MAR 9 '62
:harles a. collier
PREPARED AND EDITED BY
BARBARA J, RANKIN — RECREATION DIRECTOR
As the New Year approaches, let us review our
objectives and purposes for operating state
parks so that we can plan for the year with
renewed vigor and a definite criteria.
1. Areas in the state park system should be
of statewide interest and not local signifi-
2. They should possess outstanding quality of
landscape or features of special significance
that make their preservation a matter of state-
3. State parks should provide recreational use
of natural resources, and outdoor recreation in natural surroundings.
4. They should portray and interpret plant and animal life, geology,
and other natural features.
5. They should protect and portray
historic and scientific sites of state-
wide importance. They should preserve
and protect natural areas of exceptional
scenic value, not only for the present
generation, but for generations to come .7
STEPHEN COLLINS POSTER STATE PARK
fephen Collins Poster Park is located on Jones Island about fifteen
miles from Fargo, Georgia, on the southwestern edge of the famous
This interesting park is a memorial to Stephen Foster, whose melody
"Old Folks at Home,'' made the Suwanee River famous in song throughout
many sections of the world. The Suwanee River is the principal out-
let of the Okefenokee Swamp, and the headwaters are very close to
Fargo and the memorial park.
Few people have been able to describe the beauty of this area, which
is believed to have more spectacular natural scenery than any other
water, and broad vistas of blooming prairies, produce a veritable
wonderland. Water lilies and pitcher plants are there in profusion.
Many flowers found no other place this side of the Atlantic, bloom
here the year-round. This scenery makes an exciting background for
the many animals and birds found in the swamp. Inside the park area
may be found deer, bear, raccoon, many alligators, migratory water-
fowl find a winter haven here, and water birds such as cranes, egrets,
and herons live here the year-round.
The fishermen will be delighted to know about this angler's paradise.
\ Bass, bream, black crappie, and pike are caught in large quantities
the park area. Small boats
/a iiable and boat runs have
^Cleared through the swamp. If
^Eo into the watery wilderness
Jh use guides is essential.. Guides
^fre also available for trips through
the swamp. This is an experience
which few parks in the nation have
to offer to its visitors.
The Seminole Indians gave the swamp
the name, "E-cun-fi -no-can," or
Quivering Earth." The spelling of
"Ofekenokee" has been adopted by
the Federal government, following
a long period of controversy in
which more than fifty forms were
used. The main body of the swamp,
about 330,000 acres, is owned by
the United States Department of
Interior, and the area where the
State Park is located is leased
from the federal government.
The !, old Okefenok," as the natives
call it, is believed to have been
part of an ancient sea. It is
110 ft. to 130 ft. above present
sea level. The water is in con-
stant circulation as it drains
away from a series of ridges in the
canter of the marsh into district
bersheds. The principal outlet,
the Suwanne River, flows into the
Bulf of Mexico near Cedar Keys,
rhere are countless numbers of
islands, some floating isles that
have not yet secured a firm grip
on the bottom. Stephen Foster Park
is ne?.r the famous Billy's Island
which was a final stronghold of the
Seminoles and later as the site of
Stephen Foster Park has six over-
night cabins with one double deck
bed and one single bed. Each has
nodern bathroom facilities.
Located also in the park is a large
bunk house with thirteen double deck
beds and three single beds. There
Ls a cafe and concession building
//here meals are served three times
daily. For the people who like to
200k out, there is a very good
Stephen Foster is reached by U.S. 84
and State Highway 89.
THE STORY OF THE CALENDAR
The calendar as we use it today was
devised in 1582, more than 350 years
ago, by Pope Gregory XIII, and is
known as the Gregorian Calendar.
The Pope perfected a calendar worked
out before the birth of Christ by
Julius Caesar in 46 B.C.
The Julian Calendar, as Ceasar's
system was called, counted 12 months
in a year of 365 days . He added an
extra day every fourth year, making
a leap year with 366 days. Actually
there are 5 hours, 49 minutes, and
12 seconds left over from the 365
days which make up our year, and
that time amounts to about a day
in four years .
The Gregorian Calendar provided that,
beginning in 1600, the hundredth
years, excepting those divisible by
400, should not be observed as leap
Long before either Pope Gregory or
Julius Caesar was born, people of
ancient races had developed calendars
of their own. The Syrians, Greeks,
Hebrews, and Chinese all had calendar
systems and the ancient Egyptians had
a plan of measuring time very much
like ours of today.
HOW JANUARY GOT ITS NAME
January was named by the early Romans
for one of their most honored gods,
the god Janus. This deity was pic-
tured with two faces, one looking
into the future, the other back into
the past. As the god of all begin-
nings, he guarded gateways and en-
trances and gave his name to the
opening month of the year.
Ton starts park development
w *nor Ernest Vandiver (Wednesday,
r Jember 28) turned a spade of earth
..ilch officially launched the devel-
opment of Stone Mountain Memorial
The park slated to cost more than
11,000,000, will be one of the
rg^zt and most complete recre-
ation and tourist attractions in
the state, according to Matt L.
McWhorter, who is chairman: of the
Stone Mountain Memorial Association.
The brief ceremonies were held at
2:00 p.nuat the dam site, south-
east of the mountain. The ground-
breaking began construction of the
ir.2.in dam in the recreation area,
en oarthen giant which will hold a
6 acre recreation lake. The
ructure will be 64 feet high and
1,175 feet long, with a 30 foot
top upon which a two -land
pr.vcd road will cross. The road
j =t part of a scenic highway,
no?/ under construction, which will
rele the 3,000 acre park. The
11 cost an estimated $3,000
duled to be completed in
10 Lng days. It will impound
tin creek to provide a lake
^o :e five Tiles in length. Plains
ca?.I for the lake to feature a
do and b 3 aches, a marina, and
fishing dock, and various amuse-
-^actions, including an old-
Micsissippi river type
SCRSATI0N AND CLEAN WATER
One of the great social changes of
cur time is the emergence of outdoor
recreatiorij no longer a luxury, as
a mcjor feature of American living.
This has come about in the post-
war era because of increased in-
coiv.e, better transportation, and
above all the increase in leisure
:!e possible by the five-day
3ult of these trends, plus
rapid population growth and the
crowding of people into metropoli-
tan c: inters, more people are spend-
ing more time outdoors doing more
things for the fun of doing them
than ever before in the history of
this or any other country.
Most people find water important
in their recreation. That is why
much of the recreational activity
of the American people today, per-
haps the largest segment of it, is
associated in one way or another
with the water areas of the United
States. The country's outdoor
recreation plant is built on or
around the shores of the country's
Fish, Wildlife Areas Shrinking
Pollution drives people away from
the water and fish and wildlife as
well. According to the U. S. Pish
and Wildlife Service, the area of
fish and wildlife habitat rendered
unproductive each year by pollution
is greater than that created by
public agencies carrying out pro-
grams of fish and wildlife restor-
Why are the country's watercourses
becoming poluted so rapidly? There
is a complex of reasons. Since
World War II the population of the
United States has increased and
more people mean more wastes to be
disposed of. People are moving
from farms to cities and suburbs,
and the problem of waste disposal
becomes much more difficult to deal
with in thickly settled communities
than in sparsely populated rural
Industrial production is expanding
rapidly, and so the volume of in-
dustrial wastes is growing too.
The character of agriculture is
changing, and the changes are such
that farms now have more serious
waste disposal problems than they
Waste Discharges frcm Boats
The vast increase in boating and
other water-oriented recreation in
recent years has in itself caused
increased pollution. Waste dis-
>s from boats are becoming an
fasingly serious pollution
irce. In addition, exhausts and
-/uels discharged into water from
engines are damaging to water
supplies and to fish. The Public
Health Service has undertaken a
research project to evaluate more
precisely the effects of motorboat
engine waste .
Over-all water demand has increas-
ed enormously as living standards
have risen. We now use over 300
billion gallons a day--twice as
much as we did 20 years ago. And
finally, construction of waste
treatment facilities has not kept
pace with the rising volume of
Despite all this, the need for
clean water for recreation contin-
ues to mount. It has been said
that the country is now in the
grip of "aquamania." Thirty
million Americans are leisure time
fishermen. Six million are water
skiers . The number of pleasure
craft jumped from 2.4 million in
1947 to nearly 8 million today.
Some 75 > 000 swimming pools are now
being built every year. Many of
these, of course, are community
pools, constructed because of the
pollution of nearby natural water
These figures are impressive. But
they do not take account of the
uncounted millions of Americans--
most of the entire population--
who enjoy picnicking, swimming,
beachcombing, birdwatching, or
otherwise relaxing and enjoying the
esthetic pleasures along or on the
water on weekends, vacations, or
in their spare time.
There is already a shortage of
water-oriented parks and recre-
ation areas, local, state, and
cities have a total of only
750,000 acres in parks close
enough to be used after work or
school, as against an estimated
present need of 2 million acres.
A similar disparity between present
demand and supply exists in the
case of recreation areas, mainly
state parks, v/hich are within a
couple of hours of travel time from
population centers and can be used
for all day or weekend outings.
How To Make More Play Areas.
Aggressive efforts to control water
pollution in many urban areas are
the only economical way of increas-
ing play areas . By making water
acreage available for water sports
and by making river, lake and ocean
beaches suitable for play, a city
or state park system can increase
materially its total recreation
facilities where acquisition of
already developed land would be
The average work week has dropped
from 70 hours in the last century.
Further decreases are in prospect
as industry becomes more efficient
and we rely more and more on
machinery to do our work. It is
predicted that within a generation
the work week will be 32 hours,
and this may be conservative. (One
estimate suggests that, if the rate
of technological progress since
1850 is projected to the year 2000,
the United States could produce as
much in one seven-hour day as is
now produced in a 40-hour week.)
Longer vacations are also in pros-
More Play Space for the Future
With more leisure, prospective gains
in both population and individual
incomes, and further increases in
urbanization and mobility, the de-
mand for suitable recreational sites
will continue to grow in the years
ahead. Resources for the Future
believes that within the next 40
years the total demand for out-
door recreation will be something
like 10 times what it is now.
If the water-based recreation plan
of the United States is inadequate
present needs, the grow-
£mands of the future cannot
fn^t without aggressive action
clean up the Nation's water-
courses while it is still possible
to do so. Failure to do this will
rob the American people, future
generations particularly, of a
TO ALL CABIN AND GROUP CAMP
IP YOU HAVE NOT SENT IN YOUR COM-
PLETE LIST OF NECESSARY SUPPLIES
FOR THE OPENING OF GROUP CAMPS AND
COTTAGES THIS SPRING, PLEASE DO SO
AS SOON AS POSSIBLE. SEND THESE TO
MISS BARBARA RANKIN OF THE GENERAL
THE PARK VIEWS WILL ONLY BE AS GOOD
AS YOU MAKE IT. WE NEED THE NEWS
FROM THE DIFFERENT PARKS TO MAKE
THIS PUBLICATION INTERESTING AND
CROOKED RIVER--Work has been com-
pleted on the'installation of the
asphalt floor tile in ten of the
cottages at Crooked River. With
the new equipment and curtains
furnished last year, theee cottages
are now very attractive and usable
for our visitors.
MAGNOLIA SPRING- -On Thursday,
December 22 a group of distinguish-
ed people had lunch at the park.
The group was headed by Lt .
Governor, Garland Byrd and his
son, Buster. The occasion was
put on by the local sportsmen, and
in attendance was the commanding
general of Fort Gordon.
THE STORY OF SNOW
Sometimes the atmosphere above us
is such that the moisture in the
air condenses and forms raindrops.
If the temperature is below the
freezing point, 32 degrees Fahren-
heit, snowdrops are formed instead.
Snow protects the earth beneath it
from the bitter cold of winter, so
that the earth is often warmer
than the surface of the snow. The
more snow in winter, the greener
the grass in spring.
Snow is made of many lovely little
crystals, all six-sided and ar-
ranged with remarkable regularity.
Do you know of the birds which can't
fly but can swim? They are the
penguins, with their black cutaway
coats and stiff white bosoms. With
one exception, all of the twenty
kinds of penguins are found in the
cold regions of the Antarctic. The
little Galapagos Penguins live on
islands off the coast of Ecuador.
Penguins have tiny, oar-llke wings,
which are usless for flying, but
are very efficient aids in swimming.
They live almost entirely on fish.
Some penguins nest in burrows of
ground. Others carry their eggs
or babies on their feet, protected
by feathers .
CENTENNIAL CALANDAR HIGHLIGHTS FOR
3rd - Georgia State Troops seized
Forts Pulaski and Jackson. Dela-
ware refected a resolution for
9th - Mississippi seceded from the
Union. S.C. shore batteries re-
pulsed "The Star of the West. It
returned to New York.
10th - Florida seceded. Citizens
of Wilmington seized Fort Caswell,
N. C. Louisiana State Troops seized
Baton Rouge Arsenal.
^Slabama seceded. Governor
£s of S.C. demanded the sur-
fer of Fort Sumter.
rl2th - Representatives of Missi-
ssippi withdrew from the U.S.
House of Representatives .
19th - Georgia seceded. The Virginia
Legislature passed a resolution cal-
ling for a Peace Congress in Wash-
ington. Robert E. Lee was 54 years
21st - Jefferson Davis made fare-
well speech as he retired from
the U. S. Senate. Florida and
Alabama Senators and Representa-
tives also withdrew.
23rd - Robert Toombs of Georgia
made farewell speech to U. S.
Senate as he withdrew.
24th - Georgia State Troops seized
20th - Iverson of Georgia withdrew
from the U. S. Senate.
The first president of the United
States, George Washington, was
inaugurated on April 30, 1789,
but Congress changed the inaugu-
ration date to March 4 in the 12th
Amendment to our Constitution, put
into effect in l804. March 4 it :
remained until Congress changed it
again in the 20th Amendment, in
effect since February 6, 1933.
This Amendment made January 20
When a president of the United
States is inaugurated this is the
oath he takes: "I do solemnly
swear that I will faithfully exe-
cute the office of president of
ie United States, and will, to
e best of my ability, preserve ,
protect, and defend the Constitu-
tion of the United States."
Recreation experiences are an im-
portant social and economic part of
contemporary American life. This
fact is recognized by many indivi-
duals and organizations who hold
that providing adequate recreation
opportunities for all is an impor-
tant public responsibility. In
support of this attitude are an
increasing number of local, region-
al, and national agencies which
provide some recreation services.
The place of leisure activities in
American life has expanded tremen-
dously since 1900. A study of these
trends provides some clues to what
may be expected in future years.
At the turn of the century working
conditions were inhuman by present
standards . A 60 hour work week
paying $4.00 to $5.00 was common
and child labor was widespread.
Families lived in crowded and
dilapadated homes and apartments
and were unable to escape, even
momentarily, from this grim environ-
By contrast, today's average American
family of two or three children en-
joys the mobility of one or more
automobiles, and lives in a modern
suburban single family home. An
average weekly income of $100 to
$150 for about forty hours of fair-
ly interesting work in a pleasant
and safe environment is rnanced
by paid vacations and many other
benefits. This comparison of the
relatively recent past and the
present gives some idea of the
magnitude of change that may be
expected in the next 25 to 50
years. The fact that these rapid
and revolutionary social, economic,
and physical changes in American
society have evolved through ex-
perimentation within the existing
political framework supports the
confidence that solutions to the
increasing problems of mass leisure
will be found.
perts predict that the four
,# week is a near reality.
ith or six weeks of paid vaca-
3 may soon be common, in fif,
.. to twenty-five years a majority
of American families may enjoy both
a country and city home. The family
automobile, which has provided
boundless freedom, may be supple-
mented by mass transportation sys-
tems that are more adapted to
metropolitan living. Even more
signigicant may be the growth of
a public conservation attitude
which would place a high value on
the quality of the home and com-
munity environment. This concern
for stability and long range pros-
perity may counteract the current
attitude that associates unlimited
growth and exploitation with an
ever rising standard of living.
* * * * * *
Music is the universal language of
mankind, --poetry their universal
pastime and delight.
Henry Wads worth Longfellow
The New Year is like a hill-side
Covered with untouched snow,
And each of us a skier,
Poised and ready to go.
What kind of a trail, are we going
As we ski down life's rolling hill?
Will it be straighter than ever
In each heart we hope it will.
May we leave behind in that
A trail, straight, true and clean:
Never afraid, never ashamed,
To look back or let it be seen.
Florence H. Steelman
WASHINGTON, D.C.-The Civil War
Centennial, which will be one of
; e fS n a ; S *?> ***** motivational
beiinHn S T r° r the neXt five y«rB,
and 2 iL J Tf y With a ^ssage
ana a literal bang.
nr^ m - S ?? Se from the President
officially opens the Centennial
January 8. The "bang" will come on
daybreak January 9, when cadets of
the Citadel Military College stage
the first of many re-enactments to
come--the firing of the first shot
of the war at Charleston, S.C.
The original cannonade forced the
withdrawal of a merchant ship,
Star of the West," which was
attempting to bring supplies to
* * * * * *
ASPHALT WITH A "GREEN THUMB"
You are well aware of the many places
where soil erosion is a problem. It
is likely that one of the most common
examples of this situation is the
unprotected slope area created by re-
locating a road. These slopes, with-
out a stand of grass, erode very
easily after a rain. This situation
is now generally handled by mulching
with straw and asphalt.
* * * * * *
BEFORE YOU LEAVE HOME
ON A CAMPING TRIP
1. Make an appointment for each
member of the family with the
doctor and dentist; don't let a
toothache or unsuspected illness
spoil your vacation. Get any
extra prescriptions filled by
your own druggist.
2. Check over all your camping
equipment. If this is the first
trip, take an overnight "shake-
down" at a nearby park. Test any
new gear, and set up camp in the
back yard to refresh your memory
of procedures with tent, stove,
j some menus in advance
Jially for the first few days
rthat you will not have to make
flopping lists every .day en route.
U. List all the equipment you
plan to take, and check off each
item as it is packed.
5. Map out your travel route and
plan your stops and necessary
alternates in case of delay or
6. Make arrangements for the care
of pets, house plants and the lawn.
It you plan to be gone long, ask
a neighbor to air out the house
7. Turn off the hot water heater,
pull plugs on electric appliances'
defrost and empty the refrigerator.
Check all faucets.
8. Make sure that you have insur-
ance papers, identification,
travelers checks or check book,
car registration, and an extra
set of car keys. Is your driver's
liscrjnse up to date?
9. Stop newspaper, milk and other
regular deliveries. Make arrange-
ments for forwarding or holding
10. Leave an extra key with a
neighbor, and notify police of
your absence .
11. Have your car checked over
carefully, including the battery,
brakes, and cooling system. Pack
a road flare or trouble light,
necessary tools, a jack, shovel,
and extra fan belt. Consider in-
cluding a tow rope and tire chains.
12. Lock all doors and windows;
leave window shades up. Put away
or secure any outdoor furniture.
13. Put valuables in a safety
1 ,J . Leave an address and your
travel itinerary ivith a member of
the family or a close friend.
15. Count noses before taki
ng off J
PROGRAM FOR CALIFORNIA BEACHES AND
OffVpp 6 ^ Ut f eceived * ** the General
01 lice, a most outstanding report and
recommendations on the California
State Parks. This state is certainly
to be commended for their forthright
picture and research in the recreation
fields. Certainly no other state in
America today is using more profession-
ai skill in preparing and looking into
the days of the future concerning the
great potentiality of the state's
responsibility in the field of recre-
The California State Park Commission
has proposed a broad expansion of the
state park system, including acquisi-
tion of land before cost and beyond
reason and the establishment of
approximately 15 thousand camp sites
during the next 5 years.
The California Park Commission an-
ticipates presenting a continuing
program each year. If adopted, this
program cost for a total of about
15 million dollars at the i960 land
and construction prices. The pro-
gram will provide vastly improved
camping facilities and an adequate
opportunity for California families
to vacation in state parks at an
increase of approximately four times
the present availability of picnic
To Governor Brown and Parks Chief,
Charles E. DeTurk, we wish all the
luck and success of having this pro-
gram approved and into operation.
Certainly California is blazing the
trail for what all other state parks
must begin to do within the next
few years .
3 siai wYsVTffl