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Full text of "German American annals"

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m 



UNIVERSITYy^ 

PENNSYLVANIA 

LIBRARIES 




GIFT OF" 



(Serman Qmcncan Qnnals 

CONTINUATION OF THE QUARTERLY 

AMERICANA GERMANICA 



A BI-MONTHLY DEVOTED TO THE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE 

Historical, Literary, Linguistic, Educational and Cnmmercial Relations 

OF 

Germany and America 

ORGAN OF 

The German American Historical Society 
The National German American Alliance 
The Union of Old German Students in America 



EDITOR, 

MARION DEXTER LEARNED, 
University of Pennsylvania. 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS : 



H 



C. G. Brandt, 

Hamilton College. 
W. H. Carpenter, 

Columbia University. 
W. H. Carruth, 

University of Kansas. 
Hermann Collitz, 

Johns Hopkins University. 
Starr W. Cutting, 

University of Chicago. 
Daniel K. Dodge, 

University of Illinois. 
A. B. Faust, 

Cornell University. 

KuNO Francke, 

Harvard University. 

Adolph Gerber, 

Late of Earlham College. 



Julius Goebel, 

University of Illinois. 
J. T. Hatfield, 

Northwestern University. 
VV. T. Hewett, 

Cornell University. 

A. R. HOHLFELD. 

University of Wisconsin. 
Hugo K. Schilling, 

University of California. 

H. Schmidt-Wartenberg, 

University of Chicago. 
Hermann Schoenfeld, 

Columbian University. 
Calvin Thomas, 

Columbia University. 
H. S. White, 

Harvard University. 



Henry Wood, Johns Hopkins University. 



New Series, Vol. 14. 



1916. 



Old Series, Vol. 18. 



published by 
THE GERMAN AMERICAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

E. M. FoGEL, Business Manager, 
Box 39, College Hall, University of Pennsylvania 

PbtlaDclpbla. 



3BerItn : IWew l^orR : 

MAYER & MOLLER CARL A. STERN 

XonOon : 
KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER & CO., Ltd. 



Xeip3tg : 
F. A. BROCKHAUS 

pads ; 

H. LeSOUDIER 






^Vt 4 



f^ 



CONTENTS 

OF 

GERMAN AMERICAN ANNALS 

Continuation of the Quarterly 
Americana Germanica. 

New Series, Vol. 14. Old Series, Vol. 18. 

1916 

Page 

German Drama in English on New York Stage 3 

Address of Dr. C. J. Hexamer at Unveiling of the General 

von Steuben Monument 54 

General von Steuben and the New Lesson of German Mili- 
tarism 59 

German Drama in English on Philadelphia Stage 69 

Some Early Poems Referring to Lancaster iii 

Johann Heinrich Miller 118 

H. C. Bloedel, in Memoriam 137 

General Swiss Colonization Society 141 

Kiefer Freundschaftgalbum 167 

Manoel Beckmann 189 

PUBLISHED BY 

THE GERMAN AMERICAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

E. M. FoGEL, Secretary, 

Box 39, College Hall, University of Pennsylvania, 

Philadelphia. 

Berlin : New York : Leipzig : 

MAYER & MIJLLER CARL A. STERN F. A. BROCKHAUS 

London : 
KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER & CO., Ltd. 

Paris : 
H. LeSOUDIER 



396089 



(5crman Qmerican Qnnals 

CONTINUATION OF THE QUARTERLY 

AMERICANA GERMANICA' 



New Series, Jan., Feb., March and April. Old Series, 

Vol. XIV. Nos. I and 2. 1916. Vol. XVIII. Nos. i and 2. 

THE GERMAN DRAMA IN ENGLISH ON THE NEW 
YORK STAGE TO 1830. 

BY 

Louis Charles Baker, 

University of Pennsylvania. 

{Concluded) 

Summary. (Season 1824-182^.) 
Plays at the Park Theatre. 

Pizarro, August 31, 1824 . 

Of Age Tomorrow, October 22, November 20, 1824, May 
17, 1825. 

The Robbers, January 22, February 19, 1825. 

Der Freischuts,° March 2, 4, 7, 9, 11, 14, 16, 18, 21, April 
4, 6, 13, 16, 26, May 7, 14, 20, June 2, 23, 29, 1825. 

The Marriage of Figaro, January 5, 7, February 16, June i, 
1825. 

Uncertain Plays. 

Ella Rosenberg, August 30, 1824. 

La Fayette, September 9, 1824, July 2, 1825. 

The Wandering Boys, September 28, December 10, 1824. 

The Blind Boy ( ?), November 22, 1824, March 26, May 13, 
1825. 

The Floating Beacon, November 25, 26, December 9, 15, 
1824, January i, March 19, April i, 2, 12, May 24, June 25, 
1825. 

The Wheel of Fortune, December 17, 1824. 

° Indicates that the play appears for the first time this season. 

(3) 



4 GeriHan Drama in English on New York Stage to i8jo 

Alasco° December i6, i8, 1824, April 15, 21, 1825. 

Szvedish Patriotism, December 28, 1824, January 4, 1825. 

Presumption, or Frankenstein ° January i, 4, 6, 11, 15, 
1825. 

Matrimony, January 8, February i, March 8, 1825. 

The Wood Daemon, April 9, 1825. 

The Miller and His Men, May 30, July 2, 1825. 

The West Indian, June 4, 1825. 

Loiuina of Toboilska, June 6, 1825. 

The Devil's Bridge, June 20, 1825. 

The summary for the Park shows five German plays and 
operas; the plays are not such a great factor in the summary as 
formerly, since the popularity of the opera caused them to be ne- 
glected. There are thirty performances in all, but of these 
twenty-four are of the two operas, Der Freischntn (20) and The 
Marriage of Figaro (4). Pizarro was seen but once, The Rob- 
bers twice and Of Age Tomorrozu thrice. 

Plays at the Chatham Theatre. (Season 1824-1825.) 
Pisarro, October 4, 6, 8, 11, 15, 21, 27, November 15, 23, 
December 13, 1824, February 10, May 9, 26, June 13, 29, 1825. 
The Robbers, October 20, 1824. 

Of Age Tomorrow, November 20, 1824, January 8, 1825. 
Lovers' Vows, December 6, 14, 1824, January 6, 1825. 
Rugantino, June 13, 17, 1825. 
The Stranger, June 15, 1825. 

Uncertain Plays. 

Ella Rosenberg, August 30, November 25, 1824, May 25, 
1825. 

The West Indian, September i. 9, 28, 1824. 

Adrian and Orilla, September 2, 1824. 

The Devil's Bridge, September 11, November 3, 1824. 

The Slave, September 14, 21, 1824, January 28, 1825. 

Two Pages of Frederick the Great, September 29, October 
I, 1824. 

Raymond and Agnes, December 2, 8, 11, 20, 31, 1824, Janu- 
ary I, 1825. 

" Indicates that the play appears for the first time this season. 



German Drama in English on Nezv York Stage to 18^0 5 

The Saw Mill° ( ?), November 29, December i, 4, 31, 1824, 
January i, 1825. 

The Blind Boy ( ?), December 22, 23, 1824. 

Tekili, January 6, 15, May 31, 1825. 

Adeline, January 10, 22, 1825. 

The Wandering Boys, January 21, 31, February 23, June 
10, 1825. 

The Point of Honor, February 3, 1825. 

The Forest of Rosenwald, February 5, 1825. 

The Jew of Luheck, February 9, 1825. 

La Fayette, or The Castle of Olniutz, July 4, 1825. 

Mehnouth,° February 4, 1825. 

The Ruffian Boy, June 4, 6, 9, 11, 14, 1825. 

The Chatham still retains its lead in the number of plays put 
on; six German plays being the total for the season. The num- 
ber of performances is twenty-four. A marked revival of 
Pizarro with Wallack acting the leading role is the feature of the 
season. During the month of October it was given no less than 
seven times and at the opening of the remodelled Chatham The- 
atre May 9, 1825, Pizarro was selected as a play worthy to be per- 
formed on such an auspicious occasion. The American Athen- 
aeum comments on the play:^^^ "The tragedy of Pisarro is not 
equal to many of Sheridan's productions; he remodelled it from 
Kotzebue's play for a political purpose. He intended Pizarro to 
represent the ambitions of Napoleon and the Peruvians the Brit- 
ish nation; the language of Pizarro is often inflated and Pizarro's 
character is unnatural; still there is (sic) many high wrought 
passages and striking situations and the play is well calculated 
to produce stage effect." 

Lovers' Vows received a very favorable notice too in the 
Ladies' Literary Gazette :^^^ "We can never witness any of the 
dramatic productions of Kotzebue without being charmed by his 
chaste and impressive style, — and perhaps in no play are there 
more beauties combined than in Lovers' Voivs. The audience 
testified their delight by repeated applause and each performer 



° Indicates that the play appears for the first time this season. 

^^'' American Athenaeum, Vol. I, p. 31 (May 12, 1825). 

"'New York Mirror and Ladies' Literary Gazette, December 11, 1824. 



6 German Drama in English on Neiv York Stage to iSjo 

seemed to vie with the other in giving proper effect to the part 
assigned to him."^^^ Thus we see that Kotzebue still remains a 
favorite with American audiences and without assuming too 
much, it may be accepted as a fact that his plays and The Robbers 
were important in the formation and development of the tastes 
of the American theatre-going public. 

In addition to the regular season, there are a few perform- 
ances to note in the summer seasons at the Lafayette Circus and 
the Chatham Theatre. 

Lafayette Circus. 

How to Die for Love, August 4, 1825. 

Ella Rosenberg, July 28, 1825. 

The Floating Beacon, July 30, August 3, 5, 8, 20, 24, 27, 

1825. 

Chatham Theatre. 

Of Age Tomorrow, July 12, 1825. 
Rugantino, July 13, 1825. 
Pizarro, August 16, 1825. 

The Devil's Bridge, July 11, 15, 1825. 

The Miller and His Men, August 17, 19, 1825. 

These statistics do not add any new play, but simply increase 
the total number of performances by four. 

In combining the totals for the two theatres during the reg- 
ular season with those of the summer season, we find that there 
were nine different plays and operas given in fifty-eight per- 
formances. Five of the plays are by Kotzebue, one by Schiller, 
one an arrangement of Zschokke's Abaellino, and the two remain- 
ing ones are operas. 

Season of 182 5-1826. 

(At the Park, August 29, 1825, to July 7, 1826.) 

(Chatham, May 9, 1825, to July 17, 1826. )i^° 

(Lafayette Amphitheatre, July 4, 1825, to February, 1826.) 



*" The performance of December 6, 1824, is referred to. 

"° The Chatham Theatre opened May 9, 1825, closed July 23-August 15, 
1825, then continued until February 18, 1826. It reopened March 20, 1826, 
and finished its season July 17, 1826. For the sake of convenience the Season 
of the Park is the standard by which divisions are made, for it is the oldest 
and most stable of the theatres. What is left over after the closing of the 
Park is counted as Summer Season. 



German Drama in English on Nezv York Stage to i8-;o 7 

In addition to the now firmly established theatres, a third 
comes into existence, the Lafayette Amphitheatre, formerly the 
Lafayette Circus, which had been fitted up with stage machinery, 
and now is regarded as a theatre, although it continued to up- 
hold its older title of Circus. 

This is the first season in the history of the New York stage 
that opera plays an important role. The Italian Maestro, Signor 
Garcia, with his talented daughter and a company of able singers, 
introduced Italian Opera, which soon became popular, much to 
the chagrin of many of the actors, especially Cooper, who was 
bitter in his public attacks upon it. 

The novelty at the Park, which attracts our attention, is the 
play entitled William Tell. We have seen how in 1794 a drama 
based on the Tell story was given, and in 1796 Dunlap put on 
The Archers }^^ The Tell which appeared this season was by 
Knowles. He made an arrangement from the drama of Schiller 
and prepared it for the British stage. It was soon taken up in 
America, where from some critics it met with hearty approval, 
while others condemned it as strongly as the former had praised 
it. The final opinion, however, tends toward condemnation 
rather than praise. 

The first performance of the play took place September 26, 
1825, at the Park Theatre. The theatre notice announces that it is 
the first performance of the play in America. The characters and 
the actors who played them are as follows •}^~ 



Gesler, 


Mr. Woodhull. 


Struth, 


Mr. Barnes. 


William Tell, 


Mr, Cooper. 


Waldman, 


Mr. Jervis. 


Michael, 


Mr. Hilson. 


Albert, 


Mrs. Barnes. 


Agnes, 


Mrs. Hilson. 


Emma, 


Mrs. Battersby. 



The acting of Cooper received the highest praise and the first 
criticisms are of very favorable nature. The Neiv York Mirror 
and Ladies' Literary Gazette has the following notice :^^^ "IVil- 

^"^ Cf. pp. 6, 7, g, German American Annals (N. S.), Vol. 13, Nos. i 
and 2 (1915). 

"' From the New York Evening Post, September 26, 1825. 
"'New York Mirror and Ladies' Literary Gazette, Vol. Ill, p. 74. 



8 Gcniiaii Drauia in English on iV^zc York Stage to i8jo 

Ham Tell, 6r The Hero of Sivitzerland, by J. Knowles, Esq., was 
presented to a full house on Monday evening last (Sep. 26). . . . 
The poet has shaped his incidents within the measure of his dra- 
matic rule and fitted them with ingenuity and skill for the stage. 
His fictitious characters are well drawn and made subservient to 
the main plot ; and that of the hero bears the marks of unwearied 
industry and fine imagination. He has struck out a being which 
g'reat and g-ood minds love to admire. A bold, chivalric, lion- 
hearted hero — full of sublime inspiration after freedom — with a 
heart panting at his country's wrongs and a hand trembling with 
eager ambition to strike her enemy dead at his foot. Fearing noth- 
ing but the failure of his enterprise, hoping nothing but the free- 
dom of his native land, interest, social feeling and parental affec- 
tion are all swept away by the torrent of patriotism which urged 
him on to his glory. 

"Mr. Cooper throughout his part elicited the most over- 
whelming approbation. . . . We cannot conclude without ex- 
pressing a hope that this excellent play will be frequently pre- 
sented on the New York stage." 

The American Athenaeum, which very seldom has had any 
good words for anything that smacks of German, raises no objec- 
tions against the new play : 

"On Monday evening was brought out for the first time in 
America, the play of William Tell — written by Knowles, the 
author of Virginiiis, etc. It attracted a very full audience, and 
was received with great applause. The story of the heroic Swiss 
mountaineer is too well known to require any recapitulation. The 
author has contrived his scenes and situations with considerable 
dramatic effect and the character of William Tell is simply and 
naturally drawn. Mr. Cooper gave us a finer specimen of his 
acting in this part than in any other in which we recollect to have 
seen him for a long time. The scene in which he is first brought 
prisoner in heavy chains, before the tyrant and his boy exposed 
to recognition, was performed in masterly style. ^^^ The dignity 

"* Knowles has torn the Schiller drama apart and rewoven the threads to 
suit his own taste. Thus, in the scene referred to, Albert (Tell's son) has 
been imprisoned by Gessler because he refused to tell the tyrant the name 
of his father. Tell in the meantime has refused to salute to the cap in the 
market-place and has been brought before Gessler. The son and father deny 
their relationship until Gessler announces that both must die. He changes 
his decision to the shooting-test. 



Gcnuaii Drama in English on Nctv York Stage to 18^0 9 

of the freeman, the integrity of the man eontencled with the 
yearnings of the father's heart for his only son, the pride of his 
age, and the hope of his country. When the arrow which he 
had intended for Gesler in case of his missing the apple and kill- 
ing the child, was discovered, and he was questioned as to his 
purpose, the reply 'it was intended for thee' was uttered with 
most admirable power. "^^^ 

Two weeks later the American Athenaeum had more de- 
cided views on the value of the play and the ability of Knowles 
as a dramatist : 

"Mr. Knowles evidently writes not for immortality nor for 
the next age, even, but merely for the reigning actor of the day. 
He models his characters to the level of the actors. He does not 
seek to elevate the actor to that of the tragic muse. His plays 
are well calculated for acting in the present day but beyond this 
little can be said of them."^^^ 

The play did not have a run like the opera Der Freischutz, 
but every season it makes its appearance with the role of Tell 
generally in the hands of some great actor, at first Cooper, later 
Macready, who is said to have even surpassed his great rival. 

Another Mozart opera is brought out during the season: 
Don Giovanni (music by Mozart, adapted by Bishop), for the 
first time in America, May 23, 1826.^'^'^ 

The opera became popular, but seemingly no newspaper or 
magazine criticisms were published. The enumeration of the 
number of performances of this opera is made exceedingly diffi- 
cult and uncertain because of the parody by the same main title 
but with the subtitle : The Spectre on Horseback. Where 
the subtitle is omitted from the announcement, there is nothing 
to determine which one of the operas is to be performed. While 
speaking of things musical we note a concert^^^ by Sig. Garcia, 
at which the German masters, Beethoven and Mozart were rep- 
resented; Beethoven by the overture Prometheus and Mozart in 
sextetto Sola, sola, from Don Giovanni. 



"The American Athenaeum," I, 223 (September 29, 1825). 
'"The American Athenaeum," I, 247 (October 13, 1825). 

New York Evening Post, May 23, 1826. 
' At the City Hotel, January 26, 1826. 



10 Geriuan Drama in English on Nczv York Stage to 18^0 

The uncertain plays which are new this year are very few in 
number ; we mention but two : The Invasion of Russia, a grand 
military equestrian spectacle, and Don Juan. Nothing was found 
concerning either and it is probable that there is no German in- 
fluence shown in either of them. 

Summary for the Park Theatre. (Season 182^-1826.) 

The Stranger, August 31, November 4, 1825, June i, 1826. 

Der Frieschiitz, September 6, 1825, April i, June 5, 16, 1826. 

Pisarro, September 19, October 22, December 5, 1825. 

William Tell,° September 26, 29, October 8, 15, November 
8, 12, 1825, April 26, 1826. 

Of Age Tomorrow, October 10, 1825. 

The Robbers, December 30, 1825. 

Don Giovanm,° May 23, 27, 30, June 10, 20, July 21,^^^ 
28, August 9, 1826. 

Education, May 24, 1826. 

The Marriage of Figaro, June 30, 1826. 

Uncertain Plays. 

The Floating Beacon, September i, 24, 1825. 

The Devil's Bridge, October 14, 1825, February 2y, June 9, 
1826. 

Matrimony, November 12, December 8, 1825. 

The Floating Beacon, February 9, 1826. 

The Invasion of Russia,° February 22, March 13, 17, April 
14, 1826. 

The Wood Daemon, February 18, 1826. 

DonJuan° (?), March i, 1826. 

The Innkeeper's Daughter, March 16, 29, June 15, 1826. 

The Woodman's Hut, July 5, 1826. 

The summary for the Park shows nine German plays and 
operas, six of the former, three of the latter, in twenty-nine per- 
formances — thirteen of these are performances of opera. Tell 
as the novelty of the season among the plays has the largest num- 
ber of performances, seven. The Kotzebue plays diminish de- 
cidedly in number — there are but three represented. The Stran- 
ger, Pizarro and Of Age Tomorrow. The first two of these plays 

"'During the summer the Italian Company gave opera {in Italian). 



German Drama in English on Neiv York Stage to 18^0 1 1 

continue to live on into the sixties, but the name of tlie author is 
not often mentioned. Yet his career on the New York stage does 
not end so quickly, we shall hear more of him in the seasons 
immediately following. 

The Chatham Theatre. (Season 182^1826.) 
The season at the Chatham is not so rich in material as the 
year at the Park, yet a goodly number of German plays are put 
on, although the season is lacking in novelties. There were six 
German pieces put on (including Don Giovanni, or The Liber- 
tine Destroyedy^^ and the total number of performances is 
nineteen. Kotzebue is represented in four plays: Pizarro, The 
Stranger, How to Die for Love and Of Age Tomorrow. 

The play by Reynolds entitled 'Tzvould Puzzle a Conjuror, 
later given under the title The Tivo Peters, a drama based on a 
story of Peter the Great and one of his ambassadors, may be in- 
fluenced by some German version of the story.^^^ Beyond this 
there are no new uncertain plays to Hst. 

Summary for the Chatham Theatre. (Season 182^-1826.) 
Pizarro, August 30, October 28, December 12, 1825, Feb- 
ruary 13, March 20, May 13, June 12, 1826.-°^ 

The Stranger, October 21, 1825, June 14, 1826. 

Hozv to Die for Love, November 12, 1825. 

Rugantino, January 10, March 27, April 22, 1826. 

Of Age Tomorrow, January 17, 1826. 

Don Giovanni ( ?),° April 14, May 31, June 2, 3, 8, 1826. 

Uncertain Plays. 
The Miller and His Men, August 29, September 6, 14, Octo- 
ber 15, November 5, 21, December 3, 1825, January 9, February 
14, 18, March 22, May 9, 1826. 



*"" I am inclined to believe that it is not German but is billed as a counter- 
attraction of Mozart's opera at the Park. 

'"'The cast (from Ireland, I, p. 459) is: Czar Peter, Varensloff, Von 
Clump, De Mowille, Hans Lubberlick, Peter Stanwitz, Von Block, Bertha. 
Ireland gives the date of the performance as October 17, 1824, evidently a 
mistake. It should be 1825. 

""'The cast for Pizarro, Tune 12, was: Pizarro, Mr. Scott; Alonzo, Mr. 
Wallack ; Rolla, Mr. Conway ; Elvira, Mrs. Duff. 



12 German Drama in English on New York Stage to i8jo 

The Wandering Boys, September 3, October 12, November 
26, 1825, January 27, April 18, 1826. 

Ella Rosenberg, September 8, December 29, 1825, April i, 
1826. 

Tekili, September 9, 1825, March 29, 1826. 

The Devil's Bridge, September 15, November 29, 1825, Feb- 
ruary 3, April 28, 1826. 

Adrian and Orilla, October 13, 1825, June 29, 1826. 

Lafayette, October 22, 1825. 

The Slave, October 26, November i, 1825, February i, 
1826. 

The Blind Boy ( ?), November 16, 1825, March 28, May 2, 
1826. 

Tzvo Pages of Frederick the Great, December i, 13, 1825, 
January 30, 1826. 

Matrimony, December 16, 1825. 

'Tzvould Puzzle a Conjurer ° October 13, 17, 1825. 

Valentine and Orson, January 14, 19, 28, February 4, 10, 
16, April 4, 15, May 18, July 10, 1826. 

Don Giovanni, or The Spectre on Horseback, January 26, 
1826. 

The Forest of Rosenwald, February 7, 1826. 

Raymond and Agnes, April 8, 15, 1826. 

Pizarro has a larger number of performances than any of 
the other plays ; this is perhaps accounted for by Wallack's fond- 
ness for the play. He was now manager of the Chatham Theatre 
at the same time acting in his favorite roles. The other plays 
show the general interest still in the German drama. 

The Lafayette Amphitheatre. (Season 182^-1826.) 
The season at this theatre has nothing new. The older plays 
are given at long intervals; in the main, however, the chief at- 
traction of the former circus is the equestrian spectacle alternat- 
ing with the pantomime. Of German plays we find but one dur- 
ing the regular season : Of Age Tomorrow. It was given De- 
cember 10, 1825. There is a longer list of uncertain plays: 

The Floating Beacon, September 5, 7, December 6, 1825, 
February 22, 1826. 



Gcniian Drama in English on Neiv York Stage to iS^o 13 

The Blind Boy, September 26, 30, 1825. 

Ella Rosenberg, October 10, 1825. 

The Woodman s Hut, December i, 5, 13, 1825. 

The Wandering Jew° January 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 13, 17, 1826. 

The Bleeding Nun, January 16, 18, 21, 1826. 

Tekili, March 8, 13, 27, 1826. 

Summer Season of 1826. 
Chatham Theatre. 
Don Giovanni, or The Libertine Destroyed, July 11, 1826. 

Lafayette Amphitheatre. 
Of Age Tomorrozv, July 25, 1826. 
Hozv to Die for Love, August 3, 21, 1826. 
The Floating Beacon, July 8, 27, 1826. 
Matrimony, July 10, 1826. 
Raymond and Agnes, July 11, 1826. 
The Ruffian Boy, July 19, 21, 26, 29, 1826. 
Adrian and Orilla, August 10, 22, 1826. 
The complete summary for the season shows : 

Park Theatre, 9 plays in 29 performances. 

Chatham, 6 plays in 19 performances. 

Lafayette, i play in i performance. 

Summer Season, 3 plays in 4 performances. 

There were in all eleven different German plays produced in 
fifty-three performances. 

Season of 1826-182/. 

1. Park Theatre, August 28, 1826, to July 4, 1827. 

2. Chatham Theatre, October 9, 1826, to May, 1827. 

3. Lafayette, July 4, 1826, to April, 1827. 

4. The Bowery, October 23, 1826, to August 24, 1827.-"^ 

5. Mt. Pitt Circus, November 8, 1826-1827.204 

6. The Broadway Circus, May 31, 1827 — Summer. 



Almost continuous performances but divided here for convenience. 
The irregular advertising makes the exact time uncertain. Unimportant. 



14 Gcniian Drama in English on New York Stage tu iSjo 

The treatment of this season is rather difficult, owing to the 
many theatres and circuses which from time to time present a 
German play. The Bowery, first known as "The New York 
Theatre", opened October 2;^, 1826, and from the beginning had 
a strong company, which accounts for the great number of plays 
recorded at that place. Numbers 5 and 6 are relatively unimpor- 
tant; No. 6 is short-lived for it brings nothing in this season 
after July 4, 1827. 

The Park Theatre (Season 1826-182/). 

The German element in the plays offered is not above the 
general average ; eight plays are listed, but the fact worthy of note 
is that the Kotzebue plays are but two in number : Pizarro and 
The Stranger. There is one new play, Oberon, or The Charmed 
Horn. The play is founded on the well-known poem of Wieland 
and had been presented at the Drury Lane Theatre March 27, 
1826.^^^ Genest^^^ says: "The piece (Oberon) brought out 
this evening was written by an unknown author — it is much 
worse than Thompson's pieces (Oberon' s Oath, D. L. May 21, 
1816) but it was acted with much better success. Each of the 
pieces is founded on Wieland's poem, and the main plot of each 
is nearly the same." According to a prompter's copy in the New 
York Public Library, the author is James Robert Planche.^^^ 

The Nezu York Evening Post for September 20, 1826, an- 
nounces "Oberon, or The Charmed Horn (a Grand romantic 
fairy tale) as performed at Drury Lane." It was favorably re- 
ceived and was performed ten times during the season. The fol- 
lowing gives a sketch of the plot : "The new romantic melo- 
drama of Oberon, or Tht Charmed Horn (not Weber's opera of 
Oberon) was brought forward and repeated on Friday evening 
with considerable success. Oberon, the monarch of Fairyland, 
has a dispute with his queen, Titania, on the subject of male and 

'"' Genest. IX, pp. 332-3. 

COS (-^ Title-page : Oberon / or The J Charmed Horn. J A romantic fairy 
Tale / in two Acts. / The subject from the celebrated poem of Wieland. / 
(Written in pencil) By James Rob. Planche. / Performed at the Drury Lane 
Theatre. / The music selected from eminent composers / arranged and 
adapted by Mr. T. Cooke. / London. / Printed by J. Tabby. / Theatre Royal, 
Drury Lane / 1826. 



German Drama in English on New York Stage to 18^0 15 

female constancy, etc. Sir Huon of Guienne has slain the son of 
the French Emperor Charlemagne and in the plentitnde of his 
wrath that potent sovereign swears that unless Sir Huon repairs 
to Bagdad, kills the Caliph's favourite, weds his daughter, brings 
away a lock of his beard, and returns to the court by a certain 
day: — 'the lands of fair Guienne shall be forfeited'. Upon this 
moderate and very hopeful adventure the undaunted Sir Huon 
instantly sets out. 

"Oberon fixes upon Sir Huon, and Titania on Amanda, the 
Caliph's daughter as the representatives of the sexes on this occa- 
sion. . . . 

"The last scene is at the court of Charlemagne. Sir Huon 
arrives just in time to save the forfeit, defeats the champion, 
produces the bride and beard, wins the King's favour and his 
lands, while Oberon and Titania descend and bless the happy 
pair." The article closes with a critique of the actors, paying all 
very high compliments, particularly mentioning the machinist, 
and with the surmise that it is anticipated that "Oberon will have 
a run and amply remunerate the manager. "-^"^ 

We note among the uncertain plays Don Giovanni in Lon- 
don, another parody on Mozart's opera, and a new melodrama. 
The Flying Dutchman. The latter piece is founded on the famil- 
iar legend and immediately became one of the season's best at- 
tractions. The Nezu York Mirror and Ladies' Literary Gazette 
comments upon it in the following manner r^^ "The new melo- 
drama of The Flying Dutchman founded on the well-known leg- 
end of that name, was brought out Monday evening.^^^a j^. jg ^ 
combination of all sorts of earthly and unearthly, unnatural and 
supernatural materials, diversified with a few light and pleasing 
incidents, as storms, wrecks, waves, spirits, gunpowder explo- 
sions and concludes in the usual moral melodramatic manner. We 
are rather sorry to see the piece go up at the Park; it is much 
fitter for one of the minor theatres." 



'"New York Mirror and Ladies' Literary Gazette, Vol. 4, p. 79 (Sep- 
tember 25, 1826). 

*°* New York Mirror and Ladies' Literary Gazette, Vol. 4, p. 303- 
'"'a Monday, April 9, 1827. 



1 6 German Drama in English on Nezv York Stage to iSjO 

Of minor importance is the announcement that The Bavar- 
ian Broom Song will be sung by one of the favorite actresses. 
The title is also given as the Bavarian Song Buy a Broom.-^^ 
Peter Smink, or Which is the Miller is uncertain. -^'^ 

Sununary (Park Theatre, Season 1826-182/). 
Der Freischutz, August 31, September 21, November 4, 
1826, February 10, March 13, May 31, 1827. 
Don Giovanni, September 5, 16, 1826. 
Pizarro, September 6,-^^ November 14, 1826, JanuaiT^ 10. 

23, 1827. 

Oberon,° September 20, 22, 25, 27, 29, October 10, 17, 19, 

24, November i, 1826. 

William Tell, October 13,-^^ October 20, December 28, 
1826, April 18, May 30, 1827. 

The Stranger, December 16, 1826, March 14, May 29, 1827. 

The Marriage of Figaro, December 19, 30, 1826, January 9, 
20, March 7, April 21, 26, May 8, June 2, 1827. 

The Robbers, January 17, 1827. 

Uncertain Plays. 

The Innkeeper's Daughter, August 30, 1826. 

The Siege of Belgrade, October 12, December 14, 1826. 

Peter Smink, or Which is the Miller, ° October 14, 19, No- 
vember 4, 1826. 

The Woodman s Hut, October 20, 1826. 

The Exile of Siberia, January i, 4, 30, February 6, 15, June 
26, 1827. 

Matrimony, January 3, May 21, June 4, 1827. 

The Slave, January 22, 1827. 

The Floating Beacon, January 22, 29, March 23, May 14, 
1827. 

^''C/. New York Evening Post. May 17, 21, 1827. 

""The cast shows German characters: Peter Smink, Hants, Chev. Bayard, 
Commandant, Eugene, Ninette. 

*" Cooper plays RoUa. 

*" Partial cast : W. Tell, Air. Macready ; Gesler, Woodhull ; Braun, 
Placide ; Agnes, Mrs. Sharpe. 



German Drama in English on Nezu York Stage to i8jo i y 

The Wheel of Fortune, January 31, 1827. 

Giovanni in London° ( ?), March i, 3, 15, 17, 20, 24, April 
6, II, 28, June 7, 1827. 

The Devil's Bridge, March 24, 1827. 

The Wandering Boys, April 4, 1827. 

The Flying Dntchman,° April 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 
18, 20, 25, 28, May I, 7, 15, 29, 1827. 

Adeline, or The Victim of Seduction, June 23, 1827. 

Lowina of Toboliska, July 4, 1827. 

Bavarian Broom Song,° May 17, 21, June 7, 29, 1827 

The German drama for the season owes much to the two 
great actors, Cooper and Macready. As has been noted Cooper 
played the grateful role of Rolla in Pisarro while Macready won 
the hearts of the public in his presentation of the character of 
Tell. The Evening Post (October 23, 1826) published a crit- 
icism of Macready's acting in the performance of Tell October 20. 

"In Wm. Tell a greater effort of genius is required to ren- 
der that character interesting than in any other of this author's 
productions. It is decidedly but an outline which may be said to 
depend wholly for its effect upon the painting of the actor. To 
Mr. Macready's talents alone, is the piece indebted for any popu- 
larity it may have gained. 

"The ardour of enthusiasm displayed in his address to the 
native mountaineers, as he looks upon them after returning from 
Altdorf, the residence of the tyrant Gesler, within whose domin- 
ion the sacred name of Liberty was not breathed, was a fine speci- 
men of patriotic feeling. The instructions to his little Boy (a 
part uncommonly well sustained by Master Wheatley) were so 
beautifully and naturally done that the audience were hushed 
to the deepest silence, during this very interesting scene and they 
testified their approbation by the warmest plaudits at its close. 

"The indignation and horror mingled with manly grief ex- 
pressed at the sight of old Melctal whose eyes had been torn out 
by the cruel Gesler, succeeded by his determination of revenge — 
were most effectively delineated as was also the bold deed of 
trampling on the insolence of the tyrant (whose cap set upon a 
pole, his officers were compelling the countrymen to bow to) by 



i8 German Drama in English on Nezv York Stage to 18^0 

flashing to the earth this disgraceful evidence of their thralldom 
and driving the officers before them; the native dignity and the 
scornful smile with w^hich he regards the officers who bring him 
in chains before the tyrant, when erect and motionless he remains 
after being ordered to bend his knee to him and 'beg for mercy', 
showed how little the fear of death could operate on a mind so 
lofty and free, and a heart conscious of the purity of its motives 
and actions. 

"The struggle to command his features as the boy is brought 
into his presence and his fears, that his only son was also within 
the tyrant's grasp, realized, the inward satisfaction at his boy's 
judgment in refusing to own him as his father, when he exclaims 
'My boy, my own brave boy! He is safe!'. Then his misery at 
being discovered to be his father, and the shuddering at the 
inhuman proposition, that he should shoot an apple from the 
boy's head, his gradual reflection that, however painful, it was 
the only chance of saving both their lives — and lastly the alternate 
emotions of his soul at the dreadful trial of his skill — his expres- 
sion T will not shoot against the sun'. His almost bursting heart 
as he caresses the boy ere he is placed on his knees with the apple 
on his head — and recoiling with horror as he first aims the arrow, 
the summoning of all his fortitude and coolness as he is chid for 
his delay and told 'to go on'. He lets the arrow fly and falls 
exhausted and unable to speak for a time to his beloved child, 
who rushes into his father's arms, — were all so powerfully exhib- 
ited as to baffle description. "^^^ 

The summary for the Park shows eight German plays in 
forty performances. The three operas account for seventeen per- 
formances and the new piece Oberon for ten. 

The Season at the Chatham Theatre. 
The season brings no new German plays and about the usual 
number of old ones; Wallack still played at this theatre which 
explains why Piaarro appears six times during the season. We 



^'' Another similar criticism is found in the New York Mirror. 
The New York Mirror and Ladies' Literary Gazette, IV, p. 103, gives a 
shorter review of the performance of Tell on October 20, 1826: "W. Tell was 



German Drama in English on New York Stage to i8jo 19 

note also the revival of Deaf and Dumb (Kotzebue's Abbe de 
I'Epee). 

Two uncertain plays appear: Valdemar and Feudal Times. 
Only partial casts are available ; of Valdemar, the names Valde- 
mar and Adelaide; of Feudal Times, the name Ruthenwolf. The 
full title of the latter is Feudal Times, or The Banquet Gallery; 
it is said to be by Colman. 

Summary (Chatham Theatre^ Season 1826-182/). 

Of Age Tomorrozv, October 16, 1826, March 14, 22, April 
14, June 9, 1827. 

Pizarro, October 24, November 10, December 29, 30, 1826, 
January 3, February 28, 1827. 

William Tell, November 15, 20, 1826, May 19, 1827. 

Rugantino, November 22, 1826. 

Don Giovanni (?), December 11, 14, 1826. 

Deaf and Dumb, December 27, 1826. 

The Stranger, March 6, May 14, June 12, 1827. 

Uncertain Plays. 
The Devil's Bridge, October 17, 1826. 
The Miller and His Men, October 21, 1826. 
Raymond and Agnes, October 28, 1826. 



performed to the most crowded house judging from our eye and feeling of 
any (save the first night) of Mr. Macready's appearance. 

"This is, we think, the poorest of Knowles' tragedies and can scarcely be 
termed more than a sort of a refined melodrama. It has no pretensions to 
original character, it exposes and unfolds no hidden recesses of the human 
heart, it is apparent on the surface ; it is the tragedy of situation. The story 
is, however, interesting and skilfully dramatized, and affords soine good 
opportunities for display in the actor who represents the hero. It is almost 
needless to say that everything was made the most of by Mr. Macready, who 
is the original Tell. In his hands it rises to something much above what its 
own merit entitles it to. 

"There is such an intensity in his manner — such enthusiastic aspiration 
after liberty— and such detestation of oppression is breathed forth in all he 
utters, as carries all along with it. With fervor he gives the opening speech 
in the second Scene : 'Ye crags and peaks, I am with you once again !' His 
mute despair and mental anguish in the scenes with his child and Gessler, 
were wonderfully affecting. ... In many scenes the most profound silence 
reigned, and all attempts at applause were immediately put down by the 
murmur of 'Hush' that spread through the house. This is true applause — 
the applause of the heart." 



20 German Drama hi English on Neiv York Stage to iS^o 

The Blind Boy ( ?), October 31, 1826. 

Matrimony, November 2, 1826. 

Valentine and Orson, November 30, December 2y, 1826. 

Two Pages of Frederick the Great, December 9, 1826. 

The West Indian, December 18, 1826. 

The Wandering Boys, January 17, June 26, July 3, 1827. 

Adclgitha, February 16, 1827. 

Tekili, February 22^, April 20, 1827. 

Ella Rosenberg, February 24, March 29, 1827. 

The Bleeding Nun, February 26, March 19, 1827. 

The Bracen Mask, February 27, 1827. 

The Innkeeper's Daughter, April 9, 12, 17, 20, July 5, 1827. 

Valdemar,° May 7, 11, 15, 1827. 

Feudal Times, May 7, 8, 9, 10, 1827. 

The summary shows seven Gennan plays for the Chatham 
twenty-one performances; the highest number of performances 
for any one play is scored by Pizarro (6). 

The Lafayette Amphitheatre {Season 1826-182/). 

At the Lafayette there are but three German plays to record : 
Of Age Tomorrozv, October 4, 1826. 
Pizarro, November 15, 1826. 

La Perouse (largely pantomimic), March 9, 10. 13, 16, 31, 
April 6, 1827. 

Uncertain Plays. 

Ella Rosenberg, September 15, October 6, 1826. 
The Devil's Bridge, September 18, 22, 1826. 
The Blind Boy (Hewetson), September 19, October 6, 1826. 
The Ruffian Boy, October 10, 1826. 
Raymond and Agnes, October 21, 1826. 
The Wandering Boys, October 24, 28, 1826. 
Valentine and Orson, January 29, 30, 31, February 2, March 
30, 1827. 

The Floating Beacon, February 7, 1827. 

Tekili, March 15, 22, 1827. 

Three German plays in seven performances. 



Geniian Drama in English on Nezv York Stage to rS^o 21 

77?^ Bozvery (Season 1826-182/). 

The Bowery, as the "New York Theatre" is more commonly 
called, has its star actor who helps to swell the list of German 
productions. He is none other than the famous Forrest. As 
Macready at the Park, so Forrest at the Bowery makes Tell a 
popular play; and he also brings Pizarro before the patrons of 
the theatre. Aside from these two plays there are not a great 
many performances of other plays ; The Stranger^ Don Giovanni, 
Of Age Tomorrow, Abaellino and How to Die for Love finish 
the list. It is of interest to note that in the announcement for 
February 27, 1827, a German title is given instead of the usual 
translation. The program for that night was Mozart's Don Gio- 
vanni and the Duett from the Zauberfidte: Der Liebe holdes Gluck 
empfinden.^^'^ Whether the Duett was sung in German cannot 
be ascertained. 

One new play that deals with a German theme appears in 
the drama Returned Killed. The first performance took place 
March 2, 1827. A partial cast ^^^ shows the characters: Baron 
von Lindorf, Raubvogel, Milligan, Madame Lisburg. 

Baron v. Lindorf has been reported "killed" after a battle 
with the Hungarians. Although he lives and has recovered from 
his wounds, he does not reveal himself because he disobeyed the 
King's orders in commanding his troops to rush forward and 
turn back the en.emy. He is finally pardoned by his sovereign, 
Frederick the Great. The play is said to be adapted from the 
French -^^ but reminds one very strongly of Kleist's Prinz von 
Hombnrg. 

The Flying Dutchman made its appearance at this theatre 
May 25, a little more than a month later than its introduction to 
New York at the Park. Here, too, it immediately achieved that 
success which made it one of the most popular of the season's 
plays. 



New York Evening Post, February 27, 1827. 
From New York Evening Post, March 10, 1827. 
Cf. Genest, IX, pp. 382-3. 



22 German Drama in English on Ne7v York Stage to 18^0 

Summary (Bozvery Theatre, 1826-182/). 

Of Age Tomorrow, November 4, 1826, June 19, 1827. 

The Stranger, November 22, 1826. 

William Tell, November 30, December 9, 23, 1826, February 
I, April 7, May 9, 1827. 

Pizarro, January 25, 27, 30, March 22, April 17, June 9, 
1827. 

Don Giovanni (Mozart), February 12, 27, 1827. 

Abaellino, June 22, 1827. 

Hozv to Die for Love, June 26, 1827. 

Uncertain Plays. 

The Wheel of Fortune, December 6, 1826. 

The Wood Daemon, January 1,4, 12, 20, 1827. 

Adrian and Orilla, January 9, 13, 17, February 6, March 5, 
1827. 

The Devil's Bridge, January 15, 19,-^^ February 19, March 
8, 1827. 

Matrimony^ February 24, 1827. 

Returned Killed, ° March 2, 5, 6, 10, 12, May 7, 1827. 

Adelgitha, March 7, 1827. 

Columbus, March 19, 21, 1827. 

T/j^ 5/mrf Boy ( ?), March 23, May 8, 1827. 

The West Indian, May 17, 19, June 26, 1827. 

The Flying Dutchman,° May 25, 26, 27, 30, June 2, 5, 12, 
14, 20, 23, 30, July 5, 1827. 

Two Pages of Frederick the Great, June 21, 1827. 

The Innkeeper's Daughter, June 22, 1827. 

The summary shoves seven German plays presented in nine- 
teen performances; four of the plays are by Kotzebue; they ac- 
count for ten of the nineteen performances. 

The Broadivay Circus and the Mount Pitt Circus. 
Both of the circuses gave dramatic performances which 
might attract or interest the class of people w^hich frequented 



The "Song of Tell" was sung by Signorina Garcia. 



German Drama in English on Nezu York Stage to iSjo 23 

them ; at the Broadway, in spite of the extremely short season, 
three different German plays are put on while but two appear at 
the Mount Pitt Circus. 

Mount Pitt Circus. 
La Pcrouse, May 19, 22, 30, 1827. 
Hoiv to Die for Love, June 12, 1827. 
Valentine and Orson, April 16, 24, 1827. 
Tekili, May 2, 4, 1827. 

The Floating Beacon, May 21, 23, June 15, 22, 1827. 
The Miller and His Men, May 24, 25, 29, June 11, 27, 1827. 
The Blind Boy, June 13, 1827. 
Raymond and Agnes, June 20, 28, 1827. 

Summary. 
Two German plays in four performances. Both are Kotze- 
bue plays. 

Broadzvay. 

The Stranger, May 31,^^^ Ji-ine 9, 1827. 

Abaellino, June 4, 1827. 

La Perouse^ June 13, 1827. 

The Devil's Bridge, June 11, 1827. 

Summary. 
Three German plays in four performances. Two of the 
three plays are by Kotzebue. 

Summer Season at the Park Theatre. 
During the summer of 1827 the French Company from the 
theatre in New Orleans came to New York to give performances 
in French. From all reports the theatre was fairly attended and 
company received generous comments in the papers. The only 
plays of interest to us are : La Belle Allemande, ou Le Grenadier 
du Frederic Guillaume (August 15), Marie Stuart (?) (August 



"'This was the opening performance of the season. The players were 
from the Chatham Theatre Company. The partial cast is : The Stranger, Mr. 
Scott; Baron de Steinfort, Mr. Stevenson; Peter, Mr. Simpson; Mrs. Haller, 
Mrs. Entwistle. 



24 German Drama in English on New York Stage to iSjo 

i8, 20), and IVerter, ou Lcs Egarcuients d'nn Coeiir sensible 
(August 29). Concerning the first two nothing definite could be 
found except the cast ^^'"^ of Marie Stuart, which, however, is of 
no value in determining whether the play is based on Schiller or 
whether it is an independent French production. 

The third play, Werter, presents the strange combination of 
a German work played in French in an essentially English-speak- 
ing city. Whether this is an arrangement of Werther by Pixer- 
icourt, cannot be stated. 

Summer Performances at the Chatham and Bowery. 

There are very few performances to note for the part of the 
seasons of these playhouses, which continues into the summer. 
At the Chatham the following uncertain plays were put on : Two 
Pages of Frederick the Great (July 6), The Slave (July 9), The 
Snowstorm° (P)^^^ (July 16, 17). 

At the Bowery a number of German plays appear : The 
Stranger (August 18), Pisarro (July 25), and Hozv to Die for 
Love (July 10). We also record The Flying Dutchman (July 
10, 17, 21, 24, 28, August I, 9, 15, 22, 28) and Two Pages of 
Frederick the Great (July 13). 

The combined results for the summer give five German plays 
in eight performances. 

Summary for the Entire Season at All Theatres. 

Park Theatre, 8 plays in 40 performances. 

Chatham, 7 plays in 21 performances. 

Lafayette, 3 plays in 7 performances. 

Bowery, 7 plays in 19 performances. 

Mt. Pitt, 2 plays in 4 performances. 

Broadway, 3 plays in 4 performances. 

Summer Season, ^-^ 5 plays in 8 performances. 



"* The cast as published in the Evening Post, August 27, 1827, is as fol- 
lows : Marie, Mme. Clozel ; Elizabeth, Mme. Chollet ; Mortimer, Mons. 
Edouard. 

"" The Snowstorm was the title of Barrymore's Lowina of ToboHska. 
Cf. p. 8s. 

*'* For details see the preceding page. 



German Drovia in English on New York Stage to 18^0 25 

In all there were 103 performances of the following fifteen 
German plays : Dcr Freischutz, Don Giovanni, Pisarro, Oberon, 
WiUiain Tell, The Stranger, The Marriage of Figaro, The Rob- 
bers. Of Age Tomorrozv, Rugantino, Deaf and Dumb, La Pe- 
roiisc, Abaellino, Hozv to Die for Love, and IVerterr'-''^ 

Season of 18 2 'j- 18 28. 

Park Theatre, September 3, 1827, to August 2, 1828. 

Chatham, August, 1827, to August, 1828. 

Lafayette, September 29, 1827, to September, 1828. 

Bowery, September i, 1827, to May 26, 1828. ^-^ 

Mt. Pitt, September, 1827, to June, 1828. 

Sans Souci, July 4, 1828. ^^^ 

During the year there are four theatres of importance with 
good companies giving performances. The last two mentioned 
are of very little importance. 

The Park Theatre (Season of 1821-1828). 

The Park as the oldest theatre presents the strongest list of 
plays, among them two new ones of great interest : Faiistns and 
The Poachers. The former appeared for the first time in New 
York at the Park Theatre October 11, 1827. The play as given 
was Soane's arrangement of the Gennan theme. In the news- 
paper notices it is said to be founded on Goethe's Faust, but one 
would hardly recognize the original from the plot and characters 
as outlined in the following somewhat lengthy but interesting 
comments. The first notice is in the New York Spy:^"^ "Faiistus, 
October 11, 1827. The play of Faustus is founded on the cele- 
brated Faust of Goethe, the most romantic and popular drama 
of the German school. It teaches that unbridled curiosity if 



*** Given in French. 

*^ The Lafayette has been rebuilt during the summer ; the Bowery burned 
May 26, 1828. 

"* Sans Souci opened July 4 in Niblo's Garden and continued through 
the summer. One of the first and best attractions which it offered was Herr 
Cline, The German Samson. 

^"The New York Spy, October 13, 1827. (An excellent paper for theatrical 
reviews.) 



26 German Drama in English on Nc7c York Stage to /^jo 

mingled with enthusiasm of feehng and power of intellect, and 
directed to those mysteries which are too intricate and too vast 
for human understanding, must necessarily end in despair. Thus 
said the playbills of Thursday evening when this drama was pro- 
duced, which is the most splendid in every particular we have 
ever seen." 

The Nezv York Mirror and Ladies' Literary Gazette, too, 
adds its approval with a few notes and anecdotes about the 
play :-^" "The new drama of Faustns has met with the most de- 
cided success. Indeed this subject seems ordained to succeed in 
all ages and in all shapes. The first noise that the German student 
Faust or Faustus made in the world was as the inventor of the 
'noble art' of printing, the art (as young Fourth of Jury orators 
say) that has broken the bonds of darkness — that has dissemi- 
nated the light of knowledge from pole to pole, etc., etc. . . . 

"Goethe next took Faust in hand and Goethe rendered him 
immortal. We believe Lord Gower's translation has been but 
little read in this country. It ought to be read and now is the 
fittest season. The Faust of Goethe is not light summer read- 
ing — it is not a work for a man in a happy frame of mind, over 
a cheerful fire: but when suicidal November sheds its sombre 
influence on the soul, take up Faust and then 'congenial horrors 
hail !' But, undoubtedly, the way in which F. is known to the 
public, stripped of all the delusive gloss of poetry, you have his 
plain unvarnished dealings with the devil. We recollect some- 
thing of an anecdote concerning it. The Isle of Man, as is well 
known, is a place of refuge for half the smugglers of the United 
Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland. These 'minions of the 
moon' are not much addicted to polite literature ; and their ladies 
being principally employed in repairing fishing tackle, have of 
course little time to form blue stocking coteries; and a copy of 
the Bible and a copy of Faustus were the only books extant 
upon the island ; and the latter by constant wear, at length be- 
came so bethummed as to be altogether illegible. What was to 



^ New York Mirror and Ladies' Literary Gasette, V, p. 119 (October 20, 
1827). 



German Draina in English on Nezv York Stage to i8jo 27 

be done in this emergency? The belles lettres were on the 
decline. 1'he 'march of mind' was retrograde in the Isle of Man. 
Nothing was left to teach the 'young ideas' of the future 'Manks' 
to shoot. A meeting was forthwith called, to consider what 
standard work was to be procured from Edinburgh, when it was 
unanimously resolved : That a new Dr. Faust should be ordered. 

"To crown the whole, Mr. Soane undertook to manufacture 
a drama out of this exhaustless subject. As a dramatic it (S's. 
Faust) possesses trifling merit and is in fact little more than a 
well-contrived vehicle for scenic representation — but these rep- 
resentations amply compensate for all deficiencies. It is, from 
first to last, a succession of splendid scenes superior, we think, 
to anything of the kind hitherto exhibited in this country, and a 
few of them. The Drachenfels, at sunset. The Rialto in Venice 
and the Street in Naples, not, perhaps, exceeded in any other. 
The music by Bishop and Horn is of a very superior kind. . . . 

"To conclude this lengthy article, Faust is a spectacle well 
worth seeing. The Journal of Couinierce ought to notice it for 
it is, if we may believe the playbills, very moral and in the last 
scene certainly contrives 'to show 

The very place where wicked people go.' " 

More satisfying, however, is the synopsis of the play as rep- 
resented at the Park in the Spy of October 20, 1827. 

"In our last, we briefly alluded to the new drama Fanstus, 
which was repeated with increased effect on Saturday evening 
(October 13, 1827), and we are glad to say, was witnessed by 
a very numerous audience. The basis of the piece may be given 
in a few words : 

"Faust, not content with his natural abilities and acquired 
knowledge, wishes to fathom the depths of supernatural mys- 
teries, and being possessed of the grand secret of summoning 
spirits from the nether world, orders Mephisto (his aid and 
abettor in all subsecjuent transactions) to be forthwith forth- 
coming. As a matter of course he is obeyed; but as Mr. Devil 
appears in a rather uncouth dress, he is ordered to change it. 



28 Gcnnan Drama in English on New York Stage to iS^o 

and having- his portmanteau witli liini, he sHps behind the wings 
and presto! conies forth in very comely attire. Certain negotia- 
tions are now entered upon and after mature discussion, the pre- 
liminaries, covenants and agreements are settled and arrange- 
ments concluded, touching their future operations, to the satis- 
faction of both parties. 

"Faustus has a great itching to visit Venice, where Adine, 
of whom he is desperately fond, has taken up her residence, but 
being loath to waste his time in traveling, he very inhumanly 
causes all the country about him (inhabitants and all, we pre- 
sume) to disappear and before you can say Jack Robinson, Venice 
occupies the vacuum. Here they find themselves on the Rialto 
at once and as luck will have it, they hardly secure a good footing 
before Adine comes directly to the spot. 

"Another very mysterious migration brings the three into a 
beautiful Valley, where their stay is extremely brief, owing to 
the unwillingness of Adine to participate in such queer doings — 
when they endeavor to prevail upon her, she invokes the aid of 
Heaven, which startles Mephistopheles and he takes himself off. 
Somehow or other Faust gets tired of Adine and without the 
slightest provocation he commences paying his distresses to 
Rosalia, her sister, whom he is determined to have at all hazards. 
After most affectionately killing her brother, he enters the house, 
shortly after, and with the assistance of his aid, bears off the fair 
prize to his palace. He is pursued thither by Rosalia's friends, 
and not only compelled to give her up but (Mephisto not being 
at hand) is taken into custody and immured in prison. He is de- 
livered in due time, however, by his guardian spirit on condition 
of murdering the King of Naples, and placing himself on the 
throne, which after some hesitation, he agrees to. No sooner is 
he King than M. takes French leave — leaving him to deal out 
death and destruction among his subjects, which he does in an ex- 
tremely unceremonious style. Just as some of the parties are be- 
ing led to the execution, Adine (who has been, we believe in a 
convent) rushes in, her face pale, her brain maddened by despair 
and urges him to repentance, intimating that she has had a 



German Drama in English on Nczu York Stage to iSjo 29 

dreadful vision which conveyed the idea that he was about to be 
borne away by demons and all that sort of thing. So far from 
accrediting this vision and thereby saving his bacon, he is so 
hardy as to defy the demons, when the honest gentleman with 
whom he has been keeping company, conformable to the rules in 
such cases made and provided, enters bringing with him divers 
fire and smoke, together with his original dress on and without 
a 'by your leave' or 'with your leave' hurries the august king to 
Pandemonium, where it is supposed he introduces him to his 
friends — and so ends the life and adventures of Mr. Faustus. 

"There is a trifling underplot which has but little connection 
with the main incidents, except in unravelling a few of its intri- 
cacies and affording some relief to the monotony that pervades 
the whole. 

"We are not among those who sanction the production of 
these strange creations of the German school — but as the public 
appetite is voracious for this species of entertainment we cannot 
blame the manager for studying his interest in endeavoring to 
gratify it — and he has left nothing undone which could add to 
the splendour and effect of the piece and we hope his reward 
will be commensurate with his exertions. As we have said be- 
fore, Mr. Walker's principal scenes are second to none we ever 
witnessed, the Drachenfels is a most enchanting view, the ele- 
gant disposal of his subject in contrasting the light and the 
shade ; the tremendous and imposing appearance of the 'towering 
steeps' is equalled by the succeeding view of St: Mark's Place and 
the Rialto of Venice, which is one of the most beautiful things 
within our remembrance." 

Although the play was, as has been seen, far from the Faust 
of Goethe, it served to draw attention to the original work and 
in this way is of no little import. The mysterious and supernat- 
ural elements which made the piece popular are considered ear- 
marks of the "German school" by our critic, who objects partic- 
ularly to this feature of the play. Yet these elements were 
added by the adapter in England to insure the success of the 
piece. 



30 German Dnuna in English on Nciv York Stage to iSjo 

The play was first cast thus in New York : 

Faustus, Mr. Simpson. 

Count Orsino, Mr. Howard. 

Count Cassanova, Mr. Placide. 

MontoHo, Mr. Woodhnll. 

Mephistopheles, Mr. Barry. 

Adine, Mrs. Knight. 

RosaHa, Mrs. Sharpe. 

Lucetta, Mrs. Hackett. 

Wagner, Mr. Hilson. 

The second play which is new this season is The Poachers, 
said to be a version of Kotzebue's Roehnck.^-' It is also pro- 
duced the following year with a different cast under the name 
Tlie Roebuck. ^-^ Thus we see Kotzebue dramas still being pro- 
duced although their author was long since dead. 

The cast of the London play is :^-^ Count Elberfeldt, Baron 
Wolfenstein, Sourkrout, Countess de Lisle, Countess Elberfeldt 
and Crisette. 

The plot is given at length in the Nezv York Evening Post 
of July 21, 1828. It agrees so closely in all details with Genest's 
resume that there can be no doubt that we are here dealing with 
the London edition of The Poachers. 

We note also The Gambler's Fate, a drama taken from the 
French, but showing two German characters, Lindorf and Al- 
bert. The scene of the first act is in Paris, but the second act 
plays in Germany.^^*^ A ballet. The Dutch Fair, the comic Ba- 
varian Trio (November 19, 21) and the Bavarian Broom Song 
(September 11, December 14, March 19, 1828) are trifles which 
are not listed with the regular plays. 



"" Cf. Genest, IX, p. 253. 

'''Produced at the Bowery (N. Y.) March 16, 1829. Cf. p. 49 of this 
number of German American Annals. 

""C/. Genest, IX, p. 253. For plot of Kotzebue's Rehbock cf. Rabany: 
Kotzebue. Sa vie et son temps, pp. 409-414. 

"» Cf. Genest, IX, p. 401. 



German Drama in English on New York Stage to iSjo 31 

Summary (Park Theatre, Season 182/-1828). 

The Marriage of Figaro, September 25, November 16, 1827, 
January 21, 30, February 14, May 2y, June 4, 1828. 

Faustns,° October n, 13, 16, 20, 23, 24, 27, 31, November 
6, 10, 20, December 8, 1827, April 22, 1828. 

Der Freischutz, October 29, November 8, 1827, January 2t,, 
25, 29, February i, 7, 12, March 28, 31, April 7, June 13, 1828. 

Fraternal Discord, December 31, 1827, January 15, 1828. 

Lovers' Vows, March 19, 1828. 

Pizarro, May 24, July 25, 1828. 

William Tell, July 12, August i (2nd Act), 1828. 

The Poachers," July 19, 21, 24, 1828. 

Uncertain Plays. 

Adrian and Orilla, October 2, 1827. 

The Siege of Belgrade, October 17, 19, November 2, 1827. 
April 25, 1828. 

Adelgitha, November 21, 1828. 

The Devil's Bridge, December 18, 1827, February 26, 1828. 

The Wandering Boys, December 21, 1827. 

The Miller and His Men, December 24, 1827. 

Swedish Patriotism, January i, 1828. 

The Gambler's Fate,° November 15, 18, 27, 1827, January 
5, 10, March 6, July 8, 30, 1828. 

Giovanni in London, February 22, 29, March 7, 18, April 
19. July I, 1828. 

The Slave, April 2, 1828. 

Columbus, June 10, 1828. 

Adeline, or The Victim of Scduction,-^^ July 18, 1828. 

The Floating Beacon, July 26, 1828. 

Valentine and Orson, July 29, 31, August 2, 1828. 

The comments for the season are for the most part confined 
to the opera, Der Freischutz. The articles herewith reproduced 
show that German music and melody had sung itself into the 
hearts of the American public while the legend of the plot is 
termed "sublime and thrilling". The first comment is on the 



^'^ The Hunting Chorus from The Freischutz was given with Adeline. 



;^2 GcDiuDi Drama in English on New York Stage to iSjo 

performance of the opera November 8, 1827. "Circumstances 
prevented our last week's noticing the opera Der Freischnts. It 
is now rather late in the day to do so, but yet we cannot suffer 
such an important feature in the dramatic concerns of our city 
to pass without rendering it our tribute of praise. The perform- 
ance of such a drama as Der Freischnts, Weber's Freischutz — 
not the medley compound that has heretofore been substituted — 
is in itself, a matter of considerable interest; but with such a 
Linda as Mrs. Knight and with the very best Caspar-^^ on either 
side of the Atlantic, it must be quite an era in the annals of a 
musical amateur. Weber's fame has in this country preceded his 
works ; but those works will amply sustain that fame ; they are 
strikingly original and essentially dramatic. Der Freischutz is 
his masterpiece. Oberon, abounding as it does in beautiful pas- 
sages is yet decidedly inferior; the tinsel of the Eastern fiction ill 
compensates for the wild sublimity and thrilling interest of the 
German legend. "^^^ 

The second article appeared somewhat later, February 2. 
1828, and even outdoes the first in its praise of the opera. "Who- 
ever omits seeing Weber's Der Freischutz leaves a blank in his 
theatrical life — which nothing can fill up — it has no parallel — 
but stands alone in the recollection of playgoers like Cooke's lago 
or Kean's Othello. There is genius and originality in every note 
of the music — and a very strange originality at times it is. What, 
for instance, could be a bolder yet happier conception than the 
'Laughing Chorus'. The 'Bridesmaids' Chorus' is the essence 
of soft and flowing sweetness and 'The Huntsman's Chorus' 
breathes the very soul of greenwood melody. . . . 

"Upon the whole the city ought to see Der Freischutz, for as 
we said before even those 'who have no music in their souls' will 
be well repaid by the deep dramatic interest produced. 

"There is a thrilling excitement about the German legends, 
not to be met with in those of any other nation — particularly 
when witchcraft is concerned. The wraiths and Kelpies of the 
Highlands of Scotland are mere child's play to the substantial 

'" Keene ? 

"'New York Mirror and Ladies' Literary Gazette, V, p. 151 (November 
17, 1827). 



German Drama in English on Nezv York Stage to i8jo 33 

demonism of the Black Forest of Germany. Other nations in 
such dramas as the Freischutz appear afraid of going too far; 
and then their horrors are so very mechanical and always come 
at the proper time and place. They manage these matters better 
in Germany and effect more by a whisper — a hint — a broken 
laugh — or a half told tale — (the other half veiled in impenetra- 
ble mystery) than can be effected by the most terrible collection 
of words that can be strung together. 

"There are a good many of these indefinable incidents in 
Der Frcischut.z. For instance the old picture falling and wound- 
ing Linda at the very hour Adolph shot the demon's eagle, — 
Caspar fanning his unholy fire with that very eagle's wing, etc. — 
and, when, after Caspar has succeeded in persuading Adolph to 
visit the fiend, nothing can be better than the demoniac laugh 
which responds to his exulting exclamation : 'He who plays with 
the fiend must look to be deceived.' "^^^ 

Such a play or those of much lower standard, particularly 
The Flying Dutchman and Fanstns drew large houses and were 
a constant thorn in the sides of those who longed for the real 
drama. A note of complaint is sounded in the Spy:~^^ "Let the 
"Flying Islanders""^*' take to their wings and Faustus go to the 
Devil ! But let us adhere to the regular drama in all its purity." 

Another German drama is held up as an example worthy of 
being oftener seen on the New York stage, viz.. Fraternal Dis- 
cord. The Spy, whose editor was pleading for "the regular 
drama in all its purity", is the paper in which the following article 
appeared : "Fraternal Discord is a very pleasing and effective 
drama. We are surprised that this drama and others which 
have an affinity to it, are not oftener performed. The composi- 
tion is good and the incidents are well contrived, the characters 
naturally sketched and the moral excellent — and yet, with all 
these recommendations it is seldom played, unless to give an in- 



"* New York Mirror and Ladies' Literary Gazette, V, p. 239 (February 2, 
1828). 

^^ The New York Spy, January i, 1828. 

**• Refers to a drama entitled Peter Wilkens. 



34 Geruian Drama in English on iVcic York Stage to iS^o 

valid an opportunity of appearing in accordance with his sitna- 
tion."237 

The summary for the Park shows eight German plays in 
thirty-two performances. Two of the plays may be looked upon 
as revivals for this theatre; they are: Fraternal Discord and 
Lovers' Vows. 

The Chatham Theatre (Season 182/-1828). 
At the Chatham we find no new plays this season and but 
one unimportant revival : The Point of Honor. The list shows a 
strong preference for the Kotzebue drama — of the five German 
dramas presented, four are by this author. The other drama 
which holds out with the above mentioned plays is The Robbers. 

Summary. 
Of Age Tomorrozv, December 5, 1827, June 9, July 5, 1828. 
Pizarro, December 11, 22, 1827, January 28, March 27, 
April 9, July 18, 1828. 

The Stranger, December 13, 1827, June 17, 1828. 
The Robbers, December 15, 1827, January 24,22^ 1828. 
How to Die for Love, March 20, 26, May 6, 1828. 

Uncertain Plays. 
The Snozvstorm,-^^ December 15, 20, 1827. 
The Bleeding Nun, December 18, 1827. 
Raymond and Agnes, March 21, 1828. 
The Wood Daemon, January 8, 9, 10, 11, 30, February 23, 

1828. 

The Wheel of Fortune, January 17, 1828. 
The West Indian, February 13, 1828. 
The Wandering Boys, February 16, 22, 1828. 
The Hero of the North, February 22, 26, 1828. 
The Floating Beacon, March 29, April 9, 1828. 



"'The Nciv York Spy, January 5, 1828. On December 8, 1827, Messrs. 
Simpson and Barry together with Mrs. Barry were injured during a per- 
formance of Faiistus. December 31 Mr. Simpson appeared on crutches in 
Fraternal Discord, quite in keeping with his role. 

^Cast for January 24, 1828: Charles de Moor, Mr. Maywood ; Franz 
de Moor, Forrest ; Amelia, Miss Twibill. 

"^"The same as Lowina of Tohoilska, or The Fatal Snowstorm. (Cf. 
pp. 85, 97, 134- ) 



German Drama in English on Nezv York Stage to i8jo 35 

The Miller and His Men, April 16, July 2, 1828. 

The Point of Honor ^ April 21, 1828. 

Ella Rosenberg, April 30, 1828. 

The Slave, June 23, 1828. 

Adrian and Orilla, June 24, 1828. 

Adelgitha, June 26, 1828. 

Tekili, July 24, 1828. 

The summary shows five German plays in sixteen perform- 
ances. 

The Lafayette Amphitheatre (Season 182/-1828). 

The Lafayette, after being rebuilt, opened its doors Sep- 
tember 29, 1827, on which occasion The Wandering Boys was 
played as an afterpiece. Four German plays were given : How to 
Die for Love, Rngantino, The Robbers and Pizarro (in Sheri- 
dan's translation). A Don Giovanni was also played; it is 
termed a "Burletta", which would lead one to think it is the 
same as the play announced for May 10: Don Giovanni, or The 
Spectre on Horseback. One new uncertain play appears : St. 
Mark's Day. Herr Cline, the "German Samson and Seiltanzer", 
gave a number of exhibitions at this theatre during the month of 
June, 1828. 

Summary (Season i82'/-i828). 

How to Die for Love, November 16, 1827, April 18, June 
26, July 15, 1828. 

Rugantino, March 15, 20, 1828. 
The Robbers^ March 19, 21, 1828. 
Pizarro, June 23, 24, 26, 30, 1828. 

Uncertain Plays. 

The Wandering Boys, September 29, November 2, 1827, 
April 22, June 28, 1828. 

The Floating Beacon, October 12, 15, 19, 20, 30, November 
5, December 22, 1827, July 29, 1828. 

Returned Killed, October 25, 31, 1827. 

The Ruffian Boy, October 26, November 9, 20, 1827, Feb- 
ruary 27, May 8, 1828. 

Tekili, November 2, 1827, March 12, 1828. 



36 German Drama in English on Nezv York Stage to 18^0 

The Miller and His Men^ November 13, 15, 1827, January 
4, February 14, July 30, 1828. 

The Flying Dutchman, November 17, 1827. 

Don Giovanni (?), November 20, 22, 24, 26, December 8, 
29, 1827, Jamiary 12, 1828. 

Matrimony, December 15, 1827, January 4, 31, July 14, 
1828. 

St. Mark's Day,° February 4, 1828. 

Don Giovanni, or The Spectre on Horseback, May 10, 1828. 

Pisarro in the translation of Sheridan w^as revived by Wal- 
lack during his June performances. It is the only play that elic- 
ited comment. "Pizarro is to be repeated at the Lafayette this 
evening (June 24, 1828). It is got up in excellent style and the 
Rolla of Mr. Wallack has no superior on this continent. . . . 
And, as a splendid, sentimental, virtuous and patriotic spectacle 
we presume it will command a good audience for a handsome 
run in these piping holiday times. "-^^ 

The Bowery (Season 182^-1828). 
The season at the Bowery was considerably shortened by 
the fire which destroyed the theatre May 26, 1828. In spite of 
this fact, it bring? more German plays than did the Lafayette. 
The attraction at this theatre was Forrest, who appeared in Tell 
in the early part of the season. Deaf and Dumb was also re- 
vived. ^^^ It was here, too, that the "celebrated Seiltanzer, Herr 
Cline, from the Drury Lane Theatre", made his first appearance 
in America. -''^ 

Summary (Bozvery, Season 182/-1828). 

Piaarro, September 10, December 13, 1827. 

IVilliam Tell, September 18, 22, October 5, December 11, 
1827, March 3, May 2, 16, 1828. 

How to Die for Love, October 15, November 5, December 
3. 1827. 

Deaf and Dumb, November 12, 15, 1827, March 4, 1828. 

Don Giovanni, October 19, 1827. 

"" From the New York Enquirer, June 24, 1828. 

'" The announcement of the play and a long synopsis were in the Spy, 

ember 17, 1827. 

^ Cf. the New York Enquirer, May 12, 1828. 
pp. 



German Drama in English on Nezv York Stage to i8jo 37 

Uncertain Plays. 
The Flying Dutchman, October 2, 13, 31, November 29, 
1827, April 24, May 22, 1828. 

The Floating Beacon, November 5, 1827. 
The Devil's Bridge, December 10, 1827. 
Matrimony, March 5, May 8, 1828. 
The Gambler's Fate, March 14, 1828. 
Five German plays in sixteen performances. 

Mt. Pitt Circus (Season 182/-1828). 
How to Die for Love, October 2, 1827. 
La Peroiise, October 29, 30, 31, November i, 6, 23, 1827. 
Scenes from Faust, November 13, 1827. 

Uncertain Plays. 

Tekili, November 12, December 4, 5, 1827. 

The Blind Boy ( ?), February 4, 1828. 

The Floating Beacon, February 9, 1828. 

The Fatal Snowstorm, June 2y, 1828. 

Two German plays in seven performances and the repre- 
sentation of a number of scenes from Faiistus. 

At the Sans Souci Theatre there is nothing to note except 
the exhibitions of Herr Cline. 

Totals for the Season. 

Park Theatre, 8 German plays in 32 performances. 

Chatham, 5 German plays in 16 performances. 

Lafayette, 4 German plays in 12 performance q£ 

Bowery, 5 German plays in 16 performa' 

Mt. Pitt, 2 German plays in 7 perforrr248 

The German plays that were put on in all theatres lore fav- 
York during the season of 1827-1828 are as follows: T"s brought 
riage of Figaro, Faustiis, Der Freischuts, Fraternal ^as badly 
Lovers' Vows, Pisarro, William Tell, The Poachers, Hcun of this 
for Love, Rugantino, The Robbers, Of Age Tomorn range of 
Stranger, Deaf and Dumb, Don Giovanni and La . g. The 
There were in all sixteen different German plays put on in -„ 
three performances. 



38 German Drama in English on A^eiv York Stage to i8_^o 

As usual there is a sentiment against the German drama ex- 
pressed once in a while, yet these statements are always general 
against the "German school". The critique of a new drama, en- 
titled The Wonder, is an example of such an expression. "This 
drama {The Wonder) was written by an Englishwoman before 
the Sentimental German School had come in to spoil us with its 
mawkish platonics and maudlin metaphysics."-^^ We might add 
that the Englishwoman referred to is Mrs. Centlivre (died 

1723)- 

Season of 1828-182^. 

Park Theatre, September i, 1828, to August 17, 1829. 

Chatham, -^^ September 15-November i, 1828, May 20, 
1829, to July 4. July 15-September I, 1829. 

Bowery (new), August 20, 1828, to July 24, 1829. 

Lafayette, December 24, 1828-March, 1829. April 6-1 1, 
i829.2« 

The season at the Park is again the most interesting of all 
the seasons; it brings a revival of The Virgin of the Sun, a num- 
ber of performances of Weber's Oheron, and, most important of 
all, a performance in German, of one act of Goethe's Egmont. 
Pizarro with Wallack in the role of Rolla has more performances 
(9) than any other one play for the season. 

Oheron, which was termed "the last and most perfect effort 

of Von Weber's genius", -'^^ was put on October 9, 1 1 and 18. The 

opera itself received favorable criticism but the management of 

the scenery was evidently not satisfactory. A communication 

"igned "A. B." appeared in the Morning Courier, in which the 

' piece does not receive gentle treatment. ''On Thursday 

ig (Oct. 9) I witnessed the first representation of Oheron 

ithout exception found it the most wearisome opera got 

his or any other country. The songs of Mr. Horn and 

AT York Evening Post, May 3, 1828. 

e Chatham opened in the fall under the management of Cooper, but 
s doors November i, 1828. It was taken over by Wallack and 
, renovated and opened under the name "American Opera House, ' 
, 1829. It soon lost its prestige, 
jurned April 11, 1829. 
New York Evening Post, Ortober 11, 1828. 



German Drama in English on Nezu York Stage to 18^0 39 

Mrs. Austin -'*'^ were, as usual, excellent, yet the Trumpet song — 
the only piece encored — does not belong to that opera. 

"All the beauties, and in fact all that is worth seeing in 
Oheron which took four hours to perform, might be represented 
in one; and I should strongly recommend its being curtailed at 
least to one third its present length. Otherwise the visitors had 
better take their night caps with them and prepare for a long 
snooze. 

"No representation is ever equal to what is expected from 
the modern puff handbills — yet I naturally expected that Mr. 
Etienne would preside at the pianoforte, as was announced — but 
he was not there, a matter not much to be regretted as his ser- 
vices would have been useless in Oberon. Yet managers should 
always fulfill their promises, particularly where there are two 
opposition theatres. Monsieur Dunn, it was stated, with 'num- 
erous assistants' would attend to the machinery. From the 
bungling manner in which they performed their work, pieces of 
clouds, forts, palaces, waterfalls, trees, rosebushes and devils' 
heads being mixed with the curtains that neither would go up 
nor down, one would suppose that Mr. Dunn alone did all the 
business. 

"Sir Huon could not get up to the clouds, although Oberon 
waved his white stick a long time to give him a start, but he came 
down after a fashion. And the man with a single tallow candle 
who lighted up the sun — not keeping it steady, the audience 
were gratified by a half dozen eclipses of that planet in the 
course of a few moments much to the astonishment of our friend 
Ritchings who appeared more like a King of Giants than of 
Fairies, who we are led to believe are of a pigmy race. 

"A. B."248 

In the same issue of the Morning Courier a much more fav- 
orable opinion is expressed : "The opera of Oberon was brought 
out with uncommon splendour of scenery — but it was badly 
managed as is often the case with a first representation of this 
kind. The music is delightful, wandering through a range of 
variety in style, which renders the opera most fascinating. The 

""In the opera Mr. Horn sang "Sir Huon" and Mrs. Austin "Reza". 
"'The New York Morning Courier, October 11, 1828. 



40 German Drama in English on New York Stage to i8jo 

Ouverture is a splendid composition and was given with fine 
effect." An editorial of October 13, makes amends for anything 
that may have been published previously in the columns of the 
Courier. The writer was delighted with the new work in spite 
of a few drawbacks in the management of the scenery. The 
editorial concludes in the following manner : "It was some time 
before the New York public comprehended the music of Der 
Freischuta but when they did comprehend it, they were delighted. 
The music of Oberon is perhaps more difficult, of deeper execu- 
tion and of more intricacy. For this very reason it will ulti- 
mately be more attractive. "^^^ 

Oberon, however, did not become as popular as the other 
Weber opera. The Oriental tinge was not as attractive as the 
weirdness of the German legend. 

Wallack made the most of his fine personal appearance and 
his stagecraft in his presentation of Pizarro. The Critic gives an 
interesting paragraph of facts concerning the actor and the play : 
"But the melo-dramatic play of Pimrro affords a character in 
which the stage-knowledge, the handsome person, and handsome 
dresses of this actor can be displayed to great advantage ; and as 
the language is rather that of declamation than of nature; as the 
situations are rather interesting from their picturesque beauty 
than from any strong and indefinable hold which they take upon 
the deep and complicated passions of the heart ; and as the admi- 
ration which Rolla excites is at all times rather to be ascribed to 
the virtuous heroism of his sentiments, than to any great skill in 
tragic action evinced by the performer, we really do not wonder 
at the success which Mr. Wallack meets in that delineation."^^** 

The most important event in the history of the New York 
stage in reference to this paper is the performance of the fifth act 
of Goethe's Egmont in German at the Park Theatre, July 18, 
1829. The performance was not by the regular members of the 
company connected with the theatre, but by a number of enthusi- 
astic Germans, or better by one enthusiastic German. Unfortu- 
nately the names of the parties concerned were not published and 



The New York Morning Courier, October 13, 1828. 
' The Critic, November 29, 1828. 



German Drama in English on Neiv York Stage to 18^0 41 

the attempt to introduce Goethe to an American audience in the 
original was a miserable failure. The announcement of the per- 
formance was made in the papers of July 18, 1829. 

"Music Mad, after which, the fifth act of Goethe's cele- 
brated and much admired tragedy of Egmont. Being the first at- 
tempt at producing the German drama on an American stage. 
The characters by Amatures (sic!). After which a new Comedy 
in 2 Acts, entitled The Two Sternhergs. 

Count Sternberg, Mr, Blakely. 

Count Lewis, Mr. Woodhull-''^^! 

The performance took place as advertised; but if we may be- 
lieve the words of the gentleman who represented Egmont, the 
failure was certain before the curtain ever rose. The following 
defense explains the situation. 

"The following lines may be considered as an explanation 
of the failure and misrepresentation of Egmont as well as an 
answer to the observations of Germanus-^^ under the head of 
German Tragedy in the American and Morning Herald}^^ 

'Tt was under the impression that some performance in the 
original German might, through its novelty please an American 
audience and at the same time be received with pleasure by my 
countrymen in this city, that I undertook to represent at the Park 
Theatre on Saturday evening the i8th inst., the fifth act of 
Goethe's Egmont. 

"For this purpose I had prepared the rolls (sic) of Ferdi- 
nand and Silva and handed them 12 days previous to its represen- 
tation to the parties and eagerly awaited the moment for re- 
hearsal; when on Friday the 17th in the afternoon, Ferdinand 
stated that he felt himself unable to fulfill his promise on account 
of his occupation which did not allow him sufficient time to study 
his part. Egmont had unfortunately been advertised in the pub- 
lic papers and playbills and even the papers and bills were ready 
for the next morning. . . . 



^'^^ Evening Post, July 18, 1829. 

'" Germanus evidently ridiculed the attempt to put on a German drama. 
^* The paper and the article referred to have not been found in a canvass 
of the New York Libraries. 



42 German Drama in English on Nc7v York Stage to 18^0 

"I cut out the parts of Ferdinand and Silva, selected a few 
strong and adapted passages from the dialogue of Egmont, wrote 
a few lines to connect the monologue and the final part, and I 
may say, that when the time arrived, I was fully prepared." 

The disappointed actor goes to recite his woes : how the 
prison cell was not arranged as he had stipulated, instead of the 
dim light which he ordered, a bright light was flashed upon him 
as the curtain rose, making him exceedingly nervous ; how in his 
excitement he forgot several lines; how the prompter (who was 
to have taken the role of Ferdinand and who had been offended 
by the sharp words of Egmont when he informed the latter that 
he would be unable to play Ferdinand) gave him the wrong cues, 
thus adding to his confusion. The form of Liberty as it appears 
in the vision was to hold the wreath above Egmont's head; in- 
stead of following instructions, the wreath was jammed down 
with considerable force upon the unfortunate man, and finally the 
Spanish soldiers who appeared refused to leave the stage until 
the poor Egmont in desperation signalled for the curtain to fall. 
We quote the conclusion of the article : 

"Now, friend Germanus, if ever thou doubtest the Saxon 
tongue to be pure German which thou seemest not to understand, 
I hope to have exculpated my crime in thy eyes and taught thy 
tongue, that it is worse to vindicate one's self on account of a 
spoiled pleasure, without endeavoring before to know its causes, 
than to be the innocent victim of thy dart. 

"But, sting, I feel thee not ; my mind is armed with the con- 
sciousness of thy undeserved criticisms. But if thou art more 
generous than I think, and will procure an opportunity to give 
even thy approbation, invite our countr)nTien, that I, who without 
means, can not proceed alone, may be induced to prove to them 
that thy talk rather than m}^ language may be more justly com- 
pared with the language of an Indian woman. 

"Egmont's Representative."^^* 

Thus ended the first attempt to represent part of a German 
play in the original. Concerning The Tzvo Sternbergs no more 
has been found than the partial cast already given. 



:The New York Morning Courier and Enquirer, July 30. 1829. 



German Drama in English on Neiv York Stage to /5'?o 43 

There is an muisiially large number of dramas which are of 
uncertain origin to record. We mention the following: The 
Dumb Savoyard, The Serf, or The Russian Brothers, The Bottle 
Imp, The Greeneyed Monster, The Yonthfid Queen, Queen 
Christine of Szveden, Charles XII, or The Siege of Stralsnnd, 
Peter the Great, or The Battle of Pultawa. 

The cast of The Dumb Savoyard shows Italian and German 
characters: Pipino (the Dumb Savoyard), Marmazette (the 
Monkey), Count Maldicini, Vatchwell (a German soldier, 
keeper of the prison), Sturmwald (keeper of the ferry). 
Countess Maldicini, Teresa Vanepa (Hostess of the Black 
Eagle). The play is by Thompson, ^^^ but the scene is in Ger- 
many in the region of the Rhine, for after the play failed to at- 
tract the public the J'^iezifs of the Rhine by Walker were still ad- 
vertised. 

The Serf, or The Russian Brothers, according to Genest^^° 
was taken by Talbot from the German and adapted to the English 
stage. The characters are: Ossip, Vladimir, Isidor, Petrow, 
Countess Olga and Madame La Roche. From what author in 
the German the play is adapted, I have been unable to determine. 

The Bottle Imp has the following cast : Albert, Willibald, 
Nicola, The Imp, and Marcellina. The Greeneyed Monster, a 
comedy by Planche shows a number of German characters : Baron 
Speyenhausen, Marcus, Krout (Gardener to the Baron), Col. 
Arnsdorf, Luise, Baroness Speyenhausen and Amelia. 

Swedish history and Swedish characters play an important 
role in the three last mentioned dramas. The Youthful Queen 
has among its characters Queen Christine, The Count of Oxen- 
stiern, Frederick Bury, Steinburg and Emma. The Siege of 
Stralsnnd comes nearer the German soil although it does not 
deal with any distinctly German theme. In the play Peter the 
Great, or The Battle of Piiltazm, Charles XII of Sweden also 
plays a role. The other characters are: Peter, Alexis, Menzi- 
kofif, Dorinski, Gen. Brandt, Swartz, Joseph Addelwitz, Illo Ad- 
dlewitz and Briska.^^'^ 



"'' Cf. Genest, IX, p. 417. 
*'" Cf. Genest, IX, pp. 427-8. 
"' Genest, IX, p. 463. 



44 German Drama in English on Nezv York Stage to 18^0 

Summary for the Park (Season 1828-182^). 

Of Age Tomorrow, September 3, November i, 1828, Janu- 
ary 3, 1829. 

The Poachers, September 4, 17, October i, 9, November 3, 
December 8, 1828, June 24, July 28, 1829. 

Pizarro, September 17, 22, 29, October 3, 16, December 11, 
1828, January 7, April 6, May 12, 1829. 

Der Freischutz, October 2, 7, 21, December 2, 19, 1828, 
March 14, July i, 1829. 

The Marriage of Figaro, October 4, 1828, January 6, 
March 25, April 2, May 21, June 11, August 12, 1829. 

Oheron° (Weber), October 9, 11, 18, 1828. 

The Virgin of the Sun, October 20, 27, December 29, 1828, 
April 8, May 28, 1829. 

William Tell, November 3, 1828, April 16, May 2,-^^ June 
25, 1829. 

Altdorf,-^^ January 22, 24, 1829. 

Egmont° (5th Act in German), July 18, 1829. 

The Robbers, August 4, 1829. 

Uncertain Plays. 

The West Indian, September 2, 1828. 

Giovanni in London, October 4, December 6, 1828, March 
10, 1829. 

The Gambler's Fate, October 14, November 6, 1828. 

The Dumb Savoyard,^ November 4, 7, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14. 
17, 18, 22, 25, 29, December 3, 12, 25, 30, 1828, January i, 9, 
21, February 10, March 13, April 11, 17, 18, July 8, 31, 1829. 

The Serf, or The Russian Brothers^ (German?), Novem- 
ber 7, 1828. 

The Bottle Imp° ( ?), November 25, 27, December 2, 11, 12, 
20, 27, 1828, February 12, 14, April 27, June 23, July 9, 1829. 

The Blind Boy (Hewetson), December 24, 1828. 

The Flying Dutchman, December 16, 19, 1828, February 
23, 1829. 



''■* Tell was played by "a young gentleman, a seaman, who made his debut 
in the same character a few weeks since at the Walnut Street Theatre in 
Philadelphia." 

"» Written by Fanny Wright. Cf. pp. 89, QO, 91 of this paper. 



German Drama in English on Nezv York Stage to i8jo 45 

The Siege of Belgrade, December 24, 1828, June 13, 1829. 

Columbus, December 25, 1828. 

The Greeneyed Monster, ° February 14, 17, 19, 26, 28, 
March 7, 10, 17, 21, 28, April 24, June 18, August 4, 1829. 

The Youthful Qiieen, or Christine of Sweden° (?), Febru- 
ary 19, 21, March 7, 18, 1829. 

Valentine and Orson, February 21, 1829. 

Charles XII, or T/i^ ^i>^^ 0/ Stralsund, March 9, 12, 13, 
17, 21, 26, April 7, 25, 30, June 4, 1 1, July 29, August 6, 1829. 

The Wandering Boys, April 16, June 30, 1829. 

Adelmorn, April 21, 1829. 

P^/^r the Great, or T/i£? Battle of Pultazva,° April 24, May 
5, 16, June 2, 1829. 

The Point of Honor, June 3, 1829. 

Don Giovanni, or The Spectre on Horseback, July 3, 11, 15, 
23, 1829. 

The Tzvo Sternbergs° (?), July 18, 1829. 

The German plays given during the season number eleven 
in fifty performances."^'^ 

The Chatham Theatre and The American Opera House. 
(Season 1828-182^.) 

At the Chatham there are no German plays to record and 
comparatively few at the American Opera House. Of Age To- 
morrozv, Pizarro, Fraternal Discord and Tell complete the list. 
No new^ German plays appeared. 

Among the uncertain plays is The Death Fetch, or The Stu- 
dent of Gottingen, which from its title deserves our notice. The 
scene is in Germany and the characters are ostensibly German al- 
though the play has been taken from the Irish writer Banim,^®^ 
who in his "O'Hara Tales" has furnished the basis for the play. 
The Morning Courier and Enquirer gives the plot in detail : 

"The Death Fetch — An operatic Romance, bearing this title 
was first produced Tuesday evening. For a description of the 



^° Includes the performances of Egmont and Altdorf. 

'"John Banim (1798-1842) published "The O'Hara Tales" in 1825. The 
second of these is entitled "The Fetches". 



46 GcDiian Diama in English on Nao York Stage lo iS^o 

plot and incidents perhaps we cannot do better than copy the 
London Courier the day after its first performance at the Eng- 
Hsh Opera House. 

"The story is founded on a popular German superstition 
and the arrangement and management of it for dramatic pur- 
poses, are taken almost entirely from the 'Tales of the O'Hara 
Family'. The superstition that the deaths of individuals are 
foretold by the appearance of forms resembling theirs, is of so 
great antiquity, and there is not a reader of Ghostly Lore, who 
will not readily point out a variety of marvellous stories founded 
on it. . . . 

"The Death Fetch is a solitary and silent sort of visitor, 
associated only with the thoughts of Death, without any of the 
inspirating accompaniments of deviltry or violence. The Opera 
begins with the arrival of Ludolph, the suitor of Matilda Rothe; 
we learn from his conversation with Matilda that her sister, Lou- 
isa, is receiving the addresses of Ebert — and that he is turning 
her brain with stories and hobgoblins and dissertations on meta- 
physics. 

"Ebert and Louisa now make their appearance and their 
conversation turns upon the appearance of the Death Fetch. In 
another scene, Matilda and Louisa are waiting in the evening for 
Ebert. After a long delay, he or something bearing his resem- 
blance, enters the room and seats himself or itself upon the sofa 
by Louisa. Offended by Ebert's supposed neglect — she at first 
takes no notice, but Matilda after speaking and receiving no 
answer, retires in alarm. Louisa now begins to feel the influ- 
ence of terror, she listens and cannot hear the figure breathe; 
at length it rises, moves to the back of the room and disappears. 
Thus ends the first Act. 

"2nd Act. Ebert apologizes for his conduct on the preced- 
ing night; and as his apology which is meant for his absence, is 
in general terms, it is supposed to apply to his abrupt entrance 
and departure — and the mystery appears to be explained. He is 
afterward confined to his room by sickness ; the figure of Louisa 
appears to him at the window; he rushes forth into the garden 
of the College, sees the figure near a statue and falls down ex- 



German Drama in English on Nezv York Stage to iSjO 47 

liausted at the base of it. Louisa with Liidolph and Matilda is 
in the meanwhile waiting for his arrival — for a long time he 
comes not, but at length appears in the gateway; Ludolph goes 
forth after him, and on getting into the open air, sees the forms 
of Louisa and Ebert at a distance and hears a chorus of spirits. 

"Act. 3. Louisa proves somewhat disordered in her wits, — 
and Ebert is still in a state of sickness ; in order to cure both of 
them Doctor Von Sassan prescribes that the lady shall be told that 
all the visits have been real and substantial, that her lover has 
gone off to Italy and that Ebert shall be informed that Louisa 
and her family are displeased with his conduct, and that he must 
for a time abstain from visiting them. Von Sassan then recom- 
mends a trip to the Hartz Mountains and sets out with Ebert. 

"Louisa unluckily sees them on their way and contrives to 
get into a carriage and follows them. Then she and Ebert meet ; 
at first each believes the other a spirit. When this delusion has 
been removed, they compare their recollections of what had 
passed, are convinced of the intervention of supernatural agency 
and expire on the spot. 

''The Death Fetch and its performance were completely suc- 
cessful and will no doubt 'fetch' lots of money to the manager's 
cofTfers."262 

Thus the New York public was again thrilled by the mysteries 
of German superstition, for the play in its setting could not fail 
to impress the playgoer as an essentially German drama. 

Summary. 
Of Age Tomorrow, May 21, 1829. 
Pizarro, May 27, August 4, 1829. 
Fraternal Discord, June 6, 1829. 
William Tell, July 18, 1829. 

Uncertain Plays. 

Two Pages of Frederick the Great, August 4, October 2, 
1828. 

Tekili, May 22, 1829. 



""^Morning Courier and Enquirer, June 12, 1829. Cf. also the New York 
Mirror and Ladies' Literary Gazette, VI, p. 398. 



48 German Drama in English on Nciu York Stage to 18^0 

The Blind Boy ( ?), May 23, 1829. 

The Devil's Bridge, June i, 1829. 

The Wandering Boys, June 2, 1829. 

Matrimony, June 3, 19, July 20, 1829. 

The Death Fetch,° June 9, 11, 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 23, 
24, 1829. 

The summary shows but five German plays in five perform- 
ances. 

The Lafayette. 

The season at the Lafayette v^as cut short by fire in the 
night of April 10, 181 1; a greater variety of plays was pre- 
sented and more performances are recorded than for the Ameri- 
can Opera House. There are no new plays put on; in general 
Kotzebue seems to be the favorite with four dramas of the six 
given. 

Summary (Season 1828-182^). 

William Tell, August 18, 20, 1828, January 14, February 
19, 1829. 

The Robbers, August 22, 1828, January 8, February 2, 
1829. 

La Perouse, January 14, 21, 31, 1829. 

Pizarro, February 9,-*^^ 13, 1829. 

The Birthday, February 26, 1829. 

The Stranger, March 14, April lo,^^^ 1829. 

Uncertain Plays. 

Matrimony, August 11, September 18, 1828. 

The Innkeeper's Daughter, August 12, 15, 1828. 

Adeline, or The Victim of Seduction, December 27, 1828, 
January 17, 1829. 

The PVandering Boys, January 6, 1829. 

The Floating Beacon, January 7, 22, 1829. 

Tekili, January 12, February 4, 1829. 

Ella Rosenberg, February 23, 1829. 

For the night of January 14 two German plays made up the 
program : Tell and La Perouse, which in the form of an after- 

'"Cast: Rolla, Mr. Duffy; Elvira, Miss Emery. 
*** Tlie last performance in this theatre. 



German Drama in English on Nezv York Stage to i8jo 49 

piece was produced every year at the Lafayette. The summary 
shows six German plays in fifteen performances. 

The Bowery (Season 1828-182^). 

Forrest and VVallack were the attractions at this strong 
theatre at the beginning of the season. Indeed, the patrons of 
the playhouse were given the rare treat of seeing these two stars 
play in the same piece : Pizarro. Wallack did not, as usual, take 
the role of Rolla; he impersonated Pizarro while Forrest played 
the more grateful role. Such performances are recorded for Sep- 
tember 27 and December 3, 1828. 

One new German play is recorded at this theatre during the 
season : The Roebuck, Guilty or Not Guilty. It is perhaps the last 
of the Kotzebue pieces to be presented on the New York stage. 
Nothing more than the simple announcement : "A new Comedy 
from the German of Kotzebue is announced for to-night. It is 
highly spoken of and the cast embraces much of the talent of the 
company. "^^^ 

The cast was: Lord Melford, Mr. Barrett; Giles Grizzle, 
Air. Chapman; Lady Melford, Mrs. Hughes; Lady Linton, Mrs. 
Barrett; Nannette, Miss Fisher. 

Among the new titles of uncertain plays we note : The Two 
Peters, a play which we have already discussed under the name 
'Twould Puzzle a Conjurer ;^^^ The King and the Deserter, with 
the following cast: Frederick the Great, Adelbert, Moroscus, 
Rosalie and Martha. It is very likely the dramatization of an 
anecdote concerning Frederick the Great. Another play which 
remains in the dark is entitled Inchcape Bell (sometimes Inchape 
Bell) ; beyond the title no information seems available. The 
Death Fetch'^^"' is put on only once ; its cast seems to differ from 
the play which at the same time was being given at the Chatham. 
Two characters, Aldibert and Stella, are mentioned in the an- 
nouncement. ^^^ 



""^ From the New York Morning Courier and Enquirer, March 16, 1829. 
Cf. "The Poachers," p. 145. 

-'■" C/. p. II of this number of German American Annals. 
'" Cf. p. 46 ff. of this number of German American Annals. 
^ New York Evening Post, June 16, 1829. 



50 German Drama in English on New York Stage to 18^0 

Summary (Season 1828-182^). 

William Tell, August 25 (Forrest), September 5, October 
10, November 19, 1828, June 17, July 6, 1829. 

Pizarro, September 27, October 7, November 24, December 
3, 1828, March 9, July 15, 1829. 

Don Giovanni, September 30, October 8, 1828. 

The Roehnck, or Guilty or Not Guilty ° March 16, 18, 19, 
20, 21, 26, 28, June 22, 1829. 

The Robbers, July i, 1829.-*^^ 

Uncertain Plays. 

The West Indian, September 2, October 23, 1828, March 
28, 1829. 

The Devil's Bridge, October 18, 1828. 

The Gambler's Fate, October 20, 30, November i, 14, De- 
cember 12, 13, 1828, March 28, June 19, 1829. 

The Two Peters, November 13, 14, 19, 20, 22, December 
24, 1828. 

Matrimony, December 5, 1828. 

The King and the Deserter,° December 18, 20, 22, 23, 25, 
30, 1828, February 21, March 4, 10, 14, 28, April 18, 1829. 

Inchcape Bell° (?), December 25, 27, 1828, January i, 6, 
March 2, 1829. 

The Death Fetch,° June 16, 1829. 

Valentine and Orson, July 7, 27, 1829. 

Kotzebue's Roebuck proves to be the most popular of the 
German plays for the season; it had eight performances, while 
Pizarro and Tell with the great actors Forrest and Wallack each 
have six performances. The total number of plays noted is five; 
the number of performances twenty-three. 

The amusement places of less importance have not been 
mentioned in the discussion of the season. At the Sans Souci 
Theatre Of Age Tomorrow was put on once (August 6, 1829) ; 



'""The cast was: Charles de Moor, Scott; Frances de Moor, Southwell; 
Spiegelberg, Roberts; Switzer, Bernard; Roller, Walton; Amelia, Mrs. 
Hughes. 



German Drama in English on New York Stage to i8jo 5 1 

at the Vauxhall the same comedy was given August 18; at the 
Mt. Pitt Circus Adeline^ or The Victim of Seduction is put on 
September 4, 1829. 

Summary for the Entire Season. 
Park Theatre, 1 1 German plays in 50 performances. 

Chatham (American Opera House), 

4 German plays in 5 performances. 
The Lafayette, 6 German plays in 15 performances. 

The Bowery, 5 German plays in 23 performances. 

Sans Souci, i German play in i performance. 

Vauxhall, i German play in i performance. 

In the ninety-five German performances for the season the 
following plays appeared : Of Age Tomorrow, The Poachers, 
Pizarro, Der Freischutz, The Marriage of Figaro, Oberon 
(Weber), The Virgin of the Sun, William Tell, Alt dor f, Eg- 
mont. The Robbers, Fraternal Discord, Don Giovanni, The Roe- 
buck, La Perouse, The Birthday, The Stranger. 

Of the seventeen plays presented nine are Kotzebue plays. 
Tell and Pizarro seem to be equally popular, for they are given 
at the four leading theatres with much regularity. The Robbers 
is the only drama which competes with the Kotzebue plays in 
holding its place on the lists for a series of years. 

The Season of 182^-18^0^ up to January i, i8jo. 

The Park Theatre opened its doors for the new season Sep- 
tember 2, 1830. The Lafayette was no longer a rival. The 
Chatham opened late and was given over to entertainments of 
low class; and the Bowery had been leased by the managers of 
the Park. Thus the Park was the sole master of the field for a 
time and as at the beginning of this paper so at the close there is 
but one theatre that occupies our attention. 

Early in the season a new play based on a German original 
and to all intents a German play appears. The title is : The Dev- 
il's Elixir, or The Shadowless Man. So far as I am able to 
find, no one has determined the source of this play. It is doubt- 
less a dramatization of the thrilling tale of E. T. A. Hoffmann, 



52 German Drama in English on New York Stage to 18^0 

"Die Elixire des Teufels" (1815-1816). The general plot cor- 
responds as well as the characters to that of Hoffmann's story. 

The characters of the play are: Francesco (a Capuchin), 
Nicholas (Bell-toller), Count Hermogen, Gortsburg (the Demon 
of the Elixir), Prior of the Monastery, Aurelia and Urika.-^^ 
Hermogen and Aurelia are betrothed. Francesco is secretly in 
love with Aurelia. The nature of the Elixir is that the person 
who drinks of it may assume the shape of his rival — but with 
this distinction — that he can have no shadow. Francesco drinks 
some of the Elixir and is transformed into the appearance of 
Hermogen. Nicholas, Aurelia and the others believe Francesco 
to be Hermogen. Hermogen enters — Aurelia is puzzled. Nich- 
olas determines to bring the matter to a test. Hermogen passes 
a lamp — there is a shadow ; Francesco passes the lamp — there is 
no shadow. 

Francesco is put in prison; he then makes a compact with 
Gortzburg. Gortzburg transports Hermogen and Nicholas to 
prison and places Francesco on the couch on which Hermogen 
had been lying. In the last scene Francesco and Aurelia are on 
the point of being married. The Prior condemns Hermogen to 
death, but Francesco is seized by remorse and resigns Aurelia. 
He takes refuge in St. Anthony's cell, whither Gortzburg at- 
tempts to follow him, but at the entrance he is stricken by a 
thunderbolt. 

The arrangement is by Fitz-Ball.^^^ 

One new uncertain play appears : The Mountain Robber, 
but no cast is available. The drama entitled Sisters of Charity 
with the following cast: St. Ursula, Col. Saxe, Capt. Weimar, 
Joseph and Paulo, may also be added to the list. 

The Tell of Forrest (played November 24, 1829) "drew 
together a very numerous auditory on Tuesday evening and the 
reappearance of that excellent tragedian was welcomed with 
warm applause" reports the Evening Post of November 26, 1829. 
In the only performance of Picarvo which we note, Forrest acted 
the part of Rolla. 

"" Cf. Genest. IX, p. 482. 
"'C/. Genest. IX, p. 482ff. 



German Drama in English on New York Stage to 18^0 53 

Summary. 
Don Giovanni, September 8, 1829. 
The Stranger, September 15, 1829. 
Der Freischuts, October 21, 1829. 
William Tell^ November 24, 1829. 

The Devil's Elixir, or The Shadowless Man,° November 
25, December i, 1829. 

Pizarro, November 28, 1829. ' 

Uncertain Plays. 

Charles XII, or The Siege of Stralsund, September 5, De- 
cember 16, 1829. 

The Gambler's Fate, September 14, November 4, 1829. 

The West Indian, September 21,1 829. 

The Wandering Boys, October 13, 1829. 

The Greeneyed Monster, October 19, 1829. 

Sisters of Charity° ( ?), November 13, 1829. 

The Mountain Robber° (?), December 7, 1829. 

With the statistics of this part of the season of 1829-1830 
our paper closes ; there are no doubt new and interesting things 
in the years that follow until the first strivings for a German the- 
atre are seen. No season will be found, however, that will 
eclipse the wonderful years of 1800, 1801 and 1802, when the 
American theatre-going public knew far more about Kotzebue 
than the cultivated native German of today. 

This period of Kotzebue dramas must have been of im- 
mense importance in the formation of the public taste. And 
the fact that some of his plays remained on the American stage 
until i860 and later shows how strong an appeal he made to 
the American public. 

It has not been the purpose of this paper to determine the 
influence of the German drama on the early American drama; 
that must be a special study based on much of the material 
presented in these pages. We have tried to give a picture of the 
stage conditions, the number and character of the German plays 
which were performed and this information will guide the 
student of the American drama in his investigations of German 
influence in this field. 



ADDRESS OF DR. C J. HEXAMER, PRESIDENT OF 
THE NATIONAL GERMAN-AMERICAN ALLIANCE, 
AT THE UNVEILING OF THE GENERAL VON 
STEUBEN MONUMENT, AT VALLEY FORGE 
PARK, OCTOBER 9, 191 5. 

Ladies and Gentlemen: 

One of the manifold duties, carried on for sixteen years, 
in the beneficent work of the National German- American Alli- 
ance is the marking of historical sites and the erection of monu- 
ments to instill patriotism in the hearts of the American people. 
It is not necessary to tell an audience like this that every Ameri- 
can of German birth or extraction feels the sentiment of Rufus 
Choate, who wrote: 

"We join ourselves to no party that does not carry 
the flag and keep step to the music of the Union." 

As a prominent lawyer of Baltimore, a native of the United 
States, whose ancestors were German, recently wrote : 

"Living in a land peopled by folk from all the con- 
tending nations, it was particularly incumbent upon us to ob- 
serve a strict and even impartiality of conduct. It was not 
for this country nor the people thereof to sit in judgment 
upon the nations and pass upon the righteousness of their 
cause. 

"When President Wilson issued his proclamation of 
neutrality and called upon the people of the United States 
to refrain from any conduct that might provoke ill-feeling 
between them, the German-Americans, as a whole, gave re- 
spectful heed tliereto. 

"But, ignoring the fair request of the President, a 
large part of the English press of the country at once took 
sides against Germany, and by act and deed sought to hurt 
and embarrass her. It gave prominence to every statement 
that might reflect adversely upon Germany and the Ger- 
mans. They were suddenly denied every civil virtue and 
made to appear as the most ruthless of savages. No state- 

(54) 



Address at Unveiling of Von Steuben Monument 55 

ment was too incredible or absurd to be given prominence. 
Facts were perverted and lying even resorted to. 

"Whether bias or ignorance, malice or mercenary 
motives fathered these calumnies we know not; but the 
fact remains as a shame and discredit to our Nation. 

"This condition existing we arose in protest — a just 
and honest protest — made not in derogation of any fealty 
to the United States, but out of a lively indignation at the 
injury done the land of our brothers and of our fathers. A 
land to which we owe so much of our culture and from 
which has sprung so great a part of our population. 

"On our part to continue silent would have been con- 
temptible and craven. 

"This defense drew the savage spleen of a hostile 
press towards our own persons. Our past deeds were for- 
gotten, all our years of loyalty and service to the Union were 
brushed away. We became over night, as it were, inferior 
citizens; 'citizens of a divided allegiance!' The phrase 
'hyphenated'* was used as a term of reproach and con- 
tumely. . . . 

" . . . For us the hyphen is here to stay. It shall 
serve as a badge of merit which our children and children's 
children will be proud to bear. 

* "The while the unhyphenated but ardently English- 
Americans have boldly advocated the abrogation of our In- 
dependence by suggesting that we make common cause with 
the 'Mother Country' and in the interest of a 'common 
Anglo-Saxon' civilization, the German-Americans ha\'e 
asked nothing but fair play for the Fatherland and have cast 
their weight against the treasonable idea of a common cause 
with England. For us the words of Thomas Jefferson are 



* The editor of this periodical removed the "hyphen" from "German- 
American", on purely aesthetic grounds, nearly twenty years ago, long before 
the sign acquired the scandalous notoriety, wliich it now enjoys. All Ame'- 
icans, even the Redskins, are "hyplienated" at some point in their history. If 
the "hyphen" is to signify anything politically objectionable, it should apply to 
those thousands of aliens who enjoy the privileges of residence in America, 
without taking up the duties of American citizenship. An investigation into 
tliat subject would shed some interesting light on the situation. It is better 
English and better taste to write "English American", "French .American", 
"German American", without the hyphen, letting the adjectives tell their own 
story. So far as the editor is aware, he was the first to officially introduce the 
dchyphenated form of "German American", in the Americana Gcnnanica 
( 1S97 on), the German American Historical Society (1901 on) and the 
Germ.\n Amf.kican Annals (1902 on). The hyplien has been printed in tlii.^ 
address, as it is a question of rcproduchig a document. — The Editor. 



56 Address at Unveiling of Von Steuben Monument 

still a guide and warning: 'Peace, commerce and honest 
friendship with all nations, entangling alliances with none.' 

"This has been the height of our offending. For this 
we have been threatened with the mob and its blind ven- 
geance by a press which has proven itself unfair and for- 
getful of its duty to the American people. 

"As German-Americans we are proud to mark our- 
selves as being of the kin and blood of a brave and great 
people; a people whose achievements in war and in peace 
make it an honor to be known as Germans. 

"But with all this, true to our Country, we shall live as 
Americans and die as Americans." 

I cannot better open these exercises than by reading the letter 
which Steuben, who arrived at Portsmouth, N. H., on December 
I, 1777, wrote to the Continental Congress on December 6, 1777: 

"Honorable Gentlemen: I'he honor of serving a nation 
engaged in defending its rights and liberties was the motive 
that brought me to this continent. I ask neither riches nor 
titles. I am come here from the remotest end of Germany, 
at my own expense, and have given up honorable and lucra- 
tive rank. I have made no condition with your deputies in 
France, nor shall I make any with you. My only ambition 
is to serve you as a volunteer, to deserve the conlidence of 
your General in Chief, and to follow him in all his opera- 
tions as I have done during seven campaigns with the King 
of Prussia. 

"Two and twenty years spent in such a school seems 
to give me a right of thinking myself among the number 
of experienced officers, and if I am possessed of the ac- 
quirements in the art of war they will be much more prized 
by me if I can employ them in the service of a Republic 
such as I hope soon to see America. I should willingly 
purchase at the expense of my blood the honor of having my 
name enrolled among those of the defenders of your liberty. 
Your gracious acceptance will be sufficient for me, and I ask 
no other favor than to be received among your officers. I 
venture to hope that you will grant this my request, and that 
you will be so good as to send me your orders to Boston, 
where I shall await them and take suitable measures in ac- 
cordance." 

And to Washington he wrote on the same day: 



Address at Unveiling of Von Steuben Momnneut 57 

"Sir: The inclosed copy of a letter, the original of 
which I shall have the honor to present to Your Excellency, 
will inform you of the motives that brought me over to 
this land. I shall only add to it that the object of my great- 
est ambition is to render the country all the service in my 
power, and to deserve the title of a citizen of America by 
hg-hting for the cause of your liberty. If the distinguished 
ranks in which I have served in Europe should be an ob- 
stacle, I had rather serve under Your Excellency as a volun- 
teer than to be an object of discontent to such deserving 
officers as have already distinguished themselves among you. 

"Such being the sentiments I have always professed, 
I dare hope that the respectable Congress of the United 
States of America will accept my services. I could say, 
moreover, were it not for the fear of offending your mod- 
esty, that Your Excellency is the only person under whom, 
after having served the King of Prussia, I could wish to 
follow a profession to the study of which I have wholly 
devoted myself. I intend to go to Boston in a few days, 
where I shall present my letters to Mr. Hancock, Member 
of Congress, and there I shall await Your Excellency's 
orders." 

How well Washington soon appreciated his services was 
shown six weeks after Steuben had commenced his active work, 
when Washington made the following report to Congress: 

'The extensive ill consequences arising from a want 
of uniformity in discipline and maneuvers throughout the 
Army have long occasioned me to wish for the establish- 
ment of a well-organized inspectorship, and the concur- 
rence of Congress in the same views has induced me to set 
on foot a temporary institution, which, from the success 
which has hitherto attended it, gives me the most flatter- 
ing expectations. 

"Baron Steuben's length of service in the first military 
school of Europe and his former rank pointed him out as a 
person peculiarly qualified to be at the head of this dei^arl- 
ment. This appeared the least exceptionable way of intro- 
ducing him into the Army, and the one that would give him 
the most ready opportunity of displaying his talent. I there- 
fore proposed to him to undertake the office of Inspector 
General, which he agreed to do with the greatest cheerfulness, 



58 Address at Unveiling of Von Steuben Mommient 

and has performed the duties of it witli a zeal and intelH- 
gence equal to our wishes. 

"I should do injustice if I were to be longer silent with 
regard to the merits of Baron Steuben. His knowledge of 
his profession, added to the zeal which he has displayed since 
he began upon the functions of his office, leads me to con- 
sider him an acquisition to the service, and to recommend 
him to the attention of Congress." 

It is pathetic to note that the last official act of the "Father 
of his Country," as President of the United States, was a letter 
written to Steuben, which more eloquently tells the virtues and 
value of Steuben than I possibly could ; and with these words of 
our immortal Washington, I will close: 

"My Dear Baron: Although I have taken frequent 
opportunities, both public and private, to acknowledge your 
great zeal, attention, and abilities in performing the duties 
of your office, yet I wish to make use of this last moment 
of my public life to signify in the strongest terms my entire 
approbation of your conduct and to express my sense of the 
obligation the public is under to you for your faithful and 
meritorious services. 

"I beg you will be convinced, my dear sir, that I should 
rejoice if it could ever be in my power to serve you more 
essentially than by expressions of regard and affection, but 
in the meantime I am persuaded you will not be displeased 
with this farewell token of my sincere friendship and esteem 
for you. 

"This is the last letter I shall write while I continue in 
the service of my country. The hour of my resignation is 
fixed at 12 today, after which I shall become a private citi- 
zen on the banks of the Potomac, where I shall be glad to 
embrace you and testify the great esteem and consideration 
with which I am, mv dear Baron, etc." 



GENERAL VON STEUBEN AND THE NEW LESSON OF 
GERMAN MILITARISM. 

By M. D. Learned. 

The monument erected at Valley Forge in honor of General 
Steuben is but slight recognition of the services this German 
general rendered the American cause in the Revolution. Only 
the few initiated grasp the full meaning of Steuben's reorganiza- 
tion of the American forces. The British had pushed Washing- 
ton's scattered army to the north and kept it out of Philadelphia, 
which became the British headquarters, while the colonial troops 
took refuge under the shelter of Valley Forge. Such an army 
has rarely been assembled on any battlefield as these hungry, rag- 
ged, suffering colonials. Contemporaneous accounts draw a 
graphic picture: 3,989 men in camp unfit for duty for want of 
clothing, mutinies, desertions, fever and other sickness prevailed. 
Only 5,012 of the original force of 17,000 men were fit for duty 
in February, 1778. Washington wrote to Congress: 

"Unless some great and capital change takes place, 
the army must inevitably be reduced to one or other of these 
three things — to starve, dissolve or disperse in order to ob- 
tain subsistence." 

The organization of the colonial army was copied from the 
English system and entirely demoralized. Steuben writes: 

"I found that the different branches were divided into 
departments. There were those of the quartermaster 
general, war commissary, provisions commissary, commis- 
sary of the treasury, or paymaster of forage, etc., etc. But 
they were all bad copies of a bad original. That is to say. 
they had imitated the English administration, which is cer- 
tainly the most imperfect in Europe. . . . 

"The effective strength of the army was divided into 
divisions, commanded by major generals ; into brigades, com- 
manded by brigadier generals ; and into regiments, com- 
manded by colonels. The number of men in a regiment was 
fixed by Congress, as well as in a company — so many in- 
fantry, cavalry, and artillery. But the eternal ebb and flow 
of men engaged for three, six and nine months, who went 

(59) 



6o Von Sicuhoi and German Militarism 

and came every clay, rendered it impossible to have either 
a regiment or a company complete; and the words company, 
regiment, brigade, and division, were so vague that they did 
not convey any idea upon which to form a calculation, either 
of a particular corps or of the army in general. They were 
so unequal in their number, that it would have been impos- 
sible to execute any maneuvers. Sometimes a regiment was 
stronger than a brigade. I have seen a regiment con- 
sisting of thirty men, and a company of one corporal! 
Nothing was so difficult, and often so impossible, as to get 
a correct list of the state or return of any company, regi- 
ment or corps. As in the English service, there was a 
muster-master general, with a number of assistants. It was 
the duty of this officer to ascertain and report every month 
the effective state of the army, for the payment of the men 
and officers. This operation took place as follows : each 
captain made a roll of his company, whether absent or pres- 
ent, after which he made oath before a superior officer that 
this return was correct 'to the best of his knowledge and 
belief. The muster-master counted the men present, and 
the absent were marked by him for their pay upon the oath 
of the captain. I am very far from supposing that an officer 
would voluntarily commit fraud, but let us examine the 
state of the companies, and we shall see the correctness of 
such returns. 

"The company had twelve men present; absent, one 
man as valet to the commissary, two hundred miles distant 
from the army, for eighteen months; one man valet to a 
quarter-master attached to the Army of the North, for twelve 
months ; four in the different hospitals for so many months ; 
two as drivers of carriages; and so many more as bakers, 
blacksmiths, carpenters, even as coal-porters, for years to- 
gether, although the greater number w'ere only engaged for 
nine months at the outset. But a man once on the roll of a 
company remained there everlastingly, as forming part of 
the effective strength, except in case of death or desertion, 
under the very eyes of the captain. 

"According to these rolls, the strength of the army 
for pay and provisions was calculated. The regimental re- 
turns furnished to the adjutant general every week, for the 
information of the general-in-chief, as to the strength of the 
army, were not much more exact. I am sure that, at that 
time, a general would have thought himself lucky to find a 
third of the men ready for action whom he found on paper. 

"The soldiers were scattered about in every direction. 



Von Steuben and German Militarisiu 6i 

The army was looked upon as a nursery for servants, and 
every one deemed it his right to have a valet; several thou- 
sand soldiers were employed in this way. We had more 
commissaries and quarter-masters at that time than all the 
armies of Europe together; the most modest had only one 
servant, but others had two and even three. If the captains 
and colonels could give no account of their men, they could 
give still less an account of their arms, accouterments, 
clothing, ammunition, camp equipage, etc. Nobody kept 
an account but the commissaries, who furnished all the 
articles. A company, which consisted, in May, of fifty men, 
was armed, clothed and equipped in June. It then consisted 
of thirty men; in July it received thirty recruits who were 
to be clothed, armed, and equipped ; and not only the clothes, 
but the arms were carried off by those who had completed 
their time of service. 

"General Knox assured me, that, previous to the estab- 
lishment of mv department, there never was a campaign 
in which the military magazines did not furnish from five 
thousand to eight thousand muskets to replace those which 
were lost in the way I have described above. The loss of 
bayonets was still greater. The American soldier, never 
having used this arm, had no faith in it, and never used it 
but to roast his beefsteak and indeed often left it at home. 
This is not astonishing when it is considered that the ma- 
jority of the States engaged their soldiers for from six to 
nine months. Each man who went away took his musket 
with him, and his successor received another from the public 
store. No captain kept a book. Accounts were never fur- 
nished nor required. As our army is, thank God, little sub- 
ject to desertion, I venture to say that during an entire cam- 
paign there have not been twenty muskets lost since my 
system came into force. It was the same with the pouches 
and other accouterments, and I do not believe that I exag- 
gerate when I state that my arrangements have saved the 
United States at least eight hundred thousand French livres 
a year. 

"The arms at Valley h\)rge were in a horrible condition, 
covered with rust, half of them without bayonets, many from 
which a single shot could not be fired. The pouches were 
quite as bad as the arms. A great many of the men had tin 
boxes instead of pouches, others had cow-horns ; and mus- 
kets, carbines, fowling-pieces, and rifles were to be seen in 
the same company. 



62 Von Steiihcn and German Mililarisiu 

"The description of the dress is most easily given. The 
men were literally naked, some of them in the fullest ex- 
tent of the word. The officers who had coats, had them of 
every color and make. I saw officers, at a grand parade 
at Valley Forge, Inounting guard in a sort of dressing- 
gown, made of an old blanket or woolen bed-cover. With 
regard to their military discipline, I may safely' say no such 
thing existed. In the first place there was no regular forma- 
tion. A so-called regiment was formed of three platoons, 
another of five, eight, nine, and the Canadian regiment of 
twenty-one. The formation of regiments was as varied 
as their mode of drill, which only consisted of the manual 
exercise. Each colonel had a system of his own, the one 
according to the English, the other according to the Prus- 
sian or French style. There was only one thing in which 
they were uniform, and that was the way of marching in the 
maneuvers and on the line of march. They all adopted the 
mode of marching in files used by the Indians. Mr. De 
Comway had introduced platoons and many other things, 
but as he was not liked, they had allowed all his instruc- 
tions to fall into disuse, so that I scarcely found a trace of 
them. It is also necessary to remark that the changing the 
men, the reductions and continual incorporations deprived 
the corps and regiments of all consistence. There was an- 
other evil still more subversive of order in an army ; the 
captains and colonels did not consider their companies and 
regiments as corps confided to them by the United States 
for the care of the men as well as the preservation of order 
and discipline. The greater part of the captains had no 
roll of their companies and had no idea how many men they 
had under their orders. When I asked a colonel the strength 
of his regiment, the usual reply was, 'something between two 
and three hundred men'. The colonels, and often the cap- 
tains, granted leave of absence as they thought proper, and 
not only that, but permissions to retire from the service. 
The officers were not accustomed to remain with the troops 
when the army was in camp; they lived in houses often 
several miles distant. In winter quarters they nearly all 
went home and there were often not more than four officers 
with a regiment. In the campaign of 1779, I found a Mas- 
sachusetts regiment commanded by a lieutenant. The idea 
they had of their duty was, that the officers had only to 
mount guard and put themselves at the head of their regi- 
ment or company when they were going into action. 



Von Steuben and German Militarisin 63 

"The internal administration of a regiment and a com- 
pany was a thing completely unknown. The quarter-master 
received arms, ammunition and camp equipage for an en- 
tire brigade. The clothing and provisions were distributed 
in the same way by brigades. A captain who did not know 
the number of men in his company, could not know the num- 
ber of the rations and other articles necessary for it. There 
were absolutely no regulations for the service of the camp 
and of the guards. Each colonel encamped his regiment ac- 
cording to his fancy. There were guards and pickets, and 
sometimes too many; but the officers did not know their 
duty, and in many instances did not understand the object 
of the guard. An infinity of internal guards for the com- 
missaries of forage and provisions, and for the quarter- 
master, weakened the strength of the army, the more so, 
because these guards were never relieved, and remained from 
one year to another. Their arms were lost, and they were 
all the servants of the commissary, who often granted them 
leave not only for six months, but without limitation. It 
would be an endless task to enumerate the abuses which 
nearly ruined the army. The above is a general view of 
the situation of the American army as I found it at Valley 
Forge in the month of February, 1778." 

The long annoying task of securing the efficient support of 
Congress and the envy and even hostility of ambitious American 
officers like General Lee greatly retarded the efforts of Steuben 
to put the American army in a condition for action. In spite 
of discouragements he began by himself setting the example 
for his subalterns. His own account gives the best view of his 

work : 

"I commenced operations by drafting one hundred 
and twenty men from the line, whom I formed into a guard 
for the general-in-chief. I made this guard my military 
school. I drilled them myself twice a day, and to remove 
that English prejudice which some officers entertained, 
namely, that to drill a recruit was a sergeant's duty and be- 
neath the station of an officer, I often took the musket my- 
se!f to show the men the manual exercise which I wished 
to introduce. All my inspectors were present at each drill. 
We marched together, wheeled, etc., etc., and in a fortnight 
my company knew perfectly how to bear arms, had a mili- 
tary air, knew how to march, to form a column, deploy, and 
execute some little maneuvers with excellent precision." 



64 Von Steuben and German Militarism 

Thus the inspector general was able to begin elementary 
maneuvers of the troops on the 24th of March, 1778. The tri- 
umph of Steuben's tactics in adopting the best of the Prussian, 
English, and French systems to the peculiar American require- 
ments is well set forth by William North, his aide-de-camp : 

"Certainly it was a brave attempt! Without under- 
standing a word of the English language, to think of bring- 
ing men, born free and joined together to preserve their 
freedom, into strict subjection; to obey without a word, a 
look, the mandates of a master! That master once their 
equal, or possibly beneath them, in whatever might become a 
man ! It was a brave attempt, which nothing but virtue, or 
high-raised hopes of glory, could have supported." 

Thus the Prussian Captain von Steuben, who had entered 
the service of Frederick the Great as cadet in 1747, and served 
through the strenuous years of the Seven Years' War, now brought 
his mature experience in the field to the task of reorganizing the 
American army and to the formulation of a system of military 
tactics which continued long after the Revolution to be the 
basis of our military science both in the field and at the military 
academy at West Point, and the morale of which, even with 
many later improvements, is felt at the present day. 

Again America needs another Steuben, and again it is 
Prussia which can teach us both by precept and example. The 
Prussian system of military science has become the German 
system and has united with the best methods of the German 
States and their allies to form the most efficient weapon of de- 
fense which the world has ever seen. Instead of indulging in 
ignorant harangues about "German militarism", "Prussianism" 
and the like, it behooves us to study the merits of this marvellous 
military machine in all of its minutest details and once more 
learn from our great preceptor, Germany, this supreme lesson of 
national defense. The dominance of the nobility as a professional 
military class in the official ranks of the German army has noth- 
ing to do with our American military system, because we have no 
American nobility, except that described by the philosopher-poet 
of America as "Nature's Nobleman," "the plain man in gray" : 

"A nobleman indeed is he. 
With mind for his nobility." 



Von Steuben and German Militarism 65 

The great imitable factors in the German system are 
universal military service, thorough organization, absolute ar- 
triculation of military and civic agencies in national defense, — all 
principles as chaotic relatively in America at the present time 
as they were in the days of Steuben at Valley Forge. If America 
were called upon to answer to the roll of civilized nations in 
military fitness, it is doubtful whether we should not stand last 
on the list of actual efficiency — even after little Montenegro. 
This is a crime which none can condone, a sin against our tradi- 
tions, a disgrace to our national honor, an open way to the 
murder of innocent patriots, women and ghildren, an outrage 
against the instincts of humanity. It is high time that America 
had a military organization, which should study incessantly the 
methods of modern warfare, and an advisory or adjunct 
Civic Council, which should represent all the industrial, economic, 
social and scientific activities of the nation, and cooperate with 
the great central military and naval departments of the govern- 
ment in coordinating all these interests in a self-adjusting 
system of national defense. Sickly sentimentalities of pacifists 
and cowards are no longer tolerable. "To arms!" is the alarm 
that has been sounding in our ears since the outbreak of the world 
war. The oldest surviving Republic of Switzerland has set an 
example to all self -ruling peoples Ijy rallying an army of four 
hundred thousand sharpshooters to guard the boundaries against 
possible violation of treaty rights. On the day of the German 
mobilization, the writer of this took the last passenger train from 
Karlsruhe to Basel. The very next day he travelled on a mobiliza- 
tion train of Swiss soldiers to Geneva. So immediate was the 
Swiss response to the peril before war was actually declared. 
The hundred-year-old Prussian ideal of the "civilian-soldier" was 
identical in spirit with that of the famous "minute men" of the 
American Revolution, and that ideal cannot be lost out of sight, 
if the rights of the people and the rights of nations are to be pre- 
served, whether it be in an Empire or a Republic. 

It must be exasperating to the Entente allies and to all who 
sympathize with them that the force of German arms has proven 
irresistible and it must be admitted that the Entente allies have 
made, in the main, a sad exhibit of their military efficiency. 



66 Von Steuben and German Militarism 

German efficiency is the explanation — efficiency which extends 
to the minutest details of individual action. And the secret of 
tliis efficiency lies in a penetrating insight into history and its 
lessons for the future. While the Entente allies have been con- 
tent with half executed plans of military operation, with the 
British neglect of the army and French laxness in discipline, and 
the Russians with vast unorganized forces and poorly equipped 
armament, the Germans have had all the activities of the nation 
under perfect centralized control and at the word of command 
turned as one man to face the hostile attack, first on one front 
and then on the other. 

In former times we Americans were eager to learn lessons 
of precision and thoroughness in the laboratories and seminaries 
of the German universities and to build up a great system of 
American universities after the German model. 

Let us with the same eagerness for the best information turn 
again in our quest for the principles and methods of national de- 
fense to that nation which gave us the great drillmaster of the 
colonial forces in the Revolution and which now under our own 
eyes has made a formidable engine of defense out of a citizen- 
soldiery. 

The government of the United States must put itself in con- 
trol of all the military agencies of the land, extend its central- 
ized authority over the State militia, require military training 
of every able-bodied citizen between the ages of eighteen and 
twenty-five years, organize the physically unfit into home pro- 
tection, relief, hospital and supply corps. The government must 
commandeer in times of war all the transportation facilities and 
direct the activities from a common centre, and in times of peace 
prepare the terminal connections of railroads and build inland 
water-ways with a view to the quickest possible expedition of 
military plans in times of war. Every American citizen should 
be made to feel that he is an organized factor in the great engine 
of national defense and is expected to turn all his information 
and ability into the service of his country's cause. This is the 
German, the Prussian, system adapted to American conditions. 



©eiman Qmcrican Qnna Is 

CONTINUATION OF THE QUARTERLY 

AMERICANA GERMANICA 



New Series, May, June, July and August. Old Series, 
Vol. XIV. Nos. 3 and 4. 1916. Vol. XVIII. Nos. 3 and 4. 

THE GERMAN DRAMA IN ENGLISH ON THE 
PHILADELPHIA STAGE. 

(Continued.) 

Thirty-third Season, Chestnut Street Theatre, December 4, 1826, 
to Mav 12, 182'/, and Summer Season, July 2 to 2/, 182/. 

This season Warren was the sole manager, although Wood 
and Mrs. Wood continued as members of the company. Cowell 
from the Walnut was stage manager. 

The German plays for the season were: How to Die for 
Love, December 5, January 13, and March 5; Of Age to Mor- 
row, December 15; Pizarro, December 21, March 17, April 12, 
and 27 ; Tlic Stranger, December 4, January 25, and March 28, 
twelve performances of four different plays, all from Kotzebue. 
The retirement of Wood from the position of joint manager 
seems reflected in the disappearance of The Robbers and Abael- 
lino and also in the smaller number of performances of the more 
common German plays, while during the short season at the 
Arch Street Theatre, in 1828, under Wood's management he 
gave The Robbers three times. 

In Pizarro, December 21, Cooper appeared as Rolla; 
March 10, and 17, Forrest as Rolla; April 11, and 17, Mr. and 
I\Irs. Wallack had the leading roles. As already noted the last 
winter season closing May 20, 1826, had ended with Pizarro and 
Undine, and this season opened with The Stranger, "a play 
which, though always abused is always attractive." -'^^ Decem- 



Cf. Wood, p. 336. 

(69) 



70 German Drama in English on the Pliiladclpliia Stage 

ber 4, Mr. and Mrs. Wood in the leading roles, and so again 
January 25 ; March 28 shows Macready also given M'Cready 
from Drtiry Lane in the role of the Stranger for the first time, 
his first appearance having been in Othello, March 26. 

The plays of possible or partial German origin were: Comet, 
February 8, April 4, and July 21; The Floating Beacon, Janu- 
ary 4, 9, and February 20, for the first time at the Chestnut 
Street Theatre ; Beacon Light, or Tlie Norzvay Wreckers at the 
Walnut Street Theatre, November 18, 1825, was the same play. 
The only clue is from the characters given, Angerstorf — 
played by Webb; Wandering Boys, December 12, and William 
Tell, January 15, with the following partial cast: William Tell, 
Macready; Albert, Master Wheatly; Braun, Jefferson; Emma, 
wife of Tell, Mrs. Green, March 12, Forrest as William Tell, 
his repertoire for this engagement being Damon and Pythias, 
March 7; Othello, March 9; Pizarro, March 10; William Tell, 
March 12; Richard III, March 14; Iron Chest, March 16; Piz- 
arro, March 17; Damon and Pythias, March 19, and his benefit. 
King Lear, March 21. 

On May 8, appeared Devil's Bridge, in the course of which 
"Heyl as Count Belino will introduce the celebrated song of 
William Tell." This has been referred to in previous seasons. 
The only other play to note here is Foundling of the Forest, 
January 18; The Foundling, March 23, and 27, a comedy in 
five acts was a different play, as it is announced "for the first 
time at the Chestnut Street Theatre." 

With the coming of more operas, ballets become again 
more common, and for the summer season we find announced 
"the engagement for seven nights of M.Achille, Mesdames Achilla 
and Hutin, dancers from the New York Theatre (Bowery)." 
They appeared with Follies of a Day, July 13, in a "Pas de 
Trois from the opera of Trajan as in Paris," July 18, in a "Pas 
de Trois from the German opera of Der Freyschiitz," and July 
20, in a "Pas de Trois from Giovanni." While on the subject 
of operas I noted a reference to an Italian Opera Corps at Read- 
ing in 1825 and also in New York, but no announcements ap- 
peared for any season in Philadelphia. The announcement 



German Drama in English on the Philadelphia Stage yi 

reads: "The Italian Opera Corps will make their debut with 
Barber of Seville, Signor Garcia, the original Count Alnianza 
for whom Rossini composed the part, as in London, English 
text, Signor Garcia announces operas of Cimarosa, Mozart, 
Pascello and Rossini." Other plays to note this season were 
Brian Boroilme, "Hibernian Melodrama," April 9, nine suc- 
cessive performances, Mr. Wallack in the leading role. This 
play was commented on in the papers in full, especially the spec- 
tacular part. The play did not, however, pass without trouble 
as indicated by a part of this comment, "An interrupting, how- 
ever, occurred at the close of the first act, caused by Mr. Webb 
appearing intoxicated in the part of Voltimar, but it is under- 
stood that this incident will, by particular request, not be re- 
peated." That the general order was no longer as good as it 
had been is indicated by the announcement of the manager at 
the beginning of the season, "Proper officers are appointed, who 
will rigidly enforce decorum." Charles II was given three 
times, and then we note The Fall of Algiers, a musical play, for 
the first time at the Chestnut Street Theatre, July 4, also given 
three times. Forty Thieves was popular this season with eight 
performances. The Fatal Dozvry, tragedy in five acts, for the 
first time in Philadelphia, April 4, Macready in the leading role, 
but not repeated this season. The Foundling, first time at the 
Chestnut Street Theatre, March 23, and 27. Paid Pry, for the 
first time January i, but at the Walnut it had appeared first, 
October 28. We note also Indian Prophecy, a new play in two 
acts, "an event of 1762, founded on an occurrence in the life 
of George Washington," written by a member of George Wash- 
ington's family, July 4. Sylla, a new tragedy, for the first 
time, February 28, and March 5, Booth in the leading role, he 
having appeared so far this season in Hamlet, King Lear, Rich- 
ard III, and Brutus. A new farce was A Year in An Hour, De- 
cember 7, with three performances. 

Shakespeare was represented better than any previous sea- 
son as to number of plays: As You Like It, December 16 (Miss 
Kelly) ; Catharine and Petrucchio, January 24, March 21, and 
April 6; Comedy of Errors, "first time in Philadelphia," March 



/^ 



German Drama in English on the PhiladcJpliia Stage 



6. 8, 13. 20, and 29; Coriolanus, January 24 (Macready) ; Ham- 
let, January 12, and 21 (Macready). February 15. and 19 
(Booth), March 30 (Macready); Henry VHI, April 6 
(Macready) ; Henry V, March 31, "first time in twenty years" 
(Macready) ; Henry IV, first part, December 28 (Cooper) ;. 
King John, April 9, "Macready's Benefit and positively last ap- 
pearance" ; King Lear, February 23 (Booth), and March 21, 
"Forrest's Benefit"; Macbeth, November 14 (Cooper), Janu- 
ary 10, and April 2 (Macready) ; Merry Wives of Windsor, 
April 10; Much Ado About Nothing, December 11, and 27; 
Othello, January 6 (Cooper), February i (Booth), March 9 
(Forrest), March 26 (Macready) ; Richard HI, January 26, 
and February 24 (Booth), and March 14 (Forrest), thirty- 
five performances of sixteen different plays. 

Other Theatres, Gardens, Etc. 

Announcements appeared at this time of various gardens, 
Lafayette Vauxhall. music and general entertainments ; Phila- 
delphia Labyrinth Garden, Arch below Broad, and also Phila- 
delphia Museum, Mr. Franklin Peale, "over the elegantly laid 
out stores in the Arcade, formerly Peale's Museum." But no 
theatrical performances are announced at any of these places. 
and the papers are also silent about the Prune Street Theatre, 
Tivoli Garden Theatre and others mentioned in previous sea- 
sons. 

The IJ^alniit Street Theatre, Augnst /, 1826, to Decern J>er 2, 
182'j, and Summer Season, June 14 to July 2:;, 182/. 

This was announced as the "Last season of the Equestrian 
Company at this establishment," and the theatre seems from 
this time on to have been given up to theatrical pieces onlv. 
New acquisitions are shown by the announcement on June 10, 
1827, "Mr. Hallam has returned from Europe with the follow- 
ing ladies and gentlemen to be attached to this establishment: 
Grierson, Smith, Wells, Sefton, Mitchell, Mrs. Lane, Mrs. 
Mitchell, Mrs. Hallam. Miss Stanard and Miss Wells. On Julv 



Genu an Drama in English on the Philadelphia Stage 73 

4, was announced a "Day Performance to accommodate juvenile 
members of families," the play being Miller's Frolic. As in the 
case of the other theatre we note this season the first case of a 
play running on successive nights. 

The German plays noted were: Oberon, or The Charmed 
Horn, October 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 25, 28, and November 
3, 8, and 24; Of Age to Morrow, July 11 ; La Peronse, August 
8, 20, 21, 29, and 30; and Pizarro, June 29. 

In Pizarro, June 29, Grierson played Rolla. Oberon, or The 
Charmed Plorn (Romantic Fancy Tale), was performed for the 
first time in English in Drury Lane, London, March 27, 1825,-^'^ 
and in Covent Garden, April 12, 1826. At the Drury Lane Thea- 
tre it was repeated twenty-seven times. Another version had 
already been attempted in 18 16 by Thompson, but had met with 
little success. It had appeared on May 21, 1826, under the title, 
Oberon's Oath in Covent Garden. On May 12, 1826, Oberon, 
or The Elf -King's Oath was given for the first time at Covent 
Garden. Weber had come to London to have his opera rehearsed 
and directed in person the first twelve presentations. It was 
given thirty-one times during the season. Sellier ^^'"' says that 
the person responsible for the English form of the German 
material for Drury Lane's play, Oberon, or The Charmed Horn, 
is unknown. Hogarth mentions Planche as responsible for the 
words to Weber's opera as given at the Covent Garden Theatre. 
However, the Oberon given at the Walnut this season has the 
secondary title, The Charmed Horn, and also calls it Romantic 
Fairy Tale, which indicates the Drury Lane version, but the 
announcement adds "Being rehearsed at Covent Garden." This 
may have been however to win attention for this version. We 
have noted the same interchange of titles in the case of the 
various versions of Reconciliation, Birthday and Fraternal Dis- 
cord. 



"■■" Por the account of the composition of this opera for Covent Garden, 
by Carl Maria von Weber and the sad incidents connected with it cf. 
ttogarth, Memoirs of the Opera, in Italian, French, German and Englisli, 
1 85 1, London. 

-"'Cf. Sellier, p. g[. 



74 German Drama in English on the Philadelphia Stage 

The plays of possible or partial German origin were: Blind 
Boy. June 2/, 1827; Floating Beacon, or The Norwegian Wreck- 
ers, August 12, and two additional performances, Flying Dutch- 
man, nautical melodrama, July 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, and 16; 
and Miller and His Men, August 14, 1826; June 25, and July 
3. 1827. 

Other plays to note were: Bears Not Beasts, June 14, 
and July 19; Luke the Labourer, melodrama, July 18; Mys- 
terious Stranger, or True Revenge, Romantic Sicilian Melo- 
drama, first time in America, June 18; Paul Pry, October 28, 
fifteen performances in all, it appeared at the Chestnut Street 
Theatre, January i, 1827; Travellers Benighted, or The Bleed- 
ing Nun, June 14; The Secret, or The Haunted Chambers, 
November 11, four performances; Blood Will Have Blood, or 
The Battle of the Bridges, Equestrian Melodrama, August 21, 
three performances; and last night of the season, July 23, 1827, 
The Cataract of the Ganges, Mr. Co well's Benefit. 

Shakespeare was represented by only one performance, Rich- 
ard HI, November 14, 1826. 

Summary for the season 1826- 1827 for all the theatres: 
German plays, thirty-one performances, six different plays. 
Plays of possible or partial German origin, twenty-two perform- 
ances, eight different plays. 

There were references in the daily papers this season to vari- 
ous publications, such as to Roscoe's ^^^ "German Novelists," 
from the January number of the Museum,-^^ this being from 
the London Monthly Revieiu. Other books announced were: 
Dibdin's "Autobiography," the "Plays of Ford" and "Memoirs of 
O'Keefe." The Acting American Theatre, including: i, Wild 
Oats, with portrait of Mr. Francis; 2, Much Ado About Noth- 
ing, with portrait of Miss Kelly; 3, Superstition, with portrait 
of Mrs. Duff; 4, Old Maid, with portrait of Mrs. Francis; 5, 
Marmion, with portrait of Mr. Duff; 6, Honeymoon, with por- 
trait of Mr. Wemyss; 7, Isabella, with portrait of Mrs. Barnes; 
8, School for Reform, with portrait of Hilsen; 9, Turnpike 

^"^ The German Novelists. Tales selected from ancient and modern 
authors. Translated by Thomas Roscoe, London, 1826. 

"* Cf. Museum of Foreign Literature and Science, X, p. 29. 



Gcrumn Drama in English on flic Philadelphia Stage 75 

(/(//(', with portrait of Covvell ; 10, Sivccthcarls and Wives, with 
portrait of Mrs. Barnes; 11, Pizarro, with portrait of Wood. 
The Mercantile Library announced having received Russell's 
"Tour in Germany and Austria, 1820-22."^°^ Lea and Casey an- 
nounced July 28, 1827, "Cumberland's British Theatre," wnth re- 
marks, biographical and critical, printed from acting copies as 
performed at the Theatre Royal, London. The same house 
also announced a "Treatise in Gymnastics," chiefly from the Ger- 
man of F. L. Jahn, by Dr. Charles Beck, of Northampton. The 
American Quarterly Reviezv, Philadelphia, ^^^ under the heading 
"German Literature," begins a number of reviews of German 
works. The first is a review of "Die Poesie und Beredsamkeit 
der Deutschen von Luther's Zeit bis zur Gegenwart," Dargestellt 
von Franz Horn, Berlin, 3 Bde., 1824. Atkinson's "Casket," Phil- 
adelphia, has ''The Knight's Cellar in the Kyffhausen, a German 
legend." Outside of Philadelphia, especially in the Boston and 
New York magazines numerous references to German authors 
and literature appear. Among others • Doctor Faustus the 
legend, also outlines of die comedies. Wife {Die Brant), The 
Green Domino {Der griine Domino), The Watchman {Der 
Nachtzvdchter), The Cousin From Bremen {Der Vettcr aus 
Bremen). ^^- "Tales Round a Winter Hearth," by Jane and Anna 
Maria Porter, New York, J. and J. Harper, contains Fouque's 
Undine and this is favorably commented on in the United States 
Review and Literary Gazette, Boston. In the same magazine ap- 
pears a translation of a scene in Schiller's Maria Stuart."^^ 

Thirty-fourth Season, Chestnut Street Theatre, October 2g, 
1821, to June 21, 1828, Preceded by a French Company, 
September 28 to October 20, 182/, and Followed bv a 
Short Season^ Jidy j to Jidy 18, 1828. 

The French company from New Orleans had tlie use of 
the theatre from September 28 to October 20. During this en- 

•'"" Cf. season 1823-1824, under publications for 1824. 
'"'American Quarterly Reviezv, Philadelphia, 1827, II, p. 171. 
^""New York Mirror and Ladies' Literary Gazette. New York, IV, p. 24T, 
and V, p. 122. 

"""Series IT, I, p. 271, and II, II, p. 338. Cf. also Goodnight's List 724-750. 



76 Gcruian Dronia in Eiu/Iish on the Philadelphia Stage 

gagement they gave twenty-two pieces, and among them Der 
Frevschut:;, on Robin des Bois, October 3 and 15; and IVerthcr 
on les Egarcments d'lin Coeur sensible," October 12 and 20. two 
pieces of German origin. In the first part of this work, under 
"Nationality of Actors, Performers, Members of Orchestra," 
etc., mention has already been made of the orchestra of this 
French company. •''""* 

The manager of the Chestnut Street Theatre, William 
Warren, on October 22, 1827, announced the acquisition of new 
talent for the Opera and Dramatic Corps in England and the 
United States, and especial emphasis was laid on the enlarged 
orchestra under the direction of Mr. Braun (Vienna, Prague, 
Berlin and Konigsberg). On October 25 this orchestra gave a 
concert at the theatre, with very flattering results, even after the 
excellent orchestra of the French company, for as one paper 
said they "had been taught by the orchestra of the French com- 
]oanv to appreciate fine music." 

The German plays for this season were: Cossaek and Vol- 
unteer, February 7, 9, and April 21; Deaf and Duuib, March 
2/; Der Freisehitta, May 16, and 19; Hozv to Die for Love, 
November 3, July 1 1 ; Lovers' Vozvs, March 3 ; Of Age to Mor- 
rozv, February 14; Pizarro, January 17, and May 30; and Tlie 
Stranger, December 8, January 3, and Fel^ruary 7. fifteen per- 
formances of eight different plays, seven from Kotzebue. In 
Der Freischiltz, May 16, Mrs. Austin played Linda. Lovers' 
Vozvs, March 3, announced as the "favorite comedy," was Miss 
Fischer's Benefit. Wood speaks of Miss Clara Fischer acting 
for ten nights this season and especially of her success in the 
roles of Amelia (Lovers' Vozvs) and Albert Tell (JVilliani 
Tell). The cast given shows Count Cassel, Wemyss; Baron 
Wildenheim, Warren; Frederick, Chapman; Anholt, Wood; 
Verdun, Jefferson ; Agatha Friburg, Miss Emery ; Amelia, Clara 
Fischer. The papers commented "We were glad that Miss 
Fischer chose parts, Amelia in Lovers' Vozvs and Louisa in the 
new farce called The Dead Shot, more adapted to her peculiarlv 

"'* Cf. p. 3Q, also p. 68 for previous performance of JViVtcr, by a Freiirn 
(■<im])any, in 1706. 



Ccniiaii Drauia in Eiu/lish on the Philadelphia Stage yy 

extraordinary powers than that which she assumed on Saturday 
(Merchant of J'^enice):' Of Age to Morrow, February 14, was 
Burrou^^-h's last night. In Pizarro, January 17, Wood had the 
role of Pizarro, and May 30, he played Pizarro to Rowbotham's 
Holla. December 8, 1827, the night of the first performance 
of The Stranger this season, the paper said: "Great expectations 
are raised on Mrs. Sloman's presentation of Mrs. Haller in The 
Stranger this evening. We regret that the moral sense and the 
good feelings of the community tolerate the representation of a 
play so offensive to both. So long as the public patronize, the 
managers will bring forward this disgusting play. Taste and 
morals, refinement and manners unite to drive it from the 
boards." And in spite of this tirade, Mrs. Sloman chose the 
same play for her benefit, January 3. Mr. Burroughs appeared 
in it, February 7, the same night with The Cossack and The Vol- 
unteer. And as if to emphasize the contrast between what the 
moralists claimed the public really wanted we note, just to antici- 
pate, that this same play, The Stranger, was given three times 
next season, 1828-1829, and nine times during 1829-1830, the 
last season discussed in this work, and before this season it had 
seen about sixty-three performances. The cast for December 8. 
was: Baron Steinfust, Wemyss; the Stranger, Wood; Solomon, 
Mercer ; Peter, JefTerson, and Mrs. Haller, Mrs. Sloman. 

After the performance the criticism was no less severe: 
"Saturday evening the play of The Stranger was performed. 
We have so often had occasion to speak of the demoralizing in- 
fluence of this drama, that we shall no longer dwell on the sub- 
ject than to say, that the combined talents of Mrs. Sloman, Mr. 
Wood and Mr. Wemyss. called into action as they were on Sat- 
urday evening, gave additional weight to the bad impressions 
which can not fail to be made at every representation of this 
sickly production. A production the more dangerous as manv 
of its disgusting incidents and its unnatural conclusion are 
smothered, as it were, in a heap of sentimentality. '\^irtue alone 
is excellent my Lord' — 'There is another and a better world' 
and a hundred other such abstract sentences with which the play 
is crowded, good in themselves, but unspeakablv dangerous 



jS German Drama in EnglisJi on the Philadelphia Stage 

when thrust in as a counterpoise to a story, the whole tenor and 
effect of which is to make hght of and to consider that, as a 
venial offense, which not only religion, but the moral sense of 
mankind has long stamped as a crime of the blackest die."^*^^ 
The Aurora's comment was non-committal, but leaves no doubt 
in our mind as to the popularity of the play. "Mrs. Sloman played 
Mrs. Haller to a full house. The concluding scene was affecting 
in the extreme and perhaps tears were never more plentifully 
shed at the representation of The Stranger/' 

The one new play of German origin w^as The Cossaek and 
Volunteer, ^"^ for the first time in America, February 7, 1828. 
It is announced in the papers as "Kotzebue's Opera," but also 
as "First Night of Mr. Braun's Opera," which must refer to the 
director of the orchestra and in the partial cast given Mme. 
Braun is shown as playing Louisa, with the additional remark, 
"For the first time in English character." The cast shows Ivan, 
Mercer; Wm. Frisch, Heyl; Louisa, Mme. Braun; Kitty, Miss 
Jefferson; Puffendorf, Mayor of the village, Jefferson, Jr. The 
comment in the papers also indicates Braun as responsible for 
the music. "The music was delightful and reflects much credit 
on the leader of the orchestra, Mr. Braun. The overture com- 
manded general attention. At one period it seemed as if the 
whole pit were so interested that they at once rose up. . . ." 
The National Gazette said: "It may become one of the most 
agreeable operas we possess. We speak here wath reference to 
the music, for the piece in itself is rather *so so,' and certainly 
adds no new lustre to the name of its reputed author. But the 
musical part is excellent. The Cossack possesses one advantage 
over our operas in general. The airs are well adapted to the 
opera itself and seem to be in their proper places; wdiereas in 
other English operas the songs are too commonly introduced 
without any regard to congruity as to the piece. For instance, 
we sometimes have a simple country girl singing brilliant Italian 
bravuras. ..." 



^"^ Binn's Democratic Press, Philadelphia, December 10, 1827. 

"'"'' Der Kosak und der Frei zvilligc, Liederspiel (Opern Almanach fiir das 
Jahr 181 5. It is characterized by Rabany as a "Petit a propos patriotique sur 
Talliance de la Russie et de L'AIIemagne, 1813." 



German Drama. in English on the Philadelphia Stage 79 

The plays of possible or partial German origin were: Ella 
Rosenberg, January 12; Foundling of the Forest, April 23; 
Cnonie King, or The Giant Mountains, "Operatic Allegorical 
Drama, for the first time in Philadelphia," June 10, 12, 14, 17, 
18, 19, 20, 21, and July 4; Siege of Belgrade, December 5, and 
January 21; Wandering Boys, March 5, July 15; JVilliani Tell, 
November 7, 10, January 8, and March 4. 

The plays of French origin to note are: Clari, Marriage of 
Figaro, Rencontre, Rock of Charbonniere, Thirty Years, or 
Life of a Gambler, domestic melodrama from the French of 
Victor Ducange and Dinaux, March 31, six performances in all. 
Wood had the leading role. The French company played in the 
original French form in October, 1828, "30 ans de la Vie d'lin 
Jouenr/' 

Other plays of interest to note were: Artaxerxcs, serious 
opera by Dr. Arne, December 28 ( four performances) ; Bride of 
Lammermoor, March 19 and 22; Catch Club, or Feast,, of 
Anacreon, April 11; Cherry Bounce, November 24 (seven per- 
formances) ; Death of Napoleon, July 14, "first time in Amer- 
ica." Evadne, or The Statue, tragedy, "first time in Philadel- 
phia," November 13, 1827 (six performances in all). Schiel 
adapted it to the modern stage, employing part of the fable of 
Shirley's old play. The Traitor; Fazio, or The Italian's Wife, 
November 6 (six performances) ; First Settlers in America, or 
Omaha the Red Indian, first time in America, November 2, 
from the Olympia, London (one hundred nights). Malvina, 
opera, "first in Philadelphia," April 17; Peter Wilkens, or The 
Flying Indian, dramatic romance, January i (nine perform- 
ances) ; Red Rover, February 21 (twelve performances). For the 
occasion of the first presentation of this play, Richard Penn 
Smith, Esq., wrote a prologue, which was spoken by the Messrs. 
Wemiyss and S. Chapman. We shall note the rapid dramatization 
of most of Cooper's novels, this one was dramatized by S. Chap- 
man ; The Serf, or The Russian Brothers, tragedy, April 8, and 
10; The Sergeant's Wife, drama, "first in America," November 
26 (five performances) ; The Ten Mowbrays, March 7 (three 
performances), all ten characters by Miss Fischer; 'Tzvas I the 



8() CJrnuaii Praiini in English on the Philadelphia Stayc 

Trulh a Lie, petite comedy, "first at Chestnut," January 16 (six 
performances) ; and last- The Usurper, tragedy, "first time on 
any stage," h\ Dr. iM'Henry, Decemljer 26, and January 4. 

Shakespeare was represented by As You Like It, February 
16, and June 11; Julius Caesar^, May 3; Macbeth, April 25; 
Merchant of Venice, March i ; Miwh Ado About Nothing. Feb- 
ruary 4; Othello, April 20, and May 5; Richard III, November 
5, April 22, and May 6 ; Romeo and Juliet. October 29, Decem- 
ber 15, and May 27, fourteen performances of eight different 
plays. 

Other Theatres, Gardens, Etc. 

No announcements of plays at any of the gardens ajjpear. 
at one of them we find the announcement: Grand Promenade and 
Panharmonicon and Papyrotomia. A "Sans Pareil Theatre" 
has announcements in the papers for a few days, July 10 to 12. 
1828, and there are indications that some plays were given 
previous to this date. The names given are to some extent the 
same as at the Walnut Street Theatre, and it may be a short 
summer season (^f some from that company. The plays for 
those few nights were: Damon and Pythias, July 10; George 
Barmvell, July 12; Irishman, in London, July 11 ; Monsieur Ton- 
son. July 12 ; and Roy Magregor, July 11. 1828. As we see, there 
were no German plays. 

The PValnut Street llieatre, August 29 to Noz'eniber j, i8Jj, 
and May i to May 26, 1828. 

This theatre opened August 29, 1827, as the "Philadel- 
phia Theatre," with Cowell as manager. The German plays 
were: La Pcrouse, October 25, and Pizarro, September 7, Ham- 
blin as Rolla, having previously played Macbeth, September 3, 
and Ilaudet, September 5. The plays of possible or partial 
German origin were: Blind Boy, September 13. and May 20; 
The Dumb Girl of Geneva, or The Mountain Robber, melo- 



Genua II Ih-ania in Ejujlish on the Philadelphia Stage 8i 

drama, October 20, May 15, and 23; The Flying Dutchman. 
September 4, 18, and 25; William Tell, September 7, 22, and 
October 2 (Hamblin as Tell). Plays of interest to note were: 
Hundred Pound Note, a farce, "first in Philadelphia," Septem- 
ber 8 (thirteen performances), it appeared at the Chestnut 
Street Theatre this same season, January 28, 1828 (seven per- 
formances). King Robert the Bruce, Caledonian melodrama, 
October 30, "first time in America." llie Pilot, "nautical drama, 
founded on Cooper's novel, arranged by a gentleman of Phila- 
delphia," October 17 (six performances), and White Lies, 
Major and the Minor, x^ugust 27 (seven performances). 

Shakespeare is represented by Catharine and Petriicchio, 
October 6; Comedy of Errors, May 26 (Hackett), he played 
at the Chestnut Street Theatre January 2 in Peter Wilkins, or in 
Sylvester Daggerwood, his first appearance and the fact that lie 
was an American is emphasized. Hamlet, September 5 (Ham- 
blin), September 19 (Booth), November 2 (Cooper?), May 6 
(Booth) ; King Lear, September 24 (Booth) ; Macbeth, Septem- 
ber 3, and October 4 (Hamblin), and October 31 ("Cooper's 
Benefit and Farewell") ; Merchant of Venice, September 28 
(Booth) ; Othello, September 14, and October 8 (Hamblin) ; 
October 24 (Cooper) ; Richard HI, September 6, and May 5 
(Booth), May 8 (Master Kneass), seventeen performances of 
eight different plays. 

Summary for the season 1827- 1828 for all the theatres: 
(icrman plays, seventeen performances, nine different [)lays. 
Plays of possible or partial German origin, twenty-five perform- 
ances, seven different plays. 

In B inn's Democratic Press appeared September 21, 1^2/, 
"Proposals by Gardner R. Lillibridge for publication by sub- 
scription in Philadelphia of a Theatrical Journal, The Stage 
Advocate and Green Room Intelligencer, with the motto, 
"Nothing Extenuate, nor set down ought in malice." It is an- 
nounced to appear October 1, 1827, published on Wednesday, 
weekly, two dollars. The announcement includes a plea for the 
"Drama as one of the most rational amusements, its present re- 
spectaljle standing, and influence in this as well as in other popu- 



82 Gc'niiau Draiua in English on the Philadelphia Stage 

lous cities in our Union." The contents are promised to be "Criti- 
cism on our own, as well as other theatrical performances in the 
United States. Progress of distinguished actors or stars. Re- 
view of new dramatic publications. Biographical sketches of 
distinguished actors, dramatic authors. Original and select 
theatrical poetry, tales, anecdotes. Portraits of distinguished 
actors." 

On February 23, 1828, appeared proposals by H. C. 
Mathews for publishing in the city of Pittsburgh a weekly (Ger- 
man) newspaper to be entitled Der Pittsburger Repuhlikaner. 
Casey, Lea & Casey announce the publishing of "Travels in the 
United States in 1825-1826, i vol. 8 mo, by the Duke of Saxe 
Weimar, also German stories, translated from Kinder and 
Hausmarchen." 

The American Quarterly Review, Philadelphia, continues 
in 1828 its reviews of German literature: A review of C. M. 
Wieland's Sammtliche Werke, Leipzig, 1827; and Gotthold 
Ephraim Lessing's Sammtliche Werke, Berlin; and later, a re- 
view of Geschichte der dcutschen Poesie und Beredsamkeit. Fr. 
Bouterwek, 3 Bde., 1819; Andenken an deutsche Historiker aus 
den letzten 50 Jahren. A. H. L. Heeren, 1823; and Franz 
Horn's Umrisse, etc., 2te Auflage, i82i.^*''^ The Museum of 
Foreign Literature and Science, Philadelphia, has besides trans- 
lations and criticisms of some of Goethe's poems, a review of 
Wieland's Sammtliche Werke, Leipzig, 1824-1827, and of C. M. 
Wieland's Leben, Neu bearbeitet von J. G. Gruber, Leipzig, 
J827308 

Thirty-fifth Season, Chestnut Street Theatre, November is, 
1828, to January 28, 1829, and April p, i82p, to May 2;, 
i82p, Preceded by the French Company, September 16, 
1828, to November 5, 1828. 

The French company had been w^ell received in 1827 as 
indicated by flattering references in the editorial column of the 



American Quarterly Reviezi.\ Philadelphia, 1828, III, p. 150 and IV, 15; 
' Cf. Goodnight's List 751-/85. 



German Drama in English on the Philadelphia Stage 83 

National Gazette, February 2, 1828, when the French company 
announced coming to Philadelphia again in the fall of 1828. The 
season extended with a slight interruption from September 16 to 
November 5, 1828. During this period they presented thirty 
different plays. The repertoire was more ambitious than on the 
occasion of their first visit, and included such pieces as Hamlet, 
September 29 ; La Sonambule, October 3 ; loconde, September 
17; Jeatt de Paris, October 28; Trent ans de la vie d'nn Joneur, 
November i ; Der Freischiltz they gave three times. 

The regular season of the Chestnut Street Theatre began 
November 13, 1828, under the management of Mr. Warren, but 
he withdrew as manager at the end of the year, and after Janu- 
ary I, 1829, the theatre passed under the management of Pratt 
and Wemyss. On December 29, 1828, the official announce- 
ment by William Warren appeared in the papers, by which he 
withdrew from "those relations with the public which have ex- 
isted for more than thirty-two years. "^°^ Between January 28, 
and April 9, the company was in Baltimore. 

The German plays for this Philadelphia season were: The 
Cossack and the Volunteer, December 12; Der Freischiltz, 
April 23, and May 12; Bottle Imp, January 27, 28, and April 
10, and 18; How to Die for Love, December 17; Pisarro, April 
25 ; The Stranger, December 26, ten performances of six differ- 
ent plays, four from Kotzebue. In Pizarro, April 25, J. Wallack, 
the last time before returning to England. The Bottle Imp, 
"novel drama," London, New York. This is unquestionably a 
play of German source, the cast on January 27, was: Albert (a 
German traveller), Heyl; Willibald (his servant and monitor), 
Jefferson; Nicola (a Spanish sorcerer), Southwell; Waldeck (a 
farmer), Hathwell ; Conrad (his son, an officer of Musqueteers), 
Mercer; Shadrack (a Jew peddler), Darley; Ismelli (a drunken 
Musqueteer), Wemyss; The Bottle Imp, Rowbotham; Marcelia 
(daughter of Waldeck), Mrs. Willis; Lucretia (in love with 
Albert), Mrs. Rowbotham; Philippa (Willibald's beautiful 
friend), Miss E. Jefferson. 

The plays of possible or partial German origin were: Adrian 

^"^ Cf. p. 10 for account of William Warren. 



S4 Gcnnan Drama in English on the PliiladcIpJiia Stage 

and Orilla, December 4; Charles XII, or The Siege of Stralsund, 
bv J- R- Plnmtre, Esq., Drury Lane, London, with great success, 
"first time in Philadelphia," May 6, 8, and 18. The partial cast 
shows the following characters: Major Vanberg, Adam Brock, 
Triptolemus Maddleworth; Ulrica, daughter of Vanberg; Eu- 
diga, daughter of Adam Brock. Exile, "historical drama," April 
20, Warren's Benefit, Warren as Count Uldrick. Foundling of 
the Forest, April 13; Gnome King, November 29, and December 
I ; The Haunted Tozver, opera by Cobb. This should have been 
included in this list last season, and in some of the earlier sea- 
sons. It is mentioned together with Cobb's Siege of Belgrade, 
and Doctor and Apothecary, as "adapted from the German," 
November 17, December 16, and May 9. In the season 1827- 
1828, it was given December 3, and January 18, and was a 
revival of the earlier seasons, 1794- 1795. 1795- 1796 and 1799- 
1800. All three were musical plays, the music by Dr. S. x\rnold. 
Wandering Boys, December 10, and May 27; The JJ'orknian's 
Hut, or The Burning Forest, "melodramatic romance," by J. 
Kenny, music by Arnold, also a revival of an earlier season, De- 
cember 26, 27, 28, 30, and March 14, 181 6- 18 17, also at the 
Walnut Street Theatre, May 24, 1824- 182 5, where it should 
have been included in this list of plays. A partial cast shows 
the following characters: Arnold, Kaunitz, Scampt. Moritz, 
Wol fender, Bruhl and Amelia. 

This season is noted for the number of revivals of earlier 
plays, for many musical plays, operas and ballets, and also for 
many premieres. Following the French company a number from 
I heir repertoire were given, such as Thirty Years, or Life of a 
Gambler, Les Noyades, or Love and Gratitude, founded on the 
well-known story during the Vendean War, on one of the tales 
in "Highways and Byways." Mile. Deloise, a Parisian opera 
dancer, is announced, so also the French "corps de ballet," Benoni, 
Feltman, Cochue, Mile. Rannot and Mile. lacenthe. Ballets and. 
pantomimes, such as Lise et Colin on la Fille mal Gardee, and 
Les Vendangeurs are frequent. Clari is also repeated. While 
French and Italians seem to have monopolized the lighter enter- 
tainments, we have as a contrast the announcement on November 



German Drama in English on the Philadelphia Stage 85 

21, "At the end of the play the Seiltanzer Herr Cline, who is 
engaged for three nights only." We note now the premieres, 
Battle of Waterloo, "melodramatic spectacle," January 12 (four 
performances) ; Crammond Brig, new drama, December 12 (four 
performances) ; The Disowned, or The Prodigals, by R. P. 
Smith, of Philadelphia, April 11 (four performances). It was 
published in 1830 "as performed at the Chestnut Street Theatre 
from the French drama Le Caissier, by M. Jouslin." The pref- 
ace states "many liberties have been taken with the original." 
Eighth of January, "new national drama to be played on the 
anniversary of the battle of New Orleans, by a gentleman of 
Philadelphia (R. P. Smith), prologue by James N. Barker." 
January 8, and January 10 was for the author's benefit; The 
Eleventh Hour, or Sixteen Years Ago, "domestic drama, first 
time in America," January 23; The Lear of Private Life, drama, 
December 8 ; Mary Stewart, or Castle of Hochleven, "by author 
of Crammond Brig," May 22. The French company during 
their next season, 1829, also gave Mary Steivart. Signor 
Angusane, Signor Rosich and Mr. Horn are mentioned in 
Italian opera, Triomfo della Musica, altered from II Fanatico per 
la Musica, May 5, 7, 9, and 11. We note besides The Beggars' 
Opera, April 21, and Zoramni and Zaida, or The Greek Heroine, 
ballet, April 14. 

Shakespeare was represented by Hamlet and Richard HI 
(parts) Act III, April 27 (J. Wallack's Benefit) ; Henry IV, 
December 9; Julius Caesar, April 15 (J. Wallack and Hamblin) ; 
Merry Wives of Windsor, December 30, Mr. Warren's Benefit, 
address by Mr. Warren ;^^" Othello, April 17; Richard HI, Acts 
II and III, January 20; ("Miss Lane, a prodigy, 9-12 years 
old"), and as indicated above Act III, April 27; Romeo and 
Jidiet, November 14 (Cooper and Mrs. Sloman), January 2, 
eight performances of seven different plays. On the occasion of 
another benefit for Warren, April 20, 1829, after the play Exile, 
there was a concert, including a quintette by Schendlocker with 
solo for the Post-Horn, composed by Mr. Widtl, executed by 
Messrs. Schendlocker, Kruger, Reinhardt, Widtl and Wepfer. 

^^°Cf. p. 10. 



86 German Drama in English on the Philadelphia Stage 

Other Theatres, Gardens, Etc. 

At Musical Fund Hall a grand concert was announced for 
January 31, 1829. The program shows a number of the mem- 
bers of the Chestnut Street Theatre Orchestra taking part: Over- 
ture de la Dame Blanche ; concerto for horn, Widtl ; polonaise for 
violin, Kruger; tvrolese song for three voices, Widtl, Wepfer and 
Kruger; concertino for the clarinette, Wepfer; II overture, 
Oheron; variations, horn, Widtl; variations, violin, Kruger; 
German song, fantastic clarinette, Wepfer; German song; the 
leader was Hupfeldt, whose name is familiar from former sea- 
sons. 

The Washington Circus, situated "on the Old York Road, 
between Tammau}^ and Green. Northern Liberties," has now to 
be considered. Circus performances and pantomimes had been 
announced in a general way, but June 10, 1829, the announce- 
ment tells us it was reconstructed and changed from circus to 
theatre and appears the following season under the name of 
Washington Theatre, so that for the last two seasons discussed 
in this work the repertoire of four regularly established theatres 
has to be considered. A large stage was erected, the ring changed 
to pit, seating 1200 persons. Fogg and Stickney are given as 
the managers.^^^ Some of the names are gathered from the 
partial casts, and in some cases actors from the other theatres 
appear: Isherwood, Martin G. Sites (first appearance on anv 
stage), Thompson. Wells. Haupt, Walstein, Murray, Herbert, 
Somerville, Talbot, Lyon, Wemyss, Durang, Jones, Newton, 
Heyl (see Chestnut), Mrs. Talbot. Mrs. Rogers, Miss Wells, 
Mrs. Betts, Miss Barry (from Walnut), Mrs. Walstein, Mrs. 
Broad, Mrs. Stickney. The doors were opened at 7 and curtain 
rose at 7.30. The prices were: Boxes, 50 cents, and pit, 25 
cents, showing it to be a popular house, although at this time the 
prices at the Chestnut Street Theatre were little higher and 
dropped to this price the following season. ^^- Announcements 



^" For a brief description of this place of amusement, cf. p. 17, and 
also American Sentinel, Philadelphia. June 10, 1829, as referred to in note 
27, p. 17- 

"" For account of arrangement of seats and prices during the various 
seasons cf. 28 and note 11 on same page. 



German Drama in English on the Philadelphia Stage 87 

of plays were found from June 10 to August 4, 1828, with some 
omissions. 

The German plays fcjr this season were: Abaellino, June 20, 
and 24 ; Hozv to Die for Love, August 3 ; and The Stranger, June 
26, four performances of three different plays, two from Kotze- 
bue and the usual one from Zschokke. 

Abaellino, the great bandit, "dramatic romance, in five 
acts," had on June 24 the secondary title, The Bandit's Bride, 
and on this occasion Mrs. Walstein (from Arch Street Thea- 
tre), appeared as Abaellino, and Mrs. Talbot as Rosamunda. The 
same night songs were announced by Holz, Heyl, Stickney, Kelly 
and Mrs. Stickney. The Stranger, June 26, was announced as 
the "celebrated play in five acts," Martin G. Sites (first appear- 
ance on any stage) as the Stranger; Isherwood as Baron Stein- 
furt; Hubert as Solomon; Somerville as Peter; Mrs. Talbot as 
Mrs. Haller, and Miss Wells as Charlotte. 

The plays of possible or partial German origin were: 
Floating Beacon^ or The Norivegian Wreckers, June 22, 23, 25, 
July 3. and August 4, spoken of as "melodrama" and "musical 
drama" with this partial cast on June 25, Fred with a song, 
Heyl ; Angerstorf , Walstein ; Mariette, Mrs. Talbot ; Miller and 
His Men, August 3 ; Tekeli, June 24, and July 7 ; and William 
Tell, July 21 (Mr. Lyon's Benefit), William Tell, Lyon; Gesler, 
Walstein ; Emma, Mrs. Betts. 

Of other plays we note Foundation of Liberty, July 4, 
"written by a gentleman of Philadelphia." Mr. Walstein's Benefit 
is announced for July 13, but no announcement of the plays for 
that night appear in the papers. Paid Jozies, or The Pilot of the 
German Ocean was given July 25, and 28. Shakespeare is repre- 
sented by Merchant of Venice, July 14 ("Mr. Cook, of Phila- 
delphia as Shylock"), by a scene from Richard III, July 10, and 
July 27 (Mrs. Maywood), it is impossible from the indefinite 
notice to say positively that Mrs. Maywood had the male role 
of Richard HI, but from the fact that Mrs. Walstein played 
the male role of Abaellino this same season, that Mrs. Battersbv 
had set the example in a previous season, and that a Mrs. Broad 
played the male role of Rolla in Pizarro in this theatre the follow- 



88 German Drama in EnglisJi on the Philadelphia Stage 

ing season, 1829- 1830, we may fairly assume that the "Mrs." is 
no slip in the announcement. 

The Wahint Street Theatre, January i to April 14, 1839, and 
May 26 to Jidy 2g, 182Q. 

William Blake was manager and proprietor ; the orchestra 
leader, G. W. Gronlund ; architect, John Haviland ; scenery, H. 
Reinagle, Wilkins and H. Isherwood; wardrobe, Scott; stage 
manager, W. H. Wallack. The prices were: Boxes, 75 cents; 
pit, 50 cents, and gallery, 25 cents. While the name of this thea- 
tre had varied during the previous seasons, being known as the 
"Olympic," or simply "Circus," in 1827 as "The Philadelphia 
Theatre," it was known from 1829 on simply as the "Walnut." 
It passed January i, 1829, from the management of William 
Blake into the hands of Messrs. S. Chapman and John Green. 

A prize of $100 had been offered "for a poetical address to 
be spoken at the opening of the theatre," but no reference was 
found to the author of the address or the person speaking it. 
A prize must also have been offered for the opening of the new 
theatre, the "Arch Street Theatre," opened for the first time Oc- 
tober I, 1828. However, the second best prize address is an- 
nounced as written by Dr. McHenry and spoken by Mr. Stickney 
on January 9. We shall find a number of the same actors at the 
"Walnut" and the Arch Street house, and it would seem that 
many went at the end of the unsuccessful season at the Arch 
Street Theatre, December 29, 1828, to the "Walnut," where the 
season began January i, 1829, and we even find in the brief 
summer season, May 26 to July 27, 1829, some of the same 
names as at the "Washington Theatre." 

The German plays at this theatre for this season were: 
Abaellino, April 9; The Death Fetch, or The Student of Got- 
tingen, July 27; Hozv to Die for Love, June 10, and 16; Of Age 
to Morrozv, January 2, 9, and April 10; Pizarro, March 2, April 
I, and June 13; The Stranger, March 12, eleven performances 
of six different plays, four from Kotzebue, the usual one from 
Zschokke, and one of doubtful source. 

Abaellino, April 9, has the secondary title. The Bandit of 
Venice, and is announced as "Dunlap's Grand Drama, romance 



German Drama in English on the Philadelphia Stage 89 

in five acts." Pisarro, March 2, announced as "Sheridan's Play 
in five acts," shows J. Wallack as Rolla, Wood as Pizarro, and 
Mrs. Blake as Cora, April i, Blake as Rolla, Wood as Pizarro, 
Mrs. W^ood as Elvira, and Mrs. Willis as Cora. In The 
Stranger, March 12, announced as "Kotzebue's Play," Wood 
played the Stranger. 

The plays of possible or partial German origin were: Blind 
Boy, June 15, and July 2, Mr. Rowbotham as Kalig and Mrs. 
Rowbotham as Edmund ; The Exile, June 6, and July 9 ; Found- 
ling of the Forest, February 14, and June 17; Hunter of the 
Alps, April 14; Free Knights, or The Edict of Charlemagne, 
melodrama in three acts, July i, "first time in Philadelphia" ; 
from the partial cast we note the following characters: Prince 
Paldine, Albert of Corbey, Baron Ravensburg, Ulrica (with 
songs), Countess Roland, and Agnes; The Jew and the Doctor, 
July 29; The King and the Deserter, or The Assassins of the 
Black Forest, "in New York to crowded houses, first time in 
Philadelphia, founded on Anecdotes of Frederick the Great," 
February 23, 24, 25, and March 4 ("in honor of the Inaugura- 
tion of General A. Jackson"), and March 26, the only characters 
given were: Frederick the Great, Adelbert and Rosalie; The 
Slave, June 4, and William Tell, or The Swiss Patriot, January 
16; "Michael," Blake; William Tell, E. Forrest; Albert, Mrs'. 
Hamblin and Emma, Mme. Placide, and March 18, "Michael by 
a young gentleman of this city." 

There were a number of French Ballets and Pantomimes, 
but outside of some plays already mentioned, such as Monsieur 
Tonson and The Forest of Bondy, nothing new to note. Other 
novelties and plays of interest were: Alfred the Great, or The 
Magic Banner, "melodramatic spectacle," June 22, 23, 24, and 
26; Cavaliers and Round Heads, or The Royal Oak, "first time 
in Philadelphia, June i, 2, and 3; The Glorious Eighth, or Hero 
of Nezv Orleans, "dramatic sketch," January 8;^^^ Greeks and 
Turks, or Tlie Struggle for Liberty, "melodrama, first time in 
Philadelphia," June 3, and 5; Rienzi, tragedy ("first time in 



^" Cf. Chestnut Street Theatre, same date of this season. 



90 German Drama in English on the Philadelphia Stage 

Philadelphia"), March 3, 5, and 7; The Shepherd of Dcverent 
Vale, melodrama ("first time"), March 9. On January 29, 
Hacket, who had been appearing as Solomon Swap, a Yankee 
Jobber in JoJm Bidl at Home, or Jonathan in England, Comedy 
of Errors, and Paul Pry, had his benefit in Bickerstaff's Hypo- 
crite, and appeared in sketches of American character, as the 
Hon. Hans Knickerbocker (the American Dutchman), and in 
the character of a Yankee in "Jonathan and Uncle Ben," and 
"Jonathan's Visit to the British Squadron." On March 28, ap- 
peared the announcement, "after the play {Henry IV, Wood), 
Mrs. Green will sing A favorite air, the words in the German 
Language," Herr Cline, as in the Chestnut Street Theatre was 
engaged at the theatre and is called "The rope dancer and the 
German Hercules, with gymnastic exercises, etc." On July 4, 
an announcement appears, "the piece (Hail Columbia) will con- 
clude with a representation of Vauxhall Garden on a gala night 
with fireworks." From casts at the end of the summer seasons 
we see that Durang and Eberle were members of the company. 
Mr. and Mme. Achille and Mr. and Mme. Vestris were mem- 
bers of the "Corps de Ballet." 

Shakespeare was represented better this season at the Wal- 
nut than at the Chestnut Street house, the plays were: As You 
Like It, April 10 (Wood) ; Catharine and Petrucchio, January 5 ; 
Comedy of Errors, January 23 (Barnes' Benefit and Hacket) ; 
Hamlet, January 14 (Ed. Forrest), March 25 (Hamblin) ; 
Henry IV, March 28 (Wood) ; King Lear, January 24 (Ed. 
Forrest and Mrs. Hamblin's Benefit) ; Macbeth, January 28 (Ed. 
Forrest), and April 2; Much Ado About Nothing, April 6, and 
18 (Wood); Othello, January 3; Richard HI, February 27; 
and Tzvelfth Night, February 10, fourteen performances of 
eleven different plays. 

The Arch Street Theatre, First Season, October i to December 
2p^ 1828, and April 15 to May 2'j, 182Q. 

Wood informs us that in anticipation of the demolishing of 
the Walnut Street Theatre, another theatre w^as planned and was 
later actuallv built on the north side of Arch Street between 



German Drama in English on the Philadelphia Stage 91 

Sixth and Seventh. It is still in use as a theatre, having seen 
many successful seasons and brilliant audiences and in later 
years passed through the experience of a German theatre, vaude- 
ville theatre and Yiddish theatre. The management was offered 
to W. Wood, who accepted, but relinquished it again, although 
the receipts were good, on account of "the disorderly and ill 
assorted company, whom he could not undertake to govern.""^' ^ 
Wood relinquished the management December 24, and for the 
four remaining nights of the year Roberts acted as manager. 
The theatre was closed, alterations and improvements were 
made, and from among the applicants Mr. A. J. Phillips was 
accepted as the lessee and manager. On April 13, 1829, he 
announced the formal opening of the theatre under his manage- 
ment, describing it as "the most complete in the Union." He 
announced a short season previous to the regular opening in 
September, and promised the "restoration of the drama to its 
original legitimacy," saying he "has seen with regret the abuses 
which from a want of resolution to suppress, have tended to 
destroy the respectability of the establishments and defeat the 
very primary objects of the drama. He, therefore, proposes to 
establish such regulations and prohibitions as from time to time 
may be found necessary to check the progress of growing evils, 
in which he anticipates the co-operation and approval of the 
public." The Sentinel commenting on April 15 on the address 
written by Mr. Chapman and spoken by J. B. Phillips, said: 
"Confident that everything calculated to elevate the character 
of the drama will be strictly attended to, and having in view the 
restoration of the legitimate drama, he will doubtless produce 
entertainments suited to the taste of every playgoer. Mr. Phil- 
lips is a native of this city, and has for some time past been 
studying the history of the drama and has been able to discover 
to which cause the failure in this city is to be attributed." Some 
of the precautions of order were: "No improper person will 
be admitted in the pit of this theatre," and "an efficient police." 
Some of the names during the season under Wood's manage- 



^"Cf. Wood, p. 347, and the account of the Arch Street Theatre in this 
v/ork, p. 14. 



92 German Drama in English on tJic P/iiladcll^hia Stage 

ment are familiar to us from the casts of the other theatres in 
this and previous seasons. They are: Wood, Blake, Duffy, 
Sefton, Ischesvvord. Murray, Roberts, H. W. Knight, Eglee, 
Jones, Thomson, Chapman, Nelson, Stone and Scott from the 
Chatham Theatre, Miss Kelly, Mrs. Wood, Mrs. Stone, Miss 
Rock ; while in the short season of Phillips' management these 
names appear, S. Chapman, Phillips, Wood, Page, Porter, 
Forbes, Walstein, Mercer, Dickson, Hunt, Miss Kelly (special 
engagement), Mrs. Greene, Mrs. Stickney, Miss Jane Mercer, 
and Mrs. Roberts. This list is not complete, but such as could be 
collected from the partial casts given. With the season 1829- 1830 
a more complete list is given, for by that time the compan}^ had 
been very much enlarged and indeed was more formidable than 
the companies at the other theatres. ^^-^ The short winter season 
under Wood's management was opened October i, 1828, "with a 
prize address written by a gentleman of this city, to be spoken by 
Mr. Wood, the new drop scene was painted by Mr. Wilkens, and 
new palace scene by Mr. Sherwood." As dancers were announced 
Misses Garson, Lee, and Blakely ; also a Mme. Feron had a short 
engagement. For the short spring season under Phillips' man- 
agement the orchestra consisted of "German Professors, under 
the direction of Mr. Hansen, leader." The concert on the last 
night of this season, 1829, by the orchestra, assisted by Mr. Hup- 
feldt, shows the following members of the orchestra: Homann, 
Krieger, Widtle, Wepper, Homann, Sr., Rudolphus, Tragetha, 
Hill, Schmelling, Cortez, Reinhard, Schmitz, and Krollman. 
Some of these had come from the other theatres, although the 
spelling varies slightly in a few cases. 

The German plays for these two short seasons, in 1828- 1829, 
were: Deaf and Dumb, October 6, 1828; Of Age to Morrow, 
October 2, and 15, 1828; April 29, and May 12, 1829; Picarro, 
November 28, December i, and 6, 1828; The Robbers, October 
23, 28, and November 20, 1828, eleven performances of four dif- 
ferent plays, three from Kotzebue and the usual one from Schil- 
ler. It is significant to note the bulk of these German perform- 



"^ For this complete list cf. p. 36 in the chapter on Nationality of Actor?, 
Performers, Members of Orchestra., etc. 



German Drama in English on the Philadelphia Stage 93 

ances, in fact all but two occur in the period under Wood's man- 
agement. The announcements are very meagre, and we learn lit- 
tle, if anything, about these plays this season, Pizarro, December 
I, Wallack played Rolla. The drama The Robbers was given 
three times, more than during any of the other seasons; Wood 
played "Charles de Moor" on each occasion. 

The plays of possible or partial German origin were: Adel- 
githa, October 14, and 21 ; Foundling of the Forest, October 16; 
Greeneyed Monster, new comedy, for the first time in Philadel- 
l)hia, May 5, and 7. The cast given was: Baron Speyenhausen, 
Phillips; Colonel Arnsdorf, Wood; Krout (the Baron's gar- 
dener), Mercer; Marcus (the Baron's Jager), Chapman; Lady 
Speyenhausen, Mrs. Wood ; Amelia, Green ; Louisa, Mrs. Blake ; 
Hunter of the Alps, December 18; The Secret, or Hole in the 
Wall, October 9, and 10; The Slave, May 16; Tekeli, May 9. 

The only other plays to note are Native Land, a new 
opera, November 10, and 12; it appeared a little later at the 
Chestnut Street Theatre this same season, December 17; Hypoli- 
tus, the Wild Boy, melodrama, December 16 (Miss Clara Fischer 
in the leading role) ; and The Inquisition, or The Jezv in Spain, 
melodrama, May 19, "first time in Philadelphia." 

Shakespeare was represented by As You Like It, October 
22; Hamlet, November 26; King Lear, November 6; Macbeth, 
December 5 (probably Wallack) ; Much Ado About Nothing, 
October 15, December 3 (Wood's Benefit), December 16; 
Othello, one scene, May 25 ; Richard HI, November 29 (probably 
Wallack), December 18; and Romeo and Juliet, November 17 
(Miss Rock?). 

Summary for the season 1828- 1829 for all the theatres: 
German plays, forty-one performances, eleven different plays. 
Plays of possible or partial German origin, fifty-four perform- 
ances, twenty-one different plays. 

Outside of what has already been given in connection with 
the plays and the changes of managership nothing was noted in 
the papers. Philadelphia magazines have no references to any 
play as a. whole. The Travels of Duke Bernhard of "Sax- 
Weimar" in North America, in 1825- 1826, continue to attract 



94 Gcniian Drama in English on the Philadelphia Stage 

attention, and The North American Review, Boston, has a 
lengthy review by George Bancroft." ^"^ Professor Mullenfield's 
"Introductory Lecture" at the London University, was given by 
the Philadelphia Gazette, May 20, 1829, copied from London 
papers. 

Thirty-sixth Season Chestnut Street Theatre, October 26, i82g, 
to March 20, iSjo, and April 8, to Jidy 21, 18^0, Preceded 
by the French Company, September /, to October 8, 182Q. 

The French company presented thirty different pieces, con- 
sisting mostly of operas and vaudevilles. The repertoire in- 
cluded as last season "Der Freyschutz," Septem.ber 26, and Oc- 
tober 3. Of others we note La dame dii Lac {Lady of the Lake), 
October 2, and Mary Stezvart, by Lebrun (1729- 1807), Octo- 
ber 3. 

The regular season of the Chestnut Street Theatre began 
October 26, 1829. 

The German plays for this season were: Deaf and Dumb, 
November 6; "Der Freyschtitz," December 2; Hoiv to Die for 
Love, November 12, and December 8; Lovers' Vows, January 
23; Pizarro, December 17, and March 16; Preciosa, October 31 ; 
The Robbers, January 22; The Stranger, November 13, Decem- 
ber 24, January 15, and April 12; thirteen performances of eight 
different plays. 

We find Mr. and Mrs. Wood playing again at the Chestnut 
Street Theatre. In Deaf and Dumb, November 6, Wood played 
the Abbe de I'Epee. In Lovers' Vows, January 23, the cast 
shows Baron Wildenheim, Fort; Count Cassel, Wemyss; Fred- 
erick, Forbes ; Anhalt, Wood ; Agatha Friburg, Mrs. Wood, and 
Amelia Wildenheim, Mrs. Roper. In Pizarro, December 17, and 
March 16, Wood had the role of Pizarro, on the last date to 
Forbes' Rolla. In The Robbers, January, the cast shows Pelby 
as "Charles de Moor," and Forbes as "Francis de Moor," and 
Mrs. Wood as Amelia. 

The plays of possible or partial German origin were: All in 
the Dark, or The Banks of the Elbe, May 15. and 17; it is callt-c; 



"'■ Cf. Goodnight's List 786-827. 



Gcnnan Drama in English on the Philadelphia Stage 95 

a "Petite Comedy," and a partial cast shows the following char- 
acters: Lieutenant Frederick Blumenthal, Rosa Blumenthal, 
Sophie Steinbach, and Made! ; TJie Flying Dutchman, or The 
Phantom Ship, May 15, with twenty performances in all; Hunter 
of the Alps, February 2 ; Mr. and Mrs. Wood's Benefit and an- 
nounced as "the last night of their engagement," April 22 and 
28 ; Jew and Doctor, February 27, and March 3 ; Presumption, or 
The Fate of Frankenstein, June 10, and 11 ; included in the night 
of June 10 was the Song of the Poachers, which we shall find in 
the repertoire of the Arch Street Theatre. The Secret, or The 
Hole in the Wall, April 28, 30, and May 25; Self -Sacrifice, or 
The Maid of the Cottage, May 20, and 21. From the partial cast 
w^e note the following characters: Count Valmore, Marcjuis 
Leone, Schwitzer, Schultz, Ida (the Maid of the Cottage), and 
Lisette. Wandering Boys, May 27; Wheel of Fortune, October 
29 ; The White Eagle, or Lionel, Prince of Saxony, drama, "first 
time in Philadelphia, success in London." Some of the characters 
are: Lionel, Von Beriot, Michael Miller, De Weltz, Simon Hem- 
mel, Countess Elvira Rotalda, and Christabella. William Tell, 
or The Hero of Sivitzerland, February i ; Pelby as Tell and 
Forbes as Gessler, Mrs. Greene as Emma, and Miss Turner as 
Albert. JVoodman's Hut, December 11, 18, and January 28 ; 
Vouthfid Queen, or Christina of Siveden, drama, "first time in 
Philadelphia," March 11, 12, and May 5. The following char- 
acters are indicated: Count d'Oxenstiern, Burry. Steinberg, and 
Christina. Youthful Days of Frederick the Great, May 10, 
and 14. 

This season like the last is noted for many new plays. 
Among them we note Antiquary, musical play, "first time in 
Philadelphia," December i (four performances); The Brigand, 
or The Banditti of Gviadagnola, melodramatic romance, "first 
lime in Philadelphia," May 22 (fifteen performances) ; Correnza, 
the Mountain Robber, melodrama, July 3 ; two new plays of R. 
P. Smith, author of Eighth of January, Deformed, or Woman's 
Trial, February 4 (four performances), and Disozuned, or The 
Prodigals, December 16 and 22. In connection with the 
Deformed, the announcement appears: "The manager, ever 



96 Gcnnan Drama in English on the Philadelphia Stage 

anxious to encourage native talent, begs leave to inform his 
fellov^'-citizens that greatest care has been bestowed on the 
present drama." A critic in the paper says, the Deformed is 
constructed on model of the old English drama and expresses the 
regret that "our countrymen venture so seldom on the stage." 
Another reference says: "Obligations to Decker from whom he 
has borrowed materials for one division of his double plot were 
to have been acknowledged in a prologue, which, however, was 
not prepared in time, so he will be called upon to defend himself 
against plagiarism from a New York writer. Decker's play, 
which modern manners do not permit me to name, was laid un- 
der contribution very freely, by Dunlap, of New York, in his 
Italian Father." Epicharis, historical tragedy, "first time in 
Philadelphia," April 17; Executioner of Amsterdam, June 8 and 
9 ; Fairy of the North Star, "Tale of Enchantment," July 3 ; the 
First of May, or A Royal Love Match, petite comedy, "first time 
in America," January 7 (five performances) ; Fifteen Years of 
a Drunkard's Life, first time in America, December 28, and Jan- 
uary I, no doubt suggested by Thirty Years of a Gambler's Life. 
House of Aspen (based on Scott), March 11 and 12;=^^*^'' John 
Oz'crx, or The Miser of Southzcark Ferry, musical drama, "first 
time in Philadelphia," April 21 (four performances); John of 
Paris, comic opera, "first time in Philadelphia," in English, for 
the French company had given Jean de Paris, October 5, 1827; 
November 3 (eight performances) ; Lear of Private Life was 
repeated this season July 8 and 10; Married Bachelor, October 
30; Poitsville, or Coals, no Diamonds, "humorous sketch on the 
coal mania," July i and 2; Richelieu, by J. H. Payne, "first time 
in America," November 16 and 18; Tom and Jerry, "extrava- 
ganza burletta," as altered and revived by Pierce Egan, March 2 
(eleven performances) ; Vidocq, drama of peculiar nature, 
founded on the memoirs of Vidocq, the secret agent of the 



^''" Scott wrote it in 1799 — the same time as he translated Go/r, it is 
apparently a German play made over. He thought of publishing it in 1806. 
hut it \v;is first pu!)lished in The Keepsake, of 1830 (Lockhart says. i82o\ 
Life of Scott (Philadelphia. 1837), vol. I, 169-190, 202— also Scott's Familiar 
Letters, I-104, wherein Joanna Baillie, about t8o8, criticizes the play in MS. 
(I am indebted to Dr. J. E. Haney for this note). 



German Drama in English on the Philadelphia Stage 97 

French police, February 17 (six performances). Various lighter 
entertainments occur between the plays, such as pantomimes, in- 
cluding a living skeleton and acts of ventriloquism, in which Mr. 
Holland is especially mentioned. Of French origin we note be- 
sides those already mentioned above the repetition of Clari, No- 
vember 28; and a new romantic spectacle, Rose d' Amour and 
Rudolf the Wolf (the success of Covent Garden), December 25 
(nine performances). 

Shakespeare was represented by Catharine and PetrnccJiio, 
February 20 (Booth and Pelby) ; Coriolamis, November 4 
(Cooper); Hamlet, January 16 (Booth), February 8 (Pelby); 
March 3, Act III, the night's entertainment consisted of selections 
of most favored plays, Brutus, Act V; Damon and Pythias, Act 
IV, and Hamlet, Act III (Pelby, Booth, and White), and all this 
followed by the farce Jew and Doctor; Henry IV, November 2 
(Cooper) ; Jidiits Caesar, February 23 and 27; Booth, Pelby and 
White were playing at this time, but which one had this role on 
these two dates is uncertain; King John, May i (Booth) ; King 
Lear, January i (Booth) ; Macbeth, January 29 (Pelby, or 
Booth?); Merry IVifes of Windsor, December 29 (Booth?); 
Merchant of Venice, January 19 (Booth) ; OtJiello. February 10 
Booth?); Merry Wives of Windsor, December 29 (Booth?); 
///, December 30, January 13, 18, May 3 and 6 (Booth on all 
five occasions) ; Romeo and Jidiet, December 2, May 8 (Booth) ; 
Tempest, November 17 and 19 (Mrs. Homan?), twenty-seven 
performances of fourteen different plays. 

It seems that by this time the lighter entertainments had 
gained a foothold in all the theatres. Ballets and dances by 
dancers of various nationalities there had been from the very 
beginning, and only incidental specialties, but gradually and espe- 
cially this season they seemed to have become a necessity in all 
the theatres. There were protests in the papers against the rope 
dancing at the Arch Street and Walnut Street Theatres, and ap- 
peals to support the Chestnut, ''where legitimate drama has its 
home." But even the Chestnut Street Theatre had to yield. It is 
true, in one case at least, the special performer or museum freak 
had a part in some play adapted to him. One announcement at 



y8 German Drama in Enylish un Ihc Fhiladdl^hia Stage 

the Chestnut Street Theatre will illustrate these extra entertain- 
ments, which may be regarded as the beginning of our so-called 
"Vaudeville." June 24, 1830: "The manager begs to inform the 
public that, determined to spare no expense in order to gratify 
his patrons, he has effected an engagement of a few nights, the 
wonder of the day, the celebrated Calvin Edson, the living skele- 
ton, who will make his first appearance this evening as Jeremiah 
Thin, in the comedy of Rochester, which character he has per- 
formed to crowded houses in New York, Boston, etc." 
In the same way animals played a part, the dog "Leo," the horse 
"Napoleon," the horse "Washington," and the elephant in Blue 
Beard, and we see "Siamese boys," Herr Cline, the rope dancer, 
and "German Hercules," the Italian Cubano, rope dancer, etc. 
In the course of the discussion of the other theatres these enter- 
tainments will be referred to again. Great actors like Wood and 
Booth had to share the applause with the "Locoinotive Steam 
Carriage" and "the largest elephant ever exhibited." 

Other Theatres, Gardens, Etc. 

No entertainments were noted at any "Garden." At the 
Philadelphia Museum, "Mons. and Mme Canderbeck" are an- 
nounced in a concert with a "German Song." At Masonic Hall 
we find a series of entertainments in April and May of 1830. 
The names given are Master Mercer, J. Mercer, Mrs. Mercer and 
Miss Mercer, Miss H. Mercer. Scenes from farces are an- 
nounced without any definite title and the notices are irregular. 
Rolla's Address as a recitation is among them. 

The Washington Theatre, Formerly Washington Circus, Octo- 
ber 5, iS^p, to January 2j, iS^o. 

Here also the notices in the papers are very irregular, al- 
though forty-eight different plays are noted, including a few- 
given after January 23, isolated dates as late as August 21, 1830. 
The plays in August are by a "company of amateurs." and be- 
tween August 10 and 21 they gave three German plays. The 



German Drama in English on the Philadelphia Stage 99 

last date noted by the regular company was July 10. The com- 
pany seemed to have failed, for September i, 1830, we read: "The 
Washington Theatre, Old York Road, has been taken by a gentle- 
man from New York. It is to be again converted into a circus 
and will be opened in about two weeks." 

The German plays for the season including the isolated 
dates, June 23, and July 10. and the short period of the "com- 
pany of amateurs" were Dcr Freischutz, December 3, 12 and 
14; La Peronse, October 28; Pimrro, December 12, 19, 25, and 
January 20; The Stranger, January 22, and August 10; ten per- 
formances of four German plays, though in the case of Dcr 
Freischutz only selected scenes were given. In Picarro, De- 
cember 12, Mrs. Broad played Rolla, and again December 19, 
while December 25, Mrs. Broad played Cora to Mr. Newton's 
Rolla. January 20, Mr. Haupt, as Rolla. For The Stranger, 
January 22, no cast was given; August 10, it was by the "com- 
pany of amateurs," a Mr. Bunn playing The Stranger. 

Plays of possible or partial German origin were: Blind Buy, 
August 17, by the "company of amateurs"; Fatal Snozv Storm, 
or Lowina of Tobolskozv, November 17; Floating Beacon, No- 
vember — ? and January 5 ; Miller and His Men, October 5 ; 
Tekeli, October — ?, and IVilliam Tell, August 21, by the "com- 
pany of amateurs." No other plays need be noted and only one 
play from Shakespeare occurs, namely, Richard III. July 10, with 
no cast. 



The Walnut Street Theatre, September /, i82g, to January 22, 
18^0, and February 20, to August 4, iS^o. 

The management had changed again from S. Chapman and 
John Greene to S. Chapman and Edmonds, in the form of "Dra- 
matic Republic," with the feature, "that all tradesmen's bills, 
small salaries and incidentals will be paid weekly, the balance of 
receipts will then be divided among the company."^^^ February 



""For a brief account of the Walnut Street Theatre cf. pp. 12-14, 
especially p. 14, for the changes during this season. 



lOO German Drama in English on the Philadelphia Stage 

19, 1830, the management passed to Messrs. S. and W. Chapman, 
and there must have been an intermission of about a month. 
After the sudden death of S. Chapman, May 16, 1830, W. Chap- 
man became sole manager and is again announced as such for 
the season 1 830-1 831. A bad financial condition is indicated not 
only for this theatre, but for all by a critic of the day, "as a man- 
ager Mr. Chapman has bestowed his time in catering for the pub- 
lic taste, with, I fear, but small benefit to his pocket, as these are 
not times wherein conductors of theatres have cause to boast of 
their success in trade," August 4, 1830. S. Chapman was also 
stage manager, the scenic department in charge of Isherwood, 
VVilkens, Anners and W. Warren; machinist, Lewis; balletmas- 
ter, Wells; and the chorus in charge of Hutchings, "Leader of the 
Band," Milan.^^*^ An engagement of Miss Clara Fischer is also 
announced. 

The German plays of this theatre for this season were: The 
Death Fetch, or The Student of Gottingen, September 11, 12, 19 
and 22 ; Of Age to Morrozv, July 30, and August 3 ; Picarro, No- 
vember 7, December 29, May 5, and July 17; The Robbers, June 
18; The Stranger, October 21, and February 2t,; Undine, April 
13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 21, 23, 24, 30, and May 4, twenty-four 
performances of six different plays, three from Kotzebue, one 
based on Fouque, the usual one from Schiller and one of doubt- 
ful source. In the Death Fetch, Clara Fischer played Louisa. 
The characters Louisa, Pothe and Matilda might point to the 
Rovers (cf. pp. 1 76-181). In Piaarro, November 7, Lyons 
played Rolla; December 29, Haupt played Rolla; May 5, Mr. S. 
Chapman as Rolla and Miss Chapman as Elvira, and July 17, was 
Mr. Porter's benefit with the announcement: "Mr. Reason, of the 
New Orleans Theatre, who has kindly volunteered his services, 
will make his first appearance here these two years in Kotzebue's 
celebrated play of Plzcaro" ; Rolla, Reason; Pizarro, Wood, and 
Elvira, Mrs. Wood. Tlic Robbers, June 18. was Mr. Wood's 
benefit, Charles de Moor, Wood ; Speigleberg, Seften ; 



"*For the complete list of all the members of the company at the be- 
ginning of this season 1820-1830 as published in the American Sentinel, Phil- 
adelphia, September 7, 1829, cf. pp. 36 and ;i7. 



German Drama in English on the Philadelphia Stage loi 

Switzer, Flynn, and Amelia, Mrs. Duff. In The Stranger, 
October 21, Mr. Clark, from the Park Street Theatre, had the 
leading role and February 23, S. Chapman and Mrs. Barnes. 
Undine is announced as a "grand magical spectacle," and no 
doubt the spectacular part made it popular and there may have 
been little consciousness of its German source. 

The plays of possible or partial German origin were : Adel- 
githa, June 9; Blind Boy, September 21, Miss Fischer as Ed- 
mond ; The Bohemian Mother, or The Judgment Seat, "first 
time in Philadelphia," June 14, 15, 17 and 21 ; the cast as given 
was, Count Manheim, Wood ; Count Friburg, Flyim ; Dessing, 
Chapman; Kleincop, Sefton; The Bohemian Mother, Mrs. Duff; 
Lisette, Miss Hathwell. Mrs. Duff had an engagement of a few 
nights and had played a part in Adelgitha, Jane Shore, and 
Foundling of the Forest; The Devil and Dr. Faustus,^^^'' Decem- 
ber 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19. 21, 22, 24, 25, 28, 31, January 2, 
March 29, April 9; The Comet, October 16; Ella Rosenberg, 
October 20, 29, and December 16; Exile, or The Russian Daugh- 
ter, September 10, and March i ; Foundling of the Forest, June 
12; Miller and His Men, November 3, 5, March i and 19; Ray- 
mond and Agnes, or Travellers Benighted, which appears under 
so many titles, Travellers Benighted, Benighted Travellers, Bleed- 
ing Nun, Forest of Rosemvald, May 24; The Secret, April 22, 
June 18, 30, and July 29; The Slave, September 8; Siege of Bel- 
grade, July 14; Wandering Boys, October 13, March 4, and July 
13; Woodman's Hut, May 25. 

The lighter entertainments have already been spoken of in 
connection with this season at the Chestnut Street Theatre, but 
they were still more at home at this theatre. We hear of 
"Double Siamese Boys," of "Herr Cline the German Hercules," 
also wire walker, "on wheelbarrow from stage to gallery" ; 
Italian rope dances with Signor Cubano, in a scene of Indian 
Hunter, the horse "George Washington," and April 28, the horse 
"Napoleon," will perform the part of a domestic. May 15, "in 
the last scene (National Drama, Railroad) will be introduced 

^'"' For an account of this play see the Arch Street Theatre for this 
season. 



I02 German Drama in English on the Philadelphia Stage 

the Locomotive Steam Carriage." But one announcement must 
be given in full to illustrate how excellent actors had to compete 
with animals as "Stars." June i6, "Mr. W. Chapman, ever anx- 
ious to please and gratify his friends, begs leave to announce 
that he has engaged at a very great expense the Largest Elephant 
ever exhibited in this country with its young, introduced in Blue 
Beard, bearing six females on its back. The manager feels con- 
fident in stating that this is the most novel exhibition of the kind 
ever offered to the public; Mrs. Duff, Mrs. Wood, Mrs. Green- 
Avood, Mr. Wood, Mr. Duff will also appear on the same eve- 
ning." Even Booth had to share the honors or was glad of the 
additional drawing card on his benefit night, June 2, in Tlie Bride 
of Abydos. In a farce. Dr. Foster in Philadelphia, no doubt a 
burlesque on Dr. Faiistus, the character Old Nick was taken by 
"Mr. Hart the Fireater." Fireworks displays occur and many 
ballets, dances, and pantomimes. From the French there were 
several new plays. La Muette de Portici, "music by d'Auber," 
November 14, 1829; Peter Bell, the Wagoner, melodrama, No- 
vember 30 (three performances), and Robert, the Devil, July 26 
and 27. Other plays to note are The Cataract of the Ganges, May 
21 (seven performances) ; Gasparoni, or The Roman Bandit, 
melodrama, April 19 (five performances), first time on any 
stage; Gilder oy, the Bonnie Boy, Scotch melodrama, November 
II, first time in Philadelphia (five performances); House of 
Aspen, March 8 (four performances) ; in the Arch Street The- 
atre it was presented the same night, and at the Chestnut Street 
Theatre, March 11 f'^^^ Jiistina, or The Fairy's Protection, opera, 
first time in America, May 18, 19 and 20; Little Hunchback, 
"new piece altered from O'Keefe, taken from the Arabian Nights 
entertainment," March 10 (twelve performances) ; Love and 
Poetry, or A Modern Genius Born, in five acts, by Dr. James Mc- 
Henry, December 5, 8 and 23 ; Masaniello, or The Fisherman of 
Naples, historical drama, first time in Philadelphia, founded on 
the revolution in Naples, 1666, now performing at Amsterdam, 
Moscow, London, Paris and New York, five hundred nights in 

""" Cf. note 3i6.» 



German Drama in English on the Philadelphia Stage 103 

Paris, two hundred nights in London, November 14, 16, 17, and 
February 2y; Pocahontas, the new drama, January 15 (five per- 
formances) . There were several plays with this title, one by John 
Brougham, Esq., and another by S. H. M. Byers, but this was by 
Charles Burke, author of Railroad and Pa:cnee Chief. It had 
the secondary title, The Settlers of Virginia, and is called a 
national drama. The title page states "as performed at the Wal- 
nut Street Theatre twelve nights with great success.""^*^ The 
announcements in the papers were very irregular between Jan- 
uary 19, and February 20, 1830, and Pocahontas must have been 
given on seven nights between these dates. I have noted only two 
plays for the twenty-seven nights between January 19, and Feb- 
ruary 20. The announcement, however, on February 19, of the 
opening under the management of S. and W. Chapman indicates 
that the theatre was closed for part of this period. Other plays 
of interest were: Presumptive Evidence, melodrama, for the 
first time in America, September 25, 1829 (three performances) ; 
it appeared also at the Chestnut Street Theatre, July 19, 1830; 
Rip Van Winkle, or The Demons of the Catskill Mountains, a 
national drama in two acts, by John Kerr, author of Wandering 
Boys, Anaconda, Fish Out of Water, Gasparoni the Bandit, 
Three Vampires, Dinner of Madelon; printed from the actors' 
copy with the whole of the stage business, as now performed in 
the London and American Theatre, Philadelphia,^^*^ for the first 
time in Philadelphia, October 24, 1829 (twelve performances 
during the season). On January 7, W. Chapman appears in the 
title role;'^-^ The Sentinel, December 22 (three performances) ; 
Shakespeare's Early Days, Covent Garden, "new drama of pecu- 
liar style, first time in Philadelphia," April 5, 6 and 7, 1830; Son 
and Father, or The Dutch Redemptioner , melodrama, first time 



■""See copy in the Jackson Collection, Library of the University of Penn- 
sylvania. 

'■^The copy in the Jackson Collection is marked, Durang's copy. 

■'■' For tiie^ source of Rip Van Winkle cf. Literary Gazette, Philadelphia, 
1821, I, 636, German Popular and Traditionary Literature, with a translation 
of a story; Peter Klaus, The Goat-herd, the source of Irving's Rip Van 
Winkle. From the (London) Nczv Monthly Magazine, also Portfolio, Phil- 
adelphia, 1822, N. S. XXVIII, 144. Peter Klaus, The Legend of the Goatherd. 
Rip Van Winkle. 



104 German Drama in English on ilic Philadelphia Stage 

in Philadelphia, April 26 (three performances) ; IVill Blose, or 
The Banditti of the Blind Mine, melodrama, October 7 (four 
performances), and U'illiani Penn, or The Elm Tree, historical 
melodrama, December 25 (six performances). Shakespeare was 
represented by As You Like It, July 16; Hamlet, September 29; 
King John, March 22; King Lear, May 22, and June 23, Mrs. 
Duff's benefit and Wood in title role ; Macbeth, March 1 3 ; Mer- 
chant of Venice, December 18, February 25, June 14; Richard 
III, September 23 (Booth), January 9, March 11, "George Fred- 
erick Cooke, the only surviving relative of the celebrated trage- 
dian," March 30, June 3 (Mr. St. John, first time at the Walnut), 
June 26 (Booth), July 22 (Frederick Brown) ; Romeo and 
Jitliet, September 17; seventeen performances of eight different 
plays. 

Arch Street Theatre, August ji, 182Q, to March 26, 18^0, and 
April II, 1 8 so, to April 17, 18 ^o. 

This theatre is referred to in the papers this season as the 
"Philadelphia Theatre." It opened under the management of A. 
J. Phillips. The winter season came to an end March 26, 1830, 
when the following announcement appeared : "The full comple- 
ment of thirty weeks' performance being completed, the season 
has now closed. During a recess of about a fortnight arrange- 
ments will be made to reopen with renewed splendor for a short 
summer season on Monday the 12th day of April next. A. J. 
Phillips, lessee and manager." In the interval the theatre was 
open one night, April i, for the benefit of Mr. Clark, "supported 
by voluntary efforts," and for which "Mr. Clark respectfully 
solicited the patronage of his Masonic Brethren." The orchestra, 
led by Mr. Hansen, is spoken of as "composed of the first talent 
now in the country." The musical department was under the 
direction of Walton, and the scenic department under H. War- 
ren and Carr. Coyle was announced as coming "from London to 
produce splendid spectacles."^-^ 



""For a full list of actors, etc., for this season cf. p. 39. 



Gcnuaii Drama in English on the Philadelphia Stage 105 

The German plays of this theatre for this season were : The 
Death Fetch, or The Student of Gottingen, September 11, 12, 18, 
and January 28; How to Die for Love, April 16; Lovers' Vows, 
October 13; 0/ Age to Morroiv, November 11, 26, 30, December 
15. 23; Pizarro, September 14, November 19, 28, February 5, 
March 20; The Poachers, or Guilty and Not Guilty, December 
14, 19, 30, January 15, February 15; The Stranger, December 4, 
twenty-two performances of seven different plays, six from 
Kotzebue, and one of doubtful source. 

The Death Fetch, or The Student of Gottingen, as we have 
seen, was given four times at the Walnut Street Theatre this same 
season, and was given here for the first time in Philadelphia, July 
29, 1829. On two of the dates of this season, September 11 and 
12, the play was given both at the Arch Street Theatre and the 
Walnut, September 18, at the Arch, and September 19, at the 
Walnut. The cast shows the following characters: Ebert, Lu- 
dolph, Hans, Louisa, Pothe, Matilda; Louisa, Pothe, by Miss 
Rock, and Ebert, by Archer, as "originally performed by him 
in London more than fifty nights." The papers speak of 
crowded houses at the Arch with Edwin Forrest. He appeared 
as Frederic in Of Age to Morroiv, November 20, and as Rolla in 
Pizarro, September 14, and November 19. On November 28, 
Copeland (Philadelphia), "first time on any stage," played 
Rolla, and March 20, we find Clarke in this role. In Lovers' 
Vows, October 18, Murdock played Frederic. The one new Ger- 
man play for this season was The Poachers;'-''' or Guilty 'and Not 
Guilty. It was given for the first time in Philadelphia, Decem- 
ber 14, and saw five performances in all during the season. This 
is the last Kotzebue play prepared for the English stage and 
appeared for the first time in Covent Garden, February 6, 1824, 
with thirteen performances during the season. The papers spoke 
of it as a complete success. It was given frequently during the 
following years and was still in the repertoire in 1830. Another 



^^^ Rchhock, cder die scliuldloscn Schuldbezvussfcn, Liisls/^icl in drci Al^'rn, 
Leipzig, 1815. This should not 1)c con-founded witli Guilty or Not Guilty, 
by l^ilulin, MnvT^arke'L, London, 1804, founded on The Reprobate, a Cennaii 
novel by La Fontaine. Biogr. Dram. II, p. 274, N. 162. 



io6 Genua n Drama in English on the Philadelphia Stage 

version of it with the title The Roebuck had appeared earher at 
the Surrey Theatre, and continued to be played alongside of The 
Poachers.^-'^ 

The plays of possible or partial German origin were: 
Foundling of the Forest, March 23; Faustus, December 16, for 
the first time at the Arch Street Theatre, and followed by 
twenty-four performances between this date and February 3, 
1830. It had appeared at the Walnut Street Theatre first on 
December 12, of this same season with a run of sixteen per- 
formances, some alternating, and at least nine performances on 
the same nights as given at the Arch Street Theatre, so that at 
the two theatres together there were forty-one performances of 
this drama during the season. At the Walnut it was announced 
as the Devil and Dr. Faustus, and the partial cast shows it to 
have been the same version as given at the Arch Street Theatre, 
though not staged so elaborately. At the latter house it was an- 
nounced simply as Faustus, romantic drama, original music, only 
copy in this country. Drury Lane, London, and Park, New York. 

From the beginning of the season great preparations had 

been made, and "great pains bestowed to render it worthy the 

attention of artists, critics and connoisseurs in painting, poetry 

and music." Outline of scenes and cast is given as follows: 

Faustus, Archer; Mephistopheles, Jervis. 

Scene i. Romantic and authentic view of the Drachenfels at 
sunset; chorus of fishermen, "Home! there 's a storm in the 
whistling blast" ; chorus of hunters, "The Wild Bird is rocking 
in his nest" ; chorus of peasants, "Now for the Fireside's cheer- 
ful blaze"; grand chorus, "Home! Home!" chorus of fiends 
beneath the earth, "He comes ! he comes !" Sudden appearance 
of the Demon. Scene sinks and characters transported to Carni- 
val and Rialto of Venice. Count di Cassanova, father of 
Rosalia; Fischer, Count Orsino, in love with Adine; Hazard, 
Rosalia; Miss Coleman. Adine; Miss A. Fischer. Scene sinks 
and Faust and Adine among ruins of an ancient monastery by 
moonlight. 



"^ For minor differences between the original and the English version ct. 
Sellier, pp. 83 and 84. 



Gentian Drama in English on flic Philadelphia Stage 107 

Scene 4. Exterior of inn, distant view of town and cathe- 
dral. Song: "The Field of Glory." Montolio, Walton, Wagner 
(pupil of Faiistus), Andrews; Antonio, Murray, "I'm a young 
German Scholar." 

Scene 5. Interior of the Inn Grognese, innkeeper, Read ; 
Lucetta, daughter, Mrs. Franklin; Bravillo, Durang (first time 
at the Arch). 

Scene 6. Street in Venice. Exterior of Count do Cassa- 
nova's mansion. Act concludes with death of Enrico. 

Scene 7. Palace of Faustus, distant view of massive build- 
ing, lake and fountain. 

Scene 8. Grand garden of Faustus. 

Scene 9. Massive Gothic interior, Faustus raises visions. 

Scene 10. Faustus' Palace, spirits do his bidding. Interior 
of cemetery, changes to interior of monastery. Bay of Naples. 

Scene 14. Interior of dungeon, changes to antichamber of 
King of Naples. Faustus becomes King of Naples. 

Scene 15. Street in Naples. 

Scene 16. Audience chamber of the King. 

Last scene. Magnificent view of pandemonium. Faustus 
meets his merited doom. 

On February 3, the last performance of the season, three dif- 
ferent actors had the role of Mephistopheles, in Act I, Jervis ; in 
Act II, Coyle, and in Act III, Clarke. 

Other plays were: The Secret, or The Hole in the Wall. 
October 8 ; The Slave, or Love and Gnatitude, opera, October 5 
and 29. The partial cast given was: Captain Clifton, Pearman ; 
Governor of Surinam, Phillips; Captain Malcolm, Walton; Col. 
Lindenburg, Jervis; Sam Sharpset, Andrews; Gambler, Archer; 
Stella Clifton, Mrs. Pearman; Mrs. Von Tromp, Miss May- 
wood; Tekcli, April 15, and William Tell, the Siciss Patriot, No- 
vember II, Edwin Forest as William Tell. 

On Se])tember 22, "the celebrated German minstrel, Carl 

von Blessin," is announced with two songs; on November 14, 

Mr. Andrew in the song of The Poachers. On September 23. 

night of Othello, H. Dielman, a member of the orchestra, is an- 

'=='Cf. note 316." 



io8 Gcnmni Drama in EtujlisJi on llic PliUadclphia Stage 

ncninced as the composer of the overture. On Fehruary 20, "be- 
tween the play and farce Mrs. Sharpe will appear as a Bavarian 
broom girl and sing 'Buy a Broom.' " On March 21, the play 
at the Walnut Street Theatre was suspended on account of the 
''First Benefit for the General Theatrical Fund," held at the Arch 
Street house. The play vjas Macbeth (Edwin Forrest), followed 
by the farce TJic Lancers. 

Of plays of French origin we note Clari, or Tlie Maid of 
Milan, February 26; The Diamond Arrow, an amusing drama, 
for the first time in America, February 10; Fontlcroi, or The 
Banker of Ronen, pathetic drama, October 21 ; loconde, or The 
Festival of the Rose, musical drama, as performed by the French 
company, January 16. Other plays of interest to note were: All 
at Coventry, February 3 (seven performances) ; Earthquake, or 
The Spectre of the Nile, melodramatic Egyptian spectacle, 
Adelphi, London, for nearly whole season, February 10 (ten per- 
formances). The papers of the day spoke of "scenery and ma- 
chinery as even surpassing that of Faiistiis, which justly obtained 
so much approbation for its talented artist" (Coyle) ; Gretna 
Green, first time in America, September 26 (three perform- 
ances) ; TJie House of Aspen, a new tragedy (four perform- 
ances). It was given the same night at the Walnut Street The- 
atre and was followed by three more performances there and at 
the Chestnut Street Theatre it was given March 1 1 ; Knights of 
the Cross, or The Hermit's Prophecy, romantic drama, "taken 
from Sir Walter Scott's tale of The Talisman, February 10, in 
w^hich the celebrated sagacious 'Dog Leo' will appear for this 
night only"; Married Bachelor, November 3, 12, and March 13; 
Metamora, or The Last of the Wampanoags, new American prize 
tragedy, A. Stone, January 2, seven performances in all ; Midas, 
by Kane O'Hara, first time in thirty years ;^^^ Presumptive Evi- 
dence, melodrama, announced "first time in America," Septem- 
ber 28 and 30. At the Walnut, however, it had appeared Sep- 
tember 25, 1829, and followed at the Chestnut. July 19, 1830; 
Rochester, or King Charles' Merry Days, by Mrs. Cowell. first 

'=*€{. p. 43. 



German Drama in English on the Philadelphia Stage 109 

time in Philadelphia, January i, eleven performances; The 
Times, or Life in Neiv York, comedy "founded on our own man- 
ners and peculiarities written expressly for Mr. Hackett (re- 
cently produced at New York with most distinguished success 
and repeated night after night to fashionable overflowing 
houses)," first time in Philadelphia, February 25. 

Shakespeare was represented by Catharine and PctruccJiio, 
September 22; Comedy of Errors, October 17; Hamlet, Septem- 
ber 21 (Edwin Forrest) ; Henry IV, October 19, and December 
3; King Lear, November 6 (Edwin Forrest) ; Macbeth, Novem- 
ber 4 (Edwin Forrest), December 5, March 4 (Booth), and 
March 26 (Edwin Forrest) ; Merchant of Venice, October 12; 
Merry Wives of Windsor, December 12; Much Ado About 
Nothing, November 12, and February 18 (Mrs. Sharpe) ; 
Othello, September 23, and October 3 (Edwin Forrest), and 
April I, Mr. Clarke's benefit; Richard HI, October 24, February 
27, and March 5 (Booth) ; Romeo and Jidiet, September 2, and 
February 9 (Mrs. Barnes). 

Summary for the season 1829- 1830, for all the theatres. 
German plays, seventy-one performances, thirteen different 
plays. Plays of possible or partial German origin, eighty-nine 
performances, twenty-nine different plays. 

Philadelphia magazines contain no references to any plays. 
The Daily Chronicle has January 27, 1830, a long poem, entitled 
"Loreley," a Rhine legend, of which I give the opening lines : 

From you rock's topmost height. 
Where sleeps the fair moonshine. 
Looks down a lady bright. 
On the dark flowing Rhine. 

This brings us to the end of the last season to be considered 
in this work. It is of course not assumed that the German plays 
suddenly came to an end with this season, the most po]3ular ones 
continue for many years, some even to i860 or later, especially 
The Stranger. If anything more were needed to justify the 
bringing this study to an end with this season 1829- 1830, I refer 

"' Cf. Wood, p. 353- 



I lo Gennan Drama in English on the Philadelphia Stage 

to a passage from Wood, dealing with this period: "Any history 
of the theatre, that is to say, any history of a continuous and 
regular management now comes to an end. The drama was at 
sixes and sevens. The vitality of the theatre neither was nor 
can be destroyed, but its action was irregular, spasmodic, and 
disordered. From this time forward, therefore, my sketches are 
more desultory, and shift from house to house, being confined 
very much to Philadelphia." 

(To he Continued.) 

Charles F. Brede. 
Philadelphia. 



SOME EARLY POEMS REFERRING TO 

LANCASTER, PA. 

Edward Z. Davis, Philadelphia. 

Lancaster County owes its name to John Wright, a native 
of Lancashire, in England. It was estabhshed May lo, 1729, 
by the Assembly and Council, when the western part of Chester 
County was made into a new political unit. It comprised "all 
the Province lying northward of Octorari creek and westward 
of a line of marked trees, running from the north branch of 
the said Octorari creek, northeasterly to the river Schuylkill." 
It was later reduced to its present size by the formation of the 
separate counties of York, Cumberland, Berks, Northumberland, 
Dauphin and Lebanon.^ 

Lancaster was laid out by Governor Hamilton as a town in 
1730. Four years later the seat of justice was removed from 
Postlewaite's to Lancaster, which was incorporated as a borough 
in 1742. As early as 1736 a German Reformed Church was 
built there. 

When General Howe, during the Revolutionary War, ^r<ts 
marching north from Chesapeake Bay, the Continental Congress 
changed the seat of government from Philadelphia to Lancaster 
in early September, 1777; but on the nth of the same month, 
the day on which the Battle of Brandy wine was fought, Con- 
gress removed to York, where it remained until June 2y, 1778. 
Large barracks were erected in Lancaster borough to secure the 
Hessian prisoners taken at Trenton; other prisoners were also 
confined there, at one time numbering over 1200. Lancaster 
and Ephrata took charge of many of our own wounded. 

From 1 710 to the organization of the county, there was a 
large influx of Germans from the Palatinate and of Scotch-Irish 
Presbyterians. The former settled at Tulpehocken and Pequea. 
Later, the Pennsylvania Germans occupied in general the northern 
half of the county, but have gradually acquired more and more 
of the rich farm land in the southern part as well. So many 



* Cf. History of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. By William H. 
Egle. Philadelphia, 1883 ; p. 814. 

(Ill) 



112 Some Early Poems Referring to Lancaster, Pa. 

now live in the city of Lancaster that it has become one of the 
prominent Pennsylvania German centres of the State. 

The following five poems and extract were found during 
an investigation of the early American magazines for transla- 
tions of German literature, especially the poetry.- They either 
refer to Lancaster or are written by one of its citizens, as is 
the case of the last. 

"The Complaint" is an imitation of the pastoral poetry of 
Salomon Gessner, whose Idyls were very popular in Europe in 
the eighteenth century. The early American magazines, in large- 
part imitations of their English prototypes, devoted consider- 
able attention to Gessner. Before 1811 no less than nineteen 
translations, some in prose, appeared in the American periodicals. 
After that date interest in Gessner declined. Delia and Damon 
are names frequently used in this pastoral poetry. 

In the poem "Written on the Banks of Conestoga" we get 
a touch of local geography. "The Lasses of Lancaster town" 
has a clever thought expressed in pleasing rhythm. Kingston 
referred to in the first stanza is perhaps the district of Philadel- 
phia now known as Kensington. 

The "Extract" gives the impression of Lancaster County, 
which a traveler received before the days of the first steam rail- 
road in this district — that from Philadelphia to Columbia, built 
in 1832-1834. "The Lancaster Fair" of course does not mean 
the annual exhibition which now takes place. In the eighteenth 
and early nineteenth centuries the word "fair" was frequently 
used for "young lady." 

"To a Portrait of a Beautiful Young Girl" is the only one 
of these selections which has the author's name attached. While 
no particular literary merit is to be attributed to these poems, 
they are nevertheless interesting as expressing sentiments about 
Lancaster a hundred years ago. 

For the Universal Asylum. 



" Cf. Translations of German Poetry in American Magazines, 1741-1810 
By Edward Ziegler Davis. Philadelphia, Americana Germanica Press, 1905. 



Some Early Poems Referring to Lancaster, Pa. 1 J 3 

THE COMPLAINT; 
Or, the Lancaster Maiden in Philadelphia. 

Delia, we lov'd so true and well, 

Our sighs were so sincere ; 
That virtue might our passion tell, 

And angels stoop to hear. 

Each morn I met thee in the grove ; 

Each noon I told my tale ; 
The warbling choir rehears'd my love, 

Responsive in the vale. 

Thee I selected from the throng 

Of maidens, mild or vain; 
Attentive Echo heard my song. 

And spread it o'er each plain. 

Perfection in thy form I saw ; 

No blemish dwelt with thee ; 
Thy pleasure was to me a law ; 

And thou wert all to me. 

Oft as thy milk-white hand I press'd, 

Or gently touch'd thy cheek, 
I found such tumults in my breast. 

As song can never speak. 

But when I dar'd to clasp thy waist. 

And seize the glowing kiss, 
Mortals did never rapture taste, 

Superior to that bliss. 

Yet, Delia, why your love forsake. 

And leave him thus to mourn? 
My tender heart will surely break, 

Unless you soon return. 

The splendid city why admire, 

And quit our peaceful plains? 
There beaus are found in rich attire, 

But can they charm like swains? 



114 Some Early Poems Referring to Lancaster, Pa. 

Yet Lancaster some charms can boast ; 

At least I knew the time 
When Delia was confest its toast, 

In beauty's glowing prime. 

But Philadelphia all your charms 

Will quickly bid decay; 
There you experience various harms, 

And night is turn'd to day. 

There day again to night is turn'd; 

Such revelry prevails; 
This folly is by Reason mourn'd; 

But Fashion holds the scales. 

Return, dear maid, e're youth is spent. 
Whilst yet your mind is free ; 

At Lancaster expect content, 
With honor, love, and me.^ 



-Damon. 



Lancaster, 1790. 



WRITTEN ON THE BANKS OF THE CONESTOGA. 

O'er the green-spreading banks of this slow-winding stream. 
In life's playful morn, oft, I wander'd with glee; 

When nature yet smil'd to my soul through each scene, 
And the path of life's way seem'd enchanting to me. 

On yon moss-cover'd rock, where the stream softly laves 
At its marginal base, winding slow through the vale. 

Oft musing I sat, as I gaz'd in the waves, 

And silently thought, — or breath'd words to the gale. 

There where the wild rose, in the breeze, waves its head 

And spreads sweetest fragrance around through these scenes. 
Serene, oft I lay, on the moss verdant bed. 

And followed the phantoms of youth's fairy dreams. 
And there is the rock, over-bending the flood 

That weltering heaves its small billows along, 
Where often, as angling, I patiently stood. 

And watched the gay sports of the small finny throng. 



' Universal Asylum and Columbian Magacinc. Vol. V, p. 268. October, 
1790. Philadelphia. 



Some Early Poems Referring to Lancaster, Pa. 115 

'Twas here, O! loved spot, that my bosom first knew 

The rapture of feeling, unmix'd with alloy ; 
'Twas here, where my muse, first her gay fancies drew, 

And ope'd on my soul a new heaven of joy.^ 

THE LASSES OF LANCASTER TOWN. 
Let city bucks boast of the charms of their fair, 

Who Parrot-like prattle the streets up and down; 
From Kingston to Southwark they've none to compare. 

To the sweet lovely lasses of Lancaster town. 

Let country-lads vaunt of their rosy-cheek'd belles, 
Too modest to laugh — too obliging to frown ; 

But show me the maid in the country that dwells, 
Can vie with the lasses of Lancaster town. 

In city, or village, or country around, 

Go ransack them all, and Lll bet you a crown, 
• Whatever your fancy, no girls will be found. 
To equal the lasses of Lancaster town. 

I've travers'd the states from the east to the west, 
From the lakes to the sea-board and up hill and down ; 

But of all pretty damsels, the one I love best 
Is a sweet little lassee of Lancaster town.^ 

AN EXTRACT. 

Notes from a Short Excursion in Pennsylvania in 1818 
(to a Farm at Conewago). 
... We passed a smiling and active village, called Dow- 
ingstown, and Brandywine creek, and reached the flourishing 
and populous town of Lancaster to dinner. The country around 
Lancaster is rich and productive; the farm-houses are spacious 
and comfortable, and the farmers principally Dutch, who retain 
their manners, customs and language, untainted and unsophis- 
ticated by intercourse with other settlers. They even have a 

* The Gleaner or Monthly Magazine. Vol. I, No. 5-V0I. II, No. 3. January- 
November. 1809. Lancaster (Penn.). Printed by William Greer. •"*""^'^^ 
" The Gleaner or Monthly Magazine. Vol. I. No. 5- Vol. II No ^ Tanuarv- 



ii6 Some Early Poems Referring to Lancaster, Pa. 

paper printed in German at Lancaster, and the women wear 
the large Flemish or Dutch blue striped, seven fold, heavy petti- 
coat, which made me imagine I was approaching Amsterdam 
or Brussels. After departing from Lancaster, we speedily 
reached the banks of the Susquehanna, 

". . . once the loveliest land of all 

"That see the Atlantic wave their morn restore." • 

For the Aonian. 



THE LANCASTER FAIR. 

Fine was the day, the sun shone bright, 

And all was life and motion; 
'Twas all a scene of great delight. 

Of bus'ness and of notion. 

The country fair, with their dear beaus, 

In silks and muslin flying. 
Came stepping in upon tip-toe, 

With city ladies vying. 

And arm in arm they went along, 

Like females of great station; 
They walked so spruce amid the throng. 

Their cheeks like the carnation. 

The beaus look'd pleas'd, though fearful lest 
They'd lose their girls so pretty; 

And led the fair whom they loved best, 
Through famed Lancaster city. 

The busy crowd fill'd up the street, 

The horses were all prancing; 
The ev'ning clos'd with music sweet. 

With fiddling and with dancing. 



'Boston Monthly Magazine. Vol. I, p. 272- June, 1825-May, 1826. 
Boston. (The above appeared December, 1825.) 

' The Juvenile Repository. Vol. I, No. 51. June 21, 1823. Lancaster. 



Some Early Poems Referring to Lancaster, Pa. iiy 

TO A PORTRAIT OF A BEAUTIFUL YOUNG GIRL. 
By Malcom Graeme, Lancaster, Pa. 

The light brown tresses gracefully 

Hang round thy beauteous face, 
And richly on thy white neck lie, 

That curves in youthful grace ; 
And like the Parian marble white. 

Thy pure and youthful brow — 
Thy soft blue eyes a tender light 

Throw gently on me now. 

Oh! such as haunts the poet's sleep, 

Thy face so young and fair; 
Thy rose-cheek shadowed soft and deep 

By thy rich sunny hair. 
Oh! such the painter in his dreams 

At twilight hour might see. 
By Andalusia's peaceful streams. 

In vine-hung Italy. 

I gaze upon thy bounteous form. 

And round about me rise 
A crowd in memory's sunshine warm — 

Young brows and gentle eyes. 
A glowing vision comes with thee 

A scene of other days — 
Of those who trod life's path with me, 

And fragments of old lays. 

And bursting through the clouds of care, 

Streams brightly on my heart, 
The sunshine of rich feeling where 

Those shadowy clouds depart; 
And 'mid the cares of after life, 

Oft shall come back to me, 
In days of toil and feverish strife. 

Sweet joyous thoughts of thee.^ 



* Burton's Gentleman's Magazine. Edited by William E Burton and 
Edgar A. Poe. Vol. V, p. 326. July-December, 1839. Philadelphia. (The 
above appeared December, 1839.) 



JOHANN HEINRICH MILLER. 

by 

Charles Frederick Dapp. 

Philadelphia. 

Restless and fond of travel, portraying the old Germanic 
love of migration, and the German idea of apprenticeship which 
receives the fundamentals of a trade or art at home but which 
ever absorbs and ever becomes proficient at the feet of the 
masters in many cities in the realm or even in some neighbor- 
ing country, John Henry Miller appears on the Colonial heavens, 
becomes luminous in the trying days of the Stamp Act agitation, 
and during the pre-Revolution days shines as a star of the first 
magnitude. His long years of apprenticeship in the best printing 
offices in Europe and Colonial America, made Miller a master 
in the book-printing art, a journalist of the highest type, fearless 
in expression, ardent in purpose, forceful and clear in style, a 
champion of liberty and a defender of right. 

John Henry Miller, or as he usually writes his name, Hein- 
rich Miller, was born at Rheden, in the principality of Waldeck 
on the Upper Rhine, March 12, 1702. With his parents, he 
moved to their native place, a town near Zurich, in 171 5. The 
boy was now apprenticed to a printer in Basle, and here in the 
Brandmiller office ^ Miller learned the first things about Gutten- 
berg's art. After his apprenticeship in Basle, Miller was first 
employed in a printing house in Ziirich. He soon set up a press 
of his own here and published a newspaper. Quitting the busi- 
ness at Ziirich, he traveled to Leipzig and Altona. From here he 
went to London, to Amsterdam, through France and again to 
Germany and Holland. - 

Under "Ein Paar Bemerkungen," in answer to a threatening 
letter, Miller himself gives us a few facts concerning his life. 



' Lev. 74. 

' Thomas, Vol. V, 253. Deut. Pionier 1876-77, p. 194. Hildeburn. 

(118) 



Johann Heinrich Miller 119 

He says : "Ich habe mich in meinem Leben nur an zwey Catholi- 
schen orten eine zeitlang aufgehalten, naml. in Briissel 6 Wo- 
chen, und Paris 1 3 Wochen ; an letzterm Ort habe ich die ganze 
Zeit in des Konigs Buchdruckerei auf meinem Beruf gearbeitet, 
und von alien meinen Professionsgenossen Achtung und Freund- 
schaft genossen, da doch ein jeder wusste, dass ich der einzige 
Protestant in der Druckerey war." ^ 

On November 30, 1741, on the ship "London" from Eng- 
land to New York, Captain William Smith commanding, came 
Zinzendorf, pietist, preacher and Moravian organizer, with a 
small company of settlers. In this company was the printer John 
Henry Miller, who was merely a fellow-passenger.'* Remaining 
in New York a few days, the company started for Philadelphia 
December 6, and arrived there December 10, where a house on the 
east side of Second Street above Race had been rented for them.^ 
Zinzendorf started for Bethlehem December 21, but Miller re- 
mained in Philadelphia and was for some time employed in the 
printing office of Franklin.^ During his employment here. 
Miller proved of great service to Zinzendorf. Of a quiet dis- 
position by nature and not querulous, Zinzendorf paid no at- 
tention to the attacks made upon him, with perhaps one excep- 
tion. Having been attacked by the Rev. J. Philip Boehm, of 
Whitepan, representing extreme Calvinism in Pennsylvania, 
Zinzendorf wrote a reply, which was put into the hands of a cer- 
tain George Neisser to responsibly issue. He gave it in charge 
of the printer, Henry Miller, then employed in Franklin's office 
where it was printed.'^ 

A Catechism compiled by Bechtel, and approved by the 
Moravian "Fifth Pennsylvania Synod", was about this time 
offered to Saur for printing, but he declined. It was then put 
into the hands of Franklin. In his office at this time was John 
Henry Miller, an expert German printer (subsequently the pro- 



* Staatsbote, No. 680. 

* Lev., p. 72. 

^ Pa. Mag., Vol. 33, 229. 

* Thomas. Vol. V, 253. 

'Lev., p. 95. Seidensticker, p. 18 (Title of reply). H. S. 



i20 Johann Heinrich Miller 

prietor and publisher of the Staatsbote), who had accompanied 
Zinzendorf , to whom was assigned the manuscript ; but the office 
being without sufficient German letters, English had to be sub- 
stituted in the publication. In a few weeks the first edition, a 
small 12 mo of 42 pages, was ready for distribution.^ 

The year following Zinzendorf's arrival, Miller accom- 
panied the former on his first journey to the Delaware Indians.^ 

Miller had been attracted by the work of the Moravians in 
Europe, and became a member of the church at Bethlehem in 
1742.^*^ Whether the date of his membership was before the 
journey to the Delaware Indians cannot be ascertained with 
certainty. ^^ 

In 1742, Miller returned to Europe. In 1744, at Marien- 
born, he married Johanna Dorothea Blanner. She was born in 
1702, and came from Berne, Switzerland. In this same year. 
Miller founded and put into operation the first Moravian print- 
ing office at Marienborn. He is also supposed to have published 
a newspaper here.^^ 

Miller's residence at Marienborn was not of long duration. 
He again set out on his travels. He visited England a second 
time and Holland a third time, and then returned to Germany. 
In all probability his wife did not accompany him on these 
travels. In 1751, "nach einem neun Jahrigen Aufenthalt meistens 
in Grossbrittanien und Irland," Miller was again on the ocean 
bound for America. ^^ Coming with Bishop Spangenberg from 
Europe and landing at New York about December 5, 1751, "was 
Henry Miller, the printer, who had again been in Europe."^^ 



' Seidensticker, p. 18. H. S. — G. S. 

• Cf. Zinzendorf's Narratives of his Journey to the Delaware Indians, 
Memorials of Moravian Church, Vol. I, p. 25. 

"Lev., p. 74. 

"Cf. Lev. 114; Transactions, Vol. H, p. 140. Miller was always the 
favorite printer of the Moravians. Cf. Lev., p. 74, 421 524- For a brief sea- 
son he printed at Bethlehem on one of the small presses which he transferred 
from place to place, while in Philadelphia he did most of the Bethlehem 
printing. 

'^ Lev., p. 74 ; Thomas, Vol. V, p. 253. 

"Pionier, 1876-77, p. 191. 

" Lev., p. 262. 



Johann Heinrich Miller 121 

Miller's wife followed him to America the next year. On 
the sixth voyage of the "Irene" to New York, November 20, 
1752, she had on board Johanna Dorothea Miller, wife of the 
printer, Henry Miller.^^ Miller's wife is spoken of as "an ac- 
complished but somewhat eccentric wife of the yet more eccen- 
tric Henry Miller, the printer."^^ As she could not make up 
her mind to live in Philadelphia, her husband attended to his 
business there alone, while she remained in Bethlehem. ^'^ She 
died in Bethlehem, 1779, and lies buried in Row 8: 37, of the 
Moravian Cemetery in Bethlehem. ^^ 

She was a well-bred woman; spoke the French language 
fluently, and was an excellent painter in water colors. In this 
employment she was engaged for some time as a preceptress in 
Bethlehem. ^» 

Having again touched American soil and being again in 
Philadelphia, Miller as an excellent journeyman was not long 
without something to do. Benjamin Franklin, that active and 
shrewd man of business, was ever on the lookout for expert 
workmen and especially was he always desirous of obtaining the 
help of German printers. These he used to further his news- 
paper projects and his book-printing trade. Therefore, when 
Miller, a former workman of his again appeared in Philadel- 
phia, Franklin lost no time in securing this valuable addition to 
the personell of his printing ofifice. Franklin at this time was in 
sore need of a man of Miller's type, according to legal docu- 
ments unearthed only a few years ago. In 1751, Franklin had 
sent James Chattin to Lancaster with a printing outfit. He had 
done much printing for the Ephrata community before it had its 
own press, and not caring to wait until business would come to 
him, he resolved to go to it in Lancaster. His office was to do 
German as well as English printing, and Chattin was the first 



" Lev. 273. 

^* Lev., p. Z7i- 

" Transactions, p. 168. 

" Transactions, p. 168. 

" Thomas, Vol. V, 255. 



122 Johann Heinrich Miller 

man sent there. This arrangement, however, did not continue 
long, for very soon Miller and Holland were put in charge, 
Miller having been sent from Philadelphia. But Franklin's 
venture does not seem to have been a paying proposition, so in 
1753 he sold the entire Lancaster plant to Holland for £200.-*^ 

Miller's activity in Lancaster under the firm name of Miller 
and Holland was of short duration, but was quite fruitful. To 
this firm belongs the distinction of having printed the first docu- 
ment in book form in Lancaster. It was a circular in German 
of eleven pages. It is now exceedingly rare. A copy, however, 
is known to exist, namely in the Reformed Library at the Hague. 
Dr. Dubbs has given a facsimile of the title page of this rare 
circular letter in his "History of the Reformed Church in Penn- 
sylvania."^^ 

Another notable fact concerning the firm of Miller and 
Holland was that they were the ostensible founders of the 
Lancaster Gazette, begun in 1752. This paper was bi-lingual 
and was the second of its kind in America, Franklin's Deutsche 
iind Englische Zeitung of 1751 being the first. The full title of 
Miller and Holland's paper was: Die Lancastersche Zeitung: 
Oder: Ein Kurtzer Begriff der Hauptsachlichsten Ausldndisch- 
und Einheimschen Neuigkeiten." The first column of this paper 
was in the German langage, the second in English; and so the 
two languages alternated through the four small pages of the 
paper. The first eleven numbers were printed "at the new 
printing office", somewhere on King Street, beginning on Janu- 
ary 13, 1752, as Miller records in his private note-book. ^^ 

From the twelfth to the thirty-first and last number, the 
paper was issued "at the post-ofiice in King Street" by S. 
Holland alone. The last issue met with, bears the date, June 
5' 1753- Diffenderfer, however, thinks that it was continued 



**Cf. Diffenderfer, Early German Printers of Lancaster. 
" Cf . Seidensticker, pp. 39-40. Hildeburn, Early German Printers, pp. 
59-61. 

« Fol. 13x8^. 
* Lev., p. 72. 



Johann Heinrich Miller 123 

by Holland for some time longer. From or before issue No. 12, 
the imprint was changed to "Lancaster, printed by S. Holland, 
at the Post Office, in King's Street; where all Sort of Printing 
Work is done at reasonable Rate". Miller withdrew from the 
firm after eleven numbers of the paper had been issued. At the 
beginning of June, he left Lancaster, going to Philadelphia, 
where he was employed by William Bradford.-'* 

In 1754, Miller was once again in Europe. He visited 
England, which at this time was engaged in a war with France, 
the so-called French and Indian War. Here occurred the singu- 
lar event of which Miller speaks in the very last number of his 
paper, No. 920. "Hab' audi wirklich bey 50 Jahren mit Zeit- 
ungen zu thun gehabt ehedem in der Schweiz und Deutschland; 
und als in den letztern Kriege zwischen Frankreich und England 
einmal 14,000 Mann Hanoverischer und Hessischer Truppen 
den Sommer hindurch in England lagen bediente ich, auf Er- 
suchen des Stabs ihre beyden Lager zweymal in der Woche mit 
einer Deutschen Zeitung." 

In 1760, Miller returned to America with new printing 
materials, settled in Philadelphia, and opened a printing house 
on Second Street.^^ 

Miller was a great friend of the Fable, and in this form he 
wrote a part of his biography referring to his return to America 
at a time when he desired to humiliate his business rival, Saur. 
This Fable is published in Stattsbote No. 31, and is as follows: 
Der Adler und das Rebhuhn. Eine Erzahlung . 

Der Adler und das Rebhuhn. Eine Erzahlung. 
Der Adler liebt das Licht ; 
Das Rebhuhn liebt es nicht. 

Ein in Deutschland ausgebriiteter Adler hatte eine geraume 
Zeit verschiedene Europaische Lander durchflogen; da ihn die 
Vorsehung innerhalb zwanzig jahren, zweimal nach America 
brachte : woselbst er es gut hatte, wiirde auch geblieben sein, wenn 



"Cf. Diffenderfer, p. 59; Lev., p. 72; Thomas, Vol. V, p. 253. 
" Thomas, V, p. 250. 



124 Johann Hqinrich Miller 

der hochste Regierer aller dinge, in dessen hand selbst der Aug 
der vogel stehet {Hiob, 39), ihn nicht zweymal von dannen wie- 
der nach Europa hatte fliegen lassen. Vor etlichen jahren hielt 
er sich noch in diesem letzbesagten welttheile auf ; hatte aber im- 
mer neigung wieder einen Aug nach America zu unternehmen. 
Das wusste ein Hchtscheues Rebhuhn, welches sich in diesem 
wehtheile aufhak, wo der Adler es einigermassen hatte kennen 
lernen : dem war mit des Adlers wiedcrkunft nicht gedient ; denn 
er erhieh von dem schlauen Vogel eine solche klagliche nachricht, 
(die er noch imter seinen fliigeln hat) in ansehung des lieben 
America, welches doch schon die zuflucht vieler notleidenden 
Vogel gewesen, als ob in demselben einer den andern vor hunger 
auffrasse; da doch dem jungen gleichfalls in Deutschland geheck- 
ten lichtscheuen Vogel ein recht herrlich nest von seinem alten 
(der besserer art war) in Pennsylvanien hinterlassen worden, 
welches er noch taglich mehr mit sanften federn versieht. Der 
Adler, der die sache besser wusste, gedachte, das ist ja eine fal- 
sche nachricht des Rebhuhns, und sehr unerkenntlich und un- 
dankbar : denn es ist natiirlich fiir ein jedes geschopf das land 
zu lieben und zu loben, in welchem er sich auf halt, und wo es ihm 
wol gehet; nach dem Englischen sprichwort, "Every one praises 
the Bridge that helps him safe over." Es scheint aber schon die 
schlechte art dieses Vogels zu seyn, woran man noch andere bey- 
spiele anfiihren konte, und wozu etwa noch die furcht gekom- 
men, dass er durch des Adlers wiederkunft ein wenig nahrung 
oder etliche federchen aus seinem nest verlieren mochte. Allein 
das alles entschuldigt seine tiicke keineswegs. Der Adler kehrte 
sich indess an nichts, folgte seiner neigung, schwang sich empor, 
und sein Schopfer hat ihn vor beynahe zwey jahren gliicklich 
wieder nach Pennsylvanien gebracht. Aber er hatte kaum ange- 
fangen sein nest zu bauen, so hat schon das schalkhafte Rebhuhn 
mit sei-nem from-lau-ten-den thun hinterriicks gegen andere iiber 
den Adler losgezogen; ja sich vernehmen lassen, dass soldi ein 
armer Adler leicht zu ruiniren ware. Welches alles er aber nicht 
achtet. Er harret auf den Herrn; Jes. 40: 31. Er hangt lede- 
lich von dem ab, der der hochste Gebieter ist iiber alles, und ein- 
folglich auch iiber die ganze Vogelschaft, und sie versorgt. Er 



Johann Heinrich Miller 125 

riihmt sich seiner starke nicht ; und in seinem nest sieht es schlecht 
aus, dass er sich keines reichthums riihmen noch darauf verlas- 
sen kan. Er erkennet, dass das gute so er etwa hat, ihm von deni 
Vater des Lichts gegaben ist. Unnutzen Vogehi zu widerstehen 
halt er als Adler f iir seine pflicht. 

Wenn er nun das vorbeschriebene Rebhuhn in menschenge- 
stalt einen Lehrer vorstellete, so wiirde es bey vielen ein gelach- 
ter verursachen, und manche bey der vorstellung Saur sehen. 
Lehre. Lerne hieraus, ein treuer Freund des Landes zu seyn, 
darin du wohnst, und wo dirs gut gehet. Sey aufrichtig, und 
nicht falsch, oder tiickisch. Verleumde niemanden, weder in 
der nahe noch feme: denn durch verleumdung kanst du jeman- 
den zum zeugen aufbringen wider deine Bosheit, welche sonst um 
fiir Dummheit konte gehalten werden. N. B. Pfliige auch mit 
keinem Freunde kalbe oder jungen stier; denn des fremden ar- 
beit wird zu leicht erkannt, und du hast nur spott davon : so 
konte es auch geschehen, dass ein aUer Adler emem jungen Horn- 
vieh gliicklicher weise eins versetzt." 

Miller's Wanderjahre were now over and the period of his 
Meisterschaft begins. When Miller arrived in Philadelphia, it 
was his third appearance at this place, and now for a period of 
twenty years, Miller was a factor in all the public, patriotic, 
benevolent and German affairs not only in Philadelphia, not 
only in Pennsylvania, but throughout the Colonies where Ger- 
mans were to be found. As far as printing of all kinds is con- 
cerned, Miller was the German Franklin or Bradford as the 
case may be. 

Like Bradford, Miller had a "nose for news", sifting and 
printing only matter which was of public interest and which 
contributed to the commonwealth. Like Franklin, Miller had 
that enviable quality of wit and humor which made many a dry- 
as-dust article sparkle with life. Like Bradford, Miller was an 
ardent patriot, even suffering business and personal losses for 
the sake of liberty. Lastly, like Franklin, Miller was deeply 
wedded to his art, and every line emanating from his press ex- 
hibits thought in composition, taste in selection, carefulness in 
arrangement, neatness in printing, variety in matter. In quality 



126 Johann Heinrich Miller 

and quantity of production, Miller was one of the most prolific 
printers of Colonial times, and as the printer to Congress, and 
the publisher of influential books, also one of the most import- 
ant.-*^ Of course, measured according to the tons of printed 
matter which some modern printing houses and newspaper es- 
tablishments turn out almost every twenty- four hours, the ef- 
forts of Miller appear quite insignificant. But, when one re- 
calls that Miller never knew of a Hoe printing press nor heard 
of the modern electrotype, because these time- and labor-saving 
accessories of the printing office had not yet been mvented, 
Miller's achievements begin to appear noteworthy, and when it 
is further recalled that Miller's work was done on the small hand 
presses of those days and that he did most of the work himself, 
then the number of his publications, numbering in books, pamph- 
lets, circulars, etc., upwards of 150, entitle him to no mean place 
among Colonial printers, so that for twenty years he was the 
best German printer and publisher in Philadelphia.^^ Miller was 
a German, and Miller gained his enviable position in Colonial 
days just because he was a German. The Germans in Colonial 
times were not as uncouth and unlettered as is generally sup- 
posed. The advertisements in the newspapers and catalogs of 
individual booksellers of German and Latin books that were im- 
ported, such as Lissing's Miss Sarah Samson, and the German 
publications in the Colonies, clearly prove the general intelligence 
of the Colonial Germans. I have only to cite a number of illus- 
trations to support my argument. The German edition of such 
a book like Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress preceded the English 
on American soil, it being printed by Christopher Saur in 1754. 
The first religious magazine in Pennsylvania was a German pub- 
lication. The Bhitige Schauplats, printed at Ephrata, in 1748, 
was a German publication, and was the largest book printed in 
the Colonial period. As late as 181 7, the largest book that had 
been printed in Pennsylvania was the splendid edition of the 



''Faust. II. 368. 
" Faust, I, 146. 



Johann Heinrich Miller 127 

German Bible, published by Johann Bar, a German printer in 
Lancaster. 

The newspapers supported by the Germans in Colonial times 
is also an indication of the intelligence of the Germans. They 
were not satisfied with any kind of newspaper. It had to be of a 
high t)^pe, and merit had to recommend it, and any newspaper 
not up to the standard was bound to go under. Miller's news- 
paper was of an exceedingly high standard, and for a period of 
upwards of twenty years, Philadelphia was the scene of the pub- 
lication of this newspaper, the Staatsbote, which wielded such a 
tremendous influence among the Germans, and which stood fo^ 
the expression of the highest quality of citizenship, namely, 
liberty. Miller, himself, was a good scholar. He could use Ger- 
man, English, Dutch and French. It is also said that he corres- 
ponded with some literary characters in Germany and Holland. ^^ 

After Miller began his career in Philadelphia, in 1761, the 
first year's work numbered nine different books, pamphlets, etc., 
by no means a bad beginning. The next year witnessed the 
launching of the famous Staatsbote. This was the sixth Ger- 
man journal that had been established in Philadelphia. It was 
first issued on Monday, January 18, 1762, and from this time 
forth almost uninterruptedly until the year 1779, the Staatsbote 
supplied the Germans with the news of the times, and also re- 
flected Miller's views on questions of public import. Miller was 
the life of the paper and of the printing office, and when, after 
the Revolution, the numbers of the Staatsbote grew less inde- 
pendent and lacked in timely news articles, and when the num- 
ber of publications from Miller's office began to dwindle down 
to only a few, it was a sign that the enthusiastic German printer 
was rapidly declining in years and in spirit. In 1779, Miller 
sold his printing establishment in Philadelphia. It is said that 
he bequeathed part of his property to Melchior Steiner, who had 
been his apprentice.-^ In 1780, he retired to Bethlehem, where, 



** Thomas, V, 254. 
'» Thomas, V, 255. 



128 Johann Heinrich Miller 

on March 3, 1782, he died. He was buried in the Moravian 
Cemetery at Bethlehem, and Hes in Section A, Row i ; Mar- 
ried Men, No. 34.^*' 

After the biographical material of Henry Miller had been 
prepared as is herewith presented, the writer discovered addi- 
tional historical facts in the Moravian Library at Bethlehem. 
These facts are in the nature of an autobiography although in 
its present form was not, yea, could not have been written by 
Miller. In volume 33 of the Diarium, there are two accounts 
of Miller's life which are almost idqitical, but in different hand- 
writing. The supposition is that Miller himself wrote a sketch 
of his life and that this sketch was later copied into the Diarium 
by two different writers. The second writer who used the same 
material as the first writer evidently did not know that the sketch 
had been inserted. I shall herewith present the first of the two 
biographical versions. 

Diarium, 1780-82. Bethlehem. Vol. 33. 
Zum 30ten Marz, 1782. 

Unser seliger Bruder Joh. Heinr. Miller hat folgendes von 
seinem Lebenslaufe selbet aufgeschrieben. 

Ich bin geboren zu Rheden im Waldeckischen, Ao. 1702, den 
i2ten Marz, allwo mein Vater, Joh. Heinr. Miller aus der 
Schweiz gebiirtig, sich niedergelassen hatte, und wurde in der 
Lutherischen Religion meiner Mutter getauft, obgleich mein Va- 
ter Reformierter Religion war. In meinem I3ten Jahre zog ich 
mit meinen Eltern aus obgedachtem Stadtchen nach Altstadten 
bei Ziirich in meines Vaters Heimat. 

Ich erinnere mich, dass der Heilige Geist in meiner zarten 
Jugend ofters an meinem Herzen gearbeitet hat. 1715, zu Ende 
meines I3ten Jahres kam ich von meinen Eltern weg nach 
Basel zu Herrn Joh. Ludw. Brandmiiller, die Buchdruckerei zu 
erlernen. Meine Lehrzeit war 5 Jahr, und ein Viertel Jahr bin 



" Cf. Transactions of the Moravian Historical Society, Vol. I, Part 3, p. 
104. 



Johann Heinrich Miller 129 

ich noch nach Endigung derselben da geblieben. Hier wurde ich 
in der Religion des Landes, reformiert, erzogen. Der Heilige 
Geist arbeitete in diesen 5 Jahren unermiidet in meinem Herzen, 
so dass ich niemals ganz tod im Herzen war. Eine griindliche 
Erweckung und Begnadigung aber erfuhr ich Ao. 171 6 im Herbst 
bei einem Abendmahl, dabei mir mein siindHches Verderben recht 
klar wurde, und die Last der Siinden mir auf einmal wie vom 
Halse fiel. Ich habe da Jesu Fleisch und Blut wahrhaftig geges- 
sen und getrunken, fiihlte eine brennende Liebe zum Heiland und 
seinen Wunden und wiinschte ofters zulhni zu gehen. Ich bin 
aber nicht bestandig gebHeben, obgleich seine Treue nicht wan- 
kend worden ist. 

1 72 1, im Friihjahr kam ich von Basel nach Ziirich in Condi- 
tion, und von da an im Herbst nach Leipzig. Das folgende Jahr 
am Ostern ging ich nach Altona (bei Hamburg), wo ich auf ei- 
gengewirkte Frommigkeit fiel, und von da 1725 nach London. 

1728, im Friihjahr, verliess ich England, und ging iiber Rot- 
terdam nach Amsterdam. Von hier nahm ich mir vor, als ein 
Einsiedler nach America zu gehen. Es kam aber nicht dazu. son- 
dern ich ging statt dessen, weil ich die Luft in Holland nicht er- 
tragen konnte, und die meiste Zeit das Fieber hatte, 1729 im 
Herbst wieder nach Altona, wo ich dritthalb Jahre blieb und 1732 
um Ostern, die M^inigen zu besuchen, nach der Schweiz. Unter- 
wegs besuchte ich bei Calw im Wiirtembergischen meine Schwe- 
ster, die von meinen drei Geschwistern allein am Leben geblie- 
ben, und nachdem ich 14 Tage bei meinen Eltern geblieben, hielt 
ich mich ein halb Jahr in Basel und auch in Geneva auf und kam 
1733 wieder nach Zurich. Hier beschloss ich so lange bei meinen 
Eltern zu bleiben, als sie leben wiirden, welches ich auch biz zu 
meiner Mutter Tode getan habe, der im May 1736 erfolgte. In der 
Zeit lernte ich den ersten Bohmischenbruder Georg Schmidt allda 
kennen. Weil aber mein Vater in seinem 8oten Jahre sich wieder 
verheiratete ; so verliess ich Zurich 1737 im Herbst, ging nach 
Tiibingen und von da um Ostern 1738 nach Hamburg, wo ich ein 
Jahr blieb. Da ich hier nicht fertig werden konnte, auf was fiir 
Art ich mich hier oder da in der Welt stablieren sollte, so fiel mir 
meine ehemals vorhergedachte Reise nach America wieder ein, 



130 Johann Hcinrich Miller 

und well ich doch nicht eigentiimlich wusste was ich tun sollte, so 
bat ich den Herrn, mir seinen Willen zu offenbaren, und nach 
dem Gebet, loste ich dariiber, was ich tun sollte, und es traf, ich 
sollte nach America gehen. Indessen hielt ich mich doch noch 
den Winter hindurch in Hamburg auf, und war in Weihnachten 
etliche Tage in Pilgerruh zum Besuch. Ao. 1739 um Ostern 
reiste ich von Hamburg nach Amsterdam, um von da nach Lon- 
don und so f erner nach America zu gehen. 

(Nota. — Unter seinen verschiedenen hinterlassenen Liedern 
und Poesien finden sich folgende Verse die er damals in Amster- 
dam auf seine zuriickgelegte und bevorstehende Reise gemaclu 
hatte : 

Starker Menschen-Retter, Feindes Untertretter 

Lob sei deiner Macht, 
Dass du mich aus Gnaden, vor Gefahr und Schaden 

Auf der See bewacht, 
Und mit viel Vergniigen durch dein giitig fiigen 

Hast hierher gebracht. 

Lass doch dein Erbarmen, ferner fiir mich Armen 

Sorgen Tag und Nacht. 
Lenke meine Wege, richte meine Stege, 

Gib stets auf micht acht. 

Wenn ich ferner werde nach der neuen Erde 

Als ein Fremdling gehen, 
Wollst du gleicher Weise, wie auf dieser Reise 

Mein Gott bei mir stehen. 

Fliigel ob mir breiten, mich allmachtig leiten, 

Lass den Wind so wehn, 
Dass von keinen Stiirmen und der Wellen Tiirmen 

Mir mag Leids geschehn. 

All mein Tun beglitcke, wie du willst es schicke, 

Herr, erhor mein flehn. 
Und lass Deinen Willen mich begliickt umhiillen, 

Zu des Herzens Ruh, 
Gib doch dass mein Leben dir allein ergeben 

Ich noch bring zu. 



Johann Heinrich Miller li^i 

Wenn ich denn vollendet, wozu ich gesendet, 

Herr so fiihre Du 
Mich durch deine Leiden in die Himmelsfreuden 

Zu der ewgen Ruh. 

Ao. 1743. Nach seiner Zuriickkunft nach Deutschland hatle 
er unter diese Verse f olgende Zeilen gesetzt : 

Lieber Heiland, deine Gnade 

1st viel grosser als man denkt, 
Du hast mir der armen Made 

Mehr als eine Bitt deschenkt. ) 

In Amsterdam, heisst es in seiner Erzahlung weiter, hielt ich 
mich etwa 3 Monate auf und besuchte in den Pfingstfeiertagen 
einmal in Herrendyk wo ich den Herrn Grafen von Zinzendorf, 
der eben aus St. Thomas wieder nach Europa zuriickgekommen 
war, eine Rede von der Gnadenwahl halten horte, nicht ohne Ge- 
fiihl meines Herzens. 

Weil in den 3 Monaten meines Aiifenthaltes in Amsterdam 
der Krieg zwischen England und Spanien auf der See immer 
heftiger wurde, so entschloss ich mich nach Frankreich zu gehen, 
und da abzuwarten, bis die See mit mehrerer Sicherheit passiert 
werden konnte. Ao. 39 im July ging ich daher liber Rotterdam, 
Antwerpen und Briissel nach Paris, wo ich mich iiber 13 Monate 
aufhielt, und im Nov. 1740 von da iiber Calais und Dover nach 
London, in der Absicht meine Reise nach America fortzusetzen. 
Der Herr fiigte es aber, dass ich hier warten musste bis in den 
August 1 741, da der Herr Graf von Zinzendorf mit einigen Brii- 
dern hierher kam, um nach Pennsylvanien zu gehen. Mit dieser 
Gesellschaf t reiste ich am 1 5 Sept. gedachten Jahres von London 
ab, und den 20ten Nov. kamen wir in New York an. Diese Ge- 
sellschaft sehe mich als einen an, der halb zu ihnen gehore. Den 
29ten desselben Monats kamen wir in Philadelphia an, wo ich 
bald bei Hrn. Franklin, Buchdrucker daselbst, zu arbeiten anfing. 
Ao. 1742, d. 8ten July, wurde ich zu Bethlehem in die Gemeine 
aufgenommen und auch mit derselben des heil. Abendmahles teil- 
haftig. 

Nota : Aus seinen sowohl auf diesen Tag als bei verschiede- 



132 Johann Heinrich Miller 

nen Gelegenheiten in Bethlehem in dem Jahre verfertigten Liedern 
kann man deuthch sehen, dass sein Herzvon der damalswaltenden 
Gnade hingenommen wurde ; sein Elend und Verderben griindlich 
gefiihh und durch die Kraft des Wortes von der Versohnung und 
der Briider-Gemeine auf das innigste verbunden, doch aber auch 
vom Unglauben und manchem Zweifel wegen seiner vorigen Ab- 
weichung vom Heiland nicht f rei gewesen. 

Vierzehn Tage nach meiner Aufnahme in die Briider-Ge- 
meine zu Bethlehem, fahrt er fort, traf mich das Gliick, mit dem 
Herrn Grafen und den ihn begleitenden Briidern und Schwestern 
auf seinen ersten Heidenbesuch unter die Delaware Indianer zu 
gehen. 

Diese Reise von welcher in dem Leben des sel. Grafen von 
Zinzendorf, Seite 1426, eine kurze Beschreibung zu finden ist, 
war zwar kurz, indem sie nur vier Tage dauerte, aber daher un- 
serm seligen Bruder in Sonderheit sehr wichtig, wie man aus sei- 
nen dariiber gemachten Anmerkungen ersehen kann, ob er gleich 
auch viele Beschwerlichkeiten der Pilgerschaft dabei erfuhr. Un- 
ter verschiedenen ihm eindriicklich gewesenen VVorten, die er auf 
derselben aus dem Munde des sel. Grafen, damals Bruder Lud- 
vvigs genannt, aufgezeichtnet, merkt er, dass derselbe einstmals 
von der gottlichen Fiirsorge des Heilandes geredet habe, nach 
welcher Er in den Gemeinen allezeit Rat schopfe, wenn Menschen 
keinen sehen, aber doch alles glaubig auf ihren Herrn wagen und 
ankommen lassen ; und auf die Weise werden sich auch wohl Rat 
zu einer Druckerei finden, aus welcher hernach der Gemeine und 
ihren Gliedern auf vielerlei Weise konne gedient werden. (In- 
serat. ) 

Nach dieser Reise nahm unser seliger Bruder einen Antrag 
des seligen Grafen, ein Paket Briefschaften selbst nach Europa 
zu iiberbringen, willig an, reiste den 4ten August dieses Jahres 
von Bethlehem fiber Philadelphia, und weil da keine Schiffsgele- 
genheit vorhanden, fiber New York nach London ab wo er den 
23ten Oktober ankam. Unter Weges kamen sie in grosser Ge- 
fahr, indem das Schiff, als sie etwa zwei drittel des Weges vol- 
lendet, am I4ten Oktober in Brand geriet, aber noch gliicklich ge- 
rettet wurde. 



Johann Heinrich Miller 133 

Von London reiste er iiber Holland nach einigem Aufent- 
halt in Herrendyk nach dem Haag, wo er am 3ten December an- 
kam. Daselbst wurde er sehr liebreich aufgenommen und ge- 
noss in der Pflege der lieben Briider daselbst insonderheit durch 
den dereinst des Bruders Johannis viel Seliges fiir sein Herz, 
musste aber oft zum kindlichen Glauben und Vertrauen gegen 
den Heiland aufgemuntert werden, weil er sich mehr an Men- 
schen als an den Heiland zu hangen schien. 

Er wurde hier nebst dem seligen Bruder Wirz zur Errich- 
tung einer Druckerei gebraucht, und reiste zu Bestellung der 
Schriften (?) im Januar 1743 nach Leipzig, besuchte in Herrn- 
hut und kam zu Ende Februar wieder in der Wetterau an. Da- 
selbst wurde er nach der Zuriickkunft des Herrn Grafen Zinzen- 
dorf aus America mit der led. Schwester Johanna Dorothea Blau- 
nerin, Vorsteherin des led. Schwester Hauses in Haag am loten 
Juni zur heiligen Ehe verbunden. Sie reisten noch in dem Jahre 
zur Synode nach Hirschberg nach der Oberlausitz und Schlesien 
und kamen zu Ende des Jahres wieder nach dem Haag. Zu An- 
fang 1744 kam er mit der Errichtung der Buchdruckerei in 
Marienborn zu standen, und hat vom Anfang Marz dieses Jahres 
bis in den Marz 46, da sie nach Holland abreisten, etliche und 
achtzig verschiedene kleine und grosse Gemeine-Schriften da- 
selbst abgedruckt. 

Ao. 1 746 waren sie meistens in Amsterdam in Besorgung der 
Amtssachen der Kinder Anstalt. Ao. 1747 aber kamen sie nach 
einigen Reisen in Deutschland den 3ten Februar nach London. In 
England, Schottland und Irland verbrachte er bis ins Jahr 1751 
mit fast best^ndigem Herumreisen, war auch in der Zeit einmal in 
Holland, und ob er gleich dabei den Briidern zu Dienst viel tat. 
so scheint sich doch seine Seele an bestandige Veranderung da- 
bei verwohnt und sich zerstreut zu haben. 

Im September 1751 ging er in Gesellschaft Br. Spangen- 
bergs, Hehls und anderen Geschwistern nach America, und ka- 
men den 23ten November in New York, und am 29ten in Bethle- 
hem an. Er ging von hier am 4ten Dezember nach Philadelphia, 
wo er eine Buchdruckerei anlegte, und daneben mit ofterem 
Herumreisen ins Lande, auch Besuchen in Bethlehem und ande- 
ren Orten seine Zeit verbrachte. 



134 Johann Heinrich Miller 

Seine Frau war im November Ao. 1752 auch aus England 
in Bethlehem angekommen, wollte aber ihrem Manne nicht nach 
Philadelphia nachfolgen, sondern blieb von ihm mit beider Be- 
willigung hier in Bethlehem, wo sie am 6ten Oktober 1779 ver- 
schieden ist. 

Er reiste im Jahre 1759 nach England, und besuchte seine 
dasigen Freunde; von da Ao. 1755 nach Holland und Deutsch- 
land, richtete in England nach seiner Riickkunft Ao. 1756 eine 
eigene Presse auf, und druckte allerhand kleine Tracktatgen, bis 
er 1760 mit dieser seiner Druckerei im Juni nach Philadelphia zu 
Schiffe ging, und den I2ten September in Philadelphia gliicklich 
ankam. 

Hier arbeitet er seitdem fleissig, und von ganzem Herzen 
zum Dienst des Publicums so wohl als auch der Gemeine mit sei- 
ner Druckerei. Es war wohl kein Wunder, dass er bei der man- 
cherlei Zerstreuungen seines Gemiits von der Bekanntschaft der 
Gemeine entfremdet und auch in seinem Herzen gegen die Brii- 
der schichtern wurde. Er blieb aber allemal ihr wahrer Freund 
und diente wo er konnte mit Freuden. Da unser lieber Bruder 
Jacob Fuss Ao. 1765 nach Philadelphia kam, machte er sich zu 
einer besonderen Gelegenheit, diesen ehemaligen treuen Diener 
und Mitgenossen der Gnaden der Bruder Gemeine aufzusuchen 
und mit Liebe und Herzlichkeit sein Zutrauen wieder zu gewin- 
nen. Es gelang ihm auch, insonderheit da ihn auch seine ehemali- 
gen Bekannten die lieben Briider Gregor und Lorenz Ao. 1770 
bei ihrem Besuch in Philadelphia, mit Liebe und Vertrauen auch 
wieder anfassten, sein Herz zum Heiland und der Gemeine wie- 
der aufzuwecken, dass er nach der Read Mission zu der ehemals 
genossenen ihm so wichtigen Gemein-Gnaden wieder verlangte 
und darum aufsuchte, da ihm dann solche im Jahr 1773 gewahrt 
wurde. Er war von da an ein treues Mitglied der Gemeine in 
Philadelphia, und fleissig und unermiidet im Buche drucken, bis 
ihn sein x\lter und seine Schwachheit vor einigen Jahren notigten, 
sich von seinem Hause und seiner Druckerei in Philadelphia los 
zu machen, und um ein Platzchen in Bethlehem, seine iibrigen 
Tage daselbst in Ruhe zuzubringen und seine Gebeine daselbst 
begraben zu lassen, zu bitten. 



Johann Heinrich Miller 135 

Er selbst schrieb davon : Die Ursach warum ich ersuche unter 
den Briidern ein Ruheplatzchen fiir meine zuriickgelassene H^utte 
zu bekommen, ist weil auch von meiner ersten Erweckung in mei 
ner Jugend an das grosse Unterscheidungskennzeichen derselben, 
unsers lieben Heilandes verdienstliches Leiden und Tod, unter 
alien Schwierigkeiten stets so fest an sie gebunden hat, dass ich 
mich bis auf diesen Tag als das unwiirdigste Mitglied zu der 
Briider Gemeine bekenne. 

Er verordnete auch in seinem Testament, dass wenn eine 
offentliche Rede bei seiner Begrabnis gehalten wiirde, den Text 
dazu aus i. Tim. 1:15. 

Das erbetene Ruheplatzchen in Bethlehem erhielt er und zog 
kurz vor Weihnachten 1780 hierher. Er wurde hier bei seinem 
hohen Alter und damit verkniipten vielen Schwachlichkeiten nach 
so vielen ausgestandenen Miihseligkeiten seines Lebens mit allem 
Fleiss und herzlicher Liebe von Geschwister Schindler bedicnt 
und gepflegt. Er behielt dabei immer etwas Schuchternes und 
Zaghaftes in seinem Herzen, und konnte liber den Punkt, dass 
er nach erfahrener wahrer Gnade dem Heiland untreu werden, 
leicht bedenklich werden, und erlaubte sich als dann den Zutritt 
zu dem Heiligen Abendmahl nicht. Desto zerflossener aber war 
sein Herz so oft er glauben konnte und eine neue Versicherung 
erhielt, dass seine Untreue des Heilandes Treue nicht aufhebe. 
Das beugte ihm wie ein Wiirmlein in den Staub. Am letzten Palm 
Sonntag kam er aus der ersten Versammlung vom Saal so 
schwach, dass er sich hat legen miissen. Schmerzen fiihlte er 
nicht, nur grosse Schwachhiet, sagte er auch zu seinem lieben 
Hauswirt, dass er wohl hingehen wiirde. Er war auch von 
aussen und innen auch dazu ganz fertig. Seine Schwachheit er- 
laubte ihm nicht mehr aufzustehen. Denen ihn besuchenden Ge- 
schwistern bezeugte er, dass er seiner Auflosung mit ruhigem, 
Herzen entgegen sehe. Dem Bruder Miinster, der ihn fragte ob 
ihm noch etwas iibrig sei, dass ihm Unruhe machen konnte, ant- 
wortete er, "Meine aussere Sachen sind in Ordnung, und bei mei- 
nem lieben Heiland begehre ich weiter nichts als Schachersgnade, 
und bin gewiss die wird er mir nicht versagen. 

Er lag die Marterwoche durch stille. Am ersten Ostertage 



136 Johann Heinrich Miller 

den 3ten Marz wurde er in Beisein verschiedener Geschwister von 
Bruder Miinster unter einem seligen Gfiihl eingesegnet, imd et- 
liche Minuten darauf verschied er sanft und selig. Seine Leiche 
hatte einen so anmutigen, lieblichen Blick als er vielleicht nie in 
seiner Lebenszeit gehabt hatte. Er ruhet nun von seiner miihseli- 
gen Wallfahrt durch diese Zeit, die 80 Jahre und. 19 Tage ge- 
dauert hat, aus an Jesu Wunden. 



H. C. BLOEDEL— IN MEMORIAM. 
M. D. Learned. 

As thousands are falling in the reign of shot and shell and at 
the point of the bayonet on European battlefields, the mind grows 
less observant of the individual hero in civil life. There are, how- 
ever, sturdy heroes in the field of civic strife. Our lamented 
friend, the late H. C. Bloedel, was such a hero. He believed in 
the inviolable right of personal freedom, in the superior excel- 
lence of German life and institutions, in the German language as 
an essential in American education, and in the German ideal of 
physical training as exemplified in the Turner organizations of 
America. But with all this devotion to things German he was in 
the best sense a loyal American. He regarded these German 
traits as factors, that strengthen the American character and 
hence strove to see them exemplified in the activity about him. 

Mr. Bloedel was born March 2, 1847, ^^ Hanover, Germany. 
In 1866, at the age of nineteen years, he came to America, settling 
finally in Pittsburgh, after having attended Herald Business Col- 
lege in Cincinnati. It was his keen insight into the business 
future of Pittsburgh, that led him to select that city as his future 
residence. Here he spent fifty years of active, successful life in 
business, and in the wholesome Germanwise reared a large fam- 
ily, with a numerous family circle. It was his supreme joy to 
meet his children and grandchildren about the festive family 
board. 

H. C. Bloedel was a master in the use of the German lan- 
guage. Gentle hearted, even indulgent in the family circle, he 
was fire itself when a vital patriotic or civic interest was at stake, 
and he poured forth in eloquent appeals in well rounded German 
periods his irresistible argument for the cause he had at heart. 
Nor was he a man of words only, but of deeds as well. His gen- 
erosity was far-reaching. Not only the societies of which he was 
so valuable a member, but other enterprises which did not appeal 
so directly to the average business man — all were his beneficiaries. 
Among the first Germans in America to contribute to the Insti- 

(137) 



138 H. C. Bloedel — In Mernoriam 

tution of German American Research, at the University of Penn- 
sylvania, was H. C. Bloedel, with a substantial check, and a word 
of encouragement. Such hyphenates — as they have been unhap- 
pily termed — are no peril to the American Government, but a 
lasting asset to real democracy. He was one of the Old Guard of 
Germans in America, whose activity did so much to foster the 
German spirit in the best sense. As we look back over the last 
twenty years and see how the ranks of this sturdy generation of 
Germans have been thinned by the great, relentless reaper Death, 
we wonder what will be the record of their successors in the next 
generation. 

His four sons and three daughters with their families, and 
thousands of those who knew him, will cherish his memory and 
perpetuate his virtues. 



(5erman Qmcrican Qnnals 

CONTINUATION OF THE QUARTERLY 

AMERICANA GERMANICA 



New Series. Sept., Oct., Nov. and Dec. Old Series. 
Vol. XIV. Nos. 3 and 4. 1916. Vol. XVIII. Nos. 3 and 4. 

THE GENERAL SWISS COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 
Preston A. Barba, 
Indiana University. 

As early as 1764 the "Deutsche Gesellschaft von Pennsyl- 
vanien" was founded in Philadelphia, the purpose of which was 
to improve transportation facilities for German emigrants to 
the New World, to protect them against extorting sea-captains 
and nefarious land-sharks, and to aid them in establishing them- 
selves on American soil. Later many other organizations sprang 
up, both in America and in Germany, some with the simple 
purpose of aiding individual German settlers, others with a view 
toward directing German emigration to some chosen uninhab- 
ited region, and still others with the definite intention of found- 
ing communistic settlements and even German States within the 
United States. 

One of the most interesting of these organizations was the 
"Giessener Auswanderungsgesellschaft," made up chiefly of 
Germans from the grand duchy of Hessen. Under the guid- 
ance of its founders, Paul Follen and Friedrich Miinch, large 
bodies of immigrants were brought in 1834 to Missouri. In 
the ambitious plan drawn up by these two brilliant young revolu- 
tionaries they desire "in one of the American territories to es- 
tablish an essentially German state, in which a refuge may be 
found for all those to whom, as to ourselves, conditions at home 

(141) 



142 The General Swiss Colonisation Society 

have become unbearable — a territory which we shall be able to 
make a model state in the great republic."^ In 1835 a similar 
society, "Germania," was founded in America. It also pur- 
posed to direct German immigration to a definite unsettled area, 
where ultimately German states might arise. Its founders dis- 
agreed in their plans, and the society soon died. Another notable 
organization was the "Mainzer Adelsverein" (1842), which 
planned to direct on a most extensive scale a stream of emigra- 
tion from Hessen and the neighboring provinces to the State of 
Texas. To this society the towns of Friedrichsburg and New 
Braunfels owe their origin.^ 

Perhaps less spectacular in its activities than the above so- 
cieties, but nevertheless productive of permanent results, was 
the General Swiss Colonization Society of Cincinnati, the his- 
tory of w^hich this article is to present. Since 1830 Cincinnati 
had been a city highly favored by German and Swiss immigrants. 
From its gates many have gone forth and spread over the terri- 
tories of the West. Many, too, have remained and contributed 
toward making Cincinnati one of the strongholds of German 
culture in the Middle West. It was quite natural then that Cin- 
cinnati should become the seat of various colonization enter- 
prises. 

As early as 1832 a German society was founded in Cincin- 
nati to aid fellow-countrymen in settling in vicinities sparsely 
settled and there establishing cities.^ "Der Deutsche Westliche 
Ansiedlungsverein" (1844) of Cincinnati bought Prairie la 
Porte in Iowa, and there laid out the town of Guttenberg."* 
Through the "Turner Ansiedlungsverein" (1857) many immi- 
grants were sent to Neu-Ulm, Minnesota. "Der Deutsche 
Katholische Ansiedlungsverein" (1869) founded Lawrence- 
burg, Tennessee. 



'Faust, The German Element in the United States, vol. i, p. 443. 
^ Cf . Benjamin, The Germans in Texas. Amer. Germ., vol. 11. 
'Der deutsche Pionier, vol. I, p. 84 f. 
* Ibid., vol. 9, p. 148 f . 



The General Szviss Colonisation Society 143 

The Swiss Colonization Society of Cincinnati, its members 
consisting both of German-Swiss and German immigrants, de- 
serves, therefore, due consideration on the part of the investi- 
gators of German-American history. 

In December, 1858, a small number of German-Swiss gath- 
ered in Cincinnati for the purpose of forming a colonization so- 
ciety. This society was organized January 10, 1857, with J. C. 
Christin as its first president, and was duly incorporated accord- 
ing to the laws of the State of Ohio. The society had three gov- 
erning bodies; the immediate administrative officers, or Vor- 
stand ; a board of directors, the Direktorium ; and a general con- 
vention. Only the directors could decide upon the purchase of 
lands. The constitution of the society was entirely democratic, 
and drawn up in a way that would exclude all fraud and specu- 
lation. The German immigrant was warmly welcomed with 
the Swiss. In fact, in the beginning, the German members seem 
almost to have outnumbered the Swiss. Native Americans were 
not to be excluded. Indicative of the appeal the colonization 
plans of the society made to the German and Swiss immigrant, 
are the numerous branch societies of the mother organization 
which soon flourished in the cities of the Middle West. January 
17, 1857, there were but sixty-two members on the list. In 
February, branch societies already existed in Sandusky, Mil- 
waukee, Lexington, Louisville and New Orleans; in the course 
of time branches were founded in Pittsburgh, St. Louis, Terre 
Haute, Davenport, Dubuque, Indianapolis, Newport, Monroe, 
Memphis, Xenia and Chicago; probably also in Highland and 
in Allegheny. The central office was located in Cincinnati. For 
a period in the earlier history of the society, its officers met in 
the "Deutsche Republik," a wine-house, located at the corner of 
Walnut and Mercer Streets. In March, 1857, upward of 700 
shares had already been sold. The first general convention of 
the central society, together with its branches, was held in Cin- 
cinnati, April 19, 20 and 21, 1857. 

The immediate object of the society was the acquisition of 
about 50,000 acres of fertile land in one of the western states 



144 ^^^ General Swiss Colonization Society 

or territories, where, free from the speculating interests of any 
private individuals, it could afford Swiss immigrants (as well 
as others, with similar democratic principles) an opportunity to 
establish a home in their adopted land advantageously. To ac- 
complish this it was the desire of the society to secure land in a 
free state or territory, with facilities for industry and commerce, 
where they could pursue a sober and industrious community 
life, as they were wont to do in their native land. On the pur- 
chased area a city was to be laid out, which city they early con- 
cluded to call Tell City, for the great Swiss liberator, Wilhelm 
Tell. The land was to be divided into town and garden lots, 
with outlying farm lands. Each member of the society was at 
the same time to be a shareholder. According to the original 
plan, shares were to be sold at $15 each, one share entitling the 
holder to two town lots, which could, if desired, be exchanged 
for garden lots. Farm land was to be sold at cost price, al- 
though no more than 80 acres were to be sold to any one per- 
son. For the benefit of the members of the society, a monthly 
report of the business proceedings of the society was to be pub- 
lished. 

The earliest constitution adopted by the society has not 
come to the notice of the writer. At a general convention held 
in March, 1858, only a little more than a year after the organiza- 
tion of the society, another constitution was adopted. Since 
this constitution appears to be similar in content to the first one, 
the following main paragraphs will present an adequate idea of 
the nature and purpose of the General Swiss Colonization So- 
ciety : 

§ I. — Der Zweck des Schweizer-Ansiedlungsvereins 
ist die Erwerbung einer geeigneten Strecke Landes zur 
Griindung einer Colonic, mit besonderer Riicksicht auf 
Ackerbau und commercielle Vortheile, um dadurch Unbe- 
mittelten die Erwerbung von Heimstatten durch Vereins- 
hiilfe zu ermoglichen, und deren Existenz durch heimische 
Einrichtungen zu verschonern. 

§ 2. — Jede Person, die das Alter von 18 Jahren und 
einen unbescholtenen Ruf hat, kann Aktionar sein und wer- 



The General Swiss Colonisation Society 145 

den, wenn sie sich bei dem Vereine, wo sie wohnt, anmeldet 
und aufgenommen wird. Wer keinen Verein in seinem 
Wohnort hat, kann sich an den Vorstand wenden. 

Niemand darf unter einem andern Namen oder fiir eine 
andere Person eine Aktie nehmen, ohne deren ausdriickHche 
miindliche oder schriftliche EinwilHgung. 

Minderjahrige Kinder von Wittwen konnen Aktien hal- 
ten und kaufen, doch diirfen dieselben nicht iibertragen wer- 
den, bis die Inhaber volljahrig sind. 

Jeder Aktieninhaber hat das Recht, seine Aktie oder 
Aktien zu veraussern, muss sie aber von dem Vorstand oder 
einem Direktoren iiberschreiben lassen, wofiir zu Gunsten 
der Centralkasse 50 Cents bezahlt werden miissen. 

§ 3. — Jede Aktie muss vom Prasidenten, Sekretar und 
Schatzmeister unterschrieben sein. 

§ 4. — Jede Aktie berechtigt ihren Inhaber zu einem 
Grundeigentum, bestehe es nun in einer Stadtlot oder einem 
Stiick Gartenland nachst der Stadtgrenze von der Grosse, 
wie es durch den Ansiedlungsplan festgesetzt ist. 

Ein Aktionar kann vom Vereine Farmland, wenn sol- 
ches reservirt werden kann, zum Kostenpreise, und zu sol- 
chen Terminen, wie sie der Ankauf bedingt, erhalten; jedoch 
nicht mehr als achtzig Acker, und zwar nur dann, wenn er 
sich permanent darauf niederlasst. Aktien werden als Ab- 
schlagszahlungen an das Farmland angenommen. 

Die Besitztitlel (Deeds) werden den Kaufern erst nach 
ganzlicher Abzahlung der Kauf summe iibergeben ; dem Kau- 
fer fiir Farmland muss zu seiner Sicherheit bei der ersten 
Anzahlung ein Bond gegeben werden. 

§ 5. — Rechte der Mitglieder. Jeder Aktionar ist 
Mitgiied des Vereins, wahlberechtigt und wiihlbar, und es 
soil ihm jeder Zeit Einsicht in die Vereinsbiicher gestattet 
sein. 

§ 6. — Ein Mitgiied kann ausgeschlossen werden, wenn 
dasselbe adsichtlicher Vergehen gegen den Verein iiberwie- 
sen wird oder sich entehrender Handlungen schuldig 
macht. Der Vorstand hat nach geschehener Untersuchung 
zu entscheiden; ebenso kann und soil ein Beamter wegen 
Vergehen oder grosser Nachlassigkeit entsetzt werden. In 
solchen Fallen hat Jeder das Recht der Appellation an die 
Convention. Ein Ausgeschlossener soil sein Geld gegen 
Riickgabe seiner Aktie und nach Abzug eines Drittheils fiir 
Kosten zuriickhalten. Weigert sich in diesem Falle Jemand. 



146 The General Swiss Colonization Society 

seine Aktien zuriickzugeben, so werden sie fiir ungiiltig er- 
klart. 

§ 7. — Convention. Jeden ersten Sonntag im Marz 
soil eine General-Convention abgehalten werden, um die Be- 
richte des Direktoriums, des Vorstandes und des Commit- 
tees entgegenzunehmen, wenn nothig, die Statuten zu revidi- 
ren, neue Beamten zu wiihlen, und liber andere Fragen und 
Streitigkeiten zu entscheiden, die ihrer Competenz anheim- 
gestellt sind. 

Sammtliche Vereine sollen durch Delegaten vertreten 
sein, die fiir je zehn Aktionare eine Stimme haben, Bruch- 
zahlen von Fiinf und dariiber berechtigen zu einer Stimme. 

Ein auswartiger Delegat hat das Recht, alle Stimmen 
des Vereins von dem er abgeschickt ist, zu vertreten, ebenso 
kann er mehrere Vereine vertreten, im letzteren Falle aber 
nicht mehr als zwanzig Stimmen auf sich vereinigen. Die 
Delegaten haben sich als solche durch schriftliche Vollmach- 
ten zu legitimiren. 

§ 8. — Administration. Die oberste Gewalt ausser der 
General-Convention besitzt ein Direktorium mit einem 
Prasidenten. Dieses Direktorium soil ervvahlt werden aus 
den Mitgliedern der verschiedenen Vereine, und zwar ein 
Mitglied von jedem Vereine. 

In Cincinnati sollen vier Mitglieder und der Prasident 
sein, und vier Stimmen haben. Die ersten vier erwahlt der 
Cincinnati Verein, den Letztern die Convention. Die aus- 
wartigen Direktoren sollen durch ihre respectiven Vereine 
gewahlt werden. 

§ 9. — V or stand. Die Leitung der inneren Angele- 
genheiten des Vereins wird einem Vorstande von neun Mit- 
gliedern iibergeben ; dieser Vorstand besteht aus einem Vor- 
sitzer, zweiten Vorsitzer, ersten protocoll. Sekretar, zweiten 
protocoll. Sekretar, ersten corresp. Sekretar, zweiten corresp. 
Sekretar, Schatzmeister, und zwei Beisitzern. Alle diese 
Beamten sollen durch geheime Abstimmung von der Con- 
vention erwahlt werden. 

§ 10. — Die Verwaltung der Gelder soil drei Vertrau- 
ensmannern iibergeben wereden. 

§ II. — Pflichten des Direktoriums: 

a. Es hat zu entscheiden iiber Angelegenheiten, wozu 
der Vorstand keine Competenz hat, namentlich iiber einen 
Landkauf, iiber Anstellung von Commiteen auf Vereinsko- 
sten und Einberufung von ausserordentlichen Conventionen ; 



The General Swiss Colonization Society 147 

und sollen ferner die in Cincinnati wohnenden Mitglieder in 
Fallen yon ausserordentlicher Dringlichkeit berechtigt sein, 
endgiiltige Beschliisse zu fassen und auszufiihren. 

b. Es iiberwacht sorgfaltig die Handlungen des Vor- 
standes. Die Mitglieder wechseln ihre Ansichten schriftlich 
durch die Hand des Prasidenten. 

c. Jedes Mitglied des Direktoriums hat bei alien in litt. 
bestimmten Fallen einen Beschluss der Aktionare seiner Hei- 
math zu fordern und demnach zu handeln. 

d. Der Prasident des Direktoriums hat die Correspon- 
denz mit den Mitgliedern desselben und dem Vorsitzer des 
Vorstandes zu unterhalten, und dem Letztern von jedem Be- 
schlusse offizielle Nachricht zu geben. 

Ferner hat er eine Kaufakte mit den Vertrauensman- 
nern, und dereinst alle Deeds zu unterzeichnen. 
§ 12. — Pflichten des Vorstandes: 

a. Der Vorstand besorgt die laufenden Geschafte des 
Vereins, ernennt nothig werdende Angestellte, nimmt Be- 
richte von Committeen und Beamten entgegen, unterrichtet 
und befragt in alien in § 1 1 specifizirten Fallen das Direk- 
torium. 

b. Er hat fiir Conventionen alle nothigen Publikationen 
und anderweitige Voranstalten zu besorgen. 

c. Hat er bei Conventionen iiber alle Zweige seiner 
Thatigkeit speziellen Bericht zu geben. 

d. Das Direktorium ersetzt allfallig abgehende Mit- 
glieder des Vorstandes. 

e. Der Vorstand hat dem Direktorium iiber seine Wirk- 
samkeit jeden Monat einen genauen Bericht zu erstatten und 
bei alien wichtigen Geschaften das Gutachten des Direk- 
toriums einzuholen, dringende Falle ausgenommen, wo eine 
Verschiebung der Entscheidung ohne grossen Nachtheil fiir 
den Verein nicht moglich ware. ' 

§ 13. — Spezielle Pflichten der Beamten: 

a. Der Vorsitzer leitet alle Verhandlungen, unterzeich- 
net die Aktienscheine, sowie Anweisungen auf den Schatz- 
meister und beruft ausserordentliche Versammlungen, wenn 
er es nothig findet, oder wenn drei Mitglieder es verlangen. 

b. Der protokollirende Sekretar fiihrt die Verhand- 
lungsprotokolle, unterzeichnet Aktienscheine und Anweisun- 
gen auf den Schatzmeister. 

c. Der correspondirende Sekretar besorgt die Corre- 
spondenzen, fiihrt ein genaues Copirbuch und gibt wochent- 



148 The General Szviss Colonization Society 

lich im Vereinsorgan offiziellen Bericht iiber den Gang der 
Geschafte. 

d. Der Schatzmeister fiihrt in Verbindung mit dem 
correspondirenden Sekretar genaue Rechnung iiber die Ver- 
einsgelder, unterzeichnet die Aktienscheine und bezahlt An- 
weisungen. Sind mehr als $200 in der Kasse, so hat er den 
tJberfluss den Vertrauensmannern einzuhandigen, und end- 
lich hat er geniigende Biirgschaft zu leisten. 

§ 14. — Die Vertrauensmanner verwahren das Ver- 
einscapital, haUen es zu jeder Zeit zur Verfiigung des Ver- 
eins bereit, und haben hinreichende Biirgschaft zu leisten 
und dieselbe recorden zu lassen. 

§ 15. — Alle Aktionare, an einem Orte wohnen, ha- 
ben sich zu einem Zweigverein zu organisiren. Dieser Ver- 
ein hat das Recht, seine eigenen Beamten zu wahlen und 
seine eigenen Angelegenheiten zu besorgen, er hat ferner das 
ausdriickhche Recht, fiir allfalHge Kostenriickstande die 
Deeds der Inhaber mit Beschlag zu belegen. 

Der Centralgewalt steht keine Einmischung zu. 

§ 16. — Sohte der Verein Gelder zu verleihen zu ha- 
ben, so soil dieses nur an solche Aktionare geschehen, welche 
wirkliche Ansiedler in Tell City sind. 

§ 17. — Nach Abhaltung der nachsten Convention soil, 
im Fall zweihundert Mitglieder sich auf der Ansiedlung 
permanent niedergelassen, die Verwaltung dorthin verlegt 
werden, so zwar, dass die Ansiedler die Halfte der Beamten, 
die Convention die andere Halfte und den Prasidenten er- 
wahlt. 

§ 18. — Es soil ein Agent vom Verein angestellt werden, 
der seinen Wohnplatz in der Ansiedlung zu nehmen hat. 

Felix Schelling, the first corresponding secretary of the 
society, immediately set about addressing letters to influential 
men soliciting their advice and aid in this colonization enterprise. 
January 14, a letter was written to John Hitz, Consul General, 
asking him to use his influence in applying to the United States 
government for favorable tracts of land. Also letters were writ- 
ten to the Swiss consuls in the United States, asking them to 
exert themselves in furthering the interests of the society. January 
i8th letters were sent to the governors of Illinois, Wisconsin, 
Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Minnesota, and Iowa, requesting 



The General Swiss Colonization Society 149 

their aid in finding a suitable tract of land upon which to settle. 
These letters, though varying slightly, are similar in content. The 
following letter addressed to the Hon. Francis P. Blair, of 
St. Louis, January 18, 1857, will illustrate the nature of these 
petitions : 

Respected Sir: 

The undersigned takes the liberty, to request your kind 
attention to the following lines, — The Swiss of this city 
have organized in December last, a Colonization Society, 
with the intention of acquiring a large tract of fertile land 
(about 50,000 acres, or more) in one of the northwestern 
states or territories. The object of this association is, to 
provide each of its members with a homestead, to appropri- 
ate about one third of its funds to the general improve- 
ment and assistance to the first settlers, and thereby to form 
a community of thriving, honest and intelligent Republicans. 
Our constitution is entirely democratic, and its regulations 
such as to exclude any fraud or speculation. — We expect 
to sell from 2 — to 3,000 shares among the Swiss in the 
U. S. and have reason to believe, that the federal govern- 
ment of our country will participate in our enterprise, as 
soon as the present difficulties will be settled. We would 
therefore respectfully request you to excert your important 
influence in our cause, and to give us such information and 
advice, as would enable us to proceed in the execution of 
our plans. We would prefer to buy the land in a temperate 
climate, and in the selection of it would have particular 
consideration to facilities of communications, for the sake 
of industry and commerce, as it is also in our plan, to lay 
out a city. As the Swiss are well known for their industry, 
perseverance, and strong attachment to their homes and 
liberties, we are sure to become. welcome neighbors to any 
class of liberal citizens. 

Though Missouri is a slave-holding state, and none of 
our colony would ever forget the sacred principles of Re- 
publicanism so far as to make use of such a privilege 
I would only suggest to your consideration : 
Whether our settling within its borders would be an advance- 
ment to the cause of republican freedom, without any 
serious troubles for our security. I have no doubt, that if 
we could get a large tract of good and well-located land at 



150 The General Swiss Colonization Society 

favorable price and condition, the majority of the share- 
holders could be induced to accept such an offer in spite of 
their aversion to slave states. As we have not yet translated 
our constitution in English, I take the liberty to send you 
a German copy of it. 

In the hope that you will honor us with a timely reply, 
I remain Sir, 

Yours most respectfully, 
(Signed) Felix Schelling, 

Cor. Sec. 

A letter, dated January 20, 1857, was sent to Friedrich 
Miinch, one of the most distinguished of the German pioneers 
in the West, one who by virtue of his many years of experience, 
was indeed admirably fitted to advise. Friedrich Miinch had 
come to America with Paul Follen, and settled in Missouri. He 
early became a power among the Germans in America, took an 
active part in politics, and in 1862 was elected to the Senate 
of his state. As a writer he was well known to the Germans of 
America under the pen-name of "Far West". 

On January 26, a letter was sent to William H. Osborne, 
President of the Illinois Central R. R. Company, requesting him 
to give such information and advice to the society in regard to 
the selection, price, and conditions of the land, which the rail- 
road company was offering for sale, that would enable them to 
carry out their plans. 

For a time Iowa seems to have been considered as a de- 
sirable state in which to found a colony. On January 26, the 
following letter was sent to the Land Department, Fort Des 
Moines, Iowa : 

The undersigned would respectfully request you to 
give me, as soon as possible, all necessary information on 
the following points : — 

1. Whether you have a tract of good, fertile land, of 
about 50,000 acres, bordering on the Des Moines River for 
sale. 

2. To what price, and condition of payment could it 
be obtained, if it should be partially settled within the time 
of two years, after this coming fall. 



The General Swiss Colonization Society 151 

3. Are the facilities of communication, particularly 
those of the Des Moines River already so far advanced, as 
to secure the interests of commerce and industry of a 
thriving settlement. 

4. What general inducements would be held out by 
the Des Moines River Navigation Company, to secure the 
immediate settling of a large number of the members of the 
Swiss Colonization Society. 

We expect to sell from 2000 — 3000 shares among the 
Swiss in the U. S. and have reason to believe that a great 
number from Switzerland will participate in this enter- 
prise. . . . 

Please send me all the information on this matter, as 
soon as you can, with a clear description of the land, timber, 
soils, water, etc. 

Yours Respectfully, 
(Signed) Felix Schelling, 

Cor. Sec. 

In a letter written about the same time to Col. G. C. 
Fremont, who, on account of his extensive explorations in the 
far West, was certainly well qualified to advise the society in its 
search for a tract of land, is the expression of a sentiment which 
was no doubt shared by many another Swiss immigrant. The 
secretary writes : 

"By the selection of land we would have great con- 
sideration in regard to facilities of communication, and 
would therefore prefer to locate on the borders of a navigable 
river or lake. Even if the country would be mountainous 
(if not too far north), it would be more congenial to our 
countrymen, and better adapted to the stockraising and 
dairy business, for which the Switzers are so famous. 

"I have no doubt, that if we could settle in Kansas, 
Missouri, or even in any other already free state, that we 
might advance the cause of Republican freedom. Would it 
not be for the great expenses and difficulties of a long 
journey, and the insecurity on account of the Indians, I 
would be in favor to settle on those beautiful hills and val- 
leys near the Rocky Mountains, which you have so appropri- 
ately called: The Switzerland of America." 



152 The General Swiss Colonisation Society 

In the Spring of 1857, a committee for the finjling of suit- 
able land was appointed by the society. Of this committee Mr. 
Liver, of Milwaukee, acted as chairman, and Dr. Zwinger, of 
Pittsburgh, as treasurer. This committee (Landcommission) 
was under no circumstance to buy lands without the consent of 
the central government. It was to consider no lands lying 
beyond 43° North Lat., and such lands must have an area of 
at least 10,000 acres. The committee was to consider in its 
recommendation that such lands are to be divided into about 
3000 town lots and 500 garden lots; that there was for invest- 
ment a cash capital of between $70,000 and $80,000; also, that 
the society would purchase farm land on credit, but not land 
meant for town and garden lots. Further considerations were, 
a healthful climate, good soil, pure water, and building material. 
The land must have a good landing place on a navigable river. 
The committee was to travel in Illinois, Missouri, and Iowa, and 
the Kansas and Nebraska territories. It was to keep minutes, 
and from time to time report to the central governing body of 
the organization. 

In June, 1857, the above committee reported very favorably 
concerning lands in the State of Missouri. In the meanwhile, 
John Eggers, the recording secretary of the Swiss Colonization 
Society, was in correspondence with A. G. Selman, of Shelby- 
ville, Indiana, about land on the Ohio in southern Indiana, which 
the latter offered for sale. However, in a letter dated June 16, 
Mr. Selman was informed that the Board of Directors passed a 
resolution the previous evening to buy a tract of land on the 
Missouri River. At the same time a land-purchasing committee 
was appointed, and sent about June 20, to purchase the land in 
Missouri, so highly recommended by the land committee. This 
purchase was not made, however, for the reason that the land 
consisted of divided parts. 

In July, 1857, C. Tuffli, M. Oehlman and C. Rebstock were 
sent down the Ohio, as duly authorized agents of the society, 
stopping at various places on the way. They were given a letter 
to Mr. Selman, asking the same to afford them every facility in 



The General Swiss Colonization Society 153 

his power to form a correct judgment of the land which he had 
at an earher date offered to sell to the society. But now the at- 
tention of the society was again turned to Missouri, where 
Friedrich Miinch, who seems to have had an interest in this 
colonization plan, had been active in their behalf. On July 17, 
the following letter was addressed to Messrs. Johnson and Cole- 
man of Missouri: 

We have in due time received, through the kindness of 
Mr. F. Miinch, the offer of two townships of land, situated 
in the S. W. part of Missouri, but have not answered it ere 
this, because we had to await the return of our committee 
from your state, whence they had gone for the express pur- 
pose of buying a tract of land which had been found and 
recommended to us by a former committee. As these gen- 
tlemen did not purchase the said tract, the Directors of the 
Swiss Colonization Society have in their last meeting re- 
solved to ask you to send us as soon as convenient a detailed 
map and description of your lands, in order that we may de- 
cide with some knowledge if it would be proper for us to 
send a committee to inspect them. Hoping to hear from 
you before long, I remain, gentlemen, 

Yours most respectfully, 

(Signed) J. C. Christin, 

Pres. of S. C. S. 

The project of finding lands in Missouri seems suddenly to 
have been abandoned, for during the latter days of July, the 
Board of Directors unanimously resolved to purchase the twenty 
thousand acres of land in Perry County, Indiana, as proposed 
to the Colonization Society by Dr. G. A. Selman, and the Hon. 
Ballard Smith. This land was located two miles below the town 
of Cannelton, four thousand acres of which lay directly along 
the Ohio, and the remaining 16,000 somewhat inland. The site 
offered a good landing on the river front. 

Evidently the society was desirous of getting more land 
than would be included in this purchase, for on July 31, J. C. 
Christin, the president, inquired of the United States Land 
Officers, at Vincennes, Indiana, whether any congress land could 
be got in Perry County, and at what price. On August 13, Dr. 



154 The General Swiss Colonization Society 

G. A. Selman was officially informed that the record made at a 
recent meeting of the Board of Directors, was signed by every 
member of the board, and was considered by all of them as 
binding on their part as the written instrument signed by Dr. 
Selman and Mr. Ballard Smith was for them. 

Frequent correspondence between both parties during the 
ensuing months shows that the purchasers had considerable dif- 
ficulty in getting clear titles to the different tracts of land pro- 
posed by Selman and Smith. For a time the society seems even 
to have despaired of making the purchase. They again turned 
toward Missouri, for a letter dated October 27, 1857, instructs 
Messrs. Adlersberg and Romiger, a land committee appointed 
by the society, to investigate a tract of land (1700 acres) located 
on the Missouri River above the town of Ouincy. In a meeting 
held by the board on November 4, it was resolved to ask Mr. 
Selman, and Judge Huntington (an owner of lands in Perry 
County, Ind. ) whether they could not furnish at least 4000 acres 
in one body with a clear title by January i, 1858. The society 
was finally successful in obtaining an area large enough to war- 
rant the plotting of a settlement. Mr. Frey, an authorized 
agent of the society, was very soon sent to the nearby town of 
Cannelton, whence he could take the necessary steps to- 
ward the promotion of the welfare of the young settlement. 
In December, 1857, and in the months immediately following, 
the following tracts of land were conveyed by deed to Michael 
Goepper, Christian Tuffli, and Peter Constans, as trustees of the 
General Swiss Colonization Society : Elisha M. Huntington, 398 
acres, for $15,920; Marshall Key, 302 acres, for $12,080; John 
James, 74 acres, for $3750; Charles Limberick, 40 acres, for 
$600; Jacob Dewitt, 160 acres, for $2500; Nimrod Latimer 
(Skull's Estate), 22 acres, for $264; Edwin Morris, 40 acres, 
for $1000; George W. Buttler, 74 acres, for $3700; Benjamin 
Persinger, 200 acres, for $10,000; Abel Butler, 270 acres, for 
$5500; Samuel E. Webb, 200 acres, for $3600; Eli Thrasher, 
120 acres, for $2400; J. B. Huckaby, 40 acres, for $430; Fred 
H. Oelschlager, 212 acres, for $3000; H. P. Brazee, 200 acres, 



The General Swiss Colonization Society 155 

for $5000; John Turner, 120 acres, for $1435; William Butler, 
200 acres, for $3100; Ballard Smith, 480 acres, for $5700; 
Homer Hull, 80 acres, for $1000; Nancy Field, 40 acres, for 
$250; A. G. Selman, 800 acres, for $3200; William Butler, 80 
acres, for $1000. The total amount of land bought was 4152 
acres, at a cost of $85,429. Of this land, 2672 acres, costing 
$74,279, were cut up into town and garden lots ; the remaining 
1480 acres, costing $11,150, were set aside as farm land. 

The purchasing of land in Indiana caused opposition among 
some members of the societ3^ In the Pittsburgh "Verein" be- 
tween two and three hundred of the members withdrew. The 
tract of land purchased for lots being smaller than the society- 
had at first planned, the loss of these members was really not 
regretted. According to the original plan the funds for the 
payment of lands purchased were to be raised by an assessment 
of $15 on each shareholder. However, at the general conven- 
tion held in Cincinnati in March, 1858, it was resolved that an 
additional payment of $5 be made on each share, the same to 
be used for improvements. Each shareholder could hold only 
two shares, each of which entitled him to one lot, to be drawn by 
lot. In January, 1858, there were about 5000 shareholders. 

January 13, the Board of Directors of the Swiss Coloniza- 
tion Society informed the Recorder of Perry County, Indiana, 
of the purchase of a tract of land in that county, upon which a 
new town. Tell City, was soon to be laid out. Since the deeds 
for about 5000 shareholders were to be ready in a few months, 
and since this would be an immense labor, not only for the offi- 
cers of the Society, but also for the recorder, the advice of the 
latter was asked in getting up blank records, concerning the 
size of the same, the number of the book now used, etc. 

In January, too, A. Pfaefflin, an engineer, was commis- 
sioned by the society to go to Perry County, to see which part 
of the lands was free from floods, and most suitable for the 
laying out of the town. He was to begin at once with the sur- 
veying of the same. Further, he was to examine purchasable 
farm land in the neighborhood. Pfaefflin found a part of the 



156 The General Swiss Colonisation Society 

site covered with a heavy forest; a part of it was marred with 
gullies, which only made the surveyor's task more difficult. He 
laid out 392 town blocks, containing 7328 lots, and 294 garden 
blocks, containing 974 lots. 

The distribution of lots very probably took place in March, 
1858. Farm lands were not apportioned by lot. They were to 
be sold, to the extent of eighty acres, to individual members of 
the society at cost price. Of the town and garden lots combined, 
7594 were drawn, leaving 709, of which 665 were town lots, and 
forty- four garden lots. , 

A detailed plan for colonization was drawn up and pre- 
sented before the general convention of the Swiss Colonization 
Society, held in Cincinnati, in March, 1858. After having been 
duly considered it was accepted by that body on March 17. 
This plan was thereupon printed, together with the constitution 
and minutes, and distributed. From one of these sheets, pre- 
served in the archives of Tell City, the plan is here reprinted : 

§ I. — Jede Aktie, sei es Stadt- oder Garten- Aktie, be- 
rechtigt den Inhaber zu einer durch das Loos zu bezeichnen- 
den Lot, wofiir ihm endgiiltig ein Eigenthumstitel zuge- 
stellt werden soil. 

§ 2. — Der Stadtplatz ist in einen ostlichen und west- 
lichen einzutheilen, und es soil der letztere vorzugsweise zu 
Stadt- und der erstere zu Garten-Lots verwendet werden. 

§ 3. — Die Grosse der Stadtlots in 260 Blocks ist fol- 
gendermassen f estgesetzt : 

a. Im bestgelegenen Stadttheile zu 40 Fuss Front und 
140 Fuss Tiefe. 

b. Im mittleren Stadttheile zu 48 Fuss Front und 140 
Fuss Tiefe. 

c. Im entfernteren Stadttheile zu 60 Fuss Front und 
140 Fuss Tiefe. 

Die Ecklots eines jeden Blocks erhalten eine Tiefe von 
nur 70 Fuss. 

§ 4. — Die Gartenlots sind wie die Stadtlots nach Mass- 
gabe ihrer Lage und Entfernung ebenfalls in drei Klassen 
einzutheilen, wovon 

die dem Stadtplatz zunachst gelegenen zu 5/6 Acker, 
die von demselben entfernteren zu i 1/9 Acker, 
die am weitesten zuritckgelegenen i 2/3 Acker, 
ausgelegt werden sollen. 



The General Swiss Colonization Society 157 

Die Lots der letzten Klasse konnen, wenn nothig, ausser 
der Corporations Linie ausgelegt werden. 

§ 5. — Die Strassen, im ostlichen sowohl wie im west- 
lichen Stadttheile, sollen in der Weise ausgelegt wer- 
den, dass die von Osten nach Westen laufenden, mit Inbe- 
griff der Seitenwege von je 10 Fuss eine Breite von 70 Fuss, 
und die von Norden nach Siiden laufenden, inclusive der 
Pavements von 12 Fuss, eine Breite von 80 Fuss erhalten. 
Die Alleys sind zu 20 Fuss auszulegen. 

Die Besitzer der Gartenlots sind berechtigt, die anstos- 
senden Strassen, jedoch mit Offenhalten eines geniigenden 
Weges, auf so lange zu benutzen, als die Herstellung der- 
selben nicht beschlossen wird. 

§ 6. — Aus der Zahl der dem Verein reservirten Stadt- 
lots sollen 200 in einer giinstigen Lage und moglichst 
arrondirt ausgewahlt und den ersten Ansiedlern zum Aus- 
tausch gegen die denselben durch das Loos zugefallenen Lots 
iiberlassen werden. 

Jedoch soil ein Aktionar nicht mehr als eine Lot aus- 
wechseln konnen, und muss derselbe innerhalb eines halben 
Jahres, von der Zeit seiner Ankunft an gerechnet, ein Brick- 
oder Framehaus errichten, welches wenigstens $125 werth 
ist. 

Ein erster Ansiedler ist derjenige, der sich bis zum i. 
April 1859 auf dem Vereinsland niedergelassen hat, um dort 
zu wohnen, und sein Recht auf die ausgewechselte Lot hat 
erst Gesetzeskraft, nachdem er die obigen Bedingungen er- 
fiillt hat. 

Die Besitzer von Gartenlots sind berechtigt, gegen eine 
verhaltnissmassige Nachzahlung ein weiteres Stiick Garten- 
land, jedoch nicht mehr als 3 1/3 Acker, vom Verein zu 
kaufen. 

§ 7. — Ein Aktionar, dem eine zur Zeit nicht verbes- 
serungsfahige Lot zuge fallen und der nicht in der Rubrik 
der ersten Ansiedler fallt, soil, wenn er zu bauen beabsich- 
tigt, das Recht haben, eine andere in der Niihe liegende Lot 
derselben Klasse zu verlangen. Die Entscheidung, ob eine 
Lot Verbesserungsfahig sei oder nicht, steht einem Commit- 
tee von Drei zu, wovon das eine Mitglied durch den Eigen- 
thiimer der Lot, das zweite durch den Verein oder dessen 
Vertreter, und das dritte durch die beiden Ersten erwahlt 
wird. 

8 8. — Die zum Austausch fiir die ersten Ansiedler 



158 The General Siviss Colonization Society 

bestimmten 200 Lots sollen vor alien Andern vermessen und 
eingetheilt werden. 

§ 9. — Es soil ein Gradirungs-Plan fiir die Stadt 
durch einen Ingenieur ausgefertigt und alle permanenten Ge- 
baude nach demselben errichtet werden. Wer bei Auffiih- 
rung von Bauten diesem Plane nicht nachkommt, hat alien 
ihm spater daraus erwachsenden Schaden selbst zu tragen. 

§ 10. — Der Gradirungs-Plan soil, so weit er Strassen 
und anderes allgemeines Stadt-Eigenthum betrifft, in 
moglichster Balde ausgefiihrt werden. 

§ II. — Es sollen, wenn moglich, in dem fiir die 
ersten Ansiedler reservirten Stadttheile eine der Zahl der 
zeitweiligen Einwohner entsprechende Anzahl Brunnen her- 
gestellt, doch das absolute Bediirfniss hiebei nicht iiber- 
schritten werden. 

§ 12. — Der Verein hat in einem vom Ingenieur zu 
bestimmenden Stadttheile eine Strecke Land zu reserviren, 
welche zu Bauplatzen fiir Fabriken und andere grossere 
Etablissements dienen soil. Diese Bauplatze sollen, wenn sie 
100 Fuss Front nicht iibersteigen, zu einem Dollar per Fuss 
verkauft werden. Werden mehr als 100 Fuss verlangt, so 
ist fiir jeden weitern Frontfuss $3 zu bezahlen. 

§ 13. — Der Vorstand hat unverziiglich eine durch 
die Nothwendigkeit gebotene Anzahl Gebaulichkeiten in der 
Ansiedlung zu errichten, und es sollen dieselben den ersten 
Ansiedlern miethweise oder kauflich iiberlassen werden. 

§ 14. — Der Verein soil, so weit es in seinem Besitz 
ist und so lange es seine Geldmittel erlauben, den Ansiedlern 
so viel Baumaterial iiberlassen, als zu einem einstockigen 
Hause mit 2 Zimmern nothig ist. Der Betrag hie fiir muss 
in 3 Jahresterminen zuriickbezahlt werden. 

§ 15. — Der Vorstand ist ermachtigt und andurch be- 
auftragt, ein Wharf-Boot fiir den Verein bauen zu lassen. 

§ 16. — Das auf dem Stadtplatze befindliche Holz bleibt 
Eigenthum des Vereins; doch soil jedem Ansiedler ge- 
stattet sein, nach Belieben auf allem nicht von wirklichen 
Ansiedlern bereits in Besitz genommenen Stadtlande das 
zum eigenen Gebrauche nothige Holz zu schlagen. Ausge- 
nommen sind die von Agenten zu bezeichnende Baume. 

§ 17. — Auf jeder Stadtlot sollen womoglich einige 
schone Baume nach dem Ermessen des Agenten stehen blei- 
ben. 

§ 18. — Der Verein hat dafiir zu sorgen, dass ein fahr- 



The General Szviss Colonization Society 159 

barer Weg landeinwarts angelegt unci eine Communikation 
mit den umliegenden Farmen hergestellt werde. 

§ 19. — Die Stadt soil in 6 Distrikte eingetheilt iind 
in jedem derselben eine Lot von circa 125 Fuss Front fiir 
ein Schulgebaude reservirt werden. 

Ein Viertheil alles reservirten Landes soil dem Schul- 
fond zufallen. 

§ 20. — Sobald es fiir 20 Kinder verlangt wird, soil 
eine den momentanen Bediirfnissen entsprechende, von allem 
Sektenwesen freie Schule errichtet werden. 

§ 21. — Fiir folgende offentliche oder gemeinniitzige 
Zwecke hat der Verein das nothige Land zu reserviren : 

(i) 10 Acker Farmland fiir einen Begrabnissplatz ; 

(2) 3 Blocks an der Meridian-Linie der ostlichen 
Halfte fiir einen Park; 

(3)5 Blocks zu fiinf Markthausern ; 

(4) 2 Acker fiir ein Krankenhaus; 

( 5 ) den nothigen Platz fiir ein Gemeindehaus ; 

(6) den bekannten Hiigel "Rigi" zur Anlegung eines 
Schiitzenplatzes. 

§ 22. — Die Taxen fiir sammtliches Land sind so 
lange vom Verein zu bezahlen, bis die Deeds in den Handen 
der Lottenbesitzer sind. 

§ 23. — Es soil von der Verwaltung durch das Ver- 
einsorgan die Anfrage gestellt werden, wie viele der Aktio- 
nare bereit seien, sich anzusiedeln und was sie zu treiben 
beabsichtigen. 

(Der letzte Paragraph soil dazu dienen um dem Vor- 
stand einen Massstab fiir die nothigen Vorkehrungen zu 
geben. ) 

The first settlers began to arrive on the ground early in 
March, 1858. At a meeting March 2, the central administrative 
body resolved, that in order to assist the first settlers, the unoc- 
cupied buildings on the purchased lands should be placed at their 
disposal. Settlers continued to arrive rapidly, and many had to 
leave temporarily for want of shelter. One of the very few 
first settlers remaining in Tell City today told the writer he spent 
his first night in the new settlement under a lean-to of boughs. 
In the middle of April, 100 families had already settled in Tell 
City. By June, there were over 600 inhabitants, and eighty-six 
houses. 



i6o The General Swiss Colonisation Society 

Mention of some of the proceedings taken from the minutes 
of the society during the eariiest days of the settlement may be 
of interest here. Under date of January 7, 1858, a petition made 
by Messrs. Kraatz, Pleisch, and Nunnemacher for aid from the 
society for the construction of a steam sawmill was laid upon 
the table. January 18, it was resolved that any company or in- 
dividual erecting a factory in Tell City before June i, 1859, was 
to receive ground necessary for such factory free of charge and 
rents for the first five years, and for the next five years at a 
moderate rent to be specified by the Vorstand and the Direktor- 
ium. At the same time such party was granted the privilege, 
after five years, of purchasing the ground at $1 per foot, pro- 
vided it did not exceed a frontage of 150 feet. January 25 there 
was granted a petition made by Messrs. Lange, Wolff and Stahl, 
of Lexington, to erect a sawmill in Tell City, asking a loan of 
$2000 for six months. About the same time, or a little later, 
John Herrmann and Company were also granted a loan of 
$2000 for the same purpose. February 16, measures were 
taken toward having a wharf-boat constructed for the new town. 
On March 5, it was resolved that three blocks in the new settle- 
ment be set aside for a park. March 20, a Mr. Chatteville was 
rented a log cabin and a small piece of ground at $5 a month and 
the sum of $8 was granted him for the building of a bake-oven. 
At this time it was decided that a lithographed plan of the city 
be made. Twenty acres of land were to be sold to a Mr. Senft 
for the purpose of putting up a soap factory. A committee was 
also appointed to consult with Mr. Frey, the company's agent 
in Tell City, about the building of frame houses for the settlers. 
April 5, James T. Lanham entered a complaint by letter against 
the society for publishing its proceedings only in the German 
language. Steps were taken to satisfy non-German speaking 
shareholders, though these were comparatively few in number. 
May 17, a petition on the part of James Litogar for a loan of 
$60 for the construction of a grist-mill was placed on the table. 
June 10, it was resolved to erect a two-story building, contain- 
ing two schoolrooms, and dwellings for two teachers. Also 



The General Swiss Colonisation Society i6i 

the next vacant house in Tell City was to be used as a provisional 
school-building. July 2, a stone quarry was leased to a Mr. 
Hinkel for a period of five years. August 24, resolutions were 
passed to have a special convention in Tell City from September 
19-21. 

One of the first settlers to arrive in Tell City was Charles 
Steinauer, who, in March, 1858, opened the first hotel in Judge 
Huntington's old residence, at the south end of Eighth Street. 
The first industrial enterprise was very likely the sawmill of 
John Herrmann and Company, for already in February the 
society had granted this company the privilege of felling free 
of charge the necessary timber for the construction of a sawmill 
on the premises. To encourage the establishment of industries 
the society was ready to loan money at six per cent, interest. 
Jacob Loew was loaned $300, with which to start a shingle fac- 
tory. Three hundred dollars were loaned to Reis & Endebrock, 
who built the first brewery. The same amount was granted 
Peter Schreck, also to start a brewery. In November, 1858, 
David Brosi and Henry Major started the first planing mill, and 
were loaned $1000. In April, Charles Reiff started a store. In 
May. C. Heim began the manufacturing of bricks. In May, 
Hausler & Company started a big lumber yard in town. In 
that month, too, the wharf-boat which had been built in Cin- 
cinnati was brought down the Ohio to Tell City. A good picture 
of the rapid growth of the settlement is given in the Cannelton 
Reporter for October 2, 1858: "Tell City is a marvel. There 
is nothing like its history and progress, and it has no precedent. 
It has now over eleven miles of streets, cut seventy feet wide 
through the forests; has 1,500 people, and 300 houses. All this 
has been done since the 15th of April last. The shareholders 
are coming in daily, and as soon as they can jfind their lots, com- 
mence their improvements. Every one seems confident that the 
owners of the adjacent lots will come and do likewise. By this 
time next year, we expect to see 5,000 people here, and the es- 
tablishment of sufficient branches of industry to give all full 
employment. This union of German and Swiss, of energy and 
economy, of thrift and industry will accomplish wonders." 



1 62 The General Swiss Colonisation Society 

Up to the time of the convention held in Tell City, from the 
19th to the 2 1 St of September, the business of the young settle- 
ment had been transacted through the central administrative 
board located in Cincinnati. Since the settlement was now fairly 
well established and since a branch society now also existed in 
Tell City, it was no longer necessary, and certainly not prac- 
ticable, to have the government of the settlement in Cincinnati. 
In August, the St. Louis branch already proposed its removal to 
Tell City. At the convention held in Tell City in September it 
was agreed so to do, and on October 13, Mr. Neubacher, the 
secretary of the newly-elected Direktorium, reports that all the 
property belonging to the Verein, books, minutes, reports, etc., 
have been sent to Tell City. From September 15, 1858, on, the 
minutes of the central administrative body are dated in Tell City. 
The administrative body, though having been removed to Tell 
City, was nevertheless still subject to the Board of Directors, 
which controlled the finances. • Expenditures in Tell City were 
not to exceed $800 a month, inclusive of the monthly $200 
which stood at the disposal of the administrative body. 

Deserving of mention in connection with the history of the 
Swiss Colonization Society is the publishing of the weekly paper 
Helvetia: Organ fucr Fortschritt, Freiheit und Vaterland. This 
paper was published separate and apart from the Swiss Coloniza- 
tion Society. It was to be an organ for the Swiss in America, 
yet it was somewhat dependent upon the members of the society 
for its subscriptions, and through its columns the proceedings 
of the society were largely made known to the shareholders. Its 
first number appeared in Cincinnati, February 25, 1857, only a 
few weeks after the organization of the society. Its first editor 
was J. H. Walser, and its publishers, J. H. Walser and J. J. 
Schellenbaum. It appeared every Thursday, and cost $2 per 
year. It seems soon to have had an extensive circulation, for in 
its second year its publishers had thirty-one agents spread over 
the states of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa, Missouri, Texas, Kentucky, Tennes- 
see, and Louisiana. In February, 1859, the place of publication 



The General Szviss Colonisation Society 163 

was transferred to Tell City where the paper appeared under the 
title Helvetia. Tell City Volksblatt. The last number to appear 
in Cincinnati was that of February 24, 1859, completing its 
second year. In Tell City it appeared every Wednesday, but in 
a somewhat larger format. In November, 1859, the editorship 
was transferred, probably to Dr. N. Sorg, at least in March, 
i860, the publication had passed into the hands of Dr. N. Sorg 
& Company, with Dr. Sorg as its editor. Being partly supported 
by shareholders of the Swiss Colonization Society, it became now 
more than ever the voice of that organization. The new editor 
voices his program in the number for November 23, 1859, in 
part as follows: 

"Nachdem ich nun die Redaktion der Helvetia iiber- 
nommen habe, glaube ich einem Wunsche der Leser zu ent- 
sprechen, wenn ich ihnen die Grundsatze, die mich in mei- 
nem neuen Geschaftskreise leiten und bestimmen werden, in 
Kiirze anzudeuten versuche. Die Helvetia war von Anfang 
an dazu bestimmt, eine geistige Verbindung zwischen dem 
alten Vaterlande und den hielandischen Schweizern zu un- 
terhalten. Sie ist demnach ein Schiveizerhlatt. Von 
Schweizern gegriindet soil sie auch fortan das Organ fiir die 
Schweizer in Amerika bilden. Sie wird stets das Wichtigste 
und Interessanteste aus dem politischen und socialen Leben 
der alten Heimath vor Augen fiihren. . . . Die Helvetia 
ist aber seit einigen Monaten auch als das Tell City Volks- 
blatt herausgegeben. Dadurch hat sich die Redaktion ver- 
pflichtet, die Interessen von Tell City zu wahren und zu for- 
dern. Vermittelst der Geldvorschiisse einiger Aktionare 
ward es der Helvetia moglich, festen Fuss auf der neuen An- 
siedlung zu fassen. Heilige Pflicht des Redakteurs ist es 
daher, vor allem der neuen Kolonie seine Krafte und seine 
Thatigkeit zu widmen. . . . Die Wahrheit, die reine, 
nackte Wahrheit iiber den wirklichen Zustand der Dinge zu 
sagen, das wird das unermiidliche Streben der neuen Redak- 
tion sein. . . . Ware iiber Tell City und die Umgegend 
nur der 10. Theil von dem gesagt und geschrieben worden — 
und das hatte man mit gutem Gewissen tun konnen — was 
iiber die Yankee Ansiedlungen im Westen in schamlos prah- 
lender Weise ausgesprengt worden ist; so wiirde unsere 
Stadt, das ist meine lebendige tjberzeugung, jetzt bereits 
5000 Einwohner zahlen. . . . Nicht minder fiihle ich 



164 The General Swiss Colonization Society 

mich verpflichtet, den amerikanischen Verhaltnissen, insbe- 
sondere der Politik einen grossern Raum zu gestatten. 
Biirgern der Vereinigten Staaten ziemt es, dass sie mit dem 
politischen Treiben und den Einrichtungen ihres Landes im- 
mer vertrauter werden. . . ." 

The Helvetia was for that day, and under such circum- 
stances, a very commendable piece of journalism. Its Feuilleton 
ofifered the readers right good literature. It is interesting to note 
that, in the first months of i860, SchefTel's Trompeter von 
Sdckingen was reprinted. The Helvetia aimed to acquaint its 
readers with American politics, with German and Swiss activities 
in America, and with news from the various cantons in the home- 
land. At first the paper was independent, but about i860 became 
Republican in politics. No complete files of the Helvetia seem 
to have been preserved. The writer has seen no numbers after 
i860; however, it is not very likely that it continued very long 
after that date. 

Stimulated by the inducements ofifered by the society, Tell 
City was fast becoming an industrial centre of some importance. 
In the fall of 1858 Tell City Industrie- Vereine had ^een formed 
in St. Louis, Tell City and Louisville, for the purpose of develop- 
ing industries in the settlement, thus giving employment to its 
citizens, raising community prosperity and increasing the value 
of its lands. 

The first measures toward the incorporation of the settle- 
ment were taken on March 12, 1859, when it was resolved by the 
board in Tell City that a committee be appointed to confer with a 
lawyer concerning the drawing up of a charter for the incorpora- 
tion of Tell City as a town. Such action was then to be pre- 
sented to the Board of Directors for approval. The action seems 
to have met with approval, for a short time thereafter Louis 
Frey with 123 members of the society presented a petition to the 
Perry County authorities asking that the settlement might be 
incorporated. At the Court of County Commissioners, held the 
first Monday in June, the incorporation of Tell City as a town 
took place. Its first board of trustees met July 28, 1859. It 



The General Swiss Colonisation Society 165 

consisted of Henry Brehmer, Joseph Einsiedler, Charles Reiff, 
Chris. Uebelmesser, J. M. Rauscher, Fred Rank and William 
Leopold, trustees ; J. C. Schening, clerk ; Fred Steiner, marshal ; 
William Leopold, assessor ; John Wegman, treasurer ; Rauscher, 
Anders and Reiff, school trustees. 

At the general convention held in Tell City from May 15 
to 21, 1859, the central board of the society recommends the dis- 
solution of the Swiss Colonization Society, for the reason that 
the town will shortly be incorporated, and as such be in a position 
to elect its own officers. This was the plan adopted in the first 
constitution, and the board thinks the convention would do well 
to revert to it. A special committee on the dissolution of the 
society, however, reports that a complete dissolution would not 
be to the interests of the society. It suggests that all the prop- 
erty in the name of the society be placed under the authority of 
a body of five officers, to be elected by the convention, the officers 
consisting of a chairman, a secretary, a treasurer, and two as- 
sessors. This body is to be located in Cincinnati. Also it pro- 
poses the appointment of a liquidation committee, to consist also 
of a chairman, a secretary, a treasurer, and two assessors. After 
the liquidation of the society's property, which is to take place no 
later than the third Sunday in May, i860, a settlement is to take 
place in Tell City, at which settlement each branch society has 
the privilege of sending two delegates. Whatever property re- 
mains to the society after the settlement, is to be used as fol- 
lows: I. One-third for the support of factories and industries 
of general utility ; 2. One-third for the improvement of Tell City, 
which includes the establishing or supporting of charitable in- 
stitutions. , 

If we may accept a statement made in the Tell City An- 
zeiger for February i, 1868, a complete dissolution of the 
General Swiss Colonization Society took place in i860. 

In April, i860, there were over 400 houses in Tell City, 
with a population numbering between 1200 and 1500 inhabit- 
ants. In the Helvetia for April 25, i860, we read: "Die Be- 
wohner sind keine auf Raub ausgehenden Amerikaner, keine 
Whiskey trinkenden Irlander, sondern arbeitssuchende, fleissige 



1 66 The General Swiss Colonization Society 

Deutsche. . . . The prosperity of the new town and the 
thrift and diHgence of its inhabitants won the attention of the 
Anglo-Saxon neighborhood. In the Tell City Anzeiger for 
September i, 1866, is the following, reprinted from the Cannel- 
ton Reporter: "Tell City besitzt mehr Elemente des hauslichen 
Wohlstandes und volkswirthschaftlichen Gedeihens, als irgend 
eine andere Landstadt am Ohiofluss, und das Geheimniss ihres 
Erfolgen ist der Gewerbsfleiss ihrer Bewohner. Alle arbeiten; 
ihren Arbeitsverdienst legen sie an in dauerhaften Verbes- 
serungen ihrer Stadtlotten. . . . Die dortigen Stadt- 
schulen sind die besten im Lande." 

In 1866, Tell City had a population of 2600, almost all 
Germans and Swiss. What a contrast with conditions only eight 
years before ! Most of the settlers were poor, possessing scarcely 
more than a few hundred dollars. Now, almost every family 
already had its own house and garden, and the town had more 
factories than any other town of its size on the Ohio south of 
Louisville. 

Today, Tell City is a prosperous industrial city, numbering 
between three and four thousand inhabitants. 

[Author's Note. — The sources for the above have been: (i) The letter 
files, minutes, and other records of the General Swiss Colonization Society, 
preserved in the town-hall of Tell City; (2) the early files of the Tell City 
Anzeiger; (3) isolated numbers of Helvetia; (4) the History of Warrick, 
Spencer and Perry Counties, Chicago, 1885. A detailed history of Tell City, 
since its incorporation as a town is being prepared by William Maurer, a 
graduate student at Indiana University.] 



KIEFER FREUNDSCHAFTSALBUM. 



Introduction. 



Freundschaftsalbum of Dr. Conrad Kiefer} 

Dr. Conrad Kiefer, the son of Dr. Johann Kiefer of Dot- 
tingen-Siilzburg, studied in Sulzburg and Freiburg before going 
to the University of Vienna to finish his medical course under 
the group of the great teachers of medicine who made the Uni- 
versity of Vienna famous in all German countries and also 
abroad. Dr. Kiefer established a practice of medicine in Em- 
mendingen, a city situated in the foothills of the Black Forest. 
He later entered the service of the government and after several 
years he was transferred, on his own request, to Schwetzingen. 
On the 13th of October, 1871, the city of Schwetzingen con- 
ferred upon him the Ehrenbiirgerrecht "in dankbarer anerken- 
nung seines langjahrigen und segensreichen Wirkens in seinem 
Berufe als Artzt in der Stadtgemeinde Schwetzingen." 

Since Dr. Conrad Kiefer was very conservative in his ideals 
it was a great disappointment to him to be compelled to learn 
about the activities of his son, Dr. Herman Kiefer, in the Baden 
Revolution of 1848- 1849. He had educated his son according 
to the traditional conceptions of his family and had looked for- 
ward to an honorable career for him in the service of his coun- 
try. He summoned the young surgeon of the Freischarli regi- 
ment, and the following conversation took place: ^ 



' This album was found in the library donated by the family of the 
late Dr. Hermann Kiefer, Professor Emeritus of Medicine of the University 
of Michigan, to the Herman Kiefer Hospital of Detroit. It gives an 
insight into the Freundschaftkultus not only of the young students of 
Sulzberg, Freiberg, and Vienna, but also of the students of that stormy 
time who had not been influenced by the revolutionary principles advocated 
by the Burschenschafter of 1817. Since it has been impossible to obtain 
direct information in regard to the life of the young men of this circle, 
a commentary on the various leaflets will appear in a subsequent article by 
Lincoln Kiefer, M. D. 

= This conversation is as reported by Mr. Arthur E. Kiefer, of Detroit, 
who lived for several months with his grandfather during his sojourn in 
Germany for several years. His grandfather told him the story so often 

(167) 



i68 Kiefer Frciindschafisallmm 

Conrad Kiefer. "Dti bist sehr eifrig in dieser Bewegung 
Was wird vvohl darans werden? Wirst du dich auch beteiligen 
mit den Freischarlen gegen die Regierungstruppen ?" 

Herman Kiefer. "Ja! Ganz entschieden !" 

Conrad Kiefer. (Aiif das bin sagte ich zu ihm, obgleich 
icb anderer Ansicht war) "das will ich auch hoffen. Hast due 
die Suppe einbrocken helfen so hilfst du essen." 

The young surgeon continued his activities with renewed 
zeal. Finally one of the high officials called on his father and 
told him: "Morgen friih muss ich Ihren Sohn arretieren lassen. 
Sehen Sie zu, dass er fliichtet." In telling about this episode the 
father said: "Als er nach Hause kam, gab ich ihn den Rat und 
trotz seinem Uebermut und seinem Bewusstsein, dass die Frei- 
scharli siegreich iiber die Truppen werden wiirden, bewog ich 
ihn dazu, sofort die Stadt zu verlassen, und es war die hochste 
Zeit. Dann erfuhr ich spater, dass der Amtsrichter, um Zeit zu 
gewinnen, einen namens Kiefer arretieren liess, der spater seine 
Unschuld beweisen konnte." 

In 1 85 1 Dr. Conrad Kiefer accompanied by his wife visited 
his son, Dr. Herman Kiefer, in Detroit, and lived to observe the 
career of his son. In reflecting about the Revolution he said: 
"Das war gelungen mit der Revolution. Das war eine verfehlte 
Sache mit ihm. Er hatte eine so gute Karriere hier machen 
konnen." He died in Schwetzingen in 1878. 



that he remembers it verbatim. Mr. Arthur Kiefer has kindly turned over 
to me all the papers of his father to prepare for publication. Among these 
papers is a book of poems (1840-1848) never published and several important 
speeches, which may serve as a keynote to the contribution of the revolution- 
ists of 1848 to the development of the conception of liberty in America. They 
cover the period from 1840 to 1898. The collection contains also a very 
complete collection of letters, manifests and reports relative to the activ- 
ities of Professor Gottfried Kinkel in his attempt to arouse interest in 
America for the establishment of a Republic in Germany. These papers 
will appear during the year. 



Kiefer Freundschaftsalbum 169 

LiEBER Freund Kiefer! 

Freund geniesze jede Lust des Lebens, 
Jedes Guten freue herzlich Dich, 
Sehn Dich nach keinem Gliick vergebens, 
Bleib mein Freund, u. Hebe ewig mich. 

* * * * * * 

An eines sanften Madchen Seite, die tugenhaft 
u. reizend ist. Sey voll von Zartlichkeit u. Freude, 
dein ganzes Leben hoch versiiszt, von ihrer zarten 
Hand driickt, dies liebster Freund, dies sind 
die Stunden, wo man des Lebens Werth erblickt. 
Lebe wohl Kiefer ich werde dein nie vergessen. 

Doctor Anilius in Sachseln. 



J: S: 

Nimm dieses Blatt zum Zeichen, 
Der wahren Freundschaft bin; 
Es konnen Berge weichen, 
Nur wahre Freundschaft nie; 
Ich wiinsche auch das wahre Gliick, 
Kin Madchen in deinem Arm zuriick. 
Erinnere dich im Flor der Lieb ! 
Und schenk mir einen Blick. D. 

T: B: 



Gefesselt fiihrt das Schicksal uns durch's Leben 
San ft wenn wir willig geh'n 
Rauh, wenn wir wider streben, 

Zur Erinnerung an Ihren Freund, 

Barth, Med. Chirg. Dr. 
Wien am 2ten July 1819. 



170 Kiefer Frcundschaftsalbuni 

Freiindschaft kiirtzet die Lebenstagc, 
Unserer kurtzen Wanderzeit. 
Lasz iins genieszen diese Gaabe. 
Die nur der Himmel hier bereit ; 
Wir wollen einander die Hande geben 
Und freundschaftlich ziehen diirchs Erdenleben. 
Bey Durchlesimg dieser Zeilen erinnere Dich an Dcinen 
wahren Freiind u. akademischen Briider, 

/. /. Baidcr, Cand. Med.. Basel. 
Wien dn 31 ten Agst 1819. 



Von der Wiege bis zur Bahre 

sind die seligsten die Burschenjahre, 

sie sind die seligsten, ihnen steht aber nicht viel nach 
unser angenehmer Aufenthalt in Wien, denken Sie zu- 
weilen an ihn zuriick und erinnern Sie sich Ihres 
Freundes, 

Hcinrich Banmgdrtner, Dr. Med. 

Wien den 28 Aug. 18 19. 
siscli nit alles eins sisch nit alles eins 
babmer Geld oder habmer keins. 



Dulce merum, pulchra puella, mens conscia recti 
Quid tribus his junctis dulcius esje potest. 

Simboluni 

Memento diei vicisimae secundae 
Aprilis MDCCCXVIII, 

ad amicam recordationem a tuo intimo amico 
Carolo Friederico Beck. 

Sulzburgi die duodecima Maji 
MDCCCXVIII. 



Kiefer Freundschaftsalbum 171 

Reisefertig stehen schon iinsere Wagen, 

Dii nach Ost, ich IcnJke siidwarts hin. 

Lebe wohl ! unci eile deinem Gliick entgegen, 

Lebe wohl! Nimni diesen Kiiss noch hin. 
Erinnere dich auch in der Feme 
an die vergniigten Stunden die wir zusammen 
verlebten und vergesze nie deinen Bruder, 

Carl Fried. Beck. 
Sulzburg as 11. September 
1818 



Dir Wiinsch ich Weiszheit, wenn der Tod 

Den Kranken, die dich rufen, droht, 

Viel Geld wenn ihr sie ihm entriszen 
Und sterben sie ein gut Gewiszen. 

Zum Andenken von Ihrer wahren Freundin 

Friederica Beck 
Sulzburg d. i. May 1821 



Freund, such im stillen Thale 
Den dvisterreichsten Hain, 
Und giesz aus goldener Schaale 
Den fromen Opferwein. 
Noch lachelt unveraltet 
Das Bild der Erde dir; 
Der Gott der Liebe waltet 
Noch liber dir und mir. 

Wahre Freundschaft ist edel! abcr selten. 

Wandle stets auf dem Pfade, den du mir wiihltest; so 
wirst du nie der Tugend ungetreu. 

Der Genius, weiche nie von deiner Seite 
Dein Leben sey den bunten Rosen gleich, 
Und jeder deiner Tage freudenreich. 



172 Kiefer Freundschaftsalbmn 

An's Vaterland. ans Theure, schliesz dich an, 
EJas halte fest in deinem ganzen Herzen, 
Hier sind die starken Wurzeln deiner Kraft, 
Dort in der fremden Weltstehst du allein. 



Diese wenige Gedanken, wann due sie iiberblickst, erinnern 
dich bisweilen, an deinen wahrhaft libendenden Freund, 

Carl Biesenbergcr, Churhischcr-Gchulfe, 
gebiirtig von Hohentwiel in Schwaben. 
Wien, d: \yXn Febr: 1820. 



Das Land der Aerzte liegt gerade an der Ueberfahrt ans 
dieser Welt in die andere. 

Fontenelle. 

Wien den i8ten August 18 19. 

Zur Erinnerung an ihren Freund 

E. Diets. 



Liebe nur Liebe erwarmt das Herz, 
Liebe schaft Wonne, und Liebe macht Schmerz, 
Liebe macht traurig, und Liebe entziickt, 
Liebe schaft Kummer, und Liebe begliickt. 
Erinnerungs-Worte an Ihren unveriinderHchen Freund, 

Carl Dreher, 
a Rosenfeld, Cand. Pharni. 
Sulzburg, d. 24. Merz, 1821. 



Lebe wohl du Freund meines Herzens, 
Fahre fore derselber ferner auch zu seyn, 
Damit ich mich im Laufe meines Lebens, 
Der Erinnrung Deiner moge stets erfreun. 



Kiefer Freiindschaftsalhum 173 

Weil mich nun des Schicksaals-laune von Dir brennt, 
So sei versichert, dasz in der Feme sich Deiner oft gedenket, 

Dein 
Dich nie vergessender 

Freund Joseph Feitsch d. Chiriirg, C. 
d. 2ten September 1819. 



Die Freundschaft, die ich dir geschworen, 
Soil fiir Uns untrennbar sein, 
Und niemals geh' der Wunscli verloren 
Mich auch mit Freundschaft zu erfreu'n. 
Von deinem Freunde 

K. Fischer, 
Th. Cand. 
Freiburg d. 14. August 181 8. 



Die Freundschaft ist die heiligste der Gaben ; 
Nichts Heiligers konnte uns ein Gott verleihen, 
Sie wiirzt die Freud' und mildert jede Pein, 
Und einen Freund kann jeder haben, 
Der selbst versteht ein Freund zu seyn. 
dein aufrichtiger Freund 

Eligiiis Geppert Cand. M. et ch. 
de Seelbach 
den 23ten August 1820 



Lieben musst Du? nun so wahle! aber willst du gliicklich seyn 
Lasz das Madchen deiner Seele; ganz nach deutschem Gusto 

seyn. 
Schlagt beym ersten Blick, in Dir 
Deine Brust nicht heisz nach ihr — 



174 Kiefer Freundschaftsalhuni 

O! so ist sie sicherlich nicht fiir Dich! 

Schon gebaut, unci schlank erhaben 

sey ihr Wuchs ; nicht grosz, nicht klein 

Kinder mogen Ptippen haben. 

Zart wie Wachs und Elfenbein. 

So wie Madchen, dem der Wind 

und der Frost schon Martern sind, 

Lieber Freund, ist sicherlich nicht fiir Dick. 

Dein Freund und academischer Bruder 

Eligius Geppcrt de Seelhach in K. K. ost. la. 



Ad mortem sic vita fluit. velut ad mare flumen 

Vivere enim res est dulcis ; amara morbi. 

Testatur ab amice et fratre Eligio Geppert de Seelbachense apud 

Lahrensem, Studiosus Philosoph: 3tio September. 

Anno MDCCCXVII. 



von Eligius Geppart wird bezeugt 

Freundschaft, Liebe, und Treue bis in Tod. 
Frbg. den 3ten Septembre 1817. 

sfc ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

A small friendship tempel was painted in water colors. 



Wandle famulos durch das Leben 

An der Unschuld und der Freundschaft Hand; 

Gute Seelen mogen dich umgeben, 

Dich begliicken moge jedes Land. 

Sey, wenns sturmt und wenn die Sonne scheynt 

Mein, der Guten und der Tugend Freund. 
Simbolum 

Wirst du einst an deine Freunde denken 
O so denk doch auch an mich zuriick ! 



Kiefer Freiindschaftsalbuni 175 

Wirst du ihnen Stunden schenken 
O so schenk mir einen Aiigenblick ! 

Sulzburg den 6ten Mey 1818 

Empfangen Sie dieses als Denkmahl eiiier Freundschaft 
von Ihrer wahren Freundin 

Christina Germig. 



Schon in friiher Jugend, als die zarten Gefuhle der Freund- 
schaft in unsern Herzen noch schlummerten, kannten wir ims — 
und liebten einander.— Nun sind diese Gefuhle in uns erwacht. 
Lasze daher Heber Freund uns diese jugendHche Liebe nun in 
engere und innigere Freundschaft verwandeln. 
Darum bittet dich 

Dein aufrichtiger Freund 

L. Gerwig Stud: Theol: 
Sulzburg d. 28 8br. 1820. 



O, dasz sie ewig duftend bhihe 
Auf dem griin bemahlten Lebenszweige: 
Siisze Hoffnung, neuer Keim, und gliihe 
Mit dem Sonnenstrahl zur Sternenneige. 
Doch mit all des Lenzes Duften 
Spindelt sie im Rad der Weltenuhr, 
Welkend stirbt in seine Gruften 
Hin das Blatt — der Stamm nicht, nicht Natur. 
Von deinem wahren Freunde und Akademischer Bruder 
Frans Joseph Gmirs Theol. Cand. v. Emmingen. 

Wien, am 3ten /ber 819. 

****** 

Ein Freund, ein Madchen, ein Schwerdt, 
Bier, Taback, Hausbrod mit Freyheit und 
dabey ein Buch. 
In des Blitzes Schnelle 



176 Kiefer Freundschaftsalbtmi 

Nicht mit Amors Weile 

Treffen dich die Sonnenpfeile — ; 
Uiid auf dem Silberspiegel, 
Nicht dtirch des Nordes Fliigel, 
Kreisle deine Lebenswelle. 

Die Trennung wirkt auf Freundschaft so, wie auf die 
Flamme der Wind ; ist sie stark, facht er sie noch mehr an ; ist 
sie aber schwach, loscht er sie ganzlich aus. 



Nie schenken Stand, nie schenken Giiter 
Dem Menschen die Zufriedenheit; 
Die wahre Ruhe der Gemiither, 
Sind Tugend und Geniigsamkeit. 

Als Erinnerung von deinem aufrichtigen Schwager 

Gutnian Mstr Lehrer. 
Donaueschingen 
den 11: 8bris. 1827. 

Der Glaube furchet — die HofYnung saet 
Die Liebe egget und die Tugend arndet. 



Wer Gott, und schone Madchen liebt, 
Und beyde wie er soli, 
Der bleibt auf Erden unbeflekt, 
Und Ewig gehts ihm wohl. 
Simbol 

Es lebe die Feindschaft. 

Es sterbe die Freundschaft, 

Niemals in Eur em Herzen! 

Geschrieben am Tage von Ihrer Abreise von Ihrem Freund. 



Fr. Gysin Stud. Chirurgie. 



Kiefer Freiindschaftsalhimi 177 

Freundschaft macht die Menschen 
Gotter Englen gleich, 
Macht sie froh im Kiimmer, 
In der Armuth reich. 
Und an ihrem Stabe 
Wandlen wir zum Grabe, 
Sprechen zu dem Freunde: Dort 
Dauert unsre Freundschaft fort. 
Gewidmet zum Angedenken von Ihrem Freund 

/. Nepo. Hoehlin de Fribourg i. Brisgau. 
Simbol 

Freund den ich hir gefunden 



Nimm mir die Liebe, was bin ich? Der Aermste unter den 

Armen ! 
Lasz mir die Lieb' — und ich bin reicher als Konige sind. 



'fe^ 



Der Mensch erkennt sich nur ini Menschen, 
Nur das Leben lehret jeden, was er sey. 
Alles sey recht, was du thust, doch dabey lasz es bewenden 
Freund ! und enthalte dich ja alles was recht ist, zu thun. 
Diesz bezeugt dein untrenbarer Freund 

Demigius Kopp Cdt. Chirurg. 
Wien d. 27./8. 19. 



Verdienst hat seinen innern Werth 

Wie Gold, und wenn es gleich nicht immer 

Der Eine, wie der Andere, ehrt, 

Weil, weiss ich was? just seinen Schimmer 

Uns birgt. 

Zum freundschaftlichen Andenken an 

G. Lindemann Dr. Med. 
aus Liineburg in Konigr. Hannover. 
Wien d. 13. Marz 1820. 



1/8 Kiefer Freundschaftsalhum 

Diister ists oft in der Seele 

Wie in einer finstern Nacht. 

Doch die Freundschaft macht sie helle 

Wie des Moncles Schimmer lacht. 

Ztir Erinnerung an Ihren treuen Freund 

Riid. Luchsinger 
Cand: med et Chir. aus 
Glarus in d. Schweitz 
VVien den lo April 1820 



Die Zeit andert vieles — 

Doch nicht alles. 
Audi noch im Silberhaar 
Schlagen treu verbundene Herzen 

Harmonisch fiir einander. — 

Ehre die Musen ! — 
Liebe die Grazien ! ! — 

Denk deiner Freunde! — 
Vergisz deine Feinde ! — 

Von deineni Freunde 

Joseph Milller von Solothitrn, 

candidal der Medizin. 
Wien den 7ten May 1820 

Ht H« H= ^ ^t^ H: 

S'isch doch a narrisch Ding urns Sheida ; 

S'isch eim der bi, ma weisz nit wie ; — 

Doch denk i mer : es git doch*Freuda 

Die bHba z'rugg: im Herze hie! — 

Da gosch jetz hei, i's Vaterlang, 

So b'hiieti Gott, mi Heba Friing! 

Denk an a mi ; dem isch no bang, 

To warli, jo frili, mi Heba Friing, 

I wett an Heber mit Dir reisa, 

Es g'fallt mer selber niimma recht 

Z Wien ; i h'ad an scho verheisza, 

I well bald furt — 'was denkst du acht??? 



Kiefer Freundschaftsalbum 179 

Wenn clu elnst wirst an deine Freiinde denken, 
So denke audi an mich zuriick ; 
Wenn du ihnen wirst Stunden schenken, 
O! so schenke mir nur einen Augenblick. 
Ich werde jederzeit deine Freundin seyn, so wie ich sie 
jetzt auch bin. 
Als Zeuge meiner immerdaurender Freundschaft, von, 

E. N. 

Heitersheim d. loten September 181 8. 



Ein Weibchen ist ein boses Uebel. 
ein sanftes, angenehmes Joch; 
es kommt mir vor, wie eine Zwiebel, 
man weint dabei und iszt sie doch. 
Zur freundschaftl. Erinnerung an 

Dr. F. Pracl, 
aus Liebenburg im Hannoversch. 
Wien d 5. Jim. 1819. 



Kaum sahn wir uns so war der Bund geschlossen, 
Wir driickten f reudig stumm uns an die Brust ; 
Wir haben manche frohe Stund genossen 
In Schmerz wird nun verkehrt die seelge Lust 
Dennoch ! Du sagst itzt miissen wir uns trennen. 
Wohlan ein Wortlein will ich Dir noch nennen 
Vergiss mein nicht mein sehr geliebter Freund. 

Dieses schrieb zum Andenken Dein Freund u: 

acad: Bruder Ruppert: Marschall Med. 

et Chirurgiae cand. aus Haunfcld bey 

Fulda 1 8 19. 

Wien d 2 Sept. 1819. 

****** 



i8o Kicfcr Frcundschuftsalhum 

Freund sey ein frommer Christ 
und falle nicht vom Stege 
Wenn Dii besoffen bist. 

Zum Anden von Deinem 

Fr. It. Bnider R. Marschall. 
Memorab. 

Erinnere Dich bisweilen an den zuletzten vergniigt 
zugebrachten Abend bey der schonen Harfenmtisika 
der Alster, an den allgemein Beyfall gefundenen ver- 
liebten Italiener und dann den so herrlichen Jager u. 
dann den von uns allgemein verlangten Mahler. 



Glanbe dem Leben! Es lehret beszer, als Redner und Buch. — 
Diesz schrieb, 2ur steten Erinnerung, Ihr aufrichtiger u. 
treuer Freund 

Eugen Nagle C. d. M. e. G. aus Tarnoivitz in 
Preiisz Ohcrschlesien. 
Wien den 5ten May 1820. 



Siisse Freude, Scherz und Lust 
wohne stets in deiner Brust; 
und an deiner Ruhe wage 
niemals eine Lebensplage, 
von dem schonsten Gliick umgeben 
musst du stets in Freuden leben ; 
ewig bleib' voll Redlichkeit 
meine Freundschaft dir geweiht. 

Von deinem wahren Freunde 

/. A. Nek. 
Simbolum 

Amor vincitomnia 
Sulzburg 19: April 181 8. 



Kiefer Freundschaftsalhum i8i 

Das Gliick ist iiberall, 
Die Quelle ist im Herzen. 
zum Andenken an Ihren 

Freund Dr. Ant. Pei flier aits Baierii. 

Wien am 20ten Juni 1819. 



Freund ein Traumreich ist dies Seyn auf Erden, 
Was wir waren, was vvir einst noch werden 
Keiner weiss es-, gliicklich sind wir blind ; 
Lass uns Eins nur wiszen; was wir sind. 
Erinnre dich ofters an deinen treuen Freund 

Aug. Pfeiffer St. Medic, ct Chirug aits Miinchen. 
Wien d. 2ten ghv 18 19. 



Und fiihr'st du einst fideliter, 
Dein Weibchen an der Hand, 
So denk, fideler Bruder, 
Mein, im Phylister-Stand. 

Diese wenige Zeilen erinnern dich an deinen Freund 
und academischen Bruder 

G. Ramsauer, Med. v. Gcrisau 

Kanton Abbenzell. 
Wien d. 29ten August 1819. 



Meinetwegen darf kein Wein, 

Darf kein Weib, darf Brod nicht seyn, 

Hab' ich Jungfern, Mehl und Traubcn, 

O, so hat es keine Noth, 

Will man mir es nur erlauben, 

Mach' ich Weiber. Wein und Brod. 



1 82 Kicfcr Freundschaftsalhum 

Juvenis qui cadit in puellam, 
eamque, noii tangit, sttiltus est. 

F. Ricschcr Academiccr 
zur St: Anna in Wien. 

Wien d. 30. 8ber 1818. 



Die Tiigend leite immer 
Dein edles, gutes Herze, um 

Seelenfroh und gliicklich das Leben durchzuwandern 
Ein aufrichtiger Wnnsch deines wahren Freundes 

E: F: Sar tonus 
V Sulz a/Nekkar 
LTlm am Trauungstage d. 21. Septbr. 1818. 

Symbolum 
Postwagenfahrt 



Auch wen's Universum zittert 
wanke unsre Freundschaft nicht! 
Zum Andenken von deinem Freunde 

Schilling Stud: von Gieszcn 
Heidersheim am 24ten Julj 1820. 



Sey immer gliicklich theurster Freund 

Wandle diirch die Welt 

Vergniigt und Sorgenfrey 

Dich store niemals Gram und Leid 

Und auch in der spatesten Zeit 

Sey unsere Freundschaft neu. 

von deinem Freund 



Paul Schlageter Chyr: Stud. 



Kiefer Freundschaftsalbtim 183 

Seitdem ich Dich, niein tranter F:, erkannt. 
( : Ich zahle ach ! des siiszen Gliicks nur Wochen : ) 

Seitdem der Freundschaft Genius das Band 

Der Sympathie um iinsre Herzen wand : 

Erfiilten wir getreii, was wir versprochen, 

Kein Schaten oder Schein von Miszverstand 

Hat unsrer Geister Einklang unterbrochen ; 

Wir liszen uns vom Wahn nicht unterjochen. 

Lasz mich. o Du, der Dichtkiinst, warmer Freund, 

Hieraus der Folgeriingen schonste ziehen: 

Wen bald mein Aiige Trennungszahren weint. 

Dich mit Dir alle Musen sich entfliehen ; 

Wird doch der Freundschaft heil'ge Flamm uns gHihen! — 

Der Trennung Trotz ! wir bleiben fest vereint. 

Dein F: Huber Sebastian aus der Zeichenan. 
F:=Freund. 



Nichts trenne unsern Freundschaftsbund, 

Kein Schicksal, keine Zeit; 
So fest, wic Allemaniens Berge steh'n, 
Steh' er bis wir zu' Grabe geh'n, 
Sein Ziel sey Ewigkeit ! 
Meinem Freunde Kiefer geweiht zum Andenken. 

Giistav Adolph Siegle, Stud: Med: 
jetziger Ciiraissier von Franz Reg: 

Esc: II 
Wiend. 20 Okt: 1818. 



Wenn Teufel beten und Engel fluchen 
Wenn Katz und Maeuse sich besuchen 
Wen alle Maedchen keush und rein 
Dann hoehr ich auf dein Freund zu seyn. — 
Von deinem wahren Freund und Bruder Studio, 

Adrian Steinmann aus St. Gallen in der SclnveitL 
Wien d. it. Januar 1820. 



184 Kiefcr Frcundschaftsalbum. 

Vivere natura si convenienter amarent 
Mortales, medica nil epus esset 
Ad mortem si vita fluit veliit ad mare flumen 
Vivere enim resest dulcis ; amara mari. 
Vivere metuonda malp, sancto est optanda: 
Ultimus est finis, vel fine sine malorum malum 
Mors incertarum rerum certissima ; ciinctis 
Incertum quando, certiim aliqiiando mori. 
Millibus ex miiltis imus via fidns amicus: 
Hie albo corvo rarior esse solet. 

T. Maximil: Stchle Pharmaceut. 

Symbolum Amicitae MDCCCXX. 



Entfernung kann zwar Freunde trennen, 
Aber wahre Freundschaft nicht. — 
Dedicat von deinem Freund 

Felix Jos. Stockmann Medic. Candif. 
aus dem Canton Unterwalden in der Schweiz. 



Dn. 23t Merz 1818. 



Wie mit dem Staube der Wind, 
So spielt mit uns das Schicksal. 
Denken Sie recht oft an Ihren wahren Freund 

Dr. Striimpell aus gr. Scheppenstedt 

im Braunschweigschen. 
Wien den 6ten Juni 181 9. 



Freund, du gehst: mein Vcrgniigen geht mit dir! 
Doch das Bild von deiner Jugend bleibt in mir. 
Lebe wohl ! in ferncm Lande, denk an mich ! 



Kiefer Freundschaftsalhum 185 

Denk' stehts an tmsre Freundschaftsbunde, so wie ich. 
Gewidmet zum Andenk. von 
Melchior Sussmann 
Medicinae candidato de Canton Ury en Suisse. 

Freyburg im Breisgau den 14!. August 18 18. 
Memento mei! 



Schon und angenehm wie der Friihling, 
Heiter und ruhig wie der aurorische Morgen, 
Rollen deine Tage dahin, 
Und nur die Tugend bezeichne sie. 

Dein wahrer Freund 

N. Weher Juris Can. 

Sulzburg den 8 Octb. 1820. 



Der Freund, der mir den Spiegel zeiget, 
Den kleinsten Flecken nicht verschweiget, 
Mich freundlich warnt, mich herzlich schilt, 
Wenn ich nicht meine Pflicht erfiillt — 

Der ist mein Freund, 

So wenig er es scheint. 

Doch der, der mir stets schmeichelnd preiset, 
Mir alles lobt und nichts verweiset, 
Zu Fehlern nie die Hande beut, 
Und mir vergiebt, eh' ich's bereut. 

Der ist mein Feind, 

So freundlich er auch scheint. 

Mogen diese Zeilen, Heber Freund ! dich zuweilen 
erinnern an deinen 

Joh. Joach. Wetter, Med. Dr. 
V. St. Gallen in der Schweiz 



1 86 Kiefer F rcundschaftsalbum 

Symbol : 

Mein Wunsch fi'ir dich ist: Gliick unci Freude! 
Der Wunsch fiir mich: Vergisz mein nicht! — 

Wien, d. 20. Januar: 1819. 



An die Dichter. 

In Wolken vvohnen nur die Gotter 
So singt, ihr Dichter, stets uns vor. 
Was diese nur ! — ich bin kein Spotter 
Doch die Behauptung macht ein Thor ; 
Denn Menschen konnen auch drin wohnen 
Und wollt ihr euer Geld nicht schonen 
So reist nach Wien, hier konnt ihr sehen 
Wie Menschen stets in Wolken gehen. 
In Wolken ! Nimmermehr, das liigst du mit Verlaub. 
Gewiss nicht, sag ich euch, die Wolken — sind von Staub. 
Zum freundschaftlichen Andenken an Wien und seine 
ewigen Staubwolken, etc. von deinem Freunde, 

Gustav von Wetdar, md. stud. 
Wien den 4. May, 1820, 



Deine Freundschaft schatzte stehts mein Herz 
Denn sie ermunterte mich zu edlem Triebe 
Fiir dieses blick ich Himmelswerts 
Das kein Zufall dich betriibe. 
Das dein Leben, schon wie May 
Lebensfroh und gliicklich sey. 

Dein wahrer Freund 

H. Wippenhanser 
Medic et Chirurg. candidatus 

Freyburg d. I2ten August 1818. 



Kiefer Freundschaftsalbum 187 

Ob alle die sich Freunde nennen, 
Den Werth der wahren Freundschaft kennen, 
1st ungewisz; 

Doch dasz ich Sie mit reinem Triebe, 
Und so wie jezt auch evvig liebe, 
1st ganz gewisz. 
Zur Erinnerung von Ihrem aufrichtigem Freunde 

August Wippermann. 
Sulzburg d: 28ten Oct: 1820. 



Fremder Ort und fremdes Land 
Trennen nicht das Freundschaftsband. 
Ihr Sie immer liebender Freund 

Carl Wippermann. 
d. 28. October 1820. 



Gliicklich, vver auf seinem Pfad 
Einen Freund gefunden hat; 
Aber dreymal gliichlich ist 
Wen sein holdes Madchen kiiszt. 
Diese wenige Worte schrieb zum immerwahrenden Andenken 

Ihr wahrer Freund 

C. Woelfel Dr: 
Symb. 
Schwarzbrod und Freiheit 

Wien den 6ten Aprill 1820. 



Zernichtung nicht. Veranderung nur herrscht im All der 
Natur. Die Blume der Heide welkt, aber eine andere entsteht 
aus ihrem Saamen, aus dem Staube erwachen wir zum Licht. — 
Memento Homo! 

Zur Erinnerung von deinem Freund und Bruder 

IVyss M. C. 
von Seeben Kanton Soloth: Schweiz. 
Wien d. 25. Marz 1819. 



1 88 Kiefer Freundschaftsalbiim 

Lebe wohl und moglichst gliicklich ! 

Diesz der Wunsch beym Abschied 
von deinem Freund u. Bruder 

Chr. Zeitfuchs Dr. Med. 
aiis Frankenhausen in Thiiringen. 
Wien d. I3-I4ten Marz 1820. 



Hast du nimmer geliebt so geh u. Hebe noch heute 

Ungenoszen entflieht sonst dir das heiterste Gliick! 
Diesz zur- Erinnerung an Ihren Freund 

B. Ziegler 
aus Solothurn in d. Schweiz. 
Nihil mortalitus arduum! 
Wien den 2y Juny 1819. 



Sey begliickt, die Hand der Vorsicht leite 
Nur durch Bltimen deine Pilgerbahn; 
Treiie Freundschaft schwebe dir ziir Seite, 
Und die Liebe strahle dir voran. 
Diese wenigen Zeilen widniet dir zum Angedenken. 
Dein ergebenster Freund 

F. Josef Zobele juris cand: 
Freiburg d. i8ten May 1820. 



Ede, bibe, lude, post mortem nulla voluptas. 
Dies mein lieber Kiefer erinnere dich recht oft an deinen Freund 

Litdwig F. Zollikofer 
von Hertingen in Baden. 
Symbol. 
Hie sunt fata hominum. Ach Gott sie sind sehr gar krumm 
Wien d. 14. Maertz 1820. 

W. W. Florer. 

University of Michigan. 



DEUTSCHE CHARAKTERBILDER AUS DER BRASILI- 
ANISCHEN GESCHICHTE. 

I. 

Manoel Beckmann. 

Am 21. April eines jeden Jahres feiert das brasilianische 
Volk das Andenken an Jose Joaquim da Silva Xavier, bekannter 
unter dem Namen Tiradentes, der an dem genannten Tage des 
Jahres 1792 in Rio de Janeiro sein Leben unter der Hand des 
Henkers lassen musste, weil er in der Provinz Minas Geraes eine 
Revolution, die Inconfidencia Mineira, angestiftet hatte, um die 
Unabhangigkeit Brasiliens von Portugal und die Republikerkla- 
rung herbeizufiihren. Die Unabhangigkeit von Portugal wurde 
erst 30 Jahre spater erreicht und 100 Jahre sollten noch ins Land 
gehen, ehe Brasilien die republikanische Regierungsform er- 
langte. — 

Wie Tiradentes seinen Zeitgenossen und den Ideen seiner 
Zeit voraus war, so war es Manoel Beckmann, der ein Jahrhun- 
dert vor dem patriotischen Dragonerleutnant aus Minas Geraes 
fiir das Land seiner Wahl den Martyrertod starb und dessen Er- 
innerung diese Zeilen gewidmet sind. Die sympathische Person- 
lichkeit Beckmanns und sein tragisches Los verdienen es, in wei- 
teren deutschen Kreisen, als dies bisher geschehen, bekannt zu 
werden. — 

Der Schauplatz des Lebens und des Wirkens Beckmanns 
war der im Norden Brasiliens gelegene Staat Maranhao, dessen 
Besiedelung von den Portugiesen im ersten Jahrhundert nach der 
Entdeckung vernachlassigt wurde, sodass die Franzosen im Jahre 
1594 den Versuch machen konnten, sich im Lande niederzulas- 
sen. Sie wurden die Begriinder der Hauptstadt S. Luiz (8. 9. 
1612) konnten sich dann aber nur noch wenige Jahre, bis 1615, 

(189) 



190 Manoel Bcckmann 

im Lande behaupten ; dann gelang es den Portugiesen, sie wieder 
zu vertreiben. — Im Jahre 1624 wurden die Capitanias Manran- 
liao und Para vom iibrigen Teile Brasiliens abgetrennt iind zu ei- 
nem selbstandigen Staate Maranho vereinigt, der mit Unterbre- 
chungen bis ziim Jahre 1772 bestanden hat. Am 25. November 
des Jahres 1641 besetzten 2000 Mann hollandischer Trtippen un- 
ter dem Oberbefehl Lichthardts, welcher mit 18 Schiffen gelan- 
det war, Maranhao, ohne Widerstand zu finden, doch war es den 
tapferen Einwohnern des Landes ohne auswartig Hilfe moglich, 
nach einer Besetzung von wenig langer als 2 Jahren die fremden 
Eroberer aus Maranhao zu verjagen, (28. Februar 1644). Aus 
Pernambuco zogen sich die Hollander erst 10 Jahre spater zu- 
riick, nachdem sie 24 Jahre lang vergeblich um einen Kolonial- 
besitz im brasilianischen Norden gekampft hatten. 

Neben der franzosischen Besetzung und dem Einfall der 
Hollander ist die Revolugao do Bequimao. der Aufstand unter 
Beckmann, im Jahre 1684 das wichtigste Ereignis in der Kolo- 
nialgeschichte des Staates Maranhao. Um eine Erklarung fiir 
die Entstehung dieser aufstandischen Bewegung zu finden, ist es 
notig, einen Blick auf die in der zweiten Halfte des 17. Jahr- 
hunderts im Lande herrschenden politischen und wirtschaftli- 
chen Verhaltnisse zu werfen. — 

Das Mutterland Portugal hat stets gesucht aus einer bra- 
silianischen Kolonie den grosstmoglichen Nutzen zu ziehen, in- 
deni es sich jede wirtschaftliche Betatigung im Lande tributpflich- 
tig machte, ohne auch nur die geringste Riicksicht auf die Ent- 
wicklung der Kolonie selbst zu nehmen oder irgend etwas hier- 
fiir zu tun. Es war ein anerkannter Leitsatz der portugiesischen 
Regierungen, dass die Kolonien Alles, was sie nur iiberhaupt her- 
geben konnten, an das Mutterland abzufiihren hatten. Zu den 
Anspriichen der Krone an die Kolonie gesellten sich die Lasten, 
welche die Gouverneure oder Generalkapitane dem Lande aufleg- 
ten, die haufig ihre Amter wechselten und von denen man ohne 
Weiteres voraussetzte, dass sie wahrend ihrer Tiitigkeit in der 



Manoel Beckmann 191 

Kolonie ihre personlichen Interessen nach Moglichkeit wahrneh- 
men wiirden. Zu der Interessenpolitik der weltlichen Machtha- 
ber der Kolonie gesellte sich der Streit der Geistlichkeit unter- 
einander. Die Jesuiten genossen, natiirlich ebenfalls wieder aiif 
Kosten der Bevolkerung, eine Reihe von Vorrechten vor deni 
iibrigen Klerus, der aber dafiir das Volk auf seiner Seite hatte 
und es gegen die Jesuiten aufreizte. Im Staate Maranhao hatte 
der Anbau von Zuckerrohr und die Zuckergewinnung l^ereits ei- 
nen gewissen Umfang erreicht ; zur Arbeitslei stung in den land- 
wirtschaftlichen Betrieben dienten Indianersklaven. Als ein Ge- 
setz vom i. April 1680 die Sklaverei der Indianer abschaffte, 
konnte dies nicht ohne nachteilige Folgen fiir die landwirtschaft- 
lichen und industriellen Betriebe des Landes bleiben. Infolge 
verringerter Anpflanzungen trat zwei Jahre hindurch Mangel an 
Lebensmitteln ein und das Land wurde dem Hunger iiberliefert. 
Eine weitere Last blieb dem gepriiften Lande in der Errichtung 
des sogenannten Estanco vorbehalten. Es war dies eine Art 
Handelsgesellschaft, an welcher auch die Krone beteiligt war 
und welche spater an die Assentisten-Kompagnie iiberging, wel- 
cher das ausschliessliche Monopol fiir den gesamten Handel mit 
afrikanischen Sklaven und den An- und Verkauf aller Ausfuhr 
und Einfuhrprodukte verliehen was, welche sie nach Willkiir be- 
steuern konnten. — Die Verlegung des Regierungssitzes von Sao 
Luiz nach Belem musste die vorhandenen Schwierigkeiten noch 
erhohen : die Unzufriedenheit und die Not des Volkes erreichte 
scliliesslich einen derartigen Umfang, dass es am 25. Februar 
1684 zum offenen Aufruhr kam. Das aufstandische Volk be- 
machtigte sich nach einer geheimen Besprechung im Hoffe des 
Klosters des Hlg. Antonius in S. Luiz des Capitao-mor Balthazar 
Fernandes und nahm von dem Estanco, dem Lagerhaus der 
Monopolgesellschaft, Besitz. In einer hierauf im Kammerge- 
baude abgehaltenen Sitzung wurde die Vertreibung der Jesuiten 
und die Absetzung des Gouverneurs Frco. de Sa e Meneses, der 
sich in Para aufhielt, beschlossen. Gleichzeitig schritt man zur 



192 Manocl Bcckuiann 

AVahl einer neueii Regierung, welche aus den Kammermitgliedern 
iind drei Beisitzern bestehen sollte. Zu diesen gehorte der Fiih- 
rer der Aufstandischen, Manoel Beckmann iind sein Bruder 
Thomas. — Letzterer wurde beauftragt. dem Hofe zu Lissabon 
miindlichen Bericht iiber diese Ereignisse zu erstatten. — 

Xach dieser kurzen Darstellung der Verhaltnisse, welche zur 
,.Revolugao do Bequimao" fiihrten, uud der Schilderungen ihres 
eigenartigen Verlaufes, wenden wir uns nunmehr derjenizen 
PersonHchkeit zu, welche im Vordergrund dieser Ereignisse 
stand. Manoel Beckmann. oder Bequimao, wie er sich selbst 
schrieb, um seinen Namen der portugiesischen Aussprache anzu- 
passen, war in Lissabon geboren. Sein Vater war ein Deutscher, 
seine Mutter Portugiesin, wie einige sagen. von jiidischer Ab- 
kunft. Schon in jungen Jahren kam Beckmann nach Maranhao, 
wo er sich den besten Familien des Landes anschloss und bald 
allgemeine Achtung und Beliebtheit erlangte. Es gelang ihm, 
ein zur Errichtung einer Zuckerrohrpflanzung und Zuckersiede- 
rei ausreichendes Vermogen zu erwerben — sein Engenho war am 
Mearim-Flusse gelegen — und da er sich auch durch Heirat mit 
einer der angesehensten Familien des Landes verband, lebte er 
2:lucklich im Schosse der Seinen in einem ehrenhaften Wohl- 
stande. Beckmann wird von brasilianischen Geschichtsschrei- 
bern, wir folgen besonders den Darstellungen. die Jose 
Ribeiro do .\maral im Jahre 1910 in Maranhao unter dem Ti- 
tel ,,0 Bequimao" veroffentlicht hat. als ein edler, vor- 
nehmer und dabei giitiger Charakter geschildert, der bei Allen, 
die zu ihm in Beziehungen traten, die grosste Liebe und Verehr- 
ung genoss. Zum ersten Male wird sein Name am 14. Januar 
1668 als Stadtverordneter genannt, doch erst 10 Jahre spater, un- 
ter der despotischen Regierung des Ignacio Coelho, begann die 
Zeit seines Missgeschicks und seiner traurigen Beriihmtheit. 
Unter der Beschuldigimg heimlicher Umtriebe wird Beckmann 
nach der mehr als 200 Leguas entfernten Festung Gurupa ver- 
schickt u. eine Anklageschrift gegen ihn wird nach Lissabon ge- 



Manoel Beckmann 193 

sandt. Der Konig aber, der die Grundlosigkeit der gehassigen 
Anschuldigiingen gegen Beckmann erkannte, ordnete seine Frei- 
lassung an. Inzwischen versuchte der Gouverneur Sa e Meneses 
Beckmann durch Bestechung fiir sich zu gewinnen und ihn der 
Partei des Volkes zu entfremden. Er liess ihm 4000 Cruzados 
in Geld, die hochsten Ehrenstellen in der Capitania und die Ver- 
zeihung seines Vergehens, bis vom Hofe die vollige Amnestic 
eintrafe, anbieten, doch vvurden alle diese Vorschlage von Beck- 
mann rundweg abgelelint. Von diesen Anerbietungen und ihrer 
Ablehnung machte Beckmann dem Volke Mitteilung, das hierin, 
wenn es seinen Helden nicht schon zur Geniige gekannt hatte. 
einen Beweis der Charakterstarke dieses wackeren Mannes hatte 
erblicken konnen. So standen die Dinge, die durch den Auf- 
ruhr vom 25. Februar 1684 eine Wendung erfahren sollten, 
allerdings in einer anderen, als in der erwarteten Weise. Nach- 
dem der erste Enthusiasmus verraucht war, trat im Volke eine 
Erniichterung ein. Man murrte gegen den militarischen Dienst, 
der von der neuen Regierung eingerichtet worden war und fing 
an zu bereuen, sicli auf Dinge eingelassen zu haben, die fiir die 
damalige Zeit ungewohnlich kiihn waren, sodass die Zahl det 
Parteiganger Beckmanns zu schwinden begann. — Inzwischen ge- 
langten Berichte iiber die Vorgange in Maranhao nach Lissabon. 
Ehe aber noch der Abgesandte Thomas Beckmann dort eintraf, 
hatten bereits die nach Bahia vertriebenen Jesuiten Kunde von 
den Ereignissen nach der Metropole gelangen lassen und die Zeit 
vor dem Eintreffen des Fiirsprechers der Revolutionare dazu 
benutzt, die Dinge in einem ihnen giinstigen Lichte darzustellen 
und die Krone gegen die Aufstandischen einzunehmen. — Am 25. 
Marz 1685, fiinf Monat nach Eintreffen der Nachricht aus Ma- 
ranhao und nach mehr denn Jahresfrist seit Ausbrechen der 
Revolution ging vom Tejo eine Expedition aus, die den neuer- 
nannten Gouverneur Gomes Freire de Andrade und — als Ge- 
fangenen — Thomas Beckmann nach Maranhao bringen sollte, 
Am 15. 5. traf die kleine Flotte vor Maranhao ein. Als nun 



it)4 Manuel Beckinann 

aber Manoel Beckmaiin es unternehmen wollte, seine Parteigan- 
ger um sich zu scharen, um zu den neuen Ereignissen Stellung 
zu nehmen, musste er sich davon iiberzeugen, dass seine Sache 
verloren war. Kaum eine Handvoll Anhanger war ihm verblie- 
ben, jeder Widerstand gegen die neue Regierung erschien nutz- 
los. — So konnte der neue Gouverneur die Regierung ohne Weite- 
res iibernehmen. Er ordnete die Verhaftung des Bequimao, der 
sich furchtlos und f rei unter dem Volke bewegte, sowie einiger an- 
derer Fiihrer an. Beckmann wurde von einigen Freunden gewarnt 
und zur Flucht gedrangt, welche er aber verschob, um noch einen 
Versuch zur Befreiung seines Bruders zu machen, der nach sei- 
ner am 26. Mai erfolgten Ankunft sogleich an Land gebracht 
und ins Gefangnis gefiihrt wurde. Diese Kiihnheit Manoel Beck- 
manns veranlasste den Gouverneur zu den scharfsten Massre- 
gehi. Er setzte eine hohe Belohnung auf die Ergreifung des 
Bequimao aus u. bedrohte gleichzeitig diejenigen mit schwerer 
Strafe, die etwa seiner Flucht Vorschub leisten wiirden. So irrte 
der Fliichtling eine zeitlang in der Umgebung der Hauptstadt 
und auf der Insel umher, auf welcher S. Luiz gelegen ist, bis ihm 
schliesslich eine Wittwe, die Mitleid mit seinem Ungliick hatte, 
ein Boot verschaffte, mit welchem Beckmann die Insel verlassen 
und sich nach seiner Pflanzung Sta. Cruz am Mearim begeben 
konnte. — Doch der Martyrer fiir die Freiheit und das Wohler- 
gehen des Volkes von Maranhao hatte den bitteren Kelch, der 
ihm bestimmt war, noch nicht bis zur Neige geleert. Er musste 
es noch erleben, dass ein Mann zum Verrater an ihm wurde, der 
sein Miindel gewesen war, den er aufgezogen hatte und an dem 
er wie ein Vater an seinem Sohne hing! — Lasaro de Mello ist 
der Name des Elenden, den die Sucht nach Gewinn zum Verrat 
an seinem Wohltater und Freunde verfiihrte. Unter zahlreicher 
Bedeckung begab er sich nach dem Engenho, wo es ihm unschwer 
gelang, sich des ihm vertrauensvoll nahenden Geachteten zu be- 
machtigen. — Die zur Verteidigung ihres Herrn herbeieilenden 
Sklaven werden leicht durch des Verraters Ruf ,,Im Namen des 



Manoel Beckmann 195 

Konigs" eingeschiichtert. Beckmann wird gefesselt in ein Boot 
verbracht, wo er zuerst im Zorn seinen tJberwinder auf die 
Schwarze seines Undanks und die Ungeheuerlichkeit seines Ver- 
rates weist, der seinen sicheren Tod zur Folge haben miisse. 
Doch bald gewinnt er die ihm eigene Ruhe wieder; er ersucht 
Mello, die Fesseln von ihm zu nehmen, wogegen er ihm ver- 
spricht, keinen Fluchtversuch zu unternehmen. Der Elende ent- 
spricht dem VVunsche des Gefangenen; er kennt den Wert, den 
fiir diesen Mann ein Versprechen hat, er traut ihm ohne Weite- 
res — selbst unter diesen Verhaltnissen, nach diesem schmahHchen 
Verrat. So gelangte denn Beckmann als Gefangener nach Sao 
Luiz, wo ihm und den iibrigen Hauptern der Revolution ein ra- 
scher Prozess gemacht wurde. Manoel Bequimao und Jorge de 
S. Payo, dies ein alter Aufwiegler und Anstifter aller Unruhen 
im Staate, wurden zum Tode und zur Einziehung ihres Vermo- 
gens zu Gunsten der Krone verurteilt. Die Unterschrift des 
Gouverneurs Gomes Freire unter dieses Todesurteil wurde mit 
so zitternder Hand abgegeben, dass sie von einem Anderen ge- 
schrieben scheint. An der Praia do Armazem, heute da Trin- 
dade, wurde der Galgen errichtet, an welchem am 2. November 
1685 die Hinrichtung des Bequimao erfolgte. Von der Hohe des 
Schaffots herab, das er in aufrechter und ruhiger Haltung, ge- 
tragen von dem Bewusstsein, das Beste fiir seine Mitbiirger ge- 
wollt zu haben, bestieg, bat Beckmann diejenigen um Verzeih- 
ung, die er in seinem Leben gekrankt haben sollte. Seine letzten 
Worte waren: Gem sterhe ich fiir das Volk von Maranhao! 

Dieses Volk hat im Jahre 1910 durch Errichtung eines Denk- 
males seiner Dankbarkeit gegen den Mann Ausdruck verliehen, 
dessen Wiege zwar nicht im Staate Maranhao gestanden hat, der 
aber aus Liebe zu dem gastfreien Lande, das ihn aufnahm, seines 
Volkes Geschick, sein Leid und seine Note zu den seinigen machte 
und der von ihm als gerecht erkannten Sache der unterdriickten 
Bevolkerung bis zum bitteren Ende treu blieb. Wohl kehrten die 
Jesuiten nach Maranhao zuriick, der Estanco aber, diese ver- 



jf)6 Manocl Beckuiann 

hasste Einrichtung znm Zwecke der Aussaugung des Volkes blieb 

fiir alle Zeiten abgeschafift, so dass Manoel Beckmann nicht um- 

sonst gestorben ist. hVir Deutschcn erkcnncn an dicsem Mannr 

jiiit dem frcmdcn Nanicn, untcr dcm cr dcr brasilianischen Ge- 

schichtc angehort, allc die Eigcnschaftcn, die den denfschen 

Mann ausceiclinen und zuollen ihn mit Stoh zu den Unsrigen 

::dhlen. IVir wollen auch nicht untcrlassen, dieses Mdrtyrers fiir 

die Wohlfahrt des brasilianischen Volkes zu gcdenken, wenn es 

gilt, den detuschen Anteil an der Entwicklung dieses Landes abzu- 

zvdgen, den die Feinde des Deutschtums in Brasilien so gem her- 

absetzen mochten. 

Friedrich Sommer. 

Sdo Paulo, Brazil. 

Note, Ed. President of the Banco Allemao Transatlantic o. 




'^/"''fl/osiip/*" 



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HENRY N. YERGER 

BOOKBINDER 
ION. 13th St., PHILA. 
Special Method Pat Apr. 2, 1912 



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