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Full text of "Georges Rouault prints : from the Collection of Harold P. and Jane F. Ullman"

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LOS ANGELES COUNTY MUSEUM 



ARHHIV/F COPY 

Do not i-emove 
office of the Art Division 



Cover: Detail from " SELF-PORTRAIT WITH CAP." (Catalog No. 82.) 




FROM THE COLLECTION OF 
HAROLD P. AND JANE F.ULLMAN 

NOVEMBER 1- 
DECEMBER 17 
1961 

LOS ANGELES COUNTY MUSEUM 






BOARD OF SUPERVISORS -Los Angeles County 

ERNEST DEBS, Chairman 
FRANK G. BONELLI 
BURTON W CHACE 
WARREN M. DORN 
KENNETH HAHN 



BOARD OF GOVERNORS and DIRECTORS OF MUSEUM ASSOCIATES 



WILLIAM T SESNON, JR., President, Board of Governors 

EDWARD W CARTER, President, Museum Associates 

HOWARD E AHMANSON 

DAVID E. BRIGHT 

SIDNEY E BRODY 

RICHARD E BROWN 

JUSTIN DART 

CHARLES E. DUCOMMUN 

C. V DUFF 

JOHN JEWETT GARLAND 

MRS. FREEMAN GATES 

ED N. HARRISON 

DAVID W HEARST 

ROGER W JESSUP 

T R. KNUDSEN 

JOSEPH B. KOEPFLI 

MRS. RUDOLPH LIEBIG 

MAURICE A. MACHRIS 

CHARLES O. MATCHAM 

DR. FRANKLIN D. MURPHY 



JOHN R. PEMBERTON 
VINCENT PRICE 
WILLIAM J. SHEFFLER 
NORTON SIMON 
MRS. KELLOGG SPEAR 
MAYNARD TOLL 
DR. RUFUS B. VON KLEINSMID 
MRS. STUART E. WEAVER, JR. 
DR. M. NORVEL YOUNG 



HERBERT FRIEDMANN 

Director 

CHARLES E GEHRING 

Assistant Director 



STAFF OF THE ART DIVISION 

RICHARD E BROWN 

Chief Curator of Art 

JAMES ELLIOTT 

Assistant Chief Curator of Art 

EBRIA FEINBLATT 

Curator of Prints and Drawings 

STEFANIA R HOLT 

Curator of Costumes and Textiles 

EUGENE I. HOLT 

Assistant Curator of Costumes and Textiles 

GEORGE KUWAYAMA 

Curator of Oriental Art 

GREGOR NORMAN-WILCOX 

Curator of Decorative Arts 

WILLIAM OSMUN 

Curator, Administrative Assistant 

LARRY CURRY 

Research Assistant 

HENRY HOPKINS 

Curatorial Assistant 

FRANCES ROBERTS NUGENT 
Instructor in Art 




The present exhibition is the third 
which the Department of Prints and 
Drawings has organized recently 
on the basis of collections existing 
in Los Angeles, the preceding two 
having been Daumier and Pieter 
Bruegel the Elder. It is, we feel, 
both a pleasure and a duty to uti- 
lize and publicize the presence of 
outstanding private graphic col- 
lections in our area which is con- 
tinually developing its interests in 
this field. 

Harold and Jane Ullman came 
upon a painting at the top of the 
stairs to a dealer in Paris one night 
in 1951, and fell in love with 
the artist whose landscape it was. 
From that time they became ardent 
Rouault collectors to the extent of 
acquiring an almost complete rep- 
resentation of his graphic work. 
Concerned with breadth, they have 
achieved scope rather than the spe- 
cialization of collecting states or 
prints not used for definite editions. 
The result of their decade of devo- 
tion now makes available to our 
community the opportunity of view- 
ing a very extensive assemblage of 
Rouault's graphic achievement. In 
1940. the Museum of Modern Art's 
circulating Rouault print exhibition 
contained 115 works. The large 
Rouault Retrospective of 1953, 
organized by the Cleveland Museum 



and the Museum of Modern Art, 
which came to Los Angeles, included 
a total of 87 prints. The present col- 
lection, whose comprehensiveness is 
increased by the generous contribu- 
tions of Mr. and Mrs. Fred Grun- 
wald, the Brooklyn Museum, and 
the Museum of Modern Art, con- 
tains 200 prints, enabling the spec- 
tator to see full sets of Rouault's 
most important series. The picture 
and sequence of Rouault's graphic 
work for over almost a quarter of a 
century becomes fully documented 
before our eyes. 

Our debt to Mr. and Mrs. Ullman 
for allowing us this opportunity is 
great; we are also beholden to 
Mr. and Mrs. Fred Grunwald, Los 
Angeles; Miss Lna E. Johnson of 
the Brooklyn Museum ; and Wil- 
liam S. Lieberman of the Museum 
of Modern Art. 

As is known, a catalogue of the 
prints of Rouault does not exist, and 
certain questions, not necessarily of 
great magnitude, regarding them 
cannot always be answered because 
of it. Clarification of minor points, 
such as titles and chronology, states, 
variations, relation to antecedent 
works in other media, etc., must 
await the appearance of a definite 
catalogue raisonne which we hope 
will not be long forthcoming. The 
present attempt, then, to deal with 



Rouault's prints should be viewed 
against the absence of full compre- 
hensiveness in this particular area 
of the study of this great artist. 

EF 




82. SELF-PORTRAIT WITH CAP. 13 x 10. In the early years in which she knew Rouault, and saw him at the 
home of Leon Bloy, Rai'ssa Maritian describes his face as long and pale like some of the Pierrots in his 
paintings. Rouault is known to have identified himself with the tragic figure of the clown, a psychological 
transfer already made in their own cases by Baudelaire and Daumier. 



Georges Rouault, the only French 
tragic artist since the Middle Ages, 
was born in Paris in 1871, a short 
time after the termination of the 
Franco-Prussian War. He died in 
1958, at the age of eighty-six. In 
the course of this long life Rouault 
came to assume the position of the 
third giant of modern art. To the 
great formal innovating movements 
of Picasso and Matisse, Rouault 
upheld the equally great tradition 
of religious subject matter. He thus 
in a way completed the triumvirate 
which embodies the history of 20th 
century art, the break with, and 
continuance of, the past. 

As the present exhibition is 
devoted wholly to Rouault's prints, 
we shall limit ourselves generally 
to this side of his creative endeavor. 

Printmaking came as a rather 
late activity in Rouault's life. He 
was forty-five in 1916, the period 
in which he undertook to etch the 
plates of Miserere, and at a point 
which marked the end of an impor- 
tant phase of his work. After his 
early paintings of the '90s, devoted 
to traditional rendering of religious 
themes, Rouault, on the brink of the 
20th century, entered into the new 
developing modern art movement. 
However from the first he belonged 
to no aesthetic group, but in what 
we call an expressionistic technique 
portrayed figures and themes from 



the lower depths of society in a 
fierce revelation of his horror at its 
evils. Degradation of women, cor- 
ruption of law, bourgeois pusilla- 
nimity, injustice, oppression, 
formed the wellspring of his art. In 
Rouault the moral conscience of a 
world laid low by poverty and social 
ills, the world met in the novels of 
Zola, took form and expression. In 
Jacques Maritain's picturesque 
phrase, Rouault can be said to have 
portrayed "the Wound of Sin!' 

Rouault must be viewed not only 
as a religious artist but as one 
forged in the rigorous, absolutist 
Jansenist beliefs of such inspired 
early 20th century French Catholic 
writers as Leon Bloy. This influence 
of modern French literary Catholi- 
cism was one which Rouault did 
not share with his artist contempo- 
raries. "Not happy like Matisse" in 
the words of Monroe Wheeler, "not 
arbitrary or arrogant like Picasso'' 
the deeply religious Rouault sought 
for the resolvement of the problems 
of life in the Catholic doctrine. That 
he was able, despite this influence 
and the opposition of Leon Bloy to 
modern art, to develop into his own 
social realism and expressionism, 
makes clear the vehement force and 
impetus of his inner artistic and 
spiritual convictions. For the artistic 
hopes of evangelical thinkers like 
Bloy called for a type of "Pre- 



Raphaelite" art which was the 
antithesis of Rouault's direction. 
Sober and tragic as are many of 
Rouault's images, often mournful 
and haunted by bitter reflection, his 
art remains always permeated with 
romanticism, and its powerful color 
and emotional intensity inspire 
reactions which are perhaps more 
aesthetic than ascetic. As a truly 
great religious artist, his impact 
transcends particularity of creed 
just as it may be said that the artist 
in him transcended the "monk!' 

Rouault's undertaking of print- 
making and book illustration came 
about as a result of his relationship 
with the celebrated dealer and pub- 
lisher, Ambroise Vollard (1867- 
1939), who acquired the rights to 
all of his artistic production at a 
time when Rouault's fortunes were 
low. One of the great supporters of 
modern art, Vollard was a dedicated 
print lover whose overriding ambi- 
tion was to become a publisher of 
great illustrated books. He pub- 
lished first in this line Bonnard's 
lithographic illustrations to Verlaine 
and Longus, having already issued 
a portfolio of that artist's litho- 
graphs of Parisian life. His desire 
to have painters express themselves 
as engravers, in the age old tradi- 
tion of Europe, led him to commis- 
sion albums of prints by most of the 
renowned names of contemporary 



French art. Picasso's etchings on his 
commission, for example, have 
come to be known as much as 
"Vollard Prints" as by their 
original titles. For the greater part, 
Vollard selected as texts for illustra- 
tion the classics (Homer, Hesiod, 
Petronius, Longus) ; the Bible; 
fables (La Fontaine) ; French 
poetry and literature (Ronsard, 
Villon, Mirabeau, Baudelaire, Ver- 
laine, Flaubert, Balzac, Mallarme) ; 
Russian literature (Gogol) ; Eng- 
lish literature and poetry (Thomas 
a Kempis, Francis Thompson) ; and 
his own writings. 

Miserere et Guerre was originally 
conceived by Vollard to be accom- 
panied by a text by Andre Suares, 
but this was never forthcoming, and 
Rouault engraved the set of plates 
for the volume of Miserere only, 
without text except for his own 
foreword and brief legends. As the 
most monumental suite of prints in 
contemporary times, they have, 
since their publication in 1948, over 
twenty years since first being 
printed, assumed a classic place 
in graphic art. The complete and 
wholly accurate knowledge of the 
procedure which Rouault used to 
execute these prints may never be 
fully known, but they represent one 
of the most complicated junctions of 
processes in the history of the etch- 
ing art. In a revealing letter to Vol- 
lard in 1918, while working on the 
etchings for the Reincarnations of 
Pere Ubu, Rouault wrote, "J'attaque 
directement le metal ..." reminding 
us that Renoir, too, "always 
'attacked' his canvas without the 
slightest appearance of preparation!' 
(Vollard). 

However, in directly cutting into 
the metal, Rouault was guided by 
an image of his original design 



which had been photoengraved on 
the plate at the behest of Vollard 
who wished to facilitate the work 
of a painter who was just beginning 
to etch. But Rouault protested, 
"...quel damne travail me donner- 
ent ces malencontreuses planches... 
et j'ai ete oblige de tout reprendre 
de bout en bout!' ("...that infernal 
work presented me with these 
unfortunate plates. ..and I was 
obliged to redo everything from the 
beginning!') In short, Rouault com- 
pletely reworked these mechanically 
produced images, using all the 
resources and tools of the intaglio 
process which he employed in 
wholly unorthodox and personal 
methods. In his complicated labor 
he invoked the name of Rembrandt 
who had been able to create his 
greatest masterpieces with only an 
etching needle or the drypoint. It 
has been judged, however, that the 
deposit of heliogravure on the plates 
enabled Rouault to incorporate the 
reproduced plasticity of his original 
designs to the enrichment of his 
engraving. 

The fifty-eight plates of Miserere, 
with their burden of mournfulness. 
and the artist's refrain of melan- 
choly comments upon the recurring 
and resembling themes and images, 
revolve around the pathos and 
suffering of the human condition 
engendered by war, the defects of 
human nature, the problems of 
moral and material evil. There are 
also several landscapes of surpass- 
ing poetic and dramatic beauty. 
The majority of the figures or heads 
are shown in profile, many in the 
bowed posture characteristic of the 
artist who, following the Catholic 
creed of man's fall and inherent 
evil, presaged hope for him only 
within the framework of his redemp- 



tion by Christ, his constant image. 

On plates, 21 x 18 inches in size, 
Rouault combined a variety of 
methods, including etching, aqua- 
tint, drypoint, the roulette, plus 
direct application of acid by brush. 
The predominance of black and the 
general tonality, with absence of 
line, suggest a parallel in effect to 
mezzotint or drypoint except for 
more varied areas of depth. The 
impression created is that the high- 
lights have come out of a black 
ground. From a distance the effect 
of the works is of black ink or 
water color drawings; at closer 
range becomes visible the juxta- 
position, in differing gradations 
and layers, of charcoal grey and 
velvet blacks with porous aquatint 
nets of varying density ; these two 
techniques dominate against a 
background of bewilderingly varie- 
gated texture and structure. The 
bold, enveloping strokes, sharp, 
violent, rhythmic, and the richness 
of surface with its palpable flow 
and pattern of the acid bite, made 
prints as had never been seen 
before. The captions, largely quota- 
tions and tag-ends, ranging from 
Rouault's own writings, the classics, 
and the Bible, to popular proverbs, 
form a compelling litany for the 
dark music of his somber thoughts 
and visionary outlook. Miserere has 
been called "our own Disasters of 
War." 

In 1928, Rouault completed the 
etchings, also started ten years 
earlier, to illustrate Vollard's own 
volume. Reincarnations du Pere 
Ubu. Derived from a musical farce 
by the poet, Alfred Jarry, Vollard's 
Pere Ubu comprises a scathing 
comedy satire, with amazing impli- 
cations today, on French colonial- 
ism. To this is adjoined an equally 



biting satire on the Soviet Union in 
the form of an interview by Pere 
Ubu with Lenin, and a visit to Mos- 
cow. Rouault's illustrations for Pere 
Ubu consist of twenty-two etchings, 
and one hundred and four wood- 
engravings in the text, including 
head and tail-pieces, cut upon the 
block after Rouault's drawings by 
the master wood-engraver, Georges 
Aubert, whose arduous work here, 
and particularly in the later Passion, 
was made possible by the construc- 
tion for him by Vollard of a special 
press operated electrically as well as 
by hand. 

The Pere Ubu etchings were 
executed in the same preliminary 
way as Miserere, with combined 
intaglio techniques over a photo- 
mechanical base. They differ, how- 
ever, in exhibiting considerable 
linework, which is rarely seen in 
Rouault who as a printmaker always 
maintained a purely painterly 
approach in his effort to attain 
values by tone rather than pre- 
dominantly by line. In smaller for- 
mat than Miserere, the profound 
satire of the work is reflected in the 
animalistic qualities of many of the 
vivid images. Equally remarkable 
are the strikingly designed and cut 
wood-engravings integrated with 
the text, and so expressive of the 
strong and humorous characteriza- 
tions intended by author and artist. 

Although he had already executed 
a color lithograph in 1910, Rouault 
began the serious practice of lithog- 
raphy sometime in 1924. Again self- 
taught, he pursued this medium 
with the same unorthodoxy evinced 
in his etchings. His lithographs 
were made, respectively, for the 
publisher, E. Frapier, with whom 
they became so identified as to be 
called Frapier prints; for the 



Galerie Quatre Chemins which 
issued his color Self-Portrait, and 
the set of Petite Banlieue; for Edi- 
tions Porteret, which published the 
rare illustrations for his own poems. 
Pay sages Legendaires ; and for Vol- 
lard. Not all of Rouault's litho- 
graphs can be said to be equal in 
quality of execution and printing. 
They range from his superb self- 
portraits, and those of Baudelaire 
and Verlaine, for example, to less 
realized and careless stones from 
among the Frapier prints of circus 
people, where often greater selec- 
tivity would have resulted in smaller 
sets of more consistent standard. At 
best, and especially when printed 
upon smooth Japan, or Arches 
paper, the impressions yield admi- 
rable tones and textures. As yet, the 
complete number of Frapier litho- 
graphs by Rouault is unknown. 

Petite Banlieue, consisting of six 
lithographs, appeared in 1929. It 
is a spectral set of scenes of exist- 
ence in les faubourgs, the French 
workingmen's suburbs with their 
forlorn atmosphere of poverty and 
abandonment, places which remind 
one of "the city of dreadful night!' 
Rouault distilled here the very 
arrestation of life amid the deserted 
streets of hopelessness, loneliness, 
and death, at the same time evok- 
ing a hushed, mystical note. Petite 
Banlieue is among the very finest 
of his lithographs. Two sets were 
colored by him with pastel, an addi- 
tion which reduced the impact of 
the black and white. In his Paysages 
Legendaires of the same year, not 
shown in the exhibition, he tried 
to vary his somber themes, but 
remained enthralled, as he says in 
a poem, by the "fairy Melancholy," 
with the result that the same stark 
mood pervades the work. 



There is no question but that 
Rouault was one of the greatest 
colorists, and technicians with pig- 
ment, among 20th century artists, 
and it was only natural that he 
should have turned to color prints. 
Although a few color monotypes 
and the one color lithograph already 
were done in 1910, the rest of his 
color plates belong to the later phase 
of his printmaking career, from the 
decade of the 'thirties, and the 
majority were made as book illus- 
trations, among them two series 
based on circus life. 

The figure of the clown is prob- 
ably more identified with Rouault 
than with any other artist in his- 
tory. No artist before had found 
such constant inspiration in the 
visage and world of the circus per- 
former. The appeal and meaning to 
him of this figure whom he rendered 
nearly always as melancholy, was 
complex. But as Monroe Wheeler 
has written, "...his [Rouault's] 
various types overlap . . . the clown 
weeps and the Salvator Mundi 
appears lowly as any beggar!' 
James Thrall Soby pointed out that 
Rouault "...admired clowns for 
their itinerant detachment from 
worldly affairs, their status as 
melancholy witnesses of bourgoeis 
corruption, their intense privacy 
and specialization of professional 
life!' For a half century, Clown and 
Pierrot embodied Rouault's disillu- 
sionment and protest, his moral in- 
dignation, and childlike adoration. 

Carl Schniewind indicated in 
1945 the difficulty of completely 
analyzing the technical processes of 
Rouault's color plates because layers 
of printed color masked out a good 
deal of the actual surfaces. The dif- 
ference between Rouault's two cir- 
cus sets, in color and technique, is 



marked. The eight etchings for the 
unpublished book by Andre Saures, 
Le Cirque, are undoubtedly the 
earlier since several plates are dated 
1930 as compared to the dates 1934 
and 1935 incised on those of Le 
Cirque de I'Etoile Filante. The dif- 
fused, though gradated, overlay of 
aquatint in Le Cirque gives it an 
overall smoky tinting as compared 
to its restricted use for outlines and 
accents in Le Cirque de VEloile 
Filante, where the hues are left 
uncovered, and a greater range of 
bright juxtaposed colors create 
depth and brilliance. Le Cirque is 
loose and brushlike in technique; 
Le Cirque de FEtoile Filante firmly, 
clearly articulated. Lift-ground 
aquatint, whose principle is the use 
of a ground which lifts from the 
plate along the drawn lines when it 
is immersed in acid, was employed 
as a fundamental process in these 
so-called mixed color etchings. A 
great part was played by the master 
printer, Roger Lacouriere who, in 
overcoming the difficulties in han- 
dling two or more colors on one 
plate (although several color plates 
were used for a print), was respon- 
sible in no small way for the bril- 
liant effects, although at times at 
the price of dryness and lack of 
spontaneity. 

The great publication. Passion, 
probably represents the climax of 
Rouault's career as printmaker. 
With this sympathetic subject by 
Andre Saures, the artist was able 
again to give vent to those motion- 
less iconic images which are so 
characteristically his. Executed in 
1935-36, Passion with its seventeen 
etchings and eighty-two wood- 
engravings almost parallels the 
Reincarnations of Pere Ubu in 
extent of illustrations, and affords 



a polar contrast to the worldly con- 
tent of the latter. The etchings of 
Passion are even richer and more 
varied coloristically than those of 
Le Cirque de FEtoile Filante; they 
exhibit a range of pinks not seen 
before, their blacks are heavier and 
opaque as compared to other porous 
aquatint blacks, and their deep 
overlays of color are astoundingly 
conceived and printed. In some 
cases, the outlines and accents are 
so broken as to suggest a woven 
tapestry effect, while the flashing 
contrast of color zones and massive 
blacks make them among the great- 
est color prints of Rouault. The 
wood-engravings, again impeccably 
cut by Georges Aubert. exceed in 
clarity and brilliance those of Pere 
Ubu with their more satiric, expres- 
sionistic character. It is small 
wonder that Vollard knew this book 
to be unique. 

It may seem curious that Rouault, 
the so-called "monk" of art, imbued 
with "...a purity ... which could 
become cruel..!', should have been 
attracted to the illustration of Baud- 
elaire's Les Fleurs du Mai which, 
when they were originally published 
in 1857, were immediately banned 
by the police of Paris. The project 
was commissioned by Vollard who 
had already issued two editions of 
the poems with illustrations by 
Emile Bernard. Rouault prepared a 
considerable number of preparatory 
drawings, having planned a suite 
of at least thirty prints. However, 
by 1926-27, he had executed only 
fourteen plates, plus a few litho- 
graphs. Ten years later Roger 
Lacouriere printed twelve mixed 
color aquatints for this same title, 
the set signed with Rouault's mono- 
gram, and dated variously 1936-38. 

The twenty-six black ink and 



Chinese white drawings by Rouault 
for Les Fleurs du Mai, previously in 
the collection of Vollard's brother, 
Lucien, which appeared on the art 
market (Hammer Galleries) in New 
York, this year, bore titles of the 
poems. The prints of the present 
suite were, like some of his sets, 
apparently untitled by Rouault, and 
they do not, with few exceptions, 
seem to bear much resemblance to 
the original sketches mentioned 
above. The head of Christ in pro- 
file (no. 133) is a reverse study of 
the same subject in Passion. Our 
catalogue no. 138 is apparently 
based on the drawing, Remords 
Posthume (Hammer no. 9), which 
is in turn drawn from the poem of 
the same name. Catalogue no. 135 
stems from the drawing, Le Portrait 
(Hammer no. 19), which is part 
IV of Baudelaire's beautiful Un 
Fantvme, and begins, "La Maladie 
et la Mort font des cendres/De 
tout le feu qui pour nous fiamboya!' 
Catalogue no. 141 may derive from 
the drawing, Le Possede (Hammer 
no. 26), but appears to be a charac- 
teristic head of Christ, similar again 
to the wood-engraving in Passion, 
except for the lowered eyes. Baud- 
elaire's poem of that name is an 
expression of his obsession for his 
mulatto mistress, Jeanne Duval. 
Rouault's interpretation in this 
series of the Fleurs du Mai was 
more generalized than in the earlier 
one, without specific reference to 
the poet's themes or subjects. He 
confessed, in his Souvenirs Intimes, 
that he had hesitated before enter- 
ing the world of Baudelaire with its 
thought so opposed to his. His 
earlier Fleurs du Mai plates have 
been lauded as the promise of "a 
masterpiece of macabre art'' and 
the fact remains that Rouault's work 



through the 'twenties was much 
closer to Baudelaire's own spirit 
maladif than his so-called "serene" 
paintings from the 'thirties onward. 

Rouault was drawn to another 
poet maudit, Paul Verlaine. of whom 
he made a famous lithograph which 
exists in several states, and whose 
head he apparently used for one of 
his studies for the lithograph, 5. 
John the Baptist. The earlier por- 
trait of Verlaine is dated 1926, the 
later one 1933. In this year Rouault 
also executed a few large prints on 
order of VoUard. Among them, based 
on a painting, Les Baigneuses, 1932 
(Mr. and Mrs. Alex L. Hillman 
collection) was Autumn, whose full 
title apparently should be, .iutumn : 
Women Bathing. Rouault made a 
lithograph and. a few years later, 
a color etching of the subject. The 
portrait of Hindenburg dates from 
this period as does the final study 
of the head of S. John the Baptist, 
the earlier trial proof itself going 
back to 1927. The color etching. 
The Bay of Departed Souls, is in 
the plate signed and dated 1939. 

As has been seen, the greater part 
of Rouault's graphic work was 
undertaken as book illustration, that 
is, as prints illustrating a text. even, 
originallv. those of the greatest 
size. Miserere. In Souvenirs Intimes. 
1927. Rouault illustrated his own 
text with portrait lithographs of 
artists and writers to ^vhom he paid 
tribute. His Garnets de Gilbert, 
1931. illustrating the text by Marcel 
Arland. the romantic journal of a 
young man, consist of a lithograph 
frontispiece, and eight color prints 
whose technique has been disputed. 
Called facsimiles of gouaches, in 
the Museum of Modern Art's cata- 
logue (1945), they were recently 
reinstated as original mixed etch- 



ings in Harvard College's The 
Artist and the Book: 1860-1960, 
on the basis of the colophon of the 
book. They are there, however, not 
called eaux-fortes, but gravures en 
taille-douce, and they appear to be 
the result of very complicated and 
mixed printing. 

As book illustrator, Rouault 
comes immediately after Picasso in 
productivity. His graphic work does 
not manifest the many phases of 
the latter, however. .4fter his 
powerful, expressionistic period 
from about 1904-17, which well 
may be his most eloquent. Rouault's 
art came gradually to assume a dif- 
ferent character. The forcefully 
emotional, passionate execution of 
his early works, the style incom- 
prehensibly called "dark!' or "ugly'" 
was absorbed into one which might 
be called "neo-Byzantine" and "neo- 
Romanesque" with preponderance 
of iconic type figures rendered in 
a heavy, rich and glowing impasto. 
and use of massive black enclosing 
and articulating strokes and accents, 
so often likened, with justice, to the 
leading of stained glass. And as his 
earlier protest was placated by 
purely poetic renderings of spiritual 
themes, we have the Rouault of the 
last, abstract and transcendental 
period. 

Rouault's printmaking coincided 
with the inception of this second 
stvle. and hence we are deprived 
of prints which might have reflected 
his earlier expressionistic tendencies 
rather than the more contemplative 
ones of his middle period. In the 
first decade of his absorption with 
prints he appears to have done little 
painting, and it has been said that 
his graphic activitv influenced his 
painting when he resumed it. for 
example, in a reflection of the cur- 



sive rhythms of Miserere, the color 
harmonies and pictorial forms of 
the color etchings, and "a new tech- 
nical fluencv"' Reciprocally, it can 
be said that no graphic artist was 
more painterly in his approach than 
Rouault. The Miserere emerge, in 
effect, as complete monochromatic 
"paintings" as well as carefully 
incised and bitten etchings. The 
artist transcended all limitations of 
size, and all the detail of traditional 
printmaking in this epic set whose 
visual power and impact are as 
complete and compelling across a 
room as its surface values at closer 
range. Thus, prints and paintings 
are intimatelv tied together, in 
Rouault's case, in stvle. subject and 
phase. Unlike Picasso who illus- 
trated books in his classical style 
while painting in diverse manners, 
unity of expression underlies Rou- 
ault's dual labor in oil and on the 
copper plate. 

Rouault's subject matter was 
explored relativelv earlv in his 
career. After \^orld ^ar I he aban- 
doned his largely expressionistic 
means and realistic themes in favor 
of an intensely vibrant, impression- 
istic palette, and subjects, whether 
religious or otherwise, imbued with 
the spirit of "moral pathos"' This 
change in the direction of spiritual 
humility and peace was counter- 
posed, as it were, by the striking 
unorthodoxy and discovery of his 
graphic means, not found in Picasso 
and Matisse. Unlike them, he gave 
himself over to a great extent to 
color in prints, and to its most com- 
plicated application, in that of etch- 
ing and aquatint. By his freedom 
and imagination, his spirit and 
\"ision. in the processes of intaglio, 
there would seem to be no question 
but that Rouault pioneered in the 



liberation of traditional print tech- 
niques which led directly to the 
"new ways of gravure!' and ensuing 
renascence which has and will con- 
tinue to enrich modern and con- 
temporary graphic art. 

Ebria Feinblatt 




' Detail from 101. NEGRO WITH UPRAISED ARMS. 12 x 6. Said 
to have been his first, or trial, plate of the series. 




QUI NESE GRIME PAS? 
himself a face?) 



Who does not paint 




11. DEMAIN SERA BEAU, DISAIT LE NAU- 
FRAG£ (Tomorrow will be fine, said the ship- 
wrecked man) 




12. LE DUR METIER DE VIVRE , 

live...) 



. ( It is hard to 




19. SON AVOCAT. E\ PHRASES CREUSES, 
CLAME SA TOTALE INCONSCIENCE . . . (His 
lawyer, in hollow phrases, proclaims his entire 
unawareness . . . ) 




29. CHANTEZ MATINES, LE JOUR RENAlT 

(Sing Matins, a new day is born) 





33. "ET V£RONIQUE AU TENDRE LIN PASSE 
ENCORE SUR LE CHEMIN . . ." (And Veron- 
ica with her delicate linen still goes her way . . .) 



38. CHINOIS INVENTA, DIT-ON, LA POUDRE A 
CANON, NOUS EN FIT DON (Chinese invented 
gunpowder, they say, and made us a gift of it) 




44. MOX DOUX PAYS. OU £TES-VOUS? i_My 
sweet homeland, what has become of vou?) 




49. "PLUS LE COEUR EST \OBLE. MOI\S LE 
COL EST ROIDE" ("The nobler the heart, the 
less stifF the collar") 




55. L'AVEUGLE PARFOIS A CONSOLfi LE VOY- 

ANT (Sometimes the blind have comforted those 
who see) 




64. WE SHALL BE GOOD (also called Ideal). 
state, 193^x 13 



4th 




65. ACROBAT (also called Eire Dempsey). Trial 
proof, 2nd state, 20 x 13. Despite its titles, the 
print does not necessarily represent a circus 
performer, and may have another meaning. 




67. THE WRESTLERS (also called Parade). Trial 
proof, 2nd state, 193^ x 1234 




77. THE ANIMAL TRAIXER. 
state; on Arches, 193^^x13 



Trial proof. 1st 




80. CHRIST ON THE CROSS, 1925. 2nd state, 193^ x I234. The print, according to M. Dormoy, is from the 

album, Peintres et Graveurs, ed. Frapier, and she calls it Rouault's first lithograph. For a later variant, see 
No. 122. The subject of the dead Christ on the cross was of course one of the artist's most abiding images, and 
is seen for the first time in his painting of 1918, the Crucifixion, in the Mcllhenny collection, Philadelphia. 




81. BAUDELAIRE, 1927. 2nd state, 193/^ x 12%. With remarque. In the second edition of Souvenirs Intimes, 
Rouault added this portrait of the poet, but the present print is from a separate issuance. In 1947, Rouault 
wrote: "Baudelaire received . . . two thousand francs for the translation of the five volumes of Edgar Allan Poe. 
Once his former debts had been paid off. there remained to him of the sum, one golden louis. Yet what must 
the five volumes . . . have brought to the editor? Knowing this, one can explain better Baudelaire's magnificent 
and tragic mask, his mouth which looks like a swordcut, and his wild look ..." 




119. SELF-PORTRAIT. 1929. Lithograph in color, 135/g x 9%. Signed and numbered. Published by Editions 
Quatre Chemins. Of Rouault's three self-portraits in lithograph (two with cap), the present one is the most 
celebrated. Lent by the Brooklyn Museum. 




NOTE: 

Dimensions for intaglio prints given in inches to plate- 
mark; those for lithographs include the full page. 
Unless otherwise noted, all prints are from the collec- 
tion of Harold P. and Jane F. Ullman. 

1.-58. MISERERE, 1916-1927. Fifty-eight prints, 
predominantly etching and aquatint. Plate size, 
21 X 18. Published in 1948 in an edition of four 
hundred and fifty. Early trial proofs were issued 
in an unpublished portfolio by Vollard. The 
present titles are the final ones decided upon by 
Rouault from earlier variations. The translations 
are from M. Wheeler, Miserere, Museum of Mod- 
ern Art, 1952. 

1. MISERERE MEI, DELS, SECUNDUM MAG- 
NAM MISERICORD! AM TUAM ("Have mercy 
upon me, God, according to Thy loving kind- 
ness!' Psalms 51 :1 ) 

2. J£SUS HONNI . . . (Jesus reviled . . . ) 

3. TOUJOURS FLAGELLE...( Eternally scourged 

4. SE RfiFUGIE EN TON COEUR, X'^^-NU-PIEDS 
DE MALHEUR (Take refuge in your heart, mis- 
erable vagabond ) 

5. SOLITAIRE, EN CETTE VIE DTMBUCHES 
ET DE MALICES (Lonely sojourner in this life 
of pitfalls and malice) 

6. NE SOMMES-NOUS PAS FORCATS? (Are we 
not all convicts ? ) 

7. NOUS CROYANT ROIS {We think ourselves 
kings ) 

* 8. QUI NE SE GRIME PAS? (Who does not paint 
himself a face?) 



* ILLUSTRATED 

9. IL ARRIVE PARFOIX QUE LA ROUTE SOIT 
BELLE . . . (Sometimes the way is beautiful . . .) 

10. AU VIEUX FAUBOURG DES LONGUES 
PEINES (In the old suburb of Long-Suffering) 

*11. DEMAIN SERA BEAU, DISAIT LE NAU- 
FRAG£ (Tomorrow will be fine, said the ship- 
wrecked man) 

* 12. LE DUR METIER DE VIVRE . . . ( It is hard to 
live . . . ) 

13. IL SERAIT SI DOUX D'AIMER (It would be 
sweet to love ) 

14. FILLE DITE DE JOIE (Daughter of joy. so- 
called ) 

15. EN BOUCHE QUI FUT FRAICHE. GOUT DE 
FIEL (Mouth that was fresh, bitter as gall) 

16. DAME DU HAUT-QUARTIER CROIT PREN- 
DRE POUR LE CIEL PLACE RESERVEE ( The 
Society Lady fancies she has a reserved seat in 
heaven ) 

17. FEMME AFFRANCHIE, A QUATORZE 
HEURES. CHANTE A MIDI (Emancipated 
woman, who has lost her way) 

18. LE CONDAMNE S'EN EST ALLE ... (The con- 
demned is led away . . . ) A later variant of this 
plate, signed and dated 1930 is also shown. 

^- 19. SON AVOCAT. EN PHRASES CREUSES. 
CLAME SA TOT\LE INCONSCIENCE . . . ( His 
law^-er, in hollow phrases, proclaims his entire 
unawareness . . . ) 

20. SOUS UN JESUS EN CROIX OUBLIE LA 
(Beneath a forgotten crucifix) 



21. "IL A £T£ MALTRAITfi ET OPPRIME ET IL 
N'A PAS OUVERT LA BOUCHE" ("He was 
oppressed, and he was afflicted, yet he opened not 
his mouth!' Isaiah 53 :27 t 

22. E\ TAXT D^ORDERES DIVERS. LE BEAU 
METIER D'EXSEMENCER UNE TERRE 
HOSTILE ( In so many different ways, the noble 
vocation of sowing in hostile land) 

23. RUE DES SOLITAIRES (Street of the Lonely) 

24. "HIVER LfiPRE DE LA TERRE" ("Winter, 
leper of the earth" ) 

25. JEAN-FRANCOIS JAMAIS NE CHANTE AL- 
LELUIA .. . ( Jean-Frangois never sings alle- 
luia . . .) 

26. AU PAYS DE LA SOIF ET LA PEUR ( In the 

land of thirst and terror) 

27. SUNT LACRYMAE RERUM. . . ("In all things, 
tears". . .Virgil. Aeneid I) 

28. "CELUI QUI CROIT E.\ MOI, FUT-IL MORT. 
VIVRA" ("He that believeth in me, though he 
were dead, yet shall he live". . . John 11 :25) 

29. CHANTEZ MATIXES, LE JOUR RENAfT 
(Sing Matins, a new day is born) 

30. "NOUS . . . C'EST EN SA MORT QUE NOUS 
AVONS ET£S BAPTISES" ("Know ye not. that 
so many of us as were baptized into Jesus Christ 
were baptized into his death?" Romans 6:3) 

31. "AIMEZ-VOUS LES UNS LES AUTRES" 
("That ye love one another". . . John 13:34) 

32. SEIGNEUR. C'EST VOUS. JE VOUS RECON- 
NAIS (Lord it is Thou. I know Thee) 

33. "ET VERONIQUE AU TENDRE LIN RASSE 
ENCORE SUR LE CHEMIN . . ." (And Veron- 
ica with her delicate linen still goes her way . . . ) 

34. "LES RUINES ELLES-MEMES ONT PERI" 
("They have ruined even the ruins" Lucian: 
Phmcale IX. 969) 

35. "JESUS SERA EN AGONIE JUSQU'A LA FIN 
DE MONDE . . ." ("Jesus wiU be in anguish un- 
til the end of the world . . ." Pascal: Pensees) 

36. CE SERA LA DERNIERE, PETIT PERE! (This 
will be the last time, little father ! ) 



37. HOMO HOMINI LUPUS ("Man is wolf to man" 
Plautus: Asinaria II, 4, 88) 

* 38. CHINOIS INVENT.\. DIT-ON. LA POUDRE A 

CANON, NOUS EN FIT DON ( Chinese invented 
gunpowder, they say. and made us a gift of it) 

39. NOUS SOMMES FOUS (We are insane) 

40. FACE A FACE (Face to face) 

41. AUGURES (Portents) 

42. BELLA MATRIBUS DETESTATA ("War, 
which all mothers hate]' Horace: Odes I. 1. 24- 
25) 

43. "NOUS DEVONS MOURIR. NOUS ET TOUS 
CE QUI EST NOTRE" (""^e must die, we and 
all we possess." Horace: Ars Poetica, 63) 

* 44. MON DOUX PAYS, OU ETES-VOUS? (My 

sweet homeland, what has become of you ? ) 

45. LA MORT L'A PRIS COMME IL SORT\IT DU 
LIT D'ORTIES (Death took him as he arose 
from his bed of nettles ) 

46. "LE JUSTE. COMME LE BOIS DE SANT:\L. 
PARFUME LA HACHE QUI LE FRAPPE" 
( "The righteous, like sandalwood, perfume the 
axe that falls on them") 

47. "DE PROFUNDIS..." ("Out of the depths 
[have I cried unto thee, Lord]" Psalms 129:1 ) 

48. AU PRESSOIR. LE RAISIN FIT FOULE ( In 

the press, the grapes were trodden ) 

* 49. "PLUS LE COEUR EST NOBLE. MOINS LE 

COL EST ROIDE" ("The nobler the heart, the 
less stiff the coUar") 

50. "DES ONGLES ET DU BEC i "With tooth and 
nail!' Guillaume de Salluste: 1st week, 2nd day I 

51. LOIN DU SOURIRE DE REIMS (Far from the 
smile [of the angel] of Rheims) 

52. DURA LEX SED LEX ( The law is hard, but it 
is the law) 

53. VIERGE AUX SEPT GLAIVES ( Virgin of the 

seven swords) 

54. "DEBOUT LES MORTS!" ("Arise, ye dead!") 

* 55. L'AVEUGLE PARFOIS A CONSOLE LE VOY- 

ANT (Sometimes the blind have comforted those 
who see) 



56. 



57. 



58. 



59. 



59. 
59. 

60. 

61. 

62. 

63. 

^- 64. 

65. 
* 65. 



66. 



EN CE TEMPS XOIRS DE JACTAXCE ET 
D'lXCROYAXCE. XOTRE-DAME DE LA FIX 
DES TERRES VIGILAXTES (In these dark 
times of vainglory and unbelief. Our Lady of 
Land's End keeps vigil ) 

'■OBEISSAXT JUSQU'A LA MORT ET A LA 
MORT DE LA CROIX" ("Obedient unto death, 
even the death of the cross," Philippwns 2:8) 

"C'EST PAR SES MEURTRISSURES QUE 
NOUS SOMMES GU£RIS" ("And with his 
stripes we are healed" Isaiah 53 :5) 

■ 78. THE FRAPIER PRIXTS, c.1924-27. The 
lithographs issued by E. Frapier were apparently 
all signed by Rouault ; they also bear stamps indi- 
cating their states. Several of them appeared 
in books published by Frapier, Les Peintres- 
Lithographes de Manet a Matisse (1925) ; 
Maitres et Petit-Maitres d'Aujourd'hui (1926) ; 
and Souvenirs Intimes (1926). Two of his main 
series of Rouault's lithographs were Demagogie 
(also called Grotesques), and Cirque Forain, but 
he also published a few individual prints of dif- 
ferent subjects. 

-64. DEMAGOGIE, 1924^26 

CITIZEN GASPARD: THE FUTURE IS OURS. 
Trial proof, 1st state; on Arches, 191/2x13 

WE WILL BE STRONG (also caUed Grotes- 
ques). Second state, 19%xl3 

TWO PROGXOSTICATORS. (Also called Con- 
fidences) Trial proof, 2nd state, 19% x 13 

M' MOCHE. Trial proof, 2nd state, 193/^^x13 

THE ASS: FULL HAXDS TO THE IXXO- 
CENT. WE SHALL BE WISE (also called The 
Charlatan). 2nd state, 19%xl3 

WE SHALL BE GOOD (also called Ideal). 4th 
state, 193/^ X 13 

-78. CIRQUE FORAIN, 1924^27 

ACROBAT {also called Etre Dempsey) . Trial 
proof, 2nd state, 20x13. Despite its titles, the 
print does not necessarily represent a circus 
performer, and may have another meaning. 

THE JUGGLER. Trial proof, 3rd state, 193^ x 
12%- A favorite image, recurring several times 



in Rouault's prints. 

<' 67. THE WRESTLERS (also caUed Parade). Trial 
proof, 2nd state, 193/j^ x 123^ 

68. ANITA (also called Belle Etelka) . Trial proof, 
1st state, 19% x 123^ 

69. THE LITTLE DANCER (also called Seated 
Equestrienne) . Trial proof, 2nd state, 19% x 
123/4 

70. THE BOXERS (also called Boniment des 
Clown). 4th state, 1934 x 123/^ 

71. FEMALE CLOWN AND ACROBATS (also 
called Female Clown). Trial proof, 3rd state, 
19%xl2% 

72. TRIO. Trial proof, 2nd state, 1934 x 123/^ 

73. PARADE. 3rd state, 193/4x1234. (From the 
series, Maitres et Petit-Maitres d'Aujourd'hui) 

74. STANDING EQUESTRIENNE. 3rd state, 
1934 X 123/^ 

75. CLOWN. 2nd state, 193^ x 123/4 

76. CARMENCITA. Trial proof, 2nd state, 1934x 

12% 

* 77. THE ANIMAL TRAINER. Trial proof, 1st 
state; on Arches, 19%xl3 

78. THE PROSTITUTE. (Also called Etelka) 2nd 
state, 193/4 X 123/4 

79.-81. SINGLE FRAPIER PRINTS 

79. THE BILBOUQUET PLAYER, 1924-27. 4th 
state; on Arches, 19'; g x 13. The significance of 
this staring, empty-faced, mechanical image has 
not been made clear unless Rouault was trying to 
satirize the puppet-like character of the game- 
player. 

» 80. CHRIST ON THE CROSS, 1925. 2nd state, 
193/4x123/4. The print, according to M. Dor- 
moy, is from the album, Peintres et Graveurs, 
ed. Frapier, and she calls it Rouault's first litho- 
graph. For a later variant, see No. 122. The 
subject of the dead Christ on the cross was of 
course one of the artist's most abiding images, 
and is seen for the first time in his painting of 
1918. the Crucifixion, in the Mcllhenny collec- 
tion, Philadelphia. 



81. BAUDELAIRE, 1927. 2nd state. 1934x12%. 
With remarque. In the second edition of Souve- 
nirs Intimes, Rouault added this portrait of the 
poet, but the present print is from a separate 
issuance. In 1947. Rouault wrote: "Baudelaire 
received . . . two thousand francs for the transla- 
tion of the five volumes of Edgar Allan Poe. 
Once his former debts had been paid off, there 
remained to him of the sum, one golden loiiis. 
Yet what must the five volumes . . . have brought 
to the editor? Knowing this, one can explain 
better Baudelaire's magnificent and tragic mask, 
his mouth which looks like a swordcut. and his 
wild look ..." 

82.-87. SOUVENIRS INTIMES. 1927 

82. SELF-PORTRAIT WITH CAP. 13 x 10. In the 

early years in which she knew Rouault. and saw 
him at the home of Leon Bloy, Raissa Maritian 
describes his fac€ as long and pale like some of 
the Pierrots in his paintings. Rouault is known 
to have identified himself with the tragic figure 
of the clown, a psychological transfer already 
made in their own cases by Baudelaire and 
Daumier. 

83. ANDR£ SUARES (1886-1948). 13x10. Pro- 
lific writer, he was the author of two texts illus- 
trated by Rouault. Z,e Cirque and Passion. A close 
friend of the artist, he was at one time one of 
the few to know where the secretive Rouault lived 
in Paris. 

84. GUSTAVE :\IOREAU WITH SMALL HAT. 

13 x 10. Moreau ( 1826-1898 ) , for several years 
director of the Ecole-des-Beaux-Arts. was the 
first great influence upon Rouault. After his mas- 
ter's death. Rouault became curator of the Gustave 
Moreau Museum, a post he held for many years. 

85. MOREAU WITH WHITE BEARD. 13 x 10. 

86. L£ON BLOY ( 1846-1917 ) . 13 x 10. Impassioned 
Catholic writer and novelist, who influenced 
Rouault spiritually but disagreed violently with 
his aesthetic. It is believed that Rouault's early 
watercolors of prostitutes derived from a focus 
set by Bloy's novels on the subject. 

87. J. K. HUYSMANS. 13x10. The celebrated 
author of .4 Rebours. who was a friend of Rouault 



in the early j-ears of the century, after his con- 
version to Catholicism. 

88.-90. LES FLEURS DU MAL. 1926-27. First 
project. The etchings for the first set of Les Fleurs 
du Mai were printed '"chez Madame Jacquemin." 
the wife of the printer of Miserere. In power, 
these heavily black outlined images, with their 
variegated surfaces, rank with the set of Mise- 
rere. They, too, were executed on photo-engraved 
plates, two examples of the unfinished work 
shown here (nos. 89-90). 

* 88. HEAD. 1926. Etching and aquatint, 14 x IOI4. 
Signed and dated in the plate. Lent by Mr. and 
Mrs. Fred Grunwald 

89. HEADS, 1926-27. Heliogravure in black. 
1411'j^g x 7lg. L nfinished plate. Unsigned. Lent 
by the ^luseum of Modern Art, gift of Patti 
Garnell Cadby 

90. CHERUB. 1926-27. Heliogravure in black. 
1434x1078. L nfinished plate. Unsigned. Lent 
by the Museum of Modern Art, gift of Patti 
Garnell Cadby 

91. 113. REINCARNATIONS DU P£RE UBU. 
1928. The twenty-two etched plates executed for 
this work by Rouault, were also issued hors texte 
on Arches. Rives, japan nacre, and holland papers. 
The present set belongs to the edition of 25 on 
japan nacre. The large volume itself was pub- 
lished in 1932. although the plates were consid- 
ered finished and so dated in 1928. after many 
vears of preparation. 

91. FRONTISPIECE. 1134x8 

92. MAN IN PITH HELMET. 12x7% 

93. MAN WITH TOP HAT. 1134x71/2 

94. MAN WITH MUSTACHE AND GLASSES, 
SMILING. 113.^x71/2 

95. MAN IN PROFILE. I01/2 x 7 

96. PEDAGOGUE. 12x7 

97. THE HIDEOUS WOMAN. m'8-x734 

* 97a.THE HIDEOUS WOMAN, 1916. Early trial 
proof, 1134x734. GR and date lightly etched 
at right (Cf. gouache and watercolor study. 
No. 200 I 



98. 

99. 

100. 

* 101. 

102. 

* 103. 

104. 
105. 

106. 

* 107. 
•>> 108. 

109. 
110. 

111. 
112. 
113. 



113. 
114. 

115. 
116. 
117. 



118 
119 



NEGRO PORTER. 81/2x12 

ADMINISTRATOR. IOV2 x 634 

FRONTISPIECE (another version of no. 91, 
darkened ) , 11% x 7% 

NEGRO WITH UPRAISED ARMS. 12 x 6. Said 
to have been his first, or trial, plate of the series. 

YOUNG GIRL. 10 x 61/2 

LANDSCAPE WITH WOMAN CARRYING A 
PITCHER ON HER HEAD (also called Land- 
scape with Road). Il%x7i4 
NEGRESS IN PROFILE. 12^/4x8 

THE PRESIDENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL 
LEAGUE FOR THE RIGHTS OF WOMEN. 

1134x7 

FLYING DRAGON. 8V2 x I214 

THE LOVERS. I214 x 83/^ 

TWO WOMEN IN PROFILE. 103^ x 71/2 

WOMAN WITH NECKLACE. 10x6i/2 

MAN WITH MUSTACHE AND GLASSES, 
SMILING. 12 X 7%. Variant of No. 94. 

SEATED FEMALE NUDE. 10 xes/^ 

FEMALE NUDE, FACING RIGHT. 111/2x8 

-118. PETITE BANLIEUE, 1929. A series of 6 
lithographs in black and white published by 
Editions Quatre Chemins, Paris. 100 sets were 
issued, two hand colored by Rouault. They were, 
as far as is known, untitled. 

STREET SCENE, Ux8% 

WORKER AND CHILD. 13x83^. Similar to 
the painting. In the Suburbs (J. Lassaigne, 
Rouault, Skira, 1951, PL I) 

WAITING. 13x83/4 

FA NIENTE. 13 x 834 

BURIAL OF HOPE. 13x83^. (Also called 
Pantin) . A gouache of the same subject, dated 
1929, is in the collection of G. David Thompson, 
Pittsburgh. 

STREET OF THE FUTURE. 13x83/^ 

-123. SINGLE PRINTS, 1929-1932. 



119. SELF-PORTRAIT, 1929. Lithograph in color, 
13% x 9%. Signed and numbered. Published by 
Editions Quatre Chemins. Of Rouault's three self- 
portraits in lithograph (two with cap), the pres- 
ent one is the most celebrated. Lent by the Brook- 
lyn Museum. 

120. THE JUGGLER, 1929. Black and white litho- 
graph, 13x93^. Publisher unknown. Signed and 
dated in reverse on the plate. 

121. THE JUGGLER, 1929. Lithograph in color, 
13%xll. The same subject as the preceding, 
but with added color. 

122. CHRIST ON THE CROSS, 1932. Black and 
white lithograph, 191/8 x I234. Signed and dated 
on the plate. Publisher unknown. Cf. No. 80. 

123. HEAD OF VERLAINE AS S. JOHN THE 
BAPTIST. Black and white Hthograph, 24x173^. 
Publisher unknown. Unsigned and undated, the 
subject was apparently a trial which was relin- 
quished. As an early lithographic sketch for 
5. John the Baptist is dated 1927 (Cat. No. 
162) and the final version 1933, this print may 
fall just before or in between these dates. 
Undescribed. 

124.-131. Le Cirque (1936-1938?). Eight mixed 
color etchings on laid paper, illustrating a text by 
Andre Suares, which has remained unpublished. 
Some confusion reigns in their dating. Johnson 
(1944) gave 1934-35 as the years for the com- 
pletion of the prints which were issued, accord- 
ing to her, in [1936]. In the Museum of Modern 
Art's exhibition (1945), the date of publication 
was given as 1938; in its Rouault Retrospective 
(1953), the date was published as 1930. The 
year which appears on the plate of several of the 
etchings is 1930. It is interesting to note that 
in 1927 Chagall had finished nineteen gouaches 
also for Suares' unpublished Le Cirque. 

124. BALLERINA. 12x8. 

' 125. PARADE. 11% x IOI/2. (Also called Clowns and 
Ballerina, Clowns and Clowness, the subject is 
essentially the same as No. 73) 

126. YELLOW CLOWN WITH DOG, 1930. 133^x10 

127. CLOWN AND CHILD, 1930. 1214x814 



128. CLOWN WITH DRUM. I214 x 814 

129. SEATED CLOWN, 1930. 123/4 x 9 

130. JUGGLER, 1930. 1214x81/2 

131. AMAZON, 1930. 113/^x9. (Also called Eques- 
trienne) 

132.-143. LES FLEURS DU MAL (Second set), 
1936-37. Twelve etchings with aquatint, printed 
by Roger Lacouriere on Rives laid paper, in an 
edition of two hundred and fifty in color, and 
fifty in black alone. The terminal date given from 
them sometimes varies from 1937 to 1939, but the 
plates themselves are dated 1936-38. 

FEMALE BUST, FRONT VIEW, 1937. 12x83^. 
(Also called Old Courtesan) 

CHRIST IN PROFILE, 1937. 121/2x81/2 

THREE PERSONS, 1938. 12x83/4 

THE PORTRAIT, 1937. 12x81/2 

MAN IN 18TH CENTURY DRESS, 1937. 
121/4x81/2 

KNEELING NUDE, 1936. 121/4x81/1 

POSTHUMOUS REMORSE, 1936. 1134x814. 
(Also called Tomb of Baudelaire) 

THE JUDGES, 1938. 1214x814. (Also called 
Face to Face) 

PROUD WOMAN, 1938. 121^x814. (Also 
called Young Courtesan) 

HEAD OF CHRIST (THE POSSESSED?), 
1938. 113/4x81/2 

LANDSCAPE, 1938. 121/2x814 

THREE CROSSES, 1938. I214 x 8% 

-162. LE CIRQUE DE L'ETOILE FILANTE, 
1938. Seventeen mixed color etchings illustrating 
Rouault's own text. The plates are dated 1934 or 
1935. In the reflective pages of this volume in 
which Rouault reveals his vivid sympathy for the 
inhabitants of the half-real, half-dreamlike world 
of the circus, are found many of the expressions 
which serve as captions for Miserere. 

144. FRONTISPIECE: PARADE, 1934. 12 x 73/4. 

145. BLACK PIERROT, 1935. 12x81/4 



132. 

133. 
134. 
135. 
136. 

* 137. 
138. 

* 139. 

* 140. 

141. 

142. 
143. 
144. 



146. AMER CITRON, n.d. 1214x81/4 

* 147. LITTLE DWARF, 1934. 12x81^ 
148. JUGGLER, 1934. 1214x814 

* 149. LITTLE EQUESTRIENNE, 193 (). 121/4x81/2 

150. MADAME LEUISON, 1935. 1214x81/2 

151. WEARY BONES. 1934. 1214x8 

* 152. MADAME CARMENCITA, 1935. I214 x 8I/2 

153. YOUNG TROOPER. 1935. 121/4x81^ 

154. MASTER ARTHUR, 1934. 12x8 

155. BITTER-SWEET, 1934. 1214x8 

156. LE RENCH£RI, 1935. 121^x814 

157. PIERROT, 1935. 12x81/2 

* 158. THE BALLERINAS, 1934. I21/4 x 8 

159. AUGUSTE, 1935. I214 x 8I/2 

160. SLEEP, MY SWEET, 1935. 1214x81/2 

161.-166. SINGLE VOLLARD PRINTS, 1926-39. 
VoUard is known to have commissioned Rouault 
to execute individual prints during the decade of 
the 'thirties. They have not all as yet been fully 
described, and that the artist already was at 
work in the 'twenties on some subjects is proved 
by the existence of proofs from that period. 

* 161. PORTRAIT OF VERLAINE, 1926. Black and 

white lithograph, 243/4 x 1814- Inscribed by the 
artist: No. 22— Esquisse Verlaine— Premier tirage 
a 30 epreuves— G. Rouault, 1926. 

162. S. JOHN THE BAPTIST, 1927. Black and white 
lithograph, 17%x24. Inscribed by the artist: 
No. 9 tire a 30 Epreuves— Esquisse du S. Jean 
Baptiste 1927— Georges Rouault. Lent by Mr. and 
Mrs. Fred Grunwald, Los Angeles. 

163. PORTRAIT OF VERLAINE, 1933. Black and 
white lithograph, 24% x 19. Inscribed by the 
artist: Verlaine —2'^ tirage 1933— Georges Rou- 
ault. According to Johnson 172 there are four 
known states. 

164. S. JOHN THE BAPTIST. 1933. Black and white 
lithograph, 22 x 28% on laid paper with water- 
mark Ambroise Vollard. Inscribed by the artist: 
S. Jean Baptiste — 1933 — 2* tirage — Georges 



168. 



169. 



Rouault. (Johnson 174) 

165. PORTRAIT OF VON HINDENBURG, 1933. 
Black and white lithograph. 25% x 173^. Signed 
GR in the plate. (Johnson 173) 

166. AUTUMN, 1933. Black and white lithograph, 
22x29. Inscribed by the artist: 2" tirage — 
Automne — a 60 ex. Georges Rouault 1933. 
According to Johnson 171. there are seven known 
states. 

167. AUTUMN (1936). Color etching and aquatint, 
20x25%. Signed: Georges Rouault in ink at 
lower right. This and the preceding lithograph 
show the artist carrying out in two different tech- 
niques a subject already executed as a painting 
(cf. p. 9). 

THE BAY OF DEPARTED SOULS, 1939. Color 
etching and aquatint, 24x171/2- Signed and 
dated in the plate. Possibly a subject taken from 
the artist's text for Le Cirque de I'Etoile Filante, 
p. 10. 

-186. PASSION, 1939. Seventeen mixed color 
etchings hors texte, and eighty-two wood engrav- 
ings illustrating the text by Andre Saures. The 
etchings date between 1935-36, the wood engrav- 
ings 1934-36, but the volume was printed in 
1939. 

169. FRONTISPIECE. 121/4x87/^ 

170. CHRIST OF THE OUTSKIRTS (pi. 1). 12x81/2 

171. ASSISTANT EXECUTIONER CARRYING 
PART OF THE CROSS (pi. 2). 12x8 

172. TWO MEN, ONE BEING LED (pi. 3). 

131/4x91/2 

173. CHRIST TAKING LEAVE OF HIS MOTHER 
(pi. 4). 121/2x81/2. (Also called Veronica.) 

174. CHRIST AND THE CHILDREN (pi. 5). 
12x81/2 

175. ECCE HOMO (pi. 6). 12%x8i4 

176. ASSISTANT EXECUTIONER CARRYING 
PART OF THE CROSS (pi. 7). 121/2x9 

177. CHRIST WITH CROWN OF THORNS (pi. 8). 

121/4x87/8 

178. CHRIST IN PROFILE, FACING LEFT (pi. 9). 



121/2 X 81/2 

179. JUDAS (pi. 10). 121/4x81/2 

180. STANDING MAN IN PROFILE, reading (pi. 
11). 121/4x81/4 

180a.STANDING MAN IN PROFILE, READING. 
Signed trial proof for the preceding print, 
123/4x81/4 

181. WOMAN IN PROFILE (pi. 12). 1214x81/2 

182. CHRIST AND PILGRIMS (pi. 13). 121^x87/8 

183. CHRIST AND THE DOCTORS (pi. 14). 
121/4 X 8I/2 

184. CHRIST AND THE DISCIPLES (pi. 15). 
12x87/8 

185. ASSISTANT EXECUTIONER CARRYING 
PART OF THE CROSS (pi. 16). 121/4x81/2 

186.- 199. Fourteen wood engravings from the text, all 
thru measuring 1134 x7%. 



DRAWING 

200. THE HIDEOUS WOMAN, 1918, Watercolor and 
gouache. 11% x 71/2- Signed at lower right, with 
the date in different ink. Study for the etching 
(No. 97/97a, Reincarnations due Pere Ubu). If 
the date 1916 is correctly read on No. 97a, the 
present work may be incorrectly dated. Los 
Angeles County Museum, Gift of George Keller. 




201. SOUVENIRS INTIMES, Paris, E. Frapier, 1927. 
One of 350 copies, with six lithographs in black; 
signed by Rouault and Frapier on the verso of 
the half-title ; page size 125/^^ x 934 

* 202. GARNETS DE GILBERT, Paris, N[ouvelle] 
R[evue] F[ran5aise], 1931. One of 180 copies 
on Arches wove paper, containing lithographed 
frontispiece in black, and eight mixed prints, 
three in black, one in sepia, and four in color; 
page size 111/4 x 71/2 

203. REINCARNATIONS DU P£RE UBU, Paris, 
Ambroise VoUard, 1932. No. XV of the 30 hors 
commerce copies numbered with Roman letters; 
on Vidalon paper, with one etching (Frontis- 
piece) on Ambroi.se VoUard. the others on Arches 
and Rives paper; page size 171/4x131/4; and 
including 104 wood-engravings cut by George 
Aubert. 

204. CIRQUE DE L'ETOILE FILANTE, Paris, 
Ambroise Vollard, 1938. One of 215 copies on 
Montval laid paper, containing eighty-two wood- 
engravings cut by Georges Aubert; page size 
1714x131/4; seventeen mixed color etchings 
hors texte. 

205. PASSION, Paris, Ambroise Vollard, 1939. One 
of 245 copies on Montval laid paper, containing 
seventeen mixed color etchings hors texte, printed 
by Roger Lacouriere; and eighty-two wood- 
engravings cut by Georges Aubert and printed 
by Henri Jourde. Of this volume Vollard 
remarked to the author, Suares, "Such books 
have never been produced before, and never will 
be again!' 




83. ANDR£ SUARfiS ( 1886-1948 ) . 13 x 10. Prolific writer, he was the author of two texts illustrated by RouaulL 
Le Cirque and Passion. A close friend of the artist, he was at one time one of the few to know where the 
secretive Rouault lived in Paris. 




HEAD, 1926. Etching and aquatint, 14x1014. 
Signed and dated in the plate. Lent by Mr. and 
Mrs. Fred Grunwald 





200. THE HIDEOUS WOMAN, 1918, Watercolor and 
gouache, 11% x 71^. Signed at lower right, with 
the date in different ink. Study for the etching 
(No. 97/97'a, Reincarnations due Pere JJbu). If 
the date 1916 is correctly read on No. 97a, the 
present work may be incorrectly dated. Los 
Angeles County Museum, Gift of George Keller. 



97a.THE HIDEOUS WOMAN, 1916. Early trial 
proof, 1134x734. GR and date lightly etched 
at right (Cf. gouache and watercolor study, 
No. 200) 




103. LANDSCAPE WITH WOMAN CARRYING A 
PITCHER ON HER HEAD (also called Land- 
scape with Road). 11%^ x 71/2 




107. THE LOVERS. 121,4x83^ 




108. TWO WOMEN IN PROFILE. 103/4x71/2 




125. PARADE. 11% X 101/2. (Also called Oom^/m an^ 

Ballerina, Cloicns and Clowness. the subject is 
essentially the same as No. 73) 




129. SEATED CLOWN, 1930. 123^x9 





137. KNEELING NUDE, 1936. I2I4 x Sy^ 



139. THE JUDGES. 1938. 1214x814. (Also called 
Face to Face ) 




140. PROUD WOMAN, 1938. 
called Young Courtesan) 



121^x814. (Also 




147. LITTLE DWARF, 1934. 12x8i^ 





149. LITTLE EQUESTRIENNE, 193(). 121/4x81/2 



158. THE BALLERINAS, 1934. 1214x8 




152. MADAME CARMENCITA, 1935. Uy^ x 81/2 




161. PORTRAIT OF VERLAINE, 1926. Black and 
white lithograph, 243^ x 181/4- Inscribed by the 
artist: No. 22— Esquisse Verlaine— Premier tirage 
a 30 epreuves— G. Rouault, 1926. 




166. AUTUMN, 1933. Black and white lithograph, 
22x29. Inscribed by the artist: 2^ tirage — 
Automne — a 60 ex. Georges Rouault 1933. 
According to Johnson 171, there are seven known 
states. 




172. 



TWO MEN, 
131/4 X 91/2 



ONE BEING LED (pi. 3). 




174. CHRIST AND THE CHILDREN 12x81/2 




182. CHRIST AND PILGRIMS I214 x 87/s 




184. CHRIST AND THE DISCIPLES 12x87/8 




186. HEAD OF CHRIST (from Passion), ^'ood- 
113, X 73^ 



engraving. ii-^^x/Aj^ 




187. S. JOHN THE BAPTIST I from Passion). Wood- 
engraving, 11% x 7% 




113. STREET SCENE. 



13x834 




202. Frontispiece page size II14 x 71/2 lithograph GARNETS DE GILBERT, Paris, N[ouvelle] R[evue] F[rancaise] 





c^ -i^^ .^^^ ?^^, 



la - 




NOTE: 

The works listed deal primarily or liberally with 

Rouault's prints. 

The Artlover Library, ed. J. B. Neuman, vol. 4, 
GEORGES ROUAULT: Munich Exposition, 1930 

Roger-Marx, Claude, L'oeuvre grave de Georges 
Rouault, BYBLIS, 1931, pp. 93-100 

Dormoy, M., "Georges RouaultJ' ARTS ET METIERS 
GRAPHIQUES, August 1935, pp. 23-30 

Wheeler, M.. THE PRINTS OF GEORGES 
ROUAULT. 1938. Exhibition catalog, Museum of 
Modern Art. New York. 

Johnson, Una E., AMBROISE VOLLARD EDITEUR, 
New York. 1944, passim. 

Soby, J. T, GEORGES ROUAULT, 1945. Exhibition 
catalog. Museum of Modern Art. With a discussion of 
the technique of Rouault's prints by Carl Schniewind. 

Wheeler. M.. MODERN PAINTERS AND SCULP- 
TORS AS ILLUSTRATORS, New York. 1946, 
passim. 

Venturi, L., GEORGES ROUAULT, Paris, 1948 

Lassaigne, J., "L'oeuvre Grave de Rouault," GRAPHIS, 
1949 



Wheeler, M., GEORGES ROUAULT: MISERERE, 
1952. Preface by the artist. The Museum of Modern 
Art, N.Y. 

ROUAULT RETROSPECTIVE EXHIBITION, 1953. 
The Cleveland Museum and the Museum of Modern 
Art, N. Y. Foreword by Jacques Maritain. Print sec- 
tion by William S. Lieberman 

RETROSPECTIVE EXHIBITION. GEORGES ROU- 
AULT. 1953. Los Angeles County Museum in collabo- 
ration with the Museum of Modern Art. N.Y. 

Venturi, L.. GEORGES ROUAULT. Paris. 1959. 

THE ARTIST AND THE BOOK: 1860-1960. 1961. 
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, and Harvard College 
Library. Exhibition catalog, introduction by Philip 
Hofer, pp. 179-185. 






^/ 



uj ..jl remove 

irom ihe 

office of the Art Division 



Catalog designed by Tor Winstrup 

Photographs by George Brauer and Armando Solis 

Typography by John E Mawson Co. 

Printed by Ray Burns Inc. Lithographers