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SkbiA VlhWS 


January, 1961 



■ J 

jOba/ l)^ 

MAR 9 '62 

:harles a. collier 







u^oJ Cs/x^L/^ 

As the New Year approaches, let us review our 
objectives and purposes for operating state 
parks so that we can plan for the year with 
renewed vigor and a definite criteria. 

1. Areas in the state park system should be 
of statewide interest and not local signifi- 

2. They should possess outstanding quality of 
landscape or features of special significance 
that make their preservation a matter of state- 
wide concern. 

3. State parks should provide recreational use 
of natural resources, and outdoor recreation in natural surroundings. 

4. They should portray and interpret plant and animal life, geology, 
and other natural features. 

5. They should protect and portray 
historic and scientific sites of state- 
wide importance. They should preserve 
and protect natural areas of exceptional 
scenic value, not only for the present 
generation, but for generations to come .7 


fephen Collins Poster Park is located on Jones Island about fifteen 
miles from Fargo, Georgia, on the southwestern edge of the famous 
Okefenokee Swamp. 

This interesting park is a memorial to Stephen Foster, whose melody 
"Old Folks at Home,'' made the Suwanee River famous in song throughout 
many sections of the world. The Suwanee River is the principal out- 
let of the Okefenokee Swamp, and the headwaters are very close to 
Fargo and the memorial park. 

Few people have been able to describe the beauty of this area, which 
is believed to have more spectacular natural scenery than any other 
water, and broad vistas of blooming prairies, produce a veritable 
wonderland. Water lilies and pitcher plants are there in profusion. 
Many flowers found no other place this side of the Atlantic, bloom 
here the year-round. This scenery makes an exciting background for 
the many animals and birds found in the swamp. Inside the park area 
may be found deer, bear, raccoon, many alligators, migratory water- 
fowl find a winter haven here, and water birds such as cranes, egrets, 
and herons live here the year-round. 
The fishermen will be delighted to know about this angler's paradise. 

\ Bass, bream, black crappie, and pike are caught in large quantities 

the park area. Small boats 
/a iiable and boat runs have 
^Cleared through the swamp. If 
^Eo into the watery wilderness 
Jh use guides is essential.. Guides 
^fre also available for trips through 
the swamp. This is an experience 
which few parks in the nation have 
to offer to its visitors. 

The Seminole Indians gave the swamp 
the name, "E-cun-fi -no-can," or 
Quivering Earth." The spelling of 
"Ofekenokee" has been adopted by 
the Federal government, following 
a long period of controversy in 
which more than fifty forms were 
used. The main body of the swamp, 
about 330,000 acres, is owned by 
the United States Department of 
Interior, and the area where the 
State Park is located is leased 
from the federal government. 

The !, old Okefenok," as the natives 
call it, is believed to have been 
part of an ancient sea. It is 
110 ft. to 130 ft. above present 
sea level. The water is in con- 
stant circulation as it drains 
away from a series of ridges in the 
canter of the marsh into district 
bersheds. The principal outlet, 
the Suwanne River, flows into the 
Bulf of Mexico near Cedar Keys, 

rhere are countless numbers of 
islands, some floating isles that 
have not yet secured a firm grip 
on the bottom. Stephen Foster Park 
is ne?.r the famous Billy's Island 
which was a final stronghold of the 
Seminoles and later as the site of 
Port Walker. 

Stephen Foster Park has six over- 
night cabins with one double deck 
bed and one single bed. Each has 
nodern bathroom facilities. 
Located also in the park is a large 
bunk house with thirteen double deck 
beds and three single beds. There 
Ls a cafe and concession building 
//here meals are served three times 
daily. For the people who like to 
200k out, there is a very good 

picnic area. 

Stephen Foster is reached by U.S. 84 
and State Highway 89. 



The calendar as we use it today was 
devised in 1582, more than 350 years 
ago, by Pope Gregory XIII, and is 
known as the Gregorian Calendar. 
The Pope perfected a calendar worked 
out before the birth of Christ by 
Julius Caesar in 46 B.C. 

The Julian Calendar, as Ceasar's 
system was called, counted 12 months 
in a year of 365 days . He added an 
extra day every fourth year, making 
a leap year with 366 days. Actually 
there are 5 hours, 49 minutes, and 
12 seconds left over from the 365 
days which make up our year, and 
that time amounts to about a day 
in four years . 

The Gregorian Calendar provided that, 
beginning in 1600, the hundredth 
years, excepting those divisible by 
400, should not be observed as leap 
years . 

Long before either Pope Gregory or 
Julius Caesar was born, people of 
ancient races had developed calendars 
of their own. The Syrians, Greeks, 
Hebrews, and Chinese all had calendar 
systems and the ancient Egyptians had 
a plan of measuring time very much 
like ours of today. 


January was named by the early Romans 
for one of their most honored gods, 
the god Janus. This deity was pic- 
tured with two faces, one looking 
into the future, the other back into 
the past. As the god of all begin- 
nings, he guarded gateways and en- 
trances and gave his name to the 
opening month of the year. 

Ton starts park development 

w *nor Ernest Vandiver (Wednesday, 
r Jember 28) turned a spade of earth 
..ilch officially launched the devel- 
opment of Stone Mountain Memorial 

The park slated to cost more than 
11,000,000, will be one of the 
rg^zt and most complete recre- 
ation and tourist attractions in 
the state, according to Matt L. 
McWhorter, who is chairman: of the 
Stone Mountain Memorial Association. 

The brief ceremonies were held at 
2:00 p.nuat the dam site, south- 
east of the mountain. The ground- 
breaking began construction of the dam in the recreation area, 
en oarthen giant which will hold a 
6 acre recreation lake. The 
ructure will be 64 feet high and 
1,175 feet long, with a 30 foot 

top upon which a two -land 
pr.vcd road will cross. The road 

j =t part of a scenic highway, 
no?/ under construction, which will 
rele the 3,000 acre park. The 
11 cost an estimated $3,000 

duled to be completed in 
10 Lng days. It will impound 

tin creek to provide a lake 
^o :e five Tiles in length. Plains 
ca?.I for the lake to feature a 
do and b 3 aches, a marina, and 
fishing dock, and various amuse- 

-^actions, including an old- 
Micsissippi river type 
C" t. 


One of the great social changes of 
cur time is the emergence of outdoor 
recreatiorij no longer a luxury, as 
a mcjor feature of American living. 
This has come about in the post- 
war era because of increased in- 
coiv.e, better transportation, and 
above all the increase in leisure 

:!e possible by the five-day 
wc sek. 

3ult of these trends, plus 
rapid population growth and the 
crowding of people into metropoli- 
tan c: inters, more people are spend- 

ing more time outdoors doing more 
things for the fun of doing them 
than ever before in the history of 
this or any other country. 

Most people find water important 
in their recreation. That is why 
much of the recreational activity 
of the American people today, per- 
haps the largest segment of it, is 
associated in one way or another 
with the water areas of the United 
States. The country's outdoor 
recreation plant is built on or 
around the shores of the country's 
watercourses . 

Fish, Wildlife Areas Shrinking 

Pollution drives people away from 
the water and fish and wildlife as 
well. According to the U. S. Pish 
and Wildlife Service, the area of 
fish and wildlife habitat rendered 
unproductive each year by pollution 
is greater than that created by 
public agencies carrying out pro- 
grams of fish and wildlife restor- 

Why are the country's watercourses 
becoming poluted so rapidly? There 
is a complex of reasons. Since 
World War II the population of the 
United States has increased and 
more people mean more wastes to be 
disposed of. People are moving 
from farms to cities and suburbs, 
and the problem of waste disposal 
becomes much more difficult to deal 
with in thickly settled communities 
than in sparsely populated rural 
areas . 

Industrial production is expanding 
rapidly, and so the volume of in- 
dustrial wastes is growing too. 
The character of agriculture is 
changing, and the changes are such 
that farms now have more serious 
waste disposal problems than they 
once did. 

Waste Discharges frcm Boats 

The vast increase in boating and 
other water-oriented recreation in 
recent years has in itself caused 
increased pollution. Waste dis- 

>s from boats are becoming an 
fasingly serious pollution 
irce. In addition, exhausts and 
-/uels discharged into water from 
engines are damaging to water 
supplies and to fish. The Public 
Health Service has undertaken a 
research project to evaluate more 
precisely the effects of motorboat 
engine waste . 

Over-all water demand has increas- 
ed enormously as living standards 
have risen. We now use over 300 
billion gallons a day--twice as 
much as we did 20 years ago. And 
finally, construction of waste 
treatment facilities has not kept 
pace with the rising volume of 

Despite all this, the need for 
clean water for recreation contin- 
ues to mount. It has been said 
that the country is now in the 
grip of "aquamania." Thirty 
million Americans are leisure time 
fishermen. Six million are water 
skiers . The number of pleasure 
craft jumped from 2.4 million in 
1947 to nearly 8 million today. 
Some 75 > 000 swimming pools are now 
being built every year. Many of 
these, of course, are community 
pools, constructed because of the 
pollution of nearby natural water 
areas . 

These figures are impressive. But 
they do not take account of the 
uncounted millions of Americans-- 
most of the entire population-- 
who enjoy picnicking, swimming, 
beachcombing, birdwatching, or 
otherwise relaxing and enjoying the 
esthetic pleasures along or on the 
water on weekends, vacations, or 
in their spare time. 

There is already a shortage of 
water-oriented parks and recre- 
ation areas, local, state, and 
cities have a total of only 
750,000 acres in parks close 
enough to be used after work or 
school, as against an estimated 
present need of 2 million acres. 

A similar disparity between present 
demand and supply exists in the 
case of recreation areas, mainly 
state parks, v/hich are within a 
couple of hours of travel time from 
population centers and can be used 
for all day or weekend outings. 

How To Make More Play Areas. 

Aggressive efforts to control water 
pollution in many urban areas are 
the only economical way of increas- 
ing play areas . By making water 
acreage available for water sports 
and by making river, lake and ocean 
beaches suitable for play, a city 
or state park system can increase 
materially its total recreation 
facilities where acquisition of 
already developed land would be 

The average work week has dropped 
from 70 hours in the last century. 
Further decreases are in prospect 
as industry becomes more efficient 
and we rely more and more on 
machinery to do our work. It is 
predicted that within a generation 
the work week will be 32 hours, 
and this may be conservative. (One 
estimate suggests that, if the rate 
of technological progress since 
1850 is projected to the year 2000, 
the United States could produce as 
much in one seven-hour day as is 
now produced in a 40-hour week.) 
Longer vacations are also in pros- 

More Play Space for the Future 

With more leisure, prospective gains 
in both population and individual 
incomes, and further increases in 
urbanization and mobility, the de- 
mand for suitable recreational sites 
will continue to grow in the years 
ahead. Resources for the Future 
believes that within the next 40 
years the total demand for out- 
door recreation will be something 
like 10 times what it is now. 

If the water-based recreation plan 
of the United States is inadequate 

J? CO 


present needs, the grow- 
£mands of the future cannot 
fn^t without aggressive action 
clean up the Nation's water- 
courses while it is still possible 
to do so. Failure to do this will 
rob the American people, future 
generations particularly, of a 
priceless heritage. 








CROOKED RIVER--Work has been com- 
pleted on the'installation of the 
asphalt floor tile in ten of the 
cottages at Crooked River. With 
the new equipment and curtains 
furnished last year, theee cottages 
are now very attractive and usable 
for our visitors. 

December 22 a group of distinguish- 
ed people had lunch at the park. 
The group was headed by Lt . 
Governor, Garland Byrd and his 
son, Buster. The occasion was 
put on by the local sportsmen, and 
in attendance was the commanding 
general of Fort Gordon. 

Sometimes the atmosphere above us 

is such that the moisture in the 
air condenses and forms raindrops. 
If the temperature is below the 
freezing point, 32 degrees Fahren- 
heit, snowdrops are formed instead. 

Snow protects the earth beneath it 
from the bitter cold of winter, so 
that the earth is often warmer 
than the surface of the snow. The 
more snow in winter, the greener 
the grass in spring. 

Snow is made of many lovely little 
crystals, all six-sided and ar- 
ranged with remarkable regularity. 



Do you know of the birds which can't 
fly but can swim? They are the 
penguins, with their black cutaway 
coats and stiff white bosoms. With 
one exception, all of the twenty 
kinds of penguins are found in the 
cold regions of the Antarctic. The 
little Galapagos Penguins live on 
islands off the coast of Ecuador. 

Penguins have tiny, oar-llke wings, 
which are usless for flying, but 
are very efficient aids in swimming. 
They live almost entirely on fish. 
Some penguins nest in burrows of 
ground. Others carry their eggs 
or babies on their feet, protected 
by feathers . 


JANUARY, 1961 

3rd - Georgia State Troops seized 
Forts Pulaski and Jackson. Dela- 
ware refected a resolution for 

9th - Mississippi seceded from the 
Union. S.C. shore batteries re- 
pulsed "The Star of the West. It 
returned to New York. 

10th - Florida seceded. Citizens 
of Wilmington seized Fort Caswell, 
N. C. Louisiana State Troops seized 
Baton Rouge Arsenal. 

^Slabama seceded. Governor 
£s of S.C. demanded the sur- 
fer of Fort Sumter. 

rl2th - Representatives of Missi- 
ssippi withdrew from the U.S. 
House of Representatives . 

19th - Georgia seceded. The Virginia 
Legislature passed a resolution cal- 
ling for a Peace Congress in Wash- 
ington. Robert E. Lee was 54 years 

21st - Jefferson Davis made fare- 
well speech as he retired from 
the U. S. Senate. Florida and 
Alabama Senators and Representa- 
tives also withdrew. 

23rd - Robert Toombs of Georgia 
made farewell speech to U. S. 
Senate as he withdrew. 

24th - Georgia State Troops seized 
Augusta Arsenal. 

20th - Iverson of Georgia withdrew 
from the U. S. Senate. 


The first president of the United 
States, George Washington, was 
inaugurated on April 30, 1789, 
but Congress changed the inaugu- 
ration date to March 4 in the 12th 
Amendment to our Constitution, put 
into effect in l804. March 4 it : 
remained until Congress changed it 
again in the 20th Amendment, in 
effect since February 6, 1933. 
This Amendment made January 20 
inauguration day. 

When a president of the United 
States is inaugurated this is the 
oath he takes: "I do solemnly 
swear that I will faithfully exe- 
cute the office of president of 
ie United States, and will, to 
e best of my ability, preserve , 
protect, and defend the Constitu- 
tion of the United States." 




Recreation experiences are an im- 
portant social and economic part of 
contemporary American life. This 
fact is recognized by many indivi- 
duals and organizations who hold 
that providing adequate recreation 
opportunities for all is an impor- 
tant public responsibility. In 
support of this attitude are an 
increasing number of local, region- 
al, and national agencies which 
provide some recreation services. 

The place of leisure activities in 
American life has expanded tremen- 
dously since 1900. A study of these 
trends provides some clues to what 
may be expected in future years. 
At the turn of the century working 
conditions were inhuman by present 
standards . A 60 hour work week 
paying $4.00 to $5.00 was common 
and child labor was widespread. 
Families lived in crowded and 
dilapadated homes and apartments 
and were unable to escape, even 
momentarily, from this grim environ- 

By contrast, today's average American 
family of two or three children en- 
joys the mobility of one or more 
automobiles, and lives in a modern 
suburban single family home. An 
average weekly income of $100 to 
$150 for about forty hours of fair- 
ly interesting work in a pleasant 
and safe environment is rnanced 
by paid vacations and many other 
benefits. This comparison of the 
relatively recent past and the 
present gives some idea of the 
magnitude of change that may be 
expected in the next 25 to 50 
years. The fact that these rapid 
and revolutionary social, economic, 
and physical changes in American 
society have evolved through ex- 
perimentation within the existing 
political framework supports the 
confidence that solutions to the 
increasing problems of mass leisure 
will be found. 

perts predict that the four 
,# week is a near reality. 
ith or six weeks of paid vaca- 
3 may soon be common, in fif, 
.. to twenty-five years a majority 
of American families may enjoy both 
a country and city home. The family 
automobile, which has provided 
boundless freedom, may be supple- 
mented by mass transportation sys- 
tems that are more adapted to 
metropolitan living. Even more 
signigicant may be the growth of 
a public conservation attitude 
which would place a high value on 
the quality of the home and com- 
munity environment. This concern 
for stability and long range pros- 
perity may counteract the current 
attitude that associates unlimited 
growth and exploitation with an 
ever rising standard of living. 

* * * * * * 

Music is the universal language of 
mankind, --poetry their universal 
pastime and delight. 

Henry Wads worth Longfellow 



The New Year is like a hill-side 
Covered with untouched snow, 
And each of us a skier, 
Poised and ready to go. 

What kind of a trail, are we going 

to make 

As we ski down life's rolling hill? 

Will it be straighter than ever 


In each heart we hope it will. 

May we leave behind in that 

unmarked time, 

A trail, straight, true and clean: 

Never afraid, never ashamed, 

To look back or let it be seen. 

Florence H. Steelman 

WASHINGTON, D.C.-The Civil War 
Centennial, which will be one of 
; e fS n a ; S *?> ***** motivational 

beiinHn S T r° r the neXt five y«rB, 

and 2 iL J Tf y With a ^ssage 
ana a literal bang. 

nr^ m - S ?? Se from the President 
officially opens the Centennial 

January 8. The "bang" will come on 

daybreak January 9, when cadets of 

the Citadel Military College stage 

the first of many re-enactments to 

come--the firing of the first shot 

of the war at Charleston, S.C. 

The original cannonade forced the 

withdrawal of a merchant ship, 

Star of the West," which was 

attempting to bring supplies to 

Fort Sumter. 

* * * * * * 


You are well aware of the many places 
where soil erosion is a problem. It 
is likely that one of the most common 
examples of this situation is the 
unprotected slope area created by re- 
locating a road. These slopes, with- 
out a stand of grass, erode very 
easily after a rain. This situation 
is now generally handled by mulching 
with straw and asphalt. 

* * * * * * 


1. Make an appointment for each 
member of the family with the 
doctor and dentist; don't let a 
toothache or unsuspected illness 
spoil your vacation. Get any 
extra prescriptions filled by 
your own druggist. 

2. Check over all your camping 
equipment. If this is the first 
trip, take an overnight "shake- 
down" at a nearby park. Test any 
new gear, and set up camp in the 
back yard to refresh your memory 
of procedures with tent, stove, 
etc . 

j some menus in advance 
Jially for the first few days 
rthat you will not have to make 
flopping lists every .day en route. 

U. List all the equipment you 
plan to take, and check off each 
item as it is packed. 

5. Map out your travel route and 
plan your stops and necessary 
alternates in case of delay or 
tilled campgrounds. 

6. Make arrangements for the care 
of pets, house plants and the lawn. 
It you plan to be gone long, ask 

a neighbor to air out the house 

7. Turn off the hot water heater, 
pull plugs on electric appliances' 
defrost and empty the refrigerator. 
Check all faucets. 

8. Make sure that you have insur- 
ance papers, identification, 
travelers checks or check book, 
car registration, and an extra 
set of car keys. Is your driver's 
liscrjnse up to date? 

9. Stop newspaper, milk and other 
regular deliveries. Make arrange- 
ments for forwarding or holding 
ycur mail. 

10. Leave an extra key with a 
neighbor, and notify police of 
your absence . 

11. Have your car checked over 
carefully, including the battery, 
brakes, and cooling system. Pack 
a road flare or trouble light, 
necessary tools, a jack, shovel, 
and extra fan belt. Consider in- 
cluding a tow rope and tire chains. 

12. Lock all doors and windows; 
leave window shades up. Put away 
or secure any outdoor furniture. 

13. Put valuables in a safety 
deposit vault. 

1 ,J . Leave an address and your 
travel itinerary ivith a member of 
the family or a close friend. 

15. Count noses before taki 

ng off J 




OffVpp 6 ^ Ut f eceived * ** the General 
01 lice, a most outstanding report and 
recommendations on the California 
State Parks. This state is certainly 
to be commended for their forthright 
picture and research in the recreation 
fields. Certainly no other state in 
America today is using more profession- 
ai skill in preparing and looking into 
the days of the future concerning the 
great potentiality of the state's 
responsibility in the field of recre- 

The California State Park Commission 
has proposed a broad expansion of the 
state park system, including acquisi- 
tion of land before cost and beyond 
reason and the establishment of 
approximately 15 thousand camp sites 
during the next 5 years. 

The California Park Commission an- 
ticipates presenting a continuing 
program each year. If adopted, this 
program cost for a total of about 
15 million dollars at the i960 land 
and construction prices. The pro- 
gram will provide vastly improved 
camping facilities and an adequate 
opportunity for California families 
to vacation in state parks at an 
increase of approximately four times 
the present availability of picnic 

To Governor Brown and Parks Chief, 
Charles E. DeTurk, we wish all the 
luck and success of having this pro- 
gram approved and into operation. 
Certainly California is blazing the 
trail for what all other state parks 
must begin to do within the next 
few years . 


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