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German Achievements 


A Tribute to the memory of the men and women, 
who worked, fought and died for the welfare of 
this country; and a recognition of the living who 
with equal enterprise, genius and patriotism helped 
in the making of our 







Geschichte der Solinger Klingenindustrie (Stuttgart, 1885). 

Von Wunderland zu Wunderland. Landschafts- und Lebens- 
bilder aus den Staaten und Territorien der Union (2 Vol., 
Leipzig, 1886). 

Fahrten im Lande der Sioux Indianer (Leipzig, 1886). 

Geschichte, Wesen und Praxis der Reklame (Ulm, 1887). 

Im wilden Westen. Eine Kunstlerfahrt durch die Prairien 
und Felsengebirge der Union (Braunschweig, 1890). 

Amerika, die Geschichte seiner Entdeckung von der altesten 
bis auf die neueste Zeit (2 Vol., Leipzig, 1890-92). 

America, historia de su descubrimiento desde los tiempos 
primitivos hasta los mas modernos (3 Vol. Barcelona, 

Illustrative Cloud Forms for the Guidance of Observers in 
the Classification of Clouds (U. S. Publication No. 1 12. 
Washington, D. C, 1897). 

Our Wasteful Nation. The Story of American Prodigality 
and the Abuse of Our National Resources (New York, 

Drei Jahrhunderte deutschen Lebens in Amerika (Berlin, 

Do We Need a Third War for Independence? (New York, 

The British Black Book (New York, 1915). 

England a DestrqjferC of'$£tio&i (New York, 1915). 

Our Hyphenated Citizens, Are They Right or Wrong? (New 

York,/>9'l6)i. V:'- : -I: : ;/. : 

To the millions of children, born of German 
parents and raised in German American homes, 
the Hope and Future of our United States, this 
book is dedicated by 




Introduction 7 

Mediaeval Germany and the Causes of German Emigra- 
tion 9 

German Predecessors of the Puritans 13 

Pastorius and the Settlers of Germantown Id 

The Coming of the Palatines 25 

The Life of the German Settlers in Colonial Times 29 

Promoters of the Cause of Liberty 37 

Heroes in the War for Independence 45 

Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, the Organizer of the 

American Army 55 

Pioneers of the Ohio Region 63 

Pioneers of the Mississippi Valley and the Far West. . 70 

The Men of 1 848 79 

Distinguished Germans in American Politics 81 

The German Americans in the Wars of the 1 9th Century . 96 

Leaders in Agriculture, Industry and Commerce 1 08 

The North American Turner Bund and its Influence on the 

Physical Development of the American Nation ... 121 
The Influence of German Learning and Methods on Edu- 
cation in the U. S 124 

Eminent Scientists 130 

Great Engineers 134 

Organizers of American Traffic and Transportation. ... 147 

The German American Press 151 

Noteworthy Authors and Poets 155 

German Music and Song in America 1 72 

The German Drama and Opera in the U. S 1 78 

Well-known Artists, Sculptors and Architects 183 

German^ American Women and their Works 207 

Monuments of Philanthropy 212 

The National German American Alliance and its Pur- 
poses 216 

The Future Mission of the German Element in America. 224 


HE great world war which has plunged the 
European nations into endless misery, suffering 
and death, has brought embarrassment also 
to all American citizens of German descent. 
Sowing in unprecedented manner discord, envy, 
calumny and prejudice, it compelled the German 
Americans constantly to parry most unwarranted insinuations, 
launched by men who ought to know better, yet apparently 
find delight in questioning the loyalty of the German Americans 
toward the land of their adoption. 

If there be any one inclined to lend an ear to these most 
despicable and baseless insinuations, let him inform himself 
through the pages of this book of the glorious past of the 
German element in America, of its well-nigh endless record 
of achievements and sacrifices on behalf of the nation, of its 
enduring patriotism when others failed of their duty or knew 
not where to turn. 

The descendants of Germans in this country may justly be 
proud of the fact that their ancestors were among the first 
American pioneers; that they were the makers of true American 
homes, and that they participated in laying the foundations 
upon which the entire present-day structure of our United 
States has been reared. 

That the reverent love which the Germans bear the land 
of their birth in no way tends to diminish the loyalty which 
they owe to the country of their adoption, is a fact which no 
fair-minded man requires to be proved, but of which this 
record bears ample witness. In defense of the Constitution, 
for the preservation of liberty and the rights of man they will 
stand firm and unafraid as of yore. 

In view of these facts it is the paramount duty of all Amer- 
icans of German descent to unite in order to take appropriate 
measures in self-defense as well as to protect their good name. 
Not only is it their task to convince their fellow citizens, irre- 
spective of origin, of the unswerving loyalty of the German 
element through making them acquainted with its glorious past 
and enduring patriotism, but, above all, they must inform their 

own children of the achievements of their ancestors. Only in 
this way can they make them proud of their origin and interest 
them in the great mission which the rising generation is 
expected to fulfill. 

The conditions, created by the war in our United States, 
made apparent the need of such a book as is offered herewith. 
Having been welcomed by thousands of enthusiastic readers 
and the entire German American press, it appears now in its 
third edition. May it continue to set aright the opinion of our 
American people with regard to their German fellow-citizens, 
and may it inspire our young generation to emulate the 
industry, enterprise and patriotism, which have distinguished 
the men and women of whom it tells. 

Mediaeval Germany and the Causes of 
German Emigration. 

Far beyond the Atlantic, occupying the greater part of 
central Europe, lies a country dear to all Americans of 
German descent. It is known as a land of romantic scenery, 
where the most beautiful of rivers, the Rhine, sweeps through 
vineclad mountains; where gray old churches and majestic 
cathedrals point heavenward; where in crumbling castles, 
sombre forests and silent valleys cling thousands of legends 
and fairy tales. It is praised as the home of science; as the 
birthplace of eminent philosophers and poets, whose names 
are known throughout the world. It is hailed as the land 
of great artists, sculptors and composers; as the cradle of 
most important inventions, that gave new impulse to mankind. 
Americans of German origin cherish it as the land of their 
ancestors, as the "Old Fatherland," and when speaking of 
it, they feel a longing tugging at their heartstrings. 

Reminiscences of the past are then revived. Noble heroes, 
none greater known to history, arise before their minds: 
Hermann the Cheruskan, the Emperors Karl and Otto the 
Great, Frederick Barbarossa, Rudolf and Maximilian, who, 
during the middle ages, made Germany the most prosperous 
and powerful empire in Europe. 

Under the sceptre of such brilliant rulers beautiful castles 
and palaces, imposing churches and cathedrals arose every- 
where. Villages and cities sprang into existence and became 
the homes of able craftsmen, who united into powerful guilds. 
Enterprising merchants opened commerce with all countries 
of Europe and the Orient. Many of these merchant-princes 
became famous for their wealth. As for instance the Fuggers 
of Augsburg, who amassed a fortune amounting to more than 
60 Million Gulden; then the Welsers, who were able to 
advance to Emperor Charles V. a loan of twelve tons of gold. 

These merchants, however, were not lost in selfishness. 
Proud of their native cities, they contributed freely to their 
beauty and importance. And so the German cities of the 
Middle Ages gained steadily in splendor and influence. To 
further their interests, many of these cities combined to form 
powerful federations. The cities of Southern Germany for 

instance founded the "Schwaebische Staedtebund ;" the cities 
of Northern Germany the "Hansa," which, embracing 85 
cities, became the most famous of all. 

Emperors, princes and magistrates vied with one another 
in beautifying their cities. To impress foreigners with the 
cities' importance and wealth, the entrance gates as well as 
the town halls, proud symbols of self-government, were 
adorned with magnificent portals, colonades and sculpture 
work. The great show pieces of these buildings were, how- 
ever, the state or banquet halls, on which often enormous 
sums were lavished. Here were to be found exquisite carvings 
in wood, costly tapestries and paintings. From the ceilings 
hung elaborate chandeliers and models of merchant vessels 
or men-of-war. The ornaments of the fire places bore the 
coat of arms of the city or of such families, which had played 
in the history of the community important roles. Richly 
carved closets and chests contained the treasures of the city: 
beautiful dishes, bowls and cups of ebony, ivory, crystal, 
silver and gold. And over all this splendor rays of sunshine, 
breaking through beautiful windows of stained glass, cast a 
bewitching light. 

In the public squares, fronting these city halls, arose mag- 
nificent fountains, topped with the figures of the city patrons 
or famous knights or kings. 

While thus the rulers and magistrates beautified all public 
buildings and squares, the burghers did their best to complete 
the picture. The innate sense for art accomplished wonders 
in many cities of Germany. Loving their homes, the citizens 
adorned the front of their houses with carvings and allegorical 
paintings. Even such inconspicuous objects as weather-vanes 
and door-knockers became in the hands of skilled craftsmen 
specimens of genuine art. However, these efforts to beautify 
the exterior of the houses, were not accomplished to the 
neglect of the interior. Wealthy families took pride in artistic 
furniture, beautiful carpets, precious objects of crystal and 
silver, and in paintings and etchings by famous masters. 

This period of prosperity and culture was also a time of 
great ecclesiastic architecture. Especially the architects of 
the 1 1th, 12th and 1 3th centuries created cathedrals, which in 
bold construction and sublime beauty surpass everything 
hitherto and since accomplished. The cathedrals of Worms, 
Speyer, Mayence, Frankfort on the Main, Ulm, Strassburg, 
Cologne and other cities rank among the greatest master- 
pieces of Romanic and Gothic art. 

The Middle Ages were also a period in which great German 
poets, artists, inventors and reformers flourished. Then it 
was, that one of the masterpieces of the world's literature, 
the "Nibelungenlied," was written. Then it was, that Walter 
von der Vogelweide, Wolfram von Eschenbach, Heinrich von 


Offterdingen, Frauenlob and many others wrote the most 
inspiring poems in praise of womanhood. It was also the 
time of Albrecht Duerer, Hans Holbein, Lucas Cranach, 
Stephan Lochner, Peter Vischer and other artists, who belong 
to the greatest of the great. Berthold Schwarz invented gun- 
powder, causing thereby a thorough revolution in warfare. 
Johannes Gutenberg, by inventing movable type, made the 
art of printing the most effective means for distributing 
knowledge and enlightenment throughout the world. The 
astronomers Kopernikus and Kepler opened new vistas by 
establishing the fact, contrary to the teachings of the Bible, 
that the sun does not move around the earth, but is a center, 
around which the earth and many other planets revolve. 

Another imposing figure of these great times was Martin 
Luther, who gave to his people not only the German Bible, 
but with it, a literary language. Whereas, up to his time, every 
German writer had written in the dialect with which he was 
familiar, the language used by Luther in his translation of the 
Bible became the common one in all Germany, proving the 
most powerful factor toward forming national unity and in 
establishing a national literature. 

In view of all these facts we may well ask, why people 
abandoned such a glorious land and emigrated to far distant 
countries of which they knew nothing and where their future 
was uncertain? 

In history we find the answer. 

The reformation, initiated by Luther, resulted, unfortunately, 
in conflict among religious creeds and was followed by the most 
overwhelming calamity that ever befell any country. Begin- 
ning in 1618 and lasting till 1648, the so-called Thirty Years* 
War swept over Germany like a hurricane, ruining it beyond 
recognition. Hundreds of cities and villages were burned by 
Spanish, Italian, Hungarian, Dutch and Swedish soldiers, who 
made Germany their battleground. Of the 1 7 million inhabi- 
tants of Germany 1 3 millions were killed or swept away 
through starvation and the pest. In Bohemia the population 
was diminished from 3,000,000 to 780,000. In Saxony, 
during the two years 1631 and 1632, 943,000 persons were 
slaughtered or died through sickness and want. In Wiirtem- 
berg over 500,000 lost their lives. The Palatinate, having 
had a population of 500,000, suffered a loss of 45 7,000. 
In some parts of Thuringia ninety per cent, of all the people 
perished. Agriculture, commerce, industries and the arts 
were annihilated. Of many villages nothing remained but 
their names. According to the chronicles of these times, one 
could wander for many miles without seeing a living creature 
except wolves and ravens. It was during those dreadful years 
that Alsace and Lorraine, two of the richest countries of 
Germany, were stolen by France. 


The terrors of all these calamities were not forgotten, 
when, at the end of the 1 7th and at the beginning of the 
18th centuries, the "most Christian king" Louis XIV. of 
France ordered his generals to raid the countries along the 
Rhine and to make them one vast desert. 

In obeying this cruel command the French armies destroyed 
everything that had survived the ravages of the Thirty Years' 
War. Dozens of cities were laid in ashes. Villages without 
number went up in flames. The ruins of hundreds of beauti- 
ful castles on the Rhine, Moselle and Neckar, among them 
Heidelberg, are lasting reminders of the years when the 
demons of rape and devastation held sway. 

Besides such calamities, many German countries suffered 
from oppression by their own princes, who tried to ape the 
splendor of the court of Louis XIV., and indulged in brilliant 
festivals, the cost of which had to be borne by the people. 
And in accordance with the old motto "cujus regio, ejus 
religio" ("Who governs the people, gives them also their 
religion") these princes quite often forced their subjects to 
change their faith according to their own belief. The Pala- 
tines, for instance, were compelled to change their faith 
several times. From Catholics they had to become Protestants, 
then Reformed, later on Lutherans and finally Catholics once 

In 1 756 the long suffering inhabitants of Germany were 
overrun again by the furies of war, when France, Russia, 
Poland, Sweden, Saxony and Austria sought to divide the 
kingdom of Frederick the Great. 

The desperate struggle, then ensuing, is known as the Seven 
Years' War, Only 42 years later it was followed by the 
onslaught of that monstrous adventurer Napoleon I., by 
whom Germany was humiliated as never before. The whole 
country was subjected to systematic plundering. The imperial 
crown of Germany was trodden into the dust. The German 
states were torn apart and given by Napoleon as presents to 
his favorites, who made the German cities resound with gay 
life, at the burghers* expense. 

Under the burden of all these sufferings many inhabitants 
of Germany despaired of a future in their native country and 
resolved to emigrate to America, hoping that there they would 
enjoy not only better material existence, but also freedom of 
worship. The report, that William Penn had thrown open his 
grant of land, Pennsylvania, as a place of refuge to all who 
suffered persecution on account of their religious faith, served 
as a special inducement for many Germans, to emigrate to 
that part of the New World. 


Germans Predecessors of the Puritans, 

Long before the Puritans, glorified in our Colonial History, 
thought of emigrating to America, Germans had already 
landed in several parts of the New World. At the very time 
when the British "Heroes of the Sea," the Hawkins, Drake, 
Cavendish, Morgan and others were engaged in abominable 
slave trade and in plundering the Spanish Colonies, numerous 
German mechanics, artisans, traders and miners busied them- 
selves with all kinds of useful work. 

As early as 1538, Johann Cromberger, a German, estab- 
lished a printing office in the City of Mexico, and issued 
numerous books, that bear the notice "Impresso en la gran 
ciudad de Mexico en casa de Juan Cromberger." 

From the Colonial history of Venezuela we know, that the 
German explorers, who came to that country in 1528 to 
1 546, also brought a printing press with them. Besides, they 
took with them fifty miners, to explore the mountains of 

Among the first English settlers, who came with Captain 
John Smith to Virginia, were also a number of German 
craftsmen, who had been procured by the British Colonial 
Office, at Captain Smith's suggestion "to send to Germany 
and Poland for laborers." 

German traders also appeared in different parts of North 
America. Soon after Henry Hudson had discovered the 
noble river which now bears his name, a German, Hendrick 
Christiansen of Kleve, became the explorer of that stream. 
Attracted by its beauty and grandeur, he undertook eleven 
expeditions to its shores. He also built the first houses on 
Manhattan Island, 1613, and laid the foundations of the trad- 
ing stations New Amsterdam and Fort Nassau, the present 
cities of New York and Albany. In what light Christiansen 
was regarded by his contemporaries, may be learned from 
a passage in the "Historisch Verhael" of the Dutch chronicler 
Nicolas Jean de Wassenaer, who wrote: "New Netherland 
was first explored by the honorable Hendrick Christiansen of 
Kleve Hudson, the famous navigator, was also there." 

A few years after this enterprising German had been 
killed by an Indian, another German, Peter Minnewit or 
Minuit, became Director-General of New Netherland, the 
colony established by the Dutch at the mouth of the Hudson 
River. Minnewit was born in Wesel, a city on the lower 


Rhine. Not much is known of his earlier life, but it is stated, 
that he was a Protestant and for some time held the position 
of deacon in the Reformed Church. 

When, during the Thirty Years' War, the countries of the 
Lower Rhine and of Westfalia, Ditmarsen, Friesland and 
Holstein were being ravaged by Spanish soldiers, Minnewit, 
like many other Protestants fled to Holland, to escape certain 
death. In Amsterdam Minnewit entered the service of a 
trading company, for which he made several trips to the 
East Indies and South America. These voyages were so 
successful, that the leaders of the "Dutch West India Com- 
pany" selected Minnewit as a director-general for her colony, 
New Netherland. They entrusted him with almost absolute 
power. Minnewit arrived in New Amsterdam on May 4, 
1626. To secure title for the colony, one of his first acts 
was the closing of a bargain with the Manhattan Indians, by 
which, in exchange for such trinkets as colored cloth, beads, 
kettles and small looking glasses to the value of 60 guilders, 
or $24, the whole of Manhattan Island, containing about 
22,000 acres, became the property of the Dutch. 

"f fcrt TVteuw lAmjherlam, of cUManhatans 

(From an Old Engraving.) 

By dealing fairly with the Indians Minnewit won their good 
will. From them New Netherland had nothing to fear. But 
the colony had dangerous neighbors, the English in Massa- 
chusetts, who started a number of settlements there and who 
claimed the whole Atlantic coast as far south as the 40th 
degree. To protect New Netherland against an attack by 


these steadily encroaching neighbors, Minnewit erected a fort 
at the south end of Manhattan Island. 

Under the able management of this German, the trading 
station developed successfully. While in 1624 the output in 
furs amounted to 25,000 guilders, the export increased within 
a few years to 1 30,000 guilders. 

Minnewit remained at his post till 1631. Soon afterwards 
he became the founder and first director of New Sweden, a 
Swedish colony at the mouth of the Delaware River. Unfor- 
tunately this energetic man lost his life in the West Indies 
during a hurricane. He had set sail with two vessels to open 
up trade relations with these islands. 

His successor in New Sweden was a German nobleman, 
Johann Printz von Buchau, a giant in body and energy. 
During his regime, which lasted from 1643 to 1654, the 
colony New Sweden became very successful and thereby 
aroused the jealousy of the Dutch, who, while Buchau was on 
a trip to Europe, attacked the colony and annexed it to New 
Netherland. In 1 664 it fell a prey to the English together 
with all of New Netherland. As is well known, the English 
now named the colony New York, in honor of the king's 
brother, the Duke of York. 

When this event took place, the colony already had 
among her citizens numerous Germans, of whom several held 
responsible positions in the Dutch West Indian Trading 
Company. There were also German physicians, lawyers and 
merchants. One of the latter, Nicholaus de Meyer, a native 
of Hamburg, became in 1676 burgomaster of New York. 

To the most prominent men of that period belonged also 
Augustin Herrman. a surveyor, who made the first reliable 
maps of the colonies of Maryland and Virginia. 

The unknown interior of the latter colony was first explored 
by a young German scholar, Johann Lederer. who, born in 
Hamburg, came to Jamestown in 1 668. Here he made the 
acquaintance of Governor Berkeley of Virginia, who sent him 
to explore the mountains in the western part of the colony, 
in the hope of finding a passage to the Indian Ocean, which 
was believed to be just beyond the western slopes of the 
Appalachian Mountains. During the years 1669 and 1670 
Lederer made three expeditions to the west and southwest. 
It seems that he traversed not only Virginia, but also a part 
of South Carolina. But in spite of the most heroic efforts it 
was impossible for him to cross the many parallel ridges of 
the Appalachian Mountains. When he had succeeded in 
scaling one, he saw from its summit in the distance other still 
higher ones. To cross them was impossible because of insuf- 
ficient outfit and provisions. 


Lederer's itinerary, written in Latin, abounds in highly- 
interesting descriptions of the country and the different Indian 
tribes he encountered. These notes were translated by Gov- 
ernor Talbot of Maryland into English. Printed in 1672 in 
London, they constitute one of the most valuable documents 
in the history of the exploration of our North American con- 

Franz Daniel Pastorius and the 
Settlers of Germantown. 

What Plymouth Rock is to Anglo-Americans, Germantown 
is to Americans of German descent: a spot consecrated by 
history, a spot where every American should stand with 
uncovered head ! 

At Plymouth Rock we cherish the memory of the Puritan 
Pilgrims; in Germantown that of those pious Mennonites, who, 
after their arrival in Philadelphia, broke ground for the first 
permanent German settlement in North America. 

There is no chapter in our colonial history, which in general 
interest and elevating character surpasses the story of that little 
town, which to-day is one of the suburbs of William Penn's 
famous "City of Brotherly Love.'' Like the Puritans, the 
Mennonites, followers of the reformer Menno Simon, had 
been subjected to so many restrictions and persecution, that 
they gladly accepted the invitation of Penn, to settle in his 
American domain. The first group of Mennonites, that 
crossed the ocean, came from Crefeld, a city of the lower 
Rhine. Numbering 33 persons, they landed, after a voyage 
of 73 days in the good ship "Concord," in Philadelphia 
October 6, 1683. They were received by William Penn 
and Franz Daniel Pastorius, a young lawyer from Frankfort 
on the Main, who had hurried to America in advance of the 
Mennonites, in order to prepare everything for their arrival. 

The first problem was to select a suitable location for the 
future town of the Mennonites. After due search they decided 
upon a tract near the Schuylkill River, two hours above Phila- 
delphia. Here they broke ground on October 24. 

For the first year the life of the settlers was but one con- 
tinuous struggle against the vast wilderness, whose depths 
no white man had ever penetrated. Trees of enormous size, 
hundreds of years old, and almost impenetrable brushwood 
had to be removed to win a clearing for the little houses. 
The trials of the settlers, who by occupation were weavers and 
not accustomed to hard work, were often so great, that it 
took the combined persuasion of Pastorius and Penn, to 
encourage the Mennonites to persist in the bitter fight against 
the cruel wilderness. But when at last the work was done, 
Germantown was well worth looking at. A street 60 feet 
wide and planted with peach-trees on both sides, divided 


the village in two parts. Every house was surrounded by a 
three-acre garden, in whose virgin soil flowers and vegetables 
grew in such abundance, that the settlers raised not only 
enough for their own use, but were also able to provide the 
market of Philadelphia. 

Special care was given to the cultivation of flax and grape- 
vine. The flax was of importance, as the Mennonites con- 
tinued in their profession as weavers with such success, that 
the linen and other woven goods from Germantown became 
famous for quality. As the inhabitants of Germantown came 
from the Rhine, their hearts were open to blissful enjoyment 
of life, and wine was appreciated as the means to drive away 
all grief and sorrow. Before long the windows and entrances 
of the houses were surrounded by heavy grapevines. 

Certainly it was a happy idea, when Pastorius, in designing 
an official seal for the town, selected the clover, the leaves 
of which were to represent the grape-vine, the flax blossom 
and the weavers' shuttle. These were surrounded by the Latin 
motto: "Vinum, Linum et Textrinum" (Vine, Linen and 
Weaving). With this he indicated, that culture of the grapes, 
flax-growing and the textile industries were the principal occu- 
pations in Germantown. At the same time it indicated the 
mission of the Germans in America, to promote agriculture, 
manufacture and enjoyment of life. 

Happy hours these German Pilgrims must have had in 
Germantown, when at eventide, after the days work had 
been done, they sat on the benches by the doors, listening 
to the cooing of the doves, and enjoying the fragrant odor 
of the manifold flowers, the seeds of which they had brought 
with them from their native home. 

While attending to their daily work, the inhabitants of Ger- 
mantown did not neglect their intellectual life. Pastorius, 
this true shepherd of his flock, was its center. He established 
a school and arranged also an evening class, in which he 
imparted freely of his great wisdom to all who were eager 
to enrich their knowledge. 

When Germantown was incorporated as a town, Pastorius 
was of course elected its first burgomaster. How deeply 
rooted in his heart was the love of his old Fatherland and 
his countrymen, is indicated by a "Greeting to Posterity,'' 
which he wrote on the first page of the "Grund- und Lager- 
buch," the first official document of Germantown. Translated 
from the Latin it reads as follows: "Hail Posterity! Hail to 
you, future generations in Germanopolis! May you never 
forget that your ancestors, of their own free will, left the 
beloved land, which bore and nourished them — ah! for those 
hearths and homes! — to live the rest of their days in the 
forests of Pennsylvania, in the lonely wilderness, with less 
care and anxiety, but still after the German fashion, like 


brothers. May you also learn, how arduous a task it was, 
after crossing the Atlantic Ocean, to plant the German race 
in this part of North America. And, dear descendants, where 
we have set an example of righteousness, follow our footsteps! 
But where we have turned from the straight and narrow path, 
forgive us! May the perils which we encountered, make you 
wise! Farewell, Posterity! Farewell, my German Kin! Farewell, 
forever and ever!" 

Undoubtedly Pastorius was also the author of a document, 
by which the inhabitant of Germantown set an everlasting 
monument to themselves. 

The importation of negro slaves from Africa to America 
had been practised by the English and Dutch since the 1 6th 
century. Slaves were sold to the English colonies without 
disapproval of the Puritans and Quakers, who claimed to be 
defenders of human rights. The Germans, however, who 
had suffered so much in their own fatherland, regarded in 
just appreciation of the personal rights of others the traffic 
in human flesh as a heavy crime against the teachings of 
Christ. For this reason they drew up on February 1 8, 1 688, 
a protest against slavery, the first ever written in any 
language. This remarkable document reads as follows: 

"This is to ye Monthly Meeting held at Richard Warrel's. 
These are the reasons why we are against the traffick of men 
Body, as followeth: Is there any that would be done or 
handled at this manner? to be sold or made a slave for all 
the time of his life? How fearfull and fainthearted are many 
on sea when they see a strange vessel, being afraid it should 
be a Turk, and they should be taken and sold for slaves into 
Turckey. Now what is this better done as Turcks doe? Yea 
rather is it worse for them, which say they are Christians; for 
we hear that ye most part of such Negers are brought hither 
against their will and consent; and that many of them are 
stollen. Now, tho' they are black, we cannot conceive there 
is more liberty to have them slaves, as it is to have other 
white ones. There is a saying, that we shall doe to all men, 
like as we will be done our selves; making no difference of 
what generation, descent or colour they are. And those who 
steal or robb men, and those who buy or purchase them, are 
they not all alike? Here is liberty of conscience, which is 
right and reasonable; here ought to be likewise liberty of ye 
body, except of evildoers, which is another case. But to 
bring men hither, or to robb and sell them against their will, 
we stand against. In Europe there are many oppressed for 
conscience sake; and here there are those oppressed which 
are of a black colour. And we, who know that men must 
not commit adultery, some doe commit adultery in others, 
separating wifes from their husbands and giving them to 
others; and some sell the children of those poor creatures to 


other men. Oh! doe consider well this things, you who doe 
it; if you would be done at this manner? and if it is done 
according to Christianity? You surpass Holland and Germany 
in this thing. This makes an ill report in all those countries of 
Europe, where they hear off, that ye Quackers doe here handel 
men like they handel there ye cattel. And for that reason 
some have no mind or inclination to come hither, and who 
shall maintaine this your cause or plaid for it? Truly we can 
not do so, except you shall inform us better hereoff, that 
Christians have liberty to practise this things. Pray! What 
thing on the world can be done worse towards us, then if 
men should robb or steal us away, and sell us for slaves to 
strange countries, separating housbands from their wifes and 
children. Being now this is not done at that manner, we will 
be done at, therefore we contradict and are against this 
tramck of menbody. And we who profess that it is not lawful 
to steal, must likewise avoid to purchase such things as are 
stollen but rather help to stop this robbing and stealing if 
possible; and such men ought to be delivered out of ye hands 
of ye Robbers and sett free as well as in Europe. Then is 
Pennsylvania to have a good report, instead it hath now a 
bad one for this sacke in other countries. Especially whereas 
ye Europeans are desirous to know in what manner ye 
Quackers doe rule in their Province; and most of them doe 
look upon us with an envious eye. But if this is done well, 
what shall we say is done evill? 

If once these slaves (which they say are so wicked and 
stubborn men) should joint themselves, fight for their freedom 
and handel their masters and mastrisses as they did handel 
them before, will these masters and mastrisses tacke the sword 
at hand and warr against these poor slaves, like we are able 
to believe, some will not refuse to doe? Or have these Negers 
not as much right to fight for their freedom, as you have to 
keep them slaves? 

Now consider well this thing, if it is good or bad? and in 
case you find it to be good to handel these blacks at that man- 
ner, we desire and require you hereby lovingly, that you may 
inform us here in, which at this time never was done, that 
Christians have such a liberty to do so, to the end we shall 
be satisfied in this point, and satisfie lickewise our good friends 
and acquaintances in our natif country, to whom it is a terrour 
or fairfull thing that men should be handeld so in Pennsilvania. 
This is from our Meeting at Germantown held ye 1 8. of the 
2. month 1688. to be delivered to the monthly meeting at 
Richard Warrel's. 

gerret hendericks 
derick op de graeff 
Francis Daniell Pastorius 
Abraham op Den graeff.'* 


This protest was submitted at several meetings of the 
Quakers, who, however, found the question too important to 
take action upon, since this question stood in intimate relation 
with other affairs. The document, set up by the humble 
inhabitants of Germantown, however, compelled the Quakers 
to think. Becoming aware that the traffic in human beings 
did not harmonize with Christian religion, they introduced in 
1711 "an act to prevent the importation of Negroes and 
Indians into the province," and later on they declared against 
slave trade. But as the Government found such laws inad- 
missible, the question dragged along, until 150 years later 
this black spot on the escutcheon of the United States was 

Pastorius, the noble leader of Germantown, departed this 
life about Christmas of 1719, much deplored by his many 
friends, who, like William Penn, respected him as "an upright 
and courageous, moderate and wise man, a shining example 
to his countrymen." 

(In the Museum of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.) 

A few years after Pastorius' death another remarkable 
person made Germantown his home: Christoph Saur, a 
native of Westphalia. Being a printer, he published here in 
1 739 the first newspaper in German type, and also in 1 743 
the first German Bible in America. This antedated, by forty 
years, the printing of any other Bible in America, in an- 
other European language. Besides Saur published numerous 
other volumes, among them many textbooks for schools. To 
him is due also the founding of the Germantown Academy, 
which still exists. 


Germantown deserves credit also as the place, where Wil- 
helm Rittenhaus established in 1690 the first paper mill in 
America. So the name of Germantown is connected with 
many events of great importance in American history. No 
one who intends to give a true idea of the origin and develop- 
ment of American culture, can omit to mention Germantown 
and its founders. 

The great success of the Mennonites inspired many other 
German sectarians to follow their example and emigrate to 
the Western hemisphere. Among them were the Tunkers or 
Dunkards, whose cloister Ephrata in Pennsylvania became 
famous as a seat of learning. It had its own printing press, 
paper mill and book bindery, and published in 1 749 the 
"Martyrer Spiegel," a folio volume of 1514 pages, the great- 
est literary undertaking of the American colonies. 

Furthermore, there were the Herrnhuter or Moravians, the 
founders of Bethlehem, Nazareth and other settlements in 
Pennsylvania and Ohio. Many of these Moravians devoted 
themselves to missionary work among the Indians. Some of 
these devout emissaries, for instance Christian Friedrich 
Post, Johann Heckewelder and David Zeisberger per- 
formed most valuable work among the Delawares, Mohicans 
and other tribes. 

The Salzburgers, driven from their homes in the Alps in 
1731, established in Georgia a flourishing colony, named 
Ebenezer. Other German sectarians founded Zoar and Har- 
mony in Ohio, Economy in Pennsylvania, Bethel and Aurora 
in Missouri, Amana in Iowa, and other colonies, many of 
which created world-wide attention because of their success- 
ful application of communistic ideas. 



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The Coming of the Palatines, 

Of all the German states which suffered from the terrors 
of the Thirty Years' War and the raids of the French, the 
Palatinate fared worst. During the first catastrophe one 
hundred and forty-seven towns and villages were wiped out 
of existence, so that nothing remained but their almost for- 
gotten names. Everything which escaped the ravages of that 
dreadful war, was destroyed by the soldiers of the "most 
Christian King'' Louis XIV. of France. In utter despair, the 
few thousand survivors of the carnage and plundering resolved 
to give up their homes and emigrate to any country, where 
they would be free from the terrors of war. 

The first Palatines to emigrate were 55 Lutherans. Under 
the leadership of their minister, Josua von Kocherthal, they 
arrived in New York in the winter of 1 708. Upon the western 
shore of the Hudson they established a settlement, which they 
called Neuburg, from which the present city of Newburgh 
takes its name. — 

In the following year the Rhine became the scene of an 
extraordinary event. Vast fleets of boats and rafts glided 
down the river, all crowded with unhappy people, who 
carried their few belongings with them in bundles and boxes. 

How many thousand persons there were, is not exactly 
known. Estimates vary from 15,000 to 30,000. The fugi- 
tives went to Holland and from there to London, to beg the 
British government for transportation to America. Several 
thousand were sent to Ireland; several hundred to Virginia, 
Carolina and New England, and more than 3,000 to New 
York. The latter embarked in ten vessels in January, 1710. 

The voyage across the ocean took several months; the last 
boat did not arrive in New York before July. Accommo- 
dations and food on the vessels were so poor that 470 of 
the emigrants perished during the trip; 250 more died on 
Governor's Island, where the Palatines were kept in quaran- 
tine for many weeks without any apparent reason. 

Furthermore, the government, instead of granting the 
Palatines the same privileges that other emigrants received, 
treated them as serfs, who ought to make good by their labor 
for everything the government had done for them. So the 
Palatines were settled along the shores of the Hudson, where 
we now find Germantown and Saugerties. Here they were 


forced to raise hemp for cordage, and to manufacture tar 
and pitch, so that the government would no longer be obliged 
to buy these much-needed objects for ship-building from 
other countries. 

Unfortunately, the contract for supplying the Palatines 
with all necessities of life was given to Robert Livingston, a 
perfect type of those disreputable men, who came to America 
only to get rich quickly. In Albany he had been made Town 
Clerk and Secretary for Indian Affairs. Later on to these 
offices were added those of Collector of Excise and Quit 
Rents, Clerk of Peace and Clerk of the Court of Common 
Pleas. A born grafter, he associated himself secretly with 
the famous pirate Captain Kidd, and thereby added greatly 
to his fortune. 

When in 1 701 he could not account for large sums, said to 
have passed through his hands, he was deprived of his offices 
and his estates were confiscated. However, upon going to 
London he obtained from the Queen a restoration of his 
offices, returned to New York in 1 709, became, through 
bribery, a member of Assembly and secured a repeal of the 
act confiscating his estates. 

Such was the history of the gentleman, into whose care the 
unfortunate Palatines were given. Naturally, they fared badly. 
While they almost starved to death, the bills, handed by 
Livingston to the government, ran to enormous sums. From 
November 10, 1710, to September, 1712, they amounted 
to 76,000 pounds sterling! 

During the severe winter of 1712-13 the distress of the 
Palatines became unbearable. They had neither food nor 
clothing. Suffering from hunger and cold, their clamor 
became so heartrending that the Indians, who dwelt in the 
neighborhood, came to their assistance, and presented them 
with a stretch of land in the valley of the Schoharie River, 
whereto the Palatines might emigrate. 

Seeing no other course before them, the Palatines resolved 
to escape to this place. They started in March, 1713. As no 
roads existed and deep snow covered the ground, the trip 
was exhausting. The fugitives had neither wagons nor animals 
for the transportation of the sick, the aged, the women and 
children. All belongings had to be carried upon their backs. 
And, of course, there was nothing to eat. If the Indians had 
not helped, the Palatines would certainly have perished. 

Hardly ever were settlements started under greater diffi- 
culties than these in the Schoharie Valley. Rough logs fur- 
nished the material for the huts. Clothes were made from 
the skins of wild animals. As no one possessed a plough, the 
settlers were obliged to dig furrows into the ground with 
their knives. They then sowed the only bushel of wheat they 
had bought in Schenectady with their last money. As they 


had no mill, the first harvest was crushed between stones. 

After toiling for several years, the Palatines, never giving 
up hope, began to look for a better future, when suddenly 
came the news, that the governor had ceded their land to 
some speculators, among them Livingston, with whom the 
Palatines must come to an agreement. That the land had 
been given to the Palatines by the Indians, and that by the 
right of first settlement they had an indisputable claim, the 
governor would not acknowledge. Furious about their escape, 
he molested the Palatines so persistently that the majority 
decided to move again. Several hundred quitted the in- 
hospitable colony of New York forever, and went to Penn- 
sylvania. Others moved to the valley of the Mohawk River, 
occupying a strip of land which was donated to them by the 
Mohawk Indians. 

The first settlement there became known as the German 
Flats. But in the course of time the Palatines founded many 
other villages and towns, some of which betray their German 
origin by their names, as Mannheim, Oppenheim, Frankfort, 
Palatine, Herkimer, Palatine Bridge, New Paltz Landing 
and Palatine Church. — 

The Palatines who had been brought to Carolina, Virginia 
and New England also founded numerous villages and towns, 
whose original German names, however, became so distorted 
later, that to-day they can hardly be recognized. — 

Through a strange irony of fate the Palatines, who had 
emigrated from Germany to escape the brutalities of the 
French, were compelled to again face the same enemies in 
America. It was during the years 1 754 to 1 763, when the 
French, assisted by their Indian allies, the Ottawas, Hurons, 
Miamis, Shawnees and Illinois, made frequent raids from 
Canada and the Ohio Valley on the settlements of the 
Palatines, who in fact had been placed by the government 
as outposts on the frontier against the French and Indians. 

In assisting the Germans in the defense of the frontier the 
government was always so tardy that the Germans often 
resorted to drastic demonstrations to compel the authorities 
to do their duty. In November, 1755, when the Palatine 
settlements in Pennsylvania had been raided, several hundred 
Germans marched to Philadelphia, to demand measures of 
defense. They brought with them a number of bodies of 
friends murdered, mutilated and scalped, and displayed them 
at the doors of the assembly hall. This gruesome exhibition 
created great sensation, yet the government did not call the 
militia before spring of the next year for the protection of 
the suffering settlements. Many members of this militia were 
Palatines. They were also largely represented among the 
"Royal Americans," a regiment of 4000 Germans of Penn- 
sylvania and Maryland, which under the able command of 


Henry Bouquet, a native of Switzerland, in the wars against 
the French and Indians won a glorious record. 

Out of the ranks of the Palatine colonists came many 
vigorous men, who gained renown in American history. As 
for instance Konrad Weiser, Peter Zenger, and Nicholas 
Herchheimer, who, like all their countrymen, served this 
country devotedly in timeq of peace, and gladly gave their 
lives for it in times of war. 

Their descendants, reinforced by large numbers of Palatines, 
who arrived during the 1 8th and 1 9th centuries, number at 
present many hundred thousands, a valuable army of diligent, 
industrious and contented people. Where energy and per- 
sistence are needed, where experience, mechanical or artistic 
abilities are required, the Palatines take no second place. We 
find them engaged in all trades, in the fields, the orchards 
and vineyards, and always devoted to the place which gives 
them support. None of their beautiful farms in the Schoharie 
and Mohawk valleys, or in Pennsylvania, ever had to be 
abandoned because of exhausted soil, as was the case with 
so many thousands of Yankee-farms in the New England 
States. Like all other German immigrants that settled in 
America, the Palatines took great care to uphold and increase 
the fruitfulness of their farms, and the good name and credit 
of their business, in order that they might pass them on to 
their children and grandchildren as valuable inheritances. 

Besides their diligence and industriousness, the Palatines 
in America have also preserved their genuine Rhenish cheer- 
fulness, their love for poetry, music and song. Some of their 
poets rank among the best our country has produced. Their 
singing-societies are of the first order, while their festivals 
are brimful of harmless fun and rejoicing. 

What virtues they brought with them from the Fatherland 
they have preserved and transmitted with great success and 
to their own honor from generation to generation. And so 
the Palatines will live in the history of America; and future 
generations will celebrate the great influx of the Palatines in 
1710 as an event which became a blessing to this nation. 

The Life of the German Settlers in 
Colonial Times. 

To take a glimpse at the life of the early pioneers in 
America is certainly interesting. It will be remembered that 
the British government purposely placed many of these Ger- 
mans at the most exposed parts of the "frontier," where their 
settlements would serve as outposts and as protection against 
the French and their Indian allies. In this way the Germans 
in the valleys of the Mohawk, of the Susquehanna, Shenan- 
doah and Wyoming and at the Blue Mountains formed the 
vangard of civilization. 

For their own safety's sake these settlers were compelled 
to place their log houses close together, so that in case of 
danger they could be better protected. The intervals between 
the houses were closed with palisades, ten or twelve feet 
high. Sometimes these rude fortresses were surrounded by 
deep ditches. In the center of the village stood a very strong 
blockhouse, which served as a place of refuge in case of 
extreme danger. It had mostly two or three stories, the upper 
projecting over the lower. The heavy walls were pierced by 
numerous loop-holes. In greatly exposed villages there were 
three or four such strongholds at the corners of the village, so 
that the gunfire of the defenders could sweep in every direc- 

The ever present danger compelled the settlers to keep 
constant guard. Every man was obliged to perform sentinel 
duty at times. As soon as the scouts noticed any danger they 
gave signals, the meaning of which was understood by all. 
In case of siege, all men and boys had to hurry to their 
respective posts at the stockade. The women assisted in load- 
ing guns, in casting bullets, in providing the men with food 
and water, in taking care of the wounded, besides looking 
after the children and cattle. 

As the very existence of the whole settlement depended 
upon preparedness, it was every man's duty to keep his arms 
and ammunition in perfect condition and ready to be used 
at a moment's notice. Skill in the use of weapons was highly 
valued and encouraged. Even small boys were allowed to 
carry guns and hunting-knives. Bows and arrows and toma- 
hawks they handled with an Indian's dexterity. Racing, jump- 


3 n 

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ing, swimming, climbing, wrestling and all other physical exer- 
cises, the knowledge of which could be helpful in the hard 
struggle for existence, were encouraged. Challenges for 
shooting and fighting-matches were frequently exchanged 
between neighboring settlements, and when these contests were 
fought out, enthusiastic spectators were never wanting. 

As the population of Germany during the 1 7th and 1 8th 
centuries supported itself mainly by agriculture, naturally the 
majority of German emigrants consisted of farmers. Of their 
splendid qualities the accounts of many travellers and states- 
men bear testimony. When the famous French botanist Andre 
Michaux visited North America, he was surprised at the fine 
condition of the German farms. In mentioning them he says: 
"The superior culture of the fields and the better condition 
of the fences indicate that here are settlements of Germans. 
Everything breathes comfort and well-being, the reward of 
diligence and intelligent work. These Germans live under 
much better conditions than the American descendants of the 
English, Scotch and Irish ; they are not so much given to strong 
drink and have not that restless spirit, which frequently 
induces settlers of other nationality to move, for the most 
trifling reasons, to distances of perhaps hundreds of miles in 
search of more fertile land." 

In still more enthusiastic terms Dr. Benjamin Rush, Surgeon 
general at the time of the Revolution, spoke after passing 
through all the colonies. In 1 789 he published "An Account 


of the Manners of the German Inhabitants of Pennsylvania." 
In this classic little essay Rush, who has justly been called 
the Tacitus of the German-Americans, enumerates the partic- 
ulars, in which the German farmers differed from most of the 
others. "In settling a tract of land they always provide large 


and suitable accommodations for their horses and cattle, 
before they lay out much money in building a house for them- 
selves. The first house is small and built of logs. It generally 
lasts through the lifetime of the first settler and hence, they 
have a saying, that a son should always begin his improve- 
ments, where his father left off." 

"They always prefer good land, or that land on which 
there are great meadows. By giving attention to the cultiva- 
tion of grass, they often in a few years double the value of 
an old farm, and grow rich on farms, on which their pre- 
decessors, of whom they purchased them, had nearly starved." 

"In clearing new land they do not simply girdle or belt the 
trees, and leave them to perish in the ground, as is the custom 
of their English or Irish neighbors; they generally cut them 
down and burn them. Underbrush and bushes they pull out 
by the roots. The advantage is that the land is fit for culti- 
vation the second year." 

"They feed their horses and cows well, thereby practicing 
economy, for such animals perform twice the labor or yield 
twice the amount of the less well fed. A German horse is 
known in every part of the state." 

"The German farmers are also great wood-economists. 
They do not waste it in large fire-places, but burn it in stoves, 
using about one-fourth to one-fifth as much. Their houses 
are made very comfortable by these stoves, around which 
the family can get a more equal chance than when burning 
faces and freezing their backs before open fire-places." 

"The Germans live frugally in regard to diet, furniture and 
dress. They eat sparingly of boiled meat, but use large quan- 
tities of all kinds of vegetables. They use few distilled spirits 
(whiskey and rum), preferring cider, beer, wine, and simple 
water. In their homespun garments they are likewise econom- 
ical. When they use European articles of dress, they prefer 
those of best quality and highest price. They are afraid to 
get into debt, and seldom purchase anything without paying 
cash for it." 

"Kitchen gardening the Germans introduced altogether. 
Their gardens contain useful vegetables at every season of 
the year. Pennsylvania is indebted to the Germans for the 
principal part of her knowledge of horticulture. The work 
of the gardens is generally done by the women of the 
family. Hired help is procured only in harvest time. The 
favorable influence of agriculture, as conducted by the Ger- 
mans, in extending the most happiness, is manifested by the 
joy expressed at the birth of a child. No dread of poverty 
or distrust of Providence from an increasing family depress 
the spirits of this industrious and frugal people." 

"In their children they produce not only the habits of labor 
but a love of it." 


"When a young man asks the consent of his father to marry 
the girl of his choice he does not inquire so much whether 
she be rich or poor, or whether she possess any personal or 
mental accomplishments, but whether she be industrious, and 
acquainted with the duties of a good housewife." 

Ennumerating other good qualities of the Germans, Rush 
says: "They are no strangers to the virtue of hospitality. The 
hungry or benighted traveller is always sure to find a hearty 
welcome under their roofs. They are extremely kind and 
friendly as neighbors." 

As stated in former chapters, there were also among the 
German immigrants many mechanics, who found everywhere 
remunerative work for their skill and reliability. The condi- 
tions, prevailing in the colonies, were very favorable, as the 
practice of the different professions was not, as in Europe, 
restricted by the rules of guilds. Such corporations had not 
yet been started. In fact, they were impossible, as in the 
thinly settled and very extensive colonies all had to rely upon 
their own abilities. As in the solitude of the wilderness the 
farmer had of necessity to be a "Jack of all trades," so in 
the villages and cities such craftsmen were most welcome, 
who could be helpful in many different ways. As Gottlieb 
Mittelberger, a German teacher visiting Pennsylvania in 1 750, 
stated in one of his letters: "No profession is restrained by 
the laws of guilds. Every one can make his living according 
to his choice. He may carry on ten different trades, and 
nobody will hinder him." 

A splendid type of such many-sided men was Christopher 
Saur, the famous printer at Germantown. Of him Pastorius 
speaks in his notes: "He is a very ingenious man, who learned 
about thirty different professions without the help of an in- 
structor. He came here as a tailor; but now he is a printer, 
apothecary, surgeon, botanist, watchmaker, carpenter, book- 
binder and newspaper man. He made all his tools for print- 
ing; he also makes paper, wire, lead, etc." 

Such ingenious craftsmen were the very first in starting 
many industries in America, which flourish to-day. The 
earliest iron-works on record were operated by miners from 
Siegen, Germany, who on invitation of Governor Spotswood 
established a settlement Germanna at the Rapidan River in 
Virginia in 1714. Two lears later Thomas Ruetter or Rut- 
ter from Germantown, Pa., founded the first ironworks in 
Pennsylvania at the Matawny Creek, Berks County. The first 
hammer-works and smelting furnaces were constructed in 
1 750 by Johannes Huber. His furnace, located in Lancaster 
County, Pa., bore the inscription: 

"Johann Huber ist der erste deutsche Mann 
Der das Eisenwerk vollfiihren kann." 


In 175 7 he sold his works to a German Baron, Friedrich 
Wilhelm von Stiegel, a genuine "captain of industry." 

Engaging large numbers of German smiths and other work- 
men, he started the town of Mannheim, where he made iron 
stoves, wagons and many other things. 

Perhaps the greatest of all American industrials of the 1 8th 
century was Peter Hasenclever, born in 1 7 1 6 in Remscheid, 
a city in Rhenish Prussia, famous for her iron-industry. Having 
been informed, that North America was rich in iron and forests 
and that the English government was compelled to import 
annually more than 40,000 tons of rod-iron, he submitted 
plans to work these mines and, by manufacturing rod-iron, 
make England independent of other countries. As his propo- 
sitions were favored, he emigrated to New York in 1 765 and 
established numerous smelting and stamping works, forges 
and other factories in the neighborhood of the German Flats 
in the Mohawk Valley. From his native home he imported 
550 miners and smiths, for whom he built 200 houses. By 
damming several creeks he provided cheap and constant 
water power; by constructing good roads and bridges he also 
procured means of communication. 

Within a few years the establishment grew to a most prom- 
ising seat of industry, with all prospects for a bright future. 
But unfortunately the English partners of Hasenclever, living 
in London, were dishonest people. Leading a very luxurious 
life, they burdened the establishment with such heavy debts, 
that Hasenclever, in spite of all efforts, was unable to prevent 
its bankruptcy. To save his good name he went to England 
and instituted proceedings against his partners. The lawsuit 
dragged along for twenty years, but was decided after Hasen- 
clever' s death in favor of his heirs, to whom the accused party 
had to pay one million Thalers indemnity. 

Another enterprising German of the 1 8th century was 
Johann Jacob Faesch, owner of the Mount Hope forges. 
During the war for independence he supplied the American 
army with large quantities of cannon and ammunition. Other 
Germans furnished it with splendid guns, with which the 
Minute Men worked great havoc in British lines. The bored 
rifles in particular, made by German gun-smiths in Lancaster, 
Pa., were highly prized in all colonies. 

The first glass-factory was started in 1 738 near Salem, 
N. J., by Kaspar Wiister, a native of Heidelberg. His name 
became corrupted to Wistar. That the manufacture of glass 
was exclusively in the hands of Germans, is proved by a 
letter of Lord Sheffield, who, in writing about the glass- 
works of Pennsylvania and New Jersey, said: "Hitherto these 
manufactures have been carried on by German workmen." 


The inhabitants of Germantown were noted for their 
splendid textile fabrics. Germans were also the pioneers in 
the manufacture of felt, hats, leather wares, watches, bells, 
and many other things. As early as 1 730 German mechanics 
in America began to make musical instruments. In the year 
mentioned Heinrich Neering of New York built the first 
organ for the Trinity community. And in 1775 Johann 
Behrent constructed the first pianoforte in America. 

Besides these farmers, craftsmen, artisans and industrials 
there were also many German merchants, for whom Dr. Rush 
also expressed appreciation. In his booklet he says: "The 
genius of the Germans is, however, not confined to agriculture 
and the mechanical arts. As merchants they are candid and 
punctual. The Bank of North America bears witness to their 
fidelity in all pecuniary transactions." 

These merchants traded in spices, drygoods, hardwares, 
agricultural tools, books, musical instruments, clothes and 
many other things. The larger cities had also German apothe- 
caries and inns, as for instance in Philadelphia "The King of 
Prussia," "The Black Eagle" and "The Golden Lamb." 

Furthermore, there were also a number of German printers, 
who, like Christoph Saur and Peter Zenger, published news- 
papers, calendars and books in German as well as in English. 
Benjamin Franklin states, that of the six printing houses in 
Pennsylvania four were German or half German, while only 
two were entirely English. He mentions also, that the Ger- 
mans imported many books from abroad. 

They also had their own ministers and teachers. A pamph- 
let, printed in 1 755 in Pennsylvania, states: "The Germans 
have schools and meeting houses in almost every township 
thro' the province, and have more churches and other places 
of -worship in the city of Philadelphia itself than those of all 
other persuasions together." 

In view of all these facts there can be no doubt, that the 
Germans, living in the colonies, were a very useful and valu- 
able element, well deserving the high esteem, extended to 
them by all fair-minded people. Concluding his essay about 
his German fellow-citizens Dr. Rush said: 

"Citizens of the United States, learn from the German in- 
habitants of Pennsylvania, to prize knowledge and industry in 
agriculture and manufacture, as the basis of domestic happi- 
ness and national prosperity. 

Legislatures of the United States, learn from the wealth 
and independence of the German inhabitants of Pennsylvania, 
to encourage by example and laws the republican virtues of 
industry and economy. They are the only pillars which can 
support the present constitution of the United States. 


Legislators of Pennsylvania, learn from the history of your 
German fellow-citizens, that you possess an inexhaustible 
treasure in the bosom of the State, in their manners and arts. 
Do not contend against their prejudice in favor of their lang- 
uage. It will be the channel through which the knowledge and 
discoveries of the wisest nation in Europe may be conveyed 
to our country. Invite them to share in the power and offices 
of government: it will be a bond of union in principle and 
conduct between them, and those of their enlightened fellow- 
citizens, who are descended from other nations. Above all, 
cherish with peculiar tenderness those sects among them who 
hold war to be unlawful. Relieve them from the oppression 
of absurd and unnecessary military laws. Protect them as 
the repositories of truth of the gospel, which has existed in 
every age of the church, and which must spread over every 
part of the world. Perhaps those German sects among us 
(here are meant the Mennonites, Moravians and Tunkers), 
who refuse to bear arms for the purpose of shedding human 
blood, may be preserved by divine providence as the centre 
of a circle, which shall gradually embrace all nations of the 
earth in a perpetual treaty of friendship and peace." 

Promoters of the Cause of Liberty. 

Tacitus, the great Roman Historian, writing of the early 
Germans in his famous book "Germania," declared one of 
their noblest characteristics to be their independent spirit, 
lauding their strong love for nature and liberty. Grown up 
among majestic forests and breathing the pure air of the 
mountains they regarded towns as prisons and refrained from 
building them. So great was their love of freedom that it 
frequently led them to suicide rather than surrender into 

Unconquered by the Romans this spirit survived throughout 
the many centuries following the famous battle in the Teuto- 
burgian Forests. Many thousands of Germans were moved 
by it to emigrate to America, in order to escape intellectual 
or bodily servitude, threatening during the Thirty Years' War. 
So also during the raids of the French into the Palatinate and 
other borderlands of the Rhine. 

Picture then the dismay of the Germans, who, hoping to 
find freedom and liberty in America, became aware of the 
fact that many of the detested institutions of Europe had been 
transplanted to the New World and had become firmly 
rooted. Favorites of the British king, after squandering their 
money in gambling and high living, were entrusted with the 
government of the colonies and assumed office merely to 
recoup their lost fortunes. The colonies were overrun, too, 
by hordes of impoverished aristocrats, cunning adventurers 
and unscrupulous speculators, all incited by the mad desire 
to get rich quickly. 

By bribing the governors and other officials many of these 
questionable gentlemen had succeeded in obtaining valuable 
privileges or securing titles to large tracts of land, where they 
lived in the luxurious style of lords. 

The common people found small protection against the 
insolence of these drones of society, who looked with disdain 
upon "the rabble." Immigrants, who could not speak English 
fluently, were often treated worse than slaves, these insolent 
officials and aristocrats holding the view, that the English were 
the cream of creation, and that an imperfect command of their 
language meant defectiveness. Irritated by their arrogance 
and oppressions, the people resented their disdain with ill- 
concealed hate. 


The antagonism between the two classes grew to bitter 
party-strife and revolt during that stormy period, when the 
crown of England passed from the Catholic King James II. 
to the Protestant William III. Amidst the upheaval, caused 
in the colonies by this sudden change, Sir Edmond Andros, 
Governor-General of the combined colonies of New England, 
New York and New Jersey, was seized by the people of Boston 
and together with fifty of his followers sent to England. His 
representative in New York, Francis Nicholson, a most un- 
popular official, fled to the fort at the Southern point of Man- 
hattan Island, but he was captured, as the people had been 
aroused by the alarming rumor, that he intended to burn the 
city and deliver the colony to the French. The majority of 
the people being Protestants, they resolved to hold the 
colonies for the new King William. 

To save New York from greater disorder and defend it 
against an invasion by the French, it became necessary to 
elect a temporary governor. It was then that the people 
chose a German, Jacob Leisler, a native of Frankfort-on-the- 
Main, who, upon coming to New York in 1 660, had attained 
great success as a merchant. A man of great energy, high 
spirits and of noted integrity, he was senior captain of the 
militia. By marriage he was connected with the Dutch aristo- 
cracy of the town. Thus Leisler appeared to be the right 
person, to save the colony from further unrest and calamity. 

However, the people's party had under-estimated the hatred 
of the Aristocrats. From the moment Leisler assumed charge 
of affairs, the latter began to denounce him as a demagogue. 
In connection with the rest of the officials, who had fled to 
Albany, they started a regular campaign of secret intrigue 
and open hostility. Flooding the government in London with 
complaints, they decried Leisler and the members of his 
council as foreign-born plebeians, mutineers and tyrants, 
falsely alleging that they had seized their offices only to 
enrich themselves and to defraud the government of its taxes. 
At the same time they declined to acknowledge Leisler and 
his councilors, and incited all colonists to refuse obedience. 

To remain silent under such calumniation and provocation 
was impossible. Leisler commissioned a company of soldiers 
under command of his son-in-law, Major Jacob Milborne, to 
go to Albany to compel the aristocrats to acknowledge him 
and to occupy the fort, as at the Canadian border hostilities 
by the French and their Indian allies were imminent. Un- 
fortunately the company was not strong enough to capture 
the fort, the Aristocrats being on their guard and defending 
Albany successfully, so that Milborne had to withdraw. Soon 
afterwards, however, the nearby town of Schenectady was 
surprised by the French and Indians, while the unsuspecting 
inhabitants were asleep. The whole settlement was burned, 


60 people killed and 90 carried away as prisoners. When the 
news of this assault reached Albany, the frightened aristocrats 
fled to Massachusetts, leaving the defense of the city to Leisler, 
who once more proved himself equal to the emergency. 

Convinced that the colonies would never be safe unless 
the French were driven from Canada, and that for an effective 
resistance against the formidable foe co-operation on the part 
of all colonies was essential, Leisler invited the governors of 
all the other colonies to a council at New York. It was the 
first ever held, and by this act Leisler aroused the colonists 
to a sense of common interest, which kept on increasing and 
was destined to culminate in the Continental Congress of 

That memorable council took place on May 1, 1690, 
attended by delegates from New York, Connecticut, Massa- 
chusetts, Plymouth, New Jersey and Maryland. It was 
resolved, that 855 men, assisted by an auxiliary force of 1600 
Mohawk Indians, should attack Canada by land, while at the 
same time a fleet of 32 vessels should ascend the St. Lawrence 
River and bombard Quebec. The campaign was undertaken 
by the colonies at their own cost and responsibility, without 
the aid of the mother country. 

Unfortunately its aims were not realized, as the leaders 
of the two expeditions, lacking energy, were not victorious 
in their attacks. Leisler himself, however, gained a success 
by capturing six French vessels, which had dared to come to 
the vicinity of New York. 

The campaign, undertaken on Leisler's recommendation, 
burdened the colonies with considerable expense. Its failure 
was of course used by his enemies to make a scapegoat of 
him and to undermine his reputation by malicious slander. 

This was the situation, when in January, 1 69 1 , a vessel 
from England brought the news, that the home government 
had appointed a new governor for New York in the person 
of Colonel Henry Sloughter. It was stated that this official 
had set out with several vessels and many troops to take 
charge of the colony. 

By misadventure a heavy storm separated his vessel from 
the fleet and compelled him to a delay of several weeks at 
the Bermudas. In the meantime the fleet, with Major Ingoldsby 
the second in command, arrived in the harbor of New York. 
The aristocrats at once set out to win the favor of the new 
arrival and to influence him against Leisler. These efforts 
proved successful when Ingoldsby's demand, to surrender the 
fort at once, was answered by Leisler with the request for 
documentary proof of Ingoldsby's authority. As such docu- 
ment was not at hand, Leisler refused to give up the fort. 
Ingoldsby, feeling himself aggrieved in his honor as an officer, 
ordered his soldiers to take the fort by force, but was repelled 


and lost several of his men. Ingoldsby now laid siege to the 
fort for several weeks; meanwhile Leisler's enemies continued 
their slanderous activity with renewed vigor. 

On March 1 9 the vessel of Governor Sloughter finally hove 
into sight. Ingoldsby delivered his report. Amplified by the 
complaints of the aristocrats, who hurried to pay their respects 
to the new governor, it so enraged Sloughter that he demanded 
immediate and unconditional surrender of the fort. Although 
Leisler immediately complied, he and the members of his 
council were placed under arrest, and thrown into prison. 

Paying no attention to Leisler's side of the story Sloughter 
next instituted a court martial, appointing several personal 
enemies of Leisler as judges. These acts sealed the fate of 
Leisler. Charged with rebellion and high treason, he as well 
as Milborne were condemned to be executed. 

In view of the manifest injustice of this decision Sloughter 
hesitated to sign the death warrant. But the aristocrats, 
having invited him to a banquet, procured his signature while 
he was intoxicated. Even before he could regain his sober 
senses, the two condemned men were dragged to the place 
of execution, where, on March 16, 1 69 1 , they were hanged 
and their bodies beheaded. 

Thus died Jacob Leisler, the first martyr in the long struggle 
of the American people for liberty, the first of the men chosen 
by the people in their efforts to wrest the right of self-govern- 
ment from the hands of their oppressors. 

While the aristocrats rejoiced in triumph, their villainous 
acts aroused bitter resentment in all parts of the colony, and 
a popular uprising was imminent. 

From the tombs of the murdered men arose the spirit 
of revenge. To perpetuate the memory of its former leader, 
the people's party now named itself "The Leisler Party," 
henceforth steadily gaining ground. In the elections of 1 699 
this party cast 455 votes, while its opponents had only 177; 
it gained 1 6 seats out of the 2 1 in the assembly. Resistance 
to the insolence and domination of the aristocrats became 
stronger and stronger and spread to all the other colonies. 

•t* r£* V *f* 

About that time a German lad, thirteen years of age, arrived 
in New York. His father, one of those unhappy Palatines 
who were driven from their homes by the French, had died 
at sea. But the name of this helpless orphan: Johann Peter 
Zenger, has gone into history and it behooves every lover 
of American liberty to remember it. 

Soon after his arrival Zenger became an apprentice to 
William Bradford, a printer, who had been allowed by the 
government to establish a printing office in New York. This 
permission had of course been granted under great restrictions, 
as the British government did not look with favor upon the 


great invention, made by Johannes Gutenberg in Mayence. 
The crown regarded it as a dangerous means of distributing 
unwelcome political news, and apt to inform people about 
incidents and transactions of which it wanted them to remain 
ignorant. For this reason the few printers who had drifted to 
the colonies, when attempting to publish newspapers, incurred 
disfavor and were discouraged at the start. The "Public 
Occurrences," edited on September 25, 1690, by Benjamin 
Harris of Boston, were at once stopped. In Virginia and 
Maryland it was strictly forbidden to set up a printing press. 
In Philadelphia William Bradford was ordered, in 1692, to 
close his office. Moving to New York, he succeeded, after 
many petitions, in getting permission to publish "The New 
York Gazette." Of course this paper was the organ of the 
governor's party and promoted his interests and those of the 
aristocrats only. 

Having served as an apprentice in Bradford's office for 
several years, Zenger later on became Bradford's assistant 
and partner. In 1733, however, he left the partnership, 
probably because his political views were in too strong a con- 
trast with those of Bradford, who remained a devoted instru- 
ment of the government. Zenger, on the other hand, had 
become an active member of the people's or Leisler's party. 

His first step after his separation from Bradford was to 
start an independent newspaper, the "New York Weekly 
Journal." First issued on November 5, 1 733, it voiced the 
sentiments of the people. Among its supporters and contrib- 
utors were some of the ablest men of the colony, lawyers and 
judges, who took up all grievances of the public against the 
government and discussed them in bold and sometimes satir- 
ical manner. 

To give an idea of the articles that found their way into 
the columns of the "Journal," we quote the following sentence 
of one of the contributors, a former judge. "We see men's 
deeds destroyed, judges arbitrarily displaced, new courts 
erected without the consent of the legislature, by which it 
seems to me trials by jury are taken away when a governor 
pleases; men of known estates denied their votes contrary to 
the recent practice of the best expositor of any law. Who is 
there in that province that can call anything his own, or enjoy 
any liberty longer than those in the administration will con- 
descend to let them, for which reason I left it, as I believe 
more will." 

Such plain speaking had never before been heard in the 
colonies. No wonder the governor became highly incensed 
at the "Journal" and directed the Grand Jury to indict Zenger, 
the publisher, for libel. At the same time he ordered that 
four numbers of the offending paper be publicly burned by 
the hangman, "as containing many things derogatory of the 


dignity of His Majesty's Government, reflecting upon the 
legislature and tending to raise seditions and tumults in the 
province.'' The mayor and the city magistrates were requested 
to be present at the burning of the papers. 

But the Grand Jury failed to see any cause for the accusa- 
tions against Zenger, nor was the Colonial Assembly willing 
to concur in a resolution of the council, that the objectionable 
numbers of the "Journal" be burned by the hangman. The 
burgomaster and the magistrate also refused to be present 
at the act and prohibited the hangman, who was subject to 
their jurisdiction, from executing the mandate of the governor. 

Wild with rage, the governor now caused the four issues 
of the "Journal" to be burned by a negro slave, in the presence 
of the sheriff and the recorder of New York. Not content with 
this action he ordered the arrest of Zenger, and had him 
confined in prison, denying him all writing material. To pre- 
vent his release, his bail was fixed at eight hundred pounds, 
a sum so high at that time, that it was impossible for the 
printer's friends to raise it. Nevertheless Zenger continued 
to edit his paper, dictating instructions to his employees 
through a crack in the prison door. 

The Grand Jury again in January, 1 735, found that no 
cause for indicting Zenger existed, whereupon the Attorney- 
General filed an Information for Seditious Libel against him, 
and arraigned him for trial before the court he had censured. 
Zenger's lawyers attacked the constitutionality of the court, 
but by this objection so enraged the president of that court, 
that they were at once disbarred for contempt of court and 
the case adjourned. 

As there were no other advocates in New York who dared 
to defend the printer, his case seemed hopeless. The trial, 
however, had become more than a personal matter; the cause 
of all the people being at stake. The friends of Zenger suc- 
ceeded in summoning to his aid the most famous advocate in 
the colonies, Andrew Hamilton of Philadelphia. This gentle- 
man presented his arguments so adroitly, and pleaded the 
cause of his client so eloquently, that the jury could do nothing 
else but set Zenger free. 

Admitting at the outset, that Zenger had published the 
articles, Hamilton maintained that the question for the jury 
to decide was not whether or not the articles had been printed, 
but whether or not the articles which he had printed were a 
libel. These articles had been described as "false, scandalous, 
malicious and seditious." Hamilton explained that there was 
nothing false in these articles, but that they were statements 
of true facts and that the unreserved expression of opinion, 
on such true facts, was the undeniable right of every free 
British citizen. If the paragraphs, published by Zenger, gave 
nothing but true facts, they could not be condemned as a libel. 


In conclusion Hamilton said: "The question before the court, 
and you, gentlemen of the jury, is not of small nor private 
concern, it is not the cause of a poor printer, nor of New York 
alone, which you are trying. No! It may in its consequences 
affect every Freeman that lives under a British Government 
on the main of America! It is the best cause, it is the cause 
of Liberty, and I make no doubt but your upright conduct, 
this day, will not only entitle you to the love arid esteem of 
your fellow-citizens, but every man who prefers freedom to 
a life of slavery will bless and honor you as men who have 
baffled the attempts of tyranny; and by an impartial and 
uncorrupt verdict have laid a noble foundation for securing 
to ourselves, our posterity and our neighbors, that, to which 
nature and the laws of our country have given us a right — 
the Liberty, both of exposing and opposing arbitrary power 
by speaking and writing Truth!" 

When the jury returned with their verdict of "Not guilty!" 
the entire population of New York indulged in wild demon- 
strations in honor of both Hamilton and Zenger, as the heroes 
of a trial, whereby one of the highest privileges — the 
freedom of the press — became established in America. 
Encouraged by this success to a realization of its inherent 
power the people aimed now to free themselves from material 
oppression by the government and from the greed of English 
merchants. While the governors always strove to curtail the 
colonies in those privileges which had been guaranteed to 
them by their charters, the merchants in London had suc- 
ceeded, after the French war, in influencing Parliament to pass 
certain laws, which were in their own favor, but gave not the 
slightest consideration to the needs and welfare of the colonists. 
By these laws the latter were forbidden to manufacture any 
articles that could be procured in England, especially cloth 
and articles composed of iron. No hats, no paper, no plough- 
shares, no horse-shoes were allowed to be made in the 
colonies. Whatever they required of European goods, the 
colonists were obliged to buy in England, and to have brought 
over to America in English vessels. Thus the English mer- 
chants might set the price to suit themselves, while English 
ship owners might wax fat on freights. Another law forbade 
the selling of products, such as tobacco, cotton, hides and furs 
to any country other than England. This meant that prices 
offered by the English merchants, although much lower than 
might have been obtained in international trade, had to be 
accepted. And worst of all, the colonists were burdened with 
heavy taxes without the right of representation in Parliament. 

No vigorous, self-respecting people would submit to selfish 
measures of this sort for any length of time. Of men, grown 
up in the freedom of the American forests and mountains, 
such servile submission could not be expected, and least of 


all of these citizens of foreign birth, who had no reason to 
be loyal to a king because of national ties. 

It is therefore not surprising that the Germans in America 
stood in the front ranks of the patriots who protested against 
unjust oppression. As early as 1 765 many Germans signed 
a manifesto in which the merchants and traders of Philadelphia 
threatened to boycott all English goods, in case the govern- 
ment did not repeal the stamp-act. Several years later, in 
1 772, the Germans joined "The Patriotic Society of the City 
and County of Philadelphia," to defend those rights and priv- 
ileges, which had been granted to the province in former times* 
It is recorded also that they took part in a mass-meeting, to 
protest against the threatened closing of Boston Harbor on 
account of the tea episode. This mass-meeting was attended 
by 8000 persons, and a "Correspondence Committee" was 
elected for the purpose of consulting with all other colonies 
about concentrated action for an energetic repulse of English 

The Germans living v in these other colonies also held mass- 
meetings and adopted resolutions of strong protest. A meet- 
ing held on June 16, 1774, in Woodstock, Virginia, with 
Rev. Peter Muehlenberg as chairman, passed a resolution, 
bolder in language than any other. The following passages 
show the spirit pervading it: "Resolved, that we will pay due 
submission to such acts of government as His Majesty has a 
right by law to exercise over his subjects, and to such only. 

That it is the inherent right of British subjects to be gov- 
erned and taxed by representatives chosen by themselves only, 
and that every act of the British Parliament respecting the 
internal policy of America is a dangerous and unconstitutional 
invasion of our rights and privileges. 

That the enforcement of said acts of Parliament by a mili- 
tary power will necessarily have a tendency to cause a civil 
war, thereby dissolving that union, which has so long happily 
subsisted between the mother country and her colonies; and 
that we will most heartily and unanimously concur with our 
suffering brethren in Boston and every other part of North 
America, who are the immediate victims of tyranny, in 
promoting all proper measures to avert such dreadful calam- 
ities, to procure redress of our grievances, and to secure our 
common liberties." 

The spirit of rebellion was also active among the Palatines 
of the Mohawk Valley, in the province New York. On August 
24, 1774, they united in a declaration, never to become 
slaves, but to defend their liberty at any price. 

That these were not empty words, they proved, when the 
great struggle for independence began. 


Heroes in the War for Our Independence. 

When Patrick Henry with his stirring words: "Give me 
liberty or give me death!" raised the battle cry, great excite- 
ment spread through all the colonies. Interest in trade, crops, 
hunting or fishing was no more! The shops of the workmen 
and the offices of the merchants were deserted. Only in the 
sooty workshops of the armourers and gun-makers sounded 
the hammers, ground the files and whirled the whet-stones 
untiringly. The whole country, united in its glowing passion 
for liberty, prepared for war. 

Among the most enthusiastic patriots were the Germans. 
Everywhere the young men responded to the call of Congress 
for volunteers. The spirit of that response may be judged 
by the example given by Pennsylvania. On June 14, 1775, 
Congress ordered that province to furnish six companies of 
sharpshooters. Instead, Pennsylvania provided nine, four of 
which were entirely German and were commanded by Ger- 
man officers. Several divisions of these, commanded by 
Colonel Nagel and Colonel Daudel, immediately marched to 
Boston to join Washington's army. The first to arrive were 
sharpshooters of Berks County, splendid fellows, every one 
of whom would have been welcomed by King Frederick the 
Great into his famous body-guard of giants. These sun-burnt 
backwoodsmen, dressed in deer skin or homespun hunting 
suits, and wearing fur caps, armed with rifles, tomahawks and 
hunting knives, created a great sensation everywhere. On the 
breast of each, written in large letters, appeared their watch- 
word: "Liberty or Death!" 

Similar squads of German sharpshooters made the long 
march from Virginia to Massachusetts with Daniel Morgan. 
When Washington espied them from a distance, he galloped 
up to them, and when they reported: "Sharpshooters from 
the right bank of the Potomac!" he jumped from his horse 
to greet them. Tears of joy streamed over his face upon 
beholding these splendid men, who' had tramped six hundred 
miles to come to his assistance. 

During the siege of Boston these German sharpshooters 
rendered invaluable service. Carrying bored rifles, which at 
that time were made onlv by German gun-smiths of Penn- 
sylvania, they surpassed all other Americans in marksmanship. 
Aiming especially at the officers, they caused such havoc 
among the British regiments, that one of the members of the 
Parliament cried: "Those Americans know more of our army 


than we dream of. They shut it up, besiege it, destroy and 
crush it. Wherever our officers show their noses, they are 
swept away by American rifles." 

The splendid work, done by these German marksmen, 
induced Congress on May 25, 1 776, to call for the formation 
of an entirely German batallion, whose eight companies should 
be made up half of Pennsylvanians, and half of Marylanders. 
The Germans of Pennsylvania, however, not content with 
doing their share, provided in a few weeks five complete 
companies. This batallion distinguished itself at Trenton, 
Princeton, Brandywine, Germantown, and in the border fights 
at the headwaters of the Susquehannah and Potomac Rivers. 

Unfortunately we have no certain knowledge of the par- 
ticipation of the Germans of Georgia, the Carolinas, Virginia, 
Maryland, Delaware, New York and the New England col- 
onies, as almost all muster-rolls and other documents relating 
to the Revolutionary War were lost in a fire, which in 1 800 
destroyed the War Department at Washington. But it is a 
well-known fact, that the Germans were very numerous in all 
regiments furnished by these colonies. 

The fact that Washington's body-guard was made up 
exclusively of Germans from Berks and Lancaster Counties, 
Pa., furnishes the best proof of their entire trustworthiness 
and reliability. 150 strong, they were commanded by Major 
Bartholomaeus von Heer, a former Prussian officer. Jacob 
Meytinger served as colonel, and Philipp Struebing and 
Johann Nutter as lieutenants. This body-guard accompanied 
Washington throughout all the seven years of the war, 
guarding him faithfully. 

In the spring of 1777 the British made a supreme effort 
to separate the Northern colonies from those in the South, in 
order to defeat the American armies more easily. At this 
time the American forces held positions on the Hudson, near 
West Point. To crush them, the British planned a simul- 
taneous attack from three different points. General Burgoyne, 
with 8000 men, was to swoop down from the North. From 
the South a strong fleet under General Howe was to go up 
the Hudson River. From the West Lieutenant-Colonel St. 
Leger, with 1 700 regulars and 1 000 Indians, was to clear 
the Mohawk Valley, and then unite at Albany with Howe 
and Burgoyne for concerted action. This was decidedly the 
most critical time of the entire war. 

It was through the Palatines of the Mohawk Valley, that 
the scheme of the British was defeated. As soon as these 
Germans were informed by some friendly Oneida Indians, 
that St. Leger with his forces had invaded the upper part of 
the valley, they entrusted the protection of their houses and 


families to the aged men and the women, and marched, 800 
strong, under command of Nicolas Herchheimer toward Fort 
Stanwix, which was already besieged by the enemy. The fort, 
situated at the headwaters of the Mohawk River, had to be 
relieved and the enemy driven back, to prevent his joining 

Unfortunately the approach of the Palatines was discovered 
by the Indian scouts of the British. They hurriedly prepared 
an ambuscade by placing a strong body of sharpshooters 
and several hundred Indians in a densely wooded ravine, 
through which the advancing Palatines must pass. As soon 
as the unsuspecting Germans entered this, they were met by 
a terrific volley, accompanied by the gruesome war cry of 
the redskins, who broke forth from the underbrush, and with 
hideous yells fell upon the surprised Palatines. But these, 
old Indian fighters, stood their ground bravely. Repelling 
the onslaught they stormed a hill, where, taking advantage 
of whatever opportunity offered for defense, they formed 
into squads. Herchheimer was one of the first to be wounded. 
A bullet smashed his left leg below the knee and killed his 
horse. But not for an instant did this hero lose his presence 
of mind. He directed his men to carry him to a slight eleva- 
tion where he could overlook the battle. Seated upon his 
saddle and propped against a large beech tree, he calmly 
lighted his pipe and continued to give his orders. He thus 
animated his men to such bravery, that they resisted every 
charge of the enemy with dauntless courage. 

The conflict increased in fury. The bulk of the British 
consisted of "Johnson's Greens," many of whom had been 
former neighbors and acquaintances of the Palatines, but who 
had at the outbreak of the revolution fled to Canada. Here 
they joined the army in hope to take revenge on those, who 
had compelled them to leave their homes. The Palatines 
recalled what they had for many years suffered from Tory 
arrogance and treachery. And so the two opposing parties 
were imbued with such bitter feeling, that they literally longed 
to get at each others throats. The passion of the men, who 
met here in battle, turned the pretty valley into a hellish 
slaughter pen. While the British were burning with a mad 
thirst for revenge, the Palatines fought with firm resolve to 
save their homes and families. The third party consisted of 
wild Indians, raging with the lust to kill and destroy. 

For hours and hours the fierce struggle went on. German 
vigour and energy stood against Indian cunning and agility. 
So bitter became the strife, that even death itself could not 
separate the fighters. Men were found locked in each other's 
arms, a knife in each breast, or with throats cut, in deadly 
«embrace, the tenacity of which bespoke their infernal passion. 

In the heat of conflict no one had noticed the coming of 


a thunderstorm, which suddenly broke forth with terrific 
violence. The heavy downpor of the rain, the howling of 
the wind, the blinding lightning and the crash of thunder 
made the fighters stop for a while. But as soon as the fury 
of the elements had passed, the grim struggle began anew. 

The pause, however, had been of advantage to the Palatines. 
Herchheimer had noticed that the redskins always watched 
the tree, from behind which a Palatine was ready to shoot. 
As soon as he had fired, Indians immediately leaped forward 
in order to tomahawk the man before he could reload his 
gun. Herchheimer defeated this game by posting behind 
each tree two men, one of whom stood ready as soon as the 
other shot. If now an Indian exposed himself by jumping 
forward, he was killed by the other marksman. By these 
tactics the Indians suffered so heavily that they lost all courage 
and fled. When at the same time from the direction of Fort 
Stanwix the roar of cannon was heard, the British soldiers, 
fearing an attack in the rear, also retreated in haste, leaving 
the battlefield to the jubilant Palatines. Arriving at their 
camping ground before Fort Stanwix, they found that the 
American garrison had made a sortie and had captured five 
standards, several guns and twenty wagon-loads of provisions. 
Over the five flags an improvised American banner, which 
had been made out of a white shirt, a blue blanket and a 
woman's red petticoat, floated in triumph. 

The losses the Palatines had suffered in the battle were, 
however, so severe, that they were unable to follow up their 
victory. All the men of several families had been wiped out. 
Among the 240 killed were four Wollhoevers, five Bellingers, 
five Fuchs and nine of the Schell family. Almost all of the 
survivors were wounded. So Fiske in his "History of Amer- 
ican Revolution" was justified in calling the battle of Oriskany 
"the most obstinate and murderous encounter of the revolu- 

When the Germans with their dead and wounded comrades 
returned to their villages, heartrending lamentations were 
heard everywhere. But the men had no time for mourning, 
as Fort Stanwix was not yet relieved. And so the Palatines, 
reinforced by a body of regulars, who had arrived in the 
meantime, once more marched forth against the British. The 
latter, however, were seized by a panic. Leaving tents and 
ammunition behind, they hurried back to Canada. Thus their 
junction with the army of Burgoyne was frustrated. 

Released from this danger, the Palatines and Americans 
could now throw their combined forces against Burgoyne, who 
had entered the upper valley of the Hudson River and stood 
at Saratoga. Here, however, he was surrounded and so hard 
pressed by the Americans, that he was compelled to surrender 
with his whole army on October 8, 1777. 


Through these events the British campaign became a com- 
plete failure. Washington himself acknowledged the great 
services of the Palatines by stating that Herchheimer and his 
men had turned the darkest hour to one of brightest prospects. 

But alas! Herchheimer himself did not live to hear his 
appreciation. Ten days after the battle of Oriskany his shat- 
tered leg had to be amputated. It was done by an incom- 
petent surgeon in such unskillful manner, that the hero bled 
to death. His end was that of a philosopher. Feeling his 
life ebbing away, he sat in his bed, cheerful as ever, smoking 
his pipe. Toward evening he called for a Bible and read to 
his family the 38th Psalm. Gradually his voice grew weaker 
until it died away altogether. 

Two beautiful obelisks, one erected over Herchheimer's 
grave and one on the field of battle, keep alive the memory 
of the heroes of Oriskany for future generations. 

In front of the City Hall in Philadelphia stands a monument 
erected to the memory of Peter Muehlenberg, a Lutheran 
minister, the same who in 1 775 acted as chairman of that 
memorable mass-meeting at Woodstock, Virginia, which 
adopted such forceful protests against British oppression. 

When the war clouds began to gather, this minister, not 
satisfied with a written protest, informed the members of 
his community of his intention to resign — and that he would 
preach but once more. This news attracted crowds of hearers 
from near and far, as Muehlenberg was one of the most pop- 
ular ministers of Virginia, In his forceful sermon he spoke 
of the duties citizens owe to their country. In closing he said : 
"There is a time for preaching and praying. But there is 
also a time for fighting. Now this time has come!" 

At the same moment he threw off his clerical garment and 
stood in the pulpit in the uniform of a colonel of the 
Continental army. Hailed by enthusiastic outbursts of his 
community, he slowly descended from the pulpit. Outside, 
drums began to rattle. Martial trumpets called the men to 
the struggle for freedom. Before the sun had set, several 
hundred sturdy Germans had enlisted as recruits, resolved to 
follow their minister to war. 

In former years Muehlenberg had been officer in a British 
regiment. As he was acquainted with active service, he was 
entrusted with the command of a regiment, made up entirely 
of Germans. It fought with great honor in South Carolina 
as well as in the North. Later on, Muehlenberg was promoted 
to the rank of brigadier-general. As such he distinguished 
himself in the battles of Brandywine, Germantown and Mon- 
mouth. During the siege of Yorktown he held the most 
important positions, captured the strongest redoute of the 


(Statue in front of the City Hall at Philadelphia, modeled by J. Otto Schweizer). 

enemy and became so very instrumental in the fall of the 
fortress. For his excellent services he was rewarded with the 
title of major-general. George Washington counted him among 
his confidential friends. 

Having given due credit to the noble services of that soldier, 
it is not more than just, to also remember the gallant Major- 
General Johann von Kalb, a native of Bavaria. Having 
participated in the Seven Years' War, he came to America 
in 1777 with Lafayette. Appointed as major-general, he 
operated in New Jersey, Maryland and South Carolina and 
was regarded as one of the most experienced, calculating and 
cautious officers of the whole army. After having served 
most honorably for three years, he gave, as the inscription 
on his monument in front of the military academy in Annapolis 
states, "a last noble demonstration of his devotion for the 
sake of liberty and the cause of America in the battle of 
Camden, where he, leading his soldiers, inspired them by his 
example to deeds of highest bravery." Riddled with bullets, 
he fell; but when an officer came to assist him, he said: "This 
is nothing. I am dying the death I have longed for. I am 
dying for a country fighting for justice and for liberty!" The 
noble man expired on August 19th, 1780. 

We cannot take space, in the present volume, to do justice 
to all other German heroes of our Revolutionary War. There 
was George Gerhard von der Wieden, a Hanoveranian, who 
appears in American histories under the name of Weedon. 
In many battles he fought with such distinction and bravery, 
that he was made a brigadier-general. We must remember 
also Colonel Kichlein, a Pennsylvanian, who, after the battle 
of Long Island, covered with his company Washington's 
retreat. Of him and his gallant soldiers an historian said: 
"Long Island was the Termopylae of our War for Independ- 
ence, and the German Pennsylvanians were its Spartans." 

Furthermore there was Leonhard Helm, the brave defender 
of Fort St. Vincennes; also Alexander Gillon, son of a Hessian 
merchant in Charleston, S. C. In May, 1777, this daring man 
fitted out a vessel, with which he captured three British cruisers. 
In 1 782 he brought together a squadron and annexed the 
Bahama Islands. 

It is not more than just to remember also Michael Hillegas, 
a merchant of Philadelphia, who as treasurer of Congress filled 
the most difficult and trying position the struggling nation had 
to offer. Without adequate means to replenish the funds of 
the Treasury, the Government was constantly in financial 
embarrassments, which the British successfully increased by 


flooding the country with enormous quantities of counterfeits 
of the paper money issued by the American Government. 
Hillegas, loaded down with care, nevertheless served the 
country faithfully for fourteen years, from 1775 till 1789, 
when, at his request, he was relieved of his burden. 

Evidences of highest patriotism were given also by many 
other non-combatant Germans. When Washington's soldiers 
were starving, nine Germans donated $100,000 — a very 
large sum in those days — to buy provisions. Also the Mor- 
avians, Mennonites and Tunker gave everything they were 
able to spare. And when in Philadelphia the motion, to 
collect money to purchase arms, was negatively debated, 
Christopher Ludwig, a German baker, arose and thus cut 
short the flow of rhetoric: "Mr. President, I am only a poor 
gingerbread baker, but write me down for two hundred 
pounds." This same patriot, an example of unselfishness 
and honesty, served as superintendent of bakers for a number 
of years. 

German women also distinguished themselves by true 
patriotism and bravery. In Philadelphia Mrs. Margarete 
Greider, whose maiden name was Arkularius, devoted not 
only 1500guinees to the cause of liberty, but for several 
months provided the American soldiers with bread, refusing 
to accept compensation for it. 

Every American knows the story of Molly Pitcher, who 
got that name because she used to supply the fighting soldiers 
with water brought in a large pitcher. Born on October 1 3th, 
1 754, in New Jersey, she was of Paletine ancestry, her maiden 
name being Marie Ludwig. Her husband, John Hays, was a 
gunner. When at the battle of Monmouth he was wounded 
and no other man was available for serving the cannon, Molly 
Pitcher took his place and helped, during the most critical 
moments, in loading and firing with such dexterity, that 
Washington, after the battle, appointed her to the rank and 
pay of sergeant. 

Another heroine was Elisabeth Zane, the handsome and 
vivacious daughter of Colonel Zane (Zahn), a Pennsylvania 
German, the founder of Wheeling, W. Va. At the site of 
the present city, not far from Zane's log house, a fort had 
been erected, which in 1 782 was attacked by a band of 40 
British soldiers and 186 Indians. The defenders of the fort 
held out bravely, but their number decreased from 42 to 12. 
Besides, the situation became critical, as the supply of powder 
was running dangerously low. There was a full keg of powder 
hidden in Zane's log house, but to get it, a distance of about 
sixty yards must be traversed, which was covered by the guns 
of the enemy. When volunteers were called, to procure the 
powder, Elisabeth Zane stepped forward, insisting she be sent, 


as no man in the fort could be spared, while a girl would not 
be missed. Refusing to listen to any objection, she slipped 
out of the gate, as though there were no redskins in the whole 
world. The Indians, not knowing the reason of her stroll, 
let her pass without interfering. Not till the young heroine 
reappeared, carrying the keg under a table cloth, did the 
Indians realize the meaning of the girl's mission and at once 
opened a brisk fire on her. But the girl sped with the fleetness 
of a fawn and reached the fort in safety amid a shower of 
bullets, several of which passed through her clothes. By this 
daring act the little garrison was enabled to hold out, until 
relief arrived. 

We cannot close this chapter without mentioning also the 
brave Johann Christian Schell and his wife. These two 
Palatines with their six sons occupied a lonely log house three 
miles northeast of the present city of Herkimer, in the Mohawk 
Valley. In August 1 781 Schell, while at work with his family 
in the field, was attacked by 1 6 Tories and 48 Indians, who 
succeeded in capturing two of the younger sons, while Schell, 
together with his wife and the four elder sons were able to 
reach the house. Here they were besieged for the rest of the 
day, but defended their home so successfully, that the enemy 
did not dare to come near. In the dusk of the evening, how- 
ever, the Indians crept up toward the house to force an 
entrance. The captain of the raiding party, McDonald, suc- 
ceeded in reaching the door, which he attempted to pry open 
with a lever. But he was shot in the leg and sank to the 
ground. Quick as lightning Schell unbolted the door and 
dragged the wounded man into the house, thus saving the 
house from being set fire to, for the leader of the attacking 
party within, would likewise perish in the flames. 

While the enemies held council, what next to do, the brave 
Palatine and his family prepared for the next assault. Getting 
their rifles ready, they began to sing the famous battle hymn 
of the Reformation, "A mighty fortress is our God." Just 
when they had finished the verse 

"Und wenn die Welt voll Teufel war', 
Und wollt' uns gar verschlingen, 
So fiirchten wir uns nicht so sehr, 
Es muss uns doch gelingen!" 
the marauders jumped up to the walls of the house and pushed 
their guns through the loop holes, to drive the men inside from 
their positions. 

Seeing the danger, Mrs. Schell seized an axe, and beat the 
gun-barrels so that they bent and became useless. At the same 
time Schell and his boys delivered so many effective shots, 
that the enemy soon withdrew for good, having suffered a 
loss of eleven killed and twelve wounded seriously. 


Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, the 
Organizer of the American Army. 

The winter of 1777 to 1778 was the darkest time in the 
military career of George Washington. His troops had 
been defeated at Brandywine and Germantown; Philadelphia 
had been captured by the British, who also held control over 
the Delaware River. The American army, counting less than 
5000 starving and discouraged men, had taken refuge in the 
dreadful winter quarters at Valley Forge. Here they lived in 
destitution and in rags. And there were literally no supplies, 
as the Board of War had failed completely to provide them. 

When the distress seemed deepest, there appeared a man, 
who proved to be the most valuable help, which the colonies 
received in their struggle for freedom: Baron Friedrich 
Wilhelm von Steuben. 

A descendant of a noble military family of Prussia, Steuben 
had led a soldier's life since his fourteenth year. Reared in 
the rigorous military school of Frederick the Great, he had 
taken actual part in many battles of the Seven Years' War 
and had not only become an officer of distinction, but also 
the personal aide of the king. In this position he had enjoyed 
exceptional opportunities to familiarize himself with all ques- 
tions pertaining to warfare, with the drilling and training 
of soldiers; with the important tasks of providing for and 
equipping the troops; of securing and caring for arms and 
ammunition, their inspection and control. Recognizing his 
great abilities, King Frederick distinguished Steuben by 
bestowing on him decorations of high order. 

When the Seven Years' War was over, Steuben quitted the 
King's service and accepted the position as Court marshal to 
the Prince of Hohenzollern Hechingen. While on a visit to 
Paris, he became acquainted with Benjamin Franklin, the 
American emissary to France, who among other functions 
had the special commission to secure, if possible, the service 
of such able European officers, who might be useful to the 
American cause. This question was of greatest importance, 
as the American army consisted only of volunteers and militia 
men, who, while they were able Indian fighters, had, however, 
no training in regular warfare. For this reason they had been 
defeated by the well organized British soldiers in all open 
battles As decisive results could be gained only in such 


(Statue in Washington, D. C, modeled by Albert Jaegers). 

battles, it was an absolute necessity to put the army in such 
condition that it could risk challenging their opponents in the 
open field. But as the Americans had no experts in the science 
of war, they had to turn to Europe for trained officers. 

The army of Frederick the Great was regarded as the most 
exemplary in existence and as the model for all others. For 
these reasons Franklin, assisted by the French Secretary of 
War, eagerly tried to secure Steuben's service for the Amer- 
ican cause. To their great joy they did not require much 
persuasion. Steuben had followed the struggle of the Amer- 
icans for independence with great interest and heartfelt sym- 
pathy. How strongly the cause of the Americans had appealed 
to him, appears from the letter, in which he after his arrival 
in America offered his services to Congress. Belonging to the 
noblest documents of those heroic times, it reads as follows: 
"Honorable Gentlemen! The honor of serving a nation, 
engaged in defending its rights and liberties, was the only 
motive that brought me to this continent. I ask neither riches 
nor titles. I am come here from the remotest end of Germany, 
at my own expense, and have given up honorable and lucra- 
tive rank. I have made no condition with your deputies in 
France, nor shall I make any with you. My own ambition 
is to serve you as a volunteer, to deserve the confidence of 
your general in chief, and to follow him in all his operations, 
as I have done during the seven campaignes with the King 
of Prussia. Two and twenty years spent in such a school 
seem to give me the right of thinking myself among the 
number of experienced officers, and if I am possessed of the 
acquirements in the art of war, they will be more prized by 
me, if I can employ them in the service of a republic such 
as I hope to see America soon. I should willingly purchase 
at the expense of my blood the honor of having my name 
enrolled among those of the defenders of your liberty. Your 
gracious acceptance will be sufficient for me, and I ask no 
other favor than to be received among your officers. I venture 
to hope that you will grant this, my request, and that you 
will be so good as to send me your orders to Boston, where 
I shall await them and take suitable measures in accordance." 

Congress was only too glad to secure the services of such 
a distinguished soldier, who was actuated by such noble 
motives. And when Steuben arrived at Washington's head- 
quarters, he was at once appointed inspector-general of the 

To transform that "army," which he found in the winter 
quarters at Valley Forge, into an efficient fighting machine, 
was, however, the most desperate task any drillmaster had 
ever undertaken. The Americans, backwoodsmen most of 
them, although accomplished Indian fighters, had yet no notion 
of military tactics, movements or discipline. To make matters 


still worse, the whole camp was one chaos of confusion and 
dissatisfaction. Steuben found one regiment that had only 
thirty men, and one company consisting of only one corporal. 
As the recruits enlisted for six or nine months only, there was 
constant coming and going. Furloughs and discharges were 
granted by officers without the knowledge of their superiors. 
The officers did not stay in camp with the troops, but lived 
apart, sometimes several miles away. Proper administration 
did not exist. No one kept records or accounts except the 
contractors who provided the army with different articles, 
and made bills to suit themselves. The troops were almost 
naked. The very fewest officers possessed uniforms, and these 
were of any kind and color. At a "dress parade" Steuben 
saw several officers in gowns, made from old woolen blankets 
and bed spreads. 

To increase the difficulties of the Americans, the British had 
by counterfeiting the paper money, issued by Congress, suc- 
ceeded in bringing paper money in such discredit, that forty 
paper dollars were equal to one silver dollar. Four hundred 
to six hundred dollars were asked for a pair of boots, and 
it took a month's pay of the common soldier to buy a 
square meal. 

All these facts must be recalled in order to appreciate at 
its full value Steuben's great sacrifice in accepting the position 
offered to him and remaining at such a post. No soldier of 
fortune out for pecuniary gain or other advantage could have 
been induced to face a situation which promised nothing but 

Steuben, however, did not shrink from the difficult task 
of bringing order out of the chaos. Selecting 120 of the best 
men, he provided them with like uniforms and weapons, so 
that they appeared like real soldiers. These men he drilled 
in the presence of the whole army personally twice daily. 
From easy exercises he gradually went to more difficult ones, 
until they had become acquainted with all movements, which 
had helped the Prussian army to so many amazing victories. 

These exercises were a source of astonishment and wonder 
to the American officers and troops. But they very quickly 
grasped their importance, as they became aware, that their 
former defeats were due to their inability to sustain a contest 
against the organized English soldiers. Then, by placing his 
men as drillmasters at the head of smaller divisions, Steuben 
within a few months infused the whole army with a sense of 
discipline and order. Thus giving confidence to the officers 
and men, and enabling the troops from different parts of the 
country to act together with unanimity and effect, he made 
the army into an efficient fighting machine. 

At the same time Steuben introduced a rigid system of 
inspection. By holding every man responsible for his arms, 





> - 



o . 







ammunition and outfit, by insisting on strict accounting for 
everything ordered and delivered for the army, he put an end 
to graft and frauds and general dishonesty. And so he saved 
the nation vast expense at a time, when her very existence 
depended on economy in the army. 

The results of the many improvements, enforced by Steuben, 
became apparent in the spring and summer of the following 
year, first in the fights at Barren Hill and Stony Point, and 
later in the battle of Monmouth. At the latter place the 
Americans, through the incompetence or treachery of General 
Lee, were almost defeated, when Washington and Steuben, 
informed of the situation, appeared on the battlefield. Wash- 
ington took command, and ordered Steuben to collect the 
fleeing troops behind the line of battle and lead them back 
again. Steuben performed this difficult task so splendidly and 
so rapidly, that the day was saved for the cause of liberty and 
ended with the retreat of the enemy. Colonel Alexander 
Hamilton, who was an eye witness, declared that he then 
for the first time became aware of the overwhelming import- 
ance of military training and discipline. The greatest success, 
however, was, that Steuben's system of reviews, reports and 
inspections imbued the officers as well as the soldiers with the 
confidence, that from now they were on equal footing with 
the armies of the enemy. 

When winter set in again, interrupting military operations, 
Steuben wrote his famous "Regulations for the Order and 
Discipline of the Troops of the United States," a handbook 
which in 25 chapters embodied everything necessary in con- 
nection with troops, their weapons, exercises, marching, camp- 
ing, mancevering, signal service, inspection, aid and treatment 
of the sick and wounded. This invaluable book remained 
in use for a long time after Steuben's death, until new inven- 
tions and new conditions in the mode of warfare made changes 

In Washington's Council of War Steuben was the most 
influential person. It was he who worked out the plans for 
the campaigns, which were followed almost to the letter. 

It is only natural that Steuben should desire to take in these 
campaigns active part also, and thereby win yet greater fame. 
He would not be merely the drillmaster of the troops, but 
wished to lead them personally in battle. Washington granted 
this request several times, and so Steuben operated successfully 
as commander of large armies in the South. His greatest 
triumph he earned in 1781 at Yorktown, the fortress into 
which the British General Cornwallis had retreated with 
his army. As Steuben was the only American general who had 
previously participated in the siege of fortresses, he made the 
plans for the Yorktown campaign, during which he as com- 
mander of the troops of Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia 


occupied the center of the American army. When Cornwallis 
raised the white flag of surrender, Steuben's regiments held 
the most advanced trenches. And so it happened that the 
commander of the last British army handed his capitulation 
to a German. Washington in his army order of the following 
day specially mentioned that to the gallant Steuben belonged 
a great part of the credit of victory. 

How much Washington appreciated his comrade in arms, 
appears also from a letter, the very last document Washington 
wrote before resigning his commission as Commander-in-Chief 
of the American Army. It reads as follows: 

Annapolis, Deer. 23d. 1783. 
"My dear Baron! 

Although I have taken frequent opportunities both in public 
and private, of acknowledging your zeal, attention and abil- 
ities in performing the duties of your office, yet I wish to make 
use of this last moment of my public life to signify in the 
strongest terms my entire approbation of your conduct, and 
to express my sense of the obligations the public is under to 
you for your faithful and meritorious service. 

I beg you will be convinced, my dear Sir, that I should 
rejoice if it could ever be in my power to serve you more 
essentially than by expressions of regard and affection. But 
in the meantime I am persuaded you will not be displeased 
with this farewell token of my sincere friendship and esteem 
for you. 

This is the last letter I shall ever write while I continue 
in the service of my country. The hour of my resignation is 
fixed at twelve this day, after which I shall become a private 
citizen on the banks of the Potomac, where I shall be glad to 
embrace you, and testify the great esteem and consideration, 
with which I am, my dear Baron, your most obedient and 
affectionate servant 


After peace had been secured, Congress considered Steu- 
ben's services too valuable to discharge him. Remaining in 
his office, Steuben worked out the plans for the establishment 
of a standing army of 25,000 men and for the founding of a 
Military Academy for the education and training of officers. 
Both recommendations were adopted by Congress. The 
academy, suggested by Steuben, is West Point, on the Hudson, 
which has given to the United States so many able com- 

So Steuben was in fact the father of the American Army, 
and if history honors Washington as the leading spirit of the 


war for independence, then Steuben was the strong arm, that 
enabled him to strike, and to lead his troops to victory. 

The American nation did not hesitate to express to Steuben 
appreciation and gratitude. Congress presented him with a 
gold-hilted sword of honor, and the States of New York, New 
Jersey, Pennsylvania and Virginia donated him with valuable 
grants of land. 

During his last years Steuben lived in New York, making 
a summer home of his farm in Oneida County and occupying 
his time with agricultural pursuits and scientific studies. 

Shortly after his sixty-fourth birthday this noble warrior was 
suddenly stricken and died on November 28, 1 794. 

On Oneida's heights, in an old forest reservation, rest the 
mortal remains of the gallant soldier, whose memory will be 
held sacred, as long as defenders of liberty shall arise, as 
long as American life and liberty shall exist. 


Pioneers of the Ohio Region. 

As is well known, the fur trade was during the 1 7th and 
1 8th centuries one of the chief resources of the European 
colonies of North America. Giving subsistence to many 
thousand people it brought about not only the founding of 
numerous trading stations, but resulted also in originating 
special types of men, characteristic of America: the trappers, 
voyageurs and traders. 

Men more daring have never existed. Mostly alone, some- 
times in pairs or small troups they penetrated on foot or by 
canoe the unknown interior of our continent, following the 
rivers or narrow trails of wild animals and Indians. 

The life of these fearless pioneers of civilization was an 
unbroken chain of hardships and dangers. Frequently they 
were compelled to cut a way through the dense underwood 
by means of their hatchets, or they had to wade through 
dismal swamps, or swim across foaming rivers. They faced 
encounters with ferocious beasts and venomous reptiles. They 
had to bear hunger and thirst, depressing heat in summer 
time, and bitter frost in winter. When entering the domains 
of hostile tribes, they could not dare to break their lonesome- 
ness with a happy song, or to kindle a warming fire, as this 
might attract the enemies most to be apprehended, the red- 
skins, who hated these trappers, not only because they were 
of another race but also because they looked upon them as 
intruders on their hunting grounds. 

Woe to those unfortunate men who fell into the hands of 
these savages. With rare exceptions they had to breathe their 
last at the stake, under fearful tortures, such as could be 
invented only by the brains of enemies full of hatred and 
without mercy. 

Among the hardy men, who bravely defied such hardships 
and dangers, were many Germans. From the valley of the 
Mohawk River they invaded the countries south of the Great 
Lakes. By crossing the Alleghany Mountains they came from 
Eastern Pennsylvania and explored the valleys of the Ohio 
and its tributaries. From Virginia and Carolina they entered 
the wilderness of Kentucky and Tennessee. 

One of the most noted of these heroic "Dutchmen" — so 
the Germans were called by the English after their own 
denomination "Deutsche" — was Konrad Weiser. Born in 
the Palatinate, he came as a boy with the great influx of the 
Palatines to New York in 1710 and was among the poor 


fugitives, who escaped the maltreatment of Livingston by 
moving to the Schoharie Valley. 

In steady contact with the friendly Mohawk Indians Weiser, 
then a lad of sixteen, developed so much liking for their mode 
of life, for nature and adventure, that he, with the consent of 
his father, accepted an invitation by Chief Quagnant, to live 
with him in his camp and learn the Mohawk language. In a 
short time he acquired such knowledge of the several dialects 
of the Iroquois, that he was able to act as an interpreter in 
all councils of importance held between the chiefs and the 
representatives of the Government. As he observed strictest 
impartiality, he won the confidence of the Indians in such 
degree, that they insisted always on his mediation, declining 
to participate in any negotiations where he was not present. 

In 1 737, when a destructive war between the Iroquois and 
the Cherokees and Catawbas was imminent, Weiser was sent 
by the Governors of Pennsylvania and Virginia to persuade 
the different tribes to keep the peace. Directing his efforts 
to that end, Weiser acted with such prudence, that hostilities 
were averted, enabling those counties, which would have 
served as the battleground, to develop peacefully. 

The most valuable service Weiser rendered during the wars 
against the French, when the latter through their agents made 
great efforts to persuade the Iroquois to join in their raids 
against the British colonies. As the British had cheated the 
Indians of large tracts of land and had committed also many 
other offenses against them, the Iroquois were in bad spirits, 
and with the probability that the French agents might succeed, 
the situation was very threatening. It was then, that Weiser 
was sent out to appease the bitter feeling of the Indians. Trav- 
elling for many months through unbroken wildernesses, he 
visited one tribe after another, with the result that the Iroquois 
not only kept away from the French, but entered into an 
alliance with the English colonies. 

During the French wars of 1 745, 1 748 and 1 754 Weiser 
gave also many proofs of his loyalty and heroism. But the 
countless hardships, suffered by him during his numerous expe- 
ditions into the wilderness, consumed his strength. He died 
in 1 760, the sunset of his life brightened by the fact that the 
French rule in North America had met a complete break- 
down in the battle at Quebec. 

The old chronicles of New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio 
contain the names of many other German trappers and traders. 
Martin Hertel erected in 1 739 a trading station at the same 
place, where now the city of Toledo stands. Two German 
Poles, Jacob and Joseph Sodowsky, established in 1 728 at 
the southern shore of Lake Erie a trading station, which was 
the beginning of the present city Sandusky, whose name, with 
slight alteration, preserves the memory of her founders. Of 


Jacob Sodowsky it is said, that he was the first man from the 
British colonies, who paddled in a canoe down the Ohio River 
into the Mississippi and followed the seemingly interminable 
course of the "Father of the Waters" all the way to New 

Enterprising men of like character were Thomas Mehrlin 
and Johann Sailing. In 1 740 these two built at the head- 


waters of the Ohio a boat, on which they travelled down the 
river. One day, however, they were intercepted by a band 
of Cherokee Indians. While Mehrlin made good his escape, 
Sailing was captured and taken to the village of the band. 
He was not killed, but was made a member of the tribe. 


Painted and dressed like one of them, Sailing accompanied 
the Cherokees on many of their war parties, until he was cap- 
tured by the Illinois Indians and brought to Kaskaskia, to be 
tortured at the stake. An old squaw, however, who had lost 
her only son, came forward, adopted him and so saved him 
from a terrible death. Afterwards, when the Illinois met a 
caravan of Spanish traders, Sailing was sold and travelled in 
their company through Arkansas and Texas to the Gulf of 
Mexico. Later on he was captured by the French, who brought 
him to Canada. Here he was set free, and, after an absence 
of many years, he managed to reach his former home in 
Virginia. — 

It was in 1 748, when traders of Virginia formed the Ohio 
Company, which received a royal grant of half a million acres 
between the Monongahela and the Kanawha Rivers on 
condition of settling this territory. To explore this grant the 
company dispatched another trapper of German descent, 
Christopher Gist or Geist, to find a pass leading into the 
unknown country. At the same time he was to draw a map 
of it and spy out the strength of the different Indian tribes 
inhabiting the valley of the Ohio. 

Gist went on his dangerous errand in October, 1 750, first 
crossing the Blue Ridge and the valley of the Shenandoah. 
After traversing the snow-covered Alleghany Mountains, he 
entered the hunting grounds of the Ottawa Indians, who 
respected him as a messenger of the king of England, but 
otherwise treated him very coolly as they were leaning toward 
the French. Later on Gist visited also the Wyandots, Dela- 
wares, Shawnees and Miamis and induced them to sent emis- 
saries to a great council, which took place in June, 1 752, at 
Logstown, an Indian village near the present state line between 
Ohio and Pennsylvania. Gist, Colonel Frey and two other 
Virginians represented at this council the Ohio Company, 
which was eager to have its title acknowledged by the Indian 
tribes. But the redskins, anxious of their own future, could 
not be persuaded to assent to these wishes. "The English," 
so they objected, "claim all territory on the left banks of the 
Ohio River; the Frenchmen demand everything on the other 
side. Now, what will be left to the Indians? Raising this 
question they refused to sign any treaty. 

Another German pioneer of the wilderness was Georg 
Jaeger or Yaeger, known also by his nickname "the long 
Dutchman." As a boy he was captured by a band of maraud- 
ing Indians in Pennsylvania and brought to Kentucky, where 
he roamed extensively in company with the redskins. In 1771 
he met at the Kanawha River Simon Kenton, the future hero 
of the Ohio Valley, and George Strader or Straeter, the latter 
most probably a Pennsylvania German. Together these three 
proceeded down the Ohio as far as the mouth of the Kentucky 


River, in search of some rich cane-land, Jaeger had seen dur- 
ing one of his former voyages. Some time afterward Jaeger 
was killed by Indians. 

Michael Steiner or Stoner was the name of one of the first 
pioneers of Tennessee. Kasper Mansker belonged to a party, 
which in 1 769 set out from North Carolina for a hunting 
expedition into the western regions. Attracted by the beauty 
of the country and its abundance in game the party forgot 
almost to return and stayed for over a year. For this reason 
the members were called "the long hunters." Mansker was 
known as a never-erring marksman. The report of his rifle 
haunted his foes like a message of doom. And in imitating 
the many different sounds of beasts and birds he surpassed 
any Indian. 

A similar son of the forests was Michael Schuck. When 
he was a boy, his parents, brothers and sisters were killed 
by Indians. Left alone in the wilderness, he was put on his 
own wits. Gifted with the instinct of a panther and the keen 
eyes of an eagle, the boy grew to a mighty hunter, command- 
ing enormous strength. All the forests between the Alleghanies 
and the Mississippi were his domain. In his later years, 
when his hair, which used to fall in long black tresses over 
his shoulders, had turned white as snow, he moved to Missouri, 
in whose unknown interior all further traces of him were lost. 

Other noted trappers and Indian fighters of German origin 
were Georg Rufner, Friedrich Behrle, Daniel Bolaus, Peter 
Nieswanger, Johann Adam Hartmann, Johann Warth and 
William Wells. 

The most famous of all, however, was Ludwig Wetzel, the 
son of Johann Wetzel, a Palatine and one of the first settlers 
in West Virginia. One day, a band of Indians attacked the 
house, killing the father and several other members of the 
family, and taking two of the boys prisoners. During one 
of the following nights the boys managed to escape. Reaching 
home, they found nothing but the charred ruins of the log 
house, and in its ashes the mutilated and scalped bodies of 
their father and sisters. Raving with mad desire for revenge, 
Ludwig swore to kill every Indian he could seize. And never 
was a vow more faithfully kept than his. Devoting his whole 
life to the one thought of retaliation he became one of the 
most feared Indian-fighters of the 1 8th century. Accounts 
of his marvellous adventures and escapes fill many chapters 
of the old chronicles of West Virginia and Ohio. It is said 
that more Indians were slain by his hand than were killed by 
either one of the two large armies of Braddock and St. Clair 
during their disastrous campaigns. 

Wetzel's ferocity toward the redskins became at times a 
source of great trouble to the government, which, having con- 
cluded treaties of peace with the Indians, had the greatest 
difficulties in getting Wetzel to discontinue his relentless war- 


fare against the redskins, and finally was obliged to secure 
peace by confining him in prison. But Wetzel managed to 

When captured a second time, numerous frontiersmen of 
Ohio enforced his release by the threat, that they would wipe 
the fort, wherein Wetzel was imprisoned, from the face of 
the earth unless Wetzel was liberated. As there were no 
indictments against him, and no witnesses to prove that he 
had killed the Indians, and as it was unlawful to force him 
to incriminate himself, he was set free. 

Unfitted for any settled mode of life and tired at the 
prospect of a monotonous peace, Wetzel went to the Spanish 
territories at the lower Mississippi River. After many adven- 
tures he died near Natchez, having been one of the most 
notable representatives of those trappers and Indian fighters, 
who took part in the long and bitter struggle for the valley 
of the Ohio River. 

In time these daring pioneers were followed by the back- 
woodsmen, a peculiar product of American growth. These 
men were, as S. A. Drake has described them, "the result of 
continued expansion of territory, but never the voluntary 
agents of civilization. They were like the foam blown from 
the crest of its ever-advancing wave. Recluses of choice and 
having no higher aspiration than to live apart, they made in 
the dense forest little clearings, where they built rude cabins 
and lived by hunting. Hanging on the skirts of civilization, 
but scorning to become part of it, they shouldered their rifles 
and packs and without regret left the home, scarcely made, 
as soon as they felt the approach of fellow men." 

Behind these restless backwoodsmen, like a vanguard of 
an army taking the field, came the emigrants. The tread of 
their oxen, the print of their wagon-wheels followed close in 
the blazed footpath of the departing pioneer. On foot the 
emigrants trudged at the head of their worldly possessions, as 
light of heart as the birds singing in the forests about them. 
In the wagon the household utensils were stowed away, with 
the wives and little ones, while the bronzed and barefooted 
boys drove the cows and hogs along the road behind it." 

Troups of such emigrants crossed over the Alleghanies to 
the head of navigation on the Ohio. Here they constructed 
flat-boats, which they loaded with their belongings. Then they 
glided down the broad river, day after day, week after week, 
until they found a place to suit them. 

These men came to stay. They felled trees for permanent 
dwellings, cleared the ground to plant corn and potatoes and 
kept poultry and swine. Though the comforts of life were 
scarcely attainable to them, they lived content and enjoyed 
the freedom of the forests and mountains. Unlike the back- 
woodsmen they had the desire to better their condition, — 


to grow up with the country, not to abandon it with the first 
sign of progress. 

The discovery of immense deposits of coal and iron in the 
Ohio regions opened a new field to the iron industry. As the 
Germans had been a great factor in this industry on the East 
side of the Alleghanies, so they helped here in its develop- 
ment. Georg Anschiitz, a native of Strassburg in Elsass, 
became in 1 792 the pioneer of the iron industry at Pittsburgh. 
Georg Schoenberger founded in 1 804 the Juniata Forge in 
Huntington County. Jacob Meyers established on State Creek, 
Kentucky, a smelting work, where he manufactured all kinds 
of tools, stoves, gun-barrels, cooking-pots, and other things. 
For several years his workmen suffered from frequent attacks 
by the Indians, so that half of the men were obliged to be 
under arms. But as by and by the redskins disappeared, the 
settlements could develop in peace. 

Now the clearings grew to extensive fields. The rude 
dwellings were replaced by pleasant cottages, separated from 
each other by gardens and streets. The stockades and block- 
houses, which in time of danger had served as places of refuge, 
fell into decay and became dismantled. 

Many of such new settlements were founded by Germans 
or by men of German origin. Columbia, now within the pre- 
cincts of the city of Cincinnati, was founded in 1 788 by Major 
Benjamin Steitz, an officer of the Revolutionary War, and 
by Martin Denmann, a Pennsylvania German. Israel Ludlow 
started together with some Americans in 1 795 Dayton. 
Ebenezer Zane or Zahne erected in 1 796 the first houses of 
Zanesville. There are in Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, Indiana 
and Illinois many places, whose names indicate their German 
origin, as for instance Frankfort, Hanover, Potsdam, German- 
town, Berlin, Freiburg, Wirtemberg, Osnaburg, Oldenburg, 
Hermann, Spires (Speyer), Betzville, Baumann, New Bremen, 
Wartburg, New Elsass, and others. Germans also founded 
Steubenville, commemorating the famous organizer of the 
American army. 

Above all, young and enterprising folks from the East 
settled here, eager to try, like their fathers, upon new grounds 
their own abilities. Reinforced by a steady flow of immigrants 
from Germany, these settlers gave to many towns and cities 
the same peculiar character, that had been impressed by 
the older German immigration on many parts of the Eastern 
States. Highly respected by their fellow-citizens for their 
thrift, diligence, endurance and sense of order, they helped 
in peaceful competition to convert the wilderness into those 
fertile regions, which to-day are counted among the most 
flourishing in the United States. 


Pioneers of the Mississippi Valley 
and the Far West. 

Fully equal to the part played by Germans in the colonizing 
of the Eastern and Central States was their share in the devel- 
opment of those immense regions stretching from the banks 
of the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean. When Louisiana was 
added to the United States in 1803, the most important prob- 
lem became that of diminishing the long distance between 
the settlements in the upper valley of the Ohio River and 
New Orleans. The natural advantages of that city destinated 
it to become the emporium of trade for all imports and exports 
of the entire area surrounding the Mississippi and its tributaries. 
Communication by rafts and flat boats, which served as the 
first means of transportation on these waters, was extremely 
slow. Besides, these clumsy carriers were of use only for one 
trip down stream, as it was impossible to force them against 
the strong current of the rivers. In consequence the crew were 
always compelled to abandon these rafts and boats at the 
points of their destination and to make their return in canoes. 

Even when keel-boats came into use, a round trip between 
Pittsburgh and New Orleans consumed a whole year! This 
time was cut in half, when Martin Baum, an energetic and 
prosperous German merchant in Cincinnati, engaged a former 
skipper on the Rhine, Heinrich Bechtle, to build several sail- 
boats, with which Baum now opened the first regular service 
between Cincinnati and New Orleans. 

Several years later, in 1811, another German, Bernhard 
Rosefeldt, constructed in Pittsburgh the first steamboat on 
the Western rivers. This vessel, named "New Orleans," made 
her first trip to that city. The captain was Heinrich Schreve 
(Schriewe), a German, from which Shreveport in Louisiana 
derives it name. For the development of traffic on the 
Western rivers the activity of this man was of greatest import- 
ance, as a steam-saw for cutting "snags," those unrooted trees, 
which, when entangled in the mud of the rivers are the great- 
est danger to Western navigation, was his invention. In 1829 
Shreve built the snag-boat "Heliopolis," and had charge of 
the removal of the great Red River Raft, an accumulation of 
trees, logs and driftwood of every description, firmly imbed- 
ded in the channel of the Red River for more than 1 60 miles. 
The completion of this tedious and difficult task opened the 
river to navigation for a distance of 1200 miles. 


Germans also gave the first impulse to the work of con- 
structing a canal, enabling vessels to go around the falls of 
the Ohio River at Louisville, which had been another great 
hindrance to navigation. 

With the institution of steam-boats and the simultaneous 
construction of canals several new ways toward the West were 
opened. The most frequented route led from New York up 
the Hudson River to Albany. Here the travellers took Canal 
boats and went via the Erie Canal to Buffalo, where they 
boarded steamers, that carried them over the Great Lakes 
to Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin and Minnesota. 
Other vessels made regular trips from European harbors and 
ports at the East coast of North America to New Orleans, 
where comfortable steamers carried the passengers to the 
points of their destination in the interior. 

To these means of transportation new ones were added by 
the invention of railroads, which the Americans exploited 
with the same zeal displayed by them in making nature 
subservient so as to yield her riches. Enmeshing the country 
with whole networks of railways, they pushed them far into 
the uninhabited parts of the continent, in order to provide 
for the settlers easy ways to new territories with new possi- 

With this era of steamers and railways began the great 
American migration, which differs from the migration in 
ancient Europe in that it was not caused by powerful nations 
driving weaker ones from their abodes. It consisted of indi- 
viduals and families, parting voluntarily from the communities 
in Europe and of the Eastern States to participate in the con- 
quest of the uncultivated western regions of the United States. 

The majority of the immigrants from Germany consisted, 
as before, of farmers, craftsmen and artisans. But with them 
came also many representatives of the cultured classes, men 
who, disappointed by the unfortunate political affairs of the 
fatherland, hoped to find more congenial conditions in Amer- 
ica. Many of those immigrants devoted themselves to farming 
and became the founders of the "Latin Settlements," so called, 
because their owners, former students of German universities, 
were able to converse in Latin fluently and took pleasure in 
keeping alive their learning by a study of the classics in prefer- 
ence to idling and indulging in disputes in the saloons. 

Large numbers of these "Latin Farmers" settled in the 
Mississippi Valley. Opposite St. Louis they founded Belle- 
ville, a prosperous little city, which became the birth-place of 
many men of prominence. 

Immigration into the Mississippi Valley increased from year 
to year. Its magnitude may be judged from the fact, that during 
January, February and March of 1 842 St. Louis saw the 
arrival of 529 steamers with 30,384 passengers. St. Louis 


grew to be a city of 40,000 people. That among them were 
many Germans, is indicated by the fact, that they maintained 
two daily papers in the German language. 

Attracted by enthusiastic descriptions, whole expeditions of 
emigrants set out from Germany, to establish new settlements 
in these new regions. One of these undertakings was that of 
the Giessener Emigration Company, started by Paul Follenius, 
a lawyer, and Friedrich Munch, a minister of Giessen, a city 
in Hessen. Several hundred strong, the members of this party 
started in 1834 from Bremen for Missouri. But here they 
separated, as many preferred to proceed independently. 

A similar undertaking was that of the Mainzer Adelsverein, 
which acquired in 1 842 large tracts of land in Texas, northeast 
of San Antonio. Here several German settlements were 
started, among them New Braunfels and Fredericksburg. But 
soon afterwards the company dissolved, when in 1 848 Ger- 
many was upset by revolutionary movements. The settlers, 
left to their own resources, struggled against the greatest diffi- 
culties through many years, but, by their energy and thrift, 
succeeded in time to make their colonies the most flourishing 
of all Texas. — 

Among the regions, most favored by the Germans for their 
fertility and beautiful sceneries, were the Upper Mississippi 
Valley and the countries lying west and south of Lake Michi- 
gan and Lake Superior. New settlements, towns and cities 
sprang up here like mushrooms. Alton, Quincy, Keokuk, 
Burlington, Davenport, Dubuque, La Crosse, Winona, Red 
Wing, St. Paul, Minneapolis, Chicago, Milwaukee, Duluth and 
other places became brisk with German life. And at the 
same time starting points for parties of enterprising Germans, 
who established new settlements at the tributaries of the 
Mississippi as well as at the borders of the countless lakes, 
glimmering like blue eyes among the forests and prairies of 
Wisconsin, Minnesota, Dakota, Nebraska and Iowa. As in 
the region south of the Great Lakes so here many settlements 
indicate by their names their German origin. In Iowa we find, 
for instance, Guttenberg, Minden and New Vienna; in Wis- 
consin Germantown, New Koeln, New Holstein and Town 
Schleswig; in Missouri Westphalia, Hermann, New Hamburg, 
Altenburg, Wittenberg, Carola, Dammueller, and Frohne. In 
Minnesota a number of enterprising Germans from Chicago 
established in 1856 New Ulm, a settlement which grew within 
six years to a lively town of 1 500 people, but in 1 862 suffered 
a sudden set-back, when large bands of Sioux Indians, embit- 
tered by the countless impositions of dishonest Indian agents, 
went on the war path and in mad desire for revenge swooped 
upon the settlements. New Ulm, being farthest west, was 
attacked on August 19, 1862. Not prepared for the sudden 
assault, the inhabitants retreated toward the center of the 


town, where hastily a large square was formed of boxes, 
barrels, wagons, ploughs and all kinds of materials, the women 
and children huddling together within this barricade. After 
severe fighting, which lasted through the entire day, the 
enemies were repelled. But on August 23d they returned in 
far larger numbers, resolved to finish the town. 

Their advance upon the sloping prairie in the bright sun- 
light was a most picturesque and exciting spectacle. When 
within about one mile of the Germans, who awaited the attack 
outside of the town, the savage warriors, all on horseback and 
bedecked with gay colors and fluttering feathers, began to 
expand like a fan. Then, uttering terrific yells, they came 
down like the wind. Again the settlers were compelled to 
fall back into the town, which the Indians promptly com- 
menced to set afire. The wind, coming from the lower part 
of the place, fanned the flames and permitted the Sioux to 
advance behind the smoke. The conflagration became general 
and brought the defenders of New Ulm into a most critical 
situation, as the space, held by them, grew smaller and smaller. 
Finally they were concentrated upon the barricaded square 
in the center of the town. They defended this last position 
so gallantly during the rest of the day, during the night and 
the following morning, that at noon the enemies, despairing 
of success, retreated. 1 78 dwellings had gone up in flames, 
and many men, women and children were killed or wounded. 
As other attacks were likely, the survivors left the destroyed 
town and retreated to points in the neighborhood that could 
be more easily defended. Here they remained until order 
was re-established. During this revolt of the Sioux 644 settlers 
and 93 soldiers lost their lives, while the material damage 
amounted to more than 2,000,000 dollars. Later on many 
of the inhabitants of New Ulm returned. And as the govern- 
ment reimbursed the settlers for their losses, the town soon 
regained its former bright appearance. 

5js >|c :J: ;fc 

Back in 1803, when Louisiana became a part of the United 
States, nothing was known about the immense territories west 
of the Mississippi. No boat had plied yet upon the mysterious 
rivers rushing forth from the endless prairies, which no white 
man had ever traversed. Accordingly, on the maps, the 
region between the Mississippi and the Pacific Ocean was a 
blank spot bearing the ominous inscription: "The Great 
American Desert; unexplored." 

But American energy would not tolerate such conditions. 
Soon after the Louisiana purchase had become perfect, the 
captains Lewis and Clarke were sent on their memorable 
exploring expedition, which led them up the Missouri River 
and through the passes of the Rocky Mountains to the mouth 
of the Columbia River, whose harbour had been mentioned 


by early navigators. The feasibility of an overland route 
having thus been demonstrated, an enterprising German mer- 
chant, Johann Jacob Astor, was the first to follow it. 

Born 1 763 in Waldorf, a little village in Baden, Germany, 
he came to New York in 1 784. At once he engaged in the 
fur trade, his attention having been called to its vast possi- 
bilities by a fellow-countryman. Entering this occupation 
with unremitting vigor and keen judgment he rose, in a com- 
paratively very short time, to be one of the most renowned 
merchants of America. During the first years his enterprise 
called quite often for his presence among the Indian tribes, 
with whom he established trading relations. In company of 
trappers and voyageurs he traversed the forests of New York, 
Michigan and Lower Canada. In a birch canoe with a couple 
of redskins he shot the dangerous rapids of Sault Sainte Marie. 
He camped with the Iroquois of the Mohawk Valley and with 
the Chippewahs of Lake Superior. But wherever he went he 
dealt with the Indians in a spirit of fairness and humanity. 
In a dozen years Astor had diverted some of the most profit- 
able markets from his competitors, and was head of the Amer- 
ican Fur Company, which had branches in Albany, Buffalo, 
Pittsburgh and Detroit. The furs, collected at these places, 
were shipped to London, the vessels returning with English 
goods. It was not long before Astor was able to buy ships of 
his own, and before the end of the century he had, to quote 
his own expression, "a million dollars afloat," invested in a 
fleet of a dozen vessels. Astor was the first American to 
conceive the idea of regularly circumnavigating the globe, 
sending vessels with American furs to England, thence carrying 
British goods to China, and return to New York with tea, silk 
and other Oriental ware. For about twenty-five years his 
ships sailed round the world, some going eastward and some 
westward, each occupying two years, more or less. 

With the ascertaining of the overland route to the Pacific 
Astor conceived the idea of organizing the fur trade from 
the Great Lakes to the Pacific Ocean, by establishing a line 
of trading stations which should stretch from the Great Lakes 
along the Missouri River and across the Rocky Mountains to 
the mouth of the Columbia. The end station was to be located 
at the latter point and was to be provided from New York 
by vessels loaded with wares suited to the Indian traffic. Then 
the same vessels were to carry the furs, collected at that 
station, to China, where a large demand for furs had arisen. 
There the vessels were to be freighted with tea for England, 
and finally they were to return with British manufactures to 
New York. 

Preparations for the realization of this great plan were made 
on a most liberal scale, and nothing was left to chance. While 
an expedition of 60 trappers, agents, guides and interpreters 


went from St. Louis overland, following the route of Lewis 
and Clarke, the ship "Tonquin," with an equipment of every- 
thing a new-fledged colony could require, sailed from New 
York around Cape Horn to the mouth of the Columbia, arriv- 
ing there in March, 1811, nine months ahead of the land 
expedition. A site for a trading station was chosen ten miles 
up the river, and the erecting of comfortable dwellings and 
ware houses began at once. In honor of its projector the 
settlement was called Astoria. When in January 1812 the 
men of the overland party arrived utterly destitute, they found 
relief within its walls. 

Unfortunately the history of this great undertaking was brief. 
While the "Tonquin" was on a trading expedition, she was 
approached by large numbers of Indians, offering furs, and 
apparently unarmed. In violation of Astor's instructions that 
Indians were to be allowed on shipboard only a few at a time, 
they were suffered to clamber up the sides of the ship and 
to come on deck. Drawing knives, concealed in the bundles 
of fur, which they pretended to sell, the redskins fell upon 
the whites before the latter had time to prepare for an attack 
and massacred them. Only four of the crew escaped the 
slaughtering and barricaded themselves in the cabin. They 
even succeeded in ridding the ship of the invaders by opening 
a brisk fire from their rifles. But when on the next morning 
the enemies appeared again in overwhelming masses and 
swarmed on deck with yells of triumph, the sailors exploded 
the powder magazine, killing themselves and hundreds of 
their foes. 

To the loss of the "Tonquin" came another mishap, much 
more serious. During the war, which broke out in the same 
year between the United States and England, the government 
was unable to defend Astoria. Finding themselves cut off 
from help and threatened with capture by a British gun-boat, 
Astor's agents sold the property to the Hudson Bay Company, 
which took possession of the station and held it till 1 846, when 
England was compelled to abandon all claims on the region 
of the Columbia River. 

While Astor's plan ended in failure, it stands nevertheless 
among the great commercial undertakings as a shining monu- 
ment of German American enterprise, the more, as it found a 
historian in Astor's famous friend Washington Irving, whose 
classic work "Astoria, or Anecdotes of an Enterprise Beyond 
the Rocky Mountains" was read in all civilized countries of 
the world with great interest. 

As Astor is known as the first to initiate a commerce with 
the farthest Northwest, so another German is the most promi- 
nent of the pioneers of California: Johann August Sutter. 


Born in February 1 803 in Kandern, Baden, he visited a mili- 
tary school in Switzerland and, later on, became a colonel 
of a batallion of infantry. In 1834 his adventurous spirit 
brought him to St. Louis, then the center of the western fur 
trade. From here in every spring numerous caravans of traders 
went forth to purchase the pelts, the Indians and trappers had 
collected in wintertime. Other caravans went from St. Louis 
over the so-called Santa Fe Trail to the far Southwest, to trade 
with the inhabitants of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona and Cali- 
fornia. One of the most successful of these merchants was 
A. Speier, whose expeditions went as far as Chihuahua. As 
a member of such caravans Sutter made several trips to Santa 
Fe. In 1838 he went with a number of trappers to Oregon, 
Vancouver Island and Hawaii. At Honolulu he bought a 
vessel and undertook a trading expedition to Alaska. Two 
years later Sutter obtained from the Mexican Government 
the titles for two landgrants, comprising together 141,000 
acres at the Sacramento River in California. Here he estab- 
lished a settlement, which he named New Helvetia. For its 
protection he built Fort Sutter and surrounded it with high 
adobe-walls, through whose embrasures forty guns pointed in 
every direction. The garrison was composed of Americans, 
Europeans and Indians. In view of Sutter's former training 
it can not surprise, that he maintained a sort of military dis- 
cipline, and that every evening the garrison was drilled by an 
officer, generally a German, marching to the music of fife 
and drum. 

In recognition of his valuable services Sutter was made a 
governor of these most northern possessions of Mexico. He 
lived here, however, rather independently, raising with Indian 
laborers enormous quantities of wheat and large herds of 
cattle. The number of men employed by him ran from 
100 to 500, the latter at harvest time. Among them 
were blacksmiths, carpenters, tanners, gun-smiths, farmers, 
vaqueros, gardeners, weavers, hunters, sawers, sheep-herders, 
trappers, millwrights and distillers. In a word, Sutter started 
every business and enterprise conceivable. The prospects for 
the future of the colony were unparallelled, and Sutter was 
regarded as the richest man in California, when suddenly, by 
one of the queerest caprices of fate, came frustration and ruin. 
On January 19, 1848, soon after California had been 
annexed by the United States, James W. Marshall, a carpenter 
in Sutter's service, while building a saw-mill, discovered in 
the millrace many flakes and kernels of yellow metal. All at 
once it flashed upon him, that these shining" particles might 
be gold. Gathering a handful, he rode in hot haste to the 
fort, to inform his employer of his find. When chemical tests 
proved the truth of Marshall's assumption, Sutter, fearing that 
the news would upset all conditions of his colony, made efforts 


to keep the discovery a secret. But in vain. It leaked out 
and was soon known in the fort and at the mill. And now 
the cry "Gold! Gold!" was borne on the wings of the wind 
to the sea-coast, and from the sea-coast to the four quarters 
of the globe. 

What Sutter had apprehended became true. Almost all his 
men deserted him. The whole population of New Helvetia, 
of San Francisco, of Monterey, of California was caught with 
the infection and started to the gold fields, which soon were 
disclosed in many districts. Public buildings in the towns and 
cities became deserted, as the officials abandoned their posts. 
Newspapers suspended their issues indefinitely, as the editors 
vanished without asking furlough. Vessels were unable to 
depart, as their crews deserted. Workshops, stores, dwellings, 
and even fields of ripe grain, wines and families were left to 
take care of themselves. Even churches had to be closed, as 
their ministers also succumbed to the lure of the yellow metal. 
And when reports of the discovery of gold reached the Atlantic 
States, thousands and thousands of men left their homes, to 
seek their fortunes among the gulches of the wild Sierra. 

Whole armies of adventurers and desperate characters, all 
craving for gold, swarmed over Sutter's property, trampling 
down his crops, killing his cattle and turning everything upside 
down. Without power to drive the intruders away, Sutter saw 
his property ruined. All remonstrations remained unheeded. 
Even his titles to his estates were disputed, as they had been 
acquired from the Mexican government, but not indorsed by 
the United States. All appeals for justice were in vain. Never 
regaining possession of his property, he would have died in 
poverty had not the State of California voted to him in 1865 
a pension of 3000 dollars annually for seven years, on account 
of state taxes which Sutter had paid on the land when it was 
no longer his property. When Sutter died in 1 888, America 
lost one of her most remarkable men, whose memory will 
survive in the history of California for all time to come. 

More favored by fate was another German pioneer, who 
arrived in California in 1841 : Karl Maria Weber. For some 
time he was in Sutter's service, but later on became a great 
cattle-raiser of his own. Leading an adventurous life, he was, 
like Sutter, one of the earliest promoters of American against 
Mexican interests. For this reason he was several times con- 
demned to be shot by the Mexicans. After the discovery of 
gold Weber founded the "Stockton Mining Company" and 
laid out a city, Stockton, which received her name in honor 
of Commodore Stockton, who aided in getting the concessions 
for the colony. Weber made not only the plans for this city, 
but supplied her also with macadamized streets, natural gas, 
electricity and other modern improvements. Before his death 


he donated also all real estate needed for the erection of 
public buildings and parks. 

Another remarkable German pioneer of the Far West was 
August Laufkoetter, who with a band of 26 Delaware Indians 
made trading expeditions to Arizona. Later on he was among 
the first settlers of Sacramento, California. 

In Texas and Arizona Herman von Ehrenberg, a topograph- 
ical engineer, made history. He was one of the 600 men, who 
in 1835 drove 2000 Mexicans from San Antonio and forced 
the fort Alamo to surrender. He had also part in the battle 
at San Jacinto on April 21, 1836, in which the independence 
of Texas was secured. Later on Ehrenberg was a member of 
the commission to establish the frontier between Arizona and 
Mexico. Afterwards he organized the Sonora Exploring and 
Mining Company, and also became a great landholder. Ehren- 
berg, a city on the lower Colorado River in Arizona, was 
named after this enterprising German. 

To this brief list of German pioneers of the Far West many 
other names might be added. Wherever we investigate the 
history of our Western States and communities, we discover 
German names, made known by their bearers in some 

The Men of 1848. 

The first half of the nineteenth century witnessed the arrival 
on American shores of a vast number of German immigrants, 
who gained a most significant place in American history: "the 
Men of 1848." 

Their peculiar name needs explanation. As is commonly 
known, all political conditions of central Europe had at the 
beginning of the nineteenth century been overthrown by 
Napoleon Buonaparte, that great adventurer, who aimed at 
the erection of a Caesarean Empire, the like of which the world 
had not seen before. This dream was defeated in the great 
battle at Leipzig by the inhabitants of the kingdoms and prin- 
cipalities of Germany and those of Austria. Having taken such 
a heroic part in this gigantic struggle for liberation, the people 
had hoped for the establishment of constitutional govern- 
ments, in which they might have part. But this justified expec- 
tation was sadly deceived. The rulers, forgetful that the 
people had saved their thrones, denied them such right, and 
opened instead a long period of reaction, which manifested 
its triumph in dark acts of oppression and tyranny. Dissatis- 
fied by the ingratitude of the sovereigns, many patriots, detest- 
ing violence, turned their backs on the land of their birth, 
hoping to find in America new fields for their abilities. Others, 
unwilling to submit to the petty tyranny of the rulers, resolved 
to resist and became leaders in a bitter struggle for liberty, 
which, dragging along for many years, culminated in the 
revolutionary outbreaks of the year 1 848. The symbols of 
that sanguinary year were chosen to denote all those Germans 
and Austrians, who took part in the long struggle, though 
their participation dated back to earlier years. Among these 
men were thousands who had reached the highest pinnacle 
of intellectual development, men with ideal aspirations, who 
became in America successful promoters of the ethical, moral 
and material welfare of the people, and gained also wide- 
spread influence in the direction of affairs in our federation 
of States. 

Among the earlier arrivals, who came between 1820 to 
1848, were Karl Follen, Karl Beck, Franz Lieber, Joseph 
Grund, Johann August Roebling, Georg Seidensticker and 
Max Oertel, every one an apostle of science, art and home 

Among the men, who came in 1 848 and the years following, 


were Karl Schurz, Franz Sigel, Peter Osterhaus, Friedrich 
Hecker, Gustav Korner, Gustav von Struve, Karl Heinzen, 
Hans Kudlich, August Willich, Konrad Krez, Max Weber, 
Karl Eberhard Salomo, Julius Stahel, Hermann Raster, Johann 
Bernhard Stallo, Friedrich Kapp, Lorenz Brentano, Friedrich 
Hassaureck, Oswald Ottendorfer, Caspar Butz, Theodor Kirch- 
hoff, Karl Douai and many thousand others. In all, Germany 
lost during the so-called "Reaktionszeit" more than one and 
a half million of her best citizens. 

Germany's loss meant for the United States an invaluable 
gain, as so many hundred thousands of highly cultured men 
and women came into this country. While the former German 
immigration had consisted essentially of farmers, workmen 
and traders, now scholars and students of every branch of 
science, artists, writers, journalists, lawyers, ministers, teach- 
ers and foresters came in numbers. The enormous amount of 
knowledge, idealism and activity, embodied in these political 
exiles, made them the most valuable immigrants America 
ever received. As they accepted positions as teachers and 
professors at the schools and universities, or filled public 
offices, or founded all sorts of newspapers and periodicals, 
learned societies and social clubs, these men inspired the 
hitherto dull social life of America, that it gained a much freer 
and more progressive character. 

Under their able leadership the older German element in the 
United States improved also greatly. Formerly without close 
connection and compared with an army of able soldiers but 
without officers, it now began to form under the leadership 
of the men of 1 848 a community, whose prime efforts were 
directed toward the welfare of their adopted country and to 
keep unsullied the fountains of liberty and the rights of men. 
That among the exiles of 1 848 were characters of the same 
calibre as Franklin and Washington, though the revolution at 
home had been unsuccessful, will be clearly revealed by the 
shining examples of which the coming chapters will relate. 

Distinguished Germans in 
American Politics. 

While it is true that comparatively few men of German 
birth are found holding political office and that representation 
of the German element in the halls of the legislatures and in 
administrative places is in no way commensurate with its 
numerical strength, it must not be assumed that its influence 
in American politics is or was negligible. Here as elsewhere 
we find the Germans disposed to deal with public affairs as 
statesmen rather than as politicians. Precisely this quality, 
however, gave their views an importance which exerted a 
considerable and wholesome influence on American politics, 
oftimes sufficient to render them the decisive factor in great 
issues. Thus, for instance, in the question of slavery, first 
raised, as shown in a previous chapter, by the inhabitants of 
Germantown. They steadfastly advocated its abolition through 
all the 18th and the 19th centuries, standing their ground 
until the issue was decided in accordance with their views. 

Due to their verdict also were the prevailing of common 
sense and true statesmanship in the political battles waged 
for Sound Money, Civil Service, Party Reform, Conservation, 
Temperance and Personal Liberty. 

In the discussion of all these questions the German 
Americans were invariably guided by men of sound judgment 
and keen intellect. Pastorius and Leisler were followed by 
Zenger, Saur and the Muehlenbergs, the latter family repre- 
sented by several eminent members, who distinguished them- 
selves in public and political life. Peter Muhlenberg was a 
member of Congress during three sessions. His brother, 
Frederick August Muhlenberg, was not only member and 
speaker of the Pennsylvania State Legislature, but also a 
member of the First, the Second, the Third and Fourth 
sessions of Congress. Manifest proof of the excellency of his 
character was the fact, that he, a citizen of foreign origin, was 
elected as the very first Speaker of the House of Representa- 
tives, and that he was re-elected to the same position during 
the third session. His son, Henry August Muhlenberg, was 
one of the representatives of Pennsylvania for a period of 
nine years. 

The most remarkable German leaders of the 19th century 
were Franz Lieber and Carl Schurz. Lieber, born on March 1 0, 
1800, in Berlin, received his training in science at the Univer- 


sities of his native city and of Jena and in close intercourse 
with some of the most noted men of his time, especially Lud- 
wig Jahn, the famous promoter of physical exercise. Through 
him Lieber became imbued with the deep love for liberty, 
which distinguished those noble patriots, who in the years 1813 
to 1815 threw off the yoke of Napoleon. Unfortunately the 
reactionary men, then at the helm of government in his native 
country, regarded all persons with liberal sentiments as 
enemies of the state. So it came to pass that Jahn and 
Lieber were placed several times under arrest. Heavy of 
heart, Lieber emigrated to America, arriving here in 1827. 
Before he found permanent employment, his struggles were 
very hard. In 1828 he began with editing the "Encyclopaedia 
Americana," an adaptation of the famous "Brockhaus Con- 
versations Lexikon," but containing many original articles, 
written by Lieber on political science and subjects. This work 
was first published in Philadelphia, later on as the "American 
Encyclopaedia" by Appleton in New York. 

In 1835 Lieber was appointed professor of history and 
political economy at South Carolina College, Columbia, S. C. 
This position became untenable, when the question of slavery 
grew acute, and Lieber, whose whole soul longed for liberty, 
became one of the earnest advocates of the abolishment of 
human bondage. 

In 185 7 Lieber accepted a call to Columbia College, New 
York City. This was the first recognition by a Northern 
college of History and Politics as properly co-ordinated sub- 
jects. Lieber spent nearly forty years at imparting a knowl- 
edge of this most vital branch to the youth of the republic. 
During this time he wrote three monumental works, whereby 
he founded his fame as one of the greatest publicists of the 
world. In his "Manual of Political Ethics," published in 1837, 
he gave the first great original treatise on political science in 
America. Its subjects include the ethical nature of man, public 
opinion, parties, factions, opposition, love of truth, persever- 
ance, the duty of representatives, judges, lawyers, office hold- 
ers, and the pardoning power. The keynote of this remarkable 
work is Lieber's favorite motto: "No right without its duties: 
no duty without its rights." 

Two years later this great work was followed by another 
important contribution to political science, "The Legal and 
Political Hermeneutics." Its value was recognized in the 
"Nation" as follows: "Many of the topics discussed in this 
book were at Lieber's time new, doubtful, and difficult. Of 
the conclusions arrived at by Lieber and first expressed by 
him, writers of the present day often speak as familiar political 
truths, without, perhaps, any conception on their part of the 
source whence they were derived." 

In 1853 appeared Lieber's greatest and best known work: 


"Civil Liberty and Self -Government." Another great work 
on the "Origin and the National Elements of the Constitution 
of the United States," which promised to be Lieber's best, 
unfortunately remained a fragment. 

During the later years of his life Lieber became deeply 
interested in the subject of international law. He was the 
first to propose the idea of professional jurists of all nations 
coming together for the purpose of working harmoniously 
together, and seeking to establish a common understanding, 
and thus serving as an organ for the legal consciousness of 
the civilized world. From this impulse proceeded Rolin- 
Jacquemyn's circular letter, to found a permanent academy 
of international law, the "Institut de Droit International," 
which was started in Ghent in 1873, only one year after 
Lieber's death, which occurred on October 2, 1872. 

While Lieber's heart was devoted to the welfare of his 
adopted country, he never descended to the level of the part- 
isan. The motto of his study and life was: "Dear is my 
Country; dearer still is Liberty; dearest of all is Truth!" 

Inspired by the same idealism was Carl Schurz, the greatest 
of all Germans, who made America their home. Born on 
March 2, 1 829, in Liblar, near Cologne, Schurz, as a student at 
the University of Bonn, also became so deeply involved in the 
revolutionary movement ot 1 848, that he was compelled to 
flee. After a stay of several years in England and France he 
arrived in 1852 in Philadelphia. Here he resided for three 
years. Later on he went to Wisconsin, where he practiced 
law. At this time the great struggle between the North and 
the South was brewing and it became evident that the old 
cause of human freedom was to be fought out on the soil of 
the new world. 

Like Pastorius and the inhabitants of Germantown had 
been opposed to slavery, so almost all Germans in the United 
States favored abolition. Schurz became at once their most 
eloquent spokesman and most potent leader. 

"Before the Lincoln presidential campaign," so Andrew D. 
White states in his autobiography, "slavery was always dis- 
cussed either from a constitutional or philanthropical point of 
view, orators seeking to show either that it was at variance 
with the fundamental principles of our government or an 
offence against humanity. But Schurz discussed it in a new 
way and mainly from the philosophic point of view, showing 
not merely its hostility to the American ideas of liberty and 
the wrong it did to the slaves, but, more especially, the injury 
it wrought upon the country at large, and, above all, upon 
the Slave States themselves. In treating this and all other 
public questions he was philosophic, eloquent and evidently 

While taking an active part in the campaign of the Repub- 


lican party against the extension of slavery, Schurz attained 
an influence in the councils of the party and with the voters, 
especially the Germans, that made his role in the struggle of 
1860 extremely important, and, in the reckoning of shrewd 
observers, wellnigh decisive. Lincoln, after his election, 
acknowledged the great services of Schurz by appointing him 
U. S. Minister to Spain. But his stay at this post was only of 
short duration. As soon as the Civil War broke out, Schurz 
resigned in order to enter the Union Army. His part in the 
dreadful struggle is outlined in another chapter. 

On conclusion of the war President Johnson commissioned 
Schurz to make a tour through the Southern States, to inves- 
tigate their conditions. His report was full of valuable sug- 
gestions and was the basis of the reconstruction policy adopted 
by Congress, with the difference, however, that Schurz steadily 
pressed the enactment of general amnesty and of impartial 
conditional suffrage. 

In the Presidential campaign of 1 868 Schurz was again one 
of the most effective speakers of the Republican party, and 
in the following year was chosen United States Senator from 
Missouri. The Senate was the forum, where his great gifts 
and extraordinary eloquence came to full development. 
"Schurz' s greatness as an orator," so said the N. Y. Evening 
Post in an editorial of May 14, 1906, 'lay in this, that he not 
only spoke as a rational man to rational men, but as a man of 
heart and conscience, who judges every man by himself and 
feels that his best hold is in appealing to the better nature of 
his hearers. Unlike many of his most distinguished colleagues, 
he never resorted to inflated or bombastic rhetoric and never 
stooped to any of the well-worn artifices with which dema- 
gogues from time immemorial have been wont to tickle the 
ears of the mob. What he said of Sumner in his unsurpassed 
eulogy of the Massachusetts Senator, that 'he stands as the 
most pronounced idealist among the public men of America,' 
might with equal truth be said of himself." 

That Schurz was among the American Statesmen an idealist 
of the noblest type, who believed in the great mission of the 
United States, and himself strove at the highest goal, is indi-_ 
cated by a significant remark, made by him one day: "Our 
ideals resemble the stars, that illuminate the night. No one 
will ever be able to touch them. But the men who, like the 
sailors on the ocean, take them for guides, will undoubtedly 
reach their goal." 

And another motto of Schurz may find a place here, 
as it is the key for his attitude in all political questions: "My 
Country! When right keep it right; when wrong, set it right!" 

In 1877 President Hayes selected Schurz for Secretary of 
the Interior. His administration of this office was marked by 
energy, integrity, and a determination to enforce the laws. 



At the same time he introduced many reforms, the great 
importance of which was acknowledged and appreciated only 
in later years. So for instance he was the first official, who 
called the attention to the preservation of our forests and 
other natural resources, which were ransacked by rapacious 
corporations without the slightest regard of the future. 

Further, Schurz applied in his department, immediately 
after his appointment, the methods of civil service reform. 
The many evils, connected with the spoils system, inaugurated 
under President Jackson, had under President Grant grown 
to unheard-of proportions. Embezzlement, graft, bribery and 
all other forms of corruption went hand in hand with incap- 
ability and neglect, and threatened to demoralize the whole 
administration. Public scandals, in which high officials were 
involved, became daily occurrences. The taint of dishonesty 
affecting official life caused many able citizens, especially the 
German Americans, to look upon politics as something to be 

Schurz at once made good behavior, honesty and efficiency 
the first condition for all appointments, removals and promo- 
tions in his department. A board of inquiry, composed of 
three clerks of the highest class, was designated to investigate 
and determine all cases in regard to these questions. 

This strict application of the principles of the merit system, 
inaugurated by Schurz for the first time in the history of any 
department of the United States Government, has since 
become the criterion of most of the succeeding administrations. 
For many years Schurz was a member and president of the 
National Civil Service Reform Association, and in this cap- 
acity, by fighting the spoils system with all his determination, 
intelligence and patience, he rendered, perhaps, the greatest 
service to this country. 

With equal energy he devoted his efforts to the exposure 
of the grave perils involved in paper money, the "silver 
craze," and all other wild financial schemes, by which the 
basic principles of sound currency during the period from 
1860 to 1896 were threatened. 

During his political life Schurz firmly maintained a position 
of independence of judgment and of action, and held himself 
wholly free to follow the dictates of his conscience and to 
pursue what he believed, on mature reflection, to be the best 
policy for the public good. Of course this independence 
would have been of little avail had it not been accompanied, 
on the one hand, by generally sound and intelligent judgment 
in the formation of his opinions, and, on the other, by the 
very great powers of persuading and convincing the minds 
of men. Both these Schurz had in an extraordinary degree, 
and he exercised them with an energy, a patient persistence, 
with an amount and kind of skill and penetration and a fervor 


of advocacy that, on the whole, have not been surpassed in 
the history of the United States in the latter half of the nine- 
teenth century, momentous as that period was and rich as was 
its product of able men. In the six volumes of his speeches, 
correspondence and political papers, selected and edited after 
his death by the Carl Schurz Memorial Committee, he appears 
as the highest personification of true Americanism, as a shining 
light, which served many of his contemporaries as a safe and 
reliable guiding star. — 

Other distinguished German leaders of the 1 9th century 
were Friedrich Munch, Gustav Korner, General J. A. Wag- 
ener, Gustav Schleicher, Michael Hahn, Johann Bernhard 
Stallo, Samuel Pennypacker and many others, who as mem- 
bers of Congress, governors, mayors, or in other high positions 
worked faithfully for the welfare of our United States. 

One of the most remarkable figures in Congress was at the 
end of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century 
Richard Bartholdt from Missouri, who as representative of the 
Tenth Missouri District served for 22 years. During this long 
period he was one of the most ardent defenders of personal 

The attitude of Bartholdt and of the whole German element 
on this question, which comprises the so-called Temperance 
Question and Sunday Observance, has been denned in a clear- 
cut manner many times. The Germans believe, that the Pro- 
hibitionists do not keep the ideas of temperance (moderation) 
and prohibition (disallowance) apart. Temperance is — so 
the Germans explain — a virtue, which should be acquired by 
self-control. It is practiced and recommended by the Germans 
just as strongly as by all other reasonable men. Prohibition, 
on the other hand, is regarded as a restriction in contravention 
of the right of personal liberty guaranteed to every citizen of 
the Republic by its Constitution. This restriction is insisted 
on by certain elements, who have no understanding nor feeling 
for true liberty, liberal thoughts and the cheerful enjoyment 
of life by others. It interferes with the customs and necessities 
of many million inhabitants of the United States, who have 
the same right on American soil as those holding Puritan views. 

In regard to the Sundav question the German American 
Alliance expressed in 1903 the following views: "Sunday 
should be interpreted as a day of rest and recreation. Man 
was not made for the Sabbath, but the Sabbath for man. The 
individual should be given perfect liberty to spend the day as 
he wishes. The fanatic would suppress all public life on 
Sunday, including traffic, the selling of newspapers and the 
necessities of life. The question of Sunday observance as a 
day of prayer and repentance is a religious one, and the state 
must remain apart from the church in consonance with the 
principles laid down in the Constitution." 


Bartholdt's activity during the 22 years of his service in 
Congress was furthermore devoted to the improvement of 
the immigration laws and to the interests of international 
peace. Having become acquainted in 1 899 in Christiania, 
Norway, with the Interparliamentary Union he organized in 
Congress an American group of this union, was elected her 
president and held this position till 1915, when he returned 


to private life. It was through his influence that the union 
held in 1904 its annual meeting in St. Louis, which was 
attended by 156 delegates from European countries and sev- 
eral hundred delegates of American republics. Here Bart- 
holdt was elected president of the Union for the same year. 
It was by his efforts, that the Second Peace Conference at 
The Hague in 1907 came to pass. 

His last great speech in Congress Barthold delivered 


on February 19, 1915. It was devoted to the defense of the 
American citizens of German descent, who have been made 
the objects of gross insults by many American newspapers 
since the outbreak of the European war for their sympathies 
with the Fatherland. As Bartholdt's speech treated a subject 
of vital interest to the population of the United States, the 
most important parts may find here a place. 

"The United States has a composite population. Not Eng- 
land alone, but all Europe is its mother, and contributions to 
the blood which now circulates through the Nation's veins 
have been made by practically all countries, the largest share 
next to Great Britain having been contributed by Germany 
or the States now constituting the German Empire. American 
statesmen recognized early in our history that ours was not 
a ready made nation, but a "nation to be" whose character 
was to be shaped by the impress made upon it by the various 
elements constituting its growing population. It was also 
recognized that Saul could not at once turn into Paul, that 
the newcomer could not change his traits overnight. It is 
probably true that the Anglo-Saxon is less free from racial or 
national prejudices than the cosmopolitan German — a strange 
phenomenon, for they come from the same cradle — yet such 
was the tolerance of our older statesmen that they never 
regarded the love of the immigrants for the old country as in 
any wise irreconcilable with his allegiance to the new. And 
why? Because reverence for the mother never detracts from 
love for the bride, and, furthermore, because that reverence 
is a natural impulse which can no more be regulated or con- 
trolled than can the throbs of the human heart. We can 
educate an immigrant in our way of thinking, induce him to 
adopt our customs and make a good American citizen of him, 
but we cannot change his heart to the extent of eradicating 
his regard for his native land. Along with freedom of thought 
and conscience we must grant him the liberty of placing his 
sympathies and affections where he pleases. It is a natural 
right which no law can limit and no government can deny him 
as long as our own country is not involved. American states- 
manship had the choice of either closing the gates of the 
country or of taking its chances with the constant human influx. 
It chose the latter course, and history does not record a single 
instance to prove that policy to have been a mistake. While 
the people of the United States have been gathered from all 
nooks and corners of the globe, while many of them still differ 
in habits, customs, and language, and while on occasions the 
sympathies of the first, second, and even third generations still 
go out to the land of their ancestors, no serious problem has 
thereby been created. Our adopted citizens and their native 
descendants have stood the test of loyalty in every crisis in 
the country's history, and thus irrefutable proof has been 


adduced that memories of the Fatherland conjured up by 
impulses of the heart do not and will not detract from the 
allegiance due to the adopted country. 

"Because of their sympathies with the Fatherland, the Amer- 
icans of German descent have been openly accused of divided 
allegiance and downright disloyalty. They know this wanton 
insult to emanate from English and French press agents, and 
consequently treat it with the contempt it deserves. But what 
they resent is that, in the face of our own history, the American 
press should have opened its columns to such calumnies. 
Germans have fought and bled on the battlefield of four 
American wars and furnished a larger proportion to the fight- 
ing strength of our country than any other of the so-called 
foreign elements. In the Revolutionary War, with Baron Steu- 
ben they espoused the cause of the Colonies, and the implicit 
confidence which the Father of our Country placed in their 
loyalty is a matter of history. In 1861, when many of the 
English, with instinctive aversion to American naturalization, 
took out British protection papers, the Germans — that is, 
nearly 200,000 of them — rallied around the flag of Abraham 
Lincoln to save the Union. They displayed the same valor 
in the War of 1812 and in the Spanish-American War, and 
their loyalty to the flag in times of war is equaled only by 
their loyalty to American ideals in times of peace. I should 
have much preferred if just at this time these historical truths 
had been uttered by other than a German-American tongue; 
but while our pro-English press is ignoring them, Americans 
of German blood should at least have expected immunity from 
libels and insults. Yet such insults are heaped upon that 
element by newspapers permitting agents of the allies to use 
their space for that purpose. We can best judge the future 
by the past, and the lessons of the past justify me in proclaim- 
ing it as an irrefutable fact that if unfortunately the United 
States should ever again be embroiled in war, which the 
Heavens forbid, the Germans of this country would again as 
loyally rally around the Stars and Stripes as they did against 
our enemies in every crisis of the past. Let me again assert 
in most positive terms what I said on the floor the other day, 
that the Germans are for America against England, for 
America against Germany, for America against the world! 
They will never waver for one second in their allegiance to 
the land of their choice and adoption. 

These few words will suffice, I trust, to lay bare the 
charge above referred to in its whole naked infamy. But let 
me proceed with my argument. If sympathy for Germany 
is an evidence of disloyalty, as is claimed by our traducers, 
you will agree that sympathy for the allies is exactly the same 
thing; and if that be true, we would be confronted with the 
monstrous fact, that the whole American press printed in Eng- 
lish, with but few exceptions, is disloyal to the United States. 


It is absurd, of course, but I make this deduction merely to 
show that I am not a less patriotic American by sympathizing 
with the Fatherland and its ally than I would be if my sym- 
pathies were for England and her allies; and certainly no true 
American will claim that to side with England and to oppose 
Germany is a prerequisite of loyal American citizenship, for 
that would mean both truckling to a former enemy and the 
betrayal of a traditional friend, of course absolutely unjustifi- 
able by any standard of American loyalty. 

There is no question, but what at the present time the 
Germans of this country are stirred as they were never stirred 
before. Their state of mind manifests itself in great mass 
meetings and in hundreds of thousands of petitions addressed 
to Congress in favor of an embargo on arms. It would not 
be quite correct, however, to ascribe the prevailing excitement 
solely to sympathy for Germany. In reality it is as much, if 
not more, injured pride and an outraged sense of justice which 
have caused their indignation to rise because of the outrageous 
prevarications of truth and the cruel misrepresentations of 
Germany, her people, and institutions contained in the manu- 
factured news from England and reprinted in the American 
newspapers. Proud of their American citizenship, they have 
in a political sense absolutely nothing in common with 
Germany or its government, but their more or less accurate 
knowledge of conditions in that country taught them that the 
alleged news we were getting was a brutal attempt at defama- 
tion to poison the American mind against Germany. The war 
was started with a monstrous lie, and in order to support it a 
thousand other lies had to be told. The Germans were 
denounced as Huns and barbarians, as ravishers and plunder- 
ers, and as perpetrators of the worst imaginable atrocities. 
The Emperor was described as an Attila, who one day had 
had 1 1 Socialist deputies executed ; the Crown Prince as a 
thief, and so forth. You might say that it is natural for enemies 
to revile each other, but I must answer that, so far as Germany 
is concerned, she herself, though obliged to fight the lie as 
one of the worst of her many enemies, has not yet stooped 
to a departure from the truth either in her own newspapers 
or in the messages she has sent out to the world. *) And permit 
me to add parenthetically that to the neutral world the present 
struggle has an enhanced significance in that it is also a warfare 

*)This fact has been acknowledged by several American papers. We 
quote here the following remarks of the New York American: 

"We are bound to say one thing about the German press. The 
serious and dignified tone in which the German newspapers have 
invariably discussed the progress and the problems of the war is an 
example which the American press might follow with benefit to itself 
and to the public. 

We do no see in any German newspaper opprobrious epithets 
applied to the American people. We do not see any cartoons ridiculing 


of falsehood against truth. If the international lie should 
succeed, I believe the world would eventually suffocate in 
its slime. 

The Germans of this country could understand why Eng- 
land to secure recruits should want to incite her own people 
by these falsehoods, but they could not understand nor will 
they forgive the American newspapers for reprinting them in 
our country. To do so was a most serious and unpardonable 
reflection on the German element of this country. As an 
integral part of the American people, whose characteristics 
and virtues are reflected as much in the composite character 
of this Nation as are those of the citizens of English descent, 
they believed themselves to be entitled to some consideration 
at the hands of the press of their own country. Such con- 
sideration was denied them, however, and with utter disregard 
of their feelings they were rudely informed that their brothers 
on the other side of the ocean are barbarians, ghouls, and 
vandals, and that is not all. From the first day of the war 
up to the present whatever the allies did was right, while every 
act of the Germans was all wrong, even if it was an exactly 
similar thing; for instance, the dropping of explosives from 
aeroplanes. The alleged violation of Belgian neutrality was 
harped upon with sickening persistence even after it had been 
ascertained that the neutrality treaty had expired in 1872, and 
that, if it had still been in force, the Belgian Government had 
itself thrown it overboard by its secret agreement with Eng- 
land regarding the landing of English troops on Belgian soil. 
On the other hand, not a word is said about the violation of 
Chinese neutrality by Japanese and English troops, although 
this matter is of infinitely greater consequence to American 
interests than the affairs of Belgium can possibly be. The 
present international status of China is due to the skill of 
American statesmanship, it being an achievement of John Hay, 
made possible by the support of Germany alone. The integrity 
of China, already violated by England and her ally, should 
be restored and maintained at all hazards, but we look in vain 
for any appeals in the press in favor of the conservation of 
American interests in that quarter. It might embarrass Eng- 
land, you know, if just now the press insisted on our own 
rights. As to Belgian atrocities, five American newspaper men 

or picturing the President of the United States as a ruffian and 

In fact, we have not seen in any German newspaper a single word 
or a single picture which was intended to express hatred or contempt 
or bitterness against America. 

In the face of the bitter and ugly and vulgar and unmanly billings- 
gate, abuse and pictorial ridicule and hatred heaped by so many of 
our newspapers upon the German people and the German government, 
we are bound to say, in common fairness, that the dignity and self- 
control of the German press are highly to its credit." 


of the highest standing affirmed under oath that there was 
no such thing, yet these alleged atrocities are presented to 
American readers in glaring headlines, while the authentic 
refutation of the stories is published in small type on the six- 
teenth or seventeenth page. We may be foolish, but we are 
not blind to such notorious evidences of partiality. The 
Americans of German blood are a unit in bitterly resenting 
not only these unneutral efforts to poison the fountainheads 
of American public opinion against Germany but also the 
palpably unneutral "most-favored-riation" treatment system- 
atically accorded to Great Britain. Touching the last-named 
fact, it seems to them as if we were using kid gloves against 
England and the mailed fist against Germany, as if, indeed, 
everything was being avoided, even to the disregard of Amer- 
ican interests, that might embarrass the former country in her 
effort to crush Germany. 

The bill of complaints is too long to recite here in full, but let 
me merely ask: Have we protested against American citizens 
having been dragged from neutral steamers and thrown into 
English prisons simply because those men, Americans to the 
manner born, happened to bear German names? No. Have we 
protested against England's inhuman policy to starve to death 
the noncombatant population of Germany, by stopping, in 
open violation of international law, all food supplies, even if 
carried from a neutral country and in neutral bottoms? No. 
Have we protested against England declaring the whole North 
Sea as a war zone? No; but when Germany did the same thing 
in practically the same language we immediately dispatched a 
stiff note to Berlin, while the milder one was directed to Eng- 
land, though it would seem that the latter country was the 
chief offender in allowing the use of false flags. However, 
whatever the administration does in foreign affairs, as Amer- 
icans it will be our duty to uphold it. 

After this explanation can you understand, Mr. Chairman 
and gentlemen of the House, why the German mind in this 
country is agitated, and can you blame that element if its 
feelings are ruffled? When, moreover, it dawned upon them 
that all our arms factories were running night and day to 
supply the allies with weapons for use against their brothers 
and kinsmen, nothing could convince them that the United 
States was not actually a silent partner of the allies. Then 
it was that they demanded, and they are still demanding an 
embargo on arms to enforce honest neutrality, the kind of 
neutrality which the President proclaimed when he said: "We 
should be neutral in fact as well as in name, and should put 
a curb on every transaction which might be construed as 
giving a preference to one party to the struggle above 
another." This shameful traffic in arms, they argue, gives the 
lie to our prayers for peace, because it tends to prolong the 
war, and its permission by international law, they believe, 


imposes no obligation on our citizens to carry it on, no more 
on us than on the other neutral countries which have all 
stopped it upon the demand of England herself. I should like 
to discuss this important question at length, if my time per- 
mitted, but let me say just one more word. Whether the 
President would use the authority or not, there ought to be a 
law on our statute books which confers such authority upon 
him in order that he might enforce his demands for a free and 
open sea and unrestricted commerce in noncontraband goods. 
In our present demands against England our only alternative 
is either to give in or declare war. The threat of an embargo 
on arms, however, would quickly bring the "Mistress of the 
Seas" to terms and without war. Hence the legislation 
demanded by what the pro-English press is pleased to call 
German mass meetings, will be a preventive of, rather than a 
provocation to war with England, and thus falls to the ground 
another of the silly charges preferred by the press bureau of 
the allies against me and the several millions of American 
citizens who think as I do on this subject. 

Continuing as an interpreter of the feelings of these millions, 
all good American citizens, permit me to say that the hostility 
of the Anglo-American press against Germany and the Ger- 
mans has forced many to a conclusion which, if correct, would 
be the most painful disappointment of my life. They believe 
this attitude to be less pro-English than anti-German, and, 
indeed, regard it as the outgrowth of racial prejudice against 
the Germans even of this country, and as a revival of the old 
Know-nothing spirit which aimed at a sort of guardianship by 
those of English descent over this country, to the exclusion of 
all other elements, the latter to be classed simply as "foreign- 
ers," and degraded to the rank of second-class citizens. How 
could such a conclusion be reached? Well, they ask whether 
the history of the American Germans has not been an honor- 
able one. They fought for independence, opposed slavery, 
and loyally gave their bodies and lives that the Union might 
live ; they were almost a unit for sound money, and are imbued 
with the true American spirit of freedom to such an extent 
that they love liberty better than whatever good might come 
from its restriction. As a rule, they modestly refrained from 
seeking political preferment, but filled America's life with 
music and song and innocent social pleasures. They are 
peaceful and law-abiding citizens, who by industry and thrift 
have made the best of the opportunities which the country 
of their choice generously offered them, and thus they have 
contributed their honest share to the growth, the development, 
and the grandeur of the Republic. If such a record of good 
citizenship is not sufficient, it is argued, to insure the German 
element immunity from libels and insults, what else can 
account for it but racial aversion, the innate prejudice of the 
Anglo-Saxon against everything foreign? 


There should never be a division in the United btates upon 
racial or national lines. Under the American sun, in their 
capacity as citizens, the Teuton and the Slav, the Irishman and 
the Englishman, the German and the Frenchman extend to 
each other the hand of brotherhood as equals, and the great 
flag covers them all. Ancient prejudices have melted away 
under the sun of freedom until, no longer English, Irish, 
German, Scandinavian, we are, one and all, heart and soul, 

In conclusion let me reiterate the steadfast devotion of all 
citizens of German blood to American ideals and the flag. 
Impatient of injustice though they be, their hearts are true to 
the core. They feel themselves as one with every other citizen 
of the Republic, and they will share the fate of their adopted 
country and of their children's fatherland. Whatever their 
secondary sympathies may be, they are with all other true 
Americans for America first, last, and all the time. They are 
for a united Nation, and shall ever uphold the ideal of national 
unity and dignity with that loyalty which has characterized 
their whole history on American soil." 

The German Americans during the 
Wars of the 19th Century. 

Splendid as had been the proofs of loyalty to their adopted 
country shown by the Germans during the War for Independ- 
ence, equally impressive evidence is found in the staunch 
support invariably extended by them to this country in the 
wars in which the United States was involved during the 19 th 

When the British in 1812 had captured the city of Wash- 
ington and burned the Capitol, the Executive Mansion, the 
Treasury, the State and War Department as well as many 
other buildings, they also set out to take Baltimore. It was 
then, in the defense of the city, that two Americans of German 
origin took the most prominent part. The commander of 
the militia was General Johann Strieker, born at Frederick, 
Maryland, in 1 759. 

The enemy having landed at North Point, he led his men 
against him in a running skirmish, in which General Ross, the 
British commander, was killed. 

Fort McHenry, protecting the harbor of Baltimore, was 
gallantly defended by Major George Armistead, the son of 
Johann Armstadt, a Hessian, living in New Market, Va. It 
was in the morning of September 12, 1814, when the British 
fleet, consisting of sixteen frigates, opened a terrific bombard- 
ment on the fort, which was held by a garrison of one thou- 
sand men. The cannonade lasted for 36 hours. It was on 
the waning of that memorable night of the 1 2th to the 1 3th, 
that Francis S. Key, while detained on board of a British ship, 
watched during the long hours, anxiously asking: 

"Oh say can you see, by the dawn's early light, 
What so proudly we hail'd at the twilight's last gleaming." 

That the star spangled banner still waved, was due to the 
bravery of the noble defender of Fort McHenry and his men. 
They answered the terrific fire of the enemy so effectually, 
that on the morning of the 1 4th the fleet withdrew, without 
having attained any success. 

* * * * 

In the war with Mexico, during the years 1846 and 1847, 
many Germans also served with great distinction. Among 
them were numerous officers, who had been active in the old 
Fatherland and, later on, during the Civil War and the Indian 


Wars, came to great renown; as for instance August Mohr, 
von Gilsea, August V. Kautz, Samuel Peter Heinzelmann 

and others. 

The most dashing soldier of German origin in the Mexican 
War was, however, Johann Anton Quitman, the son of Fried - 
rich Anton Quitman, a Lutheran minister at Rhinebeck-on-the- 
Hudson. Born in 1 798, Quitman had emigrated to the South- 
west, where he took part in the struggles of Texas, striving to 
separate herself from Mexico. 

When in 1 846 the war with Mexico broke out, Quitman 
was made a Brigadier-General. With greatest distinction he 
fought at Monterey, and it was he, who at the head of his 
soldiers reached as the first the market place of the hotly 
defended city. He also raised the victorious American flag 
on the tower of a church. 

During spring of 1847 Quitman was in command of the 
land batteries, which in conjunction with the American fleet 
bombarded Vera Cruz and compelled this strongly fortified 
city to surrender. 

Also he distinguished himself at Cerro Jordo, after which 
engagement he was brevetted Major-General, and was voted 
a sword of honor by Congress for gallantry. On September 
1 3th he stormed with his men the old fortress of the Monte- 
zumas, Chapultepec, which the Mexicans believed to be 
impregnable. On the following day he opened the bombard- 
ment of the City of Mexico, effecting an entrance on the 1 5 th. 

In appreciation of his gallant service General Scott appoin- 
ted Quitman governor of the city, which position he held till 
order was established. Several years later he was elected 
governor of Mississippi. Elected to Congress by large majori- 
ties, he served from 1855 to 1858, the year of his death. 

Historians, who studied the part taken by the Germans in 
our Revolutionary War, have not hesitated to declare that the 
independence of the United States would probably not have 
been attained without the patriotic support of that element. 

There is also good reason to doubt, whether without its 
loyal aid the preservation of our national unity would have 
been possible. 

That the Germans were opposed to all forms of oppression 
and that in their agitation against slavery they overshadowed 
all foreign-born citizens, has been shown in former chapters. 
Consistent with such sentiment the overwhelming majority of 
the Germans gave aid to the North, convinced that the future 
of the whole country depended on the preservation of the 
Union. And so thousands and thousands of Germans com- 
bined, firmly resolved that slavery must be abolished and 


that not one of them would permit a single star to be ruthlessly 
torn from the blue field of the nation's glorious banner. 

How many Germans and German Americans hurried to the 
arms, in order that the stars and stripes might continue to 
wave intact 

"O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave" 
cannot be told with absolute correctness, as during the bitter 
conflict between the North and the South no statistics about 
the nationality or extraction of the soldiers were kept. Not 
before 1 869 was any attempt made to answer proximately 
this interesting question. From investigations, made by Dr. 
B. A. Gould, it appears, that of the 2,018,200 white soldiers 
who fought for the Union, 45,508 were English, 144,221 
Irish and 176,817 Germans. William Kaufmann, author of 
the valuable work, entitled: "Die Deutschen im amerikanischen 
Biirgerkriege," believes, however, that the volunteers born 
in Germany, numbered roundly not less than 216,000. It 
appears thus that the contingent, furnished to the armies of 
the North by the Germans, was far greater than that of any 
other nationality. To the above number must be added many 
hundred thousand men of German origin included in those 
1,523,207 soldiers who registered as "native Americans." 

How considerable must have been the quota of Germans 
among these men, may be judged from the number of mem- 
bers contributed to the Northern armies by the well-known 
family Pennypacker, descendents of Heinrich Panneb acker, 
a German who immigrated in 1 699 and settled on the 
Shippack Creek in Eastern Pennsylvania. This family was 
represented by 2 major-generals, 1 lieutenant-general, 1 
colonel, 2 physicians, 2 captains, 1 lieutenant, 5 sergeants, 
8 corporals, 1 musician and 65 common soldiers; in all 88 

The great value of the contingent of the Germans, born 
abroad, was increased by the fact, that large numbers of them, 
especially the officers, of whom there were more than 5000, 
had received practical training in the military academies and 
in the armies of their fatherland. The participation of so 
many efficient officers and soldiers was of immeasurable 
importance to the North, for at the outbreak of the war the 
Confederates had far the greater number of officers who had 
received their training at West Point. 

Like in all former wars so the Germans inspiringly demon- 
strated their loyalty in many ways. As early as January 9, 
1861, Karl Leopold Mathies, who later on became a general, 
offered to the Union a company of soldiers, the whole equip- 
ment of which he paid from his own purse. Equally generous 
was Dr. Karl Beck, professor at Harvard, when his request for 
his own enlistment had been refused in view of his age, which 
was 60 years. 


And when President Lincoln, on April 15, issued his first 
call for volunteers, the Germans responded in masses. Not 
more than three days thereafter 1200 Germans in Cincinnati 
stood ready to march. It was the "Ninth Regiment of Ohio," 
which for its gallant service won distinction and fame. In 
addition the Germans of Ohio formed the regiments No. 1 1 , 
28, 37, 47, 58, 67, 74, 106, 107, 108 and 165. Also the 
third regiment of cavalry and three batteries. 

In New York the Germans were not less enthusiastic. The 
Turners formed the regiment "United Turner Rifles," whose 
entire outfit was donated by German citizens. Other German 
regiments were the Steuben Regiment; the 1st German Rifles; 
the 1st Astor Regiment; the 5th German Rifles; the Fremont 
Regiment; the Sigel Rifles; the 54th Regiment of Schwarze 
Jaeger; the 86th Regiment or Steuben Rangers; furthermore 
the Dickels Mounted Rifles; the 4th New York Cavalry; and 
Blenker's Battery. 

The Germans of Pennsylvania formed the regiments 74 and 
75, besides furnishing strong contingents to numerous other 
regiments. In Indiana the 36th regiment was entirely German; 
in Illinois the 24th and the 82nd. The 43rd regiment con- 
sisted entirely of the sons of "Latin Farmers" of Belleville. 
The Germans of Wisconsin were represented by the 9th and 
26th regiment of that state; the Germans of Missouri in the 
1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 12th, 15th, 17th, 39th, 40th and 
4 1 st regiment. 

This splendid response aroused in all Northern states bound- 
less enthusiasm. Augustus Choate Hamlin, Lieutenant-Colonel 
and historian of the 1 1 th army-corps, writes in his remark- 
able work "The battle of Chancellorsville" : "The country 
rejoiced with great joy when it became known that the entire 
German population of the North rallied without hesitation to 
the support of the endangered Republic. The support was 
magnificent, and deserving the highest gratitude of the country. 
It is also remarkable that all of the revolutionists then in this 
country, and who had followed Kossuth, Garibaldi, Sigel and 
Hecker, should offer their services to the United States. It was, 
indeed, a grand sight, when the entire mass of German-speak- 
ing and German-born people rose as a man and stood firmly 
by the flag of the Republic. What would have been the fate 
of Missouri, Illinois and Indiana, at the commencement of 
the war, had it not been for the patriotic efforts of Sigel, Oster- 
haus, Schurz and Hecker, and their resolute German follow- 
ers? Has the country yet recognized the importance and the 
full weight of these facts? Missouri certainly would have drifted 
away with the Southern tide, had it not been for the influence 
and resistance of these gallant men. The Germans were the 
first to take up arms and attempt to save the state. The first 
three loyal regiments raised in St. Louis were Germans almost 


to a man, and when the Home Guards of Missouri were first 
formed, none but Germans joined them. This movement on 
the part of the Germans was of vast aid to the Northern cause, 
and contributed greatly to its final success, and its influence 
and its value cannot be estimated with the gold of the nation." 
Of the officers of German birth or origin many attained the 
highest military honors and degrees. Inseparably connected 
with the history of this great war are the names of the Major- 
Generals Peter Osterhaus, Karl Schurz, Franz Sigel, Julius 
Stahel, Samuel Peter Heinzelmann, August Kautz, G. Penny- 
packer, Friedrich Salomon, and Gottfried Weitzel. Also the 
names of the Generals Ammen, Louis Blenker, Louis von 
Blessing, Heinrich von Bohlen, Adolf Buschbeck, Adolf 
Hassendeubel, Friedrich Hecker, J. H. Heinzelmann, Knobels- 
dorff, Johann A. Koltes, William C. KufTner, Konrad Krez, 
Karl Leopold Mathies, August Mohr, Julius Raith, Prince 
Felix Salm-Salm. Karl Eberhard Salomon, Georg von Schack, 
Alexander von Schimmelpfennig, Alban Schopf, Alexander 
von Schrader, Schriver, Schiras, Adolf von Steinwehr, Louis 
Wagner, Hugo Wangelin, Max Weber, August Willich, Isaak 
Wister and others. 

The limited size of this volume forbids a recital of all gallant 
services performed by these Germans during the Civil War. 
We can mention only a few. First of all it should be remem- 
bered, that on April 18, 1861, three days after the fall of 
Fort Sumter, when the whole administration was in consterna- 
tion, 530 Pennsylvania Germans rallied round the flag and 
entered Washington, to shield the capital from a threatening 
assault of the Secessionists. This resolute step and the fact, 
that the German Turners of Baltimore declared for the Union, 
kept Washington and the wavering State of Maryland from 
the hands of the Confederates. 

The State of Missouri, the most important of all the uncer- 
tain border states, was also saved for the Union by German 
volunteers. The situation here was most critical, as in the 
city of St. Louis was located the great United States Arsenal 
of the West, containing the arms and amunition for at least 
40,000 to 50,000 soldiers. Floyd of Virginia, while Secretary 
of War preceding Lincoln's administration, had stocked this 
arsenal to its utmost capacity in the expectation that it would 
certainly fall into the hands of the South. His hope in this 
respect was strengthened, when Governor Jackson of Missouri 
manifested the stand he would take in his reply to President 
Lincoln's requisition for Missouri's quota of the first call for 
troops with the defying words: "Your requisition, in my judg- 
ment, is illegal, unconstitutional, and revolutionary in its 
object; inhuman and diabolic, and cannot be complied with." 

It was during this time, when the magnitude of the danger 
threatening the country was barely realized, that the German 


Turners of St. Louis passed a resolution by which the Turn- 
Verein was dissolved, and in its stead a military organization 
formed to guard the Union and to sacrifice life and property, 
if necessary, to keep the county of St. Louis loyal to the admin- 
istration in case the State of Missouri should decide to secede. 

When it became known, that the Secessionists planned an 
assault on the arsenal, the Germans of St. Louis quickly formed 
four companies of volunteers under the command of their 
leaders Blair, Lyon, Sigel, Osterhaus, Schaefer and Schuett- 
ner. Then they took possession of the arsenal, and also cap- 
tured on May 10, 1861, one thousand Secessionists, who had 
assembled at Camp Jackson near the southern part of the city, 
to seize the arsenal. 

Among the higher German officers the most prominent 
were Osterhaus, Sigel and Schurz, conspicuous types all three 
of those champions of liberty, who upon the failure of the 
German revolution of 1 848 came to America as political exiles. 

Peter Osterhaus had become a citizen of Belleville, 111. 
When the situation became critical in Missouri, he took an 
active part in organizing the German volunteers of St. Louis 
and in the capture of the arsenal and Camp Jackson. He was 
valiantly engaged in the battles at Wilsons Creek and Pea 
Ridge as well as in the campaign against Vicksburg. During 
the terrific struggle at Chatanooga in November 1863 he com- 
manded the first division of General Grant's army corps and 
won glory in the famous "Battle among the Clouds'' on Look- 
out Mountain. After fighting for hours, his troops ascended 
step by step the steep and rough mountain side, through deep 
gullies and ravines, over great rocks and fallen trees, until, 
reaching the earth-works of the enemy on top of the mountain, 
they carried his positions one and all. 

Subsequently Osterhaus was with his troops in the daring 
assault on Missionary Ridge. Here he defeated the southern 
wing of the enemy, making many thousands of prisoners. As 
commander of a strong division Osterhaus participated also 
in Sherman's famous "March through Georgia." Later on he 
was chief of staff to General Canby during the Mobile cam- 
paign and at the surrender of General Kirby Smith's army. 

Franz Sigel, who in 1 848 had been general of a revolution- 
ary army in Baden, was at the outbreak of the Civil War a 
citizen of St. Louis. During the occupation of the arsenal 
and the capture of Camp Jackson he was one of the leaders. 
These feats accomplished, he fought as commander of several 
regiments and batteries in Missouri and gained on March 6, 
1862, with General Curtis against overwhelming forces the 
glorious victory at Pea Ridge, Arkansas. The battle lasted for 
three days. The decision came, when Sigel ordered his regi- 
ments to fall back behind the lines of artillery, as if preparing 
for retreat, while the artillery fired only blank shots, as if short 


of ammunition. Deceived by the ruse, the Confederates, sure 
of victory, advanced in close formation. But at once Sigel's 
regiments re-entered their positions between the batteries and, 
supported by the heavy guns, opened a rapid fire on the 
enemies, who thus surprised, were thrown into confusion. At 
this moment Sigel's cavalry dashed amidst their lines, slashing 
down all who had been spared by the bullets. 

(Modelled by Karl Bitter). 

Promoted to the rank of major-general, Sigel afterwards 
was ordered to Virginia. At Bull Run he commanded the 
right wing of Pope's 1st army corps and won on August 29 
a decided advantage over Jackson. This success, though, 
was fruitless, as on the following day Pope's regiments were 
defeated by the enemy's forces, vastly superior in number. 
Sigel covered the retreat in masterly fashion, preventing a 
general rout. 


After this battle Sigel commanded several army-corps in 
Pennsylvania, suffered at New Market a defeat by over- 
whelming forces, but made good again by repelling obstinate 
attacks on Harper's Ferry and the Maryland Heights. 

Like all other German officers Sigel was greatly hampered 
by the petty jealousy and disdain of the American comrades 
in arms. Especially reprehensible in this regard was the 
conduct of those who were graduates of West Point. Of 
this circumstance Lieutenant-Colonel Hamlin, the historian of 
the 1 1 th army-corps, in one of his works records a bitter 
complaint. Sigel felt himself in his operations so much hindered 
by such jealous men, that he resigned in May 1 865 and 
returned to private life. 

Similar were the experiences of Carl Schurz, who had been 
appointed brigadier-general in the army of the Potomac, 
which, however, in consequence of a continual change of 
commanders-in-chief, one unfit man following on the heels of 
another, went from defeat to defeat. The most serious were 
those at Bull Run, Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville. At 
Chancellorsville the division of Schurz, together with those 
of Adolf von Steinwehr and General Devens, formed the 1 1 th 
corps, which under command of General Howard, held the 
right wing of General Hooker's army. In the morning of 
May 2, 1863, Schurz, Steinwehr and other German officers 
discovered that the enemy, feigning a retreat, was preparing 
to turn the right wing of the Federal army. Without loss of 
time Schurz and Steinwehr informed headquarters of these 
suspicious movements, urgently requesting leave to take timely 
counter-action. But Hooker, believing that the enemy was in 
full retreat, did nothing to protect the threatened wing. 
Schurz now on his own responsibility ordered his regiments to 
take up positions fronting toward the West, from where he 
anticipated an attack. It came at 5 o'clock in the afternoon, 
when suddenly 18,000 Confederates, commanded by the able 
General Stonewall Jackson, burst from the forests and over- 
ran the division of General Devens. It was swept away in 
wild disorder, threatening to carry with it the German regi- 
ments. These, however, only 3000 strong, made the most 
strenuous efforts to stem the assault. It was pending these 
efforts that Colonel Friedrich Hecker, one of the men of 1848, 
was wounded seriously as he led his troops to a charge, carry- 
ing the flag of his 82d Illinois Regiment in hand. The situation 
became still more critical when the enemies appeared also 
in the rear, compelling the Germans to withdraw to better 
positions. But here their resistance was so obstinate, that the 
further advance of the Confederates came to a standstill. 

Among the officers, who fought here like heroes, were 
Colonel Buschbeck, and Captain Hubert Dilger, whose battery 


was most effectual in blocking Stonewall Jackson, who for- 
feited his own life for his victory. 

The German regiments of Schurz and von Steinwehr held 
also in the battle at Gettysburg the most exposed positions, 
namely on the famous Cemetery Ridge, the strategic import- 
ance of which Steinwehr had first recognized. The battle, 
the bloodiest of the whole war, lasted for three days and 
culminated on July 3, 1863 in a grand assault by the Con- 

The prelude to this attack was a bombardment from 145 
heavy guns, which blazed forth like so many volcanoes. 
The air seemed full of missiles from every direction, their 
explosions enveloping Cemetery Ridge in clouds of smoke 
and poisonous gases. The terrific fire, answered by 1 00 guns, 
lasted for two long hours. Then suddenly emerged from 
the forests 15,000 Confederates, rank upon rank in gray, with 
shining bayonets, a never-to-be-forgotten sight. Approaching 
in double-quick pace, they reached in spite of the volleys of 
the Union soldiers the positions of the latter, and now a 
desperate struggle ensued man against man, during which the 
mutilated bodies of human beings and horses towered to heaps 
and hills. But the furious onslaught shattered on the heroic 
resistance of the defenders of Cemetery Ridge. The Con- 
federates were thrown back with fearful loss in utter dissolu- 
tion and compelled to retreat to Virginia, having lost more 
than 30,000 in killed, wounded and prisoners. The loss of the 
Federals amounted to 23,000. 

Schurz, Osterhaus and Steinwehr participated also in Sher- 
man's march to Georgia and fought with distinction in the 
battles at Tunnel Hill, Buzzards Roost, Dalton, Resaca, Mari- 
etta and Atlanta. 

Many were the skirmishes and engagements of minor 
importance in which it fell to the lot of the German soldiers 
to bear the brunt of battle. In what esteem their bravery was 
held by friend and foe, may appear from the following two 
episodes. When on June 7, 1862, the soldiers of General 
James Shield during the campaign in the Luray Valley com- 
plained of the hardships they had to endure, he answered, 
"The Germans are not half as well off as you are, but they 
hang on the enemy without respite." And General Lee, the 
commander-in-chief of the Confederate army, is reported, on 
best authority, to have exclaimed: "Take only these Dutch out 
of the Union army, and we will whip the Yankees easily." 
A testimonial of great weight is also the splendid work on 
"The Battle of Chancellorsville" by Augustus Choate Hamlin, 
lieutenant-colonel and medical inspector of the U. S. army. 
Of the major-generals and generals, born in Germany, 
several fell. The brilliant career of Heinrich von Bohlen 
ended on August 22, 1862, in the battle at Rappahannock 


River, while leading his troops to attack. Adolf Engelmann 
and Julius Raith were killed in April 1862 at Shiloh; Johann 
Koltes died on August 30, 1862, in the battle at Bull Run. 
Franz Hassendeubel was mortally wounded during the siege 
of Vicksburg and died July 16, 1863. Hugo Wangelin lost 
at Ringgold his left arm, but after his recovery reported again 
for service and did valuable work in Georgia and Missouri. 
Max Weber was wounded in the battle at Antitam so seriously, 
that he had to quit service. The number of colonels, majors 
and other officers of German origin, who died on the battle- 
field, runs up to several hundred, that of the soldiers to many 
thousands. Almost all German regiments suffered terrific 
losses. The Sigel Rifles, forming the 5 2d regiment of New 
York, returned in October 1864 under command of Major 
Retzius with only 5 officers and 35 men. Brought up once 
more to its original strength of 2800 men, it came back at 
the end of the war only 200 strong. Of the 1200 United 
Turner Rifles only 462 returned; of the 1046 men of the 
De-Kalb regiment only 1 80. 

So the history of the Civil War exhibits abundant evidence, 
that the German-Americans offered readily blood and life for 

the preservation of the Union. 

* * * * 

Many officers of German stock fought also with great 
distinction in the numerous Indian wars. The best known is 
General George A. Custer, whose ancestor, a Hessian 
soldier, was paroled in 1778 after Burgoyne's surrender at 
Saratoga. His name, Kuester, hard to pronounce for English 
tongues, was, like so many others, changed to a form of easier 
pronunciation. Custer was a graduate of West Point. As a 
commander of cavalry divisions he fought in many battles 
of the Civil War, and was appointed brigadier-general for 
gallantry. With great distinction he served in several cam- 
paigns against the Indians. But on June 26, 1876, when he 
with 250 men dashed into overwhelming masses of Sioux 
Indians, he became surrounded. In the desperate battle Custer 
as well as his brother, First Lieutenant Thomas Custer, and 
all soldiers were massacred to the last man. The fight is 
known as the Custer-massacre at the Little Big Horn River, 


* * * * 

Of German origin too, was Admiral Winfield Scott Schley, 
the hero of the great naval battle at Santiago de Cuba. 

The first American ancestor of the Schleys was Johann 
Thomas Schley, a German schoolmaster, who in 1 745 erected 
the first house in Frederick, Maryland. Many of his descend- 
ents became prominent in public life; but none of them rose 
to such fame as our admiral, who was born near Frederick 
October 9, 1839. A graduate of the U. S. Naval Academy 


at Annapolis, he took part in many engagements during the 
Civil War. In 1871 he participated also in the attack on the 
forts at the Salu River in Corea. 

In 1 884 he commanded a relief-expedition, sent out to 
find the Arctic explorer A. W. Greely, whose whereabouts 
were unknown. Schley succeeded in discovering him and six 
other survivors at Cape Sabine. All were in the very last 
stage of starvation. But by utmost care it was possible to 
keep the explorers alive and bring them back to the United 

During the Spanish-American War of 1898, when Spain 
sent out a fleet of four cruisers and three destroyers, Schley 
was placed in command of the "Flying Squadron," which 
was dispatched to ward the hostile fleet off the coast of the 
United States and to prevent the same from reaching Havana 
along the north coast of Cuba. Admiral Sampson at the 
same time received orders, to close with a strong fleet the 
Channel of Yucatan. Deficiency in coal had compelled the 
Spanish fleet to seek refuge in the harbor of Santiago de 
Cuba. Here it remained, till forced by a strong American land 
army to leave this retreat. The sally occurred on July 3, at a 
time, when Schley happened to be in immediate command of 
his "Flying Squadron" as well as of the fleet of Sampson, 
who with one of his vessels was absent. The Spanish cruisers, 
followed by the destroyers, left the harbor in full speed, to 
make good their escape. But the American vessels kept close 
at their heels, opening at the same time a bombardment with 
their heavy guns. One after another the Spanish cruisers, hit 
by shells, caught fire and were run ashore by their crews, 
only to become total wrecks. 2000 of the crews, among 
them Admiral Cervera, were made prisoners. The news of 
the great victory reached the United States on the morning of 
the Fourth of July. 

Never before, perhaps, was the great national holiday 
celebrated with such overwhelming enthusiasm. 

Leaders in Agriculture, Industry and 

Great as were the services rendered to this country by 
German Americans in times of war and in political progress, 
these cannot be compared with the mighty impulse given to 
American culture. Everywhere about us in the United States 
can be found lasting evidence of the development wrought 
by their hands. 

Viewing the hundreds of thousands who with their fellow 
citizens of native or alien birth marched into the virgin wilder- 
ness of the New World, we see them transforming the former 
abodes of beasts and Indians into fruitful lands and pleasant 
homesteads. Numerous States, especially Pennsylvania, New 
York, New Jersey, Maryland, the Virginias, Ohio, Indiana* 
Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, the Dakotas, Iowa, 
Nebraska, Missouri, Kansas, California, Oregon and Washing- 
ton owe their prosperity essentially to the Germans. As agri- 
culturists they won the admiration of all their neighbors. The 
comparative meagreness of the soil of their fatherland taught 
them to take care of their farms in a wise and economical way. 
They never fell into the habit of abusing the soil, which, as 
shown by many examples, in the New England States and 
in other parts of the country, results eventually in soil- 
exhaustion and the abandonment of farms. Whoever visits 
the beautiful counties of Pennsylvania, settled by the so-called 
Pennsylvania Dutch, must agree that farms in better condition 
than those which exist there cannot be found. And these 
farms are still inhabited by the descendants of the early Ger- 
man settlers, who attained prosperity by diligence and rational 

The great importance of the Germans in American agricul- 
ture is best seen by the census of 1900, showing that in this 
year 525,250 farms, or 10.6 per cent, of all farms in the 
United States were in German hands and that 41.3 per cent, 
of the whole farming population were Germans. These num- 
bers include, however, not the farms owned by Americans 
of German stock. 

Among the German farms of the Western and Northwestern 
states many embrace enormous stretches of land. To fence 
for instance the wheat fields owned by Johann P. Vollmer in 
Idaho, 250 miles of wire are required. Similar big farms are 
owned bv A. L. Stuntz in Idaho; S. A. Knapp in Iowa; John 
Dern in Nebraska, and others. 


German influence on development in American agriculture 
during the 1 8th century has been sketched briefly in a former 
chapter. To the Germans is attributed by Rush the distinction 
of being the first to use artificial fertilizer. 

Johann Schwerdkopf was the first who grew strawberries 
by the acres on Long Island and provided with these luxurious 
fruits the markets of New York. Other Germans, as Thomas 
Echelburger in York, Pa.; the Rappists of Harmony, Indiana; 
Martin Baurn in Cincinnati ; George Husmann, Michael Poschel, 
Hermann Burkhardt in Missouri and many others followed 
the example of the settlers of Germantown and began to culti- 
vate grapes in different parts of the United States. 

The Germans were instrumental also in establishing the 
culture of vine, oranges, lemons, apricots, pears, apples, 
prunes, cherries, figs, and many other fruits in California and 
elsewhere. They also introduced the sugar-beet, the culture 
of which has in recent years grown in many states to immense 

For the scientific development of agriculture the works of 
Eugene Woldernar Hilgard became of greatest importance. 
This man was born in 1 833 in the Palatinate, but was brought 
by his father at an early age to Belleville, Illinois, the center 
of the "Latin Settlements." Later on Hilgard studied in Ger- 
many, then became a professor of geology and agricultural 
chemistry at the University of California and director of the 
State Agricultural Station. In this position he devoted his 
efforts to the utilization of the arid deserts of California and 
Arizona, and succeeded in transforming many of them into 
fertile regions. Of his literary works his book on "Soils," 
published in 1906, is one of greatest value among writings on 
this subject. 

A similar position as that of Hilgard was held for many 
years by Charles A. Goessmann, a native of Naumburg, Ger- 
many. He has been director of the Massachusetts Agricultural 
Experiment Station and professor of chemistry in the Massa- 
chusetts Agricultural State College. George Ellwanger, a native 
of Wiirtemberg, founded in 1839 in Rochester, N. Y., a 
nursery in fruit- and ornamental trees, which in time became 
the most famous in America and a model-institution for others. 

Forestry was also taken up by the Germans. George H. 
Wirt, Samuel Pennypacker, John Frederick Hartranft and 
Carl Schurz called the attention of the American nation to the 
heavy sin, committed by the thoughtless or covetous destruc- 
tion of the forests, of which many had disappeared entirely. 
At first, people would laugh about the "German idealists," 
but soon they became aware, that these were right. The 
reports Schurz had made to Congress on this subject were 
remembered, and when at the same time Baron von Steuben, 
a Prussian high-forester and a relative of Major-General von 


Steuben, visited the United States and called attention to the 
rapid decline of her forests, public interest on the question 
was aroused. On suggestion of Bernhard E. Fernow, a prac- 
tical forester, in 1 882 an American Forestry Congress was 
called to meet in Cincinnati, resulting in the organization of 
the American Forestry Association. Through the agitation 
of this society the Department of Agriculture as well as numer- 
ous states and universities were induced to establish schools 
of forestry, which promise to become a real blessing to our 

The custom of the Germans, to beautify their homesteads 
with trees and flowers, led to horticulture, which is still a 
specialty with the German Americans. Many of the most 
beautiful parks and cemeteries of the United States were 
planned by German landscape gardeners. Of these one of 
the most successful was Adolf Strauch, a native of Silesia. 
His training he received from the famous landscape gardener 
of the Imperial parks at Schoenbrunn and Laxenburg, near 
Vienna. While visiting America in 1854, he was induced to 
design the plans for several private parks near Cincinnati. 
His greatest work was the Spring Grove Cemetery of the same 
city, an artistic combination of park and burial ground. A 
complete artistic success when finished, Spring Grove Cemetery 
served as a model for many other cemeteries, among them 
Woodlawn, New York; Crown Hill, Indianapolis; and others 
in Chicago, Nashville, Detroit, Cleveland, Buffalo, Hartford, 
etc. In laying out the world-known Central Park of New York 
in 1859, Germans performed by far the largest share. 

In the manufacturing of food products the German 
Americans have long been in the lead. The American Cereal- 
or Quaker Oats Company in Akron, Ohio, was organized by 
Ferdinand Schumacher, a Hanoveranian. The Havemeyers 
in New York and the Spreckels in San Francisco made them- 
selves the chief factors in the American sugar industry. The 
former became the sugar-kings of the East and organized the 
American Sugar Refining Company, better known as the Sugar 
Trust, who commanded in 1900 a capital of more than 
$150,000,000 and occupied in its twenty refineries and many 
offices more than 20,000 people, while other 1 0,000 were kept 
busy in the barrel-factories, in shipping and other work. 

The Spreckels monopolized the whole sugar production west 
of the Mississippi. When Claus Spreckels, the founder of the 
Company, died in 1908, he left a fortune of more than 60 
million dollars. 

The H. J. Heinz Company in Pittsburg, founded by Heinrich 
J. Heinz, a Pennsylvania German, is known throughout the 
United States for their "5 7 varieties" of preserved fruits and 
vegetables. Its plants cover an area of more than 1 60 city 
lots; in addition branches are maintained in other states as 


well as in Canada and Spain. The products of more than 
30,000 acres flow into the different factories, which keep 
4000 persons permanently busy, while at the time of gathering 
in the crops about 40,000 people are employed. A rival firm 
in the preserving and pickling business is that of the Lutz & 
Schramm Company, also in Pittsburgh. Other well-known 
pickling establishments are the J. O. Schimmel Preserving 
Company of Jersey City, and the Bosnian & Lohman Company 
at Norfolk, Va. 

The most prominent firms in the production of bakers' and 
confectioners' supplies are also of German origin. William 
Ziegler, a Pennsylvania German, was the founder of the Royal 
Baking Powder Company in Chicago. John Valentine Hecker, 
member of the German firm Hecker Brothers, manufacturers 
of the Heckers' self-raising flour, effected a consolidation of 
the flour-mills of New York, called the Hecker-Jones-Jewell 
Milling Company, of which Hecker became president. 

Karl and Maximilian Fleischmann organized the Fleisch- 
mann Company, which is the most prominent concern among 
producers of yeast. 

In the coffee trade Hermann Sielcken made the importing 
firm of Crossman & Sielcken in New York one of the leading 
in America. 

In the production of beverages German Americans take the 
lead, — especially in the brewing industry, which grew to 
astonishing proportions through their energy. Beer had been 
brewed in America by the Dutch and English during the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries. In 1810 the whole output 
amounted to 182,000 barrels. This quantity increased to 
740,000 barrels in 1850. The brewers, up to that time exclu- 
sively Anglo-Americans, produced a heavy, very intoxicating 
beer similar to the English ale. In the place of this the Ger- 
mans introduced the lagerbeer, which contains much less 
alcohol and for this reason is more suited to the American 
climate. In time it displaced the ale almost entirely, incident- 
ally it helped greatly to lessen the consumption of whiskey and 
other liquors, in which the people of America were wont to 
indulge heavily in former times. And so the claim, that the 
introduction of the lagerbeer had beneficial effect upon the 
population in behalf of temperance, is, to some extent, justified. 

To what enormous proportions the brewing industry has 
been developed by the Germans is seen from the fact that at 
present the output of beer amounts to more than 66 million 
barrels per year. According to the census for 1910 in that 
year 54,5 79 workmen and 1 1,507 clerks were employed, who 
received in wages $64,000,000. The value of the capital 
invested in this industry amounted to $671,158,000, the 
value of material used to $96,596,000 and the value of the 
production to $374,730,000. The establishments of many of 


the large breweries, such as, for instance, of the Anheuser- 
Busch Brewing Association in St. Louis, the Pabst- and the 
Schlitz Breweries in Milwaukee, the Ehret- and the Ruppert 
Breweries in New York, and others rank among the industrial 
wonders of America. 

As tobacconists G. W. Gail and Christian Ax started in 
Baltimore the firm Gail & Ax, which was combined with the 
American Tobacco Company in 1 89 1 . The same city also is 
the seat of the great tobacco firm of Marburg Brothers. 

Among Americas great cattle-men Heinrich Miller, born 
1828 in Wiirtemberg, and Carl Lux from Baden became the 
most successful and the wealthiest. When they arrived in 
1 850 in New York, both were poor fellows. But they worked 
hard and had a keen sight for opportunities. In 1856 they 
began in California with cattle-raising. Providing the markets 
of San Francisco and other cities, they became not only the 
largest land-owners but also the greatest stock-owners in the 
Far West. In California they owned 800,000 acres, 80,000 
heads of cattle and 100,000 of sheep. Also they controlled 
extensive stretches of land and large herds in Oregon and 
Nevada. Other great stockmen of German descent are James 
C. Dahlman in Nebraska and S. A. Knapp in Iowa. 

Among the meat packing houses the firm of Schwarzschild 
& Sulzberger in New York ranks among the most important 
in America. Founded in 1853 by Ferdinand Sulzberger from 
Baden, it employs at present an army of 10,000 men, and 
its transactions amount to more than 100,000,000 dollars 

As tanners and manufacturers of leather German Americans 
have been very resourceful and are contributing a material 
share to the commerce of this country. One of the largest 
tanneries is that of the firm Robert H. Foerderer in Frankford, 
Pa. ; others are Pfister & Vogel, and Trostel & Zohrlant in 
Milwaukee, the Charles A. Schieren Co., Oscar Scherer & 
Bros., and Charles Hauselt in New York; Schoellkopf & Co. 
in Buffalo; Schmidt & Co. in Detroit; the Ruepping Leather 
Co. in Fond du Lac; C. Moench & Co. in Boston; the Wolff 
Process Leather Co. and the Keystone Leather Co. in Phila- 
delphia; Kaufherr & Co. and William Zahn in Newark. 

Of German origin is also the American Felt Company. 
Its large factories at Dolgeville, N. Y., were founded by Alfred 
Dolge, born 1 848 in Chemnitz, Saxony. He came to America 
in 1 869 and in the town, now bearing his name, began the 
manufacture of felt, especially of the material used in piano 
actions. In 1903 he organized in connection with H. E. Hun- 
tington extensive felt factories in New Dolgeville, Cal. 

That the Germans are entitled to the credit of having estab- 
lished the iron- and steel industries in America, has been shown 


in a former chapter. It may truly be said that they laid the 
foundation to the greatest steel corporation now existing. 

Andreas and Anton Klomann from Trier in Rhenish Prussia 
started in the middle of the 1 9th century in Pittsburgh a factory 
for the production of axles for railway cars. In forging these 
axles, they used a treatment invented by Andreas Klomann, 
which had so many advantages, that for their superior quality 
these axles were preferred by all railroads. Among the regular 
customers of the Klomanns was the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne 
and Chicago Railway Company, the purveyor of which, 
Thomas Miller, bought a share in the Klomann factories in 
1859. When the Civil War brought large orders, and, at the 
same time, an increase in the price for axles from two cents 
per pound to twelve cents, larger factories became necessary. 
At the same time the firm was made a corporation, known 
as the Iron City Forge Company. While its business flourished, 
the harmony among the partners, however, failed. First, 
Anton Klomann was bought out in 1863; the same happened 
to Andreas Klomann, when on May 2, 1 864, Andrew Carnegie 
entered as a member of the company. With the phenomenal 
growth of this enterprise came consolidations and several 
changes in name, first to Union Iron Mills Company, then to 
Carnegie Steel Company, and finally to United States Steel 

With the history of this concern the names of two Penn- 
sylvania Germans, Henry C. Frick and Charles M. Schwab 
are closely connected. Frick organized, besides, in 1 882 the 
Frick Coal and Coke Company, which is now the largest coke 
producer in the world, operating about 40,000 acres of coal 
and 12,000 coke ovens with a daily capacity of 25,000 tons 
of coke. 

Schwab became president of the Carnegie Steel Company 
in 1897. When the Carnegie interests were merged in the 
larger United States Steel Corporation in 1901, he became its 
first president, remaining until 1904, when he resigned, to 
become president of the Bethlehem Steel Corporation. 

Another German captain of American industries was 
Heinrich Wehrum, the creator of the great Lackawanna Iron 
and Steel Works at Buffalo and Seneca, N. Y. The name of 
F. Augustus Heinze, born in Brooklyn, N. Y., is inseparably 
connected with the history of the American copper industry. 
He was to his death president of the United Copper Company, 
which he had organized. Johann August Roebling, the famous 
bridge-builder, was the father of the great cable wire spinneries 
John A. Roeblings Sons Company at Trenton, N. J. 

Conspicuous is the record of Germans who founded car 
building factories of great magnitude. Johann Georg Brill, 
born in Cassel, created the J. G. Brill Company, whose estab- 
lishment in Philadelphia is unsurpassed in the production of 


electric street cars and trucks. The sons of the founder acquired 
many additional plants in Elizabeth, N. J. ; Springfield, Mass. ; 
Cleveland, O. ; Danville, 111. ; and St. Louis. 

J. H. Kobusch established an extensive concern in 1887 at 
St. Louis known as the St. Louis Car Company, which manu- 
factures street and railway cars. Webster Wagner, descending 
from a Palatine family in Palatine Bridge, N. Y., organized the 
Wagner Palace Car Company, whose excellent railway cars 
are unequalled for comfort and beauty. 

The largest vehicle factories of America, operated by the 
Studebaker Corporation in South Bend, Ind., and Detroit, 
Mich, are the crowning result of untiring work by five Penn- 
sylvania Germans, the Studebaker brothers, whose family name 
originally was Stutenbacker. Their annual output amounts at 
present to over 100,000 vehicles including more than 10,000 

In the manufacture of machinery German genius, capacity 
and efficiency have been so well exemplified that it becomes 
difficult to single out a branch wherein some German has not 
pointed the way. The Aultman & Miller Company in Canton 
and Akron, Ohio, started by descendents of Pennsylvania 
German families, was one of the foremost producers of agri- 
cultural machinery and has lately become a part of the great 
International Harvester Company. 

Large firms in the manufacture of agricultural implements 
were organized by Orendorff in Canton, 111., and by Weusthoff 
& Getz in Dayton, Ohio. 

Ferdinand Thun, a native of Barmen, Rhenish Prussia, 
founded the Textile Machine Works in Reading, Pa., whose 
output by its excellence has practically transplanted from 
Europe to America a number of industries which give bread 
to veritable armies of workmen. 

Peter Pauly founded in 1856 the Pauly Jail Building Com- 
pany in St. Louis, Mo., whose specialty is the construction and 
furnishing of jails and other houses of correction. At the same 
place Wilhelm and Friedrich Niedringhaus created the National 
Enameling and Stamping Company, which converts tinplates 
into products of endless variety. As producers of fine pottery 
and art tiles the plant of Balthasar Kreischer in Kreischersville, 
Staten Island, N. Y., is acknowledged to be the oldest and 
most extensive in the United States. 

As skillful cabinet makers the Germans have been renowned 
for centuries. Their handicraft has reared in the United States 
an industry of high order, giving employment to thousands 
and thousands of busy hands. Among the many firms, devoted 
to this industry, one of the most notable is the Dubuque 
Cabinet Makers Association, the founder and president of 
which is Richard Herrmann, born at Chemnitz, Saxony. 

In close relation with cabinet making is the manufacture 


of musical instruments. That Germans were the first who 
made organs and pianos in America, has been pointed out in 
a former chapter. That was during the 1 8th century. Since 
then this industry has been principally in the hands of Ger- 
mans. In 1833 Conrad Meyer constructed the first pianos with 
full iron frames. This innovation, made with regard to the 
peculiar climatic conditions of the Eastern United States, 
proved such a success, that it found acceptance also in all 
European countries. The 1 9th century saw the rise of a large 
number of manufacturers of pianos. Wilhelm Lindemann 
established in 1836 the firm Lindemann & Sons in New York. 
In the ensuing year Wilhelm Knabe started manufacturing in 
Baltimore with an ever growing plant, which in our days 
became the nucleus of the American Piano Company. In 1852 
Albert Weber founded the Weber Piano Company; in 1853 
Heinrich Engelhard Steinweg, assisted by his sons Karl, Hein- 
rich, Wilhelm, Theodor and Albert established the firm of 
Steinway & Sons, which at present produces not less than 
7000 pianos annually, and for the quality of its instruments 
gained the highest distinctions at the World's expositions held 
in America as well as in Europe. 

Kranich & Bach, Sohmer & Co., Decker & Son, Steck & 
Co., Strich & Zeidler in New York and many more in other 
cities may well inscribe their German names as a mark of merit 
upon their splendid instruments. 

The pioneer in making violins in America was Georg 
Gemiinder, born 1816 at Ingelfingen, Wurtemberg. The 
instruments made by him and his sons in Astoria, L. I., rival in 
their wonderful quality of tone the best found anywhere. 

What can be accomplished by energy, perseverance and 
technical skill is illustrated by the great success of German 
Americans in the various branches of the textile industry, par- 
ticularly in the Eastern parts of the United States. Thus guided 
are the Botany Worsted Mills, the Gera Mills and the Garfield 
Mills in Passaic, N. J., establishments engaged in making 
worsted goods. Likewise the Fern Rock Mills at Philadelphia. 
Wilhelm Horstmann, born 1 785 at Cassel, was the pioneer in 
American silk passamenterie. The concern in Philadelphia, 
which still bears his name, grew in time to be one of the largest 
in this country. 

Friedrich Baare established the silk spinneries in Schoharie, 
N. Y., and Paterson, N. J.; H. Schniewind those in Sunbury, 
Pa.; Robert Schwarzenbach those in Altoona, Pa., and the 
brothers Robert and Hermann Simon those in Union Hill, 
N. J., and Easton, Pa. Ludwig Sutro is the founder of the 
Sutro Bros. Braid Company in New York. Ferdinand Thun 
and Henry Janssen established the Berkshire Knitting Mills 
and the Narrow Fabric Company at Reading, Pa. At the 
same place are located also the great glove- and hosiery fac- 
tories of Nolde & Horst and E. Richard Meinig. 


With the great forward strides of chemistry in Germany 
the sons of the Fatherland in America are striving to keep 
pace. There is almost an endless list of firms engaged in the 
production of pharmaceutical preparations, of artificial fertil- 
izer or of colors for ceramics and the dyer's trade. Among 
such firms those of Roessler & Hasslacher, H. A. Metz & Co., 
Heller & Merz, Maas & Waldstein, Eimer & Amend in New 
York, Louis & Karl Dohme in Baltimore, Weightman & Rosen- 
garten in Philadelphia, Herf & Frerichs and the Mallinckrodt 
Chemical Works in St. Louis are regarded as the most 

The manufacturing of lead pencils was begun in 1 849 by 
Eberhard Faber, a member of the well-known Faber family 
in Niirnberg. The present factories of the firm are located 
in Greenpoint, L. I., and employ about 1000 men. A rival 
concern is the Eagle Pencil Company, organized in 1865 by 
Heinrich Berolzheimer. 

Foremost place in the production of scientific and optical 
apparatus is held by the firm Bausch & Lomb Optical Co. in 
Rochester, N. Y. The establishment was founded in 1853 by 
Johann Jakob Bausch, born July 25, 1830, in Wiirtemberg, 
and Heinrich Lomb, born November 24, 1828, in Hessen 
Cassel. To-day it ranks among the best in America and is 
unsurpassed for the quality of its products. 

As engravers in wood and copper many Germans have won 
distinction. While in the now abandoned art of wood engrav- 
ing Gustav Krull, Friedrich Jungling, Henry Wolf, Ernst 
Schladitz, William Miiller and others were perfect masters, 
Louis Prang in Boston was the pioneer and successful devel- 
oper of lithography in America. The most admirable of his 
reproductions were a set of views from the Yellowstone 
National Park, after water color paintings by Thomas Moran; 
a series of battle-scenes of the Civil War after paintings of 
famous masters; and reproductions of the most select Chinese 
ceramics in the William Th. Walters Collection at Baltimore. 

The well-known American Lithographic Company, the 
prominent lithographing firms of J. Ottmann and Julius Bien 
in New York, the Gugler Company in Milwaukee, the Hoen 
Company in Baltimore, the Goes Company in Chicago and 
many others were established by men of German origin. 

The same is true of the F. A. Ringler Company, in New 
York, which is one of the largest institutions for designing, 
photo-engraving and electrotyping. The founder, F. A. Ring- 
ler, was born 1852 at Friedwald, Hesse-Cassel. 

Of the men, who became widely known for their organizing 
talents and as leaders of American industries, several are of 
German origin. Friedrich Weyerhauser, born 1834 in Nieder- 
Saulheim in Hessen, rose from the owner of a small saw-mill 
to be a ruler in the American lumber business. Having control 


over the Weyerhauser Syndicate, he was commonly known as 
the "Lumber-king" and it was said of him that his fortune 
even surpassed that of John D. Rockefeller. This monarch of 
the Standard Oil Company also acknowledged German origin. 
His American ancestor, Johann Peter Rockefeller (Roggen- 
f elder) came in 1 735 from Bonefeld in Rhenish Prussia and 
is buried at Larrison Corners, N. J. John Wannamaker, 
descending from a Pennsylvania German family Wannen- 
macher, is known as the originator of the modern department 
store. Having opened in 1861 a small store in Philadelphia, 
he managed by the reliability of his goods to secure public 
attention to his store in such a degree, that he soon could open 
in Philadelphia as well as in New York establishments on the 
grandest scale, the transactions amounting to millions in every 
month. The so-called department stores became the models 
for countless similar institutions in almost every American and 
European city. 

To the list of such leaders of industry the names of many 
other men might be added, who at the helm of great corpora- 
tions and enterprises have built for themselves enviable reputa- 
tions by upholding German traditions of business probity. In 
conclusion it should be stated, that this chapter intends to 
convey only some idea of the enormous activity of men of 
German birth or lineage in the agricultural, industrial and 
commercial life of the United States. To do justice to all 
entitled to have their achievements recorded in this connection, 
would be an undertaking far beyond the possibilities of this 

The North American Turner Bund 

and Its Influence on the Physical 

Development of the 

American Nation. 

When in the years 1810 and 1811 the nations of Europe 
longed to throw off the heavy yoke of Napoleon I., Germany 
possessed among her patriots a man, who recognized the 
necessity of preparing the people systematically for the great 
coming struggle. This man was Dr. Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, 
a native of the province Brandenburg, Prussia. To make the 
German youth capable of bearing arms and to harden them 
for the imminent war of liberation, he resolved to introduce 
gymnastic exercises among his students and to infuse them at 
the same time with a patriotic love for freedom. In the spring 
of 1811, Jahn opened in the Hasenheide near Berlin the first 
public "Turnplatz," where 500 young students responded to 
his call and indulged in gymnastic exercises under his direc- 
tion. In spite of the freedom he accorded his scholars, Jahn 
was, however, a stern disciplinarian in many other respects, 
and compelled them to maintain good order and to observe 
good manners. 

Aided by men of like sympathies Jahn founded in the same 
year the "Deutsche Bund," an organization, the members of 
which were drawn from students of all German universities. 
In this way the great movement spread over all Germany. 
Everywhere the young men banded together for patriotic 
motives and formed gymnastic societies. 

In what enthusiastic manner these Turners responded to 
the call to arms in 1813, and how great their part was in 
the liberation of Germany, are facts well known to every 
student of history. 

Three disciples of Jahn, namely Carl Beck, Carl Follen, 
and Franz Lieber, introduced Jahn's system of physical train- 
ing to the United States and incorporated it in the liberal 
education of the colleges and universities. Supported by 
John G. Coffin, John C. Warren, George Bancroft, Daniel 
Webster and J. G. Cogswell, the Germans established in 1826 
at Harvard University, in Boston and Northampton, Mass., 
the first gymnasiums in America based on Jahn's models. 
Beck also translated Jahn's book "Deutsche Turnkunst" into 


English and published it in Northampton. Also through public 
lectures the three pioneers of gymnastics made it clear, that 
for a republic the advantages of such exercises consist in that 
they unite the different elements of the people in common 
activity and bring classes into close contact, which by their 
different education and mode of life would otherwise remain 
apart. Furthermore, they stated that the American climate 
with its sudden changes, the easiness of travel without physical 
strain, the free institutions and the dependency of the country 
on the great masses of the people in case of war demand 
gymnasiums. "For a time," so Dr. Warren of Harvard stated, 
"the introduction of gymnastic exercises throughout the country 
promised to be the beginning of a new epoch of education. 
As long as they charmed by their novelty these exercises were 
pursued with zest, but since their value and importance was 
not generally understood, they were gradually neglected, and 
finally forgotten. However, tho results which these institutions 
accomplished excelled in my opinion, the most extravagant 

The movement came to new life again when the great tide 
of the Men of 1848 flowed into this country; these hundreds 
of thousands of enthusiastic young men, who bore in their 
breasts the famous motto of the German Turners: "Frisch! 
Fromm! Frohlich! Frei!" and were convinced, that a sound 
body is the necessary preliminary condition for a sound mind. 

Eager to conserve their own elasticity and to bequeath to 
their children the physical and ethical education they had 
received in the fatherland, these men organized everywhere 
gymnastic societies, the "Turn-Vereine." The first, established 
in November 1 848, was the Cincinnati Turngemeinde, which 
still exists. The New York Turngemeinde was organized in 
the same year and was followed soon by numerous others, 
which in 1850 centralized in the "North American Turner- 
bund" or "The Gymnastic Union." Its societies endeavor 
to extend the practice of physical training to all without dis- 
crimination as to age or sex. The boy, the man, the girl, the 
woman, even the father and mother, are not merely tolerated, 
but are urged to participate in the gymnastic exercises of the 
society. According to the statistics, compiled January 1, 1915, 
the Union is composed of 2 1 8 societies and a membership 
of 37,941. The enrollment in the various gymnasium classes 
was as follows: 4989 Seniors; 3090 Juniors; 2502 Business 
Men; 7198 Women; 9264 Boys; 7958 girls. The singing 
and dramatic sections had 2286 members and the women's 
section 6770. In all the Union had 54,999 members over 14 
years, and 17,322 members under 14 years. 

Many of the societies also maintain elementary schools, 
freehand and mechanical drawing schools, schools for the 
study of German, and girls' industrial schools. From time to 


time they also arrange free lectures and sessions, in which 
topics of common interest are discussed. By holding occa- 
sionally gymnastic festivals, the attention of the public is kept 
alive. Every four years the Union arranges national festivals 
with competitive gymnastics between the societies. At such 
festivals often more than 3000 active turners participated. 
They always aroused such interest, that the practice of the 
German system of physical training was gradually taken up 
by all large cities in the land. 

But the Union was not satisfied with these results. 

When in 1 880 the Turnerbund held a convention at Indian- 
apolis, the suggestion was made to introduce physical training 
into the public schools. "We could not conceive of a more 
beautiful gift," said the first speaker of the executive commit- 
tee, "than this to bestow upon the American people. It seems 
to me that this should be a worthy enterprise, for whosoever 
has conquered the youth has gained the future." After this 
proposition had been accepted, every favorable opportunity 
presenting itself was used to petition boards of education to 
introduce gymnastics. Always ready to co-operate with school 
boards, the turner societies often gave their teachers gratu- 
itously for years, in order to let results convince skeptical 
school boards of the value of school gymnastics. 

From the annual report of the Turnerbund for the year 1914 
it appears, that gymnastics were introduced into the schools 
of 76 cities either by the direct efforts of the Turner societies 
of these cities or through the efforts of the district organiz- 
ations. Many colleges and universities, also the Military 
Academy at West Point and the Naval Academy at Annapolis 
joined the movement, engaging mostly teachers which had 
received their physical training at the training school, the 
Union maintains since a number of years in Indianapolis. 
In nearly all of these institutions the participation in the exer- 
cises is obligatory. 

As the activity of the North American Gymnastic Union 
extends now over a period of more than 66 years, it is clear 
that many millions of American children, men and women 
have profited greatly by these exercises. As they improved 
in body as well as in spirit, the whole nation gained immensely. 

That the German turners belong to the most loyal citizens 
of the Union, they demonstrated, as has been told in another 
chapter, by their participation in the Civil War, during which 
they fought with heroic enthusiasm for the preservation of 
our Union. 

From all these facts it appears, that the German Turners 
have contributed their share toward the cultural development 
of the American nation. 


The Influence of German Learning and 

Methods on Education in the 

United States. 

Germany is proverbially known as the land of great think- 
ers, philosophers and scholars. Through many centuries her 
brightest intellects have been at work perfecting her educa- 
tional institutions. From an experience covering a period of 
over a thousand years of indefatigable research and discrim- 
inative investigation, have been evolved superior methods of 
instruction which cannot but present the highest standards of 
thoroughness and efficiency. 

This ardent love for science, characteristic of the German 
nation, distinguished also many of those Germans, who in 
Colonial times made America their home. Numerous teachers 
were amongst them, as for instance Johann Thomas Schley, 
the ancestor of the family of which Admiral Schley was a dis- 
tinguished member. Another of such teachers was Christoph 
Dock, who for his excellent methods of teaching has been 
called "the American Pestalozzi" and whose work on peda- 
gogics, written in 1 754, was the first published on this subject 
in America. 

The value of these methods was appreciated by no one 
more than Benjamin Franklin, in whose printing office many 
of the schoolbooks used by the Germans were printed. 
Having become acquainted on a trip through Germany with 
the splendid institutions of the university at Goettingen, he 
gave the impulse to a transformation of the Public Academy 
of Philadelphia into a seat of learning along corresponding 
lines, creating an institution, out of which developed the 
present University of Pennsylvania. At his request this 
university opened a department for German language and 
literature. Franklin also donated $1000 to the Franklin High 
School, which was established by the Germans in Lancaster, 
Pa., and exists still to-day. 

Among many other schools, maintained by the Germans, 
a seminary for female teachers existed in Bethlehem, Pa. How 
far ahead on the subject of women's education were the views 
of these Germans over those of the Puritans in New England, 
may be judged from the fact, that, when a proposition was 
made in 1 793 to establish a similar seminary in Plymouth, 
Mass., this project was defeated as undesirable on the ground 
"that in such a school women might become more learned 
than their future husbands!" 


A more liberal spirit took place in the New England States, 
when during the first half of the 1 9th century many Americans 
of high standing went to Germany, to complete their studies. 
Among these men were Emerson, Longfellow, Bancroft, 
Everett, Curtis, Ticknor, and the noted pedagogues Griscom 
of New York, Bache from Philadelphia, and Stowe from Ohio, 
who travelled to Europe to study the methods of teaching. 
To these visitors referred Professor Charles W. Eliot, Presi- 
dent Emeritus of Harvard University, when he, at a banquet 
given on May 9, 1913, by the German Publication Society, 
responded to the toast "The Debt of America to Germany." 
He said : 

"The educational obligations of America to Germany are 
indeed wide and deep. They relate to literature, science, 
art, education, and religion. The German gifts were first 
communicated through a few young pioneers from America, 
who, after having received a partial education here, went over 
to Germany to study more deeply and intensively. The 
universities to which these American students resorted in the 
early part of the 19th century were in part recent creations, 
and in part reconstructions on old foundations; but how rich 
they were, how free, and how strong! — The American 
pioneers brought back various knowledges, various skills, and 
many pregnant doctrines. The variety of knowledge and 
skill which could be procured at the German universities at 
that early day was something astounding to these American 
youths, something indescribably rich and various. With their 
own personal experiences and gains they brought back also 
to America the structure of the modern German university, 
then young in Germany and in America not yet conceived of. 
They had, moreover, absorbed that noble German policy of 
academic freedom, freedom for the student and the teacher 
alike. This academic freedom meant emancipation from 
tradition and prejudice, and from authority, whether govern- 
mental or ecclesiastical. They saw, also, how two great 
doctrines which had sprung from the German Protestant 
Reformation had been developed by Germans from seed then 
planted in Germany. The first was the doctrine of universal 
education, developed from the Protestant conception of indi- 
vidual responsibility; and the second was the great doctrine 
of civil liberty, liberty in industries, in society, in government, 
liberty with order under law. These two principles took their 
rise in Protestant Germany; and America has been the great- 
est beneficiary of that noble teaching. 

The pioneers from New England in the first half of the 19th 
century have been followed by a stream of American youth, 
going over to enlarge their experiences, to make new observa- 
tions, to put in practice the inductive method of arriving at 
the truth, and to learn to think profoundly and accurately in 


the German universities. That stream has flowed backward 
all over this country, fertilizing it with German thought and 
German methods. These thousands of American students 
have absorbed in Germany that splendid spirit of scientific 
research now developed in all fields of knowledge on the same 
method and in the same spirit. Scientific research has been 
learned through practice in Germany by thousands of American 
students and teachers. It is impossible to describe or even 
imagine what an immense intellectual gift this has been from 
Germany to America. For this perfected spirit and method 
of research America is more indebted to Germany than to 
any other nation, because the range of German research has 
been wider and deeper than has been seen in any other nation. 

There is another bond of union between Germany and 
America. The Teutonic peoples set a higher value on truth 
in speech, thought and action than any other peoples. They 
all love truth; they seek it; they woo it. They respect the 
man who speaks and acts the truth even to his own injury. 
The English Bacon said of truth: "It is the sovereign good 
of human nature." That is what all the Teutonic peoples 
believe. They want to found their action on facts, not fancy; 
on truth, the demonstrated truth, not on imagination. I say 
that here is a fine bond of union, a real likeness of spirit, a 
community in devotion and worship among the Teutonic 
peoples. Let us hope that at no distant day this common 
worship, this common devotion, will result in common benefi- 
cent action." — 

Of Germans, appointed as teachers at American colleges 
and universities, Karl Beck, Karl Follen and Franz Lieber, 
spoken of in former chapters, were the first. As among their 
pupils we read the names of A. P. Peabody, Longfellow, 
Emerson, and Margaret Fuller. When Follen in 1825 opened 
the first class at Harvard for German language and literature, 
there were no German books procurable, and so Follen was 
obliged to compile text books of his own. Peabody in his 
"Reminiscences" says about it: "The German Reader for 
Beginners, compiled by our teacher, was furnished to the 
class in single sheets as it was needed, and was printed in 
Roman type, there being no German type within easy reach. 
There could not have been a happier introduction to German 
literature than this little volume. It contained choice extracts 
in prose, and poems from Schiller, Goethe, Herder, and 
several other poets of kindred if inferior fame. But in the 
entire volume Dr. Follen rejoiced especially in several battle- 
pieces from Korner, the soldier and martyr of liberty. I never 
have heard recitations which have impressed me so strongly 
as the reading of those pieces by Dr. Follen, who would put 
into them all the heart and soul that had made him too much 
a lover of his country to be suffered to dwell in it. He 


appended to the other poems, anonymously, a death-song 
in memory of Korner, which we all knew to be his own, and 
which we read so often and so feelingly, that it sank indelibly 
into permanent memory; and I find that after an interval of 
sixty years it is as fresh in my recollection as the hymns that 
I learned in my childhood." — 

It was only a few years later, that a number of eminent 
American schoolmen, among them Horace Mann from Massa- 
chusetts, went to Europe for the special purpose of studying 
the methods of education in the different countries. Their 
reports, together with the work on Prussian schools, by the 
French professor Victor Cousin proved to be of enormous 
influence in matters of education and led in 1 837 to the estab- 
lishment of the University of Michigan, planned and patterned 
entirely after German ideas. 

To a like extent at the foundation of Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity in Baltimore the principles of German universities were 
adopted, among them freedom from all denominational influ- 
ences; high standards and high ideals; encouragement in every 
manner of the spirit of research in creation of a school for 
post-graduate studies, etc. Of the earlier members of the 
faculty nearly all had received their degrees at German uni- 

The example, set by Johns Hopkins University, was fol- 
lowed by the University of Chicago, Leland Stanford Univer- 
sity in San Francisco, Harvard University in Cambridge, Yale 
University in New Haven, Columbia University in New York, 
and by many others since. 

To make her system of education accessible to the study 
of all American pedagogues, Germany presented it at the 
world's expositions at Chicago and St. Louis in the most com- 
prehensive manner, hoping to perform herewith an act of true 
friendship toward a young nation, to which it had contributed 
so many of her own children. — 

By calling prominent German professors to occupy chairs 
at American universities, German influence on education 
has been greatly heightened. At Harvard University on insti- 
gation of Kuno Francke, professor of German language and 
literature, a Germanic Museum has been established, which 
aims by means of excellent casts, engravings, drawings, and 
photographs to acquaint the American student with the best 
specimens of German art and craft. Another excellent innova- 
tion was suggested by the same scholar in 1902. He proposed 
a regular system of mutual exchange of professors between 
German and American universities in every branch of science, 
in order to effect by the interchange of thought, ideas and 
opinions, resulting from such direct intercourse, a more intimate 
fusion of the learning of the German and the American people, 
as well as a more fraternal feeling between them. He expected 


that this would be brought about by the greater number of 
students who would be thus afforded an opportunity of com- 
ing into close contact with the most eminent scholars of both 

This plan, greatly encouraged by Emperor William II. as 
well as by President Roosevelt, was taken up first in America 
by Harvard, later on by Columbia and other universities. 
Carried on from 1904 to 1914, it was crowned with excellent 
results, for in America as well as in Germany thousands of 
students, teachers, professors, journalists, statesmen, merchants 
and industrial workers, all desirous of learning, listened to 
these emissaries of a friendly nation. Among the notable 
German scientists, who thus came to America, were the pro- 
fessors Kiihnemann, Ostwald, Penck, Clements, Lamprecht, 
Dahnel, Schumacher and others; among the American profes- 
sors, who visited Germany, were Burgess, Peabody, Richards, 
Smith, Adler and others. That this friendly intercourse 
between the two great nations has been interrupted, is one 
of the many unfortunate results of the European war. 

The influence of German methods of education extended 
also to the lowest grades in schooling, to the kindergarten. 
This institution, founded by Friedrich Frobel, was first brought 
over to America by the followers of Friedrich Rapp, the 
sectarian who founded the communistic society New Harmony 
in Indiana. The kindergarten of this community was started 
in 1826. The next ones were attempted by Caroline Franken- 
berg in Columbus, Ohio, and by the wife of Carl Schurz in 
Watertown, Wisconsin. Others rapidly followed, when Miss 
Elizabeth Peabody, having studied Frobel's institutions in 
Germany, organized the "American Frobel Union" in 1867. 

Of great influence on American education were also many 
private schools, established by able German schoolmen in 
America. The best known was founded in 1851 by Peter 
Engelmann, a refugee of the revolutionary period of 1 848, 
in Milwaukee. This institution, still existing under the name 
"Deutsch Englische Acadernie, ,, received in 1878 a higher 
mission by its close connection with the German American 
Teachers' Seminary, an institution which is supported by vol- 
untary contributions and gives its pupils a thorough education 
free of cost. Sending out every year large numbers of excellent 
teachers, this seminary has become a great factor in education. 

Hand in hand with all these institutions go several German- 
istic societies, which strive to spread the knowledge of German 
culture in America by arranging lecture tours for prominent 
scientists, and by the publication of the works of the best 
writers. Among the eminent Germans, who followed the 
invitations of such societies, have been Carl Hauptmann, 
Ludwig Fulda, Rudolf Herzog, Ernst von Wolzogen, the 


scientists Sombart, Delitzsch, Paszkowski, Bezgld, Hotzsch, 
Lehmann and many others. 

It is of course impossible to ascertain in a statistical or any 
other way the magnitude and importance of the influence of 
German methods of teaching on American institutions. But 
certainly the remarks made by Andrew D. White, President 
Emeritus of Cornell University, are true: "We may well recog- 
nize in Germany another mother country, one with which our 
own land should remain in warmest alliance. For, from the 
universities and institutions for advanced learning in Germany, 
far more than from those of any other land, have come and 
are coming the influences which have shaped and are shaping 
advanced education in the United States." 

Eminent Scientists. 

If it were necessary to demonstrate the internationality of 
science, there is no better evidence than the surprisingly large 
number of learned Germans who participated in the founding 
and development of science in America. Indeed, a catalogue 
of their names and an enumeration of their works would 
hardly find room in this volume. 

Following the German pioneers of science, already men- 
tioned in former chapters, as for instance Lederer, Pastorius, 
Herrman and Rittenhausen, there appeared in later times a 
legion of others, many of them the authors of excellent works 
and regarded here as high authorities in their special lines. 
We enumerate Gotthilf Heinrich Muhlenberg (1753-1815) 
as the first to publish a series of books on the flora of Penn- 
sylvania. One of the "Latin farmers," Georg Engelmann, 
was the first to describe the unknown vegetation of the Far 
West. Not less than 1 1 2 valuable monographs are the product 
of his pen and the results of his extensive and often dangerous 
trips through the swamps, prairies and forests of Louisiana, 
Arkansas, Missouri, Texas and other states. American scien- 
tists acknowledged his labor and perpetuated his memory by 
naming one of the most beautiful pines of the Rocky Mountains 
"Albis Engelmanni." 

The same honor was extended to Ferdinand Jakob Lind- 
heimer in appreciation of his splendid investigations of the 
flora of Texas. As botanists distinguished themselves also 
Adolf Wislizenus, David von Schweinitz, Johann N. Neumann, 
Wangenheim, Fendler, Rbmer, Creutzfeld, Bolander, Hoff- 
mannsegg, Rothrock, Hartweg, Kuhn, Metzger and many 

The first scientist, who investigated the fishes of American 
waters, was David Schopf, a physician, who during the war 
for independence came to this country with the Hessian 
soldiers. After the war he remained here to study the fishes 
of New York Bay, of which he furnished splendid descriptions. 

The first entomologist was Friedrich Valentine Melsheimer 
(1749-1814). He published the first work about the insects 
of the Eastern United States. His brother Ernst Melsheimer 
is the author of a voluminous work on the bugs of North 
America. Samuel Haldeman was author of several works 
about the sweet-water mollusk of our continent. 

Gerhard Troost, a pupil of the famous mining academy at 
Freiberg, Saxony, was the first who lectured in America on 
geology. From 1 8 1 to 1827 he was professor of mineralogy 


in the Philadelphia Museum, and was also the founder and 
first president of the "Academy of Natural Science." In 182 7 
he went to Nashville, where he was appointed professor of 
chemistry, geology, and mineralogy, a chair which he held 
until 1 850, the year of his death. He was also State geologist 
of Tennessee. One of his colleagues, Karl Rominger, was 
State geologist of Michigan. The reports of his explorations, 
carried on for many years, were published in four volumes in 
1873 to 1881. 

The famous naturalist Johann Ludwig Rudolf Agassiz must 
be regarded as a German scientist, as he received his training 
at the universities of Zurich, Heidelberg and Munich. At the 
latter place he took his degree as doctor and became assistant 
of the famous naturalists Oken, Schelling, Dollinger, Spix 
and Martius. When the two last named scientists returned 
from their celebrated Brazilian tour, Agassiz was selected to 
describe the fishes, brought home from this expedition. By 
this work his name became so favorably known, that the king 
of Prussia in 1 846 sent Agassiz to America, to investigate the 
natural history of the United States. 

The lectures he delivered here made such deep impression, 
that the Harvard University offered him a professorship under 
so tempting conditions, that Agassiz accepted them and 
remained in America for the rest of his life. His many expedi- 
tions through North America, to the Gulf of Mexico and the 
Amazonas River form one of the most brilliant chapters in 
the history of American science. At Harvard the splendid 
Museum of Natural History, founded by him is a lasting monu- 
ment to this brilliant scientist. To Agassiz principally is the 
credit due of having animated immensely the interest of the 
American public in natural history. His power of description 
in lecturing as well as in writing was so inspiring, that he was 
able to collect great sums for his expeditions and his museum. 

German naturalists participated also in many of the explor- 
ing expeditions sent out by the U. S. Government. Emil 
Bessels was in 1871 a member of the famous "Polaris Expedi- 
tion" under Captain Francis Hall. After the leader's sudden 
death Bessels took charge of the expedition, which, after a 
terrific trip of 196 days on a huge block of ice, was saved by 
the steamer "Tigress." Bessel's work about the "Polaris Expe- 
dition" appeared in three volumes. 

To these able naturalists in recent times the names of many 
others could be added, as for instance of the paleontologist 
Timotbaus Conrad, the biologist George Eugen Beyer, the 
ornithologist Heinrich Nehrling, who wrote a splendid volume 
about the birds of North America. Furthermore, there are 
the entomologists Georg H. Horn, Hermann von Bahr, William 


Beutenmuller, the geologist Eugen W. Hilgard, George Fer- 
dinand Becker, Karl Schuckert and Rudolf Rudemann, the 

latter State geologist of New York. 

Of German descent is also George Frederick Kunz, gem 
expert and author of the books "Gems and Precious Stones of 
North America," ''Investigations and Studies in Jade," and 
the "Book of the Pearl," all of which were published in the 
most luxurious form. 

In the wide field of archaeology and ethnology a number 
of German American scientists have achieved most remark- 
able results. Philipp Valentini, Karl Hermann Berendt, Gustav 
Briihl and Karl Rau wrote splendid monographs and works. 
Adolf Franz Bandelier, born in Bern, Switzerland, spent a 
life-time in exploring New Mexico, Arizona, Mexico, Central- 
and South- America in the interest of the "Archaeological Insti- 
tute of America" and the "American Museum of Natural 
History." Franz Boas, born in Westphalia, made extensive 
investigations among the Esquimaux of Baffin Land. He was 
also the originator and director of the so-called "Jesup Expedi- 
tions," sent out by the American Museum of Natural History. 
These expeditions, financially supported by Morris Jesup, 
began in Spring 1897 and lasted for about ten years, embrac- 
ing the whole territory of the Northwest coast of North 
America, Alaska and a great part of Siberia, including the 
Amur. Their main purpose was the ascertaining of the 
connections between the aborigines of Northeastern Asia and 
Northwestern America. The exceedingly valuable results of 
these expeditions are laid down in numerous monographs, 
published in twelve volumes by the American Museum of 
Natural History, which also owns the rich collections, brought 
together by the several expeditions. 

Of Boas' pupils the German American Alfred L. Kroeber 
became known very favorably by his works on the Indians 
of California. William S. Hoffmann, a Pennsylvania German, 
made himself known as author of highly interesting mono- 
graphs about the Menomonee Indians and the Esquimaux. 

Important works about different Indian languages have been 
written by the Moravian missionaries David Zeisberger and 
Johann Heckewelder, and by Albert S. Gatschet. 

As scientific director of several expeditions, sent by the 
University of Pennsylvania to Asia Minor and Babylonia, 
Hermann Volrath Hilprecht has become widely known. The 
results of these researches have been published in several valu- 
able works, of which the book "Explorations in Bible Lands 
during the 19th Century" has found wide circulation. 

Of the excellent works of Franz Lieber mention has been 
made in another chapter. 

A man of equal eminence was Hermann Eduard von Hoist, 
professor of American history in the University of Chicago. 


His principal work is "The Constitutional and Political History 
of the United States," which appeared first in the German 
language under the title "Verfassung und Demokratie der 
Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika." 

Splendid works on politics, science and political economy 
have been produced also by Karl Gustav Rumelin, Friedrich 
List, Johann Tellkampf , E. R. Seligman, Frank William Taussig 
and Paul S. Reinsch. Of the German philologists Alexander 
J. Schem produced in 1869-1874 a German-American Con- 
versations Lexikon of eleven volumes. 

Many are the works of German scholars of more recent 
times. Especially noteworthy among these men are Karl G. 
von Jagemann, Hermann Collitz, Julius Goebel, Georg Hench, 
H. G. Brandt, Camillo von Klenze, Hermann Schoenfeld, 
A. R. Hohlfeld, Ernst Voss, Karl Jessen, Richard C. Schiedt, 
Friedrich Hirth, Paul Haupt, Hermann Knapp and John M. 
Schaeberle. Albert A. Michelson, professor of physics at the 
University of Chicago, well known for brilliant research work 
in light, won the rare distinction of being awarded the famous 
Noble Prize of $40,000. 

Kuno Francke, since 1 884 professor of German literature 
in Harvard, and since 1903 curator of the Germanic Museum, 
is author of a number of widely read works, among them 
"A History of German Literature," "German Ideals of To- 
day," "Glimpses of Modern German Culture," etc. To the 
fertile pen of Hugo Miinsterberg, professor of psychology in 
Harvard, we owe "Psychology and Social Science," "Eternal 
Values," and several other valuable works. 

Of the works of Felix Adler, the founder of the "New York 
Society for Ethical Culture," the volumes "Creed and Deed," 
"Life and Destiny," "Marriage and Divorce" deserve mention 
as of lasting merit. 

German scientists have by example and exhortation intro- 
duced into the scientific research work of America persever- 
ance, seriousness and thoroughness, qualities which for true 
science mean infinitely much. "German thoroughness," so 
said Professor Ira Remsen, President of Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity, "is an expression often used. To the scholar it means 
everything. Whatever other virtues science may have, they 
count little without thoroughness. If I were asked, what 
America owes to Germany most, I would answer without 
hesitation: the virtue of thoroughness." 


Engineers of Distinction. 

The United States are admittedly a country of great 
engineers. This fact is not surprising, as the topographical 
conditions of no other country offer to engineers so many and 
extraordinary opportunities to display their abilities and genius. 
The country abounds in broad rivers and deep canons; vast 
prairies and deserts are to be transversed; steep mountain 
ranges must be overcome. To conquer all these obstacles, 
where they interfere with commerce and communication, are 
fascinating problems that call for the exercise of highest mental 
powers, for rare ability and genius. 

Among the masterminds who grew with the solution of 
such problems, we find so many Germans and German Amer- 
icans, that it is indeed not said too much, that the history of 
engineering in the United States is almost identical with the 
history of the German-American engineers. 

When in 1813 Ludwig Wernweg built a wooden bridge 
across the Delaware River at Trenton ; when Albert von Stein 
constructed the waterworks of Cincinnati, Richmond, Lynch- 
burg, New Orleans, Nashville and Mobile; when he also made 
the Appomatox Canal in Virginia; when the Swabian Gindele 
dug a canal connecting Michigan Lake with the Mississippi, 
and also the great tunnel, through which Chicago is provided 
with fresh water from the Michigan Lake, all these works were 
admired as such, doing great honor to the skill of their makers. 

But far greater works were still to come. Hermann Haupt, 
born 1817 in Philadelphia, a graduate of West Point, con- 
structed in 1856-1861 the famous Hoosac-tunnel in Massachu- 
setts, having a length of 4^4 miles and costing 1 6 million 
dollars. He, too, demonstrated the possibility of carrying coal 
oil long distances by pipes, effecting thereby to the refineries 
a saving of enormous sums. 

Gifted with equal genius was Adolf Sutro, born 1830 in 
Rhenish Prussia. Having received his training in a German 
polytechnic school, Sutro came to New York in 1850. Ten 
years later he transferred his activity to Nevada. Here the 
Comstock silver mines, discovered in 1859, yielded enormous 
profits, but the work could be carried on only under enormous 
difficulties, as the shafts had been sunk to a depth of 2000 
feet. In these great depths the miners suffered not only by 
almost unbearable heat and poisonous gases, but also from 
large quantities of water, collecting in the shafts. Several 
of the mines had been flooded and were abandoned. 

While visiting the Comstock mines, Sutro conceived the idea 


of connecting the widely separated mines by a wide tunnel, 
which was to serve not only as a ventilator and a drain, but 
would also be an important factor in cheapening the cost of 
hauling ore. It took many years, before Sutro succeeded in 
convincing the mine operators of the feasibility of his plan. 
And when their timidity and objections had been overcome, 
he was compelled to defend his project against envious rivals, 
who were eager to snatch the fruits of his labors from him. 
After innumerable troubles and disappointments Sutro at last 
came into position to begin on October 19, 1869, with the 
gigantic undertaking. 1 800 feet below the surface of the 
earth he constructed a tunnel, 1 feet high, 1 2 feet wide and 
20,489 feet long. In connection with this main tunnel were 
several lateral ones, leading to the various mines. The total 
length of all the tunnels was 33,315 feet, or about 6J miles. 
The difficulties to be overcome were extraordinary, as with 
the progress of the work the temperature at the face of 
the rock increased from 72° to 114° Fahrenheit. Two or 
three hours of work were all the strongest and most experi- 
enced miners could endure. The mules often refused to enter 
the tunnel, and they were dragged by main strength from the 
air-escapes. Endurance was being strained to its utmost cap- 
acity. Man after man dropped down on the rocky floor and 
was carried to the surface, babbling and incoherent, to slowly 
recover from the poisonous air. 

To the terrific heat came the constant battle with streams 
of hot water, the temperature of which was never below 1 00°, 
and which often entered the tunnel at 130° and even 160° 
Fahrenheit. To get rid of it, a thousand workmen began to 
cut a drain channel five feet wide down the middle of the 
tunnel floor. The amount of flow in 1 880 was not less than 
1,300,000,000 gallons, and as other mines began to use the 
tunnel, the total annual drainage rose at times to nearly two 
billion gallons. 

In October 1878 the tunnels were completed and ventilated 
by several vertical airshafts. Furthermore they were provided 
with a net of railways and stations, where by immense 
machines the ore was lifted to the surface. The whole cost 
amounted to about 6J million dollars. The tunnel proved to 
be all that its projector had anticipated, and though in later 
years it fell in disuse, it was looked upon as one of the greatest 
triumphs of engineering. 

Other mining engineers of note were Frederick Anton Eilers; 
Max Boehmer; Albert Arents, inventor of the lead-mine 
machinery; C. W. Kirchhoff ; F. Augustus Heinze, founder of 
the Amalgamated Copper Company, C. de Kalb, Herman 
Gmelin, and others, who as consulting engineers or presidents 
of mining corporations rank high in their profession and are 
known throughout the Union. 


Herman Schiisseie constructed the great waterwork of San 
Francisco. His monograph on "The water supply of San 
Francisco before, during and after the earthquake of April 1 8, 
1906," is a valuable contribution to technical literature. 

The greatest achievements in engineering, however, have 
been accomplished in America by German bridge-builders. 
The names of Albert Fink, Adolf Bonzano, Heinrich Flad, 
Johann August Roebling, Washington Roebling, Konrad 
Schneider, Gustav Lindenthal, Eduard Hemberle and Paul 
Wolfel are inseparably connected with the history of engineer- 
ing in America. Several of these men were rufugees of 1 848, 
as for instance Albert Fink. Born 1827 at Lauterbach, he 
had been trained at the polytechnic school of Darmstadt. In 
1 849 he emigrated to America and entered the service of the 
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, for which he constructed many 
viaducts and iron bridges, among them the great iron bridge 
over the Ohio River at Louisville. In the construction of these 
bridges he employed an invention of his own, a system of 
girders allowing of a length of span theretofore unknown. 

The greatest of these girders are found in the Ohio River 
Bridge at Louisville, which has a total length of 5,310 feet. 
Of its 2 7 spans the largest measure 340 and 360 feet. 

Several of the viaducts, constructed by Fink, especially 
those over the ravines of Cheat Mountain, were considered 
the most marvellous of their kind. A brilliant test of the 
abilities of Fink was the Civil War, during which he was 
charged with the supervision of all military railroads in Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee. On this most contested battleground 
the Confederates made it their rule to destroy all railways, 
bridges and viaducts they could lay hand on. But as soon 
as they retreated, Fink followed in their wake, rebuilding with 
astonishing rapidity what they had demolished, aquitting him- 
self of this task of highest military importance in a most credit- 
able manner. 

A factor of no less importance in this regard was Heinrich 
Flad, born in 1824 in Baden. Having studied engineering at 
the university in Munich, he participated as colonel of a batal- 
lion of engineers in the revolution of 1 848. In 1 849 he arrived 
in America and was for a number of years very successful in 
constructing of western railroads. At the outbreak of the Civil 
War he entered the 3d regiment of volunteers of Missouri, but 
soon became captain of the Western Regiment of Engineers. 
In this capacity he rendered services in the reconstruction of 
destroyed roads, the value of which can be appreciated only 
by those who know the eminent importance of railroads for 
the movements and support of armies engaged in actual war- 

After the war Flad designed in connection with J. P. Kirk- 
wood the plans for the waterworks of St. Louis, and later on, 


in connection with Captain James B. Eads the plans for the 
famous Mississippi River Bridge at St. Louis. It was in the 
execution of this structure, that Flad's skill in the overcoming 
of technical difficulties and in the application of scientific 
principles appeared in the most brilliant light. 

After the completion of this bridge, which is of classic 
beauty, Flad was elected president of public works in St. 
Louis, and in 1890 was appointed by President Harrison as 
chief of the Mississippi River Commission, which office he 
held until his death in 1898. 

A contemporary of Fink and Flad was Adolf Bonzano, 
born 1830 in Wiirtemberg. As chief engineer and vice-presi- 
dent of the Phoenix Bridge Company he made the designs 
for many railroad-bridges. The most interesting of his works 
was a viaduct across the valley of the Kinzua River in Penn- 
sylvania, which is 1800 feet wide and 270 feet deep. This 
viaduct, completed in 1882, rested on twenty towers, each 
constructed of four iron pillars. The aspect of this work, 
which was completed within only 8 months, was most startling. 

A complete revolution in bridge-building was brought about 
during the midst of the 19th century by Johann August Roeb- 
ling, born June 12, 1806, at Mtihlhausen, Thuringia. Soon 
after his graduation from the Royal Polytechnicum at Berlin 
he emigrated to the United States and established himself at 
Saxonburg, Pa. There he developed the manufacture of wire 
cable for use in bridge construction to a degree unknown before. 
Bridge-building then was, in comparison to its present perfec- 
tion, in the first stages of development. Suspension-bridges were 
known, but the platforms were hung on heavy iron chains, 
the links of which possessed notwithstanding their weight no 
great holding capacity. Besides, for spans of more than 1 80 
feet they were impracticable. It remained for Roebling to 
substitute a system of wire-cables, the enormous carrying cap- 
acity of which he demonstrated first in 1 845 in a suspended 
aqueduct of the Pennsylvania Canal carried across the Mon- 
ongahela River. This was soon followed by the Monongahela 
suspension bridge at Pittsburg and the suspension railway 
bridge across the Niagara River. 

When Roebling made public the plans for the latter 
undertaking, the most eminent engineers of America and 
Europe regarded a bridge of this kind foredoomed to 
failure, no suspension bridges having ever been built for 
railway traffic, and the width of the enormous gorge, cut 
into the rocks by the foaming river, being more than 820 
feet. Not discouraged by such apprehensions and dire predic- 
tions Roebling went to work in September 1852. Difficulties 
came with the question of how to carry the first wire across 
the ca;7on, as no boatman nor swimmer would risk his life in 
the terrific whirlpools of the river. After many fruitless efforts 


Roebling conceived the idea of bringing a strong silk thread 
from the American to the Canadian shore by means of a kite. 
This idea proving successful, the first wire was pulled over, 
and now the spinning of the cables began. There were four 
of them, every one consisting of 3640 strands. The ends of 
these cables were attached to cast-iron shoes and anchored in 


chambers cut in the rock behind the two towers, which carried 
the cables. The superstructure of the bridge had two floors, 
the upper one for railroads, and the lower one for vehicles 
and pedestrians. The bridge was commenced in September, 
1852, and opened for traffic on March 16, 1855. Its cost 
amounted to only 400,000 dollars. 



The location of this bridge was the most picturesque in the 
world. With its shapely towers rising from either bank of the 
Niagara River, and the long, graceful sweep of its cables, it 
seemed almost a natural part of the surrounding scenery. The 
famous Falls in the distance and the Whirlpool Rapids beneath 
lent a particular charm to the airy appearance of the bridge 

In 1855, when the first train passed over the bridge, loco- 
motives did not exceed 25 tons in weight, and cars had a 
capacity of 16 tons; now, engines weigh 1 00 to 150 tons, and 
cars carry 30 to 40 tons of material. In addition, the number 
of trains passing to and fro has increased enormously. In 
consequence, the bridge in late years was taxed far beyond 
the capacity for which it was designed, and was taken down 
in 1897, giving place to a wider and heavier structure propor- 
tioned to the requirements. When the bridge was taken apart, 
the cables, manufactured by Roebling forty-five years ago, 
were found to be in perfect condition, and as elastic as they 
had been when originally put into their places. 

The completion, in 1867, of the still more remarkable 
suspension bridge over the Ohio River at Cincinnati with a 
main span of 105 7 feet added greatly to Roebling's reputation. 
This bridge is carried by two cables, each consisting of 1 0,360 

The last and greatest masterpiece of Roebling was, however, 
the famous suspension bridge between New York and Brook- 
lyn. The rapid growth of the two cities and the inability of 
the ferries to handle the enormous traffic made better con- 
nections between the cities an imperative necessity. But an 
increase in the number of ferries was out of question, as there 
was no more space for landing slips. The only solution was 
a bridge. But the local conditions were so extraordinary, 
that no one believed in the feasibility of such an idea. Not only 
was the distance between the shores of Manhattan and Long 
Island very great, but also the East River between was too 
deep and rapid, to permit the laying of a foundation for a 
pillar in its midst. 

In view of this desperate situation Roebling concluded to 
apply his system of suspension bridges, which had so far stood 
all tests, at this place also. It took ten years to design and 
digest the plans for the gigantic undertaking, as the conditions 
to be reckoned with commanded the most careful attention to 
the smallest details, as the slightest error in the calculation of 
the strength of the cables, towers and foundations might result 
in terrible disaster. Just as difficult as this preliminary work 
was the task of procuring the building funds. At many places, 
where Roebling hoped to receive assistance, he found closed 
doors. Of the 1 \ million dollars subscribed by the City of New 
York and of the 300,000 dollars subscribed by Brooklyn, large 


sums disappeared into the pockets of dishonest city officials, 
who had been entrusted with the administration of the funds. 
In the end Roebling succeeded in interesting a rich banker in 
his scheme, who organized the New York Bridge Company 
with a capital of 5 million dollars. 

In spring of 1 869 all these preliminary steps had been 
completed. Now at last the practical work could begin. But 
an envious fate stepped in to prevent the great engineer from 
witnessing his highest triumph. While personally engaged in 
laying out the towers of the bridge, Roebling was unfortunately 
injured by a falling piece of timber so that several of his toes 
had to be amputated. The operation was successful; but a 
few days later tetanus set in, to which the great man suc- 
cumbed, July 22, 1869. 

The grave responsibility of superintending the enormous 
work now fell to Roebling' s oldest son, Washington Augustus 
Roebling. Problems of greatest difficulty came with the pro- 
viding of secure foundations for the two stone towers, on 
which the four cables of the bridge were to rest. To give free 
passage to all vessels, the platform of the bridge had been 
projected 1 35 feet above high watermark. Accordingly the 
two towers were to have a height of 2 76| feet above high 
water. As they were to be of granite, it was necessary to 
construct exceptionally strong foundations. By careful investi- 
gations it was found, however, that solid rock, on which the 
towers could safely rest, was 80 feet below the water level. 
To reach it, enormous banks of mud, mixed with gravel and 
stones, must be penetrated. So it became necessary to con- 
struct over the places selected for the towers two enormous 
caissons, boxlike chambers of iron and heavy beams. The 
caisson on the Manhattan side was 120 feet wide and 172 
feet long. Their lower parts formed into air chambers 7 feet 
high and resting upon the bed of the river. Air was pumped 
into these sub-aqueous and gas-lighted rooms by powerful 
machines at a pressure corresponding to their depth below 
the surface of the water, while the excavating was carried on 
by men working in the compressed air as in a large diving 
bell. Day in and out 236 men were here engaged in remov- 
ing the mud and gravel, while at the same time the building 
of the towers on top of the caissons went on, forcing with 
their ever increasing weight the lower end of the caissons 
deeper and deeper into the river bed. 

It cannot surprise, that the daily work in such sub-aqueous 
rooms, under high pressure, caused serious inconveniences to 
the laborers. Soon they began to suffer from the dreadful 
caisson-disease, many cases of which resulting in death. Roeb- 
ling also was prostrated early in 1872 with it and was com- 
pelled for a while to give up active work, but his intellectual 
faculties remained unimpaired. There were also other unfor- 


tunate events. In January, 1871, in the caisson at the Brooklyn 
side a fire broke out, causing a loss of 15,000 dollars. A fire 
below the waves of East River! 

After many difficulties the foundations as well as the towers 
were completed and now the construction of the four cables 
was to begin. As it would have been impossible to lift their 

enormous weight to the top of the towers, there was no other 
way than to spin them between the towers in open air. The 
first strand was run out May 29, 1876. Others followed and 
soon the workmen could be seen, hanging at these strands in 
little boxes, and busy to unite 5296 galvanized steel-oil-coated 
wires into a solid rope 1 5f inches in diameter. 


Serious accidents happened here also. When after two 
years' labor the four cables were finished, on June 19, 1878, 
suddenly the anchorage of one of the cables broke and the 
cable fell with tremendous noise into the river, killing several 
of the workmen. So the difficult work had to be done 
over again. 

At last, on May 24, 1 883, the tremendous work was accom- 
plished. The day of its dedication was a national event. All 
vessels in New York Bay appeared bedecked with flags, while 
the numerous men-of-war saluted. The President of the United 
States and more than 100,000 visitors from all parts of the 
country paid homage to the memory of the genius, whose 
master mind had conceived this colossal work. 

To give an idea of the great work, it may be stated that 
it measures 5989 feet in length. It consists of a central span 
1595^ feet in length from tower to tower, and of two spans 
of 930 feet, and 1860 feet, respectively, from the towers to 
the anchorage on either side. The length of the Brooklyn 
approach is 971 feet, and of the New York approach 1562 
feet. The bridge has a width of 85 feet. The roadway is 
divided into a central promenade with a single track on either 
side for rapid transit, and a platform for passengers, which is 
in turn flanked by a tramway for wheeled vehicles. 

The actual cost of the bridge, which has withstood in the 
course of now 33 years harder usage than any other bridge 
in the world, was nearly $15,000,000. 

Another prominent builder of bridges was Conrad Schneider, 
born 1843 in Apolda, Thuringia. While he was not the first 
man to build a cantilever bridge in the United States, he, 
however, developed this system to perfection. His most 
remarkable work is the Niagara Cantilever Bridge, two miles 
below the Niagara Falls. Spanning the chasm of 850 feet in 
width, the main body is 2 1 feet above the surface of the 
roaring river. The structure has a double track. It consists 
of two cantilevers, each 395 feet, resting on the towers, the 
shore end being anchored to the anchorage piers, and the river 
ends connected by an intermediate span. The work was begun 
in 1882, but so vigorously pushed, that the bridge was com- 
pleted and opened for traffic December 20, 1883. 

Schneider also constructed the cantilever bridges crossing 
the Fraser River in British Columbia. Furthermore he designed 
the plans for the Washington Bridge over the Harlem River 
at 181st Street, New York City. 

Among the most efficient bridge builders of recent times is 
counted Eduard Hemberle, who constructed several railroad 
bridges across the Hudson, the Ohio, Mississippi and Missouri; 
furthermore Paul L. Wolfel, chief engineer of the American 
Bridge Company. 

A worthy successor of Roebling appeared in 1874 in the 


person of Gustav Lindenthal, born 1850 in Brunn, Austria, 
and a student of colleges in Brunn and Vienna. Having been 
employed on survey and construction of railroads and bridges 
in Austria, Switzerland and some Western railroads, he moved 
in 1892 to New York, where he was appointed bridge com- 
missioner during the administration of Seth Low. He com- 
pleted the construction of the so-called Williamsburg Bridge, 
a suspension bridge over the East River between New York 
and Long Island, a short distance north of Roebling's bridge. 
He also made the original plans for the Blackwells Island 
Bridge and the Manhattan Bridge. 

Lindenthal was also a member of the board of six consulting 
engineers, which planned the tunnels and terminal of the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad under the East River and the Hudson River. 
Another of his works is a railway-bridge, which spans the 
canon of the Kentucky River at a place where it is 1 000 feet 
wide and 345 feet deep. 

Lindenthal is likewise engineer and architect of Hell Gate 
Bridge, a mammoth steel structure, and the most imposing 
part of the Connecting Railroad, which is six miles long and 
forms a link in through transportation between Quebec, 
Canada, and Tampa, Florida. The whole length of the bridge 
from the New Haven tracks to the Long Island connection 
with the Pennsylvania Railroad's passenger tunnel is a little 
over three and a half miles. The steel arch, rising to 320 
feet, has a clear span over the main channel of 1017 feet. 
The clearing from the high water to the platform is 1 35 feet, 
the same as the other bridges across the East River. The 
arch is able to support not only its own vast weight of 28,000 
tons, but the added load of forty-eight of the heaviest loco- 
motives. Unquestionably the bridge can be regarded as the 
biggest and strongest in the world, for there is no other bridge 
in existence or proposed that is expected to bear a burden 
of this colossal character. The structure has four railroad tracks. 

For a number of years Lindenthal has been at work on the 
plans for a bridge across the Hudson River between New York 
City and New Jersey. According to these plans the bridge 
will be in all dimensions twice as large as Roebling's Suspen- 
sion Bridge between New York and Brooklyn. The main span 
is intended to be 2900 feet long and the height of the two 
steel towers 660 feet. Unfortunately the plans came to a 
stand-still when the Pennsylvania Railroad, to which falls the 
lion share of traffic between New York and New Jersey, 
decided to built instead of a bridge a tunnel. Still, this does 
not mean that Lindenthal's scheme will be abandoned. The 
marvellous increase in the traffic between New York and New 
Jersey compels the adoption of ever new and greater means 
of communication. And so it is quite possible that within 
the space of ten to twenty years from now the two shores of 


J £ 

the Hudson River will also be linked by a wonderful bridge, 
the masterpiece of a German engineer. 

Of electrical engineers, a great number of whom are Ger- 
mans, Emil Berliner should be mentioned, the inventor of the 
grammophone. Furthermore F. B. Herzog, inventor of auto- 
matic switch-boards, elevator signals, police calls, and tele- 
phone devices; so also Bernhard Arthur Behrend, advisory 
engineer of the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing 
Company and inventor of electrical machines, which received 
a grand prize at St. Louis in 1904. 

Frank Koester in New York is known as creator of great 
electric power stations, among them those of the Potomac 
Electric Power Company in Washington, D. C, and of the 
Delaware & Hudson Company in Mechanicsville, N. Y. 

Most famed of electrical engineers is Karl P. Steinmetz. born 
at Breslau in 1865. When a student at the university he 
became soon deeply interested in electricity. At that time little 
was known about this mysterious power. Arc-lights were 
looked upon as a curiosity. Of dynamos, motors and other 
electric apparatus nobody had conceived any idea. Since his 
arrival in the United States Steinmetz became one of the most 
successful investigators of electricity. 

His own discoveries and brilliant inventions in this field are 
too numerous and complicated for description in any but a 
professional work. Since a number of years Steinmetz occupies 
the position of consulting engineer at the "General Electric 
Company" in Schenectady, N. Y. Here he stands at the head 
of an army of about 35,000 men. In what respect he is held 
by scientists, appears from a remark made by the president of 
Harvard University. When this institution bestowed upon 
Steinmetz the degree of an honorary doctor, the president said: 
"I confer this degree upon you as the foremost electrical 
engineer of the United States, and, therefore, of the world!" 

Organizers of Traffic and Transportation. 

It is a well known fact that certain important inventions and 
innovations have been made simultaneously at widely sep- 
arated places of the globe. So for instance the institution of 
the railway can be ascribed to England as well as to America. 
As in England the first railroads were installed for the trans- 
portation of coal to the sea, so a Pennsylvania German, 
Thomas Leiper of Philadelphia, constructed in 1 806 what is 
believed to have been the first railroad in America. It was 
used for the transportation of stone from Leiper's granite 
quarries in Delaware County, Pa., to a boat landing on Ridley 
Creek, a distance of about one mile. To facilitate the haul for 
the horses, Leiper invented special trucks, whose wheels of 
cast-iron he fitted exactly to two iron rails. This made the 
hauling so easy, that one horse could draw loads of from three 
to four times the former weight. 

On the further development of railroads in America men 
of German descent have exerted considerable influence. In 
the hands of companies of German origin, such as the J. G. 
Brill Company in Philadelphia, the St. Louis Car Company 
and the Wagner Palace Car Company, the making of railroad 
cars of all kinds became a regular science. Their excellent 
cars are known for comfort and beauty. 

An invention of greatest importance for the safety of pas- 
sengers, the celebrated Westinghouse air-brake, has also been 
made by an American of German origin, George Westinghouse. 

As is stated in "Men and Women of America" (edition 
1910, page 1571) the Westinghouses came from Germany 
and settled in Massachusetts and Vermont. Westinghouse's 
father was an inventor, who moved to Central Bridge, Scho- 
harie County, N. Y., where George Westinghouse was born 
October 6, 1846. In 1856 the family moved to Schenectady, 
where young Westinghouse visited the public and high schools. 
Much of his time he spent in his father's machine shop, and 
a rotary engine was invented by him before he was fifteen. 
Going to Troy one day, a railroad accident suggested to him 
the idea that a brake under the control of the engineer might 
have prevented the accident. After several trials his first 
patent was issued April 13, 1869, and the Westinghouse Air- 
Brake Company was formed on the 20th of July following. 
In 1883 Westinghouse became interested in the operation of 
railway signals and switches by compressed air, and developed 
and patented the system now manufactured by the Union 
Switch and Signal Company. The "Pneumatic Interlocking 


Switch and Signal Apparatus," whereby all the signals and 
switches are operated from a given point, using compressed 
air as the motive power and electricity to bring that power 
into operation, has been successfully introduced. Among the 
accomplishments of Westinghouse in the electrical field may 
be mentioned the unit switch system of multiple control for 
the simultaneous operation and control from one common 
point of all the motors in a train; and the single-phase motor 
for street railway service. 

Wilhelm Eppeisheimer, a native of Frankfort-on-the-Main, 
was the inventor of the cable street cars, first used to a great 
extent in San Francisco and other cities of California. 

Most remarkable was also the German influence on the 
inner organization of the railway traffic in America. Both as 
civil engineer and organizer no man has rendered more con- 
spicuous service than Albert Fink, widely known as one of the 
pioneers in the construction of iron bridges. Seeing the many 
evils resulting from the unrestrained and ruinous competition 
among railroad companies and steamboat lines, Fink rec- 
ommended that all competing corporations should elect a 
common board of directors with authority to settle all tariff 
questions in regard to the transportation of persons as well 
as of freight. 

Fink, not believing in railroad wrecking, but in co-operation, 
explained that the interests of the transportation companies 
and the public are not hostile to one another but mutual, and 
that a regulated tariff with fixed prices, leaving a reasonable 
profit to the companies, would be much more advantageous 
to all than a constantly changing one, resulting in disorder 
and bankruptcy. In consequence of this recommendation the 
Southern Railway and Steamboat Association was formed, 
of which almost all railroad- and steamboat companies of the 
South became members. In 1877 Fink, on invitation of the 
presidents of the great railroad companies of the East and 
North, made similar arrangements for a still greater combina- 
tion. Accordingly he organized the Trunk-Line Commission, 
which soon embraced nearly all the railroads East of the 
Mississippi and North of the Ohio, including the railways of 
Canada. The object of this association was to prevent destruc- 
tive rate-wars. As chairman of this commission Fink became 
the most influential factor in all tariff questions of the largest 
railroad companies of the United States. Fink also initiated 
the system of through freight and through passenger service 
now in general use. 

Very numerous are the men of German descent who, by 
keen foresight and by technical knowledge and experiences, 
have made names for themselves and became presidents and 
managers of American railroad companies and steamboat lines. 

Among them have been Henry Fink, president of the Nor- 


folk & Western Railway; J. Kruttschnitt, general manager of 
the Southern Pacific Railroad ; R. Blickensderf er, general man- 
ager of the Wheeling & Lake Erie Railroad; Karl Gustav 
Memminger, president of the Charleston & Cincinnati Rail- 
road; Heinrich Hilgard or Henry Villard, president of the 
Oregon & California Railroad, of the Oregon Steamship Com- 
pany and of the Northern Pacific Railroad, which was com- 
pleted in 1883 under his direction. 

In the field of navigation we find a similar array of prom- 
inent men as presidents and managers. Friedrich Kiihne 
established in 1 872 the Adler Line, which maintained a regular 
service between New York and Hamburg. Klaus Spreckels, 
the sugar king of California, organized in conjunction with his 
sons Johann Dietrich and Adolf Bernhard Spreckels the 
Oceanic Steamship Company, which made regular trips to 
Hawaii, Tahiti and ports of Australia. John H. Gans has been 
founder and president of the Gans Steamship Line in New 
York, which sends vessels to all parts of the globe. 

As American director and general manager of the famous 
Hamburg American Line the late Emil Boas was very success- 
ful. Till 1892 the line had been represented in New York 
by the firm C. B. Richard & Boas. When the line opened her 
own bureau at Broadway, Carl Schurz became her first Amer- 
ican director. After his retirement Emil Boas was appointed 
his successor. He filled this responsible position up to his 
death, which happened on May 3, 1912. Since then the Ham- 
burg American Line has been represented in New York by 
Karl Biinz, the former German Consul General in New York 
and later German Ambassador in Mexico. 

The American affairs of the North German Lloyd have 
been successfully managed for many years by the firm of 
Oelrichs & Co., of which Gustav H. Schwab, born in May, 
1 85 7, was the senior-chef. What an enormous amount of busi- 
ness is carried on by the New York Agency of the North 
German Lloyd may be seen by the fact that it handled during 
the period from January 1, 1873, to December 31, 1913, 
5,588,598 passengers. Since the death of Gustav H. Schwab 
in November, 1912, Karl von Helmolt has been the director 
of the New York Bureau of the North German Lloyd. 

In the interest of navigation also the services of Ferdinand 
Rudolf Hassler and of Julius Erasmus Hilgard have proven 
of the greatest value. While the former was professor of 
mathematics at the U. S. Military Academy at West Point, 
he directed the attention of the Government to the necessity 
of a correct survey of the coasts of the United States as 
essential for the safety of commerce and navigation. In com- 
pliance with this recommendation a special office, the Coast 
Survey, was established, with Professor Hassler as the head. 
He remained in office from 1807 to 1843. Hilgard was one 


of his successors, resigning in 1885. To the Coast Survey 
the commercial world is indebted for splendid charts, the 
value of which to navigation can not be over-estimated. 

A fact not generally known is that the two families of naval 
architects, the Cramps and the Herreshoffs, are of German 

The ancestor of the Cramp family was Johann Georg 
Krampf, a native of Baden, who arrived in America at the 
end of the 1 7th century and made his home on the banks of 
the Delaware River. Here the members of his family, the 
name of which changed to Cramp, took to shipbuilding, which 
occupation they have continued for several generations. Under 
the management of William Cramp and Charles Henry Cramp 
the ship and engine-building enterprise has grown to a very 
extensive organization. 

The American history of the Herreshoffs begins with Karl 
Friedrich Herreshoff, a native of Minden, an accomplished 
engineer, who in 1 800 arrived in Providence, Rhode Island, 
where he married the daughter of the shipbuilder John Brown. 
Their son as well as their grand-sons devoted themselves to 
naval architecture and made a specialty of fast steam- and 
sailing yachts and of torpedo vessels of high speed. The most 
interesting figure of the family is John B. Herreshoff, who in 
his fifteenth year became totally blind. In spite of this handi- 
cap he brought the business he had inherited to great prosper- 
ity. He also made the models for several of those fast sailing 
yachts which defended the "America Cup" against the English. 
The Herreshoff Manufacturing Company has its seat in 
Bristol, R. I. 

A name well known to the commercial world was that of 
Thomas Eckert, also a man of German descent. In 1852 he 
supervised the construction of a telegraph line from Pittsburgh 
to Chicago, and was superintendent until it became a part of 
the Western Union Telegraph Company. During the Civil 
War he was general superintendent of military telegraphy and 
reached the rank of brigadier-general. He became assistant 
secretary of war in 1 864. After having been appointed 
in 1866 as general superintendent of the Western Union Tele- 
graph Company, he became, in 1881, president and general 
manager of this concern and also director of the American 
Telegraph and Cable Company and several railways, among 
them the Union Pacific Railroad. The brilliant record of 
General Eckert assures him a permanent place in the ranks 
of those who faithfully served the Union. 

The German American Press 

The history of the German Press in America can be traced 
for nearly two centuries. When we ask what during this long 
time has been its essential characteristic, we name the single 
word : Truth ! 

Truth was the object Peter Zenger, the first German journal- 
ist in America, fought for in his "Weekly Journal." Publishing 
nothing but the truth, he won honor and everlasting fame for 
himself and liberty for the whole American people. 

Truth was also the aim of Christoph Saur, the printer of 
Germantown. Nothing grieved him more than to have some 
news creep into his paper which afterwards proved incorrect. 

The example set by these founders of the German press 
in America has been followed with fidelity by all their suc- 
cessors. Truth has been their guiding star, and by pursuing 
it the German press of the United States has won for itself 
among its readers a degree of confidence not enjoyed to like 
extent by our English press, whose editors do not care as 
much for the truth as for the sensational effect of their pub- 

This contrast between the German and the English press 
of the United States was never so apparent as during the years 
1914 and 1915. While the editors of the German papers 
endeavored to give to their readers such news only, as in 
their best judgment seemed reliable and trustworthy — a most 
difficult task because the British had cut all means of communi- 
cation with the Central Powers — many editors of the Anglo- 
American press assisted without restraint and discrimination 
in the world-wide campaign of slander, inaugurated by London 
with the deliberate intent to destroy the good reputation of 
the German nation, its Emperor, army and navy. These 
editors, ignoring the fact that the people of the United States 
are drawn from many nations and that, therefore, impartiality 
and fairness to all concerned should be strictly observed, com- 
mitted, by participating in a systematic poisoning of public 
opinion, nothing less than hostile act against the vital interests 
of the United States. For only so long as the various elements 
of the nation respect each other and work together in harmony, 
according to the motto "E pluribus Unum," can this country 

No similar act of disloyalty to the interests of the United 
States can be charged against the German American press. 
On the contrary, their course has been at all times genuinely 
American. Collectively and individually its editors have advo- 


cated whatever is good in the institutions of our political system, 
while sharply and relentlessly criticizing its faults; and they 
have been ready promoters of everything tending to secure 
order, personal liberty and prosperity. For this reason they 
never neglected to urge their readers to become good Amer- 
ican citizens and as such to contribute to the common welfare. 

In accord with many thousands of intelligent Americans, 
who know Germany and its people from personal observation, 
the editors of the German American press have always 
regarded it as their special mission to foster the friendly rela- 
tions uninterruptedly maintained between Germany and the 
United States since the latter came into existence. They have 
done this in the conviction, that these two countries have much 
in common and that it is to the interests of both to work hand 
in hand for progress and civilization. 

In May 1914 the citizens of St. Louis dedicated a monument 
to the memory of three distinguished German journalists: 
Emil Preetorius, Carl Schurz and Carl Danzer, who for many 
years were chief editors of the Westliche Post, the leading 
German paper of Missouri. The front view of this monument 
shows a naked figure, representing Truth, holding in each 
hand a torch, the symbol of enlightenment. It is a fit monu- 
ment indeed, not only for the three journalists named, but 
for the whole German American press, which, it is our hope, 
will never forget the inspiring motto of the great German 
American publicist Franz Lieber: "Dear is my Country; dearer 
still is liberty; dearest of all is Truth!" 

*^ v v *£* 

It may be added here that the printer's art in America is 
greatly indebted to German inventors. As printing with 
movable letters was devised by Johannes Gutenberg in May- 
ence, so the rapid steam press was the invention of Friedrich 
Konig, born in 1774 at Eisleben, Thiiringia. The process of 
making paper from wood-pulp was discovered by Friedrich 
Gottlob Keller, born 1816 in Saxony. 

It is due to the enterprise of Albrecht Pagenstecher, a 
prominent paper merchant of New York, that this process was 
transmitted to the United States. He brought over two wood- 
grinding machines from Germany and set them up at Curtis- 
ville, near Stockbridge, Massachusetts, in 1867. Here he 
successfully produced a wood-pulp which was immediately 
pronounced by neighboring paper mills an excellent material 
for employment in their manufacture. The introduction of 
this new method of producing paper was without question of 
momentous import. By providing a raw material offering an 
enormous saving in cost as compared with rags, the only 
material theretofore available, the price of newspapers could 
be reduced to such extent, that a fabulous expansion of the 


demand resulted. The newspaper of to-day, in its many-paged 
issues, would not have been possible without it. 

Another invention of like importance was made by Ottomar 
Mergenthaler, born May 10, 1854, at Mergentheim, Wiirtem- 
berg. He came to Baltimore in 1872, where he constructed 
a type-setting machine, which casts and sets types, while the 
operator touches letter after letter on a key board. 


The first "Linotype Machine" was used in 1886 in the com- 
posing rooms of the New York Tribune. It proved such a 
great success as a time- and labor-saving machine, that it is 
now used in many countries of America and Europe as well 
as of Australia. 

Meisenbach in Munich is the inventor of the so-called "Half- 


tone process," the cheapest way to reproduce drawings and 
photographs for newspapers and books. The "Rotogravure- 
process," used by many American papers for the illustration 
sheets of their Sunday editions, is an invention of Karl Klic 
in Freiburg, Baden. So also the idea of news-collecting and 
distributing by special agencies has been conceived and accom- 
plished first by a German, Paul Julius Reuter, born 1 82 1 in 
Cassel, from which the well known Reuter Bureau in London 
derives its name. It is perhaps not out of order, to bring these 
facts to the notice of those Anglo-American editors and those 
professors, who are assisting in the defamation of the German 
people and who would make the world believe that the Ger- 
mans are barbarians absolutely devoid of any culture. 


Noteworthy Authors and Poets 

Reviewing German poetry in America we must begin with 
Pastorius, the noble founder of Germantown. Like all sec- 
tarians disinclined to partake in the noisy vanities of worldly 
life, he enjoyed the solitude of his flower-garden and praised 
its peaceful charm in many verses. He also loved to garb 
his philosophical ideas, his conception of life and his experi- 
ences in short rhymes and epigrams, many of which have come 
down to our days and make interesting reading. 

His contemporaries Johann Kelpius, Konrad Beissel and 
other leaders of German sects were prolific in mystic love 
songs to the Heavenly Bride, to the glorification of whom 
they devoted many volumes. 

Much freer in their conception of life than these visionaries 
were the non-sectarian German settlers of the 1 7th and 1 8th 
centuries. While they, too, were religious, they never lost 
sight of the charms of this worldly life, which they held them- 
selves fully entitled to enjoy. Their ideas found a most beauti- 
ful expression in a poem, addressed by William Henry Timrod, 
a German of Charleston, S. C., to his little son. These lines, 
which have a pathetic interest, read as follows: 

To Harry. 

Harry, my little blue-eyed boy, 

I love to have thee playing near; 

There's music in thy shouts of joy 

To a fond father's ear. 

I love to see the lines of mirth 

Mantle thy cheek and forehead fair, 

As if all pleasure of the earth 

Had met to revel there; 

For gazing on thee, do I sigh 

That those most happy years must flee, 

And thy full share of misery 

Must fall in life on thee! 

There is no lasting grief below 

My Harry! that flows not from guilt; 

Thou canst not read my meaning now — 

In after times thou wilt. 

Thou'lt read it when the churchyard clay 

Shall lie upon thy father's breast, 

And he, though dead, will point the way 

Thou shalt be always blest. 


They'll tell thee this terrestrial ball 

To man for his enjoyment given, 

Is but a state of sinful thrall 

To keep the soul from heaven. 

My boy! the verdure-crowned hills, 

The vales where flowers innumerous blow, 

The music of ten thousand rills 

Will tell thee: 'tis not so! 

God is no tyrant who would spread 

Unnumbered dainties to the eyes, 

Yet teach the hungering child to dread 

That touching them he dies! 

No! all can do his creatures good, 

He scatters round with hand profuse — 

The only precept understood, 

Enjoy, but not abuse! 

The boy to whom these words were addressed inherited 
the literary gift from his father and became one of the most 
cherished poets of the South. That he inherited also a pro- 
found enthusiasm for all that is beautiful as well as the sense 
for the high office of the poet, appears from his following 

"All lovely things, and gentle — the sweet laugh 
Of children, Girlhood's kiss, and Friendship's clasp, 
The boy that sporteth with the old man's staff, 
The baby, and the breast its fingers grasp — 
All that exalts the grounds of happiness, 
All griefs that hallow, and all joys that bless, 
To me are sacred ; at my holy shrine 
Love breathes its latest dreams, its earliest hints; 
I turn life's tasteless waters into wine, 
And flush them through and through with purple tints. 
Wherever Earth is fair, and Heaven looks down, 
I rear my altars, and I wear my crown." 

Enjoyment of life is breathed also by the many poems 
written by the political refugees who came to America during 
the first half of the 19th century. As appears from the fore- 
going chapters, these fugitives were men of vigour and bound- 
less enthusiasm, with open hearts for all the sunshine of this 
world. For the spirit of American liberty, for the splendor and 
sublimity of nature, for women's virtues and beauty, they had 
a warm, receptive mind. They sang of spring, love, wine and 
song, praised manliness and bravery, oblivious of the cares and 
hardships of the day, and oblivious of themselves and their 

Countless are the names of German poets of these and 
later times, who amidst the restless business life of America 


cherished their ideals and encouraged others to adhere to 
them.*) Some of the most impressive poems, written by the 
"men of 1848," are devoted to the Fatherland. Could it be 
otherwise? These refugees loved the land of their birth from 
the bottom of their hearts. For its unity and greatness they 
had worked many years; to it went their thoughts in time of 
day and night; to its valleys they hoped to return some future 
years, and in its sacred soil they wished to be laid at rest. 
They, who had striven for nothing else but Germany's glory, 
were banished from it. This caused them bitter grief, but could 
not change their love. 

A deep longing finds expression in the poems of these 
exiles. In touching tones they sing, such as have not been 
heard since the strains that floated across the waters at 
Babylon, as the Jews sang of far away Zion. 

Perhaps the most impressive and best known of these poems 
has been written by Konrad Krez, a Palatine, who on account 
of his participation in the revolution of 1 848 had been con- 
demned to death "in contumaciam." Making his escape, he 
arrived in 1850 in America, practicing law in Sheboygan, Wis. 
During the Civil War he participated in the siege of Vicksburg 
and the campaigns in Arkansas and Alabama, and was 
appointed brigadier-general. His poem "An mein Vaterland," 
written in America about the year 1860, expressed the feelings 
of hundreds of thousands of his countrymen, who, like him, 
were compelled to leave their native country. 

An mein Vaterland. 
Kein Baum gehorte mir von deinen Waldern, 
Mein war kein Halm auf deinen Roggenfeldern, 
Und schutzlos hast du mich hinausgetrieben, 
Weil ich in meiner Jugend nicht verstand, 
Dich weniger und mehr mich selbst zu lieben, 
Und dennoch lieb ich dich, mein Vaterland! 
Wo ist ein Herz, in dem nicht dauernd bliebe 
Der siisse Traum der ersten Jugendliebe? 
Und heiliger als Liebe war das Feuer, 
Das einst fur dich in meiner Brust entbrannt; 
Nie war die Braut dem Brautigam so teuer, 
Wie du mir warst, geliebtes Vaterland. 
Hat es auch Manna nicht auf dich geregnet, 
Hat doch dein Himmel reichlich dich gesegnet. 
Ich sah die Wunder sudlicherer Zonen, 
Seit ich zuletzt auf deinem Boden stand; 
Doch schoner ist als Palmen und Citronen 
Der Apfelbaum in meinem Vaterland. 

*) For these names the reader may be referred to the Anthologies: 
"Deutsch in Amerika" by G. A. Zimmermann, Chicago, 1894; and 
"Vom Lande des Sternenbanners" by G. A. Neeff. Heidelberg, 1905. 


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fat faj Ki^i 4*M*t»*£- tru**/^/ aSV ***** 

life. VW^/-^ A*^ ^*-^; ^/*/* ^e^^j-j 
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4h*J 4^*+f?r>S ifajsL***** yirv-slfa^ ^j^J- **^jf-*J*+J, 

(After the original in the possession of Rudolf Cronau.) 

Land meiner Vater! langer nicht das meine, 
So heilig ist kein Boden wie der deine. 
Nie wird dein Bild aus meiner Seele schwinden, 
Und kniipfte mich an dich kein lebend Band, 
Es wiirden mich die Toten an dich binden, 
Die deine Erde deckt, mein Vaterland! 

Oh, wiirden jene, die zu Hause blieben, 

Wie deine Fortgewanderten dich lieben, 

Bald wiirdest du zu einem Reiche werden, 

Und deine Kinder gingen Hand in Hand, 

Und machten dich zum grossten Land auf Erden, 

Wie du das beste bist, o Vaterland! 

Another gem has been written by Konrad Nies in praise of 
German song, that most beautiful gift, which accompanies 
the sons and maidens of the "Fatherland," wherever they go. 

Das Deutsche Lied. 

Als wir entfloh'n aus Deutschlands Gauen, 
Durchgluht von jungem Wanderdrang, 
Um fremder Lander Pracht zu schauen, 
Zu lauschen fremder Sprache Klang, 
Da gab zum Segen in die Feme 
Die Heimat uns ihr deutsches Lied, 
Das nun, gleich einem guten Sterne, 
Mit uns die weite Welt durchzieht. 

Wohin auch unsere Wege fiihren, 
Zum Steppensaum, zum Meeresport; 
Wo immer wir ein Heim uns kiiren, 
Im tiefen Siid, im hohen Nord: 
Der deutschen Heimat Segensgabe 
Von unsrer Schwelle nimmer flieht, 
Und als des Herzens schonste Habe 
Bleibt heilig uns das deutsche Lied. 

Es klingt um hohe Urwaldtannen, 

Am blauen Golf, am gelben Strom, 

Fern in den Hiitten der Savannen 

Und ferner unterm Palmendom. 

Es braust aus frohem Zecherkreise, 

Es jauchzt und schluchzt mit Mann und Maid 

Und klagt in heimattrauter Weise 

Von alter Lust und altem Leid. 

Und wo es klingt, da bricht ein Bliihen 
Und Leuchten auf im weiten Rund ; 
Wie Veilchenduft und Rosengliihen 
Geht's durch der Herzen tiefsten Grund. 
Was langst zerronnen und zerstoben, 
Was mit der Kindheit von uns schied: 
Es wird in Traumen neu gewoben. 
Wenn uns umrauscht das deutsche Lied. 

Wir schau'n der Heimat griine Tale, 
Der Schwalbe Nest am Vaterhaus; 
Wir zieh'n im Morgensonnenstrahle 
Durchs alte Tor zur Stadt hinaus; 
Wir horen ferner Glocken Klingen 
Und deutscher Eichenwalder Weh'n, 
Wir fiihlen junges Friihlingsringen 
Und erster Liebe Auferstehn! 

Und ob auch Fruchte viel und Bliiten 
Die Hand auf fremder Erde zieht, 
Wir wollen hegen doch und hiiten 
Den Friihlingsspross, das deutsche Lied, 
Das uns zum Segen in die Feme, 
Die Muttererde einst beschied, 
Und das, gleich einem guten Sterne, 
Mit uns die weite Welt durchzieht. 

As American artists of German descent were the apostles 
of the grandeur of American scenery, so we owe to German 
poets many masterpieces of descriptive poetry. Rich in color, 
for instance, is Udo BrachvogePs 


Den Hiigel noch empor, mein wackres Tier, 
Dort lichtet sich der Wald, dort halten wir — 
Fiihlst du den Sporn? Hinan mit fliicht'gen Satzen! 
Schon schliesst sich hinter uns die Tannennacht; 
Frei schweift der Blick — ha, welche Farbenpracht! 
Erschloss sich Scheher'zadens Marchenpracht, 
Rings alles zu bestreu'n mit ihren Schatzen? 

Der Himmel leuchtet, ein saphirner Schild ; 

Es strahlt an ihm die Sonne hehr und mild, 

Nicht todlich, nein, nur schmeichelnd allem Leben. 

Am fernen Horizonte rollt der Fluss; 

Jedwede Wog' umspielt des Mittags Kuss, 

Sie bebt und zittert unter ihm, — so muss 

Die Braut am Herzen des Ersehnten beben. 

Und schimmernd liegt das Tal, wie Mosaik, 
Wie reicher es und blendender dem Blick 
Noch niemals unter Kiinstlers Hand entglommen. 
Hin stromt es zwischen dunklem Braun und Griin 
Gleich Flammen, die aus Goldtopasen spriihn, 
Gleich Purpurmanteln, die um Schultern gluhn 
Von Konigen, die von der Kronung kommen. 


Der Ahorn lodert, wie im Morgenhauch 

Einst Moses brennen sah den Dornenstrauch, 

Gefacht von unsichtbarer Engel Chore. 

Dort rankt sich's flimmernd und verzweigt sich's bunt, 

Wie die Koralle auf des Meeres Grund, 

Und drangt sich urn das silberfarbne Rund 

Des Stamms der koniglichen Sykamore. 

Und einsam ragt und priesterlich zumal 

Die Lorbeereiche aus dem Bachanal 

Von Licht und Glanz, von Farben und von Gluten. 

Doch auch von ihrer dunklen Aeste Saum, 

Aus ihrer Krone tropft wie Purpurflaum 

Die wilde Reb' ; es ist, als ob der Baum 

Sein Herz geoffnet habe, zu verbluten. 

Das Eichhorn springt. Es lockt mit tiefem Klang 

Der Tauber seine Taube nach dem Hang, 

Wo iiberreich sich Beere dringt an Beere. 

Die Drossel stimmt ihr schmelzend Tongedicht, 

Der Falter badet sich im Sonnenlicht, 

Und aus der Sumachbusche Scharlach bricht 

Das scheue Reh, des Waldes Bajadere. 

'Und dies ist Herbst? So sterben Wald und Flur? 

Wie ist dann das Erwachen der Natur, 

Wenn noch ihr Tod sich hullt in solches Leben?" — 

So ringt sich's von des Reiters Lippe los, — 

Da rauscht's ihm Antwort aus des Waldes Schoss — 

Ein Windstoss braust heran und noch ein Stoss, 

Und lasst ein Meer von Blattern niederbeben. 

Rings quillt es plotzlich auf, wie Schleierflug, 
Schneewolken weh'n daher in dichtem Zug, 
Vom Norden pfeift's, und triibe wird's und triiber. 
Der Taube Ruf verstummt; ein Biichsenknall, 
Im Blute liegt das Reh, und in dem Fall 
Der Blatter rauscht's wie leiser Seufzerhall: 
Noch eine Nacht, und alles ist voriiber! 

Der Reiter frostelt in des Nordwind's Hauch, 

Er ruft: "Und dennoch ist dies Tod, ob auch 

Gleich Hochzeitskleidern prangt sein Leichenlinnen. 

So stirbt ein Tag im reichsten Abendrot, 

So kiisst die Lippen einer Braut der Tod, 

So fiihlt ein Jiingling, rings vom Feind bedroht, 

Aus Wunden tausendfach sein Herzblut rinnen!" — 


One of the most beautiful poems, composed by Germans 
in praise of their adopted country, is Theodor KirchhofFs hymn 

An California. 

Warum du mir lieb bist, du Land meiner Wahl? — 

Dich liebt ja der warme Sonnenstrahl, 

Der aus Aetherstiefe, azurrein 

Deine Fluren kusst mit goldenem Schein! 

Dich liebt ja des Siidens balsamische Luft, 

Die im Winter dir schenket den Bliitenduft, 

Deine Felder schmiickt mit smaragdenem Kleid, 

Wenn's friert im Osten und stiirmet und schneit! 

Dich liebt ja das Meer, das ,,Stille" genannt, 

Das mit Silber umsaumt dein griines Gewand, 

Das dich schiitzend umarmt, mit schwellender Lust 

Dich wonniglich presst an die wogende Brust! — 

Wie dein Meer, wie der Liifte Balsamhauch, 

Wie die Sonne dich liebt, so lieb' ich dich auch. 

Seine Sonne zumal, — ihr rasches Blut, 

Pulsierend in frohem Lebensmut, 

Deine Tochter mit Wangen frisch und gesund, 

Die Seele im Auge, zum Kiissen der Mund. 

Warum du mir lieb bist? — Nicht ist es dein Gold, 

Du Land, wo die westliche Woge rollt. 

Ich wahlte zur Heimat diesen Strand, 

Weil ich offne, warme Herzen hier fand, 

Weil fremd hier der niedrige, kleinliche Sinn, 

Der nur strebt und trachtet nach kargem Gewinn, 

Weil die eigene Kraft hier den Mann erprobt, 

Nicht ererbtes Gut den Besitzer lobt. 

Eine Welt fur sich, voll Schonheit, trennt 

Dich die hohe Sierra vom Kontinent; 

Doch schlugst du mit eiserner Briicke den Pfad 

Ueber wolkentragender Berge Grat, 

Und taglich vernimmst du am goldenen Port 

Von den fernsten Gestaden der Volker Wort. 

Du bewahrtest das Feuer der Jugend dir, 

Den Geist, dem Arbeit des Lebens Zier, 

Der wagt und ringet und nie verzagt, 

Und wo es sich zeiget, das Gliick erjagt. 

Ja! ich liebe dich, bliihendes, westliches Land, 

Wo die neue, die schone Heimat ich fand. 

Wer friige wohl noch, der dich Herrliche sah, 

Warum du mir lieb, California! 




George Sylvester Viereck at the hundredth anniversary of 
Bismarck's birth penned the following verses: 

The Iron Chancellor 

Above the grave where Bismarck sleeps 
The ravens screeched with strange alarms, 

The Saxon forest in its deeps 

Shook with the distant clash of arms. 

The Iron Chancellor stirred. '"Tis war! 

Give me my sword to lay them low 
Who touch my work. Unbar the door 

I passed an hundred years ago." 

The angel guardian of the tomb 

Spake of the law that binds all clay, 

That neither rose nor oak may bloom 
Betwixt the night and judgment day. 

"For no man twice may pass this gate." 
He said. But Bismarck flashed his eyes: 

"Nay, at the trumpet call of fate, 
Like Barbarossa, I shall rise. 

"In sight of all Gods Seraphim 

I place this helmet on my brow. 
For lo! We Germans fear but Him, 

And He, I know, is with us now." 

The dead man stood up in his might, 

The startled angel said no word, 
Through endless spheres of day and night 

God in His Seventh Heaven heard, 

And answered thus: "Shall man forget 
My laws? They were not lightly made, 

Nor writ for thee to break. And yet 
I love thee. Thou art not afraid. 

"Bismarck, from now till morrow's sun 

Walks as a wraith amid the strife, 
And if thou find thy work undone 

Come back, and I shall give thee — life." 

With stern salute the spectre strode 

Out of the dark into the dawn. 
From Hamburg to the Caspian road 

He saw a wall of iron drawn. 


He saw young men go forth to die 
Singing the martial songs of yore. 

Boldly athwart the Flemish sky 

He marked the German airmen soar. 

A thousand spears in battle line 

Had pierced the wayward heart of France, 
But still above the German Rhine 

The Walkyrs held their august dance. 

He saw the sliding submarine 

Wrest the green trident from the hold 
Of her whose craven tradesmen lean 

On yellow men and yellow gold. 

In labyrinths of blood and sand 

He watched ten Russian legions drown. 

Unseen he shook the doughty hand 
Of Hindenburg near Warsaw town. 

The living felt his presence when, 
Paternal blessing, he drew nigh, 

And all the dead and dying men 
Saluted him as he passed by. 

But he rode back in silent thought, 

And from his great heart burst a sigh 

Of thanks. "The Master Craftsman wrought 
This mighty edifice, not I. 

"No hostile hoof shall ever fall 
Upon my country's sacred sod; 

Though seven whirlwinds lash its wall, 
It stands erect, a rock of God. 

"I shall return unto my bed, 

Nor ask of life a second lease. 

My spirit lives though I be dead, 

My aching bones may rest in peace." 

Up to his chin he drew the shroud, 

To wait Gods judgment patiently, 
While high above a blood-red cloud 
Two eagles screamed of victory. 


Kuno Francke, who worked so faithfully for friendly rela- 
tions between America and Germany, is the author of the 
following lines: 

Ich weiss von einem Lande, dem bietet Jahr fiir Jahr 
Des reichen Glanzes Fiille die Hand des Schicksals dar. 
Auf Flachen unermessen, aus tiefem Bergesschacht 
Reift golden ihm die Ernte, quillt ihm der Erze Pracht. 
Gewaltige Strome rauschen, rings flutet das Weltenmeer, 
Aus Urwald und Prairie stiirmt machtiges Leben her, 
Und in dem Volke brauset titanenhafter Sinn, 
Nach allem Hochsten greifet sein kiihnes Wagen hin. 
Es riittelt an den Bergen, es taucht in Meeresschlund, 
Es spannt mit Eisennetzen den Fels und Urwaldsgrund, 
Es tiirmet Quader auf Quader bis zu den Wolken grau, 
So werkelt es und hammert an der Freiheit Riesenbau. — 
Ein ander Land auch kenn' ich, ein Land gar lieb und wert, 
Dort wird vergang'ner Zeiten Geheimnis noch geehrt, 
Dort fliistern noch die Walder manch altes Sagenwort, 
Dort rauscht noch in den Wogen der Nibelungenhort, 
Dort ragen noch alte Dome dunkel und wundergleich, 
Dort sehnen noch Kinderherzen sich nach dem Himmelreich. 
O Deutschland, von all' deinen Kindern liebt keines dich so 

Als wir, die fremdgeword'nen, die Deutschen iiberm Meer. 
Du bist uns mehr als Mutter, du bist unseres Lebens Ruh, 
Du bist unser Weinen und Lachen, unserer Arbeit Segen bist 

Du setzest dem rastlosen Wagen bedachtig Mass und Zeit, 
Du weisest dem hastigen Blicke den Weg zur Ewigkeit. 

Loyalty to the great cause of liberty can not find a more 
beautiful expression than in Friedrich Albert Schmitt's spirited 

Sterne und Streifen. 

Im Morgenwind in der Sonne Gold 

Der Freiheit heiliges Banner rollt; 

Sein Rauschen tonet wie Adlerflug 

Um Alpenhaupter im Siegeszug. 

Es klingt wie das Rauschen im Urwaldsdom, 

Es klingt wie das Brausen im Felsenstrom, 

Es klingt wie die Brandung am Klippenstrand ; 

Von See zu See und von Land zu Land: 

Freiheit! Freiheit! 

Wie die ewigen Sterne vom Himmelszelt 
Herniedergrussen zur traumenden Welt, 
Wie im blauen Aether ihr Licht ergluht, 
Erfreuend, erhebend das Menschengemiit, 
So griissen die Sterne des Banners, wenn hold 
Es den staunenden Blicken der Volker entrollt, 
So kundet ihr Anblick vom heiligen Hort 
Dem Lande der Freien das herrliche Wort: 
Freiheit! Freiheit! 

So zog es voran einst der Vater Heer, 

Als die Knechtschaft draute und Fesseln schwer; 

So hat es ermutigt die Volker im Streit, 

So hat es die Waffen der Krieger gefeit, 

So hat es die heilige Liebe geschiirt, 

So hat es zum herrlichen Sieg sie gefiihrt, 

So hat es gewahrt ihnen kostlichen Lohn, 

So hat es geheiliget der Union 

Freiheit! Freiheit! 

Ihr Sterne so hehr und ihr Streifen so hold, 
Oh, rauschet zum Feste, oh rauschet und rollt 
Und kundet den Kindern und Enkeln es an, 
Was einst um die Freiheit die Vater getan! 
Oh, rollet und rauschet ein ewiges Lied, 
Dass tief in den Herzen es woget und gliiht, 
Oh, rollet und rauschet, dem Segen geweiht, 
Ob dem Lande der Freien in Ewigkeit! 
Freiheit! Freiheit! 

Among the numerous works of German prose writers in 
America those treating historical subjects are perhaps of great- 
est value. During the years 1850 to 1860 Gustav von Struwe 
wrote a history of the world in eight volumes, published at 
New York. This book is of special interest, as the author 
reviews events and personalities from a strong democratic 

Robert Clemens published a "History of the Inquisition" 
(Cincinnati 1849). Philipp Schaff wrote a "History of the 
Christian Church" (Mercersburg 1851) and "America, and 
Its Political, Social and Religious Conditions" (Berlin 1854). 
Gustav Briihl, a physician in Cincinnati, was author of the 
valuable volume "Die alten Kulturvolker Amerikas." 

Ernst Richard is author of a valuable "History of German 
Civilization" (New York 1909). 

Historical subjects are also treated in several works of 
Rudolf Cronau. During the years 1890 to 1892 he wrote his 


book "America," which was published simultaneously in Ger- 
man (Leipzig, 1892) and in Spanish (Barcelona, 1892). It 
gives a review of the discovery and exploitation of the New 
World from the earliest to the present times. Purposing to 
acquire authoritative information from original sources and to 
make himself acquainted with the countries discovered by 
Columbus, Cortes, Coronado, Cartier, La Salle, Champlain, 
Pike, Lewis, Clarke and others, the author made extensive 
journeys through the West Indies, Central America, Mexico, 
the United States and Canada, following the tracks of the 
great explorers. Two questions of paramount interest, con- 
cerning which wide differences of opinion existed, were the 
subject of exhaustive investigations by him: the location of the 
first landing place of Columbus, and that of the actual place 
of repose of the great discoverer's remains. Cronau's con- 
clusions as to these questions, based on researches made on 
these trips and included in the above named work, have been 
accepted as decisive by the most critical authorities. 

Another historical work by the same author appeared in 
1909 at Berlin under the title "Drei Jahrhunderte deutschen 
Lebens in Amerika," giving to German readers a comprehen- 
sive review of the achievements of the German element in the 
United States. 

A number of able writers have contributed works bearing 
on this same subject, from various points of view, and collec- 
tively presenting an array of facts, which will prove a solid 
wall against present day efforts to minimize the German as a 
factor in America. Among these writers are 

Franz Loher, ("Geschichte and Zustande der Deutschen 
in Amerika," Cincinnati, 1847); Anton Eickhoff ("In der 
neuen Heimat," New York, 1884); Georg von Bosse ("Das 
deutsche Element in den Vereinigten Staaten," Stuttgart, 
1908) ; Albert Bernhardt Faust ("The German Element in the 
United States," Boston, 1909) ; Julius Goebel ("Das Deutsch- 
tum in den Vereinigten Staaten," Miinchen, 1904) ; and Max 
Heinrici ("Das Buch der Deutschen in Amerika," Philadel- 
phia, 1909). 

Friedrich Kapp wrote a valuable "History of Slavery" (New 
York, I860): furthermore splendid biographies of Friedrich 
Wilhelm von Steuben and von Kalb; and "Geschichte der 
deutschen Einwanderung in den Staat New York" (New York, 

Oswald Seidensticker penned "Bilder aus der deutsch-penn- 
sylvanischen Geschichte," a magnetic and finely written work 
on local history. Very valuable monographs about the German 
immigrants and sectarians of Pennsylvania have been published 
by the "German Historical Society of Pennsylvania." Among 
the contributors are Julius Sachse, Samuel Pennypacker, 
Daniel Rupp, Daniel Cassel, Oskar Kuhns, Diffenderfer, Hart- 


ranft, Schmauk and others. Hermann Schuricht wrote a com- 
prehensive work about the Germans of Virginia; Emil Klaup- 
recht and H. A. Rattermann edited similar books about the 
Germans of Ohio; Joseph Eiboeck about the Germans of Iowa; 
Wilhelm Hensen and Ernst Bruncken about the Germans 
of Wisconsin; Hanno Deiler about the Germans at the lower 
Mississippi. Gert Goebel described the life of the German 
backwoodsmen; and Friedrich Riibesamen supplied vivid 
pictures of the frontier life in Texas, New Mexico and Arizona. 
Gustav Koerner compiled valuable historical notes in his book 
"Das deutsche Element wahrend der Periode 1818 bis 1848" 
(Cincinnati, 1880). Of equal value are the many historical 
essays of H. A. Rattermann. 

A most noteworthy writer during the last century was Karl 
Heinzen, a refugee of 1 848, who as one of the leaders in the 
United States of the radical German democrats brilliantly 
advocated their principles. As editor of the weekly "Pioneer" 
as well as author of the works "Deutscher Radikalismus in 
Amerika" and "Erlebtes" (Boston, 1864 and 1874) he 
exerted a remarkable influence on his countrymen in the 
United States. 

Of the German writers, whose mastership of the English 
language was almost equal to that of their own, Franz Lieber 
and Carl Schurz are the best known. 

Of Lieber's eminent works on international law and social 
ethics has been spoken in a former chapter. The literary 
works of Carl Schurz contain magnificent biographies of Henry 
Clay (Boston, 1 887), and President Lincoln (London, 1892). 
Of greatest interest are also Schurz's "Reminiscences of a Long 
Life" (New York, 1906), wherein the author reviews the 
many memorable incidents of his career, so exceedingly rich 
in struggles, hopes, disappointments and success. For the 
study of the German revolution of 1 848 and the political con- 
ditions of the United States during the period from 1850 to 
1900 these reminiscences are sources of first order. The same 
must be said of the collection of his speeches, correspondence 
and political papers, which in 1913 were edited by the "Schurz 
Memorial Committee." 

A prominent writer of the 19th century was Charles Nord- 
hoff, born 1830 in Westphalia, but brought to this country 
while still a child. In 1 844 he entered the U. S. Navy, serving 
three years, and making a voyage around the world. He 
remained at sea in the merchant, whaling and mackerel fishery 
service until 1853, when he entered journalism and occupied 
editorial positions on the "New York Evening Post," and later 
on the "New York Herald." Of his many books the best 
remembered are "Communistic Societies in the United States 
(1875) and "The Cotton States" (1876). The latter pro- 
voked a heated controversy, because NordhofF placed responsi- 


bility for the terrible conditions, prevailing then, on the 
Republican "carpetbaggers," who invaded the South after the 
Civil War. 

The experiences during his former sea-life were described 
by Nordhoff in the works "Whaling and Fishing;" "Man-of- 
War Life;" "Stories of the Island World" and others. 

In his book "Our Wasteful Nation. The Story of American 
Prodigality and the Abuse of Our National Resources" (New 
York, 1908) Rudolf Cronau treated the weighty problem of 
conservation, showing conclusively that the American nation 
suffers losses amounting to many hundred millions of dollars 
annually by sheer carelessness and wasteful methods. The 
twelve chapters of the book bring to view the enormous waste, 
committed by the American people by the destruction of its 
forests, the waste of water, soil, mineral resources, the exter- 
mination of birds, fishes, game, fur- and great marine animals, 
the waste of public lands, privileges, money, property and 
human lives. 

To the Travel Literature Theodor Kirchhoff, the "Poet of 
the Golden Gate," contributed highly interesting works in his 
"Calif ornische Kulturbilder" and "Reisebilder und Skizzen" 
(Altona, 1875). 

Rudolf Cronau published "Von Wunderland zu Wunder- 
land, Landschafts- und Lebensbilder aus den Staaten und 
Territorien der Union" (Leipzig, 1885) ; "Im fernen Westen. 
Eine Kiinstlerfahrt durch die Prairien und Felsengebirge der 
Union" (Braunschweig, 1890), and "Fahrten im Lande der 
Sioux" (Leipzig, 1885). 

Robert H. Schauffler, born in Briinn, Austria, became 
widely known by his attractive books "Romantic Germany" 
(New York, 1909) and "Romantic America" (New York, 
1911), "Through Italy with the Poets" (New York, 1908). 
Of the numerous German novelists in America the best 
known during the midst of the 19th century was Carl Postel, 
who wrote under the pseudonym Charles Sealsfield. Having 
travelled for several years in the Southern States, he published 
in Philadelphia in 1828 his first great novel "Tokeah or the 
White Rose," which later on was followed by "Nathan the 
Squatter-Regulator; "The Legitimate and the Republicans;" 
"Virey and the Aristocrats" and many others. His prolific 
pen drew fascinating sketches of the life on Southern planta- 
tions, of the lower Mississippi River and the plains of Texas. 
Endowed with a rich imagination, he unrolled to his readers 
a new world alive with people never before described. With 
characteristic strokes he drew the smart Yankee, the light- 
minded Frenchman, the considerate German, the sensuous 
Creole and Creoless, the daring trapper and the tough back- 

Related to the works of this novelist are those of Friedrich 


Gerstacker, Balduin Mbllhausen, Otto Ruppius and other 
writers, who travelled extensively in North America and 
enriched the German American literature by numerous fascinat- 
ing works of fiction, which found large circulation in Germany 
as well as in the United States. 

Other noted fiction writers are Friedrich Hassaureck 
("Hierarchie und Aristokratie" and "Das Geheimniss der 
Anden") ; Friedrich Dresel ("Oskar Welden;" "Doppelehe 
oder keine Doppelehe;" "Bekenntnisse eines Advokaten"); 
Friedrich Lexow ("Auf dem Geierfels," "Imperia," "Vornehm 
und gering") ; Rudolf Lexow ("Der Rubin"); Karl Dilthey 
("Die schonsten Tage einer Tanzerin," "Henriette Sonntag") ; 
Reinhold Solger ("Anton in Amerika") ; von Jakob ("The 
Exiles") ; Adolf Douai ("Fata Morgana") ; Willibald Winkler 
("Der Sklavenjager" ) ; Udo Brachvogel ("King Korn"); 
Adolf Schaffmeyer ("Ein Phantom," "Auf steiler Hohe," "Die 
ewige Jagd" and "Im Wirbel der Grossstadt") ; Dorothea 
Bottcher ("Der Sohn des Bankiers" and "Der Erbschleicher" ) ; 
Hugo Bertsch ("Bob der Sonderling" and "Die Geschwister" ) ; 
Henry Urban ("Maus Lula," "Lederstrumpf's Erben," "Aus 
dem Dollarlande," etc.); Hugo Moller ("Aus Deutsch 
Amerika" and "Grand Prairie") ; George Sylvester Viereck 
("The Vampire," "The Candle and the Flame" and "Game 
of Love") . 

The great European War brought forth not only numerous 
pamphlets, but also several noteworthy books, written by 
Germans in the United States. Hugo Munsterberg discussed 
in his works "The War and America" and "The Peace and 
America" the essential factors and issues in the great war and 
their meaning and importance for America. Edmund von 
Mach in his book "What Germany Wants" gives a clear-cut 
statement of the German side. Frank Koster tells in "Secrets 
of German Progress" (New York, 1915) the fascinating story 
of Germany's efficiency and her amazing rise to that industrial 
power, which aroused England to such jealousy, that it made 
most careful preparations to isolate and crush this new com- 
petitor on the world's markets in the same manner as it had 
done with all former rivals. 

The story of these destructive British wars has been given 
by Rudolf Cronau in "The British Black Book" (New York, 
1915). Based on historical facts, it shows how England by 
her machinations has kept the world aflame for centuries, first 
robbing Ireland, Wales and Scotland of their independence; 
then successively destroying the power of Spain, Holland, 
France, Denmark and India; how she poisoned the Chinese 
with opium and suppressed the free Boers for the sake of their 
gold and diamond mines; how she conspired with France and 
Russia to strangle her most successful rival in commerce, 
Germany, and how in the midst of a mercenary war she seeks 
to throttle the prosperity of the United States. 


Alexander Fuehr, doctor of law, in his book "The neutrality 
of Belgium" (New York, 1915) makes three claims: first, 
that Belgium was not neutral territory when the German army 
invaded it; second, that, according to the Law of Nations, 
the treaty guaranteeing Belgium's neutrality had been void for 
many years and was considered so by Great Britain, prior to 
the war; third, that, even if the guarantee treaty had still been 
in force, International Law fully permitted Germany to invade 
Belgium under the particular circumstances. To substantiate 
these claims the author presents large numbers of documents 
and affidavits, which give full account of the origin and the 
break-down of Belgium's neutrality. 

Among the German American publicists, who came to the 
front during the great European war, the most notable is 
George Sylvester Viereck, who in the weeklies "The Father- 
land" and "The International" wrote numerous strong articles, 
which imparted to the American public undistorted views of 
the cause of the great conflict and unvarnished truth about 
the many serious questions connected with it. 

Undaunted fighters for truth have been also Frederick 
Franklin Schrader, Francis Dorl, editor of "Issues and Events," 
Bernard Ridder of the "New York Staatszeitung," Marcus 
Braun of the "Fair Play," and William Ries of the "People's 

German Music and Song in America 

If for no other contribution to its culture and development, 
the American people owe a debt of gratitude to the Germans 
for having brought into its social life some brightening rays 
of sunshine. 

Whoever studies the social life of the early settlers, in par- 
ticular that of the Puritans, Quakers and other sectarians, will 
find that it was dominated by two aims strangely opposed to 
each other, the one, an intensive striving for material gain, 
the other, laying up stores for the life hereafter. 

The pursuit of these objects rendered the earthly existence 
of the Anglo Americans so grave and joyless that visitors 
to this country were repelled by its melancholic monotony. 
Such was the experience of the British authoress Mrs. Frances 
Trollope recorded in her famous book "Domestic Manners of 
the Americans." Having travelled in this country from 1827 
to 1831, she felt herself justified in saying: "I never saw a 
population so totally divested of gayety; there is no trace of 
this feeling from one end of the Union to the other. They 
have no fetes, no fairs, no merry-makings, no music in the 

In confirmation of her own impressions the authoress 
quotes also the following remarks of another woman: "They 
do not love music, oh no! and they never amuse themselves — 
no; and their hearts are not warm, at least they seem not so 
to strangers; and they have no ease, no forgetfulness of busi- 
ness and care — no, not for a moment. But I will not stay 
long, I think, for I should not live." — 

To have brought a change in this joyless life, is the great 
merit of the Germans, who made America their home. When 
they emigrated from the beloved fatherland, their cheerful- 
ness, good humor and love for music and song were the most 
valuable treasures, they brought with them to our shores. 
With their sunny mind they enriched our nation, while she 
was in the process of evolution, to such degree, that the 
American people should have to the Germans no other feeling 
but deep gratitude. 

There was a great difference between the religious services 
of the Puritans and Quakers and that of the Germans. While 
the first abhorred music and singing the latter enjoyed the 
wonderful impressive hymns and the great symphonies of 
Martin Luther, Bach, Handel, Haydn, Mozart and other com- 
posers of the 1 7th and 1 8th centuries. Visitors who heard 
these songs in Bethlehem and in the Ephrata cloister, confessed 


that they were overwhelmed by the impressive cadence of 
the chorals of the combined choirs, and by the angelic or 
celestial quality of the vocal music. 

But these musical exercises were not confined to religious 
meetings exclusively. From the history of the Moravians we 
know, that they had songs for their daily work as well. Bishop 
Spangenberg, head of the community during the middle of the 
18th century, states: "Never since the creation of this world 
have been invented and used such lovely songs for shepherds, 
farmers, reapers, threshers, spinners, seamstresses and other 
working people than here. It would be easy, to make up a 
whole volume with these beautiful melodies." 

It did not take long for the conquering power of music and 
song to make itself felt even in New England. A Handel and 
Haydn Society was started in 1 786 in Stoughton, Mass. In 
June 1815 it was followed by a similar one in Boston, organ- 
ized by Gottlieb Graupner, a German musician, who founded 
also the first orchestra, the Philharmonic Society. 

Societies with like purposes were formed in New York, 
Baltimore, Cleveland, Cincinnati and other centres of German 
life. New York had the Euterpean Society, founded in 1 799 ; 
the Sacred Music Society, founded in 1823; the Choral- and 
the Harmonic Society. To these early clubs came in 1 842 
the famous Philharmonic Society, which still exists. Her 
members, mostly Germans, aimed not for financial gain, but 
to reach in their art perfection. From 1842 to 1865 U. C. 
Hill, Georg Loder, H. C. Timm, Theodor Eisfeld and Karl 
Bergmann alternated as conductors; from 1865 to 1876 
Bergmann conducted exclusively and led the society to its 
triumphant position. 

Bergmann was also a pioneer in another direction. He had 
come to America as a member of the Germania Orchestra, 
which consisted of fifty political refugees of 1 848. Being 
elected as its conductor, Bergmann boldly began to make con- 
cert tours with this orchestra, visiting many of the eastern cities. 
After his resignation Leopold Damrosch became his suc- 
cessor as conductor of the Philharmonic Society. At the same 
time he founded the Oratorio Society and the Symphony 
Society of New York, which under his leadership gave, from 
May 3d to 7th, 1881, a grand festival in the armory of the 
7th New York Regiment. It was a musical event of the highest 
order. The chorus consisted of 1200 select voices, which 
were supported by 1 000 young ladies of the high schools of 
New York and by 250 boys of the choirs of several churches. 
The orchestra numbered 250 instruments. The most important 
works of the program were Handel's Messias and Te Deum, 
Rubinstein's Erection of the Tower at Babel, Berlioz's Missa 
Solemnis and Beethoven's Ninth Symphony. The artistic suc- 


cess as well as the financial results of this festival surpassed 
all expectation. 

Now came a period of great conductors, among them 
Theodore Thomas, Karl Zerrahn, George Henschel, Wilhelm 
Gericke, Anton Seidl, Walter and Frank H. Damrosch, Emil 
Paur, Frank van der Stucken, Ernst Kunwald, Franz H. Arens, 
Fritz Scheel, Louis Kommenich and others, under whose 
able leadership many of the musical societies reached highest 

Several of these conductors have won, by their genius, an 
everlasting place in the history of music in America. This is 
especially true in regard to the Damroschs, Theodor Thomas, 
Karl Zerrahn and Anton Seidl, all of whom were born in 
Germany. Thomas, a native of Northern Germany, was per- 
haps the greatest of these leaders. When twenty years old, 
he started a society for chamber concerts. Several years later 
he organized also his own orchestra, with which he, from 1 864 
to 1 89 1 , made tours throughout the United States. While 
these tours were, from a financial standpoint, not a success, 
their educational value was immense. To hundreds of thou- 
sands of people the Thomas-Orchestra was the first wonderful 
revelation of the power of instrumental music. John C. Griggs 
says in his "Studies about Music in America": "I can never 
forget the deep impression the Thomas-Orchestra made upon 
my mind. It was like a glance into a new world." 

Thomas conducted five music festivals in Cincinnati (1873, 
1875, 1878, 1880, 1882), one in Chicago (1882) and one 
in New York (1882). In 1891 he was called to Chicago, 
to organize a symphonic orchestra, which he conducted with 
great success. He also distinguished himself as musical director 
at the Columbian Exposition of 1893. 

Indeed, there could be no adequate sketch of the grand 
orchestra that did not pay a tribute to Theodore Thomas, 
practically speaking the great missionary of the orchestra in 
America. He did not create it, but he introduced and devel- 
oped and extended it, and above all, as Charles E. Russell has 
correctly said, "he made it intelligible to the public, spreading 
abroad the understanding of and the taste for orchestral art, 
patiently teaching its rudiments and by exposition making clear 
its principles." 

A position similar to that held by Thomas in the middle 
States was held by Karl Zerrahn in the New England States. 
He conducted not only for many years the Philharmonic 
Orchestra and the Handel and Haydn Society in Boston, but 
also the concerts of the Oratorio Society in Salem and the 
famous Worcester festivals in Worcester, Mass. Of him Elton 
in his work "National Music of America" said: "Zerrahn was 
the bridge, by which New England travelled to its modern 
goal in classical music." 


The names of Leopold and Walter Damrosch are connected 
with the brilliant history of the Oratorio- and Symphony 
Societies of New York, the names of Karl Bergmann, Anton 
SeidI, Gustav Mahler and Joseph Stransky with the history of 
the unsurpassed Philharmonic Society of New York. 

Georg Henschel, Wilhelm Gericke, Arthur Nickisch, Emil 
Paur and Karl Muck habe been the leaders of the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra, that pride of the Hub and America 
generally. After having been supported by Major Henry 
L. Higginson for thirty years, this orchestra now plays to 
paying audiences, and its concerts, given in Boston, New York, 
Brooklyn, Baltimore and Washington, are financially success- 
ful, as they are artistically most brilliant. 

No higher encomium could be framed for these orchestras 
than that the greatest leaders and virtuosos of Germany were 
glad to come here and as guests take part in performances 
of genuine worth. 

Among such conductors were Max Bruch, Hans von Bulow, 
Felix Weingartner, Richard Strauss, and others; among the 
virtuosos men like August Wilhelmj, Rafael Joseffy, Anton 
Rubinstein, Thalberg, Scharwenka, Louis Maas, Franz Kneisel, 
Schultz, and many more, who by the masterly rendition of 
the works of great composers helped in paving for music, the 
most pleasing and elevating of the muses, the way to victory. 

To-day almost every considerable city has its symphony 
orchestra, voluntarily organized and maintained not for profit 
but voluntarily supported by public subscription as a public 
educator. So rapidly has the number of such grand orchestras 
grown, that only the specialists maintain any knowledge of 
this most significant development of our culture. The orchestra 
is already a feature of American city life, and the cities that 
have orchestras feel in them steadily increasing pride and 
interest and give to them steadily increasing support. 

Vocal music, introduced so effectually by the German 
sectarians of the 1 8th century, found great stimulation through 
the efforts of the political refugees of the period 1 820 to 1 848. 
Among these high-spirited heroes of an unsuccessful revolution 
there were many musicians, enthusiastic followers of their art. 
Disappointed by the monotony of American life, these men 
banded together and formed, for their own entertainment, 
singing societies, in which they cultivated the inspiring songs 
of liberty, written by Uhland, Herwegh, Freiligrath, Hoff- 
mann von Fallersleben, Lenau and other great German poets. 

The first of such singing societies was the Philadelphia 
Mannerchor, founded in 1835, and still flourishing. The next 
was the Baltimore Liederkranz (1836), followed in 1838 by 
the Deutsche Gesangverein von Cincinnati; in 1844 the Phila- 
delphia Liedertafel was born, and in 1847 the Deutsche Lie- 
derkranz von New York. 


Since then the increase of such societies has been enormous. 
To-day there is hardly any city with a German population, 
that has not its singing societies. 

Occasional visits of one society to others led to the forma- 
tion of unions for the purpose of holding regular singing 
festivals with a competition for prizes. The first Sangerfest 
was held in June 1 849 in Cincinnati and resulted in the found- 
ing of the Deutsche Sangerbund von Nordamerika. Two days 
were devoted to concerts; on the third day all members, more 
than one thousand, went in richly decorated steamers up the 
Ohio River to the romantic Bald Hill, where Sunday was 
spent with singing and all kinds of entertainments. This 
festival was for the American press a source of wonder. "The 
music on the high hill, in the midst of a pleasant grove, by 
nearly two hundred singers, was grand beyond our power of 
description." So wrote the Cincinnati Gazette. 

Continuing, it said: "Enjoyment seemed to be the object 
of all, and about the whole assembly there was an air which 
spoke plainly as words: 

Let us be young again 
And o'er the grassy plain 
Gambol like children, 
And give care the slip. 

We do not think the Sabbath under all circumstances a 
proper day for festivals of this character, but we think they 
should at proper times be much more frequent than they are 
now. Americans do not allow themselves enjoyment enough 
of this kind. 

In our too plodding homes, we ponder over tomes, 

Ledger and day-book, till we quite forget 

That there are fields and bowers and river-banks and flowers. 

And that we owe our languid limbs a debt: 

A debt most sweet to pay — a needful holiday — 

A brain-refreshing truce, 'mid intellectual strife, 

That, fought too keenly out, impairs the mortal life." 

The example, set by the singing societies of the Central 
States, was followed by the societies of the East and North- 
west, of Texas and the Pacific States. At present we have 
the Nordostliche Sangerbund, the Deutsch Texanische Sanger- 
bund, the Nordwestliche Sangerbund, the Pacific Sanger- 
bund and the Nord Pacific Sangerbund. All hold at 
regular intervals great Sanger-festivals, combined with a 
competition for valuable prizes. Among these prizes have 
been some donated by the German and Austrian Emperors, 
and it was due to the competition for these trophies of high 


artistic value, that some of these festivals became events of 
extraordinary magnitude. There have been such festivals, in 
which several thousand active singers took part, as for instance 
in July 1900 in Brooklyn, which was visited by 1 74 societies 
with more than 6000 singers. Many of these festivals gained 
a special splendor by the active participation of famous soloists, 
as Henrietta Son tag, Amalie Mater na, Etelka Gerster, Johanna 
Gadski, Ernestine Schumann-Heink and others, who made 
the American public acquainted with the most beautiful crea- 
tions of German song. 

Captivated by the magic spell of these songs the Americans 
began on their part to organize singing societies, with such 
eminent success, that to-day they are able to compete with 
their German American fellow-citizens in the perfect rendition 
of the most difficult compositions of the German masters. 

And so the German American Sangerbiinde can point with 
great pride to the work of culture accomplished by them and 
can say indeed that no other societies have in like manner 
contributed to the elevation and advancement of the popula- 
tion of our country. 

German Drama and Opera in the 
United States 

Together with the oratorios and symphonies of great 
German composers the dramas of German poets found their 
way to the United States at an early day. Schiller's "Rauber," 
"Wilhelm Tell," "Don Carlos,' "Cabale und Liebe" were 
given as early as 1 795 in English translations on the stages 
of New York, Philadelphia and Baltimore. Several dramas 
of Kotzebue, Zschokke and Halm were given also with great 
success and brought full houses. 

Since these times countless other works of German play- 
writers have been presented in English to the American 
public, among them the best pieces of Paul Heyse, Gustav 
von Moser, Roderick Benedix, Hermann Sudermann, Anzen- 
gruber and Gerhardt Hauptmann. That all these great works 
had a stimulating influence on American playwrights as well 
as on actors, can not be denied. 

This influence was perhaps strongest during the last half 
of the 1 9th century, when Adolf Neuendorf, Carl Hermann, 
Gustav Amberg, Heinrich Conried and others founded Ger- 
man theatres in New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Cincinnati, 
Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Louis, and brought the most 
famous actors of Germany into this country. Among them 
were Friedrich Haase, Daniel Bandmann, Bogumil Davison, 
Ernst Possart, Karl Sontag, Ludwig Barnay, Friedrich Mitter- 
wurzer, Joseph Kainz, Adalbert Matkowsky, August Junker- 
mann, Magda Irschick, Franziska Ellmenreich, Georgine von 
Januschowsky, Kathi Schratt, Josephine Gallmeyer, Marie 
Seebach, Hedwig Niemann-Raabe, Marie Geistinger and 
others, who, by their excellent play aroused not only the 
German Americans to enthusiasm, but also the managers and 
actors of the Anglo-American stage. 

"In reviewing these times," so a noted critic said, "it is 
difficult, to refrain from such language, as not to be suspected 
of exaggerating. No one in our prosaic days can realize the 
ecstasy, by which then New York was taken, not simply the 
Germans, but all New York." 

The managers and members of the Anglo-American theatres 
were the most impressed, because almost every figure, played 
by these great German actors, was a study, unsurpassable in 
charm, accomplishment and truthfulness. How deeply inter- 
ested the best Anglo-American actors became in the play of 
their German colleagues, can be judged by the fact, that 


Edwin Booth, delighted with the acting of Bogumil Davison, 
invited the German to play with him in "Othello." In this 
performance, which took place in January, 1867, Davison had 
the role of Jago ; Methua Scheller, a German actress, gave the 
Desdemona, using in the scenes with Booth-Othello the English 
language, while in the scenes with Davison she spoke German. 
In the same year Booth also invited Fanny Janauscheck to 
act with his company "Lady Macbeth" in Boston. Although 
she spoke in German, she aroused such great enthusiasm, that 
the houses always were sold out. 

Still greater triumphs were achieved by several German 
companies who visited the United States. The most note- 
worthy were the "Munchener," the "Schlierseer," and a part 
of the "Meininger troups." 

The Meininger, organized under the protection of the Duke 
of Saxe-Meiningen, had become famous in Germany for their 
wonderful ensemble as well as for the great attention they 
devoted to historic truthfulness in costumes and scenery. In 
contrast to the American "star-system," by which one partic- 
ular actor or actress, assisted by some performers of minor 
grades, glories in the main role, the Meininger troupe laid 
great value on the equality of all actors, in order to accomplish 
the most harmonious and most artistic interpretation of a 
dramatic masterpiece. 

This idea of ensemble effect had been developed by Richard 
Wagner, who in the presentation of his operas in Bayreuth 
secured his triumphs to a great extent by the equality of the 
most selected singers as well as of the members of the 
orchestra. As the "Meininger," the "Munchener" and "Schlier- 
seer" observed in their dramatic presentations the same prin- 
ciples, their visits to America made the deepest impression on 
the public as well as on the managers and members of the 
American theatres. 

Imbued with the same ambitions, which inspired the man- 
agers of the above-named troupes, was Heinrich Conried, who, 
having been an actor himself, assumed the directorship of 
the Irving Place Theatre of New York City in 1 892 and held 
this position till 1907. 

Under his regime numerous other celebrities of the German 
stage were presented to the American public, among them 
Adolf Sonnenthal, Georg Engels, Felix Schweighofer, Rudolf 
Christians, Ferdinand Bonn, Harry Walden, Agnes Sorma, 
Helene Odilon, Anna Dierkens, Agathe Barsescu and Mia 
Werber, who by their great art won new laurels for the German 
theatre in the United States. 

To interest American students in the great dramas of 
German literature, Conried also gave a number of high-class 
performances of Goethe's "Iphigenia," Lessing's "Minna von 
Barnhelm," Freitag's "Journalisten" and other dramas at 


several Eastern universities, donating the entire income of such 
entertainments to the library fund of the respective institutions. 

Emulating this munificence Charles Frohmann arranged on 
June 22, 1909, for the benefit of the Germanic museum of 
Harvard University a similar magnificent performance of 
Schiller's "Jungfrau von Orleans," with Maud Adams in the 
title role. About 1500 people took part in the pageantry 
and battle scenes, while the audience, numbering more than 
15,000 persons, occupied every seat of the huge semicircle 
of the stadium, which served as a stage. The great success 
of this performance on so large a scale was acknowledged 
by the audience as well as by the critics of the many papers, 
represented at this occasion. 

Conried's successors, among them Maurice Baumfeld and 
Rudolf Christians, did their best, not only to keep up the high 
standard the German drama had reached in former days, but 
even to surpass it. In similar ways strove the managers of 
German stages in Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Louis and San 
Francisco, with the history of which the names of Leon Wachs- 
ner, Alexander Wurster, Ferdinand Welb and Ottilie Genee 
are insolubly connected. 

So the German theatres in the United States have fulfilled 

their high and sacred mission, to cultivate German dramatic 

art and to transmit its rich treasures to many millions of 

Americans and Americans of German descent, to whom the 

highest performances of German poetry would otherwise 

remain an unknown realm. 

# * # # 

Of like great influence as the German Drama has been the 
German Opera. Overtures and other parts of the "Frei- 
schiitz," "Martha," "Czar und Zimmermann" had been played 
by American orchestras as early as 1839. But the first per- 
formances were not given before 1855, when twelve evenings 
were arranged in Niblo's Garden in New York by Julius Unger. 
Four years later Karl Bergmann, the leader of the Philharmonic 
Society, introduced Wagner's "Tannhauser," which was fol- 
lowed in September 1 862 by a season, during which Karl 
Anschiitz produced the "Zauberflote," "Don Juan," "Stra- 
della," and other German operas. 

Soon afterwards Adolf Neuendorff brought for the first time 
Wagner's "Lohengrin," "Der fliegende Hollander" and 
"Rienzi" before the American public. Assisted by such 
eminent singers as Theodor Wachtel, Theodor Habelmann, 
Wilhelm Formes, Eugenie Pappenheim, Pauline Lucca, Ines 
Lichtmay and others these performances were such brilliant 
artistic and financial successes, that it was easy for Leopold 
Damrosch, leader of the Philharmonic Society, to persuade 
the directors of the Metropolitan Opera House, to arrange in 
1 884 a series of German operas in place of the Italian operas, 


which had resulted in serious financial loss. During this season, 
which consisted of 5 7 evenings, the American public became 
acquainted with the operas "Fidelio," "Die Hugenotten," "Die 
Stumme von Portici," "Der Prophet," and, last but not least, 

In selecting his artists Damrosch, breaking with the Amer- 
ican star-system, followed the example set by Wagner in 
Bayreuth. Without regard to cost, he brought together a 
magnificent ensemble of first-class singers, of whom Amalie 
Materna, Marianne Brandt, Marie Schroeder - Hanf stangel, 
Auguste Seidl-Kraus, Joseph Staudigl, Adolf Robinson and 
Anton Schott were the most notable. While the artistic 
success of this season was overwhelming, the financial result 
was also such as to induce the directors of the Metropolitan 
Opera House to make plans for a second, still greater season. 
But the enormous strain of the work had proved fatal to the 
inspirer of the new venture. Leopold Damrosch suffered a 
complete break-down and died on February 10, 1885, just 
when his triumphs were brightest. The season was brought 
to a successful close by Walter Damrosch, the son of the 
deceased leader. 

In the next season he was followed by Anton Seidl, a 
member of Richard Wagners household, who had also con- 
ducted many of his operas in Italy and at the theatre in 
Bremen. While almost all of the great singers of the first 
season were re-engaged, Seidl brought with him several other 
accomplished artists, such as Lilli Lehmann, Albert Stritt, Emil 
Fischer, Gudehus and others. With such an army of most 
accomplished singers victory was assured. And indeed, the 
interpretation given by Seidl to the great works of the master, 
Richard Wagner, and to other operas, aroused an enthusiasm 
never before experienced. And when during the seasons of 
1885 to 1891 Seidl presented all the other great operas of 
the Nibelungen Ring, "Rheingold," "Siegfried," "Gotterdam- 
merung," and when he brought also the eminent Fanny 
Moran-OIden, the matchless Albert Niemann, the brilliant 
Theodor Reichmann, and the ideal Max Alvary (Achenbach) 
into play, the unbelievable became a fact, that all the dried-up 
business-men of New York became "Wagner-fiends," and that 
on afternoons they deserted their offices, hastening to the 
Opera House, to delve into the mystic world of ancient Ger- 
man gods and heroes. No wonder that, when Seidl suddenly 
died, on March 28, 1898, every lover of art felt this as a 
personal loss. 

Several seasons, started by Walter Damrosch and the man- 
agers Abbey and Grau, brought other numbers of eminent 
German singers to America, among them Rosa Sucher, 
Johanna Gadski, Marie Brema, Ernestine Schumann-Heinck, 
Ernest van Dyck, Konrad Behrens and Andreas Dippel, 


which were joined by Marie Rappold, Katharine Fleischer- 
Edel, Marie Mattfeld, Alois Burgstaller, Albert Reiss, van 
Roy, Karl Burrian, Heinrich Knote, Otto Goritz and others, 
when in 1903 Heinrich Conried became manager of the Metro- 
politan Opera House. Assisted by these brilliant singers and 
the eminent conductors Felix Mottl, Gustav Mahler and Alfred 
Hertz Conried presented to the public not only the entire 
"Nibelungen Ring" several times, but also Wagner's "Meister- 
singer," Strauss' "Salome," Humperdinck's "Hansel und 
Gretel," Goldmark's "Konigin von Saba," and Wagner's last 
great work, "Parcifal." This consecrational festival play was 
enacted for the first time in America on Christmas Eve 1903. 
Never before had such great care been devoted to any opera. 
While the corps of artists was the most select, utmost attention 
had been given also to the costumes as well as to the sceneries. 
The result was a performance which, as was stated by the 
most able critics, even surpassed those given in Bayreuth. 
Thousands listened to the last message of the great German 
master in deep devotion, and all agreed that this sublime play 
left with them a most ennobling impression. In the history 
of music the event was epoch-making, as it was for the first 
time that "Parcifal" was given anywhere outside the sacred 
temple of Bayreuth, and for this reason the attention of all 
Europe was directed on New York. 

Under Conried's regime the members of the Metropolitan 
Opera made also several tours through the western parts of 
the United States, visiting Pittsburgh, Chicago, St. Louis, 
Kansas City and San Francisco. 

After the resignation and death of Conried the management 
of the Metropolitan Opera House became a double one. While 
the Italian Gatti Casazza was general manager, the care of 
the German opera was turned over to Andreas Dippel, who 
deserves great credit for the institution of a German chorus. 
After two successful seasons Dippel resigned, to organize the 
Philadelphia-Chicago Opera Company, which he led to many 

Under the regime of Gatti Casazza the public became 
acquainted with Richard Strauss' "Rosencavalier" and Hum- 
perdinck's "Konigskinder." Also a number of new brilliant 
German singers were engaged, among them Frieda Hempel, 
Margarethe Ober, Margarethe Matzenauer, Karl Jorn, Herman 
Weil, Johannes Sembach, Robert Leonhardt and Karl Braun, 
who, with Alfred Hertz and Arthur Bodansky as leaders, 
brought the performances to the highest degree of perfection. 
And so the German stage in America has never failed to inspire 
the love for works of standard literary merit and of the highest 
educational value. 

Well Known Artists, Sculptors and 

A history of American Art would be imperfect without 
giving credit to a large number of German painters, sculptors 
and architects, who made the United States their home or 
were born here from German parents. 

The first examples of German art in America date back as 
far as the middle of the 1 8th century. There lived among 
the Moravians at Bethlehem, Pa., a painter, Johann Valentin 
Haidt, born at Danzig, Eastern Prussia, in 1 700. Attracted 
by the pious life of the Moravians, he joined their sect and 
made his home in Bethlehem. Here he painted numerous 
Biblical scenes, some of which may still be seen in the archives 
of the Moravians. 

At the end of the 18th century Jacob Eichholz, born 1 776 
in Lancaster, Pa., a pupil of the famous Gilbert Stuart, ranked 
among the best portrait painters of Philadelphia. Several of 
his works, among them a portrait of the Moravian Missionary 
Johann Heckewelder, are in the collection of the Pennsylvania 
Academy of Fine Arts. 

Public interest in arts at that time was very low. Just as 
Muther stated in his "History of Modern Painting: "people 
ate and drank, and built and reclaimed the land and multi- 
plied. A large bar of iron was of more value than the finest 
statue, and an ell of good cloth was priced more highly than 
the "Transfiguration" of Raphael." 

J. L. Krimmel and Paul Weber are the names of two artists 
who lived during the first half of the 19th century. While of 
their work but little is known, we are much better informed 
about three artists, of whom each one became a pioneer in 
some distinct line of painting in America. These men were 
Emanuel Leutze, Karl Friedrich Weimar and Albert Bierstadt. 
Born in Germany, these three came in their early years to 
America, received here the first stimulus for art, then going 
abroad to complete their studies at Dlisseldorf, the famous 
art center situated at the lower Rhine. Leutze arrived there 
in 1841 ; Weimar in 1852, and Bierstadt in 1853. It cannot 
surprise that their paintings show in composition, color and 
technique the unmistakable stamp of the Diisseldorf school 
at that time. But in their subjects they are entirely different. 
Instead of choosing for themes the scenes of happy family 
life, or romantic knights, or peaceful landscapes of the Rhine 
and Switzerland, they present men and sceneries of an entirely 




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different world, scenes from the lives of great discoverers, of 
Indians and trappers, and of the battles, in which the Amer- 
icans fought for their liberty. Their hearts beat with enthusi- 
asm in admiration of the heroes whose bravery and patriotism 
had won the war for independence. Again, their skillful brush 
portrayed the sublimity of nature not yet touched by man. 
To them the picturesque aborigines no less than the men who 
formed the vanguard of the white races were neverfailing 
founts of inspiration. It is a peculiar fact, that these German 
American artists proved in spirit as well as in their choice of 
subjects far better Americans than any of their colleagues 
born on American soil. 

Leutze was greatly interested in the figure of Columbus. 
He painted the great discoverer explaining his ideas to the 
High Council of Salamanca; in audience with his noble patron- 
ess Queen Isabel; and in the brilliant entrance at Seville after 
the return from his first successful voyage. Again he portrayed 
him loaded down with chains in the dungeon, suffering the 
abuses heaped upon him by an ingrate government. 

The last painting, which won him a gold medal at Brussels, 
was followed by another historical subject, "The Landing of 
the Norsemen in Vinland." While Leutze established his fame 
with these paintings, he will, no doubt, be remembered longest 
by his large painting "Washington crossing the Delaware. 
Executed 185 1 in Diisseldorf, it is now one of the gems of the 
Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. 

The episode is depicted in the early hours of a cold winter 
morning. The last star still is gleaming in the sky. A little 
flotilla of boats, rowed by sturdy men, seeks a way through 
the heavy packs of ice, floating on the river. In the leading 
boat the hero of those stirring times stands erect, his clear 
eyes seeking to pierce the distant haze. 

When exhibited in Germany this painting made such deep 
impression, that the Prussian Government honored the artist 
by bestowing on him the great medal for science and art. 
In America it has been reproduced more often than any other 
picture. Making its way into hundreds of thousands of humble 
huts as well as into rich palaces it became indeed a national 
possession of the American people. 

Among the numerous paintings following, the most notable 
were "Washington at Monmouth;'* "The Settlement of Mary- 
land by Lord Baltimore," and "Westward the Course of 
Empire Takes Its Way." The last one, finished in 1862, is a 
large mural painting in the Capitol at Washington and shows 
a caravan of those emigrants who, enticed by the discovery 
of gold in California, made with their linen-covered "prairie- 
schooners" the long journey from the Mississippi to the Pacific, 
to establish there new homes. The picture presents the weary 
travellers as having crossed a pass on the Sierra Nevada. In 


the far distance they see the New Canaan, stretching like a 
mirage of hope before their eyes and bathed in the glorious 
lights of a Western sunset. 

Of the few American artists of the 19th century who 
created historical paintings, Emanuel Leutze was the greatest. 
Imbued with a patriotic love for America, its history and the 
spirit of its institutions, he was at the same time a man of large 
mould, capable of grand enthusiasm, and aspiring to grasp 
soaring ideals. Although his art was often at fault, it makes 
us feel, notwithstanding, that in contemplating his works we 
are in the presence of a gigantic mind. He drew from wells 
of seemingly inexhaustible inspiration. He was Byronic in the 
impetus of his genius, the rugged incompleteness of his style, 
the magnificent fervor and rush of his fancy, the epic grandeur 
and energy, dash and daring of his creations. To him is well 
applied the German motto: 

"Wer den Besten seiner Zeit genug gethan, 
Der hat gelebt fur alle Zeiten." — 

How much men are the products of environment and 
impressions, is shown also by the life of Karl Ferdinand 
Weimar, or, as his name is Americanized, Wimar. Born 1828 
in Siegburg he came in 1 844 with his parents to St. Louis, then 
a regular frontier town and a station of the American Fur 
Company, from where large trading expeditions went to New 
Mexico, California and Oregon. To this place the Indians 
and trappers of the upper Mississippi and Missouri made 
annual pilgrimages for the purpose of exchanging furs for 
guns, ammunition, cloth and such other commodities as were 
needed in their wild life. Greatly attracted by these pictur- 
esque figures, Weimar began to sketch them, but feeling his 
shortcomings he went in 1852 to Diisseldorf to study. Here 
he enjoyed the instruction of such famous artists as Oswald 
Achenbach and Emanuel Leutze, who just then were at their 
height. In Diisseldorf Weimar finished several paintings, of 
which "The captive Charger" was the most impressive. It 
shows several Indians in possession of the beautiful horse of 
an American officer, who has been killed in battle. 

Having acquired the technique of his art, Weimar returned 
in 1856 to St. Louis. Taking part in several expeditions of 
the Fur Company to the upper Missouri, he made studies for 
several paintings, among them "Indians hunting buffaloes." 
He had just begun to make the drawings for a number of 
mural paintings for the cupola of the courthouse in St. Louis, 
when he fell a victim to consumption. 

His desire to portray to later generations faithful scenes of 
the fast vanishing Indian life Weimar could fulfill only to a 
small degree. But he is entitled to recognition for having been 
the first to discover and utilize in worthy manner the superb 




§ to 


picturesque qualities of the Indian, while this theme was prac- 
tically ignored by contemporary artists. As Wm. R. Hodges 
says in a biography of Weimar: "It is most strange that none 
of our early painters seemed conscious of the existence of the 
Indian save as the blood-thirsty and implacable enemy of the 
white man. It is possible that race hatred blinded their eyes 
to his pictorial value, and that it was reserved to one foreign 
born, with a mind unclouded by the recollection of centuries 
of relentless warfare to perceive with an artist's eye a virgin 
field unequaled in dramatic and pictorial interest." 

So Weimar was the forerunner of Remington, Schreyvogel, 
Demming, Leigh and other artists, who in our times by repres- 
entations of Western life have recorded such great success. 

While thus Leutze was a pioneer on historical and Weimar 
on ethnological subjects, so Albert Bierstadt is entitled to the 
honor of having disclosed first to the Americans the grandeur 
of Western sceneries. Born 1 830 at Solingen, Rhenish Prussia, 
he went in 1853 to Diisseldorf, where he was a pupil of 
Lessing and Andreas Achenbach. 

On his return to America he accompanied an exploring 
expedition under command of General Lander to the Rocky 
Mountains. The results of this venturesome journey consisted 
in several powerful paintings, which were revelations throwing 
beholders into an ecstacy of delight. These landscapes were 
no prosaic copies from nature, but poems in color, wherein 
the author expressed with great effect the overwhelming 
grandeur of his scenes. 

This first trip into the sublime wildernesses of the Far West 
was later on repeated many times. "Landers Peak," "Mount 
Corcoran," "Mount Hood," "The Domes of Yosemite Valley," 
"Evening at Mount Tacoma" are the titles of a few of Bier- 
stadt' s canvasses, which may be justly ranked with the best 
examples of landscape painting of the 19th century. 

The influence of Bierstadt on American art was very remark- 
able. Among his followers were Thomas Hill, Thomas Moran, 
Julian Rix,- William Riess, and others, who in their spirited 
works glorified the wonders of our Far West. — 

A contemporary of Leutze was Christian Schussele, born 
1824 in Gebweiler, Elsass. He came to America in 1848 and 
was appointed professor of drawing and painting in the Penn- 
sylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia. Attracted like 
Leutze by the great figures of American history, he painted 
among other scenes "Franklin before the Lords in Council;^ 
"Washington at Valley Forge;" "McClellan at Antietam;" 
"Men of Progress" and "The Moravian Missionary Zeisberger 
preaching to Indians." (See page 24.) All were reproduced 
by eminent engravers and widely circulated. 

Theodor Kaufmann, a Hanoverian, selected scenes of the 


Civil War for his canvasses. His paintings "General Sherman 
at the Camp fire," "Farragut" and "Lincoln's Death" have 
also been reproduced in engravings. 

The Pennsylvania German Peter Rothermel is represented 
in the collections of the Pennsylvania Art Society by the paint- 
ing "The Statehouse on the Day of the Battle at Germantown." 
He also produced a gigantic canvass "The Battle of Gettys- 
burg," which was one of the attractions of the Centennial Fair 
at Philadelphia in 1876. 

Thomas Nast, born 1 840 at Landau in the Palatinate, is the 
author of two well known paintings: "Lincoln's Entrance Into 
Richmond," and "The Departure of the 7th New York Regi- 
ment on April 19th, 1861." (See page 100.) This brilliant 
canvass adorns the armory of said regiment. 

A real "Painter of the Western Frontier" was Charles 
Schreyvogel, of New York. Having studied under Karl Marr 

' Ml* Sbj 



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and Kirschbach in Munich, he leaped after his return in 1 890 
into fame at one bound with his spirited picture "My Bunkie." 
It shows a handful of U. S. cavalrymen in a running fight with 
Indians. One of the troopers, dismounted, is seen by his 
"bunkie" and drawn up on the latter's mount. Everything 
is on the gallop. The free action of the horses and the 
strain of the soldiers are superbly reproduced. But the great 
points of the picture are its immense nerve and its atmosphere. 
At a glance it is seen that "My Bunkie" is true to life. 


In rapid succession this painting was followed by others, 
reflecting with admirable fidelity the strenuousness of Western 
life. "Defending the Stockade" is the title of one of these can- 
vasses. The scene is the interior of a fort, which is held by 
hardly a score of men. Everywhere is passionate action and 
hot fight, everywhere curls the yellowish smoke of powder. 
Already the redskins are mounting the palisades, eager to drive 
the soldiers away by the flames of burning brushwood thrown 
at them. In desperate desire for combat the gallant soldiers 
hurry, to repel once more the bloodthirsty enemy, which seems 
to be in overwhelming majority. 

"The Fight for the Waterhole" is a similar painting, full of 
action. In the middle of a desert, overflowed by the setting 
sun with magic light, stretches a little pool of water. Its posses- 
sion means life or death, as animals and men have suffered 
terribly under the intense heat of the day. But a band of 
hostile Indians occupies the place, determined to hold it to the 
last man. Upon them breaks a troup of cavalry with irresistible 
vehemence. The horse of the officer rears up like a bolt, as 
the deperate struggle for the precious liquid grows in violence. 

Many other paintings of equal value followed in rapid suc- 
cession, among them "How Cola," "The Despatch Bearer," 
"A Sure Shot" and others, reproductions of which have found 
wide distribution. Unfortunately the prolific artist met a pre- 
mature death in 1911. 

Rudolf Cronau, born in Solingen, Rhenish Prussia, in 1855, 
painted "A Rencountre in the Far West." The canvass shows 
the weird scenery of a valley of the Green River, Utah. 
Gigantic rocks rise to towering height, like sentinels guarding 
the entrance of the valley for ages past. A band of hostile 
Indians has surprised a group of prospectors, encamped in 
an exposed position, and it is left to the beholder to picture 
to himself the outcome of the combat about to develop. 

"Sunset of the Red Race" is the title of another work of 
the same artist. A Sioux Indian, seated at the foot of some 
burial scaffolds of his ancestors, glances over a wide river- 
valley, flooded with the rays of the setting sun. Once this 
valley belonged to the hunting grounds of his tribe, but now it 
is traversed by the locomotive, the yelling whistle of which 
sounds the doom of the red race. — 

Cronau painted also numerous sceneries of the West Indies, 
Southern Spain and Morocco, among them a series of water 
colors from the Alhambra. 

Albert Groll is an artist whose brush conveys glorious 
pictures of the deserts of Arizona, so wonderful in color. 

Friedrich Dielman, born 1847 at Hanover, is like many 
American artists a former student of the Royal Academy of 
Munich. Living since 1876 in New York, he devoted himself 
to historical and mural painting. Examples of his work are 


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to be found in the Congressional Library, in the building of 
the "Washington Evening Star" and in the building of the 
Savings Bank in Albany, N. Y. 

The same specialty has been selected by Arthur Thomas in 
New York. He decorated the City Hall at St. Louis, the 
Memorial Hall at Columbus, Ohio, the Court House at South 
Bend, Indiana, and other public buildings with historical and 
allegorical paintings, distinguished by clear conception, excel- 
lent design and brilliant color. 

Among the noted painters, who in their subjects confined 
themselves to sceneries of the East and of the Middle States, 
were Wilhelm Sonntag, Hermann Fiichsel, Heinrich Vianden 
and Gottfried Frankenstein. The latter' s paintings of the 
Niagara Falls conveyed to Europe an estimate of this marvel 
in nature with compelling force. 

A highly esteemed landscape painter was also John Henry 
Twachtman, born in Cincinnati in 1853. He studied in Munich, 
Venice and Paris. In his contemplative attitude toward nature, 
in his almost ethereal character of his technic, in the purity 
and simplicity of his emotion he reminded much of Corot and 
Whistler. He spiritualized the objects he painted and at the 
same time he has spiritualized his paint. It has been said of 
him, that "ethereal color and form seem to have blown into 
the canvas, and that his art was a victory of the creator over 
his materials." He died in Gloucester, Mass., in 1902. 

Another splendid artist, carried away much too soon, was 
Robert F. Blum, born 1 867 in Cincinnati. His excellent scenes 
of Venice and Japan are full of sunlight and lustrous color. 
Also they are distinguished by careful drawing. His "Japanese 
Sugar-Huckster" is one of the gems of the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art in New York. At the same museum we find 
two remarkable paintings of Charles F. Ulrich, born 1858 in 
New York: "The Glass-Blowers in Burano," and "The 
Promised Land." The Corcoran Gallery in Washington has a 
painting showing the arrival of immigrants in Castle Garden, 
the former landing place in New York. These pictures are 
distinguished by a mild lustre of color and sobriety in tone. 
A very productive genre painter was also Henry Mosler, 
born in 1841 in New York. One of his best, "A Wedding 
in the Bretagne," is in the Metropolitan Art Museum. "The 
Dawn of Our Flag," a symbolic glorification of the Star- 
spangled Banner, is owned by the Corcoran Gallery in Wash- 

Several of the most noteworthy of American artists of 
German descent who went to Germany to study, have made 
that country their permanent home, feeling that they would 
enjoy there a much richer artistic atmosphere and greater 
appreciation than in their native country. Among these artists 
were Carl Marr, Toby Rosenthal, Gari Melchers and Hermann 


Hartwich. Marr was born at Milwaukee, in 1858. Having 
studied in Munich he has remained there ever since, honored 
by being appointed as a professor at the same Royal Academy 
where he had pursued his studies. One of his first paintings 
was "The Mystery of Life," showing Ahasver, the wandering 
Jew. Tired of life, he meditates, his gaze fixed on the lifeless 
body of a beautiful young girl, which has been tossed up by 
the sea on a gloomy shore. This painting as well as another, 
"Gossip," showing two girls spinning, are owned by the Metro- 
politan Museum of Art in New York. 

Perhaps the most powerful painting of Marr, the "Procession 
of Flagellants" is owned by his native town, Milwaukee, 
to which it was donated by some of her citizens. When this 
painting was first shown in the Munich Exhibition of 1889, 
it was placed most effectually. Entering the exposition build- 
ing from the street, one passed through a vestibule which by 
the aid of Oriental rugs had been converted into a mass of 
soft, richly subdued harmonies. From this vestibule one 
entered a room, where a screened skylight diffused a twilight 
effect on groups of palms. From this dimly lit apartment a 
door ten feet wide gave entrance to the picture gallery, and 
on the wall opposite was the painting, the only one that could 
be seen. The whole arrangement gave the effect of looking 
from a window on the self-tortured, fanatical wretches, who, 
scourge in hand, led by the hermit Rainier, overran Italy in 
the 1 3th century. So strong was the illusion, so intensified 
by the picture's realism, that it required only a slight exaltation 
of the senses to hear the hiss of the scourge as it fell on the 
lacerated and bleeding back of the devotee, the praying, the 
groaning and the weeping. It was certainly no small honor 
to the picture to place it thus in an exhibition which repre- 
sented not only the best of German, but also much of the best 
of French art. But it was, together with the gold medal 
awarded the painting, an honor which was well deserved. An 
excellent composition containing over two hundred figures, all 
well drawn; a story requiring much historical research, well 
told, although not without some warrantable artistic license; 
stirring and dramatic action without a suggestion of the stage; 
the whole, if not vigorously, at least well painted — the artist 
had produced in this work a picture which in its technical 
qualities easily took rank with the average in the exhibition, 
and in its quality of invention stood almost alone. 

The "Flagellants" have been followed by many other 
paintings, very few of which, however, found their way to 
America, as they have been mostly acquired by German 
galleries and connoisseurs. 

Munich became also the home of Toby Rosenthal, born in 
1 848 at New Haven, Conn. He created numerous paintings, 
showing scenes of every-day life, many of which breathe a 
delicious humor. 


Gari Melchers, born in 1 860 at Detroit, is of all the Amer- 
ican artists, living abroad, the best known in this country, as 
many works of his virile art have been included in American 
galleries. "Skaters" is in the possession of the Pennsylvania 
Art Academy in Philadelphia; "Penelope" belongs to the 
Corcoran Gallery in Washington; a portrait of ex-President 
Roosevelt is in the National Gallery, Washington; others are 
to be found in the Art Museums of Detroit, Chicago, and Pitts- 
burgh; one of the very best, "Madonna," is owned by the 
Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. 

All the paintings of Melchers, who occupied for several 
years a professorship at the Academy of Art in Weimar, Ger- 

(From a painting by Karl Rungius.) 

many, are extremely interesting in the charming play of light 
and color, and no one can imagine a more wholesome correc- 
tive against the excrescences of the so-called "modern art," as 
futurism, cubism and other insane "isms." 

Among the best American portrait painters we find Adolf 
Miiller-Ury, Emil Fuchs, Paul Selinger, Karl L. Brandt, W. J. 
Baer, Wilhelm Funk, and Karl Gutherz, the latter also the 
author of a painting in the Congressional Library, "The Light 
of Civilization." 

An excellent painter of animal life is Karl Rungius. The 
majestic Wapiti of the Rocky Mountains, the graceful antelope 


of the plains, the shaggy moose of the Northern forests have 
been presented by this artist in unsurpassable manner. A 
specialty of Edmund H. Osthaus in Toledo is the dog. 

The number of first-class illustrators of German origin is very 
large. Among them are Max F. Klepper, Joseph Leyendecker, 
Charles Reinhardt, L. W. Zeigler, Blumenschein, Julius Loeb, 
A. B. Wenzell, Benjamin W. Clinedinst, Erich Pape and others, 
many of whom are former pupils of the Art Academies of 


# * * * 

While at the beginning of the 19th century the interest of 
the young American nation was very low in regard to paint- 
ings, it was entirely absent in regard to sculpture. The Puritans 
and Quakers in their prudishness abhorred all representations 
of the human body, with exception perhaps of some sexless 
cherubs. So the meagre orders given to the masters of the 
chisel were confined to the execution of tombstones, and, after 
the Civil War, to a few soldiers' monuments. 

Such unfavorable conditions embittered the life of several 
German sculptors, born in the United States or drifted to this 
country by some caprice of fate. There was for instance Ferdi- 
nand Pettrich, a former pupil of the famous Thorwaldsen. 
Born at Dresden, he came in 1835 to Philadelphia, hoping to 
find work. But the only commissions he succeeded in getting 
were some monuments for tombs. The figures of an "Amor 
defeated" and of "Mephistopheles," done in the sculptor's all 
too many leisure hours, induced President Tylor to commission 
Pettrich with the execution of four large reliefs for the base 
of a monument to Washington. Congress, however, could 
not be induced to grant the money for the work, which had 
already been finished in clay. Disappointed the sculptor 
returned in 1845 to Germany. 

Francis Dengler, Franz Meynen, Christoph Paulus, Heinrich 
Baerer, Georg Hesse, Ephraim Kaiser and Caspar Buberl 
suffered greatly under similar difficulties. Few and far between 
were the opportunities for them to exhibit their ability, such as 
was shown by Buberl in five great reliefs for the Garfield 
monument in Cleveland. These reliefs, showing the martyr- 
President in different phases of his life, contain more than one 
hundred figures in full life size. The Patent Office in Washing- 
ton has, by the same artist, several allegorical groups: "Elec- 
tricity and Magnetism;" "Fire and Water;" "Invention and 
Industry;" "Agriculture and Mining." The National Museum 
is in possession of a colossal group "Columbia as Protectoress 
of Science, Art and Industry." 

William Rinehart, the son of a German farmer in Maryland, 
had the good fortune, to be sent by the great art collector 
W. S. Walters in Baltimore to Italy, where he studied and 
made two bas-reliefs, "Night" and "Day." For a short time he 


came back to Baltimore, but, missing here the atmosphere so 
necessary for artists, he returned to Rome, where he made 
many beautiful sculptures, of which "Clytie," a life-sized nude 
marble, is in the Peabody Museum, while "Latona and her 
Children" is in the Metropolitan Museum. 

Joseph Sibbel and Joseph Lohmuller in New York were 
very prolific during the latter part of the 19th and the begin- 
ning of the present century in beautifying the cathedrals and 
churches of America with reliefs of Biblical scenes and the 
statues of Madonnas, Martyrs, Saints and Apostles. 

More favorable times for the masters of the chisel came 
with the great expositions in Chicago, Omaha, Buffalo, St. 
Louis, Portland and San Francisco. To break the tiresome 
monotony of the enormous palaces and temples, of the wide 
courts and endless colonnades it was necessary to adorn them 
with allegorical groups and statues, such as had been seen at 
the exposition grounds of Europe. Here, at last, came for 
American sculptors welcome opportunities to show their abili- 
ties. No one answered the call with greater enthusiasm than 
Karl Bitter, born in 1867 at Vienna, and a former student 
of the Academy of Fine Arts of his native city. He arrived in 
New York in 1 889, at a time, when architects prepared plans 
for the great Columbian Exposition in Chicago. To Richard 
M. Hunt, one of the foremost architects in New York, had 
fallen the task of designing the stately Administration Building. 
On his invitation Bitter executed the elaborate sculptural dec- 
orations for this building with such success, that he was 
requested to furnish also the sculpture works for the Liberal 
Arts Building and other palaces. They were done in such 
masterly way, that several years later, when Buffalo prepared 
for the Pan-American Exposition, the National Sculpture 
Society nominated Bitter as the director of sculpture. In this 
position Bitter, with an inspiration that captured the Board of 
Architects, conceived a scheme of sculpture, which illustrated 
the purposes and objects of the exposition as an inherent rev- 
elation of the delevopment and various forms of energy and 
activity of the Western Hemisphere. That it should be merely 
ornamental did not satisfy him. Hence his scheme was a 
progressive composition: first, Nature; then, Man; and then 
the Genius of Man. Nature was expressed by fountains and 
groups entitled Mineral Wealth, Animal Wealth, and Floral 
Wealth. The Fountain of Nature was balanced by such sub- 
jects as the Savage Age, the Age of Despotism and the Age 
of Enlightenment. In the division showing the Genius of Man, 
there were groups representing the human emotions and the 
human intellect; the birth of Athene typifying the intellect. 

Science, Agriculture and Manufacture were counterparts on 
the Fountain in the center, and the great tower was surmounted 
by the Goddess of Light. The main approach to the exposi- 


tion, called the Triumphal Causeway, was symbolical of the 
National spirit. The groups in the niches represented Courage, 
Patriotism, Truth and Benevolence; the fountains between 
which one paused symbolized the Atlantic and Pacific; and 
the mounted standard bearers crowning the four pylons of 
the causeway were, with their accessories, designed to express 
Power and Peace. There were more than five hundred of such 
groups and figures. In selecting his collaborators, in supervising 
the tremendous work and in placing the finished groups in 
position, Bitter displayed such infinite tact, thorough knowl- 
edge, and extraordinary executive abilities, that this part of 
the Pan-American Exposition was its greatest success. 

So it was only natural, that, when the projects for the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition at St. Louis and for the Panama- 
Pacific Exposition at San Francisco were discussed, Bitter's 
services as director of all sculpture work were regarded as 
indispensable. His general schemes for these expositions 
manifested again the boundlessness of his inventive spirit, the 
breadth of his mind and the wide range of his powers. They 
illustrated the marvellous natural gifts of the Western regions, 
their development by men, the rise of the West, the contact of 
American culture with that of Asia, and the great benefit man- 
kind will derive from the completion of the Panama Canal. — 

While Bitter was engaged in all these herculean works, he 
found nevertheless time to create a large number of statues, 
monuments and portrait-busts. The most remarkable of these 
works are an equestrian statue of General Franz Sigel (see 
page 103) and a Carl Schurz Monument. Both have been 
made for New York and are notable for their dignity. Besides, 
Bitter made for the University of Virginia a wonderful figure 
of Thomas Jefferson; furthermore the beautiful Villard 
Memorial in Sleepy Hollow at Tarrytown, N. Y., showing a 
workingman at evening's rest, having forged great things on 
the anvil of life. 

When Bitter in 1915 lost accidentally his life in his forty- 
seventh year, America lost a genius, who had gained the un- 
bounded admiration of all his fellow-craftsmen. 

The expositions at Chicago, Buffalo and St. Louis were also 
the grounds, where Isidor Konti, coming from Vienna, found 
opportunities to give full rein to his rich imagination. In St. 
Louis the Great Cascade with an abundance of water-gods, 
nymphs and phantastic creatures of the ocean was his work. 
At the same place he exhibited a group "The Despotic Age.*' 
It showed some workmen who, loaded with chains and almost 
breaking down, pull a heavy triumphal car, on whose platform 
sits a brutal despot, whose hard cruel eyes betray, that pity 
is a virtue unknown to him. At the side of the car walks a 
fury, driving on with her whip the groaning human beasts of 
burden to still greater efforts. 


A tragedy of life was also the subject of Alexander Wein- 
man's most impressive group "Destiny of the Red Race," 
symbolizing the irrevocable fate of the North American 
Indians. As their existence was depending upon the existence 
of the buffalo, which provided them with food, clothing and 
even shelter, the artist placed this now almost extinct animal 
at the head of a small group, consisting of a chief, a warrior, 
a squaw and a boy. With them vanishes Manitou, the Great 
Spirit, to whom the red men directed their prayers and hopes. 

Frederick W. Ruckstuhl, born in 1853 in Alsace, executed 
two colossal marble statues, "Wisdom" and "Force," placed 
at the steps of the Appellate Court House, New York City. 

Other works are "Defense of the Flag" at the Confederate 
Monument at Little Rock, Ark.; "Solon," "Macauley," 
"Franklin" and "Goethe" in the Library of Congress; several 
soldiers' monuments and statues, among the latter an equestrian 
statue of General Hartranft, at Harrisburg, Pa. 

Max Mauch, A. SchafF, Bruno Louis Zimm, Carl Heber, 
F. E. Triebel, Henry Linder, Theodor Baur, Gustav Gerlach, 
Max Bachman, M. Schwarzott, Rudolf Schwarz, Frank Hap- 
persburger, Leonard Volk, Carl Gerhart, A. Weinert, E. 
Wuertz, C. F. Hamann, Charles Henry Niehaus, Otto Schwei- 
zer, Albert Jaegers, Friedrich Roth, and Charles Keck are 
American sculptors of German descent, all of whom have 
done very creditable work. 

Niehaus, born in 1855 at Cincinnati, studied also in Munich. 
After his return he opened a studio in New York, where he 
created numerous statues of noted Americans, among them 
those of the Presidents Lincoln, Garfield, Harrison and McKin- 
ley. At the Louisiana Purchase Exposition he was represented 
by a powerful equestrial statue of Louis IX, King of France, 
from whom Louisiana derived its name. 

The city of Indianapolis owns perhaps the most imposing 
soldiers' monument in the United States. While its architectural 
part was designed by the famous architect Bruno Schmitz in 
Berlin, the four magnificent groups of warriors and sailors 
have been modelled by Rudolf Schwarz, who immigrated in 
1897 from Vienna. The same artist made also the soldiers* 
monuments in South Bend, Terre Haute, Dayton, and other 
cities of Indiana and Ohio. 

Otto Schweizer in Philadelphia is engaged in the same line 
of sculpture. In front of the City Hall of Philadelphia we find 
his statue of General Peter Muhlenberg (see page 51); Utica, 
N. Y., and Valley Forge have Steuben monuments; Buffalo 
a Schiller monument. Also he created numerous statues of 
American statesmen. Among his recent works is a monument 
to the memory of Molly Pitcher in Carlisle, Pa. 

Albert Jaegers, born at Elberfeld, Germany, 1 868, came 
to Cincinnati while still a child. Entirely self-taught in his 


profession, he won a number of competitions inaugurated and 
decided by the National Sculpture Society. He was also the 
winner in a competition for a monument of Major-General 
Baron von Steuben. This statue, standing at the northwest 
corner of the famous Lafayette Park in Washington, D. C, 
shows the general as standing on an eminence inspecting the 
great maneuvres held by him in Valley Forge in spring of 
T 7 78. He is heavily cloaked; the hand lightly at rest on the 
hilt of his sword. So he follows with keen interest the unfolding 
movement of the troops (see page 56). At the base of the 
statue are two groups, the one, "Military Instruction," rep- 
resenting Steuben's life work, the drilling and training of 
the American Army. An experienced warrior is shown 
instructing a youth in the use of the sword. In the second 
group, "Commemoration," America is teaching youth to 
honor the memory of her heroes. A foreign branch is grafted 
into a tree of her national life. She welds to her heart the 
foreigner who has cast his life and fortune with the weal and 
woe of her people, embodying the idea of unity and fraternity 
of all nationalities under the guidance of a great republic. 
The statue was unveiled in presence of President William 
Taft and of almost 20,000 delegates of German American 
Societies on December 7, 1 9 1 0. A chorus of 1 000 members 
of the Northeastern Singers' Association, accompanied by the 
United States Marine Band, sung the "Star-Spangled Banner" 
in a most inspiring manner. Then followed a salute of honor 
fired by a battery, amid the cheers of a delighted multitude 
gathered to do honor to the great hero, who had contributed 
so generously to the success of the Continental Army. 

A second great success was achieved by Jaegers in the 
competition for a monument in commemoration of the landing 
of the German settlers of Germantown. 

The main statue of this monument represents, throning high 
upon a rock, the sacred light bearer, whose escutcheon, Sieg- 
fried killing the dragon, typifies the eternal warfare against 
the powers of darkness. Reposeful and mighty, the goddess 
leans toward the oak, that fine emblem of German sturdiness. 
This statue, as the crowning feature, viewed from a certain 
distance, assumes the importance of the monument proper; but 
upon nearer approach the center figures of the main group 
below, the German Pilgrim Father, absorbs the attention until 
it is realized that this is the great note of the monument. 
Fearless and true, this Pilgrim steps forth into the New World, 
a prayer in his heart, his protecting arm around his mate — 
to face his labor and his destiny (see frontispiece). Ever at 
his side walks the spirit of joy and music, the spirit that points 
to ideals. 

On the sides and rear of the pedestal reliefs reveal the 
important part the German Americans have taken in the mak- 


ing and development of their adopted country. In the one 
physical labor is shown as the fundamental principle upon 
which art and science arise. Another shows the war volunteer, 
who freely sheds his blood for the independence and union 
of his country. The last one commemorates the protest against 
slavery made by the inhabitants of Germantown in 1 688. 

As conspicuous as is the influence of German painting and 
sculpture on American art, so the influence of German archi- 
tects on American architecture has been very remarkable. 
Indeed, it can be said, that the most beautiful buildings of our 
United States have been designed by architects of German 

To begin with the most prominent building of our country, 
the Capitol at Washington, D. C., it can be stated, that its 
grand dome as well as the extensions of the Houses of Senate 
and Representatives have been designed and executed by 
Thomas U. Walter, the grandfather of whom, Jacob Friedrich 
Walter, had immigrated from Germany. 

The dome is an object of imposing beauty, to be seen for 
miles around. No edifice in the world possesses one equal to 
it in classic symmetry. Of cast iron, great engineering skill 
was required in its erection. The walls had to be trussed, 
bolted, girded and clamped in every conceivable way to hold 
in position the immense superstructure. To appreciate its 
immense weight is scarcely possible. Walter calculated its 
8,909,200 pounds of cast and wrought iron as giving a pressure 
of 13,477 pounds to the square foot at the basement floor, 
and the supporting walls as capable of holding 755,280 pounds 
to the same area. The pressure upon the walls of the cellar 
floor, exclusive of the weight of the bronze statue of the 
Goddess of Freedom, on top of the dome, weighing 14,985 
pounds, is estimated at 51,292,25 3 pounds. The dome is 
composed of two shells, one within the other, which expand 
and contract with the variations in temperature; between these 
the stairway winds in its ascent. The greatest diameter at 
the base is 1 35 feet 5 inches. 

The lower portion of the exterior is surrounded by 36 
columns representing the 36 States in the Union at the time it 
was designed. The 1 3 columns which encircle the lantern 
above the tholus are emblematic of the 1 3 original States. This 
lantern is 24 feet in diameter and 50 feet in height. Its light 
notifies the surrounding country for miles of a night session in 
either House. The cost of the dome was $1,047,291. 

Walter constructed also the U. S. Treasury Building, the 
east and west wing of the Patent Office, and the beautiful 
Girard College in Philadelphia. 


In the immediate neighborhood of the National Capitol is 
the impressively beautiful Library of Congress, also a work of 
German architects, namely Johann I. Schmitmeyer, a native of 
Vienna, and Paul Johannes Pelz, born at Seitendorf Prussish 
Silesia. The latter, a pupil of Detlef Lienau, a noted architect 
in New York, had, previous to his work on the Congressional 
Library, been connected with the U. S. Lighthouse Board, for 
which he made the designs for many lighthouses, who in 1873 
won the first prize at the World's Exposition in Vienna. In 
the same year he formed with Schmitmeyer in Washington a 
business agreement, to participate with him in the competition 
for the architectural plans of the Congressional Library. Of 
twenty-eight designs, submitted by the foremost architects of 
America as well as Europe, Schmitmeyer and Pelz were the 
winners, holding the ground also in a second competition, in 
which the number of participators rose to forty. Having gained 
final victory, the two Germans remained for thirteen years at 
work, furnishing the designs for every detail. By making 
several trips to Europe, they studied also the arrangements of 
all great libraries existing. Merging the practical knowledge 
of former centuries with modern innovations, the two architects 
created thus the magnificent palace which stands in all respects 
among the libraries of the world unequalled. 

Without question this building is the most beautiful in 
America. Finished in Italian Renaissance style, it is with 
its numerous spacious halls, stairways, corridors, assembly 
rooms and its magnificent reading-rotunda a triumph of 
architectural art. 

In view of this fact and considering the diligent work of 
the architects, who spent almost a lifetime in their efforts to 
reach in every point highest perfection, it is deeply to be 
regretted, that the two masters neither received an adequate 
material compensation, nor the artistic recognition to which 
they were entitled. After their designs had been finished, the 
Library-Committee, appointed by Congress, removed the two 
architects and assigned General Thomas L. Casey, chief of 
the U. S. Corps of Engineers, to take charge of the actual 
building of the structure. As he commanded a military educa- 
tion only and was unable to supervise also the artistic part, 
his son Edward, a young man twenty-five years of age, who 
had studied for a short while at Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris, 
was made artistic supervisor, receiving a salary twice as high 
as that paid to Mr. Pelz, the real architect. But this was not all. 
To crown these foul tricks a plate of marble was inserted over 
the main entrance of the building, bearing the following in- 


Erected under the Acts of Congress of April 15, 1866, 

October 2, 1888 and March 2, 1889, by 

Brig. Gen. Thos. Lincoln Casey, Chief of Engineers, 

U. S. A. 

Bernhard R. Green, Supt. and Engineer. 
John L. Smithmeyer, Architect. 

Paul J. Pelz, Architect. 
Edward Pearce Casey, Architect. 

Thus the chief engineer of the U. S. Army was stamped as 
the creator of the library. The real designers were to content 
themselves with the third and fourth place and to share their 
just title with an inexperienced young man, who had con- 
tributed hardly anything toward the artistic design or finish 
of the w T hole building. Messrs. Schmitmeyer and Pelz remon- 
strated against this diminution of their credit, nevertheless the 
marble plate was inserted and is still there, a visible monument 
of influences at work upon a Congress of our United States. 

How professional men judged of this matter appears from 
the following declaration of the president and the secretary 
of the "American Institute of Architects": "We are familiar 
with this building, from the beginning to the present time, 
and feel that no one can, with propriety or honesty, be entitled 
to the credit as architects of this building except J. L. Smith- 
meyer and Paul J. Pelz. They have devoted the best years 
of their lives, from 1873 to 1893, in perfecting the plan and 
in designing the exterior and interior of that building." — 

And the magazine "Architecture and Buildings," in its num- 
ber of April 3, 1 89 7, explained : "It looks queer to professional 
men that the names of the paymaster who drew the money 
for the building out of the Treasury on his signature, and the 
clerk of the works or superintendent, with the supernumerary 
and superfluous title of engineer (as if there had been anything 
to "engineer" in the building, save the appropriations in Con- 
gress) appear above those of the architects, who created it 
in their minds and who are in truth the fathers of the structure. 
Why does there appear a line of demarkation below the Chief 
of Engineers, putting the architects "below the salt" as it 
were? — It must be remembered here that the advent of Gen- 
eral Casey was at a time, when Messrs. Smithmeyer & Pelz 
had, like Columbus, already discovered America; their plans 
were complete and ready to be proceeded with." — 


German American architects furnished also the designs for 
many other important public buildings. Hornbostel designed 
the beautiful Technical High School in Pittsburgh; also the 
Memorial Building and the Educational Building in Albany, 
N. Y. Alfred C. Clas erected the Public Libraries of Milwaukee 
and Madison, Wise. H. C. Koch made the plans for the City 
Hall in Milwaukee; Theodor Karl Link made the plans for 
the City Hall and the Union Station in St. Louis; Otto and 
Cyrus Eidlitz are the architects of the New York Times Build- 
ing, the Public Library in Buffalo and many business buildings. 
The brothers Hertel erected the beautiful palace of the Vander- 
bilts on Fifth Avenue, New York ; Henry J. Hardenbergh con- 
structed the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, the Plaza, Manhattan, 
Dakota Hotel and others. G. L. Heins, as member of the firm 
Heins & La Farge, designed many churches and the magnifi- 
cent Protestant-Episcopal Cathedral of St. John the Divine in 
New York. Heins, born in 1 860 at Philadelphia, has been also 
the State architect of all New York State buildings since 1 898. 

No pretense is made of the completeness of this chapter, 
outlining the works of American artists, sculptors and archi- 
tects of German descent. To do justice to all is impossible 
here. But enough has been shown to prove, that in all the 
different realms of art, representing the highest stages of human 
culture, America is deeply indebted to German Americans. 
Among their works are many, that for their noble conception 
and artistic execution deserve a place of honor among the 
art treasures of the New World. 

German American Women and their 

A history of the German Women in America has not yet 
been written. But the theme is such an attractive and superb 
one that, we hope, only an incentive like this is needed, to 
direct the attention of some competent authoress to this task 
and inspire her to take it up. What more beautiful theme could 
she find than to collect all the scattered evidences of heroism, 
greatness, fortitude, perseverance and compassion the German 
women have exhibited during the three centuries of German 
participation in the development of this country? 

Imagine the indescribable hardships and perils the wives of 
those German pioneers had to face, who in the 1 8th century 
were placed by the British Government at the most exposed 
localities on the frontier, where they formed bulwarks for the 
English settlements against the French and Indians. And 
imagine the horrors these women were subjected to, when 
during the period from 1777 to 1 782 the British, to annihilate 
their own subjects, engaged Indians as allies and inflamed their 
bloodthirstiness by offering prizes of 8 to 20 dollars for every 
American scalp, be it of man, woman or child. What tragedies 
may have been linked with the 1 062 scalps of American 
country folks, found by Captain Gerrick among British booty, 
and intended to be sent by the Indians as a token of their 
loyalty to the king!') 

It is necessary to remind of these dreadful times and such 
events, that we may recognize what German women endured 
and suffered. That among them were many heroines, we know 

*) The report of Captain Gerrish was published by Benjamin Frank- 
lin. It refers to a skirmish, in which the Americans captured from 
the British a large quantity of furs. The report has the following 
passage: "The peltry amount to a good deal of money, and the 
possession of this booty at first gave us pleasure; but we were struck 
with horror to find among the packages eight large ones, containing 
scalps of our unhappy country folks, taken prisoners in the three 
last years by the Seneca Indians from the inhabitants of New York, 
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, and sent by them as a present 
to Colonel Haldimand, Governor of Canada, in order to be by him 
transmitted to England as a token of the loyalty of the Indians to 
the king." The packages contained 1062 scalps. In accordance with 
the well known policy of the British Tories in the United States to 
eliminate from American histories and school books everything averse 
to English interests, great efforts have been made to discredit the 
report of Captain Gerrish and make it appear as a fabrication of 
Benjamin Franklin! 


from the lives of the wife of Christian Schell, of Elisabeth 
Zane, Emilie Geiger, Molly Pitcher and many others. 

The praise conferred by Dr. Rush on the German women 
of the 1 8th century is due also to the German wives and 
mothers of to-day. But to the virtues of bygone times have 
been added other charms, which make these wives in fact 
comrades to their husbands in the highest meaning of the 
word. Having entered the wide avenues, opened for their sex 
by such intellectual pioneers like Susan Anthony, their minds 
and characters extended in greatness as well as in richness 
and diversity. 

Many highly gifted German women arrived in the United 
States with the political refugees of 1 848. One of the most 
remarkable was Mathilde Franziska Anneke, who at the side 
of her husband, a former Prussian artillery-officer, had gone 
through all the hardships of that stormy period. While in 
Germany, she had argued for equality of the sexes and the 
opening of channels for woman's work, but the journals she 
published in this behalf, were suppressed by the reactionary 
government. After their arrival in America Mrs. Anneke 
became one of the most enthusiastic champions for women's 
rights. In delivering the many lectures in behalf of this move- 
ment, she was frequently interrupted in the beginning by 
howling mobs, but, by the forcefulness of her arguments, 
remained victorious and was listened to with respectful atten- 
tion. Making her home in Milwaukee, the German-American 
Athens, she was appreciated as a poetess and fiction writer 
as well as leader of a private school, in which she distributed 
freely of the great wisdom and beauty of her noble heart. 

Well remembered are also Mrs. Carl Schurz, nee Margarethe 
Meyer, who in 1855 instituted in Watertown, Wise, a Frobel 
Kindergarten. The memory of Anna Uhl-Ottendorfer is also 
alive, who, after the death of her first husband, successfully 
managed the New Yorker Staatszeitung for a number of years. 

Among German American women notable for their abilities 
in the realms of literature, science and art, one of the best 
known during the first half of the 19th century was Therese 
Albertine Louise von Jacob, better known by her nom de 
plume "Talvj," formed of the initials of her name. She was 
born in Halle, Germany, the daughter of the eminent professor 
von Jacob. In 1830, when she became the wife of the Amer- 
ican Orientalist Edward Robinson, professor at Andover, she 
had already attained fame by her splendid translations of 
Slavic folk songs into German. In America she became inter- 
ested in the colonial history of the United States and in Indian 
folk lore, and wrote among numerous other works "A History 
of Captain John Smith" and "The Colonization of New Eng- 
land." In New York the home of the Robinsons was the 
place where the literary life of that time focussed. 


A similar rendezvous for all intellectual people was the 
home of Mrs. Bayard Taylor, the daughter of the distinguished 
German astronomer Peter Andreas Hansen. Her memoirs 
have been published in America under the title "On Two 
Continents." They are full of interesting reminiscences of 
the most prominent authors and authoresses of the middle 
of the 19th century. 

That among the German-American women are many highly 
gifted priestesses of poetry, may be learned from the beautiful 
contributions of Dorothea Boettcher, Minna Kleeberg, Marie 
Raible, Pauline Wiedenmann, Bella Fiebing, Marianne Kuen- 
bold, Fanny Gumpert, Amalie von Ende, Elisabeth Mesch, 
Anna Kirchstein, Edna Fern, Laura Wilhelmine Krech, Sophie 
Neeff, Anna Nill, Elisabeth Rudolph, Henni Hubel, Martha 
Toeplitz and Carrie von Veltheim-Huelse to the two anthol- 
ogies "Deutsch in America" (by Dr. G. A. Zimmermann, 
Chicago, 1892) and "Vom Lande des Sternenbanners" (by 
Dr. G. A. Neff, Ellenville, N. Y., 1905). Several of these 
women are also widely known for their novels, short stories, 
travelogues and other prose works. 

The four sisters Klumpke of San Francisco, daughters of an 
early German pioneer in California, distinguished themselves 
in different lines of activity. Anna Elisabeth Klumpke became 
a noted artist, following the footsteps of her friend, the famous 
Rosa Bonheur, who, in appreciation of her great talent, 
bequeathed to her her chateau as well as her fortune. Augusta 
Klumpke devoted herself to medical work and became 
professor in the medical faculty of the University of Paris. 
Julia Klumpke distinguished herself as violinist, and 
Dorothea Klumpke won laurels as an astronomer, by per- 
forming such spendid work at the Observatory at Paris, that 
she was made an officer de TAcademie of France. 

As dramatic artists Helene Hastreiter, born in Louisville, 
and Marie von Ellsner, born in New York, belonged to the 
great stars of the latter part of the 1 9th century. Helene Louise 
Leonard, better known under her stage name Lillian Russell, 
is also of German origin. 

One of the most famous of the great singers America pro- 
duced was Minnie Hauck, born in New York in 1853 as the 
daughter of one of the German refugees of 1 848. During 
her many European and American tours she was everywhere 
received with great enthusiasm and won the rarest distinctions 
ever bestowed upon such artist. Her most fortunate role, in 
which for a long time she was unapproached, was "Carmen." 

Other great German singers who made America their home 
are Emma Juch, Johanna Gadski, Fritzi Scheff and Ernestine 
Schumann-Heink, all of whom have on their frequent tours 
throughout the United States won the hearts and souls of their 
enchanted hearers with their beautiful voices. 

The American people are indebted also to the German 


women for making them acquainted with the German idea 
and celebration of Christmas, the sweetest festival of Christian- 
ity. By introducing the Christmas-tree and the custom of 
exchanging gifts to one another, they made the day of the 
birth of the Saviour from one of solemnity to one of joy, as 
Christmas should really be to us, at which we more fully live 
up to "Peace on Earth and Good Will to Men." 

Most influential in this direction have been the efforts of 
Miss Carla Wenckebach, Mrs. Elise Traut and Mrs. J. B. 
Herreshoff. Miss Wenckebach, professor of German language 
and literature at Wellesly College, in 1898 published the 
charming essay: "A Christmas Book. Origin of the Christmas 
Tree, the Mistletoe, the Yule Log, and St. Nicholas." Mrs. 
Elise Traut, living in New Britain, Conn., is authoress of a 
similar work, having the title: "Christmas in Heart and 
Home." In this book she speaks of the deep significance of 
Christmas and the most inspiring manner of its celebration. 
Mrs. J. B. Herreshoff, a descendant of the famous ship-builders 
family, succeeded in 1912 in making a profound sensation by 
having shipped a gigantic fir of 80 feet from the Adirondack 
Mountains to New York City, where it was erected in Madison 
Square. On Christmas eve, when darkness came, the chimes 
of the Metropolitan Tower began to play sweet melodies, and 
then at once the gigantic tree, which had stood in mysterious 
gloom, burst forth in the splendor of thousands of electric 
lights, in red, white and blue. The effect was so overwhelming, 
that the immense crowd, assembled there, broke into shouts of 
delight. The joy increased, when one thousand poor children 
were presented with Christmas gifts. 

The deep impressiveness of this celebration caused its repe- 
tition on all the following years. Boston, Philadelphia, and 
many other cities imitated the example set by New York, and 
so the Christmas celebration was successfully introduced in 
American civic life. — 

The philanthropic character of German-American women 
was manifested in many splendid works of charity. The names 
of Anna Ottendorfer and Anna Woerishoffer are inseparably 
connected with the German Hospital, the German Dispensary 
and the beautiful Isabella Home in New York. Catherine L. 
Wolfe, whose ancestors came from Saxony, is known as the 
founder of the Home for Incurables at Fordham, New York. 
Also Eleonore Ruppert in Washington and Lauretta Gibson, 
nee Bodman, in Cincinnati are remembered for their great 
liberality toward similar institutions. 

Mrs. Catherine L. Wolfe was one of the patrons of the 
Metropolitan Museum of Art, in New York, to which she 
donated not only her beautiful collection of paintings, but 
also a fund of 200,000 dollars for their preservation and 


increase. And another million dollars were bequeathed by 
her to several educational institutions founded by her father 
and herself. 

Another proof of the benevolence of the German-American 
women is the success of the many grand bazaars held since 
the outbreak of the European War in all United States cities 
having a percentage of German population. Although the 
general management of these affairs was in the hands of men, 
the greater amount of work was, however, performed by 
women, who with wonderful enthusiasm labored for many 
weeks in advance to secure the desired financial success. That 
their unbounded inspiration was not transient, but deeply 
seated, has been shown by the repetition and increasing results 
of these affairs. The great German Bazaar, held in New York 
during December, 1915, brought 350,000 dollars, and the 
financial result of the bazaar held in Madison Square Garden 
from March 11th to 23d, 1916, amounted to more than 

But far more elevating than these splendid results was the 
spirit, with which the enormous amount of work was accom- 
plished during these weeks by delicate women and girls. From 
noon until late into the night they worked with untiring zeal, 
and when at midnight the legions of these volunteers, thor- 
oughly exhausted, hurried to their far away homes, their eyes 
nevertheless brightened at the thought of the opportunity 
which enabled them to join in such a noble work of charity. 
That these bazaars became such wonderful demonstrations of 
self-sacrifice, was in the first line due to the German-American 
women, who by their efforts added another leaf to their 
wreath of gold. 

Monuments of Philanthropy. 

As glorious as are the physical and ethical contributions of 
the German element to American culture, so glorious are also 
the many works, which manifest their benevolence as well 
as their public spirit and love for justice. 

The origin of several of these philanthropic institutions 
goes back to the 1 8th century. 

It was on Christmas Day of 1 764, that in the little Lutheran 
schoolhouse in Philadelphia a number of German citizens 
organized the German Society of Pennsylvania, in order to 
fight the horrible abuses, which had arisen with European 
immigration. To review these evils means to open the blackest 
pages of our Colonial history. English and Dutch shippers, 
not supervised by the authorities, who took no interest in 
the proper treatment and future of emigrants, committed the 
most abominable crimes against these poor people. Pre- 
tending to be willing to help all persons without means, 
they offered such people credit for their passage across the 
ocean, on condition that they should work for it after their 
arrival in America, by hiring out for a certain length of 
time as servants to colonists, who would pay their wages in 
advance by refunding the passage money to the ship-owners. 
As these persons were redeeming themselves by performing 
this service, they were therefore called "Redemptioners." 

With this harmless-looking decoy many thousands of poor 
human beings were lured to sign contracts, only to find out 
later that they had become victims of villainous scoundrels 
and had to pay for their inexperience with the best years of 
their lives. 

The abuses of this system grew in time to such an extent, 
that the redemptioners were in fact not better treated than 
slaves and were often literally worked to death, to say nothing 
of insufficient food, scanty clothing and poor lodging. Of 
the right to punish redemptioners, many heartless people made 
such frequent and cruel use, that laws became necessary where- 
by it was forbidden to apply to such servants more than ten 
lashes for each "fault." Female redemptioners were quite 
often by all kinds of devilish tricks forced to lives of shame, 
conditions, which some of the peculiar laws of the colonies 
even invited. 

Incidents of such character stirred the German citizens of 
Philadelphia to revolt against such infamous treatment of 
immigrants. Forming the German Society of Pennsylvania, 


they secured in time laws by which ship-owners as well as 
the captains and other officials became subjected to strict 
control and many of the worst abuses were successfully 

The German Society of Pennsylvania became the model for 
many similar institutions in the other parts of our continent, 
as for instance in New York, Charleston, S. C, Baltimore, 
Birmingham, Boston, Pittsburgh, New Haven, Rochester, 
Hartford, St. Louis, New Orleans, Chicago, Kansas City, San 
Francisco, Portland and Seattle. By uncovering evils and 
vigorously persecuting guilty persons, by continuously framing 
and recommending efficient laws, these societies secured at last 
a better treatment of the immigrants on the ocean as well as 
after landing. With full justice these German Societies may 
be called the true originators of our modern immigration laws. 

When in time the regulation and enforcement of these laws 
became national affairs, the German Societies, thus released 
of a part of their work, directed their efforts to other problems, 
that became more important and difficult to solve, as the 
exodus to America gained tremendous proportions. 

To give an idea of their benevolent work, no better illus- 
tration can be found than the German Society of New York, 
which grew to be the most important of all when New York 
became the principal immigration port of the United States. 
Founded in 1784, the society has at present about 1200 
members who pledge themselves to contribute each at least 
$10 annually. It directs its efforts principally to relieve the 
distress of such immigrants as are unable to find work, or are 
reduced by sickness or other unfavorable circumstances. 
Meals, coal and other necessities are distributed among the 
needy. Numerous physicians in the service of the society make 
free calls among deserving families and provide free medicines. 
A special department secures positions for persons looking for 
work; an information bureau gives practical advice and infor- 
mation either personally or by letter. A banking department 
offers cheap and safe ways for the transaction of money 
matters, procures railway and steamboat tickets, performs 
notarial acts and other services. All profits deriving there- 
from are turned over to the society's funds for charity. 

To illustrate the activity of the German Society of New 
York it may be stated, that it distributed in 1915 to deserving 
people $16,911 in cash; 5565 meal-tickets; 2312 tickets for 
lodgings and 632 half tons of coal. The physicians of the 
Society made 3347 free calls to sick people, to whom also 
$2241 in free medical stimulants were distributed. 2297 men 
were provided with work; and $23,000 as profit of the busi- 
ness departments were turned over to charity. 

As one single grain of seed often bears many fruits so the 
German Society of New York further created the German 


Savings Bank, the German Hospital, the German Rechts- 
schutzverein, and, through the latter, the Legal Aid Society of 
New York. 

The establishment of the two latter institutions resulted 
from the desire, to assist immigrants who had been wronged 
and were too poor to pay for legal assistance. To procure 
justice for them the Rechtsschutzverein was founded in March 
1876, with its own bureau and lawyers, to hear and right the 
complaints of German immigrants. 

But immigrants of other nationalities came also, suffering 
from bitter wrongs. To send them away would have been 
cruel, impossible. Therefore it was decided in 1890, that the 
bureau should give assistance to all who might ask legal help 
without considering their nationalities. But as such liberality 
threatened the means of the Society with exhaustion, it was 
suggested to invite the help of the general public for the good 
work. At the same time it was resolved to change the name 
of the institution to Legal Aid Society, to indicate its general 

Under the able leadership of Arthur von Briesen, who 
remained at the helm of the Legal Aid Society from the 
beginning until 1916, a period of 26 years, the business of the 
Society increased tremendously. 

Taking the Legal Aid Society of New York as a model, 
similar institutions have been established in Boston, Philadel- 
phia, Washington, Newark, Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago, 
San Francisco and Atlanta; also in Berlin, Hamburg, Kopen- 
hagen and many other European cities. When in October 
1913 in Nuernberg, Germany, the first international conven- 
tion of Legal Aid Societies was held, it appeared, that in Ger- 
many alone 3 1 2 of such corporations had been organized, all 
after the model of the New York society. 

Thus we see that since the Christmas meeting at the Lutheran 

schoolhouse in Philadelphia untold millions of people profited 

by the earnest work, begun by that small band of Germans, 

who had the welfare of their poor countrymen so much at 

heart, and who showed what genuine Christmas spirit can do 

for humanity, if only put to proper purpose. 

* 4S * # 

German charity is responsible also for many splendid hos- 
pitals, orphan asylums, homes for aged people and similar 

Reverend William Augustus Muhlenberg, belonging to the 
famous Muhlenberg family, was the founder of the beautiful 
St. Luke's Hospital in New York and was in charge of it as 
superintendent until his death in 1877. He also was originator 
of St. John's Land on Long Island, with homes for old men 
and crippled children. Similar institutions were founded by 
Johann D. Lankenau and Peter Schem in Philadelphia; by 


Georg Ellwanger in Rochester ; by Anna Woerishoffer, Edward 
Uhl, Henry Villard, Georg H. Schrader, H. O. Havemeyer 
in New York, Louis Zettler in Columbus, Ohio, and many 
others. German charity directed its attention also to the proper 
care of dumb animals. The organization in 1 866 of the 
Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals in New York 
is due to Henry Bergh, born in 1 823 in New York of German 
ancestry. Through his efforts cock- and dog fights were pro- 
hibited, and also the transportation and killing of cattle, the 
care of the horse and other beasts of burden greatly improved. 
By inventing clay-pigeons he found a substitute for live pigeons 
in shooting-matches, and to him is due also the erection of 
watering places for animals in large cities. Making frequent 
lecture tours throughout the country, he implored also the 
clergymen to preach at least once a year in the behalf of those, 
"who could not speak for themselves." The splendid results, 
obtained by this society, encouraged Bergh, to organize also 
the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children." 

Noted as an indefatigable organizer of charity institutions is 
also Louis Klopsch, a journalist born in 1852 in Germany. 
Through his magazine The Christian Herald he conducted 
large philanthropies, raising and distributing over 4,000,000 
dollars, including the Russian famine relief, the Indian famine 
relief, and the relief of the starving reconcentrados in Cuba. 
Enormous sums were also raised for famine sufferers in Italy, 
Sweden, Finland, China, Japan and elsewhere. — 

The Germans' great regard for science and learning mani- 
fested itself in many gifts to public libraries, museums, schools, 
universities and similar institutions. One of the first and most 
significant donations of this kind in America was that of the 
famous Astor Library to the City of New York by Johann 
Jacob Astor, the founder of the American Fur Company. 
This library had several hundred thousand volumes. Opened 
on February 1, 1854, it has been to many millions of people 
a never failing source of edification. For its maintainance 
and increase it was endowed by Astor and his descendents to 
an amount of $1,700,000. In 1895 this library was merged 
with the famous Lenox and Tilden Libraries into the New York 
Public Library, which since May 23, 1 9 1 1 , is housed in the 
beautiful marble palace at 42d Street and 5th Avenue. 

Oswald Ottendorfer made a similar gift to New York in 
1 899 in the form of a Germanistic Library, which mediates 
to students the rich treasures of ancient and modern German 

In Philadelphia William Wagner, an enthusiastic friend of 
natural history, founded in 1855 the Wagner Free Institute of 
Science, which besides containing priceless collections, employs 
an able corps of lecturers, who give free instrutions in natural 


The Germans also contributed freely to the University of 
Pennsylvania. General Isaac Wistar (Wtister) presented not 
only the building for the Wistar Institute of Anatomy and 
Biology, but provided it also with a liberal endowment. 
Anthony J. Drexel, son of Franz Martin Drexel of Tirol, 
founded the Drexel Institute of Art, Science and Industry. 
The cost of the beautiful building was about $4,500,000. 
The institute is devoted to the education of young men and 
women in arts, technics and craftsmanship. 

Jacob Tome, born in Manheim, Pa., as the son of a German 
Lutheran family, left about 3,000,000 dollars for the estab- 
lishment of the Tome Institute at Exeter and Andover, Pa., 
which is a preparatory school for poor children for college. 

The heirs of Johann Kraus in Syracuse donated in his 
memory the beautiful Crouse Building, the home of the 
musical department of the Syracuse University. 

Louis Miller, the son of a Maryland German, born in 1 829 
in Greentown, Ohio, conceived and organized the famous 
Chautauqua institution, located at Chautauqua in Western New 
York and devoted to educational, religious and social work. 
There has been established a Summer School, which is noted 
for its lectures, classes and summer recreations and was the 
incentive for the founding of sister institutions in many parts 
of the United States. 

Richard Hermann founded in Dubuque the Hermann 
Museum of Natural History. Adolf Sutro gave to San Fran- 
cisco a public reference library of 200,000 volumes, a large 
collection of paintings, a public park, public baths and a 
replica of Bartholdi's Statue of Liberty. Claus Spreckels, the 
Sugar king of California, supported liberally all benevolent 
enterprises and donated to the Golden Gate Park of San 
Francisco a beautiful music pavillion, costing 100,000 dollars. 

Adolphus Busch, the late president of the Anheuser-Busch 
Brewing Association in St. Louis, contributed 250,000 dollars 
to the Germanistic Museum at Harvard University in Cam- 
bridge, Mass., and gave a similar amount to the Washington 
University at St. Louis; also many hundred thousands of 
dollars to charity. To the generosity of Friedrich Pabst and 
Joseph Schlitz the inhabitants of Milwaukee are indebted for 
a beautiful theatre and a public park. 

John Fritz of Bethlehem gave the Lehigh University a 
thoroughly equipped engineering laboratory, valued at over 
$50,000. Other Germans of Pennsylvania made gifts to the 
Franklin and Marshall College at Lancaster. 

C. A. Ficke in Davenport made very valuable donations 
in money as well as in archaeological and ethnological collec- 
tions to the Davenport Academy of Science. 

Henry Villard provided the means for several scientific 
expeditions to Peru and Bolivia, which were under supervision 


of the famous archaeologist Adolf Bandelier and enriched the 
American Museum of Natural History. 

William Ziegler, the organizer of the Royal Baking Powder 
Company, furnished the money for an exploration expedition 
which penetrated the Arctic regions by way of Franz Joseph 
Land. Through the same source Lieutenant Peary was enabled 
to make in 1906 one of his memorable expeditions toward the 
North Pole. 

John D. Rockefeller, a descendant of Johann Peter Rocke- 
feller of Germany, gave untold millions to the General Educa- 
tion Board, the University of Chicago, the Rockefeller Insti- 
tute for Medical Research in New York, to Yale, Brown, 
Johns Hopkins, Cornell, Vassar Universities and other institu- 
tions. James Lick, descendant of a Pennsylvania German 
family Luck, left to California several million dollars for 
scientific and benevolent purposes. Among these donations 
were those for the construction of the Lick-Observatorium on 
the summit of Mount Hamilton, California, which is world- 
famous for its magnificent discoveries in astronomy. 

The National German American Alliance 
and its Purposes. 

The beginning of the 20th century marks also for the 
German element of the United States the beginning of a new 
and promising era. Alive to the great advantages of centraliza- 
tion a small number of representative citizens of various States 
of the Union assembled on October 6, 1901, in Philadelphia, 
the old stronghold of German effort in America, to organize 
the National German American Alliance, not for the purpose 
of forming a State within the States, but to consolidate the 
enormous forces of the German American population for the 


sole purpose of promoting everything that is good in German 
character and culture and that might be to the benefit and 
welfare of the whole American nation. 

The constituting convention took place in the hall of the 
German Society of Pennsylvania and was combined with a 
celebration of the "German Day," in commemoration of the 
landing of the German Pilgrims in Philadelphia on October 
6, 1683. 


The platform adopted by the National German American 
Alliance in this convention sets forth and explains its purposes. 
It reads as follows: 

Principles of the National German American Alliance of the 
United States of America. 

The National German American Alliance aims to awaken 
and strengthen the sense of unity among the people of German 
origin in America with a view to promote useful and healthy 
development of the power inherent in them as a united body 
for the mutual energetic protection of such legitimate desires 
and interests not inconsistent with the common good of the 
country and the rights and duties of good citizens; to check 
nativistic encroachments; to maintain and safeguard the good 
friendly relations existing between America and the old 
German fatherland. To read the history of German immigra- 
tion is to be convinced how much it has contributed to the 
advancement of the spiritual and economic development of 
this country, and to realize what it is still destined to con- 
tribute, and how the German immigrant has at all times stood 
by his adopted country in weal and in woe. 

The Alliance demands, therefore, the full honest recognition 
of these merits and opposes every attempt to belittle them. 
Always true to the adopted country, ever ready to risk all for 
its welfare, sincere and unselfish in the exercise of the duties 
of citizenship, respecting the law — still remain the watch- 
word! It has no exclusive interests in view, nor the founding 
of a State within a State, but sees in the centralization of the 
inhabitants of German origin the shortest road and the surest 
guarantee for the attainment of the aims set forth in this con- 
stitution. It calls, therefore, on all German organizations — 
as the organized representatives of the German spirit and 
manners — to co-operate with it for their development, and 
recommends further the formation of societies in all the States 
of the Union for the preservation of the interest of German 
Americans, looking toward an eventual centralization of these 
societies into a great German American Alliance, and would 
have all German societies consider it a duty and an honor 
to join the organization in their respective States. The Alliance 
engages to labor firmly and at all times, with all the legal 
means at its command, for the maintenance and propagation 
of its principles, and to defend them energetically wherever 
and whenever they are in danger. Its purposes are the follow- 
ing platform: 

1 . The Alliance, as such, refrains from all interference in 
party politics, reserving, however, the right and duty to defend 
its principles also in the political field, in case these should be 


attacked or endangered by political measures. The Alliance 
will inaugurate and support all legislation for the common 
good that is sure to find unanimous approval of its members. 

2 . Questions and matters of religion are strictly excluded. 

3 . It recommends the introduction of the study of German 
into the public schools on the following broad basis: 

Along with English, German is a world language; wherever 
the pioneers of civilization, trade and commerce have pene- 
trated, we find the people of both languages represented; 
wherever real knowledge of another language prevails more 
generally, there an independent, clear and unprejudiced under- 
standing is more easily formed and mutual friendly relations 
are promoted. 

4 . We live in an age of progress and invention ; the pace 
of our time is rapid, and the demands on the individual are 
inexorable; the physical exertion involved increases the 
demand on bodily force; a healthy mind should live in a 
healthy body. For these reasons the alliance will labor for 
the introduction of systematic and practical gymnastic 
instruction (physical culture) in the public schools. 

5 . It further declares in favor of taking the school out of 
politics, for only a system of education that is free from 
political influence can offer the people real and satisfactory 

6 . It calls on all Germans to acquire the right of citizenship 
as soon as they are legally entitled to it, to take an active part 
in public life, and to exercise their right at the polls fearlessly 
and according to their own judgment. 

7 . It recommends either a liberal and modern interpretation 
or the abolition of laws, that put unnecessary difficulties in the 
way of acquiring the right of citizenship, and frequently entirely 
prevent it. Good character, unblamable upright life, obedience 
to laws should decide, and not the answering or non-answering 
of arbitrarily selected political or historical questions, that 
easily confuse the applicant. 

8 . It opposes any and every restriction of immigration of 
healthy persons from Europe, exclusive of convicted criminals 
and anarchists. 

9 . It favors the abolition of antiquated laws no longer in 
accord with the spirit of the times, that check free inter- 
course and restrict the personal freedom of the citizen, and 
recommends a sane regulation of the liquor traffic in conformity 
with good common sense and high ethical principles. 

10. It recommends the founding of educational societies 


that will foster the German language and literature, teach 
those anxious to learn, and arrange courses of lectures on art 
and science and questions of general interest. 

11. It recommends a systematic investigation of the share 
Germans have had in the development of their adopted 
country, in war and in peace, in all kinds of German American 
activity, from the earliest days, as the basis for the founding 
and continuance of a German American history. 

1 2 . The Alliance advocates all legal and economically 
correct measures for the protection of the forests of the 
United States. 

1 3 . We deem it our duty to assist as much as possible 
original ideas and inventions of Americans of German birth 
or descent for the common good of our country. 

14. It reserves the right to extend or supplement this plat- 
form when new conditions within its scope and its aims make 
it desirable or necessary. 

This platform contains nothing whatever that is not in full 
accord with good citizenship and to the best interests of the 
whole country. In recognition of this fact the Alliance was, 
after a very painstaking investigation of its aims and purposes, 
incorporated on February 27, 1907, by an Act of Congress. 

The Alliance was fortunate enough to find in Dr. Charles 
John Hexamer an enthusiastic leader, who since the founding 
of the organization has kept it in the right channel. That the 
movement met the enthusiastic response from the whole 
German American population, is seen by the rapid extension 
of the Alliance, which now has organizations in every State 
of the Union, even in Hawaii. 

Its whole membership amounts to about 2Vz to 3 millions. 
The national conventions are held biannually and have taken 
place as follows: 1903 at Baltimore; 1905 at Indianapolis; 
1907 at New York; 1909 at Cincinnati; 1911 at Washington; 
1913 at St. Louis; and 1915 at San Francisco. 

One of the first acts of the constitutional convention of 
October 6, 1901, was the adoption of a motion made by 
Rudolf Cronau, the delegate from New York, that a monument 
be erected to the memory of Franz Daniel Pastorius and the 
Founders of Germantown. For this purpose the Alliance 
collected from its members $30,000, to which the U. S. Con- 
gress in recognition of the great contributions of the German 
element to American culture granted an additional sum of 
$25,000. The monument, executed by Albert Jaegers in New 
York, has been described in another chapter. 

In like manner the memory of the Major-Generals von 
Steuben and Muhlenberg has been honored by the erection of 


beautiful statues in Washington, D. C, in the Valley Forge 
National Park, in Utica, N. Y., and in Philadelphia. The 
Johnstown branch of the Pennsylvania organization erected 
a monumental fountain with the bust of Joseph Schantz, the 
first settler of that city, a German. The United Societies of 
New York City did homage to the memory of Jakob Leisler 
by planting an oak tree in City Hall Park. In response to its 
advocacy the name of a public park bordering on East River 
was changed to Carl Schurz Park. The New York State 
organization succeeded in having a bill passed in legislature by 


which the old homestead of Nicolas Herchheimer was pur- 
chased and made a historic museum, containing relics of the 
General and the war for independence. For Major-General 
Peter Osterhaus and to the widow of Franz Sigel pensions were 
secured. Large sums were collected and distributed to the 
San Francisco Earthquake Sufferers, and to the wounded and 
the war-widows and orphans in Germany and Austro- 
Hungary. The sums raised for these humanitarian purposes 
amounted in spring 1917 to one million dollars. 


In accordance with its principles the German American 
Alliance promotes the culture of gymnastics, song, music, art 
and the study of the German language and literature in the 
public schools. By pointing out the great achievements of the 
German element in America it seeks to secure a proper respect 
and fair regard for this element. By founding a Junior Order 
in 1908 it seeks to inspire the younger generation to continue 
the work of their fathers, and to display the same industrious- 
ness, enterprise and patriotism. By lifting its members from 
the narrow limits of club-life, it induces them to participate 
as true citizens of the Republic in all public affairs. Through 
its committees it makes practical recommendations for the 
preservation and wise utilization of all natural resources of 
our country. 

And so it strives in many directions to win recognition for 
its motto: "Always true to our adopted country; ever ready 
to risk all for its welfare; sincere and unselfish in the duties 
of citizenship ; respecting the law — is and always shall remain 
the watchword." 


The Future Mission of the German 
Element in the United States. 

When the National German American Alliance held its 
sixth convention at Washington, D. C, in October 1911, the 
delegates were welcomed in hearty editorials by all papers 
of our Capital. One of these editorials read as follows: 

"The German Americans. 

Throughout American history runs testimony bear- 
ing on the value and high character of the Germans 
who have made the new world their home. It is 
beyond the powers of estimation for even the shrewd- 
est judge of historical values to determine how great 
has been the benefit bestowed upon the western repub- 
lic by the sturdy sons of the Fatherland who have 
come here to settle, to build, to prosper and to become 
an integral part of our nation. The fact that they main- 
tain "German American" societies and institutions in 
no wise lessens their value to this country or their 
loyalty to it in all its activities. The "German Amer- 
ican" is first the American, and it is to his credit that 
he retains an affection for the land of his birth or of 
the origin of his parents, and preserves its traditions 
and continues the use of its language. 

The sessions of the National German American 
Alliance now in progress in this city are attended by 
men who command unqualified respect for their char- 
acter, their progress, their influence in their communi- 
ties and the constructive work that they have been and 
are doing in the upbuilding of the nation. They are 
what are known as "good citizens," law abiding, 
charitable, considerate and patriotic. Such men as 
these were of the most substantial service to this gov- 
ernment fifty years ago, when it was menaced with 
destruction. In statesmanship, in science, in business, 
in the professions, the trades and the arts the German 
Americans have contributed many leaders and have 
written a record of great achievements. 

Washington welcomes these men, who stand for so 
large a part of the American life of to-day, and trusts 
that their visit to the capital will make them appreciate 
the fact that they are citizens of a country which offers 
more of opportunity than the land whose memory they 
honor and to which America feels grateful for contrib- 
uting them to it." 


This appreciation of the German element of the United 
States was received by all delegates to the Convention of the 
National German American Alliance with great satisfaction. 
Recognizing that the aims and efforts of the Alliance were 
well understood and valued, the delegates were inspired to 
continue in their work as well as in the resolution, never to 
relax in the duties owed by them to this country as loyal 

Of these obligations the most sacred is to guard for all future 
generations that precious gift derived from our ancestors, won 
with their blood and the sacrifice of their lives: 
The Independence of our Country. 

To keep this country free and independent is a duty equally 
incumbent on German Americans as on all other loyal citizens. 
This task requires constant vigilance, for danger is ahead ! 

All who have eyes to see and ears to hear must be aware, 
that another struggle for the freedom of our United States is 
impending, as was pointed out in 1914 by the author of this 
work in the pamphlet: "Do we need a third War for Inde- 
pendence?" It may become the most difficult and desperate of 
all, as for many years mighty powers and numerous shrewd 
men have been at work, to deliver our republic back into the 
hands of that country which since the days of our Declaration 
of Independence has been the worst and unscrupulous enemy 
of our United States: England. 

The origin of the conspiracy to reunite the destiny of our 
republic with that of Great Britain dates back to September 1 9, 
1877, when Cecil Rhodes, the "Diamond King of South 
Africa," and the intellectual originator of the infamous 
Jameson-Raid and the war of conquest against the South 
African Republics, made in the first draft of his will provisions 
for the following purpose: 

"To and for the establishment, promotion and 
development of a SECRET SOCIETY, the true aim of 
which and object whereof shall be the extension of 



Rhodes, possessing all the ingenuity, audacity and unscrupu- 
lousness of his prototypes Robert Clive, Warren Hastings 
and other transgressors who were so instrumental in the 
extension of the British Empire, was actuated by a passionate 
desire to make for himself a great name in history. With this 
aim in view he conceived the idea to make England and the 
Anglo-Saxon race the dominating powers of the world. 

To bring about the union of all English speaking people, 
Rhodes established, in the conviction that educational rela- 


tions make the strongest tie, the so-called "Rhodes Scholar- 
ships," for which he set aside a fund of several million pounds. 
This institution provides for the election of three to nine 
scholars from each of the British Colonies, and two from each 
State and Territory of the United States, or one hundred 
Americans in all. Each scholarship covers a three years' course 
at the University of Oxford, and each student receives an allow- 
ance of 300 pounds a year, which is equivalent to $1500. In 
awarding the scholarships account shall be taken of various 
qualities, among them the desire to serve in public affairs. 
On July 1, 1899, Rhodes dictated another draft of his 
last will, in which the provisions for the scholarships are more 
specified. In January, 1901, he added the following codicil: 
"I note the German Emperor has made instruction 
in English compulsory in German schools. I leave 
five yearly scholarships at Oxford of 250 pounds per 
annum to students of German birth, the scholars to 
be nominated by the German Emperor for the time 
That these dispositions are not fully approved at Oxford, 
appears from an article "The American Rhodes Scholars at 
Oxford" in the "Educational Review" of February 1905. On 
page 1 1 7 it says : 

"Oxford is carrying out the Rhodes bequest without 
being in sympathy with the Anglo-Saxon ideal. When 
the Dons think aloud they blurt out the truth that in 
their estimation the Colossus of South Africa made a 
gigantic mistake in undertaking to educate Germans, 
Americans, and even Colonials, at Oxford on terms of 
equality with Englishmen. They do not hesitate to say 
that it would have been better if he had left his 
fortune to the university itself, which is not well 
endowed, although the colleges themselves are rich. 
They consider it a misfortune that the Rhodes' Scholar- 
ship Trust is diverted from the education of English- 
men, Welshmen and Scotsmen, and possibly Irishmen 
as well, to a missionary enterprise for converting 
Germans, Americans, and Colonials into good Anglo- 
Saxons. They would certainly have dropped the 
Germans, if they could have had their way; for they 
do not believe that the students nominated from the 
palace in Berlin will ever be good Anglo-Saxons. Some 
of them say outright that the Rhodes' Scholarship 
Trust will enable the German Emperor to give candi- 
dates for the diplomatic service a good training in 
English studies without expense; and that when they 
leave Oxford they will be more uncompromising 
Germans than ever. The Americans are regarded as 
more hopeful subjects of Anglo-Saxon missionary 
effort than the Germans." 

These last remarks indicate clearly the object of the Rhodes' 

By taking from their native country in every year such large 
numbers of American students and by placing them for so 
long a time under the strong influence of British students and 
professors at a British university, such an institution clearly 
aims at nothing less than to form, in time, of the recipients 
of these scholarships a vast army of active agents, who may 
be counted upon to carry out in the United States England's 
fond hopes, as they become influential citizens or leaders and 
official representatives of the American people. 

The great danger to the freedom of the United States 
from this institution becomes clear when it is shown that 
Rhodes' idea of a World Empire under control of Great Britain 
is endorsed and furthered by Andrew Carnegie and many 
other men of great influence. An article, published over Car- 
negie's signature in the North American Review of June 1893, 
under the heading "A Look Ahead" contains the following 
passage : 

"Let men say what they will, I say that as surely 
as the sun in the heavens once shone upon Britain and 
America united, so surely is it one morning to rise, 
shine upon and greet again the "RE-UNITED 

The purpose of this union Carnegie set forth in the same 
article as follows: 

"The advantages of a race confederation are so numer- 
ous and so obvious that one scarcely knows how to 
begin their enumeration. Consider its defensive power. 
A reunion of the Anglo-Americans, consisting to-day 
of one-hundred and eight millions, which fifty years 
hence will number more than two hundred millions, 
would be unassailable upon land by any power or 
combination of powers that it is possible to create. We 
need not, therefore, take into account attacks upon the 
land; as for the water, the combined fleets would 
sweep the seas. The new nation would dominate the 
world and banish from the earth its greatest stain — 
the murder of men by men. It would be the arbiter 
between nations, and enforce the peaceful settlement 
of all quarrels. Such a giant among pigmies as the 
Re-United States would never need to exert its power, 
but only intimate its wishes and decisions.'' 

And at another place Carnegie says: 

"Were Britain part of the Re-United States, all that 
she would be interested about in Europe would be 


fully secured; namely the protection of her own soil 

and the command of the seas. No balance of power 
or any similar question would be of the slightest im- 
portance. The re-united nation would be prompt to 
repel any assault upon the soil or the rights of any of 
its parts." 

We leave it to those readers acquainted with the history of 
England to imagine the consequences, which such a union, 
under the leadership of the unscrupulous diplomats of 
England, would have for all other nations. 

Carnegie not only expressed his resolution to bring about 
this reunion in the words: "Whatever obstructs reunion, I 
oppose; whatever promotes it, I favor!" but he also spent 
many million dollars for this same purpose. Numerous Amer- 
icans believe that the establishment of a discretionary endow- 
ment pension fund of almost $20,000,000 for American 
college- and university professors has been made with no 
other design, than to influence these professors to lend their 
great moral assistance to Carnegie's aims, just as such help 
is expected from that army of men, who received the "benefits" 
of the Rhodes' Scholarships. 

Surmise is rife also, that Carnegie's endowment of 
$10,000,000 for "International Peace" has no other end than 
to proclaim through its large staff of well paid orators and 
lecturers to the people of our republic the blessings they are to 
get when they will forget the evil doings of Jefferson, Franklin, 
Henry, Washington, Herchheimer, Muhlenberg and all the 
other foolish mutineers of the "War of Rebellion," and will 
return to their original vassalage of England. 

To discredit these "rebels," numerous orators and authors 
are constantly at work. Harvard professors have explained 
in public lectures, that George Washington had an unexampled 
temper and neither possessed large brain power nor educa- 
tion; that Benjamin Franklin was a liar and dressed freakishly 
to be a social lion; and that Patrick Henry, Jeremiah Belknap 
and Noah Webster speculated on inside tips received from 
Congressmen. It fell to the lot of Poultney Bigelow to besmirch 
the memory of Steuben by publishing in the New York Sun of 
May 2, 1915, that "the famous Steuben obtained his rank in 
the American Army by a pious Prussian fraud," and that "he 
was one of the alleged patriots, who came to Washington 
with bogus titles to rank, and sought for the triumph of Amer- 
ican liberty only in so far as a salary followed in its wake." — 

The gradual elimination from our public school histories of 
all reference to the nefarious part played by England in Amer- 
ican history; the movement to ignore the celebration of the 
Fourth of July and substitute the signing of the British Magna 
Charta to be celebrated by American youth as the true origin 
of our independence, as proposed by Carnegie, are so many 
indications, whither currents are carrying our people. 


Distrust in the real objects of the "International Peace 
Society" grows, when we note that its president is Elihu Root, 
England's solicitor in America; and that among its vice- 
presidents are men like Dr. Charles W. Eliot, President 
Emeritus of Harvard, and Joseph H. Choate, U. S. Am- 
bassador to Great Britain. The former is the man, who 
in 1 9 1 3 at a banquet in New York lauded German civilization 
to the skies, stating that to no other country America is so 
deeply indebted as to Germany. Since the outbreak of the 
European Conflict this same person has become notorious 
for expressing diametrically opposite views and for suggesting 
urgently that the United States should prepare to enter the 
war in aid of the Allies and help in the destruction of Germany. 
Ex- Ambassador Choate startled in January 1916 his hearers, 
when at a banquet of the "Pilgrims Society" he addressed 
the guests in the words: "I now ask you all to rise and drink 
a good old loyal toast to the President and King George of 

Hand in hand with such "patriots" works a powerful pro- 
British press, influenced and controlled by Lord Northcliffe, 
publisher of the London Times, and by J. P. Morgan, the 
American financial and munition agent for Great Britain. 

By displaying an exceedingly hostile attitude toward every- 
thing German; by accusing the German element in the United 
States of disloyalty toward the land of its adoption; by work- 
ing up a strong anti-German sentiment; by supplementing their 
abusive language with drawings and cartoons of the most insult- 
ing and abominable character; and last but not least, by their 
incessant efforts to force the United States into war with 
Germany, this un-American press has not only degraded itself 
but has made evident its bondage to British dictations. 

Inveigled into this dangerous conspiracy are the owners and 
presidents of hundreds of factories making arms and ammuni- 
tion; Senators and Representatives, interested in the stocks of 
those establishments, which provide "things to kill" or are 
needed to bring our country into the state of "preparedness;" 
furthermore university professors, ministers, authors and many 
other American citizens of prominence.*) 

What havoc and dreadful demoralization has already been 
caused by this pro-British propaganda among our people, 
appears from the fact, that an "American Legion" has been 

*)For full information about this subject we refer to Carnegie's 
article in the "North American Review" of June 1893; to the publi- 
cation "The Conquest of the United States," distributed by the 
"American Truth Society" in New York; to the well documented 
disclosures appearing in the "Fatherland" of March 22, and April 26, 
1916; to S. Ivor Stephen's booklet "Neutrality," New York, 1916; 
to "Issues and Events," "Fair Play" of 1916, etc. 


formed, to fight in British uniforms in Flanders against that 
country which since the birth of our Republic has been a true 
friend of our United States: Germany. 

To give the reader an idea of the demoralization that has 
taken place among our people, we quote here verbally from 
a lengthy article, which under the heading: 

"First of American Legion off for Flanders" 

appeared in the Magazine Section of the New York Times of 
May 28, 1916. Approving the formation of the "American 
Legion," this paper states, that the legion consists of American 
citizens and that they adopted "as their brigade badge the coat 
of arms of George Washington (!) on the Canadian maple 
leaf. The recruiting station of the legion is Toronto, and here 
have assembled representatives of forty-five States and Terri- 
tories of the United States, and here, without renouncing 
American citizenship, they have made oath, each of them, 
as follows: 

"I will be faithful and bear true allegiance to his Majesty 
King George V. and I will, as in duty bound, honestly and 
faithfully defend his Majesty in person, crown, and dignity 
against all enemies and will observe and obey all orders of his 
Majesty and of all the Generals and Officers set over me." 

The same article contains also the interesting notes, that "at 
every meal in the mess room, decorated, by the way, with both 
the United States and British flags, the American officers rose 
and drank the toast "The King." 

Much ado has been made in our histories about the poor 
Hessian soldiers, who, having no free will, during the 1 8th 
century by their rulers were hired out to King George III. to 
fight his battles and suppress the Americans in their heroic 
struggle for liberty. It was left to our 20th century to witness 
the much more shameful spectacle, that free American citizens 
voluntarily hired themselves to King George V., to fight his 
mercenary battles and help to crush a friendly nation, which is 
struggling heroically for its existence. 

And these men wear a badge showing the coat of arms of 
George Washington! 

Against this profanation of the escutcheon of the "Father 
of our Country" and against the gross offences committed by 
these and many other Americans against the spirit of true 
neutrality none of the above named "patriots" has raised one 
single word of protest. While they joined in baseless insinua- 
tions and unjustified attacks upon the character of the German 
American element, they remained singularly silent in face of 
the pro-British propaganda carried on in our country to verify 
the dreams of Rhodes and Carnegie of the "Re-United States." 

It have been these deplorable conditions which incited a 
true American, Mr. Frank Pease, to express his disappointment 


in bitter words. In the "International" for March, 1917, he 
says: "Until 1914 America possessed a great and noble myth, 
perhaps the greatest and noblest that has yet appeared on 
ear th — the Epic of 1776. Its central point of irrefutable 
datum of history, this myth so dear to the ardent fancy of 
each new generation of our schoolboys, rallied in its penumbral 
train a pictured pageant of heroes and heroines, brave men, 
intrepid women, surprising tales of exploit, undying loyalty, 
supreme defiance to oppression, and, finally, that masterpiece 
of human inspiration, Victory. Across the luminous tapestry 
of tradition these shadowy-real figures moved as gods in the 
creating of our national myth. (Perhaps they were gods!) At 
all events each generation of American youth since has viewed 
them as gods, paid them the homage that gods should be paid 

— which is unquestioning faith — re-created the epic of their 
labors in sublimations of fancy, but, chief of all, youth incor- 
porated much of their heroic virtues in the development of its 
own character. But this was prior to 1914. 

In 1914 what happened? What became of our national 
myth? Who stole or destroyed it? Who robbed our cradles 
and despoiled our future of its noblest psychological possession 

— the Epic of '76? Who or what has so confused and dis- 
connected contemporaneity from our past that there exists not 
a single schoolboy capable of discerning truth from falsehood: 
the truth of that stalwart myth from the present falsehoods of 
contradictory sentiment in favor of the one-time enemy? How 
comes it the once diamond-clear Epic of '76 is now so blurred, 
so seemingly irrelevant, so indecisive in our present? Was it 
all delusion? Was there no tyrant? Were there no heroes, 
no clash of arms, no triumphs? Have our schoolboys, then, 
imbibed a false history and a false idealism? 

Myths are very important factors in the making of nations. 
He who robs a nation of its myth violates its soul. No nation, 
be it young or in the full prime of its maturity, can afford to 
be robbed of its myth. It could not persist for a single genera- 
tion without its myth. A myth is the very cement of a nation's 
substance. Now could there be discovered a nation where the 
social cement of its myth is a more important ingredient than 
in America, composed as it is of the most diverse aggregation 
of men and manners ever assembled under one rule, one ideal, 
one common interest? 

Since 1914 we are beginning to reap that ill harvest, sown 
by the muckraker. What we are witnessing to-day is the 
result of undermining. Nowhere is this more apparent than 
in the irrelevancy, the dimness and the forgetfulness toward 
that grand panorama of psychological values embodied in our 
national myth. This myth has become the obscure property 
of antiquarians, Fourth of July orators, and emerged politicians. 
No longer does it breathe upon youth the sacred fire of valor, 


the lesson of separateness, the high resolve, the old proud will 
to becoming. 

In its place we have the wide talk of "rapprochement," the 
"consanguinity of race," the "common medium of language," 
and there goes about the sinister story of a "secret alliance," 
connived at, indeed striven for, by some of the highest officials 
of the nation. 

Anglo-maniacs, in attacking all that was fixed, sacred, in- 
valuable to the perpetuity of our myth, attacked the very 
fundament of our national faith. The direct pro-English propa- 
ganda is the profoundest blow ever leveled at the traditions 
of American separateness and self-sufficiency. Substituting 
the myth of the British Empire for our own Epic of '76, it is 
an underhand attempt to de-nationalize us and implies em- 
barkation upon undiscovered, and — who could doubt — 
unrestful seas. 

To uphold true American ideals, and to frustrate the sinister 
plots against the independence of our country are the ends all 
German Americans must strive for with might and main. In 
conjunction with other loyal citizens they must demand that 
the noble heroes of our two wars for independence shall not 
have fought in vain and that the achievements of Jefferson, 
Franklin, Washington, Herchheimer, Steuben and all the other 
patriotic men of those great times shall not become obliterated. 
They must insist, that our republic has a higher destiny than 
that of becoming a satrap of a country the history of which is 
made up of the most abominable crimes against liberty and 
of incessant outrages against every country and island too 
feeble to offer resistance. 

Now is the time when every citizen should take to heart 
the admonition of Carl Schurz: 


WHENWRONG, SET IT RIGHT!" which far surpasses the 
saying "My Country right or wrong!" 

The German Americans, whose duty it is to protect, like 
all loyal citizens, the independence of our country, must 
continue to use the effective weapon Truth against misrepresen- 
tation and deception. 

Only by adhering to the excellent advice given by George 
Washington in his Farewell Address, to avoid all entangle- 
ments with foreign nations, our citizens can maintain this 
country as "the Land of the Free," and enable it to become a 
model for other nations by virtue of Impartiality, Love of 
Justice and Sincerity of Efforts to restore to mankind the 
blessings of Peace. 




This book is due on the last date stamped below, or 

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Renewed books are subject to immediate recall. 



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