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Full text of "The Georgian period; a collection of papers dealing with "colonial" or 18 century architecture in the United States, together with references to earlier provincial and true colonial work"

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VOLUME I 

The Georgian Period 

[PARTS I-IV] 



Copyright. 1898-1899. bv thb 
.^lMEricaN Architect ^jjd Building News Co. 



The Georgian Period 



A Collection of Papers Dealing with 

'^Colonial" or XVIII-Century Architecture 

In the United States 

Together with References to Earlier Provincial and True Colonial Work 




Illustrated with more than 450 Full-Page Plates, Half of which are Measured Drawings, and 

Half Perspective Sketches and Photographic Views, Together with Over 

500 Miscellaneous Illustrations in the Text. 



EDITED BY 

WILLIAM ROTCH WARE 

Fellow of the Boston Society of Architects 



NEW YORK 

THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 
1908 



JUA 
701 



'yo 



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i'A 



^^^^Aii ^ 




960040 



General Index of Text and Illustrations, 

VOLUMES I AND II 



Chronology of American Buildings.' 




1632 

St. Luke's, Smithfield, Va. 
1634 
Cradock House, Medford, Mass. 

•635 
Garrison House, Newburyport, 

Mass. 
House of Seven Gables, Salem, 
Mass. 
1636 
Fairbanks House, Dedham, Mass. 

1639 

Bull House, Newport, R. I. The 

(lov. 
Curtis House, Jamaica Plain, 

Mass. 



SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 

1 640 1 660 

Minot House, Dorchester, Mass. St. John's Church, Hampton, 

Old Stone House, Guilford, Va. 

Conn. 1664 

1643 Wyckoff House, Flatlands Neck, 

Pigeon Cove, Mass. House at. L. I. 

1650 1667 

Putnam House, Danvers, Mass. Ely Tavern, Springfield, Mass. 

The Gen. 1678 

1651 Christ Church, Williamsburg, 
Pickering House, .Salem, Mass. Va. 



i6. 



1680 



Livezey's House, Philadelphia, Red Horse Inn, Sudbury, Mass. 

I'a. 1 68 1 

i65[?] Old Ship Church, Hingham, 

Whipple House, Ipswich, Mass. Mass. 



1683 

Philipse Manor House [southern 
part], Yonkers, N. Y. 
1684 

Waller House, Salem, Mass. 
1 686 

Wayside Inn, Sudbury, Mass. 
1696 

Dutch Church, Ilackensack, 
N.J. 
1700 

Court-house, Williamsburg, Va. 

Farmington, Conn. Old House at. 

Gloria Dei, 01 Old Swedes 
Church, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Shirley, James River, Va. 



1703 
St. Peter's Church, New Kent 
Co., Va. 
1706 
Mabee House, Schenectadv, 
N. V. 

171.1 

St. James's Church, Goose Creek, 
S. C. 
1712 
Old Corner Bookstore, Boston, 
Mass. 
" State-house, Boston, Mass. 

1713 

Sam'l Porter House, Hadley, 
Ma.ss. 
171S 

Bniton Pari.sh Church, Williams- 
burg, Va. 

«7>7 

Waitt Place, Barnstable, Mass. 
1720 

Christ Church, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Pepperell Mansion, Kittery, Me. 
1725 

Berkeley, James River, Va. 

Rosewell, Whitemarsh, Va. 
1727 

Christ Church, Philadelphia, I'a. 
1729 

Independence Hall, I'hiladelphia. 

Old South, Boston. 

Seventh Day Baptist Church, 
Newport, R. I. 

•73° 

Bartram House, John, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 
Pepperell House, Kittery, Me. 

1732 
Christ Church, I.ancaster ( o., 
Va. 

'733 

St. Philip's Church, Charleston, 

S. C. 

•735 

Old Swedes Church, Wilmington, 
Del. 



EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. 

737 1755 

Carter's Grove, James River, Pennsylvania Hospital, Philadel- 



phia, Pa. 
Winslow House, Plymouth, Mass. 

175,7 

Gunston Hall, Va. 
1758 

St. Peter's P. E. Church, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

1759 
Vassall-C raigie-I.o n gf ellow 
House. 



Va. 
Hancock House, Boston, Mass. 
Westover, James River, Va. 

I73« 

Royall House, Medford, Mass. 
St. Peter's Church, Philadelphia. 

1740 

Brice House, Annapolis, Md. 
Samuel Colton House, lx>ng- 

meadow, Mass. 

Lang House, Jeffrey, Salem, 1760 

Ma.ss. Blake House, .Springfield, Mass. 

Oliver House, Dorchester, Mass. 1761 

Verplanck Homestead, Fishkill, Christ Church, Cambridge, 

N. V. Mass. 

1742-62 Mt. Pleasant Mansion, Fairmont 

Faneuil Hall, Boston, Mass. Park, Philadelphia, Pa. 

1743 1762 

Mount Vernon, Va. Morris House, New York,N. Y. 

Philipse Manor House, Yonkers, 1763 

N. Y. Woodford House, Philadeli)hia, 

State-house, Newport, K. I. Pa. 

1744 1764 

Cloisters. Ephrata, Pa. Ladd House, Portsmouth, N. H. 

McDowell Hall, Annapolis, Md., St. Paul's Chapel, New York, 

1745 N. Y. 
Holden Chapel, Cambridge, Mass. 1765 

Wells House, Cambridge, Mass. Van Rensselaer Mansion, Albany, 

1 74V N. V. 

King's Chapel, Boston, Mass. 1767 

1750 Christ Church, Alexandria, Va. 

Bellingham Cary I louse, Chelsea, 1 76S 

Ma.ss. Jeremiah Lee House, Marble- 

p'irst Church, P'armington, Coini. head, M.iss. 

Lefferts Homestead, Brooklyn, 1770 

N. Y. Carpenters' Hall, Philadelphia, 

Tulip Hill, West River. Md. Pa. 

Wentworth House, Little Harbor. C:hase House, Annapolis, Md. 

iyr2 Harwood House, Annapolis. Md. 

Braddock House, Alexandria, Quincy Mansion, Quincy, Mass. 

Va. 1 77 1 

Carlvle House, Alexandria, Va. Boston Tea-party House. 

Custom-house, Charleston, S. C. 1772 

St. Michael's Church, Charleston, State-house, Annapolis, Md. 

S. c. Stebbins House, Deerfield, Mass. 



1774 

Meeting-house, Sandown, N. H. 
1780 

Forrester House, Salem, Mass. 

Paca House, Annapolis, Md. 
1 78 1 

Elsie Gerretsen House, Brooklyn, 
N. Y. 
1784 

Gov. Langdon House, Ports- 
moutli, N. H. 

Solitude, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Unitarian Church, Roxbury, 
Ma.ss. 
17S6 

Erasmus Hall, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
1787 

Morris House, I'hiladelphia, Pa. 
1790 

Brandon, James River, Va. 

Deming House, Litchfield, Conn. 

Taylor House, Roxbury, Mass. 

Van Rensselaer Manor House, 
Albany, N. Y. 
1 791 

Ixjngswamp Reformed Church, 
Mertztown, Pa. 

1793 
(iadsby's Tavern, Alexandria, 
Va. 
1 798 
Cook House, Brookline, Mass. 

Isaac. 
Hurd House, Charlestown, Mass. 

I 799 

Octagon House, W ash i n g t o n, 
D.C. 
" " Woodlawn, Va. 

1800 
Jonathan Childs House, Roches- 
ter, N. Y. 
Haven House, Portsmouth, 

N.H. 
Hodges Hou.se, .Salem, Ma.ss. 
Phillips House, Salem, Mass. 
Thompson House, Charlestown, 
Mass. 



' Afentioned in I 'olumes I and II \_Farts I- VIII^ 



II 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



NINETEENTH CENTURY. 



iSoi 
Essex House, Salem, Mass. 
Nichols House, Salem, Mass. 
1S02 
Ellicott Hall. Batavia. N. Y. 
First Church, West Springfield, 

Mass. 
Oliver House, Salem, Mass. 
1S03 
New York City-hall. 
Sackett House, Sackett's Harbor, 

N. Y. 
St. John's Chapel, New York, 
N. Y. 
1S04 

Judge \Valker House, Lenox, 
Mass. 
1806 
Colton House, Agawam, Mass. 
Rufus. 



1806 

South Church, Salem, Mass. 
1 80S 

Williams House, Boston, Mass. 
I Soy 

Mappa House, Trenton, N. Y. 
1810 

Joseph Cabot House, Salem, 
Mass. 
iSi I 
Alexander House, Springfield, 
Mass. 
1812 
Church, Ashfield, Mass. 
First Church, Northampton, 
Mass. 
" Congregational Church, 
Canandaigua, N. Y. 
Monumental Church, Richmond, 
Va. 



1813 

Court-house, Lenox, Mass. 
1814 

Arnold House, Charlestown, 

Mass. 
Church, Lenox, Mass. 
Unitarian Church, Trenton, 
N. Y. 
1815 

Old North Church, New Haven, 

Conn. 
Ontario County Jail, Canan- 
daigua, N. Y. 
1816 
Tudor House, Georgetown, 

D. C. 
Woolsey I louse, Sackett's 
Harbor, N. Y. 




1817 

University of Virgmia, Char- 
lottesville, Va. 
1818 

Cadet Armory, Salem, Mass. 

F'irst Church, Springfield. Mass. 

Peabody House, Salem, Mass. 

Safford House, Salem, Mass. 
1819 

St. Paul's Church, Ratcliffe- 
boro', S. C. 
1820 

Isaac Hill's House, Rochester, 
N. Y. 

Pickman House, Salem, Mass. 
1821 

Hobart College Building, Geneva, 
N. Y. 
1826 

First Church, Ware, Mass. 



Alphabetical Chronological Tabulation. 



Alexander House, Springfield, 

Mass., 181 1. 

Arnold House, Charlestown, Mass., 

1814. 
Bartram House, Phila., Pa., 1730. 
Bellingham-Cary House, Chelsea, 
Mass., 1750. 

Berkeley, James River, Va., 1725. 
Blake House, Sp'gfield, Mass., 1760. 
Boston Tea-party House, 1771. 

Braddock House, Alexandria, Va., 

1752. 
Brandon, James River, Va., 1790. 
Brice House, Annapolis, Md., 1740. 
Bruton Parish Church, Williams- 
burg, Va., 1715. 
Bull House, Newport, R. L, 1639. 
Cabot House, Salem, Ma.ss,, 1810. 
Cadet Armory, Salem, Mass., 1818. 
Carlyle House, Alexandria, Va., 

1752. 
Carpenters' Hall, Phila., Pa., 1770. 
Carter's Grove, Va., 1737. 

Chase House, Annapolis, Md , 1770. 
Childs House, Rochester, N. Y., 

1800. 

Christ Church: — 

Alexandria, Va., 1 767. 

Cambridge, Mass., 1761. 

Lancaster Co., Va., 1732. 

Philadelphia, Pa., 1720. 

Ware, Mass., 1826. 

Williamsburg, Va., 1678. 

Church, Ashfield, Mass., 1812. 

" I>enox, Mass., 1814. 

Cloisters, Ephrata, Pa., 1744. 

Colton House, Agawam, Ma.ss., 

Rufus. 1806. 

Colton House, Ijongmeadow, 

Mass., 1 740. 

Cook House, Br'kline, Mass., 1798. 

Court-house, I^enox, Mass., 1813. 

" Williamsburg, Va., 

1700. 

Cradock House, Medford, Ma.ss., 

Curtis House, Jamaica I'lain, Mass., 

1639. 
Custom-house, Charleston, S. C, 

1752. 
Custis House, Woodlawn, Va., 

1799. 
Deming House, Litchfield, Conn., 

1 790. 
Dutch Church, Hackensack, N. J., 

1 696. 
Ellicott Hall, Batavia, N. Y., 1802. 
Ely Tavern, Springfield, Mass., 1667. 



Erasmus Hall, Brooklyn, 1786. 

Essex House, Salem, Mass., 1801. 
Fairbanks House, Dedham, Mass., 
1636. 
Faneuil Hall, Boston, 1742. 

First Church: — 

F'armington, Conn., '75°. 

Northampton, Mass., 1812. 

Springfield, Mass., 1818. 

West Springfield, Mass., 1802. 

First Congregational Church, 

Canandaigua, N. Y., 181 2. 

Forrester House, Salem, Mass., 

1780. 

Gadsby's Tavern, Alexandria, Va., 

1793- 
Garrison House, Newburyport, 
Mass., 1635. 

Gerretsen House, Brooklyn, 1781. 
Gloria Dei, or Old Swedes Church, 
Philadelphia, Pa., 1700. 

Gunston Hall, Va., 1757. 

Hancock House, Boston, 1737. 

Harwood House, Annapolis, Md., 

1770. 
Haven House, Portsmouth, N. H., 

1800. 
Hill House, Rochester, N. Y., 1820. 
Hobart College, Geneva, N. Y., 

1821. 
Hodges House, Salem, Mass., 1800. 
Holden Chapel, Cambridge, Mass., 

1745- 

House of Seven Gables, Salem, 

Mass., 1635- 

Hurd House, Charlestown, Mass., 

1798. 
Independence Hall, Phila., Pa., 

1729. 
King's Chapel, Boston, Mass., 1749. 
Ladd House, Portsmouth, N. H., 

1764. 

Lang House, Salem, Mass., 1740. 

I^angdon House, Portsmouth, 

N.H., 17S4. 

Lee House, Marblehead, Mass., 

1768. 
Lefferts House, Brooklyn, 1750. 
Livezey's House, Phila., Pa., 1652. 
Longswamp Reformed Church, 
Mertztown, I'a., I79i. 

Mabee House, Schenectady, N. Y., 

1706. 
Mappa House, Trenton, N. Y., 

1809. 
McDowell Hall, Annapolis, Md., 

1744. 



Meeting-house, Sandown, N. H., 

1774- 

Minot House, Dorchester, Mass., 

1640. 

Monumental Church, Richmond, 

Va., 1812. 

Morris House, New York, 1762. 

" " Phila., Pa., 1787. 

Mt. Pleasant Mansion, Fairmont 

Park, Philadelphia, Pa., 1761. 

Mount Vernon, Va., 1743. 

New York City-hall, 1803. 

Nichols House, Salem, Mass., 1801. 

Octagon House, Washington, D. C, 

1799. 

Old Corner Bookstore, Boston, 1712. 

" North Church, New Haven, 

Conn,, 1815. 

" Ship, Hingham, Mass., 1681. 

" South, Boston, Ma.ss., 1729. 

" State-house, Boston, 1712. 

" Stone House, Guilford, Conn., 

1640. 

" Swedes Church, Wilmington, 

Del., 1735. 

Oliver House, Dorchester, Ma.ss., 

1740. 

" " Salem, Mass., 1802. 

Ontario County Jail, Canandaigua, 

N. Y., 1815. 

Paca House, Annapolis, Md., 1780. 

Peabody House, Salem, Mass., t8i8. 

Pennsylvania Hospital, Phila., Pa., 

1755- 
Pepperell House, Kittery, Me., 1720. 
Philipse Manor House, Yonkers, 
N. Y., 1683-1743. 

Phillips House, Salem, Mass., 1800. 
Pickering House, Salem, Mass., 

1651. 
Pickman House, Salem, Mass., 

1820. 
Porter House, Hadley, Mass., 1713. 
Putnam House, Danvers, Mass., 

1650. The Gen. 
Quincy Mansion, Quincy, Mass., 

1770. 
Rosewell, Whitemarsh, Va., 1725. 
Royall House, Medford, Mass., 

i73«- 

Sackett House, Sackett's Harbor, 

N. Y., 1803. 

Safford House, Salem, Mass., 1818. 

St. James's, Goose Creek, S. C, 

1711. 

St. John's Chapel, New York, 

N. Y., 1803. 

" " Hampton, Va., i6fx). 

St. Luke's, Smithfield, Va., 1632. 

St. Michael's Charleston, S. C, 1752. 



St. Paul's Chapel, New York, 

N. Y., 1 764. 

" " Ratcliflfeboro', S.C, 1819. 

St. Peter's, New Kent Co., Va., 

1703- 
Phila., Pa., 1738. 

P. E. Church, Philadel- 
phia, Pa., 1758. 
St. Philip's, Charleston, S. C, 1733. 
Seventh Day Baptist Church, New- 
port, R. I., 1729. 
Shirley, James River, Va., 1700. 
Solitude, Philadelphia, Pa., 1784. 
South Church, Salem, Mass., 1806. 
State-house, Annapolis, Md., 1772. 
" Newport, R. I., 1743. 
Stebbins House, Deerfield, Mass., 

1772. 
Taylor House, Roxbury, Ma.ss., 
1790. 
Thompson House, Charlestown, 
Mass., 1800. 

Tudor House, Georgetown, D. C, 
1816. 
Tulip Hill, West River, Md., 1750. 
Unitarian Church, Roxbury, Mass., 
1784. 
" " Trenton, N. Y., 

1814. 
University of Virginia, Charlottes- 
ville, 181 7. 
Van Rensselaer Manor House, 
Albany, N. Y., 
1790. 
" " Mansion, Albany, 
N. Y., ,765. 
Vassall-C raigie-Lon gf el low 
House, Cambridge, 1759- 
Verplanck House, Fishkill, N. Y., 
1740. 
Waitt Place, Barnstable, Mass., 
1717. 
Walker House, Lenox, Mass., 1804. 
Waller House. Salem, Mass., 1684. 
Wayside Inn, Sudbury, Mass., 1686. 
Wells House, Cambridge, Mass., 
1845. 
Wentivorth House, Little Harbor, 
1750. 
Westover, James River, Va., 1737. 
Whipple House, Ipswich, Mass., 

i6s[?]. 
Williams House, Boston, 1808. 

Winslow House, Plymouth, Mass., 

•755- 
Woodford House, Phila., Pa., 1763. 
Woolsey House, Sackett's 

Harbor, N. Y., 1S16. 

Wyckoff House, Flatlands Neck, 

L. I., 1664. 



General Index of Text and Illustrations. 



VOLUMES 1 AND II. 



— A — 

Abingdon, Berks, Eng : — 
Christ's Hospital', ii, 96, 98 
Doonvay, VIII, 3 
Tomkins Almshouse, ii, 96, 99 
Town-hall, VIII, )9; 11,95 

Academy of Arts founded by F. 
Johnston. Royal 
Hibernian, ii, 1 1 1 
" Fort Hills, Canandaigua, 
N. Y., ii, 3 
Accident at St. Maryle Strand at 
the Proclamation of Peace, ii. 105 
Accokeek, ii, 49 
Accomack, ii, 13, 20 
Acton, Annapolis, Md. The Home 

of the Murrays, ii. 57 
Adam. The Brothers, i, iS; ii, 11, 
84, 89, 90, 95. 100 
" Ceiling. An, i. 8 

Adams House, Quincy, Ma,ss. The 

J. Q.. i,3; ii, 8-! 
Advertisement. An old Irish, ii, 

1 12 
Agawam, Mass., ii, 62, 66, 67 

Alb.any, N. V. : — 

Van Rensselaer Manor House, i, 

1.5. M. 15; I- 
U 
" " Mansion House, 

i, J3 
Aldborough House, Dublin, ii, iii 
Aldrich, Architect of All Saints' 
Church, Oxford, Y.ng. Dean. ii. 94 
Aldrich's Book, "Elements 0/ Ar 
chiUcture" in Latin. Dean, ii, 94 

Alexandria, Va.: — 
Braddock House, i, 29 
Carlyle House. Mantels in. III, 

)8 
Cazanove. Mantel at. i, 22 
Christ Church, II, 19,20, 21, 22 
Gadsby's Tavern, i, 30 ; 1,9 

Allen and the Rebuilding of Bath, 

Eng. Ralph, ii. 95 
All Saints' Church, 5,'orthamp t o n. 
Kng., ii, 95; 
VIII, J5 
" " " Oxford de- 

signed by 
Dean Al 
drich, ii, (14 
Almshouse, Abingdon, Eng. Tom 
kins, ii, 96, 99 
" Maidstone, En g. 

Banks, ii, 96), 99 
" Trinity Ground, Ix)n 

don, VIII, 22 
Almshouses. English, ii, 96 
Altar, Rye, Eng., ii. 98 

" Table, Rye, Eng., ii, J 02 
Alton, Hants, Eng. Porcli. ii. 92 
" " " House, ii, 96 

Ames. John, Architect, ii, 69 
Analostan, Va., ii, 49 

Explanation: — The first volume coinaiiis Parts I-IV, tlie second Parts V-VIII. Tlie volume is inciicated bv "i" or ** ii." All illustrations are indicated by bold-face 
numerals. The fuU-paKC plates are indicated by Roman numerals indicating the Part, and boldf.ice figures showing the location of the plate in that Part 



"Ancient." The Van Rensselaer, 

Andirons, VI, 7, 25 

Andrew House, Salem, Mass, VII, 

13,25 
Andros. Sir Edmund, ii, 15 

" Gov., ii, 26 

Annapolis, Md., i, 19 

" on the Severn, ii, 57 

Annapolis, Md. : — 

Acton. The Home of the 

Murrays, ii, 57 
Brice House, i, J9; ii. 27, 59 
Chase House, i, 20; ii, 59; ii, 58 
Franklin House, ii. 60 
Ilarwood House, i, J 9, 20, 21; 

ii, 27, 58, 59 
Jennings House, i, 20; ii, 59 
McDowell Hall, ii, 60 
Marx House, VII, 4 
Paca House, ii, 27; VI, J 
St. Anne's Church, ii, 61 
St. John's College, i, 23; ii, 60 
Stair-end in Scott House, i, 22 
State-house, i, 23; ii, 59 
Stewart House. Peggy, ii, 60 
Street Plan, ii, 58 
Window in Chase House, i, 21 
*' " Harwood House, i, 20 

Anne. Queen, ii. 42, 81 

" Statues of <^)ueen, ii, 105 

Apthorpe House, New York, N. Y., 

i, J4 
Architects : — 

Adam Brothers, i, 18; ii, 11, 84, 
89, ip, 95. 100 

Aldrich. Dean, ii, 94, 98 

Ames. John, ii, 69 

Banner. Peter, i, 10 

Bell, ii, 93 

Benjamin. Asher, ii, 66 

Buckland, ii, 59 

Bulfinch. Charles, i, 11, 19 

Campljell. Colin, ii, 84, 96 

Cassels, ii, 1 10 

Chambers. SirWm.,i, 18; ii, 84, 
no 

Clarissault. M., i, 23 

Clarke. Joseph, ii, 59 

Ctioley. Tiiomas, ii, no 

Damon. Capt. Isaac, ii. 70, 71 

Dance, Jr. George, ii, 106 

Duff, ii, 61 

Ensor, ii, no 

(iandon. James, ii, iio 

Gibbs. James, i, 17, 28; ii, 84, 
94. 105 

Hadlield. George, i, 19 

Hallet, i, 19 

Hamilton. James, i, 18 

Harrison. Peter, i, 10, 32 

Huwksmoor. Nicholas, ii, 84, 94, 
105 

Hoban. James, i, 19 

Johnston. Francis, ii, no, in 

Jfiiies. Inigo, ii, 84, 100 

Keaisley. Dr. John, i, 17, 18 

Latrobe. Benjamin, i, 19 



Architects : — 

McBean, i, 17 

McComb. John, i, 17 

Mangin, i, 18 

Mason. George C, i, 10 

Munday. Richard, i, 10 

Murray. W., ii, no, in 

Norman. J., ii, 65 

Rhoads. Samuel (Penn. Hospi- 
tal) 

Smibert. John, i, 10 

Smith. John, ii, no 

" Robert (Carpenters' 

Hall). 

Spratz. William, i, 5 

Sproule, ii, 1 10 

Strickland. William, 

Taylor, ii, 84 

Thornton. Dr. William, i, 19; 
ii, 48 

Towne, Ithiel, ii, 70 

Vanbrugi:. Sir J,, ii, 84, 94, 95 

Ward. John, ii, 94, 95 

Wilkins, ii, 110, in 

Wren, ii, 93, 94, 105, 106 

Wyatt. Benjamin, i, 10 

Arehiteeiural Review, London, ii, 

99 
Architecture in Dublin. Georgian, 
ii, 107 
" of England. Eigh- 

teenth-century, ii, 

,'■'■. 
" Georgian Architecture 

true, ii, 92 
** Arehitechtrey W'are's, ii, 86 
.Vrchitrave Bases, i, 23 
.■\rmory of the Salem Cadets, i, 36 
Arms of Capt. John Smith, ii, 26 

" Royal, ii, 96; VIII, 17 
Arnold, Benedict, aided by Mrs. 
Byrd, ii, 42 
" Homestead, Charlestown, 

Mass. Doorway, II, 9 
" Mansion. Benedict. Phila- 
delphia, Pa., IV, 30, 32, 
33, 35, 36 

Arthur's Visit to Salem. Prince, 
1,36 

Arts. Royal Hibernian Academy 
of, ii, in 

Ashfiekl, Mass. Church, ii, 68, 69 

Asylum Building, Somerville, Mass. 
McLean, ii, 84 
" Staircase. McLean, ii, 85 

Atherington, Eng. Memorial Tab- 
let, ii, 104 

Avery House. Pequonnock, Conn., 
i, 3 
" Peter, i, 9 

Avon, N. Y., ii, 5 

Ayrault. Dr., i, 5 

Ayrault House, Geneseo, N. Y., i, 
32; ii. 6; V, 5 

Ayrault House. Hood. Newport, 
R. I., i, 6 

— B — 

Bacon. General, ii, 13, 25 



Bacon's Rebellion, ii, 26, 49 
Bailey Prison, London, Eng. Old, 

ii, J 06 
Ball-room. Count Rumford's, ii, 77 
Ball-rooms, i, 30; ii, 3, 77 
Baltimore. Lord, ii, 49 

" Home of the Calverts, 

VI, 28, 29, 30, 3 J 
Baltimore, Md. : — 

Fan-lights, II, 39, 40 

Homewood Stable, i, 22 

Mantels, VI, )3, J4 

Sidelights, II, 41 

Baluster Sun-dial, ii, 9) 

Balusters. Twisted, i, 15, 20, 27; 

11,28,47,52; ii, 86 
Balustrades, i, 7 

" Roof, i, 6, 12 

Bank of Ireland, Dublin, ii, no, 

\n 

Banks Almshouse, Maidstone, Eng., 

ii, 96, 99 
Banner. Peter. Architect, i, 10 
" Barber's Historical Colleetions^^ ii, 

68 
Barneveld. John of, ii, 10 

" N. Y. Olden, ii, 10 

Barns. Washington's, ii, 47 
Barnstable, Mass. Mantel in Waitt 

Place, III, 19 
Bartram House, Philadelphia, Pa. 
The John, i, 15; IV, 9 
" John. Botanist, ii, 46 

" William. Botanist, ii, 46 
Bastile. Key of the, i, 31 

Batavia, N. Y. : — 
(^ary House, ii, 4 

" " Door, i, 33 

Ellicott Hall, ii, 4 
Office of the Holland Purchase, 
i,33 

Batchelder House, Cambridge, 

Mass., ii, 82 
Bath, Eng. Prior Park, ii, 95 

" " rebuilt by John \Vood, 

ii. 95 

Battle between " Chesapeake " and 

" Slia/tfiorij" i, 34 

" of Long Island, i, 12 

" " Lundy's Lane, ii, 4 

" " Sackett's Harbor, ii, 7 

Battle Sussex, Eng. House at, ii, 

100 
Bay-window, Guildford, Eng , ii, J 00 
Rye, Eng., ii, 97, 99 
" St. Cross, Winchester. 

Eng., ii, 100 
Beall Air, Va., ii, 56 
Bedford Tower, Dublin Castle, 

VIII, 46 
Bedposts, i, 3 J 
Beech Timber. Red, ii, 1 1 
Bell, Architect, ii, 93 
Belle Air. Home of the Fitzhughs, 

ii, 50 
Bellingham-Caiy House, Chelsea, 
Ma.ss„ II, 49; 50, 51,52 



IV 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



Belvoir, Va. Burning of, ii, 45 

'• Seat of the Fairfaxes, 
ii, 44, 52 
Benham, Berks, Eng.. VIII. II 
Benjamin's " Country Builders' As- 
sistant." Asher, ii, 65. 86; VII, 
32 
Berkeley. Governor, ii, 13 
" Sir W., ii, 20, 21 

" Statue of Norbonne, 

Williamsburg, Va., ii, 
18 
Berkeley. Va., ii, 27, 39 
Bermuda Hundred, Va. ii. 32 

Netiier Hundred, ii, 31 
Berry Hill, Va., ii, 50 
Bertram House for Aged Men, 

S.ilem, Mass.. VII. 3 J 
Bicknell House Mantels, Rochester, 

,X. v., II. 5 
Bifield, Mass. Dummer House, 

VII, 30 

Big Tree Inn. Geneseo, N. Y., ii, 6 
Billings House, Trenton, N. Y., ii, 
II 
" John, ii, 10 
Bjork. Pastor, ii, 12 
Blackford House Mantels, Fairfax 

Co., Va.. i. JO 
Bladen's Folly, ii, 60. 61 
Blair. Rev. James, ii, 15. 19 

" Tombs, Jamestown, Va., ii, 
21 
Blair's Quarrel with Sir E. Andros, 

ii, 15 
Blanchard. Joshua. Builder of 

the Old South Church, Boston, 

Blandfield. Home of the Beverlys, 

ii, 50 
Blandford, Eng., rebuilt in 1740. 

Town of, ii, 98 
Blenheim, ii, 94 
Blessing. The Roman Catholic, ii, 

lOI 

Blomfield's Book on English Ren- 
aissance, ii, 93 
Blue-coat School, Dublin, ii, 112; 

VIII, 44 
Blue-laws, ii, 77 

Blue Limestone. Hard Irish, ii, in 
Bombardment of Norfolk, Va., ii, 

42 
Book on Architecture. Dean Al- 
drich's. Latin, ii, 94 

" " Furniture. Chippendale's, 
ii, 86 

" " Renaissance in England. 
Blomfield's, ii, 93 
Books on Architecture. Early, ii, 

66, 86 
Bookstore, Boston. Old Corner, 

ii, 82 
Boone. Garrett, ii, 10 
Boscobel, Va., ii, 50 
Bossi's Inlaid Mantels. Value of, 

ii, III 

BosTo.N, Mass. : — 

Bulfinch State-house. The, i, 11 
Christ Church, i, 10; ii, 8 J, 83 
Faneuil Hall, 11,31,32,33 
Hancock House, i, 3; ii, 82 
King's Chapel, i, 10; ii, 83 
" " Details, i, 16, 17 

Pulpit, i, 9; 1,15, 
18, 19 
C d Corner Bookstore, ii, 82 
" North Church, ii, 81, 83 
* South Church, i, 10, 26,27; 

IV, 14, 15 

•' State-house, i, 10, JJ; 11,46, 
47; ii, 72. 83 
Park .Street Church, i, 9, 10 
Paul Revere House, i, 4 
Province House, ii, 86 
Puljlic Library. (Jld, i, 7 
Tea-party House, i, 5 
Ticknor House, ii, 86 
West Church, ii,86; VII, 26,28 
Williams House. II. ) I, 12, 13, 
14, 15, 16, 17 



I Botetourt. Death of Lord, ii, 19 
Bowdoin House Door, Salem, 

Mass., VII, 22 
Bowling-green, Williamsburg, Va., 

ii, 13 
Box-stair. The, ii, 79 
Box-stairs, Salem, Mass., ii, 78 
Brackets, II, 13, 49 
Braddock House, Alexandria, Va., 

i, 29; HI, 18 
Bradley, Va., ii, 52 
Bradstreet House, Andover, Mass.. 

'•4 

Brandon, James River, Va., i, 19 

Lower, ii, 27, 28 
Braxton. Carter, ii, 29 
Brays. Tomb of the. Williams- 
burg, Va., ii, 15 
Brentford, Eng. House Porch, ii, 
102 
" Sussex, Eng., Doorway, 

ii, loi 
Brentwood, Middlesex, Eng. House 

at, ii, 96 
Brice House, Annapolis, Md., i, 19 ; 

ii, 27, 59 
Brick brought as Ballast, i, 20 ; ii, 76 
■' Brick Church," New York, N. Y., 

i. 17 
Brick in the South. Common Use 

of, ii, 76 
" Brick," Sackett's Harbor, N. Y. 

Entrance to the, ii, 8 
Brickmaking at Jamestown, Va., ii, 

30 
" " Trenton, N. Y., ii, 

10 
Brickyards, Dublin, ii, no 

" Medford, i, 2 ; ii, 77 

Bridge at Chester, Eng., ii, 98 

" " Dublin. The Carlisle, ii, 

1 10 
" " Newbury, Eng., ii, 98 ; 
VIII, 25 
Bridger. Hon. Joseph, ii, 24 
Bridges designed by Capt. I. Damon, 

ii, 71 
Brighton, N. Y. : — 

Culver House, ii, 3 : V, 8 
Porch, I, J 
Porch of Smith House, ii, J 
Brookline, Mass. : — 

Door in Isaac Cook House, II, 
23: — 

Mantel in Same, II, J 8 

Brooklyn, N. Y. : — 
Erasmus Hall, i, 16 : — 

Mantel in Same, IV, 7 
Elsie Gerretsen House, i, 12 
I^fferts Homestead, i, 12 : — 
Doorway, IV, 4 
Brooks House Staircase, Salem, 

Mass., VII, 6 
Brothers Adam. The, i, 18; ii, 11, 

84, 89, 90, 95, 100 
Brown. Gen. Jacob, ii, 7 

" J. Appleton, ii, 73 

Bruton Parish Church, Williams- 
burg, Va., ii, 14, 
15 

" " Churchyard, ii, 43 

" " Somerset, England, 

ii, 14 
Buckingham. George V i 1 1 i e r s, 
Duke of, ii, 89 
" Street, London, 

Doorway in, ii, 87 
Buckland, Architect, ii, 59 
Bulfinch. Charles. Architect, i, 
II, 19; ii, 79 
" Front, Boston. The 

Colonnade of the, ii, 

79 
Bull House, Newport, R. I. The 
Gov., i, 2 
" Inn, Guildford, Eng., ii, 100 
Bull's Head Tavern, New York, 
• N. Y., i, 19 

Burford, Eng. Iron Entrance-gate, 
VIII, 29 



Burlington, N. J. Friends' Meet- 
ing-house, i, 9 
Burnaby. Archdeacon ii, 15 
Burr. Aaron, i, 14 ; ii, i 
Burwell. Carter, ii, 26, 30, 34 
" Lewis, ii, 35 

" Col. Nathaniel, ii, 22 

" Rebecca, ii, 17 

Bushfield. House of J. A. Wash- 
ington, ii, 50 
Byrd. Elizabeth. The beautiful, 
ii, 18 
" Lieut. Thomas. Capture 

of, ii, 5 
" and Lord Peterboro'. 

Evelyn, ii, 41 
" Manuscript. The, ii, 41 
" of Westover. Col., ii, 20, 
28, 40 

-c- 

Cabot House, Salem, Mass. Joseph, 

VII, 7, 8, 9 
Cadet Armory, Salem, Mass., i, 36 
Calf dropped down Chimney, ii, 75 
Calvert. Leonard, ii, 58 
Cambridge, Eng, Senate House, ii, 

94 
" Mass., i, 2 

Cambridge, Mass.: — 
Batchelder House, ii, 82 
Christ Church, ii, 82 
Elmwood, i, 5 

Hemenway Gymnasium, ii, 84 
Holden Chapel, ii, 82, 84 
Holmes House, ii, 84 
Ma.ssachusetts Hall, ii, 82 
Riedesel House, ii, 82 
Tories' Row, ii, 81 
Vassall - Craigie -Longfellow 

House, i, 4, 6, 12; ii, 82 
Wadsworth House, ii, 82 
Wells House, ii, 82 

Camm. Rev. Mr., ii, 30 
Camp. Col Elisha, ii. 9 
W. B., ii, 8 
" House, or " The Brick," 

Sackett's Harbor, N. Y., 
ii, 9; V, JO 
Campbell, Architect. Colin, ii, 84, 

96 
Canandaigua, N. Y. : — 
Congregational Church, ii, 6 
Doorway, i, 16 

" of the Greig House, III, 
28,29 
First Cong. Church, V, J 
Fort Hills Academy, ii, 3 
Granger Place Seminary, ii, 3 
Grey Mansion, ii, 3 
House, V, 7 
Candelabrum at Horsmonden, Eng., 
ii, 101 
" " Northiam, Eng., ii, 

101 
Capitals, II, J, J4, 20 ; HI. 5, 15, 
17; IV, 5, 12; ii, 67; V, 2, 16, 
21; VI, 7; VII, 18; VIII, 4, 16 
Capitol, Richmond, Va., i, 23 

" Washington, D. C. The 
U. .S., i, 19; ii. 48 
Card-playing Clergymen, ii, 15 
Carlisle Bridge, Dublin, ii, no 

" Park Pier Termination, 
Hastings, Eng., ii, 96 ; 
VIII. J7 
Carlyle House Mantels, Alexandria, 
Va., Ill, J8 
" John, i, 30 
Caroline, Queen, and Stratford 

House, Va., ii, 21 
Carpenters' Classic, ii, 2 

Hall, Philadelphia, Pa., 
111,31,32 
Carrolls. The, ii, 5 
Carter. John, ii, 24 

King, ii, 24, 34, 39 
" Robert, ii, 24 

" Houses, ii, 43 



Carter's Grove, James River, Va., 

i, 19. 21,22; ii, 26, 34 

" Hall, Frederick Co., Va., 

ii. 35 
" " James River, Va., i, 

" " Millwood, Va,, ii, 34 

Cartouche at So. Molton, Eng., 

VIII, 17 
Carvings by Gibbons, Timbs and 
others, ii, 89 
" Heraldic, ii, 96; VIII, 17 
Cary House, Batavia, N. Y., I, 33 ; 

ii, 4 
Casino at Clontarf, Ireland, ii, 112; 

VIII, 42 
Cast-iron Grapes, ii, 63 
Castle. Bedford Tower, Dublin, 
VIII, 46 
" Chapel, Dublin. The, ii, 

III 
" Howard, Eng,, ii, 94 

Caterpillars. Silk, ii, 14 
Cathcart. Mr., i, 28 
Cathedral, Ireland. Tower Armagh, 

ii, TIC 
Catholic Blessing. The Roman, ii, 

lOI 

Cazanove, Alexandria, Va. Mantel 

in, i, 22 
Ceiling Decorations, ii. 41. ni 
Ceilings, i, 8, 21 ; II, 29, ii, 41 ; VI, 

11,31; VII, 9 

Cellars, ii, 52 

Chair. Washington's Lodge, i, 30 

Chambers. Sir Wm., i, 18; ii, 84, 

1 10 
Champlin House, Newport. The 

Christopher G., i, 32 
Chancel of Old Swedes Church, 

Philadelphia, Pa., ii, J2 
Chandeliers, ii, 98 
Chantilly, Va., ii, 50 
Chapel. Cunningham, or " Old," 
Clarke Co., Va., ii, 22 
" Dublin Castle, ii, in 

" Holden, Cambridge, 

Ma.ss., ii, 82, 84 
" King's, Boston, Mass., i, 

9, 10, 16, 17; I, 15, 
18, 19; ii, 83 
" St. Paul's, New York, i, 

16; IV, JO, J J, 12, 13 
Character of English Houses, ii, 93 
Charles the First, ii, 14 

" " .Second, ii, 14 
Charlemont, Mass. Church at, ii, 

71 
" House, Dublin, ii, iii 

Charleston, S. C: — 
Custom-house, i. 23 
St. Michael's Church, i, 23 
St. Philip's Church, i, 23 

Charlestown, Mass.: — 
Arnold House Doorway, II, 9 
Hurd House Porch, i, 7 
Thompson House Mantel, II, 7, 8 

Charlestown, W. Va., ii, 56 

Charlottesville, Va. University of 
Virginia, i, 23, 24 

Chase. Chief Justice, ii, 59 
" Judge Samuel, ii, 58 

" House, Annapolis. Md., i, 

20, 21,22,23; ii. 5S, 59 

Chatham. Home of the Fitzhughs, 

ii. 50 
Chelsea, Eng. Door-heads in 
Cheyne Row, ii, 87, 90 
" Mass. Bellingham - Cary 
House, II, 49, 50, 51, 
52 
Cherry Tavern, ii, 54 
Cherry-tree Avenue at Gunston 

Hall, ii, 51 
Cheshire, Eng. Oulton Hall, ii, 97 
Chester, Eng. Bridge at, ii, 98 
Chew House, Germantown, Pa., VI, 

J 
Cheyne Row, Chelsea, Eng. Door- 
heads in ii, 87, 90 



Explanation;— The first volume contains Parts I-IV, the second Parts V-VIII. The volume is indicated by "i" or " ii." All illustrations are indicated by bold-face 
numerals. The full-page plates are indicated by Roman immcral indicating the Part, and bold-face figures showing the location of the plate in that Part. 



GENERAL INDEX OF TEXT AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Chichester, Eng. Council-chamber, 
ii, 96; VIII, J 9 
" " Doorway, VIII, 3 

Child. Lydia Maria, ii, 73 
Childs House Cornice, Rochester, 
N. Y. Jonathan, 
II, J 
" " Rochester, N. Y. 

Side Porch, II, 6 
Chimney. Powhatan's, ii, 26 
Chimneypiece, See " Mantelpiece " 
Chippendale's Book on Furniture, 
ii, 86 
" Shop, London, ii, 104 

Chippewa. Battle of, ii, 4 
Chotauk Region. The, ii, 50 
Christ Church, Alexandria, Va., II, 
J9, 20, 2J,22 
" " Boston, Mass., i, 10; 

ii, 81, 83 
" " Cambridge, Mass., 

ii, 82 
" " Lancaster Co., Va., 

ii, 20, 24 
" " Newgate, London, 

ii, 106; VIII, 37 
" " Philadelphia, Pa., i, 

17. 18; 11,42,43, 
44, 45; IV, 3J! 
ii, 12 
" " Shrewsbury, N. J., i, 

10 
" " Spitalfields, London, 

ii, 94, 105 ; VIII, 
39,40 
" " Williamsburg, Va., i, 

24 
" Hospital, Abingdon, Eng., 
ii, 96. 98 
Chronological Table, i, 9 [See also 

table preceding this Index.] 
Church designed by Isaac Damon, 
ii. 7J 
" " " Wren's Daugh- 

ter, ii, 104 
" Steeple, New Haven, Conn. 

First, II, JO 
" " Roxbury, Mass. 

First Unitarian, 
i, 10 
Churches, i, 9 

" London, City, ii, 98 

" Removal of Galleries in, 

ii, 105 
" Southern, i, 23 

" Triad of Georgian. 

London, ii, 104 

Churches: — 

All Saints', Northampton, Eng., 

ii, 95; VIII, J5 
" " Oxford, Eng., :i, 94 
Ashfield, Ma.ss., ii, 68 
Bruton Parish, Williamsburg, Va., 

ii, 14. J 5 
Christ, Alexandria, Va., II, J 9, 
20,21,22 
" Boston, Ma.ss., i, 10 ; ii, 

81,83 
" Cambridge, Ma.ss., ii, 

82 

" Lancaster Co., Va., ii, 20, 

24 
" Newgate, London, ii, 106 ; 

VIII, 37 
" Philadelphia, Pa., i, 17, 
i8;II, 42, 43,44, 45; 
IV, 31; ii. 12 
" Shrew.sbury, N. J., i, 10 
" Spitalfields, loindon, ii, 
94, 105; VIII, 39, 40 
" Williamsburg, Va., i, 24 
Dutch, Ilackensack, N. J., i, 17 
First, ii, 70 

" Deerfield, Ma.ss., ii, 68 
" Farmington, Conn., ii, 68 
" Hingham, Mass., IV, (7 
" Northampton, Mass., ii, 69, 

70 
" Springfield, Mass., ii, 69 
" West Springfield, Ma.ss., ii, 
68 



Churches : — ■ 

First Congregational, C a n a n - 
daigua, N. Y., V, J 
" Meeting-house, i, 35 
Greyfriars, London, ii, 106 
Hatfield, Mass., ii, 68 
Holden, Chapel, Cambridge, 

Mass., ii, 82, 84 
King's Chapel, Boston, i, 9, 10, 

16, 17; I, 15, 18, J9; ii, 83 
Lenox, Mass., ii, 70 
Little Stanmore, Eng., ii, 95 
Longswamp Reformed, Mertz- 

town. Pa., i, 18 
Methodist Episcopal, Waterloo, 

N. Y., i., 17 
Monumental, Richmond, Va., Ill, 

IJ 
Narragansett, R. I., i, 9 
North Runcton, Eng., ii, 93 
" Old North," Boston Mass., ii, 
81,83 
" " New Haven, 
Conn., II, JO 
"Old Ship," Hingham, Mass., i, 

9; ii, 83 
" Old South," Boston, Mass., i, 10, 

26,27; IV, 14, J5 
" Old Swedes," Philadelphia, i, 18 ; 

ii, 12; V, J J, J2 

Park Street, Boston, Mass., i, 10 

Pohick, Va., ii, 25, 44, 48, 50 

St. Anne's, Annapolis, ii, 61 

" George's, Dubhn, ii, 1 1 1 

" James's, Goose Creek, S. C, 

i, 24; 111,6 
" " Piccadilly, London, 

i, 10, 32 ; ii, 105 
" John's, Hampton, Va., i, 24 
" " Chapel, New York, 
N. Y., i, 17; IV, J6 
" Luke's, Smithfield, Isle of 

Wight Co., Va., ii, 20, 23 
" Martin's -in -the -Fields, Lon- 
don, i, 10, 17; ii, 86, 94 
" Mary -le-Strand, London, Eng., 
ii,94, 104; VIII, 32, 33, 34 
" Mary's Woolnoth, London, 

ii, 94 
" Michael's, Charleston, S. C, 

i, 23 
" Paul's Chapel, New York, 
N. Y.,i, 16; IV, JO, 

II, 12, 13 

" " Norfolk, Va., ii, 42 

Ratcliffeboro', S. C, 

III, 11 

" Peter's, New Kent Co., Va., 

ii,25 
" " Philadelphia, Pa., i, 

17; ii, 12; V, 3, 6 
" Philip's, Charleston, S. C, i, 

23 

Seventh Day Baptist, Newport, 
R. I., i, 31 

South, Salem, Mass., VII, 33 

Swedes, " Old Stone," Wilming- 
ton, Del., I, 17 

Trinity, Newport, R. I., i, 32 

Unitarian, Trenton, N. Y., ii, 10, 
1 1 

Ware, Gloucester Co., Va., ii, 22 
" Mass., ii, 71 

West, Boston, Mass., ii, 86; VII, 
26,28 

Zion, Philadelphia, Pa., i, 17 

Churchyard Gate, WiUiamsburg, 
Va., ii, 14 
Tomb.s, VIII, 31,35 
Cincinnati. Society of the, i, 25 
Circular Roads, Dublin, ii, 108 
City hall, Dublin, VIII, 48 
" Newport, R. I., i, II 

New York, N. Y., i, 17, 
18;!!, 30,34, 35,36, 
37,48 
" Yonkers, N. Y., i, 14 

City Hotel, Alexandria, Va., i, 31 : 

1,9 
City Island, N. Y. The Leviness 
House, ii, 77 



Claggett. William, i, 33 

Claggett's Tavern, Alexandria, i, 31 

Clapboards, i, 7 

" Moulded, ii, 64 

Clarissault. M., Architect of Rich- 
mond State-house, i, 23 

Clarke. Attainder of Robert, ii, 6i 
" Joseph, Architect, ii, 59 

Clarkson, N. Y. Doorway, ii, 78 

Classical Design. Books on, ii, 86 

Clay Plastering, ii, 74 

Claymont Court : House of Bush- 
rod Washington, ii, 55 : VI, 37 

Clement's Inn, London. The 
Garden House, VIII, 30 

Clergy addicted to Drink, ii, 25, 60 

Clergymen paid with Tobacco, ii, 30 

Clinton. Gov. De Witt, ii, 10 

Clock in Seventh Day Baptist 
Church, Newport, i, 32 

Cloisters, Ephrata, Pa., IV, J 8 

Clontarf, Ireland. Casino, ii, 112; 
VIII, 42 

Cluny Museum in a New England 
Village. A, ii, 72 

Coaching-inns. English, ii, 96 

Cockfighting, ii, 25 

Coleman. Samuel, ii. 66 

College of Matrons in Salisbury 
Close, ii, 96; VIII, 23 
" St. John's, Annapolis, Md., 

i, 23 
" of Surgeons, Dublin, ii, 1 1 1 ; 

VIII, 44 
" Trinity, Dublin, ii, in; 

VIII, 48 
" WiUiam and Mary, ii, 19 
Collins House, Newburyport, Mass. 
The, ii, 72 

Colonial Architecture: — 
In Virginia and Maryland, ii, 13 
" Western Massachusetts, ii, 61 
F. E. Wallis's Book on, ii, 3 
Colonial Dames, ii, 72 
Color, i, 7 

Colton House, Agawam, Mass., ii, 
66,67 
" " Longmeadow, 

Mass. Samuel, 
ii, 62, 63 
Columnar Doorways, ii, loi 
Commission. Dublin's Wide-street, 

ii, io8 
Communal System, ii, 31 
Communion Plate of Bruton Parish, 

ii, 16 
Concord, Mass. The Old Manse, 

i,3 
Congregational Church, Canan- 
daigua, N. Y., ii, 6 
*' Meeting-ho use. 

First, i, 35 
Contract for altering the Witch 
House, Salem, i, 35 
" " Charlemont Church, 

Mass., ii, 71 
Convent, Ephrata, Pa., i, 15; IV, 

18 
Cook House. Isaac, Brookline, 
Mass. Door in, 
H, 23 
*' " Brookline, Mass. 

Mantel, II, J 8 
Coolidge. J. R., ii, 33 
Corey. Giles, i, 33 

" Martha, i, 34 

Cork Hill, Dublin. View on, VIII, 

46 
Corner Bookstore, Boston, Mass. 

Old, ii, 82 
Cornice : Jonathan Childs House, 

Rochester, N. Y., II, J 
Cornices, i, 6: II, J, J7; III, J5; 

ii, 9, 10; VI, 23, 29, 30,31 
Cornwallis. Surrender of, ii, 19 
Corotoman. King Carter of, ii, 34 
Corwin. Jonathan, i, 35 
Cottage. The Goodman. Lenox, 

Ma.ss., ii, 83, 86 
Council-chamber, Chichester, Eng., 
ii, 96; VIII, J9 



Court-house Doorway, G e n e s e o, 
N. Y., V, 7 
" Dublin, ii, J JO 

" Hanover, Va., ii, 30 

Court-house, Lenox, Mass., ii, 70, 

71 
" Williamsburg, Va., i, 

22,23; ii, 13, 14 
Cradock. Gov., ii, 72 

" House, Medford, Mass., 

i, 2, 3; ii, 72,81 
Craigie House, Cambridge, Mass., 

i, 4, 6, 12 ; ii, 82 
Cranbrook, Eng. Royal Arms at, ii, 
96; VIII, J7 
" " School-house, ii, 

95 
Crowninshield Brothers accused of 

Murder, i, 36 
Crow's Nest, Va., ii, 50 
Culver House, Brighton, N. Y., ii, 
3; V, 8 
" " Porch, Brighton, 

N. Y., i, J 
Cummington, Mass., ii, 71 
Cunningham Chapel, Clarke Co., 

Va., ii, 22 
Cupboard in Jaffrey House, Ports- 
mouth, N. H., i, 8 
Cupolas, II, 33 ; IV, 34 • ii, 98 
" Pennsylvania Hospital, 
Philadelphia, Pa., IV, 34 
" The Ubiquitous New Eng- 
land, ii, 77 
Curtis House, Jamaica Plain, Mass., 

ii, 82, 83 
Custis. John Parke, ii, 44, 45 
" Mrs. Martha, ii, 25, 44 

" Nellie, ii, 45, 47 

Custis's House, " Woodlawn." 
Nellie, ii, 27,48; VI, 20, 22,23, 
24, 25, 26 
Custom-house, Charleston, S. C, i, 
23 
" Door, Portsmouth, 

N. H., i, 12 
" Dubhn, ii, J07, 108 

" King's Lynn, Eng., 

ii- 93 
" Salem, Mass., i, 10, 

11,34 
" Yorktown, Va. First 

of its kind, ii, 19 

— D — 

Dale. Sir Thomas, ii, 31, 38, 39 

Dale's Gift, ii, 31 

Damon. C apt. Isaac. Architect, ii, 

70, 71 
Dance, Architect. George. Jr., ii, 

106 

Danvers, Mass. : — 

Balustrade from King Plooper 

House, i, 7 
General Putnam House, i, 4 
"King" Hooper House, i, 4 
Maria Goodhue House, VII, 29 

Danvensport Mantels, VII, 21 
Daughter. Church designed by 

Wren's, ii, 104 
Davie, Photographer. Galsworthy, 

ii, 96 
Deal Door\vay. An Old, VIII, 4 ■ 
Decastro House, Trenton, N. Y., ii, 
II 
" Madam, ii, 10 

Deck-roofs, ii, 77 
Dedham, Mass. Fairbanks House, 

I, 25, 26 ; ii, 82, 83 
Deerfield, Mass., ii, 62 

" " Doors of Stebbins 

House, ii, 64 
" " First Church, ii, 

68 
" " Opposes the Trol- 

ley, ii, (iTf 
" N. Y., ii, 10 
De La Warre. Lord, ii, 23, 25, 38 
Deming House, Litchfield, Conn., 
i, 5 



Explanation: —The first volume contains Pans I-IV, the second Parts V-VIII. The volume is indicated by "i" or "ii." All illustrations are indicated by bold-face 
numerals. The tull-page plates are indicated by Roman numerals indicating the Part, and bold-face figures showing the location of the plate in that Part. 



VI 



THE GEORGIAX PERIOD. 



Deptford, Exg. : — 

Home of Grinling Gibbons, ii, 87 
Rich in Door-heads, ii, 87 
Trinitv Almshouse Gate-house, 
VIII, 24 

Derby House. Salem, Mass., VII, 7 
Design. Books on, ii, 86 
Desk. I. 3» 

Devonshire Sq., London. A Stair- 
case in, VIII. 26 
Dexter. Timothy, Lord, ii, 78 
Dictum concerning Doors. Palla- 

dio's, ii, 99 
Digges. Edward, ii, 14 
Dogs. Washington's, ii, 47 
Dogue's Neck famous for Game, ii. 

Dome, i, 23 

Domestic Architecture of the Middle 
Provinces, i, i r 

Door-heads : — 

Cheyne Row, Chelsea, Eng., ii, 

87,89 
Deptford. Eng., ii, 87 
Exeter, Eng., VIII, 8, JO 
Greenbush, L. I., i, >2 
Hastings, Eng., ii, 93 
London. Georgian, in, ii, 87 
New York, N. Y., i, J 2 
Nichols ^nPierce House, Salem, 

Mass., i, 8 
Portsmouth, N. H., i, 6 
Salem, Mass., i, 8 
Tulip Hill, West River, Md., i, 

20 

Westminster, London, ii, 90 
Whitehall, Md., i, 22 

Doors XV, 33, 35 ; V, 2, 5, 7, 9, 
JO, J2, J7, J8; VI, JO, 
34; VII, J2, J4, J9, 22 

" Palladio's Dictum concern- 
ing, ii, 99 
Doorway, ii, 62, 76, 78 
Doorways. Columnar, ii, loi 
" Entablature, ii, loi 

" Humanity of, ii, 99 

Doorways : — 

Abingdon, Eng., VIII, 3 
Arnold House, Charlestown, 

Mass., 11,9 
Bellingham-Cary House, Chelsea, 

Mass., II, 52 
Brentford, Eng., loi, J02 
Buckingham St., Ixindon, ii, 87 
Camp Mansion, Sackett's Harbor, 

N. v., V, 10 
Canandaigua, N. Y., i, J6 
Carpenters'-hall, Philadelphia, 

Pa., Ill, 32 
Gary House, Batavia, N. Y., I, 33 
Chiche.ster, Eng., VIII, 3 
Churchill House, Wethersfield, 

Conn., ii, 63 
Deal. An old, VIII, 4 
Isaac Cook House, Brookline, 

Mass., II, 23 
Custom-house, Portsmouth, 

N. H., I, J2 
Fairfax House, Putney, Eng., 

VIII. 6 
Great Ormond St., London, ii, 

89 
Greig House, Canandaigua, N. Y., 

111,28,29 
Griffith House, Rochester, N. Y., 

ii, 2 
Grosvenor Road, I/indon, ii, 9J 
Guildford, Eng., VIII, 3 
Ha.'.ard House, Newport, R. I., I, 

23 
Isaac Hills House, Rochester, 

N. Y., 11,3 
Independence Hall, Philadelphia, 

Pa.. IV, 2J 
Lefferts House, Brooklyn, N. Y., 

IV, 4 
Liberty St., Pittsburgh, I'a., Ill, 

JO 



DOORW.WS : — 

Mappa House, Trenton, N. Y.. 

V, 16, 17, J8 
Meeting-house, Sandown, N. H., 

1,8 
Morris House, Philadelphia, Pa., 

111.22 

New York City-hall, II, 48 

Old North Church, New Haven, 
Conn., II. JO 

Pennsvlvania Hospital, Philadel- 
phia', Pa., Ill, 5 

Providence, R. I., i, 7; ii. 79 

Queen Anne's Gate, Westmin- 
ster, Eng., ii, 89 

Queen's Sq.. London, ii, 90 

Royall House, Medford, Mass., 
1,5,6 

Sackett's Harbor, N. Y., Ill, 26 

Shirley Parlor, VI, 32 

Stebbins House, Deerfield, Mass., 

ii, 64 
Thompson House, Charlestown, 

Mass., 11,7 
Wandsworth Manor House, Eng., 

vni, J8 

West Wycombe, Eng., ii, 92 
Wilhams House, Boston, Mass., 

II, J3 

Winslow House, Plymouth, 
Mass., VIII, 2 

Dorchester, Mass. The Oliver 

House, i, 5 
Dormer on Count Rumford's House, 
Woburn, Mass., i, 7 
" Typical New York, i, J2, 

13 
Dormers, i, 7 

" Newcastle, Eng., i, J 2 
Douglas House, Trenton, N. Y., ii, 

II 
Dove-cote, Shirley, Va., i, 21 ; ii, 36 
Dow, Painter. Arthur W., ii, 73 
Drinking Clergymen, ii, 25, 60 

" Habits, ii, 15, 25 
Drunkards, i, 1 5 
Drunkenness, ii, 60 

Dublin, Ireland: — 

Aldborough House, ii, 1 1 1 
Bank of Ireland, ii, no, 111 
Bedford Tower, Dublin Castle, 

VIII, 46 
Blue-coat School, ii, 112; VIII, 

44 
Brickfields, ii, no 
Carlisle Bridge, ii, 1 10 
Castle Chapel, ii, in 
Ceiling decorated by Italians. 

Plaster, ii, in 
Charlemont House, ii, in 
Circular Roads. The, ii, 108 
City-hall, VIII, 48 
College of Surgeons, ii, in; VII, 

44 
Cork Hill. View on, VIII, 46 
Custom-house, ii, J07, loS 
Four Courts. The, ii, 1 JO 
Georgian Architecture in, ii, 107 
Hospital. The Rotunda, ii, 109; 

VIII, 42 
Hospitals, ii, 109 
Houses. Early Georgian, ii, J08, 

J09 
King's Inn, ii, J09, no, in 
Leicester House, ii, 1 10 
Lord Essex's House, ii, 112 
Nelson Monument. The, ii, 1 1 1 
Newgate Prison, ii, no 
Old Parliament House, ii, JJ J 
Population of, ii, 107 
Portland-stone Dressings, ii, in 
Post-office. The General, ii, in 
Quays, ii, 108 
Register Office, ii, in 
Royal Exchange, ii, 1 10 

" Hibernian Academy of 
Art, ii. III 
St. George's Church, ii, in 
Statue of Grattan, ii, in 
Trinity College, ii, 1 11 ; VIII, 48 



Dublin, Ireland: — 
Tvrone House, ii, no 
Weavers' Hall, ii, J09 
Wide Streets Commission. The, 
ii, loS 

Duelling Parson. A, ii, 41 
Duff, a Scotch Architect, ii, 61 
Dug-outs, ii, 74 
Duke of Buckingham. George 

Villiers, ii, 89 
Dumb-waiter Fireplace, i, 23 
Dummer House, Bifield, Mass., VII, 

30 

Dunmore. Lord, ii, 19, 29 

" Attempts to capture 

Mount Vernon, ii, 45 

" Bombards Norfolk, 

Va. Lord, ii, 24 

Dunmore's House, Williamsburg, 

Va. Lord, ii, 18 
Dutch Character of English Houses, 

ii, 93 
" Church, Hackensack, N. J., 

i> 17 
" Cottage, New York, N. \ ., 

i, J4 
" Gap, ii, 32 
" House, Long Island, N. Y., 

i, J2 

" Influence in the Genesee 

Valley, ii, 2 
" Scenic Wall-paper, i, 8 
" Tiles, i, 22 
Dwight House, Springfield, Mass. 
Josiah, I, 2J 

-E- 

Eagle Tavern, Rochester, N. Y., ii, 

3 

Early Georgian Houses, Dublin, ii, 

J08 

Eastern Shore, Md., ii, 58 
Easthampton, L. I. J. H. Payne's 

House, i, 3 
East India Trade of Salem, ii, 77 
Eastlake's ''History of the Gothic 

Revival" ii, 86 
Eighteenth-century Architecture in 
England, ii, 
16, 91 
" Bridge, New- 

bury, Eng., ii, 
98 
" English Street. 

The, ii, 98 
" Gardens, ii, 98 

" Elements of Architecture" Dean 

Aldrich's, ii, 94 
Eliot Sq. Church, Roxbury, Mass., 

i, JO 
Ellicott Hall, Batavia, N. Y., ii, 4 

" Joseph, ii, 4 
Elmwood, Cambridge, Mass., i, 5 
Elsing Green, Va., ii, 29 
Ely Tavern, Springfield, Mass., ii, 

62 
Emerton House, Salem, Mass., VII, 

J6 
Endicott House Door. Gov., VII, 

22 
England. Blomfield's Book on the 

Renaissance in, ii, 93 
Englisii Inn Galleries, ii, 80 

" Houses. Dutch Character 

of, ii, 93 
" Metalwork, ii, 98 
Entablature Doorways, ii, loi 
Entrance-gate. Iron. Burford, Eng., 
VIII, 29 
" " Evesham, 

Eng., VIII, 
29 
" " St. Giles, Ox- 

ford, VIII, 
27 
" " Salisbury 

Close,VIII, 
27 
Entrance Screen, Syon House, Eng., 
ii,95; VIII, J5 



Ephrata, Pa. Convent at, i, 1 5 
" " Saal and Saron, i, 

J6; IV, J8 

Erasmus Hall, Brooklyn, N. Y., i, 
J6 
" " Mantel, IV, 7 

Essex House Mantel, Salem, Mass., 

in, J3 

" Institute, Salem, i, 36; IV, 3 

Essex's House, Dublin. Lord, ii, 
112 

Everett. Edward, i, 5 

Evesham, Eng. Iron Entrance- 
gate, VIII, 29 

Exchange, Dublin. The Royal, ii, 
no 

Exeter, Eng., Door-heads, VIII, 8, 

JO 

Extinguishers. Link, ii, 87 



-P- 

Fairbanks House, Dedham, Mass., 

1.25,26; ii, 82, 83 
Fairfax. Anne, wife of L. Wash- 
ington, ii, 44 
" Co., Va. Mantels in 

Blackford House, i, JO 
" House, Putney, Eng. 

Doorway of, VIII, 6 
Fairfax's Friendship for Washing- 
ton. Lord, ii, 44 
Fairford, Eng. Churchyard Tombs, 

VIII, 35 
Falling Creek, Va., ii, 32 
Faneuil Hall, Boston, Mass., II, 3 J, 
32,33 
" Peter, i, 27 
Fan-lights, i, 13; II, 3,39,40; HI, 
5, 7, 28, 29; IV, 8; u, 2; VI, 
24 
Farmington, Charlottesville, Va., i, 

23 

Farmington, Conn.: — 

First Church, ii, 68 
Old House at, i, 4 

Federals attempt to burn " Lower 

Brandon," ii, 28 
Fence Posts, Westover, Va., i, 2J 
Festoons, i, 8 

Field-book. Washington's, ii, 55 
Fireplace. See " Mantelpiece." 

" Facings. Perforated, ii, 

66 
First Church. See "Church," 

" Meeting-house." 
Fishkill, N. Y. Verplanck House, 

i, 12, 25 
Fitzhugh House, "Hampton," Gen- 
eseo, N. Y., ii, 6 
" William, ii, 6 
Fitzhughs. The, ii, 5 
Flatlands Neck, L. I. WyckofE 

House, i, 16 
Flat Roof, i, 2 1 
Flemish Bond, i, 20 
Floors. Puncheon, i, 20 
Folger House, Geneva, N. Y., ii, 3 ; 

III, 9 
Font, IV, J J 

" in Old Swedes Church, Phila- 
delphia, Pa., ii, 13 
" The Pocahontas, ii, 16 
Foot-stoves, ii, 71 
Forrester House, Salem, Mass., I, 

J3; VII, J5 
Fort Hills Academy, Canandaigua, 
N. v., ii, 3 
" Mabee House, Schenectady, 

N. Y., once a, ii, 9 
" Patience, Va., ii, 32 
" Schuyler, N. Y., ii, 10 
Four Courts, Dublin. The, ii, J JO 
" Fowey " Man - of - war threatens 

York town, ii, 19 
Fox-hunting in the Genesee Valley, 

ii, 6 
Frame of Farmington Church, ii, 68 
Franklin House, Annapolis, ii, 60 



Explanation: — The first volume contains Parts I-IV, the second Parts V-VIII. The volume is indicated by "i" or " ii." All illustrations are indicated by bold-face 
numerals. The full-page plates are indicated by Roman numerals indicating the Part, and bold-face figures showing the location of the plate in that Part. 



FREDF.RrCKSBURG, Va : 

Mary Washington House, ii, 20 
" Sunrise Tavern " Interiors, ii, 
46 

Freeman House, Norfolk, Va., VI 

French Rococo Ornament, i, 8 
Friends' Meeting-house, BurUngton. 

N. J., i, 9 
Frieze. A Turkey-decorated, ii, 8 1; ; 

VIII, 2 
Friezes, II, J J, J2, J7; III, 17 
Furniture brought over in the 
" Mayflower," ii, 84 
" Chippendale's Book on, 

ii, 86 
" at Salem, Mass., i, 36 

I. 26, 30, 31; III, 25, 
26; IV, 3, IV, J J 



-G- 

Gable Roof. The, ii, 82 

Gables. Stepped, i, 12 

Gadsby's Tavern, Alexandria, Va., 

i. 30 ■• 1.9 
Gage House. Porch of the Gen., 

111,27 
Galleries. English Inn, ii, 80 

" Removal of Church, ii, 

105 
Gallows Hill, Salem, Mass., i, 33 
Gambling, ii, 15 
Gambrel Roof. The, i, 4, 12, 21 ; 

ii, 64, 82 
Garden at Mount Vernon, ii, 46 
" " Shirley, ii. 36 
" of the Woolsey House, 
Sackett's Harbor, N. Y., 
ii, 9 
Garden-house, Clement's Inn, Lon- 
don, VIII, 30 
" Rye, Eng., ii, 97, 99 

Gardens. Eighteenth-century, ii, 98 
Garrison House, Medford, Mass., ii, 
7 



GENERAL INDEX OF TEXT AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 



va 



Georgian Architecture in Dublin, ii, 

107 
" true Archi- 

tecture, ii, 
92 
" London Churches. A 

Triad of, ii, 104 
" Door-heads in London, ii, 

87 
" Houses built on the 
Streets. Eng- 
lish, ii, 97 
" " in Dublin. Early, 

ii, 108 
" " New England, 

ii, Si . 
" Tombs. English, ii, 98 
Germanna. Country Seat of Gov. 
Spotswood, ii, 20 

Germantowx, Pa. : 

Chew House, VI, J 
Colonial House, i, 14 
Upsal House, VI, ), 2,3 
Wister House Mantel, VI, 8 

Gerretsen House, Brooklyn, N. Y 

Elsie, i, J 2 
Ghost of Chancellor ^Vythe, ii, 18 

" Elizabeth Byrd, ii, i8 
Gibbons. Grinling, ii, 8i, 89 

" " House at Dept- 

ford, Eng,, ii, 

87 
" Timbs and other Carv- 

ers, ii, 89 
Gibbs. James, Architect, i, 17, 28; 

ii, 84, 89, 105 
Gla.ss Parlor, Baltimore House, VI, 

3J 
"Gloria Dei," or Old Swedes 
Church, Philadelphia, Pa., i, 18; 
ii, 12; V, J J, J2 
Golden Horseshoe. Knights of the, 

ii, 20, 49 
Good. Sarah, i, 33 
Goodhue House, Danvers, Mass. 
Maria, VII, 29 



Greig House Doorway, C a n a n - 
daigua, N. Y., Ill, 28, 29 
" Mansion, Canandaigua, N. Y., 

ii. 3 
Greville's Expedition. Sir R., ii, 42 
Greyfriars' Church, London, ii, 106 
Griffith House Doorway, Rochester, 
N. Y., ii, 2 
" Inn, Trenton, N. Y., ii, ii 
Groombridge Place, near Tun- 
bridge-Wells, Eng. Portico, ii, 
103 
Grosvenor Road, London. Door- 
way in, ii, 9 J 
Grove. Carter's, ii, 26 
Guildford, Conn. " Old Stone 

House," i, I, 2 
Guildford, Eng. Bay-window, ii, fOO 
" " Bull Inn, ii, JOO 

" Doorway, VIII, 3 
" Guildhall, VIII, 20 
" " House at, ii, 94 

Guildhall, Guildford, Eng., VIII, 20 
Guiteau House, Trenton, N. Y., ii, 

II 
Gunston Hall in England, ii, 49 
" " Va. Home of Geo. 

Mason, ii, 44, 49, 
50 
" " Niche, i, 23 

" Parlor Door, VI, 36 
" " Staircase, ii, 54 

Gustavus Adolphus, ii, 12 
Guthrie. Dr. Samuel, ii, 7 
Gymnasium, Cambridge, Mass 
Hemenway, ii, 84 



-H- 



Hackensack, N. J., i, 13 

" " Dutch Church, 

i. 17 
Hadfield. George. Architect, i, 19 
Hadley, Mass. Porter House at, 
I, 21,22; ii, 62, 64 



fj~ , ' Goodman Cottage, Lenox, Mass., Hailsham, Eng. Vicarage, VIII, 7 

JNewburyport, ii, 8^, 86 i Hall House «al„straHp MpHfnrH 



Mass., i, 2 : ii, 72 
Gate • house, Trinity Almshouse, 

Deptford, Eng., VIII, 24 
Gate-piers, Hampstead Marshall, 

Eng., VIII, 9 
Gate-posts, ii, 80: IV, 2; VII, 12 

Gates : — 

Burford, Eng., VIII, 29 
Evesham, Eng., VIII, 29 
Salisbury Close, Eng., VIII, 27 
St. Giles, Oxford, Eng., VIII, 27 
Temple, London, ii, J03 
Westover, Va., i, 21 ; ii 40 

Gates, N. Y. Mantels, II, 38 
Gateway to Syon House, Eng., 

VIII, J5 
Genesee, N. Y., ii, 2 

" Valley Colonial Work, ii, 

I 
" " Hunt, ii, 2 

" " settled by Mary- 

landers, ii, 2 
Geneseo, N. Y., ii, 5 

Geneseo, N. Y. : — 

Ayrault House, I, 32; ii, 6; 

V, 5 
Big Tree Inn, ii, 6 
Court-house Door, V, 7 
" Hampton," the Fitzhugh House, 

ii, 6 
Wadsworth House, i, 15; V, 5 

Geneva, N. Y. : — 
Block of Houses, ii, 3 
Folger House, III, 9; ii. 3 
Hobart College, N. Y., ii, 3 
Tillman Block, ii, 3; V, 9 

George II, ii, 21 

III, ii, 16 
Georgetown, D. C. Tudor House 
III, 24 



ii, 83. 86 
Goose Creek, S. C. St. James's 

Church, i, 24; 111,6 
Gosliun, Conn. Norton House, II, 

53, 54, 55, 56 
" Gothic Kcvival. History of the." 

P^astlake's, ii, 86 
Grace Church, New York, N. V., ii, 

4 
Granary Burying-ground, Boston, i, 

28 
Granby, Ma.ss., ii, 71 
Granger Place Seminary, Canan- 
daigua, N. Y., ii, 3 
Granite. Irish, ii, 1 11 
Grant. Gen. U. S., ii, 7 

" The MJTiisters', Lenox, 

Ma,ss., ii, 83 
Grattan's Statue, Dut)lin, ii, 11 1 
Gravestones, Witney, Eng., VIII, 

31 

Gray. Miss Alice A., ii, 75 
Great College St., Westminster. 
Door-head in, ii, 90 
" Ormond St.. London. Door- 
way in, ii. 89 
Wigsell, Eng. Mantel at, 
VIII, 5 
Greece, N. Y. Doorway on Ridge 

Road, V, )5 
Greek Beginnings, ii, 67 

" Revival. The, i, 8, 13, 18; 
ii, 2, 86 



Greenbush, L. I. Van Rensselaer 
Manor House, 
i, 13 
" " Van Rensselaer 

House Door- 
head, i, )2 
Greenfield, Mass. Hollister House, 
ii, 66 
" " .Staircase, ii, 65 

Green Spring. Va., ii, 2 i ; ii, 25 
i Greenway C(nirt, ii, 44 



Hall House Balustrade, Medford, 

Mass, I, 7 
Hallet, Architect, i, 19; ii, 48 
Halls, i, 21 

Hamilton. Andrew. Architect, i, 
18 
" Hall, Salem, Mass, IV, 

8 
" James. Architect, i, 18 

" Mansion near Phila- 

delphia. Details from 
i, 14. 17 
Hammond, William, ii, 59 
Hampstead Marshall, Eng. Gate 

Piers, VIII, 9 
Hampton Court, Eng. River Front, 
ii, 97; VIII, )2 
" Va. St. John's Church, 

i, 24 
" Hampton," the Fitzhugh House, 

Geneseo, N. Y., ii, 6 
Hancock House, Boston, Mass, i, 3 ; 
ii, 82 
" John, i, 4 

*' Thomas, i, 4 

Handel at Little Stanmore Church, 

ii. 95 
Hanover, Va., Court-house, ii, 30 
Hard Brick Hill, Ipswich, Mass., ii, 

73 
Harewood, Samuel Washington's 

House, ii, 55, 56 
Hargous House Mantel, Pittsford, 

N. Y., I, 32 
Harley St. The Prudery of, ii, 100 
Harrison. Benjamin, ii, 40 
" Mrs. George, ii, 28 

*' Gov. John, ii, 40 

" Peter. Architect, i, 10, 

3^ 
Harrisons of Berkeley. The, ii, 40 
Harvard College, ii, 19 
Ilarwood House, Annapolis, Md., 
i, 19,20, 21,59; ii, 27,58 



Hastings, Eng. Door-head, ii, 93 
" " Pier Termination, 

11,96; VIII, J7 

Hatfield, Eng., ii, 83 

" Mass. First Church, ii, 
68 

Haven House Mantel, Portsmouth, 
N. H., VII, 23 

Hawksmoor, Architect. Nicholas, 
ii, 84, 94, 105 

Hawthorne. Nathaniel, i, 34 

Hay for Hair in Plaster, ii, 74 

Hazard House, Newport, R. I. 
Details of, i, 23, 24 

Heartbreak Hill, Ipswich, Mass, ii, 
73 

Hemenway Gymnasium, Cam- 
bridge, Mass., ii, 84 

Henrico, Va., ii, 31 

Henry. Patrick, ii, 17, 20, 29, 30 

Heraldic Carvings, ii, 96; VIII, J7 

Hibernian Academy of Art. John- 
ston founds the Royal, ii, 1 1 1 

High Wycombe, Eng. Town -hall, 
ii, 98 ; 

vin, 21 

" " " M a n t e 1- 

piece, ii, 

93 

Hill. Col. Edward, ii, 38 

Hills House, Rochester, N. Y., II, 

2,3,4 
Ilingham, Mass. The " Old Ship " 

Church, i, 9: IV, J7; ii, S3 
Hipped Roofs, i, 4 ; ii, 66, 77 
Historical Society, Ipswich, ii, 73 
" " Medford, ii, 72 

" " Newport, i, 31 

" History of the Gothic Revival." 

Eastlake's, ii, 86 
Hoban. James. Architect, i, 19 
Hobart College Building, Geneva, 

N. Y., ii, 3 
Hodges House, Salem, Mass., i, 8 ; 

VII, 10, II 
Holden Chapel, Cambridge, Mass., 

ii, 82, 84 
Holland Company, ii, 5 
" House, Eng., ii, 83 
" Land Co., ii, 4, 10 
" Purchase Office, Batavia, 
N.Y., I, 33 
HoUin Hall, Fairfax County, Va., 

ii. 52 
Hollister House, Greenfield, Mass., 

ii. 64, 66 
Holmes House, Cambridge, Mass., 

ii, 84 
Homes of the Washington Family, 

ii. 54 
Homewood Stable, Baltimore, Md., 

i, 22 
Hood, Ayrault House, Newport, 
R. I., i, 6 
The Shell, ii, 87; ii, 100 ; 

VIII, 6, 8, 10 
Tulip Hill, West River, 
Md., i, 20 
" Van Rensselaer Door-, i, J2 
Hooper House. Danvers, Mass. 
The " King" i, 4, 7 
"King,"i, 7 
Hope's Book. Thomas, ii, 86 
Horse-racing, ii, 15 
Horseshoe. The Knights of the, 

Golden, ii, 20, 49 
Horsmonden, Eng. Candelabrum, 

ii, 101 
Hospital, Abingdon, Eng., ii, 96, 98 
" Dublin. The Rotunda, 

ii, 109; VIII, 42 
" Philadelphia, I'a. Penn- 

svlvania, III, 1,2,3,4, 
5',8;.IV,34;ii,7?, 80 
Hospitals. Dublin, ii, 109 
Hotel Cluny of a New England 
Village, ii, 72 
" " Paris, ii, 73 

Houdon's Visit to Mount Vernon. 

ii. 47 
House-breaker's Yard. The, ii, 87 
House of Burgesses. Virginia, ii, 14 



ExPLA.SATION : — The first volume contains Parts l-IV, the second Pans V-Vlll. The volume is indicated by "i"_or "ii." All illustrations are indicated by bold-face 
Dumeralft. The full-page piateii ar.* indicated by Roman numerals indicating the Part, and bold-face figures showing the location of the plate in that Part. 



THE a HO KG I AX PERIOD. 



House, Dublin. The o\d railianiem, 
ii, I IJ 
Grounds, Mount Vernon. 

VI. 35 

•• Hadley, Mass . I, 2 1 

Old Stone. Riclimond, Va., 
III. 6 
" of Seven Gables, Salem, 

Ma-ss., i, 9 
" Tyrone, ii, no 
Houses of New England. The 
Georgian, ii. Si 
" on the Street. English 
Georgian, ii, 97 
Howard. Castle, ii, 94 
Hubbard. Samuel. Diaryof, i, 31 
Hulion House Staircase, Salem. 

Mass.. VII, 5, 6 
Hudson, i 12 
Huguenot Refugees, ii, 14 
Humanity of Doorways. The, ii, 

99 
Hunt. Genesee Valley, ii, 6 

Robert, ii, 22 
Hurd House, Charlestown, Mass. 

Porch, i, 7 
Hutchinson. Governor, ii, 62 

-I- 

Independence Hall, Philadelphia, 
Pa., i, >8; IV, 21, 22, 23, 24, 
25, 26, 27, 29 
Indian. See " Ma-ssacre " 
Indians, i, i 

" Torture of Lieut. Thomas 
Boyd by, ii, 5 
Inlaid Mantelpieces. Bossi's, ii, 1 1 1 
Inn Galleries. English, ii, 80 

Inns: — 

Big Tree, Geneseo, N. Y., ii, 6 

Bull. Guildford, Eng., ii, J 00 

Griffith's, Trenton, N. Y., ii, 1 1 

King's, Dublin, ii, J09 

See " Tavern " 

Wayside. Sudbury, Mass., i, 2 ; 

ii. 82 
White Hart, Sali-sbury, Eng., ii, 
96 

Inns. English Coaching, ii, 96 
Ipswich Historical Society, ii, 73 
" Ma.ss. Whipple House, ii, 
73,74 
Ireland. Bank of, Dublin, ii, no, 

ni 

Irish Granite, ii, in 

" Ironwork, ii, in 

" Limestone, ii. in 
Iron Foundries. The earliest, ii, 20 

" Gates. English, ii, 103; VIII, 

27,29 

" Newel-posts, Varick St., New 
York, N. Y , IV, J 
Ironwork. Irish, ii, in 
Isle of Hogges, Va., ii, 22 

" " Wight, Va., ii, 23 
Italian Artisans in Dublin. Work 
of, ii, I II 
" Rococo Ornament, i, 8 

-J- 

Jacka-sses given by Lafayette to 

Wa.shington, ii, 47 
Jaffrey House Cupboard, Ports- 
mouth, N. IL, i, 8 
Jail, Canandaigua, N. Y. Ontario 

County, V, 4 
Jamaica House, Bermondsey, ii, 80 
" Plain, Mass. Curtis 
House, ii, 82, 83 
James I, ii, 32 

" River, Va. Carter's Hall, 

i, 2J 
" " " Map of the, ii, 

>3 
" '* " Pigef)n-h o u s e, 

i, 2J 
Jamestown, Va., i, 19; ii, 13, 20 
*' (,!hurch-tower, ii, 20 



Jefferson. Thomas, i, 23; ii. 5. 17. 

-^' j3- 34 
Jennings House, Annapolis, Md., 

i. 20; ii, 59 
Jemison, " The White Woman of 

the Genesse." Mary, ii, I 
Jesuit ^iissionaries, ii, i 
Johnston, Architect. Francis, ii, i n 
" founds the Royal Hibern- 
ian Academy of Art, ii, 
1 1 1 
Jones. Inigo. Architect, ii. S4, 100 
Uulse Walker I louse I'orch, Lenox, 

>iass., VI II, 1 
Jumel Mansion, New York, N. Y., 
i, 14 

-K- 

Kearsley. Dr. John. Architect, 

i, 17, 18 
Kenmore, Va., ii, 56 
Kennedy House, Annapolis, ii, 59 
Kennel. Washington's, ii, 47 
Key of the Bastile, i, 3 J 
King Carter, ii, 24, 34, 39 
King's Chapel, Boston, i, 10 ; ii, 83 
" " " Details, I, 

J6, 17 
Pulpit, i, 9; I, J5, 
18, J9 
College, New York, N. Y., 
i, iS 
" Inn, Dublin, ii, 109, 1 10 
Lynn, Eng., ii, 93 
Kiquatan, ii, 31 

Kittery, Me. The Pepperell Man- 
sion, i, 4 ; ii, 82 
Kneller. Portraits by Sir Godfrey, 

ii, 38, 41 
Knights of the Golden Horseshoe, 

ii, 20, 49 
Knockers, II, 52 

— L,— 

Ladd House, Portsmouth, N. H., ii, 
82, 84 
" " Staircase, Portsmouth, 

N. H., VII, 24 
Lafayette, ii, i, 45 
Lake House. An English, VIII, 

13 

Lancaster County, Va. Christ 

Church, ii, 24 
Lane. Capt. Ralph, ii, 42 
Lang, Jeffrey, House, Salem, Mass., 

VII, 31 
Langdon House, Portsmouth, N. H. 

Newel-post. Governor, i, 8 ; ii, 

82 
Langdon's House Balustrade, Ports- 
mouth, N. H. Governor, i, 7 
Langley's Architectural Book. 

Batty, i, 5, 28 ; ii, 86 
Lantern on Christ's Ho.spital, Ab- 
ingdon, Eng., ii, 96, 98 
Larcom. Lucy, ii, 73 
Latin Book on Architecture. Dean 

Aldrich's, ii, 94 
Latrobe. Benjamin. Architect, 

i, 19 
Layout of English Suburban Towns. 

The, ii, 97 
Lee Gen. R. E., ii, 21 
" Hall. Home of Richard Lee, 
ii, 50 

" House, Marblehead, Mass., ii, 
82 

" " Staircase, Marblehead, 
Mass., 1, 27 

" Thomas, ii, 21 
Lefferts Homestead, Brooklyn, 
N. v., i, J 2 
'.' House Doorway, IV, 4 
Leicester House, Dublin, ii, iio 
L'Enfant. Maj. Pierre, i, 17; ii, 60 
Lenox, Mass. Church, ii, 70 

" " Court-house, ii, 70, 

71 
" " Goodman Cottage, 

ii, 83, 86 



Lenox, Mass. Judge Walker 
House Porch, 
ii, 83; VIII, J 
" " Ministers' Grant. 

The, ii, 83 

Le Roy. Herman, ii, 5 

" " House, Le Roy, N. Y., 

"> 4, 5 
Leviness House, City Island, N. Y., 

ii, 77 
Lewes, Eng. Offices on High St., 
", 94, 97 
" Shop-front at, ii, 100 
Lewis, Lawrence, Husband of Nellie 

Custis, ii, 47, 49 
Lewisham, Eng. Vicarage at, ii, 94 
Library, Boston, Ma,ss. Old Public, 
i, 7 
" Oxford, Eng., Radcliffe, ii, 

94. 98 
Limestone. Hard Irish Blue, ii, n i 
Lincoln preserves " I^ower Bran- 
don." President, ii, 28 
Link -extinguisher, ii, 87 
Litchfield, Conn. The Deming 
House, i, 5 
" " Porch, i, 6 

" " Stair-rail, i, 8 

Little Harbor, N. IL Wentworth 
House, ii, 82, 86 
" Mantel in Office of Arthur, 

I, 14 
" Stanmore, Eng. Chuich at, 

". 95 
Livezey's House, Philadelphia, Pa., 

i, 15 

Livingston Park Seminary, Roches- 
ter, N. Y., ii, 3 

Lloyd. Governor, ii, 59 

Log-houses, i, i, 12 

London Company. The, ii, 31 

London : — 

Chippendale's Shop. Door of, 

ii, 104 
Christ Church, Newgate, ii, io6; 
VIII, 37 

" " Spitalfields, ii, 94, 

105; VIII, 39, 
40 
City Churches, ii, 98 
Door-heads, ii, 87 
Doorways, ii, 87, 90, 91 
Garden House, Clement's Inn, 

VIII, 30 
Greyfriars' Church, ii, ]o6 
Newgate Prison, ii, 106 
St. James's Church, Piccadilly, 

i, 10, 32 ; ii, 105 
St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, i, 10, 

17; ii, 86, 94 
St. Mary-le-Strand, ii, 94, 104, 

105; VIII, 32, 33, 34 
St. Mary's Woolnoth, ii, 94 
St. Paul's, Old, ii, 84 
Staircase in Devon.shire Square, 

VIII, 26 

Street-plan. Sir C. Wren's, ii, 60 

Temple Gate, ii, )03 

Trinity Grand Almshouse, VIII, 

22 
Wren's House. Sir C, ii, 104 
York Building, ii, 89 

Longfellow House, Cambridge, 

Ma.ss., i, 4, 6, 12 ; ii, 82 
Long Island, N. Y. Dutch House, 

i, 12 
Longleat, Eng., ii, 83 
Longmeadow, Mass. Samuel Col- 
ton's House, ii, 62, 63 
Long.swamp Old Church, Mertz- 

town, Pa., i, iS 
Lord House Porch, Salem, Mass., 
VH, 25 

" Timothy Dexter's House, 
Newburyport, Mass., ii, 78 
Ijost Boy. Story of the, ii, 4 
Louis Philippe at Canandaigua, 

N. v., ii, I, 2 
Lowell's House, Cambridge, Mass. 

J. R., i, 5 
Lower Brandon, Va., ii, 27, 28 



Lumber. Pearly sawed, i, i 
Lundy's Lane. Battle of, ii, 4 



-M — 

Mabee House, Schenectady. N. Y., 

ii, 9 
Madeira Wine, ii, 52 
Madison and Dolly Todd. James, 

".55 
" Barracks, Sackett's Har- 
bor, N. v., ii, 7 
" N. J. Old House, ii, 9 
Mahogany Rails, i, 21 
Mahone. General, ii, 23 
Maidstone, Eng. Banks Almshouse, 

ii, 96, 99 
Manchester-by-the-Sea, Ma.ss. Con- 
gregational Church Steeple, i, JO 
Mangin, French Draughtsman, i, 18 
Mann. Mary, ii, 17 
Manor. Van Rensselaer. Albany, 
N. Y.,i, 13,14,15 
" House, Greenbush, L. I. 

Van Rensselaer, 
i. 13 
" " Philipse, Yonkers, 

N. v., II, 24, 
25, 26, 27, 28, 
29 
" Wandsworth, Eng., VIII, 

14, 16, 18 
Mansion House, Albany, N. Y. 

Van Rensselaer, i, 13 
Mantelpieces, i, 22, 42 ; V, 4, 8, 9, 
13; VI, 5, 7, 14; 
VII, 9, 20 
" inlaid by Italian 

Workmen. Dub- 
lin, ii, in 

Mantelpieces : — 

In Ayrault House, Geneseo, 

N. Y., I, 32 
" Bellingham-Cary House, Chel- 
sea, Mass., II, 49, 50 
" Bicknell House, Rochester, 

N. v., II, 5 
" Blackford House, Fairfax Co., 

Va., I, 10 
" Carlyle House, Alexandria, 

Va., Ill, J8 
" Cazanove, Alexandria, Va., i, 

22 
" Isaac Cook House, Brookline, 

Mass., II, 18 
" Culver House, Brighton, N. Y., 

V, 8 
at Danversport, Mass., VII, 21 
in Erasmus Hall, Brooklyn, 

N. v., IV, 7 
" Essex House, Salem, Mass., 

Ill, 13 
" Forrester House, Salem, 

Mass., I, 13 
at Gates, N. Y., II, 38 
" Great Wigsell, Eng., VIII, 5 
in Hargous House, Pittsford, 

N. v., 1, 32 
" Haven House, Portsmouth, 

N. IL, VII, 23 
" High Wycombe, Eng.. ii, 93 
" Isaac Hills House, Rochester, 

N. Y., II, 4 
" House on S. 3d St., Philadel- 
phia, Pa., IV, 28 
" Mappa House, Trenton, N. Y., 

V, 19,20,21 

" Mayor's Office, South Mol- 
ten, Eng., VIII, 5 

" Morris House, Philadelphia, 
Pa., HI, 23 

" Mt. Pleasant, Philadelphia, 
Pa., IV, 36 

" Mumford House, Rochester, 
N. Y., II, 4 

" Myers House, Norfolk, Va., 

VI. 16, 17, 18 
" Nichols House, Salem, Mass., 

HI, 14, 15 



ExiLANATios : — The first voluiiie contains Parts I-IV, the second Parts V-VIII. The volume is indicated by "i" or "ii." All illustrations are indicated by bold-lace 
numerals. The fuil-page i-lates are indicated by Roman numerals indicating the Part, and bold-face figures showing the location of the plate in that Part. 



GENERAL INDEX OE TEXT AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 



XX 



Mantelpieces : — 

In Norton House, Goshen, 

Conn., II, 53, 56 
" Octagon House, Washington, 

D. C, III, J2, 16, J7 
" Office of Lamb & Rich, New- 
York, N. Y., Ill, 
19 
" " " Arthur Little, i, I4 
" Oliver House, Salem, Mass , 

VII, 14 
" P h i I i p s e Manor House, 
Yonkers, N. V., II, 25, 26, 

" Pingree House, Salem, Mass , 

IV, 6 
" Sharritt's House, Baltimore 

Md., VI., J3 
" Shirley Parlor, VI, 32 
" Thompson House, Charles- 
town, Mass., II, 8 
at Tuckahoe, ii, 33 
in Upsal House, Germantown, 

Pa., VI, 2, 3 
"Van Rensselaer Mansion, 

Albany, N. Y., i, J 3 
" Waitt Place, Barnstable, 

Ma.ss., HI, J9 
" Westover, Va., I, 22 
" Williams House, Boston, 

Mass., II, 14, 16 
" Williamsburg, Va., i, 23 
" Wister House, Germantown, 

Pa , VI, 8 
" Workingwomen's Bureau, 

Salem, Mass., I, 14 
at Woodlawn, Va., VI, 25, 26 
Manuscript. The Mason, ii, 50 
Map of the James River, Va., ii, 13 
Mappa. Col. Adam G., ii, 10 
" House, Trenton, X. Y., ii. 

10; V, )4, 16, 17, 18, 
19,21,22 
" John, ii, 10 

Marblehead, Ma.ss. Jeremiah Lee's 
House, ii, 82 
" Staircase in Lee 

House. I, 27 
Market, Newport, R. I., i, 1 1 

" Rochester, N. Y., ii, 1 
Market -town Town -halls. Small 

English, ii, 95 
Marlboro, Va., ii, 50 
Martin's Brandon, Va., ii. 32 
Maryland Manor House. A, i, 19 
Maryland's First Capital, ii, 58 
Marx House, Annapolis, Md., ii, 4 
Mason of Gunston, ii, 48 

" George C Architect, i, 10 
" George, " Wisest Man of his 

Generation," ii, ^4 
" Mrs. Col., ii, 9 
Mason's Manuscrijjt. Gen., ii, 50 
Massachusetts. Colonial Architect- 
ure in Western, 
ii, 61 
•' Hall, Cambridge, 

Mass., ii, 82 
Massacre. Indian, ii, 14. 38, 62 

" James River, ii, 32 

Matrons, College of. Salisbury, 

Eng., ii. 96;VIII, 23 
Maury. Rev. Mr., ii, 30 
" Mayflower " Furniture, ii, 84 
McBean, Architect, i, 17 
McComb. John, Architect, i, 17, 

18 
McDowell Hall, Annapolis, Md., ii, 

60 
McKim, Mead & White, .Vrchitects, 

'■ 23 
Mclean Asylum Building, Somer- 
ville, Mass., ii, 
84 
" " Stairs. The, ii, 

79. S5 
Medford Historical Society, ii, 72 
" Mass., Brickyards, ii, 77 
" " Cradock House, i, 

2, 3; ii. -2. Si 
" " Garrison House, 

ii, 72 



Medford, Mass. Hall House Balus- 
trade, i, 7 
" Koyall House, I, 
2, 3, 4, 5, 6; 
ii> 72, 82 
Meeting-house. See •• Church." 

" Burlington, N. J. 

Friends', i, 9 
First, i, 3s 
The, ii, 67 
Meetmghouses. Selling, ii, 70 
Memorial Tablet in Atherington, 

Eng. Church, ii, J04 
Mennonites, i, 15 

Mertztown, Pa. Longswamp Re- 
formed Church, i, 18 
Metalwork. English Georgian, ii, 

98 
Methodist Episcopal Church, 

Waterloo, N. Y., i, 17 
Middle Plantation, ii, 13 

" Provinces, i, 1 1 
Middlesex, Eng. Entrance Screen 

to Syon House, VIII, 15 
Military Homes, i, I, 2 
Millwood, Va. Carter Hall, ii, 34 
Ministers' Grant, Lenox, Mass. 

The, ii, 83 
Mirror Frame, I, 31 
Mohawk Valley, N. Y., ii, 10 
Monastery, Ephrata, Pa., IV, J 8 

" I'hiladelphia, Pa., i, 15 

Monticello, Charlottesville, Va., i, 

23 
Monument, UubHn. The Nelson, 

ii. III 
Monumental Church, Richmond, 

Va., HI, 11 
Moravians, i, 15 

Morris House, New York, N. Y , i, 
J3 
" " Philadelphia, Pa., 

in, 20, 21, 22, 
23 

" " Washington buys 

the, ii, 47 
" Reserve. The, ii, 4 
" Robert, ii, 4 
Mossom. Rev. Mr., ii, 25 
Moulded Clapboards, ii, 64 
Mount Airy; House of the Tayloes, 
i, 29 ; ii, 50 
Julian, Fishkill, X. Y., i, 25 
" Malado, Va., ii, 32 
" Morris, N. Y., ii, 2, 5 
" Pleasant Mansion, Philadel- 
phia, Pa., IV, 30, 32, 33, 
35,36 
" Vernon Ladies Association, 
ii, 48 
" Va., 11,27,41,44,45, 

4S, 54; VI, 33, 
34,35 
-Moving Churches, ii, 68 
Mulberry Trees, ii, 14 
.Mumford House Mantel, Rochester, 

N. Y., II, 4 
Munday. Richard, Architect, i, 10 
The Salem, i, 36 
Architect. William, ii. 



Northbrook St., 



.Murd 
Murray. 

1 1 1 
Murravs 

ii. 57 
Myers House. Norfolk, Va. Barton, 

ii, 43; VI. 12, 15, 16, 17, 18 



Acton, the Home of the. 



-N — 

Narbonne House, .Salem, Mass., ii, 

62 
Narragansett. R. I. Church, i, 9 
Navy reserves large Trees. Royal, 

ii, 64 
Nelson House, Yorktown, Va., ii, 
19 
*' Mrnuinient. Dublin. Archi- 
tect of, ii. Ill 
Thomas, ii, 9 
New Amsterdam Government, ii, 

10 
Newlmrv. Eng. Bridge at, ii, 98; 
Vlll,'25 



Newbury, Eng, 
ii, 98 

Newburyport, Mass. : — 
Collins House, ii, 72 
Garrison House, i, 2 ; ii, 72 
Timothy, Lord Dexter's House, 
ii, 78 

Newby Hall, Yorks, Eng., ii, 96 
New-castle, Eng. Dormers, i, 12 
Newel-posts, i, 8; IV, I • V, 15• 
VI, 9 ; VII, 2, 5, 8, 1 1 
New- England. Georgian Houses, 

ii, 81 
New-gate Prison, Dublin, ii, no 
" London, Eng., ii, 106 

New Haven, Conn.: — 
Old North, II, 10 
Steeple of First Church, II, 10 

New- Kent Co., Va. St. Peter's 

Church, ii, 25 
Newport New-s, ii, 32 

Newport, R. I. : — 

Ayrault House Hood, i, 6 
Gov. Bull House, i, 2 
Christopher G. Champlin House, 

1,32 
City-hall, i, J 1 

Hazard House, Details, I, 23, 24 
Historical Society, i, 31 
Seventh Day Baptist Cnurch Pul- 

pit. i, 31 : I. 20 
State-house, i, 10, 1 1 ; ii, 83 
Synagogue, i, 10 
Town-hall, i, 10, 1 1 
Trinity Church, i, 32 

" " Pulpit, i, 10 

New State-house, Boston. The, i, 
1 1 
" Sweden, Del., i, 15 

New York, N. Y. : — 
Apthorpe House, i, 14 
" Brick Church," i, 17 
Bull's Head Tavern, i, (9 
City hall, i, 17, 18; II, 30, 34, 

35, 36, 37, 48 

Door-head. A, i, 12 
Dutch Cottage, i, l4 
Iron Newel-posts on Varick St., 

IV, 1 
Jumel Mansion, i, 14 
King's College, i, 18 
Morris House, i, 13 
Oldest House in, i, 16 
Old Trinity Church, i, 16 
St. John's Chapel, i, 17; IV, 16 
St. Paul's Chapel, i, lO; IV, 10, 

n, 12, 13 

Sub-trea.sury, i, 18 

Niches, i, 22, 23 

Nichols House, Salem, Mass., VII, 
10 
" " Door, VII, 22 

" " Mantel, HI, J4, 15 

Nicholson. Gov., ii, 13 

" Sir Francis, ii, 15 

Nicholson-Pierce House Door-head, 

Salem, Mass., i, 8 
Nieuw Amsterdam, i, II 
Nogging. Brick, ii, 74, 76 
Nomini, House of Robert Carter, 



Northampton, Eng. All Saint s' 
Church, ii, gc ; 
VUI, 15 
" Mass., ii, 61, 62 

" " Attempt to 

sell the 
Meeting- 
house, ii, 70 
" " First Church, 

ii, 68, 69, 
70 
North Church, Boston, Mass. Old 
ii, 81,83 
" " New Haven, Conn. 

Old, II, 10 
" Runcton, Eng., ii, 93 
Northern and Southern Peculiari- 
ties. Some, ii, 76 
Northiam, Sussex, Eng. Candela- 

bnim at, ii, 101 
Norton House, Goshen, Conn., II, 

53, 54, 55, 56 
Nott. Tomb of Gov. Williams- 
burg, Va., ii, J 6 

-o- 



11, 50 
Noon -house. The, ii, 71 
Norfolk, Va., ii, 42 

" " bombarded by Lord 

Dunmore, ii, 42 

Norfolk, Va. : — 

Freeman House, VI, 19 

House of Barton Mvers, ii, 43; 

VI, 12, 15, 16, J7, 18 
Porcli of the Gen. Gage House, 

111,27 
St. Bride's, ii, 43 
" Paul's Church, ii, 42 
Typical Porches, VI, 2J 

Norman's " Timm ami Country 
Bidlihr's Assistant,'' ii, 65 



Oatlands, Loudon County, Va ii 

43 
Octagon House, Washington, 
D. C, i, 28 
" " Mantels, III, 12, 

J6, 17 
Plan, III, 17 
Office of the Holland Purchase, 
Batavia, N. Y., I, 33 
" Front, Lewes, Eng., 94, 97 
" Register, Dublin, ii, iii 
Old Bailey Prison, London, ii, J06 
" Corner Bookstore, Boston, 

Mass., ii, 82 
" Manse, Concord, Mass., i, 3 
" North Church, Boston, Mass., 

ii, 81, 83 
" " " New Haven, 

Conn., II, 10 
" Parliament House, Dublin, ii, 

111 
" St. Paul's, London, ii, 84 
" Ship Church, Ilingham, Mass., 

i, 9; IV, 17; ii, 83 
" South Church, Boston, Mass., 

i, 10, 26; IV, 14, 15 
" State-house, Boston, Mass., i, 
10, II; II, 46,47; ii, 72,83 
" Stone House," Guilford, Conn., 

i, 1,2 

" (Swedes') Church, Wil- 
mington, Del., i, 17 
" Sw-edes' Church, Philadelphia, 
Pa., i, 18; V, Jl, 12 
Olden Barneveld, N. Y., li, 10 
Oldest House in New York City, 

i, 16 
Oliver House, Dorchester, Mass., 

i, 5 
" " Salem, Mass., VII, 

12, 14 

Olmsted. F. L., ii, 5 
' Oneida." Brig, ii, 7 

Orkney. Earl of, ii, 16 

Orr. Tomb of Hugh. Williams- 
burg. Va., ii, 16 

Osborne House. Nehemiah. 
Rochester, N. Y., ii, 2 

Osgood House Door, Salem, Mass., 
VII, )9 

Oulton Hall, Cheshire, Eng., ii, 97 

Overhanging Stories, ii, 64 

Overhang of the Eaves, i, 13 

Ovid, N. Y. Mantel in Indefemlent 
Office, V, 

J3 

" " " State Road 

H o V s e , 
V, 13 
All Saints' Church, 



Oxford, Eng. 



11, 94 
Iron Gate, St. Giles, 

VIH. 27 
RatUliffe Library, ii, 

94- 98 



Exi'i.ANATi. n: — The first volume contains Paris I-IV, the second Farts V-VIII. The volume is indicated by "i" or "ii." All illustrations are indicated by bold-face 
numerals. The full-page plates are indicated by Roman numerals indicating tlie Part, and bold-face figures showing the location of the plate in tha» Part 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



Piers. Hamjistead Marshall, Eng. 

Gate. VIII. 9 
Piffard House, Piffard. N. V., ii, 5 
I'iffards. ii. 5 

Pieeon Cove, Mass. Old House at, 
i. 4 
House, Shirley, i. 21; ii. 36 
Pike. Gen. Zebulon. ii, 7 
Pineapple-House Door, Salem, 

Mass., VII, J9 
Pine's Portrait of Washington, ii, 

■♦7 
Pingree House, Salem, Mass.. i, 35 

Mantels, IV, 6 
Pittsburijh. Pa., Uoorway on Liberty 

St., in, JO 

Pittsford, N. V., Mantel in Ilargous 

House, I, 32 
Plastered Houses, i, 2 
Plaster of Clay, Sand and Salt Hay, 

ii, 74 
Plate-warmer, II, 18 
Plymouth, Mass. Winslow House, 

11,82,84,85; vin, 2 

Pocahontas, ii, 31 

" Font, ii, 16 

Pohick Church, Va., ii, 25, 44, 48, 

5° . 
Poj>ulation of Dublin, ii, 107 

Porches, i. 6, 20; IV, 35; VII, J2, 

)5, 16,22 
Porch Plans, i, 6 

Porches : — 

Alton, Hants, Eng., ii, 92 

Hrentford, Eng., ii, J02 

Childs House, Rochester, N. Y., 

11,6 
Culver House, Brighton, N. Y., 

I, J 
General Gage House, Norfolk, 

Va., Ill, 27 
Groombridge Place, near Tun- 

bridge-Wells, Eng., ii, J03 
Gunston Hall, ii, 52 
Ilurd House, Charlestown, M;tss., 

i, 7 
Isaac Hill's House, Rochester, 

N. v., II, 2 
Litchfield, Conn., i, 6 
Norton House, Goshen, Conn., 

11,54 
"Old Ship" Church, Hingham, 

Mass., IV, J 7 
Petworth, Eng., VHI. 3 
Salem, Mass., VI 1, (8, 22, 25, 27 
Shirley, Va., ii, 38 
Shreve House, Salem, Mass., 

VII, )7 
Smith House, Brighton, N. Y., 

ii, J 
Taylor House, Roxbury, Mass., 

i, 6 
\Valker House, Leno.x, Mass. 

Judge, VIII, ) 
Williams House, Boston, Mass., 

II, J), J2 
Woodlawn, Va., VI, 22 

PorterHouse, Iladley, Mass., I, 22; 

ii, 64 
Portland-stone Dressings, Dublin, 

ii. III 
Portraits of Washington, ii, 38, 47 
Portsmouth, .NMI.,ii, 57 

Portsmouth, N. II.: — 

Balustrade from Governor 

Langdon's House, i, 7 
Cupboard in Jaffrey House, i, 8 
Door-head, i, 6 

Ladd House, VII, 24; ii, 82, 84 
Langdon House, i, 7, 8 ; ii, 82 
Mantel in Haven House, VII, 23 
Old Cottage at, i, 4 
" Custom-house Door, I, )2 

Post-office, Dublin. The General, 

ii, III 
" Powder Horn," Williamsburg, Va., 

ii, 19, 20 
Powder seized at Williamsburg, ii, 

19 

Expr.ASATioN:— Th..- first volume contains Parts I-JV, the secnd Parts V-VIlT^ 
numerals. 1 lie lull i.age [jlates are jntlicated by Roman numerals indicating the Part, and 



— P — 

Paca House, Annapolis, Md., ii, 27 ; 

VII. I 
Pagan Creek, ii, 22 
Page. John, ii, 14, 16 
Mann, ii, 35 
Matthew, ii, 17 
Pain's. William. Architectural 

Book, i. 5. 2S; ii, 86 
Palace. Hampton Court, ii. 97 
Palladian Dictum about Doors. 
The, ii, 99 
" Windows, i. 5, 7. 21 ; II, 

20, 42, 54; IV. 21; 
VII, 16 
Palladianism. Inigo Jones's, ii, 100 
Pamunkey Indians, ii, 39 
Park, B.ath, Eng. Prior, ii, 95 
" Street Church, Boston, i, 9, 

10 
" Wanstead, Eng., ii, 105 
Parliament Houses, Dublin. The 

old, ii, m 
Parsons' Contest. The, ii, 30 
Patch. Sam. ii. i 
Patriotic Societies, ii, 72 
Peabody. Col. Francis, i, 36 
" George, i, 36 

•* House. Salem. Mass. 

Geo., VII. 13 
Peale's Portrait of Washington, ii, 

38 
Penn. William, ii, 12 
Penn's Boxwood Trees, i, 15 
Penn.sylvania Hospital, Philadel- 
phia, Pa., Ill, 1, 2,3, 4, 5, 8; 

IV, 34 ; ii. 79, 80 
Pepperell Mansion, Kittery, Me., 

i, 4 ; ii, 82 
Pequannock, Conn. The Avery 

House, i, 3 
Peterboro' and Evelyn Byrd. 

Lord, ii, 41 
Petersburg founded by Colonel 

Byrd, ii, 41 
Petworth, Eng. Porch at, VIII, 3 
Phelps and Gorham. Messrs., ii. 4 

" " " P u r c h a s e, 

ii, 2 

Phil.\delphia, Pa.: — 

Bartram House. John, IV, 9 
Carpenteni' Hall, HI, 31, 32 
Christ Church, i, 17, 18; ii, 12; 

11,42,43,44,45; IV, 31 
Cupolas of Pennsylvania Hospi- 
tal, IV, 34 
Independence Hall, i, 18; IV, 
21, 22,23,24,25,26,27,29 
Livezey's House, i, 15 
Mantels in House on S. 3d Street, 

IV, 28 
Monastery, i, 1 5 

Morris House, 111,20,21,22,23 
Mount Pleasant Mansion, IV, 

30, 32, 33, 35, 36 

Old Swedes Church, i, 18; ii, 12; 

V, 11, 12 

Pennsylvania Hospital, III, ), 2, 
3,4,5,8; IV, 34; ii, 79, 80 

Ridgeway Library, i, 19 

Solitude, VI, 10,' 11 

St. Peter's P. E, Church, i, 17 ; ii, 
12; V,3,6 

Woodford House, VI, 4, 5 

Zion Church, i, 17 

Philipse Manor House, Yonkers, 

N. v., i, 14; 11,24,25,26,27, 

28, 29 
Phillips House Window, Salem, 

Mass., IV, 5 
Photographer. Galsworthy Davie, 

ii, 96 
Piano. Oakland, Cal., I, 30 
Piazzas, ii, 80 
Pickering House, Salem, Ma-ss., i, 

33, 34, .35 
Pickman House, Salem, Mass., VII 

16 
Pier Termination, Carlisle Parade, 

Ha.stings, Eng., VIII, J7 



Powhatan, ii, 31 

Powhatan's Chimney, ii, 26 

Pre.-icott, i, 34 

President's House, Cambridge, 

Mass., ii, 82 
Prince Arthur's Visit, i, 36 
Pringle House, S. C. Gov. Bull, 

i, 20 
Prior Park, Bath, Eng., ii, 95 
Prison, Newgate, Dublin, ii, no 

" " London, ii, 106 

Providence, R. I. Doorway in, i, 7 
" " Typical Houses, 

111,30 
Province House, Boston, Mass., ii, 

82 
Prudery of Harley St. The, ii, 105 
Public Architecture in the South, 
i, 22 
" " of the Middle 

Provinces, i, 
16 
" Library, Boston, Mass. 
Old, i, 7 
Pulpits, IV, 12,31; ii, 98 

Pl'I.riTS : — 

Christ Church, Alexandria, Va., 

11,21,22 
Gloria Dei, Philadelphia, ii, 12 
King's Chapel, Boston, Mass., i, 

9; I, 15, 18, 19 

Newport, R. I., i, 32 

Old Meeting-house, Sandown, 
N. H., I, 7 

St. Peter's P. E. Church, Phila- 
delphia, V, 6 

Seventh Day Baptist Church, 
Newport, R. I., I, 20 

Trinity Church, Newport, R. I., 
i, 10 

Puncheon Floors, i, 20 

" Pavements, ii, 30 

Punishments. Governor Dale's 

severe, ii, 38 
Putnam and the First Meeting- 
house at Salem. Eben., 

',35 
" House, Danvers, Mass. 
The General, i, 4 
Putney, Eng. Doorway of the P'air- 

fax House, VIII, 6 
Pyncheon Fort, Springfield, Ma.ss., 
ii, 62 
" John, ii, 62 



-Q- 

Quaker Meeting-house, Burlington, 

N. J., i, 9 
Quakers, i, 15 

Quarrels over Church Sites, ii, 71 
Quarters. Servants', i, 20; ii, 27; 

VI, 34 

Quays. Dublin, ii, 108 
Quebec, ii, 47 
(,)ueen Anne, ii, 81 

" " Statues of, ii, 105 

" Anne's Gate, Westminster, 
Eng. Doorway in, 
ii, 89 
" " Gold Communion 

Service, ii, 16 
" of the Pamunkeys, ii, 39 
Queen's Square, London. Door- 
way in, ii, 90 
Quilter's Chimney. Mark, ii, 75 
Qiiincy Mansion, Quincy, Mass., i, 
3, 5 ; ii, 82 



-K- 

Racing, ii, 25 

Radcliffe Library, Oxford, Eng., ii. 

94, 98 
Raisings. Rum at, ii, 71 
Raleigh Tavern, ii, 17 
Randolph. Ann, ii, 17 

" Hon. Peyton, ii, 19 



Randolphs, Tuckahoe, a Home of 

the, ii, 33 
Ratcliffeboro, S. C. St. Paul's 

Church, III, 11 
Rebellion. Bacon's, ii, 49 
Rebuilding of Bath, Eng., ii, 95 

" " Blandford, Eng., ii, 

98 
Red Horse Inn, Sudbury, Mass., i, 

Redwood Library, Newport, R. I., 

1,32 
Register Office, Dublin. The, u, 

III 
Removal of Church Galleries, ii, 

105 
Renaissance. Blomfield's Book on 

English, ii, 93 
Revere House, Boston, Mass. The 

Paul, i, 4 
Review. The Architectural, ii, 99 
Revival. Eastlake's History of the 
Gothic, ii, 86 
" The Greek, i, 8, 13, 18; 

ii, 2, 86 
" The Roman, ii, 86 

Riccabecrian Indians defeat CoL 

Hill, ii, 39 
Richland, Home of the Brents, ii, 

50 
Richmond, Va. : — 

Founded by Col. Byrd, ii, 41 

Monumental Church, III, jl 

Old Stone House, III, 6 

State-house, i, 23 

Van Lew House, ii, 34 

Ridgway Library, Philadelphia, Pa., 

i, 19 
Riding-schools. British, i, 32 
Riedesel House, Cambridge, Mass., 

ii, 82 
Riverdale, Md. Baltimore House, 

VI, 28, 29, 30, 31 
River Front of Hampton Court 

Palace, Eng, VIII, J 2 
Roads of Dublin. The Circular, ii, 

108 
Rochambeau, ii, 45 

Rochester, N. Y. : — 

Bicknell House Mantels, II, 5 
Childs House Cornice, II, 1 

" Porch, II, 6 
Eagle Tavern, ii, 3 
Griffith House Entrance, ii, 2 
Hills House Dooiway. Isaac, II, 
3 
" " Mantel. Isaac, 11,4 

" " Porch. Isaac, II, 2 

Livingston Park Seminary, ii, 3 
Market, ii, 1 
Mumford House Mantel, II, 4 

Rockwell House, Lenox, Mass. 

The Judge, ii, 83; VIII, 1 
Rococo Ornament, i, 8 
Rogers Manse, Ipswich, Mass., ii, 75 

T. Mellon, Architect, i, 18 
Rolfe. John, ii, 16, 31 
Roman Catholic Blessing. The, ii, 

lOI 

" Revival. The, ii, 86 
Roof -balustrades, i, 6, 12 
Roof-frame of Mappa House, Tren- 
ton, N. v., ii, 10 
Roof of Old South Church, Boston, 

Mass., IV, 15 
Roof-lanterns, ii, 96 
Roof -truss of Octagon House, 
Washington, 
D. C, i, 29 
" " Seventh Day Baptis 

Church, Newpor. 

i-32 
Roofs, i, 4 

" Deck, ii, 77 

Flat, i, 21 
" Gable, ii, 82 
" Gambrel, i, 4, 12 21 j ii, 64, 

82 
" Hipped, i, 4 ; ii, 66, 77 
" Thatched, ii, 62, 68 ' 



The volume is indicated by "i" or "ii." 
bold-face figures showing the location of the 



All illustrations are indicated bv bold-face 
plate in that Part. 



GENERAL INDEX OF TEXT AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Rosewell, Whitemarsh, Va., i, 21; 

ii, 16, 17, 35; VII, 4 
Rotunda, Citv-liail, New York, 
N. Y„ II, 30,36,37 
" Hospital, Dublin, ii, 105 ; 
VIII, 42 
Roxbury, Mass. Steeple of First 
Unitarian 
Church, i, JO 
" " Taylor House, i, 

* . . .. , 65 IV, J9, 20 

«oyal Arms, u, 96; VIII, J7 
" Exchange, Dublin, ii, 1 10 
" Hibernian Academy of Arts, 
ii. III 
Royal! House, Medford, Mass,, I, 

2, 3, 4, 5, 6; ii, 72. 82 
Rum for Raisings, ii, 71 
Rumford, Count, i, 34 

" House Balustrade, i, 7 

" " Dormer, i, 7 

Rumford's Ball-room. Count, ii, 77 
" House, Woburn, Mass, 

Count, i, 6 
Rye, Sussex, Eng, Ahar-table, ii, 98, 
J 02 
" " Bay-window, ii, 97, 98 

" " Garden-house, ii, 97 

" " Tow-n-hall, 11,96; VIII 

J9 



-8 — 

Saal and Saron, Ephrata, Pa., i, J6 • 

IV, J 8 
Sabbatarian Society of Newport, i, 

3' 
Sabine Hall, Richmond Co,, Va,, ii, 

43 
Sackett. August, ii, 8 

" House, Sackett's Harbor, 

N. v., ii, 8j III, 25, 
26 
Sackett's Harbor, N, Y,, ii, 7 

" " Camp House, V, 

)0 
" " Sackett House, 

HI. 25, 26 
•* " WoolsL-y House, 

III. 25. 26 
SafFord House, Salem, Mass., VII, 

J3,25 
St. Bride's, Norfolk, Va.. ii, 43 
St. Cros.s, Winchester, Eng. Bay- 

window, ii, 100 
St. Dunstan's Church, Cranbrook. 

Eng. Royal Arms in, VIII. J 7 
St. George's Church, Dublin, ii, i ii 
St. Giles, Oxford, Eng. Iron Gate, 

VIII, 27 
St. James's Church, Picadilly, I-on- 
don. i, 10, 32 ; 
ii, 105 
•• " " Goose Creek, 

•S, C. i, 24; 
III. 6 
St John's Chapel. New \ork, X. V.. 

i. 17; IV. J6 
** " College, Annap<jlis, Md., 

i, 23; ii, 60 
" " Richmond, Va., ii. 34 
St. Luke's Church, Smithfield, i, 23; 
ii, 20. 22. 23 



St. Peter's P. E. Church, Philade! 

phia. Pa., i, 17; ii, 12; V, 3, 6 
St. Sepulchre, London, ii, 26 
Salaries paid in Tobacco, ii, 15, 24, 

Salem, Mass. : — 
Backyard. A, i, 34 
Bertram Home for Aged Men, 

VII, 31 
Box-stairs, ii, 78 
Brooks House Staircase, VII, 6 
Cabot House, VII, 7, 8, 9 
Cadet Armory, i, 36 
Custom-house, i. 10, J J, 34 
Derby House, VII, 7 
Door-head. A, i, 8 
Doorways, VII, J 9, 22 
Emerton House, VII, J 6 
Essex House Mantel, III, J3 

" Institute, i, 36 
First Meeting-house, i, 35 
Forrester House Mantel, I, J3. 

vn, j5 

Furniture, IV, 3 

(Jate posts, IV, 2 

Hamilton Hall, IV, 8 

Hodges House Newel-post, i, 8; 

VII, JO, u 
House of Seven Gables, i, 9 
1 lubon House Staircase, VII, 5, 6 
Mantel in Working Women's 

Bureau, I, J 4 
Murder. The White, i, 36 
Nichols House, III, J4, J5 ; VII, 

JO 
Nicholson- Pierce House Door- 
head, i, 8 
Oliver House, VII, J2, J4 
I'eabody House. Gov., VII, J3 
Pickering House, i, 33, 34, 35 
Pingree House, i, 35; IV, 6 
Plaster Ceiling, i, 8 
Porches, VII, 25, 27 
Safford House, VII, J3, 25 
Shreve House Porch, VII, J7 
Six Hours in, i, "^"j 
■South Church, VII, 33 
Staircase, 125 Derby St., VII, 2, 



Typical House. A, i, 35 
Waller House, VII, 29 
Window of l'hilli])s House, IV, 5 
Witch House, i, 4 

Sai.isI!|:ry, ICnc. : — 

College of Matrons, ii, 96; VIII, 

23 
House in the Close, ii, 95; VIII, 

28 
Iron Entrance-gate. VIII, 27 
White Hart Inn, ii, 96 

.Salt Hay for Hair in Plaster, ii, 74 
Sandown, N. H. Door to Old Meet 
ing-house, I, 8 
" " Pulpit in, I, 7 

.Sandys, Sir P^dwin, ii, 32 
" George, ii, 32 

" Sends Women to the Col 

onies, ,Sir E., ii, 31 
Saw-mills. Early, i, i 
" Scarlet Letter"' \, 34 
Scenic Wall-])aper, i, 8; ii, 9 
St. Martin's-in-the- Fields, Ixjndon, Schenectady, \. V. Mabee House, 

i, TO, 17; ii. 86, 94 [ ii. 9 

St. Mar)'-le Strand. I^ndon. ii, 94. 

104, 105; VIII. 32,33, 34 

St. Marj's City, Mar) land's !•' i r s t 

C'apital, ii, 58 
" " Woolnoth, Ixjndon, ii, 

94 
St. Memin, Portraits by. ii. 38 
St. Paul's Chapel. New York, N. Y.. 
i, lO; IV, JO, Jl, 12, 

J3 

•• " Church, Ivr)ndon. ( Md, ii, 

84 

« " Norfolk. Va.. ii. 42 

" « Ratclifleboro, S. C, III, 

Jl 
St. Peter's Church. New Kent Co., 
Va., ii, 25 



School-house, Cranbrook, Eng., ii, 
95 
" Dul)lin. Blue-coat, 

ii, 112; VIII, 44 
Schuyler. Montgomery, i, 18 
Scott. Gen. Winfield, ii, 4 

" House Stair-end, Amia- 

polis, Md., i, 22 
Screen at Syon House, Middlesex, 
Eng. Entrance, ii, 95; VIII, J5 
Seal of the State of Virginia, ii, 54 
Secular Buildings, i, 10 
Selling Meeting-houses, ii, 70 
Seminary, Granger Place. Can an 
daigua, N. Y., ii, 3 
" Livingstone Park, Ro 

Chester, N. Y., ii, 3 



Senate-house, Cambridge, Eng., ii, 

94 
Seneca Lake, ii, 3 
Sergeant. Peter, ii, 82 
Serpentine Wall. Jefferson's, i, 23 
Service's Patent, ii, 10 
Seton House, Washington, D. C, 

I. 28, 29 
Seven Gables. House with, i, 34 
Seventh Day Baptist Church, New- 
port, R. I., i, 31 ; I, 
20 
" " Baptists, i, 15 

Seymour. Atty. Gen., ii, 19 

" Horatio, ii, 10 

Sharrett's House Mantels, Balti- 
more, Md., VI, 13 
Shell Door-heads, i, 5, 21 ; ii, 87, 

100; VIII, 6, 8, JO 
Shelly, Va., ii, 16 
Sherman. John, ii, 11 
" Roger, ii, 1 1 

Sherman's March through South 

Carolina, ii, 28 
Ship-carvers and Twisted Balusters, 

ii' 77 
Ship Church, Hingham, Mass. The 

Old, i, 9; ii, 83 
Shirley Hundred, ii, 31 

" James River, Va., i, 19, 20, 
2.; ii,35; VI, 27,32 
Shop-front, Lewes, Eng., ii, 97, J 00 
Shreve House Porch, Salem, Mass., 

VII, J7 
Shrewsbury, N. J. Christ Church, 

i, 10 
Shute's Book on Classical Design, 

ii, 86 
Side-lights, i, 13; II, 3, 41; HI, 7; 

IV, 8; ii, 2 
Silk-growing in Virginia, ii, 14 
Smibert. John, Architect, i, 10 
Skipworth. Col. Henry, ii, 18 
Smith. Capt. John, ii, 22, 26, 42, 52 
" House Porch, Brighton, 

N. Y., ii, J 
Smithfield. St. I,uke's, ii, 22, 23 
Society of the Cincinnati, i, 25 
Solid Steps, i, 22 
.Solitary Brethren, i, 15 
Solitude, Philadelphia, Pa., VI, JO, 

JJ 
Somerville, Mass. McLean Asylum, 

ii, 79. 85 
Sounding-boards, i, 10, 32; I, J9; 

IV, J3 
South Carolina. Gov. Bull Pringle's 
House, i, 20 
" " .Sherman's Passage 

through, ii, 28 
" Church, Salem, Ma,ss., VII, 

33 
" Hadley, Ma.ss., ii, 71 
" Kensington. Eng. Old Deal 

Door, VIII, 4 
" Molton, Eng. Mantel in 
Mayor's 
Office, VIII, 
5 



" " " Royal Arms, 

ii, 96; VI I L 
J7 

" " " Town -hall, 

ii, 96; VIII, 

J7, J9 

Southampton, Ma.ss., ii, 62 
Southern House-plan. Typical, ii, 

77 

" Peculiarities, ii, 76 

" Provinces. Architecture 

of the, i, 19 
Spencer- Pierce House, Newbury- 

port, Mass., i, 2 
.Spire, see " Steeple." 
Spotswood. Gen., ii, 17 

" (jov., ii, 15, 18, 20, 42, 

49 
Spratz. William, a Hessian Archi- 
tect, i, 5 

Springfield, Mass: — 
Alexander House, ii, 66, 67 



Springfield, Mass.: — 

Dwight House. Josiah, I, 2\ 

Ely Tavern, ii, 62 

First Church, ii, 69 

Pyncheon Fort, ii, 62 
Springfield, Va., ii, 52 
Spy. Miss Bet Van Lew, the Union, 

ii, 34 
Stable, Homewood, Bahimore, Md„ 

i, 22 
Staircase-hall, The, i, 7 

Staircases : — 
Baltimore House, Riverdale, Md, 

VI, 29 
Bellingham-Cary House, Chelsea, 

Mass., II, 5J 
Brooks House, Salem, Mass., VII, 

6 
Cabot House, Salem, Mass. 

Joseph, VII, 8 
125 Derby St., Salem, Mass., VII,, 

2,3 
Devonshire Sq., London, VIII, 

26 
Gunston Hall, Va., ii, 54 
Ilollister House, Greenfield, 

Mass., ii, 65 
Hubon House, Salem, Mass., 

VII, 5, 6 
Ladd House, Portsmouth, N. H., 

VII, 24 
Lee House, Marblehead, Mass., 

I, J7 
McLean Asylum, Somerville, 

Mass., ii, 79, 85 
New York City-hall, II, 30, 37 
Old State-house, Boston, Mass., 

11,47 
Pennsylvania Hospital, Philadel- 
phia, Pa., ii, 36,37 
Philipse Manor House, Yonkers, 

N. Y.. II, 28 
Shirley, Va., ii, 36, 37 
Tuckahoe, Va., VI, 9 
Wandsworth Manor, Eng., VIII, 

J4 
Westover, Va., ii, 40 
Winslow House, Plymouth, 

Ma.ss., VIII, 2 

Stair Ends, i, 2J, 22; II, J 6, 28, 

52; VI, 24, 29 

" Railings, i, 8, 22 ; III, 28, 

29; ii, 79; IV, 33; VI, 

J J, 24; VII, 2, 5, 6, 8, J J 

Stairs, i, 21; IV, 24; V, J5, 22; 

VI, 5 
Stadt Huys, New York, N. Y. The 

Old, i, 16 
Stalls. Georgian Church, ii, 98 
State-house, Annapolis, Md., i, 23; 
ii, 59 
" Bulfinch Front, Bos- 

ton, i, II 
" Newport, R. I., i, 10, 

JJ; ii, 83 
" Old, Boston, Mass., i, 

10, JJ; 11,46, 47; 

11, 72, 83 

" Richmond, Va., i, 23 

Statue of Norborne Berkeley, ii, 19 
" " Grattan, Dublin, ii, 11 1 
" " Washington. Houdon's, 

ii, 47 
Statues of Queen Anne, ii, 105 
Stearns House Porch, Salem, Mass., 

VII, 27 

Stebbins House Doors, Deerfield, 

M.-Lss., ii. 64 
Steeple, II, 42, 43 

Stf.eple : — 

Congregational Church, Man- 

chester-by-the-Sea, Ma.ss., i, JQ 

First Church, New Haven, Conn,, 

II, JO 

" Unitarian Church, Roxbury, 

Mass., i, JO 

Independence Hall, Philadelphia, 

Pa., IV, 25 
Old North Church, New- Haven, 
Conn., II, JO 



Explanation: —The first voJiime contains Pans I-IV, the sccnnd Parts V-VIII. The volume is indicated by "i" or "ii.'' All illustrations are indicated by bold-face 
numerals. The full-page plates are indicated by Roman numerals indicating the Part, and bold-face figures showing the location of the plate in that Part. 



Xll 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



Steeile: — 

Park Street Church, Boston, 
Mass., i. 9 

St. Mar)- • le - Strand, Ijondoii. 
VIII, 34 
Stewart House. Annapolis, Md. 

The Peggy, ii. 60 
"Stone House." Guilford, Conn. 

Old." i. I, .: 
Stepped (rabies, i. 12 
Story of the Ix>st Boy, ii. 4 
Stratford House, Westmoreland 

Co.. Va., ii, 2J» 50 
Street. The Eighteenth - century 
English, ii, 98 

" English Houses built on 
the. ii. 97 

" The Village, ii, 63 
Street railways and the Village 

Stree , ii, 63 
Streets Commission. Dublin's 

Wide, ii, loS 
Strickland. Wni., Architect, ii, 12 
Strikes in Dublin. Early, ii, 112 
Stuart's Portrait of Nellie Custis. 

Gilbert, ii, 49 
Stucco, i 15 

" Walls, ii, 10 
Sub-treasury, New York, N. Y., i, 

18 
Suburban English Towns. The 

I.ayout of. ii. 97 
Sudbury, Mass. Red Horse Inn, 

i, 2 ; ii, 82 
Sudwell. Col. Philip, ii, 14, 21 
Suicide of John Ames, ii, G9 
Sullivan. Gen., ii, 5 
Sumptuary I.aws, ii, 77 
Sunbursts, II, 5; IV, 7, 27; V, 21 
Sundial. A Susse.x, Eng., ii, 9 J 
Sunrise Tavern Interiors, Fred- 
ericksburg, Va., ii, 46 
Surgeons, Dublin. College of, 

VIII, 44 
Susquehanna, i, 12 
Swan's Architectural Book, i, 5 ; ii, 

86 
Swedes Church, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Gloria Dei, or 
Old, i, 18; ii, 

12; V, n, 12 

" " Wilmington, Del., 

i, J7 
Swedish National Church, ii, 12 
Sweeney's Lane, Dublin. Houses 

in, ii,'l09 
Synagogue, Newport, R. I., i, 10 
Syon House, Middlesex, Eng. En- 
trance Screen, ii, 95 ; VIII, 15 

— T — 

Table. Card, I, 3 J 

" Chronological, i, 9 
Tablet in Atherington Church, 

Eng., ii, J 04 
Taliefero. Colonel, ii, iS 
Tarleton's Dragoons at Lower 

Brandon, Va., ii, 27 

T.\i-ERNS:^ 

" Bull's Head." New York, N. Y. 

i, J9 
" Cherry," ii, 54 

" Eagle." Rochester, N. Y., ii, 3 
" Ely." Springfield, Mass., ii, 62 
"Gadsby's." Alexandria, Va., i, 

30 ; 1,9 
" Raleigh," Williamsburg, Va., 

i. 17 
' Sunrise." Fredericksburg, Va., 

ii,46 
See " Inn." 

Tayloe. Col. John, i, 29 

■' House, Washington, 

D. C. Mantels, III, 
12. 16, 17 
Taylor. Architect, ii, V,\ 

" House, Roxlniry, Mass.,! 

6; IV, 19, 20, 
Tea-party House. The IJoston, i, 5 



Temple Inn Gate, London, ii, J03 
Thatched Roofs, ii. 62, 68 
Thibedeau, Carpenter. Mr., ii, 74 
Thompson House, Charles town, 
Mass. Door- 
w.ay, II. 7 
" " Mantel, II, 8 

Thornton. Dr. William, Architect, 

i, 19; ii, 48 
Thorpe. George, ii, 32 
Ticknor House, Boston, ii. 86 
Tillman Block, Geneva, N. Y., li, 3 
Tiles. Dutch, i, 22 
Timbs, Carver, ii, 89 
Tinicum Church, ii, 12 
Tobacco. Salaries paid in ii, 1 5, 24, 

30 
Todd and Madison. The Widow, 

"• 55 
Tolles Boy. The Ixist, ii, 4 
Tomahawk Frieze, i, 23 
Tomb of the Brays, Williamsburg, 
Va., ii, J5 
" " Joseph Bridger, ii, 24 
" " John Carter, ii, 24 
" " Governor Nott, Williams- 
burg, Va., ii, J 6 
" Townsend, Witney, Eng., 

VIII, 35 
" of Washington, li, 48 
Tombs. The Blair, ii, 21 

" English Georgian, ii, 9S ; 

VIII, 3J, 35 
" in Fairford, PJng. Church- 

yard, VIII, 35 
Tojukins Almshouse, Abingdon, 

Eng., ii, 96, 99 
Tories' Row, Cambridge, Mass., ii, 

81 
Totapotomoi, Chief of the Pamun- 

keys, ii, 39 
Tower, see " Steeple " 

" Armagh Cathedral, ii, no 
" Dublin Castle, VIII, 46 
Towne. Ithiel. Architect, ii, 70 
Town-hall, Abingdon, Eng., ii, 95 ; 

VIII, J9 

■* High Wycombe, Eng., 

ii, 98; VIII, 2 J 
" Newport, R. I., ii, I J 

Rye, Eng., ii, 96; VIII, 

)9 
" South Molton, Eng., ii, 

96; VIII, J7, )9 
" Weathersfield, Conn., i, 

10 
" Witney, Eng., ii, 96; 

VIII, 21 
1'own-halls of small Market-towns, 

ii. 95 
Towns. The I^ayout of English 

Suburban, ii, 97 
'I'ownsend Tomb, Witney, Eng., 

VIII. 35 
Tracery. Window, i, 13 
Trees reserved for Royal Navy, ii, 

64 
Trenton, N. Y., ii, 10 

Trenton, N. Y. : — 
Billings House, ii, 1 1 
Decastro House, ii, 11 
Douglas House, ii, 11 
Griffith Inn, ii, 1 1 
Guiteau House, ii, 11 
Mappa House, ii, lo; V, 14, 16, 

17, 18, 19,20,21,22 
Van der Kemp House, ii, 11 

Triad of Georgian Churches in 

London. A, ii, 104 
Trinity Almshouse Gate, Deptford, 
VIII, 24 
" Church, Newport, R. I., i, 

10, 32 
" " New York, N. Y., 

ii, 4 
New York, N. Y., 
Old, i, 16 
" College, Dublin, ii, 11 1; 

VIII, 48 
" Ground Almshouse, I^on- 
don, VIII, 22 



Trolley opposed by Deerfield, Ma-ss., 

ii, f'3 

True Architecture. Georgian Ar- 
chitecture, ii, 92 

Tuckahoe, Goochland Co., Va., ii, 
29,32-33; VI, 6, 9 

Tudor House, Georgetown, D. C, 
111,24 

Tulip Hill, West River, Md., 1, 20 

Tunbridge Wells, Eng. Porch of 
Groombridge Place, ii, 103 

Turkey Frieze, Winslow House, 
Plymouth, Mass., ii, 85; VIII, 2 

Twisted Balusters, I, 1 5, 20, 27 ; 
II, 28, 47; 
ii, 86; VII, 2, 
5, 6, 8, n 

" " possibly carved 

by Ship-carv- 
ers, ii, 78 
Two -story Columns, i, 14 

" Porches, i, 20 

Typical Salem House, i, 35 
Tyrone House, Dublin, ii, no 

-U- 

Unicorn. Sculptured, ii, 96; VIII, 
17 

University of Virginia, Charlottes- 
ville, Va., i, 23, 24 

Upjohn, Architect. R., ii, 4 

Upsal House, Germantown, Pa., 
VI, 1,2,3 ■ 

Urns, II, 16, 2), 22; HI, 13, J9, 
28,29; IV, 2 

Utica, N. Y., ii, 10 



-V- 

Vanbrugh. Sir John. Architect, 

ii, 84, 94, 95 
Van Buren. Martin, ii, 10 
" der Kemp. House, Trentoh, 

N. v., ii, II 
" " " Judge Adrian, ii, 

10 
" Lew House, Richmond, Va., 

ii,34 
" Rensselaer Manor, Albany, 
N. Y., i, 
J3, 13, 
14. 15; 
I, JJ 
" " " House, 

G r een- 
bush, L. 
I.,i, J3 
" " House Door-head, 

i, 12, 13 
" " Mansion House, 

Albany, N. Y., 

i, 13 

Vassall-Craigie-Ijongfellow House, 
Cambridge, Mass., i, 4, 6, 12; ii, 
82 
Vassall House, Quincy, ii, 82 
Venetian Red, i, 7 
Vernon. Admiral, ii, 44 
Verplanck. Gulian, i, 25 

" House, Fishkill, N. Y., 

i, 12, 25 
Vicarage, Hailsham, Eng., VIII, 7 

" Lewisham, Eng., ii, 94 
Village Street. The, ii, 63 
ViUiers, Duke ?f Buckingham, ii, 89 
Virginia. Colonial Work in, ii, 13 

" Company, ii, 32 

Virginia Gazette, ii, 19 

— w- 

Wadsworth. G. W , ii, 6 

" House, Cambridge, 

Mass., ii, 
82 

" " G e n e s e o, 

N. v., i, 
15,22; V, 
5 



Wadsworth. W. A., ii, 6 

Wadsworths. The, ii, 5 

Wainscoted Walls, i, 2 1 

Walker House, Lenox, Mass. 
Judge, ii, 83 

Wall. Jefferson's Serpentine, i, 23 

Waller House, Salem, Ma.ss., VII, 
29 

Wallis's Book on Colonial Archi- 
tecture. F. E., ii, 3 

Wall-paper. Dutch Scenic, i, 8 

Wandsworth Manor House, Eng., 
VIII, 14, 16, 18 

Wanstead Park, Eng., ii, 105 

Ward House Porch, Salem, Mass^ 
VII, 27 

Ware Church, Gloucester Co., Va., 
ii, 22 
" Mass. First Church, ii, 70» 

71 
Ware's " Architecture" ii, 86 

Washington. Augustine, ii, 44 

" Charles, ii, 54 

" Family Homes, ii, 54 

" George Steptoe, ii, 55 

" John Augustine, ii, 

54 
" Lawrence, ii, 44, 54 

" Lund, ii, 45 

" Samuel, ii, 54 

Washington, Gen. George: — 

General, i, 29; ii, 5, 42 
Houdon's Statue of, ii, 47 
House in New York, ii, 47 
Inherits Mount Vernon, ii, 44 
I^ast Visit to Alexandria, i, 30 
Lodge Chair, i, 30 
Marriage of, ii, 25, 44 
Portraits of, ii, 38, 47 
Surrenders his Commission, ii, 60 
Will, ii, 49 

Washington, D, C: — 

Octagon House, i, 28; III, J2, 
16, 17 

Seton House, I, 28, 29 

The United States Capitol, i, 19 

Washington House, Frederick s- 

burg. The Mary, ii, 20 
Washington's Home, Claymont 

Court. Bushrod, ii, 55 ; VI, 37 
Waterloo, N. Y. M. E. Church, i, 

17 
Waters. Rev. T. Frank, ii. 73 
Wayside Iim, Sudbury, Mass., ii, 82 
Weathersfield, Conn., ii, 61 

" " Doorway of 

C h u r chill 
House, ii, 
63 
« « Town -hall, i, 

ID 
Weavers' Hall, Dublin, ii, J09 
Webster. Daniel, i, 36 
Webster's Second Wedding. 

Daniel, ii, 5 
Wells House, Cambridge, Mass., ii, 

82 
Wendel. Theodore. Painter, ii, 73 
Wentworth House, Little Harbor, 

N. H., ii, 82 
Weromocomoco, ii, 16 
West Boston Church, ii, 86; VII, 

26,28 
Westfield. Mass., ii, 62 
Westminster, Eng. Door-head, ii, 
90 
" " Doorway, ii, 

89 
Westover. James River, Va., i, 19, 

20, 21, 22 ; ii> 18, 27- 28, 32, 40, 
41 
West River, Md. Tulip Hill, i, 20 
" Springfield, Mass., ii, 62 
" " Mass. First 

Church, ii, 68 
" Wycombe, Eng. Doorway, 
ii, 92 
Whipple. John, ii, 74 



Exp 
nuni^ra 



V^*rl"^ ■7^'''' ''"' volume contains Parts )-IV, the serond Parts V-VIII. The volume is indicated by "i" or " ii." All illustrations are indicated by bold-face 
aU. I lie full-page plalesare uidicafid by Roman numerals indicating tlie Part, and bold-face figures snowmg the location of the plate in that Part. 



GENERAL INDEX OF TEXT AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Xlll 



Whipple House, Ipswich, Mass., 

"• 7:=. 73, 74 
Whitehall. Architrave Base, i, 23 
Md. Door-head, i, 22 
White Hart Inn, Salisbury, Eng., 

ii. 96 
Whitemarsh, Va. " Rosewell," 

VII, 5 
Wicks. Williams. Architect, ii, 10 
Wide-streets Commission. Dub- 
lin's, ii, 108 
Wilkins, Architect of Nelson Monu- 
ment, Dublin, ii, 1 11 
Will. Wa.shington's, ii, 49 
William III. King, ii, 19 

" and Mary College, Will- 
iamsburg, Va., i, 22 ; 
ii, J 8 
" and Mary College. 
P'ounder of, ii, 15 
Williams. Ephraim, ii, 83 

" House, Salem, Mass. 

Roger, i, 9, 

34 
" " 1234 Washing- 

ton St., Bos- 
ton. II, n, 
J2,J3,J4,J5, 

" Roger, i, 34 

Williamsburg, Va., i, 19; ii, 13 



Williamsburg, Va. : — 

Bniton Parish Church, ii, 14, 15 
Christ Church, i, 24 
Churchyard Gate, ii, 14 
Mantel,' i, 23 

Old Powder -house, ii, 19, 20 
Tomb of Governor Nott, ii, J 6 
William and Mary College, i, 22 ; 

2, J8 
Wren's Court-house, i, 22, 23 ; 

ii, 13-14 
Wythe House, ii, 18 
Williamstown, Ma-ss. Van Rensse- 
laer Manor House moved to, i, 14 
Willink Family, ii, 4 
Wilmington, Del. Old Stone 

(Swedes') Church, i, J7 
Winchester, Eng. Bay-window at 

St. Cross, ii, JOO 
Window-frame, ii, 67 
Windows, IV, 5, 8 

" Palladian, i, 5, 7, 2J ; 

II, 20, 42, 54; IV, 
2J; VII, )6 
Windows : — 

Christ Church, Alexandria, Va., 

11,20 
Harwood House, Annapolis, Md., 

i, 20 
Williams House, Bo.ston, Mass., 
II, J5 



Window Tracery, i, 13 

Winslow House, Plymouth, 
Mass., ii, 82, 84, 85 ; VIII, 2 

Wister House Mantel, German- 
town, Pa., VI, 8 

Witchcraft at Salem, i, 33 

Witch House, Salem, Mass., i, 4, 

Witney, Eng. Tombs, VIII, 31, 
55 
" " Town -hall, ii, 86; 

VIII, 21 
Woburn, Mass. Count Rumford's 

House, i, 6, 7! ii, 77 
Women sent to the Colonies, ii, 31 
Wood, Architect. John, ii, 94, 95 
Woodlawn, Va. House of Nellie 
Custis, ii, 27, 48; VI, 20, 22, 
23, 24, 25, 26 
Woolsey. Commodore, ii, 8 

" House, Sackett's Har- 

bor, N. Y., ii, 8; III, 
25,26 
" Lieutenant, ii, 7 

Wottan's Book on Classical Design. 

Sir H., ii, 86 
Wren. Sir Christopher, i, 22, 32 ; 
ii, 13, 18, 42, 59, 84, 89, 91, 93, 
94, 105, 106 
Wren's Daughter. The Church de- 
signed by, ii, 104 



Wren's London House, ii, 104 
" Street-plan for London, ii, 
60 
Wrought Ironwork, S. Carolina, ii, 

80 
Wyanoke, Va., ii, 32 
Wyat. Sir Francis, ii, 32 
Wyatt. Benj. Architect, i, 10 
Wyckoff House, Flatlands Neck, 

L. I., i, 16 
Wycombe. See " High Wycombe " : 

" West Wycombe." 
Wythe House, Williamsburg, ii, 18 

" Poisoning of Chancellor 
George, ii, 18 



Yeardley. Governor, ii, 25 

Yellow and White, i, 7 

Yonkers, N. Y. Philipse Manor 

House, i, 14: II, 24,25,26,27, 

28, 29 
York Buildings, Ixmdon, ii, 89 

" House destroyed, ii, 89 
Yorktown, Va. Nelson House, ii, 

19 

-z — 

Zion Church, Philadelphia, Pa., i, 17 



Explanation: —The first volume contains Parts I-IV, the second Parts V-VIII. The volume is indicated by "i" or " ii." All illustrations are indicated by bold-face 
numerals. The full-page plates are indicated by Roman numerals indicating the Part, and bold-face figures showing the location of the plate in that Part- 




Chronology of American Buildings/ 




SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 

'6=3 1679 1683 ,698 

Mclntire Garrison, York, Me. J^'J"'"'"" "°""'=' ^"^'°"' ^I^-'^^' Jenkins House, Edisto Island, Trinity, Old S^^■edes, Church, 

'<553 Sleepy Hollow Church, Tarry- ^- *^- Wilmington, Del. 

Jail, York, Me. town, N. Y. 



EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. 

1705 1742 1759 1783 

Immanuel Church, New Castle, (Jemeinhaus, Bethlehem, Pa. Vandenheuvel House, New York, Town-hall, Newport, R. I. 

Del. ,_^_l N. Y. 1785 

1711 I're.sbyterian Church, Newark, '760 Horry House, Charleston, S. C. 

Goose Creek [St. J a m e s ' .s] 'N.J. Christ (Swedes) Church, Upper Nichols Stable, Salem, Mass. 

Church, S. C. St. John's College, Annapolis, Merion, Fa. Russell, Nath'l, House, Charlcs- 

1714 Md. ' ''1763 ton, 8. C. 

"Mulberry Castle," Cooper , Pompion Hill Chapel, near 1786 

River, S. C. '„r,iiT >w n -n d Charleston, S. C. Brown-Gammell House, Provi- 

,,,., " Old 1 rappe,C.ollegeville, Pa. , 1 r, t 

1725 , '^ ^ 1765 dence, R. I. 

Mansion House, Wilmington, '74;^ ,, , , , „ Bull-Piingle [Miles Brewton] 1787 

N. C. Just Semmary, Bethlehem, Pa. House, Charleston, S. C. " Westover," on the Jame.s, Va. 

1726 1750 ,_5 ' ' 1789 

Trinitv Church Newnort R T Heyward, Nath'l, House, ',.', . . ^, , ., 1 ■ -i- " Concord," near Natchez, Miss, 

jiuiiiy v^uuicii, i\e«puri, ix. 1. J ' ' i Christ Church, /Me.xandna, \ a. ' ' 

, Charleston, S. C. ,.^ e^ . , ,-u i J . '79° 

1727 St. Stephens Church, Santee, ' i, ,, ,, . ,. ,,., 
St. Bartholomew's Church, Phila- '75- S. C. Duncan Hou.se, Pans, ky. I he 

delnhia Pa St. Paul's Church, Halifax, N. S. .„ Major. 

aelphia, la. ,„(5,S " Oatlands," Loudon Co., Va. 

1728 '??■ ^J, ,, , ■ Wamboro [St. James's] Church, Count Rumford's House, 
"Stenton," near Philadelphia, ^"^S Manor Hou,se, Jamaica, Santee, S. C, Woburn, Mass. 

Pa. I" !• Widows' House, Bethlehem, Pa. 1701; 

1730 '75' 1769 " Federal Hill," Bardstown, Ky. 

"Red Lion " Tavern, Philadel- Moravian Chapel, Bethlehem, Pa. Pohick Church, Va. " Montpelier," Va. 

phia Co., Pa. 1752 j--o 1796 

iy-!A St. Michael's Church, Charleston, "Woodlands," Philadelphia, Pa. City Hall, Hartford, Conn. 

Ursuline Convent, New Orleans, ^- C' ly--. '798 

la I7C7 ..■vT ,■ 11 " r-i 1 .. Massachusetts State-house, 

'•''• '753 " Monticello, near Charlotte- ,, ' 

jy-jC Hite House, Winchester, Va. yiu^ Va noston. 

i. T> !• /-u u T-j . c /-■ ' South Building, Chapel Hill, 

St. Paul s Church, Ldenton, S. C. 1754 '774 NT &' r ' 

1737 Day, Jo.siah, House, West First Baptist Church, Providence, ,799 

" Westover," on the James River, Springfield, Ma.ss. k. L Peirce, Dan'l. H., House, Ports- 

Va. 1755 First Presbyterian Church, New- mouth N. H. 

1740 Old Dutch Church, Halifax, N. S. ark, N. J. Exchange* Savannah, Ga. 

"Drayton Hall," Ashley River, 1758 1780 1800 

S. C. "Mount Airy," on the Rappa- Gibbes [Drayton] House, St. George's Church, Halifax, 

Paxtang Church, HarrLsburg, Pa. hannock, Va. Charleston, S. C. N. S. 

NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

j8oi 181 1 1S18 1S28 

Government House, Halifax, Province Piuilding, Halifax, N. S. Holmes House, Charleston, S. C. Government House, Fredericton, 

N. S. Flynn's Presbyterian Church, 1820 ^- ^'• 

1802 Charleston, S. C. Ancrum House, Charleston, 1830 

" Ariington," Va. ,815 S. C. De Saussure House, Charieston, 

'°°3 Cainhoy Church, near Charles- t, ,, , ,, ,, ,, ,. S. C. 

Moravian Church, Bethlehem, ton, S. C. Bulloch House, Ro.sewell, Ga. " Edgewood," near Edgefield, 

''3- „ Ti ,. , r^ Hansel] Hou.se, Rosewell, (Ja. S. C. 

Waterman House, Du.xbury, Owens House, Savannah, Ga. ^^^^ " Hermitage, The," on the Sa- 

„ ^^^^^- Scarborough House, Savannah, St. Mary's Male Academy, Nor- vannah River, Ga. 

°r- •. r-i 1 ^- 1 X- T Ga. folk, Va. ,8,6 

innity Church, .Newark. IS. J. „,,..,,.„ ^ 1 Typical House, Charleston, S. C. st Philip's Church Charleston, 

1810 Telfair Art Gallery, Savannah, -" 01. i iiuip >, v.iiuicii, v^nancMui., 

Witte House, Charieston, S. C. Ga. 1826 S- *-^- 

Belvedere Farmhouse, Cooper 1818 University of Virginia, Char- 1838 

River, S. C. Bulloch House, Savannah, Ga. lottesville, Va. Christ Church, Savannah, Ga. 



1 Mentioned in I 'oluine I /I [Paris JX-XI/.\ 



Alphabetical Chronological Tabulation/ 



Ancrum House, Charleston, S. C 

1S20 

Archbishop's Palace, New Orleans. 

I-a.. 1734 

'• Arlington." Va., 1S02 

Belvedere Farmhouse, Cooper 

River, iSio 

Brewton [BuU-P r i ng le] House, 

Charleston, S. C, 1765 

BulM'ringle [Brewton] House. 

Charleston, S. C, 1765 

Bulloch House, Rosewell, Ga., i8::o 

" '* S a V a n n a h, Cia., 

1818 

Cainhov Church, near Charleston, 

S. C', 1S15 

Capen House, Binghamton, N. Y., 

iSio 
Christ Church, Alexandria, Va., 

.767 

" " Savannah, Ga., 

1S38 

" (Swedes) Church, Upper 

Merion, Pa., 1760 

City-hall, Hartford, Conn., 1796 

" Concord," near Natchez, Miss.. 

1789 

Day House, West Springfield, 

Mass. Josiah. I754 

De Saussure House, Charleston, 

S. C, 1830 

Drayton Hall, Ashley River, S. C , 

1740 

Drayton House, Charleston, S. C, 

1780 

Duncan House, Paris, Kv., 1790 

Dutch Church, Halifai, N. S., 

'755 
" Edgewood," near Edgefield, S. C., 

1830 
"Federal Hill," Bardstown, Ky., 

1795 



First Baptist Church, Providence, 

R.I. 1774 

First Seminary, Bethlehem, Pa., 

1746 

Gemeinhaus. Bethlehem, Pa., 1742 

Gibbes House, Charleston, S. C, 

1780 

Goose Creek [St. James's] Church, 

1711 

Government House, Fredericton, 

N. B.. 1828 

Government House, Halifa.x, N. S., 

1801 
Hansell House, Rosewell, Ga., 
1820 
" Hermitage. The," on the Savan- 
nah River, Ga., 1820 
Heyward, Nath'l, House, Char- 
leston, S. C, 1750 
Hite House, Winchester, Va., 1753 
Holmes House, Charleston, S. C., 
1818 
Horrj' House, Charleston, S. C, 
1785 
Immanuel Church, New Castle, 
Del,, 1705 
Jail. York, Me., 1653 
Jenkins House, Edisto Island, 
S. C, 1683 
King Manor House, Jamaica, L. I., 
1750-1805 
" Mclntire Garrison," York, Me , 

Mansion House, \\ ilmington, N. C, 

1725 

Massachusetts State-house, Boston, 

1798 

" Monticello," near Charlottesville, 
Va., 1772 

" Montpelier," Va , '795 

Moravian Chapel, Bethlehem, Pa., 
175' 



Moravian Church, Bethlehem, Pa., 

1803 
*' Mount Airy," on the Rappahan- 

hock, Va , 1758 

" Mulberry Castle," Cooper River, 

S. C, 1714 

" Oatlands," Loudon Co., Va., 1790 
" Old Trappe," CoUegeville, Pa., 

1745 
Paxtang Church, Ilarrisburg, Pa., 

1740 
Peirce, D. H., House, Portsmouth, 
N. H., 1799 

Pohick Church, near Alexandria, 
Va., 1769 

Pompion Hill Chapel, near Char- 
leston, S. C, 1763 
Presbyterian Church, Newark, 
N. J., 1744 
Province Building, Halifax, N. S., 
1811 
" House, Boston, 1679 
" Red Lion " Tavern, Philadelphia, 
Pa., 1730 
Rumford House, Woburn, Mass., 

1790 
Ru.ssell, Nath'l., House, Charleston, 
S. C, 1785 

St. Bartholomew's Church, Phila- 
delphia, Pa., 1727 
George's Church, Halifax, 
N. S., 1800 
John's College, Annapolis, Md., 

1744 
Marv's Male Academy, Nor- 

fo'lk, Va, 1 82 5 

Michael's Church, Charleston, 

S. C, 1752 

Paul's Church, Edenton, N. C., 

1736 
Paul's Church, Halifax, N. S., 

175- 



St. PhiUp's Church, Charleston, 

S. C, 1836 

" Stephen's Church, Santee, 

S. C, 1767 

Sleepv Hollow Church, Tarrytown, 

N. v., 168- 

South Building, U. of N. C, Chapel 

Hill, N. C, 1798 

" Stenton," near Philadelphia, Pa., 

1728 
Town-hall, Newport, R. I., 1783 
Trinity Church, Newark, N. J., 

1805 

" " Newport, R. I., 

1726 

" [Old .Swedes] Church, 

Wilmington, Del., 1698 

Typical House, Charleston, 3* C., 

1825 
University of Virginia, Charlottes- 
ville, Va., 1826 
Ursuline Convent, New Orleans, 
La., 1734 

Vandenheuvel House, New York, 

N. Y., 1759 

Wamboro [St. James's] Church, 

Santee, S. C, 1768 

Waterman House, Du.xbury, Ma.ss., 

1803 

" Westover," on the James River, 

Va., 1737 

"White House," Washington, D. C, 

1818 
Widows' House, Bethlehem, Pa., 

1768 
Witte House, Charleston, S. C, 

1810 
" Woodlands," Philadelphia, Pa.. 

1770 



1 Of Buildings mentioned in I 'o/iiine JII {Parts IX-X//.] 




General Index of Text and Illustrations. 



VOLUME 111. 



-A- 

Aberdeen, Miss., iii, 97 

" " House of Judge 

Reuben Davis, 
XII, J9 
Academy, Norfolk, Va. St. Mary's 

Male, iii, 63 
" Acton," Annapolis, Md., iii, 60 
Adam. The Brothers, iii, 36 
Adams. John and Abigail. Room 
in Cottage of, Quincy, 
Mass., XII, 2 
" Susannah Boylston, 

Mother of John, iii, 133 
Admiralty House, Halifax, N. S., 

iii, 17 
Agamenticus, later York, Me., iii, 

i'5 
Albany, N. Y. Boys' Academy de- 
signed by Philip Hooker, iii, 105 
Aldrich. Dean, iii, 2 
Alexandria, Va. Christ Church, 
iii, 86; XI, 
16 
" " Pohick Church, 

iii, 86 
AUentown, Pa. Germans at, iii, 19 
Alexis, Prince, visits Boston, iii, 120 
AUis, John, Carpenter architect, 

iii, 103, 104 
Allis's, John, Buildings. List of, 

iii, 105 
Allston. Washington, iii, 36, 38 

" Mrs. William, iii, 38 

Altamaha River, Ga., iii, 92 
Amateur Photographers. Valuable 

Work of, iii, 124 
American Carpentry, iii, 11 
Ames's, John, Buildings. List of, 

iii, 105 
Ancient Buildings. Wm. Morris on 

the Destniction of. iii, 123 
Ancrum House, Charleston, S. C, 

iii, 41 ; X, 16 
Andrew, Gov., and the Mass. State- 
house, iii, 123 
Annapolis. Md. St. John's College, 
iii, 112 
" " Harwood House, 

iii, iiS 
Antiquities Shops. The Charles- 
ton, iii, 36 
Apthorpe House, New York, N. Y., 

XII, 33 
Arcades at " Mount Vernon," iii, 
114 
" rare in Colonial Work, iii, 
114 
Archbishop's Palace, New Orleans, 

La., XII, 7 
" Archdale," S. C, ii':, 57 
Arciiitf.cts [Professional and Am- 
ateur] : — 

AUis. John, 103, 104 
Ames. John, iii, 105 
Banner. Peter, iii, 103, 105 
Benjamin. Asher, iii, 102, 105 
Blodgett, iii, 107 
Brigham. Charles, iii, 121 



Architects [Professional and Am- 
ateur] : — 

Brown. Joseph, iii, 1 15 
Bulfinch. Charles, iii, 105, 107, 

112, 1 19, 124 
Clarissault, iii, 104 
Cummings. C. A., iii, 119, 121 
Damon. Capt. Isaac, iii, 104 
Davis. A. J., iii, 124 
Diamond, iii, 107 
Dobie, iii, 107 

Elderkin. John, iii, 103, 105 
Gibbs. James, iii, 79, 103 
Gibson [Gibbs ?J Architect of 

St. Michael's, Charleston, iii, 

79 
Gordon. Wm., iii, 40 
Greene. John, iii, 104, 105 
Hamilton. Andrew, iii, 104, 105 



Harrison. Peter, iii, 103, 
Havard. A., iii, 67 

David, iii, 105 
James, iii, 107, 



Philip, iii, 105 
Stephen, iii, 1 15 
A, iii, 67 



Hoadley 

Hoban. James, iii, 107, loS, 

109 
Hooker. 
Hopkins 
Howard. 
Hyde. J., iii, 82 
Jay, iii, 91, 97 

Johnson. Ebenezer, iii, 105 
Kearsley. Dr. John, iii, 104, 

105, 107 
Lamphire, iii, 107 
Latrobe. Benj. H., iii, 107 
L'Enfant. Pierre, iii, 24, 109 
McBean, iii, 103, 105 
McComl). John, iii, 102, 104, 

105, ro7 
Mclntire. Samuel, iii, 105, 107 
Mayo, iii, 107 

McKini, Mead & White, iii, 27 
Munday. Richard, iii. 105, 105 
Pell. luhvard. iii, lOs 



Rhoades. 
Smibert. 



Samuel, iii, 105 
Peter, iii, 103, 105 



Smith. Robert, iii, 105 
Spratz. Wm., iii, 105 
Strickland. Wm , iii, 107 
Sumner. James, iii, 1 1 5 
Thornton. Dr. Wm,, iii, 113 
Towne. Ithiel, iii, 107, 124 
Twelves. Robert, iii, 105 
Villepontoux. F., iii, 67 
Woodruff. Judah, iii, 104, 105 
Wren. Sir Christopher, iii, 18,79 

Architects. Amateur, iii, 97 

" of St. .Stephen's, S. C, 

iii, 67 
Architectural Books. List of, iii, 

105 
"Arlington," Va., iii, iio; XII, 20 
Art Gallery, Savannah, Ga. Tel- 
fair, iii, 92 
" Ashlands," near Mobile, Ala., iii, 
112; XII. )3 

"Ashley Hall," the Home of the 

Bulls, iii, 73 
Ashley River, S. C. Drayton Hal] 
on, iii, 36, 55 



" Astrudeville," Va., iii, 99 
Athens, Ga., iii, 97 

" " House of Gen. T. R. 

R. Cobb, iii, J J8 
" House of II. W. 
Grady, iii, 108 
Atlanta, Ga. The Leydon House, 

XII, »8 
Attic Wine-closets, iii, 32, 45 
Augusta, Ga. "Meadow Garden," 

iii, J J I 
Autumn Trip to South Carolina, 
iii, 43 

— B — 

Ball House, Charleston. The 

Thomas, iii, 34, 48, 49; X, )3, 

)5 
Baltimore : — 

Mahogany Doors, IX, 24 

Parlor Finish, IX, 25 
Bank. Providence National, iii, 

115; Xil,39 
Banner, Peter, Architect of Park 

Street Church, Bostori, iii, loj, 

'°5 
Baptist Church, First, Providence, 
R. I., iii, )04, 115; XII, 
45 
" Parsonage, Beaufort, S. C, 

iii, 76; X, 34 
" School - house, Beaufort, 
S. C. Old, iii. 71 
Bardstown, Ky. " Federal Hill," 

iii, 1 13; 1 14 
Barony oi Nazareth, Pa., iii, 20 
Barracks, New Orleans, La., XII, 

5 
lias-reliefs for Robert Morris's 

House, iii, 24 
Bath, luig. House in Abbey Yard, 

iii, 8 
ISattery, Cliarleston, S. C. Tlie, iii, 
46 
" The Edenton Bell, iii, 88 
Battle of t!ie " Chesaf'eaL'c " and 
" Shannon^' iii, 123 
" Sussex, Eng. Cottages, IX, 
2 

Heardsley House, Beaufort, S. C. 

Stairlanding in the, iii, 77 
Beaufort, S. C., iii, 74 
Beaufort, S. C. : — 

Baptist .School-house, iii, 71 

" Parsonage, 76 ; X, 34 
Beardsley House. Room in, XI, 

22 
Brick Tomb, iii, 76 
College Building, iii, 75 
Closed-in Verandas, iii, 64 
Door-heads, iii, 75 
Elliott House, iii, 76; XI, 21, 22 
Fuller House, iii, 76; XI, 23, 25 
Gateways to St. Helena's Churcli- 

yard, XI, 14 
" Mount Bristol," iii, 75 
St. Helena's Churcli, iii, 76; XI, 
13 



Beaufort, S. C. : — 

Sea Island Hotel, iii, 77 
Stairlanding in Beardsley House, 
iii, 77 

Beauregard, Gen., and tlio Bells of 

St. Paul's, Edenton, N. C, iii, 88 

" Beauvoir," Biloxi, Miss., iii, 99, 

III ; XII, 3 
Belfry of Moravian Church, Bethle- 
hem, Pa., iii, 20 
" I'latform for Trombone-play- 
ers, iii, 20 
Bell Battery. The Edenton, iii, 88 
" Belle Grove," Iberville Parish, 

La., iii, 94, 1 1 1 ; XII, )6 
" Belle Isle," House of Gen. Marion, 

iii, 67, 68, 69 
Bellingham's, C;ov., House, Bos- 
ton, iii, I 22 
Bells of St. Michael's, Charleston, 
S. C, iii, 78 
" " " Michael's smashed by 
Federal Troops, iii, 
80 
" " " Philip's, Charleston, 
cast into Cannon, 
iii, 83 
Belvedere Farm House, Cooper 
River, S. C, X, 8, 9 
** Madeira, iii, 32 

Bemis's House, Charleston, .S. C. 

Plan of Dr., iii, 45 
Benjamin, Asher, Carpenter -archi- 
tect, iii, 102 
Benjamin's, Asher, Buildings. List 

of, iii, 102, 105 
Bentsville, Va. Old House at, iii, 

109 
liergen Homestead, Flatbush, L. I., 

iii, 1 17 
P>ertram I louse Veranda, Salem, 

Mass., iii, 63 
Bethesda College, near Savannah, 

iii. 40 
Betldeheni, Pa., iii, 18 

Bethlehem, Pa.: — 

Choral Festival at, iii, 20 
Gemeinhaus, iii, iS, J 9 
Germans at, iii, 19 
Moravian Buildings, iii, )8 
" Chapel, iii, 19 

Church, iii, )9, 20 
Trombone-players, iii, 20 

Bilile restored by Englishmen. 

Mrs. Motte's, iii, 48, 68 
Biloxi, Miss., " Beauvoir," iii, 99) 
III; XII, 3 
" " settled l)y French 

Canadians, iii, 99 
Binghamton, N. Y. The Capen 

House, iii, 118; XII, 47 
" Black Belt." The, iii, 92 
Blake "Earthquake Wine." The, 

iii, 32 
Blodgett, Architect, iii, 107 
" Blue Bell " Tavern, Derby, Pa., iii, 
24 



ExPLANATins : — The Volume ts indicated by " iii " All ilhistralions are indicated by bold-face numerals. The full-jjage plates are indicated by Roman nuineriils indicating the 
Part, and bold-face figures showing the location of the plate in that Part. 



IV 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



" Blueford." Mantelpiece at, iii, 

69 
Board. The Joggling, iii, 45 
Boardman House, Saugus, Ma.<s., 

iii. J 2 
Bohemia Manor, Md. Labadists 

at, iii. 19 
Bond-timbers, iii. 2 
Bonfires, an Evening Feature at 

rineville. iii, 66 
Bonnet, Steed, Pirate, iii. 38 
Book. Stuart and Revett's, iii, 108 
Books on Architecture. List of, 
105 

Boston : — 

Bulfinch Front. Battle over the, 
iii, 1 19 
" " Cost of Restor- 

ing, iii, 1 20 
E.xchange Coffeehouse, iii, i it. 
House of Gov. Bellingham, iii, 

" " Peter Faneuil, iii, 122 
" " Sir Harry Frankland, 

iii, 122 
" Hancock, iii, 122 
" Province, iii, 122 
" of Sir Harry Vane, iii. 

Park Street Church, iii, 21, 103, 

1C5; IX, J8 
St. Paul's Church, iii, 21 
Senate Chamber. The Old, iii, 

J20; xn,40 
State-House. Cost of, iii, 1 19 
" " Council -chamber, 

iii, n9 
" " Doric Hall, iii, 

120 
" " Hessian Drum in, 

iii, 120 
" " See " Massachu- 

setts." 
" " Senate Chamber, 

iii, )20; XH, 
40 
" " Washburn's Al- 

terations of, iii, 
121 
Boulanger, a favorite Dance. The, 

iii, 66 
Bow -windows, Exeter, Eng., iii, 6 
Boylston. Susannah, iii, 123 
" Brandon," Va., iii, 60 
Brewton, Miles, Merchant, iii, 36 
*' Sir Joshua's Portrait of 

Miles, iii, 38 

" [Bull-Priiigle] House, 

Charleston, S. C, iii, 

30, 36, 37, 38, 47. <■'«. 

112; X, J8, J9, 20, 

21,22,23,24,25,26 

*' Slave Quarters, Cliaiies- 

ton, S. C, iii, 37 

" Briars," near Natchez, Miss. 

The, iii, 62 
Brick-built. Southern Churches 

generally, iii, 85 
Brick -nogged Walls, iii, 11 
Brickyards at Medford, Mass., iii, 84 
Bridge-builder. Capt. Isaac Da- 
mon, iii, 104 
Brigham, Charles, Architect, and 

the Mass. State-house, iii, 121 
Brighton, Mass. Shedd House, iii, 

>2 
British and the Bells of St. Mich- 
ael's, Charleston. The, iii, 
78 
" and Fort Motte. The, iii, 

36, 68 
" Headquarters in the Brew- 
ton House, iii, 36 
Broughton's House, " Mulberry 

Towers," iii, 73 
Brown-Gammell House, Provi- 
dence, R. I., iii, 115; XII, 37, 38 
Brown. Josepli, Architect of the 
First Baptist Church, Providence, 
R. I., iii, 104, 105, 115 j 



Brown House. Joseph, Providence, 

R. I., iii, 115; XII, 39 
Brunswick, Ga., iii, 92 
Bryant, G. J. F., Architect, and the 

Boston State-house, iii, 119 
Bulfinch, Charles, Architect of; — 
Mass. State-House, iii, 

119, 123 
University Hall, Cam- 
bridge, iii, 112 
" Front. Cost of Restoring 
the, iii, 120 
Bulfinch's, Charles, Buildings. List 

of, iii, 105 
Bull. Col. William, iii, 90 

" House Entrance, Charleston, 

S. C, iii, 29 
" Plantation Entrance, Ashley 
River, S. C, iii, 56 
BuU-Pringle House, Charleston, 
S. C, iii, 30, sCi. 37, 38, 47. 6S. 
112; X, )8, J9, 20, 21, 22, 23, 
24, 25, 26 
Bulloch House, Rosewell, Ga., iii, 

96,98 
" " Sav an nah, Ga., 

The, iii, 91, 93, 
94,97; XII, 9 
Bunker Hill Monument, iii, 123 
" Buniside," on the Mississippi, 

iii. III ; XII, J5 
Burning of the Horry House, iii,39 
" " " Huguenot Church, 
Charleston, S. C, 
iii, 81 
" " " Rotunda, Univer- 
sity of Va., iii, 27 
St. Philip's Church, 
Charleston, iii, 81 
Butler House, on the Altamaha, 

Ga. The, iii, 93 
Butler's Marriage with Fanny 

Kemble. Pierce, iii, 93 
Butter Walk, Dartmouth, Eng., iii, 

4,5 
Buzzards the Scavengers of Charles- 
ton, iii, 48 



-c- 

Cabot, George, iii, 120 

Cacique, iii, 88 

Cainhoy Church, near Charleston, 

S. C, iii, 87; XI, J5 
Caledonia, N. Y. Door to Clark 

House, IX, 34 

Calhoun. Grave of John C, iii. Si 

" Homestead, Newnan, 

Ga, iii, 60, 98 ; X, 46 

Calhoun's Place, "Fort Hill." 

J. C, iii, 95, 99 
Camden, S. C. The De Saussure 

Homestead, iii, S3 
Camellia Japonica Tree, at " Mid- 

dleton Place," iii, 72 
Campbell House, Charleston, S. C. 

Lord William, iii, 30, 35, 38 
Campbell's Escape. Lord and Ladv, 

iii, 38 
Cantilever Piazzas, iii, 1 11 
Cape Fear District, N. C, iii, 28 
Capital at " Etowah Heights," Ga. 

Curious, iii, 1 1 1 
Capitals, iii, 23 ; IX, 27, 29, 3 J 
" of Wamboro Church. 

The Brick, iii. 86 
Carleton, Sir Guy, and the Bells of 

St. Michael's, Charleston, iii, 88 
Carolina Coffee House, Charles 

ton, iii, 33 
Carpenter -architects, iii, 102 
Carpenter shacks. Georgia, iii, 92 
Carpentry and Georgian Architec- 
ture, iii, I 
" Work in America, iii, 11 

Carter's, "King," House "Oat- 
lands," XII, 27 
Cartersville, (ia. The SprouU 

House, near, iii, J JO, 112 
"Castle, Mulberry," Cooper River, 

S. C, iii, 54; X,38 



Ceilings at "Kenmore" made by 

Hessian Prisoners, iii, 113 
Chancel Rail. St. Michael's, 

Charleston, S. C, XI, 6 
Chandelier. The Brewton Crys- 
tal, iii, 37 
Chapel. Bethlehem, Pa., Old Mora- 
vian, iii, )9 
" Hill, N. C. University of 

North Carolina, iii, 112 
" St. John's, New York, 

N. Y., iii, 105 
" St. Paul's, New York, 

iii, 105 
Charleston, S. C. When Settled, 
iii, 29, 89 

Charleston, S. C: — 

Ancrum House, iii, 41 ; X, J6 
Antiquities Shops, iii, 36 
Attic Wine<losets, iii, 32, 45 
Ball, Thomas, House, iii, 34, 48, 

49; X, J5 
Battery. The, iii, 46 
Bemis's House. Plan of Dr., iii, 

45 
Bull House. Entrance to the, 

iii, 29 
BuU-I'ringle [Miles Brewton] 

House, iii, 30, 36, 37, 38, 47. 

68,112; X, J8,J9, 20,21,22, 

23, 24, 25, 26 
Buzzards, iii, 48 

Cainhoy Church, iii, 87 ; XI, 15 
Campbell House. The Lord Wm., 

iii. 30. 35. 38 
Coffee-house. The Old Carolina, 

iii. 33 
College of Charleston, iii, 32, 33 
(,'urfe\v-bell. The, iii, 44 
Custom-house. The New, iii, 43 
" The Old, iii, 40 

De Saussure House. The iii, 31, 

46; X, 4 
Drayton House, iii, 35; X, J 4 
PMmonson House, iii, 30 
Elliott House, iii, 50 
Exchange, iii, 40 
Flynn's Presbyterian Church, iii. 

40; X,31 
Funeral Customs, iii, 42 
Gateway. The Simonton, iii, 30 
Gateways, iii, 30, 44, 50 ; X, 
29,30,35 
" to the Edmonson 

Hou.se, iii, 30; X, 2, 
3 
Gibbes House, X, 14 
Hayne House, iii, 35, 36, 39 
Hayward's House, Judge, iii, 

34,48; X, J7 
Ileyward, Nath'l, House, iii, -X/Z^ 

34; X, 10, 11 
Holmes House, iii, 31 ; X. 6 
Horry House, iii, 48; X, 36 
Huguenot Temple, iii, 36, 40 
Ironwork, iii, 34 
Izard House, iii, 38 
Janitor's Lodge, College of 

Charleston, iii, 32 
Laurens, Henry, House, iii, 33, 

34 
Loundes [Waggoner] House, iii, 

49 ; X. 33 

Manigault Gate-house, X, 35 

" House, iii, 51 

Market, iii, t,},, 48, 49 
Mason-Smith House, iii, 35 
Oldest Part of the City, iii, 32 
Pompion Hill Chapel Pulpit, 

XI, 17 
Post-office, iii, 53 
Powder Magazine. The Old 

Spanish, iii, 40 
Pumping-station. The, iii, 48 
Rhett House, iii, 38 
Russell, Nath'l, House, iii, 30, 

31. 39; X, 12 
St. Michael's C'hurch, iii, -i^t,, 43, 

47,43,78.80,81, 82; XI, 3, 

4, 5, 6, 7, 8 
St. Paul's Church, iii, 40 



Ch.\ri.eston, S. C. : — 

St. Philip's Church, iii, 33, 40, 
43. 80, 82,83; XI, 9, 10 

St. Philip's Church. The .Sec- 
ond, iii, 81 

Slave Quarters. The Brewton, 

iii. 37 
Smythe, Augustus, House, X, J4 
Spanish-tiled Roofs, iii, 44 
Staircases, iii, 34 
Street Names, iii, 44 
Sunday Habits, iii, 46 
Tombstones in St. Philip's 

Churchyard, iii, 35 
Tradd House. Robert, iii, t,t, 
Tumbull House. The Robert J., 

iii. 49. 53 
Type House Plan. The, iii, 31 
Typical House, X, 5, 27 
Veranda, X, 27 
Veranda, iii, 30, 62 ; X, 27 
" A Modem, iii, 57 
Waggoner [l^oundes] House, iii, 

49; X, 33 

Wine-closets. Attic, iii, 32, 45 
Witte House, iii, 41, 97; X, 16 

Charlestown, Mass. A Midwife's 
Epitaph, iii, 1 17 

Charlottesville, Va. : — 

" Monticello," Jefferson's House, 

iii, 13 
Professors' Houses, University 

of Va., iii, 25, 26, 27; IX, 

7 
Rotunda of the University of 

Virginia, IX, 6 

" Cliesapeake " and the " Shannon" 

Battle of the, iii, 123 
Chester, Eng. Half-timber Work, 

iii, 2 
Childs House, Rochester, N. Y., 

Jno., iii, 94, no 
Chimney. The Outside, iii, 51 
Chippendale Work, iii. 36 
Choragic Monument of Lysicrates. 

Order of the, iii, 1 10 
Choral Festival at Bethlehem, Pa., 

iii, 20 
Chorals at Salem, N. C, Trom- 
bone, iii, 22 
Christ Church, Alexandria, Va., 
iii, 86; XI, 16 
" " Philadelphia, Pa., 

iii, 104, 105 
" " Savannah, iii, 93 

" " Williamsburg, 

Va., iii, 81 
" (Swedes) Church, Upper 
Merion, I'a., iii, 21 
Christian Springs, Pa., iii, 20 
Churches generally built of Brick. 
Southern, iii, 85 

Churches:. — 

Ashfield, Mass., iii, 105 
Cainhoy Church, near Charles- 
ton, S. C, iii, 87; XI, J5 
Christ Church, Alexandria, Va., 
iii, 86; XI, 16 
" " Cambridge, 

Mass., iii, 105 
" " Philadelphia. Pa., 

iii, 104, 105 
Church, Wil- 
liamsburg, Va., 
iii, Si 
Congregational, Farmington, 

Conn., iii, 105 
Episcopal, Providence, R. I., iii, 

104, 105 
Farmington, Conn., iii, 16, 104 
First Baptist, Providence, R. I., 
iii, 104, 105, 115; XII, 
45 
" Congregational, Providence, 

R. I., iii, 104, 105 
" New London, Conn., iii, 

'05 
" Northampton, Mass., iii, 



Explanation : — The Volume is indi 
Part, and bold-fjce figures showing llic lucal 



1 by " iii " All i'lnstralions are indicated by bold-face numerals. The full page plates are indicated bv Roman numerals indicating the 
ion of [he plate in ihat Part. 



GENERAL INDEX OF TEXT AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Churches : — 

First Universalist, Providence, 

R. I., iii, 104, 105 
Flynn's Presbyterian, Cliarleston, 

S. C, iii, 40; X, 3 J 
Goose Creek, S. C, iii, 86t ^'^7 
Hadley, Mass., iii, 105 
Halifax, N. S. Dutcli, iii, J 6 
" " St. George's, iii, 

16 
" " St. Paul's, iii, 16 

Hanover Street, Boston, Mass., 

iii, 105 
Hatfield, Mass., iii, 105 
Huguenot Church, Charleston, 

S. C, iii, 40 
Immanuel, New Castle, Del., iii. 

21 
Independent Presbyterian, Sa- 
vannah, Ga., iii, 98 
I^anca.ster, Ma.ss., iii, 105 
Moravian, Bethlehem, Pa., iii, 
J9, 20 
" Chapel, Bethlehem, 

Pa., iii, J 9 I 

" Salem, N. C, iii, 22 

Newark, N. J. P'irst Presbyter- 

ia:i, iii, 16 ; IX, 23 
Nev,- North, Boston, Ma.ss., iii, 

North, New Haven, Conn., iii, 

'• Ware. Mass., iii, 105 

Northboro, Mass., iii, 105 
Old Trappe, Collegeville, Pa., iii, 

2J 

Old Wamboro [St. James's] 
Church, Santee, S. C, iii, 65, 
68,86; XI, \\, \2 

Park St., Boston, Mass., iii, 21, 
loj, 105; IX, 18 

Pa.xtang, llarrisburg. Pa., iii, 2j 

Pittsfteld, Ma.ss., iii, 105 

Pohick, near Ale.xandria, Va., iii, 

86 

Pompion Hill Chapel, near 
Charleston, S. C, iii, 87 

Prince George's. Winyaw, iii, 52, 
87; X, 40, 41 

St. Andrew's, on the Ashlev, 
S. C, iii, S;; XI. 15 

" Bartholomew's, Philadel- 
phia, Pa., iii, 104, 105 

" Denis, near Charleston, 
S. C, iii, 87 

" George's, Halifax, N. S., iii, 
14 

" Helena's, Beaufort, S. C, 

iii, 76; XI, J3 

" James, Santee, S. C, iii, 48 
" John's Chajjel, New V<trk, 

N. W. iii, 105 
" " Hampton, \'a., iii, 

S4 
" lAike's, Smithfield, Va., iii. 

" Michael's, Charleston, S. C. 

3,5. 4:„47, 7''<.So, 8J,82; 

XI,3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 

" Paul's, Boston, Slass., iii, 21 

'* " Chai)el, New York, 

N. v., iii. 105 
" " Charleston, .S. C, iii. 

40 
" " F.denton, N. C, iii. 

88 
Halifax, N. S.. iii, 16 
" Peter's, Isle of Wight. Va.. 

iii, 87 

" " Philadelphia, iii, 86 

" Philip's, Charleston, S. C, 

iii, Vv 40. 43, So, 

82,8i;XI,9, 10 

" " Charleston, S. C., 

The Second, iii, 

81 

" ■ Stephen's, Santee, S. C, iii, 

67,85.87; XI, 15 
Sleepy Hollow, Tarrvtown, N. V., 

iii, 21 ; IX, 26 
South, B(jston, .Mass., iii. 105 
" Salem, Mass., ii], 105 



Churches : — 

Strawberry on the Cooper River, 

S. C, iii, 87; XI, )5 
Taunton, Mass., iii, 105 
Trinity, " Old Swedes," Wil- 
mington, Del., iii, 21 ; 
IX, 4, 5 
" Newark, N. J., iii, 16; 

IX, 23 
'• Newport, R. I., iii, 21 ; 

IX, 19,20,21,22 
United, New Haven, Conn., iii, 

105 
West, Boston, Mass., iii, 105 
" Springfield, Mass., First, 
iii, 10;, 105 
Weymouth, Mass., iii, 105 

Churchyard Gates, Beaufort, S. C. 
" Gate, Charleston, S. C. 

St. Michael's, XI, 7 
Churchyards, New York City, iii, 

"7 

Ciphers in Ironwork, iii, 30 

Circular Staircases, iii, 49 

City-hall, Hartford, Conn., iii, 124 
" New York, N. V., iii, 104, 

105 

Clarissault, Architect of the Capi- 
tol at Richmond? iii, 104 

Clark House Doonvav, Caledonia, 
N. v., IX. 34 

Clarkson, N. V., Doorwav, IX, 
33 

Classic Revival, The, iii, 90, 94 

Classicism of Georgian Design, iii, 

9 
Clay. Henry iii, 95 
Clemson, Calhoun's Son-in-Law, iii, 

,95 
" College, iii, 95, 99 
Climatic Influences affected Colo- 
nial Detail, iii, 64 
Clock, IIalifa.\, N. S.. Town, iii, 17 
Closets, Charleston, S. C. Attic 

Wine, iii, 32, 45 
Cloth Hall, Newbury, Eng., iii, 7 
Club-house, " Fairfield." So. San- 
tee Si>ortsman's, iii, 69, 70 
Coach-house, Providence, R. I. 

Rufus Greene's, iii, 114 
Cobb, Athens, Ga. House of Gen. 

T. R. R., iii, 118 
Coffee-house, Boston, Mass. Ex- 
change, iii, 123 
" Charleston. S. C, 

The ( )ld Carolina, 

iii. 3.) 
Coleman House, Macon, Ga. The, 

iii, 63, 94 
Coligny's Attempts at Coloniza 

tion. Admiral, iii, 85 
College Building, Beauf.)rt, S. C. 
Old, iii, 75 
" Buildings. Colonial, iii, 

I 12 
" of Charleston, iii, 32, 33 

Collegeville, Pa. Old Trappe 

Church, iii, 21 
C<.lumbia, Mo. Jefferson's Tomb- 
stone at, iii, 25 
" S. C. Hoban designs 

the .State-liouse at, iii, 
108 
Common, l-'ortifications on Bos- 
ton, iii, I 22 
Communal Settlements at Ephrata, 

Pa., iii, 20 
(Joncord, Mass. Tlie Minot House, 

iii. 115 

" Concord," near Natchez, Miss. ,1111, 
1 63, 112; X, 47 
Connecticut. State-house. The Old, 

iii, 124 
Con\ent, Ursuline, New Orleans, 

Fa., XII, 6 
Cooper River, S. C. Belvedere 
Farmhouse, X, 8 
" " " Mulberry Castle," 

iii. 54' 
" " Strawberry Church, 

XI, 15 



Copley. Paintings by J. S., iii, 32 
Coquina, iii, 91 

" Houses built of, iii, 28 

Corbett House, Ipswich, Mass., iii, 

12 
Corbelled-out Upper Stories, iii, 3 
Cornice in the Ball House, Charles- 
ton, S. C, X, 15 
" Bull - Pringle [Miles 
15 r e w t o n] House, 
Charleston, S. C, X, 

22 

Cornwallis's Headquarters, Wil- 
mington, N. C, iii, 28 
Cost of Massachusetts State-house, 
iii, 1 19 
" " Restoration of the Bulfinch 

Front, iii, 120 
" " St. Michael's, Charleston, 
S. C, iii, 80 
Cottage. A Sea Island, iii, 59 
Cotton Belt. The, iii, 97 
Council Chamber in Massachu- 
setts State-house. A Corner of 
the, in, 119 
Court-house, P'airfax, Va., iii. 111, 

"3 

Couper. James Hamilton, iii, 93 

Cowles House, Farmington, Conn., 

E n trance to 

the J. I,., IX, 17 

" " Farmington, C'onn. 

The Thomas, iii, 

103; IX, 13, 14, 

.'5. 

Craven Countv, S. C, iii. 67 
"Crewe Hall," Malvern Hill, Va., 

iii, 113; XII, 22 
Crisp's Map of Charleston, S. C, 

Edw., iii, 32 
" Crowfield," S. C, iii, 73 
Crystal Chandelier. Tlie Brew»ton, 

'"' 37 
Culpepper. John iii, 32 

Cummings, C. A., and the ■■ llul- 

finch Front " l'"ight, iii, 1 19 
Curfew-bell in Charleston, iii, 44 
Currencv. Ratio of Paper to Gold, 

iii, 78' 
Custom-house. Charleston, S. C 
The New, iii, 43 
'■ Old, i'i, 40 
Cypress. Black, iii. 35 

" as a Building Material, 

iii, ('(3 

— £> — 

Dacre. Captain, iii, 123 
Dahaw Creek, S. C, iii, 85 
Dahlgren, Gen., builds " Dunleitli," 

Miss., iii, 1 1 1 
Dalcho's Descri'ption of St. Micii- 

ael's, Charleston, iii, 80 
Dames. Society of Colonial, iii, 

Damon, Capt. Isaac, Architect and 
Engineer, iii, 104 

Damon's, Capt. Isaac, Buildings. 
List of, iii, 105 

Dance. The Houlanger, iii, 66 

Daniel. Landgrave, Robert, iii, 80 

Danvers, Mass. Osborn House, 
iii, 13 

Dare, the First White Child, Vir- 
ginia, iii. 88 

Darien, Ga., iii, 92 

D.\RTMOUTH, Eng. : — 

Butter Walk. The, iii, 4, 5 
Doorway, iii, 9 
House in Hooper St.. iii, 4 
Davies's Camera Work. Mr., iii. 

14 
Davis, A. J., Architect, iii, 124 
" House, Aberdeen, Miss. 
The Judge Reulien, XII. 
19 
" Jefferson, House, Biloxi. 
Miss., iii, 99, III; X II, 3 
Day House, West .S p r i n g f i e 1 d, 
Mass. Josiah, hi, 117; XII, 2 



Deaths on German Immigrant 

Ships, iii, 18 
D'llarriette Tombstone, Charles- 
ton, S. C., iii, 46 
De Kalb Monument. The, iii, 83 
Derby, Pa. "Blue-bell" Tavern, 

iii, 24 
De Ro.sset House, Wilmington, 

N. C, iii, 28 
De Saussure, iii, 67 
" " Gateway, Charleston, 

S. C.', X. 29 
" " Homestead near 

Camden, S. C, iii, 

S3 
" " House, Cliarleston, 

S. C. The, iii, 31, 

46; X, 4 
" " Slave Quarters, iii, 31 

Destruction of Ancient Buildings. 

Wm. Morris on the, iii, 123 
Devolution of the Veranda, iii, 64 
Diamond, Architect, iii, 107 
Dobie, Architect, iii, 107 
Dome of Massachusetts State- 
house. Fireproofing the, iii, 119, 
121 
Doorheads, Beaufort, S. C, iii, 75 
Doorways, iii, 9, 10 

Doorways : — 

Belvedere Farmhouse, Cooper 

River, S. C, X, 9 
Benefit St., Providence, R. I., 

XII, 36 
Bull House, Charleston, S. C, iii, 

29 
Bull - Pringle [Miles Brewton] 

House, Charleston, S. C. X, 

24 
Clark House, Caledonia, N. \ ., 

IX, 34 

Clarkson, N. Y., IX, 33 

Cowles, J. L., House, P'arming- 
ton, Conn., IX, 17 

Dorking, Paig., iii, 10 

PZconomy, Pa., iii, 22 

Hayne House, Charleston, ,S. C, 
iii, 36 

Ileywood House, Charleston, 
S. C, iii, 42 

Mahogany Doors, Baltimore, 
Md., IX, 24 

Manton, R. I., XII, 36 

Naih'l Russell House, Charles- 
ton, S. C, iii, 31 ; X, 12 

Newport, R. I., IX, 28, 30, 31 

"Octagon House," Washington, 

I). C., IX, 32 

Philadelphia, Pa., IX, 35; XII, 

32 
.St. Helena's Church, Beaufort, 

S. C, iii, 76 
" Mary's Male Academy, Nor- 

'folk, Va., X, 37 
Stnith Building, Uiii\ersity cf 
North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 
N. C, iii, 112 
Starkweather House, I'awtucket, 

R. I., IX, 1 
" Stenton." near Philadelphia, Pa., 

IX, 12 

Twin Doorways, Providence, 

R. I., IX. 27' 
"Woodlands," Philadelphia, Pa., 
XII, 29 
Dorchester Heights Fortifications, 

iii, 122 
Doric Hall, Massachusetts State- 
house, iii, I 20 
Dorking, Eng. Doorway, iii, 10 
Dormer-windows at Bethlehem, Pa., 

iii, 20 
Dormers. Pennsylvania, iii, 106 
Drawing-room, BuU-Pringle House, 
Cliai"Iest(m, S. ('., 
X, 19,20,21,22 
" W i 1 1 e House, 

C'harleston, S. C , 
iii, 41 
Drayton. John. iii. 71 



EXPI.ANATIDN : — TllO V hllllL" 

Part, and bold-face figures .sliowii 



s iiulic.ilfd by " iii." All ilUi'itraiiims are indicated by b d-face numerals. The full-page plates are indicated by Konian nuincr.ils indicating ilie 
; the location of the plate in that fart. 



VI 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



Drayton. Capt. Fercival, U. S. N., j 
iii, 71 I 

" Thomas, iii, 71, 90 I 

" Gen. Thomas S., 

C. S. A., iii. 71 1 

" Wm. Ilenrv. iii, 71 

" Hall, Ashley River, 

S. C, iii, 36, 
55.71; X,39 
" " Nort h a m p t o n- 

shire, Eng., iii, 
" House, Charleston, S. C , 

iii, 35; X- H 
" Tomb, '• Magnolia on 

the Ashley," S. C, 
XI, 20 
Drum in the Massachusetts State- 
house. Hes.sian, iii, 120 
Dry -dock at Port Royal, S. C, iii, 

75 
Dublin Architecture resembles the 

Old Colonial, iii, loS 
Du Bosc, iii, 67 
Duncan House, Paris, Kv., iii, JOl, 

J>3, ir4 

"Dunleith," near Natchez, Mi.ss., ! 

iii, 94, 99, III ; XII, J4 
Dutch Building Material. Impor- 
tation of. iii, 17 
" Church, Halifax, N. S , iii, 

)6 
" Feeling in Kingston, N. Y., 

iii, 117 
" and German Eighteenth- 
century Work, iii, 14 
" Inn, Kingston, N. Y,, iii, 

24 
" in South Carolina. The, 
iii, 85 
Da.xbury, Mass. Mantel in Water- 
man Parlor, iii, 108 ; XII, 42 



-E — 

Earthquake. Effects of the 
Charleston, iii, 47 
" Wine. The, iii, 32 

Easton, Pa. Germans at, iii, 19 
Ebenezer, S. C. Germans at, iii, 19 
Economy, O. Sketches at, IX, 3 
" Pa. Doorway, iii, 22 

" " The Harmonists of, 

iii, 22 
Eden, Governor, and Teach, the 

Pirate " Blackbeard," iii, 88 
Edenton Bell Bat-tery. The, iii, 88 
N. C. St. Paul's Church, 
iii, 88 
Edgefield, S. C. " Edgewood," 

near, iii, 112; XII, 10, U, 12 
" Edgewood," near Edgefield, S. C, 

iii, 112; XII, JO, J(, J2 
Edict of ?v'antes. The, iii, 67 
Edisto Island, S. C. The Edw. 
Jenkins House, iii, 85, 89; XI, 
1,2 
Edmonson House, Charleston, 
S. C, iii, 30 
" Place, Charleston, 

S. C. Gates to, iii, 
3o;X,2,3 
Eighteenth-century Work. Dutch 

and German, iii, 14 
Elderkin, John. Carpenter-archi- 
tect, 103 
Elderkin's, John, Buildings. List 

of, iii, 105 
" El Dorado," on the South .Santee, 

iii, 36, 68; XI, 18, 19 
Elizabeth, N. J. The Chetwood 

House, iii, J09 
Elliott House, Beaufort, S. C. iii, 
-(^\ XI, 21, 22 
" B e a u f o r t , S. C. 
Stair-landing, iii, 
77 
" " Charleston, S. C, 

iii, 50 
" " Charleston, .S. ('., 

now a Ptimj>ing- 
station, iii, 4S 



Elliot House Staircase, Charleston, 

S. C. The, iii, 34 
English Cottages, IX, 2 

" Georges. The, iii, 106 

" Iron Mills cause Timber 

Famine, iii, 10 
" Santee, iii, 67 
Entrance to Edmonson House, 

Charleston, S. C, X, 2 
Ephrata, Pa. Communal Settle- 
ment at, iii, 20 
" " Germans at, iii, 19 

Episcopalians. The Planters were, 

iii, 65 
Epitaph, Charlestown, Mass. Curi- 
ous, iii, 1 17 
"Etowah Heights," Ga., iii, J JO, 

II I 
Everett, A. G., Architect, restores 

the " Bulfinch Front," iii, 119 
Eutaw Springs, S. C, iii, 67 
Evolution of the Wing Pavilion, iii, 

58 
Exchange Building, Savannah, Ga., 

iii, 90; XII, 8 

" Coffee-house, Boston, 

Mass., iii, 123 
*' and Custom -house, 

Charleston, iii, 40 
" Maritime, Philadelphia, 

Pa., iii, 107 
Exeter, Eng. Houses in the High 
.Street, iii, 5, 6 
" House, on Cooper River. 
S. C, iii, 55 

— F — 

Fairfax Co. Court-house, Fairfax, 

Va., iii, J J J, 113 
" ^'airfield," on the South Santee, 

S. C, iii, 69, 70 
Faneuil Hall designed by Peter 

Smibert, iii, 103 
Faneuil's House, Boston, Mass. 

Peter, iii, 1 2 2 

Farmington, Conn. : — 
Church at, iii, 16, 104, 1C5 
Gateway to James P. Cowles 

House, IX, J7 
Thos. Cowles House, iii, J03 ; 

IX, J3, )4, )5 
Old House, iii, J J 
Fay, Clement K., and the "Bul- 
finch Front " Fight, iii, 1 18 
" Federal Hill," Bardstown, Ky., 

iii, I J3, 114 
Federal Injury to Charleston, iii, 31 
" Soldiers in Charleston. 
Damage by, iii, 48 
Fever in the I.«wlands. Intermit- 
tent, iii, 65 
Fireplace. .See " Mantelpiece." 

" Refining Influence of 

the, iii, 64 

Fireplaces : — 

Brown-Gammell House, Provi- 
dence, R. I., XII, 38 

Fuller House, Beaufort, S. C, 
XI, 24 

Hotel, Economy, O., IX, 3 
Mulberry Castle, Cooper River, 
S. C, iii, 54 

Fires. Two Savannah, iii, 90 
First Baptist Church, Providence, 
R. I., iii, J04, 115; XII, 45 
" Church, West Springfield, 

Mass., iii, 103 
" Presbyterian Church, New- 
ark, N. J., iii, 16 
Flagg. Paintings by, iii, 32 
Flatbush, L. I. The Bergen House, 
iii, 1 17 
" " " Van d e r V e e r 

H o u s e, iii, 
116, J24 
Flynn's Presbyterian Church, 

Charleston, S. C, iii, 40; X, 31 
Font in St. Michael's Church, 
Charleston, .S. C, iii, 80 



Fort Griswold, Groton, Conn. 

Gravestones at, iii, J J7 
"Fort Hill," House of J. C. Cal- 
houn, iii, 95, 99 
" Motte," S. C, iii, 68, 10 1 
Fortifications about Boston, iii, 122 
Frankland's House, Boston, Ma.ss. 

Sir Harry, iii, 122 
Franklin's Estimate of the German 

Population, iii, 19 
Fredericksburg, Va. " Kenmore," 

XII, 25, 26 
Fredericton, N. B. Government 

House, iii, J 7 
French-Canadians settle in Louisi- 
ana, iii, 99 
French Massacre at York, Me., iii, 
116 
" Santee, S. C, iii, 65 
" Traits extant in the Santee 
River Region, iii, 65 
Friedensthal, Pa., iii, 20 
" Friendfield," near Georgetown, 
S, C, iii, 5), 52 
" Picture-paper Par- 

lor, X, J, 44, 45 
Frontiersmen. German, iii, 19 
Front Rooms. Southern Guests 

must have, iii, 1 12 
Fuller House, Beaufort, S. C, iii, 
76; XI, 25 
" " Mantelpiece, Beau- 

fort, S. C, XI, 24 
Funeral Customs in Charleston, 

S. C, iii, 42 
Furniture. Old, iii, 36, 38 

-G~ 

Gadsden. Grave of Christopher, 
iii, 80 

Gallery. See " Veranda " 

Galvanized Iron Capitals. Intro- 
duction of, iii, 98 

Gambrel Roof Myth. The, iii, iS 

Game in the French Santee, iii, 71 
" " " Georgia, iii, 92 

Garden lacks Moisture. The South- 
ern, iii, 76 

Gardens at " Magnolia on the Ash- 
ley," iii, 71 

Gate-house, Manigault Place, 
Charlestown, .S, C , X, 35 

Gateways, Charleston, S. C, iii, 30, 
50; X, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, J), 29, 30, 
35,37 

Gateways : — 

Brown-Gammell House, Provi- 
dence, R. I., XII, 38 

Bull Plantation, Ashley River, 
S. C, iii, 56 

Cowles House, Farmington, 
Conn , iii, J03; IX, J4 

De Saussure House, Charles- 
ton, S. C, X, 4, 29 

Edmonson, (Jeo., Place, Charles- 
ton, S. C, iii, 30; X, 2,3 

Heyward Estate, Charleston, 
S. C, iii, 44 

Nath'l Heyward Place, Charles- 
ton, S. C, X, Jl 

Holmes Place, Charleston, S. C, 

X, 6 

Parson's Plantation, Goose 

Creek, S. C, iii, 55 
St. Helena's Churchvard, Beau- 
fort, S. C, XI, '14 
" Michael's, Charleston, XI, 6, 

7 
Simonton, Charleston, S. C, iii, 
30; X, 29, 30 

Gauffre, iii, 67 

Gemeinhaus, Bethlehem, Pa., iii, 18, 
>9 

George's, Prince, Church. George- 
town, S. C, iii, 52, 87 ; X, 40, 41 

Georgia Sea I.sland Cottage. A, 
iii, 58 

Georgian Architecture and Car- 
pentry, iii, I 



Georgian Architecture in Que- 
bec, iii, 15 
" Style. The, iii, 106 

Georgetown, S. C, iii, 49 

Georgetow.n, S. C: — 

" Friendfield," near, iii, 5J ; X, 
I, 44, 45 

Prince George's Church, iii, 52, 
87; X, 40, 41 

Pyatt House. The, iii, 64 ; X, 
41 

Tombs in Prince George's Church- 
yard, iii, 35 

German Eighteenth-century Work, 
iii, 14 
" Frontiersmen, iii, 19 
" Immigration, iii, 16, 18 
" .Settlements in South Caro- 
lina and Virginia, iii, 19 
Germantown, Pa., iii, 19 

" Quincy, Mass., iii, 19 

Germans. Franklin's Estimate of 

Number of, iii, 19 
Gerry. Elbridge, iii, 1 20 
Ghost of " Yeaman's Hall." The, 

iii, 56, 73 
Gibbes House, Charleston, S. C, 

X, J4 
Gibbs's. Peter Harrison a Pupil 

of James, iii, 103 
Gibbs. Possibly Architect of St. 
Michael's, Charleston, S. C, iii, 

79 
Gibson [Gibbs ?], Architect of St. 

Michael's, Charleston, iii, 79 
Gilmer House, Savannah, Ga , iii, 

89 
" Gloria Dei " Church, Philadelphia, 

iii, 21 
Gnadenthal, Pa., iii, 20 
(iodfrey House, HoUingbourne, 

Kent, Eng,, iii, J 
Goose Creek, S. C. Entrance to Par- 
son's Planta- 
tion, iii, 55 
" Church, iii, 86, 
87 
Pulpit, 
X I, 
)7 
Gordon, Wm., plans Flynn's 

Church, Charleston, S. C, iii, 40 
Gore. Christopher, iii, 120 
Gorges, Sir P'erdinando, attempts 

to found a Dynasty, iii, 116 
Gorgiana, Me., iii, 1 1 5 
Goudhurst, Kent, Eng., Doorway, 
iii, 10 
" " " House near, 

IX, 2 
Government House, Fredericton, 
N. B., iii, 
J7 
Halifax, N. S, 

iii, J 5, 17 
Gov. Tryon's Palace, Wilmington, 

N. C, iii, 28 
Grady, Henry W., House at 

Athens, Ga., iii, J08 
Grandpre, Spanish Governor, iii. 64 
(jrave of J. C. Calhoun, Charleston, 

iii, 81 
" Gravel Hill," Santee, S. C, iii, 67 
Gravestone, see " Tombstone " 
Gravestones, iii, J)7 
Greek Movement in the South, iii, 
107 
" Revival. The, iii, 94, io5 
" " and Some Other 

Things, iii, 106 
Greene. John, Amateur Architect, 

iii, 104 
Greene's Coach-house, Providence, 
R. I. Rufus, iii, J J4 
" John, Buildings. List of, 
iii, 105 
Greenwood, Ala., iii. 97 
" Greenwood," near Thomasville, 
Ga., XII, 3 



Explanation ; — The Volume is indicated by"iii." All illustrations are indicated by bold-face numerals. The full-page plates are indicated by Roman numerals indicatitig the 
Part, and bold-face figures showing the localioii of the plate in that Part. 



GENERAL INDEX OE TEXT AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Vll 



Gioton, Conn, (iravestones in, iii, 

1)7 
Guest-rooms. Front Rooms for 

Southern, iii, 1 12 
Gunston ilall, on the Potomac, iii, 

114 
Guillard. Capt., iii, 67 

-H — 

Hale, Rev. E. E., on proposed De- 
struction of the " Bulfinch Front," 
Boston, Mass., iii, 120 

Half-timbering, iii, 2 

H.\LIFAX, N. S. 

Admiralty House, iii, 17 
Dutch Church at, iii, )6 
Government House, iii, JSj 17 
Old Town Clock, iii, J 7 
Province Building, iii, J 7 
St. George's Church, iii, J4, 16 
** Paul's Church, iii, J6 
Swell Fronts, iii, 17 

"Hall, Drayton," on the Ashley 
River, S. C, iii, 36, 55 

Hamilton, Andrew, Architect, iii, 
104, 105 

Hamilton's House, " Woodlands," 
Philadelphia, Pa. William, XH, 
J, 28, 29, 30 

" Hampton," on the South Santee, 
iii, 66, 67, 68, 69 ; 
XI, J9 
" Gen. Marion's Escape 

from, iii, 39 

Hampton, Va. St. John's Church, 
iii, 84, 85 

Hampton's great Fortune. Gen. 
Wade, iii, 42 

Hancock House, Boston, Mass., iii, 

Hanover, Va., Court-house, iii, 113 
Hansell House, Rosewell, Ga., iii, 

96,98 
Harmonists of Economy, Pa. The, 

iii, 22 
Harrisburg, Pa. Paxtang Church, 

iii, 23 
Harrison's, Peter, Buildings. List 

of, iii, 105 
Hartford, Conn. City-hall, iii, 124 
Harwood House, Annapolis, Md., 

iii, 118 
Havard, A., Architect of St. 

Stephen's, Santee, iii, 67 
Haydel's " Home Place," St. Char- 
les Parish, La., iii, iii ; XH, 4 
"Hayes," near Edenton, N. C, 

iii, 88 
Hayne House, Charleston, S. C, 

iii. 35. 36, 39 
" the Martyr. Col. Isaac, iii, 
40 
Haywood [Lynch] Mantel, Charles- 
ton, S. C, X, 34 
Hepworth. Grave of Chief Justice 

"Thomas, iii, 80 
"Hermitage. The" Nashville, 
Tenn., iii, 
95, 109, 
XH, 44 
" " on the Savan- 

nah River, 
Ga., iii, 91, 
92. 97 ! 
XII, 43, 44 
Hessian Drum in Ma.s.sachusetts 
State-house, iii, 120 
" Prisoners make the Ceil- 

ings at " Kenmore," iii, 
1 12 
Heyward Estate, Charleston, S. C, 
Entrance to, iii, 44 
" Nath'l., House, Charles- 
ton, S. C, iii, :sT„ 34; 

X, 10, n 

Heyward's Drawing-room, Charles- 
ton, .S. C. Judge, 
X, 17 
" House, Charleston, 

S. C, Judge Thos. 
iii, 34, 48 



Heywood House, Charleston, S. C, 

Entrance to, iii, 42 
High Hills of the Santee : — 

The, iii, 67 

"Millford," in the, XII, J 7 
Hingham, Mass. The " Old Ship," 

iii, 81 
Hite House, Winchester, Va., iii, 

n3, 114 

Hoadley, David, Designer of North 
Church, New Haven, Conn., iii, 
105 
Hoban, James, Architect of the 
" White House," iii, 107, 108, 
109 
Holland. Building Material im- 
ported from, iii. 17 
Ilollingbourne, Kent, Eng. God- 
frey House, iii, J, 2 
Holmes House, Charleston, S. C, 
iii, 31 ; X, 6 
" James Gadsden, Sr., iii, 31 
" Home Place," St. Charles Parish, 

La., iii, iii; XII, 4 
" Homewood," Baltimore, Md., iii, 

60 
Hooker, PhiHp, Architect of Boys' 
Academy, Albany, N, Y., iii, 105 
" Hopeton House," on the Altama- 

ha, Ga., iii, 93 
Hopkins, Stephen, Architect, iii, 

"5 
Horry House, Charleston, S. C, 
iii, 48; X, 36 
" " Burning of the, iii, 

39 
" Mrs. Daniel, iii, 39, 69 
" Slave Quarters, Charleston, 
S. C, iii, 39 
Hotel, Beaufort, S. C. Sea Island, 
iii, 77 
" Nottoway Co., Court 
House, Va., iii, J 09 
Houmas House, on the Mississippi, 

iii, 94 
House. Typical Charleston, S. C, 

X,5 
Huger, iii, 67 

Huguenot Immigrants. The first, 
iii, 66 
" Names, iii, 53 

" I'lanters, iii, 65 

" Temple, Charleston, 

S. C, iii, 36, 40 
Huguenots and the Parish of St. 
Denis, S. C, iii, 87 
" were poor. The French 

iii, 90 
Hull, Com., visits Boston State- 
house, iii, 123 
Hutchinson's, Gov., House, Boston, 

Mass., iii, 122 
Hyde, J., Architect of St. Philip's 
(Third) Church, Charleston, S. C. 



— I — 

Iberville Parish, La., "Belle 

Grove," iii, 94, 1 1 1 ; XII, t6 
Immanuel Church, New Castle, 

Del., iii, 21 
Imported Materials. The Matter 

of, iii, 84 
Independence Hall, Philadelphia, 

Pa., iii, 104, 105 
Independent Presbyterian Church, 

Savannah, Ga., iii, 98 
Indian Massacre at York, Me., iii, 
116 

" Warfare and overhanging 
Stories, iii, 1 1 
Indiana State-house, iii, 124 
Indigo. The First So. Carolina, 

iii, 56 
" Inglehurst," Macon, Ga., iii, 112; 

XII, n 

Inn, Kingston, N. Y. Dutch, iii, 24 

" See " Tavern " 
Inns. Pennsylvania, iii, 24 
Ipswich, Mass. Corbett House, 
iii, J2 



Ipswich, Ma.ss., Saltonstall House, 
iii, 12 
" " Whipple House, 

iii, I ! 
Iredell Family. The, iii, 88 
Iron Gates, St. Michael's ('hurch, 
Charleston, S. C, XI, 6 
" Mills cause Timber Panic. 
English, iii, 10 
Ironwork. Wrought, iii, 34, 47, 

109; X, 7 
Ironworker. Werner, a Charleston, 

iii, 30 
Island Cottage. Georgia Sea, iii, 

58,59 
" S. C. Edi.sto, iii, 85, 89 
Isle of Wight, Va. St. Peter's, iii, 

Italian Mural Decorations, iii, ^(> 
Izard House, Charleston, iii, -^'^^ 38 



-J 



• White House.' 



Jackson and the 

Andrew, iii, 95 
Jackson's House at Nashville. 

"The Hermitage," iii, 95, 109; 

XII, 44 
Jail, York, Me. Old, iii, J J 5, 116 
Jamaica, L. I. The King Manor 

House, iii, 13 ; IX, J 6 
Jardella. Sculptor, Giuseppe, iii, 

24 
Jay, an English Architect in Savan- 
nah, iii, 89, 91 
Jefferson, I'homas, Amateur Ar- 
chitect, iii, 103, 107 
" Founder of the Univer- 

sity of Va., iii, 25 
Jefferson's House " Monticello," iii, 
13, 27, 104, 115; IX, 
8,9, )0, J I 
" Tombstone. Thomas, 

iii, 25 
Jenkins House, Edisto Island, S. C. 

TheEdw., 111,85,89; XI, J, 2 
Jerked Meat, iii, 67 
Jockey Club Ball. The, iii, 60 

" " Madeira, iii, 32 

Joggling Board. The, iii, 45 

Johnson, Ebenezer, Designer of 

United Church, New 

Haven, Conn., iii, 105 

" Grave of Gov. Robert, 

iii, 80 
" Grave of William, iii, 80 

" Rev. John, iii, 82 

" Journal of Life on a Georgia Plan- 
tation," iii, 93 
Justi, A., Ironworker, iii, 79 

— K — 

Kearsley, Dr. John, Architect, iii, 

104, 105, 107 
Kemble's Marriage with Pierce But- 
ler. Fanny, iii, 93 
" Kenmore," Fredericksburg, Va., 
iii, 113; XII, 25, 
26 
" much like " Wood- 

lawn," iii, 1 13 
King Manor House, Jamaica, L. L, 
iii, 13; IX, 16 
" House. Rufus, iii, 1 1 
" King" Roger Moore, iii, 28 
Kingston, N. Y. Dutch Feeling in, 
iii, 117 
" " Old Dutch Inn, 

iii, 24 
" " The Ten Broeck 

House, iii, 1 17 
" " Van Steenbergh 

House, iii, 1 17 
Kitchens. Outside, iii, 45 
Kneelers, iii, 7 

Knox Headquarters, Newburgh, 
N. Y. Gen., iii, 20 



— L,— 

Labadist Settlement 
Manor, Md., iii, 19 



at Bohemia 



Lafayette visits the Massachusetts 

State-house, iii, 120, 123 
La Grange, Cia., iii, 97 
Lamphire, Architect, iii, 107 
Lancaster, Pa. Germans at, iii, 19 
Lane's Junction, S. C, iii, 50 
Latrobe, Benjamin II., Architect, 

iii, 107 
Laurens, iii, 67 

" House, Charleston, ,S. C, 

iii. Vo^ 34 
" Minister to Holland. 
Henry, iii, 33 
"Lausanne," the De Saussure 

Homestead, S. C, iii, 83 
Lawrence, L. I. " Rock Ilall," 

XII, 33 

Legare, iii, 67 

Lee, Col. Henry, and the Massa- 
chusetts State-house, iii, 120, 122 
Lee's, Gen. R. E., House, "Arling- 
ton," iii, no; XII, 20 
Leigh. Grave of Chief Justice 

Peter, iii, 80 
Leinster House, Dublin, Ireland, 

iii, 1 16 
L'Enfant. Pierre, Architect, iii, 
109 
" Designer of Robert 

Morris's House, iii, 

24 
" Les Chenes," iii, 99 
Lewis, Lawrence, iii, 113 
Lewis's, Col. Fielding, House " Ken- 
more," iii, 113; XII, 25, 26 
Leydon House, Atlanta, Ga., XII, 

13 
Lillybridge House, Savannah, Ga., 

X, 32 
LinwoodjGa. The Shepherd House, 

iii, 60 
Lititz, Pa. Germans at, iii, 19 
Live Oak. A Giant, iii, 73 
Liverpool, now Wilmington, N. C, 

iii, 28 
Lodge, Charleston, S. C. College 

of Charleston Ciate, iii, 32 
Logan, Grave of John, iii, 80 

" James, Secretary to Wm. 

Penn, iii, 22 
" House, " Stenton," James, 
iii, 2 2 
Long, Gov., and the Massachusetts 

State-house, iii, 123 
Longfellow House Verandas. The, 

iii, 62 
Lorentz, a Charleston Silk -mer- 
chant, iii, 30 
Lorio, George, House of, in St. 

Charles Parish, La., XI 1, 5 
" Lower Brandon," Va., iii, 60 

" " Carpenter's 

Capitals at, 
iii, 62 
Loundes. Grave of Gov. Rawlans, 
iii. So 
" [Waggoner] House, 

Charleston, S. C, iii, 
49 ; X, 33 
Lutheran Settlement, Waldoboro, 
Me., iii, 19 

-M- 

McAlpin House, " The Hermitage," 
on tlie Savannah 
River, (ia., iii, 
97, 109; XII, 
43,44 
" " Savannah, Ga., 

iii, 95, 96 
McBean, Architect of .St. Paul's 
Chapel, New York, N. \ ., iii, 
103, 105 
McComb, Architect of N. 'S . City- 
hall, John, iii, 102, 104, 105, 107 
"Mclntire Garrison," 'i'ork. Me., 

iii, 1 15, li<J 
Mclntire, Samuel, Architect of 
South Church, Salem, Mass., iii, 
105, 107 



Explanation : —The Vohime is indicated by "iii." All illustrations are indicated by bold-face numerals. 
Part, and bold-face figures showing the location of the plate in ihat Part. 



The full-page plates ar« indicated by Roman numerals indicating the 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



McKim. Mead & White, Architects, 

iii. z~ 
Macon, Ga. The Coleman House, 
iii, 63, 04 
" " Inglehnist," near, 
iii'; 112; XU, Jl 
i[adeira Wines, iii, 32 
Madison, Ga. The Safford Home- 
stead, near, XH, J 8 
" " Montpelier,"Va. Home 
of, James, XH, 2( 
Magazine, Charleston, S. C. The 
Spanish Powder, iii, 
40 
" Somen'ille, Mass., Tow- 

der. iii, J06 
'• Magnolia, on the Aslilev,'' iii, 71, 

72 
Malbone, iii, 36, 38 
Male Academy, Norfolk, Va. St. 

Marv's, iii. 65 
Malvern Hill. Va., '• Crewe Hall," 

iii. 113; XH, 22 
Manigault, iii, 67 

" Dr. Gabriel, iii, 32 

" Gate-house, Charleston, 

S. C„ X, 35 
" House, Charleston, 

S. C, iii, 51 
Manning. Governor, iii, loi 

•' Homestead, High Hills 

of Santee, S. C, iii, 
100; XH, J7 
Manor House, Jamaica, L. I. The 

King, iii, 13; IX, J 6 
Mansion House, Wilmington, N. C, 
iii, 28 

M.\NTEI,I'IF,CE : 

Ball House, Charleston, S. C, 

X, )3 
Baltimore, Md., IX, 25 
Baptist Parsonage, Beaufort. 

S. C, X, 34 
" Belvedere," Cooper River, S. C, 

X, 8 
" Blueford." iii, 69 
BuU-Pringle [Miles Brewton] 

House, Charleston. S. C, X, 

2J 

Cowles House, Farming ton. 
Conn., IX, )5 

Fuller-house Dining-room, Beau- 
fort, S. C, XI,24 

" Hampton," on the Santee, S. C. 
Parlor, iii, 67 

Haywood [Lynch] House, Char- 
leston, S. C., X, 34 

"Prospect Hill," W ace am aw 
River, S. C, X, 43 

Waterman Parlor, D u x b u r y, 
Mass., iii, 108; XII, 42 

Manton, R. I., Doorway, XII, 36 
Marion's Escape from " Hampton." 
Gen., iii, 39 
" House, " Belle Isle." Gen. 

iii, 67, 68, 69 
Maritime E.xchange, Philadelphia, 

Pa., iii, J07 
Market, Charleston, S. C, iii, y^, 

4H, 49 
Market-house, Providence, R. I., 

designed by Jos. Brown, iii, 115 
Marmillion Place, Parish of St. 

John the Baptist, La., XII, 4 
Martvr Worthing, Hants, Eng., iii, 

3 ' 

Mason, Geo. C, Architect, iii, 21 j 
Mason -Smith Houses, Charleston, 
S. C, iii, 35 , 

Massachusetts Institute of Tech-| 
nology. Drawings made by Stu- 
dents of, iii, 1 24 I 

Mass.\chi;setts St.\tf,-hoi:sk : ^ 
Andrew's, Gov., Work in the, iii, 

Brigham's v\nne.x to, iii, 121 
liryant's Addition to, iii, 119 
Bulfiiich appointed Architect, iii, 
119 



M.\SSAl'lHSKl-fS ST.Vl'E-HOfSK : 

Bullinch Front. Efforts to pre- 
serve, iii, 1 18, 
119 
" " B e f o r e and 

after Resto- 
ration, XII, 
4) 
Cost of, iii, 1 19 
" " Restoration of the " Bul- 
finch P'ront," iii, 120 
Council Chamber. A Corner of 

the, iii, J 19 
Dome. P'ireproofing the, iii, 1 19, 

121 

Doric Hall. Webster's Speech 

in, iii, 120 
Everett, A. G., restores the Bul- 

finch Front, iii, 1 1 9 
Long, Gov., and the, iii. 123 
Senate Chamber. Ends of old, 

iii, 120; XII. 40 
Washburn's Alterations in, iii, 

119, 121 

Massacre at York, Me., iii, 116 
•• J/(;)'//c';i'tv'j" Mate, I'lymouth, 
Mass. Gravestone of the, iii, 

117 

Mayo, Architect, iii, 107 

Mazycks, iii, 67 

"Meadow Garden," near Augusta, 

Ga., iii. 111 
Medford, Mass., Brickyards, iii, 84 
" Medvvay," House of Landgrave 

Thomas Smith, iii, 73 
Men who designed the Old Colo- 
nial BuilcUngs, iii, 102 
Michau.x, Land-scape-gardener lays 

out "Middleton Place," iii, 72 

Middleton. Mr. Wm. and the 

Queen's Gardener, 

iii, 72 

" Place, on the Ashley 

River, S. C, iii, 55, 

72 
" Tomb, Ashley River, 

S. C. The, XI, 20 
Midwife's Epitaph. A, iii, 1 17 
" Milford," the Instate of Gen. 

Moultrie, iii, 67 
"Millford," in the High Hills of 
Santee, S. C, iii, 100; XII, J7 
Mills-Ward House, Salem, Mass., 

iii, 13 
Minot House, Concord, Mass., iii, 

115 
Mint, Philadelphia, Pa., designed 

by Strickland, iii, 107 
Minus House, Savannah, Ga. The, 

iii, 92 
" Mirror of Architecture" iii, 6 
Mobile, Ala. " Ashlands," near, 

iii, 112; XII, 13 
Monastery at Quincy, Pa. Snow 

Hill, iii, 22 
Money. Proclamation, iii, 78 
Monograms in Ironwork, iii, 30 
" Monmouth," near Natchez, Miss., 

XII, 14 
Monroe visits Boston. President, 

iii, 120, 123 
" Montebello," near Natchez, Miss., 

iii, 99, III ; XII. 20 
" Monticello," near Charlottesville, 
Va., iii, 13, 27, 104, 115; IX, 8, 
9, 10, 1 1 
"Montpelier," Va., iii, 115 ; XII, 21 
" d e s i g n e d by Dr. 

Thornton, iii, 115 
Monument. Bunker Hill, iii, 123 

" What is a, iii, 122, 123 

Moore. Gov. James, iii, 28 

" " King" Roger, iii, 28 
Moravian l^uildings, Bethlehem, 
Pa., iii, 18 
" Church, Bethlehem, Pa., 
iii, 19, 20 
Salem, N. C, 
iii, 22 
" Settlements, iii, 20 

Morgan, (jen., iii, 67 



Morris. Details from House of 
Robert, iii. 23 
" Wm., on the Destruction 

of Ancient Buildings, iii, 

Morris's House designed by I^'En- 

fant, iii, 24 
Motte Bible restored by English- 
men. The, iii, 48, 68 
" Fort, iii, 36, 68, 101 
" Grave of Col. Isaac, iii, 80 
" " " Rebecca, iii, 80 

" Mrs. Rebecca Brewton, iii. 

Moultrie's Estate, " Milford." Gen., 
iii, 67 

"Mount Airy,'' oit the Rappahan- 
nock, Va., iii, 114; XII, 22, 23 

"Mount Bristol," Beaufort, S. C, 
iii, 75 

" Mount Vernon." Arcades at, iii. 

114 
" " Stables, iii, 1 1 5 

" " Veranda at, iii, 

62 
"Mulberry Castle," Cooper River, 

S. C, iii, 54 ; X, 38 
" Mulberry Towers," Home of the 

Broughtons, iii, 73 
Munday, Richard, Architect of 
Newi)ort Town -hall, iii, 103, 105 
Mural Decorations imported from 

Italy, iii, 36 
Murray on I'lantation Life. Hon. 
Amelia, iii, 93 

-N- 

Nantes. The Edict of, iii, 67 
Nashville, Tenn. "The Hermit- 
age," iii, 109 ; 
XII, 44 
" " House of Jas. 

K. Polk, iii, 
109; XII, 43 
The P,riars," near, 
iii, 62 
" " " Concord," near, 

iii, 63, 112 ; X, 
47 
" " " Dunleith," near, 

iii, 94, 99, III; 
XH, 14 
" " " Monmouth " near, 

XII, 14 
" " " Montebello," near, 

iii, 99, III; 
XII, 20 
" " Settled in 1720, iii, 

99 
"Windy Hill," 
near, XII, 19 
Naval Asylum, Philadelphia, Pa., 

designed by Strickland, iii, 107 
Nazareth Hall, iii, 20 

" Pa. Barony of, iii, 20 

Negro School now uses the Scarbor- 
ough House, Savannah, iii, 91 
Newark, N. J., P'irst Presbyterian 
Church, iii, 16, 
IX, 23 
" " Trinity Church, iii, 

16, IX, 23 
C. Gov. Tryon's 



Natchez, Miss. 



New Berne, N 

Palace, iii, 23, 28 
Newburgh, N. Y. Gen. Knox's 

Headquarters, iii. 20 
Newbury, ling. Cloth Hall, iii. 7 
New Castle, Del. I m m a n u e 1 

Church, iii, 21 
New Haven, Conn. State-house 

designed by Ithiel Towne, iii, 124 
" Newlanders." The, iii, 18 
Newnan, Ga. Calhoun Home- 
stead, iii, 60, 98 ; X, 46 
New Orleans, La. A r c h b i s h o p's 
Palace, XII, 7 

" " " Old Barracks, 

XII, 5 

" " " Ursuline C o n- 

vent, XII, 6 



New Orleans, La. .Settlement of, iii, 

89 
Newport, R. I. Doorways, IX, 28, 
29, 30, 31 
" " Town-hall, iii, 103 

" " Trinity Church, iii, 

21; IX, 20, 21, 
22 
Newton Abbott, Eng. Doorway, 

iii, 9 
New York, N. Y: — 

i Apthorpe House, XII, 33 
Churchyards, iii, 117 
City-hall, iii, 102, 104, 105 
Old House in Park Ave., iii, 61 
St. John's Chapel, iii, 105 
" Paul's Chapel, iii, 105 
Vandenheuvel House, iii, 17 

\ Nichols Stable-yard, Providence, 

R. I., iii, 114 

Nicholsoir House, Philadelphia, 

Pa., designed by L'Enfant, iii, 

I 109 

Norfolk, Va. Door to St. Mary's 

Male Academy, iii, 63; X, 37 
North Carolina. The German Set- 
tlements in, iii, 
22 
" " State House, de- 

signed by Ithiel 
Towne, iii, 107, 
124 
Nottoway Co. Court House, Va., 
Old Hotel, iii, )09 

-o— 

" Oak Tree " Tavern, Montgomery 

Co., Pa., iii, 24 
" Oakes. The," near Goose Creek 

Church, S. C, iii, 73 
" Oatlands," Loudon Co., Va., XII, 

27 
" Octagon House " Doorsvay, Was.- 

ington, D. C. IX, 32 
Oglethorpe Lands at Yamacraw, 

Ga., iii, 89 
" Old .Ship." Hingham, Mass., iii, 81 
" Swedes Church, Wilmington, 
Del., iii, 21; IX, 4, 5 
" Old Trappe" Church, CoUegeville, 

Pa., iii, 21 
Orangeburg, S. C. The Germans 

at, iii, 19, 88 
Orange Quarter, S. C, iii, 87 
Order of the Choragic Monument 
of Lysicrates, iii, 1 10 
" " " Temple of the Winds, 
iii, 109 
Organ in St. Michael's Church, 

Charleston, iii, 46 
Ort<m I'lantation, Wilmhigton, 

N. C, iii, 28 
Osborn House, Danvers, Mass., iii, 

13 
Oversailing Stories, iii, 3, 11 
Owens House, Savannah, Ga. The, 
iii, 91. 92 

— P — 

Palace, Archbishop's, New Orleans, 
La., XII, 7 
" New Berne, N. C, Gov. 
Tryon's, iii, 23, 28 
Paper Money in South Carolina, 

Early, iii, 78 
Paris, Ky. The Maj. Duncan 

House, iii, 101, 1 13, 114 
Parish, St. Charles, La. " Home 
Place," iii, in; XII, 5 
" St. Charles, La. House of 

George Lorio, XII. 5 
" St. James's. S. C, iii, 67 
" St. John the Baptist, La. 
Marmillion House, XII, 
4 

St. John's, S. C, iii, 67 
" St. Stephens. S. C, iii, 67 
Parishes. So. CaroHna divided 
into, iii, 87 



ExiM.AN \TinN : — Tlie Vftlume is iiulicated by " il 
Part, and buld-facc figures sliuwing the: lixjaiion uf tli 



." All illuslmiirms are indicated by bold-face numerals. The fuU-liage plates are indicated by Roman numerals indicating the 
: plale m tli.u i'art. 



GENERAL INDEX OF TEXT AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 



IX 



Park Ave. House, New York, 
N. Y., iii,6J 

" St. Church, Boston, Mass., 
iii, 21, 103, 105; IX, J8 
Parsonage, Beaufort, S. C, Baptist, 

iii, 76 
Parson's Plantation. Entrance to 

Goose Creek, S. C, iii, 55 
Pastorius, iii, 19 

Patroon of the Manor of Tarry- 
town, iii, 21 
Pawtucket, R. I. Entrance to 

Starkweather House, IX, \ 
Pa.xtang Church, Harrisburg, Pa., 

iii, 23 
Peale's Portrait of- Washington at 

" Lausanne," iii, 83 
Peirce, D. H., House, Portsmouth, 

N. H., iii, J2J 
Pell, Edward, Architect of Hanover 

St. Church, Boston, Mass., iii, 

Penn and the German Immigration. 
\Vm., iii, 18 
" Wm., a Protector of Andrew 
Hamilton, iii, 104 
Pennsylvania Architecture affected 
by Welsh Influ- 
ence, iii, 106 
" Dutch, iii, 17 

" German Settlements 

in, iii, 19 
" and the German Im- 

migrants, iii, 18 
Percy, Rev. Dr., Vicar of St. Paul's, 

Radchffeboro, iii, 40 
Pew House, Madison, Ga., iii, 94 

Philadelphi.v, P.\. : — 
Christ Church, iii, 104, 105 
Doorways, IX, 35 ; XII, 32 
Independence Hall, iii, 104, 105 
Maritime Exchange, iii, J07 
Mint designed by Strickland, iii, 

107 
Naval Asylum designed by 

Strickland, iii, 107 
Nicholson House, designed by 

L'Enfant, iii, 109 
St. Bartholomew's Church, iii, 

104, 105 
St. Peter's Church, iii, 86 
"Woodlands," House of Wm. 
Hamilton, iii, 115; XII, J, 28, 
29,30 
Philipse. Frederick, iii, 21 
Phips's House, Boston, Mass. Sir 

Wm., iii, 122 
Piazza. See " Veranda." 
Piazzas. Cantilever, iii 1 1 1 
Pickens. Gov. F. W. and his 

Guest-rooms, iii, 1 1 2 
Pickens's House " E d g e w o o d." 

Gov., iii, 112; XII, JO, Jl, J2 
Piitu re paper Parlor: "Friend- 
field," near Georgetown, S. C, 

X, 1,44,45 

Pierretonds. The Mantelpieces at, 

iii, 15 
Pillau, in, (17 

Knckney, Chief Justice Charles, iii, 
80 
" p'amily. The, iii, 69 
" Gen. Charles Cotesworth, 

iii, 70 
" Gen. Thomas, iii, 70 
" Grave of Gen. Thomas, 
iii, 80 
Pineville, S. C, a Summer Resort, 

iii, 65 
Pirate " Blackbeard " and Gov. 
Eden, iii, 88 
" Steed Bonnet. The, iii, 38 
" Plaisance Plantation," iii, 99 
Plan of Charleston Houses. The 
Type, iii, 31 
" " the'ilorry House, Char- 
leston, S. C, iii, 39 
" " Nath'l. Russell House, 
Charleston, S. C, iii, 31 
Plantation Houses better than City 
Houses, iii, 48 



Plantation life as seen by the Hon. 
Amelia Murray, iii, 93 

Plastered External Walls, iii, 3 

Plymouth, Mass. Gravestone of 
the " Alayflower's " Mate, iii, 1 1 7 

Pohick Church, near Alexandria, 
Va., iii, 86 

Polk's House, Nashville, Tenn. 
President, iii, 109; XII, 43 

Pompion Ilill Chapel, S. C, iii, 87 
" " " Pulpit, XI, 

J7 

Porch of Fuller House, Beaufort, 
S. C, XI, 23 
" The Georgian iii, 8 

Porches, iii, 67 

Portico of Massachusetts State- 
house, iii, I 7 

Portrait of Washington at " Lau- 
sanne." Peale's, iii, 83 

Portraits, iii, 36 

Port Royal Naval Station, S. C, 

iii. 75 
Portsmouth, N. FI. D. H. Peirce 

House, iii, J2J 
Post-Georgian Architecture, iii, 107 
Post-office. The Charleston, S. C, 

iii, 53 

Powder Magazine. Charleston, 

S. C, Old 

Spanish, iii, 

40 

" " Williamsburg, 

Va., iii, 40 
" Tower, Somerville, Mass., 
iii, J 06 
Presbyterian Church : — 

C h arles t on, S. C, 
Flynn's, iii, 40 
" (Independent) Church, 

Savannah, Ga., iii, 
98 
" Newark, N. J., First, 

iii, 16; IX, 23 
Col., builds " Burnside," 



House, Llanerch, Pa., 

Church, George- 
,52. S7; X, 40,41 



Preston 

iii, I II 
Prichett's 

XII, 31 

Prince George's 

town, S. C, ii 
Pringle House. See " Bull-Pringle. 

" The Misses, iii, 37 
Prioleau, iii, 67 
Proclamation Money, iii, 78 
Professors' Houses, Univ. of Va., 

Charlottesville, Va., IX, 7; iii, 

25, 26, 27 

" Prospect Hill." Waccamaw River, 

S. C, iii, 52; X,42, 43 
Providenck, R. I.; — 

Bank Building, iii, 105,115; XII, 

39 

Board of Trade Building, iii. 115 
Brown-C^ammell House, XII, 37, 

38; iii, 115; XII, 37,38 
Coach-house. The Rufus (jreene, 

iii, 114 
Doorway on Benefit St.. XII, 36 
Episcopal Church, iii, 104 
First Baptist Church, iii, 104, 

115; XII, 45 
First Congregational Church, iii, 

104 
First Universalist Church, 111, 

104 
Houses in, iii, 103 
Market-house, iii, 115 
Twin Doorways, IX, 27 
Wrought Ironwork, iii, 109 

Province Building, Halifax, N. S., 
iii, 17 
" House, Boston, Mass., iii, 

122 
Pulpit: — 

Goose Creek Church, S. C, XI, 

17 

Pompion Hill Chapel, near Char- 
leston, S. C, XI, 17 

St. Michael's Church, Charleston, 
S. CXI, 8 



Quakers. 
Quarters 



Quebec. 



Pui.piT: — 

Trinity Church, Newport, R. I., 
IX, 20 
Pyatt House, Georgetown, S. C, 

iii, 64; X, 41 

-Q- 

The Philadelphia, iii, 19 
for Brewton Slaves, 
Charleston, S. C, iii, 
37 

De Saussure Ser- 
vants', iii, 31 ; X, 4 
Horry Slave, iii, 39 
Slave, iii, 45 

Georgian Architecture 
in, iii, 15 
Queen Victoria's Madeira bought in 

Charleston, iii, 32 
" Queen's Building." Rutgers Col- 
lege, designed by McComb, iii, 
1 12 
Quincy, Mass. Room in Cottage 
of John and Abigail 
Adams, XII, 2 
" Pa., Snow Hill Monastery, 

iii, 22 
Quincy's Account of Charleston, 
S. C. Josiah, iii, 42 

-R — 

Radcliffeboro', S, C. St. Paul's 
Church, iii, 40 

Railroad. The first South Caro- 
lina, iii, 100 

Randolph Family, iii, 25 

" Ranges " at the University of 
Virginia, iii, 26 

Ravenel. Rene, iii, 67 

Ravenel's Savannah, " Wantout." 
Daniel, iii, 67 

Rawdon and Gen. Marion in the 
Santee Region. Lord, iii, loi 

Rawdon'; Headquarters the Brew- 
ton House. Lord, iii, 48 

Rawlinson Farm, Rolvenden, Kent, 
Eng., iii, 2, 3 

Reading, Pa. Germans at, iii, 19 

" Ready Made." The Epoch of 
the, iii, 1 16 

" Redemptioners. The," iii, iS 

Redemptionist Movement. The, 
iii, 19 

" Red Lion " Tavern, Philadelphia 
Co., Pa., iii, 23 

Revival. The Classic, iii, 90, 94 
" " Greek, iii, 94, 106 

Revolutionary Legends about 
Mulberry Castle, iii, 55 

Reynolds's Portrait of Miles Brew- 
ton. Sir Joshua, iii, 38 

Rhett. Col. Wm. and the Pirate 
Bonnet, iii. 38 
" Grave of William, iii. So 
" House, Charleston, S. C, 
iii, 38 

Rhodes. Samuel, Architect of 
Penna. Hospital, Philadelphia, 
Pa., iii, 105 

Rice. The first South Carolina, 
iii, 33 

Richmond Capitol designed by 

Clarissault, iii, 104 

" Va. Van Lew House, 

iii, 122 

Roanoke Island, N. C, iii, 88 

Robbins, Edw., appointed an .'\gent 
for building Massachusetts State- 
house, iii, 1 19 

Rochester, Eng., Houses, iii, 6, 7 

N. Y. The Jno. Childs 
House, iii, 94, no 

'■ Rock Hall," Lawrence, L. I., XII, 

33 

" Rocks, The," a Santee Savannah, 

iii, 67 
Rolvenden, Kent, Eng. Rawlin- 
son Farm, iii, 2, 3 
" Layne, Kent, Eng. 

Weslev's Cottage, 
iii, 2 



Rosewell, Ga. The Bulloch House, 

iii, 96, 98 

" " The Ilansell House, 

iii, 96, 98 

Rotunda. University of Virginia, 

Charlottesville, Va., iii, 26 ; IX. 6 

Rowan P'amily. "Federal Hill," 

the Homestead of the, iii, 113 
Royal Coat-of-Arms, iii, 57 
Rumford House. Woburn, Mass. 

Count, XII, 34 
Russell, Nath'l, House, Charleston, 

S. C, iii, 30,31, 39; X, 12 
Rutgers College has a Building by 

John McComb, iii, 112 
Rutledge. Grave of Edward, iii. So 
" Mrs. Henry, iii, 68 

-S- 

Safford Homestead, near Madison, 

Ga. The, XII, 18 
St. Andrew's, on the Ashley, S. C, 
iii, 87; XI, 15 
Augustine, Fla. Spanish Settle- 
ments at, iii, 89 
Bartholomew's Church, Phila- 
delphia, Pa., iii, 104, 105 
Catherine's Island, Ga. Tabby- 
built Cabins, iii, 75 
Charles Parish, La. "Home 
Place," 
iii. III: 
XII, 4 
" " " Home of 

George 
Lorio, 
XII, 5 
Denis. Church of, iii, 87 
Dunstan's Feat, iii, i 
George's Church, Halifax, N. S., 

iii, 14, 16 
Helena's Church, Beaufort, 

S. C, iii, 76; XI, 13 
James's, Goose Creek, S. C, 
iii, 86, 87 
" Parish, S. C, iii, 67 

" Santee, iii, 48, 65, 68, 

86; XI, 11, 12 
John the Baptist, La. Mar- 
million House, Parish 
of, XII, 4 
John's Chapel, New York, 
N. Y., iii, 105 
" Church, Hampton, Va., 

iii, 84, 85 
" College, Annapolis, Md., 

iii, 1 1 2 
" Parish, S. C, iii, 67 
Joseph's in the Courtyard, 

Philadelphia, Pa., IX, 35 
lulien, iii, 67, 90 
Luke's, Smithfield, Va., iii, 85 
Martin's-in-the-Field, L o n d o n, 

Memin's Engravings, iii, 36 
Mary's Male Academy, Norfolk, 

Va., iii, 63 
Michael's Church, Charleston, 
S. C, iii, 33, 43. 
47,48,78.80. 81, 
82; XI, 3,4,5, 6, 
7,8 
" Charleston, S. C, 

Architect of, iii, 79 
Paul's Chapel, New York, N. Y., 
iii, 105 
" Church, Boston, Mass., 

iii, 21 
" " Charleston, 

S. C, iii, 40 
" " Edenton, N. C, 

iii, 88 
Halifax, N. S., 
iii, 16 
Peter's Church, Isle of Wight, 
Va., iii, 87 
" Philadelphia, Pa., iii, 
86 
Philip's Church, Charleston, 
S. C, iii, 2>j' 40, 43, 80, 82. 
S3; XI, 9 



EXPLAN.VTION : —The Volume is indicited by '' iii . , . u . 

Part, and bold-face figures showing the iocauou of the plate in that 1 art. 



All illustrations are indicated by bold-face numerals. The full-page plates are Indicated by Roman numerals indicating the 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



St. Philip's Churcli. Charleston, S. 

C. The Second, iii. Si 
** Stephen's Church. Santee. S. C. 
111,67,85,87; XI, 15 
" '• Tarish, S. C, iil. 67 

" Thomas, S. C. Parish of, ill, 

87 
Salem, Mass. The Nichols Stable- 
yard, 111, JH, 115 
" " Veranda. A, iil, 

The Waller House, 
Hi, 1 1 
Salem, N. C. The Moravian 

Church, iii, 22 
Saltonstall House, Ipswich, Mass.. 

iii, 12 
Sampit Creek, S. C, iil, 49 
San Domingo Influence in Charles- 
ton, S. C, Houses, iii, 2g 
Santee, S. C, " El Dorado," iii, 68 
" " English, iii, 67 

" " French, Hi, 65 

" " "Hampton," ill, 66, 

67 
" " " Millford," iii, 100; 

XII, 17 
" " Old Wamboro [St. 

James's] Church, 
ill, 65, 68,86; XI, 
JI, )2 
" " St. Stephen's Church, 

iil, 67, 85, 87 ; XI, 
J5 
Saugus, Mass., Boardman House, 

iii, J 2 
Savage. Portrait by Edward, iii. 

Savannah Fires. 1 wo, ill, 90 

" and Parts of the Far 

South, iii, 89 

Savannah, Ga. ; — 

Bulloch House. The, iii, 91, 93, 

94,97; XII, 9 
Christ Church, ill, 93 
Exchange Building. The, ill, 90 ; 

XII, 8 
Gilmer House, ill, 89 
Independent Presbyterian 

Church, iii, 98 
McAlpin House. The, iii, 95, 

96 
Minus House. The, Hi, 92 
Owens House. The. iil, 9t, 92 
Scarborough House. The, iii, 

9°, 9( 
Telfair Art Gallery. The, iii, 

91, 92 
Tomb. An old Brick, Hi, 90 
Yamacraw, the oldest Part of the 

City, Hi, 91 

Savannah River, Ga. "The Her- 
mitage." on tile, iil, 109 

Savannahs, ill, 67 

Saxe Gotha, S. C. Germans at, 
ill, 19 

Sayle, Col. Wm., settles Charles- 
ton, S. C, ill, 29 

Scarborough House, Savannah, Ga. 
The, iil, 90, 9) 

Schoolhouse, Beaufort, S. C. Old 
Baptist, ill, 7) 

Sculptor. Giuseppe Jardella, Hi, 24 

Sea Island Cottage. A Georgia, 
iil, 58, 59 
" " Hotel, Beaufort, S. C, 

in, 77 

Second-story Drawing-rooms, Hi, 

35 
Secret Chamber at " Veaman's 

Hall." Hi. 56 
Sedgely Abbey, Wilmington, X. C, 

in, 28 
Senate Chamber, Boston, Ma.ss. 

The Old, HI, J20; XII, 40 
Settlement of Charleston, S. C, 
Hi, 29, 89 ' 

" " New Orleans, I>a., i 

iil, 89 



Seventeenth-c e n t u r y Buildings. 

Fist of. ill, 1 1 
Shedd House, lirighton, Mass., ill, 

J2 
Shell Hoods, ill, 9 
Shepardstown, Va. Germans at. 

Shepherd House, Ijinwood, Ga. , ill, 

60 
" Shirley," Va., ill, 36 

" The Porch at, ill, 62 

SUk Culture in So. Carolina, in, 

54 
Slmonton Ciatewav, C harleston, 

S. C, iii, 30; X, 29, 30 
Sketches. Jefferson's, ill, 25 
Slave Ironworker. A blind, iii, 

34 
" Labor in Georgia, iil, 93 

Quarters, 111, 31, 34, 37, 45 
" who saved St. Michael's. 

The," ill, 8r 
" Return of CJov. Manning's 
kidnapped, iii, 100 
Sleepy Hollow Church, Tarrytown, 

N. v., in, 21; IX, 26 
Smibert, John, Architect of Fan- 

eull Hall, iil, 103, 105 
Smith. Landgrave Thomas, ill, 33 

73 
" Robert, Architect of Car- 
penters' Hall, Philadel- 
jihia. Pa., 111, 105 
Smithfield, Va. St. Luke's Church, 

iii, 85 
Smythe. Capt. J. Edger, Hi, 30 
" Augustine, House, Char- 

leston, S. C, X, 14 
Snow Hill Monastery, (.)uincy. Pa., 

Hi, 22 
Society of Colonial Dames of Pa., 

ill, 22 
Soldier and Washington's Portrait. 

The Federal, ill, 84 
Soldiers' Ravages in Charleston, 

S. C. Federal, Hi, 48 
Soldiers steal a Bible. British, Hi, 

68 
Somerville, Mass. Old Powder- 
magazine, ill, 106 
South Carolina. German Settle- 
mejits in, iil, 19 
" The Far, Hi, 89 
" Santee River, S. C, "El 
Dorado," XI, J 8, J 9 
" " River, S, C," Hamp- 

ton," XI, J9 
" " Sportsman's Club, iH. 

69, 70 
" " S. C. "The Wedge," 

111,73 
Spanish Influence affects Louisi- 
ana Architecture, Hi, 99 
" Powder-magazine, Char- 
lestcm, S. C, Old, Hi, 
40 
" Reminiscences In Charles- 
ton, S. C, Hi, 35 
" Settlements at St. Augus- 
tine, Ha., 111, 89 
Spanish-tiled Roofs in Charleston. 

S. C, iil, 44 
Sportsman's Club. South Santee, 

S. C, 111, 69 
Sproull Homestead, near Carters- 

ville, Ga., ill, 1 JO, 1 12 
Stables. Architectural Quality of 

Colonial, ill, 1 15 
Spurs on Angle-posts, ill, 5 
Staljle at " Mount Vernon," iii, 115 
" " " Woodlands," Philadel- 
])hla, Pa., iil, 115 ; XII, 

30 

Stable-yard, Salem, Mass. The 

Nichols, iii, J J 4, 115 
.Stage-roads, ill, 67 
Staircases, Charleston, S. C, 1 

34 
" Circular, ill, 49 

" Savannali, Ga., ill, 91 

XII, 9 



Staircases : — 

Brown-Gammell House, Provi- 
dence, R. I., XII, 38 
Bulloch House, Savannah, Ga., 

XII, 9 
BulIPrlngle [Miles Brewton] 

House, Charleston, S. C , X, 

25 
Elliott House, Charleston, S. C, 

Hi, 34 
Fuller Hou.se, Beaufort, S. C, 

XI, 23 

Stairlandlng in Beardsley House, 

Beaufort, S. C, ill, 77 
Stairs. Exterior, Hi, 61 
Stanniford House, Va., HI. 60 
Starkweather House, Pawtucket, 

R. I. Entrance to, IX, J 
State-house, Boston. See " Massa- 
chusetts " 
" Boston, Old .Senate 

Chamber, XII, 40 
" Columbia, S. C, de- 

signed by Hoban, 
ill, 108 
" Indiana, in, 124 

" North Carolina, Hi, 

107 
" Portico of Massachu- 

setts, iil, 17 
" Stenton," the Home of James 

Logan, iii, 22; IX, J2 
Stone Houses, Hi, 114 
Stories. Projecting upper. Hi, 1 1 
Strasburg, Va. Germans at, ill, 19 
Strawberry Church, on the Cooper 

River, S. C, Hi, 87; XI, J5 
Street Names in Charleston, S. C, 

ill, 44 
Strickland, Wm., Architect, IH, 107 
Stuart and Revett's Book, iii, 108 
Style. The Georgian, Hi, 106 
.Sugar-planter's llouse. Typical, 

Hi, 1 1 1 
Sully. A Portrait by, ill, 38 
Sumner, Jas., and Jos. Brown design 
First Baptist Church, Provi- 
dence, R. I., Hi, 115 
.Sunday Habits in Charleston, S. C, 

iii, 46 
Swamps. The Santee, ill, 66 
Swedes Church, Upper Merlon, Pa., 
ill, 21 
" " Wilmington, Del. 

Old, iii, 21 ; IX. 

4,5 

Swell-fronts in Halifax, Hi, 17 

-T — 

Tabby-built Cabins. .St. Cather- 
ine's Island, Ga.. Hi, 
75 
" The Owens House, Hi, 

91 
" Tapia " corrupted to " Tabby," Hi, 

91 
Tarleton. Gen., ill, 67 
Tarleton's Headquarters, ill, 69 
Tarrytown, N. \'. .Sleepy Hollow- 
Church, ill, 21 ; IX, 26 
Tavern. See " Inn." 

Taverns ; — 

" Blue Bell " Derby, Pa , ill, 24 
" Oak Tree," Montgomery Co., 

Pa., ill. 24 
" Red Lion," Phlla. Co., Pa., Hi, 

23 
" Wm. Penn." Del. Co., Pa., ill, 

22 

Taverns. Pennsylvania, ill, 24 
Tayloe Place, " Mount Airy," on 

the Rap])ahannoirk, Va., iii, 114; 

XII, 22, 23 
Teach, the Pirate, and Gov. Eden, 

ill, 88 
Telfair Art Gallery, Savannah, Ga. 

The, ill, 91, 92 
Temple of Theseus the Model for 

" Arlington," Hi, 1 10 



Temple of the Winds Order. The, 

Hi, 109 
Ten Broeck Hou.se, Kingston, 
j N. Y., ill, 1 17 
Thatched Roofs, 111, 92 
'I'hird-story Drawing-rooms, iil, 98 



Thomasvllle, Ga. 

near, XII, 3 
Thornton, Dr. Wm., 



(jreenwood," 



Architect, ill, 

107, 113 

" " " designs, 

" M o n t - 

pelier," iil, 

"5 

" " " po.sslbly the 

Archl t ec t 
of " Ken- 
more," iii, 

1'3 
limber Panic in England, Hi, 10 
Tomb, Beaufort, S. C. Old Brick, 
iii, 76 
" Drayton, " Magnolia on the 

A.shley," S. C, XI, 20 
" Arthur Middleton's, Ashley 

River, S. C, XI, 20 
" Savannah, Ga. Old Brick, 
Hi, 90 
Tombs. Prince George's Church- 
yard, Georgetown, S. C, 
IH, 35 
Tombstone. D'llarrlette, iil, 46 
" Thos. Jefferson's, iil, 

25 
Tombstones, 111, 35, JJ7 

" in .St. PhiHp's Church- 

yard, Charleston, 
S. C, Hi, 35 
Toronto. A simple English House 

in, iii, 15 
Totnes, So. Devon, Eng. House, 

Hi, 8 
Town Clock, Halifax, N. S., Hi, J 7 
" Hall, Newport, R, I., Hi, 103 
Towne, Ithiel, Architect of North 
Carolina State-house, ill, 107, 124 
Tradd House, Charleston. The 
Robert, 111, 33 
" Street, Charleston, S. C, 

iii, ^1, 
Transcript's List of Seventeenth- 
century Buildings, iil, 1 1 
Trapplst Church, CoUegeville, Pa., 

Old, Hi, 21 
Trinity Church, Newark, N. J., in, 
16; IX, 23 
" " Newport. R. I., iii, 

21; IX, 19,20, 
2J,22 
" Churchyard, New York, 

N. v., 111, 1 17 
" "Old .Swedes," Church, 
Wilmington, Del., Hi, 
21; IX, 4, 5 
Trip to South Carolina. An 

Autumn, Hi, 43 
Trombone Chorals at Salem, N. C, 
111, 22 
" playing at Bethlehem, 
Hi, 20 
Tryon's Palace, New Berne, N. C. 

Gov., ill, 23, 28 
"Tulip Hill," Md., Hi, 60 
Turnbull House, near Charleston, 
S. C. The Robert J., iii, 49, 53 
Tuskegee, Ala. Homestead, A, 

X11.3 
Twelves. Robert, Architect of South 

Church, Boston, ill. 105 
Tybee Island, .S. C, Hi, 74 
Type Plan of Charleston Houses, 

'iii, 31 
Typical Charleston, S. C, Houses, 
iH, 30, 45; X, 5,27 
" Veranda, Charleston, S. C, 
X,27 



-U- 

Unlon .Soldiers in Charleston. 
Damages by, ill, 48 



Expi.ANATroN : — The Volume k indicated by " iii " All 
Part, and bold face figures sli.,«ing ilic 1 c.ilioii'of ilie |ilale i: 



llustrations are indicated by bold face numerals. The full-page plates are indicated by Roman numerals indicating the 
tliat J'art. 



GENERAL INDEX OF TEXT AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 



x" 



"University Hall," Cambridge, by 
Bulfinch, iii, 1 12 
" of North Carolina, 

Chapel Hill, 
N. C., iii, 1 12 
" " Virginia, C h a r- 

lottesN'ille, Va., 
iii, 25; IX, 6, 7 
Upper Merion, Pa. Christ (Swedes) 
Church, iii, 21 
" Stories Corbelled-out, iii, 3 
Ursuline Convent, New Orleans, 
La., XH, 6 



■V- 



and Peter 
New ^'ork. 



Brooklvn, 



Vanbrugh. Sir John 

Harrison, iii, 103 
Vandenheuvel House, 

N. Y. The, iii, 17 
Vanderveer House, 

N. v., iii, 1 16 
Vassall-Longfellow House Veran- 
das. The, iii, 62 
Vendue Range, Charleston, S. C, 

The, iii, 40 
Veranda. The Charleston, iii, 30, 
57,61,62 
Details, X, 28 
" Entrance. A, iii, 36 

" Evolution of the South- 

ern, iii. 61 
" Typical Charleston, X, 

27 
" Window at Bull-Prin- 

gle House, iii, 38 
Closed -in, Beaufort, 

S. C, iii, 64 
Necessity of, iii, 35 
Madeira bought in 
Charleston, iii, 32 
Villepontoux, F., Architect of St. 

Stephen's, Santee, iii, 67 
Virginia. German Settlements in, 
iii, 19 
" The University of, iii, 25 ; 

IX, 6, 7 

-W- 

Waccamaw River, S. C. iii. 52 



Verandas 



Victoria's 



Waggoner [Loundes] House, 
Charleston, S. C. iii, 49; X, 33 
Waiters at Funerals, iii, 42 
Waldoboro, Me. Lutheran Settle- 
ment at, iii, 19 
Waller House, Salem, Mass., iii, 11 
Walls. Jefferson's Single-brick, 

iii, 26 
Walton, George, Signer of the 
Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, iii, 1 1 2 
" Memorial Association, 
iii. II I 
Wamboro [St. James's] Church, 
Santee, S.C. Old, iii, 65, 6S, 86; 
XI, )I, J2 
Waterman Parlor-mantel, Du.\- 

bury, Mass., iii, loS; XH, 40 
" Wantout," the Savannah of Dan- 
iel Ravenel, iii, 67 
Washington, Designer of Pohick 
Church. Gen., iii, 
86 
" Ga.. iii, 97 

" at ■• Hampton," Gen., 

iii, 70 
■ " ''Lausanne,'' 

I'eale's Portrait of, 
iii, 83 
" D. C, Door to Octa- 

gon House. IX, Z1 
" D. C, Park Improve- 

ment scheme, iii, 116 
D. C. The White 
House, iii, 95, 109, 
)I6; XII, 46 
Watson House, Newport, R. I., 

Doorway to, IX, 29 
" Waverly," near Columbus, Miss., 

iii, 60 
Weather-boards, iii, 10 
Webster. Daniel, iii, 95 
" Wedge, The," So. Santee, S. C, 

iii, 73 
^\edg^vood China at "Hampton," 

iii, 70 
Welsh Influence on Pennsylvania 

Architecture, iii, 106 
Werner, Diedrick, a German Iron- 
worker, iii, 30, 79 



Wesley's Cottage, Rolver^den 

Layne, Kent, Eng., iii, 2 
" Westover," on the James River, 
Va., XII, 24 
" The Brickwork at, iii, 

84 
West Springfield, Mass. T h e First 
Church, 
iii, 103 
" " " The Jo- 

siah Day 
Ho u s e, 
XII, 2 
West Wycombe, Bucks, Eng. 

House, iii, 4 
Whipple House, Ipswich, Ma,ss., 

iii, 1 1 
" White House," W'ashington, D. 

C, iii, 95, 109, 116; XII, 46 
" White Ladies," iii, 99 

" Plains," Santee, S. C, iii, 

67 

" Whitehall," Md., iii, 60 

WiUiam and Mary College. Colo- 
nial Building at, iii, 1 12 
" Penn Tavern, Del. Co., 
Pa., iii, 22 



Williamsburg, Va. 

iii, 81 
Wilmington, Del. 



Christ Church, 



Trinity, "Old 

Swede s," 

Church, iii, 

21; IX, 4, 5 

N. C, iii, 28 

" '■ Gov. Tryon's 

Palace, iii, 28 

Winchester, Va. Germans at, iii, 

19 
" " The Hite House, 

iii, H3, 1 14 
Window, Palladian, " Woodlands," 
Philadelphia, Pa., XII, 
29 
" in Bull-Pringle [Miles 

Brew to n] House, 
Charleston, S. C, iii, 
38; X, 26 
Wmdows. The Function of, iii, 6 
Windsor, Eng. The Camellia Ja- 
ponica at, iii, 72 



" Windy Hill," near Natchez, Miss., 

XII, J9 
Wing-pavilioned House. The, iii, 

57 
Wine-closets. Attic, lii, 32, 45 
Winyavv. Prince George's, iii, 52 
Witt'e House, Charleston, S. C, iii, 

4J,97; X, 16 
" Woodlands," Philadelphia, Pa., 

iii, 114; XII, 1,28,29,30 
" Woodlawn," the Prototype of 

" Kenmore," iii, 112 
Woodruff. Judah, Builder, iii, 104 
Woodruff's, Judah, Buildings. List 

of, iii, 105 
Woodstock, Va. Germans at, iii, 

19 

" Woodville " destroyed by !• ire, iii, 

70 
Wren. Sir Christopher, ni, 79 
Wren's Travels in Holland, iii, 18 
Wrought Ironwork. Charleston, 

iii, 34; X, 7 .. ^ 

" Wyck," Germantown, Pa., iii, 106 

-Y- 

Yamacravv, Ga. Oglethorp lands at, 
iii, 89 
" the oldest Part of Sa- 

vannah, iii, 91 
Yeamans. Gov. Sir John, iii, 28 
" Sir Thomas, iii, 7 1 

" Hall, Goose Creek, 

S. C, iii, 55, 73, 

Si 
" " Ghost. 1 he, iii, 

56 

York, formerly Agamenticus, Me , 

iii, 1 15 

" Me., Massacre by French 

and Indians, iii, 1 16 

" " The Mclntire Garri 

son, iii, \ J 5 
" '• " old Jail, iii, J J 5, 

116 

— Z — 

Zinzendorf. Count and Countess, 
iii, 18 



Explanation : — The V..:ume i.,^ intlicaled by " iii." All illustrations are indicated by bold-face numer.tls. The full-page plates are indicated by Roman numerals indicating the 
Part, and bold-face figures showing the location of tlie plate in tltai Part. 




PREFACE. 



T^HE formidable attempt to bring- about the destruction of the "Bulfinch Front" of 
the Massachusetts State House, one of the most admirable as well as one of the 
latest examples of " Colonial " architecture, and the constant appearance in the daily 
papers of accounts of the destruction by fire of this or that ancient building endowed 
with historic or architectural interest have, as much as anything, perhaps, brought 
about the undertaking of this publication. 

The desirability of making, before it should be too late, some adequate record 
of the architectural remains of Colonial work seemed too obvious and insistent to be 
longer disregarded. It remained only to determine the form and character of publica- 
tion likely to prove of most value. Recalling at this point the fact that the many 
volumes of the American Architect contained a large number of measured drawings 
and fugitive papers dealing with the selected period, it appeared evident that they 
might easily be made to serve as a nucleus about which to gather, as they might come 
to hand, other illustrations and papers of various kinds. Fortunately there was found 
amongst this matter already published, in a series of admirable drawings by Mr. 
Frank E. Wallis, and in another by Mr. Claude Fayette Bragdon, just the character 
of handling that was needed to exhibit the typical treatment which intending contribu- 
tors could be required to follow. 

The authors of the papers that first appeared in the American Architect, and are 
now republished, have kindly consented to revise them, and some of the drawings have 
been redrawn in harmony with the adopted type, credit being attributed to the original 



draughtsmen in each case. In this way, an air of continuity and homogeneity has 
been attained which will be more easily preserved in the fresh and, as a rule, unpub- 
lished matter which is flowing in from all sides. For, as was hoped, the publication 
has attracted attention in every part of the country, and architects and draughts- 
men in neighborhoods where interesting examples of Colonial work still exist are 
promising their aid in perfecting this preservative record. 

Further contributions of sketches, measured drawings, photographs and nega- 
tives, as well as miscellaneous papers dealing with some phase or fashion of the style, 
or descriptive merely of some neighborhood or building, will be cordially welcomed. 

The present volume is issued without an index, but as the publication grows in 
importance proper indices will be issued. 




The So-cailed Colonial Architecture 
of the United States/ 



"Men can with diliiculty uriginate, even in a new hemisphtru." — Edward Kcci.kston. 



IT is propoled in this paper to gather together Ibme of the 
records bearing upon tlie architecture of the feventeenlh 
and eighteenth centuries, and to arrange thefe fo as to 
furnilh a (hort, fyfteniatic and comprehenfive iurvey of 
what building activity was exerciled within the English Prov- 
inces of America during that time. 

The art of this period, — including alio tlie fiiil twenty ycais 
of the nineteenth century, — is generally called " Colonial." 
Some object to the term, faying tliat there is too much variety 
of flyle to come under one head, and that, moreover, the befl 
work was executed long after the original Colonies had be- 
come Provinces, and even later. But the term has been in 
ufe fo long, and is fo fuggefl.ve and comprehenlive, that it 
would be difficult to find one 
more acceptable. Object as we 
may to the words " Cotliic " and 
"Colonial," we cannot fpare 
them, for no other words call 
up in the mind fo complete a 
pitlure. not only of architecture 
and of the other arts, but of all 
the peculiar conditions — focial, 
religious and politicul — which 
produced the Mediaval eccleli- 
aftical architectuie of Europe 
and the eighteenth-century do- 
meftic architecture of America. 

In this domeific arcliittclure, 
there was evolution and growth, 

jufl as truly as in any other llyle. If the petfeclion of 
Greek art remained unaccountable until the archaological 
difcoveries on the banks of the Nile an<l the Euphrates, still 
lefs would one underifand Colonial art without a knowledge 
of the preceding ffyles. America owes Europe much, and 
we (hall fee that the emigrants left the mother country with 
neither empty hands nor empty heads. 

THE NKW KN(;LA.\Ii I'KOVINCb.S: IHIMEMIC .\ KClIlTIXTf UK. 

The reafon for beginning with the New England Colonies 
is not becaufe they are the oldell and furnilh a good geo- 
graphical flarting-point, but becaufe in them is more and 
better material, more thoroughly invelli,^aied and recorded. 
Moreover, the architecluro in them, being homogeneous, is 




FiK. 



more ealily clariified. By making a clallitication, the fubfe- 
quent inquiry farther fouth will be made eafier, for thus a 
ftandard or criterion will have been eflablilhed to which 
reference can be made. 

After the firll quarter of the eighteenth century there came 
to the Colonill a period of comparative peace and profperity. 
The Indian was no longer a flanding menace, " the ftubborn 
phalanx of foreft trees had been gradually beaten back, the 
difencumbered fields yielded a furplus, and leifure and com- 
fort compenfated for hard beginnings." It is only natural to 
find architecture influenced by this. Almofl all good Co- 
lonial work is later than 1730. 

A brief review of the earlier period poffeffes, however, both 
interelt and value. The fubject 
can bell be difcuffed under three 
topics; Log-houfes, Military 
Homes and Settlers' Cottages. 

The log-houfe, the firfl and 
mod natural dwelling- in a new 
and thickly-wooded country, 
was not to the taile of the Colo- 
nill. Life in it was to him a 
chryfalid ftate, from which to 
emerge, the fooner the better. 
Roughly fquared limbers feemed 
incompatible with his higher 
ideals. 

Yet the firll Doric artifan, 
when called upon by his fellows 
to rear a worthy abode for the ancient xoanon, did not find 
it fo. Looking about for fuggellions, he saw nothing but 
the low-roofed timber houfes of Homer's heroes. But in them 
his artillic fenfe perceived great poflibilities. In the rough 
timber ends he found fplendid triglyphs ; in the open fpaces, 
fculptured metopes; in the ungainl- trunnels, depending 
guttre; and in the overhanging rafters, richly raifed mutules. 
But the Colonill, difdaining the material at hand, call long- 
ino- glances back to Europe, and, from his earliefl efforts to 



Tlie "Old Slone House," Guilford, Conn. Built, 1639- 



1 Post-graduate thesis of Mr. Olof Z. Cervin, Architectural Department, 
School of Mines, Columliia College, 1894, revised and amplified. 

■■^Mr. C. W. Mrnst has recently <liscovered satisfactory evidence that 
the very first work of the settlers was to set up saw-nulls, that they might 
get out the lumbar in the siz-es and shapes which llioy were wont to 
handle at home. — En. 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



Fig. 2. The Cradock House,* Medford, Mass 
Hapgood in 1881, 



his laft. there was ever a confcious driving to reproduce in 
this new land his former home, grown doubl}' dear through 
long reparation. Thus Lowell fays of Cambridge, that it 
looked like an Englilh village 
badly tranlplanted. 

Many fettlers had for a long 
time no choice but to live in 
log-houfes. This fact they con- 
cealed as beil they could by 
covering them with clapboards 
or fliingles, put on with hand- 
wrought nails. The floor, often 
at firft of If aniped clay, was ibon 
fuperfeded by a pavement of 
rough puncheons. The window- 
lights were of mica, of oiled pa- 
per, or of horn. No glafs found 
its way to the Colonies before 
the year 1700, or thereabouts. 

The Military Homes '■ ■ were more important ftruclures. As 
in the early fettlements the prime requifite was protedfion 
againft the elements, wild beafls and favage men, it was 

1 The Old Stone House at Guilforii, Conn. — "This house was 
erected by the Rev. Henry Whitfield, both for the accommodation of 
his family and as a fortification fur the protection of the inhabitants 
against the Indians. It is the oldest stone dwelling-house now standing 
in New England. This house was kept in its original form until 1868, 
when it underwent such renovation as to change to some extent its in- 
terior arrangement, although the north wall and large stone chimney are 
substantially the same as they have been for over two centuries. It is 
said that the first Cuilford marriage was celebrated in it, the wedding- 
table being garnished with pork and pease. According to tradition, the 
stone of which this house was built was brought by the Indians on hand- 
barrows across a swamp from Criswold rock, a ledge about eighty rods 
east of the house. It consisted of two stories and an attic. The 
walls were 3 feet thick. At the southeast corner of the second floor there 
was a singular embrasure commanding the approach from the south and 
west, and evidently made for defensive purposes. In the attic were 
two recesses, evidently intended as places of concealment." — .Smith's 
"History of Guilford." 

The following description, taken from Vol. 2 of Palfrey's "History of 
New England" gives other details: — 

" The walls are of stone from a ledge eighty rods distant to the east. 
It was probably brought on hand-barrows across a swamp over a rude 
causeway, which is still to be traced. A small addition has in modern 
times been made to the back of the house, but there is no (juestion but 
the main building remains in its original state, even to the oak of the 
beams, floors, doors and window-sashes. In the recesses of the windows 
are broad seats. Within the memory of some of the residents of the 
town the panes of glass were of diamond shajie. The height of the first 
story is 7% feet; the height of the second is (>% feet. At the southerly 
corner in the second story there was originally an embrasure about a foot 
wide with a stone flooring, which remains. The exterior walls are now 
closed up, but not the walls within. The walls of the front and back of 
the house terminate at the floors of the attic, and the rafters lie upon 
them. The angle of the roof is sixty degrees, making the base and sides 
equal. At the end of the wing, by the chinmey, is a recess which must 
have been intended as a place of concealment The interior wall has 
the appearance of touching the chinmey like the wall at the northwest 
end, but the removal of a board discovers two closets, which project 
beyond the lower jKirt of the building." 

Writing about the house Mrs. Cone, the present owner, says : ft was 
built as a jilace of refuge from the Indians, also as a place of public 
worship. The jiartitions in the mam building were movable and folded 
up like a fan and were fastened to the rafters by what they called kevs. 




1634. Sketched by M. H. 




Kear View .,£ '.he Old Slone House, Guilford, Conn. 

iron sta|)ks with a crossbar that turned in a socket. When fastened up 
the whole house was one room. There was no secoiid floor. Tiie cast 
wing was a still smaller building with only two rooms and some small 
closets. 'I'here were chiinueys on the south and east sides like the one 
now standing on the north. The one on the south was taken down before 



quite common that one or more of the houfes fhould be built 
efpecially large and flrong, to ferve as a refuge and a rallying 
point, from which the more effectually to repel Indian on- 

flaughts. Many Hories and 
bloody legends flill cling with 
the old mofs and lichen to thefe 
filent witneffes of a danger- 
fraught period. 

Important among thofe ftill 
ftanding are: the old brick 
houfe of Governor Cradock, 
built about 1634, at Medford, 
Mafs. ; the ff uccoed timber 
houfe of Governor Bull, in New- 
port, R. I., built in 1639; a"d 
the clapboarded Minot home- 
fl;ead, in Dorchefter, Mafs., built 
in 1640. The fo-called "Old 
Stone Houfe " ^ (Fig. i), finiflied 
in 1640 as a parfonage, at Guilford, Conn., has fince been 
rebuilt upon the original lines. The Red Horfe Inn, at 
Sudbury, Mafs., built in 1680, and made famous through 

Jasper Griffing bought the house in 1776, why, I do not know, but the 
wall was weakened by the process, and two iron bars were put in to 
strengthen it, and are still to be seen on the outside, unless covered with 
vines. When the repairs were made m 1868 all the woodwork of the 
rear building was saved. It was oak and probably cut in 1639. Some 
of it was used for the banister and newel of the present stairs, which are 
very poor specimens of work, as the oak was so hard that modern tools 
could not take hold of it. I have some chairs made of it." 

A year or two ago the Daughters of the American Kevolutiou placed 
a tablet inscribed with the appropriate historical note in the face of the 
building. 

2 The Spencer-Pierce House [Garrison House], Newiiurvport, 
Mass. — " There is considerable doubt and uncertainty in regard to the 
date when this ancient stone house was built. Some authorities claim 
that it was erected by John Spencer between the years 1635 ='"d '637, 
and others assert that it was built for his nephew, John Spencer, Jr., be- 
tween 1640 and 1650; and still others are of the opinion that its first 
owner and occupant was Daniel Pieice, who bought the farm in 1651. 
Careful examination of the records at Salem, made with special refer- 
ence to the ])reparation of this sketch, does not furnish sufficient evidence 
to determine the question beyond a reasonable doubt; but it has led to 
the discovery of some important facts, now for the first time published, 
that may be of assistance in arriving at the correct conclusion. It 
would be impossible to give in detail all the deeds, wills, and other 
legal instruments that have been consulted, without extending this sketch 
beyond its proper limits; and therefore only a brief outline of these 
papers will be inserted here, with such quotations and comments as will 
enable the reader to follow the changes that have taken place in the 
ownership of this property from 1635 to the present time. 

" When the age of this old house, with its picturesque exterior, the 
solid masonry of its walls, and the men who have owned and occupied 
it, is considered and allowed to quicken the thought and imagination, it 
tells an interesting story of old Colonial days. There are few residences 
in New England that are more attractive or fascinating. Its style of 
architecture is remarkable, considering the early date at which it was 
built. Its walls are composed of several varieties of stone; and some of 
them must have been brought from a long distance, perhaps by means 
of boats or rafts down the Merrimack River. The bricks used in the con- 
struction of the front porch, as well as the square tile which form the 
floor, were jjroblably brought from England. Brickyards were estab- 
lished at Salem and Medford jirevious to 16S0; but the finished product 
of those yards was of an inferior (|uality, and the size of the bricks was 
fixed by order of the General Court, as follows: 'Every brick shall 
measure 9 inches long, 2)4 inches thick, and 4>j inches wide.' Imported 
English brick were much smaller and more smoothlv moulded. 

" ']'he house was built in the form of a cross. On the northern projec- 
tion, where the kitchen is located, a tall brick chimney rises from a stone 
foundation, outside the rear wall. 

"'The great porch of this old house,' WTites Mrs. Harriet Prescott 
Spol'ford, in an article published in Harper's Mas^aziiie for Julv, 1S75, ' '^ 
said to be the most beautiful architectural specimen in this part of the 
country, although it doubtless owes jiart of its beauty to the mellow and 
varied coloring which two hundred years have given it. Yet the bevelled 
bricks of its arches and casements and the exquisite nicety of its orn.a- 
mentation lead the careful scrntinizer to side with those who dismiss the 
idea of its having been a garrison house, and to conjecture that that idea 
gained currency from the fact that it was once used to store powder in, 
— a fact that was fixed in the popular memory by an explosion there 
which blew out the side of the house, and landed an old slave of the 
occupant on her bed in the boughs of an adjacent apple-tree.'" — From 
" Oiild Ncwbiirv" Bv John J. Currier. Boston : Damrell & Upham. 
1896. 

*'riiis sketch, made in i8Si, shows the hmise without the dormers here spoken of, 
which leaves it open to doubt whether these features may not be recent additions. — 
Ed. 



DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE: THE NEW ENGLAND PROVINCES. 



Longfellow's "Tales of a IVaysiWe Irm" though not known 
to have ferved as a fort, refembles the preceding fo much as 
to readily group with them. The poet's words, defcriptive of 
this inn, will be helpful in pi6luring this clafs of houfes : — 

"As ancient is this hostelry 
As any in the land may be, 
Huilt in the old Colonial day, 
AVhen men lived in a grander way, 
AVith ampler hospitality; 
A kind of old Hobgoblin Hall, 
Now somewhat fallen to decav. 
With weather stains upon the wall. 
And stairways worn, and craggy doors. 
And creaking and uneven floors, 
And chimneys huge and tiled and tall." 

Architecturally, thefe ftructures are very finiple. Leaving 
out tlie Old Stone Houfe, which alone is irregular and pi6b 
urefque, the main elements are : a rectangular plan, two 

ftories and an attic, a gambrel 
gable at each end, a symmetrical 
difpolition of openings and dor- 
mers, and an overhang of the 
fecond, or of the attic ftory, for 
defence. 

The Cradock Houfe ^ (Fig. 2), 
typical in its way, deferves fpecial 
mention. It is the oldeil houfe Randing to-day in New 
England, and as that delightful Chronicler, Drake, puts it, 
"proudly bears its credentials on its weather-beaten face." 
Though its Englidi owner never faw it, his " fervant " was 
confcientious in building it well. The delign is thought to 
have been fuggelted by Cradock's London houfe. The 
timber was hewn wiihin a few feet of the lite, the bricks 
were burned on the fpot. Iron guards were built into the 
doorways, and four dangerous-looking loopholes fliowed that 
it was a military houfe firil and a trading-pofl and a home 
after. Two folid chimneys fland guard, one at each end. 
Two dormers relieve the long roof e.\panfe of the front. The 
original windows were fniall. 'I'here is no ornament except 
a plain band at the fecond-ftory level. Jn the main lines of 
its compofition it is Ibikingly like the Hancock houfe, 
of Bofton, of which ?i. pseiido replica was ereded at the Colum- 




Flg. 3. The Old Manse, Concord 
.Mass. 



1 The Cradock Hoisk,* Mkdi (jKn. Mass. — " In the Historical Regis- 
ter for October, 1.S98. published by tlie Medford Historical Society, are 
articles by William Cushing Wait and Walter H. dishing, which go to 
disprove the argument that the present building is the original home- 
stead. Both place the original Cradock House on the spot wliere the 
Garrison House stands, back of the Medford Savings-bank. The present 
'Garrison House' has always been known bv that name. 

"The principal evidence is comprised in two early ma]>s. The first 
was found among the Sloane manuscripts in the Ilriti'sh Museum. It is 
believed to have been published about 1633, ='"<• ''^s marginal notes in 
Governor Winthrop's hand. 

"I Tlie most important part of the map to us in Medford,' says Mr. 
Wait, 'is the house sketched near the ford, and the word ' Meadford,' 
with Governor Winthro|i's reference to it : Meadford: Mr. Cradock 
ferme (farm) house.' Xo house is iiulnaled near the location of the 
building we have so long boasted as the Cradock House, built in 1634. 
It is true this map is earlier than 1634, but if (Jovernor Cradock's farm- 
house was near the ford in 1633 it is probable no change was made the 
next year.' 

"The other map is one made by flovernor Winthrop in 1637, of his 
farm at Ten Hills, now a part of Sonicrville. This shows the same 
group of buildings near the ford as the other map. 

" In an article on 'Governor Cradock's Plantation,' Walter II. Cush- 
ing says : — 

"'From an affidavit in the Middlesex Countv Court, in the case of 
Glcison -■!. Davison et al., it would appear tSat Davison had also pre- 
ceded Mayhewes, for Joseph Hill testifies 'that about 1633 Mr. Nic 
Davison lived at Meadford House and that Mr. Mayhcw did not then 
dwell at Meadford House.' This affidavit is also interesting as showing 
that in 1633 there was a certain building of sufficient jirominence to be 
designated as 'Meadford House.' 

"The location of that house, or of the Cradock House, if they are 
identical, is not absolutely known. Tradition has, during the last two or 
three generations, liointed to the old brick building on Riverside Avenue. 

•Speaking: of the Cradock HouFe, Prof. C E. Norton writes : " \\ Is more than a mere 
antiquarian or archhectnral curiosity. It illustralts more vividly lli.iii any other Iiouse 
in the neighborhood of Boston the condition and modes of life of the first generation of 
Colonists." 



bian Exhibition, at Chicago. It would be interefbing to 
know the arrangement of the rooms, but no plans are acceffi- 
ble. Even if the prefent partitioning-off were known, it 
would be of little value, owing to probable interior remodel- 
ling. Undoubtedly, the planning was fimple — a multitude 







Fig. 4. Avery House, Pequonnock, Conn. 

of clofets, odd corners, and eafy ftaircafes are modern con- 
veniences, for even the later Colonial houfes, though often 
elaborate and coflly, were seldom comfortable, to our way of 
thinking. 

Quite early another — a cottage — type was evolved, with 
a long fweeping roof towards the rear, canting off a corner 
of the ceiling of each flory from the attic to the kitchen. 
This type perlilled until quite recently and recurs in hun- 
dreds of cottages (Figs. 5, 6 and 7) throughout New Eng- 
land. Such were the 
childhood homes of 
the P r e fi d e n t s 
Adams (Fig. 5). It 
was jull f u c h an 
humble dwelling, in 
Eaflhampton, Long 
Island, whofe fond 




,S^ 



Fig. 5. John Quincy Adams's House. 



memories re-echoed in the heart of John Howard Payne, and 
produced the fong of " Home, fweet Home." 

The doorway is the only " feature." There is ufually on 
each fide of the door a Claffic pilafler, with a inould,ed capi- 

But tradition is notoriously a bad guide, and, unsupported by evidence, 
is as often wrong as right. Facing page 120 of this number of the Regis- 
ter is a reproduction of a map of Governor Winthrop's, supposed by 
critics to havelieen made about 1634. The jjlace marked ' Mr. Cradock's 
farme house,' does not corrusi)ond, even making due allowance for in- 
accuracies, to the neighborhood of the Kiversicle Avenue house, but is 
considerably farther up the river, as can be seen by referring to the road 
from Salem to the ford at the Mystic. Moreover, it is at the head of 
navigation of the river. Far more definite, however, than this map is 
that of Winthrop's farm at Ten Hills. Medford is shown as a group of 
buildings situated near the northern end of the bridge. \o other build- 
ings are given, and the half-dozen on the map apparently belong to one 
estate. Now, in 163", Medford and Governor Cradock's farm were iden- 
tical. Furthermore, as Winthrop and Cradock were close friends, such 
a jirominent building as the latter's house would not be (unitted, if anv 
buildings were given. Here, then, it seems to me, is almost conclusive 
evidence of the location of the house near the square. So much from 
the maps. 

"' In his will Cradock does not specify the number or location of the 
buildings bequeathed ; neither do the heirs when they convey to Edward 
Collins. But when the latter, in i66t, sells 1,600 .acres of the farm to 
Richard Russell, the limit on the east is set by the old Nowell and Wil- 
son (then Blanchard) farms, while the western boundary is a brook west 
of the Mansion House. This brook ran out of a swamp near the north- 
ern line between Charlestown and the farm, and, according to the dimen- 
sions and known boundaries t>f the conveyance, must have been Meeting 
House Brook. When Russell, in 1669, sells Jonathan Wade three- 
quarters of this tract he reserves the fourth, lying next to the Blanchard 
farm {/. e., Wellington) and farthest from the dwelling-house. When 
Jonathan Wade died, in 16.S9, the inventory of his property included a 
brick house near the bridge; and that house is still standing, north of 
the savings-bank. Now, it does not at all follow that these three build- 
ings are identical, but it is certain that the principal house, the dwelling 
or mansion house of this estate, from the time of Collins to Wade, was 
in the neighborhood of Medford S<|uare.' 

' 'To sum up: I. No evidence has been brought to light for the house 
on Riverside Avenue. 2. What evidence tliere is jjtiints to a liouse near 
the square. 3. The Ten Hills farm map suggests strongly the iite of the 
present Garrison House, if not the liouse itself.' " 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



tal, fupporting a plain cornice with a pediment. Even this lowing are noteworthy : tlie Pepperell manfion, at Kittery, 
fimple feature is often omitted. Maine, begun about 1720, and confifcated after the Revolu- 

To this period belong the hiltoric Witch Houfe, in Salem, 







.M^^^ t^5 
'^^ T^^' 




Fig 6. Old House at Pigeon Cove, Mass. Built in 1643. 

and the home of Paul Revere, in Bofton, neither of which 
groups readily with any of the above. 

The peace and commercial profperity, which fet in about 
1730, flimulated building aftivity. The flirewder merchants, 
having amaffed confiderable fortunes by traffic in (laves, 
lumber, fifh, tea and Erglifli (luffs, fet themfelves to the 
pleafing tafk of fpending their gains. \A'hat better could they 
do than to ereft commodious 
houfes? Some profeffional men 
and fome landed proprietors, 
too, had become wealthy, and 
vied with ihefe merchants in 
their building enterprifes. The 
ordinary material was wood ; that 
is, houfes were conflructed of an 
open framework of timber and 
covered with clapboards, or fome- 
times with fliingles. Brick was 
rarely employed, except in the 
larger towns. 

Many, efpecially the earlier 
hcufes, feem lo have been fug- 
gefled by Governor Cradock's 
military home, or by others fimi- 
lar. By degrees the gambrel 




Fig. 8. Old House at Farmington, Conn. Built about 1700. 

tion with its thirty miles of property ; the Hancock manfion, 
at Bofton, begun in 1737 ; the birthplace of General I'utnam, 
at Danvers, Mafs., built partly in 1650 and partly in 1744; 
and the often-illuftrated "King" Hooper houfe, alfo at 
Danvers, which was, in many things, a copy in wood of" the 
Hancock houfe. The Hancock houfe, now a memory only, 
though one of the oldeft, was one of the beft. It was a ftone 

building, fo folidly eredled as to 
require blafting when torn down. 
Thomas Hancock began it in 
1737. Having become im- 
menfely wealthy, for thofe days, 
'f^'-^ti (hrougii fkilful trading, he felt 
that Bofton was getting too 
crowded for him. Juft outfide 
its limits he found a fine hill over- 
looking the bay. Hereheftaked 
out his houfo, fifty-fix feet wide. 
When completed, he improved 
the grounds with walks and gar- 
dens. The entrance, in the mid 
die of the front, was protedled by 
a balcony, opening from the wide 
hallway of the fecond ftory. On 
the fides were two large windows 
Three dormers lighted the attic. A modillion 



Fig. P. Old Cottage, Portsmouih, N". 11 

roof was eliminated. Firft, the hipped or the manfard roof in each ftory. 
came into vogue, from about 1760 to 1790. This was in turn cornice, returning on itfelf at the ends, marked the tranfition 
fuperseded by the flat deck, towards the clofe of the century, from the wall to the roof. A baluftrade of neat fpindles fur- 
Of courfe, examples of each overlap, the gambrel type being rounded entirely the upper and flatter flope — a connecting 
fpecially perfiftent ; but the general tendency will be clearly chain from chimney to chimney, juftified only by the happy 
(hown, in an appended chronological table. way in which it crowned the whole. The corners and open- 

The gambrel roof is, no doubt, the refult of an effort to ings were trimmed with white ftone quoins. The details 

were refined and the ornament fparing, but appropriate. 

Altogether, it was a roomy, well-deiigned and dignified lioufe, 








mm 





Hr-s i-|il- ^—B 'r "PS^ Sff-?p;- 




Fig. 7. Itradstreet House, Andover, Mass. 



Fig. to. The Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House, Cambridge, Mass., 1759. 



secure additional height in the attic fpace. Though the oldeft, exactly fuited to be the manfion of the firlt gentleman of the 
it is the moft graceful and pleafing, avoiding the box-like Commonwealth, and through hini and his illuftrious nephew, 
effe6t and hard lines of the other two. Of tiiis type, the fob John Hancock, to extend its ftately hofpitality to the greateft 



DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE: THE NEW ENGLAND PROVINCES. 



5 



men of the clay. It lacked many iniportant features. Thus 

there were no fpacious verandas, no two-ftoried pilafters, and 

no gable over the front entrance. The fecond, or nianfard 

type, is more ClafTic, prefenting on all fides a predominance of 

horizontal lines. But the elements of the 

defign are virtually the fame. The roof 

balustrade is ufually, as it fhould be, placed 

around the flat deck on top. Sometimes it 

occurs at the bafe of the flope. 

The Vaffall manfion (Fig. lo), built in 

1759, at Cambridge, Mafs., and fmce 1837 

the home of Longfellow, is a fplendid ex- 
ample of this clafs. The large Oliver 

house, at Dorchefter, Mafs., built in 1740, 

the birthplace of Edward Everett, is alfo a 
worthy ftruclure, in fpite of its lleep box- 
like roof and lack of verandas. The 
Quincy manfion, Quincy, Mafs., built in 

1770, is quite remarkable with its attic 
rifing like a clereftory above the outfide 
walls. Many other prominent examples 
could be quoted. 

The flat-roofed houfes (Fig. 12), forming 
the third clafs, are lefs interelling. The 
details are ftiff, and there is a tendency to 
formalifm. Many of tiiefe are three ftories 
in height. In Boflon, they were often four 
ftories high and of brick. There is in this 
type a certain meagrenefs. The porches 
are fmall and bare, the columns few and 
flender. Evidently, the original infpiration 
had begun to fail, and there was a flriving 
for new effects. 

The birthplace and home of Lowell, 
known as "Elmwood," at Cambridge, is as fine and typical 
an example of this clafs as is Longfellow's of the preceding. 
"Elmwood" is three flories high, the upper flory, however, 
more like a mezzanine ( Fig. 111. It Hands charmingly among 
high trees planted by 
the poet's father. 

Naturally enough, 
few names of defign- 
ers have been handed 
down. It is, there- 
fore, a pleafure to re- 
cord fome. William 
Spratz, a Heffian fol- 
dier, was the architedt 
of the Deming house, 
at Litchfield, Conn., 
built in 1790. It has 
a low manfard roof, 
with a baluftrade jufl 
over the cornice. 
The middle portion 
(lightly projecting and 
finiflied with a pedi- 
ment, has, in the 
fecond flory, a fine 
I'alladian window, 
very fimilar to one 
found in a brick houfe 

at Annapolis, Md. 



rS 



isnttiL 




Fijf. 11. Elmwood, Cambridge, Mass. 

early in the Kiphteenth Onttiry. 



The mere facl; that Spratz was a foldier throws fome light 
upon the flatus of the architectural profeffion. The Pro- 
vinces poffeffed, we might fay, no educated archite6ls. Moft 
houfes were the refult of collaboration of owner and village 
carpenter. The one furniflied the general 
plan and ideas, the other worked out the 
details. Thus I^r. Ayrault, in 1739, fpeci- 
fied in his contracf, ftill exiiling, that the 
builders were to provide a hood over the 
entrance, and to fupport the fame on carved 
brackets (Fig. 13). Such notices, and 
fome accidentally preferved books on the 
Orders, by Swan, Pain, Langley and 
others, indicate that the Colonial mechanic 
was more than a mere fkilful tool. He 
expended thought in devifing practical 
methods for executing in wood Claflic 
features and details originally defigned for 
floiie conltruclion. Many characleriftics, 
fuch as a tendency to increafe the propor- 
tional height of the columns (fig. 14), and 
details like the one illuftrated in Plgure 15, 
may be traced to thefe efforts. 

FKATURF.S. 

A few words on each of the more im- 
portant features will ferve to give a clearer 
idea of what good Colonial refidences 
really were : — 

The entrance, which ought to be one of 
the principal external features, was never 
neglected by the Colonial builders. A 
fliell hood, carried on brackets, jull over 
the pilafter-llanked door was a common 
and fimple device 1 Fig. 13). The idea was directly borrowed 
from England, there adapted from the upper part of a 
niche. 

More frequently the pilafters fupport a cornice and a 

pediment. In the beft 



Huilt 



examples the details 
are carefully wrought, 
with carved Corinthian 
or Ionic capitals. The 
Ionic capitals ufually 
have Coinpofite fcrolls, 
a variety often occur- 
ring in Colonial work. 
Sometimes the modil- 
lions, too, were carved, 
but more often they 
were left plain, as in 
Figure 20. 

Another device was 
to leave the doorway 
itfelf very fimple, and 
flank it with femi-de- 
tached columns or pi- 
lafters rising through 
two ftories, as in Long- 
fellow's houfe (Fig. 
lot. Often, though 
not always, pilafters 
were placed on or near 
(See Fig. 75,) The details are very correct and elegant, as the houfe corners alfo. This high order involved fo wide a 
though defigned with "Vignola" in the hand. The general frieze in the entablature that it was either entirely omitted, 
effea is pleafing, except that the cornice lacks a frieze, which 7Ti;7^^7^arT7)T;;u;;^^as ,n,iied down ■„ ,s,,37,7^.elioiiu street chi^S^ui; 

gives it the appearance of having funk into the wall. t,iwerremDve!l, wasln 1HS5 remodelled into a theatre. — K.h 




Fig. 12. 



The Bradlee or " Boston Tea-Party" House,' 1771, and the Hollis Street Church. 1810, Boston, 

Mass. 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



or it occurred only over the columns or pilaflers. In fonie 
rare inftances the frieze is wide enough to permit of an 
additional low ftory on a level with it. 





4^ Ij I'l-.-'""!'. 








Fig. 13. Hood, Ayrault House, Newport, R. I. 

A ftep toward greater elaboration was lo add columns in 
front of thofe againll the wall, and thus to produce a fmall 
portico, ufually of flight projection (Fig. 14 A, B). Old 
buildings in New Haven and in other Connecticut towns 
fhow an ingenious adaptation of Michael Angelo's device in 
ihe Farnefe Palace, at Rome, where the frieze of the entabla- 
ture over each window is cut into by the opening (Fig. 17). 
Many fmall porches by this means gain fufticient height for 
the doorway without crowding the pediment above the 
fecond-ftory window-fills — a clever folution of a frequently 
recurring problem. A variation' was to omit the free columns 
and to let the porch extend as a hood over the entrance 

(Figs. 18, 19). Thefe 
fchemes, however, were 
not fufficiently elaborate 
for all owners, and many 
entrance-porches were 
developed into elaborate 
verandas, the columns, in 
fome cafes, difpofed with 
much ingenuity (Fig. 14 
C,E). 

The two-rtory veranda, 
with coloflal columns, 
though not common, oc- 
curs in fome inftances. 
Count Rumford's houfe, 
at Woburn, Mafs., has 
c- ,A /A>T)- Tj .0, ,. fuch a porch, with the 

Fig. 14. (A) Pierce House, 1780, Salem, Mass. '- ' 

(li)Hurd House, ,795, Cliarlestown, IVlass. additional dcvicC of the 
(C) (governor l,anjidon Hr)use, 1784, l*orts- 

moutii. N. H. (I)) Mount Griddeii House, fecond flory Carried on a 

iXrjo, Cliarlestown, Mass. (E) 'J'ucker House. 

iHr.H, Salem, Mass. (K) Count Rumford's finaller Order, filllilar tO 

House, Woburn, Mass. 

to the main order (Fig. 
14 F). It need hardly be faid that thefe coloffal orders are 
a failure, for, if two-fiory pilailers againfl the wall dwarf the 





entire flructure, free-ftanding columns, gaining prominence 
by proje6tion, have the fame effedt to. a greater degree. 
Many Colonial verandas are of generous proportions, cool 




Fig. 15. Window Finish, etc. Fig. 16. Doortiead, Portsmouth, N. H. 

and inviting. Often, as in Longfellow's home, there are two, 
though not always, as in this cafe, balancing one another.^ 

Much attention was beftowed upon the doorways. It was 
ufual to enclofe the doors with a framing of glafs — tranfoms 
and fide-lights — of great variety in treatment though funda- 
mentally the fame in idea.'^ 

The main cornice is, in general, well proportioned to the 
building: fmaller in the earlier examples, in which it ferves 




Fig. 17. Porch, Litchfield, Conn 



Fig. 18. Porch of the Taylor House, 
Roxbury, Mass, , 1790, 



merely as a tranfition to the roof, than in the later ftruCture, 
where it is itfelf the crowning member. In fedtion, it is 
commonly bafed upon the Corinthian, though the modillions 
are feldom carved. Under the brackets, there is, in the beft 
examples, a row of dentils, giving life and variety to the 
whole. The omilfion of the frieze and the ufe of cololTal 
orders have already been mentioned. 

Roof-baluflrades are of two varieties. One confifls of 




ISee Plate 19, I'arl IV. 



Fig. 18a. Taylor House, Roxbury, Mass., 1790. Pulled down in 1S9-. 

light turned, or carved, fpindles, with larger ones on the 
corners and at intervals of fifteen or twenty of the fmaller 

-The side verandas were not parts of the original house, but were 
added by Mr. Longfellow. — Ed. 

" See Plates 39, 40, 41, Part II and Plate 7, Part III. 



DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE: NEW ENGLAND FEATURES. 



ones. Someiinies fquare pedeftals take their places. The 
other variety confifts of feme pattern of open lattice-work, in 
panels between pedeftals. Figure 21 illuftrates both varieties- 

The corners gain 



ftriking features. It is ftrange that there was fo little of 
effort for variety by giving the dormer greater breadth, and 
adding mullions, or even by developing it into a prominent 






an appearance of 
(Irength by the ufe 
of pi 1 a fters or of 
quoins. In feveral 
initances, the imita- 
tion courfes of quoins 
are continued acrofs 
the whole facade, fo 
as to fimulate ftone 
rullication. Old 
" King " Hooper was 
not above pretending 
to live in a ftone 
houfe. This fpirit of 
pretention was the 
logical refult of the 
one which confidered 
it unbecoming to live 
in a log houfe, and fo 
concealed the logs 
with clapboards or 
witli flringles. But 
c 1 a p 1) o a r d s and 
(hingles had better excufe, for they were ufeful in keeping 
out the cold. 

A review of the exterior features would be incomplete 
without a reference to the fo-called Palladian windows. A 
treatment of large openings, liniilar to that of Figure 75, 
from Maryland, occurred quite frequently in the New l.ng- 
land and Middle colonies. Ultimately, the idea is derived 
from Palladio's ingenious device of two columns and two 
pilafters with an arch between the columns of a larger order. 
An interefting variety existed in the old 15ofton Library 
(Fig. 22). 

Other windows are fimply treated — often enclofed with 
fome mouldings and a light cap over. An ingenious varia- 
tion, from MafTachufetts, is illuftrated in Figure 15. 

The treatment of dormers, too, is fimple. Ufually they 
are narrow and high, crowned with plain fteep pediments, 




Fig. 19. A Doorway in Providence, R. I. 




Fig. 20. I'orcliot tlie Hurd House, Charlestown, Miisa., 179S. 

Ibmetimes alternating with round or broken ones. Flat- 
roofed dormers were rare. The bold projections of the 
dortners from the roof conftitute them one of the moll 




Fijf. 21. {A) From Governor Langdon's House, 1784, Portsmouth, N. H. (B) Troni 
King Hooper's House, 1754, TJanvers, Mass. (C) From Hall House, 17S5, Medford, 
Mass. (1>) From Count Runiford's House, Woburn, Mass. 

gable. The gable (Fig. 23) from Count Rumford's houfe is 
quite unique. 

Color is the only other exterior feature worthy of remark. 
Modern imitators would lead us to believe that it was uni- 
verfal to paint the ground a darker, ufually a yellow, color, and 

pick out the trimmings in 



white. But few photographs 
fhow this — the color ufually 
being a monotonous white. 
There are even fome in- 
ftances in which the trim- 
mings are darker than the 
ground. An indefatigable 
inquirer tells us that origi- 
nally Venetian red was uni- 
verfal. Yellow and v.hite 
came later. By carefully 
fcraping off the succefTne 
coats of paint red was found 
to underlie the others. 

In brick buildings the 




Fig. 22. The Old Library, P.oston, Mass. 
Charles Itultinch, Architect. 



trimmings were of white ftone or quite often wood painted 
white, pleafmgly coiitrafting with the general red tone. 

INTERIORS. 

In the interior, the ftaircafe-hall, with its generous allot- 
ment of room, is quite remarkable. The hall can be made 
the moft effective of all the rooms, for it has the firft and the 
laft chance to make a good iniprefiion upon the vifitor. The 
value of this was not loft fight of, fince Colonial houfes feem 
to be the very embodiment of welcome and generofity. 












• «l (• r« »•■"«• •!' ™ ».™.'r.".,"".".",,""","..~'.?^.t."™.".' 
Fig. 23. Rear Dormer: Count P.umford's House, Woburn, Mass. 

The ftairs are broad and the treads eafy, with neat turned, 
or often hand-carved, fcroll, balullers and newels. In fome 
of the bert examples carved brackets decorated each tread. 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



limilar to that Ihown by Figure 80, from the South. The 
modern idea of having one or two intermediate landings was 
rarely ufed. 

The ceilings often have a richly moulded cornice with 





Hig. 24. From the Governor Lang- 
don House, Portsmoiiih, N. H. 



Fig. 25. From the Hodge's House, 
Salem, Mass. 



Corinthian modillions. The flat furface i.s fometimes deco- 
rated with fonie pattern ornament in plaller (Fig. 29^ though 
it was more often left plain. .\ fiiiiilar treatment is fome- 
times applied to the foffit of the Hairs. 

The walls were wainlcotted, after the Knglilh manner, 
ufually three feet high or fo, though often all the way up to 
the ceiling, in large panels of wood. In fome of the bert 
houfes Dutch fcenic wall-paper was preferred. 

The fireplaces, with their mantelpieces often carried up to 
the ceiling, are the main features of the other rooms. Thefe 
mantels are remarkable for delicacy in ornament and in 
detail. The orders often ufed to fupport the flielf are, with 
the greateft propriety, attenuated, fometimes to even twice 
the ufual number of diameters, or even more. Much hand- 
carving occurs, fuch as delicate fluting, balls, beads, eggs-and- 
darts, figures and geometric patterns, and a very charming, 
low-relief ornament, bafed upon the decorative work of the 
brothers Adam, in England (Figs. 26, 29). French rococo 
ornament is to be found in fome very rare inflances onlv. 

It is worthy of notice, that though the Italian rococo 




ings, the twifted baluflers, and in fome broken pediments. 
The Colonial flyle, though adapted from ClafTic motives, 
never became very formal, and fo never felt the need of a 
reaftion. This ftyle did not fuccumb through the throwing 




^y ..^ 




Fig. 27. From Litchfield, 
Conn. 



Fig. 28. From the Jaffrey 
House, Portsmouth, N. H. 



off of all reftraint, but through the Greek revival and through 
the almoft fimultaneous fecond flood of immigration in the 
beginning of this century. 

The treatment of the door and window finifh exhibits 
almofl: every variety which the Renaiffance has bequeathed 
to us. Flanking pilaflers with plain, broken or carved pedi- 
ments occur frequently. If any one thing can be faid to be 
charatleriflic, it is the decoration of the panels, either carved 
or of putty, with motives jult fpoken of as borrowed from 
the brothers Adam (Figs. 30, 31). Ultimately, they are 
bafed upon Roman fefloons. The modelling is fo exquifite, 

and they are, moreover, capable 
of fo much variety in difpofition 
as to juftify the eagernefs with 
which the Colonifls ufed them. 
Happy, indeed, is the evolution 
of the heavy Roman feftoon to 
a firing of forget-me-nots, each 
fmaller than the preceding, 
each feftoon bound to the next 
with a delicate ribbon. The 
door finifli defigns (Figs. 30, 31) 
are well worthy of emulation. 
Of neceflity, all the peculiarities have not been pointed 
out, nor, indeed, have all types been referred to. The 
reader's mind has perhaps reverted tc tales of romance which 
have endued Colonial life with abiorbing interefl. " The 
House of Seven Gables" (Fig. 32) may, in advance, have fug- 
gefted a complete picture ; a picture full of turrets and gables 
and all manner of broken fky-lines, but nothing of fimple, 
dignified, Claflical fronts. But Hawthorne, according to 
his fen's biography, had little fenfe of locality or tafle for 
abfolutely corredt defcription. Though he did not invent his 




Fig. 29. Plaster Ceiling, Salem, Mas: 





Fig. 26. I'r.rtion <if an 



Fig. 30. Doorway, Salem, Mass. Fig. J!. Parlor Door, Nicholson- 

' Ceiling. Period from 1760. Pierce House, Salem, Mass., 1780. 

fpread to moft countries and flamped its charadeiiftics upon architecture, he did that which is hardly lefs deceptive: he 

every branch of art, the New England Colonies efcaped picked out exceptional cafes and altered thefe to fuit his 

almoft unharmed. Rococo as a period of art was in them fancy, which found but little of value in Claflic fynimetry. 
unknown. Some inflances of rococo are found in the ceil- Pidurefquenefs, though not a charaaeriftic, is not entirely 



iVElF ENGLAXD CHURCHES. 



lacking It occurs molUy in cottages, fome of which, with 
their prim gables, feem magically tranfported from England. 
Another fource of piclurefquenefs is that of gradual addition 
to a fmall nucleus, as in Figure 4. Peter Avery had bought 
a condemned church and this he tried to incorporate with 
the older part of his home. The refult is certainly quaint. 

We have in the preceding confidered a feries of homes of 
the people, ftruclures' far lefs pretentious than, and, there- 
fore, not comparable with, the palaces of Italy, the chateau.\; 
of France, or the manors of England. Although every detail 
of our Colonial work might be traced to fome European 
prototype, the general refemblance is flight. '1 ime, diftance 
and materials contributed on this fide of the water to pro- 
duce a ftyle of doinefl:ic architecture of marked individuality, 
dignified without being formal, pure, fiinple, homelike and 
peerlefs. Peerlefs — yes; for, whether it be that this is the 
only domeft!c architecture worthy of much confideration, or 
that only Americans have thought it worth while to ftudy the 



/">N- 




Fig. 32. House of Seven Gables. RoRcr Williams House, 1635. 

houfes of their forefathers, it is a fac1: that no other (lyle is 
nearly fo fully recorded, or illullrated in fo abundant a 
literature. 

Pfl'.LIC AKCHITECIURK : CHUkCHKS. 

But ihere was other building than that of dwellings. Some 
public flructures flill remain, and many have been demolilhed 
to be replaced by later buildings. It is a pleafure to note 
that the general fentiment is now flrong for preferving the 



*A CHHoNoiJ 



I'ABl.R OK S'lMK IMVcKTANT MIW KNt.LAMJ <<iI,i'MAr. 
RESIDKNf ES. 



Building. 


I>ate. 


Location. 


Authority. 


Ro<jf. 


Cradock Ilou^e 


''-34 


Mrdford, Mass 


Drake .... 


Oambrel. 


Standish " 


163'j 


Duxbiiry, '* 


Vetitury .... 


•' 


Bull " 


'&3'> 


Newport. R. T 


A lit. Arch,. 


" 


Minot Homestead 


1^40 


Doicliesler, Mass 


Drake 


(lable.. 


The Ked Horse Inn.. 


i^fo 


SMdbu.v. •• 




< Janibrel 


Old Indian House 


i6,Ho 


Deerfi.ld. '* 


*' 


C.aMe.. 


Grant *' ■••■ 


about 1770 


Newport. R. I 


Attt. Arch.. 


Cambrel. 


Warrcr " ... 


1723 


Pnrismniilli, N. 11. .-■ 


PIlolO 


" 


Peprercll '* 


'725 


Kitierv. Me 


l)rake 


" 


Thompson *' 


1730 


Wobiirn, Mass. 


Am. Arch.. 


" 


Walker •• .... 


"734 


Concord, '* ■ ■- 


" *■ 




Hancock '* .. 


1737 


Bttsion, " . 


Drake 


" 


Hobgoblin Hall 


1740 


Medlord. "... 




" 


I»alion House 


1740 


D'-rcIiestrr, " .- 




Mansard 


Evereit " 


<74o 


Newburvport, " . 


Photo 


Cambrel 


Putnam " 


'744 


Daiivers, '* ... 


Drake 


" 


Adam^i " 


1750 


Uuincv, " ... 


•' 


" 


Wclb Place 


1752 


WeaihrrsfitK! Conn... 


Am. Arch.. 


" 


Hooper House 


1754 


Danvf rs. Mass 


Drake.. . . 


'• 


Vassall " 


175') 


Cambridge, " 


1 hoto 


Mansard 


Derby *' 


i7''0 


Salem " 


14 


(iambrcl 


Bannister '• .■• 


between 


N.-wpt)rt, R I 


A m Arch. . 


"' 


Vernon " ... 


i7<;o 


" " 




Mansard 


Oibbs " ... 


and 


" " 


" " 




Hazard " ...j 


1776 


•* *• 


.( (t 


Flat 


Quincy '* 


'770 


Quincy, Mass. .. 


Drake 




Pierce " .••-■ 


17'^ 


.Salem, " ..■ 


IMiMiu 


" 


'■ Elmwood " 


about i7!<o 


Cambridge, " ... 




■' 


Babwn House 


1781 


Nrwbnrvpnrt, " ... 


" 


*' 


Lanedon " 

Hall " .... 


i-lU 


Portsmouth, N. H 


" 


Mansard 


17S5 


Medford, Mass...- 


" ...... 


(uiMibrel 


Hall *' .... 


1789 


' " . . . . 


" 


Mansard 


Taylor " .... 


'79^ 


Weymoulh, " .... 


" 


Flat, 


Arnold " 


17*/* 


Bost(.t., " .... 


*' 


Mansard 


Hurd " .... 


1795 


Charlcstown, '* .... 


'* 


Flat 


Appleton " 


about I Hog 


Boston, *' 


" 


" 


Carrington '* 


*• 1800 


Providence, R. I 


" 




Baldwin " 

Hodge " .... 
Oti» •' ... 




Salem Mass- . . . 












.1 


i*ioo 


Boston. " 


" 


" . ... 




few old-time mementos we flill have. Several have been 
reflored. Thefe are, however, rarely of much iiitrinfic value, 
polTeffing, as tliey do, little of originality, and being generally 
poor copies of tranfatlantic works. 
After confiderable fearching, I 
have found but fcanty material. 
Fifteen churches and eight fecular 
buildings conftitute my entire lifl 
for New England. It is poffible 
that there was but little ufe for 
Fig. 33. Friends' Meeting-iiouse, town houfcs and cit)'-halls : the 

Hurli'iglon, N. J. , t- 1 /- n r ■ ir 

meeting-houies, lerving alio 
other than devotional purpofes, helped to fupply their places. 

The earlieft of thefe " meeting-houfes " were plain and 
bare to the point of rudeiicfs. Puritan fentiment did not 
countenance difplay or even limited decoration, and dif- 
carded the very word '-church," becaufe alTociated with fo 
much outwarcl fltow. 

The ufual type, according to Dr. E;ggleflon, w-as fquare in 
plan. On the exterior were two flories of windows. The 
fteep roof, floping from the four fides, was furmounted by a 
belfry with a flender fpire, the bell-rope dangling in the mid- 
dle of the affembly-room. Such was the famous "Old Ship" 
at Hiiigham, Mafs.^ This type was much more fuited for a 
fchool-houfe than for a place of worfliip, though not per se 
devoid of anirtic poffibilities. 

Some were of ft 11 ruder forms, often mere barns. Occa- 
fionally a fmall hexagonal plan was adopted (Fig. 33). One 
would be glad to find in poverty and in the date of their 
erection an excufe for fuch inappropriate forms and crude 
ideas — but many contemporary refidences ftill exifl to teftify 
to much tafte combined with great fimplicity. Moreover, 
fmall and artiftic churches aie found farther fouth. Poverty 
is no excufe for poor defign. 

An old church at Narraganfet, R. I., is ilightly better. In 
it the lower, and taller, flory of windows has round heads, 
and the doorway, too, is fomething more tlian a mere open- 
ing with a hinged (lap. 

It was impoffible for the ultra Puritan alceticifm to con- 





Fig. 34. Park St. Steeple. P.oston, 
.M.1SS. 



Fig. 35. Pulpit of King's Chaijel, 
Ijoston, Mass. 



tinue indefinilel}'. .\ reaction muft let in, and man's inborn 
love for beauty mufl find fome expreffion. The evil feed, 
however, had been fown, and there are thofe who attribute 



1 1 ait IV. Plate 17. 



lO 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



the decadence of the church in New England, partially at 
leafl, to this long refiifal to fatisfy ajflhetic requirements. 

Chrift Church at Shrewsbury, N. J-, an improvement upon 
the Narraganfet church, is doubly interelling. It is a church 

unmiflakably, and of a type 
which has later been copied 
in hundreds of our Weftern 
towns — an oblong plan 
with four to fix round-headed 
windows on each fide, a 
pediment with a bull'f-eye 
window at each end. and a 
belfry burfling through the 
roof in front. The two 
front doorways, where one 
would be fufficient, have an 
intereft, recalling, as they 
do, the focial cuftom of feat- 
i'ng the men and women on 
different fides of the church, 
with a barrier throughout 
the length to feparate the 
young folks. This church 
is frame and fliingled ; many 
like it are clapboarded. 
The details are ClafTic, 
rather freely treated. This 
kind of a church is at moft 
fuited for the country or 
for a village. In a growing 
town it is foon brufhed afide 
and replaced by another. 

Thefe fviperfeding 
churches form a clafs by 
themfelves. More citified 
and fubftantial, they are 
ufirally of brick or of flone. 
Their defign is fo directly 




Fig. 36. First Unitarian Church, Eliot Sq.; 
Roxbury, Boston, Mass. Built in 1784. 



bafed upon the Wren churches of London as to deceive any 
except clofe fcrutiny. The towers are, perhaps, more tapering 
and graceful, and the churches throughout feem to be better 
built. Thefe towers — in compofition Gothic, in details Re- 
naiflance — are the prominent features. The fcheme is fimple : 
a fquare bafe, feveral contradling, ufually oftagonal, ftories, and 
a fteep crowning fpire. Thefe tower ftories are treated with 
the orders, cornices, pediments, baluftrades and large fcrolls, 
ufed with much variety, though often rather awkwardly, for 
few elements could be lefs tradable in fpire compofition. 
Such towers are found all the way from New England to the 
Carolinas. The Park Street Church, Bofton, fteeple, Peter 
Banner, architect, is one of the fineft of this clafs (Fig. 34). 

The Old South Church,^ too, at Bofton, is a well-known 
ftru6ture. In this the fquare part of the tower rifes high 
above the main roof-ridge. The tranfition to the one-ftory 
oftagon is concealed by a baluftrade. The flender, foaring 
fpire is fine indeed, with its four lofty dormers at the bafe. 

The interiors, too, follow Englifli models. Thus St. James's 
Church, Piccadilly, has in Chrift Church, Bofton, an echo of 
that peculiar ceiling treatment in which the barrel-vault of 
the main aifle is interfedted by fmall tranfverfe vaults over the 
bays of the fide aifles. The heavinefs of this arrangement is 
fkilfully avoided in St. Martin'f-in-the-Fields, by making the 
croff-vaults interfeCt longitudinal vaults over all three aifles. 
This is echoed in King's Chapel,^ Bofton, the cradle of Uni- 
tarianifm in the United States. Tiie Chapel is even an im- 

'Kee illustratioTis in ;i later article on the roof of the building. 
^Plates 15 to 19, Part I. 



provement, for here the coupled columns juftify the block of 
entablature over them in a manner fingle columns cannot do. 
This interior, in almoft pure white, is faid to be one of the 
fineft remaining from thofe days. 

Church furniture, efpecially the pulpits and founding- 
boards, fhow much thought and care. The fine pulpit of 
King's Chapel (Fig. 35 and PI. 18, Part I), in ufe fince 1686, 
is afcended over narrow fteps inclofed by a baluftrade of 
hand-carved, fpiral fpindles. The delicate mouldings of the 
pulpit and of the founding-board are broken above and be- 
low the pilafters, which are fet back a little from the corner, 
thus giving much light and fliade. Trinity Church of New- 
port, R. I., can alfo boaft of a welldefigned and fimilar pulpit. 
A crown, the laft of royal infignia in the States, is ftill poifed 
on Trinity's lofty fpire. 

SECULAR BUILDINGS. 

The few remaining fecular buildings fhow fimplicity of tafte 
and propriety in defign. Three out of the eight buildings 
above referred to belong to Newport, and their recording is due 
to the patriotifm of George C. Mafon, an archite6t of that city.' 
These buildings illustrate twoState-houfes and a library^ at 
Bofton, a library and a town-houfe at Newport, a town-houfe 
at Weatherffield, Conn., a market at Newport, and a cuftom- 
houfe at Salem. If to thefe we add a fynagogue at Newport, 
my entire lift is exhaufted. All of thefe buildings date from 
1740 to 1800. 

It is difficult to clafTify fo few buildings, and it would be 
hazardous to generalize, for to do that would be to affume 

that thefe examples are 
typical, whereas they may 
be, as is the Old State- 
houfe (Fig. 39),'^ at Bof- 
ton, quite unique. 

We have already feen 
that the beft churches 
were bafed upon Englifh 
models. That many of 
the civic buildings, alfo, 
had Englifh elements 
maybe inferred from the 
fadt that Peter Harrison, 
the architeft of the 
market at Newport (Fig. 
38), and of other build- 
ings there and elfewhere, 
had been an afliftant to 
the famous Sir John Van- 
brugh. 

The name of another 
early Newport archite<5t 
is alfo recorded : Richard 
Munday ftarted in a6tive 
life as a partner in the 
building bufinefs with 
Benjamin Wyatt. But 
Munday was made of am- 
bitious ftuff and ere long 
offered his fervices as 
an independent defigner. 
He muft have been fucceffful, for in 1738 the Town of New- 
port faw fit to entruft him with the defign and eredtion of its 
new town-houfe (Fig. 40). This building is fymmetrical, 

3 The omission front this shoit list of Fanueil Plall [Plates 31-33, Part 
TI] by Peter Smibert anti, later, Charles Bulfinch must be quite acci- 
dental. — Kd. 

* The building here mentioned was destroyed many years before this 
paper was written. — Kd. 

s Plate 46, Part II. 




Fig. 37. Spire of Congregational Church, 
Manchester-by-the-Sea, Mass. 



NEW ENGLAND PUBLIC BUILDLXGS. 



11 




Fig. 38. Market or City-Hall, Newport, R. I., 
1760. Peter Harrison, Architect. 



well-proportioned and quiet, but it lacks the architedural 
character of Harrifon's fomewhat later works. For fuggef- 
tion, Munday depended upon the type then in vogue for 

larger refidences, previ- 
oufly defcribed. He in- 
creafed the dimenfions, 
added another window on 
each fide of the door, 
placed an odtagonal cu- 
pola on the roof, and gave 
dignity to the whole by 
raifing it upon a ruftic 
bafement five feet high. 
The dimenfions are forty 
feet by eighty. Honeftly 
conflru(5ted of brick and ftone, it bravely promifes to weather 
the feaf ins for many generations yet to come. 

The old Library at Bofton (Fig. 22) and the Market at 
Newport (Fig. 38) are both in the Palladian ftyle, fomewhat 
after the manner of the brothers Adam, England. 

Bofton is fortunate in flill retaining two fine State-houfes. 
The older, more pi<5lurefque and interefting (Fig. 39), cover- 
ing a fmall plot of ground with ftreets clofe upon all fides, 
fhows, ftrangely enough, decided Dutch influences in its 
fingly-ftepped end-gables with affroiite Hon and unicorn, 
and in its S-fhaped exterior wall-anchors. The new State- 
houfe, on tlie other hand, is a model of Clafficality. Its 
prominent features are feveral flights of broad fteps up the 
hill, a proje(5lipg arcade of the firfl flory, with an open colon- 
nade of fingle and coupled columns above, and a high, domi- 
neering gilded dome. The building is only two flories high, 
on a low bafement. It was built in 1795 and was one of the 
moft important undertakings of its time. Charles Bulfinch, 
its architedt, was born in Bofton. 1763. He fpent fome time 
in Europe after graduating. The fucceffful feature of this 
1 





not to believe it to be elaftic or fpringy, partaking fomething 
of the nature of a balloon. 

The Cuftom-houfe at Salem (Fig. 41) is very pleafing and 
appropriate. This buila- 
ing gains additional in- 
tereft from affociation 
with Hawthorne. Here 
it was that he firft con- 
ceived the romance of 
the " Scarlet Letter." 

The meagrenefs of 
this part of the review is 
all the more deplorable, 

for public buildings Pig. 40. Town-House, latelv State-House. New- 
fllOuld be, and in moft P°". »■ I- '^tS- Richard Mu„day, Architect. 

countries are, the outcome of a community's beft efforts. 
But this very poverty of ftrudlure illuftrates better than any- 
thing elfe could that our Colonial architefture was mainly a 
domeftic architecture. 

THE MIDDLE PROVINCES : DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE. 

When Nieuw Amfterdam became New York, only about 
fixty years after its founding, the Dutch had already impreffed 
many of their charadleriftics upon its architecture. Of thefe, 
fome were foon outgrown, others perfifted for a long time. 
It is quite natural that Englifli elements at laft prevailed. 
But there is, after all, only a flight refemblance between the 
architecture of New England and that of the Middle States. 
In fome localities Englifli influence hardly has been felt at all. 

In New York City but little of the old work remains. 
One might expedt that this city, with its 24,000 inhabitants 
in 1776, would have left us important ftruttures. But fires 
and progrefs have made great havoc, or, as Richard Grant 
White cleverly phrafes it: "Old New York has been fwept 
out of exiftence by the great tidal wave of its own material 
profperity " But what remains is always interefting and 
valuable, often pricelefs. 

The entire field is the one leaft inveftigated by writers 
upon architecture. An attempt to claflify the few examples 
of which data are obtainable might prove futile. It is, how- 
ever, certainly interefting to note peculiarities and points of 
fimilarity or diffimilarity between the Colonial work of this 
and of other fections. 

New York was not only the moft tolerant of all the colonies 




Fig. 39. The Old State-House, Boston, Mass. 



defign is the colonnade furmounting the arcade, with the un- 
ufual difpofition of two pairs of columns at each end and four 
fingle in between. The dome, too, is fine. But it is hard 



Fig. 41. The Custom-House, Salem, Mass. 

towards religious beliefs, but it was alfo the moft eclettic and 
cofmopolitan in all matters, including buikling. Even before 
the peaceful Englifli occupation eighteen languages were 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 




Fist. 42. Dmch Manor, Long Island, N. V. 



fpoken in the city of New York, then having only 1.500 in- 
habitants. This little Babel welcomed every (lyle of archi- 
teCJure and every kind of building-material. In New Eng. 

land we found 
wood to be a char- 
deriflic. In the 
Southern Colonies 
frame ftructures 
were, as we fliall 
fee, e.xlremely rare. 
But in the Middle 
Colonies, as was 
eminently proper, 
wood and flone, 
brick and llucco were employed. The roofs were covered 
with every available material — Hate, lliingles or tile, tin, lead 
or copper. 

It has been pointed out how defpiled the log-cabin was in 
New England. It was, if poflible, Hill lefs thought of in this 
fetlion. No Dutchman is known 
ever to have erected one for his 
dwelling. If he ever was forced 
to fuch a dire neceflity, he muft 
have fucceeded, fooner than did 
his northern fellow coloniil, in 
replacing it with fomething more 
acceptable. 



Much, too, is loft by the abfence of roof-baluftrades. For, 
though thefe are certainly without any practical value on a 






Fig. 46. Typical New York Dormer. Fig. 47. Dormers at Newcastle, Eng. 

pitched roof, they feem almoft indifpenfable for a good finifh, 
at le;ift for large houfes. Kut ihere were few lofty houfes. 
The phlegmatic Hollander looked upon long flights of ftairs 

as a nuifance. His ceiling was 
high enough if it was eight 
or nine feet above the floor. 
There feemed to him to be no 
ufe for a fecond ftory, when 
an attic might do. His houfe 
tended rather to horizontal 
dimenfions. 




Fig. 43. Door-hood of the Van Ren 

selaer House, Greenbush, N. Y. 



Fig. 44. 



The ElsieGerret*enFioiise, 
Brooklyn, N. 



Flatbiish .Avenue, near Fenimore Street, 
Y. Built about 1781. 



Fig, 48. From the House of New 
York's Third Mayor. 



Nor did the typical New England cottage, with its long 
fweep of roof, find much favor. Some do occur but the 
Dutchman preferred to have a long flope to the front as well 
as to the rear (Figs. 42, 45 and the Verplanck lioufe on p. 25). 

Splendid ClalTical fronts, fuch as that of Longfellow's home. 




Fig. 45. (")ld Homestead of the Lefferts Family, 563 Flalbusli Ave., Brooklyn, N. ^ ' 

are rare indeed. The few that belong to this type generally 
lack any attempt at Ittitit corre6tnefs in detail and monu- 
mentality in treatment. 



Very few abfolutely new features are encountered. The 
ftepped gable, which occurred only fporadically in New Eng- 
land, was here found at every turn, from the Hudson to the 
Sufquehanna. Very old prints ftiow rows of thefe gabled 
facing the flreeis. By 

degrees they difap- . ~ 1 

pear, and even as 
early as the Revolu- 
tion they were not 
very common. 

The gambrel roof, 
which was not ufed 
very often, was much 
m o d i fi e d . Some- 
liines it included two 
ftories of windows, as 
in Figure 42. The 

,, Fig. 49. Old Doorway, ii5th Street, New York City. 

upper Hope was re- 
duced in fize, so as to become, in many cafes, quite infignifi- 
cant. The long, lower flope was, as in very early New Eng- 
land examples, gracefully curved, fo as to foften its angularity 




1 The Lki-1 kkts IIomf.steaI), Fi.ati!U.sii Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
— The present owner of this house, Mr. John Lefferts, |r , writes: "The 
old hou>e on Flatbush Avenue in this city has been in the occu])ancy of 
the Lefferts family for many years. We have no dcfinile data of tiie age 
of this house. It )ias always been owned and occiij)ied by a iiieniber of 
the Lefferts family, and handed down from one generation to another. 
My father, the late Mr Jolm Lefferts of Flatbush. always siijiposed lliat 
tile house was built alxjut 1750; at any rate, it stood there for several 
years previous to the Revolutionary War, for during and before ll.e 
Kattle of f.ong Island it was occupied by a Lefferts. About forty years 
ag<j. my fatlier built an addition in the lear of this house, of a type of 
architecture entirely foreign to tlie old structure. He has often told me 



he regretted this, for it spoils, to some extent, the beauty of the old 
house when looking at it from its side. It was dc>ne, however, when 
there was not much attention paid to architectural effect in this part of 
the country. I am not an architect and cannot describe in detail some 
of the beautiful things about the old house, but would call special atten- 
tion to the front doorway,* which is unique as a Colonial type and es- 
peci.iUy attractive in its moulding and carving. The house originally 
had a Dutch divided door, with the customary brass knocker, but that 
was unfortunately removed for the ]iresent one. This is the only devi- 
ation in the house proper from its truly Dutch tyiie." 

•See Plate 4, Part IV. 



DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE: THE MIDDLE PROVINCES. 



13 



and >.ardncfs(Figs. 42 and 45). Many of the ordinary gabled Still another peculiarity was what might be termed " wLi- 

roofs, alfojhad a neat curve at the bottom of the Hope, juft at dow tracery." In the large cities of Hofton, New York dnd 

Philadelphia there was evolved a flyle of light cafl-iroii bar- 
tracerv," of various combinations of circles, ferments and 





Fig. SO. The Van Rensselaer Manor House, Greenbusll, N. V. Fig. 5^, Van Rensselaer Mansion, Albany, N. Y. Wings by R. Upjohn, 1S40. 

the overhang of the eaves. This overhang, too, is worthy of ftraight lines, with a bit of foliage at fome of the interfecfions 

fpecial notice. Farther north it occurred at eveiy ftory-level, (Fig. 49)- This was much ufed for the fide lights and for the 

and gradually difappeared in later houfes. But the Dutch re- tranfoms of doorways, and is ffill the moft flriking feature of 
tained it, though uling; 



it only at the eaves. 
Sometimes it was 
made fo great as to 
become a ffoop or 
porch, requiring fup- 
porting columns.* 
Hackenfack, efpe- 
cially, has many fuch 
overhanging eaves. 

The details, as be- 
fore dated, are not 
very Claflic. although 
generally derived 
from fome C 1 a ffi c 
fource. Many vaga- 
ries and oddities 
occur. It would be 
difficult to find a pre- 
cedent for the hood 
over the rear door of 




old city houfes. It is 
often very delicate, 
pleafuig, and richly 
varied in defign. 
Sometimes this 
tracery ferved to hold 
the glafs, but quite 
often it was independ- 
ent of it. Its use 
continued far down 
into the Greek re- 
vival. 

That, in fpite of 
all Dutch iiiHuence, 
Englilh, or rather 
New England, influ- 
ences are quite ob- 
fervable, could not be 
better illuftrated than 
by three Van Renf- 
felaer manor-houfes. 



Fig. SI. The Morris House, i6ist Street and lolh Avenue, New York City, Built in 1762 

the "ancient"- Van RenlTelaer manor, at Greenbulh, X. Y. Kfpecially noticeable is the tendency to roof elimination. 
(Fig. 43), or for tlie interior door-trim of a New York houfe The oldelt of thefe, the one called the 'ancient," at Green- 
(Fig. 48). Both are charming in their originality and inde- 
pendence. 

Typical New York dormers (Fig. 46) are baled, as the 
Connedficut porches previoudy defcribed, upon Michael 
Angelo's window treatment. Tiiey continued to be built for 
a long time, and may ftill be found on many old houfes of that 
city and its neighborhood. Another diflinct tvpe of dormer 





Fig. S2. \'an Rensaelaer Manor, 17^.10, Albany, X. V. 

is given in Figure 68. Tlie accompanying Iketch (I'ig. 47) 
fhows an Englilh precedent from Newcallle. 



'See also the account of the Verplanck House at Fishkill on Hudson, 
later on. 



Fig, .S4. Marble Mantel: Van Rensselaer Mansion, Atl)any, X. V., dale 1765. 

bulh, N. Y, (Fig. 50), is very quaint and piclurefque — Dutch 
throughout. The hood in Figure 43 belongs to this houfe 
Claffic influence is very flight. 

■^ Plates 39-4r, Part II and Plate 7, I'ait III. 



u 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



But the fine old manor at Albany (Fig. 50), built in 1765, 
fliows Claflicifm in the afcendency. The roof is a peculiar 
compromife between the gambrel and the manfard, for what 




under the porch, is carried on cantilevers and extends only 
half as far as does the main porch. 

The home of Alexander Hamilton, on the Hamilton 
Grange, with the thirteen hiftoric elms near by, is alfo inter- 



Fig. 5S. Old Dutch Cottage, ii6th Street, New York City. 

fhould be the upper flope of the gambrel has become a flat 
deck, but without producing a manfard, for the end-walls 
are carried up to the full height of the roof. The strufture 
is now being torn down and rebuilt for a college fraternity 
at Williamftown, Mafs. The old Dutch fcenic wall-paper, 
which ornamented the hall, has been carefully removed for 
future ufe. 

In the third manor (Fig. 52), alfo at Albany, Claffic con- 
quefl is complete, with ftrongly marked horizontal lines, a 
flat roof with a baluilrade, an engaged Doric portico, and 
a Palladian window. This building and the preceding are 
placed up on high bafements, a thing which was rarely done 
in New England. 

Several old manfions are (till ftanding in New York and 
in its immediate vicinity. Many of thefe depend for hiftoric 
interefl upon affociation with Wafhington. Among them is 




Fig. 57. Colonial House, Germantown, Pa. 

efting. Its Doric cornice has fmall inoflenfive triglyphs. A 
baluftrade furrounds the flat roof. Two porches only remain 
of the three which once almoft enclofed it upon three fides. 
No engaged two-ftory columns or pilafters occur, in fact fijch 
features are rare throughout the Middle States, and entirely 
lacking in the Southern. 

Figure 55 reprefents a little Dutch cottage on ii6th Street 
near 7th Avenue, New York. It is now almoft overgrown 
with additions and out-buildings — the refult of making a 
"road-houfe" of it. At prefent it is ufed once more as 
a dwelling. Another and quite fimilar cottage is illuftrated 
in Figure 42. 

Yonkers's City-hall ^ might well be called "ancient," as 
antiquity goes in America. It was built in 1682 by Fred- 
erick Philipfe for his manor. In 1745 it was confiderably 
enlarged. In 1779, its Tory owner having fled, it was confif- 







^7y. 




Fig. 56. The Apthorpe House, 90th Street and loth Avenue, New York, N. Y. 



the fine old Jumel manfion^ at 165th Street and 9th Avenue, 
built about 1760 (Fig. 55). It has a front porch with 
very flender two-ftoried columns. The fecond-ftory balcony, 

'The Morris Mansion, or Jumel House. — "This building is all 
the more interesting because it is itself an historical building in the 
sense that Mount Vernon is historical. It was built about 175S by Roger 
Morris, who, formerly a liritish officer, naturally was a Tory during the 
Revolution, and because of this, as naturally, had his property, this house 
amongst it, confiscated. Washington quartered here during the opera- 
tions about New York. Later tlie house became the property of the 
Mme. Jumel who married for her third husb.ind Aaron liurr when in his 
seventy eighth year, and from whom she later attempted to get a divorce. 



cated and fold, only to be rebought in 1868, fince which 
time it has been in ufe for civic purpofes. The ftructure is 
rather peculiar, and not very remarkable for beauty. It is 
long and narrow, two ftories high, with a hipped roof relieved 
by dormers, and crowned by a baluftrade running all around 
the flat deck on top. Upon the long front are two entrances, 
making it look much as though two houfes had grown together. 
The Apthorpe Houfe (Fig. 56), which until quite recently 

2 Plates 24-29, Part II. 



DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE: THE MIDDLE PROVINCES. 



'5 



exifted on the corner of gth Avenue and 90th Street, was 
fomewhat peculiar in plan. The plan and elevation were 
quite finiilar to that of the home of Waihington's mother. 
Each had a deep two- 
flory recefs in the 
middle. On the 
front were four two- 
ftory pilafters. 

The early feitlers 
of Pennfylvania were 
remarkable in many 
ways. William Penn 
prepared upon his 
immenfe land-grant 
a refuge for all 
r e 1 i g i o VI s fedts. 
Among thefe were 
Quakers, Moravians, 
Mennonites, Dunk- 
ards and Solitary 
Brethren. In view 
of fuch an affem- 
blage of world- 
efchewing zealots, it 
is not f u r p r i fi n g 







■=^1 



Fig. SS. Livezey's House, Allen's Lane and Wissahickon Creek, Phila. Built 1652 and supposed to be the 

oldest house in State. 



palifades, a common mode of building in their native country. 
Exceptions are often as interefling as charadJteriftics. If 

anything can be faid to be unique, it furely muft be a Proteft- 

ant convent. Such 
an one was eftab- 
lifhed by the fo-called 
Soli tary Brethren 
(and Sifters), in 
1725, at Ephrata, 
near Lancafter, Pa. 
This eftablifhment at 
firft grew rapidly in 
numbers and eredted 
fever al fubftantial 
buildings, fome of 
which are ftill ftand- 
ing (Fig. 60). Thefe 
are huge, fi m p 1 e 
flru6tures, two ftories 
high, with the ufual 
large, fteep, German 
gable. The very 
fmall doors and 
windows, irregularly 
fpaced, produce a 



that Philadelphia is, to-day, the embodiment of Philiftinifm. 

Many large and often impofing buildings remain, efpecially 
in Philadelphia and in Germantown. One of the beft of 
thefe, a flucco brick flrudture, fomewhat remodelled in later 
times, is given in Figure 57. Stucco feems to have been 
largely employed — perhaps owing to German influence — 
often with brick quoins and other brick trimmings. Stone 
was, however, the chief building-material. 

The details generally are hard and crude, and often inap- 
propriate. The home of the Colonial botanift, John Bar- 
tram, at Philadelphia, built in 1731, has two-ftory femi-de- 
tached columns 
with huge Ionic 
fcrolls.' The 
German rococo 
mouldings of the 
w indow-frames, 
too, are out of 
all fcale with the 
humble dwelling. 

In Pennfyl- 
vania there were 
rarely any ve- 
randas, porches, 
or gardens (Fig. 
58). The fierce 
fight with the 
primeval forefts 
had engendered 
ahatredof fliade- 
trees : the fettlers 
preferred to let 
the fun bake 
their unprotected 
walls. 

The founders 
of New Sweden 
in Delaware were 




gloomy look. The feci:, which long ago died out, has been 
fuperfeded by Seventh-Day Baptifts. 

INTERIORS. 

Hardly anything can be faid of the interiors, fo few are 
illuftrated. Scenic wall-paper was ufed fomewhat, though 
only in the beft houfes. Large wall-panelling of wood was 
much employed even in ordinary houfes. The ftaircafe halls 
were moftly fimple affairs, as in the plan in Figure 55. The 
hall of the fecond Van Renffelaer manor was exceptionally 
large, 23' x 46', and the flairs were in a feparate enclofure off 

this hall. Some 
few flaircafe halls 
were very elabo- 
rate, as in the 
Wadfworth 
Houfe at Gene- 
fee, N. Y., which 
very much re- 
fembled the befl 
work of New 
England. 

In few features 
was there more 
uniformity than 
in the mantels. 
Many of thefe 
from far diftant 
colonies are ftrik- 
ingly fimilar. It 
can be faid of the 
greater number 
of Colonial man- 
tels that they are 
very p 1 e a ft n g 
and appropriate 
in deiign, and 
nioft care fully 






Fi(C. 59. " Tlie Monastery, " C"arpenter's I.ane and WisRahickon Creek, Phila. 

too few in numbers to exert any great influence. They, how- wrought out in detail. Perhaps they departed more from 

ever, introduced an entirely new feature in the conftruclion ClalTic motives and were lefs delicate in the Middle Colonies 

of frame-houfes. Thefe they enrlofed with upright fplit than in tlie other fections. It was quite charaderiftic of all 

—•7- 7, — r,:, the mantels to interrupt the frieze below the flielf with an 

- Plate 9, I art IV. '^ 



i6 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



Tdw 



ornamental panel. A limilar device was fometimes reforted 
to in the entablature over the door (Fig. 6i).^ 

THE MIDDLE PROVINCES: PURLIC ARCHITECTURE. 

Several notable public buildings, both ecclefiaftical and 
fecular, have been preferved. In nioft of thefe, Englifli in- 
fluence is predominant. Traces of Dutch elements, quite 
marked in the donicflic architechire,-'' are here almoft entirely 

wanting. The firft ftruft- 
ures were Dutch, c. g. the 
old Stadt Huys, or firft 
City-hall, of New York, 
on the river front, which 
had ftepped gables and 
other Low Country pe- 
culiarities. 

Firft in rank among 
New York churches is 
Old Trinity. The pref- 
ent building replaced one which was built in 1788 on the 
fpot where its predeceftbr, a iimilar ftruiSure, was burned 
in 1776. This had iifelf replaced one ftill older, of which 
no illuftrations have been preferved. The church of 1788 
was, as might be expected, fomewhat ClalTical. The entrance 
porch, femicircular in plan, had four pairs of coupled, Cor- 
inthian columns, very much elongated. The fix windows on 

'Erasmus Hall, Flathush, N. Y. — This building, occupied since 
Octolier, 1S96, by llie Brooklyn Higli Scliool, was erected in 1786 by the 
leading men of the town, in the main descendants of the early Dutch 
settlers — tiiough in the list of subscribers' names we find those of John 
fav, llamilt(jn and Aaron lUirr — who realized that now that the war 
was over the all-important thing was to provide lor the education of the 
rising generation. Although the interior was largely remodelled in 
i8g6 the e.xterior shows the main building as it was originally built, ex- 
cept that the porch was added in 1823, while the wings were built even 




Fig. 60. Saal and Saroii, Kphrata, Pa. 



-^. ■>. 



,/ 



mmmmSlmmmim, 




Erasmus Hall, I'lalbu 



Bruuklyn, N . \ . i;.S(.. 



later. The building has .always been used for educational purposes, and 
must be, to escape the reversion of building and site to the Reformed 
Dutch Church of T'latbush, which made the original grant to this institu 
tion. The nianlel [Plate 7 Part IV. | now in the school principal's office 
is a good ty])e of the Colonial mantel found in houses owned by descend- 
ants of the Dutch colonists. 

^The WvcKorr Ilousr:, Long Island, N. V. — At P'latlands Neck, 
Long Island, stands one of the oldest houses in the .State of New York. 
Erected in i6f4, it is jnactically the same now as when built, and seeius 
good for another century of comfortable habitation. The bricks for the 
chimneys, fireplaces, and side-lining, and the shingles, of best white 
cedar, for the roofs and siding, were imported from Holland. The 
shingle siding on the south side of the house has never been changed. 
As to the roof, the family say it was never touched until five years ago, 
when a tin roof was put on. In 18 ly some repairs were made on the north 
side in shortening the overhang of the roof, which extended so far out 
and so l(jw down that a person could safely jump to the ground from it. 
The north and east sides of the house were then reshingled, and a few 
rooms were lathed and plastered for the first time. The rooms are low- 
studded, the oak beams and flo(jring being the only ceiling. In the 
dining-room this ceiling was never painted, and from long wear and 
smoke from log fires and Dutch pipes it long since assumed the color 
of walnut. 

The great fire|)laces .ire suggestive of brass-handled andirons and 
fenders, with great log fires fiaring and crackling, and the familv board 
groaning with a weight of Dutch comfort and hospitality as warm' as was 
ever pictured l)y the quaint humor of Diedrich Knickerbocker. Many 
heirlooms of the family da.e back over 250 vears. There are reminders 




each fide were round-arched, but the tower windows, curioufly 
enough, were pointed. There was no effort to make a grace- 
ful t ran fit ion to 
the octagonal fpire 
— the awkwardnefs 
of which was fome- 
what concealed 
by a baluftrade, 
with a fquare pin- 
nacle at each cor- 
ner. Four fimilar 
pinnacles jutted 
out of the main 
roof, one at each 
corner, and eight 
others con ti nued 
the Ines of the 
porch columns 
above the porch 
cornice. All this 
gave the ciiurch a 
fomewhat Gothic 
1 o p k a t a hafty 

Fig. 61. Doorway at Canandaigua, N. Y. J?lance 

Two of Trinity's older chapels^ ftill exift — both of the 
\Vren type. The one is St. Paul's Chapel, ° built in 1764- 

of the time when pewter mugs for tea drinking, and great pewter plates, 
measuring eighteen inches across and weighing several pounds, were 
among the few table dishes in common use. (jreat numbers of them 
were melted up and cast into bullets for the army in the time of the 
Revolution. There are also relics, ploughed u|) on the farm, of the time 
when the redcoats and Hessians of George III overran the land. Four 
rods south of the house some trees indicate the spot where two English 
spies were hanged before the American army was driven off Long 
Island. 

According to family tradition and other evidence, Pieter WyckofT, a 
Holland emigrant, located at Flatlands Neck about 1630. The land he 
purchased of the Canarsie Indians has been handed down in the family 
from generation to generation for over 260 years. The house, over 230 
years old, was built the year Dutch was peaceably superseded by English 
rule in exchange for Surinam. The property of fifty-six acres belongs to 
the estate of the late John Wyckoff, who died four years ago, and is only 
a |)art of that owned by his ancestors. The substantial Dutch barn was 
built in 1809 by tiarret P. Wyckoff, who lived to be ninety-five years old 
and died over twenty-five years ago. — Xew York Times. 

•'Oldest House in New Yokk City, — Some one recently dis- 
covered that the oklei-t house in New York is to let, and he laments the 
fact. It stands at 122 William St., between John and Fulton, and it is 
supposed to have been built in 1692. The old-fashioned Dutch bricks 
that were ini])orted from Holland especially for its construction are still 
part of its walls, and they carry their age well. The mortar in which 
they stand is as firm as the bricks themselves. Vincent .S. Cook, who 
has interested himself in this old house, says that frequent efforts have 
been made to purchase it, so that it might be torn down, and a more 
profitable building erected on this site, but they have been unsuccessful. 

Abraham de Peyster was Mayor of New York when this house was 
built, and it is recorded that he took a personal interest in it. Its com- 
pletion was celebrated with a big jollification, and it was much admired 
as a pretentious example of Dutch architecture. This house was occu- 
])ied by several families of distinction and then it became an inn. It was 
later a rendezvous for the Sons of Liberty, an organization opposed to' 
the military occupation of New York by the British, and for several 
years it was the scene of fierce strife. Among the distinguished men 
who were entertained there at various times were Washington, La- 
fayette, Putnam, Baron .Steuben, and Nathan Hale. The yard of this 
house, although hemmed in by big buildings, looks as it did 150 years 
ago. It is now like the ciunt-yard of a country tavern, and the house 
itself suggests a colonial mansimi. The doors are low and broad, and 
the stairways are winding. The windows are almost square. In re- 
cent years this house has been used as a restaurant. — Boston Daily 
Advertiser. 

* Plates 10 and 16, Part IV. 

''St, Paul's Chapel, New 'S'ork, N. Y. — On the third of Novem- 
ber, 1763, the vestry of Trinity Church adopted an order providing for 
the erection of a second chapel for the i^arish, having alreadv St. George's, 
and choosing for the site a wheat field at the corner of Broadway and 
Partition Street, now known as FulKni Street. The order was given'in 
November; during the winter materials were collected, and in the spring 
of 1764 work was begun, the cornerstone being laid Monday, May 14, 
1764. In the autumn of 1766 it was so far completed as to be ready for 
|)ublic use, three years, less four days, having passed since the giving of 
the order to Iniild. On October 30, 1766, the chapel was thrown open 
for public service. Dr Barclay and his successor. Rev. Dr. .^uchmuty, 
were the promoters of the building of the chapel. In the turbulent years 
of 1775 and 1776 New York was practically in the hands of the Revolu- 
tionists and service in all the English churches was discontinued St. 



PUBLIC ARCHITECTURE: THE MIDDLE PROVINCES. 



17 



1766. The other is St. John's,^ half a mile to the northweft, 
built in 1803-1807. The tower of this latter chapel, once 
gracing a fafhionable neighborhood, now frowns down upon 
Commodore Vanderbilt's freight depot. Perhaps the very 
fqualor and poverty which have overtaken it have been the 
means of its prefervation. The chancel and choir are very 
eflfedtive, each being diftinctly marked by the architedure. 
Thefe two towers are quite fimilar, both being graceful and 
(lender compofitions. St. Paul's^ is, perhaps, the more pleaf- 
ing of the two, being more tapering. The churches differ 
remarkably in their entrance porches : the little two-col- 
umned entrance to St. Paul's is jufl as infignificant as the 
huge portico of St. John's is coloffal and overpowering. 
John McComb, to whom is afcribed the New York City-hall, 
is alfo given as the architeft of St. John's Chapel. 

The "Brick Church" on 5th Avenue and 37th Street (an 
enlarged copy' of a down-town church, erefted in 1767 and 




amateur architeft, and, indeed, he fucceeded well. The 
great fault, however, of this defign, as of all Colonial work, is 
the lack of depth of reveal. No amount of difpofition or 
ornament can fatiffy if the whole has an appearance of being 



i^tfi ^ ^ ^,' -z^ -j^ . ^ ^^ — "•_- , — 



Flj. 62. Methodist Epijcopal Church, Waterloo, N. V. 

long fince deftroyed), belongs alfo to the Wren type of 
churches. 

In Philadelphia feveral remark.ible old churches are Hill to 
be found. The oldeft and largefl of thefe is Chrifl Cliurch,* 
begun in 1727. It has a large, not ungraceful tower, fonie- 
what of the Wren type, treated, however, without orders. 
There is no apfe — the vifta of the interior is clofed with a 
large Palladian window. 

This church was defigned by Dr. John Kearfley, an 




axnM; 

fffrf/l 

Flgf. 63. Details from Hamilton Mansion, Woodlands, near Philadelphia. 

ftamped out of Iheet metal. It feems ftrange that the princi- 
ples of chipboard conftrucflion (hould fo thoroughly imprefs 
its mark on mafonry building. The interior is compofed of 
Doric columns bearing a block of entablature, from which 
fpread the arches. 

St. Peter's Church,^ 1738, alfo in Philadelphia, has a fimilar 
apfidal treatment. Its tower is one of the few not of the 
Wren type. 

Add the Zion Church, and we have three churches of this 
city with Palladian windows in the gable end. 

Hackenfack, N. J., has a long, low and pleafingly quaint 
Dutch church, very different from the above. It is a Gothic 
llructure of brownflone, with brick trimmings around the 
openings, dating from 1696. The pointed windows are 
probably due rather to a lingering reminifcence of Gothic 



Paul's remained closed for several months until the liiitish took pos- 
session of New York, aiid having escaped <!estruction in a fire that con- 
sumed the greater part of New York, September 22, the church was again 
open for service and for some years held first place among the city 
churches, being used as a city church and attended by Washington. 

The architect was a .Scotchman named Mcliean.at that time a resident 
of New Brunswick, N. J. It is supimsed that Mclican was a pupil or 
contemporary of (jibbs's of London, there being a strong resemblance 
between the interior of McBean's church and that of St. Martin in-the- 
Fields by Gibbs. 

In 1787 an altar-piece designed by Colonel I. 'Enfant was i)ut in, and on 
March 24, 1794, the steeple, designed by Lawrence, was begun. From 
then on, clock, bell, stoves, chandeliers and other details were added, 
until the building of the churchyard wall. May 10, 1S09, completed St. 
Paul's Chapel. — Ed. 

> Plate 16, Part IV. 

2 Plate 3, Part IV. 

'The present building was erected in 1S58. — Ed. 

'Plates 42-45, Part II and Plate 31, Part IV. 




FIj. 64. Old Stone [Swedish] Church, 1735, Wilmington, Del. 

than to a confcious revival. There are no buttrefles or 
other Gothic features. 

In Wilmington, Del., tliere is a fmall old ciiurch, much 
praifed by Mr. White (Fig. 64). He finds the generous fide 
porch particularly charming. Its pleafing lines are no doubt 
fomewhat due to the foftening effects of time. This church 

*This edifice will be illustrated in a future Part. — Ed. 



i8 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



was erected by the Swedes in 1735. The flill older fo-called 
'•Old Swedes Church"' in Philadelphia, built in 1700, is very 
limilar, and there are others.^ 

Two civic buildings of New York City deferve fpecial 
mention. They are the little Sub-Treafury Building on Wail 
Street and its near and important relative, the City-hall.' 
The latter is too well known to require many words (Plan, 




K-2I5- 9"^ 



Fig. 6S. New York City-Hall, 1S03, J. McComb, Architect. 

Fig. 65). Its architect is faid to have been John McComb 
(i 763-1853) born in New York. He was an ardent admirer 
of Sir \Vni. Chambers's, but was alfo influenced by the 
brothers Adam. But feme wifli to credit this building to a 
certain Mangin, an itinerant French draughtfman employed 
by McComb. The work of conftru6tion lafled from 1803 to 
1812. The entire cofl was not fully half a million dollars. 
It is built of marble on three fides, and is, in execution, an 
advance over earlier buildings in mechanical perfection as 
well as in monumental defign. But even this ftruclure par- 
takes of the Colonial card-board appearance. This building is 
undoubtedly the fecond beft, largeft and the latt important pro- 
duction of the period under confideration. It is a pity that its 
flyle was to be fwamped by the Greek revival at a time when 
it feemed flill to poffefs vitality. Its predeceffor on Wall 
Street was a comparatively mean affair with the inevitable 
cupola flraddling the roof-ridge. 

The State-houfe, or the fo-called Independence Hall,'' at 
Philadelphia, built in 1735, is, perhaps, from a fentimental 
point-of-view, the moft important building that we poffefs 
from Colonial times (Fig. 66). It has lately been reflored 
to its condition in 1776 and prefents ftrong fouthern affini- 

' This edifice will be illustrated in a future Patt. — Eds. 

■■'LoNGSWAMP's Old Church. — The Longswaiiip Reformed Church 
congregation, near Mertztown, Penn., of which the Rev. Nevin W. Hel- 
frich, of Allentown, is pastor, celebrated its sesqui-centennial on New 
Year's Day, 1899, with a special sermon by the pastor. , ■ 

As early as 1734 and 1735 settlers came from Oley into what is now 
Longswamp township and took up land in the section around the 
church. The valley was known among the Indians as Kittatinny Valley. 
In 1748 Samuel Hurge and Joseph Uiery were selected a committee to 
provide for the erection of a small log church. 

In 1790 it was decided to begin the erection of the new church, and 
then dissensions arose. The members divided into different factions, 
each faction desiring the church built where its members thought best. 
Pastor llertzel was a diplomat, and suggested that the old German way 
of voting be used : each man to throw his hat where he desired the 
church built, and wherever the most hats fell there it was to be built. 
This was accepted, and on a certain day all the members gathered and 
the great hat-throwing contest began. Hats fell in every direction. All 
the hats were counted, and it was found that the western corner had the 
most hats gathered on it, and there the church was erected in perfect 
amity. The corner-stone was laid in 1791. The Ilelfrichs have been 
pastors of this church for upward of 100 years. — Philadelphia Times. 

•' Plates 30, and 34-37, Part II. 

iIndkpknijknce 11m. l. — This hall was begun in 1729 and finished in 
1734. There is some doubt as to the architect. Watson's "^«««A it/' 
Philadelphia " (1844) holds that the hall was built by Dr. Kearsley, while 
in Westcott's " Mansions cf Philadelphia " (1877) we find that the build- 
ing committee was composed of Dr. Kearsley, Lawrence and Andrew 
Hamilton, then speaker of the Provincial Assembly. The latter's plan 
was finally adopted. The physician had dabbled in architecture l)efore 
and is properly accredited with the designing of Christ Church, but it is 
not known that the lawyer, Andrew Hamilton, had before interested him 
self in such matters. Hamilton, supposed to be an illegitimate son of 
Gov. Andrew Hamilton of Xew Jersey, was a very highly educated man, 



ties, in having a wing on each fide, like Figure 6g, connected 
with a lower portion, as well as in its general long low lines. 
The details of the interior '^ are quite good and ClafTical ; 
marred, however, by 
fome bizarre at- 
tempts at innova- 
tion. Its architedt 
was James (?) Ham- 
ilton, alfo an ama- 
teur architect, whofe 
profeffional training 
was that of a lawyer. 
To the category 
of public flruclures 
mufl, alfo, be added 
King's College Build, 
ing, New York, Trin- 
ity's fofter-child. In 
1756, the truflees erefted this " lime-houle," 30' x 180', on the 
Trinity land-grant, bounded by Church, Murray and Barclay 
Streets and by the river, a fite defcribed as being " in the fub- 




Fig. 66. Slate-house or Independence Hall, 1735, 
Pliiladelphia, Pa. Andrew for James] Hamilton, 
Arcliitect. 




• ■ • ■ ■■ .. » f. 



Fig. 67. Independence Hall, Philadelphia, Pa. 

urbs." The defign was quite fevere, even factory-like, three 
flories high on a low bafement. Four flight projections with 

having finished his legal education at Gray's Inn, London. He was a 
protege of William Penn's and later held several public offices, being 
Attorney-General of the Province for nine years and, later, seven times 
elected Speaker of the Assembly. He died August 4, 1741. Montgom- 
ery Schuyler, however, in an article in ihe Architectural PecorJ (]3^n\i- 
ary-March, 1895), ascribes the authorship to Andrew's son James, also 
a lawyer and an amateur, but we feel that as between a son of twenty- 
one years of age and a fatherof fifty-five the character of the design 
itself is testimony in favor of the authorship belonging properly to 
Andrew. 

Although the hall was finished in 1734, it was not until 1750 that the 
stair tower with its wooden steeple was ordered to be built. The lesser 
age of the tower may be verified by investigation of the brick courses of 
the tower and main structure, which do not align, and of the open joint 
between the tower and building. 

Independence Hall as we see it to-day, restored in 189S under the 
supervision of T. Mellon Rogers, architect, is 107 feet long, 45 feet deep, 
50 feet high, and from the ground to the top of the steeple is 160 feet. 
The restoration is so complete and successful that the building as it 
now stands is essentially the hall of 1776. 

The East Room on the ground-floor was occupied by the Provincial 
Assembly and the Second Continental Congress, and later by the Federal 
Convention of 1787. The West Room, ground-floor, was used through 
the Revolution by the Supreme Court of the Provinces. 

The modern arch and Corinthian columns of the main entrance have 
been replaced by plain, heavy oak doors, with a flat arch and fan-light 
above. On the ground floor much of the original construction remained, 
making the task of restoration comparatively easy. Here, too, were 
found in the walls the original soot-blackened fireplaces. The restored 
second floor is divided into three rooms, a long hall with a frontage of 
100 feet on Chestnut Street, and two small rooms. The entrance-arch 
to this hall is finely executed and Greek in character, as are the cornices 
and mouldings of all three rooms. In the upper story, as in the lower, 
the original fireplaces and tiles have been unwalled. — Ed. 

6 Plates 23 ,24, 26 and 27, Part IV. 



DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE: THE SOUTHERN PROVLXCES. 



19 



-^M 




fteep pediments varied the front. Tlie windows and door- 
ways were plain. The hipped roof was fiat on top, with a 
baluftrade running all around it. An oftagonal cupola, the 
(lock-in-trade with Colonial builders, fupported the famous 
copper crown. This building was in ufe jult about one 
hundred years. 

Taverns have played an important part in New York's 
hiftory. Tne old Dutch cuftom of difcuffmg all matters over 
a pot feems to have continued far down into the feventeenth 

century. The cum- 
brous, and often dan- 
gerous, iign-boards 
were flriking features. 
Bull's Head Tavern 
is the one mofl fre- 
quently illuftrated 
(Fig. 68). The old 
Fraunces Tavern flill 
ftands on Broad and 

Fig. 68. Old Bull's Head Tavem, New York City. „ , ^ 

The " Father of American Libraries," at Philadelphia, and 
predeceffor of the prefent Ridgway Library, built its firff 
home in 1790. It is a rather inlignificant, two-ftory ftruclure 
with a low hipped roof. In the middle of the front are four 
tall Ionic columns, with full entablature and pediment. 
Only the cornice of this entablature continues around the 
building. 

The Capitol in the City of Wafliington was the mod im- 
portant and largeft building undertaken, as was eminently 
proper. In its defign and erection are involved feveral 
names. Here, too, we meet with the amateur architecf. 
Dr. William Thornton fubmitted in competition, 1793, the 
moft acceptable plans. Thefe were revifed by Hallet, a 
Frenchman. James Hoban, an Irishman, was fuperintendent 
of conftruftion and for a time did fnme of the defigning. In 
1795 George Hadfield, an Knglifh architect, was appointed. 
In 1803 Latrobe became architect. In 1817 he was I'uc- 
ceeded by Charles Bulfinch, the Borton architect, who com- 
pleted the ftruclure in 1830. Its fize was 121' x 355'. The 
dome meafured 120 feet to the top. 

This now magnificent pile was a fitting dole of the Colo- 
nial work and exemplified the best elements. Monumental, 
maflive and well proportioned, it is a credit to the country 
and to its defigners. 

Although the fludy of the architecture of tlie Middle 
Provinces has not been without intereft, it has on the whole 
been rather unfatiffactory. Tiiere were too many and too 
various elements. No unity could refult in l"o Ihort a time ; 
no diftind ftyle was evolved ; few fingle new features, even, 
were produced. All this was quite different in New Eng- 




Fig. 69. Old Manor Il.iuse, Maryland. 

land, as we have feen. So it was in the Old Dominion. 
The peculiarities of a MalTachufetts or of a Virginia manfion 
are fo marked as to be readily dilfinguiflied. But a houfe in 
the Middle Colonies might as well have been built in FLng- 
land, in Holland, in Germany, in .Sweden, or in fome otiier 
part of Colonial America. Moreover, this fection has almoil 
been overlooked by writers and invefligators, probably on 
account of its comparative lack of interell. 




Fig. 70. Plan of Brice House, Annapolis, Md. 



THE SOUTHERN PROVINCES : DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE. 

In the Southern Colonies, in the land of romance, we en- 
counter many new elements. The ariftocratic cavaliers who 
fettled there differed in much from the Puritans. Their 
religion was that of the Church of England. Their (laves 
were moflly black men, and were employed in the raifing of 
tobacco, the flaple product. " Effentially a countryman 
by preference, he [the cavalier planter] loved, above all 
things, the comparative folitude of a great country home, 
with its dependent village of fervants, farm-hands and me- 
chanics, its fta- 
bles full of En- 
glish horfes, its 
barns filled with ,,^,^, 
high-bred cattle, ! R'Vi 
and, beyond, its Y^ 
flourifliing fields 
of tobacco and 
grain." 

Roads in this 

country were mere bridle-paths. The traders were pedlers ; 
the artifans were tinkers. Commerce was thought unbefit- 
ting a gentleman. The foil was very fertile, fo that the plant- 
ers were foon enabled to indulge in a lavinr hofpitality, 
which, however, often proved ruinous. The uncertain value 
of tobacco, which fluctuated from year to year, alfo tempted 
to live above means. 

Owing to the origin of many of the fettlers, fome of whom 
were fons of prominent Englifli noblemen, there was from 
the beginning inuch tafle and refinement. Thus the Virginia 
gentry were the firft to introduce glafs for the lighting of 
rooms. Comfortable and fubflantial houfes were built very 
early. Perhaps the inherited defire of the Virginia fettler to 
live in dignity and fplendor can bed explain his preference 
for brick, in a country where wood was the moft natural 
material, and where it was everywhere abundant. Many old 
and lordly manors lie fcattered along the rivers, mute wit- 
nelTes of pall glory. 

The rivers were the only fafe and practicable highways. 
For this reafon, and for purpofes of commerce, each planter 
fought to have his own river-front, with a little dock to which 
the fmall Dutch and New England velTels would come for 
barter. The James River in Virginia, often fpoken of as 
the "Claffic James," is the beft known. Some of the im- 
portant manors along this river are: Shirley, built in 1700; 
VVeftover, built in 1737 ; Carter's Grove Hall, Fig. 79, built 
in the fame year; and Brandon, built in 1790. In Mary- 
land is the Severn, at the mouth of which lies charming i\ji- 
napolis. Others of fome note are Goofe Creek in South 
Carolina, and Well River, 
the York and the Poto- 
mac in Virginia, all of 
which, and many others, 
ferved as highways of 
travel. 

Towns were few ; cities 
almoft none. Jameflown, 
the firft attempt at a fet- 
tlement in Virginia, hadpig. 71. 
a (hort life. Its few re- 
maining ruins are now rapidly crumbling, 
which fuperfeded it, never became important — it ftands to- 
day, with a church and a court-houfe, almoil the identical 
country town it was a hundred years ago. 

Annapolis in Maryland is exceptional. Il is indeed fortu- 
nate that fo complete and beautiful a little city as this has 
been preferved. Confitlerate Progrefs left it to its Colonial 




Ilarwood House, 1770, Annapolis, Md. 

Williamsburg, 



20 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 




Fig* 72. Pediment Window in Harwood House. 



glory and built up Baltimore. The older Maryland town is 
remarkable in many ways. Its (treats radiate from two cir- 
cular plazas. Upon the larger of thefe were the buildings of 
the State, upon the fmaller thofe of the Church — pivotal 

points of focial or- 
ganization. Bufinefs 
blocks and tradef- 
men's houfes were 
confined by law with- 
in a fixed quarter 
near the dock. The 
many fine refiden- 
ces, fome clofe up to 
the (treat, others fet- 
ting back, were gen- 
erally placed in large 
gardens (loping 
towards the river. 
From iha upper 
windows a fine view 
was obtained down the terraces to the wooded brink. This 
little "Queen Anne " city poffafled not only civic buildings, 
churches and fchools, but alfo club-houfes, a theatre, and a 
race-courfe. Its profperity began about 1750, and laftad only 
down to the Revolution. 

Log-houfes were built only at the very outfet. Here, too, 
the puncheon floor was the firft improvement. Frame houfes 
muft have been rare. Some are fpoken of, but none have 
been found worthy of illultration. The Southerner, confider- 
ing wood a poor building-material, did not difcovar the good 
ufe to which clapboards and fhingles can be put. Bricks 
feemed to him to be the only material to be employed in a 
(tru6ture of any importance. Even minor (tructures, fervants' 
quarters and out-buildings, fuch as barns (Fig. 82), and dove- 
cotes (Fig. 79), were generally of brick. In the earlier days 
the bricks were imported, flowed away as ballad in returning 
fhips. This, however, was too flow and expenfive, and foon 
they were burned on the fpot, good clay and fuel being 
abundant. 

Flemifh bond was mo(t commonly ufed by bricklayers. In 
many inftances the 
alternating bricks 
were of a darker col- 
or, fometimes even 
glazed. The device 
of laying all the 
bricks headers, as 
done in the Jennings 
houfe, Annapolis, is 
very unfatiffaclory, 
the bond apparently 
being weaker than 
when all are laid 
ftretchers. 

There is marked 
individuality in the 
planning, on account 
of the many fmaller 
(tructures required 
by the large eftates 
with their hofts o f 
dependants. In Maryland, the offices, fervants' quarters, 
tool-houfes and the like, were built as flory-and-a-half wings 
connected with the main part by one-ftory corridors (Figs. 
69,70). In "Virginia, on tlie other hand, ifolation was pre- 
ferred, and thefe fecondary (trudtures, though low, were often 
two ftories in height. This praftice, however, was not with- 
out exceptions. 




Fig. 73. Rear Door, Tulip Hill, West R.ver, Md., 1750, 




Fig. 74. :• Tulip Hill," West River, Md, 



Generally the plans were fymmetrical — a wing on one 
fide balanced by one on the other, with the entrance in the 

middle. In 
Virginia this 
opened upon a 
hall running 
right through. 
Shirley manor is 
an exception, 
and is faid to 
have a French 
mediaeval proto- 
type. In this 
building, 50' x 
80', the hall is in 
thenorthweftern 
corner. Similar 
planning was 
quite common in 
Annapolis, in 
which place 
many other 
traces of French 
influence are found. In the Chafe houfe, at Annapolis, 
the rooms are arranged alfo upon a tranfverfe axis. 

The plan being fymmetrical, it was only natural that a like 
difpofition fliould be found in the fagade. In the Harwood 
houfe, Annapolis (Fig. 71), the axis of the front is well 
marked by the doorway of the firft ftory, by a fplendid win- 
dow above and by a rich buU'f-eye in the attic. A detail of 
this attic window is given in Figure 72. The flight proje6tion 
of the middle part, with a pediment over, is common in An- 
napolis. In this cafe, however, it is entirely unwarranted by 
the interior arrangements. 

Ornamental wall pilafters or femi-detached columns never 
occur on thefe brick ftrudtures. The neareft approach to 
them is found under porches, where they are ufed as re- 
fponds to the free-flanding columns. Porches, however, are 
rare: in the earlier buildings they were entirely wanting. 
Some were added later, as the fettlers learned the exigencies 
, - of the climate. The 

*Y#^ * difpofition of the 

columns is very 
fimple, with little at- 
tempt at variety. The 
Annapolis porches 
were, moflly, mere 
little entrance ftoops; 
often there were none 
at all. Perhaps the 
brick walls, from two 
or three feet thick, 
afforded an ampler 
protection againft the 
hot fun than did the 
frame enclofures of 
New England. 

Two-ftory porches, 
fuch as that in Figure 
69, occur in fome in- 
ftances. Gov. Bull 
Pringle's manfion in South Carolina has a fomewhat fimilar 
porch. Some few examples very like the chara<5teriftic Con- 
necticut porches (Fig. 17) are alfo to be feen. 

The buildings were rarely more than two ftories high, with 
low, hipped roofs. Some of the earlier ftructures, as Weft- 
over (built in 1737), had very Itaep roofs. In a few inftances 
the end walls were carried up with a huge chimney rifing out 



nOMESTJC ARCHITECTURE : THE SOUTHERN PROVINCES 



2i 



of the ridge. The gambrel roof was not ufed at all, and the 
flat roof was exceptional. It was employed on the huge pile 
of Rofewell, three (lories high and ninety feet square. The 
conftrudtion of this manor and a too lavifh hofpitality in- 
volved its owner in fo deep a 
debt that his fon and succelTor 
had to apply for permiffion to fell 
a part of the eftate — the Englifh 
law of entail being ftridtly ob- 





The beft one of thefe is illuftrated in Figure 76. Hardly any 
(ingle feature could be cited better to illurtrate the wealth 
and tafte of its nabob owner. Thefe gates were of courfe 
imported from England, all the handicrafts, efpecially in the 

South, being ftill in their infancy. 
Figure 77, illuftrating the tops 
of two fence-pods at Weftover, 
fhows the care and attention 
given even to very fmall matters. 
Many gardens, efpecially in 
Annapolis, muft have been fplen- 
did in their prime, laid out as 




I 



Pig. 73. From the Chase House, 1770, 
Annapolis, Md. 

ferved. Rofewell has fince been 
(landing tenantlefs for a century, 
no owner being wealthy enough 
to keep it up. 

T-i .. Fig. 76. Front Gate 

Dormers were not very com- 
mon, and were but little varied in defign. Baludrades were 
never ufed upon the roof and occur rarely anywhere. The 
roof covering was ordinarily of tin, ftanding-feam joint : 
flates and (hingles were alfo fometimes ufed. 

The entrances were treated, much as in the other colonies, 
with a flanking order fupporting 
a pediment. Over the door 
there is ufually a tranfom, but 
fide-lights are almod entirely 
wanting. A rather ingenious 
variation of the dull hood is 
^^ given in Figure 73, from Mary- 

L-^^rr~~%, land. 

•^ Palladian windows were rare. 

The fine example from the Chafe 
houfe (Fig. 75), once before re- 
ferred to, is quite 
unique. O ther 
windows are very 
fimple, ufually 
mere openings in 
the wall with flat 
brick arches above. 
The two central 
windows of the 
liar wood h o u f e 
(Fig. 71) are ex- 
ceptionally elab- 
orate. The wood- 
work of the doors 

Pig. 78. Carter's Hall, James River, Va. and windows, as in- 

deed all the other wooden trim, was painted white fo as to 
fet off againd the deep red of the bricks. 

But little fpace can be devoted to the accelTories, fome of 
which are quite elaborate and well dudied. Wellover, on the 
James Uiver, poffeffes three beautiful wrought-iron gates. 




Westover, Va. 



Fig. 79. Pigeon-House, James River, Va. 

fome of them were fuppofed to 
be " after the Italian manner," 
with datuary, flirubbery, paths 
and doping terraces. So, too, in 
the lefs poetic matter of outbuild- 
ings the charming dove-cote at Shirley (Fig. 79) fliows its 
owner's careful confideration and preference for fubftantiality 
in all things. 

Here, as in New England, the halls were made into fump- 
tuous features. That at Carter's Grove is twenty-eight feet 
wide, or one-third of the entire floor-area. A fine arch, on 
wall-columns, ufually divides the front part of the hall from 
the rear, which contains the dairs. Thefe are in three runs, 
the fteps broad and eafy, with three baluders, each different, 
for every tread (Fig. 80). The rail ends in a fcroU at the 
bottom, with the lad balluder, more elaborate than the others. 



Pig. 77. Fence Posts, Westover, on 
James River, Va. 





Fig. 80. Slair Siring, Carter's Grove, Va., 173;. 

fpirally carved (Fig. 84). Mahogany was ufed in the bed 
examples. 

The walls were wainfcoted in wood up to tiie ceilings in 
large panels, though fometimes plader panels were ufed. 
The ceilings were often decorated in delicate plader relief, 
in a fomewhat rococo dyle. The cornice was of many 



22 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



members, often with rich modillions. In the Chafe lioufe the 
frieze is decorated with a fine Greel< wave motive. 

From thefe cool, wind-fwept halls two views could be ob- 
tained — in the one direction, down the terraces to the placid 
river, in the other, up the rifing plantation to 
the wooded hills beyond. 

The Heps were in fome infbances of folid 




show marked French influence, as in Figures 83, 90 and 
91, which have very different merit in defign. Figure 90, 
remarkably beautiful in itfelf, looks weak and inappropri- 
ate as the bafe of an architrave. 

Niches, common enough decorative 
devices in Europe, occur rarely in 
Colonial work. In the upper hall of 



Fig. 81. Scott House, 



I/: 

1780, Annapolis, Md 




Fig. 84. Stair Balustrade, Carter's Grove. Va. 



Fig. 85. Westover, Va., 1737. 



timbers projecting from the wall, each refting on the one be- 
low. A fimilar device, borrowed from ftone confbruftion, 
was ufed in one of the Colonial country houfes in New York 
State (Fig. 86). One might reafonably expect lefs of light- 
nefs and caprice, and more of folidity and formality in the 







Fig. 82. Stable at Homewood, Nid., 1780. 

details and finifh of a houfe with brick walls two or three feet 
thick than in one with a fix or eight inch frame enclofure. 
This expeftation is partly juflified. The mantelpieces, many 
of them of white or variegated marble, were quite fimple and 

_ ClafTic in defign, as may 



%mmM 






be feen in Figure 85, 
a very beautiful piece of 
work. Croifettes andegg- 
and-dart mouldings feem 
to have been the main 
elements of defign ; fome 
very elaborate rococo 
mantels harmonizing well 
with the other details of 
the room, are found in 
Annapolis. Slender, 
graceful mantels in wood, 
with a wealth of hand- 
carved flutes and beads 
are by no means wanting. 
They are ufually, as in 
Figure 87, further en- 
riched by a putty decoration of delicate modelling. PiCl:ured 
Du'ch tiles do not occur — the cavaliers did not come to 
America by way of Holland. 

The door and window trims are quite Claflical. Often they 




Fig. 83. ]Joor-Iiead, Wliiteliall, Md. 



the Chafe houfe are two which balance one another, at the 
head of tiie flairs (Fig. 92). The niche was, however, com- 
monly adapted to the ufeful purpofe of a cupboard (Fig. 
93). Similar treatment with fliell carving occurred in New 
England (Fig. 28). 

SOUTHERN PUBLIC ARCHITECTURE: SECULAR BUILDINGS. 

We have feen that few public buildings were required in 
New England : (till fewer are to be found in the Southern 
Colonies with their fmall and fparfe fettlements. Except- 
ing the churches, 
which are moftly 
unpretentious 
and common- 
place, there are 
hardly any pub- 
lic flruftures to 
be difcuffed. 

The names of 

fome defigners have been handed down, among which is 
that of the illuflrious Wren. To him are attributed, with per- 
haps fcant foundation in fact, the Court-houfe and the firlt 
buildings for William and Mary College at Williamsburg, 
Va. The Court houfe (Fig. 94) is a fimple little ftru6ture. 




Fig. 86. 

Wadsworth House, New Vorl< 
State. 



Cliase House, 1770, An- 
napolis, Md. 




Fig. 87. Cazanove, Alexandria, Va., about 1S06. 

not unpleafing, though looking rather much like a fchool- 
houfe, in fpite of, or perhaps rather in confequence of, the 
indifpenfable cupola. The abfence of porch columns, which 
feems to have been a part of the original defign, is very 
(Iriking. 



ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE : THE SOUTHERN PROVINCES. 



23 



The State-houfe and St. John's College of Annapolis are to the Doric. He made a confcious and ftudious effort to 

quite large and very fimilar. Each is unfortunate in its "do the proper thing" in the Italian RenailTance ftyle, in- 

badly proportioned dome, which we would like to believe to eluding the laying-out of gardens with all manner of acceffo- 

be later additions. In other refpefts they have the Colonial nes. But in fpite of this he did many queer things. One 




Fig. 88. Mantel, Williamsburg, Va. 

charadleriftics. The Cuftom-houfe at Charleflon, ,S. C. (Fifj. 
95), is alfo a plealing ftruclure, well e.xprtffing its civic defti- 
nation. It has hilloric interell from its ufe as a prifon during 
the Revolution. 

The verfatile Thomas Jefferfon is to be found alfo among 
the defigners. As an amateur architect he may be faid to 
have been unufually fucceffful. The Univerfity of Virginia, 
of which he was both founder and architect, is his beft known 
work. It is, perhaps, the firfl ftruclure in America in which 

the dome was ufed 
as an important 
exterior and in- 
terior feature 
(Figs. 89, 96). 
The buildings en- 



i!i////////y/y/<w//////////.//m/. 




Fig. 89. University of Virginia, Cliarlottesville, Va. 



clofe three fides of a quadrangle 200' x 600'. They colt the 
great fum of $300,000, an immenfe amount for thofe times. 
The group exhibits, as do few, if any, contemporary Colonial 
works, an appreciation of monumental planning in its lar<;e, 
fimple and well-defined maffes. Much of it has lately been 
rebuilt and added to by the architects McKiin, Mead & White. 
of New York, fince the fire of 1894, which came near deftroy- 
ing this very interefting composition. 

Two domeftic ftruclures are afcribed to Jefferson : Farm- 
ington and his own Monticello both tiear Charlotteville, Va. 




^^^^^^^fA^fiiiiU i 



Fig. 90. liase of Arctlilrave, Chase 
House, .Annapolis, .Md. 




l-i(r- 91. I!,i5e of .\rcliilr.i 
UhiidLill, Va. 



Theconflruction and the embellilhment of Monticello brought 
him to bankruptcy during the hill days of his life. 

Jefferfon had a preference for cololfal columns. He em- 
ployed all of the five orders, but confined himfelf molUy 




Fig. 92. From Crane House, 
1770, Annapolis, Md. 




Fig. 93. From Gunston Hall, Va., 1757. 




Fig. 94. 



Court. House, W'illiamsburg,Va., about 1700. 
Sir C. Wren, Architect. 



conceit was the ornamentation of the drawing-room frieze, 
which confifled of ox fkulls, vafes, tomahawks, rofettes, war- 
clubs, fcalping-knives and the like. Another was a combina- 
tion of dumb-waiter and fireplace. 

Jefferfon was a man of feme mechanical ingenuity, and he 
invented many interefting and ufeful appliances. At the 

Univerfity he at- 
tempted to build a 
brick wall four feet 
high and only four 
i nches, or one brick, 
thick. To do this 
and make it ftable, 
he built it in a 
waving line, fome- 
what after the man- 
ner of a fplit-rail 
fence. 

The capitol of 
\'irginia at Richmond is alfo in a meafure due to Jeflfer- 
fon's energies. The defign is by M. Clariffault, a French 
architect confidered for his day " moft correct." The build- 
ing meafures 70' x 134'. 

But little that is new can be faid of the few churches which 
remain and are illufl;rated. In all the public architecture 
there was far lefs of individuality and of interefl than in pri- 
vate work. Tradition tells that St. Luke's Church, Newport 
Parilh, Va., was built in 1632, or even two years before the 
Cr.idock houfe mentioned in the beginning of this paper. 
But this is hardly credible, though it mull be very old. It is 
30' X 50', with a tower 18 feet 
fqnare, 50 feet high, without 
offfets. It has coupled 
pointed windows and but- 
treffes. The doorway is 
round arched. 'I'liere are 
brick quoins on the angles. 
This okl building has lately 
been rellored. 

St. Michael's Church, at 
Charledon, S. C. [1752], 
feems to have been one of 
the largell and molt preten- 
tious. It has li Doric portico 
of four cololfal columns. 
Its large W'renlike tower 
is rather ungainly, tapering awkwardly, and infufficiently 
crowned by a Ituinpy fpire. Its fize is 58' x 80', the fpire 
192 feet high. It was built from defigns imported from Eng- 
land. St. Phillip's, alfo of Charlelton, was built in 1733, 




Fig. 95. Custom. House, 1752, Charleston, 
S. C. From S. Michael's Church. 



24 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



thus being fomewhat older, in fize , 62' x 74', but in many 

other refpe(5ts fimilar. 

All that remains of the ruined church in old Jameflown is 

the bafe of tlie tower, now almoft overgrown with gnarled 

trees, and looking difmal 
and forlorn in the low 
fwr.mps. It has been a 
favorite fubjeft with the 
hunter after the pi6tur- 
efque. 

On Goofe Creek, in 
South Carolina, is another 
inlerefting ruin ^ (Fig. 97). 
The interior, ftill in a fair 
condition, w'ith well-pre- 
ferved frefcos, poiTeffes a 
rather fine pulpit, refem- 

bling fomewhat the one in King's Chapel, Bofton, previoufly 

referred to. 

The Williamsburg church, illuftrated in Figure 99, is a 

large plain ftrufture. A travelling Englifliman defcribed it 

one hundred years ago as an " indifferent church." He was 




Fig. ^d. University of Virginia, iJ'i?, fliar- 
lottesville, Va. T. Jefferson, Architect. 




Fig. 97. St. James's Chnrcli, fjoose Creek, S. C, 1711. 

right, but Time has foftened its hard lines, partly covered it 
■with green, and otherwife tinted it with foft and mellow 
tones from his varied palette. 

The other Virginia churches, illuftrated in Bifhop Meade's 
''■History" are all of llight intereft. The beft one is given 



in Figure 98. The Southern gentry were not very churchy, 
and it is hardly to be expefted that they would have left us 
any remarkable 
ftrudtures. 

This fhort re- 
view of Southern 
Colonial work 
may have ferved 
to fliow that there 
was in that fec- 
tion much build- 
ing activity. The 
manors of the 
planters have 
been 1 e f s d i f- 

turbed than have the houfes of the New England builders. 
Progrefs, that friend and deftroyer in one, has paffed them by. 
The South received a greater fet-back in the Revolution than 
did the North. Then came the Civil War. It is only lately 
that fome of the eftates are beginning to rally. A few have 
been put in lliape ; fences have been rebuilt and the fields 




Fig. 98. St. Jolin's Churcli, 1660-67, Hampton, Va. 




Fig. 99. Clirist Cliurcli, Williamsburg, Va., 1678 or 1710. 

once more bear harvefts. Others ftill lie defolate. From all, 
the fpirit of the old cavaliers has fled as completely as has the 
fpirit of Puritanifm from New England. But the South is 
waking up and profperity, with its train of attendants, is 
returning to the Old Dominion. 



-:'^>^:i^-^^«^^t5<^ 



In this paper I have attempted to fketch the main char- 
acteriftics of our Colonial architecture, the only national 
ftyle as yet evolved in America. The material at hand has 
not always been adequate. Several important topics have 
been much neglected. 'I'he ftudy of public buildings is 
efpecially unfatiffactory. Here feenis to be a field for 
further inveftigation, though perhaps a rather unprofitable 
one. The domeftic architefture is, after all, the beft, and in 
fpite of the conftant reiteration that everything was imported 
— ideas, defigns, materials, architedts and all — one can not 
help feeling that there was fufficient of a new fpirit infufed 
and enough of limiting conditions of new materials and needs 
to produce marked individuality. Add to this the abfence 
of many Old World features, fuch as Englifli quadrangular 
planning and half-timbered houfes, and the difference becomes 
ftill more noticeable. 



1 Plate 6, I'art III. 



It is hardly poffible to clofe this review without a few 
words about the prefent revival of Colonial work. This 
revival emphafizes the value and the refources of the ftyle, 
and augurs well for the future. Our defigners, after having 
wandered through many and dry places, have returned for 
infpiration to the rich fountain of Claffic work. They have 
not returned to fervility though, but to ufe the refources much 
as did our Colonial builders, and to adapt their devices and 
to invent new ones, fo as ftill better to fatiffy the require- 
ments of beauty, utility and comfort. 

But thinking of this revival we are reminded of the very 
ftarting-point of this effay, and no better clofing words could 
be found than thofe with which we began : — 

" Men can with difficulty originate even in a new hemisphere." 

Olof Z. Cervin. 



The Verplanck Homestead, Fishkill, N. Y, 

[Date, 1740.] 



The Old Verplanck Homestead at FNMtill 
Cincinnat 



THE Verplanck homestead stands on the lands granted 
by the VVappinger Indians, in 1683, to Gulian Ver- 
planck and Francis Rombout, under a license given 
by Governor Thomas Dongan, Commander-in-Chief 
of the Province of New York, and confirmed, in 1685, by 
letters-patent from the King, James II. The purchase in- 
cluded " all that Tract or Par- 
cell of land Scituate on the Eaft ^.a;'svJ® Csi^K_^.'.i^.' /) 
fide of Hudfon's river, begin- •; 
ning from the South fide of a 
Creek called the frefh Kill and ■ 
by the Indians Matteawan, and 
from thence Northward along 
faid Hudfon's river five hun- 
dred Rodd beyond the Great 
Wap pin's Kill, and from 
thence into the woods fouer 
Houres goeing"; or, in our 
speech, easterly sixteen Eng- 
lish miles. There were eighty 
five thousand acres in this grant, and tlie " Schedull or Per- 
ticuler" of money and goods given to the natives, in ex- 
change, by Francis Rumbout and Gulyne Ver Planke sounds 
oddly to-day ; 

One hundred Koyalls, 

One hundred Pound Powder, 

Two hundred fathom of white Wampum, 

One hundred Uarrs of lead, 

One hundred fathom of black Wampum, 

Thirty tobacco boxes, ten holl adzes, 

Thirty Ounns, twenty Blankets, 

Forty fathom of DufiSls, 

Twenty fathom of stroudwater Cloth, 

Thirty Kittles, forty Hatchets, 

Forty Homes, forty Shirts, 

Forty pair gtockins. 

Twelve coates of B. C, 

Ten drawing Knives, 

Forty earthen Juggs, 

Forty Bottles, Fouer ankers Kum, 

Forty Knives, ten halfe Vatts Beere, 

Two hundred tobacco pipes. 

Eighty pound tobacco. 

The purchasers were also to pay Governor Dongan six 
bushels of good and merchantable winter wheat every year. 
The deed is recorded at Albany in Vol. 5 of the Book of 
Patents. 

Before 1685 Gulian Verplanck died, leaving minor chil- 
dren, and settlements on his portion of tiie land were thus 
postponed. Divisions of the estate were made in 1708, in 
1722, and again in 1740. It is not accurately known when 
the Homestead, the present low Dutch farm-house was built, 
but we know that it stood where it now stands, before the 
Revolutionary War, and the date commonly assigned to 
the building is a little bsfore 1740. 

The house stands on a bluff overlooking the Hudson, 




about a mile and one-half north of Fishkill Landing. It is 
one-story and one-half high, of stone, plastered. The gam- 
brel-roof is shingled, descends low and has dormer windows. 
The house has always been occupied and is in excellent 
preservation. Baron Steuben chose it for his headquarters, 
no doubt for its nearness to Washington's headquarters across 

the river, and for the beauty 
and charm of the situation. 
It is made still further 
famous by the fact that under 
its roof was organized, in 1783, 
the Society of the Cincinnati. 
The room then used is on the 
right of the hall, and is care- 
fully preserved. In fancy we 
can picture the assembly of 
officers grouped about Wash- 
ington, in that west room over- 
looking the river, pledging 
themselves to preserve the 
memories of the years during which they had struggled for 
their country's being. 

The whole neighborhood, especially the village of Fish- 
kill, which was the principal settlement in the county at that 
date, has many Revolutionary associations. The interior 
army route to Boston passed through the village; this was a 
depot of army stores, and workshops and hospitals were es- 
tablished. Here was forged the sword of Washington, now 
in the keeping of the United States Government, and ex- 
hibited in the late t'entennial collection. It is marked with 
the maker's name, J. ]5ailey, Fishkill. 

The New York Legislature, retiring before the approach 
of the British, after the evacuation of the city, came at last 
to Fishkill, and here the constitution of the State was 
printed, in 1777, on the press of Samuel Loundon, the first 
book, Lossing says, ever printed in the State. 



. Hudson River, in which the Society of the 
i ori::inated. 



Mav 20, iSgg, there was unveiled with appro|)riate ceremonies a tablet 
placed on this house by the Colonial Dames of the State of New York. 
The inscription on this tablet reads : — 

Mount CiILIan 

Built about 1740 by 

Cui.iAN Vkr Pi.anck 

Grandson of Guman Vkk Planck 

Who inJKCHASEi) THF, Adjacknt Land 

From tiif, Wapi'Inh'.fr Indians in 16H3. 

Hkaimjuariers of Baron Von Steui!1-;n 

Thk Society of the Cincinnati was 

Instituted here May, 1783. 

Placed iiv the Colonial Dames 
OF THE State of New Vokk 

MDCCCXCIX 
VirTUIE MA.IORfM FILI.-F, CONSERVANT. 



2S 



26 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



Some years after peace was restored, the Verplanck family 
appear to have occupied the Homestead from time to time. 
Philip Verplanck, a grandson of Gulian, the original grantee, 
was a native of the Patent, but his public life was spent else- 
where. He was an engineer and surveyor, and an able man. 
Verplanck's Point in Westchester County, where Fort La- 
fayette stood during the Revolution, was named for him, and 
he represented that Manor in the Colonial Assembly from 
1734 to 1768. Finally, Daniel Crommelin Verplanck with 
his large family — one of his sons being the well-known 
Gulian C. Verplanck, born here in 1786 — came to live in 
the old home permanentl)'. He had led an active life in 
New York, served in Congress and on the bench, and now 
retired to the quiet of the country. It was he who planted 



the fine old trees which now shade the lawn ; among them 
the coffee-tree so much admired. About 1810 the north end, 
built of wood, was added to the old house. Architects were 
not numerous, apparently, in those days, so the Dutch type 
was lost in making this large addition, though the interior is 
quaint, dignified and interesting. It was from under its roof 
that Daniel C. Verplanck was carried to his last resting- 
place as his father before him, and generations after him 
lived and still live in the old Homestead. 

For the above description, prepared with no little pains- 
taking, of an interesting house and demesne, as well as for 
the loan of the photograph from which I made my pen-and- 
ink sketch of it, I am wholly indebted to a member of the 
Verplanck family and a mutual friend. A. J. Bloor. 







The Roof of the Old South Meeting-House, Boston/ 

[Date, 1729.] 



AS an example of American carpentry of one hundred 
and fifty years ago, the roof of the " Old South " in 
Boston merits a passing notice. Having had re- 
cent occasion [1876] to examine the building, the 
accompanying drawing of the roof' was made ; and as a mat- 
ter of record, as being a curious example of early colonial 
work which would be generally interesting, and as an ex- 
ample to others to detail any quaint bit of work falling 
within their observation, I herewith register a few facts in 
regard to it. 

The roof of the building (which is some 65' x 95') is sup- 
ported by six trusses spaced at about equal distances from 
each other, but the last truss somewhat farther from the rear 
wall, in order to avoid too steep a pitch from it to that wall. 
The workmanship is quite primitive and rude, most of the 
timber being hewn sticks ; and the sapwood at the angles is 
in many instances 

affected by dry-rot, A^ 

or, in common par- 
lance, is " powder- 
posted." 

The trusses are 
much sprung and dis- 
torted, both horizon- 
tally and laterally — 
variously in different 
trusses; but, from a consideration of some defects common 
to them all, their story may be guessed with a considerable 
degree of accuracy. The execution of the roof indicates ship- 
builders' work; and, in the days when the division of labor 
had not reached its present development, it is more than 
probable that men who had served their seven years in the 
yards of the "Old Country" had a hand in the work. The 
first step in the construction, which occurred to the builders, 
was evidently a pair of rafters A A, a tie-beam 15, and a king- 
post C, to support the centre of the tie-beam at its point of 
splicing. 

The tie-beam, by the way, is cambered about two and a 
half feet, nearly following the line of the plastered ceiling 

' From the Anu'rican Architect for October 7, 1876. 
2 Mate 15, Part IV. 




hung to it below. Had the tie-beam and ceiling been built 
level in the first instance, they would evidently have later 
shared the misfortunes of the principals, and have now been 
convex instead of concave. Having proceeded thus far in 
the design for their roof, they next bethought them that the 
rafters A A, some forty feet in length, without intermediate 
support, would not be sufficiently stiff to carry the roofing. 
Now, instead of proceeding to erect struts from the foot of 
the king-post C, to the principals A A, at about right angles 
to the latter, and from their points of contact to drop tension- 
pieces to the tie-beam, and from their feet to erect other 
struts similar to the first — thus forming a perfectly rigid 
frame, and obtaining intermediate points of support for each 
rafter — they let loose the incipient Yankee ingenuity which 
the east winds were even then infusing into their minds, and, 
following the bent of a shipbuilder's mind, took another 
course. 

They procured stout hewn oak beams, D D, and by some 
means best known to themselves — either by the coaxing of 
steaming, or the coercion of pulleys and tackle — formed 
of them arches ; their feet stepped into the tie-beam near the 
walls, and the other ends keyed in position by wedges passed 
through a mortise in the king-post. Now they had con- 
structed, within their truss, a sort of bowstring gi.'der, upon 
which they founded their hopes of supporting the principals 
A A by means of the blocking, or struts, E E. 

Having added the suspension pieces F F, they rested from 
their labors, and rejoiced in their work. Their future fame, 
however, was not secure ; for the shrinkage of the timber, 
probably aided and abetted by some " old-fashioned New 
England snow-storms," of which we hear so much, caused tiie 
roof gradually to assume the form indicated by the dotted 
lines; and the natural remedy against further misplacement 
in that direction was the introduction of the small oak struts 
G G, about 3" x 5", which are merely notched in their thick- 
ness (3") from one side of king-post and arched beams ; show- 
ing clearly an after-thought, especially as they do not coincide 
in size with any of the other timbers, and are not tenoned or 
pinned. Then the tenons of some of the suspension pieces 
F broke off short; and stirrup-irons were added to make 
them secure. 



THE ROOF OF THE OLD SOUTH MEETING-HOUSE, BOSTON. 



27 



The old roof was double-boarded, and so remains to-day •, 
but at some comparatively recent period, to correct its ex- 
tremely crooked condition, a new roofing was superposed 
upon the old, blocked up so as to make the surface true, and 
slated, the old covering, whether shingles or slates, being 
previously removed. 

The ironwork is all very primitive in design and make, and 
speaks eloquently of the '' village blacksmith," when his forge 
was perhaps on Park Street. 

Such is something of the yarn the old roof spins ; and, if 
the civil engineer was in those colonial days " abroad," the 
schoolmaster was undoubtedly in his company, as some of 
the appended inscriptions chalked on the old rafters would 
indicate: — 



Homer 
April 6, 1774. 

1762 February 9 
A New Rope for the Bell. 

19 POUND AND A HALF. 

A NoTHER Bell Rope 

October 12, 1767. 

A NoTHKR Bell Rope 

August the I, 1770. 

It wad 20 POUND AND A HALF. 

Thos. Uruce, Repeared the Sleating 
May the ist 1809. 

Edward Russell gilded 

THE P'ane Ball & Diols 

Feb. 1S28. 

William Gibbons Preston. 



-^^>ii?^i^^0V^:7^i^ 



In the summer of 1899, owing to further deterioration of 
the roof-timbers and to the feeling that the building was at too 
much risk from fire, the old roof was replaced with one more 
fireproof, and Mr. Edward Atkinson has procured the accom- 
panying view of the 
old framing, partly 
uncovered and still 
in place. 

Such an operation 
as this upon such a 
building excited re- 
newed archjEologi- 
cal interest in the 
building, one result 
of which was a letter 
from Mr. Abram 
English Brown to 
the Boston Tran- 
script, from which 
we extract that por- 
tion which relates 
to the identifying of 
the till-now-un- 
known builder of 
the structure. 

" The well-known 
historian Hamilton 
A. Hill, in his his- 
tory of the Old 
South Church, has 
omitted but little. 
Yet this one fact he 
has failed to record, 
and in fact it has 
been hidden from 
all until a recent 
date, when an old 
diary was brought 
to light which re- 
veals enough to set- 
tle the question so 
often asked. 

"On a yellow 
page of this diary 
is the following: 
' 1729, Aprell the 
ist. I with others layed the foundation of the South Brick 
meeting houfe and finilhed the Brickwork ye 8th of October, 
following.' On the title-page of this journal is read, ' 1722. 
Jofhua Blanchard — His Book.' The conclusion is that 




The " Old South," Boslon, May, 1891) 1 showing original roof in process of demolition. 



Joshua Blanchard laid the corner-stone and built the meet- 
ing-house. At that time it was customary for builders and 
men of prominence in an enterprise to place their initials 
upon corner-stones. This proved the key of the solution. 

Mr. Hill says: 
'There is on the east 
side of the corner- 
stone "L. B. 1729," 
but I am not able to 
explain it.' He ac- 
counted for all else 
that had been dis- 
covered on other 
stones of the house. 
A closer inspection 
of the unexplained 
inscription devel- 
oped the so-called 
letter ' L ' into an 
'I,' the lip of the 
'L ' proving to be 
a groove or defect 
in the stone, wliich, 
when covered from 
sight, leaves a per- 
fect letter 'I.' As 
is well known, I and 
J were but one 
character in Latin ; 
and in our Colonial 
literature were con- 
t i n u a 1 1 y inter- 
chanjied. It would 
thus seem that it 
had been demon- 
strated in two ways 
tiiat Joshua ]')lanch- 
ard built these his- 
toric walls. 

' A study of the 
records of the town 
of Boston leads us 
to conclude that 
the same man was 
master-builder of 
Fanouil Hall. It is 
been so, for Joshua 



natural enough that it should have 
Blanchard and Peter Faneuil were flourishing at the one 
time. It appears that soon after Peter Faneuil, the old 
Huguenot merchant, offered the gift of a market, the selectmen 



28 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



held a meeting of importance. ' Prefent the Hon. John Jef- 
fries, Elq.. Caleb Lyman. Kfq., Mr. Clark, Thomas Hutchin- 
fon, Efq., and Mr. Cooke. Mr. Jofluia Blanchard prefented 
a plan from Peter Faneuil Efq., of a Houfe for a market to 
be built on Dock Square (agreeable to his Propofal to the 
town at their meeting on Monday, the 14th of July laft, and 
then votes thereon) Defiring the Selectmen would lay out 
the Ground in order to begin the foundation. The Select- 
men accordingly met, went on the place in order to view the 
Same, Mark'd and Ifak'd out a Piece of ground for that ufe, 
meafuring in length from the lower or Eafterly end, pointing 
the warehoufe in Merchants' Row one hundred feet, and in 
bredth forty feet, which leaves a palTageway of thirty feet 
wide between the Town's Shops and the market houfe to be 
built.' 

"It later appears that when Faneuil Hall was completed 
Joshua Blanchard, acting for Peter Faneuil, presented the 
keys to the authorities of the town. The walls of Faneuil 
Hall bear added testimony to the faithful workmanship of 
Joshua Blanchard. They stood uninjured through the earth- 
quake of 1756, and also through the fire of 1761, when all else 



of the noble structure was reduced to ashes. And, in fact, 
after all the changes that have taken place in that building 
for the century and a half of its existence. One of the side- 
walks stands today as it was erected by Joshua Blanchard, 
an employee of Peter Faneuil, and the foundation-stones of 
the opposite side as it then was are the supports for some 
of the important pillars of the present [1899] re-building. 
The records of Boston further show that Joshua Blanchard 
was a popular mason of his time. There is little doubt that 
he was the builder who erected the Old Brick Meeting-House 
that stood near the old State-House, and in which many 
famous meetings were held during the Revolutionary Period. 
"The work of the Old South and Faneuil Hall would seem 
a sufficient monument to the memory of this builder of Pro- 
vincial Boston, but if one turns into Granary Burying-Ground 
and carefully examines the street corner near the Tremont 
Building, he will see a slab on the green sward on which we 
may read " No. 73. Joshua Blanchard. A Mason," and can 
but conclude that the ashes enclosed in that vault are all that 
remains cf the faithful master-mason who built the walls of 
Old South Meeting-House and Faneuil Hall." 



<L^ 




^p\S> 



Colonial Work in the Virginia Borderland. 



AMONG the houses of which I intend to speak, a 
number will be found to date back to the time 
when we were a Colony of Great Britain, while 
others have been erected since our independence. 
The term Old Colonial is applied to a certain style of 
work, a free, and in many instances a refined, treatment 
of Classical details rather than to any fixed period. This 
work was, without doubt, infuenced by English publications 
during the eighteenth century, by those of James Gibbs 
(1728) and others. In an old warehouse which has been 
recently torn down in Alexandria, Va , four old books were 
found and presented to me, filled with plates of doors, 
cornices, mantels, etc., one by Langley (1739), another by 
Wm. Pain (1794); of the others the titles were lost. These 
English works show clearly whence the carpenters and build- 
ers of the day received their inspiration. The date of the 
erection of Old Colonial buildings ranges from early in 
the eighteenth to early in the nineteenth century, and from 
my examination of books and actual examples I should say 
that very little so-called Colonial work was done later than 
18 1 5. Such houses are rapidly passing away, being torn 
down to make place for improvements, or destroyed by van- 
dalism, decay and fire. Houses of this character are found 
in Virginia, on the Ciiesapeake Bay and its tributaries, the 
Potomac, York and James rivers, and the country lying 
between them. In Maryland, likewise, the wealthy and 
fashionable of early times built near or on the same bay 
and its inlets. 

Examples, as I propose to give them, are not arranged in 
chronological order, but are illustrated simply as I have 
found it most convenient to make the necessary sketches, 
measurements, researches or inquiries. 



The house, of which certain details are shown in Plate 10, 
Part I, was erected by a Mr. Cathcart some time between 
1800 and 1810, if not before. The only facts obtainable are 
from the oldest residents, who remember it from their earliest 
childhood, one or two of them being about eighty years of 
age. After passing through several hands, it was bought by 
the Episcopal Theological Seminary in 1835. Although 
there is nothing of historical interest attached to it, the archi- 
tectural features are peculiarly refined in effect and very elab- 
orate in detail. All the doors and windows are trimmed in 
the same manner as the door illustrated by the plate. Every 
figure in low relief is different from the others, and in this 
one room there are as many as thirty of them, each, evi- 
dently, intended to have a pleasing suggestion, as they 
represent Abundance, Sowing, Reaping, Pleasure, Religion, 
etc. The enriched mouldings have each member separately 
modelled, and this is the same with the friezes around the 
room and over the doors and windows, each leaf and tendril 
being different, as if the plastic material of which they are 
made were modelled in place. The building is now the 
residence of Mr. L. M. Blackford, principal of the Episcopal 
High School, and is situated about twelve miles from Wash- 
ington and three from the Potomac River. 



%.^ 



THE OCTAGON HOUSE, WASHINGTON, D. C. 
[D.-ite, iSoo.l 

Bishop Mead, in his " Old Churches, Alinisters and Families 
of Virginia" tells us that William Tayloe emigrated from 
London to Virginia in 1650. John Tayloe, his son, who was 
a member of the House of Burgesses, founded the noted 



THE OCTAGON HOUSE, WASHINGTON, D. C. 



29 



estate of Mount Airy, Virginia. He had twelve children, one 
of whom, Col. John Tayloe, built the old Octagon House. 
The Tayloes intermarried with the Corbins, the Lees, the 
Washingtons, the Carters, the Pages, and nearly every other 
prominent family of Virginia. The mother ot Col. John 
Tayloe, of the Octagon, was a daughter of Governor Plater, 
of Maryland, and his wife was Anne, daughter of Benjamin 
Ogle, Governor of Maryland. 

For those days, Col. John Tayloe (commissioned by 
Washington in the Revolution) was a very wealthy man, 
having at the age of twenty an income of nearly sixty thou- 
sand dollars a year, and when the Octagon was built he had 
an income of seventy-five thousand a year. His eldest 
son, John, was in the Navy, and was distinguished in the 
battles of the " Constitution" with the " Gutrriere," and with 
the " Cyane" and the ''Lmant." 

The memoirs of Benjamin Ogle Tayloe state that Colonel 
Tayloe was an intimate friend of General Washington, and it 
was on the advice of the General that the Octagon was built 
in Washington City, Colonel Tayloe having previously de- 
termined to build his winter residence in Philadelphia. 

The house was commenced in 1798 and was completed in 
1800. During the process of erection. General Washington 
visited this building, as he took a lively interest in it, being 
the home of his friend and one of the most superior resi- 
dences in the country at the time. After the war of 1812, 
the British having burned the White House, James Madison 
occupied the Octagon for some time and during his occu- 
pancy the Treaty of Ghent between the United States and 
Great Britain was signed by him in February, 1815, in the 
circular room over the vestibule, shown on the plan in Plate 
17, Part III. 

At this period Colonel Tayloe was distinguished for the 
unrivalled splendor of his household and equipages, and his 
establishment was renowned throughout the country for its 
entertainments, which were given in a most generous man 
ner to all persons of distinction who visited Washington in 
those days, both citizens and foreigners. In this list would 
be included such names as Jefferson (Washington had passed 
away before its completion) , Madison, Monroe, J. Q. Adams, 
Decatur, Porter, Webster, Clay, Calhoun, Randolph, Lafay- 
ette, Steuben and Sir Edward Thornton, British Minister 
and father of the recent British Minister, and many others of 
less distinction than the ones named. Colonel Tayloe died 
in 1828 and his death to a certain e.xtent terminated the 
splendid hospitalities of the Octagon, which had covered a 
period of nearly thirty years. 

This house is well built of brick, trimmed with Aquia Creek 
sandstone. The lot is triangular in form and still partly 
fenced in by a high brick wall. The kitchen, stable and out- 
houses are built of brick, for the accommodation of servants 
and horses, Colonel Tayloe being a noted turfman and keep- 
ing many fine running horses. The building and walls con- 
form exactly to the street lines, showing that the streets were 
accurately laid out even at that early day. The interior is 
elaborately finished, the doors and shutters being of mahog- 
any and all still in an excellent state of preservation. All the 
work in the circular vestibule coincides with the circumfer- 
ence of the tower, the doors, sashes and glass being made on 
the circle, and all are still in working order. The parlor 
mantel, illustrated on Plate 12, Part III, is made of a fine 
cement composition and is painted white. The remains of 
gold-leaf show on some of the relieved portions. The figures 
are excellent, evidently having been modelled by some good 
artist. The mantel in the bedroom is of wood ; the orna- 
mentation being putty stucco. From the work of Bielefeld on 
papier-mache', I learn that the different materials for making 



the plastic ornaments at that date were putty, commonly used 
on mantels or flat work, where they were not carved in the 
wood (this is the materia! with which most of our Colonial 
work is ornamented), papier-mache, carton-pierre, cement and 
plaster. Carton-pierre was a composition of whiting, oil and 
paper, and was hard and easily polished, and I am inclined 
to the opinion that the parlor and dining-room manteP in 
the Tayloe House is of this material. The oldest cabinet- 
makers, and I have interviewed many of them in this section 
of the country, are entirely ignorant as to the method or 
composition of such ornaments, and books, with the excep- 
tion of the one men- 
tioned above, seems 
to have ignored the 
subject. Leading 
into the back hall 
^^^ and dining-room are 
two secret doors, in 
which the wash- 
boards, chair-boards, 
etc., run across the door, being ingeniously cut some distance 
from the actual door, no keyholes, hinges or openings show- 
ing on the blind side. The knobs and shutter-buttons are of 
brass. The roof has three rather peculiar trusses of the 
shape shown in the diagram, they and all timbers visible be- 
ing hewn. Two old cast-iron wood-stoves still stand in the 
niches prepared for them in the vestibule. 
Dr. William Thornton was the architect. 




■ ^30- 

Truss in Roof of Octagon. 



r--.^^ 



THE BRADDOCK HOUSE, ALEXANDRIA, VA. 
[Date, .752-1S25.] 

This building is interesting, as different portions of ir 
were built at three distinct dates, 1752, 1815, 1852. The 
first built was the mansion of John Carlyle, who was one of 
the board of trustees in the incorporation of Alexandria, 
1749. A description in the Lodge of Washington tells us 
that: "The surroundings of this structure have greatly 
changed since 1752. Then, a beautiful lawn extended sev- 
enty-five feet to Fairfax Street on its west front, and on 
the east side the grounds reached to the Potomac River, 
a distance of about two hundred yards, and across what 
are now Lee and Union Streets. Now, 1875 [same 1887] 
the old house is hidden from view, except on the east 
side, by the Mansion House Hotel," now called the Brad- 
dock House. The house has undergone many changes. 
The old staircase has been remodelled, all the rooms on the 
first and second stories, except what is called the Council- 
room, have been altered. All the doors and sashes have 
been replaced by new ones, except in the attic. 

In what is called the Council-room the following bit of 
history transpired: "The British Government, having de- 
termined to drive out the French and to destroy the power 
of the Indians, sent over in two ships of war under Admiral 
Keppel, who commanded the Meet, two crack regiments of 
the line [the 44th and 48th foot], the 44th commanded by 
Sir Peter Ilalket, the 48th by Colonel Dunbar. 

" These ships arrived at Alexandria late in the month of 
February, 1755, while the troops remained in encampment 
until late in April, and were joined by troops from the 
various Colonies, including two companies of rangers from 
Alexandria and its neighborhood. On the 14th of April, 
General liraddock, with Admiral Keppel, held a council 
with the executive of Virginia, Governor Dinwiddle ; Mary- 
land sent Governor Sharpe ; Massachusetts sent Governor 

' The dates upon these mantels show that whatever may have been 
the date of the building they at least were made in London in I7QQ.— 
Ed. 



30 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



Shirley; New York sent Governor De Lancey ; and Pennsyl- 
vania sent Governor Morris. Washington was summoned 
from Mount Vernon, and was presented to the council with 
great formality. By his dignified deportment and great good 
sense, he made a fine impression, Governor Shirley character- 
izing him as a model gentleman and statesman." 

The Council-room, with the exception of doors and sashes, 
is apparently intact. The walls are all panelled, and all the 
ornamental work is carved in wood. In some places where 
the paint has been rubbed off the wood is shown to be hard 
southern pine. All the panels e.xcept one are perfect, — 
neither shrunken nor split. I have illustrated the panelling, 
cornice, doorway, mantel, etc., from the Council-room.' 

Braddock was a guest of John Carlyle before his disastrous 
failure and death in the West. Mr. William Herbert, who 
married Carlyle's daughter between 1800 and 181 5, built a 
banking-house on the northwest corner of the Carlyle yard 
for the Alexandria Bank, of which he was president from 
1798 to 1818, when he died. The funds of the bank were 
deposited in the vaults of the Carlyle mansion during its 
erection. Tlie vaults still remain. 

I have also illustrated a mantel and doorway from this 
bank. 

In 1852 the structure was completed as it now stands, by 
connecting the old buildings and cutting the Carlyle man- 
sion off from the street, and adding two or three stories to 
the bank, and used as a hotel under the name of Green's 
Mansion House. The latter part of the building has nothing 
of interest attaching to it. 

During the late Civil War the building was occupied by 
the United States Government as a hospital, and is now used 
as a hotel under the name of the Braddock House. 



■iss^ 




f 



\ 



GADSHV'S TAVERN, ALEXANDRIA, VA. 
[Date, J 793.] 

In tliis building are found many items of inter- 
est, both from an architectural and a historical 
standpoint. It was erected in 1793, when Alex- 
andria was a flourishing town, probably one of 
the most prosperous in the country. It was built 
by John Wise, a noted tavern-keeper in those 
days. The announcement of the opening of this 
hotel may still be seen in a Virginia Gazette oi 
1793." Here the most prominent people of the 
day were feasted and feted. In 1796 a banquet 
was given there by the Alexandria Washington 
Lodge of Masons. It was also a favorite place 
for assemblies, or balls, as we should call them 
now. A book called " Tlie Lodge of Washington " 
tells us that at a ball given at the Gadsby Tavern 
ary, i 798, Washington parti- 
A i.esser Light cipated, by his presence, in celebrating his own 

of Washingioii , . . , . . ^ , . . 

Loctee: used at birthday. A portion of the nnisician s gallery in 

the I'uneral of ,, . , ,, . , • tm -.^ 

George Wash- Ihis ball-room IS shown 111 Plate 9, Part I. This 
ingion. gallery is not supported by posts from the floor, 

where they would interfere with the dancers, but is bung from 
the ceiling. 

Alexandria was probably the first place to celebrate 
Washington's birthday. The ceremonies usually consisted 
of a parade by the military, and a birthnight ball. Assem- 
blies were given regularly by the Washington Society of 
Alexandria, "attended by the beauty and fashion of the 
J Plate 18, i'art III. ' 



^ dlStick. ^ ' on t'lc 2 2d of Febru 



Managers. 



town." The following autograph letter is still preserved in 
the Lodge rooms: 

Mount Vkrnon, 12 Nov., 1799. 

Gentlemen: 

Mrs. Wartiington and I have been honored with your 
polite invitation to the affemblies in Alexandria this winter, 
thank you for this mark of your attention. But alas! our 
dancing days are no more. We with, however, all thofe 
who relifh fo agreeable and innocent an amufement all the 
pleafure the feafon will afford tiiem. 

Your moft obedient and obliged humble fervant. 

Go. Washington. 
Geo. Deneale ] 
William Newton | 
Robert Young 
Chas. Alexander 
James H. Hooe j 

The rooms where the Alexandria Assemblies held their 
meetings are now a part of what is known as the City Hotel, 
and they were built some years before the portion known as 
Gadsby's Tavern, probably about 1780. Tiie interior door- 
way shown on the plate is taken from this portion of the 
building. 

I quote the following bit of history in connection with this 
hotel from the "Recollections of Washington" by G. W. P. 
Custis: 

" It was in November of the last days, that the General 
visited Alexandria upon business and dined with a few 
friends at the City Hotel. Gadsby, the most accomplished of 
hosts, requested the General's orders for dinner, promising 
that there was a good store of canvas-back ducks in the 
larder. 'Very good. Sir,' replied the chief, 'give us some of 
them with a chafing-dish, some hominy, and a bottle of good 
madeira, and we shall not complain.' 

"No sooner was it known in town that the General would 
stay to dinner than 
the cry was for the 
parade of a new com- 
pany called the In- 
dependent Blues, 
commanded by Capt. 
Piercy, an officer of 
the Revolution. The 
merchant closed his 
books, the mechanic 
laid by his tools, the 
drum and fife went 
merrily round, and in 
the least possible time 
the Blues had fallen 
into their ranks and 
were in full march for 
headquarters. 

" Meanwhile the 
General had dined 
and given his only 
toast, ' All our 
friends,' and finished 
his last glass of wine, 
when an officer of the 
Blues was introduced who requested, in the name of Capt. 
Piercy, that the Commander-in-chief would do the Blues the 




Chair in Washington Lodge, Alexandria, Va., used by 
Ceo. W.ishingion when Worthy Master, 17S8-1789. 



2 Advertisement from the Virginia Gazette and Commercial AJvertiser. 
" City Tavern. 
" Sign of the Bunch of Grapes. 

"Tlie Subscriber informs his customers * * * that he has removed 
* * * to his new and elegant three story brick house, * * * which was 
built for a tavern and has twenty commodious and well-furnished rooms 
in it. where he has laid in a large stock of good old liquors and hopes he 
will be able to give satisfaction to all who will favor him with their cus- 
tom- John Wise. 

"Alexandria, Va., February 6, 1793." 



GADSBY'S TAVERN, ALEXANDRIA, VA. 



31 



honor to witness a parade of the corps. The General con- 
sented and repaired to the door of the hotel looking toward 
the public square, accompanied by Colonel Fitzgerald, Dr. 
Craik, and Mr. Herbert, and several other gentlemen. [This 
doorway was removed a few years ago from its original posi- 
tion and put up at a back entrance. See plate.] The troop 
went through many evolutions with great spirit and con- 
cluded by firing several volleys. When the parade was 
ended the General ordered the author of these recollections 
to go to Captain Piercy and ex- 
press to him the graiitication which 
he, the General, experienced, in the 
very correct and soldierly evolu- 
tions, marchings, and firings of the 
Independent Blues. Such com- 
, , „ ., _, mendation from such a source, it 

A Key of the Bastile presented to ' 

Washington Lodge by Lafayette, may well be Supposed, was received 

1825, weighed 5 lbs. -; 11 J r 1 ^ 1 .1 

With no small delight by the young 
soldiers, who marched off in fine spirits, and were soon after- 
wards dismissed. This was the last military order issued in 
person by the father of his country." The ne.vt historical 
event of interest connected with this house was the banquet 
to Lafayette by the citizens of Alexandria on his visit to 
this country in October, 1824. On his visit he brought his 
son, Geo. Washington Lafayette, with him. He was met by 




a long procession of citizens, old soldiers carrying old artil- 
lery and relics of Washington and the Revolution, all fully 
described in xk\e. Alexandria Gazette of Oct. ig, 1824. Robert 
E. Lee, then a boy, was a inarshal in this procession. The 
The hotel's name was changed for the third time, at this date 
being called Claggett's Tavern, from its host. "About 5 
o'clock the General [Lafayette] attended the public dinner at 
Claggett's Tavern, at which were present many distinguished 
gentlemen, among others the Hon. John Quincy Adams, Sec- 
retary of State, Commodores Rodgers and I^orter, General 
Macomb, Colonels Peyton and Harvie of the Yorktown Com- 
mittee, and several others." Ainong thirty toasts the first 
was " The memory of our late illustrious neighbor and fellow- 
citizen, Geo. Washington." On the 2 ist of February, 1825, 
the Lodge of Washington gave Lafayette a Masonic banquet 
at this hotel. The members present, the songs they sanc', 
the toasts they drank, the speeches they made, are all re- 
corded in the Lodge of Washington. Lafayette's toast was, 
"Greece, let us help each other." 

To about 1877 this building was used as a hotel, under the 
name of the City Hotel. Later it was used as an auction- 
house and storage-warehouse. I am indebted to the records 
of Alexandria Washington Lodge No. 22, for many of the 
facts mentioned as well as the privilege of making the 
sketches of relics of Washington. Glenn Brown. 




The Seventh-Day Baptist Church at Newport, R. I. 



THIS venerable edifice, for many years the place of 
worship of the Seventh-Day Baptist Society in 
Newport, some years ago passed by purchase into 
the hands of the Newport Historical Society, and 
is now occupied by that body as its cabinet and meeting- 
room. After long disuse, the building was re-opened to tiie 
public, with appropriate ceremonies, on the evening of No- 
vember 10, 1884. 

The church, when purchased by the Historical Society 
was found to be rapidly falling to decay, through long neg- 
lect and the action of the elements. A most thorough res- 
toration became necessary, in the course of which portions 
of the work were entirely replaced with new, the character 
and ancient detail being scrupulously adhered to. 

The Seventh-Day Baptist meeting-house, or churcii, as it 
is more generally styled, has a history of over one hundred 
and fifty years, having been erected in 1729. It demands 
more than a passing notice from the student of Colonial 
architecture for its venerable and sacred associations. Its 
structural and decorative features are thoroughly in unison 
with the best building practice of the second period of 
Colonial architecture, and are siiown in detail on Plate 20, 
Part I and the accompanying sketches made in the ciiurch 
itself, previous to its restoration. 

In the year 1678, Samuel Hubbard, one of the seven 
founders of the Sabbatarian Society in Newport, wrote to a 
friend in Jamaica, saying, "Our numbers here are twenty; at 
Westerly, seven ; and at New London, ten." From the 
diary of the same Samuel Hubbard we learn that the churcli 
was organized in 1671. The Society always claimed to be 



the oldest Sabbatarian and the fifth Baptist church in America. 
The first pastor was William Hiscox, who died May 24, 1704, 
in the sixty-sixth year of his age. Joseph Maxon was chosen 
to fill the office of travelling ])reacher for Westerly in Septem- 
ber, 1732, and in October of the same year he was made 
pastor of both the Newport and Westerly churches. The- 
Newport church, previous to the Revolution, maintained a 
strong and stirring organization: among its members were 
men reputable for their talents, learning and ability, and 
holding iionored stations in public affairs. The war scat- 
tered the congregation, and the church never recovered its 
former prestige. Henry Burdick wa'-, ordained pastor, De- 
cember 10, 1807. In 1808 the membership was reduced to 
ninety, and in 1809 to eighty-seven. The last pastor was 
Lucius Crandall. The records of the church terminate in 
1839, and the last sacred services were held in that year. 
The sole surviving member of the Society living when the 
church passed out of the hands of the Sabbatarian trustees 
was Mrs. Mary Green Alger, who died on the nth of Octo 
ber, 1884, at the age of ninet}'-tliree years, nine months and 
nine days, just one month previous to the dedication by the 
Historical Society. The church in the town of Westerly 
grew and prospered, and is still in a flourishing condition. 
Under the lilieral Chaiter and Constitution of Rhode Island, 
the towns of Westerly and Hopkinton have always recognized 
as holy the seventh instead of the first day of the week. It 
is a curious sensation to walk through the streets of those 
towns on a Sunday morning and hear the buzz of machinery 
and the various sounds of a striving and busy community. 
In 1706 the Sabbatarian Society purchased, in the then 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 




town of Newport, a lot of land, situated at the junction of 
what are now known as Spring and Barney Streets, from 
Jonathan Barney, for " twenty-one pounds, six shillings, 

and eight pence, cur- 
rent passable money 
at eight shillings per 
ounce silver." The deed 
was taken in the name 
of Arnold Collins, gold- 
smith, a member of the 
Society and the father of 
Henry Collins, a distin- 
guished citizen who took 
an active part in the af- 
fairs of the town and 
colony, and was one of 
the founders of the Red- 
wood Library, giving the 
land on which that build- 
ing stands. Two smaller portions of land were afterwards 
added to the church lot. 

At a meeting of the Society held November 9, 1729, it was 
voted "that a meeting-house be built, thirty-six feet in length 
and twenty-six feet in breadth, on part of that land whereon 
the present meeting-house now stands ; and voted at the 
same time that Jonathan Weeden and Henry Collins be 
appointed a committee to undertake the whole affair of erect- 
ing said house, and to raise money by subscription. Voted 
at the same lime that the two afore-mentioned brethren do 
their endeavors to make sale of their present meeting-house 
to the best advantage they can, and dispose of tiie money 
towards the better furnishing of the house they are to erect." 
The character of the first meeiing-iiouse is unknown, but 
it must have been a very simple affair. The house of 1729 
is the subject of this sketch. Like most of the Colonial 
buildings which I have measured, the dimensions overrun 
the established plan and instructions. The church measured 
thirty-seven feet front and twenty-seven feet deep, and all its 
parts and details are laid out with scrupulous exactitude with 
reference to symmetry and proportion. 

The exterior of the church is of the most severe and barn- 
like character ; with two rows of windows having plank 
frames, and with a shallow cornice, made up of a gutter and 
bed-mould, the latter mitreing around the heads of gallery 
window-frames. The entrance door has no features worthy 
of notice, and the steps are of Connecticut brown-stone, the 
usual material used for that purpose in Colonial work. 

The roof is a simple double pitch, the frame being of oak 
timber and shown on the sectional drawing. The tie-beams, 
hewn into curves, are curious instances of framing. All 
furring-down for the ceiling is dispensed with, and the lath- 
ing is nailed directly on the 4" x 4" furrings, which are 
tenoned between the tie-beams. 

All the timbers, with the exception of the tie-beams, are 
squared. The framing at the junction of the principals and 
tie-beams was badly conceived, and the hidden tenons rotted 
off, permitting the building to spread badly. In restoration 
it became necessary to insert two tension-rods and draw in 
the walls to their original vertical position. These rods run 
across the building at the line of the cornice. 

'J'he large drawings indicate the conscientious attention to 
detail which the Colonial mechanics were wont to bestow 
upon their works. The greater part of the inside finish is 
made of red cedar, jjainted white. All tiie members were 
wrought by hand, and the amount of curved and moulded 
work, including mitres, is extreme. 

While engaged in inaking the measurements preparatory 



to the restoration, I was struck by a coincidence which 
gradually developed as the work progressed. It has always 
been a mystery, unsolved by investigation, as to who designed 
Trinity Church in Newport. It was erected in the years 
1724-25, through the instrumentality of the English Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. The 
plans and instructions must have come from England, as it 
was not until some years later that architects of talent, like 
Peter Harrison, emigrated to the colonies. It is a free copy 
of Wren's church of St. James, Piccadilly, having the general 
character of that edifice, with, however, some strongly- 
marked differences. Instead of the row of Corinthian 
columns along the gallery, and supporting the vaulted ceil- 
ing, it has square and fluted piers, and the lower piers are 
much smaller, although panelled in the same way as those at 
St. James's. The ceiling is also difi'erent, substituting for a 
simple barrel-vault an elliptical andgroined system of vaulting. 

Whoever may have been its architect, the men who built 
Trinity church, in 1724-25, also built the Sabbatarian 
church, in 1729. It is not probable that an architect was 
employed for the latter edifice, but the section of every 
moulding and detail is the same in both structures, indicating 
the use of one set of hollow and round planes by the same 
hands. The designs of the galleries, piers and panelling are 
also the same. One feature in the Sabbatarian Church is, 
however, unique ; /. e., the pulpit stairs. These stairs, al- 
though partaking of all the characteristic features of the best 
domestic work of the day, are richer in detail and are more 
delicately wrought than in any other staircase of the time 
with which I am familiar. The staircase in Trinity Church 
is of a much simpler design, and the one in the Christopher 
G. Champlin house, the best domestic example in Newport, 
sliows much less elaboration. 

The panelling under the sounding-board of the Sabbatarian 
Church is the same as that on the ceiling over the warden's 
pew in Trinity Church, and the small pedestal on the sound- 
ing-board was surmounted by an English crown, probably of 
the same character as the one still remaining on the organ 
of old Trinity. 

The tablets on the wall bac'ic of the pulpit, and shown on 
drawing, were presented to the Society by Deacon John Tan- 
ner, in 1 773. The lettering is still clear and bright, with scrolls 
in the arched tops. Below the Decalogue appears the follow- 
ing text from Romans III, xxi : "Do we then make void the 
law through faith? God forbid; yea, we establish the law." 

There is a legend that when the English army took oosses- 




NoTE. — The tie-beams are of rough-hewn timber, curved by the axe, 
scarfed in centre. The iron straps are roughly forged and the boltswhich 
secure them to the king-post are simply driven through, the ends turned 
over and keyed. The timber is all of oak. The furrings for ceiling are 
about 4" X 4'' and tenoned into the tie-beams at each end. The lathing is 
dir -ctly on the furrings. Eacli principal runs down to a feather end, but 
is tenoned into the tie beam and pinned. The building spread badly, and 
in its restoration iron tension-rods were put in between the plates. 

sion of Newport, in 1777, and desecrated all the places of 
worship, except Old Trinity and the Sabbatarian Church, by 
using them for riding-schools and hospitals, the latter edifice 



SEVENTH-DAY BAPTIST CHURCH, NEWPORT, R. I. 



33 



was saved and guarded through respect for the Decalogue 
and the royal crown found within its walls. 

The clock, forming the initial cut of this article, hangs on 
the face of the gallery, between the two central piers, facing 
the pulpit. It was made by William Claggett, a celebrated 
horologist of his day in Newport. The clock in the tower of 
Trinity Church was also made by him, and many of the tall 
clocks, with sun, moon, stars and signs of the zodiac, fre- 



quently found in the possession of old families, bear his 
name. The church clock has been repaired and is again 
marking the hours, not of long and prosy sermons dealing 
with colonial brimstone, which seems to have been a very 
prominent article in the faith of our ancestors, but striking 
hour after hour the onward march of Newport's history, 
down from the eventful and romantic past, into the unknown 
future. Geo. C. Mason, Jr. 




Six Hours in Salem, Massachusetts. 





On Gallows Hill. 

HE materials for the accompanying drawings 
and sketches, and the following facts, rela- 
tive and irrelevant thereto, were collected 
by the present writer and a friend in a six- 
hour-long visit to Salem, supplemented by a short preliminary 
cramming at the Boston Library on the evening previous 
thereto. In so short a time, and with imperfect facilities 
(our only instruments were note-books, rules and pencils, and 
a kodak camera), it is perhaps presumptuous to suppose that 
much of fresh interest or of permanent value could be gath- 
ered in a field already so well harvested by such men as 
Arthur Little, Frank Wallis and others not less competent, 
but it so happened, partly by accident and partly also from 
design, that we devoted our attention principally to houses 
not treated before. In so doing we have hoped not only to 
escape comparisons, sure to be disastrous, but also to aug- 
ment, in some slight degree, the sum total of drawings and 
documents pertaining to Colonial architecture in America. 

In the popular mind, .Salem is so indissolubly associated 
with the idea of witchcraft that in any article on the subject, 
however practical its nature or prosaic its style, it would be 
impossible not to refer in passing to that insane delusion, the 
horrid and bloody results of which have made the town 
famous not in the history of the country merely but in that 
of humanity at large. Indeed, the tragedy enacted there two 
centuries ago colors the life of the place to-day, and. like 
a murderer's conscience, clamors fur recognition. There is a 
sinister something in the names one hears, such as the " Witch 
House" and "Gallows Hill"; the very word "witch," which 
once struck terror to brave hearts, is used now by tradesmen 
to enhance the value of their wares. In the court-hou<'e are 
still to be seen the documents relating to the trials, and ob- 
jects used as evidence; among them the " witch pins " with 
which the accused w..;re supposed to have tormented their 
victims. On the corner of Washington and Lynde Streets 
we came upon a black bronze tablet bearing the following 
inscription : — 

" Nearly oppofite this fpot flood, in the middle of the flreet, 
a building devoted from 1677 until 17 18 to municipal 
and judicial ufes. In it, in 1692, were tried and con- 
demned for witchcraft mod of the nineteen perfons who 
fuffered death on the gallows. C}iles Corey was here 



put to trial on the fame charge, and, refufing to plead, 
was taken away and prelTed to death. In January, 1693, 
twenty-one perfons were tried here for witchcraft, of 
whom eighteen were acquitted and three condemned, but 
later fet free, together with about 150 accufed perfons in 
a general delivery which occurred in May." 

It was like encountering a funeral on the street, and, 
hurried and preoccupied as we were, we could not but pause, 
and try to realize, if only for an instant, the terror which 
ruled the community when husbands accused wives, and 
children parents, and safety lay neither in wealth nor station 
— least of all in innocence — and fear and cowardice passed 
like a pestilence from heart to heart. 

In reading over the reports of the witch trials one is af- 
flicted by a feeling of something uncanny in it all, and is 
tempted to believe in witchcraft — obsession by evil spirits, 
and the rest ; but time has strangely reversed the positions of 
accuser and accused, for now it is the judges who appear to 
be the vehicle of the diabolic will, so blind and implacable 
they seem — so intent on having the blood of their victims. 
A single instance will suffice to illustrate this: One of the 
afllicted girls declared that Sarah Good, then on trial, had 
cut her with a knife and broken the blade in her flesh. Search 




kering House. 



was made, and, sure enough, the blade was found on Sarah's 
person. .\ young man, thereupon, arose and exposed the 
fraud. He produced the remainder of the knife, and told 
how he had thrown the broken blade away in the presence 
of the girl; but the Court, instead of admitting his evi- 
dence, dismissed him with an admonition not to tell lies 
and continued the taking of testimony. What wonder that 



34 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



justice such as this wrung from Martha Corey the pathetic 
protest : " You are all against me and I cannot help it ! " 

Next to its having been the centre of the witchcraft de- 
lusion, Salem is perhaps most famous as the birthplace of 
Nathaniel Hawthorne and the supposed scene of many of his 




Custom-House. 

romances. The house where he was born, and others in 
which he lived at various times, may still be seen by the 
curious visitor, and so intermingled do the real and the ideal 
become with the lapse of time that one of the principal 
"objects of interest " is a house supposed to have been the 
original of the " Seven Gables," though there is little or no 
evidence in support of such an assumption. Whatever may 
have once been its condition, it certainly tallies ill with Haw- 
thorne's description ; and of gables we counted only two. 
The Pickering house came much nearer our own ideal — 
even to the magnificent old elm before the door. These two 
are about the only remaining examples of the many and 
steep-gabled houses built here in the middle of the seven- 
teenth century, in evident imitation of the Gothic half- 
timbered cottages of England. 

We visited the Custom-house, where Hawthorne served a 
term in the capacity of Surveyor of the Port, an experience 
which he subsequently immortalized in his introduction to 
the " Scarlet Letter." The place looks to-day exactly as he 
there describes it : — 

" In my native town of Salem, at the head of what, half a 
century ago, in the days of old King Darby, was a bustling 
wharf, — but which is now burdened with decayed wooden 
warehouses, and exhibits few or no symptoms of commercial 
life; except, perhaps, a bark or brig, half way down its 
melancholy length, discharging hides; or, nearer at hand, a 
Nova Scotia schooner pitching out her cargo of firewood, — 
at the head, I say, of this dilapidated wharf, which the tide 
often overflows, and along which, at the base and in the rear 
of the row of buildings, the track of many languid years is 
feen in a border of unthrifty grass, — here, with a view from 
its front windows adown this not very enlivening prospect, 
and thence across the harbor, stands a spacious edifice of 
brick. From the loftiest point of its roof, during precisely 
three-and-a-half hours of each forenoon, floats or droops, in 
breeze or calm, the banner of the Republic; but with the 
thirteen stripes turned vertically, instead of horizontally, and 
thus indicating that a civil, and not a military, post of Uncle 
Sam's Government is here established. Its front is orna- 
mented with a portico of half a dozen wooden pillars support- 
ing a balcony, beneath which a flight of wide granite steps 
descends towards the street. Over the entrance hovers an 
enormous specimen of the American eagle, with outspread 
wings, a shield before her breast, and, if I recollect aright, a 
bunch of intermingled thunderbolts and barbed arrows in 
each claw." 

Fresh from a reperusal of Hawthorne's description of his 



life there, we tried to imagine him as still an incumbent of 
the post, going about his accustomed duties, and we almost 
duped ourselves into believing that we would see his familiar 
figure within each newly opened door. There was little to dis- 
courage such a fancy. For aught that we could see, he might 
have left there only yesterday. The same superannuated 
sea-captains, apparently, slouched about the corridors, calling 
one another " Cap," and discussing the last or coming "clam, 
fry," just as they did when Hawthorne passed among them 
like a prince disguised among his poor, — he alone conscious 
of his rank and power, and waiting till the time came to 
declare it. One of the above-mentioned dignitaries showed 
us the window at which Hawthorne worked, and the chamber 
in which he found the scarlet letter (if he ever found it, ex- 
cept in a chamber of his brain), in a manner which showed 
it to be an accustomed service. 

The building itself, erected about the beginning of the 
century, impressed us as a fine example of later Colonial 
architecture, full of dignity and repose, and, though scarcely 
larger than some of the houses with which it is surrounded, 
expressing in unmistakable and appropriate terms its character 
and office. 

Hawthorne is by no means the only illustrious son of 
Salem. Prescott was born here ; here Roger Williams taught 
and preached, and Count Rumford kept a store. Wash- 
ington and Lafayette both visited the little town in the 
stirring Revolutionary days, and almost all of the presidents 
since. It is said that the first armed resistance to British 
authority occurred at the North Bridge in an engagement 
known as "Leslie's Retreat." In the war of 1812 the battle 
between the. '■^ Chesapeake" and the '■'■Shannon" was fought 
off the shore of Salem, and was witnessed from the hills by 
the townspeople. 

But more interesting to us than the town's history were the 
lovely old houses of which it is built up. 

We had come to see them and to this purpose we devoted 
our remaining time. To the mind of an architect the build- 
ings of Salem arrange themselves naturally into three classes : 
First, those very old houses, built by early settlers in the most 
primitive times, possessing all the dignity and simplicity and, 
withal, the barrenness of the Puritan character, and around 
which cluster many strange, true histories and curious tradi- 
tions ; second, those built in later Colonial and Revolutionary 
days, usually by rich merchants and ship-owners, when Salem 
had become a principal port of entry, and an important com- 
mercial centre, and in which the Colonial style is exhibited 
in its very flower ; and third, those purely modern structures 

— confused, chaotic — 
which have sprung up in 
profusion in some parts of 
the town, like weeds in an 
old-fashioned garden. 

The very oldest house 
of all, as well as the most 
famous, is the Roger Wil- 
liams house, on the corner 
of Essex and North 
Streets. The exact date 
of its building- is not 
known, but it cannot be 
far short of three centu- 
ries ago, for in 1675 the 
chimneys had to be taken down and rebuilt. It again suf- 
fered alteration in 1746, and now a vulgar little modern 
drug-store grows out of its withered old side, like some ex- 
crescence, indicative of age and disease and swift-coming dis- 
solution. The western portion, with its quaint, overhanging 




A Salem Back-yard. 



SLY HOURS IN SALEM. 



35 



second story, is almost all that remains of the original 
structure, but from it, in imagination, one may reconstruct 
the whole. 

In 1635 this house was the home of Roger Williams, and 
from it he was driven by Puritanical intolerance to seek 
shelter among the Indians at Narragansett Bay, where he 







Pingrec House. 

founded the State of Rhode Island, as every school-boy 
knows. In a letter to his friend, Major Williams, he thus 
refers to the event which drove him thither : 

" When I was unkindly and unchriftianly, as I believe, 
driven from my houfe and land and wife and children (in the 
midfl of a New England winter, now about thirty-five years 
part) at Salem, that ever honored Governor, Mr. Winthrop, 
privately wrote to me to fleer my courfe to the Nahigonfet 
Bay and Indians for many high and heavenly and publike 
ends encouraging me from the freenes of the place from any 
Englifh claims or patents. I took his prudent motion as an 
hint and voice from God, and waving all other thoughts and 
motives I fleered my courfe from Salem (through winter fnows 
which I feel yet) into thefe parts where I may fay Peniel, that 
is, I have feene the face of God." 

The house passed then into the possession of Captain Rich- 
ard Davenport, whose administrators sold it in 1675 to Jona- 
than Corwin, notorious as being one of the two magistrates 
before whom were tried and condemned those first persons, 
"charged with certain deteflable arts called witchcraft and 
forceries wickedly and felonioully ufed, practifed and exer- 
cifed by which the perfons named were tortured, afflicted, 
pined, confumed, wafted and tormented." The preliminary 
examinations of some of the accused are said to have taken 
place in a room of the old house, and this circumstance has 
given it the name of the " Witch House," by which it is best 
known. 

In rummaging over some old files of the Essex Institute 
Bulletin in the Boston Library I came upon a transcript of 
the contract between Corwin and one Daniel Andrewe for 
remodelling the house. I give it here entire. As an ex- 
ample of an early specification, it will be seen to possess all 
the diffuseness and obscurity common to such documents at 
the present time : 

"The faid Daniel Andrewe is to dig and build a cellar as 
large as the eafterly room of faid houfe will afford (and in 
the faid room according to the breadthe and length of it) not 
exceeding fix foot in height; and to underpin the porch and 
the remaining part of the houfe not exceeding one foot ; the 
faid kitchen being 20 feet long and 18 feet wide; and to 
make fteps with flones into the cellar in two places belong- 
ing to the cellar, together with flone fleps up into the porch. 
2. For the chimney he is to take down the chimneys which 
are now ftanding, and to take and make up of the bricks 
that are now in the chimneys, and the (tones that are in the 
lean-to cellar that now is, and to rebuild the faid chimney 



with five fireplaces viz : two below and two in the chambers 
and one in the garret; alfo to build one chimney in the 
kitchen with ovens and a furnace, not exceeding five feet 
above the top of the houfe. 3. He is to fet the jambs of 
the two chamber chimneys and of the eafternmost room 
below with Dutch tiles, the faid owner finding the tiles; alfo 
to lay all the hearths belonging to the faid houfe and to 
point the cellar and underpinning of fd. houfe and fo much 
of the hearths as are to be laid with Dutch tiles the faid 
owner is to find them. 4. As for lathing and plaiftering he 
is to lath and fiele the four rooms of the houfe betwixt the 
joifts overhead and to plaifter the fides of the houfe with a 
coat of lime and haire upon the clay; alfo to fill the gable 
ends of the houfe with bricks and to plaifl:er them with clay. 
5. To lath and plaifter the partitions of the houfe with clay 
and lime and to fill, lath and plaifler the porch and porch 
chambers and to plaifter them with lime and haire belides; 
and to fiele and lath them overhead with lime and to fill, 
lath and plaifter the kitchen up to the wall plate on every 
fide. The faid Daniel Andrewe is to find lime, bricks, clay, 
ftone, haire together with labourers and workmen to help 
him, and generally all the materials for effefting and carrying 
out of the aforefaid worke, except laths and nails. 7. The 
whole work before mentioned is to be done, finifhed and 
performed att or before the lart day of Auguft next following 
provided the faid Daniel or any that work with him be not 
lett or hindered for want of the carpenter worke. 8. Laftly, 
in confideration of the aforefaid worke, fo finiflied and ac- 
complifhed as aforefaid, the aforefaid owner is to pay or 
caufe to be paid unto the faid workmen the fumme of fifty 
pounds in money current in New England, to be paid at or 
before the finiftiing of the faid worke. And for the true per- 
formance of the premifes, we bind ourfelves each to other, 
our heyeres, executors and adminiftrators, firmly by thefe 
prefents, as witneffe our hands, this nineteenth day of Feb- 
ruary, Anno Domini 1674-5 

Jonathan Corwin 
Daniel Andrewe " 

The meeting-house in which Roger Williams used to preach 
— the first for congregational worship built in America — has 
been carefully restored and preserved, and stands now in the 
rear of the Essex Institute. The frame is about all that 
remains of the original building.^ It is so small that a person 
reaching forward from the front of the gallery might touch 
the extended hand of the minister behind the desk. It is 
used as a repository for many curious relics, among them 
Hawthorne's desk, at which the " Scarlet Letter" was written, 
or at least begun. 

The Pickering house, before alluded to, is also of great 
antiquity, having been built in 1651 by John Pickering, and 
inhabited ever since by his direct lineal descendants. For 
this reason, perhaps, it betrays few evidences of the ravages 

of time. There are other 
houses in Salem, built 
about the sametime, which, 
though interesting histori- 
cally, present few attrac- 
tions to the lovers of ar- 
chitectural beauty. It was 
for those built about the 
year 1800 that we reserved 
our admiration and our 
lead-pencils — great square 
structures, usually of brick 
and stone, with wooden 
cornices and porches. One 
of them, typical of the whole class, especially arrested our at- 
tention by the beauty of its proportions and detail. Standing 

' During the current year Mr. Eben Putnam has brousht forward an 
elaborate argument, which seel<s to show that this cherisfied relic is not 
the first meeting-house erected in 1634 and that, even if it is the earliest 
church building in Salem, still earlier churches were erected — the 
Hoston and Camdridge churches in 1632 and the Dorchester church in 
1633.-- Kd. 




Typical Salem Frame House. 



36 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



a little back from the street, and apart from its neighbors 
on either side, it displayed a fagade plain almost to barren- 
ness, but so well fenestrated and divided horizontally by broad 
bands of brickwork at each floor-level as to quite fill and 
satisfy the eye. This wall was finished with a well-propor- 
tioned cornice, and this, in turn, surmounted by a delicate 
balustrade. The only other bit of ornament consisted in one 
of those dainty and beautiful semicircular porches before the 
entrance, of which we saw so many in Salem. Through 
the courtesy of its occupants, we obtained admission to this 
house, and made drawings of much of its interior woodwork, 
which was both rich and refined. It was while so engaged 
that we first learned that the house had been the scene of one 
of the most horrible murders in all the history of crime, known 
at the time of its committal as the " Salem Murder," and 
celebrated alike for its cold-blooded brutality, the high posi- 
tion of many of the individuals concerned, and the singular 
succession of fatalities which accompanied and followed it. 
The facts are, briefly, these : 

In a room of the old house, on the night of the 6th of 
April, 1830, Capt. Joseph White, a rich and respected citizen 
of Salem, was stabbed and beaten to death, as was alleged, 
by his nephews, George and Richard Crowninshield, and an 
accomplice, in order, it is supposed, to obtain possession of 
the old man's will. When the crime was discovered, the 
whole countryside was aroused, a great public meeting 
held, and the murderers hunted down and apprehended. 
In the trials which followed, some of the greatest lawyers in 
the country participated, among them Daniel Webster and 
Samuel Hoar. The jury failed to agree, and so the trials 
came to nothing ; but they were full of startling and dra- 
matic incidents. Chief Justice Isaac Parker, immediately 
after delivering his charge to the jury, fell forward, dead, 
and one of the Crowninshields killed himself in jail while 
waiting trial. The other, Richard, was the inventor of some 
of the most intricate machinery used in the factories of New 
England to-day. 

This tale, when we heard it, somehow dampened our archi- 
tectural ardors. At this window, we reflected, where now 
the sun streamed so brightly in, the assassin entered; these 
floors creaked warningly beneath his stealthy feet, and then 
were treacherously still ; this spotless white woodwork had 
been crimsoned by the old man's blood ; these walls resounded 
with his dying groans. We did not care to linger after 
that, but tiptoed down the broad stairs and through the 



still hall out into the welcome noise and glare of Essex Street. 

The Essex Institute was just next door, and we spent half 
an hour very pleasantly in the museum, where there are many 
pieces of fine old furniture and woodwork taken from houses 
now destroyed, \^'e found fine furniture, also, in the house 
of Major George Whipple, and the first " Salem cupboard " 
that we had ever seen. 

A little beyond the Essex Institute is the armory of the 
Salem Cadets, a stately old house built by Col. Francis Pea- 
body in 1818. Its front is diversified by two segment-shaped 
bays, in this respect a departure from the usual Salem type, 
though a common feature of many old houses in Boston. 
The interior is more than ordinarily grand, one room con- 
taining a white marble mantel with carved caryatides. OflE 
of the stair-landing is a banqueting-hall finished in oak in 
Elizabethan Gothic, where, we are told by the guide-book, 
" Prince Arthur of England was entertained at dinner on the 
occasion of his attending the funeral of George Peabody, 
the banker, February 8, 1870." This rich, dark, elaborate 
interior is in startling contrast to the trim white Colonial 
finish of the rest of the house. 

We left Salem for Boston about three in the afternoon, 
with such feelings of regret as must have been Sinbad's on 
quitting the Valley of Diamonds, for, to our unaccustomed 
Western eyes, the place seemed a veritable mine of archi- 
tectural wealth. The permanent impression left with us by 
our hasty visit was of an exceedingly quaint and picturesque 
old town, striving here and there to be "smart "and modern, 
like some faded spinster who has seen better days, who mis- 
takenly prefers our shoddy fabrics to the faded silks and 
yellow lace and other heirlooms of an opulent past. The old 
houses which we visited, as redolent with memories of other 
days as a rose that has been kissed and laid away, awoke in 
us a mood of pleasant melancholy full of vague guesses and 
conjectures. It was as though the houses themselves were 
trying to communicate to us their secrets, and had half suc- 
ceeded. They seemed, indeed, human in a way that modern 
houses never do — like the Colonial dames, their mistresses 
— trim, plain and a bit prudish in outward appearance, but 
interiorly beautiful, full of fine and delicate sentiment. This 
comparison, fanciful perhaps, is yet applicable to the old 
houses of the South, which occupy their acres more invit- 
ingly, with iess restraint, and are, altogether, more charming 
outwardly, yet, within, are not without a certain strain of 
coarseness. Claude Fayette Bragdon, 



The Relation of Georgian Architecture 
to Carpentry. 





t^.t^Pt-ag' Milan • •'•• ,:J^*iiiv ' 

liN II lliii ;:iiii; till III li 



SMALL need is there for any one to be at pains to It might almost be said that the history of English domes- 

prove the importance of timber-work as an element tic architecture has been a record of the progressive rejection 
in English domestic architecture. The very paucity of timber. To-day we are wiihin easy distance of building 
of our evidences of the earlier methods of British houses in which there is no timber at all; we have certainly 
house-building is in itself a testimony to the prevalence of achieved the power of dispensing with wood as a construe- 
wood as the principal means of construction. The students tive element, and, indeed, we exercise this power to such an 
of mediffival architecture sometimes wonder why it is that the extent that there are houses of which it could be claimed 
subjects offered for their consideration are nearly always that they contain no wood except such as is there for decora- 
churches, sometimes 
castles, and but sel- 
dom houses. And 
the main reason for 
this disproportion- 
ate survival of relig- 
ious buildings is, no 
doubt, the simple 
fact that the Eng- 
lishman of the Mid- 
dle Ages, and in- 
deed of later times, 
though he associ- 
ated stone with his 
ideas of church- 
building, used tim- 
ber of choice and of 
necessity for the 
walls of his own 
house. Fire and 
old age have made 
clearance of these 
wooden homes, but 
have left the ma- 
sonry of the cathedrals. Even churches, as we know, were a door, apparently of mahogany, the other day which, its 
built of timber in the first days of British Christianity, and creator proudly declared, was mainly composed of a new 
if we can realize the fact that the primitive English places species of fireproof papier-mache! E^xcept on grounds of 
of worship were not only very stnall, but of very light wooden fire-prevention, this successful contest against the work of the 
construction, and perhaps without any foundations, we shall carpenter and joiner is a spectacle of the most melancholy 
appreciate the possibility of there being more human force kind — most melancholy and most modern. For, though the 
than miracle in the feat of .St. Dunstan, who, with a thrust of struggle has, in a sense, b-en going on through all the ages, 
his strong shoulder, corrected the orientation of a chancel the conclusion that wherever a substitute can be found for 
which did not duly face the East. wood it should be used in preference to it is a product of 

I 




Fig. 1. Godtrey House, Hollingbouriie, Kent. lUiilt 15S7: restored 185'^. 



tive purposes — and 
for doors. Our 
floors, our very 
roofs, we make of 
concrete and steel, 
our stairs are stone 
or concrete, our 
window-frames are 
iron or gun-metal, 
and, though one 
nwy enter a room 
which appears to 
have a wooden 
chimney-piece and 
a painted deal dado, 
the chances are that 
you will find the 
former to be cast- 
iron and the latter 
some composition of 
a s b e s t i c plaster. 
The wooden door, 
it must be owned, 
dies hard, but I saw 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 




entirely modern reasoning. Even in the days of the eigh- 
teenth century the verdict in the battle of materials was wont 
to go the other way. In fact, it might be stated as a general 
proposition that the architects of the Georgian period be- 
lieved in their inmost hearts that in spite of the rivalry of 
other materials, 
there was really in 
the long run nothing 
like wood. The ver- 
satile Dean Aldrich, 
in his Latin treatise 
on the elements of 
architecture, bids his 
readers, if they would 
secure a sound foun- 
dation, lay the foot- 
ings of their walls 
on trunks of trees; 
and those of us who 
are engaged in Lon- 
don architecture are 
aware that a fre- 
quent source of un- 
expected expense in 
street building is the 
necessity for cutting 
out of the old party- 
walls (under the per- 
emptory orders of a 

district-surveyor) the ''bond-timbers," without which our fore- 
fathers considered a brick structure incomplete. In fact, 
it would almost seem as if even a hundred years ago the 
builders of houses, while realizing the usefulness of brick and 
stone, were still scientifically convinced that, for real stability, 
unity and solidity in any fabric, timber was a necessity. 

But we must go back for a while and look at the antece- 
dents, in order that 
we may see what 
stages led up to that 
phase of English 
architecture which, 
when carried over- 
sea and translated 
into Colonial terms, 
took so kindly to its 
new climate, and 
seemed to find in 
the luxuriant timber 
supply of the New 
World not so much a 
need for any modifi- 
cation of its methods 
as an opportunity for 
fuller realization and 
development on the 
original lines. 

Timber construc- 
tion had taken sev- 
eral forms in l^ritish 

architecture. The most familiar, perhaps the most typical, 
form of timber exterior is that which presents itself in Chester 
and the neighborhood, and which we know as " half-timber- 
ing." Its structural origin is very simple : it consists of the 
primal elements of wooden formation. However wooden 
walls may be finished, they consist essentially of some form 
of framework which would not of itself exclude the weather. 



Wesley's Cottage, Rolvendcn Laytie, Kent. 




Fig. 3. Rawlinson Fa: 



having interstices between its structural posts. The neces- 
sary continuous solidity of the walls is secured either by 
filling these interstices or by covering the whole formation. 
In the case of the half-timbering it is the former method 
which is adopted. The posts, which are the elements of the 

fabric, are exposed 
and the intermediate 
spaces are filled-in 
with plastering. 
The richer and more 
elaborate examples 
of this much ad- 
mired, but some- 
times ^/art/-/-^', style of 
art are well known, 
and are fully illus- 
trated in the books 
which deal specifi- 
cally with this class 
of work. The speci- 
mens which I offer 
here in illustration 
of the subject are 
taken from less 
known buildings, 
and are chosen for 
their simplicity of 
style — there is noth- 
ing aggressively 
Jacobean or Elizabethan about them. They have no strong 
reminiscences of Gothic tradition, still less do they breathe 
the spirit of the New Birth. They are quiet evidences of 
straightforward Anglo-Saxon construction in a plain, honest 
Anglo-Saxon material. They are homes in fact. And what- 
ever there is about them of style is of that style which is 
merely the outcome of direct expression in handicraft. It 

is the style of the 
bench, not that of 
the study. They 
show craftsmanship, 
not scholarship. 
One of my illustra- 
tions, that of God- 
frey House, Holling- 
bourne, has an ascer- 
tained date. It was 
erected in 1587, and, 
strangely enough, 
has survived without 
hopeless disfigure- 
ment a restoration 
in 1859, a date at 
which restoration 
could still be unkind. 
This photograph 
with that of Wesley's 
cottage at Rolven- 
den Layne (Kent), 
exhibit the use of 
diagonal struts in the framing, which in some examples is 
found strongly developed, and in others is purposely, as far 
as possible, suppressed. Obviously there are conditions 
under which diagonals of this kind are a great source of 
strength in a construction which without them might suc- 
cumb disastrously to oblique pressure, but it is a curious fact 
that rural builders, who cultivated this picturesque method. 



ront View, Kolvenden, Kent. 



THE RELATION OF GEORGIAN ARCHITECTURE TO CARPENTRY. 



were sometimes very unmethodical in tlieir disposition of lath-work and renderinjj are carried right over the face of 

these elements of stability, and appear to have used at ran- the wooden posts. In this example will be seen an instance 

dom what one thinks should be a calculated force in the of the device common to most European town architecture of 

structural economy. wooden construction, the corbelling-out of the upper story in 

The two views (Figs. 3 and 4) of Rawlinson Farm, Rol- advance of that below. There are many good reasons for 

venden (Kent), give an example of the vertical method undis- this expedient, and its method of construction is extremely 



turbed by any 
diagonal features of 
design. Brick is, 
of course, employed 
for the chimneys in 
all these construc- 
tions and in the last 
example is even 
made use of for 
some of the walling, 
but the constructors 
have evidently felt 
that for general pur- 
poses the claims 
both of beauty and 
economy demanded 
the use of timber. 
The cottage at 
Martyr Worthing 
(Fig. 5), a very 
humble little build- 
ing, leads to the 
mention of a second 
method of filiing-in 




Fig. 4. Kawlinsoii Farm: Rear View, Rolvenden, Kent. 



simple. It will be 
understood that the 
carrying over of 
the upper wall-sur- 
faces not only pro- 
vides a shelter for 
passengers on the 
pavement, but is a 
great protection to 
the building itself. 
In any building in 
which such a treat- 
ment is applied to 
one story above an- 
other in several 
stages, it is obvious 
that the foundations 
are completely pro- 
tected from drip, 
and that each stage 
is shielded from wet 
by the stage above 
it. Another advant- 
age where land is 



between the posts of the framework — the use, namely, of valuable is that, while observing the frontage line at the street 



brickwork itself as a sort of subsidiary. This method is a 
strange reversal of our modern methods and modern ideas. 
The architect of to-day, who uses his half-timber work for its 
visible effect rather than for any constructional value, is 
wont, in England at least, to plant his limber framing (some- 
times rather thin framing, too) upon a hackwork of brick, 
thereby acknowl- 
edging to himself at 
least, if not to his 
public, that he looks 
to the brick for sta- 
bility, warmth and 
resistance to 
weather, and recog- 
nizes the wooden 
formation as a 
merely a;sthetic ad- 
junct. With the 
older generation the 
motif was reversed. 
Brick was well 
enough for a mere 
filling-in, but the 
strength was ex- 
pected from the 
timber. 

Another cottage 
(Fig. 6) exhibits yet 
another method of 

finishing the surface of a timber-built wall. The upper story 
is so plastered and colored as to produce the appearance of 
a uniform material. The plaster-work of the filling-in be- 
tween the beams is either quite flush with the face of the 




Fig. 5. Cottage at Martyr WortliiniL;, near Winchester, Hants. 



level, the owner gains a little added accommodation by 
enlarging his site, so to speak, at the upper levels. Need- 
less to say, the Vestries, Borough (,'ouncils and District 
Surveyors of modern cities are very chary of permitting such 
old-time methods of overhead trespass. 

The simplest method of effecting an overhanging wall of 

this description is 
to carry the floor- 
joists through the 
front wail, allowing 
them to project to 
the required dis- 
tance. On the end 
of these joists, 
which thus become 
can t i levers, i s 
placed the wooden 
framing which forms 
the front wall of the 
upper story, neatly 
finished off with a 
moulded fascia. 

One of the note- 
worthy facts in the 
history of pjiglish 
timber architecture 
is that, in spite of 
all the changes 
of passing styles 
and fashions, almost in opposition to them, it pursued its 
course as a natural vernacular and traditional craft, and thus 
retained a continuity unknown to the kindred arts of masonry 
and brickwork. The carpenter had a soul above foreign 



timber (as in the left-hand portion of the building) or is novelties, or, to put it more simply and, perhaps, more truth- 
brought so far forward, as in the right-hand gable, that the fully, he had about him a good British obstinacy, which 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 




Fig. 6. House at West Wycombe, Bucks, 



Fig. 7. The Butter Walk, Dartmouth. 





Fig. 8. Did House in Hooper Street, Dartmouth. 



Fig. 9. Detail of Window in the IJutter Walk, Dartmouth. 



THE RELATION OE GEORGIAN ARCHITECTURE TO CARPENTRY. 



5 



retarded the growth of innovation and kept alive the spirit tional conservatism to which Mr. IJionilieid alludes. Thanks 
of antiquity in his handiwork. Mr. Blomfield, in his ^'History to an almost divine protection which has saved many of 
of the Renaissance in England" gives full prominence to this these beautiful fabrics from the destruction which might 



important factor in 
the architectural de- 
velopments of our 
country. " The ear- 
lier examples of six- 
teenth-century car- 
pentry are," he says, 
"Gothic rather than 
Renaissance in 
character. The old 
methods in use by 
the excellent carpen- 
ters of the fifteenth 
century were regu- 
larly followed, and 
the gables, the over- 
hanging stories, the 
spurs or angle-posts, 
cusping and tracery, 
and many a detail of 
ornamentation show 
that, in spite of the 
changes that were 
imminent, the car- 




Fig. 10. Ttie liutter Walk, Dartmoutli. 



have seemed almost 
inevitable, it would 
be possible still to 
illustrate this part of 
the subject with a 
very large collection 
of reproductions 
from buildings still 
in existence. T h e 
few photographs 
here brought to- 
gether will be enough 
for our immediate 
purpose. Five of 
my examples (Figs. 
7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1) are 
from Dartmouth, a 
town which rivals 
Chester in its de- 
vices for obtaining 
the maximum 
amount of house- 
rooiTi over the pave- 
ment, and like 



penter followed the medincval tradition as faithfully as his Chester, though in a less degree, secures the result by the 

inferior skill would allow, and few things are more remark- erection of a colonnade above the sidewalk, thereby produc- 

able in the history of English art than the pertinacity of this ing a covered way. The houses in the Butter Walk (Figs. 7 

tradition." and 10) belong, I suppose, to the middle of the seventeenth 





Fijf. 11. House at Dartmouth. 



Fig. 12. Two Houses in the Higli Street, Exeter. 



The whole of the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods of century, and are certainly brilliant examples of an architect- 
English architecture must have been full of manifestations ure the style of which is much more easily defined by 
of street architecture exhibiting the principles of construe- geographical than by chronological limits. Its genius, one 
tion with which I have been dealing and the spirit of tradi- may say, is (Jothic : it is of a piece with the traditions of 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



that older England to which the whisper of the Italian 
awakening had not yet come ; nor can it be said that, while 
Gothic in structure, it is Classic in detail : certainly it offers 
here and there a passable "guilloche," and there is a hint 
in places of a dentil-course and a regulation beaded astragal, 
but the closer one looks the less evidence one finds of the 
proprieties of scholarship. That twining vine of the first- 
fioor frieze has about it an archaic freedom that might grow 
upon an " ambo " at Torcello, and the uncouth slab that sur- 
mounts the columns (who shall dub them Doric ?) is far more 
like the rude energy of Ravenna than any example to be 
found in the handbooks of Palladio or in the ^'Mirror of 
Architecture^ The sashes which have found their way into 
the top story and into the sides of the bay-window are, of 
course, interpolations, little bits of innovation already grown 
old. The two further Dartmouth examples (Figs. 8 and ii) 



in Figure 13, which I take to be a somewhat older house. 
To turn from Western England to Kent, we see once more 
what can be done with timber, and how long it may endure 
in the two examples which I have taken from Rochester. 
The designer of the house in Figure 14 must, I think, have 
produced an internal effect which it might be worth while to 
repeat in modern buildings. There has been in modern Eng- 
land a strife of architects over the subject of the function of 
windows, one extreme school holding that as the use of a 
window is to let in light, it is well to range the windows at 
a high level along the whole length of the window wall, the 
other arguing that the window's mission is to give the in-, 
habitant the means of looking out, and that, therefore, the 
sill must be placed so low down that the eye even of a per- 
son sitting well back in the room is not obstructed in its 
outward vision; a middle school, containing most persons of 





Fig. 13. Old Houses in the Ilitjll Street, Exeter. 



Fig (4. F.astgate House, Rochester, Kent. 



are evidently of the same period. They exhibit the same 
excellence of carving in the corbels which support the bay- 
windows, proof of the fact, which is sometimes overlooked, 
that alongside of an almost barbaric habit of sculpture in 
frieze-work and running ornament there existed in England, 
throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, a 
school of architectural carvers whose work had all the 
elements of rustic vigor and beauty. 

The West of England must have been especially rich in 
timber street-architecture. Even in Bristol, a town which is 
becoming rapidly modernized, there are side-streets close to 
the main thoroughfares that set one thinking of Shakespeare, 
and Exeter, a city not yet absorbed by the enterprise of the 
latter-day commerce, contains several houses of ancient date. 
The simpler of my two examples (Fig. 12) is a good specimen 
of that bow-window treatment, coupled with overhanging 
stories, which gains for the owner increased accommoda 
tion on each higher floor ; and the same thing is exhibited 



common sense, has realized that the window has, and always 
has had, both functions, and has, therefore, perpetuated the 
use of the ordinary normal window, which, while keeping a 
tow sill, gets what effect of breadth it can., without unduly 
absorbing the wall-space. I think that this Rochester win- 
dow would unite the demands of both disputant parties, not 
by the concessions of compromise (which imply a sacrifice 
on both sides, but by positively uniting the claims of both 
systems). In the other Rochester house (Fig. 15) we may 
admire the bravery which has abandoned symmetry. We 
have here an elevation marked out by three gables ; beneath 
them on both first and second floors are three bay-windows, 
but the designer thinking more of inward convenience than 
outward effect, or, perhaps, realizing, as few men realize in 
these days of drawing-boards, that a building in a street is 
not often seen in true orthographic elevation, has thrown his 
centrelines to the winds and produced a composition whose 
grace is no way marred by the neglect of vertical rhythm. 



THE RELATION OF GEORGIAN ARCHirECTURE TO CARPENTRY. 



These instances will have given point to the quotation 
from Mr. Blomfield"s book, and will have shown how it came 
about that the development 
which we know as Georgian 
architecture found the English 
builders steeped in the living 
traditions of centuries of lim- 
ber-construction. The import- 
ance of this as a factor in the 
success of that architeclure will 
be easily demonstrated. Mean- 
while, before turning into the 
Georgian period, let me offer 
just one more example of ear- 
lier work, the rather nonde- 
script but certainly picturesque 
little Cloth Hall at Newbury, 
which, at the time of writing, is 
about to be saved from ruin by 
a careful reparation. One 
would hardly guess from a first 
glance at the illustration (Fig. 
i6) how largely the building 
partakes of wooden construc- 
tion. A coating of cement has 
reduced the whole of the upper 
story to an appearance of uni- 
form material; but it becomes 
obvious as one studies the way 
in which that upper story is 
supported that though the end- 
wall, with its stone coping and 
solid "kneelers," is probably 
of brickwork, the side-walls, supported as they are by the 
wooden brackets shown in Figure 17 (and no doubt by con- 




Fig. 15. Houses in Rochester. Kent. 



framing.' The very base-wall, which the failure of the 
cement-facing reveals to be brick, is not of brick alone, but 

has a skeleton of timber, and 
I doubt not that the Doric col- 
umns (whose round abaci sug- 
gest the misinterpretation of a 
drawing) are of really con- 
structive value. I suspect that 
the cement labels are a mod- 
ern addition. 

There are many folks to 
whom it occurs to think that 
Georgian architecture consists 
of a rather meaningless addi- 
tion of scraps of Classical 
reminiscence to an otherwise 
rather commonplace method of 
house-building. They would 
tell you that the recipe for such 
Art was simply to design your 
building as nearly as possible 
in the form of a cube ; to place 
your doors and windows as 
symmetrically as may be ; to 
trim the latter with lengths of 
so-called " architrave " mould- 
ing; to deck the door with a 
flattened composition which 
might be a direct transcript 
from anybody's book on the 
Roman orders; to apply to 
the eaves any Classic cornice 
that happens to be adaptable, 
and to confine the internal decoration to the perpetration of 
yet one more theft from the architectural class-books, a set 





Fig. 16. Clolt) Hall, Newbury. 



Fig 17. (inckets: ( Im I 



of 



cealed floor-joists as well), must, undoubtedly, be of wooden of chimney-pieces which shall be mimic representations 

tl have confirmed this impr^ion^.y examininR one of the f ramTng. battened, hung with tiles and rendered with cement above 
walls since I wrote these remarks. The side-wall is of timber- the tiles. 



8 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



the temple-ruins in the Forum, and, in the United States, to 
paint the wooden walls yellow and the standing-finish white. 
Now, a very little thought and a very little study will show 
the unreasonableness of this taunt ; and there may be no 
harm in going for a while to the root of the matter. However 
much we may laugh at the theorists who see in every detail 
of Classic architecture the survival of some feature or other 
in a prehistoric wooden construction, there can, I think, be 
no question but that there must be some truth in the idea 
that the orders and their adjuncts are derived from wooden 
tradition. Obviously, wood preceded stone as the primitive 
material of human habitations. Obviously, a timber log 
makes a better and a longer beam than does a stone lintel ; 
obviously, under certain circumstances, a vertical trunk makes 
as good a post or column as can be made out of stone. In 
fact, from the point-of-view of primitive man, and for the 
purpose of immediate needs, setting aside durability and 




Fig. 18. House at Totnes, Soiilh Devon. 

permanence, wood is as useful a material for building as 
stone. We are, therefore, almost bound to look for a timber 
architecture as the logical and historical predecessor of ar- 
chitecture in stone, and, indeed, the more that study is given 
to the functional nature of the detail of the Classic orders 
the more does it become apparent that the shapes which 
have become so fixed and familiar can claim a reasonable 
derivation in wooden forms. Even if such a parentage be 
disproved, the converse of my argfument is, undoubtedly, 
true, and it is this converse truth that 1 atn here at pains to 
set forth. Perhaps the very best instance in point is that of 
the eighteenth-century application of the Classic cornice 
as the crowning-member of a Georgian gentleman's house. 
What did necessity demand ? A gutter, a covering for the 
heels of the rafters, and some collection of mouldings of 
receding section, which would effect the required amount 
of projection from wall-face to gutter, without allowing over- 
flow from the gutter to run down the wall-face. All these 



requirements you may fulfil without great expense, and with 
a good deal of refinement, by simp'y working in deal the 
regulation mouldings of the Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, or Corin- 
thian order. The cyma, whether you execute it in lead-lined 
wood or in metal, will give you your gutter, the fascia covers 
your rafter-heels, and the bed-mould, with or without trusses, 
according to the amount of projection required, neatly fin- 
ishes, and partly supports, the whole arrangement in a way 
which precludes the dribbling of water down the frontage. 

So, again, with the Georgian porch. The house-builder 
says to himself — "My walls are of brick and they are 14 or, 
may be, 18 inches thick. I cannot, for various reasons, form 
my doorway of entrance simply by making an aperture of 
7 feet by 3 feet through the wall, with a door hung in it. 
For one thing, brick is an unpleasant material to rub against 
in coming into the house, for another I want more depth 
thm my 14 or 18 inches will give me, so that a waiting 




Fig. 19. House on tlie Abbey Yard, Eatll. 

visitor on the doorstep may have some protection from sun 
and rain. To secure this I must apply wood or some such 
iTiaterial to my reveals, and I must contrive to bring this con- 
struction forward so as to stand in advance of the general 
wall-face, and so increase the shelter. Now, my projecting 
pattern must be roofed-in within something that slopes con- 
veniently to right and left ; there must, moreover, be no 
sharp angles about the projecting jambs of my shelter, and 
if I can get a semicircular fan-light over my door so much 
the better." 

As it happens, every one of these many conditions is 
fulfilled, and with scarcely an ounce of unnecessary material, 
by the severely Classical design which makes the elegant 
doorway shown in illustration No. 20. The ovolo-moulded 
panelling neatly clothes the jambs of the brick-opening, the 
columns provide a rounded surface at the very spot where 
angularity must be avoided, they also produce by their pro- 
jection from the general wall-face the additional depth of 



THE RELATION OF GEORGIAN ARCHITECTURE TO CARPENTRY. 



reveal required for additional shelter, and they carry as their 
crowning-feature a Roman pediment, whose lines present the 
very outline most convenient for discharge of rainwater. As 
a final touch of convenience it will be noted that the frag- 
ment of frieze and architrave between capital and cornice, 
so far from being a mere concession to Classical etiquette, 
offers just the amount of extra height required to make possi- 
ble the insertion of a legitimate semicircular arch, which be- 
sides its legitimacy has the merit of supplying the one 
remaining want — ■ a glimmer of light for the hall. The 
useful, they say, is synonymous with the beautiful. Here 
is a composition which fulfils a set of wants in every par- 
ticular. On this account it is, philosophically speaking, a 
thing of beauty; but, besides being this, it satisfies the mi- 
nutest requirements of the Classical amateur. It is, there- 
fore, doubly admirable ; trebly, I might even say, for h ho 



in the case of the Bath house is merely ornamental, though 
even here one might plead that the cornice protects the wall, 
and that the pilasters which support it are little more than 
the legitimate application of ornament to the piers be- 
tween the windows. In the Devonshire specimen the cornice 
has an added function, for it conveys across the frontage with 
considerable aplomb the transverse gutter, which would other- 
wise be a serious disfigurement of the aspect of the house. 
But my point in thus offering these two illustrations is that 
the use of the order and entablature which, in its stone treat- 
ment at Bath is a perfectly reasonable, commonsense, and 
beautiful employment of an Italian motif evolved from 
Roman antiquity, is in its wooden development at Totnes 
equally happy, equally congruous, and equally true. It is, 
in fact, still architecture and not mere decoration nor mere 
archa2ology. 





Fig. 20. Doorway at Newton Abbott. 



Fig. 21. Doorway at Dartmouth. 



will deny its claim to beauty on other and less secondary 
grounds. 

To what extent the genius of this Georgian architecture 
was a timber genius may be seen by comparing my examples 
numbered i8 and 19. The latter represents a house in Bath, 
the Ionic frontage of which is executed not in wood, but in 
the celebrated Bath stone, but the former — a street-house in 
Totnes (South Devon) — is, I believe, erected entirely 
in wood. It is a raiher curious fact that by an accident of 
selection both these examples do violence to the architectural 
canon that a columnar composition should have as its centre 
a void and not a solid. One is a group of three pilasters. 
the other one of five, but in spite of this fault, which to many 
eyes is a fault rather academic than real, it will be owned 
that both examples exhibit propriety and grace. To be quite 
honest one must acknowledge that the order and entablature 

' This cut, we regret to say, lias been lost by the plate-maker. 

Plates 6 and S of 1' 



Sometimes the Classicism of a Georgian house is so en- 
tirely coextensive with its joinery that the two seem almost 
synonymous. You may find a house the fabric of which is 
mainly brick, showing wherever it shows timber the culture 
of the Renaissance. Here are two graceful eighteenth cen- 
tury door-heads, which illustrate such a tendency, the one' 
is from Bristol, the other (Fig. 21) from Dartmouth. The 
shell in the former, which became so favorite a feature 
during the Georgian period, is, of course, no transcript of 
antiquity, but is a development, and a perfectly reasonable, 
logical and suitable development from Classic and Renais- 
sance ideas. It is legitimate design within the limits and 
under the genius of the adopted style. The happy evolution 
of such a feature is the kind of thing that serves to prove to 
those who balance inventive art against antiquarian, that 
architects can be at one and the same time conservative 

but as a substitute we will refer to the shell-hoods shown in 
art VIIl ante. — Kd. 



10 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



and progressive. Of the corbels which support the shell- and their inhabitants are ready to vouch for their warmth and 
head, one might say that they are lawful descendants of the dryness. How, it may be asked, can architecture of this de- 



Corinthian niodillion. The 
modillion's projection and 
depth have certainly been 
increased at the expense of 
its other dimension, but there 
are sound structural reasons 
for such a change, and the re- 
sult, instead of striking the 
beholder as a travesty on an- 
tiquity, appeals to him at once 
as being an adaptation of an 
ancient feature to modern 
needs, without loss of beauty, 
without loss of the ciiarms of 
traditional association. The 
Dartmouth door (22), that 
bears its date so bravely, is a 
simpler thing, nearer to type 
in some ways, farther from it 
in others. The use of the 
curved pediment is, of course, 
the adoption of the variation 
which the Italian architects 
iniroduced; as for the mould- 
ings, every one of them has its 
Classic ancestor, but the 
brackets or corbels are of an 
essentially British type. 
Brackets of closely similar 
design are extremely common 
all through England, and their 
origin, if one comes to look for it, is fairly obvious. This 
familiar form is nothing more, or less, than a representation 
in outline (without detail) of the 
Corinthian m o d i 1 1 i o n , including its 
(oliage. Under ordinary circum- 
stances, it would occur to most de- 
signers that if the carving of the 
modillion were too expensive for his 
present requirements, the natural 
course would be to use the scroll or 
volute element of the modillion 
or truss without the leafage, but this 
idea did not satisfy some of the car- 
penters of Georgian England, who 
preferred to cut out of board a figure 
which should be capable of at least 
casting a shadow similar to the 
grander article which expense for- 
bade. 

And now I am brought to my final 
examples, which will show, certainly 
in rather a humble way, how the 
simplest form of rural wood-architec- 
ture was able to carry with grace the 
ornaments and, to a large extent, 
the spirit of the gracious style of 
which we are treating here. In Fig- 
ures 22 and 23, one may see English 
wood-construction of the simplest 
type — a building whose timber-frame 
is outwardly protected by clapboards, 
or, as we generally call them in England, "weather-boards.' 




Fig. 22. Doorway near Goudhurst, Kent. 




Fig. 23. Doorway at Dorkinf;, 



scription lend itself without 
incongruity to the assumption 
of the Classical elegancies of 
Georgian building-craft? The 
answer, I suppose, is found 
even more readily in American 
Colonial Architecture than in 
the houses of England ; but 
we have our examples, too, 
and the little and unpreten- 
tious dwelling near Goud- 
hurst, exhibited in Plate 2, 
will serve to give proof to the 
main argument of this short 
essay, which is, to express it 
briefly, that the Classicism of 
Georgian architecture, its art, 
in fact, was intimately and 
congenially associated with 
wood as a building-material. 
The Englishman's love for 
timber had not always had 
free rein. There was a check 
at the end of the sixteenth 
century, a sort of timber-panic. 
Twice, at least, official reports 
were made to the officers of 
the Crown on the excessive 
consumption of timber in the 
Southern counties (chiefly in 
the iron-mills) and it is be- 
lieved that the regulation which followed this report led to 
the suppression of half-timber work in the Southern districts. 
Certain it is that the forests of Eng- 
land had been making, even in tiie 
course of a hundred years, alarming 
progress towards disappearance, and 
there was thought to be some ground 
for the fear that ship-building might 
be in danger. But a century later, 
these anxieties would seem to have 
abated. Half-timber, which gen- 
erally implies oak, was, indeed, no 
more ; brick was more largely adopted 
as the material of walls: but it is a 
fact that those very districts of Sur- 
rey, Kent and Sussex, in which the 
wood-panic had occurred, contain 
more examples than most parts of 
the country of the use of timber- 
fronts in Georgian work. Two new 
causes may have been already in 
operation, the importation of timber 
and the disuse of the South-country 
iron-works. 

I think that the house-carpenter 
has somehow lacked a poet to sing 
his praises, and even historians have 
rather allowed him to be over- 
shadowed by the mysterious mason. 
There can be little doubt that for 
centuries the carpenter was, in Eng- 



land, the great transmitter of tradition, the great artist in 
Such cottages abound in parts of Kent to the present day, construction, and a contriver of so high an order as to merit 



THE RELATION OE GEORGIAN ARCHITECTURE TO CARPENTRY. 



II 



the name of designer. He was a great man in Gothic 
times ; he was a great man still in Renaissance and Geor- 
gian times, and whereas the mason undoubtedly changed his 
personnel, occasionally being at one period and another a 
foreigner, introduced to carry out the new ideas from the 
Continent, whether Italian or Dutch, I expect that our friend 
the carpenter must have endured much less of foreign sub- 
stitution ; with the versatility of his craft he lent himself 



easily to the new modes (which were, in truth, such old ones)| 
and found with all the joy of an artist that these cymas and 
ovolos, flutes and astragals were the very things his tools 
were meant to work. He was without more ado at home with 
these bits of Rome and Greece. He worked, he prospered, 
and became the backbone of Georgian art. 

Paul Waterhousk, F. R. 1. B. A. 



IT would be very easy to show the justness of Mr. Water- 
house's line of reasoning by a reference to the work of 
the seventeenth-century carpenter in this country, for 
some of the still extant buildings built from 1640 on- 
wards show unmistakable evidence of the work of English 
carpenters, who had, of course, not yet felt the impulse of 
the Classic movement of the time of Anne and the Georges, 
but merely followed on new soil the traditions of English 
carpentry handed down from the times of the Gothic masters 
of the art. 

Half-timber work, pure and simple, was probably little used : 
wood was at hand, but bricks were not, and by the time 
native brick-yards were in operation the practice of all-wood 
construction had become commonly understood and habitual. 
Still, there is a kind of reminiscence of half-timbering in the 
brick-nogged wall so com- 
monly used for the north 
and east walls of old New 
England houses, though, as 
the outer face is covered 
with clapboards, like the 
other walls of the house, 
while the inner face is con- 
cealed behind lath and 
plaster, the presence of 
brickwork is no more sus- 
pected by most observers 
than it was in the case of the 
Cloth Hall at Newbury, 
mentioned above. 

In still another particular 
was English practice repeated in American houses, and 
though here no restricted site made it desirable for a builder 
to gain space in the upper stories by making them overhang 
the walls of the story below, yet the practice was very gen- 
erally followed, and we have houses like the Whipple house,' 
at Ipswich, Mass., and the Waller house,'- at Salem, for in- 
stance, where the upper siory overhangs the lower, more or 
less. The explanation is, simply, that the house-builders 
here followed the method of framing — a very logical method 
— to which they had been habituated in England. It has 
been very common to consider these overhangs as a recession 
from and modification of a custom tiiat certainly did prevail 
in the early block-houses and some of the semi-fortified dwell- 
ings where a considerable overhang was purposely given to 
the upper story, so that the door and window openings in 




old House, F.irmington, tji 



the lower walls might be commanded through loop-holes in 
the projecting part of the upper floor. Many an observer, 
haunted by a schoolboy belief that all overhanging floors 
were signs of former Indian strife, has vainly tried to under- 
stand how loop-holes cut in such slight projections could 
ever have commanded any savage standing close against the 
wall below : others, thinking themselves more intelligent per- 
haps, saw in these peculiarities of construction only another 
evidence of the universal conservatism of mankind, and 
smiled at the seeming unwillingness of the builders to con- 
fess in their work that, since Indian onslaught was no longer 
to be feared, there was no longer need to even indicate an 
overhang which had become abbreviated by atrophy. It 
took the patient examination that Messrs. Isham and Brown 
gave to the old buildings of the seventeenth century to 

make it quite plain that in 
most cases these overhangs 
had nothing to do with 
Indian warfare, but were 
simply and frankly the ex- 
pression of the method of 
framing employed by the 
early carpenters, and Mr. 
Waterhouse, above, shows 
clearly that these early 
builders of ours were not 
inventing new methods of 
framing, but simply follow- 
ing those which were familiar 
to them from their appren- 
tice days at home. 
Although the seventeenth-century buildings have not per- 
haps as much architectural character as those of the Georgian 
period they are vastly interesting and picturesque, and, for 
one thing, afford an unrivalled chance for studying the effect 
of roof-lines. There are so many ways in which a study of 
these old buildings can be made useful that it is worth while 
to give below an incomplete list of seventeenth century 
buildings still extant in Massachusetts, and a few elsewhere, 
compiled from sundry recent contributions under "Notes and 
(Queries " of the Boston Transcript. We give the list for 
what it is worth, having made no attempt to \erify name, 
date (which sometimes differs from that stated elsewhere in 
this work) or actual present existence of the structures enum- 
erated. In all probability, many of the buildings have only 
their age to recommend them to notice. — Ed. 



Ameshury, Mass. : — 

Macy House ■^'54- 

Aiidmer, Mass. : — 

Abbott House \(¥.yo. 

Hradstreet House. (io\- ... 16^17. 

Holt House ■'jyS- 

Ariijii^tott, Mass. : — 

I^cke House. Abel. 1690 or 17 19. 
Ixjcke House. W.. [684 or 1760. 
Russell House 16S0. 

•See Vol. 11, Pan VII, pages 73-74 



Ihdfofd. .Mass. : — 

Uacon I louse 

/>Vr t-r/y. .Mass. : — 

liaker House 

C'onaiU I louse 

Trask I louse 

/>///tv/V(7, Mass. : — 

Fletcher I louse 

liostOH, Mass. : — 

(.'barter .Street. No 



..16S2 



. 16S5 
.16— 



Boston, .Mass. : — 

Greenougli Lane and Vernon 

riace 1698. 

Hancock Tavern 1634. 

Mather House. Cotton ... 1677. 
Revere House. I'aul 167S. 



A'roo/.'/J/u\ Mass. : — • 

Asphnvall House i6f)0. 

Devotion House >6 — . 



. 1650. 

,,r.94- 



Sun Tavern 1690. 

Treniere I louse I^'7-t- 

Wells 1 1 ouse 1 660. 

/loiinw. .Mass. : — 

15ourne I louse 16 — , 

'See Vol. II, Part VII, Plale 29. 



Jhirlin^tori, Mass. : — 

Cutler House 1650. 

Keed-Wyman House 1665. 

Cant(>fidi;t\ Mass. : — 

Austin House 1666. 

Bishop's I'alace. Linden Ave. . . . 
16—, 

Lee House. Judge Joseph ..1680. 



12 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



Chelsea, J/dss. : — 

Bellingham House. Ciov, . 1670. 

Cary House i()6o. 

Pratt House 1670. 

Chestnut Hill, Mass. : — 

Hammond House 1640. 

Kingsbury 1 louse i 700. 

Concord, Mass. : — 

Barrett House. Col. James..] Co. 

Huntllosmer House i(aSo. 

Tavern 



l-'rami>ti;;ham Cctttiw Mass : — Lcxiiii^ton, Mass. : — 

Haven House 1694. Estabrook House. Rev. B..1693. 

.^, ^ ,r Hancock House 1608. 

iiioucester, Mass. : — -kx r,. ^ f' 

' Munroe lavern. . . . r675 or 1695. 

Sawyer House 16 — . Plummer House '693. 

Gnenlami, .V. IT. : — Lo^uell, Mass. : — 

Old Brick House. Tlie. . ..1638. Clerk House 1670. 

Guilford, Conn. : — UracutGavin House i(>-~. 

Garrison-Wliitfield House. Old iMneuhurg, Mass.: — 

Stone 1635. Gushing House 16 — . 



Newport, K. I. : — 

Arnold's Mill. Benedict. .. 1666. 

Bull House. Henry 'f'39- 

Friends Meeting House. . . . 1700. 
North Andover, Mass. : — 

Bradstreet House (6C7. 

Peabody, Mass. : — 

Buxton House 1680. 

Goodale House 16 — . 

Needham House 1665. 

Pope House 16 . 





The Corbett House, Ipswich, Mass. [1635.] 



Danvers, Mass. : — 

Clarke House. Joseph 

Endicott House 

Fowler House 

Harris House 

Houlton House 

Jacobs House 

Jacobs Witch House. 



G 



Osburn House. Sarah 

Page House 

Prince House 

Putnam-Goodhue House... 
Townsend-Bishop-Nourse 1 

Dedhavi, Mass. : — 

Fairbanks House 

White House, Cedar .^t. . . . 



1650. 
1675. 

i<''34- 
1 650. 
1 650. 
1658. 
eorge 
1650. 
1660. 

1 660. 
1 650. 
louse 
,636. 

1640. 
164CS. 



Haverhill, Mass.: — 

Peaslee-Ciairison House. . ..1670. 
Whittier's liirthplace. ..'... i6yo. 

I/inghani, Mass. : — 

Cushing House 1*^79 

Gay House. Parson 1680 

Jacobs House. Nicholas. . 1675 
Lincoln House. General. . 1650 
Meeting House. Old Ship. .1680 

Ips^iiiieh, Mass. : — 

Bond House '("JS- 

Caldwell House 1640. 

Dodge House. 1640. 

Howard-Emerson House. . . 1675. 
Jones House. William .... 1726, 

Norton-Corbett House 1660. 

.Sutton House 1642. 



The Saltonstall Hou.se, 

Marblehead, Mass. : — 

Doak House ''^75- 

Tucker House. ( >1<1 1640. 

Marshfield, Afass. : — 

Winslow House 1642. 

Afedfield, Mass. : — 

Clark House 1680. 

Medford, Mass. : — 

Barrack. Old 1650. 

Cradock Fort if'34. 

Cradock- Wellington House 

^(>3(<- 

Melrose, Mass. : — 

Eynde House I'JZS- 

Milton, Mass. : — 

Houghton House 1680, 

Tucker House '643. 



Ipswich, Mass. [1635.] 

Pembroke, Mass. : — 

Barker House. Old 1640. 

Plymouth, Mass. : — 

Do ten House 1660. 

Harlow House 1675. 

Howland-Carver House. . ..1666. 
Morton-Whiting House. . . . 1667. 

Portsmouth, N. //..• — 

Crowe Hou.se 1680. 

Jackson House 1660. 

Quincy, Mass. : — 

Adams House 1681. 

Quincy-Butler House 1680. 

Revere, Mass. : — 

Newgate- Yeaman House. . . 1650 





Ti e Shedd House, lirigluoii, Mass. Lif^^o.] 



The Duardiuan House, Saugus, Mass. L<7oo ] 



Dorchester, Mass . : — 

Blake House 1640. 

Bridgham Hf)use i^*.35- 

Capen House. Barnard. . . 1628. 

Clap House. Roger 1640. 

Mattapan Road House 1690. 

I'ierce House. Robert .... 1635. 

Dttxbury, Mass. :■ — 

Alden House. John 1 

Standish I louse. Myles . . . i 
PJast Braintree, Mass. : — 

Wales House. ]'".l<ler i 

£ast Wareham, Mass.: — 

Gibbs I louse i 



666. 



68 1. 



fps'wich, Mass. : — 

Whipple House ^^35' 

Whittlesey House 1640. 

Winthrop House lf'34. 

Kingston, Mass. : — 

Bradford House. Major. ..1675. 

Cobl) House 1640. 

Cushman House 1680. 

Willett House 1638. 

Kittery, Maine : — 

Bray House 1660. 

Lexington, Mass. : — 

Bowman House 1649. 

Buckman Tavern 1690. 



1680. 
16—. 
1675. 



.16 



)52 



Nantucket, Mass. : — 

Coffin House 

Meader House. Hannah 
Paddock House 

Newbury, Mass. : — 

Coffin House. Tristram. 

Donahue House 1640, 

Hale House 1650 

Ilsley House 1670 

Noyes House. Parson. . . . 1645 

Sexton-Short House 1700 

Spencer- Pierce House 1650 

Toppan House 1670, 

Newcastle, N. //. .' — 

Jaffrey-Albee House '(J/S 



Roxburv, Mass. : — 

Walker- Williams House. . . 16S0. 
Salem, Mass. : — 

Bakery. Old 1690. 

First Church 1631. 

Hawthorne's Birthplace. . . . 1675. 

Pickering House 1650. 

Shattuck Witch House. . . .1675. 

Turner House (of Seven Gables) 
i6f)6. 

Waller- Ward House 1690. 

Williams Witch House. Roger 

1635- 

Salisbury, Mass. : — 

Osgood House 1 646. 



THE RELATION OE GEORGIAN ARCHITECTURE TO CARPENTRY. 



13 



Siiugus, Mass. : — 

Hill-Boardmaii House 1650. 

Old Ironworks 1643. 

Scituate, Mass. : — 

Otis House r68o. 



Siidl'ury, Mass. : — ■ 

Walker-Garrison House. . ..1660. 

Wayside Inn 16S0. 

Swampscott. Mass. : — 

Blaney House 1640. 

Mudge House 1634- 



wBk ■■ 


K^..i9 


.^'^^'^J^^^BI 






_• ■ f- 



Watt:rtowii^ Mass. : — 

Brown House 1 633. 

IVen/iam^ Mass. : — 

Ober House 16S0. 

IVi-'st Britl^eii.hiter, Mass. : — 

Keith House 1662. 



IVinthrop. Mass.: — 
Deane Winthrop House. . ..1649. 

IVobtirn, Mass. : — 

Baldwin House 1681. 

Cutler House 1690. 




The Sarah Osbom House, Danvers, Mass. [i6g-.] ^ 



Scituate Harbor. Mass. : — 

Baker House 1634. 

SomeroilU, Mass. : — 

Somerville Ave. No. 478. . 1690. 



Topsjield., Mass. : — 

Andrews House 1685. 

C'apen-fJarrison House 1660. 

ll'aba/i, Mass. : — 

Woodward Homestead 1C86. 



The George Jacobs (Witch) House, Danversport, Mass. [1690.] ' 



West7uoo(f^ Mass. : — 

Colburn House \Ci^o. 



Winthrop, Mass.: — 
Bill House ... 



, 1650. 



York, Maine. : — 

Jail 1653. 

Mackintire Garrison House.. 1645. 
Moulton House if'/S- 



Q 



KING MANOR HOUSE. 

The King Manor 
House, I'late 16, now 
owned by the town of 
Jamaica. L. I., and 
lea.sed to an a.ssociation 
of ladies for care and 
preservation, was built 
in 1805 l)y Kufus Kini; 
as an enlari;enient of 
an older portion fstill 
extant) liuilt by Ames 
Smith in 1750. 



^tWt" 



5? 


'MiM^/% 'LJ^''' 


fe^ 


l^^^^^*^'- 


p 


iS^^^&rV'^' 


"^ 


'^u^rm^W^^^^ \-^ •''^ 


^ 


Syf^k jT'-^. 


m 


?? iip ■ ^^^ _fc P^H 


n 


'^ ^!^ ' flif^l 


m 


vf. ■ .^5^' - ^^^^HteTHI 










L 


. ."^^bi^iiH 


^^^^^^Bl£iB£^^4^ . . 


ir*^- 


• "^^^ 


' - 


fL'l; 1 ■- 


1 




^^^^ 


• tJtta 


^^^^ 




TJT'S' 



The Mills Ward House, Salem, Mass.' 



c 



WONTICEI.I.O. 

Although Mr. Skin- 
ner elsewliere (page 27) 
gives the date of Mon- 
ticello as 1810, other 
aiitliorities say tliat it 
was begun in 1764, and 
that when Mr. Jeffer.son 
brought his brido home 
to Monticello in 1772, 
it was to a liilly com- 
pleted house that he 
brought her. 



* After photographs by hr.iiik C'misins, Salem, Mass. 



Dutch and German Eighteenth-century Work. 










PROBABLY more than one person while looking over The explanation is simple. The traveller voyages in 

the two preceding papers, with their illustrations, has search of novelties, new impressions; he seeks new ideas 
wondered how it happened that during his travels which, perhaps, he can transplant, graft, prune, cross and 
in Great Britain he never noticed how large was the improve in divers ways. The female eye is caught by, 
number, and how varied tiie interest, of the buildings that, and retains the memory of, unusual fashions of dressing the 
seemingly, e .\ i s t 
on every hand de- 
signed in the style 
with which this 
work especially 
concerns itself. 
These Colonial 
doorways are so 
familiarly agree- 
able at home in 
America, how was 
it, then, that their 
presence in Eng- 
land escaped 
notice.' How was 
it that houses 
sided with clap- 
boards, looking as 
if they had over- 
night crossed over 
from Salem, were 
passed by without 
detection? We 
never suspected 
such structures 
were to be found 
outside of this 
country, yet Mr. 
Davie and his 
camera have 
found them, and 
when they are 
brought before 
the reader on the 
book page he at 
once recognizes 
that here is some- 
thing novel, a 
fresh fact that had 
escaped his trav- 
eller's note-book 




St. George's Clmrcli, Halifax, N. S. 
[1800.] 



hair, new shapes 
of caps, unusual 
comb in ations of 
colors, while the 
male mind retains 
memories of the 
ridiculously heavy 
harnesses, the 
solid and un- 
wieldly vehicles, 
the unhandy-look- 
ing tools, and so 
on. Of a Fifth- 
Avenue belle and 
a Breton fisher- 
woman seen side 
by s i d e on the 
same beach in 
Brittany, the 
woman traveller 
would see and 
retain the memory 
of the latter only, 
just as the man, 
though he had 
passed an Ameri 
can buggy and an 
English tax-cart 
side by side on 
the road to the 
Derby, would 
warmly declare, 
after reaching 
home, that he had 
seen no American 
"rig" anywhere 
abroad. In the 
same way, the ar- 
chitectural travel- 
ler would recall 



that here at last is the germ of the fa- the strange appearance of the house-fronts on the Continent, 
miliar wooden house of his native land, the home of his fore- with their great unfinished holes where the casement-windows 
fathers, who carried the memory of it with them in their had swung open inwards, and would declare that nowhere 
exile, and erected modified simulacra of it at the earliest did he see a hung sash or guillotine window. Familiarity 
convenient opportunity. breeds contempt, and things contemptible or too famihar 

«4 



DUTCH AND GERMAN EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY WORK. 



15 



generally escape notice, so it is not to be wondered that the 
homelike structures of the Georgian period have not attracted 
the notice of American travellers, except perhaps in the 
matter of Wren's churches: they have unquestionably been 
noted and, in cases, deservedly admired. But Wren's 
churches, like Michael Angelo's dome, or Raphael's Ma- 
donnas, are amongst the literary puppets that every writer is 
expected to parade upon his stage at the auspicious moment, 
and, consequently, few readers can escape knowledge of them. 
Presently, for the American traveller, much of the quondam 
pleasure of the Continental tour will be lost through the 
process of vulgarizing that is going on so fast. The glory of 
the chateaux in the valley of the Loire will wane, since what 
novelty will they possess for the traveller who winters in 
North Carolina, summers in Newport, spends the autumn at 
Lenox, and so has become familiar with French chateaux — • 
as bettered by the American designer ? Better he knows 
they are, since they have electric elevators, steam-heat, 
refrigeratingplants and other appliances of high-pressure 
American civilization, and so not to be placed in the same 
category with those homes of the old French aristocrat, with 
their draughty rooms and their cold and noisy wooden floors. 
And the traveller 

familiar with New | 

York will feel no 
thrill before the 
lordly palaces of 
Genoa and Rome, 
for has he not seen 
such as they from 
his childhood up ? 
Even the seemingly 
inimitable flavor of 
Venice is likely not 
to be savored by the 
American, by and 
by, who has ac- 
quired the "exposi- 
tion-habit," and has 
become accus- 
tomed, once a year 

at least, to loll at his ease in the smooth-going gondola. The 
thought is more piteous than exasperating, but the outcome 
seems inevitable, and the traveller of the future is likely to 
follow the prescribed route in a more discontented frame of 
mind than now. But now, as then, the traveller does not 
note the presence of familiar aspects and facts, and so it is 
small wonder that the illustrations of the preceding papers 
present themselves somewhat in the light of a revelation. 

It is rather a reversal of probabilities that a colonizing 
nation, whose youth are prone to leave home at the earliest 
opportunity and seek excitement and personal discomfort in 
every quarter of the globe, should be the nation of all others 
which understands how to make the dwelling-places of its 
members look homelike, peaceful and comfortable. The 
French family-feeling is much stronger than that of the Eng- 
lish, but none would suspect it when he contrasts the 
tawdry eccentricities of the chateaux and maisons de campagne 
of the well-to do upper middle-class Frenchman with the 
plain and simple country-house of an Englishman of the same 
means and rank. 

But, wanderer as he is by nature, the Englishman carries 
with him his home habits, and he is as unwilling to house 
himself in the building of the country he favors with his 
presence as he is unable to believe he can be personally 
clean unless he carries with his luggage a tin bath-tub of 



unmistakable British make. The cities of India and the 
open ports of the East are sprinkled with buildings of recent 
date, all conceived in one phase or another of Victorian 
Gothic, while, on the other hand, the towns colonized by the 
French show how the more artistic people have been quick 
to seize on and adapt the methods, materials and designs 
native of the soil. It is a happy chance that the English 
colonists who settled in this country brought with them memo- 
ries of Georgian and pre-Georgian buildings, and did not leave 
home in the time of a Gothic revival ; else, in place of our 
graceful Colonial mantelpieces, with their ample and useful 
mantel-shelves, we might have found in our older dwellings 
fireplaces as cheerless and useless for home purposes as 
those which Viollet-le-Duc has introduced in his restoration 
at Pierrefonds. 

Wherever along our Eastern coast the Englishmen settled, 
we find, still, abundant traces of his presence in the houses 
and churches he erected. Not only are they to be found, as 
every one knows, widely scattered in the original thirteen 
States, but there are quite as interesting examples to be 
found in the British Provinces to the north of us. French 
city as Quebec is, there is there to be found many an inter- 
esting example of 
Georgian architect- 
ure in whose con- 
ception and execu- 
tion certainly no 
Frenchman had a 
share, and so it is 
with other places 
all the way from 
Halifax to Toronto. 
At the latter place 
the writer heard 
there was an old 
mansion of much 
interest in the Geor- 
gian style, and so 
addressed the pres- 
ent occupant for 
particulars and per- 
mission to procure the desired photographs. In reply came 
a chilling, and quite liritannic, response which declared that 
it was quite unnecessary to take any trouble in the matter, as 
the structure was merely a simple English house of brick with 
a pillared porch or two. As the real point of interest lay in 
the fact that a " simple English house " should have been 
built of brick as far west as that — quite on the outskirts of 
civilization — a hundred years ago, such a response coming 
from any one would have been exasperating, but it was all 
the more so since the owner was a well-known man of letters 
who might have been expected to appreciate the purpose of 
the inquiry. Still, as the statement was made that the house 
had been altered within recent years, it did not seem worth 
while to press further an evidently unwilling householder. 
But there, beyond the source of the St. Lawrence, was built 
shortly after the Revolution, and possibly with imported 
brick, a "simple English house" in the Georgian style. 

The earliest architectural efforts made by the first settlers 
in the British Province were doubtless similar to those 
made in the more southerly settlements, save that the greater 
ri-'or of the climate demanded more substantial buildings ; 
but by the end of the eighteenth century all, or nearly all, 
of the structures reared by the early settlers had probably 
passed away, and the architecture of the time was affected 
by the same influences that created the meeting-house of 




Tlie Government House, Halifax, N. S. [1801-5.] 



i6 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



New England and the mansion of the Virginia gentleman. 
But, though English influence in a seaport town was, of 
course, strong, and though Halifax was within the radius 
of the influence that radiated from the French settlements, 
there were other influences at work there, other bands of 
settlers had come from other lands than France and England 
and left traces of their presence, both in the admixture of 
blood and customs and in the buildings they erected, more 
suo. Thus, there are at Halifax two very interesting eccle- 
siastical structures, one of whicii avowedly, and the other 
inferentially, bears testimony to the early date at which the 
common people of this northern continent began to be 
evolved by a species of ethnical cross-breeding which has no 
parallel in the world's history. Even the great Roman 
Empire only succeeded in producing a sort of effeminate 
hybrid, a human mule, unable to perpetuate its own species. 

Here at Halifax is a little Dutch church built in 1755, 
about as simple a little structure as could well be devised ; 



fatherland as they best could remember and interpret them. 

This little church received a Government grant, probably 
quite as minute as its own size, the rest of the building-fund 
being contributed by members of the congregation who 
worshipped here, after the tenets of the Lutheran Church, 
until circumstances led to amalgamation of this society and 
another. Since that time the building has been in use as a 
school, no gteat change of course, for, in all probability, the 
early churches or meeting-houses were in most cases used as 
schoolhouses on workdays. 

The society which received the adhesion of the members 
of the old Dutch Lutheran Church is, curiously enough, one 
which has always abided by the prescriptions of the thirty- 
nine articles of the Established Church of England, and this 
may be taken as showing how the pietistic fervor of the Lu- 
theran fathers had, in a couple of generations, become amelio- 
rated in their grandsons. Architecturally speaking, there is 
no other church in Halifax to which the owners of the Old 








Old Diitcli Cliiircli, Halifax, N. S. 
['755-] 

its parts so simple and so obviously arranged that it would 
seem quite unlikely that they could tell much of an archi- 
tectural story or say with much distinctness that the struct- 
ure was devised by other than FInglish minds. Yet, the low 
wall, the wide roof, the door and window heads hard against 
the wall-plate, the door at one end of the long side, not 
in the middle of the gable end, and, above all, the spire on 
the low tower, with its almost flat broaches, tell the observer 
unmistakably that the building is of German or Dutch deri- 
vation. And so it is, but whether the one or the other, 
whether built by some streamlet from the great German 
immigration that had accidentally been deflected northward 
from its true course, or whether some band of real Dutch- 
men, trying to return home after the English had dislodged 
them from New Amsterdam, had been disheartened, or, 
being wind-bound by adverse winds, had put in to what was 
to be Halifax, and, being satisfied, had there remained, is 
not material. The really interesting fact is that at the very 
same time that buildings designed in the Georgian style 
were being erected in different parts of America there were 
being built in different places by immigrants of Teutonic 
stock, or those immigrants' descendants, other structures that 
distinctly recall the elements of the architecture of their 



iNewakk, N. J., Chukchus. — There are other parts of the 
eastern sealioard than New England that can boast of jjraceful 
church spires, and in Newark, N. J., the spires of the Old First 
Presljyterian Churcli and Trinity Church (Plate 23, I'art I.\) show- 
that the traditions of rutinement and -jjood i)ro]50rtion were not fol- 
lowed only ill New ICnj^land — thougli tlie designers were not over 



A 


Mm 


' 


^^ ffrt 


piKiHi«f!r 


- ^ ■ n 


-^--^IfK 



St. Paul's Church, Halifax, N. S. 

[.75-.] 

Dutch Church could, with so much propriety, have migrated 
as to St. George's, a church of a very unusual type, a dis- 
tinctly un-English type, a North German or, more nearly, a 
Scandinavian type, and it may be a freak of real atavism 
that drew the migrating Lutherans to this curious and in- 
teresting structure. But the warmest supporters of the 
claims of Lief Ericson would hardly dare to found an argu- 
ment in favor of the Scandinavian as the original discoverer 
of this continent on the architectural character of St. George's, 
for the structure itself was built as late as 1800, and if it 
replaced an earlier structure, on a larger scale while maintain- 
ing its essential features, we do not know that it is so. 

St. Paul's Church, a very large structure, since it will hold 
a congregation of two thousand persons, is, so far as the 
actual beginning of its being is concerned, really an older 
structure than St. George's or the Old Dutch Church, and, 
as it was begun only a year or two after the arrival of 
Governor Cornwallis with his original band of settlers actu- 
ally in 1750, — about the time the beautiful tower and spire' of 
the church at Farmington, Conn., was finished, — one might 
hope to find some evidence of kinship between it and some 
of the more interesting of the New England meeting-houses, 
all the more from the fact that St. Paul's was framed in 

happy in uniting the wooden spires with the stone towers. The 
Presbyterian Church, erected in 1774 by a society then more than 
one hundred years old, was much injured by fire a couple of years 
ago. Trinity Churcli, built later (1.S05). is interesting not only by 
reason of its spire, but because the designer seems not to have hesi- 
tated to use pointed and full-centred arches in the same building. 



DUTCH AXD GERMAN EIGFITEEXTH-CENTURY WORK. 



17 



Boston. Perhaps Boston, having in this way aided in pro- 
moting godliness amongst the progenitors of the "blue 
noses," found there was nothing particularly ungodly in ap- 
propriating, without payment, at a later day the timbers out 
of which were worked the columns of the portico of the 
Massachusetts State-house. But, as the illustration shows, 
St. Paul's was built rather to accommodate the troops in 
garrison than to give expression to architectural beauty, and 
its tower, while in- 
dividual enough, is 
neither graceful nor 
interesting. More- 
over, the entire ex- 
terior of the build- 
ing was palpably 
restored at the time 
the low side aisles 
were added, not 
many years ago. 
In the same way, 
the tower of the Old 
Town Clock, as it 
is called, which 
dates from about 
the same time, has 
none of the refine- 
ment of the best 
New England work 
of the time, and, as 

it too has been "restored," it is questionable whether the cir- 
cular peristyle is or is not part of the original design. 

All of the buildings thus far mentioned are of wood, but 
wood used in a rather commonplace way, and handled 
evidently by workmen who had not access to any of the 
" Builder s Assistants" which unquestionably enabled ilie me- 
chanics of New England to turn out work of greater delicacy, 




interesting buildings: one, the Admiralty House, a simple 
but dignified square structure with low-pitched hip-roof, is 
evidently later in date than the others, which, like it, are 
public structures, and so had the benefit of the best archi- 
tectural talent. Of these two, the Government House, the 
official residence of the Lieutenant-Governor, is an extremely 
well-proportioned building characterized by slightly project- 
ing flanking pavilions which recall the arrangement of the 

typical houses of 
Colonial Virginia 
and, further, are 
characterized by 
" swell fronts" 
upon each pavilion, 
quite after the Bos- 
ton manner. In 
fact, the official 
residences of the 
time are particu- 
larly happy in their 
architectural effect, 
if it is fair to base 
such an opinion 
upon this building 
and the almost 
equally interestirg 
Government House 
at Fredericton, 
N. B. The Halifax 
building was erected in the years 1801-5. The other Hali- 
fax building, e\en more admirable, is the Province Building, 
which was erected in 1811-19 at a cost of a little over two 
hundred thousand dollars. 

The one building in Halifax, however, of strikingly foreign 
aspect is unquestionably the Old Dutch Church, and in this 
case we do not feel called on to question the propriety of the 



The Old Town Clock, Halifax, N. S. 





The Old Government House, Fredericton, N. B. 
[.S2S.] 

interest and refinement than did the mechanics to the south or 
to the north of them. In stone, however, the builders suc- 
ceeded better in giving to their work the architectural char- 
acter of the period, and in Halifax there are two or three 



The Province IJuildin'^, Halifax, N. S* 

[iS.i-ly] 



iThe V'anoknhf.uvkl Holsk, Nkw NOuk, N. Y. — The 
custom of importing Iniildinji-matcrials in early days was not con- 
fined to Knglish descendants and lui^land. In fact, we know that 
Washington imported some of the nuUerials and fittings used at 
Mount Vernon from the Continent, and the fre(|ueiicy witli whicli 
the blue Uutch tile and the Dutch scenic wall-paper are encountered 
shows that Holland was also a considerable source of supply. 
Perhaps, too. the use of the l-'leniisli bond in the early brickwork 
may be adduced as a possiljle jjroof tluit not only bricks but brick- 



attribution. But as much cannot be said for the many other 
" Dutch" structures' that can be found in various parts of 
the country, for, in many a case, the term must be translated 
as one to-day translates the term "Pennsylvania Dutch," 



layers were of Dutch extraction. Be this as it may, there is record 
that when, in 1759, Cornelias Vandenheuvel, <|uondani (iovernor 
of Demerara, decided to build a hou.se on the Hlooniingdale Road 
near New York City, he imported from Holland all the material 
used in its construction. Tliis house, later known as Wade's 
Tavern, a famous road-house in its day. still stands, though nnicli 
changed outwardly, the original roof, destroyed by fire in the fifties, 
l)einsj replaced with a third story in wood, with a Hat roof, ill ac- 
cording with the stone walls below. 



i8 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



and remember that it more often means German, or even 
Swedish, than Netlierlandish. We have been greatly dis- 
appointed at not being able to produce any tangible evidence 
of the influence the Dutch fashions of building had upon the 
work of the Georgian designers and builders in this country, 
and we are inclined to feel that such influence as was exerted 
was not direct, but sifted first through England. The inde- 
finable Dutch feeling that can be perceived in some of the 



scattered places. But as it was William Penn who was 
largely responsible for this remarkable immigration, first 
through his exhortations to the sectaries when as a young 
man he wandered through Germany, and later, after he 
became a "proprietor," through the pamphlets, descriptive of 
the Province of Pennsylvania and how there was to be found 
there freedom from war, religious persecution and the op- 
pressiveness of unjust laws, which in French, Dutch, English 




Moravian Buildings, I'.ethlehem, Pa. 
[Till;- (Iniwinu. (combined from three different pIioto;,'rapli8, is faulty in pcrsprctive.] 



towers and spires of the New England meeting-houses evi- 
dently has no distinct prototype in Holland, but is unques- 
tionably based upon Wren's working out of his impressions of 
his own travels in Holland. In like manner, when in some 
of the small brick churches and court-houses in the South 
one feels that at last he has found unmistakably the con- 
necting-link, it is pretty certain that the next turning-over 
of the records of English work of the time will bring to light 
some market-house or petty assize-court, which, though 
Dutch in feeling, is much more likely to be the real proto- 
type of the American example. There is many a village 
street in England fronted with low brick buildings which 
gives the traveller the momentary impression that he is back 
again in Holland, but when he looks about and strives to 
localize the impression it eludes him. He feels sure the 
impression must have its justification, but how or with what 
he can support it, he finds it impossible to say. So we are 
inclined to think that, aside from the immediate neighbor- 
hood of New York, the work of the Hollander had little 
direct influence on the building done in this country during 
the eighteenth century, and this is all the more disappoint- 
ing since one of the myths relating to the gambrel-roof is 
that it was derived from Holland. Perhaps it was, but we 
hope it was not ; for if there is any feature that is distinctive 
of American work it is the ganibrel-rcof, and one would like 
to feel that it was evolved in this country out of the sheer 
constructive necessities of the early builders. 

If the changes of more than two centuries have left on and 
near Manhattan Island, where alone it could properly be 
sought for, few traces of real Dutch work, it is far otherwise 
with the " Dutch " work that is properly to be credited to the 
Teuton of northern and southern Germany, and as stream- 
lets of the great German immigration filtered to all parts of 
the Atlantic seaboard from Maine to Georgia, evidences 
of the half-remembered architectural fashions of the German 
fatherland are to be found to this day in many widely 

Bkthlemem. — Althouu'li Bethlehem w;is founded in 1741 by 
Bishop Nitschmann of tlie Moravian Chiireli, its name was given 
by Count Zinzendorf wlien, some years later, he visited the country 
to look after the well-beini,' of the settlers whose emi<;ration had 
been promoted by himself and his wife Kdmutb Dorothea. The 



and German he sent broadcast through Europe, it was 
natural that the largest number of these immigrants should 
fettle in Pennsylvania. It is not our part to explain how and 
why these immigrants, wearied with the constant bloodshed 
of the War of the Spanish Succession, and still more wearied 
by the poverty forced upon them because of it, and subjected 
to heavy taxation everywhere, while in some states under 
Catholic rule the believers in the new creeds — and there 
were many varieties — were oppressed and persecuted to an 
unendurable degree, were ready to abandon their homes and 
risk the perils of a long journey to an unknown and unde- 
veloped country. Nor is it our part to dilate on the dismal 
tale of their journeyings : how many fell by the way in their 
tramp across Europe ; how more were unable to get farther 
than England, and there remained to the number of thou- 
sands, a charge upon the Government and charitable private 
individuals; how those who crossed the sea endured in the 
small vessels of the day, ill-found and half-provisioned, treat- 
ment from brutal shipmasters that puts tales of the " middle 
passage" to shame — on one ship sailing in 1732 with 150 
passengers 100 of them died during the passage, and in 1758, 
out of the passengers carried during that year in fifteen ships 
2,000 died, while in another ship that carried 312 passengers 
250 died during the voyage. But this terrible mortality pre- 
vailed mainly in the time when the " Newlanders " had built 
up their nefarious traffic, which resulted essentially in land- 
ing the immigrants — such as survived — in this country as 
actual slaves to those who paid their passage-money, whether 
before they started or after they arrived. Immigrants thus 
enslaved or mortgaged became known as " Redemptioners," 
and they were held in bondage under the formal precepts of 
enacted law until by their labor they could pay oflf their debts, 
and their masters took uncommon care that this task should 
be made none too easy for them. 

The movement — a very large and long-continued one — 
is one of the extremely interesting events in our early history, 

Genieinhaus. the residence of ministers and missionaries, built in 
I 742, is the oldest structure in the town. It is built of logs, which 
since iS6,S have been covered with weather-boards; but until that 
time the walls were protected on the outside with stucco apphea 
over split-oak laths. 



DUTCH AND GERMAN EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY WORK. 



19 



and because of the wide distribution of the arrivals, partly 
by accident and partly by design — Penn was not the only 
land-owner to profit by this German aspiration for a free and 
peaceful life — it made a vast impression on the country, 
and has left traces in many places besides Pennsylvania, 
traces which con- 
sist largely in place- 
names and family- 
names, in a diluted 
strain of German 
blood and tempera- 
ment and some- 
thing in the way of 
buildings. No 
trace now remains 
of the L a b a d i s t 
settlement at Bo- 
hemia Manor in 
Maryland, on the 
Chesapeake, and 
the same, we be- 
lieve, can be said 
of the Lutheran 
settlement at Wal- 
doboro. Me. ; b u t 
the settlement at 
Quincy, Mass., has 




The Gemeintiaus, Bethlehem, Pa. 
[1742-] 



the Redemption ist movement was not reached till 1753, it is 
plainly possible that there should be many buildings still 
standing in Pennsylvania that owe their being to the hands 
of actual German immigrants and not to their descendants of 
the next generation. In Philadelphia itself one should not 

expect to find much 
work of German 
feeling, for Piiila- 
delphia was the 
home of Quakers, 
men of peace, men, 
moreover, of con- 
siderable worldly 
wisdom, and they 
brought it about 
that as fast as the 
Germans arrived 
they should be for- 
warded to the in- 
terior and made to 
found settlements 
along the frontier, 
where, as many of 
them had borne 
arms at home, their 
knowledge of mili- 
tary a ff a i r s and 



at least left a name, for that part of the town where the Sail- 
ors' Snug Harbor lies is still styled Germantown. Charleston 
and Savannah were the recipients of many Germans, but their 
chief foothold in South Carolina was at Ebenezer, Orange- 
burg, and Saxe-Gotha. In Virginia, Winchester, Shepherds- 
town, Strasburg and Woodstock are likely to afford evidence 
of the presence of early German inhabitants, and there were 
many settlements made in North Carolina by Germans who 
did not find in Pennsylvania the opportunities they sought. 

It is in Pennsylvania, however, that is to be found more 
evidence of the German immigration than elsewhere, and as 



willingness to defend their heads with their hands made them 
an admirable vanguard of civilization, and at the same time 
a safeguard for the peaceable Quakers in Philadelphia. And 
right valiantly did these German frontiersmen play their part, 
not only in Indian warfare and at the siege of Quebec, but in 
the Revolution. So it is that one must seek in Lancaster, 
Ephrata, Bethlehem, Lititz, Easton, Allentown, Reading and 
the country between for early indications of German occupa- 
tion. But the Germans were so many — -Franklin estimating 
their number at three-fifths of the entire population of the State 
and other authorities declaring a higher ratio — and so widely 




The Moravian Church. Belhlehem, Pa. 
[,So3.] 

the first settlement was made at Germantown, that suburb of 
Philadelphia is still rich in a kind of derived German feeling. 
How many buildings there still are positively erected by the 
German immigrants we will not attempt to say, but as 
the great German movement — although Pastorius bought 
his land in Germantown in 1683— did not begin till 1709, 
and reached its flood only in 1738, while the high-tide mark of 








The Old Chapel, Bethlehem, Pa. 

1'7S'-1 

scattered that not only there are many buildings of unques- 
tionable German origin still standing all over the State, but 
they have had such an influence on the commonly adopted 
style of building that Pennsylvania buildings have an air of 
their own, quite different from that to be found in other States 
— plain, substantial, broad and big-roofed, and more often of 
stone than of brick, the stonework as often stuccoed as not. 



20 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



As the German immigration was largely a movement of towns the "passing-bell" is tolled in the church-lower as 

the sectaries who held varied forms of belief and followed the weary soul has just taken its flight, the same function is 

ditlerent practices, it was natural that each sect should es- at IJethlehem discharged by official trombone-players, four in 

tablish an independent settlement, some so small that they number, whose duty it is to ascend to the tower of the church 



quickly passed out of existence, while 
others lingered longer, until the follow- 
ing generations, unable to stand the 
pressure of modern civilization, aban- 
doned the seclusion of their fathers, 
foreswore their beliefs in a measure, and 
became everyday American citizens. 
And so, one after another, many of the 
different communal settlements changed 
their character, and the communal build- 
ings were devoted to alien uses; but 
some still exist, as at Ephrata, which are 
measurably devoted to their original 
purposes; while other communities, as 
Bethlehem for instance, have known 
how to retain in a considerable degree 
traditions and practices, and at the same 
time to so modify and adapt them to the 
ideas of the time as to make their in- 
herited practices a sort of drawing-card 
to attract at certain seasons a consider- 
able concourse of strangers, whose com- 
ing is a material help to the town. The 
choral festival at Bethlehem is a musical 
performance of the first rank, but though 
its roots run far back, and though its 




Belfry of the Moravian Church, Bethlehem, Pa. 



and there blow to the four quarters of 
the town the news that brother or sister, 
maid, man or widow lies a-dying, the 
age, sex and marital condition of the de- 
parting being indicated by the choral 
that is played. This custom brings it 
about that the church-tower must be 
provided with a platform or gallery, 
around which the players can pass, and 
from which they can blow their mournful 
messages. 

The Moravians' of Bethlehem, while 
retaining their creed and racial relations, 
have advanced with the times and known 
how not to fall behind the chariot of pro- 
gress, and so have been able to keep 
their buildings in good repair, and they 
form a very interesting group indeed : 
the big Moravian Church, built in 1803 ; 
the First Seminary, built in 1746, flanked 
on one side of the open courtyard that 
fronts it by the Second Clergy House 
that was built four years earlier, and on 
the other side by the Sisters' House, 
built in the same year, are worth going 
some distance to see in this country be. 



renderings are not light-minded at all, yet the choruses are cause of their distinctly foreign flavor. The Old Chapel, 
drilled by hired choir-masters, as any mere secular and with its big inclined buttresses, built in 1751, the Widow's 
money-making choir might be. The Bach festival last year house, built in 1768, and the Gemeinhaus, oldest of all, built 
was a very notable performance, and was but the latest in 1742, together with others belonging to the original corn- 
overt manifestation of that love of music which the original munity, form a curious contrast to the great industrial plant 
settlers brought with them, which has persisted in varying in the once quiet township which now turns out armor-plate 
forms until now, but always as a notable characteristic of and great guns, 
the people and the place. One of these manifestations is The distinctively German origin of these buildings is 



found in the playing 
of trombones — and 
it is said that skilful 
players make trom- 
bones very effective 
musical instru- 
ments. In some 
New England 
churches, and pos- 
sibly in more Eng- 
lish churches, the 
bass-viol is still 
used in lieu of the 
organ to give a 
background for 
choral or congre- 
gational singing, 
and travellers know 
how in some foreign 
churches trumpets, 
bugles a n d trom- 
bones are used for 




The General Knox Headquarters, Newburgh, N. Y. 



found proved in the 
double ranges of 
dormers in the great 
roofs, and this Ger- 
man fashion of util- 
izing this roof-space 
for dwelling pur- 
poses finds a curi- 
ous echo, though a 
small one, in the 
Headquarters of 
General Knox at 
Newburgh, N. Y., 
where in the print 
showing the rear 
view there can be 
seen, snuggled up 
against the chim- 
neys, and running 
back to the house- 
ridge itself, two 
minute dormers. 



the same purpose. But at Bethlehem the trombone is par The Knox house is called Dutch, but these little dormers 
excellence Xht instrument, and its use, or rather one of its uses, make us suspect that its Dutchiness has a Pennsylvania strain 
has had a curious efifect on architecture. Just as in some in it somewhere. 



1 MOKAVIAN Sktti.kmkni s. — liethleheiii was settled in 1 741 ; ensthal, 1 750. The Harony of Nazareth was sold by the Penns to 
Ephrata in 1743; Old Xazaretli in 1743 (Nazareth Hall rates Kdnnith Dorothea, Countess of Zinzendorf, who greatly assisted 
from 1755;; f'nadenthal, 1745; Christian .Spring, 1 74S ; Fried- the emigrating Moravian sectaries. 



DUTCH AND GERMAN EIGHTEENTH-CENTUR V WORK. 



21 



Very different iii character, indeed, from the Moravian threatening to fall, and some one was artist enough to ac- 
Church at Bethlehem is the "Old Trappe" Church' at complish his task in this very satisfactory manner. The 
Collegeville, dedicated in 1745. It is unmistakably of a interior is less changed than the exterior, and the general 
German type, and yet the gambrel roof, the general roof-plan effect at least is the same that communicants in the early 
being also similar, recalls the Dutch church- at Sleepy Hoi- part of the eighteenth century had before them as they sat 
low, in Tarrytown, N.Y., built, so it is said, in 168-, and sug- in the high-backed pews and lifted their chilled feet, now 
gests the reflection that Americans, outside of Pennsylvania and then, from the brick-tiled floor, still in place. This 
at least, have not had much use for German architecture, church, the "Gloria Dei" in Philadelphia and one other* 
In the case of the Old Trappe, no one could for a moment are amongst the rarities of our architectural treasures, and 
question its foreign origin, its antiquity or its general in- their quaintness is unquestionably due to their following 
terest, while the feeling that pervades the little church types less familiar to us now than those derived from Eng- 
in Sleepy Hollow has been so imbibed and availed of by land, and simply go to impress once more on the observer 
modern architects, there are so many thou- 
sand just such little country ciiurches every- 
where, that it is with difficulty one can bring 
oneself to believe in its real antiquity, its 
flavor is so very modern. 

Architecturally more interesting than either 
of these churches is Trinity,' the "Old Swedes 
Church " at Wilmington, Del., built in 1698, 
and still in admirable re- 
pair and regular weekly use. 
We call it interesting, not 
only becau.se it to-day offers 
a very picturesque effect, but 
because the several additions 
and restorations have been 
so well conceived and skil- 
fully adjusted that few would 
imagine that the entire struc- 
ture did not date from the 
same and a single epoch. 
Originally the church was a 
mere parallelogram, without 
tower, belfry or porcii ; still 
the easternmost and perhaps 
the other of the two tran- 




The "Old Trappe" near Collegeville, Pa. 

[I74!-] 



septs, or one-time porches, on the north side are believed to 

be nearly coeval with the body of the church, fiut the 

tower was added only in 180;, and at that time the canted 

hiproof at that end of the church wliich corresponded with 

that which still covers the eastern end of the church was then, that just as these old church buildings are preserved 

happily done away with, and the gable simply buts against and cherished with such tender solicitude by the descendants 



what a very mixed origin the 
American people has. 

Not far away, at New 
Castle, Del., is Immanuel 
Church, built in 1705, and 
an interesting type of the 
churches built by English 
congregations. It belongs 
to the same class as Christ 
Church at Williamsburg, 
Va., and Christ Church, 
Alexandria, and its tower, in 
comparison with the belfried 
towers of the Pennsylvania Dutch districts 
and the New England spired towers, as 
typified by Park Street Church,' Boston, 
and Trinity Church,^ Newport, forms, as it 
were, a middle term between the two. So 
many associations of a varied and always 
tender kind cluster about a church fabric 
that it is particularly easy to keep it in ex- 
stence and, from the many interested, pro- 
cure the needed money to keep it always 
in repair. Perhaps the most significant in- 
stance of this appreciation is the refusal 
within a year by the congregation of St. Paul's Church, Bos- 
ton, to part with that building — not a very antiquated one — 
and its site for a million and a half of dollars, so that a great 
temple of trade might be built in its place. It is to be hoped, 



the tower in the most natural manner possible. Later, only 
some fifty years ago, the south porch, with its big round arch, 
was added, not for pride of architectural effect, but because 
it was found necessary to buttress the south wall, which was 



of the original congregations, and just as the various socie- 
ties of Sons and Daughters of the Revolution and similar 
patriotic bodies are preserving, repairing and converting to 
museum purposes those semi-public buildings and houses 



'Thk Oi.i> Tkai'I'K. — Thi.s. the oldest Lutheran churcli in the 
country, was l)uilt, at a valuation of >i.ooo. for Henry iMtlchior 
Mulilcnberj; in 1 743. and stands now practically as it was then. 
The structure is of stone stuccoed, and nic-asurcs 39' x 54', and 
that the structure niij;lu not cost more than llic sum appropriated 
even the women helped in tlie Uuililinji of it. For one luindrud 
and twenty-five years it was regularly used lor .Sunday and week- 
day services, but since the huildinj; of a larger church only one 
service each year is held in tire ancient building. 

'Tl!K Si.r-:i:i'Y [loi.i.ow Ciii'ut h. — This churcli, whicli is now 
u.sed only in the summer time. and. in a sense, is under tlie guard- 
ianship of the \'onkers Historical and Library Association, was 
built .soon after r6.So at the instigation of Katrina, second wife of 
Frederick I'hilipsc. the first Lord of tlie .Manor, or I'atroon.of tlie 
Manor of Tarrytown. 

'See l'lates4-5,l'art I.\. 

* Christ (Swkdksj Cnf[(cn, L'ppfk Mkriox Township.— 
This building, the tliird of the early triad of united Swedisli 
Lutheran churches, of wliiili (doria Dei. in I'liiladclphia. and the 
Old .Swedes ('Irinity) Church at Wilmington are tlie otlier two. 



was built in 1760. Up to 1831 the pastors were sent out from 
Sweden. 'I'he Lpiscopal ritual has been followed since that time. 

5See Plate 18, I'art IX. 

" Tkinity Ciumu II, Ni:wpouT, K. I. — Althougli the spire of 
Trinity Church (Plates 19-22, Part L\) is certainly graceful, tlie 
rest of the fabric, including tlie tower, is so severely ])Iain that it is 
doubtful whether, ]ilaced in any other town than Newport, it would 
ever liave attracted much attention. Put, thanks to its being one 
of the features of a fashionable summer resort, admiration for 
Trinitv Church as a piece of architecture has become a cult, and 
it is jirobably a better-known building, architecturally speaking, 
than the Old South Church, Boston, itself, by and under which 
thousands upon thousands of unseeing eyes pass daily. Trinity 
was built in 1726, hut by whom designed, even devoted antiquary 
that he was, Mr. C.eorge C. Ma.son, an architect of ,\ew|)ort, was, 
we believe, unable to di.scover. /Mthough in 1762 the church was 
sawed in two and lengthened, so as to about double its original 
capacity, it has lieen carefully watched, and until the recent intro- 
duction (if memorial stained-glass windows nothing had been done 
to impair the original effect and character of the interior tinish 
adequately represented on Plates 20-22. 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



which, like "Stenton,"' the home of James Logan, in Phila- Itnown than any other part of this broad country. The 
delphia, have an historical and architectural worth, some German movement penetrated this region from Pennsylvania, 
similar organization will take it upon themselves to preserve and amongst other of the places settled by Germans at that 



the interesting buildings in Pennsyl- 
vania once occupied by communal 
sectaries of one kind or another. 
The Harmonists are in a flourishing 
condition, and so the interesting build- 
ings at Economy, Pa., are likely to be 
properly cared-for for a long time to 
come ; but there are other places that 
are deserving of care, such as the 
buildings of the Monastic Society, or 
Seventh Day Baptist monks and nuns 
at Snow Hill, in Quincy township. Pa., 
where, as the last member of the So- 
ciety died in 1893, mere caretakers 
now give to the monastery, mill and 
farm-buildings a questionable amount 
of attention. 




(Jld Doorway, Economy, Pa. 



time, Salem, settled by the Moravians 
in 1765, must be, if accounts are true, 
amongst the most interesting archi- 
tecturally of the several settlements 
made by the sect. The church is said 
to be peculiarly interesting and 
quaint, partly because of the effect of 
the exceedingly small windows in the 
thick walls, high up, so that no Indian 
could shoot an arrow through some 
devotee as he listened to the weekly 
admonition of the pastor. There is 
evidently a good deal of " local color " 
at Salem which would make it worth 
one's while to attend the Easter festi- 
val there, share the " coffee and sweet 
buns," and listen to the melodious 



Perhaps other people do not share our idiosyncrasy, and hymns, psalms and chorals with which the trombone players 
so are perennially cognizant of tlie fact that North Carolina at the same time usher in the Easter sun and rouse the 




Ttle "William Penn*' Tavern, Delaware County, Pa. 



is one of the States of the Union, but we cannot help feeling 
that the State and the towns and villages therein are less 



inhabitants from their slumbers for the annual celebration. 
But it is bootless and almost impossible to particularize 



•"Stentox," near Pun.ADKt.rniA, Pa. — It is only natural 
that the various patriotic orders and societies which in such 
numbers have sprung into being in the last decade should be 
mainly interested in effecting the preservation of sites and build- 
ings that have primarily an historic significance, and a large num- 
ber of the buildings that they have preserved, or by a tablet have 
indicated the original site thereof, have atisoUitely no architectural 
value. To offset these now and then one is preserved which 
should have had the fosterina; care of some one, and the fortuitous 
liappening that a Ijuilding of arcliitectural worth owes its preserva- 
tion to the accidents of history ratlier than to its deserts as the 
outcome of artistic effort makes us none die less grateful to those 



who have accomplished it, no matter whether respect for history, 
pride of family or love of art were the motive. 

The Society of Colonial Dames of Pennsylvania, which furnishes 
the illustrations on Plate 12, a year or two ago secured the right 
to restore and preserve " .Stenton," the house built in 1728 by 
James Logan, first secretary to William Penn and later Secretary 
of the Province, President of the Council, Acting Governor of 
the Province and Cliief Justice of the Supreme Court of Penn- 
sylvania for many years. 

Its right to preservation as the scene of many an historic in- 
cident is as little to be questioned as that of its value as a sign- 
post on our road of architectural progress. 



DUTCH AND GERMAN EIGIirEENTH-CENTURY WORK. 



the interesting buildings that grew from the German move- find in many directions an abundance of structures erected 
ment. Pennsylvania,' Virginia and North Carolina* are old in the early and middle part of the eighteenth century, 
States, and it is a peculiarity of Pennsylvania that, whereas though few would be discovered having any recognizable 




The " Red Lion " Tavern, Philadelphia County, Pa. [1730.] 



in other States frame buildings were normally used, here a element of design that would lead one to class them with the 

great part of the buildings, of all kinds, were erected in " Old Colonial " buildings which chiefly concern us. 

stone, au nalurei, or covered with stucco, as the case might It is perhaps fortunate that Pennsylvania buildings are so 





Details from House for Robert Morris. G. JardcUa, Sculptor. 

be, and so, being substantial, have lasted practically un- generally built of stone, for it is evidently because of this that 
changed to our day. So it is possible in Pennsylvania to there has come down to us in good condition a very interesting 



*Oi-D Paxtaxg Chukch, Harrisiuk(;, 1'a. — 'Iliis little stone 
building in the outskirts of the city was built in 1740, and was 
intended for. and was aitiiallv more than once used a.s, a lilock- 
house in which to take refuge in case ol attack by Indians. 

'GoVKRNOH Tkvon's 1'ai,A(K. — .\s North Carolina is an old 
State, and in I'roviiitial days was regarded, niuch as \'irginia was, as 
a desirable plate for younger .sons and roving spirits to settle down 
in and sow tlieir wild oats, it h.id its good sot iety. and the nienil)ers 
of it had their fine houses, so the Stale |)rol)alily offers more to 
the architectural investijcator than merely the interesting buildings 
of the Moravians. One of the most ambiliotis houses of tlie day 
undertaken anvwhere was the palace l)iiilt by (lovernor 'Iryon, 
at New Heme (1765-71^10 serve as official residence for himself 



and such later royal governors as would, in course of time, come 
out from I'.ngland. Of this palace, whicli consisted of a main 
building Hanked upon either siele by smaller structures, these being 
one the servants" quarters and the other the stables, both connected 
witli the main house by curved colonnades, there remains now only 
traces of one wall of the main house and the " Royal .Stables," 
wliich latter is in fairly good preservation, thanks to the fact that, 
the horses gone, their home had been converted into a scliool-hou.se. 
Of course all, or nearly all. of the material used in building the 
I'alace was imported from f-ngland and worked up into a structure 
tliat cost tlie people 56o,ooo — an enormous cost in tliose days — 
for, of course, the Governor taxed upon the people the cost of his 
oliicial residence. A rear view, based upon authorities unknown 
to us, may be found on page 28. 



24 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



relic of the great house, designed by I'Enfant, that Robert 
Morris, " the financier of the Revolution," partly completed 
on Chestnut Street, Philadelphia. Let into the face of the 
second-story wall of a little stone house in Conshohocken, 
just outside of Philadelphia, once occupied by James Tra- 
quier, a stone-cutter and one of the contractors for Morris's 
house, is a marble panel, sculptured in high relief by an 
Italian sculptor, Giuseppe Jardella, who had been imported 
to execute the carved work that was to adorn the great house. 
The panel which, by the courtesy of the publishers of AIoiiu- 
mental News, we here illustrate, is dedicated to the Fine- 
Arts, or to Literature and Painting, and taken with the pair 




The "Oak Tree" Tavern (now used as a Public ilalll, Montgomery County, Pa. 

of great marble Ionic capitals that stand in the yard behind 
tlie house — which adjoins the quarry from which the marble 
was taken — indicates how serious a loss it was to the archi- 
tectural records of the country when disaster overtook the 
great financier, and his lordly house in its unfinished state 
was itself converted into a prison to relieve the overcrowded 
state of the jail in which its former owner was at that time 
lodged. 

Men of business as well as men of peace, the Quakers of 
Philadelphia were the connecting link between the farmers 
and trappers of the interior and the mother country, and in 
prosecution of their business they and others had to travel 



widely over the State, and as Pennsylvania is not as well 
served with rivers as is Virginia, their journeys had to be 
taken on horseback or in some form of vehicle. Along the 
travelled roads, then, that were thus created in every di- 
rection there were established after they had become stage- 
routes, numerous inns and taverns, many of which, being as 
substantially built as other buildings of the time and district, 
still exist, a few still serving as inns, and others converted to 
different uses. These inns seem generally to have been kept 
by English hosts, for the signboard that swung before the 
inn usually bore a name and painted cognizance of the same 
class as those that hung before many an old English inn, 




The " Blue-bell " Tavern, Derby, Pa. 

and we hear of " Red Lions," " White Horses," " Mariner's 
Compasses," " Blue Boars," " Rising Suns," and so on, in 
different directions. Perhaps the oldest of these inns now 
extant is the "Jolly Post," on the Frankford Pike, built in 
1680 ; but as the Lancaster Pike was the first turnpike road 
in the State, some of the many inns along its length may be 
older yet. 

As many of these taverns are associated with historic 
events, and many of them, as the Paoli Inn, are extremely 
picturesque and interesting, a very readable monograph, 
illustrated with cuts of greater or less architectural value, 
might be founded upon them. 




Old Dutch Inn, Kingston, N. Y. 



The University of Virginia.' 




IN a paper dealing with the construction of the University 
of Virginia it is hard to confine the description wholly 
to material construction and omit all reference to the 
spiritual organization of the University, as its peculiar 
foundation demanded peculiar housing. 

Complete organization as an academic body resulted only 
after forty years of hard study of architectural systems and 
foundations of Europe, years of heart-breaking opposition to 
the founder and his theories, of almost superhuman patience 
and endeavor on his side to so modify them as to make for 
the enlightenment and 
liberties of his people. 

Thomas Jefferson, 
first pioneer, incorpo- 
rated in our own Gov- 
ernment the great prin- 
ciples of human right, 
which are siill working 
for the advancement of 
man. He held th it 
the permanency of our 
institutions depended 
upon a true education 
of our people. And he 
made use of the oppor- 
tunities which high 
offices of state at home 
and abroad gave him, 
to study different edu- 
cational methods with 
that exhaustive scru- 
tiny which he brought 
to bear upon every subject which he chose to investigate. 
The greatest work of his life was the foundation of the Uni- 
versity of Virginia, upon lines then new in the field of letters. 

1 Portion of a paper de.scriptive of the re.storation of the Library 
and the new buildings of the University of \'irginia read before 
the Boston Society of Architects in the winter of igoo. 

1* Jefferson's Tomi!STOm:. — This tombstone, wliicli was re- 
moved to make room for the monument voted by Congress in 
1882, was presented by tlie Messrs. Randolpli. Jefferson's residuarv 
legatees, to the University of Missouri, at Columliia. Mo., and now 
stands on the campus of that University, bearing still its original 
inscription: — 

"Here was buried Thomas Jefferson, .Author of 
the Declaration of Independence, of the .Statute 
of \irginia for religious freedom and Fatlier of the 
University of Virginia." 




i'ruftssor's House: No 2 West Lawn. 



On his tombstone- he is fittingly called the "Father of the 
University of Virginia." And father he was in every sense, 
not simply the originaor of its system of discipline and its 
curriculum, but the planner and modeller of its outward 
forms, which were unique at that time, and to-day are inter- 
esting and rarely beautiful. 

The original drawings prepared by Thomas Jefferson for 
the buildings of the University are preserved as heirlooms 
in the Randolph family, at Charlottesville, Va. They are 
drawn on scraps of paper of all sizes and kinds, partly in 

pencil, partly in ink; 
at a very small scale, 
but with considerable 
skill. On the reverse 
side of the sheets are, 
usually, notes upon the 
materials to be used, or 
estimates of quantities, 
and architectural de- 
tails. While e.\amin- 
ing these papers one 
realizes that this insti- 
lution was entirely the 
product of one man's 
mind. He not only 
drew the plans and 
made estimates for 
every important feature 
of this group of Uni- 
versity buildings, but 
in addition he trained 
brickmoulders, and had 
brick made on the campus, taught masons and carpenters 
their trades, designed tools and implements for all his men, 
and established in his own yard a forge where all nails, bolts 



In the autumn of 1901, the Jefferson Club of St. Uouis made a 
pilgrimage to '• Monticello." and in compensation for the gift made 
in 1882, and to mark as well their visit and their admiration for 
Jefferson's career, erected a red-granite shaft on the house-grounds, 
bearing this inscription : — 

THd.MAS JKFFKKSO.X. 

Citizen, statesman, patriot ; 

the greatest advocate of human liberty opposing 

special privileges, he loved and trusted the jieople. 

TO CO.M.MKMORATK HIS I'UKCH.ASh: 

OF LOUISIA.X.A. 
lOrected by the Jefferson Club of St. I.ouis, Mo., 
on their pilgrimage, October 12, 1901. 

To expre.ss their devotion to his principles. 



26 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



and ironwork used were turned out under his direction by 
his own household slaves. He imported skilled workmen 
from Italy to carve the capitals of his columns from native 
stone. Discovering this stone to be friable, Italian marble 
was imported. Caps and shafts for the Rotunda columns 
were gotten out of the Carrara quarries. But the caps alone 
c-ame to this country, as the columns proved too heavy for 



of the same. At the rear of the room is a window opposite 
to the doors, which open from under continuous arcades 
directly into the rooms, just as those facing the Lawn are 
entered under the colonnades. 

The spaces between the Ranges and the Lawn were cut 
up into yards in which the most primitive sanitaries were 
arranged. The dividing-walls, some of which are still stand- 



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Professor's House : No. 4 West Lawn. 

shipment in those days, and lay for many years at the quar- 
ries without a market. 

Plate 7, taken from an engraved survey made in 1856, 
shows the Jefferson group of buildings as completed in 
1826. Sites for these were found on a commanding hill by 
levelling its top and terracing its southern slope. The 
Rotunda, or library, was placed on the highest point and, on 
each side of an axis drawn through its centre north and 
south, the other build- 
ings were laid out in 
four parallel rows, with 
wide open spaces be- 
tween them. The cen- 
tral space, called " The 
Lawn," has ten houses 
faced upon it, each of 
two stories, generally 
with Classic porticos. 
Each house has two 
one-story wings, con- 
taining five rooms. 

These ten houses 
were planned with large 
lecture-rooms on the 
ground-floors, and ac- 
commodations for the 
lecturers and their fami- 
lies on the second floors. 
The families now oc- 
cupy all the rooms, and 
the lectures are held in other buildings. The wing rooms 
were designed for students' quarters, and are still so used. 
These rooms, like monastic cells, are entered directly from 
the colonnades, which are continuous across the front of the 
several houses and bind them into one harmonious whole. 

The other rows of buildings are called " The Ranges." 
The larger buildings at the ends are students' hotels, the 
central ones are officers' lodgings and lecture-rooms, while 
the intermediate ones are cut up into students' rooms. 
These last, being designed for two, are about 12 feet square, 
and have a fireplace on one side, with a closet on each side 



Professor's House: No. 2 East Lawn, 



Professor's House: No. 5 East Lawn. 

ing, were built of one thickness of brick, along waving lines, 
to make them stable. By this device many thousands of 
brick were saved, with strong and decidedly picturesque 
walls as the result. 

A comparison of Mr. Jefferson's original drawings with 
photographs of tlie buildings as they stand to-day serve 
to show how closely the original sketches were followed, 
and also how much they were bettered in execution. The 

porticos were all pro- 
portioned, and details 
of the orders taken, 
from Palladio's great 
work on architecture. 
The walls are of red 
brick, the columns and 
shafts of brick covered 
with stucco, the caps 
and bases of stone or 
marble, and the cor- 
nices, window-frames, 
sills and lintels are of 
wood with ornaments 
of hammered lead and 
putty. Everything ex- 
cept the brick is painted 
white. 

The Rotunda was 
planned after the 
Roman Pantheon ex- 
teriorly, but was only 
one-half the diameter, therefore one-eighth the volume. By 
the drawings, it was intended to be exactly circumscribed 
about a sphere. The interior was cut up into three stories, 
the first two into elliptical rooms quaintly interlocked, the 
third a rotunda with a colonnade of coupled columns, deep 
alcoves and a great dome overhead. 

As this dome was entirely of wood, the steps on the out- 
side decayed in time, were removed by some superintendent 
of buildings to save repair, and the dome left, showing above 
the attic as an unbroken sphere, except for the eye and 
skylight at the top. 




THE UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA. 



27 



Views of the house' which Jefferson built for himself will 
add to the appreciation of his work as an architect. " Mon- 
ticello " was completed in 18 10, some years before the Uni- 
versity buildings were begun, but it is of the same style, with 
brick walls and cornices of wood, all detail being copied 
from good Classic examples, but modified by the workmen 
and exigency of the materials. 

The Rotunda of the University was not completed until 
after Mr. Jefferson's death, he only living to see the com- 
pletion of the Lawn and Ranges and to see the first capital of 
the south portico set in place. About i860 an annex was 




Professor's House: No. i East Lawn. 

built to accommodate the rapidly-growing schools, and pro- 
vide a public hall. This was a five or six story building 
added at the north of the Rotunda, with a portico on the ex- 
treme north, like a parody of the original one on the south. 
Its height was masked by a terrace of rough stone, quite 
artistic in its effect. 

In October, 1895, the Rotunda and its annex burned. A 
period of depression and anxiety followed. Two hundred 
and fifty thousand dollars was subscribed, some mistakes 
were made, but, finally, the Board of Visitors selected McKim, 
Mead & White, of New York, as the gentlemen best qualified 
to restore the Rotunda and to plan the new buildings which 
should be built to house the several schools. The architects, 
admiring greatly the work of Mr. Jefferson, desired to restore 
the Rotunda exteriorly to its original lines, and to so place 
and design the new buildings as to emphasize the Jefferson 
group. I quote in part from their report when submitting 
their plans : — 

" The scheme contemplates the erection of the Academic 
Building, the Physics Building, the Mechanical Building, with 
sites for a Law Building and Hall of Languages, on a new 
'lawn,' and for other buildings allowing for future expan- 
sion in this direction. The plans for the Jefferson Rotunda 
contemplate its exact restoration as far as the exterior is con- 
cerned, with the exception of the rear, which has come down 
in an unfinished state, and for which some new treatment in 
harmony with the old had to be devised. The interior is 
thrown into one large rotunda. The low terraced wings on 
the front of the building are repeated at the rear, and these 

» Plates 8-1 1, Part IX. 



new wings are connected to the old ones by colonnades, 
forming two courts, to be completed now or at some future 
time. This gives, adjacent to the library, two additional class- 
rooms. The scheme presented contemplates the retaining 
of the terrace of the destroyed addition, and the turning of 
the sunken part into a garden. 

" To the question of the remodelling of the interior of the 
Rotunda, we have given most careful study. Reasons of 
sentiment would point to the restoration of the interior 
exactly as it stood, but the dedication of the entire Rotunda 
to use as a library, and the unquestionable fact that it was 



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Professor's House: No. ,i East Lawn. 

only practical necessity which forced Jefferson at the time it 
was built to cut the Rotunda into two stories, and that he 
would have planned the interior as a simple, single and noble 
room had he then been able to do so, induces us strongly to 
urge upon your Board the adoption of a single domed room, 
as presented, not only as the most practical, but the proper 
treatment of the interior. 

" The scheme submitted contemplates the restoration of the 
Rotunda as a fireproof building throughout. The site for 
the new buildings completing the College Close we believe 
to be the only one, both on rational and sentimental grounds. 
The character of the land, falling away on the southern side 
of the road, allows the Academic Building and the Physical 
and Mechanical Buildings to appear as only one story in 
height, whereas on account of the steep grade they actually 
count for practical use as two. The charm of the present 
Close and the domination of the Rotunda are therefore pre- 
served. It is impossible, with the amount of money avail- 
able for the University, to build these new buildings fireproof. 
We do not, however, consider this as seriously advisable as 
in the case of the Rotunda. The plans as submitted for these 
buildings contemplate the use of fireproof-floors wherever 
they seem advisable, and as the boilers and the entire heat- 
ing and electric-lighting apparatus are removed to a separate 
building, the danger from fire is reduced to a minimum." 

Guastavino tile-construction was adopted for use in the 
Rotunda as being best suited to the designs, and it stands 
to-day as fireproof a structure as there is anywhere. There 
are no furred ceilings or false forms. Everywhere the con- 
struction form shows. Theodore H. Skinner. 



The Cape Fear River District, N. C. 



ONE of the most interesting sections of North 
Carolina, so far as concerns architecture of the 
Colonial period, is that on the Cape Fear River, 
beginning at the city of Wilmington and extend- 
ing seaward to near the river's nioutii. In tlie city itself, 
which began its existence about the year 1730, — under the 
name of Liverpool, and in 1739 adopting its present name, 
Wilmington, — there are a number of Colonial houses, but only 
two built in the eighteenth century of attractive architec- 
tural appearance. Both of these buildings are situated on 
Third Street, and are not far apart, being separated only by 
the width of the street. The best preserved (now owned 
and occupied by a Mrs. McCrary) has its most important 
historic association in the fact that it was the headquarters 
of Lord Cornwallis, Commander of the British forces during 
the Revolutionary War. 

This mansion is of wood, two stories in heiglit, and has 
not much in the way of ornamental feature — save the 
two verandas, each with six Ionic columns — but the general 
effect is pleasing. There is a one-story rear extension to the 
house; and, at the main gables, there are large chimneys. 
The other Colonial building, opposite the McCrary house, 



leading through a bay from the river-landing up to the mansion. 

Farther down stream, 14 miles from, the river's mouth, is 
Orton Plantation, a place rich in historic and legendary lore. 
It took its name from a village in England, and was first 
owned by Maurice Moore, the grandson of Governor Sir 
John Yeamans and son of Governor James Moore of South 
Carolina, who, in 17 11, came to North Carolina to aid in 
suppressing the Tuscaloosa Indian outbreak. The planta- 
tion, now owned by Col. K. M. Murchison, consists of 10,000 
acres, and upon one of its most commanding and beautiful 
hills there stands the " Mansion House," a venerable struct- 
ure built about the year 1725 by "King" Roger Moore, 
brother of the original proprietor of Orton. 

The building — wliich has been to some extent improved 
since the days of "King Roger" — can easily be seen from 
the river; it presents a most picturesque appearance, lifting 
its lofty roof amidst old trees, while its glistening whiteness 
makes striking contrast with the abundant surrounding ver- 
dure. Four huge columns rise from the deep veranda, which 
extends across the wiiole front of the building, unobstructed 
to the high, overhanging front gable that makes the veranda 
covering. The central (front) entrance projects from the 




^^'"■^'W?^ 



s Palace Wl go N (J." 



was the ancient home of the De Rosset family, and, a hun- wall, and, at the top, there is a railed balcony, v On each ; 

dred years later, used as headquarters for the Confederate side and above this are large windows. The side-walls rise 

generals commanding the lower Cape Fear district. sheer from ground to roof, two stories high, the large win- 

This structure is of brick, made in England. It is three dows alone relieving the bare surface. The roof saddles the 

stories in height, oblong, square in main body, with a low, structure, rising fairly sharp and without ornament, 
sloping back extension. In front there is a wide veranda. This edifice (it looks like a church or other public build 



having square columns, which support a balconied top; and 
from this the brick (front) wall, relieved only by large win- 
dows, rises to meet the shallow eaved roof. The latter is of 
the ordinary gabled-end kind, but each gable is surmounted 
by a very wide chimney. 

A few miles from Wilmington, oceanward and near the 
Cape Fear River, are the ruins of the finest of Cape Fear 
Colonial mansions. Tliis was "Sedgely Abbey," built in 



ing) was built of brick brought from Etigland; but, though 
made of clav, it is grand in its massive simplicity, and is an 
ideal specimen of old Southern plantation dwellings. 

In the Orton neighborhood, about half a mile from the 
Murchison residence, are the ruins of Colotiial Governor 
Tryon's "palace," — a square, two-story structure built of 
English brick, — a spot of national historical importance from 
tile fact that here occurred the first overt act of violence 



1726 by an English gentleman of great wealth, Maxwell by in the Revolutionary War, about eight years before the people 
name, who owned miles of property in this section of the of Boston had their famous Tea-party. 



country. The mansion was large and of much architectural 
pretension, and was built of coquina. On its east side, 
toward the sea, there was a wide oak-bordered avenue whicli 
extended a distance of 1,500 feet, and was approached over a 
corduroy road, still in evidence and bordered with fine trees, 



Though there is in the present aspect of this historical 
place little to suggest the old-time grandeur of Tryon's 
palace and its surroundings, it is safe to say that that ancient 
governor was " well fixed," and a royal liver. 

l,<iMES Eastus Price. 



2& 



Charleston, between Ashley and Cooper. 




THE Charleston '■ we know to-day presents, archi- 
tecturally, a quaint mixture of French and English 
ideas, together with some of the more salient ones 
of old San Domingo, in the way of exaggerated 
verandas and high brick walls, thrown in for good measure. 



tants, the English Cavalier and the French Huguenot, both 
of whom represented people of pronounced opinions as to 
what constituted domestic comfort and elegance. The San 
Domingo feeling came naturally and regularly enough, too, 
along with a lot of wealthy immigrants from the West Indian 




Entrance to tlte Bull House, Bull Street, Charleston, S. C. 



The first two of these »/(?///> — the French and the English — Islands who made their homes in Charleston, where the 
were inherited, naturally enough, from its earliest inhabi- climate was not totally unlike that left behind them, and 



'Charleston. — Charleston was settled in 1680 .by English 
Colonists under Col. William Sayle, and called New Cliarles- 
Town because of abortive attempts to found earlier cities o£ the 
same name in the same general locality as far back as 1670. Its 



geographical position is similar to that of Manhattan Island in 
that it is bounded on either side by rivers of considerable width 
— the Cooper to the east and the Ashley to the west — ■ and faces 
the harbor to the southeast. 



30 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



proceeded to make themselves comfortable in their own 
way. 

The houses built by these immigrants were usually spacious, 
with enormous two and three story covered verandas as 
special features, though quite lacking in interior adornment. 
They were commonly surrounded by large grounds around 
which high brick walls were built, after the manner of that 
surrounding the Simonton residence ' on Lcgare Street, which, 
with its great iron gateway,^ is one of tlie show-places of the 
city. These walls afforded the greatest privacy — a thing 
always of paramount importance with Charlestonians — and 
allowed the outsider no glimpse of the well-arranged garden 
within with its gay 
masses of odorous opo- 
ponax, reve d'or roses 
and tropical palmetto 
bushes, among which 
the women of the fam- 
ily wandered informally 
at pleasure — or, if 
any, just a tantalizing 
peep through the richly 
wrought entrance- 
gates. 

Although these San 
Domingo houses had 
no feeling of Classi- 
cism, toward which the 
Cavaliers and their de- 
scendants, being men 
of culture and wide 
social experience, were 
greatly inclined, they 
were so practical and 
comfortable, so thor- 
oughly adapted to the 
demands of the climate 
and the hospitable life 
of the South, and so 
much less expensive, 
on the whole, than 
Georgian houses of the 
type of the Miles Brew- 
ton house, ° built in 
1765; and the Lord 
William Campbell 
house* on Meeting 
Street, that, little by 
little, the style became 
almost universal 
among the masses as 
well as the classes. So 
much so that, modified, 

amplified, and beautified by French or English ideas of 
adornment, it became in due time — high walls, great gate- 
ways, and all — what might accurately be called the Charles- 

' SiMONTOx. — The Simonton residence was built some time be- 
tween 1740 and 1770, and at that time, as tlie original plan shows, 
the garden attached to tlie premises was laid out. The wall was 
built by a silk merchant, Lorentz, who purchased the property 
toward the end of the eighteenth century. The gate was a some- 
what later structure, and is said to have been the work of a Ger- 
man, by the name of Werner, who was a genius in ironwork. 

2 Plates 29. 30, Part X. 

'I'lates lS-26, Part -V. 

* Page 38, l^art X. 

si'late 2, I'art X. 




. — r<^--VVT/(J2«Z>W 



Gateway on the East Battery. Charleston. 



ton type, and continued its vogue — despite the seductive 
influence of the Greek revival, which began to make its in- 
fluence felt at the beginning of the nineteenth century — 
until the Civil War. 

These typical houses were situated in two different man- 
ners, the more popular of which was to turn an end of the 
house to the streef, running it up on a line with the sidewalk, 
leaving a seemingly endless expanse of veranda to open on a 
side garden. A perfect illustration of this method of locating 
a residence is afforded by the George Edmondson house ' on 
Legare Street, now owned by Capt. J. Adger Smythe. Here 
the dwelling itself presents on first sight the average appear- 
ance of a town-house) 
with a simple but well 
designed entrance from 
the street. By peering 
about carefully, how- 
ever, through the vines 
and trees and seeking 
the proper position for 
a good view, the formal 
front, or side, to speak 
more properly, is found 
to be but a mask 
for a characteristically 
Southern mansion of 
extraordinary size, sur- 
rounded by an exten- 
sive garden shut off 
from the street by a 
high wall of brick, wood 
and iron, the feature of 
which is a remarkably 
fine gateway' which, in 
connection with the 
grilled entrance, forms 
a continuous design. 
This doorway, by the 
way, does not lead into 
the house proper, as 
one might imagine, but 
— after the manner of 
most Charleston door- 
ways — up several 
steps on the inside to 
the first floor of the 
veranda, the existence 
of which a stranger 
passing by. the appar- 
ent front would not 
suspect. 

The other "man- 
ner '' referred to placed 
the house in the midst of large grounds some distance 
from the 'street. Although here again it was sometimes 
turned endwise, it was more generally given a full front to the 

' The Edmondson gateway has served as a model for manv 
others in Charleston and elsewhere, none of wliich, however, equal 
the original in beauty. The wrought-iron work was imported 
from England with the initials of the builder as features of the 
grillework on either side of the doorway. The fashion of intro- 
ducing such initials in wrought-iron trimmings prevailed in Char- 
leston, an example of which is also furnished by the entrance to 
the Nathaniel Russell house on Meeting Street,* which was built 
about I 790, and also by the veranda railing of an old antiquities 
shop on Queen Street. 

* Plate 12, PartX. 



CHARLESTON, BETWEEN ASHLEY AND COOPER. 



31 



thoroughfare, as in the case of the De Saussure house on the accommodation of an average sized family. The pushing 

South Battery. As a rule, too, they were built after the of these houses upward instead of spreading them outward 

general plan of this house — three stories high, with a three- over a larger area, while it added to their coolness — a thing 

story columned veranda stretching across the entire front most to be desired in a hot climate — certainly produced very 



upon which the full-length 
windows of the rooms open. 
From the house a wide sandy 
walk leads down to the 
carriage-gate, flanked on one 
side by a smaller gate where 
the family enters and where 
visitors pause to ring a bell, 
and on the other by the 
servants' entrance. 

The interior arrangement 
of these huge old San Do- 
mingo houses is exceedingly 
simple, consisting, as a rule, 
of a central hall, with one 
great room on either side of 
it supplied with long windows 
to catch the breeze. Having 




KITCHEN' 



Plan of the Nathaniel Russell House. 



outre and remarkable effects; 
which, on the whole, however, 
are unique though ungainly, 
and sometimes positively 
baronial and a trifle awful, 
as in the case of the Holmes 
house on East Battery," 
which, though slightly differ- 
ent in form, illustrates the 
same idea of construction 
and in which the style may 
be said to have reached its 
extremest limit. This house 
was built by James Gadsden 
Holmes, Sr., in 1818, and 
was until long after the war 
(during which, being white 
and the highest building on 



only two rooms to a floor with an occasional one or two the Battery, it was used for target practice by the Federals 
story L to the rear and the servants' quarters in an addition and frequently hit) the residence of his family, by members 
to the right or left (see quarters to Ue Saussure house') it of which it is still owned. For years, however, it has been 




A Doorway in the Nathaniel Russell House. 



became necessary to add numerous stories to the original practically deserted while seeking a purchaser. The great 
one in order to secure the number of apartments needed for rooms are bare except for stray bits of old mahogany 
> Plate 4, Part X. ' I'late 6, I'art X. 



32 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



furniture, most of the wood of which, by the way, came from 
San Domingo. In the dusty, webby old arched dining-room, 
for instance, stands an antique sideboard of simple design 
but good wood and excellent workmanship, with its doors 
aimlessly open — left behind as a thing of no value. A 
curious old desk is in the hall with a leaded glass case above 
for books and three large drawers below, the top one of 
which lets down to form a writing-shelf. In the octagon 
drawing-room above the arched entrance several old family 
portraits lean wearily against the wall — two by Copley and 
one by Flagg ; and in the attic, up five long flights of stairs, 
half concealed by a lot of old Edinburgh Reviews of 1S12-14 
and other dilapidated books which speak plainly of the cul- 
tured tastes of those who once inhabited the rooms below, 
lies an old satinwood four-poster, one standard of which has 



features of the homes of the rich in old Charleston. In 
them the celebrated "Jockey Club" and "Belvedere"^ and 
other madeiras for which the city was so famous were stored, 
as the action of the sun on the roof produced a higher tem- 
perature than could have been obtained in a subterranean 
closet and the slight motion of the house was considered 
desirable during fermentation. 

From the roof of the Holmes house one may enjoy a per- 
fect view of the city of Charleston, from the green fertile 
islands lying beyond the harbor to the south, far up the 
Ashley and Cooper Rivers to the nonh, with the Wrenesque 
spire of St. Michael's standing up white and clear against 
the vivid blue of the sky — less delicate in outline, however, 
than the more recent spire of St. Philip's, not far away. 

The oldest part of the city of Charleston, as laid out by 




^<r;2;^/y.y,/,j;;»^,^,^,^.,, 



;») i.\\ )''"'- a ttvv/ju~(^;- 




■ JuiutorS Entrance Lod^e • Charle5tor» College 

Charleston SC • 
[17831 



poked itself through the open door of an attic wine-closet 
there. 

Attic wine-closets, by the way, are among the many unique 

1 According to the earliest records, madeira was the common 
drink in Charleston in 1763. In tlie middle of the eighteentli 
century it became fashional)le in England owing to the recom- 
mendation of officers who had served in the West Indies and 
America. It became customary to sliip the wine from Madeira 
to the West Indies and tlience to America to improve its taste. 
This journeying, in a measure, took the place of submitting the 
wines to a high temperature in stone buildings. The early 
shippers found that the climate of Charleston was especially 
adapted to mellowing the wine and imparting to it tliat peculiar 
bouquet and flavor so prized by connoisseurs and stored large 
quantities of it there. .So famous, in fact, was the wine of old 
Charleston that tlie British Consul was instructed to purchase 
wine for the (Queen's table there and annually did so, selecting it 



John Culpepper in 1680 and presented for the first time in a 
map drawn by Edward Crisp in 1704, extended from the sea 
on the south to what was formerly a creek on the north, 

from the cellars of private gentlemen. Much fine old wine is still 
stored in the cellars of the rich and aristocratic families of 
Charleston, though it is rapidly disappearing. The oldest wine 
known there now is in the possession of the Blake familv and is 
146 years old. The Hlake wine is known historically as the 
" Earthquake wine," having been brought to Charleston the year 
of the great Lisbon earthquake, 1755. Ur. Gabriel Manigault 
had, prior to his deatli, a few dozen bottles of the celebrated 
" Belvedere," named from the vessel that brought it from Madeira 
in 1838. There is still a quantitv of "Jockey Club" madeira in 
Charleston held, under a perhaps mistaken faith in its keeping 
ciualities, at exorbitant prices. It is so called because at the 
Jockey Club balls, instituted more than a century ago, it was 
the brand served. 



CHARLESTON, BETWEEN ASHLEY AND COOPER. 



33 



where the celebrated Charleston market ^ now stands, which 
was established as early as 1788, although the present 
market-house was not built until 1841. On the east it was 
bounded by Cooper River and extended west as far as Meet- 
ing Street, at ine extreme limit of which stood what was then 
a public market, with St. Philip's Church — which was the 
first English church in South Carolina — on the site where 
St. Michael's now stands. From this point, which may now 
be pointed out as the corner of Meeting and Broad Streets, to 
the Battery, streets intersected each other, consisting of eight 
in all and one alley, namely : Tradd Street, Elliot Street, 
Broad and Queen Streets running east and west; and Bay, 
Union (now State), Church and Meeting Streets running 
north and south. 

Tradd Street, a quaint, narrow, silent thoroughfare paved 



days, was a social thoroughfare. Church Street, at right- 
angles, not far away, was equally so. 

Any one interested in the architectural characteristics of 
Charleston should enter this historic roadway at the Bat- 
tery, from which it takes its narrow and winding course past 
old iron gateways and high brick walls, overgrown with 
cypress-vine and Virginia creeper ; under the projecting hoods 
of doorways, toward the heart of the city, crossing at intervals 
streets equally quaint and curious. Looking down Longi- 
tude Lane and St. Michael's Alley one could almost imagine 
one's self in old Havana, while down Tradd or Queen 
Street, toward East Bay, there are features that suggest the 
French Quarter of New Orleans. 

East Bay Street itself, with its wharves, storehouses and 
dilapidated old dwellings, now turned into tenements and fast 




Tlie College of Cliarleston. 



with cobble-stones, is to-day one of the most interesting sights 
afforded the student of Coloniana visiting Charleston. A 
plain old house that formerly stood at the corner of Tradd 
and East Bay was the residence of Robert Tradd, from whom 
the street took its name and in which the first native child 
was bcrn. Not far away, on the southwest corner of East 
Bay and Longitude Lane, the pretentious dwelling of Land- 
grave Thomas Smith used to stand, on a lot in the rear of 
which the first rice in South Carolina is believed to have been 
planted as far back as 1693. On the north side of Tradd 
Street, about midway between Church and East Bay Streets, 
the old Carolina Coffee-house still stands. In its day this 
was the leading fashionable hotel in the city. The Governor 
and his staff lodged there and it was the scene of all the 
public dinners given to strangers. Tradd Street, iti the old 

' See illustration, pa^^e 49. 



going to ruin, many of them being already wholly uninhabit- 
able, is curiously unlike any modern street in any modern 
town, although, at one time, it was a favorite residence sec- 
tion of the rich, fronting, as it does, toward both Cooper 
River and the sea. One of the notable houses of this vicinity 
stands on the corner of Laurens and East Bay Streets, sur- 
rounded by the remains of what was once a garden, part 
of which is now used as a city dumping-ground. This house," 
which was formerly bare of its present verandas, was built 
about 1770 by Henry Laurens, the first President of the Con- 
tinental Congress, Minister Plenipotentiary to Holland, a 
friend of Washington's, and one of our most picturesque 
national characters. Just across the street from it is Hey- 
ward house,' one of the many in Charleston built by 

' See cut, page 34. 

« Mates lo-i 1, Part X. 



34 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



members of that distinguished family, another of which is ing) as for their masterly construction. Here also may be 
just a stone's throw away, at 87 Church Street.' With its found an interesting display of wrought-iron railings, win- 
great old gateway and Corinthian portico it is not easily dow-screens, brackets and other trimmings — in which, by 




overlooked or forgotten, for it possesses, more than 
Charleston houses, a peculiar and persistent ^(f/«W of its 
The interior is almost 
equally interesting. The 
panelled drawing-room on 
the second floor, overlook- 
ing the river, is a charming 
chamber with an atmos- 
phere of nobler days; and 
many of the mantels 
throughout the house, 
though greatly mutilated by 
tenement renters, are ex- 
cellent specimens, worthy 
of preservation. Not far 
away is the old Ball resi- 
dence, and others equally 
valuable as specimens of 
brickwork and woodwork, 
and often containing superb 
old staircases,^ not so re- 
markable for their adorn- 
ment (Charleston staircases 



most the way, Charleston is particularly rich as a city — some 
own. of the designs of which are charmingly simple, others being 

__^ highly elaborate and worthy 

to rank with the best work 



being almost invariably of plain mahogany, devoid of 



of Queen Anne's reign. 
Much of the simpler work 
in wrought-iron — which, 
on the whole, is more valu- 
able than that which is 
more elaborate, in that it is 
more original — is said to 
have been the work of an 
old blind slave, who at one 
time followed the black- 
smith's calling in Charles- 
ton. 

The residences of old 
Charleston which are still 
preserved are, for the most 
part, quite plain externally, 
and of rather forbidding 
mien. High walls enclose 
their courtyards, over the 
carv- tops of which the antique slave-quarters' — which with their 




Judge Thomas Heyward's House, Cluircli Street. 



iHkyward House. — -The Heyward house referred to on 
Church .Street is now used as a bakery and is situated near the 
corner of Tradd. It was the residence of Judge Thomas Hey- 
ward, a signer o£ the Declaration of Independence and a friend of 
George Washington's, who on liis Southern tour, in 1 791, was a 
guest in this house. At that time it was one of the most splendid 
residences in the city. A douljle-story veranda jutted out over 
the street, said to have been similar in general style to that of the 
Horry house, corner of Meeting and Tradd,* and the interior 
furnishing was second to none in the city. The drawing-room on 
the second floor is a fine chamber containing some interesting 
features still in excellent preservation. 

Mrs. ICdward Willis, a devoted Daughter of the Revolution, 
placed a tablet on the house commemorating the visit of Washing- 
ton. 

•Plate 36, Part X. 



' The Elliot Staircase. — One of the finest staircases in the 
entire city is that of the old Klliot residence, which was built 
before the Revolution, and is now the offices of the Charleston 
Waterworks. This stairway of solid marble goes from basement 
to attic, and without a support, except on the side towards the wall. 
The upper story is one large room covering the entire building, 
except the hall, and w'as built for a ball-room. The view from the 
window looking seaward is as fine as there is in the city. On 
the side of the main stairway is a private, or secret, stairwav, built 
in the solid masonry, with an opening on each floor. Servants in 
showing a guest would conduct him to the foot of the main stair- 
way and, directing him up, would meet him at the landing on the 
next floor, and so on to the upper story, or ball-room. No servant 
was allowed to go up the main stairway with company. 

» See cut of Horry slave-quarters, page 39. 



CHARLESTON, BETWEEN ASHLEY AND COOPER. 



35 



red-tiled roofs are a touch of old Spain in the general scheme 
of construction — are still to be seen. The dwelling and 
quarters are usually of brick, the former being often rough- 
cast. Occasionally, however, they were of black cypress, as 
in the case of the old 
Drayton house,* on South 
Battery, which, with its 
richly-adorned interior, is 
one of the choicest Co- 
lonial specimens in the 
city. 

The oldest English 
houses in Charleston, al- 
though most of them are 
now supplied with veran- 
das, which were found to 
be necessary because of 
the climate, were origin- 
ally built without them, 
and were entered from 
the street on the ground- 
floor, as in the case of 
Mrs. William Mason- 
Smith's house on Church 
Street ; or, at most, up a 
high stoop, as in the 
Lord William Campbell 
house ^ on Meeting 
Street, or Hayne house, 
just across the way from 
it. The Mason-Smith house has long verandas, not to be 
seen from the immediate front, running along the entire side 
of the house, upon which the full-length windows of the 
different rooms open. These verandas immediately overlook 




mantels of which are not unlike the one in the drawing-room 
of Brewton House, and the woodwork throughout is exceed- 
ingly refined and quite elaborate. 

Second-story drawing-rooms, by the way, are the rule and 

not the exception in 
Charleston, which holds 
with great tenacity to its 
English ideas of social 
life, in connection with 
which a great deal more 
of formality obtains than 
in any other Southern 
city ; and the line be- 
tween social and business 
intercourse is very closely 
drawn. And such quaint 
Old World formality ! A 
caller entering any of the 
old Charleston houses is 
first given a seat in the 
hall — which, as a rule, is 
cheerless and unattract- 
ive — while his card is 
presented. If his mis- 
sion is a business one, or 
he is paying a visit to a 
masculine member of the 
household, he is asked 
into the library, which is 
usually the first room on 
the first floor looking out directly on the street. If, how- 
ever, he is to be the guest of the ladies, the servant, returning, 
shows him, with a great flourish of politeness and ceremony, 
upstairs into the drawing-room, which, in even the least pre- 




Tombslone of .Mrs. Benj. Elliott in St. Philip's Churchyard. [1767.] 



Tombstone in St. Philip's Churchyard, Charleston. [1789.] 



the adjacent churchyard with its quaint gravestones, some tentious of the old houses, is the long chamber occupying 

of which seem to be bending their necks and standing on tip- the front section of the second story and may be either a 

toe to peep through the windows into the cheery rooms just stately audience-chamber with vaulted ceiling and a rich 

beyond the dividing-wall. The drawing-room of this house display of woodwork — as in the case of the Miles Brewton 

is a long double chamber on the second floor, the two house bef ore referred to— or a quaint low chamber with 



Plate 14, I'art .\. 



"See cut, page 3.S. 



36 



THE GEORGTAN PERIOD. 



chair-boards, the freize and ceiling of the room being elabo- church has stood since 1692, to where the portico of old St. 
rately adorned with delicate patterns in plaster or putty after Philip's looms before you in solemn dignity and beauty, you 
the style introduced by the Brothers Adam about 1760, chance to stop in for a moment at one of the antiquities 
which was popular in Charles- | »— , shops, you will see wonderful 



ton.'' Often the walls were 
wainscoted all the way, and 
invariably the main feature of 
the room is a fine old mantel 
carried up to the ceiling. 

The antique mahogany with 
which these rooms are fur- 
nished presents a study in by- 
gone fashions both interesting 
and valuable, and the walls 
are hung with portraits by 
Copley, Flagg, Savage, Sully, 
Peale, Trumbull, Gilbert, and 
many other Colonial painters 
not so well known, men who, 
by the way, are deservedly ob- 
scure ; with miniatures by 
Washington Allston, Malbone 
and Fraser, and an occasional 
St. Memin engraving to lend 
quaint interest and complete- 
ness to the art collection. Nowhere in America have the 
families inherited for generations so many valuable ohjets 
d'art, which, to their credit be 
it said, they have appreciated 
and clung to through all 
changes of fortune. No one 
can but wonder after visiting 
at different classes of homes, 
all of which were stocked with 
old mahogany and hung with 
quaint portraits of different 
grades of excellence, where 
the antiquities dealers secure 
their wares. None of the 
families seem to have sold 
any of their possessions for 
generations. And yet if, on 
your way up Church Street 
past the little Gothic Hugue- 
not temple, built in 1841 on 
the site where a Huguenot 




old four-posters, carved in the 
celebrated pineapple pattern, 
or with wheat-sheaves, or 
roses, or what not ; quaint 
wine-coolers and tidy, light 
sideboards, with inlaid trim- 
mings and medallions in 
lighter wood, that the dealer 
will tell you are real Chippen- 
dales — regardless of the fact 
that Chippendale's work was 
usually massive, and he is said 
not to have used inlay — ; 
and elaborately carved chairs 
which, unless you chance 
to know the diflerence, he will 
convince you are real Shera- 
tons going at a sacrifice. 

By far the richest store- 
house of old furniture, cera- 
mics and art in Charleston, as 
well as the finest piece of Georgian architecture in South 
Carolina, is Brewton House ' commonly spoken of there as 

the Bull-Pringle house, which 



1 Vol. IV, Page 8, Figure 26. 

2 Some of this mural decora- 
tion is said to have been imported 
from Italy and by skilled hands 
has been attached to the wall 
in set designs by means of brass 
tacks that are adroitly concealed. 

»l'lates l.S-26, Part X. 

^ Miles Brewton, after enjoy- 
ing the comforts of his new 
home for a few years only, was, 
together with his entire familv, 
lost at sea and his property in- 
herited liy his three sisters. One 
of tliese, Mrs. Rebecca Brewton 
Motte, the celebrated Revolu- 
tionary heroine, was living in tlie 
house during the Revolution, 
wlien it was seized by Sir Henry 
Clinton for his headquarters and 
later turned over by him to Lord 
Kawdon. Its occupancy by the British saved it from destruction 
during this period when so many Charleston liduses were burned 
and sacked. It was again the headquarters of the enemy dur- 




"••rssft^o 



A Veranda Entrant: 



surpasses all of its contempo- 
raries in architectural merit 
and enrichment. It was built 
in 1760 by Miles Brewton,* a 
wealthy Charleston merchant, 
the plans and most of the 
woodwork being imported 
from England. Although 
later in date than Shirley, on 
the James River, and even 
than Drayton Hall,* on the 
Ashley, which was built in 
1742, like these earlier houses, 
it is a notable example of the 
two-story porch treatment in 
Colonial work ; and though 
a town residence and not a 
manor-house, as in the other 

ing the Civil War, and again 
saved from destruction though 
considerably damaged. Mrs. 
Motte is associated not only with , 
the history of this place, but with 
that of two others, also celebrated. 
One of these was her home on 
the Congaree (to which she re- 
tired when Brewton House was 
takenfromher), wliich was shortlj- 
after seized by the British and 
called Fort Motte, and which 
she herself fired to force them 
to evacuate. The other was a 
romantic old mansion built by 
her on her rice plantation on 
South Santee called '-Kl Dorado." 
which was burned a few years 
ago. (See illustration to article 
on the French Santee in Part XI.) 
One of Mrs. Motte's daughters 

married Mr. William Allston, whose youngest daughter married 

William ISull-i'ringle. 
5 Plate 39, Part X. 



CHARLESTON, BETWEEN ASHLEY AND COOPER. 



17 



two instances, it is no less a Mecca to which students of 

Colonial work come for inspiration. It fronts on lower King 

Street, with a fore-court 

enclosed by a brick wall, 

15 feet high, flanking on 

either side a wrought-iron 

fence in the immediate 

front, which, though 

lower than the wall, is 

rendered even less sea 

lable by a finish of feudal 

spikes pointing in every 

direction. 

Entering through the 
fine old doorway, cen- 
trally placed, the archi- 
trave of which is sup- 
ported by pilasters, one 
finds himself in a stone- 
flagged hall, running 
through to the rear and 
dividing the lower floor 
into two suites, which 
might be termed the din- 
ing and library suites, all 
the doorways leading 
into which have rich en- 
tablatures. The two 
halls — front and rear — the dado of both of which is of 




From this landing one has an excellent view of the quaint 
old courtyard in the rear with its set flower-beds and wilder- 
ness of fine old shrubs; 
and its even quainter 
slave-quarters, the gabled 
end of which suggests, 
curiously enough, a 
Gothic temple. 

The upper hall of the 
Brewton house is of very 
dignified and elaborate 
character, with its heavily 
pedimented doors to the 
different chambers, and 
its deeply arched en- 
trance' to the drawing- 
room, which, by the way, 
has been pronounced by 
critics the most beautiful 
Colonial room in Amer- 
ica. This drawing-room'' 
is a long, most lovely 
chamber, with its rich 
dado, lofty panelled 
walls, handsome cornice, 
and coved ceiling; with 
its mantel carried up to 
the ceiling, from the re- 



mote centre of which hangs the most elaborately handsome 
dark mahogany, panelled, are separated by the usual flat crystal chandelier to be found in any of our Colonial houses. 





Tile Brewton Slave quarters : Side \'iew3. 



archv/ay supported by detached columns of a Doric order, 
the cornice of which is the same throughout. Facing you 
from the end of tlie rear hall is a handsome mahogany stair- 
case ' of two flights, with gracefully turned banisters and 
carved stair-ends and a half-pace landing at the end of the 
first flight. The feature of this landing is a deeply recessed 
three-light window' which affords ample illumination to both 
the upper and lower passages in even the dullest weatlier. 

' I'late 25. Part X 
'Plate 20, I'art .\. 



A peculiarity of this chandelier is that the tall glass candle- 
shades, intended to protect the burning taper from any 
breeze that might be afloat, are still perfectly preserved and 
occasionally allowed to perform their function, as on a re- 
cent occasion, when a reception was given in their ancestral 
house by the Misses Pringle in honor of the social debut of 
one of their young relatives. 

The drawing-room occupies the full width of the room 

3 I'late 24, Part X. 

* I'lates 19-22, I'art X. 



38 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



below, including that of the hall, also, and is lighted by five 
windows. Three of these overlook King Street and face 
3-ou on entering. The other two are on the south side of the 
chamber and between them hangs a French mirror of great 
age. Aside from its architectural value this room could not 
fail to interest even a casual 
observer in that it is a verit- 
able museum, the contents^ of 
which have not been collected 
from a hundred shops, but, 
handed down, have been en- 
riched by each generation of 
an old and cultured family. 
Not the least important of the 
many valuable features of this 
museum are the portraits. 
Over the mantel hangs a Sully 
— one of his best — the sub- 
ject being the grandmother 
of the present owners of the 
house. Occupying the place 
of honor, between the mantel 
and the entrance, is a full- 
length portrait of Mrs. William 
Allston, nee Motte — their 

grandmother — in her brocaded paniers and powdered hair. 
This portrait was executed in 1793 by E. Savage, who spent 
considerable time in the United States making studies, which 




Window opening on Veranda of the Bull-Priiigle House. 



1756: and on the mantel, among a collection of valuable 
miniatures, is one of John Julius Pringle, done by Charles 
Fraser, who ranks with Allston and Malbone as the best of 
our American miniaturists. 

At the time Brewton house was at the height of its pristine 

splendor, Izard house, just 
across on Meeting Street (not 
a stone's-throw away), was 
another scene of high social 
life. This interesting old resi- 
dence, of English brick, is now 
looked upon as a Colonial 
landmark and is pointed out 
as the residence of one of the 
Royal Governors. And so it 
was, its official occupant being 
Lord William Campbell, whose 
wife, nee Izard, inherited the 
house from her father. And 
from it Lord and Lady Camp- 
bell escaped by way of a 
creek, that then flowed at the 
rear of their house where \\'afer 
Street now runs, to an English 
man-of-war in the harbor. 
The Izard house, or to speak more popularly, the Lord 
William Campbell house, although quite dissimilar in exter- 
nal design from Brewton house, is not unlike it in its general 




The I.ord William Campbell House. 



he finished at his leisure. Not far away is a portrait of 
Miles Brewton himself, done by Sir Joshua Reynolds in 



ipURXlTUKi:. — In an article on the "Customs of Old Char- 
leston," William C. Whilden writes of the furniture commonly 
used as follows : — 

" In the corner as you entered the door in the dining-room 
stood the ' wine-cooler,''of polished mahogany, inlaid with wreaths 
of satinwood; octagon in shape; about three feet high, on six 
spindling stjuare legs ; divided inside with compartments, each to 
hold a bottle of wine ; the centre lined with lead to hold ice or 
water. Being on rollers, it was wheeled up to the side of the 
host at the head of the table and the cooled bottles handed out 
as needed. 

" The sideboard, with its large, deep drawers, six in number, and 
three closets, was large enough to contain all that could be put 
into three or four of the more fashionable kind now in use. On each 
side, like sentinels, stood the slojiing-top knife, fork and spoon 
cases lined with green baize; alongside of each stood the silver 
bottle-stands containing cut-glass decanters; and in the centre 
the goblet and tumblers for daily use. 




Tlie Rhett House, Hassell Street. 



interior plan, having a very similar staircase leading to the 
second-story hall, at the front of which sweeps a long 



" On the mantelpiece, in the centre, was the snuffers and tray. 
On the end of the mantelpiece was to be found the tinder-box and 
flint and steel, and possibly a few slips of lightwood, the end of 
which had been dipjjed in brimstone, the more easily to obtain a 
light if a stray spark went into the tinder-box. The mantelpiece 
itself was so high that no child could reach it without mounting 
on a chair, and the fireplace large enough to hold what would 
now be a day's supjilv of wood. In the corner stood the old 
clock with its long pendulum, showing, besides the dme, the day 
of the month, the condition of the moon, the rising of the tide 
and of the sun, with ' iMade by John Carmichael, Glasgow, Scot- 
land,' across its face." 

2 RnETT HousK. — This house, on Hassell Street, is one of the 
oldest residences in Charleston. Its first occupant was Col. Wil- 
liam Rhett, one of the officers of the Lords Proprietors of South 
Carolina. Colonel Rhett is one of the heroes of Southern legend, 
for. in 1S17, he captured the notorious Steed Bonnet and his pirate 
crew that liad been for some time an unliearable nuisance. 



CHARLESTOX, BETWEEN ASHLEY AND COOPER. 



39 



drawing-room, the ceiling of which is decorated 
elaborate design executed in putty. 

Across the street from the Lord Campbell house 
house, said to have been the 
pre-Revolutionary abode of 
the martyr Hayne ; but a 
close examination of records 
refutes this claim. The house 
itself, however, is undoubtedly 
old and very pleasing, the en- 
trance* to which, though ex- 
tremely simple, is one of the 
best specimens of its kind in ^ 
Charleston. A little farther ^ 
up Meeting Street is the Na- ; 
thaniel Russell house ^ (now a r 
convent) before referred to ; 
and still farther on, at the 
corner of Meeting and Tradd, 
with its quaint Venetian porch 
extending over the sidewalk, 
is one of the former abodes 
of the celebrated Mrs. Daniel 



with an " Hampton," Mrs. Horry's rice plantation on the South San- 
tee. This residence of Mrs. Horry's is said to have been 
is Hayne built about 1790, and the date is probably accurate enough, 

for in the Charleston Gazette, 
of April 23, 1787, there is an 
account of the burning of 
Mrs. Daniel Horry's residence 
of Broad, which catastrophe 
must have led to the building 
of the Meeting Street house. 
All the walls in it are of 
painted wood, panelled, pre- 
sumably cypress. The hall, 
which is divided into two parts 
by a central arch, separates 
the lower floor into two suites, 
and the staircase, which is in 
two flights, leads to the more 
elaborate upper hallway, 
which, in turn, leads to where 
formerly the drawing-room 
lay, the partitions of which 
have been removed. The 




MEETING STREET- 



Plan of the Horry House and Out-bmldings. 




5l&ve Qutjxten? ofttie 
Horry House 



Meeting 5t • C^mrleston &' C 



Horry (pronounced O-ree), of French Santee, one of whose 
friends was no less a person than Gen. Francis Marion him- 
self. In f.ict, tradition says that it was from the window of 
this house' that General Marion made his famous jump; 
but tradition is again in error, though there is no doubt of 
the fact that he narrowly escaped capture by the British at 
> See cut, paKe36. " l'l:ite 12, I'art X. 



pediments to the doors, the cornice, and other decorative 
woodwork are all exceedingly good, though simple ; and the 
quaint old kitchen, wash-rooms, and servants' quarters, to- 
gether with the bricked courtyard — cut off from the view of 
passers-by by a high brick wall — • are typical of the domestic 
habits of the period the old house represents. 

8 I'late 36, I'art X. 



40 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



Following Meeting Street to the north after leaving the south and the Bay toward the east, one has before him the 
Horry house/ one soon finds one's self within the sacred whole of oldest Charleston, although, strange to say, the very 
shadow of St. Michael's, which, by the way, is best seen oldest structure in this city — an antique powder-magazine, 
when coming down Meet- built by Sir Nathaniel 



ing Street toward the Bat- 
tery, on a moonlight night 
when the mellow white- 
ness of its tower melts 
into the luminous soft- 
ness of the sky, casting 
the while a vivid shadow 
on the street below. 

From St. Michael's 
corner, looking down 
Broad Street toward East 
Bay, 0176 has an excel- 
lent view of the old Cus- 
tom-house, completed in 
1 77 1, which is one of the 
well-known Colonial 
buildings of America. 
Formerly it boasted a 
sort of cupola (see rough 
sketch, from the tower 
of St. Michael's Church, 
Part IV, p. 23, Fig. 95), 
which has, however, been 
removed.^ 

Standing here on St. 
Michael's corner — where 
until i723stoodSt.Philip's 
Church ^ (a plain structure 
of black cypress on a 
brick foundation) when a 




^^^s^^^k^m^ 



The old Powder Magazine. 



Johnson, in 1703,* is far 
away on an obscure lot 
on Cumberland Street, 
where it was located — 
Cumberland Street being 
then a forest primeval — 
for the excellent reason 
that there it was out of 
harm's way. At the time 
of the Revolution, and 
prior to it, the land north 
of Broad Street was 
thinly settled as far as 
Hassell ; but from there 
on it was open country 
with plantations scattered 
through it. The growth 
of the city in that direc- 
tion must have immedi- 
ately followed the De- 
claration of Independ- 
ence, however, for Flynn's 
Church ^ (Second Presby- 
terian) fronting Wragg 
Square and occupying 
the highest point in the 
city, was built in 18 11, 
and St. Paul's Church 
(Part III, Plate 11) was 
completed in 1816,° and 



new one of the same name was erected on the site where St. city churches are seldom placed elsewhere than in localties 
Philip's now stands — and looking toward the Battery on the that are well populated and convenient. 



1 Plate 36, Part X. 

' The Commissioners of the Province of South Carolina signed 
articles of agreement with Peter and John Horlbeck for the erec- 
tion of an Exchaiti^e and Custom House and a new " Watch 
House''' \\\ 1767, and the Horlbeck brothers left at once for Eng- 
land to obtain materials for its erection. The building was com- 
pleted in I77l,the I lorlbetks receiving in payment 241,740 pounds 
currency [.«V]. When completed it became the general lousiness 
mart of Charleston, and so continued for many years. During the 
occupation of the city by the British, its lower floors were used as a 
prison, and in one of the rooms Col. Isaac Hayne was confined 
and thence taken to execution. 

Afterwards the vaults were used as vendue stores, until the 
building of the present Vendue Range, and the rest of the building 
as post-oflice and custom-house. The: situation becoming un- 
safe in the late war, it was deserted, and fell almost to ruin; but 
it was afterwards repaired and the Post-office reestablished in it. 

The front was originally on the east side, and wings extended 
out on ICast Bav, but as these obstructed the street they were 
taken down and the front changed to the western side. More re- 
cently, the roof being much out of repair, the cupola and some of 
tlie ornamental work were removed, but the building still presents 
an imposing appearance, and its historic associations make it an 
object of much interest. On December 14, 1S99, the 117th anni- 
versary of the evacuation of Charleston by the British, the Society 
of the Sons of the Revolution placed a bronze plate on the west- 
ern wall recording the many historic incidents of the location. 
I'he building is now used by the U. .S. Light-house Establishment. 

The original contract for the building is now in the possession 
of Maj. John Horlbeck, of Charleston. 

The (iovernors of South Carolina were proclaimed from the 
stejjs of the Exchange as long as Charleston remained the capital 
of the State. 

^ St. I'hili])'s I'arisli was the first established in South Carolina. 
In I 75 1, the town was divid;;d into two jiarishes, tlie .second being 
called St. Michael's. 



* This old Colonial relic — a little older, perhaps, than the 
powder-magazine at Williamsburg, built by Alexander Spotswood 
early in the eighteenth century (\'ol. II, page 20), is a small brick 
building with four gables and a tiled roof. As early as 1770, an 
act was passed directing its disuse, but, the war coming on, powder 
was stored in it until the siege of Charleston in i 7S0. It was then 
abandoned and became private property, which it still is. 

sFlvxx's Church. — On May 16, 1S06, the plan of Flynn's 
Church was placed before the building-committee, by William 
Gordon, who was appointed to build it, and early in 181 1 it was 
ready for purposes of worship. Although it was never finished 
the cost of building amounted to over g 100,000. Plate 31, Part X. 

° St. P.aui/s Chi'rch, R.\dcliffeboro. — The congregation 
of St. Paul's was organized in 1810, under the Rev. Dr. Percy.' 
They worshipped at first in the Huguenot Church, then unoccu- 
pied. The congregation was incorjwrated December 2 1, 1814, 
and the first Vestry elected in 1S15. The corner-stone of the 
church was laid November 19, 181 i, and the building consecrated 
March 28, 1S16. 

The style of its architecture is modern, with a Gothic tower : 
the front is adorned with a handsome portico, composed of four 
Doric columns supporting an angular pediment. This is the 
largest Episcopal church in the city; formerly it was furnished 
with the old-fashioned square pews, but these have been replaced 
by modern and very comfortable low pews, the effect of which is 
to add to the spacious appearance of the interior. 

Dr. Percv was an English clergyman, who came first to Georgia 
in 1772 to take cliarge, as President, of the College which was es- 
tablished at Bethesda, ten miles from Savannah, by Whitfield. 
Whitfield bequeathed it to Lady Huntingdon, who appointed Dr. 
Percy to the Presidency and sent him to America with missionary 
instructions to officiate wherever he could collect an audience. It 
is said that while in Georgia he frequently preached in the fields 
under the shade of a tree. — Guide Hook. 



CHARLESTON, BETWEEN ASHLEY AND COOPER. 



41 



As a matter of fact, all of Ciiarleston is old, and the houses 
in the northern portion of the city, although not Colonial, 
are almost invariably either modifications of the San Do- 
mingo idea, or specimens of the Greek revival, as in the case 
of Ancrum House,' on the 
corner of Meeting and Char- 
lotte Streets, which, with its 
dignified Greek portico (to 
the side, of course, in defer- 
ence to the European idea of 
what kind of a formal front a 
house should make to the 
street) and its high wall over- 
grown with a flowering vine 
inclosing a formal garden, 
needs but a touch of foreign 
color to change it into an 
Italian villa. Another and 
more ample monument to the 
Greek revival, as conventional- 
ized for domestic purposes, is 
furnished in the Witte resi- 
dence'' on Rutledge Avenue, 
which was designed by an 
English architect, in 1810, for two English bachelors of 
Charleston. Neither of them lived in it, however, for the 
death of one caused the other to sell it immediately on its 




Plan of the Witte House, Charleston, S. C. 



its architectural beauties. The library and breakfast-room 
are the principal features of the ground Hoor where one en- 
ters ; and the drawing-room and dining-room the features of 
the second floor. The former chamber is most ornate, with 

an arched ceiling supported 
by fluted columns almost 
Byzantine in feeling. The 
staircase is quite circular and 
the second-story hall is deco- 
rated just below the frieze 
line with medallions in plaster 
showing studies of American 
game in cover. 

This house is said to have 
cost a large sum of money 
which one can readily believe, 
for the plan is an ambitious 
one, and it was erected at a 
period when, having recovered 
from the ravages of the Revo- 
lutionary War, the town and 
State had entered on the 
period of their greatest pros- 
perity. With the rich rice 
and cotton lands of Carolina yielding not only abundance, 
but wealth ; with commerce on the high-seas and trained 
slaves meeting every demand of domestic life, land-owners 




Drawing-room of the Witte House, Charleston, S. C. 



completion. The house stands with one end to tlie street in naturally turned their attention to building both in town and 

the midst of large grounds through a portion of which one country. 

must pass before reaching a position which affords a view of The Post-Revolutionary, however, thou gh regarded as the 



>I'late 16, Part X. 



'J'late 16, I'art X. 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



most picturesque period of Southern life because of tlie unique 
institutions that matured under it, and though it developed 
great fortunes such as that of Gen. Wade Hampton, of Colum- 
bia, who is said to have been the richest planter in the South 
and the owner of three thousand slaves — was no more brill- 
iant socially than the Pre-Revolutionary period, when Euro- 
pean manners^ and cus- 
toms prevailed in 
Charleston, which 
rivalled every other 
American city in busi- 
ness activity, and sur- 
passed most of them in 
domestic luxury. So 
much so that Josiah 
Quincy, of Massachu- 
setts, who visited the 
city in 1773, wrote as 
follows in his journal 
intime : — 

"This town [Charles- 
ton] makes the most 
beautiful appearance as 
you come up to it, and 
in many respects a mag- 
nificent. ... I can only 
say in general that in 
grandeur, splendor of 
buildings, decorations, 
equipages, numbers, 
commerce, shipping, 
and indeed almost 
everything, it far sur- 
passes all I ever saw or 
ever expect to see in 
America. . . . 

" All seems at present to be trade, riches, magnificence 
and great state in everything ; much gaiety and dissipation. 
. . . State and magnificence, the natural attendant on 
great riches, are conspicuous among the people. . . . 
There being but one chief place of trade, its increase is 



1 Funeral Customs. — Although most of the old customs are 
still honored in Charleston, that of serving refreshments at funerals 
is now obsolete. William (;. Whilden, in his " Reininisceitce" 
speaking of the passing of cake and wine on such occasions, says : 

" It was done with great solemnity. A cake called funeral cake 
was sometimes used, cut into Ijlocks and iced all around. Tlie 
custom arose probably early in the settlement of the countrj-. 
The friends frequently had to come for miles (scattered as they 
were on their plantations), and to make a feast would have been 
out of place. 

" On arriving at the house, the ladies were shown into one room ; 
the gentlemen into another. The hats of tlie latter were taken 
charge of by a servant and turned over to ladies who were Ijusily 
emploved putting a band of crape around each and two streamers 
al)Out three feet long from the back. A pair of black or white 
gloves were also distributed to each person. The ladies' bonnets 




amazingly rapid. The stories you are everywhere told of 
the rise in the value of lands seem romantic ; but I was 
assured that they were facts." 

That Charleston should have taken rank as asocial centre 
of the New World at so early a period was largely due to the 
fact that so many of the English colonists who settled it 

were Cavaliers, friends 

of the Lords Proprie- 
tors, with large means 
at their disposal ; men 
who sought to repro- 
duce in America, so 
far as could be done 
under different condi- 
tions, both the archi- 
tecture and the social 
and domestic customs 
to which they were ac- 
customed — and s u c - 
ceeded better than most 
of their contempora- 
ries. These early colo- 
nists were enthusiastic 
builders, and but for 
the ravages of two wars, 
in both of which this 
historic city played a 
conspicuous part, nu- 
merous general confla- 
grations, and the earth- 
quake of 1886, Charles- 
ton would have more 
high-class Georgian ar- 
chitecture to show than 
almost any other city in 
the United States. As 
it is, though the greater part of her most splendid buildings 
have been destroyed, what remains is often of a superior 
quality and in many instances uniquely interesting. 

C. R. S. HORTON. 



Entrance to Heywood House, Meeting Street. 



were covered with black hoods, and a cape to cover the entire 
shoulders. 

'• A master of ceremonies, provided with a carefully prepared list, 
took a prominent position at the foot of the main stairway or 
elsewhere, called out the names at the door where the ladies were 
assemljled in the order of their blood relationship ; then the master 
of ceremonies called out the names of the gentlemen to escort the 
ladies, and so on till the assembled ladies were all provided for; 
the remaining attendants fell into twos, all walking through the 
streets, in the rear of the hearse or on the pavement, no one riding 
in a conveyance. 

" At times the coffin was borne through the streets bv the pall- 
bearers, and no hearse used. 

" At a funeral at the Scotch Church once, wine and cake were 
handed to those in the procession as they stood in Meeting .Street, 
on the sidewalk. Some funerals were preceded through the streets 
by what were termed waiters (namely, two, four or six negro 
women dressed in white, with a black scarf over the shoulder 
reaching to the knees)." 



An Autumn Trip to South Carolina. 





q;C=^j]| 



IT was with a sense of profound, if temporary, relief from 
the noise and restless turmoil of cosmopolitan New York, 
that I metaphorically shook off its dust from my feet on 
a close and oppressive afternoon in late September of 
last year, and boarded the steamer for Charleston, S. C, a 
city so dimly pictured in my imagination from only too 
scanty descriptions of the 
earthquake days that I drew 
down the mental curtain and 
consigned myself to a couple 
of days' absolute rest, wonder- 
ing the deep waters had not 
sense enough to rest too. 
After a seemingly endless and 
nauseating period of sensa- 



tionalism in the daily press, 

unfolding the corruption and 

vice of the city under Croker- 

ism and Tammany rule, it was 

a blessed privilege to flee, even 

temporarily, from this modern 

Sodom and Gomorrah. As 

the evening drew on, how 

bracing was the cool air and 

how welcome the silence 

brooding over the deep as we 

slipped down the Jersey shore, 

just far enough out to see the 

blinking lights of the various 

summer resorts, without their 

garishness or even the faint 

echo of their noisy crowds. 

Saturday passed refreshingly 

as we rounded the capes, with 

a good sea on, and Sunday 

morning opened sublimely, 

with expectancy on the faces 

of all, for the evening would 

see us at our destination. 

Nor were we disappointed, for 

about four o'clock we slipped 

between the breakwaters into 

the beautiful and expansive 

harbor and, passing the historic Fort Sumter, by half past 

five o'clock we were snugly moored alongside one of the old 

shaky piers, looking down into the faces of the little dusky 

crowd peering up at us from among the bales of cotton and 

promiscuous cargo on the wharves. 

Th^ approach to the city is disappointing, wanting in 
architectural interest, the buildings being low, the city itself 




lying on a peninsula as flat as an ironing-board, between the 
two rivers, Cooper on the east and Ashley on the west. One 
looked for an interesting sky-line and found none; only the 
two steeples of St. Philip's and St. Michael's broke the roof- 
line and pierced the azure with their graceful spires. The 
only building on the water-line to attract notice is the new 

Custom-house, with its stately 
proportions and colonnaded 
porticos. Before walking 
down the gang-plank a new- 
made acquaintance remarked 
as he bade me adieu: "You 
won't be half a day in this 
dead town before you will 
wish yourself well out of it." 

This is the general impres- 
sion of business-men passing 
through, or by, historic old 
Charleston. The interest to a 
stranger depends on the point 
of view taken. Charleston is 
only awakening from a long 
slumber, the natural sequence 
of a series of paralyzing cir- 
cumstances. The wharves of 
this city will not always be so 
silent as they are to-day. 
With the resuscitation of the 
South her commerce is bound 
to revive, and, with her natural 
advantages, we shall see her 
roadsteads alive with shipping 
and the silence broken with 
the sirens of the Transatlantic 
liners. 

Looking at Charleston from 
the Oisthetic and architectural 
point of view, the historic city 
teems with interest. Unique in 
its type of palatial residences, 
with amplitude of light, air and 
space, it is of the past that it 
speaks, and a past to be proud 
of. But, desirable as is a new era of prosperity, one quakes 
in contemplation of the changes that a modern affluence will 
bring in its wake. Once let in the entering wedge of North- 
ern energy, capital and ideas, the steel structure and sky- 
scraper, the flat-roofed abominations of the modern economic 
system, will quickly eliminate the sense of leisure and rest- 
fulness that pervades the city of to-day. 



43 



44 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



After leaving the steamer and after a shaky ride over the 
cobble-stones, we were deposited at the Hotel Charleston, 
and, pending the late-houred supper, a twilight voyage of dis- 
covery was in order. This was Sunday evening, and the 
principal streets appeared to be given over to the colored 
population, who in summer attire, especially the young folks, 
promenaded with an importance and gaiety entirely their own. 
Otherwise the city seemed deserted, and the sense of strange- 
ness became oppressive. As the darkness deepened, the 
artistic features of the old streets were intensified, revealing 
more of incidental worth than in the garishness of midday ; 
high walls with ramped copings, tall gate-posts and great heavy 
rustic oak and iron gates, over which creep lovely vines, and 
bevond which frown the dark spaces of the colonnaded gal- 
leries, with, may be, some little wicket in the rear opening on 



was not to be seen on the streets. After treading the streets 
in and out, poking around church-corners, astonished to find 
cemeteries creeping up to the very houses, and headstones 
almost peeping in at one's dining-room window, it was with 
a sense of the general mouldiness of the city — an eerie feel- 
ing, arousing one's curiosity for the morrow's light — that I 
returned to the hotel. True to my friend's prophecy, I was 
not in the city twenty-four hours before, for some reasons, I 
might have wished myself out of it, for, of all the cities 
I have ever visited, never was there culinary capability so 
behind the times, never was one's patience so put to test 
over loss of time in replenishing the inner man. How in 
the world the visitors to the Exposition have been accommo- 
dated would be interesting to hear. But aside from this little 
blemish, the interest in the city grows. In plan practically 




Entrances tn the Heyward Estate, ^^ectiIlg Street. Cliarleston. 



a tree embowered lawn, all in deep shadow, while the old brick 
chimneys and Spanish-tiled roofs peep over the trees and are 
silhouetted against an amber sky. The sidewalk pavements 
are rnostly of brick, set herring-bone fashion, with a deep 
curbstone down to the cobble-paved streets. The gates 
are threefold, adjoining the front door, which opens upon 
the side gallery, generally a few feet raised up ; first, the 
private, or domestic, gate ; secondly, the carriage-gates, and a 
narrower one adjoining for the servants, which used in slave 
days to be closed at nine o'clock in the evening, and no 
colored person could enter after that time without being 
detected. A curfew-bell tolled at half past eight to call in 
the colored servants, and after nine o'clock a colored person 



another, but Oid Colonial, New York, the names of the 
streets suggest British origin and dominion, and to this day are 
tenaciously preserved and cherished — -King Street, Queen 
Street, Meeting Street, Church Street, etc. Laid out at 
right angles, the residence plots, or blocks, are very large, 
affording spacious gardens and courtyards. Every residence 
used to be walled-in with high walls and gates, ensuring 
privacy and seclusion, but now few of these are in anything 
like good preservation. As an old Charlestonian was pleased 
to put it to me, " The city was settled by the English and 
Huguenots, they intermarrying you have the American, who 
cannot be whipped."' The city is essentially English in its 
houses and customs, its domestic life and its tastes. Theearliest 



AN AUTUMN TRIP TO SOUTH CAROLINA. 



45 



houses were of plainest description, sifltplest in plan, front- the sensation of the thing was that could make such an odd 

ing on the street, the entrance opening into a hall dividing piece of furniture so indispensable in every household. It 

equally the rooms, right and left, and with basement-kitchens ; was, I believe, first instituted for the little pickaninnies, and 

but as the Colony progressed, and the retinue of colored help consists of a long, two-inch-thick pine board, say twenty-five 

increased, a change of plan developed, and the typical house feet long, supported on two framed end trestles or horses, 

evolved, with its end to the street, its front opening on the These trestles are sometimes fitted on rockers. Well, calling 



garden, and with wide gal- 
leries, or verandas, overlook- 
ing the rear of its neighbor. 
The slave or servants' quar- 
ters generally were in a brick 
extension at the other end of 
the house, though exceptions 
there were, in which they were 
built away from the house, 
around the courtyard. 

In the city's palmy days in- 
tercourse with England was 
the rule, not the exception, 
and clothes, furniture, glass 
and silverware were all im- 
ported, as were also the wines 
— madeira and sherry. The 
madeira was always stored 
in the attic, for the benefit of 
a certain condition of tem- 
perature. In the ciiy, at 
least, the servants were al- 
ways well clothed, uniformed 
or in livery, and treated like 
children, as indeed they were. 

The kitchens were now out- 
side the house proper, and 

the meals were served from these outside kitchens by the col- 
ored help, through the medium of a pantry adjoining the 
dining-room. Thus all odoriferous objections were elim- 
inated from the family quarters. Strange it was to note that 
in no ancient house in its primitive condition did I observe 
any toilet or bath-room accessories. The valet or maid 
used to bring up the bath-tub and then the water, put you seemed only to have rounded the edges more invitingly. 
in it, if you liked, rub you down, and carry all away again. Days went apace, and what with tramping, sketching and 

Talk about sanitation — what 




Dr. Bemib's House, cor. Meeting and Hudson Streets, Charleston. 



one evening at the house of 
a friend, the lady asked if I 
would not prefer to sit out of 
doors in the cool, and archly 
proffered me the "joggling- 
board." Assenting, I fear, 
with dubious air, the good 
lady, who represented a fair 
figure in avoirdupois, took 
the initiative and I followed, 
when with an alternating 
motion of up and down we 
were joggled to the centre of 
the board and into such an 
embarassing proximity that 
only an explosion of laughter 
suited the occasion. Now 
you can picture, when a group 
of youngsters of susceptible 
age and both sexes, in the 
cool of the evening or moon- 
lit night, plump themselves 
down on this stout but pli- 
able plank what nonsense and 
hilarity they get out of it. 

But for absolute fun com- 
mend me to the colored pick- 
aninnies, and even their elders, the aunties and uncles, one or 
more thrumming on the " ole banjo," the others taking up 
the chorus of "My ole Kentucky Home" in melodious song. 
No darky home appeared to be complete without the jog- 
gling-board, and some specimens which had seen ancient 
service were beautifully put together, and even wear and tear 



could be sweeter and healthier 
than that.' Now, what is it? 
An impoverished family keep 
one or perhaps two servants, or 
no servant, in a large old bar- 
rack of a house, with a forlorn 
and antediluvian system of 
kitchen and toilet-room accom- 
modation. Think of the transi- 
tion I What few draperies are 
left are moth-eaten and faded, 
carpets threadbare and the one- 
time garden a desolation and 
wilderness. But there are the 
galleries left — oh, those cool, 
shady retreats, with their wide 
sweeps, and which you can pic- 
ture with their happy and lively occupants of the older clays 




measuring in a heat that some- 
times was torrid, evening and 
its cool breezes from the Battery 
overlooking the harbor were 
very grateful. There was a re- 
serve very perceptible in the at- 
titude of the residents towards 
intrusion on their secluded 
homes, and it took time to over- 
come this. The tourist and 
kodak fiend had in their over- 
presumptuous recklessness 
caused annoyance aforetime 
which was resented ; but as 
soon as my real mission was 
made known every facility 
was offered and kindly courtesy 



extended on every hand. Still, 
it was regrettable that so much of my so little time had to be 
Here you can live out the better half of the hot summer spent in awaiting permission. After spending a couple of 
days; somewhere you are pretty sure of a shaded corner, weeks in the city, I made the visit to Georgetown and the 
swept by a cool breeze, and down on the lower gallery the Santee district, which occupied a week, and then returning 
sounds of a merry group oT youngsters tell you of the good spent another week in Charleston. The interval and change 
time they are having on the old ''■ joggling-board." This was of scenery acted as a tonic and, returning, helped qualify my 
an article entirely new to me, and I was curious to know wliat first impressions. Strange it is, but, ever and everywhere, it 



46 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



is just as you are departing you see more, and find out more, 
to regret tlie limit of your stay. Wliat are tliree weelis in a 
large city, single handed and three-quarters of your time 
being talcen up with those necessary but provokingly ob- 
jectionable adjuncts, the measuring-tape and foot-rule ? With 
so much to tempt one to brush-work, it was hard to put the 
palette aside for the severer practical work of measuring. 



standing erect besidyhim, the buzz of curiosity as they enter 
and leave the church, the rows of colored people who occupy 
benches around the sides and end of the building or in the 
galleries, the waiting carriages, the old beadle with gold- 
tipped cane escorting the dignitaries thereto, the handshak- 
ing at the doors, smiles, congratulations and all the social 
amenities of the time. The only discordant note of to-day 




The Battery and the Pe Saiissure House. 



Sunday was the Sunday of our forefathers, and in its de- 
corous observance I was pleased to observe that the colored 
population appeared entirely devout. In this most English 
city, how I enjoyed the Eng- 
lish service in the old churches '■ 
of St. Michael and St. Philip. 
After nearly twenty years' ab- 
sence from the old country, 
here was a rendering of the 
service on the old lines, 
awakening cherished memo- 
ries of the past — the quaint 
old-time edifice, the sweet 
bells, the mellow tones of an 
organ built in 1767, that Han- 
del himself might have played 
on, the high-decked pulpit and 
square high-backed pews, 
and the obsequious old sexton. 
Through the open side doors, 
through which a flood of sun- 
shine poured and quaint white 
tombstones peeped, came the 
subdued sounds of city life, 
with the chirruping of the 
birds and the perfume of box 

and the evergreen shrubbery of the churchyard. It is easy 
to picture the same service of forty or a hundred and twenty 
years ago, with the Ciovernor and his retinue occupying his 
pew near the pulpit, perhaps the Father of his Country 

'.See .irtirlc .ind illustrations in i'art .\'I, seq. 




is the harsh metallic grinding of the trolley-car as it whizzes 

by or turns the corner into Broad Street. 

If you wish to obtain a comprehensive view of the city, a 

climb up the tower and steeple 
of either church is well re- 
warded, for, in the absence of 
any natural altitudes, your 
vision is limited to the per- 
spectives of the streets and 
your neighbors' residences on 
all sides of you. From the 
church steeple you look north- 
ward away over the city to its 
very limits, the rivers Ashley 
and Cooper stretching on 
either side, exactly as do the 
North and East Rivers about 
Manhattan — and then down 
over the roofs and into the 
shady and spacious gardens, 
squares and parks. South- 
ward you have the magnificent 
harbor and islands. From 
S this altitude you realize what 
^ a magnificent city it must have 
been in its palmy days : truly 

patrician in its character and, as I first beheld it at sunset, a 

little world of loveliness in itself. 

Of the two church towers and spires that of St. Philip's is 

the most graceful, while that of St. Michael's suggests state- 

liness. Built of brick and roughcast, its cream-white walls 



AJV AUTUMN TRIP TO SOUTH CAROLINA. 



A7 



and surfaces, as it pierces tlie clearest of blue skies, are 
rather dazzling but beautiful in effect; and again, as I saw 
it on a moonlight night, in the stillness and repose of ihe 




From the South Carolina Society's Building. 

city, the memory of its vicissitudes set me dreaming, to be 
aroused suddenly by the sound of the melodious and historic 



steeple, placed as it is at the corner, or junction of two 
principal streets, dominating every building and feature in 
its vicinity, that charms and arrests your interest whenever 
you pass it. Were I asked what features charmed me most 
in Charleston, my reply would be : " St. Michael's Church 
and the Miles Brewton house," better known as the Bull- 
Pringle house. And as I was privileged to sit in the 
old Pringle pew on Sunday morning the harmony of the re- 
lationship between the two was not lost in my musings. 

After a pretty close study of the older residences here, the 
absence of the more delicate and refined ornament of the Co- 
lonial type, to be found in the more northern States, becomes 
evident, and more or less disappointing, with one exception, 
and that is the Brewton ^ house, which, while simple and plain 
in its plan, sturdy in the construction and stately in effect, 
is beautiful as a whole, the drawing-room and reception-rooms 
especially so. It were well worth the while that the whole 
house should be measured carefully, and not a mere room or 
two, which was all I could give the time to, and, further, 
it being furnished and occupied, the concession made by the 
lady of the house was sufficiently appreciated without putting 
her to more trouble and disarrangement. The old garden, 
now very much circumscribed in its area, was in the early 
days a vision of loveliness, and to this day the old-time 
tulips, jonquils, daffodils, peonies, send up their perennial 
bevy of bloom and color, while ancient wistarias bend the 
branches of stout trees with their weight of superabundant 
leafage and tassels of turquoise-blue. During the earthquake 
this sturdy old house suffered the least of all, only one wall- 
panel being cracked, thanks to English-built walls of two 




Interior of St. Midiael's Church, Charleston, S. C. 



bells, as they chimed the quarters, followed by the tolling of feet six inches thickness, while those more recently built on 
the hour. There is a fascination about this church and its i plates iS-26, I'art X. 



48 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



the Battery or promenade suffered most, due to their sites 
being all "made ground," in fact what originally was swamp. 
Romance suffuses this old houpe with an interest far in 
excess of its neighbor's. As you walk the garden-paths it can 
be pointed out where the ruthless Northerners, after churn- 
ing up the priceless old china — which had been previously 
packed by loving and anxious fingers, for safe hiding — with 
the butts of their rifles, then strewed it. Though occupied 
during the War of the Revolution by Lord Rawdon and his 
staff as his headquarters, little damage was done, compared 
to the ruffianly treatment of the Union soldiers ; but, after 
all, considering the crises it 
has passed through, the house 
is wonderfully well preserved. 

Recalling the story of the 
occupation of the Brewton 
house by the British officers 
and their courteous treatment 
by Mrs. Rebecca Motte and her 
daughter, — on the day after 
capitulation she entertained 
both British and American 
officers at the same table and 
won golden opinions from all — 
the old prayer-book and Bible, 
with her name inscribed, was 
bought at "a book-stall in Lon- 
don by one of these same 
officers and returned by him 
to Mrs. Motte. The old Bible 
is still, so I hear, read in the 
quaint little Church of St. 
James, Santee. 

Judge Heyward's house on 
Church Street has its plan and 
several features in cotnmon 
with the Brewton house, but it 
is not of so large proportion, 
nor are its enrichments so pro- 
fuse ; but there is a sense of 
comfort, as well as stateliness, 
in the drawing room measured. 
The Horrey house, corner of 
Tradd and Meeting Streets, is 
remarkable for its double- 
decked portico, or veranda, 
over the sidewalk, supported 
on stone columns of Tuscan 
and Ionic orders, while within 

the features are plain and substantial, but with meagre orna- 
ment, and what there is is rather coarse. 

The Elliott house — now used as a pumping-station (the 
water-supply is from an artesian well two thousand feet deep, 
and is pumped into a little reservoir in the yard ; the water 
is quite hot when first pumped up but is allowed to cool before 
its distribution) — has little peculiar interest beyond the 
ample reception-hall, from which a central flight of stairs 
conducted to an upper hall, with a large well and gallery 
on all sides ; but this has been cut away to make room for 
the pumping-engines. The rooms are very spacious and the 
mantels and door-finish and cornices of the general type of 
the period, /. e., the beginning of the nineteenth century. 

There are many old houses which have historic interest 
and more or less romance, but are deficient in detail worth 
carrying away. What one notices in traversing the length 




of the city, — which is best done by a loop-line of the trolley- 
system — is the change frem the earliest-planned, or English, 
type of house downtown, fronting on the street, and the 
gradual development to the typical Charleston house as built 
before the war. It should be remembered that here were 
the summer houses of the rich planters who found it un- 
wholesome and impossible to live out the summer on their 
plantations. I was told that really their plantation-houses 
were better and more solidly built than their city-houses, 
which were intended, after all, only for summer use, and 
under these circumstances space, light and air were their 

chief requisites. 

The Thomas Ball house up- 
town, on the East Battery, is 
a type quite common ; that is, 
a whole house built only one 
room deep, with a central hall, 
with front and rear balconies, 
or verandas. Here it may inci- 
dentally be remarked that 
there are several of these ex- 
tensive old barracks which 
could be soon converted into 
more comfortable and civilized 
houses, and are to be rented 
for a merely nominal figure. 
There was one fine old place, 
with its house-servants and 
carriage-house and front and 
rear courtyards, rented for only 
$25 per month, but — well, that 
is down in Charleston ! 

One of the old-time features 
of the city is the market, of 
such a length as to suggest 
walking over Brooklyn Bridge, 
in this respect, that you wonder 
when it is coming to an end. 
Its terminal, or entrance, is in 
the form of a two-storied Greek 
temple, the upper story being 
used as offices and reached by 
a double flight of stairs, the 
entrance to the market being 
through a wide arch under 
these. Seen at its best — on 
market day, or night — it pre- 
sents a weird aspect. About 
fifty feet wide, it runs in four 
sections, necessitated by four intersecting streets, and in total 
must reach about eight hundred feet. A broad central flagged 
walk is flanked on either side by stalls, in appearance like 
those of a stable, and the unbroken monotony is remarkable. 
The roof is a simple king-post aiTair, open, and adds to the 
endless perspective. But the strangest feature to Northern 
eyes is the presence of those natural scavengers, the buzzards, 
who make their appearance only during market-hours, and 
at its close take their flight to their own eyries. To see them 
in their descent from the roof to the cobblestones after some 
bit of carrion is very attractive; they come down with such 
a clumsy swoop you expect to see them tumble and break 
their necks ; but no, with a sweeping curve close to the 
ground they alight like thistledown and run with such side- 
long gait and so swiftly that you cannot restrain a laugh. 
In some of the later houses, as, for instance, the Russell, 



A.V AUTUMN TRIP TO SOUTH CAROLINA. 



49 



the Witte and others, a unique feature is the staircase, whicli 
is built in a circular or oval plan, and self-supporting from 
the ground it rests upon to the landing on the next floor, 
independent of the walls, 
which it does not touch, sav- 
ing a good deal of space and 
generally placed so as to af- 
ford a roomy rear hall. 

Some pleasant side-trips are 
to be made from Charleston, 
by boat or trolley, as, for in- 
stance, to the Lowndes, or 
Waggoner, homestead on the 
Ashley River, used during 
the Exposition as the 
Woman's Building ; also the 
TurnbuU and Lawton estates, 
the former metamorphosed by 
municipal authorities for park 
purposes, and the latter in- 
cluded in the site for the 
Naval Station, the house, I 
believe, being originally in 
the possession of the Izard 
family. Other excursions by 
train and yet within reach of 
an hour or two's journey, are 

Goosecreek Church and Mulberry Castle, on the Cooper 
River, and Pompion Hill Church and Drayton Hall, on the 




rlie Tliomas Ball House, Charleston, S 



its past, but there is scarcely an estate upon which the in- 
scription 'Ichabod" could not be appropriately placed on 
its gate posts. Without the help, the spacious gardens are 

but poorly kept up, and reflect 
the all-pervading decay. As 
you behold all these big man- 
sions, and after talking with 
their owners, you are mani- 
festly impressed with the dis- 
tinction of having a grand- 
father who helped to make 
history, but reflect that this 
they did because they could 
not very well help doing so, 
and while these good people 
have been dreaming of their 
family trees, the Northerners 
have been studiously pushing 
a way for their sons and 
daughters. 

Among the pleasurable trips 
from Charleston, a visit to and 
a stay of a few days in old 
Georgetown — so intimately 
connected with the older fami- 
lies of that city — well repays 
one, and it is from there the 
trip through the Santee district is made. Situated as it is 
about sixty miles (as the crow flies) northeast and on the 




Tlie Charleslon ^rarl<et [1841]. 



Ashley River. The latter house I regretted my inability to coast — or, more strictly, on Sampit Creek —at the junction 

see, as the place was closed up and the family away. of the 151ack and Waccamaw rivers, as they open into the 

To sum up my impressions of Charleston : I found it a sea, one should in these days make the journey in about 

proud old city, with every evidence of wealth and luxury in two hours, whereas the trip consumes four or five hours. 



so 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



The first half of the journey is by the main line (Atlantic hand. After some vigorous 

Coast Line) to Lane's Junction, talcing you through St. the dinner-bell, rung by a col 

Stephen's, across the Saiitee 

River, due north, and then, in 

the shakiest and dirtiest of 

makeshift railroad-cars, you are 

jolted or joggled along to your 

destination, with a stop every 

five or eight minutes, now for 

a word between the conductor 

and some planter, who rides up 

to the crossing to pass the 

time of day ; then to take on 

an odd bale of cotton ; anon 

to embark a colored woman 

with a basket of eggs, or some 

woful chickens ; again we stop 

just to stretch our limbs, or for 

the engine to take water, and 

indeed so thirsty did that 




The Elliott House, Charleston. 



ablutions you are glad to hear 
ored waiter — with a vigor only 
equalled by an English railway- 
porter's — on the piazza, right 
on the sidewalk. I fully ex- 
pected tlie whole town to come 
up with a rush and recalled the 
parable of the five loaves and 
two small fishes amongst the 
multitude; but my fears were 
baseless. The company was 
limited, and suffice it that I 
found more hearty fare than 
at any hotel — not excepting 
that old stand-by, the "Char- 
leston" of Charleston — in all 
my trip. Now, this was a little 
unpretentious one-horse-town 
hotel, but in the limited quar- 
ters designated " office " was a 




A Charlestrn Gateway. 



locomotive appear that at last 
I classed it as amphibious. 

Dusty, hot, stifled, at last one 
emerges onto the platform of 
the Georgetown station, glad 
to incarcerate oneself again for 
a brief while inside an ancient 
omnibus, so long as one may 
be put down at some hotel — 
no, not at that lumber-barracks 
opposite the station ; but away 
from the dusky crowd, in the 
old town — and in a few min- 
utes you are dumped onto the 
sidewalk at the "Windsor," and 
a genial landlord gives you a 
hearty welcome with extended 




ilci.se Gate for same Estate. 



bookcase, and there was a com- 
plete edition of the '■^ Encyclo- 
picdia Americaua " flanked at 
the one end by the " Holy 
Bible" and at the other by 
" Webster's Unabridged" with 
various reference-books, histo- 
ries and commentaries on a 
lower shelf. Surely, many a 
more pretentious establishment 
might take a hint from this, 
the entirely unexpected. Nor 
was the privilege shirked, for 
many times I observed various 
drummers poring over ency- 
clopa;dia and dictionary, if not 
the Bible. 



AN AUTUMN TRIP TO SOUTH CAROLINA. 



51 



Georgetown divides its interests : there is the long main 
street with its modern store-fronts of frame structure and 
pushing trade, much of it maintained by the Hebrew element, 
and, on the other 
hand, there is the 
restful quiet of the 
residential section, 
with a picturesque- 
ness and beauty only 
to be found where 
modern changes are 
eschewed. Its old 
houses conserva- 
lively preserved, 
though boasting lit- 
tle of architectural 
detail, fascinate you 
with the mere sug- 
gestiveness of their 
antiquity, of course 
accentuated with the 
Southern features. 
Spaciously laid out, 
with very wide 
streets or boule- 
vards, old-time gar- 
dens, and revelling in the shade of fine old oaks, the mem- 
ory recalls it as a dream of the past. 




or pine-woods, now transplanted into the precincts of a civ- 
ilized community, assumes in the frame house of the same 
plan a more finished appearance. The outside chimney at 

one end, instead of 
being constructed 
of clay or short in- 
terlaced logs be- 
smeared with clay, is 
now of brick. Pres- 
ently on an enlarged 
scale, you have a 
hearth and chimney 
at either end, and 
anon a double story. 
The house is now 
divided by a narrow 
hall, with staircase 
in the rear. With 



The M.inigaiiU House, Charleston, S. C. 









increased prosperity 
and personal impor- 
tance comes the 
piazza, first single, 
then double. Again, 
to better facilitate 
domestic require- 
ments, an outbuild- 
ing is erected away from the house, and then a small covered 
gallery is needed to connect with the house. This, as the 




* FriendficU 



near Geori^etown, S. C. 



It is interesting here to notice the growtli in plan of the family quarters are found to be too limited, is closed in, and 
older houses. The ori<'inaI rough log cabin of the country you have an L, and so on. You cannot very well attach this 



52 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



development to the larger houses, but it is noticeable in the 

dwellings of the laboring classes and of the colored element. 

In some of these cottages the walls are wainscoted to the 

ceiling, and here and there you come 

across a finely modelled door-knocker 

or other suggestion of architectural 

and refined tastes. Some peeps into 

the interior of these primitive houses 

revealed scrupulous cleanliness and 

neatness ; here and there evidences 

of good taste. 

The old church, " Prince George 
Winyaw," is still, after nearly two 
hundred years, a specimen of beauti- 
ful brickwork in English bond and, 
■with its quaint tower and massive 
arched window-heads, embowered in 
trees, is a picture from any point of 
view. The old market, too, with its 
tower, built about 1840, is striking in 
its simplicity and, being the rendez- 
vous of boatmen, skippers, towns- 
men, colored loafers and the ever- 
present mule-cart, makes a curious 
picture to Northern eyes. 

From Georgetown a visit was 
made to "Friendfield," an old plan- 
tation-house about six or eight miles 
out in the woods, where the singular 
find of the pictured wall-paper was 
made. The house was interesting in 
plan, but appeared to be rather a 

patchwork of additions. Strange to say, while I had heard 
of the name of this amongst other plantation-houses — so 
many of them burned — no one could give me any information 



Another trip that was as pleasureable as it was interesting 
was up the Waccamaw River (two or three miles wide), in a 
little rowboat, with a burly negro, half a dozen or more miles, 
to visit " Prospect Hill," the old 
home of the Huger family, where 
La Fayette was welcomed and en- 
tertained on his second visit to this 
country. I believe, too, that Wash- 
ington here paid a visit. After a 
couple of hours on the water, we 
pulled inshore and along a narrow 
canal to the landing, about a mile 
inland. The banks of this canal, 
which in the olden days were well 
preserved and kept, were a tangle of 
riotous vines and pampas-grasses, 
sometimes overarching us, while 
on either side stretched the wide 
rice-fields. From the landing a tor- 
tuous path led up the hill to the old 
house, embowered 'mid old oaks, a 
picture of sad decay. Evidences of 
a once richly cultivated garden were 
everywhere. Ivy climbed the walls 
and hid the old stone stairs to the 
piazza, with its wrought-iron railing 
of quaint design. The house was of 
the simplest in plan, being divided 
by a wide hall from front to rear, 
the house being two rooms deep. 
Shown over it by a little colored 
boy, who seemed to tip-toe it every- 
where and spoke in mutifled whisper, the silence, with the 
everywhere apparent desolation, was so oppressive that only 
my limited time in which to get my sketching and measuring 











■■'-«fv/l"? 



:"S$ 



















^"'"tstai^.' 






-/*" Y J 



%:"'^^' 




" Prospect Hill," on the Waccamaw River : the Rear 



about it, and only on the morningof my departure did I man- done kept me to my task. Afterward rambling around the 
age to reach it, and, so, had too little time to do justice to it. estate, inspecting the different outhouses, smoke and baking 



AJV AUTUMN TRIP TO SOUTH CAROLINA. 



53 



houses and the site of the farm-buildings — for that is all skipper and other boats' companies passing half a mile away, 

that remains — I was glad to come away, sick at heart in and, strange to say, just in an ordinary voice, which 

contemplating the ruthless transition from the days of its would be answered clearly and intelligibly on the instant, 

one-time prosperity and happiness. All this section of country was once a veritable garden of 

The row back was a relief from the stifling heat and op- cultivation ; first indigo, then rice and cotton and tobacco ; 








The Robert J. Turnbull House, near Charleston, S.C. 



pressiveness on shore, and though the little flat-bottomed and it was the proprietors of these plantations, with their fine 

cockleshell of a boat rocked a little too much in the tidal old houses and retinues of servants, who helped to build 

current midstream for one's entire confidence, the freshness up Charleston, which was their summer home. A colony 

was grateful, while it was interesting to take note of little of Huguenots, their family names to-day predominate, and of 

things • for instance, the home of the alligator on the banks, these names the present generation is justly proud. 
and the genial exchange of "How d'ye do's" between my E. Eldon Deane. 




The Charleston Post-office. 



Romance and the South Carolina Homestead. 




^^1^^ 



THE genuine Colonial houses of the South, like 
the respectable gray-haired servants, are becoming 
scarce, but certain country-seats dating back to 
days before this nation had even thought of a house- 
warming exist yet in South Carolina, secluded in those 
parishes, close to the sea, 
where the first colonists got 
foothold. The young house- 
keepers in these time-honored 
dwellings would, doubtless, 
willingly exchange them for 
newer quarters less congenial 
to moths and spiders. In- 
deed, the old homes owe their 
preservation as much to the 
substantial construction that 
defies fire, and would make 
the tearing-down a task, as to 
veneration for their character. 
But to the person of romantic 
or antiquarian turn, such a 

place is eloquent, and merely 

to cross the plain stone threshold and get a glimpse of the 
deep-sunk windows and chimney-cupboards is to slip back 




Mulberry Castle, on the Cooper River, S. C 



A mansion that interests strangers is Mulberry Castle,^ on 
the Cooper River, so-called from the mulberry-trees set out 
for silk culture by an enterprising Governor of the Province. 
The house bears the date 17 14 on the iron vanes which cap 
its towers. The vanes, of light arabesque design, swing as 

weathercocks on the four 

towers and, seen from a dis- 
tance across the low-lying rice- 
fields, give a quaint mediaeval 
look to the p'ace. The silk 
raised and spun on this plan- 
tation, the first experimented 
with in this country, was of 
fine quality. A patriotic Co- 
lonial dame carried enough of 
it for the making of three 
dresses to prominent women 
in England in order to demon- 
strate Carolina's adaptability 
for silk culture. Mulberry 
Castle's founder was a zealous 
churchman who frowned upon 
dissenters and continued to nip their influence in Gov- 
ernment affairs. Many arbitrary, hot-worded arguments 





Fireplaces: Mulberry Castle, <.n the Cooper River, S. C. 

to the time of the minuet and elaborate courtesy, of powd'ered bearing on State and martial matters were contested in 
heads, knee-buckles, buckram skirts and stomachers. 



1 Plate 38, Part X. 



54 



ROMANCE AND THE SOUTH CAROLLYA HOMESTEAD. 



SS 



this old house, and significant negotiations conducted when 
delegations or private parties sailed up the Cooper to the 
Castle's master, to have rights vindicated or wrongs redressed. 
The loopholes provided in the heavy window-shutters evidence 
a martial history. The owner promoted the building of forts 
as well as churches, and his descendants later experienced 
rough handling both from Indians and British scouts. Once, 
in Revolutionary times, a servant reported that troopers were 
coming across the open hilltop in front of the house. The 
proprietor — a colonel of the day — went down the slope back 
of the premises to a schooner anchored in the river, and 
lying face downward on the deck was covered with a row- 
boat, in time to hear the troopers gallop past toward the 
swamp where they believed him hiding. 

At another time, while the family was at supper, word 



Drayton Hall,' on the Ashley River, is a survival of first- 
settlement days, still habitable after long use and many 
changes in its surroundings. And Middleton Place, its 
close neighbor, is possibly the best known of Carolina plan- 
tations, famed for its noble gardens, to which hundreds of 
tourists make pilgrimage. It is there that one see? the 
clustering azaleas blooming full and free in the open air at 
the foot of lofty oaks and laurels, from which the gray-moss 
veilings droop almost to the ground. Nowhere else in the 
country have such effects in blossoms and foliage been con- 
trived, and the charm of the place is its naturalness and 
freedom from artificial posing. Wherever and whenever the 
gardener's art has been used to aid nature it has been done 
so deftly and subtly as to give the impression that even 
Madam Nature herself had been deceived into mothering the 



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Entrance to Parson's Plantation on Goose Creek, near Charleston, S. C. 



came of the enemy's approach. The women promptly blew 
out the candles, and the husband and father reached his 
stable and on horseback got off to the woods while the 
raiders were searching the premises by torchlight. Many 
colonists were in the house at that juncture because of its 
supposed safety. On a pallet in one corner of the parlor 
the master's little daughter had been put to sleep while some 
visitor occupied her bed. Her couch was overturned by 
bayonets in the soldiers' search for arms or treasure. Those 
times gave way to seasons of great prosperity and affluence, 
and even in the Civil War the Castle escaped damage because 
of its secluded location. 

Two miles from Mulberry plantation is a quaint dwelling 
called Exeter House, with the date 17 12 graved on its brick- 
work. The two houses are companions, having shared the same 
history, and being at present owned by family connections. 



innovation. This estate marks the time when Carolinians 
first became ambitious for luxury. The founder's aim was 
to make a choice and cultivated display of the native botani- 
cal riches of the section, mingling them with such foreign 
importations as could best be naturalized to the soil. The 
very spirit of tranquil loveliness broods over the spot, and 
even the prosaic visitor warms to enthusiasm at the first sur- 
prise of these riverside grounds that many liken to Paradise. 
The house, to which the gardens were a complement, was 
burned years ago, but its loss has been skilfully concealed. 
In St. James's Parish, Goose Creek, is Yeaman's Hall, 
whose founder was the first person to introduce slave-labor 
in Carolina. The house was in constant use until the 
earthquake cracked its walls. Its age shows in its face. 
Port-holes in the basement brickwork and staircase landing 

1 1'late 39, I'art X. 



56 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



show it to have been designed for defence as well as comfort. 
And the builder, who fled from Barbadoes, bringing money 
and slaves with him, must have profited by his lessons in 
danger, for he not only caused a secret chamber to be walled 
within the house, but also built an underground passage lead- 
ing out, several hundred yards, to the creek, where boats were 
kept moored that the besieged might leave the dwelling 
secretly. This passage opens into the family graveyard 
which adjoins the premises, as was old-country custom. A 
flat gravestone inscribed to some mythical ancestor hides 
the entrance to the underground way. That buried passage 
has been an abiding terror to successive generations of the 
neighborhood darkies, and been speculated upon by many 
instalments of Sunday-school cliildren who go to the Hall for 
their spring picnics. The hidden way is the basis for all 
manner of "bogey stories," and the most harmless of Jack-o'- 
my-Lanterns seen there causes desertion of the territory for 
weeks, and then the foxes and 'possums roam secure from 



ing from a strong-minded grandame of strict religious bent, 
who, during her sway as mistress, had forbidden all levity 
and pernicious reading to her household. The private diaries 
of the time report that the governess destroyed her novel and 
took a servant-maid to sleep in her room thereafter ; but, later, 
when there arrived at the Hall a son of the old grandame 
whose features strikingly resembled his mother's, the young 
woman was thrown into such agitation of mind that she had 
to go away in quest of health. 

An ancient place facing on Wappoo Creek is notable for 
having produced the first Carolina indigo, an achievement 
due to woman's wit and perseverance. The Governor of 
Antigua sent his wife and daughter to his Carolina planta- 
tion for tlie advantages of climate. The daughter, wearying 
of the monotony of country life, sought for some industry 
with which to liven matters, and began experimenting with 
tropical seeds and fruits sent her by her father. The first 
indigo seeds she planted were killed by frost ; the next venture 




■The Pickets": Bull Plantation, Ashley Kiver, S. C. 



hunting. A fine spring of water is hard by, but none of the 
negro tenants on the land partake of its benefit. They say 
the place is haunted. 

There is a ghost story concerning the experience of a 
governess, a gay young widow, who taught the children of 
the household some generations after its founding. She 
was reading a novel one night in her bedchamber upstairs 
when the door opened softly, and an old lady in silk gown 
and cross 'kerchief walked in and looked at her, with finger 
uplifted. The young woman asked the visitor's meaning 
without getting response, and when the apparition turned to 
go she followed through several rooms until it vanished as 
suddenly as it had come. The household was roused and 
inquiry made as to how a stranger could have got in or out 
without notice. The mystery was never cleared. Only those 
familiar with the fami'y characteristics set it down as a warn- 



failed because of worms. The third trial after many months 
proved successful, and the father being advised of the fact 
sent a West Indian chemist to build vats and show the 
process of extracting the dye from the weed. The foreign 
chemist, probably regretting his bargain as adverse to his 
own country, purposely misled his employer and marred the 
quality of the indigo by putting in too much lime. 

The young woman circumvented him, however. Feeling 
intuitively that his dealings were not fair, she watched him 
carefully, questioning every step in the process and his 
reasons for doing thus and so, with the result that a knowl- 
edge of the correct management was obtained and the suc- 
cessful manipulation of indigo made known to the planters 
of the section. Afterwards, this girl experimenter married a 
neighbor, to whom her father made a present of all the indigo 
raised on his lands. 



MORE PECUTJARiriES OE SOUTHERN COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE. 



57 



One of the stateliest of the old plantation houses in the 
low country was " Archdale," built in 1706, under the di- 
rection of the architect who built St. Philip's Church in 
Charleston. This house, which had the massive walls of a 
fortress, with steps and porches to correspond, was injured 
by the earthquake, which proved so ruinous to brick houses. 
The interior is decorated with florid stucco-work and the 
hall fireplaces are lined with pictured Dutch tiles. As in most 
old English dwellings, the family allegiance is shown by the 
royal arms, done in stucco, over the main archway. Without 
were paved courts and extensive grounds adorned with laurel 
and catalpa trees and flowering shrubs. 

Some of these old places stand far back from the road 
and owe much of their beauty to a water approach or to 
their isolation among live oak groves, or on imposing bluffs 
visible from some distance. Bits of social or domestic his- 
tory are connected with each, serving to (ix them in memory. 
You drive up some avenue so well defined and stately it 
would seem the caretaker must be near at hand, only to find 
the relics of a dwelling and grounds long defaced, the 
well-filled barns at a little distance and the populous negro 



cabins emphasizing the desolation. One such home near 
Charleston was destroyed by its owner's hand on discovery 
that the enemy was approaching. His negroes strove to 
prevent the sacrifice, but Spartan-like, the planter hiinself, be- 
lieving that the place would be sacked, applied the torch 
that took away valuable paintings, plate and household keep- 
sakes. At another old home-site in a sister parish, the tale 
holds of the young master's journeying across the ocean for 
his bride, after building a carefully planned house with ex- 
press deference to her comfort. The night of the home- 
coming the carriage was sent to the station to fetch the young 
pair, and as they entered the avenue leading to the house an 
odd light struck on the trees. The dwelling was on fire, too 
far gone to be rescued. And the couple sat in their convey- 
ance and watched the tragedy, afterwards taking shelter in 
the overseer's house until a substitute could be built. 

There are no older or more picturesque survivals anywhere 
in the land than these Carolina home-sites; and it is well to 
record them before they have been too much modified or set 
aside. 

OUVE F. GUNBY. 



■^B'- 




-^fgu 



More Peculiarities of Southern Colonial Architecture. 



IF one wished to embark on an interesting voyage of spec- 
ulative inquiry, he might imagine that in the first ten 
years of the seventeenth century the ships of the world 
brought to this Western Hemisphere as many individuals 
as have entered this country during the last decade as immi- 
grants, coming then, as they have come now, froin as many 
and diversely situated civiliza- 
tions, and then seek to dis- 
cover what manner of civiliza- 
tion, what kinds of social 
customs, what forms of archi- 
tectural surroundings would 
have resulted from the efforts 
of the motley horde of Huns, 
Italians, Poles, Jews, Armen- 
ians, Russians, Chinese, Jap- 
anese, Scandinavians, Ger- 
mans, Irishmen and so on. 
The science of ethnology 
shows us how climate, social 
custom and family habit predi- 
cate the results of man's 
efforts, and on nothing is the 
effect of these more clearly 
stamped than on the archi- 
tecture of a country. Fortu- 
nately, this country was, essentially, settled by Englishmen, 
and the ethnical characteristics of the American people do 
not vary much from those of the inhabitants of the British 
Islands, although there are parts of the country which bear 
the impress of the habits, customs and styles of building 
native to those early settlers of other than Anglo-Saxon origin. 

•The writer docs not moan to suggest that winji-pavilioii liouss 

nKMit in this ( ouiitry 



But it could have made little difference at the time when 
the early settlers actually arrived what had been their home 
habits of life. They found themselves projected into a new 
world and they must house themselves either in natural caves 
or in some form of habitation that their own hands were 
capable of forming with most expedition, whether a wattled 

wigwam, a sod hut, a mud 
hovel or a log cabin. The 
log cabin was the natural se- 
lection of Englishmen, and 
from the log cabin was in time 
evolved, not only the present 
system of wooden dwellings, 
but one of the two kinds of 
building which are essentially 
American types. One of 
these types has already been 
referred to — the gambrel- 
roofed building. The second 
type that we are inclined to 
consider essentially American 
is the house with wing pavil- 
ions ' which is so character- 
istic of dwelling-houses in the 
Southern States, a type of 
dwelling that has sometimes 
been held to be one of the results of slavery, for, considered 
from this point of view, the wing pavilion is but the slave- 
quarter drawn nearer to the main house and occupied by the 
house-servants, and, finally, connected with it by open or 
closed galleries. But the wing pavilion may have another 
derivat'on, and its germ is to be sought in the humblest type 

are not common in otiier countries, l)ut merely that its develoi> 
was a natural one. 




A Modern Veranda, Meeting Street and tlie Hattery, Cliarieslon, S. C. 



58 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



of dwelling, since it is in the dwellings of the lowly that 
changes occur least rapidly, and so there is more hope of 
finding still in existence the needed connecting links. 

In all probability the log cabin of the South was very like 
the log cabin of the North, and its architectural form was 
of the simplest, and though the sun shone more fiercely in 
Virginia and South Carolina than it did in Massachusetts, 
we do not know that the Southern settlers undertook to pro- 
vide a grateful shade on the outside of the cabin by giving 
a wide overhang to their roof-timbers. But by the time that 
logs had been supplanted by slabs and sawed boards, we may 
feel pretty sure that this matter of providing shade had 
received attention and the householder had provided a place 
where his women-folk could work or sit under cover from 
the sun's rays, either by giving his main roof an overhang or 
by building a porch on the gable-end. Now, as the original 
log cabins were essentially small structures of a single room 



ures. This arrangement was satisfactory enough until it 
came time, perhaps, to provide a second daughter with a 
home, and then the problem presented was not so easy of 
solution, for if the new house were built in the same line 
over beyond the house of the eldest daughter, the new bride's 
door might as well be cut in one side as in another, since she 
would inevitably be ostracized from the family circle, as rep- 
resented by " doorstep visits," while the mother would have 
to take twice as many steps in going to call on one daughter 
as she would when just running in to chat with the other. If, 
having this evil in mind, the head of the family ever thought 
to avoid it by building for his second daughter a cabin — 
always in the same riglit line — to the west (as we have 
assumed) of his own house, he doubtless perceived that, 
though the mother's steps might be saved, the new location 
would be as undesirable socially as the site at the other end 
of the second cabin. ]5ut being, doubtless, a man of resource, 




A Sea Island Cottage, off the Ct ast of Geoipla. 



or, if larger, of two rooms, it is plain that as the family in- 
creased more room was found needful, and, as log cabins 
are not easy to enlarge, it was the obvious thing to provide 
such enlargement in the shape of a second log cabin of the 
same size as the original, and, for convenience as well as for 
sociability and mutual protection, it is equally obvious that 
the new structure should be built near the original with its 
walls parallel to those of the old cabin. These enlargements 
of the homestead were, in a sense, compulsory when it was 
needful to establish a son or daughter in a new home, and, 
as neighbors were few and doctors fewer, it was all the more 
desirable that the mother should have her daughter directly 
under her eye. Then, if the door of the original cabin, with 
its possible porch, was, say, in the east gable-wall, the de- 
mands of sociability evidently required that the door of 
the new cabin, with its possible porch, should be in the 
west gable-wall, so that mother and daughter might gossip 
with one another across the short space between the struct- 



the father, after due thought, solved his problem in a way to 
remove all disagrefeabilities, little thinking that in doing so 
he was producing the germ of the second typical product 
of American architectural ingenuity. 

He perceived that, although two of his daughters were oflf 
his hands and out of his house, really, the house itself was 
quite too small for his remaining and still growing family, al- 
though it would be amply large for the newly married couple; 
so he decided to abandon it to them and build a new and 
larger house for himself. This new and larger structure, be- 
ing always guided by the instinct for convenience and socia- 
bility, he set in the space between the two cabins already 
built, but at right angles to them, with the gable-end to the 
south, that is ; setting it back so that its south gable-wall 
aligned with their north side-walls. The door of this new and 
larger structure naturally was cut in the south gable-wall, 
and in this way the doors, and possible porches, of the three 
dwellings fronted on a common, and small, door-yard. The 



MORE PECULIARITIES OF SOUTHERN COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE. 



59 



mandates of sociability were perfectly observed ; the mother As a theory, and fanciful at that, all this may be very 

in talking across to her eldest daughter need talk but half well, but is there any tangible evidence that can be adduced 

as loud as before, or in case of a visit need take but half as in support of it ? We think there is. 

many steps. The natural passing to and fro between tiiese The wing-pavilion house, as it exists in the manor-houses 

three cabins inevitably, sooner or later, particularly after the of Maryland and Virginia, presents the type in its highest 

grandchildren acquired locomotive capacity, suggested a perfection, and just as it is difficult to determine of what 



platform of some kind, and, 
presently, a roof to that plat- 
form to give shade or pro- 
tection from the weather. 
The result of this attempt to 
satisfy the natural demands 
of family sociability was the 
germ of the wing-pavilion 
house of the Southern States. 
It may be asked, if this 
interesting type was evolved 
in just this way, why is it 
that the type is confined to 
the South and does not 
make its appearance in the 
North 1 And since it is a 
stranger in the North, is not 
this hypothetical evolution 




nationality a genuine cosmo- 
polite really is, so it is diffi- 
cult in the case of these 
eighteenth-century houses, 
erected by men of great 
means, to decide whether 
the germ of their house-plan 
is to be looked for in this 
country or abroad ; whether 
they here followed by one 
last step a process of evo- 
lution that had been going 
on about them and their 
ancestors ever since the 
country was first discovered, 
or whether they adopted and 
simplified a type discover- 
able somewhere on the other 



a little too fine-drawn to deserve respect.' Possibly. Yet side of the Atlantic. Types subsist longest in the lower 

before waiving it aside as ridiculous, it is proper to at- stages of development, with inanimate things as much as with 

tempt to answer the questions. In the first place, there was man, and in support of the theory of development here sug- 

just as great a difference between the social instincts of the gested we must seek for proof, not on the banks of the James, 

settlers North and South as there is between the climates but in the back country of Virginia, Georgia and North and 

of Massachusetts and South Carolina. The family life of South Carolina, once iield by the families of frontiersmen, 

the Puritan was far less expansive and joyous than that and now occupied by small owners or renters of the land and 

of the Southern immigrants, even if we take as a correspond- by the white-trash, whose wants are simple and whose ener- 

ing type the Huguenot, for here we have the asceticism due to gies are commensurate with their means, who either live in 

sectarianism largely offset by the natural joyousness of the the houses built by their more sturdy forebears or homes 

Gallic temperament. It seems fair to assume that a Puritan which they have blindly copied from those of their neighbors. 

mother did not feel the need of doorstep gossip as keenly as These small communal dwellings, a composite of three in- 



did the mother living on the 
James or on the Santee, and 
no matter how much her 
New England descendants 
may now love to gossip 
" over the back fence," did 
not feel the hourly need of 
chit-chat that her livelier 
Southern contemporary may 
have felt. 

Again, it must be remem- 
bered that tiie out-of-door 
life of the Southerner is 
longer by several months in 
the year than is that of tlie 
Northerner, and, while 
the latter might well hesi- 
tate to provide his wife and 
daughters with primitive 
covered verandas which 
would be fully serviceable 
only three months in tlie 

year, they were very reasonable things for a Soutiierner to 
provide, since they would surely be used nine months out of 
every twelve. Since we know that the most potent control- 
ling influences affecting architectural forms are the ethnical 
and the climatic, we think that the absence of the wing- 
pavilion type in the Nortli does not in any way invalidate 
the theory of evolution we suggest. 




Tlie J. T. Ciilyer House, Prospefl Heights, Brooklyn, N. Y. 



tegral parts, are to be found 
scattered through the States 
named and in parts of Ken- 
tucky to this day, and surely 
present the simplest form of 
the wing-pavilion dwelling, 
which we hold to be the sec- 
ond significant development 
of American building. 

The view of the Sea Island 
cottage ' — now occupied by 
negroes, but in all probability 
once the summer house, or, 
possibly, the shooting-box, of 
the owner of some neighbor- 
ing rice-plantation — shows 
the type described as it was 
treated late in the eighteenth 
century or as it might be 
treated now. The three doors 
front on thecommonveranda, 
and while the flanking cot- 
tages have become mere wing pavilions of a single bedroom 
each, the central corps de logis has gained in size and compara- 
tive importance, though still consisting of but a single story. 
It is interesting to study the varying manner in which the 
wing pavilion is treated, for there is scarcely a possible 
combination of which an extant example cannot be found in 

1 i'.u'o 5''^, l':irt X. 



6o 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



brick or wood, from the group consisting of the main house 
flanked symmetrically by small independent structures wholly 
unconnected with it by gallery of any kind, whether covered 
or uncovered ; to the group of two, the main building being 
connected with its smaller neighbor by an open covered gal- 
lery, as is the case at the Calhoun homestead ;' to the group 
of three where, as at Mount Vernon,'' the wing pavilions 
upon each side — independent structures — are connected 
with the main house by open, but covered, galleries. Then 
we find the single pavilion connected with the main house 
by an enclosed gallery, as at "Acton,"' in Annapolis, and, 
again, the main house connected in the same way with a 
pavilion on either side, as at " Lower Brandon." ^ Little by 
little the gallery as a mere passage-way gives place to a wider 
structure, constituted of one or more connecting rooms that 



square rather than the elongated house was a natural result 
The milder climate of the South made it a matter of indiffer- 
ence and sometimes a positive advantage that the rooms had 
such an expanse of outer wall enclosing them. 

It is regrettable that more is not known of the men who 
actually designed the notable Southern houses — Homewood, 
Whitehall, Tulip Hill, Brandon and the many other interest- 
ing wing-pavilion brick houses of Maryland and Virginia, 
the houses that antedate the "white pillared " houses of the 
Southern planter. These houses did not grow, Topsy-like. 
They are real architectural achievements, the final word in a 
discernible process of evolution. In some ways they are more 
lovable than any type of house we have : while having 
abundant dignity and elegance they seem intensely homelike, 
and though they have an old-world air and remind us that 




Tlie Sliepherd House, Linnwoad, near Culumbiis, Ga. [1830.] 



serve also as a passage way, or to a passage-way with rooms 
upon one side of it. Then pavilions, connecting rooms and 
main house are joined in one structure and covered by a 
single roof, as at "Stratford House."" 

The last stage in the development of the wing pavilion 
may be found in such a house as " \\'averly," ' near Columbus, 
in Mississippi, where the existence of the pavilion is not 
recognized at all in the roof-plan, though the germ arrange- 
ment as it existed in the three log cabins is clearly recogniz- 
able in the plan of the front. 

Climatic conditions as much as anything encouraged the 
development of this type of dwelling. Land was as cheap 
in the Northern Stales and families there liked as weil as 
those in the South to have ample space to wander about in 
under cover, but the rigor of the winter months compelled 
the adoption of a more condensed house-plan and the four- 

1 I'lale 46, I'art X. 

^I'latc 33. Part \'I. 

" Slc cut, JJas^i; 57, \'oI. II. 



their indwellers belonged to a less eager generation than ours, 
they seem to tell us that beneath their silks and satins, behind 
their frilled shirt-fronts, beat hearts affected by very homely, 
human emotions. One can imagine the men of that time 
treating their architects as Louis XIV treated his, that is, 
understandingly. There must have been both understand- 
ing and cordial cooperation to have wrought out structures 
so well composed, so refined in the intention of the detail — 
intention clearly, but, alas, not always, in the South at least, 
refined as to the execution. 

Climatic influences created two other peculiarities of 
Southern houses. Towards the end of the eighteenth cen- 
tury the early forms of heating-furnaces began to be intro- 
duced, and their installation required a cellar, but they could 
hardly have been the cause of the fact that a dug cellar was 
a more common necessity in the North than in the South. 

*See cut, pafje 28, \o\. II. 
5 See cut, p;i.s;e 21, \o\. II. 
"See cut, page 59. 



MORE PECULIARITIES OF SOUTHERN COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE. 



6i 



It is more probable that the necessity of storing fruit and more dignified and stately, perhaps his advance to the head 

vegetables safely away from the frost made cellars a necessity of his flight of steps had all the value of the advance of a 

in New England, while the lack of such necessity and the feudal lord to the edge of his dais. ]!ut of one thing we 

fashions imported with West Indian immigrants, who had may feel sure — both host and guest speedily retreated to 

been habituated to having the air blow under their houses, the shadiest spot on the wide veranda. 



made cellars in South Caro- 
lina, say, a comparative 
rarity. Be the secondary 
causes what they may, the 
primal ones — climatic influ- 
ences — induced the South- 
erner very generally to aban- 
don his lower story to the 
meaner domestic uses — to 
the kitchen, storeroom, rub- 
bish-rooms, servants' rooms 
or what not, or, at least, to 
the occupancy of the men 
of the family, and make the 
rooms of the second story 
the scene of his domestic life. 
Thanks to this peculiarity, 
the houses of this particular 
period are made interesting 
by a great variety of exterior 
stairs, in single, double or 
treble runs, ascending to the 
veranda of the first story or 
to the generous porch at the 




Sketcti stiowing Relation of the Charleston Entrance to Veranda Floor. 



The veranda of the South- 
ern house is now its dis- 
tinctive feature, and its de- 
velopment, which is easy to 
trace, is clearly the satisfac- 
tion of a climatic necessity. 
The veranda, piazza, gallery, 
call it what you will, is 
worked into the house-plan 
so obviously as a necessity 
that one does not seem to be 
offended in the later build- 
ings by the general practice 
of cutting athwart a great 
Classic order with the floor 
and balustrade of the sec- 
ond-story veranda. An order 
treated in this way in the 
North would surely attract 
adverse criticism, and even 
in those cases where a form- 
less order of square posts 
has been made to support a 
piazza floor at mid-height, 



same level, and as stairs imply posts and hand-rails, the as in the case of the old Culyer house on Prospect Heights, 

fashion has provided us with many an admirable specimen Brooklyn, one cannot but suspect that the house was origi- 

of wrought ironwork. It is quite possible that hygienic nally built by, or for, some Southerner who, tired of planta- 

considerations of a climatic kind had something to do with tion isolation, had migrated nearer to the haunts of his 

this abandoning of the ground-floor to servile, in place of fellow-men, and not knowing that their climate had induced 



polite, uses. The houses 
where the b<l e/age is found 
at the second floor are most 
plentiful in the low rice- 
growing lands of South Car- 
olina, Georgia and Louisi- 
ana, and very probably the 
custom was dictated by 
the prudential necessity of 
keeping the women and chil- 
dren of the family as much 
above the morning and eve- 
ning mist-line as possible. It 
is this peculiarity that gives 
the houses of the period built 
in the far South an air very 
different from the houses 
built at the same time in 
Virginia and Maryland, 
which seem to suggest a 
hospitality if not of a more 
generous, at least of a 
more active, kind : it is 
clearly more easy to just 
step out of doors from the 




Old House, Park Avenue, New York, N. V. 



in them different habits, or 
else wilfully clinging to his 
own, made his architect sur- 
round his dwelling-place with 
two-storied galleries. These 
great houses with Classic 
orders, these real " white 
pillared houses of the 
South," are very largely 
tiie product of the Greek 
revival — as is the old house 
on Paik Avenue, New York, 
whose important second- 
story doorway has a hint of 
Southern suggestiveness 
about it — and belong to a 
later time than tlie period 
here considered. But they 
merely amplified and clothed 
with new graces a type of 
structure already very fully 
developed ; then, too, they 
are so very architectural in 
their composition that for 
us they lack in great degree 
the interest and charm of 



level to meet your guest than 

to take the trouble to run down a flight of steps, with tlie the earlier structures from which they developed. 

certainty that you must toil up them again in his company, The peculiarity of the Charleston veranda has been referred 

so that one infers an apparent difference of cordiality between to in a preceding paper, and explanation made that the door- 

the greeting of the Virginia tobacco-grower and the South way in the screen-wall gave upon the steps leading to the 

(Carolina cotlon-p.antcr. Perhaps the latter's welcome was lower veranda and not into the vestibule of the house. It 



62 



THE GEORGIAX PERIOD. 



would seem that this arrangement must furnish a very perfect 
dust-hole for the gatiiering of all the leaves that fall and all 
the dust and straws that float about; but there is an obvious 
need in a climate where open windows at night are the rule 
that, in a city, a too easy access to the veranda upon which 
windows open siiould not be afforded to the vagrant and 
pilfering negro and his tramping white brother. In the 
country, on the plantations, the same safeguard was not 
called for, and so we find open flights of steps ramping up 
to the house-door, which, being usually placed on the axis 
of the front, gives a balanced central feature to the compo- 
sition, which is often of great dignity. 

Mr. Waterhouse has elsewhere accounted for the porch, 
or portico, as a needed protection from the weather, which 
the native or acquired hospitality of the householder pro- 
vided for his guest, and in the North, and in other countries, 
we have the porch treated in myriad interesting ways without 
ever losing its character as being, first of all, a protection to 



fellow) house ^ are a modern addition, and, liiough there are 
many beautiful porches in Salem, there are few verandas, 
and these mere abbreviations, like that of the Bertram house.' 
It was only when social life in the Northern States had 
taken on an idler habit, and it had been discovered that the 
manner of life in the South during the heated term was dic- 
tated by sound common sense, that we decided to copy that 
feature of their dwellings that did so much to make life 
endurable during a hot spell. Then the veranda and the 
" piazza habit " were imported bodily, for both the veranda 
and the habit were evolved and developed south of Mason 
and Dixon's line. 

Shade was, of course, the first desideratum, and if the 
porch-roof could have given all the shade that was needed 
there would probably have been no great outward difference 
between the houses of the different sections of the country, 
but as that was an impossibility it was a very natural thing 
to expand the porch laterally, first along the sides of the 




An Early Type of Veranda, "The Briars," near Natchez, Miss. 



the visitor as he lingers at the house-door. It has been 
deepened to afford greater shelter, and it has been widened 
so as to make room for seats upon each side ; it has been 
roofed in sundry ways, and that roof has been supported in 
ways as various. Even when, as at " Shirley,"* it was given 
a second story it still remained only a porch. The present 
generation at the North is so habituated to living in houses 
more or less surrounded by piazzas or verandas, these useful 
adjuncts of the dwelling-houses have been so widely intro- 
duced during the last generation or two in all parts of the 
country, they have become such a distinctive feature of 
American houses, that, doubtless, many feel that they are a 
species of native growth that sprang up in any part or all 
parts of the country at the same time. But the advent of 
the piazza as we know it to-day is a comparatively recent 
occurrence in the North. The verandas of the Vassal (Long- 



house most exposed to the sun, and later, as it was found 
that the veranda was a delightful place for the taking of 
gentle exercise on rainy days, all around the house. 

Homewood, Tulip Hill, Whitehall, Westover, Shirley, Mon- 
ticello, Arlington, Brandon and many other of the manor- 
houses of Maryland and Virginia are content with porches 
or porticos. Berkeley* combines the covered veranda in its 
simplest form with a two-story porch, while Mount Vernon, 
almost alone of its class in that latitude, is endowed with a 
real Southern veranda on the east front. More than this, 
Mount Vernon, in this same veranda, indulges in some very 
illiterate architectural forms, forms which Jefferson would 
not have countenanced if he had been called in as adviser, 
as he was at "Lower Brandon " — where, by the way, there 
is a very interesting example of illiteracy in the capitals of 
some of the porch-columns which were restored " after the 



Page 35, Vol. II. 



' Page 4, Vol. I. 



8 1'late 31, Part VII. 



* Page 39, Vol. II. 



.^rORI'. PECULIARITIES OF SOUTHERN COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE 



war." The ingenious local carpenter, fiiuling himself quite 
unable to copy the Corinthian caps which still existed on 
some of the columns, made his new caps by nailing about the 
shaft selected portions of the jig-sawed brackets (with their 
well-known barbaric forms and hideous counter-curvatures) 
which he had been using in place of Classic modillions in 
repairing the cornice. The result is a triumph of ingenuity, 
and one feels as if the work might have been done by some 
Babylonian master-builder. Southern work is fertile in such 
displays of illiterate ingenuity. One would not so much 
mind the illiteracy, but the failure of the ingenious intention 
and the brutality of the workmanship are a constant disap- 
pointment and offense. The doorway of St. Mary's Male 
Academy * at Norfolk is merely an extreme case of the result 
of degeneration in both the designer and the mechanic who 
carried out his design. 

At Mount Vernon the square veranda posts rest on the 



cornice is interjected a mere square fragment of architrave 
and frieze. At the South the column is, as it were, length- 
ened below the base, while in this Northern case it is 
lengthened above the capital. 

The Southerners have used posts and columns so often in 
providing the all-needful veranda that they have acquired 
much skill and a considerable ingenuity in their disposition 
and adjustment. But it is not so sure that there has been 
any particular or regular development in their treatment, for 
one of the very early houses shows a very perfect understand- 
ing of how columns may be used to produce an impressive 
and yet not over-stately and too architectural an effect. 
Until within eighteen months^ there stood near Natchez, 
Miss., an extremely interesting house known as "Concord," 
where we have great columns springing each from its own 
foundation so that they appear the very outgrowth of the 
soil itself, and these great seeming monoliths support in one 




A I.\te Type of Veraiida showing Effect t.f tlie Greek Reviv.-il: Coleman House, M.icon, Ga. [iS^o.] 



floor of the veranda as if on a stylobate, and this treatment 
is the one that is most usually followed both North and 
South; but in the later instances of porticoed Southern man- 
sions the designer has frequently used a full order and 
placed beneath his column a complete pedestal. This, when 
a balustrade is introduced between the pedestals, does not 
appear an unusual and, so, local treatment; but in many 
cases there is no balustrade and then these pedestal-sup- 
ported columns become characteristic of the Southern sec- 
tion of the country. A curious reversal of this practice, 
devised to the same end — to bring tiie veranda roof to tiie 
level of the second-story ceiling — is found in tiie liertram 
house at Salem, Mass.,' where between the capital and the 

> Mate 37, Part X. 
•I'late 31, I'art \II. 



place merely the light wooden pediment-fronted gable roof 
that overhangs, at two-story height, the twin stairs that ramp 
up to the veranda proper, while in others they support, 
in the main, merely the equally light roof that shades the 
veranda. Then, at the reentrant angle where the porch 
joins the veranda, support to the roof at that point is given 
by naively using merely the upper halt of one of these great 
columns, which here rests upon the outer wall of the lower 
story, which at this point is brought out to the face of tiie 
upper veranda floor. The curious thing is that this unortho- 
dox disordering of Classic formulas not only looks entirely 
proper, but adds tlie needed touch of lightness to what 
would otherwise seem a rather ponderous treatment, and the 
lightening process is carried a step farther by the introduction 

3 "Concord" w^is burned in February, 1901. 



64 



THE GRORGIAN PERIOD. 



in the intercolumniation of the great order of a smaller non- 
descript order of piazza posts. 

"Concord"^ was the home of the last of the Spanish gover- 
nors and was built in 1789, by one named Grandpre, so it 
is more than likely that the prototype of this interesting 
structure should be sought first in the Spanish West Indies, 
but in what direction afterwards to take the next step back- 
wards we hardly knew. But taken as it stands, or stood for 



Southern work, both in the refinement of detail and perfection 
of workmanship, and it is all in favor of the Northern work. 
For this difference there must be a reason, and perhaps it is 
this: To this day, and quite apart from the efforts of poets 
and prose-writers who have erected, if the term be admissi- 
ble, the hearth into a shibboleth, the fireplace at the North 
is the centre of home life and its enframement a matter of 
concern and interest to all members of a household. It is 











Elri 










• ' .-, *- k -i -9 1^ ■■' . »f c £=^# : m -!-■ 



The Pyatt House: Rear, Georgetown, S. C. 



Closed-in Verandas al Beaufort, S. C 



so many years, it seems almost an ideal solution of the prob- natural, then, that as the family has this feature close before 

lem. It is at once simple and yet abundantly dignified and its eyes at those brooding times when one seeks rest and 

has, moreover, as suggested above, something of grace and comfort before it, the skill and the ingenuity of the selected 

lightness : its thick walls promise an equable temperature designer should have been called on to make this household 

within, while the projecting roofs and not too large windows shrine more and more refined. This done, the natural 

assure relief from the overpowering brilliancy of a Southern sense of "keeping" led to the radiating of the same refining 

summer's day. The use of jointed drain-pipe for down- influence, first through the room, then through the entire 

spouts recalls the use of similar pipe for the same purpose interior of the house, and, finally, over the exterior, and 

in China and adds to the columnar interest of the building, here, as the doorway is the chief exterior feature, a similar 

The last step in the evolution of the veranda, or perhaps refinement centred mainly in the porch. 



more properly the first, and 
final, step in its devolution, 
was due to the gregarious in- 
stincts and social needs of 
the householder. The open 
veranda is all right during 
most of the year, but there 
are seasons when one's 
guests are more comfortable 
within walls, and there seem 
to be many cases where the 
owner has decided that a 
satisfactory ball-room — that 
essential feature of the house 
of a Southern gentleman — 
or a banqueting-hall, would 
be of more use to him than a 




A c!osed-in Veranda, Beaufort, S. C. 



At the South, climatic con- 
ditions made the gathering- 
place where the family sought 
rest and comfort, not the heat- 
radialing fireplace, but rather 
tiie cool external veranda, and 
it happens that in the use 
of this household shrine the 
eye was habitually turned 
away from its constructive 
features and looked outward 
to the charms of nature, and, 
so, the work of the designer 
distinctly had the cold 
shoulder turned to it, and its 
inaccuracies, discrepancies 
and the coarseness of its de- 



veranda ; and so we have houses whose interior accommoda. tails escaped a correcting observation. Even in approaching 
tion has been increased by enclosing a veranda, as in the the house the veranda was observed merely as one of the large 
case of the Pyatt house at Georgetown, or the house at parts of the external whole and the owner was more anxious 
Beaufort shown by the annexed cut, where the line between to reach its refreshing shade than to spend time in consider- 
the original veranda floor and the later tabby-built wall above ing its lack of correct and refined detail. We think that 
is clearly to be seen. And there is another curious old house climatic influences alone may be enough to account for the 
in the same place which shows how, as the family member- greater refinement and delicacy of detail in Northern Colo- 
ship increases, verandas, which both downstairs and up, were nial work, just as they explain why the outside of the South- 
originally but idling and cooling-off places, may be economi- em building and its more generous plan received a greater 
cally converted to the more prosaic uses of dressing, nursing consideration from the owner and his designer there, who 
and sleeping. knew that a large part of the family's time was to be spent 
There is indisputably a difference between Northern and outside of it, and, hence, it was desirable to give to the gen- 
^'PlateTy lart^x! erous plan as agreeable an external expression as possible. 



French Santee, South Carolina. 




ABOUT forty miles north of Charleston, and some more and more into disrepair — where a few descendants of 
fifteen miles south of the quaint old city of George- Huguenot planters and Revolutionary soldiers cling fondly 
town lies the " Santee River region," one of the to the traditions of their ancient dwellings. 
earliest-settled portions of South Carolina. Much The Santee region proper is that entire tract of land through 
of the architecture there is old and interesting, and some of which the Santee River flows, but the particular portion now 
It IS quite unique. referred to lies between the north and south branches of the 
This section of the State is but little known to the public, river. About twenty miles from its mouth the Santee forks, 
but maintains a quaint Old-World existence of its own ; yet forming two wide yellow streams (with a delta of increasing 
prior to the Revolution it was second to no other part of width between) by means of which it empties itself into the 
South Carolina in social importance, for the tax-returns sea. This delta, which is really a triangular inland island, 
of that period show that over five thousand negro slaves inasmuch as it is surrounded on two sides by the Santee 
were kept busy in the Santee swamps, and that the planters and on the third by the sea, and the low-lying lands on either 
of that region had by that time acquired affluence, and in bank, having been enriched from time to time by alluvial de- 
many instances great posits from frequent 

wealth. The old houses 
of this locality are seldom 
simple in design, as the 
agricultural pursuits of 
their builders, and their 
present remoteness from 
modern progress, would 
lead one to expect them 
to be, but are planned 
inore or less after the 
ideals of the French and 
English aristocracy, with 
great guest-chambers, 
spacious dining-rooms 
and, not infrequently, a 
ball-room ; for two things 
governed tiieir erection 
— the desired comfort of 
their occupants and the 
wish to meet the demands 
of social life as it existed 
among the rich rice-plant- 
ers of the " Santee River 
region." The sleeping- 
rooms were spacious, well 
provided with closets and 




overflows, were once the 
richest rice-lands in 
the South. At that period 
immense crops of grain 
were realized at the high- 
est values, peace and 
plenty filled the land, 
and the fine old houses 
■ were furnished with every 
comfort and supplied 
with retinues of thor- 
oughly trained servants. 
In the winter they were 
filled with guests, but the 
first breath of summer 
found them deserted, for 
the curse of this locality, 
as of all oilier low-lying 
sections in the South, is 
intermittent fever. To 
escape it, the planters of 
the Santee region took 
j theirfamilies to Pineville,' 
a village now in ruins, 
j which formerly occupied 
a high ridge of piney land 

well lighted. Almost invariably the houses had wide veran- two miles south of the Santee Swamp, and five miles from 
das at the back and front and were well situated. They the river. 

were, in fact, roomy abodes well adapted to the climate and A long summer at Pineville was an ideal existence. Being 

they represent a mode of life, once typical, that has largely all Huguenot planters of the Santee the inhabitants were all 
passed away in the far South of the United States. Little social equals, and all Episcopalians. Furthermore, they 
remains now, even in the romantic Santee region, to witness were all more or less related by intermarriage. Naturally 
to that life but these old houses — falling year after year they met without consciousness of social inferiority, and 

'The materials used in construction were almost invariably ]uig- woods, buiiiu; at the same time straijjlit-ijrained, soft, and easily 
lish brick and cvprt-ss, in whiih tlie fertile swamps of the .Santee worked, and, therefore, invaluable for car])entry. Instances are 
region abound, and which, probably, accounts for tlie fact that, known of doors and posts of cypress that have lasted i,ioo\ears. 
even in their half-abandoned state, the houses are so well preserved. 2]'ineville was established in 1794 and abandoned in iSiy. 

Cypress, as is generally known, is one of the most durable of 

65 



Old Wainbnro [St. James's] Chiircli, French Santee [ij^'^J- 



66 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



BED ROOM 



=CK> 



WEAItrA^T BM 



MXS 



indulged in similar social habits, which, by the way, were typi- 
cal of the people and the period. Breakfast at Pineville was 
commonly served at sunrise, after which each planter went on 
horseback to visit his plantation, taking care to arrive there 
after the sun was an hour or so high and all danger of in- 
fection passed until after sun- 
down. At one o'clock dinner 
was served and a portion of the 
afternoon that followed was de- 
voted to sleep. Every piazza at 
Pineville was furnished with long 
benches, and upon these rude 
resting-places the gentlemen of 
the house indulged in the luxury 
of a siesta. The afternoon nap 
over, tea and hot cakes were 
served. Seven o'clock supper 
closed the day, for which every 
one made a formal toilet, just as 
in England they dress for dinner. 
Then social life began, visits be- 
insr made and received while the 



arrriNo sn 



yiN<i ROO"^ 



Hampton." 



work, Pineville emptied itself back into the Santee rice and 
cotton fields and protracted house-parties took the place of 
the daily coming and going of guests. These balls on the 
whole were very simple affairs and began early. The lady 
leading the first set called the figures, and such dear roman- 
tic old tunes as " Money Musk," 
" Haste to the Wedding," and 
" La Belle Catherine " were popu- 
lar favorites at Pineville long 
after they had been forgotten 
elsewhere. The staple dance of 
every evening's entertainment 
was the cotillon. Late in the 
evening the reel was called and 
the gayeties were concluded 
with the boulanger, "a dance," 
says a clever writer, "whose quiet 
movements seerrw to come in ap- 
propriately in order to allow the 
revellers to cool off before expos- 
ing themselves to the night air." 
The boulangbr, by the way, was 




• E.^LL ROOM 



» » f i 



entertainers and those entertained sat upon verandas in the the most important dance of the evening, for the partners 

soft starlight, laughing and chatting, wliile great bonfires walked home together by the ligiit of a lantern held by a 

sparkled and sputtered before them, making bright the dark servant, who hurried on ahead. Fever was the summer epi- 

yard. It was the custom at Pineville to light these bonfires demic in the Santee swamps, but love and love-making were 

as soon as heavy dusk set in, and they were the unfailing summer epidemics at Pineville. 

features of every evening's festivities. The tract of land marked " French Santee" on all the old 




' Hiimpton, " on the Santee, Home of the Riilledges. 



Riding, hunting, fishing, dancing and visiting were the maps of the Carolinas took its name from the fact that in 

amusements at Pineville, and who would ask for any better.? 1689,' or thereabouts, a colony of French Huguenots, in 

The season closed every year with a Jockey Club Ball, after all a hundred and eighty families, driven from France by the 

which, the much desired frost having done its nurifvino- ~T7^ :, ^- '■ — :, — TT 7 ' 

■j, uuiic 11.3 puiiijing 1 Some autlionties give the date as 1694. 



FRENCH SANTEE, SOUTH CAROLINA. 



67 



Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, settled tlia High Hills 
of the Santee and the low lands referred to, which were to be 
afterwards known as St. James's Parish. Among these im- 
migrants were some bearing names that are well known in 
South Carolina to this day, such as Huger, Porcher, Ravenel, 
Legar^, St. Julien, Prioleau, Du Bosc, De Saussure, Laurens, 
Mazycks, Manigault and many others. Almost all of these 
French people built tiieir homes on the banks of tiiese to-be- 
historic waters, some set- ^ 

tling in the low delta be- 
tween the two forks of the 
river; others migrating 
farther south to what was 
afterwards St. Stephen's 
Parish, or " English San- 
tee," as it was popularly 
called; and still others 
pushing as far inland as 
what is now St. John's 
Parish. 

At the time of the Revo- 
lutionary War the Santee 
River was settled by de- 
scendants of the French 
Huguenots, from French 
Santee to Eutaw Springs 
— where General Morgan 
finally overcame the cruel 
Tarleton in 1781 — most 
of whom owned savan- 
nahs of one size or an- 
other and cultivated crops 
of rice, indigo or cotton. 

One of the best known Santee savannahs was -'The 
Rocks," which was acquired by Captain Guillard in 1794, 
and owned by his descendants for generations. "White 
Plains" was also well known, as was " Milford," the estate of 
General Moultrie. " Wantoot " was the savannah of Daniel 
Ravenel,' the son of Rene Ravenel, the first of the name in 
America. " Gravel Hill " was a place of considerable celeb- 
rity on the Santee, and "Belle Isle," the plantation of that 
illustrious soldier Francis Marion, though in wretched repair, 
is still to be seen by the occasional visitor who makes a pil- 
grimage to it. The place is now owned by one of General 
Marion's descendants and namesakes. The house* is practi- 
cally deserted and the plantation is not always under cultiva- 
tion. Though unoccupied and fast falling into ruins, the 
house is full of quaint old family relics, such as mahogany 
furniture in excellent designs, old books and old crockery, 
all left to dust and decay. 

The present inhabitants of old French Santee are for the 
most part the descendants of the original settlers, and their 
homesteads have come to them through generations. Al- 
though the original Huguenots made no effort to preserve 
their nationality, and their children were allowed to speak 
English and were encouraged to become loyal adherents to 
the British crown, there still remain in the domestic life of the 




The Deserted Parlor : "Hampton.' 



region many traces of the origin of the people who inhabit 
it. The pillau, for instance, is even now a coiiinion dish on 
their tables, and that cake called in England a waffle is known 
by them as a.gauffre. In suminertime superfluous fresh meat 
is still "jerked"; and in French Santee, as elsewhere in South 
Carolina where the influence of the French Huguenot and 
his customs have invaded, potted meats still delight the 
senses with their peculiarly savory odors and delicious flavors. 
. Names, too, are pro- 
nounced there with a for 
eign accent to this day. 
Thus, Du Bosc is " Du 
Biisk " in French Santee, 
and Marion " Mahion." 

Up to a hundred years 
ago, the Santee region was 
well settled and populous. 
It was connected with 
Georgetown and Charles- 
ton by means of a well-kept 
stage-road travelled daily 
by the ponderous vehicles 
of those times, drawn by 
four stout horses, and hav- 
ing post-houses and tav- 
erns for the refreshment of 
travellers at intervals along 
the route. But the old- 
fashioned stage has also 
disappeared into the past, 
and the French Santee is 
inaccessible to the outside 
world for a distance of 



* Daniel Ravenel died in 1.S07. 

' See cuts, pa;;es 6.S, 69. 

' Dalcho, in his " Cluinh History " of South Carolina, gives the 
following account of St. .Stephen's Church : The I'arish of St. 
Stephen's was laid out al)Out i 762. Tlie church is one of tlie 
handsomest of the county cliurches of South Carolina, and would 
be no mean ornament to Cliarleston. It is built of brick and 
neatly finished. It stands on the main river road about 12 1-2 
miles from the Santee canal. The north and south sides are orna- 
mjnted with six Doric pilasters and each end with four of the 



forty miles save by private conveyance. Gone, too, are the 
inns, and the traveller is now compelled to make his trip 
through this almost trackless wilderness in a single day, what- 
ever be the weather or condition of his team. Here is heard 
no shriek of locomotive, no whistle of steamer. No tourist 
treads its solemn groves of pine, or wanders in delight under 
the cathedral arches of its mighty oaks. 

That portion of Craven County south of the Santee River 
is marked by a species of solitary grandeur almost un- 
equalled of its kind. Uninterrupted forests of pine and 
cypress trees stretch off endlessly, with what were once well- 
worn avenues running through them, and an occasional 
stately old home looming up in the lonely distance. Now 
and then a church coiues in view, St. Stephen's,' for instance, 
which stands so that it can be seen from afar by those who 
approach it from the west, or the east, by the main, or river 
road. This church,* like the old homes of those inhabitants 
who planned it and who once made up the society of French 
Santee, tells a story of past importance and present desola- 
tion. All around it are graves, some of which are quite lost 
in the fast-encroaching wood ; others are enclosed by walls 
and marked with quaint stones, and overrun with creepers. 
The stones of many have fallen and those that are still stand- 
ing are worn by the wind and weather of years. " If you 

same order. Upon a brick on the south side is inscribed '• A. 1 low- 
ard, Sev. 1 767," and on another " F. Villepontoux, Sev. lyl'iy," 
these being the names of the architects. At the east end is a large 
slashed window and tlie usual tables of the decalogue and com- 
mandments. At the west end is a large gallery, pewed. There 
are fortv-tive pews on tlie ground floor, which is tiled. There is a 
handsome mahogany pulpit, on the front panel of which are tlie 
initials '• I. H. S." The ceiling is finished in the same manner as 
that of St. Michael's Church, Charleston. 
M'late IS, Part XI. 



68 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



stand on one side of the church," says a writer, recalling his 
visit to St. Stephen's, " and look through the open doors (and 
they are never closed), you see a road coming from the south. 
. . . On the right and on the left the same unbroken line of 
road appears. In this perfect solitude, whence do they come ? 
Strange and mysterious traces of life and civilization! To 
what end do they appear to have been constructed ? In tiiis 
perfect solitude, whence do they come, whither do they lead ? 



turned to the church, where they are still used whenever it is 
opened. 

Mrs. Rebecca Motte, by the way, was one of the most cele- 
brated Colonial heroines of the South, and the mistress of 
three historic homes. One of these was the Miles Brewton 
house,^ of Charleston, which she inherited from her brother's 
estate, and which was occupied by the British during the Rev- 
olution, as their headquarters. Another was "Fort Motte," 




n 



■ LAN pi HO y 



3 



First-story Plan. 



— "Belle Isle." — 



Second-story Plan. 



Strange that at this spot they should unite, and that they all 
lead to the grave." 

What St. Stephen's is to English Santee, St. James's — 
commonly called "Old Wamboro " Church — is to French 
Santee. This quaint old Colonial relic, wliich ranks third in 
age among the churches of South Carolina, stands close to 
the old stage-road, not far 
from the celebrated estate 
of Mrs. Daniel Horry called 
"Hampton," and about 
three miles from the Santee 
Ferry. It is built of bricks 
brought from England in 
the reign of Queen Anne 
and was first opened for 
worship in 1768. The 
building is square, massive, 
and without grace of archi- 
tecture. It is paved with 
brick within and furnished 
with the high-backed pews 
of the period and almost 
equally high, narrow- 
benches which serve as 
seats and run around the 
sides of the pews. It is in 
excellent repair, though sel- 
dom opened for service. 
Mrs. Rebecca Motte gave 
a ponderous Bible and 
prayer-books to this church 
with her name and " St. James, Santee," stamped in gilt let- 
ters on the covers. So large is the Bible that it can scarcely 
be lifted in one's arms; yet a British soldier conceived the 
extraordinary idea of carrying it off to England as a trophy, 
together w-ith the altar service. There, some years after the 
Revolution, these stolen articles, exposed for sale in a Lon- 
don book-stall, were purchased by a liritish officer, who had 
known Mrs. Motte and received kindness from her, and re- 

1 Platesi.S-26, I'art .\. 




on the Congaree River, which was also seized by the British 
and defended by a stockade, and which Mrs. Motte fired with 
her own hands in order to oust them from it and force a 
Federal victory under Generals Marion and Lee. The third, 
" El Dorado," ' was a rice plantation on the Santee, where she 
movfcd immediately after the Revolution and erected a dwell- 
ing on the estate. In this 
work she was assisted by 
her son-in-law. Gen. Thomas 
Pinckney, aide-de-camp to 
Washington and later one 
of the early Governors of 
South Carolina. "El Do- 
rado," in all its quaint beau- 
ty, filled as it was with his- 
toric relics, was burned to 
the ground several years 
ago. Mrs. Henry Rut- 
ledge, a member of the 
Pinckney and Horry fami- 
lies, a descendant of Re- 
becca Motte's and formerly 
a constant visitor at " EI 
Dorado," writes the follow- 
ing description of the old 
place for the ^'■Georgian 
Period" : — 

"'El Dorado,' "she says, 
"was approached by a 
broad, straight avenue, 
guarded on either side by 
oaks and magnolias. The central part of the house was occu- 
pied by a spacious hall and a beautifully proportioned room 
used as a library or parlor. The ceiling of this room was lofty, 
the windows and doors equally so. The walls were panelled in 
cypress and the whole finished by a handsome carved cornice 
running all around the top of the room. The narrow mantel- 
piece, of an impossible height, requiring a step-ladder to reach 
it, was also carved, as was the doorway — befitting the entrance 
« Plates 18, 19, Part XI. ' 



FREXCH SAXTEE, SOUTH CAROLINA. 



69 



to an old baronial castle — that led into the hall. On either up to the house is remarkably beautiful, and the trees are 

side of this central part were large projecting wings contain- very aged. Doubtless, Tarleton rode under them in their vig- 

ing bedrooms of the same lofty type. These opened on a orous youth. 

wide corridor, on the opposite side of which were many large Situated higher up the river is "Hampton," ^before referred 

windows that looked out on the courtyard below. These to, the home of the Horrys and Rutledges — a fine wide- 





The Front. 



— ■' Belle Isle," lieaufort, S. C — 



wings were connected by a long, sunny piazza. On the north spreading house with lofty pillared portico and a stretch of 

side of the house was a large porch inlaid with tiles — black cultivated ground around it reaching out to the woods beyond. 

and white — and enclosed by an iron balustrade. The roof Of it, Mrs. Rutledge^ writes as follows : — 

was supported by massive cypress pillars, which were entirely " The central portion of the house is very old, though no one 

concealed by ivy. Ivy and a climbing rose clothed with knows the exact date of its erection, and the cypress steps 

tender grace the somewhat ruinous double flight of stone that lead to the second story are worn by the feet of many 



steps which led to the grounds 
below, where was once a laby- 
rinth of evergreens, and wind- 
ing paths led in and out in a 
bewildering maze. In these 
grounds have been found both 
cannon-balls and grape-shot 
that have lain there a hundred 
years." 

" Fairfield " ' is another 
South Santee mansion of anti- 
quity. It is now fitted up as 
the "South Santee Sports- 
man's Club," and is beauti- 
fully situated on a blufl forty 
feet above the river, of which 
it commands a wide view, up 
and down. A walk shaded 
with evergreens runs at the 
edge of the bluff for a quarter 
of a mile. It is an ideal 
winter home, protected equally 
from the north and east wind 
by dense shrubberies on either 
hand. It was built prior to 
the Revolution by a member 
of the Pinckney family and 
was Tarleton's headquarters 



'^'h^^l^ 




Mantcljiiec 



generations. These rooms 
are small and the ceiling low, 
but this original house of 
eight rooms was enlarged by 
Mrs. Daniel Horry immedi- 
ately after the Revolution, af- 
fording a well-proportioned 
parlor with large bedrooms 
behind as one wing, and as 
the other a ball-room of noble 
dimensions and lofty arched 
ceiling that runs up to the 
floor of the attic, there being 
no intervening rooms on the 
second story. The flooring 
of this room is perfectly laid 
and admirably adapted for 
dancing. It has many large 
windows, on the cypress panels 
between which may be seen 
the traces of the mirrors and 
sconces which once hung 
there. The handsome cornice 
and mantel are carved, as at 
' Kl Dorado,' but the main 
feature of the room is the 
huge fireplace, into which vis- 
itors may walk at their ease 
and examine the pictured tiles which line either side. Mrs. 







%$>mg^mS!A 



I'.Uiet" 



while he was in this neighborhood ; but it lias been so mod- 
ernized as to leave little trace of its original form, except its Horry and her predecessors understood the comfort and 
tiled roof and stack chimneys. The grove of oaks that lead convenience of closets, for ther e are fifteen in the ho use, 

1 See cut, pao-e 70. 'Mrs. Rutledge and her husband are the present owners of 

' See cut pa'^e 66. " TIami)ton." No one, therefore, could be better qualified than 

she to give an account of its many quaint features. 



•JO 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



some of them large enough for dressing-rooms, with broad Still another quaint residence of this remote country was 

cypress shelves that could furnish better sleeping accommo- " Woodville," which has also been destroyed of late by fire, 

dations than many old-time steamboats. At the back of the It was built about 150 years ago — all the materials being 

house the ground slopes gently to a pretty creek, beyond imported from England. The family were English, and its 




' Fairfield," on the South Saiitee, now the South Santee Sportsman's Club. [1763. 



which rice-fields stretch to the river ; and this slope is cov- 
ered with shrubberies, intersected by walks, where birds and 
squirrels make their happy homes ; and in the waim spring 
days the air is redolent with the per- 
fume of sweet shrubs. 

" ' Hampton ' claims an honor beyond 
the other houses in the neighborhood, 
for General Washington was once its 
guest. During his Southern tour, in 
May, 1 79 1, he breakfasted with Mrs. 
Horry on his way from Georgetown to 
Charleston. As the sister of his per- 
sonal friends Gen. Charles Cotesworth 
Pinckney, who was defeated for the 
Presidepcy, in 1800, by John Adams, 
and Gen. Thomas Pinckney, both of 
whom were on his personal staff during 
the Revolution, she was known to him 
and he graciously accepted her invita- 
tion to break his long ride of fifty miles 
by a rest at her house. The constant 
wear of a hundred years has compelled 
the renewal of most of the front steps 
by which he entered the house, but two 
still remain of the original flight. In 
the cool and spacious ball-room the table was laid, and care- 
fully treasured by Mrs. Horry's descendants may be still 
seen at ' Hampton ' some of the Wedgwood china used on 
the occasion." 




Fairfield. 



appearance reminded one of a keep — without the castle to 
which it might have belonged. " Imagine," says Mrs. Rut- 
ledge, " a circular excavation paved and walled with brick. 
The earth that was thrown out forms a 
sloping terrace from the top of the 
brick wall to the low-lying ground 
around. This is now overgrown with 
grass, but removing this and the deep 
layer of soil on which it grows, the 
traces of an elevated brick walk, per- 
haps fifteen feet wide, may be seen en- 
circling the entire moat. In the centre 
of the courtyard thus formed stood the 
turret-like house of four stories — two 
rooms on a floor. Handsome granite 
steps bridged the moat back and front, 
leading to graceful porticos defended 
with iron railings that give entrance to 
the second story. The interior of the 
house was richly decorated with carving 
and mouldings. The doors, mantels and 
cornices all were interesting and ornate. 
The folding shutters are exceedingly 
curious, and nothing could exceed the 
quaintness of the tiny attic, full of un- 
expected corners, weird low cuddy doors, and even here two 
bedrooms as large as modern doll-houses." 

Although the spirit of modern progress has forgotten old 
" French Santee," nature continues to smile on this quaintly 



SOME ESTATES ON THE ASHLEY AND COOPER RIVERS 



71 



remote region. " In the springtime," says Mrs. Rutledge, 
"the swamps are unsurpassed in loveliness. The wealth of 
flowers and variety of exquisite shades of green of the shrubs 
make it a delight to live out of doors there. The yellow 
jessamine comes first in point of time, as well as in perfec- 
tion of beauty, grace and perfume. Then there is the Chero- 
kee rose, climbing with its strong arms to the tops of the 
tallest trees and drooping thence in immense festoons of 
glossy dark-green leaves and snowy blossoms. The wistaria 
abounds on all the water-courses, and the red woodbine and 
a bush resembling the spirea — a snowy white from top to 
bottom — grow side by side on the river-banks. The dog- 
wood gleams ghost-like through the vistas of the forest, the 



fragile fringe-tree is a dream of grace, and the honeysuckle, 
in varying shades of white and pink, makes the air faint with 
perfume, while in the clear streams the iris — true 'fleur-de- 
lis ' of France — grows in profusion. In the sandy soil under 
the pines are found immense dark-blue violets with stems from 
four to five inches long. Beds of tiny scented white ones 
edge the morasses and the banks of the rice-fields are car- 
peted with a prolific light-blue variety." 

Until recently this region was a famous hunting-ground, 
for wild turkey, wild duck, woodcock and snipe abounded, 
and a hundred years ago the old stage regularly transported 
hampers of game to the city homes of the rice-planters of the 
old " French Santee." c. R. S. Horton. 



^^^ 




The Old Baptist Schoolhouse, Beaufort, S. C. 



fs..^ 



Some Estates on the Ashley and Cooper Rivers, S. C. 



DRAYTON HALL Ms the only family mansion on 
the Ashley River near Charleston which escaped 
the torch applied by Sherman's Army. It also 
would have shared the common destiny but for 
the fact that the Drayton family was divided against itself, 
and Capt. Percival Drayton, of the United States Navy, a 
brother of Gen. Thomas S. Drayton, commander in the Con- 
federate Army, and the then owner of Drayton Hall, was 
stationed outside the bar with the fleet that so long block- 
aded Charleston Harbor. Realizing the danger that threat- 
ened the family mansion he sent a special guard to protect it. 
The estate, of which this fine old relic is a part, joins an- 
other equally celebrated, known as "Magnolia on the Ash- 
ley." Both of these properties are entailed in the Drayton 
family, and, although they are now owned by distant cousins, 
were originally settled by father and son. 

Thomas Drayton, the founder of the family, was one of 
the many Englishmen who came from the Barbadoes with 
Sir Thomas Yeamans. He received a grant from the Crown 
comprising several thousand acres, which he settled in 1761, 
calling the place "Magnolia on the Ashley," because of the 
magnolia-grandiflora trees that grew there in natural abun- 
dance. In 1742, John Drayton, the eldest son of Thomas 
Drayton, and himself the father of William Henry Drayton, 
one of the distinguished men of the Revolution and the grand- 
father of John Drayton, a governor of South Carolina, built 
Drayton Hall on an adjoining tract. 

' Plate 39, Part X. 



The glace takes its name from the family estate in North- 
amptonshire, England, and the hall itself cost ninety thousand 
dollars, all the materials being imported from England. It 
is still in excellent preservation, although unoccupied, and is 
built of red brick with columns of Portland marble. The stair- 
case, mantel and wainscot, which extends in quaint fashion 
from floor to ceiling, are of solid mahogany richly carved and 
panelled. Over the mantel are stationary carved frames for 
family portraits and heraldic devices ; and the great fire- 
place is inlaid with antique colored tiles. To this day many 
stories are told of the dinners and balls held at Drayton 
Hall in the great old days, when the house would be ablaze 
with a thousand tapers, and carpets were laid down the stair- 
cases, front and back, and across the gardens, so the ladies 
might alight from their carriages and enter the Hall without 
soiling their delicate slippers or the airy lace and satin of 
their robes. 

" Magnolia on the Ashley "has been less fortunate than 
Drayton Hall, for its dwelling has been twice destroyed by 
fire, once during the Revolution, after which it was rebuilt, 
and later by Sherman's Army. Its chief glory is now its 
gardens, which are among the finest in the world, and are 
visited annually by thousands of tourists. Their most pictur- 
esque feature is the display of azaleas in all shades and 
tints, crimson and pink, and blue and purple, with now 
and then a pure white bush. The gardens are in perfect 
preservation. Smooth walks wind through rich wildernesses 
of color; placid lakes mirror a thousand diff'erent hues; 



72 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



great live-oak trees are weighted down with moss; and walls 
of rhododendrons and banks of golden banksias lend their 
gay colors to the brilliant picture. 

Before the azaleas begin to decline, the camellia-ja- 
ponica trees burst into flower and delight the onlooker 
with perfections undreamed of. There are six acres of 
these, white and pink and mottled, which grow in clusters 
of great cone-shaped bushes, scentless and cold, but exquisite 
to behold in the tropical luxuriance of these unequalled 
gardens. A little later as the spring advances the magnolia 
trees come to blossom. Then, indeed, the place is an en- 
chanted spot worthy of a queen in state. The waters of the 
Atlantic ebb and flow languorously in the river, where on 
each bank the lush grass grows. The air is heavy with fra- 



gardener who is associated with early American history. 
He did considerable fine work in and around Charleston, 
and at one time had charge of Sir William Middleton's gardens 
at Shrubland, Suffolk, which are celebrated, even in England, 
for their extent and beauty. One of the things planted at 
Middleton Place by Michaux was a camelliajaponica bush 
which thrived prodigiously, quite outclassing in perfection 
any others planted at the same time, or since, in fact. 

It so happened that some fifty or sixty years ago, Mr. 
William Middleton, on one of his visits to England, had a 
permit to inspect the gardens of Windsor Castle. The head- 
gardener showed him through all the greenhouses, pointing 
out first one, then another of the choice specimens there. 
Finally, he led him to a house apart from the others, in the 




A C.arden Walk, " Magiiolia on ihe Asliley. 



grance, and the great trees loom in stately inasses, sheltering 
their proud blossoms amid the cool shadows of waxy leaves. 
In the midst of all this floral munificence stands the tomb ^ 
of the Draytons', where six generations are sleeping. 

The camellia japonica, by the way, is one of the show 
flowers of the lowlands of South Carolina, where, though not 
indigenous, it reaches even greater perfection than in the land 
of its birth. One of the finest camelliajaponica trees in the 
world is at " Middleton Place," on the Ashley River, not far 
from Drayton Hall. The house of Middleton Place is now 
in ruins, having been one of the many burned by Sherman's 
Army ; but the garde-ns give evidence, even at this late day, 
of the great perfection they attained at one time. They 
were laid out in 1750 by Michaux, a celebrated landscape- 

^ Platu 20, I'art XI. 



centre of which was a small camellia bush showing some 
twenty or thirty blooms. 

" There ! " said the head-gardener with pride. " Is not that 
beautiful ? Is it not superb — unique ? " 

"It is very pretty, indeed,'' said Mr. Middleton, or words 
to that effect. 

"I consider it the choicest specimen in the entire collec- 
tion," said the head-gardener. '■ Do you not agree with 
me? ' 

" Yes," replied Mr. Middleton, " I think perhaps it is." 

The gardener was chagrined at the evident lack of enthusi- 
asm on the part of the American, and pressed him further. 

" But isn't it the finest bush of the kind you ever saw ? " 

"Well, no," replied Mr. Middleton. "I have in my 
garden at home a camellia-japonica tree that is twenty feet 



SOME ESTATES ON THE ASHLEY AND COOPER RIVERS. 



71 



high, and when I left it had on it, as near as I can calculate, 
about four thousand blooms." 

" Why, bless my soul ! " exclaimed the Queen's gardener, 
"you must be a Middleton of Middleton Place, in the Caro- 
linas. We know of that tree. It was planted by Michaux 
in 1750, and is one of the botanical wonders." 

Nature is in a bountiful mood on the banks of the Ashley 
River, and occasionally takes it into her head there to do 
her very best, as in this instance, and again in the case of a 
giant live-oak tree in the pasture of Drayton Hall which has 
grown to enormous size and perfection, and was pronounced 
by Professor Sargent, the botanist, the most beautiful tree of 
its kind in the world. This live-oak, in common with all 
trees near the South Carolina coast, is draped with tillandsia, 
that peculiar mosslike growth peculiar to lowland forests 
near the Southern Sea. 

The wonderful productiveness of the Ashley River region 
made it formerly the seat of the rich cavalier planters of 
South Carolina. The Izard family resided near "The Oaks," 
near Goose Creek Church, which was settled in 1678. 
"Crowfield ' was, until 1754, another residence of the Mid- 
dleton family. "Ashley Hall" was the home of the Bull 
family. Across, on Cooper River were many other splendid 
old homes : " Yeamans Hall " was built there by Sir Thomas 
Yeamans about 1680. 

"The house," says an early chronicler, " was of brick, said 
to have been brought over from England. It was a two- 
story structure with basement, almost square, with an exten- 
sion in the rear, and a broad veranda at the front. The 
interior was elegantly finished. The walls were painted in 
panels representing landscapes, and hung with tapestries. 
The large fireplaces wc;re lined with Dutch tiles in blue and 
white, depicting Biblical scenes. At the time of my visit the 
house had not yet been burned, and remains of this former 



beauty could be seen in the broken cornices and handsome 
mouldings around the rooms. Entering from the front you 
came into a large hall, with an immense chimney-place in one 
corner; from this hall led doors communicating with four 
rooms, another door gave access to the rear of the house, 
from which a staircase led to the upper story. Between the 
walls of the upper and lower stories of an extension in 
the rear of the building was situated a secret chamber, ac- 
cess to which was had through a trap-door concealed in a 
closet. 

" This house was constructed with a view to defense in case 
of any attack from hostile Indians. In the basement the 
walls are pierced at intervals on all sides with loopholes for 
firearms, as is also the wall of the staircase leading to the 
upper floor. In the basement once could be seen the en- 
trance to an underground tunnel, arched with brick, which 
led to an opening near the creek, thus affording a means of 
escape for the family if hard pressed. There was a haunted 
chamber where the ghost of a stately dame, arrayed in costly 
brocade, was wont to appear." 

Mulberry Towers, the home of the Broughton family, com- 
monly called "The Mulberry," is also on the Cooper River; 
likewise " Belvedere," and the ruins of " Medway," the home 
of Landgrave Thomas Smith. 

At the time of the Revolution social life on the Ashley and 
Cooper rivers was conducted on a splendid scale, equalled 
only by that of the gentleman planters of the James River. 
The English who settled that section, by the way, the Harri- 
sons, the Byrds, the Carters and the Berkeleys, were of the 
same political and social class as those who composed 
the society of the Ashley and Cooper rivers, and their 
homes for the most pai't, though on the whole less architect- 
ural because of the inability to secure skilled labor, represent 
the same general ideas of construction. H. 



Q Q 

Q 



^|iM#-~iNi 



7^ 




Q Q 
Q 



'The Wedge," South Santee, S. C. 



Beaufort, S. C, an Island Capital. 




AFTER a stay in dull and tedious commercial Savan- 
nah, the little sea-trip to Beaufort was a welcome 
change and full of interest. Sailing about noon, 
the little steamer slipped slowly down the river, 
past the old wharves and warehouses and the newer docks of 
the cotton-freighted steamers, which afTord more picturesque- 
ness than any otlier feature in the city, for, be it remembered, 
the city being built on a high bluff, on the southern bank, the 
warehouses and offices which line the edge of the bluff, while 
to the south presenting a front of only two or three stories, 
in the rear descend sheer seven or eight stories, frowning like 
precipices with their granite walls and heavy stacks of chim- 



hilarity was infectious. Many of them were looking forward to 
a cake-walk on the morrow night, and were dressed in their 
Sunday best. One little dandy, in patent leathers, polished 
his shoes no less than four times that afternoon. A party 
of young women were discussing the vagaries of a too amor- 
ous father. " So you poppa gone mahyid again." " Sho, my 
poppa done bring home a new step-momma, an' I ain't gwine 
to Stan' it. He don't count anyway." " Well," exclaims a 
companion, " if my poppa were to bring home a new step- 
momma, I'd kill him." Whether disaster followed the father 
in question or not, the incident was soon forgotten in the in- 
terest aroused by the setting out from the shore of one of 
















l£}^y- gfTncet Front 
s.C. 



neys ; and the winding cuts from the higher level to the 
cobble-stoned street flanking the wharves have an ancient 
and somewhat military appearance. After passing out of the 
river and by Tybee Island and lighthouse, the "Nahant" of 
Savannah, we take a northerly but not an open-sea course, 
as a stranger half expects, zigzagging through an endless 
series of islands, all characteristically similar, low and flat, 
but looking deliciously cool, fringed with the ever-present 
•Georgia palms, and tall salt grasses, so bleached in the sun 
that they vie with the silver strand in whiteness. Here and 
there a white cottage or some farm-steading breaks the 
solitariness, and stands in relief against some distant wood- 
land, while a column of smoke from some camping party 
may be seen pirouetting skyward. 

There was a merry party of colored folks aboard, and their 



the islands of a boat which met us and took off a number of our ' 
colored contingent amid screams of greeting and farewell, 
and the promise to meet on the morrow night. And so on, 
ever and anon, a boat would pull out to us in mid-stream and 
take on a few passengers and various freight, not forgetting 
many flasks of vile whiskey. It was the same experience 
as on the canals in Santee. Many, many times we stopped to 
supply some boat-load with soft wood (to be used as torches 
at night in the raid on the rice-birds), or grain, but most 
often with a number of " sealed packages " of whiskey, and 
away the boat's-crew would pull back to their eyrie through 
some inlet in the tall pampas grasses fringing the islands. 
Then we stopped at some military post, where a number of 
officers and men in khaki uniform were at the pier-end to 
take all in and be taken in by many critical glances of 



74 



BEAUFORT, S. C, AN ISLAND CAPITAL. 



75 



the fair sex. About six o'clock we reached Port Royal, the arated from home lies. After inspecting the new dry-dock 
naval station, and there discharged a good deal of freight, there, we went aboard again and pursued our journey for 





Door-head : Franz House, Beaufort, S. C. 



Door-head: "Mount lirlstol," Beaufort, S. C. 




r ,^^rwi^^^^'' 



■%^...-;,,,, 



'Tabby-built" Cabins, St. Catherine's Isl.ind, Coast of Georgia. 



'^ 




..i^mmi'j^wm^ 





^^mfflii^K 



Old College Building, Beaufort, S. C. 



*(. 



/a^n'- 



.m 









" Mount Bristol," Beaufort, S. C. 



conspicuous amongst which were some ample cases of Motjt the four or five miles more that brought us to Beaufort. As the 
& Chandon, to enliven the dull tedium of officialdom sep- evening darkened the full moon rose, and, with a sky of 



76 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 












deep turquoise, the water without a ripple and reflecting the 
sky, as we neared the town, where from the deep shadow of 
heavy foliage peeped many old and galleried houses, silvered 
by the moonlight, and all again mirrored in the glassy waters, 
there was presented a 
picture indelibly im- 
pressed on one's mem- 
ory. Beaufort, the 
dreamy, silent, quaint, 
with gardens redolent 
of opopanax and many 
odorous shrubs. The 
very hotel was an old- 
t i m e planter's man- 
sion, and from it, after 
registering, a voyage 
of discovery was in 
order, a trip that prom- 
ised much and de- 
lighted the eye, and 
although a subsequent 
and closer inspection 
failed to unearth much 
in the way of architec- 
tural and decorative 
detail, yet as a group 
of old-time houses and 
picturesque streets 
there was sufficient to 
make the old town 
well worthy of the 
visit. 

Beaufort was the 
summer home of the 
planters, who came in 
May and left about 
November isth for 
their plantations. The 
houses were built ac- 
cordingly with an eye 

to air and space, with cool verandas overlooking the water, 
or bay, which here surrounds three-quarters of the town. 
Here families well known to each other intermingled year by 
year and gave themselves over to boating, bathing and 
fishing, and a good time gen- 
erally, through the summer 
months. As a rule, these sum- 
mer houses were not built as 
solidly or with such complete 
accommodations as the planta- 
tion mansions, and here notice- 
ably absent are the extensive 
slave or servant quarters, so 
that it is evident that only a 
limited number of domestics 
was brought down with the 
family and resided in the house. 
The details of cornices and 
mantels, and the wooden finish 
generally, have a family like- 
ness, and are peculiar to the 

locality. The old Baptist parsonage and the old Elliott 
house are particularly so, as also the old Franz house, from 
the upper veranda of which La Fayette addressed the people 
of the town below in the street. In the Fuller house, on 
Bay Street, of which the double portico is given in a sketch, 




The South Doorway: St. Helena's, Beaufort, S. C, 




An Old Brick Tomb, Beaufort, S. C, 



we have tabby built walls, very solid, and to which the slen- 
der portico carried up through the two stories gives relief 
from the severity of outline. 'i"he staircase is interesting 
in its double return flight from the first central landing. 

This house is a type, 
with its portico, of sev- 
eral others in the town. 
There are also some 
creditable mantels, 
and the cornices are 
good J but in these 
houses, as in all the 
South, amplitude 
seems everywhere to 
have had prime con- 
sideration. 

In one of the gar- 
dens I noticed a very 
medley of strange- 
shaped beds, star, 
oval, round, octagonal 
and crescent, each 
edged with a border 
of rounded stones, af- 
ter the manner of the 
garden of the Bull- 
Pringle house in 
Charleston, with wind- 
ing walks between and 
a little pool and foun- 
tain. But what is ob- 
servable in the South- 
ern gardens is the lack 
of moisture, and such 
lawns as one sees in 
i the North are not to 
be found. The grass 
is stubby, strong and 
thick bladed, and it is 
in the shrubbery and 
vines that the gardens excel, and produce such languorous 
beauty. 

A beautiful section of the town is what is called " the 
point," surrounded by water, and here the old houses, with 

their accompaniments of great 
oaks with their long wandering 
branches and dark foliage, af- 
ford some marvellous silhou- 
ettes of an evening. Indeed, 
Beaufort should be an artist's , 
paradise, so full is it of the pic- 
turesque, mixed with a bewitch- 
ing suggestion of antiquity. 

Of the two old churches, St. 
Helena's is the Episcopal, of 
which the townspeople are 
justly proud. Standing in a 
great churchyard, with en- 
trances on three sides, full of 
old tombs and family burial- 
plots, walled in with low brick 
walls, and interspersed with magnificent trees, it is the central 
attraction to visitors, and, contrary to the general sentiment, 
there are many of the townspeople who delight just to walk 
there, so beautiful and quiescent are the winding paths amid 
so many flowering and odorous shrubs. While the interior 






5i.,i*«j5'^' 



BEAUFORT, S. C, AN ISLAND CAPITAL. 



77 



has been modernized, the exterior is unchanged, and re- 
tains all its original features, with the exception of the bell- 
tower, which has, I believe, been burned once or twice, and 
reconstructed without be- 
ing properly finished. In 
the churchyard is an old 
brick tomb, and the story 
goes that the tenant be- 
fore his demise was so 
fearful of being buried 
alive, and of suffocation, 
that after building his 
burial vault he made a 
stipulation that when he 
was laid away there should 
be placed beside his cof- 
fin, whose lid was to be 
left unscrewed, a jug of 
water and a loaf of bread ; 
and this was done, and 
food and drink were kept 
there until such time as 
any possible reawakening 
was out of the question. 
These old burial vaults 
are peculiar in their form, 
as will be seen from the 
sketches of the one in 
question and also of one 
in the Colonial cemetery 
in Savannah'. They are 
literally houses (gabled 
houses) of the dead, and 
their roofs of brick often 
sag inwards from their 
weight. With vines creep- 
ing over them they are of- 
ten quite pretty. The old 
Baptist church, nearly co- 
eval with its neighbor, St. Helena's, is interesting in its way, 
but of an ordinary type. 

'See tut in I'art XII. 




LaiKJing 



■t^ 



Stair-landing in the Beardsley House, Beaufort, S. C. 



After a week in Beaufort I was lotli to leave. There one is 
conscious of the very antithesis of the modern spirit of rush, 
and crowding, and haste. In times of business pressure and 

overburdening cares, it is 
positively soothing to let 
one's thoughts travel to 
and stay in such a place 
as Beaufort. But, alas ! 
this will not last long, for 
already there is a big 
modern hotel contracted 
for under a Boston archi- 
tect, and the old homes 
are being sought after 
and bought, and being 
changed to suit modern 
ideas and tastes. 

Thus the entering 
wedge of modern and so- 
called advanced civiliza- 
tion is forcing its way in ; 
but it will take a long time 
to modernize sleepy old 
Beaufort, though not so 
long to depreciate its pres- 
ent quiet picturesqueness. 
There is an old hostel- 
ry now, once an old plant- 
er's house, that thorough- 
ly expresses the spirit of 
the place. Mine host is 
a character, and a most 
genial and kindly one. 
Everything that can be 
done to make the guest 
happy is done, and in the 
"Sea Island Hotel" will 
be found a true home for 
the wayfarer, better than 
any gorgeous modern hotel can supply, for the reason that 
in it you are made one of the family. 

E. Eldon Deane. 






;i^^ 







St. Michael's and St. Philip's, Charleston, S. C. 




!•' Proclamation 
money, which is also 



ST. MICHAEL'S, the second home of the Church of 
England in Charleston, was erected on the site of the 
first St. Philip's, which, for the second time, outgrew 
itself by 1751. This necessitated the founding of 
a new parish, to which end an act was passed, in part, as fol- 
lows: '-That all 
that part of Charles- 
ton, situated and 
lying to the south- 
ward of the middle 
of Broad Street . . . 
be known by the 
name of the Parish 
of St. Michael's," 
and that a church 
be erected " on or 
near the spot 
where the old 
church of St. Phil- 
ip's, Charleston, 
formerly stood," at 
a cost to the public 
of not more than 
17,000 pounds, 
proclamation 
money.^ 

The church 
erected under this 
act still stands, an 
enduring monu- 
ment to the archi- 
tectural ideas and 
taste of old Charles- 






frequently mentioned 
in our Acts of Assem- 
bly, acquired that 
denomination from a 
proclamation of 
Queen Ann in the 
sixth year of her 
reign, about the year 
1 708 : the object of 
which was to estab- 
lish a common meas- 
ure of value for the 

paper currencies of ' 

llie Colonies. . . . The standard fixed by the proclamation, was, 
one hundred and thirty-tlirce pounds, six shillings and eight pence 
(133. 6. 8.) paper currency, for one hundred pounds sterling. The 
dollar jiassed at six shillings and tliree pence." — lirevard''s ^^ Al- 
pliabetical Dii^cst of tlie Piihlic Lai^is of South Carolina.^'' 

"... the confusion arising from the different values of British 
sterling and provincial pa|)er money, liecame general throughout 
the Colonies. In some a dollar passed for six shillings, in otliers for 
seven and sixpence, in North Carolina and New York for eight 
shillings, in South Carolina for one ])Ound twelve shillings and six- 
])ence. In the latter, tlie comparative value of sterling coin and 



St. Michael's Churcli, Cliarkston, S. C. 



ton, and is famous not only for its historic associations, but 
also for its antique chime of bells.^ It was opened for Divine 
service on February i, 1761, six years earlier than Christ 
Church, Alexandria, Va., where Washington worshipped. 
The corner-stone of St. Michael's was laid February 17, 

1752, by Governor 
Glenn, and con- 
cerning this cere- 
mony the Charles- 
ton Gazette of Feb- 
ruary 2 2 of that year 
speaks as f ol 1 o ws : — 

"The Commis- 
sioners for the 
building of the 
Church of St. 
Michael's of this 
town, having 
waited on His Ex- 
cellency, the Gov- 
ernor, to desire that 
he would please lay 
the first stone, on 
Monday last, His 
Excellency, at- 
tended by several of 
His Majesty's 
Honorable Coun-^ 
cil, with the Com- 
missioners, and 
other gentlemen, 
was pleased to pro- 
ceed to the spot 
and lay the same, 
and accordingly, 
and therefor a sum 

paper money di- 
verged so far from 
each other that after 
passing through all 
the intermediate 
grades of deprecia- 
tion, it was finally 
fixed at seven pounds 
of the paper money 
for one pound ster- 
ling." — Dr. Ramsay. 
" History of South 
Carolina" Vol. I, 
/. 163. 

' At the evacuation 
of Charleston, 1782, Major Traille, of the Royal Artillery, took 
down the bells of St. Michael's Church under the pretence that 
they were a military perquisite belonging to the commanding 
officer of artillery. The Vestry sought in vain to have them re- 
turned. They finally appealed to Sir Guy Carleton at New York, 
April 28, 1783. He issued an immediate order for their return to- 
gether with all other public or private property of the inhabitants 
that mav have been brought away. The bells, however, had been 
shipped' from Charleston to London, where they were sold. The 
Vestry applied to the Minister of War of Great Britain, but in vain. 
The bells were finally purchased by a private individual, who re- 
turned them to Charleston as a gift, November, 1783. 



78 



ST. MICHAECS AND ST. PHILIFS, CHARLESTON, S. C. 



79 



of money a stone was then laid by each of the gentlemen who 
attended His Excellency, followed by a loud acclamation of a 
numerous concourse of people that had assembled to see the 
ceremony; after which the company proceeded to Mr. Gor- 
don's, where a handsome entertainment was provided by the 
Commissioners." 

The bill for this "handsome entertainment" is still pre- 
served in the archives of the church and reads as follows : — 

Feb. 17, 1761. The Commissioners of the Church Bill. 

To Dinner ^20 

To Toddy 5, 10, o 

To Punch 5, 0,0 

To Beer 5, i o, o 

To Wine 5, 5,0 

To Glass broak 5,0 

To 8 magnum bonums of claret 24, 0,0 

TesTTor 

To this in a different hand is added "The Commissioners 
agree that the clerk pay this account." There is, however, no 

mention of this 

in the Gazette's 
account of the 
ceremony, which 
continues as fol- 
lows : — 

" Dinner over. 
His Majesty's 
health was drunk, 
followed by a dis- 
charge of the can- 
non at Granville's 
Bastion; then the 
health of the 
royal family and 
other loyal toasts, 
and the day was 
concluded with 
peculiar pleasure 
and satisfaction. 
The church will 
be built on the 
plan of one of Mr. 
Gibson's designs, 
and it is thought 
will exhibit a fine 
piece of architec- 
ture when com- 
pleted, the steeple 
being designed 
much higher than 
that of St. Philip's 
[the second St. 
Philip's] will 
have a fine set of 
bells." 

Although in 
this extract no 
mention is made 
of the location 
of the corner- 
stone, it is stated 
in an old memo- 
randum-book be- 
longing to the 
church that "on this day the Governor laid the first stone on 
the southeast corner of the church." Following this informa- 
tion a search was made for the corner-stone at the time when 
extensive repairs, made necessary by the earthquake, were 
under way, but without success. An interesting discovery 
was made, however, to the effect that the steeple was built 
on a foundation entirely separate from that on which the 
body of the church rested. 




Sidewalli passing under St. Michael's I'urch. 



St. Michael's has been very generally considered the work 
of an architect by the name of Gibson, said to be a pupil of 
Sir Christopher Wren's, but a clever writer on the subject in 
the "Charleston Year Book" of 1886 seeks to prove other- 
wise. He says : " The name of the architect is given as 
Gibson, a name of which we can find no mention elsewhere ; 
but James Gibbs was the designer of St. Martin's-in-the- 
Fields, London ; and a legend tells us that our church is a 
copy of that building. A glance at the pictures of the two 
shows this to be an error, and one is puzzled to account for 
the story. If, however, they were planned by the same per- 
son, we can see how the error arose. Add to this the simi- 
larity of Gibbs and Gibson, and the fact that the spires of 
both churches spring through the roof; and the further fact 
that Gibbs lived until 1754, and we think there is little 
doubt that St. Michael's was the work of Gibbs. This, how- 
ever, is as each man pleases." 

Exactly who 

built St. Michael's 
may never be 
known. The old 
church stands un- 
changed by time, 
with the golden 
ball of its spire * 
to be seen from 
the fishing-boats 
far out at sea ; 
with its quiet 
graves about it, 
enclosed by a 
higli brick wall, to 
which the people 
pass through two 
great iron gates 
said to be the 
work of A. lusti, 
who at one time 
lived in Charles- 
ton, and together 
with Deidrick 
Werner, a Ger- 
man, is responsi- 
ble for much that 
is most artistic in 
the wrought iron- 
work of the city. 
Service is held in 
St. Michael's reg- 
ularly ; and in the 
quaint old pews, 
to w h i c h the 
floors have been 
raised to render 
thein less box-like 
than formerly, sit 
the descendants 
of those who com- 



posed its original congregation. Generations, young and 
old, have passed beneath its portals, and its sweet chimes 
have carried, and still carry, balm and comfort to thousands 
of hearts. 



1 Tills gilt ball at the top of the steeple is of black cyi^ress cov- 
ered witlicopper, and was not hurt when it fell to the ground dur- 
ing a cyclone in 1SS5, altliouiih it made a si)hcrical depression in 
the flagstones of the pavement. 



8o 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



Mr. Dalcho gives the following description of St. Michael's 
in his " Church History'" published in 1819 : — 

" It is of brick and is rough-cast. The extreme length 
of the building is 130 feet, and it is 60 feet wide. The nave 
is 74 feet wide, the chancel, 10, the ves- 
tibule inside, 22, and the portico, 16. It 
contains ninety-three pews on the ground 
floor, the middle aisle across the church 
having lately been built up with eight new 
pews, and forty-five in the gallery. The chan- 
cel is handsome, and is ornamented in 
the most appropriate manner. It is a pan- 
elled wainscot, with four Corinthian pi- 
lasters supporting the proper cornice. The 
usual tables of the Decalogue, Apostles' 
Creed and Lord's Prayer are placed be- 
tween them. The galleries are supported 
by twelve Ionic pillars. The reading-desk 
and pulpit stand at the east end of the 
church. Near the middle door stands a 
handsome marble font of an oval form. 
The ceiling is flat, ornamented with a rich 
cornice, which runs nearly parallel with 
the front of the galleries. A large, hand- 
some brass chandelier suspends from the 
middle of the centre. The outside of 
the church is adorned with Doric pilasters 
continued round the building, and a para- 
pet-wall extends around the north and 
south side of the house. Between the 
pilasters is a double row of arched win- 
dows on the west and east side, the 
upper less in height than the lower. The 
steeple is 168 feet high, and is acknowl- 
edged the handsomest in America, and 
probably is not ex'ceeded by any in Lon- 
don for the lightness of its architecture 
and the chasteness of its ornamentation. 
It is composed of a tower and spire. 
The tower is square from the ground 
and rises to a considerable height. The 
principal decoration of the lower part is 
a beautiful portico, with four Doric col- 
umns supporting an angular pediment, with modillion cor- 
nice. Over this rise two rustic courses; in the lower are 
small round sashed windows on the north and south sides. 



font 

• StMichaete 

Church 



and in the second course are small square windows on 
each side. From this course the steeple rises octagonal, 
having windows with Venetian blinds on each face, with 
Ionic pilasters supporting arches whose cornice upholds 
a balustrade. Within this course is the belfry, in which 
is a ring of eight bells. The next course 
is likewise octagonal, but somewhat smaller 
than the lower, rising from within the 
balustrade. It has lofty sashed windows 
alternately on each face, with pilasters and 
a cornice. Here is the clock with dial- 
plate on the cardinal side. Upon this 
course rises, on a smaller octagonal base, 
a range of Corinthian pillars with a balus- 
trade connecting them ; the centres of the 
arches being ornamented with sculptured 
heads in relief. From hence is a beau- 
tiful and extensive prospect over town 
and harbor, and neighboring country and 
ocean. The body of the steeple is car- 
ried up octagonal within the pillars, on 
whose entablature a fluted spire rises. 
This is terminated by a globe 3 feet 6 1-2 
inches in diameter, supporting a vane 7 
feet 6 inches long. The height of the 
steeple makes it the principal landmark 
for pilots. 

" The building is said to have cost 
^32,77S-87- This sum is apparently small, 
but we must take into consideration that 
everything since that time has advanced 
double or treble in price. Bricks were 
then bought for $3 per thousand, now 
[1819] they are $15. Lime was then six 
cents, now it is twenty cents per bushel, 
and everything else in proportion." 

The bells ' and clock were not imported 
until 1764. The bells cost in England 
;^584 14 shillings, and the clock, which 
runs 30 hours, cost ^194. The organ 
was imported in 1768, and cost ^528. 
It was built by Mr. Schnetzler, and was 

greatly admired in London for its elegance of construction 

and brilliancy of tone. 




•«-«- 



St. Philip's Church has been called the Westminster 
Abbey of South Carolina because of the distinguished dead 

1" During the late Civil War the citizens of Cliarleston were de- 
sirous of protecting the bells from danj^er, and, as the steeple of 
St. Michael's was made the target for the cannon of tlie besiegers, 
the bells were taken down and sent to Columbia for safe keeping. 
When Sheridan's Army took Columbia the shed in the yard of the 
State-House, in which the bells had been placed, and which also 
contained the marljle friezes and other sculptures intended for the 
decoration of the Capitol, were broken in and the sculptures and 
bells were smashed into fragments, and tlie sheds were then set on 
fire. At the conclusion of the war tlie pieces of the bells were 
carefully gathered together, boxed, and shipped to the commercial 
house of Frazier, Trenholm & Co., of Liverpool, together with ex- 
tracts from the records of St. Michael's, showing where the bells 
were cast, and the proportions of the metals forming their compo- 
nent parts. Upon inquiry, it was found tliat there was still in ex- 
istence in England the firm of bell-founders, unchanged in name, 
and consisting of the descendants of the proprietors at the time 
the bells were made. 'Hie records of this firm contained descrip- 
tions of the bells, and tlie proiiortions there given were found to 
correspond with those furnished from Charleston. The bells were 
made anew, therefore, of the same metal, and for the fifth time 
they were carried across the Atlantic, and arrived safely at Charles- 
ton. Their return was made the occasion of great rejoicing in the 
city." — • \Vasliiii_i;ton Post. 



who lie about it." The first edifice called by the name of 
St. Philip's was built on the site where St. Michael's now 

2 Perliaps no other churchyard in America contains the remains 
of so many men who have been illustrious in the historj- of the 
Church and the State, among whom may be mentioned Robert 
Daniel, a Landgrave (the only American title ever conferred by 
Great Britain) and a Governor of South Carolina, who was buried 
near the rising walls in 1718. Near him is John Logan, Speaker 
of the Commons; not far away is William Rhett, hero in the de- 
fence against the invasion of the French and Spanish in i 706, and 
of the expedition later against the pirates. Thomas Hepworth, 
Chief-Justice, was liuried therein 1728. "Good" Governor Robert 
Johnson — Governor both under the Proprietary and Royal Gov- 
ernments — was interred near the chancel in the churchyard. 
Four Chief-Justices are laid here, of whom two were Peter Leigh 
and Charles Pinckney. Among the heroes of the Revolution who 
lie around the church are Christopher Gadsden and his right-hand 
man William Johnson. Rawlans Loundes, who was Governor in 
1778, requested that the epitaph upon his tombstone should be 
" The opponent of the adoption of the Constitution of the United 
States." Edward Rutledge, signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, Col. Isa.ac Motte, second in command at the Battle of 
Fort Moultrie, also lie in .St. Philip's churchyard. Thomas Pinck- 
ney, Major in the Continental Army, Major-General in the War of 
181 2, Minister to ICngland and Spain, and Governor of the State, 
is also sleeping there. So is Rebecca Motte, the celebrated 



ST. MICHAEUS AND ST. PHILIP'S, CHARLESTON, S. C. 



8r 



stands in 1681-2.' It was the first Church of England in 
South Carohna, and contemporary with " Old Ship " Church, 
Hingham, Mass., and a few years later than Christ 
Church, Williamsburg, Va., which was built in 1678. 

Unfortunately little is known concerning this early struct- 
ure, beyond the fact that it was of black cypress, on a brick 
foundation, and that it was described in a letter of the 
period as "large and stately, surrounded by a neat white 
palisade fence." By 1723 the congregation had quite out- 
grown this simple church — "large and spacious" though it 
may have been — and was removed to the present site of St. 
Philip's on Church street, where a superb brick edifice was 
erected under an ordinance passed as early as 1710. 

This second St. Philip's, which was opened for divine ser- 
vice on Easter Sunday, 1723, is the one of which Charlestoni- 
ans of to-day still talk with affection and pride, and the history 
of which is closely identified with the pre-Revolutionary devel- 
opment of the State. The second St. Philip's was burned in 
1835, the shingled roof of the tower having caught fire from 
the sparks of a neighboring conflagration. This particular 
bit of roofing was the vulnerable spot of the church, and 
caught fire once before in a similar manner from sparks from 
the Huguenot church on the next corner, and would have 
been destroyed then but for the resolute behavior of a negro 
slave who, seeing the danger, climbed up the spire and out 
on the roof, from which he ripped the burning shingles : for 
this heroic deed he received his freedom.'' 

The Charleston Courier oi Feb. 16, 1835, has the follow- 
ing account of the burning of St. Philip's : — 

"The most striking feature of this calamity is the destruc- 
tion of St. Philip's Church, commonly known as the " Old 
Church." The venerable structure, which has for more than 
a century (having been built in 1723) towered among us in 
all the solemnity and noble proportions of antique architec- 
ture, constituting a hallowed link between the past and the 
present, with its monumental memorials of the beloved and 
honored dead, and its splendid new organ (which cost $4,500) 
is now a smoking ruin. Although widely separated from the 
burning houses by the burial ground, the upper part of the 
steeple, the only portion of it externally composed of wood, 
took fire from the sparks which fell upon it in great quanti- 
ties. It is much to be regretted that preventive measures 
had not been taken in season to save the noble and conse- 
crated edifice. The flames, slowly descending, wreathed the 
steeple, constituting a magnificent spectacle, and forming lit- 
erally a pillar of fire, finally enwrapping the whole body of 
the church in its enlarged volume. The burning of the body 
of the church was the closing scene of the catastrophy. In 
1796 it was preserved by a negro man who ascended it, and 
was rewarded with his freedom for his perilous exertions ; 
and again in 1810 it narrowly escaped the destructive fires of 
that year which commenced in the house adjoining the 
churchyard to the north. 

" We have been informed that the only monument of the 
interior of the church which was not destroyed is one that, 
with accidental appropriateness, bears the figure of Grief." 

Revolutionary heroine, and many other notables of the same period. 
John C. Calhoun, the groat nullificr, sleeps within the shadow of 
the old church, and near him are the remains of three other leaders 
in the great struggle of which he was the leader. 

Kdward McCrady, speaking on this subject, says: "Of the 
dignitaries of the Church in the line of the Kpiscopate there lie 
around her [St. Philip's] hallowed walls, two Commissaries of the 
Bishop of London, three Bisliops of the American Church, and 
seven ministers who have served at her altar. Of chief magis- 
trates, two Colonial and three State Governors are buried within 
her sacred precincts. Six Colonial Chief Justices worshipiied in her 
sanctuary. Two Presidents of the Continental Congress and two 
signers of the Declaration of Independence were reared in the 
Church, one of the signers resting near her walls. Ambassadors 
and Ministers have gone from her to foreign lands, and members 
of Congress have been again and again clioseu from her mem- 



Old St. Philip's, as the second church of the name is 
sometimes called to this day, was a more imposing structure 
than the one which bears the name to-day, and would have 
been, had it been spared, a notable example of the Colonial 
churches of America. Dr. Dalcho, in his oft-quoted " Church 
History of South Carolina," gives the following verbose de- 
scription of it : — 

" St. Philip's Church stands on the east side of Church 
Street, a few poles north of Queen Street. It is built of 
brick and rough-cast. The nave is 74 feet long; the vesti- 
bule, or, more properly, the belfry, 37 ; the portico 12 feet 
and 22 1-2 feet wide. The church is 62 feel wide. Tlie roof 
is arched, except over the galleries; two rows of Tuscan 
pillars support five arches on each side, and the galleries. 
Tlie pillars are ornamented on the inside with fluted Corin- 
thian pilasters, whose capitals are as high as the cherubim, 
in relief, over the centre of each arch, supporting their 
proper cornice. Over the centre arch on the south side are 
some figures in heraldic forin, representing the infant colony 
imploring protection of the King. The church was nearly 
finished when the King purchased the colony from the 
Lords Proprietors. This circumstance probably suggested 
the idea. Beneath the figures is this inscription : Fropius 
res aspice nostras. This has been adopted as the motto of 
the seal of St. Philip's Church. Over the middle arch on the 
north side is this inscription : Deus mihi sol, with armo- 
rial bearings, or the representation of some stately edifice. 

" Each pillar is now ornainented with a piece of monu- 
mental sculpture, soine of them with bas-relief figures finely 
executed by some of the first artists in England. These add 
greatly to the solemnity and beauty of the edifice. There is 
no chancel ; the communion-table stands within the body of 
the church. The east end is a panelled wainscot ornamented 
with Corinthian pilasters, supporting the cornice of a fan- 
light. Between the pilasters are the usual tables of the 
Decalogue, the Lord's Prayer and the Apostles' Creed. The 
organ was imported from England, and had been used at 
the coronation of George II. The galleries were added sub- 
sequently to the building of the church. There are 88 
pews on the ground floor and 60 in the galleries. Several 
of the pews were built by individuals at different times with 
the consent of the vestry. . . . The front of the church is 
adorned with a portico composed of four Tuscan columns 
supporting a double pediment. The two side-doors which 
open into the belfry are ornamented with round columns of 
the same order, which support angular pediments that project 
12 feet ; these give to the whole building the form of a cross, 
and add greatly to its beauty. This, however, is greatly ob- 
scured by the intervention of the wall of the graveyard. 
Pilasters of the same order with the columns are continued 
around the body of the church, and a parapet extends around 
the roof. Between each of the pillars is one lofty slashed 
window. Over the double pediment was originally a gallery 
with banisters which has since been removed as a security 
against fire. From this the steeple rises octagonal ; in the 
first course are circular slashed windows on the cardinal 
side; and windows with Venetian blinds in each face of the 
second course, ornamented with Ionic pilasters, whose entab- 
lature supports a gallery. Within this course are two bells. 
An octagonal tower rises from within the gallery, having 
slashed windows on every oiher face and dial-plates of the 

bers. Soldiers of all the wars in which .Soutli Carolina, Prov- 
ince and .State, has engaged lie within her gates. And there are 
also to be found tlie graves of men of science. It is believed that 
she has never been without a representation in the Senate or 
House of Representatives of the State Legislature. All the young 
men of the church went into the service of the Confederate States 
during the late war. And in the vestibule there is a memorial to 
those who gave their lives to their country." 

' This date is given by Dr. Dalcho in his " CJuircli History^ 
Edward McCradv, tlie eminent historian, tliinks the date incor- 
rectly given, though his researches cause him to believe that it 
was erected prior to 1 690. 

' This deed is celebrated in a poem called " The Slave who 
saved St. Arichael's," the author having credited the heroic deed 
to the wrong church. 



83 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



clock on the cardinal side. Above is a dome upon which 
stands a quadrangular lantern. A vane in the form of a 
clock terminates the whole. Its height is probably 80 feet. 
" St. Philip's Church has always been greatly admired. 
Its heavv structure, lofty arches and massive pillars, adorned 
with elegant sepulchral monuments, cast over the mind a 
feeling of solemnitv highly favorable to religious impressions. 



same foundation. For awhile the congregation would enter- 
tain no thought but to reproduce, as far as possible, the edi- 
fice they had lost, but within a year other counsel prevailed. 
Both churches, however, contained interior features peculiar 
to the Georgian period of church architecture, viz, galleries 
for congregation and choir, and a high pulpit adapted to 



r 




St. Pl\ili|i's Church, Charleston, S. C. [1835-9.] 



The celebrated Edmund Burke, speaking of the church, said : 
'It is spacious, and executed in very handsome taste, ex- 
ceeding everything of that kind which we have in America,' 
and the biographer of Whitefield calls it a grand church, 
resembling one of the new churches of England in London." 

No sooner was the second St. Philip's burned than a third 
was planned, the architect being Mr. J. Hyde, and its corner- 
stone was laid Nov. 12, 1835. It was built of brick, on the 



them. Rev. John Johnson, D. D., who for the past thirty 
years has been rector of St. Philip's, gives the following de- 
scription of the church as it stands to-day amid its countless 
graves. 

" In regard to its external appearance the new St. Philip's 
differs not greatly from the old building. The same order 
of architecture was retained within, but with modifications 
that were improvements. Thus the massive square piers that 



THE DE SAUSSURE HOMESTEAD, NEAR CAMDEN, S. C. 



83 



supported the old church, that gave it some grandeur, 
and, faced with fluted pilasters bearing fine scriptural memo- 
rial tablets, some grace also, were not repeated because they 
darkened the interior, and interfered seriously with vision 
and hearing. The Doric order of the later (Roman) period 
gave rule, measure and proportion to the exterior of the new 
church, so that the columns, pilasters, and entablatures with- 
out the building represent very correctly, in all but the orna- 
ments of capital and frieze, the order they illustrate. The 
interior of the sacred edifice is finished in the Corinthian 
order of architecture, and is the only specimen in the city 
of that order, with all the rich ornaments of the later, or 
Roman, period. These are executed, for the most part, in 
stucco, but the capitals of the columns are of carved wood. 
The roof and galleries are supported by eight fluted columns, 
four on each side, rising from pedestals of the same level as 
tlie rails of the pews to the height of twenty feet above the 
floors. There these columns, finished with their appropriate 
capitals, meet the line of the entablature, not extended in 
f.he usual way from column to column, but circumscribed 
above each column, so as to produce, with the overhanging 
cornice, the effect of a higher and larger capital, which, of 
course, it is not. This departure from the conventional de- 
sign is something almost in the way of a/cw d'esprit. But it 
has its reason in the precedent of one of the finest churches 
in London by James Gibbs, architect, in 1721, and the ex- 
press wish of the Charleston congregation to secure thereby 
the light and airy affect of the English prototype. 

" At a meeting of the congregation of St. Philip's, June 27, 
1836, it was resolved, 'that the heavy pillars of the interior 
of the church be dispensed with, and that in lieu thereof 
Corinthian columns, as far as possible after the style of St. 
Martin's-in-the-Fields, London, be adopted.' And again 
resolved, 'that the pillars of the plan presented be lowered, 
so as to reduce the arches.' These arches were the motives 
of the whole scheme. Springing longitudinally from the 
square of cornice above each column at an altitude of about 
twenty-five feet and rising at their crown to a level of thirty- 
six feet above the floor, these fine arches on each side sup- 
port the roof, and contribute no little to the beauty of the 
interior, lifting the eye above the columns and galleries to 
the topmost ceiling of the church, forty-two or forty-three feet 
above the floor. The crown of each arch is ornamented 
with a cherub's head and wings in stucco, while in the spaces 
of the spandrels between the shoulders of the arches the 
same material is used for the display of the acanthus orna- 



mentation. The unbroken entablature is seen in the chancel 
where it passes from one pilaster to another, but is again 
broken by the head of the high stained-glass window. Above 
the cornice of the chancel the coved ceiling is ribbed and 
adorned with rosettes in stucco. On either side of the chan- 
cel the walls are enriched by tablets inscribed as usual." 

Dr. Johnson gives the dimensions of the building in feet as 
follows : — 

Extreme length of building, including porch 120 

Extreme width of building, exclusive of south and north porches.. . 62 

Projection of porches ,2 

Height of walls on side j- 

Height of ridge of roof ^' 

Height of steeple 200 

INTERIOR DIMENSIONS. 

Extreme length of church i j^ 

Depth of chancel g 

Width of chancel 24 

Extreme width of church c6 

Height of galleries (upper rail) 1.^ 

Extreme height of ceiling 42 

Width of vestibule 20 

The cost of the new St. Philip's, as reported to the congre- 
gagation on the 15th of July, 1839, was $84,206.01. Later, 
however, a steeple and spire, surmounted by a plain gold 
cross, were added, after a design by Edward B. White, which 
must have raised the total cost to nearly §100,000. When 
the steeple was completed, early in the fifties, a clock with a 
chime of bells was presented to it by Mr. Colin Campbell, of 
Beaufort. These were taken down at the beginning of the 
war and presented to the Confederate Government to be 
cast into cannon. 

During the war the steeples of St. Michael's and St. Phil- 
ip's, being the most conspicuous objects in the city, served 
as targets for the Federal guns. Of the two thus subjected 
to fire St. Philip's suffered most, as ten or more shells en- 
tered her walls. The chancel was destroyed, the organ 
demolished, and the roof pierced in several places. The 
congregation continued to worship in the church, however, 
until Thanksgiving Day, 1863, and returned to it again as 
soon as the war was over. C. R. S. Horton. 







The De Saussure Homestead, near Camden, S. C. 



ANOTHER South Carolina mansion that deserves 
record is " Lausanne," the De Saussure homestead, 
just outside of Camden. Although this place was 
sold some years ago, and alterations made in it 
with the view of entertaining Northern tourists, its original 
character was too strong to be obliterated. And its antiquity 
and first existence as a private home designed to fill the 
wants of a hospitable, large-minded owner is stamped from 
garret to cellar. Camden is one of the oldest communities 
in the country, and Lausanne was built for the De Saussure 
whom Washington appointed Director of the Mint, and under 
whose jurisdiction the first gold coins used in the United 
States were minted. He afterward became Chancellor. 
Lausanne was for a long period the show-place of Camden 
and the chosen home where the distinguished people who 
visited the town on the Wateree were sure to find entertain- 



ment. The place was celebrated for its beautiful grounds, 
many imported shrubs and trees being planted there, the 
site being one of exceptional advantage for the growth of 
roses and native flowers. 

Lafayette was entertained at this homestead when he 
visited Camden in 1825 in order to take part in the unveiling 
of the monument to De Kalb, the illustrious German in the 
service of France who so generously aided the Americans' 
cause, and was the hero of the Camden fight. 

When the proprietor of Lausanne, in 1795, resigned from 
the directorship of the Mint, and returned to Carolina to 
practise law, he persuaded Washington, his personal friend, 
to sit to Rembrandt Peale for a portrait to be hung on the 
walls at the Camden house. This portrait, an extraordina- 
rily good likeness, for Washington sat patiently to please his 
friend, was painted, and adorned the morning-room at 



84 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



Lausanne many years. Tlie likeness was so perfect, it is said, 
that Lafayette, wlien he first beiield it, saluted and exclaimed 
in French, "My friend, God guard you." 

Lausanne received much attention at the hands of free- 
booters and raiders of both armies towards the close of the 
Civil War: this because of the reputed wealth of the own- 
ers, and the belief that much plate and treasure was buried 
on the premises. A number of good pictures hung upon the 
walls, many of them authenticated portraits of the members 
of the De Saussure family, painted by noted artists. The 
careless soldiers, when Lausanne was being sacked, amused 
themselves by sticking their bayonets through these portraits 
and other pictures. A soldier who was idly lunging at every- 
thing on his side of the house, and had let the daylight 



through two or three framed pictures, suddenly felt his arm 
arrested by a comrade, and was warned to notice whom he 
was about to slash next. Even this vandal had compunc- 
tions about damaging the " Father of his Country," and the 
portrait was left unhurt. 

Eleven years after the war the descendants of the Chan- 
cellor who had made Lausanne their home for over eighty 
years were in sore straits. The cherished acres and associa- 
tions alike had to be given up. The Washington portrait 
was shipped to a collector in Philadelphia and sold, and the 
beautiful home-place was bought by a lady with an eye to 
the good business it would bring as an inn, because of the 
very historical and antique flavor that hangs about it and its 
belonjrinETs. Olive F. Gitnbv. 




On thB'f^'ofnf "'^\-^ 




The Matter of Imported Material. 




ACORRESrONDENT takes exception to a state- 
ment made by Mr. Bibb, in an earlier paper, to the 
effect, first, that '• Westover " manor-house ' was 
built of English imported brick and, second, that 
the warm "glow" of the brickwork was due to the natural 
coloration of the English baked clay. This glow, our cor- 
respondent tells us, is really due to the red paint that was at 
some remote time applied to tiie brickwork, and as to the 
source of the brickwork itself that, while it is probable that 
the moulded brick used in belt-course and water-table may 
have been imported, there is evidence of various kinds that 
the bricks were made by native labor on the spot. 

Nothing is more common tiian to find attached to many a 
building in the South the legend that it was built of brick 
imported from England, and just as the presence of much 
smoke is an indication of fire, so we incline to the belief that, 
in most cases, the tradition is worthy of credence. Proba- 
bly, in the absence of authentic written records, nothing but 
a chemical analysis of the bricks themselves and the neigh- 
boring clay-beds can ever determine the truth. Unquestion- 
ably, it was possible to make bricks, but brick-burning is not 
so easy and natural a process that satisfactory bricks could al- 
ways have been made in the immediate neighborhood of each 

^ .See cut, page 41, Vol. 1 1. 



of these isolated buildings. Granted that there were native 
brickyards, it is reasonable to assume that they turned out 
too small a product to meet the demands of a rapidly-increas- 
ing population, and if bricks could not have been made in suf- 
ficient quantity, it is inevitable that they must have been 
imported, and imported by those who were either too im- 
patient to wait for the native makers to supply them or so 
well off in worldly gear that they could afford to pay for the 
satisfaction of a whim or to secure a really better material 
than the home-made article, hence, it is natural that the tra- 
dition should attach mainly to the buildings of the well-to-do 
planter. Furtiier, as the tradition does not even then attach 
to every such building, it tends to prove that the statement is 
true in many, perhaps in all, cases. 

Brickyards were in active operation at Medford, Mass., 
only towards the end of the eighteenth century, and we fancy 
that, even in the early days, the inhabitants of the Northern 
Provinces were, as now, more active in commercial affairs 
than were those in the hotter regions of the South ; and 
though it is on record that St. John's Church, Hampton, Va. 
(now undergoing alterations), was built, in 1728, of brick 
made in the neighborhood, it does not follow that the 
brickyard that supplied them was of large size or in regular 
operation. Moreover, if the brick buildings at the South, 



THE MATTER OF IMPORTED MATERIAL. 



8$ 




St. Stephen's, Santee. 



erected toward the middle and close of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, were built of native brick, what likelihood is there that 
St. Luke's,^ at Smithfield, Va., built in 1632, or the Jenkins 
house ^ on Dahaw Creek, Edisto Island, S. C, which dates 
from 1683, could have been built of anything but imported 
material ? 

So far as internal evidence goes, we have come upon noth- 
ing which so lends credi- 
bility to the alleged 
date of the fabric of St. 
Luke's as this building 
on Edisto Island, in its 
architectural perfection 
the very highwater mark 
of a vanished cultivated 
and polite civilization. 

Those of us of Eng- 
lish blood insensibly 
date the history of this 
country either from 
Captain Smith and his 
settlement at James- 
town, in 1607, or from 
the landing of the Pil- 
grims, in 1620, at Plymouth, taking it, seemingly, for granted 
that between 1492 and those familiar dates nothing hap- 
pened. But here on Edisto Island seems to be the evidence 
that a good deal did happen, and that the dreams and aspira- 
tions of Admiral Coligny, who, in 1561, obtained permission 
from Charles IX to plant a colony on our southeastern sea- 
board as a retreat for Protestant refugees, did amount to a 
good deal, ultimately. Between the early expeditions of the 
French, with their sanguinary struggles against the Spaniards, 
and the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes a century elapsed, 
and, during that time, there was a tendency on the part of 
the oppressed Huguenots to seek a more peaceful home in 
New France, so that when a part of the main body of Hu- 
guenots driven out by Madam de Maintenon reached South 
Carolina they found friends and connections already estab- 
lished there. A little earlier, the English had driven the 
Dutch out of New York, and a certain number of these had 
been given a free passage to South Carolina by the Lords 
Proprietors, where, not long afterwards, they were joined by 
a larger party from Belgium direct. The presence of the 
Dutch in the neighborhood at the time the Jenkins house 
on Edisto Island was built is a possible explanation for the 
statement made to us that the house was built by Dutchmen ; 
but if architectural character means anything, it is really the 
work of French hands trained in the brick-and-stone con- 
struction of the times. One can fancy some wealthy Hugue- 
not noble trying to make himself feel as much at home as 
possible by building for himself amid a strange and semi- 
tropical vegetation a reminiscent fragment of the Louis-XIII 
chdteau he had been forced to abandon to a Catholic suc- 
cessor. That so ambitious a structure should have been 
undertaken if the bricks were to be made upon the spot by 
unskilled and cheap labor seems unlikely, while it was en- 
tirely possible for a man who had brought away with him 
money enough to pay the builders' bills, to pay, also, the 
freight on the brick and dressed-stone prepared in the Mother 
Country. 

The date ascribed to this building does seem a very early 
one for so good a piece of work, but the men who settled in 
that part of the country were of a different type from the 



' See cut, page 23, Vol. II. 



•Plates I and 2, Part XI. 



yeomanry who settled New England. Many of them were 
heads of noble families, who, while naturally accompanied 
by the members of their own family, brought, too, in their 
train not only devoted house-servants, but an humbler follow- 
ing of peasant tenantry, as desirous as they of escaping the 
persecution of the Catholics, and as ready in the wilderness 
as they were at home to enable the members of the family 
to which they and theirs had for generations been devoted 
to " live soft and lie easy." As these men of gentle blood 
had supposably been familiar with the work of the artists 
and architects of the times of the Louis, and as they brought 
with them gold, or left behind them credit, it is not surprising 
if their early houses in this country should be proved to have 
had a more advanced architectural character than was to be 
found elsewhere. Perhaps a closer examination of the older 
settlements on the southeastern seaboard than they have yet 
received may bring to light in places now little visited other 
examples as interesting as this one on Edisto Island. That 
there were, and still may be, such seems to be indicated by 
the reference, in the account of the estates on the Ashley 
and Cooper rivers, to "Yeamans Hall," built by Sir Thomas 
Yeamans about 1680; that is, at just the time when the 
Edisto Island house is credited with being built; and the de- 
scription of " Yeamans Hall " seems to show it to have been 
as well built and to have had fully as much architectural 
character as the extant Edisto example. 

There is another reason for giving adherence to the legends 
concerning the importation of brick, whether as paid freight 
or unpaid ballast. Many of the older brick buildings, par- 
ticularly the smaller ones, are covered with rough-cast, and it 
is a proper inference that if they had fair brick walls, well laid, 
they would have been left uncoated, while it is equally fair to 
suppose that a builder forced to use the crooked, ill-made 
and poorly-burned native brick would have sought to give 
his job as fair an aspect as possible by giving it a good coat- 
ing of rough-cast, and we question whether legend ever de- 
clares that a rough-cast building was built with bricks 
"imported from England.' 

It is seemingly unquestionable that, relatively, brick was 

more freely used 
as a building-nia- 
terial in the 
South than in 
the North, and 
the fact is ac- 
counted for, not 
more by the 
presence of good 
brick-clay on 
every hand than 
by the absence 
of the kindly- 
natured and 
easily- w o rked 
white-pine of the 
colder climate. 
One class of 
building m the 
South, the ec- 
clesiastical, 
seems, judging from remaining examples, to have been gen- 
erally built of brick, occasionally of stone, and seldom of 
wood; while for Northern churches the formula would read 
" generally of wood, sometimes of brick, but rarely of stone." 
As soon as we come into the neighborhood of the 







i-n-lf'- 






t'^^^l'^W^^' 



St. John's, Hampton, Va. [172S.] 



86 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



clay-lands of Maryland and Virginia, we find congregations 
still sheltering in little brick structures of considerable an- 
tiquity which, while generally having an air of quaintness and, 
occasionally, a considerable architectural value, have more the 
aspect of schoolhouses than 
that of ecclesiastical build- 
ings. We do not mean such 
buildings as Christ Church, 
Alexandria, Va., and St. 
Peter's,* in Philadelphia, al- 
though the former before the 
addition of its present tower 
was quite typical of its class — 
a somewhat plain four-square 
building of one size or another, 
with hipped roof, while the cor- 
nice and the finish of doors and 
windows were given the con- 
siderate attention that is char- 
acteristic of the work of the 
skilled Colonial builder. Po- 
hick Church, near Alexandria, 
Va., is of a rather later type, 
less churchly, more scholastic. 

Pohick Church is interesting because the records show 
that this building at least, which dates 1769-73, was built of 
brick burned on or near the spot ; but it is also further not- 
able for the fact that the little building was designed by 




Pohick Church, near Alexandria, Va. [i7'j9-73.] 



Alexandria, a building in whose design and building he also 
had a hand ; a statement very easy to believe since Christ 
Church when first built, and before the addition of the tower, 
had a distinct resemblance to the smaller building at Old 

Pohick. 

The best example, perhaps, 
of a brick church of the period 
is Old Wamboro Church,' St. 
James's, on the Santee, for it 
is a consistent piece of brick 
masonry from end to end; 
walls, floors, steps, bases, 
shafts, capitals, all are of 
brick, laid with such care and 
skill as evidently to have re- 
quired little attention and 
repair, since the original 
builder struck the last joint. 
It was the chance coming into 
our hands of a blue-print 
from the negative of a wan- 
dering kodak expert that de- 
cided us to have this little 
building properly put on rec- 
ord, and though the very feature which we thought so unique 
as to be worth a considerable expense to secure proof of its 
existence proved to be non-existent — an optical illusion of 
photographies — the result actually achieved is eminently 




St. James's, Goose Creek, S. C. [i/ii.] 



George Washington himself, who, as the owner of the near- worth while. Under the magnifying-glass the little kodak 
by Mount Vernon estate, also worshipped in the building, print seemed to show that the builder had attempted to ex- 
Later General Washington worshipped in Christ Church, press in brickwork his recollection of a Corinthian capital, 



1 Plate 3, Part V. 



*.See cut, page 65 and Plates 11 and 12, Part XI. 



THE MATTER OF IMPORTED MATERIAL. 



S7 



the tips of a single row of acanthus leaves seeming to be re- 
placed by slightly projecting headers radially laid. The pho- 
tograph seemed to show a very successful, if somewhat archaic, 
attempt. Unfortunately, it was a mere photographic illusion, 
the caps actually turning out to be Tuscan caps laid up in 
moulded brick. But had it not been for this misunderstand- 
ing on our part, this interesting church might have had to 
wait longer for its proper record. 

Seemingly, there is an indefinite number of these little 
brick churches scattered through the older townships of the 
Southern States, most of them standing isolated so as to be 
as convenient to the owner of one plantation as to his neigh- 
bor away on the other side. Some are perfectly simple in 
plan, like Cainhoy Church,' near Charleston ; others, like St. 
Andrew's,' on the Ashley, and Strawberry Church,' on the 
Cooper, have a more pronouncedly ecclesiastical air, thanks 
to their transepts: some are of plain brickwork, while others 
are coated with rough-cast ; some have the hipped roof, 
others the gable-ended roof, either plain or pedimented. But 
all, seemingly, have 
the round-headed 
window and the, 
more or less, refined 
wooden finish 
proper to the period. 
The peculiar snub- 
bing of the gable- 
roof is common to 
Strawberry Church,' 
Goose Creek 
Church ^ and Pom- 
pion Hill Chapel as 
it is to many others. 

Each of these lit- 
tle buildings has its 
history, real or leg- 
endary, social, ec- 
clesiastical or archi- 
tectural, and in this 
latter connection 
one is pretty certain 
of being told that 
the standing-finish 

and brick of which they were built were brought over from 
England or Holland, as the case may be. More than one on 
Sunday echoed to the voice of some clergyman of doubtful 
sanctity whose voice for a while on Saturday evening was too 
thick to allow of intelligible utterance. At these fonts has 
been baptized many a babe who as man or woman has left a 
name which one encounters in history or the transmitted leg- 
ends of the neighborhood and recognizes again upon tomb or 
gravestone in the deserted and weed-grown churchyard hard 
by : tombs and stones so much more decent and suitable to 
mark the spot where man leaves earth behind than those 
which mar our pretentious cemeteries to-day — the humble 
churchyard burying-ground being almost as much a thing of 
the past as its bescutcheoned and cherub-decorated stones. 

Most of these little church fabrics seem a natural growth 
and at most to be but mildly reminiscent, but in Georgetown, 
S. C, and at St. Stephen's,' Santee, we come upon types of a 
wholly different character. To build a simple gable-ended 
church, as old St. Peter's,* on the Isle of Wight, Va., and 
later give it a fuller architectural expression by building 
against one gable end a square bell-tower with open-arched 

1 Plate 15, Part XI. 'Plate 6, Part III. i* Plate 15, I'art .\I. 




'?Oinj»i«>n Ijill Chape]. 
"«'• Qarlejfoj.. 
[176^] 



parte cochere below it, is to accomplish a perfectly natural 
growth, and this accomplishment of an architectural effect 
seems to have been intuitive rather than studied. But when 
one turns to Prince George's Church,^ at Georgetown, one 
perceives that an architect has been at work and has chosen 
not so much to modify the prevailing type as to design his 
building with entire disregard to it, or, perhaps, rather in 
entire ignorance of it. Prince George's, Winyaw, seems to 
us like a church designed in England and by an Englishman 
who had not visited this country, but had prepared for ex- 
port a design based on some English church of an earlier 
period that he had recently encountered during some holi- 
day tour at home. The Elizabethan treatment of the gable- 
ends is unusual, the only other instance of a similar treatment 
that we have come upon being that to be found in the St. 
Stephen's Church, Santee, which gives evidence of having 
been thoroughly worked out on paper by some one who knew 
more about architecture and the historic styles than did most 
of the men who built the little churches and chapels of the 

time in this country. 
Pompion (or 
Pumpkin) Hill 
Chapel, as it is 
known to-day, on 
the Cooper River, 
just outside of 
Charleston, is really 
the Church of St. 
Denis, and the 
present building 
dates from 1763, re- 
placing an earlier 
wooden structure 
that was built in 
1703. The interest 
that attaches to this 
little building — it 
measures only 35' x 
48' — is rather his- 
torical than archi- 
tectural, and as St. 
Denis is a French 
saint, the name at 
once gives the student a clue to its early history. 

"Orange Quarter" was settled by French Huguenots in 
16S5 or thereabouts, and the first Church of St. Denis was 
built in 1703, of wood, and of the size needed for the very 
small French congregation. Naturally, exhortation here was 
carried on in French, and when, a year or two later the 
Province of South Carolina was divided into ten parishes — 
the parochial division being later adopted in other of the 
Southern States — it was found that the Orange Quarter 
was included in the Parish of St. Thomas. If, as was only 
natural, the inhabitants of each parish were taxed in some 
way to support the church and clergyman therein established, 
it doubtless looked to the French Huguenots as if by their 
long voyage across the ocean they had not gained that liberty 
of purse and act they were seeking, if they were in the new 
country to be made the victims of the same sort of double 
taxation that they had had to endure in France. If at home 
they had to support their own pastor and also pay tithes and 
so on to maintain the Catholic clergy, whose acts and tenets 
they abominated, how were they any better off in America? 
if, besides supporting their own pastor, they also had to join 



Vm'"' "' 



* .See cut, page 25, Part VI. 



^ Plates 40, 41, Part X. 



88 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



in paying the salary of the Church of England clergyman 
who officiated at St. Thomas's ? Accordingly, they petitioned 
the Assembly, representing that they were good and law- 
abiding citizens, so few and so poor that they could not even 
properly maintain their own church, and praying for relief 
and assistance. The Assembly was both amiably and chari- 
tably inclined and answered the prayer by incorporating the 
Huguenot immigrants into a new parish within the Parish of 
St. Thomas, and seated it at St. Denis ; but provided that, as 



of the building is due to the fact that many streamlets of the 
great German immigration filtered down into North Carolina 
from Pennsylvania, and up from Orangeburg and other towns 
in South Carolina, we do not know, but there was time enough 
between the date of these migratory movements and the date 
when the church was built, 1736-60, for the general senti- 
ment of the community to be quite leavened with the same 
Teutonic, or " Dutch," feeling that is so stamped on matters 
and ideas in Pennsylvania. Be this as it may, the fact 



soon as the present members of the community and their that more than a score of years were needed to finish this 



descendants should have become proficient in the English 
language, the separate existence of the Parish of St. Denis 
should terminate 
and the Church of 
St. Denis should be- 
come the chapel of 
ease to the Parish 
Church of St. 
Thomas. Ainsi dit, 
ainsi fait. 

Huguenots, cava- 
liers, Lords Proprie- 
tors, Landgraves, 
Caciques — words 
constantly recurring 
in the early history 
of the Carolinas — 
remind the student 
that there is an his- 
toric past to these 
regions of a differ- 
ent quality from that 
belonging to any 
other section of the 
country, for the 
heavy hand of Span- 
ish intolerance in a 
measure separates 
from the history and 
social habit of the 
Carolinas the early 
life and accomplish- 
ment of the inhabi- 
tants of Florida and Louisiana 
been so obviously similar. 

The genius of Romance may be supposed to have turned 
back in his flight on reaching Mason and Dixon's line, his 
inclination to farther flight checked by the chill of a near 
approach to the rigid formalism of the Puritans : once, how- 
ever, he may have reached as far North as New York and 
did not feel absolutely strange amid the Dutch quaintness 
then to be found at the southern end of the Hudson. As he 
flitted back again to the more congenial climate and society — 
for romance is the attribute of an aristocratic rather than of 
a proletarian milieu — he must have noted when he drew 
near Edenton, N. C, on Albemarle Sound, that the spire of 
St. Paul's Church had a suggestive likeness to work he had 
recently seen in New Amsterdam. How much the character 



.St. P.iul's Churcli, Edenton, N. C. 

which otherwise mijrht have 



little structure lends verisimilitude to the prevailing legend 
that this building too was built of imported materials. 

Although the 
"first white child," 
Virginia Dare, was 
born in 1587 on 
Roanoke Island, at 
the mouth of the 
Sound, the first per- 
manent settlement 
in North Carolina 
was made near Ed- 
enton in 1653 by a 
small band of one 
hundred settlers, 
and in the next fifty 
years a town of some 
importance had 
grown up there, 
known at different 
times by different 
names and only 
known as Edenton 
on the death of 
Governor Eden, in 
1722, a gentleman 
who was falsely 
accused of having 
improper dealings 
with Edward Teach, 
the pirate known as 
" Blackbeard." 
North Carolinians 
were convinced secessionists, and when General Beauregard 
made it known that he must have more cannon the bells of 
St. Paul's Church at Edenton were taken down from their 
loft and converted into cannon, which were served by the 
Edenton Bell Battery, one of the guns being specifically 
christened " St. Paul." 

Just outside of Edenton is "Hayes," built in 1801, the 
home of the Johnston and Iredell families, a mansion of size, 
and said to be of some architectural significance. Unfortu- 
nately the photograph we have secured shows the building — 
a wooden, clapboarded, wing-pavilion house surmounted by a 
cupola — so enshrouded with trees and shrubs that it is not 
possible to make sure that it has a roof or even doors or 
windows. Its existence is merely recorded here for the sake 
of later investigators. 




Savannah and Parts of the Far South. 




cjrb 



THE student of Georgian architecture familiar with 
the Colonial work of New England, New York, the 
Genesee Valley and Virginia does not easily find 
interesting examples of the period farther south 
than Charleston and Beaufort, S. C. This may seem strange 
at first cry, but in reality it is what might be expected of a 
section of country developed for the most part late in the 
eighteenth century. Charleston, as is well known, was a 



^l|pU> 



Bluff. To the south of Savannah there was practically noth- 
ing in the way of civilization until about the beginning of 
the nineteenth century, except the Spanish settlement at St. 
Augustine, whence voyagers made their way along the coast, 
little by little, settling first in one spot and then another, 
which accounts for the strain of Spanish feeling which shows 
itself, as is obvious to any who take time to study the situa- 
tion, through the region between Savannah and Florida. 




'llie Gilmer House, Bull and Sute Streets, Savannaii, Ga. 



fashionable community as early as 1773 with high ideas of Tliis reveals itself in the presence of low pavilion houses 

art and architecture, with aristocratic tastes and manners, surrounded by one or two story verandas, between which 

Beaufort and the neighboring sea islands were settled during and the characteristic houses of the Spanish West Indies 

the first part of the seventeenth century, and one of the and the quaint double-decked verandas of Charleston there 

earliest examples of good work in America is afforded by is a strong analogy. New Orleans, to be sure, was settled 

the Jenkins House on Edisto Island, which was built in about 1723 — a few years earlier than Savannah — and 

1683. Savannah, on the other hand, was a wilderness until should afford good examples, but (unfortunately for those 

1733, when Oglethorpe landed with his party at Yamacraw who are interested in English work and the many phases of 

' I'hotographed by Mrs. 'I'liaddcus llorton. 
8y 



90 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



its far-reaching influence) the early Louisianians were French 
and Spanish, and the architecture of the region proclaims the 
Latin rather than the Saxon. 

Considering these facts it becomes apparent that the far 
South — Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi — was subject ar- 
chitecturally to the influences exerted by two different nation- 
alities. The Georgian ideas 
of the English travelled south 
in company, naturally enough, 
with the early English set- 
tlers, who, as a class, being 
richer than the French Hugue- 
nots of the same period, built 
finer houses than the latter, 
thus exerting a more powerful 
influence architecturally. 
This influence may be said to 
have particularly affected the 
coast regions, whence it swept 
across the country, meeting 
finally a counter-current from 
the West — the influence of 
the French and Spanish 
styles from New Orleans. Of 
these the English was destined 
to finally prove itself the most 
pronounced throughout the 
South ; for, having acquired 
the habit of looking to the 
mother country for prototypes, 
the Southerner, always less 
violent in his antipathies to 
the English than his Northern 
brother, continued to do so 
after the Revolution, which 

accounts for tlie presence of the colonnaded house of the 
far South. This, strictly speaking, is an off-shoot from 
the Classic revival which raged in England toward the last 
of the eighteenth century and first appeared on the east 
coast of America about 1800, whence, becoming immediately 
popular and being well 
adapted to the climate, 
it spread through the en- 
tire South from the At- 
lantic to the banks of 
the Mississippi and be- 
yond them, enjoying a 
great popularity in the 
very heart of the French 
district. In fact, the 
white-columned house, 
despite its foreign origin, 
may be said to be more 
truly vernacular than 
anything in the South, 
for, in time, the ideas 
back of it became so ab- 
sorbed by the Southern 
builder as to be almost 
a natural product result- 
ing logically from the demands of climate and the tastes of 
the people. 

Savannah, Ga., though a seaport town of the Colonial 
period, is strangely disappointing architecturally, and con- 
tains few specimens of any value, which is rather odd in 



view of the fact that, although the city was not settled until 
1733, it had advanced far enough in the ethics of civilization 
by 1738 to hold balls and dinners in honor of distinguished 
English visitors and of those who were continually coming 
over from Charleston to have a hand in the management of 
things and to acquire for themselves and their heirs landed 

interests of one kind or another 




Tlie Old Exchange, Savannah, Ga. [i7'/>.] 




An Old Brick Tomb, Savannah, Ga. 



in the new colony. 

In fact, though entirely 
different in exterior aspect. Sa- 
vannah is redolent with sug- 
gestions of the Carolinas, 
especially of Charleston. 
There is Bull Street, named 
for Col. William Bull, of Caro- 
lina, who laid out the city of 
Savannah. There is Drayton 
Street, named for Thomas 
Drayton, of the Ashley River, 
and St. Julian Street, called 
for James St. Julian, a friend 
of the Georgia Colonists; and, 
although the Savannah houses 
for the most part belong to a 
later period than the interest- 
ing old dwellings pictured in 
earlier pages as representing 
the architecture of Charleston, 
the observer is constantly 
running upon, unawares, old 
Georgian doorways set in the 
plainest of clapboarded 
houses, fan-lights, bits of old 
ironwork : all of which remind 
one that ideas once cast 
abroad are continually cropping up in fertile places. The 
paucity of early work in Savannah may be due to two differ- 
ent causes, first, that two fires swept the city, the last as late 
as 1802 ; second, that aside from General Oglethorpe and his 
party, which included the ricli immigrants, Colonial Georgia 

was more an asylum for 
those wlio sought to 
prove that poverty was no 
disgrace than for those 
favored oi.es of fortune 
interested in building 
fine houses. 

The oldest structure of 
any consequence in Sa- 
vannah to-day is the Ex- 
cliange Building, which, 
begun in 1799, has filled 
a variety of functions for 
o\er a century, having 
been as often used as a 
theatre, a ballroom, and 
a place of general as- 
sembly on patriotic occa- 
sions as for commercial 
purposes. 
Next to the Exchange Building the oldest and perhaps the 
most interesting pieces of work in Savannah are four resi- 
dences which were built about the same time by the same 
architect and may therefore be classed together. 

These are commonly spoken of as Scarbersugh house, 



SAVANNAH AND PARTS OF THE FAR SOUTH. 



91 



which is situated in Yamacraw, the oldest section of the city ; 
Owens house, the Telfair residence, now the Telfair Art Gal- 
lery, and Bulloch house on Orleans Square. 

All of these houses were built by an English architect 
by the name of Jay who did considerable work in and 
around Savannah early in the nineteenth century. The 
Owens house is known to have been built in 1S15, the Bul- 
loch house was completed 
in 1818 and the other two 
about the same period. 
The Owens house, strange 
to say, is built of '• tabby,"' 
which must have been a 
material new to the English 
architect ; the others are 
of brick sent from England 
presumably, although 
native brick was procurable 
in Savannah as early as 
1820. The Owens, the 
Telfair, and the Scarbor- 
ough houses are not dis- 
similar though they are 
quite differently propor- 
tioned, and may be said 
to express, in a vague way 
the architectural person- 

ality of the builder. Of the three the Scarborough house 
is the most interesting. Though at present utilized as a 
negro school and situated in the heart of a rough district, 
robbed of all interior adornment, marred by the elements, 
and deprived by chance of the quiet and repose to which in 





All of the houses built by Jay in Savannah were square 
in plan, with kitchen and servants' rooms in an ell to the 
rear. All of the rooms were large, the feature of each house 
being invariably the staircase, which in each of these four 
instances was constructed differently. In the case of the 
Scarborough house the staircase, which is exceedingly wide 
and of a rather heavy design, rises abruptly immediately in 

front of the entrance, leav- 

ing an open space to the 
rear of it; the Telfair stair- 
case rises in very much 
the same manner, but is 
constructed differently; 
the staircase of the Owens 
house rises about the mid- 
dle centre of the hallway 
to the rear of a colonnade 
consisting of four gold- 
capped Corinthian col- 
umns, and ascends to a 
landing, on either side of 
which second runs arise 
completing the ascent to 
the story above, the stair- 
opening thus made forming 
a sort of arcade through 
which those on the upper 
story can see what is going on below. The staircase - of 
the Bulloch house is spiral in character. 

Although the city of Savannah is disappointing in itself to 
those interested in searching out specimens of the early work 
of American builders, the surrounding country, if studied 
understandingly, offers many interesting suggestions in the 
way of country houses which point to that mode of life 
peculiar to the far South prior to the Civil War. One of the 



Scarboroiigli House, Broad Street, Savannah. [1S15.] Jay, Architect.^ 



i 



<F^ 



\) u B a^ 



I 

I 

MALL I 

I 



; dr- 




p o 



•ul 



M 



1 



Plans of tilt Scarboroiii;li House, 




best of these is the " Hermitage," on a rice plantation on 
the Savannah River, six miles or so out from the city, which 
the natural order of things old places seem entitled, it pos- though not built until about 1820, is interesting, inasmuch as 
sesses still, though given up to vulgar usage, a singular air the materials used in its construction were chiefly native 
of repose and dignity. bricks which are known to have been manufactured on the 

>" Tabby " is evidently a corruption of the Sjjanish " /tipia" a founded with the houses built in Florida of coquina, a natural lime- 
mud wall and the niate'rial is a species of concrete or artificial stone with marine shells and coral for the conglomerate. — Ki). 
stone composed largely of pounded oyster-sliells. 'Ihe tihby- M'late 9, I'art XII. "This and the subjects 011 pp. 92, 93 
built house of .South Carolina and (Icorgia must not he con- after pliotographs l)y Mrs. 'I'haddeus Horton. 



92 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



spot; and furthermore in that it has preserved to this day 
the quaint negro cabins and quarters that were in use during 
slavery, the place as a whole having been but lightly touched 
by the hand of those given to modern improvements. 

It is curiously interesting during these days which, even in 
the South, are so far removed in spirit from the days of half 
a century ago to find oneself surrounded by the symbols of a 
life which to modern eyes is curiously unlike anything now 
existing. Passing up the 
wide sandy road that leads 
to the " Hermitage," bor- 
dered on either side with 
giant water-oaks overgrown 
with tillandsia (Spanish 
moss), one sees the brick 
mansion itself at the end 
of a vista of misty, swaying 
drapery, flanked to the 
front (or rear, whichever 
you prefer, the " Hermit- 
age " having two fronts, 
one facing the river and 
the other the land road) 
with parallel rows of negro 
huts, some of brick, others 
of wood, and still others of 
tabby, having, as a rule, 
thatched roofs. There,too, 
is the slave hospital, an unusual-looking pavilion-like structure 
smacking of the West Indies. Little by little the slave- 
quarters of the " Hermitage " have fallen into hopeless disre- 
pair; but enough remains even at this late day to interest, 
not only students of American civilization, but even the casual 
observer, who, as a rule, is not susceptible to historical im- 
pressions. The " Hermitage" produces an indescribable sen- 
sation. The house, though more or less Georgian in char- 
acter, with a tendency toward such thoughtful work as could 
be produced in that locality at that period, represents on the 




Telfair Art Gall. 



The civilization of Charleston prior to the Revolution 
as well as that of Salem, Mass., and the other coast cities 
of the Colonies, was practically English, just as the life 
that obtains to-day in the " British Dominions Beyond the 
Sea" reflects the ideas and ideals of the mother country; 
but the civilization that arose in the far South after the Revo- 
lution was of another genre. This is particularly true of the 
rice-plantation district, and the cotton, or "black," belt, 

which began in the central 
part of Western Georgia 
and stretched across Ala- 
bama, Mississippi, and a 
part of Louisiana, in which, 
prior to the war, the great- 
est number of negroes 
were congested, their pres- 
ence being a necessary ad- 
junct of the successful 
production of the vast 
crops of the region. Each 
of the world's great staples 
creates a life peculiar to 
itself to which those who 
handle it are subject, and, 
as a natural result, exist- 
ence in the rice-regions of 
South Carolina and Geor- 
' gia and in the cotton-belt, 
though colored, it is true, by English and French influences, 
so adapted itself to the climate and to the large, yet simple, 
demands of plantation duties as to produce something similar 
yet different, something altogether American, colored and 
modified by the gentle genius of the Southern country. The 
region between Savannah and Brunswick, around about 
Darien, and up and down the Altamaha River, comprised the 
richest rice-lands in Georgia, stocked with game — wild duck, 
wild turkey, snipe, woodcock, rice-birds — shaded with live- 
oak and cypress trees, and dotted here and there with green 



[About 1815-20.] Jay, Arcliitcct. 




Minus House, Orleans Square, Savannah. 

whole a later epoch than the buildings we have been consid- 
ering. It also represents a civilization later than that of the 
Colonial period. Nevertheless, the place, as a whole, sur- 
rounded, as it is, with slave-huts, beyond which stretch the 
low, level rice and cotton fields, through which the broad Sa- 
vannah River wanders at pleasure, dawdling here and hurry- 
ing there, stands for a mode of life more typical of the south 
of the United States than any of the more formal abodes of 
a more formal people. 




Owens House, Savannah. [1815.] Jay, Architect. 

marshes. These regions exhibit a great variety of plantation- 
houses possessing no architectural features, being for the 
most part mere carpenter-shacks, yet so obviously the result 
of human existence and its needs, of demand and supply, as 
to be valuable as types. It is strange how a house with no 
architectural enrichment, with no architectural grammar, so 
to speak, may yet possess a certain charm, a certain original 
value of its own. The art of building, always so closely allied 
to the many phases of human life, is never more obviously so 



SAVANNAH AND PARTS OF THE FAR SOUTH. 



93 



















-Jli'^ 


[..:!»• 


'''^ 


?^'>'^!a 




— , — j^^^-' - ^^ 




Bulloch House, Orleans Square, Savannah. [iSiS ] Jay, Architect. 





than in the plantation-districts of the far South, and there 
one sometimes comes upon original ideas of construction, 
crudely expressed, but interesting, and often significant. 

One of the celebrated plantations of the Altamaha region 
was formerly owned by Pierce Butler, whose marriage with 
Fanny Kemble was one of the notable events of the early 
thirties, and it was while spending a winter at this place that 
the actress wrote her cele- 
brated "Journal of Life on 
a Georgia Plantation," 
which was published some 
years later and widely read 
both in this country and 
England. The house on 
the Butler estate is no 
longer standing, having 
been a poor thing, some- 
what after the bungalow 
style, built by the crudest 
of slave labor. 

Perhaps the most pre- 
tentious piece of work on 
the Altamaha was " Hope- 
ton House," the place of 
James Hamilton Couper, 
who, in common with 
Pierce Butler, had large 
holdings in this section as well as on the sea islands which 
hug the coast of Georgia and produce as fine sea-island 
cotton as the world affords. Hopeton House is now a ruin, 
but from sketches of it preserved in the Couper family it ap- 
pears to have been after the style of an English manor-house. 
The plans of Hopeton House were drawn by Mr. Couper 
himself, and the building oper- 
ations were conducted under 
his supervision, for, in com- 
mon with many Southern gen- 
tlemen of that period, he was 
a student of architecture and a 
liberal subscriber to English 
periodicals and plates.' 
Another example of his work 
is afforded by Christ Church, 
Savannah, built about 1838, 
which, though rather com- 

' Voluminous works on architect- 
ure and folio-plates are to be found 
in many old Southern lil)raries. 

•Writes the Hon. Amelia Mur- 
ray in her letters: " Mr. Couper 
tells me he once tried the capa- 
bilities of the most active among 
his people by giving them the 
cultivation of fifty acres for them- 
s;lves ; the first season, under 
direction, the plantation cleared 
$1,500, which he took care to 
give to them in silver, hoping that 
would incite their industry; the 
next year he left to their own 
management; the crop lessened 
one-half; and the third season, 

left to themselves, they let the land run to waste so that it was 
useless to let them retain it. Yet these same people will labor 
readily and contentedly under good superintendence. And such 
is their feeling for their master that in some cases where freshets 
have put his crops in danger they have worked freely eighteen 
hours out of the twenty-four to .save them — more than they would 
have done for themselves in any such case. The thanks of Mr. 
Couper and a few little presents made them quite happy. They are 
devoted servants and miserable free people. When I watch the con- 




mercial in character, is perhaps the most interesting of the 
Savannah churches. 

" Hopeton " was the scene of a very fashionable and elab- 
orate winter life from the early thirties until the late fifties, 
and guests from all parts of America and abroad were enter- 
tained there after the hospitable style of the Southern plan ter ; 
the life that obtained there being, on the whole, not dissimilar 

from the life that is consid- 
ered peculiar to the country 
gentry of England, with the 
exception that the crop 
was cultivated by black 
slaves instead of by white 
tenantry. Indeed Mr. 
Couper made an effort to 
adopt the English tenantry 
plan in its entirety,'^ but the 
negro character proved too 
shiftless to be entirely en- 
trusted with the manage- 
ment of land. One of the 
many notable guests enter- 
tained at " Hopeton " dur- 
ing the early fifties was the 
Honorable Amelia M. Mur- 
ray, an English litterateur 
and Court lady, who, while 
touring the United States and Canada, wrote her impressions 
in letters to England, which were published in one of the 
London papers and afterwards brought out in book form. 
While at " Hopeton " she enjoyed her first intimate view of 
Southern plantation life, and was so favorably impressed 
with it and the happy and healthy condition of Mr. Couper's 

four hundred slaves that she 
wrote in vindication of slavery 
in the South, to which, as is 
well known, the British masses 
were greatly opposed. Her 
letters naturally excited the 
displeasure and condemnation 
of the English people, who 
had preconceived opinions on 
the subject which they did not 
care to relinquish. In one of 
them'' she compared the state 

sideration, kindness and patience 
sliown by the white gentlemen 
and white gentlewomen to tliese 
darkies, I could say to some anti- 
slavery people 1 have known, 
' (Jo thou and do likewise.' " 

'"I forgot to mention," writes 
Mrs. Murray, " that there are 
from three to four hundred ne- 
groes on this estate. Mr. and 
Mrs. Couper have no white ser- 
vants ; tlieir family consists of six 
sons and tliree daughters. I 
should not like to inhabit a lonely 
part of Ireland or even Scotland 
surrounded only by three hundred 
Celts. I belitve there is not a 
soldier or policeman nearer than Savannah, a distance of sixty 
miles. .Surely this speaks volumes for the contentment of the 
slave population. Wlien I think of the misery and barbarism of 
the peasantry in Kintail and other parts of .Scotland (putting aside 
tliat of Ireland) and tlien look at the people here it is hardly 
possiljle not to blush at the recollection of all the hard words I 
have heard applied to the slaveholders of the .South. Why, the 
very pigsties of the negroes are better than some Celtic hovels I 
have seen." 



94 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



of the Southern negro slave 
to tliat of the Scotch ar.d 
Irish peasant classes, and so 
unfavorably to the latter that 
the British public, already 
displeased, became so highly 
incensed that Mrs. Murray's 
dismissal from Court be- 
came necessary as an act of 
policy. It is interesting to 
know that two such contrary 
reports as those of the Hon- 
orable Mrs. Murray and of 
Frances Ann Kemble could 
have emanated respectively 
from two Englishwomen 
viewing the same locality at 
almost the same period. 

The fact that the planta- 
tion districts of the far 
South, those stretching 
through the interior of Geor- 
gia, Alabama,, the western 
part of South Carolina, and 
the central portion of Missis- 
sippi and the northern por- 
tion of Florida were settled 
for the most part about the 
first of the nineteenth cen- 
tury removes the work of 
that region from what is, 
properly speaking, the 
Georgian period; yet the 
presence of the white colon- 
naded houses throughout 
this section shows plainly 
that the architectural influ- 
ence of England continued 
after the Revolution. This 
is more particularly true of 
the South, beginning with 
Virginia, than with the 
North, although one of t h e 
earliest and best examples 
of a colonnaded portico in 
America is theChilds house, 
Rochester, N.Y., built in 1800. 
The colonnaded house of the 
far South, which, in its de- 
gen er ate form, may be 
spoken of as the " white- 
pillared " house, does not 
belong to the Georgian 
period, but to the Classic 
Revival, which was, how- 
ever, so obviously an out- 
growth of preceding styles 
as to come in naturally for 
some consideration ; further- 
more, the white-pillared 
house is, in a sense, the final 
figure in the background 
upon which our present ar- 
chitectural modernity rests. 
' Photoj^r.iphed Ijy Mrs. Hoi ton. 




Portico of the Bulloch House, Savannah, Ga. ' 




Drawiiifi-room ; IJulluch House, Savannah, Ga. 



II. 

But for the Greek Revival 
which started in England 
toward the last of the eigh- 
teenth century, the general 
character of architectural 
styles in the plantation dis- 
tricts of the far South would 
have been quite different, 
though one can but wonder 
what the Southern planter 
would have built on his sa- 
vanna had not Greek and 
Roman columns been domi- 
nant in the work of the dav. 
Certainly nothing could have 
more perfectly suited his 
climate, the large yet simple 
purposes of his life, or his 
taste, which, as a rule, was 
more or less grandiose. 
One must have a portico in 
the South. Why not have 
it extend all around the 
house ? One must have 
posts to support the roof of 
the portico. Why not have 
Greek columns instead 
(since they were the fash- 
ion) "i 'i'he proposition was 
beautifully simple; so sim- 
ple, indeed, that, once in- 
troduced, the style spread 
with remarkable rapidity. 
The grandeur of the effect 
aTid the simplicity with 
which it was obtained were 
both in its favor. The more 
columns the Southern 
planter used the better he 
liked it; and, since one was 
copying Greek styles, why 
not copy the Temple of 
Theseus or the Parthenon 
and be done with it.' The 
Southern planter of the early 
nineteenth century was a 
man of enormous purposes; 
the architectural ideas sug- 
gested by the greatest monu- 
ments of antiquity were but 
grist for his mill, and, as a 
result, full half the houses 
in the South — the Coleman 
house, of Macon, Ga., the 
Pew house, in Madison, 
"Dunleith," in Natchez (the 
mansard roof of which is a 
late addition), Houmas 
house, on the Mississippi, 
"Belle Grove," also on 
the Mississippi, and many 
others, were all expressions, 
in one form or another, of 
the same idea. 



SAVANNAH AND PARTS OF THE FAR SOUTH. 



95 



At the time when the Greek Revival was at its height in will, you can't make them very ugly. The art-gallery opens to 

England, the United States was just beginning to recover one side on another columned portico which leads out across 

from the ravages of the Revolution and to turn its attention a flagged floor to the level of the lawn. The library is a 

toward building. The Government let a contract for the separate building — a not uncommon arrangement in the 

White House, and for additions to the Capitol. The White South — • which allowed its use as an office as well. The in- 



House, by the 
way, though it 
did not take on 
its Ionic por- 
tico until about 
1820, when, 
during the ad- 
ministration of 
Andrew Jack- 
son, it was re- 
modelled, is 
one of the most 
notable exam- 
ples of the 
Classic Revival 
in America, 
and on the 
whole, a typical 
residence of an 
English coun- 
try gentleman 
— our Presi- 
dents of the 
early ni ne- 
teenth century 
were American 
country gentle- 
men. 

Andrew Jack- 
son may have 
had some influ- 
ence in decid- 
ing on the char- 
acter of the 
im provements, 
for, as is well 
known, he was 
himself a great 
admirer of the 
Classic Orders, 
and "The Her- 
mitage," his 
seat near Nash- 
ville, shows a 
white colon- 
nade. 

"Fort Hill,"' 
theseat of John 
C. Calhoun, 
which was built 
early in the 
nineteenth cen- 
tury after de- 
signs drawn by 




'I'he Portico of the McAlpin House, Orleans Square, Savannah, Ga.' 
[About 1S20. ] 



terior of " Fort 
Hill " shows a 
succession o f 
rather low 
rooms opening 
into one an- 
other, reached 
through unex- 
pected pas- 
sages, which in- 
dicates that the 
house was 
added-to from 
time to time 
rather than that 
it was built orig- 
inally as it now 
stands. At 
the time of the 
death of its last 
individual 
owner, Clen- 
son, Calhoun's 
s o n -i n- law, 
"Fort Hill" 
was very much 
as it had been 
during the 
statesman's 
lifetime. It 
was filled with 
curious furni- 
ture, pictures, 
china, and the 
walls showed 
the quaint pa- 
perings of a 
past period. 
The library 
was filled with 
old edit ion s 
and newspa- 
pers, old manu- 
scripts, and 
dusty scrap- 
books showing 
press c o ni - 
ments upon the 
period when 
("lay, Calhoun 
and Webster 
swayed the 
country with 
their great coii- 



Calhoun himself, was another effort to follow the style most troversies and splendid eloquence. The art-gallery was hung 

approved in ICngland. It is, on the whole, a poor structure, with family portraits, and, as a whole, " Fort Hill " presented 

built of local material and by untrained slave labor, yet the as complete a setting for the home-life of a great man of the 

front portico with its columns of solid masonry is rather im- middle nineteenth century as could be found in America, 
posing. You can make white columns absurd, but, try as you In considering the influences exerted by the styles of the 

*"Fort Hiil" (page 99) is now the property of Clcmson College, of which it is a part. 'Photographed by Mrs. Thaddeus llorton. 



96 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 




McAliin House, Orleans Square, Savannah, Ga. 









Hansell House, Rosewell, Oa. [1820.] 



Bulloch House, Rosewtll, Ga. [1820.] 



SAVANNAH AND PARTS OF THE FAR SOUTH 



97 



Greek revival, it is necessary to divide the white-columned 
houses of the South into two groups — those built by pro- 
fessional architects and those built by the owners themselves. 
Of the two, the latter were in the great majority. In fact, 
almost the only white-columned houses showing the touch 
of the student's hand are those found occasionally in the 
coast cities of the South. One of the earliest of these is 
the Witte house, 
of Charleston. 
This, as ex- 
plained else- 
where,^ was built 
in 1810 after de- 
signs furnished 
by English archi- 
tects, and is, on 
the whole, a very 
ambitious piece 
of building, more 
European than 
American in 
character. Al- 
though a town 
house, it enjoys 
all the a d V a n - 
tages of privacy 
in a remarkable 
degree, for while 
the front over- 
looks an English 
garden and 
aviary, the rear 
is built up on a 
line with the side 
street that marks 
the city block, af- 
fording a trades- 
men's entrance 
and the other 
conveniences ne- 
cessary. Passing 
along this street 
and looking up 
at the pretentious 
four-story struct- 
ure from the 
rear, one would 
imagine it but an 
ordinary city resi- 
dence, while in 
reality, like a true 
mystic, it hides 
its beauties from 
view. By adroit 
arrangemen t 
often seen in Eu- 
ropean cities it 
turns its worst side to the public, saving its abundant adorn- 
ment for those who know and love it intimately. The An- 
crum house," with its lofty pillared portico to one side, is 
another Charleston example of the influence of the Greek 
revival. 

The Bulloch house, Savannah, Ga., which was built in 18 18, 
is, on the whole, a pretentious piece of work. It was de- 

1 Plate 1 6, Part X. 'Plate 16, Part X. 




I'orlico of " Tlie ilermilaj; 



signed by Jay and built, according to tradition, of English 
brick. 

With such houses as these as models the Southern planter 
of the early nineteenth century began his task, which was a 
large one. Usually he had two houses to build, one on his 
plantation and another in some neighboring village for the 
convenience of his family ; consequently, such towns as 

Athens, Washing- 
ton and La 
Grange, Ga., 
Greenwood, Ala., 
Aberdeen, Miss., 
and others of the 
same class, filled 
with white-pil- 
lared houses of 
one kind or an- 
other (for the 
Southerner, hav- 
ing become ac- 
customed to this 
style, was satis- 
fied with no 
other), sprang up 
through the Cot- 
ton Belt, and 
maintained their 
unruffled exist- 
ence until the 
breaking out of 
the Civil War. 

The building 
of a village house 
and a country 
house were two 
entirely diflerent 
propositions, the 
forme r being 
comparatively 
easy, as material 
w a s procurable 
with little diffi- 
culty ; but the 
planter, clearing 
a new plantation, 
and building a 
covering for him- 
self here and 
there throughout 
the vast unex- 
plored Southern 
wilderness, just 
after the Revo- 
lution and at the 
beginning of 
the nineteenth 
century, was 
facing the enormous task which from time immemorial has 
confronted migratory man. First, of course, he built a hut, 
then he added to it, then after a few years, when his land 
began yielding plentifully, he turned himself to the building 
of a permanent domicile. By this time white columns were 
to be seen in the South. Perhaps he built a one-story house, 
in which event the white columns were usually there just the 

" Photographed by Mrs. Thaddeus Horton. 



the Savannah River, Ga. [1.S30.P 



98 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



same, or, perhaps, the plantation being near enough to civil- 
ization for his family to reside there all the year round, he 
prepared careful plans, with four great rooms to a floor — two 
on each side, with a wide hallway running between — and a 
two-storied portico to the front (and sometimes to the rear as 
well), with the kitchen occupying a low pavilion to one side.^ 

Having perfected his plans the Southern planter set about 

having them executed. 

Bands of negroes searched [ 
the uncleared lands for suit- 
able timber. Trees were 
often used for columns, when 
those of the required pro- 
portions could be secured, 
and if flutes were desired 
they were cut out by hand 
(time was of no considera- 
tion in the Cotton Belt). 
Foliated capitals of one kind 
or another were occasionally 
used when a workman could 
be found who could execute 
so delicate a task ; but until 
ten years or so before the 
Civil War, when galvanized 
capitals first made their ap- 
pearance, the Doric Order 
only was attempted in the 
Cotton Belt. Most com- 
monly, however, the col- 
umns were made of masonry, 
rough-cast, as in the case of 
the Hansell house,^ at Ros- 
well, Ga. ; sometimes they 
were built square, with a 
Byzantine effect ; and occa- 
sionally they were crude 
constructions of long, 
dressed plank put together 
in sections, as in the case of 
the Bulloch house,' at Ros- 
well, built about 1820. 

Working under such dis- 
advantages it is not surpris- 
ing that seme of the houses 
of Southern builders thus 
planned and executed were, 
as might be expected, pa- 
thetic objects, with enormous 

1 See drawing of Callioun 
House, Newnan, (ia. Plate 
46, Part X. The Calhoun 
house, at Newnan, has two 
fronts, one a reprofluction of 
the other. The story told and 
generally credited in connec- 
tion with thisfact is to the effect 
that the builder and his wife 
disagreed as to whether the open expanse in front of the house 
should Ije utilized as a lawn or a flower-garden. It proved im- 
possilile to settle this matter amicably until Mr. Calhoun conceived 
the hapijy idea of allowing the house to have two fronts and re- 
peated in the rear the colonnade treatment intended for the front. 
As a result the Calhoun house faces a grove of trees on one side, and 
a terraced flower-garden on the otlier. This arrangement forced 
the kitchen into a side ell which otlierwise might have extended 
to the rear. The kitchen in the far South prior to the Civil War 
was most commonly an entirely sejiarate out-building, situated at a 





tTki 




porticos out of all proportion to the importance of the house 
into which they afford entrance, reminding one eternally of 
such ambitious persons as invariably put their best foot for- 
ward. In the South, as elsewhere, man was not master of 
his fate in architecture, and often houses, even those most 
carefully planned, the proportions of whose columns were 
most carefully studied, worked out their own untoward end, 

, just as a child sometimes 

achieves a sad destiny inde- 
pendent of its parent. 
Others just as unexpectedly 
developed into true archi- 
tecture, unions of tradition 
and necessity in beauty. 
For all that, however, the 
white columned house ful- 
filled its functions perfectly 
— which is always the main 
consideration. So perfectly 
that after thirty-five years' 
experience with other styles 
the rich Southerner has 
found nothing that so per- 
fectly suits him ; and as a 
result many modern houses 
of to-day in the South are 
repeating the colonnade and 
other features of the ante- 
bellum residence. In time 
the old and the new may 
possibly stand as the ac- 
cepted architecture of the 
far South, where climatic 
conditions are absolutely 
opposed to the small win- 
dows, low ceilings, and com- 
pressed styles acceptable 
elsewhere. 

One of the features that 
particularly distinguish the 
Southern residence from its 
Northern contemporary is 
the presence of the veranda, 
which, brought to the South 
from the West Indies, 
whence it had travelled from 
Spain, Italy, and even 
from England (there were 
tavern verandas and 



Independent i'l 



tciian Cluircli, Savannah, Ga.' 



a covered passageway, but just 
as often not. When placed in 
an ell tliey were invariably 
separated from the body of the 
house by a covered veranda. 
Such an arrangem.ent seems an 
awkward one in face of pres- 
ent-day usages, but servants 
being plentiful in the South 
prior to the War, no thought was given to their convenience. A 
very distinguished lady who in her youth lived in the Drayton- 
Gibbes house, Charleston (Part X, Plate 14), tells me that quite 
often breakfast was served in the drawing-room, which occupied 
one side of the third floor. (Think of having a drawing-room on 
the third floor !) " And," she says, " when we wanted a hot waf- 
fle the steward had to run down two flights of stairs and out in the 
yard to get it." 
2 See cut, p.age 96. 
The present church, of white marble, liuilt not many years ago. 



distance of 50 or 100 feet from the house, sometimes reached by is an exact reproduction of tlie one burned shortly before. 



SAVANNAH AND PARTS OF THE FAR SOUTH. 



99 



balconies during Will Shakespeare's day), developed many west of the far South, together with what is to be found on 
new and interesting phases in the hands of the Southern the Mississippi River representing with some picturesque- 
planter. First, there is the porch of the Georgian Period, ness the architectural ideas of the Greek Revival, 
well illustrated by the Miles Brewton House of Charleston ; Natchez, on the Mississippi, which was first settled about 
then there is the huge three ^ , 1720, was, prior to the war, a 



and four story verandas of the 
San Domingo houses of 
Charleston, presenting a form 
of construction that is continu- 
ally reproducing itself through- 
out the far South; finally, 
there is the colonnade veranda 
of the white-pillared houses of 
the Cotton Belt. 

With these three motifs to 
work with, the Southern builder, 
limited as he was in material 
and labor (for though slave 
labor was plentiful it was al- 
ways unskilled during this 
early phase of Southern life), 
produced many varieties of shaded retreats. 

A section of country which affords an interesting exhibit 
of country houses, well adapted to a semi-tropical climate, is 
that part of Louisiana given up to the Catholic parishes 
and inhabited almost exclusively by French Creoles. These 
parishes, settled originally 
by French-Canadian immi- 
grants, stretch from the 
Gulf and Bay of Biloxi 
as far north as Natchez, 
Miss. As the residence 
section of what was for- 
merly a colony of French 
Catholics, the houses still 
standing in these parishes 
are naturally Gallic in 
character, and yet so 
strongly influenced by 
Spanish ideas as well 
(which on the whole were 
better suited to a warm 
climate than French ones, 
which belong to a higher 
latitude) as to be similar 
in much to the Hispano- 
English houses of Charleston and the surrounding country. 

It is this feeling — the Spanish feeling — which connects 
the low pavilion houses of the French parishes with the work 
we have been considering; it is this influence — the Spanish 
influence — which blends the east of the far South with the 




"Astrudeville," Va, 




typical city of the Cotton and 
Sugar Belt, and many of its old 
homes are still intact, notably 
"Dunleith" and " Monte- 
bello," which may be said to 
stand for the Classic Revival in 
its most pronounced form, as 
adapted to plantation condi- 
tions in the far South. 

All along the Mississippi, 
from Natchez through the con- 
necting parishes with their 
quaint pavilion houses, "White 
Ladies," " Les C h e n e s , ' 
" Plaisance Plantation," and 
many other celebrated homes 
of old Creole families, to New Orleans, one finds still many 
buildings and customs that point clearly enough to the life 
of the old seigneurs. In Lower Mississippi the signs of a 
similar civilization are to be found. " Beauvoir," the hoii e 
of Jefferson Davis, is typical of the houses of this region. It 

is surrounded by detached 
pavilions, one used as a 
library, another used for 
the exclusive accommoda- 
tion of gentlemen guesis, 
and as a whole, simple, 
cool, spacious, it is a 
representative abode of 
a Southern country gentle- 
man of that section of 
country. 

A guest visiting the plan- 
t a t i o n homes of Lower 
Mississippi or in the 
parishes is still given a 
cup of black coffee and a 
roll in the early morning; 
then he is invited to ac- 
company his host on horse- 
back to inspect the crops. 
On their return breakfast is served — a meal of real French 
abundance and variety, accompanied by a display of fine china 
and linen, and tall bottles of Bordeaux — offered with a kind- 
liness and courtesy not to be exceeded, and enjoyed to the ac- 
companiment of animated small-talk. C. R. S. Horton. 




■-^1^^^ 



" Beimont," Loudon Couniy, Va. 



a 



Millford," in the High Hill of Santee, S. C, 




NOWHERE in the South is there a country-seat 
more strikingly individual than the Manning 
homestead in the High Hills of Santee, South 
Carolina. Certainly, few plantation-houses were 
ever built with more care or at greater cost. The architect 
was induced to come from New York for the sole purpose of 
putting up an ideal dwelling in this rural spot, where every 
brick and stone, every bit of framing and decoration, must 
be got from foreign parts, freighted ninety miles up the San- 
tee River from Charleston, and hauled over crude roads, up 
steep hills, to the site. The South Carolina Railroad, pioneer 
of its class in the United States, was only five or six years 
old when the foundations of the house were laid : and the 
railroad passed nowhere near it. The river was the only 
practical means of transportation from the outside world. 
All the skilled laborers and decorators who aided in the 
building had to make long journeys by private conveyance 
to reach the spot. Nevertheless, the house, as it stands 
to-day, would win notice on a stately city avenue. And, all 
solitary in its wildwood setting, the superb, if lonely, pros- 
pect outspread before it but gives additional worth and em- 
phasis. 

The building was more than two years in course of con- 
struction and is said to have cost its founder $100,000. Full 
seventy feet long by forty-five feet wide and three stories in 
height, with a finely columned Grecian porch, the mansion 
pleases the eye, not only as to substantialness, but in grace 
of outline. Although the builder had a liking for the ornate 
and sumptuous, as is proved by the statuary niched in the 
walls and the devices ornamenting the great pillars which 
support the porch roof, only so much decoration as comports 
with the style of architecture was permitted to appear. The 
planters from the Georgetown section, who had dwellings in 
the high, dry plateau of the Sand Hills and had lived there 
successively since early settlement days, would have con- 
structed fine homes for themselves long before 1830 had 
conditions been different. But up to that time, lime, a chief 
ingredient in structures built of stone or brick, was procured 
only with much difficulty and at expense. Transportation 
from sections where bricks were made was a serious issue, 
and as timber was plenty, the residents had wooden houses, 
planned on an ample scale, but crude, from the modern 
standpoint, planing-mills being few and but newly introduced 
in the country. 

In the first decade after the Revolution houses com- 
fortable and pleasing in structure were to be found within a 
half mile of each other in this favored district. Even before 
that time a good classical school and a circulating-library 
were supported there. And when Governor Manning 
erected this sumptuous new dwelling on the family lands in 
the Sand Hills the neighborhood could furnish abundant 



society, descendants and connections of the original settlers, 
people from Louisiana and Virginia, having built homes there, 
attracted by the unusually fine climate and fertile lands, peo- 
ple of cultivated tastes, versed in the arts and enjoyments of 
life. 

The Manning house is unused now, although in good pres- 
ervation. With the passing of slavery, the tillage of the 
lands and the care of the extensive grounds were too costly 
to be worth while. The visitor's footsteps echo emptily on the 
handsome tiled flooring of the broad veranda. Seldom are 
the garden walks traversed save by the pickaninnies, the 
little grandchildren of the caretaker. Occasionally neigh- 
bors visit the spot to get some rare plant or flowering shrub 
for transplanting to their gardens, or else to look in through 
some gaping window-blind at the furnishings within. But 
entertainments were frequent there up to the time that the 
Civil War shut down on an exceptionally prosperous commu- 
nity. The great drawing-rooms, with their full-length mirro's 
and artistic decoration, often held gatherings of distinguished 
and interesting people. The Christmas house-parties were 
famous. For ten days at that season all occupations, even 
politics, were laid aside and jollification ruled. Every plan- 
tation thereabout had its own band of trained fiddlers, banjo 
and bone players, enthusiastic musicians who sought to outdo 
one another in vim and efficiency when the dances were held 
at their respective houses. Sometimes the minuet and lan- 
cers would be danced with representatives of four distinct 
generations in a single set, so thoroughly did the old folks 
and the young unite in innocent pastime. 

The old lodge-keeper at the porter's lodge, which yet 
stands by the entrance-gate, could tell of the gay parties he 
was wont to let in and out of the " Millford " grounds by day 
and night in the happy days. But he, along with a host of 
family retainers, is elsewhere now seeking a living. Only one 
ex-slave does the honors of the home-place, one Benjamin 
Pleasants, body-servant to the late Governor. The old man 
has little to do as guardian, for the neighborhood is almost as 
deserted now as it was once populous. The fine mahogany 
tables and chairs, the rare old candlesticks, the Japanese 
curios and articles of virtu brought from foreign lands that 
are yet within the house are safe behind unlocked doors, for 
only a simple-minded tenantry, who would not know what to 
do with them if they stole them, live nearby, and the location 
is far off the track of tourists and dealers in antiquities. 

The old body-servant has had romance in his life. Once, 
in the early forties, he attended his master to Canada. The 
journey was an undertaking in those days, and Ben was re- 
garded as a hero by the other house-servants because of the 
chance to make it. While in Canada some zealous aboli- 
tionists kidnapped Ben, and secreted him until Governor 
M inning had ceased to make search and had started back 



■MILLFORD," LV THE HIGH HH.LS OF SANTEE, S. C. 



lor 



home. When they told Ben that he was free and need never 
work again for any but his own interests, Ben, being thick- 
headed and warm-hearted, was greatly distressed. He kept 
his own counsel, but resolved to work his way back to his 
master, no matter how long it took. He got back after 
months of hardship, and great was the rejoicing in the " Mill- 
ford " household on the day he appeared, safe and sound. 
There was frolic and feasting in the big brick kitchen- 
quarters, and numerous were the "paroles" applied for by 
Ben's friends on neighboring plantations, anxious to get over 
to the Manning place and see for themselves that he was 
back, looking and acting just as before. 

Politics was a strong interest with all the families allied 
with this family seat. The inmates could get up a notable 
company at any time, just among their own relatives. As 
though the high hills over which these men ruled instigated 
in them a spirit of dominance, no little corner of the State 



atorial honor and prevented the Governor from taking his seat. 
The old home site has several times shared in epoch-mak- 
ing scenes. Lord Rawdon camped on the spot in June, 
1 78 1, when he made his long, forced march from Charleston 
for the relief of the garrison at Ninety-Six. Lord Cornwallis 
had also made the place a visit on his way to the battle of 
Camden, the year previous. A spring-house, canopied with 
a dome patterned after St. Paul's Cathedral, in London, now 
marks the spot where the British soldiery got such clear, 
cold water in that burning midsummer time. The site is 
just across the river from " Fort Motte " of romantic memory, 
and was in direct line with the other British posts along the 
Santee Valley from Charleston. General Sumter and his 
men passed and repassed " Millford " on their expeditions 
against these posts ; as fast as Lord Rawdon managed to 
relieve one fort, the Americans appearing before another. 
It was to these Sand Hills that Marion retired in the winters 




\H. 



Dining-room The Major Joseph Puncan House ■ 

■ Pal').-? Kcriturhy ■ 
[abotit r79(i 1 



■E P M QjVr (Irnwlngs hy P Dougtirrty - 



ever contributed so many leaders in war, in legislative as- 
sembly and public matters. Governor Manning himself 
was the second of his name to fill the Gubernatorial chair. 
He married, first, Miss Hampton, a fine woman and a fine 
fortune, and at her death allied himself with a distinguished 
Virginia family. His mother was of a family whose habit it 
was to be Governors, and she held the relationship of being 
respectively the daughter, sister, mother and aunt of a 
Governor of South Carolina, three Richardsons having at 
various times filled that ofBce since 1802, and all descend- 
ants of that Richard Richardson who ably seconded Gen- 
eral Marion in his military manoeuvres conducted from 
Snow's Island, just across the country from tlie Santee. Im- 
mediately after the Civil War, Governor Manning was elected 
to the United States Senate, but evil times then prevailed. 
The carpet-baggers had other views for that particular Sen- 



to recruit his little, hard-fought army, knowing that there 
they would be singularly exempt from the cold of the low- 
lands. Marion and Sumter were natives of this district, 
and understood its characteristics. Once Sumter, with 
one hundred and fifty horsemen, plunged into the Santee 
near this point, and gained the opposite bank successfully 
to tiie astonishment of the British, who dared not follow. 
To ride, and swim, and shoot at one hundred and fifty yards 
were habitual with the Sand Hill dwellers. 

The black waters of the Wateree, which river has a swamp 
three miles deep, and the clay-colored waters of the Conga- 
ree, come together, and form the Santee at a point a few 
miles above the " Millford " landing. The confluence makes a 
goodly spectacle. And farther on the yellow waters prevail, 
the broad Santee preserving that tinge all its ninety-odd 
miles to the sea. 



I02 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



Once again, in April, 1865, " Millford " felt the impress of 
hostile footfall : one of Sherman's aides took the house for 
headquarters, while the raiding troops were passing, and 
while that other great army of contrabands was got under 
way. Then the ladies of the family sat at the upper win- 
dows and watched the rabble and tumult without, and be- 
held their slave people passing on and away to a new era of 
existence. The commanding officer was a man of discrimi- 
nation. He admired the stately plantation-home and pre- 
served order about it to the best of his ability. It is twenty 



years since the place has been actually lived in. With 
changing times the family interests have centred elsewhere, 
the daughters marrying into other communities, the sons en- 
gaging in city businesses. No one has time or means to live 
at leisure in the old home when so much around and without 
it has changed, and so, although the weather has made no 
inroads as yet, and the superb climate of the Hills is as en- 
ticing as ever, the place is left to itself, mute witness to the 
tastes and requisites of a time that is gone. 

Olive F. Gunby. 




The Men who Designed the Old Colonial Buildings. 



ONE of our architectural writers in comparing 
Gothic architecture with that of the Renaissance 
makes the point that it was in the latter style 
that the individuality of the architect appeared, 
that all Gothic work by its strength and vigor completely 
swept away any personality, however strong, which the de- 
signer or designers might possess. Whether this is really 
true or not, or whether the fact that the chief knowledge of 
the architectural monuments of Northern Europe of the 
Gothic period rests on only slight historical foundation, as 
regards names and dates, while that of the Renaissance is 
generally reenforced by pretty accurate records of the men 
who did the work, may not be responsible, or whether it 
is simply that we do not understand the characteristics of 
the Gothic works as well ; or whatever may be the reason, it 
is undoubtedly true that the architectural student can deter- 
mine with much greater accuracy from certain peculiarities 
of construction and decoration the probable designers of 
buildings of the Renaissance period. The work of Brunel- 
leschi, of Michelozzi, or Alberti, of Palladio, or of their sev- 
eral schools can be pretty definitely determined by a more 
or less careful examination of the work, and often a building 
shows distinctly the stamp of an individual ; but while Gothic 
work varies in localities and shows for varying localities cer- 
tain distinctly-marked characteristics, I am not aware that 
even M. Viollet-le Due is dogmatic when it comes to ascrib- 
ing the work of the great French cathedrals to this or that 
master-mind. 



Even the debased Renaissance architecture, which it was 
our fortune as colonists here in America to receive from the 
Mother Country, debased through the era, still more debased 
through English influence ; even in this architecture, which 
our ancestors brought with them and which had at times be- 
come so thoroughly formal as to admit of hardly any strength 
of character, the personality of the men combined with their 
environment resulted in many cases in the expression of cer- 
tain individual peculiarities, which make it possible to dis- 
tinguish the work of some of the earlier men apart from the 
testimony of town records and family genealogy. 

Strictly speaking, up to the beginning of the nineteenth 
century, I know of no architects in America ; but, if various 
records and histories speak truly, fully 100 years before this 
time plans and elevations of buildings were prepared and 
drawn for the distinct purpose of either imitating or improv- 
ing upon English models, and the men who did this may be 
divided into two types, the carpenter-architect and the ama- 
teur architect. 

Of the first type, the carpenter-architect, Asher Benjamin 
is a good example, though his work was confined chiefly to 
comparatively unimportant buildings. He began as a car- 
penter working in Greenfield, Deerfield and the surrounding 
Massachusetts towns. He published a book at Greenfield 
of the "simple and practical" type; then he went to Boston, 
practised there and published two or three more works^ on 
architecture of a much more pretentious sort, and died com- 
paratively a poor man, as all good architects should. Of 



>See list of publications, page 105. ble to lay hands on the plans of the building, and these that are 

New York City-hall. — At the time of publishing the other lie^e given should be considered in connection with Plates 30, 34- 
drawings of John McComb's City-hall, New York, it was not possi- 37 ^"d 4'''. J^art II. 



rt VlW- n-J 








Second rioof Plan 



THE MEN WHO DESIGNED THE OLD COLONIAL BUILDINGS. 



103 



the other example, the " amateur " architect, Thomas Jeffer- 
son, from his station in life, is certainly the most notable ex- 
ample. His work from his famous " four-inch wall " built in 
a wavy line, so it should not tip over, to the schemes for the 
University of Virginia are too well known to need more than 
passing mention. Both of 
the examples quoted are, 
however, of rather a late 
period. Of the seven- 
teenth-century work the 
greater part owes its archi- 
tectural features to the 
carpenter-architect and, I 
am inclined to think, to 
some book of plates. Of 
course, many of these ear- 
lier men had not even this 
aid ; in fact, a good many 
examples of the work in 
districts more remote from 
the larger towns show 
plainly that the decorated 
pediments over front doors, 
cornices, and pilaster caps 
are worked out from mem- 
ory or tradition, for the exe- 
ecution of the work is too 
good to lay the peculiarities 
of the finished product to 
lack of ability to carry out 
the desired effect. 

There are even now, in 
libraries, in garrets and 
in the possession of a few 
book-collectors, works pub- 
lished, largely in England and some in America, during the 
eighteenth century manifestly intended for the aid of the car- 
penter and usually advertising on the title-page this fact in 
convincing and often amusingly ingenuous language. 

John Allis, born in Braintree in 1642, who married a 




Gateway to the Thomas Cowles Place, Farntinitton, ConD. 
[See Plate m, Part IX.] 



West Springfield indicate that aesthetic effect was sought for 
by the builder even though he was at the same time a 
contractor. Much of the ornamental work he personally 
executed. 

At New London, John Elderkin, who came to that town 

from Lynn in 1651, built 
the meeting-house and the 
parsonage and probably 
was called upon to aid in 
the designing of many of 
the older houses in South- 
eastern Connecticut. Old 
account-books, church 
records and journals men- 
tion these earlier men al- 
most invariably as builders. 
At times the church com- 
mittees give directions, 
more or less explicit, as to 
the architectural style 
which the building shall fol- 
low, usually a copy of some 
building of greater or less 
notoriety. 

Richard Munday built 
the Town-hall at Newport 
in 1783. John Smibert is 
responsible for Faneuil 
Hall, in Boston. Peter 
Banner did the Park Street 
Church in Boston, and at 
the head probably of these 
men stands Peter Harrison, 
who undoubtedly had re- 
ceived in England more or 
less of a technical education in architecture. He is said to 
have been of assistance to Sir John Vanbrugh and a pupil 
of James Gibbs's, and his admirers feel that he should be 
placed in a different rank from the other men of his time. 
Whether he derived his income solely from the making of 





House in Providence, R. I. 

widow and had eleven children and who came to Hatfield 
from Springfield in i66i, is one of the earliest of these car- 
penter-architects of whom I have been able to find any record. 
He designed the first church in West Springfield, built in 
1668, and the churches in Hatfield and in Hadley. I say he 
designed them, for the records of the old First Church in 



House on Benefit Street, Providence, R. I. 

plans or not, I do not know. Unless he did I see no reason 
why he should not be classed with the amateur architects or 
the carpenter-architects. 

In New York, one McBean, who lived in New Brunswick, 
N. J., designed in 1764 St. Paul's Chapel. It is possible 
that he was a pupil of Gibbs's, but it is more probable that 



ro4 



THE GEORGIAN' PERIOD. 



drawings of Gibbs's work furnished him with his inspiration. 
In Farmington, Conn., Judah Woodruff, a man prominent in 
the town affairs, was the leading builder of Western Connec- 
ticut. He designed the church at Farmington, which, by the 
way, is a free copy of the one in Wethersfield. He designed 
and built a dozen of the fine old houses of which Farmington 
now is justly proud, and he, 
like John Allis, of Hatfield, 



executed much of his own 
designing, the capitals of 
the pulpit and an elabo- 
rately carved sounding- 
board having been done 
by his own hand. (Some 
of the best Colonial fes- 
toons decorating a window- 
cap that I ever saw, by the 
way, a lady in Old Hadley 
told me "grandpa" had 
himself cut out with a jack- 
knife.) 

Capt. Isaac Damon, of 
Northampton, who belongs 
to a rather later period, 
designed and built cer- 
tainly a half dozen 
churches, two or three 
court-houses and his fame 
as a bridge designer and builder in the early part of this 
century reached far beyond New England. 

However, it must be confessed that the larger share of 
glory belongs to the men classed as amateur architects. 
Probably they are not amateurs in a strict sense of the word, 
for many of them received pay for their services ; on the 
other hand, the designing of buildings was an avocation 
rather than a vocation. To this class of men belongs Joseph 
Brown, of Providence, born in 1733. He was a merchant 




Rear View; First Baptist Church, Providence, R. I. [i745-] 



forms of architecture." Another of the Providence amateurs 
was John Greene, born in Rhode Island in 1777. He de- 
signed the First Congregational Meeting-house, the Episcopal 
and the First Universalist Churches, and the well-meant res- 
toration in one of these churches along in the middle of the 
nineteenth century so injured the church in his eyes that he 

never again attended it. 

In Philadelphia, Dr. 
John Kearsley was the ar- 
chitect of St. Bartholo- 
mew's Church, which was 
built in 1727, and to An- 
drew Hamilton is ascribed 
Independence Hall, though 
authorities differ as to this 
latter building. Watson's 
"Annals of Philadelphia " 
gives Dr. Kearsley the 
credit for this as well as 
for Christ Church. Evi- 
dently Kearsley and Ham- 
ilton were both on the 
Building Committee for 
the Hall, and it is probable 
that Hamilton's plan was 
used. The latter was edu- 
cated in London and was a 
proiegi of William Penn's 
and held several high offices in the Province. He died in 1741. 
To Thomas Jefferson is ascribed the University of Vir- 
ginia and several of the more prominent Virginia mansions, 
including his own house at Monticello, and he collaborated 
with Clarissault, a French architect, on the Capitol Building 
at Richmond. 

With John McComb, born in 1763, who died in 1853, and 
whose work includes the City-hall in New York and St. 
John's Church, built at the beginning of this century, begins 






^^^^ '?M^-v^... : -i- ~;:.~^..v. ^^^^| 






B WH^^'Z-r'A 


M 


■■■ 1H 



Interior of the First Baptist Chiircli, Providence, R. I. 



and grew rich enough to be independent and then he indulged 
his natural taste for science. He was particularly interested 
in electricity and mechanics. He was a member of the 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a trustee of 
Brown University, and in 1775 he designed the First Baptist 
Church, still standing in Providence, and his own house, since 
destroyed, which 35 years ago was occupied by the Provi- 
dence Bank.' He was sent in 1774 with Mr. Hammond, by 
the church, to Boston " in order to view the different churches 
and make a memoranda of their several dimensions and 



a period that may be said to deal with the modern archi- 
tects — Bulfinch, L'Enfant, Latrobe. The works and lives 
of these men are well known and they are hardly more than 
a generation removed from our own. 

What training or education the American architects of 
the eighteenth century may have had, I do not know, as I 
have been unable to find any clear evidences that any of 
them worked with, or were apprenticed to, English architects. 

In many cases this has seemed probable and several of 

' Plate 39. Part XII. 



THE MEN WHO DESIGNED THE OLD COLONIAL BUILDINGS. 



105 



the more prominent men mentioned are said to have been 
assistants to some of the better known English architects? 

As I have said above, it seems to me much more probable 
that most of the inspiration came through the published 
works which were to a considerable extent imported from 
England, and I have appended a short list* of some of these 
works. There are, doubtless, a good many others of which 
I do not know, and I do know that the books in the list are 



to be found quite generally in New England, sometimes in 
public libraries and sometimes in private families where they 
have been kept for a hundred years, or since their publication. 
There are in the list a very few books published in this 
country and it would be interesting if some one better fitted 
than myself could make a much fuller catalogue of these 
earliest American works on architecture. 

George Clarence Gardner. 



A FEW IDENTIFIED BUILDINGS. 



[The dates merely approximate 

Allys, John [1665-1700]. 

Churches in West Springfield, Hatfield and Hadley, Mass. 
Ames, John [1814]. 

Churches at Ashfield and Northboro [.'J, Mass. 
Benjamin, Asher [1790]. 

Carew House, Springfield ; HoUister House, Greenfield ; 
Alexander House, Springfield ; West Church, Boston ; 
Colton House, Agawam. All in Massachusetts. 
Banner, Peter [18 io]. 

Park Street Church, Boston, Mass. 
Brown, Joseph [1775]. 

First Baptist Church; Providence Bank, Providence, R.I. 
BtJLFiNCH, Charles. 

State-house, Boston, Mass., 1795 ; State-house, Augusta, 
Me., 1832; Court-house, Worcester, Mass., 1801 ; Couit- 
house, Cambridge, Mass., 1805 ; State Prison, Charles- 
town, Mass., 1804; Massachusetts General Hospital, 
Boston, Mass., 1818; University Hall, Cambridge, 
Mass., 1814; New North Church, Boston, 1804; Meet- 
ing-houses at Pittsfield, Weymouth, Taunton and Lan- 
caster, Mass., and Peterboro, N. H., and many other 
buildings not now standing. 

Damon, Isaac [1804]. 

First Church in Northampton ; First Church in Spring- 
field; Church in Pittsfield; Court-house in Pittsfield; 
Court-house in Lenox; North Church in Ware. All in 
Massachusetts. Bridges across the Connecticut at 
Charlestown, N. H., Springfield and Chicopee ; and 
across the Penobscot, Hudson and Ohio Rivers. 
Elderkin, John [1660]. 

First Church and Parsonage, New London, Conn. 
Greene, John [i8i4(?)]. 

First Congregational, Episcopal and First Universalist 
Churches, Providence, R. I. 
Hamilton, Andrew [1735]. 

Independence Hall, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Hooker, Philip [1813]. 

Boys' Academy, Albany, N. Y. 



the time of the designer's activity.] 

Harrison, Peter [1760]. 

Christ Church, Cambridge ; Town Market, Redwood 
Library and Jewish Synagogue, Newport, R. I. 
HoADLEV, David [1812]. 

North Church, New Haven, Conn. 
Jefferson, Thomas. 

University of Virginia and " Monticello," Virginia. 
Johnson, Ebenezer [1815]. 

United Church, New Haven, Conn. 
Kearsley, Dr. John [1727]. 

St. Bartholomew's and Christ Church, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Munday, Richard [1783]. 

Town-hall, Newport, R. I. 
McBean, [1764]. 

St. Paul's Chapel, New York. 
McComb, John [1803-15]. 

St. John's Chapel and City-hall, New York, N. Y. 
McIntire, Samuel [1806]. 

South Church, Salem, Mass. 
Pell, Edward [1721]. 

North Church, Hanover Street, Boston, Mass. 
Rhodes, Samuel [i77o(?)]. 

Pennsylvania Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Smibert, John [1742]. 

Fanueil Hall, Boston, Mass. 
Smith, Robert. 

Carpenters' Hall, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Spratz, Wm. [1776-78]. 

Deming House. Litchfield, Conn., and Cowles House, 
Farmington, Conn. 
Twelves, Robert [1730]. 

South Church, Boston, Mass. 
Woodruff, Judah [1769-90]. 

Gay House, Congregational Church, Samuel Cowles 
House, Major Hooker House, Wm. Whitman House, 
Romanta Norton House. All in Farmington, Conn. 



♦BOOKS USED BY THE EARLY ARCHITECTS. 



Adams, R. & S. ^' IVorks in Architeclure." 1773-1822. 

Benjamin, A., ANn Kavnkrd, V>. '• Thi American Builder's Com- 
panion" or a new system of architecture. 44 I'lates. Boston, 1806. 

Benjamin, Asher. '^The Rudiments 0/ Architecture." Boston, 
First Edition, 1814; Second' Edition, 1S20. " Ifand hoot of Architect- 
ure." Boston, 1834. Country Builder's Assist,! at" Greentield, 1796. 

Campbell, C. "Vitnnius Britannicus." London, 1715-25. 

" The Builder's Dictionary, or Gentleman's and Architect's Compan- 
ion." 2 Volumes, 33 Plates. Ixjndon, 1734. 

(JiBBS, J. "Rules for drawins; the Several Parts of Architecture." 
I>ondon, 1753. 

JoNF.s, I. "Designs consisting of Plans and Elevations for Public 
and Private Buildini;s." Published by W. Kent. London, 1770. 

Jones, L, AND OTHERS. " Designs published by IVare, /." London, 
1756. 



Langi.f.V, B. " The City and Country Builder's and IVoriman's 
Treasury of Designs" or the art of drawing and working the ornamental 
parts of architecture. 200 I'lates. Ixindon, I75<>. 

Langi.f.V, B. & T. ■■• Builder's Jewel." London, 1763. 

Langi.ky, T. •■ Builder's Jewel." No date. 

Norman, J. " The Town and Country Builder's Assistant" etc., By 
a lover of architecture. 59 I'lates. Boston. 1786. 

Pain, William. " The Practical Builder, or Worktnan s General 
Assistant," Vi'ith Plans and Elevations of Gentlemc-n's and harm-houses. 
Barns, etc. The Fourth Edition, 83 Plates. Boston, 1792. 

SoANE, Sir J. '• Sietches in Architecture," containing plans and 
elevations of cottages, villas and other useful buildings. 52 Plates- 
London, 1793. 

Swan, A. "The British Architect or Builder's Treasury of .Stair- 
cases, etc." 60 Plates. London, 1745. 



The Greek Revival and Some Other Things. 




SOME reviewers of this work have expressed the belief 
that its title ou;^ht to have been " The Georgian 
Style" and not the, as they maintain, rather mislead- 
ing title that was actually adopted. If it had been 
the intention to confine the enquiry to the Free-Classic work 
commonly known in this country as Old Colonial and in 
England as Georgian, the name they suggest would have 
been fitting enough, but, as the enquiry was to have a 
broader scope, a more comprehensive title was desirable, 
and the one chosen, covering, as it does, the century or so be- 
tween the crowning of the first English George and the death 



" Wyck," an interesting Colonial building in Germantown, 
was built for a Welsh owner, and there are others. But the 
influence of this branch of the Celtic family is shown in 
the prevailing liking for stone buildings and, particularly, 
in the abundant use of dormers and gables with roofs at 
forty-five degrees, so abundant in modern work in the out- 
skirts of Philadelphia. 

The result of this scheme of procedure has been that 
there has been brought to the attention of the reader 
the fact that there are several distinct types of buildings 
existing and still exerting their influence in different parts 




^.^^■g^i^^^L^:^-. - 



'■^r^^^ 



0\^7Ao-numcnlt cjf the ll^^-v61ufejonmy -Period. . 
The old ^owtler To-wer. Somerv1IlleT7^ai.S3c 



of the last one [17 14-1827], afforded the latitude that was 
sought and at the same time indicated that work in the Geor- 
gian style was, after all, the chief consideration. Because of 
this broader title it has been possible to examine not only the 
vernacular work of the ingenuous early builder, often pictur- 
esque and not seldom of much significance, but as well, in some 
slight way, the work of the Dutch, Swedes, Germans, and to 
hint that the work of the French and Spanish settlers, which 
had in it hardly a trace of the influence of the Georgian style 
proper was, nevertheless, characteristic and interesting. 

With more space and time, it would have been interestino- 
to show how distinct an influence on I'ennsylvania architect- 
ure the building traditions of the Welsh immigrants had had. 



106 



of the country, types which can hardly withstand much 
longer the levelling influence of the more easy intercommu- 
nication of modern days and the subtile undermining of 
traditionary methods by the fashion of the hour. 

In one particular the unstated programme had to be 
varied : it was distinctly the purpose to eschew and avoid 
the buildings erected under the influence of the Greek Re- 
vival ; but a fuller consideration of the work in the South 
showed that, if work carried out under the influence of the 
Greek Revival were to be left out of the examination, a very 
considerable quantity of interesting buildings, thoroughly 



THE GREEK REVIVAL AND SOME OTHER THINGS 



107 



typical of the Southern States and forming a very character- 
istic group in our heterogeneous architecture, would have to 
go without description and illustration, and to omit these 
seemed liked introducing at the last moment an unnecessary 
rigidity into a very elastic programme. For these reasons 
the work of the post-Georgian period is exhibited with some 
freedom in these closing pages. Moreover, while the revived 
interest in Grecian forms seems to have been felt earlier in 
the South than at the North, it was not, as a cult, honored 
with the same strict observance that Northern designers 
yielded. The disease, to call it so, was of rather a mild 
type, though of long persistence, and the result is that, while 
there are to be found here and there a temple-fronted house 
such as is found in the North in multitudes, the greater part 
of the buildings which show the influence of Greek forms 
show them, not bookishly pure, as in the North, but blended 
with the Free-Classic of 
Georgian work and the 
vernacular of the native 
builder. The amusing 
liberties that have been 
taken with the accepted 
parts and proportions of 
the orders which are to be 
noted in almost any speci- 
men of Southern work are 
to be attributed partly to 
the employment of slave 
labor and partly to that il- 
literacy of the white me- 
chanic-class in the South 
which made them less 
faithful students of such 
books and drawings as 
came in their way. 

That the Greek move- 
ment should have begun 
earlier in the South — if it 
did really begin earlier — 
than in the North is en- 
tirely reasonable. The 
Southern planter travelled 
abroad more persistently 
and in greater numbers 
than did the members of 
the merchant and manu- 
facturing classes of the 
Northern States. Climatic change was more frequently 
desirable, for one thing, and for another, as the planter class 
were largely mere spenders of income, the real business of 
tiieir estates being managed by factors and overseers, they 
had both the idle time and the accumulated income to spend 
in travel. In this way they became cognizant of what was 
the newest fashion in architecture, and, returning home, had 
their next buildings designed in the new mode — as they re- 
membered it. The Northerner, on the other hand, heard of 
the Greek Revival mainly by correspondence and obtained 
his data from imported books, which his skilled mechanics 
were able to follow accurately and textually, and the build- 
ings that were created through their aid, having the pedantic 

' Latrobe, Henjamix. — Amongst the private'houses in Wash- 
ington built by Latrobe are the Decatur house, on Lafayette 
Square, and tlie Van Ness house, now a drinking-resort for 
negroes, at the foot of Seventeenth St. 

•Stricklamj, William. — -Born in Philadelphia, 17S7. 




Maritime Exchange, Philadelphia, Pa. Wni. Strickland, Architect. 



Stiffness that was to be expected, merely emphasized the 
fact that a Greek temple was never designed to give home- 
like and appropriate surroundings for English or American 
men and women of the nineteenth century. 

The Southern designers, whether amateur or professional, 
on the other hand, succeeded in making a fairly individual 
and interesting " blend " of Greek and Free-Classic [Roman] 
forms, which finally crystallized into a formula, according to 
which a large number of plantation-houses — to which, be- 
cause of their landscape setting and their surroundings, the 
adjectives "elegant" and "lordly" are not at all inappli- 
cable — were built, not only in the first quarter of the last 
century, but up to the time when building undertakings of 
all kinds came to an end with the beginning of the Civil 
War. 

Who designed these houses is not likely to be known. 

Jefferson, of course, had 
an influence, and so too 
did Dr. Thornton and Dr. 
Kearsley, and it is only 
probable that some of the 
men who sent in designs 
for the Capitol at Wash- 
ington, as Mclntire, Dobie, 
Diamond, Lamphire, Blod- 
gett, Mayo and others, 
men, so far as we know, of 
no great ability, may have 
been capable of doing in 
private work something 
better than they suggested 
for the nation's chief build- 
ing; some at least had 
training and were in some 
degree practitioners of ar- 
chitecture. Hoban, at any 
rate, is known to have prac- 
tised in Charleston before 
he came to Washington to 
do the " White House," and 
it is known that it was a 
cause of complaint against 
some of the early architects 
connected with the Capitol 
that they spent time in 
working for private clients 
that should have been de- 
voted to the Government. It is doubtful if Bulfinch's influ- 
ence ever extended farther South than Baltimore and Wash- 
ington ; but Ithiel Towne built the State-house for North 
Carolina, and that would give him an introduction to planters 
who were within visiting distance of the State capital ; and 
we fancy that if Latrobe's^ drawings should be examined it 
would be found that he had not a few clients in the South. 
McComb, too, a man whose work is less known than ought 
to be the case, and who doubtless built some of the houses 
along the Hudson, may well have had Southern clients, and 
where, later, the Greek influence is very marked, Strickland, - 
whose Maritime Exchange in Philadelphia is a striking piece 
of work, may well have had a hand in it. But it is not to be 



Studied architecture under Benjamin Latrobe. Died in 1854. 
His last work was the State-house at Nashville, Tenn., unfinished 
at the time of his death. Besides the Maritime Exchange, in 
Philadelphia, in whicli city most of his work lies, he was the 
architect of the Mint, the Naval Asylum and the old Masonic 
Hall. 



io8 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



assumed that trained skill was always employed. Americans 
are good imitators, and a model to set the fashion for the 
local mechanic was all that was needed for a neighborhood. 
The variations in the conditions of the problem and the pas- 
sion for exercising the native inventive faculties were enough 
to prevent the later buildings from being mere textual copies. 
The effect of the existence of a type or, it may be, merely 
of a pattern, or, again, the mere presence of a single individual 
in a neighborhood, is interestingly shown in the little decayed 
town of Duxbury, Mass., where in the Waterman house we 
came upon a mantelpiece^ which was not only interesting at 
first sight, but seemed to be absolutely unique. Further in- 



that American work was more or less tinctured with the 
coming style long before the revival broke upon us with full 
force. The architects of the present day are so possessed 
with the belief in their own unimpeachable value in and to 
the world of art that they seem blind to the fact that in this 
country there were architects before them ; that these well- 
proportioned and delicately detailed mansions, which men and 
women of feeling now delight in, are the certain evidence of 
the existence of architects quite as truly artists as any of the 
architects of to-day whose income may be ten times as great. 
The fact that these honored buildings are, generally speak- 
ing, the work of nameless men is but a reminder that, for all 




vestigation proved, however, that there were other houses in 
the town in whose mantels the novel treatment of pilaster and 
frieze was repeated : it was a common local form, common, 
perhaps, to other towns on the Cape, but not found else- 
where. 

Stuart and Revett's first book was published, in parts, be- 
tween 1762 and 1816, and, as many Southern gentlemen 
besides Jefferson left with their book-dealers in London and 
Paris orders to send them with their yearly or semi-annual 
supplies any books that were attracting notice, it is possible 

M'Iate42, Part XII. 

"" Georgian Architecture in Dtiblin " .• Vol. II, page io6. 

' HoBAN, James. — Born in Kilkenny County, Ireland, about 
1762. Educated in Dublin. Emigrated to Charleston, S. C, in 
1 78-. Designed the .State-house at Columbia, .S. C. (since burned). 



his braggadocio, the fashionable architect of the hour will 
himself be unknown to posterity and his name never asso- 
ciated with some possibly good and delicate piece of work of 
his that may have endured the wear and tear of ages. 

In an earlierpaper" has been shown some part of the large 
amount of interesting Georgian work that is to be found 
in Dublin, and, as it was in Dublin that James Hoban ' ac- 
quired his training, it is but natural that the work he designed 
in this country should seem first-cousins to that by which his 
susceptible early years were surrounded. Hoban was one 



Introduced to General Washington by Governor Laurens, of 
South Carolina. Won the competition for the President's man- 
sion, and afterwards was always in Government employ — as 
Superintendent of the Capitol, In.spector of Government Work, 
Surveyor of Public Buildings. He died in 1831. 



THE GREEK REVIVAL AND SOME OTHER THINGS. 



109 



of the first of the many Irishmen who have done much to Alpin family, built on the Savannah River, near Savannah, 
elevate the intellectual character of this country, just as his about 1830, and that, in turn, has what might almost be 
more humble countrymen have done much to improve its called a repetend in the McAlpin house'' in Savannah itself, 

OL»Hoi/;e^t Brent fvJie 

Pnfvce Wlli^mfo Va 







iXl 1:1 !■' 'TTt 







-fifL 



physical conditions. His name, as long as the "White House" 
at Washington stands, will be known to, and remembered by, 

intelligent enquirers, a!- 

though it may not have as 
wide a popular repute as 
Major L'Enfant's,' who, if 
his fame had depended on 
Robert Morris's uncom- 
pleted house, instead of 
upon his plan for the city 
of Washington, would have 
hardly had a happier fate 
than has befallen the de- 
signers of some of the 
admirable work of the 
eighteenth century. 

Equally admirable in 
their way, in spite of their 
belonging so pronouncedly 
to the Greek school and to 
the nineteenth century, are 
four houses which may 
have been designed by the 
same hand in spite of their 
being so widely separated 
as Nashville and Savan- 
nah. Perhaps there was a 
blood-tie between the McAlpins of Savannah and Andrew 
Jackson, perhaps it is only a case of hero-worship, but, quite 
as likely, it is a case where 
inspiration and suggestion 
originated with the architect. 
In any case "Hermitage,"^ 
the well-known home of An- 
drew Jackson, the shrine of 
many a Democratic pilgrim- 
age, has a namesake in the 
"Hermitage"* of the Mc- 



1 1 

m 


JriMiJ 


HSSSS^^ 


fiip 


.11 n 

IMH 


|i|^''i ll'llf !|'|'||i|i'|iii"t ■itttyt'trn-'Yft 


— > 1 ■ ■ ^ 


''•isaA'" ' 



Chetwood House, East Jersey Street, Elizabeth, N. J. 




while an even closer likeness is found in the house ° of James 
K. Polk at Nashville." It is true that the porch of Presi- 

dent Polk's house is distyle 

in antis, while the " Her- 
mitage " on the Savannah 
River has a tetrastyle por- 
tico, but the order is the 
same, and the general air 
of sober understanding 
that each structure betrays 
certainly suggests that one 
was directly inspired from 
the other, even if different 
architects were employed 
on the two mansions. In 
both of these houses, and 
also in the McAlpin city- 
house, the architect has 
used the order of the 
Temple of the Winds at 
Athens, and at Nashville, 
where the columns are set 
in antis, the portico has a 
somewhat Egyptian air, 
which is well carried out by 
the broad wall-spaces 
about it. It is rather sin- 
gular that with such good examples — for the capital of the 
Temple of the Winds is a very graceful one — within reach, 

and widely known because of 
the many visitors to General 
Jackson's house, this order 
was not more frequently 
used. One would think that 
the general refinement of the 
Colonial work would have led 
to an appreciation of the 
elegance of this particular 



Old Vrou^ht IronwSrK 



1 L'ExFANT. — Besides pre- 
paring the design for Robert 
Morris's great house, L'Enfant 
was the architect of a house in 
Philadelphia, built for Nichol- 
son, Morris's partner and also 
Treasurer of the State of I'enn- 
sylvania. The Nicholson 

house, which cost f 50,000, has recendy been sold for use as a 
Jewish Orphanage. 

*"The Hkkmitaof," Nashvii.lk, Te.sx. — (leneral Jackson 
built this house in 1S19. It was, liowever, partially burned in 
1S35, butwas rebuilt in that and the following year. It is now 
in the charge of the Ladies' Hermitage Association and is essen- 



iVovTUenc*, "?-!■ 



tially a musc-uin of Jacksoniana. 
(ieneral Jackson, who died in 
the liouse, was, after the fashion 
of the day, buried in the front 
yard. Plate 44, Part XII. 

s Plates 43-44, Part XII. 
* See cut, page 95. 

'TtiE Poi.K Maxsiox. — This house was not built for, but pur- 
chased by. President Polk from the Dickson family, to tlie descend- 
ants of wliicli tlie jjroperty has now reverted. President Polk's 
tomb, also, stands in the yard. 

opiate 43, Part XII. 



no 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



order, but for some reasons its merits were disregarded and the shadow effect is lost and no proper drip is formed, 
fashion turned in the direction of the more elaborate and far Even in the case of such a mansion as " Arlington," best 



less satisfactory order of the 
Choragic Monument of Lysi- 
crates, which seems to have 
been a general favorite. In 
the Jonathan Childs house, 
Rochester, N. Y., we find the 
capital of this order reproduced 
with great exactness, while in 
certain cases in the South we 
have noted that certain simpli- 
fications — not always the 
same — have been introduced, 
which seem to show that either 
the designer felt he was exer- 
cising a permissible license or 
else that the workmen were not as well skilled in following 
drawings as were the mechanics of the Northern States, 
The latter is prob- 
ably the most plausi- 
ble explanation, for 
on every side we 
find little ungram- 
matical variations 
which could hardly 
have been inten- 
tional on the part of 
a competent de- 
signer, but are ob- 
viously the over- 
sights that an unlet- 
tered copyist or an 
unskilled mechanic 
would be guilty of. 
Thus, we find 
Roman Doric bases 
needlessly obtrud- 
ing themselves be- 
neath a Grecian Doric shaft where no base at all was needed, 
and, again, a Grecian Doric shaft crowned simply by a square 
abacus with no echinus below 
it, this shaft, too, setting upon 
a square plinth of the same 
size and thickness as the abacus 
at the top so that the column 
might be turned end for end 
without altering the effect — 
and it is curious that the effect 
is really very Grecian, after all. 
In another case* where the 
masonry shaft was heavily 
coated with stucco — quite after 
the Grecian manner — the 
mason, in endeavoring to indi- 
cate the hypotrachelium, or 
gorgerin, or whatever is the 
right name for the incised lines 
which in the Greek Doric play 
somewhat the part that the 
astragal plays in the Roman 
orders, made a very broad in- 




Sproull Homestead, near Cartersville, Ga. 




Etowah Heights/* Etowah River, Ca. 




known now as the home of 
General Robert K. Lee, but 
originally built, in 1802, by 
George Washington Parke 
Custis, the grandson of Martha 
Washington, a building^ de- 
signed with much care and in- 
tended, so far as the portico 
goes, to repeat the Temple of 
Theseus at Athens, we find that 
the designer did not thoroughly 
know the style. It is true that 
the portico is, like its original's, 
hexastyle and the ponderous 
shafts have no bases, but rest 
properly on a simple stylobate ; but it is equally true that 
the shafts have no cannellations [the dictionaries do not 

recognize this word, 
^JTT] but it is just as good 
and useful as the 
verb " cannelate " 
that they do admit], 
and the frieze has 
been given Roman 
in place of Grecian 
t r igl yphs. It is 
such little gram- 
matical slips as 
these that, although 
they make the purist 
sniff scornfully, 
really add to the 
interest of the 
Southern work, for 
it is really only by 
taking liberties with 
time-hallowed pre- 
cept and established practice that changes are made and im- 
provements, possibly, brought about. There is no more pro- 
priety for scorning the authors 
of such vagaries as these than 
there is reason for condemning 
them for taking liberties with 
the proportions of their orders, 
and recklessly disregarding 
Vignola's admonitions that a 
Corinthian column should have 
only ten diameters for its height. 
The Southern planter needed 
verandas, covered ones, and 
partly for economy's sake and 
more because it was the fashion 
of the hour wanted his porticos 
to protect two stories, but when 
he found that if he did what 
Vignola told him to do, the 
floor-space would be needlessly 
taken up by huge shafts that 
really supported no weight at 
all, and that his house would 



3^^r- 



f-:-^7^ '^^^ 



Veranda of the Sproull Homestead, near Cartersville, Ga. 

cision all around the shaft with the point of his trowel, look more like a temple than a house, he decided to give his 
but unfortunately held its blade the wrong way, so that columns just such proportions as suited his problem, no 



'See cut of IlanscU House, Kosewcll, Ga., page 96. 



Tlate 20, Part XII. 



THE GREEK REVIVAL AND SOME OTHER THINGS. 



1 1 1 















i, 

i 


^f^' f* 










•■: 1 ^ 

mm. 




■Mifspmiaiiii^^a 


»'- 






" -^^L^^d. w Garden, near Au^iusta, Ga ^ 







matter what the books said. So if, as at " Etowah Heights," ticularly attractive, because it so clearly suggests quiet do- 
on the Etowah River, Georgia, the place of the Stovall-SIiell- 
man families, we find columns of great attenuation, we ftel 
merely that the practical problem of daily needs has been 
solved. Here at " Etowah Heights " another difficulty was 
overcome, with some success and much ingenuity. It was ob- 
vious that it would never do to crown such lofty shafts with 
a simple Doric capital, the 
height demanded at least 
Corinthian treatment ; and 
evidently the working out 
of a Corinthian cap was 
beyond the capacity of any 
of the workmen. But a 
satisfactory compromise 
was reached by building a 
bell, octagonal in plan, out 
of a series of mouldings 
and crowning them all with 
a square abacus. The re- 
sult is a capital that at a 
distance serves well enough 
as a Corinthian cap, while 
it is only a near view that 
brings to light that it is an 
architectural hybrid, sired 

by Corinthian, dammed by Perpendicular. It is certainly an 
ingenious solution and one that serves a capital purpose. 

It is such pieces of architectural nanett that make 
much of the Southern work interesting, but they mark, too, 
a falling away in delicacy of perception from the work that 
was done in the eighteenth century along the banks of the 
Virginia rivers. It is almost certain that one could not 
find anywhere in Virginia such a florid piece of work as 
" Belle Grove,"' on the banks of the Mississippi, in Iberville 
Parish, La., the home of an obviously wealthy sugar-planter, 
built, it is said, "shortly after 
the Revolution." Anything 
more unlike what one's pre- 
conception of what a sugar- 
planter's house of those days 
might be expected to look like 
could hardly be encountered. 
For, in truth, the typical "plan- 
ter's house of that region, of 
direct West Indian and, so, 
Spanish derivation, is to be 
found in such houses as 
" Home Place," " in St. Charles 
Parish, La., the home of tiie 
Haydel family, and " Beau- 
voir,''* at Biloxi, Miss., long 
the home of Jefferson Davis, 
and now transferred to the 
ownership of the Sons of Con- 
federate Veterans, to be maintained as a home for indigent 
Confederate soldiers. This type of one-story house is par- 




Fairfax County Court-house, Fairfax, Va, 



M'late 1 6, I'art .\II. 
» Plate 3, Part XII. 
'Plate 20, Part XII. 



•Plate 4, Part XII. 
* Plate 14, Part XII. 
20, Part .\1I. 6 Plate 15, Part XII. 

' •' Meadow Garden " is now preserved by the Walton Memorial 
Association as a memorial of Georj^e Walton, a si<;iier of the 
Declaration of Independence, who in tlie cider part of the sim])Ie 
structure entertained George Washington in 1791. 

» CoURT-Housi s. — Fairfax County Court-house, in Fairfax, 
Va., is a rather typical puljlic building of the pre-RevoIutionary 



mesticity, and not the pomp and parade to be looked for in 
houses whose exteriors declare that they contain abundant 
guest-chambers and elaborate rooms of ceremony. Yet, that 
the assurance of a spacious welcome, as it were, may be in- 
dicated without sacrificing the promise of domestic comfort 
is satisfactorily proved by such houses as " Dunleith," ■* built 

early in the last century by 
General Dahlgren, near 
Natchez, Miss. That 
" Dunleith " is the legiti- 
mate development of the 
type expressed by " Beau- 
voir"is obvious at a glance, 
and the house, in spite of 
the presence of the unfortu- 
nate dormer windows, 
added by a later owner, is 
a very perfect and satis- 
factory specimen of the 
home of a wealthy planter 
in the far South. It is in- 
teresting, too, as a " rever- 
sion to type," expressing, as 
it does, a complete revolt 
against the Greek in- 
fluence : it comes much nearer achieving the gracility of 
the real Colonial work than does " Montebello," ^ the home 
of the Shields family, which also stands near Natchez, or 
" Burnside,"" a Louisiana sugar-planter's house on the banks 
of the Mississippi, built by a Colonel Preston of South 
Carolina. These three mansions have about as much dig- 
nity, propriety and real architectural character as any 01 e 
could desire, if one consents to accept the second-story 
galleries as domestic necessities, and hence, as they satisfy 
real requirement, that they have sufficient architectural pro- 
priety to escape challenge for 
illiteracy. It is to be noted 
that the owner of "Dunleiih" 
seems to have had misgivings 
on this head, and in place of 
using the usual wooden balus- 
trade for the upper-gallery rail- 
ing, has sought not to mar 
the effect of his colonnades 
by using light iron railings, 
painted black so as to be 
practically invisible from a dis- 
tance. The floors of such 
upper galleries do not of con- 
structive necessity cut athwart 
the columns, for the sake of 
getting a bearing on them ; 
the floors were carried out 
to the columns because of the 
desire to secure more floor-space. The proof of this is to be 
found in those houses which have the second-story gallery 

period, but it is more interesting because of its association with 
the Civil War, as it was in the field of military operations, and 
was at times in the possession of tlie Federal troops, and, again, 
in the occupancy of tlie Confederates. An attenijn lias recently 
been made to have it transformed into an historical museum, with 
Georije Washington's will as its cliiefest treasure. 

Tlie Court-liouse at Cliester, Pa., which was built in 1724, has 
now a misleading air of quaintness, since tlie jiresent spirelet- 
crowned tower, wliich gives the building its character, is a modern 
atfair and replaces the original belfry. 



112 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



extending to hardly more than half the width of the lower 
one, the floor being supported by a system of concealed 
cantilevers, as in the case of the Sproull house,' nearCarters- 
ville, Ga., a house which is interesting because of being one 
of the comparatively small number where the Ionic order 
is used. 

While the West Indian type of house with its flattish hip- 
roof is certainly distinctive of Southern architecture, there is 
a variation of the normal cottage type, common to all parts 
of the country, which is also distinctively Southern. In 
these alliance is made between the rather steep pitched 
roofs and the supporting columns — of often needless robust- 
ness — in so natural a manner that no protest is elicited. A 
perfect specimen of this class was " Concord," before it was 
destroyed ; but there are others built at various dates, but 
all belonging to the same species. Mrs. Wilson's house, 
" Ashlands,"- near Mobile, Ala., is merely one of the class 
where due regard for the precedents of the type has been ob- 
served. " Inglehurste,"' ^ 
however, built near Macon, 
Ga., early in the nineteenth 
century, shows how the 
passion for columnar effects 
has overstepped propriety. 
Thanks to the luxuriant 
grace of plants and vines, 
the fact that these heavy 
brick piers nowhere sup- 
port anything but a light 
wooden roof is well dis- 
guised, and one is aware 
merely of a delightfully 
homelike and picturesque 
effect. This house is ab- 
solutely native of the soil ; 
built with timber grown 
upon and bricks burned 
upon the place by the labor of slaves, it is because of these 
things all the more cherished by its owners and regarded 
with interest by strangers. 

One of the most interesting houses to be found in the South 
is " Edgewood," * near Edgefield, S. C, interesting because it 
resumes in itself almost all of the characteristics to which 
attention has been directed ; and tha fact that they are shown 
in this house, once the home of Governor Francis W. 
Pickens,^ in a somewhat debased form, seems to indicate that 
it was recognized tiiat the full expression of the type-form had 
been reached. Here we have a modest structure, intended for 
use as an ordinary dwelling, rambling over the ground with 
true Southern disregard of space till the front spans a length 
of full forty yards. In the elevation of the first floor above 
the ground and the absence of rooms at the ground level, we 
find a reminder of West Indian derivation, while the division 
into main-house, wing-pavilions and connecting-galleries is 
distinctly marked. That the architecture is Colonial is told 
not only by the attempted, and to a good degree successful, 
refinement of the mouldings of the main portico and the 
decoration of the front of the raking cornice, but most of all 
by the artistic feeling that dictated the cutting away of the 




' See cut, pajje i lo. 
3 Plate II, i'art X!I. 



■^ Plate 13, I'art XII. 

* Plates 10-12, Plates XII. 



'Governor of South Carolina during the Civil War, 1S61-65. 
A very pleasant explanation is jjiven for the extreme lateral elonga- 
tion of this house, an explanation which quite comports with the 
courteous hospitality of the Southern gentleman. It is said that 



architrave in a series of elliptical arches. In the flat pedi- 
ments of the wing pavilions we find traces of the influence 
of the Greek Revival, while in the caps and bases of the 
columns of these pavilions we find the sort of naive imita- 
tions of the proper forms that a colored carpenter might be 
expected to produce. And then, over and beyond all, the 
long and roomy veranda is provided as the prime desidera- 
tum. The whole structure makes so charming and attrac- 
tive a composition that one can afford to forget that in- 
accuracies and imperfections of workmanship exist. 

A very satisfactory knowledge of Colonial architecture 
might be acquired through a study of the older collegiate 
buildings of the country, more of which are standing than 
is generally suspected. Besides the "academy" buildings 
that are still to be found in many New England towns, 
which, in type, do not vary much from the belfried court- 
houses of the same date, there is a considerable number of 
dormitories, chapels and halls that were built for the larger 

institutions of learning that 
give interesting lessons in 
proportion and sobriety of 
decorative treatment. Like 
her older buildings, Har- 
vard will probably always 
cherish Bulfinch's "Univer- 
sity Hall," and Rutgers 
College, at New Bruns- 
wick, N. J., will doubtless, 
in the same way, preserve 
" Queen's Building," de- 
signed by John McComb. 
William and Mary, at 
Williamsburg, Va. ; St. 
John's, at Annapolis ; the 
University of Virginia, at 
Charlottesville, and the 
University of North Caro- 
lina, at Chapel Hill, all these and others of the elder col- 
leges have still in use and in good preservation many in- 
teresting buildings which are true specimens of Old Colonial 
architecture, and it would be interesting, some time, to group 
them all together. 

But, interesting as the later houses are, they are to be 
regarded rather as marking the transition from the dignified 
Colonial work to the utterly undignified eclectic work of the 
present day. If there is any lesson to be drawn from the il- 
lustrations in this publication it is that a too free use of 
applied decorations can be as fatal to a fine piece of archi- 
tecture as overdressing can be fatal to the asserted gentility 
of a woman, and many a good design in the Colonial style 
has in these latter days been made simply tawdry by the 
mistaken application of moulded decorations in superabun- 
dance. Generally speaking, the Northern designer in the 
eighteenth century showed more reserve, a greater sympathy 
with the style, a keener appreciation of delicacy than did his 
Southern brother. To the writer's way of thinking, the much- 
praised interiors of the Miles Brewton house, in Charleston, 
are far less satisfactory than many interiors to be found in 
Salem, Mass., Portsmouth, N. H., and Providence, R. I. 

Governor Pickens could not sleep comfortably if he knew there 
was a guest slieltering beneath his roof who had been obliged, 
because of the presence of other guests, to put up with a rear 
chamber; therefore, he built his house so that all members of the 
household and all guests must have front rooms — there being no 
back ones. The story is too pretty to be questioned. 



THE GREEK REVIVAL AND SOME OTHER THINGS. 



"3 



Generally speaking, this too lavish use of applied decoration 
is to be taken as a sign of the decadence, a proof that the 
building was erected after, rather than before, the Revolu- 
tion ; but that it is not always safe to rely on such an 
inference is shown by the ceilings^ at " Kenmore," in 
Fredericksburg, Va. If there ever was a case of over- 
elaboration this is certainly one, and the observer might well 
be excused for thinking 
that the redundancy and 
repetition, and, above all, 
the geometrical quality of 
the general composition, 
proved satisfactorily that 
the work and the building 
were late in date. But 
local legend satisfactorily 
accounts for and excuses 
this over-elaboration, and 
the fact that " Kenmore," 
was built by Colonel Field- 
ing Lewis to please his 
wife, Betty, the only sister 
of General Washington, 
tends to prove that it be- 
longs in time with the 
group of notable Virginia 
mansions on the James. 
The story is that these 
ceilings, overmantels, etc., 
are the work of certain Hessian prisoners of war wlio were 
quartered in the house and probably were delighted to find 
an agreeable occupation during their enforced idleness, and 
probably welcomed the money, which was unquestionably 
paid them, for their labor as a means of providing, possibly, 
certain delicacies for their mess or warmer clothing for 
winter wear. Since the mere occupation of idle hours was 
their chief object, it was natural that the general scheme 




accounted for, wliile the certain lack of refinement and 
the geometrical quality of the design may be placed to the 
credit of the Teutonic understanding of grace. 

" Kenmore " itself has the appearance of being only a part 
of an uncompleted whole, and considering the standing of 
the family, it is likely that Colonel Lewis intended to build a 
more elaborate house than this, and possibly the usual wing- 
pavilions were to be built 
later, giving the house 
finally the general effect of 
" Woodlawn," '^ near Mount 
Vernon, designed by Dr. 
Thornton,' and for Nellie 
Custis when she married 
Lawrence Lewis, the son 
of Col. Fielding Lewis and 
Washington's sister, Betty. 
There is a certain simil- 
arity between the two 
houses, and because of it 
we may surmise that " Ken- 
more," too, may possibly 
be one of Dr. Thornton's 
houses, though it is, of 
course, possible that Nellie 
Custis knew all about the 
house her father had 
meant to build and so 
urged Dr. Thornton to 
make the home of her married life like that which her child- 
hood's home might have been. Otherwise the heavy brick 
arcade is a meaningless and expensive freak. The arcade 
itself is unusual, as, with the exception of Mount Vernon, 
we can recall no other instance of a Colonial house where 
an arcade is introduced, although it was used in churches 
and in public buildings, as at Hanover Court House, Fair- 
fax Court House and others. But in houses the use of the 




The Major Duncan House, Paris, Ky. [About irp\ 

should be so planned as to consume the greatest number of 
hours' work, and thus the unneeded quantity is satisfactorily 

> Plates 25-6, Part XII. 
• Plates 20, 22-26, Part VL 

•Thornton, Dr. William. — Born on the Island of Tortola, 
W. I., 1 761. Educated in England and, in medicine, Scotland. 
In 1793 moved to Washington, D. C, and there resided until liis 
death in 1S2S. He was, in 1794,0110 of the Commissioners a])- 
pointed by Washington to survey tlie District of Columbia, and 
held the position until it was abolished in 1802. He later became 
Superintendent of Patents, and lield tlie office up to the time of 




" Federal Hill," Bardslown, Ky.* [1795-] 

arcade is only approximated by now and then introducing 
round arches in the porches, as at "Crewe Hall," Malvern 

his death. In addition to his desijjn for tlie United States Capitol, 
accepted April 15, 1793, he prepared a design for tlie i'resident's 
Mansion. In tlie way of private practice as arcliitect, he desisjned 
" Montpelier," Orange Co., \'a., for James Madison ; the " Octagon, 
House," Washington, for Jolin Tayloc ; tlie "Tudor House," 
Georgetown, D. C, and a few olliers. 

^The homestead of the Rowan family. Tlie song " Mv Old 
Kentucky Home" was written in this liouse by .Stephen Collins 
Foster. 



114 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



Hill, Va. ; " Gunston Hall," on the Potomac, " Mount Airy," 
on the Rappahannock, etc. 

While, as a rule, the eighteenth-century Virginia man- 
sions were built of brick or wood, some were built of stone, 

as, for instance, the Hite 

house, in Winchester, Va., 
and, the most noted example 
of all, " Mount Airy," ' on 
the Rappahannock, the 
home of the Tayloes. Here 
the portico has an arcade of 
three arches, and the gal- 
leries connecting the main 
house with the wing pavil- 
ions are semicircular in plan, 
as are the similar galleries 
at " Mount Vernon." Taken 
in connection with its set- 
ting and its formal garden, 
" Mount Airy " is one of the 
choicest specimens of Col- 
onial architecture. 

Stone was not infrequently 
used elsewhere, particularly 
in Pennsylvania, by the 
Germans, and in the Major Duncan house, Paris, Ky., we 
find an interesting example, first, because it is built of stone 




The Rufus Greene Coach-house, Providence, R. 1. 



acter shows how strong a hold the style had on the people 
that, at that time, in a new settlement so far inland as 
Paris, such a house should have been built. As might be 
supposed, its forms and details are based on reminiscences 
and so are somewhat sim- 
plified and ungrammatical, 
as might be expected 
when neither designer nor 
mechanic could drive 
over to look at the next 
house and see "just how 
the thing ought to be done." 
This house and " Federal 
Hitt," at Bardstown, Ky.,^ 
give grounds for believing 
that the Kentucky towns 
along the Cumberland Road 
are deserving of investiga- 
tion by whoever next under- 
takes to consider Colonial 
architecture. 

If one were to trust to in- 
ferences and resemblances, 
it might be proper to ven- 
ture the supposition that 
there should be included in the list of houses which were either 
designed by Jefferson, or whose design was affected by his ad- 




coated with rough-cast, and, next, because its Colonial char- vice, the very refined mansion ' known as " Woodlands " that 



' I'lates 22-23, '''i''t ^II- 
"See tut, page 1 13. 



» I'lates I, 2S-30, Part XII. 

* liy permission of Frank Cousins. 



THE GREEK REVIVAL AND SOME OTHER THING S. 



"5 




(S^tfr't 



now stands in Fairmount Park, Philadelphia. But there is 
on the whole a more subtile indication of delicacy of feeling 
on the part of the designer of " Woodlands " ' than is to 
be found in " Monticello," " Jefferson's own house, or in 
" Montpellier,"'' which, though designed for his friend James 
Madison by Dr. Thor- 
ton, was affected by 
Jefferson's advice, so it 
is best not to force the 
facts, and we can but 
regret that the author of 
so good a piece of work 
must remain nameless 
till chance brings the 
proper record to light. 
The thoroughness with 
which the designer 
practised his calling is 
shown by the evident 
attention he paid to the 
stable,*which, while un- 
questionably merely a 
stable, is none the less 
surely a piece of architecture. In fact, the thesis that the 
best of the Colonial work was designed by trained archi- 
tects could be upheld 
on the evidence of the 
stables and out build- 
ings attached to — in 
a literal sense, often — 
Colonial houses in 
the Northern States : 
witness this stable at 
"Woodlands," the Nich- 
ols stable* in Salem, 
and a host of others. 
It is useless to look for 
work of the class in the 
Southern States farther 
South than Northern 
Virginia, since the 
milder climate de- 
manded less substantial 

protection for horses and cattle, and so did not compel 
the attention of the designer to the same degree. Even 
at "Mount Vernon" the 
stables and carriage-houses 
have a severely utilitarian 
rather than architectural char- 
acter. 

The catholicity of taste and 
the universality of knowledge 
on the part of men of educa- 
tion in those days is, per- 
haps, enough to account for 
the architectural quality of the 
buildings erected at a time 
when there were so few who 
practised architecture as a 
profession. Evidence of this 
is found in the case of 
Joseph Brown, of Providence, 
an iron-founder and merchant, brother of one of the founders 



The Mclntire Garrison, York, Me. [1623.] 




Tbc Old Jail • York .Mair^ti - i65>- 




of what is now Brown University, and himself one of the 
trustees of the college and its Professor of Experimental 
Philosophy. In association with James Sumner in 1774 he 
designed the First Baptist Church ' in Providence, built 
largely by the labor of Boston mechanics thrown out of 

employment by the 
closing of the Port of 
Boston. Fie also de- 
signed, in 1774, his own 
house 'on South Main 
Street, now occupied by 
the Providence National 
]5ank, a house whose 
peculiar curved pedi- 
ment, or gable, seems 
to have been suggested 
by the broad gambrel 
roof, such as that to be 
seen in a street nearby, 
which was not uncom- 
mon at the time. With 
Stephen Hopkins he 
designed and built the 
Town Market-house, now the Board of Trade Buildino- 
and besides these designed for his brother John the house 

built in 1788 at the 
corner of Power and 
Benefit Streets, at pres- 
ent known as the 
Brown-Gammell house.' 
This house it was our 
purpose to illustrate as 
the type of the Colonial 
city house after the 
style had reached its 
fullest expression. Un- 
fortunately, the estate 
has recently changed 
hands and, at the mo- 
ment, the building is 
surrounded wiih scaf- 
. - ' folding, the new owner 

having the purpose to 
put the building into the most perfect repair and to restore 
it absolutely to its original condition. This will not be a 

difficult task, as the house 
has always remained in the 
use of descendants of John 
Brown, people of taste, abun- 
dant means, and a proper 
respect for the work of their 
ancestor. 

The Brown-Gammell house 
belongs to a class of city 
house which once had its 
congeners in Boston, and still 
has them in Salem," Mass., 
Portsmouth, N. H., and 
Annapolis," Md., but it is 
rather distinctively a New 
England type. 

The name Gorgeana — 
once .Agamenticus, and now York, Me., — and the fact that it 



The Minot House, Concord, MasS' 



» Plates 1,28-30, Part XII. 
•Plate 21, Part XII. 
• -See cut, page 1 14. 



» Plates 8-1 1, Part IX. 
< Plate 30, Part XII. 
•Plate 4S, Part XII. 



' Plate 39, Part XII. 
» Plates 13, 16, Part VII. 



8 Plates 37-38, Part XII. 
"> See cut of Cliase house, 
pa,i;e 59, Vol. II. 



ii6 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



s sometimes miswritten " Georgiana " is not unlikely to lead 
the enquirer into Old Colonial architecture to think that in- 
vestigaiion in that quarter would be likely to bring to light 
some treasure of Free-Classic work. But the place-name 
and the place itself have nothing to do with the Georges and 
their times, and the town has less interest for the architect 
than for the historian, for whom it will recall the story of 
Plymouth Colony and the attempt of the Lord Proprietor, 
Sir Ferdinando Gorges, to establish for himself a dynastic 
monarchy in the New World. Gorges began to send out ad- 
venturers in 1606, but not until 1616 was anything like a set- 
tlement established, and that was later abandoned. Gorges 
was persistent, however, and by 1642 there was enough of 
a settlement on the Kennebec to make it worth while to 
secure a city charter for the town of Gorgeana, now York. 
The town has its architectural interest, however, for here 
stands, in a good state of preservation, one of the oldest 
English-derived buildings in the country, the " Mclntire 
Garrison " (a title which it shares with a few other fortified 
houses still standing, as at Newburyport, Mass.), a two-story 
house' of considerable size, built in 1623, and in which, as 
also in the old jail now 
standing and built 
in 1653, some 
part of 



dozen." Doors, sashes, mantels, newels, cornices, mould- 
ings, there they all were, and all else that was needed was a 
few nails, a few hours' work, and then you had something 
vastly better and more up-to-date than those prim-looking 
houses the forefathers used to build. The jig-saw is often 
singled out as the sole cause of this lamentable vulgarization, 
but, though a large, it was far from being the only offender. 
The blundering, brutal activity of the machine and the 
thoughtlessness of the manufacturer, in combination, created 
the condition which lasted up to the Centennial Exhibition 
of 1876, at which time it began to dawn on people whose 
artistic perceptions had not been wholly atrophied that it 
might be possible to depose the machine from its position as 
master, and reduce it to its proper sphere as a useful servant ; 
and with the perception of that desirability began the reju- 
venescence of arts of all kinds which has been so phenom- 
enal a feature of American progress in civilization in the last 
quarter century. 

It is quite probable that a few 
years from now, after the lately 
adopted scheme for the artistic im- 




View of White House, Treasury Building and Capitol, before the recent Restoration. 



the townsmen found protection at the time of the French 
and Indian massacre in February, 1692. 

That, having before them the thoroughly good and refined 
buildings that were so common at the close of the eighteenth 
century, the people of this country should have allowed their 
buildings of every description to sink to the level of debasing 
vulgarity that was reached in the third quarter of the last 
century is extraordinary, but is far from being unaccountable. 
The natural love of change for sheer variety's sake had 
something to do with this abandoning of the safe and well- 
understood methods; perhaps, even, the impending popular 
clamor for an "American style " had been heard murmuring 
in the distance, but neither of these was the most potent 
cause : this lay in the genius of the race, and there was no 
escaping from it. The Yankee was created to invent ma- 
chines, and, giving vent to his passion., before he realized 
what he had done he had created the " Epoch of the Ready- 
made." What need was there, then, to think of proportion, 
or fitness, or propriety, or delicacy, or anything of that sort? 
All that the human needs of the day coiuld possibly require 
was to be found in the next shop, and to be bought "by the 

'See cut, page 1 15. 



provement of the City of Wash- 
ington has developed somewhat, and 
the parkway between the Capitol and the 
Memorial Bridge has come to be more used, 
people will become more familiar than they now 
are with the south front of the "White House" ' 
and will come to realize that the south front is the 
front that James Hoban, patterning his plan after 
the Virginia fashion of fronting the house upon 
the river highway, intended should impress and 
welcome the visitor to the dwelling-place of the Na- 
tion's ruler. The portico on the north front is of a later time 
than Hoban's, and as it has a certain satisfactory dignity of 
its own and is in reasonable accord with Hoban's work, it has 
for many years successfully dignified the north front and 
deluded visitors with the idea that they were approaching 
Hoban's front door instead of actually the rear one. In all 
probability, the renovations and alterations in and about the 
White House now just completed will be voted by most people 
to be satisfactory and successful, and, doubtless, this building 
now expresses very much what Hoban himself might have done 
if still in practice to-day. But there is just a possibility that 
the White House to-day is no more like the White House 
that Hoban had in mind to build than the structure which 
actually housed the first President was like Leinster House, 
near Dublin, which is said to have inspired Hoban's design. 
As the object of these investigations has been to discover 
and point out types rather than to make a record, however 
imperfect, of even a large part of the great number of in- 
teresting buildings still extant, — but for a large part easily 
reducible to a few groups when architecturally considered, — 
attention should be directed to the Vanderveer house in 

"Plate 46, Part XII. ' 



THE GREEK REVIVAL AND SOME OTHER THINGS. 



117 



Flatbush, Long Island, N. Y., built in 1798. While its 
Dutch derivation is strongly marked, it has the rather un- 
usual interest of being a balanced and 
symmetrical composition, a main build- 
ing* and extensions, or wings, upon 
either side, after a fashion not at all 
common at the North, where it has 
been rather the habit to extend always 
in one direction, until at length the 
middle-class houses '^ of low cost crystal- 
lized into what may be called the tele- 
scopic type, each successive addition 
being smaller than the last, looking as 
if it were the intention that all should 
be slid together and sheltered within 
the main structure overnight. The 
Bergen Homestead, at Flatbush Avenue 
and the Albemarle Road, in the same 
township, is a much older building, and 
belongs to an earlier phase of the 
Dutch architecture of New York State. 
Kingston is another New York town 
still strongly tinctured with Dutch feel- 
ing, but the only house now standing 
that escaped the fire set by the British 
in 1777 is the Van Steenbergh house, 
although the Ten Broeck house, built 
in 1676, where, later, the New York 
Senate first assembled, and now pur- 
chased and cared for by the State as 
an "historical monument," was not 
much injured by the fire. 

It is doubtful if the hurrying New 
Yorker ever gives to Trinity or St. 
Paul's churchyards a passing thought, 
except to feel irritation at the idea that 
any people can be so little worldly- 
wise as not to take steps to get hand- 
some incomes from such costly 
building sites. Strangers, having 
more leisure to investigate, know 
that in both these resting-places 




Southern mortuary art offer. The plain slate slab that ac- 
cords so soothingly with the greens and grays of the country 
churchyard is rather the type at the 
North, and while the lettering is often 
of great elegance, the death's head 
or cherub's head, with palm branches or 
wings and a border of conventional leaf- 
age, that in varying forms are used as 
decorations are interesting more because 
they are archaic than because they are 
artistic. A large part of their interest- 
ing qualities lies in their curious, amus- 
i n g and often amazing epitaphs. In 
the latter class is found to be faci/e 
princeps one in the Phipps Street Ceme- 
tery in Charlestown, Mass., which de- 
clares that 



0%, 





GriTestone at Fort Oriswold, 
Groton Hei"hls, Conn. 




HERE LYES IN'TERRED YE BODY OF 

MRS. ELIZABETH PHILLIPS WIFE 

TO iMR. ELEAZER PHILLIPS WHO 

WAS BORX IN WESTMINSTER IN GREAT 

BRITAIN AND COMMISSIONED BY JOHN 

LORD BISHOP OF LONDON IN YE YEAR 

I 7 18 TO YE OFFICE OF A MIDWIFE A.ND CAME 

TO THIS COUNTRY IN YE YEAR. I719 AND V,\ 

YE BLESSING OF GOD HAS BROUGHT INTO 

THIS WORLD ABOVE 130,000 CHILDREN. 

DIED M.\Y 6, I761. AGED 76 YEARS. 



The Stone now actually bears this ex- 
traordinary record ; but the character of 
the figures and their spacing make it 
plain that the number of births was 
three thousand and that it was later 
maliciously magnified by the pre- 
fixing of a one and the suffixing 
of a final naught. 

In the South, where the pomp 





Gravestnne of Thomas Clark, Mate of 
the Mayflower, Plymouth, Mass. 



iC <■.,!..'.■<• War 

f|!|lVl.f!|lii'll*J'iJ 



Gravestone at Fort Gtiswold, 
Groton Heights, Conn. 



there are some interesting tombs and gravestones. Northern 
churchyards, however, do not show in tombs and grave- 
stones the same architectural qualities that examples of 



* See cut, page 1 24. 

* Middle-class Houses. — A very excellent example of the 
dwelling-house which men of the well-to-do yeoman cLiss built for 
themselves is the Josiah Day house [Plate 2, I'art X'lll, in West 
.Springfield, Ma.ss., built in 1754, and it may be taken to indicate 
either a certain change in the building-fashions of the time or else 



and circumstance of family were more obvious in daily life, 
it is natural that the tombs and gravestones should take on 
a more architecturally monumental air, and many interesting 

m.iy mark the increasing prosperity of the family, for, whereas this 
house at West Springfield is sulistaiitially built of brick, tlie 
AmI)rose Day house, built in 1725 by a member of tlie same 
family, at Westfield, not far away, w.is a frame house with a jjar- 
geted, or rough-cast, front, a style of exterior finish at one time 
much in vogue in certain parts of New England. 



iiS 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



tombs and monuments of the period are to be found in tlie 
churchyards and private burying-grounds from Maryland 
southward, while mural tablets bearing the family coat-of- 
arms and more or less elaborately treated with carving deco- 
rate the church and chapel walls and by the quaint phrasing 
of their epitaphs make plain that they belong to an earlier 
civilization than ours. 

It must be evident that it was the writer's intention to let 
this paper end with this slight reference to the last resting- 
place of the men whose homes in life have been the subject 
of these investigations, but at the last moment — long after 
the eleventh hour has struck — there come to hand photo- 
graphs of an extremely interesting house ^ at Binghamton, 
N. Y., which should not be omitted from a record that has 
been allowed to extend over into the Greek Revival period. 
It would be difficult to find a clearer case of Transition — 
it is pleasant to treat the subject with full architectural 
dignity — than this little house affords. The original house, 
with its central hallway, its four chimneys in the outside 
walls declaring an open fire-place for each of its four 
rooms and, above all, its porches, both front and rear, 
is clearly of the eighteenth-century type common to cen- 
tral New York, the front porch showing an interesting 
vagary in the planning which evidences thought and archi- 

1 Plate 47, Part XII. 



tectural purpose on the part of the designer. Later, when 
the Greek movement was the talk of the day, the owner 
seems to have felt that he must be in the fashion and so 
built at one end a screen wall with Classic attributes and, 
to show his originality, quite as much, possibly, as to gain 
space, introduced a species of two-story bow-window in the 
middle — essentially repeating the Boston "swell front." 
The plebeian extensions and additions at the other end of 
house, added at a still later day, serve to show to what depths 
of architectural ignorance building matters had been allowed 
to sink in the third quarter of the last century. 

The appearance of this circular or segmental bay or pavil- 
ion is something altogether notable, not only as a confirma- 
tion of the belief in the swell-front as peculiarly a Boston in- 
stitution, but also as a reminder of the absence of anything but 
quadrilateral forms in Southern work, excepting, of course, 
the fully circular forms adopted for certain out-buildings, 
as mills, smoke-houses and so on. Even the half-octagonal 
seems to have been rarely used, the Harwood house in 
Annapolis being the only building we can recall that ex- 
hibits this form, but of a later day we find in the Cobb house 
near Athens, Ga., a rather interesting application of the 
octagonal treatment which also may be considered one of 
the final forms of development of the wing-pavilion. 




House of Gen. T. R. R. Cobb, near Athens, C.a. 



The Massachusetts State-house, Boston. 




SINCE the attempt to do away with the " Bulfinch 
front" of the Massachusetts State-house was the in- 
ciiing cause of the publication of " The Georgian 
Period" it seems proper here to give some slight in- 
dication of the character of the arguments that at last pre- 
vailed and secured the preservation of the building, and 
there are given below a few of the many that, at one or 
another of the legislative hearings, were addressed to the 
joint committee charged with the investigation of the question. 
While the general public, not only of Boston, but of the 

State at large, showed a 

great and sustained in- 
terest in the matter, and 
argued the case con- 
vincedly, both pro and con, 
the chief factor in the fight 
— the discussion was often 
very animated, to say the 
least — was the Boston So- 
ciety of Architects, and, 
more specifically, its Presi- 
dent, Mr. Charles A. Cum- 
mings, who, in the final ef- 
fort in 1895 (the question 
had to be debated before 
three several legislatures 
before it was finally settled 
in favor of the contention 
of the Society), was ably 
seconded by Mr. Clement 
K. Fay, a lawyer, who vol 
untarily charged himself 
with the burden and ex- 
pense of conducting the 
case. The earlier efforts 
toward securing the preser- 
vation of Bulfinch's work 
were based mainly on 

architectural argume nts, 

and though they were effective in deferring final action, it 
was felt wisest that at the final hearings the greatest stress 
should declare itself in the way of an appeal to the senti- 
ment of the community, and preservation was finally voted 
as a matter of sentiment rather than because preservation 
was both architecturally and economically desirable. 
In brief, the early history of the building is this : — 
On January 30, 1795, the Legislature appointed the Hon. 
Edward W. Robbins, Speaker of the House, and Charles Bul- 
finch, architect, " to act as agents in building the State- 




A Corner of the Council-Chamber. 



House," the most important building undertaking of the day 
and the first public edifice of importance to be built since 
the close of the Revolution. The corner-stone was laid July 4, 
1795, and the Legislature opened its first session in the new 
building January 11, 1798. The cost of the building had 

been $i33.333-33- 

In 1853, because of the demand for more space, a large 
addition was built on the north [rear] side by Mr. Gridley J. F. 
Bryant, and in 1867 some very considerable changes in the 
interior of the original building were carried out by Mr. 

William Washburn : these 
consisted, in the main, of 
the introduction of mezza- 
nine floors and the finish- 
ing off of rooms in the 
roof of the building. The 
changes carried out by both 
Bryant and Washburn were 
matters of record, but dur- 
ing the work of preserva- 
tion and restoration in 1896 
evidence came to light of a 
seemingly innumerable 
number of changes and 
alterations carried out by 
nameless somebodies 
under unrecognizable au- 
thorizations ; for instance, 
when or by whom the orig- 
inal lantern crowning the 
dome was replaced by 
the one which is most 
familiar to living men is 
not known. 

The work of preserva- 
tion in 1896 was entrusted 
to Messrs. Arthur G. Ever- 
ett (of the firm Cabot, Ev- 
erett & Mead) and Robert 
D. Andrews (of the firm Andrews, Jaques & Rantoul), with 
Mr. C. .A. Cummings as consulting-architect, and consisted, 
besides the strengthening of foundations and floors, of the 
removing of every trace of Washburn's work — Bryant's addi- 
tion had already been torn down to give place to the new an- 
nex on the north — and the fireproofing of the roof and dome. 
An appropriation of $375,000 was made for the restoration 
and fireproofing of Bulfinch's work, a sum which the propo- 
nents of the scheme for an entire new building declared 
insufficient for the work. The architects administered 



I20 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



their undertaking in so efficient a manner that, although 
$111,000 were expended upon furniture and certain work on 
the approaches and terraces not contemplated in the Act 
authorizing the expenditure, they were able to close their ac- 
counts with an unexpended balance from the original ap- 
propriation of nearly $40,000. The defenders of Bulfinch's 
work have been amply justified as economists, while the 
lesson that was given to the present and future generations 
as to the value of sentiment and the veneration that should 
be accorded to the tangible evidences of historic occurrences 
has been worth far more than the value of the time spent at 
the hearings. 

If the stenographer's notes of these many hearings should 
be examined, abundant evidence would be found that the 
men of Massachusetts have, in spite of their seeming non- 
chalance and reserve, a warmth and delicacy of feeling that 
on occasion can find forceful utterance with a semblance of 
Gallic effusiveness. Of all the words that were spoken there 
were none that went more directly to the root of the matter 
or appealed so effectively to the conscience of each hearer 
than those spoken by the venerable Col. Henry Lee, who 
might almost be called Governor Andrew's War Secretary. 
Col. Lee's remarks follow the two or three selections we have 



course, officially received in the State-house by Governor Brooks. 
Monroe was so much pleased with the building tliat lie asked to 
be introduced to Mr. Bulfinch; and it was in consequence of this 
visit, as it is said, that Mr. Bultinch made the plans for the restora- 
tion of the Capitol at Washington. 

" Doric Hall, the hall where the regimental colors are Dreserved, 
was familiarly called by tliis name during the first part of the 
century. It was in this hall that the meeting took place, once 
famous, at which Mr. Webster made his great speech m protest 
against the admission of Missouri. No mention will be found of 
this great occasion in Mr. Curtis's ' Life of Webster^ because 
at the time he wrote that book Mr. Curtis thought it might wound 
the susceptiljilities of the South. All the same, the mseting was 
held and tlie speech was made ; and the substance of it proljably 
remains in the address which this meeting published as the pro- 
test of Massachusetts against the extension of slavery in 1820. 

" At that time the colors sent by Stark to Boston, after tlie Battle 
of Bennington, were still preserved, with the Hessian drum and 
musket, in tlie Senate chamber. 15y an unfortunate tidy turn of 
Mr. Messenger Kuhn, who found they were moth-eaten and dirty, 
t'.ie colors were destroyed in a spring cleaning under his direction. 
Doubtless he said that the old colors were out of repair, and that 
new ones would last better. Still, some of us are sorry that the 
eagles which the Landgrave of Hesse borrowed from Charlemagne 
and the Roman l-jupire did not escape the hand of modern re- 
pair and improvement. We lost the chance then to say : — 

' So even Roman banners fall 
To hide the time-stains on our wall.' 





The Ends of the Old Senate-Chamber, before the Restoration. 



made from the interesting series of tracts that were given 
wide circulation during the discussions. 



"A Century of the Commonwealth." 

[liY Edward Kvkrett Hale.] 

" It will be ninety-nine years on the fourth of July since the 
corner-stone of what was long called the ' New State-house ' 
was drawn to its place by fifteen white horses. The number of 
horses indicated the number of States in tlie Union; Vermont and 
Kentucky having been added to the old thirteen. Samuel Adams 
was Governor, and laid the corner-stone with due solemnity. 
With the next celebration of Independence, then, tlie hundredth 
year of the State-house will begin. 

" It was intimated in some journal last week that the century 
which has pas.sed has been so uneventful that the New State-house 
has no very interesting historical associations, before those con- 
nected with the War (Jovernor and the War. It would be curi- 
ous, indeed, if this were so. It would have startled George Cabot, 
Josiah Quincy, lUbridge (ierry, Caleb Strong, Christopher Gore, 
or their contemporaries, had they been told that nothing of much 
dramatic interest transpired in those halls in the earlier part of 
the century. It would have surprised Charles Bulfinch had he 
been told that the building he had planned had not won a place in 
history before it was thirty years old. 

"When President Monroe visited Boston in 1817, he was, of 



" The Commissioners now tell us about the whob building what 
Mr. Kuhn said about the banners ; it is old and out of repair, and 
a new one can be had for money, and the State is rich. 

" The State conventions of l<S2o and 1853 were both held in this 
State-house. The wealth of oratory and of wisdom, from all men 
of mark, was lavished here. Men sat in those bodies who had 
never served in the General Court, in their readiness to help in 
framing permanent institutions of the Commonwealth. Webster, 
Story, most of the judges of our own courts, indeed, have sooner 
or later taken part in the deliberations here. In 1853, Sumner 
and Phillips, neither of whom ever sat in the Legislature, were in 
the convention. In State Legislatures and public hearings I have 
heard Charles Francis Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Peleg 
Sprague, Francis Wayland, Kdward Everett, and many others, 
orators or statesmen; some of them in the days when the State- 
house was not half a century old. 

"Every European traveller of distinction, who had any claim to 
be presented to the (lovernor of his time, was taken, of course, 
to the State-house. It would be fair to say that, with its wealth 
of archives, the two charters, the statue of Washington, the relics of 
the older monument, it represented the Commonwealth as no single 
man could do. Lafayette was received here in 1824 ; a few years 
later General Jackson was received here. The ceremony was the 
more distinguished because the hosts supposed his advent to 
the presidency to be a permanent injury to the Constitution; and 
they were obliged to show, in every detail of their hospitality, 
that they were Americans and gentlemen, though they did not 
' Hurrah for Jackson.' l^rinces of every grade, from Keokuk 
and Blackhawk round to the Prince of Wales and Prince Alexis, 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE-HOUSE. 



121 



have been received here. It was after an hour in the Governor's 
room, where the Karl of Kllesmere, the Governor of Canada, had 
seen Andrew's ministrations in thjir detail, that he thanked the 
Governor for his hospitality and said, • I understand your institu- 
tions as I never did before.' 

•• Indeed, it was the work of the War, with the great War Gover- 
nor and the loyal staff who served him so well using every inch of 
the State-house for the duty whicli Massachusetts had in that 
crisis, it was this, more than everytliing else, which has endeared 
the old New State-house to this generation." 



"The Crown of Beacon Hill." 

[Bv Charlks a. Cummings.] 

" There are signs that the people are waking up to the danger 
which threatens the State-house on Beacon Hill. They must do 
more than wake up, if they wish to save it. The impression has 
become general, the press has lately fostered it, that its destruc- 
tion is a matter of necessity ; that its foundations are weak, its 



'• It is true, further, that the interior disposition of tlie wings at 
the ends of the building as executed by Bulfincli was changed 
in tlie lowest story during the tasteless and unskilful alterations 
made some thirty years ago, under th^ direction of Mr. Washburn, 
by the insertion of an intermediate floor, whicli divided the ample 
chambers of Mr. Bulfinch in order to give the Legislature some 
necessary committee-rooms, but wliich greatly detracted from tlie 
propriety and dignity of that portion of the interior. These addi- 
tional rooms have now been rendered unnecessary by the ample 
provision made by Mr. Brigliam in the extension buildings, now 
nearly completed, and nothing prevents the removal of the inter- 
mediate floors and the restoration of the wings to their original 
condition. 

" But all this has really very little to do with the case as it now 
stands. If the Commissioners wished to retain the present buikl- 
ing, there would be nothing heard of its bad condition. They 
would go to work quietly wliere they found repairs needed and 
put it in a good and safe condition. They do }iot wish to retain 
it. It is very old, they say; it is a hundred years old; it cannot 
stand much longer; better take it down now while we are con- 
cerned with it, and have .something new and more in accordance 
with what we are just finishing behind it. 




The Daniel H. Peirce House, Purtsmoutli, N. II. [i79<>.] 



woodwork decayed, and its general condition unsafe and threaten- 
ing ruin. 

" It is very necessary to say with emphasis that this is an entirely 
false impression, and that among tlie various parties directly in- 
terested in replacing the present building by a new and more am- 
bitious structure not one has claimed that there is any weakness or 
failure in any part of the State-house except in tlie dome. The 
dome is a small hemisphere about 50 feet in diameter, of which 
the framing is of pine joists or planks, considerably lighter, no 
doubt, than we should use to-day in a similar work, and which 
rests on two wooden trusses. These trusses have been carried 
down at one extremity by the weight (as is understood) of a large 
water-tank which was put in at tlie time tlie elevator was introduced. 
It is also doubtless true that tlie framing-timbers just spoken of 
have suffered more or less from dry-rot and ravages of worms. 
But the replacing of these timbers with sound ones of greater size, 
and the blocking up of the dome to its true level, is a trifling mat- 
ter, involving (as one of the Commissioners admits) no difficulty 
and small expense, and could be done without any interference 
with the daily use of the building below. 



" Well, it is not to be doubted that their new liuilding would be 
in many respects of construction better and safer than the old one. 
It would certainly be more splendid, and more in accordance with 
modern methods. But is tliat the only consideration ? 

" We say. No, nor yet the cliief consideration. What is most 
valuable is the State-liouse of a hundred years ago, its history; its 
a.ssociations with tlie men of other days, the inexpressible, un- 
definalile flavor of earlier times when life was simpler and when 
the name of Massacliusetts stood for all tliat was noble and fine 
in citizenship, can never be transferred to a new State-liouse. 
Add to this, which is a consi<leration rightly enough character- 
ized as " sentimental," tlie simple, noljle and dignified aspect of 
the building and tlie extreme inijjrobabililv that any more aml)i- 
tious successor will ever possess these qualities in e<|ual measure, 
and we are justified, I think, in saying that tlie destruction of the 
.State-house would be a lamentalile concession to the modern 
American spirit wliich carries us every year fartlier away from tlie 
' nobler modes of life, witli sweeter manners, ])urer laws,' wliich 
our fathers knew, tlie .spirit of false progress, false ambition, false 
pride." 



12: 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



This series of tracts was admirably effective, but as they 
lacked the emphasis of vocal inflection and did not afford 
ocular proof of the sincerity and earnestness of the protestant 
they did not have tlie force and effectiveness of the words 
personally addressed to the joint committee by many dis- 
tinguished and humble citizens alike. It was a real intel- 
lectual treat to attend those hearings. But of all the words 
that were uttered none, probably, were quite so impressive as 
Colonel Lee's. 

[Rkmakks of Coi.. Henry Lee.] 

'• This is a matter of sentiment, as Governor Rice said. He 
who does not vakie sentiment ou<;lit not to be here. John Win- 
throp valued sentiment, or he would not have come here ; so did 
his companions. They had nothinjj but sentiment and piety to 
preserve them and keep their courage up, as had the Plymouth 



City-hall; I don't. There was Sir William I'hips's house, that old 
buccaneer, to fulfil the dreams of his l)oyhood ; and wlien 1 was a 
boy, it was used as the lioys' Asylum : that stood down on 
Charter Street, a grand old building. There was the house of 
Governor Hutchinson and his father, which house was so fine that, 
after Hutchinson was made CJovernor, he said he didn't want to 
go and live in the Province House, because he had a better one 
down at the North End ; that and the house of Sir Harry P>ank- 
land stood side by side in Garden Court Street. That house I 
have seen in my boyhood, and am one of the few now living who 
ever saw it, a most remarkable specimen of Provincial architect- 
ure ; but pulled down ruthlessly. It would have been well to have 
preserved it. There was the beautiful Hancock house, well re- 
membered ; and (Governor Andrew did all that he could to pre- 
serve it. It would have been mo.st appropriate for the official resi- 
dence of the Governor of Massachusetts, and could have been 
bought for less than you paid for an ordinary house on the other 
side of the way a few years afterwards; and there, sentiment, if it 
had ruled the hour, would have been found in the end to have 
been profitable. There were long lines of houses : all Pemberton 




The Van Lew House, Richmond, Va. 



Fathers. It seems to be rather late in the day for us of Massa- 
chusetts to abandon sentiment. It has money value as well as its 
moral value. When I first remember Boston, it was filled with 
sentiment. The buildings, which stood mostly apart with their 
gardens, were Provincial, some of them going back to Colonial 
times. As the city grew — as the town grew, for it was not a city 
then — as the town grew and room was wanted for the population, 
these old buildings came down gradually and gave way to blocks 
of buildings ; but many of them might have been preserved, and in 
looking back, we see that if the sentiment of the time had inspired 
jieople to their preservation, there would have been money value in 
it. There stood the old Province House, a proud old building, one 
of the few remains of Colonial magnificence, built in 1679 by Peter 
.Sargent, for many years the vice-regal court of this Province, the 
abode of nine Provincial Governors, one after another, from a testy 
old Colonel of Marlborough's army down to Sir William Howe, who 
left it at the time of the evacuation of Boston. That might have 
stood behind its oak-trees on its terraces, a grand, stately old build- 
ing, and would have been much handsomer, in my opinion, than our 
new City-hall — I suppose Mr. ' would have preferred the new 

* A previous speaker, who favored Uie demolition of the State-house. 



Hill was covered with them ; Peter Faneuil's house, the giver of 
the hall; there was the house of Sir Harry Vane, afterwards Rev. 
John Cotton's house; there was Governor Bellingham's house; 
and these with their grounds would have made a beautiful park 
for the city, and we should not have had to go out five or six 
miles to find our park. It would have been well to have preserved 
them. 

" There were fortifications. Some one spoke here as if there 

had never been any associations in this country, ex-Senator , 

no other associations but the Revolutionary associations. I think 
there have been a great many associations, but if you come to 
Revolutionary associations, there was the fortification on the 
Common that was levelled when I was in College ; there were 
the fortifications at the South End ; there were the fortifications 
on Mystic River, where afterwards the convent was built, and a 
cordon of earthworks from Mysdc River through Somerville, 
Cambridge, Brookline, Ro.xbury, ending with Dorchester Heights; 
memorials of the Siege of Boston and of Washington's trials. 
And I think a beautiful parkway could have been made and these 
fortifications preserved for a very small amount of money, and 
sentiment would have been found to have been economy in the 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE-HOUSE. 



123 



end. But those were the interesting monuments of my bojliood 
and youtli. 

" A monument, what is a monument ? Tliere were some ricli 
men who thought a monument ouglit to be something new; they 
had Mr. "s idea about it, that it ought to be something new, some- 
thing in the present style. I don't know whether the dome of St. 
Peter's had been changed to the modern style to attract people or 
not ! They thought this monument ought to l^e something new, 
something pretty fine, finer than the earthworks which were there. 
When my father took me over to see Bunker Hill, there were the 
earthworks; one could see the redoubt on which I'rescott stood; 
see the breastwork ; see where the rail fence ran. One could see 
all the way down to the Xavy Yard, to Moulton's Point, where 
the British landed. That was something like a monument ; it was 
not a mere record, which the Monument afterwards was ; it was a 
remituhr of the scene, and that is what a monument should be. 
You stood there, and all the sentiment of the battle came to you. 
Now, you go there, and you stand upon a hill, nicely graded and 
all the redoubt and breastwork filled uji and erased, and you have 
the pleasure of seeing an Egyptian obelisk ! Well, it is a matter 
of taste : to me the old earthworks would have been more inspir- 
ing, more suggestive, without the Egyptian obelisk. Mr. has a 

different mind. It is a free country; we all have a right to our 
opinion. 

" If you want to save the State-house, you want to save it as a 
matter of sentiment : it is easier now that they have built that re- 
markably exaggerated building behind. 

" During the war, when Governor Andrew worked night and day, 
when war as well as peace was carried on, the State-house was 
sufficiently large. What they want a building seven times as large 
for, I don't know, unless every legi.slator is seven times as big as 
he was in those days. I was to-day guided through ; I went to 
the farther end. I was told you were to be in No. 29. Then I 
came to No. 8. I could not come without a guide. What you 
want such a building for, I don't know ; but it is built. I suppose 

you want it, as Mr. says, to advertise the .State; or it was 

wanted for some other purpose. Well, I think it is a great pity. 

"A great many years ago, my father bought a house in Brookline. 
It was an historic house; it was, part of it, 230 years old. In 
that hou.se had been born Susannah Boylston, the mother of Jolin 
Adams, the first John Adams. I have a letter of John Adams's, 
saying that he has not been there since he was a youth and 
brought his mother on horseback on a pillion behind him. The 
carpenter told me when I wanted him to make some repairs for 
my father, ' I tell you, Mr. Lee, the cheapest thing you can do is 
to pull that house right down.' He found that there was some 
dr)--rot in it, that there were some of the studs worn off at the bot- 
tom, and some other things ; and that carpenter was of Mr. 's 

opinion, that a new house was wanted ; that it would advertise 
my father better than the old house. And I did not do it : I kept 
the old house in spite of its being " powder-posted " ; I have 
kept it, it is now forty years, and I can say that I never go to that 
house, for I don't live in it, one of my sons lives in it, I never go 
to that house without an active sensation of pleasure. Why ? 
Well, when you go abroad, what do you go to see ? Do you go 
to see the ne-iO houses in London .' Do you go to see the new 
Law Courts.? Do you go to see that griffin that tliey put up 
where Temple Bar stood ? No, you go at once, the minute you 
can dust your clothes, out you go to see Westminster Abbey. I 
have no doubt there is rot in Westminster Abbey. I have no 
doubt some stones have crumbled, and I think it 7i'(i«/rt' advertise 
London if they built a new one. But what sliould you think 
when you came to London and asked for Westminster Abbey 
and they should say, ' Well, you can't see the Abbey, but you can 
see a model of the Abbey; it was thought in the way and tliat we 
ought to have something new, something Xo advertise London, and 
we have taken down the Abbey ' .' 

" Now, is it healthy ? Perhaps that is one reason they took it 
down : took it down because it was too old and too much dry-rot 
in it, and they wanted something new, something up to the times, 

Mr. . And the Tower, ' Well, yes. you can see the Tower, 

but who wants to go and see the Tower ' .' Why, you do, tlie 
American, who is going to pull down the State-house. You go 
abroad on purpo.se to see the Temple, the Tower and the Al)l)ey 
and all the antiquities that you can find in London, not looking at 
anything else. 

" Then .some say this State-hou.se is only a hundred years old. 
Governor Long found that out last year; only a hundred years 
old ! Well, I have seen the Abbey and I have .seen the Temjiles 
of Pxstum, and Augustus C;esar stood and looked at them and 
knew no more about who built them than I do; but his feeling of 
antiquity and association was just the same as mine when looking 
at the Abbey. 

♦' You want a reminder if you come to the State-house. You 



don't want a new building to recall that here was the old State- 
house once, built by Bulfinch, and which had witnessed the first 
hundred years of the history of the State. It is all the history 
there is. Governor Long doesn't seem to think there is any his- 
tory. Now, he has been one of the Governors; there have been 
tliirty-five Governors since this building was built, and they have 
all been good Governors, and it is hardly to be supposed that there 
is no record, that we have had no history all these hundred years. 
There have been many interesting events. He said there had been 
no war, excepting the War of the Rebellion. That was rather a 
mistake: we had the War of 1812, which was a very distressing 
war, too ; it robbed us of most of our property and was one that 
we were very averse to. We had the victories of 18 12. Up 
through the streets marched Commodore Hull and Captain Dacre. 
They lived together in the Exchange Coffee-house, and came to 
the State-house to pay their respects to the Governor. There 
was the fight between the ' Clicsapeake'' and ' S/iannon'' ; the 
women were witnessing from the dome with anxious eyes that ter- 
rible defeat. 

'■ There were many events I remember : the coming of Lafayette 
in 1824, who was received here, as he was the next year, when he 
came to the laying of the corner-stone of the Bunker Hill Monu- 
ment ; that is something of an event. President Monroe came 
here in 181 7; that was something of an event. There have been 
four or five presidents here since then. 

'■ We come down to the Civil War. Why, he said, Governor 
Andrew — yes, he believed there was a war — but he thought Gov- 
ernor Andrew was on the steps; it was not in the State-house ; he 
was on the steps ; he gave the flags and he took the flags on the 
steps. Well, if you should be inclined to save your father's house 
and somebody sliould say to you, ' Why, I saw your father bid you 
good-bye in the stage-coach on the steps.' Yes, but I saw my 
father in the house, too. There was something done in the State- 
house in those long, tearful years of agony and weariness, heart- 
breaking, disappointment and losses ; the procession of young men 
coming to offer themselves for service, saluting tlie Governor, like 
the gladiators the Emi)eror, ' We who are al>out to die salute you.' 

Do vou suppose there is no feeling connected with the rooms 
where the Governor sat for those four years ? a man of peace called 
upon suddenly to prepare this State for a fearful war, and prepar- 
ing it in spite of ridicule, in spite of denunciation, and preparing 
it so promptly that Massachusetts was the first State : the first men 
who were sent properly ecjuipped and armed for the war were the 
men of Massachusetts. The whole world wept for Lincoln's death ; 
are there no tears for Andrew, who fell, after the war, as much as 
Lincoln ? He was killed by an assassin, but if he had not been, he 
would have died in a short time from head and heart weariness. 
Do you suppose Governor Andrew could have sat here those four 
years, night and day, for he was here much of the time night and 
day, working and enduring, and feeling that he had been, more or 
le.ss. instrumental in bringuig about the deaths of all the flower of 
Ma.ssachusett.s, without any emotions.? Was there no association ? 
You have the association with Bunker Hill — for what } A battle 
of four hours. Has a battle of four years no association for this 
building, the agony of those four years .? Men, haggard with anxi- 
etv and grief, and the mourners going about the streets from every 
house; Rachel weeping for her children and would not be com- 
forted because they were not. Is there no association for this 
building, where the headcpiarters of the whole Government of the 
time were? It .seems to me absurd. 

" I should like to read a small sentence from William Morris, on 
this subject : ' No man who consents to the destruction of an an- 
cient building has any right to pretend that he cares about art ; or 
has any excuse to plead in defence of his crime against civilization 
and ])rogress save sheer brutal ignorance.' 

'■ Now I liave onlv one word more to say. In 1870 the Commune 
in Paris pulled down the Tuileries. I was there the next year; 1 
saw the destruction. They pulled down tlie column on the Place 
\'end6me, of wliich they had been so proud. Now the whole of 
France is all alive with admiration for Napoleon. They destroyed 
the Hotel de Ville with its priceless treasures. What was it ? The 
work of brutes. Now we are proposing to destroy not our Hotel 
de \'ille, but our State-house, and do it deliberately, in cold blood. 
If any of you should be hauled up for killing a person, the judge 
would make a distinction whether you did it in hot blood, whether 
you did it under provocation, or whether you did it in cold blood. 
If vou did it in cold blood, he will hang you ; if you did it in hot 
blood, he will let you off with imprisonment for life. So, we are 
to be more brutal^ more culpable than those brutish Parisians who 
destroyed their monuments ! We do it in cold blood. In this 
case, there is no excuse ; you are doing it in cold blood." 

The battle that was waged in Massachusetts over the 



124 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



Bulfincli front of the State-bouse finds an echo in the contest 
which is at this moment going on over the retention or the 
destruction of the present City-hall ^ in Hartford, Conn. 
Curiously enough, this former State-house is by some said to 
be also the work of Charles Bulfinch, — and the cupola looks 
as if it might have been designed by Bulfinch, but if this is 
so it is curious that it is not mentioned in the autographic 
list of his buildings which was found amongst Bulfinch's 
papers. But whoever was the architect, the building, erected 
in 1796, is an interesting one, and as the Connecticut His- 



torical Society, the Daughters of the Revolution and kindred 
societies are making the same sort of appeal to the sentiment 
of the community that eventually proved successful in Bos- 
ton, and have already secured a sort of stay of proceedings, 
it may be hoped with some degree of confidence that the 
ultimate outcome of the agitation will rank the chief city of 
Connecticut alongside of the metropolis of New P^ngland as 
communities where the intellectual rights of civilization are 
respected, and success here will encourage similar effort in 
the case of valued " monuments " elsewhere. 



1 Town, Ithiel. — Born in 17S4. Died, 1844. In partnership house) in Hartford, Conn., was also his work, and some of the 

with A. J. Davis he built the State-house at New Haven, and later Coveriiment buildings at \Vashin<j;ton w^'re built after his d2si<(ns. 

in his career he desiijned the (old) State-house of Indiana and the He built many houses and churches in the Connecticut ValL-y, 

Is'orth Carolina State-house. The City-hall (not the old State- from Northampton to New Haven, and also in New York State. 




Envoi. 



IN bringing to an end his enjoyable connection with this 
work the editor feels obliged to confess to a regret that 
so important an undertaking could not have fallen to 
the share of some one who, besides being better fitted 
for the task, might have hatl at command both the necessary 
time and the equally needful capital to do thoroughly and 
well what has been done so imperfectly. 

It is "a thousand pities" that when architects began, 
twenty years or so ago, to turn their attention again to the 
possibilities that lie in the Georgian style — when it is used 
with discretion and refinement — there was not in existence 
some such comprehensive work as this. For the lack of it 
and through the imperfect understanding of the style which 
naturally grew out of this lack the country has been endowed 
with a vast quantity of buildings, intended to express the 
spirit of "Old Colonial" work, which, because of their ill- 
considered proportions and vulgar overdressing with applied 
ornament, are too often mere caricatures of the style. 

On the other hand, it is doubtful whether such a work as 
this could have been brought out much earlier. In a large 
measure it results from tlie following up of clues afforded by 
the chance observation of the ever-wandering amateur pho- 
tographer, whose name is legion and whose footsteps cover 
every portion of the country. A score of years ago the 



"kodak" and the amateur photographer were not, and all 
that the architect had for his guidance were such notes as he 
could make and such inferences as he could draw from the 
comparatively few examples of good work that could be 
found in his immediate neighborhood. 

We are profoundly grateful for the large amount of assist- 
ance we have had in the way of written data, loaned photo- 
graphs and drawings of measured work voluntarily placed at 
our service, without demand for compensation, by many 
different individuals. 

To select for special expression of gratitude any of these 
appreciated cooperators is somewhat invidious, but we feel 
that we ought to make special acknowledgment of the kind- 
ness of the officials of the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology, who placed at our service the measured drawings 
made by the students in their Summer School of Architecture 
— which acknowledgment equally signalizes our appreciation 
of the intelligent activity of the students who did the actual 
work. But beyond this, thanks are due to Mrs. Thaddeus 
Horton, who not only has contributed several interesting 
papers on Southern work and has placed at our service a 
large collection of photographs of Southern buildings, but 
has also secured valuable material through the use of her 
own camera. Wm. Rotch Ware. 




Tlie Vanderveer House, Flatbusli, L. I. 



Colonial Work in the Genesee Valley; 



IN all America there is hardly to be found a fairer or 
more fertile region than that part of New York State 
embraced in what is known as the " Phelps and Gorham 
purchase" — the "park-like Genesee Country," as Mrs. 
Van Rensselaer has most felicitously called it. The Senecas, 




The Old Rochester Market ; now destroyed. 

whose villages and yellow cornfields once lay thick on either 
side of the broad, fordable river, gave it the name of the 
Beautiful Valley, and surely none could be more fitting. 

Rising in the precipitous region south of Portage, the 
Genesee, in its first miles, pursues a tortuous course between 
narrow banks, until, in the vicinity of Mount Morris (whose 
Indian name meant " where the river forsakes the hills "), it 
enters a broad, undulating country, part clear, part wooded, 
and gemmed by many crystal lakes. At Rochester it attains 
the level of Ontario by means of two high cataracts, and for 
the remaining few miles of its course flows slowly and soberly 
between the confining walls of the famous gorge of the 
Genesee. 

The beautiful country drained by this noble river has been, 
from the earliest times, a favorite dwelling place of man. 
Far in the past, it was the centre and stronghold of the Iro- 
quois nation — those Romans of the ancient American world. 
The first white faces that appeared to them there canie prob- 
ably from France — devoted Jesuit missionaries and advent- 
urous coureurs tin bois, to whom the region of the Great 
Lakes, even beyond the Mississippi, was already familiar 
ground when, by the Dutch and English on the coast, all 
west of Albany was still referred to as the "great unknown 
country." The French, however, never made secure their 
foothold on these shores, and it was, after all, the English 
who, by purchase and treaty, supplemented by a liberal and 
judicious use of firewater, dispossessed the aborigines and, 
in the slow course of time, evolved the average American of 
to-day. 

The Falls of the Genesee, siiuated as they are between the 



Hudson River and the great cataract of Niagara (to which 
they are a hardly inferior spectacle), have in the past at- 
tracted many illustrious visitors. Louis Philippe with some 
members of his court followed the Indian trail from Canan- 
daigua to the falls ; Aaron Burr stopped there on one of his 
western journeys, and in later times came Webster, and La- 
fayette, and a host of others, drawn not now by the falls 
themselves, but by the city that had grown upon its brink. 
So singular is the law which governs posthumous greatness, 
the only two individuals connected with the locality whose 
names shine with sufficient lustre to pierce the darkness of 
obscuring years are Mary Jemison, " the white woman of the 
Genesee," who, by remaining true to her race and loyal to 
her adopters, rendered inestimable service to the cause of 
civilization; and a gin-drinking mountebank, Sam Patch, 
who in his last utterance enriched the language with a new 
catch phrase, " Some things can be done as well as others," 
and jumped to his deatii from the upper falls, in the presence 
of a crowd of horror-stricken spectators. 







Front Porch of the Smitli House, BrightoTi. 

Of the present condition and aspect of the Genesee Country 
it is almost superfluous to speak. Rochester, though not the 
oldest, is the largest city, the centre of what is said to be 
the richest agricultural district in the world. At the Western 
New York State Fair, held there annually, the impossible 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



pictures of fruit and stock and poultry, made familiar through 
the columns of the Homestead and Henhouse and similar 
publications come near to being realized — dogs with blood 
in their e_ve, chickens with whiskers on their legs and pigs so 
fat their feet have become mere rudimentary appendages, 




Front Entrance to the Griffith House, Rochester; now destroyed. 

far up their sides. Rochester is also noted for its nurseries 
and fine collections of orchids, chrysanthemums and other 
flowers; and the many famous stables and kennels in the 
city and up the valley annually send representatives to met- 
ropolitan horse and bench shows. 

At Geneseo, Mount Morris and vicinity, there exists a con- 
dition of things common enough abroad, but rarely found in 
America, a sort of enlightened feudal system, the land being 
almost exclusively owned by a few individuals, hereditary 
holders, who, instead of leaving its management in the hands 
of unscrupulous agents and living elsewhere on the desired 
revenue, plant themselves squarely in the centre of their own 
acres and identify their interests with those of their tenants. 
The life of the people of this class is not unlike that of 
the English country gentleman ; their work consists in the 
management and improvement of their land, the bettering of 
the condition of the farming population and the breeding 
and maintaining of thoroughbred animals, preeminently the 
horse. Their relaxation is found in the entertainment of 
guests, the exchange of visits and, more than all else, fox- 
hunting in its season. Once every year, lured by the Genesee 
Valley Hunt, one of the most famous in the country, " So- 
ciety" comes farther westward than is its wont, and finds in 
the autumnal splendors of the valley a rival to its own Berk- 
shire Hills. Mention must be made, also, of another class 
whose presence colors — or discolors — the social life of 
several of the villages — invalids, who, seeking to renew 
their health from springs famous since Indian times for their 
medicinal properties, are rested and often restored by a resi- 
dence in so fine a climate, amid such beautiful surroundings. 
The mingling of these various elements renders the summer 
life of the valley quite distinctive, so that the curious stranger, 
looking from the car window, expecting to see only repre- 
sentatives of the rural population waiting for the incoming 
train, is quite as likely to be greeted by the sight of smart 
traps and liveried servants and well groomed men and women, 
surrounded by all that they can muster of the pomp and cir- 
cumstance of wealtii. 

I have delayed thus long in coming to the subject of the 



Colonial architecture of this region, because there is so little 
to be said, and because drawings say that little so much more 
completely than words. So far as I have been able to gather, 
from research and observation, what Colonial work the valley 
contains derives more from the South than from New Eng- 
land, which is accounted for by the fact that the first settlers 
came from Maryland. Many of the very oldest houses ex- 
hibit a central mass flanked by two low wings, and often a 
pillared portico in front (not to be confused with the Greek- 
temple type of a later day), two features common in Southern 
Colonial work, but rare in Eastern. The details, too, incline 
to heaviness rather than to that extreme delicacy one sees in 
Salem and Portsmouth houses. A Dutch influence, derived 
from Albany and New York, the then nearest large citiesi 
maybe seen in many of the old doorways and in "spindley " 
mantels with fan-shaped ornaments. The architecture here 
passed through the same phases as elsewhere throughout the 
country ; an increasing heaviness and coarseness led at last 
to the adoption of Greek ornament and proportioning, more 
and more slavishly adhered to, and this ended in the unre- 
lieved hopelessness of "carpenters' Classic." 

Of Colonial architecture, properly so-called, Rochester 
affords few examples, such as may once have existed, nearly 
all having been demolished to give place to new work. 
There remain, however, scattered throughout the city many 
beautiful doorways, cornices and other bits of detail, and 
leaded glass-work of fine design in variety and profusion. 
In the older residence section there are some good houses 
dating from that period when the Greek influence was begin- 
ning to supplant the Palladian, and of these I may mention 

a doorway of the Nehe- 
miah Osborne house 
(now owned and occu- 
pied by the Security 
Trust Company), 
which, though not 
strictly Colonial, is yet 
a most original and 
beautiful application of 
Greek ornament to 
American conditions. 




^»e-4-^f6^4-^-^ 



In Can andaigua 
there exist conditions 
more favorable to the 
preservation of its past 
architecture and it is 
accordingly rich in 
good material left by 
the ebbing tide of pros- 
perity. The village, 
situated on the shore 
of the lake of the same 
name, is one of the old- 
est in the State and was 
long regarded as the 
farthest outpost of civi- 
lization. On the con- 
summation of the 
Phelps and Gorham 
purchase in the summer 
of 1788, a land-office, 
the first in America, 
was opened there by Mr. Phelps, for the sale of the land to 
settlers, who shortly came swarming from the east to buy and 
occupy it. Early in the town's history, Louis Philippe, es- 
caping from the storm which rocked the thrones of Europe, 
settled in Canandaigua with a few followers, and, in the heart 




Leaded-glass Forms, Rocliester, N. Y. 



COLONIAL WORK IN THE GENESEE VALLEY. 



of a virgin wilderness, inhabited by fierce, and sometimes 
hostile, savages, established a toy court over which he ruled, 
a make-believe monarch. 

The village consists mainly of one street, but that is a mag- 
nificent one, lined 




The Livingston Park Seminary, Rochester, N. Y. 



and intersected by 
long rows of large 
trees. The houses, 
old and stately, set 
far back and far 
apart, each in the 
centre of well-kept 
grounds. The tone 
of the place is emi- 
nently aristocratic 
and this is enhanced 
by the existence of 
two large private 
schools, the Granger 
Place Seminary for 
girls and the Fort 
Hills Academy for 
boys, each occupying old and interesting buildings. In the 
Granger Place School there are a few exquisite examples 
of Colonial furniture and several fine mantels, one of which 
is shown on Plate 3, Part V, and another, more elabo- 
rate, Frank Wallis has embodied in his book on Colonial 
architecture. 

Perhaps the most pretentious house in the village is the 
Greig mansion, designed by an English architect early in 
the present century and built by English workmen im- 
ported for that purpose. Seen, as I saw it, just at dusk on 
a winter day, untenanted, in the midst of vast, desolate and 
gloomy grounds, it was the most forbidding human habita- 
tion conceivable, and this impression was intensified a 
hundred fold by an inspection of its interior by the light 
of a single oil-lamp as I followed the old custodian from 
one great echoing room to another. The finish, with the ex- 
ception of a couple of bedroom mantels, is hideous. A 




Block of Houses, Geneva, N. V. 

spiral stairway of solid mahogany extends from the base- 
ment to an observatory on the roof, from which a fine view 
of the lake and the surrounding country may be obtained. 
My guide told me that the house contains more than sixty 
rooms and I could readily believe it, for it is practically four 
stories high, and correspondingly large in extent. Whether 
the place is haunted or not I do not know, but it haunts me 




still. There certainly never was a house offering more con- 
veniences to ghosts of moderate means in search of suitable 
apartments. 

At Brighton there is only one important house, the Culver 
homestead,^ now owned and occupied by Mr. Howard Smith. 
It was originally a tavern, the first beyond the historic 
" Eagle " tavern at Rochester, on the direct road from 

Niagara Falls to 
Albany. 

This fact ac- 
counts for some 
peculiarities of its 
arrangement and 
construction, the 
second story of 
the main part being principally given over to 
one large room — the old ball-room, which 
extends the entire length of the front of the 
house, with nine windows, facing in three directions, and 
two fireplaces, one on each side of the entrance. The 
ceiling is high and domed, and the floor sets clear of the 
joists so as to make it springy for the dancers and to facili- 
tate the execution of " pigeon-wings," which were a principal 
feature of many of the old-time dances. 

Geneva, being an old town and well to the eastward, con- 
tains many interesting Colonial buildings. The oldest is 
the Tillman block- on Exchange Street, and architecturally 
considered, it is perhaps the best, following as it does the 
common New England type of the period in which it was 
built. Of quite a different character are the houses which 
line Main Street, the "Faubourg Saint-Germain" of the 
aristocratic little town. Here the Colonial style has under- 
gone important modifications, in order better to meet unu- 
sual requirements. The street skirts the summit of a high 
bluff overlooking Seneca Lake, and from it the view is mag- 
nificent ; and the houses are accordingly provided with 
ample verandas, not only in the first story but in the second 
also. It is interesting to compare the various solutions of 
the difficulties in design, involved in such an arrangement. 
The most popular seems to have been some modification of 
the Classic portico with the second-story balcony let-in be- 
tween the great columns, but in a few cases, two superim- 
posed orders have been employed. The Folger house,"* 
built about 1825, may be mentioned as the best example of 
this class. Here by making the second-story piazza three 




One of the Hobart College Buildings, Geneva, N. Y. 

spaces wide, above five spaces in the first, a fine pyramidal 
effect is obtained. 

The Hobart College buildings are on Main Street at the 
summit of the hill. The first one was built in 182 1 and the 
second, identical in appearance, in 1837. Though aside 



1 Plate I, Part I and Plate 8, Part V. 

2 Plate 9. Part V. 
opiate 9, Part III. 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



from the subject of Colonial architecture, I cannot refrain 
from an admiring mention of the beautiful English Gothic 
church built by Upjohn during our best Gothic period, and 




Ellicott Hall, Batavia, N. Y. 

worthy to rank in the same high class as Grace and Trinity 
of New York. 

Batavia, though half as many miles to the west of the 
Genesee as Geneva is to the east of it, was settled at about 
the same time. In 1800 the village was surveyed for a 
town, and in 1802 it was made the seat of government of the 
county through the efforts of one Joseph Ellicott, a surveyor 
and agent of the Holland Land Company, and the principal 
pioneer of the region immediately west of the Genesee 
River. The old land-ofhce ' and the first court-house and jail 
are still standing. The former is unoccupied and ruinous, 
but is soon to be put in good condition and converted into a 
sort of historical museum. The latter, Ellicott Hall, has 
suffered many alterations, having been used in turn as a 
court-house, land-office, a fire-insurance office, a roller-skat- 
ing rink and a storehouse for second-hand furniture, which 
it remains. It was built in 1802 and was paid for in land, 
the builder receiving one acre for every day's labor. Imme- 
diately beside it, formerly stood a house to which Gen. Win- 
field Scott was taken, to recover from wounds received in 
the battles of Chippewa and Lundy's Lane, in the War of 
1812 ; near by was a tavern, Keye's stand, which served as 
officers' headquarters throughout the same war. 

The early history of the region round about Batavia is 

i' 




The Gary House, Batavia, N. Y. 

mainly the history of the Holland Purchase. The land 
bought from the Indians by Messrs. Phelps and Gorham, 
through their failure to carry out their part of the agreement, 
reverted to its original holder, the State of Massachusetts. 
The part lying west of the Genesee river was then bought by 
' Plate 33, Part I. 



Robert Morris, who sold it in 1792-3 to an association of 
Dutch and American capitalists, called the Holland Land 
Company, he still retaining a part, under the title of the 
Morris Reserve. In 1797, the Company employed Joseph 




House at Canandaigua, N. Y. 

Ellicott to survey their purchase and to open offices for the 
sale of tiie land to settlers, who shortly came flocking from 
the east and south. As before stated, and as the name 
implies, the Holland Company was composed largely of 
Dutchmen, and there are one or two amusing incidents 
recorded in the history of the Purchase, which are as 
delightfully characteristic of the race as those narrated in 
Diedrich Knickerbocker's immortal history. Here is one of 
them : In the first apportioning of the land, for some reason 
not readily apparent, four members of the Willink family 
were given their choice of 300,000 acres in any part of the 
Purchase. They thereupon located it in a square found in 
the south-east corner, which was absolutely the most undesir- 
able portion of all, from an agricultural point-of-view, for no 
other reason than that it was nearest to Philadelphia ! 

The pioneer history of the Purchase is barren of romantic 
interest — of "hair-breadth 'scapes, and stirring accidents by 
flood and field;" but there is at least one story, which, 
tiiough lacking in blood-stirring and hair-raising elements, 
yet strangely affects the imagination and lingers long in the 
memory, like some minor air. It is still told to children 
around many firesides and is called the " Story of the Lost 
Boy." 

In 1806, one David Tolles, a farmer living near Batavia, 
sent his son to watch that no cattle strayed into a newly- 




Le Roy House (rear), Le Roy, N. V. 

planted field, there being no roadside fences in those days. 
The lad discharged his du'y faithfully: when the animals 
appeared, he followed them out into the woods, but he 
never came out again. The whole countryside was aroused 
and search parties organized, but the mystery of his disap- 
pearance was never solved. On the second day of the search 



COLONIAL WORK IN THE GENESEE VALLEY. 



some one discovered his tracks; on the third, they found 
where he had slept, and the bundle of fagots which had 
formed his pillow; on the fourth day, they came upon a 
little brook where he had washed some roots, — the water 
was yet roily with his presence, — but he had fled at their 
approach and further search proved unavailing. 

It is a sad litile story, but the sequel is sadder still : From 
that time until the day of his death, the father of the Lost 
Boy became a wanderer in the vain search for his son. If 
a rumor reached him of a wild boy having been seen in 
Pennsylvania, or Ohio, or in places even more remote, he 
would set out on foot, only to be disappointed at his jour- 
ney's end, or sent upon some equally fruitless quest. Against 
the plain and commonplace background of the times, the 
figure of this sad, mad, remorseful father looms large and 
black. One cannot but picture him a very Lear of the 
wilderness, poor and alone, penetrating on foot the hungry 
fastnesses of regions little known, in search of the Lost Boy, 
who, if alive at all, was a boy no longer. 

The village of Le Roy contains, at least, one house of 
more than common interest. This is the Le Roy mansion, 
at one time the residence of the family for which the place 
was named. It was built some time previous to 1812, and 
was originally a land-office of the Holland Company, of 
which Herman Le Roy was an agent. In 1821 it was re- 
modelled and enlarged, and occupied by his three sons and 
a daughter, Catherine Bayard Le Roy; and here, in 1828, 



and you will have formed a fairly accurate idea of this part 
of the Genesee country. 

The curtain of history rolling up, reveals this beautiful 
valley the scene of a bloody drama — its denizens plunged in 




The Piffard House, Piffard, N. V. 

came the great Daniel Webster, courting her. They were 
married the following year, she being his second wife. 
Shortly after the wedding a grand reception wis held at the 
old house. Webster seems to have been fond of the place 
and often visited it with his wife in after years. 

Travelling in the vicinity of Avon, Geneseo ami Mount 
Morris, one can understand why the Indians gave to that 
region the name of the Beautiful Valley. It is like a great 
park. Gently sloping, wooded hills merge imperceptibly 
into cultivated lowlands through \\h;c!i the shallow river 
flows, sequestered in an avenue of foliage. The plain is di- 
versified by trees and groves, and good straight roads, look- 
ing like yellow ribbons on the prim green dress of Nature, 
their ends concealed among the hills — lost in the tangle 
of her hair. Dignified old houses appear here and there, 
crowning the summit of some eminence, or half hidden amid 
the trees of the parks wiih which they are engirt — their air 
of aloofness atoned for by the always wide-open gates, which 
seem to extend a perpetual invitation to the traveller. 
Every turn of every road reveals new vistas, new surprises. 
The rawness and newness, which is so constant a character- 
istic of most of the scenery of our agricultural districts, seem 
here to have been trained quite away from the landscape, 
without giving place to mere smugness — the clean-shaven 
rhilistine face of a too great prosperity. Nature is neither 
master nor servant, but the friend of man. Imagine, if you 
please, a park, from the wise hand of Olmsted, we will say, 
enormously enlarged and made for use as well as pleasure, 




Old Hamplon (now destroyed). 

the most terrible kind of warfare. During the Revolution, a 
division of our army, under Sullivan, penetrated thus far into 
what was then a virgin wilderness, fighting the hostile Iro- 
quois and setting fire to their villages. Just before the ex- 
pedition reached the river, it met with its most determined 
resistance and sustained its severest losses, chief among which 
was the capture of Lieutenant Thomas Boyd and his party 
by the Indians. That brave officer they tortured and put 
to death in a manner too sickeningly horrible to be related. 
One prefers, rather, to dwell upon the valley's later history, 
which was a singularly happy and peaceful one. 

Many of the early settlers came from Maryland. They 
were not the ordinary type of pioneer, but men of parts, 
possessing wealth and culture, and belonging to a class — 
now, unhappily, extinct — of which Washington and JefTer- 
son are representatives. They left so great an impress on 
the place of their adoption that their influence is potent 
still, to-day, and this accoun's in some measure for the feel- 
ing one sometimes has of a civilization older than mere dates 
warrant. For these first settlers did not begin anew, in 
pioneer fashion, but resumed, under new conditions and 
amid different surroundings, the lives to which they were 
accustomed. They built houses like (he Southern houses 
(sometimes even to the office, at a little distance from the 
main building, where the business of the estate was trans- 
acted), they kept slaves, whom they had brought with them, 
and each family had a carriage in which its members went 
visiting, in true Southern fashion — sometimes driving forty 
miles to dine with friends. 

The descendants of these people — the Wadsworths, the 
Fitzhughs, the Carrolls, the Piffards — own and occupy the 




I'"urinlure in Possession of Miss A. M. Piffard. 

land to-day and still cherish tho memory and keep alive the 
tradition of those early days. But in the heart of New York 
State, time cannot be made to turn backward nor stand still. 
The "smart set" now invade the valley annually, and dis- 
seminate an atmosphere oi Jin de siecle worldliness, which. 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



mingling with what survives of the Colonial spirit, imparts to painted, Alpine-scenery-adorned cast-iron safe to stand be- 
the social life of the place a peculiar and indefinable quality, hind him. The table-cloths do not bear on their surface 
Perhaps no other part of America is so like rural England in maps of the Dark Continent ; there are no flies in the milk, 
many ways, and it is so, not on account of any particular nor dish-water in the coffee. The bed-sheets are not winding- 
Anglomania on the part of any portion of its inhabitants, shrouds with grave-damp on tliem; no transoms, like the 
but because similar causes are bound to produce similar ever-open eye of Mormon, stare one into wakefulness all 
effects. As stated before, there is a class here correspond- night — in short, it is blessedly unlike a hotel at all, but 
ing in many particulars to tlie nobility of England : it is more, as the name implies, like an PJiglish tavern. Perhaps 
composed of hereditary land-owners who lease the major to me it has an exaggerated charm, because the Inn is an 
portion of their land to farmers, and, living upon their estates old Colonial house — the Ayrault mansion' — remodelled 
the greater part of the year, in every way identify their in- and enlarged. 

terests with those of tlie rural population. These men lead At either end of the main street in Geneseo are the en- 
large lives: are socially and politically important ; have trances to the estates of G. W. and W. A. Wadsworth. The 
many friends. So, at certain seasons, when nature is at its latter occupies the homestead. Few traces of the original 



loveliest, their 
houses fill with 
guests from abroad, 
and it is then that 
the resemblance to 
English country- 
house life becomes 
most marked. Fox- 
hunting completes 
the picture, and this 
deserves more than 
a passing mention. 

The Genesee Val- 
ley Hunt is one of 
the oldest and best- 
known in the coun- 
try, and, unlike 
some others, the 
chase is after bona- 
fide foxes. The 
season opens about 
the end of Septem- 
ber, and continues 
into the winter. 
The meets have the 
reputation of being 
very sportsman-like 
events, and not 
merely a new kind 
of "function" for 
the display of red 
coats and bob-tailed 
horses. The runs 
are increasingly long 
and severe, so that 
no women, except 
the most intrepid, 
now participate. 
Anything on four 




Congregalional Churcli, Canandaiguaj N. Y. Bcfure alteralioii in 1S99. 



house remain — 
exteriorly, at least 
— it is so smothered 
in modern Colonial 
additions. The 
grounds surround- 
ing both residences 
are charmmg; ex- 
hibiting the best 
taste in landscape- 
gardening. A 
grove, in each case, 
screens the house 
from the road. A 
drive winds through 
it to the slightly ele- 
vated clearing where 
the house stands. 
Tlie formal garden- 
ing, what there is of 
it, is here — afford- 
ing just the neces- 
sary transition be- 
tween the natural and 
the architectural. 

The Fitzhugh 
house, "Hampton," 
as it was called, was 
destroyed by fire 
ten or twelve years 
ago. It is said to 
iiave been one of 
the finest, as it was 
one of the oldest 
iiouses in the valley. 
It was built by Wil- 
liam Fitzhugh, a 
Mary lander, about 
1815, and it had for 



legs is at liberty to follow the hounds, and the farmers of its most distinctive feature one of those high, cool porticos 

the vicinity are sometimes the most enthusiastic huntsmen, which are so characteristic of southern Colonial homes. 

The travelling public, however little it may be interested in A drive of three miles from Geneseo, across the flats, 

fox-hunting, is yet indebted to the institution for one thing, brings one to the village of Piffard, where there is an interest- 

at least, and that is the Big Tree Inn at Geneseo, the exist- ing house, inhabited still by members of the family from 

ence of which would scarcely be possible were it not for the which the place was named. Better than the houfe itself 



annual influx of the fox-hunting contingent, when its few 
rooms are warred for by Buffalonians and New Yorkers. 
Though supported principally by this patronage, tlie Big 
Tree Inn shines for all, and few villages can boast of a 
prettier, neater or cleaner little hostelry. The traditional 



are the many old, rare and beautiful things which it con- 
tains ; it is a veritable museum of antique furniture and 
china and other heirlooms of a past having its roots deep in 
the France and England of a former century. 

In this article, together with the accompanying drawings, I 



accessories of a country hotel are all conspicuous by their have given a fairly representative, though far from complete, 
absence. There is no clerk behind the desk, simply because summary of the Colonial work of the Genesee country, 
there is no desk for him to be behind ; nor is there any hand- 



1 Pl.'ite 5, I'ai-t V. 



COLOXIAL WORK AT SACKETTS HARBOR. 



Although meagre in amount and inferior in quality, com- 
pared with that of the older and richer districts of the South 
and East, it has, nevertheless, seemed well worth preserving 
a record of it, since it possesses, in full measure, those quali- 
ties which make the style such a rebuke to almost everything 
that we have done (in domestic architecture, at least) since 
its decline. These qualities are, briefly : good sense, sim- 
plicity, elegance and refinement of detail, and, more than all 
else, beauty of proportion — the quality in which the work of 



the architects of to-day is most conspicuously lacking. If 
we are to have, in any sense, a renaissance of the Colonial 
style, let it be entered upon with greater knowledge, and 
more careful attention to the principles upon which the 
Colonial builders worked, and by means of which they 
achieved such admirable results. It was principally to this 
end — that of furnishing additional data for the study of the 
style — that the present work was undertaken. 

Claude Fayette Bragdon. 




Colonial Work at Sacketfs Harbor. 










Madison Barracks 



SACKETT'S Harbor is chiefly notable as an important 
military station on our northern frontier. It occu- 
pies a high, wind-swept bluff overlooking Lake On- 
tario. A little bay sweeps in and forms a natural 
harbor, which is further protected by a long, low breakwater, 
on which grows a line of stunted willows, leaning all one 
way — mute evidences of the force and direction of the pre- 
vailing winds. On one side of the bay are the barracks — a 
group of stone buildings, old and low, flanking three sides 
of a well-kept parade-ground, the fourth being open to the 
water's edge, where a few shapeless mounds of earth mark 
the location of an old pioneer fort. Inland, behind the bar- 
racks, is a cemetery, where lie buried upwards of fifteen 
hundred nameless soldiers, killed in battles of the War of 
1812. The first gun of that war was fired from the promon- 
tory on the other side of the bay. The battlefield is now 
an unkempt pasture in which the village street almost loses 
itself and then recovers to take a final plunge over the rocks 
into the lake. 

This first battle seems not to have been a great affair, but 
in the accounts of it one hears — in the hotel or barber-shop, 
from the mouths of oldest inhabitants — there are pleasing 
siiggestions of British swagger and of Yankee grit and 
resource. Five men-of-war (so goes the story), carrying some 
eighty guns and fully manned, suddenly appeared before the 
frightened inhabitants of the little town, who had for their 
defence only the little brig '■^Oneida" of seventeen guns, 
under Lieutenant Woolsey — but it was David and Goliath 
over again, as the event proved. Prevented from escape by 
water, Woolsey and his sailing-master landed with a com- 
pany of marines and manned a thirty-two-pounder on the 
bluff. They had no shot large enough for the gun, but. 



equal to tiie emergency, the twenfy-four-pound balls were 
wr;ipped to size with cuttings from carpets and, when these 
were gone, the flannel petticoats of the women. With 
these unique projectiles the British fleet was disabled, and 
actually driven from the waters. 

In the war which followed. Sackett's Harbor was a centre 
of activity. Here the army was organized and the navy con- 
structed. It was from this point tiiat Gen. Zebulon Pike — 
he who gave Pike's Peak its naine — started on that secret 
and perilous expedition in which he lost his life, and his body 
now lies in the old burying-ground behind the barracks. 
Nor is Pike's the only illustrious name associated with the 
place. Gen. Jacob Brown made it his headquarters while 
he commanded the forces on the Canadian frontier. Here 
lived Dr. Samuel Guthrie, one of the discoverers of chloro- 
form and the inventor of the percussion compound for fire- 








On tlie liattlefield. 

arms which superseded flints. Grant was stationed here for 
a short period after his Mexican campaign, and there is a 
barrack-room story about a bet he made and won — that he 
could walk around the long public square at Watertown 
before another man could eat an army cracker, without 
water. 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



In former times the little bay was filled with shipping and ure often gains rather than loses by such enforced simplicity, 

Sackett's was a place of commercial as well as military im- just as "an honest tale speeds best, being plainly told." 
portance, as the ruined old stone mills and an abandoned Although there is much good and interesting work beside, 

railroad even now testify. Those palmy days are now long there are only three houses in any way deserving the title of 

past, and as there has been no subsequent revival of pros- " mansion," and to the task of preserving some sort of a 

perity, the town remains to-day very much as it was then — record of tliem, the present writer devoted a few days of 

happily free from the blighting and vulgarizing influence of a short vacation spent in the vicinity in the early nineties. 



the "great American 
hustler." The mili- 
tary atmosphere is all 
that remains to re- 
mind one of its de- 
parted greatness, but 
this is all pervasive. 
Every vista contains 
a blue uniform ; dogs 
are numerous and 
barbers prosperous ; 
the children have a 
soldierly bearing and 
one even fancies that 
the little brick and 
wooden stores elbow 
one another along the 
sidewalk of the prin- 
cipal street like a 
company of raw re- 
cruits on parade. 




.'■■'%,f- 






The Sackett House. 



This work, if valua- 
ble, was timely, as 
one of the three was 
already falling to 
pieces through age 
and neglect, and 
another had recently 
undergone extensive 
alterations in order 
to more nearly fulfil 
the requirements of 
modern life. 

The Sackett house 
was built in 1803 by 
August Sackett, from 
whom the town re- 
ceived its name. It 
is square in plan, 
with a long wing to 
the rear. The second 
story is lighted en- 



There is society of a certain sort, as is inevitable where tirely by dormers, and the exterior is thereby rendered very 
idle men and women of the commanding class are brought effective by reason of the ample space above the tops of the 
together. It is made up of officers and their wives and first-story windows. The low, broad fa9ade, with its well- 
daughters and a few remaining representatives of the old proportioned columns and pediment, seen from the main 
families still living in the houses built by their grandfathers street above the large, old-fashioned garden, produces that 
— but these, too, are military, and the number of retired rarest of earthly things — a genuine architectural emotion. 



colonels one may meet of an afternoon brings to mind 
Gilbert's witty line, 

" When cvorybody's somebody, nobody's anybody." 

With the summer weather people come here from the great 
world outside, infusing a new spirit into the officers' balls 




The interior is less interesting. There is very little wood- 
work, and that little is quite lacking in refinement. This 
house served as a hospital during the War of 1812, and 
blood-stains may yet be seen on the upstairs floors — so it is 
said. 

The Woolsey mansion, now owned and occupied by Col. 

and other garrison Walter B. Camp, was built in 1816 by Commodore Woolsey. 

festivities. Then The knocker on the front door bears, quite appropriately, 

there is tennis on the shape of an American 



the parade-ground 
and yachting on 
the bay; teas and 
card-parties are 
given in the great 
old houses, the 
dingy portraits on 
whose walls looked 
down perhaps on 
not so very differ- 
ent scenes in times 
long gone. 

It is of these 
houses — some of 
them — I wish par- 
ticularly to speak. 
Aside from their 
historical associa- 
tions, they are intrinsically excellent in architecture. This, 



Tlie Wuolsey House. 



eagle, and behind the 
door there is a row of big 
wooden pegs, where, we 
are told, the Commodore 
used always to hang his 
hat on entering. In plan, 
the house is a departure 
from the usual type, the 
hall being at the side of 
the main part, instead 
of in the centre; there are 
two rooms adjoining, and 
the wings contain two 
more, with pantries and 
the like. As originally 
built, there were but two 
bedrooms on the second 




From Entrance to " tlie Brick.' 



Hoor, the servants' sleeping-rooms being located in the 

basement, 
though lacking much of the richness and elaboration of some The old Commodore's love of formality and symmetry is 

of the Eastern and Southern Colonial work, is characterized by apparent in the laying-out of the grounds and out-buildings, 
great elegance of proportion and refinement of detail. This The house sets far back from the road, and is approached 
lack of excessive ornamentation, though probably dictated by through a central gateway flanked on each side by smaller 
motives of economy, is, on the whole, fortunate, for architect- ones, for pedestrians. The drive is lined with trees and 



COLOXIAL WORK AT SACKETT'S HARBOR. 



9 



shrubbery, and the white central pavilion of the house, with 
its slenderly pillared portico, is thus seen at the end of a 
green vista. 

Nowhere is anything allowed to interefere with symmetry, 
the rear being as perfect in this respect as the front. A few 
rods behind the house a fence divides the lawn from the 
garden, and this is made another opportunity for a piece of 
formal grouping, charming in its eiTect. On one side is the 
well-house and on the other the smoke-house, both alike, of 
stone, with segment-shaped roofs : between the two, sur- 
mounting a low wall, is a white fence of delicate design, with 
frequent posts. In the centre this fence forms a semicircle, 
in the middle of which is the garden-gate, flanked by two 
large posts: the path leads to a summer-house, wiiich occu- 
pies the centre of the garden. 

Some of the old furniture still remains in the house, 
notably a number of tables of very graceful outline, beauti- 
fully inlaid. 

The Camp mansion, or "The Brick," as it is called, was 
built in 1816 by Col. Elisha Camp, an officer of artillery in 
the War of 1812. It is now tenanted, from June till Octo- 
ber, by the family of his granddaughter, Mrs. Col. Mason. 
It is a most substantial structure, built of brick brought from 
England for the purpose. The cellar-bottom is formed by 
the living rock. The plan is of the common Colonial type : 
there is a wide hall in the centre, with two rooms on each 
side and a one-story addition to the rear overlooking the 
garden, which contains what used to be the children's rooms 
and nursery. The main hall is divided into vestibule, re- 
ception-hall and stair-hall by means of arches with elliptical, 
fan-light transoms above. These arches contain mahogany 
doors in four folds, the two central ones being used on ordi- 
nary occasions ; while in the hot days of summer, or when 
the house is thrown open for purposes of entertainment, all 
are folded back out of the way against the wall, making of 
the hall one large apartment. This seems a good solution 
of a much-vexL-d problem in house planning : to obtain 
necessary divisions between the parts of the hall possessing 



different functions, without impairing its spaciousness or 
embarrassing the movements of a crowd of guests. 

Some of the rooms remain just as they were when the 
house was built. The same carpet has been on the parlor 
floor for over seventy years ; it was woven in England to fit 
the room, and is of such good material that even now, 
though used constantly, it shows few signs of wear. 

The original " scenic " paper is on the walls ; on either 
side of the fireplace are graceful wall-tables, semi-elliptical 
in shape, and between the windows there is an old upright 
piano in mahogany and gold, the first ever brought into the 
country, and considered a grand and wonderful affair when 
it was new. Some of the upstairs bedrooms are extremely 
bright and pretty. There are old-fashioned, high-post bed- 
steads, with canopies above, and dressing-tables of quaint 
and now obsolete patterns. Woodwork and draperies are 
all pure white, the door-panels alone being tinted a light 
blue, with good effect. There is a great attic over the entire 
house, lighted at the ends by enormous semicircular windows. 
Here are stored old beds, clocks and spinning-wheels, and 
trunks and chests and boxes, among which one might de- 
lightedly rummage away the hours of the longest of rainy 
Sundays — if the opportunity offered. 

These few random notes may add interest to the accom- 
panying sketches and measured-drawings.' Young architects 
and draughtsmen throughout the country are apt to complain 
of the complete lack of sources of architectural inspiration 
in their environment, while, perhaps, at their very doors are 
unheeded examples of a refined and even scholarly treat- 
ment of wood — the very material in which nine-tenths of 
their designing must needs be done. If such would hunt up 
old houses in their vicinity, and by measurements and 
sketches convey to paper what they find valuable therein, 
they would not only be individually profited thereby, but 
would also be assisting to preserve a lasting record of the 
now fast-diminishing remnants of the only good and char- 
acteristic architecture this country has yet succeeded in 
producing. Claude Fayette Bragdon. 



^'^^^>^®^=^p*^ 




TiiK Jan Maiiik IIdusk, Ruttkrdam, N. V. — This house, which Oi.n HousK at Madison, N. J. — Although we know nothing about 

we believe is still standing, was built, in 1706, for use in the first jjlaco as this building, neither its history, nor its age, it is, nevertheless, typical 

a farmstead, and in the second, as a fort to which the owner and his of a class of houses which are found in considerable numbers in northern 

neighbors could retire in time of need. The building is 22' x .)S', with New Jersey. It is here shown because it seems to furnish a real con- 





The Jan Mabie Houst;, Rotterdam, N. V. 

walls about three feet thick, of rough mountain stone, laid at the time of 
building in clay. At a later day the joints have been raked and pointed 
with lime mortar. The lower story is about eii;ht feel in the clear, the ceil- 
ing beams, \2"x i^", acting as tie-beams piiniing the feet of llie rafteis 
together and forming with them an Cfpiilateral truss. — Kli. 



' Plates 25, 26, I'art II. 



Old House at Madison, N. J. 

necting-link between the type-plan of the southern builders and that of their 
northern fellows. The ti^eatment of the roof of the central building dis- 
tinctly shows its descent from the bnililings of the Dutch Colonist, while 
the wings upon either side as distinctlyrecall the wing galleries, with 
which the scjuthern designer habitually connected his main house with the 
end |)avilions, often devoted on the one side to bachelor apartments and 
on the other to the kitchen or house servants. — Ed. 



The Mappa House, Trenton, N. Y. 



[Date, 1809-1812.] 




T 



*HE deadly hostility between 
the Patriots and the Tories, 
and the raids of the Indians, 
put a stop to all improve- 
ments in the Mohawk Valley and ad- 
joining country until about the year 

1775- 

In 1793, Garrett Boone, the first 

agent of the Holland Land Company 

in this vicinity, reached the fording 

^ place of the Mohawk at Fort Schu}'- 

1 . ler (now Utica), near the place 

P Main Cornice , ., ^ t~v c 1 1 ^ 

I where the present Deerfield turn- 

' pike crosses the river, on his way to 

survey, prior to purchasing, a tract of land known as "Ser- 
vices' Patent." From Fort Schuyler the land extended in a 
northerly direction. Through the virgin forest Boone blazed 
the trees for the line of a future road. 

Reaching a '• sheltered valley where two creeks come to- 
gether," he pitched his tent and determined that the land 
about the junction of the creeks should be the site of a 
future village. Boone named the village site "Olden Barne- 
veld," after John of Barneveld, a famous Netherlands states- 
man. It is a pity that the name was changed in 1833 to its 
present name, Trenton. Olden Barneveld was incorporated 
April 19, 1819, reincorporated as Trenton, April 26, 1833. 
(See Neiu York Civil List, 1868, page 571.) 

Col. Adam G. Mappa soon followed ]5oone to Olden 
Barneveld as second agent for the Holland Land Company. 
With him came Judge Adrian Van der Kemp, a man of 
brilliant education. He translated for Governor De Witt 
Clinton the old Dutch Records belonging to the New 
Amsterdam Government prior to English possession and 
government. Colonel Mappa and Judge Van der Kemp 
were close friends. They both built houses in the village, 
each now standing on opposite sides of the same street. In 
these houses were entertained Van Buren, De Witt Clinton, 
Horatio Seymour and many other notables. 

The Mappa House (now owned by Mr. William S. Wicks), 
the subject of these illustrations, was begun in 1809, and 
finished at the close of the War of 1812. It was intended 
to be much more sumptuous, but the rise in the cost of 
material and labor in consequence of the war made it neces- 
sary to curtail in many ways. Tiie Holland Land Com- 
pany had allowed Colonel Mappa $15,000 for the work, but 
before the house was completed, he had used up this sum 
and much more with it. 

The house stands in the centre of the village square, for- 
merly in the centre of a much larger property, early reduced 
in size by the sale of building lots, the Madam Decastro 



house-lot and the Unitarian Church lot being taken from the 
soutli side, the village stores and blacksmith-shop lots from 
the northwest. The property on the northeast, on which the 
John Billings house stood, is now used as a village-park. 
The deeds of conveyance of these old properties are in 
many ways curious; the deed of one property reads, "begin- 
ning at the corner of an asparagus bed." We presume that 
the fondness of the Dutch for asparagus made them feel 
that such a bed should last forever. 

The Mappa House is 52 feet wide and 66 feet deep. The 
rooms in the first as well as the second story are 12 feet in 
height. Tlie exterior and basement walls are of Trenton 
limestone, the foundations from grade to water-table being 
laid of five equal courses. These courses, as well as the 
square-faced water-table, stone steps and platforms to en- 
trances, are cut with eight bats to the inch. It is probable 
that the stone for cut-work was taken from quarries a mile 
south of the village. Originally, the walls of the house above 
the water-table were covered with stucco ; this was removed 
in 1894. The house at the present time represents a fine 
old appearance, covered in part with ampelopsis vines. 

The farmers of the surrounding county gathered limestone 
from their fields for the walls of the house. Mappa and 
Remsen (John Mappa, son of Colonel Mappa) had opened 
a general trading-store, and for several years previous to 
the work of construction, the stone-gathering went on. The 
stone-pile grew as formidable as a -'meeting-house," so, it is 
stated, the farmers said, but as long as Mappa was willing to 




Roof Framing. 

trade store-goods for stone, which they needed to get rid of 
to clear their lands, it was not good business to inquire into 
his mental capacity. 

The bricks forming the interior walls, first-story and chim- 
neys were probably made four miles south of the village at 
what is now known as South Trenton, where, ever since, the 



THE MAP PA HOUSE, TRENTON, N. Y. 



II 



brick-making industry has been carried on in a moderate 
way. 

Tiie timber, of red beech, was cut from the nearby forests, 
some possibly from the very site. The marks of the broad- 
axe show skilful handling of that ill-looking tool. The spans 
for the joists are about eighteen feet, the joists, 4"xit" 
in size, are placed 14 inches on centres. The headers and 
trimmers are framed of 8"xii" timbers. The roof is 
supported on heavy trusses resting on the outside walls. 
The strong rafters, as well as the truss-timbers, are framed 
and pinned into the heavy plates and ridge-tree. The ridge- 
tree is, indeed, a veritable tree, pentagonal in form, showing 
7 inches wide on each face. 

In the interior, the minor partitions in the first-story and 
the dividing partitions in the second-story are made of 3-inch 
plank, placed vertically, laid close together, stripped, lathed 
and plastered, making practically sound-proof partitions. 
The laths, made of straight-grained hemlock, were probably 
from trees cut in the early spring just before the sap rises, 
and rived into laths ; such at least was the old method of 
making hemlock laths. 

The roof-gutters were made of pine timber hollowed out, 
and hung or strapped to the heavy plates with strong irons. 
The ornamental gutter-heads were long ago taken down, 
some one or two still being stored in the attic of the house. 

The flooring, of spruce, is 2 inche§ in thickness, hewed 
from timber, matched and fitted to the joist at each bearing, 
jack-planed and carefully smoothed on top. 

The hall extends through the centre from the west to the 
east front of the house, ter- 
minating in porches. From 
the east one you look down 
on the village streams ; from 
the west one to the rising land 
and hills above. 

The staircase, winding in a 
delightful curve from 
the main to the sec- 




First • Moor Plan 

ond floor, is substantial in construction and light in appear- 
ance. The hand-rail is of mahogany, a perfect cylinder in 
section, polished and worn to such a finish and color as 
only age can give. The ramp at the bottom of the stairs 
centres in an ebony eye. 



The delicate members of the interior woodwork indicate 
Italian as well as the Adam Brothers' influence, the former 
shown in the general fineness of details and the latter in the 
reed-like flutings and panel-scrolls. There is also a touch 
of English Gothic shown in the grouping of columns in the 
front porch and in other places, and in undercut bed-moulds. 
One thing is noticeable, the absence of any form of dentil. 






J 


__ ;^ 


rj 


-t 


mm 




Meiv-suitd and di':iuin b^ I'Jlvjilil 
Plaster Cornices. 

Egg-and-dart mouldings appear only in the cap of the column 
forming the door-trim to the drawing-room, and the caps of 
the columns in the mantel of the northwest chamber. Beads 
occur frequently in the small mouldings, but pearl-and-bead 
mouldings only once. The work is profuse in scalloped 
rosettes, flutings and similar ornamental cuttings. The wood 
is of pine, finished white in a semi-enamel surface. 

The Georgian period of Colonial architecture resulting 
from the influences mentioned above is in this house 
exemplified in its highest type. 

There was formerly a very picturesque lodge on the 
northeast corner of the property, but this fell into decay, and 
was taken down about the year i860. 

The Unitarian Church, of the same style of architecture, 
was built in Olden Barneveld in 1814. John Sherman, the 
grandson of Roger Sherman, the signer of the Declaration 
of Independence, became pastor in 1806. 

The Guiteau House, the Van der Kemp House, the 
Griffith Inn, the Billings House, the Decastro House, 
the Douglas House, and a number of structures of less 
importance, were built about the same, or a little later, period. 

The Mappa property came into possession of the Wicks 
family in 1863, and is now used as a summer house. 

\V. S. Wicks. 



Two Old Philadelphia Churches. 



ST. PETER'S P. E. CHURCH. 

[Date, 1758-61.] 

IT is a real disappointment to find that the feature which 
makes St. Peter's P. E. Church,' on the corner of T. ird 
and Pine Streets, Philadelphia, so unusually picturesque 
is not coeval with the original church, or chapel, structure. 
The upper part of the square tower, with its slender octagonal 
spire telescoping behind the batllemented roof, was added to 
the original chapel, in 1842, by the well-known architect 
William Strickland, 
in order to receive a 
chime of bells pre- 
sented about that 
time by some friend 
of the parish. 

In 1758, the Vestry 
of Christ Church, 
finding the structure 
that had been be- 
gun only thirty years 
before was already 
too small to accom- 
modate the increas- 
ing number of those 
who would worship 
there, record that ''it 
is unanimously 
agreed that another 
church is much 
wanted ; and it is 
proposed thai the 
taking and collecting 
the subscriptions and 
conducting the af- 
fairs relating to the 
building, and fur- 
nishing the said in- 
tended church, shall 
be under the man- 
agement of the min- 
ister, churcli wardens 
and vestry of Christ 
Church." 

As a chapel, then, 
of Christ Church, St. 
Peter's was built, be- 
tween 1758-61, and 
maintained until 
1832, when a separation from the parent body was effected. 

The site was granted by the "honorable proprietaries," 
and on it was built of brick a structure 6o'x9o' and crowned 
at one end by a small cupola in which hung two small bells. 
From the differences between the color and character of the 
brickwork of the upper and lower portions of the tower, it 
appears likely that the lower part of the tower is part of the 
original structure and that Strickland added to it the upper 
part and the spire, 

1 Plate 8, Part V. 



"GLORIA DEI," OR OLD SWEDES CHURCH. 



44 



T 




Chancel of the Old Swedes Church, Philadelphia, Pa. 



[Date, 1700.] 
iHUS, through God's blessing, we have com- 
pleted the great work and have built a church^ 
superior to any in this country, so that the 
English themselves, who now govern this Prov- 
ince, and are beyond measure richer than we are, wonder at 
what we have done." 

In the above words Pastor Bjork wrote home to Sweden 

in 1700, so that his 
superiors in the 
Swedish National 
Church might know 
what had been ac- 
complished and the 
successors of G u s- 
tave Adolphus might 
know how the Swed- 
ish Colonists, who 
emigrated to the 
country in conform- 
ity with a plan con- 
ceived by that king, 
were prospering. 
Probably many who 
regard with amiable 
approbation the 
important place held 
by Scandinavians in 
the tabulations of the 
annual influx of im- 
migrants of late years 
do not know that the 
Swedes are really 
amongst our oldest 
settlers. Their set- 
tlement at Wecacoe 

— now Philadelphia 

— antedates the 
arrival o f William 
Penn (the Tinicum 
Church, the prede- 
cessor of the present 
structure, being built 
in 1642), and Penn 
is said to have 
merely adopted in 
his dealings with the 

Indians the methods already practised by the Swedes. 

Although there are older church societies in the country 
and some of these have been able to celebrate their two 
hundred-and-fiftieth anniversary, the original structures in 
which their worship began have long since vanished and 
there are not many church fabrics in the country, not even 
the Spanish Mission Chapels in Texas, that can boast longer 
life than Gloria Dei, more familiarly known as the "Old 
Swedes Church "on Swanson Street, Philadelphia. Further 

- Plates 1 1 and 1 2, Part V. 



" GLORIA DEL" 



13 



than this, there is probably no parisli that has worshipped 
uninlerruptedly in the same building for so many years. 
Gloria Dei has never closed its doors, and in this it out- 
ranks the slightly older Swedish church that was built at 
Christina — now Wilmington, Del. 

In 1900 Gloria Dei will celebrate the two hundredth anni- 
versary of the completion of the church building and the two 
hundred and twenty-third anniversary of the formation of 
the Society. During the first hundred years of its existence 
the rites of the Swedish National Church were practised, but 
by the end of that time the Swedes had become thorough 
Americans, spoke English and no longer felt the closeness 



of tlie tie that connected them with their Mother Country, 
and so declined longer to receive the native Swedish pastors 
sent over from time to time. During the last hundred years 
the parish has been affiliated with the Protestant Episcopal 
Church. 

'I'he baptismal font is said to have been brought from 
Sweden by the early colonists, who used it in their service in 
the original church structure — the converted block-house that 
then stood where the church now stands. The bell, too, is 
recast from the old bell used in 1643, and bears the couplet : — 

" I to the church the living call, 
And to the grave do summon all." 



^^'r^? 



'\ ^'^^'-^^.t^^ 1^ 



Old Colonial Work in Virginia and Maryland. 



WILLIAMSBURG. 

THE ancient quiet of this old place, the residence- 
town of the royal governors and officers of the 
crown in His British Majesty's colony of Virginia, 
has been little disturbed by the irreverent on- 
slaught of nineteenth-century progress, and as the English 



Bacon had dri\en Governor lierkeley to refuge in Acco- 
mack, defeated the Indians, and made himself master of 
Virginia. He now called a great convention together at 
Middle Plantation, and, after a powerful harangue and a 
stormy debate, which lasted from noon to midnight of Au- 
gust 3, persuaded those present, among whom were several 



traveller, Burnaby, wrote of it in 1759, ''a pleasant little members of the royal council and many '' prime gentlemen " 

town with wooden houses and unpaved streets," so will the of the colony, to sign a declaration of their determination to 

modern wayfarer find it — an eminently respectable and stand by General Bacon, to " rise in arms against " Berkeley, 

highly conservative old burgh, proud of its vanished great- who was denounced a traitor and a rebel, "if he with armed 

ness and of its years. The railroad which sets one down forces should ofTer to resist the General; "to oppose " any 

from Richmond or Hampton, merely skirts the outer edge forces sent out of England at the request of Sir William or 

of the town, and, being out of sight, obtrudes itself upon otherways, to his aid;" — and much more of a like revolu- 



the general quaint- 
ness and age of the 
place only by the in- 
frequent rush and 
clatter of a passing 
train. 

From the veranda 
of the inn one has a 
very agreeable first 
impression of a long 
stretch of wide "dirt- 
road," bordered by 
two rows of trees, and 
having a straggling, 




A\ap of... 

"We. James RivLR... 








tionary tenor. The 
scene was one of the 
most striking and sig- 
nificant in the early 
history of the colony. 
In 1698 Governor 
Nicholson removed 
the seat of govern- 
ment from James- 
town, then "contain- 
ing only three or 
four good inhabited 
houses," to Middle 



1 Plantation, where he 

broken line of rather low and small old brick or wooden planned a large town, whose streets were designed to form 
houses on either hand. This is Duke of Gloucester Street, the letters VV and M, in honor of their Majesties, William 
a pleasant, high-sounding old name, which invokes in the and Mary of England — a conceit never carried out. 



mind of the tourist in search of the picturesque a sense of 
lively gratitude toward the old burghers for not having 
christened their single anportant thoroughfare in the more 
usual commonplace way. 

Williamsburg was founded, under its original name of 
Middle Plantation, in 1632, through an order granting fifty 
acres of land and e.xemption from general taxation to any 
one settling there. 

In August, 1676, when General Bacon and his victorious 



Williamsburg was thenceforward the centre of colonial 
growth, and, though never attaining any great importance 
as a town, it was ever thought a pleasant place to live in, 
numbering among its residents and visitors many great and 
famous men. 

In the immediate foreground, as one looks westward up 
the long, wide street, lies the old "bowling-green," a gener- 
ous, unenclosed square of close-cropped turf, on one side of 
which, and fronting upon the street, stands the court-house, 



army of rebels encamped there, it was only a small village a quaint little bit of architecture commonly accredited to Sir 
of straggling little houses. Christopher Wren. 



14 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



The building is oblong, and one story high. 'J'he walls 
are substantially built of small English brick, of a very pleas- 
ing dull-red color. The windows, high above the ground, 
are tall and narrow, and all the openings are crowned by 
semicircular arches, in which the dark, glazed brick used 
for headers is simply effective. Painted boards have re- 
placed the original round head sash and fan-lights. Where 
the thickness of the wall is reduced, at the floor-level, the 
offset is covered with a rounding moulded brick. There is 
a wide stone platform, with three steps to the ground, before 



f 










. Mffer 



-*- S**: 



Christopher Wren's Court-house, Williamsburg. 



growers. In 1668 we hear of three hundred pounds sent 
over as a present to Charles the Second. 

Then there came a period when the caterpillars languished 
and died, and the JJurgesses undid the law as to the com- 
pulsory planting of mulberry-trees. There was another 
mulberry revival when the Huguenot refugees came over, 
and in 1730 more silk was sent home to England; but noth- 
ing came of it all at last, except the grand old gnarled and 
knotted bolls and spreading branches of the trees, which we 
find composing effectively into foregrounds in these ancient 
places. 

Not far beyond the court-house is old Bruton Parish 
Church, standing within the walled enclosure of its "God's 
acre," and rearing its graceful, Wren-like tower amid the 
spreading branches of the ancient trees. Our eighteenth- 
century Englishman, Mr. Burnaby has set down old Bruton 
as " an indifferent church," but it was comparatively new in 
his day, and had scarce yet felt the beautifying touch of 
time. 

The vestry-book of the parish of Middlesex in the year 
1665 contains an entry directing the building in Middlesex 
of a church similar to the church of Bruton Parish. That this 
was a wooden building seems likely from an entry in the Bru. 
ton records of 1678 giving the list of donors to a new brick 
church,^ headed by John Page, who gives twenty pounds in 
money and the land for church and churchyard. The name 
of Bruton seems to have been originated by Mr. Sudwell, who 



the doorway, over which projects the roofed pediment of a 
portico, to which the columns are wanting. 'I'here is no evi 
dence that they were ever in place, nor does the eye miss 
them greatly after it has become a little accustomed to their 
absence. A wooden cornice, of simple membering, is car- 
ried round the building. The eaves have a moderate projec- 
tion. The hipped roof is crowned with a tall octagonal lan- 
tern of graceful form, with wooden finial surmounted by a 
good wrought-iron vane. 

The old mulberry trees along the street are very beautiful 
and effective in shape, and interesting as the relics of a craze 
which from time to time played a not insignificant part in 
Colonial Virginia, and, in fact, throughout all the thirteen 
colonies. Attempts to grow the silk-worm were renewed 
again and again in spite of failures, and the successive trials 
were continued over a period of about one hundred and 
sixty years, reaching down to the beginning of the Revolu- 
tion. Mulberry trees were planted everywhere. One finds 
them in numbers about the great old manor-houses on the 
river. The craze came over from England, as did every- 
thing else in those days, where it originated in an effort of 
the merchants to escape the paying of good English gold for 
French silk. The Jamestown people had a try at the mul- 
berries, and sent some silk to England, creating a tremen- 
dous excitement among tlie enthusiasts " at home," and so 
encouraging the hopeful that, in 1620, a lot of French silk- 
growers were sent out to give the experiment a fair trial in 
Virginia. Nothing seems to have come of this enterprise, 
and the stirring times of the Indian massacre of 1622 doubt, 
less drove the skilled "mounseers" away to sunny France 
again. 

Charles the First was always interested in the silk-growing, 
which he encouraged in his own ineffectual way. It went 
on under the Commonwealth, and we find good Edward 
Digges, in 1655, turning out as much as four hundred pounds 
of fine silk. Later, the House of Burgesses passed a law 
requiring the planting of one mulberry-tree to every ten 
acres of land. Great rewards were promised successful 




The Churchyard Cate. 

SO called the parish in memory of his birthplace at Bruton, 
in Somerset, England. He also gave twenty pounds toward 
the new building, and Philip Sudwell twenty pounds, and 
many others gave five pounds. And John Page was allowed 

iThis church, too, gave place in 1715 to a larger one. 28' x 75', with 
wings or transepts, the tower and steeple being added in 1769, in which 
still swings the bell, cast in 1761, presented by the queen herself. In 
1S3S the interior was iriaterially changed and at the same time the old 
pews and pulpit were removed. — Ed. 



CHRIST CHURCH, BRUTON PARISH. 



15 



to put up a pew in the chancel, where there was also one for 
the rector. 

As soon as the church was dedicated, the vestry made it 
known in the community that it was intended to enforce the 
penalty of so many pounds of tobacco against those who 
failed in their attendance. 

There seems to have been from the first a great struggle 
between the royal govern- 
ors and the church people 
as to the induction of the 
pastors. The Governor, 
as representative of the 
King, was the nominal 
head of the church, and, 
as such claimed the right 
of appointment, and was 
otherwise inclined to in- 
terfere with the functions 
of another great person- 
age, the Commissary to 
the Bishop of London. 
There was much unseemly 
squabbling over this mat- 
ter between these rival 
powers. In 1696 the 
salary of the rector was 




The Tomb of the Bravs in Bruton Parish Churchvard. 



By all odds the most distinguished churchman of colonial 
times, in Virginia, was James Blair, Rector of Bruton Parish, 
from 17 10 to 1743. He was the founder and first president 
of William and Mary College, and Commissary to the 
Bishop of London. His parish of Williamsburg, or Middle 
Plantation, was reported to the Bishop of London, in 1723, 
as ten miles square. His ministry "commenced," says 

Meade, "under the ad- 
ministration of Governor 
Spotswood, and with a 
tender from the Governor 
to the vestry of aid in 
building a new church, 
the plan of which was sent 
by him, and is, I presume, 
the same with that now 
standing. Itsdimensions 
were to be t w e n t y - 1 w o 
feet, with two wings, mak- 
ing it a cross as to form. 
The Governor offered to 
build twenty-two feet of 
the length himself." 

Blair was the most en- 
ergetic of men, and always 
foremost in the affairs of 



*H,--- '^" 



£]oTnti oi ^c \)s^\i> - 



%- 



fixed at sixteen thousand pounds of tobacco, in lieu of ;£"ioo Church and State. He kept up an endless warfare against 
per annum, which, the parishioners had complained, they the royal governors in matters relating mainly to the 
were unable to pay. The incumbents of Virginia livings Church, and he defeated them in succession and single- 
were not, as a rule, men of a high order, if we may believe handed. Even the genial and cultivated Alexander Spots- 
the traditions of their profligacy. One is said to have fought wood, that distinguished soldier and most accomplished 
a duel in his churchyard to settle a quarrel at cards, another gentleman, did not long live in amity with the staunch 
thrashed his contumacious vestry, and then preached them and invincible old cleric, and, as the Governor himself 



a sermon celebrat- 
ing his victory: 
swindling of trades- 
men, gambling, and 
attendance at horse- 
races and c o c k - 
fights seem to have 
been quite common 
among them and, 
finally, the evidence 
is unmistakable that 
they all, to a man, 
got gloriously drunk 
at dinner whenever 
they could. These, 
indeed, were the 
manners of the 
times, and perhaps 
the worthy parish- 
ioners were not so 
shocked as one 
might suppose by 
this behavior of 
their clergy. How- 
ever, the faithful 
continued the strug 
gle with the govern 
ors until they finally 




Christ Chiircii. liriiton I'nrish. Wiilianishiirc:, Va. 



admits, it was not 
the parson who was 
worsted. 

Blair's quarrel 
with Sir Edmund 
Andros was a fa- 
mous one, and he 
fairly drove the suc- 
cessor of Andros, 
Sir Francis Nichol- 
son, from the colony. 

Jiruton Church is 
really very beauti- 
ful. The gable on 
the east end is 
densely covered in 
ivy, and the suns 
and storms of many 
years have so mel- 
lowed and harmon 
ized the whole that 
one is loth to criti- 
cise in detail. No 
doubt it is, after all, 
but an indifferent 
affair, as our friend, 
the Archdeacon 
Burnaby, insists, 



won the rif^ht of hiring their parsons from year to year, a but the warm, yellowish-red tone of the old bricks, the simple 
system which, no doubt, largely increased the godliness of dignity in the lines of the building and the fair propor- 
deportment and improved the odor of sanctity in these tions of the old bell-tower, the clinging ivy, the back- 
reverend "entlemen. ground of fine old trees, of grassy yard and mouldering 



i6 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



mossy tombs, all so eloquent in the tender loveliness of been cleaned so as to reveal the beauty of the work, with- 

age, unite in a picture which has in it a good bit of old out, however, losing the inimitable mellow tones with which 

England, and is fidl of quiet charm. The tin roof which old time has glorified them. 

replaced tiie ancient shingles was an unhappy mistake, and In another part of the yard, lying half-hid among the long 

we may hope that the better taste which now controls the grass, is a plain gray slab of stone setting fortii in eloquent 

parish will, some dav, restore the nobler covering. Going simplicity that " Here lyes the corps of Hugh Orr, hammer- 



in through one of the wrought-iron gates set in the low wall 
of brick which surrounds the churchyard, one wanders 
among the tombs in that subdued enjoyment of the solemn 
beauty of the place found only in an ancient garden of the 
dead. Here are some quaint old stones, rich in sculptured 
heraldic device, and bearing, in graceful, antique letter, 
stately tribute to the deeds and virtues of the sleepers 
beneath. 



man in Williamsburg — 1764"- — and many graves there are 
unmarked by stone or mound, most eloquent, perhaps, of 
all. 

The interior of Bruton has little to reward the eye of the 
curious. There is, to be sure, the alleged, and doubtless 
perfectly authentic, Pocahontas font, in which they baptized 
the wild princess after they had talked her into becoming a 
Christian and the wife of John Rolfe. There is, also, some 



Here, under a twisted mulberry in the southeast sunny interesting communion-plate belonging to Bruton parish : 



angle of the wall, 
lies "Barradall, ar- 
miger," beneath a 
tomb blackened and 
seamed with age, 
but very good in 
design, and bearing 
a splendid sculpt- 
ured crest and a 
Latin eulogy of that 
worthy jurist of the 
colony, upon the flat 
top-stone. And not 
far from the tower, 
at the western end 
of the church, among 
a group of the larger 
tombs, is the hand- 
some monument 
erected by a grate- 
ful colony to the 
memory of P^dward 
Nott, late their 
Governor, '' a lover 
of mankind and 
bountiful to his 
friends," who died 
August 23, 1706, at 
the ageof forty-nine. 
The lettering of this 
inscription is par- 
ticularly good, and 
the armorial bear- 
ings carved above 
it are rich in scrolled foliation. At the head and foot and on 
the sides of (he tomb are relievos in white marble carved by a 
skilled hand. These marbles were, of course, brought over 
from the mother country, the work being of much too fine a 
quality to have been executed in the colony. Kdward Nott 
was the first deputy of the Earl of Orkney, who was made 
Titular-Governor of Virginia in 1704, but never caine out to 
his province. Nott's administration lasted only two years. 




lamb of E^dward 7\lor!^ 
Rpyq] (governor of V/i'c^inia.- Obit' l']o6 — 



the Jamestown ser- 
vice, presented by 
one Morrison to 
the old Jamestown 
Church, is of heavy 
silver, rather 
crudely fashioned, 
and probaby made 
in Jamestown, 
where there were 
capable artificers, 
sent out among the 
original companies. 
The ''Queen Anne" 
service is of gold, 
and richly chased 
with the arms of 
Beauchamp, and of 
another family. 
The work is said to 
have been done by 
Harache, a French 
emigre, who had 
been in the employ 
of the great Marl- 
borough. The third, 
a heavy silver-ser- 
vice, was presented 
to Christ Church, 
Bruton Parish, by 
George III: it bears 
the royal arms 
handsomely chased 
on flagon, chalice 
and paten, and is delicate'y wrought upon the edges with a 
shell design. Drawings of these sacred vessels may be seen 
in Ruck's "■ Old Flater 

Architecturally, the interior of the church cor.tains very 
little of interest. It is, however, rich in historical associa- 
tions, and the imagination easily peoples the old place wiJi 
the phantoms of departed greatness. 

Up there, ill the gallery, sat the " quality," in the older 



and he died in office, having won the affection of the colony time, when they came in their great state-coaches to church 

by his wise and beneficent government. from their plantations on the York or the James. From 

The large white marble monument of the Bray family, " Rosewell," over on the York, came the great Page family, 

close by, is also imposing. The larger tombs are being the descendants of Colonel John Page, who, as we have seen, 

cleaned and restored in a very satisfactory and intelligent was one of the original patrons of Bruton. At their splendid 

way under the auspices of the lady parishioners of ]5ruton. house of Rosewell, and on their neighboring estate of Shelly 

Those of Xott and Bray have been lifted out of the ground the Pages lived like the grand seigneurs they were. The old 

into which ihey had partially sunk, and their carvings have Indian name of Shelly was " U'eromocomoco," and it was 



CHRIST CHURCH, BRUTOX PARISH 



17 



here that grim old Powhatan set up his courl, and feasted 
in royal state upon the luscious oysters of the York. The 
Pages were great churchmen, and staunch upholders of the 
Establishment. Their estates were of vast extent, and 
Matthew Page, adding to them the great adjoining tract of 
Timber Neck, in 1690, by his marriage with Mary Mann, 
broadened the family acres into a princely domain. Mann 
Page, his son, built Rosewell House, in 1725, having brought 
the bulk of the material from England, as was usual in that 
time. Rosewell is ninety feet square, an imposing pile, and 
the interior was finished in all the elegance of wainscoted 
walls, mahogany stairs and carved mantels. 

The building of these splendid and costly manor-houses 
in the infant colony, as yet hardly more than the unreclaimed 
wilderness, was a curious instance of the ostentatious gran- 
deur of the period, exaggerated as it was among these lordly 
planters of Virginia, who emulated the pride and lu.xury of 
their English prototypes. 

Despite the wildness of the life they led, their society was 
distinguished for courtliness of manners and for a boundless 
hospitality, still an active principle in the households of their 
descendants. 

Educational facilities were very limited in the colony. 
The sons of the richer families were sent to William and 
Mary, or to England. Outside of these two resources there 
was nothing. But, after all, they picked up, somehow, enough 
learning to fit them to manage their plantations successfully, 
to look after the growth and final sale of the great staple, 
tobacco, to direct the training of their negroes in the trades 
and avocations of varied kind* exercised upon the larger 
places, to see to the importation of the household neces- 
sities and luxuries from England and, above all, to acquit 
themselves gallantly at race and rout, in the parlor or the 
woodland camp. To the personal beauty of the women 
who graced tlieir homes canvases by many a famous hand 
bear witness, and that they practised all the ilomestic virtues 
in a high degree in the midst of the reckless living, the prodi- 
gal hospitality and wild profusion of the times, we have, also, 
the amplest testimony. Then, as now, the reputable way- 
farer in the Old Dominion found every door open to him, and 
warm-hearted enteriainers eager to house and feed and help 
him on his journey. Tlie taverns were small, comfortless 
grogshops. The plantations were isolated, and, as there 
were few roads worthy the name, communication between 
them was mainly by the rivers upon which all the great places 
were located. As the country became more settled and 
roads were opened, the planters went-in for fine horses, and 
set up their studs of hunters and racers, often bred from 
famous imported sires of value. Their equipages were of 
great splendor. General Spotswood, living in retirement at 
Yorktown, advertises in the Virginia Gazette, in 1737. to sell 
his "coach, chariot, chaise and coach-horses," and "one of 
the best-made, handsomest and easiest chariots in London." 
And so the great people drove in state to church, with pomp of 
sleek, prancing coach-horses and splendor of crested panels. 

.-\nd, standing here in the warm sunshine in the doorway 
of the ancient house of God, we may fancy the Rosewell 
coach reined up at the gates, and discharging its aristocratic 
burden of satin-robed beauties and brave gentlemen on a 
bright May morning in the late colonial times; and we may 
see young Mr. Jefferson, at present an undergraduate of old 
William and Mary, stejjping down, to hand out the lovely 
mistress Rebecca Burwell, whom he adores just now, and 
who had the distinguished honor of refusing the embryo 
statesman's heart and hand somewhat later. We will picture 
Mr. Jefferson to oui imagination as a rather slim and callow 



youth, at this time, with curling locks of rufous gold, debo- 
nair, and of courtly manner. With him is his friend, John 
Page, of •' Rosewell," his chum at William and Mary, the fel- 
low-patriot with whom he listened to the denunciatory thun- 
derings of Henry in the House of Burgesses, and sweet Anne 
Randolph, and his friend Ben Harrison. As they enter the 
old church, wherein their ancestors have worshipped for gen- 
erations, and, with rustling of skirts, preening of feathers and 
smoothing of rumpled laces, march to their seats among the 
aristocrats in the gallery, the admiring commoners look on 
from their places on the floor below. 

Williamsburg was always the great centre of fashion in 
the old colony times. The " season " lasted during the 
session of the House of Burgesses and the Supreme Court, 
and when the time arrived for the meeting of those august 
bodies, every considerable planter in the country round 
bundled his family into the great state coach-and-six, and 
drove up to the capital for a few weeks' of brilliant gayety. 

The Royal Governors and other officers of the Crown vied 
with one another, and with the citizens, in the splendor and 
luxury of their dinners and balls. There were horse-races 
and many other sports, and gambling ever fast and furious, 
and now and then, at dawn of day, there was the gleam of 




At Sunrise. 

crossing swords or the pop of the duelling-pistol out behind 
tlie town, on a sequestered bit of turf beneath the trees, 
where hot-blooded gentlemen settled the undetermined issues 
of the night, of love or play. There were feasting and danc- 
ing at the Raleigh Tavern, and the plays of Shakespeare and 
Congreve were given by the " Virginia Company," from Eon- 
don ; and thus pleasantly did the life of the old capital roll 
on up to the sterner times of the Revolution. 

But, whatever wild gayety and dissipation ' may have filled 
the week, old Christ Church of Bruton received them within 
her venerable walls when the Sabbath came round, and with 
becoming decorum these aristocratic squires and dames, and 
beaux and belles, of the younger England, listened^ to the 
word of God in the old fane of their forefathers. 



' See note on .St. Peter's Cliurch. New Kent County, page 25. 

2 '-Mr. Camm was succeeded bv tlie Rev. Mr. Sliiekls, who was 
the minister to some now [i^>55] living. He was, it is believed, 
an intellif;ent and pious man. Some thoufjht him rather too much 
of a Methodist, I have it from relatives of one of the jjarty, tliat 
a lady of the old seliool. at a time when stiff brocades were the 
churcli dress of those who could afford it, would come home, after 
.some of Mr. Shields's more animated discourses, and call upon her 
maid to take off her clothes, for she had heard .so niucli of hell, 
damnation and death, that it would take her all the evening to get 
cool." — Ilis/iop Ml-ikIc. 



i8 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



THE WYTHE HOi'SE. Wythe House with a manifestation, appearing in full ball- 

JusT north of the church-yard, and fronting upon a grassy dress, with sweeping train of rich brocade and high-heeled 

open known as "Palace Green," on the upper side of wliich scarlet slippers with diamond buckles, 

stood Lord Dunmore's house, or ''the Governor's Palace," Yet another spectral tenant was known in the flesh as the 



as it was called among the patriots of 
'75, stands a line, old, square brick 
house which, the inquiring stranger 
will be informed, "was once General 
Washington's headquarters." Histori- 
cal accuracy, however, resolves this 
tradition into the lesser fact that Wash- 
ington spent the night at this house, the 
home of his friend George Wythe, on 
his way to join Lafayette at Yorktown 
in the latter part of September, 1781. 

'l"he old house is, however, quite in- 
teresting on its own account, and on 
going up to have a look at it, I was 
very courteously admitted, and had the 
pleasure of walking about the broad 
hall and large square rooms, and the fur- 
ther good fortune of hearing a sketch 
of the history and a legend or two, 
which, I think, I cannot do better than 
transcribe here, as literally as may be. 

The Wythe House, as this old home- 
stead is called, was built by Colonel 
Louis Taliaferro and given as a mar- 




The Wythe House, Williamsburg. 



consort of Governor John Page, who 
purchased Wythe House upon the death 
of Colonel Skipwith, and it is whispered 
that even the stately wraith of the 
Father of his Country himself, who was 
always a great friend of Wythe's, has 
been seen in the halls and on the broad 
stairway. 

Time would fail me to tell of the 
weird sounds that are heard, the doors 
that open without the touch of mortal 
hands, the phantom shapes which have 
been seen gliding through the corri- 
dors. But, one and all, these ghosts 
are ghosts of high degree and of un- 
exceptionable deportment, and never 
in the least have they encroached upon 
the peace and comfort of the residents 
of \\'ythe House. 

There is nothing especially note- 
worthy in the architecture of this old 
mansion unless it is the air of solid 
and substantial comfort which it wears. 
The plan is a very simple one — a wide 



riage portion to his daughter, the wife of George Wythe, central hall through the middle of the house, and two rooms 



who, to quote one of his biographers, was "the pure and 
virtuous Chancellor, a member of the House of Purgesses, a 
signer of the Declaration of Independence, a Member of 
Congress, Speaker of the House of Delegates, Judge of the 
Court of Appeals, a member of the Conventions on the Con- 
stitution of the United States, and Professor of Law at 
William and Mary College. To him was reserved the honor 
of devising the emblems and motto of the shield of Virginia." 
Wythe enjoyed the intimacy of Jefferson, Mason, Washington, 
and, in short, of the brightest minds of his day in Virginia. 
The Chancellor's 



on either side of this, each having three windows and a great 
fireplace. I did not examine the arrangement of the second 
story. The kitchens and offices are in a rear building. 



?^-o^ 



end was a tragic one, 
for he was poisoned 
by a nephew to 
whom he had be- 
queathed a large 
portion of his prop- 
erty. Though he 
died in Richmond, 
Williamsburg claims 
his ghost, and it is 
said that on the anni- 
versary of his death, 
the 8th of June, a 
shadowy form in an- 
tique garb glides 
from out the closet 
of his chamber in 
the old house, and a 
cold hand is gently 
laid upon the face of 

the sleeper in the room. After the Chancellor's death the 
property passed into the hands of Mr. Henry Skipwith, the 
third husband of the beautiful Elizabeth Byrd, of Westover, 
on ihe James. 

'I'he wraith of the fair Elizabeth, also, occasionally honors 



WILLIAM AND MARY COLLEGE. 

The college buildings stand marshalled on three sides of 
the old campus at the western end of Duke of Gloucester 
Street, the main house facing toward the street, while the 

President's house 
and ISrafferton stare 
at one another across 
the campus. The 
two latter are plain 
square buildings of 
considerable age. 
The schools have 
been three times de- 
stroyed by fire. The 
original buildings 
were " the composi- 
tion of Sir Christo- 
pher VVren," and pre- 
sumably very fine. 
They were burned 
in 1705, " the Gov- 
ernor and all the 
gentlemen that were 
in town coming to 

William and Mary College, Williamsburg. , , , , 

the lainentable spec- 
tacle, many of them getting out of their beds." Of the second 
structure^ we only know that Mr. Jefferson, who, by the way. 




iThe third of the series is evidently meant here. The second 
building, erected by Governor Spotswood, was burned in 1746, 
when Jefferson was only three or four years old. — Eu. 



WILLIAM AXD MARY. 



19 



was a tremendous critic in architectural matters, though 
perhaps not always successful in the application of his 
theories to practice, thought it looked very like a brick-kiln. 
There is now very little of interest about the place from 
an architectural point-of-view, or to one in search of the 
picturesque. 

The statue in white marble of Xorborne Berkeley, Baron 
Botetourt, which stands in the centre of the campus, was 
erected by the Assembly shortly after the death of Lord 
Botetourt in 1770, in grateful memory of a governor who was 
everywhere esteemed througliout the colony. He was a 
liberal patron of the college, to which he gave many prizes, 
and at the time of his death he was earnestly striving to win 
from the home government repeal of the acts which had 
given such offense to the colonists. The ravages of time or 
fortunes of war have despoiled the marble baron of his aris- 
tocratic nose, and some night-prowling and irreverent under- 



urged that Virginians had souls to save as well as the Eng- 
lish, he thundered out, "Souls! Damn your souls! Make 
tobacco ! " 

In the library, among many costly treasures in rare old 
volumes and prints, are two portraits of Parson Blair done 
at different periods in his stormy and eventful life. 



^^cj^ 



THE POWDER-HOUSE, WILLIAMSBURG. 

There are to be seen at the post-office, in Williamsburg, 
some interesting old files of tlie Virginia Gazette, started at 
Williamsburg in 1736, the first, and for many years the only, 
newspaper published in the colony. Its columns contained 
local news, the latest advices from England and the Con- 
tinent — not more than a month or two out of date — the 



graduate had, at the time of my visit, affixed a gory streak of fortnightly mail from the North and the monthly post from 
red sealing wax across the august countenance, lending an 'he South, dignified commentaries on current topics, and ad- 
ensanguined and hostile look to the benign features. vertisements of quaint and curious flavor. Among the locals 
Old William and Mary enjoys the distinction of being, this one about the old powder-house affair is worth reading : 
after Harvard, the oldest college in America, and she has "This morning, between three and four o'clock, all the 




counted among her sons 
very many of the great 
ones of our land, having 
"sent out for their work in 
the world twenty-seven 
soldiers of the Revolution, 
two attorney-generals, 
nearly twenty members of 
Congress, fifteen senators, 
seventeen governors, tliirty- 
seven judges, a lieutenant- 
general and other officers, 
two commodores, twelve 
professors, four signers of 
the Declaration, seven 
cabinet officers, a chief 
justice, and three presi- 
dents of the Republic." 

In colonial times it was 
the only educational estab- 
lishment of the rank of a college in all Virginia, and directed 
the intellectual training of a majority of the best men in the 
colony, although a very aristocratic few of the sons of the 
wealthier families were sent over to Eton and Oxford. 

The history of tiie college is closely interwoven with that 
of James Blair, Commissary to tiie Bishop of London and 
Rector of Bruton Parish, who was its founder, first president 
and lifelong defender. The colony sent him to England on 
a mission to King William in behalf of the projected insti- 
tution, and he returned in 1693 with the charter of the col- 
lege signed by their majesties, \\'illiam and Mary. It 
was liberally endowed with rich lands, a sum of /'2,ooo, 
arrears of quit-rents, one penny per pound on exports of 
tobacco, the office-fees and emolunienis of Surveyor-general 
and a seat in the Assembly, and was founded as '" a semin- 
ary of ministers of the Gospel where youths may be piously 
educated in good letters and manners ; a certain place of 
universal study, or perpetual college of divinity, philosophy, 
language, and other good aris and sciences." 

The English Attorney-general Seymour, when ordered to 
draw up the charter, objected to tlie expenditure of public 
funds for making divinity-students while England was at 
war and wanting soldiers, and to the redoubtable Pilair, who 



The Nfkon House, Yorktown.* 



powder in the magazine to 
the amount, as we hear, of 
twenty barrels, was carried 
off in His Excellency the 
Governor's wagon escorted 
by a detachment of marines 
from the armed schooner 
'■Magdalen,' now lying at 
Burwell's Ferry, and 
lodged on board that ves- 
sel " — whereupon "the 
whole city was alarmed 
and greatly exasperated." 
In a later issue, account 
is given of indignation- 
meetings among tlie citi- 
zens, and the full text of a 
long-winded and eloquent 
address of remonstrance 
by the Hon. Peyton Ran- 
dolph and a deputation, upon hearing which Lord Dunmore 
flies into a fine rage, and talks of burning the town. 

A few days after, we read, the people seize all the arms in 
the powder-house, and His Lordship sends over to the 
" Fowey," lying at Yorktown, for troops. A squad of soldiers 
are marched over to Williamsburg, and mount guard on 
Palace Green before the Governor's house. The ^'' Fowey' s" 
captain meanwhile has informed Mr. Thomas Nelson, the 
principal citizen of Yorktown, that in case the Williams- 
burgers attack his men the guns of the "Fowey" will 
open upon Yorktown without furtner warning. The warlike 



•TiiK Nf.i.sox Housk, Yokktown'. — Down tlie peninsula 
from West Point is one of the dead ])laccs of this more than alive 
contiiiL'iit. 'I'liis (juaint old remnant of a town, with its glorious 
jiast. situated on one of tlie finest harbors in the world, contains 
four si)ots of especial interest: The first Custom-house of the 
United States; the Moore House, where the capitulation of 
Coruwallis's surrender was signed ; the beautiful monument raised 
in i.SSi l)y the Cnited States to commemorate tlie surrender of 
Coruwallis, and the Nelson House, whose grim walls contain the 
shells of the Revolution imbedded therein. The spacious interior 
of this old mansion has echoed with the tread of Washini;tou, 
Lafayette, Coruwallis, 'I'lionias Jefferson and many another fjjreat 
man. 'I'he last Nelson has left it and it stands tenantless await- 
in;,' the fate it deserves, the protection of the t'niled .States 
Covernment. S". N. R. 



20 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



aspect of affairs fii)ally reaches a climax wiien news is brought 
that Patriclc Henry is marching on the capital, at the head of 
5,000 men, to demand redress of these tyrannous abuses. 
In the last chapter of the story Lord Dunmore pays the 
value of the powder, and Mr. Henry's forces disband and 
return to their homes. 

The powder-house, now called the " Old Powder Horn," 
was built by Alexander Spotswood' early in the eighteenth 
century. This Governor is said to have done more for the 
general improvement of the colony than any of his prede- 
cessors. He was the son of a distinguished Scottish cava- 
lier who had died upon the scaffold for devotion to his King. 




Tile Powder house, Williamsburg. 

A brave soldier — he served, it is said, on the staff of Marl- 
borough — and a most accomplished gentleman, Spotswood 
possessed administrative abilities of a high order. His 
policy of peace with the Indians was eminently successful, 
and his project of requiring the chiefs of tribes to send their 
sons to be trained in the schools of the whites was productive 
of great good. 

The most picturesque incident of Governor Spotswood's 
rule was his leading a party of young explorers from 
Williamsburg across the Alleghanies and into the unknown 
regions beyond. It was a royal frolic, and in about six 
weeks the expedition rode back covered with glory and 
stocked with romantic stories of the marvels of that ultitna 
Thitle, the beautiful Valley of Virginia. Spotswood dubbed 
his young adventurers "Knights of the Horseshoe," and be- 
fore disbanding the company he gave them each a golden 
horseshoe to be worn thereafter upon the lapel in memory 
of the affair. King George hearing of these brave doings 
intimated his gracious pleasure by sending over to Spots- 
wood a little jewelled horseshoe and a baronetcy. 

On leaving office, the Governor retired to his country-seat 
at Germanna, whither came Colonel Byrd, of Westover, in 
due course, to visit his old-time friend, finding "Colonel 
Spotswood's enchanted castle on one side of the street and 
a baker's dozen of ruinous tenements on the other side; there 
was, also, a chapel about a bow's-shot from the Governor's 
house, at the end of an avenue of cherry-trees," and the 
Governor's iron foundries, the first in the colony. 

The old powder-house, to return from our little digression, 
is a tall, eight-sided brick tower crowned with a high conical 
roof. The double wall has fallen in on one side and bulges 

' On November 1 1, 1896, Williamsburg was the scene of a con- 
siderable festivity, the occasion being the unveiling of a memorial 
stained-glass window placed in the old ■' I'owder Horn "' by a 
descendant of (lovernor Spotswood. 'I'lie design of the glasswork 
includes a three-t|uarter-length portrait of the (iovernor, his armo- 
rial bearings and family devices. IJeneath the glass is a brass 
tablet which records tliat : 

" In memory of William Francisco Spotswood tliis is erected : 

To preserve the honor of Alexander Spotswood, who, under Anne 
and (leorge, Sovereigns, by the (".race of God, of England, Scot- 
land. Ireland and France, served as Lieutenant-Governor of the 
I'rovince of \'irginia, from the year 1710 to the year 1722." — Eij. 



badly on the other faces, the decaying roof-timbers threaten 
to collapse, and the handsome wrought-iron finial leans dis- 
mally askew. 'I'he " Old Powder-horn " is almost a wreck, 
indeed. The surroundings are not what one could wish for 
so interesting a relic ; in fact, the old magazine stands in a 
stable-yard, and is partly hid from the view of the passer-by 
on Duke of Gloucester Street by tall and very unbeautiful 
board fences. A movement is on foot to purchase the build- 
ing, with a small plat of ground about it, from the present 
rather unappreciative owner. When this much may be ac- 
complished, it is proposed to rebuild the fallen wall with the 
old bricks, which lie where they fell, to tie the walls securely, 
to support the roof with some auxiliary framing, and so to 
arrest the threatened collapse of the tower. But a small 
sum will be needed to carry out the work.- 



Q 



a 



JAMESTOWN CHURCH. 

The road from Williamsburg to the ancient site of James- 
town, assuredly not among the best of roads, passes out of 
the town by the campus of old Williain and Mary, and, bears 
off toward the southwest over a rolling country. Plunging 
into little valleys, scaling steep, short hills, winding through 
belts of the forest primeval, or diving into dark, damp places 
where gnarled roots and stumps cotnbine with mud-holes of 
amazing muddiness to produce an interesting variety of sensa- 
tions, the old road ineanders on toward the river, growing 
ever worse. Descending at last into a reedy marsh of broad 

extent, which is crossed upon 
a bed of roughest corduroy, 
bearing evidence of complete 
submergence at high water, 
and suggestive of being a 
very uncomfortable place on 
a dark night and a full tide, 
and on the farther side of the 
marsh going over a shaky 
bridge which spans the inside 
channel of the river, the road 
arrives upon the historic soil 
of Jamestown Island. 

From this point there form- 
erly stretched to the mainland 
a narrow neck of land, where 
readers of colonial history will 




The Church Tower, Jamestown. 



remember Sir William Berkeley and his motley troop from 
Accomack making their famous stand against the invading 
army of the rebel Bacon. But the isthmus is long since 
sunk out of sight, and now the yellow waters of the James 
lap all sides of the foriner peninsula. The island contains 
nearly seventeen hundred acres, lying in a long, narrow 
strip of land, two-thirds of whose entire area is marsh sub- 
ject to overflow. Near the western end of the island is the 

" The work of restoration here spoken of as desirable has since 
been carried out through the efforts of certain associations of ladies 
who have patriotically made it their task to preserve some of the 
interesting relics of early Mrginian times. Not only has the old 
I'owder House been restored by these ladie.s, but they have also 
purchased the Mary Washington house in Fredericksburg, in 
which the mother of Washington lived and died: rendered ma- 
terial aid in the restoration of old St. Luke's Church, in Isle of 
Wight County, the oldest Protestant church in this country, and 
done equal justice to Christ Church, in Lancaster County, and have 
made efforts towards the preservation of what still remains of 
Jamestown. It is comforting to believe that this movement will 
gain strength with the passage of time. — Ed. 



JAMESTOWN CHURCHES. 



21 



crumbling, mossy, ivy-grown ruin of a brick cliurch-tower, 
about all that is left of the ancient place. Standing in a 
copse of fine old trees, the ruined tower is very picturesque, 
and has an interest in itself apart from that which clings to 
it as the old-time place of worship of that wonderful band of 
adventurers who founded Jamestown, the first permanent 
English settlement in America. The tower is eighteen feet 
square, and is pierced on two of its sides by high, round- 
arched openings. It is built of a small, dull-red English 
brick laid in the Flemish bond. 

Beyond it the foundations of the old church are traceable, 
covering an oblong space of twenty-eight (28) by fifty-si.x 
(56) feet, and close by is a wall built in the latter part of 
the eighteenth century from the ruined wall of the old 
enclosure around about one-third of the original churchyard. 
Within are some ancient tombs, upon which one deciphers, 
under the moss and rime, quaint epitaphs of Amblers and 
Jacquelines, Sudwells and Lees.' Of these, the Jacquelines 
and Amblers for many generations were the principal own- 
ers of the island, as the Lees and Sudwells were of Green 
Spring, some few miles distant, and famous as the home and 
place of retirement of that staunch old royalist. Sir William 
Berkeley. After that dismal morning in 1649 at Whitehall, 
the old cavalier, his governorship given to the hated Round- 
head, his idol dead, the faith for which he liad lived and 
would gladly have died, i\\t jus divinuvi, trampled under foot 
by clods and boors, found in peaceful rural life, in the 
company of his wife and friends at his modest house at 
Green Spring, a balm for all his wounds. Here he waited 
and watched events, through those long, stern years of the 
Protectorate, until "Noll" was gone and the son of Charles 
had come unto his own again, when the fierce old knight 
held the reins once more over the young colony. Berkeley 
died in England in 1677, leaving Green Spring to his widow, 
who afterward married Colonel Philip Sudwell. 



'Stratfokd Hf)rsK, Wkstmorki-And Co., \'.\. — It is very 
fortunate for tiie present occupants tliat •■ .Stratford " is so inac- 
cessible both to the idolaters of Ceneral Robert K. l.ee. for in 
this house he was born, and to those who liave an arcl;iteclural 



" Something special in the way of notice is due to the con- 
dition of the tombs of Commissary and Mrs. Blair, the latter 
being the daughter of Philip Sudwell, of Green Spring, who 
married Sarah Grymes, of Middlesex. The tombs were 
placed side by side, and were very heavy and strong. The 
platform, sides and ends were of white freestone, and the 
interior filled with bricks well cemented. The top slabs, on 
which the inscriptions were made, are of dark ironstone or 
black marble. A sycamore shoot sprang up between the 
graves, and is now a large tree. In its growth it embraced, 
on one end and on the top, the tomb of Mrs. Blair, one- 
third of which lies embedded 
in the body of the tree and is 
held immovable. All the in- 
terior, consisting of brick, and 
two of the side stones, have 
been entirely forced out of 
their places by the tree, and 
lie scattered around, while the 
dark ironstone is held in the 
air three feet above the sur- 
face of the earth, fast bound 
by the embrace of the body of 
the tree into which it is sunk 
between one and two feet, the 
inscription being only par- 
tially legible. On the other 
side, the whole tomb of Com- 
missary Blair has been forced 
from its place by the roots 
and body of the tree, and is broken to pieces in all its parts." 
This account of the old graveyard is from Bishop Meade's 
" Old Churches" and the date of the ruined tower is discussed 
at some length by the same eminent authority, who says : 

"As there are conflicting opinions concerning the date of 
the erection of this old church — some affirming that what 
we see are the ruins of that which was destroyed in Bacon's 
Rebellion, while others affirm the building of a new one 
after that event — we will briefly state the facts bearing on 
the case. Tiie history of the succession of the Jamestown 
churches is as follows : The first place of worship, as 

from the landing and the walking; over the \'irginian country road 
is not of tlie best. Architecturallv, Stratford is of mucli interest 
bv reason of its huge cliimnev-stacks and tlic fact that the house is 
entered at tlie tirst-story level. 'I'he present structure was built to 




Jamestown. 










^<l^^ 



Slralford Hniifo, Wislnicrel.ird ('n., V.t. 



or historical interest in the buildings of the Colonial times. 1 he 
boat touches at the primitive landing nearest to the place Roini; 
but does not stoj) on the way back, so that as there are only two 
trips a week the unwary traveller may find liimself unsxpictedly 
stranded for two or tluee davs, at a place where tliere is no hotel 
to take refuge in. liesides tliis. Stratford, itself, is s;veral miles 



rejjlace tlie cirii;inal house destroyed by fire, whereof the destruc- 
tion liad so moved Oueen Caroline that, although she knew the 
owner. Mr. Tliomas l.ee, only by reputation, she sent hini money 
to be used in rebuilding. .Stratford House, therefore, dates from 
early in the second <|uarter of the eighteenth centurv. and is a 
token of tlie generous sympathy of tlie wife of ( Icorge II. — Ym. 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



described by Captain Smith, was made of tlie awning, or old 
sails, taken from vessels and fastened to trees. The second 
was a very plain log building, which was burned down in the 
second or third year of the colony, during the ministry of 
the Rev. Mr. Hunt." 

In his ''History of Virginia" Captain Smith, himself, 
writes at some length about the church and its pastor : 

" The log church firll erected was burned down the fol- 
lowing winter with many other houfes. Mr. Hunt loft all 
his books and everything elfe but the clothes on his back. 
Yet none ever faw him repine at his lofs." 

Robert Hunt came over in 1606 with the first company, 
and was bv all accounts a most noble character. 



THLS is probably as appropriate a point as any to interject such 
material as we have been able to gather relating to the eccle- 
siastical architecture of the period in \'irginia. so sharply varied in 
character, so ditterent from tlie colonial churclies of New England, 
not only in material but in design. The following disjoined notes 
are therefore inserted here. — Ku. 

CrxNiXGHAM CiiAPEL. Cl.vukk Co., \'a. — '• Aniong the first 
tilings done by the vestry of Frederick, after its reorganization in 
1787, was the adoption of measures for the building of a stone 
chapel where it was designed to erect that one wliich failed, 
through the disagreement of the people and vestry, just before the 
Revolution, viz, where that called Cunningham's Chapel stood. 
The land having now come into the possession of Colonel Na- 
thaniel ISurwell, the same two acres for a church and burying- 
ground, which were offered by Colonel Hugh Nelson before the 
war, were now given by Colonel liurwell. and the present stone 
chapel was ordered to be built in i 790. At what time it was com- 
pleted does not appear, but probably in the same year." — Bishop 
Meade's " Old CJifiriJies and FamiUes of l^irginia.''' 

Between the years 1740 and 1750, Cunningham Chapel, a log 
structure, was built at a cost of ^49 Virginia money. About i 790 
this was replaced l)v a stone church, near the same spot and upon 
the two acres of land given by Colonel Nathaniel liurwell for a 
church and a cemetery. This is by far the most interesting .spot 
in the county. . . . Thev have a custom in this unique com- 
munity of meeting on All Saint's Day to bring flowers with which 
to honor the graves of their ancestors. 'Tis a reverent ceremony 
and full of love, yet it is also a joyous time, usually a time of 
radiant sunshine and beauty and also of l)ecoming autumnal 
sadness. 

Modern churches have accommodated modern needs, but mid- 
summer brings eacli year the divided neighborhood together, and 
once again they kneel around the cliancel and do as their fathers 
did. The selfsame velvet bag at the end of a long rod receives 




The Cunningham (Jhajiel, commonly known as "Old Ch;ipel," Clarke Co., Va. 
[Date, 17'jo.l 

the coin, and the tall-backed pews almost liide each from his neigh- 
l)or. "I'is hut a step into the cemetery, and here the great, great 
ij^raiuU hild will visit the toml) of liis fathers and know liis place 



" Upon any alarm he was as ready at defence as any, and 
till he could not fpeak he never ceafed to his utmoft to ani- 
mate us continually to perlift." 

The "■ Advertiseinetiis for the Unexperienced Planters of New 
England or Else^vhere, etc," a pamphlet published by John 
Smith in 1631, contains a more detailed account of the 
churches during his stay in the colony : 

"When I went firft to Virginia, I well remember, we did 
hang an awning — which is an old fail — to three or four 
trees, to fliadow us from the fun ; our walls were rails of 
wood, our feats were unhewed trees till we cut planks, our 
pulpit a bar of wood nailed to two neighboring trees; in foul 
weather we fliifted into an old rotten tent, for we had few 

will be among them. Many wander far away from it, but all 
return to die and rest under the shadow of its trees after the last 
service is done. So all these I'ages, and IJurwells, and Nelsons, 
and Whitings, and Harrisons, and Randolphs, and Meades, and 
Cookes, and Carters, these all have lived upon this soil, and now 
hundreds of them lie buried beneath a dear sod, awaiting a blessed 
resurrection. — M. P. Dtival. 



Wai^e Church, Gloucester Co., Va. — Recalling the archi- 
tectural characteristics of Christ Church, Alexandria, of Bruton 
Church, and of St. Peter's, buildings that may be called complete 




i.rs.j 



■ Airangrment of brick work ■ 
■Light and. d^rk 



Ware Church, Gloucester Co , Va. 



in ecclesiastical architectural forms, we made especial efforts to 
procure illustrations of the churches at Ware and Abingdon, which 
from several different sources we learned had the reputation of 
being the " most interesting colonial churches in \'irginia." It 
was then with a pardonable feeling of disappointment that we 
subsequently discovered that Ware Church is exteriorly but a 
simple little brick structure with a pitch roof, tlie wooden cornice 
at the eaves rather crudely treated and the door and window treat- 
ment giving no evidence beyond good straiglitforward work of any 
especial care on the part of the designer. \'ery likely the reputa- 
tion of the little building rests on its interior treatment, but of this 
we have been able to learn nothing. But its simplicity bespeaks 
its age and at tlie same time seems to give the lie to the date 
asserted to belong to St. Luke's, at Smithfield. — Ed. 



St. Luke's, S.mithfiei.d. — "The present village was incor- 
porated in 1752. It finished its growth a long time ago, when it 
had acquired a population of about one thousand. It is not a 
dihijiidated town, liowever, but seems fairlv prosperous, with 
a good class of dwellings and a very few handsome ones. All in 
all, it is very attractive, with fine, old-fashioned, colonial-looking 
houses in large, pleasant grounds, with abundant and large shade- 
trees. It is at tile head of the creek, also known as Warraskovack, 
under many spellings, five or six miles off the James. Just before 
reaching the village the creek doubles on itself, running back at 
the foot of a high ridge to form a long peninsula. Among the 
residents this is now known as Pagan creek, or river; whether in 
remembrance of its ancient or modern inhabitants does not appear. 
When they want an ' appropriation ' it is Pagan river, as, in its 
beneficence. Congress draws the line at creeks. 

" To most readers Smithfield is only associated with a brand of 
ham. There is, in fact, a ham factory, whose product is held in 
high repute. Where they procure the raw material is not evident. 
The ' Isle of Hogges,' where the first colonists sent their swine 
to live as best they might on what they should find or turn up. is 



VIRGINIA CHURCHES. 



better, and this came by way of adventure for new. This 
was our church till we built a homely thing like a barn, fet 
up on crotchets, covered with rafts, fedge and earth ; fo was 
alfo the walls. The bell of our houfes were of the like curi- 
ofity, but the moft part far much worfe workmanfliip, that 
could neither well defend wind nor rain; yet we had daily 
Common Prayer morning and evening, every Sunday two 
fermons, and every three months the holy communion till 
our minifter died. . . ."' 

During Smith's survey of the Chesapeake, not the least of 
his great achievements, the Indians burned the church. He 
had it rebuilt at once upon his return. " Now the building 
of the palace was flayed as a thing needlefs, and the church 
was repaired." 

a few miles above, in the James. In driving about we saw only a 
few razor-backs that looked as though they niii;ht have been an 
escape from the original drove. The quality of the hams, eaten, 
as it were, on their native heath, is undeniably good. What your 
grocer sells you under this laljel, ' well, that is another story.' 
Sweet-potatoes, and especially peanuts, are a large article of 
export. 

" Nearly all the houses have been built lona; enough to have a 
somewhat old-time air about them. Many date from about the 
beginning of the century, and a half dozen from the incorporation 
of the town. As interesting as any is the old court-house, built 



Of the further history of the churches, Meade continues: 

"The third was a larger and better one, probably of wood, 
built during the presidency of Captain Smith, and in a ruin- 
ous or neglected condition when Lord De La War arrived, 
in 1611, who immediately ordered that the church be 
thoroughly repaired. Strachey, Secretary and Recorder of 
the colony, gives this description of it : ' It is in length 
three-fcore foot, in breadth twenty-four, and fliall have a 
chancel in it of cedar, a communion-table of black walnut, 
and all the pews of cedar, with fair, broad windows, to fliut 
and open — as the weather fliall occafion — of the fame wood, 
a pulpit of the fame, with a font hewn below like a canoe, 
with two bells at the well end. It is fo cafle, as it be very 
light within, and the Lord Governor and Captain-General 



leading to it. lieyond. the road winds pleasantly amonjj fields of 
peanut-s and sweet-potatoes. We come finally to a wooded ravine, 
througli which flows a clear, swift-running brook, a veritable 
phenomenon in this part of the country. At the foot of a rock is 
a spring, considerably walled up, with a nice new oyster-shell from 
which the weary traveller may cjuench his thirst. At the top of 
the hill beyond, in the midst of a grove of large native trees, oaks, 
button-wood and walnut, venerable with thrice the supposititious 
years of ■ the many-wintered crow,' stands the oldest J'rotestant 
Churcli building in America. It was built in 1632, only ten years 
after the Indian massacre. 




.St. Lulte's, .Siiiitlifit 

about an even hundred years ago. It has long been transformed 
into a dwellinji, the county scat havinji been removed to Isle of 
Wijjht. In this house the wife of the late (General Mahone was 
born and raised. The front has been modernized bv the addition 
of porches, l)ut the back part remains unaltered. There was the 
judge's bencli, the bar and jury-box. the court-room extendint; for- 
ward toward the street. The small brick building on the corner 
was the clerk's office, and remains unchanj^ed. 

" liut the object of chief interest, that wliich brought the writer 
to Smithfield. is not there, but five miles out on tlie Suffolk road. 
We cross a Kickety drawhridije over a branch of the creek, which 
eats its way indefinitely uj) into the land. There is a long stretch 
of salt marsh, with its corduroy a foot under water at high-tide. 



Id. [Date, 1632.I 

" At that time the entire population was Episcopalian, but finally 
conditions changed, old families moved away, other denominations 
sprang up and the service in the old church could no longer be 
kept up. The years went by. and it was abandoned and left to 
desolation. The roof-tree fell in, the windows rotted away and it 
stood forlorn, a thing of dread to children and a sad memento to 
the old of the vicissitude of things. 

•■ So wide an interest attached to the building that an effort was 
made to restore it. Contributions were ol)tained from various 
Ijarts of the country, and two years ago |iS(;4]the church was 
rededicated and services are again held. Within, it is, of course, 
entirelv new. Without, a few dozen bricks only were needed. 

•• Tlie interior is handsomely finished. The ' pictured panes' 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



doth caufe it to be kept paflnig fweet, and trimmed up 
with divers flowers, with a fexton belonging to it. Every 
Sunday, wiien tlie Lord Governor and Captain-General goeth 
to church, he is accompanied by all the counfellors, cap- 
tains, other officers and all the gentlemen, with a guard of 
Halberdiers in his Lordiliip's livery of fair red cloakes, to 



the number of fifty, on each fide and behind him. His 
Lordlhip iiath his feat in the Quoir, in a great velvet chair, 
with a cloth, with a velvet culhion fpread before him, on 
which he kneeleth, and on each fide fit the council, captains 
and officers, each in their place, and when he returnetli home 
again he is waited on to his houfe in the fame manner.' 



are the gift of individual donors and societies. Behind the altar is 
a handsome and, lor the size of the building, large memorial win- 
dow. In the floor of tlie chancel are sot two tombstones, brought 
from the old Hridger estate, a few miles away. The inscription of 
the one, in capital letters, the dash showing the division on the 
stone, is as follows : 'Sacred — To ye Memory of — The Honble 
Jol'eph Bridger — Kfq., Councelr of State in \'irginia — to King 
Charles ye 2d — Dying April ve 15, 1686 — Aged 59 Yeares — 
Mournfully Left His Wife, 3 Sons & 4 Daughters.' Below is a 
long eulosv in verse, written without division into lines on the 
stone. 1 quote four oat of the twelve : ' Here lies ye late great 
niinider of State. That Royal virtues had and Royal fate To 
Charles his Councels did such hon'rs bring. His own exprefs 
fetched him r" attend ye King.' This man was the paymaster 
general of the liritish troops in America during the liacon rebel- 
hon, exactly a hundred years before tlie revolutionary war. His 
father was the man wlio built the church. 

" In a country where we have no great antiquities, or none left 
by our race, so new upon this continent, such a memorial, cover- 
ing almost the entire period of our history, slujuld have an ex- 
traordinary interest, which must deepen as the generations go by.'' 
— Wcisliington Star, September, 1896. 




R«ar View of Christ Churcli, Lancaster Co , Va., near Carter's Creek, Rappalianock Kiver, 1732 



Christ Church, Laxcastkr Co., \ .\. — The Philadelphia 
Times published, January 0, 1898, the following account of a build- 
ing which should be 
deserving sometime of 
a complete architect- 
ural record : "In a 
remote corner of Lan- 
caster County, Va., is 
an old Colonial church 
whicli is generally coii- 
ceded to be the quaint- 
est Ijuilding in \'irginia, 
and is said to have the 
distinction of being 
the only church in this 
country which yet re- 
mains exactly as it was 
in Colonial davs. 
Other Colonial 
churches still standing 
have been so much 
'restored' that it is 
well-ni<;h impossible to 
gain from theiu an ex- 
act idea of what they 
formerly w;ere. This 
old Christ Church, 
thanks probably to its inacce.ssil3le location and tlie consequent 
withdrawal of its congregation to other churches, has had no alter- 
ations whatever made in it excepting tliose caused by time : these 
it has withstood to a remarkable degree, owing to its sturdy and 
solid construction. 

"The church was built in the year 1732 on the site of an older 
one, which had been erected nearly seventy years before. Much 
of the same material wliich had done service in the first church 
was used in building the second. The old tombstones, bearing 
dates of 1669, 1674, etc., were carefully removed into it, as was 
also the vestry-book of the parish, kept from the year 1654 to 
1770, a volume of great value and interest. Recently the Society 
for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities has been impressed 
with the importance of caring for so uni(|ue a relic, and has 
donated a sum to be used in preserving the building. 

" The location of the church makes it inaccessible save by a 
day"s journey by river, so comparatively few have ever seen it. 
On our arrival, we found the quaintest building it had ever been 
our good fiirttme to come across. (Uiarded by an old colored 
man, who lived in a shanty across the roadside, who fairly beamed 
with delight on seeing u.s, for visitors are scarce in that out-of-the- 
way spot, the church, which he regarded with the pride of pro- 
prietorship, never fails to elicit admiration from all. Accord- 
ingly, Uncle 'l"om conducted us with much ceremony into the 
church, which is built in the shape of a (Ireek cross, with four 
beautiful arches sup])orting tlie centre and forming a loftv dome, 



where the arms of the cross deflect. The brick walls are 3 feet 
thick. The pulpit is perched hij^h up in the air on the side of the 
nortlieast archway, and to get into it one has to perforin the rather 
difficult feat of climbing the narrow winding stairway, now in a 
very rickety condition. 

" Over the pulpit is a quaint sounding-board, and at the foot of 
the winding-stair is the old-time clerk's desk. These, and also the 
communion-taljle, pews and massive door.s, are of solid black- 
walnut, carved by hand. The pews are square, with backs so high 
that while sitting or kneeling their occupants are entirely hidden, 
.Small chance there of stealing a glance at pretty neighbors across 
the way, for as old Uncle Tom remarked, with a chuckle, ' There 
warn't notliing to do but jest look at the preacher or take a nap.' 
This preacher, it may be mentioned, received for salary 16,000 
pounds of tobacco a year, as was the custom in early Virginia. 
To raise this, it being a State church, the vestry assessed each 
man in tlie county a certain amount of tobacco, which he was 
compelled by law to pay, whether he attended the church or not. 

" One of the pews was dedicated to the use of the county magis- 
trate, justice of the peace and sheriff, who filed solemnly in of a 
.Sunday with all the dignity befitting the ujjholders of the law. 
Opposite and facing the pulpit is the largest pew in the church, 
whose size ecpials that of a ball-room. It has seats around all four 
sides. Its backs are nearly five feet high, and were formerly sur- 
mounted by brass rods, which held thick damask curtains, so that 
^ even when standing 

^ those inside could 

neither see nor be seen. 
" This pew, our guide 
informed us, belonged 
to Robert Carter 
(which he pronounced 
' Ky-arter,' with that 
delightful inimitable 
Mrginian accent), who 
was commonly called 
' King,' on account of 
his great wealth and 
social importance. He 
owned 300,000 acres 
of land and 3,000 ne- 
groes, and is one of the 
best-known characters 
of early days. He 
was treasurer of the 
colony for many years. 
Governor, speaker of 
the House of Bur- 
gesses and president of 
the Council in 1726, 
'■He. it seems, was the builder of the church. In the vestry- 
book his name comes before even that of the minister. The whole 
north side of the building was given up 'for all time to come' to 
the use of his servants and dependents, and none of the coniTega- 
tion ever thought of entering the church until the Carter coach 
had arrived, and 'King' Carter and his family had taken their 
places. The aisles are formed of massive pieces of freestone, and 
are as solid and smooth to-day as when they were first laid, nearly 
two hundred years ago. The original communion-service is pre- 
served in good condition. It is of silver, and was brought over 
from England. 

" Under the pulpit is placed for safe keeping a relic of unusual 
interest in the shape of an old cedar dial-post, which formerly 
stood outside the door. On it is still legible the name of John 
Carter and the date of i 702. This post was one of the relics of 
the older church, which had been built by John Carter, father 
of the ' King.' One of the tomi^s which were moved from the 
older church is in memory of this John Carter and his wives, of 
whom there seems to have been a goodly number. The epitaph 
mentions no less than the appalling sum of five, who, it adds, ' were 
all his wives successively and died before him.' This tomb bears 
the date 1669. In the centre of the building is a flat let into the 
stone floor just at the cro.ssing of the ai.sles. This, legend says, 
was placed there in memory of a plasterer, who fell while working 
on the lofty dome and was killed on the spot. 

" Outside is the little gravevard which all old churches have. 



VIRGINIA CHURCHES. 



25 



"This was doubtless the same," says Meade, "in which 
Governor Yeardley, with the Councillors and Burgesses, 
held their legislative session in 1619 ; and, as we read of no 
other church being built between that time and 1676, when 
the town and church were burned down by Bacon, it is most 
probable that this was the building. In opposition to the 
theory that the present are the ruins of the old church which 
was burned in the rebellion, is the fact that the dimensions 
of the church which Smith built and Lord De La War re- 
paired were dififerent from the one whose ruins are now 



with here and there the gleam of a marble slab or headstone show- 
ing through the clinging masses of iv)' and periwinkle which cover 
it. ' King ' Carter's tomb, originally very massive and handsome, 
with the Carter coat-of-arms cut upon it, is now broken and de- 
faced, and lies in fragments. Much of it has been carried off by 
relic hunters. Several years ago a gang of men, believing the 
tradition that 'King' Carter had been buried with many of his 
diamonds and other jewels upon him, broke an entire side off 
the massive tomb and dug up the coffin. This act aroused 
the people of the neighborhood to such an extent that had the 
thieves been caught, there is small doubt but that they would have 
been put forthwith into • King' Carter's place. Yox many years 
services were held in the church only once a year, but of late even 
this has been discontinued, and the old building would have been 



seen. The dimensions of the former were twenty-four by 
si.xty ; those of the latter twenty-eight by fifty-si.x. Other 
circumstances there are which render it almost certain that 
another church had been built since the destruction of the 
one by Bacon. Not only was there a goodly number of 
families residing in the place for some time after this, but 
the Court-house and House of Burgesses were there until 
the removal of the seat of government to Williamsburg after 
the year 1705. Although the governors may have lived at 
Green Spring, yet some of the officers of the Government 



thus on that statement : " Where gambling, racing, and even the 
low practice of cock-fighting were encouraged, there were the lost 
estates, the ruined, scattered families; there were the blasted 
hopes of parents, the idle, intemperate sons and the sacrificed 
daughters." Another clergyman of the day, writing to the Bishop 
of London about this county, says : " The great cause of all which 
I humbly conceive to bj in the clergy, the sober part being sloth- 
ful and negligent, and others so debauched that tht-y are the fore- 
most and most bent on all manner of vices. Drunkenness is the 
common vice." Yet it was in this parish and only four miles from 
this church tliat Mrs. Martha Custis had her home in the "White 
House" — whence, legend has it, the name of the present presi- 
dential mansion at Washington — and, as some say. it was in this 
very church that she was wedded to Colonel Washington, by the 




Old Si. Feter'.s Cluirch [tliird in age in \'iryinia], New Kent Cn., Va. [I)ate, 1703 \ 



left to the mercy of the elements but for the interest recently 
awakened in it." 



St. Pf.ti:ii"s Church, Nkw Kknt Co., \'a. — St. Peter's 
Church was built in i 703 and was paid for by the sale of forty-si.x 
thousand hundred-weight of tobacco, but probably even this 
amount of potential smoke did not cover the cost of the steeple, 
which was not built till twelve years later. ISislmp Meade takes 
pains to make his readers understand that New Kent County was 
a very sink of inifpiity and that the clergymen tlicmselves were 
leaders in all debauching excesses. One of the clergvmen of the 
time writes that cards, racing, dancing and cock-fighting were 
prevalent in this parisli, and the good ISishop on his part moralizes 



Rev. Mr. Mossom, who, while he may have been an improvement 
on otlier incumbents of the parish, was, none tlie less, a peculiar 
individual, and amongst other eccentricities once assailed his ])ari.sh 
clerk from the pulpit during a sermon. The clerk, who seems to 
have had a due respect for the proprieties which day and place 
imposed on him, evened the score by giving out at the end of the 
.sermon the psalm in which occur these lines: — 

" With restless and iMigoverned rage. 

Why del the heathen storm ? 

Wliy i:i sncli ra^li attempts engage 

As they can ne'er perfoirn?" 

Other accounts have it that Washington's marriage was cele- 
brated in Old I'ohick Cliiirch. near .MoiDil V'enion. -- V.\i. 



26 



THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. 



belonging to the port and legislature were there; and it is 
not to be supposed that they would live for thirty years 
without a church.' 

Our Reverend author goes on to cite the circumstance of 
Governor Andros presenting communion-plate to the James- 
town Church in 1694, that a silver font was given to it by 
the Amblers, which is still in evidence, and that no marks 
of fire are discoverable about the ruins, and he finally con- 
cludes "that the ruins which we now behold are those of a 
church put up since the rebellion of Bacon in 1676." As 
one sees the old tower standing, dismantled, but beautiful, 
among the ancient, stately trees, memory almost uncon- 
sciously tries to rehabilitate the times and the men who have 
made tlie place famous in the world's history. Foremost of 
them all stands forth the grand plebeian name of John Smith, 



\ 1 • ,1. 



Werowocomoco. The stone of which the chimney is built 
appears to be a shell rock. There is a great fireplace, eight 
feet wide, four feet deep and six feet high. Before many 
years the rapid encroachments of the river will have under- 
mined the ruined tower, and the last relic of Jamestown will 
sleep beneath Powhatan's turbid flood. 



r-..,^ 



carter's grove. 
.At the end of a wearisome drive of about seven miles 
south-eastward from Williamsburg, over a road which 
stretches through a flat and dreary succession of corn fields, 
peanut patches and pine woods, the traveller, now nearing 
the north bank of the James River, will see afar ofl^ across 




«^--.K.. 



Carter's Grove. 



the chief actor in the settlement of Virginia. There is 
hardly in all history a figure more picturesque than that of 
this indomitable man. His life was a romance, and full of 
marvel. Dying quietly in London, in 1631, he sleeps in St. 
Sepulchre's, where a stone bearing his arms, his three 
Turk's heads, and his motto, " Vincerc est vii^ere" is to be 
seen before the communion-table. A tablet to his memory, 
engraved with a sonorous epitaph, beginning : 

" Here lies one conquered tliat h.itli conquered kings, 
Subdued large territories, and done things 
Wiiich, to the world, impossible would seem," 

was destroyed in the great fire of London, in 1666. 

About the only memorial of C