. Geol. Soc, 1865, xxi, p. 178. 

- " On the Cause of the Depression and Re-elevation of the Land during the 
Glacial Period" : Geol. Mag., 1882, Dec. II, Vol. IX, pp. 400 and 457. 



I 



Oscillations of Land in Scandinaoid. 209 

touch the groimd with their tops, or tossing up flagstones into the 
air so as to make them come down bottom upwards," etc. (p. 404.) 

" If upheavals and depressions of the land have not been caused 
by changes of pressure, it may be asked, what is it they have been 
caused by ? " (p. 405.) 

"If beneath that part of the surface which was affected by the 
heavy pressure of the ice, there happened to be a quantity of lava 
in a fluid state, the result might be to cause an outburst of the lava 
to take place at some more distant point. This would relieve the 
tension and lead to a permanent depression of the ice-covered area. 
For example, in North America the great fields of ice that lay on 
certain portions of that continent by their downward pressure may 
have occasioned some of those extensive eruptions which seem to 
have taken place in the region of California after the commencement 
of the Glacial period. The volcanic phenomena of Iceland in like 
manner may have been affected by similar causes. That there has 
been a considerable permanent depression of some of the most 
heavily glaciated regions since the commencement of the Glacial 
period, I think there is much reason to believe. The features of the 
fjord districts of Norway and the West Highlands of Scotland, and 
of British Columbia, for example, seem to show this ; for these 
coasts have all the appearance of depressed mountain lands, which 
have been cut and carved by streams and glaciers far beneath the 
present level of the sea." (p. 405.) 

"It seems likely that there might be a tendency to bulge up in 
the region which lay immediately beyond this area of depression ; 
just as we sometimes see in the advance of a railway embankment, 
which not only depresses the soil beneath it, but also causes the 
ground to swell up further off." (p. 461.) 

So far Jamieson. His ideas have, before me, been shared by 
Whittlesey, N. S. Shaler,' and Warren Upham,- the last-mentioned 
having developed them further. Upham calls our special attention 
to the indisputable glacial formations that date from the Carboniferous 
or Permian periods, as that in South Africa at 30° S. lat.,-' in India 
at only 20° N.,'* as well as in Australia,^ and he correlates these 
phenomena with the mountain-building that took place during that 
time. Of the glaciated areas here mentioned I have myself visited 
that in Australia, in the neighbourhood of Bacchus Marsh, just west 
of Melbourne (37°-o8° S.), and can confirm the correctness of the 
descriptions given. Here occurs a typical boulder-clay, of blue 

' " Fluviatile Swamps of New Eugland " : Amcr. Jouru. Sci., 1887, ser. in, 
vol. xxxiii. See p]). 220, 221. 

- " Probable ('aiises of Glaciation," Appendix A to G. F. "Wright's " The Ice 
Age in North America" ; New York, 1891. See also Amer. Geol., 1890, pp. 327 
et sqq. ; and Amer. Journ. Sci., 1891, vol. xli, p. 33. 

^ A. Schenck, " Ueber Glacialcrscheimmgen in Siidafrika " : Verhandl. des VIII 
dciitschen Geographentages in Berlin, 1889. 

* R. D. Oldham, "A Manual of the Geology of India," Calcutta, 1893. See 
pp. 157 and 198. 

^ T. W. E. David, "Evidences of Glacial Action in Australia in Permo- 
CarboniferouR Time" : Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, 1896. Hi, p. 289. 

DECAKE IV. VOL. VIII. — NO. V. 14 



210 Dr. N. 0. Hoist— The Glacial Period and 

colour, containing glacially striated stones of many kinds of foreign 
rocks. This boulder-clay is overlain by sandstone with Gangamopteris, 
belonging to the Carboniferous or the Permian system. What cast 
suspicion on the glacial deposits of Australia was the great thickness 
ascribed to them, namely, as much as 5,000 feet. But this estimate, 
which sounds so fantastic, is really founded on a mistake that arose 
in the following way : — In the valley where this thickness was 
calculated the morainic beds are obliquely inclined one above the 
other. By measuring each of these beds and adding the apparent 
thicknesses together a total was obtained which naturally was not 
the true vertical thickness. That this in reality is not so extra- 
ordinarily great is clear from the fact that the solid Silurian rock 
crops out both at the bottom and on the side of the valley in question. 
For a 5,000 foot thick moraine to find room between these outcrops, 
it must lie in a very deep hollow of most unusual and inexplicable 
shape. 

For my part I think Upham must be accounted right in his 
contention that the glacial phenomena of South Africa, India, and 
Australia can be explained only on the supposition that these districts 
formerly lay much higher than now. Especially does this apply 
to the Indian glacial district, situate only 20° from the equator. 
There is no place here for the interglacialist hypothesis, and if 
a former elevation be not admitted for this district we may justly 
ask what else can have produced glacial phenomena so near the 
equator. On the other hand, we may adduce the fact that Kilima 
Ndjaro in East Africa, said to be about 6,000 metres high, exhibits 
glaciation although only 3° from the equator. 

But if an elevation of the land in equatorial regions can produce 
glaciers, what glacial results may we not expect from an elevation 
in the latitude of Scandinavia, Greenland, and North America? 
The question is reduced to this : Can we show that during Quaternary 
times such an elevation really did take place in the three great 
glacial districts ? It is as a rule difficult to prove former elevation 
of the land if the region once raised now lies sunk below sea-level ; 
but in proportion as the oceans that bound North America and 
Scandinavia have been more closely investigated this proof has been 
forthcoming, and a considerable elevation of Quaternary age is now 
fully established both for North America and Scandinavia. 

As regards North America, many geologists, of whom I shall 
cite only J. W. Spencer,^ have demonstrated that the larger rivers 
on the eastern side of the continent, from the Mississippi up to the 
St. Lawrence, have channels clearly excavated beyond the coast to 
a depth below the sea of " 3,000 feet or more " ; and this naturally 
indicates that formerly the land was elevated to a corresponding 
height. Similar observations have been made on the Pacific coast 
of North America. That this elevation took place at a relatively 
recent period follows from the fact that the submarine channels are 
not filled up as they would otherwise have been. 

* "The High Continental Elevation preceding the Pleistocene Period": Bull. 
Geol. Soc. Amer., 1890, i, p. 65. 



Oscillations of Land in Scandinavia. 211 

Like observations have been made on the coast of Norway, where 
the deep fjords continue as submarine valleys beyond the present 
coast to a great depth. For these to have been carved out by the 
rivers of a past age, the land must of course have lain much higher 
than now. The so-called ' Norwegian Channel,' if, as is probable, 
it represents an ancient river-bed, proves the same thing. 

The Scandinavian Pre-Glacial elevation, however, was not confined 
to the coast of Scandinavia, but evidently affected a large part of the 
bottom of the present North Atlantic, both westwards to the east ' 
coast of Greenland and southwards to the south part of England. 
So far as Great Britain is concerned this elevation is undeniable. 
The mere existence in this country of a Pre-Glacial mammalian fauna, 
obviously exterminated by the Ice Age - and partly reminiscent of 
more southern regions (elephants of various species, mammoth, 
mastodon, lion, hyseua, etc.), is enough to presuppose a land-con- 
nection between the continent and England and Ireland, so that the 
animals could cross to these islands.^ But these mammals did not 
merely loander across the English Channel and the southern parts 
of the North Sea ; they also inhabited the districts now sunk beneath 
the waters, as may be inferred from the "almost incredible" 
"quantity of teeth and bones belonging to the mammoth, woolly 
rhinoceros, horse, reindeer, and spotted hyaena, and other animals, 
dredged up by the fishermen in the German Ocean " (op. cit., p. 365). 
That the animals lived here at no distant date follows from the fact 
that their bones are found on the very surface of the sea-floor, as 
well as from the mixture of remains of Pre-Glacial animals with 
those of the reindeer, as to whose contemporaneity with the Ice Age 
there can be no doubt. Finds of this boreal species on the floor 
of the North Sea show further that the elevation still existed when 
the Glacial Period was setting in. 

Furthermore, submarine peat-bogs along the coast of England, 
as well as the discovery of the fresh- water bivalve, Unio pictorum, 
and shore shells at a greater depth than 200 feet in the English 
Channel (op. cit., p. 364), bear clear witness to an elevation of the 
land in Quaternary times. 

But the depth of the English Channel and of the southern part 
of the North Sea is not very great — at the southern end of the 
Dogger Bank not more than 13 - 16 metres — and a raising of the 
sea-bottom fx-ora 30 to 50 metres would be enough to bring a large 

' ' Vristra ' (west) iu original ; correction by the author. 

- H. H. Howorth, " Did the Mammoth live before, during, or after the Deposition 
of the Drift?" : Geol. Mag., 1892, Dec. Ill, Vol. IX, pp. 250 and 395. 

In England the so-called intcrglacial occurrences of the larger mammals seem to 
rest only on mistakes or on the estimation of secondary occurrences as primary. Of 
course they disappear at the same time as the so-called ' interglacial ' deposits cease 
k) be interpreted as intcrglacial, and this is already the case with the majority. 
Thus the ' middle sand,' formerly the most important of the interglacial formations, 
is now very generally regarded as glacial. And, so far as I could discover from 
conversation with English geologists, the idea of a true * interglacial ' period is now 
almost abandoned by them. 

^ W. Boyd Dawkins : " Cave Hunting, etc. " ; London, 1S71. Si t^ p. oC2. 



212 Dr. N. 0. Eolst~The Glacial Period and 

part of it above the surface. It may therefore be objected that, 
even though the land-connection in question may really have existed, 
still it is in itself no proof of any considerable elevation, certainly 
not of one great enough to explain the severe climate of the Glacial 
Period. And this, no doubt, is perfectly true. 

But there are other evidences for a much greater elevation in the 
north-west of Europe. That the agreement between the floras of 
Scandinavia, Scotland, the Faeroes, Iceland, and Greenland necessarily 
presupposes a land-connection in Quaternary times, has been long 
understood. Such a connection involves an elevation of the sea-floor 
between Scotland and Greenland of about 3,000 feet (891 metres).' 
But did such an elevation really take place during the Quaternary 
Period ? Conclusive proof of it was given by A. S. Jensen,- when 
he demonstrated the logical consequences of the discoveries made 
by the Ingolf expedition in 1896 during the investigation of the 
sea-floor between Jan Mayen and Iceland. Here the expedition 
found at a great depth, reaching as much as 1,309 Danish fathoms,^ 
such shalloio-wdiiev bivalves as Astarte BanJcsii, A. borealis, A. com- 
pressa, Cardtum ciliatum, C. groenlandicum, Cyrtodaria siliqua, 
Macoma calcaria, Saxicava arctica, and Yoldia arcttea. These 
marine molluscs, which can live only at small depths, according 
to Jensen in not more than 100 fathoms of water, occur in great 
numbers, and it is quite clear that they have lived where their 
shells now are met with. These discoveries therefore prove that 
the sea-bottom between Scandinavia and Greenland once lay more 
than 1,200 fathoms (2,138 metres) higher than now. As for the 
date of the elevation, Jensen justly observes that the occurrence 
of Yoldia arctica is enough to show that it took place during the 
Glacial Period. During which part of that period the elevation 
existed is not discussed by Jensen, but it is most reasonable to refer 
it to the beginning of the period, when an elevation is established 
both for England and Scandinavia.* If this elevation started from 
the Archaean district of Scandinavia and of Greenland, as there is 
good reason for supposing, then the elevation of Scandinavia must 
have been greater than that demonstrated by Jensen for the sea-floor 
between Scandinavia and Greenland. But if the elevation was only 
of the same, or even approximately the same magnitude, it was still 
quite enough to afford an explanation of the Glacial Period itself. 

But this elevation of the sea-floor between Scandinavia and 
Greenland carried with it another important consequence, in that 
it changed this part of the ocean into an inland sea, comparable 
with the Mediterranean, and united with the body of the Atlantic 
only by the deep channel between the Shetlands and Faeroes.^ 

^ See the map to "W. H. Hudleston's paper " On the Eastern Margin of the North 
Atlantic Basin" : Geol. Mag., 1899, Dec. lY, Vol. VI, p. 97. 

^ " Om Levninger af Grundtvandsdyr paa store Hardyb mellem Jan Mayen og 
Island" : Vidensk. Meddel. Naturhist." Foren. Kobenhavn, 1900, p. 229. 

3 8,087 English feet ; 2,465 metres.— Translator. 

* The same elevation also reached Iceland. See Th. Thoroddsen in Geol. Foren. 
Stockholm Fbrhandl., 1900, xxii, p. 546. 

* Cf . Hudleston's map cited above. 



Oscillations of Land in Scandinavia. 213 

From this iu tiiru it followed tliat the Gulf Stream was completely 
shut off from the Arctic Ocean and forced to turn south and west 
of the British Isles, and thus to concentrate its heat-giving energy on 
central Europe. This explains the mild climate found in a portion 
of Europe daring a stage of Pre-Glacial time. 

As shown above, it may be considered as a fact confirmed by 
known phenomena, that at the beginning of the Quaternary Period 
portions of the North American continent lay at least 1,000 metres, 
and Scandinavia still more, perhaps 2,000 metres, higher than now. 
As for the intervening Greenland, it seems probable that it could 
not be unaffected by these changes of level, but that it took part 
in them.* 

We meet here the legitimate question : What is it that produced 
such a great elevation in these particular parts of our earth ? The 
answer is that North America, Greenland, and Scandinavia, not 
merely taken together, but each separately, are the largest areas 
of Archaean rocks in the world.- The remarkable coincidence of 
the great glaciated districts with the Archaean districts has long 
since been commented on as peculiar. No explanation, however, 
has been given of this fact. What it really means I shall here show. 

During the Silurian Period Scandinavia was partly covered by 
the sea, as clearly proved by the numerous patches of Silurian rock. 
Possibly the same was the case during a part of the Devonian 
Period. But before the close of that period Scandinavia rose above 
the water, and probably went on rising right up to the Quaternary 
Period. At all events the Archaean area of Scandinavia never again 
sank beneath the sea, as clearly demonstrated by the absence of 
younger marine formations from within its boundaries. Examination 
of a geological map of Europe shows that the shore of the later 
Palgeozoic, and still more that of the Mesozoic, sea moved eastwards 
further and further away from Scandinavia, which seems to imply 
that, during the long ages that elapsed after the Silurian (or Devonian) 
Period, Scandinavia continually rose, and involved in its rise a part 
of the surrounding area. 

The course of events on the North American continent was 
precisely the same. Here the shore of the later Palasozoic and 
Mesozoic sea moved southwards ever further and further from the 
rising Archaean area of the north. 

On what can this harmony of events have depended ? 

If so late as the Quaternary Period the crust of the earth was 
found to yield to the pressure of the land-ice, still more must it 
have yielded to burdens during the earlier stages of the earth's 
development. That this was actually the case is shown in Scandinavia 
itself by numerous instances from Cambro-Silurian times. For 
some years it has been well known that faults, often accompanied 

' During my jomney to Greenland iu 1880 I saw from the sea snutli ol Ivigtut 
supposed beaches in a situation exposed to the sea at a jri'eat height on the mountain 
slopes. Time, however, did not permit me to examine them. Numerous similar 
observations are mentioned in "• Meddelclser om Griinland." 

2 See Berg-haus' " Physikalischer Atlas," Maps 7/8, 9, and 13 ; Gotha, 1892. 



214 Dr. N. 0. Hoist— The Glacial Period and 

by breccia-formation, may be observed ia Scandinavia at many points 
on the boundary-line between the Archgean and Cambro-Siluriaa 
deposits, as on Bornholm, in Scania, on Lake Vetter, in Ostrogothia, 
Nerike, Dalecarlia, Gestrikland, Jemtland, on the Christiania fjord, 
on the Kola peninsula, and other places.^ Even the quite insignificant 
occurrence of Silurian at Humlenas in the province of Kalmar can 
show a similar fault with accompanying breccia-formation. For 
my part I do not think that any explanation of these phenomena 
will ever be found more satisfactory than that the earth's crust, 
which during the Cambro-Silurian periods was much thinner than 
now, yielded beneath the weight of the Cambro-Silurian sediments. 
If such were the conditions, we can also understand the immense 
thickness which the Palasozoic rocks occasionally attain, and which 
may have arisen by the gradual sinking of the sea-floor in proportion 
as the formation of sediment proceeded.^ 

But if sedimentation tends to depress the earth's crust, and 
actually has depressed it in certain places, then to such a sinking 
there must have corresponded elevation in another place ^ ; and it 
is precisely this elevation above all that has affected the Archaaan 
areas, and particularly the greater ones — those that could, so to 
speak, move independently — because these areas have not merely 
formed the thinnest parts of the crust, but have lacked the 
strengthening influence of the stratified deposits. 

This, then, seems to have been the way in which elevation of the 
Scandinavian and North American Archsean areas was brought 
about and carried on, until at the beginning of the Glacial Period 
they had reached such a height that each formed the centre for an 
ice-sheet. 

If the conception put forward in the preceding pages is the right 
one, it follows that the phenomena which accompany the appearance 
of an ice-sheet involve such radical and manifold changes within 
the glaciated area that an Ice Age cannot, so to say, come and go 
unmarked, but must leave the most obvious traces behind it. 
Therefore it is that the idea here propounded is utterly opposed to 
the interglacialist view, and therefore it has been attacked by 
champions of the latter.^ The chief objection raised by them to the 
present explanation of the Ice Age is the following. 

Granted, they say, that this might be quite a satisfactory 
explanation of the Scandinavian,- Greenland, and North American 
ice-sheets, still it is not enough to explain the former small glaciated 
areas in the Pyrenees, the Alps, the Caucasus, and so forth. To 

^ See " Generalregister" to vols, vi-x of Geol. Foren. Stockholm Forhaudl., p. 34. 

A fault in Jemtland is described by A. Hogbom in his paper, " Om forkastnings- 
Dreccior vid den Jemtlandska sUurformationens ostra grans" : Geol. Foren. Stock- 
holm Forhandl., 1886, viii, p. 352. 

The Palaeozoic faults on the Kola peninsula have been described by "W. Ramsay, 
Fennia xvi, No. 1, pp. 2 and xv ; No. 4, pp. 7 and 11. 

^ The same views were expressed by James Hall in the "Palaeontology of New 
York," iii, pp. 69 et sqq. ; Albany, 1859. 

3 Cf. J. Hall, op. cit., p. 95. 

" J. Geikie: "The Great Ice Age," 3rd ed., p. 792 ; London, 1894. 



Oscillations of Land in Scandinavia. 215 

this, however, it may be replied that these smaller peripheral glacial 
areas wex-e perhaps directly due to the general sinking of temperature 
produced by the North European ice-sheet during its maximum 
extension. 

That such a fall in temperature really took place may be considered 
as proved by the fact that so boreal an animal as the reindeer, 
during a part of the Glacial Period, had a wide distribution in 
southern Europe. And, as regards the cause of the smaller peripheral 
glaciated districts, it may once more be recalled that if a mountain 
chain be sufficiently raised, no matter by what cause, a glaciated 
area may be produced when and where you please. 

But there is another objection, which, at first glance, seems more 
weighty. Besides the oscillations of Glacial age, there have in 
Sweden also been some of Post-Glacial age, partly during the Ancylus 
period, partly during that of Litorina. Now, if the pressure of the 
land-ice and the removal of that pressure afibrd a valid explanation 
of the former — and it can hardly be denied that such is the case — 
still it seems quite impossible that they can explain the latter. 
Surely the ice-sheet cannot produce oscillations of level some ten 
thousands of years after its disappearance. So no doubt it seems ; 
and yet this is exactly what the ice has done. 

Nowadays it is well known that the Glacial and Post-Glacial areas 
of depression almost entirely coincide. Not only do the zero curves 
on the periphery of these areas follow the same course, but the 
maxima or centres themselves are on the whole the same.^ It is 
only the amount of the depression that was different, the Glacial 
sinking reaching 280 metres, the Ancylus sinking exceeding 200 
metres (?), and that of the Litorina period being about 100 metres.^ 

The conformity now demonstrated between the Glacial and 
Post-Glacial changes of level points to a common cause. This has 
long since been perceived, and A. G. Hcigbom, who remarked the 
fact, expressed it as follows : " The same factors have governed the 
oscillations of the land continuously from the Ice Age to the present 
day."^ But what can the common cause or common factor have 
been ? To this I reply : Nothing else than the removal of the 
ice-pressure. When this ceased the Scandinavian area of depression 
was set in a swinging motion, like a pendulum set free. This area, 
depressed somewhat lower than the highest Glacial coastline, rises 
for the first time as the land-ice disappears. This is the late Glacial 
elevation. It sinks afresh in the Ancylus period, and during this 
depression the highest Ancylus beach is formed.^ But again the 
area rises, and finally sinks for the third time to the level marked 

^ Gerard De Geer : " Om Skandinaviens geografiska utveckling," 2. Kartor, 
pis. 4, 5, and 6 ; Stockliolm, 1896. 

^ The arithmetical progression from 100 to 200 and 280 is not regular. May not 
this indicate that the last figure is too low, and that the Glacial depression was 
greater than is shown by the highest Glacial marine coastline ? 

' " Om hogsta marina griinsen i uorra Sverige" : Geol. Foren. Stockholm 
Forhandl., 1896, xviii. See p. 487. 

* There is no reference here to the undulatory motion of the land-oscillations, but 
only to their final result. 



216 :E. D. Wellhum—Fish Fauna of Millstone Grit. 

by the highest Litorina beach. The elevation consequent on that 
is still going on.* And it is not too rash to predict that these 
oscillations will continue until the ever- weakening effect of the 
impulse given by the land-ice is neutralized by the other terrestrial 
factors that produce land-oscillations.- 

From the foregoing pages it appears that " the Post-Glacial geology 
of the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Bothnia" stand in the closest 
relation to their Glacial geology. Therefore I have been unable to 
make the former clear without at the same time throwing some 
li2:ht on the latter. 



VI. — On the Fish Fauna of the Millstone Grits of 

Great Britain. 

By Edgar D. Wellburn, L.R.C.P., F.G.S., F.R.I.P.H., etc. 

Introduction. 

ON June 10th, 1898, whilst on an excursion with the Yorkshire 
Geological and Polytechnic Society, I found three specimens of 
fish remains in the Millstone Grits at Summit in Lancashire. 
Subsequently, on several occasions, I again visited the district 
and succeeded in collecting a large number of fish remains, and on 
these, together with a few other specimens which had been found 
in these rocks at rare intervals, I have based the following paper. 
General Eemarks. 
Brief Description of the Millstone Grit Bocks. 

The Millstone Grit rocks may be naturally grouped into three 
divisions, viz. : (1) the Kough Eock at the top; (2) the Kinder or 
Pebble Grits at the base ; with (3) between them the Middle Grits, 
which are composed of thick beds of shales alternating with bands 
of grit rock. The Middle Grits may again be subdivided into four 
groups, viz., A, B, C, and D beds, A being the uppermost. 

The great Pennine Anticline, between Lancashire and Yorkshire, 
is mostly composed of these rocks, and on the Lancashire side, 
south-west of Walsden, at the head of the Calder Valley, there are 
on the south side several splendid exposures of these rocks ; in 
one quarry near Summit, Lancashire, there is a very good section of 
the D beds of the Middle Grits, and in the shales near the base there 
are a number of nodular masses composed of impure limestone ; 
it is from these nodules that I have collected the majority of the fish 
remains. 

The nodules are of peculiar conformation, and vary in size, 
many being 24: inches in length, 18 in width, and 9 or 10 inches 

* Each successive swing was naturally not only less extensive but shorter than the 
preceding. From this it may be inferred that the Litorina depression prevailed 
a shorter time than the Ancylus depression. 

^ Here, of course, it is only Scandinavia that is alluded to. But the same remarks 
are largely applicable also to North America, although it is not unlikely that the 
North American ice-sheet, being much larger than that of Scandinavia, melted later 
than it. In that case the Post-Glacial epoch must have been shorter in North 
America than in Europe. Herein may lie the reason why many North American 
geologists, in their estimates of Post-Gflacial time, have arrived in harmony at such 
low figures as 7,000 to 10,000 years — a far shorter time than that in which the 
Post-Glacial deposits of Scandinavia were formed. 



E. D. Wellbnrn—Fish Fauna of Millstone Grit. 217 

iu depth. At the base of the nodules there is a layer of cone-in- 
oone, two to three inches in thickness, at the top three to four 
inches of hard dense limestone, which breaks with a conchoidal 
fracture, whilst between these the stone is more impure, there being 
a certain admixture of arenaceous matter, and here the rock will 
split into lamiuas of from a third to half an inch in thickness. The 
majority of the fish remains were found on these slabs, but others, in 
a more fragmentary condition, occur in the upper layers of the nodules. 

That the nodules were foi'med under marine conditions is proved 
by the fact that mixed among the fish remains are shells of 
Goniatites, Orthoceras, Avicidopecten, Posidonomya, etc. In some rare 
instances plants are found, but only in a very fragmentary and 
eroded condition, and in the upper portions of the nodules 
I have in rare instances found corals and crinoids. These taken 
together point to the fact that the fish-bearing nodules were formed 
under estuarine conditions. 

I have found similar nodules at Wads worth Moor, Yorkshire, 
where the late Captain Aitken ^ collected his fish remains, and feel 
certain that his specimens were obtained from the same horizon as 
the one at Summit. 

Fish remains have also been found in the D Shales of the Middle 
Grits at the following localities in Yorkshire, viz., Eccup, near 
Leeds ; Boulder Clough, Sowerby, and Kilne House Wood, 
Luddenden, both near Halifax ; and the late Mr. James Spencer, 
of Halifax, mentions- Elonicliihys Aitkeni, Traq., as occurring in 
the Rough Rock and the B and C beds of the Middle Grits, but 
unfortunately he gives no localities. 

The collection is of great interest, both from a geological and 
a zoological point of view — both as largely increasing our knowledge 
of a fish fauna in a group of rocks whose yield of fossil fish has 
hitherto been extremely limited, and zoologically in the fact that 
one genus and several species are new to science, whilst others are 
placed on record as obtained from these rocks for the first time. 

Concerning the appended list of genera and species the following 
facts stand out as worthy of special mention (in addition to those 
mentioned above), viz. : (1) the occurrence of the genus CUmatius, 
a fish that has hitherto occurred only in the Lower Old Red 
Sandstones of Forfarshire; (2) the appearance in the Millstone 
Grits of the genera Orodiis, Psepliodus, Pristodus, etc., for the 
first time; and (3) the occurrence of the peculiarly interesting 
Ichthyodorulites, for which I have felt compelled to institute the 
new genus Euctenodopsis. 

Remarks on the Fisu Remains. 

Family CLADODONTIDiE. 

Genus CLADODUS, A-ussiz, 1843. 

Cladodus mirabilis, Agassiz, 1843. 

The late Mr. Aitken,-^ of Bacup, found teeth of this genus iu the 

' Trans. Mantliester Gcol. Soc, vol. xiii, p. 36. 

» Proc. Yorks. Geol. and Polyt. Soc, vol. xiii, pt. 4. 

3 Aitken, op. cit. 



218 E. D. Weill iirn— Fish Fauna of Millstone Grit. 

D Shales of the Middle Grits at Wadsworth Moor, Yorkshire, and 
there is also a tooth in the Woodwardian Museum, Cambridge,^ 
which shows the characters of the above species. It is from the 
same locality and horizon. 

Family PEISTODONTID.^, 

Geuiis PEISTODUS, Davis {ex Agassiz MS.), 1883. 

Pristodus falcatus, Davis, 1883. 

I have found one tooth of this species. 

Form, and loc. : D Shales, Middle Grits, Summit. 

Family COCHLIODONTID^. 

Geuus PSEPHODUS, Agassiz, 1862. 

Psephodus, sp. nov. 

Among the fish remains from Summit there is a series of three 
lower (?) dental plates of Psephodus, having the following characters, 
viz. : — The plates increase in size from before backwards, and 
have the following measurements : anterior plate, anterior posterior 
measurement 0-0008 m., transverse 0-0015 m.; median plate, anterior 
posterior 0-001 m., transverse 0-002 m. ; posterior plate, anterior 
posterior 0-001 m., transverse 0-0025 m. The margins, where 
the teeth are in juxtaposition, are nearly straight, the anterior 
one being very slightly convex, whilst the posterior one is very 
slightly concave ; the posterior margin is greater in transverse 
measurement than the anterior ; the outer margin is straight, the 
inner one gently curved throughout its length. The crown is gently 
arched from side to side, and the anterior external angle being 
somewhat inrolled gives a slight obliquity to the coronal ridge. 
The crown is covered with a dense layer of ganoine. The base 
is thick and strong, and conforms with the surface of the crown. 

Kemarks. — Although the plates are so small, their characters are 
so well displayed that I am not inclined to consider them as plates 
of a young fish, but rather, from the fact that they do not appear 
to agree with the specific diagnosis of any of the known species of 
Psephodus, I am inclined to treat them as dental plates of a new 
species, for which, on account of their small size, 1 propose the 
specific designation minuta. 

Form, and loc. : D Shales, Middle Grits, at Summit. 
Genus PCECILODUS, McCoy {ex Agassiz), 1855, amend. A. S. W., 1889. 
Poecilodus Jonesii, McCoy, 1855. 

Anterior half of a dental plate. 

Form, and loc. : D Shales, Middle Grits, Summit. 

Family CESTEACIONTID^. 

Genus OEODUS, Agassiz, 1838. 
Orodus elongatus, Davis, 1883. 
I have found two well-marked teeth of this species, one being 
almost identical with 0. elongatus, the other with O. angustus, as 
figured by the late Mr. J. W. Davis, F.G.S.'' 

Form, and loc. : D Shales, Middle Grits, Summit. 
1 Wellburn, op. cit. ^ Traus. Roy. Dublin Soc, vol. i, sect. 2, pi. li, figs. 1, 4„ 



E. D. Wellbuni—Fish Fauna of Millstone Grit. 219 

Insertse sedis. 

I here place certain small Helodont teeth, one of which shows 
the characters of H. triangularis, Davis, the latter, from its 
unsymmetrical form, being in all probability a medio-lateral, and 
others, which are smaller and more symmetrical, being symphyseal 
teeth of Psephodus or some other Cochliodont fish. 

Form, and loc. : D Shales, Middle Grits, Summit. 

Family ACANTHODID^. 

Geuus ACANTHODES, Agassiz, 1833. 

Acanthodes Wardi, Egerton, 1866. 

The best specimen of this fish I found at Summit ; it shows the 

fish from a point a short distance in front of the pectoral fin spine, 

the basal portions of which are preserved, to a point some little 

distance behind the dorsal fin spine, which is also present. The 

body is clothed with small quadrate scales, which I am unable to 

distinguish from those of A. Wardi, Egert., of the Coal-measures. 

Besides the above, fragments of the fish and many fin spines have 

been found. 

Form, and loc. : D Shales, Middle Grits, Summit ; Boulder Clougb, 
Sowerby ; and Kilne House Wood, Luddenden, near Halifax. 

Acanthodes, sp. nov. 

One fragment of Acanthodes shows characters which appear to 
entitle it to specific distinction, viz., the scales are very minute and 
are ornamented with fine diagonal striae. The only species of 
Acanthodes that I know of with this scale sculpture is A. concinnus, 
Whiteaves,^ but in this species the fin spines are ornamented with 
" about four longitudinal grooves," whereas the present species shows 
no evidence of these grooves, the fin spines being broad and elongated, 
having a single groove and ridge running parallel with the anterior 
border. On account of the scale sculpture I propose the specific 
designation striatus for this species. 

Form, and loc. : D Shales, Middle Grits, Summit. 
Genus CLIMATIUS, Agassiz, 1845. 
Climatius, sp. ? 

Among the fish remains there is the crushed body of a small 
Acanthodian fish of about 50 mm. in length. The body, which 
appears to have been of a somev/hat slender form, is covered with 
smooth quadrate scales, and there are several fin spines present, 
some being detached from the body but lying in close proximity to 
it ; the majority of the spines are broad and robust, the others being 
straight, narrower, and more elongated, and all are ornamented 
with coarse longitudinal ridges, and in general characters agree very 
closely with those of the Old Ked Sandstone fish Climatius as 
figured and described by Sir P. Egerton - and Mr. J. Powrie, F.G.S.' 
I have also carefully examined the specimens of Climatius in the 

1 Trans. Roy. Soc. Canada, vol. vi, sect. 4. 

^ Mem. Geol. Survey, Fig. and descrip. organic remains, dec. x. 

^ Trans. Edin. Geol." Soc, vol. i. 



220 E. D. Wellhum—Fish Fauna of Millstone Qrlt. 

British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Eoad, and consider 
that the above fish should be placed in this genus, but the crushed 
condition of the specimen renders the determination of its species one 
of some difficulty, and it appears best to leave this question for later 
consideration. Besides the above I have found several detached 
spines of this fish. 

Form, and loc. : D Shales, Middle Grits, Summit. 

ICHTHYODOKULITES. 

Genus ACONDYLACANTHUS, St. John & Worthen, 1875. 

Acondylacanthus, sp. ? 

One spine shows the characters of this genus, but it has suffered 
so much from erosion that the determination of its species is im- 
possible. 

Form, and loc. : D Shales, Middle Grits, Summit. 
Genus EUCTENODOPSIS, gen. nov. 
Euctenodopsis, sp. nov. 

This Ichtbyodorulite is most interesting, and at first sight might 
easily be mistaken for a specimen of the nearly allied genus Euctenhis, 
Traquair. However, on a more careful examination it is at once 
apparent that it does not agree with the generic diagnosis of that 
genus, as given by Dr. Traquair,' in the important fact that, instead 
of having one end (the proximal) " rounded or blunt," this portion 
is drawn out and forms a more or less spatulate extension, which 
appeal's to differ somewhat in texture from that of the other portions 
of the spine. I say spine, as I consider the Ichthyolite was a dermal 
defence of some Selachian fish, and that the spatulate extension was 
its point of insertion. Although the spine is narrower and more 
elongated than any of the known species of ^udenius, still, in many 
of its characters it agrees with that genus, being more or less 
elliptical in form, laterally compressed, one side concave, the other 
convex, one extremity produced into a long narrow extension, and 
the convex margin is divided in a comb-like manner into a number 
of closely arranged blunt-pointed denticles. 

On account of the above-mentioned peculiarity — the spatulate 
extension at its proximal end — I venture to place the spine in 
a new genus, for which I propose the name Euctenodopsis, and, 
on account of its narrow and elongated form, with the specific 
designation tenuis. 

Form, and loo. : D Shales, Middle Grits, Summit. 

Family EHIZODONTID^. 

Genus STREPSODUS, Young, 1866. 
Strepsodus sulcidens, Hancock & Atthey, 1870-1871. 
Mr. Aitken - in his paper refers to a tooth of Strepsodus. Mr. John 
Ward, F.G.S., of Longton, who has seen the specimen, informs me 
that it was a tooth of Strepsodus sulcidens. 

Form, and loc. : D Shales, Middle Grits, Wadsworth Moor. 

I Geol. Mag., Dec. II, Vol. VIII (1881), pp. 36-334. 
- Aitken, op. cit. 



JS. D. WeUburn—Flsh Fauna of 3lilktone Grit. 221 

Family CCELACANTHIDiE. 
Genus CffiLACANTHUS, Agassiz, 1836, 1843. 
Ccelacanthus, sp. nov. ? 
I have found several slabs showing the remains of this genus, but 
am as yet not eatisfied as to the species, although I am inclined to 
regard it as new on account of the proportion and ornamentation of 
the head bones and the sculpture of the scales. 

Form, and loc. : D Shales, Middle Grits, Summit. 

Family PALyEONISCIDiE. 
Genus EHADINICHTHYS, Traquair, 1877. 
Rhadinichthys, sp. nov. 
Form, and loc. : D Shales, Middle Grits, Summit. 

Rhadinichthys, sp. nov. ? 
Form, and loc. : D Shales, Middle Grits, Summit. 
Genus ELONICHTHYS, Giebel, 1848. 

Elonichthys Aitkeni, Traq., 1886. 

Several fragments of this fish have been found. 

Form, and loc. : D Shales, Middle Grits at Summit and Wadsworth 
Moor ' (also B and C Shales, Middle Grits and the Rough Kook,^ 
localities not given-). 

Elonichthys, sp. nov. 
Form, and loc. : D Shales, Middle Grits, Summit. 

Elonichthys, sp. nov. 
Form, and loc. : D Shales, Middle Grits, Summit. 
Genus ACROLEPIS, Agassiz, 1833, 1844. 

Acrolepis Hopkinsi, McCoy, 1855. 

Several fine fragmentary specimens of this fish have been found, 
notably those from Wadsworth Moor which are in the Woodwardian 
Museum, Cambridge.^ 

Form, and loc. : D Shales, Middle Grits at Summit and 
Wadsworth Moor. 

Note. — I intend to fully describe the new species later. Mr. John 
Ward, F.G.S., who has seen the specimens, quite agrees with me 
that they are undoubtedly new. The fish remains, with two or three 
exceptions, are in the author's cabinets. 

Before concluding, I must acknowledge, with warmest thanks, 
the great obligation I am under to Dr. Henry Woodward, F.R.S., 
etc., and Dr. A. Smith Woodward, F.L.S., for allowing me to 
examine and compare my fish remains with those in the Natural 
History Museum, Cromwell Eoad. I am also indebted to Mr. John 
Ward, F.G.S., for giving me his opinion on the new Paleeoniscida?. 

' Wellburn, op. cit. 
^ Spencer, op. cit. 
' Welll)nrn. op. cit. 



222 



E. D. Wellhurn — Fish Fauna of Millstone Grit. 



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H. W.Pearson — Oscillations of Sea-level. 223 

VII. — Oscillations in the Sea-level. (Part II.) 
By H. W. Pearson. 

[Continued from the April Number, p. 174.) 

IN the "Gallery of Nature," Milner, p. 388, it is stated that Brighton 
(then a mere village) in the time of Elizabeth (1558-1603) 
" stood upon a site where the sea now rolls, and where the chain 
pier stands." We might infer from this statement that at Brighton 
the sea, since the date mentioned, had been elevated over the land. 
We cannot draw this conclusion, however, with certainty, for the 
reasons following : — 

During the last century the eastern coast of England has been 
constantly eaten into by the sea ; churches, farms, and towers have 
been repeatedly devoured by the waves. In this district, however, 
we know that these results have not been caused by a rise in surface- 
level of the waters ; we know that erosion by waves and currents 
has been the sole cause for these changes. It is absurd, therefore, 
to assume that Brighton during the last few centuries has alone 
suifered submergence, while all Britain has elsewhere undergone 
continual upheaval. Erosion, then, is the more probable explanation 
of this item, and it should not be held as evidence conflicting with 
our curve. 

A conflicting point of great weight was found in Kear-Admiral 
Smyth's statement, that the city of Spina in the time of Scylax "was 
about 2^ miles from the sea, but in less than 600 years afterwards 
Strabo describes it as being 90 stadia, or more than eleven miles 
inland" ( "The Mediterranean," p. 47). This remark of Smyth's 
as to the 600 years disturbed me. Our period of vibration in the 
sea-level at the time mentioned being perhaps a little short of 
600 years, there should have been little change in Spina's distance 
from the sea at these two epochs. On investigation, however, 
I found that there were two or three writers of this name. I believe, 
therefore, that Smyth, like others before him, has confounded Scylax 
of Caryanda, author of the " Periplus " of the Mediterranean, who 
wrote about 335 b.c. (Miiller) or 352 b.c. (Niebuhr), with the Scylax 
of Caryanda who explored the Indus for Darius perhaps 515 b.c. 
or a little later. (See Encyc. Brit., article Scylax.) 

It seems much more probable to me that information as to the 
shores of the Adriatic should be found in the writings of the later 
Scylax. I therefore, with some reason, assume that in this case 
I am more liable to find tioo points confirmatory of my curve, one for 
the low-water period of the epoch of Strabo, the other for the high- 
water period of the later Scylax, rather than a conflicting point as it 
first appeai'ed on my diagram. 

Strabo (Bk. xvi, chap. 4) describes the harbour of Charmothas, 
Arabia, as, at the time of his writing, apparently in actual existence. 
Under the same chapter, however, in a footnote from Gossellin, we 
learn that to-day, from the accumulation of soil, this harbour "ia 
more than a day's journey into the interior of the country." This 
recession should not be ; no retreat of the sea, if our curve is to 



224 H. W.Pearson — Oscillations of Sea-leveL 

be depended on, can have occurred since Strabo's epoch ; this 
observation is therefore strongly antagonistic to our conclusions. 

On investigation, however, we learn that Strabo's statement was 
borrowed from Artemidorus, who in his turn had borrowed his 
description from Agatharchides, 146 b.c. or thereabouts. We find, 
when we thas trace the observation to its true date, that all 
antagonism disappears. Agatharchides flourished during a high- 
water period, consequently the observed recession could have been 
foretold from inspection of our curve. (For discussion of true date 
see Hamilton & Falconer's Translation, vol. iii, p. 192.) 

On theoretical grounds, the high sea-level culminating about 
250 B.C. may, it seems to me, need moving back perhaps 50 years 
or thereabouts. This idea is derived from the following 
considerations : — 

Our curve was drawn centrally through the preponderating 
masses of dots. Now it is well known that information such as 
used in this work becomes more and more scanty as we go 
backwards in time. "While much evidence exists between the era 
of Augustus and the fall of the Western Eoman Empire, 476 a.d., it 
rapidly decreases as we pass to the period before Ceesar ; therefore 
we must anticipate that our observed points will be relatively 
greater in number for the same high sea-level as we approach from 
250 B.C. to the time of Christ. The greater accumulation of points at 
the later dates consequently has probably brought the apex of our 
curve somewhat too near the time of the Christian era. How 
much distortion there may be found properly due to this cause 
further research may determine. 

If later investigation shall allow this shifting of the curve at the 
epoch 250 b.c. as suggested, it would result in removing one more 
of our conflicting points, viz., that Eeclus tells us at the time of the 
Battle of Thermopylae (480 b.c.) the sea extended much farther into 
the land than now. The curve as now drawn would show the sea- 
level at the date of battle but slightly above the present level ; this 
shifting would increase considerably its altitude at that time, and 
would better satisfy the requirements of Eeclus' remark. 

A few points I am at present unable to explain : for instance, 
Eear-Admiral Smyth calls attention to certain ruins near the town 
of Nettuno, It&Xj, "among which is Astura, so long the residence 
of Cicero .... now submerged in the sea." During 
the later years of Cicero (106-43 b.c.) our curve calls for a sea- 
level differing but little from the present ; a sea-level, in fact, 
slightly above that of to-day. No building, therefore, then above 
the sea should be now submerged. I feel confident that some 
mistake will eventually be found in this statement. It may be that 
the residence of Cicero has not been identified with certaintj^ or it 
may be that near Nettuno, as in the Bay of Baie, foundations of 
buildings were erected in the sea. At present however, this item 
remains a conflicting point, antagonistic to our curve. I have no 
item more unyielding than this. 

The above analysis illustrates the character of the examination 
bestowed on the testimonj^ found conflicting with our curve. Lack 



//. JV. Pearson — Oscillations of Sea-level. 225 

of space now forbids a more complete discussion of this matter. 
I will say, however, that a recent canvass of over 500 manuscript 
pages of these changes demonstrates that the conflicting points, 
accumulated dui*ing many years of continuous search, aggregate 
less than 4 per cent, of the total items collected. Over 96 
per cent, of the testimony thus indiscriminately gathered falls into 
harmony with our curve. 

It seems impossible that the extraordinary method appearing in 
this matter should be the result of chance. I believe firmly, 
therefore, that law prevails in these oscillations, and while this 
preliminary examination has as yet not been carried far enough to 
establish this position, it renders our conclusions most extremely 
probable. When this work was first entered upon, some years 
since, I had little knowledge of what had been done before me 
in this field, but I soon found much had been done ; I am far from 
being the first to announce " Oscillations in the Sea-level." 

Aristotle (384r-322 b.o.) had suspected them ; he stated " there is 
reason for thinking that these changes (replacement of land by sea, 
and vice versa) take place according to a certain system and within 
a certain period " (" Principles," 9th ed., p. 13). 

Ovid (43 B.C. to 17 a.d.) makes Pythagoras say in regard to these 
oscillations — 

' ' The face of places and theii- forms decay. 
And that is solid earth which once was sea : 
Seas in their turn retreating from the shore, 
Make solid land what Ocean was before ; 



Antissa, Pharos, Tyre, in seas were pent, 
Once isles, but now increase the continent ; 
While the Leucadian coast, mainland before, 
By rushing- seas is severed from the shore. 
And men once walked where ships at anchor ride, 
Till Neptune overlooked the narrow way. 
And in disdain poured in the conquering sea. ' ' 

Metamorphoses, Bk. xv, Addison's translation. 

Ovid has introduced here events that occurred both before and after 
the time of Pythagoras (580 to 500 B.C.). They all bear testimony, 
however, to the ever recurring nature of these changes, even if the 
dates and order of sequence be somewhat confused. (See " Popular 
History of Science," Routledge, p. 17.) 

Sir Charles Lyell ("Principles," 9th ed., p. 526) had reason to 
suspect that the upheaval of Scandinavia, in progress at the time of 
his visit, had not always proceeded at the same rate, and that the 
motion had not been invariabl}' in one direction. He says : •' Some 
phenomena in the neighbourhood of Stockholm appear to me only 
explicable on the supposition of the alternate rising and sinking of 
the ground since the country was inhabited by man." 

Mr. R, C. M. Bi'own has many times denied the doctrine of 
upheaval of coastline, and has urged change in absolute level of the 
sea from astronomical causes in its stead. ^ 

^ See Report Brit. Assoc. Ad. of Science, 1890, p. 824 ; Quart. Jouru. Geol. Soc, 
vol. xlvi, p. 122. 

DECADE IV. — VOL. VIII. — NO. V. 15 



226 H. W.Pearson — Oscillations of Sea- level. 

Elisee Keclus, in "■ The Earth," discusses at length the subject of 
upheaval and depression of shore-lines ; he shows the inability of 
sedimentary processes to account for the shoaling of the manj'^ ports 
of the Mediterranean or for the advance of the coastlines into the 
sea ; he says, in these matters, " we are witnessing the phenomena 
of a vertical impulse " (p. 539) ; on p. 542 he shows us that this 
"vertical impulse" has affected the entire area of the Mediterranean. 
The study of these and similar upheavals and depressions over the 
earth's surface leads him to say : " As will be understood, these 
regular oscillations must take place in obedience to some general 
law still unknown, although none the less certain" (p. 566). We 
should note here, that while Eeclus attributes these oscillations to 
movements of the earth, it is impossible to distinguish such move- 
ments from oscillations in the sea ; the effect is precisely the same in 
either case. 

Eear- Admiral Smyth seems to have noted these oscillations ; he 
says : " It is decided, upon what appears to be sound geological 
evidence, that a great part of the Italian coast has been raised and 
lowered several times within the historical era, while the sea must 
have ever maintained the same level " (" The Mediterranean," p. 26). 
Again, on p. 28 he remarks : " It may be safely concluded that the 
land has risen and fallen twice since the Christian era, and that each 
movement of elevation and subsidence has exceeded twenty feet." 

Mr. P. Thompson, in "The History and Antiquities of Boston," 
has shown that these same oscillations have occurred in the Fens 
of England. On p. 660 he demonstrates these changes to have been 
four in number since the time of the Eomans, two periods of 
inundation and two periods of desiccation, but these periods can 
also be determined from the data attached to this argument. Oscil- 
lations of the sea-level have also been shown at Rye and Winchelsea 
and in the English Channel, the latter by Peacock. 

We note, however, that the above quoted authorities, although 
they may have suspected these oscillations, or may have actually 
observed them, have in no case attempted to control these phenomena 
by law or to determine the period of vibration. Law has been 
invoked, however, by Professor Edouard Suess and by Trautschold, 
a quotation from this latter having been previously given, notwith- 
standing the " resolve to abandon the doctrine of secular oscillations 
of continents " (Suess), and the adoption of periodic fluctuations 
in the sea-level in its stead. I am unable to learn that either of 
these gentlemen has attempted determination of the period of these 
fluctuations ; it may therefore be possible that this is the first attempt 
in that direction. 

I show no curve beyond the 400 b.c. At this period the evidence 
which I have been able to collect becomes uncertain, scanty, and 
the dates are very unreliable. The Deucalion Deluge, the Ogygian 
Deluge, and the Deluge of Samothrace furnish data at remote and 
uncertain periods. The books of Homer, of Herodotus, of Strabo, 
of Ptolemy, and other ancient writers supply much information as 
to the position of the sea-level at periods from 600 to 200 b.c. ; but 



H. W.Pearson — Oscillations of Sea- level. 227 

owing to the habit those ancient writers had of describing a city, 
an island, a peninsula, or a coastline, in terms borrowed from some 
still earlier and more ancient writer, it is at times difficult to decide 
as to the particular date at which the description fitted the object. 
The testimony so gathered is therefore very conflicting in its nature. 
I believe, however, that we find the amplitude of vertical vibration 
in the waters very much greater at that time than now, and the 
period of change reduced to approximately 500 years. 

It is evident from what has gone before, that these oscillations 
have had a continuous existence for the last 2,400 years. In this 
paper we show strong evidence that these phenomena are periodic 
in their nature, and that the periods of these cj'cles are capable of 
determination. It is also equally evident, if any weight be attached 
to the facts herein contained, that the whole Northern Hemisphere, 
during the last three hundred yeai's or more, has been subject to 
a general protrusion above the level of the sea. 

Let us now consider, then, those evidences as to present opposing 
movement of shore-lines, to which attention has already been called ; 
movements which, at the first glance, seem to deny so positively the 
conclusions arrived at in the above discussion. 

To open the argument, I believe we maintain with great reason, 
that if there has been a bodily transference during the last few- 
centuries, of a considerable mass of water from the Northera 
Hemisphere to the Southern, there must, coexistent with this 
transfer, have been considerable decrease in flow of currents running 
to the north and corresponding increase in currents flowing to 
the south. 

Now then, acting on this assumption, the writer has shown in the 
American Geologist for September, 1899, perfect explanation of 
these apparently irregular motions ; it is there shown that every 
observed case of apparent upheaval on one coastline, coincident 
with subsidence on another, can be foretold by law, and that instead 
of these motions being opposed to our conclusions, they are directly 
confirmatory thereof, it being demonstrated that no transference 
of water to the south can occur, no upheaval of northern shore- 
lines can take place, without a corresponding subsidence on 
the coasts of the Eastern United States, and also on the borders of 
such other lands as may be similarly situated with regard to ocean 
currents. 

I will not repeat all the arguments used in the paper mentioned, 
but will state that our case hinges on the law of deformation of 
ocean levels by ocean currents, as announced by William Ferrell 
in Science, vol. vii. He says : " In the North Atlantic the 
tendency to flow eastward in the middle and higher latitudes causes 
a slight heaping up of the water and a rise of surface-level adjacent 
to the coast of Europe, and a drawing away of the water and 
a depression of sea-level along the north-east coast of the United 
States " (p. 76). 

I have shown in the periodical mentioned that the waters 
around the British Islands and on the Scandinavian shores are 



228 H. W. Pearson — Oscillations of 8ea-leveL 

now piled, certainly 5 feet (probably much more on the coast of 
Norway) above the normal sea-level, and that the waters on the 
eastern borders of the United States are correspondingly depressed. 
It follows, therefore, that if the Gulf Stream — that force which 
now restrains these waters in their abnormal position — should 
decrease but slightly in its velocity of flow, the oceanic surface 
would at once return in part towards that normal level from which 
it has so long been displaced ; in other words, Scandinavia and the 
British Islands would enter upon an epoch of upheaval, the Carolinas 
upon an epoch of subsidence. As we have seen, the recent 
protrusions of the north renders certain the fact that a great mass of 
water has recently disappeared from this hemisphere. The transfer 
of this water to the south makes an equal certainty that coexistent 
with this removal all northward-flowing currents should have 
decreased in their velocity of flow. It is clear, therefore, that these 
opposing motions in our coastlines can be reduced to law and fore- 
told in advance of observation. 

We have reason to believe, however, that apparent upheavals or 
subsidences due to this cause will not at any time exceed 2 or 
3 feet in vertical movement, and they consequently are of little 
importance as compared with the periodic vibrations of 15 or 
20 feet over an entire hemisphere, as developed herein. It never- 
theless is important to detect and eliminate these minor deviations, 
when we attempt the general investigation of coastal phenomena. 
For a more extended, although still very incomplete discussion of 
Ferrell's law, see the American Geologist, as before mentioned. 

To those who may wish to extend these investigations — and there 
is great opportunity for such extension — caution should be given 
against relying on evidence as to changes in the sea-level gathered 
near the mouths of great rivers or in deltas like those of the 
Nile, Po, Ehone, Ehine, Mississippi, etc. These delta deposits, 
independent of their surroundings, are all sinking bodily and 
spreading laterally, probably under some process of disgorgement 
of their water contents. Much evidence of this exists. For instance, 
E. L. Corthell says the delta lands of the Mississippi are unstable 
both in vertical and lateral direction. A base-line 700 feet long, 
measured accurately, had in five years increased to 712 feet. He 
also quotes from the Eeport of the Mississippi Eiver Commission : 
" Discrepancies in beach marks, level heights, and gauges could 
only be satisfactorily accounted for by the most plausible explanation 
of the subsidence of the whole delta" {The National Geographic 
Magazine, December, 1897). 

M. Staring is of the opinion that the gradual depression of Holland 
" is caused only by the subsidence of the alluvial ground, the weight 
of the dikes, and the incessant passage of men and cattle " (Eeclus, 
"The Earth," p. 547). Eegions like the northern and western 
shores of the Adriatic, the deltas of the Ehine and Mississippi, should 
thus be avoided ; the settlement of these delta deposits may obliterate 
the vertical movements in the aqueous envelope ; observations made 
along rock-bound coasts only are trustworthy. 



H. W. Pearson — Oscillations of Sea-level. 229 

From the argument preceding it seems necessary to conclude that 
in future study of changes in the sea-level, discrimination must be 
made between each of the following causes which may afifect the 
oceanic borders : — 

1. Seek the effects produced by the bodily transference of water 
to and from the north. These effects would be universal over one 
hemisphere. 

2. Detect and eliminate those movements of upheaval or depression 
due to variation in flow of ocean currents under the operation of 
Ferrell's law. These effects are local in their nature. 

3. In deltas always suspect that any observed depression may be 
due to a local settlement of the ground itself, and such data there 
gathered may offer no ai'gument whatever in favour of a rise in 
sea-level. 

4. Eliminate and avoid such coastal changes as may be due to 
erosion of or accretion to shore-lines. In changes of this, century 
it is generally possible to do this. In changes that have occurred 
in the distant past we shall find much difficulty in separating results 
of erosion or accretion from the resvdts of real changes in the 
sea-level ; therefore, in past ages much testimony will be found 
accumulated against us which our analysis will be unable to 
remove; we must expect, therefore, many of these apparently con- 
flicting observations. 

All the evidence discussed hereto has been gathered on the oceanic 
coastlines ; these data, as we have seen, testify to a recent protrusion 
of the entire north, and that this apparent vertical uplift increased 
in amount as we approach the Pole. There is, however, evidence in 
existence, obtained from our great lakes, showing the same law of 
greater elevation to the north. 

Mr. G. K. Gilbert, in the 18th Ann. Rep. U.S. Geol. Survey, has 
shown that this excess of upheaval at the north has been of recent 
occurrence in the interior of our continent. A careful study of the 
changes in level, during the present century, of the great lakes 
enables Gilbert to announce this law with certainty. 

With his inferential conclusions, however, in the light of our own 
investigation, we are compelled to differ. He assumes that this 
motion may continue indefinitely, and if so, he shows that in time 
the Niagara Falls will cease their flow, and a new outlet to the great 
lakes be placed in operation near Chicago. This result he reaches 
in a logical manner from the data examined, but we see that 
observations reaching back only one hundred years allow us to form 
no certain opinion as to whether this motion will continue indefinitely 
in one direction or otherwise. Then, again, the area of investigation 
was of too limited a character. We have seen that to obtain the law 
governing these risings and sinkings, it is not only necessary to 
study at one field of view the entire Northern Hemisphere, but to 
carry our investigation back in time as far as history or tradition 
will allow. When this has been done we see that Gilbert's observed 
changes in level fall into line as part and parcel of one complete 
system, universal over the entire North. 



230 H. W.Pearson — Oscillations of Sea- level. 

The cause of this vibration in the oceanic waters it is perhaps 
too early to discuss ; the oscillations should be first established 
beyond a doubt. The most plausible explanation of the last change, 
however, would seem to rest in a possible continued increase in 
growth of the South Polar glaciers during the last few centuries, 
contemporaneous with that general decrease in nearly all Northern 
glaciers which, during the period mentioned, we know has been 
in progress. If we could invoke this cause, the recent oscillation 
mentioned would then be a physical necessity. 

The question raised in this paper, and the results that have been 
reached, seem to warrant certain inferences or speculations, some of 
which are liable to be of considerable importance. For instance, 
we know that the landing-place of Columbus in 1492 has not yet 
been positively identified ; our curve, however, calls for a sea-level 
at that latitude and date some 12 to 15 feet higher than at present. 
The question is, would the change in topography produced by 
assuming the sea at its old position aid us in reaching final con- 
clusion in this matter. 

As our curve for time past indicates a series of regular cycles 
with a period of about 640 years, must we not suppose our oceanic 
surface will again rise in the north, reaching its maximum shortly 
after the j^ear 2100. If we prolong this curve, as suggested, we 
must conclude that disaster, as repeatedly in the past, will soon 
again overwhelm our northern coastlines. Are such cities as London, 
Liverpool, and New York ready for this advancing sea, and has 
such a region as Holland any too much time for preparation ? 

If our curve has been correctly mapped out, we must suppose that 
the northerly movement of the waters has already commenced, or 
that it will very shortly appear. This movement should be first 
shown in cessation of the so-called upheaval of Scandinavia, and 
that region should soon appear to be undergoing subsidence, while, 
at the same time, the coasts of New Jersey will enter an epoch of 
upheaval. We might, with great propriety, be on the look out for 
these changes. 

Lord Kelvin has shown us how one inch of water taken from the 
surface of the sea, and piled up as ice at the Pole, would appreciably 
affect the rotation of the earth ; we can reasonablj'^ expect, therefore, 
that these oscillations to and fro from the Poles to the Equator 
of 15 or 20 feet, as our arguments and facts seem to require, 
should have considerable efl"ect in altering the length of our day. 
In fact, in this discussion we may, and probably will, find 
confirmation of Newcomb's surmise, that the hitherto unexplainable 
irregularities in the moon's motions may be due to slight changes in 
the earth's axial rotation, which rotation perhaps •' varies from time 
to time in an irregular manner" (" Popular Astronomy," p. 101). 

We thus see that there are reasons, many and weighty, inducing us 
to pursue this investigation to greater extent. Notwithstanding the 
considerable attention given to the subject by this writer, a research 
involving the labour of many years, we are as yet merelj' on the 
threshold of the inquiry. Years could be devoted to the comparison 



Revieics — Prof. V. Amalitzl;)/ — The Permian of Russia. 231 

of ancient and modern maps and charts. A lifetime could be 
expended on the emerged and submerged ruins of Ostia, Carthage, 
Utica, the Piraeus, Alexandria, the Bay of Baie, Tyre. Miletus, and 
other places too numerous to mention on the ancient elevated or 
depressed coastlines of the Mediterranean. This task is far beyond 
the capacity of an individual. Law, if once established in this 
matter, is of universal value and importance. The obscurity 
shrouding these emerged and submerged cities already seems less 
dark than before. 

I earnestly hope, therefore, that some scientific body will under- 
take to assist in extending this investigation, thus enabling us to 
shed still additional light on these perplexing oscillations of the sea 
which we have been considering. 

{To be concluded in our next Xtimher.) 



IR E "V I IE] "W S. 



SUR LES FOUILLES DE 1899 DE DEBRIS DE VeRTEBRES DANS 

LES Depots Permiens de la Eussie du Nord, Par V. 
Amalitzky. pp. 25, with 5 plates. Expose fait a I'Assemblee 
generale de la Soc. Imp. des naturalistes a St.-Petersbourg, le 
28 Decembre, 1899. (Varsovie, 1900.) 

PROFESSOR AMALITZKY has for several years past been 
engaged in working out the structure and history of the fresh- 
water deposits of Palaeozoic age in the northern governments of 
Russia, and in the present paper he treats of some general questions 
in connection with his investigations, and further gives a detailed 
account of some explorations in Upper Permian strata on the banks 
of the Little Dwina, which resulted in the discovery of numerous 
plant and animal remains of considerable interest from their close 
relationship to the flora and fauna of the Gondwana beds in India, 
the Karoo formation of South Africa, and deposits of corresponding 
age in Brazil and Australia. Some of the reptilian remains, more- 
over, present a close resemblance to the genera Elginia and Gordonia 
described bj' E. T. Newton from the Elgin sandstones. 

The lowest fresh-water deposits recognized by Amalitzky in the 
north of Russia are red sandstones situated at Mount Andoma, on 
the east side of Lake Onega, and, more to the east, at Ouet-Pinega 
on the Northern Dwina. They contain lamellibranch shells be- 
longing to the genera Garhonicola, Anthracosia, Archanodonta, etc., 
allied to the Anthracosida3 of the Russian Carboniferous. The beds 
are of Upper Devonian age, and may be ranked with the Old Red 
Sandstones of Scotland, the Kiltorkan beds of Ireland, and the 
Catskill formation of North America. The only fresh-water for- 
mations of Carboniferous age observed by the author are the sands 
of the Lower Carboniferous at Mount Patrova, in the Vytcgra 
district, which have been shown by Inostrantsev to be a direct 
continuation of the Devonian sandstones of Andoma. Higher up 
in the geological series, exclusively marine deposits persist from 
the Lower Carboniferous sandstones with Productus gigantens in the 



232 Revieivs — Prof. V. Amalitzkij — The Perniian of Russia. 

Vytegra district, and more eastward at Oust-Pinega, from the Upper 
Carboniferous sandstones with Spirifer mosquensis, quite up to the 
Lower Permian. The Upper Permian deposits, on the other hand, 
shown on the banks of the lower part of the Eiver Suchona and near 
the sources of the Little Dwina of the North, exhibit fresh-water 
characters very distinctly. They consist of nearly horizontal beds 
of marl with intercalated lenticular beds of sand and sandstone. 
For a long period these strata were considered to be destitute of 
fossils ; none were found in them by Murchison, Keyserling, or 
Blasius, and they were neglected by the Eussian geologists by I'eason 
of this reputed barrenness. 

Professor Amalitzky has, however, demonstrated by his dis- 
coveries during the last four years that they contain a rich flora 
and fauna. Amongst the plant remains the most important are 
Glossopteris indica, Gl. angustifolia, (Vertebraria), Gangamopteris 
major, Teeniopteris, Sphenopteris, Callipteris cf. conferta, besides 
Equisetum, Noeggerathiopsis, and forms like Scliizoneurece. The fauna 
includes a number of fresh-water lamellibranchs, such as Palceomutela 
Inostranzewi, P. Keyserlingi, P. Verneuili, Oligodon, Palceanodonta, 
Carbonicola, Anthracosia, and Anthracomya ; the Crustacean genera 
JEsiheria and Cypris, together with the plates and impressions of 
Ganoid fishes. Land animals are represented by amphibians 
approaching Melanerpeton and Pachygonia, and a great number of 
bones of theromorphian reptiles belonging to the Pareiasauria and 
Dicynodontia, amongst which Pareiasaurus and Dicynodoii have been 
definitely determined, and also forms much resembling Elginia and 
Gordonia. 

These discoveries have confirmed the opinion of the author as 
to the great resemblance from a palaeontological point of view 
between the Continental fresh-water deposits of the Upper Permian 
and those of the Lower Karoo in Africa and of the Gondwana in 
India; and he is led to conclude that the compact continent which 
during the Permian epoch occupied Central and Southern Africa, 
India, Australia, Argentina, and part of Brazil extended as far as 
European Eussia, and that the bond which united these countries 
was on one side the Continental deposits of Gondwana in India and 
on the other the similar deposits of Kouzniets in Siberia. 

The explorations carried out by Professor Amalitzky during the 
Summer of 1899, which form the main subject of the present paper, 
were made at a spot on the steep right bank of the Upper Dwina of 
the North, near the village of Kotlas. For a distance of about ten 
kilometres the river bank is composed of Permian rocks overlain by 
beds of clay, with pebbles and large stones of crystalline rocks, of 
Post-Pliocene age. The Permian beds have a slight dip towards 
the N.N.E. ; they consist of a series of marls of very uniform 
characters ; tlie upper beds are of a reddish-brown tint, with 
a persistent layer of white siliceo - dolomitic limestone, in some 
places becoming dolomitic, in others a siliceous rock. These upper 
marls rest with a slight discordance on lower marls, also reddish- 
brown, and not dissimilar to the upper beds ; a thickness of about 



Mecieirs — Prof. V. AinaHtzhi/ — TJte Perniiaii of Rimnia, 233 

24 metres is exposed of the lower marls. At the line where these 
marls come together there is a series of remarkable lenticular beds 
of sand resting in trenches eroded in the lower marls and uncon- 
formably overlaid by the upper beds. Five of these lenticular sand 
beds are shown in section in the steep river banks in the course 
of the ten kilometres referred to. The particular bed excavated, 
situated at Sokolki, was 12 metres thick in its central portion, 
with a breadth of about 80 metres. The bed contained numerous 
irregular, hard concretions of sand cemented with carbonate of lime, 
and in some of these the reptilian bones were enclosed. As the 
bank at this place was vertical, and the higher portions were even 
ovex'hanging, the only practicable means of reaching the fossiliferous 
lenticular deposit was by digging down to it from above, which 
entailed much labour, and a further difficulty was caused by the fact 
that at a depth of 1"5 m. from the surface the soil, at the end of 
June, was frozen hard, and the small fissures and cavities were lined 
with ice. 

JMany impressions of large fronds of Glossopteris were met with 
in some of the sandy beds, but they broke up on exposure to the 
air. The position of the fossiliferous concretions was discovered only 
after several fruitless trials. Some of the concretions contained only 
single detached bones, whilst in others all the bones of a complete 
skeleton were embedded together. Three skeletons were found side 
by side, evidently of predatory animals allied to Rhopalodon ; under 
these were three, more or less imperfect, skeletons of Pai'eiasauria. 
The sand surrounding the concretions was carefully removed and 
the surface of each layer exposed so that the positions of the 
skeletons could be distinguished. They appeared to be all extended 
in the same direction as if they had been carried down and deposited 
in the bed of a stream heavily charged with sediment. The skeletons 
in the central portions of the lenticular deposit were heaped together 
as if they had been buried up with silt before the flesh had 
decomposed, whilst those nearer the margins seem to have been 
exposed long enough for decay to have set in, so that the bones 
became detached. 

No fewer than thirty-nine groups of concretions were discovered ; 
about twenty of these contained complete or imperfect skeletons, 
whilst in the others the bones were detached and commingled 
together. These concretions have not as yet been properly 
examined, and their contents are but partially known. Of the 
remains of Amphibians, there are skulls and other bones of forms 
allied to Melanerpeton and Metopias. 

Both in numbers and importance the reptilian remains form the 
chief part of the collection. They nearly all belong to the 
Theromorpha, and the three suborders, Anomodontia, Pareiasauria, 
and Deuterosauria, are represented. The Pareiasauria are the most 
abundant ; amongst them are some small forms with skulls not more 
than 30 centimetres in length, whilst others are 4-5 metres long 
with skulls 1 m. in length and 0-G6 m. in width. Some have their 
beads and part of their backs covered with shield-shaped plates, like 



234 Reports and Proceedings — Geological Society of London. 

the Pai'eiasauria from the Karoo beds ; others possess horn-like 
projections on their heads like the Elginia from the Triassic deposits- 
of Scotland. All are characterized by the good preservation of their 
notched, spatula-shaped teeth. The Deuterosauria, though some- 
times 3 metres in length, do not attain the proportions of the 
Pareiasauria. Their dental apparatus is very powerful and of 
a distinctly rapacious type. They belong to JRhopalodon, Fischer. 
The Anomodontia are represented by small forms of Dicynodon 
about the size of a bear, with two powerful tusks on the sides of the 
head. Some of the skulls and skeletons discovered probably belong 
to altogether new species of reptiles. 

The only invertebrates mentioned from this lenticular deposit are 
lamellibranch shells belonging to the Anthracosidee, whilst the plant 
remains, though numerous, are limited to forms of Glossopteris. 

The plates accompanying the paper show the position of the 
lenticular sandy beds in the cliffs of Permian marls, and the manner 
in which the concretions with the bones embedded in them occurred 
in the sands. G. J. H. 



I^:H:F'OI^Ts ^^istxd zpiaociBiEiDiiNia-s. 



Geological Society of London. 

I. — March 6th, 1901. — J. J. H. Teall, Esq., M.A., V.P.R.S., 
President, in the Chair. 

The following communications were read : — 

1. ''Eecent Geological Changes in Northern and Central Asia." 
By Professor George Frederick Wright, F.G.S.A. 

The present paper is the outcome of a journey made by the author 
in company with Mr. Frederick B. Wright in 1900-1901. 

In North America an area of about 4.000,000 square miles was 
brought under the direct influence of Glacial ice during the Glacial 
Epoch. The result of six weeks spent in Japan was to show that 
there are no signs of general glaciation in Nippon or Yesso. Neither 
is there any sign of glaciation along the border of the Mongolian 
Plateau, where the general elevation is 5,000 feet, but the whole 
region is covered with loess. This has usually accumulated like 
immense snow-drifts on the south-eastern or lee-side of the 
mountains, and in it houses and villages are excavated. In the 
mountainous region, strata of gravel and pebbles are so frequent 
in the loess, that it is necessary to invoke both wind and water in 
order to explain fully the origin of the deposit. At the present time 
the loess in the interior is being washed away by streams much 
faster than it is being deposited by the wind. The journey across 
Manchuria from Port Arthur along the Lao-Ho and Sungari rivers 
was through valleys choked with alluvium, and there was no evidence 
that the drainage of the Amur had ever been reversed by ice, like 
that of the St. Lawrence ; nor was there any other evidence of 
glaciation. The lower course of the Amur indicates subsidence. 
Again, there are no signs of sclaciation on the Vitim Plateau. 



JReporf.-i and Proceedings — Geolcxjieal Soeief// of London. 235 

Lake Baikal appears to be of recent origin; it is 4,500 feet deep, 
and has not been filled by the great quantities of sediment brought 
down by the Selenga and other rivers. Although glaciers could 
frequently be seen on the mountains which border the Central 
Asiatic Plateau to the north-west, there was no evidence that the 
glaciers had ever deployed on the plain. The loess-region of 
Turkestan, and indeed the whole area from the Sea of Aral to the 
Black Sea, appears to have been recently elevated, in some places as 
much as 3,000 feet. Desiccation took place at the same time, so that 
the larger lakes are only brackish or still fresh. Direct evidence of 
this in the form of deposits is given. The author thinks it likely 
that the absence of glaciation in Northern Asia may have been due 
to the rainlessuess of the region, and that while America was 
elevated, Asia was depressed during the Glacial Epoch. 

2. "The Hollow Spherulites of the Yellowstone and Great 
Britain." By John Parkinson, Esq., F.G.S. 

A recent journey to the National Park of the United States, 
resulting in a study of the obsidians and rhyolites in the field and at 
home, suggested a direct comparison between the hollow spherulites 
characteristic of these rocks and those of the rhyolites of Shropshire, 
Jersey, and elsewhere. 

The first part of the paper is concerned with the spherulites of 
the Yellowstone region. A brief description is given (i) of the 
small bluish-grey solid spherulites common in the obsidian of 
Obsidian Cliff, and (ii) of a hollow variety in which radial structure 
is barely discernible. In the latter, the spherulitic part is repre- 
sented bj' a whitish, rather crumbly material consisting of felspar, 
tridymite, and quartz. 

The hollow spherulites proper are divided into two groups — 
(i) those containing cavities without definite form, and (ii) those in 
which the cavities are related to the shape and structure of the 
spherulite. The latter include the well-known lithoph3'see. The 
manner in which these occur, and the relation of the cavities to 
the enclosing spherulite, are described. Attention is drawn (a) to the 
porous character of the latter, and (6) to the network of felspathic 
fibres, studded with crystals of tridymite, which usually distinguish 
the spherulite near a cavity. 

Hypotheses framed to account for these varying structures would 
take one of two directions : — (i) Hollow spherulites are the result 
of some property of the original magma, or (ii) are due to the 
decomposition of an originally solid spherulite by heated waters. 
Taking the second alternative first, a description is given of the 
effect of solfataric action on the rhyolites of the Yellowstone Canon. 
The conclusion reached is " that the action of hot waters charged 
with silica may be to remove portions of the rock, or to permeate it 
without destroying its characteristic structure ; that we obtain, 
however, no evidence to show that the spherulites are most easily 
attacked, but rather the reverse." Explanation, therefore, is most 
naturally sought in some property of the original magma, and that 
propounded by Professor Iddings appears the nearest in accord with 



236 Reports and Proceedings — Geological Society of London. 

facts. Exception is taken to certain physical processes postulated 
by Professor Iddings in a recent memoir, but with his earlier work 
the present writer is substantially in agreement. 

In the second part of the paper direct comparison is drawn between 
the structures exhibited by the hollow spherulites from Obsidian 
Cliff and those of examples from Shropshire, Jersey, and other 
localities. Attention is called to the presence in the latter of 
quartzose amygdaloids, crescentic in shape, and having a relation to 
the edge of the nodule. Sometimes a series of such are found 
parallel one to the other, not infrequently (at Wrockwardine) 
becoming more or less completely circular. Projecting into such an 
amygdaloid, or occupying an end, we find in many instances a 
network of felspathic fibres comparable with the fibrous structure 
which characterizes the American examples. 

A description is given of a series of rocks from Boulay Bay, once 
very vesicular, and containing the remains of crystals — probably 
felspars — analogous to the crystals found encrusting the cavities of 
lithophysEe from Obsidian Cliff. Traces of a mineral which resembles 
the tridymite from the latter locality are described from Wrock- 
wardine. 

Taking into consideration the resemblances between the hollow 
spherulites of the Yellowstone region and those of Great Britain, 
the conclusion is drawn that the hypothesis of corrosion is as 
inapplicable to the latter as to the former. On the contrary, the 
author believes that the cavities of the spherulites are the result of 
the hydrous state of the magma. 



II.— March 20, 1901.— J. J. H. Teall, Esq., M.A., V.P.R.S., President, 

in the Chair. 

Mr. H. B. Woodward called attention to a polished slab of 
Landscape Marble, or Cotham Stone, from the Rhfetic Beds near 
Bristol, which had kindly been lent for exhibition by Mr. Frederick 
James, Curator of the Maidstone Museum. The specimen showed 
that after the arborescent markings had been produced in the soft 
mud, some irregular and partial solidification took place in the 
upper layers of the deposit ; and then during contraction a kind of 
-subsidence occurred of the upper and harder portions into the 
lower and softer materials. This subsidence was accompanied by 
a breaking up of the harder portions, suggesting a comparison (in 
miniature) with ' broken beds ' and even crush-conglomerates. The 
specimen was of considerable interest as illustrating the mechanical 
changes produced during solidification. 

The following communications were read : — 

1. " On a Remarkable Volcanic Vent of Tertiary Age in the Island 
of Arran, enclosing Mesozoic Fossiliferous Rocks." 
(Communicated by permission of the Director -General of H.M. Geological Survey.) 
Part I. — " On the Geological Structure." By Benjamin Neeve Peach, 
Esq., F.R.S., L. & E., F.G.S., & William Gunu, Esq., F.G.S. 

The rocks which form the subject of this paper cover an area of 
a,bout 7 or 8 square miles, and culminate in Ard Bheinn A'Chruach 



Reporta and Proceedings — Geological Societij of London. 237 

and Beiun Bhreac. They are in contact with formations ranging 
from the Lower Old Ked Sandstone to the Trias, and are later in 
date even than the important faults of the area. They are made up 
partly of fragmental volcanic materials, and partly of various 
intrusive masses, confined within an almost unbroken ring of 
intrusive rocks. In addition to igneous fragments, the clastic 
volcanic rocks contain fragments derived from the surrounding 
formations ; and also masses of shale, marl, limestone, and sandstone 
belonging to formations not now found in sitii in the island. One of 
these is several acres in extent, contains fossils, and is in part of 
Ehjetic age ; a second is a fragment of Lias ; and a third is of 
limestone and chert resembling the Antrim Cretaceous rocks, and 
yielding fossils. The absence of Oolitic and older Cretaceous seems 
to indicate a resemblance between a former succession in Arran and 
that now seen in Antrim. If these fragments fell into the vent from 
above, the igneous rocks must be of Post-Cretaceous age, and they 
give an impressive picture of the amount of denudation which has 
occurred since the period of vulcanicity. 

Part II.—" PaljBontological Notes." By E. T. Newton, Esq., F.R.S., 

F.L.S., F.G.S. 

The masses of Rba^tic strata yield Avicula contorta, Pecten 
valoniensis, Schizodiis (Axiniis) cloaciniis, etc. ; those of Lower Lias, 
Gryphcea arcuata. Ammonites angulatus, and new species of Niiculana 
and Tancredia, which are figured and described. Thin slices of the 
Cretaceous limestones prove tn be very like those of the Antrim 
Chalk, and the rocks yield determinable Foraminifera, Inocerami, 
Sponges, and Echinoderms. 

2. " On the character of the Upper Coal - measures of North 
Staffordshire, Denbighshire, South Staffordshire, and Nottingham- 
shire ; and their Relation to the Productive Series." By Walcot 
Gibson, Esq., F.G.S. 

(Conimuuicated by permission of the Director of H.M. Geological Survey.) 

The Upper Coal-measures of North Staffordshire are capable of 
a fourfold subdivision, the groups representing a definite sequence 
of red and grey strata : — 

4. The Keek Series. Eed aud purple sandstones and marl with occasional seams of 

coal, and bands of entomostracun limestone. 
3. The Newcastle-under-Lyme Series. Grey sandstones aud shales, with four tliiu 

seams of coal, and at the base an entoraostracan limestone. 
2. The Etruria Marl Series. Mottled red-and-purple marls and clays, with thin 

green gi-its ; a thin coal occurs L50 yards above the base. 
1 . Black Band Series. Grey sandstones, marls, and clays ; numerous thin seams of 

coal and Blackband ironstone ; one of many thin bands of limestone is 

constant, 36 to 40 feet above the base. 

Spirorbis- and entomostracan limestones attain a maximum in the 
Upper Goal - measures, but are not unknown in the productive 
measures below. Indeed, the two sets of measures are closely allied 
lithologically, palaaontologically, and stratigraphically in this region. 
The chief movements are pre-Triassic and post-Carboniferous. 

No attempt has been made to recognize the Black Band Series in 



■238 Obituary— J. Jlopicood Blake, F.G.S. 

the Denbigbsliire, South Staffordshire, and Nottinghamshire coal- 
fields, as they are indistinguishable from the productive measures in 
the absence of Blackband ironstones. In each of these areas there 
are divisions in the Upper Coal-measures which correspond with the 
three highest divisions in North Staffordshire, and in all cases, 
except near the margin of the basin, where overlap occurs, they are 
underlain by ordinary Coal-measui"es with coal-seams. It is there- 
fore concluded that these higher Coal-measures were deposited in one 
basin which included all the four areas dealt with, and that whatever 
movements occurred were of a local, and not of a regional character. 
Judging by published descriptions, the higher series of measures 
appear to be present in other Midland and North-Western coalfields, 
and in most of them the Keele Series corresponds to the Salopian 
Permian of Professor Hull. 



OZBXTUJ^'IRir. 



JOHN HOPWOOD BLAKE, 

Assoc. M. Inst. C. E., F.Gt.S., of the Geological Survey of 
England and Wales. 

Born July 22, 1843. Died March 5, 1901. 

Mr. J. H. Blake was a son of Mr. George John Blake, of the 
firm of Messrs. Allen & Blake, Wine Merchants, and was born 
in Great Tower Street in the city of London. After completing his 
education at King's College, London, he was apprenticed to Mr. R. P. 
Brereton, M. Inst. C. E., under whose directions he was engaged for 
several years with Mr. S. H. Yockney in railway work in Cornwall 
and South Wales. Having been attracted to the science of geology 
while at King's College, he became further interested in the subject 
during his engineering experiences, and was thereby tempted to 
join the Geological Survey in April, 1868, at a time when the staff 
under Murchison was considerably augmented. During the first 
few years of his official career he was engaged in the re-survey of 
portions of Somerset, along the Mendip and Polden Hills, at Shepton 
Mallet, Street, Chewton Mendip, and Axbridge, and subsequently 
at Watchet and Minehead. He was also occupied for a time in the 
first detailed Drift Survey of the area north-west of London. Later 
on he was transferred to Suffolk, to survey the country around 
Stowmarket, and that bordering the sea north and south of Lowestoft, 
whence he proceeded to Yarmouth and continued his investigations 
inland and along the coast as far north as Palling in Norfolk. Much 
time was then devoted to a careful study of the Forest Bed Series, 
and his published section of the cliffs at Kessingland, Pakefield, 
and Corton (1884) bears evidence of the painstaking character of 
his work. East Dereham then became his home, and much field- 
work was done in that part of Norfolk until 1884, when the primary 
one-inch Geological Survey of England was completed. Mr. Blake 
then removed to Reading, and was for many years occupied in 
the re-survey on the six-inch scale of that neighbourhood, giving 



OUtnanj—J. Hopivood Blake, F.G.S. 239 

especial atteutiou to the Drifts, which before had only been 
partially mapped. A few years ago he proceeded to Oxford, from 
which important and interesting centre he laboured with much quiet 
enthusiasm, until on March 5 he suddenly and quite unexpectedly 
succumbed to angina pectoris at the age of 57. 

The record of his geological work is chiefly embodied in the 
geological inaps of the districts he surveyed, and in sundry Survey 
memoirs. He contributed notes to the Geology of East Somerset 
(1876), to the Geology of Stowmarket (1881), the Geology of 
Norwich (1881), and the Geology of London (1889) ; and he 
personally wrote " The Geology of the Country around East 
Dereham " (1888) and " The Geology of the Country near Yarmouth 
and Lowestoft " (1890). He had also prepared, in conjunction with 
Mr. Whitaker, a Memoir on the Water Supply of Berkshire, which 
is in the press, and had made some progress with a Memoir on the 
Geology of Reading. 

Mr. Blake's extra-official contributions to geological literature 
were by no means large considering his long experience. In 1872 
he contributed (with H. B. Woodward) •' Notes on the Eelations 
of the Rhastic Beds to the Lower Lias and Keuper Formations in 
Somersetshire" (Geological Magazine, Vol. IX, pp. 196-202). 
In 1877 he published in the same Magazine (Deo. II, Vol. IV, 
pp. 298-800) an article " On the Age of the Mammalian Rootlet-bed 
at Kessingland " ; and in 1881 he contributed to the Proceedings of 
the Norwich Geological Society (vol. i, pp. 126-128) a paper on 
a " Well-boring at East Dereham Waterworks." To these may 
be added his addresses to the Norwich Geological Society (of which 
he was elected President in 1880-81), dealing with the Age and 
Relation of the so-called ' Forest-Bed,' and with the Conservancy 
of Rivers, Prevention of Floods, Drainage, and Water Supply ; and 
also his Presidential Address to the Reading Literary and Philosophical 
Society in 1885, when he discoursed on the Coalfields of the United 
Kingdom with special reference to the Royal Commission on Coal. 
From 1885 until near the close of his life he conducted a number 
•of excursions of the Geologists' Association, on three occasions to 
Reading, and on other occasions to Henley-on-Thames and Nettlebed, 
Taplow and Bowsey Hill, Lowestoft and Kessingland, Goring, and 
Silchester, reports of which were contributed to the Proceedings 
of the Association. 

Mr. Blake's early training as an engineer had made him an 
excellent draughtsman, so that his maps and the sections he con- 
structed were models of neatness and precision. This training in 
the exact methods of topographic surveys to some extent hampered 
his field-work, as his constant aim to secure positive evidence for 
geological boundaries led often to prolonged and inexpedient 
investigation. Thus he would return again and again to obscure 
tracts in the hopes of gaining exact information, a process theoretically 
laudable, but practically detrimental to the progress of work. This 
timidity in forming conclusions, perhaps to a certain extent con- 
stitutional, had proved such a serious bar to official advancement, 



240 Miscellaneous. 

that it caused him grave anxiety. Imbued, however, with a true 
love of science he laboured on with infinite patience to the end, 
and it is distressing to thiuk that he did not live to partake of 
the benefits which quite recently accrue to the Survey through 
a reorganization of the staff. Personally his colleagues and many 
others will long lament the loss of a genial and tender-hearted 
friend. H. B. W. 



ZN^ISdEXjXj-iLIsrEOTJS. 



International Geological Congress, Paris, 1900. — The pupils, 
friends, and admirers of Professor Albert Gaudry, who in 1852 
started his scientific career with his " These de Geologic : Sur 
I'origine et la formation des Silex de la Oraie," intend to present 
him with a commemorative medal. Whilst heartily associating 
ourselves with this proposal, we venture to suggest that something 
more might be done. In one of his books Professor Gaudry 
terminates the description of his new palEeontological gallery with 
the following words : — " J'aimerais que, pour terminer notre galerie, 
on pla^at une statue representant une figure humaine, figure 
douce et bonne, figure d'artiste et de poete, admirant dans le passe 
la grande ceuvre de la Creation et reflechissant a ce qui pourrait 
rendre le monde encore meilleur." ^ Apart from his eminent 
scientific attainments. Professor Gaudry has revealed himself as an 
artist and a poet as well, especially in his " Essai de Paleontologie 
philosophique " ; and whoever has approached him can testify that 
the 'douce' and 'bonne' expression of his face truly reflects his 
character. We therefore think that his own bust would be the most 
suitable couronnement d'edifice of the paleeontological gallery, which 
in the main is his own work. 

Professor Albert Gaudry, President of the International 
Geological Congress for 1900, announces that the Committee 
appointed by the International Congress of Geologists to award 
the International Spendiaroff Prize of 456 roubles (£48) has pro- 
posed as subject for 1903, " Critical Review of the Methods of 
Rock-classification." Two copies at least of any work competing 
for the prize should be sent before August, 1902, to Dr. Charles 
Barrois, Secretary of the Congress, 62, Boulevard Saint-Michel, Paris. 

Erratum. — Brachylepas (Pyrgoma) cretacea, H. Woodw. : Geol. 
Mag., April, 1901, pp. 145-152, PL VIIL— Dr. Arthur Rowe, 
F.G.S., calls attention to an error in Dr. Woodward's paper as to 
the locality of his new specimen of this Cirripede, which, like the 
original specimen described in 1868, was also obtained from the 
zone of Belemniiella mucronata in the Norioich Chalk, and all 
references to Margate and Thanet should be deleted and the word 
Norioich substituted. — Edit. Geol. Mag. 

1 A. Gaudry: " Les ancetres de nos animaiix daus les temps geologiques," p. 296 ; 
Paris, 1888. ' 



THE 



GEOLOGICAL MAGAZINE. 

NEW SERIES. DECADE IV. VOL. VIII. 



No. VI.— JUNE, 1901. 



OK/XG-I^^-A^Xj .A.X?,TICXiES. 



1. — On the Evidence of the Transference of Secondary Sexual 
Characters of Mabimals from Males to Females. 

By C. I. Forsyth Major, M.D., F.Z.S. 

WHEN Darwin stated in the first edition of the "Descent of 
Man," "as probable that horns of all kinds, even when they 
are equally developed in the two sexes, were primarily acquired by 
the male in order to conquer other males, and have been transferred 
more or less completely to the female," ' the " various facts " from 
which he drew this inference did not include any palseontological 
evidence. At the present day we are familiar with the notion that, 
as regards the deer family, the oldest members known, from the 
Oligocene, were absolutely devoid of antlers, and that the subsequent 
phylogenetic evolution of the latter has a close parallel in their 
ontogenetic development. 

Except in the case of the reindeer, fossil Cervidas cannot be expected 
to throw any direct light on our special subject of inquiry, since 
up to the present day the females of the great majority of Cervidas 
are, as a rule, devoid of antlers. The generally received view is that 
amongst recent Cervidce the females of the reindeer always have 
antlers, and the females of other deer never have. 

According to a statement by Eversmann, quoted by A. Brandt," 
the female wild reindeer in the Orenburg district are devoid of 
antlers. With regard to the Cervidee generally, there is abundant 
testimony, to be found amongst older writers especially, of antlers 
occurring in females of Capreolus and Cervus elajjluis.^ Riitimeyer 
states that traces of pedicles are never absent in the doe ; ^ and 
Nitsche confirms that this is in fact the rule in old individuals.* 

1 Charles Darwin : " The Descent of Man and Selection iu relation to Sex," 
1871, vol. ii, p. 248. 

- Eversmann: " Naturgesch. v. Orenburg," ii, p. 251. Cf. A. Brandt in 
" Festschrift f. Rudolf Leuckart," 1892, p. 412. 

3 See the numerous bibliography, together with original observations, in A. W. 
Otto, " Lelirb. d. pathol. Anatomic d. Menschen und der Thiere," 1830, i, p. 167 
and note 18. 

* L. Riitimeyer: " Beitriige zu einer natilrl. Geschichte der Hirsche," i: 
Abh. schweiz. palaeont. Ges., 1881, viii, p. 42. 

5 H. Nitsche : " Studien iiber Hirsche, 1898, i, pp. 23, 49, 50. 

DECADE IV. — VOL. VIII. — NO. YI. 10 



242 Dr. C. I. Forsyth Major — Characters of Mammals. 

The phenomenon, however, is by no means restricted to senility. 
Otto himself dissected an antlered doe pregnant with two foetuses,^ 
and Nitsche shows that the presence of antlers in the female Capreolus 
is independent of senile sterility.^ 

Instances of the occurrence of antlers in the female Virginia and 
Columbia deer are adduced by Caton.^ 

If we survey the cases recorded in the literature, no doubt remains 
that the capacity of developing antlers is latent in the female 
Cervidse, and only an impulse is required. 

In a case recorded by W. Blasius, of a doe, the abnormal antler on 
the right side could be traced to a mechanical lesion produced by 
the presence of a piece of glass, and Blasius is probably right in 
supposing that the exostosis occasioned by the lesion assumed the 
shape of an antler, owing to its occurring in the region where the 
antlers are developed in the male.* 

The remarkable case communicated to the Linnean Society by 
James Hoy on December 16th, 1791, is a curious parallel to the male 
plumage exhibited in female game-birds as a consequence of a lesion 
of the ovaries. " A hind, the female of Cerviis elaphus, was shot by 
the Duke of Gordon, which had one horn perfectly similar to that of 
a stag three years old. It had never had a horn on the other side of 
its head, for there the corresponding place was covered over by the 
skin, and quite smooth. It did not seem to have ever produced 
a fawn, and upon dissection the ovarium on the same side with the 
horn was found to be schin-ous." ^ 

Next in order comes the constant presence of rudimentary pedicles 
in old does, viz. at a time when the sexual functions have ceased. 

Moreover, it appears, especially from Nitsche's observations 
alluded to above, that the females of Capreolus, at any rate, are 
beginning to develop antlers before senile sterility sets in ; so that 
this new character of the doe has every chance of being transferred 
to her offspring, independent of the sex, and to become general in 
the does also, as it has become already almost general in female 
reindeers. 

Giraffidce. — For reasons formerly given,® I agree with Lydekker, 
by including in the family Giraffidse the iSivatherium group 
of Euminants from the Sivaliks [Sivatherium — Brahmatherium — 
Hydaspitherium — Vishnutherium) . 

The two recent species of Giraffa develop horns in both sexes. 

Gaudry made known a hornless form, Helladotherium Duvernoyi, 
from the Upper Miocene of Pikermi ; the skull described by him 

^ A. "W. Otto : ' ' Seltene Beobaclitungeii zur Anatomie, Physiologie, und Pathologie 
gehorig," 1816, i, p, 71 (xxx). 

- Op. cit., p. 50, where is quoted also a former paper by the same author in 
Tharander f orstliches Jahrbuch, 1883, xsii, p. 118. 

3 J. D. Caton: " The Antelope and Deer of America," 1881, 2nded., pp. 232, 233. 

* Jahresber. d. Vereins f. Naturw. zu Braunschweig, ix, Sitzungsber., pp. 11-13 
(1894-95). 

5 Trans. Linn. Soc, vol. ii, p. 356. 

^ Forsyth Major, " On the Fossil Remains of Species of the Family Giraffidas " : 
Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1891, p. 315. 



Dr. C. I. Forsijfh Major — Characters of Mammals. 243 

is the only one known of this genus, although various large-sized 
Giraffoid hornless skulls have in turn been called JTelladotheriiini , 
and even united with the Pikermian species. For the present it 
cannot be decided whether the ITelladotheniim was hornless in both 
sexes or in the female only. The Giraffoid genus from the 
contemporai'y deposit of Samos — which occurs also at Maragha in 
Persia — has been founded by me on a form provided with supraorbital 
horns and on a hornless form, which otherwise agrees perfectly 
with the former; I therefore have considered them to be male and 
female forms respectively of one species, Samotherium Boissieri, Maj. 
A smaller, closely allied form, Palceotragus Bouenti, Gaudr. (Pikermi, 
Samos, Maragha), originally believed to be an antelope, is also 
represented by a form provided with, and one devoid of, horns. 

" In the skull of an aged specimen of Samotherium, just above 
the orbits, where the large horns are placed in the horned specimens, 
there occur very small processes separated by a suture from the 
underlying part of the frontal." ^ The explanation I then submitted 
was, that in aged individuals of the female Samotherium male 
characters occasionally make their appearance. Another specimen,- 
of which but a portion of the frontal is preserved, exhibits above 
the right orbit only a similar epiphysis as the one just mentioned ; 
its height is no more than 9 mm., with a longitudinal extension 
of about 32 mm. To judge from the size of the fragment and the 
texture of the bone, it belonged to an adult, although not an aged 
individual. It cannot therefore be considered to be a young 
specimen of the horned form ; in the latter the horn attains a size 
of upwards of 210 mm.^ Several other adult hornless skulls of 
Samotherium, one of which is in the British Museum, show no 
trace of an incipient horn. 

From the foregoing we may conclude that in this Tertiary member 
of the Giraffid^e the females are beginning to develop horns, which 
primarily were male sexual characters of the Samotherium, whether 
used as weapons or purely ornamental. 

Bovincs. — With regard to all their salient characters the Bovina) 
are the most terminal group of Ruminants. No instance of the 
occurrence of hornless females in recent wild bovine animals is known. 

When working in the Palseontological Museum at Florence I came 
upon the hornless skull of a Ruminant from the Pliocene of the 
Val d'Arno, which had been discovered a few yeai's previously and 
variously interpreted ; the statement published somewhere that in 
the Val d'Arno fauna occurred a Ruminant closely allied to the 
camel, refers to the skull in question. On close examination I found 
that the fossil presented all the cranial and dental characters of 
Falconer's Bos etrnscus from the same deposits, with the essential 
difierence that no traces of horn-cores were present. My conclusion 
was that the skull was that of a female ' Bos etruscus.^ I published 

1 Forsyth Major, op. cit., p. 319. 

^ Nos. 712, 712« of my first collection from Samos, which is the property of 
Mr. William Barbey in Geneva. 

2 No. 17 of the Swiss Collection. 



244 Dr. C. I. Forsyth Major — Characters of Mammals. 

the fact at tlie time/ and also ventured to transmit the information 
to Charles Darwin, who embodied it in the second edition of his 
"Descent of Man." 2 

Unaware of my previous statement, Eiitimeyer announced in 
1878 as a novel fact the discovery of a hornless fossil member of 
the Bovinae.' The skull in question, B.M. No. 48,037, from the 
older Pliocene of the Sivalik Hills, he described and figured as 
Leptobos Falconeri, Eiit. From the absence of horn-cores, from the 
great extension of the parietal zone, and from its general slender 
and elegant build, the skull is considered to be that of a female. 
But at the same time it is conjectured that part of the horned 
skulls attributed to the same species might equally be of the female 
sex ; this on account of their weaker horns.* 

The skull from the Val d'Arno is described and figured in the 
same memoir, together with the cast of a second equally hornless 
skull from the same locality, the original of which is preserved 
in the private collection of the Marchese Strozzi. Eiitimeyer's 
conclusion is very different from mine ; the hornless skulls from 
the Val d'Arno are named Leptobos Strozzii, and thus placed in 
a different genus and group from Falconer's Bos etruscus, which 
becomes the Bibos etruscus.^ As Eiitimeyer was indisputably the 
highest authority in this particular branch of palaeontology, my 
previous most positive statement must have been considered in the 
light of a rather rash proceeding. 

Years afterwards my excavations at Olivola (Upper Pliocene) 
brought to light several hornless bovine skulls, and made it in- 
cumbent on me to reinvestigate the whole matter, the more so 
as some additional horned skulls from the Val d'Arno had in the 
meantime enriched the Florence Museum. The result arrived at^ 
was a confirmation of my former view, that the hornless and horned 
bovine skulls from the Upper Pliocene of Italy are one and the 
same species. This species is nearly related to the Sivalik Leptobos, 
as Eiitimeyer had already shown with respect to the hornless form 
of the Val d'Arno. The obvious conclusion was to collocate the 
bovines from the Italian Pliocene in the genus Leptobos : Leptobos 
elatus (Croiz,).'' 

Stehlin, another pupil of Eiitimeyer, has quite recently studied 
the Florentine collections ; with regard to the above question, he 
declares that after repeated examination of the materials he agrees 
with my view that Eiitimeyer's 'Leptobos Strozzii' is nothing else 
than the female form of his ' Bibos etruscus.' ® 

I do not think it necessary to enter into the particulars of the 
case, which are published. For the present purpose it is sufficient 

1 Palajontographiea, 1873, ii, 2 (xxii), p. 123. 2 1874, p, 505. 

3 L. Riitimeyer, "Die Einder der Tertiaer-Epoclie," etc.: Abh. sch-weiz. 
palaeont. Ges., 1878, p. 162. 

* Op. cit., p. 164. 5 Op. cit., pp. 167-17-5. 

* Forsyth Major, "L'Ossario di Olivola in Yal di Magra " : Proc. Verb. Soc. 
Tosc. Sc. Nat., March 3, 1890, pp. 71-75. 

' Forsyth Major, op. cit., p. 75. 

* Abh. schweiz. palaeont. Ges., 1900, xxvii, p. 466, note. 



Dr. C. I. Fors//th Major — Characters of Mammals. 245 

to point out that in the earliest known — Pliocene — representatives 
of bovine animals, part, at any rate, of the females were devoid of 
horns, whereas, as stated before, the females of all the wild recent 
species, without exception, have acquired them. The occurrence of 
hornless forms in domestic races has been explained by Riitimeyer 
as a reversion.^ 

Suidce. — The male weapons of Suidaj are the tusks. Stehlin has 
recently shown that the male Potamochoerus provincialis (Gerv.) from 
the Lower Pliocene of Montpellier was already provided with equally 
strong developed canines as the recent species. In the female fossil 
form they are about equally developed as in Sus scrofa."^ Some 
years ago I figured on two plates male and female skulls of 
recent species of Potamochoerus,^ from which it can be seen that in 
the Malagasy and East African Potamochceri the canines of the 
females are almost equal in size and shape to those of the males. 
The same occurs in the case of the Bornean Sus barhatns,^ and, to 
judge from a skull described and figui'ed by Rolleston,^ may occur 
also in the female of Sus andamanensis. 

In the West African Potamochoerus, according to Stehlin's 
observation, the canines of the female are weaker than in the eastern 
species." 

Stehlin has strongly insisted upon the importance of this instance 
of transmission of male sexual characters to the female, in Potamo- 
choerus. "Dieselbe ist in doppelter Hinsicht von allergrostem 
Interesse. Einmal darum weil durch sie im allerletzten Abschnitt 
der Erdgeschichte nochmals ein evidenter Fortschritt gegeniiber dem 
Pliocaen erzielt wird, sodann aber auch in rein morphologischer 
Hinsicht, insofern als mit ihrem Eintreten ein viJllig neuer, bis 
dahin unbetretener Weg in der Umformung und Weiterbildung der 
ganzen Species betreten wird." ^ (" It is of the greatest interest, 
firstly, because by means of this transmission there is again an 
evident progress in the last chapter of the earth's history, as compared 
with the Pliocene ; secondly, from a purely morphological point of 
view, because by it a hitherto completely new and untrodden road 
in the transformation and progression of the whole species is now 
opened.") 

In our own species the modern aspirations of women are, to all 
appearances, the incipient signs of the same natural law. Physical 
and mental characters of man, originally acquired in the struggles of 
the males, are apparently being slowly transferred to women. They 
only require time for their full evolution. 

^ Op. cit., ]}. 173. 

- H. G. Stehliu, " Uber die Geschiclite d. Suiden-Gebisses " : Abh. sch-weiz. 
palaeont. Ges., 1899, xxvi, pp. 256, 257. 

^ Proc. Zool. Soc. Loudon, 1897, pis. xxv, xxvi. 

■* Stehlin : op. cit., xxvii, p. 466. 

^ Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 1876, p. 286, pi. xli, fig. 3. 

* I.e., xxvi, pp. 255, 256. 

'' Abh. schweiz. palaeont. Ges., 1900, xxvii, p. 466. 



246 F. R. Cowper Heed — Salter's TJndeserihed Species. 

11. — WOODWARDIAN MuSEUM NOTES : SaLTER's UnDESCRIBED 

Species. IV. 

By F. R. Cowper Eeed, M.A., F.G.S. 

(PLATE XI.) 

GASTEEOPODA (continued). 

HoRiosTOMA DiscoRS (Sowerby), var. Mari^ (Salter MS.). (PI. XI, 

Figs. 5 and 6.) 
1873. JEiiomphalus Marice, Salter: Cat. Camb. Sil. Foss. Woodw. Mus., p. 156 

[a 859, «860). 
1891. Euomphalus Marice, "Woods: Cat. Type Foss. Woodw. Mus., p. 103. 

There are four specimens of this form in the Woodwardian 
Museum, labelled a 859 and a 860 by Salter, and all come from the 
Wenlock Limestone of Dudley. Salter (loc. cit. supra) says of it ; 
"Eelated to E. discors, but with most regular ridges of growth, 
A beautiful shell, dedicated to a most worthy lady — the patient 
preparer of this collection [Mrs. Fletcher]." All four specimens 
belong to the Fletcher Collection. 

Diagnosis. — Shell nearly discoidal ; spire short, usually low and 
depressed ; whorls rounded, five or six in number, ornamented on 
their apical surface by four or five weak and inconspicuous 
longitudinal keels, which are crossed nearly at right angles by 
prominent transverse, equidistant, and regular sharp lamellse, not 
very closely set together, and only very slightly undulated where 
they cross the weak keels. As they pass round to the umbilical 
surface of the whorls they bend back gently, but again curve 
forward to the line of contact of the whorls. The umbilical surface 
of the whorls is devoid of longitudinal keels, except in young 
individuals. Umbilicus deep, wide, open, exposing all the whorls. 
Aperture not preserved. 

Measurements. 

mm. 

Breadth of one specimen (« 859) 60'0 

Approximate height of the same 20-0 

Average distance of varices on upper surface 1'5 

Breadth of specimen {a 860) showing the under surface of 

shell 64-0 

Depth of umbilicus of same 12-0 

Ebmarks. — The distinguishing feature of this form is the 
regularity and prominence of the transverse lamellae and their 
slight undulation in crossing the keels. Otherwise it closely 
resembles H. discors and its varieties, including H. rugosum, 
Sowerby.^ It does not seem possible to retain it as an independent 
species, as it nearly approximates many specimens of this very 
variable species H. discors, and transitional forms with intermediate 
characters are not uncommon. 

HoRiosTOMA DISCORS (Sowcrby). 
1873. Euomphalus pacificatus, Salter: Cat. Camb. Sil. Foss. 'Woodw. Mus., p. 156 

[a 861). 
1891. Euomphalus pacificatus, Woods: Cat. Type Foss. Woodw. Mus., p. 103. 

1 Lindstrom : Silur. Gastrop. Pterop. Kongl. Sv. Vet. Akad. Hand!., Bd. 19, No. 6 
(1884), pp. 157-159, pi. xvi, figs. 20-26 ; pi. xvii, figs. 1-10. 



F. R. Coicpcr Reed — Salter'' s Undescribed Species. 247 

There is only one specimen of this form in the Museum thu8 
labelled by Salter (a 861), and it comes from the Wenlock Limestone 
of Dudley. 

Diagnosis. — Shell discoid ; spire short ; whorls six ? (only three 
are preserved), angulated slightly by longitudinal keel near margin 
of flattened apical surface ; sides of whorls ornamented by two weaker, 
equidistant, longitudinal keels. No keels on umbilical surface. 
Surface of whoiTs crossed by small, closely-set, transverse growth- 
lamellge, slightly undulated and irregular, and curving backwards 
from the mouth outside the inner longitudinal keel of apical surface. 
Umbilicus not seen. Aperture apparently oblique. Breadth 36 mm. 

Remakks. — There is no feature by which this form can be separated 
from the variable H. discors, and the species therefore must be 
dropped. The indentation on the outer whorl of the specimen is 
manifestly due to an injury to the shell, and cannot be considered 
as a character of any specific importance. It is not even desirable 
to separate this form as a definite variety of H. discors, a conclusion 
I have reached after examining a large series of the latter species. 

Pleurotomaria Fletoheri, Salter. (PL XI, Fig. 4.) 
1873. Pleurotomaria Fletcheri, Salter : Cat. Camb. Sil. Foss. "Woodw. Mus., 

p. 154 (a 851). 
1891. Pleurotomaria Fletcheri, "Woods: Cat. Type Foss. "Woodw. Mus., p. 112. 

There is only the one original specimen (a 851) in the Wood- 
wardian Museum from the Wenlock Limestone of Dudley and 
belonging to the Fletcher Collection. It is not quite perfect and 
is slightly compressed laterally, but the shell is preserved on the five 
whorls. The figure of a Pleurotomaria given by Salter (op. cit. supra, 
p. 154) in the margin closely resembles this species. 

Diagnosis. — Shell broadly conical; apical angle 50°-60°; whorls six 
in number (only five are preserved), convex, with slit-band grooving 
middle of body-whorl, but situated below middle line of other whorls 
though above suture-line. Two weak longitudinal keels, of which 
the lower is the stronger, are present on apical surface of body-whorl 
above slit-band at equal distances between it and suture-line. On 
the upper whorls the keel nearer the slit-band is more prominent 
and slightly angulates the apical surface of the whorl, but the other 
keel nearer the suture-line is almost obsolete. Slit-band concave 
and sunken as a groove between sharp, prominent, narrow borders ; 
crescents fine, closely packed, sharply curved. Ornamentation of 
apical surface consists of obliquely transverse, slightly sigmoidal 
striae, and wrinkles bending back sharply near the slit-band to meet 
it as an acute angle. The ornamentation below the slit-band is 
similar, the strise being sharply curved back to meet it. Aperture 
not preserved. Height of specimen ca. 45 mm. 

Remarks. — The broadly conical shape of the shell and the position 
of the slit-band on the whorls, as well as its groove-like nature, 
are features found also in PL bifortnis (Lindstrom),^ but the orna- 
mentation of the surface is quite distinct, and only one keel is figured 
in that species above the slit-band. 

^ Lindstrom: op. cit., p. 98, pi. vii, figs. 39-42. 



248 F. R. Coivpar Reed — Salter's Undescribed Species. 

Pleurotomaria ctclonema (Salter). (PL XI, Figs. 1-3.) 

1873. M'urehisonia eyelonema, Salter : Cat. Camb. Sil. Foss. "Woodw. Mus., 

p. 155 {a 848, a 849, a 850). 
1891. MurcJiisonia eyelonema, Woods: Cat. Type Foss. Woodw. Mus., p. 107. 

There are in all fourteen specimens labelled MurcTiisonia eyelonema 
by Salter, varying in size from 10 mm. to 36 mm, in length. 
Several are in an excellent state of preservation, and all come from the 
Wenlock Limestone of Dudley and belong to the Fletcher Collection. 

DiAaNOSis. — Shell conical, turbinate ; whorls five, ventricose. 
Apical angle 50°-60°, being smaller in the older and larger 
individuals. Body- whorl large, equal to half the length of shell or 
even more. Slit-band a little above middle line of body- whorl, but 
in other whorls half-way between the suture-lines. Apical surface 
with distinct swollen band immediately below upper suture-line of 
each whorl, and with one rounded, prominent, longitudinal keel 
between this band and the slit-band. Six or seven longitudinal 
keels below slit-band on body-whorl, of which the uppermost three 
or four are prominent rounded ridges, usually nearly equal in size, 
and nearly equidistant. The other three or four longitudinal keels 
on the body-whorl are on the umbilical surface, and grow 
successively much narrower, fainter, and less prominent. On the 
upper whorls the uppermost three longitudinal keels are alone 
developed in the adult, the number varying from one to three 
according to age. Slit - band prominent, of moderate width, 
bordered on each side by narrow ridge. Surface concave, but 
marked along centre by longitudinal keel, varying in degree of 
development, but making profile of slit-band very characteristic. 
Crescents not very numerous, gently arched backwards, but strongly 
marked, and in some of the smaller individuals sub-lamellar. Apical 
surface of whorls crossed obliquely by fine sigmoidal thread-like 
raised lines, at regular distances apart in young individuals but more 
closely and less regularly packed in adults. Below slit -band the 
whorls are ornamented by similar transverse lines, but crossing the 
keels nearly at right angles instead of obliquely. On both sides of 
the slit-band the lines are sharply bent back. 

Mouth large, subcircular or oval, slightly oblique to axis of shell. 

Measurements. 



I 


II 


Ill 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


36-0 . 


.. 21-0 ., 


,. 17-0 


25-0 . 


.. 15-0 ., 


.. 13-5 


50° . 


., 55° ., 


.. 60° 



Length 

Breadth (across body-whorl) 
Apical angle 

Kemarks, — This species bears much resemblance to Pleurotomaria 
laqueata (Lindstrom),^ from the corresponding beds of Gotland, in 
its general shape, in the distribution and number of the keels, and 
in the position of the slit-band, but differs in the minute characters 
of the latter, which is an important point. 

It has the general aspect of PL Lloydi, Sow,, but differs in having 
only one keel above the slit - band and fewer and larger keels 

^ Lindstrom : op, cit., p. 102, pi. ix, figs. 4-6. 



GeolMag.1901. 



f 



v^: 




DecaieWVoimiPlXI. 



■rtT'-S 



^i^'^ 



i. 




\-A 



?^3 



'^>j)^^^ 4- 



GMWo odwaxliei.et libk. 



We sb J>F e'wraa.n.imp . 



Gasberopoda.Weiilock Limes tone, DiO-dley, 



J. p. Johmon — Cretaceous Rocks of Glynde. 249 

below, and in the lower position of the slit-band and its minute 
characters. The slit-band, in fact, resembles more closely that of 
PL bicincta (Hall) ^ than that of any other species in the presence 
of the keel along the middle of the band and its sharp borders. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XI. 

Fig. 1. — Plcurotomaria cijclonema, Salter, sp. Nat. size. 

Fig. 2. — Ditto, showing mouth. Nat. size. 

Fig. 3. — Ditto, slit-baud, x 5. 

Fig. 4. — Pleurotomaria Fletcheri, Salter. Nat. size. 

Fig. 5. — Horiostoma discorx, var. Maria, Salter, sp. Nat. size. ' 

Fig. 6. — Ditto, umbilical surface. Nat. size. 



III. — Some Sections in the Cretaceous Eocks around Glynde, 

AND their Fossil Contents. 

By J. P. Johnson. 

IN the memoir recently published by the Geological Survey ^ on 
the Selbornian strata of England, no mention is made of an 
interesting section in the Gault near Glynde, which was certainly 
in existence up to 1898, when I last visited the district. The object 
of the present note is to put this section on record, together with 
some observations on two chalk quarries, from which I have at 
various times collected fossils. 

The pit in the Gault is situated on private land about a quarter of 
a mile from the railway station, with which it is connected by 
a railroad. As far as I can remember, it showed some 15 feet of 
slate-blue clay, containing an abundance of pyrites, and consequently 
a quantity of selenite, though in small crystals. The only organic 
remains that wei'e at all plentiful were the ammonites, Schlcenbachia 
varicosus, Hoplites denarius, and AncijJoceras spiniijerum. The 
finding of a big tooth of Pvolospliijrcena ferox is noteworthy. 

The large quarry in the Chalk at the railway station exhibits 
a fine section of the well-known limestone, which here contains 
a very small proportion of clayey matter and occasional nodules of 
marcasite. It is of Cenoraanian age, as shown by the occurrence of 
Schloenbachia varians. The commonest fossils are the Selachian 
remains, amongst which I may especially mention a nice series of 
the teeth of Scaphanorhynchus siibidatus and forty-seven associated 
teeth of Ptychodus decurrens. It was from here that I obtained the 
fine mandibular ramus of Pachyrhizodus Gardneri which is in the 
British Museum. 

Just outside the village, on the right-hand side of the road to 
Lewes, and joined to the above-mentioned quarry by a railroad, 
is another large excavation in the Chalk. This is at a higher level, 
and is in the face of the escarpment. The Chalk differs from that 
already described in being free from argillaceous matter; it also 
yields nodules of marcasite and, in the topmost beds, a few flints. 
It is mostly of Turonian age, as shown by the abundance of 
Rhynchonella Cuvieri, Inoceramus mytiloides, I. Cuvieri, and Lima 

* Lindstrom: op. cit., p. 106, pi. viii, figs. 21 and 23. 

* " The Cretaceous Rocks of Britain," vol. i (1900) ; by A. J. Jukes-Browue. 



250 



J. P. Johnson — Cretaceous Rocks of Glynde. 



spinosa, but a little is probably Senonian, for the hard sub-crystalline 
band known as the Chalk Rock, which in this country strati- 
graphically separates the two periods, is certainly present, though 
I have not been able to determine its exact position, as the section 
has always been obscured during my visits by the talus resulting 
from blasting operations. I have a series of thirty-nine associated 
teeth of Ptychodus mammilaris from here in Chalk Eock matrix. 



LIST OF FOSSILS. 






Pisces. 
Faehyrhizodus Gard/neri, Mason 


S. 


C. 


T. 




* 




Cimolichf kys Zevesiensis, heidy ... 






* 




Frotosphyrcena ferox, Leidy 




* 


* 




{Scaphanorhynchus'^) suhulatus, Ag. .. 






* 




Lamna appendiculata, Ag 






* 


* 


' Oxyrhina angustidens, Heuss ' 






* 




Oxyrhina Mantelli, Ag 






* 


* 


Corax falcatus, Ag. 






* 


* 


Notidaniis microdon, Kg 






* 




Ftychodus mammilaris, Ag 








* 


Ptychodus decurrens, Ag 






* 




Cephalopoda. 








Nautilus {sublcevigatuSjWOvh. '^) 




* 




Ancyloceras spinigertim, J . Shj 




* 






Scaphites Hugardianus, J. Sby 




* 






Acanfhoceras navicularis, Mant 






* 




Soplites denarius, J . Shj 




* 






Schloenbachia varians, J. Shy 






* 




iSchlcenbachia varicosus, J. Shy 




* 






Desmoceras £eudanti,BTong. ... . 




* 






Gastropoda. 








Aporrhais Farldnsoni, M-ixnt 


* 






Plenrotoniaria perspectiva, Mant 




* 




Pelecypoda. 








Nucula pectinata, '5 . Shy 




* 






Fholadomya decussata, Mant 






* 




{Lima?) spinosa, J. Sby 








* 


Flagiostoma globosa, J. Sby 






* 




Inoceramus Cuvieri, J. Sby 








* 


Inoceramus mytiloides, Mant 








* 


Brachiopoda. 








Terebratula biplicata, J. Sby 




* 


* 


Mhynchonella Ctwieri, D'Orb 






* 


Crustacea. 








Enoploclytia Sussexiensis 




* 




ECHINOIDEA. 








Feltastes clathratus, Ag 




* 





Skirting the Chalk escarpment westwards, one at length arrives at 
the classical Lewes quarries. They do not need to be dealt with 



G. C. Crick — On Ammonites Ramsayanus. 251 

here, as they have ah-eady been described, but I think it desirable to 
mention three quartz pebbles which I obtained from one of the 
workmen. They were all in pieces of chalk, and one is encrusted 
with a species of Bryozoa. From the finder's description I gathered 
that they had either come from the highest of the Turonian beds or 
from the oldest of the Senouian. 

Annexed is a list of the organic remains which I have collected 
from the above- described sections. The nomenclature of the 
Selachians is that employed by Dr. A. S. Woodward in his " Notes 
on the Shark's Teeth from British Cretaceous Formations." ^ With 
regard to the teeth termed ' Oxyrhina angiistidens/ they are of two 
kinds — those in which the back portion is smooth and those in 
which it is striated. I venture to think that these should be referred 
respectively to Scaphanorhynchis subidatiis and S. rhaphiodon. Like 
the Selachians, Prolosphyrcena ferox is represented by teeth only, 
while Cimolicliihys Levesiensis is indicated by a single example of its 
peculiarly barbed pterygoid teeth. 

IV. — Note on a Chalk Ammonite, probably referable to 

Ammonites Ramsayaiyus, Sharpe. 

By G. C. Crick, F.G.S., of the British Museum (Natural History). 

IN 1856 Sharpe - founded the species Ammonites Ramsayanus upon 
a single deformed specimen (in the collection of J. Wiest, Esq.) 
that was obtained from the "Chalk with silicious grains, at Chard- 
stock, Somersetshire." 

His description is as follows : — 

" A testa discoidea, costata, tuberculata ; anfractibus paucis, sub- 
compressis : costis continuis, bi-tuberculatis, ad dorsum bifurcatibus : 
dorso lato, rotundato, costato, utrinque tuberculato : umbilico parvo : 
apertura oblonga. 

" Shell discoidal, with few, slightly flattened whorls, and a broad 
rounded back : the whorls are ornamented on the sides by twenty 
ribs, each of which rise from a small tubercle at the edge of the 
umbilicus, and has another larger tubercle near the back ; at the 
latter tubercle each rib divides into two smaller ribs, which continue 
across the back, and unite again at the corresponding tubercle on the 
other side of the back : umbilicus small, allowing nearly half of 
the inner whorls to be seen : aperture oblong : the septa have not 
been seen." 

Eespecting the type-specimen Sharpe wrote : — " The only specimen 
which has been seen of this species is deformed, owing, without 
doubt, to an accident met with when very young. In consequence 
of this malformation, the two sides have very little resemblance to 
each other ; and the specific character given above may prove in- 
correct when more perfect specimens are met with." 

Mr. Jukes-Browne has recently called my attention to an Ammonite^ 

* Proc. Geol. Assoc, vol. xiii (1894). 

2 D. Sharpe: Foss. Moll. Chalk (Mon. Pal. Soc), pt. ill, 1856, p. 51, pi. xxiii, 
ff. 4a-c. 

^ For the loan of this fossil my best thanks are due to the Rev. H. H. Winwood, 
M.A., F.G.S. 



252 G. C. Crick — On Ainmonites Ramsayanus. 

belonging to the Bath Museum that I think is referable to Sharpe's 
* species.' The specimen is labelled " Chalk marl : Evershot." The 
dimensions of the type-specimen as given by Sharpe are : — Diameter, 
1\ inch [or about 38 mm.] ; height of the last whorl, f inch [or 
about 16 mm.] ; width of the aperture, ^ inch [or about 12-75 mm.]. 
On account of the malformation of the specimen the width of the 
umbilicus is not quite the same on the two sides, but according to 
Sharpe's figures, which from their other measurements appear to be 
drawn of the natural size, the width of the umbilicus on the side 
represented in his fig. 4a is 11 mm. These dimensions expressed 
in terms of the diameter, when this is taken as 100, are : — Diameter, 
100 ; height of last whorl, 4:1 -66 ; width of the aperture (or thickness 
of the last whorl), 33-33 ; width of umbilicus, 30. 

The dimensions of the present specimen, of which rather more 
than half the outer whorl belonged to the body-chamber, are : — 
Diameter, 35-5 mm. (100) ; height of the outer whorl, 14 mm. 
(39 -43) ; thickness of the outer whorl (or width of the aperture), 
13-5 mm. (38-0); width of umbilicus, 11mm. (32-27). The 
specimen is well preserved and very nearly sj^mmetrical, each side 
closely resembling the lateral view depicted by Sharpe in his fig. 4a, 
and the transverse section of the whorl agreeing very closely with 
his fig. 4c. 

Compared with Sharpe's type-specimen, however, the present 
example exhibits some differences. It has a slightly wider umbilicus ; 
the ribs on the lateral area are more distinct and regular even up to 
the anterior end of the specimen, but less numerous, being only 
sixteen in number on the outer whorl, and, in passing from the 
umbilicus towards the periphery, are more forwardly inclined, whilst 
the lateral tubercle is nearer the middle of the lateral area. The 
greatest diiference, however, is in the character of the periphery. 
The whole of the periphery of Sharpe's type-specimen is broadly 
rounded from side to side. This is not quite the case in the present 
specimen. The periphery of the earliest portion of the outer whorl 
is on the whole broadly rounded but not regularly convex ; one side 
is convex, but the other is somewhat flattened and in part depressed, 
so that the periphery of this portion of the outer whorl bears a feeble 
groove which is not quite in the median line. At a subsequent 
stage, i.e. at a short distance from the commencement of the outer 
whorl, two broad shallow grooves, about 3-5 mm. apart, appear 
(one a little earlier than the other) one on each side of the median 
line, and almost close to the margin, of the periphery ; these 
gradually deepen as the whorl increases in size, and at the anterior 
end of the specimen are about 5 mm. apart. 

The ribs on the two sides are not opposite but alternate; each 
bears a rather small compressed transversely-elongated tubercle at 
the umbilical margin, and a similar but more prominent tubercle 
at about the middle, or rather outside the middle, of the lateral area. 
On about the first half of the outer whorl each rib bifurcates, 
though not very distinctly, at the lateral tubercle, and the broad 
feeble branches cross the periphery, sometimes a little irregularly, 



H. W. Pearson — Oscillations of Sea -level. 253 

aud join the branches from the opposite side, each branch being 
slightly thickened into an obtuse tubercle at the margin of the 
periphery. On the rest of the outer whorl each rib, instead of 
actually bifurcating, bends slightly backward at the lateral tubercle 
and passes straight to the peripheral margin, where it is slightly 
thickened into a blunt obtuse tubercle ; whilst in the space between 
each pair of lateral tubercles, but somewhat nearer the periphery 
than the tubercles themselves, an obscure rib arises and also passes 
to the peripheral margin, where it is also similarly thickened ; the 
tubercles on the intermediate ribs are frequently stronger than those 
at the extremities of the principal ribs. In a few instances the ribs 
are raised into a very obtuse tubercle on the median line of the 
periphery. On the peripheral area of the earliest portion of the 
outer whorl, i.e. the portion bearing the single feeble groove, the ribs 
on one side of the median line are slightly inclined backwards, whilst 
on the other side they are nearly direct. Although portions of the 
septa can be seen, a complete suture-line cannot be made out, but 
from the parts that are visible the septa appear to be fairly 
symmetrical. 

On the whole I think there cannot be much doubt about the 
present example being referable to Sharpens Ammonites Ramsayanits. 
Notwithstanding the apparent symmetrj' of the specimen, its peri- 
phery presents certain appearances which suggest that the fossil is 
deformed. 

One side of Sharpe's specimen, viz. that represented in his fig. 4&, 
looks something like a deformed Ammonites Salteri, ' which Sharpe 
also described from the " Chalk with silicious grains, at Chardstock, 
Somersetshire," but the opposite side appears to be quite dififerent. 

Sharpe's type-specimen certainly was deformed, and I think the 
Bath specimen is also, but being unable to refer them to any other 
species which has hitherto been described from the Chalk, it seems 
desirable to retain, at least provisionally, Sharpe's name Ammonites 
Bamsayanus. 



V. — Oscillations in the Sea-level. (Part III.) 

By H. W. Pearson. 

[Oontinited from the May Number, p. 231.) 

Data nsed in shoioing a Period of High Sea - level in the North, 
culminating about the years 1475 to 1500. 

NORWICH, England, is represented as situated on the banks of 
an arm of the sea even in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries 
(Lyell's "Principles," 11th ed., vol. i, p. 521; S. Woodward 2). 
Early in the fourteenth century Pagham Harbour was formed by 
a sudden inroad of the sea (Encyc. Brit., vol. xxii, p. 723). 

1 D. Sharpe: Foss. Moll. Chalk (Mou. Pal. Soc), pt. iii, 1856, p. 50, pi. xxiii, 
ff. 3«, b, c, and Cic, h. 

- "History and Anti([iutics of Norwich Castle," 1836. Plates showing- the 
' Yarmouth Hutch Map,' a.d. 1000, aud at various other periods, earlier and later : 
drawn from local records and ifoological observaticms. 



254 H. W. Pearson — Oscillations of Sea-level. 

Town of Eye " situated upon a rocky eminence which two or 
three centuries ago was washed on all sides by the influx of the 
tides, but now, in consequence of the gradual recession of the 
sea, lies two miles inland" (Encyc. Brit., vol. xxi, p. 117). In 
Charles II's time (1660-1685) a 64-gun frigate could ride in the 
harbour of Eye ; now a ship of half that size could not obtain an 
entrance (Clark's " Guide and History of Eye," p. 63). Between 
1292 and 1340 upwards of 5,500 acres were submerged by the sea 
in Sussex (Encyc. Brit., vol. xxii, p. 723). "It is said that old 
Winchelsea contained 50 inns and taverns and 700 householders : 
here 400 sail of the tallest ships, it is said, anchored in the Camber 
near Eye, where sheep and cattle now feed." Three hundred 
houses destroyed by rising of the sea in the year 1250, and the 
destruction made total by the great inundation of 1287 (Clark's 
" Guide and History of Eye," pp. 64, 65). 

Great portions of the English Fens were drowned in the years 
1248, 1250, 1257, 1286, 1292, 1322, 1357, 1358 ; Marshland drowned 
in 1287, 1289, 1292, 1294, 1295, 1297, 1334, 1339, 1378, 1422, 
1520, and 1569 ("The Fenland Past and Present," p. 146). "In 
the year 1362 the unfortunate Marshlanders show that the Lynn 
Eiver, which formerly was only 12 perches broad, was then 
a full mile in breadth ; but in the years 1378, 1565, and 1608 
we find notices showing that the river was growing wider " 
(p. 212). Eaveneserodd destroyed by the sea, thirteenth and 
fourteenth centuries. " 1377 and 1393 appear to have been 
critical years in the waste of this coast" ("Lincolnshire and 
the Danes," pp. 239, 240). Hugh of Levens, in a petition to the 
Archbishop of York shortly after 1339, says, " Whereas our manors 
and lands of Saltagh, Tharlesthorp, Frysmerske, Wythfleet,Dymelton, 
and Eaveneserodd were so destroyed every day and night by increasing 
inundations of the waters," etc. (p. 46). Towns of Holton, Northrup, 
and Newton destroyed at the same time (p. 49). " When Henry IV 
landed at Eavenspurn, June, 1399, the towns of Eavenser and 
Eaveneserodd had long been engulfed by the waters " (p. 57). " In 
that time (1249 to 1269) the sea inundated and passed over its 
coasts almost throughout the whole eastern part of England, and 
the Humber, exceeding its limits, covered the land even to our 
fishing and wood of Cotyngham " (p. 67, quoting "Chronicles of 
Meaux" ; Boyle, " The Lost Towns of the Humber "). 

" In the thirteenth century the river [Fleet Eiver in London] 
was of such breadth and depth that ten or twelve ships at once with 
merchandise were wont to come to the bridge of Fleet and some of 
them to Holborn bridge " (Whealey, " London Past and Present," 
p. 52). After the great fire (1666) "the citizens had it deepened 
between Holborn and the Thames so that barges might ascend with 
the tide as far as Holborn as before" (p. 53). See copy of drawing 
on stairway of St. Martin's Free Library, London, by Anty' van den 
Wyngaerde (original in Bodleian Library, Oxford). Date of picture, 
15*43. This shows Moats of Tower on a level with the Thames and 
full of water. Shows also Fleet Eiver with bridges at Fleet and 



H. W.Pearson — Oscillations of Sea-level. 255 

Holborn streets. There is no possible method of explaining the 
peculiarities of this drawing, except by the assumption that the 
Thames at that time stood 12 to 15 feet higher than at present. 

In the History of the City of Chester, by Joseph Hemmingway, 
we read, " The New Water Tower was erected in the year 1322 " 
(p. 133). "At the outside of this Tower are fixed great iron rings, 
being of use heretofore for mooring the ships" (p. 356). "It is 
certain that long before the period at which this was written [about 
1706] vessels had ceased to approach this tower" (p. 356). Quoting 
Fuller from his "Worthies of the City" (pub. 1662), "and now 
being about to take our leave of this ancient and honorable city, 
the worst that I wish it is that the distance between the Dee and the 
New Tower may be made up — that the rings on the New Tower 
(now only for sight) may be restored to the service for which they 
were first intended," etc. 

Castle Huntley (in the Carse of Gowrie, Scotland) was erected in 
1452 (Encyc. Brit., vol. xviii, p. 667). " This castle once had rings 
fixed to it for mooring the boats formerly sailing on the surrounding 
waters" (Chambers, "Ancient Sea Margins," p. 20). This castle 
is now some miles from the sea, and tlae ordnance map of that 
region shows that it would be necessary to elevate the sea-level 
20 to 24 feet to again allow these rings to be put to their 
original use. " Yet we have internal evidence from the marginal 
observations in one of the set of books (Eecords of Tide Gauges, 
Leith, Scotland) that in the year 1810 mean tides rose to a point 
2 ft. 10 ins. higher than they do at present " (Mr. Thomas Smyth, 
Geol. Mag., 1866, Vol. Ill, p. 427). Mr. Smyth, in conclusion, 
stated that " The upheaval which is at present taking place on the 
shores of the Firth of Forth and in Berwickshire has its counter- 
part in Caithness, which is rising at nearly the same rate " (p. 427). 
The low-water level in Glasgow Harbour has fallen 8 feet since 
1758 : alleged cause, improvements in bed of Clyde ; real cause, 
the so-called upheaval as shown above by Smyth (Geological 
Record, 1876, p. 10). "The encroachments of the land upon the 
sea are strikingly exhibited in the sandbanks and deltas of the 
principal bays and estuaries of the island [Arran], and there can be 
little doubt that a few centuries ago the ships of the islanders found 
a secure harbourage within the creeks and bays, where the heath 
and brushwood now luxuriate " (McArthur, " The Antiquities of 
Arran," p. 105). 

The Gulf Stream Islands were discovered in 1871. " In the spot 
where these now are, the Dutch in 1594 found and measured 
a sandbank in soundings of 18 fathoms, showing an upheaval here 
of 100 feet in 300 years " (Journ. Roy. Geog. Soc, 1873, p. 253). 
We note as to this that we have no evidence that the Dutch found 
the shoalest water, therefore this estimated upheaval is probably con- 
siderably too large. Diomed Island (on Siberian coast), described 
by Chalavrof in 1760, no longer exists ; it now forms a part of 
the main (p. 256). "From 1730 to 1839 the upheaval of 
Loefifgrund amounted to 2 ft. 11 ins. only " (Reclus ; Harpers, " The 



256 H. W.Pearson — Oscillations of Sea-level. 

Earth," p. 531). "Borre, a village (in Denmark) now lost amidst 
the Fens, stood on the beach in 1510" ("The Earth and its 
Inhabitants," Europe, vol. v, p. 54). "These mountains [of 
Spitzbergen] increase in bulk every year, so as to be plainly 
discoverable. Leonin was surprised to find on the hill, about 
a league from the seaside, a small mast of a ship with one of its 
pulleys still fastened to it" (written in 1646; see Journ. Eoy. 
Geog. Soc, 1873, p. 252). "The waters over which the French 
expedition measured an arc of the Meridian (Tornea, Sweden, 
1736-1737) are now replaced by meadows " (Phillips, " Manual 
of Geology," ^. 326). The general and recent so-called upheaval 
of Scandinavia, having been demonstrated so thoroughly through 
modern textbooks, I will make no further reference thereto. 

Caligula erected a.d. 51 a huge tower a mile from the coast near 
Boulogne, France ; in 1544 this tower was only 200 yards from the 
coast ("Antiquities of Hastings," p. 13). Aigues Mortes, a seaport 
in the thirteenth century, is now five miles inland (Smyth, " The 
Mediterranean," p. 13). "Some of the present vineyards of Agde 
were covered by the sea only a century ago " (written about 1850 ; 
ibid., p. 13). "The Tower of Pignaux (Lyell, Tignaux) erected 
on the shore in 1737 ; now a French mile from it " (Milner, " Gallery 
of Nature," p. 398). " The old port of Talmont, where Henry IV 
embarked his artillery (1411), has become dry land" ("The Earth 
and its Inhabitants," Europe, vol. ii, p. 210). The tower built by 
Michael Angelo in 1567 on the very edge of the coast (at mouth of 
Tiber) is now 2,250 yards inland (Lanciani, "Ancient Eome," 
p. 235). On the west side of the Gulf of Taranto a tower erected 
by the Angevine kings (fourteenth and fifteenth centuries) on the 
coast is now above a mile distant from shore (Smyth, " The Medi- 
terranean," p. 36). Poingdestre, writing in 1685, says, "A portion 
of the Jersey Isles became submerged in 1356." "The Ecrehous 
and Dirouilles, on the north-east of Jersey, are known to have 
been much more extensive than at present ; they also sunk probably 
in 1356" (E. A. Peacock in Eep. Brit. Assoc, 1865, p. 70). 

The city of Foah at the commencement of the fifteenth century 
was on the Canopic, mouth of the Nile, now more than a mile inland 
(Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. iv, p. 346). 

J. E. Davis says that embankments built near Tremadoc, Wales, 
since the sixteenth century now rendered useless by the recession of 
the sea (ibid., vol. ii, p. 74). Captain Marcus Jones, of Portmadoc, 
Wales, informed me April 12th, 1898, that his father, he thinks 
about the close of last century or the first of this, went with a boat 
to a place under Tynyberllan, a short distance to the south-east of 
Wern, Tremadoc, to fetch a load of American timber. To allow this 
to be done the sea must necessarily have stood several feet higher 
than at present, Wern being now at least three miles from the sea. 
Mr. F. L. Edwards, Harlech, Wales, in April, 1898, informed me 
that he saw, twenty years before, an old lady who, when she was 
a little girl, visited an aunt in a cottage (Cafinrhyn) about 2| miles 
north of Harlech. During the night the tide came up and she 



H. W.Pearson — Oscillations of 8ea-lcvcl. 257 

jumped out of bed into water up to her knees. Now the tide 
does not come within three miles of this place. At Castle Hotel, 
Harlech, a picture of Harlech Castle (printed by Alex. Bogg, 
16, Paternoster Eow) is exhibited, showing the sea reaching to 
the base of the castle. Sea is now one mile distant. It would be 
interesting to learn the date of this picture. 

The Zuyder Zee was opened at the expense of the land in the 
first years of the thirteenth century, "and never ceased to enlarge 
itself during 200 years " (Reclus, " The Ocean," p. 154). In 1230 
occurred the terrible inundation of Friesland, costing the lives of 
100,000 people ; ia 1231 the lakes of Haarlem overflowed, and 
gradually increasing united with each other toward 1650. In 
1277 the Gulf of Dollart began to be hollowed out. It was only 
in 1537 that the invasion of the sea, which had devoured the town 
of Torum and fifty villages, could be arrested ; in 1287 the Zuyder 
Zee drowned 60,000 persons ; in 1421 seventy-two villages were 
submerged at once (" The Ocean," p. 154). The island of Wieringer, 
part of the mainland in 1205, was detached by floods in 1219, 1220, 
1221, 1246, 1251. The Biesbosch, Holland, formed in 1421, twenty- 
two villages drowned. Inundations of the Gulf of Dollart, 1277, 
1278, 1280, and 1287. The western coast of Schleswig swallowed 
up in 1240. Fourteen villages in Isle of Cadsand, Zealand, sub- 
merged in 1337. Kortgene Island engulfed in 1530 ("The Gallery 
of Nature," p. 389). 

The record above given of the devastation wrought by the sea iu 
Holland between the years 1200 and 1500 is but partial ; it might 
be extended tenfold, but it is sufficient to show exactly what 
occurred on these shores during the period named. The history is 
plain to read ; about the year 1200 the rising sea-level began to 
overtop the barriers erected by the people of the lowlands for the 
protection of their homes. Those barriers which yesterday were 
found ample will to-morrow be found deficient in height. The 
progressive rising of the sea exceeding the ability of man to elevate 
the embankments. The result is that during the 250 years or more 
which elapsed before these waters reached their highest level, the 
history of Holland forms one long chapter of horrors. We can see 
also that during the pex'iod when Holland was sinking beneath 
the waves the English coast was undergoing the same ordeal, as 
illustrated in the history of Rye, Norwich, Winchelsea, Ravenser, 
and the Fens, only, more fortunate than Holland, she had little 
low-lying lands along her borders liable to submergence ; her 
losses, therefore, during the epoch of the advancing sea were less 
extensive. 

The haven in which the Chinese Admiral anchored his fleet 
(in Formosa, 1661) "is now a dry, arid plain, over which there 
is a road and several canals cut to communicate with the old port 
of Tai-wau-fu " (Journ. Roy. Geog. Soc, vol. xliii, p. 99). "The 
Dutch fort of 1624, originally built on au islet at some distance from 
the shore, now forms part of Formosa, and under its ruins the water 
is so shallow that passengers laud with much difficulty where was 

DECADE IV. — VOL. VIII. — NO. VI. 17 



258 H. W.Pearson — Oscillations of Sea-level. 

formerly deep water" {Science, vol. v, p. 262). Newchang (China), 
once a seaport, abandoned for Taitze, on account of recession of the 
sea. Taitze in its turn abandoned during the present century, and 
Yingtze established owing to the shoaling of the water (Journ. 
Koy. Geog. Soc, vol. xliii, p. 258). 

Indian Survey shows " it is almost certain that the mean, sea-level 
at Madras is a foot lower than it was sixty years ago" (Science, 
vol. iv, p. 212). Gaur, or Gour, India, subject to inundation in 
1590; not so now (Encyc. Brit., vol. x, p. 113). "Very curious 
evidence of the gradual elevation of the land, or rather of the 
constant retrocession of the sea, is afforded by the traditions of 
the community of Verawow " (India). " It is several generations 
since any sea-borne ships have been near this ancient port " (Journ. 
Eoy. Geog. Soc, 1870, pp. 194-5). Adam's Bridge, connecting 
Ceylon and India, breached by high water in year 1480 (Encyc. 
Brit., vol. XX, p. 266). 

Investigation near the site of the Temple of Jupiter Serapis 
(Bay of Baie) informs us that about 1503 and 1511 the level of 
the Mediterranean Sea at that point stood 20 to 22 feet higher 
than at present (A. J. Jukes-Browne, " Physical Geography," p. 46). 
"The period of deep submergence was certainly antecedent to 
the close of the fifteenth century" (Temple of Jupiter Serapis), 
(Lyell's " Principles," 11th ed., p. 173). 

Henry Hudson in 1610 wintered in an arm of Hudson Bay, now 
impassable except for small boats. In 1674 sloop sailed through, 
between island and the main west shore of James Bay. In 1886 it 
was difficult to get through this passage with canoes (Journ. Science, 
ser. IV, vol. i, p. 224). 

This part of the island [Isle of Pines, off south-west coast of 
Cuba] seems to have been upheaved in relatively recent times, 
for even within the historical period (i.e. since 1492) various 
islets on the coast have been merged in continuous land (" The 
Earth and its Inhabitants," North America, vol. i, p. 364). 
" Interesting examples of recent elevation are believed to occur 
in the neighbourhood of Washington, D.C. In colonial times 
Bladensburg and Dumfries could be reached by sea-going ships, 
but now they are decidedly above tide-level. The change is 
generally supposed to be due to silting up of the creek, but this 
appears not to be the case, for there is little alluvium resting upon 
the bed-rock of the channels " (W. B. Scott, " Introduction to 
Geology," p. 67). 

In the second volume of the Maryland Geological Survey, 
Mr. Edward B. Mathews discusses at length the difference existing 
between the ancient maps of Chesapeake Bay and the modern 
maps. He examines Captain John Smith's map of 1608, Herriman's 
map of 1670, etc. As to these differences Blathews remarks as 
follows : — " He [Smith] clearly mistook the deeply indented 
peninsulas of Dorchester and Talbot Counties for islands " (p. 354). 
'* The rest of the shore-line indicates either a loose generalization of 
marshy lowlands, or that some of the smaller points and islands are 



H. W.Pearson — Oscillatiom of Sea-level. 259 

o^ recent development" (p. 355). "It may be suggested that part 
of tlie present land was then marshland" (p. 356). "A stuily 
of the shore of Somerset County (Herriman's map) seems to indicate 
that considerable filling in has taken place since the date of the 
map" (p. 381). " Portions of the coast, such as James Island Marsh, 
Hazard Point, and Deals Island, and possibly Nauticoke Point, are 
represented by Herriman as islands clearly separated from the 
mainland'' (p. 381). " Seavorn River is too broad " (p. 382). South 
and west rivers " show the constant error of being too broad. This, 
however, is a feature which is common to the rivers of this and 
many other maps of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries " 
(p. 381). 

Now these data so clearly shown by Mr. Mathews lead to but 
one conclusion. We cannot believe that these ancient geographers 
made mistakes of observation always in one direction ; they mapped 
out the present peninsulas as islands, because the sea stood higher 
at that time, and they were islands ; they mapped out the rivers 
broader than now, because at that time they were broader, owing to 
the higher sea-level. The filling in has taken place ; the " recent 
development " of islands and points and marshes has occurred, 
simply because the sea has fallen in the last two hundred years, and 
the observed change in the topography of these shores is the necessary 
consequence. 

Zagoskin says "that the spot where the fort now stands [Fort 
Yukon, Alaska] has been covered by the sea within the memory 
of the Indians living at the date of his visit in 1842 and 1843 " 
(Howorth in Journ. Roy. Geog. Soc, vol. xliii, p. 246). Mr. H. W, 
Elliot, in " The Seal and Salmon Fisheries of Alaska," vol. iii, 
states that when the natives first came to the Pribilof Islands, 
Novastoshnah was an island by itself; it now forms a portion of 
St. Paul's Island. (The natives came to these islands immediately 
on their discovery in 1766.) " The lagoon (near village of St. Paul) 
was then an open harbour, in which the ships of the old Russian 
Company rocked safe at anchor. To-day, no vessel drawing ten 
feet of water can get nearer than a mile from the lagoon " (p. 21). 

Further to the north, at Colon and at Santa Marta and several 
other points of the coast of New Granada, the ground has visibly 
risen since Europeans first landed on the Continent (Reclus, "The 
Earth," p. 552). The marshes [of the Vendee, France] raised above 
the sea-level within historic times four centuries ago (Encyc. Brit., 
vol. xxiv, p. 137). "In the reign of Edward III (1327-1377) it 
was unlawful to bathe in the Fosse or in the Thames near the 
Tower, the penalty being death " ("Authorized Guide to the Tower 
of London," p. 11). This would show a full moat at that period. 
Tlie ditch was dry in 1140. Longchamp spent a large sum of 
money in 1190, " but he failed to fill the ditch with water " (p. 149). 
The easiest explanation of the presence of water in the moat at the 
above date lies in the high-water period then in existence. The 
moat to-day contains no water whatever. 



260 H. W.Pearson — Oscillations of Sea- level. 

Data indicating a Period of Low Sea-level about the year 1175 a.d. 

Omar, who wrote about 1050 a.d., had satisfied himself that " the 
extension of the sea had been greater at some former periods." He 
was the author of a work, " The Retreat of the Sea." We can infer, 
then, that he had observed indications of a recent recession of the 
sea — in other words, he must have lived during a low-water period, 
or at such time as the sea had already made great recession from the 
high-water position of 875. Bede says the Channel between the 
Isle of Thanet and balance of Kent was three furlongs wide in the 
eighth century, and it is supposed it began to grow shallow about 
1066 ("Principles," vol. i, p. 529). Dantzic at the same level now 
as in the year 1000 ("Principles," vol. ii, p. 182). Heligoland in 
1072 extended over a space of 900 square kilometres ("The Ocean," 
p. 153). Island at the mouth of the Bay of St. Malo formed 
a portion of the mainland in the twelfth century (" The Earth 
and its Inhabitants," Europe, vol. ii, p. 251). 

Henry of Huntingdon says about 1134, "This fennie countrie 
[the Fens, England] is passing rich and plenteous, finely adorned 
with woods and islands." William of Malmsbury, who wrote about 
the year 1140, says, "The Fens were a very paradise, the very 
marshes bearing goodly trees which for tallness strived to reach up 
to the stars " (" History and Antiquities of Boston," p. 660). " It 
seems to show that Lincolnshire was then [time of William the 
Conqueror, 1068] a fertile corn-bearing district " (" The Fenland 
Past and Present," p. 98). We have already shown how this 
paradise, this fertile corn-bearing district — these terms describing 
the condition of this region during the low-water period — was later, 
during the advance of the sea between the years 1250 and 1500, 
submerged and devastated ; this devastation being contemporaneous 
with the inundation of Holland. Dirk II received in 983 a broad 
district that is now covered by the Zuyder Zee (Encyc. Brit., 
vol. xii, p. 71). " There was [in the strait between the Isle of 
Thanet and coast of Kent] a considerable passage for ships till 
about the time of the Norman Conquest, very soon after which the 
inhabitants began to reclaim the land that had been formerly under 
water " (Wilson, "The Isle of Thanet Guide," p. 7). 

Data showing the High-Water Epoch of about 875 a.d. 

" In the time of Charlemagne the island [Heligoland] was not 
much larger than now" ("Principles," vol. i, p. 559). In the year 
800 the sea carried oif large quantities of soil from Heligoland 
(" Gallery of Nature," p. 388). In the years 800 to 900 " Tempests 
change the coasts of Brittany ; valleys and villages are swallowed 
up" (loc. cit.). Channel between the Isle of Thanet and main- 
land was three furlongs wide in the eighth century ("Principles," 
vol. i, p. 529). In 660 the Ehine inundated the country ("The 
Ocean," p. 153). " Some antiquarians maintain that the submarine 
trees that occur along the coast between St. Malo and Cape La 
Hogue are the relics of a broad belt of forest land, which was 



H. TV. Pearson — Oscillations of Sea-level. 261 

overwhelmed by the sea in the year 709, although the submergence 
was not completed until 860 " ( Jas. Geikie, " Prehistoric Europe," 
p. 481). " Migulon and Psalmody were islands in the year 815, and 
in 1820 they were two leagues from the sea" ("The Mediterranean," 
p. 13), Ferd. de Lesseps shows that eleven centuries ago (about 
800) the mean level of the Red Sea was about three metres higher 
than now [Geological Eecord, 1874, p. 146). 

Certain ancient documents now existing in the Town Hall of 
Rye (Charter of King Richard I, 1194, etc.) plainly show that prior 
to that date the sea had surrounded the town of Rye (Rep. Brit. 
Assoc, 1890, p. 825). "A deplorable state of the Fens (England) 
is depicted by some who wrote of that period (early part of eighth 
century). Dugdale shows that the fresh waters were of wide extent 
and deep" ("The Fenland Past and Present," p. 71). Again, "The 
Isle of Ely was, even at that early period (870 a.d.), a place of 
refuge ; parties detached from the fleet (Danes) passed up the river 
in quest of booty, for such was the depth of the water, which 
extended to the sea, that they had an easy access into it by 
shipping" (p. 82). (Now Ely is 30 miles from the sea.) "The 
tide then, 1,000 years ago, flowed up the river Witham to Lincoln " 
("Lincolnshire and the Danes," p. 195). 

In the years 800 to 950 the isles of Ammiuno and Costanziaco, 
near Venice, disappear (" Gallery of Nature," p. 388). Notre Dame 
des Ports " was also a harbour in 898, but is now a league from 
the shore" (p. 393). Saugus Island, at mouth of River Ganges, 
at one time contained the largest city in India ; this city was 
entirely destroyed by the sea 1,000 years ago (from card on exhibit 
in Memorial Hall, Philadelphia; authority quoted, Sir Wm. Jones). 
"This seems to place Lydd on the shore (year 774), though it is 
now nearly three miles from the shore" (Greenwood, "Rain 
and Rivers," p. 63). "The present position of several edifices 
situated in the island of Munkholm, near Trondhjiem, proves that 
during a thousand years the elevation of the ground has been less 
than 20 feet " (" The Earth," p. 532). Verawow, India, was settled 
more than 800 years ago. "At that time sea-going ships came with 
ease to the vicinity of the present town, and they still show the 
stone posts to which the ships were moored " (Journ. Roy. Geog. 
Soc, 1870, p. 195). " About the year 850 there occurred a fearful 
inundation of the Tigris" ("The Remains of Lost Empires," p. 260). 

Data as to Loio-Water Period of about 600 a.d. 
The Archipelago of Chausey is stated in the "Lives of the 
Saints" to have formed part of the mainland in the beginning of 
the eighth century, the area now covered by the sea being then 
occupied by a vast forest (Reclus, "Europe," vol. ii, p. 251). It is 
well known that previous to a.d. 709 the whole Bay (Bay of 
Mont St. Michel) as far as Chausey rocks, and for a considerable 
breadth northwards as far as Cape La Hague and the country 
southwards as far as Del, was the forest of Scisey (Rep. Brit. 
Assoc, 1865, p. 70). "It is certain that Mont St. Michel, which 



262 H. W.Pearson — Oscillations of Sea-level. 

contains now only about 20 acres, was immediately previous to 
A.D. 709 six miles long by four broad and covered by forests" 
(loo. cit.). Abbey of Whitby, erected in 658, is reported to have 
been a mile from the sea. The distance in 1816 was little more than 
200 yards ("Gallery of Nature," p. 394). The passage between 
the Isle of Thanet and the coast of Kent, which remained in " perfect 
state " so long as the Eomans remained in Britain, " in Bede's time 
(circ. 675 to 735), and perhaps an age before that, began to decline 
by diminishing its breadth, etc." (S. R. Wilson, " The Isle of Thanet 
Guide," p. 6). 

Data as to High-Water Period of about 350 a.d. 

Norwich, "in the time of the Saxons, was situated on the banks 
of an arm of the sea, an estuary which has since become a region of 
cultivated fields" ("Gallery of Nature," p. 396). "The former 
Roman port of Alaterva (Cramond, Scotland), the quays of which 
are still visible, is now situated at some distance from the sea, and 
the ground on which it stands has risen at least 24^ feet." In other 
places the debris scattered on the bank show that the coast has risen 
about 26^ feet. Now by a remarkable coincidence the ancient wall 
of Antoninus, which at the time of the Romans served as a barrier 
against the Picts, comes to an end at a point 26 feet above the level 
of high tides " (" The Earth," p. 537). The Isle of Thanet was 
separated from the rest of Kent in the time of the Romans by 
a navigable channel, through which fleets sailed (" Principles," 
p. 529). During the course of the third century tradition tells us 
that the island of Walcheren was separated from the Continent 
(Reclus, "The Ocean," p. 153). "The Hythe coast must have 
risen quite 30 feet since Roman times " (Geol. Mag., April, 1885, 
p. 145). Valerius Maximus states that a bank was erected in 
280 A.D. to keep out sea and storm from the Temple of Serapis 
(Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, 1847, p. 213). Note this is evidence that 
the sea was rising at that time, and had reached an elevation about 
equivalent to its present level. 

Sir Charles Lyell and Sir Archibald Geikie believe with many 
others, including Smyth, that there had been a considerable upheaval 
of the shores of the Firth of Forth since the period of the Roman 
occupation (Geol. Mag., 1866, p. 426). Mr. Smyth shows on the 
same page that the upheaval must have been at least 24^ feet. 
Mr. G. A. Lebour argues from the standpoint of geology, tradition, 
and history that the city of Is in Lower Brittany was submerged 
in the reign of King Gradlon, in the fourth or fifth century (Geol. 
Mag., 1871, p. 300). Sir J. A. Picton describes a Roman wharf 
in the Rood-eye (Chester), now the racecourse, but formerly a haven 
for ships, with a considerable depth of water (Proc. Liverpool 
Geol. Soc, vol. vi, p. 39). Note ordnance map (6 in.), No. 38-11-16 ; 
seems to show that a rise of the sea-level equivalent to 24 or 25 
feet would be necessary to allow this ancient dock or this old haven 
to be again put to their original uses. 

Hengist and Horsa, the Saxons, landed at Ebb's Fleet, Thanet, 



M. W.Pearson — Oscillations of Sca-Ievel. 263 

in 449 ; as this point is now \\ to 2 miles back from the present 
coastline, it would seem that the sea must have stood at least 15 feet 
higher on those coasts at that date than it does to-day. Mr. J. E. H. 
Thomson draws attention to a passage in the " Acta Petri et Pauli," 
which passage leads him to suggest that the submergence of the 
Temple of Serapis probably occurred between the " middle of the 
third century and the middle of the fourth " (Bonney, " The Story 
of our Planet," p. 203). 

Data as to Low- Water Period of 80 a.d., shoioing also that the sea-level 
was then lower than at present. 

Septimus Severus between 194 and 211 a.d. decorated the Temple 
of Jupiter Serapis. Alexander Severus did the same between the 
years 222 and 235 a.d. These facts indicate a low-water period 
at that time ("Principles," 11th ed., vol. ii, pp. 171, 172). Pliny 
(before 79 a.d.) visited the Straits of Gibraltar, and speaks of a low- 
lying island upon which were the remains of the Temple of 
Hercules. Pomponius Mela about the same time describes the 
straits as broken by a number of small islands ; all these islands 
are now submerged. In 1728, during an extraordinary low tide 
the remains of this temple were clearly seen, and souvenirs obtained 
from the ruins {Science Eecord, 1876, p. 543), St. Paul embarked 
from Assus over a mole now visible under the clear water (Encyc. 
Brit., vol. xxiii, p. 580). At date of 9 e.g. St. Michael's Mount, 
Cornwall, seems to have been at the same level with regard to 
the sea as now (" Principles," vol. i, p. 544). In the island of 
Capri one of the palaces of Tiberius (14 to 37 a.d.) is now covered 
with water (vol. ii, p. 176). He (Strabo, about 54 B.C. to 20 a.d.) 
has brought together a large amount of material to throw light 
upon the changes which have passed over the face of the earth 
owing to the retirement of the sea (Tozer, " History of Ancient 
Geography," p. 251). The island of Batavia, inhabited in the days 
of Tacitus, is drowned (Journ. Science, ser. in, vol. xliv, p. 179). 

Mr. R. A. Peacock, in Eep. Brit. Assoc, 1865, shows that in the 
time of Ptolemy (say 100 to 175 a.d.) the coast of Normandy 
probably extended seventeen miles west of its present position, that 
Mont St. Michel at one time was ten leagues from the sea, and 
states his belief that " Jersey was not an island until after Ptolemy's 
time." The entrance to the Gulf of Corinth, which in the time of 
the Peloponnesian War (1st, 2nd, and 3rd, between years 431 and 
404 B.C.) had a width of seven stadia, had become reduced in 
Strabo's time to a breadth of five stadia (" The Earth and its 
Inhabitants," Europe, vol. i, p. 50). " From which account it 
sufficiently appears that the most considerable part of the great 
level (in Fens of England) was anciently sound dry land by nature, 
well furnished by timber, trees and woods. That this was the state 
of the great level when the Eomans entered the island, is highly 
probable " (" The Fenland Past and Present," p. 29, quoting from 
Estobb; Eomans invaded England 43 a.d.). Caligula's tower, 
previously mentioned as showing the high-water period of 1500, 



264 H. W. Pearson — Oscillations of Sea-lecel. 

and wbich was undermined by the sea in 1644, can also be used to 
show the low- water stage at its time of erection (51 a.b.), as it was 
then a mile from the sea. Pliny counted twenty-three islands 
between the Texel and the Eider. Now only sixteen, and those 
greatly diminished in size ("Principles," 9th ed., p. 329). "Pliny 
states that the city of Apologos (at the head of Persian Gulf) was 
originally only ten miles from the sea, but that in his time the 
existing place was so much as 120 miles from it" (McCrindle, 
"The Com. and Nav. of the Erythraean Sea," p. 104). Jersey 
was probably part of the Continent in Caesar's time and still later 
(Peacock, "Vast Sinkings of Land," p. 13). 

Data as to High-Water Period of about 250 b.o. 

The two piers of the port of Phalasarna, a city of late Hellenic 
date, are now 22 feet above their original level (Prestwich, "Tra- 
dition of the Flood," p. 57). The Gulf of Poitou (France) 2,000 
years ago was 18 to 20 miles wide, now but a small bay known 
as the creeks of Aiguillon (Eeclus, "The Earth," p. 541). Bay of 
Tunis, once a deep and open harbour, now has only 6 or 7 feet of 
water. Shaw identifies at a point now inland, but which must 
anciently have been on the seashore, the ' Port ' (now village of 
El Mersa) as the ancient harbour of Carthage (Smith's Diet. 
Greek and Eoman Geog., pp. 531-2). It is certain beyond 
question that the high-water stage shown above for the Bay of 
Tunis and harbour of Carthage was in existence during the period 
of the three Punic wars, or from 264 to 146 b.o. Aleria or Alalia 
(a city of Corsica), a seaport in Eoman times, captured by the 
Eoman fleet 259 b.c, is now above half a mile from the coast 
(ibid., p. 94). At the time of Herodotus (died 425 B.C.) the 
mountain of Lade was an island ; at the present time it forms part 
of the mainland ("The Earth," p. 542). 

Admiral Smyth shows in "The Mediterranean," p. 73, that this 
island of Lade sheltered the Athenian fleet a.c. 412 or 341 B.C., 
and alleges as the cause of junction between the islands and the 
mainland the silting action of the Meander Eiver. On the other 
hand, Eeclus ("The Earth," p. 542) denies the competence of 
silting to explain the changed topography of the shores of Asia 
Minor, and says, "It must therefore be in consequence of a slow 
upheaval of the earth's crust that the ruins of Troy, Smyrna, 
Ephesus, and Miletus have gradually become more distant from 
the coast and appear to be receding still further inland." Tyre 
was an island up to the time of Alexander's siege (322 B.C.). The 
present harbour is not so large as it once was. The other ancient 
harbour has disappeared (Encyc. Brit., vol. xxiii, p. 711). 

The town of Putai (China), said to have been on the coast twenty- 
one centuries ago, is now over forty miles away (" The Earth and 
its Inhabitants," Asia, vol. ii, p. 104). In twenty-two centuries the 
Ehone delta has run out 26 kilometres into the sea (Geological 
Eecord, 1875, p. 82). The coastline of Tunis has increased outwards 
nearly 100 square miles in area since the third century B.C. This 



Notices of Memoirs. 265 

has led Th. Fischer to include Tunis in the lists of rising coasts, 
with Sicily, Sardinia, and South-Eastern France. Dr. J. Partsch, of 
Breslau, questions this conclusion, and alleges the cause to be delta 
growth in combination with wind action, by which sand has been 
blown inland from the shore {Science, vol. ii, p. 142). The 
position of Dr. Partsch seems refuted by the same arguments used 
by Reclus, in the case of Sicily and coasts of Italy, Greece, Malta, 
Rhodes, Cyprus, Crete, Asia Minor, Lisbon, Issa, Antissa, etc. In 
all these cases the silt carried by the rivers is entirely inadequate to 
explain the facts ; it is necessary, thei'efore, to invoke either upheaval 
of the ground or recession of the sea (see " The Earth," p. 542). 

" The Cimbrian Deluge (submergence of Jutland) is supposed 
to have happened about three centuries before the Christian era " 
("Principles," 9th ed., p. 331). A portion of the walls of the 
city of Utica washed by the sea at siege by Scipio Africanus about 
205 B.C. (Livy, Book xxix, chap. 34). Sea now many miles distant. 
"Scipio was obliged to transfer his camp to an adjoining tongue of 
land (Ghella), then washed by the sea, but now far inland, which 
was known for centuries afterwards as the Castra Cornelia. So 
ended the year b.c. 204 " (" Carthage and the Carthaginians," p. 296). 
Lake Mareotis in the time of Alexander the Great a large body of water 
navigable for the largest vessels, but now little more than a swamp 
(Professor Wheeler in Century Mag., May, 1899, p. 28). In the 
time of Alexander great inundations in Arem (Arabia) compelled 
eight tribes to fly their dwellings in Yemen and migrate to other 
lauds ("The Cottage Cyclopedia," p. 61). Helice and Bura in 
Greece were swallowed up by the sea during an earthquake in 
373 B.C. ("The International Atlas," p. 11). At the capture of 
Tarentum by Hannibal, about 213 B.C., the sea washed the greater 
part of the citadel (Livy, Book xxv, chap. 11). 



IsTOTIOIES OIF ns^:EDVEOi:RS- 

I. — Petroleum in California. Professor E. W. Claypole : 
The American Geologist, vol. xxvii, pp. 150-159, March, 1901. 

THE Californian oil-wells supplied the amount of 12,000 barrels 
in 1870 ; but a progressively larger quantity has been 
obtained, until in 1899 it was 2,665,709 barrels. It is remarkable 
that the wells are relatively shallow, and that none of the oil- 
bearing strata are older than the Cretaceous age : thus, at Stockton 
they are Quaternary ; at Puente, Los Angelos, and Kern Co. they are 
Pliocene ; at Ventura, Los Angelos, Kern Co., and Newhall they 
are Miocene ; at Ventura, Fresno, and Kern Co., Eocene ; at Colusa 
Co. and Sacramento Valley they are of Cretaceous age. The strata 
of California have been greatly disturbed in comparatively recent 
times. The final elevation of the Sierra Nevada and the Coast-range 
is apparently of not eai'lier date than the Pliocene period. The 
oil-bearing beds usually consist of sandstone interlamiuated with 



266 Notices of Memoirs. 

shale ; and is chiefly stored in the former. Professor Clay pole 
states that the anticlinal theory explained by Professor I. C. White 
in Pennsylvania holds good for California. — T. E. J. 

II. — Maryland Geological Survey : Alleghany County. 
(Baltimore, 1900, pp. 323.) —William Bullock Clarke and his 
staff have produced one of those interesting volumes v^e are so 
accustomed to see from the United States, and which are so well 
printed in comparison with those published by our own Government. 
The Physiography, by Cleveland Abbe, is illustrated by a photograph 
of a model of the county, from which the student can see at a glance 
the general features of the land, and thus clearly follow the descrip- 
tions of the author. Next comes the Geology, by C. C. O'Harra. 
This includes Silurian to Permian beds overlain by alluvial and 
other late deposits. The Minerals, Soils, Climate, Hydrography, 
Magnetics, Forests, Flora, and Fauna are all treated of in detail. 
The whole is illustrated in the usual manner by excellent repro- 
ductions from photographs, and a bibliography of 175 items is 
furnished. Among the maps provided are, one showing the wooded 
areas, another showing the magnetic declination, and a third showing 
structural sections. These latter are geological sections across the 
county at regular intervals, and give the reader a better idea of the 
features than pages of descriptive writing. A good index completes 
the volume. 

III. — The Carboniferous System in Eastern Canada. — 
Dr. H. M. Ami writes in the Trans. Nova Scotia Inst. Sci., vol. x, 
on the subdivisions of the Carboniferous system in Eastern Canada, 
with special reference to the position of the Union and Eiversdale 
formations of Nova Scotia, referred to the Devonian system by 
some Canadian geologists. He discusses the evidence afforded 
from a study of plant and animal life, and of the marine sediments. 
He has come to the conclusion that the two formations mentioned 
above belong properly to the earliest times of the Carboniferous, 
and proposes to include them in that system under the name of 
Eo-Carboniferous. Dr. Ami seems to have taken a good deal of trouble 
in arriving at his conclusions, and has submitted collections of the 
fauna and flora to certain specialists so as to get independent opinion 
as to their several ages. 

IV. — Edinburgh Geological Society. (Transactions, 1901, 
vol. viii, pt. 1.) — Petrology is to the fore in this part. Kynaston 
has a paper on contact metamorphism round the Cheviot Granite, 
and writes on Tuffs associated with the Andesite Lavas of Lome. 
Mackie gives seventy analyses of rocks chiefly from the Moray area, 
and has a paper on differences in chemical composition between the 
central and marginal zones of granite veins, with further evidences 
of exchanges between such veins and the contact rocks. Hinxman 
describes spherulitic felsite from Glen Feshie. Stratigraphy is 
handled by Goodchild, who deals with recent exposures of rock in 
Edinburgh, one section being under the site of the new offices of 



Notices of Memoirs. 267 

the Scotsman; by Wallace, who writes on the geology of 
Stratlidearu ; Kirkby, ou Lower Carboniferous of Randerstone in 
Fife ; and Cadell, on the geology of the oil shales of the Lothians. 
Jessen, of the Geological Survey of Denmark, has an interesting 
paper on the Pleistocene shell-bearing clays in Kintyre, clays which 
were investigated by a committee of the British Association in 
1895-6. Pala3ontology is poorly represented : Kirkby deals with 
Ostracoda from the Scotsman section mentioned above, but 
nothing new is recorded ; Simpson and Hepburn write on 
mammalian bones found during excavations at Hailes Quarry, 
near Edinburgh. These consist of fragments referable to red 
deer, horse, ox, goat, and field-vole. Mr. James Simpson, who died 
before the publication of his paper, receives a sympathetic notice 
from his colleague. Some notes ou the distribution of erratics 
over Eastern Moray, by Mackie, concludes the contents of this part, 

V. — Journal of the Geological Society of Tokyo : vol. viii, 
No. 89, Feb. 20th, 2561. — Things move fast in Japan ; here we 
are still in the twentieth century. The publications of the Japanese 
Survey are too well known to require mention to the readers of the 
Geological Magazine, but we may certainly call attention to the 
opening of the twelfth volume of the Journal of the Geological 
Society of Tokyo. The Journal, which, with the exception of the 
" Table of Contents " upon page 1 of the cover, is all printed in 
the usual Japanese characters, opens with" A Geological Disturbance 
near Handayama," by K. Inoue, but from the text we are uncertain 
whether or not it was of Old Red Sandstone age. Mr. Iki has 
a paper on the geology of the Middle Kiushiu, and Hirabayashi 
writes on the province Kian Si. The Sliidara Tertiary Basin in 
Mikawa is continued from the last part by Ishikawa, and Yoshida 
contains his report on the southern part of Higo. Those suffering 
from Ammonititis will find a fascinating paper on the Genealogy of 
the Genera Puzosia and Desmoceras by H. Yabe. In this paper full 
justice is done to previous authors, the various species are discussed 
and grouped, and their development carefully considered. Perhaps 
to a Western eye the relationships of the various characters seem 
a little mixed, but they are very clearly printed. 

VI.— Geology of Hawaii. — As might be expected, the newly 
annexed Hawaiian Islands have been descended upon by United 
States geologists, and we have for notice a report by C. H. Hitchcock 
on the geology of Oahu. This was read before the Geological 
Society of America, August 22nd, 1899, and issued in the Bulletin 
February, 1901. The author can scarcely complain of hasty 
publication. Naturally the bulk of the geology is volcanic, but 
there is an interesting chapter on certain calcareous and tufaceous 
beds near Diamond Head, by W. H. Dall. Dr. Dall considers the 
conditions to be incompatible with the reference of these fossiliferous 
beds to a period as late as the Pleistocene, but the fossils have every 
characteristic of those generally assigned to the Pliocene or Upper 
Miocene in their general aspect and state of fossilization. There is 



268 Notices of Memoirs. 

a breccia in the same locality, 25 feet thick, which is full of fossil 
land-shells, all such as have their representatives in the valleys 
of Oahu, though some of the species may be extinct. Professor 
Lyons, who first noticed these shells, concludes that " the fossils 
belong to a period previous to that of the receding of the ocean to 
its present level. That event may have been coetaneous with the 
change of level in the circumpolar area which marked the close of 
the great Glacial period, and the evidences that our climate was, 
previously to that time, more humid than at present, are confirmatory 
of that view." Towards the north there is a ledge of coral 79 feet 
above the sea, at Kahe, and 730 feet distant from the water, south of 
Puu o Hulu, he mentions another ledge 56 feet above the sea and 
a quarter of a mile inland. At the south end of the ridge, called 
Mailiilii, the limestone reaches the height of 81 feet; and at other 
localities on the coast, limited areas of the same substance more or 
less elevated have been observed. The volcanic areas are fully 
described and illustrated. 

VII. — Glaoiation in South Africa. — The Orange Eiver Ground 
Moraine forms the subject of a communication to the Transactions 
of the Philosophical Society of South Africa (voL xi, pt. 2, Sept., 
1900), from the pen of A. W. Eogers and E. H. L. Schwarz. They 
give four excellent photographs. The deposit covers a wide area in 
the Prieska and Hope Town divisions of the Colony, and consists of 
a peculiar conglomerate, first noticed by Wyley in 1859. The 
authors arrive at the following conclusions : — " The appearances seen 
in the three localities, Jackal's Water, Klein Modder Fontein, and 
Vilet's Kuil, at considerable distances apart, can be satisfactorily 
explained only on the supposition that the country was traversed 
by land-ice ; and the presence of the till-like variety of the con- 
glomerate in the same district, probably about the same localities, 
confirms that explanation. Unfortunately the exact nature of the 
conglomerate at the three localities is unknown, that is, whether it 
is a true till or whether it is a stratified rock with glaciated pebbles. 
We only know that the rock contains numerous scratched pebbles 
and boulders ; but this is a small point and does not affect the 
confirmation. It is evident that the country was depressed under 
water after the formation of the till of Prieska, and it is quite 
possible that sedimentary rocks were deposited on a floor consisting 
partly of till and partly of the floor from which the soft till had 
been removed, or on which no accumulation had taken place." 

VIII. — Geology of India. — From the " General Eeport on the 
work carried on by the Geological Survey of India for the period 
from the 1st of April, 1899, to the 31st of March, 1900," we gather 
a favourable impression of progress. In the Museum the minerals 
have been rearranged and the rock collections put in stratigraphical 
order in accordance with the new edition of the "■ Manual of Indian 
Geology." A large amount of time was occupied by the preparation 
of the specimens for the Exposition at Paris, which were placed in 
the charge of Mr. T. R. Blylh. The palgeontological work of the 



Notices of Memoirs. 269 

year is as follows : — Dr. Noetling has finished the Miocene fossils of 
Burmah, a work which has proved that an intimate connection must 
have existed between the Eocene fauna of Europe and the Miocene 
of Burmah, a connection which can only be explained by the theor3'^ 
of a migration of species from west to east, which commenced with 
the Eocene period and lasted probably up to quite recent times. 
Dr. Noetling also made a magnificent collection of Permian and 
Triassic fossils from the Salt Range and from the Tertiary of Sind. 
Dr. Krafi't made an examination of the Triassic fossils of the 
Himalayas. These consist for the greater part of Cephalopods, and 
include representatives of the whole series of the Trias. The chief 
stratigraphical result to which these palaeontological researches have 
led is, that the Otoceras beds of the Himalayas do not, as was 
hitherto believed, correspond to the beds at the base of the lower 
Ceratite marls and the lower Ceratite sandstones, and very probably 
include also the lower Ceratite limestone ; while, on the other hand, 
the upper division of the Lower Trias of the Himalaj'as (' snbrobiistus 
beds,' Diener) does not correspond to the whole of the Ceratite 
sandstones, but merely to the two upper divisions of the same, viz. 
the StacheUa beds and the Flemingites flemingarins beds. Large 
collections were made by La Touche, Smith, and Walker from the 
Kumaon Himalayas, and a quantity of Silurian or Devonian fossils 
were obtained from the Shan Hills, Burmah, by La Touche, Middle- 
miss, and Dutta. The economics consist of enquiries into the gold 
of Burmah and of Southern India, and for this purpose Dr. Hatch 
was specially appointed for one year on March 31st, 1900, Nothing 
important as regards coal was done last year, but it is noted that 
sufficient coal is in sight for the requirements of the Jodhpur- 
Bikanir Railway for a space of 15 years. Mr. Holland has suggested 
measures to prevent the occurrence of landslips in Darjeeling in the 
future, and a good deal of attention has been given to the important 
subject of irrigation. Reports of the progress made with the surveys 
of Burmah, the Madras Presidency, Central Provinces, Punjab, Hima- 
layas, Sind, and Baluchistan are included ; and special reports on 
the auriferous reefs of Wainad, by Hayden ; the auriferous tract of 
Wuntho, by Stonier ; the Rampui; Coalfield, by Reader ; Sohagpur 
Coalfield, by Reader; Geology of the Northern Shan States, by 
La Touche ; Geology of the Mandalay-Kunlon Ferry Railway, by 
Datta ; Southern Shan States, by Middlemiss ; Ganjam District, 
by Smith ; Jeypore Zemidari, Vizagapatam, by Walker ; Spiti, by 
Hayden ; Mesozoic Rocks of Spiti, by Krafi't ; and the relationship 
between the Productus Limestone and the Ceratite Formation of the 
Salt Range, by Noetling, complete this very interesting report. 

IX. — Former Extension of Phytic Strata over Arran. (Trans- 
actions of the Edinburgh Geological Society, vol. viii, pp. 1 and 2.) — 
Mr. Goodchild contributed a paper dealing with the haematite which 
occurs in the joints of the basalt on the summit and other elevated 
parts of Arthur's Seat, and gave reasons for regarding it as due to 
some cause which, in other parts of the Lothians and Fife, has 
locally stained the Carboniferous rocks various shades of Indian-red, 



270 Notices of Memoirs. 

and has converted the limestones into dolomites. Such effects, he 
explained, could elsewhere be traced with certainty to ferruginous 
and magnesian infiltrations, which had soaked down from the New 
Eed rocks into the strata upon which they might happen to lie. He 
was therefore disposed to refer the hsematite in question to deposition 
from such a source, and to regard the summit of Arthur's Seat as 
the modified descendant of the surface over which, in past times, the 
New Eed rocks had extended. 

X. — Ancient VoLCANOS IN Arran. — On the Upland between Brodick 
and Drumadoor Bays, in the island of Arran, Messrs. B. N. Peach 
and W. Grinn, of the Geological Survey, have discovered the site and 
ruins of a very large volcano, covering an area of seven or eight 
square miles. It is represented by an accumulation of old scorias, 
broken rocks, and intrusive lavas, such as are usually found in 
similar basal wrecks of volcanos, whether of Jurassic, Cretaceous, 
or Tertiary age, in the Hebrides and Western Scotland. In this case, 
however, Mr. E. T. Newton has detected Eheetic fossils in some of 
the fragments embedded on the ruined volcano, and constituting the 
only record of strata once extending from Mull to Antrim. Thus 
they supply one proof of the enormous denudation which has taken 
place on the west coast of Scotland during the later part of the 
Tertiary era. 

XI. — Geology of India. (Memoirs of the Geological Survey of 
India, vol. xxx, pt. 2, 1900; vol. xxxiii, pt. 1, 1901.) — The first 
of these memoirs contains Thomas H. Holland's Geology of the 
neighbourhood of Salem, Madras Presidency, with special reference 
to Leschenault de la Tour's observations. Leschenault collected 
petrological specimens from the district early in the last century 
(1816-1821), and it seemed desirable to obtain information con- 
cerning the geological relations and exact localities of his specimens. 
Lacroix described the rocks, which are preserved in Paris. They 
may be divided into (1) fundamental biotite-gneisses, (2) schists, 
(3) pyroxene-granulites (charnockites), (4) younger igneous in- 
trusions. The exact localities have been traced and the specimens 
identified. A map accompanies the paper. The second memoir 
is by F. H. Hatch, and deals with the Kolar Goldfield, with 
a description of quartz mining and gold recovery as practised in 
India. The field bears a striking resemblance to the gold districts 
of Ehodesia. It consists of a belt of schists containing quartz- veins, 
and is part of the Transition Eocks, separated by Bruce-Foote and 
given the name of ' Dharwar System.' There is an appendix on the 
petrology by T. H. Holland. 

XII. — Fossil Foraminifera of Servia. (Pavlovic, P. S. "Fora- 
miniferi iz drugho-mediteranskikh slojeva u Srbiji paleontologhka 
studija." Spomenika (being the Trans. Acad, Sci. Belgrade), 
vol. xxxv, 1900, pp. 61-91.) — Professor Pavlovic is already known 
to us by a previous publication on the above subject, which appeared 
in Glilasa, vol. Ivi, 1898. This appears to be a report on the 
II Mediterranean beds, so far as relates to Servia, and will be of 



Notices of Memoirs. 271 

value for comparison with the fauna of those beds in Austria. 
Professor Pavlovic has carefully consulted previous authors, and 
thereby avoided the wholesale founding of new names ; but 
unfortunately he does not figure his new species, and we are not 
sufficiently acquainted with his language to rightly comprehend his 
descriptions. We hope that in future he will be able to furnish 
a German, French, or English translation of the diagnosis of new 
forms, as otherwise his labours will be a closed book to most. The 
publications of the Servian Academy contain much important matter 
on the little-known geology and zoology of the country. 

XIII. — Geology of Egypt. (Geological Survey Eeport, 1899, 
pt. ii. Survey Department, Public Works Ministry. Cairo, 1900.^ 
" Kharga Oasis : its Topography and Geology." By John Ball. 
116 pp., 19 maps and plates.) — This is the second of a series of 
reports on districts in Egypt, the first of which has not yet reached 
us. The district dealt with lies between the parallels of 26° and 24° 
north latitude, to the west of the Nile. The geological formations 
met with are the Cretaceous, represented by Nubian Sandstone and 
clays, Exogyra Overwegi series, ' Ash-grey Clays,' White Chalk with 
Ananchjtes ovata ; Eocene, represented by Esna shales, Lucina 
thebaica and Operculina libyca limestones. Upper Limestone ; Pleisto- 
cene and Eecent, calcareous tufa and sand dunes. The topography 
of the Oasis is described in chapters under the general headings of 
" The Limiting Escarpments," "The Hills within the Oasis," "The 
Floor of the Oasis, with its Villages and Wells," " Antiquities." 
Some twenty pages are devoted to the descriptive geology ; the 
Cretaceous beds are correlated with the Senonian (?) and the Upper 
and Lower Danian ; the Eocene beds seem to belong to the lowest 
fossiliferous beds of the system. Mr. Ball gives an interesting 
observation on the denuding power of the sand in windy weather : 
a piece of tin plate exposed for two days had all its tin coating 
removed, and a bottle was rendered quite dull in the same time 
by the scratching. Where objects are protected from the sand, 
as at Dush, where are inscriptions in red ochre on hard white chalk, 
painted some 1,400 years ago, they remain in perfectly fresh state; 
rain being unknown, and frost practically so. The maps and 
sections appear to be excellent, and the whole report is of much 
value to the geologist and Egyptologist. We trust that the whole 
of Egypt will be described in a like manner. 

XIV. — Shorter Geological Notes. — Mr. James Mansergh 
delivered an interesting Presidential Address to the Institution 
of Civil Engineers on November 6th, 1900. His subject was 
Water and Water Supply. After a capital sketch of the works 
of the ancients in this direction, especially those of the Romans, 
he dealt with the law of undei'ground water, dowsing, typical city 
waterworks, etc. Mr. Mansergh approved of the Duke of Richmond's 
Commission for buying out the London Water Companies, which 
reported in 1869, and also considered the finding of Lord Llandaflf's 
Commission of 1899 a workable scheme. 

^ This Report, though dated 1900, was not issm-d until April, 1901. 



272 Notices of Memoirs. 

Sir John Evans, at the opening meeting of the 14:7th session of 
the Society of Arts, November 21, 1900, read an address on "The 
Origin, Development, and Aims of our Scientific Societies." Among 
other matters of interest, he mentioned that in England the Society 
of Antiquaries seems to be the oldest body which met for definite 
purposes of enquiry. About the year 1572 " divers gentlemen of 
London, studious in antiquities, formed themselves into a College 
or Society of Antiquaries." The address gave an excellent general 
account of the various London Societies. 

Dr. Gregory's " Plan of the Earth and its Causes " is appearing 
in the monthly numbers of the American Geologist. To the March 
number of this journal J. B. Hatcher contributes an exceedingly useful 
account of the Lake Systems of Southern Patagonia, with a map. 

Among the recent publications of the Eoyal Dublin Society (Sci. 
Proc, ix) will be found two papers of special interest to geologists 
by Professor Joly. One is on the inner mechanism of sedimentation, 
and deals with the fact that the presence of dissolved salts 
accelerates the precipitation of finely divided matter, such as clay, 
etc., suspended in water ; the other concerns the theory of the order 
of formation of silicates in igneous rocks. 

With the view of throwing further light on the strength and 
durability of slate as a roofing material, Messrs. Mellard Keade 
and Holland have compared the Phyllades of the Ardennes with the 
slates of North Wales in the Proc. Liverpool Geol. Soc, 1899-1900. 
The object of the authors has been, " amongst other things, to 
discover, if possible, upon what composition or causes the perfection 
of slaty-cleavage depends, and furthermore, to find out to what 
qualities and composition the characteristics and enduring properties 
of roofing slates can be attributed." 

MM. LoHEST and Forir, in their study of the relative age of the 
rocks composing the Cambrian massif of Stavelot, have arrived at 
the conclusion that the massif is formed of a succession of sharp and 
reversed folds, becoming stronger towards the north, and consisting 
of Devillian, Eevinian, and Salmian deposits, mainly quartzites and 
phyllades. The paper appeared in the Bull. Sci. Assoc. Eleves Ecoles 
Special Liege, 1900. 

Captain Hutton read before the Otago Institute a general but 
up-to-date account of the geology of New Zealand. The paper was 
published in the Trans. New Zealand Inst, for 1899. There are 
a few footnotes of critical value. 

Mrs. Gordon's paper on "The Crust-Basins of Southern Europe" 
has appeared in English in the Verh. VII Internat. Geogr.-Kongress. 
Berlin, 1899 (1900). In general terms Mrs. Gordon states that 
" Cross movements in the Earth's crust have as resultants a spiral 
movement in one sense, accompanied in a neighbouring region by 
a spiral movement in the opposite sense." The paper must be read 
to be understood ; an abstract would be of little use to the student. 

Dr. Henry M. Ami has published in the Canadian Record of 
Science, vol. viii, under the title of "Progress of Geological Work in 



Notices of Memoirs. 273 

Canada during 1899," a list of papers, arranged alphabetically under 
authors, published in 1899. 

The Bulletin of the Natural History Society of New Brunswick, 
No. 19, 1901, contains papers on Cambrian Fossils from Cape 
Breton, by G. F. Matthew ; on a new genus {Acrotliyra) of Etche- 
minian Brachiopods, from the Eo-Pal£eozoic of Cape Breton, by the 
same — it is near Acrotreta ; and on the physiographic origin of our 
Portage Routes, being a note on the physiography of New Bruns- 
wick, by W. F. Ganong. 

Sir Archibald Geikie has recently issued a third edition of his 
well-known work on " Scenery in Scotland," viewed in connection 
with its Physical Geology. 

According to the Annual Report of the Yorkshire Philosophical 
Society, the York Museum has acquired a collection of rocks and 
minerals which belonged to the late Professor Piazzi Smyth. No 
new fossils were purchased during 1900. 

From the Report of the Rugby School Natural History Society, we 
learn that Mr. Beeby Thompson has assisted in the arrangement of 
the collection of local fossils, and has presented a series found during 
the cutting of the Great Central Railway in that neighbourhood. 

The geology of the Isthmus of Panama forms the subject of a paper 
by 0. H. Hershey in the Bull. Dept. Geol. Univ. California, vol. ii, 
No. 8, 1901. The author inclines to the belief that the earliest 
stratified rocks are of Jurassic age ; the next, the Montijo conglomerate, 
seems to be of early Cretaceous age ; while between this and the 
Tertiary basal conglomerate come the Santiago sandstone and shale. 
The fossils apparently are too poor to allow of exact determination 
at present. The Tertiaries and the Pleistocene seem well developed, 
and there has been a recent depression of the coastal land, especially 
on the Pacific side. A curious fact mentioned by the author is 
that about a third of the paving blocks in the town of Santiago, 
whose population is about 6,000, are silicified wood of pre-Pleistocene 
age. This paper is really a supplement to that published by 
R. T. Hill, in 1895, in Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard, vol. xxviii. 

The Report of the Bristol Museum for 1890 notes the acquisition 
of a large number of fossils from the Great Oolite of Minchinhampton, 
and a cast of the Arcli^opteryx. 

Mr. R. a. Buddicom reprints from the Border Counties Advertiter 
for last December, a short article which states that the collections 
at the Shrewsbury Museum have been entirely remounted and 
rearranged by himself and Dr. Callaway. We are glad to hear it, 
and hope that Owen's type-specimen of Ehynchosaurus is now better 
cared tor than it was a few years ago. 

In the Proc. Cotteswold Nat. Field Club, vol. xiii, pt. 3, S. S. 
Buckman reports the excursions for 1899 from the point of view 
of the features of rivers and their valleys ; in part -1 (1901) the 
same author writes on Homoeomorphy among Jurassic Brachiopoda, 
a paper we hope to notice in due course. 

DECADE IV. VOL. VIII. NO. VI. 18 



274 Revieios — Seivard's Mesozoic Plants. 



E- IE ^^ I E "W S. 

I, Catalogue or the Mesozoic Plants in the Department op 

Geology, British Museum (Natural History). The Jurassic 
Flora : I. The Yorkshire Coast. By A, C. Seward, M.A., 
r.K.S., F.Gr.S. With 21 plates, and 53 figures in the text. 

ME. SEWAKD'S Catalogue of the Fossil Plants of the Wealden, 
published for the Trustees of the British Museum in 1894 and 
1895, is already well known to palaeontologists, who will welcome the 
present further instalment of his valuable investigation of the British 
Mesozoic Flora. The Inferior Oolite of the Yorkshire coast district 
from Filey to the north of Whitby is peculiarly rich in vegetable 
remains, which have been well known since the days of William 
Bean and the elder Williamson. Indeed, Mr. Seward tells us that 
nearly the whole of the material at present available was obtained 
by these early investigators, and that very little serious collecting 
has been undertaken during the last half-century. Consequently, 
the author's work has consisted in the revision of material already 
rendered classical by the investigations of a series of paleeontologists, 
chief among whom was Adolphe Brongniart, to whom a number of 
the specimens were submitted in the early days of his long scientific 
career. Owing to the energy of the Yorkshire naturalists during the 
first half of the past century, specimens are abundant, and to be 
found in nearly every museum in this country as well as in several 
of the Continental collections. Under these circumstances many 
novelties are not to be expected, and, as a matter of fact, only two 
out of the fifty-five species described are new. The value of the 
Catalogue consists in accurate discrimination and judicious estimation 
of affinities, and in its afi'ording a connected view of the whole flora, 
so far as at present known. Such a revision was urgently needed. 

The fine illustrations form a striking feature of the volume. The 
21 plates have been beautifully drawn by Miss G. M. Woodward, 
while some of the numerous figures in the text are the work of 
Mrs. Seward. The figures afford ample proof of the fine preservation 
of many of the specimens. The only matter for regret is that none 
have been found in a petrified condition, so that the study of internal 
structure has been impossible. Hence, many questions of affinity 
have had to be left open which might have been cleared up if 
anatomical evidence had been available. In certain other localities 
the student of Mesozoic Botany is more fortunate in this respect, 
and indirect evidence derived from such petrified specimens has 
proved all-important, especially in the interpretation of the Cycadean 
remains. 

After a short historical sketch, and a rapid survey of plant-bearing 
deposits of similar horizon in other parts of the world, the author 
proceeds to the systematic description of the fossils. No Algae 
remains worth consideration have been discovered, and the record 
begins with the Hepaticas, to which one thalloid species — Marchantites 
erectus — is referred. The great mass of the specimens, however, is 



Ferieics — Seward's Mesozoic Plants. 275 

divided between the Pteridophytes and the Gymnosperras, Angin- 
spenns being so far entirely unrepresented, as is still the case even 
in the more recent Wealclen beds. 

Under the Equisetacea? two species of Equisetites are described, 
plants wonderfully similar in aspect to the recent Horsetails, but 
often of enormous dimensions, E. Beani attaining a circumference 
of 30-40 cm. (not millimetres as erroneously printed on p. 64). 
The author finds reason to believe that these large stems, like their 
still larger Pala30zoic allies, probably grew in thickness by the 
development of secondary vascular tissue. 

One species — Lycopodites fahatus — is referred to the Club-Mosses, 
and regarded as more nearly allied to the genus Selaginella than to 
Lycopodium. The apparently heterophyllous character, on which this 
conclusion is based, is not, however, a decisive argument, hetero- 
phyllous species also occurring in the genus Lycopodium. 

The Ferns are, of course, abundantly represented ; the author 
describes twenty species, and less cautious taxonomists would add 
largely to their number. The Matoninese, a family of which the 
author has treated at length elsewhere, are illustrated by some 
splendid specimens of Matonidmm and Laccopteris. The evidence 
appears fully to justify the author in his opinion that this group, 
now so restricted, played an important part in the earlier Mesozoic 
vegetation. 

Todites WilHamsoni is referred on good grounds to the Osmundace^e, 
while species of the genus Coniopteris approach wonderfully closely, 
in the characters both of the sterile and fertile pinnae, to the recent 
Cyatheaceous genus Thyrsopteris, of which a single species survives 
in the island of Juan Fernandez. 

The genus Bictyophylliim is placed, with Protorhipis, in the 
Dipteridin^e, which the author regards as distinct from the typical 
Polypodiaceee, while Khilcia and Enffordia represent the Schizaeaceee. 
The presence of true Polypodiaceas is more doubtful, though several 
genera, including Sagenopteris, often regarded as a Marsiliaceous 
plant, are provisionally referred to this family. 

Among the numerous remains showing Cycadean affinities, two 
genera, Williamsonia and Anoniozamites, are placed in the family 
Bennettiteas, a remarkable group, with flowers far more complex 
than those of the true Cycads, the characters of which have been 
revealed to us by the investigations of Carruthers, Solras-Laubach, 
Lignier, and others, on petrified specimens. Mr. Seward showed, in 
his Wealden Catalogue, how close is the affinity between Williamsonia 
and Bennettites, and, indeed, treated the former as a subgenus of 
the latter ; in the present volume, however, the generic rank of 
Williamsonia is again recognized. Mr. Seward has also previously 
shown that the leaves of the old ' Zamia gigas ' really belonged to 
the same plant as the Williamsonia flowers, and has thus completely 
confirmed Williamson's original restoration of the plant. 

The genus Anomozamites, characterized by the almost entire or 
imperfectly segmented leaves, is referred to Bennettitefe on the 
evidence of specimens described by Nathorst from the RhEetic of 



276 Revieivs — Dr. Kitchin's Jurassic Fauna of Cutch. 

Sweden, in which the characteristic foliage is borne on the same 
stem with Williamsonia-W^Q fructifications. The habit, however, 
as shown in Nathorst's restoration, with a slender, repeatedly forked 
stem, is totally different from anything known among the Bennettitese 
or other Cycadales. 

The genus Gtenis is one of those which has oscillated, in palaeo- 
botanical works, between the Ferns and the Cycads. The author 
has succeeded in observing the microscopic structure of the epidermis, 
and has proved that the supposed sori, held to indicate Filicinean 
affinities, are not really of a reproductive nature, but represent mere 
elevations of the epidermal cell- walls. 

The account of the Ginkgoales, now solely represented by the 
Maidenhair-tree, itself almost extinct in a wild state, is particularly 
interesting. The evidence for the great antiquity of this group, 
once more critically examined by the author, appears to be quite 
conclusive. The remarkable seed-bearing fructification, named 
Beania gracilis by Carruthers, and usually regarded as a Cycadean 
strobilus, is considered by Mr. Seward to belong more probably to 
the Ginkgoaceas. In the course of his argument on this question, the 
author makes the striking statement that " we have no satisfactory 
instance of a female Cycadean flower of Mesozoic age which can be 
reasonably connected with a plant bearing Cycadean foliage" (p. 274). 
In other words he considers that all the evidence indicates the 
Bennettitese, and not the true Cycadacese, as the family to which 
Mesozoic Cycadales belonged, while other authorities have always 
admitted the co-existence of the two groups in Mesozoic ages. 

Several Coniferse are described, the most striking, perhaps, being 
Pagiophyllum Williamsoni, with fairly well preserved cones in situ. 
With the exception of some Araucarian cone-scales, none of the 
Coniferous remains can be referred with any certainty to a special 
family. 

In his concluding remarks the author lays stress on the close 
agreement between the European Jurassic flora and the Gondwana 
flora of India and Australia. " In Jurassic times there was no 
doubt a much greater uniformity in the vegetation of the world 
than exists at the present day" (p. 306). Attention is also called 
to the great similarity between the Lower Oolitic and the much later 
Wealden flora, a similarity which in a few cases even appears to 
amount to specific identity. 

Mr. Seward's new volume will be recognized as one of the most 
sound and valuable contributions to PalEeobotanical Taxonomy. 

D. H. S. 



II. — Jurassic Fauna of Cutch : The Brachiopoda. By F. L. 
KiTOHiN, M.A., Ph.D. (Memoirs of the Geological Survey of 
India, 1900, ser. ix, vol. iii, pt. 1, pis. i-xv, pp. 1-87.) 

THIS is a painstaking and very critical work, which deserves 
every commendation. The author has fully realized the 
responsibility of the task, and he strikes the right note in his 



Reviews — Dr. Kitchin's Jurassic Fauna of Catch. 277 

introduction (p. 4). He says in regard to cases of resemblance to 
European forms : " It has been considered more expedient to apply 
a new ' specific ' name than to ascribe the doubtful form as a ' variety ' 
to the respective European ' species.' This has been done in the 
belief that the application of the term ' variety ' is not admissible in 
cases where the direct relationship to the ' species ' either cannot be 
definitely proved or at least does not appear very highly probable, 
for it surely commits us to the opinion that such relationship exists, 
whereas the use of a 'specific' name, while fulfilling the requirements 
of convenience, leaves the question of relationship open." 

This is evidently the correct course. For it must be confessed 
that among our English Jurassic Brachiopoda, as well as among 
other fossils, too few names have been far more hindrance to our 
knowledge than too many. Especially regrettable has been the 
placing by study geologists as ' varieties ' of well-known ' species ' 
forms which lived long before those species, a course taken against 
the express wishes of the field geologists, but taken to satisfy the 
lumping tendency so prevalent in the middle of last century. 
Anyone can lump, but to lump correctly is the difficulty — that is 
a paraphrase of the words of a German palseontologist. And now 
it may be said in dealing with similar forms — where there is any 
marked difference of horizon or locality what has to be proved is 
the combination, not the separation. The former is the rash course, 
and it must be justified by very clear evidence ; the latter is the 
course which experience has so frequently proved to be correct, 
and therefore its adoption is justified by analogy. 

It is the latter course that Dr. Kitchin has rightly followed. He 
has found among these Jurassic Brachiopods of Cutch many forms 
with striking resemblances to European species ; but the chrono- 
logical difference is great, and so is the difference of locality. 
Remarking on the fauna as a whole the author says, " it would thus 
appear that the Middle Jurassic Brachiopoda are less adapted to serve 
as indices to the detailed stratigraphical comparison of remotely 
separated areas than the Cephalopoda" (p. 79). This is, of course, 
what would be expected, though remoteness is not always a necessary 
factor. There is the remarkable case in our English Jurassic 
Brachiopoda fauna, the notable discrepancy for a portion of Inferior 
Oolite time of the Cotteswold species from those of Somerset-Dorset, 
and even from those of Dundry, only a few miles away ; whereas 
both before and after this time the same species of Brachiopoda are 
found in all these districts, and even from Gloucestershire to 
W'irtemberg the Brachiopods are good indices for detailed strati- 
graphical comparison. 

The resemblance, which the author notices, of later Cutch species 
to European forms earlier in date need not destroy the value of the 
Brachiopods for stratigraphical work, though it may make direct 
comparison difficult. But the same thing is known in Europe. 
Many examples might be cited, but sufficient will be ZeiUeria 
MaricB of the Middle Lias, ZeiUeria hullaia of the Fuller's Earth, 
ZeiUeria perobovata of the Cornbrash ; or Terehratula stibmaxiUata 



278 Reports and Proceedings — Geological Society of London. 

of the Inferior Oolite and T. maxillata of the Great Oolite. Such 
cases, though unsatisfactory from the stratigraphical standpoint, are 
of great biological interest ; they indicate the independent develop- 
ment of similar forms at successive dates. So the similarity which 
the author has noticed in the Indian species to earlier European 
forms probably illustrates the same law. 

This, however, suggests a query. The author remarks that his 
Terebratula euryptycha persists throughout the series of strata he 
describes. But has he not put into one ' species ' too many varied 
forms ? Are not these forms independent uniplicate developments — 
the intermediates between non-plicate and biplicate forms ? Such is 
the case with the European fauna ; non-plicate, uniplicate, biplicate 
mark three stages in serial development, and such development is 
repeated at different dates. 

In drawing to a close this notice of a most interesting work it is 
advisable to call the author's attention to one unfortunate oversight : 
the references in the explanations of the plates do not correspond 
with the pages of the text. S. S. B. 



E-IEiFOI^TS JV^IsTJD IPiaOC-BIBlDIl^a-S- 



Geological Society of London. 

I. — A special general meeting was held on Wednesday, March 27, 
1901, at 8 p.m., the President in the chair, on the requisition of the 
following five or more Fellows, namely : The Eev. J. F. Blake, 
Dr. Henry Woodward, Dr. A. Smith Woodward, Sir Henry H. 
Howorth, Dr. F. A. Bather, Mr. E. Bullen Newton, Mr. H. A. 
Allen, Mr. C. Davies Sherborn, Dr. F. L. Kitchin, Mr. Upfield 
Green, and Mr. G. E. Dibley ; for the purpose of considering the 
following matters : — 

1. The present state of the Society's Museum. 

2. The steps necessary to be taken for putting the collections therein contained 
into a satisfactory condition, if retained in the Museum ; or otherwise the desirability 
and conditions of their disposal elsewhere, as may be decided on. 

3. The arrangements necessary to be made, in order to keep the collections con- 
stantly in a satisfactory condition, if their retention is decided on. 

4. The amount necessary to be expended [a) in the first instance, and (5) annually, 
to carry out the decisions of the Meeting. Also to authorize the Council to incur 
this expenditure ; and finally, to make such order concerning the estates or revenues 
of the Society as to the Fellows assembled in such General Meeting shall appear 
useful for the purpose of carrying out their decisions. 

The Eev. J. F. Blake proposed and Mr. E. Bullen Newton 
seconded the following resolutions : — 

1. That the general collection in the Society's Museum be limited to such specimens 

as have been or may hereafter be definitely referred to, by name, description, 
or figure, in the Society's publications, or in such other works as may be 
agreed upon by the Council. 

2. That the specimens retained be thoroughly cleaned, provided with fresh label* 

additional to the old ones, placed in drawers or boxes designed to exclude 
dust, and arranged with reference to the papers or works wherein they are 
referred to, and that a catalogue of such retained specimens be printed. 



Reports and Proceedings — Geological Society of London. 279 

3. That the remaining specimens be disposed of in such a way as the Council may 

direct. 

4. That the Council be authorized to expend, either out of capital or income, so 

much as may be necessary to carry these resolutions into effect. 

The following amendment was moved by Sir Henry Howortb, 
F.R.S., and seconded by Professor W, Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S. : — 

That in the opinion of this Meeting the time has now come when this Society 
shall transfer its collections to some other museum. 

The amendment was put, and there voted for it 22, against 19. 

The amendment was therefore carried, and on being again put 
as a substantive resolution there voted for it 26, against 19. 

The amendment was therefore declared carried as the resolution 
of the meetius:. 



II.— April 3rd, 1901.— Horace W. Monckton, Esq., F.L.S., 
Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The following communication was read : — 

"The Igaeous Rocks and Associated Sedimentary Beds of the 
Tortworth Inlier." By Professor Conwy Lloyd Morgan, F.R.S., 
F.G.S., and Sidney Hugh Reynolds, Esq., M.A., F.G.S. 

It has long been known that igneous rocks occur in the district 
under consideration, but opinions are divided as to their intrusive 
or contemporaneous character. Evidence is here brought forward 
to show that the igneous rocks form two bands, the lower inter- 
bedded with Upper Llandovery strata and the upper overlain by 
Wenlock, and that both bands are probably contemporaneous lavas. 

The igneous rocks appear at two horizons, both in the Charfield 
Green district and also in the district which includes Avening 
Green, Damery, Micklewood, Daniel's Wood, etc. At Charfield 
their general run is north-north-west and south-south-east, and the 
upper band is associated with a bed of calcareous ash. The ash 
contains lapilli, felspar-crystals, quartz-grains, small shaly patches, 
and fossils, cemented by calcareous matter. The fossils, determined 
by Mr. Cowper Reed, probably indicate the Wenlock age of the rock. 
The associated trap would thus seem to be interbedded — a con- 
clusion strengthened by its uneven surface and highly amygdaloidal 
character. 

At Daniel's Wood the higher bed of trap is overlain by limestones 
which contain Wenlock fossils, and underlain by rocks with Upper 
Llandovery fossils. The dip of the rocks appears to indicate the 
existence of an anticline. The rocks underlying the trap-band of 
Damery Quarry are not seen, but above the trap are rocks bearing 
Upper Llandovery fossils. This trap occupies a large area near 
Woodford Farm. The same band of trap at Middle Hill underlies 
an ash-bed in which fossils of Upper Llandovery age have been 
found. The rocks, as a whole, follow the north-eastern and northern 
boundaries of the Bristol Coalfield. 



280 Reports and Proceedings — Geological Society of London. 

The microscopic examination of the lower igneous rock shows 
that it is a basaltic andesite containing plagioclase (acid andesine or 
oligoclase), pseudomorphs after enstatite, with chloritic and iron- 
oxide patches. The higher bed sometimes contains fresh augite, and 
both bands frequently contain rounded grains of quartz. In other 
examples the felspars appear in three forms, with augite and 
enstatite, and the rock ranges from an andesite to a porphyritio 
basalt. The quartz-grains present appear to be xenoliths. The 
silica-percentage of the rocks on a moisture-free basis varies from 
61 to 67, while the specific gravities are from 2*74 to 2*99. 



III. — April 24th, 1901. — J. J. H. Teall, Esq., M.A., V.P.E.S., 
President, in the Chair. 

The Secretary read the following letter, which had been received 
from H.M. Secretary of State for the Home Department : — 

Hotne Office, Whitehall, Srd April, 1901. 
SiE, — 

I am commanded^by the King to conTey to you hereby His Majesty's 
thanks for the Loyal and Dutiful Address of the President, Council, and Fellows of 
the Geological Society of London expressing sympathy on the occasion of the 
lamented death of Her late Majesty Queen Victoria, and congratulation on His 
Majesty's Accession to the Throne. 

I am, Sir, 
J. J. H. Teall, Esq., Your obedient Servant, 

Geological Society of London, Chas. T. Ritchik. 

Burlington House, W. 

The President drew attention to a framed and glazed copy of the 
Table of the British Strata by Dr. Henry Woodward, F.K.S., F.G.S., 
and Horace B. Woodward, Esq., F.E.S., F.G.S., which the authors 
had kindly presented to the Society. 

In exhibiting a specimen of Crioceras occultus from the Snettisham 
Clay of Heacham, near Hunstanton, Professor H. G. Seeley said that 
he had no doubt that the Trigonia hunstantonensis and Crioceras 
occultus, originally described as from the Hunstanton Limestone, 
were from the clay at Heacham. The example of Crioceras now 
shown was found by Mr. F. Deighton, of Cambridge. It differs only 
as a variety from the type figured in 1865. 

The following communications were read : — 

1. "Notes on two Well-Sections." By the Eev. R. Ashington 
Bullen, B.A., F.L.S., F.G.S. 

The well-section at Southwark passes through sand and gravel, 
etc., 34 feet, London Clay 75 feet, Woolwich and Beading Beds 
56 ft. 9 ins., and Thanet Sand 36 ft. 6 ins., into Chalk which was 
bored to a depth of 148 feet. 

The well-section at Dallinghoo Post-Office, near Wickham Market 
(Suffolk), penetrated 53 feet of blue Chalky Boulder-clay, into 
20 feet of sand and gravel, water being found at a depth of 79 feet. 
Liassic and Oxford Clay fossils were found in the Boulder-clay and 



Heports and Proceedings — Geological Society of London. 281 

stones, one of whicli is considered by Professor T. Eupert Jones 
to have probably come from the Carboniferous rocks and one from 
the Bunter. The Sands contain no Crag fossils. Mr. F. Chapman, 
A.L.S., determined fossils from some of the boulders, from fragments 
of stone found in the Sands, and from the Sands themselves. The 
last consist of Cretaceous Foraminifera. 

2. " On the Geological and Physical Development of Antigua." 
By Professor J. W. Spencer, Ph.D., M.A., F.G.S. 

Antigua and Barbuda rise from the bank which occupies the 
north-eastern portion of the chain of the Lesser Antilles. The part 
of the bank on which these two islands are founded is submerged to 
the very uniform depth of about 100 feet, but from other island- 
groups it is separated by depressions of 1,800 to 2,500 feet. The 
margins of the bank are abrupt and precipitous, and are indented 
by deep valleys extending to the more profound depressions. The 
igneous basement-rocks of the island form the south-western 
mountain-belt. They are porphyritic andesites or porphyrites, with 
breccias and ashes which dip north-eastward. Associated with 
these rocks, and probably overlying them, are limestones which have 
not yet yielded fossils. The second and median belt of the island 
consists of stratified tuffs, which included marine and fresh-water 
cherts. From the evidence of fossils these rocks may be Upper 
Eocene or Lower Miocene, and they manifestly are closely related 
to the rocks which follow them. The succeeding formation consists of 
earthy marls associated with beds of white limestone, and is apparently 
conformable to the underlying tuffs. A list of fossils is given, from 
which it is concluded that the beds are of Upper Oligocene age. 
Next follows a creamy-white, calcareous sandstone, and then the 
Friar's Hill Series of conglomerates and marls, resting unconformably 
on the white limestones, and considered to be of late Pliocene or 
early Pleistocene age. These are succeeded by the Cassada Garden 
Gravels, recent marls containing land-shells some of which are 
extinct, and coral reefs, none of which are I'aised. 

An account of the erosion features of the region is given, and 
from this the following conclusions are drawn : — The region was 
an extensive land-surface, probably at least 2,000 feet higher than 
now, during the Mio-Pliocene period, and was reduced by denudation 
to a comparatively low elevation before the close of that time. This 
was followed by a submergence (the Friar's Hill) to a depth of 
200 feet below the present altitude. At the close of the Pliocene 
period there was another elevation to an extent probably exceeding 
3,000 feet, as shown by the channels on the submarine plateau 
between Antigua and Guadeloupe. This did not continue sufiiciently 
long to complete the dissection of the tablelands, and consequently 
the Antigua-Barbuda mass remains intact. Then followed a sub- 
sidence culminating in a 75-foot submergence, a re-elevation to 
100 feet above the present level, when the shallow channels in the 
submarine bank were formed, and possibly one or two other small 
movements. 



282 ReporU and Proceedings — Geological Society of London. 

3. " Ou the Geological and Physical Development of Guadeloupe."^ 
By Professor J. W. Spencer, Ph.D., M.A., F.G.S. 

The Guadeloupe group is separated from the Antigua and 
Dominica groups by depressions 2,000 feet deep. Much of Guade- 
loupe itself consists of eruptive rocks, evidently as old as the 
igneous base of Antigua. The lowest beds of Grande Terre are 
yellow tufa, surmounted by 75 or 80 feet of volcanic sand of early 
Tertiary age. A calcareous formation conformably follows, dipping 
north-eastward. These two formations seem to correspond with the 
Oligocene rocks of Antigua. The Lafonde Gravel and Marl succeeds 
them unconformably, and it is possible that the limestone of the 
Usine of Pointe ^ Pitre is of about the same general age. In 
addition to these formations there are raised coral-reefs, consolidated 
calcareous sands, alluvia, the loams and gravels of the Petit Bourg 
Series, and various fragments of calcareous groups. The tooth of 
a small Mephas, allied to the Maltese type, and found in Grande 
Terre, is mentioned. 

The land-surface during the Mio-Pliocene period appears to have 
been 2,000 feet above the present level, but it was submerged 
200 feet at the close of the Pliocene period during the accumulation 
of the Lafonde and Lower Petit Bourg gravels and loams. There 
was a re-elevation of about 3,000 feet in the early Pleistocene period, 
and during this epoch Elephas could have crossed from the continent. 
This was followed by a depression to 100 feet or more below the 
present level, a re-elevation to 150 feet, submergence below the 
present level with growth of corals, and the elevation of these to 
6 or 8 feet above the sea. 

4. " On the Geological and Physical Development of Anguilla, 
St. Martin, St. Bartholomew, and Sombrero." By Professor J. W. 
Spencer, Ph.D., M.A., F.G.S. 

Deep channels, not less than 1,800 feet deep, separate the bank on 
which this group is founded from the banks to the north and south. 
The oldest rock of St. Martin and St. Bartholomew consists of 
greenstone or dioritic porphyry usually much decayed, followed by 
altered limestones, and volcanic ashes and breccias. The calcareous 
divisions are associated with chert and deposits of manganese. 
Fossils found in these rocks in St. Bartholomew determine the age 
as equivalent to the Middle Eocene of Europe. A white limestone 
formation, which appears to correspond with the limestone series of 
Antigua, follows unconformably. The limestone is partly phos- 
phatized at the surface and is pitted by caverns. It is apparently 
succeeded by upper strata, with a modern fauna, similar to that of 
the Pointe a Pitre Limestone of Guadeloupe. The limestones are 
unconformably covered by mantles of bi-eccia, gravels, and sand, 
which may be regarded as the equivalent of the Columbia formation 
of the American Continent. The St. Martin plateau was a land- 
surface throughout the Mio-Pliocene period, during the earlier part 
of which it appears to have stood 2,500 feet above its present level, 
and was probably connected with the now neighbouring insular 



Reports and Proceedings — Geological Socielg of London. 283 

masses, from which it was disconnected by denudation during a very 
long period of atmospheric activity, followed by a subsidence, so as 
to bring the present surface of the submarine banks to a level so 
low that the undulating features of a base-level of erosion could be 
formed on them ; for, during the period when the deep and broad 
depressions on the Antillean chain were being fashioned, the now 
isolated island-groups stood out as table-mountains, which were 
slowly being eaten away by atmospheric agents. There was next a 
subsidence to about 200 feet below the present level, about the close 
of the Pliocene period, followed by a re-elevation to 3,000 feet, as 
shown within the area, but in reality much more. It was during 
this early epoch of the Pleistocene that the great rodents described 
by Professor Cope reached here from South America, but the race 
continued to live here sufficiently long to give rise to distinct species. 
The submergence of the mid-Pleistocene period was to the extent 
of about 200 feet, and the subsequent elevation was marked by 
moderate denudation with the production of shallow watercourses, 
traceable across the sunken banks to depths of 150 or 180 feet. 
Again there was a moderate depression sufficient to bring the 
surface a few feet below the present level, succeeded by a rise during 
which the low shell-bearing sands were formed. 

5. " On the Geological and Physical Development of the 
St. Christopher Chain and Saba Banks." By Professor J. W. 
Spencer, Ph.D., M.A., F.G.S. 

The St. Christopher (St. Kitt's) ridge rises from 2,000 to 2,800 feet 
above the submarine Antillean plateau, and is for the most part 
covered with shallow water, except between St. Kitt's and Mont- 
serrat, where a depression I'eaches 2,592 feet, and between Statia 
(St. Eustacius) and Saba, where it reaches 1,200 feet. Eelics of 
old igneous formations are found on the islands, but in most places 
they are covered by more recent volcanic formations. 

The Brimstone Hill Limestone is the succeeding formation, which 
appears to be newer Pliocene or Pleistocene, and to correspond with 
the Upper Marls of Anguilla and those at the Usine of Pointe 
a Pitre in Guadeloupe. 

The St. Kitt's Gravels succeed, and in beds of apparently the 
same age shells of living species have been found at an altitude of 
300 feet. The main volcanic activity belonged to the mid-Pleistocene 
period. It is inferred that the group underwent the same physical 
history as the neighbouring groups of islands. First there was 
elevation, followed by subsidence. Then came the second great 
elevation to about 3,000 feet and erosion of the region, when the 
deep valleys and cirques indented the margins of the tablelands, and 
at the same time the great volcanic ridges were built. Next followed 
another subsidence to about 300 feet below the present level, and 
during this epoch the volcanic domes of Brimstone Hill and the 
* Quill ' of Statia were formed. The succeeding upward movement 
carried the land 60 feet or more above the present level, when 
ravines and small channels in the sunken shelf were excavated. 



284 Correspondence — G. W. Lamplugh. 

Another depression to 40 or 50 feet filled up these ravines. Then 
came final re-elevation, and it is possible that a downward movement 
is now in progress. 



COIiDBESIPOliTIDElsrOiE. 



NAMES FOE BRITISH ICE - SHEETS. 

Sir, — Although Professor Bonney does not, I believe, at present 
allow himself to be included among " glacialists who hold the 
'land-ice theory,'" to whom my letter on the above subject (Geol. 
Mag., March, 1901, p. 142) was addressed, his comments (Geol. 
Mag., April, 1901, p. 187) are particularly welcome as he shows, 
by practical application of two of the terms, that the proposed 
nomenclature may have its advantages even to the opponents of the 
' land-ice theory.' Granting that the former existence of ice-sheets 
in this country is a disputed inference, we may nevertheless find 
the suggested terminology convenient in the discussion, even when it 
is denied that the terms represent anything more than an ill-founded 
conviction. From Professor Bonney and those who think with him 
I ask no more than that the nomenclature of the British Ice-sheets 
be accepted on this basis. 

By the way, I will seek Professor Bonney's permission to amend 
his simile ; surely, in this case it is not that the glacialist is counting 
his birds before they are hatched, but after they are flown, by the 
indications in the roost. 

In his playful suggestion of ' Dogger-fjeld ' as a name for the 
' East British Ice,' and in his accompanying argument as to 
the direction of ice-flow. Professor Bonney seems to have taken 
for granted that the Dogger Bank was a pre-glacial feature. But 
there is much reason to believe that this Bank is of glacial origin, 
while of the pre-glacial contours of the floor of the North Sea we 
know nothing. In areas of low relief the radial point of ice-flow 
must depend principally upon the incidence of maximum snowfall, 
and under changing conditions of climate may not remain fixed 
in the same place. I have elsewhere set forth facts indicating that 
the East British Ice underwent great changes in this respect during 
the progress of the Glacial Period. 

The issue raised by Professor Bonney as to the transport of the 
Scandinavian boulders to our eastern coast has been frequently 
discussed in my writings on the Yorkshire drifts ; and it seems 
almost superfluous to reiterate my opinion that the presence of these 
boulders does not imply their direct transport across the North Sea 
basin by land-ice. I was convinced by my prolonged examination 
of the Basement Clay of East Yorkshire that the invading ice-sheet 
had ploughed up a sea-bottom already strewn with boulders from 
the shores, — " wherefrom it follows that we must not place much 
confidence in the evidence gleaned from its erratics as to the actual 
direction and distance which the ice-sheet has traversed." 



Corresjjondence — A. H. Hunt. 285 

By another friendly critic a well-grounded objection has been 
raised to the proposed term ' Cambrian Ice-sheet,' on account of the 
risk of confusion with the common stratigraphical use of ' Cambrian.' 
It would, perhaps, be safer to fall back upon the phrase ' Welsh Ice- 
sheet ' (with subdivision into ' North Welsh ' and * South Welsh ' if 
found desirable). 

As previously stated, my more immediate object is especially to 
urge the adoption of names for the (hypothetical?) ice-sheets of our 
sea-basins, for which I have recently felt the pressing necessity. 
On the terms proposed for the land-areas I do not at present lay 
much stress, though it would be convenient if these could be fixed 
at the same time. G. W. Lamplugh. 

TONBRIDGE. 

April 6, 1901. 



THE SODIUM OF THE SEA. 

Sir, — I am extremely obliged to Mr. Fisher for his kindly notice 
of my communication concerning the " Sodium of the Sea," but feel 
at a loss how to reply, owing to uncertainty as to whether Mr. Fisher 
has considered and rejected De la Beche's articles on Granite and 
Elvan, Divisional Planes, and Mineral Veins and Faults ; or, has 
possibly overlooked such an ancient authority. 

In addition to all that De la Beche and Dr. Sorby have written, 
and since the last edition of the " Physics of the Earth's Crust," we 
have the additional fact that all the types of fluid inclusions found 
in granites may be matched in different quartz-veins, so that all the 
arguments based on the fluid inclusions in igneous magmas must be 
prepared to meet the cases of the veins. My object in writing was 
not so much to defend the sea-water hypothesis, as to remind 
geologists that it existed. Throughout ray own early training I was 
never allowed to forget that the weakest link in a chain is the 
measure of its strength, and I knew full well that the slightest slij) 
in fact or argument involved public castigation in the Transactions of 
the Devonshire Association. If any of the younger geologists in 
Devonshire erred in discipline our captain, William Pengelly, rarely 
failed to pipe all hands on deck to witness punishment. Mr. Fisher, 
I expect, will agree with me that in the present day it is considered 
of far more consequence that a theory should present a solid 
appearance than that each link should be tested, and if defective, 
rejected, not only by the purchaser but by the chainmaker himself. 

A. E. Hunt. 

FOXW'ORTHY, MoRETONHAMrSTEAD. 

May 7, 1901. 

INTERNATIONAL GEOLOGICAL CONGRESS. 

Sir, — I regret that I omitted to express my thanks in my paper, 
" Geological Notes on Central France," published in the Geological 
Magazine (February, 1901, p. 59), to the Directors, MM. Boule, 
Fabre, and Martel, for their kindness and consideration during the 



286 OlUuary — Edward Crane, F.G.S. 

Congress excursion to that region. I did not intend the notes as a 
narrative of the excursion, only as a small help to friends interested 
in geology who may not possess that most admirable guide, the 
" Livret Guide," provided by the Committee for members of the 
International Geological Congress, over which so much labour must 
have been expended. 

T desire now through the medium of the Geological Magazine 
to tender my sincere thanks to the Directors, to whom we were all 
greatly indebted for their kind attention and able discourses. 

M. S. Johnston. 

Hazelwood, "Wimbledon Hill. 
April 24, 1901. 



THE FISH FAUNA OF THE MILLSTONE GRITS. 

Sir, — May I point out to Dr. Wellburn that the value of his 
work on Palgeozoology will be enhanced if he will take a little 
more trouble in his method. I read Psepliodus, sp. nov., Acantliodes, 
sp. nov., Euctenodopsis, sp. nov. ; but in all these cases I have 
to dig the specific names out of the text. They should follow the 
generic name ; if they do not they are likely to be overlooked. 
Those forms which are described, and to which specific names are 
given by the author, should also have been properly entered up in 
the table. The specialist will, no doubt, read such papers right 
through, but that will certainly not be the case of the 

OVEKWHELMED KeCORDEK. 



OBITTJJ^I^':^". 



EDWARD CRANE, F.G.S. 
Born November 22, 1822. Died April 25, 1901. 

Edward Crane, youngest son of Wright Edward Crane, Esq., 
landowner, of Thorney, Cambridgeshire, and Mary, his wife, was 
born November 22nd, 1822. He was educated at Wisbech Grammar 
School, spent two years fishing and shooting in Ireland, and before 
he was of age had settled down to the pursuit of agriculture as 
a tenant farmer on the Duke of Bedford's model Thorney estate. 
In 1851 he married Jane Turnell, eldest child of a neighbouring 
farmer, and remained in Thorney until 1866, when he retired and 
went to live at first in the vicinity of the Crystal Palace. Soon 
afterwards, accompanied by his wife and daughter, he visited the 
continent of Europe, and, returning to England in November, 1867, 
settled in Brighton ; having purchased a house in Wellington Koad, 
he resided there until his sudden death on April 25th, 1901. 

When the town Museum was removed from the Pavilion rooms 
to the present building in Church Street, Edward Crane assisted in 
arranging the geological gallery. He became a member of the 
Museum Sub-Committee in 1873 during the Chairmanship of his 



MisceUaneous. 287 

old friend Dr. Thomas Davidson, F.R.S. On the death of the 
latter in 1885 he was elected Chairman of the Committee, in 
which capacity he served the interests of science in the town of 
Brighton very faithfully for eight years. Increasing age and 
deafness led him to resign the Chair, but he was annually re-elected 
a member of the Committee, and although rarely attending the 
meetings, continued to be actively interested in the Museum, and 
assisted the curators in every way. Edward Crane published in the 
Brighton Public Museum Report for the years 1891-92 (Brighton, 
1892) a " List of the Type Specimens in the Brighton Museum." 
He was elected a Fellow of the Geological Society of London in 1872, 
and frequently attended the meetings in London until his age and 
deafness denied him the pleasure. He was an enthusiastic visitor at 
the Natural History Museum, and also visited the principal museums 
of Central Europe and Scandinavia. In 1881, accompanied by his 
daughter, he made an extended tour in the Eastern and Western 
United States and Canada, and in the Winter of 1884—5 visited Spain. 
Cuba, Mexico, and the Southern United States. He had formed 
warm friendships with scientists of that great country, which he 
dearly loved. Edward Crane remained deeply interested in scientific 
literature up to the last, and was keenly enjoying Macnamara's 
" Origin and Character of the British People," and his dear friend 
Mrs. Zelia Nuttall's " Fundamental Principles of Old and New 
World Civilizations," during the last week of his life. Edward 
Crane passed suddenly away from heart disease of long standing 
at St. John's Lodge, Wellington Eoad, Brighton, on April 25th, 
1901, and was cremated and interred on April 30th at Woking, 
Surrey (No. 458, facing north-west), by his written directions. His 
widow, Jane Crane, survives him, and he leaves issue an only 
daughter, Agnes Crane, who has been a frequent contributor to 
the pages of the Geological Magazine and other periodicals. 



nVCIS OSL Xi-A^n^IBO TJ S . 



Complimentary Dinner to Sir Archibald Geikik, D.C.L., 
F.E.S., ETC. — Sir Archibald Geikie, who retired from the position 
of Director- General of the Geological Survey on February 28th, 
after forty-six years of public service, was entertained on May 1st 
at a complimentary dinner held at the Criterion, Piccadilly Circus. 
The Eight Hon. Lord Avebury took the chair, and among those 
present were Major-General Sir John Donnelly, Sir George Stokes, 
Sir John Evans, Sir Frederick Abel, Sir Norman Lockyer, Sir Henry 
Craik, Sir William Turner, Sir Michael Foster, Sir Henry E. Roscoe, 
Sir Lauder Brunton, Sir Henry Howorth, Sir John Murray, Admiral 
Sir William Wharton, Major-General Festing, Prof. E. Eay Lankester, 
Mr. S. E. Spring-Eice, Prof. T. McK. Hughes, Mr. Digby Piggott, 
Colonel Johnston, Prof. Bonney, Prof. Lapworth, Prof. Watts, 
Prof. J. Geikie, Prof. Wiltshire, Prof. Hull, Dr. W. T. Blanford, 
Lieut.-General McMahon, Dr. Horace T. Brown, Major Craigie, 



288 



Miscellaneous. 



Dr. H. F. Parsons, Dr. J. S. Keltie, Prof. Galloway, Mr. Hudleston, 
Dr. P. L. Sclater, Prof. Joly, Prof. Garwood, Mr. Marr, Prof. 
C. Le Neve Foster, Mr. Whitaker, Prof. Sollas, Mr. Bauerman, 
Prof. G. A. J. Cole, Prof. Corfield, Mr. Monckton, Mr. Herries, 
Mr. G. Griffith, Mr. Teall, Mr. Horace B. Woodward, Mr, F. W. 
Eudler, and other members of the staff of the Geological Survey and 
Museum of Practical Geology, Mr. G. Murray, Dr. H. E. Mill, etc. 
Lord Avebury gave an interesting account of the scientific career 
of the guest, and Sir Archibald Geikie made an eloquent reply. 




On the menu-cards was printed the coat of arms of " The Eoyal 
Hammerers," designed by the late William Hellier Baily in 1849, 
which we are enabled to reproduce here. 

International Geological Congress, Paris, 1900 : An 
Apologt. — In printing " Notes on the Geology of the Eastern 
Desert of Egypt," by T. Barron, A.E.C.S., F.G.S., etc., and 
W. F. Hume, D.Sc, A.E.S.M., etc., published in the April number 
of this Magazine (pp. 154-161), the words "Abstract of a paper 
read before the International Geological Congress, Paris, August, 
1900," were, by accident, omitted to be printed as a footnote to 
the title, for which the Editor offers his sincere apologies. 

Death of Professor Gustav Lindstrom, For. Mem. Geol. Soc. 
Lond.— In a letter dated 20th May, 1901, addressed to Dr. F. A. 
Bather, of the Geological Department, British Museum (Natural 
History), Dr. E. W. Dahlgren, Librarian of the Swedish Academy 
of Science, Stockholm, writes : — " I have the painful duty to inform 
you of the decease of our common friend. Prof. Gustav Lindstrom, on 
the 16th inst. He had been suffering from erysipelas in the face, 
but his doctor said it was not dangerous, and no anxiety was felt 
about him. On the evening of the 15th, however, he became 
suddenly worse, and early next day he expired." Dr. Lindstrom 
was so closely associated with English palgeontologists, and was in 
such intimate relations with geologists in every country, that his 
loss will be keenly felt by a wide circle of attached friends. We 
hope to give a suitable notice of Dr. Lindstrom's life and work in 
the July number of the Geological Magazine. — H. W. 

3Iay 25, 1901. 




U.j^^^ />'^>^»^ 




THE 



GEOLOGICAL MAGAZINE. 

NEW SERIES. DECADE IV. VOL. VIII. 



No. VIL— JULY, 1901. 



L — Eminent Living Geologists : Professor Charles Lapworth, 

LL.D., F.E.S., F.G.S., of the Birmingham University. 

(WITH A PORTRAIT, PLATE Y.) 

CHARLES LAPWORTH was bom in 1842 at Faringdon, ia 
Berkshire. Five years afterwards his parents removed to 
Lower Newton, one of the farms rented by his grandfather. He 
attended the country school at Buckland village, about two miles 
off, and the vicar of the parish, the Rev. Joseph Moore, finding him 
an omnivorous reader, generously lent him books from his own 
library and practicallj' directed his early education. At the age of 
15 he became a pupil teacher in the school, and in the year 1862 
entered the Training College at Culham, near Oxford, passing out 
thence in 1864 with a first-class Government certificate. Of the 
posts as schoolmaster which were then ofiered him he selected that 
connected with the Episcopal Church at Galashiels, because it would 
give him a home and work in the fascinating borderland of Sir 
Walter Scott. This post he retained for eleven years, and was 
married in 1869 to the daughter of Mr. Walter Sanderson. 

His holidays were spent in wandering over the Border region, and 
in the year 1869, in company with his friend Mr. James Wilson, he 
began the study of the geology of the district round the town, zest 
being given to the work by the discovery of fossils in rocks which 
had hitherto been considered barren. His first paper, " On the 
Silurian Rocks of Galashiels," was read before the Geological 
Society of Edinburgh in 1870, and was published by that Society 
and in the pages of the Geological Magazine. While at 
Galashiels he wrote his paper " On an Improved Classification 
of the Rhabdophora " (1873). 

In 1875 he was appointed to one of the assistant masterships in 
the Madras College, St. Andrews, and from that year until 1881 he 
continued to teach subjects which, though not absolutely uncongenial 
to him, gave little or no scope for scientific teaching or scientific 
methods. But the post aiforded much that he wanted, longer 
holiday-time for research, greater leisure for reading, and, above all, 
frequent association with such friends as Nicholson and the literary 

DECADE IV. — VOL. VIII. — NO. VII. 19 



290 Professor Charles Lapworth, LL.D., F.R.S. 

and scientific men of the place. His holidays were spent in 
continuing his work on the stratigraphy and fossils of the Scottish 
Uplands. Here he wrote his papers on the Moffat Series, the Scottish 
Monograptidee, the Distribution of the Ehabdophora, and others. 

But in 1881 came a welcome change, and he was able to throw 
his entire energy into science, scientific teaching, and geology. His 
researches and papers had by this time made his name familiar 
to workers in the older fossiliferous rocks, and, backed by many 
of the most famous British and foreign geologists of the day, he 
applied for, and was elected to fill, the newly established Chair of 
Geology and Mineralogy at the Mason College, Birmingham, his 
title being afterwards modified at his own request to Professor of 
Geology and Physiography. He at once plunged into the teaching 
work of his Chair, but the greater leisure and opportunities the post 
afforded allowed him to complete and publish his Girvan paper, to 
carry out serious field-work in the Highlands of Scotland, to make 
discoveries in the Midland district, and, later on, to begin that work 
in the Ordovician districts of Shropshire which was to lead him 
down, stage by stage, to the uttermost depths of the Longmyndian 
rocks. As the years have gone on he has practically devoted all his 
energies to geological and geographical work — not only as a teacher, 
investigator, and writer, but as outside lecturer, textbook writer, 
university examiner, scientific adviser, and in the other multi- 
farious obligations which appertain to the Geological Professor of 
modern days. 

Lapworth was elected a Fellow of the Geological Society of 
London in 1872, was awarded the Murchison Fund in 1878, the 
Lyell Fund in 1882 and 1884, the Bigsby Gold Medal in 1887, the 
Wollaston Medal in 1899, and went on the Council of the Society in 
1894. The honorary degree of LL.D. was conferred on him by the 
University of Aberdeen in 1884. In 1888 he was elected a Fellow 
of the Eoyal Society, receiving a Eoyal Medal in 1891, and serving 
on the Council in 1895-1896. He has acted as examiner in Geology 
to the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, London, Victoria, and 
Wales, was President of the Geological Section of the British 
Association in 1892, is an honorary member of the Geologists' 
Association and other scientific societies at home and abroad, and 
is now President of the Geological Society of Glasgow. 

In considering the general scope of Professor Lapworth's work 
and the bearing of its results, it will be well to divide it into four 
branches. Field Geology, Geology in the Laboratory and Study, 
Teaching, and Applied Geology. 

1. WorTi in the Field. 

The development of the geology of the Southern Uplands may be 
said to form the keynote of Lapworth's field-work. The stratigraphy 
■of highly complicated districts had already been frequently studied 
in outline ; and in mountain districts it had been pointed out again 
^nd again that the apparent sequence was not to be trusted. But 
the detailed unravelling of such districts had been seldom attempted 



Professor Charles Lapworth, LL.D., F.R.S. 291 

with any success. It is well known that previous to Lapworth's 
researches the Silurian rocks of the Southern Uplands had been 
considered to be a normal ascending sequence of greywaokes, of 
enormous thickness, interrupted by occasional thin seams of black, 
graptolitic shale. As the graptolite fauna of each shale mass was 
broadly the same as that of every other mass, it was naturally 
considered that the Upland series had been rapidly deposited, 
without any important organic change taking place from base to 
summit ; and that, consequently, graptolites were of no use for zone 
work. Important negative conclusions in the matter of evolution 
followed as a corollary. 

One of the first things that made Lapworth suspect that things 
were not as they seemed was, that graptolites of highly divergent 
types, though found near together, were never met with on the same 
slab of rock ; and this was followed by the discovery that there 
was always a difference, sometimes generic and always specific, 
in the faunas of contiguous and successive bands in each shale mass. 

When he had discovered that on proceeding downwards from the 
greywacke of Dobb's Linn a definite sequence of graptolites was 
met with down to a certain point, he hit upon the important fact 
that a corresponding and practically identical sequence was met with 
also, but in inverted order, in descending beyond this point until 
greywackes were again reached. It is said that, on first suspecting 
this, Lapworth rushed into the field and, reaching Dobb's Linn in the 
twilight, he rapidly collected one series of graptolites in descending 
to the critical point which he placed in his right-hand pockets, and 
another in descending below it which he put in the left-hand pockets ; 
he then carried both series off to his lodgings to compare in the 
lamplight. The comparison verified his hypothesis, and he now 
held the proof that in this locality, at all events, half the rock 
succession was inverted. Indeed, he had got hold of the right end 
of the clue which subsequently enabled him to unravel the com- 
plicated stratigraphy of the region. To this task he now devoted 
his spare time for seven or eight years, nor did he stop until he had 
followed the divisions of the Moffat Shale from sea to sea, mapping 
the critical areas in great detail, sometimes on the 6 inch scale, but 
in most instances surveying and constructing his own larger scale 
maps of the special localities, in which he could insert the zones 
as they occurred in the field. At the same time he acquired the 
large collection of graptolites necessary to verify his conclusions and 
complete his knowledge of the fauna. 

Although probably himself satisfied that the hypothesis of 
a chronological sequence of graptolite zones, which worked so 
well in elucidating the complicated structure of the Mofilit region, 
must be in the main a correct one for the Uplands generally, 
Lapworth proceeded to apply the severest test that he could think 
of to his conclusions. For that purpose he selected next the 
Girvan area, where the rocks have a different facies and graptolite- 
bearing seams are rare or subordinate, but where it was already 
known that there is a vast array of other Silurian fossils and very 



292 Frqfesso)' Charles Lcqnvorth, LL.D., F.R.S. 

great litliological variety in the strata. Here Lapworth found his 
work much facilitated by the rich collections of fossils already made 
from this district by Mrs. Eobert Gray, and he was free to devote 
himself to working out the stratigraphy and collecting graptolites. 
The outcome of the stratigraphical work on the Girvan succession 
was published in a paper to the Geological Society in 1882, but the 
publication of some of the broader structural questions connected 
with the surrounding area and the Uplands as a whole was deferred 
for some years, and was then published as a paper on the Ballantrae 
Kocks in the Geological Magazine in 1889. 

It is needless to say that the Girvan work entirely confirmed that 
of Moffat in all particulars. The succession of rocks in the new 
area, although more than twenty times the thickness, was found 
to tally with that of Moffat, the chronological order of the fossils 
common to the two areas agreed, the succession of physical 
changes was coincident, and the type of structure indicated that 
Moffat and Girvan were parts of the same grand region of deposition 
and of the same great system of earth-movement. It is characteristic 
of Lapworth, however, that not one of these coincidences is so much 
as hinted at in his first Girvan paper. The local facts were described 
and the local inferences drawn, but the reader was left to compare 
the Girvan and Moffat phenomena, and to draw from them the 
inevitable conclusions for himself. 

Needless also to remind readers of the Geological Magazine 
that the officers of the Geological Survey, unhampered in their 
methods and possessed of detailed maps to work with, have in 
the course of time entirely confirmed Lapworth's conclusions in 
the two areas, and, by adopting the zonal method which he initiated 
with such success, they have been able in some particulars to advance 
beyond his original conclusions. The great Survey Memoir on the 
Scottish Uplands is not only the record of a fine piece of survey 
work, but a monument to the genius of the man who made it possible. 

This Upland work, together with its demonstration of the value 
of the graptolite as a zone index, brought Lapworth into conflict 
with the views of many of the established authorities of the time. 
Particularly was this the case with the veteran Barrande, whose 
well-known theory of • Colonies ' had been founded to get over 
difficulties almost precisely similar to those which existed in South 
Scotland. Barrande devoted his final " Defense des Colonies, No. 5," 
to the matter, but, far from subscribing to Lapworth's views, he 
maintained the validity of his colonies and even named a new one 
after his antagonist. But, neither on this nor on any other occasion, 
has Lapworth turned aside from his course to indulge in controversy ; 
he has simply gone straight on with his work. 

Having demonstrated that the Southern Uplands were the relic 
of a wide area of orogenic movement, Lapworth was next naturally 
drawn to a region in which earth-movement had had even greater 
play than in the Uplands. The experience already gained would 
constitute the basis of his researches and enable him to get over 
preliminary difficulties, while he would learn the effects of a much 



Professor Charles Lapworth, LL.D., F.E.S, 293 

more complicated movement, carried on through a longer period, over 
a greater area, and to a higher degree than in the south. Hence he 
started work in 1882 in the Durness-Eriboll district of the Scottish 
Highlands, working after the same model as before, by selecting 
definite bands of rock, zoning them, and running them as clues 
through the complex. Here, however", fossils ceased to be the guide, 
and it was only by noticing lithological dififerences that the selected 
strata could be individualized and recognized from point to point. 
These were mapped in detail, as before, in order to bring out the 
structure. In a short time Lapworth had ascertained the true 
succession amongst the unaltered rock-formations, and made out 
enough of the tectonic facts to destroy once for all the old idea 
of an upward succession into the so-called ' newer gneiss.' The 
structure was of Alpine character, and " the stratigraphical 
phenomena identical with those developed by Rogers, Suess, 
Heim, and Brogger in extra-British mountain regions." These 
results were published in 1883 in the earlier pages of " The 
Secret of the Highlands." In the later pages he introduced, 
summarized, and discussed the phenomena and principles of 
mountain structure developed in Helm's great work on " Gebirgs- 
bildung," in preparation for the understanding of the higher stages 
of the Highland work. Corresponding stratigraphical results had 
been simultaneously obtained by Callaway in the Assj'nt district, 
and the Geological Survey began their mapping of the North-West 
Highlands. The Surveyors followed the zonal method, obtained 
the same non-metamorphic succession, and in the course of a few 
years not only demonstrated the Alpine structure of the region, but 
proved the existence of some of the grandest and most important 
phenomena known to the world of geology. It is to be hoped that 
at no distant date we may see in a Survey Memoir on the Highlands 
a worthy companion volume to the great Upland Memoir. 

Lapworth returned to the Highlands in the following Summer, 
but the plain living and hard thinking brought on a serious illness 
which prevented him from writing further on the tectonic side of 
the subject. But not before he had reached conclusions on dynamic 
metamorphism somewhat similar to those arrived at on other 
grounds by Lessen in the Harz and Lehmann in the Erzgebirge. 
These views were summarized in a short paper published by the 
Geologists' Association (1885), and more fully developed later on in 
his edition of Page's " Introduction to Geology " and elsewhere. 

When Professor Lapworth went to Birmingham it was thought 
that the fossiliferous Llandovery rocks of the Lickey Hills were the 
oldest rocks in the Central Midlands. But in the year 1882, aware 
that the earlier geologists had paralleled the quartzites of Nuneaton 
and the Lickey with those of the Wrekin and Caradoc, which had 
later on been shown by Callaway to be at least older than the 
Upper Cambrian, he suggested that these rocks were probably the 
outstanding parts of a buried land surface older than the Silurian. 
In less than a month actual proofs of this view were discovered at 
the Lickey by Mr. F. T. S. Houghton and by Lapworth himself. 



294 Professor Charles Lcqmorth, LL.D., F.B.8. 

The same year Lapworth and Mr. Jerome Harrison proved that the 
rocks of Nuneaton, Hartshill, and Atherstone, instead of being Coal- 
measures and Millstone Grit as laid down on the published maps, 
were also parts of this buried land and of Cambrian age. This was 
established by Lapworth's finding of Cambrian fossils in the shales 
of Stockingford, above the Quartzite, and volcanic rocks of Uriconian 
type underneath it. These discoveries, of course, demanded fresh 
maps of the districts implicated ; in 1886 the officers of the Survey 
came down, satisfied themselves as to their correctness in the 
Nuneaton district, and brought out new editions of their maps in 
order to include them. In 1898 the same thing was done for the 
Lickey Hills, the official surveyor being on this occasion an old 
student of Lapworth's, trained by him on those very hills. The 
more crucial parts of both these districts had already been mapped 
in detail by Professor Lapworth, sometimes in company with his 
students. 

The further discovery of calcareous beds in the upper part of the 
Nuneaton Quartzite, by Dr. T. Stacey "Wilson, led to the searching of 
the rocks for fossils along this line of country by Professor Lapworth, 
and the discovery of a bed of limestone bearing Hyalites and other 
fossils characteristic of the lowest fossiliferous Cambrian or Etche- 
minian horizons of America and elsewhere (1897). 

In 1886 work was begun in the Shelve district of Shropshire, and 
in the course of two or three years the sequence was made out and 
compared with that of South Scotland, North Wales, and Scandinavia 
(1887, 1894:). In later years the more detailed mapping of the 
greater part of that area has elucidated its structure, while at the 
same time the more complicated Caradoc region on the east of 
the Longmynd has been studied. Failing to find in that district 
a satisfactory base to the Ordovician System, the Cambrian rocks 
were next dealt with, the first outcome being the discovery of 
Olenellus and its accompanying fauna at the top of the basal 
Shropshire Quartzite (1888). This discovery resulted directly 
in the finding of the equivalent of the Olenellus Limestone at 
Nuneaton, and indirectly in the finding of Olenellus in the ' Fucoid 
Beds ' of North Scotland. Thus a definite Lower Cambrian horizon 
became marked out over a large area, and the base of the Cambrian 
System was drawn at the bottom of the Quartzite. 

It was, however, soon found impossible to complete the study of 
the Lower PalEeozoic sequence of this region without mapping the 
underlying floor of Dr. Callaway's Uriconian and Longmyndian rocks 
and working out the sequence and structure of the Harlech anticline, 
which has been more or less completed by Lapworth and his friend 
Dr. Stacey Wilson. 

This bald enumeration of thirty-three years' field-work naturally 
leads to a brief consideration of the causes which have contributed 
to its success. The principal reasons appear to the writer to be 
the following : — (1) Careful mapping on lines similar to those 
adopted by the Geological Survey, but usually in greater detail; 
the difficult areas being done on as large a scale as possible, and 



Professor Charles Lapworthy LL.D., F.RS. 295 

the crucial points visited many times over until tlieir structure has 
become quite clear. To this class of work Lapworth was naturally 
drawn by his early interest in physical geography, when he was 
always seeking to explain the causes underlying observed phenomena. 
His untiring industry, actuated by what has been called ' a genius 
for stratigraphy ' and a good eye for a country, filled even the 
dullest routine work with interest. (2) The observation of minute 
lithological changes whether in a vertical or a lateral direction. 
(3) The zonal collection and identification of fossils from every band 
which yields them. (4) The capacity to ' see solid ' into a map 
so that a complete picture of the solid structure is constantly present 
before the mind. (5) The careful thinking out of the bearing of facts 
observed and entered on the maps in the light of many possible 
theoretical explanations, until a consistent hypothesis is hit upon 
by the method of trial and error. (6) But, above all, the power 
to realize vividly the conditions which might have given rise to the 
observed phenomena ; so that in imagination he sees them at work 
and studies their results. It has been said more than once that it 
is of no use to contradict Lapworth when he has made up his mind 
on a geological question, " because he was there when the rocks 
were made." 

2. Work in the Laboratory and Study. 

Lapworth's investigations on the graptolites must be regarded as the 
outcome of his work in the Uplands, for from this region he collected 
and worked through hosts of these fossils, the diiSculty of satisfactorily 
identifying species causing him to save all specimens which might 
lead to unmistakeable identification or throw light on the life-history 
of these extinct hydrozoa. At the time he began the study the 
classification of the graptolites in general use was in almost as unsatis- 
factory a state as the grouping of the rocks, and the two studies had 
to be carried on concurrently. But while this increased the labour it 
intensified the interest, and directed attention to points which might 
otherwise have been overlooked. The graptolites, among which 
excellent work was also being done by Hopkinson and Nicholson, 
soon began to sort themselves out ; the rock-formations resisted much 
longer. Lapworth's study and comparison of his own collection, 
with those ah-eady made in other parts of the world, gave rise to his 
paper " On an Lnproved Classification of the Rhabdophora," which 
was published in 1873, and has since been either accepted as the 
standard to which graptolites are referred, or has formed the basis 
upon which the newer provisional classifications are founded. 
Having acquired a profound belief in the value of graptolite species 
for zone work, he took every opportunity for several years to collect 
specimens not only in Scotland but in Wales and Ireland, and of 
studying the works and collections of others, thus accumulating 
a vast amount of material for his invaluable ti-eatise on " The 
Geological Distribution of the Ehabdophora" (1879-80), in which 
for the first time not only are graptolite zones established over 
Britain, but the distribution of the zones and their contents all over 



296 Professor Charles Lapworth, LL.D., F.R.8. 

the world, so far as was then possible, was analysed, tabulated, and 
described, and the inference established that the graptolite was as 
reliable as the ammonite for a working stratigraphical index. 

Some yeai's elapsed before these conclusions were accepted in their 
entirety, except by his friends and fellow-workers in Scandinavia, 
but gradually his methods were taken up by first one and then 
another of the younger men in Britain and abroad, until, eventually, 
students of Palaeozoic rocks in all parts were sending Lapworth 
graptolites for identification, and numerous jDapei'S and appendices 
to papers, containing descriptions of new species and identifications 
of old ones, were published (1875, 1877, 1881). St. David's, County 
Down, Central Wales, and many other British districts soon yielded 
graptolites in sufficient quantity to enable the rock-horizons to be 
ascertained, and though the results sometimes conflicted with the 
apparent stratigraphy, that was only so much the worse for 
appearances and so much the better for facts. From foreign 
countries and from the Colonies specimens came in for identi- 
fication and as tests of the mapping. Led insensibly thereto by 
their own discoveries, palaeontologists fell into the habit of similarly 
classifying their fossils and employing them zonally, so that now 
the despised graptolite of thirty years ago has become universally 
accepted as the guide to the zonal order of the older fossiliferous 
rocks. 

The Upland work demonstrated that graptolites had not been 
standing still while all the Silurian rocks were being deposited, 
but that there had been continual variation, modification, and 
evolution. This, with the material subsequently accumulated, 
bearing on the life-history and habitats of the group and the 
probable causes to which their evolution was due, enabled Professor 
Lapworth to contribute to a paper by Walther an important com- 
munication on the " Mode of Life of the Graptolites" (1897), in which 
he advanced the theory that whilst the earliest and dendroid graptolites 
stood upright in shallow shore water, the later and more typical 
forms (Rhabdophora) hung suspended from floating sargasso-like 
seaweeds, so that they were drifted over the sea- waters as ' pseudo- 
plankton ' by currents, and their skeletons thus distributed more or 
less all over the sea-bed. This gave origin to the wide distribution 
of graptolite zones, and also, in all probability, was the actuating 
cause of the morphological evolution of the families and genera of 
Rhabdophora, as well as the explanation of their abundance in black 
carbonaceous shales. 

Later on Dr. Lapworth undertook the task of describing the 
British graptolites for the Palseontographical Society, and devoted 
a large amount of time to the correct drawing and illustrating of the 
fossils. Numerous experiments in the reproduction of illustrations 
were tried and are still being tried, and a new form of microscope 
(the Lapworth-Parkes) was worked out, by which even large 
specimens can be drawn in great detail, and under such conditions 
of lighting that no important point of structure is omitted, the main 
purpose being to present the object as like nature as possible without 



Professor Charles Lapicortli, LL.D., F.R.8. 297 

any interposition of the personality of the artist. The large-scale 
drawings are afterwards reduced by means of photography to the 
natural size of the fossil. The monograph is now being written and 
illusti-ated jointly by Miss EUes and Miss Wood under Dr. Lapworth's 
editorship. 

A rapid reader, with the faculty of quickly ' tearing the heart out 
of a book,' of 'spotting' mistakes into which a writer may have 
fallen, and of seeing the importance of an author's facts even when 
his interpretation is wrong, Lapworth goes to his work, whether in 
the field or the study, with a clear view of the problems to be faced 
and a knowledge of the crucial points for testing hypotheses, of 
which he has generally plenty on hand ready for immediate use. 
Thus it often happens that the main points in a research are settled 
in a few days, but, meanwhile, a host of new problems have arisen, 
and for their solution it is necessary to work out the district 
thoroughly. As Px'ofessor Marcel Bertrand pertinently puts it, 
Lapworth's widest results have been often arrived at "a I'aide de 
ces outils qu'il a forges lui-meme et que d'autres eussent dedaignes." 
This, coupled with a keen zest for outdoor work, which carries him 
out into the field on every fine day and most wet ones if they 
happen to be Saturdays or in holiday-time, accounts for the large 
amount of single-handed field-work that he has accomplished. His 
own explanation is, that it is simply the natural outcome of a child- 
hood spent among books in lieu of companions, of a manhood blessed 
by the constant encouragement and aid of his friends, and of almost 
a lifetime passed in the sympath}' of his pupils. 

The keenness in understanding and appreciating the work of 
others, which led Lapworth to abstract parts of Heira's Alpine 
treatise in order to show that there was nothing new in the 
principles employed in his own Highland work except their 
application to that district, and which is further exemplified in his 
appreciative memoirs of his early scientific friends Linnarsson, 
Nicholson, and Crosskey, is accompanied by a vivid imagination 
which enables him to visualize accurately the subjects on which he 
reads, a power of recognizing connecting links between severed lines 
of enquiry, and a faculty for picking out those exceptions to laws 
which indicate the existence of some greater law including the less. 

In his two papers " On the Tripartite Classification of the Older 
Paleeozoic Rocks" (1879) and "The Close of the Highland Con- 
trovei'sy " (1885) we see Lapworth in another light. In these 
tactful endeavours to still controversy, neither of them fruitless, 
we see such a grip of the subjects dealt with as to indicate 
complete mastery of the literature, independent thought, extreme 
care and skill in the presentation of conclusions and suggestions, 
and just that gentle suspicion of the authority which his own 
work on the subjects dealt with entitled him to assert. In 
each case Lapworth brought out the best points in the discoveries 
of the rival pioneers, and showed that of such points those 
which were vital were generally the common property of the 
rivals and their schools ; but he indicated most firmly that past 



298 Professor Charles Lapworth, LL.D., F.R.8. 

history and dead controversy must never be allowed to clog the 
wheels of progress. In both cases the old men had built a firm 
platform on which the new men were standing ready for the next 
rush forward ; they should not be too much concerned about the 
building of that platform when once they are convinced about its 
soundness, nor must they spend all their time quarrelling as to how 
its parts were first put together. The great thing for them is to 
make the next advance and to see that it is unhampered by questions 
of authority or nomenclature. It is largely due to the moderate tone 
of these papers that the Highland question is now no more, and that 
the term ' Ordovician ' has been adopted nearly all over the world. 

The appointment of Professor Lapworth to the presidency of the 
Geological Section of the British Association at Edinburgh in 1892 
necessitated the preparation of an address, and gave him the 
opportunity of welding together his researches and theories in 
geology and geography by dealing with the rock - fold, the 
' wedding - ring ' of the two sciences. After treating of the 
physical and geological aspects of the structure he passed on to 
apply it to the making of mountains and continents, and to connect 
it with the form and structure of the earth itself. Further develop- 
ments of this subject in time and space were communicated to the 
Geologists' Association and the Eoyal Geographical Society respec- 
tively, and have been treated of in college and other lectures on 
tectonic geology. 

As Lapworth's South Scottish work came into contact with and 
made Barrande's theory of ' Colonies ' untenable, so his views on 
the effects of mountain movement conflicted with Eichthofen's 
beautiful theory of the coral-reef origin of the limestone masses of 
the Dolomites. A paper on the Dolomite country by Miss Ogilvie 
(Mrs. Gordon) was read before Baron von Kichthofen, who was 
present at the Edinburgh meeting, and Lapworth, who had long 
considered the matter, although he had never visited the ground, 
took the opportunity of stating his belief that the so-called reef 
structures were the result of crust-deformation and not of original 
deposition, and that the associated igneous rocks belonged to the 
period of movement. The work and conclusions of Miss Ogilvie 
on this Dolomite region are familiar to tectonic geologists. 

But although the results of Lapworth's work have conflicted with 
some of the grandest geological hypotheses of his time, there is 
probably no other geologist who employs theory as a working tool 
to a greater extent in his own research, in teaching, and in prompting 
investigation and discovery in others, or who so instinctively relies 
upon the scientific use of the imagination. In his favourite * fold 
theory,' ' reciprocal ' or ' antilogous ' theory of deformation, the 
rock-fold, made up of two homologous and balanced parts, the one 
positive and the other negative (' antilogues'), is made to do duty 
as the archetype, and this type, so characteristic of more or less 
flexible sheets, is traced in the one direction into the wave-shape 
of fluids, and in the other direction into the fractures and faults of 
solid bodies. The fold-line or zero line is identified with the elastic 



Professor Charles Lapivorth, LL.D., F.li.S. 299 

curve, and the fold-shape is regarded as recognizable in all three 
dimensions and in all gradations of size. When we hear the 
applications of this theory employed by Lapworth to account for 
the land and water hemispheres of the globe, the shapes and trends 
of all crust movements, and hosts of other geological phenomena, we 
are fascinated with the manner in which the countless facts fall into 
apparent order and relationship, and for the time are almost willing 
to accept his sanguine view that '* this twisted plate unlocks the 
whole treasure - house of the new geology." But we confess, all 
the same, to a feeling of profound satisfaction when its employer 
asserts that it must be regarded in the meantime as a working 
hypothesis, a symbolical expression of facts, rather as a means of 
grouping than of explaining phenomena, until such time as its 
assumptions and illustrations have been more fully identified with 
the every-day results and conclusions of the physicist. 

How interesting and stimulating is Lapworth's habit of employing 
some striking theory and stringing upon it crowds of associated 
facts, those who attended the Shropshire excursion in 1894 will 
remember, who heard him describe the effects of the rolling in of 
the Caledonian crust-creep from the north-west upon the Ordovician 
region, already folded to the north and south, and how the location 
of the laccolites and other igneous injections in particular parts of 
the wrinkles was thus determined ; or those who joined the long 
excursion to Birmingham in 1898, and heard the physiography of 
the middle valley of the Severn explained as the result of the 
enforced irruption of the original upper Dee in early Glacial times, 
or the relations of the Triassic and Palaeozoic rock of the Midlands 
pictured as those of a rugged mountain region slowly buried under 
a sea of desert -sand and marl. In the same way his advanced 
students are led to store up and correlate countless facts in theii' 
memory by their natural harmony with some all-embracing theory, 
such, for example, as the explanation of the tectonics, lithology, and 
paleeontology of the Palaeozoic rocks on the theory of the develop- 
mental history of an ancient festoon island region like that of 
Eastern Asia, or the explanation of the phenomena of the 
Carboniferous rocks by the struggle for supremacy between the 
Caledonian and the Armorican crust-creeps. But these theories 
are always regarded as servants and not masters, merely provisional 
approximations to the truth. 

3. Teaching WorJc. 

For twenty years Lapworth has been sending into the world 
a stream of geologists, many of them equipped, not only with know- 
ledge of their subject, but with enthusiasm and capacity for original 
work in it. He has watched the Mason Science College grow into 
the Mason University College, and that again into the University of 
Birmingham, and has taken an active part in each step of the 
advance. While he does not disdain to drill his students and drum 
into them by question and answer the points he wishes them to get 
hold of, he is rarely content in his lectures with the mere imparting 



300 Professor Charles Lapicorih, LL.D., F.R.S. 

of information, but almost invariably he happens upon points which 
rouse genuine interest. His department not only covers so much of 
Geology as can be crammed into the limited time allotted to the 
study, but he has started and maintained large classes in Geography, 
dwelling particularly on those parts of the study which admit of 
scientific treatment. Indeed, these classes, the bearing of the 
Edinburgh address, and the bias of much of his own research, are 
all symptoms of his attitude towards the sister science, regarding 
Geology as the Geography of the past, and Geography as the 
Geology of the present. He has aroused a widespread local interest 
in Geology by delivering afternoon and evening lectures of a more 
popular but still systematic character, by holding weekly excursions 
during the Summer, and by delivering occasional lectures in the 
neighbouring towns. Amongst the characteristic features of his 
teaching may be mentioned the classes on structural and field 
geology, his economic courses, and his research classes. His classes 
on structui'al geology learn the principles which guide the field 
geologist's work, and his practical class spends a term in the actual 
mapping of a Midland district on the six - inch scale, with the 
accompanying oflSce-work. One or more workers are generally to 
be found in the research department engaged upon graptolites, 
trilobites, brachiopods, rock-specimens, or other material collected 
in the field. In order that he may have a larger amount of time to 
devote to investigation and to those portions of his teaching which 
may be regarded as special to himself, the lovers of science in the 
oity and district have provided him with an assistant-professor to 
take the rest of his College teaching. 

For many years a Geological Section of the Birmingham Natural 
History and Philosophical Society has met in his rooms in the 
Mason College. The largest contributor of papers and subjects for 
discussion has been the Professor himself, but the first drafts of 
many papers afterwards contributed to the greater learned societies 
have often been read and discussed by his students in that Section. 

By conducting long excursions for the Geologists' Association, the 
British Association, and other bodies, into districts with which he was 
especially familiar, by publishing papers and guidebooks descriptive 
of the regions to be studied, and by his textbooks on geology and 
physical geography, his teaching has reached a wider circle. 

But more far-reaching still has been his influence amongst 
specialists. The zonal and graptolite work has been taken up by 
many observers in similar lines of research, not only in Britain, 
but all over the world, in Scandinavia, Bohemia, France, Canada, 
and the United States. The value of his advice and assistance has 
been felt again and again by scientific investigators. His faculty 
for picking out exceptional facts, the patience which enables him 
to listen to a long and detailed account of a research, the avidity 
with which he seizes on those points which fit in with or run 
counter to his own theories, his delight in each bit of new discovery, 
and, above all. his encouraging sympathy and the generous manner 
in which he gives his own ideas and principles in the hope that they 



Professor Charles Lapirorfh, LL.B., F.R.S. 801 

may bear fresh fruit in new soil, all make him an ideal confidant ; 
for to him there is nothing that is "common or unclean," each branch 
of research has its separate value, and he has the faculty of giving 
those who consult him the impression that their work forms a part 
of some greater whole ; there is nothing more encouraging to 
a young man than to find that what he had perhaps considered an 
isolated line of enquiry is really linked up with the advance of 
science as a whole. 

Although it comes rather under the head of administrative than 
educative work, it may be here mentioned that Lapworth's intense 
belief in the practical and educational value of geology has led him 
to advocate the teaching of the economic side of the science, not 
only to miners, prospectors, and engineers, but to those engaged in 
building, surveying, brewing, and sanitary business, and of the 
pure science to those who are never likely to make any practical use 
of it except as a means of enlarging their knowledge of nature. 

Throughout a good deal of friendly antagonism to the Geological 
Survey he has always retained the personal friendship of its Officers 
and strenuously maintained the vital importance of that institution to 
the country ; and acting recently on a Departmental Enquiry into 
the functions and work of the Survey he has taken his share in 
remodelling its scope and administration. 

4. Applied Geology. 

During his residence in Birmingham Lapworth has been frequently 
consulted in matters relating to such subjects as sites, water, and 
minerals. In this way he has had means of acquiring a vast amount 
of information, otherwise inaccessible, relating to the structure of the 
Midland coalfields and their surrounding areas. Indeed, it may be 
said that one of his main inducements to undertake this class of 
work has been in order to enrich his knowledge of a branch of 
science which is practically untouched by the learned societies and 
the textbooks. The complicated geology of the Midlands, a rugged 
region covered unconformably by Coal-measures and in most places 
buried up unconformably by New Red Sandstone, gives rise to 
a series of difficult problems, each of which must be the subject of 
a special investigation involving scientific methods, the careful 
mapping of areas, and the disentangling of the involved structure 
of difficult districts. In the Midland region, at least, it has become 
abundantly clear that the most complicated questions of stratigraphy, 
vulcanicity, and palaeontology, all have an eventual, if not an 
immediate, application to the economic side of the subject ; and that 
there is probably no problem in pure geology that will not in the end 
have its bearing on applied geology. 

In conclusion, one would like, were it permitted, to say a word of 
the man apart from the geologist. But, after all, is it necessary ? 
His personality is so well known, his influence so wide, his geniality 
and kindliness of heart so patent to his friends, that it is quite 
needless to refer to them ; and his enemies have yet to be discovered. 



302 Professor Charles Laincorth, LL.D., F.R.8. 

Opponents and antagonists there have been in plenty, but it is in 
their ranks that we find many of those who respect Lapworth most, 
whilst not a few of them have become his warmest friends. 

SCIENTIFIC PAPERS BY PROFESSOR C. LAPWORTH. 

1870. "On the Lower Silurian Rocks of G-alashiels " : Geol. Mag., Dec. I, 
Vol. VII, pp. 204-209, 279-284; Trans. Edinb. Geol. Soc, vol. ii (1874), 
pp. 46-58. 

1872. " On the Graptolites of the Gala Group " : Rep. Brit. Assoc, vol. xli, p. 104. 

1872. " Note on the Results of some Recent Researches among the Graptolitic Black 
Shales of the South of Scotland": Geol. Mag., Dec. I, Vol. IX, pp. 533-555. 

1873. "On an Improved Classification of the Rhabdophora " : Geol. Mag., 
Dec. I, Vol. X, pp. 500-504. 

1874. " Note on the Graptolites discovered by Mr. John Henderson in the Silurian 
Shales of Habbie's Howe, Pentland Hills " : Trans. Edinb. Geol. Soc, vol. ii, 
pp. 375-377. 

1874. " On the Diprionidte of the Moffat Series": Proc Geol. Assoc, vol. iii, 
pp. 165-168. 

1874. " On the Silurian Rocks of the South of Scotland " [1872] : Trans. Glasgow 
Geol. Soc, vol. iv, pp. 164-174. 

1875. ("With John Hopkinson.) " Descriptions of the Graptolites of the Arenig and 
Llandeilo Rocks of St. Davids " [1874] : Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxxi, 
pp. 631-672. 

1876. (With Professor Henry AUeyne Nicholson.) " On the Central Group of the 
Silurian Series of the North of England" : Rep. Brit. Assoc, 1875, pp. 78-79. 

1876. " On the Scottish Monograptidte " : Geol. Mag., Dec. II, Vol. Ill, 

pp. 308-321, 350-360, 499-507, 544-652. 
1876. " Llandovery Rocks in the Lake District" : Geol. Mag., Dec II, Vol. Ill, 

pp. 477-480. 

1876. " Silurian Rocks of the West of Scotland " (with figures of the GraptoKtes) : 
Western Scottish Fossils Catalogue. 

1877. " On the Graptolites of County Down": Proc. Belfast Nat. Field Club, 
Appendix, 1876-7, pp. 125-144 ; three plates. 

1878. "The Moffat Series" [1877]: Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxxiv, 
pp. 240-343, 345-346. 

1879. " On the Tripartite Classification of the Lower Palaeozoic Rocks" : Geol. 
Mag., Dec II, Vol. VI, pp. 1-15. 

1879-80. " On the Geological Distribution of the Rhabdophora " : Ann. Mag. Nat. 
Hist., vol. iii (1879), pp. 245-257, 449-455 ; vol. iv (1879), pp. 333-341, 
423-431; vol. v (I88u), pp. 45-62, 273-285, 358-309; vol. vi (1880), 
pp. 16-29, 185-207. 

1880. "On the Genus Nemagrapttis {Nematolites) of Emmons" [1879] : Proc. 
Edinb. Phys. Soc, vol. v, pp. 106-113. 

1880. " On Linnarsson's Recent Discoveries in Swedish Geology " : Geol. Mag., 

Dec. II, Vol. VII, pp. 29-37, 68-71, 240. 
1880. " On NoAV British Graptolites " : Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. v, pp. 149-177. 
1880. "On the Correlation of the Lower Palajozoic Rocks of Britain and 

Scandinavia": Geol. Mag., Dec. II, Vol. VIII, pp. 260-266, 317-322. 

1880. " On the Cladophora (Hopk.) or Dendroid Graptolites collected by Professor 
Keeping in the Llandovery Rocks of Mid-Wales " [1880] : Quart. Joiun. Geol. 
Soc, vol. xxxvii, pp. 171-177. 

1881. "Introductory Textbook of Physical Geography," by the late David Page. 
Tenth edition. Revised and enlarged by C. Lapworth. 

1882. "Recent Discoveries among the Silurians of South Scotland" [1878]: 
Trans. Glasgow Geol. Soc, vol. vi, pp. 72-84. 

1882. " The Girvan Succession " ; Part i. Stratigraphy [1881] : Quart. Journ. Geol. 

Soc, vol. xxxviii, pp. 537-664. 
1882. "The Life and Work of Linnarsson": Geol. Mag., Dec II, Vol. IX, 

pp. 1-7, 119-122, 171-176. [Silurian Rocks of Sweden.] 
1882. "On Graptolites" [Abstract]: Trans. Geol. Soc. Glasgow, vol. vi, pt. 2, 

pp. 260-261. 



Professor CJtarks Lapworth, LL.D., F.R.8. 303 

1882. " History of the Discovery of Cambriau Rocks in the Neighbourhood of 
Birmingham": Geol. Mao., Dec. II, Vol. IX, pp. 563-566; Proc. 
Birmingham Phil. See, vol. iii (1883), pp. 234-238. 

1883. "The Secret of the Highlands" : Geol. Mag., Dec. II, Vol. X, pp. 120-128, 
193-199, 337-344. 

1883. " Geikie's Textbook of Geology" : Geol. Mag., Dec. II, Vol. X, p. 39. 
[1884 ?] " The Mason College and Technical Education" : an address delivered at 

the Mason Science College, Birmingham, 1884. 
1885. «' On the Close of the Highland Controversy ": Geol. Mag., Dec. Ill, Vol. II, 

pp. 97-106 ; see also Proc. Geol. Assoc, vol. viii (1884), jip. 438-442. 
[1885 ?] " Books on Historical Geology " : Birmingham Reference Library Lectures. 

1885. " On the Durness and Eriboll Areas " : Proc. Geol. Assoc, vol. ix. No. 2, 
pp. 56-65. 

1886. "On the Sequence and Systematic Position of the Cambrian Eocks of 
Nuneaton" : Geol. Mag., Dec. Ill, Vol. Ill, pp. 319-322. 

1886. " On the Pala3ozoic Rocks of the Birmingham District" : Rep. Bi'it. Assoc. 
(Sect. C), 1886, pp. 621-622; see also British Association Handbook, 1886, 
pp. 216-236. 

1886. " Preliminary Report on some Graptolites from the Lower Palaeozoic Rocks on 
the South Side of the St. Lawrence from Cape Rosier to Tartigo River, etc " : 
Trans. Roy. Soc Canada (Sect, iv), 1886, pp. 167-184. 

1887. " The Cambrian Rocks of the Midlands " : Rep. Brit. Assoc. (Sect. C), 1886, 
pp. 622-623. 

1887. " The Ordoxician Rocks of Shropshire " : Rep. Brit. Assoc. (Sect. C), 1886, 
pp. 661-663. 

1887. "The Highland Controversy in British Geology, its Causes, Course, and 
Consequences" : Rep. Brit. Assoc. (Sect. C), 1886, pp. 1025-1026. 

1888. " On the Discovery of the Olenellm Fauna in the Lower Cambrian Rocks of 
Britain " : Geol. Mag., Dec. Ill, Vol. V, pp. 484-487. 

1888. " Introductory Textbook of Geology," by David Page ; revised and in great 
part rewritten by C. Lapworth. 

1889. " On the Ballantrae Rocks of South Scotland, and their Place in the Upland 
Sequence": Geol. Mag., Dec. Ill, Vol. VI, pp. 20-24, 59-69. 

1889. "Note on Graptolites from Dease River, B.C. " : Geol. Mag., Dec. Ill, 

Vol. VI, pp. 30-31 ; see also Canadian Record of Science, vol. iii (1889), 

pp. 141-142. 
1891. "On OlencUua Callavei and its Geological Relationships": Geol. Mag., 

Dec. Ill, Vol. VIII, pp. 529-536. 
1891. "The Geology of Dudley and the Midlands," an address delivered to the 

Midland Union of Natural History Societies : Proc. Dudley and Midland Geol. & 

Sci. Soc. & Field Club, 1891. 

1893. Address to the Geological Section of the British Association: Rep. Brit. 
Assoc, 1892, p. 695. See also "Heights and Hollows of the Earth's Surface" : 
Journ. Roy. Geog. Soc, n.s., vol. xiv (1892), pp. 688-697. 

1894. (With W. W. Watts.) " The Geology of South Shropshire " : Proc. Geol. 
Assoc, vol. xiii, pp. 297-355 ; two plates. 

1894. " The Face of the Earth " : Nature, vol. xlix, pp. 614-617. 

1894. " Our Futiu:e Coalfields," abstract of Gilchrist Lecture : Birmingham Daily 
Post, 1894. 

1895. "Dr. Crosskey and Geology": extracted from "The Life and Work of 
Henry W^illiam Crosskey, LL.D., F.G.S." ; Birmingham, 1895. 

1897. " Die Lebensweise der Graptolithen " ; contributed to " Ueber die Lebens- 
weise fossiler Meeresthiere von Prof. Dr. Johannes Walther": Zeitsch. der 
Deutsch. Geol. GeselL, vol. xlix, 2, pp. 238-258. 

1897. " Note on Cambrian Hyolithcs Sandstones from Nuneaton" : Trans. Edinb. 
Geol. Soc, vol. vii, pp. 231-232. 

1898. " Sketch of the Geology of Birmingham District, etc. " : Proc. Geol. Assoc, 
vol. XV, pp. 313-408. 

1899. " The Survey Memoir on the Southern Uplands" ; a review : Geol. Mag., 
Dec. IV, Vol. "VI, pp. 472, 510. 

1899. "An Intermediate Textbook of Geology," founded on the "Introductory 
Textbook of Geology " by the late David Page. 



304 H. Stank.// Jerom — Nomenclature of Igneous Rocks. 

II. — A Systematic Nomenclature for Igneous Eooks. 

By H. Stanley Jevons, M.A., F.G.S., 
Assistant Demonstrator in Petrology in the Woodwardian Museum, Cambridge. 

I. Introductory. 

rriHE present nomenclature of igneous rocks is generally ac- 
JL knowledged to be unsatisfactory, for not only is it without 
useful meaning, but it is also so unsystematic that it forms a severe 
tax upon the memory. The manifest and urgent need of reform, 
which these circumstances create, must be my excuse for presenting 
in a short note a suggestion likely to require much elaboration. 
A systematic nomenclature, I need hardly say, can only rest upon 
a systematic classification, so that the proposals I shall herewith 
make would have been fitly accompanied by an attempt at producing 
a classification of the kind. As I have found, however, that much 
expenditure of time and labour will be necessary to accomplish this 
task, I have decided upon publishing at once certain proposals with 
regard to nomenclature, which could be largely applied to classifi- 
cations at present in use. 

It has long been the custom of many authors to name subdivisions 
of groups by prefixing to the family -name the name of the mineral 
which distinguishes the subdivision.^ Thus we have, for instance, 
muscovite-granites, hiotite-granites, hornblende-granites, and augite- 
granites ; also hornblende-biotite-granites, augite-biotite-graniies, etc. 
This system is undoubtedly a step in the right direction, because the 
name of a sub-group is thus made to point out the distinguishing 
feature in its composition. When more than one prefix is required, 
however, such names become too cumbrous for general use, and the 
practical result is that in such cases a new name is invented, 
generally signifying nothing but the locality where the rock was 
first found, or the name of its discoverer. The method breaks down, 
in fact, under a severe test. 

II. Description of Prefixes. 

The system of nomenclature which I propose is based upon that 
just described, but difi'ers from it in that the prefixes are contracted. 
Several can be used, therefore, before a name tends to exceed 
a reasonable number of syllables in length. Instead of hornblende- 
biotite-granite, for instance, I should say Tiornbi-granite, pronouncing 
the &i-syllable long, as in ' biotite.' 

Other advantages have been secured by the use of conventions as 
to the arrangement of the prefixes, and as to the exact meaning of 
the family-names. The order of the prefixes denotes the relative 
abundance of the minerals, that of the most abundant standing next 
to the family-name. Thus in a Jiornbi-granite biotite preponderates 
over hornblende, whilst in a biJiorn-granite the reverse is the case. 

^ I use the term family throughout in the sense in which it is used by Rosenbusch 
in his " Elemente der Gesteinslehre," that is to say, for groups like the granites, 
diorites, etc. 



H. Stanley Jevona — Nomenclature of Igneous Rockn. 305 

If objection were talceii to making the relative abundance of minerals 
a factor in the nomenclature, I should answer that I believe it will 
prove a useful step, as too little attention has hitherto been paid to 
variations in the relative abundance of a rock's constituents, and 
there exists a very simple method of determining this factor.^ 

Other properties besides mineral composition are occasionally 
made use of as bases of subdivision, and further prefixes will be 
required in naming the groups thus formed. When the subdivisions 
are based upon structure, prefixes may be obtained by contracting 
the names of the various structures. For example, pilotaxitic can 
be contracted to pitaxo-, intersertal to inserto-, and so forth. It is 
almost exclusively amongst the dyke-rocks and lavas that structure 
is made the basis of subdivision, and names would be produced 
such as mipegmo-rlujolite for a granophyric or micropegmatitic 
rhyolite, or hypidio-hasalt for a basalt with hypidiomorphiu-granular 
structure. 

Besides mineral and structure prefixes, others denoting some fact 
in the chemical composition of the rock as a whole may be required. 
Thus has- or hasi- would mean basic, ali- would signify alkaline, 
and so on. These prefixes should generally come immediately before 
the family-name, and should be separated from it by a hyphen 
when they are used to name subdivisions of the principal families. 
Thus the alkaline-syenite family, a group which may be ranked 
as of equal importance with the normal or calc-alkaline syenites, 
would be named alisyenite ; but the name of the basic subdivision 
of the diorite family, if such a subdivision were made, would be 
written basi-diorite with a hyphen. 

III. Index Minerals. 

The use of a family-name must evidently in every case imply 
the presence in the rock to which it is applied of certain essential 
minerals, which need not therefore be mentioned in the prefix. 
These I term the index minerals of a family, because, being common 
to all its members, they serve to point out to which family a new 
specimen belongs. As an example, I may take the family-name 
granite. Every rock so named, whether there be a prefix or not, 
must contain the minerals quartz and orthoclase in abundance, and 
these, therefore, are its index minerals. Granites usually, of course, 
contain other minerals besides, and some or all of them may be 
mentioned in the prefix. In the same way the index minerals of 
gabbro are obviously plagioclase and monoclinic pyroxene. 

It is very important that accurate definitions of the index minerals 
of all rock-families should be provided; but I am not in a position 
to supply them at present. A few such definitions I have been 
successful in framing, and I therefore feel confident that with 
sufficient study every family can be properly defined. 

In the meantime, before this work is completed, the want of 
accurate definitions will not seriously afi"ect the application of 

1 See A. Rosiwal: Yerhandlungen der k. k. geol. Reichs-Anstalt, 1898, p. 143. 

DECADE IV. VOL. VIII. — NO. VII. 20 



306 H. Stanley Jevons — Nomenclature of Igneous Rocks. 

the system of nomenclature here proposed. Petrologists of any 
experience know more or less accurately from constant use the 
index minerals of every family, and ambiguity is likely to arise 
only in the case of rocks falling near the boundary between two 
families. 

IV. The Prefixes a- and mono-. 

The recognition of index minerals and the formation of definitions 
would be of little use, however, if the fact were not acknowledged 
that rocks exist which do not contain the index minerals of any 
family, and so cannot be classified at all if the scheme be rigidly 
maintained. So far as I know, such aberrant forms are nearly 
always schlieren, products of differentiation in immediate continuity 
with and passing gradually into the parent mass ; and they are 
therefore generally classed along with the rock of their parent mass, 
from which they diff'er only in the absence of one of the index 
constituents.^ To indicate the abnormality of their composition in 
their names, I propose to place in the prefix the name of the absent 
index mineral, preceded by the privative a-. This combined prefix 
should stand immediately in front of all the other mineral prefixes, 
separated from them by a hyphen. As examples of names thus 
produced I may quote apyr-gabbro for anorthosite, which is essentially 
a gabbro without the pyroxene, and apyr-magne-peridotite, which, 
denotes certain of the schlieren which sometimes occur in masses 
of gabbro and peridotite, and consist of magnetite associated with 
olivine and only traces of other minerals. 

The difficulty of determining whether a mineral is actually 
present or not, when it is suspected in small quantities, will tend 
to produce confusion, if an index mineral must necessarily be 
absolutely wanting before it can be declared absent in the name. 
For all practical purposes an index mineral has vanished if its 
proportion be less than 5 per cent, by weight of the whole rock, 
and I therefore propose this amount as the limit, falling below which 
the rock either passes into another family or requires the missing 
index mineral placed in the prefix with the privative a-. 

There remains yet one more prefix whose use I have found 
indispensable, namely mono- or mon-, meaning only. It is of use 
chiefly in the case of sub-groups which are distinguished from others 
of the same family by the absence of minerals, rather than their 
presence. For instance, a rock which consists of nothing but the 
index minerals of some family can only be distinguished from other 
members of the same family by the absence of the minerals which 
characterise them. This want of additional minerals may be 
expressed by using mono- as the sole prefix in naming a rock. 
Thus a mono-gabbro is a rock consisting solely of an intermediate 
or basic plagioclase and a monoclinic pyroxene, the index minerals 

^ The word schliere is here used in the sense defined by Rosenbusch (" Elements 
der Gesteinslehre," 1898, p. 41), Reyer (" Theoretische Geologie," p. 81), and Zirkel 
(*' Petrographie," 1893, i, p. 787). It has been introduced into the English language 
by Holland ("The Charnockite Series " : Mem. Geol. Siu-v. India, vol. xxviii, p. 217). 



H. Stanley Jevons — Nomenclature of Igneous Roclcs. 307 

of the gabbro family, no account being taken of the usual accessories. 
Reference to the table (No. IV) on p. 312 will show that this prefix 
occurs again in the descriptive name for umptekite, namely monampli- 
-alisyenite. It is used here because, whilst in certain members of the 
family an amphibolo is the most abundant ferromagnesian mineral, 
in umptekite it is the only one, and to avoid all risk of confusion it is 
well to state that fact in the name. The use of this prefix is really 
simply a means of avoiding the use of the same name in both an 
extended and restricted sense at once. 

V. Order of Prefixes. 

The order in which prefixes of different kinds are placed when 
required in the same name is an important matter. The rule which 
I propose is that a prefix used to name a major subdivision be 
always placed nearer to the family name than a prefix used for 
a minor subdivision. For instance, supposing that the subdivisions 
of the dolerite family, founded on mineral composition in the 
ordinary way, were themselves subdivided according to structure, 
then the structure prefix would always precede the mineral prefix 
in the name of each of the ultimate subdivisions, producing such 
names as ophit-oli-dolerite, hypidio-horn-dolerite, etc. When on the 
other hand the first subdivision is on the basis of structure, as in 
the rhyolites, the order must be reversed, producing such names as 
diopsi-mipegmo-rhyolite, bi-perlo-rhyolite, etc. This rule is obviously 
the most convenient, for it leaves the name of a major subdivision 
intact in the names of the minor subdivisions which it contains, 
so that a single glance shows to which major subdivision any minor 
subdivision belongs. It must not be supposed that this double 
subdivision and the cumbrous names it produces will be frequently 
employed. It is probable, however, that as the study of igneous 
rocks progresses, subdivision will be carried further and further ; 
and it is therefore well to be prepared beforehand with a method 
for naming sub-groups of future origin in any system of nomen- 
clature which we adopt to-day. 

It will have been observed that hyphens are always placed 
between prefixes of different kinds, and between a prefix and the 
family-name, in order to facilitate reading the compound name. 
They are not required to separate prefixes of the same kind, as for 
instance when a series of mineral prefixes follow one another, nor 
should they be inserted within family- or subfamily-names. 

VI. Lists of Contractions. 

The various kinds of prefixes have now been fully discussed. 
For the sake of uniformity, in case others should wish to use this 
system, I proceed to display in full all the contractions which 
appear likely to be necessary. The first list, containing the 
contractions of mineral names, includes, I believe, all that are 
likely to be required. It will be noticed that different forms are 
generally needed according to whether the next syllable begins with 
a vowel or a consonant. 



308 H. Stanley Jevons — Nomenclature of Igneous Mocks. 



Table I. List of Contractions for the Names of Minerals. 





Before a 


Befoee a 




Before a 


Before a 


Mineral 


Consonant 


Vowel 


Mineral 


Consonant 


Vowel 


Actinolite 


Actino- 


Actin- 


Hornblende 


Horn- 


Horn- 


^gyrine 


^gi- 


Mg. 


Hypersthene Hyper- 


Hyper- 


Albite 


Albi- 


Alb- 


Labradorite 


Labra- 


Lab- 


Amphibole 


AmpM- 


Amph- 


Leucite 


Leu- 


Leuc- 


Analcime 


Analci- 


Anal- 


Magnetite 


Magne- 


Mag- 


Andesine 


Ande- 


Andes- 


Melanite 


Melano- 


Melan- 


Anorthite 


Anorthi- 


Anorthi- 


Melilite 


Melli- 


Mel- 


Anorthoclase 


Anorthoclase 


-Anorthocias- 


Mica 


Mica- 


Mica- 


Anthophyllite Antho- 


Anthy- 


Microcline 


Microcline- 


Microcline 


Apatite 


Apa- 


Ap- 




(Ortbo-) 


(Orth-) 


Arfvedsonite 


Arfve- 


Arfved- 


Muscovite 


Musc- 


Musc- 


Augite 


Augi- 


Aug- 


Nepbeline 


Nepb- 


Neph- 


Barkevicite 


Barke- 


Bark- 


Nosean 


Nose- 


Nos- 


Basalt Horn- 
blende 


JBasliorn- 


Bashorn- 


Oligoclase 
Olivine 


OHgo- 
OH- 


Olig- 
OHv- 


Biotite 


Bi- 


Bi- 


Orthoclase 


Ortbo- 


Ortb- 


Bronzite 


Bronzi- 


Bronz- 


Pyroxene 


P}T0- 


Pyr- 


Bytownite 


Byto- 


Byt- 


Quartz 


Quartz- 


Quartz- 


Cancrinite 


Cancri- 


Can- 


Eiebeckite 


Eiebe- 


Eieb- 


Corundum 


Corun- 


Corund- 


Sodalite 


Sodali- 


Sodal- 


Diallage 


Dial- 


Dial- 


Sphene 


Spheni- 


Spben- 


Diopside 


Diopsi- 


Diop- 


Titanite 


Tita- 


Titan- 


Enstatite 


Ensta- 


Enst- 


Topaz 


Topa- 


Topaz- 


Felspar 


Fels- 


Fels- 


Tourmaline 


Tourma- 


Tourm- 


Garnet 


Garnet- 


Garnet- 


Tremolite 


Tremo- 


Trem- 


Haiiyne 


Hau- 


Hau- 


Zircon 


Zircon- 


Zirc- 



The names of structures do not admit of contraction quite so 
readily as those of minerals, but it is only in very few cases that the 
name cannot be reduced to three syllables. The list of contractions 
given below (Table II) is almost complete, but for some words such 
as hypocrystalline-porpJiyritic and glomeroporpTiyritic, besides granular, 
granulitic, etc., unambiguous contractions do not exist. It may 
become necessary, in some cases, to adopt new names for such 
structures, though I hesitate to go so far at present. Suggestions 
from any quarter will, however, be gratefully received and con- 
sidered. In the case of names for which contractions cannot be 
invented, and which are therefore omitted from the following list, it 
will probably be best for the present to use the whole name without 
contraction. 

The contractions are given in the form which should be used 
when the next syllable begins with a consonant. When followed 
by a vowel the final -o should in most cases be dropped. The 
pronunciation remains unaltered in contractions which are formed 
by the omission of a syllable from the centre of the word. Thus, for 
instance, the mi- in misphero- is pronounced long as in ' microscope ' 
or ' microspherulitic,' and not short as in ' miss.' 

The name amygdaloidal is omitted from the list because that 
structure is merely a secondary derivative of the vesicular structure. 
As it is generally the rule in naming an igneous rock to imagine it 
back in its original and unaltered condition, the two structures 



H. Stanley Jevotis — Nomenclature of Igneous Rocks. 309 



become for our purpose essentially the same, and the name vesicular 
may be used for both. 

Table II. List of Contractions for Names of Structures. 

Name Contraction Name Contraction 



Allotriomorphic-granular Allotrio- 

Eutaxitic Eutaxo- 

Felsophyric (see Microfelsitic) Mifelso- 

Olassy or vitreous Vitri- 

Hyalopilitic Hyapilo- 

Hypidiomorphic-granular Hypidio- 

Intersertal Inserto- 

Miarolitic Miaro- 

Microfelsitic Mifelso- 
Micropegmatitic or Granophyric Mipegmo 

Microspherulitic MispherO' 

Ocellar Ocello- 



Ophitic Ophito- 

Panidiomorphic -granular Panidio- 
Pilotaxitic Pitaxo- 

Poecilitic Poecilo- 

Porphyritic Porpho- 

Rhomboidal (Rhomben-)|Tji r i 



felspar structure 

Spherulitic Sphero- 

Tr achy tic Tracho- 

Variolitic Varilo- 

Vesicular Vesico- 

Vitrophyric (see Glassy) Vitri- 

There remain a few miscellaneous contractions which are 
occasionally employed, and may be conveniently exhibited in 
another table. The prefixes for ' rich in soda ' and ' rich in 
potash ' are obtained by contracting the German words natron and 
kali, rather than the English words soda and potash, because, owing 
to their use for symbols in chemistry, the former are more widely 
understood in England than are the latter in Germany. 

Table III. List of Miscellaneous Contractions. 
Before a Consonant Before a Vowel Meaning 



a- 


an- 


without (privative) 


ali- 


ali- 


rich in alkalies 


basi- 


bas- 


basic 


calci- 


calc- 


rich in lime 


kali- 


kali- 


rich in potash 


kalko- 


kalk- 


rich in lime (German 


medio- 


medi- 


medium, middle 


mono- 


mon- 


only 


raulti- 


mult- 


much, many 


natro- 


natr- 


rich in soda 


pauci- 


pauc- 


little, few 



VII. Family-Names. 

For the sake of further illustration, I have prepared, and 
reproduced below, a table showing the classification of the Alkaline 
Series of plutonic igneous rocks, which gives both the old and the 
new names (see Table IV, p. 312). The Alkaline Series is troubled 
with a particular superabundance of names. Probably this is 
because most of its members have been discovered in recent years, 
since detailed petrographical research became general, and its families 
have therefore actually become subdivided to a far greater extent 
than those of the Calc-alkaline Series, although the latter has been 
studied very much longer. The table therefore shows that a great 
number of names will become redundant, if a systematic nomen- 
clature be adopted. 

Hitherto nothing has been said respecting the names of families. 
This is because complete revolution is impossible, and existing 



310 H. Stanley Jevons — Nomenclature of Igneous Rocks. 

names must be accepted to a great extent, however meaningles& 
and awkward they may be. There is, however, one family-name 
which I have felt the necessity of altering, as reference to the table 
will show ; that is, the name nepheline- or elceolite-syenite. The 
name was probably the best which could be given at the time the 
family was established, pointing out as it did the relation which 
these rocks were then supposed to hold to a well-known group, the 
Syenites.^ In view of what we know at the present time, however, 
concerning the Alkaline Series, the name is not only useless but 
misleading. In no essential quality does the so-called nepheline- 
syenite resemble a normal syenite. The silica percentage, which 
ranges, roughly speaking, from 50 to 60, is that of the more basic 
diorites and some acid gabbros, rather than that of the syenites. 
As regards mineral composition also, the two are absolutely distinct. 
The normal syenite consists of orthoclase and a ferroraagnesian 
mineral, which are the index minerals of the family, together with 
a plagioclase felspar not exceeding the orthoclase in amount, and 
usually a small quantity of quartz. The nepheline-syenite, on the 
other hand, contains alkali-felspar (either potash or soda pre- 
dominating) and nepheline as index minerals, with which are 
associated ferromagnesian minerals in small quantity and mostly 
of an alkaline type, and frequently sodalite, leucite, nosean,. 
cancrinite, etc., without plagioclase or quartz. Hence it is evident 
that merely removing the nepheline from a nepheline-syenite would 
not make it into an ordinary syenite, and the name has therefore 
no justification. Since the family is a member of the Alkaline 
Series, and at the same time occupies a middle place in the range 
of silica percentage, I propose to substitute for nepheline-syenite 
the descriptive name midalkalite. This is compounded of *mid,' 
the abbreviated form of ' middle,' and ' alkali,' which signifies the 
series to which the family belongs. The only alternative was the 
form medalkalite, adopting the Latin word medius for * middle.' 
The word sounds strange and uncouth, however, to English ears, 
and conveys its meaning much less clearly than midalkalite ; whilst 
the latter is probably equally adaptable to French and German. 

Possibly the coining of a new name upon a new principle demands 
some apology. It may be suggested that the better course would 
have been to select one of the numerous names already given ta 
various members of the nepheline-syenite family, and to extend its 
meaning to embrace the whole group. Every other family-name 
has arisen in that way, and a uniform system might have been 
preserved. I consider, however, that there are very strong objections 
to any such extension of the meaning of a name ; indeed, I hold that 
an extension of meaning is justifiable only when the additional species 
taken in do not surpass, either in the wideness of their difference from 
one another or in number, the species already associated with the name 
— the word species being here used merely to designate any small 

1 The name was given by Eosenbusch in 1877. He himself anticipates the- 
objection which I am about to raise (see Mik. Phys., 1877, ii, p. 204), and. 
proposes that, if it be insisted on, the n^axasfoyaite should be adopted instead. 



H. Stanley Jevons — Nomenclature of Igneous Rocks. 311 

group possessing well-recognised characteristics. It is inevitable that 
the meaning of a name should be altered from time to time — some- 
times narrowed, though generally extended ; but every such alteration 
must be gradual, taking place step by step. The reason for this lies 
in human nature. A radical alteration in the meaning of a name 
involves such a revolution of ideas and habits that most men refuse 
to accept any such proposal ; and its adoption by only a few simply 
leads to endless confusion. On the other hand, a slight alteration of 
meaning requires but a trifling readjustment of ideas and habits; 
and, therefore, so long as the change is clearly justified, it is soon 
recognised as convenient and gradually comes into use. 

Whilst these objections clearly prevent the adoption of such 
names as lujaurite, litchfieldite, etc., to replace nepheline-syenite, 
there is one name, foyaite, which would appear at first sight to 
escape them. It has been suggested, and sometimes used, as 
a synonym for nepheline-syenite, and few authors, if any, now 
restrict its meaning solely to the type of rock originally described 
by Blum under that name. A little investigation shows, however, 
that even this name has not had an application wide enough to 
allow of its extension over the whole group which I propose to call 
midalkalites. Rosenbusch uses it to include only what might be 
called the normal types of nepheline-syenite ; those which are poor 
in coloured constituents, and in which the alkali felspars are both 
abundant, the potash felspar predominating over the soda felspar, 
rather than the reverse. This use of it excludes such types as 
Litchfieldite, Laurdalite, Lujaurite, and many others, but includes 
Brogger's and Derby's Foyaites. At the same time it appears 
probable that the majority, if not all, of those authors who have 
used foyaite as synonymous with nepheline-syenite, have had in 
their minds only those normal types included by Rosenbusch under 
that name. The name is therefore applied to a definite group of 
rocks closely allied to one another, and it would be a contravention 
of the principle above stated to apply it to such widely difi"ering 
rocks as laurdalite, litchfieldite, borolanite, leiicite-syenite, and sodalite- 
syenite. It will, indeed, be found convenient to retain the name 
foyaite with Rosenbusch's meaning as marking a subfamily. 

The only course left me was to coin a new name. A descriptive 
name seemed likely to be most convenient, and I therefore chose 
midalJcalite. The fact that all other family - names are of the 
non-descriptive kind, and that I do not at the same time propose 
descriptive names to replace them, is no valid objection to the 
introduction of one such name. If this one prove a success, others 
can be added from time to time as desired. 

Two other family-names require a brief notice. Desiring to 
reduce the number of existing family-names as far as possible, 
I have followed Rosenbusch and grouped together the soda and 
potash rocks, so that the theralites and shonkinites form one family, 
and the ijolites and missourites another. Instead of retaining the 
double name for each family, however, as he does, I have selected 
one of the names in each case to cover both the soda and potash 



312 H. Stanley Jevons — Nomenclature of Igneous Rocks. 

rocks. Guided by the principle above set forth, I have selected the 
name of the soda rocks in each case, because they are far more 
important, both in number and variety, than the corresponding 
potash rocks. The family of Theralites and Shonlcinites therefore 
becomes the family of Theralites, and the family of Ijolites and 
Missourites becomes the family of Ijolites. The name ijolite is 
neither convenient nor euphonious, but I fear there exists no 
alternative which could be adopted. It is not objectionable enough 
to warrant the proposal of a new name, and there is no other name 
in the family which has sufficient extension to allow it to be applied 
to the whole family in accordance with the above-mentioned rule. 

The chief reason for combining the soda and potash rocks in one 
family as I have done, is that if they were separated here, amongst 
the plutonic alkaline rocks, the same multiplication of families 
ought to be allowed throughout the whole igneous series. Instead 
of about thirty-five families, as we now have, we should then have 
nearly sixty, each with a name to be remembered. This seems to 
me too large a number, in the present state of our science. It will 
be observed, however, that I propose still to keep the potash and 
soda rocks separated, making them subfamilies instead of families, 
and naming them accordingly. The theralites and shonkinites, for 
instance, become respectively natr other alites and halitheralites. 

The silica percentages, which are stated for each family in 
Table IV, are intended for information only. They show roughly 
the limits of silica variation in each family, so far as its members 
have been analysed and the results have been accessible to me, but 
they must not be considered as a part of its definition. The limits 
are stated in whole numbers for the sake of clearness, but they 
should be read so that the limit stands 0'5 per cent, on the outside 
of the figure given. A range of 67-57 per cent., for example, must 
be read as 67*5 -56*5 per cent. This convention is necessary 
because the limiting values fall more frequently on the half unit 
than the unit. 

Table IV. Scheme of Classification of the Plutonic Division of the 
Alkaline Series of Igneous Bocks. 

Family I.— ALIGRANITES. (= Alkaligranites, Ros.) 

Two Index Minerals : Quartz ; and an alkali-felspar. 
SiOj % 78-68. 

1. Bi-aligranite (= Nordmarkite, Brogger, in part). 

2. Amph-aligranite {includes Riebeckite-granite, Saube). 

3. Pyr-aligranite. 

Family II.— ALISYENITES. (= Alkalisyenites, Eos.) 

One Index Mineral : An alkali -felspar. 
Si O2 % 67-57. 

1. Pyrobiamph-alisyenite (= Pulaskite). 

2. Biamph-alisyenite (= Nordmarkite, iAe greaferjjarf). 

3. Monamph-alisyenite (= Umptekite). 

4. Rhomfels-pyr-alisyenite (= Laurvikite). 

5. -^g-alisyenite (= ^gyrine-syenite). 



S. Stanley Jerons — Nomenclature of Igneous Rocks. 313 
Pamily III.— MIDALKALITES. (=NepheHne- orEl^oHte-syenites.) 

Two Index Minerals : An alkali-felspar ; and nepheline. 
SiO, % 60-48. 

1. Pyr-midalkalite (= Foyaite, Blum ; Pvroxene-foyaite, 

Ros.). 

2. Amphi-midalkalite (= Ainpbibole-foyaite, Ros.)- 

3. Bi-midalkalite (= Mica-foyaite, Ros. ; incZwdes Miascite ; 

and Ditroite). 

4. Natro-midalkalite (= Litchfieldite). 

5. Rhomfels-pyr-midalkalite (= Laurdalite). 

6. Eudasgi-midalkalite (= Lujaurite). 

7. Leuci - midalkalite (includes Leiicite- syenite of Magnet 

Cove, Arlcansas). 

8. Cancri-midalkalite (= Cancrinite-syenite). 

9. Melano-midalkalite {includes Borolanite ; and nepheline- 

syenites of Montreal and Magnet 
Cove, Ark. [Cove-type]). 
10. Sodali-midalkalite {includes Sodalite-syenite of Juliane- 

haab). 
Family IV.— ESSEXITES. 

Three Index Minerals : Labradorite ; augite or diopside ; 

and biotite {or an alkaline amphibole or pyroxene). 
Si O2 % 50-43. 

1. Multifels - essexite {includes Essexites of Caho Frio ; 

Jacupiranguinha; BongstocTc; and 
Dignaes). 

2. Mediofels-essexite {includes Essexites of Salem, Mass. ; 

and Solvsberg). 

3. Paucifels - essexite {includes Essexites of Arkansas ; 

Montreal ; Penikhavaara, near 
Kuusamo ; and Brandberg). 

Family V.— THERALITES. (= Theralites and Shonkinites.) 

Three Index Minerals : A pyroxene ; felspar (plagioclase 

or orthoclase) ; and nepheline, or sodalite, or leucite. 
Si 0, % 50-40. 

Subfamily A.— NATROTHERALITES. 

1. Augi-natrotheralite ' (= Theralite, sen. str. ; and includes 

most of the Tescbenites). 

2. ^gi-natrotberalite (= Natronsussexite). 

3. Barke-natrotberalite (= certain Tescbenites). 

Subfamily B.— KALITHERALITES. 

1. Augi-kalitberalite ^ (= Sbonkinite). 

2. jEgaugi-kalitberalite (= Pyroxene-malignite). 

3. Ampbi-kalitberalite (= Ampliibole-malignite). 

4. Melano-kalitberalite (= Garnet-malignite). 

1 The a of natro- and of kali- is pronounced long as in ' state.' The / of kali- is 
short as in ' pit,' but it is dropped in the name kalijolite, in which the first i should 
be pronounced long as in ' write.' 



314 H. Stanley Jevons — Nomenclature of Igneous Rocks. 

Family VL— IJOLITES. (= Ijolites and Missourites.) 

Two Index Minerals : Pyroxene ; and nepheHne, or sodalite, 

or leucite. 
Si 0,% 47-40. 

Subfamily A.— NATRIJOLITES. 

1. Augi-natrijolite ^ {includes Ijolites of Imandra See, Kola 

Penin. ; Elgeolite-syenite (Eidge- 
type) of Magnet Gove ; and 
Jacupirangite). 

2. iEgaugi-natrijolite {includes Ijolites of Kuusamo; Kal- 

johihal ; and Alnii). 

3. ^gi-natrijolite (=Urtite). 

4. Aneph-sodali-natrijolite {includes Tawite ; and Sodalite- 

syenite of Square Butte, Montana), 

Subfamily B.— KALIJOLITES.^ 

{Includes at present only Missourite.) 

VIII. Changes in the Subdivision of Families. 

The subdivisions of the families contained in the above table are 
in almost every case those suggested by Kosenbusch in the most 
recent editions of his works, but I have not adopted them without 
testing their validity whenever possible.^ The aligranites he does 
not subdivide, but as I see no reason why they should not be treated 
in the same way as the granites, I have subdivided the family on 
the basis of its coloured minerals. Amongst the midalkalites, the 
subdivision melano-midalkalite is new. Eosenbusch places borolanite 
in the leuci-midalkalite (leucite-syenite) group ; but, considering 
that Home and Teall distinctly state that they give that name to 
a rock consisting essentially of orthoclase and melanite, and that 
leucite only occurs in parts of the mass which they describe, I think 
that borolanite and rocks of that composition should be entitled to 
rank as a distinct sub-group in the great midalkalite family. Garnet 
plays an important role as an original constituent in many basic 
rocks of the alkaline series ; to a much greater extent indeed than is 
generally recognised. 

The two rocks urtite and tawite are removed from the midalkalite 
(nepheline - syenite) family, with which they are classed by 
Eosenbusch, presumably because of their association. They will 
be found in the family to which their mineral composition assigns 
them, that is to say, the Ijolites. 

The principal difficulty which I experienced in naming sub- 
divisions was the frequent want of definite information as to the 
relative proportions of the constituents of a rock. Many descriptions 
even of recent date fail in this respect, and it would be well if all 
petrologists realized, as a few already do, that a mere statement of 
the minerals found in a rock is not a complete description of it. Oa 

^ See footnote on preceding page. 

2 See " Elemente der Gesteinslehre," 1898, and Mikr. Phys., 1896, vol. ii. 



f 



H. Stanley Jevons — nomenclature of Igneous Hacks. 315 

the contrary, it is the relative proportions of the constituents which 
establishes the identity of the rock. For instance, a kalitheralite 
(e.g. malignite) may contain the same minerals as an alisyenite. 
The former may contain 25 per cent, orthoclase, 25 per cent, 
nepheline, and 50 per cent, of ferromaguesian minerals, and the 
latter 90 per cent, orthoclase, 5 per cent, nepheline, and but 
5 per cent, of ferromagnesian minerals. They may be composed 
of exactly the same minerals, and yet in such different proportions 
that they belong to widely separated families. 

Another example will show how unsatisfactory is this practice of 
merely giving a qualitative description of a rock. I have, of late, 
frequently had to read descriptions of rocks in order to determine 
to which subdivision of a family they should be consigned in cases 
where the subdivisions are distinguished by the most abundant ferro- 
magnesian mineral. In one description, after two or three pages had 
been devoted to an amphibole and two pyroxenes which the rock 
contained, it was just mentioned at the end that the rock contained 
biotite. The impression given was that the amphibole and pyroxenes 
were the important ferromagnesian minerals, whilst biotite was quite 
subordinate in quantity. On examining a slice of the rock, however,^ 
I saw at a glance that the biotite was far more abundant than both 
the amphiboles and pyroxenes taken together, and that it had received 
so little attention merely because it presented no point of special 
interest. Now that an easy method of determining the relative 
proportions of constituents is known, namely, that of Rosiwal already 
referred to (see footnote, p. 305), it is to be hoped that there will be 
speedy reform in this matter. 

Although I believe that the names given to the rocks in the 
above table generally represent their composition correctly, I cannot 
vouch for the fact. Owing to the vagueness of many descriptions 
in the above-mentioned respect, and because I have not thought it 
worth while merely for the purpose of illustration in a preliminary 
notice to spend much time in consulting literature not to be obtained 
in Cambridge, it may be that a few of my names will bear correction. 
That cannot, however, affect the value of the system of nomenclature 
itself; and I trust that authors who are acquainted with any rocks 
which I may have misnamed will be so kind as to set me right. 

IX. The Naming of Newly Discovered Rocks. 
In conclusion, I may perhaps offer some suggestions as to how 
newly discovered rock-species should be named in the future. The 
first step in identifying a rock is to determine its essential con- 
stituents, that is to say, those which make up more than 5 per 
cent, by weight of the whole rock. According to their nature, 
whether they are of the alkaline type or not, the rock is first 
assigned either to the Alkaline or the Calc-alkaline Series. Amongst 
the essential constituents it will next usually be possible to find 
two or three which coincide with the index minerals of some 
particular family, and the rock can then be forthwith placed in 
that family. Should the essential constituents include the index 



316 Lieut.- Gen. McMaJion — Tourmaline of White Granite. 

minerals of more than one famil}', which will rarely be the case, 
the rule is to choose those which are most abundant. The family- 
name being thus obtained, observe next upon what basis the family 
is subdivided, whether it is by the nature of the ferromagnesian 
mineral, by the kind or quantity of felspar present, or by some 
other property. All the constituents of the rock, essential and 
accessory, being now considered, it will be easy to assign the rock 
to its right subdivision, supposing one already exists. If, on the 
other hand, the rock is a new type and no place awaits it, a new 
subdivision can be created and named in accordance with the 
general system. 

The only rocks which it will be found difficult to name are those 
which do not contain the index minerals of any family. In such 
cases the association of the rock is the first point to be considered. 
If any such rock clearly forms part of an igneous mass which can be 
readily assigned to a family, let the doubtful rock also be assigned 
to the same family, and give it a name in which the missing index 
mineral is preceded by the privative a-. If, however, besides being 
entirely new, the rock does not appear to be associated with any 
known type, it becomes a question whether a new family should 
be established. This course must be adopted only when there is 
really no other way of naming the rock, and the family name 
selected should be, as far as possible, descriptive of the rock's 
peculiarity in mineral or chemical composition. 

I cannot end without expressing my gratitude to Prof. Bonney, 
my first master, for the interest with which he has followed my work 
upon classification and nomenclature and for the many suggestions 
which he has freely offered. To Prof. Eosenbusch also I am deeply 
indebted for the kindly instruction received at Heidelberg, which 
has opened my eyes and smoothed my path in many ways, but more 
especially in this research. 



III. — Notes on the Tourmaline of the White Geanite of 
Meldon, Dartmoor. 

By Lieutenant- General C. A. McMahon, F.R.S. 

fjlHIS "remarkable variety of granite" was briefly described by 
i Mr. J. J. Harris Teall, F.R.S., in his " British Petrography " 
(1888), p. 316, and an interesting account was given in a footnote 
of the process by which the author was able to identify the topaz 
found in the rock. 

In a paper on Dartmoor published in 1893 (Q.J.Gr.S., vol. xlix, 
p. 385), I described in some detail the mode of occurrence of this 
intrusive rock and some of its characteristics ; and in the following 
year (Q.J.G.S., vol. l, p. 338) I noted the occurrence of a second 
outcrop on the flank of South Down. 

None of the above references to the white granite of Meldon 
■contain a description of the tourmaline found in it, and as this 
mineral presents some unusual features a few remarks on it may 
interest students of petrology. 



Lieut.-Gen. McMahon — Tourmaline of White Granite. 317 

White tourmaline (achroite) has not yet, so far as I am aware, 
been found in the British Islands, but the tourmaline of the Meldon 
granite approximates to colourless tourmaline sufficiently closely to 
render it probable that if the attention of mineralogists is drawn to 
the subject true achroite may yet be detected in British rocks. 

The following remarks are based on the study of a good suite 
of thin slices made from hand specimens collected by me, and of 
numerous fragments of tourmaline separated from these specimens 
with the aid of a heavy solution. When I was at Meldon the 
granite was being quarried, and I was able to get unweathered 
samples. 

Fragments of tourmaline examined with a powerful pocket lens 
are seen to be in part colourless and in part of pale-brown colour. 

Under the microscope, wlien examined with the aid of transmitted 
light, the tourmaline in thin slices (as thin as those " made in 
Germany " for instance) is absolutely colourless and devoid of 
dichroism. It is consequently difficult to distinguish from the topaz 
with which it is associated. This difficulty is increased by the fact 
that both minerals, as seen in thin slices of the Meldon rock, closely 
resemble each other in habit. Both are allotriomorphic and occur 
in irregular shaped grains. The tourmaline rarely presents itself in 
prismatic form, whilst the cleavage, usually so characteristic of topaz, 
is rarely to be seen in the topaz of the Meldon granite. As, moreover, 
the refraction of both minerals is higher than that of Canada balsam, 
and of the felspar and quartz with which they come in contacV 
the difference in the refraction of topaz, as compared with that of 
tourmaline, does not help one to discriminate between them. 

The positive character of the double refraction of topaz could not 
be made out in any of my slices, as no bisectrix could be seen in 
converging polarized light. The axial angle in topaz from different 
localities varies very much, and it is probably large in the variety 
found in the Meldon granite. 

The rock under consideration affords an illustration of the help 
that may sometimes be afforded by our much abused thick slices 
of English manufacture. In such slices the Meldon tourmaline 
presents a somewhat more normal appearance. Even in thickish 
slices, however, the mineral is sometimes colourless in whole or in 
part, but more often a reddish or reddish-brown streak or patch is 
to be seen in the otherwise colourless grains which exhibits the 
characteristic dichroism of tourmaline. 

The appearance of these coloured stripes and patches suggests 
to me the possibility that the colour may be due to the alteration of 
an originally colourless tourmaline ; namely, to the oxidation of the 
iron contained in the mineral. Iron is not an essential constituent 
in this complex silicate, and my previous studies have familiarized 
me with the idea that iron may bo removed, or oxidized, without 
breaking up the fundamental silicate of which it is more or less 
a casual unessential member. 

The tourmaline in the Meldon granite very rarely exhibits 
prismatic outlines in thin slices, but iu the isolated fragments both 



318 Lieut.- Gen. McMahon — Tourmaline of White Granite. 

this mineral and the topaz show a slightly increased tendency to 
do so. The tourmaline, however, even in thin slices, is frequently 
elongated in the direction of the vertical axis (c') ; and as the 
greatest absorption takes place at right angles, and compensation 
with the quartz wedge occurs parallel to this direction (viz. to c'), 
a ready and sure means of identifying the mineral exists in such 
•cases. 

When this observation can be made one cannot remain in doubt 
as to which is tourmaline and which is topaz, as the latter is not 
dichroic in thin slices, and compensation with the quartz wedge, 
in the case of topaz takes place at right angles to c', and in the case 
of tourmaline parallel to c'. 

When dichroism is apparent in the Meldon tourmaline the change 
is from colourless (e) to a yellowish or reddish-brown (o). 

In cases where the above-mentioned observation cannot be made, 
namely, when dichroism is absent, I have found the following 
methods very useful.^ 

I have often, when examining the topaz in my slides, been able 
to obtain in converging polarized light the interference figure of an 
optic axis, namely, a single bar, or a bar bisecting the first ring of 
the interference figure, which remained without change of character 
during a revolution of the crossed nicols through 360°. When this 
interference figure is obtained it shows clearly that the mineral is 
a biaxial one, and consequently that it is topaz and not tourmaline. 
Axial sections of the latter mineral, on the other hand, may be 
obtained in my thin slices, which in converging polarized light 
yield a negative uniaxial cross which does not open out on revolving 
the nicols. Sometimes when the section has not been cut quite 
normal to the vertical axis of the crystal, only two of the arms 
of the cross can be seen, and sometimes their point of junction 
is outside the field. In such cases, with one of Swift's improved 
one-sixth objectives, I can generally get the two arms just on or 
just outside the edge of the field, and can make sure that the arms 
are those of an uniaxial mineral. In cases of doubt I am able to 
confirm this observation by inserting the one-fourth undulation mica 
plate, when the double i-efraction of tourmaline being negative, 
one dot (only half of the cross being visible) appears in a line with 
the axis of the mica plate and well within view. 

Observation of the strength of the double refraction also afibrds, 
in some cases, a method of distinguishing between the two minerals. 
The birefringence of topaz does not exceed 0010, whilst that of 
tourmaline is 0-020. The colour of the former mineral, as seen 
in thin slices, does not rise above the indigo-blue of the second 
order of Newton's scale, and very often falls below that. On the 
other hand, the colour shown by the tourmaline in my sections 
frequently rises to the indigo-blue of the third order. 

Lastly, the character of the metamorphism efi'ected by aqueous 
agents afibrds a useful test. Tourmaline alters to steatite, mica, 

1 I confine myself to optical tests and those which can be applied to thin slices. 



A. Strahan — Chloritic Marl, Dorset. 319 

chlorite, and cooheite ; ' whilst topaz changes to steatite, mica, and 
Tcaolin. 

In my Meldon specimens the green tint seen in some of the 
tourmaline is probably due to the birth of ultra- microscopic particles 
of chlorite in the originally colourless crystals. The topaz, on the 
other hand, sometimes exhibits partial kaolinization, and when it 
does so it is clear that the mineral is topaz and not tourmaline. 

On the whole, I think it probable that the somewhat partial and 
patchy colour seen in the Meldon tourmaline is due to the post- 
genital alteration of an originally colourless variety of this mineral. 
I do not think the faint colour now visible is due to the bleaching 
of an originally dark-coloured tourmaline. An operation of this 
kind would imply the bleaching of the whole of the white granite 
itself, which I do not think probable. Moreover, it would involve 
chemical action to an extent that must have left very powerful 
marks on the felspars and other susceptible minerals contained in 
the rock, that could not remain unobserved. 



IV. — An Abnormal Section of Chloritic Marl at Mupe Bay, 

Dorset. 

By A. Strahan, M.A., F.G.S. 

IN " The Geology of the Isle of Purbeck and Weymouth" (p. 152) 
I referred to some green sand which occurs next below the 
Chalk in Mupe Bay, Dorset, as somewhat resembling Chloritic 
Marl, but as being too thick for that bed. As it was followed by 
the Gault, I concluded that it belonged to the Upper Greensand. 
The section was subsequently visited by Mr. W. Hill, who collected 
from the sand in question Holaster suhglohosus, var, alius, and 
Echinoconus castanea among other fossils, and inferred that it was 
Chloritic Marl. He considered that though it passed up insensibly 
into the Chalk it was faulted against the Gault, but that there had 
been also considerable contemporaneous erosion of the Upper Green- 
sand. In April of this year I revisited the section in company with 
Mr. Hill, and was fully satisfied as to the correctness of his views. 
The following account has been drawn up from our observations : — 

The Lower Chalk becomes extremely impure in its lower part, 
and contains much glauconite ; it thus gi'aduates insensibly down- 
wards into a gritty glauconitic sand. The sand contains a few 
phosphatic casts, more or less worn or corroded, scattered throughout 
it, but has a well-marked nodule-bed crowded with these casts at 
its base ; other fossils with the shell preserved and not filled in with 
phosphate occur also throughout the whole bed. 

Below the sand comes a sandy glauconitic clay, forming part of 
the Gault, but the fact that the separation is sharp, and that the 
chert-beds of the Upper Greensand and the passage-beds down 
into the Gault are absent, proves that the two are faulted together, 
although the fault-plane is parallel to the highly inclined bedding. 

1 See Dana's textbook, last edition. 



320 A. Stra/ian — CMoritic Marl, Dorset. 

The thickness of sand between the fault and what may be taken as 
the base of the Chalk amounts to 15 feet. 

The following list of fossils includes those collected in April, 1901, 
and those obtained previously by Mr. Hill. They prove that the 
whole of the sand should be referred to the Chloritic Marl. The 
identifications are by Mr. E. T. Newton. . 

CHLOEITIC MARL, MUPE BAY. 
Scattered through the Bed. 

Terebratula squamosa, Mant. Solaster subglobosa, var. alius, Ag. 

Cidaris Boiverbanki, Forbes. Holasfer suborbiciilaris ? Defr. 

Echinoconus castanea, Brongn. Flocoscyphia ? 
Solaster subglobosa, Leske. 

From Nodule-bed at base. 

Helicoceras, sp. Cardita, sp. (? tenuicosta). 

Columbellina ? Pleuromya (Pa^iopcea) . 

Turritella, sp. Cytherea plana, Sow. 

CueullcBa carinata ? Sow. Plicatida, sp. 

Cucullcsa mailleana? D'Orb. Exogyra, s^. 

Isocardia, sp. Polyzoon on Lamellibranch. 

Trigonia, sp. Rhynchonella (near to grasiana). 
Cardium, sp. 

A section at the top of the cliff (referred to on p. 151 of the 
Memoir on the Isle of Purbeck) shows that the Chloritic Marl 
maintains an abnormal thickness for 200 yards at least west of 
the section on the beach. It is there succeeded downwards by 
a considerable thickness of Upper Greensand, in which, however, 
no representative of the Chert Beds could be found, and which 
presumably belongs to the lower part of the formation. Two 
explanations for this sequence may be offered : firstly, that the 
fault which throws Chloritic Marl against Gault on the beach does 
not follow the bedding precisely, but cuts obliquely through the 
Upper Greensand, so as to throw Chloritic Marl against that forma- 
tion westwards ; secondly, that the upper part of the Upper Greensand 
suffered erosion before the deposition of the Chloritic Marl. 

The first explanation is supported by the fact that the section on 
the beach places the existence of a fault beyond doubt, and shows 
also that the fault is approximately parallel to the highly inclined 
beds. In favour of the second explanation it may be urged that the 
abnormal thickness and character of the Chloritic Marl point to the 
Upper Greensand having undergone erosion. The phosphatic casts 
of fossils, though but little water- worn, are fragmentary. While, 
therefore, they have neither travelled far nor been rolled upon 
a beach, they are not in their original matrix. The absence of 
any fragments of chert among the nodules in the Chloritic Marl 
appeared to me to point to the erosion of the Upper Greensand 
having been but slight, but in explanation of this Mr. Hill suggests 
that the chert-nodules were formed at a later date, and that the beds 
were all soft when the erosion took pla