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Full text of "The George Ross memorial : being the proceedings at the dedication of the Ross pillar and tablet at Lancaster, on June 4th, 1897"

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The Names of the Townships, by JOSEPH H. DUBBS, D.D., 3-14 

The Chickies Furnace, by H. L. HALDEMAN, 14-24 

Reminiscences of Coriestoga Township, by CASPER HILLER, 24-27 

The Hero of the Christiana Riot, by THOMAS WHITSON, Esq., 27-35 

The Acadians in Lancaster County, by S. M. SENER, Esq., 35-44 

Baron Henry William Stiegel, by J. H. SEILING, M.D., 44-69 

Ann Henry, Lane. Co. 's Woman Treasurer, by GEORGE STEINMAN, 69-72 
The Oldest Daily Paper of Lancaster County, by F. R. DIFFEN- 

DERFFER, 72-85 

Indian Tribes of Lancaster County, by F. R. DIFFENDERFFER, 85-89 

Address, by HON. W. U. HENSEL, 89-92 

Constitution, 92-94 

Reminiscences of Strasburg, by JACOB HILDEBRAND, Esq., 94-109 

Irish Occupation of Lancaster Land, by R. M. REILLY, Esq., 109-111 

Proposed Location of State Capital on the Susquehanna, by HON. 

W. U. HENSEL, 111-114 

Coroner's Verdict in Christiana Riot Case, by HON. W. U. HENSEL, 114-117 

A William Penn Deed, by HON. W. U. HENSEL, 117-119 

Reuben Chambers, by R. J. HOUSTON, 119-133 

Samuel Bowman, Founder of Bowmansville, by HON. A. G. SEY- 

FERT, < 133-141 

Committees, 141 

When Was Strasburg Erected Into a Borough, by SAMUEL EVANS, 

Esq., , ... 146-150 

Reminiscences of Paradise Township, by A. E. WITMER, 150-160 

An Old Martic Township Petition, by SAMUEL EVANS, Esq., 160-167 

Early County Mills, by SAMUEL EVANS, Esq., 167-176 

Officers for 1896-7, 176 

The People Who Made Lancaster County, by W. M. FRANKLIN, 

Esq., 181-204 

Early Industries of the Octorara, by J. W. HOUSTON, M.D., 

204-218 ; 245-361 

Some Helfenstein Letters, by REV. J. H. DUBBS, 218-226 

The Early Telegraph, by W. B. WILSON, Esq. , 226-251 

A Prominent Scotch-Irishman, by R. J. HOUSTON, 251-258 

History of Donegal Church, by J. L. ZiEGLEte, M.D., 258-283 

The Gap Copper Mines, by R. J. HOUSTON, 283-299 

Old Mills and County Ordinaries, by SAMUEL EVANS, Esq., 

299-313 ; 313-323 




The Ephrata Paper Mill, by J. F. SACHSE, Esq., 323-345 

Old Welsh Graveyard, by B. F. OWEN, Esq., 361-376 

The Boss Memorial, 376 

" " " Programme, 377 

" " Presentation Address, 378 

" " Acceptance " 378-380 

Miss NEVIN'S Poem, 380-389 

Address of HON. M. BROSIUS, 389-408 




Fac-simile Title of First Bible Printed in America, 323 

Rittenhouse Paper Mill Water Marks, 326 

Ephrata Paper Mill Water Marks, 335 

Zionitic Brotherhood Water Marks, 337 

Plan of Old Welsh Graveyard, 367 

George Ross, 375 

Ross Memorial Tablet, 387 

Ross Mansion, 394 

Ross Coat of Arms, 408 


A Stiegel 10-Plate Stove, 47 

Stiegel Mansion, 50 

Stiegel Office in Manheim, 51 

Stiegel Glassware, 52 

Stiegel Lutheran Church, 1770, . . 56 

Stiegel Lutheran Church, 1891, 57 

Stiegel School House, 1778, 61 

Brickerville Church, 62 

Elizabeth Stiegel's Tomb, 64 

Old Receipt, 73 

Wilcox Paper Mill Water Mark, 324 

Sauer Bible Water Mark,. 334 



ON JUNK 5, 1896. 


BY Jos. H. DUBBS, D. D. 










The Names of the Townships, 
BY Jos. H. DUBBS, D. D 

The Chickies Furnaces, 


Reminiscences of Conestoga Township, 


The Hero of the Christiana Riot, 




The township is the unit of Teutonic 
society. As such it is more ancient than 
the county, the kingdom, or the empire. 
In its earliest form it was established by 
a group of families, holding together for 
mutual protection and cultivating the 
soil in accordance with a common system. 
Among the Germans, as described by the 
Roman author Tacitus, it existed long 
before the establishment of settled gov- 
ernment. The Romans named it vicus, 
or village community ; bul the Germans 
themselves termed it mark, because it 
was surrounded by a mark, or boundary, 
which was originally a strip of land on 
which no one was allowed to settle. The 
earliest laws were determined by the 
township meeting, and ages passed before 
a central government appeared which 
claimed to do more than to settle difficul- 
ties between adjacent townships. When 
the Angles and Saxons migrated to Brit- 
ain they bore with them their Teutonic 
ideas of local government ; and by what- 
ever name it may have been known 
whether mark, vicus, wapentake, hun- 
dred, township or parish this was this 
fundamental organization that constitu- 
ted the foundation of the State. By the 
introduction of the feudal system, it is 
true, social conditions were greatly ob- 
scured ; but the people, at any rate, con- 
tinued to believe that the township had a 
right to protest against any injustice on 
the part of the general government; and 
the township meeting became the founda- 
tion of civil liberty. 

In America the historical process was 
somewhat different. The earliest settle- 
ments were, indeed, in many instances 
compelled by the exigencies of their sit- 
uation to adopt some form of local go v 
eminent before the boundaries of the 
colonies and counties had been fully de- 
termined ; but more generally it was the 
colonial government that established the 


counties, at the same time granting to 
the district Courts authority to organize 
the townships. 

In the foundation of our own county of 
Lancaster these two processes may be 
said to have been in some sense united. 
There were a few early settlements 
which had been named by the pio- 
neers, and several of tnem had been 
recognized as townships by the county 
of Chester, which claimed jurisdiction 
over all this region; but when the county 
of Lancaster was established by the co- 
lonial legislature, it was one of the first 
acts of the Court to divide its territory 
into townships and to give them names. 
Though it is not our purpose to relate 
the history of the townships, nor oven to 
enumerate them, it may be well to recall 
& few of the recorded particulars of this 
interesting event. 

Lancaster county was founded by Act 
of Assembly on May 10, 1729; and is said 
to have been named by its first chief 
magistrate, John Wright, after bis na- 
tive county of Lancaster, in England. 
Ho was a man of great ability and per- 
sonal worth, and our county has no reason 
to be ashamed of its sponsor. According 
to the original Act the new county was to 
include all of Chester lying west of the 
Octoraro creek and "north and west of a 
line of marked trees extending from the 
north branch of the Octoraro to the 
Schuylkill river." It was no doubt a 
great relief to the people of Chester 
county to be freed from the responsibility 
of caring for the vast, untrodden wilder- 
ness that stretched indefinitely towards 
the west; and whatever may be said of 
their peace principles, they do not seem 
to have at any time obiected to the 
stretching of a barrier of Scotch Irish- 
men and Germans between them and the 
red men of the forest. 

As it was impossible to conceive of a 
county without townships, the newly- 
appointed magistrates called a meeting 
to determine names and boundaries. 
This meeting was held at John Postle- 
thwait's tavern in Conestoga township, 
on the 9th of June, 1729. Its report was 
confirmed by the Magistrates' Court 
which met at the same place, August 5, 

Lancaster county as then organized 
extended from the Susquehanna and 


Octoraro to the Blue Mountains and the 
Schuylkill river. It included twenty 
townships, of which four have since been 
separated. Peshtank (or Paxton) and 
Derry are now in Dauphin, Lebanon is 
in Lebanon county, and Tulpehocken 
is divided between Lebanon aud Berks. 
The original townships included in the 
present territory of .Lancaster county 
were Donegal, Warwick, Cocaiico, Hemp- 
field, Manheim, Caernarvon, Conestoga, 
Lampeter, Leacock, Lancaster, Earl, 
Martic, Salisbury, Sadsbury and Dro- 
more. " The Manor" was recognized as 
a reserved possession of the proprietors, 
and was therefore not immediately or- 
ganized as a township. Cocaiico is not 
mentioned in the earliest list, but there 
is evidence to prove that it was organized 
in the same year. 

It is sometimes said that there is noth- 
ing in a name; but the man who origi- 
nated that saying was no historian. 
Every name has a meaning, and it may 
generally teach us something concerning 
the people by whom it was first uttered. 
In the present paper we do not propose 
to consider the origin of the names of the 
forty-one townships into which Lancaster 
county is now divided not to speak of the 
city ot Lancaster aud thirteen boroughs 
but merely to show by a familiar process 
how the social history of the county, and 
the racial character of its earliest settlers, 
may be determined by the names of its 
original townships. It will be found 
that, like the rings of a tree, these names 
mark the passing of successive periods, 
and by carefully removing them we may 
at last discover traces of the original sap- 

A single glance is enough to show that 
the names of our townships consist of 
several distinct classes ; aud by discov- 
ering which of these have been longest in 
use, we are naturally led to what may be 
termed the substratum of our history. 
We have, therefore, 

1. The Indian Names. 
Conestoga is, no doubt, our earliest 
township. Though greatly shorn of its 
original dimensions, its name, in one of 
its many forms, goes back to a period 
long anterior to the earliest European 
settlement ; and as the chosen designa- 
tion of a tribe and of a stream it very 

properly records the fact that the Indians 
first occupied the land. "Conestogo" is 
said to signify "the great magic land," 
which we understand to indicate that the 
region was even then recognized as pos- 
sessing extraordinary fertility. It was a 
name which was readily adopted by the 
European pioneers, and was by them ap- 
plied to an extensive region. Long after 
the organization of Lancaster county, 
German emigrants are said, in records 
preserved in cne fatherland, to have 
"sailed to Conestogo." 

Tulpehooken is another Indian name 
that was loosely applied to the great 
northern region as Jar as the Blue Moun- 
tains. It is said to mean "the land of the 
turtles," and if we are to judge by the ex- 
periences of the early settlers it was not 
a land of turtle-doves but of genuine 

Peshtauk (now Paxton) in Dauphin 
county is derived from a word which 
means "stagnant water" possibly re- 
ferring to a stretch of the Susquehanua 
where the water did not flow swiftly. 
Cocalico (Koch-hale-kung) means ' the 
serpents' den," and according to tue 
"Chronicon Ephrateuse" the stream was 
named after a place not far from Ephrata 
where serpents abounded. 

There are several comparatively recent 
townships such as Pequea and Conoy 
whose names are remotely of Indian ori- 
gin, but the above are all that are inc uded 
in the original list. 

2. The English Names. 

The earliest officials of our county were 
almost without exception natives of Eng- 
land, and we are, therefore, not sur- 
prised to find that a considerable number 
of our earliest townships were named 
after places in the mother country. In 
some instances they chose the names or 
cities or counties; in others they were satis- 
fied to commemorate obscure parishes. 
The contrast thus presented is sometimes 
remarkable. Salisbury and Sadsbury are 
close neighbors, but the first com memo- 
rates a city whose name appears on almost 
every page of English history, while the 
original of the second is so obscure that 
its name is not even mentioned in the 
British postoffice list. The comparison 
appears to suggest a little playful irony, 
which may be unintentional : as though 

the pioneers of Sadsbury, whether in 
Chester or Lancaster county, had inten- 
tionally chosen an obscure village as a 
I oil to the historic splendor of 
Salisbury. Martic township was origi- 
nally named Martock, from a town 
of some importance in the county 
of Somerset, in the west of England, 
which may have been one of the last 
places beheld by the settlers before they 
started on their adventurous voyage to 
the new world. Hempfield is said to be 
so named ** because much hemp was 
raised there " ; but this may possibly be 
an afterthought. The name is certainly 
fiat of a parish in England. Lancaster 
township, like the county, is named after 
the city anil county of Lancaster, in Eng- 
land. The name goes back to the time 
when the Roman legions founded camps 
in England, and signifies Long Camp. 
Warwick is said to have been named by 
Richard Carter after his native county 01 
Warwick. The name was well choson ; 
for it will be remembered that Warwick 
is the central county of England, situated 
where the two great Roman roads crossed. 
In a somewhat similar way our township 
of Warwick was situated as nearly as 
possible at the centre of the county as 
originally constituted, at the crossing of 
the western and northern trails. Richard 
Carter certainly manifested good taste in 
choosing the name of Warwick for this 
important township. 

Among the more recent place-names of 
our county there are several whose origin 
it is not easy to determine. "Bart," 
as the name of a township, is said by 
local historians to be an abbreviation of 
baronet, the title of Governor Sir Wm. 
Keith; but such an interpretation is 
hardly credible, and the subject deserves 
more careful investigation. Tradition 
must not in such cases be taken too seri- 
ously. Elizabeth township is, for in- 
stance, declared to have derived its name 
from a furnace which had been "named 
in honor of Queen Elizabeth." That the 
township derived its name from the fur- 
nace we do not doubt, but the tiadition 
that the furnace was named in honor ol 
"the virgin queen." one hundred and 
fifty years after her death, is, to say the 
least, somewhat romantic. 

3. The Irish Names. 

At the settlement of Lancaster county 


the Scotch- Irish more properly termed 
'Ulster Scots" occupied the post of 
danger iii the northwest. They were a 
bold and vigorous race, which perma- 
nently influenced the history of the State 
and Nation. Naturally enough they 
named the settlements "after the places 
in the old country, which they 
most affectionately remembered. Don- 
egal, for instance, was known to 
every one as a great maritime county of 
Ireland, from which, for reasons which 
we cannot now relate, the greater num- 
ber of our early immigrants had gone 
forth. Adjoining it is the county of Lon- 
donderry, more generally known as 
Derry. These names came to occupy a 
prominent place in the early annals of our 
county. The township of Donegal has 
been divided and subdivided, and Derry 
now belongs to Dauphin county ; but 
both names remain to commemorate the 
heroic people from whom they are de- 

In this connection it may be proper to 
note that the earliest township to be 
separated from Donegal was * appro- 
priately named Rapho, The town" of 
Raphoe in Ireland is the ecclesiastical 
centra of the county of Donegal. The 
Roman Catholic bishop of Raphoe is 
practically bishop of Donegal ; and the 
Episcopal bishop of Raphoe is also 
bishop of Derry. It will be seen, there- 
fore, that these names were not given 
to our townships by mere chance, but 
rather in accordance with a settled pur- 
pose to reproduce as nearly as possible 
the-geographical conditions of the ancient 
home beyond the sea. 

In other parts of the county there are 
townships whose names are evidently 
derived from places in the north of lie- 
land. Coleraine township was organized 
as early as 1738, and was named after 
Coleraine in Ireland, a seaport town in 
the county of Londonderry. Leacock is 
said by our local historians to have been 
called after a place in Ireland ; but the 
exact spot we have been unable to 
identify. Drumore more properly writ- 
ten Dromore is a town of some import- 
ance in the county of Down. It will be 
remembered that the great theologian 
Jeremy Taylor was, in the seventeenth 
century, bishop of Dromore. 


4* The Welch Names. 

The Welsh settlers of Lancaster county 
were intelligent and influential. They 
were early in the field and took a 
prominent part in public affairs. 
In some instances, we presume, the 
Welshmen whose names appear on 
our early r> cords actually resided in 
Chester county, or possibly in Mont- 
gomery, but held lands in this region 
which they gradually sold as they became 
more valuable. Those who actually set- 
tled here were most numerous in the 
eastern and northeastern townships where 
they left many traces of their occupancy. 

Following the example of other nation- 
alities, the Welsh applied familiar names 
to the places where they dwelt. This was 
more frequently done in other counties 
than in our own ; but at least three of 
our original townships bear Welsh names. 
These are Caernarvon, Brecknock and 
Lampeter. Caernarvon, in Wales now 
generally written Carnarvon is one of 
the most important counties in the 
principality, and the town of the 
same name is large and flourishing. 
Brecknock, or Brecon, is also the name 
of a county and town in South Wales. 
Lampeter seems to have given our local 
antiquarians some trouble ; but there was 
actually no occasion for it. About fifty 
ye;irs ago some person, with a vivid im- 
agination, wrote a local novel which he 
called "The Man with Two Heads." In 
this extraordinary book the author boldly 
asserted that Lampeter township was at 
first called "Lamepeter," in honor of a 
certain "Lame Peter,' 1 who once kept 
tavern tnore. The suggestion is so ab- 
surd as hardly to deserve serious refuta- 
tion. There may have been a "lame 
Peter" in Lampeter ; but for all that, it 
remains true that the name of the town- 
ship is derived from Lampeter, in Wales, 
which is a place of some importance and 
the seat of an Episcopal Theological Semi- 
nary. In the Welsh language the name 
signifies "Peter's Church." 

There is a suggestion of Welsh origin 
in such a name as "Little Britain " ; but 
as this belongs to a somewhat later period 
we must leave it unconsidered. More im- 
portant for our present purpose it is to 
cast a glance at the names which remind 
us of another nationality which has con- 
tributed the largest quota to our popula- 


lion, and has most deeply impressed its 
characteristics on our community. 

5. The German Names. 

At the time of the naming of the town- 
ships the German population of the 
county was small. There were, indeed, 
a few settlements locally known by such 
names as " Graaf's Thai " and " Weber- 
land," but the people were of retiring 
disposition, and were not acquainted with 
the language of their rulers. It is not 
surprising, we think, that the number of 
German place-names is not large ; it is 
rather a ground for astonishment that 
such names are round in the earliest re- 
cords of our county. 

Manheim is the name of one of our 
original townships. The name calls to 
mind the Palatinate city of that name 
whose misfortunes must have been still 
fresh in the memory of our earliest Ger- 
man immigrants. It will be remembered 
that the Germ u city of Manheim was 
destroyed during the invasion of 1689. 
On that occasion the Frencn invaders 
cast the very stones of which the city 
was built into the river Neckar ; but 
wherever they went the exiled Palatines 
bore the memory of the ill-fated city in 
their hearts. It" would be interesting to 
know which of the German immigrants 
was the first to suggest the name in con- 
nection with one of our original town- 
ships. Certainly it was not Baron Stiegel 
who founded the present borough of Man- 
heim, and is said to have named it alter 
his birthplace ; for the township of Man- 
heim was named long before the eccen- 
tric baron crossed the ocean. 

Another township which may claim a 
place in the German series is Earl, which 
was named iu honor of Hans Graaf 
(or Graf), a German pioneer whose 
surname is an equivalent for the 
English "Earl." To us it may seem to 
have been a left-handed compliment to 
translate a name before attempting to 
render it illustrious; but this was the 
usual fashion in colonial days. It would 
have been in better taste, we think, to 
have left the name unaltered; and we do 
not doubt that if this had been done 
" Graaf" would by this time have sounded 
as euphonious as "Earl;" but it is pleas- 
ant to recognize the (act that, even at this 
early date, there was a disposition to do 
honor to a German pioneer. 


At a later period other townships were 
houored with names that suggest remin- 
iscences of the Fatherland. IStrasburg, 
for instance, is said to have been named 
by Matthias Schleiermacher (Slaymaker) 
in honor of the beautiful city arhich 
" France had seized but Germany has 
won." It is, however, certain that, to 
use the words of Bancroft, "the Germans 
have not claimed the position to which 
they are honorably entitled;" and in the 
history of our county this fact is fully 
exemplified. Ancient customs are giving 
place to new forms of culture. In the 
city of Lancaster we no longer recognize 
our environs by such names as " Bettels- 
tadt" ana " Wollebuckel," and in a few 
more generations the German language 
will probably have disappeared, except 
as a subject of literary study. We hope, 
however, that the peculiar Anglo-Ger- 
man character of our county will never 
be changed, and that to the latest gener- 
ation our people may be characterized by 
German truth and honesty. 

6. The Scriptural Nmes. 

In our local nomenclature the religious 
character of the people is plainly appa- 
rent. In our earliest list of townships, it 
is true, the only name which is plainly of 
Scriptural origin is Lebanon a township 
which has become the nucleus of an ad- 
jacent county. Lebanon, we remember, 
is a Hebrew word, signifying "white," 
or "snowy," and may have been prop- 
perly applied to the range of moun- 
tains to which this township origin- 
ally extended. Not long after its organ- 
ization it was divided and for the sepa- 
rated portion the name of "Bethel" was 
chosen. Bethel signifies " the house of 
God," and the name itself was an ac- 
knowledgment of earnest, Christian faith. 
Within our present limits we have 
"Ephrata" a beautiful scriptural name, 
signifying "fertility." As the chosen 
designation of a religious society it was 
known soon alter the organization of the 
county, but it was not until 1833 that it 
became the name of a township. Other 
portions of our county are not without 
religious suggestions. It is a subject of 
congratulation that "Paradise" and 
"Eden" are near at hand, and that 
"Providence" is always with as. 

In discussing our early nomenclature 


we have but traced the outlines of the 
subject. If time permitted it would be 
easy to show that every place-name is 'A 
milestone in our history. Coming down 
to more recent times, we should have to 
show that even those townships 
which have been pleased to be 
known by the names of great men 
have not chosen their appellations at 
random. The townships which are thus 
designated are "Penn," "Fulton'* and 
"Clay." Could any names more com- 
pletely illustrate the historic origin, the 
intellectual development and the politi- 
cal preferences of our county ? 

In studying our theme we have been 
interested by the fact that every national 
element in our population, with perhaps 
a single exception, has left its traces upon 
our nomenclature. Our townships have 
no names suggestive of the French traders 
the Chartieres, Bizaillons and LeTorts 
who were once so prominent in our local 
history. These people came and went, 
leaving no impression on our subsequent 
annals. We have, indeed, many families 
with French surnames, but we believe 
most of these to be descended from 
French Huguenots, who had sought refuge 
in Germany and had become pretty 
thoroughly Germanized before they 
crossed the ocean. 

A French origin might, indeed, be sug- 
gested for the name of one of our town- 
ships and towns, though we are not aware 
that this has ever been done. Mount Joy 
is a name which appears to be thoroughly 
English, and in its present form is sug- 
gestive of perfect happiness. It may. 
however, be remembered that "Mont- 
Joie" was the ancient battle cry of the 
French nation ; and that many an army 
rushed into the conflict shouting : " Mont- 
Joie et Saint Denis." If a French pioneer 
had been given an opportunity of naming 
his dwelling place in America, ne might 
readily nave called it Mont- Joie, " and 
it would not have taken long to reduce it 
to its present form. This, however, is a 
mere suggestion, which is not seriously 

The township is, indeed, declared on 
excellent authority to have been named 
in honor of General Robert Stewart, Vis- 
count Mount Joy, of the county ot Lon- 
donderry, in Ireland. 

The history of Lancaster county is an 


extensive field, which hitherto has not 
been extensively cultivated. It suggests 
many themes that deserve minute consid- 
eration. To the earnest student it offers 
many encouragements ; but the success- 
ful accomplishment of our task demands 
faithful and unremitting labor. 



Prior to 1840 no pig iron was success- 
fully produced in this county, or, in fact, 
in any other portion of the world, except 
with charcoal as a fuel. Attempts had 
been made to use charcoal and anthracite 
mixed, and the latter alone, but they 
were iailures. With the discovery of hot 
blast, the conditions changed and it was 
then found that anthracite coal alone 
could be successfully used in the pro- 
duction of pig iron. As the timber to 
produce charcoal was not plentiful in 
Lancaster county, the change to anthra- 
cite created quite a small "boom, "for 
those days, in our county, especially as 
there were many local deposits of brown 
hematite, or limonite, ores that it were 
thought could be used to considerable 
advantage. The fever became contagious, 
each one seeming anxious to be an "iron 
master," in which name there seemed to 
be something particularly attractive, and 
many paid dearly for the honor ! 

Bo far as the records in my possession 
ehow the lurnaces to use anthracite coal 
in Lancaster county were : 

Shawuee furnace, at Columbia, built in 
1844-45 by Robert and James Calvin. 
Archibald Wright and nephew erected a 
second furnace here in 1854. 

Henry Clay furnace, on the Pennsyl- 
vania railroad and canal, between duckies 
and Columbia, was built in 1845, by Peter 
Haldeman, of Columbia. 

Chikiswalungp furnace, later changed 
to Chickies, at the mouth of Chickies 
creek, was built by Henry Haldeman, who 
resided just below Bainbridge, for his 
sons, Professor S. 8. Haldeman and Dr. 
Edwin Haldeman. 

Marietta furnaces (two) were erected by 
Mr. 6hoenberger and Henry Musselman, 
one in 1848, the other in 1849. Later the 
firm became Musselman & Watts. The 
latter, Henry M. Watts, was a son-in-law 
of Mr. Shoenberger. 

Rough and Ready furnace, later 
changed to Cordelia, which is situated on 


Shawnese Run, about two and one-half 
miles northwest of Columbia, was built 
in 1848 by Cross & Wad dell. 

Conestoga furnace, in Lancaster, was 
built as a charcoal iurnace in 1846 by 
Robert and James Calvin and George 
Ford, a Lancaster lawyer. Later the 
furnace was changed to use anthracite 

Safe Harbor furnace, near the mouth 
of Conestoga creek, was built by Reese, 
Abbott & Co., "a few years after 1846." 

Sarah Ann furnace, on the north side 
of Big Chickies creek, was erected in 
1839 by Jacob Gamber. It was later 
owned by Governor Daniel R. Porter, 
who changed it to anthracite. 

Donegal furnace, on the Peuusylvania 
canal, between Chickies and Marietta fur- 
naces, was built in 1848, by James Myers, 
of Columbia ; Dr. George N. Eckert and 
Daniel Stein. 

St. Charles furnace, at Columbia, was 
built in 1852 by Clement B. Grubb, of 

Eagle furnace, which adjoins the Chick- 
ies property, was built in 1854, by S. F. 
Eagle, Peter Haldeman and Joseph Cot- 
trell. This furnace was purchased by the 
owners of the Chickies furnace, when its 
name was changed to Chickies No. 2. 

Mussel ma n furnace, later changed to 
Vesta, was the last blast furnace erected 
in our county. It was built by Musselman 
& Watts, the owners of the Marietta 
furnaces, in 1868. 

Owing to the various changes in the 
modern conditions of producing pig iron 
all except three of the above thirteen 
blast furnaces have either been aban- 
doned, or torn down or sold for "scrap 
iron. Of these three the two at Chickies 
are now in operation. 

The first in Lancaster county to use 
anthracite fuel were the Shawnee, at Co- 
lumbia; Henry Clay, above Columbia, 
and Chikiswalungo, in the order named. 

The eight furnaces along the Pennsyl- 
vania canal, between Columbia and Mari- 
etta, were built there owing to facilities 
that waterway gave them for transporta- 
tion, all their coal being received and 
iron shipped by canal. The ores at first 
came from the surrounding local mines 
and were hauled to the furnaces in wagons. 

In 1828 Henry Haldeman purchased 
the Chickies property from the estate of 


Christian Hershey, deceased. There was 
then standing on the property a small 
saw mill on the grounds of the present 
mansion. Shortly after purchasing the 
property he erected the present larger 
saw mill at the mouth of Chickies creek. 
This mill was run for him by Samuel 
Zink. In 1836 Henry Haldeman took his 
son, Prof. S. S. Haldeman, in partner- 
ship in the lumber business. In 1842 
Henry Haldeman retired from the partner- 
ship, transferring his remaining interest 
to his second son. Dr. Edwin Haldeman, 
then a practicing physician. The firm 
then consisted of Prof. S. S. Haldeman 
and Dr. Edwin Haldeman under the firm 
name of E. Haldeman & Co. 

Prior to Henry Haldeman's purchase 
of this property, there was a fulling mill 
on the same, the remains of the dam for 
which can yet be seen under one ot the 
present turnpike bridges. There was 
also a ferry across the mouth of the creek 
used by travellers before the river turn- 
pike road was built, there being no bridge 
at that time. The Columbia and Mari- 
etta turnpike was incorporated January 
21, 1814, but the road was not constructed 
until 1826-30, at the time the State built 
the canal along the river shore. "This 
turnpike followed the canal level from 
Columbia to Chickies Rock, where it as- 
cended and curved around a large rock 
down to the face of Chickies Hock, thence 
along the canal level. This was one of 
the finest drives in the county. The 
Pennsylvania Railroad Company having 
purchased the road bed, the turnpike was 
changed to its present location over 
Chickies hill." 

Samuel Evans, in his History of Lan- 
caster county, writes : " The Marietta 
Railroad Company jras incorporated in 
1832 to build a road from Marietta to a 
point on the Columbia and Philadelphia 
Railroad, about six miles east of Colum- 
bia. When the Legislature re-chartered 
the United States Bank, that institution 
paid a bonus to the State of some thou- 
sands of dollars. Henry Haldeman, who 
had much influence, opposed the re-ehar- 
tering of this bank, and to overcome his 
opposition the bonus was taken and ap- 
propriated towards the construction of 
the above railway through his Chiokies 
property. Surveys were made and the 
line of road located about twenty feet 


above the bed of the present Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad. A portion of the road 
bed was graded for about two hundred 
feet in the rear of the large mansion 
house at Chickies, but nothing more was 
done. The grading is still shown in the 
yard of same at this time." 

In 1833 Henry Haldeman built as a 
residence for his son, Professor S. S. 
Haldeman, the large mansion now stand- 
ing at the base of Chickies Rock. Profes- 
sor Haldeman was the architect, making 
and originating all the detailed drawings 
and specifications, which are in a good 
state of preservation to-day. 

In 1845 Henry Haldeman built the 
Chickiswalungo furnace. This furnace 
and all his other property at Chickies he 
gave to his sons, Samuel and Edwin, on 
July 4, 1845. 

The furnace first went in Dlast January 
15, 1846. It was originally but thirty-two 
feet high and eight feet across boshes, 
but was modernized from time to time, 
but the original stack remained until 1886, 
when the old plant was, practically, dis- 
mantled and a new one erected, including 
machinery, boilers and hot blast stoves. 
From the time the furnace was built up 
to July, 1893, a period of over forty-seven 
years, the furnace was never out of blast 
for more than six months at any one time. 
During the depression in the iron busi- 
ness in 1893, it went out of blast, but is 
now in operation. 

In 1852 Paris Haldeman, a younger 
brother, was admitted in the firm of E. 
Haldeman & Co. In 1869 Prof. Halde- 
man retired from the business and the 
heirs of Edward B. Grubb, of Burling- 
ton, N. J., entered, they having pur- 
chased the Eagle furnace adjoining the 
Chickios property. This co-partnership 
continued after the death of Dr. Edwin 
Haldeman in 1872, until the Chickies 
Iron Company was formed in 1876. In 
1888 the firm of Haldeman, Grubb & Co. 
was formed, consisting of Paris Halde- 
man, C. Ross Grubb and Horace L. 
Haldeman. Paris Haldeman retired irom 
active business in 1891, leaving the mem- 
bers of the firm as at present, C. Ross 
Grubb and Horace L. Haldeman. 

The principal ores used at the Chickies 
furnaces were obtained from the Grubb 
and Haldeman's ore mines at Silver 
Springs, some six miles from the furnaces, 


aud from Cornwall, Lebanon county. Of 
late years Cornwall ore has been used to 
produce a Bessemer pig iron. 

The several ore properties at Chestnut 
Hill, which adjoin each other, are, when 
taken as a whole, one of the largest he- 
matite ore deposits in this State. Ore 
was first discovered there on the Greider 
farm, between 1825 and 1832, by Simeon 
Guilford, the distinguished engineer, who 
died at Lebanon last year, at the ad- 
vanced of ninety-three years, and mining 
has been carried on since the first dis- 
covery up to the present day. Most of 
the furnaces in and around Columbia and 
Chickies depend on these mines for 
their principal supply of ore. 

There has been some controversy as to 
the orthography of Chickies and, "as fre- 
quently is the case, those knowing the 
least about the subject have the most to 
say. It is a well-known fact, recognized 
by those competent to give an opinion, 
that the spelling of words is by no means 
a safe guide to pronunciation. In an ad- 
dress to the Spelling Reform Association, 
delivered by the late Professor 8. S. Hal- 
demau, in 1877, he aptly said: "Our 
spelling is so lawless that we take unsci- 
entific rules lor our guide and instead of 
following the great law that speech is 
older than spelling, we make it newer; and 
if the spelling depends upon some hidden 
fact a word may be sacrificed to a fetish 
or bit of paper with writing upon it. 
People who learn only spelling and neglect 
the laws of speech are continually trying 
to reconstruct words from spelling, the 
significance of which they do not under- 

In early days, when little attention was 
given to the matter, there were a number 
of ways in which the name was spelled, 
the most common being Chicques and 
Chiques, generally with the qu. The 
name is derived from the Chikiswalungo 
creek, meaning "the place of crabs," 
which was then also spelled Chiquesa- 
lungo. The qu came from the French 
surveyors, employed by the French In- 
dian traders, who, in making their maps, 
used the qu to give the k sound, pro- 
nounced by the Indians as if spelled 
Chikis. This was quite natural and pos- 
sibly correct from a Frenchman's point 
of view, as much so as the spelling of 
any French geographical name, but if we 


follow that language we would have to 
change An>erica aiid the United States 
into Ameriqiie and Etats Unis. 

In 1846, when the blast furnace was 
built, it WAS necessary to give it a name, 
as well as the brand of pig iron to be pro- 
duced. Care was taken to investigate the 
subject by Professor Haldeman, who, at 
that time and prior, was recognized as an 
authority on languages and phonology, 
including Indian dialects of which he had 
written as early as 1844. After much in- 
vestigation the name adopted was Chikis- 
walungo Furnace, as is also shown by the 
furnace account books for the firm, of 
which Professor Haldeman was the senior 

This name was used until June, 1858, 
when owing to the inconvenience of its 
length it was shortened to Chickies, as at 
present, by Professor Haldeman's advice 
and consent. In a communication to a 
local newspaper, of December 8, 1877, re- 
ferring to another correspondent's com- 
munication, he writes: "The original 
form Chikiswaiungo was so cumbersome 
that it broke in two, giving us names lor 

the two towns Chickies and Salungo 

The original is too inconvenient IV r post- 
office and map purposes and the philan- 
thropy which imposed a name like Phila- 
delphia is to be doubted. Naples and 
Paris are preferable to the old names 
Neapolis and Lutetia Parisiorum, and, in 
fact, abbreviation is one of the laws of 
language The post-office depart- 
ment uses Chickies, the Pennsylvania 
railroad Chiques(&pt to be called Cheeks), 
but of late I often write Chikis." 

In a letter of Dr. E. Haldeman, of 
December 27, 1856, he twice uses Chikis 
in referring to the turnpike and creek 
and this latter spelling was used by Prof. 
8. 8. Haldemau in the later years of his 
life for the headings of his communica- 
tions. He also gave the latter as correct 
to Prof. Persifer Frazer, Jr., geologist 
in charge of the survey of Adams, York, 
Lancaster and Chester counties, for the 
Second State Geological Survey of Penn- 
sylvania, 1876-8, for which the reports 
were published in 1879. Prof. Frazer 
wrote him that as the record was to ap- 
pear in a State document, which would 
go down to posterity and there seemed to 
be some question on the subject, he ap- 
plied to Prof. Haldemau as the only 


authority he recognized on the matter ; 
the latter gave Ohikia as correct, and so 
it appears in these, as well as other pub- 

Whilst we would not attempt to dispute 
Prof, flaldeman's decision, it would h .ve 
created much confusion, from a business 
standpoint, to change the name of the 
post-office, railway station, telegraph and 
express offices, names of the furnaces, 
brand of iron and the Company making 
the same, after having been in use for a 
quarter of a century, from Chickies to 
Chikis, especially as the difference was so 
slight. No one now pretends that Chiques 
is or ever was correct, except possibly 
those who do so either from nonsensical 
sentimental reasons, considering the qu 
more elegant, or else through ignorance. 

J. I. Mombert, D. D., in his History 
of Lancaster County," published in 1869, 
in reference to Indian localities, on page 
386, gives the "modern name" of this 
creek as Chiquesalungo and the " Indian 
name" as Chickeswalungo, meaning "the 
place of crawfish-" 

The scenery around Chickies is varied 
and picturesque. One of the most beau- 
iul views in this, or any other county, 
can be seen from the top of Chickies 
Rock, with the Susquehaiiua winding 
around at its base, dividing tne red and 
white rose counties of Lancaster and 
York. A short distance back from the 
rock can be seen the Chikiswalungo and 
Donegal valleys, with their fine buildings 
and farms under the highest state of cul- 
tivation, in fact the cream of the greatest 
agricultural county in the United States. 
James Buchanan once remarked that this 
view reminded him of the best agricul- 
tural portions of England, and we have 
frequently heard the remark from 
strangers, "This is God's own country." 

There are some interesting Indian 
legends connected with Chickies Rock 
and I feel that it would be well for our 
society to collect and record such matters 
for future generations, before they are 
forgotten or corrupted. The most unique 
as to the rock is given in a poem, written 
some years since by Walter Kiefler, 

Land of Penn ! where lies a glen 

Fairly filled with mystic story, 
Artist's brush nor poet's pen 

Could e'er paint its wondrous glory ; 


Chikis-wa-lungo ! where Wanunga, 

Bravest of the Indian legion, 
Told the romance of each war dance, 

Told of vict'ries in the region. 

High o'er all there hangs a pall, 

Seeming lonely, sad, forbidding ; 
Look again from out the glen, 

See the trees with vigor budding, 
Jutting outward, leaning forward 

From the rocks that hang above you, 
On that spot, full many a plot 

Closed with vow like this, " I love you ! " 

And forever rolls the river. 

Full two hundred feet below; 
Susquehanna, shout Hosanna, 

As tny waters onward flow! 
Surely God, upon the green sod 

On the banks that form thy fetters, 
Set his impress of divineness 

In most rare and radiant letters. 

Here Wanunga on Salunga, 

Wooed the maided, Wanhuita, 
Told the story of his glory, 

How he slew his rival, Sita; 
Never maiden was so laden 

With perplexing doubt and fear, 
In her bosom dwelt a passion 

For a pale face lingering near. 

Then the pale face, with a rare grace, 

Sought the maiden in her bower, 
Never dreaming, danger teeming, 

Till Wanunga held the power ; 
Hark ! a rustle, then a tussle. 

All is silent as the grave, 
Then Wanunga, from Salunga, 

Leaps with maiden 'neath the wave. 

And the river rolls forever, 

Never giving up its dead, 
l>ut tradition (superstition) 

Says there sounds a solemn tread, 
As the pale face, with such rare grace, 

Walks upon the giddy summit, 
Watching ever for nis treasure, 

Torn from him like fiery comet. 

And yet the pale face will forget 

The story here depicted, 
And the tale of love, on the rocks above, 

Are still not interdicted; 
For many a pledge, on that rocky ledge, 

Ascends to heavenly portals, 
And the vows there made are thought more 

Than the common vows of mortals. 

If the attempt is made to collect these 
Indian legends, I would suggest that it 
be done intelligently, otherwise it will be- 
come a farce, as was the case with a cor- 
respondent, a few years since, in one of 
our local newspapers, who, referring to 
his address before a high school, and the 
advisability of interesting the school 
children in such matters, wrote : 

'Swatara was named after an Indian 
hunter, who could speak some English, 

who shot a deer aoross thb stream and 
ejaculated 'sweet arrow.' 

"I have only time in this paper to give 
one of those from which the name and 
spelling of our beautiful stream was 
taken, Chiquesaluugo. Several centuries 
ago a tribe of Indians was encamped on 
the banks of this lovely stream which is 
now the rich and fertile valley of Rapho 
township. Just east of Mt. Joy, near 
Cedar Hill seminary, is a beautiful dell, 
surrounded by large trees and dense shade, 
where lovers often meet. One evening in 
the long ago an Indian maiden and her 
lover met here in early September [How 
the month was fixed the Lord only knows]. 
The night was balmy and fair. As they 
sat on a rude log, discoursing about sweet 
love, they almost got enchanted with the 
beauty that surrounded them. The 
harvest moon, now near its fall, was 
rising slowly in the east and shed a radi- 
ance of unearthly beauty on the scene. 
The sharp cadences of the katydid, the 
ripple of the meandering stream as it 
passed along the dell, all assisted to make 
the scene one of unequaled loveliness. 
They proposed to each other to take a 
walk along the stream, and as they walked 
and talked, happy in the charms of each 
other's company, and as love takes no 
note of time or distance, it was near the 
bewitching hour of midnight as they as- 
cended a hill. From its top it seemed 
like Beulah Land, a way across the valley, 
as it lay batnedin moonlight. The scene 
was truly enchanting, and they talked 
about its beauty and their happy wigwam 
homes, and, looking beyond the hills, 
they fancied they could see their happy 
hunting grounds, where they would be 
forever happy. These souls, 

* Proud science never taught to stray, 
Far as the solar walk or milky way.' 

"And as they were thus walking and 
musing in each other's arms, (?)they fell 
over a terrible precipice (Chiques Rock) 
and met a romantic death. But before 
they died she was able to say to him 
Chiqua* and he answered 'Salunga.' 
They were buried on the banks of the 
beautiful stream that bears their name, 
and the low moaning of its waters the 
broad Susquehanna is ever singing a 
sweet requiem to their memory and their 
monument is the romantic Chiqueaa- 


My only object in consuming your time 
by repeating such useless slush is to illus- 
trate the point to which I desire to call 
your attention, that is, the importance of 
recording these legends with, at least, an 
ordinary degree of intelligence. Think 
of one, who feels competent to address a 
high school, recording in print such ma- 
terial, and leading the unsuspecting 
youth to believe that Swatara was ever 
pronounced by any intelligent being as 
"Sweet Arrow;" there is no " sweet" in 
the pronunciation. And then to walk 
those poor lovers some six miles from 
near Mount Joy to Ghickies Rock and 
when they tumble over it [mind the night 
was " fair " so they could see] to have 
the maiden say "The place of" and the 
young buck reply "Crabs," which is 
what "Chikiswalungo" means. 

May our growing generation, hungry 
for knowledge, be protected from such 
history (?) and I trust our society will 
assist in so doing. 



When we think of the treatment the 
Palatinates (from whom most of us have 
descended) received from their oppressors 
in their native land, when their homes 
were destroyed and they were compelled 
to flee for their lives to such parts of the 
world as afforded them scanty asylums, 
we are apt to picture to ourselves a 
poverty-stricken "people. Hupp, in his 
history, gives the names of over twenty 
thousand immigrants, many of whom 
found their way into Lancaster county,, 
and they could not have been so very 
poor, as their fine farms and substantial 
buildings of one hundred and fifty or 
more years ago attest. Of the substantial 
buildings dating back a century and a- 
half we have yet five remaining in our 
township. They are large, two-storied 
stone structures, so firmly built they will 
be good for another hundred years. When 
we compare their living with the present 
style we might think them poor. Take 
from us the luxuries to which we have 
become accustomed and we would con- 
sider ourselves poor indeed. 

They had no coffee, no tea, no muslin, 
or calico, nor hundreds of other things 
which we think we must have. But they 
had plenty of fish shad, herring, cat- 
fish, rook bass, perch, suckers, mullets, 
etc. In the forests were found deer, tur- 
keys, squirrels, etc., in abundance. In a 
very short time they raised their own 
beef and pork, and the breadstuff was 
never wanting. They sowed flax, the 
rain rotted it, and they broke, scutched, 
hatcheled, spun and wove it in their own 
houses. The wool was worked into cloth, 
mostly in the linsey-woolsey style, a^d 
then the tailor came around and made 
suits for the men and boys that were con- 
sidered good tor a year. The women 
made the bedding and their own clothing. 

Our forefathers were not poor. They 
were a contented and happy people. 

Seventy-five years ago (about the limit 
of my recollection) innovations came in 


fasi. We then had true coffee ; cm Sun- 
days we had tea muslin and calico and 
carpets came in. My first baby clothes 
were calico. I think it cost fifty cents 
a yard. 

Mills ot necessity were the first manu- 
facturing places. Probably the oldest 
was at the mouth o/ the Little Conestoga 
creek ; backwater from the building of 
the Slackwater navigation in 1827 ruined 
this. The next was the Shenk mill, on 
the Pequea, on the road between Cones* 
toga and Marticville. This was replaced 
(alter a fire) by a new building. Saw- 
mills were connected with all the old 
mills. Hard wood furnished all the 
building material. 

Among our old industries was a gun 
barrel factory. It was owned by Michael 
Reyner, and stood along the run now the 
boundary line between Conestoga and 
Pequea townships. My grandmother 
Resh, nee Hess, who died many years ago, 
aged eighty- lour years, knew all about 
the old bore mill. She called the owner 
"Bore Michael." She said that at one 
time things did not work right and 
Michael said things were "ferbext" (be- 
witched), and he said : "Ich will der hexa 
a-uiol duuner vetter geve.' ? So he got a 
dead hog, laid it on the fire and put the 
full blast of the bellows on it and raised 
a stink that disturbed the whole neigh- 

It must have been effectual, as " Mi- 
chael" made gun barrels afterwards. 
Un fortunately, 1 failed to get dates, but 
it must have ceased work shortly after 
the Revolutionary War. Seventy -five 
years ago there was not a trace of the 
building left only a ditch overgrown 
with trees and bushes that was the water 
race that furnished the power. We had 
an oil factory the building was torn 
down within fifty years. Ponderous 
stone rollers and large presses remained 
in it to the last Flax seed was princi- 
pally used for oil, but castor oil was also 
made ; a half barrel of castor beans re- 
mained to the end. When the mill 
ceased operation history sayeth not. 

The stocking weavery operated by John 
Yentzer ceased working about 1815. It 
had been in operation many years. 

Whisky distilling was introduced early. 
I can point out ten sites where whisky 
was made in the past. Probably the old- 


est was on the Sterneman farm (now J. 
M. Warfel). It has been out of opera- 
tion over one hundred years. We have 
no distillery now. 

About the year 1800 weaving began to 
die out. As late as 1830 we had three 
weaver shops, using from two to six 
looms. The general introduction about 
that time of cotton goods put an end to 
flax-raiaing and to the looms. We have 
not a loom in the township now. 

Our only tannery is operated by the 
great-grandson (A. Myer) of the origina- 
tor, it is probably 130 years old. 



To understand the full significance of 
the Christiana riot, so insignificant in 
itself, it is necessary to have a thorough 
knowledge of where we were and whither 
we were drifting as a nation at the time. 

An English statesman sojourning in 
France some years before the great up- 
heaval of 1793 wrote, " I discover here 
all the symptoms of revolution that I 
have ever met with in history;" at the 
same time a weak, conservative, purblind, 
vacillating, well-intentioned King sat upon 
his throne and saw nothing of all that. 
If any intelligent stranger had been so- 
journing in America in the year 1851, 
possessed with ordinary powers of pene- 
tration, able to see with his eyes and not 
with his prejudices, he might have said, 
" I see in the United States a young and 
growing nation, peopled with the best 
blood of the Caucasian race, self-deceived, 
however, by their marvelous growth, 
standing at the crater of a volcano, try- 
ing to keep back the lava by rolling an- 
other rock down ics throat." 

Both immediately before and after the 
formation of the constitution the repre- 
sentative men of the country, south as 
well as north, regarded slavery as an evil 
greatly to be abhorred. General Gates, 
the hero of Saratoga, had liberated his 
slaves; Washington, as all people know, 
did the same ; Jefferson had uniformly 
borne his testimony against it, and manu- 
mission societies were formed in the years 
1789 aud 1791, respectively, in the States 
of Maryland and Virginia. Among the 
members of the Maryland society were 
Samuel Chase, a signer of the Declara- 
tion of Independence, aud Luther Martin, 
one of the iramers of the Constitution; in 
Delaware the movement was favored by 
such men as Hon. James A. Bayard, 
grandfather of the present Minister to 
England, and Caesar A. Rodney, alter- 
wards Attorney General. In the north 
the first anti-slavery society formed, 
that of Pennsylvania, was pre- 


sided over by Benjamin Franklin 
and then by Benjamin Rush. The 
New York Manumission Society had 
for its first president John Jay, and for 
its second, Alexander Hamilton. Further 
examples might be given, but this is 
enough to prove that the leading, enter- 
prising, patriotic men of the country did 
not regard slavery at tnattime as a bless- 
ing, nor even as something to be looked 
upon with indifference. 

These men must either have had a very 
poor conception 01 the kind of govern- 
ment they had been forming and the 
character of the work they were engaged 
in, or else their children afterwards woe- 
fully misconstrued them. For, in pro- 
cess of time, the discovery was made 
under the more rapacious lead of the 
cotton States that such societies were at 
war with the constitution, with good citi 
zenship, and that it was treasonable and 
seditious to even petition Congress for 
the abolition of slavery in the District of 
Columbia. Relatively speaking, about 
the same time, the discovery was also 
made by a young man heretofore un- 
known to fame, publishing a small sheet 
trom a garret loft in Boston, "That the 
Constitution of the United States was a 
covenant with death and an agreement 
with hell." These two, not to say re- 
markable, at least most diametrically op- 
posite, interpretations of the fundamental 
principles ot our National Union ought 
to have convinced the moat obtuse mind 
that the "irrepressible conflict" was at 

The truth is, the more clear-sighted 
and candid leaders of the one or the 
other side did see it, but the great 
mass of people were too eagerly engaged 
in making money, too anxious to avoid 
any unpleasant relations, and too busy 
developing the great resources of the 
Nation to worry themselves about the 
ethics of the question. 

There is neither time nor necessity to 
review the long legislative history in the 
great struggle, only this brief prelude is 
necessary to get a faint idea of the moral 
forces of the issue. Of all tne acts of 
Congress in the entire drama, none had 
been so strenuously insisted upon by the 
South for the moral effect it would have 
in forcing a proper recognition of the 
rights of the master to this peculiar 

species of property as the fugitive slave 
law of 1850. None, on the other hand, 
had come so directly in open conflict with 
the conscience of the North. By the 
provisions of the Act, every citizen was 
at onee mane a slave catcher. If he re- 
fused to obey the Marshal in assisting to 
return a fugitive he was guilty of a mis- 
demeanor and subject to fine and im- 
prisonment. The person claimed as a 
slave could be arrested upon the warrant 
of the United States Cominissioner,swom 
out by any person claiming him as his 
slave ; he was denied the right of trial by 
jury, the Commissioner could deliver 
him to the alleged master at his own dis- 
cretion, and the slave was not allowed to 
testify in his own behalf. 

Such was the law that Daniel Webster 
said he was willing to vote for "with all 
its provisions to the fullest extent," be- 
cause "neither in the forum of con- 
science or in the face of the constitution 
are we justified in disregarding it." Such 
was the law which cause-i Thaddeus 
Stevens to exclaim from the other side 
of the Capitol : " Can the free North 
stand this ? Can Pennsylvania stand it ? 
Great God ! can New England endure 
it?" It was a close question on which 
side of Mason and Dixou's line the re- 
bellion would first appear. 

Such was the condition of things on 
the eleventh of September, 1851, about 
one year alter the passage of the Act, 
when Edward Gorsueh, a Maryland slave 
holder, and his son, Dickinson Gorsueh, 
Joshua M. Gorsuoh, his nephew, Dr. 
Thomas Price, and two other men from 
Maryland, with the United States Mar- 
shal, H. H. Kline, arrived with warrants 
regularly issued by the United States 
Commissioner at Philadelphia, about 
daylight, at the residence of William 
Parker, a colored man and an escaped 
fugitive, about a mile and a-half from the 
village of Christiana, this county. 

The community was settled principally 
by Quakers and Scotch-Irish Presbyteri- 
ans, but it would be a mistake, however, to 
suppose th it the anti-slavery sentiment 
of Southern Lancaster county was so 
strong at that time a? to have prevented 
the peaceable enforcement of the fugitive 
slave law in ordinary cases. Public 
opinion there might properly be divided 
into three classes, as was probably the 


case throughout the most of the North. 
First, the more ultra abolitionist or anti- 
slavery people, who made no concealment 
of the fact that they never intended to 
obey the law. Second, the professional 
slave hunters and nigger haters, who 
obsequiously followed the leaders of the 
South and obeyed their slightest impulse. 
Third, the great conservative and far 
more numerous class, who doubtless felt 
;i pang at the hard service imposed upon 
them by the law, and who ostensibly and 
lor political reasons would profess to sup- 
port it, but who would secretly aid the 
fugitive in his flight. To this latter class 
Castner Hanway, the sometimes recog- 
nized hero of the riot, belonged. He 
doubtless sympathized on that morning 
with the negroes and desired them to win 
the battle,if one should commence, which 
they did. But he would much preferred 
to have had the Marshal and his posse, or 
rather Gorsuch and his posse, accept his 
advice and leave without a struggle, as 
Kline would have done, (he being pro- 
nounced by all parties as the most con- 
summate coward ever seen in battle). 
This being done, he doubtless would have 
consulted with the negroes and aided 
them to escape. But that he ever gave 
the insolent answers to the Marshal or 
resisted his authority,as Kline, the cham- 
pion liar as well as coward, testified on 
the trial, was not correct. Hanway him- 
self never claimed that he did, and 
Parker's only regret, as he read Kline's 
testimony or had it read to him 
after his escape to Canada, was 
that he had not killed him on the 
spot. That Hanway was the first of the 
white neighbors on the ground was not 
because he started first, but because 
Elijah Lewis, when on his way to the 
place, stopped at his (Hanway's) resi- 
dence, the brick mill in the valley, now 
abandoned, and asked him to go along. 
Hanway, instead of accompanying him 
on foot, mounted his horse and arrived 
some few minutes before Lewis on the 
scene of action. Instinct, stronger than 
reason, doubtless told the negroes that 
he was not their enemy, and hoped that 
he might be turned to account as a friend. 
But he was there by no prearrangement 
with them, nor had they regarded him as 
a special counsellor. Neither was he a 
member of the Society of Friends as has 


been so frequently asserted. He simply 
lire '.I there in a Friends' community; 
was indicted for treason with Lewis and 
Joseph C. Scarlet, both of whom were 
members ot the Society, and thus histor- 
ians have naturally fallen into that error* 
one recent writer in the Philadelphia 
Times calling it the riot led by three 
non-resistant Quakers. Elijah Lewis, as 
already stated, arrived some minutes 
later than Han way, and when commanded 
by the Marshal to assist in the arresting 
of the fugitives, is reported to have said : 
"That my conscience will not allow me 
to do." Joseph C. Scarlet, the other 
white man who enjoyed the distinction 
of being indicted for treason and of beiog 
shipped to Philadelphia in a cattle car 
with a lot of negroes to answer the 
charge, was not on the ground at all. 
His treason consisted in notifying the 
blades of their danger and admonishing 
them to prepare for it. He seemed to be 
one who actually did have some intima- 
tion in advance of what was likely to 
happen. He was a man of mighty strength 
and brawn, and had he been upon the 
ground, and had occasion, he doubtless 
would have proved a very good man for 
slave hunters to keep away from, not- 
withstanding his Quaker principles. 

With this" brief mention of these actors 
in the drama, let me say a word about 
the real hero of the tragedy. His 
name was William Parker, the man in 
whose house the fugitives were concealed, 
some four in number, for whom the Mar- 
shal had warrants. Parker, born himself 
a slave in Maryland, had made his 
escape in his early manhood some years 
before to Pennsylvania, and had settled 
in southern Lancaster county. Whether 
he had drifted into that section through 
that mysterious and invisible agency, the 
underground railroad, I am not able to 
say ; at all events, he there lived and 
worked for several years among the 
tanners, never deeming it necessary to 
advance on to another station. He at 
onue impressed himself not only upon his 
own race, but upon the whites with whom 
he came in contact as well, as a man of 
wonderful force of character. I remem- 
ber seeing him but once, and that was as 
far back almost as memory goes ; but his 
personality is distinctly impressed upon 
my mind. He was at my father's house 


the day of the riot, after it was over, but 
I did not see him on that occasion, nor 
did my lather, as he was away from home. 
He was a dark mulatto of medium 
height, wonderful muscle, and possessed 
of resolution, courage and action. The 
neighborhood was rife with stories of his 
physical feats. He could walk leisurely 
up to an ordinary post fence, leap over it 
without touching it with his hands, work 
hard all day, and travel from ten to fif- 
teen miles during the night to organize 
his people into a society for their protec- 
tion against the numerous kidnappers 
who were constantly committing depre- 
dations through the community, or rescue 
one of their number that had been cap- 
tured, flog the villain who was carrying 
him away, and return to his labor in the 
morning with a bullet in bis leg, appar- 
ently uufatigued and keep his secret well 
to himself. He was by common consent 
recognized by his race m the neighbor- 
hood as their leader. They depended 
upon him with abiding confidence to keep 
them from being taken back to slavery. 
They regarded him as their leader, their 
protector, their Moses, and their law- 
giver all at once. The white people of 
the neighborhood knew that he possessed 
these qualities, that he was the Toussaini 
L' Ouverture of his people ; that he could 
have commanded an army had he been 
educated, and he challenged the univer- 
sal respect of all of them who did not 
have occasion to fear him. 

He of all the men of his despised race 
along the border in that slave hunting era 
could have led the riot. Without him 
there would have been no riot. The rest 
would have fled upon receipt of the news 
that their masters were coming, or would 
have surrendered and gone back with 
them to slavery. When he was ap- 
proached by the United States Marshal 
with his warrants on that eventful morn- 
ing, his revolvers and his armed assist- 
ants, clothed with all the panoply of au- 
thority, this colored Spartan stood at the 
threshold of his humble home and bid 
him defiance. And in this, be it remem- 
bered, lies the real significance of the 
Christiana riot. In all the slave hunting 
era, during all the period of mob vio- 
lence attending the anti-slavery struggle 
up to that time, there had been no open 
resistance to the authority oi the govern- 


ment. This man advanced out in bis 
yard and struck the United States down 
in open battle in the person of Edward 
Gorsuch. It was this that caused the 
matter to be published in every paper in 
the laud, to be notice- i even in England, 
and made the entire slave power tremble 
from the Potomac to the Rio Grande. It 
was not because Gorsuch was killed, or 
that his son and nephew were badly 
wounded, that the community was scoured 
for weeks by bandits disguised as United 
States Marshals, or that the United States 
Marines were sent to a quiet, peaceful 
neighborhood to terrorize it; but because 
one brave man, preferring death to 
slavery, said, "I don't care lor you or the 
United States ; there will be no slaves 
taken back, from here while I am alive." 

It is easy for a white man sitting in the 
Executive Mansion of a great State, with 
a powerful public sentiment behind him, 
to say on a question largely sentimental, 
"There will be no flags returned while I 
am governor ;" but it required nerve of 
the stronger quality to utter Parker's 
words in the face of his powerful and ven- 
erated enemy. Gen. Taylor said at Buena 
Vista to a lot of half-Spanish Mexican 
drones, "Gen. Taylor never surrenders," 
and the people made him President. 
General Sheridan arrived at Winchester 
in time to say to his brave educated 
Saxon American army, " Face the other 
way, boys, you are going the wrong direc- 
tion," and by his inspiring presence 
changed defeat to victory, and poetry has 
made him immortal. General Parker, 
this representative of a despised race, held 
his little band of ignorant followers 
together by the imperial command, "The 
first man that offers to surrender I will 
shoot." It was his will and his alone that 
laid Gorsuch still in death, whom he 
always spoke of as "a fine soldier and a 
brave man." And by the aid of that God 
who notices even the sparrow's fall and 
sometimes condescends to uphold and 
strengthen the good right arm of him 
who strives for the liberties of himself, 
his wife and children, he made his way 
through every obstacle to Canada. 

And now, when the Lancaster County 
Historical Society visits this most tragic 
spot of all within our borders ; when they 
propose to erect some small monument to 
mark the spot where occurred this first 


battle of the American conflict ; while we 
all stand reverently at the memories of 
Grant, of Sherman and of Sheridan, of 
Reynolds, of Hancock and of Meade, 
men from whose well-decked brows I 
would not take a single flower, let us not 
forget to make one small niche in our 
tablet of heroes for this Afro-American 
William Parker. 



ON SEPT. 4, 1896. 


BY S. M. SENER, Esq. 





The Acadians in Lancaster County, 

BY S. M. SENER, ESQ., 35 

Baron Henry William Stiegel, 

BY J. H. SIBLING, M. D., . . . . 44 


There is no history in which can be 
chronologically traced the struggles and 
changes within that small region known 
as Acadia, the confines of which were ex- 
pressly named by Henry IV. of France in 
his letters patent of November 3, 1603, 
over the country, territory and coasts 
from the 40th degree to the 46th degree. 
Acadia, from its earliest settlement by 
De JVIonts, had for a century been repeat- 
edly taken by the English and lost or re- 
stored by them. By the treaty of Utrecht, 
May 22, 1713, France finally surrendered 
to Great Britain "all Acadia." This 
vague description left an undefined terri- 
tory and a disputed frontier. 

In reference to the etymology of the 
word Acadia, it has been written in dif- 
ferent ways: La Cadie, La Cady, Accadie, 
Accadia, Arcadie, Arcadia, and Quoddy. 
The etymology of the word is not certain. 
It is certainly not from the Greek "Ar- 
cadia," a part of Peloponnesus in Hellas, 
which for a long time was used to desig- 
nate an imaginary pastoral country. 
Benjamin Suite, the distinguished Can- 
adian archaeologist, and Senator Poirier 
believe it is of Scandinavian origin. 
Beaumont Small, in his "Chronicles of 
Canada," says: The aboriginal Micmacs, 
of Nova Scotia, being of a practical turn 
of mind, were in the habit of bestowing 
on places the names of the useful articles 
found in th^m, and affixed to such terms 
the word A-ca-die, denoting abundance 
of the particular objects to which the 
names referred. The early French set- 
tlers supposed this common termination 
to be the name of the country. Dawson 
is of the same opinion. Parkman adopts 
an entirely different etymology. At page 
220 of his "Pioneers of France in the 
New World" he says in a note: "This 
name is not found in any earlier public 
document. It was afterwards restricted 
to the peninsula of Nova Scotia, but the 
dispute concerning the limits of Acadia 
was a proximate cause of the war of 1755. 
This word is said to be derived from the 


Indian word aqquoddiauke, or aquoddie, 
meaning a fish called a 'pollock.' The 
Bay of Passamaquoddy, 'great pollock 
water,' derives its name from the same 
origin." He also cites Potter in the 
''Historical Magazine;" F. Kidder, in 
" Eastern Maine and Nova Scotia in the 
Revolution," and "Blackwood's Maga- 
zine," vol. xvii., p. 332. However, this 
may be, it is certainly an indigenous 
word, as it is found many times in the 
composite names Tracadie, Shubenacadie, 
Chicabenadie, Benacadie, Shunacadie, 

By the capitulation of Port Royal the 
Acadians were permitted to sell their 
lands and remove from English territory 
or remain as British subjects. Queen 
Anne, by letter of June 22, 1713, confirm- 
ing the agreement. The authorities in 
England as early as 1720, however, de- 
cided that they ought to be removed, and 
a proclamation was issued requiring them 
within four months to take an unqualified 
oath of allegiance or suffer the loss of 
their property and be driven from the 
colony. They remonstrated, but finally 
taking the oath of fidelity were allowed 
to remain. Some writers assert that they 
were granted the fullest and freest exer- 
cise of their religion, while others deny 
this. The priests could not say Mass 
under pain of banishment, as in 1724 it 
was ordered that "no more Mass should 
be said up the river and that the Mass- 
house should be abolished " This state 
of affairs continued for some years, until 
in 1755, when it was resolved to apply 
the penal laws against Catholics to the 
Catholics or Acadians in Nova Scotia. 
The oath required to be taken by them 
was that of royal supremacy, involving 
an abjuration of the Catholic religion. 

A peremptory decree was issued that 
the Acadians were to be banished, and 
that 7,000 of them were to be seized ; 500 
to be sent to North Carolina ; 1,000 to 
Virginia; 2,000 to Maryland; 300 to 
Philadelphia ; 200 to New York ; 300 to 
Connecticut, and 200 to Boston. The 
colonies thus selected were not notified 
that people were thus to be thrown upon 
them, and no provision was made for 
their support there. 

Troops were collected at various points 
with numbers of schooners and sloops 


to transport them. The Acadians were 
ou September 5, 1755, assembled and dis- 
armed, only five hundred escaping to the 
woods. Their cattle were slaughtered, 
their houses and churches set on tire, and 
the Acadian coast was one vast confla- 
gration. The unfortunate people were 
marched upon the ships and the voyage 
began. One party turned on their cap- 
tors, and seizing the vessel ran her into 
St. John's river, where they escaped. 
The rest reached their several destina- 

Georgia had expressly provided in her 
charter that no Roman Catholics should 
be allowed to settle there, and when 
Governor Reynolds found 400 Acadians 
in his limits he decided that they could 
not remain. With courage and persever- 
ance they made their painful way to New 
York and Massachusetts. The 1,500 
sent to South Carolina were apportioned 
among the parishes there, but many 
found their way to France. A few re- 
mained there, while some sought Louisi- 
ana. Those that found their way to 
Long Island were distributed in the most 
remote parts of the colony. Those sent 
to Virginia found a home, finally, in 
France. Those sent to Maryland seem 
in a great measure to have been left to do 
for themselves. Some of them got back 
again to Acadia; others went to the West 
Indies; others, finding themselves in new 
environments, started to work to begin 
the world afresh. In Baltimore stood a 
half finished house which was begun in 
1740 by an Edward Fotterall, from Ire- 
land. In this deserted dwelling a num- 
ber of the Acadians established them- 
selves. Mr. Piet, the well-known Cath- 
olic publisher of Baltimore, traces his 
descent from these exiles. 

Arrive In Pennsylvania. 

On November 18, 1775, a vessel as- 
cended the Delaware river bearing several 
hundred of these persecuted people, many 
of them being sickly and feeble, and on 
November 19 and 20 two more vessels as- 
cended the same river, bearing, all told, 
454 Acadians. The ships which brought 
them were the Hannah, Three Friends 
and the Swan. At once idle fears were 
excited lest they should join the Irish and 
German Catholics and destroy the colo 


The operations of the French in Western 
Pennsylvania at that time kept the peo- 
ple in constant terror, and when the 
Acadian or French Neutral Catholics 
were brought to Philadelphia it was 
thought hazardous to the peace and 
safety of the people. 

Governor Morris wrote to Governor 
Shirley, of New York: "The people 
here, as there is no military force of any 
kind, are very uneasy at the thought of 
having a number of enemies scattered in 
the very bowels of the country who may 
go off from time to time with intelligence 
and join their countrymen, now employed 
against us, or foment some intestine com- 
motion in conjunction with the Irish and 
and German Catholics in this and neigh- 
boring Provinces." A recruiting com- 
pany of a New York regiment was in 
Philadelphia at the time, and Governor 
Morris kept the company from returning 
to New York, and asked the advice of 
the Governors of the Provinces what to 
do with the Acadians. Chief Justice Bel- 
cher, of Nova Scotia, sent to Governor 
Morris to the effect that he thought they 
should have been transported direct to 
France, and this only added to the fears 
of the Governor and people of Pennsyl- 

Though the people were thus af- 
frighted, yet the Quakers had pity on the 
exiles and treated them with respect and 
benevolence. The Acadians located in 
Philadelphia were quartered in a row of 
small huts on Pine street, which were 
long known as the "Neutral Huts." 
The small-pox broke out among them 
there and depleted their number very 
much. Finally the Provincial Assembly 
was called upon to provide for the dis- 
tress among the people about whose 
coming into the province they had not 
been consulted. A few of those quartered 
in Philadelphia were arrested as being 
badly-intei tioned persons, but they were 
subsequently released. The philanthro- 
pist Anthony Benezet did much for 
Their relief, and Father Harding, whose 
name was always coupled by Pennsylva- 
nians with that of Benezet as a man of 
unbounded charity to the poor, gave 
these exiles not only relief, but the con- 
solations which he as a minister of God 
could impart. According to Thompson 


Westcott, more than half of these people 
died within a short time after their ar- 
rival in Philadelphia. 

In Lancaster County. 

In the early part of 1756 a number of 
these exiles were brought into Lancaster 
county through the passage of an Act of 
the Provincial Assembly. On February 
20, 1756, a bill entitled "An Act for dis- 
persing the inhabitants of Nova Scotia 
imported into this Province into the sev- 
eral counties of Philadelphia, Bucks, 
Chester and Lancaster, and the town- 
ships thereof, and making provision for 
the same" was introduced. It passed 
second reading on March 3d and third 
reading on March 5th, the Governor sign- 
ing it the same day. It was afterwards 
sealed with the great seal and entered in 
the Office of Rolls in Laws Book No. 3, 
p. 320, and in this connection the writer 
begs leave to express his thanks to ex- 
Secretary of the Commonwealth W. F. 
Harnty, for a copy of the Act in full, 
which he courteously had copied for the 
writer two years since. The act is not 
found entire in any of the volumes of the 
"Laws of Pennsylvania " and is in manu- 
script in the folio in the State Depart- 
ment at Harrisburg. 

An examination of the act shows that 
by it there were appointed the following 
gentlemen to order and appoint the dis- 
position of the Acadians : For Philadel- 
phia county, Wm. Griffitts, Jacob Duche 
and Thomas Say ; for Bucks county, 
Griffitts Owen, Samuel Brown and Abra- 
ham De Normandie ; for Chester county, 
Nathaniel Pennock, Nathaniel Grubb 
and John Hannum ; for Lancaster county, 
Calvin Cooper, James Webb and Samuel 

The act required them within twenty 
days after its passage to order and ap- 
point the Acadians as to them appeared 
most equitable so as to ease the Province 
of the heavy charge of supporting them. 
The overs -ers of the poor of the several 
townships of Lancaster were to receive 
the Acadians allotted to them and provide 
lor them, not more than one family, how- 
ever, to be allotted to any one township. 
The overseers were directed to keep just 
and true accounts of all charges and ex- 
penses accrued, which accounts were to 


be transmitted to the gentlemen named 
in the act. Those of the Acadians who 
had been bred to farming were to be 
placed upon farms lented for them at a 
reasonable rate, and some small assistance 
was to be given them toward settlement 
thereof. The commissioners were to pro- 
cure stock and utensils for them, provided 
the supplies allotted to each family did 
not exceed ten pounds. All expenses 
were to be paid out of the money given 
to the King's use by an Act of Assembly. 
Just how many Acadians came to Lan- 
caster county under this act, their names, 
where located and expenses incident 
thereto cannot be stated, as there are no 
records of the same extant. That a num- 
ber were located in this county, however, 
is evident from the fact that in January, 
1757, a bill was passed whereby certain 
of their children in this county should be 
bound out and the aged, maimed and sick 
provided for ; the children to be taught 
to read and write the English lan- 
guage. The males were to be bound out 
until twenty- one and the females until 
eighteen. A number of those who had 
been located in this county finally found 
their way back to Philadelphia, where 
they were found in distress in 1758. We 
doubt not there may be some of the des- 
cendants of the Acadians, or French 
Neutrals, resident in this county. Marie 
Le Roy in her narrative states that in 
1757 there were, among others who had 
been captives in the hands of the Indians, 
11 a Anne Marie Villars, a French girl, an 
Acadian, who had a brother and sister 
residing near Lancaster." An early 
record of buria's at St. Mary's church, 
this city, contains an entry under date of 
December 15, 1798, of the burial of Jean 
Algliso, born an Acadian. The marriage 
records of St. Joseph's church, Philadel- 
phia, contain a number of entries of mar- 
riages relating to Acadians, among them 
being such names as Landry, Le Blanc, 
de la Beaume, David, Boudrat, Blanchat. 
On the London lands, of which there 
were 47,800 acres in this county and 
Berks, an Acadian, named Brazier, had 
squatted on that portion allotted to a 
man named Slaymaker. A peculiar fact 
may be mentioned in connection with 
this, that a township of this county, 
which was laid out about the time of the 


Acadian dispersion into Lancaster county, 
is named Bart. Reese, in an early edi- 
tion of his cyclopaedia, states that Bart 
is the name of a sailing port in Nova 
Scotia. Is it probable that the naming 
of this township could have been brought 
about by any coincidence of names sug- 
gested by any one of Acadian birth in 
memory of the old Acadian home? 

Of the seven thousand Acadians thus 
" scattered like leaves by the ruthless 
winds of autumn," from Massachusetts 
to Georgia, among those who hated their 
religion, detested their country, derided 
their manners and mocked their language, 
"few comparatively remained to swell 
the numbers of the Catholic body in the 
United States. Landed on distant shores, 
those who had once known wealth and 
plenty were scouted at as vagrants, re- 
duced to beggary," and the last official 
record that concerns them in Pennsyl- 
vania has all the sadness of an epitaph ; 
it is the petition of an undertaker, ad- 
dressed in 1766 to the Legislature, and 
sets forth "that John Hill, of Philadel- 
phia, joiner, has been employed from 
time to time to provide coffins for the 
French Neutrals who have died in and 
about the city; that his accounts were 
allowed and paid until lately and that 
sixteen coffins are unpaid for, and he, 
therefore, prays for relief in the premises. ' ' 

Longfellow, in his "Evangeline,a Tale 
of Arcadie," says : 

Still stands the forest primeval but far 
away from its shadow, 

Side by side, in their nameless graves 
* * * * are sleeping. 

Under the humble noils of the little 
Catholic churchyard. 

In the heart of the city, they lie, un- 
known and unnoticed. 

Daily the tides of life go ebbing and flow- 
ing beside them. 

Thousands of throbbing hearts, where 
theirs are at rest and forever, 

Thousands of aching brains, where theirs 
no longer are busy. 

Thousands of toiling hands, where theirs 
have ceased from her labors, 

Thousands of weary feet, where theirs 
have completed their journey ! " 


" He was one who stood alone, 
While the men he agonized for 
Hurled the contumelious stone. 

" We in silent awe return, 

To glean up his scattered ashes 

Into History's golden urn." 


It is difficult to bring the life of such 
an extraordinary man as Baron Stiegel, 
who was born at least a hundred years in 
advance of his time, before an audience 
in such a manner as not to weary the 
most enthusiastic local historian at a 
single sitting. 

So large and voluminous is the tradi- 
tionary history of this one individual's 
doings that it would cover many pages if 
dealt with minutely. This man was 
both over and under estimated by a people 
who had not the ability to judge and 
were in consequence a we- stricken by his 
magnificent equipage as well as his ex- 
treme poverty. 

It has been the purpose of the author, 
in writing this short biographical sketch, 
to set the character of this great man 
vividly before his hearers at this time and 
trust to a convenient season for an op- 
portunity to compile the great mass of 
facts and fancies (for every foot of 
ground from Manheim through Elizabeth 
furnace and Schaefferstown to Charming 
forge is historic) at hand which have 
been gathered from various sources into 
a little volume embellished with illustra- 
tions by the aid of the camera obscura 
for the gratification of those who have 
beard in part what would be a veritable 
romance taken from actual life without 
a single draught on imagination. 


Knrly Life. 

Baron Henrich Wilhelm Stiegel was 
born iu Germany, presumably near Mann- 
heim, in Baden, evidently of a noble and 
wealthy parentage, in A. D. 1730. At the 
age of twenty he became dissatisfied with 
the slowness of the good old home and 
mother country and he determined to 
gather up his portion of this earth's 
goods, which amounted to 40,000, and 
venture forth into the New World to prove 
the many stories scattered broadcast over 
the Old concerning the golden opportuni- 
ties in the New, and by so doing soon out- 
strip his European friends and especially 
his brothers, with whom he couldn't agree 
because of his eccentricities, in wealth 
and honor and fame. 

The title of "Baron" is disputed by 
some historians because he never used it 
in signing legal documents, simply Henry 
Wm. Stiegel. We do know that he per- 
mitted the Baron to be used on certain 
of his stoves and in signing his name to 
the constitution of the old Brickerville 
Lutheran Church, September 10th, 1769, 
which he wrote as chairman of the com- 
mittee, and is a masterly instrument still 
in force, having governed those people 
these 127 years and brought them safely 
through the destructive litigation lust 
closed. To this document he signed 
Henrich Von Stiegel. Dr. Jos. Dubbs, 
historian of Franklin and Marshall Col- 
lege, who some years ago bad this sub- 
ject under investigation, didn't find the 
name recorded at all in Mannheim, but 
found that about this time a young 
Baron answering the description of Stie- 
gel left Mannheim for the New World by 
the name of Stengel, presumably a cleri- 
cal error, or the Baron purposely changed 
his name for some reason. It is positively 
known that he went on business trips to 
England but never extended his journey 


up the Rhine to his " Vater landt." The 
writer has only last year had two eminent 
clergymen "Stadt pfarror" Hitzig and 
Wreiner look over the records of Mann- 
heim with the above result. In our little 
Manheim lives a man who goes by the 
name of Spickloser, who was registered 
in Germany by a tipsy clerk for Spikolit- 

Again the manner of living denoted 
royalty. It is said that he always wore 
his Baronial costume whenever he went 

On the 31st day of August, 1750, the 
gallant ship Nancy, Thomas Cauton, mas- 
ter, sailed from Cowes with 270 passen- 
gers on board, landed in Philadelphia, and 
in the list of names we find *'Henrich 
Wilhelm Stiegel." During the first two 
years he traveled about seeking a suitable 
location, which resulted in the selection 
of Philadelphia, and Elizabeth, daughter 
of Jacob Huber, ironmaster at Bricker- 
ville, Lancaster county, as a helpmate 
November 7, 1752. He built a house in 
Philadelphia, in which he lived till 1765. 

In 1757 the Baron purchased his father- 
in-law's furnace property in Elizabeth 
township, which was one of the largest 
and oldest furnaces in the United States. 
Hans Jacob Huber, who erected the fur- 
nace, had the following inscription cut on 
a large stone and placed in the stack: 

"Johann Huber der erste Deutsche 
mann Der das eisen werk follfuren Kann. " 

The old furnace was torn down and a 
new one erected on or near the same spot 
and named after the Baron's wife " Eliza- 
beth." The township was named after 
the furnace and not Queen Elizabeth. 
Early in the next year (February 3d, 
1758) tho Baron's faithful wife died in 
confinement, leaving him with two little 
children Barbara, born November 5, 
1756, and Elizabeth. She died at her 


father's house, and was laid to rest in the 
family burial plot in the Lutheran grave- 
yard at Brickerville. The furnace was 
new and in first-class order and the Baron 
determined to engage in the manufacture 
of stoves. After the death of his much- 
loved wife he expressed his inclination to 
mourn even on one of the many varieties 
of stove plates which bears this inscrip- 
tion : ' H. Whim Stiegel Uud oompagni 
lor Elizabeth." The first stoves were 
jamb-stoves with this inscription : 

"Baron Stiegel 1st der maim 
Der die Ofen Gieseii Kann." 


These stoves were walled into the jamb 
of the kitchen fireplace with the back 
projecting into the adjoining room. Mr. 
Wm. Taylor, owner and proprietor of 
Charming forge, is one of the many living 
witnesses to the truth of this statement. 


These stoves were without pipe or oven. 
Improvements soon followed and the ex- 
cellent ten- plate wood stoves resulted. 
People came from all parts of the country 
to see these great stoves. At this time 
the Baron was the most enterprising and 
speculative ironmaster in Pennsylvania. 

In 1760 Elizabeth Furnace was in a 
highly prosperous condition; the busy 
hum gladdened the hearts of the many 
laborers and the community and filled 
the proud Baron's pockets with filthy 

1'here were about seventy-five men in his 
employ ; and twenty-five tenant houses 
stood in close proximity to the furnace. 
A number of them are still standing and 
from present indications they will with- 
stand the decay of many ages yet to come. 

During the fall and winter season many 
men were employed in cutting wood in 
the eternal hills nearby, which was con- 
verted into charcoal used in smelting 
the ore. The furnace lands at this time 
covered about 900 acres, much of it 
timber, which is being cut down about 
every seventeen years to this day. A very 
spacious house, substantially built of 
sandstone, stands firmly near the site of 
the furnace which the Baron occupied 
during his visits to the furnace, which 
occurred once a month. The imposing 
appearance of this house caused the sim- 
plicity of the surrounding neighbors to 
call it a mansion, which it still bears very 
modestly. A number of servants were 
always kept at the mansion ready to 
minister to the wants of the Baron and 
his friends on these periodical visits. 
This same year the Baron bought a one- 
half interest in Charming forge, near 
Womelsdorf, on the Tulpehocken creek, 
Berks county. The Baron knew that it 
was not good for man to be alone, especi- 
ally when prosperity was turned on him in 


copious showers. Ho wooed and wedded 
the noble Elizabeth Holtz, of Philadel- 
phia, in the autumn of 1759, after being 
a widower one and a-half years, who bore 
him one son, Jacob, in 1760, who settled 
in Boiling Springs, Va., September 1st, 
1783, shortly after his father's death. The 
little plain wedding ring now in the posses- 
sion of Mr. John C. Stiegel, of Harrison- 
burg, Va., bears this inscription on its 
inner surface: "H. W. Stiegel and Eliza- 
beth Holtzin," the "in" denoting 
the feminine gender. The ring, the hymn 
book and the dictionary in four languages 
were left in the possession of Judge Ege's 
family for befriending the Baron in his 
last days. This ring tells the tale and 
beyond a doubt the Woods in and around 
Philadelphia all came from the same 
family tree. 

Manheim Founded. 

In February, 1762, Charles and Alex- 
ander Steel man, merchant and lawyer of 
Philadelphia, purchased a tract of laud 
containing 729 acres and allowances from 
Isaac Norris and his wife Sarah. This 
land had been claimed in 1733 by James 
Logan, which upon his death reverted to 
Norris, a son-in-law of Logan. 

The Baron had become intimately ac- 
quainted with these men during the re- 
cent prosperous years and the Stiegel 
Company was formed, the Baron paying 
50 sterling for his one-third interest. 
This partnership was formed in Septem- 
ber, 1762. 

Toward the close of the year the Baron, 
who was highly educated and a fine sur- 
veyor, divided the tract into lots, with 
streets and alleys, for the purpose of erect- 
ing a town which he named and laid out 
after the city from which he came, "Mann- 
heim." On this beautiful spot on the 
north bank of the Chickies Creek we 
find the new Manheim of to-day, the 

(50 ) 

finest and most healthful country town 
i Pennsylvania, fashioned and shaped 
after the city whose name it bears beyond 
the dark blue seas. The Baron's idlo 
dreams of one hundred and thirty-four 
years ago are slowly but surely maturing. 
When this town was founded there were 
only two houses in it and these were little 
log structures. Stiegel himself was the 
first to build a house on the ground laid 
out. Work on this house was commenced 
early in 1763, but it was not finished till 
1765. It was erected on the northeast 
corner of Market Square and East High 




street in the form of a large square ; each 
side was forty feet long, made of red brick, 
which were imported from England and 
hauled from Philadelphia by the Baron's 
teams. This in all probability accounts 
for the long time required in building. 
The plain neighbors called it a ' Man- 
sion" also. This building had two floors. 
The second floor was divided into three 
parts by halls ; the half of it on the south 
side was arched and constituted the 
famous "chapel" which contained a pul- 
pit from which the Baron was wont 
to teach to his working men and 


others at times the doctrines of the 
Lutheran faith in the German lan- 
guage. 1 he other halt was divided 
into two apartments, front and rear. 
The former had beautiful decora- 
tions of tiles with scriptural texts and 
scenes about the mantles. The same di- 
vision of rooms by hallways was had 
down stairs ; the great parlor was hung 
with tapestry on which were painted 
hunting scenes, life-size, with falcons. 
Some ol this tapestry is still in the hands 
of Mr. Arndt, the present owner, but the 
largest part is safely in the Pennsylvania 
Historical Society's rooms in Philadel- 
phia. The mantles were also adorned 


with beautiful blue tiles and heavy wood- 
work doors, wainscoating, etc. This was 
the most handsome parlor in the com- 
munity, excelled by very fear in the city. 
Back of this room was the dining hall and 
back of it the kitchens. The house was 
two-storied and on the roof surmounting 
the whole was the gigantic cupalo, extend- 
ing from chimney to chimney, to which 
the workmen repaired to entertain the 
Baron with sweet strains of music. In- 
side the house were found remaining in 
after years the finest chinaware, telling of 
the high aspirations of the people who 
once resided there. 


About the time this house was finished 
the Baron brought his family from Phila- 
delphia, to Elizabeth, this being a larger 
place than Maaheim. 

Glass Works. 

The success at Elizabeth Furnace made 
the naturally enterprising Baron still 
more so. It was quite evident to him 
that his embryonic town could not grow 
without the stimulus of some industries. 
Consequently between the years 1765 and 
1768 he erected a glass factory on the 


northwest corner of Stiegel and Charlotte 
streets. This factory was so large that a 
four-horse team could easily turn around 
in it and come out at the place of en- 
trance. It was built of the same imported 
brick, ninety feet high, in the shape of a 
dome. The manufacture of glass was 
commenced in the latter part of the year 
1768. (Early in this year he gave amort- 
gage on his one-third of all the properties 
of the company, 14,078 acres of land, for 
3,000 to Daniel Benezet). Skilled work- 
men were brought from Europe to carry 


on the work. At this time this was the 
only glass factory in America. In 1769 
the factory was run to its fullest capacity, 
employing thirty-five men. A very inter- 
esting agreement with a decorator can be 
seen in Mr. Banner's relic room. The 
stipulations are that he shall do first- 
class work in handpainting and receive 
40 vearly, house rent and firewood for 
said services. 

The products of this factory were vases, 
sugar and finger bowls, salts, flasks, 
pitchers, tumblers, wine glasses of every 
imaginable shape; toys and scores of 
other articles were manufactured in vari- 
ous colors and haudpainted. Much of this 
superior glassware is still in existence, and 
quite a large part of it is in the hands of 
relic hunters. This ware has a character- 
istic ring that puts all imitations and im- 
postors to shame. 

August 4, 1769, the Stedmanssold their 
interest in the 769 acres upon which the 
town of Manheim stands to Isaac Cox, 
who on February 1, 1770, sold the same 
to the Baron for 107 and ten shillings. 
This gave him the sole ownership of Man- 

The Baron very soon after this moved 
his family from Elizabeth Furnace to the 
stately mansion already described, which 
he had completed five years before. At 
this time, 1769 and 1770, the Baron was 
considered one of the wealthiest and most 
influential men in Pennsylvania. He had 
invested all of the 40,000 which he had 
brought with him from the old country 
in tracts of land in many parts of the 
State under the title of the Stiegel Com- 
pany. He had 200 to 300 men employed ; 
Elizabeth Furnace was in a flourishing 
condition. Stoves were sent out to all 
parts of the inhabited country. The 
other furnaces and forges in which Stie- 
gel had an interest, as veil as the glass 


factory, were run to their greatest capa- 
city ; the glassware was carried into the 
markets of Boston, Philadelphia and 
New York. Quite a goodly portion, for- 
tunately, was sold about home. 

The Baron was accumulating wealth 
which made him still more ambitious. He 
lived very extravagantly and invested 
freely in almost anything to which his at- 
tention was called by a friend. He was in 
the habit of inviting his city and country 
friends to a banquet at the mansion at 
Elizabeth, or the chateau at Manheim. 
In 1769 George "Washington was his guest 
while he lived at Elizabeth. The room in 
which he slept is pointed out with great 
pleasure, to this day, by those who occupy 
the mansion. 

The Tower. 

During the latter part of 1769, Stiegel 
built a tower, or castle, on a hill near 
Schaefferstown, Lebanon countv, Pa., 
five miles north of Elizabeth Furnace,, 
This hill is called to this day " Thurm 
Berg" (Tower Hill). The tower was 
fifty feet square at the bottom and ten 
feet at the top, and seventy -five feet high, 
built solidly ot heavy timber ; some of 
the logs are still preserved in the compo- 
sition ot an old barn in the immediate 
vicinity. This tower was built for the 
purpose of entertaining his friends as well 
as a place of safety. It consisted of 
several spacious banquet halls in which 
the Baron banqueted his friends. It is 
said that every time he visited the castle, 
or Elizabeth, his coming was announced 
in thundering tones from the summit of 
Cannon Hill by the mouth of a signal 
gun, from which the "Hill" took its 
name. This hill rises majestically to the 
height of about 600 feet, on the north- 
east side of the site of Elizabeth Furnace, 
and is still known by this name, or 
"Stick Berg." 



Baron Stiegel visited Europe at inter- 
vals on business. It is said that upon one 
occasion he took the family with him. 
The account books at Charming Forge, 
now in the archives of the Pennsylvania 
Historical Society, show that severa 
times he drew 1,000, an allowance, for a 
trip to England. It cannot be ascertained 
that he ever returned to his native place 
even on these trips. While he lived in 
Philadelphia and managed the works in 
this and adjoining counties it was his 
custom to start out in his chariot drawn 
by four spanking horses, of which he was 
a great fancier. He was always suspicious 
of his surroundings, fearing that some 
one might seek his life, consequently he 
never traveled without postillions ad an 
pack of hounds running ahead of his 
horses. The watchman stationed on Can- 
non Hill, "Stick Berg," made the joy- 
ful announcement. At Manheim the work- 
men gathered in the cupola of the chateau 
and played sweet strains on their well- 
accorded instruments, the people flocked 
to the house and Stiegel entered the 
town amid the strains of music, shouts of 
the inhabitants and the barking of dogs. 

The Baron's appearance at each 
place was the signal for a good 
time all around. The cannon also 
announced his departure for the city, 
as well as to the distant charcoal burners 
and wood choppers it meant pay day. 
The Baron's workmen looked forward 
with great anticipation to these seasons. 
He treated his men exceedingly well, and 
his presence was their highest joy. For 
those of his workmen who were musically 
inclined he bought instruments and hired 
teachers. He took great interest in their 
spiritual welfare, gathering them and 
others into the chapel in his house and 
preached to them whenever opportunity 


offered. Some of his hearers came 
fifteen miles on foot. Stiegel was a great 
public benefactor. He held a note of 100 
against the Lutheran congregation at 
Schaefferstown. On one of his visits the 
behavior of those people toward him so 
pleased him that he gladdened their hearts 
by drawing from his vest pocket the note 
and handed it to the officers of the church 
to be reckoned against them no more. 
To Zion's people of Manheim he gave the 
beautiful lot upon which the church now 
stands for the sum of five shillings, to 




make the deed lawful, and the annual 
rental of "one red rose" in the month of 
June, forever. The payment of this rose 
is an occasion of great rejoicing in said 
church each year, a monument to the no- 
ble Baron's memory more lasting than 
10,000 towers erected on old "Thurm 

His Downfall. 

The Baron lived extravagantly and 
made a great display of wealth not war- 
ranted by his income. The glass factory, 
which had cost so much, brought in 


meagre returns ; the market was too far 
off and the labor very expensive, as only 
high-classed workmen were employed. 

A number of people preyed upon his 
generosity. It is said that the Steadraan's 
were his evil eenii ; their sanguinary pro- 
boscis had a depleting effect, but this was 
only one of the factors that led on to 
financial rum and a prison cell. The im- 
pending Revolutionary War cloud that 



BUILT 1891. 

overshadowed and stagnated every branch 
of business, added to his many human 
leeches, proved too much for the once 
great Baron. On August 4, 1774, he wrote 
Judge Yeates of his having done all to 
keep back the Sheriff, having as a last 
resort pledged his wife's gold watch. 
Under date of October 14, written at 
Manheim also, he addresses Honorable 
Jasper Yeates again, begging for more 
time to get his goods to market: 


To Jasper Yeates, Esq. 

Sir I have been awaiting your answer 
to my last Drice. Mr. Singer is come 
home but none we yet received ; let me 
therefore beg the favor of you to send it 
hereby and, if possible, prevail on Mr. 
Singer to sent me his answer to my last. 
I make no doubt but if he was to como 
here wo could fall on a method that 
might serve me and at the same time se- 
cure him and Mr. Stone. 

I remain in expectation of yr hereby 
Your most obliged 

Hble Servant 
MANHEIM, October 14, 1774. 

About this time he wrote a remarkable 
prayer on the fly leaves of his hymn book 
which bears the same distressed state of 
mind and soul of the letter which he 
poured out in fervent supplication before 
a throne of grace. 

Although he made a brave and manly 
effort to surmount his difficulties, he had 
to succumb to the inevitable and shortly 
after the date of the last letter he was in- 
carcerated. Numerous efforts were made 
to keep him out of prison by the people of 
Lancaster, Lebanon and Berks counties, 
but since they were nearly all poor and 
the creditors inexorable they failed of 
their purpose. 

In this hour of trial and great distress 
some of those rich Philadelphians whom 
the Baron so often befriended and enter- 
tained so royally at his mansion refused 
to sacrifice a single dollar to save his credit 
or his honor. A few, however, spent con- 
siderable money in his behalf, but uot 
sufficient to keep him out of prison. The 
employes were very devoted to their em- 
ployer and when they learned that he was 
being cast into prison for debt, wailing 
and lamentations were substituted for 
tha jollifications and feastings of bygone 
days. The once energetic community 


must sink back into nothingness and 
obscurity for the want of stimulation. 
The smoke ceased to curl along the 
valleys and over the hills from the fur- 
nace and forge and glass factory, and 
the busy hum was hushed and a fore- 
boding silence indicated that life was ex- 

On the 15th day ot December the Baron 
sent out a circular letter to each of his 
creditors, of which the following is a 

copy : 

PHILADELPHIA, Dec. 15, 1774. 

Please take notice that I have ap- 
plied to the Honorable, the House of As- 
sembly, for a law to relieve my person 
from imprisonment. If you have any 
objections ploase to appear on Thursday 
next, at 3 o'clock in the afternoon at the 
gaol in this city before the committee of 

Your humble servant, 


To John Brubacher. 

On Christmas eve, December 24, 1774, 
Baron Stiegel stepped out of prison a 
free man. He had in all probability 
never received such an appreciable Christ- 
mas gift as this special Act of Assembly. 
His friends advanced him money and 
shortly after his release he started Eliza- 
beth furnace once more. All the Baron's 
interests everywhere were in the hands of 
some one else and he was obliged to re- 
move from Manheim to Elizabeth. There 
was no more extravagant living on the 
Baron's part. His costly outfit had been 
sold and he didn't try to replace it. His 
only houo was that the faithful furnace 
would help him pay every dollar of his 
indebtedness. The war broke out, to the 
utter dismay and discomfiture of the 
well-minned Baron, for many of those 
debtors who withheld his money were 
among the loyalists and their property 
was confiscated. Stiegel himself was for 


a time charged with loyalism, which 
proved to be on the side of the colonies 
from first to last in their great struggle 
for liberty and independence. A letter 
written to Judge Yeates, January 24, 
1776 (now in the possession of Mr. George 
Steinman), explains the distressing situ- 
ation. Very soon thereafter large orders 
for cannon, shot and shell for the patri- 
otic army relieved the oppressed condi- 
tion. The furnaces were few in America, 
and these were taxed to their fullest 
capacity for the production of munitions 
of war. Stiegel made known to the 
authorities that more power could be had 
by conducting the water from "Seg 
Loch "(Saw Hole) around the base of 
Cannon Hill to Furnace Run. The au- 
thorities sent him a large number of 
Hessian prisoners, captured at Trenton 
(it is said 200), to dig the desired canal, 
which was over a mile in length. Al- 
though the water long since ceased to 
flow through this ditch it is still plainly 
visible ; in some places the solid rocks 
have been severed to the depth of ten 
feet This digging took place in the 
winter and spring of 1777. Many of the 
Hessians remained in this country and 
became good citizens, very notably 
George and John Biemesderfer. The for- 
mer settled near Pennville, Lancaster 
county, the latter in Lebanon county, 
from whom nearly all that excel- 
lent stock of Biemesderfers sprang. The 
Baron was obliged to procure food for 
the laborers. He bought two steers and 
some wheat from Andreas Wissler, living 
near Clay, and not being able to pay for 
them he pledged his fine turtle shell 
cased gold watch and failed to redeem it. 
About forty years ago it had come down 
to Mr. Aaron Wissler, fouudryman at 
Brunnerville, this county. He took it 
to Mr. Zahm, jeweler, and traded it for a 


fine up-to-date watch. Mr. Zahra cast it 
into the smelting pot. This watch had 
"H. Wm. Stietrel " and a rose engraved 
on the inside of the lid. 

Toward the close of 1778 the govern- 
ment orders ceased, and the creditors 
once more began pressing the Baron for 
money. He had made money on the 
government orders but not enough to meet 
all his obligations. He struggled man- 
fully against the tidal wave, but ruin and 
disaster came in its wake and the great, 
manly Stiegel was overwhelmed. His 
great yearning and all-absorbing thought 
was how he might satisfy all his creditors. 


At the close of this year, 1778, we find 
him penniless, nothing left save his edu- 
cation. He removed his small belongings 
to the Lutheran parsonage at Brickorville, 
where he taught school and surveyed 
land and preached. This combined effort 
gave him a scanty living at the age of 
forty-eight, in the prime of life. Some of 
those who formerly were employed by 
the Baron and for whose musical edu- 
cation he had paid, now paid him a 
small sum per week to teach their 
children, and many who had lis- 
tened to his sermons years before 
now paid out of sympathy. In 1780 he 


was privileged to occupy the Castle, in 
Schaeffersto wn. From the Castle, in which 
he remained but a short time, he moved 
into a little one and a-half story tene- 
ment house, which is still standing, in 
which he taught school. He carried his 
little belongings to or near Charming 
Forge, in 1781, teaching school at Womels- 
dorf and later quite close to the Forge, 
probably in his dwelling house. He was 
employed for a time as bookkeeper at 
the Forge. In 1782 his bosom companion 
went to Philadelphia on a visit, to her 




relatives and friends, took sick and died, 
and the Baron never saw her again. 

This blow, added to his many mis- 
fortunes, caused him to slowly pine 
away and in the following year, 1783, he 
died, at the age of fifty-three, in the very 
prime of life, in the mansion at Charm- 
ing Forge, and was presumably buried 
on the family plot in the Lutheran grave- 
yard at Brickerville. 



Barbara, born November 5, 1756, mar- 
ried Mr. AshtoD, of Virginia. No issue. 

Elizabeth, born February, 1758, mar- 
ried Wm. Old, Pennsylvania. 

Jacob, born of second wife, 1760. 
Moved to Virginia. Married Rachel 
Holman. Had only one son, Jacob. 

The Stiegel Descendants. 

The children of Elizabeth Stiegel, wife of 
William Old, were : 

1. William, married Elizabeth Nagel. 

2. Joseph, m arried Rebecca Ege, daugh- 
ter of Judge Ege, of Charming Forge ; 
both died at Schuylkill Forge. No issue. 

3. James Old, born 16th day of Octo- 
ber, 1773; died 10th day of May, 1777, and 
lies buried beside his grandmother in the 
Brickerville churchyard. 

4. Jacob, born December 25th, 1777 ; 
died unmarried at St. Croix, West Indies, 
September 20th, 1802. 

William Old, jr., of the third generation, 
married Elizabeth Nagel as above 
stated and had the following children : 

1. Louisa, born March 9th, 1799 ; mar- 
ried Thomas Mills. 

2. Caroline, born February 7th, 1801 ; 
married Henry Morris, of Philadelphia. 

3. Morgan, born August, 1803 ; died at 
Richmond, Indiana ; left issue. 

4. Elizabeth, born 1805 ; married Dr. 
Hamilton Witman, of Reading. Among 
the descendants of this union are Mrs. 
Elizabeth M. Luther, of Pottsville; her 
son, R. C. Luther, is chief engineer of the 
Phila. & Reading R. R. 

5. Rebecca, born September 7th, 1808, 
at Ephrata ; married Dr. Louis Horning, 
of Montgomery County. The result of 
this union was one daughter, Martha M., 
still living. Dr. Horning died in 1837, and 
his widow subsequently married Jerome 
K. Boyer, of Harrisburg, in 1841. This 


union resulted in four children, George 
G., Jerome K., Annie L. and Alvah H. All 
of these children are now living except 
Jerome K , who died in 1860. Mr. Boyer 
died in 1880. Mrs. Boyer died on May 
21st, 1896. 

Jacob Stiegel, son of the Baron, had only 
one son, Jacob, who married Catherine 
Brecht (or Bright), daughter of Michael 
Bright, of Reading, Pa., who had eight 

1. Rachel, who married David Dixon, 
had ten children. 


This Stone is a Hard Brown stone, in an 
excellent state of preservation, 5 feet 8 inches 
long, 2 feet 2 inches wide and 6 inches thick, 
resting on two upright stones, one at either, 
end of the width and thickness of the slab, 

To the right of Mrs. Stiegftl's tomb is that of 
James Old, a grandchild, which can be read 
with the aid of a lens. 

2. Elizabeth, married W. A. Quick, 
had one child, Nannie C., living at Boil- 
ing Springs, Va. 

3. Louisa, married M. B. Stover, had 
four children. 

4. Michael, died at the age of twelve 

5. A. William Henry, died in Texas. 

6. David, married Sarah Libert, had 
five children; among them were John C. 
and Elizabeth Stiegel Henkel. 


7. Charles, married Sarah Coffman, 
had five children ; married a second time 
to Sarah Craig, by whom he had five 
children also. 

8. Sarah, married F. Koiner, ten chil- 


Here rests Elizabeth whose lifeless 
body is committed to the earth until 
Jehovah calls her to another life. God 
has already freed the soul in the love and 
wounds of Jesus, from the fetters and 
thralluom of sin. This is the tribute 
which posterity pays her memory. 

Elizabeth, daughter of Jacob Huber, 
departed this life at the home of her 
father. She was born 27th March, 1734, 
and was married the 7th November, 1752, 
to Heinrich Wilbelm Stiegel ; died Feb- 
ruary 3d, 1758. 

A singular Coincidence. 

Elizabeth Furnace, started in 1757, 
was finally shut down in 1857, after run- 
ning exactly one hundred years. 

The church building which he helped 
to erect in the town of which he is the 
founder, was razed the same year, 1857. 



OCT. 2, 1896. 














Ann Henry : Lancaster County's Woman Treasurer, 

BY GEORGE STEINMAN, ESQ. ........ . 69 

The Oldest Daily Paper in Lancaster County, 


Indian Tribes of Lancaster County, 




Constitution, 92 


A ,1111 Henry, the treasurer of Lancaster 
county and wife of the Hon. William 
Henry, was the daughter of Abraham 
and Ursula Wood. According to the 
family records she was born in Bucks 
county, but the records of the Moravian 
Church, of Lancaster, show her to have 
been born in Burlington, N. J., January 
21, 1734. 

Her grandfather, John Wood, was a 
son of George Wood, of the Darby 
Quakers. John Wood married October 
12, 1703, Jane, daughter of John and 
Barbary Bevin. John Bevin came from 
an ancient family, was a man of large 
means and lineally descended from Ed- 
ward III. of England, the Beauforts and 
Somerset family, of England, and the 
Cymri Kings. 

William Henry was the son of John 
and Elizabeth Henry. He was born in 
Chester county, May 19, 1729. His 
parents came from Ireland and vere 
married in this country. They both died 
on the same day and are buried at the 
Old Octoraro meeting house, Chester 

William Henry, in tbe fifteenth year of 
his age, was sent to Lancaster to learn 
the trade of a gunsmith with Matthew 
Roeser. He made Lancaster his home 
and soon became the head of a large es- 
tablishment for the manufacture of 
guns. His residence and store stood at 
the corner of Moravian alley and Market 
Place. Moravian alley entered West King 
street at the west end of what is now 
known as the old Market House, which 


was not then built, and where it now 
stands was Market Place. 

William Henry lived with his sister, 
Mary Bickham, a widow, who kept house 
for him. An amusing family tradition is 
told of his courtship. Mrs. Bickham in- 
vited Miss Wood and another friend to 
spend the day with her. Part of the time 
was spent in the garden. Standing in the 
hall through which the ladies had to pass 
was a broom, which Henry placed on the 
floor, and watched the coming of the 
ladies. His sister stepped over it, her 
friend pushed it aside with her foot, but 
Miss Wood picked it up and put it in its 
place. After the ladies left, Henry told 
his sister, "Miss Wood loved order, and 
would make a good wife. I shall strive 
to win her." 

Mrs. Henry was of domestic habits and 
devoted to her family. She was compe- 
tent to look after her husband's affairs 
when the various positions he filled dur- 
ing the Revolution called him from home. 

When the British occupied Philadel- 
phia the Henry house was an important 
place. He had living with him David 
Ritteuhouse, John Hart and Tom Paine. 
The latter, on account of his drunken 
habits and " agnostic " views, was very 
much disliked by Mrs. Henry. 

During Henry's absence from Lancas- 
ter his house was open to his friends, who 
were always welcomed by Mrs. Henry. 
A paragraph in a letter from a member of 
the Assembly describes her as having an 
attractive face which in conversation 
brightened and she entertained with much 
grace and dignity. 

Among the many positions filled by 
Henry were Armourer to Braddock and 
Forbes expedition; Justice of the Peace, 
1758, 1770 and 1777 ; Member of the As- 
sembly, 1776 ; Armourer of Pennsvlvania, 
1777; Assistant Commissioner General, 


1778 ; Member of Congress, 1784-1786 and 
one of the founders of the Juliana library, 
of Lancaster, and at the time of his death 
treasurer of ihe county. 

During his last illness his wife gave up 
everything to nurse him and prepared 
his business affairs. He died December 
15, 1786. At the time of his death the 
State owed him a large amount, and the 
difference in value of Federal and State 
money and specie made it very difficult 
to adjust the accounts. His wife was 
then continued by the Governor as Trea- 
surer, and remained so for several years, 
and, with the help of her sorts, filled the 
office with credit. She had thirteen chil- 
dren. The best known of them were 
William Henry, who was Associate Jus- 
tice of the Courts of Northampton county 
from 1788 to 1814 ; John Joseph Henry, 
Judge of the Courts of Lancaster county, 
and Benjamm West Henry, who was an 
artist of some merit and died young. Six 
of the children died in infancy. 

Ann Henry died March 8, 1798. She 
and her husband were prominent mem- 
bers of the Moravian Church, and both 
are buried in the old Moravian burying 
ground of this city. 


It will be generally conceded, I think, 
by those who have given the matter any 
attention or who are acquainted with the 
facts, that there is no city of equal size 
in the country more given to newspaper 
reading than Lancaster. It is to-day sap- 
porting five daily newspapers. There is 
hardly a family in the city, however hum- 
ble, that does not take A daily newspaper, 
and many persons take two and three. 

But how many of the present readers 
of the daily newspapers know anything 
about the early publications? How many 
in this audience know when the first daily 
was issued in this city and what was its 
name ? If there is a single one who believes 
he can answer these questions it is not 
16 to 1 but 1,000 to 1 that he will say the 
paper was the Inland Daily and the date 
of first publication, 1853. 

Until a few days ago 1 would have said 
the same thing, because I read that paper 
from day to day, and knew its editor, 
Harvey L. Goodall. To-day I confess 
that I have been as much in the dark 
about the first daily paper published in 
this city as those here who have never 
heard of the Inland Daily. There have 
been lists of the publications issued in 
this city and county published in our 
county histories, but the compilers of 
these were unacquainted with all the facts. 

There came into my possession a few 
days ago a small piece of old-time, hand- 
made paper, brown with age, containing 
only half a dozen lines of pen writing in 
the baud so well known to ail who have 
been accustomed to handle the manu- 
scripts of the men who lived and wrote a 
hundred years ago. 



^ * .,r* i - b* \' 

1-lli< iMi 

The writer is indebted to Julius F. Sachse, Esq., of Philadelphia, Editor of the American 
Journal of Photography, for the use of the above note. 


This is what is written on this time- 
stained piece of paper which I hold in 
my hand: 

SIR I am requested by John Barthol- 
omew, who has subscribed for your daily 
Paper, that for six weeks past they have 
came irregular and frequently not 
more than four a week. Yesterday there 
was three iuclos'd in one packet & at 
other times two. He flatters himself that 
you must not be acquainted with the 
Negligence, or it would be immediately 

Near the Warren (Tavern), Lancaster Turn- 
pike. Deer. J8, 1811. 
MR. E. BRONSON. Lancaster. 

That is the whole story. It is a brief 
one, but it is satisfactory and convincing. 
Nothing could be more so. It bears evi- 
dences of truthfulness in every line, word 
and punctuation mark. The paper and 
the stj le of hand-writing are corrobora- 
ting proofs. It was no weekly. It says 
"your daily newspaper." Only one 
thing is lacking, the name of this pioneer 
of the daily press of this city. What 
was its name and who was Mr. E. Broii- 
son ? Shall we ever know ? In all human 
probability no one is living to-day who 
knew the man or saw his paper. 

And yet it is possible that somewhere 
there is a record that will answer both 
questions. Just as this old letter was 
preserved for nearly a century to tell its 
story to us to-day, so, perhaps, there is 
hidden away in some neglected box some 
other document that can give us 
the information we wish to have. 
I have not had time to examine 
the list of taxables in this city 
for 1811. That might tell us something 
about Mr. Bronson. Some old deed or 
other paper may be recorded in the 
county offices. That was the period when 
most of our local newspapers were short 


lived. There were several papers estab- 
lished about that time, the newspaper 
chroniclers tell us, but they cannot give 
us their names. This was one of them, 
and as its contemporaries also died with- 
out leaving a tombstone and an epitaph, 
I do not know where to turn for further 
information concerning Mr. Brouson and 
his early daily newspaper. 

But this tell-tale little piece of brown 
paper comes to us bringing with it a re- 
minder to us all as members of this 
Society. There are very few families 
who have lived in this county three 
or four generations who have not 
in some obscure and neglected corner, 
in box, or chest or elsewhere, a store of 
old papers that have been handed 
down for a century or more. It may be 
they have not been looked at for a hun- 
dred years. Their present owners do not 
know what they are nor what they mean. 
Who can tell what golden nuggets may 
lie hidden among them ? There may be 
many that have a story to tell just as this 
little note has, and perhaps a still more 
important one. Every member of this 
society ought to appoint himself a com- 
mittee of one to take up the work of 
searching out these hidden deposits and 
overhauling them, and in this way con- 
tribute his mite to the work that lies 
before our society. 

Turning from the story of this early 
daily newspaper, published in this city 
eighty-five years ago, I freely express the 
belief that there will be no more inter- 
esting chapter in our local history than 
that which shall fully go into the details 
of the newspaper history of Lancaster 
county. There cannot be a. moro fruitful 
or interesting field. Has any one here 
any idea of the number of newspapers 
and other publications that have been 
born in this city, lived their short or long 


share of existence aud then died as more 
than 50 per cent, of all newspapers do, un- 
known and for the most part unremember- 
ed ? I question whether any one who has 
not looked up tne subject has any idea of 
what a center of literary activity this city 
has been during the past hundred years. 
There are several lists of the newspapers 
established in this place to be found in 
our local histories. I have taken all they 
named and added such others as I could 
procure and I found the sum total to be 
126. Think of it, 126 newspapers, maga- 
zines and periodicals of all kinds that have 
seen the light in this good city of Lan- 
caster ! 

But that is not all. There were 
papers started of which neither the 
names nor those of their proprietors have 
survived the tooth of time. I have not 
the least doubt that, if I had a complete 
roster of all the publications that had 
their birth in this city alone, it would reach 
a total of 140, or even more. In addition, it 
should be said that the outlying towns of 
this county have also been very prolific 
in this matter. I have no doubt that, 
from first to last, there have been pub- 
lished in this county more than 200 
periodicals of different kinds during the 
present century. This may seem almost 
incredible, but the known facts warrant 
the conclusion. 

I have prepared a list by years of the 
papers that have seen the light in this 
city, from the first one of which we have 
any record until the present tirae^ It is 
an interesting record, but how much more 
so would it be if it could be made com- 
plete. It is largely made up of the lists 
to be found in Mombert's and Everts & 
Peck's histories, and I make no claim to 
anything, save about thirty-five new 
names, which I have added. 

The first newspaper published in this 


county was called the Lancaster Gazette. 
It bad its birth in 1752 and was a fort- 
nightly publication, printed in alternate 
columns of Gorman and English, by 
Miller & Holland. It went out of exist- 
ence the following year. 

No one was found courageous enough 
to start a new paper until the well-known 
printer, Francis Bailey, did it in 1775. 
There was evidently no paper published 
in this city for some years prior to the 
Revolution. This seems certain from 
the fact that in 1772 the Burgesses of the 
town ordered some of their proceedings 
published in the Gazette and Journal, of 
Philadelphia. Had there been a home 
paper this would not have been done. 
Francis Bailey published the Die Penn- 
sylvanische Zeitung in 1775. One account 
gives 1778. as the date. In the same 
year a paper called the News was started. 

In 1787 the Neue Unparthenische Lan- 
caster Zeitung und Anzeigs Nachrichten 
saw the light; Bteimer, Albrecht and 
Lahn were the publishers. It was printed 
mostly in German. In 1797 the name was 
changed to Der Deutche Porcupein and in 
1800 to Americanishe Staatsbote, 

Fortunately, I am able to accompany 
the notice of this last named paper 
with the prospectus issued by the pro- 
prietors prior to beginning its publica- 
tion. As you see, it is almost as bright 
and fresh as when it was printed, 109 
years ago. It seems there were two other 
German newspapers published in Penn- 
sylvania at that time. As a matter of in- 
terest and also as a matter of permanent 
record, I have translated the prospectus 
and insert it here. 

LANCASTER, June 5, 1787. 

A German newspaper, the third to be 
published in Pennsylvania, would seem to 


be somewhat superfluous, and the pub- 
lishers of the two others might complain 
especially, and not without reason, be- 
cause of the trifling price, as thereby they 
would suffer harm. We believe, notwith- 
standing that argument, that we percieve 
no difficulty and dare to lay our proposi- 
tion for a third newspaper before the es- 
teemed public. Lancaster, where we 
have set up our printing press, lies not 
only more in the middle of the country, 
by which a quite considerable sum of 
money for postage will be saved, but it 
also has a peculiar advantage in that it is 
almost entirely German and surrounded 
by German settlers, and even now has 
been selected as the site of a German high 
school. Shall we not, therefore, hope to 
receive numerous readers for our new 
newspaper? The opportunity Is not want- 
ing, nor the good will to make it pleasant 
and instructive to our countrymen. We 
receive the English inland newspapers 
and consider this noteworthy therefore to 
set it before our fellow-citizens at the 
outset. We also carry on an extensive 
correspondence with Germany, and hope 
to be able to report European news, es- 
pecially German news, as soon and as 
early as any other newspaper. We also 
expect inland news from trustworthy 
sources, and with pleasure will receive 
and make known such news. Any short 
and instructive treatises whicn will be of 
use to the reader above all the country- 
man, both for pleasure and for profit, will 
be acceptable to us. Men who are well 
known for their ability have already, be- 
forehand, promised us many contribu- 
tions of this kind. 

Our terms are as follows : Every week 
a whole sheet will be printed upon good 
paper, with neat and altogether new let- 

We promise this for $1 per annum, half 


of which must be paid at the time of sub- 
scribing and the other half at the end of 
the first six months. 

The price of a single copy will ba three 

Every one can see our terms are un- 
commonly low and that in our under- 
taking we are considering the public more 
than ourselves. We commend ourselves 
and our newspaper to our German citi- 
zens and remain their obedient servants. 


The Journal had its birth in 1794 and 
under various editors and owners was 
published until 1839, when it was merged 
into the Intelligencer, which had been es- 
tablished in 1799. The consolidated paper 
bore the name of Intelligencer and Jour- 
nal, and which, under the name of the 
Lancaster Intelligence^ is still published, 
and is, therefore, the oldest newspaper in 
the city or county. 

Since 1800 the newspaoers published 
here have been numerous. Hardly a year 
has passed since that time that has not 
seen the birth of one or more. I have 
prepared a list of them chronologically 
arranged. Ic is as complete as I have 
been able to make it, with the brief time 
at my disposal. 
1752. The Lancaster Gazette. 
1775. Paper published by Francis Bai- 
ley. Another account gives 1778 
as the time and the name Die Penn- 
sylvanische Zeitung. 
1778. The News. 

1787. The Neue Unparthenische Lancaster 
Zeitung und Anzeigs Nachrichttn. 
Name changed in 1797 to Der 
Deutche Porcupein, and in 1800 to 
Amencanische Staatsbote. 
1794. The Journal merged with The In- 

telligencer in 1839. 

1799. The Intelligencer. Der WahreAmer- 


1800. Americanische Staatsbote.(SeellSTj. 

1803. The Hive. 

1808. Der Volksfreund. The Gleaner. 

1810. The Conditional Democrat. 

1811. Daily, name unknown; published 
by E, Bronson. 

1816. The Lancaster Patriot. 

1817. The Lancaster Gazette and Farm- 
ers' Register. 

1819. The free Press. 

1820. Lancaster Journal. 

1821. The American Sentinel. 

1822. (About). Die Stimme des Volks. 

1825. Political Sentinel and Literary Ga- 

1826. Lancaster Eagle. Standard of 

1827. Lancaster Reporter, 

1828. Der Lancaster Wahre Amerikaner. 
Anti- Masonic Herald. 

1829. Boquet, or Ladies 1 Library Portfolio 
Keepsake. Anti- Masonic Opponent. 

1830. Lancaster Examiner. Lancaster 

1831. Lancaster Republican. Standard 
of Liberty, and Lancaster County 
Democrat and Public Advertiser. 

1833. The Inciter. 

1834. The Lancaster Register. Lancaster 

1835. The Lancaster Miscellany. 

1839. The Old Guard, (or 1840). The Age. 
Semi- Weekly Gazette. 

1840. The Buckeye. Wahre Demokrat. 

1842. Semi- Weekly Gazette. 

1843. The Saturday Express ; changed in 
1853 to Saturday Evening Express. 

1844 The Mill Boy. The Workingman's 
Press. Lancaster Democrat. The 
Moral Reformer, afterwards The 
American Reformer. 

1845. The Lancaster County Farmer. 

1846. American Republican. The Tribune 
and Advertiser. 

1848. Rough and Ready. The Grape Shot. 


1848. The farmer and Literary Gazette. 
The Lancasterian. The Lancaster 

1849. The Guardian. Perhaps also this 
year the German Democrat, after- 
wards called the Harrisburg and 
Lancaster Democrat. 

1851. The Farm Journal. The Indepen- 
dent Whig. The National Wliig. 

1853. The Public Register. The Inland 
Daily Times. (Morning). 

1854. Public Register and American Citi- 
zen. The Inland Weekly. 

1855. Conestoga Chief. Pennsylvania 
School Journal. Mechanics' Coun- 
cillor. The Scott Bugle. The Daily 
Free Press, (Liquor organ.) 

1856. The Daily Express. The Pathfinder. 

1858. Lancaster Union. The Temperance 

1859. The Church Advocate. The Morn- 
ing Eerald. (Daily). 

1860. The Educational Record. The Con- 

1862. The Daily Inquirer. 
1864. Daily Intelligencer. 

1866. The Keystone Good Templar. The 
Monthly Circular. 

1867. The Sunday- School Gem. 

1868. The Voice of Truth. Father Abra- 

1869. The Lancaster Farmer. Mechanics' 
Advocate. Christlicher Kundschaf- 
ter. TJie Bar. 

1871. DieLaterne. (Weekly). 

1872. Daily Examiner. Der Christlicher, 
and in 1882 as The Torch of Truth, 
or Fackle der Warheit. 

1873. TheLaterne. (Daily). 

1874. (About.) Der Waffenlose Waechter. 

1875. Monthly Intelligencer. 

1876. The Morning Review. 

1877. THE NEW ERA (Daily). THE NEW- 
ERA (Weekly). The Owl. 

1878. The Footlight. 


1879. The Coin Journal. Knights of 
Pythias Magazine. 

1881. The Record. 

1882. The School Journal. The College 
Student. Lancaster Freie Presse. 
Weekly Ledger and Market Direc- 

1883. The Law Review. 

1884. Sontag's Journal Tempus Fuget. 
188ii. The Modern Crematist. 

1888. The Home. Grand Army News. 

1889. Life. 

1890. The Morning News (Daily). TheF. 
and M. Weekly. Hommopathic En- 
voy. Christian Culture. 

1891. Lancaster Tobacco Journal. Evan- 
gelical Worker. 

1892. The School Forum. The Labor 

1895. The Pennsylvania Malt and Liquor 

Of the foregoing, eleven were daily 
papers; of these five survive until the 
present moment. Six have drooped 
out. There are at this time twenty-one 
separate publications issued from the 
Lancaster press. In the county, outside 
the city, there are twenty-seven, making 
forty-seven for the entire county. 

One other interesting fact deserves to 
be noticed. Lancaster county, as every 
one here present knows, is the richest 
agricultural county in the United States. 
The value of its agricultural products in 
a single year has reached the great sum 
of $7,657,790. During the past half 
century three purely agricultural publica- 
tions have been started for their instruc- 
tion and entertainment of our agri- 
cultural population : the Lancaster 
County Farmer, in 1845 ; the Farm Jour- 
nal, in 1851, and the Lancaster Farmer, 
in 1869. All were first-class publications. 
To-day not one of them is here. All died 
the death. Does not this seem something 


of a reflection upon the farmers of our 

But I wish to direct attention to another 
point. Lancaster was almost exclusively 
a German community in the last century, 
just as it has largely been in the present 
one. Read over the names of the men 
who have published papers in this city. 
Miller and he was the first of all Al- 
brecht, Lahn, Steimer, the Grimier Bros., 
Benjamin and Henry, Huss, Breiner, 
Ehrenfreid, Albright, Baer, Kling, Wag- 
ner, Shrier, Seigfreid, Baab, Frank, 
Myers, llarbaugh, and many more. These 
were all Germans, or of German-Ameri- 
can descent. Many of their papers were 
printed wholly or partly in the German 
language. And yet the charge has again 
and again been made that they were op- 
posed to education and to progress. A 
grosser libel was never uttered against 
our people. This German town of Lan- 
caster stands next to Philadelphia and 
Pittsburg among Pennsylvania cities 
in this particular. It leads cities that have 
twice as many inhabitants as it has. 

Talk about the culture and intelligence 
of New England ! We believe we may 
safely challenge any city of 40,000 inhabi- 
tants in any of the New England States, 
or for that matter anywhere in the entire 
Union, to show such a record as I have 
briefly presented to your notice. If there 
is such a city we would be most glad to 
hear from her. That is the record we 
have made and it is one every man in this 
room may be proud of, whatever his 

But I have digressed from my subject, 
which was to bring to your notice this 
early daily newspaper, which, so far as I 
am aware, is the first time mention has 
ever publicly been made of it. 

I cannot help observing right here that 
there is a kindred field in which unfading 


laurels are to be won by the man who 
has the courage and the ability to enter 
upon the task the preparation of a 
bibliography of Lancaster printed books. 
Our German printers and writers turned 
out books by the score. Who will con- 
secrate himself to the work. I see before 
me the man of all men best qualified for 
the work. Will not Dr. Dubbs some day 
enter upon the task ? 


The names and the history of the In- 
dian tribes who have dwelt within the 
boundaries of Lancaster county during 
the historic period present a most prolific 
field for conjecture, doubt and confusion. 
I have within a week examined many 
pages of records and the result has been 
only to convince me that our Indian his- 
tory is not in good shape. I do not think 
I can add anything to the general stock 
of information, but I will try to unravel 
the twisted skein a little. 

In our local history we find the names 
of the following tribes : Susquehannocks, 
Piquaws, the Shawnese, the Conestogos, 
the Nanticokes, the Ganawese, the Con- 
cise or CoDoys, Mingoes, Minquays and 
the Delawares. Here we have ten tribes 
as resident in this county between 1650 
and 1750. We had the names but we did 
not have the Indians, as I will attempt to 

The Susquehannooks were the most 
numerous tribe that lived here. In 1608, 
according to Capt John Smith's narra- 
tive, he found them all along the Sus- 
quehanna River for 100 miles northward 
from Chesapeake Bay. They were tall, 
athletic and courageous. He describes 
their appearance both with pen and 
pencil. At one time they could put 600 
warriors in the field from their stockaded 
fort at Turkey Hill, in Manor township. 
They were unable to adapt themselves to 
civilization, and were swept out of exist- 

The Conestogos are best known to us 
by name. They were Susquehannocks, 
and were called Conestogos when they 

settled along the Conestoga. They were 
given that name by the whites. At other 
times they were called Mingoes and Min- 
quays and Hickories, five names for one 

Redmond Conyngham has written a 
pamphlet about the Piqoaws. He says tra- 
dition has it that 200 years before the 
whites came there were no Indians in 
Lancaster county. If tradition says that 
then I don't believe tradition. This name 
was given to these Indians because they 
resided on the Pequea creek. They were 
Shawnese who went from Ohio to Ala- 
bama, thence to Georgia, where the 
Catawbas and Cberokees got after them 
and drove them North, after which they 
asked Penn to let them live here. He 
consented, the Susquehannooks becom- 
ing their sureties. They were next to the 
Susquehannocks in numbers. They lived 
on the Peqnea thirty-four years. They 
had a town of 500 souls about two miles 
from Christiana. Other of their towns 
were in Sadsbury township and on 
Shawnee run, at Columbia, where they 
went and remained until the whites be- 
came too numerous. They were a rov- 
ing, gypsy tribe. In 1737 only 130 were 
left in the county. They departed 
secretly and went beyond the Alle- 

The Ganawese came into the county in 
1698 from the Potomac region by per- 
mission of Penn, and located at 
Coneiohala, where the borough of Wash- 
ington now stands, and built a town 
there. A few years after they removed 
to the mouth of the Conoy creek. In 
1743 they removed to Shamokin. They 
were known as Ganawese, Conoys, Co- 
noise and even as Nanticokes. 

Other accounts say the Nanticokes 
came over from Berks county and settled 
in Cocalico township, where they were 


numerous aud had a town. It is said the 
Nanticokes and the Ganawese spoke the 
same tongue. I have already partially 
identified the Nanticokes with the Conoys 
and Ganawese. How they could come 
both from the Potomac and from Berks 
county I cannot tell. There seems to be 
hopeless confusion here. Heckwelder 
says the Ganawese and Conoys were the 

The Delawares, who settled in this 
county in considerable numbers, previ- 
ously lived along the Brandywine, in 
Chester county, crossed over into this 
county, where they remained only a short 
time. Despite Cooper and the "Deer- 
slayer," they had a bad reputation here. 

There were four or five large Indian 
villages in the county and many smaller 
ones. The dialects spoken were different 
even in near localities. As already said, 
the Gaaawese and Nanticokes had allied 

Pennsylvania seems to have been an 
asylum n for many tribes of Indians, 

Every tribe in the county was brought 
under the yoke of the Five Nations. The 
Susquehannocks, aided by troops from 
Maryland, fought a bloody battle near 
Turkey Hill in 1676 with the Northern 
Confederacy and defeated them, but later 
became a vassal tribe, as did all the rest, 
to the Five Nations. 

In 1680 the Cayugas and Senecas almost 
exterminated them. The last remnant of 
them, known as the Conestogos, were 
slain in 1763 by the Paxtang boys, six at 
Conestogo Town and the remaining four- 
teen within a few yards of this spot. 

All these Indians, I believe, belonged 
to the Algonquin family. 

1 think it can be established that our 
numerous Indian tribes can be traced to 
these five tribes : 

1. Susquehannocks, (called later Cone- 


stogos, Mingoes, Min quays and Hickory 

2. Ganawese, sometimes known as 
Conoys, Conoise and Nanticokes. 

3. Shawnese, often also called Piquaws. 
4 Delawares. 

5. Nanticokes, if it is conceded these 
Indians have not been sometimes con- 
founded with the Ganawese. 

In all four tribes, or five at most, in- 
stead of ten. 

In all the conferences held by the Pro- 
vincial Agents with the Indians in this 
locality between 1721 and 1750, only four 
tribes of local Indians are mentioned, the 
Conestogos, the Shawnese, the Ganawese 
and the Delawares. It is a most reason- 
able inference that the Piquaws f Conoys 
and the Hickories were only settlements 
of the above who took rheir names from 
the localities where they had their vil- 

In all probability the number of Indians 
in this county at no period exceeded 3,- 
000 or 4,000. 


Mr. Heusel then addressed the meeting 
briefly on the general purposes of the So- 
ciety and the best methods of promoting 
them. He thought it should be steadily 
kept in mind that the objects of the So- 
ciety were permanent improvement and 
instruction, as well as entertainment, 
from meeting to meeting. The meetings 
should be made popular, but, at the same 
time, they should keep in mind the ulti- 
mate purpose of the Society, namely, the 
preparation and publication of a reliable 
history of Lancaster county. The amount 
of historical matter which might be pro- 
cured was surprising. Every locality was 
rich in it and tha number of persons 
throughout the county who might be 
made serviceable to the Society was very 
great. Many of these are modest people 
and some of them live in remote locali- 
ties. Some special effort should be made 
to reach them. In the first place, the 
meetings, he thought, might be held at a 
more attractive place, and a room should 
be secured for the permanent deposi- 
tory of books, manuscripts, papers, &c., 
that might be left with the 
Society. We should have all the histories 
of Lancaster county ever published, and 
he was prepared to present the Society 
with Ellis & Evans', Mombert's and Har- 
ris* Biographical History. Rupp's should 
be secured, together with all the maps 
ever published of the county and general 
works containing Lancaster county his- 
torical matter. There were many old 
deeds and papers which persons would 
present to the Society if they knew they 
would be preserved, as well as old china, 


furniture and other articles illustrating 
our history. In illustration of this, Mr. 
Ileusel said that he would present to the 
Society, on behalf of Mr. Jacob Hilde- 
brand, some old Penn deeds, patents and 
a very beautifully illuminated manuscript, 
which, upon examination by Dr. Dubbs, 
turned out to be a very florid recommen- 
dation of a skilled gardener who came to 
this country in 1750 from Sweden. 

Mr. Hensel further suggested that per- 
manent committees be appointed on 
different branches of tbe Society's various 
lines of work, and it was agreed that the 
president should appoint three members 
each on special committees as fol- 
lows : Archaeology, topography, nomen- 
clature, local records, bibliography, 
periodicals, biography, education, church 
history, scientific research, political his- 
tory, and forestry statistics. 

Mr. Ileusel also called attention to the 
danger of the remote sections of the 
county, like Brecknock and Adamstown, 
Peach Bottom and Fulton, the Lower 
Octoraro and Conewago region, being 
neglected unless persons living there 
were interested in the work. There was 
a great deal of tradition in the county, 
picturesque incidents, eccentric charac- 
ters, old houses and historical home- 
steads, the country seats of prominent 
people, the old industrial interests of the 
county, the abandoned mills and broken 
water powers, which needed tbe hand ot 
an accurate historian with some imagi- 
nation to give them their proper setting. 

If we are to have a history, it must be 
constructed on historical and literary 
principles, and everybody and every- 
thing be given their proper propor- 
tion without regard to commercial fea- 
tures or to the willingness of people to 
subscribe to it or to pay for a place in it. 
The department of bibliography ought to 


comprise a collection of every book ever 
written by a Lancaster county author or 
published in the county. The number of 
these would be found to be unexpectedly 
large. The interest of the teachers and 
pupils of public schools ought to be en- 
listed in such a way as to have a repre- 
sentative of the society in every school 
district The number who attend its 
meetings should be hundreds instead of 
scores, and it is worth while to consider 
whether a special popular meeting might 
not be held quarterly, perhaps not always 
in Lancaster city, but at such places as 
Donegal, Lititz, Ephrata, Christiana and 
other points which are abundantly rich in 
historical matter. 



The society shall be called the Lancas- 
ter County Historical Society. 


Its objects shall be the discovery, collec- 
tion, preservation and publication of the 
history, historical records and data of and 
relating to Lancaster city and county, the 
collection and preservation of books, 
newspapers, maps, genealogies, portraits, 
paintings, relics, engravings, manuscripts, 
letters, journals and any and all materials 
which may establish or illustrate such 
history, the growth and progress of popu- 
lation, wealth, education, agriculture, 
arts, manufactures and commerce in this 
city and county. 


The society shall consist of resident, 
corresponding and life members ; resident 
members must be at the time of their 
election actual residents of the county. 
For membership persons may be proposed 
by any member in writing to the Execu- 
tive Committee and, upon its recommen- 
dation, such persons may be elected by a 
majority vote of those present at the next 
monthly or annual meeting. 


Resident members shall pay an admis- 
sion fee of two dollars at the time of their 
enrollment and an annual fee of one dol- 
lar, payable January 1st of each year. 
Arrearages for three years will cause the 
delinquents to be dropped from the rolls. 
The fee of life membership shall be $50, 
such members to be exempt from all dues 
and entitled to receive free of charge one 
copy of each of the publications of the 



The officers of the society shall consist 
of a president, two vice-presidents, re- 
cording secretary, corresponding secre- 
tary, treasurer and librarian. Their du- 
ties shall be such as usually pertain to 
officers of like title. 


There shall be an Executive Committee 
of seventeen, composed of the officers and 
ten members of the society, to be chosen 
at the annual meeting. The duties of the 
Executive Committee shall include all 
those duties that commonly belong to the 
Board of Managers and Trustees of such 
associations. It shall also arrange and 
digest the historical material collected 
from month to month, and present the 
results of its labors to the society at its 
monthly and annual meetings, besides 
making all the necessary arrangements to 
insure the interests and usefulness of said 


The regular elections of officers and of 
the Executive Committee shall be by bal- 
lot at the annual meeting, and their term 
shall be for one year. 


Any vacancies occurring in the Board 
of Officers or Executive Committee dur- 
ing the year shall be filled by election at 
the next monthly meeting after the va- 
cancy occurs. 


The Executive Committee shall meet at 
least once a month, at such time and place 
as it may determine. The society shall 
meet monthly at 2 p. m., on the first Fri- 
day of each and every month ; and in an- 
nual session at 2 p. m. on the first Friday 
after New Year. Special meetings may 


be called by the president at the request 
of nine members. 


Five members shall constitute a quorum 
of the Executive Committee, and nine a 
quorum of the society to transact busi- 
ness at the monthly or annual meeting. 


These rules may be amended by a two- 
thirds vote of the members present at the 
monthly meeting next subsequent to that 
at which the amendment is proposed. 



ON NOV. 6, 1896. 



















Reminiscences of Strasburg, 


Irish Occupation of Lancaster Land, 

BY R. M. REILLY, ESQ., 109 

Was there ever a Serious Idea of locating the Capital of the 
Country on the Susquehanna, 

Coroner's Verdict in the Christiana Riot Case, 


A William Penn Deed, 

BY HON. W. U. HENSEL, 117 

Reuben Chambers, 

BY R. J. HOUSTON, 119 

Samuel Bowman and the Tillage he Founded, 

BY A. G. SEYFERT, .... 133 

Committees, 141 


The first settlements were made in 1709 
by the Swiss Mennotiites on the banks of 
Pequea creek. The name Strasburg was 
no doubt brought with them from their 
native country, but in the organization 
of Lancaster county in 1729 and the divi- 
sion into townships there seemed to be a 
prejudice against the German Mennouites, 
and the name Strasburg was entirely 
ignored, and what is now known as Stras- 
burg and Paradise townships was in- 
cluded within the boundaries of Leaoock 
township, although at that time patent 
deeds had been granted to the first settlers 
for over 20,000 acres ot land, and in the 
deeds is mentioned Strasburg, Chester 
county. I have never been able to find 
any legal or Court records showing when 
the boundaries of Strasburg township 
were defined. It was only by common 
honesty and in justice to the first settlers 
that the name has been continued. 

The first patent deeds are dated June 
30th, A. D. 1711. The number of patent 
deeds for the whole township is forty- 
six, and they contain over 14,000 acres. 
The names of the original patentees are 
Martin Kendig, John Funk, Jacob 
Miller, Able Strettle, Isaac LeFever, 
Hans Howery, Daniel Ferree, Samuel 
Taylor, Jacob Groff, John Taylor, Thomas 
Smith, Henry Kendig, John Bowman, 
John Rush, John Herr, John Eckman, 
Isaac Whitelock, George Smith, Henry 
Stoner, Jacob Kendrick, John Mosser, 
Jacob Eshleman, John Miller, John 
Breckbill, Benjamin Groff, James Scott, 
David Witmer, John Hubley, J. and M. 
Fouts, Francis Bowman, Conrad Hoak, 
John Neff, Samuel Peoples, Samuel 
Hathern and Annie Neif. 


The first bouse of any pretensions to 
be a roomy and comfortable dwelling was 
built by Martin Kendig in the year 1717, 
out of walnut logs and with a straw or 
thatched roof. It was located about 
200 yards south from the Strasburg 
borough line, and was occupied as the 
farm house until 1841, when Davis Gyger 
erected a fine large two-story brick house 
near the same place. 

In the year 1816 Strasburg borough 
was incorporated, to contain 400 acres. 
In 1843 the township was divided and 
the eastern end of what was formerly 
Strasburg township is now known as 

Some Oid Mills. 

From the most authentic records 
the first mill erected in Lancaster 
county was on Pequea creek, about 
one mile northwest from the borough, 
along the Strasburg and Millport 
turnpike, and known for many years as 
"John Musselman's." It was built 
by Martin Kendig about the year 1720, 
on the northwestern part oi his one 
thousand acre tract, and he sold five 
hundred and thirty acres, together with 
the water right and grist mill,toEmanuel 
Herr. The deed is dated the eleventh 
day of November, A. D. 1725, and re- 
corded at Lancaster in Book W. W., 
page 305, etc. The mill is now in pos- 
session of Kendig & Pugh and has been 
converted into a roller mill. Previous to 
the building of this mill the people had to 
go to "Wilmington, Delaware, for their 
flour and it took three days to go and 

About one mile southeast from the 
borough, along the " Mine Hill " road, is 
quite an old mill built in the early part 
of the last century by Jacob Esnleman 
on the north branch of Little Beaver 
Creek. The head of this stream is the 

famous "Kelsey Springs." Some old 
records say the first French burrs intro- 
duced into the county were iu this mill, 
and it was at that time called " Eshle- 
mau's Big Mill," but now it is known as 
the "Little Red Mill." In fact, the mill 
never was red, but a very large double- 
decker barn standing near the mill was 
painted red. 

On September 25, 1728, a patent was 
granted to John Herr for eleven hundred 
acres of land and on this tract, in the ex- 
treme northeast corner of the township, 
he erected a two-story stone mill on the 
Pequea, about the year 1740. The origi- 
nal mill is yet standing, but was converted 
into a distillery about the beginning of 
the present century, at which time a new 
mill was erected about fifty yards further 
down the stream. That part of the 
original tract, containing about fifty 
acres, upon which the miil stands is yet 
owned by one of his descendants. 

In the year 1759 Joseph Haiiies sold to 
John Herr a tract of land and saw mill 
located on the Pequea about midway be- 
tween Stiasburg and Larnpeter, and in 
1769 John Herr sold co Abraham Herr 
the saw and grist mill. This mill is on 
part of a tract of land patented to Jacob 
Miller, containing one thousand acres. 
The deed is dated June 30, 1711. 

In the year 1733 James Scott settled on 
a tract of land about two miles sought 
from the borough, on the south side of 
"Bunker Hill," on the road to Now 
Providence, and erected on Little Beaver 
Creek the first fulling mill of which we 
have any record, and on June 12, 
1767, he sold the fulling mill 
tract, containing about one hun- 
dred, acres to Jacob Neff. He and his 
descendants carried on the fulling mill 
business for many years. A later Jacob 
Neff was a very conspicuous citizen of 


this section of the county. He was 
prominent before the war as a Democratic 
politician, one of the faithful adherents of 
the late Col. Reah Frazer. His home- 
stead was notable for striking architec- 
tural quaintness, and an immense chest- 
nut tree which stands at the old gateway is 
a landmark the country around. His two 
sons, Aldus, a promising member of the 
Lancaster Bar, and Jefferson, who was of 
a decided mechanical turn of mind 
both went into the Union army, and died 
early in that struggle. 

About this time John Neff built a mill 
about one-half mile east from the fulling 
tract on the south branch of Little 
Beaver, and after some years he was suc- 
ceeded by his son, John Neff, who became 
a Mormon, and in the year 1844 he loft 
his large farm and mill property in charge 
of Samuel P. Bower, Esq., and moved to 
Nauvoo, Illinois, a town founded by the 
Mormons in 1840. With the migration of 
this people toward the Far West, Mr. 
Neil' and his family accompanied them. 
While he embraced the tenets of the 
church, he never practiced polygamy. 
One of the sons of his wife by a former 
marriage, Mr. A. Milton Musser, became 
one of the apostles of the Mormon Church, 
and is to-day a pillar in that organization. 

Mines and Railroads. 

The iron ore mining interests of Stras- 
burg township are not very extensive. 
The Eby mines, located about two miles 
south of the borough, were first opened in 
the early part of the present century 
They were worked for about twenty years 
and then abandoned ; reopened in 186?' 
and operated by the Phoenix Iron Com- 
pany until 1870, when they were again 
closed. The ore is of a very good quality, 
but expensive to mine. 

In 1879 Peacock & Thomas opened and 
operated a mine on the farm of Daniel 


Helm, about one mile north from New- 
Providence. The ore is of a very superior 
quality ; it was hauled to JSTew Provi- 
dence by wagons and shipped on the 
Lancaster and Quarry ville railroad. 

There we r e two other mines operated 
for a short time near Refton, but on 
account of the dull times they have been 

In the year 1832 a charter was obtained 
for the railroad from Strasburg to con- 
nect with the Pennsylvania railroad at 
Leaman Piace. Work was soon after com- 
menced, and the road was graded from 
Swan Hotel to within about one hundred 
yards ot Leaman Place, but owing to the 
lack of funds was not completed until 
1852. The Lancaster and Quarry ville rail- 
road passes through the southwestern 
part of the township at Refton, and was 
opened for travel on May llth, 1875. 


In the year 1740 John Herr, a Men- 
nonite preacher, who was a grandson of 
Hans Herr, built a dwelling house on his 
farm about one-half mile southwest from 
the borough on the farm now owned by 
John Keener, in which the upper story 
was arranged for holding public worship. 
In this house and others the society held 
regular worship until 1804, when the 
society built the stone meeting house, 
40 by 60 feet, near the west end of the 
borough, where regular service has been 
held to the present time. It was enlarged 
iu 1877, and again enlarged and much 
improved in the year 1887. 

In 1894 about five acres of ground ad- 
joining the old graveyard were purchased 
and a beautiful cemetery laid out. 

Tne first Mennonite preachers for 
the Strasburg district were Ulrich B reek- 
bill aud the above-named John Herr, who 
was afterwards appointed Bishop. He 
served in that office till his death. About 


the year 1812 Peter Eby was appointed 
and in 1840 Christian Herr; in 1848, Joseph 
Hershev ; in 1856, Benjamin Herr and 
in 1878 Isaac Eby. Amos Herr was or- 
daiued a minister in 1850. He was the 
first Mennonite preacher in the county 
who conducted religious service in the 
English language. After nearly fifty 
years in the ministry he survives, much 
honored and respected, having wrought 
great good in his life. 

The above-named Bishop John Herr 
was the grandfather of John Herr, the 
founder of the Reformed Mennonite So- 
ciety. Early in the year 1812 the first 
meeting was held and this Society organ- 
ized at his house, about one-half mile 
north of the borough. At this meeting 
John Herr was unanimously chosen as 
pastor and Bishop. In the latter part of 
the same year their first meeting house 
was built on the west side of the Stras- 
burg and Millport turnpike, and it is 
known as " Longenecker's Meeting 
House." The Society now has a neat 
brick meeting house on North Jackson 
street, in the borough. The founder of 
the Society died in May, 1850. 

What was known as "the old Dutch 
Church," located about two miles south- 
east of the borough, was a small log 
building, about twenty feet square, 
erected by the German Reformed and 
Lutherans, and used as a union church 
until 1796, when the German Reformed 
Society built a stone church, with a gal- 
lery, about one-fourth of a mile north of 
New Providence. The old structure 
was removed in 1868 and a new brick 
building erected in its place, and in 1894 
it was remodeled and greatly improved. 
The word German has been dropped from 
its title and is now known as the Re- 
formed Church, with Rev. J. M. Souders 
as the pastor. Its recent centennial was 
an event of much historic interest. 


The Lutherans continued to use "the 
old Dutch Church" until the beginning 
of the present century, when they built 
the large two-story brick church, with 
gallery and large pipe organ, on East 
Main street, in the borough, on a lot of 
ground which was a gift from Edward 
Dougherty, by deed dated February 7th, 
1760, "In trust for the use of the Lu- 
theran congregation for burial and 
church purposes." 

The first church building in the borough 
of which we have any positive record was 
built in 1807 by the Methodists at the 
south end of Decatur street. The build- 
ing is now known as Temperance Hall. 
In the year 1839 they built a two-story 
brick church on West Main street, and 
remodeled the same in 1868. In 1893 the 
old building was entirely removed and a 
very substantial brick church and chapel 
erected and dedicated January 1st, 1894. 
Centennial services were held in January 
1896. The present pastor is Rev. Glad- 
stone Holm. 

The Presbyterians were organized into 
a society iu 1832. They immediately com- 
menced the building of a church on the 
south ivest corner of Decatur and Frank- 
lin streets, and on Christmas day, 1833, 
the church was dedicated. In 1892 Mrs. 
Win. Spencer erected a neat brick chapel 
to the west end of the church. About the 
same time the whole church was re- 
modeled and greatly improved. The so- 
ciety now has a very nice brick church 
and chapel, and their present pastor is 
Rev. David F. Giles. 

Educational and Literary. 

In the year 1808the first regular school 
house in Strasburg borough, a small one- 
story brick, was erected on the east side 
of North Jackson street. It was built 
by private contributions, and a few years 
afterwards an association was incorpor- 


In the year 1812 Mrs. Ilaynes com- 
menced and taught a private school Tor 
girls in a small one-story log house which 
stood just east of the present M. E. 
Church in the borough. The house was 
aiterwards sold to the church and oc- 
cupied by the sexton. One of the require- 
ments of Mrs. Haynes was that each 
pupil should furnish her own chair. The 
branches taught were spelling, reading, 
writing, arithmetic and sewing. Some of 
the pupils daily rode on horseback four 
or five miles to attend this school. 

The Stratburg Academy was founded 
in 1839 by the Rev. David McCarter as 
principal. This school was largely at- 
tended by young men from all parts of 
the United States, and was very pros- 
perous for about twenty years. 

About the year 1845 Miss Ann Mc- 
Cullough founded and taught a select 
school for young ladies. This school was 
very well patronized for a number of 

In 1870 the School Directors of the 
borough erected a large and imposing 
two-story brick building on Franklin 
street. This building is arranged to ac- 
commodate all the children in the borough 
and is divided into Primary, Secondary, 
Grammar and High Schools, with Super- 
intendent and Principal, who has charge 
of the whole school. 

The township now has ten schools, with 
good teachers, and school supplies and 
buildings that will compare very favor- 
ably with any district in the country. 

Strasburg claims the honor of being 
the birth place ot the Hon. Thomas H. 
Burrowes on the 16th day of .November, 
1805 to whom the people of Pennsylva- 
nia are greatly indebted for our common 
school system. Through his influence 
in January, 1831, George Hoffman, Geo. 
Diffenbach, Alexander H. Hood, James 


McPhail, BeDJamin Herr and others held 
a meeting in the little brick school house 
on Jackson street, which was the first 
effort to found a system of public schools. 
The first petition was presented and 
signed at that meeting and it was after- 
wards sent to Mr. Burrowes, who was 
then a member of the Legislature. Some 
who attended that meeting never lost 
sight of the measure until our free school 
system was formally established in 1835. 
One who was present at the meeeting is 
yet living. 

In January, 1837, application was made 
for the use of a church or school house 
for Charles C. Burleigh to lecture on the 
subject of negro slavery, but the request 
was refused. Shortly afterwards, through 
the influence of George Hoffman and A. 
H. Hood, permission was granted to use 
the little Brick School House on Jackson 
street. On the evening of the lecture 
Daniel Gibbons and his son, Joseph, of 
Bird-in-Hand, brought Mr. Burleigh to 
Strasburg. There was so much feeling 
upon the subject that after the lecture 
we found that the linch pins were re- 
moved from the wheels of the carriage, 
and it was considered prudent to have an 
escort for Messrs. Burleigh and Gibbons 
from town. The committee consisted of 
Joseph Bowman, Alex. H. Hood, Joseph 
Gonder, Jr., Samuel Spiehlman, Benja- 
min Herr, George Hoffman and Jacob 

A few days after this, through the in- 
fluence of the late Col. Joel Lightner, the 
school house in the rear of the M. E. 
Church in Soudersburg was procured, 
and to Mr. Burleigh was granted the 
privilege of lecturing therein. During the 
lecture eggs were thrown at the speaker. 
Fortunately, he escaped the missiles, but 
the secretary of the meeting was hit with 
one. The person who threw the eggs 


was himself hardly responsible, and when 
captured he gave the names of the par- 
ties who furnished the bad whisky he 
drank and also the eggs. 

In December, 1850, Martin M. Rohrer 
published the first newspaper in Stras- 
burg, called The Strasburg Bee. He con- 
tinued it for several years, and was suc- 
ceeded by Dr. George S. Whitehill. Dr. 
Whitehill was a scholarly man and was 
quite deaf. He was a great student and 
admirer of Shakespeare, and a very close 
and congenial friend of the late George 
W. Hensel, of Quarryville, with whose 
family he spent much of his time. He 
was a most excellent penman and book- 
keeper, and finally met with a tragic 
death on the railroad at Erie, Pa. The 
Bee was published afterwards by W. T. 
McPhail, Esq., until 1855, when Samuel 
B. Markley became the proprietor 
for about one year, when the 
paper was discontinued. In 1858 
William J. Kauffman published the 
Strasburg Herald and continued it 
until 1861. The office was then closed as a 
newspaper, but the material was purchased 
and continued in use as a job office by 
Jacob Hildebrand until 1870. That year 
a stock company was organized with 
George B. Eager as editor. He published 
the Free Press until 1879, after which J. 
W. Sando became the editor and pub- 
lisher until 1881, when it was again dis- 

In 1883 Frank P. Eberman purchased 
and renewed the office with new type and 
steam press and published the Free Press 
for five years. He then concluded to try 
farming and let the printing office take 
care of itself, but in March, 1890, Frank 
P. Hart became the publisher for about 
one year. Since that time no paper has 
been published, but an excellent job office 
is now carried on by John G. Homsher, 


The First National Bank of Strasburg 
was organized in 1863, with John F. Herr 
as president and Edward M. Eberman 
cashier. The capital stock now is eighty 
thousand dollars, with A. R. Black, presi- 
dent and George W. Hensel, cashier. 

During the past year a water company 
has been incorporated to supply tho 
borough with spring water by gravity 
from the Mine Hills. 

In 1857 Martin and John S. Rohrer 
carried on distilling in the borough and 
were feeding from three hundred and fifty 
to four hundred hogs. Disease broke out 
amongst them and from five to forty 
would die in a day. Martin concluded 
that the hogs were bewitched and sent 
for Dr. Mylin, who was considered a great 
witch doctor. Mr. Mylin came, burned 
tar. witches, &c., in a large iron pot for 
several days, but he did not succeed in 
getting them all burned, for the hogs con- 
tinued to die until there were only a few 
left. One old farmer, a near neighbor 
and a great believer in "spooKs" and 
witches, became so much interested in 
seeing the witches burned that he ne- 
glected to go to his dinner, but remained 
on the ground until some of his family 
persuaded him to return home and get 
something to eat. 

In the year 1837 Wm. Echternach, 
Maux Fidel Gertizen and Jacob Brack- 
bill left Strasburg on horseback and when 
at Paradise, about one mile west of Lea- 
man Place, they agreed to run a race 
down the Lancaster turnpike and that the 
last one to arrive at Leaman Place would 
have to stand the treat. They started on 
the run, but Mr. Brackbill for some rea- 
son was detained on the way. Echter- 
nach and Gertizen went on at a pretty 
fast gait. At the bridge crossing of the 
Pennsylvania railroad, near Leaman 
Place, the turnpike and bridge formed 


something like the letter 8. At this 
bridge horses and men plunged over the 
side of the bridge and fell about twenty 
feet to the bed of the railroad. Both 
horses and Gertizen were killed, and Ech- 
ternach was very badly injured, so that 
he never fully recovered. 

In 1840 Benjamin Barr was building a 
large double decker barn on his farm 
about midway between Martinsville and 
Refton and at the raising by some mis. 
hap the scaffolding gave way and a num . 
ber of the men and timber fell a great 
distance. Jonas Long and a man named 
Eckman were instantly killed and others 
very severely injured. 


" ' Why did so many prominent Irish 
railroad contractors settle in Lancaster?' 
is a question frequently asked. A gener- 
ation ago this would have been a more 
pertinent inquiry. Thirty years ago Lan- 
caster contained many of the most noted 
railroad contractors of the country, and 
all were sons of Erin who came to this 
land with no fortune save with stout 
hearts and willing hands, with no advan- 
tages save chose which they carved out 
for themselves from adverse circum- 
stances. The fine old stock is fast pass- 
ing away, and while yet their memory 
remains it may not be amiss to consider 
the causes which operated to bring them 
to a city which contained few, if any, 
Celtic traditions. 

"These men first became noticeable in 
Lancaster's citizenship at the time of the 
building of the old State Road ' from 
Philadelphia to Columbia, which was be- 
gun in 1831. All along the line of this 
pioneer railroad Irishmen held important 
construction contracts for grading and 
bridge building. "When the time came 
for them to enjoy the fruits of their toil 
it was but natural that they should be 
attracted to this goodly city as permanent 
residents. Rev. Bernard Keenan, the 
kindly old pastor of St. Mary's Church, 
who rounded out fifty years of spiritual 
service in Lancaster, and whose death 
twenty years ago was mourned as a pub- 
lic loss, was also an important factor in 
drawing hither these Irish pioneers. His 
missionary labor at that time extended as 
tar east as Downingtown, and we may 


eel assured that he was n ot blind to the 
advantages, spiritual and temporal, which 
'"would accrue to his needy flock by the 
accession of these intrepid railroad 

"And when they set foot on Lancaster 
soil they attested the permanence of their 
stay by at once becoming large pur- 
chasers of farm properties lying in or 
near the city limits. It is a noteworthy 
fact, remembered by many yet living, 
that .Lancaster was at one time nearly 
encircled by farms owned by these pioneer 
Irishmen and their descendants. This 
will be evident when mention is made of 
the following group of farm owners : 
Richard McGrann, Michael Malone, 
Hugh Fitzpatrick, Patrick Kelly, Bernard 
Flynn, Patrick Brady, Bernard McGrann, 
John Kelly, John Dougherty, Patrick 
McEvoy, Phares Cassidy, Andrew Reilly, 
John McGrann, John R. McGovern, 
Michael Kelly and Michael Barry. 

"The ownership of land has always 
been the laudable ambition of the best 
Irish immigrants. The impossibility of 
possession in fee simple of their native 
acres induced these Lancaster Irishmen 
to look with special favor upon the pos- 
sessions of the fair lands that surrounded 
Lancaster city. They formed an im- 
portant and substantial element in the 
citizenship of the county, and their in- 
fluence was felt in all that concerned the 
moral and material interests of the home 
of their adoption." 

Was there ever a Serious Idea of Locating the 
Capital of the Country on the 

"On the 7th of March, 1789, Jasper 
Yeates, who was a prominent jurist of 
Pennsylvania, resident in Lancaster, 
sen to the Federal Congress, on behalf 
of the corporation of Lanca&ter a 
lengthy communication setting forth 
reasons why Lancaster should be se- 
lected as the permanent place of resi- 
dence for the Federal Corgress. The 
original of this paper is in the posses- 
sion of D. McN. Stauffer, of New York, 
and it was published in the Lancaster 
Intelligencer December 29, 1886, as part 
of an address by Mr. Hensel before the 
Lancaster Board of Trade. The argu- 
ment upon the selection of a site for 
the Federal capital began in the Federal 
House on September 3, 1789, and was, 
according to McMaster, "one of the 
longest and most acrimonious the mem- 
bers had yet engaged in." Every one of 
the fifty-nine had something to say ; and, 
though the eastern members were indis- 
posed to consider the subject, being 
driven to it, they caucused with the repre- 
sentatives from the Middle States, and 
concluded that the capital, keeping close 
to the centre of population, wealth and 
territory, and with easy connections with 
the Atlantic and Ohio river, should be 
located at least somewhere on the east 
bank of tho Susquehauna. When Lee 
challenged the advocates of this plan to 
name a place meeting these requirements, 
it was then the claims of our own Colum- 
bia were presented. Says the historian : 

" Hartley took him at his word and an- 
swered him. Wright's Ferry was suoh a 


town. It stood upon the east bank some 
thirty-five miles from sea water. As for 
the Susquehanna, so great was the 
volume of its waters that ships could at 
any time of year sail up it to the waters 
of Otsego lake. Throe fine rivers ran into 
it from the north, the west and the south. 
The Tioga was navigable for a great dis- 
tance, and was connected by an easy 
portage with the Geuessee, which emptied 
into Lake Ontario. The Juniata nearly 
connected with the Kiskiminetas, and 
that with the Ohio. A short 
land-carriage joined the head of the 
west branch with the Allegheny, which 
gave easy connections with the frontier 
towns of Kentucky. As to the town, it 
was no mean place. But ten miles sepa- 
rated Wright's Ferry from the greatest 
city of America, The climate was salu- 
brious. The soil and the river yielded 
plentifully. If the honorable gentleman 
was disposed to give attention to a dish 
of fish he could find none finer than could 
be drawn from the waters of the Susque- 
hanna. 'Then, why not,' said Lee, 'go 
at once to Yorktown ? ' Why fix on the 
banks of a switt river when it is possible 
to occupy the shores of Codorus creek ? ' 

"He was assured by Goodhue that the 
Susquehanna was much to be preferred. 
There was the centre of territory. The 
centre of population, it was true, lay to 
the northward. But the eastern mem- 
bers were ready from a spirit of concilia- 
tion to let that pass. They well knew 
that the centre of population would not 
change for ages, and that when it did the 
movement would be to ihe eastward, not 
to the south ; to the manufacturing, not 
to the agricultural States." 

The passionate southerners protested, 
and there was much mind measuring of 
the relative distances of points north and 
outh, east and west to Wright's Ferry. 


Peach Bottom was even named as a com- 
promise* The proposition to appoint a 
commission to select a spot on the banks 
of the Susquehanna prevailed by 28 to 21 
after days of ill-natured debate. The 
Senate amended the bill and made the 
location one mile from Philadelphia. 
The House sullenly concurred and ad- 
journed. It was nearly a year later that 
the vote was reconsidered and the capital 
site fixed on the Potomac. 


On bebalf of Mr. Ambrose Pownall, of 
Sadsbury township, W. U. Hensel pre- 
sented to the Society two pages from the 
magistrate's record of the late Joseph D. 
Pownall, J. P., of Sadsbury township, 
upon whioh was recorded the Coroner's 
inquest upon the body of Edward Gor- 
such, the Maryland slaveholder, who was 
killed in what passed into history as 
"The Christiana Riot," an account of 
which was the subject of an interesting 
paper some months aeo read before the 
Society by Thomas Whitson, Esq. '\ he 
following is a transcription of this in- 
quest : 

"An inquisition indented taken at 
Sadsbury township, in the county of 
Lancaster, the llth day of Septem- 
ber, A. D. 1851, before me, Joseph D. 
Pownall, Esq., for the county of Lan- 
caster, upon the view of the body of a 
man then and there lying dead, sup- 
posed to be Edward Gorsuch, of Balti- 
more county, Maryland, upon the affir- 
mations of George Whitson, John Row- 
laud, E. Osborne Dare, Hiram Kinnard, 
Samuel Miller, Lewis Cooper, George 
Firth, William Knott, John Hillis, Wil- 
liam II. Millhouse, Joseph Richwine and 
Miller Knott, good and lawful men of 
the county aforesaid, who, being duly 
affirmed and charged to enquire on the 
part of the Commonwealth when, where 
and how the said deceased came to his 
death, do say upon their affirmations 
that on the morning of the Jlth inst. 
the neighborhood was thrown into an ex- 
citement by the above deceased and five or 
six persons in company with him, making 


an attack upon a family of colored per- 
sons living in said township near the brick 
mill, about four o'clock in the morning, 
for the purpose of arresting some fugitive 
slaves, as they alleged many of the colored 
people of the neighborhood collected, and 
there was considerable firing of guns and 
other firearms by both parties. Upon the 
arrival of some of the neighbors at the 
place after the riot had subsided, found 
the above deceased lying on his back or 
right side dead. Upon a post-mortem ex- 
amination made by Drs. Patterson and 
Martin in our presents, we believe he came 
to his death by gun shot wounds that he 
received in the above mentioned riot 
caused by some person or persons to us 

In witness whereof as well as the afore- 
said justice, as the jurors aforesaid, have 
to this inquisition put their seals on the 
day and year and at the place first afore- 


George Whitson (L. S.), John Hillis 
(L. S.), John Rowland (L. b.), William 
Knott (L. S.), E. Osborne Dare (L. .), 
Samuel Miller (L. S.), Lewis Cooper (L. 
S.), Joseph Rich wine (L. S.), Hiram 
Kinnard (L. b.), George Firth (L. S.), 
Wm. H. Millhouse (L. S.), Miller Knott 
(L. H.) 

borne of the names of the jury are 
strongly suggestive of Quaker origin, 
and the language of the verdict indicates 
their sympathy with the anti-slavery 
cause. In offering the paper, Mr. Hensel 
emphasized the great historical interest 
which attached to this event. The oc- 
currence has almost passed out of the 
common mind, and yet, in its day, this 
riot threatened to provoke such a con- 
flagration of war as subsequently fol- 
lowed the "John Brown raid." 
Gorsuoh was of a conspicuous 


family in Maryland, and his brother 
was an Episcopal minister, who 
most severely arraigned the civil authori- 
ties of Pennsylvania tor their supineness 
in allowing the murderers of his brother 
to escape. Wm. F. Johnson was at that 
time Governor of Pennsylvania, having 
as Speaker of the Senate succeeded ex- 
officio to Francis R. Shunk, who died in 
the gubernatorial office. The riot oc- 
curred in the midst of that campaign, 
and il is said that Johnson, who was in 
Philadelphia at the time, passed westward 
on the railroad without stopping ac Chris- 
tiana, where the dead body of Gorsuch 
lay. He was a Whig and aras charged 
with permitting his anti-slavery sym- 
pathies to weaken his enforcement of law 
as an executive ; and so strong was the 
pro-slavery feeling at the time in Penn- 
sylvania that the incident is said to have 
largely contributed to his defeat by Big- 
ler, the opposing Democratic candidate. 


In answer to a referred question as to 
what is a "William Penn Deed," Mr. 
Hensel exhibited an original deed from 
William Penn for three hundred and 
seventy-five acres of land situated in that 
portion of the "Chester Valley" which 
runs through Lancaster county beginning 
at Quarry ville. It is signed with the 
genuine signature of William Penn him- 
self and is written on stout parchment, 
with his seal. The full text of the deed 
is as follows, and the land, therein de- 
scribed rather indefinitely, comprises the 
tract upon which Ambrose Pownall now 
resides, east of Nobleville in the township 
of Sadsbury: 

"This Indenture witnessethyt William 
Penn of Horminghurst in the county of 
Sussex, Elgd., for & in consideration of 
Twelve pounds four shillings to him in 
hand paid Hath by these presents granted 
Three Hundred Seventy-five acres of 
Land Cleare of Indian incom-brancbes in 
the Province of Pennsylvania (towards 
the Susquehanna River) to John Kenner- 
ley of Shavingta, County, Chester cheese 
factor his heirs and assignees & him 
there of enfeoffed every acre to be com- 
puted according to the statute of ye 
thirty-third of King Edward the First 
to have and to hold to him his heires 
and assignes for ever together with all 
& every the Lands Isles Islands 
Mynes Mineralls (Royall one Excepted) 
woods fishings hawkings fowliugs & all 
other Royalltyes profits oomodityes & 
hereditaments insoever unto the same 
belonging Yielding & paying there- 
fore yearly and every year unto the 
sd William Penn bis heirs and assignes 


imediatly from and after the expiration 
of the first five years next after the day 
of the date hereof the Rent of one shill- 
ing for every hundred acres of the sd 
Three hundred seventy five acres NEVER- 
THELESS the sd William Penn for him- 
self his heirs & assignes dote agree to & 
with the said John Kennerley his heirs 
and assignes ytye sd Rent of one shil ing 
for every hundred acres of ye sd three 
hundred seventy five acres is only to be- 
cum due & payable imediatly from & 
after the taking up & seating of ye sd 
lands & not before & proporeanably for 
ye sd rate for every Quantity there of yt 
shall be taken up & seated & not 
otherwise, & the said William Penn 
hath Made Thomas Loyd Robert Turner 
Willm Markeham Arthur Cooke John 
Goodson Samuel Jenings Samuel Carpen- 
ter or any three of them to Deliver Seven 
thereof accordingly in Witness where of 
the sd Willm Penn hath here unto sett 
his hand & seale this Sixtenth Day of ye 
fifth Month Called July In ye year of our 
Lord One thousand six hundred Ninety 

WM PENN [Seal] 

Signed sealed and delivered in the pres- 
ence of us 


her mark 
Wm Penn to John Kennerley 


The subject of this sketch was adorned 
from childhood with the neither euphoni- 
ous nor fashionable name of Reuben 
Reuben Chambers. He was born about 
the beginning of the present century in 
London Grove township, Chester county, 
Pa., and resided there until he reached 

He was of Quaker parentage and in- 
herited many of the well-known traits of 
that sect, who are noted for their high 
moral character, general intelligence and 
their desire to investigate things for 
themselves and not take their opinions 
from others. 

Reuben received a good common school 
education, and being fond of reading and 
investigating continued to learn all his 
life. He had great faith, moreover, in 
his ovvn ability and would tackle without 
hesitation every new question or ism or 
doctrine that sprung up, no matter how 
weighty or difficult it might be, and after 
making up his mind about it would de- 
fend his conclusions with great zeal. It 
must be confessed, however, that Reuben 
had many novel ideas and queer ways of 
doing things. For example, his mode of 
securing a wile was quite unique. It was 
related by himself about as follows : 
"When I got old enough to think about 
marriage I got myself a neat memoran- 
dum book to carry in my pocket. When- 
ever I saw a girl that I thought would be 
suitable I entered her name and residence 
in this book, and when I had about twenty 
names I started in to get acquainted mth 
them. In this I did not adopt the usual 


plan and call on the girls in the evening 
when their work was done and they were 
presumably fixed up. I called in the day 
time when they were at work or should 
be ; many of them I found at the wash 
tub. I never remained very long and 
could generally make up my mind in one 
or two visits whether they would suit me 
or not. When I decided that any one 
would not suit I crossed her name off, 
but in the meantime continued to add 
new names as at first. I continued this 
until my book contained about eighty 
names, and all but one was crossed. I 
was then ready to marry. So I went to 
see her and told her I wanted to marry 
and believed her the most suitable girl 
for me that 1 was acquainted with, and 
that if she was willing to marry me I 
should be very glad. She said she was 
willing, so we were married very soon." 
Mrs. Chambers' maiden name was Chris- 
tiana Lefeverandshe was born and raised 
near Hopewell borough, Chester county, 
Pa. I think the general notion of the 
neighbors was that Christiana made him 
a very faithful wife, notwithstanding her 
methodical and business-like courtship. 

Reuben began life as a school teacher 
and about 1829 or 1830 came into Lan- 
caster county and started a subscription 
school (there being then no free school) 
m a small village on the road from Stras- 
burg to the Gap, about two miles west of 
the latter place. Reuben baptized the 
village Bethania, but it was more gener- 
ally known in the neighborhood as Pud- 

I have not been able to find any one 
who went to Reuben's school at this time, 
but believe he was fairly successful with 
it. At the end of the first year, however, 
the image of the maiden whose name 
alone stood out unmarked among her 
seventy-nine crossed off sisters in the 


little book be carried in his inside vest 
pocket grew so vivid tbat Reuben could 
no longer resist its mute appeals, and 
having meantime purchased the house in 
which he taught the school and a few 
acres of land with it, he went back to 
Chester county and soon returned with 
his bride to Bethania. 

Reuben's marriage seemed to stir him 
with higher ambitions and stimulate him 
to attempt greater achievements than fall 
to the lot of the humble teacher, and 
having a taste for printing and as he 
believed a talent for writing, he allowed 
his school to close and providing himself 
with material for a small printing office 
began to do small jobs of printing. 

His ambition now was to edit and 
publish a great newspaper which should 
educate and elevate mankind, and he con- 
sequently tackled all sorts of isms and 
doctrines. In religion he became a Free 
Thinker; in earthly matters a Com- 
munist, and in everything else a little 
different from those he met with. Reuben's 
Lancaster county neighbors didn't take 
much stock in new isms or doctrines and 
hadn't time to chop logic or split hairs 
with him on subjects they neither knewnor 
cared about and it was not long until they 
came to regard him as a pestilent, quarrel- 
some fanatic ; an infidel and a 
totally impracticable crank, with whom 
the less they had to do the better. 

The charges of infidelity and cranki- 
ness were not without foundation, but it 
cannot be fairly said that he was quarrel- 
some, though the pertinacity with which 
he adhered to an argument and the fact 
that the hotter it became the better it 
seemed to suit him naturally gave rise to 
this opinion. Reuben was very fond of 
discussion and would miss a meal any 
time to argue a question, though in these 
discussions he was usually good humored 


and fair. Many of Reuben's ideas were 
far ahead of his time and surroundings ; 
for example, on finance he was 100 years 
ahead of either Greenbackers, Populists, 
Gold Bugs or Silverities. He held that 
as labor was the source of all wealth, the 
money or currency of the country should 
directly represent the labor and not by 
the indirect method of reckoning it in 
dollars and cents. To reduce this theory 
to actual practice he printed a series of 
notes reading as follows: 


Letter I. Picture of Hours. 

Car, Tender and Locomotive. 

- The bearer is entitled to receive on de- 
% mand Ten Hours Labor of the BETH- 

33 alent in goods the product of the Com- 
munity at the Magazine. 

fc Bethania, January 1st, 1837. 


These notes were made in all denomi- 
nations from six minutes to twenty Lours 
and perhaps higher, but that is the high- 
est I ever saw. It will be readily seen that 
while the world was being converted to 
Reuben's system of currency he must in 
order to have it circulate with other money 
fix a rate for its valuation in dollars and 
cents. While Reuben strongly regretted 
this, he admitted its necessity and fixed 
the rates at five cents per hour, which at 
that time, 1837, was about the price paid 
for ordinary farm labor. The notes, there- 
fore, reduced to dollars and cents ran as 
follows : 

6 minute note, ^cent. 

12 minute note, 1 cent. 

1 hour note, 5 cents. 
10 hour note, 50 cents. 
20 hour note, 100 cents. 

Many issues of these notes were made. 
I have in my possession one of 10 hours 
or 50 cents, printed in 1858, and Mr. J. 
M. W. Geist, of THE NEW ERA, has one 
of 12 minutes, dated 1842. 


He also set apart a small room in his 
house as a magazine in which to store the 
products of the community and got so far 
as to dig part of a cellar for the contem- 
plated magazine, but it stopped there 
and never got farther. I might say here 
that both the Bethania Manual Labor and 
Manufacturing Community and the mag- 
azine were purely imaginary and never 
had any existence except as above stated. 
Reuben never learned any trade, but was 
a natural Jack of all trades. He was a 
tolerable carpenter, wagon maker, har- 
ness maker, tooth puller, painter, plas- 
terer, potter and indeed almost anything 
that did not require much exertion, for 
he could not be charged with any extra- 
ordinary fondness for hard work. He 
preferred thinking to working, and in 
pursuance of this preference soon discov- 
ered that a newspaper run on different 
lines from any then issued was absolutely 
necessary and that he was the man to 
furnish it. 

So on 6th day, 6th month, 8th, 1832, he 
issued the first or specimen number, call- 
ing it the Bethama Palladium. 

An extract from the prospectus reads : 
"The Palladium will therefore advocate 
universal peace, freedom, temperance and 
the just rights of man. It will encourage 
husbandry, manufactures and the arts ; it 
will also encourage public schools tor 
the education of the youth and will parti- 
cularly plead the cause of the poor and 

And in his leading editorial he says: 
"When I consider myself that I have 
never wrought in any printing office one 
hour except my own, being self-taught 
in the business and especially having 
never done anything at printing a news- 
paper before, I must ask to be excused 
for any inconsistency or omission on 
these accounts. His second number was 


issued 6th day, 7th month, 27th, 1832, 
seven weeks after the first number, and 
thereafter during its existence of about 
two years at uncertain intervals of one to 
three weeks. 

The paper was intensely anti-slavery, 
anti-Masonic, anti-Jackson, anti-lotteries 
and anti-horse racing, this last feature 
getting him into innumerable wrangles 
which he seemed to thoroughly enjoy, for 
Reuben was at home in a scold ing match. 

A great feature of the Palladium 
was its number of departments, though 
they were not at all uniform in tne differ- 
ent numbers. When Reuben saw an 
article he wanted to publish and had no 
department that seemed to exactly fit it, 
he at once made one. For example, I 
find in one issue the following depart- 
ments : Education department, Indians 1 
department, anti-slavery department, 
peace department, temperance depart- 
ment, gamblers' department, political de- 
partment, farmers' department, news de- 
partment, advertising department, didac- 
tic department, ladies' department, me- 
chanics' department, youths' department. 

Reuben had no patience with fun or 
sport of any kind, even on the part of 
boys, and in his issue of November 2, 
1832, thus curries down some of the vil- 
lage lads who had been enjoying Hallow- 
e'en : " The evening before last was that 
termed Hallowe'en, which is devoted to 
night raking by the mischievous, owlish 
boobies, who pretend that they take a 
pleasure in pulling up their neighbor's 
cabbage, over-turning privies and yelping 
about the hills like a set of crazy fools." 

On a later occasion the village tavern 
keeper, John Rockey, made a fox hunt 
from his hotel of which Reuben delivered 
himself as follows: "With feelings of 
disapprobation I have witnessed the col- 
lecting together of a number of my neigh- 


bors to-day to have a chase after a Bag 
Fox with their half bound canine breed 
of yeipers that look their masters in the 
face and try to bark after the fox was far 
enough over the mountain, fully evincing 
their knowledge of hunting to be about 
equal to that of their owners." This was 
copiously embellished with italics and 
small caps, and he continued : "Is not 
this altogether a scheme of tavern keepers 
to entice the young, the thoughtless, the 
idle, the vain, the unstable, the wavering 
and light-minded to flock to and rendez- 
vous at these places, drink grog and be 
gulled out of their clear cash ? Is not 
this low-minded custom a breach of our 
laws and ought it not to be frowned out 
of countenance till it be altogether done 
away?" The tavern keeper promptly 
sued Reuben for $1.24^ he owed him, and 
the resulting wrangle furnished editorial 
matter for the Palladium for some time, 
as well as enabling Reuben to free his 
mind as to the tavern keeper and some of 
the other participants in the fox hunt. 

The Palladium had always been very 
free in criticising what it called the Lan- 
caster Jockey Club, and especially its 
treasurer, one Ed ward Parker, and proba- 
bly for this reason arrangements were 
made in September, 1833, for some racing 
on the top of the Mine Ridge, about a 
mile from the office of the Palladium. 
Then the cup of Reuben's wrath over- 
flowed and he was compelled to issue a 
supplement of a half sheet printed on 
one side to express himself, which he did 
in a lengthy article entitled, " The Lower 
Regions, or a Second Sodom," in very 
large type. 

Reuben's charges against the horse 
race were that they had a number of 
tables from which whisky and other 
liquors were sold ; that there were three 
gaming tables, one of which was kept by 


John Bowman, of Strasburg; that there 
were gamblers there from New Jersey 
who swindled much money from the poor 
Irish railroaders (the State road then be- 
ing built), and that he saw several men 
and one woman lying in fence corners 
dead drunk. 

Reuben also gave considerable attention 
to a certain Judge Lightner, who lived in 
WilliamstowTi, and who he claimed 
could have prevented the racing and 
would not. 

Reuben not only wrote the editorial 
and local matter appearing in the Palla- 
dium, but to a large extent set the type, 
made up the forms and printed the edition 
on an old hand press. He was also an 
author, as I can attest, for I took my first 
lesson in a blue-covered primer compiled 
and printed by him, and want to say for 
nim that it was a very good primer, ar- 
ranged in a scientific manner and quite 
the equal of some modern books with 
more pictures. This opinion is not founded 
on my early researches, but from subse- 
quent examination of the primer. He 
also took up the Thompsonian System of 
Medicine and practiced it upon himself 
and anybody else that would let him 
(though they were not numerous), and 
wrote, printed and published quite a 
large and pretentious work entitled "The 
Thomsonian System and Practice of 
Medicine," which he sold for $2, if he 
ever did sell any. 

I have read this medical work to some 
extent, but the only thing I can now re- 
call in it was its strong recommendation 
of quill toothpicks in preference to all 
others, with detailed instructions for mak- 
ing them. He also engaged largely in 
compounding Thompsonian medicines, 
for which purpose he purchased from the 
village boys during the summer months 
vast quantities of herbs and weeds of 


evory obtainable kind (the Thompsonian 
preparations being purely vegetable), pay- 
ing for the same in the labor notes he 

He also carried on a pottery for making 
stovepipe guards, crocks, jars, etc., but 
they were mainly used for holding the 
weeds and liquors while he was brewing 
and compounding the Thompsonian me- 

The most popular and best remembered 
of these preparations was known as No. 
6, and the triple extract of the strongest 
cayenne or red pepper couldn't hold a 
candle to No. 6 for biting and burning 
properties. It was used extensively for 
toothache, and was pretty effective, for 
alter you put it in your mouth it took an 
hour or so to convince you that mouth, 
teeth and all were not burned away. 

Bread of Life, a hot biting candy, was 
popular with the children. 

My first personal acquaintance with 
Reuben was in the fall 01 1850. It seemed 
that in the spring of that year Reuben 
had hauled down to a mill in the western 
part of the village of Christiana, then run 
by a certain John Boone, an ox cart load 
of dried sumac berries, leaves and twigs, 
and left them to be ground. The stuff 
was packed in coffee and salt sacks and 
piled up in one corner of the mill. Boone's 
lease of the mill expired soon after and he 
did not grind the sumac. He was suc- 
ceeded in the mill by a Samuel Harley, 
who would not grind it, and in the fall of 
the year I, an over-grown boy of eighteen, 
was appointed to teach the village school 
at Christiana, and I secured boarding 
with the miller, Harley. Very many of 
those coming to the mill would inquire 
what was in those sacks, and being told 
it was sumac belonging to Reuben Cham- 
bers, would at once cut a slit in the sack 
to see what it was like. To prevent the 


stuff from running all over the floor Ear- 
ley would turn the cut side round against 
the other sacks and the next inquirer 
would cut a fresh slit for himself. 

Harley.on learning that I was going up 
to Bethania one Saturday, made me prom- 
ise to call on Chambers and tell him that 
he would not grind the sumac and if he 
did not come down and take it away he 
would throw it out. 

I called on Reuben and delivered the 
message and he said he would come down 
in a day or two. He came and of course 
discovered how his sacks were cut up. 
He went home and the next day a man 
came with the oxcart for the sumac and 
Keuben came with a large roll of flaring 
Hand bills, which he proceeded to put up 
all over the village and neighborhood, 
offering $50 reward for information as to 
the guilty parties and paying his respects 
to them as follows : 

"There was left in the third month 
(March) last at J. G. Ernst's mill, while 
said mill was in the occupancy of John 
Boone, a number of bags of mine, since 
A'bich some rascally, good-for-nothing 
biped puppy brute scoundrel (all without 
commas), one or more such did since then 
with an instrument to me unknown cut a 
number of holes in several of them to tho 
great loss and detriment of the owner 
and greatly against the public peace aiid 
the laws of this Commonwealth." 

Reuben was never called on for the re- 
ward, as I suppose half the adult males 
of the village and all the boys had at one 
time or another investigated the sumac. 

I removed to Bethania in the spring of 
1853, and a year afterwards our family 
came there to live, so I got quite well ac- 
quainted with Reuben. He had long be- 
fore that given up the newspaper, which 
had surely lost him considerable money, 
but he still continued the printing office, 
doing such job work as came to him. 


ID printing sale bills he insisted on say- 
ing that the sale would be in. instead of 
on a particular day, and he spelled cook 
stove kook, with other similar improve- 
ments as Keuben termed them, but it led 
to frequent squabbles with customers 
who desired him to follow copy. Reu- 
ben's rules, however, were ironclad, and 
no bills left his office without the im- 

For several years about this time we 
had a lyceum at the Bethania school 
house which I think was the strongest in 
the county. Sylvester Kennedy, father 
of Horace E. Kennedy, of The Morning 
News, was its president, and Thomas 
Whitson. father of our lawyer of the 
same name, Dr. W. H. Boone, Henry 
Umble, J. Williams Thome and Major 
Ellwood Griest, of the Inquirer, all prac- 
ticed debaters, were among the members. 
Reuben was prominent in this lyceuro, 
but was not a ready or effective speaker 
and therefore when he wanted to do his 
best wrote out his speeches and read 

On one occasion a heavy debate was on 
hand on the well-worn question of abol- 
ishing capital punishment, and Reuben 
prepared for it by writing out a lengthy 
speech. When he got up to deliver it the 
lights did not seem to suit him. He 
changed positions several times, but it 
would not work. He then got his high 
silk hat, which he wore for this occasion, 
and put it on to shade his eyes, and the 
irreverent small boy snickered thereat, 
but even the hat improvement would 
not answer the purpose. So Reu- 
ben got his old style tin lantern 
which he never went without at 
night ; it was all tin, with slits and holes 
in the tin to let some light out. He de- 
liberately lighted this lantern and hug- 
ging it to his side, and opening its door to 


let the light shine on his manuscript, 
started to find his place. By this time 
the house was in a roar, but Reuben wad 
serene as a sunflower, paid no attention to 
the uproar and soon as he could be heard 
started again on his speech. When his 
time expired he wrangled with the presi- 
dent for charging him for the time spent 
on the lantern, but the president did not 
allow his decisions to be disputed and 
promptly seated Reuben, much to his 

Outside of a real hot scolding 
match Reuben liked nothing so well as an 
opportunity to practice his system of 
medicine and about this time he managed 
to secure a rare opportunity. The victim 
was a German man living in the neigh- 
borhood of Oregon, this county. 
How or where Reuben met him I never 
learned nor can I recall the man's name, 
but he was troubled with rheumatism and 
Reuben undertook his cure. So he came 
down home and at once commenced the 
erection oi a steam chest. This occupied 
* couple of weeks, during which I saw 
nothing of him. One afternoon a small 
girl tf ho lived with them came up to the 
store and said Reuben wanted me to come 
down, he wanted to show me something, 
and the others present, she said, might 
come too. Several of us went down and 
she told us to go back into the kitchen. We 
went and there was Reuben in this box. 
The top lid was made to fit tightly around 
his neck, and his face, which was outside 
the box, was as red as blood and had a most 
agonizing expression. I supposed he was 
being choked to death and I dashed at 
the lid to try to relieve him, but he shouted 
to me iiotto touch it; that he was taking a 
steam bath. I said, "Why, your face shows 
you are suffering great agony," and he 
replied, "Thee knows nothing ab.utit; 
the sensation is just delightful." I pre- 
sume that he exposed himself improperly 


after this bath, for I met him the next 
day and he was quite hoarse. I said, 
"Reuben, your steam bath seems to have 
given you a cold." He flew into a tower- 
ing rage at once and said, " Thee's a liar. 
It is not a cold at all. Just a little rough- 
ness in the throat and the bath had no 
connection with it whatever." In a few 
days Reuben appeared upon the street 
one afternoon. He had a market wagon, 
in which was loaded this steam chest 
with the necessary pipes and fixings and 
upon either side of the wagon were strips 
of white muslin the whole length of the 
wagon, and say, eighteen inches wide, on 
which printed in large letters were these 

There is balin in Gilead 
And a physician there" 

a seeming answer to the Biblical ques- 
tion. And thus equipped he started to 
Oregon to cure his patient. Reuben 
would never say much about this case 
afterward, and I never learned whether 
he steamed the man or not, but one thing 
is sure, it did not take the man or his 
friends long to get the measure of 
Reuben's medical knowledge, for I think 
that was his only visit to Oregon. 

Reuben, while never suspected of any 
undue intimacy with Amos Clemson, 
whose house was recognized as the head- 
quarte s of the notorious Gap gang, had 
always been on friendly terms with him 
and after Clemson's conviction, and in the 
absence of any near relations took charge 
of his property. Clemson's place was 
about two and a-half miles east ot Betha- 
nia, and while down there picking apples 
on Tuesday. September 27, 1859, he fell 
from a tree and injured himself very 
seriously. He was brought home, but 
none of his neighbors were informed of 
his condition, nor would Reuben permit 
any physician to be called. He was treated 


by his wife under his own direction, and 
growing rapidly worse died on Saturday, 
October 1. 

His funeral took place on the following 
Tuesday, when a short but very sensible 
address was delivered at the house by his 
aged mother, a very fine-looking and in- 
tellectual old lady. The remains were 
interred in the burying ground of " Old 
Sadsbury," a well-known Friends Meet- 
ing House, near the Lancaster and Ches- 
ter county line, in Sadsbury township, 
thi county. 


On the largest tombstone in the Men- 
nonite graveyard in the rear of the new 
Mennonite Church, near the village of 
Bowmansville, is the following inscrip- 
tion : 

"In memory of 
Was born December 1, 1789. 

Died, January 19, 1857 : 

Aged 67 years, 1 month and 18 days. 

Here rest the ashes of the founder of the 

village of Bowmansville, the capital 

of Brecknock." 

Mr. Bowman was born at Bowman's 
Mill, in Allegheny Valley, Berks county, 
on the first day of December, 1789. His 
lather was a Swiss Mennonite, whose an- 
cestors had emigrated to America on 
account of the religious persecution that 
followed the revocation of tne Edict of 
Nantes by Louis XIV. His mother was 
Nancy Huber. Of his early years little 
is known, except what we learn from 
John B. Good, who knew him more in- 
timately than any one else. He tells us 
that his mother in early childhood noticed 
that he was different from the rest of the 
children and was much concerned about 
him, not knowing whether his peculiar- 
ities indicated mental vigor or imbecility. 

As soon as he was sent to school, how- 
ever, it became evident that he had a 
natural fondness for learning, and he soon 
made such progress that he far out- 
stripped all his schoolmates. English 
schools had no existence in those days in 
the vicinity where Bowman was born and 
raised. The only language heard in his 
father's family or for many miles around 
was Pennsylvania German. He, however, 

( 134 ) 

studiously applied himself to the study of 
English and with the aid of the best dic- 
tionaries to be had he made wonderful pro- 
gress. After he attained all the knowl- 
edge he could from the crude country 
school of his neighborhood, he attended 
the Churchtown Academy, where he had 
the opportunity of learning to converse 
in English. Here he studied surveying, 
which he afterward so extensively and 
successfully practiced for many years, 
and in which he attained much skill and 
accuracy. His clear head and logical 
mind were eminently fitted for practical 
geometry. His love of justice and equity, 
and his high character for honesty 
and uprightness of purpose all com- 
bined to make him afterwards 
the most successful surveyor in the 
northeastern end of the county. In his 
library were louna some of the best clas- 
sical authors in the English language. 
From 1815 to 1820 he was during the win- 
ter months engaged in teaching school. 
Surveying, scrivening and ordinary labor 
took up the rest of his time. As a teacher 
be acquired a wonderful reputation among 
his neighbors for the great amount of 
knowledge he possessed, and was especially 
famous for his success in keeping good 
order and governing his school. Some of 
bis pupils are still living, and acquainted 
as they are with modern school discipline, 
say, "It was not so in Sam Bowman's 
school." His life was one of constant and 
unremitting toil of mind and body. He 
had a laudable ambition to be esteemed a 
correct and competent business man, and 
all who knew him and had any business 
transactions with him can bear testimony 
to the ability and honesty with which his 
affairs were conducted. He was a man of 
great power and worth, the ideal leader 
and adviser around whom his neighbors 
flocked for advice ; the centre of a com- 
munity which he founded; the father any 


settlement may be proud of. Like the 
mighty oak in a great forest, he was the 
giant among those who gathered around 
him. I am digressing from my subject, 
but no sketch of any place is completed 
unless something is known of the founder. 
It is true, most admirable biographical 
sketches of this marvelous man appear in 
several of our county histories, but his 
noble, rugged character is deserving of a 
wider acquaintance, and for that reason 
I have at some length referred to him. In 
1820 Mr. Bowman built a house on the 
southeast corner where the road leading 
from Reamstown to the Plow Tavern 
crossed the State road. The house was 
arranged for keeping a country store. 
Here he commenced the mercantile busi- 
ness immediately after the building was 
finished, and was succeeded by his son- 
in-law, Jonas Musselman, and he in turn 
by his son, J. B. Musselman, who does a 
flourishing business at the old stand to- 
day. This was the first house of the now 
thriving village and irom whence the 
name of the place was derived. Martin 
Bowman erected the second house, Daniel 
Bowman the third, and John B. Good and 
Poter B. Good followed with substantial 
stone buildings. The latter built uoon the 
northwest corner of the cross roads and 
opened a hotel, the only public house the 
place ever had. Now the village contains 
over a hundred houses, may of beautiful, 
modern design, four churches two Men- 
nonite, a Lutheran and Reformed, an 
Evangelisal Methodist and a handsome, 
substantial two-story school house. In 
1840, just twenty years after the first 
house was erected, a post-office was estab- 
lished at Bowmap's store and named Bow- 
mans villc, Mr. Bowman was appointed 
Postmaster, the only office, outside of 
Justice of the Peace, he would accept, 
the latter only for the convenience of 


acknowledging his official papers. The 
establishing of a post-office and naming 
it after the founder, with the attachment 
of ville to it, was a fortunate occurrence, 
for by it the place received its baptism 
by the authority of the Department at 
Washington, or else more than likely the 
village would be known to-day by the in- 
elegant title of Buckstown. 

About a mile southeast of the then 
hamlet lived an old bachelor, Samuel 
Good. He was an eccentric old hermit, 
whose chief delight was in a flock of 
sheep, but he had a singular hatred for 
any sheep ,vhicb was so unfortunate as to 
have black wool. In other words, he had 
more contempt for a black sheep than 
for his satauic majesty. This the vil- 
lagers knew, and one morning as Good 
viewed his flock he was amazed to find a 
black buck among them. He accused 
certain ones from the town of having 
perpetrated the joke, and from that morn- 
ing on he called it Buckstown, or, in Penn- 
sylvania German, Buckstettle. The 
name stuck to it like wax and is now and 
then heard yet when one wants to refer to 
the place in a contemptuous way. 

One of the "eyesores" to many of 
the village people was the Mennonite 
meeting house that stood on the square 
for many years. From 1870 to 1880 the 
village enjoyed quite a building boom 
and the real estate became too valuable 
for hitching posts and was sold, the old 
stone building or meeting house removed 
and a new one erected by members of the 
Mennonite Church near Von Neida's mill, 
about a mile south of the village. In one 
end of the old church lived for many 
years an old woman, whose name I have 
forgotten. She was the sexton of the 
meeting house and a terror to the 
boys who played upon the village 
green. In this quaint old house of 


worship preached for many years, every 
fourth Sunday, Jacob Moseman, a learned 
Prussian Lutheran, who forsook that 
church and joined the Mennonites, and 
was undoubtedly the ablest minister that 
church ever had in the eastern end of the 
county. The hitching posts and the oU 
shed upon the village green were never 
sufficient to accommodate all the teams 
when Museman'sturn came to preach. In 
1854 a new Mennonite meeting house was 
erected several hundred yards south of 
the village on the edge of a grove of mag- 
nificent pines. But three partly decayed 
trees remain, standing as sentinels of the 
many giants that stood there half a cen- 
tury ago. The new church has had but 
few members since its organization forty- 
five years ago. It was originally suoplied 
by ministers from Montgomery and Bucks 
counties, but in 1860 Rev. Solomon Ott was 
ordained and has proclaimed the gospel 
for thirty-six years in the little church 
beside the pine grove. On the same road 
north of the town stood the little stone 
school house, now the site of the hand- 
some school building of the town. Here 
Brecknock's fight for the free school sys- 
tem was repeated. What occurred in every 
other of the little temples of learning, the 
story of which when told is as interesting 
as Eggleston's "Hoosier Schoolmaster." 
From 1820, when Bowman built the first 
house, up to 1860, a period of forty years, 
the village made but very little improve- 
ment. Bowman's store and dwelling, the 
hotel, the residence erected by John B. 
Good on the northeast corner of the cross 
roads and now occupied by 'Squire Stover, 
a brick dwelling a little north of Good's 
house and then occupied by Joseph Mus- 
selman, another brick house west of the 
hotel erected by Jonas Mussel man and 
occupied by his son, Israel, the dwelling, 
shoemaker shop and tin shop that stood 


on the edge of trie hitching post ground 
of the Mennonite Church, and occupied by 
Benjamin Lausch, the village shoemaker, 
and his son, Keuben, the tinsmith of the 
hamlet, the farm buildings of Daniel Bow- 
man, another most substantial and large 
dwelling house then occupied by Jacob 
Hoover and now by Michael Witmer, and 
a brick dwelling now owned by G. L. 
Bowman, of Reading, and occupied by 
John M. Weaver, were all the houses the 
village contained when the civil war 
broke out in 1861. Reuben Lausch, who 
hammered tin in the second story of his 
father's house and later in a commodious 
shop erected near his residence, was a 
man of far more than ordinary ability. 
He not only illuminated the homes of the 
neighborhood with the first coal 
oil lamps, but his genial, well- 
informed mind was a source of delight 
to the young men who gathered in his 
shop to listen to his interesting talks. 
In 1861 the war excitement created a stir 
in the village that was not surpassed by 
any other in the county. An immense pole 
was erected and a large flag flung to the 
breeze. This suggested the idea to some 
one that the village ought to have a large 
bell. A tall pole with a frame was put 
up on the corner of the tin shop, a bell 
hung in the frame, and for many years 
the shoemaker or the tinsmith rang the 
bell morning, noon and night, and also 
at the death cf any one in the entire 
neighborhood. At the tolling of the 
bell for some one's funeral it broke ; 
the second was bought but broke 
when put in place ; the third was 
purchased and put upon a new frame 
erected in the rear of the old Bowman 
store stand, where the custom of ring- 
ing the meal time hour three times a day 
to all the inhabitants for miles around is 
still observed. This quaint observance is 


part of the daily life of the village, to 
which everyone has become so used that 
to do without it would be like omitting 
an event of the day. No township in the 
county witnessed such exciting times as 
Brecknock did during the war. The dis- 
trict was strongly slavery, and contained 
many outspoken disloyal men who would 
defiantly at any public gathering yell for 
the Confederacy. Many of them were 
densely illiterate and had no more con- 
ception of the principle at stake than they 
had of the French revolution. The inhabi- 
tants of the capital of Brecknock, to their 
lasting honor and credit, were all loyal and 
stood by the flag that floated from the 
village flag staff. The Silver Hill rebels, 
as they were called by the villagers, were 
a terror to all law-abiding people. Philip 
Huber, the Berks county chief and organ- 
izer of the Knights of the Golden Circle, 
or Enemies in the Rear, came to Bow- 
mansville and held a public meeting at the 
hotel then kept by Samuel Eshleman. The 
Saturday afternoon was a memorable 
event for the loyal people of the town. 
Huber, surrounded by several hundred of 
disloyal, cowardly enemies in the rear, 
many of whom came across the line from 
Berks county, was in his glory, and made 
the most treasonable speech that was ever 
publicly delivered in Lancaster county. 
The excitement was intense. This was 
the same Huber who afterwards was ar- 
rested at a public sale and put upon a rail 
and ridden to Reamstown, followed by all 
the people at the sale. And later when he 
marched to Reading at the head of the 
Heidelberg brigade was run out by the fire 
engines which he thought were cannons. 
The first political meeting ever held in 
the village was a Lincoln meeting in 1860. 
The speech making took place from the 
porch of John B. Good's house opposite 
the hotel. The New Holland band was 


present and caused an unusual crowd to 
assemble. Brecknock has reversed her- 
self politically, and to no cause can the 
result be attributed so much as to the dis- 
gusting, treasonable expressions of those 
who were in open sympathy with the Con- 
federacy, and yet too cowardly to go and 
assist them. The fight for free schools 
and war times in Brecknock would make 
a subject for an interesting volume. As 
Bowraansville has improved, so has the 
township, and to-day no more thrifty, 
honest, conscientious and enterprising 
people are to be found anywhere in the 
county than in Brecknock. 


The following standing committees 
were announced in accordance with a 
resolution offered at the October meet- 
ing, and also an additional one on Indians 
and Indian Relics : 

A resolution to print the names of these 
committees in the Society's next publi- 
cation was carried. 


Archaeology : Dr. Joseph H. Dubbs, 
Dr. N. C. Shaeffer, Prof. H. J. Roddy. 

Topography : S. M. Sener, D. W. Ger- 
hard, Dr. J. H. Sieling. 

Periodicals: R. M. Reilly, Thos. B. 
Cochran, C. S. Foltz. 

Bibliography : A. F. Hostetter, Dr. 
Jos. H. Dubbs, Chas. A. Heinitsh. 

Biography : B. C. Atlee, Alfred C. 
Bruner, W. N. Appel. 

Forestry Statistics : Simon P. Eby, Dr. 
H. F. Bitner, W. A. Heitshue. 

Political History : W. U. Hensel, 
Thos. Whitson, Chas. I. Landis. 

Scientific Research : Miss Anna Lyle, 
Daniel H. Heitshu, Adam Geist. 

Church History : Rev. John W. Hassler, 
Rev. C. F. Eberman, A. E. Witmer. 

Education : Wm. Riddle, M. J. Brecht, 
Dr. E. O. Lyte. 

Nomenclature : Dr. M. W. Raub, Dr. 
H. E. Muhlenburg, Geo. F. K. Erisman. 

Local Records : Edward P. Brinton, 
John B. Eshleman, Mrs. Lydia D. Zell. 

Indians and Indian Relics : Peter C. 
Hiller, Dr. J. S. Stahr, Henry B. Shuman. 



ON DKC. 4, 1896. 













When was Strasburgh Erected into a Township ? 


Reminiscences of Paradise Township, 

BY A. E. WITHER, 150 

An Old Petition from Citizens of Martic Township, 


Some Early County Mills, etc., etc., 


Officers of the Society for 1896 176 


When I came to arrange some stray 
notes pertaining to the early settlement 
of the locality embraced within the limits 
of Strasburg township as it was bounded 
one hundred and sixty-five years ago, I 
found a good many snags in my way. 
Some of the earliest settlers came from 
Strasburg on the Rhine, and the neigh- 
borhood came to be known as "New 
Strasburge" and was ihus designated in 
1716 by the Assessors or Surveyors of 
Chester county. There were no definite 
bounds to the district and it was not set 
apart as a township before the erection of 
Lancaster county, ia 1729. 

One of the London land patents in this 
county contained 5,553 acres, and was sur- 
veyed in tne year 1716. According to 
Isaac Taylor's draft the southern line is 
bounded by "New Strasburge" and the 
landholders close to the line were : Isaac 
Leiever, who took up 300 acres the 15th 
of 4 mo.. 1713; Daniel Ferree, 600 
acres, 4th of 8 mo., 1716 ; Philip Ferree, 
300 acres, 24th of 6 mo., 1716, and Henry 
Carpenter, 1,000 acres, 7 mo. 27th, 1718. 

In these years the Constables returned 
them in the Conestoga assessment. In 
the year 1720 the Ferrees and Lefevers 
were returned in the Pequea assessment, 
which also included all the settlers 
along or near the head of Pequea creek. 
The settlement along the east branch of 
the Couestogae, now Caernarvon, was in 
the Conestogae rate. I find a number of 
titles of settlers in the year 1717, 
marked in "New Strasburge." There 


seems to be no record in Chester county 
of any township named "Strasburg." 
When Lancaster county was organized 
and divided into townships, in the sum- 
mer of 1729, none was named "Stras- 
burg." But I find its territory and that 
of Paradise were included within the 
bounds of Leaoock ; and after a diligent 
search among the records in Lancaster, 
I cannot find the date when Strasburg 
township was erected, or taken from Lea- 
cock. This is a strange omission and has 
puzzled the local historians and land sur- 
veyors of the county. I can only appoxi- 
mate to the date. 

In the year 1730 a road was laid out 
from Samuel Taylor's mill, in Strasburg 
township, to North East, in Maryland. 
This mill was probably on Big Beaver 
creek, above Wm. Smith's mill, where 
the Zooks in our day have a fulling mill. 

Daniel Ferree and Isaac Lefever took 
out a patent for 2,000 acres of land in 
Strasburg township in 1733. In the year 
1734 Casper Bowman took out a patent 
for land, and also Mathias Slaymaker took 
out a patent for 150 acres in the same 
township in the year 1735. 

I can only approximate the date of 
"New Strasburge" into a township, 
which was probably in the early part of 
the year 1730. 

Anecdotes of Reuben Chambers. 

Upon one occasion a farmer of Sads- 
bury township went to Betnania to get 
Reuben to print some sale bills. The 
latter wanted to know " who has thee got 
to cry thy sale," and when informed tnat 
no person was engaged, Reuben volun- 
teered to do the job for him. 

When the time of sale arr'ved Reu- 
ben was on hand, and he stood up 
in a feed cutting box which was on the 
bridge of the barn and begin to cry the 
sale, when a boy named Joseph Caiinard 


knocked a leg of the cutting box to one 
side and Reuben was thrown down upon 
the barn bridge. He got into a cart body 
and continued to sell, when some person, 
who had evidently been watching for the 
opportunity, noticed that he had got be- 
yond the centre of gravity, and pulled out 
the plugs, and the body of the cart tilted 
and threw Reuben to the ground. These 
tricks did not seem to disconcert him, for 
he went on and finished the sale. 

Reuben's Remedy for a Kicking Horse. 

Reuben had an old bay horse, supposed 
to be about fifteen years old. Hearing 
that a neighbor named Benjamin Brack- 
bill had a fractious gray mare, which 
would invariably kick herself out of the 
harness when hitched up, Reuben took 
the old bay horse to Brackbill's and off- 
ered to trade for the gray mare. Benja- 
min said he did not want to sell or trade, 
because the mare was vicious and "might 
hurtthee." Reuben replied, "Benjamin, 
thee need not be afraid of that, she will 
not hurt me." The trade was duly con- 
sum mated and Reuben took the gray mare 
to Bethania and hitched her to a cart 
and put her into a grass lot, where she 
was at liberty to kick, which was done. 
For two or three days and nights this 
was kept up to the annoyance of the 
neighbors, who complained of the noise 
caused by the cart coming in contact with 
the fences, when active operations were 
in full sway. After a struggle of two or 
three days the gray mare surrendered, 
and thereafter for many years she became 
one of the best family driving horses in 
the county. This was heroic treatment, 
but most effective. 

How Reuben Managed an Apprentice. 

Reuben Chambers had an incorrigible 
apprentice boy who gave him a great 
deal of trouble. In order to bring him 
into proper submission he confined him 


in the attic of his dwelling and fed him 
on bread and water, and occasionally 
chastised him with a rod. This caused 
much talk and indignation among his 
neighbors. I do not remember whether 
the Court called him down, but I have 
no doubt the apprentice, after this haroic 
treatment, became quite docile. 

Several Notable Discussions. 

In the days of lyceum discussions, two 
incidents occurred in old Sadsbury which, 
if written out, would make entertaining 
reading, and I hope the subjects will be 
placed iu competent hands to be written 
up for the entertainment of this society. 

Thomas Whitson, Sr., and perhaps 
Lindley tJoats, challenged Dr. Timlow 
and others to discuss the slavery question 
In a hall at the Gap. Whitsou is said to 
have talked all day and a whole night, 
which brought the other side to a stand- 

There was a political discussion in the 
brick school house in Sadsburyvllle. My 
impression is that Whitsou and Coats 
were in the debate. The Locofocos and 
Whigs were getting the worst of it, when 
the Locofocos sent a message to Hugh 
Maxwell iu Lancaster to send out some of 
the young orators of his party. He sent 
John W. Forney, who was a minor. This 
was the first political speech Forney made. 

Miscellaneous Notes.* 
May it please the Proprietor. 

This bearer, Michael Baughman (being 
apprehensive that he can agree with ye 
Indians to remove from Conestogae 
Manor), desires to purchase the spot 
where the Old Indian Town Stands with 
the whole vacancy between ye lines of 
Henry Bostler, Michael Moyer, James 
Logan, John Cartlidge and Peter Leman, 
and to extend towards Susquebanna as 

* Copied from Surveyor Isaac Taylor's 


far as may be not to incomode the other 
land, the quantity that may be regularly 
taken there will be I think about 350 As. 

Thy Servant, 
DECEMBER 3, 1739. I. T. 

Had this offer been accepted the stain 
of murdering the Couestoga Indians 
would not have darkened the fair name 
of Pennsylvania. 

Mr. Baughman resided in Manheim 
township. The Champneys, ot Lancas- 
ter, are some of his descendants. 

When the Indian villnge was attacked 
in December, 1763, a number of the In- 
dians were at Smith's Furnace selling 
baskets, and others on a like errand at 
Swarr's Mill. 

Strasbarg Manor. 

The proprietors reserved a manor in 
Strasburg township containing 1,475 
acres. The date ie not given nor the ex- 
act locality, f 

Palatines at Pequea. 

In a letter of James Logan to Isaac 
Taylor,dated at Philadelphia, 20th of 5th 
month, 1711, he says " 6 or 7 familys of 
ye Pallatines are settled at Pequea, and 
more design to go there next winter." 

t Copied from Taylor's papers. 


Before attempting to give an account 
of the early history and traditions of 
Paradise, Lancaster county, I desire to 
state to those especially who were present 
at the meeting, November 18, at the 
Stevens House, of the Ferree and Lefevre 
families, that it will be necessary for me 
to give a brief resume of some of the his- 
torical events which I gave then, as the 
early records of these families are con- 
temporaneous with the early history of 
the village and its immediate vicinity, by 
omitting which would be like Shakes- 
peare with Hamlet left out. 

The village was given its name m 1796 
by David Witmer, and it has always been 
a source of regret to the writer, who has 
suffered with many others from the con- 
tinual strain of stale jokes and witty 
speeches the name calls forth whenever 
mentioned, and more especially do we 
censure our worthy ancestor for giving it 
that name when he had so much a better 
one at command, and should have chris- 
tened it Tanawa, for reasons which will 
appear later. 

Arrival of Huguenots. 

The village dates its first advent of a 
citizen, other than Indian who roamed 
the wilds of that part of Pennsylvania, 
in no less a personage than Madame 
Ferree (a French Huguenot), of whom 
you doubtless have beard long before this, 
and her appearance soon followed her 
landing in this country, where she came 
bearing letters to the agent of William 


Penn, and who advised her to seek a 
point in the valley now known as Pequea 
and also instructed her to see the King 
of the tribe of Pequea Indians (which 
was one of the few tribes that bad a king) 
and who was then located in a grove on 
the banks of Pequea about one-fourth of 
a mile northeast of where the village now 
stands, and I think I can do no better 
than give you a short extract 
from a speech delivered by Redmond 
Conyngham in the year 1842 and who 
was an authority on the Indians and 
early settlers of Eastern Pennsylvania, 
which address was delivered before the 
following lyceums: The Philadelphia 
Lyceum, Mechanics' Institute, of Lan- 
caster, and the Lycaum and Literary In- 
stitutes of Lancaster county, composed 
most of them of the leading and promi- 
nent men of that time John W. Forney, 
the founder and editor of the Philadel- 
phia Press, being one of the number, and 
it was in this same grove where this 
meeting was held and Madame Ferree 
first met King Tanawa. I quote his 
speech as follows : 

" In the evening of a summer day when 
the Huguenots reached the verge of a hill 
commanding a view of the valley of 
Pequea (it was a woodland scene, a forest 
inhabited by wild beasts, for no indication 
of civilized man was near), scattered 
along the Pequea amidst the dark green 
hazel, could be discerned the Indian wig- 
wams, the smoke issuing therefrom in 
its spiral from. No sound was heard but 
the songs of the birds, and in silence they 
contemplated the beautiful prospect 
which nature presented to their view. 
Suddenly a number of Indians advanced 
and in broken English said to Madame 
Ferree : ' Indian no harm white ; white 
good to Indian. Go to Beaver, our chief. 
Come to Beavei.' " 



Few were the words of the Indian. 
They went to Beaver's cabin, and Beaver, 
with the humanity that distinguished the 
Indian of that period, gave ap to the 
emigrants his wigwam and the next day 
he introduced them to Tanawa, who lived 
on the great flats of Pequea. And who 
was Tanawa? The friend of William 
Penn, who had not only been present, but 
had signed the great treaty, and was 
buried on Lafayette hill, located, as a 
chart which I here present shows, in the 
west end of the village and on which 
stands an Episcopal church, and where 
his ashes rested in peace until the Liter- 
ary Society of Paradise, filling the part of 
resurrectionists, had them disinterred 
and placed what remained, namely, beads, 
tomahawk and a number of other Indian 
relics, including teeth and a part of the 
skull of the Indian monarch (which the 
writer here exhibits), in the archives of 
the Society, and which were pur- 
chased years after by a member 
of his family when the Society 
disbanded ; and before we pass on to the 
next event in the village's history I wish 
to state that the grave of that Indian 
chief was paved with flat stones on which 
these relics are supposed to have been 

There passes down through the village 
(as shown in the chart) a little brook 
crossing the old Lancaster and Philadel- 
phia turnpike near the centre of the vil- 
lage, having its source about one-half 
mile to the south of the same and where 
was located the home of Isaac Lefevre, 
who was married to a daughter of Madame 
Ferree and whose parents had perished in 
the religious wars which had desolated 
France. Alone he had come to this 
country and located and married as stated. 
Their son, Daniel Lefevre, was the first 


child born in the valley of Pequea. To 
verify the fact in connection with this 
little brook that near this point King 
Tanawa's remains were put to rest, I 
again quote from Conyngham, as follows: 
11 A number of Indian chiefs were on 
their way to Philadelphia to visit the Great 
Father (George Washington) from Ohio. 
Ten miles east from Lancaster, where a 
little brook crosses the road, they suddenly 
left the road, to the great surprise of the 
interpreter and government agent, and 
being asked by the agent their intention, 
they informed him many of their tribe 
had been buried there and their king and 
chief warrior whose grave they wished to 
visit" The point designated by them is 
that distance from Lancaster and must 
have been the spot where rested Tanawa, 
the king of the Pequea Indians, and ( whose 
grave they wished to visit, which is quite 
near to the point as stated. 

The Revolutionary Period. 

We now come to a later period in the 
history of the village and there appears 
no record of its having taken an active 
part in the War of the Revolution, 1776. 
Nor have we anything connecting it with 
the stirring events of tnat ti?ne. But 
that it was visited by the Father of His 
Country, George Washington, later, 
there is the following tradition: Stopping 
on his way to or from the West, and hav- 
ing dined at the stage hotel, he expressed 
a desire to see a hemp mill, which was at 
that time a novelty and in full operation 
a short distance from where he was stop- 
ping, and it was also said he had in view 
the erection of one on his plantation in 
Virginia. But, unfortunately, the per- 
son operating the machine, desirous of 
giving his distinguished visitor the full 
opportunity oi inspecting it, removed 
some of the bracing, a planking of which, 
coming in contact with the rapidly mov- 


ing machinery, created quite an excite- 
ment for a time, seriously injuring the 
operator and startling his guest. Again 
we see displayed the sound judgment and 
good sense of the founder of this great 
republic in concluding he had no use for 
such a machine, as I never could learn of 
any having been erected on his plantation 
at Mount Vernon. The two large conical 
stones which constituted the principal 
part of the machine can to-day be seen in 
the bed of the stream during seasons of 
low water, just below the mill, weighing, 
I suppose, about five hundred pounds. 

We next come to the days of turnpikes 
and Conestoga wagons, and during that 
time it filled a very important position, 
both in its construction and management, 
as it was the headquarters of the section 
which comprised Downingtown on the 
east and Lancaster on the west ; and there 
was located the post-office and store in 
addition to the hotel, id ere was made 
the change of horses and sorting of the 
mail, and another tradition as told the 
writer by the postmaster of that time was 
that while Mrs. Dixon wag postmistress 
of Lancaster, in the hurry and confusion 
of getting the mail ready lor the stage, 
in the early hours of the morning, her 
night cap, which was an indispensable 
article at that time of wood fires and cold 
houses, got mixed with the mail, and, 
much to the chagrin of the postmaster, 
rolled out with the mail for resorting. It 
was promptly returned by the next mail 
going West. There are five buildings 
now standing in the villa<re which were 
used as taverns at that time. 

The War of 1812. 

We now approach the second great 
event of the nation the war or 1812. 
While there were a number of its resi- 
dents and those of the immediate vicinity 
who took part in it, the only matter of in- 


terest which I can recall as a tradition and 
which was told the writer by an eye wit- 
ness, who was then a boy, was the passing 
through of a company of cavalry and 
artillery on its way to a point near the 
Canadian border, commanded by Colonel 
Ross. The narrator said it was an ex- 
ceedingly wet day, and, something going 
amiss with one of the artillery wagons, a 
local smith was called in, and while the 
repairs were being made the colonel rode 
up to the front of the hotel and called for 
a glass of liquor, and while waiting for it 
to be brought out he kicked his foot out 
of the stirrup and elevating it as nearly 
at an angle of forty-five degrees as possi- 
ble, permitted the water to run out of his 
boot, much to the amusement and admi- 
ration of the small boys who were pre- 
sent, and showing that the soldier 
was not then, as in later times, protected 
from the inclemency of the weather by 
rubber blanket and mackintosh. This 
wet day may have laid the foundation for 
later troubles for the gallant colonel. I 
see in the records of burials of St. James' 
Church, Lancaster, one of a Col. George 
Ross, who served gallantly in the war of 
1812 "and died from exposure as stated 
in these records during the late war, in 
which he served gallantly, talcing part in 
the battle of New Orleans." The date of 
his death was June 7, 1816. There is also 
a will on file in the Register's office of a 
Col. Ross, in which he desires his remains 
sent to New Orleans in a cask of rum as 
a preservation. Embalming was not in 
vogue at that early day. Whether this 
was the same Colonel Ross as narrated 
the writer is unable to state, but should 
it have been, that wet march through 
Paradise no doubt helped to lay the foun- 
dation for his later ill health. It was with 
feelings of great sadness that the village 
learned later that the command under the 


gallant colonel had met the enemy near 
the point as stated, and, using the language 
of the narrator, were "cut to pieces," a 
few returning with their commander. 

Lafayette's Visit. 

The next event of interest was the visit 
of General Lafayette and I will quote 
from the Lancaster Intelligencer of Tues- 
day morning, August 2, 1825, as follows: 
"The cavalry having formed as an escort 
the whole moved on to Paradise from 
Slaymaker's Hotel in Salisbury, where 
they halted a few minutes at David 
Witmer's ; and the General, having 
alighted, was introduced to a crowd of 
ladies and gentlemen of Paradise, who 
were waiting his arrival." The marble 
horse-block can to-day be seen in passing 
through the village, on which the dis- 
tinguished visitor alighted from his 
barouche. And I will state here that the 
hill known as Lafayette hill, mentioned in 
the early part of this article, received its 
name at that time from the fact that it 
was there a company of cavalry encamped 
awaiting the arrival of the General to 
escort him to Lancaster. 

Thou we arrive at the construction of 
railroads and when turnpikes and stage 
coaches were on the wane, and again we 
find the village taking a forward posi- 
tion in it as a means of transportation. 
The railroad, as all doubtless know, was 
built by the State aad completed in the 
year 1834. Steam was not then used, 
the motive power being horses, and the 
seventh car which turned a wheel on 
what is now know as the Pennsylvania 
railroad came from a siding in that vil- 
lage bearing on its side the legend, " Wit- 
mer, Paradise," and so continued until a 
year or two after the Pennsylvania Com- 
pany purchased the road from the State. 
The number of cars had by that time in- 
creased to forty, were very much larger, 


painted a light buff, bearing the same 
name, and were known along the road as 
the "Paradise Line." Of course, long prior 
to this horses had been superseded Dy 
steam, the State furnishing the motive 
power and the individual furnishing the 
cars and paying a toll for the use of the 

The village from its early date took a 
great interest in schools and educational 
enterprises. There was an excellent 
school owned and conducted by Mr. Fet- 
ter at what is known as Oak Hill, a 
beautiiul residence at the eastern end of 
the village and now owned as a summer 
residence by J. Hay Brown, of this city. 
Next there was a seminary under the 
management of the Episcopal Church, 
Rev. Dr. Killikelly being the Rector, and 
it gathered into its fold pupils from as far 
west as St. Louis, east as far as Boston, 
north as far as Northern New York and 
south as far as the Caroliuas. A large 
academy was also started there and both 
tlourished until the late war closed all in- 
stitutions of that kind. 

Prominent Residents. 

The village can boast of having shel- 
tered for a time a number of distinguished 
individuals, many who afterward became 
connected with great events elsewhere. 
It was here that the manuscript of that 
beautiiul song, "The Old Kentucky 
Home," was sung and commented upon 
before it had been turned over to the pub- 
lishers to be given to the world. Mrs. 
Buchanan, the wife of Rev. Edward Y. 
Buchanan, brother of the president, and 
Rector of the Episcopal Church, was a 
sister to Stephen J. Foster, who was also 
a musician. She received the manuscript 
from her brother for her criticism and 
approval, and the writer remembers hear- 
ing several of the musically-inclined vil- 
lagers practice it with a melodeon acorn- 


paniment and, of course, giving it a very 
favorable criticism. J. Hays Linville. 
afterwards connected with Captain Edds 
in building the great St. Louis bridge, and 
who had become a civil engineer of note, 
had charge of a school there for a time ; 
also, a sister of the district attorney who 
tried and convicted John Brown, and the 
village can also claim as a resident for a 
time an editor and proprietor of one of 
Lancaster's evening papers. It can also 
claim as a citizen Dr. Carl Merz, who, as 
all know, was a celebrated writer and 
composer aud who left Paradise to take 
charge of a much more extended field in 
the West. 

The head and manager of that band of 
wandering minstrels, the McGibeny 
Family, which have amused and inter- 
ested the children as well as those of riper 
years in almost all the large cities, had 
his home there for a time as an instructor 
in the academy previously mentioned. 

Its Only Newspaper. 

There was a paper published there, 
which I here present, and which had quite 
a large circulation for a time. It was 
named the Paradise Hornet, and this 
copy bears the date of May 18, 1822. I 
make no comment as to its appearance 
and contents. You must be the judges. 
There is a file of them, I believe, at the 
Historical Society rooms, in Philadelphia. 

I now close the narration of events and 
tradition of the village. Of later years its 
history has been similar to that of many 
others in the county old families and 
names have disappeared and their places 
have been filled by new people and new 
enterprises ; so thit one looks in vain for 
the old familiar names and places and 
turns away feeling as Goldsmith so beauti- 
fully portrays in his deserted village, a 
stranger among what were years past 
familiar scenes, aud surrounded by those 


who are too busy with the events and 
happenings of to-day to give much heed 
to those of the past ; and perhaps it is 
best so. 


To understand more fully the griev- 
ances which caused it to be signed and 
presented, it will be necessary to go back 
a year or two. In the spring of 1776 the 
Continental Congress advised each colony 
and province to take immediate measures 
to frame a new form of government, one 
more in accordance with the spirit of 
liberty and independence. The officers 
who then controlled the colonies gener- 
ally sympathized with the Crown, and 
really had a majority of the citizens at 
their back. The patriots were in a mi- 
nority ; but what they lacked in numbers 
they made up in zeal. Cumberland and 
the counties west of that were controlled 
by Scotch-Irish Presbyterians, who at 
this crisis Of affairs completely controlled 
the politics in those counties ; and they 
also at this time obtained a majority of 
their friends in the Legislature, The 
Legislature issued a call for the election 
of deputies to meet in convention to con- 
sider the resolves of Congress. Those 
chosen from this county were : 

William A. Atlee, of Lancaster, and 
the second Judge of the Supreme Court 
under the Constitution soon to be enacted. 

Lodwick Lowman, who was an officer 
in the Revolutionary war, and member of 
the Legislature. 

Col. Bertram Galbraith, of Donegal, 
who raised a battalion of militia in 1776, 
and was in the New Jersey campaign, and 
was the Lieutenant of the county from 
that date to 1779 ; also a member of the 

Col. Alexander Lowrey,\,of Donegal, 
who commanded the second battalion of 


militia at the Battle of Brandywine, and 
a member of the Legislature for many 

Major David Jenkins, of Carnarvon, 
who also commanded a battalion in the 
Jersey campaign of 1776. 

William Brown, a member of the Leg- 
islature, and one of the signers of the 

John Smiley, a member of the Legisla- 

Major James Cunningham, of Mt. Joy 
township, who commanded a battalion of 
the "Flying Camp " at King's Bridge 
and Long Island, and was with Colonel 
Lowery's battalion at Brandywine. He 
was a member ot the Supreme Executive 

The Deputies met in convention at 
Carpenter's Hall, Philadelphia, on June 
18, 1776, and in a few days passed a reso- 
lution requesting the members of Con- 
gress from Pennsylvania to vote for an 
independent government. This was ten 
days before the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence was declared by Congress. But 
for the energy and patriotism of that man 
of iron, Colonel Thomas McKean, the 
members of Congress from Pennsylvania 
would not have voted for it. And but 
for the efforts of that brilliant lawyer and 
orator, James Wilson, most royally assisted 
by Judge McKean, the Constitution 
of the United States in 1787, would not 
have been adopted by the State of Penn- 
sylvania. I heard an honored ancestor of 
mine, who admired and entertained these 
great men, state that her father, who 
was a member of the Legislature which 
met iu the second-story of the State 
House, when the Convention was in ses- 
sion on the first floor, which enacted the 
new frame of Government, told her that 
James Wilson, Esq., was really the author 
of the greater part of the Constitution of 


the United States, and was its ablest de- 

The New England people, and some 
from other States, sneer at Pennsylvania 
and the part her people took in the early 
struggle for independence. Our Com- 
monwealth was probably the first to 
advise Congress to adopt measures for an 
independent Government, and was the 
second State to adopt the Constitution of 
1787. Although the patriots in Penn- 
sylvania were in the minority they ruled 
the politics of the State, and were in the 
front in every battle. 

The Convention at Carpenter's Hall took 
immediate measures to call a convention 
to frame a Constitution, which met in 
Philadelphia on July 15. 1776. Benja- 
min Franklin was President and George 
Ross, Lancaster, was Vice President. 
The members of the Convention were: 
Colonel George Ross. 
Colonel Alexander Lowrey. 
Colonel Bertram Galbraith. 
Colonel Philip Marsteller (of Lebanon 

Colonel Thomas Porter (of Little 
Britain township). 

Captain Joseph Shearer (of Derry town- 

Colonel John Hubley. 
Private Henry Slaymaker (who was 
one of the J ustices of the Common Pleas 
Court under the ue "Constitution). 

One of the first acts of this Convention 
was to appoint delegates to Congress. 

The Constitution was completed Sep- 
tember 28, 1776. It was not submitted to 
a vote of the people, but went into imme- 
diate effect. These patriots were not 
taking any chances. They held the reins of 
government and kept them well in hand 
until the United States was free and in- 


Under this Constitution the Supreme 
Court was organized. Thomas McKean 
was made Chief Justice, William A. At- 
lee second Judge, and John Evans, of 
Chester county, third Judge. The Court 
first met in Lancaster, in the spring of 
1777, and tried many Tories and confis- 
cated their lands. 

This Constitution had defects of form, 
which it is not necessary to enumerate in 
this connection ; but there was no uncer- 
tainty in its hostility to royalty and all 
that that word implied. 

In the fall of 1777 the Assembly passed 
measures calling for an election of dele- 
gates to meet November 28, 1778, to 
frame a new Constitution for the State. 
The people throughout the State were in- 
dignant and sent many petitions like the 
annexed one, containing the names of 
nine-tenth of the voters in the State. 
This was too much for the Assembly and 
they rescinded the resolution, 47 yeas to 
7 noes. 

The Petition. 


To the Honorable the Representatives of 
the freemen of the State of Pennsylvania 
this Memorial Humbly Sheweth : 

That your Memorialists are of Opinion 
that frequent Changes in Government 
have a tendency to weaken it, and to 
Create Divisions and Contests among the 
people and ought as muoh as possible to 
be avoided. 

That, therefore, your taking up and 
passing a late Resolution for taking ye 
Sense of the people upon Certain Matters 
in the Constitution of this Commonwealth 
before the people have had sufficient Ex- 
perience of it, has a tendency to produce 
the above Mentioned bad Effects, Espec- 
ially as said Resolve appears to have been 
Grounded mainly upon Supposed Incon- 
venciencys in the present Constitution 


and form of Government Suggested by 
Divers petitions to former Assemblies of 
this Commonwealth and adopted with- 
out any call of the Community with- 
out any Representation from the Execu- 
tive Branch specifying the Incompetency 
of the present Constitution for the pur- 
poses of Good Government without any 
Concurrance of that Honorable Body thai 
we know of or any Opposition or Em- 
barrassment in the way Obstrucking the 
Execution of your Laws that we have 
heard of. We Cannot help, therefore, 
being of the Opinion that in passing 
Resolve in Question Especially in the 
Mannorand Circumstances above Men- 
tioned you have Exceeded the powers 
Delegated to you and treatea that Con- 
stitution of which you were the appointed 
Guardians with Great Neglect. 

That, however, your Memorialists if 
just and weighty reasons would be as- 
signed might not be against calling a 
convention. Yet we Cannot look upon 
the Maunor in which you have appointed 
the votes to be taken to be fare and unex- 
ceptionable the Question is perplexed by 
your Doubling it, and however they who 
are for a Convention may vote on Both 
Sides we cannot see the propriety or 
Consistancy of voting against one and 
at the same time Electing the Members 
who are to Compose it. 

And there are great Numbers of your 
Constituents who have taken a solemn 
oath to preserve the present Constitution 
and who deserve well of this Common- 
wealth, who are apprehensive will not 
then be themselves justifiable in putting 
it into the hands of a Convention in any 
other way than by the Constitution Itself is 
directed and who we are persuaded Can- 
not bring themselves to a Complyance 
with the Resolve in Question, in its pro- 
posed Mode of Execution. 


For these Causes and before you put 
Good people of this State to the Great 
trouble and Expense of a New Conven- 
tion, Your Memorialists presume that you 
will take the first Opportunity of revising 
your Late resolve and that your Wisdom 
and Goodness and Your Regard to the 
Peace and Tranquility of this State will 
Induce you Either to drop *t Intirely or 
adopt it and Carry it into Execution in a 
Manner not Lyable to any Great and Just 

John McMillan, 
John Dutton, 
T. C. Mitchell. 
James Patterson, 
James Hays, 
James Johnson, 
William Brown, 
Robert Long, 


Gregory Farmer, 
Alexander Coy, 
John Caldwell, 
Robert Pendry, 
John Robinson, 
Geo. McLaughlin, 
J. S. Black, 
Samuel Kirkpatrick, 
John Reagan, 
John McMillan, 
John Bran nan, 
James Duncan, 
John Pagan, 
Archibald Pagan, 
James Pagan, Sr., 
Andy Pagan, 
Andrew Pagan, 
John Brown, 
James Brown, 
James Pagan. Jr., 
Adam Moore, 
JaTnes Moore, 
William Moore, 
Samuel Simpson, 
David Gibson, 
Peter Simpson, 
James Savage, 
Joseph McCullagh, 
William Kennedy, 
James Moore, 
Samuel McCollough, 
David McCollough, 

Peter Pulling, 
James Patterson, 
Robert Sloan, 
John Steen, 
Hugh caldwell, 
Hugh Caldwell, Jr., 
Thomas Colby, 
Andrew McGinnis, 
Thomas Reed, 
William Pattison, 
Michell Deally, 
James Robinson, 
James Callahan, 
John Crage, 
William Whit, 
William Floods, 
Robert Cunningham, 
Matthew Cunningham 
John Cunningham, 
Robert Snodgrass, 
Samuel Snodgrass, 
James Snodgrass, 
Joseph Steel, 
James Steel, 
Henry Alexander, 
Robert Caldwell, 
Fred. McPhaxon, 
Samuel Elliott, 
Thomas Wharry, Sr., 
David Lo wery, 
Thomas Wharry, Jr., 
John McCalster, 
John Barr, 
Samuel Dickson 

James Pegos, 
John Boyd, 
Thomas Boyd, 
John Bleare, 
James Blair, 
James Blair, Jr., 


Joseph Aird, 
Samuel Wilson, 
Vaieiitain Gaitner, 
James Alexander, 
William Clark, 
John Hart, 
Samuel Wilson, Sr., 
John McCreary, 
Hugh Bigham, 
John Reid, 
David McDermeet, 
John Reid, 
Daniel McDermeet, 
Thomas Clark. 

The names on this petition were all 
English and probably of Scotch -Irish 
origin. Many of them were members of 
the Associate Presbyterian Church on 
"Muddy Run." 

Many of them were in the Revolu- 
tionary War, and I notice some who were 
the ancestors of prominent families who 
now reside in the west and south. 

Robert McCollough, 
Thomas White, 
John Rogers, 
William Gorman, 
Patrick Cambell, 
James Mitchell, 
John Snodgrass, 
William Snodgrass, 
Jas. Snodgrass, 
John Adamson, 
John Clark, 
William Me Adam, 
Robert Snodgrass, 
Joseph Neell, 


In 1716 Stephen Atkinson, to whom lib- 
erty had been granted about two years 
before to settle on a neck of land between 
Edmund Cartlidge and the Couestoga 
Creek and to build a mill and make a dam, 
and he having built a good fulling mill a 
warrant was made out for the neck of land 
and 10 or 20 acres over the creek next his 

In the year 1728 he took 138 acres in 
the bend of the Conestoga. This mill was 
located in the bend of the creek, between 
Reigart's and Graeff's Landing. The mill 
and dwelling were on the south side of 
the creek and fell in Lampeter township, 
when the county was organized. This 
was the firsi mill in the county which 
obtained its water power direct from the 
Conestoga river. After Mr. Atkinson built 
his dam, it proved to be a complete bar- 
rier against the ascent of shad and other 
fish to the upper part of that stream. 
The citizens residing along the water 
course above the dam came down in the 
night-time and tore the dam away. The 
Legislature compelled Mr. Atkinson to 
construct a passage way in his dam to al- 
low the fish to ascend the stream. 

Mr. Atkinson died in 1739, and the mill 
was run by his son, Matthew Atkinson. 
Thomas Doyle, of Lancaster, married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Stephen Atkin- 
son. They were the ancestors of Major 
John Doyle, a distinguished officer of the 
Revolutionary war, whose remains are 
buried in front of St. Mary's Catholic 
Church on Vine street, in Lancaster city. 
Captain Thomas Doyle, brother of John, 
also distinguished himself in the Revolu- 


tionary war, and after its close joined 
General Wayne's "Loyal Legion" in his 
campaign against the western Indians. 

Joshua Minshall, an Irish Quaker, mar- 
ried a daughter of Stephen Atkinson. 
He moved to the west side of the river at 
Wright's Ferry, in 1730. He was cap- 
tured, with others, by adherents of Lord 
Baltimore, and thrown into prison at 
Annapolis, Md., February 21, 1733. He 
adhered to Penn's interests, and was 
against the pretensions of Lord Baltimore. 
His sou, Thomas Minshall, was a promi- 
nent person in York county. 

Hon. John Wilkes Kittera, the first 
member of Congress from Lancaster 
county under the United States Constitu- 
tion, who served for ten years, married a 
great-granddaughter of Stephen Atkin- 
son, and a most distinguished lady she 

John Snyder, son o Governor Sinaon 
Snyder, married a daughter of Mr. and 
Mrs. Kittera. Miss Mary Snyder, daugh- 
ter of John Snyder, now re sides at Selins 
Grove, Pa. 

Grist and Saw Mill. 

William Smith, in the year 1728, took 
up 152 acres of land along Beaver creek, 
where the village of New Providence now 
stands. He built a grist and saw mill in 
1729. The mill, with meadow containing 
four or five acres, w&s in Strasburg town- 
ship. The balance of the land ran in a 
southerly direction and was embraced 
within the limits of Martic township. In 
1731 a public road was laid out from Lan- 
caster to his mill, and in the year 173- a 
public road was laid out, leading from 
his mill to navigable water, at the mouth 
of Rock Run, in Maryland. This was at 
the head of tide water. The great quan- 
tities of flour manufactured at this mill, 
and others, in the lower end of the county, 
found their way, in a year or two after 


the Rock Run road was laid out, over 
another road which terminated at 
Charlestown, a seaport town in Cecil 
county, Hd. This being the nearest 
market along navigable water, it com- 
manded a large portion of the trade from 
this county for several years, and to the 
time when a public road was built to 
Newport on the Christiana creek, in Dela- 
ware. Mr. Smith had two sons who be- 
came prominent in Colonial times, namely 
Thomas and William. 

Thomas had his father's land patented 
in his own name in 1736, and in 1740 he 
purchased a farm adjoining on the west, 
now owned by the Mylins. In the year 
1752 Thomas Smith was elected Sheriff 
for this county. While he held this office 
he kept open house in Lancaster, where 
he entertained his country friends, and in 
consequence of this liberality he went out 
of office poorer than when he entered upon 
its duties. 

In 1755 Thomas Smith and his brother, 
William, purchased several hundred acres 
of land about three miles and a half north- 
west from "Smith's Mill," where 
they built a furnace, which stood upon 
the farm now owned by the Dillers. And 
in the same year they built a forge about 
four miles south of their furnace, along 
Pequea creek. They gradually purchased 
farms around their furnace and forge 
properties, which numbered more than 
four thousand seres. 

In 1756 Thomas and William sold their 
grist mill and meadow to Michael Groff, 
and that part of the land which was lo- 
cated in Martic township (New Provi- 
dence) they sold to Jacob Groff 
(who owned the Eshlemau mill, 
to which 'Squire Hildebrand refers. 
Mr. Eshleman married his daughter and 
they were the ancestors of the late David 
G. Eshleman, Esq). Christian Groff 


also purchased some of the Smith land. 
Three acres of irou ore laud were re- 
served for the use of Martic Furnace, 
which was located upon land now owned 
by the Mylins. This seems to be a lost 
ore mine and is overgrown with trees 
perhaps of a hundred years growth. 

In the year 1761 the Smith brothers 
purchased a farm along: the great road 
leading from Chester Valley to McCall's 
Ferry, containing one hundred and 
twenty-one acres. Twenty-five acres of 
this land, which lay along a running 
stream at the Green Tree Tavern, they 
plotted and laid out into town lots and 
named the place "Smithburg." The 
lots were disposed of by lottery. I be- 
lieve there is but one dwelling upon this 
town site now and that was erected about 
twenty years ago by the late Joseph Mc- 
Clure. This is one of the lost towns of 
the county. Thomas Smith failed and 
was thrown into prison for debt in the 
year 1769. 

William Smith, brother of Thomas, 
married Dinah Edwards, daughter of 
John Edwards, who resided near the Blue 
Ball, in Earl township. He was elected 
Sheriff of the county in 1758. About this 
time he moved from Strasburg township 
to Earl. After the expiration of his term, 
and about the time of the failure of the 
Smith Brothers, he was appointed one of 
the Justices of the Common Pleas Court. 
After the Constitution of 1790 was 
adopted he was commissioned a Justice 
of the Peace for Earl township, an office 
he held until his death, in 1806. He 
moved from Blue Ball to Diffenderffar's 
" New Design," now New Holland, where 
he erected a stone dwelling and had his 
office. A few years ago it was owned and 
occupied by one of his descendants. His 
great-grandson, George Smith, was post- 
master in New Holland for some years, 


and was removed by President Cleveland 
in 1885. 

The Smiths were members of the Es- 
tablished Churcb of England, and were 
great favorites with the ruling class in 

Some Early Sheriffs 01 the County. 

The following extracts taken from a 
letter in the Shippen papers have a pecu- 
liar interest in connection with the 
Smiths and others. 

Edward Shippen to Col. James Burd, 
November 24, 1779, page 280. 

The young man (Captain Worke*) who 
makes his addresses to Peggy is of a 
good larnily. He bears a good character. 
I thought it advisable, as soon as prudent 
after the wedding, that the young couple 
should remove to old Mr. Worke's until 
they could get a place in the country to 
their mind. Mr. Yeates told me that he 
understood that they were to reside in 
this borough. I replied that I was very 
sure that the profits of a Sheriff's office 
would never admit of that, when the fees 
were more than double to what they are 
now ; not to mention that is the most dan- 
gerous office a man can undertake. A 
Sheriff ought to have the heart of a stone 
to stand against the cries of women, be- 
seeching him to take their husbands' 
words and fair promises, and so not to 
put them into prison ; frequently to the 
great loss of the Sheriff. The Shippen 
papers do not show that Peggy ever mar- 
ried Captain Joseph Worke. 

Tom Smith, the Sheriff (though he 
lived part of his time in the country), 
was almost ruined by the office. It is in- 
deed true, he was put in jail some time 
after he was out of office, but that was 

*Son of Capt. Joseph Worke, of Donegal 
township, elected Sheriff October, 1779. The 
VYorkes lived, a mile and a half south of Done- 
gal Church. 


because he was involved in an iron works. 
Joseph Pugh, was Sheriff from 1755 
to 1757, his successor, was so re- 
duced by that business that he was ob- 
liged to remove into a remote part of 
Virginia with his poor family. 

Then came in Jimmy Webb, owned 
and resided where Knapp's Villa is, 
was Sheriff from 1767 to 1769, who 
rented a house in town, where he muts 
live like a gentleman and make every 
leading man in the county quite welcome 
that came to see him. If he baa not had 
a good estate he would have failed. 

Frederick Stone, who was Sheriff 
from 1772 to 1773, succeeded him, who 
thought himself as good a gentleman as 
his predecessor ; but he, a poor, good- 
natured, tender-hearted man, soon got 
into jail, and is at this day an object of 

After him Johnny Ferree, who was 
Colonel in the Revolutionary Army, and 
Sheriff from 1773 to 1775, of Bettell- 
bausen, (Strasburg borough,) nine miles 
off, set up for Sheriff, and carried it by a 
great majority of votes, and called on me 
for a recommendation to his Honor, Gov- 
ernor Penn, for a commission, which I 
refused to give until, among other things, 
he promised to live very frugally, and 
settle his accounts with me at every Court 
and pay me the Governor's fees, or fines, 
and my fees, etc. He was indulged to 
live at his own house at Bettel House, 
coming to town once or twice a week, by 
which means he was able to do everybody 
justice and save some money to himself. 

It must be remembered the emoluments 
of the Sheriff's office one hundred and 
fifty years ago were not what they now 

An Old Grist Mill. 

Samuel Taylor, a Quaker, who was 
born on Tinicum Island, in the Delaware, 


built a srrist mill, in Strasburg township, 
upon a small stream in the year 1727. 
It was probably on Little Beaver Creek, 
north of Smith's mill, which stood at the 
cross roads where New Providence now 
is. On May 8, 1728, Samuel Taylor mar- 
ried Elizabeth, daughter of Justice John 
Wright, of Wright's Ferry. About 1734 
William Taylor sold his mill and farm and 
purchased several hundred acres from 
Samuel Blunston where Wrights viile now 
is. His son, Christopher, was a soldier 
in the Revolutionary War, and was ia the 
battles of King's Bridge and Long Island. 
The Barbers and Boudes inter-married 
into this Taylor family. 

Richard Loudon, in 1727, purchased a 
farm adjoining Taylor's land, in Stras- 
burg township. On June 5, 1728, he 
married Patience Wright, sister of Mrs. 
Taylor. When the county seat was per- 
manently located at Lancaster he was 
appointed Prison Keeper. When some 
of the Marylanders were imprisoned there 
Betty Lowe, a sister of one of the pris- 
oners, came to Lancaster and induced 
Mr. Loudon to accept her services in his 
family, where she was for several days 
kindly entertained. A body of armed 
Marylanders came to Lancaster in the 
night time, when Miss Lowe admitted 
them to Mrs. London's dwelling, where, 
after a severe struggle, they subdued Mr. 
and Mrs. Loudon, and Betty led the way 
to a bureau where the jail keys were kept. 
The Marylanders were all liberated. 

Colonel Joun Loudon, a distinguished 
officer of the Revolution, was a sou of 
this Quaker Prison Keeper. 

Letter From the Surveyor General.* 

PHILADELPHIA, 24th, 7th, 1714. 
LOVING FPRD: Isaac Taylor. The 
bearer hereof, Christopher Schleagel, 
*This letter was written by James Steel, 
the Surveyor General, to Isaac Taylor, the 
Surveyor of Chester County. 


complaining that a certain person hath 
seated himself near the mill be has lately 
built at Conestoga, by whose means the 
Indians that are thereabouts are likely to 
be very troublesome, if not, dangerous, to 
him, and that the said person, so seated, 
hath no other right than what the In- 
dians have given him, and also that the land 
where he is seated ought to be included 
in the 300 acres that is yet untaken up of 
the Thousand Acres first granted to him, 
of which he says there is but 700 as laid 
out. These are to desire thee to order 
the person soe seated to remove of the said 
land without Delay, and use thy endeav- 
ors to make the man easy and acomodate 
him in laying out ye 300 Acres soe tar as 
thou can without offending the Indians. 
I am with real love and good will thy 
assured ffrd. JAMES STEEL. 

Turnpike from York to Columbia. 

Judge Ephraim Cutler, of Ohio, arrived 
in York in August, 1809, with a large 
drove of cattle. In his diary of September 
3, 1809, we read: "The Dutch are re- 
markable for having selected the very 
best lands. They are sure to root out the 
Irish. There is an irreconcilable aversion 
between these people. The Dutch are 
slow, cold-hearted and economical ; the 
Irish warm and quick in their feelings, 
generous and vain. How can such mate- 
rials assimilate? They have nothing 
alike, and there is no adhesive principle 
to cement them, and of course they do 
not mix. I am told there is scarcely a 
Dutchman among the two hundred men at 
work on the turnpike, although this road 
is entirely through Dutch settlements." 
It is an interesting question to know what 
became of these early Irish contractors 
and laborers. 

Irish JLaborers. 

Pennsylvania is indebted to the Irish 


race for the successful completion of her 
turnpikes and public works. In the year 
1800 and 1801, when the turnpike between 
Lancaster and Harrishurg was being con- 
structed, large numbers of Irish laborers 
employed thereon made EHzabethtown 
their headquarters. Many of the old citi- 
zens of that place and vicinity were Cath- 
olics, who worshipped in a church in that 
place. Some of the contractors made 
that place their home after the work was 
completed. In the year 1801, when Gen- 
eral Thomas Boude, of Columbia, was a 
candidate for a second terra of Congress, 
the Irish laborers at Elizabethtown voted 
solid for the Democratic candidate and 
defeated Boude by a few votes. The Celt 
was potent in politics, as will be seen, at 
a much earlier period than is generally 


President : 


Vice-Presidents : 

SAMUEL EVANS, ESQ., Columbia. 


Recording Secretary : 

F. R. DIFFENDERFFER, Lancaster. 

Corresponding Secretary : 

W. W. GRIEST, Lancaster. 

Librarian : 
SAMUEL M. SENER, ESQ., . . . .Lancaster. 

Treasurer : 
B. C. ATLEE, ESQ., Lancaster. 

Executive Committee : 

HON. W. U. HENSEL, Lancaster. 


ADAM GEIST, Blue Ball. 

REV. C. B. SHULTZ, Lititz. 

DR. C. A. HEINITSH, Lancaster. 

J. W. YOCUM, ESQ., Columbia. 

RICHARD M. REILLY, ESQ., . . Lancaster. 

PETER C. HILLER, Conestoga. 

PROF. H. F. BITNER, Millersville. 

The officers proper are also members 
of the Executive Committee by virtue of 
their office. 



ON JAN. 7, 1897. 





BY DR. Jos. H. DUBBS. 










The People who Made Lancaster County, 


Early Industries on the Octoraro, 

BY DR. J. W. HOUSTON, 204 

Some Helffenstein Letters, 

BY DR. Jos. H. DUBBS, 218 

The Early Telegraph, 

BY W. B. WILSON, ESQ., 226 

A Prominent Scotch-Irishman, 

BY R. J. HOUSTON, 251 

History of the Donegal Church, 

BY DR. J. L. ZEIGLER, 258 

The People Who Made Lancaster County, 

It is a rather singular feature of most 
educational systems that a knowledge of 
the people and nations of remote regions 
and by-gone ages is deemed of primary 
importance, while the historic drama 
moving in the world immediately around 
us, and in which our own people have 
been, through successive generations, 
the actors, attracts but little notice. 

The knowledge of our own country and 
our own people is an educational factor 
too much neglected and too often treated 
as a secondary and inferior accomplish- 
ment. Every organized community has 
a history that is significant and more or 
less important, and it is impossible to 
fully understand a people, to discern their 
true spirit, and be in complete sympathy 
with them, without adequate knowledge 
of their history, which reveals the hidden 
sources of their individuality, the origin 
of their peculiar modes of thought and 
action and the formulating factors in 
their social development. 

From this standpoint, and from what 
our early annals reveal, the history of 
our own State, and particularly of our 
own county, is most interesting and im- 
portant ; and as illustrating the results of 
what may be achieved by men and women 
of earnest purpose and resolute devotion 
to duty, it is not only instructive but 
most inspiring, and well calculated to 
awaken a sense of gratitude and arouse a 
feeling of genuine patriotism. 

It is a lesson of deep importance for us 
to learn that what we are and what we 
possess in this great State and county we 
owe to the bravery, the self-sacrifice, the 


prudence, the far-seeing enterprise, the 
indefatigable energy, added to the patri- 
otic public spirit, the high standard of 
morality, the rigid integrity, the broad 
charity and religious enthusiasm of our 
ancestors. To them we are indebted for 
this goodly heritage, and it is our obvious 
duty and should be regarded as a most 
grateful task, in the light of what we now 
enjoy, to study the early conditions of 
our county and the character of her pio- 
neers ; what was the impelling cause of 
their migration here, what was the spirit 
that animated them after they came, and 
what were the purpose and tendency of 
their lives in these new conditions. It is 
only after such study that we can truly 
understand our people and comprehend 
the real foundations of their success; and 
the more we contemplate their life and 
character, their struggles and achieve- 
ments, the more profoundly do we respect 
and reverence those brave men and 
women who made Lancaster county, and, 
passing to their reward, left it a rich in- 
heritance to their children. 

Wealth of the County. 

Lancaster county is the richest agricul- 
tural county in the United States. It has 
an area of 973 square miles, or 623,720 
acres, of which more than 500,000 acres 
are cultivated land, divided into 9,000 
farms, whose assessed valuation in 1896 
was $87,262.990, and the annual products, 
according to the census of 1890, aggre- 
gated $7,657,790. 

It is interesting to note that the county 
second in agricultural wealth in the 
United States, St. Lawrence county, Ne w 
York, as revealed by the census of 1890, 
produced crops valued at $6,054,160, or 
$1,603,630 less than Lancaster county ; 
and our adjoining county of Chester 
ranks third in agricultural wealth in the 
United States with annual products 


valued at $5,863,800; and our neighbor- 
ing county of Bucks is fifth, with annual 
products valued at $5,411,370. The 
amount of money returned to the asses- 
sors as invested at interest by the people 
of Lancaster county and liable to State 
tax in 1896 amounted to $21,427,601, and 
the amount of taxes collected in Lan- 
caster county in that year was $955,- 
965.24 There are twenty-eight national 
banks whose combined resources of capi- 
tal, surolus and deposits aggregate over 
$12,000,000. The county expended $53,- 
136.70 in 1896 for the poor, and over 
$300,000 for the maintenance of its 700 
public schools, whose average attendance 
exceeds 30,000 pupils. There are 300 
Sunday-schools in the county, with an 
average attendance of 38.136 pupils. 

In enumerating the present resources 
of the county, it is important to bear in 
mind that all that we possess and all the 
favorable conditions that surround us in 
this great county, represent what has 
been accomplished within a period of less 
than two hundred years. 

Early Settlers. 

While it has been ascertained, through 
the researches of Dr. J. H. Dubbs, Pro- 
fessor of Archaeology in Franklin and 
Marshall College, that the first white 
creature that settled on the soil now com- 
prised within Lancaster county was John 
Kennerly, a Quaker, who came over the 
border-line in the year 1691 and located 
in what is now Sadsbury township, a mile 
from Christiana, yet it is well known that 
the first real settlements oi consequence 
were made in 1709 by the Swiss Menno- 
nitea and French Huguenots, who were 
followed by the refugees ol various Ger- 
man sects, and later still by the Scotch- 
Irish and the Welsh with a goodly 
number of English, including a large 
proportion of Quakers. 


The county was organized on May 10, 
1729, and the county seat, originating 
with a wayside tavern, that, with the 
addition of a few dwellings, was called 
Hickory Town, was organized into a 
Borough on May 1, 1742, and chartered a 
city on March 20, 1818. 

The first settlers were refugees from the 
terrors of European tyranny. Towards 
the end of the seventeenth century Pro- 
testant Christians in nearly every country 
on the continent of Europe were sub- 
jected to the most cruel persecutions. 
The Edict of Nantes, which had granted 
toleration to the Huguenots, or French 
Protestants, was respected for about 
ninety years, but was revoked in 1685 by 
the decree of Louis XIV., when the flood- 
gates of persecution were opened and 
the most barbarous acts of cruelty were 
perpetrated. According to the historians 
of that dreadful time the French pro- 
vinces and the Palatinate, or provinces on 
the Rhine, the most fertile and best culti- 
vated region of Germany, where the 
doctrines of Luther and Zwingli took 
firm root, were "again and again over- 
run by a fierce and dissolute soldiery, 
who offered the alternatives of recanta- 
tion or extermination. In midwinter, 
while deep snow covered the ground they 
laid waste the fields, destroyed the vine' 
yards and burnt the dwellings of 
500,000 people, who were left shelterless 
and starving." 

Under this fiery ordeal the Huguenots 
who escaped death fled in vast numbers, 
some of them across the British channel 
and others into parts of Germany. 
The bloody hand of persecution was 
not less active in Switzerland and ex- 
tended into the communities of Simon 
Menno. The Meunonites fled into Hol- 
land and Germany, but they were 
followed relentlessly into Germany and 


were finally driven to encounter the 
terrors of the sea and sought refuge in 
the wilds of the Western Hemisphere. 

Dr. William H. Egle, State Librarian 
of Pennsylvania, writes concerning the 
persecutions of the Mennonites, that 
"there were more people of that sect who 
wore put to death in one city, Antwerp, 
in one year, than there A r ere martyrs in all 
England during the time of Queen Mary." 

TheStfiss Mennonites landed incon- 
siderable numbers in 1709, and, pressing 
into the interior towards the Susquehauua 
river, settled in tne territory now com- 
prised within the boundaries of Lancaster 

It is scarcely possible for us to fully 
realize the hardships endured by the 
pioneers in these primeval forests. They 
were obliged to grope their way through 
the woods and thickets along narrow 
Indian paths, and they were not only 
surrounded by the gloom of the dense 
forests and deprived of all the accompani- 
ments of civilization, but they were 
obliged to encounter the terrors of wild 
beasts and reptiles, and of savage tribes 
whose vandalism and thefts and murders 
fill the annals of the times with unutter- 
able horror. 

So late as 1763 it is recorded that " the 
reapers of Lancaster county took their 
guns and ammunition with them into 
the harvest fields to defend themselves 
from the Indians." An autobiographer, 
referring to the days of his youth, passed 
in the early period of our history, relates 
that " in attending school he was com- 
pelled to walk three miles through a deep 
and tangled forest infested with wolves, 
wild cats, snakes and other animals." 

But the early settlers were equal to 
their vast undertaking. They lost no 
time in proceeding to clear the forests. 
They discovered the soil to be of more 


than ordinary fertility. The ground was 
broken up and assiduously cultivated, 
habitations were erected, in the course of 
time roads and bridges were constructed, 
settlements were established, villages 
were laid out, and then began to appear 
the village school house and the village 
church evidences of the true aim and 
the sacred purpose of the sturdy people 
who laid the foundations of the prosperity 
that we now enjoy. 

Period of the Proprietorship. 

After the pioneering period, with all its 
terrors and hard experiences, and the 
vast labor of establishing homes and set- 
tlements and organizing communities, 
grave troubles arose at an early period 
from the proprietorship of the land being 
lodged in foreigners. There was a sense 
of uncertainty and insecurity in regard to 
title. Suspicious and jealousies were en- 
gendered, especially after people of dif- 
ferent nationalities came to swell the 
population in considerable numbers a 
state of feeling that seemed inevitable 
among people who in their parent country 
were tor centuries accustomed to regard 
all strangers as enemies. But this gave 
way in the course of time, as the relations 
of proprietorship and title were adjusted 
and became better understood. As 
might have been expected, these earnest 
people, of widely different nativity but of 
the same aim and purpose, under the favor- 
ing influences of freer conditions, were 
brought into closer intercourse, they 
developed a kindred spirit, a sense of 
mutual regard for one another, and doubt- 
less this early experience in the amalga- 
mation of various nationalities through 
the fire of pioneer hardships was the basis 
of the American Idea of brotherhood, of 
equal opportunity, of individual liberty 
aiid of union. 


The'SpIrit of '16. 

Later came the period in which English 
oppression aroused the spirit of '76," 
and forced on the Revolution, that bloody 
conflict through which was established 
the independence of the American people; 
and from the provisional association of 
the colonists under the Continental Con- 
gress, after passing through the experi- 
ment of a Confederation of the States, 
came finally this great independent nation 
based UDOU the broad foundations of a 
Constitutional Government. 

Who that studies the conditions and 
events of all these early periods, and re- 
calls the hardships and the heroism of 
the brave people who took their part so 
nobly in shaping the destinies of our 
country, is not thrilled with admiration 
and a profound sense of gratitude ! For 
it is the more impressive when we reflect 
that the lives of these sturdy men and 
women were so supremely unselfish that 
there was DO prospect and no hope at any 
time of themselves ever witnessing the 
ultimate results of their trials and sacri- 
fices, or enjoying the fruits of their labors. 
All was suffered and endured for the 
benefit of their posterity. 

Much was accomplished in developing 
the resources of Lancaster county by the 
early settlers during the pioneering period 
and during the years prior to the Revolu- 
tion, as the population became augmented 
from time to time by those hailing from 
various quarters of the European world, 
who, of course, bore all the character- 
istics of their different nationalities 
French, German, Scotch-Irish, English, 
and Welsh, including among them the 
Episcopal, the Lutheran, the Relormed, the 
Presbyterian, the Moravian, the Quaker, 
the Baptist and the Iviennonite elements. 

It was not, however, till after the Revo- 
lution, and the organization of a form of 


government and institutions suited to the 
new conditions, that a marked impetus 
was given to the energies of the people 
towards undertaking larger and more per- 
manent improvements, especially of a 
public nature. 

Conditions at Time of the Revolution. 

At the time of the Revolution the popu- 
lation of Lancaster county, and indeed of 
the whole country, was sparse. There were 
few towns or villages, the highways were 
few and generally wretched, the people 
had but limited means, and the methods 
of business and ordinary condi- 
tions of social life were most primi- 
tive. McMaster, in the "History of 
the People of the United States,*' 
narrates that the farmer who witnessed 
the Revolution ploughed the land with a 
wooden plow, sowed his grain broadcast, 
and when it was ripe cut it with a scythe 
and threshed it with a flail. The farmers 7 
houses were poor structures, scantily fur- 
nished and with no articles of adornment. 
In many instances sand sprinkled on the 
floor did duty as a carpet. There was no 
glass or china. A stove was unknown, 
coal was never seen, and matches were not 
heard of. Many of the vegetables now in 
common use and most prized were not 
only uncultivated, but entirely unknown, 
such as the tomato, egg plant, cauliflower, 
okra, rhubarD, sweet corn, head lettuce, 
cantaloupes, and some of our most cher- 
ished flowers, as geraniums and verbenas. 

The boundaries prescribed in the treaty 
ot peace signed at Paris on the 30th of 
November, 1782, and ratified by the rep- 
resentatives of the thirteen States assem- 
bled in Congress on July 14, 1784, were 
very different from those that now skirt 
our vast domain. The area of the coun- 
try was only half its present extent, and 
the historian points out that a narrow line 
of towns and hamlets extended, with 


many breaks, along the coast from Maine 
to Georgia, and the country extended 
westward across plains of marvellous fer- 
tility into regions yet unexplored by man. 
The whole was little belter than a vast 
wilderness. The population numbered 
three and a quarter millions, and more 
were in the Southern than in the North- 
ern States. Virginia alone contained a 
fifth, and Virginia, with Maryland, the 
two Carolinas and Georgia, held almost 
one-naif of the whole population of the 

Contrast With the South. 

Pertinent to this fact of the predomi- 
nance of the population being in the 
South is the extraordinary contrast be- 
tween the people of the North and those 
of the South, in respect to material wealth, 
thrift and enterprise, which is to be at- 
tributed not to any circumstance relative 
to locality, but wholly to the moral char- 
acter of the people. Noting this contrast, 
the historian already quoted relates many 
things concerning the social life of the 
people in the South. They were not con- 
tent to enjoy the simple, homely pleas- 
ures of our frugal ancestors, with their 
house-warmings, spelling-bees and husk- 
ings, barn-raisings and tea-parties. "No 
pastime oould flourish among them that 
was not attended with risk. . They formed 

hunting clubs they gambled, they 

bet, they gathered in crowds to see cocks 
cut each other to pieces with spurs 
made of steeL Many of the lower caste 
played cards, particularly faro; they 
wrestled, and seldom went home without 
a quarrel or perhaps a brutal fight. The 
combatants coolly agreed betore the 
fight began whether it would be lair to 
bite off an ear or gouge out an eye, or 
maim in some other terrible way. Goug- 
ing out an eye was always permissible. 
Uvery b Uv grew a long thumb nail or 


finger nail for that very purpose, and 
when he had his opponent down would 
surely use it unless the unfortunate man 

cried 'kings cruise' or 'enough.' 

The practice was long a favorite one, and 
common as far north as the Maryland 
border." Dr. Ramsey, in his history of 
{South Carolina, declares that "betting 
and gambling were, with drunkenness 
and a passion for duelling and running 
in debt, the chief sins of the Carolina 
gentleman," and adds that *' duels take 
place oftener in South Carolina than in 
all the nine States north of Maryland." 
Another historian, telling of the clubs 
that flourished in the City of Charleston 
in the early days, remarks that "the 
life passed in them may be judged from 
their names the Ugly Club, the Jockey 
Club, the Hell Fire Club, and others." 

McMaster gives us an insight into the 
life of the young Southerners, which he 
pronounces a strange mixture of activity 
and sloth. * When they were not scour- 
ing the country in search of a fox, riding 
twenty miles or more to a cock fight or 
barbecue, they indulged in supreme idle- 
ness. Travellers were amazed to find a 
man in the best of health rise at nine, 
breakfast at ten and lie down in a cool 
place in the house to drink toddy bom bo 
or sangaree, while a couple of slaves fanned 
him and kept off the flies." 

There is perhaps nowhere a more 
obvious lesson to be gleaned from the 
pages of history than that which contrasts 
the spirit and purpose and manner of life 
of the people of the South with what 
characterized our ancestors here in Lan- 
caster county, and the contrast should at 
all times a waken in us, who have received 
from them this rich heritage, the deepest 
respect and unbounded gratitude. 

Added to a profound sense of gratitude 
for our inheritance of what may be 


deemed, in large measure, material ad- 
vantage, though based on the sound 
foundations of correct living and a high 
standard of moral character, we are en- 
titled to entertain just pride m the ac- 
complishments of our forefathers in the 
higher ranges of human activity. 

Oar Eurlv Settlers Not Illiterate. 

It is an erroneous impression that 
the early inhabitants of Lancaster county 
were ignorant and illiterate. On the con- 
trary, there were among them men of 
learning, and many men and women of 
education and culture and refinement. 
Not, indeed, that veneer of refinement or 
affectation of polish that is so often pre- 
sented as a substitute for the genuine 
quality, which reposes not less in the 
most homely than in the most attractive 
personality. They were a plain, sturdy 
rural folk, calm and thoughtful, with 
serious purpose, enterprising but prudent, 
often shrewd and calculating, but honest 
and trustworthy, with a high ideal of 
manhood and citizecship, an ardont pub- 
lic spirit, and a zeal and enthusiasm in 
religion that was constant and practical. 

The Swiss and German refugees, who 
were the most numerous of our early set- 
tlers,exhibited a wonderful amount of en- 
terprise and established a literary centre 
here, of which we may be justly 
proud. Prior to the Revolution 
there were more printing presses 
operated and more books pub- 
lished by the German portion of our an- 
cestry than in the whole of New England, 
with all its boasted culture. The first 
book printed in German type in America 
appeared in 1739, ten years after our county 
was organized, and contained a collection 
of the hymns ot the Ephrata Brethren. 
The Ephrata Brethren had a complete 
plant for a printing establishment. They 
made all their own materials, they had 


their own paper mill, type foundry and 
bindery, and they printed and published 
probably more than a hundred books In 
the past century. The Bible was printed 
by oar Gorman ancestors in their own 
language three times be "ore it was ever 
printed in English in America, and the 
New Testament was printed by them 
seven times before it was printed in 
English in this country. 

Judge Samuel W. Penny packer, LL. D., 
of Philadelphia, who has made a life- 
long study of the history of the Pennsyl- 
vania Germans, is authority for the state- 
ment that to them must be awarded the 
credit not only of publishing the first 
book in America, but also of producing 
in America the earliest essays UDOII 
music, bibliography, pedagogy and 
astronomy. He also notes the interest- 
ing fact that "down to the time of the 
Revolutionary War, there were eight 
newspapers published in Pennsylvania in 
English, and there were ten newspapers 
published in Pennsylvania in German. 
What is true of the East is also true of 
the West. The first time that a Bible ap- 
peared west of the Alleghenies it was 
published in 1814, in German, at Somer- 

The first genealogical work printed in 
America and the first work on pedagogy 
were issued from the Ephrata press, and 
the first stereotyping in America was 
done at Ephrata, and also the first print- 
ing in oil colors. A book of common 
prayer, believed to be the first that was 
ever published in this country, was 
printed at Ephrata in 1767. It is now in 
the possession of the Historical Society 
of Pennsylvania, and its title page bears 
the following inscription : " The Family 
Prayer Book, Containing Morning and 
Evening Prayers for families ami private 
persons. To which are annexed Directions 


for a devout and decent behavior in the 
public worship of God ; more particularly 
in the use of the Common Prayer ap- 
poicted by the Church of England. To- 
gether with the Church Catechism. Col- 
lected and published chiefly for the nse 
of the Episcopal Congregations of Lan- 
caster, Pequea and Caernarvon. *1 will 
pray with the Spirit ; and I will pray 
with the understanding also.' I Cor. 
14:15. Ephrata. Printed for William 
Barton, 1767." 

It is an interesting historical fact that 
George Wasnington was first called "The 
Father of His Country " in a German 
almanac, printed at Lancaster, for the 
year 1779. The almanac has a full page 
Irontispiece containing an emblematic 
design with the figure of Fame holding 
in her left baud a portrait inscribed 
"Washington," and in her right hand a 
long trumpet with the words issuing 
forth, inscribed on a scroll, "DcsLandes 
Vatter." As this was printed in the fall 
of 1778, the expression "Des Landes 
Vatter," "The Father of His Country," 
dates bacK to that year. 

Dr. David Ramsey, who has been called 
the *' Father of American History," was 
born in Little Britain township, on April 
2, 1749. He removed to South Carolina, 
and to the labors of an active medical 
practice he added those of a voluminous 
historical writer. He published a "History 
of the American Revolution," a "Life of 
Washington," a "History of the United 
States," a "History of South Carolina," 
and other important works. Dr. Ramsey 
was the first person who took out a copy- 
right under the laws of the United States. 

Lindley Murray, who may be justly 
called the "Father of English Grammar," 
was born in Lancaster county in 1745, at 
Swatara, in a part of the county that was 
carved out to form Dauphin county. His 


' Grammar of the English Language," 
published in 1795, became the standard 
authority and is the basis of all the 
grammars that have since been pub- 
lished, and his "English Reader" and 
"English Spelling Book " were popular 
through several generations. 

The first Pharmacopoeia ever published 
in America was the work of Dr. William 
Brown, published at Lititz in 1778, and 
printed in Philadelphia by Christian Seist. 

Many other authors have been given 
to the world by Lancaster county, but it 
is not designed to go into this phase of 
our subject exhaustively, and our neces- 
sary limitations have allowed only a brief 

Records of Early Patriotism. 

We have every reason to be proud of 
the records of the patriotism of our ances- 
tors. Pennsylvania, with its capital *'City 
of Brotherly Love," was conspicuous 
among the colonies as the home of Ameri- 
can liberty. Founded in 1681, she was, 
with the exception of Georgia, the young- 
est of all the thirteen original Status, and 
under the liberal policy which was in- 
wrought in her constitution and laws, 
through the Quaker influence, and which 
was gratefully accepted and firmly 
supported by the Germans and the 
Scotch-Irish, this youngest of the 
colonies advanced to the front rank. 
It was regarded throughout the world 
as the most successful experiment 
of practical freedom, and the character 
of the people is reflected in the remark of 
Voltaire, "Their colony is as nourishing 
as their morals have been pure." 

Pennsylvania had the first representa- 
tive form of government in the new world. 
It was the first of the States to adopt the 
Constitution of the United States, and it 
was tne vote of Pennsylvania that made 
the Declaration of Independence possible. 


Judge Pennypacker, in writing of the 
Convention that assembled in Philadel- 
phia in 1787, to pass upon the adoption 
of the Constitution, states that "after the 
Constitution had been framed it was 
still a matter of grave doubt whether 
it would be accepted by the States. 
It is generally conceded that the 
adoption of the work of the convention 
was due to the early action taken by Penn- 
sylvania. She was the first of the great 
States to declare in favor of it. When the 
question of the adoption of the Constitu- 
tion arose in the Pennsylvania Assembly 
there was the greatest diversity of views, 
and the contest became heated aud earn- 
est. In that eventful crisis the very earliest 
effort in behalf of the new government 
came from the Germans." 

Not only was this timely patriotic spirit 
manifested in the adoption of the Consti- 
tution, but with equal truth may the same 
be said regarding the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. Hon. Geo. F. Bear, LL. D, f 
of Reading, in a public address in the 
Court House at Lancaster in 1891, speak- 
ing to representatives of the German 
counties of Eastern Pennsylvania, and re- 
ferring to the iact that at the time of the 
Declaration of Independence nearly one- 
half of the population of Pennsylvania 
was German, declared that the Germans 
were the potential factors in securing the 
essential vote of Pennsylvania for the 
Declaration of Independence. Under the 
proprietary rule only those could vote 
who were natural born subjects of Eng- 
land, or duly naturalized after swearing 
allegiance to the King, and possessing 
certain property qualifications. Compara- 
tively few Germans qualified themselves 
to vote. In 1775 the Pennsylvania dele- 
gates to the Colonial Congress were in- 
structed by the General Assembly to vote 
against separation from Great Britain. 


The situation was most critical. Inde- 
pendence and union were impossible 
without Pennsylvania. It became neces- 
sary to secure the enfranchisement of the 
Germans. A provincial convention was 
called and met in Philadelphia on June 
16, 1776, to frame a new government, and 
through this really revolutionary proceed- 
ing, as Bancroft expresses it, "the Ger- 
mans were incorporated into the people 
and made one with them." The 19th of 
June, 1776, enfranchised the Germans and 
made the Declaration of Independence 

It is by no means strange that this pa- 
triotic spirit should have been called 
forth at two suoh important and critical 
periods of our history. When it is re- 
membered that Pennsylvania enjoyed the 
first representative form of government in 
the new world, and philanthropy was one 
of its chief corner stones, it will be seen 
that it was eager for the blessings of 
liberty to be spread abroad through the 
land. In none of the colonies did liberty 
take such early root as here. As has been 
truthfully recorded by an accomplished 
writer on early Pennsylvania history, 
Benjamin M. Nead : "It found no foot- 
hold on Puritan soil, for the blight of in- 
tolerance was there. Roger Williams, in 
insisting on the freedom of conscience, 
was compelled to risk the stake. South 
of Pennsylvania the feudal idea governed 
in its stricted form." 

It is an interesting matter of local his- 
tory to know that a native of Lancaster 
county, Dr. David Ramsey, was President 
pro tern, of the Continental Congress 
during the illness of John Hancock, and 
General Mifflin, who lies buried in Trinity 
Lutheran Church yard, in Lancaster city, 
presided over the Continental Congress 
at Annapolis when Washington resigned 
his commission as Commander-in-chief. 


General Edward Hand, whose remains lie 
buried in St. James' Church yard, in 
Lancaster, was a gallant soldier of the 
Revolution, a close, confidential friend of 
Washington and Adjutant General ot his 
staff. Close by the tomb of General 
Hand is that of Edward Shippen, promi- 
nent in colonial and revolutionary times, 
whose son became Chief Justice of the 
Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, and one 
of his daughters, Peggy, in her eighteenth 
year, became the second wife of Benedict 
Arnold in April, 1779. 

Early Abolitionists. 

The abolition of slavery in this State in 
1780 was due to the controlling power of 
the elements of our population whom we 
have described as having made Lancaster 
county; and it is interesting to know that 
of all of the societies for promoting the ab- 
olition of slavery the oldest was formed in 
Pennsylvania. It is recorded that a pro- 
test against slavery was made by the So- 
ciety of Friends at Germantown as early 
as 1688, and "five days be 'ore the battle 
of Lexington an anti-slavery society was 
formed in the old Sun Tavern at Phila- 
delphia, which was reorganized alter the 
Revolution, when Benjamin Franklin be- 
came its President, and from 1784 it had 
a long career of usefulness." 

It was a Lancaster countian, William 
Wright, who first suggested the "Under- 
ground Railroad," or systematic concert 
of action to aid escaped slaves to safe 
refuge. The first conflict and bloodshed 
in the United States under the Fugitive 
Slave Law, passed by Congress in 1850, 
occurred in Lancaster county, near 
Christiana. And it was the representative 
from Lancaster county in Congress, Thad- 
deus Stevens, whose influence and leader- 
ship accomplished the enfranchisement 
of the emancipated slaves. 


Free Education. 

The same dominant spirit, in his earlier 
legislative career, prevented the over- 
throw of the Liberal School Law, and 
firmly established the free school system 
of this Commonwealth. It is a fact for 
every Pennsylvania!! to be proud of that 
ve have had free education from the 
beginning of the Commonwealth. In New 
England one of its foremost States had 
not a free school system till within the 
present generation. And we may boast 
not only of the liberality, but also of the 
gallantry of our Commonwealth, for we 
have never in Pennsylvania denied to 
females equal rights with males in our 
schools. It was very late until they came 
to that idea in New England, where the 
girls could go to school only when the 
room was not needed for tiie boys. 

The first school in Lancaster county 
was established as early as 1712 by Swiss 
Meunonites in the Pequea Valley, near 
the present site of Willow Street. They 
erected a log house to serve for their re- 
ligious meetings on Sunday and for 
school during the week. 

The first Sabbath-school in this coun- 
try was opened in Lancaster county by 
Ludwig Hacker in 1740, more than a gen- 
eration before Robert Raikes started 
Sunday-schools in England in 1780. This 
enterprise for the religious instruction of 
youth was conducted on Saturday after- 
noon, the Sabbath of the Seventh Day 
Baptists. It continued prosperously for 
thirty-seven years until 1777, when the 
Battle of Braudywine turned the school 
house into a hospital for wounded troops. 
Judge Penuypacker has a collection of 
381 tickets that were used in this Sabbath- 
school, printed in 1744, on every one of 
which is printed in German a text of 
Scripture and a religious verse. 

In 1791, under the patronage of the 


celebrated Dr. Benjamin Hush, the first 
non-sectarian Sunday-school iu this coun- 
try was commenced in Philadelphia, and 
it is curious to learn that their founders 
were reviled as Sabbath breakers. There 
are now in Lancaster county 308 Sunday- 
schools, with an attendance of 33,288 

Pennsylvania may boast of being the 
home of Presbyterianism in America, and 
it was here that the first American Pres- 
bytery was organized in 1705. 

The first scientific society in America 
was founded here in 1744 at the suggestion 
of Benjamin Franklin, who was afterwards 
succeeded by David Rittenhonse, the 
great astronomer and mathematical 
genius, among whose inventions of great 
practical value was the metallic ther- 

The researches of F. R. Diffenderffer, 
Secretary of tnis Society, reveal that 
the third public subscription library 
that ever existed in the United States was 
that of the Lancaster Library Company, 
established in 1759. Its name was 
changed four years later to The Julianna 
Library, in honor of Lady Julianna Penn, 
daughter of the Earl of Pom fret, and 
wife of Thomas Penn, one of the pro- 

It was a Pennsylvania botanist, John 
Bartram, who first described the plants 
of the new world, and a Pennsylvania 
Scotch-Irishman, Alexander Wilson, who 
was the first American ornithologist. 
The celebrated scientist, Dr. Joseph 
Priestly, sought refuge from English in- 
tolerance and spent the last ten years of 
his life in the freedom of Pennsylvania, 
making his home in our neighboring 
county of Northumberland. 

The Pennsylvania Hospital, established 
in 1752, was the first hospital founded in 
this country, and connected with it was 


the first asylum for the insane that ever 
existed in America. 

The first hank that was ever established 
in the United States was a Pennsylvania 
enterprise. Prior to the Revolution 
nothing of the kind was known in this 
country, and we are indebted for the first 
bank to Robert Morris, under whose com- 
manding financial genius the BanK of 
North America was chartered on Decem- 
ber 31, 1781. Not until three years later 
did any rival aopear, when the Bank of 
Massachusetts was organized in Boston, 
and a few months later the Bank of New 
York and later still in the same year the 
Maryland Bank in Baltimore. 

The first turnpike in the United States 
was the Lancaster Turnpike, extending 
from Philadelphia to Lancaster, which 
was commenced in 1792. It is estimated 
that there are now more than 400 miles of 
macadamized roads in Lancaster county. 
And it is a point of historical interest to 
the people of Lancaster county to know 
that not only did they have the first 
macadamized highway in their county, 
but also the first railroad of any consid- 
erable length, that which was built from 
Philadelphia to Columbia, a distance of 
eighty miles. 

In connection with the subject of trans- 
portation, although this is an inland 
county, we are reminded that the world 
is indebted to Lancaster county for the 
man who first successfully introduced the 
application of steam to navigation. 
Robert Fulton was born in Little Britain 
township in 1765, and the old stone house 
where he was born and reared is one of 
the famous places of pilgrimage in the 
county. His boat, "Clermout," was 
launched on the Hudson river in 1807, 
He had previously invented a torpedo or 
submarine boat when abroad, and in 1801, 
under the patronage of the French Gov- 


eminent, while making a public test he 
remained an hour under water and guided 
the torpedo around the harbor of Brest. 
Fulton was an accomplished artist, and 
with his penoil succeeded in providing 
means for his education. When he went 
to England he made his home with bis 
fellow countryman, Benjamin West, the 
first great American painter, who was a 
native of the adjoining county of Chester. 

Benjamin West executed at Lancaster, 
in 1752, for William Henry, a gunsmith, 
a picture representing the death of So- 
crates, which contained the first 
figure he ever painted from life. This 
painting is in possession of a descend- 
ant of Henry living near Bethlehem. 
Henry afterward became a Justice of the 
Courts. He was a man of enterprise and 
refined culture, and he extended the hos- 
pitalities of his house to many visiting 
foreigners and men of letters and science 
of his own country. It was during a visit 
to his house that Thomas Paine wrote a 
portion of "The Crisis " over the signa- 
ture "Common Sense." His son, John 
Joseph Henry, who lies buried in the 
Moravian burying ground, in Lancaster, 
became the President Judge of the Courts 
of Lancaster county in 1781, and he was 
distinguished not only for his legal learn- 
ing, but also for his mechanical genius. 
He was the inventor of the screw-auger. 

Lancaster county has given to the 
world a great number of important me- 
chanical inventions. Among them was 
the steam plow, which created a great 
sensation, invented by Joseph Fawkes, 
who was born and reared in Bart town- 
ship, and is now living retired and greatly 
respected in California. He was the in- 
ventor of a number of agricultural imple- 
ments, ami his steam plow was first ex- 
hibited on the Fair Grounds at Lancaster 
in August, 1859, and the next month a 


practical test was made at Freeport, 
Illinois, where he was awarded a prize of 

Another important Lancaster county 
invention, now in universal use among 
agriculturists, is the double corn shovel 
harrow, patented in 1869 by Jacob 
Mowrer ; and his son, Nathaniel Mowrer, 
when a lad of only eighteen years, in- 
vented the corn-cob crusher and the de- 
germinating machine f jr extracting the 
eye out of corn before grinding. 

In his valuable paper read before this 
Society, William B. Wilson, of the Penn- 
sylvania railroad, whose early experience 
in the telegraphic service was with Col. 
Thomas A. Scott, during the early days 
of the Rebellion, says: *' Lancaster city 
has the honor of hearing the first click of 
an electric telegraph instrument on the 
first telegraph line built for commercial 

purposes in this country The first 

fruit of the experimental telegraph line 
built for Professor Morse between Wash- 
ington and Baltimore was a line built 
between Harrisburg and Lancaster, 
along the tracks of the Harrisburg, Ports- 
mouth, Mount Joy and Lancaster rail- 
road, which was completed November 24, 
1845, and the first message was trans- 
mitted on January 8, 1846." 

Many more facts of a similar kind might 
be gathered from our local records in il- 
lustration of the mental activity, the 
patriotism, the industry and thrift of the 
people whose names are identified with 
our early history, and all these points and 
incidents of our history are interesting 
and instructive as evidence of the charac- 
ter and condition of our ancestors, whose 
lives and achievements, the better we know 
them, are calculated to deepen our respect 
for them and make us all the more zealous 
in fostering a just local pride. 

The lesson that is most impressive from 


this glimpse at the early history of our 
county, and the perils and hardships en- 
dured by our forefathers, their heroic self- 
sacrifice and patriotism is this that as in 
those pioneer days they endured hardships 
and suffered untold miseries to build the 
foundations of a social structure they could 
not expect themselves ever to enjoy, labor- 
ing wholly and unselfishly for their pos- 
terity ; and as they wisely built on the 
sure foundations, the solid rock of sound 
morality and religion, on faith, and in 
hope, and for charity, illustrating in their 
life and character, in their aims and pur- 
poses and in their culture and achieve- 
ments, the elements and types of genuine 
manhood and true citizenship so now 
we, who are in possession of this magnifi- 
cent heritage, have every inspiration to 
meet the present conditions and solve the 
problems of the present time ever in the 
same spirit, with the same bravery, stand- 
ing firmly on the same solid rock and 
illustrating in our life and conduct, to 
the utmost of our ability, the sturdiness 
of character which so happily distin- 
guished them and cause us to feel so 
justly proud of our ancestors. 

In the words of Edward Everett: 
"Characters, like those of our fathers, 
services, sacrifices and sufferings like 
theirs, form a sacred legacy, transmitted 
to our veneration, to be cherished, to be 
preserved unimpaired, and to be handed 
down to after ages." 


The subject assigned to me 1'or investi- 
gation was the ''Eastern Branch of the 
Octorara and its Tributaries," with their 
present and extinct industries as far south 
as the hamlet of Steeleville. 

1 have carefully examined the geography 
and history of this region and find much 
that is inaccurate and many important 
landmarks missing. Although I have 
personal knowledge of nearly half a cen- 
tury of this territory, and have heard 
many of the traditions relating thereto, 
both historical and biographical (some of 
the yarns rather tough ones), yet I am not 
self-confident that my work is perfect, 
having to cull from a mass ol contradictory 
traditions from equally reliable tradition- 
ists, who evidently are impressed by that 
biblical text found in Secoud Thessalon- 
ians, second chapter, and fifteenth verse, 
which reads, "Stand fast and hold the 
traditions which ye have been taught." 
I have endeavored to verify the results 
of my investigation which I now have the 
honor to present to this learned society. 

Here I desire to extend my thanks to 
Hon. Wm. McGowan, Postmaster John 
Borland, both of Christiana, and to 
'Squire H. fi. Bower, of West Grove, 
Chester county, for valuable assistance 
rendered in compiling and collating this 

I also want to enter my protest against 
a very common spelling of the term Octo- 
rara. The ending of the last syllable 
should be an a and not an o. The name 
Octorara is of Indian origin and was used 
to designate a sub-tribe of Indians, having 
a village or encampment near the eastern 

( 205 ) 

banks of this stream on lands now owned 
by Lewis Newcomer, of Upper Oxford 
township, Chester county. 

History and traditions are alike silent as 
to whether they belonged to the Sha wanese 
or Delawares. The term is also applied to 
the entire southeastern slope of Lancaster 
county, which is drained by this stream. 
The name has also been appropriated by 
at least five churches. The post-office at 
Andrews Bridge is named Octorara, and 
numerous beneficial and social organiza- 
tions have borne this title. 

The Eastern Branch of the Octorara is 
formed by the union of the waters of Buck 
run, Williams run, Pownall's run and 
Pine run. Each of these streams has its 
source near the watershed of the Mine 
Hill range. 

This region, in which are found the 
many sources of the numerous tribu- 
taries contributing to the formation of 
this romantic and beautiful stream, is now 
included in the township of Sadsbury, 
where the first settlements, in what is 
now Lancaster county, were made while 
the territory was yet in the mother county 
of Chester previous to the organization 
of Lancaster county in 1729. This terri- 
tory on either side of the inter-county 
line was largely settled by Friends, they 
being induced to locate here because of 
the Penn reservation of one thousand 
acres of land, which was here established 
immediately south of what is now the Gap 
station, on the Pennsylvania Railroad. 
This reservation was surveyed at the time 
Wm. Penn visited King Wopaththa, of 
the Shawanese Indian tribe, A. D. 1700. 
This trant of land is still known as Penu's 
Manor, the name being perpetuated 
through title deeds, notwithstanding 
Penn named the reservation Springtown, 
a very appropriate name. 

Several of those who accompanied 


PeDD on this occasion, serving as staff 
officers, as it were, to the proprietor, also 
pre-empted tracts of land in this vicinity 
some of which were in the Pequea Valley, 
then known as Conestoga, and others on 
the southern slope of the hills extending 
south of and embracing the ground upon 
which Christiana now stands. 

To return to tne subject proper, I 
think I can truthfully assert that no 
stream within the boundaries or confines 
of Lancaster county can show such utili- 
zation of its water power in the past ami 
present as the Eastern Branch of the Oc- 
torara and its tributaries from the diverge 
sources to its mouth. Particularly was 
this true during the early half of the 
nineteenth century. The longest tributary 
to the Eastern Branch of the Octorara 
is known as Buck run. It is an intra- 
county branch, and rises on the southern 
slope of the Mine Hill ridge, on the farm 
owned and operated for years by Hon. 
Wm. Hamilton, recently Senator, repre- 
senting Lancaster county in the General 
Assembly. This branch, about three miles 
long, meanders through the farms known 
as Maxwell's, Webster's and others, re- 
ceiving contributory branches. Where it 
enters the farm of Jacob Townsend it is 
now, and has been for more than a half 
ceutury,uuder contribution by the Town- 
send saw inUl, which was built in 1841 by 
John Towusend, father of the present pro- 
prietor. Near to the saw mill is the 
Smyrna creamery, recently erected. One- 
half mile down the stream we find a flour- 
ing mill, known as Spring mill, in good 
condition. It was built by John Town- 
send, Sr., in 1841, and is now owned and 
operated by John F. Reed. Along the road 
leading from Smyrna to Christiana the 
stream was again four decades since laid 
under tribute by one Christopher Corbett, 
a peculiar character, who may have been 
an ancestor of the noted pugilist. 


He erected mills for sawing timber and 
cleaning oloverseed, but their existence 
was of short duration, and even the ruins 
have been obliterated. On this stream, 
in the western part of Christiana, stands 
an unused flouring mill, which was 
erected A. D. 1816 by Dr. Robert Ag- 
new, father of the late Professor David 
Hayes Agnew, M. D., who for years was 
professor of surgery in his alma mater, 
the University of Pennsylvania. The 
quaint old farm house, in which the pro- 
fessor was born, is still in good repair. 
For years the driveway leading to the 
farm buildings was on the embankment 
of the mill pond. 

This mill w^s known as Earnest's, and 
later as Han way's, but the power has been 
aoandoned and decaying walls guard the 
site. If you will pardon the digression I 
will state that this mill was the scene of 
the premeditated, atrocious, diabolical 
violation of the constitution of these 
United States, by which act one Reuben 
Chambers, although not specifically men- 
tioned in that instrument, nevertheless 
was entitled to all the rights and immuni- 
ties guaranteed to citizens of this nation, 
yet, notwithstanding this assured protec- 
tion, he was deprived of valuable property, 
to wft : sundry bags of sumac tops and 
berries, as depicted by a former narrator. 
Although foreign to my subject, yet, fol- 
lowing closely the text of his biographers, 
permit me to assert that the world may 
never know what was lost to humankind 
by this wanton destruction of Rhus Gla- 
br am, since Reuben was famed for manu- 
facturing and compounding medicinal 
preparations unthought of by the medical 

Reuben, alone of ail the great army of 
veterinarians, could provoke eraesis in 
equines. I think 'Squire Evans' Brack- 
bill's gray mare was the subject of the 


experiment at a period after her subjuga- 
tion by means of the blue horse cart, 
which was loaded with stones. 

The Williams run rises on the Maxwell 
farm a few hundred yards from the source 
of Buck run, and passes through the 
farms of Rea Moore, Calvin Carter and 
Isaac Slokom, and then forms a junction 
with Buck run on the western border of 

The Pownall run rises on the Hathaway 
farm, runs a southerly course, crossing and 
recrossing the Pennsylvania railroad, and 
empties into the Williams run near the 
confluence of that stream with Buck run. 
After the union of these waters the stream 
enters the Noble mill pond to contribute 
to the formation of the East Branch of 
the Octorara. The inter- county stream, 
known as Pine run, continues as the east- 
ern boundary of Lancaster county for 
one and one-half miles north of Christi- 
ana, when the inter-county line leaves the 
stream on the farm of Benjamin Pownall 
and bears off northeast to the course of 
the stream. Pine run rises near the site 
of the former Asbury Methodist Episco- 
pal ChurchjOn the farm of Mrs. Shaw, on 
the southern slope of the Gap hills. One- 
half mile south of its course are found 
the ruins of Lear's mills comprising 
flouring, sawing and clover mills. These 
mills were formerly Qest's mills. Con- 
tinuing south, near to Sadsbury meeting 
house, thirty years ago, was the Amos 
Townsend saw mill. Below these ruins 
we find the site of the Denny machine 
shops, unused for years. 

Within the borough of Christiana 
water power was furnished by Pine run, 
which was utilized for nearly sixty years 
to furnish power for the foundry and 
machine shops now operated by the 
Christiana Machine Company, but the 
power has not been used for eight years, 
having been supplanted by steam power. 


The head waters of Pine run are now 
utilized by the borough ot Christiana in 
furnishing the water supply to her inhab- 
itants. The water is conducted by small 
pipes leading from springs to a common 
reservoir or basin, from which it flows to 
the borough through larger pipes by 
gravity, a distance of two miles. Within 
the borough there is a head pressure of 
one hundred and sixty feet, rendering 
fire engines unnecessary. The water is 
generally distributed through the toyn 
and is assuredly an excellent system of 
water supply, furnishing as it does to 
Christiana the most potable water ot any 
borough or town in Lancaster county. 
Neither mud nor microbes need apply. 

After the confluence of Buck and Pine 
runs in Noble's dam, the name of the 
Eastern Branch of the Octorara is given 
to the stream. This dam is in the southern 
part of Christiana and furnishes Dower to 
drive a flouring and feed mill. Years ago 
there were saw and plaster mills attached. 
These mills are yet known as Noble's 
mills. Forty years ago they were owned 
and operated by Thomas Whitsou, of 
anti-slavery fame, the father of Thomas 
Whitsou, Esq., of the Lancaster Bar. 
These mills are now in the occupancy of 
Henry Rakestraw, who also operates a 
creamery nearby. South of Nobleville, on 
the old Noble farm, now owned by Henry 
Rakestraw, are found the ruins of a 
woolen factory which was burned fifty 
years ago. 

Near this locality the stream is rein- 
forced by the waters of Valley run, which 
rises in Bart township, flows in a south- 
erly course past Bart meeting house, then 
adopts an easterly direction to its mouth. 
The first utilization of its waters was sixty 
years ago, when Hood's tanyard exacted 
tribute. Only tradition can point the site. 

Journeying down the stream, we find 


the chopping mill and creamery of Cyrus 
Brintou. This building a half century 
ago was a woolen factory known as Rose 
Hill. Later, lime spreaders were here 
manufactured. Both enterprises were 
managed by Lewis Cooper. 

One mile east of this plant we find the 
ruins of the Burnt Mill, formerly known 
as the Brick Mill, built by Samuel Irwin 
in 1825, and for years owned by his son, 
Ellis Irwin ; then later the property of 
Wm. Spencer. In 1853 it was burned ; 
the site alone remains. This mill was 
being operated during the time of the 
Christiana riots by Castner Hanway, who, 
with Elijah Lewis and Jos. Scarlet, was 
tried for treason to the United States by 
reason of being implicated in this first 
battle of the great American conflict for 
human liberty and the emancipation of 
the American slave. The scene of this 
resiscance to tyrants in obedience to God 
was on the south bank of this stream, 
about two miles distant from Christiana. 

Near the confluence of this stream from 
the west tne East Branch receives a trib- 
utary from the mother county, known 
as Glen run, evidently a token of mater- 
nal love. This stream rises in Sadsbury, 
Chester county, flows southwest through 
the borough of Atglen, immediately north 
of the Pennsylvania railroad. On this 
stream, years ago, was the Buckley forge, 
known as Greenwood. The buildings are 
now used as a foundry for manufacturing 
iron novelties, especially Mrs. Potts' sad 
irons. The Chalfant Company operates 
the works. 

In the southern part of the town are 
found the ruins of Crawford mill. Glen 
run supplied the power. This mill fur- 
nished great quantities of cornmeal for 
export during the time of the famine in 
the emerald of the ocean. 


When her children like lost Israel's tribes 
were scattered as the leaves, 

Yet round every standard but their own 
are twining laurel wreaths. 

On a branch of Glen run, flowing 
from the east, the ruins of Boyd's mill 
are found. A creamery occupies the 

Near the confluence of this stream with 
the East Branch a flouring mill, late 
known as Ann's, now Ferguson's, is be- 
ing operated. Below this mill we come to 
Mercer's dam, which, like all dams on the 
East Branch, is long and rather narrow. 
A half century since this dam furnished 
power for two flouring mills, which were 
built in the last century by one Downing, 
saith tradition. Evans, In his "History of 
Lancaster County," says by Sterrett 
Brothers in 1781. These mills ground 
much of the wheat raised in Pequea valley 
on its way to the Wilmington market. 
They were also used to grind corn for 
Ireland during the famine, at which time 
they were operated by John Mercer, father 
of Captain John Q. Mercer, late of Lan- 
caster city. Years since one of these 
mills was converted into a paper board 
mill, but this industry is on the wane. 

Flowing into Mercer's dam from the 
Chester county side is an unnamed stream 
on which forty years ago was a tilt-ham- 
mer shop for the manufacture of mow- 
ing and cradling scythes operated by 
James Moore. Here at Mercer's mills a 
covered bridge spans the stream. The 
road leads toward Cochranville, Chester 
county. From Mercer's mills to Steel- 
ville, a distance of three miles, the east 
branch flows through what a Western 
cowboy would denominate a mountain 
gorge, bounded on either side by ranges 
of lofty hills, broken at intervals by 
canons through which some tributary 
flows. The rocky ledges and stony char- 
acter of the soil, with a forty-five degree 


elevation of the hillsides, renders any 
attempt at cultivation impossible until 
the table land is reached. These hills, 
covered as they are with a foliage pre- 
senting all the varied tints of the rainbow, 
present to the lover of natural scenery a 
panorama wonderful to behold. 

Here in these mountain fastnesses na- 
ture has hidden many of her choicest 
floral germs. Here in the sweet seclusion 
of nature's first temples such eminent 
botanists as H. H. Bower, Esq., of West 
Grove, Chester county, and the late How- 
ard W. Gilbert. formerly of the Lancaster 
city High School, received the inspiration 
which carried them into the front rank of 

The grandly natural picturesqueuessof 
the scenery along this part of the stream 
from the great valley to Steeleville is with- 
out rivalry in Lancaster county. 

Twenty years ago, through the persist- 
ent efforts of Hon. Marriott Bros) us, ably 
supported by the foreman of the road 
jury, the late lamented George W. Hensel, 
father of our own General W. U. Hensel, 
the Lancaster county court opened a drive- 
way along the western bank of the stream 
from Mercer's mills to Steeleville, which 
is largely patronized by lovers of natural 
views, which are here beheld in all their 
pristine beauty. Here during the summer 
mouths are found camps of those desiring 
seclusion and restful enjoyment. Here 
picnickers abound and fishing parties are 
in evidence to oatch the gamey bass, with 
which tbe stream was stocked twenty 
years ago. 

This was the hunting ground of that 
famed trio of Nim rods, Prof. Hall, of Lan- 
caster ; George Pownall and William H. 
Sproul, of Christiana, and woe betide the 
unlucky grouse, quail, rabbit or squirrel 
that became the object of their unerring 


Down the stream from the Mercer mills, 
along the Brosius road, are found the 
ruins of Sadsbury Forge No. 1, known as 
the upper forge, and Sadsbury Forge No. 
2, known as the middle forge. They wer& 
purchased by James Sproul (who moved 
tnere from White Rock Forge, Little 
Britain township, A. D. 1828), from 
John Withers, who also owned and 
operated Mount Eden Furnace in Eden 

A half mile down the stream we come 
to a break in the Lancaster county range 
of hills which led to the Sproul mansion, 
near which on the surrounding plateau 
were erected barns and stables required 
to accommodate the great number of 
horses and mules used in transporting 
the smelted iron from Lancaster to the 
Sadsbury forges and to return the 
finished bar iron to water transportation. 
This was before the era of the Pennsyl- 
vania railroad. Teams were also necessary 
to haul the charcoal for the surrounding 
country to the forges, where it was con- 
sumed in the reduction of the iron. 

I well remember, during the boom of 
1844, of seeing processions of six to eight 
six-horse teams all engaged in hauling 
the product of a single furnace plant to 
the Pennsylvania railroad. 

Near to the headquarters mansion the 
No. 2 Sadsbury Forge, known as the 
middle forge, was in operation, No. 1 
forge furnishing chafery iron, which was 
manufactured in No. 2 iorge into octa- 
gonal bars, and were largely sold to a 
New England company, the Whitney, to 
be used in manufacturing gun barrels. 

Alter Mr. Sproul's death, which oc- 
curred in 1847, No. 1 forge was unused. 
Mr. Goodman and son continued the 
bloomery enterprise at No. 2 forge for 
some time, but the scarcity of charcoal, 
and their efforts to manufacture coke 


having failed, this forge was also aban- 
doned and only ruins remain. 

Journeying southward the next utiliza- 
tion of the stream was without doubt the 
first effort to manufacture iron on the 
East Branch and probably was inau- 
gurated by one Duquesne. Evans says 
by Michael Withers about the middle of 
the last century. This forge afterward 
became the property of James Buckley, 
who purchased a large tract of land in 
this locality, a portion of which became 
the property of James Sproul, A. D. 
1837, he having purchased it from the 
Buckley brothers, sons of James Buckley. 

Years ago, when writing up the local 
history of Chester county, I received the 
above tradition from Dr. A. V. B. Orr, 
who was closely identified with this locality 
from his birth, in 1809, up to his death, 
in 1880. Even the ruins of this forge are 
almost obliterated, a high stone wall, part 
of a coal house, alone remaining to mark 
the site of the Duquesne forge. 

A half mile down the stream we come 
to the ruins of Ringwood forge, which 
was built by the Buckley brothers early 
in the present century. John McGowan, 
father of Hon. William McGowan, be- 
came proprietor of the forge in 1837 and 
here manufactured forge iron until 1848. 
Charles Cloud, of the Pennsylvania rail- 
road, was engaged here for some years as 
proprietor, when Thomas Bailey succeeded 
to the business. Bailey attempted to 
manufacture iron from the slag of former 
operators, but failed. His assignee, Wm. 
Borland, however, was successful in the 
enterprise. Twenty-five years ago a freshet 
tore out the plant, which was not rebuilt. 
Three-fourths of a mile below Ringwood 
forge, through a rift in the Lancaster 
county hills, a stream known as Knott's 
run contributes its waters to the swelling 
East Branch. On this run General 
Steele built a large cotton factory. The 

( 215 ) 

stream, though not abounding in water, 
furnished ample fall to guarantee suffi- 
cient power. This enterprise was a failure, 
and for years only stone wails remained 
to tell the tale of the General's venture. 
Thirty years ago a paper board mill was 
erected on the site, but this attempt was 
abortive, and crumbling walls alone ap- 
pear in evidence. 

The water, after operating the large 
factory duriner the Steele administration, 
was conducted around a spur oc the 
southern range and by means of an 
aqueduct was again required to furnish 
power for a less pretentious cotton 
factory, but in after years this building 
was converted into a dwelling, and as 
such is in fair repair at present time, 
though lacking modern improvements. 
Thus far the waters of the East Branch 
and tributaries m their journey to the 
Susquehanna, except Glen Run and the 
Tilt-hammer stream, have only furnished 
power for present aud extinct industries 
on the Lancaster county side of the 
stream. Now the sites of decaying in- 
dustries as we enter Steeleville (so named 
by General Steele) are only found upon 
the Chester county side. Covered bridge, 
No. 2, is found here. Steeleville three 
score and ten years ago was a place 
of moment. The busy mart for the 
entire region, it was not only a business 
centre but it was a social and political 
centre also. Her business men were of 
the most enterprising type. Her poli- 
ticians were patriots. Two of her citizens 
were Colonels in the Continental Army, 
Colonel Taylor and Colonel Thompson, 
and General Steele served his country 
with distinction during the war of 1812. 
Her matrons aud maidens were amongst 
the fairest ot the fair and the hands ot 
the latter were sought in marriage by the 
gifted and educated at home and abroad. 
But Steeleville's prowess is no more ; it 


is only a country cross-roads post-office 
yilla, fast hastening into obscurity. Busi- 
ness activity is lost. The dignified citizen 
has departed. Science no longer has a 

The lyceum, which numbered amongst 
its members men who have adorned the 
professi ns, men who have given to the 
scientific world gems from nature's hid- 
den stores, men who have contributed to 
the ennobling of humanity, has long 
since ceased its meetings and crumbling 
walls which once echoed in response to 
oratory alone remain. 

Here in this comparatively deserted 
hamlet we view the site of a former paper 
mill built by General Steele and success- 
fully operated by him for many years, 
but the industry ceased shortly before 
his death, fifty years ago, and only ves- 
tiges of the plant are found. 

To the antiquarian is shown the site of 
a tanyard built and operated by Thos. 
Woods for decades, but in consequence 
of the scarcity of oak bark and new 
methods in competition this industry was 

The only present industry is a flour- 
ing mill owned and operated by John 
Evans, which supplies the demands of the 
surrounding farmers. 

Tradition tells of a copper mine once 
worked in Steeleville at a time unto which 
the memory of the oldest inhabitant run- 
neth not back, traditions all fixing the 
time previous to the revolution. Twenty- 
five years ago a weak effort was made to 
locate and reopen the mine, but beyond 
locating and finding evidence of the exist- 
ence of former shafts and drifts, nothing 
was accomplished ; no ore was found. 

This gorge, through which the East 
Branch flows from the great valley to 
Steeleville, was at one time, early in the 
present century and even as late as forty 
years ago, as my day book shows, dotted 


with tenement houses wherever it was 
possible to erect a dwelling with safe in- 
gress and exit. There were nearly two 
score of them on the hillside tenanted 
by the employes of the various industries. 
For years these buildings have been de- 
serted, and those not razed by the hand 
of time are fast crumbling into ruin. 
The only habitation except the old cotton 
mill on this stretch of three miles is 
the Goodman mansion, erected on the 
lawn of the former Sproul home and 
which is nov owned by Thomas Griest, a 
brother of our townsman, Ell wood Griest, 
editor of the Lancaster Inquirer, Thomas 
Griest owns and operates a large farm on 
the table lands adjacent to the mansion 

The southeastern slope of Lancaster 
county drained by the Octorara has not 
only been celebrated in the past and pre- 
sent for its industries and agricultural 
production, but the people comprised 
within its area, principally descendants of 
English Friends and Scotch-Irish Pres- 
byterians, are noted for industry, integ- 
rity, intelligence and piety; imbued as 
they are with a love for civil and religious 
liberty, their patriotism is intertwined 
with their religious convictions, and their 
sympathies reach out to other lauds less 
fortunate in their forms of government. 

In conclusion, permit me to say in 
personification of our good old city of 
Lancaster that no brighter jewels bedeck 
her starry crown, as you well know, than 
some of the gems gathered from the 
valley of the Octorara. 

Still laughingly on the East Branch flows, 
By the haunted dell where the hazel grows ; 
Ever onward, never finding repose, 

For its waters so sparkling and clear; 
Enriching the verdure on its sinuous shores, 
Willingly giving of its bounteous stores, 
.As it hastens along o'er its pebbly floors, 

A creation of God for his children so dear 


The Reverend John C.Albertus Helffen- 
stein was pastor of the Reformed Church 
of Lancaster from 1776 to 1779. He was 
born in the Palatinate, February 16, 1748. 
and died t Germantown, Pa., May 17, 
1790. He was the son of the Rev. Peter 
Helffenstein, Superintendent of Churches 
at Sinsheim. In 1772 he came to America, 
accompanied by his half-brother, the 
Rev. John H. Helfrich, and the Rev. 
J. G. Gebhard. Helfrich settled in Lehigh 
county and his charge has ever since been 
occupied by one of his descendants. Geb- 
hard became pastor at Claverack, N. Y., 
where he founded a literary institution. 
Helffenstein died comparatively young, 
but was a celebrated preacher, and several 
volumes of his sermons were published. 
Seven Reformed ministers were his de- 
scendants and bore his name. 

While Helffenstein was pastor in Lan- 
caster he was an earnest patriot. It fre- 
quently became his duty to preach to the 
Hessian prisoners who were kept here. 
On one occasion he preached on the text, 
Isaiah 52 : 3" For thus saith the Lord, 
Ye have sold yourselves for nought and 
ye shall be redeemed without money." 
This sermon caused a good deal of excite- 
ment and offense among the captives. On 
another occasion he preached a discourse 
in the evening on the words : "If the son 
shall make you free ye shall be free in- 
deed," when the excitement became so 
great that it was deemed necessary to ac- 
company him home with a guard. Once 
he preached to the American soldiers on 
their departure for the scene of conflict 
from the words : " If God be for us who 
can be against us?" 


Some years ago it was my privilege to 
visit Sinsheim in the Palatinate, where I 
saw the old church in which the Helffen- 
steins preached. About the same time I 
found, in this country, a number of letters 
written by the members of the family 
who remained in Europe to their brother 
in America. As early letters of this kind 
are extremely rare, it has occurred to me 
to translate several specimens, and I offer 
them to the Historical Society in the hope 
that though antiquated they will not be 
found uninteresting. 

The first is a letter from the father to 
his son in America : 

SINSHEIM, June 3, 1772. 

MY DEAR SON : Though it grieves me 
greatly to live separate from you, and 
that I can entertain no hope of ever visit- 
ing you in America, I yet rejoice in your 
fortunate change of circumstances. May 
God grant us all a new heart so that we 
may walk in his lear ! Beware of sec- 
tarians and remain faithful to the true 
doctrine to which thou hast sworn. 

If the Lord sufiers me to live awhile 
longer you shall find in me a true and 
faithful lather, who will not suffer you to 
want if it is in his power to prevent it. 
In the package you will find : 1. Du 
Bosc's sermons in 4 to ; 2. Stackhouse's 
"System of Doctrine," seventh volume. 
If you should receive the part in which 
one of the sheets is defect! vo suffer it to 
remain unbound until I have an oppor- 
tunity of supplying a complete copy. 3. 
Saurin's sermons in six volumes ; 4. 
Dunckel'a "Funeral Sermons;" 5. Gro- 
nau on the Twenty-fifth Psalm ; 6. 
"Theologia Pastoralis Practica," four 
volumes bound and one unbound ; 7. A 
package of underwear. In the sealed 
book I have placed a gold piece with 
which you may pay the freight. I would 
gladly have sent more, but the price of 


grain is very low and I have had to send 
all I bad for sale at great expense to Hei- 
delberg, as it is now illegal to sell grain 
anywhere but at the giain market. If 
you can indicate a reliable means of con- 
veyance I will send you a package of 
books every year; and if you are in need 

of anything write to me promptly 

I have written to Pastor Weyberg and he 
will send you my letter. 

Your brother will not remain in the 
Palatinate, and if I can get a position else- 
where 1 shall also leave my fatherland. 
I release you from your promise to Louisa 
the more readily because lean see no way 
of coming to you. When you make up 
your mind to get married consider virtue 
first of all, but also give some considera- 
tion to property ; for a minister who does 
not secure some possessions by marriage 
is sure to suffer all his life. 

If there is anything which you desire 
do not hesitate to write. I must now 
close more another time. God be with 
you and with us all ! I remain 
Your faithful Fatber, 


The second letter of the series was writ- 
ten six years later by a brother who re- 
mained in the fatherland. In the trans- 
lation I have considerably abridged it, 
but all that is of general interest has been 

BROTHER : Providence has at last af- 
forded me an opportunity of writing to 
you to inform you that your excellent 
father, your sister and I are still in the 
land of the living. But what shall be the 
fate of this letter? What distant lands, 
what nations will it have to visit ? Per- 
haps my prayers will pierce the clouds 
and ascend to Him who loves to hear 
chem, when they are sincere, so that my 
letter may finally reach you. Are you 


still alive, O dearest brother? Or has 
death gathered you with the thousands 
that have fallen before his sickle? How 
sad it is to live in such uncertainty con- 
cerning our dear ones ! O, would that 
you were still in your fatherland with me 
in our quiet, peaceful cottage how joy- 
ously would the stream of time flow on ! 

How shall I begin and what shall I first 
tell you? I can relate but a few of the 
important events that have occurred 
since last I wrote to you and these but 
briefly. A year and a-half ago the 
worthy pastor at Wissloch, Sauerbrunn, 
passed away, and tho Church Council 
called our father to be his successor ; the 
Court, however, interfered and granted 
the position to Inspector Hasse, of Lau- 
tern. The result was a law suit. Our 
father had an interview with the Prince 
Elector and it was finally determined that 
he was to receive 200 thalers annually 
from Wissloch (by way of compensation) 
in addition to his previous salary. Now 
we are comfortable in Sinzheim. Wirt 
has been called to Lauteru, and Koch, 
rector of Bretten, has become the assis- 
tant pastor at this place. 

Your correspondent has been for three 
months pastor at Hilsbach; but is re- 
quired to pay to the superannuated min- 
ister Brauu 500 thalers annually, to his 
wife, if she should survive him, 150, and 
after her death 50 to their daughter, who 
suffers from epilepsy. His engagement 
with Fraulein von Schmidt was broken 
at her request, and he is married to the 
daughter of Captain Bannegis, now a 
member of the Council of Administra- 
tion, bearing the title of Government 

The winter of 1776-7 was for me very 
depressing. I suffered from a nervous 
disease which brought me near to death 
and did not leave rne until spring. I am 

(222 ) 

again restored, but am very nervous and 
must be very abstemious, especially in 
labor. I must beware of everything that 
might prove exciting, and unless I am 
particularly well dare not venture to read 
a tragedy or an affecting story for fear of 
suffering the most painful consequences. 

Our sister has been married, and to 
whom ? I am sure you cannot guess! It 
is our cousin Helffenstein. Ha is pastor 
at Schoenau, two miles from Heidelberg. 
He has already greatly improved in dis- 
position. I hope our sister, who has 
much spirit and is fully able to control 
him, will be able to effect still further im- 
provement. Our cousin Louise is also 
married. Her husband's name is Weid- 
enhahn. He owns a linen factory and has 
the title of Commercial Councillor. She 
corresponds with me and, besides her 
sister, is my dearest friend. 

In the Reformed Church of tho Palati- 
nate revolution follows revolution. A 
year ago the entire ministry agreed, on 
account of present conditions, to appoint 
five of their number deputies and to 
grant them a printed power of attorney 
to act in their name. These five men have 
not as yet accomplished a great deal, but 
order has been restored in the Council 
ani no one is oppressed. Appointments 
are granted without the payment of 
money, and the administration of the 
church is more economically conducted. 
The Commission consists of Pfaltz, French 
pastor in Manheim; Herzogenrath, French 
pastor in Manheim ; Kling, inspector in 
Neustadt; Kilian, Superintendent of 
Schools in Ladenburg, and our father. 
This commission is to bo permanent and 
is to have entire control of the Reformed 
Churches of the Palatinate ; if any one 
of the members should die the survivors 
are to choose his successor. 

In Germany a fire has been started ; it 


is yet only glowing, but the blaze must 
come ; and then alas ! for us. Its cause is 
the recent death of the elector of Bavaria. 
The Queen or Austria and Bohemia 
has seized some territories to which 
our sovereign, as the nearest relative, 
is held to have a prior right, and this the 
other States will not suffer. The pre- 
parations for war between Austria and 
Prussia are terrible, and streams of blood 
must flow unless the angel of peace should 
extend the olive branch between the con- 
testants, and clear up the heavens that 
are now pregnant with terror. 

I have to inform you that we have be- 
come interested in a silver mine, only six 
miles distant from this place. Our pros- 
pects are pretty good, for after the pre- 
sent year we are promised from 25 to 30 
reichsthaler monthly per share. Ot 
course, we have had to pay assessments 
for two years, but the returns of a single 
month will reimburse our expenses. 
Father has two shares, and my sister and 
I each have one. 

A truce to all this, which must remind 
you of the style of the newspapers, and 
which gives me so little satisfaction. Let 
me devote the present hour to something 
that is better. How are you prospering, 
my dearest brother? Friendship and 
love, I seem to hear you say. transform 
my days into an everlasting spring ; my 
faithful wife and the pledges of our love 
ate a never failing fountain of the purest 
joy. When I return from the labors of 
my profession my wife's greeting and 
the innocent prattle of my children cause 
me to forget the troubles of the day. A 
knock at the door announces a visitor 
and Helfrich or my faithful Gebhard 
hastens to my embrace. O, that such 
bliss might long be yours ! May there 
be no dark days in your spring, no 
thunder clouds in your blessed summer. 


Do you ask how I prosper ? Dearest 
brother, I cannot speak of my own exist- 
ence in such exalted terms. My path is 
not strewn with roses, but I am not often 
pricked by thorns and am contented. 
Solitary walks through the valley or 
across the smiling; fields some beautiful 
book the care of my flowers and other 
rustic employments, these are my most 
pleasant recreations ; and thus my days 
pass quietly away. Sometimes, it is true, 
I .(eel greatly depressed, but religion, 
reason and the power of will sooa restore 
my courage. 

* * * * * 
January 2, 1777. During the past year 

I have suffered many trials, and I pray 
that you and yours may have been pro- 
tected in the midst of danger *'O, 

mighty ruler of the universe, direct the 
sword to return to its scabbard. Grant 
peace to the countries which suffer from 
the scourge of war. Bless especially my 
brothers and my friend Gebhard ! If it is 
Thy will if it is for their welfare bring 
them back to their fatherland ; or at least 
suffer me to behold their face before I 
close my eyes in death." These are the 
prayers which I offer to Heaven at the 
beginning of another year. 

# * * * * 
[Here folio v four pages of extracts 

from the diary of the writer. They are 
beautiful and tender; but as they are 
purely personal they may be omitted.] 

The writer concludes : 

' Dear brother, when may I expect to 
receive a letter ? Three years have passed 
since last we heard from you. Our dear 
father expects you to arrite often do not 
disappoint him. He wants to know how 
ninny grandchildren he has, and sends 
his blessing to them all. Many friends 
desire to be remembered. 

"Dear brother, tell us about your cir- 


cumstances. We should also be glad to 
know your opinion of the war that is now 
raging in America. Perhaps it is not 
safe to write about such matters, but you 
will at least join us in our prayer for the 
speedy restoration of peace. 

" Once more, farewell ! Do not forget 
those who so often speak of you who 
long to be with you and who think of 
you daily. Especially remember him who 
will love you as long as there is a drop of 
blood in his veins. Do not forget 
Your most faithful orother, 


SINSHEIM, April 21, 1778. 


A few weeks ago, upon the suggestion 
of my friend, William U. Hensel, I ac- 
cepted an invitation to come to Lancaster 
and read my historical paper on "The 
Telegraph in Peace and War,' ' as it con- 
tained some historical matter of local in- 
terest to Lancastrians. Upon more de- 
liberate consideration, however, I con- 
cluded that it would be imposing too 
much upon your indulgence to read it in 
its entirety, and that it would be better 
to cull from it those portions relating to 
this locality and add material in my pos- 
session which would interest you. This I 
have done, and in doing it been enabled 
to bear testimony to unrecorded deeds of 
some Lancaster men, and put in shape for 
preservation by your society some events 
in which Lancaster city and county were 
the fields where they occurred. 

A portion of this material I have had 
in type for limited circulation, but the 
major part is now presented for the first 
time and the whole of it put in form to 
be of interest, if not of value. 

The recent destruction of the Columbia 
bridge prompted my writing a sketch of 
it, so that there might be a record made 
of its continuous history, and I will open 
this paper with that sketch : 

"The Columbia Bridge," whether in 
the singular or collective sense, has en- 
countered as much, if not more, dis- 
aster than usually falls to the lot of such 
structures. Its history, beginning in the 
first and now running in the declining 
half of the last decade of the nineteenth 
century has been marked by financial and 
physical woes, and yet, as one element 
after another has tried its destructive 


powers upon it, it has nobly turned from 
its tribulations and offered fresh defiance 
to its foes. 

The success of the Philadelphia and 
Lancaster turnpike road between those 
two cities, and that of the Lancaster and 
Susquehanna, completed in 1803, between 
Lancaster and Columbia, gave an impe- 
tus to turnpike road construction and 
bridge building, and stimulated the for- 
mation of companies to accomplish those 
results. As Pennsylvania was the centre 
of the progressive transportation move- 
ments of the time, it became also the 
centre for the promotion of those com- 
panies, and gave freely of its means to 
aid in advancing their projects. Not the 
least of the projected public improve- 
ments was the bridging of the Susque- 
hanna at Columbia. That enterprise 
found life on the 28th of March, 1809, 
when Governor Simon Snyder approved 
an act, entitled " An act authorizing the 
Governor of Pennsylvania to incorporate 
a company for the purpose of making and 
erecting a bridge over the river Susque- 
hanna, in the county of Lancaster, at or 
near Columbia." In that act Stephen 
Girard, William Sanson, James Van- 
uxem, John Perot, Henry Pratt, Thomas 
McEwen, Martin Dubbs and Thomas S. 
Lewis of the city of Philadelphia ; John 
Hurley, Absaham Witmer, Casper Shaff- 
ner, Jr., Jacob Strickler, James Wright 
and Samuel Miller, of the county of Lan- 
caster, and William Barber, John Stew- 
art and Godfrey Lenhart, of the county 
of York, were appointed commissioners 
to receive subscriptions to the capital 
stock, which was placed at $400,000. 
This was a great undertaking for those 
days ; the length of the proposed bridge 
was unprecedented, the risks were hazar- 
dous, and the consequences of these con- 
ditions was a hesitancy on the part of the 


public to subscribe. Although the limit 
to be reached in the number of shares at 
par value of $100 each before letters 
patent could issue was only 1,200, it was 
not until November 19, 1811, that the 
commissioners could certify that such 
subscriptions had been made. On that 
day the Governor issued the letters, and 
created the corporation under the name 
and style of "The President, Managers 
and Company for Erecting a Bridge 
over the Susquehanna River, in the 
County of Lancaster, at or near the town 
of Columbia." In pursuance of that au- 
thority, the stockholders met December 
11, 1811, and elected William Wright as 
president ; William P. Beatty treasurer ; 
John Barber, secretary ; Thomas Boude, 
Samuel Bethel, James Wright, Samuel 
Miller, John Evans, Christian Breneman, 
John Forrey, Jr., Abraham Witmer, 
Henry Slaymaker, William Barber, Jacob 
Eichelberger and John Tomilson, man- 
agers. One of the provisions of the act 
authorizing the construction of the bridge 
was that work upon it should begin in 
three and be completed within fifteen 
years. The Legislature, by the act of 
April 2, 1811, authorized a State subscrip- 
tion of $90,000 to the stock, half of which 
was to be paid upon the completion of 
the abutments and piers and the other 
half upon the completion of the struc- 

At a meeting of the board on Decem- 
ber 26, 1811, they provided for soliciting 
bids for plans and the erection of the 
bridge. Quite a number of plans and 
proposals were submitted, out of which 
those of Henry Slaymaker, Jonathan 
Wolcott and Samuel Slaymaker were 
selected, and on July 8, 1812, they were 
awarded the contract for erecting the 
bridge on the Burr plan, and in ac- 
cordance with their bid upon stone 

( 229 ) 

piers forty feet long, ten feet wide at 
the top, and twenty feet high from low 
water mark, for the sum of $150,000. 
The site selected, and upon which the 
bridge was erected, was about 1,000 feet 
feet farther up the stream than the site 
of its successors. 

The amount of stock subscribed by 
individuals at the time was but $150,000, 
whilst that by the State was provisional. 
The board and contractors thought they 
could save money by going on with the 
abutments, piers and superstructure all 
at one time, and still obtain the State's 
subscription. In this they counted with- 
out their host. After expending $78,000, 
all that was realized from individual sub- 
scriptions, and an additional amount 
nearly equal to that of the State's first 
installment, they found that the Com- 
monwealth's subscription was unavail- 
able under the provisions of the law, and 
when they attempted to obtain legisla- 
tion to alter the terms of payment upon 
which the subscription was based, there 
developed an opposition which was strong 
enough to prevent the alteration. The 
company's and contractors' funds having 
all been expended in the incomplete work, 
and financiers refusing to loan any money 
upon such kind of security as the unfin- 
ished bridge, the board in its dilemma, 
and to save the enterprise from ruin, on 
July 5, 1813, determined upon a banking 
scheme as an aid in constructing the 
bridge. Out of this transaction came the 
funds for the completion of the bridge 
and the payment of the State's subscrip- 
tion of $90,000. 

The title of the company was changed 
on the 29th of March, 1824, to " The Co- 
lumbia Bridge Company," and the legis- 
lation which authorized the change also 
authorized the company to carry on a 
banking business. The previous bank- 


ing operations of the company had been 
carried on without legislative consent and 
brought it into a conflict with the au- 
thorities. From the business thus author- 
ized was evolved what is now " The Co- 
lumbia National Bank." After a quar_ 
ter of a century of banking and bridging 
combined, the directors became con- 
vinced that the financial standing of the 
bank was constantly menaced by the 
hazardous nature of the bridge property, 
and determined upon disposing of the 
latter by sale. As early as May 1, 1852, 
they procured legislative authority to 
make such disposition of it, but it was 
not until twelve years thereafter, on the 
heels of disaster, that the sale was ac- 
complished and the Columbia Bank and 
the Columbia Bridge Company became 
two distinct corporations, and their opera- 
tions confined within the limits of their 
respective spheres. 

The bridge was completed and opened 
for traffic in 1814. It was 5, 690 feet long, 
between abutments 30 feet wide, 23 feet 
above the usual level of the water, and 
composed of 53 arches resting upon stone 
piers. It was roofed over, and cost $231- 
771. The amount of capital stock sub- 
scribed was $419,000 by individuals and 
$90, 000 by the State. All receipts in ex- 
cess of cost of bridge were applied to 
banking purposes. 

In February, 1832, a destructive ice 
freshet occurred in the Susquehanna. A 
gorge, where huge blocks of ice welded 
together by friction were piled up thirty 
or forty feet high, was formed several 
miles below the bridge, damming the 
Btream, backed the ice and water up over 
the front street of Columbia and carried 
the bridge from off its piers. The river, 
from shore to shore, was filled for days 
with fields of floating ice, with here and 
there a span of the bridge eddying through 


them. On the 3d and 4th of February 
five spans of the bridge were taken away, 
on the 7th nine more, and a few days af- 
ter thirty additional ones followed, and 
the destruction became complete. It was 
replaced in 1834 by a structure which 
cost $128,726.50, with its approaches. 

The bridge of 1834 was, wth its ap- 
proaches, 5,620 feet long, 40 feet wide, 
with its bottom chords 15 feet above high 
water mark. It was a covered bridge, 
had two tracks and divisions for foot 
passengers, carriages and other vehicles, 
and two towing paths, one above the 
other, for the accommodation of Susque- 
hanna canal traffic through the pool of 
the dam. 

When the wave of civil war struck the 
shores of the Susquehanna by the march 
of Early' s division, of E well's corps, of 
Lee's army of Northern Virginia, the 
bridge was ordered by the military au- 
thorities of the United States to be de- 
stroyed, so as to prevent its being passed 
over by the enemy. In accordance with 
that order it was entirely consumed by 
fire on Sunday, June 28th, 1863, and the 
naked piers were left to mark the most 
northerly limit reached by the army of 
the south, which, receding from that 
limit, moved southwardly until over- 
powered and disbanded at Appomattox. 
The sight of the burning bridge was a 
sublime one. The fire swept along from 
span to span until the whole structure 
was one roaring mass of angry flames; 
blazing timber hissed as they dropped in 
the stream and floated towards the dam. 
The Southern soldiers lined the right bank 
of the river and swarmed over the adja- 
cent hills, interested spectators of the 
grand display of fire's awful force. Men, 
women and children crowded the left 
bank, almost spell-bound, as the fire 
shaped fantastic colorings on sky, tree 


and water. Then came panic. Columbia 
had never before seen such a spectacle. 
" The retreat of the troops, the firing of 
the bridge, and shell and shot falling into 
the river created a panic, and the stam- 
pede continued during the night, as the 
shelling of the town was anticipated." 

On the 12th of July, 1864, the Colum- 
bia Bank sold and conveyed the bridge 
franchises, piers and other property to 
Josiah Bacon, Wistar Morris, Thomas 
A. Scott, Joseph B. Myers, Edward C. 
Knight, Herman J. Lombaert and Ed- 
mund Smith. These gentlemen had, on 
July 6, 1864, met and organized the Co- 
lumbia Bridge Company in accordance 
with law, and elected Herman J. Lom- 
baert as president and Edmund Smith 
as secretary and treasurer. On the 6th 
of September, 1864, they conveyed to the 
bridge company the property, etc., which 
they had purchased from the bank. In 
1868-69 the bridge company built a new 
railroad and highway bridge upon the 
piers. The bridge was a "through Howe 
truss arch." It consisted of 27 spans, 
was 5,390 feet long, and roofed and 
weather- boarded. Subsequently two 
iron spans were placed in the center of 
the bridge, so that the possible loss by 
fire should be reduced one-half. Some 
idea of the size and weight of the struc- 
ture can be gained from the bill of lum- 
ber which went into it. Without going 
into details, the lumber in board meas- 
ure consisted of 3,299,952 feet of white 
pine, 729,906 feet of white oak, 1,900,000 
feet of short joint shingles. It was 
opened for ordinary travel on January 4, 
1869, and partially opened for railroad 
purposes on March 1, 1869. Including 
the rebuilding and strengthening of many 
of the piers, and capping them with 
dressed stone, the cost reached nearly 
$400,000. On July 1, 1879, the Columbia 


Bridge Company conveyed it to the 
Pennsylvania Railroad Company. 

In the destruction of this bridge it was 
destined that an element other than those 
which entered into the destruction of the 
two preceding bridges was to try its force. 
Water and fire had had their mad revels, 
and now the wind was to try one of its 
most terrific manifestations, having in 
view the bridge for its most prominent 
victim. On Saturday, September 26, 
1896, a storm was reported as a tropic 
line moving northwest from the Carrib- 
bean Sea, it being southeast of Cuba. 
During the 27th it passed northwestward 
into the southeastern part of the Gulf of 
Mexico, and on the 28th moved noith- 
ward west of Florida. On the morning 
of the 29th it was over southern Georgia, 
and by 8 p. m. of the 29th had advanced 
to southwestern Virginia. The center 
pasvsed over Washington, D. C., about 
11: 30 Tuesday night, the lowest barom- 
eter reading being 29.30. During the 
first three days the storm appeared to 
have very little energy, but on the 29th 
developed force rapidly as it moved 
northward. A velocity of 54 miles oc- 
curred at Charleston, and 42 at Wilming- 
ton. It reached Columbia shortly after 
12 o'clock, mid-night of Tuesday, lashing 
itself into fury before 1 o'clock Wednes- 
day morning, and leaving devastation in 
its wake. The Columbia Daily Spy of 
September 30th has this description of 
its force and effect : 

4 'The disaster was wide-spread and 
general. The force of the winds was ir- 
resistible, and the effects more disastrous 
than any ever known in eastern Pennsyl- 
vania. Thousands of people were awak- 
ened soon after mid-night by the fury of 
the storm and the terror of crashing trees 
and flying debris from roofs and build- 
ings. Houses were swaped to and fro by 


the mighty force of the winds. Sleepers 
were awakened by the crash of window 
panes or the rocking of their beds, and 
consuming fear seized many as they con- 
templated the fury of the storm. To add 
to the terror of the moment, mill whis- 
tles and alarm bells sounded a chorus of 
distress and summoned the aid of the 
fire department. This brought hun- 
dreds, perhaps thousands, of people to 
the streets, who wended their way to the 
scenes of disaster through the debris of 
the storm, cautious of overhanging roofs, 
signs and awnings, and fearful of trolley 
and elecric-light wires. Fortunately 
there was no fire, and the department 
apparatus was promptly returned to their 

" The hurricane which was promised 
for to-day came a little after mid-night 
with a force and fury unknown to the 
experience and lives of people in this 
section. The disturbance was gentle at 
first, but, increasing with every mo- 
ment, it soon became a hurricane, which 
swept over the town and country with 
resistless force, marking its pathway 
with destruction and ruin. The climax 
of the storm's power and fury was the 
destruction of the Columbia bridge, 
which for so many years had with- 
stood the force of storm and the power 
of flood. It is a total wreck. It was 
struck by the full force of the hurri- 
cane, swept from the piers, and thrown 
into the river, a mass of broken and 
tangled debris. Nothing remains but a 
short span at the Columbia end of the 
bridge, the iron span in the center, and 
the facade at the entrance on the York 
county side. 

"Pen cannot describe the picture of 
desolation which the bridge presents, 
and only actual sight will convey to the 
mind the effect of the fury and force of 

( 235 ) 

the terrible storm. The old bridge was 
the pride of the town. Now all that is 
left are the stone piers, with straggling 
timbers hanging on them. In place of 
the bridge there is nothing but a stretch 
of wreckage. We all loved to speak of 
it as the longest covered bridge in the 
world, a distinction generally accorded to 
it, though sometimes disputed by like 
claims for a similar bridge across the 
Mississippi river recently completed." 

Turning from bridge to wire, Lancaster 
city has the honor of hearing the first 
"click" of an electric telegraph instru- 
ment on the first telegraph line built for 
commercial purposes in this country. 

After encountering opposition and 
nearly endless obstacles, Professor Morse, 
when hope had almost deserted him and 
poverty stared him in the face, received 
governmental aid for the construction of 
an experimental line of telegraph between 
Baltimore and Washington. Then, as 
the lamented Blaiae so eloquently said : 

"The little thread of wire, placed as a 
timid experiment between the National 
Capital and a neighboring city grew and 
lengthened and multiplied with almost 
the rapidity of the electric current that 
darted along its iron nerves, until, within 
his own life-time, continent was bound 
unto continent, hemisphere answered 
through ocean's depths unto hemisphere, 
and an encircled globe flashed forth his 
eulogy in the unmatched eloquence of a 
grand achievement." 

The first fruit of that experiment's 
success was a line built between Harris- 
burg and Lancaster, alongside the tracks 
of the Harrisburg, Portsmouth, Mount 
Joy and Lancaster Railroad. 

No sooner had the practicability of 
Morse's invention been proven than the 
patentees made numerous contracts for 
the construction of lines throughout the 


country, and the most valuable, impor- 
tant and generous of them was given to 
Henry O'Reilly, of Rochester, N. Y. 

Under this contract it became neces- 
sary to construct a line between Harris- 
burg and Lancaster on or before .January 
1, 1846, to connect at Lancaster with a 
line to be constructed by the Magnetic 
Company between Baltimore and New 
York, on a route via York, Columbia, 
Lancaster and Philadelphia. The route 
of this latter line, however, was changed 
so as to cross the Susquehanna at Port 
Peposit in stead of Columbia, and O'Reilly 
subsequently connected his Western line 
witL it at Philadelphia. He did not lose 
any time in performing his part of the 
contract, but with the aid of Bernard 
O'Connor, of Lancaster, completed the 
line to Harrisburg on the 24th of Novem- 
ber, 1845. It was a primitive affair. 
Small, unbarked chestnut poles were 
planted about one hundred yards apart, 
so as to make eighteen poles to the mile. 
Through the top of each pole was in- 
serted a turned black walnut cross-arm, 
the ends of which were covered with 
gummed cloth. The conductor was a 
No. 14 copper wire attached to the poles 
by giving it a double twist around the 
gummed cloth ends of the cross-arm. 
The gummed cloth not proving satisfac- 
tory as an insulator, insulation was some- 
what improved by replacing it with a 
cotton cloth dipped in molten beeswax. 

There was a good deal of enjoyment 
among the builders, notwithstanding the 
difficulties with which they were sur- 
rounded. The planted the poles whilst 
singing this refrain : 

" Sink the poles, boys, firm and strong, 

Short and close together; 
Solder the joints of the mystic thong, 

And let it stand forever." 


The instruments arrived about Janu- 
ary 1, 1846, and were placed in circuit by 
James D. Reid, who possessed some tele- 
graphic knowledge obtained from his 
friendship with Professor Morse and by 
his experience on the experimental line. 
The relays, enclosed in large walnut 
boxes, weighed 250 pounds each, and re- 
quired the strength of two men to lift 
them onto a table. The reason for this 
heavy weight grew out of the theory of 
Professor Morse and Alfred Vail that the 
wire of the relay should be of the same 
size as that of the line, and consequently 
they covered theirs with No. 14 copper 
wire wound with cotton. 

After the instruments had been put in 
circuit and the battery located at Harris- 
burg, the operators, David Brooks and 
Henry C. Hepburn, at Lancaster, and 
James D. Reid and H. Courtney Hughes, 
at Harrisburg, settled down to hard work 
in their efforts to open up communica- 
tion between the two offices. With the 
exception of Reid, none of the party 
could read or write the telegraphic alpha- 
bet without constant consultation with a 
copy of it printed in a little book of in- 
structions by Alfred Vail, which they 
kept open before them. 

For a week they pounded and adjusted, 
adjusted and pounded, without any inteL 
ligible signals reaching either office. At 
last, however, on the 8th of January, 
1846, just as despair was on the point 
of supplanting patient endeavor, whilst 
practicing writing the alphabet by press- 
ing the finger against the armature of the 
relay, and Hepburn was drumming on 
the key, Brooksmade the startling dis- 
covery that the armature of the relay 
had, under certain conditions, a motion 
corresponding to that made on the key. 
Turning to Hepburn, he made known his 
discovery, and told him to wait a moment 


and he would so adjust the armature that 
writing upon the register could be done 
by simply manipulating the key. Brooks 
made the adjustment, when the armature 
began to work apparently of its own voli- 
tion and the pen-lever of the register re- 
sponded. Starting the paper to see what 
marks or impressions would be made on 
it, they had the great satisfaction, after 
comparing the marks with their copy of 
the alphabet, to read, after a long line of 
dots, the following words: " Why don't 
you write, you rascals?" These few 
words, written by James D. Reid on that 
Jacksonian anniversary, formed the first 
intelligible message ever sent upon a line 
in Pennsylvania, and gave to the line it- 
self the distinction of being the first in 
operation after the "Washington-Balti- 
more experimental line of Professor 

There was great rejoicing in Harrisburg 
when it was found that instantaneous 
communication could be had with Lan- 
caster. People flocked to the offices to 
see the wonder of the age, but made no 
material use of the line, the patronage 
being confined to writing names in tele- 
graphic characters on the paper ribbon 
with written letters underneath in expla- 
nation. Such was the only source of 
revenue. The revenue, as will be readily 
perceived, was small, even from that 
source, for the first day's receipts at Har- 
risburg were 10 cents and at Lancaster 
6 cents. In 1852 James D. Reid, speak- 
ing of the line, said: "The first day's 
receipts of the great national office in 
Washington were one cent, but Harris- 
burg, brighter than Washington, saw the 
clear visage of a dime whilst sober-sided 
Lancaster gloried in the possession of a 

Although the line was not a financial 
success, it furnished additional proof to 


the value of Professor Morse's invention. 
The relays were difficult of adjustment, 
and would not remain adjusted for a 
period of five minutes. 

The line itself worked only in clear, 
cold weather, and then very irregularly. 
Breaks were of daily occurrence, and so 
certain were they to happen that Brooks 
went to the Lancaster office every morn- 
ing at half past 4 to test for current, and 
it was the exception when he found it. 
Finding no current, he would shoulder a 
bundle of copper wire and start out to 
find and repair the " break," taking 
passage on the night line, a train which 
passed Lancaster at 5 o'clock in the morn- 
ing on its way from Philadelphia to Har- 
risburg. This train, climbing over the 
Conewago hills, made the distance from 
Lancaster to Harrisburg, thirty-seven 
miles, in from four and a-half to five 

Reid and Hepburn left the line in 
February, 1846. James M. Lindsay was 
sent from Baltimore to succeed Reid, and 
he at Harrisburg and Brooks at Lan- 
caster continued for a few weeks to op- 
erate the line. As narrated before, the 
only revenue accruing to the line was 
derived from sending the names of the 
curious over it. The novelty of that 
patronage wearing off, patrons ceased to 
materialize, and cash receipts failed to 
appear. There being no other available 
revenue, and the line constantly break- 
ing, O'Reilly ordered Lindsay to Phila- 
delphia and Brooks to take down the 
wire, sell it for old copper, and apply 
the proceeds to paying the operators' 
boarding and washing which were in 
arrears and had been accruing from the 
time of their arrival. By March 1, 1846, 
this initial commercial line had passed 
into history. The money for its construc- 
tion was furnished by a Rochester, N. Y., 


company, known as " The Atlantic, Lake 
and Mississippi Valley Telegraph Com- 

The line formed the link in the great 
chain of protected telegraphs, which in 
less than twenty years from the time of 
its completion was to bind in indissolu- 
bule bonds the Atlantic to the Pacfiic 
and in less than thirty years was to unite 
four of the grand divisions or continents 
of the world together, bringing all lan- 
guages to a common center, benefiting 
commerce, trade, science, art, invention, 
agriculture and literature, and proving 
itself an invaluable factor iu producing 
the remarkable and progressive age in 
which we live and which marks the clos- 
ing hours of the nineteenth century with 
ineffaceable distinctness as civilization's 
most advanced period since the opening 
of the Christian era. 

During the short life of the line it 
created quite a stir in the sister counties 
of Dauphin and Lancaster. The copper 
wire conductor, stretched tightly between 
poles, gave the wintry blasts the oppor- 
tunity of producing somewhat musical, 
weird and fantastic sounds that could be 
heard for some distance, to the great dis- 
comfort of the rustics. The public 
mind having somewhat of a superstitious 
bend, many people in the neighborhood 
of the line, alarmed by the sounds pro- 
ceeding from the wire as the wind swept 
over it, would walk a very considerable 
distance out of their way, often placing 
themselves at great inconvenience, par- 
ticularly after sundown, to avoid passing 
under or near it. Many dismal stories 
were told of its supernatural powers, and 
one woman actually fenced in a pole to 
prevent her cow rubbing against it, fear- 
ing that the milk might be spoiled. 

Then in rural communities, when any 
question excited the public interest, the 


people would congregate at the "store," 
or "the Squire's," to gather news and 
interchange views. I might say that the 
custom is still in vogue, and has its imi- 
tation in the town meetings of their city 
cousins, who are so fond of pow-wowing 
over the public weal. Right here let us 
take a look at the village. The village, a 
child of convenience, sprung from the 
^oins of necessity at the call of man's 
herding inclinations, was mostly an un- 
incorporated community ; ordinarily the 
center of a township clustered around an 
inn, a blacksmith shop, a cross-roads 
store and a meeting house, rinding its 
highest expression of political importance 
from being the residence of the Township 
Supervisor and of that august specimen 
of the minor judiciary, "the Squire." 
The population made up principally of 
farmers and farm hands, found days pass 
less wearily by dwelling closer together 
than was permissible by the territorial 
limits of farms. The great events were 
mostly the arrival of the semi-or tri- 
weekly mails at the post office, a fresh 
invoice of goods at the store, and of in- 
cipient statesmen, bearing the burdens of 
State, at the inn. Those events brought 
the community together at one of the 
places named to discuss whatever ques- 
tions the arrivals suggested, or to ex- 
change gossip. Their pleasures were 
few and simple, the checker board and 
card table furnishing most of them, 
whilst occasional quoit-throwing at the 
blacksmith shop and the spelling bee and 
the mock-court at the school house 
varied the monotony of their lives. " Let 
not ambition mock their useful toil, their 
homely joys," for it was from just such 
villages as those that Hampdens rose and 
Lincolns expanded into greatness, reach- 
ing up to originality of thought and ex- 
pression by having Nature for a tutor and 


being so surrounded that their education 
became something more than the ab- 
sorption of other men's written ideas, 
thoughts and opinions. 

But all this is changing, and the vil- 
lages of the long-ago, which were bowers 
of rustic beauty and the abodes of health 
and contentment, have passed or are pass- 
ing away. Their doom had been sounded; 
the rushing, dashing, flashing spirit of 
progressiveness which rules this age is 
the cause. The rustic, but romantic, 
peaceful edging which the villages gave 
to the picture of Pennsylvania life is 
threatened with a change. Already elec- 
tric lights have deprived them of the soft- 
ened shadows so comforting to a pur- 
turbed spirit on a moonlit night, and the 
tocsin has sounded announcing the ap- 
proach of the trolley roads whose entree 
to those charming localities will forever 
eliminate their quiet, dreamy, mid-day 
life. The gas pipe, the water pipe and 
electric light have invaded the quiet vil- 
lage, the trolley lines in the foreground, 
and sewers, paved streets, curbed side- 
walks, and the woodman's axe in the per- 
spective admonish us that the view is 
changing, that the dreamy village life 
will soon be o'er and the village lost in 
the municipal maelstrom which is engulf- 
ing it. But to return to the telegraph 
and its advent in the village. 

One Saturday afternoon, shortly after 
the line was in operation, a gathering as- 
sembled at the "store " in one of the vil- 
lages, and the all-absorbing topic of con- 
versation was the " telegraph" The 
"big man" of the vicinity was there. 
For two terms he had represented his 
district in the lower house of the Legis- 
lature, and he now felt it his duty to ex- 
press his opinion on the subject, which 
he did by saying : " This telegraph is a 
great thing. When I had the honor of 


representing yon in the Legislature I 
often thought about it, and having turned 
the subject over in my mind the conclu- 
sion reached by me in regard to it is that 
it will do well enough for carrying letters 
and small package, but it will never do 
for carrying large bundles and bale 

David Lechler, a well-kept and humor- 
ous man, was the proprietor of "The 
North American House," where the of- 
fice in Lancaster was located, and made 
the telegraph the basis for playing many 
pranks upon the public. At this day few 
can credit the curiosity and credulity 
which characterized the people in con- 
nection with the telegraph, and how few 
had even an idea of the principles gov- 
erning it. Lechler, discerning the trend 
of the mind of the people, turned it to 
advantage in fun-making, and undertook 
to unfold the mysteries to those who vis- 
ited his house. It was his great delight 
on market mornings to gather a crowd of 
countrymen and women in the barroom, 
and then explain to them in Pennsylvania 
Dutch the wonders of the great inven- 
tion. There was no story that he could 
invent or apply, or that credulity would 
accept in connection with the telegraph, 
that he did not relate. As soon as his 
harangue had raised the curiosity of his 
hearers to the highest notch he would 
hurriedly enter the room where the tele- 
graph office was located and immedi- 
ately returning, would show a pair of 
hose, a handkerchief or a newspaper, 
which he had previously punctured with 
holes, as specimens of the telegraph's 
possibilities, at the same time gravely 
saying : " I received these in just forty 
seconds from Philadelphia." There were 
none to doubt Lechler' s word or to take 
into consideration that the line did not 
extend to Philadelphia, but all, with 


open-eyed wonder, tried to account for 
the articles passing over and around the 
cross-arms. They were satisfied, how- 
ever, with Lechler's explanation, that 
that process was the inventor's secret 
which he dared not divulge. 

Whilst the line was taken down and 
sold the instruments were allowed to re- 
main. Those at Lancaster were used in 
a telegraphic school, whereto intended 
telegraph operators from different parts 
of the country were sent to be taught the 
mysteries. The teacher was William 
Johnson, then, as now, a respected resi- 
dent of Lancaster. Many men, who af- 
terwards became prominent in the tele- 
graphic profession, went out in the tele- 
graphic world with Billy's diploma. 
Among the number was Anson Stager, 
who became the manager of Western 
Union interests that insured the great 
success that company has scored. Mr. 
Stager during the war was appointed a 
quartermaster and detailed to the Mili- 
tary Telegraph Department, in which he 
rose to be a brigadier-general. The 
United States Military Telegraph Corps 
received its first recruits from Pennsylva- 
nia and its first line builder was a Lan- 
caster man. 

On April 17, 1861, I went with Thomas 
A. Scott to Governor Curtin's office, at 
Harrisburg, and there, with a relay mag- 
net and a key placed on a window sill, 
opened the first military telegraph office 
on this continent. In the same office, on 
the 25th of April, 1861, on the call of Mr. 
Scott, there reported for orders David 
Strouse, from Miflflin ; D. Homer Bates, 
from Altoona; Richard O'Brien, from 
Greensburg, and Samuel Brown, from 
from Pittsburg, four of the best operators 
on the Pennsylvania Railroad Company's 
telegraph line. 

But of the nucleus formed by the little 


band of Pennsylvania railroad telegraph 
operators grew a wondrous military tele- 
graph corps, in which were enrolled dur- 
ing the war twelve hundred young men, 
telegraph operators, whose ages ranged 
from sixteen to twenty-two years boys 
in years and stature, but giants in loy- 
alty and in the amount of work they 
performed for their country. They did 
not plan campaigns nor fight battles, but 
amid the roar of conflict were found 
cooly advising the commanding general 
of the battle's progress. They formed 
the corps that was the very nerves of the 
army during the war, and so considered 
by all those who came in contact with it, 
and yet it was not, and has not been, 
recognized as an integral part of that 

Their position in the army was a pecu- 
liar one, whether as enlisted men or vol- 
unteers, and there were both classes in 
the service ; they were not subject to the 
orders of its active officers, but came 
under the immediate direction of Presi- 
dent Lincoln, as commander-in-chief, 
through the Secretary of War. They 
were in effect field couriers, with enlarged 
responsibilities. The secrets of the Na- 
tion were entrusted to them, and the 
countersign of the army was often in 
their possession a week or more in ad- 
vance of its promulgation. All the 
movements of the army, all the confi- 
dences of the commanders were entrusted 
to them, and yet not one was ever known 
to betray that knowledge and confidence 
in the most remote degree. 

A hundred nameless graves throughout 
the battle-fields of the Union attest their 
devotion unto death to the sublime cause 
in which they were engaged, and yet the 
government they loved and labored for 
never as much as thanked them for their 
services ! 


Every nation, ours among the number, 
has now a military telegraph corps as an 
integral part of its army, and yet, before 
the Civil War in the United States, such 
an arm of the service was practically un- 
known. It was reserved for mere boys 
American boys to inaugurate that arm 
of the service, demonstrate its value in 
actual war, and for so doing, become the 
recipients of the monumental ingratitude 
of the nineteenth century ! 

As the war progressed the corps devel- 
oped and equipment for field work was 

Whilst Line Builders Paul D. Connor, 
Charley Noyes and Dave Carnathan were 
the first to extend the military telegraph 
lines from Washington into Virginia, it 
was reserved for Parker Spring, of Lan- 
caster, Pa., to head the first telegraph 
construction corps for the United States 
Army. Before Captain R. F. Morley, of 
the 17th Infantry, and formerly superin- 
tendent of the Allegheny Valley Railroad, 
was specially detailed in September, 1861, 
as general manager of government rail- 
roads and telegraphs, men for construc- 
tion work were picked up as needed 
wherever they were to be found. Captain 
Morley in perfecting the organization 
selected Parker Spring, an experienced 
operator and builder, to take charge of 
the telegraph construction corps. The 
initial party of the corps was com- 
posed of twenty-two men, divided into 
gangs of " climbers," " pole- cutters," 
"diggers," and "laborers," with in- 
telligent foremen over each gang. 
Spring picked his men for being stead- 
fast, reliable and hard workers. They 
were drilled daily and kept under mili- 
tary discipline. The party was pro- 
vided with tents, horses, wagons, and a 
full complement of implements for their 
work. The work was laborious ; at all 


hours of the day or night they were liable 
to be and were frequently called upon to 
meet some exigency of the service. But 
no matter if they were called from sleep 
when midnight had thrown its dark 
shroud around earthly scenes, or in the 
dawn of the morning, their answer to the 
summons was made with alacrity and 
good cheer. In constructing new, tear- 
ing down and rebuilding old lines, they 
were at times compelled to plod through 
snow and mud, in rain, over hills, across 
rivers, and to pick their way cautiously 
through forests and swamps. Frequently 
the work would go in tracts of country 
from whence civilization had apparently 
departed, and where the only sounds to 
be heard were the notes of their own in- 
dustry. At other times their work would 
carry them so close to the enemy's lines 
that with only a rivulet between they 
could hold converse with the Rebel 
pickets. It was a varied and pictur- 
esque life, as well as one of excitement 
and danger. Spring and his men were 
entitled to great credit for their fidelity 
and trustworthiness in rapidly extending 
the telegraph lines to meet the needs of 
the government in the direction of more 
speedy means of communication. 

I cannot allow this opportunity to pass 
without making record of heroic service 
in the face of the enemy of two other 
men from Lancaster William Johnson, 
already mentioned, and Strickland Everts. 
In the campaign of 1863, when the South- 
ron invaded Pennsylvania, marching al- 
most unimpeded down the Cumberland 
Valley, these men kept the telegraph lines 
up and in operation, and were driven 
step by step down the valley, and as the 
enemy withdrew returned in their imme- 
diate wake and made repairs before the 
clatter of the swords of the cavalry had 
died away. On the first of July I saw 


these two men driven into Carlisle by the 
advance of General J. E. B. Stuart, and 
standing on the main street, in front of 
Dr. Stevenson's house, which was struck 
by a shell, taking the bombardment as 
coolly as seasoned campaigners. One of 
them picked up a fragment of the shell 
and afterwards sent it to Dr. Stevenson, 
who cemented it in the breach in his wall, 
weere it remains to-day. 

The city and county are connected with 
many interesting railroad and canal 
events, some of which I have recited in 
my historical sketches of the Philadel- 
phia and Columbia and Harrisburg and 
Lancaster railroads, but here, and in con- 
clusion, there is one I desire to incorpor- 
ate in this paper 

Early in this century the restless 
spirit of American progress and adven- 
ture, not quieted by extending through 
the Louisiaria purchase the boundaries 
of the United States across the Mis- 
sissippi, cast its eyes beyond the Sabine 
and toward territorial expansion in the 
land of the Aztec, with its wealth of 
precious stones and metals. Imperial 
expansion with imperial power and 
luxury was an ever-present dream with 
the highly cultivated people, scions of 
aristocratic stocks. In the Southern 
States of the Union, and it is not sur- 
prising that the emigration to that part 
of Mexico now known as Texas was 
largely made up of educated emigrants 
from that section, nor that those emi- 
grants should at an early day throw off 
their allegience to the unstable govern- 
ment of Mexico and establish a govern- 
ment of their own. Without sufficient 
strength to establish a strong centralized 
government 011 an aristocratic basis, 
there was nothing left the people of 
Texas after the independences of that 
Republic was acknowledged and estab- 


lished but to favor annexation to the 
United States. Annexation was consum- 
mated on the 29th of December, 1845. 
General Taylor, in command of a small 
American army, left New Orleans in July, 
1845, to occupy Texas. On the 8th of 
March, 1846, he crossed the Neuces 
and marched toward the Rio Grande, 
occupying the disputed territory be- 
tween those rivers. That occupation 
brought on the Mexican War. Whilst 
General Taylor was waiting for the 
orders from Washington to begin 
his march reinforcements were being 
pressed forward to him. In the winter 
of 1845 and 1846 part of these reinforce- 
ments passed westward from Philadel- 
phia via the Philadelphia and Colum- 
bia railroad. They reached Dillerville 
in comparatively good time. As the 
trains left Dillerville, drawn by the 
" David K. Porter " and "Henry Clay," 
two eleven-ton engines, to pass over the 
Harrisburg and Lancaster railroad for 
the former town a snow storm came up 
and soon the rails were covered with 
snow an inch or two in depth and suf- 
ficient to stall the trains. That was an 
unexpected and consequently not-pro- 
vided-for dilemma. 'Tis true that the 
hickory brooms placed in front of the 
truck of the locomotive for the purpose 
of removing obstacles from the rails 
were in position, but they only tended 
to pack the snow harder. At this point 
American ingenuity and American pluck 
came to the front and improvised a snow 
plow to throw the snow from the track 
as the engine proceeded. This impro- 
vised plow consisted of plain boards 
held in hand by two men sitting on 
the bumper. The boards were used 
to push the snow to one side, and 
were raised and lowered whenever they 
came in contact with "broken" joints. 


Practically, it was shoving the snow 
off the track. John Keller was one of the 
two men so engaged, and in the fourteen 
hours that it took these trains to reach 
Harrisburg from Dillerville he stuck to 
his post, displaying those powers of en- 
durance and loyalty to duty that have 
characterized his career and made it suc- 

Holmesburg, Philadelphia, 1897. 


In the early settlement of the territory 
now included in Lancaster county, the 
portion north of the Mine Ridge was occu- 
pied mainly by those speaking the German 
language, while those speaking English 
"took up" the portion south of that 
ridge and familiarly known as the "lower 
end." Of these the emigrants from the 
north ol Ireland, usually termed "Scotch- 
Irish," from their Scottish ancestry, were 
the most numerous, the English Quakers 
coming next in ooint of numbers. 

Subsequent settlers naturally divided in 
the same manner, each family trying to 
locate among those speaking a familiar 
language ; and this rule holds good in the 
main to this day. 

Early in the spring of the year 1796 
Charles Sproul, a native of county Ar- 
magh, in the north of Ireland, with his 
wife and family sailed lor Philadelphia, 
his son, James Sproul, the subject of tiiis 
sketch, being then a lad of eleven years 
of age. The whole family, including 
father and mother, would seem to have 
been liberally educated for that time, and 
with a rigid regard for the Bible and its 
teachings, as understood by the Scotch- 
Irish pastors of the Covenanter and Pres- 
byterian churches of one hundred years 

After the usual stormy passage of 
nearly three mouths they arrived safely 
in Philadelphia and located in that city; 
but not liking the city, they soon removed 
to Spring Mills, in Montgomery county, 
where James supplemented his Irish edu- 
cation with a winter or two in the not 
very promising country school of that 
day. That James made the best use pos- 


sible of these limited opportunities to se- 
cure an education cannot be doubted in 
view of his subsequent career. 

He was anxious, however, to get to 
work, and being a born mechanic had a 
strong desire to deal with and manage 
machinery. His only opportunity for 
this near his home was in a country mill, 
so he prevailed on the miller to take him 
as an assistant. 

In a few months he had so mastered the 
details of the mill that it is said he knew 
more about the machinery than the owner 
and made small repairs that the owner 
could not have done; but the mill needed 
greater repairs than he was capable of 
making, so a millwright was secured and 
James became his helper. In this posi- 
tion he was entirely at home and became 
so useful and efficient that the mill- 
wright determined to secure him, and be- 
tween them they procured the miller's 
consent to his leaving to learn the trade 
of a millwright. 

In this he rapidly became an expert, 
and followed it for several years, working 
along the SSchuylkill river and its tribu- 
taries, on all kinds of mills and on all 
sorts of machinery propelled by water. 
While here he assisted in building the 
first mill for rolling iron erected by the 
Phoenix Iron Company, on the grounds 
where their present enormous plant is 

On leaving the Schuylkill he came to 
Doe Run, in Chester county, and formed 
a partnership with the darks, a firm of 
contracting millwrights, but the war of 
1812 to 1815 was now on and the price of 
iron was advancing rapidly, and young 
Sproal thought he saw a fortune in the 

He accordingly formed a partnership 
with a Frank Paik, and together they 
erected a forge at White Rock, on the 


east bank of the west branch of the Octo- 
rara, in Colerain township, this county, 
near where White Rock station now 
stands. Before the forge was ready to 
opera* e Paik got tired of the venture and 
withdrew from the firm, but Sproul stuck 
to it, probably receiving some financial 
assistance from the Colemaus, who were 
also Scotch-Irish, from the county of 

On the completion of the plant the 
price of iron was falling and the war was 
neariug an end, so that the venture was 
not nearly so profitable as he had hoped, 
but he had a good, well built forge as 
compared with others and he ran it quite 
successfully lor some twelve or thirteen 
years, making considerable money. While 
here he secured quite a large interest in 
Black Rock Furnace, four miles up the 
stream from White Rock. He was also 
interested with Edward Coleman in the 
(Jonowiugo Rolling Mill, on the site or 
near the Conowingo Furnace, and with 
one of the Grubb family in the forges at 
Codorus, York county, Robert Sproul, a 
younger brother of James, managing 

By this time Sproul had established 
quite a reputation as a successful iron 
master, and he determined to concentrate 
his operations, which, in his opinion, had 
become so much scattered that he could 
not personally supervise their workings. 
He leased his White Rock Forge to John 
Alexander, another representative of the 
Scotch-Irish of Lancaster county, and 
purchased from John Withers a large 
tract of land with three forges on it, in 
Sadsbury township, on the west bank of 
the east branch of the Octorara, so fully 
described in an article just read. He re- 
moved to these forges in 1828, and alter 
enlarging and improving the same com- 
menced operations. 

( 254 ) 

His intention now was to make a very 
superior iron and sell the same for special 
uses, at a price considerably above ordi- 
nary hammered iron, and in this he was 
fairly successful. The forges were known 
as the upper and lower Sadsbury forges 
and theRingwood forge. The upper forge 
was arranged to refine the iron and make 
it into what was known as anconies, when 
it was transported to the lower or chafery 
forge, where a higher welding heat was 
given to it and it was hammered into the 
required shapes. 

The pig iron was boiled or puddled in 
much the same manner as now, but the 
process was very crude, much longer, 
more laborious and less productive of 
finished iron than now. Very much ot 
the iron passed off as cinder in the opera- 
tion and every forge had large banks of 
cinder around it. Mr. Sproul knew that 
large quantities of iron remained in this 
cinder, and therefore built an addition to 
the upper forge expressly to deal with 
these immense cinder piles, and was suc- 
cessful iu reclaiming about 40 percent, of 
the weight of this cinder iu iron, though 
the quality of this cinder iron was not 
nearly so good as the other iron. 

This cinder addition, however, was very 
profitable and all theciuderou the ground 
and all that was made was put through 
this process. This gave Mr. Sproul quite 
a variety of irons at a variety of prices, 
so that he could accommodate all cus- 
tomers, and he did quite a thriving busi- 

He sold considerable iron to the hard- 
ware stores and manufacturers of Lan- 
caster, Wilmington and Philadelphia; 
but his best customers were Whitney & 
Co., of Hartford, Conn., who were large 
manufacturers of firearms. He ham- 
mered this gun iron into octagonal shapes, 
from to 1^ inches in diameter, and 


while it was necessary to take only the 
very best stock, employ only the most 
skilled workmen and exercise the great- 
est care in making it, the buyers were 
willing: to pay a good price for it and Mr. 
Sproul found it profitable to strive for 
their trade, which he secured almost en- 
tirely and continued to hold until his 
death. The raw material he found best 
adapted to his use was the Cornwall and 
Colebrook pig iron with a small percent- 
age of good wrought scrap. 

As soon as his business got to running 
smoothly he purchased what was known 
as the Hamilton tavern, on East King 
street, this city, which occupied the 
ground on which the house of George 
Nauman, Esq., and the two houses next* 
east of it, are built. 

He reserved a portion of the yard of 
this tavern for his own use and made ar- 
rangements that the s&llers of the pig 
iron should deliver to that point, where 
his teams loaded it and hauled it to the 
forges. Sprout's wagons were drawn by 
six mules or horses and made as a rule 
two round trips per week, though in 
seasons of great activity sometimes three 
trips were made. Their load was 1 to 
2 tons, according to the condition of the 
roads. The teamsters carried bay and 
feed for their teams and bedding for 

When there were orders from Lancas- 
ter parties ior finished iron the teams 
would have loads both ways, but more 
frequently they went to Lancaster empty. 

When Mr, Sproul came to Sadsbury he 
was over forty years of ago and unmar- 
ried, having always been too busy to 
marry, but in 1830 be was married to Miss 
Annie Johnson. Seven children blessed 
this union Charles N., now living in 
Philadelphia and unmarried ; James C., 
died in infancy ; Margaret A., married to 


Robert H. Hodson, and living near New 
London, in Chester county ; William H., 
married to Dora Slokom, daughter of the 
late Samuel Slokom, of Christiana, now 
living in Chester, Delaware county, Pa. ; 
Mary D., married to John T. Dewitt, and 
living in Cecil county, Md. ; James, mar- 
ried to Mary R. Slokom, daughter of 
Samuel Slokom, and living in Chester, 
Delaware county, Pa. ; and Rjbert C., 
living in New London, Chester county, 
and unmarried. 

Wnatever Mr. Sproul forgot or neglec- 
ted by reason of his active, busy life, it 
cannot be said that he forgot or neglected 
his early Irish religious training and the 
Sproul mansion, we are assured, was 
rather a doleful place on Sunday to the 
houseful of youngsters named above. 
The place was quite secluded and they 
were not permitted on that day to go 
visiting, or to leave the house except to go 
to church. Newspapers, of course, were 
wholly uuthought of and the only books 
permitted were the Bible, the larger and 
shorter catechisms, Fox's " Book of 
Martyrs," Baxter's "Saints' Rest " and 
his "Call to the Unconverted," supple- 
mented by the " Westminster Con Session 
of Faith " and perhaps a volume or two 
of carefully selected sermons of the seven- 
teenth century. "The Pilgrim's Pro- 
gress " was not quite orthodox, not being 
of Presbyterian origin. It was rather 
tough on the rising generation, but since 
they have grown up it cannot be said that 
they were hurt by it. 

The story frequently told of James 
Sproul that while a young man, employed 
as a wood chopper by the Colemans, he 
secured his first promotion by sending in 
an order from the woods to the store so 
beautifully written that he was as once 
sent for and put into tne counting room, 
seems to be like so many similar stories, 


wholly without foundatior. He was never 
employed by the Colemans in any capac- 
ity, though they were always his fast, 
firm, unwavering friends, and on more 
than one occasion, when things went 
wrong with him and he was in great dan- 
ger of failing, came to his assistance. For 
many years preceding his death, however, 
it cannot be said that he required any 
financial aid. He died January 7, 1847, 
aged 62 years, possessed of quite a large 

After Mr. Sproul's death, the forges 
were rented to different parties who ran 
them with varied success. Some of them 
ran at times until the close of the war of 
the rebellion, but the expensive hauling 
by wagons, the growing scarcity of char- 
coal, the cheapness and general introduc- 
tion of steam power as a motor, the im- 
mense rolling mills that grew out of this, 
and perhaps above all the more scientific 
manipulation of the iron in immense quan- 
tities, were too much for the country till 
hammers with their single advantage of a 
cheap water power, so they gradually 
faded away and are gone. 

The reader claims no credit for the 
above sketch. The subject of it died 
fifty years ago. To-day none of his ac- 
tive contemporaries can be found, and his 
living children were all too small in his 
life to understand or remember much of 
his varied operations, so that it was ex- 
tremely difficult to trace his career with 
accuracy. It may be said to be the joint 
contributions of his descendants, mainly 
of Wm. H. Sproul, of the firm Sproul & 
Lewis, wholesale grocers, Chester, Pa., 
who is his third son. 


The early history of Donegal Church is 
involved in obscurity by reason of the 
fact that none of the records prior to 1786 
can be found, and those immediately sub- 
sequent are only fragmentary ; all that 
can be authenticated is to be gleaned 
from the records of Presbytery. 

When we consider that Donegal Church 
was founded less than a score of years 
after the organization of the first Pres- 
bytery, the country at the time being 
thinly settled, the facilities for communi- 
cation between neighboring settlements 
difficult and often dangerous, organiza- 
tion and the means for the preservation 
of records incomplete, and also the turbu- 
lent and unsettled state of the country, the 
paucity of data becomes obvious. 

The aim of the historian should be to 
present facts, such as can be substantiated 
by documentary evidence, and such as 
have been derived from personal observa- 
tion. Much that has been written con- 
cerning Donegal Church is unreliable 
tradition, therefore it is not the purpose 
of the writer of this sketch to mingle 
facts with traditional evidence. 

Modern history hardly affords a par- 
allel to the cruelty and oppression which 
caused the early Presbyteriaus to flee from 
the continent of Europe and seek an 
asylum in the wilderness of the New 
World. Even here persecution followed 
them, so that the trials and struggles or 
the early settlers were almost unendur- 
able. Their ministers, ever in the van of 
the cause of liberty and freedom of con- 
science, stood as a bulwark against the 
oppressor. Though but few in number, we 
are to-day enjoying the rich blessings of a 


free government, the seeds of which they 
planted and nurtured until it has grown 
into a vast nation of freemen such as the 
world has never witnessed. 

For the purpose of a better apprehen- 
sion of the first pastorate of Donegal 
Church, and the relationship which it 
sustained to the First Presbytery of the 
Church in America, it may be well to in- 
vite attention to a brief outline of that 

The first leaf of the records of the 
first Presbytery being lost, the book 
opens with the brethren in session at 
Freehold on a Thursday engaged in ex- 
amining Boyd for ordination. They held 
*sederunt 2nd' on Friday, sustained his 
trial and on the Lord's Day, December 
27th, 1706, his ordination was performed 
at the meeting house in this place before a 
numerous assembly." Webster's History 
of the Presbyterian Church in America. 

"The original members, as far as can 
be ascertained from the Minutes, were 
Francis Makemie, Jedediah Andrews, 
George McNish, John Hampton, John 
Wilson, Nathaniel Taylor and Samuel 
Davis. To these may be added John 
Boyd, who became a member by ordina- 
tion in 1706. " Charles Hodge's History of 
the Presbyterian Church, page 04. 

The second meeting was held in Phila- 
delphia. We will pass over the subse- 
quent meetings, except to say that aid 
was solicited from Europe and that with 
the cheerful concurrence of the brethren, 
some of them at various times made 
application to different places. In 1710 
" Wilson and Anderson wrote to the 
Synod of Glasgow." Webster's History, 
page 94. 

You will observe that the name of 
Anderson is mentioned the first time in 
the history. 

The intercourse oi' the brethren during 

( 260 ) 

nine years was harmonious and happy. 
Quiet, steady growth in numbers marked 
each successive meeting. 

The Presbytery of Philidelphia met in 
that city on Tuesday, SewtemberlS, 1716. 
On FrHay, the 21st, they resolved to 
divide themselves into subordinate meet- 
ings or Presbyteries which consisted of 
first s the Presbytery of Philadelphia ; 
second, the Presbytery of Newcastle ; 
third, Snow Hill and fourth, Long Island. 

The following were the members of the 
Presbytery of Newcastle, viz. : Messrs. 
Anderson, McGill, Gillesnie, Wither- 
spoon, Evans and Conn. The name of 
Anderson again appears. 

The ministers who served as pastors of 
Donegal Church will be noticed in the 
order of their ministrations. The first 
pastor, the Rev. James Anderson, was 
born in Scotland, November 17, 1678; he 
was ordained by Irvine Presbytery No- 
vember 17, 1708 ; he arrived in this coun- 
try April 22, 1709 ; he settled in Newcas- 
tle ; he was called to supply a church in 
the city of New York, where he remained 
until 1726 ; he was called September 24 to 
Donegal on the Susquehanna and accented 
it; he was installed the last Wednesday 
in August, 1727." 

The Donegal Presbytery held its first 
meeting October 11, 1732, and consisted 
of Messrs. Anderson, Boyd, Orr, Thomp- 
son and Bertram. As early as September, 
1735, the emigracion to Virginia attracted 
the attention of Thompson, of Chestnut 
Level, and he proposed to Donegal Pres- 
bytery to employ an itinerant in Virginia. 
In April, 1738, Anderson was sent to Vir- 
ginia bearing a letter to the government 
of Virginia, soliciting its favor in behalf 
of our interests. The Synod provided 
supplies for his pulpit, and allowed for 
his expenses in a manner suitable to his 


41 Anderson performed his mission sat- 

" He married Mistress Suitt Garland, 
daughter of Sylvester Garland, of the 
head of Apoquiuomy, February. 1712-13. 
She died December 24, 1736. He married 
Rachel Wilson December 27, 1737. An- 
derson died July 16, 1740. His son, Gar- 
land Anderson, was one of the witnesses 
of Andrews' (Jedediah Andrews) will in 
1742. He married Jane, daughter of 
Peter Chevalier, of Philadelphia ; he died 
early. His daughter (James Anderson's). 
Elizabeth, married Samuel Breeze, and 
resided in New York, a woman of great 
excellence." ( Webster History). The 
following is the inscription on his tomb- 
stone in Donegal Burial Ground : 

Here Lyetli the Body of the 

RE V. J \ M Es A N D E RSON. 

Late Pastor of Dunnigall, 

Who departed this life ye 16th of July, 1740, 

Aged 62 years. 

Also Hi3 Wife, 


Who departed this life ye 24th December, 1736 
Aged 42 years. 

After the death of the Rev. Anderson 
the congregation was supplied by the 
Paxtons, senior and junior, ;md other min- 
isters until "1748, wheu the Rev. Joseph 
Tate was called, who was received as a 

licentiate by Donegal Presbytery 

On the 14th ot" June he was called to 
Donegal, and soon after the Rev. Andrew 
Bay, of the New Side Presbytery of New 
Castle, accused him of having preached 
false doctrine at the Three Springs (Big, 
Middle and Rocky). He was acquitted 
October 25th and accepted the Oill from 
Donegal, they giving 70 pounds to buy a 
plantation and 70 pounds saUry. He was 
ordained November 23d, 1748 Im- 
mediately after his installation he was 
married, December 15th, 1748, to Mar- 
garet, the eldest daughter of Boyd, of 


Octorara. Her father gave her, besides a 
silk gown, a bed ani its furniture, a horse 
and saddle and nearly every article for 
housekeeping; all of which are carefully 

entered in his book He died October 

llth, 1774, aged 63 years. "Webster's His- 

He is buried at Donegal. The follow- 
ing is the inscription on his tombstone: 

In Memory of 

J>ate Pastor of this Congregation for 26 years, 

Who departed this life llth October, 1774, 

In the 63d year of his age ; 

and also in Memory of 

His Wife, MARGARET, 

and Daughter of the Rev. Adam Boyd, 

Who departed this life 13tli of May, 1801, 

In the 75th year of her age. 

Also on separate tombstones: 

In Memory of 


Son of Rev. Joseph Tate, 

Pastor of Donegal Church, 

Who departed this life the 9th day of 

February, 1827, 
In the 74th year of his age. 

lu Memory of 


Daughter of the Rev. Joseph Tate. 

Who departed this life the 15th of 

August, 1790, 
In the 30th year of her age. 

The records of the interval of three 
years after the death of Rev. Joseph 
Tate are not extant. The near approach of 
our Revolutionary struggle may account 
for it ; as well as for the meagre account 
of the early part of the pastorate of the 
Rev. Colin McFarquhar, who was in- 
stalled in 1777 and resigned in 1806. 

llev. McFarquhar's name appears on 
the records of the church as President 
of the Boaid of Trustees. In an N. B. to 
a receipt dated May the 7th, 1806, he says: 
"My pastoral labors ill the church of 
Donegal terminate at the above dace, and 
there lore the above is a receipt in full for 
all my pastoral services in said church. 



His wife is buried at Donegal, as the 
following inscription on her tombstone 
testifies : 

In Memory of 

Wife of the Kev. Colin McFarquhar, minis- 
ter of the Gospel in Donegal ; 
Who departed this life on the 6th of August, 

An. Dom., 1805, 
In the 64th year of her age. 

One year after the resignation of the 
Rev. McFarquhar, the Rev. William 
Kerr "was ordained and installed May 
1st, 1807 at a salary of $400 yearly until 
May 1st, 1814, and at $600 per annum," 
which was continued until his death, 
which occurred September 22, 1821. Mr. 
Kerr was much beloved by his parishioners 
and the people of the neighborhood. There 
are those still living who remember Mr. 
Korr. His son, a much esteemed and 
eminent physician, a member of the York 
County Medical Society, died at York, 
Pa., June 10th, 1889, aged 76. One of the 
Rev. Kerr's daughters was the wife of a 
distinguished lawyer of Harrisburg, Mr. 
Herman Aldricks. Dr. H. L. Orth, the 
present Superintendent of the Pennsyl- 
vania State Lunatic Asylum, is a grand- 
Bon of Rev. Mr. Kerr. He and two of his 
children are buried at Donegal. The 
inscriptions on their tombstones are as 

follows : 

In Memory of 


Who Was 14 Years Minister of the Gospel 

of the Congregation of Donegal. 
Born the 13th Day of October, 1776, and Died 

September 22, 1821, 

In the 45th Year of His Age. 

In Memory of 


Son of Wm. and Mary Kerr. 
Born Jan. 12, 1811, Died Nov. 16th, 1813. 

In Memory of 


Son of William and Mary Kerr. 

Born Nov. 1st. 1820, Died Jan. 24th, 1821. 


After an interval of a year the Rev. 
Orson Douglas was unanimously elected 
pastor December 2, 1822, and installed the 
following spring. He served the congre- 
gation fourteen years. He resigned in 
1836 and removed to Philadelphia. At 
the close of Mr. Douglas' pastorate the 
records of the Session were lost. The 
Rev. Thomas Marshall Boggs was called 
to Donegal in 1836 and was installed 
April 27, 1837. He resided at Mr. John 
Clark's (now Hon. Don. Cameron's) 
place. He removed to Marietta and sub- 
sequently to Mt. Joy, where he died No- 
vember 10, 1850. Mr. Boggs preached at 
Donegal, Marietta and Mt. Joy. He was 
much beloved by his parishioners and 
greatly esteemed by the community as a 
sincere Christian in all his walks and con- 
versation. He married Miss Amelia Jane 
Cunningham, of Chester county, and had 
two sons and one daughter. His daughter 
became the wife of the late Rev. John 
Edgar, President of Wilson College, at 
Chambersburg, Pa. 

Shortly before his death the Rev. James 
L. Rodgers assisted Mr. Boggs in his 
ministrations with the view of becoming 
co-pastor, as the duties of Mr. Boggs were 
too laborious. At the time (1837) he as- 
sumed the labors of the pastorate of Done- 
gal the separation of the Old and New 
School was being accomplished. Many of 
the churches throughout the country 
were more or less agitated by the New 
School schism, especially that portion of 
the Donegal congregation residing at 
Mt. Joy (about three miles east of Done- 
gal). Marietta (about three and one-half 
south of Donegal) was at that time a 
distinct church organization under the 
pastoral care of Mr. Boggs, in connection 
with Donegal. Mt. Joy had uo organiza- 
tion.but had a building in contemplation, 
and had purchased a lot for that purpose, 


which the distraction consequent to the 
separation of the assembly into two bodies 
frustrated. The Old School party pur- 
chased an interest in the Lutheran Church 
of Mt. Joy, thus securing a place of wor- 
ship alternately with the Lutherans. 

The New School party proceeded to 
erect a place of worship, which they ac- 
complished in 1840. At this time the Rev. 
N. Dodge's Ceder Hill Seminary for 
Young Ladies and Mr. John H. Brown's 
Mt. Joy Institution for Boys ware in a 
flourishing condition and both Principals 
associated themselves with theNew School 

Mr. Boggs continued his pastoral ser- 
vices at Donegal, Marietta and Mt. Joy 
until his death. 

He and his wife are buried at Donegal. 
Their tombstones are inscribed as follows: 


Pastor of the Presbyterian Congregation of 

Donegal and Marietta for fourteen years. 

Died, November 10, 1850. 

Age 1 37 years. 


Widow of Rev. T. Marshall Bogss. 

Died, August 25, 1869, 

Aged 55 years. 

The Rev. James L. Rodgers, who had 
been supplying the pulpit since the death 
of Mr. Boggs, " was ordained and installed 
pastor of the Donegal congregation by 
the Presbytery of Donegal, Thursday, the 
21st day of August, 1851." The Marietta 
congregation about this time became 
self-sustaining and with the consent of 
Presbytery called a pastor, thus severing 
its connection with the mother church. 

During the first year of the pastorate of 
Mr. Rodgers proposals for union between 
the Mt. Joy members of Donegal and the 
New School congregation of Mt. Joy 
were made and mutually agreed to; where- 
upon the Mt. Joy members sold their 
interest in the Lutheran Church to that 


congregation and appropriated the funds 
obtained to the liquidation of the debt 
remaining on the Mt. Joy Presbyterian 
Church. In 1852 the New School (with 
the consent of their Presbytery) organi- 
zation united with the Donegal members 
residing in Mt. Joy and vicinity (forming 
what has since been known as the First 
Presbyterian Church of Mount Joy) un- 
der the pastorate of Mr. Rodgers, who 
continued his ministrations to the con- 
gregations of Mt. Joy and Donegal every 
alternate Sabbath morning until his res- 
ignation in September, 1856. Mr. Rod- 
gers' resignation was verymuch regretted. 
He was a successful preacher and a very 
cheerful and lovable Christian gentleman. 
He removed to Springfield, Ohio, where 
he died January 25, 1895. 

After the resignation of Mr. Rodgers 
the congregation of Donegal would not 
consent to the previous arrangement of 
every alternate Sabbath morning services, 
but insisted on having every Sabbath 
morning. To this the Mount Joy people 
could not agree, as they had the largest 
congregation and good prospects for a 
self-sustaining church, to maintain which, 
at the time, would be a very heavy bur- 
den without the aid of the Donegal fund, 
(the invested fund of Donegal at the time 
was about $8,000), of which they deemed 
themselves entitled to a share as the off- 
spring of Donegal, and as they (the Mt, 
Joy people) constituted one-third of the 

The result was that Donegal called the 
Rev. John J. Lane, who was installed 
May 14, 1859. He served the coerregation 
until 1868, when he resigned. He died in 
1893. The Mount Joy congregation called 
the Rev. James Smith, who, on account 
of declining Health, resigned in 1868. 
Both congregations now being vacant, 
the former difficulty was amicably ad- 


justed and Rev. John Edgar was installed 
May 12th, 1869, who served both congre- 
gations until 1870. when he resigned to 
accept a call to New Bloomfield, Pa., 
where he preached until chosen President 
of Wilson College, where he died June 
5th, 1894. 

The Rev. William B. Brown served 
both congregations from Seotember, 1872, 
until April, 1880, as stated supply, when 
his services were discontinued. At the 
special request of Mr. Brown be was not 
installed, as he had in view the restoration 
of Cedar Hill Seminary, which, if suc- 
cessful, he would devote all his time to 
that object. His efforts not meeting with 
sufficient encouragement, it was aban- 
doned, whereupon the arrangement with 
the congregations was continued until 
1880, as above stated. He died June 33, 

In 1881 the Rev. Cyrus B. Whitcomb, a 
Congregationalism from Connecticut, 
preached a few Sabbaths as a candidate 
at Donegal and Mount Joy. He was 
called by both congregations. His in- 
stallation was deferred until the meeting 
of Presbytery, at Columbia, the follow- 
ing spring, when Mr. Whitcomb applied 
for installation. 

A Committee of Presbytery was ap- 
pointed at Columbia to install him on the 
following Sabbath after the meeting, at 
Donegal in the afternoon and Mt. Joy in 
the evening, June 13th. 1882. The Done- 
gal people secured his dismissal at an ad- 
journed meeting of Presbytery held at 
Mt. Joy a short time after his installation. 
At tbe fall meeting of Presbytery held at 
Union Church, his relations were dis- 
solved from the Mt. Joy Church. 

The installation of Mr. Whitcomb at 
Donegal deserves special notice as it was 
unique, if not unprecedented, in the an- 
nals of Presbyterianism, Mr. Whitcomb 


preached the greater part of a 
year from the date of his call to the 13th 
of June. In the meantime the Donegal 
people had unanimously changed their 
opinion of Mr. Whitcomb's orthodoxy. 
They all agreed upon a course of action at 
the installation. The Elder and one of 
the Trustees were delegated to state the 
facts to tho Committee of Presbytery 
and request a postponement of the 
installation, to which the Commit- 
tee refused to accede ; whereupon 
they were handed a paper (with 
the request that it be read from the pul- 
pit), the purport of which was that no 
one should give their assent or dissent to 
the questions asked by the committee, 
except those who are eligible according 
to the charter of the church and the con- 
fession of faith ; aud that the members be 
permitted to rise in response, instead of 
raising the right hand as is customary. 
The paper was read from the pulpit and 
alter the preliminary exercises the Mode- 
rator proceeded by asking Mr. Whit- 
comb the usual questions, after which 
be turned to the congregation, who 
were expected to answer in the affirm- 
ative by rising. The first and second 
questions were asked without any one 
rising. The Moderator asked, "Is there no 
assent to these questions ?" and the 
congregation responded, "No." He pro- 
ceeded to ask the remaining Questions 
without receiving any assent from the 
congregation, wben, turning to Mr. 
Whitcomb, he said: "Notwithstanding 
the extraordinary circumstances which 
have occurred to-day, I declare you pastor 
of this church." Alter this the con- 
gregation was dismissed. 

The Rev. Robert Gamble was appointed 
by Presbytery to supply the now vacant 
churches. Both congregations united 
in giving Mr. Gamble a call which he 


accepted. He was installed Octo- 
ber llth, 1883. In 1886 Mr. 
Gamble requested the congregations 
to unite with him in asking Presbytery to 
dissolve the pastoral relation. After hear- 
ing Mr. Gamble's reason they consented. 
His resignation is dated April 12th, 1886. 

The Rev. Edward A. Snook was in- 
stalled April 5th, 1887, pastor of Donegal 
and Mount Joy, and on February 23d, 
1889, he resigned to accept a call to Wil- 
liamsport. The Rev. David Conway was 
installed October 7, 1890, and is the 
present pastor. 

In what year was Donegal Church or- 
ganized ? When was the present build- 
ing erected? and, as is supposed, there 
was & building before the present) one, 
where was it located? 

These are questions which can only be 
answered approximately, if at all. and I 
do not believe that any record, traditional 
or otherwise, is in existence that will 
answer these questions definitely. The 
fact that 175 years ago there was preach- 
ing at Donegal, and that there was a 
place of worship is not to b^ disputed. 
Other facts we have show that the country 
around Donegal was settled by the Scotch- 
Irish, who fled from persecution in the 
old country to seek an asylum where they 
might worship God without molestation, 
and they constituted the Donegal congre- 
gation. Many of their names are 
recorded in yonder silent abode of the 
dead. Some of their posterity still 
worship within the sacred precincts of 
the structure which their ancestors built. 
In view of these certainties, why need we 
premise, suppose and conjecture concern- 
ing which we know nothing, the numerous 
traditions to the contrary notwithstand- 

The first intimations of a church or_ 
ganization at Donegal we find as follows : 


"In 1714 the tide of emigration, following 
up the eastern side of the Susquehauna, 
had reached the Valley of Chiquesalunga, 
now in Lancaster county, where Donegal 
Church was organized in that year." 
West's Origin and History of Donegal 
and Carlisle Presbytery. 

And again : "Application was made 
by Andrew Galbrath to New Castle Pres- 
bytery, Aug. 1st, 1721, for supplies for 
Chick's Longus (Chiquesalunera), and 
Gillespie and Cross were sent. Roland 
Chambers renewed the request next year. 
In May, 1723, Uonestoga aoplied ; but 
Hutcheson failed to go, being unable to 
obtain a guide thither. In the fall ho and 
McGill were sent to Dunngaal. In 1725, 
Donegal obtained one-sixth of Boyd's 
time, and he served them till they called 
Anderson." Webster* 's History. 

From these extracts we can readily 
infer that there was an organization at 
Donegal earlier than has bean heretofore 
recognized. Andrew Galbrath's land ad- 
joined the Glebe land and his application 
for supplies indicates a deep interest in 
matters pertaining to the church, but we 
will not conjecture ; let each decide for 

On the 4th of June, 1740, two hundred 
acres of laud were deeded to the " Rev. 
James Anderson, pastor, John Allison, 
James Mitchel and David Hayes, Elders 
of the church, by Thomas Peun, by the 
powers and authority to him granted by 
the said John and Richard Peun and of 
his own right."* (Church records.) This 

*From this we learn that the congregation 
had probably occupied the land about twenty 
years before obtaining a patent. The reason 
for this delay is obvious when we recall the 
fact that William Penn founded the colony 
in 1681, and that some time elapsed before the 
machinery of government was sufficiently 
established and that delay was encountered 
between the application and the granting of 


was bounded on tne north by the land of 
James Stevenson and on the east by 
Andrew Galbrath's, on the south by Mary 
Modrel, or Motheril, and on the west by 
Ephraim Moore's land. One month after 
the receipt of the patent the Rev. James 
Anderson died. 

September llth, 1786, a charter was 
granted to the Rev. Colin McFarquhar, 
John Bailie, James Bailie, James Ander- 
son, Robert Spear, Brice Clark, Samuel 
Woods, James Muirhead and Joseph Lit- 
tle as trustees and their successors, f 

Nine members constituted the Board of 
trustees, until March 29th, 1805, when 
an act was passed reducing the number 
to three. 

On the 28th of February, 1787, the 
Trustees, according to the action of a 
meeting of the congregation held Jan- 
uary 8th. 1787, exposed at public sale the 
Glebe land, reserving thirty acres for the 
use of the congregation. 

On the 23d of March, 1787, the trustees 
met "for consorting with James Muir- 
head, the purchaser of said Glebe, the 
proper measures for conveying the said 
land to the said purchaser, and for re- 
ceiving from him, the said purchaser, a 
satisfactory security for the same." 

a deed. It may not be out of place to presume 
that the permanent church edifice was not 
erected until after the patent was granted. 
There were no trustees then, as the deed is 
in the name of the Session, as being the ouly 
representative of the church. 

fThe congregation no doubt progressed 
quietly and peaceably (as the long pastorate 
of twenty-six years under the Rev. Joseph 
Tate indicates) without any organization 
but the Session. They found it necessary to 
have a charter in order to sell part of their 
land, which they did immediately on the re- 
ceipt of that instrument. This also accounts 
for the beginning of the trustees' records in 
1786. Prior to this date their records were 
probably kept by the session, and are lost. 


(Church records.) There is no account 
of the sum for which the land was sold, 
only that the purchaser is to pay six per 
cent, interest. There are many entries 
in the records of the trustees that might 
be interesting, but our history would be 
too lengthy. An item from the accounts 
may be a historical reminiscence : April 
16th, 1787 "The trustees took under 
their consideration a certain donation 
that was lodged in the hands of James 
Work, ior the use of the congregation of 
Donigall, by a certain William Moor, de- 
ceased, which we find was lost by Conti- 
nental Money ; therefore, the trustees do 
acquit the aforesaid James Work of the 
aforesaid donation. 

"JOSiPH LITTLE, Secretary." 

Preparation was made to build the 
grave-yard wall July 29, 1790, by ap. 
pointing a committee of three, viz : 
" Ricnard Keys, James Cook and James 
Wilson, aud to see that it is finished." 
It appears to have been finished in 1791, 
as on the 9th of April a committee of the 
trustees was appointed to meet and settle 
with the committee appointed to build 
the wall. 

The following minute is recorded April 
28, 1795 : " The minutes of the last meet- 
ing being read and the reason of the 
trustees not meeting according to ad- 
journment was the call of the militia to 
quell the insurrection in the four back 
counties about fort pit." 

The first election for trustees, under 
the supplement of the charter reducing 
the number to three, was held May 14, 
1805. Those elected were Brice Clark, 
John WhitehiJl and Robert Spear. The 
auditors were John Watson, Joseph Little 
and John Pedan. The first account of 
dollars and cents is dated November 30, 
1807. The accounts prior to that time 
were kept in . s. d., until June, 1809, 


when the .. s. d. were entirely dropped. 

The Study House was built in 1810-11. 
The only record is the receipts for material 
and work, and are dated September, Oc- 
tober and December, 1811. This was 
subsequently altered into a dwelling 
house, and is at present occupied by the 

An extension to the graveyard was 
made in 1834,of which there is no record 
except credits paid for material for the 
wall. There are some of the members of 
the church living at the present time who 
remember the building of the extension 

At a meeting of the congregation held 
June 6, 1851, the trustees were unanim- 
ously authorized and instructed to sell all 
the land belonging to the church west of 
a line about sixty feet from and parallel 
with the western wall of the graveyard ; 
and that part of the proceeds arising 
from the sale of the said land be applied 
to repairing aud remodeling the church 
edifice ; and that the plan of repairing 
and remodeling be left to the trustees. At 
the same meeting land was granted for 
the purpose of erecting a school house 
thereon. This was built and occupied for 
a number of years. When the Directors 
of East Donegal township purchased a 
plot a short distance southeast of the 
church they removed the house on the 
church ground, aud built the present 
structure. The action of the congrega- 
tion was ratified by the session, which 
consisted of the following members : Rev. 
James L. Rodgers, pastor ; John Clark 
and Col. James Patterson, Elders. The 
trustees for 1851 and who did the re- 
modeling were Dr. Nathaniel Watson, 
John M. Hoover and James A. Patterson. 

Before the remodeling the exterior of 
the church was not plastered ; the win- 
dows and doors were arched ; there were 


three entrance doors, one ou the south, 
one on the east and one on the west end 
of the building ; the aisles leading from 
these doors were paved with brick ; four 
large pillars supported the ceiling (these 
may still be seen at Mt. Joy on the east 
side of Mr. Newcomer's hardware store); 
the pulpit with the precentor's seat on its 
front, and a high sounding board over 
head, was on the north side ; the walnut 
wood pews were of the high, square, box 
variety, in which "tired nature's sweet 
restorer" found little comfort. 

It is sad to see all these old memorials 
changed and passing away. The ruthless 
hand of modern improvement spares not 
the haunts and loved objects of our boy- 
hood days. Possibly it is well, lest we 
find our minds too much engrossed with 
perishable things, to the neglect of the 
weightier matters awaiting our future 

In remodeling the old building the 
large pillars, pulpit, pews and brick-cov- 
ered aisles were removed; the interior 
was laid with a substantial board floor; a 
vestibule divided off at the east end ; the 
south and west end entrances were closed 
and a new one made in the east end in ad- 
dition to the oue already there; square 
windows and door frames were substituted 
for the old arched ones, and the exterior 
was plastered to hide the unsightly joints 
of the old with the new wall, so that 
nothing remains to remind us of the an- 
cient structure except the hip roof. The 
material of the old pulpit and pews was 
used in their reconstruction, but so much 
changed that one unacquainted with the 
alteration would not recognize it. 

Tradition says that the first church 
edifice stood in what is now the grave 
yard, as the foundation walls are still 
visible. If such is the case, all that can 
be said respecting it is that our ancestors 


must have been much discommoded for 
the want of room, as the enclosure is only 
10x16 feet, inside measure. 

It is said that the congregation (some- 
time during our Revolutionary struggle) 
surrounded the large white oak tree, 
which stands near the east end of the 
church, and swore allegiance to our 
Government. The account differs some- 
what, but is true in its main features. 
This tree has always been regarded as a 
memorial by the descendants of the con- 

The history of the early families who 
settled around Donegal may be traced 
from the oJd land titles, wills, the tomb- 
stones in the burial ground and their 
descendants who are still living and 
worshiping in the old church. 

Of Andrew Galbrath, who owned the 
land contiguous to the Glebe, and whose 
name first appears in the history of Done- 
gal, little is known, except his applica- 
tion to Presbytery for supplies for the 
church. Some of his descendants are 
buried in the northeast corner of the 
grave yard. The name of Bertram Gal- 
brath appears in the church records in 
1790 as an Auditor and subsequently as 
a Trustee, indicating that the family took 
a prominent part in church affairs. 

The name of James Stevenson, who 
owned the land (now Cameron's) north 
of the Glebe, has recently been honored 
though the elevation of one of his de- 
scendants to the highest office of the 
nation. This is known from the following 
partial genealogic account : James 
Stevenson's second daughter, Hannah, 
married John Gray, whose daughter, 
Sarah Gray, married David McKinley, 
who was born in York county, Pa., May 
16, 1755. His son, James McKinley, born 
September 19, 1783, was an Elder in a 
Presbyterian church in Ohio, and his 

( 276 ) 

eldest son, William McKinley, is the 
father of Major William McKinley, 
President-elect of the United States. 

The Patterson family contributed a 
large (probably the largest) num- 
ber to the silent inhabitants of 
the old burial ground. Thfir an- 
cestor, Arthur Patterson, of Scotch descent 
(born 1697, died July 3, 1763, in the 66th 
year of his age), was one of the early 
settlers along Big Chiques creek three 
miles southeast of Mt. Joy. His descend- 
ants at one time occupied a large extent 
of land north, east and south of Mt. Joy; 
they took a prominent part in National 
affairs and for many years a conspicuous 
interest in Donegal Church. The great 
grandson of Arthur Patterson, Mr. James 
Agnew Patterson, is the present and only 
Elder of Donegal, and is in his eighty- 
seventh year. The late Judge Patterson, 
of Lancaster, was a great-grandson. His 
great-great-granddaughter is the wife of 
Judge John B. McPherson, ol'Harrisburg, 
Pa. Major James Patterson, Samuel 
Smith, Thomas J., James M., William, 
Alexander, Douglas, Arthur and John, 
his sons, Samuel and John, daughter 
Mary Ann, now Mrs. Shock, Pho3be 
Mrs. Moore, Martha Sterrett, Mrs. Barr 
Ferree, Mrs. Rebecca Spangler, Mrs. 
Hatfield, descendants of Arthur Patter- 
son, were personally known to the writer 
of this sketch. A history of their con- 
nection by marriage with the Scotts, 
Watsons, Pedaus, Hatfields, Spears, 
Sterretts, Agnews, McJimseys, Hays, 
Moores, Ferrees, Hendersons, Spau- 
glers aad others would fill a volume. 

The Watson family reside'! on what 
is now the Cameron farm (originally 
James Stevenson's). They occupied their 
homestead until 1872, over 100 years. It 
cama into their possession by John Wat- 
son, who married Ann, the oldest daughter 


of James Stevenson, whose son, David 
Watson, was the father of Dr. John Wit- 
son, who had four sons and four daughters, 
whom the writer knew personally, except 
Mrs. Boyd. The grandchildren of Dr. John 
Watson yet living are James P. Wat- 
son, Mrs. Charlotte Herr, Mrs. Henry H. 
Wiley, Miss Harriet P. Watson, Henry 
Watson, of Williamsport ; Dr. Belle Wat- 
son and Miss Mary Watson, of Lock 
Haven ; James A. Patterson, Miss Rachael 
J. Patterson and Mrs. J. L. Ziegler, of 
Mount Joy ; Watson Ellmaker, of Lan- 
caster, and Mrs. Lucy Walker, of the 
Gap. The family always took a deep inter- 
est in Donegal, and the larger number of 
the grandchildren attend Donegal Church 
at the present time. There seemed to be 
an hereditary inclination for the medical 
profession. Dr. John Watson had two 
sons physicians, Dr. David C. and Dr. 
Nathaniel ; two grandsons, Dr. David H. 
and Dr. Belle Watson, of Lock Haven ; 
two great-grandsons, Dr. James P. Zieg- 
ler, of Mount Joy, and Dr. Walter M. L. 
Ziegler, of Philadelphia. The two latter 
are the great-great-grandsons of Arthur 

The name Clark appears early on 
the church records. Brice Clark, one 
of the charter trustees, took an 
active part in its affairs, aud Mr. John 
Clark was long an Elder. Many of the 
family are buried at Donegal. They re- 
sided (long before my recollection; on 
what is now Hon. Donald Cameron's 
place. Mr. John Clark was a celebrated 
surveyor, and one of his grandchildren, 
Miss Martha Clark, is a member of the 
Lancaster Historical Society. 

The Sterretts,a very prominent and large 
family, were connected with the church. 
Mr. Patterson Sterrett, an Elder in the 
Presbyterian Church ot Marietta, is a 
descendant. The Whitehills were active 


members. John Whitehill's name ap- 
pears as a trustee in 1788 and later Mr. 
John M. Whitehill, the father of Mrs. 
Redsecker, who with her family are living 
at the present time in Columbia and at- 
tend the Donegal Church. Her father 
during his lifetime was prominent in the 
church. Many of the family are buried 
at Donegal. 

The Lytles, whose ancestor was one of 
the charter members, trustee and for some 
years Secretary of the Board, were 
prominent in the church. His descend- 
ants, Mr. S. S. P. Lytle, daughter and 
son, Dr. 8. P. Lytle, a successful dental 
practitioner, reside at Mt. Joy at present. 
The family was large in its connection 
with the Scotts and Pedans. 

Of the Lowries, the name of Alexander 
Lowrie first appears on the records as an 
auditor in 1789, subsequently as a trustee. 
The names of the Spears, Bailies, 
Muirheads, Woods and Moores appear 
on the records as early as 1786. The 
Pedans, Hays, Clingans, Wilsons, Scotts, 
Moores. Houstous, Mehaffys and many 
others, and some who rest in unmarked 
graves, were those who constituted the 
early congregation. 

The oldest legible tombstone inscription 
is that of 


Son of John and Agnes Jamiesou, 
who departed this life on the 3rd day oi Feb- 
ruary, 1732, 
In the 32nd year of his age. 

This probably was a relative of David 
Jamiesou, who loft a legacy to the church, 
and who resided at Conewago. 

This inscription taken from a tomb- 
stone may be of some interest : 

( 279 ) 
In memory of 


Late of Conooheague, 

Who was a tender parent, careful instructor 
and an example of piety to a 

numerous progeny. 

When the settlement was obliged to fly by 

the barbarous Indian War. He deceased 

in these parts, so was interred here 

September 12, 1759, 

Aged 77 years. 

The writer spent many pleasant hours 
in the bright summer days, during his 
pupilage, around the grounds, springs 
and burial ground of Old Donegal. 

The unlettered tombstones, how many ! 
What a history ! What trials and labors, 
patience and endurance, faith and hope, 
He buried there! 

" Death is not rare, alas ! nor burials few, 
And soon the grassy coverlet of God 
Spreads equal green above their ashes pale." 



ON FKB. 5, 1897 








The Gap Copper Mines, 

BY R. J. HOUSTON, 283 

Old Mills and Country Ordinaries, 



Through the kindness of Dr. Wra. H. 
Egle, State Librarian, which I thank- 
fully acknowledge, I am enabled to give 
from the official records in the Land De- 
partment at Harrisburg the earliest 
ownership of the land constituting the 
Gap mines property. 

The first paper is endorsed "An Acc't of 
Lands surveyed to divers persons, who 
purchased of James Steel in right of the 
original purchase of William Bacon," 
and reads: "William Penu, Esq., Pro- 
prietary and Governor of Pennsylvania, 
by deeds of lease and release bearing date 
the llth and 12th days of October, A. D. 
1681, did grant and convey to William 
Bacon, of ye Inner Temple (London), 
Gent., 5,000 acres of land in Pennsyl- 
vania, and the said William Bacon, by 
like deed, etc., dated 19th and 20th days 
of February, 1718, did release and con- 
firm the said 5,000 acres to Humphrey 
Murry and John Budd, and the said Pro- 
prietary's Commissioners of Property did 
grant to the said Humphrey Murry and 
John Budd two warrants, one dated ye 
5th, 3rd mo., and ye other 28th, 6th mo., 
1719. for the laying out to said Murry and 
Budd 4,920 acres. And the said Murry 
and Budd by deed, dated the 26th of 
March, 1720, did sell to James Steel, Gent., 
1,500 acres. In right whereof there was 
surveyed to the said James Steel 

"800 acres sold to Samuel Gouldin. 

" 300 acres sold to Herman Godschalic 
and Leonard Heurickson. 

"100 acres sold to Martin Kolph and 
John Ledrak. 

"200 acres sold to George Rough. 

"100 acres mine laud at Octorara re- 


tained by said Steel, making in all 1,500 

The second paper is a record of a 
warrant for the 100 acres mine land re- 
tained by Steel. It is endorsed " Return 
100 acres Octorara," and reads: " By vir- 
tue of a Warrant from the Commissioners 
of Property dated the 5th day of the third 
month, 1719, surveyed and laid out unto 
James Steel, of the citv of Philadelphia, 
in right of William Bacon's original pur- 
chase, a certain tract or parcel of land 
scituate in Chester county. Beginning at 
a corner marked Black Oak on the East 
side of a Branch of Octorara Creek, from 

thence North by a line of marked 106 

perches to a post, then West 160 perches 
to another post, then South 106 perches 
to a third post, then East 160 perches to 
the place of beginning, containing 106 
acres. Surveyed the 21st day of Decem- 
ber, 1722. Certified by me, 


" Surveyor Gen'l." 

It will be remembered that six acres 
were given with each 100 acres for roads, 
so that the above tract only made 100 

The third paper is endorsed, "James 
Steel, 150 acres on a branch of the Oc- 
torara," and reads : 

"James Steel's Land, situate on a 
Branch of the Octorara Creek in 
the County of Lancaster. Beginning 
at a Black Oak, being a corner of a tract 
of laud surveyed for said James Steel 
the 21st day ot December, 1722, thence 
by the same North 48 perches to a White 
Oak, thence East by vacant land 26 perches 
to a White Oak, thence South by vacant 
land 158 perches to a White Oak, thence 
West by vacant land 220 perches to a post, 
thence North 110 perches to a post, thence 
East by said James Steel's other land 194 
perches to the place of beginning, con- 


taining 150 acres and the allowance of six 
acres per cent. 

11 Surveyed the 9th of 10th mo., 1730. 


This last purchase by James Steel was 
not a part of Bacon's 5, 000 acres, but was 
secured from a William Markham, who 
seems to have owned the land adjoining 
the Bacon tract on the south, as will be 
seen from the draft and the following 
record in the State Land Department. 
In a volume labeled " Old Rights " there 
is in favor of James Steel this informa- 
tion : 

"No. 42. Return of 250 acres in Lan- 
caster county surveyed the 9th of No- 
vember, 1730." 

This document reads as follows : 
"November 9th, 1730. Surveyed and 
Laid out for James Steel, of the 
City of Philadelphia, Gent, a tract of 
land on a Branch of Octoraroe, in 
the County of Langcast'r. Beginning at 
a White Oak marked for a corner, thence 
by a line of marked trees East 26 perches 
to another White Oak. Then South by a 
line of marked trees 158 perches to a third 
White Oak, then West by a line of trees 220 
perches, then North by a line of marked 
trees 110 perches, then by a line of 
marked trees East 34 perches, then North 
by line of marked trees 106 perches, then 
by aline of marked trees East 160 perches, 
then by a line of marked trees South 58 
perches to the place of beginning, con- 
taining 250 acres with allowance of 6 per 
cent. One hundred acres thereof in right 
of Wm. Bacon by a Warrant from the 
Commissioners of Property, dated the 21st 
day of December, 1722, and 150 acres in 
right of Wm. Markhara. 

*' Certified by Jacob Taylor." 
This paper is endorsed on the back : 
"James Steel 250 acres in Langcast'r 
County, the Gap Mine Land, now belong- 


ing one-s ixth part to the honorable Prop'r 
Thos. Penn, one-sixth part to Andrew 
Hamilton, one-sixth part to James Logan, 
or assigns, one-sixth part to Wm. Allen, 
one-sixth part to Thomas Schute, or as- 
signs, one-sixth part to James Steel." 

Enclosed in this is a draft of these 250 
acres, with the same endorsement, with 
the words added, "Surveyed November 

9th, 1730. JACOB TAYLOR." 

Known at an Early Date. 

From the above it seems clear that the 
existence of valuable minerals on the Gap 
mine tract was known as early as 1720, or, 
at the latest, 1722, as between those years 
James Steel sold 1,400 acres of his 1,500 
acre purchase, retaining 100 acres, marked 
on the record "Mine Land at Octorara." 
It is barely possible that the tradition 
printed in Everts & Stewart's Histori- 
cal Atlas of this county, that some Mary* 
landers discovered the mine in 1718, is cor- 
rect ; but it seems hardly probable that 
Sir William Keith drove the Maryland 
people away and worked the mine in 1719, 
spending much money in opening it and 
being stopped by the proprietors. As a 
sane man he would doubtless have tried 
to secure the property before going to 
much expense, and it was then for sale, 
Murry and Budd having secured it in 
February, 1718, and sold it to James 
Steel, of Philadelphia, in March, 1720. 

It would seem more likely that, while 
much prospecting by digging pits, etc., 
was done before, the first regular 
and systematic working of the mine was 
after Steel secured the 150 acres of the 
Markham tract in November, 1730, when 
the whole 250 acres was divided into six 
equal shares, Thomas Peun taking one 

There can be no doubt that these six 
men, ?vho were all wealthy, proceeded to 
work these mines as well as the limited 


possibilities of thac time would permit, 
and by themselves, their heirs or assigns 
continued to operate them with more or 
less persistence, at least until 1763, for on 
November 7 of that year the Hon. John 
Penn issued an order to John Lukens, 
Surveyor General, which, after reciting 
the above facts as to the 250 acres, directs 
him to survey to the " Gap Mine Com- 
pany" 300 acres additional, part of which 
they were already using. 

The reason given for this order is that 
41 the said company have at great expense 
erected divers buildings and other works 
for the carrying on of the said undertak- 
ing and for the use and benefit thereof, as 
well on the said 250 acres as on the said 
300 acres." 

The order also directs the Surveyor 
General to survey both tracts and make 
return of the same that they may be 
"confirmed to William Allen and others, 
the said Gap Mine Company,on the com- 
mon terms of 15 pounds 10 shillings per 
100 acres and the quit rent of one half 
penny sterling per acre for the whole from 
the first settlement of the mine tract." 

In pursuance of this order the Surveyor 
General reports that he surveyed the same, 
" including such surplus as was clear of 
the lines of the claimers of adjoining lands 
on the 6th, 7th, 8tb, 10th and llth days of 
September, 1764, and found it contained 
780| acres." So the surplus clear of ad- 
joining claims must have been about 230 
acres. The draft of this whole tract in 
the Land Office is so torn that no copy 
can be made. 

There is also a record of a re-survey of 
some of this land made March 15, 1786, 
which mentions William Allen (probably 
a descendent of the William Allen of 
1730 and 1763; as an owner. 


A Valnabie Pamphlet. 

Of the actual working of these mines 
in tne last century, however, no written 
history on record seems to have been 
made, or, if made, was not preserved, so 
that our only dependence is on the un- 
certain and frequently contradictory tra- 
ditions of the neighborhood. So much 
of these as seemed reliable were gathered 
up by Capt. Charles Doble,the active and 
efficient manager of these mine? for 
nearly forty years, but his efforts were 
not very satisfactory to himself until he 
recently secured from a former owner of 
some of the land a pamphlet of twenty 
pages. For the loan of this, as well as 
much other valuable information, 1 de- 
sire to make this public acknowledgment 
of my thanks. I am willing that the 
members of the society should see this 
ancient book, but I want them to "handle 
with care," for to me it seems invaluable. 
It is the nature of what we would now 
call a prospectus for the formation of a 
mining company, but gives a vast amount 
of the early history of the mine, which I 
have, so far as possible, compared with in- 
formation from other sources without 
once finding it in error. This pam- 
phlet is one hundred years old and, so far 
as I know, no part of it has been re- 
printed in this century. I have, there- 
fore, deemed it advisable, in the interest 
of the future historians, to make copious 
extracts from it. The title page reads: 

"A plan with Proposals for forming a 
Company to work mines in the United 
States, and to Smelt and Refine the ores, 
whether of Copper, Lead, Tin, Silver or 
Gold, by Benjamin Henfrey. The original 
can be seen at the Philadelphia Library, 
No. 91,025. Printed by Snowden & McCor- 
kle, No. 47 North Fourth street, Phila- 
delphia, 1797." 

The first paragraph of the preface 
reads : 


11 1 conceive that it is totally unneces- 
sary lor me to make any comment upon 
the great advantages it would be to this 
country to be supplied with all the useful 
metals from its own mines, to purchase 
which an immense sum, every one knows, 
is annually sent to Europe." (A 
terse statement of the great American 
doctrine of protection, which he evidently 
wrote for the especial benefit of Brother 
Hensel. ) 

The preface is dated, "Gap Copoer 
Mines, Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, 
March 27th, 1797." 

Then follows what he calls "Pro- 
posals, &c. :" 

"The first mines I would recommend 
are situated in Lancaster county, Penn- 
sylvania, five miles from Strasburg. 
thirteen from Lancaster, thirty-five from 
Wilmington, fifty from Philadelphia, and 
only two miles from a turnpike road. 

"They were discovered by a German 
by the name of Tersej, in or before the 
year 1732, and in that year Hon. John 
Peun made a grant of the land where the 
mine was found to the following gentle- 
men, for the express purpose of having it 
worked, viz : Governor Hamilton, Judge 
Allen, James Logan, James Steel and 
Thomas Schute, Esq., and it also appears 
that Mr. Penn joined in the expense of 
opening the mine, etc., in doing which 
they discovered one of those uncommon 
vitriolic springs called by the Germans 
Ziment wasser, i. P., water strongly im- 
pregnated with the vitriol of copper, or, 
as some writers have called them, copper 
springs ; but, notwithstanding this in- 
valuable discovery, it does not appear 
that any of the gentlemen were acquainted 
with the value of the water, as no attempt 
appears to have ever been made to turn 
it to account after the European manner, 
which I shall have occasion to describe. 


But previous, I will, for the satisfaction 
of those who may wish to forward my 
plan, state the proofs I have obtained of 
such a spring having been actually dis- 
covered in the Gap mines when first 
opened. These proofs also fortunately 
report the quantity and value of the water, 
and, from the great ability as well as re- 
spectability of the men, leave no doubt of 
the truth of the discovery. The report 
is as follows : 

'"An account of the copper springs lately 
discovered in Pennsylvania, by John 
Rutty, M. D., of Dublin, communicated 
by Mr. Peter Oollinson, F. R. S. See 
volume 49, part 2, page 648. Read May 
20, 1756. 

"'In the Province of Pennsylvania 
is a copper mine which affords a 
Spring that appears to have the same 
effect as that Irish water lately de- 
scribed by Dr. William Henry and Dr. 
Bond in the 47th and 48th Volumes of 
the Philosophical Transactions, but is 
much sharper, for it will dissolve iron in 
a quarter part of the time, and we are 
assured by the accounts transmitted from 
the proprietors of it of the trials they 
have made, that it yields the same copper 
mud or dust as our Crone Baun water 
of the county of Wicklow, Ireland, in 
this Kingdom (being the water above 
mentioned), which, being collected from 
the bars of iron immersed in it for the 
purpose of extracting the copper from 
the Pennsylvania water, it produced 
above half pure copper on being melted 
in a crucible ; an experiment that requires 
to be repeated in order to ascertain the 
proportion of copper obtained with ac- 
curacy ; our copper spring ot the county 
of Wicklov yielding a proportion con- 
siderably It rger than this, viz., 16 parts 
of copper out ot' 20 ot the mud. 

'* 'In the neighborhood is a great abuud- 


ance of the ores of vitriol and sulphur 
and the Spring comes through an im- 
mense body of vitriol ore and the supply 
of water is very large, 700 to 800 hogsheads 
flowing ill 24 hours. The water is of a 
pale green color of an acid, sweet, austere, 
inky and nauseous taste. 

" ' But the genuine quality as well as 
large proportion of the impregnating salt 
will further appear by the following analy- 
sis of this water, viz., a pint of it exhaled 
by a slow fire left 400 grains of solid con- 
tents, which were partly green and 
partly ochre colored, with an inter- 
mixture of bluish and a rough sweet- 
ish taste like that of Sal Martis and ap- 
peared to be chiefly saline, not leaving 
above four grains indissoluble matter on 
dissolving 196 grains of it and filtering. 

" 'Thus it appears that the proportion of 
vitriolic parts in this water is very large, 
viz., six drachms to a pint or 3, 200 grains 
to a gallon, and consequently it is a 
stronger solution of vitriol than sea water 
is of marine salt, and, moreover, is truly 
considered the strongest of all the vitrio- 
lic waters that have yet occurred to my 
observation, for our Crone Baun water in 
the county of Wicklow gives but 256 
grains from a gallon ; Haigh in Lan- 
cashire, the strongest in Britain, 1,920 
grains; Sbadwall, 1,320; Kilbrew in the 
County of Health, 1,530 from the same 
quantity, so that besides the copper to be 
obtained by immersing bars of iron as in 
our county of Wicklow water, this 
water offers to its proprietors another pe- 
culiar advantage, viz., an opportunity of 
erecting a copperas works or manufac- 
ture of vitriol, especially the vast supply 
of water and plenty ot fuel in the place 

Mr. Heufrey now brings great names 
to his aid, namely, the certificate ot Dr. 
Logan respecting the copper springs at 
the Gap Mine, Lancaster County : 

(292 ) 

11 1 do certify that Dr. Benjamin Frank- 
lin, a few weeks before bis death, informed 
me that at the time the Gap copper 
mine in Lancaster county belong- 
ing to James Logan and others 
was worked, a spring of water was 
discovered in the same highly impreg- 
nated with copper. A bottle of water 
was sent to him, with which he frequently 
made experiments with his knife, which, 
being for a short time immersed in the 
water, would assume the apearance of 


" STENTON. March 10. 1797." 

Dr. George Logan was quite a promi- 
nent man of that time. He was intimate 
with Dr. Franklin, a member of the 
American Philosophical Society, and in 
1801 was elected United States Senator 
from Pennsylvania. His home was at 
Stenton, near Wayne Junction, just 
north of Philadelphia. 

What Old Residents Said. 

11 The following is the certificate of some 
old people who remember the first open- 
ing of the Gap mines and are still living 
near them and who are persons of good 
character and in good circumstances : 

11 * Tins is TO CERTIFY, to whom it may 
concern, that we, the subscribers, were 
frequently at the copper mines in Lancas- 
ter county, known by the name of Gap 
mine, during the time the said mine was 
working by James Logan & Company, 
and from hearing the people often talk- 
ing of the water put the blades of our 
knives into the water as it came from the 
pumps, which in a few minutes would be 
covered with copper. And we further 
certify that we have often seen quantities 
of the ore got in this mine and frequently 
heard the miners say that it was a very 
rich mine if the water could be kept down 
so as they could work constantly. At 


this time there were eight pumps working 
in this pit, which turned out so much 
water that it overflowed a meadow and 
destroyed the grass so effectually that 
most of the places the water used to 
cover are barren at this time. Given 
under our hands severally this 19th of 
November, in the year 1793. 






Then follows a letter to Mr. Honfrey, 
dated Clay Hill, December 27, 1796, from 
R. Howell, who seems to be the owner or 
at least to control the property, and who 
regrets his financial inability to erect ma- 
chinery to properly work the mine prop- 
erty and accedes to a sale of shares for a 
portion of the money needed. Mr. Heu- 
frey then proceeds to give his plans for 
working the mine. He says: ''The works 
are now in such a state as to require only 
the aid of a machine of sufficient power 
to raise the water so as to keep the pits 
clean. A steam engine of moderate power 
would be capable of doing this. But there 
are many objections to erecting a steam 
engine in this country : 1st, the great ex- 
pense of erecting one ; 2d, the consump- 
tion of fuel ; 3d, the frequent repairs, and 
4th, the high wages you must give to an 
engineer to attend the machine. I would 
recommend that a level should be brought 
up through a meadow to the mine by 
which a fall of 25 to 30 feet may be 
gained and a water wheel of 25 feet diam- 
eter will be sufficient to work as many 
pumps as will clear tne mines of the com- 
mon; and raise the copper water lor use. 
There are three small streams in the mine 
lands that may be conducted into one 
reservoir, which would then, I am cer- 


tain, give as much water as the machine 
will require to keep it constantly going. 
The machinery on this plan will be sim- 
ple and such as may bo made at the 

"Nor will it be so liable to get out of 
order as the works of a steam engine. 
If this plan is put in practice the works 
may much sooner be made productive, 
for when the level is brought up, the bed 
of poor ore before noted will be laid dry, 
and may be worked to immediate profit 
much sooner than if we have to wait /or 
the erecting of a steam engine, and at 
much less expense to the company. 

Extent of the Improvements. 

"I will now for the information of those 
persons who may be disposed to join in 
forwarding the proposed plau acquaint 
them with the present state of the work 
at the Gap mines. 

" We have built a saw mill, made two 
dams, and cut a, head and tail race. 

" There is a large log house for the cop- 
peras works and a largo lead boiler. Sev- 
eral ley tubs, cisterns, &c. There are a 
carpenters' and smiths' shops and two log 
houses for workmen. There is a variety 
of tools, with pit ropes, windlasses, 
buckets, &o. Also, a complete set of 
boring rods, 100 feet long, The two main 
shafts have been cleaned out, which was 
attended with great trouble and difficulty, 
as we were obliged to work night and 
day on account of the water. 

"There is a machine to work the pumps, 
which will be of great use in getting the 
water out until a mere powerful one can 
be completed. There are eight tiers of 
pumps, two tiers deep, all in good work- 
ing order. 

"About fifty tons of ore have been raised 
and a great deal ot other work done. I 
shall, therefore, only further note that a 


small part of the level is driven and that 
two men are now at work on it. 

11 These various works have cost our 
company a considerable sum, as will appear 
by our books, and the company who first 
opened the mines must, I am certain, 
have expended at least $30,000, so that 
the proposed company will come in on 
very advantageous terms, as by these ex- 
penses the mines have been put in a state 
that they only require a steam or other 
engine to make them pay the profit I have 
stated and with the probability of much 

Condition of the Mine Itself. 

"I will now describe the works below. 
One of the pits is seven feet square; the 
other is seven by five. The wide shaft is 
only about sixty feet deep, but the other is 
much deeper. The vitriolic water rises 
fifteen feet from the bottom of the wide 
shaft, and there is forty feet of common 
water over it. This I have proved many 
times by my boring rods. 

" When we had cleared the pits of earth 
and stones, and had the waters out, I 
went down. I found the main shaft in 
most excellent order, the frame consist- 
ing of squared logs laid close upon each, 
as in building a house ; in short, I never 
saw such strong work and so well secured 
in any mine I ever was in before. 

"I have now only to beg leave to 
recommend my estimate and plan to the 
serious consideration of my readers, and 
to assure them that the views contem- 
plated by this scheme are fair and 

Estimate of Expense to Complete the 
Works at the Gap Mines. 

1797. To expense of level $4,000 

To machine to work the 

pumps 1,200 

To troughs for copper 

water. 2,000 


To finish copperas works. 1,000 

To incidental expenses . . . 500 

To manager's salary 1,000 

To clerk's salary 300 


Eat i mute of tbe Expense and Probable 
Profit In Working the Gap Alines 

the First 1'ear. 

1798. To expense of completing 

works as above $10,000 

To cash for 200 tons bar 

iron 20,000 

To 25 workmen at $200 

each 5,000 

To 2 smiths at $300 each. . 600 

To 2 coopers at $300 each. 600 

Tol clerk , 800 

To 1 manager 2,500 

To incidental expenses ... 600 

To of the net profits to 
be paid to the lessees of 
the mines 11,612 


Contra Credit. 

By 300 tons of fine copper to be 
precipitated from the ziment 
water which I will value at 
$400 per ton $120,000 

By 300 tons copperas at $30 per 

ton 9,000 

By 10 tons fine copper precipi- 
tated from ore 4,000 

Less expense 51,712 

Profit $81,288 

A similar calculation for the second 
year, 1799, makes out a net profit of $256,- 


Tried, Bat Unsuccessfully. 

With this astounding display of profits 
it seemed to me that Mr. Henfrey must 
surely have raised his company, and I ac- 


cordingly wrote to Captain Doble to as- 
certain whether his subsequent examina- 
tions gave evidence of Mr. Henfrey's 
plans having been put in operation and 
received the following reply : 

NICKEL MINKS, January 15, 1897. 
R. J. Houston, Esq. 

DEAR SIR : In answer to yours of the 
12th inst., I have to say that there is 
strong evidence that Mr. Henfrey's plans 
or a part of them at least were carried out. 
The old water wheel that we discovered 
was about 25 feet in diameter and 20 
inches wide, located right on the edge of 
the old east shaft. This is the shaft Mr. 
Henfrey spoke of as beins: so well and 
strongly secured with squared timbers 
laid one upon the other and is the one 
farthest east on the mineral range. 

There was a level or tail race some 300 
yards in length brought up from the 
meadow below direct to the water wheel. 
The bottom of this tail race is about 25 
feet below the suri'ace at the point where 
it reached the wheel. The first 200 yards 
from its outlet was an open ditch and the 
other 100 yards was tunneled. 

The water to drive the wheel was col- 
lected from the springs of three little val- 
leys into a dam one hundred yards north 
of the wheel, viz., from the springs at the 
head of the same valley that the wheel 
was in, from the springs of a little valley 
eight hundred yards west brougnt to the 
dam in an open race, and from the springs 
in a little valley over a half mile east, 
brought to the dam in the same way ; 
parts of these daws and races can still be 
seen. The springs from these three little 
valleys are the source or head of this 
branch of the Octorara. 

I never saw any signs of the old 
mines having reached a depth of over 
sixty feet from the suri'ace, and only in 
one place, viz., the East shaft, where the 


wheel was located, did they reach a depth 
of sixty feet. But to the depth of from 
twenty-five feet to forty feet from the 
surface, they did a great amount of work 
in the way of sinking pits, tunneling, etc. 
Much of this work seems to have been 
done with natural drainage (I mean with- 
out pumping), consequently the vertical 
depths of these workings varied accord- 
ing to the natural rolling surface. 

How much, if any, of Mr. Hen- 
frey's plans for the treatment of the "vit- 
riolic" waters were carried out, I do not 
know. Yours truly, 


It would seem from this letter that Mr. 
Henfrey doubtless or anized his company 
and about equally certain that it was not 
successful. The difference between the 
estimated and actual profits of his opera- 
tion probably did not differ widely from 
many similar estimates and results of the 
present day, and Mr. Henfrey, as a pro- 
moter of mining companies, need not oc- 
cupy a back seat even with the experts in 
his line of a century later. 

His operation was the last previous to 
the recent working which began in 1849, 
but, as this sketch is already too long, I 
must reserve that for another paper. 

Up to 1785 two parties are named as 
having operated the mines, viz., "James 
Ramsey & Co." and later "William 
Allen and others." Both of these names 
are among the six original owners. This 
would seem to render it probable that 
while some of the six originals had sold 
out to either their partners or outsiders, 
others of the originals, or their de- 
scendants, were willing to renew the 
work, and that some of them were the 
immediate predecessors of Henfrey's 


Old Mills and Country Ordinaries, 

The pioneer settlers in the u Upper 
End " of what is now Lancaster county 
cfame from the north of Ireland. A num- 
ber of them were tenant farmers, who 
were more or less imposed upon by selfish 
and greedy landlords, and they were only 
toe glad to seek homes in a land where 
they could own farms in fee. When they 
landed at New Castle on the Delaware, 
they at once struck out for the wilder- 
ness beyond the frontier settlements in 
the Pequea and Conestoga Valleys, and 
took up the lands along Chickiesalunga 
Creek, and westward of that. They were 
self-sustaining: from the moment they lo- 
cated their homesteads. I have no doubt 
they depended the first year almost wholly 
upon wild game for subsistence. A num- 
ber of French Indian traders were located 
a few miles from their settlement, where 
they had trading stores and kept Indian 
supplies. I have no doubt many of these 
pioneer settlers resorted to these posts, or 
stores, where they bartered furs for sup- 

Many of them embarked in the Indian 
trade, and became a power in the pro- 
vince, and they were, in a great measure, 
responsible for the hostility of the French, 
who sought to control the Indian trade 
in the far west, which, eventually, brought 
on a war between the English and French 
and Indians. 

Their dwellings were rude and con- 
structed of logs cut from the surrounding 
forests. When the timber was prepared 
for dwellings and barns, neighbors were 
notified to assemble and assist at the 
" raisings." One of these gatherings 
turned out to be of great service to the 


Penus. la the year 1735 Blunston and 
Wright, Esqs., of Hempfield, learned that 
Colonels Rigby and Hall, of Baltimore 
county, Maryland, were mustering the 
militia preparatory to a raid into Penn- 
sylvania. Benjamin Chambers, a mill- 
wright, who had been in the neighbor- 
hood, was sent down to Maryland by 
Blunston and Wright to visit the camp 
of the militia and ascertain the cause 
of the gathering. He was arrested 
as a spy, but he escaped and hastened 
back to Wright's Ferry to warn 
the settlers of the anticipated raid. 
Mr. Chambers, hearing of a house and 
barn raising in Donegal, hastened there 
and made known his errand. All dropped 
their work, and, taking their guns, hast- 
ened to Wright's Ferry and crossed the 
river, where they met three hundred of 
the Maryland militia marching in battle 
array to the Ferry, under the command 
of Col. Hall and Col. Rigby. The Done- 
galians drove them back to Captain 
Cresap's fort, three miles and a half south 
of the ferry. Maryland's valiant army 
retreated gracefully to the land of hom- 
ing and our friends in the Upper End re- 
turned to their usual occupations. 

In the year 1720 they formed a Presby- 
terian congregation and built a log church 
at the large spring where, or near, the 
present church stands. 

In the same year John Gaibraith 
located along what was then called 
"Spring Creek," which had its source at 
the spring at Donegal Church. He se- 
lected the land at a point where a new 
road had been laid out, branching from 
the Peters road, a short distance north- 
east from the present town of Mt. Joy, 
and which led through the new settle- 
ment. This road again branched at Gal- 
braith's, one road going to the river and 
the other one inclining northwest and 


connecting with the Peters road near 
Conoy creek. 

John Galbraith in the same year erected 
the first grist and saw mill above the 

The travel over these roads became so 
great that Mr. Galbraith applied to the 
Chester County Court to grant him a 
license to keep an ordinary and brew 

The petition for the "ordinary" 
clearly sets forth the reasons which 
prompted the application. The petition 
has a large number of signers for that 
time. There were a number of other 
settlers in the neighborhood, who were 
either not asked, or else they declined to 
sign the paper. 

The paper itself is a matter of some 
interest. I will add a short sketch of the 
signers, which may give it additional 

John Galbraith, the petitioner, came 
from the north of Ireland with his father, 
James, and his brothers, James and An- 
drew. He was a member of the first 
Grand Jury in the county, ana was elected 
Sheriff of the county in 1731. He was a 
member of Sheriff Samuel Smith's posse 
who marched to Conuejohela Valley, on 
the west side of the river, and captured 
Captain Cresap's fort, and took that war- 
rior a prisoner and landed him in the 
Philadelphia jail. In 1748 he was a cap- 
tain in his brother's (Colonel James Gal- 
braith) battalion, which ranged along the 
mountains to protect the frontier settlers 
from Indian raids. He died in 1753. He 
had a son named Robert, who died in the 
year 1747 and lei't a widow named Re- 
becca. The widow married Captain John 
Buyers, who then owned the Jacob Mum- 
ma farm. A hundred years ago the 
Mum mas added a story to the dwelling, 

Captain Buyers moved to Cumberland 


Valley and became a distinguished officer 
in the Revolutionary War. 

Colonel Ephrairn Elaine, the great- 
grandfather of the late Hon. James Q. 
Blaine, married Rebecca, the daughter of 
Robert Galbraith. They moved to Car- 
lisle. After the death of John Galbraith 
his lands were divided and sold. That 
part on the east side of the creek was 
purchased by Mr. Hiestand, and the grist 
and saw mill, with the ordinary, and sev- 
eral hundred acres of land, were purchased 
by John Bayly, who was the son of 
Thomas Bayly, and was born upon a 
farm near where Florin is. He married 
Ruth Anderson. He was a member of 
the Supreme Executive Council of the 
State from this county during the Revo- 
lutionary War, The mills and ordinary 
were conducted by him until his death in 
1794 He was one of the owners and 
founders of the town of Falmouth. 

A few years after his death Henry 
Shearer purchased the farm and mills. 
In the year 1804 he tore the old mills 
down, and erected a large stone mill on 
the south side of tbe road and a large 
stone dwelling on the bill on the north 
side. Either then or a few years later a 
still house was erected near the mill. 
This was known as a merchant mill. 
Large quantities of flour from this mill 
were shipped down the river in arks to the 
Baltimore market. 

James Patersou, the first signer on 
the petition, married Susannah Howard, 
and located near Martin Coartier's trad- 
ing post, in what is now Manor township, 
in the year 1716. He embarked in the 
Indian trade and established a store and 
trading post upon the farm near Wash- 
ington Borough lately owned by Jacob 
B. Sbuman. He kept many of his pack 
horses on the west side of the river where 
they were pastured. When Captain Thos. 


Cresap oame up from Maryland to 
Connejohela Valley, in 1730, he and his 
brothers-in-law shot Mr. Paterson's 
horses. This caused a conflict between 
the Pennsylvanians and Alarylanders, 
which culminated in "Cresap's War." 
Mr. Paterson died in October, 1735. 
His daughter, Sarah, married Benjamin 
Chambers, mentioned above, who founded 
Chambersburg, Pa. His son, James, became 
a distinguished officer in the Revolution- 
ary war. 

Another daughter, named Susannah, 
married James Lowrey, a celebrated In- 
dian trader, who moved to Frankstown, 
on the Juniata, in 1750. A daughter, 
Rebecca, married George Poison, who re- 
sided in Lancaster. James Paterson, the 
oldest of the children, married Mary, 
daughter of George Stewart, Esq., of 
Donegal, and moved from the latter place 
to the Juniata Valley, in 1750. He was a 
famous captain in the French and Indian 
wars, as was also his son, Capt. William 

Thomas Howard was the son of Gordon 
Howard, and was largely engaged in the 
Indian trade. The Hon. J. D. Cameron 
owns part of his land, which extends in 
the direction of the Harrisburg and Lan- 
caster turnpike. 

William Dunlap was engaged in the 
Indian trade, and resided along the 
Swatara river. 

David McCakarty removed from Done- 
gal and went to Cumberland county. 

George Moffet and John Moffet also 
moved from Donegal at an early day. 

James Mitchell, Esq., was a prominent 
person. He was at this time a Justice of 
Peace for Chester county and a laud sur- 
veyor. He lived a mile below Galbraith's 
mill. He was a member of the Legisla- 
ture in 1729, and was with Sheriff Smith 
when Cresap was taken. He was a large 


Thomas Wilkins was the son of Robert 
Wilkins and was largely engaged in the 
Indian tra<le. He owned the farm and 
built the first story of the dwelling now 
owned by Mrs. Nissley, along the road 
leading from Donegal Church to Mount 
Joy. In 1738 he bought a farm at Canoy 
creok and leased the ferry of James Logan, 
now Bainbridge. He died in 1742. 

John Burt was an Indian trader, and 
had his post along the river, near where 
Harrisburg no*v is. 

David Jones lived near the mouth of 
Pequea Creek, and owned the land where 
Colemanville now is. He was the first 
constable of Donegal township in 1722, 
which then extended to the mouth of 
Pequea Creek. 

James Galbraith was the brother of 
Jonn. After his marriage to Elizabeth 
Bertram in 1733, he mo red to Spring 
Creek, where Derry Church is, and built 
a grist mill, which he sold to Mr. Garber 
about 1750. He was Sheriff of this 
county in 1742-43. He was a Colonel in 
the French and Indian war aud Lieu- 
tenant Colonel of Cumberland county 
during a portion of the years during the 
Revolutionary war. His sons, John, Ber- 
tram, Andrew and Robert, were Revolu- 
tionary officers. Judge Gibson married 
his granddaughter. The late Dr. Car- 
penter was a descendant of Colonel Ber- 
tram Galbraith. 

Thomas Bayly lived along the Paxtang 
and ConestogCB road, near where " Florin" 
is. He died in 1734 and left a widow and 
son, the Bon. John Bayly, who bought 
the Galbraith mills, and a son, James 
Bayly, Esq., who bought the farm now 
owned by Mrs. Abraham N. Cassel, in 
1761-2. He was a Justice of the Peace 
and wagon master during the Revolu- 
tionary War. He died in 1793. There 
are no descendants of any of these fami- 
lies in the county. 


James Allison resided northeast of the 
Peter's road, near where the road now 
leads from Maytown to Elizabethtown. 
He was a large landholder and a promi- 
nent person. 

James Moor resided near Chiokies 
creek, on the east side, one mile south of 
the Paxtang and Conestogoe road. 

Hugh Whoit (White) resided along 
Little Chickies creek near the Paxtang 
road. He left sons Hugh, John, Henry 
and Moses. A son of the latter married 
a daughter of John Allison, Esq. He was 
the Colonel Hugh White, of the West 
Branch Valley, in the Revolutionary War. 

Willam Buchaunan resided near Canoy 
creek, above the Peters road. 

James Brownloo moved to Carolina. 

Joseph Worke took up the land on the 
west side of the Peters road, and east of 
whore Greybill's Meeting House is. He 
built a tannery near the big spring where 
Mr. Hostetter now resides. This was 
probably the first tannery west; of the 
Couestogoe. He was a captain in the 
French and Indian war, and was at the 
battle of Loyal Hannon, under Colonel 
James Burd, when General Forbes* army 
was marching to the Ohio to capture Fort 
Duquesne. His son, James, who mar- 
ried the daughter of John Galbraith, was 
an Indian trader, who settled at the mouth 
ot Canoy creek, and remained on the 
mansion farm where Mr. Hostetter re- 
sides. His sons, William, Joseph and 

, moved to Virginia, and were 

officers in the Revolutionary Army. 
Joseph Worke, who was elected Sheriff of 
the county in 1779, was the son of James 

There was a carding and fulling mill 
on the lower end of the Worke tract. I do 
not know the exact date of its erection. 
Prior to the year 1820 it was owned by 
Mr. ZOOK, and within my own recollec- 


tion it was owned by David Zook. Some 
years ago it was purchased by an English 
company and was burned down about 
ten years ago, and was not rebuilt. 

This mill manufactured "Linsey- 
woolsey'* and casinet cloth. I remember 
when a small boy of taking fleeces of 
wool to this mill to be carded. Upon one 
occasion I went to the upper story to 
see the looms at work. I was surprised to 
find so many young girls at work. They 
threw little wads of wool at me, and I 
hastened one of the mill. When I re- 
turned home the back of my roundabout 
was found to be full of little pieces of 
wool. This was my first and last visit to 
the weaving room. 

John Tyler lived along Little Chickies 
creek, near tfhere Myers' stone bridge is. 

Michael Carr lived in Derry, and moved 
to Hopewell township, on the west side of 
the Susquehanna, where he died in 1746. 

John Carr was a brother of the above. 

Hugh Moor lived near Big Chickies 
creek. Afterwards in Hempfield township. 

Jonah Davenport was an Indian trader 
and took 300 acres of land, where Bain- 
bridge now is, in the year 1720. He sold 
to James Logan, whose heirs sold to the 
Groffs, Works acd Scotts. The latter 
sold to James Galbraith, father of Col- 
onel Bertram Galbraith. Davenport 
crossed the mountains to trade with the 
Indians at the Ohio as early as 1727. 

James Cunningham resided at the 
spring at Donegal Church and was 
the father of Colonel James Cunningham, 
who commanded the "flying camp" 
at the battle of King's Bridge and at the 
battle of Long Island. He was a mem- 
ber of the Supreme Executive Council 
from this county. He was a land sur- 
veyor, and laid out the soldiers' lands 
west of the Allegheny. He resided in 
Orange street, Lancaster, where he died 
about the year 1801. 


William Eben removed from the town- 

William Bryan lived along the Peters 
road and owned the land now owned by 
the Brandts. 

Hugh MsKen owned a farm adjoining 

William Hoy resided along Conewago 
creek. He was Major in Colonel Alex- 
ander Lowrey's battalion at the battle of 
Brandywine in September, 1777, and was 
Colonel Cunningham's Major at the bat- 
tle of Long Island. 

Robert Buchannan resided on the east 
side of Canoy creek, and was Sheriff of 
the county in 1732-34. In 1748 he sold 
his land to Christ. Kauffman, whose 
widow, Barbara, married Martin Nissley 
in 1749. The farm then became Nissley's. 

James Smith resided along the Peters 
road near Canoy Creek. He was an 
Indian trader. 

Andrew Galbraith settled below Done- 
gal Church upon land lately owned by 
Peter Nissley and the Garbers, in the 
year 1720. He, in connection with Row- 
yand Chambers, founded Donegal Church. 
He was a brother of John Galbraith, the 
miller. After the erection of the county 
he was appointed one of the Justices of 
the Common Pleas Court, and in 1732 
he was elected a member of the Legisla- 
ture and was re-elected for a number of 
successive terms. He married a daughter 
of James Kyle, who was the ancestor of 
the Hon. James Kyle, now a United 
States Senator from Dakota. Mr. Gal- 
braith moved to Cumberland county in 

Ephraim Moore lived near Big Chickies 
Creek, afterwards in flempfield township. 

John Mitchell resided to the west of 
where Maytovvii is. He was a brother of 

Joseph Cochran lived above Conewago 


Gordon Howard was an Indian trader, 
and resided along the Paxtang and Con- 
estogoe road, about a mile west of where 
Florin now is. Mr. Hershey now owns 
part of the land, which extended across 
into what is now Mount Joy township. 
The Hernleys bought part of the land. 
He owned seven hundred and fifty acres. 
The valley back of Hernleys is called 
Howard's valley. Gordon died about 
1755. Some of his children moved to 
Guilford county, North Carolina. One of 
his sons moved up to the Juniata valley. 

Patrick Campbell kept an "Ordinary" 
near Canoy, Indian Town. He was the first 
constable of Donegal township, after the 
county was organized. He married 
Mary, the widow of Captain Samuel 
Smith, in 173-, and then moved to one of 
the Smith farms, now owned by 
Simon Engle, where he kept an "Ordi- 
nary," which was kept as such by Capt. 
Smith for a number of years prior to its 
occupancy. Being in close vicinity to the 
Indian Town, and along the Peters road 
which led to Logan's Ferry, and being 
surrounded by Indian traders, it became 
a very important place. It was the cus- 
tom ot the traders t" assemble at Smith 
and Campbell's just before starting with 
their pack trains for the Indian country. 
They made things lively while they were 

They forded Canoy creek at or near 
where the stone mill stands, in recent 
years called "Erb'sMill." Samuel and 
Mary Smith had one son, named William, 
who moved to Baltimore an<i embarked 
in the mercantile business. William 
Smith had a son named Samuel, who was 
born in Donegal. He married a daughter 
of William Spear, who was born at Big 
Chickies creek. William Spear also 
moved to Baltimore in 1752. He mar- 
ried Elizabeth Galbraith, daughter of 


John Galbraith, Indian trader, and Dor- 
cas, his wife. Samuel Smith, son of 
William Smith, was a distinguished gen- 
eral in the Revolutionary War, and was a 
United States Senator from Maryland for 
fourteen years. 

William Patterson, a rich merchant of 
Baltimore, married Dorcas Spear, 
daughter of William Spear, mentioned 
above, and their daughter married Jerome 
Bonaparte, brother of the Emperor. De- 
scendants of this family reside in Balti- 
more and Boston. 

Isaac Marauda, one of the French In- 
dian traders, had his trading post near 
Campbell's "Ordinary." His daughter, 
Mary, married Governor James Hamil- 
ton, of Pennsylvania. He died in 1732. 

Alexander Hutchinsou lived along 
Little Chickies creek. On the north side 
he built a grist and saw mill, just above 
where the iron bridge is, in 1750. A hun- 
dred years ago Tobias Miller purchased 
some of his lands and the mills. It is 
probable that Mr. Miller built the stone 
dwelling on the hill and the present mill 
of stone, which is a very old one. 

Robert McFarland settled along Little 
Chickies creek below where Mount Joy 
is. One of his sons moved to Virginia. 
John and James remained on the home- 
stead larrn. Thomas Clingan married the 
widow of James and came to own one- 
half of the laud. Ludwig Lindemuth 
purchased part of the laud. Mr. Zercher 
now owns part of the land. 

Richard Allison owned 600 acres of 
land along Spring creek and adjoining 
Andrew Galbraith's land. His land went 
to hisson, William. and his daughter, who 
married Wm. Miller, and to his daughter, 
Mary, who married James Sterrett, the 
grandfather of Hon. J. Sterrett, Chief 
Justice of the Supreme Court of the State. 

Randel Chambers resided near Cone- 


wago creek. He was one of the founders 
of Donegal Church and a ruling elder of 
that congregation for many years. He 
moved to Cumberland Valley. 




. Hatfin 

jcM fitted fttr$en 





dvitten _ _ 





ON MARCH 5, 1897. 







Old Mills and Country Ordinaries, 

By SAMUEL EVANS, ESQ., .... .... 313 

The Ephrata Paper Mill, 


Old Mills and Country Ordinaries, 

( Continued from page 310. ) 
Krey bill's mill was located along Spring 
Creek, about half a mile above Galbraith's 
mill. The first mill was of stone and two 
stories high. This mill was probably 
erected as early as 1730. For some years 
prior to 1773 it was owned by George 
Clingan. In the year 1773 he sold the 
mill and seventy-six acres of land to 
Abraham Stauffer, who, in the year 1784, 
sold it to Jacob Kreybrill, miller, of 
Rapho township, for $3,000. The old 
stone mill was torn down about sixty years 
ago. Before that time, in the year 1830, 
Mr. Kreybill built a three-story brick 
mill across the road from the old mill. 
This mill had the reputation of making 
the best flour in that end of the county. 
In my boyhood I took many grists to this 
mill. As early as I can remember, I had 
curiosity to know what a grist mill was 
and was the meaning of tolling the 
gristt I was told that the miller took 
out one-tenth of the grist for grinding 
the grain. Some of the men employed 
about the farm told me that the miller 
had a wooden scoop with which he took out 
the miller's share, after which he threw it 
against the ceiling. If it stuck fast he did 
not toll it again, but if it came down, he 
tolled it a second time to make sure that 
he got his share. This seemed a strange 
proceeding to ray youthful mind, so I 
begged to be allowed to take a small grist 
to the mill and I would wait until it was 
ground. I watched the miller very 
closely, but I did not see him take out 
any toll ; and when I came to return I 
found that the bag I took the grist in 


would not hold the flour, middlings and 
bran, and I had to borrow another bag. 
This was a mystery to me. I asked no 
more questions about the ' grist" or the 

This mill is now o*rned by Mr. Ni&sly, 
a relative ol the Kreybills. Jacob Krey- 
bill, a grandson of Jacob Kreybill, is 
living in the West On the northeast 
branch of Spring Creek the first mill was 

ZooK's Factory, 

of which I have spoken. A short dis- 
tance above was Worke's tannery, of 
which I have also written. 

A mile above Worke's is ft very old 
corn mill, built of stone, which was known 
eighty years ago as Breneman 7 s mill. 
The mill is very old and probably dates 
many years beyond the Revolutionary 

At the head of Spring Creek we find 

NiBBly's Grist and Saw Mill. 

This mill stands upon land taken up by 
John Wiikins, Indian trader, as early as 
1721 or 22. He died in 1741, and his sou, 
John Wiikins, and other heirs sold some 
of this land to Nissly in or about the year 
1762. He built a grist mill about the 
year he purchased the property. It is 
still in the name of the family and in full 

John Gardner settled at the mouth of 
Chickies Creek, in 1720, and built a 

Hemp Mill, 

which stood on the east side of the creek, 
which was in full operation for a hundred 
years. The saw mill at the mouth of the 
creek was built by Henry Haldeman 
about the year 1826. The large stone 
merchant mill at the mouth of Spring 
Creek was built by Christian Haldeman, 
sixty years ago. Like many other mer- 
chant mills in the county, it is idle. 

At the junction of Big and Little 


Chickies Creeks Henry Shearer built a 
very large stone merchant mill, also idle. 
At the lower point of Rapho township, at 
the junction of the two Chickies creeks, a 

Carding Mill 

was erected by Christian Martin one 
hundred and fifty years ago. The ditoh 
for the head race is all that marks the 
spot upon which it stood. 

Half a mile above the mouth of Little 
Chickies Creek, Abe Hiestand had a 

Falling and Saw Mill 

ninety years ago. and it was probably 
built many years before that time. 

Rhoddy'a Grist and Saw mill 

were built as early as 1721 or 1722. They 
stood where Kisser's Mill now stands. 
The present brick mill was built by Mr. 
Houtz about eighty years ago. The stone 
building behind the brick mill is part of 
the Rhoddy Mil!, and after the erection 
of the new mill the old one was used as 
a clover mill. Joseph Worke, before 
mentioned, married a daughter of Mr. 
Rhoddy, who died in the year 1733. He 
directed his executors to build a grist 
mill along Conewago creek for his son, 
Alexander Rhoddy, within two years 
after his death. 

In 1745, James Rhoddy, son of above, 
sold the mills and 350 acres to John Forry 
and Joseph Sherrick. The Sherrioks 
owned some of this land until within a 
few years ago. 

Tobias Miller owned the mill above, 
which I have described. There were 
seven or eight mills further up the stream 
which, for want of space,! cannot describe. 

Patrick Hays built a 

Carding and Foiling Mill, 

which stood above the stone arch bridge 
at Myer's, about the year 1730. A few 
years ago the stone walls of the old mill 


fell down, and nothing but the founda- 
tion walls mark the spot. 

Jacob Brubaker, grandson of the 
pioneer settler, Hans Brubaker, built a 

Fulling Mill 

on Little Chickies creek before the Revo- 
lutionary War, which stands below Mas- 

The first grist mill aoove Rhoddy's was 
built by David Hays about the year 1730. 
John Hamaker, Esq., purchased this 
grist mill. 

In the year 1772 Mr. Hamaker was one 
of the County Justices and was a promi- 
nent man in his time. 

This mill was a log structure and is 
now used in part for a dwelling. John 
Ilertzlor purchased the farm and mill 
about ninety-years ago, and built a new 
mill of brick lour stories high and about 
seventy feet square. He made a tunnel 
through solid rock from the dam to the 
new mill. The flertzlers sold to Shenk, 
and the mill is now owned by Michael 
Moore, who in recent years has converted 
it into a roller process mill. Under the 
latter's ownership the mill has done a 
large business. When other mills were 
going down this one held its own and 

"Commodore" Qreider built a large 
stone grist mill about the year 1804 
This is the first mill above M. Moore's, 
and is now owned by his brother, John 
H. Moore. 

About forty-eight years ago John Gam- 
ber built an 

Anthracite Furnace. 

which he named Sarah Anne, after his 
wife. Gamber sold the furnace to David 
R. Porter, then Governor of the State. 
A cinder pile and a blacksmith shop are 
all that remain to mark the spot where 
the furnace stood. Above this mill was 


Musaelma.i'a Mill, 

owned by him ninety years ago. The 
date of its erection is much earlier. In 
late years it was called "Bender's" mill, 
and still later Barr's mill. The latter 
also had a distillery in connection with 
the grist mill. 

Above Barr's mill at the crossing of 
the old Paxtang and Conestoga road 
Samuel Scott located and built a 

Grist and Saw Mill 

on the west side of the creek about the 
year 1729 or 30 ; after the above road was 
built, in 1732 he built an 


which became a famous tavern during 
the French and Indian wars, and during 
the Revolutionary period. When the 
officers and troops marched to join Brad- 
dook'sand Forbes' armies they invariably 
halted at Scott's tavern to dine, it being 
a convenient distance from Lancaster. 
Mr. Scott's first wife was a Miss Boyd. 
His second wife was Hannah Polk, an 
aunt of President James K. Polk. He 
died in 1777. He gave the mills and 
tavern to his nephew, Captain Hugh 
Pedan, a Revolutionary soldier. 

Alter Mr. Pedan, the tavern and mills 
passed to his son, John. The tavern was 
rented to the late John Guy, who also 
ran a line of stages from Lancaster to 
Harrisburg. Henry Shenk bought the 
mill and water right and built a very fine 
stone grist and merchant mill on the east 
side of the creek. The mill is now owned 
by Mr. Garber, who does a successful 

Tbe Shawnee Corn and Grist Mill 
was built of stone, near the mouth of 
Shawnee Run, about the year 1730, by 
Samuel Blunston and James Wright, who 
settled where Columbia is, in the year 
1726. During Braddock's war ana after- 


wards, when General Forbes was organ- 
izing his army at Fort Rays, or Bedford, 
1758, James Wright supplied these armies 
with Hour packed in kegs and carried to 
Bedford on pack horses. He also supplied 
the Indians on Turkey Hill with flour. 

An Interesting Legal Case. 

Herewith I present to the Society an 
opinion of the Supreme Court, which 
gives a history of this mill. In this paper 
there is much which would interest the 
legal profession. 

In 1796 Samuel J. Atlee built a tan 
yard a short distance above this mill. 
Fifty years ago Shawnee Furnaces ab- 
sorbed most of che land and water be- 
longing to the tan yard. About a mile 
above the tannery George Getz had a grist 
mill. I remember when a boy of going 
into the mill to look at the water wheel 
and found Mr. Getz treading the wheel. 
The stream of water was very small. The 
wheel was about twenty-eight feet in 
diameter. When the turnpike to Chest- 
nut Hill was built, forty years ago, the 
mill was torn down. 

Abram Hess, of Conestoga, purchased 
everal hundred acres of land from James 
Logan about the year 1730, which was 
located along and near the creefc, which 
empties into the river above "Vinegar's 
Ferry." Mr. Hess, who was a miller, 
built a 

Grist Mill and Saw Mill 

soon after his purchase of the land. In 
the year 1760 he sold the mill aud land to 
John Grove (Groff ), miller, also of Con- 
estoga. In the year 1787 John Grove 
conveyed the grist and saw mill to Henry 
Grove, a son of John, and in 1795, for 
3,800, Henry Grove sold 100 acres and 
the mills to Abram Shook, who came 
from Manor township. 

After the Revolution, Conrad Ziegler 
purchased a farm above Shock's Mill. 


About fifty-five years ago song of Mr. 
Ziegler built a large stone grist mill. 

Prior to that Huber had a grist mill 
at or near where Ziegler's mill is. At 
or near where Ziegler's mill stands, 
James Le Tort, Indian trader, had a store 
and trading post, and was followed by 
James Lowrey and Captain James Pater- 
son, Indian traders. 

In the year 1750 Jacob Downer, the 
founder of Maytown, built a tannery upon 
the same stream where tne road from 
Galbraith's mill to Conoy creek crossed. 

At the mouth of Conoy creek, a hun- 
dred years ago, Melchoir Brenneman, and 
his son-in-law, John Haldeman, built a 
large stone merchant mill and saw mill 
and still house. The grandfather of the 
late Bayard Taylor did the stone work. 
The farm and mills are now owned by 
Henry M. Wiley. 

All of the land from the mouth of 
Conoy Creek, for about one mile and a 
half, was settled by John Galbraith, In- 
dian trader, before spoken of. 

About a mile above the Wiley mill, in 
the year 1756, Conrad Wolff purchased 
fifty- four acres from John Galbraith and 
built a grist and saw mill. 

Dewald (David) Wolff, son of above, 
sold one-third of the mill to George Bam- 
baugh.of Derry,aadin the year 1709 Bam- 
baugh sold his interest to Henry Nissly, 
miller, of Rapho, who sold to John Engle 
and Adam Brennemau. Engle sold his 
interest to Brenneman. About the year 
1798 Brenneman built a new mill of stone. 
Of late years it was known as 

fcrb's 31111. 

It has been idle for some years. 

Alexander Hutchinson built a grist and 
saw mill about a mile above Erb's mill. 
In the year 1749 the Hutohinsons sold to 
John Wilson, who sold to John Engle in 


the year 1770. In recent years this mill 
was known as 

Hont's Mill. 

A mile further up the stream there was 
another mill known ninety years ago as 
Herat's Mill. 

The next mill above was called 

Brobaker's Mill. 

Next above was 

Boot's Mill. 

Next one 

Gish's Mill. 

Philip Gloninger built a grist and saw 
mill on Conoy Creek where either Bru- 
baker's or Root's mill was, as early as 
1740. In 1749 Gloninger sold the mill 
to Martin Nissly. 

On the west side of Conoy creek, where 
Elizabethtowu now is, Captain Thomas 
Harris established an Indian store and 
trading house, and built a tavern about 
the year 1730, called the 

Bear Tavern. 

In the year 1731 or 1732 the Paxtang and 
Conestoga road was laid out and con- 
structed from Paxtang to his tavern, and 
in a year or two the road was finished to 
Scott's Tavern (before mentioned) and 
extended to Lancaster Townstead in two 
or three years. This tavern was one of 
the headquarters for the Indian traders. 
Harris was Captain of a company of 
Rangers in the year 1748. In 1749 he 
sold his farm and tavern to Lazarus 
Lowrey, another Indian trader, who 10- 
sided on Senator J. D. Cameron's farm 
in Donegal. In the same year Mr. Lowrey 
rented the tavern to Captain Barnabas 
Hughes, who purchased the tavern and 
farm in 1750. In the following year he 
laid out a town and named it after his 
wife, Elizabeth. Mr. Hughes was Cap- 
tain and Commissary of Subsistence in 
the French and Indian wars. He was the 
first person to bring the news to Carl- 


isle of the disaster to Braddock's army. 
He was also at the battle of Loyal Hon- 
non in 1758. He moved to Baltimore 
in the year 1765, ana became largely en- 
gaged in the iron business. His sons, 
Colonel Daniel, Colonel John and Colonel 
Samuel, were all prominent officers in the 
Revolutionary war. They all became ex- 
tensive iron masters in Western Maryland 
and in Harford and Cecil counties. The 
sons sold the tavern and farm and ground 
rents in Elizabethtown to Captain Alex- 
ander Boggs. 

At a point where the road from Hum- 
melstown to Harris' tavern crosses Cone- 
wago creek, Captain Harris purchased a 

Grist and Saw mill 

from Captain Samuel Smith in the year 
1750. The latter moved to the Juniata 
Valley and became one of the Judges of 
Cumberland county. The ditch which 
carried the water to this mill is all that 
remains to mark the spot where it stood. 

The Harris family moved to Deer Creek, 
Baltimore county, Maryland, in the year 
1766. The sons were prominent officers in 
the Revolutionary War. 

The first mill on Conewago Creek was 

Nissly Mill 

as early as 1815. There was probably a 
grist mill there long before that. 

The Grubbs built a forge where the 
Pennsylvania railroad crosses the creek, 
about the year 1800, and in the year 1820 
they built 

Mount Vernon Furnace. 

Some years later they built a grist and 
saw mill. 

Patrick Allison built a grist and saw 
mill below where Colebrook Furnace is 
as early as 1740. 

I have only noticed the earlier mills, in 
a small portion of the county. 

There has been a wonderful deprecia- 
tion in the value of grist and merchant 
mills within the last fifty years. The 
water wheels in many of them stand still. 

Hemp, oil, clover and carding mills are 
seldom to be seen. 

Another industry has gone the same 
way. When I was a boy, and driving 
along the turnpike from Marietta to Lan- 
caster, I could count twenty-three still 
houses. There is not one to be seen there 


A paper was read a short time ago be- 
fore the Historical Society of Pennsyl- 
vania UDOU the subject of paper making 
and the different water marks used by the 
Willoox family, whose history the learned 
speaker traced through the several gen- 
erations down to the present time. 

Until within a few years ago the gen- 
eral impression has been, and the idea is 
propagated even now, that paper making 
in America had its origin in the Ivy Mills 
on Chester Creek in Chester (now Dela- 
ware) county, Pennsylvania, in the year 
1714, and that Thomas Willcox was the 
first paper maker. This statement has 
been repeated so often that even standard 
writers have incorporated it in their 

Now, the facts of the case are, as shown 
by the above speaker, that the old Ivy 
mills of Thomas Willcox were not erected 
until the year 1729, or shortly afterwards, 
and from the outset became one of the 
leading commercial paper 'actors in the 
Colonies, he having Benjamin Franklin 
a& a patron, who started his printing office 
in the same year. One of the specialties 
of the Willcox Mill was the making of 
paper for notes or currency, and it has 
been claimed that they made the first 
paper of that kind and used for that pur- 
pose in this Province a claim which I 
will show you cannot be maintained. 
However, as a matter of fact, the Willcox 
Mills have supplied most all the paper 
used for currency purposes from the time 
when a thick pulpy mass was used for 
Provincial and Continental currency with 
its gruesome legend, to counterfeit is death, 


down through all the various conditions 
of our country ; including the peculiar 
silk " Onion skin " paper of our old State 
banks as well as the localized fibre paper 
upon which our national bonds and cur- 
rency are printed at the present day. 

During the course of this paper a state- 
ment was male in reference to the water- 
marks used ; further, that they were 
adopted a few years previous to the out- 
break of the Revolution, and that the de- 
signs had to be imported from England, 
as they could not be produced here, until 
the experiments of Nathan Sellers during 
the Revolution made it possible. 

Now so much for the Willcox episode. 


As a matter of history, the first paper 
mill that ground pulp within the Ameri- 
can colonies was set up in Germantown, 
or, more properly speaking, within the 
German township in Philadelphia county. 
This was prior to the year 1690. And, 
what is more, the mill had a special water 
mark of its own. The founder and origi- 
nator of the enterprise was one William 
Ryttinghuisen, now anglicized to Ritteu- 
house, and I am pleased to say that some 
of his direct descendants are en- 
rolled among the membership of the 
Pennsylvania German Society. 


An account of this paper mill appears 
in Richard Frame's poem, "A Short De- 
scription of Pensilvania ; or a Relation of 
What Things are Known, Enjoyed and 
like to be Discovered in said Province." 
This was printed by William Bradford, 
at Philadelphia, in 1692. Four years 
later (1696) Judge John Holme also wrote 
a poem in the same strain; it was en-, 
titled : " A True Relation of the Flourish- 
ing State of Pensilvania," wherein the 
reference to the Uermantown paper mill 
is as follows : 


" Here dwelt a printer and I find 
That lie can both print books and bind ; 
He wants not paper, ink or skill, 
He's owner of a paper mill. 
The paper mill is here hard by, 
^nd makes good paper frequently, 
But the printer as I do here tell, 
Is gone into New York to dwell. 
No doubt but he will lay up bags 
If he can get good store of rags. 
Kind friend, when thy old shift is rent 
Let it to th' paper mill be sent." 

Thus it will be seen there can be no 
question whatever as to the priority of the 
introduction of paper making into the 
American colonies. It may seem some- 
what strange to such persons who have 
not devoted any study to this subject, 
but merely accepted as truth the biased 
statements as to the ancient mill on the 
banks of the Chester creek, when they 
learn that not only was printing paper 
made at the first Rittenhouse mill on 
the banks of the Wissahickon, but good 
writing paper as well, both white and blue, 
as will be seen from the agreement made 
in 1697 with William Bradford, the printer. 

Then, again, from the earliest establish- 
ment of the enterprise the Rittenhouses, 
father and son, made use of a water mark. 
The first distinctive one adopted by the 
Rittenhouses was the word " Company," 
to designate the original partnership 
under which the industry was started. 




The next water mark used were the let- 
ters " W. R." on one half of the sheet, 
and upon the other half was a clover leaf 
in a shield surmounted by a kind of a 
crown, beneath which was the word 
" Pensilvauia. " I have here a fac-simile 
of these watermarks, as they appear upon 
a deed signed by Francis Daniel Pastorius 
and Daniel Falkner. Now, so far as cur- 
rency or money paper is concerned, the 
first issues of Pennsylvania currency 
in 1723 were printed upon just such 
paper, the product of the Pennsylvania 
Dutch (ii I may be pardoned for the use of 
the term) paper mill on the Wissahiokon. 

Then if any one wishes to take the 
trouble to visit the Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania, or the Ridgway Library in 
Philadelphia, and inspect the files of the 
American Weekly Mercury, the first news- 
paper ever printed within the British 
Middle Colonies, they will find impigned 
upon each sheet of the early numbers the 
letters "K. L.," standing for Klaus Rit- 
teuhouse, the name of the paper maker. 

The second paper mill started in the 
American colonies was the venture of one 
William De Wees, a brother-in-law of 
Nicolas Rittenhouse. This mill was built 
in the year 1710 on the west side of Wis- 
sahickon creek, in that part of German- 
town kuowu iu early times as Crefeld, 
near the line of the present Montgomery 

The third mill within the Province ap- 
pears to have been the Willcox venture 
upon tfie Chester creek. 

The fourth paper mill to be set up 
within the Province, and which was per- 
haps the most important one in regard to 
its output, was located upon the romantic 
banks of the Cooalico, at Ephrata, in 
Lancaster county. 

It is upon this enterprise that I wish to 
speak, and bring to your notice a few 


facts which appear thus far to have es- 
caped the attention of local historians and 
students. Die Papier-Muhle der Bruder- 
schafft, like other industrial and com- 
mercial enterprises of the Zionitic Broth- 
erhood, originated in the fertile brains of 
the Eckerling brothers. It was a distinc- 
tive enterprise with a dual object. 

First. To furnish paper for the publi- 
cations of the Mystic Brotherhood and the 
various imprints of the Society. 

Secondly. It was intended as a com- 
mercial venture, to furnish a revenue to 
the Community. 

Unfortunately, no records are known to 
the writer which would give the exact 
date of the setting up of the paper mill 
upon the Cocalico. From the meagre 
data in the Chronicon Ephretense we find 
an allusion to the grist mill in Chapter 
22, which places the purchase of the 
mill some time prior to the death of 
Brother Agouius (Michael Wohlfarth), 
which occurred May 20, 1741. It is but 
reasonable to assume that the other mills 
and industrial establishments were set up 
in rapid succession, and that at the time 
of the culmination of the trouble between 
Beisscl and the Eckerling brothers and 
the expulsion of the latter, September 4, 
1745, the enterprise of the four Brothers 
had developed the resources of the mystic 
Community of the Cocalico until it be- 
came the greatest industrial establishment 
in the American colonies. 

Again referring to the Chronicon, we 
learn that on the morning of September 
6, 1747, a great calamity overtook the 
Community. This was nothing less than 
the destruction of three of its mills by fire. 

The annalist of the Community, com- 
menting upon the calamity, writes 
(Chapter 27) that at that time the 
Community owned and operated a grist 
mill, with three runs of stones; a skillfully- 


built oil mill, with stones the like or 
which none before existed in America ; a 
fulling mill, a saw mill and a paper mill. 

Upon the night in question the grist, 
oil and fulling mills became a prey to the 
incendiary's torch. The saw and paper 
mills were only saved from destruction 
by the hard labors of the Brothers and 
Sisters of the Community, with such of the 
neighbors as were attracted to the scene. 

Brother Agrippa adds in a foot note, 
"That the mill had beeu of great benefit 
to the households for the poor Solitary 
now for nearly fifty years." As this was 
written in 1785 or 1786, it would place the 
setting up of the grist mill about the 
year 1736. The above quotations from 
the Chronicon Ephretense appear to be 
the only direct official records left to us 
of the commercial enterprises of the Com- 
munity, as upon the expulsion of the 
Eckerlings all records and papers are said 
to have been destroyed upon the order of 
Beissel. The only additional data re* 
lating to the paper mill known to the 
writer, and having a semblance to authen- 
ticity, are three entries in the diary of 
Brother "Kenoii" (Jacob Funk): 

(1. ) 1761 Den 26 , Juni hat Br : Melchy 
die Babir Muhl verlassen. 

[(1.) 1761 On June 26, Bro. Melchy 
severed his connection with the paper 

(2. ) 1770 Den 4, September ist oder sind 
OB AD J A und KENAN von der BABIR. 
MILL gegangen und obadia ist in Ver- 
ginia gestorben und 1780 im May ist Kenan 
wider nach KPHRATA geKomen. 

[(2.) 1760 Ou September 4, Obadja 
and Kenan left the paper mill. Obadia 
died in Virginia, and in May, 1780, Kenan 
returned to Ephrata.] 

(3.) 1784 Den, September morgens 
etwa zwischen 2 und 3 uhr ist das neue 
Muhlhaus in brand gesteckt warden, aber 
doch glucklich wider geloscht warden. 


[(3.) 1784 On September 1, between 2 
and 3 o'clock in the morning, the new 
mill building was set on fire, but luckily, 
the fire was extinguished. ] 

From the above it would appear that 
the Funk family, who were practical paper 
makers, had charge of the paper mill. 
This family consisted of the father, Mar- 
tin Funk, his wife, Magdalena, and two 
sons and a daughter Samuel, born 1719; 
Jacob, born March 4, 1725, and Sophia, 
born 1727. The family first came to 
Ephrata in 1744 and settled in the im- 
mediate vicinity as *' Householders." 
They came from the Couestoga country 
where they had lived since 1735. The 
mother, Magdalena, died January 14, 
1745-6. Samuel then joined the Zionitic 
Brotherhood and henceforth became 
Brother Obadiah. April 20, 1747, Jacob 
followed his example, and closed his 
career under the monastic name of Kenon. 
Upon the following day Sophia became a 
"Rose of Saron," entered the convent 
and was enrolled as Sister Grenoveva. On 
April 22 the father was also admitted to 
the Brotherhood. 

Now, in view of certain statements to 
be found in contemporary records, which 
set forth that the Ephrata paper mills 
produced more paper than any similar es- 
tablishment in the colonies, it occurred to 
the writer that some notes or data might 
be found in the periodicals of the day 
bearing upon this branch of the provincial 
industry at Ephrata. In the long and 
persistent search for authentic informa- 
tion upon the subject, several interesting 
items were discovered. 

The first one was in connection with 
the earliest Bible printed in America. 
It was, as you all know, a German one, 
and the title page bears the legend 1743. 
I allude to what is known as the "Sauer" 


You will naturally ask, what has this 
to do with Ephrata? Well, I will tell 
you. This monumental work, which had 
immortalized Ihe Germantown printer, 
was printed upon paper made either in 
*vhole or part in the " Bapier muhle der 
bruderschafft zu Ephrata." The edition 
was bound at Kphrata by the Brother- 
hood, and I feel pretty certain that if the 
records could In found they would show 
that a great part of the sheets were printed 
at Ephrata upon the old "Kloster presse," 
now reposing in the rooms of the Histori- 
cal Society of Pennsylvania. 

Then, again, the 1'act was brought out 
that the greater part of the first edition 
of the American Bible was sold in Lan- 
caster county. It may be well to state 
at this point that at the time when Chris- 
topher Sauer finished his Bible in 1742-3 
the bookbindery at Ephrata was the 
largest and best equipped bindery in the 
Colonies, and the only one who could 
undertake to bind an edition of great 

I will now present to you a few proofs 
in support of my argument. First, we 
will refer to Bauer's newspaper : 

No. XLIII., dated February 16, 1744. 
Der Hoch Deutsche Gesohichts-Schreiber, 
Odor : Sammlung Wichtiger Nachrichten 
aus dem Natur-und Kirchen-Reich. 

No. XL., November 16, 1743. 

[The High-German news writer or 
faithful chronicler of important events iu 
Nature and the Church. ] 

[No. 40 November 16, 1743.] 

" Der Drucker (Sauer) Maohet bekant 
weil er siehet, class sehr wenige sind, 
welche ungebundene Bibeln begehren, 
u, er nicht so viel binden kan lassen, als 
in dieser kurtzen Zeit von ihm begehrt 
worden ob man wohl gern jedermann 
so gleich geholffen sahe ; Denjenigen 
welche nicht woit von Ephrata wohnen, 


die konnen gegen ibre Quittungen und 
Zahlung des ubrigen daselbat eine gebun- 
dene oder ungebun<lene Bibel finden, und 
die uioht PBAENUMMERIKT haben, die 
konnen auoh daselbst finden, und bestellen 
sie wie siesie wollen gebundeo haben, oder 
finden schon gebundene bey Samuel Eck- 
erling. Von dorteu sollen auch in die 
neue Stadt gebrachi warden an H. Rieger, 
Doct. Mod., in Lancaster." 

[The printer (Sauer) announces since 
be finds that there are very few possess- 
ing unbound bibles, that he cannot bind 
them as rapidly as they are required, 
although he would like to see everyone 
satisfied, Those who do not live far from 
Ephrata can procure bound or unbound 
bibles for their payment and receipts. 
Those who have not yet subscribed, can 
procure them and order them bound as 
they may desire, or may find them already 
bound by Samuel Eckerling. They can 
also be procured from H. Rieger, M. D., 
in Lancaster.] 

From the above it would appear that 
the whole edition of the so-called "Sauer" 
Bible was at that time in Ephrata, viz., 
November 16, 1743. 

Tho next interesting item is a notice in 
the same paper, under date of February 
16, 1744 : 

"Weilen in Ephrata nicht so viel 
Bibelu konnen gebunden werden, als 
in Lancaster by Herru Rieger be- 
stellt werden, so berichtet man, dass 
nachstans sollen gebundeoe dahin gesand 

[Since there cannot be so many Bibles 
bound in Ephrata, as were engaged of 
Mr. Rieger, we suggest that hereafter 
bound volumes be sent there.] 

This notice certainly shows the devout 
character of the early German settlers of 
Lancaster county. Two months later, 
April 16, 1744, Sauer notifies the public 


"Bey H. Jacob Friedrich Riegerin der 
neuen Stadt Lancaster sincl nun auch 
Biboln zu haben von verschiedenern Band 
uud Preiss." 

[Bibles of different bindings and prices 
are now to be had of H. Jacob Friederich 
Riesrer in the now State of Lancaster]. 

This same number of Sauer's newspaper 
makes mention of the expulsion of the 
Eckerlings : 

" Die Raporte vora Ausgang Verschied- 
ener Bruder aus Ziousind ungleioh: Dass 
beyde Bruder Samuel u Israel Eokerling 
nebst Alexander Mack dem Getutnmel der 
Welt gantzlich zu eutweichen und ihrem 
Puff u Zug gemass in feme Wusteu ge- 
gangen, naohdem sie ordentlich Abscbeid 
genommen haben, dass 1st gewiss ; class 
sie aber heimlich hinweg, und nach Beth- 
lehem gegangen seyn, um sich daselbst 
Weiber geben zu lossen, a dass ist ent- 
weder Missverstand oder beyden seiten 
zum Spott enlichtet." 

[The reports concerning the departure 
of various Brothers out of Zion differ. It 
is certain that the two brothers, Samuel 
and Israel Eckerling, also Alexander 
Mack, were determined to leave the bus- 
tle of the world completely, and accord- 
ingly went to the far West after they had 
taken formal leave. That they went to 
Bethlehem to procure wives is either a 
misunderstanding or fiction, created en 
ooth sides tor the purpose of ridicule.] 

We now come to th<; second item of 
interest. I allude to the watermarks used 
by the Ephrata Community, some of 
which will occasionally be found in the 
sheets of the Sauer Bible, the paper in 
which is by no means or either uniform 
texture or quality. 

The product of the Bapier Muhle des 
Kloster*8 was not limited to coarse print- 
ing paper, and what was known as "Ma- 
calatur," but they made fine grades of 


both writing and printing: paper as well. 
All of the latter grades are marked with 
one of their distinctive watermarks. The 
ordinary grades of printing paper, such, 
for instance, as was used in the Martyr 
Spiegel,vfeT& made upon plain sieves, with- 
out any watermark. I may here state that 
the wire sieves used in making the vari- 
ous kinds of paper were a local product, 
being made by one Isaac Langle, of Ger- 
mantown, who died about the time when 


the Sauer Bible was being printed. Early 
in the year 1744 Friedrich Ochs an<l Jo- 
hannes Eckstein advertised for sale a 
" Siebmachers-weberstuhl mit einen dazu 
geborigen eiseru Schienen-zug u anders 

[A wire- weaver's weaving frame, with 
an iron apparatus for wire drawing, and 
other belongings. ] 

The question of watermarks is a very 
interesting one, and I have a few here to 
show you and illustrate my remarks. 




The first one is taken from tbe fly-leaf 
of a tiauer Bible. It is a crude home-made 
affair and was the private mark ot the 
Funk family. It consists of a large figure 
four, the perfect numoer, below which 
are the letters R F. 

The same watermark, F B, (Bruder 
Funk), without the figure "4," also ap- 
pears in some of the subsequent publica- 
tions of the Community, as you may see 
from the specimen I have taken from a 
page of the " TheotopMsche Lectionen," 
which was also printed in the year 1745. 

The next one, and by far the most im- 
portant one from a historical standpoint, 
is the design adopted by the Ziouitic 
Brotherhood, and was intended for the 
distinctively mystical publications of that 
body of religious enthusiasts. It was 
evidently made at Ephrata, and crude as 
it is it bears the undeniable stamp of the 
Mystic Brotherhood. You will observe 
that it consists of a large Latin cross, 
surmounted by a scroll with the word 
"Zion." Two keys form right angles 
with the upright and arm oi the cross. 
These keys have reference to the Clavicula 
Salomonis, or the "Keys of Solomon," a 
mystic book of the XVII. century which 
was held in high esteem by the Brother- 
hood. The oross, it will be seen, rests 
upon a panel bearing the legend 
' Efrata." The whole design is surrounded 
by an ornamental scroll. 

This watermark you will find in the Hohe 
Zeugnisse and a few other books printed 
at Ephrata up to the year 1745. The 
paper bearing this watermark was evi- 
dently made while the Eckerlings were 
still in control of the Community, as it 
does not appear to have been used after 
their expulsion from the Community. 
After that unfortunate episode in Eph- 
rata's history, there appear several new 
watermarks, which were continued in use 




fora number of years. The oldest seem 
to have been a " post horn " and a "heart 
shape" with the letters " E F" in the 
centre. These two designs were usually 
used together upon opposite sides of the 
sheet. A orude crown was also used 
frequently in connection with the post 
horn. Another design was a large " E F " 
in letters about an inch high, upon a 
book made of fine writing paper, now in 
the priceless collection of the Hon. 
Samuel W. Penny packer. We find the full 
word "Efrata" impinged upon the pages 
of the volume in letters about three* 
quarters of an inch high. 

There are without doubt still other 
watermarks in existence dating from this 
old Community, whose glory has long 
since departed ; imprints which may shed 
still more light upon our subject, and it 
it were only within the possibilities of the 
future that some fragments of the com- 
mercial records of the Community and 
escaped the ruthless bonfire made in the 
meadow on the Cooalioo on that Septem- 
ber day in the year of grace 1744, to 
gratify the whims of Conrad Beissel. I 
say, were such fragments to come to light, 
they would doubtless show that the Papier 
Muhle der Bruderschafft zu Ephrata was 
one of the most important enterprises of 
the Provincial period. ; 


The Dr. Jacob Frederich Keiger alluded 
to in this article as Christopher Sauer's 
agent at Lancaster was a prominent physi- 
cian of Lancaster during the middle of the 
last century. He was born in the Palati- 
nate, and came to Pennsylvania in Sep- 
tember 12, 1734. (See Pennsylvania 
Archives, Second Series, vol. 17.) He 
was a brother of the Rev. John Barthol- 
mew Reiger, the celebrated pioneer of 
the Reformed Church in Lancaster 
County, and who also was a physician, 
and a graduate of the University of Heidel- 
berg, and who came to Pennsylvania 
in 1731. No doubt Dr. Jacob Frederich 
Reiger was also a university man, and 
this, united with his profession, gave him 
prominence in the community. The fact 
that he was Sauer's agent for the sale of 
his bibles is entirely new. He is best 
known through the unfortunate duel in 
which his son, Dr. Jacob Reiger, was en- 
gaged with Stephen Chambers, formerly 
a captain in the 12th regiment of the 
Pennsylvania line, and one of the leading 
lawyers of the Lancaster bar. He died 
on January 2, 1762, aged 87 years. He 
is buried in the graveyard attached to 
the First German Reformed Church in 
Lancaster, by the side of his wife, Jane 
Reiger, who died January 25, 1773, aged 
52 years, and his illustrious brother, Rev. 
John Bartholomew Reiger, who died 
March 11, 1769, having been born Jan- 
uary 10, 1707. Dr. J. F. Reiger's tomb- 
stone states that he was an eminent sur- 

Dr. Jacob Reiger, who as already 
stated, fought a duel with Captain 
Chambers, died October 20, 1793, aged 


38 years, and is no doubt buried in the 
same graveyard, although there is no 
head stone to mark the spot, but the 
record of his death appears in the Church 
register. He died intestate and letters of 
administration were granted on his estate. 

That Dr. Jacob Reiger was the son of 
Dr. Jacob Frederick Reiger is shown 
by the following extract from the latter' s 
will, dated December 19, 1761, and pro- 
bated shortly afterward by Edw. Ship- 
pen, Register, and recorded in book B. 
vol. 1., page 364, etc.: "I give and be- 
queath all my real and personal property 
to my wife Jane Reiger and my son Jacob 
Reiger. If Jacob shall die before arriv- 
ing at 21 years then I give his share to 
the children of my brother John Barthol- 
omew Reiger, Philip Gerhard Reiger, 
Adam Reiger and the children of my 
sister Catarina Reiger." 

Inasmuch as the Reiger-Chamber's 
duel is said to have been the first one 
fought in Pennsylvania the facts are 
deemed of sufficient interest to be added 

In the "Shippen Papers," under date 
of May 18, 1789, Col. Shippen writes 
from Lancaster to his brother, the Chief 
Justice : "I am extremely concerned to 
tell you that a most unfortunate duel 
happened last Monday, May 12, evening, 
between Dr. Reiger and Mr. Chambers, on 
a challenge of the former, for an affront 
received at a tavern. When each had 
fired one pistol shot without effect the 
seconds interfered, and proposals of ac- 
commodation were made, which Reiger 
could not be persuaded to agree to ; each 
then presented a pistol ; Chambers' 
snapped, but Reiger's discharged a ball 
through both his antagonist's legs. His 
wounds bled much, but for two days 
were considered not dangerous ; a morti- 
fication then ensued ; its progress up- 


wards was great and rapid till Saturday 
morning, May 17, when it extended to 
his bowels and carried him off, to the 
most severe distress of the families and 
friends of both. The procession at his 
funeral in the evening was truly solemn 
and affecting. This melancholy subject 
has already too much agitated my mind 
to dwell on it longer, by relating the 
particular circumstances." 

The subsequent correspondence which 
accompanies this letter on the " Shippen 
Papers " shows that the affront was 
offered to Dr. J. Reiger at Stokes' tavern, 
and that the duel occurred in the " Bar- 
rack yard at seven o'clock in the after- 
noon ' ' (evening) . The matter is referred 
to briefly in "Fithian's Journal." 

Captain Chambers left a widow and 
several email children, and was a charter 
member of Lodge 43, F. & A. M. Stokes' 
tavern was the "Swan," located in Penn 
Square, and had formerly been owned 
by Matthias Slough. The affront offered 
was to the effect that Reiger was dressed 
in shabby attire, Chambers being in full 
regimentals. The duel is referred to in 
S. M. Sener's "Old Time Hostelries " in 
Christian Culture, vol. 2, pp 138 ; also in 
Dr. W. H. Egle's Historical Register, 
vol. 2, page 279 ; in Dr. Welchans' 
"History of Lodge 43, F. & A. M," 
page 207-8; and the Pennsylvania Ar- 
chives, vol. 10, second series, page 759. 



ON APRIL 9, 1897. 




By B. F. OWEN. 




Early Industries on the Octorara, By DR. J. W. HOUSTON, 
continued from page 217 

The Old Welsh Graveyard, 

By B. F OWEN, 361 

Early Industries on the Octorara, 

( Continued from page 20 4. ) 

At the meeting of the Lancaster County 
Historical Society, held in the Iris Club 
rooms, on the seventh of January last, I 
had the pleasure of submitting a paper 
on the past and present industries of the 
East Branch of the Octorara and its 
tributaries, from its many sources along 
the Mine Hill divide and including the 
entire region drained by this stream, as 
far south as Steeleville, whicn hamlet re- 
poses on the Chester county side of this 
inter-county water line. Progressing south- 
ward from Steeleville, along a continua- 
tion of the Brosius Ilei sel road, the valley 
of the East Branch suddenly expands, by 
the recession of the bounding hills, until 
it is one-fourth to one-half a mile wide, 
without gorge or defile, for a distance of 
eight miles, near to Pine Grove, where the 
junction with the West Branch is effected. 

In all this region traversed by the 
historic Octorara only tertile meadows, 
sometimes guarded by abrupt hills, greet 
your view. These meadows, during the 
grazing season, furnish in abundance 
luxuriant pastures, fully appreciated and 
appropriated by the many herds of sleek, 
fat, contented kine, which, after cropping 
the nutritious herbage daring the early 
morning hours, retire to the cool, inviting 
shades of friendly groves, and there, pro- 
tected from the heated rays of the sum- 
mer's sun, chew their cud in silence and 
repose, until aroused from their quietude 
by the familiar voices of the rosy- cheeked 
dairy maids, each summoning their charge 
to the scene of the evening milking. 


Half a mile south of Steoleville a stream 
of considerable volume, known as Annan's 
Run, enters the East Branch from the 
Lancaster county side. This brook rises 
on the Win. Borland Homestead and, flow- 
ing somewhat south of an easterly course 
through the farm of David J. Jones, 
effects its confluence with the absorbing 

This Jones property is part of a tract 
of land deeded by the Penn Proprietors of 
the province to John Devor in 1734 In 
1743 Col. James Taylor, of Revolutionary 
fame, bought the Jones tract and erected 
thereon a stone house, which even now at 
this late day is in quite good condition. 
The walls of this structure are quite thick. 
Neither sand nor lime entered into its 
composition. Clay, properly tempered, 
was used to cement the stones which were 
required in the constructiou of the 

The house was evidently intended to 
subserve the double purpose of a dwell- 
ing and also as a fortification, within 
which the inmates would be safe during 
the frequent Indian incursions. The 
windows or embrasures were limited to 
two lights of eight by ten inch glass, one 
above the other. Some of these loop- 
holes have given place to a more modern 
style of window, yet enough of the port- 
holes remain to vindicate the date stone 
in the western gable which bears this 
motto, "The Lord of all is my suport," 
(spelled with one p). Below the motto 
appears the date 1743. This date 154 
years ago suggests the query : Are there 
any buildings extant in Lancaster county 
bearing an earlier date of construction ? 

One hundred years ago an oil mill was 
in active operation near the site of the 
fortified dwelling. The waters of Annan's 
Kun had been diverted from their natural 


channel to furnish power for the grinding 
of the flaxseed. Near these buildings a 
causeway existed for many years prior to 
the advent of the white man, evidently 
built by the Indians, across a swampy 
piece of ground, to gain access to the flow- 
ing waters. Tradition tells of an Indian 
burying ground on the east bank of the 

Twenty years ago Mr. Eminor Jones 
discovered and developed on this tract of 
land quite a good quality of roofing slate, 
but want of transportation to market pre- 
cluded its utilization. Doubtless future 
generations will operate these quarries. 
After traversing southward for a half 
mile the fertile meadows, recently the 
property of the late John C. Jones, we 
come to the Ross fording bridge an open 
structure across the stream, which, in the 
dry seasons of the year, affords a safe, 
dry-shod crossing, but when there is a 
rise in the creek the Lancaster county 
approach to the bridge becomes useless 
and, to use the language of the gamins, 
is no good. A few rods below the bridge 
Lancaster county furnishes Shaw's Run 
to the swelling stream. 

Here on the west bank a rocky ledge 
fifty rods long looms up to view as the 
foreground of a high hill. The ^ledgo is 
known as Wolf Rock, which years ago 
furnished safe retreats for these animals, 
from which they made excursions to the 
neighboring settlers' sheep folds, they 
being fond of lamb, either chops or cut- 
lets. A long, deep pool, whose waters 
leave the eastern ledge of the rocky ridge, 
is noted as a fishing resort, and those who 
delight in Izaak Waltonian pleasures do 
here congregate during the open season 
from the entire region roundabout to 
catch the wary bass. 

On the summit of the Wolf Rock hill a 
grove of pine trees three acres in extent 


is found. It is a prominent landmark in 
this region and is known as Honey's 
Pines, the grove receiving the name of 
the proprietor, and is not named tor 
Annie, the sweetheart of Joe. South of 
the rooks on the Chester county side is a 
beautiful grove on the farm of the late 
Hamilton Ross, which was the annual 
camping ground of the Steeleville Bache- 
lors' Club, with which select society a 
few favored benedicts were admitted, 
after pledging themselves not to divulge 
the secrets of the organization to their 
wives. It is needless to say I never be- 
came a member, though frequently a 
guest, the games indulged in were 
archery and croquet. 

Near to the camping grounds Chester 
county contributes Officer's Run to swell 
the waters of the East Branch. This 
stream was extensively utilized years ago 
from its mouth to its source. Ascending 
the stream we first find the site of Love's 
distillery, next Robb's clover mill, of 
which only landmarks are found ; then 
Rambo's saw mill in ruins on a tribu- 
tary. Of Robinson's clover mill, the site 
alone remains. Above we find Hodgson's 
grain mill in good condition and near the 
headwaters are the decaying buildings of 
'Squire Gilfillin's tan yard. The industry 
has ceased to exist. 

One hundred rods down the stream from 
the confluence of Officer's Run, on the 
Chester county side, we come to Pine 
Hill, on the farm of W. A. Homing. This 
hill is the especial habitat or home of the 
red foxes and is celebrated in sporting 
literature. Those gentlemen who indulge 
in the manly sport of fox hunting seek 
the laurel-covered bluffs of this rocky 
ridge in the early morn, there unleash 
their hounds, certain before long to rouse 
reynard from his lair. Soon the baying 
of the dogs gives evidence that the nimble- 


footed quarry, with flowing train, is on 
the alert, endeavoring to outstrip his in- 
satiate pursuers, whose melodious sounds 
awake the echoes of each surrounding 
cliff and are enchanting even to the ear 
of the fleeing fugitive, although be well 
knows retributive justice is on his track, 
and, should he be overtaken, his life 
would pay the penalty for having robbed 
some farmer's poultry yard the night 

Often have we checked our horses, when 
driving past this sportsmen's paradise, 
when the hunt was on, to listen to the 
symphony of the hounds, recalling those 
lines by the late Hon. J. B. Everbart, 
whose memory Chester county ever de- 
lights to honor as one of her favored and 
favorite sons. He thus characterizes the 
music of the ohase : 

And surely never yet was heard, 
From tongue of man, or throat of bird, 
From reed or tube, or string or key, 
From all the craft of minstrelsy, 
More stirriner, joy-inspiring sounds 
Than our rude orchestra of hounds 
Pours o'er the listening land, 
As if the unseen sylvan powers 
Went choiring through the matin hours 
At Dian's fond command. 
But, since my education in fox hunting 
esthetics and lore was sadly neglected in 
my younger days, I most respectfully 
abdicate the position of historian of Pine 
Hill in favor of our County Commissioner, 
Mr. J. R. Butter, a gentleman with heart 
attuned to nature's laws, and who is 
familiar with every bridle path in these 
forest recesses and for years has been per- 
sonally acquainted with many of the foxes 
of this region. Here oft 
The challenge loud his horn rang out, 

And Keynard knew the sound ; 

Not waiting for the opening pack, 

He spurned the frozen ground. 

And bounding onward far and wide, 

Left old Pine Hill behind; 
And safety sought in hasty flight 

From scenes he deemed unkind. 


The well -trained hounds, with steady bay, 

Follow fast his scented trail ; 
They gain upon his flying feet, 

His speed will not avail. 

For hours he toils o'er hill and dale, 

Though fleetest of his kind ; 
A refuge from his closing foes 

Alone in earth to find. 

At the foot of the western slope of 
Pine Hill are found the ruins of Love's 
saw mill, long since abandoned. The 
power was derived from the East Branch. 
Continuing down the stream, we come to 
an abrupt rocky ledge on the east side. 
This is the site of the famous Abner 
Davis quarries, from which immerse 
flag stones are obtained, which are highly 
prized for building purposes. A short 
distance below these quarries we find the 
ruins of Pennock's Mills. They were 
built early in the present century, but 
the site alone is found. This was the last 
power on the East Branch until after the 
junction in Pine Grove dam. The stream 
only furnishes about six feet fall to the 
mile in this part of its course. 

One-half mile south of these ruins we 
enter the village known as Andrews' 
Bridge, consisting of a half dozen dwell- 
ings, a hotel and country store, with a 
blacksmith and a wheelwright shop. 
Eere is located the Octorara post-office, 
one among the first established by Uncle 
Samuel in the county, and for many years 
was the distributor of a weekly mail, con- 
sisting of an average of three letters and 
a copy of The Dollar Newspaper. Now 
it is the dispenser of a daily mail requir- 
ing a goodly-sized mail-bag. Three score 
and ten years ago there was a fulling mill 
or woolen factory on a nameless tribu- 
tary in this town, owned and managed by 
Betsy Kent, who also was the proprietor 
of a country store, from which she sold 
free labor goods to the abolitionists of 
the surrounding county, who were largely 


in the majority, this being a Free Presby- 
terian and Friends settlement. 

The chief feature of interest in this 
hamlet is the immense bridge which here 
spans the Bast Branch and is known as 
Andrews' Bridge No. 2, the town 
taking the name of the bridge, which was 
erected in 1814. The bridge received its 
name in commemoration of the Andrews 
family, who early settled in this locality 
and owned several of the surrounding 
farms. Andrews' Bridge is 450 feet long 
and the road bed is thirty feet wide. There 
are four archways, one of thirty-eight 
feet span and twelve feet high, two arches 
spanning twenty-four feet and ten feet 
high and one span twelve feet long and 
five feet high. It is built of solid masonry, 
including side and wing walls, and is one 
of the finest structures in Eastern Penn- 
sylvania. The Newport road traverses 
this bridge. This road was originally an 
Indian trail, afterward appropriated by 
the early settlers without warrant, but 
about fifty years ago was regularly or- 
dained by the Lancaster and Chester 
county courts. 

Along the line of this road in Chester 
county, on the table lands, tradition points 
out an Indian war dance ring, and one 
hundred and fifty rods south of the ring 
the same authority locates the position of 
the Indian village referred to in a former 
paper. Immediately south of Andrews' 
Bridge, on the Lancaster county side, 
eighty years ago there was a distillery 
where peach brandy and apple jack were 
made. The building is now used as a 

One-half mile south of Andrews' Bridge 
we come to a farm long famous lor fer- 
tility, which is deserving a place in history. 
It embraces land in both counties, the im- 
provements being on the Lancaster county 
side. They include two sets of farm build- 


ings, the property having at one time been 
in two separate tracts. The mansion house 
proper is a large stone structure, erected 
in the early part of the present century 
by one Black. In 1837 it became the 
property of Dr. Obed Baily, a gentleman 
who would have graced a chair in any of 
our leading medical colleges, notwith- 
standing he frequently visited his patients 
on foot, costumed in overalls and straw 
bat. In 1856 Mr. Clarkson Brosius, father 
of our present Congressman, purchased 
the property and here resided up to the 
time of his death, October 8, 1863. He was 
a thorough gentleman and devoted to his 
calling, that of farming. He was method- 
ical, scientific and enterprising and was re- 
garded as a model farmer. He was in- 
strumental in organizing the Octorara 
Farmers' Club in 1856, which gave an 
impetus to higher farming in the com- 
munity. After the death of Mr. Brosius 
the property passed into the hands of 
Wm. H. Sproul, who for years resided 
here, but is now a distinguished citizen of 
Chester, Delaware county. Pa. 

During the occupancy of this historical 
homestead by Dr. Obed Baily, his only 
sons, Elisha and Joseph, entered the Medi- 
cal Department of the Regular Army and 
rapidly gained promotion during the late 
unpleasantness and now rank as Colonels. 
Two nephews and Dr. Milner also donned 
their Esculapian robes while residents 
of "The Olrl Homestead." One of the 
nephews, Dr. Wilson Baily, late a member 
of the General Assembly of Pennsylvania 
from Chester county, distinguished him- 
self as a major surgeon during the rebel- 
lion. This was the home of our Congress- 
man during his boyhood, his birth place 
being on an adjoining farm. 

Here Senator Wm. C. Sproul, now rep- 
resenting Delaware county in the Penn- 
sylvania Senate, first saw the light of 


day, and on an adjoining farm Byron 
Baldwin, Surgeon in the United States 
Navy, was born. Two hundred and fifty 
rods westward our fellow citizen, Wm. 
F. Beyer, Esq., began his earthly career. 
The James Martin homestead, which fur- 
nished two doctors in medicine and one 
in dental surgery, was also contiguous to 
the Dr. Baily residence. Such an emana- 
tion of talent in one generation, from so 
circumscribed a rural territory, less than a 
square mile in extent, is seldom found. 

A half mile south from "The Old Home- 
stead" Lancaster county contributes 
Beyer's Run to swell the common Hood. 
This run received its name from the late 
Mr. Thomas Beyer, a prominent citizen 
of Coleraine township. He was the father 
of our own Wm. F. Beyer, of the Lan- 
caster Bar. 

This stream has its source near Nine 
Points, in Bart township, on the farm 
where our distinguished fellow member, 
Mr. John F. Meginnness, now of Williams- 
port, Pa., spent his early boyhood. It 
flows past the old Brick School House, 
where the veteran editor of THE NEW ERA 
once wielded the birch. At least three of 
the members of the Lancaster County 
Historical Society were his pupils when 
he presided in this temple of erudition. 
Three miles down the stream we find the 
first utilization of its waters in furnishing 
power to drive the machinery of William 
Hastings' mills, embracing clover, Haw, 
sorghum and cider mills. They were built 
early in the present century by James 
Martin, father of the late Dr. John Martin, 
of Georgetown, Dr. Josiah Martin, of 
Strasburg, both of Lancaster county, and 
of Dr. Joseph Martin, of Stewartstown, 
York county. Mr. James Martin was a 
Christian gentleman in every sense of the 
word, and was courageous in support of 
his convictions. He advocated temperance, 


the abolition of slavery and other reforma- 
tory measures. He was one of the pro- 
moters in establishing the Free Presby- 
terian Church at Andrews' Bridge. He 
bad one peculiarity, that of expressing 
himself in rhyme. I remember, when a 
small boy, of accompanying some neigh- 
boring farm hands to this mill for the 
purpose of making cider. In my desire 
for observing 1 everything observable I 
noticed two cardboards conspicuously 
posted, one on the grinding mill and the 
other on the press. Not being an adept 
in reading script, it required some time 
to decipher the notices. 
The first read: 

" Please carry your pumice over the road, 
That the next one who comes may not balk 
with his load." 

The other one gave notice 

"That two men bearing upon the screw, 
Are free from all damage, if any they do ; 
But three men bearing upon the screw 
Must pay for all damage, if any accrue." 

The cider mill was of the type used 
fifty years ago, the press being worked 
with a screw and wooden lever, the 
patrons doing the necessary work. 

Near the mouth of this stream, on the 
farm of Howard Newcomer, a tan yard, 
known as Swayne's, afterward Hood's, was 
in active operation about forty years since. 

The next industry was a pottery, now 
extinct, on the Chester county bank of 
the stream and was owned and operated 
by Mahlon Brosius, the grandfather of 
our distinguished Congressman, Hon. 
Marriott Brosius, whose birthplace is on 
the Lancaster county side of the creek, 
fifty rods from the pottery site. Here it 
was that during his early boyhood he 
often doffed his shoes and stockings to 
wade across the stream to start the 
hydraulic ram which furnished the water 
supply to the farm buildings, then little 


dreaming that those chubby feet were 
destined in after years to worthily wear 
the sandals of the Groat Commoner. A 
covered bridge here provides safe dry- 
weather transit. One mile south we come 
to Bell's Mills, erected by Colonel 6eli } 
nearly one hundred years ago, for the 
manufacture of paper. Three soore and 
ten years ago Robert Hodgson converted 
them into flour, feed and saw mills, for 
which purposes they are us-'d at the 
present time. Forty-three years ago the 
late Wi liana S. Davis became proprietor 
and the property continues in the Davis 
family. The power used to drive these 
mills is derived from Bell's Run, which 
rises in Bart township, near Bartville. 
Three miles from its source we find the 
ruins of one of iho oldest grain and saw 
mills in this region. It was erected by 
Daniel Beyer, the grandfather of the 
present generaiion by this name, in Cole- 
raine and Bart townships. He came from 
Montgomery county and settled on this 
farm in 1789. He was a millwright by 
trade and the mills were his own handi- 
craft. He operated them personally up to 
the time of his death in 1840. 

.Near to Bellbauk, the modern name 
for Bell's Mills, we find covered bridge 
No. 3. It is a dry- weather bridge, the 
Lancaster county approach beiug subject 
to inundation when the water overflows 
its banks. 

Three-fourths of a mile down the valley 
the East Branch receives from the Ches- 
ter county side quite an increase in vol- 
ume by the accession of the waters of 
Muddy Run, which rises in West Fallow- 
field township and flows a southwesterly 
course through the townships of Upper 
and Lower Oxford to join the common 
flood. The water powers of this stream 
years ago were fully utilized. In a dis- 
tance of five miles seven industries were 


in operation. Ascending this stream one- 
half mile to Cream P. O. we find a cream- 
ery. Originally this power was used to 
drive a grist mill. This was converted into 
a paper mill and, aftor being burnt out 
twice and as often rebuilt, the power was 
utilized in raaKing gilt-edged butter. 
Ascending the stream, we come to Coates' 
saw and paper mill, for years on the de- 
cline. The next industrial site is the 
ruins of McHenry's paper mill. Up the 
creek we come to McCreary's flour and 
feed mills in good condition. The next 
in order are the Evans* mills, grain, saw 
and sorghum, to which a creamery is 
attached, all in fair repair. Continuing 
onward we find the ruins of Bentley's 
mills. The next enterprise was located 
on the head waters ana shows a feat of 
hydraulic engineering worthy of histori- 
cal notice, perhaps without a parallel in 
either Lancaster or Chester counties. 

Sixty-five years ago an Englishman, 
named Parker, erected a cotton factory 
in a locality he named Glenville, 
on the head waters of this stream. He 
built an embankment twenty-five feet 
high across the valley to retain the water 
of two small branches, wh!ch was to be 
utilized in driving the factory machinery ; 
but the great amount of evaporation from 
the fifteen to twenty acres of water sur- 
face during the summer months rendered 
the supply inadequate lor the purpose in- 
tended. One hundred rods below the 
factory the stream was reinforced by two 
tributaries, one from the north, the other 
from the south. These streams he as- 
cended until on a level with the factory 
dam and from these points ditched these 
brances around their respective hills until 
their waters flowed into the common reser- 
voir. The power still being insufficient, 
he then ditched the tail race from the fac- 
tory around the northern hill until he ob- 


tained sufficient, fall to the bed of the 
stream. This waste water was then con- 
ducted onto a very high breast or pitch- 
back water wheel, upon the outer rims of 
which buckets were secured, and as ihe 
wheel revolved they would fill with water 
from the pit and carry it to the top of the 
wheel where it was discharged into au 
aqueduct that conducted it to the upper 
race, from whence it flowed back into the 
dam, to be again used in driving the ma- 
chinery of the factory. It was claimed 
that this hydraulic engine would raise 
thirty per cent, of the water flowing upon 
the wheel. I think twenty-five per cent, 
was nearer the mark. Poor Parker was 
fond of gaining, and, although quite 
rich when he came to Glonville, 
his associates managed to fleece him of 
his wealth. He sold the property to Gen. 
Josiah Harlan, who had served as organ- 
izer of the Turkish army in his younger 
days, but he suffered the factory and all 
the appurtenances to crumble into ruins. 
He afterward became Colonel of the 
Eleventh Pennsylvania Cavalry, and after 
the war returned to a brother near West 
Chester, where he died. The power is 
now used to drive a flour and feed mill. 

Returning to the East Branch, 300 
yards below the mouth of Muddy Run 
we come to the Iron Bridge, No. 4, span- 
ning the stream, where was previous to the 
advent of the bridge the Long Fording. 
This bridge, like others on this stream, 
is a dry-weather bridge. The approaches 
to many ot them on the Lancaster county 
side having to cross the valley of the 
stream, are subject to overflow when there 
is high water. These meadows bordering 
the East Branch, and through which we 
have passed, are annually visited in the 
months of March and April by goodly 
numbers of Wilson's Snipe (Scolopax 
WilsonO), the most highly prized of all 


our game birds. These annual visitants 
stop during their migration northward to 
replenish their haversacks with the, to 
them, toothsome angleworm. This in- 
formation is especially dedicated to that 
prince of Lancaster sportsmen, Captain 
John B. Peoples, who will doubtless don 
his shooting toga and hie him away to the 
East Branch meadows to verify the state* 
ment, taking our friend, Mr. Leidigh, of 
the People's Bank, with him. 

The next tributary of the East Branch 
to claim attention is a Lancaster county 
stream known as Cooper's Run. It rises 
west of Bartville, flows east of south and 
empties its waters on the farm belonging 
to the heirs of the late Col. Andrews. De- 
scending the stream from its source, the 
first tribute exacted is by a grist mill 
known as Morrison's. It was erected early 
in this Nineteenth century by Morrison, 
and has continued in the family until a 
few years since. Down the stream 150 
rods we come to the ruins of Truman 
Coates' clover and saw mill. Mr. Coates 
died, without issue, a fe,v years since, and 
in his testamentary document he kindly 
remembered the Lancaster Home tor 
Friendless Children. One mile farther 
down and near the mouth of the stream 
we find the ruins of Col. Andrews' mill. 
After three score and ten years of service 
in grinding the grists of neighboring 
farmers it, fifteen years since, lapsed into 
desuetude. Continuing down the East 
Branch we come to covered bridge No. 5, 
known as Worth's bridge. It is also a dry 
weathf r bridge, and affords transit on the 
farm of Ex-County Commissioner Alber^ 
Worth. One mile down the creek on the 
Chester county side we come to the dilapi- 
dated village of Mount Vernon, so named, 
although situated in a ravine. Three score 
years ago it was the most populous town 
of the entire region, its only rival being 


the village of Hope well. The cotton works 
are situated two miles distant in a south- 
easterly direction. The cotton factories 
and paper mills in Mount Vernon gave 
employment to scores of people, who in 
turn opened up a market for the sur- 
rounding farmers' produce. Oxford, three 
miles east, was then only a stage station 
on the through route from Philadelphia 
to Baltimore, but after the Baltimore 
Central Railroad, forty years ago, passed 
through Oxford new possibilities were 
opened up for the latter, whose growth 
was then remarkable and now numbers 
2,000 inhabitants. Mount Yernou and 
Hopewell lost their prestige, industries 
were abandoned, enterprise ceased its 
wonted vigor, and degeneracy ruled su- 
preme. The East Branch is here crossed 
by covered bridge No, 6. Less than a mile 
down the stream the junction with the 
West Branch is effected at a place known 
10 local geographers as the Loop, from 
the fact that the East Branch and Octo- 
rara proper form a semi-circle around a 
Chester county hill near to the head of 
Pine Grove Dam. In this paper, as well 
as in a former one, I have briefly referred 
to the past and present industries 
located upon the Chester county tribu- 
taries of the East Branch, they properly 
belonging to the Valley of the Octorara. 
Tnough conventional lines separate this 
territory for political purposes, the people 
are bound together by ancestral, social 
and religious ties which geographical re- 
strictions cannot efface. 

And, while we to the manor born are 
proud of our empire county, her past 
history, her present standing in all that 
tends to make her grand and great, her 
unrivaled soil, her climate and general 
environments, together with the achieve- 
ments of her sons and daughters, yet we 
must acknowledge and greet our mother 

(360 ) 

county as a worthy rival in everything 
pertaining to education and the develop- 
ment of industrial institutions. After a 
residence of more than three decades 
along the inter-county line I, although a 
Lancastrian in every fibre, am glad to 
claim Chester county as my Alma Mater. 
Here we leave the valley of the Octorara, 
including my native township, Coleraine, 
with its many cherished memories and 
bitter recollections, which are always 
thickly strewed along the pathway of him 
who assumes the responsibilities of the 
family physician. 


The Old Welsh Graveyard. 

What is known as the Old Welsh 
Graveyard is in East Earl township, less 
than a mile west of Fairville. It has long 
Deen known by that name, and much 
speculating has there been as to its origin, 
which has always appeared enveloped in 
mystery. A few facts, gathered in con- 
nection with those old Welsh settlers, 
have lately come to my notice, which may 
be of interest to others as well as to 

The earliest mention is at a meeting of 
the Board of Property held April 29, 
1720, when Thomas Morgan, of Haver- 
ford, and Jenkin Davis, of Radnor, ap- 
peared and desired about 1,000 acres of 
lard near, or at, the branches of Gooes- 
toga. (See page 701, Vol. XIX., Second 
Series Archives.) 

June 8, 1720, the Board directs & letter 
to the Surveyor which reads: "If the 
bearer, Thomas Morgan, finds any land 
toward the Conestoga which will please 
him, lay any quantity, either under or 
over 500 acres, and the warrant shall be 
ready.*' And Taylor, the Surveyor, un- 
der date of June 17, 1720, says : " I have 
agreed with Jenkin Davis for 1,000 acres 
on or near the Conestoga Creek." (See 
Taylor's Papers in Historical Society 
Rooms, at Philadelphia.) 

Both these surveys were made, as will 
appear later ; that of Jenkin Davis (or 
Davies) at the mouth of Muddy Creek, 
and that of Thomas Morgan near where 
the Welsh graveyard is now located. 
This Thomas Morgan is not the same 
person who had a warrant for land taken up 

( 362 ) 

where Morgan town is situated and dated 
October 1, 1718, and December 12, 1718, 
for an addition adjoining, nor do I think 
they were related. 

Surveys were made in the Conestoga 
Valley as early as 1715 that of William 
Cloud for 300 acres near Beartown, and 
sold later to Nathan Evans, being of that 
date. Thomas Edwards had conveyed to 
him June 4 and 5, 1719, a tract of 1,000 
acres located on both sides of Conestoga 
creek and east and west from the point 
where Cedar creek empties into it. This 
tract was slightly over a mile east and 
west and a mile and a half north and 
south. One half covered what is now 
Spring Grove, and what was formerly 
Weaver's mill, on the f>tate road. On this 
tract Thomas Edwards and his three sons 
settled, and died there. At Hinkletowu 
Jenkin Davies and his sons settled, and 
intermediate was Thomas Morgan. James 
Steel, a surveyor, agent for the Board of 
Property, took out a general warrant for 
"1,000 acres of land back among the late 

surveys to be laid out in one or more 

parcels, and a warrant is signed, dated ye 
1st September, 1718." (See page 641, 
Vol. XIX., Second Series, Archives), Three 
hundred and fifty acres of this he located 
adjoining the Tnoraas Morgan tract. This 
warrant for 350 acres James Steel sold to 
Jenkin Davies. On this tract was located 
the burial place for all those residing in 
the district from Thomas Edwards' tract, 
on the Caernarvon border, west to where 
Jenkin Davies was located, at llinklo- 
town ; practically all the Welsh residing 
in what is now Earl and East Earl. They 
continued to bury there until 1745, when 
some of them were buried in the church- 
yard at Baugor. A good road, leading 
north of the Conestoga from Churchtowa 
to Hinkletown and passing the old grave- 
yard, formed the ready means of com- 


munioation between the extremes without 
crossing the Conestoga creek. The road 
is known as the Hinkletown road, and is 
still in use. The 350 acres, the warrant 
for whioh was purchased by Jenkin 
Davies from James Steel, remaining un- 
improved, under the fourth section of the 
agreement made between William Penn 
and the adventurers and purchasers, 
dated July llth, 1681, was taken up by 
Rees Morgan. Rees Davis squatted on it, 
built a small house, and cleared an acre 
or more. A contention arose for Its pos- 
session between Rees Morgan and Jenkin 
Davies. Thomas Edwards, having been 
appealed to by the Board of Property, 
under his decision, that it was clearly 
unseated land, a patent was granted to 
Rees Morgan, dated October 12th, 1742, 
for 215 acres, the balance going, 1 pre- 
sume, to Rees Davis, who settled in the 
neighborhood. Jenkin Davies, under the 
same rule, was given 200 acres further 
back and was forced to be content. Thos. 
Morgan died before 1737, as his widow 
held the property at that date. (See war- 
rant to Jen kin Davies, Taylor Papers). 

Rees Morgan has so long been credited 
with the giving of his ground praised 
for his liberality that it seems almost 
criminal to disturb him and place the 
crown on the head of another and that a 
woman. The interest taken in this 
ground is for those there buried, 
and praise should be given to the 
one whose influence secured it against 
destruction, and that is Margaret, his 
wife, and daughter of Thomas Edwards. 
Rees Morgan himself could have no in- 
terest in the matter she had, in securing 
to posterity the grave of her father. 
Rees Morgan was but clay to be molded 
by the hands of the proud, imperious, 
masterful Margaret, his wife. He, a boy, 
married to a woman eight years his senior, 

( 364 ) 

had but to do her will. She it was who 
directed the taking of the unseated land, 
and it was she also that added the words, 
"That Rees Morgan's wife, being my 
daughter, is concerned something in the 
interest of the affair " (see letter 
Thomas Edwards to Secretary Peters, Ar- 
chives, page 229, Vol. VII., Second Series) 
and neglects to state that his sou and 
daughter are married to a daughter and 
son of Jenkin Da vies. The true inward' 
ness of this is in the relationship of 
Thomas Edwards with the proprietors. 
Rees Morgan was not in good health. 
Fearing death, with a dissipated son to in- 
herit his plantation, the will of the aroraau 
again prevailed to make a deed to the 
second son, dated October 14, 1745 four- 
teen years before his death, the sou giving 
his notes for the purchase money. Thomas 
Edwards died May 8, 1764, and in April, 
1768, Joseph Williamson was employed 
to enclose the ground with a stone wall 
two feet thick and three and a-half feet 
high on the inside, the enclosure being 
75x82 feet. The bill of Joseph William- 
sou for the labor was 17 pounds, 18 shill- 
ings and 4 pence about twenty-five cents 
a perch. Eighteen pounds of nails were 
used to secure the covering. This and 
the other material used were paid as 
separate items by Rees Morgan. Little 
Bettie Morgan was interested in this work. 
Making several trips for nails, as the 
work progressed, to the store at the Blue 

Rees Morgan died less than a year later 
(January 13, 1769). He is buried so that 
when Margaret dies she shall have her 
father on one side, her husband on the 
other. She procured stones for both, 
alike in every particular, even to the 
lettering, except * 'Thomas Edwards, 
Esq., 1 ' is in Italic capitals. These stones 
were well selected, deeply cut, and 


can easily last another century. Mar- 
garet's work was well done. 8he linked 
securely the name of her husband with 
the fame of her father, and both are pre- 
served to this generation. If any one 
should not believe this let him go on the 
ground and see the inferior stone other 
hands secured for Margaret, who followed 
twelve years later (August 20, 1781). 

Bees Morgan, in his will, bequeaths 
negroes and money, but no land. The 
legacies are paid out of the notes of his 
son David. The eldest son receives his 
200 in instalments of 20 pounds yearly; 
the balance of his estate to his wife, Mar- 
garet, and son, David. He leaves 125 
perches of ground to his wife, Margaret, 
and son, David, to be held by them and 
their heirs forever, in trust as a place of 
burial to all who may desire there to bury. 
As the enclosure and the ground on the 
outside where the negroes were buried is 
not more than 25 perches, there is still 
100 nerches left, on which there was a 
small house, the rent of which was to pay 
the quit rent (less than one cent a year) 
and keep the fence in repair. There are 
teu rows of graves, twenty-eight in each 
row. The first tombstones, being sand- 
stone, have long since disappeared. Only 
one is left and that covers the eastern 
column of the gateway and reads: 

Here lies the body of 


departed this life the 21st day of 

January, 1738 A. D. 

Agred 56 years. 

There are only forty- four marked 
graves, most of which are of this century. 

Rees Morgan died January 13, 1769. 
His will gives his son Thomas 200 pounds 
to be paid 20 pounds annually, commenc- 
ing within two years after his decease. 
The remainder of his personal estate, in- 
cluding seven negroes, is given to his wife 

( 366) 

Margaret, son David and daughter Eliz- 
abeth and her children. 

Elizabeth is married to John Pawling. 
David remained single. Margaret Mor- 
gan died August 20, 1781. She gives her 
property to David, Elizabeth, and Eliza- 
beth's children. 

David Morgan died 1784. He frees his 
negroes, gives all that remains of his 
real and personal estate to his sister Eliz- 
abeth and charges her with the care of 
his negroes, should they fail to make a 
living. He makes his brother-in-law, 
John Pawling, executor. 

Elizabeth Pawling died March 4, 1786. 
At an Orphans' Court, held at Lancaster, 
December 17, 1788, Henry Pawling, of 
Montgomery county (the grandfather), 
is appointed " guardian over the estate of 
Margaret Pawling, Eleanor Pawling, Eliz- 
abeth Pawling and Rachel Pawling, minor 
children of John Pawling, during their 

Thus ended, I presume, the care of the 
trust made nineteen years before. 


75.8'x82.6'. WALL 2'x3.5' HIGH. COLUMNS AT GATB 5' HIGH. 






(1.) In memory of 

born In the County of Antrim, 

who departed this life 

May 10. 1832, 
in the 83d year of his 

He was a soldier in the Revolution, and 

fought in the battles of 
Germantown, Princetown and Yorktown. 

(2.) In memory of 


who died July 

25th, A. D. 1849. Aged 84 years. 
3 months. 


Born February 9, 1798 ; 

Died June 6, 1880. 

Aged 82 years, 3 months and 26 days. 

Gathered in a good old age to the 

Assembly of the Righteous. 

(4.) In memory of 


departed this life April 21, A. D. 1864, 

Aged 54 years, 6 months 

and 22 days, 
She is gone, and like a pretty flower 

That once in beauty bloomed, 
Struck by the hand of Heavenly power, 
She sleeps within the tomb. 

(6.) In 

memory of 


who departed this life 

January the 5th, A. D. 1838, 

Aged 83 years, 9 months 

and 1 day. 
Weep not for me, for here you see 

My trials have been great ; 
But now 'tis true I bid adieu 
And change my mournful state. 

(6.) In 

memory of 


who departed this life 

October 5th, A. D. 1821, 

aged 63 years and 11 days. 

Dear friends, farewell, I go to dwell 

With Jesus Christ on high, 
Then for to sing, praise to my King, 
To all eternity. 

(7.) In memory of 

JOHN DAVIS, who was 

born September 18, 1783, 

Died January 11, 1824, 

Aged 40 years, 3 months 

and 24 days. 

Thus much, and this is all we 
Know, they're numbered 

with the blessed. 
Have done with sin, care and woe, 


And with their Saviour rest, 
On harps of gold they praise 

His name, His face they always 
View, then let us followers 

Be of them that may 
praise him too. 

(8.) In memory of 

born September the 18th, 1829, 

Died July the 21st, 1847. 
Aged 17 years, 10 months and 

3 days. 

The years rowls round and 
steals away The breath that 
first it gave ; What are we do 
what are we be, We are 
traveling to the grave. 

(9.) Sacred 

to the 

memory of 



son of Richard 

and Catharine 


born January 

the 23d, 1821, 

Died April the 

23d, 1830, aged 

9 year, 3 


<9J4) In memory of 

son of Hiram and An 
Evaiis, who depart- 
ed this life Decem- 

ber the 8th, 1838. 
Aged 1 month & 8 da. 

(10.) In 

memory of 


11 months and some 
days. 1827. 


memory of 


Aged 5 months and 

7 days. 

<1L) In 

memory of 

Aged 2 years, 3 

months & 10 days. 


memory of 


Aged 4 months 

and 9 days. 



(12.) In 

memory of 

Born Feb- 
ruary 10, 1850, 
Died Feb. the 

24, 1850. 
Aged 14 days. 


Son of 

Henry & Susanna 

(13.) In 

memory of 

wife of Richard Davis, SEN., 
who was born Nov. 7. 


and departed this life 

March 31st. 1858, aged 

75 yoars, 4 months and 

24 days. 

My flesh shall slumber 
In the ground Till the 
last trumpet's joyful sound. 

(14.) In 

memory of 

who departed this life 

October the 12th, A. D. 1861, 

aged 72 years, 6 months 

and 33 days. 
My flesh shall slumber 
In the ground Till the 
last trumpet's Joyful sound. 

(15.) Jn 

memory of 


born Dec. 

21st, 1848, 
Died February 
the 12th, 1851, 
Aged 2 years, 

1 ma and 

22 days. 


Daughter of Henry 

& Susanna 


(16.) In 

memory of 


born August 

the 24th, 1847, 

Died May 

the 21st, 1851, 

Aged 3 years, 

8 mo. and 

27 days. 


Daughter of Henry 

and Susanna 



(17.) In 

memory ot 


wife of Henry S. Davis. 

Daughter of Jacob & Susanna Lied. 

She was born September 

the JOth, 1825, 
and departed this life June 

the 1st, 1851, 
aged 25 years, 8 months 

and 16 days. 
From all my friend I gone away, 

And took farewell with all my heart, 
To Best in hope for that great day 
When shall need and never part. 


Bora Aug. 29, 1785, 

Died Oct. 15, 1872, 

Aged 87 years, 1 mo. & 16 


(18%.) In memory of 

was born April 14, 

Died May 9th, 


Aged 61 years and 
26 days. 

(19.) In memory of 


was born November 29th, 1781, 

Died September 4th, 


Aged 85 year, 9 month 
and 5 days. 

(20.) In memory of 


who departed this life 

March 4th, 1786. 

Aged 42 years 

and 1 month. 

(21.) In memory of 

who departed this life 

Jan. 13, 1769, 
Aged 59 years. 

(22.) In memory of 


who departed this lite 

August the 20th, 1781, 

Aged 76 years. 

(23.) In memory of 

who departed this life 

May 8, 1764. 
Aged 91 years. 

(24.) Here lies the body of 

parted this life the 30th 
day of November, 1754, in 
the 76th year of her age. 



Entombed I am, in dust I lie, 

within this very place 
My soul took flight with angels bright. 

To see my Saviour's face. 
And in the light, within a sight 

Of Him above the sky, 
And so shall all who believe and call 

On Him before they die. 

(25.) In memory of 


Consort of 

Henry Ham bright, Esq., 

who departed this life 

August 4th, 1825, 

Aged 72 years. 

(26. ) In memory of 

who was born April llth, 

A. D. 1749, 
and died March 2, 1835. 

Aged 85 years. 
10 months & 20 days. 

(17.) In memory of 



Second wife of 

General Henry 

who departed 
this life April 

(28.) In 

memory of 
daughter of Davis and 
Maria Hambright. 
departed this life 
February 17. A. D. 1851. 
Aged 14 years. 1 m., 8 d. 
She saught the Lord with 
all her heart, And soon 
She found her sins forgiven 
Cheerful with all her 
friends did part In hope 
to meet them all in heaven. 

(29.) In 

memory of 


son of 

Davis & 


died March 
4, A. D. 185L 
Aged 5 y. and 14 d. 
Beloved in life, 
Happy in death. 

(30.) In memory of 


who departed this 

life the 17th day 

of December, 1793. 

Aged 72 years. 


(3L) In memory of 

who departed this life 

July the 4th, 1793, 
In the 36th year of his age. 

(32.) JANE ALLEN, 

a native of Ireland, 
Died Oct. 9, 1826, 
Aged 80 years. 

(33.) In 

memory of 


who departed this life 

March 21, 1774, 

In the 68th year of his 


(34. ) In mem ory of 


wife of John Davis, 

who departed this 

life Dec. 19, 1796, 

aged 71 years 

& 8 months. 

(35.) In memory of 


who departed this life 

March the 25th. 1788, 

In the 78th year of his age. 

(36.) In memory of 

JOANNA, wife of 
Zaccheus Davis, Esq., 
who departed this life 

Jan. 21st, 1768, 
In the 58th year of her age. 

(37.) 1810. 

(38.) 1785. 

(39.) T. L. DEB. 

(40.) A. L. A. W. 


(41.) E. A. 


Used as a cap on the eastern column of the 
entrance, there is a sandstone, on which are 
the words: 

Here lies the body of 


departed this life the 21st day of 
January, 1738 A. D. Aged 66 years. 

B. F. OWEN. 


BORN MAY 10, 1730, 
DIED JULY 14, 1779. 


George Ross Memorial 




On JUNE 4th, 1897 




Frontispiece Portrait of George Ross. 

Events Leading to the Memorial, 376 

Programme of Exercises, 377 

Presentation Address, 378 

Address of Acceptance, .... 380 

Miss Blanche Nevin's Poem, 381 

Illustration of Memorial Tablet, 387 

Oration of Hon. Marriott Brosius, 389 

Illustration of the Ross Mansion, . . .... 394 

Ross Coat of Arms. 408 

Ube 1R00S /IDemortaU 

At the February meeting of the Lancaster County Historical Society, 
a communication was received from Messrs. John A. Coyle, John H. 
Hiemenz and Dr. M. L. Herr, the proprietors of "Rossmere," a suburb 
of Lancaster city on the northeast, proposing to erect a pillar and tablet, 
with a suitable inscription, to the memory of George Ross, a signer of 
the Declaration of Independence, and once the proprietor of Rossmere. 
It was further proposed that the Historical Society should make all the 
arrangements required to carry this scheme into execution, secure a 
design for the pillar, prepare an inscription for the bronze tablet, and 
finally take charge of the dedicatory services. 

The society accepted the generous offer and a committee consisting of 
Hon. W. U. Hensel, George Steinman, F. R. Diffenderffer, S. M. Sener 
and Richard M. Reilly were appointed to carry out the project. 
With such energy was the scheme carried forward that everything was 
found in readiness to hold the ceremonies on June 4, 1897, the regular 
monthly meeting day of the Society. On that day, at 2:30 o'clock, the 
Lancaster County Historical Society, the High Schools of the city, and the 
Daughters of the Revolution, in the presence of a large concourse of 
people from city and country, dedicated this memorial to the only signer 
of the Declaration of Independence from Lancaster county. A hand- 
some Ross memorial souvenir had been prepared, giving a portrait of 
Ross, a photographic representation of his mansion house which for- 
merly stood on the site of the newly erected pillar, and a cut of the 
latter. These were freely distributed and formed a pleasant feature of 
the occasion. 

There has always been a question as to the exact day of Ross' death 
and the place of his burial. The following paragraph from the Phila- 
delphia Evening Post, of July 16, 1779, lately brought to light, seems to 
set both these doubts to rest: 

"Last "Wednesday died at his seat near this city the Hon. George 
Ross, esq., judge of the admiralty of this State, who justly merited it. 
A firm and impartial judge, and yesterday his remains were interred at 
Christ's church by a number of the most respectable inhabitants. He 
was buried from his home in this city, in North Alley, above Fifth 

The following order of exercises was successfully carried out. 

. . . Programme. . . . 

2 p. m. 


Almighty and Everlasting God, from whom cometh every good and 
perfect gift, we bless, thy holy name for that thou didst put it into the 
heart of thy servant, whose memory we now seek to honor to subscribe 
to the Declaration of Independence of these United States. We render 
unto thee most hearty thanks for the good example of thy servant, and 
we beseech thee to grant unto us who have entered into the inheritance 
of this blessing that we may show forth in our lives the blessed fruits of 
a Godly liberty. May we all live to consecrate our gifts for the good of 
thy church and the welfare of our Country. Through Jesus Christ our 
Lord, Amen. 



"Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean." David T. SJiaw. 

"The Star Spangled Banner." Francis Scott Key. 


4. MUSIC : National Airs, . . . HIGH SCHOOL ORCHESTRA. 



" Hail Columbia." Francis Hopkinton. 

"Battle Hymn of the Republic.'* Julia Ward Howe. 



" Our Flag is There." Anonymous. 

" Ark of Freedom." (Music of Austrian National Hymn. ) 

Joseph Haydn. 


"My Country, 'Tis of Thee." Samuel P. Smith. 

The Chorus of the High Schools under direction of PROF. GAEL MATZ ; the High 
School Orchestra under direction of PROF. CARL THORBAHN. 


The Memorial Services. 

The exercises began at two o'clock in 
the presence of a large concourse, the 
following excellent programme being 
rendered. The music, under the direction 
of Prof. Carl Matz ana Prof. Carl Thor- 
bahn, was an excellent feature imd was 
participated in by everybody : 

Mr. Coyle's Presentation Address. 

The address of presentation from the 
donors to the Historical Society was 
made by John A. Coyle, Esq., who spoke 
as follows : 

Responding to the call of the Commit- 
tee of Arrangements, formal presentation 
to the Lancaster County Historical 3o- 
ciety is now made of this monument to 
the lawyer, statesman and patriot, George 
Ross. Another, and an eloquent, voice 
will pay just tribute to his memory ; the 
proprieties of the occasion restrict me to 
the mere formality of presentation, yet 
permit me to give public assurance, which 
I now do, of the accuracy of the location 
of this marker. 

Many broad acres surrounding us on 
all sides, and where now there is the hum 
of industry and the habitations of many 
persons, were the farm and this the home 
of George Ross. Passing from him to the 
various owners named on your pro- 
grammes, these premises became in large 
part the property of Michael Kelly, now 
deceased, in the year 1837, and remained in 
the ownership of himself and his children, 
James and Catharine M. Kelly, until 
1893. So that there are living wit- 
nesses who during their lives occupied, 
owned and were familiar with every nook 
and cranny of the Roes house. 


The depression in the ground, which 
you will see to the west of the stand, was 
the lane leading directly from the city to 
and in front of the house. At the east- 
ern end of the pavement in front of the 
marker was the large spring which gushed 
forth in the cellar of the house until the 
construction of the Clay street sewer, 
which runs its course slightly to the north 
of us. The house must have been built 
many years ago, for an attempt to hold 
together the considerable portion of it 
cot taken by the opening of Ross street 
was unsuccessful. All that is left of it is 
this pile of foundation stones turned up 
when excavating for the pavement, a lot 
of rafters, a couple of doors and window 
sash ; one of these sashes stands aside of 
me. On one of the panes of glass is writ- 
ten the name of George Ross. It is done 
with a stone, corresponds with the man- 
ner in which George Ross wrote his name 
and has some similarity with his hand- 
writing. There is no doubt that this name 
has been on the glass for over fifty years. 
It is believed to have been written by 
George Ross himself. 

There is, therefore, no doubt of the 
identity of the spot of which your society 
to-day takos possession and which is 
marked by this shaft. If in the sight of 
yonder school house it shall stir the 
hearts of boys and girls the coming men 
and women to noble deeds not only in 
public station but by the fireside, also; if, 
built of voiceless material and answering 
only to the eye, it shall attract the glance 
of the passei-by and show him the beauty 
of heroism, the just pride of one's de- 
scendants in a life well lived; it it shall 
dra thither and thence to many other 
historical spots in this city soon to be, 
marked, I hope the stranger within our 
gates and show to him, too, that here was 


the blood of which martyrs are made, a 
distinct good will be done to the commu- 
nity, an added renown brought to this 
dear old city. So may it be. 

Mr. Bengal's Acceptance. 
In accepting the gift of the memorial 
on behalf of the Lancaster County His- 
torical Society, Mr. W. U. Hensel re- 
ferred briefly to the extraordinary growth 
of Lancaster, and especially in the north- 
western section of the city, where stately 
mansions now occupy sites that a half 
century ago were swamps and thickets, 
and where millions ot dollars' worth of 
improvements cover lands that were, 
within ihe period of living men, ordinary 
farms. In this great material develop- 
ment, historical sites and incidents are 
apt to be forgotten and submerged. 
It is, there 'ore, extremely fitting 
that such memorials as these should 
be erected, and that this be 
done under the auspices of the Historical 
Society. That organization hoped to 
make this simply the initial of a long 
series of like events. There were a hun- 
dred spots in Lancaster made memorable 
by historical events and by associations 
of great and noble men, upon which tab- 
lets or pillars should record the names 
and events. One of the most notable 
things to a traveler in the Old World is 
this custom, and even in New England 
the historical spirit of the people has thus 
attested itself in many places. Pennsyl- 
vania and Lancaster county need to be 
more self-assertive, and the speaker hoped 
to see the day when the house in which 
John Andre was here a prisoner of war, 
the site of the college founded by Benja- 
min Franklin, the houses wnere Henry 
lived, where West painted, where Tom 
Paine wrote, where Robert Fulton ex- 
perimented, where Buchanan and Stevens 


lived and practiced law, sites of the old 
revolutionary buildings, and others, 
would be thus marked. It is better for a 
community to depend upon its own pub- 
lic spirit and upon the individual liberal- 
ity of its citizens for these than to look 
for municipal or legislative aid. In this 
regard the present occasion was likewise 
memorable, and the donors were entitled 
to the hearty thanks of the Society and 
the community for their public spirit and 

Miss Blanche Nevin's Poem. 

The following is the exquisite gem read 
by Miss Blanche Nevin. As will be seen, 
it rehearses the story of the events pre- 
ceding and leading up to the Declaration 
of Independence, and pays a glowing tri- 
bute to the fifty-six " good men and true " 
who affixed their names to that immortal 
paper : 


To chafing hearts in sorest need, 
To people fretting to be freed 
From foreign yoke, when foreign greed 

With taxes wrung them ; 
God gave strong leaders, not a few, 
Courageous men, upright and true, 
And Lancaster He gave to you 

George Boss among them. 


Ill brooked the sons of pioneers 
The sound of cowardice, and sneers 
From dapper soldiery in his ears. 

It was small wonder, 
Defiance was hurled back again 
By irritated frontiersmen ; 
To tease the wild wolves in their den 

Was fatal blunder. 


(Ah ! after many a bitter year 
Each braggart boast and swaggering jeer 
Cost every pretty soldier dear 

As they surrendered. 
When beaten, and with downcast head, 
Their hats pulled low, and eyelids red, 
They followed in Cornwallis' tread, 

As swords were tendered.) 



Long time it was the writhing land 

Insulted felt the tyrant hand 

The spark was waiting to be fanned 

On freedom's altar. 

Yet, though the cause be juat and right, 
Long will men hesitate to fight, 
If "round their necks is pressing tight 

A threatened halter." 


But yet we know dear Liberty- 
Man is about as true to thee 
As, with his nature, he can be 

To any woman ; 

That very neck for thy sweet sake 
At certain times he risks to break ; 
Nor holds his life too dear to stake. 

Nor all things human. 


And Patrick Henry's passionate breath, 

" oh, give me liberty or death." 

Thrilled through the anxious land beneath 

All party faction. 

Throughout the broad Atlantic States 
Where brooding war, impatient, waits 
The moment which precipitates 

The crash of action. 


And so, when time was ripe, men came 
From far and near to sign each name 
Upon that proudest roll of fame, 

Our Declaration. 

Facing disgrace, that patriot band, 
The nervous force of all the land, 
Stretched out the pen and sinewy hand 

That framed the nation. 


Now let the British lion lash 

With angry tail her sides, and gnash 

Her teeth and bounding forward dash 

With roaring hollow ! 
At last the eagle's wings have grown, 
The chain is snapped which held nim down : 
High in the air where he has flown, 

Lions can't follow ! 


Good faith ! That day you need not think 
That Philadelphia lacked for ink; 
Or men, whose fingers did not shrink 

At thought of fetters. 
For well each knew that shortest shrift. 
And tightest rope, and highest lift, 
Might be to him stern England's gift 

For those few letters. 



Aye every signer knew that war 
Would follow and torment him sore. 
Outlawed by it and all his store 

Unless he hid it- 
Was forfeit to the distant king, 
Who held him but a chattel thing 
Fr< m which another tax to wring, 

And yet he did it. 


Men made for the occasion, they, 
More apt for earnest work than play. 
Coined for the purpose of the day, 

From precious metal. 
Men to a solemn epoch sent. 
Shaped by the friction of event 
To fitness for some great intent, 

New thoughts to settle. 


Men of big frame and bigger heart 
Which had not lost the power to smart 
Of pious faith the greater part 

Of training holy. 

Who yet felt heaven in sun and sky. 
And held themselves when they should die 
Responsible to God on high, 

And to God solely. 


Who dreaded an avenging hell, 
And honor prized too dear to sell, 
Who did not love their lives too well 

To risk for others. 
For a great principle of right 
Willing to die, ready to fight, 
Who kept their conscience clean and bright, 

And loved their brothers. 


Doubtless before his lot was cast, 
Fach hero struggled through a past 
Of dubious fears, but, at the last, 

All vacillation 

And tremor being thrust aside, 
Purpose was resolute, to abide 
Whatever upshot should betide 

The new-fledged nation. 


Fifty-six names were written there, 
In all the world's long history, where 
Find ye a list which can compare 

With this in glory ? 
Of nobler lives ; of fairer fames : 
Of less self-interested aims; 
Of cleaner, more untarnished names, 

There is no story. 



First, Massachusetts, stuns? to rage 
By foolish North or fatuous Gage, 
Sent five strong men to sign the page, 

From different classes. 
And Hancock, gentleman, indeed, 
Wrote down his name to take the lead ; 
"So large," he said, "the king may read 

Mine without glasses." 


Adams, the incorruptible ! 

Who "loved the public good too well 

For private gain its rights to sell," 

Noble in scorning. 

Whose voice with no uncertain ring, 
When agents came a bribe to bring. 
Sent back that message to the king 

And "gave him warning/' 


Impetuous Houston, in his race 
For Zubley, lost deserved place 
Among the founders of his race. 

Zubley, a spying 
Judas, discovered in the act 
Of treachery, denied the fact, 
But fled to Geoigia; Hoiiston tracked 

The traitor flying. 


And frequent was the moment, when 
The casting vote which made free men 
Was given by the State of Penn, 

-Amid confusion. 

For Morton, to our lasting pride, 
Came forward when the vote was tied, 
And cast his ballot on the side 

Of revolution. 


Carroll (lest people would not know) - 
Added " of Carrollton " to show 
Which Carroll fa^ed the dangerous foe. 

" Now hang together 
Or we'll hang separately," said he. 
The die was cast, and valiantly 
And long they faced a stormy sea 

F.r.; cleared the weather. 


We glean from the recording pen 
Truth which is now, was also then, 
Conspicuous that heroic men 

Had noble mothers. 
And Francis Lewis (kindly grant 
Attention to my modest vaunt) 
Was "brought up by his maiden aunt," 

And "there are othei'S." 



The more one bears the more one reads, 
Examining their lives and deeds, 
The more the critic spirit heeds 

With admiration. 

Ere half their worthiness was sung, 
If praises due should well be rung, 
Your ears would weary of my tongue 

And its narration. 


Among the strongest and the best 
our delegate sustained the test, 
And cast his ballot with the rest. 

Brave, wise and witty, 
Of broad, well educated mind ; 
King's advocate, and well inclined 
To weigh the rights of human kind, 

Koss, of our city ! 


To-day we come, with honest pride, 
From city and from country side, 
To mark the spot where did abide 

This man of merit. 

And make the letters deep and clear, 
That they may last for many a year, 
To testify that we hold dear 

What we inherit. 

It is not meet that gratitude, 
Or loving memory of the good. 
Should perish for the coffin wood 

Can only cover 
The aust the vehicle of clay, 
Which served the soul its passing day, 
The deeds of men die not away, 

Are never over. 


The world was better where he trod, 
When George Ross rendered up to God 
His soul his body to the sod, 

Well done his duty. 
The white man and the red man, too, 
Full well his generous justice knew. 
Bright his example shines for you, 

A thing of beauty. 


Our town, recognizant of zeal, 
And service for the common weal, 
Voted him "costly plate," "genteel 

And ornamented." 
But he the civic gift put by 
Making magnanimous reply, 
" Only what each should do did I ! T ' 

Modest contented. 



We offer to his memory's sake, 
The gift he, living, would not take ; 
And tribute of affection make 

With hearty pleasure. 
God rest his soul, where'er it be. 
Safe in the peaco which such as he 
Deserve throughout eternity, 

In goodly measure. 


The story of the war is fraught 
With lesson, and renews the thought 
That nothing great was ever wrought 

Without hard trial. 
Gold cannot buy, beyond dispute, 
God's highest gifts. The finest fruit 
And flower of goodness take their root, 

In self-denial. 


Lancastrians, who your acres plough, 
Whose fertile fields are ripening now, 
In gratitude, remember how 

They were defended. 
What years of suffering were borne, 
How long the sharpened sword was worn ; 
How great the hunger, scant the corn, 

Kre war was ended. 


See ye to it who peaceful stand 
And gather with unshackled hand 
The crops that ripen in the land 

In generous bounty; 
See ye to it that not in vain 
Their red blood soaked the battle plain, 
When men for liberty were slain, 

Oh, town and county! 


The present guardians of your race 
A little while ye fill a space, 
Rise to the duties of your place ! 

If care relaxes, 

New forms of tyranny creep in ; 
Greed and corruption will begin, 
Be vigilant, or they will win. 

Look to your taxes ! 


Stand by your colors without fear, 
In spite of cynic, scoff and jeer, 
See that you treat "Old Glory " dear 

With reverent manner. 
God help the day God help the hour 
If hearts degenerate lose the power 
To thrill to glow at sight of our 

Star Spangled Banner. 

LANCASTER, June 4th, 1897. 



Signer of tbelteds- 
tttion of I n dependence 

BORN 1750 CHEW??* 

<"" 'v_ 


George Ross born in Newcastle, Delaware, December, 1730; some- 
time resident of Lancaster; died in Philadelphia, July 13, 1779 was a law- 
yer, a statesman and a patriot. He was the only Signer of the Declara- 
tion of Independence from the city or the county of Lancaster. The 
pillar and tablet erected to-day commemorate his residence here and his 
services to the community, to the commonwealth and to his country. The 


story of his life is told in the words of the eloquent orator and in the verses 
of the gifted poetess. 

While he dwelt in Lancaster his city house stood on the site of the 
present court house on East King Street near Duke. A considerable 
part of its woodwork was taken up into and is still conspicuous in the 
stately Lightner mansion at the southeast corner of Duke and Lemon 
Streets. The site marked by the memorial now erected was where his 
country home and farmhouse stood, then in a suburban section. 

The pillar and tablet are a gift to the Lancaster County Historical So. 
ciety by Dr. M. L. Herr, Mr. John W. Hiemmenz and John A. Coyle, Esq. 
These gentlemen have been notably prominent in the development of the 
northeastern part of the city, and the beautitul surroundings of the me- 
morial are largely due to their enterprise and public spirit. The section 
known as " Rossmere" had this name bestowed upon it in honor of the 
Signer. He is also commemorated by a splendid stained glass memorial 
window in St. James P. E. Church, the gift of Miss Mary Ross, the only 
lineal descendant who bears his name. The Hopkins, Eshleman (D. G. ) 
and Lightner families are also descended from George Ross on their ma- 
ternal side. 

The memorial is erected under the auspices of the Lancaster County 
Historical Society; its officers at present are as follows: President, 
GEORGE STEINMAN, Lancaster. Vice-Presidents, SAMUEL EVANS, Eso^., 
Columbia; JOSEPH C. WALKER, Gap. Recording Secretary, F. R. DIF- 
FENDERFFER, Lancaster. Corresponding Secretary, W. W. GRIEST, Lan- 
caster. Librarian, SAMUEL M. SENER, Eso^., Lancaster. Treasurer, B. 
C. ATLEE, Eso^., Lancaster. Executive Committee, W. U. HENSEL, Lan- 
caster; HORACE L. HALDEMAN, Chickies; ADAM GEIST, Blue Ball; REV. 
C. B. SHULTZ, Lititz; DR. C. A. HEINITSH, Lancaster; J. W. YOCUM, 
Eso^., Columbia; RICHARD M. REILLY, Eso^., Lancaster; PETER C. HIL- 
LER, Conestoga; HON. ESAIAS BILLINGFELT, Adamstown ; PROF. H. F. 
BITNER, Millersville. [The officers are also members of the Executive 
Committee by virtue of their offices.] 




Address by Hon. Marriott Brosius 

MY FELLOW CITIZENS: We are assem- 
bled to-day to keep a custom of the ages. 
Since Joshua commanded the stones to 
be piled on the banks of the Jordan as a 
memorial to the Children of Israel, monu- 
ments have been the customary means of 
commemorating great events, historic 
occasions and distinguished services. 
While our central purpose in this dedi- 
catory service relates to the character and 
services of a citizen of Lancaster of Revo- 
lutionary fame, yet, as his career was asso- 
ciated with the illustrious events of his 
time, it is in a larger oense sufficiently in- 
elusive to embrace the memorable occur- 
ence of the achievement of Colonial in- 
dependence and the birth of the Republic. 

To be a citizen of a country without a 
peer, under a government whose corner- 
stones are the wisdom, virtue and patriot- 
ism of those it was appointed to govern ; 
to love and serve it and enjoy its protec- 
tion is our singular good fortune ; but it 
was the extreme felicity of our Revolu- 
tionary father, our signer of the immortal 
Declaration, to share the glory of the 
achievement which made possible such a 

George Ross was of Scotch descent, and 
his lineage is distinctly traceable to Mal- 
colm, Earl of Ross, who was contemporary 
with Malcolm, King of the Scots, in the 
twelfth century. He doubtless owed his 
success in some measure to those effective 
traits of Scotch character which have 
been so much in evidence in our own 
country as to lead a distinguished Ameri- 
can to observe: "Whenever anything 


good is to be done in this country you are 
apt to find a Scotchman on the front seat 
trying to do it." His father. Rev. George 
Ross, was educates at Etiinburg, where 
he received the degree of A. M. in 1700. 
In 1705 he emigrated to America and be- 
came Rector of the Episcopal parish at 
Newcastle, Delaware, where his son, 
George, was born May 10, 1730. His 
mother was Catharine Van Gezel, of 
Delaware, a granddaughter of Gerrit Van 
Gezel, of Amsterdam, who was nephew 
and secretary to Jacob Alrichs, the Dutch 
Governor or Vice Director of the Dutch 
colony on the Delaware. 

He inherited from a long line of illus- 
trious ancestors superior endowments and 
at an early age laid the foundation of a 
liberal education. He studied law in 
Philadelphia with his half-brother John, 
a lawyer of distinguished ability, whose 
only rival for leadership at the Pennsyl- 
vania bar was Andrew Hamilton. Samuel 
Adams in his diary refers to him as a 
lawyer of great eloquence and extensive 
practice, and a great Tory. It was said 
of him that he loved ease and Aladoria 
much better than liberty and strife. In 
the early part of the Revolutionary 
period he justified his neutral attitude on 
the ground that, "Let who would be, 
King, he was sure to be a subject." Be- 
fore his death, however, he followed the 
example of his brother and became a con- 
vert to the cause of the colonies. Another 
brother, Rev. .Eneas Ross, succeeded his 
father as Rector of the Parish of New- 
castle. He MI as an earnest supporter of 
independence and preached patriotic ser- 
mons. His sister, Anne, married John 
Yeates, of Delaware, a cousin of tne 
distinguished jurist, Jasper Yoates, 
a Judge of the Supreme Court 
of Pennsylvania, and a resident 
of this city. His sister, Gertrude, 


became the wife of George W. Read, of 
Delaware, a member of the Continental 
Congress, of the Federal Convention of 
1787, United States Senator, President 
and Chief Justice of Delaware, and a 
signer of the Declaration of Independence. 
Another sister, Margaret, was twice mar- 
ried, in both instances to clergymen of 
the Episcopal Church. Susanna also was 
married to a minister of the Established 
Church. Catherine was married to Wm. 
Thompson, the commander of the famous 
Thompson's Battalion of Riflemen, Penn- 
sylvania's first troops in the Revolution- 
ary war, and the first men from any of 
the colonies south of New England to 
join the American army before Boston in 
the summer of 1775. This gallant officer 
became General of the Continental Line, 
and was taken prisoner at the battle of 
Three Rivers, near Quebec, in June, 1776. 
He was exchanged in 1780, and died a few 
months later. His sister, Elizabeth, mar- 
ried Colorel Edward Biddle, of Reading, 
a distinguished lawyer, Speaker of the 
Pennsylvania Assembly, and member of 
the Continental Congress ; and Mary be- 
came the wife of Colonel Mark Bird, of 
Birdsboro, a prominent man of his day 
and an officer in the Revolutionary army. 
John Ross, nephew of George and 
son of Rev. Aeneas Ross, became the hus- 
band of Elizabeth Griscom (Betsy Ross), 
who made our first national flag. 
This recital of family connections is only 
important to show the character and dis- 
tinction of the Ross family. It can add 
nothing to the lustre of the eminent per- 
sonality of George Ross. 

After his admission to the bar he re- 
moved to Lancaster, where he commenced 
his professional career in 1751. He 
early gave evidence of a discreet and 
well ordered mind. Almost the first 
suit he brought, and he prosecuted 


it with success to final judgment 
in his favor, was for the hand of a beauti- 
ful and accomplished lady of Scotch-Irish 
descent, by the name of Anne Laulor, 
whom he married August 17, 1751. His 
city residence was at the corner of East 
King and Duke streets, where the Court 
House now stands ; while his suburban 
home was on the spot on which we are 
now assembled. In both places he dis- 
pensed a liberal hospitality and enter- 
tained the most eminent men of his time 
in law, politics, statesmanship and war. 

The next scintillation of wisdom re- 
corded of him was in devoting himself to 
the pursuit of his profession, eschewing 
politics for several years. His success at 
the bar brought him in a few years the 
appointment of prosecutor for the Crown, 
an office which he filled with distinguished 

In 1768 he was chosen a representative 
to the General Assembly and continued a 
member of that body until 1777, excepting 
the years 1772 and 1776. During this pe- 
riod the benevolence of his mind led him 
to study the condition of the Indians and 
the character of our intercourse with 
them. This preparation qualified him for 
great usefulness when ha became the 
organ of the Colonists in their controver- 
sies with the red men and the mediator 
between them, making his country greatly 
his debtor by the judgment and wisdom 
with which he conducted their negotia- 

The same benevolent spirit and humane 
temper of mind led him to respond with 
promptitude to the claims of the oppressed 
and unfortunate from whatever cause. 
When the Tories became the subjects of 
persecution and sometimes imprisonment, 
and it was esteemed next to treason to 
defend them, he, with James Wilson and 
a few other eminent persons, was ever 
ready to plead in their behalf. 


He was among the first of the Colonists 
to become sensible of the arbitrary acts of 
the English government and to feel "the 
sting of British tyranny." His indigna- 
tion kindled at the extortionate and des- 
potic demands ot' the Crown and he was 
prompt to co-operate in the initial move- 
ment to secure independence. 

The Virginia resolutions, proposing a 
Congress of all the Colonies, were re- 
ceived in the General Assembly on the 
eve of its adjournment. Notwithstand- 
ing it was the opinion of many members 
that whatever measures might be adopted 
should proceed from a future Assembly 
fresh from their constituents, so com- 
manding was the position of Mr. Ross 
among his colleagues that he was ap- 
pointed a committee to draft a reply to 
the Speaker of the Virginia House of 
Delegates. In that reply he expressed 
with clearness and force how sensible the 
members of the Pennsylvania Assembly 
were of the importance ol co-operating 
with the representatives of the other 
Colonies in every wise and prudent meas- 
ure for the preservation and security of 
their general rights and liberties. 

By the success of his services in the 
Assembly he plumed his wings for a 
higher flight of public usefulness. On 
the 22d of July, 1774, he was one of seven 
delegates chosen to represent the Province 
in the Continental Congress. His col- 
leagues were Joseph Galloway, the 
Speaker of the Assembly, Samuel Rhodes, 
Thomas Miillin, Charles Humphries, John 
Morton and Edward Biddle. On October 
15th, on motion of Mr. Ross, it was or- 
dered that John Dickinson be chosen an 
additional delegate. That Congress met 
on the 5th of September and adjourned 
on October 26th of the same year. 

As George Ross shared the distinction 
achieved in that short session of seven 

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weeks, it may be worth while to pause in 
our narrative long enough to take a 
glimpse of that notable Assembly, the first 
Continental Congress. It met in Carpen- 
ters' Hall. Its members were themselves 
mechanics of the highest order ; master- 
builders who laid firm and strong the 
foundations of a Republic which recog- 
nize 1 the right of every man to an equal 
chance. Its personnel was remarkable. 
Thera was bamuel Adams, the master 
spirit of the movement for independence ; 
John Jay, the youngest member, in the 
dawn of his splendid career ; Stephen 
Hopkins, the patriarch of the Assembly, 
once Chief Justice of Rhode Island ; Sher- 
man, of Connecticut ; Randolph, of Vir- 
ginia, who was made chairman, and his 
colleague, Ed ward Rutledge ; Thomas Mc- 
Kean; John Dickinson, the learned "Penn- 
sylvania Farmer," who gave the Colo- 
nists the potent shibboleth, "No taxation 
without representation ;" Christopher 
Gadsdeu, whose spirited reply to the sug- 
gestion that the British world burn our 
seaport towns was worthy the man: " Our 
towns," ha said, "are built of brick and 
wood; if they are burned down we can re- 
build them, but liberty once lost is gone 
forever;" Patrick Henry, who crystal- 
lized the common thought of the hour 
that British oppression had wiped out the 
boundaries of the Colonies in that famous 
declaration, "I am not a Virginian, but 
an American ;" and Washington, whose 
modesty counseled him to take a back 
seat, though he was to become the fore- 
most man in all that celebrated company. 
Of such men and others of less note was 
that Congress composed. Their work 
was the grandest of the ages. No body 
of men in ten times the period had ever 
before achieved so much for mankind as 
this half hundred in two and fifty days. 
They surveyed and mapped the rights of 


man, declared that no laar enacted with- 
out his consent was binding upon a 
British subject, that taxation without re- 
presentation was tyranny, that the com- 
mon law of England was every English- 
man's birthright. Having defined the 
rights of America and solemnly declared 
their purpose to maintain them, they 
closed their work with a recital of their 
grievances and an ea-nest, cairn, concilia- 
tory and dignified appeal to the justice of 
the British nation for redress, for peace, 
liberty and security. Little wonder than 
the first Continental Congress extorted 
the admiration of the world. From the 
moment of their first debate, says De 
Tocqueville, Europe was moved. John 
Adams said that in point of ability, virtue 
and fortune t'uoy were the greatest men 
upon the continent. Lord Chatham in 
the face of the King declared: " I must 
aver that in all my reading of history that 
for solidity of reasoning, force of sagacity 
and wisdom of conclusion, under such a 
complication of circumstances, no nation 
or body of men can stand in preference to 
the General Congress assembled at Phila- 

But Mr. Ross was not a one term Con- 
gressman. He was re-elected on Decem- 
ber 15, 1774, to the Congress which con- 
vened May 10, 1775. To the succeeding 
term he was not elected, but on July 20, 
1776, he was again elected and immedi- 
ately took his seat. In January, 1777, he 
obtained leave of absence on account of 
illness and never afterward returned. 
He thus occupied a seat in the Continental 
Congress from September 14 to October 
26, 1774 ; from May 10 to November , 
1775, and from July 20, 1776, to January, 

While not in Congress his services were 
not withheld from the cause of the Colo- 
nies. He was a patriot, firmly attached 


to liberty and independence, and his ser- 
vice was always at their command. 
Even while a member of Congress he 
served in the General Assembly. The 
question of incompatibility of office was 
not raised. The pre-eminence he enjoyed 
among public men of his time was shown 
by the variety and distinction of the ser- 
vices to which he was called from time to 
time by the General Assembly. In July, 
1774, he presided over a mass meeting of 
the citizens of Lancaster county to take 
into consideration the Acts of the British 
Parliament relative to America. At the 
sam3 time he was on a committee of cor- 
respondence to cement union between the 
Colonies and a deputy to the Provincial 
Convention held at Philadelphia, July 15, 
1774. In 1775, when the Assembly re- 
ceived a message from Governor Penn 
upon the unsatisfactory situation of the 
Colony and evidently intended to repress 
the ardor oi those who favored the re- 
dress of grievacces, a question of serious 
moment arose whether they should yield 
to the solicitation of the Governor or 
stand firmly by the measures of Congress. 
On this question there was a long debate 
in which Mr. Ross took a conspicuous 
part. He was an able debater, a persua- 
sive and convincing speaker. The influ- 
ence of his eloquence and the power of 
his logic prevailed. A committee of which 
he was a leading member was appointed 
to draft a reply to the Governor's mes- 
sage. That reply will challenge compari- 
son with any other similar state paper on 
record. Jefferson himself could not have 
exceeded its exquisite diplomacy in form 
and temper. It exhibited conciliation 
without servility, respectful deference 
without obsequiousness, resolute firmness 
without offensive defiance. George Ross 
wrote it and the Assembly adopted it as 
their answer to the Governor's address. 


When the situation became more crit- 
ical and measures were required to put 
the Province in a suitable state of de- 
fense, he was appointed a committee to 
report such expedient measures as the 
situation required. The report recom- 
mended ways and means of defending the 
lives, liberty and property of the citizens 
and repelling any hostile invasion of 
British troops. It advised putting the 
Province on a suitable war footing, to 
prosecute their predetermined defense of 
their rights, liberty ana independence. 
He was eminently qualified for exertions 
of this character, for no man better com- 
prehended the difficulties under which 
the Colonists labored in their encounter 
with British injustice, or grappled them 
with a more robust spirit of determina- 
tion and defiance than George Ross. This 
sense of the situation and his heroic 
spirit wera accentuated when he said co 
his son: "We are fighting with halters 
around our necks, but we will win." 
When war was imminent he was called 
upon to assist in the preparation of rules 
and regulations for the government of 
the military forces that might be em- 
ployed. On July 4, 1776, at the very 
hour the Declaration of Independence 
was being adopted by the Continental 
Congress, he was at Lancaster presiding 
at a meeting of the officers and members 
of the fifty-three Battalions of Associa- 
tors of the Colony of Pennsylvania to 
choose two Brigadier Generals. On July 
6th he wrote to Col. Gailbraith enclosing 
the resolves of Congress on the subject 
of Independence which he had just re- 
ceived. He was about this time Presiden- 
of the Lancaster Committee of Inspec- 
tion, Observation and Correspondence. 
He was Colonel of the First Battalion of 
Associators of Lancaster. On July 18, 
1776, he was elected Vice President of the 


Pennsylvania Constitutional Convention 1 * 
At different times he was a member of 
the Committee of Safety for Lancaster 
county, and on July 6, 1775, was appointed 
one of the inspectors of military stores. 
In 1777 he was associated with George 
Washington and Robert Morris on a 
committee appointed by the Continen- 
tal Congress to devise a national flag. 
He was also appointe-l on a committee to 
prepare a declaration of rights on behalf 
of the State ; was chairman of two other 
committees of importance, one to formu- 
late rules for the government of the Con- 
vention which had superseded tha 
Assembly, and the other to draft a law 
defining treason to the State and fixing a 
punishment for thdt crime, Here we note 
an indication of the esteem in which he 
was held as a lawyer. He is said to have 
been among the first of his profession. In 
the deep and intricate controversies aris- 
ing in that formative period he took a 
conspicuous part. On occasions com- 
manding the greatest exertions of the 
strongest minds he was among the fore- 
most, never failing to acquit himself ffiih 
distinguished credit. 

When he retired from the Continental 
Congress he received an agreeable 
demonstration of the approbation of his 
constituents in the form of a resolution 
passed at a public meeting in the borough 
of Lancaster, which showed not only how 
sensible his constituents were of the value 
of his public services, but afforded him an 
opportunity of evincing his sensibility to 
the obligations which his duty to his 
country imposed. As this expression of 
appreciation and gratitude had a touch 
of novelty and was highly creditable to 
the citizens of Lancaster I will be excused 
for reproducing it in this connection: 

"Resolved, That the sum of one hun- 
dred and fifty pounds out of the common 


stock be forthwith transmitted to George 
Ross, one of the members of the Assembly 
for this county and one of the delegates 
for this county in the Continental Con- 
gress, and that he be requested to accept 
the same as a testimony from this county 
of their sense of his attendance on the 
puulic business to his great private loss, 
and of their approbation of his conduct. 

"Resolved, If it be more agreeable, Mr. 
Ross purchase with part of the said 
money a genteel piece of plate orna- 
mented as he thinks proper, to remain 
with him as a testimony of the esteem 
this county has for him, by reason of his 
patriotic conduct in the great struggle 
for American liberty." 

Even in our day, when this mode of re- 
quiting the services of public servants is 
out of fashion, we can easily understand 
how grateful to the feelings of Mr. boss 
was this testimony of affection and grati- 
tude. But he was as sensible of his dig- 
nity and duty as were his constituents of 
his services and their obligation. With a 
modesty characteristic of real elevation 
of mind, he disparaged his service to his 
country and declined this moderate hon- 
orarium from his fellow-citizens, protest- 
ing that in bestowing his exertions upon 
the cause of liberty and independence he 
was impelled solely by a patriotic sense of 
duty, and that he did no more than every 
man should do to advance the cause of 
his country without hope of pecuniary 
reward. Such elevation of character, lofty 
patriotism and disinterested devotion to 
ttie claims of duty command the homage 
and admiration of the world, and consti- 
tute an example worthy the emulation of 

The remnant of life allowed Mr. Ross 
after his retirement from Congress was to 
be still further dignified and exalted 
by his elevation to the Bench of the Admir- 


alty of the State to which he was appointed 
March 1, 1779. A brief service upon the 
Bench demonstrated the possession of 
great ability, dignity and tireless 
industry in the discharge of his judicial 
duties. He died on the 14th of July, 1779, 
of a sudden illness at his homo in Phila- 
delphia, and was buried in Christ Church 
burial ground. From a letter written by 
a member of the family at the time it ap- 
pears that in his last conversation he ex- 
hibited great cheerfulness, spoke pleas- 
antly of the long journey he was about to 
take and hopefully of his prospects in the 
haven of rest whither he was going and 
to which his wife had preceded him. 

The pedestal and tablet we dedicate to- 
day will declare to coming generations 
what would remain as durably in the re- 
membrance of mankind without the aid 
of brick or bronze, that George Ross was 
a signer of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence; a fact which conferred perhaps 
greater distinction than any other act of 
his illustrious career. Next to John Han- 
cock's, the boldest and strongest signa- 
ture to that immortal instrument is that of 
George Ross. It has been taken for 
granted and commonly believed on the 
warrant of unveracious chroniclers for a 
hundred years that he was a member of 
the Congress that adopted the Declaration 
on the Fourth of July, 1776. This is not 
the fact, and we must not withhold the 
homage due she truth of history by 
omitting to record on this occasion abso- 
lute historic truth. 

it will be seen from what I have already 
said that George Ross did not sit in the 
Continental Congress from November 3, 
1775, to July 20, 1776, in which interval 
the vote of adoption took place. It is 
worthy of note that some members, not 
alone from Pennsylvania but from other 
Colonies as well, who occupied seats on 


the Fourth of July and voted for the 
adoption of the Declaration, ceased to be 
members before the 2nd of August when 
the signing took place ; and on the other 
hand some who were not members on the 
Fourth oi July became such before the 
day of signing, and while they had no 
agency in the adoption enjoyed the dis- 
tinction of signing the Declaration. The 
Pennsylvania delegation underwent a 
radical change in that interval. Five 
members, viz., John Dickinson, Charles 
Humphries, Edward Biddle, Thomas 
Willing and Andrew Allen, were suc- 
ceeded by George Ross, George LJlymer, 
Benjamin Rush, James Smith and George 
Taylor, who took their seats on the 20th 
of July, and all signed the Declaration, 
though they had no part in its adoption. 

The only signatures placed upon the 
instrument on the day of its adoption 
were those of John Hancock, President, 
and Charles Thompson, Secretary. The 
order made on the Fourth, as shown by 
the Journal, was "that the Declaration 
be authenticated and printed." On the 
19th of July, however, the following reso- 
iution was passed : 

"Resolved, That the Declaration passed 
on the 4th inst. b^ fairly engrossed on 
parchment with the title and style of 
'The Unanimous Declaration of the 
Thirteen United States of America ' and 
that the same when engrossed be signed 
by every member of Congress." On the 
2nd of August the Journal says : " The 
Declaration of Independence being en- 
grossed and compared at the table was 
signed by the members." The signers 
were thus of necessity the members at 
the time the instrument was submitted 
for signatures, all of whom with three 
exceptions signed at that time. Two 
signed later in the fall and Thomas 
McKean not until January, 1777. 


Another circumstance invites our at- 
tention in this connection, not one that 
would either make or mar so great a fame 
as that of our Lancaster signer, but which 
requires an explanation to be recorded 
on this occasion ; for the attentive student 
of our Colonial and Revolutionary history 
and the studies it has afforded for 
artistic representation still wonders why 
the face of George Ross does not appear 
in the celebrated painting of the 
"Signers" in the rotunda of the Capitol 
at Washington. John Trumbull was 
employed by the Government to execute 
this work. He was a painter of eminence 
and was employed at the same time on a 
number of historical studies illustrating 
our Revolution history, under a contract 
with the Government. He travelled exten- 
sively in Europe and traversed the States 
in search of portraits for the purpose of his 
paintings. His idea, as stated in his 
autobiography, was to secure the like* 
nesses of the men who were the authors 
and signers of that memorable Declara- 
tion ; and the rule he laid down for his 
guidance in the composition of the paint- 
ing was to admit no ideal representation. 
He was determined in his purpose, 
tireless in his exertions to procure the 
face of every man required for the com- 
pletion of his canvas. An incident 
given me by Mr. J. Hammond Trum- 
bull, of Hartford, Connecticut, derived 
from the artist himself, illustrates the 
length he went to carry out his intentions. 
No portrait ot Benjamin Harrison oould 
be found ; none was in existence. One day 
when the painting was nearly completed a 
stranger entered his studio and after 
looking at the picture for some time re- 
marked: "I don't see Governor Ben. 
Harrison there. He signed the Declara- 
tion." "Did you know General Harri- 
son?" asked the artist impatiently. 


" Well, I ought to," was the reply. '* He 
was my father." "Is there any likeness of 
him?" asked Mr. Trumbull. "No," said 
Mr. Harrison, "tnere is no picture, but 
my mother and the family have always 
told me that I was the image of my father 
at the same age except for the differense 
in color of eyes and hair." " Please stand 
just where you are," was the peremptory 
command of the painter, who caught up 
his pailette and brush and began to make 
a sketch of his visitor, making the requi- 
site changes in eyes and hair. When the 
sketch was completed he showed it to Mr. 
Harrison, who, after studying it for a while, 
said : " Well, I don't believe there is a 
man in Virginia who ever saw Governor 
Harrison who would not recognize that 
as his likeness." And that face caught 
thus on the wing went on the famous 

The artist found it difficult to determine 
who by rights should be represented. 
Should he admit those only who were 
present and voted for adoption and ex- 
clude those who voted against it, or should 
be recognize the title only of those who 
signed the instrument ? On these ques- 
tions he consulted Adams and Jefferson, 
who concurred in the advice that the 
signatures should be the general guide. 
Mr. Ross was within this rule and his face 
would certainly have adorned the canvas 
if a portrait of him had been available. 
Mr. Trumbull, however, in the end 
adopted a very liberal test aud admitted 
to the privilege of his canvas some who 
adopted but did not sign, some who signed 
but did not adopt, and some who did both 
and two who did neither, viz., John Dickin- 
son, who was an eloquent opposer of the 
measure, and Thomas Willing, who voted 
against it and being retired before the 
2nd of August had no opportunity to sign. 

But the mystery of the omission deepens 


when we remember that there was extant 
a portrait of George Ross, painted by 
Benjamin West, of whose existence Mr. 
Trumbull may fairly be presumed to have 
had knowledge, for he was a friend of 
West's and a frequent visitor at his house 
in London during the years that the 
"great picture" and the persons who 
were to compose it were on his mind and 
frequently OD his lips. 

I find an interesting incident recorded 
in the life and studies of Benjamin West 
by John Gait, which leaves no doubt of 
the fact that West painted a portrait of 
George Ross. Young West was visiting 
a friend by the name of Flower, a Justice 
of the Peace in Chester county, who had 
a legal friend in Lancaster by the name of 
Ross. " Lancaster," says the biographer, 
" was remarkable lor its wealth and had 
the reputation of possessing the best and 
most intelligent society to be found in 
America," a reputation which it is her 
felicity to have maintained through the 
intervening century and a half. Mr. 
Flower brought his young friend to the 
Ross mansion on a visit. The wife of 
Mr. Ross," says the chronicler, "was 
greatly admired for her beauty, and her 
children were so remarkable in this re- 
spect as to be objects of general notice." 
Mr. Flower at dinner advised his friend 
Ross to have the portraits of his family 
taken, and suggested that they would be 
excellent subjects for young West. Ap- 
plication was afterwards made to West's 
father for permission for the young artist 
to go to Lancaster for the purpose of 
making one or more portraits of the 
Rosses. How many pictures were executed 
at that time has eluded my search ; but it 
is certain that Mr. and Mrs. Ross' were, 
and it is said by members of the family 
that portraits of two children were also 


Another incident narrated by the same 
author confirms the fact of West's visit 
Lancaster. Mr. Gait says: "At the time 
of West's visit to the Ross family he met 
a gunsmith by the name of William 
Henry, who, having something of a clas- 
sical turn, proposed to the young artist to 
paint the death of Socrates. West had 
never heard of Socrates, but the gunsmith 
booked him up and he made a sketch 
which was very clever. He, however, 
was in doubt how to represent the slave 
and he said to his friend: " I have hitherto 
painted faces and people clothed ; what 
am 1 to do with the slave who presents 
the poison ? He ought, I think, to be 
naked." Henry went out to his work-shop 
ana brought in one of his workmen, a 
handsome man, stripped to the waist, 
saying, "There is your model," and ac- 
cordingly the muscular toiler went on 
the canvas. 

A. careful review of the chronology of 
events which cluster about the portrait of 
George Ross leads to the conclusion that 
it was executed between 1755 and 176U, 
when he was twenty-five or thirty years 
of age ; and an inspection of the picture 
confirms tbis view. A copy, made about 
1875, by Philip Wharton, I am advised, 
now hangs in Independence Hal). It is 
not a little singular that anyone in pos- 
session of a portrait of so eminent a person 
at a time when a group of figures to 
whose companionship he had so just a 
title was being painted by order ot the 
Government, did not produce iteveu with- 
out request. The only admissible ex- 
planation is that from 1810 to 1824, when 
Mr, Trumbull was in quest of portraits 
lor his historical studies, the Ross picture 
was stored away in somebody's closet, out 
of sight and therefore out of mind, and 
the artist's search failed to reach its hid- 
iug-place. It thus happened that the 


celebrated painting of the "Signers" 
which cost the Government $8,000 received 
the artist's benediction without the face 
of Lancaster's illustrious signer. 

But the fame, of George Ross is not 
conditioned by the accident of an effigy 
or the circumstance of an artist's unavail- 
ing search. Immortal wreaths in this 
world of ours will ever crown immortal 
deeds. A Roman orator, to stimulate the 
heroism of his countrymen, placed before 
them the vision of a heaven of never-end- 
ing repose and happiness for those who 
defended their country. So is tnere a 
heaven of never-ending repose for the 
honest fame of the good and great in the 
remembrance of mankind. The memory 
of this eminent citizen, upright judge, 
and sterling patriot, as well as that of his 
illustrious contemporaries who led the 
Colonies through the Red Sea of Revolu- 
tion to the Canaan of Independence, can 
never lose its perennial green ; for their 
fame is indissolubly linked wich and im- 
perishably enshrined in the history of 
that memorable and heroic struggle to 
secure the inalienable rights of man, 
place government on the moveless base 
of liberty and justice, and establish in the 
New World the supremacy of principles 
as inextinguishable as the stars and a 
civilization as shining as the sun. 

My fellow citizens, our task ends. As 
we have spoken, the hour and the occasion 
have passed. Sad indeed would it be were 
we to miss the lesson they teach. To 
secure the fruit of the achievements of 
the past we must emulate its high ex- 
amples. They point the way to patriotism, 
courage, faith, fortitude and rectitude. 
Veneration for the examples of the heroic 
dead found a tongue in the young Greek 
who exclaimed : "The trophies of Miltiades 
will not let me sleep." So a high sense 
of the achievements of the masters who 


laid our keel and wrought our ribs of 
steel may lift us to the high level of their 
excellence, until like Hector's son we 
catch heroic fire from the memory of 
illustrious sires and by our exertions 
make our country as immortal as the 
memory of its founders. 



The Ross Arms blazoned above are taken from a silver tankard in 
possession of G. Ross Eshleman, Esq., of this city. The tankard be- 
longed to George Ross, the Signer, and came to him from his father. 
According to "Burke's Peerage," pages 1181-82, the arms were created 
February 28, 1672, and are blazoned as follows : " gules ; three lions ram- 
pant ; argent. Crest, a hand holding a garland of laurel, proper." In 
a copy of an early blazonry of the arms there appear "Supporters two 
savages, wreathed about the head and middle with laurel and holding 
clubs in their exterior hands, all proper." The motto is : " Spem, Suc- 
cessus, Alit." 

TO*- 202 Main Library 








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