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Full text of "A German conversation-grammar .."

A GERMAN 

CONVERSATION- GRAMMAR 



BEING A NEW AND PRACTICAL METHOD OF LEARNING 
THE GERMAN LANGUAGE 

BY 

DR. EMIL OTTO 

IN PART REWRITTEN 
BY 

WILLIAM COOK: 

Late Assistant Professor of German in Harvard College 

WITH FULL VOCABULARIES 

BY 
L. PYLODET. 

SECOND EDITION, REVISED. 




Entered according to Act of Congress, in ti year IfWt, by 

8. R. URBINO, 
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts, 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1874, \)f 

HENRY HOLT, 
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington. 



Copyright, 1881, 1887, 
By HENRY HOLT A CO. 



BOBEBT DRUMMOND, ELECTROTYPES AND PBINTKB, NEW YORK. 



This book is the result of a minute revision of the 
18th German edition of Otto's Grammar, with the 
addition of the vocabularies (revised) of the preceding 
American edition. Errors have been corrected, and 
several articles, as well as the index, to the fullness of 
which especial attention is invited, entirely rewritten. 
The selections in the Appendix are those of the American 

edition. 

WILLIAM COOK. 

CAMBRIDGE, MASS., 

December, 1880, 



PUBLISHERS' NOTE TO THE SECOND EDITION, 

The present edition has been carefully revised. Both the Classified 
lists and the Alphabetical list of Irregular Verbs, on pages 172 to 221, 
have been entirely recast. 
NEW YOEK, July 1 1887. 



2230744 



CONTENTS. 



FIRST PART. ETYMOLOGY. 

PAS* 

Pronunciation. Letters of the Alphabet 3 

Pronunciation of the Vowels 4 

Pronunciation of the Consonants 6 

Accent 10 

Exercises in Pronunciation 11 

Parts of Speech 13 

First Lesson. Definite Article 15 

Second Lesson. Indefinite Article 18 

Third Lesson. Declension of Substantives 21 

First Declension 23 

Fourth Lesson. Second Declension 27 

Fifth Lesson. Third Declension 30 

Sixth Lesson. Feminine Substantives. Fourth Declension 35 

Seventh Lesson. Neuter Substantives. Fifth Declension 40 

Eighth Lesson. Nouns with Prepositions 44 

Ninth Lesson. Irregularities in the Formation of the Plural 48 

Tenth Lesson. Gender of Substantives 55 

Eleventh Lesson. Declension of Names of Persons -. 62 

Twelfth Lesson. Names of Countries, Cities, etc 66 

Thirteenth Lesson. Determinative Adjectives or Adjective Pronouns 71 
Fourteenth Lesson. Auxiliary Verbs. aien. The Order of "Words 77 

Fifteenth Lesson. @ctn 85 

Sixteenth Lesson. 2Berbcn 89 

Seventeenth Lesson. Modal Auxiliaries (fonncn etc.) 93 

Eighteenth Lesson. Adjectives 102 

Nineteenth Lesson. Comparison 112 

Twentieth Lesson. Numerals 119 

Twenty-first Lesson. Regular Verbs 127 

Reading Lesson: Slefop 135 

Twenty-second Lesson. Passive Voice 135 

Twenty-third Lesson. Personal Pronouns 143 

V 



VI CONTENTS. 

^AflS 

Twenty-fourth Lesson. Interrogative Prononns 150 

Demonstrative Pronouns 151 

Possessive Pronouns 153 

Belative Pronouns 155 

Correlative Pronouns 158 

Reading Lesson: gin tfyeurer $opf unfc ein ttoljlfeiter 162 

Twenty-fifth Lesson. Indefinite Prononns 162 

Twenty-sixth Lesson. Irregular Verbs 168 

Those having a in the Imperfect 172 

Twenty-seventh Lesson. Those having t or ie in the Imperfect 185 

"Beading Lesson: ^osjtusfo'S SPrctb 194 

Twenty-eighth Lesson. Those having o in the Imperfect 195 

Reading Lesson: )ie grftnbung beg lafeS 201 

Twenty-ninth Lesson. Those having it in me Imperfect 202 

Irregular Verbs. Alphabetically Arranged 208 

Thirtieth Lesson. Inseparable Verbs 221 

Thirty-first Lesson. Separable Verbs 227 

Prefixes which form some Separable and some Inseparable Verbs 234 

Reading Lesson: $5er Sirocco 237 

Thirty-second Lesson. Verbs which form the Perfect with felc 238 

Thirty-third Lesson. Impersonal Verbs 244 

Reading Lesson: <Die 3Menc unb bie aw>e 250 

Thirty-fourth Lesson. Reflexive Verbs 251 

Thirty-fifth Lesson. Adverbs 257 

Reading Lesson: er bcmffcarc 8ott>e 268 

Thirty-sixth Lesson. Conjunctions 269 

Thirty-seventh Lesson: Prepositions 282 

Reading Lesson: 3)o3 jcrbrocfycne ufctfen 292 

Interjections 293 

Promiscuous Exercises in Translation and Conversation . . . .293 



SECOND PART. SYNTAX. 

Thirty-eighth Lessen. The Definite Article 305 

Reading Lesson: )ag boppelte SBcrfcredjen 315 

Thirty-ninth Lesson: The Genitive of Substantives 317 

Reading Lesson: Htyfyong V 322 

Fortieth Lesson. The Modal Auxiliaries : . 323 

Reading Lesson: 1)ie fed)g 2B6rtIem 334 

Forty-first Lesson. Pronouns 335 

Beading Lesson: gptftet , 344 



CONTENTS. vii 

PAGE 

Forty-second Lesson. Tenses of the Indicative 346 

Reading Lesson: inige QURC au ^ bcm 2e6en ^einrtcf/S IV 350 

Forty-third Lesson. The Subjunctive 352 

The Imperative 359 

Beading Lesson: $)te gepruftc reitc 361 

Forty-fourth Lesson. The Infinitive 363 

Eeading Lesson: SDie gepritftc Srcue (djtufjj 368 

Forty-fifth Lesson. The Present Participle 370 

Heading Lesson: $inblidje 8icbe 376 

Forty-sixth Lesson. The Past Participle 378 

The Future Passive Participle 380 

Reading Lesson: )er SWann mtt bet eifcrncn 2Ka3fe 381 

Forty-seventh Lesson. Adjectives 383 

I. Adjectives followed by the Accusative 383 

n. Adjectives followed by the Dative 383 

HI. Adjectives followed by the Genitive 385 

IV. Adjectives followed by Prepositions 385 

V. Adjectives modified by an Adverb or Abverbial Phrase. . . .386 

Reading Lesson: $)er 2#ann mtt bet etfernen SDtasfc (cfytuf?) 388 

Forty-eighth Lesson. The Cases which Different Verbs take after them 389 

I. Verbs which take the Nominative -. 389 

n. Verbs which take the Dative 390 

III. Verbs which take the Genitive 394 

Reading Lesson: dbetmutfjige grcunbfcfyaft be beittfdjen 

ftatfcrS flarl'8 V 396 

IV. Verbs which take Prepositions 398 

Forty-ninth Lesson. I. German Prepositions 400 

n. English Prepositions 407 

Reading Lesson: 8uca6 $ranadj 413 

Fiftieth Lesson. Arrangement of Words 414 

Principal Clauses of Declaratory Sentences 414 

Questions 416 

Optative Sentences 417 

Dependent Clauses 417 

Exceptions and Special Cases 418 

Arrangement of the Words of the Rest of the Clause among 

themselves 425 

Observations of Importance when Translating from German 

into English 427 

Reading Lesson: SD cr ebte Off'Sto 430 

Promiscuous Exercises in Translation and Conversation, n 436 



VTQ CONTENTS. 

PAO* 

Anecdotes for Translation into German 440 

Dialogues for Translation into German: Dionysius, Pythias and Damon 449 

The Dinner-party 452 

Materials for German Conversation ' 4.CG 

Idiomatic Expressions 4CO 

German Proverbs 4G1 

Easy Conversation 466 



APPENDIX. 

SPECIMENS OP GERMAN POETRY. 



unb Srjaljlungen .......................................... 471 

<Z>a8 $u6n$en nb ber SDiamant. <Da8 iBac&lein. <er Ocb. je unb ber Gfel. 5>er 
flnabe unb bie CDarteln. 0>t gtfdjer. $*r roeifee $irf$. Jlefop. CDer ^afci 
graber. >er SBUnbe unb ber Came. Der SRetfenbe. ZBinterniirdjen. 

fiieber, glcgien :c .................................................. 477 

<funben. $frbftUeb. e^lof etn, mein $erj. SB&Atemif. SSuS 
2(tper. gru^ltngSUeb. 58 ifl ba8 Wrf tin flMtig Ding. Ta3 
SKSgblfin. *afer8 onntagSlieb. grtf$ gefungcn. Qtr Wcnjle augenbltrf. 
Dei CSt^malb. SEelte iRofe. grapng8 fflnfong. onette. iDidn Ceben. 
Sluf bet SBanberung. 35a8 ffinb Wiaft. ie <5intef>r. Spru^. 3Konbna^t. 
fiieber. fioretei. CDie fialten. griebe. tt8 SBIatt im 23u^e. gtummet 
c^merj, Iaute8 (SlQrf. 3m ommer. 3^r nennt midj jlolj I 

fieflettben, 9?oman3en itnb 93atlaben .................................. 492 

SSartorcffa. er anger. GrlenfSnig. 35r rei*pe gurfl. Die $offnung. 
<De8 QDeutf^en SSaterfanb. ^iflermel^t. (Sebet wabrenb ber e^la^t. fKeue. 
Co(um6u8. Ter fpielenbe Stnabc. 2)8 Jlinb in ber 2Bicge. Xa8 Jgcdijle. - 
$flic&t fur 3eben. JJreunb unb geinb. 

Slnt^ologic ...................................................... 502 

SSriefe, in @*retfcfc^Ttft ............................................ 507 

Ciller an Sffi. eon $um6olbt. SEB. eon ^umbctbt an grau on 2BobI<cgen. oetl)e 
an Differ, oet6e an fitter. Charlotte eon d?iHer an bie iprinjeffin ffaroltna 
Souife ten a(^?en-2Betmar. 

German and English Vocabulary .................................. 

English and German Vocabulary .................................. 

General Index .......................................... ........ 575 



Part 1. 

ETYMOLOGY 



Cc DdEe 



b 6 c S> b <g 



F f Og Hh I1JJ Kk 



L 1 Mm Nn OoPp 



1 3H m 



Br BBS Tt Un 



SC t II it 




COMPOUND CONSONANTS. 

Ch Ck BS BZ sell 8p Bt th tZ 

4 tf ff f W fr ff t^ 



PRONUNCIATION. 

LETTERS OF THE ALPHABET. 

The German Alphabet consists of twenty-six letters, 
as follows: 

Characters. Names. Characters. Names. 



21, 


a 


zz a 


ah. 


yi, 


n zz 


n 


enn. 


33, 


b 


zz b 


bay. 


), 


zz 


O 


o. 


6, 


c 


zz c 


tsay. 


?f 


V = 


P 


pay. 


), 


b 


zz d 


day. 


}, 


q zz 


q 


koo. 


<g, 


e 


zz e 


ay. 


$1, 


r zz 


r 


air. 


ft 


f 


{ 


eff. 


@, j 


, zz 


s 


ess. 


, 


9 


- g 


gay- 


z, 


t zz 


t 


tay. 


Sr 


!j 


zz h 


hah. 


u, 


It zz 


u 


oo. 


0, 


t 


zz i 


ee. 


8, 


t) zz 


V 


fow. 


3, 


i 


= j 


yot. 


28, 


to zz 


w 


vay. 


ft 


! 


zz k 


kah. 


, 


$ 


X 


ix. 


, 


I 


zz 1 


ell. 


9), 


9 


y 


ipsilon, 


2tt, 


tn 


zz m 


em. 


3, 


J zz 


z 


tset. 












JC. zz 


etc. 





Note that all in the column of names represents the 
sound of a in hard; that oo in the same column is pro- 
nounced as in fool, and ow as in fowl. Yot has the short 
German o, which is explained further on. 



4 PRONUNCIATION. 

The pronunciation of the following combinations needs 
especial notice, as it could not in every case be inferred 
from the pronunciation of the single letters. 

Vowels doubled : 2la, (e, Do. 
Vowels modified : 2le, a, De, o, lie, ti. 
Diphthongs: 2tt, @i, (u, 

2lu, 
Combinations : <&\), 

f, @t, @P, 

2$, Git. 

The following characters are somewhat alike, and might 
"be mistaken for one another by beginners : 

,; <, <gj & 3; a,tt,9tj >,>} it, u; r, r; f f f. 

1. PRONTJNCIATION OF THE VOWELS. 

A vowel or a modified vowel followed by ty, e.g., ofy, efy, 
f), is always long. The vowels are also always long when 
doubled, e.g., aa, 00. In words of more than one syllable, 
a vowel in an accented syllable is generally long if followed 
by a single consonant, e.g., fya'ben. 

On the other hand, a vowel or a modified vowel followed 
by the same consonant doubled is always short, thus 
^Pappe, fiillen, and generally short when the two consonants 
are different ones, e.g., fangen, rounb. 

3(, a, when long is pronounced like a in father, thus 
after, l>abe, laben; when short like a in what, thus 2lffe, SWann, 



(5, c, when long is pronounced like a in fate, thus jeber, 
SRel), mefyr. ( when short is pronounced like e in led, 
thus ffielt, fd^nefl, benn. 

But e in words of more than one syllable, if unaccented, 
is pronounced much like u in but, thus 33itte, SSerein. In 



PBONUNCIATION. 5 

this case, however, it is silent in el, cm, en final ; thus oben 
is pronounced ob'n. 

$, i, when long is pronounced like ee in reed, thus ifyttt; 
when short like i in pin, thus immcr, tppe, $tttt>. 

tC is pronounced like ee in reed. In words of foreign 
origin, however, if it has not the accent, it is pronounced 
like yuh (u as in but), thus Silte, |)tftorte. 

O,0, when long is pronounced like o in sole, thus Of en, 
fyolcn, 9tol)r, the sound is the same in quality, but is 
uttered in less time. It resembles the vowel sound 
often heard in the clipped provincial pronunciation of 
coat, stone, whole; thus olb, fommen, foil. 

D short must not be confounded with 21 short, e.g., the 
first syllable of )tto must not be pronounced like the first 
of otter. (This latter sound is that of a). 

It, It, when long is pronounced like oo in fool, thus 
33litt, nun, rufen; when short like oo in good, thus 



, t), is pronounced like i, 



2. PROITUNCIATIOK- OF THE MODIFIED VOWELS. 

9(c, ft, when long is pronounced like a in fate, e.g., 
$afe, gramen ; when short like e in bed, e.g., ffiUt, Mite. 

Of, Q, is pronounced like eu in French, i.e., the lips are 
held as in pronouncing u in rule, the other organs of speech 
as in pronouncing a in fate, e.g., (long) ^tofjler, bbe, (short) 
>olle, Bfter. 

lie, ii, is pronounced like w in French, i.e., the lips are 
held as in pronouncing u in rule, the other organs of 
speech as in pronouncing ee in reed, e.g., (long) tlebel, 
fiil;ren, (short) fallen, -wtte, 



6 PRONUNCIATION. 

3. PHOWTTNCIATION" OF THE DIPHTHONGS. 

9(cu, Oil, is pronounced between the oi of boil and the 
t of pine, but nearer the former, e.g., .>aufer, SBaitme. 

9U, at, is pronounced like t in pine, but in this and in 
all other German diphthongs the fusion of the two parts 
is not so perfect as in English, i.e., we hear with some 
distinctness first a as in father, and then t as in pin. 
Examples: aifer, 2ftau 

3(u, ait, is pronounced like ou in house, c.g., $au$, 33aum. 

5(t), at), is pronounced like at. 

(i, Ct, is pronounced like at, but some Germans make 
the first element of the diphthong a in hat, instead of a, 
infatlier. Examples, fetn, (t. 

(Ill, Ctt, is pronounced like ait. 

(It), ft), is pronounced like ct. 

4. PROTniNCIATIOM- OF THE CONBONAITTS. 

33, b, is pronounced as in English, except at the end of a 
syllable, or before any consonant save I or r, and then it 
is pronounced like p, e.g., 33all, rab, Sabfat, gcfjabt. 

As regards the division of syllables, a single consonant 
(except ()) between vowels goes with the latter syllable, 
thus fya^beit, ei^ntg ; unless the consonant is the last letter 
of a prefix or of a word, thus cr*einen (in which cr is a 
prefix in the same way as pro or prae is in English), ^)uf* 
Ctfen which means Jiorse-shoe (i.e., "hoof-iron."). 

(, t, is pronounced before a, C, i and ty like ts, elsewhere 
like k, e.g., (Eitrone, Garl. 

But d^ has a pronunciation of its own, namely after 
a, und U (also ait, but not eu nor au) like ch in the Scotch 
word loch, e.g., 35ad): after other letters much like hy, with 
the y pronounced as a consonant, e.g., id) ; these sounds 



PRONUNCIATION. 7 

are not found in English. Whitney advises the student 
to begin by pronouncing cfy like h. But cf) at the begin- 
ning of a syllable is pronounced (a) in the termination 
efyen like liy, (b) in Gfyarroocfye and (Efyarfrettag like k, (c) in 
words derived from the Greek like h 

dj is pronounced like x, e.g., SBadjS, unless the d) 
belongs to the stem and the f to a termination or another 
word, e.g., wacfyft, wakest ; wacfyfam, wakeful. 

(f is pronounced as in English. 

$, J, is pronounced as in English, except at the end of a 
syllable, and then it is pronounced like t, e.g., anbern, milt). 

$, f, is pronounced as in English, e.g., fern, 3lffe. 

, Q, is pronounced as in English, except at the end of a 
syllable, and then it is pronounced like d) in a similar 
position, e.g., eft), log, fltftfg. 

), |, is silent, except at the beginning of a syllable 
where it is pronounced as in English, e.g., $&lt, so also in 
3nl)alt. In the middle or at the end of a syllable, it 
merely lengthens the preceding vowel, e.g. SBefy, ifyttU 

3i, t, is pronounced like y. 

ft, f, 8, I, 2R, m, 91, It, and <p, Jj, are pronounced as in 
English, except that I tends somewhat towards the pro- 
nunciation of ly (with y a consonant). lt$ is pronounced 
as in singer, and not as in finger, e.g., Singer. In pf, pf, 
pt, pfytl), all the letters are pronounced, thus pfennig, 
^pjpcfytatrie, Xopf. $1 is pronounced as in English. 

CM, J|1t, is pronounced between Jew and fry, but more 
nearly like the latter, e.g., quer. 

91, r, is always distinctly heard; in English it is in 
many combinations almost silent It is pronounced not 
precisely as in English, it must be trilled or rolled. 

, f, is pronounced at the beginning of a syllable before 
a vowel like z, elsewhere like ss. But fp and jl at the be- 



8 PRONUNCIATION. 

ginning of a word, or of a part of a compound word, 
are best pronounced slip and sht; in some parts of Ger- 
many, however, the pronunciation sp and st prevails, ff, 
jj and f3 are pronounced like ss. 

It will be observed that there are two characters in 
German corresponding to small s, namely 3 and f. Of 
these $ is used at the end of a syllable, and f elsewhere, 
e.g., la$, lafcn, fage, Dre$t>en. Similarly, ff, jj and f$ are 
different ways of writing the same thing. When the Ger- 
mans use our type, as they do for instance frequently in 
scientific works, all three are printed ss. ff, or at the end 
of a syllable f, is used after a short vowel, e.g., 5 fl f^/ 
nnffen, 1 fyafgte, and p after a long vowel, e.g., ruf?, griifjen, 
(jritfjte. Most Germans, however, make two exceptions to 
this simple rule ; that is to say, they write (a) when the 
letters are followed by t or (b) stand at the end of a 
syllable, always fj, whatever the quantity of the preceding 
vowel may be, thus 5 fl P/ f fl H 3 fl Pto ; and never use fS 
at alL 

2, t, is pronounced as in English, e.g., treten, except that 
the syllable tton is pronounced tsion. |> is pronounced 
like t, e.g., Xfyat just as if written Xat. 

85, to, is pronounced like /, e.g., SSatcr, except in the 
middle of a word and in words from foreign languages. In 
these cases it is pronounced like v. 

2B, to, is pronounced between v and w,but more like v, 
e.g., totilf Cttrig. In the combination ottJ, W is silent. 

#, J, is pronounced as in English. 

3, 3, is pronounced like te in its, e.g., jefyn, U$, a&cn, $tt)eu 

i ff and | go with the following syllable, if this following syllable begins with s 
vowel, e.g., 5a=fiung, ipt=f j, atu$er, except of course in compound words of which the 
first component part ends in |. 



PRONUNCIATION. 9 

5. THE DIVISION OP WORDS INTO SYLLABLES. 

The rule for a single consonant between vowels has 
already been given under the pronunciation of the letter 53* 

The following examples illustrata sufficiently German 
usage in somo of the other cases which might puzzle a 
foreigner: la^cfyen, n>a*ffycn, fo^ften, la^ffcn, cutler, 3ofe^p^tne, 
>fl'fpc, Slp^fel (but pf after a consonant goes with the 
latter syllable, as in fum^ftg) ; ti^bten, Stfcfe, ftam^meln. 

In compound words the division comes of course 
between the component parts, e.g., (Srt^apfel, earth-apple 
or potato, not (Sr^bdpfeL 

Words formed from other words by adding a termina- 
tion or from stems by adding a termination, are divided 
before the termination if this latter begins with a con- 
sonant, e.g., ^inbcr^nt^ hindrance, not ^)inbern4. The 
contrary is the case when the termination begins with a 
vowel, e.g., fin-btfcfy, childish. 

6. CAPITAL LETTERS. 

Nouns and words used as nouns begin with a capital, 
e.g., Sftann, man; $etttrtd), Henry ; ba cfybtte, ike, beautiful, 
i.e., what is beautiful; bit Slltett, the old, i.e., old people; baS 
terben, tJie to die, i.e., dying. 

Of the personal pronouns, te, you; (f, you; and 3I)r, 
your, begin with capitals to distinguish them from the 
same words with a different signification. 

7. GERMAN HAlSroWRlTJJro. 

The Germans use their own peculiar written characters, 
which will be found at the beginning of this book, to a 
much greater extent than they do those which they possess 



10 PRONUNCIATION. 

in common with ourselves. The latter, however, may be 
used everywhere, and as a matter of fact, are used almost 
exclusively in signatures and the addresses of letters. 

8. ACCENT. 

The student will find but little trouble in placing the 
accent on the right syllable in German, for the principles 
are generally the same as in English, as the following 1 
examples and general rules to which, however, there are 
some exceptions will show. 

1. $&tNtci), ha'tefid; fyafj'te, ha'ted. The stem, not the 
termination, takes the accent. However, the termination 
Ct as in daserei', slavery, and the ie of verbs having the 
infinitive in ieren, e.g., ftitbie'ren, to study, are accented. 1 

2. 3lu'gfatten, to faU out', befa'llen, to befa'U. The separ- 
able prefixes of verbs receive the accent, the inseparable 
ones do not. 2 The following are the inseparable prefixes, 
be, ent, emp, er, $e, er, jer. Similarly, these latter do not 
receive the accent when occurring in other parts of 
speech, eg., 23deg', example. 

3. gin'gerrtng, finger-ring; lle'berrorf, overcoat; 5rtnf'# 
roaffer, drinking-water. Compound words have the accent 
on the accented syllable of the first part of the compound. 
From this rule are excepted compound particles, (i.e., 
prepositions, conjunctions and adverbs), e.g., bafyin', thitlier ; 
obgleid)', although; and some other compound words. 

4. Words which have been adopted into German from 
some foreign language (instead of descending through the 
languages which preceded modern German), generally 

i This termination may also be spelled tren. 

The difference as to prefix between these verbs comes out when we conjugate 
them. For instance, ouSfaHen has e flUt au8, it falls out ; but befallen has eg bcf Stlt, 



BEADING EXERCISES. 11 

have the accent on the last syllable, e.g., Sultur', civilisa- 
tion; tUDcnt', student. Here the German accent differs 
from the English. 

5. The negative prefix tin often has the accent, e.g., 
lln'fraut. Here also German differs from English. 



READING EXERCISES. 



$ic 8iene unb bte 

The Bee and the Dove. 

(Sine burftige 23tcne, oietdje gn enter htet(e JjtnciBgefttegen 

A thirsty bee, which to a spring descended 

ftar, um $n trtnfen, uwrbe Don bent ftromenben SBaffcr 

was, in order to drink, was by the streaming water 

fortgertffen, unb ftcire ktnalje ertntnfen. (Sine aube, 

carried away and was nearly drowned. A dove 

toefdje bte[c kmertte, pirfte ctu ^oumBtatt at) unb toarf 

which this perceived, picked a (tree)leaf oflf and threw 

e in ba SBaffer. )te 53tene crgrtff e unb rettete ftcf). 

it into the water. The bee seized it and saved herself. 

Sfttdjt (ange nadjljer fa bte ^tauBe auf ctnem Sannte 

Not long afterwards sat the dove on a tree 

unb kmerfte tttdjt, ba ein Oiiger init feiner ^Unte auf 

and perceived not, that a hunter with his gun at 

fte jtcfte. S)te ban!6are 33tene, incite bte (^efatjr erlonnte f 

her aimed. The thankful bee which the danger recognised, 

in tt>etd)er tljre 2Bo()(tI)titerin ftc^ Bcfanb, flog Ijinjn unb* 

in which her benefactress herself found, flew up and 

ftad) ben -Sager in bte |)anb. S)er (S(^u gtng baneben 

stung the hunter in the hand. The shot went aside, 

unb bte cmk ttar gerettet 

and the dove was saved. 



12 READING EXERCISES. 



$tc brct 

The three Friends. 

(5m Sftann fyattc brct gfrcunbc; jtoet Don tfjnett (tefcte 

A man had three friends ; two of them loved 

cr [cl)r; bcr brittc ioor Ujm gfetdjgtfttg, ofcgfetdj btcfer [cm 

he much ; the third was to him indifferent, though this one his 

kftcr ftrcmtb tuor. (Shift tourbe cr Dor ben ^tdjtct 

best friend was. Once was he before the judge 

gcforbcrt, ino cr ofcfdjon nnfdjutbtg bod) fyart tier* 

summoned, where he though innocent yet heavily ac- 

!(cigt )uor. SSer untcr cud, fagtc cr 311 fetnen ^rcunbcn, 

cused was. Who among you, said he to his friends, 

ttritt nut nitr gel)cn nnb fiir nttd^ jengen? benn ic^ bin 

will with me go and for me witness? for I am 

nngcredjt t>crf(agt, nnb bcr $omg jiirnt 

unjustly accusd, and the king is angry. 

2)er crftc fetncr ^reunbe entfc^ntbtgte ftc^ fogtctd^ itnb 

The first of his friends excused himself immediately and 

fagtc, cr fb'nne nidjt nut tf)in gcljcn h)cgcn anbcrcr cf^cifte. 

said, he could not with him go on account of other business. 

2)er 3 tl)e to fcegtettcte i^n fctS gn ber ^Ijitre bc 9ftdjt- 

The second accompanied him as far as the door of the tri- 

^aufej bann h)anbte er ftdj urn nnb gtng gurntf, au8 

bunal ; then turned he (himself) about and went back, out of 

Owdfyt tior bent gorntgcn ^td^ter, 3)er 2)rttte, auf tDctc^en 

fear of the angry judge. The third, on whom 

cr ant toentgften gefmnt tyattc, gtng Ijiuetn, rebete fiir ifyn 

he the least relied had, went in, spoke for him 

itnb geugte Don fetner Unfdnttb [o freubtg, boj^ 'bcr 

and gave evidence of his innocence so cheerfully that the 

Sfttdjter ttjtt loStiefc nnb be[c^enlte. 

judge him liberated and rewarded. 



PAETS OF SPEECH. 13 

)ret ftreunbe Ijat ber Sftenfd) in biefer SBelt, nrie betrogen 

Three friends has the man in this world, how behave 

fte fid; in ber (Stunbe be obe3, tuenn ott iljn 

they (themselves) in the hour of (the) death, when God him 

toor fein ^eri^t forbert? )o$ efb, fein crfter ^eunb, 

before his tribunal summons ? (The) money, his first friend, 

tierliiftt ifjn jnerft, unb geljt uifyt ntit iljm* (Seine 55 er* 

leaves him first and goes not with him. His re- 

itmnbten unb ^rennbe begteiten tf)n bi-3 jn ber Satire 

lotions and friends accompany him unto the door 

beg rabeS, unb fefjren bann juri'tc! in ifjre Confer. 

of the grave, and return then back into their houses. 

)er 2)ritte, ben er im ^eben om bfteften berga, ftnb 

The third, whom he in (the) life the oftenest forgot, are 

feine guten SBerte. @ie ottein begteiten ifjn bi3 gu 

his good works. They alone accompany him as far as 

bent Sfjrone be$ $ftirf)tergj fie ge^en Doran, fpredjcn fitr 

the throne of the judge ; they precede, speak for 

tfyn, unb finben SBarmfjer^tglfeit unb nabe. 

him, and find mercy and grace. 



ETYMOLOGY. 

PRELIMINARY NOTIONS. PARTS OP SPEECH. 

There are in the German language ten parts of speech : 

1) The article, ber Strttfel or ba$ efcfylecfytSroort. 

2) The noun or substantive, boS $auptnjort. 

3) The determinative adjective or adjective pronoun, 

bag $Scftimmun$3tt>ort 

4) The (qualifying) adjective, bag 



14 PAKTS OF SPEECH. 

5) The pronoun, tag prwort. 

6) The verb, tag 3ettroort 

7) The adverb, tag llmfiantgroort 

8) The preposition, tag SSorwort. 

9) The conjunction, tag 33intett>ort. 
10) The interjection, tag Slugrufgroort. 

The first six are variable, the four last invariable. 

The change which the first five undergo by means of 
terminations, is called declension; it shows gender, number 
and case. 

There are in German three genders : the masculine, tag 
ma nnlicfye ; the feminine, tag ttJetbltcfye; and the neuter, 
tag fa cfylicfye ef(i)led)t. The rules of gender will be found in 
the tenth lesson. 

There are two numbers: the singular, (Einjafyl, and the 
plural, -Jftefyr jafyl ; and four cases : the nominative, genitive 
dative and accusative. 

The nominative, 3Qerfatt, answers the question who? 
or what? Ex. Who is learning? The boy (Latin, puer). 

The genitive or possessive, SBeffenfatt, answers the ques- 
tion wJiose? or of which? Ex. Whose book? The boy's 
book (pueri). 

The dative, 5Qemfatl, answers the question to whom ? - 
Ex. To whom shall I give it ? To the boy (puero). 

The accusative or objective, SBenfall, marks the object 
of an action and answers the question ivhom ? or what ? 
Ex. Whom or what do you see? I see the boy (puerum), 
the house (domum). 

NOTE. For the vocative case there is no particular form in German ; 
if required, the nominative serves for it 



DEFINITE AHTICLE. 16 

FIRST LESSON. 

THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. 

($tr bcftiiltmU Jlrtifcl.) 

There are in German as in English two articles: the 
definite and the indefinite. 

The definite article, answering to the English tlie, has for 
each gender in the singular a different form, viz. : 
Masc., bet, as, bet 2)?ann, the man, 
Fern., bie, tlte rau, the woman, 

Neut. y btt, btt ftint>, the child, 

Plural for all three genders bie, 

as, bie Scanner, the men, 
&te grauen, the women, 
tlte $infcer, the children. 

It will be observed on consulting the paradigm below, 
that the nominative singular feminine is like the accusa- 
tive singular feminine, the nominative singular neuter, in 
the same way, like the accusative singular neuter, and the 
nominative plural like the accusative plural. 

This is the case also with all nouns and adjectives. 

DECLENSION OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

Masc. Fern. Neuter. All genders. 

Nom. ber bte ba, the bie, the 

Gen. be bcr be, of the ber, of the 
Dot. bent ber bent, to the ben, to the 
Ace. ben bic ba, the bie, the 

The following words are declined like ber, except that 
the neuter nominative and accusative ends in e 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

Masc. Fern. Neuter. AU genders. 

biefer btcfe bicfeg, this btefe, these 

jener jene }enc3, that jene, those 

njeldjer ttjetcfje U)eId)C0, which? what? ttjetdje, which? what? 

jeber iebe fcbeS, every 



SINGULAR. 
Masc. Fern. Jt'euier. 



DEFINITE ARTICLE. 
DECLENSION. 



N. btefer biefe biefcS, this 

G. btefeg biefer btefeg, of this 

D. biefem btefer btefem, to this 

A. biefen btefe btefeS, this 



PLURAL. 

Allgendert. 



btcfe, these 

btefer, of these 

btefeit, to these 

btefe, these. 



EXAMPLES. 



2)tefer 9J?ann, this man. 
3ene grau, that woman. 



2Beld)en <Stod focc.j, which stick? 
SebeS $tnb, every child. 



WORDS (Shorter.) 1 



$6nig, the king 
bie $omgtn, the queen 
btt <3d)lo, the castle, palace 
ber 23ater, the father 
bie Sftutter, the mother 
bag $tnb, the child 
ber -Iftann, the man 
bie &au, the woman 
ber (gofyn, the son 
bie od)ter, the daughter 

ja, yes nettt, 
S. 3d) ^abe, I have 
bu Ijaft, thou hast 
er fyat, he has 
fte fyat, she has 



ber arten, the garden 
baS au^, the house 
bag Sud), the book 
ber 2Beht, the wine 
ba Staffer, the water 
bie ^eber, the pen 
ber tod, the stick 
ber unb, the dog 
bte ^tafce, the cat 
itnb, and 
no ntdjt, not. 
abe id)? have I? 
faft bu? hast thou? 
!^at er ? has he ? 
fycit fte ? has she ? 



READING EXERCISE (tteillttg) 1. 

S5ater itnb ber (Soljn. ie Gutter unb 
ten unb ba ^>aug. liefer artcn, jeneS 
tod.' )u {ojl ba 2Baffer. 



ben 

Xct 



1 In this and the following lists of words the article precedes each substantive, that 
it may be learned at the same time and fix the gender of the substantive in the student's 
mind. It may also be observed here, once for all, that the words occurring either in 
the roles, or preceding the exercises, are to be well committed to memory, as their 
signification is seldom repeated in subsequent lessons. 

2 A noua governed by the verb Ija&en, to have, or by any other transitive verb, must 
be in the accusative. Most German monosyllabic substantives are alike in the nom- 
native and accusative singular. 



DEFINITE ARTICLE. 1? 

Stotcr |at ben SBetn. SBcWjcn 2Bcht ? Sclrfjeg SBaffer? liefer unb. 
2)iefe $afee. SDaa it tub jcncr ftrau (Gen.). 2Belde* #tnb ? 3ebeg 
$mb. 2BeW)c gran? 2Beld)er SWann fjat ben unb? SBeldjen 
tocf fyat ber Sftann ? (r fyat btefen tod. 

Slufgafie (EXERCISES FOR TRANSLATION) 2. 

1. The king and the queen. The son and the daughter. 
The father and the mother. The child has the book. The 
daughter has the book. The man has the (ace.) stick. I have 
the wine. The man has the water. This father. This woman. 
This house. The king has the castle. The queen has the 
book. Which book? What house? Which pen? That book ; 
that pen. Every man. I have the (ace.) dog. 

2. 1 I have not the stick. The child has the stick. That 
wine and this water. This man has not the book. What castle 
has the (Nom.) king? He has that castle. That mother has 
the child. The house of the woman. 2 The castle of the queen. 
Hast thou the book? What plates (Seller)? These plates. 
Those plates. The son of the queen. The pen of the daugh- 
ter. 2 Every mother. Every book. 



(CONVERSATION). 

cibe id) Me fteber? 3a, bit fyaft Me fteber. 

|>aft bit bag 23ttd) ? 9?etn, id) fjabe bag 33itd) ntd)t. 

|>at ber $atev ben SBetn? (Sr Ijat ben 2Betn. 

$at bte ftrcrn bte $ae? 3a, fie I)at Me ^afce. 

2Betd)e ^ae I)ut fie? <Ste Ijat bte jimge (young) 

)at bag $inb ben Stod 1 ? 9Zetn, ber 33ater ^at ben torf. 

2Betd)eg d)to fjat bte ^onigtn? @ie ^at btefeg Sd)Io. 

at btefe gran bag ^tnb ? -JMn, |ene gran ^at eg (it). 

{>at ber SDJamt ben mnb ? S)er SWaim I)at ben mnb nid)t; 

er i)at bte $at$e. 

2Betd)eg 33itd) ()at ber <2of)n? (gr ^at bag 23ud) ber SWutter. 

at bte Gutter bag Slid) ? ^etn, bte od)ter I)at bag Sitd). 

2Bctd)e geber ^at bag ^tnb ? (S ^at bte geber ber grau. 

^at ber SJater 28affer? ^etn, er f)at 2Betn. 

SSefdjeg aug t)at ber 9^ann? <gr ^at bag aug ber Gutter. 



i Most of the exercises are divided into two parts. The secoiid part need not be 
translated until the pupil reviews, which should be done after 10 or 12 lessons have 
been gone through. 

s Feminine nouns have all the other cases in the singular like the nominative, 
BO that lin the einuular) only the article preceding them is declined. 



INDEFINITE ARTICLE. 



SECOND LESSON. 

THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE. 

I ttr unbt ilimnuf Vrtifel.) 

The indefinite article, which is equivalent to the English 
a or an, has also three genders, but in the nominative, the 
masculine and neuter are alike, viz., 

Masc., etn, as, ein Sttann, 
Fem., eine, eine Orrau, 
Neuter, ein, ein $inb. 
It has no plural. 

DECLENSION OF THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE. 





Mate. 


Fem. 


Neuter. 




N. 


cin 


eine 


ein, 


a 


0. 


eineg 


einer 


C11IC0, 


of a 


D. 


cittern 


enter 


einem, 


to a 


A. 


eincn 


eine 


ein, 


a 



The following words are declined in the same way, but 
have a plural : 

Masc. Fem. Neuter. 

unfer nnfere unfer, our, 
3fjr ptjre Oljr, your, 
tljr tt)re iljr, her, their. 



Mate. 


Fem. 


Neuter. 




fein 


feine 


fein, 


no, 1 


mein 
bein 
fein 


meine 
beine 
feine 


mein, 
bein, 
fein, 


my, 
thy, 
his, its. 



DELENSION. 
BZHOHI4S. 

Masc. Fem. Neuter. 

N. mein meinc mein, my, 

O. meineS meiner meine?, of my, 

D. meinew meiner meinem, to my, 

A. meinen meine mein, my, 



PLURAL. 

All genders. 

meine, my 
meiner, of my 
meinen, to my 
meine, my. 



EXAMPLE. 



$ein 33rob, no bread 
Unfer Skter, our father 
31)r 33ud), your book 



SJJeinc <2djn)cfler, my sister 
Unferc SJZuttcr, our mother 
<2cui ^ferb, his horse. 



i This of course is the adjective no, as in no water, no book*. No, in answer toavjues- 
tion, e. y., " Have you Been him ?" " No," is, lltia. 



INDEFINITE AETICLE. 



19 



WORDS. 



(Sine 9?ofe, a rose 

etn Sfteffer, n., a knife 

cm ^ebenneffer, n., a penknife 

eine abel, a fork 

em offel, m., a spoon 

em $leib, n., a dress 

em 33ruber, TO., a brother 

etn ^ferb, w., a horse 

etn i)ter, n., an animal 

em 5tpfel, TO., an apple 

eine 23irne, a pear 

erne (Stabt, a city 

cine 3riid)t, a fruit 

PL 3Bir fyaben, we have 

^ tt' \ Jon have 
<te b,aben, ) J 

fie Ijaben, they have 



fein 33aum, m., no tree 

ntem 9?oc!, TO., my coat 

etne 33titme, a flower 

etn mt, m., a hat 

fein $reunb, TO., his friend 

fcfyon, fine, beautiful 

alt, old ; fefyr, very 

jung, young 

gefefyen, seen 

geben <Ste, (imp. pi.) give 

tft, is ; aurf), also 

ntir, me (i.e., to me) 

ober, or ; toer, who ? rt)0, where ? 

>aben hitr, have we ? 

ft bti W' [have you? 
^aben @te, ) 

Ijaben fie, have they ? 



READING EXERCISE 3. 

fja&e eine Slume. aft bit nteine 33(ume ? 2Btr ^aben einen 
aben <Ste aurf) etnen ^reunb? SDtefer 9}iann ift ntein 
greunb. @ie ^at letn Srob. @ie ^aben feinen 5(pfet. SJMn 
^at eine Sirne ; e8 (it) b,at aitd) etne 9[tofe. 3f)r @ot)n unb 
Sodjter ^aben Jenen 33aum gefetjen. 1 3)ie ^a^e ift etn I)ier. 
9iofe ift eine 58htme. eben @ie biefe^ 33tt^ nteinem @o 
eben @ie ntir eine anbere (another) 23tume. iefe^ ^pau8 ift nic^t 
fdjon. 2 Unfere <5tabt ift fe^r alt. 

Slufjiafic 4. 

1. I have a rose. She has a book. You have a 3 stick. My 
brother has a pear. My sister has an apple. His child has a 
knife. We have no bread. Give me a rose. The father has 
no horse. A dog is an animal. Which pen has this child? 
The son has a hat. Who has a flower? My daughter has a 
flower. Where is your mother? That tree has no apple. I 

1 In compound tenses the past participle conies next to last and the infinitive, if there 
is one, last. 

2 Adjectives, when placed after their nouns, remain unchanged, 
s Accusative masc. See foot-note 2, p. 16. 



20 



INDEFINITE ARTICLE. 



?/?.) spoon. That house is old. 1 Her house is 
Lorse is young. Have you seen " the castle of 



have no (Ace. 
beautiful My 
our queen ? 

2. Give this stick to 3 my brother. Give this penknife to 1 
your sister. The apple is a fruit. The rose is no fruit, it (fie) 
is a flower. You have no hat. Where is your hat? Who 
has seen my hat ? Give me a knife. Give me also a fork and 
a spoon. He has not his coat. They have no horse. Where 
is my brother ? Where is my sister's rose ? Not every horse 
is old ; this horse is young. 



3prcd)iiluutfl. 



(what) fjaben <Ste? 
aben @ie eine 9tofe ? 
Jaftbuein^ferb? 



Ratbag inb23rob? 
2Berb,atmein23urf)? 
2Bo ift betne geber? 
SBelrfjeS au$ fyaben @te? 
3ft 3b,r canning? 
2Bo ift tnein gtbermeffer? 
at unfere Gutter eine 
2BeJ"rf)e8 2tteffer fyat ntein fiinb? 
3ft bte^ofe eine ftrucfjt? 
Scffen (whose) ^(etb ift btefeS? 
SBeffen tocf ^aben <Ste? 
2Berb,atmem23ud)? 
ioir 2Baffer? 



OflbiefiofeeemZ^iet? 

3ftfie(it)frf)bn? 

^>at O^re Gutter etnen 33ruber ? 



3a, tc 



eine 33hmte. 
cine 9?ofe. 
b,abe fetn ^ferb, tc^ b.abe 



etnen 

3>a ^inb I)at fein Srob. 
jDeine d)U)efter b,at betn i 
@te ift nirfjt ba (there). 
-3d) b,abe meineg SJater^ 
(5r ift feb,r jung. 
5b,r Sruber b,at e. 
9?etn, fie fyat feine 9?ofe. 
e ^ot fetn SWeffer. 
9Zetn, bte 9tofe ift eine Stunte. 
3)iefe ift ba3 ^letb metner 2Rutter. 
-3d) fyabe ntetnen Storf. 
S5a ^tnb metner (Sdjmejier ^ot eS. 
Sir fyaben fein Staffer ; aber (but) 

ttnr b,aben SSetn. 
3o, bie ^afce ift etn jtb,ter. 
-ftein, fte ift nid)t frf)on. 
2}?eine gutter fjat fetnen 33ruber, 

aber eine Sdjioefler. 



1 See foot-note 2, p. 19. 

2 See foot-note 1, p. 19. 

* Xae word to must not be translated here. Use the dative. 



DECLENSION OF SUBSTANTIVES. 21 

THIRD LESSON. 

THE DECLENSION OF SUBSTANTIVES. 

(XflHnntion her au)>ttoortrr.) 

German grammarians generally divide nouns into two 
declensions according as the genitive singular ends in $ 
(for euphony c) or en. The declension with $ in the 
genitive is called the strong declension, and that with en the 
weak declension. Dictionaries give the nominative and 
genitive singular and the nominative plural of each noun, 
together with its gender, and the student when using a 
dictionary should endeavor to commit to memory these 
data concerning every new noun he looks out, provided it 
does not come under rules he has already learned, for 
they will enable him to decline the noun in full, the 
remaining cases being formed according to a few simple 
rules. 

For the purposes of this grammar we shall divide 
German nouns into five declensions, as follows. 

1) The First Declension comprehends all masculine and 
neuter nouns ending in e(, er, en, cfyen and lein. None of 
them are monosyllabic. 

2) The Second comprehends all masculines ending in e 
(none of them monosyllabic), and most foreign masculines. 

3) The Third contains nearly* all monosyllabic mascu- 
lines, those masculines of two syllables ending in tg, id) 
and ling, and some words of foreign origin. 

4) To the Fourth belong ullfeminines. 

5) To the Fifth, all neuters not ending in el, er, en, cfyen 
and lein (see 1). 

KEMA.BK. A few belong to the Second Declension. For list see 
page 28. 



22 



DECLENSION OF SUBSTANTIVES. 



TABLE OF THE ENDINGS OF THE FIVE DECLENSIONS. 

SINGULAR. 



Mtueuline. Feminine. Neuter. 


i. n. m. iv. v. 


N. - 


- e 


_ 


_ 


_ 


y-y o 


- en 


- e* () 





ee (s) 


D. - 


en 


-(e) 





-(e) 


A. 


en 












rLCKAL. 



N. -^- 1 - 

G. -?- - 

D. - n 

A. - 



en 

en 

en 

en 



en 

- en 

- en (n) 

en 



c 
e 

en 
e 



er 
er 
era 



GENERAL RULES. 

1) The genitive singular of all masculines (except those 
of the Second Declension) and of all neuters without 
exception ends in 3 a (or e3). 

2) The accusative singular of feminines and neuters is 
like the nominative (as has been already stated on page 15). 

3) The accusative singular of masculines (except those 
referred to in the remark above) not ending in the nomi- 
native in e, is like the nominative. 

4) The vocative case in both numbers is like the nomi- 
native, or in other words, the nominative is used in Ger- 
man as a vocative. 

5) In the plural the nominative, genitive and accusative 
are always alike. 

6) The dative plural of all words ends in n. For unim- 
portant exceptions, see pp. 63, 5 ; 144, 1, 2, and 579*. 

7) Most nouns ending in c form their plural in en with- 
out modifying the vowel of the singular. 



i These marks indicate the vowel of the singular, but modified. 
- More usually in a simple 8 when the nominative (angular contains more than on* 
syllable, in e when this latter IB monosyllabic. 



FIRST DECLENSION. 23 

8) All feminine substantives have all the caseo alike in 
the singular. 

9) Most monosyllables having a, 0, it or ait in their stem, 
modify in the plural this vowel into a, b, U or a'u. 

10) In all compound nouns only the last component part 
is declined 

FIRST DECLENSION". 

To the First Declension belong all masculine and neuter 
nouns ending in c(, en and er, besides all diminutives in 
d)cn and Icin. Diminutives, c.g., 23ritoerd)en (little brother), 
<d)tt>eftcr(etn (little sister), are all neuter. 

The only change of termination which substantives 
belonging to this declension undergo, consists in taking $ 
for the genitive singular, and n for the dative plural. 
Words terminating in n do not require an additional n. 
About twenty words belonging to the First Declension 
modify in the plural the vowel of the accented syllable, 
a, or U becoming a, or iL 

1) EXAMPLES OF MASCULINE NOUNS. 
SINGHLAB. PLURAL. 

-A 7 , ber 23ruber, the brother bte SBriiber, the brothers 

G. beS $Bruber, of the brother ber Sritber, of the brothers 

D. bent Sruber, to the brother ben Shiibcru, to the brothers 

A. ben 23ruber, the brother bte Sriiber, the brothers. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

N. ber (Sarten, the garden bte (Morten, the gardens 

G. be3 arteng, of the garden ber cirten, of the gardens 

D. bem arten, to the garden ben (Garten, to the gardens 

A. ben arten, the garden bie cirten, the gardens. 

In the same manner are declined: 

ber 5>atcr, the father ber Metier, the plate 

ber 9lpfel, the apple ber jammer, the hammer 

ber @cf)Uiffe(, the key ber $oge(, the bird 

ber glugcl, the wing ber dfjneiber, the tailor 

ber offel, the spoon ber crjtoager, the brother-in-law 

ber (gngel, the angel ber (gngtcinber, the Englishman 



24 FIRST DECLENSION. 

ber ^intntct, (the) heaven bcr Corner, the Eoman 

ber I'cfyrer, the teacher *ber ^Ibler, 1 the eagle 

bcr 3d)iUcr, the pupil *ber Xropfen, the drop 

bcr 3ptcgcl, the looking-glass *bcr $ud)en, the cake 

bcr 9iepcn, the rain *ber Skater, the painter 

bcr <3ticfel, the boot *bcr Slmertfancr, the American. 

2) EXAMPLES OF NETTTEB NOUNS. 
SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

N. bag ftenftcr, the window btc ^cnflcr, the windows 

O. beg ^enfterg, of the window bcr $enfter, of the windows 

D. bem ^enfter, to the window ben ^enfterit, to the windows 

A. bag ^enfter, the window. bic ^cnfier, the windows. 

N. bag 33aumd)en, the little tree bte 33aumd)cn, the little trees 
G. beg 33aumd)en8, of the little tree ber 33auntd)en, of the little trees 
D. bem 33aumd)en, to the little tree ben Stiumdjen, to the little trees 
A. baS Saumdjen, the little tree, btc 33cunnd)en, the little i^ees. 

Such are : 

ba8 geuer, the fire ba ^itpfer, (the) copper 

ba Stteffer, the knife ba ^(pfter, the convent 

ba8 SSetter, the weather bag SDttttel, the means 

baS 2B offer, the water ba 33etld)en, the violet 

bag (SUber, (the) silver bag 2J?abd)en, the girl, maiden. 

3) EXAMPLES WITH THE INDEFINITE ABTICLE. 
Masculine. Neuter. 

N. etn 2)tener, a servant rnetn 3^^^^, my room 
G. eineg jDtenerg, of a servant metneg 3* mmcr ^' ^ m y rooni 
D. etnem 2)iener f to a servant metnent 3intmer, to my room 
A. etnen S)tener, a servant. mcin ^u^ 01 ^ m y room. 
Compound nouns of the first declension. See p. 23, 10. 

)er rofeuater, the grandfather. Gen. beg rofcttater8 jc, 

bag gebenneffer, the penknife. Gen. beg g'ebermefferg jc. 

ber <Sprad)Ie^rer, the language-master 

ber >augfd)litffel, the street-door-key 

ber ^itgtogel, the bird of passage. PL bie 3 u 9 09 e t 

bag <3d^laf Dimmer, the bedroom. 

i Those marked witli * do not modify their vowel in the plural, as : the eagles, bic 
abler. 



FIRST DECLENSION. 25 

OBSERVATIONS. 

1) The following ten words originally terminating in ett, 
now very often used without n, belong also to the first 
declension. They do not modify their vowel in the pluraL 

$>er (Sonten or (Same, the seed ber rteben or ^rtebe, the peace 

ber lauben or laube, the faith ber SBttten or 2Bttte, the will 

ber gunfen or gunfe, the spark ber gelf en or gelg, the rock 

ber >aufen or >aufe, the heap ber Sftamen or SRame, the name 

ber ($ebanfen or ebanfe, ber 23urf)ftaben or SSttcfjftabe, 
the thought the letter of the alphabet. 

EXAMPLE. 
SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

N. ber Sftamen or <ftame, the name bte Seamen, the names 
O. beg -iftameng, of the name ber SRamen, of the names 
D. bent Xiamen, to the name ben 9iamen, to the names 
A. ben ^amen, the name bte -ftanten, the names. 

2) The following words are declined in the singular accor- 
ding to this declension, but form the plural in n (^rofeffor 
and>octorinen), (Seep. 48.) better, ^antoffel and mtter 
may also have the plurals better, ^Jantoffet and 

ber S3auer, the peasant ber ^cmtoffel, the slipper 

ber SBoter, the Bavarian ber etiatter, the god-father 

ber better, the cousin ber 2J?it$feI, the muscle 

ber 9?a<f)bar, the neighbour ber ^rofeffor, the professor 
ber tad^et, the sting ber )oftor, the doctor. 

Gen. be SaiterS, beg Sktterg, beg ^oc^barg :c. 

Plur, bte SBauero, bte 53ettem, bte -ftadjbartt zc. 



WORDS. 

ott, God bte SBopljat, ^ benefit 

ber (Suropaer, the European !ronf, ill ; gut, good 

ber >panter, the Spaniard fletn, httle, small 

ber anger, the singer grofc, large, great 

ber <Srf)opfer, the creator ftnb, are ; gtuet, two 

bag otb, (the) gold fat, in ; Ijter, here. 



26 FIRST DECLENSION. 

READING EXERCISE 5. 

5)et S3ruber beS $aterS. 3>r arten beS 33ruber. $>a$ Saunt* 
efjen bc artenS. On (itith the dative, in) bent (Garten. 3n bent 
Dimmer. 3n ben 3tinmern. 3)ie genfter be3 3i mmer ^ 3)cr35tenct 
bcS ^Imertfaner^. >te (pi.) Xropfen beg 9?egen8. eben (Ste btefe 
3tepfct ben 3d)iilent. 2)em et)rer. Sfteine <2>d)ttager. Xetne SBriiber. 
Xttne rfjtitffcl (pl.\ 3d) Ijabe ben djtitffel beg 3i mmerg - ^ r ^ 
ba SWeffcr fetneg S3ruber. 3)te ^Ibter (tnb 33ogel. 2>te ^lepfet finb 
aitf (on) bem XeUer. 2)ag 2J?dbc^en ift in einem Softer. 2Bo tft ber 
<2c^netber ? Sr tft ntd)t ^ter. 

^lufjinbf 6. 

1. The garden of the father. , The gardens of my brother. 
I have two spoons. The Englishman has two servants. We 
are in a room (Dot.). My father is in the garden. Our 
teacher is old. The man has two hammers. Your brother- 
in-law is a doctor. These cakes are not good. Where are the 
birds ? They are in the garden. Give me your (Ace.} plate. 
A bird has two wings. The wings of the birds. The angels 
of (the) 1 heaven. Have you seen 2 the rooms of the convent ? 

2. The castle has [a] hundred (fyunbert) windows. The book 
of the pupiL The plate of the girL We are Americana You 
are Europeans. The violets are in the gardens. The pupils 
are at school (in ber Sd)itle). The rooms of my father. I have 
no silver and no gold. Give me the keys of my cousin. The 
name of the painter. The benefit of (the) peace. The house 
of my teacher. We have no fire. God is the creator of (the) 
heaven and (of the) earth (ber Srbe). 



2BeIrf)e8 (what) tfl ber 

btefeS (SnglanberS ? (Sein Sftame ift 

>aben (Ste bte 33dgel gefeljen ? 3a, id) fyabe fie (them) gefefyen. 

3ft ba (that) 3f)r @arten? @6 ift ber (Morten metneS 
2Bo finb bte <3d)litffel nteineS 

^tntmerS ? >ier finb fte. 

2Ber ift biefeS 2fttibrf)en ? @ie ift bie Xodjter etneS SngldnberS. 

2Ber ift biefer junge 2ftann ? @r ift ber @ol)n metneg 



i Observe that a parenthesis ( ---- ) encloses either an explanation or a word to be 
translated into German, whereas brackets [....] enclose a word to be left out la 
translating. 

a See foot-note 1, p. 19. 



SECOND DECLENSION. 27 

@inb @ie etn 2Mer ?' Sfcin, idj bin (I am) fein flftaler, 

id) bin etn anger. 

Oft er ein Guropaer? 3a, er ift etn panier. 

2Ser ift in bem (Garten ? 2)ie pd)ter meineg SeljrerS. 

abe id) bag iBud) beineg $aterg ? 3a, Sie Ijaben eg (it), 
aben <2ie ben (Stocf meineS 

33ruber ? S'Jein, id^ ^abe ib,n (it) ni^t. 

^aben @ie bag ait8 be8 Spa* 9?ein, id) Ijabe fein au8 nirfjt gefe* 

nterS gefeb,en? b,en. 

SBer (who) ift franf ? 2)er Wiener be 2Ka(erg ift franf. 

3[ft bet piegel flein ? ^etn, et (it) ift grojj unb frfjon. 



FOURTH LESSON. 

SECOND DECLENSION. 

This declension contains another series of masculine 
nouns, viz. : 

1) All those ending in c. Its inflexion is very simple. 
The oblique' cases, both of the singular and plural, are 
formed by adding n, without modifying the vowel in the 
plural : 

EXAMPLE. 
SDJGULAK. PLTJKAL. 

N. ber $nabe, the boy bie $nabett, the boys 

G. beg ^naben, of the boy ber $naben, of the boys 

D. bem J?naben, to the boy ben ^naben, to the boys 

A. ben jhtafat, the boy. bie $naben, the boys. 

Thus are declined : 

ber 5Iffe, the monkey ber Sotoe, the lion 

ber Sote, the messenger ber ^aife, the falcon 

ber (grbe, the heir ber afe, the hare 

ber )rf)fe (Orf)g), the ox ber $Jabe, the raven 

ber S'Jiefe, the giant ber @atte, the husband 

ber (Sflaoe, the slave ber SBebiente, the man-servant 

ber 3ube, the Jew ber ^ranjofe, the Frenchman 

ber ^otfyc, the godfather ber <5ad)fe, the Saxon 

ber irte ($irt), the herdsman ber 9?uffe, the Russian 

i In such sentences, it is better German to leave ein out and say, for instance : tab 
ieORalet? 
* The oblique cases are all except the nominatiya. 



28 SECOND DECLENSION. 

bcr >etbe, the heathen ber "ipreufje, the Prussian 

bcr &uOe, the boy ber iirfe, the Turk. 

ber Jieffc, the nephew (See tlie Twelfth Lesson, 8.) 

NOTE, Further all adjectives if preceded by the definite article and 
used substantive! y (but compare page 579*), as : 

ber 2Utc, the old man ber $tanfe, the patient (sick man) 

bet 9tei|enbe/ the traveller bet (Mcljrte, the learned man. 

Om. be32Uten, be3 Jhanfen, beg SReifenben :c. 

2) All masculine nouns from other languages having 
the accent on the last syllable and not ending in r, 1 ol, 
on or aft. 

EXAMPLE. 
SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

N. bcr (Stubenf, the student, bie (Stubcn'ten, the students 

G. be3 tuben'ten, of the student ber tubenten, of the students 

D. bem tubenten, to the student ben (Stubenten, to the students 

A. ben tubenten, the student. bie tubenten, the students. 

Such are : 

3)er 2lbt>o!at', the advocate ber ^Sraftbent', the president 

ber $amerab', the comrade ber Styronn', the tyrant 

ber (Sanbibaf, the candidate ber 3efiut', the Jesuit 

ber ^fn'lofopl)', the philosopher ber Stegent', the regent 

ber jDufat', the ducat ber (Elepfycmt', the elephant 

ber olbat', the soldier bcr 3)tamant', the diamond 

ber $ofa(f, the Cossack ber ^5oet', the poet 

ber 9J?onard)', the monarch ber (tariff, the Christian 

ber $omet', the comet ber ^Brtnj, ) ,-, 

2 " 



ber planet, the planet ber ftiirft, 2 

3) The following words, though monosyllabic, see the 
Remark, page 21. 

EXAMPLE. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 



ber etb, the hero G. beg >elben *c. bie elben *c. 

ber |>err, the master G. beg errn K. bie ^erren K. 



ber 



^ arr ' 1 the fool G I ^ Barren K. bie DJarren K. 

fyor, ) ' ( beg S^oren zc. bie l)oren jc. 



i As Officer', f netat', >e. These belong to the Third Declension, 
s giirfl ia connected with the English word/rrt 



SECOND DECLENSION. 29 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

bcr iQtir, the bear G. beg 33tiren jc. bie 33dren K. 

), man, mankind G. beg 2Jienfd)en :c. bie 2ftenfd)eu JC. 



EXAMPLE. 

N. ber raf, the count, earl bie rafen, the counts 
G. beg rafen, of the count ber rafen of the counts 
D. bent rafen, to the count ben rafen, to the counts 
A. ben rafen, the count bie rafen, the counts. 

The singular of i^ert omits e in the oblique cases. 

WORDS. 

ber $aifer, the emperor ber riedje, the Greek. 

bie >erbe, the herd, flock ber 33rief, the letter 

bie ante, the aunt ber (Sfel, the ass 

ber $orper, the body fennen @ie, do you know? 

S. 3d) bin, I am SBin id), am I ? 

bu btft, thou art btft bit, art thou ? 

er ift, he is ift er, is he ? 

fie ift, she is ift fie, is she ? 



PI. 2Bir ftnb, we are 
@ie finb, } 

f- r c fVUU. til t) 

tpr fetb, ) J 

fie finb, they are 



tnb rt)ir, are we ? 



finb te, ) 
feibif)r, j 



tnb fie, are they? 



BEADING EXERCISE 7. 

Sfteffer be ^na&en 1 . Orf) Qebe bem ^naben Srob. Bennett 
<Sie ben ^naben ? 3)ie ^)eerbe beg irten. ag S3ud) eineg tubenten. 
3)er ^orper eineg Slep^anten. ie ^liigel ber ^Ibler unb ber fallen. 
3)ie olbaten beg SRonardjen. 3)ie 9faben ftnb 53ogel. 3)ie $nabeu 
h^aben gtuei 9?aben unb brei afen. ie Siirfen h^aben ftaben. Xie 
^ofactcn beg ^aiferg finb 9htffen. S)ag olb beg rafen. )er Srief 
beg gitrften. $)ie 2J?enfd)en finb fterblid) (mortal). >er Smber beg 

Slttert. 

8. 



1. The boy's brothers. These boys are brothers. The name 
of the student. The sister of the count. The prince's aunt 
The herdsman's flock. The soldier's knife. The letter of the 

i 2>e3 ffnaben 9Reffer is also correct and means the same thing. So, eineS Jjjtrten Jgeerbe 
But bag 2)?e[jer te6 ftnaben and bie eerke eincs yineu are more usual. 



30 THIRD DECLENSION. 

president. The emperors Caligula and Nero were (toaven) 
tyrants. Do you know the princes ? The child has a raven. 
The Americans have monkeys. I have seen the queen's dia- 
monds. The old (alten) Greeks had (gotten) slaves. Give the 
gold to the Jew. 

2. We have seen a comet. Are you Saxons or Prussians ? 
The body of a giant is very large (fefyr groft). These two boys 
are my nephews. Those soldiers are Russians. They are 
Cossacks. The Turks are no heathens. We are Christians. 
These boys are Jews. My comrades are ilL We have no oxen, 
we have two asses. Give this (Ace.) letter to the messenger 
(Dot.) of the count. 



mben <5te ben (Slepljcmten ge* 2Btr fjoben tfjn Ijeute (to-day) ge* 

fefjen ? fef)en. % 

>aben bte $naben ben on>en, ben Unfere $naben Ijaben ben 5tt)en 

iger unb ben SBaren gefefyen ? unb ben 33aren gefefyen ; aber 

nid)t ben tger. 

2Ber tft biefer 2Kann? (gr ift be^ ^raftbenten Sruber. 

3ft biefer tubent etn ^reu^e ? 9?ein, er ift ein <2arf)fe. 
5Ber ift fein ^Sater? <Sein S5ater ift ein 2lbDofat. 

J?ie6en <Ste (do you like) bte $tf* 

fen? 9?eht, i^ Uebe bte 3Iffen ntd)t 

^ennen (Ste btefe olbaten ? -3d) fenne (know) fte nidjt 

faben Ste ^afen? -3a, id) fyabe bret afen. 

ft ber SBebiente beg rafen cut 
^rangofe ? 9?etn, er tfl etn (Snglanber. 

taben te einen 9?effen ? 3^ ^abe ^et 9Jeffen. 

tnb btefe ^naben Ouben? 9Jetn, fte ftnb S^rtften. 

2Bo ftnb Sljre ^omeraben ? te ftnb ntrfjt ^ter (here), fte ftnb 

gu oufe (at home). 
$aben bte fatten gluget? 3a, aUe (aUthe) 35oge( ^aben 

geL 
2Bar ber ^>elb era 9?itffe ? S^etn, er tear etn rtedje. 



FIFTH LESSON. 

THIKD DECLENSION. 

This declension contains the majority of masculine sub- 
stantives. In the singular, the genitive is formed by adding 



THIRD DECLENSION. 31 

eg or to the nominative ; in the dative, the word remains 
either unchanged or takes an t ; the accusative is like the 
nominative, as has been already stated in the third General 
Rule. All the plural cases take e, and the dative, of 
course besides the t, an n. Most of the nouns of this 
declension which have a, 0, U or au in the stem, modify it 
into a, 0, it or au in the plural. To the Third Declension 
belong 

1) All masculine monosyllabic nouns, except those mentioned 
under 3) on page 28. A few monosyllabic masculines form 
their plurals in en and still others in er. For lists see pages 
48 and 49. 

EXAMPLES. 
SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

N. ber fttfd), the fish bte gifdje, the fishes 

G. beg 5tfd)eg, f *h e fi^ b er 5ifrf) e > f t* 16 ns hes 

D. bent ifcf)(e), to the fish ben ^jf^^/ to the fishes 

A. ben gid' ^ e && ^ e 5ifcf)e, the fishes. 



N. ber <Solnt, the son bte oljne, the sons 

G. be @ol)n(e)g, of the son ber <3of)ne, of the sons 

D. bent @ol)n(e), to the son ben (Sofynen, to the sons 

A. ben oljn, the son. bte (Sofyne, the sons. 

N. ber 23ount, the tree bte 33ounte, the trees 

G. beg 23aum(e)8, of the tree ber 23dimte, of the trees 

D. bent 33aum(e), to the tree ben SBaumen, to the trees 

A. ben SBainn, the tree. bte Scinnte, the trees. 

NOTE. Whether eg or g shall be added to form the genitive and whether 
the dative shall have e or no termination at all, depends in the first place 
on considerations of euphony. There are some phrases, for instance, in 
which one would sound better than Jon3 and Stone than SEon, and there 
are others in which the shorter forms would unconsciously suggest them- 
selves to a writer or speaker. No one would think of saying ^ifdj^ or 
Splafeg, while on the other hand gifcf) and $la& in the dative are just as 
good as gifdje and ^lajje. In the second place, the shorter forms are 
more apt to be used in conversation and in written or printed matter of a 
familiar character, and the longer ones in dignified composition or 
speaking. Finally, e3 is preferred with monosyllables. 



32 THIRD DECLENSION. 

Examples of Monosyllables of the Third Declension : 

bcr Sifd), the table ber $ttt, the hat 

bcr <2>titf)I, the chair bcr 3aljn, ^ e tth 

bcr al)n, the cock bcr 2Bolf, the wolf 

ber f)itrm, the tower ber Srattm, the dream 

bcr <turm, the storm ber 2Bafl, the rampart 

ber 9?ing, the ring ber $opf, the head 

ber greimb, the friend ber Son, the sound 

ber ftetnb, the enemy ber Solnt, the reward 

ber $fi, the branch ber tocf, the coat 

ber aft, the guest ber <3todf, the stick 

ber ftitjs, the foot ber Sanj, the dance 

bcr Slufc, the river ber 33rief, the letter 
ber $ud)$r the fox etc. etc. 

Plur., bie Stfdje, bie tiifjte, bte 



NOTE. The following nouns and a number more do not modify theii 
Towel in the Plural : 

ber Slrm, the arm ber SadfjS, the salmon 

ber Sag, the day ber 3lal, the eel 

ber mnb, the dog ber >uf, the hoof 

ber <t>d)uf), the shoe ber $fab, the path 

ber ($rab, the degree ber toff, the stuff 

bcr )ad)3, the badger ber ^unft, the point 

Plur., bte Slrme, bte Sage, bie mnbe, bte <3d)ulje jc. 

2. Many nouns formed from a prefix and a stem, 
e.g. 33efel)l, from be and the stem fetyl. It may also be 
noted in this connection that monosyllabic nouns like 
those in the two lists just given occur very frequently at 
the end of compounds. Such compounds belong of 
course to the Third Declension. See General Rule 10, 
pa^e 23. In the Dative Singular they more commonly 
omit the ending *t. 

EXAMPLES. 
STNGHTLAB. PLUBAL. 

N. bcr 58efef)(', the order N. bte Sefe^Ie, the orders 

O. be 33efei)t3, of the order G. ber Sefe^Ic, of the orders 

D. bent 33efel)l, to the order D. ben 23efef)len, to the orders 

A. ben 53efe^, the order A, bie 23efef}(e, the orderg, 



THIRD DECLENSION. 83 

SINGULAB. 

ber $lpfelbaum, the apple tree 
beg 3lpfelbaumeg, of the apple-tree 
bem "jjlpfelbaum, to the apple-tree 
ben 2lpfelbaum, the apple-tree. 

PLURAL. 

bte 3tyfe(bfiitme, the apple-trees 
ber 2tyfetbamne, of the apple-trees 
ben 2fyfelbaunten, to the apple-trees 
bie Sfyfeibaitnte, the apple-trees. 

ber ebrancf)', custom, use ber )b,r'rtng, the earring 

ber efang', the song ber >anb'fd)nt>, the glove 

ber SBor'fyang, the curtain ber @trof)'l)nt, the straw-hat 

ber Un'fatl, the accident ber Ue'berrocf, the great-coat 

ber Slug'gang, the issue ber gei'ertag, the holiday. 

Gen., beg efcmgg, beg 33orl)cmgg, beg 9luggangg :c. 

Plur., bte SBorljange, bie ebrauc^e, bie >anbfd)itlje K. 

3. The Third Declension comprehends further all mas- 
cidine nouns even of more than one syllable ending in ig, 
id), at and ling, and the nouns of foreign origin ending in 
al, an, ar, aft, ter, or or on. 

EXAMPLES. 
SINGULAR PLURAL. 

N. ber $6nig, the king bte $omge, the kings 

G. be $6ntg, of the king ber ^onige, of the kings 

D. bem ^onig, to the king ben $omgen, to the kings 

A. ben ontg, the king bte $ontge, the kings. 

N. ber ^alaft', the palace bte ^alttfte, the palaces 

G. beg ^aiafteS, of the palace ber ^alcifte, of the palaces 

D. bem ^alaft, to the palace ben ^ataften, to the palaces 

A. ben ^ofojl, the palace bie ^alafte, the palacea 

Such are : 

ber tiiftg, the cage ber $arbinat', the cardinal 

ber eWicf), the carpet ber eneral', the general 

ber Sfftg, the vinegar ber 5lbmtrat', the admiral 

ber omg, the honey ber $o!al', the vowel 

ber $ ftrfid), the peach ber Kaplan', the chaplain 



34 THIRD DECLENSION. 

ber 2fto'nat, the month ber 2ftoraft', the swamp 

ber Bungling, the youth ber 5Utar', the altar 

ber faring, the herring ber )fftgier', the officer. 

Plur., bie $dfige, bie Wnate, bie OiingUnge, bie Slltfire, bie 
enerale, bie )ffi$iere :c. 

WORDS. 

3)er 223 alb, the wood, forest njeijj, white 

ber <B>rf)laf, sleep tong, long 

ber Sob, death brei, three 

ber ^rofrf), the frog Oter, four 

bie 9?ah,rung, food mit (dot.), with 

ber (Stord), the stork aber, but 

ber $ranicf), the crane ber 2B inter, winter. 

READOTQ EXERCISE 9. 

e3 $ater8 (Solute. 3>ie frifrf)e be fttuffcS. 9fof (on) bent 
Sfjurnte. 9luf ben Saumen. S)te SBdume be8 2BaIbe8. 2)ie SSb'get 
fmb in bem SBalbe. 2)ie 3d^ n e bed 6h>en. SKit bem torfe. 2Rit 
ben ftufyn. 2)iefe tii^le fmb alt. 3d) fyatte einen Xroum. 3)ie 
olbaten finb auf ben 2Ba'flen. 2)ie 5"c ber ^>a^ne tjaben (Sporen 
(spurs). !Die ^alafle ber $onige fmb grop. 2Bir ijaben bie Xeppicfje 
be @anger gefefyen. ^>oben @te bie 2B6lfe unb 5"d)fe ntdjt gefe^en? 
3)ie greunbe meineg 53ater. eineg Setters nmbe. 3)er <Sd)Iaf 
tft ein 33itb (image) be Sobeg. ier fmb 3h,re djub^e. So (inb 
metne ^anbfrfju^e? 

KufgoBe 10. 

1. The tables and the chairs of the room. The trees of the 
wood. The enemies' ramparts. The girl's rings. My friends' 
guests. With my brother's son (Dot.). With the count's 
sons. Do you know my guests ? The fish are in the rivers. 
We have a table but no chairs. I give the dogs to the Eng- 
lishman's sons. The days are long. The trees have branches. 
I have no stick. We have no sticks. The curtains of my 
room are white. The frogs are the food of (the) storks. 

2. Winter's storms are over (uoritber). On the (auf bent) pres- 
ident's chair. The gloves are on the table. Fish 'have no feet 
Frogs 1 have no teeth. The birds are on the trees. My sons 

i In English we omit the article before plural substantives about which some 
general assertion is made, e.g.. in the sentence " Frogs have no teeth." In German It 
ia sometimes inserted and sometimes omitted, but more usually inserted. 



FOURTH DECLENSION. 35 

have seen two cranes and four storks. Three months and two 
days. The banks (bte Ufer) of the rivers. The name of the 
officer. Herring are fishes. Do you know those two generals ? 
Yes, I know them (fie). The windows of the palace. In the 
palace of the king. 



2Bo ftnb bte ^tfdje ? (Sic ftnb in ben ^(ttffett. 

2Bo ftnb ntetne bret Sofytte ? <te ftnb in bem arten ober (or) 

in bem >ofe (court-yard). 

$BeIrf)e 9?orfe b,at ber <3rf)netbet? (r Ijat bte We beS Officers. 
@tnb btefe tufyle alt ? SDtefe (Single ftnb neu (new). 

33on iuem fprecf)en (Sic ? SKtc fpred)en t)on unferen ^reun* 

(Of whom are you speaking ?) ben. 
2Bte mete (how many) Donate? 2)ret donate. 

Dtele Soge? ret ober bier age. 

ec^en @ie nid)t toon bem o^ne 9?etn, tmr fpred^en toon fetneit 



2Bte btele SDjitrme l^at bte tabt? 3)tefe (Stabt ^at bret 

SBetrfjen tocf ^aben @ic ? 3^ l)abe ben tod beg rofen. 

|>aben (Sic feine f^reunbe? -3(^ Jjatte (had) jinet ^reunbe; 

aber fie finb tobt (dead). 

2Bte btele ^u^e !^at etn ^unb ? (Sin mnb !^at bier ^itfte. 
aben (Sic bie ^U^fe gefefyen? -3^ b/abe bie ^it^fe unb bte SSb'tfe 

gefe^en. 

aben bte (Sdjitter etnen ^et^tag? @ie fjaben jttjet ^etertage. 
S5o ift ber enerat? Sr tft in bem -patafte ber ^b'nigin. 



surra LESSON. 

FEMININE SUBSTANTIVES. 

POUBTH DECLENSION'. 

The Fourth Declension comprises all feminines. 

In the singular, feminines have the oblique cases like 
the nominative. 

1. In the plural, monosyllables take e, at the same time 
modifying the vowel of the stem. 



36 FOURTH DECLENSION. 

EXAMPLE. 

RTXaTTT.ATl PLURAL. 

N. bte >cmb, the hand bie >anbe, the hands 

O. bet f)mtb, of the hand bcr f)tinbc, of tlie hands 

D. ber |)anb, to the hand ben |janben, to the hands 

A. bie cmb, the hand bte >cinbe, the hands. 

Such are : 

bte 9lrt, the axe bte $unfl, the art 

bte $lngft, fear, anxiety bte uft, the air 

bte 33anf, the bench bte Sufi, the pleasure, desire 

bie SBraut, the bride bie 2Ragb, the servant 

bie SBruft, the breast bte 2ftacf)t, the power 

bte ftauft, the fist bie 2ttaug, the mouse 

bte 5rud)t/ the fruit bie 9f ad)t, the night 

bie cmS, the goose bte 9?otlj, the distress 

bie ruft, the vault bie -JZufj, the nut 

bie out, the skin bte <Stabt, the town, city 

bie $Iuft, the cleft bie 2Banb, the waU 

bte $raft, the strength bie 2Burft, the sausage. 

bie $uf), the cow 

Plur., bie Sleyte, bie 33anfe, bie ^ruc^te, bie finfe, bie flttnfte, bie 
Kiiffe, bie (gtfibte jc. 

NOTE. Jrait, woman, and some other monosyllables (enumerated in 
Lesson 9), have en in the plural. 

2. Feminine nouns of more than one syllable take t It in 
the plural, and do not modify the vowel. Words ending 
in c, I or r have n instead of en. See Note 1, p. 59. 

EXAMPLES. 
SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

N. bie 33lume, the flower bie 3Mumen, the flowers 

G. ber S3 fame, of the flower ber 33famen, of the flowers 

D. ber 33fame, to the flower ben SBIunten, to the flowers 

A. bie 23fame, the flower bte S3Iunten, the flowers. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

N. bie rfjroefter, the sister bie <Srf)tt)eflerit, the sisters 

O. ber cfyroefter, of the sister ber djtoeflern, of the sisters 

D. ber djtoefler, to the sister ben djroeftern, to the sisters 

A, bie djroefier, the sister bie <Sd)roeftent, the sisters. 



FOURTH DECLENSION. 37 

Such are : 

>te ftreube, the joy bte $eber, the pen, feather 

bte 9fp[c, the rose bte $trfd)e, the cherry 

tie 53tene, the bee bte ^ffon^e, the plant 

bie SBimbe, the wound bte @d)ule, the school 

bte timbe, the hour bte SBirne, the pear 

bte 23ritrfe, the bridge bte time, the forehead 

bte trd)e, the church bte Sfyttre, 1 the door 

bte Xante, the aunt bte $ranfl)ett, the disease 

bte Onfel, the island bte lufmerffantfett, attention 

bte -ftabel, the needle bte ftretljett, liberty, freedom 

bte afd)e, the pocket bte Stffenfdjaft, science 

bte tppe, the lip bte greunbfdjaft, friendship 

bte 9?a(e, the nose bte (grfaljrimg, the experience 

bte Waiter, the wall bte >offnung, the hope 

bte 5lbftd)t, the intention bte itrfttn, the princess 
bte <3d)metd)etct, the flattery bte ra'fin, the countess 

bie <Sd)5nl)eit, the beauty bte ^adjbartn, the neighbor. 

NOTE. Observe that all derivative substantives ending in et, Ijett, felt, 
fdjaft, ung and in, are feminine ; likewise words from foreign languages, 
ending in ie, if, ion or tat, e.g., bie SKelobie', bte SfKufif, bte SKation', bU 

llniBerfitat'. 

EXCEPTION. 

SDhttter and j;od)ter are declined as follows : 

SIKGULAB. t PLUEAL. 

N. bte Gutter, the mother bte Sfttttter, the mothers 

G. ber SDhttter, of the mother ber Gutter, of the mothers 

D. ber 9)?utter, to the mother ben SOtftittern, to the mothers 

A. bte 2)?ittter, the mother bte Sftutter, the mothers. 

N. bie od)ter, the daughter bte od)ter, the daughters 
G. ber od)ter, of the daughter berod)ter, of^he daughters 
D. ber od)ter, to the daughter ben dd)tern, to the daughters 
A. bte Stodjter, the daughter bte od)tcr, the daughters. 

For a few femininine words ending in nift, see p. 49, and 
the foot-note 40. 

WORDS. 

bte trafse, the street bie Xaube, the pigeon 

bte 3)ame, the lady bte $ae, the cat 

bte gwbe, the color bte ompe, the lamp 

i This word is sometimes used without the e: 



38 FOURTH DECLENSION. 

ba 53ct(cf)cn, the violet id) fndje, I seek (for) 

bie ?iebe, the love id) oerfaufe, I sell 

bie ?tlte, the lily id) fenne, I know 

ber Singer, the finger bie $artoffet, the potato 

bie Matte, the rat fur$, short 

ber 9J?ann, the man reif, ripe 

bie 2ftild), the milk rotty, red. 

S. 3d) tiebe, 1 1 like or love PL toir liebcn, we like or love 
bu tiebft, thou likest or lovest ifjr liebt, ) you Uke or 
cr liebt, he likes or loves @ie (icben, j you love 

fie liebt, she Hkes or loves fie Ueben, they Uke or love. 

READING EXERCISE 11. 



biefer <tabt. 2) 

ber anfe. 2>ie f)itren ber $irdje. 2)ie tabte finb gro. Die 
ftarbe ber 9tofe. S)ie ffluqci ber Sienc finb ftein. >er ^nabe ifit in 
ber (at) <2>d)ute. Xie ^irdjen fmb gro. 3?ie 9tofen unb bie Sitten 
finb fdjone 33Iumen. 3d) tiebe bie Sirnen.* Siebfl bu bie $ftttffe? 
!Die 3J?obd)en Ueben bie SSIumen. Die ^naben ^aben ftebern. 3)ie 
finger ber anbe finb ftein. 3m (in, literally in the) 2Binter ftnb 
bie 9Zad)te tang. 8 3d) liebe bie fatten unb bie 2JJaufe nid)t; aber 
(but) id> tiebe bie 33ienen unb bie Xauben. 

Slufflofic 12. 

1. The ladies' hands. I like the walnuts. The churches of 
the town. The boys have no pens. The man's forehead is 
high (fyorf)). I like roses and violets. The smell (ber erud)) 
of roses and violets is sweet (angenef)tn). Our hopes are vain 
(eitet). We know (fennen) the mother's love. The boys are at 
(in ber) school. The ladies are at (in ber) church. In three 
hours. The soldiers have wounds. Do you know these plants ? 
The cherries are red. I know the daughters of the countess. 

i This is the present tense of the verb Iteben, to love. All regular verbs are conjugated 
In this way. 

a It is better German to say : 3* effe (eat) 33trnen gern (gladly). 

a This is not a question. The sense is the same, or very nearly the same, as if the 
words had stood as follows : Tie 92&$te ftnb long im SSinter. But in Oennan, in any 
simple assertion, we have a right to begin the sentence with some other word than the 
subject, provided we then bring in the verb, and in the third place the subject. Here 
we might have written : Sang ftnb bie 92&$te im ZBinter. 



FOUETH DECLENSION. 39 

2. You know my intentions. He has two flowers in his 
hand. 1 These pens are not good (gut). I love my sisters. 
The cats catch (fangen) (the) mice. These pears are not ripe. 
My neighbour sells lamps. The lips are red. We sell our 
cows and our oxen. These two girls are sisters. My [female] 
neighbour sells potatoes (artoffcln). The mothers love their 
daughters. The girls had no needles. Pears are the fruit 
(pi. in German) of the pear-tree (23irnbaum$). 



$enncn <3ie ben -ftamen biefer 

trafee ? C?3 ift bic ftrtebrt^flrafee. 

2Bo finb Ofyre naben ? <te finb in ber cfyute. 

2Bo finb nteine gebern ? <Sie iiegen (lie) auf bent ifrf)e. 

2Ber fangt (catches) 2ftaufe? 2)te ^afcen fangen 2ftaufe. 
2Bie m'ele @d)tt>eftern fyat 3^re @ie ^at jwet @c^tt)eftern unb brei 

SWuttcr? SSriiber. 

SBcrfaufen @te ^trf^en ? S'Jetn, aber h)ir berfaufen S3trnen. 

2Bie btete anbe ^at etn Sftenfd) ? Sin SD'Jenf^ ^at jtoei ^>anbe unb 



finb rot^. 

(had) ber otbot SBunben ? 3a, er ^atte btete 2Bunben. 
(what) finb bie Slbficfiten 

gutter? 3d) fenne fte (them) ntdjt. 

5Bo finb bie )amen ? Gie ftnb in ber $ird)e. 

SBetd)e Slumen Ueben (Sic am -3d) Itebe bie 3Jofen, bie lOUien unb 

meiften (best) ? bie SBeilc^en am meiften. 

2Bie mete tnnben tebte baa ^inb 

(did the child live) ? (Sa lebte nur (only) brei tunben. 

2Bie finb bie traften ber tabt? @ie ftnb fe^r f^mut^ig (dirty). 
2Bo leben bie ^if^e ? <Ste leben im 2 SSaffer. 

2Bo finb bie anfe ? S)ie anfe unb bie (Snten (ducks) 

finb in bem ofe (yard). 

2Ber Derfauft ^artoffeln? 2)?eine 9?ad)bartn oerfauft ^ar* 

toffeln. 

1 The definite article is usual with parts of the person wherever no ambiguity 
would result from its use. 

2 3m is a contraction for in bem. 



40 FIFTH DECLENSION. 

SEVENTH LESSON. 

NEUTER SUBSTANTIVES. 

FIFTH DECLENSION. 

This declension includes all neuters except those ending 
in el, er, en, cfyen and lein. These latter belong to the First 
Declension. The singular is declined like the singular of 
the Third Declension. In the plural, a distinction is to 
be made 1) between words of two and more syllables, and 
2) monosyllabic words. The plural of the former usually 
ends in t, that of the latter in ft. The latter modify the 
vowel of the stem. For exceptions see pages 50 and 51. 

IT EXAMPLE OF A DISSYLLABLE. 
SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

N. bag efd)enf', the present bte efdjenfe, the presents 
O. beg efdjenfeg, of the present ber efrfjenfe, of the presents 
D. bem @efd)enf(e), to the present " 

A. ba8 e[d)en!, the present bte 

Such are : 

bag efefc, the law bag tetdjmfe, the parable 

bog (Sefprad), the conversation bag Earned', the camel 

bag efdjaft, the business bag Snftrument', the instrument 

bag fhjeljr, the gun bag (Element', the element 

bag ettwr^, the spice bag Compliment', the compli- 
bag ebtrge, 1 the mountain- ment 

range bag papier', the paper 

bag ema'tbe, 1 the picture bag SRetatC, the metal 

bag ebaube, the building bag SBtflet', the ticket 

bag ,3 eu 9 n if^ s the testimony bag (Concert', the concert 

bag el)eimmj$, the secret bag portrait', the portrait 

bag 33efenntm|, the confession bag ineal', the ruler. 
Plur., bte efefce, bte efc^dfte, bte eh)e^re :c. 

i Neuter words which end in the singular In t, never add a second t, as : pi., Me 
(Sebitge, bte QDem&tbe >c. 

i All nouns ending in nifj form their plural by adding t, even the feminine, as .- Tit 
flenntmfi, knowledge, pi. bie ft enntnt fie ; bte Skforgnt^, apprehension, pi. bte SBejergmjje 5 
f, the want, pi. bte 5Bebatfttifie :c . 



djenfen, to the presents 
"d)enfe, the presents. 



FUTH DECLENSION. 



2) EXAMPLES OF MONOSYLLABLES. 



SINGULAR. 

N. bag 35orf, the village 
G. beg 2)orf(e)g, of the village 
D. bem )orf(e), to the village 
A. bag 2)orf, the village. 



PLURAL. 

bte >5rfer, the villages 
ber jDorfer, of the villages 
ben )6rfern, to the villages 
bte 3)orfer, the villages. 



N. ba tnb, the child 
G. beg $htbeg, of the child 
D. bem ftinb(c), to the child 
A. bag $tnb, the child. 



bte $tnber, the children 
ber $tnber, of the children 
ben $tnbern, to the children 
bte $tnber, the children. 



Such are : 

bag 2lmt, the office 
bag 33tatt, the leaf 
bag SBtlb, the picture 
bag 92eft, the nest 
bag foufytt, the fowl, hen 
bag ett>, the field 
bag f)al, the valley 
bag 2Bort, the word 
bag alb, the calf 
bag SHeb, the song 
bag Jab, the wheel 

PL, bte Slemter, bte flatter, 



bag 93uc^, the book 

bag dt, the egg 

bag (2<i)to, the castle, lock 

bag elb, the money 

bag amnt, the lamb 

bag aug, the house 

bag 2Betb, the wife 

bag )ad), the roof 

bag $Ietb, the dress 

bag anb, the country 

bag 33anb, the ribbon. 

bte 23itdjer, bte defter 2C. 



NOTE 1. The same mode of inflexion is assumed by all words ending 
in tfyum, two of which are masculine. Ex. : 

bag at[ertf)um, the empire ber 9Mrf)tfjum, the riches 
bag ^urftentljitm, the principality ber Orrtdutn, the error. 
Plur., bte gikftentljitmer, bte ^etc^t^umer, bie -3rrt()iimer *c. 

NOTE 2. Some monosyllabic neuters, especially those in r/ take not r 
but c in the plural, and do not modify their vowel, as: 

bag aar, the hair; pi. bte >aare, 
bag Sfeev, the sea; pi. bte Stteere. 
For a complete list of thm see the Ninth Lesson, p. 50, 9. 



42 



FIFTH DECLENSION. 



NOTE 3. a8 erj, the heart, is irregular. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

N. bag >er$ bte Bergen 

G. beS >er$en8 ber Bergen 

D. bent Bergen ben Bergen 

A. bag ^er^. bte 

WORDS. 

bte $ufgab"e, the exercise toerloren, lost 

ber 2Bagen, the coach letdjt, easy 

bag orn, the horn flein, small 

fmgen, to sing runb, round 

liegen, to lie neu, new 

fet)en, to see grim, green 

ftnben, to find fdmtufctg, dirty 

gefunben, found toiele, many 

faufe, buy bte metften, most 

gefauft, bought fjorf), high. 

READING EXERCISE 13. 



3)a 23t(b be mbe. 2)ie Sttber ber ^tnber. $)te ^arbe be 
3)te ^Matter ber ^Pflan^en ftnb gru'n. >te SBaume be 
tragen (bear) ^ritrfjte. 3)ie SJJauern jeneS (SdjloffeS ftnb ^od^. 
2)er ^lontg fyat btele (Sc^toffer. 35 tc 2B6rter ber Sfofgabe ftnb letc^t. 
jDte 9taber be SSageng ftnb runb. -3d) fudje bte hammer. 2ptr 
I)aben bte ^letber gefauft. 3n ben Sfteftern ber ^BiJget Itegen (Ster. 
3)te ngldnber leben (h've) in bent Sanbe ber gret^ett. 2Bo (where) 
Itegen bte Stcr ber itlnter ? @ie ttegcn in ben fteftera. U)te Orfjfen 
fyaben Corner. S)er ^Urft ^at em @d)to gefauft. 3)er ^pntg ^at 
fetne Sanber, feme tcibte unb feine 1)orfer tiertoren. 2Btr Ijaben 
unfere 33udjer toertoren. 

9tufgok 14. 

1. This village is small Those villages are also (aud)) small 
The laws of the Romans. The fields are large. The flowers 
of the field. The dresses of the girls are red. I see the 
roofs of the houses. I know the land of (the) freedom. The 
children have found a nest. The leaves of the trees are 
green. I seek my booka I find the paper in the book. We 
know the castles of the princes. He is in his house (Dot.). 
Our houses are old. The girl sings a song. Have you seen 



FDTH DECLENSION. 



43 



my aunt's presents? I buy two guns. The president has 
bought two pictures. 

2. The children's books are not new. These ribbons are 
red. The doors of the rooms are shut (gefd)toffen). Those 
buildings are very old. We speak of (uoit) the presents of the 
king and of the queen. Our father has bought a house and 
a garden. The girls have bought many eggs. I find the 
words of my exercise very easy. The valleys of Switzerland 
(fier Sdjiuctg) are beautiful (prad)ttg). The village lies in a valley. 
We have bought two fowls. The boy has lost his money. 



$ennen ne bie 



ber 



Sic finb fie ? 

aben bie SBoget defter? 

2Ba Itegt in biefem 9?efte? 

ieben @ie bie (Ster? 

On tcetdjem Sanbe lebt 3^r 53et* 

ter (does your cousin live) ? 
3n metcfjer tabt lebt er? 
2Bie tiiel e(b ^aben @ie? 
^>aben te Gutter unb @ier ^ 

ifauft? > 

2Bie finb bie flatter ber 23awne? 
2Bo finb meine Siidjer? 
2BeId)e8 au( tjat 3 

fauft ? 
^>at er einen arten ? 



2Ber b^at btefe S3itber gemalt 

(painted) ? 
<2>inb Ob/re 23tinber rotb^ ? 



id) fenne fte (them). 
3d) ftnbe 1 fie prad)tig (beautiful). 
3a, bie tneiften 23ogel fyaben defter. 
-3d) fefje bier (Sier. 
Qa, bie (Eier ber u^ner. 

(Sr lebt in !Deittfd)(anb (Germany). 
(Sr lebt in granffurt. 
-3d) fyabe brei @utben (florins). 
3d) ^abe biete Ster gelauft; aber 

(but) feine Gutter. 
<Ste finb griin. 
ie finb in -3I)rent 3ittimer. 

@r l^at gh)ei dnfcr getauft. 
9Mn, er ^at feinen (Garten ; aber 
er ^at toiele 



2Ber 



at ba otte 
Sanber finb reid) ? 



(gin beutfd)er (German) 

9^ein, meine 23anber finb griin, aber 

bie S3anber meiner @d)U)efter finb 

roth;. 

gefauft? 3)er @ob;n beg rafen 9?. 2 
(Sngtanb unb 5lmerifa. 



1 ginben often means consider. 

2 The genitive of @raf 9J., is either be rafen SK. or raf SR.'g. The second form is. 
it -will be noticed, just like the English idiom, 



44 \ PREPOSITIONS. 

EIGHTH LESSON. 

PREPOSITIONS. 

German prepositions are treated of at greater length in 
Lesson 37, p. 282. 

, 1) Prepositions with the dative : 

ouS, out of, from feit, since 

bet, near, by (with) toon, of, from, by 

nut, with 311, to, at 

nacf), after. gegenuber, opposite to. 

EXAMPLES. 

bettt arten (dot. masc.), from (out of) the garden. 

bet (Stabt (dot. fern.), from the town. 
tt cittern <3tocf (dot. masc.), with a stick. 
tt ctner ^eber (dot. fem.\ with a pen. 

bem 9ftittageffen (dot. neut.), after (the) dinner. 

bet <2>tunbe (dot. fern.), after the lesson. 



2) Prepositions requiring the accusative : 

burcf), through, by oljne, without 

fur, for um, about, at 

g eg en, against, towards 

EXAMPLES. 

nrcf) ben 2Batb (ace. masc.), through the forest. 
!Ditrd) bte (StroRe (ace. fern.), through the street. 
3)urrf) ba 3B offer (ace. neut.), through the water. 
^iir metnen SBrnber (ace. masc.), for my brother. 
^iir ntetne Si^njefter (ace. fern.), for my sister, etc. 

3) The following nine take the dative in such sentences 
as might have been answered to questions beginning with 
"where," and the accusative in case the questions would 
have begun with " whither:" * 

i Whither baa gone out of nse in English conversation and where taken its place. The 
student, however, in order to make up his mind whether to use the dative or accusative 
in German, must never use where in the sense of whither. Thus he should consider 
" I went on the ice " to l>e the answered to a supposed question "Whither did you go ? " 



PREPOSITIONS. 46 

an (dot.}, at in 1 (dot.), in, at iiber, over, across 

an (ace.), to in (ace.), into unter, under, among, 

auf, upon, on neben, near, beside between 

fyinter, behind bor, 1 before, ago gttrifdjen, between. 

Examples with the dative (rest) : 

3d) ftefye an bcm ^enfter (dot. neut.), I stand at the window. 
3luf bcm tfd)e (dot. masc.), on (upon) the table. 
3n bent )ofe (dot. masc.), in the court-yard. 
3n bcr tabt (dot. fern.), in (the) town. 
23or bettt ^fenfter (dot. neut.), before the window. 
r 1 etner tunbe (dot. /em.), an hour ago. 



Examples with the accusative (motion) : 

3d) gefye an bag $enfter, I go to the window. 
3d) gelje itber bCtt $ht, I go over the river. 
3d) gefye fytnter ba$ >au8, 1 go behind the house. 
tetten <Ste eg t)or bag ^enfto/ P U * i* before the window. 



4) SBaljteni), during, and Uicgett, on account of, govern 
the genitive case. Ex. : 

SBaljrenb bcS 9vegen, during the rain. 

5) Several of the above prepositions may form a single 
word with the definite article. 

&tn for an bent, as : am ^enfter (rest), at the window; 

Olt' for an ba3, as : an'3 ^enfter (motion), to the window; 

Oltf' for auf >a3, as : aufS Sanb (motion), into the country; 

int for in bein, as : tm 2Binter, in winter; 

tn'8 for in ba3, as : in'S Staffer (motion), into the water; 

Bd'm for bet bent, as : bet'nt b,or, near the gate; 

fiir'8 for ftir bag, as : fitr'8 elb (ace.), for money; 

DUrt^'0 for burd) baS, as : burdj'3 ^euer (ace.) through the fire; 

Uoitt for ton bent, as : bom Sftarfte, from the market; 

Jjor'0 for &or ba^, as : bor'3 ^enfter, before the window; 

iilier'8 for iiber bag, as : itber'3 SWeer, across the sea; 

jutn for gu bcm, as : gum S3ater, to the father; 

jttt for gu bcr, as : gur Gutter, to the mother. 

i Jjnaud bar, when denoting time, always take the dative. 



46 PREPOSITIONS. 

WORDS. 

bet of, the yard gefatten, fallen 

ber Jlrieg, (the) war bte 9?td)te, the niece 

ber 9fabe, the raven bte $alte, the cold 

bte aube, the pigeon fptelen, to play 

ber )fen, the stove fpredjen, to speak 

bag Sett, the bed id) effe, I eat 
ba$ 2#tttageffen, (the) dinner fltegen, to fly 

ber 233 inter, (the) winter faufen, to buy 

ber 2ttantel, the cloak git >oufe, at home. 

READING EXERCISE 15. 



3n bem |>ofe (tm >ofe). 9lu8 bem arten. 3luf bent >ad)e. 
3)ie Xaube fliegt aitf baS (auf'S) jDad). 3m $rteg unb tm grteben, 
$)te $inber tytelen bor bem >aufe. S3or ber ^adjt. 3)er SBogel ft^t 
(sits) oiif bem iBatime. !l)te fttffy leben tm SBaffer. 3Ketn ^>ut tfl 
tn'8 Staffer gefatten. 2)0^ ^ebermeffer beS ^naben Itegt auf bem 
i[rf)(e). er unb Itegt itnter bem S3ette. 2)tefe 33itd)er ftnb fur 
metnen ?e^rer. 3^re Sodjter ift bet nteutcr SdjtDefter. 2)te @olbaten 
fpredjen toon bem ^riege. !)aS (that) hjar wa^renb be $rtege3. 
33} btetbe (stay) ju ^aufe tuegen be 9^egenc. 2)a Sett fteh,t 
(stands) neben bem Ofen. er <2tu^t ftc^t neben ber Xfyito. Urn 
oter Ub,r (at four o'clock) bin id) $u oufe. 

9tufflolic 16. 

. Out of the room. Near the castle. I eat with a spoon. 
After the rain. The oxen butt (ftofeen) with their horns. "We 
see with our eyes C&ugen). The boys go through the wood. 
The pupils speak of (uon) the school We speak of (Don) the 
weather. I was in (aitf) the street during the rain. The boy 
is on the tree. Go (ge^en <2te) into the yard. The boy has 
(ift) fallen into the water. The tree lies in the water. My 
penknife is in my pocket. Against the door. Put (fterfen) your 
penknife in your pocket. His cloak hangs (Ijcingt) behind the 
door. I have seen many flowers in the field. 

2. The eggs lie in the nests of the birds. The enemies 
run (toufen) against the wall. There (e3) was a raven among 
the pigeons. Before (the) dinner. "We play after (the) dinner. 
He was in his room. The table stands near the window. 
Before (the) winter many birds fly (put: fly many birds) 1 

1 See the last foot-note on p. 38. 



47 



across the sea. We stay (bleiben) at home on account of the 
rain. The dog runs (Itiuft) about the house. Those apples are 
for my niece, and these pears are for my son. The count was 
at home at three o'clock. 2 Two 3 days 'ago. 



2Bo ftfct berSoget? 

2Bo tft SBtlljelm (WiUiam) ? 
So tft mein 2ftantel? 
8Bet ijat mein ^bermeffer? 
abcrt (Sic metnen ut gefei^ett ? 
2Bol)er (whence) fommen @te? 
Ija&en (Sic gefauft? 
tn (where) gel)en <Stc? 
toerben <Ste faufen? 

fltegen m'ete iBoget? 
3Bann (when) fltegen fie fort 

(leave) ? 

SBarum (why) fltegen fie fort? 
<Stnb <3te nod) (still) int 33ette? 
2Bo Ijaben (Sic biefe 53etld)en ge= 

f unben ? 
aben (Sic feme (none) in Sfyrent 

(Garten ? 
gur wen (whom, ace.) ftnb biefe 

^trfdjen ? 
S3on went (whom, dot.) fjaft bu 

biefe efdjenfe er^atten (re- 

ceived) ? 

2Bot>on fpredjen bic <3o(baten? 
3ft Ofjre Gutter ju aufe? 



(gr fifct auf bem $)adje imfcrcg 

>aufe3. 

@ r ift tm arten obcr tm >ofe. 
(gr fyangt gutter ber Jfyiire. 
(g3 Uegt auf bem 2%f)e. 
5a, er tft uitter ben Jtfd) gefatten. 
3d) fomme com SD^ailte (market). 
-3^ (jabe s #epfe( unb s JJiiffe gcfauft. 
3d) ge^eiauf (to) ben 9Jfavft, 
-3d) inerbe wartoffefa faufen. 
(Sic fliegen uber'g SWeer. 

$or bent 2Binter. 

2Begen ber alte be 2Binter3. 

$a, id) bin fran!. 

3d) ^abe fie auf bent ^etbe gefun* 

ben. 
9^ein, id) !ann (can not any) 

feine finben. 
(Ste finb fitr bag Sodjterlein mei* 

neS 9^ad)bar. 
53on metnem SJater unb t)on nteiner 

Butter. 

(Ste f^redjen bom ^rtege (war). 
gietn, fie ift nidjt gu '^aufe, fie ift 
(gone out). 



48 LRREGUIAlilTIES IN THE FORMATION OF THE PLURAL. 
NINTH LESSON, i 

IRREGULARITIES IN THE FORMATION OF 
THE PLURAL. 

The irregularities in German declension are mostly in 
the pluraL 

I. IRREGULARITIES OP THE FIRST DECLENSION. 

1. The following substantives take n in the plural 
without modifying the vowel, as has been already stated 
on page 25. 

ber Saier, the Bavarian ber ftadfjbar, the neighbor 

ber Sauer, the peasant ber (Stadjel, the sting 

ber ^Better, the cousin ber "^antoffel, the slipper 

ber eDatter, the godfather ber llJhigfet, the muscle. 
Plur., bie Saiern, bte SQauern, bie 33ettern, bie 9?ad)barn jc. 

NOTE. The word ber G^ataf'ter, has in the plural bie Gljarafte'te. 

2, Words from the Latin in or, with the accent on 
the last syllable but one, form their plurals in ortlt : 

ber J)of'tor, the doctor ; pi. bie iDofto'ren. 
ber ''Profef for, the professor ; pi bie ^rofeffo'ren. 
NOTE. <Dcr aKajlor', the major ; pi. 



a) Another class of irregular nouns has already been 
noticed on page 25. 

II. IRREGULARITIES OP THE THIRD DECLENSION. 

3. Eight words take in the plural rn instead of c and do 
not modify the vowel : 

ber 2ftafl, the mast ber taat, the state 

ber ^Pfau, the peacock ber <3traf)l, the beam 



i The Ninth and Tenth Lessons need not be Ukea up in course. 



IRREGULARITIES IN THE FORMATION OF THE PLURAL. 49 

ber @d)mer3, the pain ber jDortt, the thorn, 

ber <pont, the spur ber See, 1 the lake. 

^ btc -Ohften, bie ^fatten, bie (Staaten, btc trafjten, bte 

rfimerjen jc. <2porn has in plu. both ponten and poren as 
given in Exercise 9. 

4. The following nouns take cr in the plural, at the 
same time modifying the vowel : 

ber SRann, the man ber @ott, (the) God 

ber 2Ba(b, the forest ber )rt, the place 

ber Seib, the body ber 2?ormunb, the guardian 

ber eift, the mind, ghost ber 9tetd)tl)iun, the riches 

ber 2Burm, the worm ber Srrtfyum, the mistake, error. 
ber Sftonb, the edge 
Plur., bie banner, bie SBalber, bie eiber, bie 2Biirmer :c. 

III. IRREGULARITIES OF THE FOURTH DECLENSION. 

5. Twenty-nine monosyllables form their plural in en 
instead of e, without modifying the vowel : 

bie 2lrt, the kind, species bie ^fUcfyt, the duty 

bie 33at)it, the road bie ^oft, the post 

bie 23anf, the bank bie Oual, the torment, pang 

bie 33udjt, the bay bie <5d)aar, the troop 

bie 23urg, the old castle bie d)Iacf)t, the battle 

bie ^ftfyrtf ^ e passage bie (Sdjrift, the writing 

bie tur, the field bie (Sdjutb, the debt 

bie ffiuti), the flood bie (Spur, the trace, track 

bie $orm, the form bie l)at, the deed 

bie BTCIU, the woman bie Jradjt, the costume 

bie @httf), the glow bie Uljr, the watch, clock 

bie Sagb, the chase bie 2Ba^(, the choice 

bie Soft, the load bie 2BeIt, the world 
bie 3)torf, the boundary, bie ^ai)\, the number, figure 

district. bie |jet^ the time. 



. . 

Plur., bie SBatjnen (Sifenba^nen, railroads), bie aften, bie 
ten, bie <d)Iad)ten, bie S^aten, bie 3 a ^ en JC - 

6. All feminines in ni and fal have t in the plural, e.g. : 

i Notice : There is also & feminine word bie 3, the tea, with the same plural. But 
the plural of gee, sea, rarely occurs. 



50 IRREGULAKITIE3 IN THE FORMATION OF THE PLURAL. 

bte $enntntfl, knowledge ; pi. bte &enntniffe. 
bie Seforgntfl, fear ; pi. bte Seforgniffe. 
bic riibjal, sorrow ; pi. bte Xriibfate K. 

7. The two words: bie 2Jhttter, the mother, and bie 
X center, the dauyhter, have already been declined page 37. 

IV. IHREGULABITTES OF THE FIFTH DECLENSION. 

8. Seven neuter words form the plural in en : 

bag Sett, the bed ; pi. bte JBetten. 
bag >emb, the shirt ; pi. bte f>emben. 
bag >erj, the heart ; pi. bte ^er^ett. 
bag )f)r, the ear ; pi. bte )fjren. 
bag 2luge, the eye ; pi. bte 2lugen. 
bag Snbe, the end ; pi. bte Qjnben. 
bag 3n[eft, the insect ; pi. bte Snfeften. 

9. A few monosyllabic neuter words do not follow the 
general rule in forming their plural ; they take f instead 
of er and do not modify the voweL 

Eight ending in f : 

baS >aar, the hair baS ^Jaar, the pair 

ba3 |i>eer, the army bag 9to!)r, the reed 

bag 5aljr, the year bag Sljier, the animal 

bag 2fteer, the sea bag J^or, the gate. 

PI, bte >aare, bte Safjre, bte X^tere jc. 

Also the following: 

bag 23ett, the hatchet bag Sod), the yoke 

bag S9etn, the leg bag $nte, the knee 

bag SBrob, the bread bag oog, the lot, fate 

bag 33oot, the boat bog 9?e, the net 

bag 2)ing, the thing bag ^ferb, the horse 

bag (Erj, the brass, bronze bag ^funb, the pound ' 

bag getf, the skin bag ^e^t, the right 

bag tft, the poison bag 9tetd), the empire 

bag >eft, the copy-book bag 9?ofc, the horse 



IRREGULARITIES IN THE FORMATION OF THE PLURAL. 51 

bag Sa($, the salt bag Stud, the piece 

bag Srf)af, the sheep bag Spiel, the game 

bag Srfjmetn, the pig bag 2Cerf, the work 

bag Sdjtff, the ship bag ,3eug, the stuff 

bag Sett, the rope bag 3iel, the aim, end. 

Plur., bte Sette, bte Seine, bte ^ferbc, bie 2Berfc :c. 

10. The following neuter words of two syllables take et 
in the plural and modify. 

bag (Semiitf), the temper bag (Setuanb, the garment 

bag eftdjt, the face bag Regiment', the regiment 

bag efd)led)t, the gender bag Spital', the hospital 

bag @emad), the apartment 

Plur., bte emiitljer, bie eftdjter, bte c[d)lcd}ter, bte 9?egtmenter, 
bte Spttciter K. 

11. A few neuter words in al and turn derived from 
the Latin, take ictt in the plural and do not modify. 

bog $apttat', the capital, fund ; pi. bte $optta'tten. 
bag Mineral', the mineral ; pi. bte 30? utera'tien. 
bag Stit'btum, the study ; pi. bie Stu'bien. 

V. ADDITIONAL REMARKS ON THE PLURAL. 

12. Several neuter substantives have two plurals with 
different meanings. 

TO rt ttX i * ne ribbon ; pi. bte Sa'nber. 

-OaitO, < A|^ V>r>nrJ -fiQ -n/ ^',a -U,-,,iX,> 



(pi. bte 5)htge. 

jDtng, the thing ; Ipl. bte 3)tnger (in a contemptuout 

( sense). 

rtt ni f ( the face ; pi bte eftcf)ter. 
ejtdjt, -* 



ba Sort, the word ; = words - 

i. bte uBorte = expressions. 



13. Some German nouns have no plurals of their own 
and use the plurals of other nouns instead, e.g. : 



62 IRREGULARITIES IN THE FORMATION OF THE PLURAL 

bag Sob, praise ; pi bte SobeSerljebungen. 

bcr Sftatl), advice ; pi. bic 9?atb,fd)lage. 

ber 23unb, the alliance ; pi. bte 33iinbniffe. 

ber (Strett, contention ; pi. bic trettigfeiten. 

bo8 Ungliirf, the misfortune ; pi. bte Unglu<f3fafle. 

bie Sfyre, the honor ; pi. bte (Sfyrenbeseugungen. 

bte unft, the favor ; pi. bte unftbeseiigimgen. 

ber Job, death ; pi. bte XobeSfatte. 

bte 33orfid)t, precaution ; pi. bte 33orfid)tSmafjregetn. 

14 Masculine and neuter 1 nouns indicating measure^ 
weight and number, are put in the singular when preceded 
by a numeral : 



ber n, the foot ; as : fiinf 3riufj (not ^iie) tang, five feet long. 
ber ott, the inch ; as : tier $0U brett, four inches wide. 
ber rab, the degree ; as : gtoanjtg tab $alte, twenty degrees 
cold. 

ba8 ^Jfunb, the pound ; as : bret ^funb 3 U( ^ er / t^ee pounds of 

sugar. 

ba3 'jpaar,' the pair ; as : gtoet ^nar <3d)ulje, two pair of shoes. 
ba$ jDu^enb, the dozen; as: fed)S ^ufecnD $anbfcf)itb,e, six dozen 

of glovea 

ba3 Slid), the quire; as: geljn JBlldft ^3a)3ter, ten quires of paper. 
ber Sftaun, the man; as: fiinf ^mnbert -DJiaun Onfanterie, five 

hundred foot-soldiers. 
baS tiirf, the piece; as: mint sStuif Su^, nine pieces of cloth. 



15. The following words have no singular : 

bie eute, people bte 2ftoften, the whey 

bie Soften, the expenses bie Xruppen, the troops 

bte llnfoften, the costs bte (Smhinfte, the revenue 

bie 23cinHeiber, the trowsers bie ^erien, the holidays 

bie (Sltern, the parents bie @efd)lmftcr, the brothers and 

bie jTriimmer, the ruins sisters. 

16. Compound substantives of which the latter part is 
mann form their plurals mostly with the word 



i Feminine -words are used in the plural, as : met (SUeit 2u$, four ells or yard* aj 
cloth ; j^n glaicbcn SBetn, ten bottles o/wine. 
t (Sin ^aar, a pair ; tin paar, MreraL 



IRREGULARITIES IN THE FORMATION OF THE PLURAL. 53 

ber ^Jauptmann, the captain; pi. bte ,>auptteute. 
ber $aufmann, the merchant; pi. bte $aufleitte. 
ber Slmtmann, the sheriff; pi. bte IJluttleute. 
ber <2d)tffmann, the sailor; pi. bte @d)tffleute. 
ber <5eemann, the seaman; pi. bie eeteitte. 
ber (Sbetntctnn, the nobleman; pi. bte (Sbetteute. 

WORDS. 

oer 35td)ter, the poet tapfer, brave 

bte onne, the sun fyett or f(ar, clear 

bag (Srfjlafjtmmer, the bedroom tief, deep 

ber g'rembe, the stranger jdjabltd), hurtful 

bte (Srbe, the earth tmnter, always 

ber $rcmfe, the patient beriiljntt, celebrated 

leben (mofynen '), to live arm, poor. 

franjoftfd) , French 

READING EXERCISE 17. 

35te (Stadjeln ber SBtenen. te ^antpffetn ber rdftn. 35ie 
Q3auern ftnb nic^t retdj. )te ^5rofeffo'ren btefer d^ute ftnb beritfjmt. 
3)te @trat)(en ber @oune ftnb ttmrm. 3)a ^tnb letbet (suffers) 
groge rfjmcr^en. Ser finb btefe Scanner? 3)te SSitrmer teben in 
ber (Srbe. 35 te Ufjrcn ftnb fefyr Ketn. ie ^nfeften finb ben ^ritdjten 
ber 23anme f^iibltd). 3)te S^tere ^aben ^ette. 3)te >aare be8 3)lab* 
d)cn ftnb lang. 3)te franjoftfc^en eere ^aben tapfer gefod)ten 
(fought bravely). 35 te 3fteere ftnb ttef. 35 tc ^naben fjaben tt)re 
fiefte Dcrtorcn. 35tc SB erf e ber 35td)ter ftnb berit^mt 3)te 9}JtneraUen 
Uegen in ber Srbe. 35te ^ranfen ftnb in ben (Spttotern. 3)er 
^at jrtet ^3aar ttefet unb brei ^5aar (S^u^e. 3)te engtifd^en 
teute ftnb reic^. 

18. 



1. Where are my slippers ? Your slippers are in your bed- 
room. The students praise ((oben) their professors, but the 
professors do not always praise ({oben nid)t tmmer) their pupils. 
Those forests are very large. Do you know these men ? I have 
seen two tall (grofte) men. I know my duties. These women 
are very poor. The peasants have cows and oxen. They have 
also sheep, swine and horses. The beams of the sun are very 

1 tpotyncn means to dwell, 



64 IRREGULARITIES IN THE FORMATION OF THE PLURAL. 

warm. The cocks have spurs. The water of the lakes is 
clear. Do you know the names of the gods of the heathens ? 
The roses have thorns. The United (Deretnigten) States of (uon) 
America are very rich. 

2. Those two men have lost all (afle) their children. Give 
me [some] walnuts. My neighbor has no debts. The towns 
of that country are very small. The rich (vetdjen) people live 
in the towns or in (auf) the country. The axes and hatchets 
are sharpened (gefdjttffen). Open (b'ffnen @te) your eyes. We 
have two ears. In the hearts of the children. Bees are 
insects. The boy was five years 1 old (alt). The sailors have 
lost four boats. The merchants' ships are lost. In our town 
[there] are two regiments [of] riflemen (Sdjufcen). I speak of 
(Don) the battles (Dot.) of the Greeks and llomans. 



<3te meine 



toerfaufen btefe Sauent? 
2Bo fmb bie ^antoffeln meiner 

Gutter? 

2Ber ift ba (there) ? 
teben <Ste 3fyre 2kttern ? 
2Ber ftnb biefe >erren? 
S03o fmb bte alten Scanner? 



bide 2lugen ()at ber 9JZenf^ ? 
933tc biele O^ren Ijat er? 
<5inb bie ^Bienen 3?6get? 
einb 3^re ^ferbe aft? 
2Ber fmb btefe cute? 
^ennen <2ie bie 2Berfe 

!Did)tcr? 

SBte ftnb bieSDJeere? 
Solebenbtetffen? 



fenne 



itnb 



@te fterfaufen ^artoffetn. 
@ie finb in invent (her) 

Dimmer. 

35te 2)oftoren fmb ba. 
Qd) tiebe atte meine Settern. 
(g (they) fmb $aufleute. 
ie fmb tm arten. 
@ie ^aben !l)ornen. 
@ie ^aben <S|)onten or ( 
S)er SWenfd) ^at gioei 5lugen 



fte fmb Onfeften. 
fte ftnb jung. 
(Sie or eg ftnb ^mcrtfaner. 

-3a, feme 2Berfe fmb feljr beri't^mt 
@ie ftnb fe^r gro unb ttef. 
@ie leben in ben SBdlbern, 



1 See p. 63, 14 nd 199. note. 



GENDEKS OF SUBSTANTIVES. 55 

TENTH LESSON. 

ON THE GENDER OF SUBSTANTIVES. 1 

(Won bent cjif|leif)t tier auiumirter.) 

Tlie gender of a German substantive can in some cases 
be told from its termination and in others from its signi- 
fication, while in other cases yet, a foreigner has to 
consult a dictionary. 

A, Masculine (mannlid)) are : 

f 1. All names of males, as : 

ber SBoter, the father ber (Scfjnetber, the tailor 

ber $ontg, the king ber $nabe, the boy 

ber el)rer, the master, teacher ber >al)n, the cock. 

Except the diminutives in djeit an< i letlt, which (as has already been 
stated page 23), are all neuter : as, bag SBat-erdjen, bag o^ntcin, the little 
son; bag J^dljndjen, the chicken. 

2. The names of the seasons, months and days, as : 

ber Sftot, May ber Suit, July 

ber SBtnter, winter ber 9ftontag, Monday 

ber (Sommer, summer ber ftmtag, Friday. 

3. The names of stones, as : 

ber >tantcmt', the diamond ber 3?ubm', the ruby 

ber $iefel, the flint ber (Stein, the stone. 

4 Most words ending in en (not cfyen), which are not 
infinitives, 2 as : 

ber (Sarten, the garden ber SftMen, the back 

ber ^cgen, the rain ber ^arnen, the name 

ber SBoben, the floor, ground ber ftaben, the thread. 

Except bag Jlifjen, the cushion; bag SBerfett, the basin; bag SBappen, the 
coat of arms. 

i See the foot-note, page 48. 

J Three are neuter, see g i, p. 68, 



56 GENDERS OF SUBSTANTIVES. 

5. Five words ending in double c I 

bcr Sdjncc, the snow ber $lee, the clover 

ber 3ee l , the lake bet fyee, the tea. 

ber $affee, the coffee 

6. Words of two syllables ending in tg, idj, tttg and ling, 
as: 

ber $omg, the king ber Siingtmg, the youth 

ber Sepptcf), the carpet ber faring 2 , the herring. 

B. Of the Feminine Gender (roeiblicf)) are : 

1. All names of females, as : 

bte &au, the woman bte &onigm, the queen 

bie od)ter, the daughter bte $mme, the nurse. 

Except bag 2Bei6 and bag Qnraucnjimmer, the woman, and of course 
diminutives, e.g., bag SKabdjen, the girl, from 9Kag,b, moid. 

2. All dissyllabic substantives ending in e (not ec), not 
denoting males and ivithout the prefix ($k (see 6, p. 58), as : 

bie 33htme, the flower bte $trfrf)e, the cherry 

bte <3cf)ule, the school bie 33trne, the pear 

bte (gtunbe, the hour bte Gndje, the oak 

bte trafce, the street bte Sanne, the fir 

bte Srbe, earth bie (Sfyre, the honor 

bte Stebe, love bie Ufe 3 , the help. 

Hence ffie sun is feminine in German, bie <3onne ; but the moon is 
masculine, bcr SRonb. 

Except the three words, bag SJfage, the eye; bag 6nbe, the end; bag Gtbe, 
the inheritance. 

NOTE. Words like bet SKatne, ber ante JC. (see p. 25, Obs. 1) are not 
to be considered exceptions, as their original nominative ended iik en: ber 
, ber @amen :c. 



3. All derivative words formed with one of the follow- 

i See the foot-note, p. 49. 

5 For more words of this kind see p. 33, t 3. 

8e lo th Fourth Peclension. p. 37, 



GENDERS OF SUBSTANTIVES. 57 

ing terminations : et ' (old ep) l)rit, fcit, jdjaft, ttllg and in, 
with nouns of foreign origin ending in ie, ton, if or tat, as : 

bie 3d)ntctd)ctct, flattery bte Xraurigfett, sadness 

bte flafcerei, slavery bte Ueberjetntng, the translation 

bie greifyett, liberty bte )offmmg, hope 

bte djonfyeit, beauty bte (Sdjafertn, the shepherdess 

bte ^mtnbfdwft, friendship bte ^oejte, poetry 

bte 2)anfbarlett, gratitude bte 2ftajeftcit, majesty 

Except bag ^etfdjaft, the seed, and bet $ornung, an old word for gffcruar, 
I&ruary. 

4 The few nouns ending in ud)t, udjt, ulb and unft : 

bte @d)tarf)t, the battle bie ebutb, patience 

bte ^ad)t, the night bte <5rf)itlb, guilt, debt 

bte 23itd)t, the bay bte SBernunft, reason 

bte ^>ulb, the favor bte 5lnhmft, the arrival 



C. Of the Neuter Gender (fdcfylid)) are : 

/ < 

1. The letters of the alphabet, e.g., bag 51, bag 2ft, bag 3. 

2. The names of metals, as : 

baS otb, gold ba (Stfett, iron 

ba3 Silbev, silver ba^ 23let, lead. 

Except bcr Sta^l, steel. 

3. The names of countries, cities, villages, provinces, 
islands, etc., as : granfretcfy, France ; SRom, Some. The 
article is used with these only when an adjective precedes, 
as: bag fatfyolifcfye (Spanien, Catholic Spain; bag retcfye 
?onbon :c/ 

The most important exceptions are: bte djftetj, Switzerland; bie 
iirfd, Turkey (with all other names of countries in et); bte $fatj, the 
Palatinate, and several other names of provinces. 

1 $tt8 Gt, ike egg; bet d)rel or ba efcfyret, the cry, tcream; b S3ret, pap. are not 
derivatives. 

2 But when the name of a country ia masculine or feminine, it takes the article 
even if no adjective precedes. 



58 GENDERS OF SUBSTANTIVES. 

4 The infinitive mood, when used substantively, as : 

bag (f)en, eating bag 9taud)en, smoking 

bag Srtufen, drinking bag Sefen, reading 

bag eben, hfe bag $ergnug,en, the pleasure. 

5. All diminutives in djett and fritt, without exception, 
as: 

bag 9JMbd)cn, the girl bag mb(etn, the baby 

bag >augd)ett, the little house bag SBlumtetn, the httle flower. 

6. Most substantives beginning with the prefix e, as : 

bag ebiva,c, the mountain bag ebaube, the building 
bag entalbe, the picture bag efdjaft, the business 

bag etootf, the clouds bag @efd)enf, the present. 

Exceptions. Masc. : ber ebanfe, the thought; ber eBraurf), iheuse; bet 
efdjmarf, taste; ber eritd// smell. Fern.: bte efdjtdjte, history; bie e= 
fa^r, the danger; bte efcurt, birth; bte eicalt, power; bte ejtatt, shape; 
bie ebulb, patience, and some others, both masc. and fern. 

7. Substantives ending in nijj are some of them neuter, 
and others feminine : 

Neuter. Feminine. 

bag ^eugntft, the evidence bte ^tnflerntf?, *h e darkness 

bag 23egra'bm, the funeral bte Ibnntntf?, knowledge 

bag $8ebiirfm^;the want bte 33etrtibnt, affliction 

bag ebad)tnt, memory, etc. bte (Srlaubnt|, permission, etc. 

D. Gender of Compound Substantives. 

The gender of compound substantives is generally that 
of the last component part, as : fcie ^au^fljiire, the street- 
door (from iitt aitS and ite Xfyiire); bag Xtntcnfa^, the 
inkstand; ter ^alb^braten, roast veal; bie SBinterjett, the 
winter season; bte 2BinbmitI)Ie, the ivind-mitt, etc. 

Except bie Wnttoort, the answer (from bag 2Bort, the word) ; bie rojjmutfj, 
generosity; bte anftmutt), meekness, and bte ^emutf), humbleness (from 
ber 2Rutl), disposition of mind, courage). 



GENDEHS OF SUBSTANTIVES. 59 

E. Nouns whose Gander varies with their Meaning : 

Masculine. Feminine or Neuter. 

ber 23aub, the volume ba$ 33anb, the ribbon, tie, bond 

ber 33auer, the peasant ba3 33auer, the bird-cage 

ber (Srbe, the heir ba$ (Srbe, the inheritance 

ber >etbe, the heathen bte >eibe, the heath 

ber wt, the hat bte ut, (the) heed, guard 

ber liefer, the jaw bte $tefer, the pine (a tree) 

ber $unbe, the customer bte $unbe, knowledge 

ber Setter, the conductor bte Setter, the ladder 

ber <3ee, the lake bte (See, the sea 

ber l)or, the fool ba3 f)or, the gate 

ber $erbtenft, the gain. ba3 33erbtenft, merit. 

F. Feminine Nouns formed from Masculine Nouns: 

Many masculine nouns add in to form feminines, in the 
case of monosyllables modifying the vowel. 

Masculine. Feminine, 

ber $onig, the king bte ^imtojit 1 , the queen 

berprft, ) ,, . bte ftiirftra, ) ,, - 

ber $rtn$, ) l bte ^rtn|efft, j tJ 

Oer raf, the count bte @rofut, the countess 

ber Sftatei-, the painter bte Sftaterin, the female painter 

ber 9? ad) bar, the neighbor bte S^adjbartn, the female neighbor 

ber ^iinftter, the artist bte $iinftterm, the female artist 

ber (Snglanber, the Englishman bic (Sngttiubertn, the Enghshwoman 

ber ^od), the cook bie ^od)tn, the female cook 

ber imb, the dog bte >ihtbtn, the bitch 

ber 2Bolf, the wolf. bie Sotftn, the she-wolf, etc. 

If the masculine ends in e, this letter is rejected : 

ber 9tuffe, the Russian bte 9vufftit, the Russian lady 

ber ^rango'fe, the Frenchman bte ^rart^ofin, the French lady 
ber 2ott)e, the lion. bte Soimn, the lioness. 

Exception: ber 1)cutidf)C, thz German', fern., bte eittfdje, the German lady. 
Of course there are, as in English, many feminines not 

i Plurals, ftoniginnen, Jutflinnen :c. 



CO 



GENDERS OF SUBSTANTIVES. 



formed from the words which denote males of the same 
kind, as : 

ber 9)?ann, the man, husband 
ber >err, the gentleman 

>err, Mr. 

ber ^ater, the father 
ber 3ot)it, the son 
ber 23ritber, the brother 
ber )f)ctm, the uncle 
ber s Jfcffe, the nephew 
ber better, the cousin 
ber $nabe, the boy 
ber ^tingling, the youth 
ber 3unggefefl, the bachelor 
ber 23rduttgam, the bridegroom 
ber SBtttroer, the widower. 



bte Orait, the woman, wife 
bte 3)ante, the lady 

grau, Mrs. 

bte 2J?ittter, the mother 
bte od)ter, the daughter 
bte @d)toefter, the sister 
bte Xante, the aunt 
bte -fttdjte, the niece 
bte 23a[e ((Soufme), the cousin 
bag 2ftabcf)en, the girl 
ba3 Jrauletn, the young lady 
bte 3ungfev, the maid 
bte Srcutt, the bride 
bte SSttttoe, the widow. 



WORDS. 



ber Xtcjer, the tiger 

ber SBtnter, (the) winter 

bte ,3ett, (the) tirae 

bte 3)td)tertn, the poetess 

etn d^cifer, a shepherd 

ber firtner, the gardener 

ber c^aufpteler, the actor 



bte $itrje, the shortness 
ber <3tetn, the stone 
Ijatte, fatten, had 
fait, cold 
tDarnt, warm 
^od), high 
au^, also. 



READING EXERCISE 19. 



2J?eme Sljre. Oene trae. Unfere ^offnung. 3ene Xanne ifl 
^orf). !j)te djmctg ifl fd)6n. 2Btl^etm ttjar cm SuHggefett. S)er 
ontmcr ijl foarm. 2iBtr Ijatten etnen ^iamanten. >abcn 2ie bte 
^urfitn gefe^cn? <Stc tft fe^r (very) fd^on. 25tefe^ ^tmtetutmpec 
t[l fe^r }itng. Unfer O^eint unb itnfere Xante fatten etn d)top in 
panten (Spain). 3)er artner ^atte etne 9tofe; bte artnertn ^atte 
etn rotljeS (red) Sanb. @eben <2te mtr btefen 33anb (m.). <te Ijatte 
etn a'urf)en unb etn artrfjen. 

5tufgoBc 20. 

1. My teacher. His friendship. The count and the countess. 
This man is a painter. That lady is a princess. My father is 



GENDERS OF SUBSTANTIVES. 



61 



your neighbor. Your aunt is my neighbor. Here is a lion 
and a lioness, a tiger and a tigress. This woman is a widow. 
Where is the cook (f.) ? My master is old. The baby is young. 
(The) winter is cold. This diamond is beautiful. Here is also 
a ruby. My sister is a shepherdess. This oak is very (fefyr) 
old. Give me a cherry. Which youth is your son ? 

2. The friendship of my [female] cousin. The earth is round 
(rimb). The love of the mother. (The) iron is a metal. (The) 
gold is also a nietal The little house (dim,). The little horse. 
A little plate. The shortness of (the) time. Have you seen 
(gefefyen) the actor and the actress ? My daughter is a poetess. 
I have seen the bridegroom and the bride. My uncle is a 
bachelor. His niece is very young. Is it a he-wolf or a she- 
wolf? 



2Bo tft mem SReffe ? 
2Ber f)at mein tocfdjen ? 
2Ber ift biefer Stfann ? 
Ber tft btefe )ante? 
tnb @te etn anger? 



$at tfyr Ofyetm etn 

aben <5te bie 23raut gefeljen ? 

2Boiftbte23raut? 

3ft ba3 olb etn Stem? 

taft bit ben $itnftler gefefyen ? 
ft biefcr Sinter fait? 
>aben <te etnen 



)ter tft er. 

fjr $inb Ijat e$. 

@r tft etn $imftler. 

ie tft etne J)td)tertn. 

ftetn, id) bin fein anger; aber 

ntetne rau (wife) tft etne a'n= 

gertn. 

-3a, er t)at etn ^cingd^en. 
9?etn, tc^ t)abe bie 33raut ntc^t ge= 

fefyen. 3)er 33rauttgam ift bier. 
te tft front (iU). 
g^ein, bag @otb tft etn 2etan. 

i, unb aud) bie ^itnftlertn. 

" t, er tft nidjt feljr fait. 

etnen unb unb etne 



Set fjat cut 

Oft 3tjr JOfjeim etn Onnggefett ? 

Sertftfjter? 

5ft btcfcS J^ter erne ?ort)tn? 

at ber arlner ntetn S3ud) ? 



gitrfttn Jjat etn 

er tft etn SBttttter. 
3)tc d^aufptetertn tft fyter. 
e tft etne Jtgertn. 
bie artnertn Ijat e3. 



DECLENSION OP NAMES OP PERSONS. 
ELEVENTH LESSOff. 

DECLENSION OF THOSE PROPER NOUNS 
WHICH ARE NAMES OF PERSONS. 

1. Without an article. 



A. Sari, $lnna, ^nebrtd) cfytfler, raf etnrid), 

Charles, Anna, Frederick Schiller, Count Henry, 
G. (arl', Minna's, ftriebrtrf) (Seder's, @raf $emrid)'S, 
D. Like the nominative, 
A. Like the nominative. 

Notice that this declension is just like that in English; there is only ona 
termination, namely '3 in the genitive, and this '3 is added to the last 
word only. We have, that is, raf $einrtdj'3, Count Henry's, and not 
(Srafen .emridj'3, Count's Henry's. l 

The word err, Mr., however, preceding a man's name, is declined, as 
will be seen in 3. 

2. With an article (but see also 3). 

3)er, beS, bem, ben (or em, eineS :c.) (ar(, g'rtebrtd) @d)ttter. 
3)te, ber, ber, bte (or etne, einer :c.) $lnna. 

We sometimes talk in English of a Shakspeare or 
a Mary, but we never say, as the Germans do, the Mo.ry, 
the Shakspeare, meaning simply Mary or Shakspeare. 

The student will notice that when the article is used, all the cases of 
the noun are alike. There is one exception, however : When the genitive 
precedes instead of following its noun, and this genitive is qualified by 
an adjective, it takes a termination. Thus we say, be3 fleinen griebrtcf)'^ 
23uc6er, little Frederick's books, ber Jungen 2tnna'3 cljufje, young Anna's 
shoes or with the other order, bte SBiidjer be3 fletnen grtebrtdj, bie @cf)uf)e 
ber iungen 3tnna. 

3. With an article and a title (such as King, Count, 
Privy Councillor, etc.) or with a noun in apposition, as in 
the second paradigm below. 

1 For those names which form the genitive otherwise than l)y adding 'g, see 4. 
Some persons omit the apostrophe before the 8 of the genitive and of the plural of 
proper names. 



DECLENSION OP NAMES OF PERSONS. 63 

N. 'ber raf etimcf) bee $iinft(ei- (artist) 2d)nttbt 

G. beg rafen ehtridj beg $iinftlerg odjmtbt 

D. bent rafen Jpetnrtdj bent $unftler 3cf)mtbt 

A. ben rafcn ipeutrtd). ben iinftler djntibt. 

For the mode of declension when there is no article expressed, see 1. 

4Jerr, Mr., needs special mention. 

N. (ber) err 2ftet)er (ber) err raf Seuft 

G. (beg) errn ^et^S (beg) j>emt rafen 33euft' 

D. (bent) errn Qftetyer (bent) errn rafen 

A. (ben) errn Sftetyer. (ben) errn rafen 



That is to say, err and the noun or nouns following are all of them 
declined, e.g., errn SRctyer'a $au3. When the genitive follows its noun, it 
generally takes the article and a different form from that just given, thus : 
t>a3 au3 be3 errn 2Ketyer, i.e., in this case the termination is attached 
to the title as in beg $6ntg3 grtebrtc^. 

4. Genitives formed otherwise than by adding '0. 

a) Names ending in c may form the genitive in ctt, e.g., 
2ftarien3 SBucfy, Mary's look; PdljcnS Scfynftcn, Goethe's 
writings; but the student is advised to add $ merely, e.gr., 



&) In the same way, names ending in a hissing sound, 
e.g., ri0/ -Fred, $iud)S and S5c (family names) may have 
the genitives gri$en, gucfyfenS, 3?oen^, but the student is 
advised to add ' merely or only an apostrophe, e.g., 
or ri' etc. 



5. The pluraL 

o) All proper names may (see b for another rule) form 
a plural in ', e.g., cipto'g, @opl)ie', ^ri^'^ |)einric^% 
S3 of ^, and in those cases where the genitive might have 
an apostrophe without an '0, the plural can do the same, 
.g., $rifc', 3Sop'. The dative of all plurals in , whether 
proper names or not, is like the nominative-, e.g. t 0*5ib e 
ben jroei ^einric^^ 7 Give it to the two Henrys. 



64 DECLENSION OP NAMES OP PERSONS. 

b) The general rule, more particularly in literary 
German of the present epoch, is that masculine proper 
names may have the plural like the singular, e.g., tie i'utber 
ter egenroart, the Luthers of the present; but all masculine 
proper names in o may have a plural in nt or nf?, e. g., 
btc <2ciptone or <2cipioneit; and, finally, many masculine 
proper names may have a plural in e, e> g* ^uDroige, 
Lewises, SWdancfytfjone, Melanchthons. 

All feminine names of persons may take en or n in the 
plural, except that those ending in a or 9 take 'n, e.g., 
Sltetyeifcen, Adelaide's (singular 2lfcetyeit>) ; @opf)ten, Sophia's 
(singular opf)ie); 3ba'n. 

c) Family names, e.g., (SJoetfye, are counted as masculine 
names. 

d) Germans omit the article in the plural when speak- 
ing familiarly of people by their last names, e.g., 33ecferg 

un$ gefiern, The Beckers called on its yesterday. 



6. Grifht$ is declined as follows: 

N. <ljrifhi 
G. gfjrtjhtS or ^ri|K 
D. 6bnfht or g^rtfto 
A. d^rtfhtd or d^riftuu 
V. fd$a3 or (5I)riftc. 

is declined as follows : 



N. 

G. 

D. Oeju 

A. 3efum. 

When Mary is the name of the Virgin Mary, the German for it is not 
2Rarie but 2Rarta. So also 2Karia (Stuart, Mary Queen of Scots. 

WORDS. 

a8 cbtdjt (pi. c), the poem lefen, to read 

bie $arte/ the card gelefen, read, past participle 



DECLENSION OF NAMES OF PERSONS. 65 

ber teg, the victory beufen an, to think of 

bie 9?egierung, the reign angefommen, arrived 

bog @efefc (pi. e), the law ber fitnfte, the fifth 

bag eben, the life ber fedjfte, the sixth 

bie Sttabe, the Ih'ad ritfe, or rufen 2ne, call 

bie ante, the aunt geftern, yesterday. 

READING EXERCISE 21. 

2)er mt >einridj'g. 2Btlf)etm'g Sucker. 2orb 33rougb,am'g 9hme. 
3d) liebe orb 33t)ron'g ebid)te. >aben te (5d)itter getefen? 3d) 
b,abe djitter'g ebidjte getefen. 3d) benfe an uife. (Ste benfen an 
aRarie. >ier finb 3llejanber mmbolbt'g 33riefe. ara'g Sautter ift 
frant. ^rtebrirf) 2Bi(^etm' ob/ne. <ftad) bent 2obe ^arl'^ be 
ro^en. 5)a^ !?eben ^etnrtd^'g be^ 23ierten. 3d) ^abe bie Garten beg 
|)errn ^amitton unb ber ^rautein c^mtbt * erb,alten. aben (Sie (ben) 
9?ubolf gefe^en ? 9?ufe (ben) Robert. er <5ieg beg 2KbmtraIg ^elfon 
bet Trafalgar ift berufjmt (celebrated). 

^ufgulic 22. 

1. Frederick's hat. Lewis's books. Mary's sister. The 
reign of the emperor Augustus. I admire (id) benwnbere) Plato. 
This is Mr. Stewart's horse. The laws of Solon. Poor Charles's 
father is arrived. Have you read the poems of Goethe ? I have 
read many of them (bation). I have bought two hats for George 
and Edward. Henry's books are arrived. The name of Fred- 
erick Schiller. The life of Charles the Twelfth, King (gen.) 
of Sweden (con <2d)tt)eben), was an incessant war (etn beftanbtger 
ftrtcg). 

2. I have bought Lord S.'s house. We read Cicero. We read 
also Virgil's Aeneid (5lenei'be) and the Ih'ad of Homer. Cimon 
was the son of Miltiades. Victoria is queen of England (oon 
(Snglanb). The brother of Eliza, and Mary's brother are my 
friends. Henry the Fifth, king of England, the son of Henry 
the Fourth, married (fyet'ratfjete) Catherine, the daughter of 
Charles the Sixth, king (gen.] of France (uon gwnfreirf)). Give 
it to my uncle, the doctor (dot,.}. The coronation of the 
emperor Charles the Fifth. Where is Miss Louisa ? She is 
with (bet) her aunt, Mrs. Walter. 

i Singular or plural, gtautetn properly neuter, (p. 58, 6), may take a feminine 
article, and the pronouns referring to it are generally fte, she and Ujr, her, not rt, it 
and fein, its. 



66 PROPER NAMfiS OF COUNTRIES, CITIES, ETC. 

Sprerfjiibung. 

2Bo mar $arfS $ater gcftern? (r mar in ftranffurt. 

2Bo tft Suifen'S Xante? @ie ift in amburg. 
giir men fjaben <Sie biefe <Sd)ub,e 

gefauft ? ftUr $arl unb ftriebrtrf). 
SBte b/ei^t (how is called, i.e., 

what is the name of) ber 

^aifer ton ^ranfreid) ? Sr ^eit Napoleon. 
2Bie ^et^t bie ^onigin ton @ng 

lanb ? (Sic fjeifct 33iftoria. 

2Bie b,ie ib,r emaljl (consort) ? 'jpring Albert. 

3Ber n?ar @ofrate ? (Sin beritfjmter ^^itofop^'. 
2Ber mar bcr (Sieger (conqueror) 

ton Trafalgar r* cr engtifdje ^[bmtrat 

2Ber tuar ber geb,rer 5llejanber'8 ?lriftotelea, etu grtcc^tf^cr SSett* 

be^ @roen ? toeifer (a Grecian philosopher). 

$ennen @ie bie efe^e (Soton'3 ? 3d) fenne fte nid)t. 

3Ber tuor (Solon ? 6in atfyenifdjer SBeifer (sage), 

^ur men finb biefe S3ud)cr? @ie ftnb fitr (ben) ^crrn 3Waier. 

^iir men ftnb jene SBanber? <Ste finb fitr 2ftabame SSalter. 

Sent (to whom) geben (Sic biefe 3d) gebe fte ber ttife unb ber 

Sftofen ? 9J?arie (or itife unb SRorie). 

SBen rttfen @te? 3d) rufe ^nebrid) unb >cinrid). 
|>aben @ie SD^tlton'g f ,35erlorene 

(lost) ^J3arabieg" gelefen ? iftein, id) b,abe e nid)t getefen. 



TWELFTH LESSON. 

PBOPEE NAMES OF COUNTEIES, CITIES, VTL- 
LAGES, PEOVINCES, ISLANDS, ETC. 

1. These names take in German, as in English, no 
article, as : 

jDeutfd)lanb, Germany ^Berlin', Berlin 

(gnglonb, England (glba, Elba. 

bonbon, London 

This rule and an exception to it have already been given p. 57. 



PROPER NAMES Of COUNTRIES, CITIES, ETC. 67 

2. They form their genitive by the addition of g, unless 
they end in g, J or r, as : 

bte tuffe )eutfd)fanb3, the rivers of Germany, 
bte traften 23erltn$', SonbonS, zc., the streets of Berlin, 
London, etc. 

3. When ending in 3, J or r, no termination can be 
added, and the place of the genitive is taken by the 
dative with toon, as : 

bte trafjen tion ^artS, the streets of Paris. 



4. The Germans say not " The Kingdom of Prussia," etc., 
but " The Kingdom Prussia," etc., as : 

bag $omgmd) ^ratften, the kingdom of Prussia, 
bte tabt Bonbon, the city of London, 
ba3 3)orf SRofyrbad), the village of Bohrbach, 
ber SKonat s Diat, the month of May. 

5. The other cases remain unchanged, as : 

totr lekn in Suropa (dat.), we live in Europe, 
id) Uebe granfretd) (ace.), I like France, 
fennen ie ^3ari8 (ace.), do you know Paris? 

6. To, before names of countries and towns, must be 
translated nod) ; at or in, in ffrom, tJOtt or attg, as : 

foir ge^en twt(j 5lmertfa, we go to America, 
id) jd)icfc if)n ntt^l 2Btcn, I send him to Vienna, 
mein ^Bater lebt in ^artS', my father lives at Paris, 
id) fomme Uon 33ruffe(, I come from- Brussels. 

Stu denotes origin, e.g., er ift att 5pari, te is from Paris, (i.e., a 
Parisian). 

7. We subjoin a list of the principal countries : 

i At, before names of towns, is sometimes translated jn. Kx. : at Frankfort, ju 
grantfurt, but in is better. 



68 PROPER NAMES OF COUNTRIES, CITIES, ETC. 



a, Europe opa'uien, Spain 

$lften, Asia rtedjentcutb, Greece 

SlfrUa, Africa ipreujjen, Prussia 

Slme'nfa, America @ad)fen, Saxony 

5luftra'lien, Australia 33at)ern, Bavaria 

Onbten, India SRufclcmb, Russia 

(I)tna, China cfyroeben, Sweden 

(Sgtyp'teu, Egypt 9?ortuegen, Norway 

(Sngfanb, England >tinemarf, Denmark 

^ranhretd), France oflcmb, Holland 

2)eutfrf)lanb, Germany ^elgien, Belgium 

Oeftretd), Austria bie djroetj, Switzerland 

Sta'lten, Italy bie Siirfei', Turkey. 

8. Names of persons formed from these names of 
countries end in either ct or c. 

Names ending in er : 

bcr Suropci'er, the European ber <2pa'mer, the Spaniard 
ber Slmerifa'ner, the American ber Stalie'ner, the Italian 
ber Sng'lcinber, the Englishman ber Deft'retdjer, the Austrian 
ber @rf)ott'Ianber, the Scotchman ber <Sd)n)et$ei-, the Swiss 
ber 3r'(anber, the Irishman ber ^ari'fer, the Parisian 
ber ^jol'ldnber, the Dutchman ber Corner, the Boman, et<v 

Names ending in e I 

ber >eutfcf)e, the German ber SRuffe, the Eussian 

ber granjofe, the Frenchman ber $ole, the Pole 

ber riedje, the Greek ber Xitrfe, the Turk 

ber -preufje, the Prussian ber 3)ane, the Dane. 

NOTE 1. The formation of feminines from these nouns has been ex- 
plained on page 59. . 

NOTE 2. Adjectives corresponding to these nouns are formed by adding 
ifdj to the stem, as : tyamfcf), Spanish; englifd), English; franjofif.f), French, 
etc. See the 18th lesson, p. 110, Remark 5. 

9. Names of rivers, lakes, mountains, etc., always take 
the article, as in English, and are declined like common 
nouns of their respective declensions : 



PEOPER NAMES OF COUNTRIES, CITIES, ETC. 69 

ber 9tt)etn, the Rhine; G. be3 3t()etneS; D. bem 9t()etn(e) zc.; 
bte gibe, the Elbe; G. and Z>. bee (gibe; ^ce. bte (Slbe; 
bte "^rend'en, (^/.); the Pyrenees; G. ber s $t)rentien zc. 

10. In English, the names of the months and of the 
days of the week are used without an article ; in German 
they require the definite article, viz. : 

ber Sanimr', January ber 3ult, July 

ber gebruar', February ber 3luguft', August 

ber SJidr^, March ber (September, September 

ber $lprtl', April ber )fto'ber, October 

ber 9#ai, May ber s J?ot>em'ber, November 

ber -3uni, June ber ecem'ber, December. 

In January, is translated im 3 a ^uar. 

ber (Sonntag, Sunday ber ^rettag, Friday 

ber Sftontag, Monday ber (Sonnabenb or (Samftag, Sa- 

ber jDtenftag, Tuesday turday 

ber 9ftttttt>od), Wednesday out (Sonntag, on Sunday. 
ber 3)onnerftag, Thursday 

WORDS. 

2Bten, Vienna fommen, come 

bte )ber, the Oder ge^en, go 

bte 3)onait, the Danube !att, cold 

bte aitptftabt, the capital gro, large 

baS ebtrge, the mountain- toarimt, why? 
range, mountains. 

READING EXERCISE 23. 



t grojje gliiffc. 35ic gtuffe ^uIanb ftnb gro. ic 
Sadler ber (Sdfyroei^ (tub fc^on. 2BeIrf)e (what) finb bte ^robulte 
@ngtanb ? S)te Ira^en SerUnS (or Don 5B.) finb fd)6n. ^a^oleon 
njar in (Sgtjpten. @r ftarb (died) auf ber 3nfel anft ^e'lena. -3d) 
rtar ntdjt in Oeftreic^ ; aber id) >uar in ^reufcen. 2Betc^eS i^anb tft 
btefe^? 3)tefe8 tft rtedjenlanb. ^ennen @te ^Uabelpln'a ? 9?etn, 
id) fenne e^ ntd)t, id) )Dar nid)t (have not been) in 5lmerifa. -3fl 
btefer 9)Jann ein ^oUdnber ? s JJein, er tft etn Srtdnber ; er gefjt nac^ 
Slmerifa. 3d) fd)icfe metnen @o^n nad) ^artS. u'ftat) ^Ibotp^ mar 
t)on <Sc^tt)eben. ^ennen <5te bte <3tabt ^ranffurt ? S^etn, abet 



70 



PROPER NAMES OF COUNTRIES, CITIES, ETC. 



id) fenne bic 2tabt iloln. er 9Jiouat s Diat ift ber fdjimfte in $>eutfd)* 
lanb. Xer ^iljeiu ift cin grower lujj. 2)iein greunb ift im 3uni 
angefommen. S 2lm 9Jontag ober 2)ienftag. ^aris ift bie >anptftabt 
djS (or toon ^ranfretd)). 



Kufgafce 24. 

The four largest (gropten) rivers of Germany are : the Rhine, 
the Elbe, the Oder and the Danube. The mountains of Spain 
are high (fyorf)). Napoleon was in Russia. The banks (bic 
lifer) of the Rhine are beautiful London is the capital of 
England. What (roeld)e3) are the productions of Spain ? The 
streets of Frankfort are norrow (enge). Where do you come 
from ( x ^Bot)er fomnten 5te) ? I come from England, and I am 
going to France. My brothers go to Paris. Mr. Banks lives 
(lebt) in Germany. In what town ? In the city of Mainz. 
(The) December is cold; July and August are warm. The 
streets of Berlin are wide (breit). The houses of the city of 
London are high. Vienna is the capital of Austria. My 
nephew arrived (ift angefommen) in September. The Danube 
is a very large (em fefyr grower) river. Come (fomnten <5te) on. 
Friday or Saturday. 



2Bo toaren <Ste geftern ? 
Unb ttjo war 3fyr SBruber ? 
2Beld)e8 tfl bie auptftabt Don 

panien ? 

2Bo liegt (lies) ^amburg ? 
2Bo fmb bie ^tyrenaen? 



@te bie rfjhjctj ? 
2Bte ^eipen (what is the name 

of) biefe gtoet ffiiifit ? 
^at ^ufelanb grofee gliiffe? 
<Sinb biefe ^erren (gentlemen) 

granjofen? 

2So flarb Napoleon? 

2BeId)e (what) ?anb ifi biefeS? 



3d) roar in iftannljeim. 

(r h)or in gfrantfurt 

9ttabrib ift bie cmptftabt ton 

ponien. 

^antburg tiegt an ber (Slbe. 
2)ie ^^rend'en Itegen gnnfrfjen (be^ 

tween) ^ranfreid) unb (Spanien. 
Od) fenne bie (Sdjroeij unb Otatien. 
)iefer ^ier ift ber Sftfjein, jener if\ 

bie 2)onau. 

(g ^at grofee ^luffe unb Seen. 
9?etn, mein ^>err, etner t>on f^nen 

(of them) ift etn (Spanter, bw 

anbere (other) em 9iuffe. 
uf ber Onfet Sanft e'Iena. 
2)iefe ift granfretd). 



DETERMINATIVE ADJECTIVES. 71 

SBaren <Sie in 2lfien? "ftem, id) roar nidjt in 2lfien; abet 

id) roar in (Sgtypten. 

2Bob,er' fommen @ie? 3d) fommc auS Qtalien. 

2Bol)in' gefjen <Sie ? 3d) gefje nad) ^RuRlanb. 

eljen Sie nad) $ari8 ? 3a, nad) ^artS unb nad) bonbon. 

$ennen (Sic bie jiirfei ? 3a, id) fenne riedjenlanb unb bie 

iitrfei. 

SBte finb bie <2traen 33erlin8? (Sie finb breit unb fd)on. 
On tt)eld)em 2)?onat tft 3f>r 9^effe 

angcfommcn ? (Sr ift im (September angefommen. 

3ln joetdjem Sage ? ^[m 3)onner|lag. 

Sie biele Xage tjat ber 5lpril? S)er (9Konat) ?lprU ^at breifeig 

Jage. 
2Bie toieteXage b,at ber^ebruar? 3)er ^ebruar b,at nur (only) adjt 

unb ^nxingig Sage. 



THIRTEENTH LESSON. 

DETERMINATIVE ADJECTIVES OE ADJECTIVE 
PKONOUNS. 

(33 t ft i m m u n 8 W 6 r t e r.) 

They are divided into demonstrative, interrogative, pos- 
sessive and indefinite numeral adjectives, and may be like 
adjectives followed by a noun, or like pronouns, stand 
instead of a noun. In " That is excellent," that is used 
as a pronoun. In "That book is excellent," that is used 
as an adjective. 

L The Demonstrative Adjectives are : 

SINGTJLAB. PLUKAL. 

Masc. Fern. Neuter. po r a n Gendert. 

bte|er btefe biefeg, this, that btefe, these 

jener jene JeneS, that jcne, those 

fotdjer [old)e fotd)e, such fotd)e, such 

berfelbe btefetbe bafelbe, the same btefelben 

ber, bie, ba3 nfimtidje, the same bie namtidjen 

ber, bie, ba anbcrc, the other bie anberen. 

(For their declension see the first lesson, p. 15. $)crfelbc, however, with 
b namlicfye and ber anbere are declined like adjectives. See 3.J 



72 DETERMINATIVE ADJECTIVES. 

1. T/tat is generally translated tiefer, biefe, HefeS, unless 
it stands in opposition to this, in which case it is trans- 
lated jener, jene, jenee. 1 Ex. : 

Who is that man ? 2S3er ift btefer 2ttarat ? 

NOTE 1. This or that and these or those, when the subject of the verb to 
be, fein, are translated Dicfcg or Jag, (see also the Twenty-fourth Lesson, 
Obs. 2> Ex. : 

This is my stick, bicfeS (not btefer) ijl mein Sftoct. 

Are tfiese your books, finb Wefeg (or fcoSJ 3^re SBudjer. 

Yes, these are my books, ja fciefe8 (or fca3) jtnb meine 93u<f>et. 



2. (Solcfyer, in the singular, is oftener used with the 
indefinite article preceding it than alone, and is some- 
times followed by the indefinite article as in English. 
Ex.: 

Sin folrfjer Sftann (or fold)' cut 9Kann), such a man. 
<2>olrfje 2Jidnner (pi-), such men. 

3. 2)crfelbc is declined as follows : 

8INGTJLAB. PLURAL. 

JIatc. Fern. Neuter. Far all Gcndert. 

N. berfetbe btefelbe baffetbe 2 biefelben 

G. bcffelbcn berfelben bcj|clben berfelben 

D. bemfelben berfelben bemfetben benfetben 

A. benjelben btefelbe baffetbe biefetben 

IL The Interrogative Adjectives are : 
1) SBeldjer, welc^e, welt^c^ ? which, what ? 

i The following is a more accurate statement of the meaning and use of this and that 
in English and of ber, biefer and jener in German. This and biefcr properly denote 
something near the speaker, and that and jener something more remote from him. 
When we do not desire to emphasize either the nearness or the remoteness of anything, 
We use that in English and ber in German. 3">er ( connec ted with yonder in English) 
always implies remoteness, and implies it more decidedly than biefer does nearness. 
liefer sometimes occurs where ber might have been used. 

i Or, dividing these words into syllables according to their composition, taSfelbe, 
MfAM. 



DETERMINATIVE ADJECTIVES. 73 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

Jfatc. t'fn. Neuter. For ad Gendert, 

N. toehfyer ttetdje ttetdjeg, which? toeldje, which? 

G. toeldjeS foeldjer toeldjeS, of which? toeldjer, of which? 

D. weldjem luetdjer roclrfjcm, to which? toelcfyen, to which? 

A. hjeldjen lueldje toelcheS, which? iueldje, which? 

EXAMPLES. 

SBeldjer 3Bein tft ber befte ? Which wine is the best? 
28e(d)en 2Beg geljen <ie ? Which way do you go ? 
SOfit wcldier geber ^aben ie gefd)rieben? With wHch pen 
have you written? 

NOTE 2. What? and which? immediately followed by the verb fetn, 
to be, are translated: tUCldjeS J* even though the verb is in the plnral (see 
NOTE 1). Ex. : 

Which is your stick ? gBdrfjeS tft 3{jr tod ? 

are your terms ? SBcI^el finb $ljte Sebtnguttflcn ? 



2. 2Ba fiir etn, wag fur etne ; toag fur ein, wAa^ (kind of} ? 

In this combination only the article etn, eine, ein is 

declined. It agrees with the following substantive. Ex.: 

fur ein 33ud) Ijabett <Stc? What book have you? 
fiir eine <Stabt ift biefe8 ? What or what kind of a town is 
this? 



The plural is wag fiir ? as : 

fiir 23anber braudjcn <Sie? What ribbons do you want? 
fiir 33ciunte finb biefcg ? What kind of trees are these ? 

fiir, without the article, is employed also before 
the names of foods, materials, etc., as : 

fiir ftleifd) fcutfen <2te ? What sort of meat do you buy ? 
fiir 2Bciu trinfen Sie? What kind of wine do you drink? 

HE. The Possessive Adjectives are : 



Mate. 

mem 


SINGULAR. 
/'ei. Neuter. 

meine niein, my 


PLURAL. 

For ail Getuien. 

meine, my 


bet'n 


beine 


bein, 


thy 


beine, 


thy 


fetn 
fc 


feine 
iljre 


fein, 
i^r, 


his (its) 
her (its) 


feine, 
tip, 


his (its) 
her (its) 



74 DETERMINATIVE ADJECTIVES. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

Mate. Fern. JVufer. For all Gendert. 

itnfer unfere imfer, our imfere, our 

3*r 3hre Qfr ) ^re ) 

euer cuere euer, ) J euere (euer), ) J 

tfjr tfyre tfjr, their ifyre, their. 

They are all declined like mein. See Lesson 2. 

Observe that all these possessive adjectives have o termination added 
in the nominative singular, masculine and neuter. In this they differ 
from ber, btcfer, tocldjer, etc. Ex.: 

Our friend, unfcr greunb (not unfercr grcunbu 
Your horse, 3fc $fcrb (not 3f>re3 gSferb). 

IV. The Indefinite Numeral Adjectives Bf** 

Masc. Fern. Neuter. Plural. 

jeber, every, each jebc jcbeS (wanting) 

atter (all), all ' attc aXk* (aU) atje, all 

fetn, no feme fein feine, no 

monger, many a mandje man^eg manege, some 

Diet, much mele totel toiele, many 

hjentg, little njentge ttjentg tuentge, few 

betbe, pi., both etntge, pi., some, a few 

mefyrere, pi, several bie metften, pi., most. 

REMARKS. 

L The sense is the same whether the definite article 
is inserted or omitted after allc, e.g., alle 2SeU or all tie 
dt, all the world, alleS 5Solf or aU fcad SSolf, all the people. 
These examples are from Grimm's dictionary. 

2. AU before any case or number of ber, biefer, etc., or 
mein, etc., is usually translated all. Ex. : 

All our money, att iinfer elb (not alteS iinfer @etb). 
With all your sorrow, nut all ^rem Summer (Dot.). 
Of all his joys, toon aU feinen greuben. 

3. With both, either omit the article or let it come first. 
(The order betDe bie is rare). Thus : 

Both the sisters, Oeibe t^djiueftevn or bie beiben (>d)tt)eftern. 



DETERMINATIVE ADJECTIVES. 75 

4. Possessive adjectives, when joined with beibe, should 
precede and beibe takes n. (23etbe metne, etc. are rare). 



Both my sisters (my two sisters), memo bctbcit 
Both our sous (our two sons), uitfcve betbcit <3ob,ne. 

5. The word some or any before a noun in the singular 
is better not translated, as : 

I have some bread, 3d) fynbe 33rob. 
Have you any cheese V >aben Ste 
No, but here is some butter, 9?etn, aber fyter tft Gutter. 

6. Some, before a noun in the plural, is einige, as : 
Lend me some pens, letljen <Sie nttr ctntge ^ebcrn. 

WORDS. 

bag $cbaube, the building ber 33Ict[ttft (pi. e), the pencil 

bic (5 (tern, the parents bte 5lrbeit, the work 

ba @elb, (the) money nii^tirf), useful 

ber $aufmann, the merchant tobt, dead 

bag IBenitogen, (the) fortune, retcf), rich 

i.e., property, means traurtg, sad, sorrowful 

bte 9tegc(, the rule ^etljam, salutary 

ber 3Bagen, the carriage Qtffyr poisonous 

ber B'efyter, the fault, mistake geljoren, belong 
bic tleberfe'^ung, the translation oft, often 

beiDitn'bern, to admire toerfaufen, to sell 
ber etbbeiitet, the purse 

READLN-Q EXERCISE 25. 

)tefer 5D?ann ift rctdj. S)iefc ^rait ift franf. 3)icfc ^tnber ^aben 
feine 5BUd)er. 3ene3 0au tft feljr alt. )te ^rud)te jencr Sciume 
ftnb bitterer (more bitter), al3 (than) bte gattrfjte btefer ^aunte. 
SCRetne (Sltern ftttb tobt. Unfer DI)eim tft md)t reid) ; abcr feme 23afe 
tft fe^r vctd). 2)iefe (Stubenten b,abcn tf)r @etb tiertoren. SBir fennen 
aKe 9icge(n. -3d) fenne feinen fotdjcn ^anten. 3ltte 9J?enfd)en ftnb 
Sritbcr. 9J?and)er ^anfntann !^at fein S5ermogen bertorcn. Sftetne 
Sante b,at tljren 9?tno gefunben. Od) Ijabe bte ^ferbe 3fyveg p()etm3 
itnb ben 2Cagen unfereS ^tadjbarg gefattft. -Sober 3D?cnfd) ttebt fetn 



76 DETERMINATIVE ADJECTIVES. 



cbcn. 92td)t jebeg cmb tft reid). <Ste Ijaben fetnen ^efyter tit Sfjrer 
Ucberfet3ung. 2JMne betben 23ritber ftnb angefommen. $lfle Confer 
biefer tobt ftnb Don tetn gebaut (built of stone). 5lUe btefe 
'JjSfianjen ftnb fyetlfam. )tefe8 ftnb ntd)t metne ^ebern. 9Btr fjaben 
etnige $ogel gefangen (caught). 2Ba8 ftir etnen (Storf Ijoben te bo ? 
Sfteljrere c^tffe ftnb angefommen. 

Nuiiinbc 26. 

1. I love my (ace.) father and my mother. We love our 
parents. You love your sisters. They have bought som 
books. Those flowers are withered (bertoelft). The pupils 
speak often of (t>on) their masters. All men (3)?enfrf)en) are 
alike (gleirf)) before God. These (p. 72, Note 1) are the pencils 
of my brother. This man l has sold all his houses and gardens, 
and all his horses and carriages. We admire such men. All 
[the] metals are useful. What wine do you sell? Which 
gloves have you lost? This lady has lost all her children. 
Our friends have (jtnb) arrived yesterday. 

2. We live by (toon) the work of your hands. I have found 
thy purse without thy money. We had several friends in 
Paris. Not all men (3Kenfd)en) are rich. Each country has 
its pleasures. I had no letters from my son William. Our 
king has several palaces. No rose without thorns (!Dornen). 
I will buy some chairs. What chairs? Those new [ones]. 
These dresses are for my two sisters. Every bird has two 
wings. The boys have eaten (gegeffen) all their apples and 
pears. Some plants are poisonous. I shall give these fruits to 
my little daughters. 



2Bet Ijat meinen etbbeutet ge* 

funben ? 3)etn S3ruber b,at tfyn (it) gefunben. 

Sinb afle 9J?enfd)en gtiirfttd)? 2Benige 2J?enfd)m ftnb glitdfttd). 

2Ba8 fitr em $ege( tjl btefeS? (58 iff etn Slbler (eagle). 

2Bcr fyat tyn gefdjoffen (shot) ? 2)er 3a'ger (hunter) Ijat t^n ge* 

fdjoffen. 

fitr etne S3tnme ^aben <te? 68 tft etn 5Sei(d]en. 

ftnb unfere ^itte? 3b,re >iite ftnb in metnem 



J SKann; SWenf^ means human Ixing, man or woman. 



AUXIMAEY VERBS. 



7V 



id) $el)fer tit ntchtcr Ueber= 
felting ? 

fur ft&tm Ijaben (Sic? 
2Ber tft fetter junge 9)?ann? 
SBarum ftnb biefe <Stubenten fo 

tuaurig ? 

>aben Sic afle e(b berforen ? 
fitr -}3ferbe Ijaben (Sic ge* 
fauft? 

I)abcn bie -3ager gefdjoffen? 
<Sie einige gute ^cbera? 
fitr 33itd)cr Icfen (Sic? 
fucfjt ^rtebrid) ? 
tucm ftnb <Stc gelommen 
(come) ? 

<Ste S3riefe Don ^ 
ctnpfangcn ? 



Oa, Sic fyaben mc^rerc ^e^ter. 
3d) fjabe @tal)l (steel) .febern. 
S^ tft ber 9Jeffe meine^ 9^ad)bar. 

(Ste ^aben tb^r @etb bertorett. 

9?id)t atte^, aber bid. 

-3d) fyabe jtDct 2Bagenpferbe unb ctu 

9faitpferb gefauft. 
(Stnige ^afcn unb 9W)e (deer). 
5ltte meine ^ebern ftnb fdjtedjt. 
3;d) tefc englifd)e 33itd)er. 
(Sr fudjt feinen 9Jcgenfd)ivm. 
3d) bin mit ctnigen ^reuuben gc= 

fomnten. 

id) b,abe feinen 23rtef em* 

pfangen. 



FOURTEENTH LESSON. 



AUXILIARY VERBS. 



I. fallen, To Have. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



PRESENT TENSE. 



id) Ijabe, I have 

bu fyaft l f thou hast 

er (fie, e) b,at, he, (she, it) has 

toir fyaben, we have 

ibr babt, ) i 
r-' 1 i r Yu have 
(Ste I)aben, j J 

fie Ijaben, they have 



id) b,abe, I (may) have 

bu Ijabeft, thou have 

er (fie, e3) fyabc, he (she, it) hare 

h)ir I)aben, we have 

ibr babct, ) i 
2. > ( \ you have 
<Ste Ijaben, ) J 

fie b/aben, they have. 



i Thou and ye, as every one knows, have gone out of use in conversation, and ymi, haa 
taken their place. The Germans, however, still use bu and tfyr to children and in'ima c 
friends. In most other cases they say ie, which is always printed with a capital to 
distinguish it from fie, they or she. 



78 A.UXILIABY VERBS. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

IMPERFECT. 

id) fjatte, I had id) (jiittc, 1 1 had (or should have) 

bu fjatteft, thou hadst bit fjcitteft, thou hadst 

ev (fie, eS) fjatte, he (she, it) had er (fie, eg) tjatte, he (she, it) had 

nnr fatten, we had nnr fatten, we had 

if)r fjottct or (Sic fatten, you had ifjr Ijiittct or ie fatten, you had 

fie fatten, they had fte fatten, they had. 

FIRST FUTURE. 

td) toerbe fyaben, I shall have id) tterbe fjaben, I shall have 
bit nrirft fyabeu, thou wilt have bit luerbeft Ijaben, thou wilt have 
er unrb fjaben, he will have er lucvbe fjaben, he will have 

nnr toerben Ijaben, we shall have hnr toerben b,aben, we shall have 

tyr luerbet b,aben, | you wiU tb,r loerbet ^abcn, ) ^^ 

(Sic toerben b/aben, J have @te merben b,oben, j J 

fte ttierben ^aben, they will have fte toerben Ijaben, tiiiey will have. 

PERFECT. 

id) b,abe gefjabt, I have had tc^ fjabe gefjabt, I (may) have had 
bit fyctft geb,abt, thou hast had bit b,abeft geb,abt, thou hast had 
er fyat getjabt, he has had er Ijabe geb,abt, he have had 

hnr b,Qben geb,abt, we have had nnr b,aben ge^abt, we have had 
t> b,abt 9 e|abt, ) havehad jjr babet ge^obt, ) hftve hftd 
(Ste b,aben gefyabt, ) J (Ste ^oben gefyabt, j J 

fie ^aben getjabt, they have had fte baben geb,abt, they have had. 

PLUPERFECT. 

id) Ijatte ge^abt, I had had id) b,atte ge^abt,* I had had (or 

should have had) 

bu fjcttteft gefjabt, thou hadst had bit Ijatteft gefyabt, thou hadst had 
er Ijatte geljabt, he had had er fyfitte geijabt, he had had 

nnr fatten ge^abt, we had had nnr fjatten gcb,abt, we had had 

U)r Ijattet geb,abt, ) vouhadhad ib,r b,attet gefjabt, ) , , , , 

8ie fatten getjabt, j yo a fte fatten geb,abt, J yo 

fte fatten geb,abt, they had had fie fatten gefjabt, they had had. 

i This form is used for instance, after tarnn, if, as : SBenn id? . . . Ijitte, If I had (tba 
rerb is last). SBfnn may also be followed by the indicative, 
t M 1 had had, iccnn id> . . .g 



AUXILIARY VEilBS. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



SECOND FUTURE. 



id) tucrbe "i I shall 
bu nnrft j ^ thou wilt 
er nrirb "f he will 


id) iuerbc 
bu ujcrbcft 
5 er toerbe 


totr toerben 
if)r loerbet > 
<Ste uierbenj 


- ^, we shall 
" you will 


unr rterben 
P' tfjr werbet 
P 1 @te hjerben 


fie toerben 


they will ^ 


fie roerben 



I shall 
thou wilt 
he will 
we shall - 



they will 



tr 

s 



PIBST CONDITIONAL. 

id) U)iirbe l^aben or ic^ fja'tte, I should have 

bu foiirbeft ^aben or bu ^atteft, thou wouldst have 

er ttwrbe fjaben or er ^a'tte, he would have 

loir )Biirben ^aben or hjir fatten, we should have 
tfyr u)urbet ^aben or ifyr Ijattet, you would have 
fie tuiirben ^aben or fie fatten, they would have. 

SECOND CONDITIONAL. 

or id) fjfitte ge^abt, I should 
or bu Ijatteft gefyabt, thou wouldst 
or er Ija'tte ge^abt, he would 
or hrir fatten ge^abt, we should 
or t^r Ijattet ge^abt, you would 
or fie fatten geljabt, they would 



IS) tuiirbe gefyabt Ijaben 
tu hmrbeft ge^abt Ijaben 
er tviirbe ge|abt ^aben 
twtr tt)iirben gc^abt Ijaben 
f^r niurbet ge^abt ^aben 
*fie murben ge^abt fjaben 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



r 

CD 



IaptunMabenJ letushave 
or Ijaben <Sie, have. 



I/abe, have 

er fott ^aben, let him have 

fie foflen ^aben, let them have 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Pres. Ijaben or gu Ijaben, to have. 

Past, geljabt Ijaben or getjabt 311 Ijaben, to have had. 

PARTICIPLES. 
Pres. Ijabenb/ having Past, getjobt, had. 



80 AUXILIARY VERBS. 

2. The negative, interrogative and negative-interroga* 
tive forms of fyaben correspond exactly to the same forms 
of to have in English. 

NEGATIVE. 

tdj Ijabe ntdjt, I have not ; cr Ijat ntdjt, he has not, eto 
idj toerbe nid)t fyaben, I shall not have 
id) fyabe ntdjt geljabt, I hare not had, etc. 

INTERROGATIVE. 

Ijabe tdj, have I? Ijaben <3ie, have you? 

Ijabe id) gefyabt, have I had ? etc. 

NEGATIVE-INTERROGATIVE. 

fiatte id) nidjt, had I not? 

gatte id) nidjt geljabt, had I not had? 

toerben rt)ir nid)t Ijaben, shall we not have ? etc. 

REMARKS ON THE ORDER OF WORDS IN A GERMAN 
SENTENCE. 

1. In simple declaratory clauses in German, the SUBJECT 
is placed first, then comes the VERB, and then all the REST 
of the sentence. 1 This may be called the Normal Order. 

a) " Simple declaratory clauses " are such as the fol- 
lowing: Henry lives. We aU see ships. I should like to. 
The younger children would have been kitted. Also the first 
part of the following : I wish to serve you, if you will con- 
sent yourself. Or the latter part of the sentence : If it 
stopped raining, I should certainly go. On the other hand 
the following are not simple declaratory clauses : Does 
Henry live? that I could see a ship ! Consent to serve 
me. Neither is the first part of the following sentences 
simply declaratory : What you have just remarked, cannot 
be true. That he was absent is not proved. 

t Another way of arranging the parts of such clauses is given in 3. 



AUXILIARY VERBS. 81 

5) By SUBJECT, in the rule just stated, we mean the single 
word which is grammatically the subject, taken together 
with all words which modify it. Thus in the following 
sentences, for instance, all the words not in italics, are to 
be considered as SUBJECT : His remarkable talents, well 
employed, would gain him a competency. The sudden and 
painless death which he had so longed for, was granted 
him. 

c) By VERB, in the rule just stated, is meant on the con- 
trary only a single word, for instance in would have gone, 
would; in shall have been loved, shall; in is thought to 
7tave been forged, is ; in makes him come, makes. This word 
is always that one which changes to denote person and 
number. Thus would becomes wouldst, and shall, shalt in 
the second person, and is has as many as three other 
forms, namely am, art and are. 

2. The arrangement of the REST of the sentence, that is, 
of all which is left after disposing of the SUBJECT and the 
TERB, is not regulated by such strict rules. Thus we 
an say for The mother ivM have a letter from her daughter, 
either: 3)tc Gutter | 'nrirb | einen 33rief on tfjrer od)ter 
fyabeit, or 2)ie Gutter | iwrb | on tym Xocfyter einen 33rtef 
fyaben. 

But a) participles and infinitives come at the very end 
of the sentence, thus, He must have liked to play exceedingly, 
becomes He \ must \ exceedingly to play liked have. 

b) 97id)t goes with the infinitive or participle to the end 
of the sentence, e, g., 3$ | fjak | fcaS 33ud) ntcfyt gelefen, 
/ have not read the book. 

c) The object of the verb more usually comes after 

1 The vertical lines separate the subject from the verb, and the verb from the rest 
of the sentence. 



82 Atmr.tARV VEKBSL 



everything except md)t and similar negatives, such as ttle, 
never, etc., e.g., 3$ | fyabe ] fcit eintgcn Xagen fra$ SBud) mctyl 
Qdefen, / have not read the book for some days. 

3. Germans sometimes, however, take out some part of 
the REST of the sentence and place it at the beginning. 
If this has been done, the VERB must be made to precede 
the SUBJECT. Thus )ie Sautter | roirb | son ttyrer Xocfytei 
cinen 33rief fyoben may become either 1) 33on ifyrer Xoc^tei 

| twrb j tie Gutter | eincn 23rief (wben, or 2) Sincn 33rief 
| ttrirb | bie -Gutter j on tynr Xocfyter fjaben. This may be 
called the Question Order. 

The only difference in meaning between the three sen- 
tences is, that in 1) there may be an emphasis on on 
ifyrer od)ter, i.e. t It is from her daughter (and not from 
anybody else) that the mother ivitt receive a letter; and in 
2) an emphasis on cinen 53ricf, i.e., It is a letter (and not 
a newspaper or anything else) which the mother tvitt receive 
from her daughter. 1 

4. Dependent clauses in German, take the VERB at the 
very end. Thus, It is true that she is dead, becomes It is 
true that she dead is ; He said that she was there, becomes 
He said that she there was ; He cried because he was hurt t 
becomes He cried because he hurt was; He gave me the book 
that he had written, becomes He gave me the book that he 
written had. This may be called the Dependent Order. 

Dependent clauses should be easily recognized by the 
student. Some other clause in the sentence makes an 
assertion which the dependent (and subordinate) clause 

i The VERB must precede the SUBJECT in the principal clause of a sentence, when the 
principal clause comes after a dependent clause. Thus : If I speak, you must lUten. 
becomes in German. It I speak, | must | yon | listen. 



AUXILIARY VHRBS. 83 



completss. See the examples above. They may be intro- 
duced by conjunctions, e.g., when, if, since, although, as, 
etc., etc., (but not by and, or, for, but,) or by relatives, e.g. t 
who, which, where, etc. 

WORDS. 

bte tlljr, the watch ba3 Ungtucf, misfortune 

bie Sutler, the butter em (Spiel^eug, a toy 

ber afe, the cheese bet 33att, the ball 

ba3 Bfoifd)' the meat ber SBagen, the carriage 

bd$ SBergnugen, the pleasure ber ob, death 

bie Dinte, the ink baf?, that (cory.) 

glauben, to believe, think toenn, if 

bie 3eit, (the) time genug, enough 

bie Sampe, the lamp angeneljm, agreeable 

bie efettfdjaft, company, party bie 9?abel, the needle. 

READING EXERCISE 27. 



3d) Ijabe einen ftreunb. >aft bu aud) einen ^reunb ? >aben <5ie 
feine ^reunbe? 2Bir f)aben feine ^reunbe. 2Bir fatten ^^iinbe; 
aber Je^t (now) fyaben roir feine me^r. abe 5lc^t auf (take care of) 
beiu ^teib. aben <Sie 2ld)t auf 5f)re ^teiber. 5^ roerbe cine neue 
(new) U^r Ijaben. 3c^ ^abe eine U^r getyabt, aber ic^ (jabe fie uertoren. 
aben fie tiiet 35ergniigen gefjabt? SBir fatten toiele ^ifdje gefyabt. 
@ie raerben efettfd^aft ge^abt fyaben. 1 3)te S^iikr fatten feiit guteS 
papier. 2Benn tuir Srob fatten. 2 SSenn ioir ^teifc^ gefjabt fatten.* 
3^r loiirbet fein elb Ijaben. ^r rt)iirbe Diet ^ergniigen auf bem Sank 
gefyabt^aben. taubft bu (think), ba er @etb Ijabe? lauben @ie, 
ba rt)ir 2Bein ge^abt ^aben ? @ie toerben SSaffer ge^abt ^aben. 

9luf9obe 28. 

1. I have butter and cheese. He has bread and meat. We 
had some birds. The boys had two young dogs. I had a 
watch. I shall have a picture. I have had two lamps. My 
sisters have had many needles. If I had a garden (ace.). If 

i This means: They, or you, must have had company. 

* The conjunction rcenn requires the VEBB at the tnd. So Jo all other conjunctions, 
except those meaning and, !mt, or and for, and &o do all relative pronouns. In other 
words, in dependent clauses the VEBB must be put at the end, as stated already 
page 82. 



84 AUXILIARY VERBS. 

we had a house and a garden. If you had had some paper. 
They will have no ink. Children, take care of (aitf, ace.) your 
books. I have had little wine. She has had much pleasure 
at (auf, dot.) the ball. I had not time. They would have a 
carriage and a horse. 

2. We have had the good fortune (ba3 turf) to 1 have a 
faithful friend. 2 They will have a house in the town. I should 
have money enough, if I had not lost my purse. To have * 
good (gute) children is agreeable. After (the) death, of what 
use is it (ioa3 nitt e) to 1 have had much money? If I had 
not had so much misfortune. These young men (jungen eute) 
have had too much (gu mel) pleasure. 



aben (Sic ntehten 93ruber nidjt 3a, id) Ijabe ifjn in einem aben 

gefeljen? (shop) gefefyen. 

>at er ettpaS getauft? 3a, cr fyat ^anbfdjufye gefauft. 

>aben (Sie 33rob genug? Sftetn, loir braud)en (need) meljr. 

fatten (Sie genug Sutler unb 2Bir fatten $afe genug ; abet ntc^t 

$afe? gutter genug. 

^aben <Ste mel Skrgniigen ouf 2Btr njaren fefjr bergniigt ; h)tr ^at 

bem Sanbe (country) ge^abt ? ten grope efettf dfyaft* 
$at btefeS arme ^tnb feinc (Sttern (5 Ijat feinen 33ater bertoren ; abet 

mefyr? feine 3JZutter lebt (lives) nod). 

SBerben tutr f^one Setter fya* 

ben ? Stf) gtaube ntc^t. 

SSerben (Sic 3 e ^ tyaben, btefe^ ^ h)erbe ^eute (to-day) feine ^dt 

5Bud^ gu tefen ? ^aben ; aber morgen. 

lauben <Sie, ba er Diet elb 3c^ gtaube, ba er fefyr njentg ge- 

ge^abt fjat? ^abt ^at. 

2Ba fitr etne fteber ^attejl bu? 3(^ ^atte eine <Staf)t (steel) .feber. 
SBer fyat einen fo guten ^reunb 

hne (as) i^ ? 2Bir fjaben and) gute ^reunbe. 

2Birb ber Scorer mit ben S^iltern (Sr witrbe mit i^nen (them) gefyen, 

ge^en (walk) ? loenn er 3^it ^atte. 

SOBerbe i^ ba 33ergniigen ^aben, (Sic ift ntd)t ^ter, fte ift in (Stutt* 

3^re (Sd)ttefler ju fe^en? gart. 

i When the infinitive is accompanied by to, translate it ju, till farther notice. 
a Translate, A faithful friend to have, einen treuen greunb ju $aben. See p. 81, 2, a. 
3 ajiel ^crgnijen baben (to have mnch pleasure) = to have a good time. Xeignugt fein 
(to be jolly), amounts to about the same thing. 



AUXILIABY VERBS. 85 

2Barum ftnb (Sie fo traurig ? 3d) fyabe metnen (Stod" toertoren. 
2Ber fyat mein gebermeffer gefyabt ? 3d) wetjj ntdjt (I do not know). 

toer eg gefyabt fyat. 

FIFTEENTH LESSON. 

H @eitt, To Be. 

INDICATIVE. SUBJUNCTIVE. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

id) bin, I am id) fet, I (may) be 

bu bift, thou art bu feieft, thou be 

er (fie, eg) ift, he (she, it) is er (fie, eg) fei, he (she, it) be 

hrir ftnb, we are hrir feien, we be 

jfef?' s I you are jfe ^ I you be 

<te ftnb, j ^ @tc feten, ) J 

fie finb, they are. fie feten, they be. 

IMPERFECT. 

id) njar, I was id) tocire, I were (or should be) 

bu toarft, thou wast bu tocireft, thou wert 

er (fie, eg) war, he (she, it) was er (fie, eg) ft ore, he (she, it) were 

hnr loaren, we were hrir nwren, we were 

ifyr ftwret, you were ib,r tociret, you were 

fte roaren, they were. fte foaren, they were. 

FIRST FUTURE. 

id) fterbe fetn, I shall be id) fterbe fein, I shall be 

bu tmrft fein, thou wilt be bu toerbeft fetn, thou wilt be 

er ttnrb fetn, he will be er toerbe fein, he will be 

h)ir iverben fein, we shall be hrir toerben fein, we shall be 

i()r n^erbet fetn, you will be ifyr werbet fein, you will be 

fte roerben fein, they will be. fie toerben fetn, they will be. 

PERFECT. 

id) bin 1 getoefen, I have been id) fei getoefen, I (may) have been 

bu btft geraefen, thou hast been bu feieft getoefcn, thou have been 

er ift gewefen, he has been er fei gert)efen, he have been 

n)ir ftub geftefen, we have been nrir feien geftefen, we have been 
ib,r feib getnefen, } you have Hjr feiet getwefen, I youhayebeen 
(te ftnb geftefen, ) been (Sic feten getoefen, j J 
fte ftnb getoefen, they have been, fie feien gertjefen, they have been. 

i Notice that the Germans say, as it were, / am been, I was been, instead of / have 
teen, et. 



86 



AUXILIARY VERBS. 



INDICATIVE. SUBJUNCTIVE. 

PLUPERFECT. 

id) roar geroefen, I had been id) roare geroefen, I had been (or 

should have been) 

buroarft geroefen, thou hadst been burod'reft geroefen, thou hadst been 
cr roar geiuefen, he had been er roare geroefen, he had been 

roir roaren geroefen, we had been roir roaren geroefen, we had been 
ifyr roaret geroefen, you had been ifyr roaret geroefen, you had been 
fie roaren geroefen, they had been, fie rociren geroefen, they had been. 

SECOND FUTURE. 



ii) roerbe ' 


CO 


IshaU 




id) roerbe ' 




I shall ] 




bu roir ft 


i 


thou wilt 


tr 1 



bu roerbefl 


r 


thou wilt 


tr 
& 


er roirb 


rs 




he will 


CD 


er roerbe 


-2, 


he will 


CD 


roir roerben 


- 3 
*". 


we shall 


o 1 

CD 


roir roerben 


s 


we shall 


CB 


U)r roerbet 




you will 


P 


ifjr roerbet 


3" 


you will 


P 


fie roerbeu . 




they will . 




fie roerben . 




they will . 





FIRST CONDITIONAL. 



id) roiirbe fein 
bu roiirbefl fein 
er ronrbe fein 

roir rourben fein 
i^r roiirbet fein 
fie roiirben fein 



or id) roare, I should be 

or bu rotireft, thou wouldst be 

or er roare, he would be 

or roir roa'ren, we should be 
or ifyr roaret, you would be 
or fie rod'ren, they would be. 



SECOND CONDITIONAL. 

idj roiirbe geroefen fein or idj roare geroefen, I should 

bu roiirbeft geroefen fein or bu roareft geroefen, thou wouldst 

er roiirbe geroefen fein or er roare geroefen, he would 

roir rourben geroefen fein or roir roa'ren geroefen, we should 
ifjr roiirbet geroefen fein or iljr roaret geroefen, you would 
fie wiirben geroefen fein or fie roaren geroefen, they would 

IMPERATIVE. 

fei, be (thou) feien roir, 

er fofl fein, let him be taffet un3 fein, 

fie foflen fein, let them be feib or feien <Sie, be (you). 

INFINITIVE. 

Pres. fein or gu fein, to be. 

Past, geroefen fein or geroefen $u fein, to have been. 



o- 

CD 
CD 

P 



let us be 



AUXILIARY VERBS. 87 

PARTICIPLES. 

Pres. fetenb, being. Past, getttefen, been. 

NOTE 1. There is and there are answer to the German e3 flteBt 1 , e3 ijl, 
e finb ; there mis and there were, e gab, e3 toar or e3 toaren, as : 

There are animals, etc., e giebt Sfjiere JC. (See Lesson 33.) 

NOTE 2. The English lam to is translated id) foil. 

He is to learn German, er fott !Deutfdj Icrncn. 

NOTE 3. The English to be right is translated in German 9?edjt 
and to be wrong, Itnredjt fyafcen. Ex. : 

You are right, @ic fyafcen 9?ed)t. 
I am wrong, idj fyaie Itnredjt. 

WORDS. 

her eb,rer, the master, teacher gufrteben, contented 

ber rofcDater, the grand-father imgitfrteben, discontented 

ba lag, the glass rul)tg, quiet 

gtucflid), happy beffer, better 

ungtudiid), unhappy trdge, idle 

fdjim, handsome Jetd)t, easy 

reid), rich Dergnugt, pleased, merry 

arm, poor ffeif?^' industrious, dih'gent 

franf, ill aufmerlfant, attentive 

itntuo^I, unwell toimfdjen, to wish 

ju, too ItmnfdienStoertl), desirable. 

tjoflid), polite 

BEADING EXERCISE 29. 



3)it Mft glMUd). 3d) bin ung(itcf|td). @te tft fd)bn unb reirf). 
2Btr finb arm unb franl. (Sr toar ein gutcr 53ater. SSaren <5>te 
geftern in ber ^ird)e (at church) ? 9Jein, n)ir toaren ju aufe; tt)tr 
tuaren unroof. @ie rterben nid)t !ranf geuiefen fcin. 2 Sung unb 
fd)6n fein 3 tft njunfdjen^mertb,. 3d) bin bet (at the tailor's) bem 
@d)neiber getuefen; abermein^odrtjarnod) nid)t ferttg (ready). Oft ber 
in ber @d)u(e (at school) genicfen ? Sir finb geftern tm (at the) 
geraefen. 3d) rt)iirbe gtiidlid) fein, ttienn id) reid) mare. arl 



1 OS gtebt, # //ijvw, takes an accusative, e.g., 6$ gab einmat etnen rafeit, There wot 
once a count ; the others do not, e.g., S3 aar einmal ein rof. 

2 See the foot-note 1, p. 85. 

3 i$e the foot-note 2, p. 84, 



88 AUXILIARY VERBS. 

tutrb fefyr tiergniigt fcin, toenn (when) cr <te fteljt (sees). (Set 
fletfeig, mem Sofjn. <2>eib oufmerffam, meine <Sd)iiler. Ofyr @ro^- 
Dater ift fefyr alt getoefen (was very old). 1 2fteine rofemutter fyat 
9terf)t. 3d) Ijabe Unrest. 

Shtfaabc 30. 

1. I am young, you are old. She is very handsome. Our 
ousin Frederick has been in London, but he has not been in 
Paris. Be quiet. Let us be merry. Be contented with your 
situation (<2>tefle,/em.). I should be contented, if I were not 
ill I should be rich, if I had been in America. My daugh- 
ters have been at (ouf, dot.) the ball ; they had a good time. 
It will be better to go out (au^iigefyen). It would have been 
easy. The parents of these children have been too severe (ju 
ftreng). You are right. 

2. I should be contented if you were not idle. Be polite to 
(but in German, towards, i.e., gegen, with the ace.) your mas- 
ters. I wish she were attentive. There are no wolves in 
England. There were no glasses on the table. Be so kind 
[as] to (311) give me a glass. My pupils will not be idle. Miss 
Caroline was very [much] pleased. The knives were too 
sharp (fdjarf). We should not have bought the butter if it had 
not been fresh (frifd)). I am to go to Berlin. Are we to learn 
German? I was wrong ; my father was right. 



<5inb (Ste gtudtid) ? ) ja, id) bin feljr gliicfltcf). 

5ft 3b,re rfjttjefter and) gliidltd)? D nein, fte ift feljr ungtiidlid). 

SBannn ifl fte ungtttcfUd) '? <te fyat afl tftre $inber toertoren 

(lost). 
2Bo toaren <5te geflern $lbenb 

(last night) ? 3d) toar im Sweater. 

@inb <Sie fdjon (already) in 9tein, id) bin nod) nid)t ba (there) 

tuttgart getoefen? getoefen. 

Oft bag $inb lan.qe franf ge* 

toefen? (S8 ifl ein 3afyr franf geuiefen. 
SSarum h)ar ber Seljrer unjufrte* 

ben? 2)ie (Sdjiiler ioaren trage. 

i The German imperfect must sometimes be translated by the English perfect and 
the German perfect by the English imperfect, 



AUXILIARY YERBS. 89 

9ft cr oft (often) untooljt? 3a, er tft tmmer franf. 

3ft ba3 9ftabd)en toergmtgt? 3ta, fte tft fefjr oergnugt. 

SBiirben te traurig (sad) fein, 

tuemt Sie franf tvaren? 3d) toiirbe feljr traurtg fetn. 

tub te ferttg (ready) ? 2Btr werben gtetc^ (directly) fcr* 

tig fetn. 
3ft ber a^enfd) fterbltc^ (mortal)? 2)er ^orper tft fterbltcf); aber btc 

(Seele (soul) tft itnfterbltd). 

2Sa3 fagte (said) ber geljrer? @r fagte: fetb rit^tg. 
tf>t eg 2Bo(fe in 2)eittfrf)Ianb ? (3 gtbt njentge (few) in jDeitffdj* 

lanb; in 9tu^tanb gibt eg mete. 
<3oflen toir im3 anftetben (to 

dress) ? 3a, @te fotten ftc^ ateic^ anfleiben. 

2Ber b,at ^ec^t ? 9JMn 33ater ^at ^erf)t. 

fatten <2te ^ec^t ? 9ietn, ic^ Ijatte Unrest. 



SIXTEENTH LESSON. 

KL 2Beri)ett, To Become, To Get, To Grow. 

INDICATIVE. SUBJUNCTIVE. 

PBESENT TENSE. 

tdj loerbe, I become, I get id) ttjerbe, I (may) become 

bit lutrft, thou becomest bu rterbeft, thou become 

er nnrb, lie becomes er toerbe, he become 

Jotr tt)erben, we become toir toerben, we become 

ijrnwrbet, l youbec ome jfe ^ erb . et ' 1 you becoma 

(te loerben, ) J @te merben, ) J 

fie toerben, they become. fie toerben, they become. 

IMPERFECT. 

id) tDitrbe (id) niarb), I became id) toitrbe, (if) I became 
bu hmrbeft (tuarbft), thou be- bu tourbeft, thou became 

earnest 
er Umrbe (loarb), he became er toitrbe, he became 

hnr njurben, we became h)ir toitrben, we became 



flc hiurben/ they became. fie ttmrben, they became. 



90 AUXILIARY VERBS. 



INDICATIVE. SUBJUNCTIVE. 

FUTURE. 



id) lucrbe 
bu roirft 
cr roirb 
roir roerben 
U)r roerbet 
fie roerben 



I shall become id) roerbe 
or get bu roerbeft 

er roerbe 
roir roerben 
if)r roerbet 
fie roerben 



- roerben. 



I shall become 



roerben. 



PERFECT. 

id) bin l geroorben (or roorben), idj fei geroorben (or tuorbcn), 

I have become I (may) have become 

bit btft geworben (or loorben) bu feift geworben (or iDorben) 

cr ift geroorben (or njorben) er fei geworben, (or )oorben) 

2C. 2C. 2C. 2C. 

PLUPERFECT. 

id) toar gen)orben (or h>orben), idj luare gett)orben (or trorben), 1 
I had become had become (or should have 

become) 
bu toarft getoorben (or toorben) bu tooreft getuorben (or luorben) 

2C. 2C. K. JC. 

SECOND FUTURE. 

id) toerbe gertjorben (ttjorben) fein, id^ werbe gettjorben (worben) fein, 

I shall have become I shall have become 

bu tmrft geroorben (roorben) fein bu roerbeft geroorben (roorben) fetn 

2C. K. K. JC. 

FIRST CONDITIONAL. 

id) roiirbe roerben, I should or would become 
bu roiirbeft roerben, thou wouldst become 

2C. 2C. 

SECOND CONDITIONAL. 

id) roiirbe geroorben (or roorben) fein or id) rocire geroorben, 
I should have become 
K. :c. 

IMPERATIVE. 

roerbe, become (thou) roerben toir, ) , . , 

er foil roerben, he shall become lafet un8 roerben, j * 

fie fotten roerben, let them roerbet, \ . 

become. roerben <Sie, j D 

l See Note 1, p. 85. 



AUXILIARY VERBS. 91 

INFINITIVE. 

Pres. toerben or ju toerben, to become. 

Past, getoorben (or toorben) feiu or 311 fetn, to have become. 

PARTICIPLES. 

Pres. toerbenb, becoming 

Past, getoorben (or toorben), become 

NOTE. What has become oj. . . .? is translated SBaS tjl au3 . . . getoorben/ 

WORDS. 

fdjttifrig, sleepy fdjmufetg, dirty 

ttie or mentals, never bimfel, dark 

toetfe, wise ber ffleift, industry 

arm, poor bte <Sparfatntett, economy 

plotjltd), suddenly bag filter, old age 

miibe, tired bte Settle, people 

nag, wet grog, tall 

itngebulbtg, impatient grim, green 

bte 9fad)rtd)t, the news rein, clean 

befannt, known balb, soon 

ber >ergog, the duke geftern, yesterday 

ber ^egenfc^irnt, the umbrella je^t, now. 

READING EXERCISE 31. 

3dj toerbe f^tafrig. <2te totrb nte alt. 3^r hierbet ntematS rtetfe 
toerben. 9}?etne ^toei ^tnber ftiurben ^Iol?ltc^ franf. 9ftan (one) totrb 
ntitbe, hjenn (when) man arbettet (works). (g totrb fyat eftern 
iwtirbe trf) ungebittbtg. Serbet nt^t ungebitlbtg. iefe !>ftad)rid)< 4 ' 
tuurbe in ber tabt befannt. -3d) bin jung; aber id) toerbe alt luerben. 
@ie toerben na loerben, benn e regnet (for it rains). )iefe8 
ift (c^ntuljtg getworben. @g totrb 9Jad)t; e^ totrb bunfet. te 
toerben franf toerben, benn fte effen (they eat) ^u btet. 3) 08 
tourbe ntitbe. )itrd) gtetg ttnb (Sparfantfett totrb man retd). Unfer 
ift batb retc^ getoorben. (S8 regnet; toir toerben nag toerben. 
ift ait8 bent @o^n beS (S^neiberS getoorben. (Sr ift <2olbat 
gctoorben. 

SCufgoic 32. 

She is getting sleepy. I shall become wise. He has become 
my friend. The duke fell (became) suddenly ill The boys 



- _ 

92 AUXILIARY VERBS. 

got tired and sleepy. The trees become green in spring (hit 
grueling). I am now rich, but I may (fann) become poor. We 
shall become contented. Do not become impatient. Your 
children have grown very tall. Old (atte) people get wise. It 
had grown dark. I was once (einft) young; but now I have 
grown old. It rains, our friends will get wet. Mi*. Brown 
hopes (fyofft) soon 2 to 3 get 'rich. This man has become [a] 
soldier. What has become of his children? These children 
have become men. I hope you will not get idle. 



SSarum fmb <3te geftern nidjt ge- 3d) ttmrbe ptBfettdj untooljl (un- 

fommen (come)? well). 

2Barum gefjen (Sic fdjon nad) &% ttnrb fpat. 3d) muf? (must) 

|)aufe (nome so soon) ? urn 8 Ufyr 311 ^aufc fetn. 

SBann roerben bte 33aume grim? 3nt grii^Ung. 
tnb <Ste $aufmann gctuorben * ?ictn, tc^ bin olbat gehjorben. 
2Ba8 ift au8 O^rem S3ruber gc= 

worben? (gr ift in ?lmerifa geftorben (died). 1 

2Barum tft bie[e SJJabc^en franf 

geworben? <Stc ^at gu totet gcg^effen (eaten). 

<Ste retd) gchiorben? 9?ein, abcr (but) id) tottnj'dje reid^ 

gu tuerben. 
<Smb (Ste na gcworben? 3$ bin ntdjt na gehiorbcn; i^ 

Ijatte etnen 9?egenf^trm. 
Sa tjl au8 metnem 33it(^ gc 3^ toeife (know) nid^t; ic^ b,abc eS 

ttiorben? ntdjt gefe^en. 

2Bcr ttmrbe tragc? !Der @d)u(er luurbe tragc. 

2Ber ift fc^tafrtg gctoprbcn? SBttfyelm ift fdjlafrtg geworben. 

@mb bte trafjen rein? ^?etn, fte finb burd) ben 9?egen 

(rain) fdjmufctg gertorben. 
3ft bag SBetter (weather) nod) 

(still) fait? (5$ ift mtlb unb njarm gemorben. 

i This verb, like fein and rocrben (and a great many other German verbs, especially 
intransitive verbs denoting motion), forms its perfect, etc., with fetn instead of $abcn. 



MODAL AUXILIARIES. 93 

SEVENTEENTH LESSON. 

THE SO-CALLED MODAL AUXILIARIES. 

There are six : 

id) fann, I can, id) mu, I must, 

id) toitt, I will, id) fofl, I shall or am to, 

id) mag, I may, id) barf, I may (i.e., am pen 

mitted to). 

1. ^OttttCtt, To Be Able. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

Ind. id) fann, I can, I may, Sub}, id) forme, I may be able, 

bu fannft, bu fb'nneft, 

er (fie, eg) fann, er (fie, eg) fonne, 

ttrir fonnen, nnr fonnen, we may be able, 

iljr fb'nnt or fonnet, ) if)r fonnet, ] 

<2>ie fonnen, ) ie fonnen, j 

fie fonnen. fie fc'nnen. 

IMPERFECT. 

id) fonnte, I could, id) fonnte, I could, I might, 

bn fonnteft, bu fb'nnteft, 

er fonnte, :c. er fb'nnte, jc. 

FIRST FUTURE. 

Ind. idj tnerbe fonnen, I shall be able. 

bu toirft fonnen, :c. 
Subj. id) toerbe fonnen. 

PERFECT. 

Ind. id) ^abe gefonnt (or idj fyabe fonnen), 1 I have been able. 
Subj. id) ^abe gefonnt (or id) ^abe fonnen). 

PLUPERFECT. 

Ind. id) ^atte gefonnt (or id) ^atte fonnen), I had been able. 
Subj. id) Ija'tte gefonnt (or id) fytitte fonnen). 

* SECOND FUTURE. 

Ind. id) lucrbe gefonnt (or fonnen) Ijaben, I shall have been able. 

1 See Obs. 3. p. 98. 



94 MODAL AUXILIARIES. 

First Cond. id) fonnte or id) tottrbe fonnen, 1 1 could. 
Second Cond. id) fycitte gefonnt or id) toiirbe gefonnt Ijaben. 1 
Inf. Pres. fonnen ; Perf. gefonnt Ijaben or fonnen fyaben 
Past Part. gefonnt. 

2. SMeit, To Be Willing, To Wish. 

PRESENT. 

Jnd. id) fold, I will, am going to, Subj. id) tootle, I will, 

bu hudf}, bn tooHejt, 

er toifl, er roode, 

toir tootten, toir rotten, 

ifyr tooflt or njottet, j. ifjr tooflet, ) 

@ie luotten, j (Sic rootten, ) 

fte tuoHen. fte tooflen. 

IMPERFECT. 

id) toottte, I was going to, id) toottte, 1 1 should want 

bu tooflteft, [wanted to, bu tooflteft, [to, etc. 

er hjottte. er raoHte. 

FIRST FUTURE. 

id) tuerbe tooflett, I shall wish. id) toerbe 



PERFECT. 

Ind. id) Ijabe gemottt or id) ^abe .... tootten, I have wanted to, 
Subj. id) Ijabe genjollt or njotten. 

PLUPERFECT. 

Jnd. id) Ijatte gelDottt or njotten, I had wanted to. 
Subj. id) |otte gettjottt or rotten. 

SECOND FUTURE. 

id) toerbe getoottt or tootten fjaben. 

First Cond. id) tooflte* or id) niurbe tuotten, I should wish. 
Second Cond. id) Ijfitte getuottt (or hjotten) or id) ttmrbe gewottt (or 

tootten) f)aben. 

Inf. Pres. tuotten ; Perf. getoottt ^aben or trotten ^aben. 
Past Part. getuoUt. 

I This componnd form is not much used. See p. 98, Obs. 2. 

Observe that i$ reollte and id) (elite do not modify the vowel in the Subjunctive 
and Conditional. 



MODAL AUXILIARIES. 95 

3. 



PRESENT. 

tnd. id) [off, I shall, 1 1 am to, Subj. idj fotte, 

"b foHft, bit fotteft, 

fott/ er fotte, 

fc fotten, hrir f fl e n, 

iljrfottet, ) iljrfottet, ) 

@ie fotten, ) @ie fotten, ) 

f foflen. fte fotten. 

IMPERPBOT. 

i^ f ottte, I should or I ought to. id) f oflte,* I should. 

FIRST FUTURE. 

tcQ luerbe fotten. icf) inerbe foflen. 

PERFECT. 

ic^ ^abe gefottt or fotten. ic^ ^abe gefottt or fatten. 

PLUPERFECT. 

ie^ ^atte gefottt or [otten. ' ic^ fitte gefoflt or foEeru 

SECOND FUTURE. 

id^ toerbe gcfoUt aben or [often Ijaben. 

Fi'mt Cond. id) fottte, I should. 

Second Cond. idj Ijatte gefottt or foflen, I ought to have f & 

I should nave ought). 

Inf. Pre*. fatten ; perf. gefottt Ijaben or fotten ^aben. 
Past Part. gefottt. 

4. Mffen, To Be Obliged, To Have To. 

PRESENT. 

Ind. id) mu, I must, Subj. tdj miiffe, 

bu ntu^t, bu miiffejl, 

er mu^ er miiffe, 

tt)ir miiffen, rt)tr miiffen, 

ib^r miiffet or ntut, ) ib,r tniiffet, ) 

@ic miiffen, j" <Ste ntuffen, j 

fte muffen. fie miiffen. 

1 / shall (first pers.) is frequently translated tdj rcerbe, and the interrogatiTe 
lihatt I? rcerbe ic^? But when meaning am I tot the German is fott ic^? In the same 
manner in the plural : We shall is = nrir toetten ; but sliall we = are wt to, folten wit ? 

2 Sea foot-not* 2. p. 94. 



96 MODAL AUXILIARIES. 

IMPERFECT. 

Ind. id) mufjte, I was obliged. Sub), id) mitfjte, I should be 

[obliged. 

FIRST FUTURE. 

Ind. id) toerbe miiffen, I shall be obliged. 
Subj. id) luerbe miiffen. 

PERFECT. 

Ind. id) fjabe gemufjt or mitffen, I have been obliged. 
Subj. id) fyabe gemujjt or miiffen. 

PLUPERFECT. 

Ind. id) fyatte gemufct or miiffen. 
Subj. id) fycitte gemut or miiffen. 

SECOND FUTURE. 

Ind. id) roerbe gemufet Ijaben or miiffen Ijaben. 

First Cond. id) miite or toiirbe miiffen, I should be obliged. 
Second Cond. id) fyatte gemufjt or miiffen, I should have been 
obliged. 

Inf. Pres. miiffen; perf. gemut or miiffen. 
Past Part. gemufct. 

NOTE. I must not (since it really means I am net aSowoT) is rndred 
idj barf nirf;t. 

5. SKogcn. 

PRESENT. 

Ind. \ mag, I may (I want to), Subj. td^ m8ge, 

bu magft, bu mogefl, 

er mag, er moge, 

mir mogen, \yct mogen, 

ib,r mogt, ) i^r moget, ) 

<Sie mogen, J (5ie mogen, j 

fie mogen. fte mogen. 

IMPERFECT. 

i(^ mot^te, I wanted to. id) modjte, I should like. 

FffiST FUTURE. 

id) toerbe mogen. t^ luerbc mogen. 

PERFECT. 

id) Ijabc cjcmodjt or 11169011, id) ^abe cjemodjt or mogeu. 



MODAL AUXILIABIES. 97 

PLUPERFECT. 

fnd. id) Ijatte gemodjt or mogen. Svbj. id) Ija'tte gemod)t or mogen. 

SECOND FUTURE. 

Id) toerbe gemodjt or mogen Ijaben. 

First Gond. idj modjte, I should like. 

Second Cond. id) fyatte gemodjt or mogen, I should have liked. 
Inf. pres. mogen; perf. gemodjt Ijaben or mogen Ijaben. 
Past part. gemodjt. 

NOTE. I may, etc., is often translated fonnen, as : He may go, er fann 
gefyen. The interrogative form may I? etc., is rendered barf id) ? may 
we, biirfen tint, JC. See the note on muff en. 

Conjugate in the same manner bermogen/ to be able, as : 3$ toermag e8 
ntd)t jU t^un. But notice that sermogen takes 3U before the infinitive, which 
fimnen, mogen/ etc., do not, any more than can, may, etc., in English. 

6. $iirfen, To Be Allowed. 

PRESENT. 

Ind. id) barf, I may, I am allowed, Subj. id) biirfe, 
bu barfft, bu biirfeft, 

er barf, er biirfe, 

tir biirfen, rt)tr bttrfen, 

iljr biirft or @ie bUrfen, ijjr biirfet, 

fie biirfen. fie biirfen. 

IMPERFECT. 

id) burfte, I was allowed, id) biirfte, I might, 

bu burfteft, bu burfteft, 

er burfte, er biirfte, 

n>ir burften, |t)tr bitrften, 

t^r burftet or @ie burften, i^r burftet, 

fie burften. fie burften. 

FIRST FUTURE. 

id) tterbe biirfen, I shallbe allowed, ic^ njerbe bUrfctt. 

PERFECT. 

Ind. id) ^abe geburft or biirfen, I have been allowed. 
Subj. id) ^abe geburft or biirfen. 

PLUPERFECT. 

Ind. id) Ijatte geburft or biirfen. Subj. td) ^citte geburft or burfen. 



98 MODAL AUXILIARIES. 

SECOND FUTURE. 

Ind. id) toerbe gcburft or bttrfcn fyabcn. 

First Cond. id) biirfte or roiirbe biirfen, I should be allowed. 

Second Cond. id) Ijdtte geburft or biirfen, I should have been 
allowed. 

Inf. pres. bftrfen; perf. geburft or biirfen Ijabeiu 
Past. part. geburft. 

In the same manner Beburfen, to be in need of: id) fceborf :c. 



OBSEHVATIOWa 

1. In English not sticks close to can, will, slwtfl, must, etc., 
e.g., He can not have been willing, you must not speak. 

In German nid)t goes towards the end, with the infinitive 
or participle, as has been already stated Lesson 14, 2, 6. 

I can not read the letter, id) fann ben 23rief nid)t lefen. 

2. The shorter forms of the conditional, id) fftnnte, 
follte, mufjte, etc., are commoner than the longer, id) ttwrbe 
fonnen, i$ nwrbe mujjcn, etc. 

3. Two forms of the perfect, pluperfect and second 
future have been given, one, namely id) fyabe gefonnt, etc., 
formed, as would have been expected, with the past par- 
ticiple of fbnnen, etc., and the other, id) fyabe fbnnen, etc., 
with the infinitive of Fonnen, etc. The latter must be used 
when the infinitive of another verb follows fiJnncn, etc. 
Thus: 

<5te ben 33rief tefen fonnen (instead of lefen gefonnt)? 
Have you been able to read the letter? 
f)at auSgeljen ntiiffen, Charles was obliged to go out 

In other cases use id) fyabe gefonnt, etc. Thus: 

3d) ^abe gefonnt, aber nidjt geraottt, I was able to, but did not 
want to. 



MODAL AUXILIARIES. 99 

4. Could have, should "have, ought to 7iave, etc., must be 
translated not fijnnte fyaben, etc., but fyatte fbnnen, etc., 
like the French faurais pu, etc. Thus : 

You could have read the letter, <Sie fatten ben 33rief lefen 

fonnen. 
; He might have gone, (gr Ijatte a,eb,en fonnen. 

I should have done it or I ought to have done it, -3d) fjatte e$ 

tfyun foflen. 
"Sou ought to have written your exercise, (Sic fatten 3b,r 

Slufgabe fcfjretben foften. 

NOTE. When the modal auxiliary is in the present tense, the two 
languages correspond perfectly, as : 

You must have taken it, @te mitjfen eS flenommen IjcrBen. 
He cannot have seen me, @r Jann mi(^ ntrf;t ge{el)en Ijafcen. 

REMARKS OUT THE ENGLISH AUXILIARY 
TO DO. 

Germans do not say do I love ? and I do not love, but 
love I? and / love not; i.e., in German there is no need 
of an extra auxiliary do, to be used in asking a question, or 
when the verb is modified by not. The same way in the 
imperative. 

3cf) fefye nicfyt, I do not see. 

SBann fyetfen @ie gu Sftittag ? When do you dine ? 

Sir braurfjten fie md)t, We did not need them. 

at ber 23ater bag ^ferb nid)t gelauft? Has not the father 
bought the horse ? 

(Sagen (Sic iljm nicfjt, Do not tell him. 

WORDS. 

bte 9?ad)rid)t, the news ladjen, to laugh 

bie ^Joft, the post-office abreifen, to depart, set out 

ba Sljea'ter, the theatre beaten, to pay 

ber ulben, the florin ftrafen, to punish 

bag ^tetfd), the meat gtauben (dot.), to believe 

ber 2fteger, the butcher lefen, to read 

berfteb/en, to understand fdjreiben, to write 

bleiben, to remain njab,r, true. 

auSgeljen, to go out 



100 MODAL AUXILIARIES. 

READING EXERCISE 33. 

1. 3d) fann lefen. <Sie fonnen fommen. 3d) mujj tljn (liim) 
fefyen. 3f)r fottt nid)t ungebitlbig roerben. (5r mag larfjen. SBit 
miiffen abreifen. >er $nabe barf nid)t fpredjen. SBotlen 3te mid) 
begotten ober nicfjt? 3d) raiirbe @ie begab,len, roenn id) fonnte. 
SBarum fonnen <Sie nid)t ? 3d) fyabe fein @elb. SDton (one) fonnte 
ib,n ntd)t oerftefyen. 2Jian fonnte (might) biefeS 2Bort in etnem anbe* 
ren inne (sense) Derfteljen. 3)iirfen <2ie au$geb,en ? 3c^ barf b,eute 
nid)t au^geb,en ; aber morgen. $arl mute ^eute in ber 2d)ule bleiben. 
SBi^etm roirb morgen gn aufe bteiben miiffen. 3(^ fyabe gcftern mein 
^Pferb Derfaufen luotten ; aber i(^ ^abe ntd)t gefonnt. 2)u magft geb,en 
ober nidjt. 3^ moc^te nic^t au8geb,en. 

2. 2Ber (who) moc^te eg gtauben? 3^ gtaube e^ nidjt. 2Str 
miiffen abreifen. 2Bir toerben bteiben muffen. 233ir fb'nnen nid)t 
immer tb,un (do), roaS roir wollen. @r barf nid^t in ben arten gcb,en. 
2)iefe 9?ad)rid)r moc^te (is very Hkely) mafyr fein. SB arum burfte ber 
$nabe nid)t in bte d^ule gefjen ? (Sr loar franl. 3)iefe (Sd)Uterinnen 
foflten fleiig fein. 3b,r 2)tener fott ben Srief auf bie 'jpoft tragen 
(take). 2ftein ^Bater b,atte geftern fein ^Jferb tierfaufen fonnen; aber 
er fjat nid)t genjoflt 2Barum b/at er eS nid)t tterfaufen tpollen ? (Sr 
brau^t (needs) e nod) (still). 2)ie ^inber b/aben fpielen tootten. 
@ie fatten ternen fotten; fie merben balb ju SBette ge^en miiffen. 

9tufgnbc 84. 

1. I can write. He can not read. We must go out. You 
may believe it (eg). 1 They must pay me (mid)). The master 
should punish the boy. 1 He would believe nothing. I will 
buy it. The servant would not "(did not wish to) go. Thou 
shalt not steal (fteljlen). (The) children should not lie (liigen). 
I could not believe that news. Some peasants can neither 
(roeber) read nor (nod)) write. I will write a letter. Will you 
take it (ib,n . . tragen) to (auf) the post-office? They will not 
come. She ought [to] write to him (an tfm). Children must 
go to school (in bie <5d)ule). I could not 3 understand this 
letter. My aunt could not read the book. 

2. Do you go to (in, ace.) the theatre? Do you believe that 
news? I do not believe it (fie). He may say, what he pleases 
(toaS tfjm gefaflt, i.e., what pleases him). May I see, what you 
are doing (tb,un) ? I will not go out, it may rain (regnen). 

1 For the position of the Infinitive see p. 81, 2. a. 

2 See Lesson U, 2, 6. 



MODAL AUXILIARIES. 101 

Could you give me (mir) two florins ? I should like to, but I can 
not. The boy must not write. He was not allowed to remain. 
I was obliged to go to the post-office. The butcher has been 
obliged to sell the meat. You should not have believed him 
(ifym). I know (u)ei$), I ought to have done it. 



2Boflen @te 2Bem rrtnfen? SRetn, id} nnfl feinen 2Bein trinfen. 

2Bann mttffen (Sic aulgeljen ? 3d) mufj urn ad)t Uljr (at eight 

o'clock) aulgefyen. 

$annft bu fdjretben unb Ic|"en ? 3d) fann lefen, aber ntdjt fdjretben. 

SKotten <3ie Gutter unb $afe ? 9?etn, id) tuitt Jletl'rf) fyabeit. 

<Sott Albert ben Srtef auf bte ^oft ^etn, trf) mujj fetbft (myself) aitf 

tragen? bte ^poft geb,en. 

S3erfaufen @te -3i)re ^ferbe? 9?etn, id) oerfaufe fte ntrfjt 

Sffiarum fonnten Ste nidjt font* 3d) war unmob,! unb mufcte ju 

men ? t^f 6 ^ei&en. 
SSarum ^at btcfer 2ftann ben 

33rtef ntd)t gelefen ? (Sr fann ntdjt lefen. 

jDurfen <Ste in ba^ Xf)eater ge^en ? ^etn, id) barf ntdjt. 

SSoflen <Ste etne Stgarre raudjcn 3d) witvbe randjen, n)enn id) einc 

(smoke) ? gam Ijdtte. 

2)arf id) 3^nen etne anbteten 3d) bante Ofjnen (No, I thank 

(offer) ? you). 1 

SSarum geljen ie ntdjt au ? 293ei( (because) el regnet. 

3)arf id) (joren, roa 3te fpredjen D ia, iotv b,aben fetn e^etmntfe 

(are talking about) ? (secret). 

SB iff en 3ie, toaritm er ntdjt ge* 3d) tuetp el ntd)t ; aber id) modjte 

fomnten tft ? el loiffen (to know). 

2Birb cr balb (soon) abretfen (Sr ttitrb melletdjt (perhaps) ^ier 

miiffen? bletben fonnen. 

$aben (Ste bie 9Jed)nitng (bill) 3d) fyabe ^raei ittben bejaljlen 

beja^ten miiffen? miiffen. 

^>aben 3te bal ^tctfdj ntdjt ju= 9?etn, bet SWe^ger b,at el ntd)t me^r 

ritdgeben (give back) fonnen? netjmen (take) tootten. 

i Dante or i* tante is the polite way of refusing in German. It is not usual to say 

Sfein, ii) bante, JVo, / //lariA- you, as we do in English. 



102 ADJECTIVES. 

EIGHTEENTH LESSON. 

ADJECTIVES. 

1. Adjectives 1 take in German a termination when 
they precede and modify a substantive, e.g., gute (not 
gut) Xifcfye, good tables; ben beften (not beft) Sftannern, to the 
best men; etneS olten (not alt) ftleibeg, of an old garment; 
meinem gelicbten ofyne, to my beloved son. 

They likewise take a termination when modifying a 
substantive understood, e.g., tic guten Xifcfye, aber bie 
fcfylecfyten nicfyt, the good tables but not the bad; and when 
used substantively, e.g., bit Sfteicfyen, the rich (i.e*, rich 
people); bag ute unb cpne, the good and beautiful 
(i.e., what is good and beautiful), uteS, something good; 
Itebcr Stlter, dear old man. See page 108, c. 

2. In every other case adjectives take no termination ; 
they are used, that is, in their shortest possible form, e.g., 
(r fyatte ^leiber alt itnb neu, He had clothes old and new; 
2)ag ifi gut, That is good; (r Itegt tobt, He lies dead; 3$ 
^abe bid) serloren geglaubt, 7 thought you lost. 

3. An adjective preceded by the definite article ber, bie, 
ba or by btefer, jcncr, jtebcr, welder (interrogative) and 
some other pronouns similarly declined has the termina- 
tion t in the nominative singular of the three genders and 
in the accusative feminine singular and accusative neuter 
singular.' Everywhere else it has the termination en. 



1 All the rules about to be given for adjectives, apply equally to participles used as 
adjectives. 

2 By a rule already given page 15, nil femininea and neuters have the accusative like 
the nominative, so that the student need fix in his memory here only the fact that 
the nominative singular of all three fenders ends in t. 



ADJECTIVES. 103 

I. Terminations of the Adjective when preceded by ber 
or a similarly declined pronoun. 







SINGULAR. 




PLURAL. 


Mate. 


Fern. 


Neut. 


AU Genders. 


N. 


i* 


f 


C 


en 


G. 


en 


en 


en 


en 


D. 


en 


en 


en 


en 


A. 


en 


c 


e 


en 



EXAMPLES. 

MASCULINE. 
SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

N. bcrgute^Sater, the good father bie guten $ater 

G. beg guten SBaterg ber guten $ater 

D. bem guten $ater ben- guten Patera 

A. ben guten Sater bie guten better. 

FEMININE 

N. bie fdjb'ne 23Iume, the fine flower bie fdjonen 33tumen 

G. ber fdjb'nen SBlume ber fdjonen Slumen 

D. ber fdjonen 23lume ben fd)6nen SBtumen 

A. bie fdjone SBlume bie fdjonen SBlumen. 

NEUTER. 

N. bag fleine aug, the little house bie fleinen Confer 

G. beg fteinen >aufeg ber fleinen |>aufer 

D. bem fleinen >aufe ben fleinen ^aufern 

A. bag fteine an bie fleinen ^aufer. 

NOTE 1. Although there are, as will be seen above, five forms of th 
adjective ending in. t, and no less than nineteen ending in ctl, little am- 
biguity arises ; for the definite article, etc., are provided with numerous 
terminations differing from each other sufficiently to make the gender, 
number and case clear. 

NOTE 2. The plural adjective pronouns atte, cttt; etnige, some; ntancfie, 
many; meljrere, several; tnete, many; toenige/ few; may take the same 
forms of the adjective after them as ber does, but they more usually hava 
f in the nominative and accusative of the adjective. 

LESS USUAL DECLENSION. MORE USUAL DECLENSION. 

N. einige pra'cfyttgen ^ferbe, eintge pradjttge ^ferbe 

some splendid horses, 

G. etniger pra'djtigen ^ferbc etntger pracfjttgen ^Sferbe 

Z>. einigen prad)ttgen ^Jferben einigen prddjtigen ^ferben 

A, etnige ^rad)tigen ^ferbe einige prcidjtige ^ferbe. 



104 ADJECTIVES. 

4. It will be remembered that tin and fetlt with the 
possessives nteitt, bein, feitt, etc., are declined just like ber, 
except in the nominative masculine singular and the 
nominative and accusative neuter singular. See the First 
and Second Lessons. In these parts ber has a termina- 
tion added to the stem, ba3 for instance being made up of 
the stem b and the termination d$, while tin, etc., present 
the naked stem without any termination. 

JVbm. mate. ting. Nam. (and of coarse also ace.) neul. sing. 

b*er cut b*a8 em 

In these parts, we might expect, and we find too, that 
the German adjective takes after etn, etc., a different 
termination from that which it takes after bcr. 

Nom. masc. sing. ffom. and ace. neut. ting. 

b*er gute 33ater b*a8 Heine au 

etn gutter $ater. em flein-e3 f)au3. 

In these forms then, we see that the adjective after etrt 
takes terminations similar to those of the definite article. 
In all the other forms, the adjective after etn has the same 
termination as after bcr. 

H. Terminations of the Adjective when preceded by 
etn or a similarly declined pronoun. 

SINGULAB. PLITOAL. 

All genders. 

en 
en 
en 
en 

EXAMPLES. 

Jfoac. N. em armer 2ftann, a poor man 

G. etneS armen 2)fanne8, of a poor man 
D. einem armen 2J?ann(e), to a poor man 
A. einen armen 2ttann, a poor man. 





Muse. 


Fern. 


Neut. 


N. 


er 


t 


f0 


G. 


en 


en 


en 


>. 


en 


en 


en 


A. 


en 


e 


eg 



ADJECTIVES. 105 

Fern. N. cine arme J $rau, a poor woman 

G. ciner armcn ftwu, of a poor woman 
D. einer armen rau, to a poor woman 
A. etne arme &CM, a poor woman. 

Neitt. N. ein armeS $inb, a poor child 

G. eine armen $mbe8, of a poor child 
D. etnem armen $tnbe, to a poor child 
A. ein armeS $tnb, a poor child. 

DECLENSION WITH A POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE. 
SINGULAR. 

N. mem guter gteunb, my good friend 
G. meineS guten ^reunbeS, of my good friend 
D. meinem guten ^reunb, to my good friend 
A. meinen guten ^reunb, my good friend. 

PLUEAL. 

N. metne guten 5reunbe, my good friends 

Q. metner guten ^reunbe, of my good friends 

D. meinen guten ^reunben, to my good friends 

A, metne guten ftreunbe, m J good friends. 

When a personal pronoun in the nominative is in appo- 
sition to a noun modified by an adjective, the adjective 
has in the nominative the terminations just given, e.g., 

3cf) armer 2)?ann, I, poor man. 
it ItebeS Stnb, You, dear child. 
@te geeljrter )nfet, You, honored uncle. 
2Bir alien eute, We old people. 

WORDS. 

ber (Sdjiiter, the pupil imretf, unripe 

ber ^aler, the painter fur^, short 

ber efdjmad, the taste gro, large 

ber ($efang, the song amertfantf^, American. 

ber afen, the harbor tang, long 

ber ommer, summer treu, faithful 

bag eben, hie fatt cold 

i Observe that the nominative and accusative feminine singular is the same whether 
the adjoetir* is preceded by ber, etc., or ein, etc., or by neither ("as given page 107). 



106 ADJECTIVES. 

tcljen, to stand bitter, bitter 

lcn, to sit topfer, brave 

: pred)en, to speak recljtfdjaffen, honest 

nufcltd), useful fletBtg/ industrious, diligent 

ntenfd)lid), human gefdjirft, clever 

fd)6u, beautiful fidjer, safe 

ftarf, strong fojtbar, precious 

retf, ripe grim, green. 

BEADING EXERCISE 35. 

$)er liebe 23ruber. Site Uebc djtoefler. $)a8 Heine 2ft&brf)en. 
(Sin fdjbner arten. Sine fdjone 33lume. (Sin fdjoneS au8. 2>er 
23ruber ift gut. ic <Bd)h)eftern ftnb gut. )ie fd)imen arten. jDie 
neuen aufer. 3d) liebe bie rotfyen 33Iumen. $5ic ^ob^en 33oume bc8 
griinen 2Batbe. ie beriilnnten Scanner ried)enlanb8. -3d) b^abe 
einen treucn ^>unb. (Sr b^at eine Heine od)ter. 2Bir faufen feine 
unreifen 5lepfel. 3)iefe 33irnen ftnb nod) nidjt (not yet) reif. 3d) 
fteb,e auf einem fyofyen Serge. 2)ie SBiJget [i^en in ben griinen S3au* 
men. 3d) liebe bie hirgen 5tage beS fatten 2BinterS nid)t. 3)er 
tapfere (Solbat b,at eine fd)tt>ere (severe) Sunbe. 

Wufflobc 36. 

1. The river is large. The large river. A large river. The 
honest man. The diligent pupil The diligent pupils. A 
faithful sister. A clever painter. I know a (ace.) clever 
painter. The little child has a new dress. Mr. A. is a very 
strong man. 1 (The) iron is a very useful metal. We hear the 
beautiful song of the happy birds. The American ships are in 
a safe harbor. The rich count has a beautiful palace. 

2. Miss Elizabeth is a diligent little girl (neut.). My good 
old father is ill The little house stands on (auf, dot.) a high 
mountain. We love the good children. We admire (belt) un- 
bent) the count's beautiful palace. I like the long days of a 
warm summer. We speak of (Don) (the) short human life. 
These unripe walnuts are not good. I have seen the beautiful 
large * English ships. Good advice (9?atb,, m.) is precious. - 

i AM, is, wot, etc., are followed of course by the nominative, 
i See b, p. 103. 



ADJECTIVES. 107 

HI. Terminations of the Adjective when preceding 
and qualifying a noun without either t>er, etc., or tin, etc. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

Masc. Fern. Neut. AH genders. 

N. er e e8 e 

G. en ct en er 

D. em cr em en 

A. en e e8 e 

EXAMPLES. 

MASCULINE. 
SINGULAR. PLUBAL. 

N. guter 2Betn, good wine gute 2Beme, good wines 

G. guten 28eine guter petite 

Z>. gittem SBehte guten SBetnen 

A. guten 2Betn. gute 2Beine. 

FEMININE. 

N. uwrme (Suppe, warm soup marine <3uppen, warm soups 

G. loarmer (Sujtye hwrmer 

D. foamier (Suppe toarmen 

A. hjarme up^e. foarnte 



NEUTEB. 

N. frifc^eS SSaffer, fresh water neue Sudjer, new books 

G. fnfcfjen 2Bafferg neuer Siicfjer 

D. fvtfrfjem SBaffer neuen 33uc^ern 

A. frtfrfjeS SBaffer. neue Silver. 

NOTE. The learner will see that the endings of the third form are the 
terminations of the article bcr, bic, ba. The only cases which differ, are the 
genitive singular masculine and neuter. Here an fl has been substituted 
for g to avoid an in both noun and adjective. 

a) The following are further examples of the use of 
the third form of the adjective : 

,3ef)n topfere Scanner, Ten brave men. 
)etnrtd)'3 gro^teg Skrgniigen, Henry's greatest pleasure. 
3)ie Gutter, beren f (cine ^inber, The mother whose little children. 
$err Sett, mit beffen jungftem (Solute id) reifte, Mr. Bell with 
whose youngest son I traveled. 



108 ADJECTIVES. 

@uter ! My dear, good friend. 
$on etioaS 9fli$ttdjem, Of something useful 
(SnuaS, nidjtS, Diet, tuentg, meljr (StoteS, 1 Something, nothing, 
much, little, more good. 

b) The number of adjectives before a noun makes no 
difference, they are all declined as if there were only 
a single one. Thus : bie guten alien Scanner, cin guter alter 
2ftann, gute alte Scanner, just like bte guten Scanner, etc. 

c) An adjective used substantively is declined as if a 
noun were expressed for it to agree with. Thus efanbt, 
the past participle of fenben, to send, is used to mean 
ambassador (i.e., a person sent to a certain court) and 
declined as if it were ber gefanbtc 2ftann, etc. 

SINGULAB. 



N. ber efanbte 
G. beS efanbten 
D. bem efanbten 
A. ben efanbten 


mein efanbter 
meineS efanbten 
meinem efanbten 
meinen efonbten 


e 
e 

@e 
cj 


'anbter 
anbten 
anbtem 
anbten 



PLTJKAL. 

N. bie efanbten memo efanbten efanbtc 

G. ber efanbten meiner efanbten efanbter 

D. ben efanbten meinen efanbten efonbten 

A. bie efanbten meine efanbten efanbte 

In the predicate nominative the form is efanbter, e.g.. 
ftnb efanbter unfereg ^onigS, You are our king's am- 
bassador. 

The following are declined like efanbter : 

ber 9Mfenbe, the traveller etn 9?eifenber, a traveller 

ber eleljrte, the learned man ein (Sklefyrtcr, a learned man 

ber SBebiente, the man-servant ein 23ebienter, a man-servant 

ber >eiitfrf)e, the German ein 3)eutfd)er, a German" 

ber efongene, the prisoner ein efangener, a prisoner. 

i Notice tbftt after these worijs tbe adjective is printed with a capital letter. 



ADJECTIVES. 109 

ADDITIONAL REMARKS. 

1. Adjectives ending in el, as : etel, eitel, etc., lose, when 
declined, the e before the J. 1 

N. ber eble raf (not ebete), the noble count 

N. bte eitte ^rau, the vain lady 

G. beS eblen rafen ; ber ettlen $rau 

D. bem eblen rafen ; ber eitlen gran :c. 

2. Those ending in er (e.g., bitter, bitter) may elide as 
follows : 

bittre for btttere 
bitterm for bttterem 
bittern for bitteren 
btttrer for bitterer 
bittreS for bittereS. 
The longer forms are however more usual 

3. The adjective fyorf) (the is long) changes (f) into |, 
before t. We say: 

jDer Saum ift ^od) ; but ber Ijolje SBaum ; G. be3 fjo^en 33aume^ ; 
pi I)o^e Sciitme, high trees, etc. 

4. The following terminations form adjectives from 
nouns : 

sbar means bearing, e.g., ^rud)t, fruit, forms frurfjtbar, bearing 

fruit, fruitful. 
sm forms adjectives of material, e.g., from oft, gold, golben, 

golden. 
$Vt forms adjectives from names of towns, e.g., ^Berliner, 

Berlin, from Berlin, Berlin. These are written with a capital 

letter. See page 579, foot-note. 

stvn is much like en. From ^otj, wood, comes Jjotgern, wooden. 
sjjoft. From ugenb, virtue, comes tugcnbljaft, virtuous. 
stg corresponds to the English termination y, eg., mficfjttg, 

mighty, from 3JZad)t, might. 

stfdj con-esponds to the English ish, e.g., finbtfd), childish, from 
, child. 



i But ctetn, ettcln, etc., are sometimes used instead of eblen, eitlen, etc., !.., when rn ia 
the termination, it ia sometimes shortened into n, and the e after the I, instead of 
the e before the 1, elided. 



no 



ADJECTIVES. 



corresponds to the English ly, e.g., mann(td), manly, from 

2)?ami, man. 

o% corresponds to the English /ess, e.g., enblog, endless, from 

(Sube, end. 

(rich), means abounding in, e.g., tmberretd), abounding in 

children, from $inber, children. 
*fom (-some in lonesome). From ^urdjt, f ear > comes furdjtfam, 

fearful, timid. 

jtoott corresponds to the English ful, e.g., gebanfentiott, thought- 
ful, from ebanfe, thought. 
Tttertlj (worth). 2Bitnfd)engtt)6rtl), worth wishing for, desirable, 

comes from tt)iinfd)en, to wish, used as a noun. 
ftoiirbig (worthy). Sfjrnwrbtg, worthy of honor, venerable, comes 

from (Sfjre, honor. 

5. Adjectives derived from names of nations are mostly 
formed by the termination if$. They are written with 
a small initial letter, as : 



amertfamfd), American 
bSntfrf), Danish 
beutjd), German 
engttfd), English 
frongoftfcf), French 
grie^ifd^, Greek 
jjoUdnbtfcf), Dutch 
italtentfd), Italian 



Bftretefjifcf), Austrian 
polnifd^, Polish 
preufeifd^, Prussian 
rufftfrf), Eussian 
farfjfifdi, Saxon 
fdjwebtfd), Swedish 
fpanif(^, Spanish 
tilrfifrf), Turkish. 



bcr ^riiljUng, the spring 

bag 2ftaut, [ the mouth (of 

ber 9tad)en, j brutes) 

bag 2Better, the weather 

bag @tucf, the morsel, piece 

bag 33ter, the beer 

lot^ttg, important 

btc 2)?tld), milk 

btc 3ltpen, the Alps 

bte ^ranf^eit, the disease 

bcr 33ed)er, the cup 

btc 9?etfe, the journey 

bie <$tttc, the kindness 

etit x'lrbetter, a workman 



WORDS. 



btc Arbeit, the work 

bte efunbljett, (the) health 

frigid), Dcrgnilgt, merry 

frtfc^, fresh 

fd)ttmcf), feeble 

angenebm, agreeable 

nittjUd), useful 

bltnb, bhnd 

blau, blue 

gratt, grey 

f^ttjar^, black 

toetfc, white 

gefa^vltc^, dangerous 

toUbrtitflen, to perform. 



ADJECTIVES. Ill 

READING EXERCISE 37. 

$)te fitfcen irfd)en fmb bon angeneijmem efd)macf (taste). >et 
Uebltdje ritl){mg ift gefommen. )er offene 9tarf)en be3 graufamen 
JigerS. 3d) fyabe bie pradjtigen foniglidjen djloffer gefefyen. 3d) 
faufe guten, alten, rotten SBein. eben ie mir frifdjeS, toeipeS 33rob. 
ier ift fdjimeS, rotfjeg papier. 3)iefe $rau toerfauft gute, frifdje, ftifje 
2#ild). 9JMue liebe, alte, gute gutter ift fefyr Iranf. ^(eine ^amilten 
ftofjnen in fletnen dufern. S3ei (in) frfjonem 2Better ge^en tutr f^a^ie* 
ren (take a walk), bei f^Ied)tem bletbcn tt)it ju aufe (stay at home). 
eben Sie mir ein @Ia^ fii^e, frifdje SOftlcf), unb ein (5tiicf 
toetfteS Srob. 1 9?eue greunbe ftnb nidjt immer gute greunbc. 
fyabe O^nen ettt)a 2Bic^tigeS gu fagen. 2Biffen @ie ettua 

(I know) eittmS 9^eueg ; aber eS ift md)t3 2lngeneb,mc. 



KufgaBe 38. 

1. Here is sweet milk. Have you [any] good red wine ? Do 
you like strong beer? The Alps are very high mountains. 
I want (brcwdje or ttmnfdje) cold fresh water. This girl sells 
beautiful flowers. The brave soldiers have severe (ld)tt)ere) 
wounds. The rich Jews had little old houses. There (Da) is a 
poor little bund girl The good mother gives (gibt) ripe cher- 
ries [to] her obedient and diligent children. Mr. Asher wears 
(tra'gt) a green coat, a blue cloak, and a grey hat A good book 
is a good and faithful friend. It was on a (in einer) very dark 
night. The king had a gold cup in his hand. 

2. The diseases of little children are often dangerous. Do 
you know (tmffen <3te) that 2 my good and amiable cousin is 
dead ? I have seen many dear friends during my long jour- 
ney. They received me (fie empftngen mid)) with great kind- 
ness. Clever workmen are always sought [for] (gefudjt). Feeble 
women cannot perform this work. I am in good health and 
always merry. Old people, young men and women, and little 
children, walked (gingen . . . fpa^teren) in the beautiful garden 
of our kind friend. Bead (tefen <ie) something good and use- 
ful The courage (2ftutb,, TO.) of the soldiers was great. 

1 In English we say aglow of milk, apiece of bread, two yards of cloth, etc. In German 
the latter noun has the form of the nominative and is indeclinable, they say a glast 
milk, etc. 

2 The conjunction baft, that, requires the verb at the end of the sentence. See p. 82. 



112 COMPARISON. 

Spredjuitmg. 

3ft btefec ftlufe ttcf (deep) ? $ein, er ifl ntdjt feljr ttef. 

3ft $arl fleijjtg ? 3a, er tft em fletfeiger Snabe. 
2Ber b,at btefeS Ijerrttdje 33ttb ge 

matt (painted) ? gin berttljmter betttfdjer Sttaler. 

2Beld)e tft fetn Sftame ? (gr ^ett Sinterljalter. 

So finb 3f)re Ueben $mber? (Sie finb in metncm neuen |>aufc. 

|>aben (te einen grofjen (Garten? S^ein, er ift nicht fetjr gro. 

|>aben <2ie gebrateneS $ki\fy SEir tjaben gebrateneg imb geto^ 

(roast meat) ? te8 (boiled). 

Serfoufen @ie fue9J?Ue^? 3$ tyobe feme file ffltiQ; obei 

fri|dje Gutter. 

2Bo tft metn tteber 5lrtb,ur? (gr tft tn ber (Srfjitle. 

gieben (Sie bte beittfcfye SKuftf ? JO ja; ober id) tte&e ble ttaUentf^t 



. 

predjen @ie 2)eutfc^, metn ^err? 3d) fprec^e cut toenig (a little). 
$aben @ie Unterric^t (instruc- 

tion, lessons) in ber beutfcib/en 3a, tc^ ^abe j[eben S;og erne (Stunbe 

prad^e? (lesson). 

2Ber b,at btefen gotbenen SRtng SDJetne <Sd)tt?efter Slnna b,ot ib,n 

tjertoren? toerloren. 

ot ber S8fi(fer (baker) guteS 

33rob ? (Sr toerfauft fanmer guteS S3rob. 
SQBetc^er ^arbe ftnb bte ^ebern ber 

9?aben? >te ^ebern ber9Jaben finb f^norj. 

$aben @ie einen f^tuarjen ober 3d) Ijabe gtioet ^iite, einen fd)iuar 

ctnentt)eien^ut? aen unb einen toeijjeu. 




NINETEENTH LESSON. 

DEGREES OF COMPARISON. 

1. The comparative is formed by the addition of et , or 
trhen the adjective ends in e, only f ; the superlative by 
adding eft or |t. The vowels a, 0, U are modified in most 
monosyllables. But au is not modified. 

COMPABATIVE. SUPERLATIVE. 

grcm, grey grauer ber, bte, ba grattejlc 

reid), rich reiser ber, bie, ba8 reicb/fte 



COMPARISON. 113 

OOMPABATIVE. SUPERLATIVE. 

ftorf, strong ftdrfer ber, bte, bag ftarffle 

arm, poor firmer ber, bte, bag armfte 

alt, old after ber, bte, bag attfte 

fromm, pious frommer ber, bie, bag frommfte 

fd)on, handsome fdjoner ber, bte, bag fcfjbnfte 

2. Adjectives in el, en, er usually reject the e of these 
terminations before the er of the comparative. 

3. The superlative of adjectives ending in three con- 
sonants or in a hissing sound (j, $, p, fd)) takes eft, as : 

COMPARATIVE. SUPERLATIVE. 



frfjfedjt, bad 
fur^, short 
gererf)t, just 
fu, sweet 


fd)Ied)ier 
fiirjer 
gered)ter 
fuer 


ber fcf)Ieci^tefte 
ber fiirgefte 
ber gerec^tefte 
ber fufjefte. 



NOTE 1. Adjectives ending in t, with another consonant before it, may 
also insert t in the superlative degree, as: alt, sup. bet altefte, as well as ber 
altfie; fait, sup. ber fdltefte or bet falrjie. 

NOTE 2. Sometimes the word atler is prefixed to the superlative, as: 
ber aHerftarffte, the strongest of all. 

4 In English adverbs are formed by adding the syl- 
lable -ly to adjectives, thus from cheer/id, cheerfully, from 
just, justly. In German the adjective without any added 
syllable may be used as an adverb ; thus frofy, cheerful, may 
be used to mean cJieerfully, and gcrecfyt, just, to mean justly. 
The context determines whether frofy is to be translated 
as an adjective or as an adverb, thus 3Btr tt)aren frof), is 
We were cheerful, but SBtr fyaben frofy geglaubt, We cheerfully 
believed. 

In the same way, in the comparative, gerecfyter, etc., may 
be either more just, etc., or more justly. 

The superlative of the adverb does not follow the 
analogy of the positive and comparative. For instance, 



114 



COMPARISON. 



most justly is am gerecfyteflen (literally at fhejustest\ and not 
See Note 2 at the end. 



NOTE 1. The superlative adverbs am geredjteften, etc., are often used 
inaccurately in the predicate after fetn, to be, instead of the corresponding 
adjectives. Thus Germans say either ba todre am gerecbtcjlen, or ba3 
todre fca3 getedjtejlc, to mean that would be the justest. 

NOTE 2. Forms like auf 3 geredj tejte, (literally upon the justest) mean 
not THE most justly, etc. but most (or very) justly, e.g., 2)er $6nig Jjat aitf'3 
geredjtefte gebanbelt, T/ie king has acted most justly. That is to say, am 
gmdjteflen is the genuine superlative, while auf g gcrecfytejte denotes a high 
degree, but not necessarily the very highest degree of all. 

In the case of a few adjectives the simple superlative may be used in 
the sense of the form last noted, e.g., 

from b. odj , high 6. ocfjjl, most highly 

ergeben, devoted ergebenjt, most devotedly 

fmtnblidj, kind freunbUd)jl, most kindly. 

NOTE 3. The following monosyllabic adjectives do not modify the 
vowel in the comparative and superlative: 



blafj, pale 
bunt, motley 
falfdj, false 
froij, merry 
bobt, hollow 
bolb, kind 
fab,l, bald 
farg, scanty 
flat, clear 



, scanty 
la bin, lame 
matt, languid 
morfdj, rotten 
t, naked 
t, flat 

, clumsy 
rob, rude 
ritnb, round 



''anft, soft 
djlaff, slack 
cfytanf, slender 

uarr, stiff 

ftolj, proud 

fiumpf, blunt 

toll, mad 

toofl, fuU 

ja^m, tame. 



6. Some adjectives and some adverbs are irregular in 
their comparison, viz. : 

COMPARATIVE. SUPERLATIVE. 

Ijoljer, higher ber fyocfjfte 

nafjer, nearer ber nadjfte 

grower, greater ber gro^te 

beffer, better ber befte 

me^r, more ber metfte 

meljrere, several bte metften, most 



Ijod), high 
na^e, near 
gro, great 
gut, good 
totel, much 
totete,p/., many 

toentg, little 

rtenige,^/., few 
gent, willingly 
bait), soon 



less 



j toemger, ) 
I mtnber j 

toeniger, 

Iteber 

eb/er, fritter, sooner 



am loentgften, } f , . 

am mtnbeften, [ 

bte njenigften, the fewest 

am Itebften 

am e^eften, the soonest 



COMPARISON. 

NOTE. A few comparatives and superlatives have no positives, e.g^ 
aufjer, exterior (outer) ; ber aufjerfte, the extremest, utmost 
inner, interior, inner ; ber innerfte, the innermost 
ofcer, upper ; ber oBerfte, the uppermost 
itnter, lower ; ber unterjle, the lowest, undermost 
Ijtnter, hinder ; ber Ijinterfte, the hmdermost 
Dorber, front-, fore- ; ber toorberfte, the foremost. 

7. Comparative and superlatives are declined like 
positives. 

COMPARATIVE MASCULINE SINGULAR. 

in- j ber btcfere 33aum, the thicker tree 
' { ein btcferer 23aum, a thicker tree 
G. be8 (etneS) btcferen 23cwme8, of the (a) thicker tree 
D. bent (ehtem) btderen SBcmnt, to the (a) thicker tree 
A. ben (einen) btcferen 23aum, the (a) thicker tree. 

PLURAL. 

N. and A. bte btrferen Sciume, the thicker trees, etc. 

NEUTER SINGULAR. 

N. and A. ein fd)6nere8 mu8, a handsomer house, etc. 

SUPERLATIVE. 

N. and A. ba fcfjonfte >au, the handsomest house 
G. beg fcfjonften aufeg, etc. 

D. bent fdjonften aufe, etc. 

PLURAL. 

N. and A. bte fdtjonften >aufer, 
G. ber fdjonften f>au(er, 

D. ben fdjonften |)ttufern. 

THIRD FORM. 

Masc. N. befferer ^affee, A. befferen ^affee, better coflfee. 
Fern. N. fc^wargere !5)tnte, blacker ink. 
Neut. N. and A. fdjonereS ^Better, finer weather. 
Plur. N. frfjonere Slunten. G. ft^b'nerer 53tumen :c. 

NOTE. ^When two adjectives are compared with one another, it must b 
done by means of the word meljr. Ex. : 
(r toar mefyr fllucflid) at ta^fer, He was more successful than brave. 

8. As, followed by an adjective or adverb, and as, is 
rendered in German by ebenfo dl3 or ttrie ; and not so 
as, by nidjt fo al3 or ttrie. Ex. : 



116 COMPABISON. 

(Sr tft ebcnfp jung alS id), He is as young as L 
$arl loar nidjt fo gliidttd), a(3 fetn greunb SBilijelm, Charles waa 
not so happy as his friend William. 

9. As again answers to the German nod) etnmal 1 fo 
or boppelt fo . Ex. : 

(Sr tft nod) etnmal fo alt (or boppelt fo alt) alS id), He is as old 
again as L 

10. Our English the the is translated je beflo. 

3e Ijofjer ber 33erg, bcfto ttefer bag b,al, The higher the hill, the 

deeper the valley. 
Oe rirfjtger etn Seben tft, beflo gtMItdjer ijl e, The quieter a life 

is, the happier it is. 

WORDS. 

cm S3ettdjen, a violet btc tcirfe, the strength 

ber ^Ibter, the eagle aitfgeftart, enlightened 

ber gtiigel, the wing fret, free 

bie ^rotte, the ckw ttef, deep 

ber ^latJ, the square, place letdjt, light 

brett, broad, wide fcfarf, sharp 

bie Arbeit, labor fretgebtg, liberal 



bie ?itft, the air 



pantfd), Spanish 



bte ugenb, virtue fireng, strict 

ber <2>tord), the stork flefitnben, found 

ber |>al3, the neck un^efdjtcft, unskilful 

bte an3, the goose toett, far 

ber @trau, the ostrich bequem, comfortable 

ber ^etb^err, the general etnfam, lonely 

33tet, (the) lead al8, than 
copper 



EXERCISE 39. 



2)er brettc tu^. 35er brettere (3ee. a brettfle 3Weer. >er 
u tfl ttef ; ber (See ift ttefer al3 ber ghifc ; bag Wlm tft am ttefften. 
tft ftarter al St^etm ; er tft ber ftarffte ^nabe. SKarte tft fteU 
al <Sara. )a3 SSaffer tft letdjter a(^ bte (Srbe ; bie ^luft ift am 



1 /.., Ytt a time. (Fr. wncora an* fois U 



COMPAEISON. 117 

fetdjteflen. )u fjafi em fdjoneS SBetlcfjcn gcfunben ; abcr id) Ijabe em 
fcfjonereS. 2#eine 9?ofe ift frf)6n, bie 9tpfe nteiner rfjroefter ift am 
aflerfdjonften. 3n ben Stabten fmb bte pradjtigften ^a'ufer. -3n 
Bonbon leben bte retdjften $aufteitte. ie reirfjen eute ftnb nidjt 
tmmer bte freigebigften. 2)er Slbler tft ber ftarffte $oget. C?r l)at bte 
langften ftlugel unb bte fdjarfften ^ratten. 3m ftnifyling ftnb bte 
Sage fiirjer ate tm <2ommer ; aber tm 2Btnter finb fie am fitrgeften. 
Xa itber ift foftbarer ate ba itpfer. 3)a @olb ift baS foftbarjk 
Wtetatt. $Bein ift beffer ate 23ier. S)te fpantfc^en 2Beine fmb bie 
beften (SBeine). !Diefer 2Mer tft ni(^t fo berittjmt ate fetn 35ater ; 
aber feine iBilber finb ebenfo fd^dn. llnfer O^eint ift ebenfo reirfj ate 
unfer better ; aber er tft nicfjt fo gtiicfUc^. 5)er befte Coffee lommt 
aitiS 5lrabien. 3fe aufgeftarter bie 9)?enfc^en fmb, befto freier fmb fie. 
3e fritter, befto (or nm fo) beffer. 

$tufgok 40. 

1. The street is broad ; the square is broader, the field is the 
broadest. The apples are sweet ; the pears are sweeter, the 
cherries are the sweetest. This mountain is high, it is the 
highest in this country. The rich are not always the happiest. 
(The) money is good ; (the) labor is better ; virtue is (the) 
best. The stork has a longer neck than the goose. (The) 
ostriches have the longest necks. Mrs. Hunter is a more in- 
dustrious woman than her neighbor. She is the most amiable 
lady. In spring 2 the 3 days l are longer than in winter ; in 
summer they are the longest. The morning was warm, but 
the evening was warmer. The old man is feeble ; the sick 
woman is feebler ; the little child is the feeblest. 

2. Miss Lucy is the loveliest girl in the town. Napoleon I 
was the greatest general. (The) lead is useful ; (the) copper 
is more useful ; (the) iron is the most useful metal. I have a 
strict master ; my cousin has a stricter ; the son of the count 
has the strictest of all. The strength of the strongest man is 
far less (nwt geringer) than that (bte) of the elephant. That 
general was more unfortunate than unskilful. The better 
(the) men are, the happier 2 they * are. This is arranged 
(eingerid)tet) certainly in a most comfortable manner (4, Note 2). 
Augustus was more successful than brave. The more, the 

i Tbes* figures indicate tbo order of the words io Genaa. 



118 COMPARISON. 

better. It is best. We are richest, when we are most con- 
tented. The more lonely a way is, the longer it appears 
(fdjeint er) to be. Alexander was as ambitious (efyrgeijig) as 
Caesar. I am as tall as you, but my brother is not so tall as 
you. 



2BeId)er gtu tft bretter, bcr 

ftedar ober ber 9?f)ein ? >er fttfjetn tft Diet bretter. 

3ft 2BUl)eIm ftarfer ober $arl? 3d) benfe (think) $arl tfl ftarfer. 



<2inb bie retdjften Scute tmmer am 3)a$ ijl nid)t immer ber gafl (the 

glitcf (idjften ? case). 

SBeldeS ift bo fotborte 2KetaH? o o(b it bag lotbarle. 



ift bo foftborfte 2KetaH? o o(b ift bag loftbarfle. 
Slber Juetd^eg ift ant niifclidjjhit? jDa @ifen ift am niifcUdjften. 
SBetd^eS ftnb bie beflen SBeine? 2)ie fpanif^en SBetnc. 
2Bof)cr' fomntt ber befte ^affee ? $er befte Coffee fommt au 

bten. 
2BeI^e ifi bie fd)6nfte 33tume? )^ne 3 lBC if e t (without doubt) bie 

&OJC. 

3ft 5ltfreb alter al @ie? 9?em, er tfl jiinger al tc^ ; er tfl 

ber jungfte (Sofyn. 

(Sinb biefe 5le^fet reif ? <te ftnb ni^t gan^ (quite) fo retf 

al bie 33trnen. 

SBeldjeS ift ba ftarffte ^ier? )er glep^ant' ift ba flartfte. 

2Belrf)eS ift ber grote ^ifrf) ? >er 2Baaftfcf) (whale) ifl ba 

^rote don atten J^ieren. 

taben @ie beffereg 33ier? S^etn, aber id) I)abe befferen 2Betn. 

fl ^raulctn 9?ofa ein ft^one <Sie ift fe^r fd)b'n; fte ift bie fdjc'nftt 
9Kabd^en ? toon ben brei <2d)tt)eftern. 

etne fc^onere 33tume 

bie 9?of e ? ^ein, td) lenne feme fdjonere. 

ift ber fattefk SKonat? S)er Sttonat 1 Oanuar ift ber faltefte. 



i German does not have the " genitive of apposition." In German we say the mo*O 
January, the city Berlin, and not the month OF January, the city or Berlin, 



NUMERALS. 



119 



TWENTIETH LESSON. 

NUMERALS. 



X Cardinal Numerals. 



cut, one 

jrtrn, two 

brei, three 

bier, four 

fiinf, five 

ferf)$, six 

fieben, seven 

ad)t, eight 

neun, nine 

jeljn, ten 

elf, eleven 

3U)6If, twelve 

breigefyu, thirteen 

bierge^n, fourteen 

fiinfeefyu, fifteen 

Jedjjeljn, sixteen 

fteb^efjn, seventeen 

arf)t3ef)n, eighteen 

neun^efyn, nineteen 

gtoanjtg, twenty 

etn unb jttwn^tg, twenty one 

3rt)et unb groau^ig, twenty two 

bret unb ^toanjig, twenty three 

trier unb ^foan^ig, twenty four 

fiinf unb gtoanjig, twenty five 

1800, etntaufenb arfjtfjunbert or ac 

1805, etntaufenb arfjt^unbert (unb) fiinf or arfjtgeljnljunbert fiinf 
1852, eintaufenb arfjt^unbert glwei unb funfetg or arfjt^e^nb/unbert 
itnbfunfaig. 

OBSERVATIONS. 

1. Sin, eine, etn, (before a noun) or enter, cine, etnS 
(without a noun), is declined like the indefinite article. 2 

1 In English we say A hundred and A thousand. In German tyunbert and taufenb are 
more frequent than ein unbert and ein Staufenb. 

2 "Bet (biefer, etc.) eine, is declined lii ber gute, and meln (bein, etc.) etner, liie etr 



ferfjg nnb grt)angi^, twenty six 
fteben unb ^njangtg, twenty seven 
o^t unb jtoan^ig, twenty eight 
neun unb gnmngig, twenty nine 
brei^ig, thirty 

ein unb bret^tg, thirty one, etc. 
trieratg, forty 
fiinfatg, fifty 
jcdjjtg, sixty 
jtebgig, seventy 
ac^tjig^, eighty 
neunjtg, ninety 
l^unbert, 1 a hundred 
ljunbert unb ein^, a hundred and 
^oei^unbert, two hundred [one 
breitjunbert, three hundred 
trier ^unbert, four hundred 
fiinf Ijunbert, five hundred 
tanfenb, 1 a thousand 
gtoei taufenb, two thousand 
gefyn taufenb, ten thousand 
^nfgtg taufenb, fifty thousand 
ljunbert taufenb, a hundred thou- 
sand 
eine Stilton, a million 



120 NUMERALS. 

2. One or ones after an adjective must not be translated 
into German. Thus, a good one = etn guter (masc.), or if 
feminine, cine gute ; neuter, ein guteS. 



3. Smti has jtueter and bret has breter in the genitive, 
when used before a substantive, unless the substantive is 
accompanied by some word which by its form shows that 
the genitive case is meant; i.e., jroeter and breier are in 
general only used to prevent ambiguity as to case. Thus, 
jroeier rafen, ber jroei rafen, bret softer glafdjen. After 
all numerals of may be translated on. 

)te letdjljeit gtoeter 35retecfe, The equality of two triangles. 
3)a8 23iinbm breier 6nige, The alliance of three kings. 
(Sine gamilie toon gefjn ^erfonen, A family of ten persons. 
But 3)tefcr brei $naben, Of these three boys. 
Dfoiner gtret Strnen, Of my two pears. 

4. All the numerals from jtt>et to ^unbert may take 
Ctt in the dative plural, when used substantively. It is, 
however, better to use them without a termination. 

33on breien, of or from three; mit fttnfen, with five; untet 
, among twenty. 



5. wnbert and Xaufenb, when nouns, are declinable, as : 

N. and A. ^junberte, hundreds; bte ^unberte, the hundreds: 
Gen. ber Xaufenbe, of the thousands. 

6. A person's age is expressed as in English. Ex. : 

How old are you ? 2Bte alt ftnb <3te ? 

I am twenty years old, 3d) bin jroanjtg Saljre alt 

7. The hours of the day or night are expressed thus : 
Two o'clock, $mt\ Ufyr. 
A quarter past two, ein JBiertel (auf) bret (towards three) or cio 

SBiertel narf) gttjei. In this form of expression the auf is 

often omitted, 



NUMERALS. 121 

Half-past two, m(6 bret. 

A quarter to three, 3)ret 33terte( (auf) bret or em 33tertet toor bret. 

What o'clock is it ? SBie Diet Ufa ift eS ? 

At three o'clock, Urn bret Itljr. 1 

8. By adding erlet to the cardinals, numerals such as 
einerlet, of one. kind; jroeterlet, of two kinds; breierlet, 
mererlet, jefwerlei; manner let, of several kinds; ielerlei, of 
many kinds; allerlet, of att kinds, are formed. These 
admit of no inflexion. They precede the noun. Ex. : 



<5te mtr ^toeierlet ud), b(aite itnb fc^Joarge^, Show me 
two kinds of cloth, blue and black. 

9. The muLtiplicatives are formed by adding the syllable 
f ad) to the cardinal numbers ; as : 

einfad), simple, single breifad), triple, threefold 

^ttetfarf), twofold toierfarf), quadruple 

boppett, double geljnfarf), tenfold, etc. 

10. Single, meaning separate, individual, is translated 
tinjeltt ; but in the sense of one and no more, it is etttjig. 
Ex.: 

Single words, eu^efne Sorter. A single word, em ehtjtgeS Sort. 

11. Only, also is, when an adjective, rendered by dltjig, 

O q * 

My only son, mem em^tger 



12. The numeral adverbs are etnmal, once; jwcttttol, 
twice, etc. 

WORDS. 

bte etnen (literally the ones) bag <3rf)af, the sheep 

some (in contradistinction geboren, born 

from others). ber ^urfer, sugar 

bte ^reunbfdjaft, the friendship etne 3^ e 9 e / a 



iTime by minutes is expressed as in English, thus: jfn URinuten Bcr brtt, fflnf 

SDimuten nadj elf. 



122 NUMERALS. 

boo 2rd)joein, pi. e, the pig etne 3nfet, an island 

ber Gimooljner, the inhabitant 3glanb, Iceland 

bie 3d)lctd)t, the battle bie SBaumtDolle, the cotton 

bcr fallen, the bale ber 9?eifenbe, the traveller 

ba3 Oafyr, the year leben, to live 

btc 2Bodjc, the week beinafye, nearly 

bie SOZeUe, the mile mefyr al3, more than 

btc 9tettolution, the revolution 

HEADING EXERCISE 41. 

3d) Ijabe nur (only) e t n e n 1 33ruber. @te Ijaben nur cine (Sdjtoefter. 
)ie ^reunbfrfjaft biefer brei banner. SNein )f)cim fyat neun $inbet 
gefyabt. @r fyat brei 3ofme unb toier Sodjter Dertoren. $M\ 
fjaben gtuanjig ^iigc; bcnn jebe ^Jferb Ijat Dter ^iipc. llnter 
5lepfetn war nid)t e t n gitter. (Sine 2Bod)e Ijat fieben Xage. (Sin 
Ijat Dtcruub^wanjig otunben. jDie[eg 2)orf Ijat adjtjctjn^unbcrt jiu 
unb jwan^ig Ginnjoljner, unb brctb^unbert ad)t unb brcipig ^aitfcr. 
3e^n unb fiinf unb bterjtg mad)cn filnf unb fimfeig. 82 unb 67 ntadjen 
349. 4 mat (times) 8 ftnb 32. 7 mat 9 fmb 63. 21 mat 32 
jtnb 672. 3d] bin geboren 2 (born) im 3ab,r(e) 1814, unb mein 
jungfter 33ruber im 3a?rc 1818. 9#af)omeb lebte im Oaljre 622. 3m 
3al)re 1492 t)at Sotumbu^ 9lmerifa cntbcrft (discovered). J)ie 9?efor^ 
motion in >eutfd)lanb begann im 3ah,re 1517. 2)ie <Stabt Bonbon 
gafjtt 1300 (Straen, 1100 ^hr^en unb betnafjemcr gKiaionen (Smttjob;* 
ner. 2Sir fyaben 99 SBaflen ^aumiuone gefauft. SDer ^b'nig b^at nteb^r 
ol8 3toan$tg djtoffer. 2)tc geinbc b^aben mefjr al^ bret^tg ^anonen 
toerloren. 

Hufgafcc 42. 

1. My neighbor has three houses ; I have only (nur) one. 
Our cousin has a new one (see 2). The peasant has 54 sheep, 
18 pigs, and 11 goats. He has also 5 horses, 8 cows, and an 
ox. A month has 30 days. February has only 28. A year 
has 12 months, 52 weeks or 365 days. I am 17 years old ; I 
was (tin) born in the year 1835. My father is 48 years old ; 
he was (tft) born 1810. I have bought 46 pounds [of] sugar 
and 100 pounds [of] coffee. In the year 1848. 3 times 9 
make (madjen) 27. 35 and 42 make 77. I have lost a hundred 
florins. Is it three o'clock? No, Sir, it is half past three." 

i Germans frequently print etn, one, with spaced letters (thus e t n) to distinguish it 
from tin, a. 
1 1 wap born ; it is really the passive with iccrben omitted. 



NUMEBALS 123 

2. The city [of] 1 Strasburg has 5400 houses and nearly 
60.000 inhabitants. How much are 8 times 15 ? 8 times 15 are 
120. The battle of (bet, near) Leipsic took place (fcmb ftatt 2 ) in 
the year 1813. The French revolution began (beganu) (in) 
1789. Iceland lies in the North (tut Shorten) of Europe, is 400 
miles long and 150 broad. We arrived (jutb anget'ommen) in 
(int) October 1832, and sailed (abgefcgelt) in January 1833. 
This traveller has seen more than 32 towns and 95 villages. 
Show me three kinds [of] paper, blue, green and brown (brattn). 

II. Ordinal Numbers. 

These are formed from the cardinals by adding the 
termination tf to the numbers from two to nineteen, and 
fte to the remainder, beginning with twenty. T lie first 
and tJie third, however, are irregular, being ber erfte, ber 
britte. 



the 1st, ber (bte, ba8) erftc the 23rd, ber bret unb 

the 2d, ber ^toette the 30th, ber bretfttgfte, zc. 

the 3rd, ber brttte the 40th, ber toieqtgfte 

the 4th, ber Inerte the 50th, ber funfetgfte 

the 5th, ber fiinfte the 60th, ber fedjgtgfte 

the 6th, ber ferfjfte the 70th, ber fiebjtgfte 

the 7th, ber ftebente the 80th, ber adjtgigfte 

the 8th, ber ad)te the 90th, ber neun^tgfte 

the 9th, ber neimte the 100th, ber ljunbertfte 

the 10th, ber jefynte the 101st, ber fyunbert itnb erftc 

the llth, ber etfte the 102d, ber Intnbert unb gtoeite 

the 12th, ber gtootfte the 120th, ber ^unbert unb 

the 13th, ber bretgefynte ^9f* e ' K - 

the 14th, ber bterje^nte the 200th, ber ^uetf)itnbertfte 

the 15th, ber fitnfjetjnte the 300th, ber breifyunbertfte, K. 

the 16th, ber fecfoefytte :c. the 1000th, ber taufenbfte 

the 20th, ber ^angigftc the 2000th, ber ^ettaufenbfte 

the 21st, ber cm unb grtjan^tgfte the 10,000th, ber ^eljntaufenbfte 

the 22d, ber ^ttet unb gnjan^tgftc the last, ber (bte, ba) Ic^te 

the 1255th, ber jtoolfljuitbert funf unb funfgtgfte or ber taufenb 
3niet^unbert fitnf unb funfjtgfte. 

i bee foot-note, page 118. s tatt comes last of all. 



124 NUMERAIA 

OBSERVATIONS. 

1. In compound numbers the last only can be an 
ordinal ; the others remain cardinals, as : 
tyunbert mer unb gtuan^igfte, the 124th. 



2. Dates are expressed as follows: 

On the 10th of May, 2lm (or ben) getynten 

"What day of the month is it ? !Dcr ttne&ielte tft tyeute ? 

It is the eighth, (gg tft bcr adjte or nut tyaben ben adjten. 

3. er crfte and fcer (ete assume sometimes a compara- 
tive form, when referring to one of two persons or objects : 
ber, tic, ta3 crftere, tJie first, tJie former; tcr, tie, tag Ietcre, 
the latter. 

4. From the ordinals are formed adverbs in en$, e.g. t 

erfteng (or erftlic^), first ttterteng, fourthly, etc. 

gftieitenS, secondly ge^nten^, tenthly 

britteng, thirdly elften^, eleventhly, etc. 



5. The fractional numbers (with the exception of 
half] are derived from the ordinals, by adding Xfyetl, part, 
which, however, is commonly shortened to tfl, as : cin 
3)riMt)eU or Xrittel, a third; cin Sicrtyctl or SStertel, a 
quarter; cin giinftcl :c v cin 3 e (> ntel ; c ^ n B^blftel; tret 
Slcfytel, three-eighths; ier $vwhwtftt\ t four-hundredths; jtebcn 
Xaufentftcl, seven-tho-usandths, etc. 



6. ^)alb, half, is an adjective and is placed after the 
article, as: 

Sin Ijalber ag, half a day, (a half day). 
Sine fyalbe (Stimbe, half an hour. 
(Sin IjalbeS Satyr, half a year. 

So also, aang, whole, e.g , ba gange Satyr, the whole year. 
all the year. 



NUMEEALS. 125 

NOTE. With djaflj dimidiative numerals are formed, as: brttteljal6 1 =2J; 
t)iertel)aI6 31 ; fitnfteljalJ3=4 jc. Instead of jttjeite^atb, anbert^alB is 
used. All these are indeclinable. 

Stafjre, one year and a half. 
lien, three yards and a half. 
We may, however, say with equal propriety, trier unb cine fyal&e @tte or iriei 
(Sflen unb eine Ijalfce. The half, bie -galfte. 

I 

WORDS. 

ber 33anb, the volume biefleicfjt', perhaps 

bie g(afd)e, the bottle bag 3ab,rl)un'bert, the century 

bie piaffe, the class bag fitter, the age 

ber ^apft, the pope ber ljee, tea 

ber gtinb, the enemy bie Sftegie'rung, the reign 

ber >er'3og, the duke berfyei'ratfyet, married 

ber |>afe, the hare fleifetg, industrious, diligent. 

READING EXERCISE 43. 

3)er erfte SJJonat beg britten 3aljreg. >er gtoette Sag ber bierten 
SBodje. !>aS fec^fte ^enfter beg bterten Stotfg (story). err 9?obtn* 
fon roar jtuet unb brei^tg 2Bod)en franf ; in ber brei nnb brctfttgften ftarb 
er (he died). Qatob ber3tweite (James II) ftarb in ^ranfreid) beti 
(on the) merjefynten September 1701. eorg IDE tmtrbe ben 22. 
(September 17i61 in ber ^eftminfter^btet (abbey) gefront (crowned). 
(Sr roar bet fetner S^ronbefteigung (accession) ^roei nnb groan^ig 5ab,re 
alt Siibroig XIV (ber ^ier^e^nte) ftarb im 3af)r 1715; gubroig XV im 
3a!)re 1774; Sitbwig XVI im Qafyt 1793. ;Drei Ic^tet ftnb bie 
^icilfte non brei 33iertet. 2)ieg ift metn fitnfteg @(ag. ie faan roar 
nnbert^atb Safyre franl. ier ift jroeiertei 3Bein, rotter nnb roei^er. 
aBtcotet Ufir (what o'clock) ift eg? (g ift fiinf U| ober toiefleid)t 
ein S3iertet auf fedjg. >einrid) ber 2ld)te, ^onig con (Sngtanb, roar 
fed)gmal berrjeirat^et 

Kufga6c 44. 

1. The first day. The third year. I have the fifth volume. 
The second week of the seventh month. This is our sixth 
bottle. The eighth year of the nineteenth century. The child 
was a week and a half old. Charles is the twentieth in his 
class. March is the third, June is the sixth, and December 

J Or britt^otb, etc. 



126 NUMERAIA 

the last month of the year. The duke of (toon) Marlborough 
won (genmnu) the battle of (bei) Hochstsett on the 12th [of] 
August, 1704. He died the 16th of June, 1722. 

2. (The) pope Gregory (regor) VIC was an enemy of 
Henry IV. Edward HI took (eroberte) Calais on the 3rd of 
August, 1347. I have been five times in Paris and four times' 
in Brussels. "We sailed the 26th [of] November, 1850, and 
arrived the 14th [of] April, 1851. Peter (^eter) the Great died 
at St. Petersburg!! on the 8th [of] February, 1725, in the 53rd 
year of his age and in the 43rd of his reign. Tell me (fagen 
<3ie mir) what o'clock it is. It is four o'clock or half past four. 
I shall go out at (urn) a quarter to five. 



SSie mele $mber b,ot err (r Ijat 6 tinber: 2 (Sofjne unb 

Srottm? 4 brf)ter. 

2Bte oft ip fetn aftefter <Sofm? @r tp 18 3af>re aft. 

Sie aft tft feme iiingfte od)ter? <3ie ift fimfteljalb 3ab,re aft. 
3n toeldjem 3aljrljunbert leben 

totr? 2Bir leben im 19. 

SteDtel fmb 30 unb 50 ? 30 unb 50 ftnb 80. 

SQBtetriet ift gtoSlf mat gwblf ? 12 mal 12 ift 144. 
2Baren Sic geftern auf ber 3agb 

(hunting) ? ^a, geftern unb Ijeute. 

2Ba b,aben (Sic gef^offeu (shot)? 2Bir ^aben 13 ^afen gefrfjoffen. 
SBeldjen ^pla^ (place) ^at eorg gr ift feb,r flei^tg, er t)at immer 

in ber Sdjute? (always) ben erften ^la^. 

Unb fein Sruber Softer? Softer ift ber 26. in f enter tlaffe. 

2Bann wurbe 1 ^ort V geboren? (5r tt)itrbe geboren im Oafjre 1500. 

2Bann ftarb ^eter ber rofee? 5lnt (or ben) 8. gebruor 1725. 

2Bte att war cr? (gr war 53 3ab,re aft. 
^aben te f^on totet 2Betn gc= 

trunfen? 35a8 ift unfere britte ^lafrfjc. 

2Bte met ljee wiinfdjen <Ste? 3^ wiinfdje bret S3tertet ^funb.* 

SSetdjeS tp bte ^alfte toon f? SDte ^atfte t>on | ifl f ober ft. 

2Baren (Sie lange in ^mertfa? 4 3;a^re, 7 donate unb 23 Sage. 

2Bte otel Ub,r ift e ? (g ift 11 Uljr ober ^alb 12. - 



1 See the second foot-note on page 122. 

2 Masculine or neuter (not feminine) nouns of weight, measure, etc., are put in th 
singular after numerals, e.g., btci guji long, three feet long. 



VERBS. 127 

$6mten @ie mtr fogen, ttrie Diet 3d) fyabe feme llfjr, aber e3 mag 
Ufjr e ift? f)alb gaiei Uljr fein. 

3ft eg fdjon em SSiertel auf bier? (3 ift fdjon brei $ierte( auf toter. 

lint ttne met Ub,r fpetfen ie? 3d) fpeife (dine) urn 12 Uf)r. 

Urn ft>te met U^r ge^en @ie 311 llm 10 ll^r ober l)atb 11. 
Sett? 



TWENTY-FIRST LESSON. 

THE VERB. $ft8 

GENERAL REMARKS. 

1. In English, regular verbs form the imperfect and 
past participle by adding d or ed to the present, e.g., love, 
loved, loved. In German, regular verbs, called also verbs 
of the new or weak conjugation, form the imperfect by 
adding fc or tit to the stem, and the past participle by 
adding t or ct to the stem and prefixing at the same time 
ge, e.g., lieben, to love, liebte, geliebt. 

All verbs which form either imperfect or past parti- 
ciple in any other way, with two exceptions to be imme- 
diately stated, are called irregular. 

EXCEPTION 1. Syllables prefixed to verbs to form other verbs, are in 
German divided into two classes, the separable and the inseparable. See 
page 10, 2. Compound verbs containing an inseparable prefix and a 
regular verb, are counted themselves as regular, although, in fact, they all 
omit the ge of the past participle. Thus Befefeen (compare English besei), 
made up of Be and fe&en, (fefcte, gefefet), has the imperfect like its primi- 
tive, fcefefcte, but the past participle iefefct and not Begcfefct. 

EXCEPTION 2. Verbs having the infinitive in tren (also spelled iercn)/ 
likewise omit the ge of the past participle, but are nevertheless all counted 
as regular. E.g., fhtbtren, ftubirtc, ftubirt (not geftubirt). 

2. A complete list of irregular verbs will be given 
further on. The following rules, however, will aid the 
student in distinguishing at sight regular verbs from 
irregular verbs. 



128 VERBS. 

a) All verbs which have more than two syllables in the 
infinitive are regular. 1 We should not, for instance, need 
to look into any list to determine to which class rcilttgcn 
and mb'bltren belong. 

b) All verbs (with the seven or eight exceptions which 
follow) having o, u or eu, or any modified vowel (i.e., a, b, 
ii or du) in the stem are regular. 

; EXCEPTIONS. The modal auxilaries (already conjugated in Lesson 
Seventeen), and f ommen, to come ; fiojjen, to push; ritfen, tocatt; gotten, to 
ferment; gebdren, to bear, bring forth; fdjtoaren, to suppurate; mwaflcn, to 
weigh, consider; erlofdjen, to go out (as a fire) ; fdjttjoten, to swear ; fcetrugen, 
to cheat; luflen, to lie ; furen, to choose. 

CONJUGATION OP A REGULAR VERB. 



To Praise. 

INDICATIVE. SUBJUNCTIVE. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

id) lobe, I praise, I am praising id) lobe, I may praise 
bu lobft or lobeft, bu lobeft, 

er (fte, e^) lobt or lobet, er lobe, 

ttitr toben, tutr toben, 

i()r lobt or lobet, ) tb,r lobet, ) 

@tc loben, ) <Stc loben, ) 

fte loben. fie loben. 

IMPERFECT. 

id) lobte, 1 1 praised id) Iob(e)te, f (if) I praised 

bulobteft, bulob(e)tefl, 

er lobte, er (ob(e)te, 

n)tr lobten, fair Iob(e)ten / 

ib,rlobtet, t^r Iob(e)tct, 

fte lobten. fte Iob(e)ten. 

1 In reckoning the number of syllabl?s, in order to apply this rule, prefixes must 
be disregarded ; befallen, for instance, must be counted as of only two syllables. A 
list of the inseparable prefixes has already been given, page 10, 2; the separable ones 
will be considered further on. 

J In the Indicative tc$ lobete, etc.. would be very rare; in the subjunctive less so. 
But with verbs like teben, atfcmen, fegnen, the irnperf., both ind. and subj., is refcett, 
at^mete, fegnete. See Observations on page 130. 



VEEBS. 129 

INDICATIVE. SUBJUNCTIVE. 

FIRST FUTURE. 

tdj roerbe loben, I shall praise id) roerbe loben, I shall praise 

bit roirft loben, bu roerbeft loben, 

er roirb loben, er roerbe loben, 

roir hjerbcn loben, roir roerben loben, 

iljr roerbet loben, | tt)r roerbet loben, j 

<Sie roerben loben, j @ie toerbcn toben, ) 

fie tnerben loben. fie toerben loben. 

PERFECT. 

id) fyabe getobt, I have praised id) fyabe gelobt, I may have 

bit fjaft gelobt, bit Ijabeft getobt, praised 

er b,at getobt, jc. er ^abe gelobt, :c, 

PLUPERFECT. 

id) fjatte gelobt, I had praised id) b.dtte gelobt, (if) I had praised 
bu fyatteft gelobt, bu Ijatteft gelobt, 

er fyatte getobt, zc. er Ijatte getobt, ac. 

SECOND FUTURE. 

id) toerbe gelobt b,oben, I shall id) roerbe gelobt Ijaben, I shall 

have praised have praised 

bu roirft gelobt Ijaben, K. bu roerbeft gelobt Ijaben, tc. 

FIRST CONDITIONAL. 

id) roiirbe loben, I should praise roir roitrben loben, we should 
bu tourbeft loben, ib,r roitrbet loben, praise 

er roitrbe loben, fie roiirben loben. 

SECOND CONDITIONAL. 

id) roitrbe gelobt b,aben or id) fya'tte gelobt, I should have praised 
bu roiirbeft gelobt Ijaben or fjatteft gelobt, thou wouldsthave praised. 

IMPERATIVE. 

lobe, praise (thou) toben toir or Iatun loben, jlet us 

er lobe, lobe er or er fott loben, roir rooden (oben, j praise 

let him praise . 

fie foUen loben, let them praise lob(e)t or loben <2>ie, praise (you). 

INFINITIVE. 

Pres. loben or ^u loben, to praise 

urn . . . 3U loben, (in order) to praise. 
Past, gelobt fyaben or gelobt ju Ijaben, to have praised. 

PARTICIPLES. 

Pres. lobenb, praising. Past, gelobt (gelobet), praised. 



130 VERBS. 

NOTE 1. Germans s:iy for am learning, etc., lerne and not bin Imtcnb. 

NOTE 2. Interrogative foiin : Do I praise, lobe id) ? Did I praise, lobte 
id) ? or fyabe id) . . . gelobt ? Negative : I do not praise, id) lobe . . . nid)t 
I did not praise, id) lobte . . . nidjt or id) Ijabe . . . md)t 



The following are examples of regular verbs : 

Heben, to love, like ftrafen, to punish 

leben, to live fteflen, to place upright 

fjolen, to fetch, to go for geigen (dot. of the person), to show 

fcfjtrfen, to send reifen, to travel 

banfen (dot.), to thank leeren, to empty 

faufen, to buy fitflen, to fill 

leg en, to lay, to put rufyen, to rest 

furfjen, to seek roafjlen, to choose 

nmdjeii, to make bienen, to serve 

ladjen, to laugh flagen (dot. of the person), to 

roeinen, to weep complain 

fragen, to ask ttofynen, to live, to dwell 

fagen (dat. ofthepersori), to say braurfjen, to want 
fptelen, to play Dexlb/etbigen, to defend 

lefyren, to teach get)ord)en (dot. of the person}, to 

lernen, to learn obey. 

OBSKilVATIONS. 

1. "Wherever in the above paradigm alternative forms 
are given like tu lobft or lobeft, gelobt or gelobet, the shorter 
is the one to be used by the student. The forms with 
the connecting- vowel c are apt to occur : 

a) In the subjunctive mode more than in the indicative. 

V) In old German, in poetry, and in the language of 
prayer or other solemn discourse. 

c) Where euphony requires them, and, in general, in 
verbs the stem of which ends in t> or t. Thus, e3 regnet, not 
regnt, it rains ; bit atbmefl, not atljmfl ; er terete, not rebte, etc. 

Hereafter, as hitherto in this book, in cases where this 
alternative might be permissible, it is the usiwl form 
which is given. 

9tckn, To Talk 

PRESENT. 

S. id) rebe, I talk PL roir rebett, we talk 
bit rebeft, ib,r rebet, 

cr rebet, <Sie reben, 

man rebet, fie reben. 



VEEBS. 131 

IMPERFECT. 

/ id) rebete, I talked PL tmr rebeten, we talked 

bit rebeteft, tfyr rebetet, 

er rebete, (Sic rebeten, 

fie rebete, fie rebeten. 

PERFECT. 
id) Ijabe gerebet, I have talked. 

PLUPERFECT 

icf) Ijatte gerebet jc. 

In the same manner are conjugated : 

ontroorten, to answer bilben, to form 

arbeiten, to work atfjmcn, to breathe 

beten, to pray bittben, to suffer, endure 

tobten, to kill leugnen, to deny 

adjten, to esteem fd)tad)ten, to kill 

baben, to bathe lanben, to land 

roarten, to wait furdjten, to fear, to be afraid 

mietfjen, to hire, to take retten, to save, etc. 

2. Verbs ending in fen, fen, fcfyen or jen sometimes 
retain the e only in the second 1 person of the singular, 
while dropping it in the third. 

id) tcmje, I dance id) gcnjefee, I enjoy 

bit tcmgeft, thou dancest bu gemefleft, thou enjoyest 

er tanjt, he dances, etc. er genie^t, he enjoys, etc. 

Such are : 

n>imfd)en, to wish Ijaffen, to hate 

to put, to place fdjci^en, to value, to esteem. 



3. Verbs whose root ends in el or er, drop the e from 
the termination of the infinitive, as : tabeln (not tabelen), to 
blame ; fyanbeln, to act ; tt)ant>ern, to wander. 

In the first person singular of the present tense, verbs 
ending in eln leave out the e before I ; verbs in ern some- 
times omit the e before r, 

i But most verbajn fen, en commonly omit the e, even when the second person 
is thus made to co-incide with the third, i.e., bu gcnte^t, er gemejjt, bu ijjt, er ijjt. 



132 VEBBS. 

PRESENT. 

id) fyanbie (not I^anbele), I act id) beiuunbere, I admire 
bu fyanbelft, bu benwnberft, 

er fyanbelt, er bettunbert, 

toir Ijanbeln, we act loir bettwnbern, we admire 

ib,r fyanbelt, tfjr bettwnbert, 

<5ie fyanbeln, <3ie betmmbern, 

fie b/anbetn. fie bettwnbem. 

IMPERFECT. 

id) fyanbelte, I acted, etc. id) betounberte, I admired, etc. 

Such are: 

fegeln, to sail rubern, to row 

fdjiitteln, to shake Ilettern, to climb. 

4. The following verbs and those derived from them, 
are quite regular in their terminations, but change in the 
imperfect and past part, the vowel of the stem into a : 

INFINITIVE. IMPERFECT. PART. PAST. 

brennen, to burn id) branntc gebrannt 
fennen, to know (be acquainted 

with, Fr. connaitre) id) fannte gefannt 

nennen, to name id) nonnte gencmnt 

rennen, to run id) rannte gerannt 

fenben, to send id) fanbte 1 gefanbt 

mcnben, 2 to turn id) toanbte getuaubt 

benfen, to think id) badjte gebad)t 

bringen, to bring id) bradjte gebrad)t 

h)iffen, to know (Fr. savoir) id) nwfcte gettJU^t. 

The present indicative of the last is: id) weifj, bu toeifjt, er toeif, totr toif- 
fen, i^t toit, fie ttriffen. 

WORDS. 

bie (gigenfd)aft, the quality ba8 !Ding, pi e, the thing 

ber $>ei)rer, the teacher ber ^anbfdjub,, the glove 

bie $lufgabe, the lesson, task ber Hod), ) , v . 
ber ^a^n, the cock bie tod)in, f tj 



i In poetry imp. fenbetf , past part, gefenbet. 

aSencen, to turn, admits of both forms : Imp. tdj voenbete and \i) nanbtc . part. g( 
tt'nbet and jjcir autt. For bcjinnen, see p. 209. 



VERBS. 133 

bie ^itdje, 1 the kitchen topfer, brave 

Sftiemcmb, nobody tra'ge, lazy 

ber (Sfyrtft, the Christian fc!)Iafen, to sleep 

ber arm, the noise frafyen, to crow 

baS $alb, the calf toerbtenen, to deserve. 

fjerrlid), beautiful 

READING EXERCISE 45. 

1. 3d) liebe ntetnen Sritber. )u Uebft beine (Sd)tt>efter. j)ie 
leben im 2Baffer. 2Ba3 faufen <2ie V 3)er $6nig f)at etn <Sd)Iop 

gebaut. )er $nabe ternt. 2)er Scorer fjat btefen (SdjiUer gelobt, toeit 
(because) er fletftig ift. 3)cr ^nabe t)at feine 5lufgabe nid)t getemt. 
3)er 33ater ftraft ben faulen ^naben. !Die Gutter fiirdjtete ben 9fegen. 
2)te tapferen (Solbaten loerben bte tabt toertfyetbtgen. 3d) fe^e (see) 
ba8 fd)Iafenbe ^inb. Sic Gutter tniirbe aurf) fdjlafen, toenn bog ^tnb 
ntdjt franf ware. 2Bir iobcn ben fleifttgen (2d)UIer. 3)u ^atteft tljn 
and) gelobt. 

2. 97iemanb nnrb bte tragen @d)ii(er toben. eftem ^brte id) einp 
fdjone 5[Ruftf. gotten (Sic fie (it) and) ? 3d) fyabe fie nidjt ge^ort 
aben bie ^inber geftern gefptelt? (Sietuerben morgen fptelen. 6rfl 
bit bie 9?ad)ttgatt (nightingale) fingen ? ^orteft bit ben ^>a^n frozen? 
er ^at)n ^at breimat gefratjt. 3d) ^abe i^n nur etnmat (once) ge^brt. 
Siebet cure (Sttern. e^ord)en @ie 3b^ren ?cf)rern (dot.}. 3d) fanrtte 
ben SD?ann nid)t. 2Bir fennen bie guten (Sigenfd)aften ber ^onigin. 
3d) beh)unbere bte fjerrticrjen 33Iitmen 3^re6 artenS. 2Ber bradjte 
biefen 33rief ? 3d) ttwfjte nidjt, ba @ie f)ter hjaren. 

Stufgafie 46. 

1. I am looking for (seek) my hat. He fetches water. I 
thank you (3fynen). The child wept. Do you admire this 
beautiful tree ? I admire a fine picture. People (man) always 
admire (admire always) new things. "We heard a great noise. 
We heard the cock crow. At what o'clock did it (er) crow ? 
It crowed at three o'clock this (ace.) morning. You should 
esteem the good qualities of that lady. I feared the cat. The 
pious Christian does not fear (the) death. I have not worked 
much. Children, hear my words. Do you not hear what 
(wag) your master says? Do you seek [for] your cloak? I seek 

i Other words from the same stem are : fodjen, to cook or boil ; ber Rod;, the (man] 
cook ; bie ftcdjin, the (female) cook ; ber Sudjen, the cake. 



134 VERBS. 

my gloves. Seek and you will find. I have studied my lesson. 
Did you think (have you thought) of me (an mid)) ? 

2. The servant was looking for his knife. Has he looked 
(sought) in the kitchen? It lies (liegt) in the kitchen. Fear 
nothing, I will defend you. He talks too much. Did you 
think of (an, ace.) your poor mother? I shall always think of 
her (an fie). The president has not esteemed his friends. He 
does not love them (fie). The butcher kills an ox to-day, 
yesterday he killed l two calves. I liked the little girl, but she 
did not like me. Men (bie 2ftenfdjen) should love one another 
(einanber). What did l the cook buy ? She bought butter and 
eggs. My nephew has bought two horses. The children have 
killed a mouse. He saved his life (ebcn, neuter). 



2Ber ternt ? er $nabe lernt. 

So leben bte ^ifdje ? @fc k&en int SBaffer. 

SBarum adjten @ie btefe faau? 3d) ad)te tfyre guten (Sigenfdjaften. 

2BaS furdjtet bag 9ttabd)en? (0 fiirdjtet ben 9tegen. 

SBarum ftraft ber $ater feinen 2Betl er feme 2lufgabe nid)t gelernt 

@ob,n ? b,at. 

993er f)at bte <Stabt tiert^etbtgt ? te tapferen (brave) otbaten. 
293er ttegt ba? (Sin frf)tafenbe ^inb. 

SBen lobt ber Scorer? @r lobt bte fletfetgen @d)ttler. 

^ann er and) bie faulen loben ? gaute <Sd)iiIer toerbienen fein ?ob. 
2Ba berbienen fie? @ie berbienen (Strafe. 

SSen foil man tieben? 2ltte guten 2Renfd)en. 

SSent fotten bte $inber ge^ordjen ? 3b,ren (Sttern ttnb Seb/rern. 
SSarum fitrdjtet ber fromme S^rtft 

ben Xob nid)t ? 2Beit ber Sob ifm ^u ott fit^rt. 

at ber ^pab,n gefrab,t? -3a, er Ijat gweimat gefra^t. 

eb/cn <Sie tn'8 (Concert? ^etn, id) geb,e in'S Sweater. 

b,at bag 9JMbd)en gefauft? @ie t)at Srob unb ^afe gefauft. 
Derfauft biefe ftratt? @te tterfauft Sirnen, 2lepfel, ^ftan* 

men (plums) unb -ftiiffe. 

te^rt biefer ?eb,rer? @r Ieb,rt ^rangoftfd) unb (gngltfd). 

at ber 2JJe^ger einen Od)fen ge= 5?ein, er b,at gnjet $alber gefdjlad)* 
fd)Iad)tet? tet. 

<Sie bie 9?ad)tigatt geb/brt? 3a, fte ftngt b/errtid) (gloriously). 



i The English Imperfect is translated more frequently by the German Perfect, aa : 
I bought it, id) (ait t8 Qtfauft. This rale does not apply to the imperfect of continued 
action, e.g., I wot buying. 



VERBS. 135 

BEADING LESSON. 
(cfoj), Aesop. 

$efop gmg'dnmat in 2 cine ftetne (Stabt; untertoegS * begegnete 
(met) er etnem 9?eifenben, toeldjer (who) ib,n gritftte, 4 unb tljn fragte: 
,,2Bie lang mu id) gefjen, bis (till) id) jene3 3)orf erretdje (reach), ba3 
twr tioit tocttem 5 feljen?" ,,eb/," anttuortete S 2lefop. ,,3d) toetfe 
h)o()l," ernnberte (replied) ber 9feifenbe, ,,baft id) geljcn nut, urn bort 
an^ufommen 6 ; ober ic^ bttte ' bid^, mtr gu fagen, in nrie btel gtit id) bort 
anfommcn it)erbe." , f @e^, w hneberfyolte 8 5(efo)). 3d) felje, bad^te 
ber ^rembe, ber $erl 9 ift tott, 10 ic^ hjerbe ifyn nic^t meljr 11 fragen, itnb 
giug fort (went on). 9?ad) einigen SDHtmtot rief (cried) Slefo)?: ,,e, 
em 2Bort! in jwci (Stunben tmrft bu anfommen." 

3)er S^etfenbe inanbte 12 fic^ um unb fragte ib,n: ,,3Sie n)eit bu e jet 
(now), unb hjarum ^aft bu e3 mtr nic^t tior^tn 13 gefagtV" ?(efop 
crtutberte: ,,2Bte fonnte id) e bir fagen, bettor id) beinen ang u gefeb.cn 
b^atte?" 

TWENTY-SECOND LESSON. 

THE PASSIVE VOICE. 

The auxiliary used in English to form the passive ia 
the verb to be, e.g., I am loved, lie Jias been admired. In 
German not fetn, but toerbert is used, e. g., 3$ n)erbc geltebt, @r 
ift bcmunbert roorben. We have already had two other 
uses of werben, it means become e.g., 3$ werbe franf, 
/ am becoming sick, and followed by the infinitive, shall 
or witt, forming the future tense, e.g., id) werbe Iteben, 
IsJiall love; bu 0)trft Itebeu, tJiou wilt love. 



i ginj, went; imp. of ge^en, irr. v. - in, with the ace., means into, with the dot., in. 
on the road. 4 grujien, to greet. r> afar. 6 to arrive there. " I beg or pray thee. 
repeated, said again, o the fellow. 10 a fool, mad. n no more. 12 [i<fy umteenben, to 
turn round. 13 before. M gait, pace. 



136 



VERBS. 



CONJUGATION OF A VERB IN THE PASSIVE VOICE, 

Wclobt uicrDcit, To be Praised 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 



PRESENT. 

id) toerbe getobt, I am 
bit unrft getobt, thou art 
er nnrb getobt, he is 

unr uierben getobt, we are 
ib,r toerbet getobt, ) 
<Sie tterben gelobt, ) J 
fte ujerbeu gejobt, they are 

FIRST .FUTURE. 

id) toerbe getobt toerben, I shall 

be praised 
bu unrft 
er nnrb 

hrir toerben 
ib,r roerbet 
@ie raerben 
fte u>erben 



IMPERFECT. 

id) ttjurbe getobt, I was 

bu ttjurbeft getobt, thou wast 

^ er ttntrbe getobt, he was 

P 

"' tnir luurben getobt, we were 







PJ ihr hjurbet qetoM, { 

@ten,urbengetobt,P ouwere 
fte ttjurben getobt, they were 



PERFECT. 

id) bin 1 getobt tt)orben, I have been 
praised 

a' 
a> 



co thou wilt 




bubift 


co thou hast 


5^ he will 


0) 


erift 


5 s he has 


g we shall 


-1 


uiir ftnb 


er 

. "Z we have 


& |you will 

S ' 


C. 

i 




tljr feib 
@ie ftnb 


O ) - 

S- [ you nave 


" they will . 




fie ftnb 


they have . 



PLUPERFECT. 



t^ tt)ar getobt h)orben, I had been praised 

bit tt)orft getobt ftjorben, thou hadst been praised, etc. 



SECOND FUTURE. 

id) toerbe getobt toorben fern, I shall have been praised 

bu hnrft getobt toorben fetn, thou wilt have been praised, etc. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
PRESENT TENSE. 

td) toerbe getobt, I may be praised 

bu toerbeft getobt, thou mayst be praised 

er toerbe gelobt, he may be praised, etc. 

IMPERFECT. 

id) hmrbe gelobt, I were praised 

bu totirbeft getobt, thou were praised 

er h)itrbe getobt, he were praised, etc. 



i SBerbtn, as we have seen before, forms its perfect, etc., with ((in Instead of feafcra 
(compare / am come for / have come in English.) 



YERBS. 137 

PERFECT. 

id) fct gelobt toorben, I may have been praised 

bu feteft gelobt ttorben, thou mayst have been praised 

er fei gelobt toorben, he may have been praised, etc. 

PLUPERFECT. 

id) toare gelobt toorben, I should have been praised 

bu ludreft getobt toorben, thou wouldst have been praised 

er tofire gelobt tuorben, he would have been praised, etc. 

FIRST CONDITIONAL. 

tcfj luitrbe gelobt toerben, I should-be praised 

bu toiirbeft getobt toerben, thou wouldst be praised 

er ttwrbe gelobt toerben, he would be praised, etc. 

SECOND CONDITIONAL. 

id) tourbe gelobt toorben fetn, I should have been praised 

bu wiirbeft getobt tnorben feiu, thou wouldst have been praised 

er tourbe getobt roorbcn feiu, he would have been praised, etc. 

IMPERATIVE. 

Sing, toerbe getobt. 1 Plur. luerbet getobt, be praised. 

INFINITIVE. : 
Pres. getobt toerben or getobt ^u tDerben, to be praised, 

um getobt 311 toerben, in order to be praised. 
Past, getobt toorben feiu or ^u fetn, to have been praised. 

PARTICIPLES. 
Pres. 311 tobenb, to be praised. 2 

The following are examples of passives : 

geftraft luerben, to be punished get)at loerben, to be hated 
eriBortet luerben, to be expected geadjtet toerben, to be respected 
betot)nt toerben, to be rewarded tierborbeu toerben, to be spoiled. 

WORDS. 

ber 9lrbettcr, the workman nod) etrnnaf, once more, again 

ber $emb, the enemy betrogen, (p.p.) cheated, deceived 

ber |)of, the court berbeffert, corrected, improved 

bte pradje, the language gefprodjen (p. p.), spoken 

1 This Imperative is hardly ever used. When a passive Imperative is required, it in 
commonly formed with fci. Ex. : ei gcpriefen/ o ott ! Be praised, o God I 

2 The Latin laudandus, a, um. This participle stands before its noun and is declin- 
able, as : An action to be praised, Gme 511 lobenbc ^anbtuncj. Without a noun, in the pre- 
dicate after to be, the form is ju loben, indeclinable. TVius, icfe anblung tft jit It>n, 
This action is to be praised. 



138 VERBS. 

bte >tt3e, the heat gerufen (p-p-\ called 

arttg, good itopfylfetl, cheap 

unarttg, naughty hneber, again 

itadjliifftg, careless, negligent geftofylen (p-p-), stolen 

eb,rlid), honest toon, by ; fdjon, already 

tjofltrf), polite Sebermann, everybody. 

READING EXERCISE 47. 

3d) ttoerbe toon ntetnem eb,rer gelobt. 3)u toirft md)t gctobt, benn 
(for) bit bift nidjt ffetfjtg. 2Beritotrb geftraft ? 2)er unaufmerffame 
ititabe nnrb geftraft. 3)te unartigen wtaben toerben and) geftraft. 
SOZarie nnrb tmmer Don tfyrem SJiuftfte^rer getabett, n)e : t fie nadjtaffig 
i^t. 5DJetnc (Souftne unrb toon ^cbennann getiebt, meit fte imnier arttg 
imb ^oflid) tft. jDiejentgen, wctrf)e (they who) fletfetg fmb, rterben 
tctoljnt, unb btejemgen, raeldje trcige ftnb, werben getabett. 3)ie @tabt 
ttourbe toon ben getnben jerftbrt. S)te 3lufgaben hmrben toon bent JOe^rer 
toerbeffert. 2)er arme S!Kann murbe toon bent ^mton betrogen. ^arl 
tft befiraft ivorben, )oet( er unarttg geroefen tft. !Die listen fonnten ntd)t 
toerfauft roerben, ttjett fte 311 fcfjledjt njaren. !l)te 2JJdbd)en, roetdje ib,re 
^lufgaben gcntad|t (done) fatten, ftnb fritter nad) aufe gefdjtdt njor* 
ben. 2)te S 2lrbciter ftnb gut begafjtt worben, ttjetl fte totet gearbcttet 
b.aben. S3on went tft btefe ^lufgabe toerbeffert tuorben ? (Ste tft nod) ntd)t 
toerbeffert njorben, ttjett ber eb,rer !etne $t'\t b,atte. etobt tojerben tft 
beffer al getabelt toerben. 3)tefer arme ^nabe mu^ belob/nt roerben, 
ttiett er fo efyrltd) tft. 2)tefe 33rtefe ntitffen nod) etnmal abgefdjrieben 
(copied) njerben, toeU fte fo fd)led)t gefd)rieben (badly written) fmb. 

9tuf0o6c 48. 

I am loved by my brother. This father loves his children, 
and he is loved by them (toon tfynen). Mr. Bell is respected by 
all who (toetdje) * know 1 him. The French language is spoken 
in (an) all [the] courts of Europe. This ring was given me by 
my good grandfather. By whom was this letter written? 
I was called out of my room. Frederick has been punished by 
his teacher. Have the young plants been spoiled by the great 
heat ? The roads have been spoiled by the heavy (ftarfen) rain. 
If this boy will not do his exercise, ~ he 1 will be punished 
again. He was punished yesterday. This house would not 
have been sold, had it (tua're eg) not been so cheap. I am ex- 
pected at five o'clock; my sisters are not expected till (not 
till = erft um) seven o'clock. A false (fatfd)) man is feared by 



VERBS. 139 

everybody. This letter must be sent to the post-office (ouf bie 
^oft). My watch has been stolen. To be loved is better than 
to be hated. 

OBSERVATIONS ON THE PASSIVE VOICE. 

1. As we have seen, tuerfcen, and not fein, is used to form 
the passive voice. When some part of fein accompanies the 
past participle, the sense is different, as the following 
examples show. 

With toerben, With fein, 

(the genuine passive voice ; it (not really the passive voice, 
is affirmed that something the past participle is used like 
is being done to the subject. ) an adjective.) 

)ieg >aug ttnrb 511 fcfyncfl gebaut. S)ic "pans ift fdjon gebaut. This 
This house is built (or getting house is built (i.e., finished) 
built or being built) too fast. already. 

$8urbe ber nmb toon ifjncn 3)er mnb ift berttwnbet, cr fann 
gefdjtagen? Was the dog nid)t geljen. The dog is 
beaten by them ? wounded, he cannot walk 

33urf) ttnrb Ijeutgutage bid )ie3 33nd) ift gelefen, gib ntir ein 
gctcfen. This book is a good cmbere$. This book is read, 
deal read nowadays. give me another one. 

$ifcf)e nmrben bort mit ^ifdf)e genug marcn gcfangen unb 
S'Je^en gefangcn. Large fish jebermann ging at|o nad) aufe. 
were caught in nets there. Fish enough were caught, 

and every one accordingly 

went home. 

$inb ttnrb bon ber gutter a $inb ift aeffiafdjcn unb barf 

gett)ofcf)en. The child is (or jet gum ^rii^ftucf ge^en. The 

is being) washed by its child is washed, and may now 

mother. go to breakfast. 

2. The student will notice that in the English sentences 
in the left hand column, if we turn the passive into the 
active voice, every present passive becomes a present 
active, and every imperfect passive, an imperfect active. 
Thus we have ; 



140 VERBS. 

They are building this house too fast. 
They beat (impe>fe<-f) the dog. 
People read this book a good deal nowadays. 
They caught large fish there with nets. 
The mother washes her child. 

On the other hand, in the right hand column, every 
present passive becomes a perfect active, and every im- 
perfect passive a pluperfect active. Thus we have : 

They have built this house already. 

Some one has wounded the dog, etc. 

I have read this book, etc. 

They had caught fish enough, etc. 

They have washed the child, and now, etc. 

3. In general : When after the process just described, 
i.e., after turning the passive into the active, the tense 
remains the same as before, roerben must be used in trans- 
lating into German ; otherwise, fein. 

4. Examples of participles used as adjectives. 

I am inclined or disposed, 3d) bin genetgt. 

I am convinced it is true, 3d) bin Ubergeugt, baft e3 toaljr ift 

We were astonished, 3Str nwrcn erftount. 

The bottles were emptied, $>ie ^ a fd)en toaren getecrt (=Ieer, 

empty). 

The castle is destroyed, 3)a8 @d)to tfl ^erjlort. 
The copy-book is soiled, 2)a >eft ift befdjmujjt (= fdjmufctg, dirty). 

5. In the perfect and pluperfect passive, Wflrben is not 
unfrequently omitted, e.g., 

bin emgelaben unb @tc ntdjt, I have been invited and you not 
33ud) tft gefunben, The book has been found. 



6. The student has probably noticed already that 
getoorben, employed as an auxiliary, becomes roorben. 

I have become old, 3d) bin alt gemorben, but 
I have been rewarded, 3$ bin belofynt ttJorben, 



VERBS. 141 

7. A number of verbs winch take an accusative after 
them in English, e.g,, to allow, are translated in German 
by verbs which take a dative. / allow you is, 3$ erlaubc 
3f)nen, not 3d) erlaubc <Sic. And so of course we cannot 
say, in the passive, (Sic tt)crt>cn ertaubt. This difficulty is 
gotten over as follows : 

I am allowed, (gg roirb mir ertaubt (i.e., it is allowed to me) or 

man ertaubt mtr (one allows to me, not tdt) roerbe erlaubt). 
He is allowed, (8 roirb ifym erlaubt or man erlaubt ifym. 
We are allowed, (g roirb un ertaubt or man erlaubt un3. 
I was allowed, (gg nwrbe mtr erlaubt or man erlaubte mtr. 

WORDS. 

ber <Scfjmetrf)ler, the flatterer etngelaben, (p-p-), invited 

bieSSerfdjroorung, the conspiracy toeracfjten, to despise 

ber <3turm, the storm entbedfen, to discover, detect 

bte I)at, the deed, action belofynen, to reward 

bte Xreue, the fidelity gerftoren, to destroy 

bie Skrfammhtno,, the conven- ermorben, to murder 

tion, assembly gefd)tcft, clever 

bte (Srnte, the harvest ^efttg, violent ; juerft, at first 

oerrounben, to wound fritter, formerly 

gegeben, given m'eUetc^t, perhaps ; aud), also 

fpa^teren ge^en, or etnen Spajtergang ma^en, to take a walk. 

EEADINa EXERCISE 49. 

2JMn (Sotjn ^rtebrtc^ njtrb t>on femem Scorer gettebt. tefe IJftabdjen 
toerben gelobt unb geltebt, roetl fie ftet^tg unb brao ftnb. !3)er (Sptbat 
tft in ber <Srf)(acf)t tterttjunbet roorben. <Sie roerben morgen Don meinem 
O^etm jum 9)iittage(fen etngelaben roerben. 3^r better ^aut tft aud^ 
eingelaben roorben; aber er roirb ^u >aufe bletben. uftau 5tbo(p^, 
^b'ntg pon rfjroeben, ift in ber (Scfjladjt bei ^ii^en getobtet roorben. 
SBann tft biefe^ au gebaut roorben? (3 ift Dor (ago) geljn 3a()ren 
gebaut roorben. !Die U^r roirb nirfjt berfauft roerben. 2)er Derlorene 
9?ing ift roieber gefunben (found) roorben. 2)er 9J?ann roirb toon 
Sebermann (everybody) gearf)tet. (r rourbe fritter nic^t gearf)tet. 
3)te <Sd)meid)ler toerbienen, toon Sebermann toeradjtet ^u roerben. iefe 
Arbeit ift fefyr (much) berounbert roorben. 2)te ^Irbeiten ber ^vauletn 



142 VERBS. 

9Cofa tocvbcn nurfj bcttwnbcrt iucrbcn. 2)te 3?erfd)iuorHng beg (Sattttna 
ware welletdjt uidjt cntbcrft loovben, toeuu Sicero nid)t (onfu( getucfen 
ttd're. 28 tv fpredjeu uon ber 311 fyoffenben (Srrtte. 

Nufflalie 50. 

1. I am praised by my teacher. We are loved by our father. 
You are esteemed by your neighbor. This house has been 
sold. The garden will also be sold. The enemy is beaten 
(gefdjtagen). A new plant was much (jefyr) admired. The 
picture of Mr. T. will be admired. The brave soldiers were 
praised by the general. Have many soldiers been killed? 
Charles and I were invited by the count to (ju) a ball Your 
sister and your cousin would also be invited, if they were l 
here. Such a deed must be rewarded. That man was 
formerly not esteemed. But since (fett) ' he 5 is * industrious 
s and 4 honest, * he * is 8 esteemed * by * everybody. (The) 
flatterers ought to be despised. Carthage ($artb,ogo) was 
destroyed by Scipio Africanus. 

2. The child would have been saved, if it had 1 cried for 
help (urn ilfe gerufcn). The castle was built in the year 1622. 
(The) knives are made of steel (tab,!). The stranger has 
been killed in the forest. Many soldiers were wounded in the 
last battle. Clever men are always sought [for]. Rome was 
at first governed by kings. Henry IV was loved by his people. 
His name is still esteemed. The industrious wul be rewarded. 
"Why am I not invited? This is an action to be praised. 1 
I wish James might be rewarded for his fidelity. The most 
diligent pupils will be the most (am metften) praised. At (in) 
the battle of (bet) Narva 2 the 3 horse of Charles XH ' was 
killed under him. Csesar was murdered by Brutus. If he 
had 1 not been murdered, s the "Romans * would s scarcely 
()d)tt)ertid)) 8 have ' placed (Derfefct) 4 him * among the number of 
their gods. 

Sprrdjiibung. 

$on ttjem totrb tf)r @oljn geltebt? (Sr toirb Don fetnen eljrern getiebt, 

ttjett er flctig tfl. 
Ojl er aud) betofjnt tuorben? (gr fyat einen $ret befommen (got). 

i See foot-note p. 83. a See the foot-note 2, p. 137. 



PRONOUNS. 

otbaten luerben gelobt? 35 tc tapferetu 
UHtrbe bte (Sdfjladjt bet 

iBatcrioo geltcfert (fought)? 2lm 18. Sum 1815. 
933er ift befiegt (defeated) wor* 

ben? 3)ie ^ran^ofen ftnb befiegt worben. 

933 aim loirb biefeS >au$ fcerfauft 

werben? (S8 ift fdfyon geftern tjerfauft rtjorben,, 

2Btettet luurbe bafitr bega^It? 3 e ^ ntai ff cn ^ fiier^unbert (^ulben. 
935 irb bcr arten ba^u (to it) 9etn, btefer toirb befoitbei^ (sepa- 

gegebeit tuerbcn? rately) tjerfauft hjerben. 

935otlcn <3te biefen ^ac^mittag et* 3d) tuttrbe mtt 3f^nen ge^en, tuenn 

H2it pajiergang mtt wtS ma* ic^ ntd)t jum SDfrttageffeit (din- 

d^ett? ner) bet errn ^. etttgetaben 

njare. 
93on njem ift ^art^ago jerftort SSon bent romtfc^en Sonful cipio 

tworben? 2lfricanu3. 

933arum ift btefer 9)iann geftraft (Sr ^at etne gotbeue U^r gefto^Ien 

luorbeit ? (stolen). 

S3on tuem ift Safar ennorbet toor* 93on 93rittu8 unb SaffiuS, unb eint* 

ben ? gen anbern. 

S5on went ift bte $er[d)UJornng Sa* 

titina'g entbecft toorben? ' 23oit bent romifc^en Sonfut (Sicero. 
(Sinb bie 5lrbetten ber ^raittein @e^r fc^on, fie werbcn toon -3eber 

Soutfc fd^on? mann benwnbert. 

3ft btefeS $<w8 fdqon alt? S3 tuurbe int Satjre 1741 erbattt. 

3ft ir 3o^n ^ranflin wieber t* (Sc ift itberatt (everywhere) gefud^t, 

ftmben iuorben ? aber nid^t gefimben worben. 

955ar cturid) IV. ton ^ranfreid^ $a, er war ber befte $onig unb 

etn guter ^onig ? ttmrte toon feinen Itntert^anen 

(subjects) toie ein 33ater geltebt. 
935ie ftarb er? Sr tourbe toon Sftatiaittac erntorbet. 



TWENTY-THIRD LESSON. 

PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 



1. These are: ic^, // bu, thou; er, lie; |tc f sAey e3, 
tt)tr, eye; i^r (3te), ^OM; jte, 



144 PRONOUNS. 

They are declined as follows : 

1. First Person : id), I. 
Sing. N. id), I Plur. nnr, we 

G. metner, 1 of me unfer, of us 

D. mir, to me, me un$, to us, us 

A. mid), me. ung, us. 

2. Second Person : foil, thou. 
Sing. N. bit, thou Plur. ifyr (3ie), you 

G. beiner, 1 of thee euer (Sfyrer), of you 

D. bir, to thee, thee eud) (Sfynen), to you, you 

A. bid), thee. eud) (@te), you. 

3. Third Person: ft, fU, e8. 
N. er, he fte, she e3, s it 

G. feiner, 1 of him tljrer, of her (feiner), of it 

D. tfym, to him, him if)r, to her, her (tf)tn), to it 

A. tf)n, him. fte, her. e$, it 

Plural far all three Gender*. 

N. jte, they 

G. tljrer, of them 

D. tynen, to them, them 

A. fte, them. 

4. Third Person, Reflexive. 

D. 1 rx ( himself, herself, itself. ) For all genders, 

Ace. j ' tc ^ ' { yourself, yourselves, themselvea } sing, and plttr. 

EXAMPLES. 

1. The Dative. 

(r gtbt mir, bir, Hjm, - - fljr. 
He gives me, thee, him, her. 
(Sr toergeiljt itn8, - - Sljnen, t^nen. 
He pardons us, you, them. 

i In poetry these three genitives : metner, betner, feiner, are often abridged into metn, 
be ; n, fetn. 

* t8 is sometimes contracted with the preceding word, as : oft bu'6, ic^ ^ai'S, gib 
mir'S, )c. (For the gen. and dot. see 5, 6, and 7, p. 146). 

a In the dative of course very frequently. In himself, etc. ie must begin with a 
capital If it means you and not they, ft*, y undf, does BO only in letters. 



PRONOUNS. 

2. The Accusative. 

<2>te fennen midj, bid), iljn, fie. 
They know me, thee, him, her. 
(Sr Uebt wig, <Ste, fie. 
He loves us, you, them. 

3. The Beflexive Form. 
(Sr fdjttigt fid), He strikes himself. 
<2>te befletftigen fid), They apply themselves. 

2. In English thou has gone out of use in conversation, 
and we employ the plural you even in addressing a single 
person. In German bit, thou, is still used, for instance to 
a child, to an intimate friend or relation, or in anger, also 
in prayers and in poetry. Its plural is ifyr. @ie (really 
they, but printed with a capital initial) is, however, the 
most usual equivalent of the English you. 

2Benn bit famtjl, lieber $ater, If you can, dear father. 
SBenn @te tootten, meine j5amen, If you like, ladies. 
>obt ifyr gefefyen, $inber ? Did you see, children ? 

Notice that in the imperative, @ie must be expressed, while you is 
omitted in English. 

Come, fommen @ie. 
Give me, geben @te mtr. 
Tell him, fngen @te Ujnu 
When you is translated bu, your must be beitt. 
When you is translated i^r, your must be euer. 
When you is translated @ie, your must be 3^r. 

3. In the following phrases, German reverses the 
English construction. 

It is I, 3d) bin eS. It is we, Sir ftnb eg. 

It is he (she), gr (fte) tft eg. It is you, @te ftnb eg. 

It was I, 3d) tear eg, tc. It was you, (Ste hjaren eg, jc. 

But with a rcomi in the predicate, either (3 tft .>einricf); 
@3 ftnb S^aufe, or einrtcfy ift e^ 2)idufe ftnb e& 

INTEEBOGATIVE. 

Is it I ? Sin id) eg ? Is it we ? @inb toir eg ? 

Js it he ? Oft er eg ? Is it you ? @tnb @ie eg ? 



146 PRONOUNS. 

(Jg is used too in cases where we say they are: ($ ftnb 
ftranjofen, They are Frenchmen; Qjg ftnb metnc jungeren 
33ritber, They are my younger brothers. Compare Lesson 
Thirteen, Notes 1 and 2. 

4. Some English neuter nouns are, as we know, trans- 
lated in German by nouns which are masculine, others 
by nouns which are feminine and others, finally, by nouns 
which are neuter. The following examples show how it 
referring to a noun which in German is a) masculine, 
b) feminine, or c) neuter, must be translated. 

1. Nominative. 

a) Where is my hat? It is in your room. 
So tft metn mt ? (r ift in Sfjrent ^intmer. 

b) Where is my pen? It lies on the table. 
2Bo ift nteme tfcber? <5te Itegt auf bent tfd). 

c) Where is my book? It is there. 
2Bo ift metn Surf) ? <g* ift ba. 

2. Accusativa 

a) Have you my hat ? Yes, I have it 

>aben (Ste metnen $itt? 3a, id) fjabe tljn. 

5) Do you see that flower ? I do not see it. 
eljen @ie biefe 33Iume ? 3$ fe^e fte ntc^t. 

c) Will you buy the house ? Yes, I will buy it 
SSotten (Ste ba8 ait faitfen ? -3a, td^ hittt e8 foitfen. 

In the plural they is fte, whatever the gender. Ex. : 
I will see them, 3d) toitt fie feen. 

5. The genitives feiner and t^rer are used of persons, 
but hardly ever of things. The same is true of the datives 
tfym and i^r after a preposition and the accusatives tfyn, fte 
and e3 after a preposition. In these cases, the genitive, 
dative and accusative of ber or berfelbe, or else words like 
fcamit, therewith, tascn, thereof, etc., are used instead of 



PRONOUNS. 147 

the personal pronouns, e.g. <3tef) biefen tocf an, bit fofljt 
bid) lange nod) beffelben (not fein) erinnern ; bamit (not mit 
ttym) will tc^ bid) tucfytig pritgeln. 

6. Germans generally translate (a) to it, (b) of them 
(neut), (c) above it, etc., not (a) ju if)m or ifjr, (b) on 
tfynen, (c) iiber tfyn, e$ or jte, etc., but (a) baju, thereto, (b) 
baon, thereof, (c) baruber, thereover, etc. 

bamit, with it or with them baraug, from it or them. 
bartn, in it or them ba$u, to it or to them 

baburd), through it or them babet, I a t it or them 
banon, of or from it or them oaran, ) 
harauf, upon it or them baritber, over or about it or them 

2C. K. 

EXAMPLES. 

2Bir ftnb bamtt (dot.) jufrteben, We are contented with it. 
2Bie oiete ftnb barin (dot.), How many are in it (therein)? 
2Bir toerben bariiber fpredjen, We will talk about it 

NOTE 1. The context shows whether it or them is meant. 

NOTE 2. $ter also is contracted with prepositions, thus: Ijtermit, herewith 
oTvriththis; fyierin, in this; fyteicDon, of this; Ijterauf, tyierauS, ^ierbei, fyn~ 
ufcer 2C. 

7. The pronoun of the third person, er, jte, e3, in all its 
cases, is sometimes replaced by berfelbe, btefelbe, ba^felbc, 
(lit. the same). This is chiefly the case where otherwise 
ambiguity might arise or two words of similar sound 
would come together, as : ifym if)n or if)n ifynen. Ex. : 

Jfteine gteunbm bringt mtr Blumen, aber tcfj barf btefetben ntc^t feljen. 

My friend brings me flowers, but I am not allowed to see 

them. (Where fte might mean her). 
<Sofl id) ifym ben tod geben? Am I to give him the stick? 
3a, geben 3ie tfym benfelben (instead of i^n ifym), Yes, give it to 

him. 

8. The English accusatives myself, himself, yourself, etc., 
are termed reflexive pronouns, when they mean the same 
person as the subject of the verb. German has also the 



148 PRONOUNS. 

dative of the reflexive pronouns. The accusatives are midi). 
bicfy, jtd) jc.; and the datives mir, t>ir, fid) jc. Ex.: 

I wash myself, 3d) toafdje mid). 
He distinguishes himself, @r geidjnet fid) au8. 
You have allowed yourself, j)u fyaft bir erlaubt. 
(For further details, see the 34th Lesson). 

9. If the accusative or dative denotes any other person 
than the subject, it is no longer a reflexive, and is trans- 
lated itw felbft, mir felbfi :c, 

I have seen him himself (ace.), 3d) Ijabe iljn felbft gefeljen. 
But the German may also mean : I myself saw him. 

10. The intensive pronouns myself, himself, yourself, 
etc., preceded by a substantive or another personal pro- 
noun in the Nominative case, are translated felbft 1 (see the 
25th Lesson). Ex. : 

The man himself, $5er Sftann fetbfl 

I come myself, 3d) fomme felbfl. 

You say so yourself, @te fagcn e$ fctbfl. 

"We have seen it ourselves, 2Btr fyaben e8 felbfl gefeften. 

NOTE. Sometimes both fetbft and the reflexive pronoun are nsed, as: 
3<$ lobe mtcfy fclbjt, I praise myself (ace.), i.e., I do my own praising. 

(Here felbfl modifies t<f>). 
Ciebe betnen 9?dcfyften ttrie bidj felbjl, Love thy neighbor as thyself (thy 

very self). (Here felbft modifies bicbj. 

WORDS. 

ber ^let^, industry ber 9fogenfd)trm, the umbrella 

bte 9?ad)rid)t, the news ftagen, to ask 

bn$ ebot, iie command adjten, to esteem 

let^en, (dat.\ to lend benfen, to think 

fdjtden, (dot.), to send berjeifjen, (dot.), to pardon 

entpfe^ten, to recommend felten, seldom, rarely. 

i 6ettfl placed before a noun answers to the English even, as : 
gelbfl bit Jbifre, Even animals. 

Cflbft btr rtcnig fann (S nid>t thun, Even the king cannot do it 
But it is also good English to say : Animals themselves, the king himself. 



PRONOUNS. 149 

READING EXERCISE 61. 

3d) Itebe bid) unb bit liebft mid). <Sie (ieben un unb totr lieben 
fie. 3d) fenne fie nid)t. 3$ toer^etye bir. 3d) toergeilje iljm ntdjt. 
(Sr lobte ung. (Sic lobten cud) toegen (on account of) eureg ^(eijjeS. 
3d) luerbe ntougen einen Srief an iiju fdjreiben. 3d) benfe an (of) bid), 
an (Sic, an fte. (Sic benfen intmer an ung. SSir fpred)en 
fefyr felten bon ifynen. 3d) roerbe fie bir nid)t geben. (Sr toirb eg ung 
fagen. @r ennnert fid) nteiner (he remembers me), eben (Sic 
ib,m biefeS 33 u^. SBofren (Sic e tefen? 3d) rtntt e 3^nen teib.en. 
3c^ Ijabe eg mir gefauft. (Sr ift felbft gefommen. 3d) bin c8. 3^ 
fie c ? <Sie ift e8 fetbfl. @r fyat fid) getuaf^en. 3d) bad^te nidjt 
bavan. 233 ir finb bamit jufrieben. 2)er raf ^at eg felbft gefagt. 
3d) toeip md)t3 bation. 

tuffliiDc 52. 

1. I esteem you. I see him. We know her. She knows 
me. He esteems us. They want it. You know them. They 
esteem her. Will you give me (dot.) the letter ? Answer me 
(daL). She will not pardon 1 him (dot.). Does he love them? 
I write a letter to (an, ace.) her. Pray (bitte), lend me your 
penknife. He will lend it [to] you. She does not send it to 
him. TeE her that news. You must buy me (dat.) another 
stick. He remembers (erinnert fid)) me (gen.). Our friends 
do not think of (an) us. Have you lost your stick yourself ? 
My son has lost it. I will go myself (10). 

2. Have you seen my pencil ? I have not seen it. Who is 
there ? It (eg) is my father. Is it you ? Yes, it is I. It is he. 
It was she. That man has killed himself. Tell him and hei 
that (ba) I love Hhem. I will go with you. He goes with 
us, but not with them. This wine is very good, I can recom- 
mend it to you. Will she bring it to you? Yes, she will 
bring it to me to-morrow. Jesus has given us the command : 
"Love thy neighbor as thyself" (10, Note), but many people 
pay no attention to it (ad)ten nid)t barauf). Do you know any- 
thing (miffen (Sie (StroaS) of it ? We speak of it. They know 
nothing o&ow it. Depend (jaljfen (Sic) upon it. 



emten <Ste mid) ? 3a, id) fenne (Sic. 

Slennen (Sic and) meinen 33ater? 9iein, id) fenne U)n nidjt. 

i For verbs which govern the dative, see 43th treason, n, 



150 



PRONOUNS. 



SKcr ijl ba? 

3ft fie e3 luirHtdj (really)? 
SBcllen 3 tc ben 33rief fdjreiben? 
annid) eg f ettfl tyun (do)? 

enffl bu oft an (of) mid)? 
(Srinncnt @ie fid) mctucr? 
>aben 3te metncn 9iegenfd)irm 

gefefjen? 

2RU tt)cm geljen Sic in'3 Beater? 
ef)t fonft 3emanb (anybody 

else) mit 31wen? 
2Boflen <2ie fo gut (kind) fein 

(as to) mir biefeS 33u^ ju 

Ici^en? 
SBarum fonnen (Sic mir e nic^t 

tctfycn ? 

SSer tt)irb un8 begteiten (accom- 
pany) ? 
^ennen <5ie jenen 5^ e ^ben mit 

bent graiien 



(S ifl metne 

-3a, fte tft e nnrflid). 

mem (So^n )irb ilm fd^reibcit 
@ic fdnncn e8 nid^t fetbfl 
t^un, id) mu O^nen ^elfen. 
c^ benfc tinnier an bid). 
d) fann mid) 31)rer ntdjt erinnern- 



, tdj ^abe i^n nid^t gcfe^en. 
3d) ttierbe mit 3^nen ge^en. 
SDfeine S'Jic^ten (Smma itnb ?uifi 

gefyen and^ mit mir. 
68 tfjut mir leib, (I am sorry) 

id) fann e3 3f|nen nid)t lei^en. 

2Bci( tc^ c ber ftrautein riin 
berfproc^en (promised) Ijabe. 

Unfer ^reunb 5(. tnirb itnS begteiten. 
3c^ fenne i^n ntdjt; tc^ Ijabe t^n 
nie (never) gefefjeiu 



TWENTY-FOURTH LESSON. 

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 

i ,'rraof ndf gurtoortcrO 



These are: ioer, who? 

N. n>er, who? 
G. lueffen, whose? 
D. to em, to whom? 
A. njen, whom? 



f what? 



, what? 
njeffen, of what? 
(wanting) 
roa^/what? 



1. 2Ser ? applies to persons, without distinction of sex ; 
tt>aS ? to things. Ex. : 

28er tft feine ^rau ? Who is his wife ? 

2Ber roar iljr 9J?ann ? Who was her husband? 

SBeffen mt ift ba8? Whose hat is this? 

!$Jcm geben <5te biefen 9?ing? To whom do you give this ring? 



PRONOUNS. 151 

Sen Ijat er gefragt? Whom has he asked? 
braudjen tc? What do you want? 
ift fo fiijj? What is so sweet? 
fyabett te entberft? What have you discovered? 
NOTE. When such direct questions are placed in dependence on a pre- 
ceding verb, they become "indirect questions." Then the TEBB comea 
last (compare 4, p. 82), as: 

2Btftcn te/ tt>er biefeg {jefagt bat ? Do you know who said this? 
agcn @te mtr, ia3 te flefeljen Ijaben, Tell me what you saw. 

@ie mir, toeldjeg SSudj @te gelefen Ijaben, Show me what book you 

have read. 



2. Also rcelcf)er, weltfye, welcfyeS? and toa^ fur ein? (see 
page 72, II). 

2Betd)er t>on 3^ren o^ncn? Which of your sons? 
2iiMd)e3 Don biefen 33iicf)ern ^aben @te gelefen? 
Which of these books have you read ? 
>ter fmb bret 9?aftrmeffer, tuel^e^ twoflcn @ic ne^men ? 
Here are three razors ; what one will you take ? 



3. 2a fiir ein like cin (see page 73, 2) is declined wag fur 
eincr, rcaS fiir eine, tt>ag fiir einS, when used as a pronoun 
and not as an adjective, i.e., when not agreeing with an 
immediately following noun. Thus : 2Ba3 fiir ein 33ud) tfJ 
bteS ? but 2Ba3 fur ein ifl e^? What kind of a one is it? 

What before a noun is not a pronoun, but an interro 
gative adjective, and already explained p. 72 and 73. 

Concerning toomtt ? for mit toaS ? :c./ see p. 157, 8. 



DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOOTS. 

Cintottjrnbt Jurtaorttr.J 

The demonstrative pronouns are : 

Masc. Fern. Neuter. 

btefer btefe btefeS, this 

jener jene jeneg, that (that one) 

bcrjentgc btejenige baSjentge, ] that, the one 

fcer tie ba^/ j (French : celui, cette} 



152 



PRONOUNS. 



berfelbe 
bcr neinitidje 


biefelbe bagfetbe, 
bie namtictje bag namlicfye, 


i the same 


ebenberfelbc 


ebenbiefelbe ebenbagfelbe, 


the very same. 




Declension of iJcrjcnifle 


', 


Mate. 


Fern. Neuter. 


Plural, all Gendert. 


N. berjenige 


biejenige bagjenige, that 


biejenigen, those 


G. begjenigen 
D. bemienigen 


berjenigen begjenigen, :c. 
berjenigen bemjenigen, jc. 


berjenigen, K. 
benjenigen, K. 


A. benjenigen 


biejenige bogjenige, :c. 


biejenigen, jc. 




Declension of Jlct. 




N. ber 1 


bie bag, that 


bie, those 


G. beffen 


beren beffen, of that 


beren, of those 


D. bent 


ber bem, to that 


benen, to those 


A. ben 


bie bag, that 


bie, those. 



EXAMPLES. 

@totf unb berjenige (or ber) meineg Sruberg. 
My stick and that of my brother (or and my brother's). 
(r fyat fein @etb unb baSjenige (or bag) feineg 5 rcun ^ e ^ fcerloren. 
He has lost his (own) money and that of his friend (or his 
own and his friend's money). 

OBSERVATIONS. 

1. The genitive plural of the demonstrative ber is berer, 
when this genitive plural is the antecedent of a relative 
clause, e.g., Derer, bie nocfy (eben, Of those who still live, or a 
similar limiting phrase, e.g., !Derer au3 Slmertfo, Of t/iose 
from America. But to mean things, beren is more usual. 

The rule for cases like the following has already been 
given, Lesson 13, Note 1. 

This or that is my dog, $)iefe8 (not btefer) ifl metn $unb. 
This is my daughter, j)iefe$ or baS ift meine orf)ter. 
Are these your brothers? (Sinb bieg (bag) 3ljre Sriiber? 
These are his gloves, $)ag (bieg) ftnb feine 



i In speaking, ce: meaning that is naturally pronounced with more emphasis than 
bcr meaning the. When translating into English from a German book, the context will 
show whether the or that is meant. 3)tt thai, twed as an adjective (see 71), is declined 
like ter Me. 



PRONOUNS. 153 

2. The corresponding rule for which or wliat, tt)dd)e$? 
before fetn, to be, has already been given Lesson 13, Note 2. 
Which is your pen? 2Betrf)eg tfl 3fyre fteber? 
Which are your pens? SBelcfjeg finb 3tyre ^cbern? 
What is her opinion? 2Bcld)eg or *&$ $ tyi* SDtemung? 



POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 



1. These are formed of the possessive adjectives mettt, 
betn, fetn, unfer, euer, 3tyr, i^r, by adding the termination 
tgC. With this form the definite article always precedes. 
They are : 

Masc. Fern. Newt. 

ber meimge bie metnigc bag metntge, mine 

ber beintge bie betntgc ba betntge, thine 

ber feinige bie [etntge bag feinige, his 

ber %ige bie ttjrige bag i^rige, hers. 

ber, bie, bag unfrige; pi- bie unfrigen, ours 

ber, bie, bag Sfyrige or eurige; pi. bie -S^rigen, yours 

ber, bie, bag i(jrige;'p/. bie i^rigen, theirs. 

They are declined like adjectives with the definite 
article (N. ber metntge, G. beS metntgen, D. bem meimgen jc,). 
Shorter forms with the same sense are: ber metne, ber 
betne, ber fetne, ber tyn, ber unfere, ber euere or ber 3^re, ber 
ttyre. 

2. The sense is the same when the article is left out, 
but the termination different in the nominative singular 
masculine and neuter. Thus : 

SINGTJLAB. PLUEAL. 

Masc. Fern. Neut. All genders. 

meiner meine meineg metne, mine 

beiner beine beineg beine, thine 

feiner feine feineg feine, his 



154 PBONOUNS. 

8INGULAK. PLUKAL. 

Masc. Fern. NrUt. All genders 

tfyrer tfyre tfyreS tfyre, hers 

unferer unfere unfereS unfere, ours 

3$rer (fore 3treS 3f,re, ) 

euerer euere euereS (eureS) euere, ) * 

ifyrer ifyre iljreS ifyre, theirs. 



These latter forms are declined like biefer, biefe, 
They are more usual in conversation than either of the 
others. Ex. : 

3ft ba8 Ofyr (Storf? 9?etn, eg tft ntrfjt bcr meintge (or tnetner) 

e tft ber 3f)rige (or e ift S^rcr). 
Is that your stick? No, it is not mine, it is yours. 
2Beffen ^ferb ift baS ? (S^ tft ba8 meintge or metneS. 
Whose horse is that ? It is mine. 

SBeffen 33iicf)er finb baS ? (Sg fmb bte itnfrtgen or eg ftnb unfere. 
Whose books are these? They are oura 

WORDS. 

bte efimbl)ett, the health ba8 ^acfc^en, the parcel 

ber eift, the mind ber 33itcf)l)tinbler, the bookseller 

bte 33rteftafrf)c, the pocket-book ba urf), ^he cloth 

(to hold papers and letters) bte j>tnte, the ink 

tabeln, to blame arbetten, to work 

llopfen, to knock redjt, right. 

BEADDSra EXERCISE 53. 

9Ser ge^t ba? <&& tft em engttfc^er Offijter'. 2Beffen Uljr ffl 
btefeg ? (S tft bte metneS greunbe 5lrt^nr. 9Ktt went hJiinfdf)en <Ste 
gu fprerfjen? 3d) ttJiinf^e mtt O^rem SSater ^u fpred^en. SBeld^eS ift 
Ofyr ^ut, biefer ober jener? S3on toclc^em ^aitfe fpredjen (Sie? 2Btr 
fpredjen con bent (bemjentgen) be8 ^>errn all. !Dtefer @arten ttnb 
ber metneS ^ad^barg ftnb 311 berfaufen. SD^etn ^>au8 tft nett, bag 
-3^rtge tft alt. <5etn ^letb ift blau, 3^re (ba O^rtge) tft grun. 
2Ber fyat btefeg S3it(^ gebracfjt? Orf) frfjretbe an meinen 53ater, bu 
fdjretbft an betnen (ben betntgen), Robert frfjretbt an fetnen. 3)te 
efunbfiett beg ^or)3er ^at gro|en (Stnflujj (influence) aitf bte be 



PRONOUNS. 155 



etfteg. 2Ba fofl id) fagen? 2Be%3 toon btefen SDfcffent tooflen 
<2>te faufen? $on ttwg 1 (luoDon) fpredjen <Sie? 

2lufgaBc 54. 

1. Who comes there ? It is my friend Charles. Whose son 
is he ? He is the son of Lord K. To whom do you send this 
parcel? I send it [to] the bookseller. Who knocks at the door ? 
To (an, ace.) whom have you written a letter? Of (toon) whom 
have you bought this black cloth ? Whom do you blame ? 1 
blame my servant. To (mit) whom do you speak? Who is 
that young man ? He is my nephew. What have you found in 
the garden ? Which of (Don) these three sticks is the longest ? 
This is longer than that. Here is your pocket-book and that 
of your brother. That is right. 

2. I have lost my [own] book and that of my sister. This 
is not my pen ; this is my brother's (that of my brother). Are 
these your shoes (@d)ul)e) ? No, they (e) are my cousin's (those 
of my cousin). Your coat is old, mine is new. His house is 
small, yours is very large. My son does not work so much as 
yours. His ink is not good, ours is much better. What is the 
highest mountain of America? Is that your garden? Yes, it is 
mine ; it is not so large as yours. Whose umbrella is this ? 
Is it yours? No, Sir, it is not mine, it is Henry's (that of 
Henry). If you do not find your stick, take mine (ace.). 



RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 

(S)r$it(lltrt|e Jyiirtunrtrr.) 

These are: 1) toeldjer, tt)dd)e, welcfyeS (who, which, that), 
and 2) ber, bie, ba3 (who, which, tJiat). Of course they 
require the VEEB at the end of the sentence. See page 
82,4. 

i The accusative neuter of rcer, i.e., rea8, Is used familiarly after prepositions (like 
son) which regu'.arly require the dative. Sffiocon, luoju, roofer, etc., are, however, more 
elegant than Don >ra8, etc. 



156 PRONOUNS. 

Declension of roelcfyer, n>e!d)e, 

Xasc. Fern. Neuter. Plural all Gendm 

N. tt)eld)er tteldje lueldjeg, who, which foeldje 

O. beffen beren beffen, whose, of which beren 

D. toeldjcm lodger lueldjcm, to whom or which tueldjen 

A. tteldjen luetdje tueldjeg, whom, which toeldje 

Declension of ber, bie, ba$. 

N. bcr bie bag, who, which, that bte 

G. beffen beren beffen, whose, of which beren 

D. bem ber bent, to whom, to which benen 

A. ben bte bag, whom, which bic 

OBSERVATIONS. 

1. In English relative pronouns are sometimes omitted ; 
in German they cannot be. 

The boy I saw with you yesterday (instead of whom I saw). 

S)er $nabe, ben or toeldjen id) geflern bet 3b,nen fab,. 

Here are the books you have chosen. 

>ter ftnb bte SBiidjer, roeldje or bte <2>te attSgeiDa'ljtt f/aben. 

2. The genitive bcfjen, beren, beffen, always precedes the 
word by which it is governed, like whose in English : 

A tree the branches of which (whose branches) are cut of 
(Sin 33aitm, beffen 5lefte abgeljauen ftnb. 

3. As toelcfyer sounds like which, students are apt to 
suppose that, like which, it must not be used to signify a 
person. Such is not the case however. )er is shorter 
and more used both in conversation and composition, 
especially in the former. 

>ter ift ber 2Betn, ben (or hjetd)en) @te beflettt fyaben. 

Here is the wine you have ordered. 

3)er 3JZann, toeldjer (or ber) mtr bag SBudj bradjte, bag (or 

toetdjeg) er gefunben f)atte. 
The man who brought me the book (that) he had found. 

4. When the antecedent is of the first or second person, 
i.e., id), bu, ttrir, tf>r or ie, ber, and not welder, is the 



PRONOUNS. 157 

relative usually employed. If ber is in the nominative, 
id), bit, etc., are repeated after ber. Thus : 3$, ber id) [o 
ttiel fitr ifyn tfyue, / who do so much for him. If the second 
id), etc., are left out, the verb of the relative clause is often 
put in the third person, e.g., >td), ber mir ftet ber Xfyeuerfh 
tt>ar, Thee, who wast (German, was) always the dearest to me. 



5. The German relative pronoun welcfyer or ber with tttd)t 
answers to the English but after a negative sentence, as : 

There is no man but has his faults. 

(S gibt leinen 2ftenfd)en, ber nidjt feine el)(er fyat. 

6. Attention has already been called (page 147, 6) to the 
fact that the dative and accusative of er, jte, e, and the 
plural jte, referring to things, do not occur after preposi- 
tions; bamit' or f)ier'mit, etc., being used instead of mtt 
ifym, etc. Under the same circumstances tt>omit, etc., are 
used for mit went, etc. See the foot-note, page 155. 

toop, to which or what tt)orait, from which or what 

tooburd), by which or what toorin, in which or what 

toontit, with which or what ttjoriiber, at (over) which or what 

toobet, at which or what irorauf, upon which or what 

toofiir, for which or what tuoran, at which or what 

, of which or what ftorunter, among which. 



All these words are also interrogatives, e.g., 

fprerfjen @ie ? 

EXAMPLES. 

ner ift ber ^(uffet, rtomtt id) bie Satire offnete. 
Here is the key with which I opened the door. 
3)te tcifer, tooraitS n)tr tranfen, ftnb ^erbrodjen. 
The glasses, out of which we drank, are broken. 
3)o 3^ mmer ' ttJortn id) fdjtafe, ift fefjr fatt. 
The room in which I sleep is very cold. 

NOTE. 280311, etc., must not be used of persons, i.e., to signify to whom 
etc. We must say 311 toem, etc. 



158 FBONOUNS. 

CORRELATIVE PRONOUNS. 

1. The demonstratives fcerjemge jc., when the antecedents 
of relative pronouns, are termed correlative pronouns. 
Thus: 

Masculine. 

2)erienige, (loeldjer); or ber, (roeldjer); or berienige, (ber): he (who). 

Feminine. 

jDiejenige, (toeldje); or bie, (roeldje); or btejenige, (bte) : she (who). 

Neuter. 

jDaSjemge, (raetdfyeS); or bag, (roeldjeS); or baSjenige, (bag) : 
that (which). 

Plural, att Qendert. 

)ieiemgen, (roeld)e); or bie, (roeldje); or biejenigen, (bte): they 
or those (who). 

In the same manner are used : 

Masculine. 

2)erfelbe or ebenberfelbe, (ineldjer or ber), the same (who or which). 

Feminine. 

JDtefelbe or ebenbtefelbe, (tt>etd)e or bte), the same or just the same 
(who or which). 

Neuter. 

2)a8fetbe or ebenbaSfelbe, (roeldjeS or bag), the same or just the 
same (which). 

Plural, att Qendcrt. 

HDtefelben or ebenbtefelben, (tt)elrf)e or bte), the same or just the 
same (who or which). Further: olcfje, (icelcfje or bte), 
such (as). 

EXAMPLES. 

jDerjentge, foetcfjer (not iner) titgcnb^aft tfl, njtrb glUrflt^ fein. 

He who is virtuous, will be happy. 

3)iejentgen, toelcfye tugenb^aft leben, finb toetfe. 

They who live virtuously, are wise. 

25tejemgen, or otcfye (viz.: 5;^tere), rtetdje tm 2Bmter f^tafeiu 

Such (animals) as sleep in the winter-time. 

3d) gebe e8 bemientgen, wetc^en id) am meiften liebe. 

I give it to him whom I love most. 

3d) fenne benieniaen ntd)t, ben (metd^en) te meinen. 

I do not know mm whom you mean. 



PRONOUNS. 159 

3d) fenne benjenigen ntdjt, ber ben 33rief brad)te. 

I do not know the man who brought the letter. 

2. >a3jenige roelcfyeg refers to a substantive which has 
come in before, whilst t>a$, tt>a, is absolute, as : 

jDaSfenige (viz. : Slid)), n>eld)e$ id) eben lefe. 
The one I am reading now. 
3)a$ toag fd)im ift, ift nid)t immer gut. 
What is beautiful is not always good. 

3. Instead of berjenige, welcfyer, we often have 2Ber, and 
instead of fca$ tt)a3, 2Ba3. Both require the YERB at the 
end of the clause, (see page 82, 4), as : 

SSer tugenbfyaft tebt, ift gtiitilid). 
He who lives virtuously, is happy. 
fd)on ift, ift nic^t immer gut. 
^ne, is not always good. 



4. In English we often say whoever or whatever when 
we are not thinking of any particular person or thing. 

2Ber toiel bebenft, ttirb toenig leiften. 
Whoever considers much, will perform little. 
2Ba$ geredjt ift, Derbient Sob. 
Whatever is just, deserves praise. 

5. 2Ber and tt>a are sometimes rendered more emphatic 
by adding the words immer, aitrf), or and) nur, auc^ tmmer, 
as: 

2Ber (aud)) immer or ter (and)) nur; 3?eber, ber, whoever. 

2Ba3 au^ (immer or nur); SltteS h)a, whatever. 

2Ber aud) immer biefeS gefagt Ijat. 

Whoever (it is that) has said this. 

2BaS @ie aud) gefefyen b,aben mogen. 

Whatever (it is that) you may have seen. 

WORDS. 

bie (Sramma'tif, the grammar jeigen, to show 
bo ebid)t, the poem gefd^rieben, written 

genommen, taken tierbeffern, to correct 



160 PRONOUNS. 

bie $flid)t, the duty erfMen, to fulfil 

bcr Srfjufwtadjer, the shoe- redjtfrfjaffen, honest 

maker tierbienen, to deserve 

bie SBafyrfjeit, the truth berfolgen, to persecute 

bag >eer, the army fegnen, to bless 
bag 33ertrauen, the confidence fyaffen, to hate 

' ber SBeijen, the wheat gebacfen, baked 

bag $orn ', the rye tfyeuer, dear ; fitfylen, to feeL 

HEADING EXERCISE 55. 

ier ift ber $nabe, roetdjer fein 23ud) toerloren b,at. >a ift bag Surf), 
toeldjeg (or bag) er tterloren fyat. $ennen @ie bie |)erren, tteld)e 
(or bte) geftern bet mir loaren ? 3a, id) lenne fte. 3ft biefeg bie $)ame, 
roelrfje O^nen einen ^Jegenfc^irm gelietjen fiat? -ftetn, jie ift eg ntdjt. 
2)er filter, hjeic^em @ie -Sfyre @rammatif gelte^en b,aben, ift feb,r 
flet^tg. Ocf) wetR nic^t, tDeldjen @tc meinen (mean). SBetdjeg ton 
biefen ebic^ten b,aben <Sie gelernt ? -3^ I)abe biefeg geternt. 3d) fann 
nic^t tnit ber ^eber fc^reiben, bie @ie mir gefrfjnitten (for me) b^aben. 
(Sagen <5ie mir, roer meinen @to<f genommen b,at. 3c^ weip nidjt, 
hjag @ie meinen; id) fyabe 9?iemanb gefefien, ber einen <Stocf genommen 
b,at. jDerjenige, roeldjer reid) ift, ifl nidjt immer gufrieben. iejenigen, 
ttieldje ungufrieben ftnb, fmb nidjt gliirfUd). 2Ber feine ^Sflidjt erfuttt, i|t 
ein red)tfd)affener 2ftann. ?iebet bie, bie 2 eitd) b.affen. Gr fagte mir, 
roag er roottte. ^)ier finb einige ^bern, roeldje rootten (Sie ? 3d) null 
bie, roeldje am ^a'rteften ift !I)er ^onig, beffen eer gefdjlagen njurbe 
(defeated), ift gefloljen (fled). X'te (Sttern, beren ^inber geftraft 
tourben, fuib nadjla'f jig. SBorilbcr beftagen (Sie ftd) (complain) ? 

9luftiobr 56. 

1. Here is the shoemaker who 4 has "made ^our ''shoes. I 
have seen the garden you have sold. Is this the exercise you 
have written? The rooms (which) my father has taken 
(gemietljet) are not large enough. The pen which you have 
made (gefrfjmtten) is not good. The pupil whose exercise you 
are correcting, is very lazy. My neighbor whose horse you 
(have) bought last year, has gone (ift gegangen) to (nad)) 

i Also, but less frequently, oat* or barley. It really means 1) grain, and then 2) that 
grain which is mostly cultivated in any region, just as corn does in the British Isles. 

* We know that the second bit must be a relative and not a demonstrative, because 
bafif n, the verb, cornea at the end. See page 82, 4. Those person* hate you is, 



PRONOTJK8. 



America. Can you tell me who lias done this? I wish to see 
the book you showed me (dot.) yesterday. The pictures you 
send me, are very beautiful He who will not hear must 
feel "What is true to-day, must also be true to-morrow. 

2. They who do not speak the truth, deserve no confidence. 
I shall give this book to him who will be the most industrious. 
The little girl with whom Mary played yesterday, died this 
morning. The boy who found (fcmb) the gold watch, is honest. 
The man whose name was written in my portfolio, has (ift) 
arrived. Here is the glass out of which the king has drunk 
(getrunfen). Who is the happiest man ? He who is the most 
contented. The traveller to whom (dot.) I have lent (gelieljen) 
a florin, is your friend. The bread on which (tootoon) we live 
is baked of (ang) wheat and rye. The book I want, is not to 
be had ($it fyaben) here. 



2Ber b,at mutter genug? 
28cn fyaben (Sic getabelt? 
SBag rcitnfd)t ber 9ftenfd) am 

nteiften? 
2Ber flopft (knocks) an bte 

f)ure? 

2Bag toerben @te tfyim? 
SBeffcn Sdjretbbud) ift btefeg? 
9ln men fdjreiben @te btefen 

Srief? 

3ft 3b,r @eijn alter al8 meuter? 
Ste alt ift er? 
Jpier ift ein mt, ift er ber S^rtgc 

(orSljrer)? 

inb ba 3b,re ^anbfrfju^e ? 
SBotton leben bte @cf)afe ? 
Selves finb bte ^flangen, too* 

Don loir leben ? 
feonttt Ijaft bu ben ^naben ge* 

f d)Iagen (beaten) ? 
9ft biefer arten gu berfattfen 

(to be sold)? 

fagte -3^nen ber S3ebiente ? 



jufrtebene 
9}?eine tra'ge 



er Ijofft. 

ift ber c^netber, toeldjer O^re 
neuen 9?ocf brtngt. 
) ft)etf$ nt^t, ma i^ tljim fott. 

ift b 



fc^retbe t^n an ntetnen ?e^rer. 
in, ber tneintge ift jitnger. 
ift elf 3ab,re aft. 

bag ift ntdjt ber metntge; 
meiner ift gan$ neu. 
3a, bag ftnb metne. 
S3on rag unb eu (hay). 
^ortoffeln, ^orn, 9?etg, etnufe 

(vegetables) unb btele anberc. 
3d) fyabe tb,n mit ntetnem 

gefdjtagen. 
S)tefer ntd)t, aber ber meuteg 

barg. 
Sr fagte mir, toag et ge^firt tyattc. 



162 PRONOUNS. 

2BeId)e 9D?enfd)cn futb bie an* 2)ieienigen, toeldje mit Slttcm urt* 

gliicflidjftcn '? jufrteben ftnb. 

2Bo ift ba (&ia$, aug roeldjem 3ffl fyabe eg in ben djranf (cup- 

(tooraug) id) getrunfen fyabe? board) geftettt (put). 

2Bar eg nid)t meineg ? Sf ein, e war ba beg >erm run. 



READINQ LESSON. 

(viu tfjcurcr Aloyf unb tin luofjlfcilcr. 

(A Dear Head and a Cheap One.) 

Unter ber Sftegierung 1 beg le^ten ^onigg toon ^olen brad) 1 eine 
Gmtoorung 3 gegen ifjn aug s . Siner toon ben Stnporern 4 , ein toolnifdjet 
giirft, fetjte einen ^reig toon 20,000 utben auf ben ^opf beg ^dntgg, 
unb fyatte fogar bie gredjb.eit 5 , eg bent $b'ntg felbft gu fdjreiben, urn* 
t^n gu erfdjrecfen. 5lber ber ^onig fd)rieb 7 ib,m gang faltbtiitig 8 bie 
fotgenbe ^Intttoort: f^^ren 33rief b,abe idjrtdjtig 9 er^alten 10 unb getefen. 
(Sg Ijat mir toiel S3ergnugen gemadjt (given), bafe mein ^otof Ob,nen 
nod) fo toiel toertb/ 1 ift; id) toerjid)ere u ie, fiir ben Oljrigen gebe id) 
f einen Better 13 ." 



TWENTY-FIFTH LESSOff. 

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. 

(ttnbcftimmtf Siirludrirr.) 

They are : 

man, one (French on), they, people, 
einanber, each other, one another, 
{eberntann, everybody, every one. 
jemanb, somebody, anybody, 
niemanb, nobody, not anybody, 
felbft (felber) . . . self (myself, etc.). 
etttag, something, anything, 
nidjtg, nothing, not anything. 



i the reign. 2 from auSbrecfcen, irr. v. to break out. 3 an insurrection, revolt. 4 rebel. 
B Midacity. in order to frighten him. " from frfjmben, irr. v. to write. quite 
coolly. 9 duly. 10 received, n worth. 12 assure, is farthing. 



163 

OBSERVATIONS. 

1. Sftcm occurs only in the nominative, and is often 
translated by the English passive. Ex. : 

2ftcm fagt, people say, they say. 

2Benn man franf ift, when one (or a man) is ilL 

9ftcm b,at ifm gelobt, he has been praised. 

9Jtan ift gliidtid), roenn man gitfrieben ift. 

One is happy, when one is contented. 

NOTE 1. When another case is required, it is borrowed from (Stner/ -e/ -8. 
Ex.: 

2Benn man einen greunb berltert, fo tljut e3 (Stnem leib. 

When one loses a friend, one is sorry for it (it makes sorrow to one). 
NOTE 2. One's, however, is generally fetn (lit. his). Ex. : 

It is better to lose one's (his) life than one's honor. 

(53 t[t teffer, fetn 8e6en al8 feine @{jre git tterlteren. 

NOTE 3. One's self is translated firf), sometimes fidj felfcfl ; not fefljjl 
without ftdj, Ex. : 

One must not praise one's self, 2Kan mtt fic^ ntdjt Cfe^jt) loben. 

2. inanber, is hardly found except in the dative and 
accusative. 

$arl unb SBttyetm trauen etnanber (dot.). 
Charles and William trust one another. 
3)tefe ^ranen tieben etnanber (ace.). 
These women love each other. 

3. elbft or felbcr, is indeclinable, and stands immedi- 
ately after either a substantive or a personal pronoun, as: 
ber SSater felbft, tcf) felbft, nrir felbft or felber, or nearer the 
end of the sentence (see the 23rd Lesson, 10). Ex. : 

3)er 33ater bradjte fetnen @o^n felbfl. 

The father brought his son himself. 

3d) Ijabe eg felbft (or fetber) gefeb/en (not metn felbjl). 1 

I have seen it myself. 

2Btr glauben e^ je|t felbft (not unferfelbft). 

We beheve it now ourselves. 

1 The English possessive pronoun preceding telf or selves is not translated. 



164 PRONOUNS. 

NOTE. The adverb [elfcfi means even, as : 

Even his brothers, felbft feine 23ritber. 

4. Sctermann, everybody, takes 8 in the genitive ; in the 
other cases it remains unchanged, as : 

ute tfjun ift SebermcmnS ^flirfjt. 
To do good is every one's duty. 
ebt 3ebermann (dot.), n>a8 ifyr fdjitlbtg fetb. 
Give everybody what you owe. 

5. 3emant> is declined as follows : 



G. 3emanb8 or jemanbeS, 

D. 3emanb, jemanbem or iemanben, 

A. Oemanb or jemanben. 

The shorter forms, however, are to be preferred except 
where the use of the longer ones would remove an ambi- 
guity, by making the case of jemanb unmistakable. 
is declined like jemanb. 



ift 5fttemanbe3 OfttemanbS) @e|rf)mad. 
That is nobody's taste. 

2ftetn 9jtad)bar fetljt ^iemanb(en) (or 9iiemanbem) etb. 
My neighbor lends money to nobody. 
3d) fyabe Oemanb ongctroffen. 
I have met somebody. 

6. Not anybody and not anything are translated 
97temant> and 9?id)tg. Ex. : 

I have not seen anything, 3d) Ijabe ntrf)t$ gefe^en. 

II. The indefinite numeral adjectives are also used as 
indefinite pronouns. A shorter list of them has already 
been given Lesson 13. 

Seber, -, -e$ or cut Seber-, 1 each, every one. 

diner, some one. 

Der Slnbere, the other. 

A . we uttiqoated. 



PRONOUNS. 165 

>er (Sine , ber inhere , the one , the other ; 

plur. bie (Sttten bie 2lnberen, some others. 
(Sittige, some or a few. 
(Stnige , 5lnbere , some , others. 
JRcmdjer, many a man ; plur. 2Jiattd)e, some men. 
SSetbe or bie SBeiben, both. 
Sftefyrere, several. 
23iel, much ; plur. 33iele, many. 
>ie aftetften, most. 
SBettig, little ; plur. 2Benige, f ew - 
MeS, everything ; plur. 2lfle, alL 
3)er -ftamftdjc, the same. 
Reiner, -e, -8, none, no one. 
3rgenb (Sitter, -e, -8, any one. 
(5;ttt)a$, some (but not much), something or other, anything. 

OBSERVATIONS. 

1. Seber, Sftcmcfyer and Reiner, -e, -eS, are declined like 
tttfcr, biefe, biefe^: viz: 

G. 3ebeS, 2)?ancf)eg, ^etneg. i 
^4. ^eben, SD^onc^en, $emett zc. 

2. The English pronoun one, plur. o?ies, after an adjec- 
tive, is not expressed in German. Ex. : 

I have a grey hat and a black one. 
3d) fyabe eitten grauen >ut unb ettten 
Two old lions and two young ones. 
3toci atte Sorten unb jwei jttnge. 



3. SnieS Wa^ (or 5ltte0 bag wag) is the English all that. 
Ex.: 

>a tft 2ltte$, h)a tc^ abe, That is all (that) I have. 

NOTE. It is declined as follows : 

0. 2Kie3 beffen, a . . . , of all that . . . 
D. 2ttlem bem, twg . . . , to all that . . . 
A. m<<3 bag, tt>a or afleS toag . . . , all (that) . . . 
Of course instead of tt)a3 we may have tootton/ tooju, toomtt, etc. 



4. The indefinite pronoun some, when referring to a 
preceding substantive, may be translated in different ways. 



166 PRONOUNS. 

When it replaces a singular, we may say in German accord- 
ing to the gender: nxlcfyen, welcfye or rodcfyeS; in the plural: 
Welcfye, cintge or bason. Frequently, however, it is not 
expressed at all. Ex. : 

Will you have some beer ? Yes, give me some. 

SBoflen 3te 23ier fyaben? 3a, geben <2ne mtr toeldjeS or only: 
geben 3te mtr. 

Have you bought some tobacco ? Yes, I have bought some. 

>aben 3te Xabaf gefauft? 3a, id) fyabe (roetdjen) gefauft 

Have you some more of these cigars ? 

mbeit 3te nod) oon btefen Sigarren ? 

Yes, I have some still (or a few more). 

3d, id) fyabe nod) ttetdje (ctntge babon) or even: id) ^abe nod). 

5. Any, meaning every, is translated jeber. When it 
means any quantity or number ataUof,it is omitted in 
translating into German. 

You will find it in any shop. 
tc roerben eg in jebern Saben finben. 
Have you any bread ? oben <2ne 33rob ? 
Has he any soldiers ? ^>at er (Sotbaten ? 

6. (tn)a$ is neuter singular, nominative and accusative, 
or it may be used after a preposition governing any case 
whatever. 

Yes, I have some, but not enough for you. 
3a, id) fyabe etrcaS, aber ntdjt genug fiir @te. 
Something (or other) pleases me in him, 
(ShoaS gefattt mtr an i^m. 
egen etnw8, Against something. 

WORDS. 

ber ^efyter, the fault, mistake tobten, to kill 

bag ettnffen, the conscience tljun, to do 

bte <2>thnme, the voice bcnetben, to envy 

bic (Srfafjrung, the experience toerteumben, to calumniate 

ber 33ote, the messenger flopfen, to knock 

id) bin fd)ulbtg, I owe anroenben, to employ 

borfidjttg, cautious gefdjtagen, beaten 

er^alten, received geieb,rt, learned. 



PRONOUNS. 167 

HEADING EXERCISE 57. 

9J?an tft gtitrfttd), toenn man gufrteben tft. 2ftan gtaitbt e8 tttdjt, 
toenn man e8 ntdjt ftefyt. Soldje 3)tnge ftefyt man ntdjt jeben Jag. 
2)tefe $ft>et $nabcn fyaben cinanber gefdjlagen. SBe^afylt 3ebermann. 
tua8 3f)r fdjulbtg fetb. Sfttemanb tft fo geleljrt, bafc er 5lfle3 toeifc 
(knows). SDer luafyre SBeifc beneibet baS liid ^icmanbeg; e 
berleumbet 9liemanb. ^topft 3emanb ? 3d) b,ore 3emanbe timine. 
STb/ue nte @ttt)a gegen bein enjiffen. Senctbe ntdjt ba liid 
Stnberer. 3eber (or etn 3eber) b,at feme ^e^ter. 9}?and^er fauft 
itnb be^a^It nicf)t. S^e^rere b,aben ben na'mtidjen {^e^Ier gemarfjt. 
Stele toon mctnen ^reimben ftnb geftorben. Unfer greunb 
toon Mem. Center tft ob,ne ^eb,Ier. Reiner toon un |at ben 
geroonnen (won). 

ufao6c 58. 

1. One is unhappy, when one is discontented. These young 
people love each other. (The) animals eat (freffen) one another. 
Be polite to (gegen) everybody. Has the man killed anybody? 
No, nobody. One should not speak much of one's sell I have 
seen nobody. Is there (gtbt e3) anything prettier? I have 
spoken of nobody. Have you received anything? No, Sir, 
I have not received anything. Do (tfyitn @te) nothing against 
your conscience. Every one who knows the world, is cautious. 
Have you many friends? I have only a few. 

2. Put these books each in (an) its place. The one goes, 
the other comes. Some are too (jit) young, the others are too 
old. Both are dead. Many a man drinks more than he wants 
(bebarf). I know several of (Don) them. No one has helped 
me (mtr gef)o(fen). Do not speak evil (336feS) of others. Tell 
me all (p. 165, 3) you know (<Sie rotffen). I have sold alL 
One must not kill one's self. The messenger said the same 
(neuter). With money (see p. 82, 3) 2 one J can do "much 
good (p. 108, a) 3 to 4 one's 6 fellow-creatures (9?ebenmenfd)en). 



2Bann tfl man retd)? 2Benn man gttfrteben tft 

3ft 3emanb ba ? 9Mn, eS tft 9?temanb ba. 

2BoS fagte 3b,r ftmtnb ? (Sr f agte 9?td)t. 
tbt e etiuaS djonereS atS ber 

geftirnte (starry) tmmet? 3d) fenne ntdjtS <Sd)bnere*. 

<te Diele @d)iiter? Od) ^abe mefyrere. 



168 IRREGULAR VERBS. 

egen foen [ofl man Ijb'fUd) fein? egen 3ebermann. 
2Ba8 tfjun btefe Scute ? (Sinige tefen, 5lnbere frfjreibeit. 

Steben bie 23riiber cmanbcr ? 3a, fte Ueben einanbcr. 

2Ber if* olme gefjler? Reiner (9itemanb). 

2Ber nnfl glitdlid) fetn ? Oebermann nutt eg (so) fetn. 

$ennen @ie emt 33raun ober 3d) fenne Setbe. <Sie rao^nen 23etbe 
errn run ? in meinem aufe. 

' foil id) bte 33fid)er fietten? tellen <2ie jebeS an feinen 
f)at ba elb be^ab/lt? (Sinige Don unferen greunben. 

2)arf man toon 5lnberen 33b'fe SKan fott Don ^iemanb (or Don 
(evil) reben? Sftemanben or on s ^icmanbem) 

SBflfeS reben. 

SSpbon fprerfjen @te? 2Bir fpredjen bpn 5ltlem. 

2Bie mele itte b,aben <Ste? -3d) fyabe gtwei; etnen alien itnb 

einen neiten. 
@inb 3b,re ^Ute fd)nmr$ ober Od) b,abe einen fd)n>ar$en unb etnen 

gran (grey) ? grauen. 

S3on njent ^abeu <Ste biefen 33rief 
erb.atten ? 53on Oemanb, ben <Sle ntdjt fennen. 



TWENTY-SIXTH LESSON. 

IRREGULAR VERBS. 

We have seen already, Lesson 21, that regular verbs in 
German form the imperfect by adding te or tit and the 
past participle by prefixing QC, and adding t or ct. 

Irregular verbs except fydben, fein and roerben, the modal 
auxiliaries, tfyim and the verbs enumerated in p. 132, 4, 
add no termination to form the imperfect, and add en, at 
the same time prefixing flf , to form the past participle. 
The vowel of the stem of the imperfect is different, and 
that of the past participle very often different, from that 
of the present. Examples: jtnfen, fanf, gefunfen, sink, 
sank, sunk; geben, gab, gegeben, give, gave, given; ^tfTtgen, 
tying, gefyattgen, hang, hung, hung. 

We give below for the sake of comparison, the simple 
tenses (i.e., the tenses formed without an auxiliary) of 



IREEQULAII VERBS. 



169 



these verbs, by the side of those of the regular verb lobttt. 
Verbs which form the imperfect without adding a termina- 
tion to the stem, and form the past participle in CH, are 
said to belong to the Old or Strong Conjugation. 





INDICATIVE. 






PRESENT. 




id) lo&e, 


ftnfe, 


gebe, 


Ijange, 


bu lobft, 


tnfft, 


gib ft, 


fangft, 


er lobt, 


tuft, 


gtbt, 


Ijangt, 


ttir loben, 


tnfen, 


geben, 


bang en, 


ifyr lobt, 


tnfet, 


gebet, 


Ijanget, 


jte loben, 


tnfen, 


geben, 


Ijangen. 




IMPERFECT. 




id) lobte, 


'anf, 


gab, 


fyKQr 


bu lobteft, 


anfft, 


gabfl, 


^tngft, 


er lobte, 


anf, 


gab, 


t)tng, 


ttrir lobten, 


anfen, 


gaben, 


l)ingen, 


tljr lobtet, 


anfet, 


gabet, 


fjinget, 


fie lobten, 


anfen, 


gaben, 


^ingen. 


SUBJUNCTIVE. 




PRESENT. 




id) lobe, ftnfe, 


gebe, 


Ijange, 


bu lobeft, 


mfeft, 


gebeft, 


^angeft, 


er lobe, 


tnfe, 


gebe, 


^ange, 


tour loben, 


tnfen, 


geben, 


Ijangen, 


iljr lobet, 


tnfet, 


gebet, 


^anget, 


fie lobett, 


tnfen, 


geben, 


^angen. 




IMPERFECT. 




id) lobte, 


a'nfe, 


gabe, 


^inge, 


bu lobtefi, 


cinfeft, 


gabeft, 


^ingefl, 


er lobte, 


cinfe, 


gabe, 


f)htge, 


unr lobten, 


anfen, 


gaben, 


lltngen, 


if)r lobtet, 


anfet, 


gabet, 


^inget, 


fie lobten, 


anfen, 


gaben, 


^ingen. 




IMPERATIVE. 




Second Person Singular. 


foBe, ftnfe, 


gib, 


angc. 




Second Person Plural. 




lobet, ftnfet. 


gebet, 


Ijanget 



170 IRREGULAB VERBS. 

INFINITIVE. 
Present. 

loben, ftnfen, geben, Ijangett. 

PARTICIPLES. 
Present. 

lobenb, jtnfenb, gebenb, Ijangenb. 

Past. 

gelobt, gefunfen, gegeben, gefjangen. 



OBSERVATIONS. 

1. PRESENT INDICATIVE. Verbs in t, e.g., geben, are apt 
to change it in the second and third persons of the 
singular into i or ie. The rule is that i should take the 
place of short c and ic of long c. 

Verbs in a, e.g., (jangen, are apt to modify this vowel in 
the 2d and 3rd persons of the singular. 

2. IMPERFECT INDICATIVE. In some verbs, the double 
consonant of the present becomes a single one in the 
imperfect, e.g., fcfyaffen, to create, has the imperfect fcfyuf. 
In others, the single consonant of the present is doubled 
in the imperfect, e.g., reiten, to ride, imperfect ritt. Com- 
pare p. 4, 1. 

3. IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE. This tense is formed from 
the imperfect indicative by modifying the vowel and 
adding e, as can be seen in the paradigms above. 

4 IMPERATIVE. This ends in the second person singular 
in c and in the plural ft, just as in the case of regular verbs ; 
but verbs which change e into i or if (see 1) in the second 
and third persons of the present indicative, e.g., gcben, 
make the same change in the second person singular, but 
not plural, of the imperative. These verbs also drop the t 
which should end the second person singular of tho 
imperative, having, for instance, gib instead of gibe. 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 171 

A great many other verbs may drop this t and some 
occur even more frequently without it than with it, e.g., 
Fomm, come, is very much more usual than fomme. 

5. The compound tenses (i.e., those which bring in an 
auxiliary) employ the infinitive and past participle in the 
same way as regular verbs do. Thus from bitten, bat, 
gebeten, to ask, we have : 

First Future, 3d) toerbe bitten 

First Conditional 3di toiivbe bitten 
Perfect, 3d) Ijabe gebeten. 

Pluperfect, 3d) Ijatte gebeten.. 

Second Future, 3d) tuerbe gebeten Ijaben. 
Second Conditional, 3d) ttntrbe gebeten fjaben. 

6. All the irregular verbs of the German language are 
arranged alphabetically and conjugated on p. 215 .and the 
following pages. We shall proceed to take them up now, 
however, not in alphabetical order, but arranged in groups 
according to the way in which they form their imperfects 
and past participles. 

7. Preliminary Observation. (This observation applies 
to both regular and irregular verbs.) We have already 
seen that feitt has in the perfect id) bin geroefen and not id) 
fyabe geroefen, and that werben has idj bin geioorben and not 
id) fyabe geroorben. A number of other verbs take fetn 
instead of fyaben to form the perfect. These are marked 
t in the following tables. 

8. The general rule (with a number of exceptions) is, 
that verbs which may govern a genitive, those which may 
govern a dative, and those which may govern an accusa- 
tive, take fwben. Thus: @r fyat ber abroefenben gre-unbe 
gebfld)t (genitive), He mentioned absent friends; GET fyatte ben 
$tnbern gefolgt (dative), He had followed the children; 
2Bir werben tfw gefefyen fyaben, We shall have seen him 
(accusative). 



172 



IRREGULAK VERBS. 



9. As for all the rest of the verbs of the language, the 
general rule is, that those which denote an action take 
t)aben, while those which denote a motion take feitt. Of 
course there are a great many verbs which express 
neither an action nor a motion and for which we lay 
down no rule. Thus : (verbs of action) 3d) fyflbe gearbeitet, 
geforfcfyt, I have worked, investigated; (verbs denoting a 
resultant state], (Sir ift gcftorben, genefen, He has died, got 
weU; (verbs of motion), (r ijl abgereift, angelangt, He has 
left town, arrived. 

10. Some verbs of motion take fettt when the idea of 
getting from one place to another becomes prominent, 
and fyaben at other times, for instance when the motion 
is looked at as an amusement. Thus : @r ifi on 33erltn 
twd) panbcw gefcfyroommen, He sivam from Berlin to 
Spandau; (r fyat im eid) gefcfyroommen, He swam in the 
pond. Compare also the remark on the auxiliary taken 
by friecfyen, page 201. 

NOTE. Throughout the following numbered list, words inclosed in ( ) 
are less common, usually older, forms and are, in general, not to be 
imitated. As regards the use or non-use of the connecting vowel e, the 
list gives, as a rule, only the usual form. See page 130, obs. 1. Words 
inclosed in [ ] are entirely antiquated or incorrect and are not to be 
imitated at all. 

The following verbs have a in the imperfect and c in the 
past participle. 

INDICATIVE PRESENT. | IMPERAT. IMPERFECT. | PAST PART.' 



1. geben, to give. 



id) qebe, bit gtcbft or 
gtbft, cr gtebt or gtbt, 
nnr gcben, tfyr gebt, 
^ic geben, fie geben. 



gicb or gib 

[flebe], 
gebt. 



id) gab, bu 
gabft, er gab, 
nnr gaben ac. 

S. id) gabe 



gegeben. 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



173 



INDICATIVE PRESENT. 



1MPEKAT. 



IMPERFECT. 



PAST PART. 



Conjugate in the same manner: cnt^'geben, 'sep. v. to spend (money); 
pergeben, insep. v. to forgive (past part, fcergeben, not bergefleben); jurucf'; 
jeben/ to give back, return. 

2. effen, to eat. 

idj effe, bit it (iffeft), i [effej, id) a. gegeffea. 

er ijH, roir effen, ifyr efct. . id) cifje 

et, fte effen. 

3. fr effen, to eat (applied to animals). 



id) freffe, bu frifet (frif; 
feft), er fript, ttrir 
freffen :c. 



frefet. 



reffe], id) Jrojj. 

S. id) frae. 



4. meffen, to measure. 



tdj mcffe, bit miftt (miffeft) 
er mifet, tuir meffen zc. 



mept. 



id) ma. 
& id) ma^e. 



gefreffen. 



gemeffen. 



Thus is conjugated : aVmeffetijto measure, to survey. SReffen should 
not be confounded with miffen, to be without, which is regular. 



id) lefe, bit Iief(ef)t, er 
Iteft, nitr lefen jc. 



5. lefen, to read. 

lies [lefe], 
left. 



id) lag. 
8. id) lafe. 



6. fefyen, to see, to look. 



fief), fefyt. 



id) faf). 
-S. id) fa^e. 



getefen. 



gefe^eir. 



id) fefje, bit fteljft, er 
ftetjt, tmr feljen ?c. 

Thus : dn'fefjen, to see ; aug'fefjen, to look (like). The correct im- 
perative is fieb,. Nevertheless felje and ftef)e are sometimes found, 
the latter especially as an interjection, or in referring to some 
passage in a book. 



7. t treten, 2 to tread. 



idj trete, bu trittfl, er 
tritt, ratr treten ac. 



tritt [trete], 
tretet. 



id) trat 
S. id) trate. 



getreten. 



Thus : ab'treten, to resign ; f ^erein'treten, to step in, etc. 

1 Compound verbs are some of them separable and others inseparable. Separable 
verbs take ge between the preposition and the verb in the past part., as: auSgcgeben, 
spent (see the 31st Lesson); inseparable verbs have no ge in the past part. 

2 Verbs marked with f form their perfects with the auxiliary fetn, to be, as icb bin 
getreten, I have trodden ; e$ tear gefd^en, it had happened, etc. All othsrs are con- 
strued with b,aben. 



174 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



INDICATIVE PRESENT. | IMPERAT. IMPERFECT. | PAST PART. 



8. t genefen, to recover from illness. 



id) genefe, bu genefeft, 
cr geneft, nrir gene- 
fen 2C. 



genefe, 
geneft. 



id) gena?, (ge* 

nefete). 
S. id) genafe, 

[genefete]. 



genefen. 



9. t gefcfyeljen, to happen (impersonal). 



8 gefd)ief)t [gefd)id)t], 
(fte) gefdjefjen. 



S. e$ gefdjalje. 
10. ergeffen, to forget 



id) Dergeffe, bu Bergifet 
(uergiffeft), er toergtfjt, 
loir toergeffen :c. 



[bergeffe], 
oerge^t. 



id) bergafj. 
S. id) ergae. 



11. bitten, to beg, ask or request. 



id) bitte, bu bitteft, er 
bittet, tt)ir bitten :c. 



id) liege, bu liegjl, er 



bitte, bittet. 



id) bat. 
8. id) bate. 



12. Hegen, to lie. 



liege, Itegt. 



id) laq. 
S. id)' lage. 



Itegt, h)ir liegen, il)r 
liegt :c. 

Thus : t unterlfe'gen, to succumb. Past p. untcrle'gen. 



13. ftfcen, to sit. 1 
ftfce, fat. 



gefdje^en. 



Dergeffen, 



gebeten. 



gelegen. 



id) fa^ 
S. id) fa'fte. 



gefeffcn. 



id) ft^e, bu fi^ejl, er 
ftt, toir ft^en, % 
ft^t jc. 
Thus : Beftfeen, to possess. Imperf. \i> Befa. Perf. irf> ^aBe Befeffen. 



i When fifecn means to be fitting it takes ^aben, when it means to tit down, i.e., denotes 
motion, it takes fcin. (Compare 10, page 172.) Qttfytn takes tyafccn more frequently 
than it does feln. 



1EBEGULAK VERBS. 



175 



INDICATIVE PRESENT. | IMPERAT. | IMPERFECT. | PAST PAHT. 



Id) ftcfje, t bu ftefjfl, er 
ftcfjt, unr ftefyen, tl)r 
fteljt jc. 



14. ftefyen, to stand* 



ftef)(e), 
fteljt. 



id) flanb [ftunb]. 
S. id) ftanbe 
[ftiinbe]. 



geffonben. 



Thus : Befteficn (fcin or $aten), to consist ; f entfidjen, to arise, to orig- 
inate ; fcerftefycn, to understand. 

To this class may be added a verb with an abnormal 
imperfect, viz*: 

15. tfyun, to do, to make. 



td)tf)ite,butl)uft,ertlntt, | tt)ue, tljut. 
hrir tfyun, if)r tljut jc. 



id] tf)at,bu t^atft 
S. id) tfyate. 



gcttjon. 



Pres. subj., icb t^ue, bu tBuejl, er tfiue, hrir t^uen, itr tfeuet, fie tfjuett. 
In the imperf. ind. tfjat is more usual than ttjat when followed 
immediately by an infinitive. 



WORDS. 



etn S^otcy, m., a dollar 

etn @d)iOing, m., a shilling- 

ber S^ertfd), mankind 

(Srbbeeren, f^ strawberries 

^>eii, n., hay 

afer, m., oats 

bag Slid), the cloth 

etne Unterftii^ung, support, aid 

bie 9?aape, the caterpillar 

ber Settler, the beggar 

ber ^udjen, the cake 



He 33ernunft, reason, sense 

ber Ionian', the novel 

ber Cornet', (2d decl), the comet 

bte efafyr, the danger 

ber ittben, the florin 

bag lifer, the shore, bank 

bie SBeletbigimg, the insult 

letfe, low (not loud) 

balb, soon 

nod) ntd)t, not yet 

bte 2Bof)ltf)at, the benefit 



READIED EXERCISE 59. 

1. (5r gibt mtr etne gute ^eber. 9#etn ^rennb gab mtr etnige 
Staler, ^aben ie i^m biefelben jurucfgegeben ? ^od) nidjt. 3Ba^ 
t^t biefer ^nabe? (gr tt grbbeeren. 3d) ^abe nod) feme gegeffen. 
>er 3CRann a^ ^u (too) Diet. )er Dd)fe frtfet ra8 unb ^eu. 3)ie 
^ferbe ^aben alien >afer gefreffen. 3Barum mi^t bu btefeg Judj? 
-3d) totH eg tierlaufen. SBarum lieft ber <Sd)itler fo leife ? @r Ijat etne 
fd)Uxtd)e (Sttntine (voice), ^ruljer Ijat er tauter gelefen. 3)er Sltnbe 
fte^t ntdjtg. @ie^, fyter finb betne Siid)er. @a|en @tc ben @tord) ? 
Sir fa^en t^n ntd)t. 3d) ^abe nod) me (never yet) etnen Slepljanten 



176 IRREGUIAR YEBB8. 

2. 3emanb ifl mtr auf ben ^u getreten. $>er Bronte tfl nneber 
genefen. (8 gefdjtefjt Diet in ber 2BeIt (world), nia8 man nidjt toer* 
ftcfyen fann. laubten <2te, baft bieS gefdjafje? 3d) toerga 3b,nen 
311 fagen, baft id) 3h,ren reunb gefefyen fyabe. 3d) Ijatte baS SBort 
toergefjen. )er SBebtente fyat an ber b,iire geftanben; gtiiei anberc 
2J?anner ftanben bet t()m. !Der 5lnne bat mid) um (for) cine Unter* 
ftii^ung ; er Ijat fdjort biete !?eute gebeten. 3)er 9?abe fa auf einent 
23aiun ; id) n)ei ntdjt, nne tange er bort (there) gefejjen ^at 
lag ber Sfyfel? (gr lag im rafc. 



60. 

1. Give me two florins. "When (roann) will you * give l them 
* back [to] " me ? In a few days (to.). The countess gave * a 
'shilling [to] x the 2 poor 'beggar. God (ott) has 4 given 
( J the) 3 reason to l mankind. I eat bread and cheese. Thou 
eatest bread and butter. The children ate cherries. I saw 
you* eat (infin.) l grapes (Srauben); were they ripe? Eat of 
(tion) this cake, it is for you. The oxen eat (3) grass and hay. 
The caterpillars ate all [the] leaves of (toon) that tree. The 
cat has eaten the mouse. I gave her (dot.) a flower. What 
does Miss Eliza read? She reads a novel by (toon) Sir Walter 
Scott Have you read Lord Byron's poems (ebid)te) ? I have 
not yet read them, but I shall read them soon. The merchant 
has not measured the cloth. 

2. Have you ever (je) seen a comet? Tea, I saw a beautiful 
comet He does not see the danger in which he is [placed]. 
Young lady, read only good books. Beneath (unter) the sun 
1 nothing l happens without the will (SSitten) of God. What 
has (ift) happened ? An old man stood on the (am) shore and 
cried (roetnte). Close to him (neben ib,m) sat two little children, 
and a dog was lying beside (neben, dot.) them. The poor man 
begged me to give him a few florins. Fabricius possessed (13) 
such (fo) great virtues, that even (felbfl) the enemies of the 
Romans * respected 'him. The honest man forgets (the) 
insults and remembers (erumert fid) ber) benefits. 

The following verbs have a in the imperfect and o in 
the past participle. 



IEBEGULAR VERBS. 



177 



INDICATIVE PRESENT. | IMPERAT. | IMPERFECT. | PAST PART. 



1C. bcfefylen, (dot.), to order, to command. 



id) bcfe[)Ic,bu beficljlfl, cr 



befief)ft,unrbefe()(eiuc. 



beftefjf, 



befefylt. 



id) befall 
[befoffl, 

8. id) [befab,(e], 
before. 

Thus: cmpfef/Icn, to recommend. P. p. empfofyten. 



befoljten. 



17. serbercjen, to hide, to conceal. 



id) t>erberge,bu berbirgft, 
et berbirgt 20. 



toerbirg, 
fcerbergt. 



idj bcrbarg, 
.6'. id)[tierbarge] 
berburge. 



berborgett. 



The simple verb fcergett, to hide, is poetical. ^erBergen comes from 
4?er6erge, and aufbetgen, emporlJergen from 33erg, not from iergen, to 
hide. All three are regular. 



18. t Berften, to burst, to crack. 



id) berfte, bit berfteft or 
birft, erbcrftetorbtrft, 
rtnr berften K. 



berfte or 
Mrft, 
berftet. 



id)barftorbor|t 
S. id) (bftrfte) 
borfte. 



geborften. 



19. Bremen, to break (t when intrans.). 



id) bvedje, bit brid)ft, er 
bridjt, luir bredjeu :c. 



brtd), 
bredjt. 



id) bradj. 
S. id) bradje. 



gebrodjen. 



Thus: aC'6rcd)cn, to break off ; auS'brec^en, to breakout; unter&redj'en, 
to interrupt (P. p. untcrbro'iixn"; gerfcrec^en, to break to pieces. 
The verb brecften miy be conjugated regularly in the phrase glad)^ 
fcrccften, to break flax. SJabebraten, to break on the wheel, is re- 
gular. Gfyebrccfyen (separable^, to commit adultery, is conjugated 
like brecfycn, but in those parts in which (Sfje would come after 
ircdjen it has id) bredje bte GsSe, etc. 



20. trefd^en, to thrash. 



Id) brefdje, bu brtfdjfl, er 
brifdjt, n)tr brefdjen :c. 



brifd), 
brcfdjt. 



id) brofd), less 
freq. bra[d). 
S. id) brfifdje. 



gebrofdjen. 



178 



IREEaULAB VERBS. 



INDICATIVE PRKSEST. J IMPERAT. ) IMPERFECT. j PAST PAKT. 

21. t erfcfyrecfen (neut.), to be frightened. 

id) evfdnTrfe, I am erfdjrirf, id) erfdjraf. erfdjrodeiu 

frightened; bu er= erfdjredt. S. id) erjdjrfifc. 
fdjrtrfft, er crfdjrirft, 
loir evfdjrecfen :c. 

When this verb is intransitive it should be conjugated irregularly. 
However, a), the intransitive imperative erfcfyrecf e is not uncommon, 
and 6) as a sportsman's expression for the sound various animals 
of the deer kind make when alarmed, it is more usually regular. 
The transitive verb should be conjugated regularly, (fcforerfcn, to 
frighten. ) The reflexive verb is better conjugated irregularly. 



22. cjclten, to be worth, pass for. 



Id) gelte, bit gtttfl, er gilt, 
Unr gettcn :c. 



gilt [gelte], 
geltet. 



id) gait. 
S. id) (gfilte) 
golte [gulte]. 



Thus : fccrgelten, to requite. P. p. 

23. gebaren, to bring forth. 



id) gebarc, bugebierflor 
gebfirft, er gebtert or 
gebavt, tutr gebaren. 



gcbter or 
gebare, 
gebort. 



tdj gebar. 
S. id) gebfire. 



24. ^elfen (dat.), to help. 



id) ^ctfc, bu fcitffl, er 
hilft, n)tr Ijelfen jc. 



w, 

^elft. 



id) Ijatj. 
S. id) (fialfe) 
^tttfe. 



gegottem 



geborcru 



ge^olfen. 



id) ne^nte, bu ntmmfl, 
er nimmt, lutr netyntcu 



25. ne^men, to take. 



jttmm id) no^m. gcnomnten. 

[neljme], S. id) italjmc. 
ncf;mt. 

Thus : aB'neljmcn, to take cff ; on'ncfjmen, to accept ; auS'ncfymcn, to 
except ; fjerauss'nebmen/ to take out ; unternel^mcn, to undertake 
(p.p. unternom'tnen); iocg'nc^mcn, to take away; 3urM / nc^men, to 
take back. 



26. fcfyelten, to scold, chide. 



id) fdjette, bu fdjiltft, er 
jdjilt, nrir fdjelteu :c. 



fditit 
fdjeltet. 



id) fdjatt. 
S. id) [fdjatte] 
fdjolte. 



ge(d)oltetu 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



179 



INDICATIVE PRESENT. 



IMPERAT. 



IMPERFECT. 



PAST PART. 



27. fprecfyen, to speak. 



id) fpied)e,bu ftmdjft, er 
ftmdjt, toir fpredjen :c. 



frrtdj, 

[foredje], 

tyredjt. 



id) fpradj. 
S. id) fprcidje. 



flefprodjen. 



Tims : aitS'fprecljen, to pronounce ; entfyre'cfjen, to correspond ; 
fpre'$en, to promise ; iinbcrfare'djen, to contradict. 



28, jhcfyen, to prick, or sting. 



td) t fled)e, bit ftidjft, cr 
fitd)t f tuir ftedjen zc. 



ftid)[fted,c], 
fted)t. 



id) ftad). 
S. id) ftadjc. 



29. ftecfen, to stick (intrans.). 



id) flede, bit jicdEfl, er 



ftede. 



id) ftaf. 



geftodjen. 



geftcdt. 



t 
ftecft, loir ftecfen ?c. 

/".JB. The transitive verb jtecfen, to put, is regular, and the intransi- 
tive one more usually so. flaf and ftctfe (intr.) still occur, but are 
rare in the imperf., and the same is true of fttcfjl, fticJt, in the 
pres. 

30. ftefylen, to steal. 



id) fte()te, bit ftiebtft, er 
ftiefytt, nrir fteljten :c. 



ftiel)([ftebte] | id) fta()t [ftoljt]. 



ftel)(t. 



S. id) ftab,Ie or 



31. t jler&en, to die. 



geftofjfeiu 



geflorben 



oerborfcen. 



The transitive toerberCen, to ruin, is either regular or irregular. 
Jforally ruined is usually berbcrBt and not fcerborfcen. 



id) flerbe, bu ftirbfl, er 
ftirbt, imr flerben K. 


fttrb [fterbe] 
fterbt. 


td) ftarb. 
8. id) (ftarbe), 
ftilrbe. 


32. 
id) t>erberbe,but>erbirbft, 
er toerbirbt zc. 


:rberben, to ^ 

toerbtrb 
[oerberbe], 
Uerberbt. 


jet spoiled. 

id) toerbarb. 
-S 1 . [id) Derbarbe] 
oerbitrbe. 



33. werBen, to sue (=to seek). 



lc^ hierbe, bu hitrtjft, er 
Wtrbt, toir loerben K. 



[iDerbe], 
luerbt. 



id) ttiarb. 
S. id) [tt&rbe] 
lourbe. 



geworben, 



180 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



INDICATIVE PRESENT. 


IMPERAT. 


IMPERFECT. PAST PABT. 


34. roerfen, to throw, fling, cast. 


id) roerfe, bu nrirfft, er 


n)irf[tt)erfe], 


id) njarf. 


gettjorfen. 


toirft, wir toerfen :c. 


roerft. 


S. id) [rtjorfe] 








wurfe. 




Thus: itm'werfen, to upset; toertoer'fen, to reject; toor'toerfen, to 


reproach ; toeg'toerfen, to throw away. 


35. treffen, to hit 


id) treffe, bit trifffl, er 


trtff[treffe], 


id) traf. 


getroffen. 


trifft, roir treffcn jc. 


ttefft. 


S. id) trafe. 




Thus : ein'treffon, to arrive ; ubertref'fen, to excel (p. p. iifcertrof'fen) ; 


an'treffeu (ace.) and jufam'mentteffen (mit), to meet. 


36. beginnen, to begin. 


id) begume, bu beginnft, 


beginne, 


id) begann [or 


begonnen. 


er beginnt jc. 


beginnt. 


begonn, or be^ 








gonnte]. 








S. id) (beganne) 








begonne. 




37. genrinnen, 1 to win, to gain. 


id) getoinne ?c. 


genrinne. 


id) getuann. 


gettjonnen. 






/S'.id)(gettjfinne) 








gewonne. 




38. rinnen/ to leak, to flow. 


id) rinne, bu rinnfl 20. 


rinne. 


id) rann 


geronnen. 






[ronn, rinntej. 








S. id) (ranne) 








ronne. 




39. ftnnen, 1 to meditate. 


id) ftnne, bu finnft zc. 


ftnne. 


id) fann [fonn]. 


gefonnen. 






S. id) (fanne) 








fonne. 





Thus : ftdj Befinnen, to reflect, to remember, cfonnen fctn is, to in- 
tend (to do a thing) ; geftnnt fetn is, to hold certain opinions: e= 
flnnt fein is sometimes used for flefonnen fein, but this usage is not 
to be recommended. The Swiss writers, and sometimes writers 
not Swiss, make this verb regular. 



i The parts not given are formed like those of bfgtnnen. 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



181 



INDICATIVE PRESENT. | IMPERAT. | IMPERFECT. | PAST PART. 



40. fptnnen, 1 to spin. 



idj fptnne, bit fpinnfhc. 



fpinne. 



id) fpann[fpomi] 
S. id) (f panue) 
jpijnne. 



gefponnen. 



41. t fcfyroimmen, 1 to swim. 



fdjrtrimme 



fdjtoimme. 



id) fdjitwmm 
[fd)tt)omm]. 



gefd)n)om 
men. 



me)fd)U)6mme 

c&ftimmcn takes Ijafccn when tlie movement from place to place is 
not prominent (compare 10, p. 172). 



42. t fommen, to come. 



id) fontme, bn fomntft, | lomme. 
or lommfl, er lommt, 
or fdmmt. 



id) !am. 
S. id) fame. 



gelommen. 



WORDS. 



ber )tef>, the thief 

ba8 9to()r, the reed, cane 

ber S!ftatrofe, the sailor 

ber >auptmann, the captain 

ba8 e>t)e{)r f the musket 

ber <Sd)alj, the treasure 

ber 9J?orber, the murderer 

ber jDotd), the dagger 

ber picget, the looking-glass 

ber tadjet, the sting 

ba Onfeft, the insect 

bie 33tene, the bee 



bag 3^ e ^' *^ e wart, target 

bie Nation, baS ^olf, the nation 

bie Sapferfeit, (the) valor 

ber ^lad)^, the flax 

bie SOtfaftigung, (the) moderation 

laben, irr., to load 

reintgen, pu^en, to clean 

ge^ord)en, (dot.), to obey 

jjeigen, (dot.), to show 

Meid), pale 

tobt, dead. 



1 Bee foot-note, page 180, 



182 IRREGULAR VERBS. 

READING EXERCISE 61. 

1. SRer beftefytt ben otbatcn? >ie Offaiere befaljfen ben otbaten, 
ben ^einb cmjugretfen (to attack). 3)er $b'nig fjat befoljlen, bo cin 
neuer ^ataft gebaut wcrbc. 3)er $)teb fyatte ftd) fjinter einer 2ftauer 
fcerborgen. Sftein ofyn, toarum fcerbtrgft bu betn eftdjt (face)? 
Q GtS tft geborften. $a $ofjr btegt ftcfy (bends); abet e$ brtdjt 
nirfjt. 2)er Sebtente fyat bie l)eetajje jerbroc&en. Om Sinter ttrirb 
ba$ etretbe (grain) gebrofdjen. 2)ie gran erfdjraf, al * (when) f\c 
i^ren 2)?ann Jo blei^ fa^. Oebermonn tear bariiber erfc^rorfen. 23a3 
^aben <Ste in ber Sotterie getoonnen? Oc^ Ijabe ^unbert ulben 
geraonnen. 

2. SSenn bu betnem ^ad^bar ^ttfft, fo Ijtlft er bir oud^ hneber. !l)er 
@raf ^ot tJteten Airmen ge^olfen. 35a^ ^inb ^at bag 3J?e[fer genommen. 
2Bariim na^mft bu e8 nic^t h)eg? 3?d) begann gerabe (just) meine 
Arbeit, al3 l ber ^rembe etntrat (came in). 2)ie 5D?atrofen fc^njammen 
itber ben 5^up. 2)ie alte ftiau ^at ^ta^S gefponnen. 2Bot)on Ijaben 
bie lOeute gefprori^en? @ie fagten, ba ber ^er^og toon 2Befltngton 
geftorben i^t. 2Wein ^reunb ift ttom ^ferbe gefatten (fallen) unb ^at 
ben (his) ?lrm gebrocfjen. 2Ber ^at biefen tein geroorfen ? (Sin ^nabc 
hjarf tljn in ba8 Softer, unb bie @d)etbe (pane) ift jerbro^en. 

Stufonbc 62. 

1. The general commands, the soldiers must obey. "Who 
has ordered you (dot.) 2 to "do Hhis? The captain ordered 
me 3 to load J the 2 muskets. Socrates recommended to his 
pupils (dot.) moderation in all things. Many treasures are 
hidden in the earth. The murderer hid his dagger under his 
cloak. Who has broken my looking-glass? The servant broke 
it (see p. 146, 2) this morning, when 1 he s cleaned l the s room. 
You may think that he 3 was l much (f efyr) 2 frightened. I was 
also frightened when I saw it. We must always return (No. 22) 
good for good (ute3 mit ($utem). The duke was born in 
the year 1775. Mary has been * stung by a bee. The sting of 

i To translate when, the student must first consider to what it is equivalent in 
English. If to whenever, as often as, fo oft is a safe translation ; if to as toon as, then 
fobatb ; if to if, then rotnn ; if to now that (e.g., in Are you going to write to him, when he i* 
already dead ?) then fca ; if followed by the English imperfect or pluperfect referring to 
a single occasion, then als ; if meaning on which, in which or at which (e.g., on~the day 
when, at the lime when) ta. The student need hardly be reminded, that when in doubt 
how to translate any English words, the first thing is to consider to what more specific 
English words they are equivalent. 

i In these exercises italics frequently indicate that the passive must bo used. 



IEEEGULAE "VERBS. 



183 



the insect stuck in the wound, and she came to show it to me 
dat-). Frederick H, king of Prussia, died on the 17th [of] 
August, 1786. 

2. "The child is not dead," said Jesus to its father, "it 
sleeps (fd)lcift)." The boy spoils his books; he has also spoiled 
his clothes (^tctber). Of whom have you spoken? We spoke 
of (toon) Columbus. The soldier threw 3 away J his 2 gun. Who 
threw the stone at (nad), with dat.) the window ? I do not know 
who (rocr) threw it. Have you hit the mark ? Yes, I have hit 
it. Can you swim ? I swam over the river yesterday. Who 
spun this flax ? My wife (^rau) spun it during (the) last winter. 
She began the (ace.) day after Christmas (2Bei()nad)t). The 
unhappy men threw themselves at (311, dat.) the feet of the 
king. The Romans excelled (35) all nations in (an) valor. 

The following verbs have fl in the imperfect and it in 
the past participle. These are the only parts which need 
be committed to memory, the rest are formed just like 
those of regular verbs. 



INDICATIVE PRESENT. 



IMPERFECT. 



PAST PART. 



43. Mnben, to bind, to tie.- 



id) btnbe, bu btnbeft, cr 
binbet, tt)tr btnben :c. 



td) banb. 

S. id)banbe[biinbe] 



gebunben, bound. 



Thus : an'Hnben, to attach ; berMnben, to oblige, to join, to dress 
(a wound). 



id) ftnbe. 



. ftnbcn, to find, 
id) fanb [fnnbj. gefunben. 



S. id) fiinbe [fiinbe]. 
Thus : erftn'ben, to invent ; cmpfir.'b'en/ to feel. 



45. f fcfyttnnben, to disappear, to vanish. 



id) fdjroattb 



Id) fdjttnnbe. 



S. id) jdjiufinbe 

[fdjroiinbe], 
Thus: f berfd)itn'fcen, to disappear. 



gefdittmnben. 



184 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



INDICATIVE PRESENT. 



IMPERFECT. 



PAST PART. 



46. nnnben, to wind. 

idj rtnnbe. id) toanb. I gettwnben. 

S. id) toanbe. 

Thru : fi&ertottl'ben, to overcome. P. p. itbcrtoun'ben. But tombcn, to 
blow (of the wind), and lutnben/ to snuff or scent (of a hound 1 , is 
regular. 

47. f brtngen, to press, to urge. 



id) brtnge. 



id) brang. 
S. id) brange 
[briingc]. 



gebritngen. 



Thus : f butdfjbrin'gen, to penetrate ; etn'brtngen, to enter by force. 
Not to be confounded with brangen, tr., to force, which is regular. 

48. t gcltngen (impers.), to succeed. 

e3 getong [getung] e8 ifl mir getnngen, 
mir, I succeed- I have succeed- 
ed, ed. 
gela'nge[getttnge] 
Thus : f miUn'gen, to fail. 



e geltngt mir, I succeed. 
e gcttngt i^m, he suc- 
ceeds, etc. 



- 49. flingen, to sound. 

{rfj fltnge. id) flcmg. geftungcn. 

/S'.id) flange [flitnge] 
Thus : f erfltn'flen, to resound ; t fccrftm'gen, to die away. 



\d) ringe. 



50. rtngcn, to struggle, to wring. 

gcvitngen. 



id) rang. 
| S. id) range. 

Thus : errin'gen, to obtain, conquer. Another verb rinflon, e. <j. in 
bcrtngen, to provide with a. ring, and umrin'flen, to surround, ia 
regular. The imperfect umrang, is, however, sometimes used, 
and still more frequently the past. part, umrungen. 



51. fcfyltngen, to wind, to twine. 



id) fdjttnge. 



gefdjhmgen/ 



id) fdjfong. 
S. id) fdjtangc 

[frfjUtnge], 
Thus : berfi^Un'gen, to devour ; umfrfttin'gen, to embrace. 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



185 



INDICATIVE PRESENT. 



IMPERFECT. 



PAST PART. 



52. fcfynnngen, to swing, brandish, wave. 



id) fd)tmnge. id) fdjmang 

[fdjnntng]. 
S. id) fd)tt>ange 

[fd)ttmnge], 
fcfyfonngen, to provide with wings, is regular. 

53. {tngen, to sing. 



gefd)h)ungetu 



idj ftnge. 



id) fringe. 



id) fang [fung]. 



gefungen. 



S. id) fange [fiinge] 
54. t fprtngen, 1 to spring, to jump. 



aetyritngen. 



id) tyrang [fpritng] 
S. id) fpriingc 

[fyriinge]. 
Thus : JjerauS'ftmngett, to jump out ; f jeiftmn'flm, to burst. 

55. t jtnfen, to sink. 



ftnfe. 



id) fanf [fun!]. 



gcfitnfen. 



S. id) fanfc [fiinle]. 
Thus : Ijeral)'* or Jjmafc'ftnfen, to sink down ; f toerfin'fen, to sink. 
56. trinfen, to drink. 



id) trtnfe. 



id) tranf or trunf. 



getrwtfen. 

>'. id) tran!e[triinfe] ' 
Thus : f ertrtn'fen, to be drowned. 

57. jttnngen, to force, compel. 



id) ;?toang. 
& id) ; ' 



id) jiutngc. 



Thus : Bejttrin'flen/ to conquer ; erjftrin'gen, to obtain by force. 
68. tingen, to hire (a servant). 

id) binge. id) bingte [bang, gebungen. 

bung]. 
8. id) btngctc 
[bange, biinge]. 

Bebingen in the sense of, to make dependent on something, limit,; 
allow only under certain conditions, is almost always regular. 

I Paragraph 10, page 172, on the auxiliary used with fdjunmmcn, applies also tt 
reiten, fliegen, flic^en, and ftte&eiu 



186 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



INDICATIVE PRESENT. | IMPERFECT. 



PAST PART. 



id) fdjtube. 



id) ftutf c. 



69. fd)tncen, to flay. 

id)fd)tmb(orfd)anb, 

fdjhtbete). 
8. id) fdjiinbe 

(fdjdnbe, fd)tnbete) 

. ftinfen, to stink. 

id) ftanf. 

S. id) ftdnfe[ftiinfe]. 

WORDS. 



gefdjunben. 



gefhtnfen. 



bcr ^Sfa^l, the stake, palisade 
bte $ugel, the ball, bullet 
bte 33ntft, the chest, breast 
bie $crt)ne, the standard, flag 
bag <d)teftpult>er, gunpowder 
ber SBUtmenfrang, the garland 
cine tednabet, a pin 
ber SBudjbmber, the bookbinder 
ber trtd, the cord 
bag teb, the song 
bie affe, the cup 
ber 3dger, the hunter 



bag Sftel), the deer, roe 
ber >ag, 3 aim ' *^ e hedge 
ber ^affee, the coffee 
bag (gtenb, (the) misery 
bie Sudjbritd'erfimft, the art of 
bag 33oot, the boat [printing 
erflmgen, to resound 
imter^ol'ten, to amuse 
fdjmiidfen, to decorate, to adorn 
freitmflig, voluntarily 
^itbfd), nice, pretty 
toorftd)tig, cautious. 



READING EXERCISE d3. 

er artner tjat bag 33duntd)en an etnen ^fa^t gebunben. 
berbanb bte SBunbe beg olbaten. 3d) fanb bag ^inb fdjlafenb unter 
etnem 33anme. 33ertf)otb (Sdjiuarj, ein jbeut[d)er, tjat tm 3al)re 1380 
bag @d)teppu(t>er erfunben. Unter ber Sftegtenmg (reign) ^art'g VII 
brangen bte (Sngtdnber in ^ranfrctd) ein, unb fanben nitr etnen fd)ttmd)en 
5Btberftanb (resistance). 3)ie ugel ift bem Offtjter bnrd) bte Sritfl 
gebrungen. 3)ag 'jpferb fprang itber etnen bretten rabcn (ditch). 
jDie Xrom^eten erflangen, bte ^^nen murben ge(d)tt)ungcn, alg ber 
^aifcr na^ete (approached). (Sofrateg tranf ben ($iftbed)er (cup of 
poison), unb ftarb ben Sob beg <Sered)ten. at er t()n freuuitttg 
getrunfen? 2Ber t)at tf)n ge^njungen, btefeg ^u t^un? 3)ag @d)iff ift 
gefunten. 29Bie ^aben @te fid) geftern Stbenb unter^atten ? 2Btr b,aben 
ge^telt, gefungen unb getrunfen. 2)te 2)?dbd)en ^aben Slumenfrdnge 
genjunben, um bte ^dufer ju fdjmiiden. 



IBBEGULAE YErtBS. 187 

SlufgoBe 64. 

1 . I do not find my stick. I found these violets in your 
garden and tied them [together] in (i. e., into) a (ace.) bunch 
(@trau$, ni.). Where did she find that pin? She (has) found 
it in the street. They found a purse of (nut) gold. What 
bookbinder bound your nice book? It was Mr. Long, who 
*lives *in '(the) "King-Street. I succeeded in catching (^u 
fangen) the thief. He was* immediately (fog(eid)) bound with 
cords. Miss Emma sang a fine song. The songstress has 
sung admirably (untnberfdjon). "Would you like to 2 drink a 
glass [of] wine ? I thank you, I have drunk already two cups 
[of] coffee. The ladies drank tea and ate cake. 

2. The cat sprang over the table. A German called (9?amenS) 
Gutenberg, invented the art of printing. When (afS) the 
hunter came, 'the 3 deer 'had (roar 3 ) sprung over the hedge. 
The boat sank before our eyes. If the captain Lad been more 
cautious, 2 she (c) *would 3 not have (fein) sunk. Lord Byron 
swam across the (itber beu) Hellespont. The poor woman wrung 
her hands in despair (t>or ^kr^ttieiffitng). (The) misery forced 
me to steal, said the prisoner. Misery should 4 not have forced 
him to do wrong (Unredjt). My friends have forced me to 
become [a] soldier. 

READING LESSON. 

$er IjWtgrtge Strofict. The hungry Arab. 

(Sin 9lraber Ijatte fid) in ber SBiifte (desert) bertrrt 6 ; er fjatte fett 
(for) meljrercn agen9M)t3 gegeffen, unb fitrdjtete bor (of) mnger 311 
fterben. Snbtid) 6 taut er an cinen (one of) bon jcnen Srunnen, 7 too 
bie $aratt)anen i^re .^ ! ameele trdnfcn, 8 unb fat) einen lebernen <Sad 9 auf 
bent (Sanbe Itegen. (Sr fjob 10 i^n auf unb befitfjlte 11 i^n. ,,ott fei 
2)anf !" rtef 2 er au8, ,,bafi 13 ftnb 3)attetn w ober 



1 Here and in some of the following exercises the passive voice is indicated by italics. 

2 See p. 97, 1st Cond. 

When a dependent clause comes first, the principal clause takes the question order. 
< See p. 99. 

6 lost his way. at last. well, fountain. to water. a leathern bag. 10 auf ^f Bet 
(141), to pick up, take up. u to touch, to feel. 12 auSrufen (110), to exclaim. i3Sep.l62 

It HAMS. 



188 IBREGULAR VERBS. 

On btefer fiiften >offnung l Ivetlte er ftd) (he hastened), ben 
gu b'ffnen 2 ; ober er fanb fid) in fctner (grnwrtung geta'ufd)t (disap- 
pointed). j)er Qad mar mtt 1j3erlen gefiittt. 

3)ann tunrbc er traurtg 3 unb fiet 4 auf feine $mee unb bat @ott, 
ba{5 er U)ii lion fctner 9?ot^ 5 erretten (save) unb if)m ^>ilfe fdjirfen 
morfjte. <2ein ebet 6 n)urbe erl)ort ; benn (for) itad) enter tunbc 
font ber SD'ionn, ber ben @ocf toerloren (125) fyatte, ouf einem ^ameete 
rettenb (riding) ^urucf, nm i^n gu fudjen. (Sr tuar fet)r gtiicfltd), ttjn 
niteber 311 ftnben, I)atte 2Ritteib 7 mit bent armen ^Irober, erquicfte 8 t^n 
mtt Spetfe unb ranf, fe^te i^n ju ftd) 9 ouf fein Wanted unb fe^rtc 
gu ber ^arahjane 



1 swt hope. J to open. 3 Borrowf uL < Jkl, Imperf. of f atttn, to fall (99). n distres*. 
prayer, t compassion, t refreshed. with himself (literally and really, to himself) 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



189 



TWENTY-SEVEXTH LESSOR. 



The following verbs have 2 in the iinpeifect and past 
participle. 



INDICATIVE PRESENT. 



IMPERFECT. 



PAST PART. 



61. betfjen, to bite. 



id) beifce, bu beifceft, er 
beifjt, roir beifteu :c. 



idj bifc. 



gebiffen. 



62. beflci'jjen (ftcfy), to apply one's sell 



id) befli mid). 



befliffen. 



d) befletfje mid), bu be* 
fleifjeft bid), er beflet^t 
fid), roir beflei^en un3 :c. 

The other form of this verb : ftcb beflet'jjigen, is regular, efliffen, 
zealous, from the obsolete fid) fleifccn, still occurs. 



63. t erblei'cfyen, to turn pale. 



id) erblid). 



erblidjen. 



d) erbteidje, bu erbtei^ft, 
cr erbleid)t,tt)ir erbtet^en. 

Thus : f uer&teicfcen, to fade. P. p. toer6(id)en. 

The simple verb IMfon, to bleach, is regular when transitive, and the 
intransitive btetcfeen may be so ; but etblcidjen andtterbletcfren, in the 
sense of to depart this life, have hardly any other forms in the past 
part, than erblidjen, 



64. gretfen, to grasp, gripe. 



griff. 



gegrtffen. 



id) greife, bu greifft, er 
gretft, roir gretfen :c. 

Thus : Begrei'fen, to understand, to conceive ; ergret'fen, to seize 
(P.p. ergriffen); an'greifen, to attack (P. p. att'gegriffen). 



65. gteic^en (dot.), to resemble. 



id) gtic^ or gteidjte. 



gegUdjen or 



id) gfetifo bu gfeidift, . _ . _ . 
er gleicfyt, roir gleidjeu jc. gegleidjt. 

Thus : berglei'dien, to compare. P. p. fcergttdjen. (eidicn is generally 
irregular when intransitive, although the regular imperfect some- 
times occurs. Generally regular when transitive, though here 
the irregular imperfect and past part, are not unusual. The com- 
pounds scarcely occur with any other imperf. and past part, thaa 
the irregular ones. 



190 



KKEGULAB VERBS. 



INDICATIVE PRKSKNT. 



IMPEKFECT. 



PAST PAKT. 



66. t glctten, l to glide, slide. 



id) gleite, bu gteiteft, er 



id) glitt (gleitete). 



geglitteu(gegleitet). 



gfcitet, luir gleiten :c. 

N. B. tegietten, to accompany, is regular and takes Ija&en. 

67 fneifen, to pinch. 



id) fnetfe, bit fneiftf, er 



id) fatff. 



gefniffen. 



fnetft, urir fneifen zc. 

N. B. Another form : hidden/ to pinch, is usually regular, fneifen 
may be regxilar. $neipen, to sit drinking at a tavern, is regular. 



68. leifcen, to suffer. 



id) leibe, bit tetbefi/ ev 
leibet, loir feiben ?c. 



id) tttt. 



gelitten. 



?eibcn, to harm, also to be repugnant, is regular. So also Beletben, 
entleiben, toerlciben, and 6emit(eiben, to pity. 



69. pfeifen, to whistle. 



id) pfetfe, bit ^feifft, er I id) pftff. 
pfeift, nnr pfeifen ?c. 

70. reifcn, to rend, to tear. 



gepfiffen. 



id) reie, bu rei^eft, er 



id) rife. 



geriffen. 



rei^t, rt)ir reifcen :c. 

Thus : jerrei'pen, to tear ; entrei'fjen, to tear from, snatch away. 

71. t rotten, 2 to ride. 



tdj reite, bu rettefl, er reitet, 



id) ritt. 



geritten. 



hnr retten ac. 

Thus : f ijorfcci'reitm, to ride by ; t foajietm retten, to take a ride. 
N. B. 33ereitcn, to prepare (from berett, ready), and toor'bereiten, to 
prepare (beforehand), are regular. 

72. fcfyletfen, to sharpen, to grind. 



id) fditeife, bu frf)(eifft, er 



id, fdjtiff. 



gefd)Itffen. 



fdjleift, tt)ir fdjleifen :c. 

Always irregular when it means to sharpen or grind ; regular or 
irregular when it means to glide; in other senses properly only 
egular. 

i Takes fiabcn when it means to slide on the ice (for amusement). Compare 10, p. 17X 
a See 10, pace 172. 



iREEGttLAB VERBS. 



191 



INDICATIVE PRESENT. 



IMPERFECT. 



PAST PART. 



73. t fcfyletcfyen, to sneak or steal along. 



idj fdjtetdje, bu frf)leid)ft, id) fdjlidj. 
er [d)(etdjt, ttJtr fdjfetdjen. 

74. fhretcfyen, to stroke. 



id) flretdje, bu fh-eidjft, er 



id) ftridj. 



gefdjttdjen. 



gejtridjett. 



jireidjt, toir ftreidjen :c. 

Thus: cut'ftmchen, to scratch out ; an'ftretc&en, to paint ; unterjtret'djen, 
(p. p. unterftrt'djcn\ to underline. $nie?heicf)en, to comb wool with 
the finest comb, and jtaats>ftreid)en, to carry out a coup d'etat, are 
regular. 

75. fcfymeiJKtt, to fling, to turn out. 



id) fdjmeifee, bit fdjmeifteft, 
er fd)mei^t K. 



gefdjmiffen. 



76. fcfynetben, to cut. 



id) fdjneibe, bu fdjnetbeft, id) fdjnitt. 



er fd)iteibet, n)ir fdjneiben. 

Thus : oB'i^ineiben, to cut off. P. p. ab'gejcfjmtten. 



gefdjnitten. 



77. t fcfyretten, to stride, to step. 



id) fdjreite, bu fd)reiteft, er id) fdjritt. 



gefdjritten. 



fdjreitet, loir fdjretten K. 

78. ftretten, to quarrel, contend, fight. 

tdj ftrette, bu ftreiteft K. \ tdj ftrttt. | geftrttten. 

Thus : Bejftet'ten, to contest, to dispute. 

79. t tt>etd)en, to yield. 

td) tueidje, bu ftjeidjft ac. | idj raid). | getoidjen. 

Thus : f au^'= or cifc'toeicften, to deviate ; f entoet'cfyen, to escape. 
W. -B. SBeii^en, to soften, is a regular verb. 



192 IRREGULAR VERBS. 

WORDS. 

ba3 3?etn, the leg ber <2tern, the star 

ba3 ager, the camp bie Ueberfe'fcung, the translation 

ber $mitptmann, the captain ba$ (Stitcf, the piece 

ber Mft, the branch bo 3?ajternteffer, the razor 

ber Xrncffefjter, the misprint bemerfen, to perceive 

ber $ampf, the combat ergreifen, to seize 

bie famine, the flame toorberetten, reg., to prepare 

ba0 Beidien ) ft rf j ^ au f^k [ to turn out 

ba3 (Signal', ) tjmauSfdjmetfcen, j 



READING EXERCISE 65. 

er junge 9)?ann fyqt ftrf) feb,r befttffen, 2)eutfd) 311 ternen. 
feunb ^at mid) in (lit into, inasmuch as the ace. and not the dat. 
follows in) ba8 33em gebtj|en. S)o8 2JZdbd)cn gtttt <w8 unb brad^ em 
S3ein. 3d) Ware auc^ gegtttten, luenn man mid) ntd)t ge^atten (held) 
fycitte. !j)ie ^etnbe fatten bag ager angegrtffen. 3)er ^pauptmann 
ergriff fetnen 2)egen. 3)te Jotter gtetd)t tfyrer 2Wutter. 5)te armen 
efangeuen fyaben ptel gelitten. 2)er @turm Ijat Dtele 5lefte pon ben 
23a'umen abgertffen. 3Jietne c^u^e ftnb gerriffcn. 2Barum btfl bu fo 
fdjnett geritten? Unfcrc (Solbaten f)aben tote >clben geftrttten; fte ftnb 
aber enblt^ bem ^einbe getuic^en. 2)er 23mb pfiff bitrc^ bie 33tiume. 
Gtntge jDrnrffefjIer b,aben fic^ in ba3 Sud) cingefc^U^en (crept in). 
3)a3 ^inb b,at ji^ in ben finger gefdjnttten. ^Don Ouirote fdjliff jetn 
d^toert unb befafjl feinem treuen 2)tener (Sanc^o ^Janfa, ftc^ ju etnem 
neuen ^ampfe porgnberetten. 

uf galie 66. 

1. The dog bit me. He bites everybody. Were you also 
bitten? William Tell perceived a large flame ; but he coulJ 
not conceive whence (tooljer') this signal came. Day dawns (erf 
ttnrb Jag); the stars have faded. The young gentleman applied 
himself to learn French. I compared my translation wita 
yours, and found only two mistakes in it (see p. 147). Our 
dog has been torn [to pieces] by a wolf. The traveller cut a 
piece of meat and laid it on his (ace.) bread. Have you made 
(cut) my pen? Be so kind [as] to make it. The hunter strode 
across (itber) the field. 

2. Tour penknife is not sharpened. The thief opened the 
door and stole into the house ; but he was soon seized by a 



HmEGtTLAR VERBS. 193 

servant and turned out (fnnaug-). During my illness * I * have 
suffered much. Did you suffer mucli pain (2rf)mer?en, p j .) ? 
"Who whistled ? Charles whistled with a key. The beggar's 
coat was quite torn. The king rode on a grey horse. Who 
has sharpened this razor ? I do not know who 3 has 'sharp- 
ened J it. The enemy yielded on all sides (auf aflen (Setten.). 

The following verbs have \t in the imperfect and past 
participle. 

80. t bletben, to remain, to stay, Imp. id) blteb. Past part. 

gebltcben. 

Thus : f aitg'fcleikn, to stay away ; f gurucMJIeifcen, to stay behind. 

81. rcibcn, to rub. Imp. id) neb. Part, gerteben. 

Thus : ouf'reifcen, to destroy ; gmei'fcen, to rub to powder. 

82. fcfyretben, to write. Imp. id) fdjrteb. Part, gefdjrieben. 

Thus : ab'fdiretBen, to copy ; Befcfcm'Ben, to describe ; imterfcfym'Btn, 
to sign (p. p. unterfdme'ben). 

83. treiben, to drive. Imp. id) trteb. Part. getrtefcen. 

Thus : toertret'ben, to expel ; ufcertret'Ben, to exaggerate. 

84. meiben, to shun. Imp. ic^ mteb. Part, gemteben. 

Thus : bermei'ben, to avoid. 

85. fo^eibcn, to separate. Imp. id) f(|ieb. Part, gefctyteben. 

Thus : entfcfeei'bcn, to decide ; imterfcfyet'ben, to distinguish, djeiben, 
to sheath, is regular. 

86. t gebetfy'en, to thrive. Imp. ify gcbtcb (gebcit)(e)te). Part. 

gebiefyen. 

87. Icil)en, to lend. Imp. i^ liel;. Part, geltefyen. 

88. fd)rcien, to crj, scream. Imp. id) ferric. S. id) fd^ncc. 

Part, gejc^rieen. 

89. fpeten, to spit. Imp. ify fpie [fpette]. S. fptcc [fpetete], 

Part, gefpieen, gefpet(c)t 

90. ijerjeilj'en, to pardon. Imp. id) ijerjie^ [er*eibte]. 

S. serjic^e [oerjei^ete]. Part, serjie^en [erjei^t]. 

91. preifen, to praise, extol. Imp. id) prte^. Part, gepriefcn, 

SoB^reifen, to extol, has lofyrteS or lob^retpe, toBge^riefen, gelofyrtefan, 



194 ERREGtlLAR VERBS. 

92. rcetfen, to show. Imp. id) roie$. Part, gerotefeiu 

Thus : betoei'fen, to prove ; crroct'fen, to show. 

93. fdjetnen, to shine, to seem. Imp. id) fdjien. P. gefdnenen. 

Thus : erfcftei ncn, to appear. The verbs befcfiemfigjen, to certify, and 
beaitflenjdjein jg)en, to look at, are regular. 

04. fdjroeigen, to be silent. Imp. id) fdjnrieg. P. gefdjrotegen. 

Thus : tocrfdttijet'flen, to conceal, to keep secret, rfntetgen, to cause 
to keep silent, with compounds of the same sense, is regular. 

95. t ftetgen, to mount. Imp. id) jtteg. Part. gefKegen. 

Thus : f oB'fletgen, to alight ; f Ijinab'jlei^cn or ficvaB 'fifteen, to descend, 
to get down ; f fytnauf'fietflen, to mount, to ascend '^erfiei'gen, to 
mount, to climb up. teigern, to bid at an auction, is regular. 

96. fyeifjen, to be called. Imp. id) fyiefj, I was called. Part. 

geljetpen (not gefyiefjen). 

Thus : terljei'fjen, to promise. P. p. toerfjeijjen. 

WORDS. 

bcr 55erfaffcr, the author ber o^ ac f)8/ the flax 

bte ttinme, the voice ber tpfel, the top 

bte <onne, the sun laut, loud 

bie $itfte, the coast ^efl f gltin^enb, bright 

eine <Sette, a page beletbtgen, to oflfend 

bte efd)td)te, history ongeben, to mention 
etn Sillet' or Srief^en, a note retten, to rescue, to save 

em (Sc^dfer, a shepherd ^fttg, violent 

beril^mt, famous jornig, angry. 

READING EXERCISE 67. 

2Bo bliebft bu fo lange ? 3d) btieb gwet tunben auf (in, h't. upon) 
bem ^affee^aufe. SBie lange tft 3^r ^reunb geblieben ? Sr ift nur 
eine <5hmbe gebtieben. 2Ber ^at jeneS 23ii^ gefdjneben ? 3d) feune 
ben S3erfaffer ntdjt; fein 9Jame tft auf bem 33ud)e ntdjt angegeben. 
SBarum ^aben @te ben Untgang (intercourse) btefeS 9J?anneg ntdjt 
gemteben ? ^reten @te ntd)t fo lout. 3d) ^abe ntdjt fo laut gefdjrteen. 
SSte fyetfjen @te? 3c^ ^etpe grtebrtc^. 2Bte ^ie^ O^re 3)?ittter? @te 
In'ejj Sltfabett). SBenn (5te gefdjtotegen flatten, fo roitrben te 9?temanb 
beleibtgt fjaben. jDer erettete prie ott nut laitter <5timme. 3)er 
Sftetfenbe roar auf ben 53erg geftiegen ; at (when) t^ ifyn fa^, ftteg id) 
aud) fjtnauf. te onne f^ten fetjr luarm, ats roir ben SBerg fjtnab* 



UtREGULAK VEKBd. 195 



ftiegen. 2Ber b,at Sfynen biefeS <$elb geltefjen ? 2Jtein -ftarfjbar lie!) es 
mir unter bcr SBebingung (condition), ba id) eg ifjm in ad)t agen 
timber guriicfgebe. (Sin fyeftiger Sturm trieb unfcr <2rf)iff an bie $ufte. 
2Bie lange finb @ie auf bem 23atte geblieben ? 2Bir blieben big fitter* 
nadjt (midnight). 

68. 



1. Remain here till (6t3) to-morrow. How long did your 
cousin stay ? He stayed an hour. I am writing a long letter ; 
yesterday 2 1 1 wrote three pages ; to-day 2 1 ^hall write two 
more (nod) gtoet). That English history was written by a 
famous author. I wrote a note to him. The shepherd drove 
the sheep into the fold (in ben 'Bferrf)). This year 2 the 3 flax 
1 has (ift) not thriven. Why did the boy cry so loud ? The son 
said: "Dear father, pardon me (dot.) this fault;" and the 
father pardoned him. The three men in the furnace (gtues* 
ofen) praised God with a loud voice. 

2. I lent my book to some one, but I cannot remember (tdj 
fann mid) nid)t erinnern) who it was. 1 Perhaps s you ( 2 have) 
lent 4 it to (dot.) 6 Mr. S. That may be. The sun shone 
brightly. All animals and plants seem to have been created 
(gefcfjaffen 311 fein, see 5, p. 140) for (the) man (mankind). The 
king seemed to be angry. If you had been (subjunctive) 
silent, 2 you Vould not have offended him. Speaking (inf.) 
is silver ; silence (Sdjmeigen) is gold. How high did the trav- 
eller mount? He ascended to (big auf, ace.) the top of the 
mountain. 

The following verbs have \t in the imperfect, but in 
the past participle the same vowel as in the present. 
The second and third persons singular of the present 
modify the vowel of the stem. 

INDICATIVE PRESENT. IMPEEFECT. PAST PART. 



97. fclafen, to blow. 



$ fcfafe, bn Haft (blafeft, 
btfifeft), er btaft (6Iafct\ 
toir btafen, ib,r blaft, fte 
blafett. 



id) btieS. 



geblafen. 1 



1 Observe that all irregular verbs which have a in the infinitive, retain this vowel 
In the past participle. 



196 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



INDICATIVE PRESENT. 



IMPERFECT. 



PAST PART. 



98. frraten, to roast. 



id) fcrate, bu bratft or bra- 
teft, er brat or bratet, nnr 
braten, iljr bratet :c. 



id) brict (bratete.) 



99. t fallen, to falL 



gebraten. 



gef alien. 



id) fafle, bit faGft, er fattt, I id) ftet. 
nnr faflen, ifyr fallt :c. 

Thus : f I)cra6'faflen, to fall down ; gefot'Ien, to please ; f ein'faflen, to 
occur to the mind ; mifefal'len, to displease ; f jcrfal'len, to decay; 
not to be confounded with fallen, to fell, which is regular. 



100. fcmgen, to ca,tch. 



fdj fonge, bu fangft, er 



id) fing,fi(e)ng. 



fangt, tt)tr fangen jc. 

Thus : an'fangen/ to begin ; ? mpfan'gen, to receive. 

101. fyalten, 1 to hold. 



gefangen. 



id) f>alte, bu fialtft, er fjatt, 



id) b,te(t. 



geljatten. 



mtr fatten :c. 

Thus : oB'^altcn, to prevent ; auf'ljalten, to detain ; ein'^altcn, to stop; 
befcal'tcn, to keep ; cr^al'ten, to receive (p. evt*atten x . 

102. fyangen, to hang, to be suspended. 



id) fjange, bu b,angfi 



(b,angft),er^angt(b,angt), 
ir fangen x. 

Thus : a&'ljangen (Don), to depend (upon), 
fangen, to hang up (transitive), is regular. 



id) b,tng. 



geljangen. 



103. loffen, to let, 2 to leave. 



trfjlaffe, bula^t (laffeft), 
er la'fet, wir laffen :c. 



id) lie 



getaffen. 



Sa is very much more usual than laffe in the imperative. 

Thus : toerlaf'fen, to leave (a place), to quit ; ju'Iaffen, to admit ; 

jurucf' laffen, and Ijinterlaf' fen, to leave behind. 
N. -B.S3eran 'loffen, to cause, is regular. 

fatten with the preposition fflr answers to the English to consid r o% to t'inJc. to taJct 
to be. Ex.: 3$ ^atet^nfflreinen e^tti^en aflann, I consider ttaink)him(tobe>n Uoneet 
man. 

19 let (e. g.. a house), c ermttt^eiu 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



197 



INDICATIVE PRESENT. 



IMPERFECT. 



PAST PART. 



104. ratten, to advise. 



id) ratfye, bit ratfyft, er ratty, 



id) rieti). 



geratljen. 



nrir ratljcn x. 

Thus : crra'then, to guess; ai'ratljen, to dissuade. SRatfien, reg., some- 
times occurs contrasted antithetically with tfyaten. Even outside 
of such sentences bu ratlj(e)jt and cr. ratfjet are sometimes found, but 
are better not used. 



105. fcfylafeu, to sleep. 



ttf) fdjtafe, bu fd)tcifft, cr 



id) fd)Iief. 



feljldft, tmr fdjlafen jc. 

Thus f f etn'fdjlafen, to fall asleep. 

106. t Iflitfen, to run. 



td) taufe, bu lauffl [taufft], 



id) lief. 



er Iciitft [lanftji U)ir Ian- 
fen JC. 

Thus : f entfau'fcn, to run away. 

107. fycmen, to he-w. 



gefdjtafert. 



getaufen [getoffcn]. 



id) tyaite, bu ^aufl, er fyaut, 
toir tyauen jc. 



trfj 



(tyaute). 



S. Ijiebe (Ijauete). 



Thus : ct&'Ijauen, to cut off ; jerljau'en. to cut to pieces. 

108. t gefyen, to go. 



id) gefje, bu geljft, er gefyt, id) gi(e)ng. gegangen. 

loir geljen *c. 

Thus : f au'gdjm, to go out ; f fymetn'gdjen, to go in, to enter ; 
t fort'gefyen, to go away, to leave ; f berge'tien, to vanish, to pass ; 
t fcorbei'geljen, to pass by ; f jurM'gefien, to go back. 



109. flof en, to push. 



i$ftoie,bttfHfit[floeft], 



id) ftte. 



er [top [ftojjt], 
flo^en K. 

Thus : an'flcen (followed by an with ace.), to run against ; toerflo'fjen, 
to reject, to cast out. 

110. rufen, to call. 

id] rufe, bu rufft, er ruft, id) ricf [rufte]. I gerufen [geruft] 
twr rufen :c. 

Thus : aug'tttfen, to exclaim 5 3urucE / rufen, tc call back. 



198 IRREGULAR VERBS. 

WORDS. 

ber SBinb, the wind btc 5lnget, the fish-hook 
bcr <2d)mager, the brother-in- bag Wfy, the net 

law fcmft, soft, softly 

ber 9atf), advice fodjen, to boil 

$opfn)ef), head-ache madjtig, mighty 

ber ftttljrer, the leader toitb, wild 

ber rirfd), stag fd)h)ad), feeble 

ber 33ad), the brook gasmen, to tame 

bte @ered)ttgtett, justice bcfreien, to deliver, to release 

bie 2fttif$tgfett, temperance toerbannt, banished! 

HEADING EXERCISE 69. 

3)er Stnb Haft ntdjt ftarf; geftent fcfieS er ftarfer. )er $od) h>t 
ba3 gleifd) nidjt gut gebraten. 2)er 25ogel fiet tobt bom j>ad)e. 2ftit 
perf (bacon) fa'ngt man 2fta'ufe. Sin ^b'njc tourbe in etnem 9?e^c 
gcfangcn, ba fam erne 5D?au unb bcfrette tf)n. giir rtien ^altft (take) 
bu ntirf) ? 3d) er^tett eincn S3rief ton nteinem @d)tt)ager. Sin <Sd)U)crt 
t)ing iiber bem >aupte (head) be8 $)amo!Ie. 2Ba ratljen @ie mir: 
fott id] bteiben ober gefjen? Ifflan rietb^ ifym, ^ter 311 bleiben. jDiefe 
toar etn fd)Ied)ter Sfath,; e8 toa're befjer fiir ih^n geicefen, fort^ugeljen. 
S)er err rief fcinen 2)iener. 3)iefer fragte feinen ^)errn: >aben (Sie 
mid) geritfen ? S)aS ^inb fdjlaft fanft. 2)er Stobte lag ba, ate toenn 
(as if) er fd]tiefe. ^>aben <5>ie le^te yiafyt gut gefdjlafen ? -3d) h^abc 
nur rtenig gefdjlafen, roeit id) ^opfnjeb^ b^atte. 9Kan Ite ib^n nid)t 
fortgeb^en, ttrnl er gu fd)h)ad) tear. SSenn ber ^nabe nod) einmal 
(again) an ben ifd) ftot, [fo] toirb er beftraft ttierbcn. SSarum lauft 
53olf fo gufammen (together) ? 9}2an b^at etnen 3)ieb gefangea 
<Sic audj getaufen ? 3d) lief nut ber Sftencje (crowd). 

9tuf fi tt(.c 70. 

The wind blows hard (ftarf); yesterday J it J blew not so 
hard. Is this meat boiled or roasted? It is roasted. The 
gardener fell from the tree. If he had (to are) not fallen down, 
* he l would have caught the bird. Fifty soldiers with their 
leader were caught. The stag came out of the forest and 
went to the (an ben) brook. The hunter catches wild beasts, 
but he cannot tame them. The Romans considered (101) 

i See Part n, 38th lesson, 6. 2 to leave a place = tuifaffcn not (affen. See foot- 
note 2, p. 111. 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 199 

wisdom, 1 justice, 1 and temperance ' as (fiir) the greatest virtues. 
(The) fish are caught with the net and (with) the hook. I 
advised him (dat.) to go to America. How long did you sleep 
(pcrf.}l I slept [for] seven hours. The girl ran to (^t) her 
mother and told her (dot.) what 2 had happened (9). The old 
man has been pushed out of the house. Cicero left 2 Rome 
when (al) he saw that his enemies were 3 mightier than his 
friends. Alcibiades was banished from Athens (cw$ 5ltb,en'), 
but he was soon called back. 



READING LESSON". 

$ociufo'g IjJferb. Kosciusko's Horse. 

$ocutfo, bcr cblc ;]SoIe, luoflte (wished) etnfi 1 cittern etfHtdjen 3 
$u (Solotljunt (Soleure) etntge gtafdjen guten SBetneS fdjiden.. (Sr 
h)df)(te 3 ba^u etnen jungcn Sttann, 9?amen3 3eltner, un & ^ ^ m f^ r 
bte 9Jctfe fetit etgene (own) Sftettpferb. 511^ 3 e ^ er juriicffattt, fagtc 
ev : ,,9)?etn gtlbfyerr, 4 tc^ irerbc -3f)r ^Pferb ntcf)t lutcber 5 retten, tuenn 
@ie tntr ntc^t 6 gugteid)' ' Sfyve Sorfe (purse) tet^en." ,,2Bte tneinen 
(Ste ba (what do you mean by that) ?" fragtc ^o8cttt8fo. 3 e ^ tner 
ontroortcte : ,,<2obalb' (as soon as) etn 3trnter auf ber Ifrmbftrafte 8 
fetnen ^>ut abnal)m 9 , unb tttn em 3l(mofen 10 bat, jlanb bag ^Jferb 
augenbltcfltdj u ftttte, unb ging 12 ntd)t e^er Don ber telle 13 , bis (till) 
ber Settler ettua empfangen (100) ^atte ; unb aU id) atte6 Oelb au8* 
gegeben (spent) Ijatte, fonnte id) ba3 ^ferb nur gufrtebenftetten 1 * unb 
orroartS brtngen 15 , tnbem id) nttd) ftettte (by pretending), bent 
Stttenben etroaS gu geben. 



i one day. - a clergyman. 3 he choserfor this purpose. 4 general, s again. 

ntdjt, conj. unless, i at the same time, s road, a atneljmen, to take off. 10 for 

charity, alms. 11 immediately. 12 ten ber Stctte getyen/ to stir from the spot. i=no 
sooner. H to satisfy, content, is to get him on. 



200 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



TWENTY-EIGHTH LESSON. 



The following verbs have o in the imperfect and past 
participle. 



INDICATIVE PRESENT. 



IMPERFECT. 



PAST PART. 



We give first such as have \t in the present : 
111. betriigen, to cheat, deceive. 



id) betritge, bu betriigfl 
[betreitgft], er betrttgt 
[=treugt], imr betritgen K. 



id) betrog. 
S. id) betroge. 



betrogen. 



112. t biegen, to bend (fein or fyaben). 

id) biegc, bu btegft [beugfl], id) bog. gebogcn. 

er btegt [beugt], nrir 
biegen jc. 

113. btetcn, to oflEer. 

id) btete, bit btetefl [beittfl, id) bot. gebotcn. 

beuft], cr bietet [beut], 
hrir bieten K. 

Thus : an'fcteten, to oflEer ; berbte'ten, to forbid. 

114. f piegcn, to fly (sometimes Ijaben, see 10, p. 172). 



id) flog. 



geflogen. 



id) fttege, bu 
[flcugfl], er fliegt 
[fleugt], h)tr fliegen jc. 

Thus : t fort'flteflen, to fly off ; f wegfltegen, to fly away. 

115. t fltefyen, to flee. 

id) flo^. 

er fliegt [fleiidjt], ton 
flie^en K. 

Thus : f entfftelj'ttt/ to run away, to escape. 



geflo^en. 



116. t fttefjen, to flow (sometimes 



fltefee, bu flie^efl 
fleufet], er fltefet 
fleuft], rotr ftte^en :c. 



id) fto. 



see 10, p. 172). 
geffoffen. 



IRREGUIAll VERBS. 



201 



INDICATIVK PRESENT. 



IMPERFECT. 



PAST PAET. 



117. frteren, a) to be cold, I) to freeze stiff, hard. I) takes feitt, 
id) frtere, bit frier ft, cr id) fror. 
friert, imr fricren :c. 

Thus : f geftie'ren, to freeze (hard); f erfrte'ren, to freeze to death. 

118. gemefjien, to enjoy, to eat. 



id) geno. 



genoffen. 



gegoffen. 



id) gentejje, bit gentepeft [ge* 
neufir], er geniefct [ge* 
neutj, loir genieften :c. 

119. gtefien, to pout. 

giee,fctt0ieefi[geut], id) gofj. 
giefet [geufjtj, lutr 
giefcen :c. 

Thus : ait^'aiepcn, to pour out ; fccgie'fjen, to water ; ftrf) ergte'en, to 
empty (of rivers); tocrQte'^eu, to shed (e. g. t blood). 

|20. f fried) en, to creep, to crawl, (sometimes fyaben, when 
not so much a change of place in the subject is 
prominent in the sense of the word, as the fact 
that the change of place was by deeping). 



id) frod). 



gefrodjen. 



id) friedje, bit fricd)ft 
[freudjft], er !rted)t 
[freudjt], nnr friedjen :c. 

121. riecfyen, to smell. 
id)riedje,bitried)ft[reud)ft], id) rod). 

er riedjt [reudjt], wir 
riedjeit K, 

122. fcfyiepen, to shoot, 
id) frf)iee, bit fdjie^efi, er j id) fdjofe. 

t, lutr fd)teen ?c. | 
Thus : bcid)te y cn, to bombard ; erfdjie'fjen, to shoot (to kill). 

123. fcfyltefjen, to lock, to shut. 



gerodjen. 



gefdjoffen. 



id) fd)Iiee, bu fd)Hcefl 
ffdjleufet], er fd)ttct 
[fditeit^t], loir fdjliefeen K. 



id) 



gcfd)toffen. 



Thus : fcefdjlte'fjeti, to conclude, resolve ; ein'fdjltelen, to shut up, to 
enclose ; au^'fd)Itccn, to exclude ; toerfdjlte'jjen, to lo< " 



to unlock ; 3u'J!f)Ue|en / to close. 



to lock ; auf ' 



202 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



INDICATIVE PRK8ENT. ( IMPERFECT. 



PAST PART. 



124. serbrtef en, to vex. 



td) toerbrtepe, bit berbrteftcft, 
er Derbrteftt [oerbreuftt], 
nrir Derbrtefjen :c. 



id) fcerbrofe. 



125. serlieren, to lose. 

id) toerltere, bit berlierfl, er I id) fcertor. 
fcerltert, roir berlteren :c. I 



Derbroften. 



oertoren [toertefeit]. 



126. nnegen (intrans.), to weigh, to be of weight. 

td) totecie, bit tmegft, er id) tocg. geioogen. 

ttJtegt, unr rotegen K. 

SBifften, to rock (transitive) is regular. SBdgen (transitive), to weigh, 
is more frequently regular, but may have toog/ getcoflen. Gtttdgen, 
to weigh, consider, always has erwoa, erwoflen. elriegt means, at 
home in, well acquainted with, while getcogen, used adjectively, 
means, well disposed. 

127. Jte(>en, to draw, to pull. 

id) giefje, bit jjte^fl [acudjft] , id) ^og. g egogra. 

er jieljt [geudjt], wtr 
gie&en ^c. 

Thus : on'jte^en, to put on (clothes); auS'jleljen, to take off (clothes). 

128. fcfyieben, to shove, push. Imp. id) fc^ob. Part, gefctyoben. 

129. ftcten, to boil, to seethe. Imp. id) ftcbctc (fott). Part. 

gefotten or gejtebet. ott can not be used figure 
tively. 

130. t fprteen, to sprout. Imp. fpro [fprtefjte]. Part. 

gefproffen [gcfprtet], Pres. id) fprtefe, tu fpricf efl 
[fpreut], er fpriept [fpreujjt]. (It sometimes 
takes babcn). 

181. t jHeben, to fly. Imp. (lob. Part. $eftoben. Pres. id) 
fitebe, tu iHcbft [flcubflj, cr jttebt [fieiibt]. It 
gometimes takes jjaben (see 10, p. 172) and may 
be conjugated regularly. 



IEREGUIAE VERBS. 203 



INDICATIVE PRESENT. | IMPERAT. | IMPERFECT. | PAST PART. 

132. triefen, to drip. Imp. id) troff. Part. getroffetu Pres. 
id) triefc, bu triefft [treufff], er tricft [treuft], nrir 
trtefen 2C. This verb may also be conjugated 
regularly in conversation it is usually so, ge^ 
irteft being much more common than getroffen, 
which belongs also to treffen. 

WORDS. 

ber 3ube, the Jew bie aft, the weight 

ber ffrteben, peace ber (Sdjnee, the snow 

ber Sift,. the branch ber )fen, the stove 

bie $artoffel, the potato tapfer, bravely. 

READING EXERCISE 71a. 

2Bte met bot ber 3ube Sfmen fur Sf)r ^ferb? (gr Ijat mtr nitr fmtfetg 
Staler geboten. |)aben @te metnen ^anarientiogetmc^t gcfe^en? Oa, 
cr iff ttber ba^ ^>au geflogen. >te iebe ftnb entflo^en; man fonnte 
fie nidjt fangen. SKir fjaben lange bte 2Bo^tt^aten (the benefits) beg 
grtebeitg genoffen. 35or etntgen 3al)ten (some years ago) tear ber 
ttf)em gefroren. SWan fagt oon etnem olbaten, ber trie im ^rtege 
tear: ,,Sr fyat nod^ fein puttier (powder) gerodjen." @tnb bte ^ar= 
toffetn frf)on gefotten? ^etn, fie fieben nod); in ^efyn 9JJmuten ttierbeit 
fte gefotten fetn. ie jitngen eute gogen (marched) freubtg in bte 
<3rf)(ad)t; fie fd^icoren, gu fiegen (to conquer) ober ^u fterben. 2Biet)tet 
elb berlor 3f^r %ttn im piet? Sr ^at nur etntge Skater bertoren. 
,3ie^en @ie -3^re ttefet on! 2Btr fyaben fdjon unfere c^it^e angego* 
gen. 3d) toiinfdje, ba <Ste 31jre ttefel angie^en. 

aufgofie 71b. 

Some one has cheated me. The branches are bent under 
the weight of the snow. The merchant asked (forberte) ten 
shillings. 1 I offered him (dot.) nine. The Jew has offered me 
eighty pounds for my two horses. The storks have flown over 
the sea. It is so cold that the water in the bottle 2 is l frozen. 

i Such words as shilling, dollar, etc., foot, inch, etc., bushel, corJ, pound, etc., are 
generally indeclinable after a numeral, and have the form of the nominative singular. 
Hnwover, nouns of time (year, month, etc.,) are more frequently declined than not, 
and femininos in e are always loclined. 



204 



IRREGULA.Il VERBS. 



The hunter shot, and the Toird flew away ; for (bcnn) he had not 
hit it. The dog crept behind the stove. Your flowers smell 
very agreeably. The young plant is frozen. The potatoes are 
boiled ; shall I bring them in (b,erein) ? Has the servant locked 
the door ? He locked it at six o'clock. The soldier lost his 
right arm. Do you know, who (has) lost this purse ? The 
tailor has lost it. 

2. The following (with o in the imperfect and past 
participle) have other vowels than ie in the present 



INDICATIVE PRESENT. 



IMPERAT. 



IMPERFECT. 



PAST PABT. 



13 

id) betoege, bu betoegft, er 
beivegt, ttnr beioegen jc. 


>. beroegen, tc 
bewege. 


) induce. 

id) bettog. 
S. id) berooge. 


betoogen. 



N.B. This verb is regular when it means to put in motion or to causa 
an emotion in (a person). 

134. beflemmcn, to oppress (c. g., the breathing), 
id) beflemme K. \ bettemme. | id) beflomm. | beflommen. 

135. t erlofcfyen, to become extinct, go out (of a light). 



id) ertofdje, bu erlifdjft, 
er erlifdjt, fair cr* 
lofdjen. 



crtifdjorcr* 
lojdjc. 



id) crtofd) or 
erlofdjte. 



ertofd)en or 
evlbfdjt. 



As transitive, better conjugated regularly. In the imperf. Subj. both 
trans, and intrans. erlofAete is better than crlofc^e, which is like the 
pres. 



136. t erfctyaUen, to resound. 



id) erfdjafle, bu cr* 
fdjaUft, er erfdjaUt K. 



erfrfjatte. 



j id) erfdjotl or 
erfdjaUte. 



erfd)oflen or 
erfdjaUt. 



It is in the inseparable compounds that the irregular past, part, is 
especially frequent, although here too the regular part, is met with. 
From BerfdjaHcn/ to die out of men's memories, the only participle 
in use is wfdboQen. 



id) ferfite, bu ftrf)(t)ft 
(fedjteft), er fld)t (fed)* 
tet) K. 



137. fecfyten, to fight, to fence, 
id) fodit 



(fed)te). 



(fedjtete). 



gefodjten. 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



205 



INDICATIVE PRESENT. | IMPERAT. | IMPERFECT. | PAST PART. 

138. flecfyten, to twist, to braid. 



id) ftedjte, bu flid)(t)ft 
(flerfjteft), er fUrfjt 
(ftedjtet), nnr flerf)ten 


flid)t 
(fledjte). 


id) flodjt 
(fledjtete). 


geflodjteu. 


139. t gflfyren, to ferment. 


id) gciljre, bu gcitjrft 
[giefjrft], er gafjrt 
(gie^rt), tt)ir ga^ren :c. 


ga^re. 


id) got)r or 
gd'iirte. 


gego^ren 
(gega()rt), 



140. glimmen, to burn faintly, to glimmer. 



Irf) gthnme, bu gltmmfy 
er gltmutt :c. 



gltmme. 



id) gtomm or 
gltmmte. 



141. fyeben, to lift, to raise. 



id) tye&e, bu ^ebft, er 
fyebt, tt)tr i^eben :c. 



^ebe. 



S. id) fjobe or 
pbe. 
Thus : ftttf'Ije&en, to lift up, to pick tip ; erlje'fcen, to raise, to elevate. 



id) fjob or ljub. 



geglomtnen 

or 
gegUmmt. 



ge^oben. 



142. liigen, to tell a lie. 



to) luge, bu liigfl 
[leugft], er Iftgt 
[(eugtj, n)ir tugen ?c. 



luge 



id) log. 



143. melfen, to milk. 



melfe, bu milfft, cr 



mitft, fair melfen :c. 

More frequently, regular. 



melfe. 



id) molt 



gelogett. 



geutolten. 



144. faitgen, to suck. 



id) fauge, bit faugft, er fauge. 
faugt, njtrfaitgen:c. 

Caugen/ to suckle, is regular. 



id) fog [faugte]. gefogen 

[flefaugt] 



206 



IRKEGULAB VERBS. 



INDICATIVE PRESENT. 


IMPERAT. 


IMPERFECT. 


PAST PART. 


14 

id) fdjere, bit fdjierfi or 
fdjerft, er fd)iert or 
fdjert, luir fdjeren :c. 


5. fdjeren, t 
fdjier or 
fdjere. 


o shear, 
id) fd)or 
(fd)er(e)te). 


gefdjoren. 


146 

idj fdjmel^e, bit fdjmi^t 
(fd)mel.$eft), er fdjmilgt 
(fdjmeljt) :c. 


. t f^mcljcn 
fdimil^ or 
fdjntetje. 


, to melt, 
id) fdjmofj. 


gefdjmo^en. 



The transitive f<i)met3en is best conjugated regularly, always so in the 
sense of, to make colors melt away into one another. 



147. t fcfyroellen, to swell 



id) fdpueHe, bit fd)ttnflft, 



er fdjnnflt :c. 

This verb is regular when transitive. 



fdjroefle. 



id) 
[fdjtoaH]. 



148. fd^tooren, to swear. 



id) fdjluore, bit fdjioorft, 



fdjnjore. 



er fdjwbrt K. fd)mur. 

S. id) (fditoore) 
fdjroure. 

Thus : fcef^too'ren/ to confirm by an oath. 

149. roeben, to weave. 



id) fd)tt)or or id) 



gefd)tt)oflen. 



gefdjtuoren. 



Id) toebe, bit hjebfl, er 



toebe. 



id) toob. 



toebt, tt)ir meben zc. 

SBeben, to move, is regular. UBefcen, to weave, may be. 

150. erfuren, to elect, choose. 



id) erfiire, bit erfiirft, 



erfitre. 



id) erfor 



gelooben. 



erforen 
(erfilrt). 



er erfurt, niir er= 
furen jc. 

SBtOfuren/ to choose arbitrarily, is regular. 

151. pflegen, to cherish, to carry on.' 

id) pflege, bu pflegft, er pflege. id) 

" egt, loir pflegen jc. 

5{?fleaen is regular, when it means to nurse or to 6e accustomed, and not 
seldom when it means to carry on. 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



207 



INDICATIVE PRESENT. | IMPERAT. ( IMPERFECT. | PAST PART. 



152. quellen, to gush. 



quiff. 



id) qitoff. 



gequoflen. 



id) queffe, bit quiflft, er 
quiflt, unr queffen :c. 

A regular present and imperfect occur in the intransitive sense, but 
are not to recommended. In the transitive sense, to cause to 
spring forth, the irregular forms seem more usual ; but in the 
sense, to soak (of seeds), the verb is regular. There is a regulai 
verb quiflen of allied sense. 



153. faufen, to drink (of animals). 



faufe. 



id, foff. 



id, faufe, bit faufft 
[faufft], erfauft[fauft], 
ttiir faufen *c. 

Not to be confounded with the causative fdufen. 

154. fcfynauben, to snort 



flefoffen. 



id) fdjnaube, bu 
fdjnaubft, er fdjnaubt 

2C. 

The form fdjniefcen 
f$nevtfct] is obsolete 


fdjnaube. 
[tdj fcfjnie&e, t> 

p 


id) fd)nob or 
fdjnaubte. 

u fdjmefcjt, fdjneub 


gefdjnoben 
or 

gefdjnaubt. 
t, er fdjme&t, 



WORDS. 



ba ?id)t, the light, candle 
bic 5lfd)e (sing.), the ashes 
ber ^lorb, the basket 
ba8 ^eer, the army 
bag ud), the cloth 



ba8 33ein, the leg 
oerbtenen, to deseire 
redjt, right 
Itnf, left 



READING EXERCISE 72a. 

betoog ben 9}?ater, biefe (Stabt git berlaffen? 3d) h)ei nidjt, 
toaS i^n bagu beloogen ^at. 2)a8 fanw ift erlofdjen. jDte 5ltl)euet 
(the Athenians) haben in ber @d)(ad)t bei 9)?arat^on tapfer gefodjten. 
S)ief er ^orb ift f djtedjt geflodjten. ^bnnen (Sie bicf en (Stein auffjeben ? 
3d) ^abe i()n fdjon aufge^oben. 3d) finbe H)n nid)t fo fdjnier. 3)er 
^nabe Ijat gelogerc. ann twerben 3f)te (5d)afe gefdjoren njerben ? 
3m na'd)ften (next) 2)ionat. er d)nee ift auf ben 33ergen gefd)mol=< 
jen. 53orige (last) 3a^r fd)motj er im 2Jionat 3uli 



208 ntREGULAB VERBS. 

Hufgok 72b. 

The death of my father induced me to leave my country. 
The light of the sun will never become extinct. My candle 
waa extinguished. Is the fire out (extinguished)? Our sheep 
have been shorn this year. Has the maid milked the cow ? 
The French army fought very bravely ; not one soldier fled. 
The fire glimmered long under the ashes. The little bee 
sucked the honey from (au) the flowers. He who has once 
lied, does not deserve to be trusted (bafc man tfjm glaube). My 
leg is swollen. That cloth is well woven. 



READING LESSON. 

$te drfmiwng beg IcfeS. The Discovery of Glass. 
$l)8nt$tfcf)e duffer 1 tonbeten etnft an ber 9?orbfufle 2 Slfrifa'g, wo 
bag ^fufcdjen 33elug ftd) in bag 2tteer ergtefet". (Sine toette 
fladje 4 (ag (12) t>or iljren ?lugen. <3ie fudjten tetne, urn ilj 
imb ^Pfannen Uber benfetben aufjuftetten; aber fte fanben feme. <5te 
loaren ba^er genot^tgt 6 , aii i^ren (Stiffen etnige (Sal^eterfieine ', bte 
fte al3 Cabling (cargo) mit ftc^ bracfjten,' gu Ijoten. @te madjten ein 
fteuer an, fod)ten i^re petfen 8 unb genoffen (118) bann tljr einfadjeS 
3Ka^t*. 5lber o SBunber! 5l( fte t^re atpeterfteme nrieber 3u t^rem 
(St^iffe jitriicftragen ttottten, fanben fte, ba^ fte toon ber (^etoalt 10 beg 
^euerS gefdjmot^en maren unb ftd) mtt ber Slfcfje unb bem gtu^enben 
(glowing) <Sanb benntfdjt" fatten. 31I bte flufftge 12 2Kaffe fait 
fjettjorben ttar, lag auf bem 33oben (ground) etne ^ette, burd^ftrfjtige 11 
UKaffe: ba war bag lag. <3o murben bte ^p^onijter bte (Srftn* 
ber w btefeg wert^tiotten 1S egenftanbeg 16 t ber ung bte grojjten 2)tenfte 
(etftet (renders). 



i sailor. 2 the north coast. 3 empties. << a vast plain of sand, s kettles and pans. 

obliged, i block of saltpeter. B dishes, provisions. 9 meal, dinner. 10 power. 

11 mixed. 12 liquid. 13 transparent, n ^scoverer. >: valuable, is bject, thing, 
trticlc. 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



209 



TWENTY-NINTH LESSON. 



The following verbs have a in the present, u in the 
imperfect, and a again in the past participle. 



INDICATIVE PRESENT. 



IMPERAT. 



IMPERFECT. 



PAST PART. 



id) bade, bu ba'cfft, er 



155. bacfen, to bake. 

bacfe. * 



' ba'cft, urir badenjc., or 
reg. 



gebadfen. 



id) but 
or reg. 
id) bcufte. 

Except in the past, part., and even there, in the sense of to stick 
together, to get stiff the regular forms are now mrre usual. Com- 
pound adjectives formed with gebarfen, often omit ge=, e. g. neit v fle)s 
bacfen, fresh-baked. 

156. t fafyren, to drive, or to go in a carriage. 



id) fafyre, bit fafjrft, er 



fafyre. 



id) fuljr. 



gefafyren. 



fafyvt, tuir fafyreu :c. 

SBaflfafjren, to go on a pilgrimage ; toiKfa^ren, to do a person's will, 

and befaijren in the sense of to fear (but not in other senses) are 

regular. 
With the person driving as subject (e. g. He drives well, carelessly, 

fast) and as a transitive verb, meaning to carry in a wagon, fasten 

takes fyaben. 
Thus : f auS'faljren, fpajteren fasten, to take a drive ; f ob'faljren, to 

start, to set out. 



157. graben, to dig. 



id) grabe, bu grabft, er 



grabe. 



id) grub. 



grabt, ttnr gvaben jc. 

Thus : bevjra'ben, to bury. Imp. ic& fcegtuB. -P. p- Begraben. 

158. latcn, to load. 



gegraben. 



id) tabe, bit labeft or 
(abft, ev tabet or Idbt, 
loir tabett K. 



labe. 



id) tub, 

sometimes 
labete. 



gelaben. 



Thus : beta 'ben, to load ; etn'laben, to invite (p. p. etn'fletaben). 

159. fd)affen and crfc^affen, to create. 



id) fdjaffe, bu fd)affft, er 



fdiaffe. 



id) fd)uf. 



gefdjaffen. 



fdjafft, niir fdjaffeu jc. 

N. B. -fd)affen, to work, and its compounds are regular, as: cm'fcbaffen, 
erfdjaf'fen, to procure ; abfcfyapfen, to abrogate. 



210 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



INDICATIVE PRESENT. 



IMPERAT. 



IMPERFECT. 



PAST PART. 



1 60. fcfylagen, to beat, to strike. 



fdjlage. 



id) fdjlug. 



gefd)tagen. 



id) fd)(age, bit frfjlagft, er 
fd)lagt, luir fdjtagen 20. 

Thus: at'fd)lagcn, a) to knock off, I) to refuse; erfdila'gen, to slay; 
aue'|d)lagen, to decline, jerfdjla'gcn, to knock to pieces. Sgeraiu 
fcblaflcn, to make an estimate, peraufjdHagen, to pay or receive taxes, 
and beratfyfdilaflen, to consult together, are regular. 9?atf)fdbtagcn is 
generally regular (past. part, geratl)[d)lagt), but sometimes irregular 
and separable. 



161 tragen, to carry, to wear, to take. 



trage. 



id) trug 



getragen. 



id) trage, bit tvagft, er 
tra'gt, roir trageu ?c. 

Thns : ertra'gen, to endure, to bear ; ftc() Betra'flen, to behave ; Ws 
tragen, to contribute ; aB'tragen/ to clear the table. Certain com. 
pound verbs ending in tragen, e. g. fceantragen, Seauftragen, are regu- 
lar, being derived not from tragen with prefixes, but from nouna 
3Jntrag, Stuftrag jc. 



162. t roacfyfen, to grow. 



tdj loodjfe, bu roadjft 
[roadjfeft], er n)ad)ft 
[nwrfjfet] , ttjirn)od)fen 



wadjfe. 



id) 



gemadjfen. 



The past. part, of this verb in some compounds omits the ge=, e. y. 



163. n>afd)en, to wash. 



Joofdjc. 



id) ttwfd). 



id) niofd)C, bu tucifdjft 
[roafrfjeft], er tt)afd)t 
[hjafdjt], n>tr toa* 
fdjcn zc. 

Thtia : ab'teafdjen, to wash (clean); au'n>afdjen, to wash out. 



geroafdjen. 



WORDS. 



bcr Sader, the baker 
ba3 j)ampfboot, the steamboat 
bie Sifenba^n, the railroad 
eine >6l)te, a den, hole 
ber Jobtengraber, the grave- 
digger 



ba3 rab, the grave 

ber $ut|d)er, the coachmaii 

ber )muibui?, the omnibus 

ber SBagen, the carriage, coach 

ber barren, the cart 

ba3 Sod), the hola 



IRREGULAR VERfcS. 

bte SBunbe, the wound ttef, deep 

bag pridjroort, the proverb pradjtig, | elegant 

baafcf)entitd),thehandkerchief glan$enb, j splendid 

ber?[RitftfIeI)rer,themusic-master unartig, naughty 

ber $rieg8minifkr, the minister fdjmufetg, dirty 

bag eftd)t, the face [of war unfdjulbig, guiltless, innocent 

bte (td)e, the oak pflan^en, to plant 

bte $auone, the cannon langfam, slowly. 

READING EXERCISE 73. 

>eute fjaben nnr $urfjen gebarfen. SBarum bacft 31jr 9?ad)bar fein 
SBrob ntefyr ? SBeit er fetn 2ttefyl l)at. 2)ie nadjfte 2Bod)e ttnrb er Jutebet 
bacfen. S)er $imtg fd^rt mtt fec^ ^3ferben. 2Bo fa^rfl bit ^m ? 3d) 
faljre nad^ ^o(n. eftern fttljr metn ^reitnb bal)tn. -3ft er mtt (by) 
bent 2)am^fboot gefafjren (gone)? ^etn, mtt ber (Stfenbaljn. 3)er 
^tt^S grfibt ftc^ etne o^Ie. 2)er Xobtengraber i)at em rab gegraben. 
(Sin (Sfel nmrbe mtt bielen (Sacfen belaben, aber ba (as) er bte aft 
(load) nt^t tragen fonnte, tonrbe fte auf etnen SSogen gefaben. S)te(e 
^letber ftnb abgetragen (out). SBaritm f^Iagt bte Gutter baS ^inb? 
2Bett e fo fdjmit^tg tft; eg ^at fid) nid)t geraaf^en. ^tlatttg mufc^ 
ft(^ bte dnbe unb fprad): -3d) bin unfdjutbig an bent Slttte btefeS 
eredjten (just man). !Dte Jfjeepflanje n)d'(^ft in d^ina. ^rit^er 
(formerly) umd)8 ber Xabaf nid)t in 2)eittfd)(anb; aber je^t ttiirb biel 
ge^flan^t. !Diefer -Siingling tjl feljr gerta^fen feit (since) td^ ilm nid^t 
me^r 1 gefe^en ^abe. -3m ^tnfang fdjuf @ott ^imntet nnb (Srbe. 2)tc 
Selt ift bon ott au 9Jid)t3 gefd^affen tuorben. 



74. 

The baker has baked no bread to-day ; he does not bake 
every day. The coachman drives too fast (ju fdjnell). We 
went (156) in an omnibus. The prince drove in an elegant 
carriage with four horses. The fox digs a hole in the ground 
(33oben). The savages (SSitben) dug a deep hole. A poor child 
was buried in the snow. Are you loading the cannon ? It is 
already loaded. The cart is too heavily laden. The minister 
of war has invited all the officers to dinner. In the beginning 
*God l created heaven and earth. Why do you beat the child ? 
I beat it because it was naughty. The dogs are often beaten. 

i The words ni*t mefir might have been left out in this sentence, and the meaning ia 
the same as if they had been left out 



212 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



Cain slew his brother AbeL Our music-master 2 always * wears 
a grey hat. Two soldiers carried the officer out of the battle 
and washed his wound. One hand washes the other, says a 
German proverb. Henry, wash your face, you are dirty. Are 
my handkerchiefs washed? No, Sir, not yet, they will be 
washed to-morrow. The oak grows very slowly. These violets 
grew in my garden. 



effen <Ste ba? 



Ber f)at e Sfjnen gegeben? 
aben <te metnem 23ebtentett 

bte $(eiberbiirfte (brush) ? 
>aben <te Ijeute fdjon bte d> 

tungen gelefen ? 



SBer tft gum 33afle ehtgefaben ? 
$ennen <2te eintge toon tfnten? 
3ft 3ljr S3ater bon fciner langen 

^ranf^ett gcnefen (8) ? 
2Bp tft ber 2Birtf) (landlord)? 

ic^ mu i^m eta8 fagen. 
tft gefc^e^en, ftarum lauft 

man f o jufammen (together) ? 

aterftcfy tocrlefet (hurt) ? 
Ijat 3^nen befo^ten, ntetnc 

(Stiefet gum @d^u|ma^er gu 

tragen ? 
aben @te 3^ren 9tmg toteber 

gefunben? 235 o lag er? 
SSei fanb tljn? 



U^r mcfjt me^r? 
fpridjt biefer 2Jiatm? 
^>at bcr ^neg fc^on begonnert ? 
S3tft bit bcrttjunbet? >at btr 
Ocmanb etioaS (any harm) 
gertjan? 

tedft ber tad^et (the sting) 
nodj barin? 



3d) e f! ftfetfdfj imb S3rob; e ifl 

metn ^ruljftucf. 
3d) fyabe e mtr gefauft. 
3a, id) gab fte u)m bor ( ago) 

cuter (Stirabe. 

3a, tdj Ijabe fte getefen. 

3c^ ^abe md)t3 9JeueS barin ge 

fitnben. 

53tete jttttge ^erren nb 2)amen. 
3a, id) fenne bie metften bon tt)nen. 

ott fei 2)attf ! er tft gan$ genefen. 
@r tft au6gegangen; aber er hnrb 

balb toteber guriicf fetn. 
(Stn SDtaurer (bricklayer) tft bom 

5)ad)e gefatten. 

-3a, er ^at em 33etn gebroc^en. 
^temanb befa^t e8 mtr; id) trug fte 

baljtn, ibett fte gerrtffen ftnb. 

(Sr lag auf bent 33oben, Ijtnter bent 
t^ranfe (cupboard) berborgen. 

2)ie ^Diagb fanb t^n, al fte bag 
Dimmer bu^te (cleaned). 

Stout, fte tft mtr gefto^ten toorben. 

@r fbric^t bom ^rtege. 

9tom, aber er tbtrb balb beginnen. 

Sine 33tene ^at mtc^ in bie SSange 
(cheek) geftod^en, unb Jefct tjl 
fie gefc^wotten. 

man fyat t^n gletd^ (immed- 
iately) 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



213 



G?r fa'ngt $ogel 

3dj glaube, er Ijat erfl (only) toenige 

gefangen. 
3a, man ergrtff ifjn, at8 er au8 bent 

>aufe Ijtnau8fd)lid). 
-34 felbfi Ijabe fte gefdjnitten. 
-3cq futyr in einem SBagen. 
)ie 33tbet fagt: 3m Slnfang fdjuf 

ott >immel unb (grbe. 
SSetl ber <2c^nee auf ben 23ergen 

gefc^molgen ift. 
3)er Sebiente trug i^n or etner 

Ijatben (Stunbe ba^tn' (there). 
Sr hwfd) feine ^cinbe unb tranf 

Staffer. 

<Sie ijl inmeinem arten getoadjfen. 

Ss tear nici^t me^r frtfd). -3c^ be* 
go 3^re 33Iumen bamit. 

3)ie onne fdjten Ijerrlid), at8 tetr 
anftngen, ben 33erg gu erfteigen; 
aber balb lam ein emitter (a 
thunder-storm), unb nrir tearen 
ge^teungen, toieber Ijerab (down) 
^U ge^en. 

ADDITIONAL REMARKS ON THE IRREGULAR VERBS. 

As the learner has already observed, some of *the 
irregular verbs also change their radical consonants either 
in the present, imperfect, or past participle. We subjoin 
here, these irregularities : 

1. In the present : 

id) nefjme, bu nimmft, er nimmt (double m). 

id) fdjelte, er fdjilt 1 

ic^ ^otte, er fjfitt I instead of fdjattet, ^altet, rat^et, etc. (lose 

id) ratlje, er rcitf) the ending t in the third person). 

idj gelte, er gilt J 

2. A number of the verbs on pages 200 to 205 have 
antiquated forms of the present indicative second and 
third persons singular, and of the imperative second 



5Ba$ tljut biefer 9ftann Ijier? 
>at er fdjon einige gefangen? 

3fl ber )ieb ergriffen (caught) 

toorben ? 

2Ber l)at biefe ^eber gefdjnitten? 
3n roa8 finb (ie gefafyren? 
Sann Ijat ott bie Selt erfd)af* 

fen?' 
2Barum ftnb bte ffinfit unb 23ad)e 

(brooks) fo angefdjrooflen ? 
Ser ^at ben 33rtef auf bte ^oft 

getragen ? 
2Ba3 tfiat ber ^nabe am $8nm* 

nen (well) ? 
2Bo ^aben @tc btefe fc^one ttte 

gefitnben? 
SKarum ^aben <Sie btefeS 2Boffer 

auggegoffen (119)? 
fatten @te f^5ne 2Better 311 
pa^tergang ait^ ben 



214 IRREGULAR VERBS. 

person singular, in eu, e. g., from fltegcn, frit fleugft, cr flcuqt, 
fleugt. Stems ending in I), change it into d) after CU, e.g., 
feud) from fliefyen. 

3. In the imperfect : 

id) fyteb, from fyauert (takes a final b). 
id) traf, from treffen 



id) fam, ge!ommen from fommen (loses an m). 

4. In the imperfect and past participle : 

id) bat, gebeten from bitten (loses a t). 

id) foft, gefeffen from ftfcen (changes into ff). 

tc^ tb,at, getb,on from tljun (takes a final t in the imp.). 

id) ftanb, gefianbcn from ftcb,en (changes b, into nb). 

|S Sntttfg"f^Z from fd,netben } (ohan ^ e b ^^ tt >' 

|j^ pftff, gepfiffen from pfetfen } 

tdb, fd^Iiff, gefd^Iiffen from fdjletfen [ (double their f). 

t^ griff, gegriffen from greifen ) 

tdb ^og, gcjogen from gteijen (changes b, into g). 

id) fott, gefottcn from fieben (changes b into tt). 

5. There exist some older forms of the subjunctive 
mood of the imperfect, which still occur now and then, e.g^ 

id) before instead of id) befciljle; bcrbiirgc for berbcirge. 
*ic^ ftiinbe for id) ftanbe; tc^ ftUrbc for t^ ftcirbe. 
td^ toerbtirbe for oerbdrbe. 

6. The regular verb fragcn, to ask, has for the imperfect 
tense besides the regular form id) fragte, another form 
id) frug, subj. ic^ fruge, and in the present we may have, 
bit fragfl, cr fragt. 

7. Some regular verbs have an irregular past participle 
which is used as an adjective. E.g., 

fterttjorrcn, confused, from bernrirren, to confuse. 
geftmlten, split, " fpatten, to split 

gefol^en, salt, salted " fallen, to salt. 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



215 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF THE IRREGULAR VERBS. 

Simple verbs which are not found in this list are to be considered 
regular. Compound verbs must be sought for under their primitives. 
A double hyphen before a verb (as = betljcn) indicates that the word is 
used only in composition ; in such cases the meaning is not given in the 
list, but must be found by referring back to the number where the 
verb is given with its prefix or prefixes. 

Verbs marked with a f are now commonly regular, but have, or once had, 
the forms given in the list. For meaning of ( ) and [ ] see (NOTE) p. 172. 

Verbs marked with a * are partly irregular (see p. 132, 4/. 

The figures in the right hand column indicate the number under 
which the verb is treated on pages 168 214. 

The letter f . after a verb means that it is conjugated with fein. 

INFINITIVE. 

f ISBarfen, to bake 
t babea, to bathe 

* ba'ren 
beifcen, to bite 

t beflen, to bark 

berg en, to hide, to conceal 

berftcn, f., to burst, to crack 

biegen, to bend 

bteten, to offer 

btnben, to bind, to tie 

bitten, to beg, to request 

btafen, to blow 

bleiben, f., to stay, to remain 

bteidjen, to bleach 

braten, to roast 

brcdjen, to break 

* brennen, to burn 

* brtngen, to bring 
baudjten, to seem 

* betljen 

* beiifen, to think 
= berben 

f bingen, to hire 



IMPEKFECT. 

buf 


PAST PAKT. 

gebacfen 


No. 

155 





[gebaben] 





* bar 


* boren 


23 


btfe 


gebtffeit 


61 


[batt] 


[geboUen] 





barg 


geborgen 


17 


barft 


geborfteu 


18 


bog 


gebogen 


112 


bot 


geboten 


113 


banb 


gebunbeit 


43 


bat 


gebeten 


11 


blteS 


gebtafen 


97 


btieb 


geblieben 


80 


bltrf} 


gebltc^en 


63 


briet 


gebraten 


98 


brad) 


gebrod)en 


19 


bratmte 


gebrannt 





bradjte 


gebradjt 





[baitdjte] 


gebauc^t 





* bleb, 


- bteten 


86 


badjte 


gebadjt 





* barb 


* borben 


32 





gebitngen 


58 



216 



IBBEGULAB TERBS. 



INFINITIVE. 

brefcfyen, to thrash 

* bvieften 

bvtngen, f., to press, to urge 

* biirfen, to be permitted 
effen, to eat 

fafyven, f., to drive 

fallen, f., to fall 

f fallen, to fold 

fang en, to catch 

fedjten, to fight 

5 feljten 

ftnben, to find 

flecfyten, to twist 

^ fletften 

fltepen, f., to fly 

fltefjen, f., to flee 

fliefjen, f., to flow 

f fragen, to ask 

freffen, to eat (of animals) 

frteren, to freeze 

gafyren, to ferment 

geben, to give 

geljen, f., to go 

getten, to be worth 

> geffen 

gtefeen, to pour 

* ginnen 

gleicf)en, to resemble 
t gleten, to glitter 
gteiten, f., to glide, to slide 
gtimmen, f., to burn faintly 
graben, to dig 
gretfen, to gripe 
Ijaben, to have 



IMPEBFECT 


PAST PABT. 


No. 


brofd) 


gebrojdjen 


20 


-' brofe 


* broffen 


124 


brang 


gebrungen 


47 


burfte 


geburft 





afe 


gegeffen 


2 


fi^r 


gefa^ren 


156 


fid 


gefaflen 


99 





(gefatten) 





fi(e)ng 


gefangen 


100 


fo^t 


gefodjten 


137 


.fatf 


* fo^ten 


16 


fanb 


gefunben 


44 


flodjt 


geftodjten 


138 


m 


.fliffen 


62 


N 


geflogen 


114 


w 


geflol^en 


115 


ftofi 


gefloffen 


116 


frug 








fra 


gefreffen 


3 


fror 


gefroren 


117 


go^r 


gegob,ren 


139 


gab 


gegeben 


1 


9(09 


gegangen 


108 


gait 


gegolten 


22 


>a*b 


* geffen 


10 


go 


gegoffen 


119 


-- gann 


* gonnen 


36 


gltc^ 


gegtidjen 


65 


96 


gegltffen 





glttt 


geglttten 


66 


glomm 


gegtontmen 


140 


grub 


gegraben 


157 


Qvtff 


gegrtffen 


64 


^atte 


ge^abt 






IEEEGULAR VEEBS. 



217 



INFINITIVE. 

gotten, to hold 
Ijangen, to hang 
Ijoucn, to hew 
fyebcn, to lift 
Ijetften, to be called 
Ijelfen, to help 
t feifen, to chide 

* fennen, to know 
f Kcmmcn 

f ftieben, to cleave 
f flimmen, f., to climb 
fUngen, to sound 
fnetfen, to pinch 
fommctt, f., to come 

* fonnen, to be able 
fretfdjcn, to scream 
frtedjen, f., to creep 
f frimpen, to shrink 
fiircn, to choose 
lobcn, to load 
tafjen, to let 
laiifen, f., to run 
leiben, to suffer 
leifyen, to lend 
lefen, to read 
ttegen, f., to lie 

f lieren 

* Ungen 

Kfdjen, f., to extinguish 
liigen, to tell a lie 
f modjen, to make 
f marten, to grind 
meiben, to shun 
mellen, to milk 



IMPERFECT. 


fAST PART. 

ge^alten 


No. 

101 


f)tng 


geb,angen 


102 


In'eb 


geb,auen 


107 


l)0b 


geb,oben 


141 


IjteB 


geb,ei^en 


96 


|olf 


geb,olfen 


24 


(fiff) 


(geftffen) 





fannte 


gefannt 





t flotnm 


* Hommen 


134 


Hob 


geftoben 





Homm 


geftontmen 





Hang 


gefhmgen 


49 


fniff 


gefniffen 


67 


lam 


gefommen 


42 


fonnte 


gefonnt 





frtfd) 


gefrtfd^en 


88 


frodj 


gefrodjen 


120 





gefrumpen 





for 


ge!oren 


150 


fob 


getaben 


158 


Iie 


getaffen 


103 


lief 


gelaufen 


106 


Utt 


getttten 


68 


Uelj 


gelie^en 


87 


fM 


gelefen 


5 


lag 


gelegen 


12 


*Ior 


* lorcn 


125 


*Iang 


* lung en 


48 


m 


gelofdjen 


135 


log 


getogen 


142 





(ge)mad)en 





(mufyl) 


gema^Ien 





mteb 


gemteben 


84 


jnotf (melfte) 


gemotfen 


143 



218 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



INFINITIVE. 

ntefjen, to measure 

* ntb'gcu, may 

* ntuffcn, must 
ItcljincH, to take 

* ncnnen, to name 
= ncfen 

* nieflen 

Jlfctfen, to whistle 
Vflegeu, to cherish 
pretl'en, to praise 
quctten, to gush 
t riidjen, to avenge 
ratfyen, to advise 
retbeu, to rub 
reifcen, to tear 
retten, f., to ride 

* rennen, to run 
riedjen, to smell 
ringen, to wring 
rtnnen, to leak, to flow 
ritfen, to call 

f fatten, to salt 

faufen, to drink (of animals) 

fcmgen, to suck 

fdjaffen, to create 

fdjaflen, to sound 

* jdjefyen 

fdjciben, to separate 
frf)etnen, to seem, to shine 
fdjelten, to scold, to chide 
fdjeercn, to shear 
frfjieben, to shove, to push 
frfjteften, to shoot 
[djinben, to flay 



IMPERFECT. 


PAST PABT. 


No. 


ma^ 


gemeffen 


4 


modjte 


gemodjt 





mu^tc 


gentufet 





na^m 


genontmeit 


25 


nonnte 


gcnannt 





* na$ 


* nefen 


8 


-nog 


f noffen 


118 


m 


gepfiffeu 


G9 


^Pog 


gepflogen 


151 


prte 


geprtejcn 


91 


quell 


gequotten 


152 


rod) 


gerod)en 





rtetlj 


geratfjen 


104 


rieb 


gerteben 


81 


^ 


geriffen 


70 


ritt 


gerttten 


71 


ronnte 


gerannt 





rod) 


gerodjen 


121 


rang 


gerungen 


50 


rann 


getonnen 


38 


rief 


gerufen 


110 





gefalgen 





foff 


gefojfen 


153 


fog 


gefogcn 


144 


fd)uf 


ge[d)affen 


159 


fdjoa 


gefdjotlen 


136 


*fd)a^ 


* fdjetjen 


9 


fdjteb 


gefdjtebcn 


85 


fd)ten 


ge(d)ienen 


93 


fdjalt 


gefdjolten 


26 


fd)or 


gefdjoren 


145 


fdjob 


gefdjoben 


128 


fd)o 


gefdjoffen 


122 





gefdjunbcn 


59 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



219 



INFINITIVE. 

fd)(afen, to sleep 

fdjtagen, to beat, to strike 

fdf)letd)en, f.,to sneak, to steal along 

fdjfeifen, to sharpen, to grind 

fdjletfccn, to slit 

fd)ttefen, to slip 

fd)Ueen, to lock, to close 

fdjttngen, to wind 

fdjmetjjen, to fling 

fdjntet^en, to melt 

fdfjncwbcn, to breathe, to snort 

fdjnctbcn, to cut 

t fdjneien, to snow 

fdjraitben, to screw 

fdjrccfcn, to be afraid 

fdjretben, to write 

fdjreten, to cry, to scream 

fdjreiten, f., to stride, to step 

fdjrinbcn, to crack 

f fdjrotcn, to cut across 

f fdjrumpfcn, to shrink 

fdjiodren, to suppurate 

fdfjnmgen, to be silent 

fdjfteflen, to swell 

fdjitnmtucn, f., to swim 

fd)h)inben, f., to vanish 

[djunngen, to swing, to brandish 

fdjtob'ren, to swear 

feb/en, to see 

f fcigen, to filter 

fein, f., to be 

* fenben, to send 

fiebcn, to boil 

flngen, to sing 



IMPERFECT 


PAST PART. 


No. 


M&f 


gefdjtafen 


105 


fd)tug 


gefdjfagen 


160 


fdjftd) 


gcfdjltdjen 


73 


WKff 


gefd)Uffeit 


72 


fd)Kfe 


gefd)ltj|en 





fdjtoff 


gcfd)Ioffen 





frf)to 


gcfdjloffen 


123 


(d)tang 


gefd)(ungen 


51 


fd)mi$ 


gefdjniijfen 


75 


fdjtnolj 


gefdimot^en 


146 


fdjnob 


gc(d)nobe 


154 


fdjnitt 


gefd)ititten 


76 


(fdjnte) 


(gefdjnteen) 





fcrjrob 


gefdjroben 





frfjraf 


gef^rocfen 


21 


fdjrieb 


gefd^rteb'*n 


82 


fdjrie 


gefc^rieen 


88 


frfjrttt 


gefd^ritten 


77 


fdfjrunb 


gefdjrunben 








gefd^roten 








gefdjrumpfen 





fcfyoor 


gefc^woren 





fdjiuteg 


gefdjiniegen 


94 


fdjmofl 


ge[d)U30llen 


147 


fdjioamm 


gefd^mommen 


41 


fdjtoanb 


gefd)U)unben 


45 


fdjtoang 


gefdjtuungen 


52 


fdjtoor 


gefc^tBoren 


148 


falj 


gefefyen 


6 





[- ftegen] 





toar 


getuefen 





fanbte 


gefanbt 





fott 


gefotten 


129 


fang 


gefitngen 


53 



220 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



INFINITIVE. 

ftnfen, f., to sink 
finnen, to meditate 
fijjen, f., to sit 
f [patten, to split 
f pc ten, to spit 
fpimtcn, to spin 
fpletftcn, to split 
fpredjen, to speak 
fprieften, f., to sprout 
fpringcn, f., to spring 
ftedjen, to prick 
f fterfen, to stick 
ftefyen, f., to stand 
ftefyten, to steal 
ftctgen, f., to ascend 
fterben, f., to die 
ftieben, f., to fly off 
fttnfen, to stink 
ftoften, to push 
ftreidjen, to stroke 
ftreiten, to quarrel 
tfjun, to do 
tragen, to carry 
treffen, to hit 
tretben, to drive 
tretcn, f., to tread 
trtefen, to drip 
trtnfen, to drink 
tritgen, to deceive 
toacijfcn, f., to grow 
toagen, to weigh 
toafdjen, to wash 
tveben, to weave 



, f., to yield 



IMPEKFECT. 


PAST PART. 


No. 


fan! 


gefiinfcn 


55 


fann 


gcfonncn 


39 


fafe 


ge[effen 


13 





gefpatteu 





fpte 


gefpteeu 


89 


fpann 


gefponnen 


40 


P8 


gefpliffen 





fprarf) 


gefprodjen 


27 


fpro 


gcfproffen 


130 


fprang 


gefpnmgen 


54 


M 


geftodjeu 


28 


ftaf 


geftoden 


29 


ftanb 


geftanbeu 


14 


W 


gefto^Ieit 


30 


ftteg 


gefttegen 


95 


ftarb 


geftorben 


31 


ftob 


gefioben 


131 


ftonf 


geftunfen 


60 


m 


geftoen 


109 


flrtd? 


geftndjen 


74 


|Wtt 


geflrttten 


78 


t^at 


gctljan 


15 


trug 


getragen 


161 


traf 


getroffen 


35 


trteb 


getrtebcn 


83 


trat 


getreten 


7 


troff 


getroffen 


132 


tranf 


getrnnfen 


56 


trog 


getrogen 


111 


n>ud) 


geivadjfen 


162 


hjog 


geroogen 


126 


iuufd) 


geraafdjen 


163 


toob 


gettjoben 


149 


f raog 


* njogen 


133 


lutd) 


gewid)en 


79 



INSEPARABLE VERBS. 221 

INFINITIVE. IMPERFECT PAST PAKT. No. 

toetfen, to show twiei? getwefen 92 

* toenben, to turn toanbte geroanbt 
toerben, to sue tuarb geroorben 33 
f tuerben, to become toarb (nwrbe) gercorben 
tterfen, to throw toarf geroorfen 34 
toiegen, to weigh toog geftogen 126 
iwnben, to wind nwnb gennntben 46 

* nnnneit * ttann * roonnen 37 
f luirren gettiorren 

* ivtffen, to know nmftte gettiu^t 
tortngen, to wring torang getcrungen 
jeifjen, to accuse gtelj geSte^en 90 
gie^en, to draw, to pull gog g^ogen 127 
jttringen, to force, to compel jroang gejioungen 57 



THIRTIETH LESSON. 

INSEPARABLE VERBS. 

CUntrennfiort gtittodrter.) 

1. Compound verbs in German are divided into two 
classes, the separable and the inseparable. The latter 
class, which we shall consider before the separable verbs, 
are conjugated just like their primitives, except that they 
omit the ge of the past participles. Thus from malen 
(malte, gema(t) to paint (a picture), comes bema'Ien (bemal'te, 
bema(t') to paint (a wall), and from gefyen (gtng, gegangen) to 
go, entge'fyen, entging', ent^an'gen, to escape. 

2. It has already been stated, page 10, that the prefix 
of an inseparable verb does not receive the accent. 

3. Inseparable verb means verb with an inseparable prefix. 
Every part of the verb bemalen begins with be followed 
by mat, (i.e., be is inseparable) just as in English every 
part of to inform begins with in followed by/on/i. 



22 INSEPARABLE VERBS. 

4. The following prefixes always form inseparable 
verbs : l be, emp, er, ent, er, jer, gc and nnter. But rotter, 
properly against, is sometimes printed instead of nneter, 
properly again (see foot-note 1, page 234). 

5. Partial conjugation of an inseparable verb of 
which the primitive is regular. 

Infinitive: 33ebccfen, to cover. 

PRESENT. IMPERFECT. 

id) bebede, I cover id) bebedte, I covered 

bit bebecfft, bu bebecfteft, 

er bebedt, er bebecfte, 

unr bebedfen, tour bebedten, 

if)r bebedt, iljr bebedtet, 

fte bebeden. fie bebedten. 

FUTURE. 

id] tuerbe bebecten, I shall cover ; bu ttnrjt beberfen :c. 

PERFECT. 

id] Ijobe beberft, I have covered ; bu fyafl beberft K. 
Imp. beberfen <Sie, cover. Past Part, beberft, covered. 

6. Partial conjugation of an inseparable verb of which 
fche primitive is irregular. 

Infinitive: SSerlaffen, to leave. 

PRESENT. IMPERFECT. 

id) oerlaffe, I leave id), berltefc, I left 

bu Derldffefi, bu oerltef efl, 

er Derta^t, er oerltep, 

n>tr Derlaffen, totr oerttefeen, 

t^r toerlaffet, i^r berlteBet, 

fte t>erlaf|en. fie toertte^eu. 

FUTURE. 

id) foerbe berlaffen, I shall leave ; bu rtnrft fcertaffen K. 

i It makes no difference if separable prefixes appear to follow these prefixes ; thus 
rerabicK'uon has id) i'crab{*cuc, Qu) cetabfcfccuen, past part. Berabf*eu(. This verb is not in 
reality formed from vet (inseparable), 06 (separable^, and jdjeutn (jsimfte verb"), but from 
cr and the noun vlbfc^eu. 



INSEPARABLE VERBS. 



22S 



PEBFECT. 

id) Ijabc toertaffen, I have left ; bu fycift bcvlaffcu :c. 
Imp. fcerlaffen <2ie, leave, etc. Past Part. Derlaffen, left. 

Further examples of inseparable verbs are : 



INFINITIVE. 


PRESENT. 


PAST PART. 


Be I be(ob/nen, reg. to reward 


id) belo^'ne 


belo^nt'. 


befjalten, irr. to keep 


tc^ be^alte 


befallen. 


etnji : empftnben, irr. to feel 


id) em^finbc 


empfunben. 


empfangen, irr. to receive 


id) entpfcmge 


em^fangen. 


et : erfyatten, irr. to receive 


id) erratic 


er^atten. 


ferfd)etnen, irr. to appear 


ic^ erfdjeine 


erfdjienen. 


ent : tentgefyen, irr. to escape 


id) entge^e 


entgangen. 


entfernen, reg. to remove 


ic^ entferne 


entfernt. 


tier : ttergeffen, irr. to forget 


id) toergeffe 


bergeffen. 


toerlteren/wr. to lose 


id) Derliere 


toerloren. 


ger : gerftoren, reg. to destroy 


id) jerftore 


gerftort. 


gerreifeen, irr. to tear 


id) gerrei^e 


gerriffen. 


gt : gefyordjen (dot) reg, to obey 


ic^ ge^or^e 


gefyor'rfjt. 


gefallen (dot.) irr. to please 


id) gefafle 


gefatten. 


tmber : tmberfle'Jjen, irr. to resist 


id) luibcrfte^e 


rtiberftanben. 


toiberfpredjen, irr. to contradict 


id) imberfpredje 


tutberf proven. 



NOTE. For the prefixes burd), I)tnter, ubet, urn, unter, tutber and toiebet 
which are sometimes inseparable, see p. 234 etc. 

7. The inseparable prefixes mentioned in 4, in some 
cases form verbs not from other verbs, but from nouns or 
adjectives, e.g., entfroften, to deprive of strength, enervate.. 
from $raft, strength. 

8. a) be forms verbs meaning to furnish with from 
nouns, e.g., begaben, to furnish with a gift, from abe, gift 
The past participles (used as adjectives) of these verbs 
e.g., begabt, gifted, are the parts most frequently met with. 

6) be in a number of cases answers to con in English, 
e.g., beftefyen, to consist. 

c) be sometimes changes an intransitive into a transi- 
tive verb, e.g., befpeicn, to spit upon, from fpeten, to spit. 



224 INSEPARABLE VEBBS. 

d) be sometimes changes the sense of the verb to 
which it is prefixed in such a way that the new verb takes 
a different kind of object. Thus malen, to paint, takes 
after it some such word as picture, portrait, landscape, or 
the thing imitated as a tree, a horse, etc., etc., while bemalen 
takes that which is covered by the paint, as a watt, apiece 
of canvas, etc., etc. 

9. a) ent means o/, e.g., entlafictt, to let off; entfommen, to 
come off, escape. 

b) ent forms from adjectives and substantives verbs of 
deprivation, e.g., entfyeiligen, to desecrate (deprive of holiness), 
from J)ei(tg, holy. Another example has already been 
given in 7. 

10. ) er forms from verbs such compound verbs as 
erfcfyeinen, to shine out, from fcfyeinen, to shine, and erjagen, 
to get by hunting, from jagen, to hunt. 

b) er forms from adjectives such verbs as errotfyen, to 
become red, from rotf), red, or ernietrigen, to make low, from 
niebrig, low. 

11. a} er forms from verbs compound verbs, such as oer* 
fufyren, to lead astray, from futyren, to lead, and oeracfyten, to de- 
spise, from adjten, to respect (in these cr has a bad sense) ; 
or tterbluten, to bleed to death, from bluten, to bleed, and 
fcerfclliejjen, to lock up, from fcfyltepen, to shut, (in these er 
denotes thoroughness or completion). 

b) er forms from adjectives verbs meaning to make, 
thus : serguten, to make good, from gut, good. 

12. The following verbs are formed not like the- in- 
Beparables already treated of and the separable verbs in 
the Thirty-first Lesson, from a frequently occurring prefix 
and a verb but from compound nouns, an adjective and 



INSEPARABLE VEfcBS. 



225 



a verb, a noun and a verb, etc. 
entirely regular. 

INFINITIVE. 

fritt/ftiiden, to breakfast 
ant'iuprten, to answer 
itr'tfyeUea, to judge 
Ueb'fofen, to caress 
ratf)'fd)(agen, to deliberate 
arg'iuofyuen, to suspect , 

red)t'ferttgen, to justify 
itutfy'mafen, to presume, guess 
toett'etfern, to emulate 
Ijanb'ljaben, to handle, maintain 
tt)et'terleitd)ten, to lighten 
feeif'fogen, to prophesy 



Their conjugation is 



PBESENT. 

id) fritfpcfe 
id) antoorte 
id) urtljeite 
id) liebfpfe 
id) rat()fd)lage 
id) argtoofyne 
id) rcdjtferttge 
id) mutfymaf e 
id) toetteifere 
id) fyanbfjabe 



PAST PART. 

gefriifjftitd't. 

geantroortet. 

gettrtljeilt. 

geliebfoft. 

geratfyfdjtagt. 

geargfoofynt. 

geredjtfertigt. 

gemut^maft. 

gehjettetfert. 

ge^anb^abt. 



wetterteitd)tet gewetterteudjtet. 
id) roeiffage geroeiffagt. 
NOTE. The two verbs ttrittfaljretV to comply with, and froljlocfen, to exutt, 
also follow this rule, but sometimes omit the prefix ge in the participle, 
which may be toiUfaljrt' or gettnflfafyct ; fvoljlorft or gefroljlodt. 

WORDS. 

ba$ SBertrauen, confidence 
erobern, reg. to conquer 
beljalten, to keep 
toerfpredjen, to promise 
entfagen, reg. to abdicate, resign 
begiinfttgen, reg. to favor 
berauben, reg. to rob, to deprive 
bettofynen, to inhabit 
befotgen, reg. to follow 
beffern, reg. to amend (trans.) 
befdjmitken, reg. to soil 
gerftreiten, reg. to disperse (trans.) 
gunftig, favorable, adv. -ly 
ganj, ganoid), entirely 
nadj^er, adv. afterwards. 



ba ^liid, fortune 

ba3 Safter, vice 

bte Seootferung, the population 

ber ^uffefyer, the overseer 

ba ?anb, the land 

ber 33auer, the peasant 

bebaueu, to cultivate 

ber 9uiuber, the robber 

bdS epdrf, the luggage 

ber ebanfc, the thought 

ba^ 23etragcn, the behavior 

rratb,en, irr. to guess 

kit (Srnte, the crop 

bte $ette, the chain 

bte @d)etbe, the pane of glass 



READING EXERCISE 75. 

)er djnee bebedt im SBinter bte Srbe. >te ftet^tgen (Sdjiiter 
toerben belo^nt. 2)tcfe 53iid)er gefatten mtr ntd)t. 3)tc ^einbe er* 
obcrten bte @tobt 3d) erfanntc fie nid)t fog(etd), toeit e8 bitnfet war. 

ic mid) tjerftanben ? Oa ; 



226 INSEPARABLE VERBS. 

id] uerfpredje 3l)itcu, 3()vcu 9Jatlj ju befolgen. 28iberfpred)cn Ste 
mtr, fo tange ate Sic roollen, am (gnbe foerben <Ste bod) fagen, bap icf) 
$Hed)t gefyabt Ijabe. ic|e3 Sdjlop ttrirb Don ber 0>3rafin <y- betoofynt. 
3)er (Partner fyat uergeffen, metne jungen ^flan^en gu begiefjen. 3)et 
$onig t)at 31^ unften (iu favor of) fetne0 <3ol)neS bent Stjronc cut* 
fagt. 5)cr oob,n beiS Sorb ^. fjat feme tubien giin^Ud) uernac^ta'igt. 
err SBatfer Ijat mein 33ud) feb,r gunftig beurtfjettt. ute 9)Jenfd)en 
Derabfdjeuen ba Rafter. Xie 9?ac|rid)t on bent (Siege ber ^cinbe t)at 
unter ber 33etiotferung einen grofcen Sdjrecfen (panic) berurfadjt. !Ter 
Sluffe^er b,atte fetn efdjdft (business) gang bernadjla'pigt. 2)er junge 
SKann redjtfertigte ba ^ertrauen, ba tt)tr in Hjn fe^ten. 

ufgabc 76. 

"Water covered the land. You lose your friends. I had not 
received your letter. Good children obey their (flat.} parents. 
This young man was much (fefyr) favored by (the) fortune. 
The peasants cultivate their land. The road is planted (be* 
pflangt) with walnut-(9?u=)trees. A robber has deprived me 
(ace.) of my luggage (gen.). You have guessed (104) my 
thoughts. The boy promised me (dat.) to mend his be- 
havior. We have lost all our money. The child has soiled 
its dress. I will keep this book. Have (finb) the orders (23e* 
fefyte) of the king been executed? I was deceived (111) by my 
neighbor ; he deceives everybody. Carthage ($artf)ago) was 
destroyed by the Romans. I have received several letters 
from America. Do not contradict your master (dat.). The 
potato-crop has failed (tft mtjjratfyen). Have you breakfasted? 
I breakfast every morning at nine o'clock. The dog broke 
(tore) his chain and ran off (fort). Your boots are torn, shall 
I take (trogen) them to (311) the shoemaker? A bird flew 
against the window and broke a pane of glass. Afterwards 
* nobody l knew who 3 had 2 broken l it. I have not been in- 
formed of (oon) the death of Mr. Graham. The robber waa 
condemned to be hanged. 



tljaten bie ^etnbe ? <Ste eroberten bte <Stabt. 
2Ba berurfadjte bte 9jf ad)rid)t toon 

bent (Siege ber ^ewbe? Sic berurfad)te groften Sdjrecfett. 

2Ber betoolntt jeneS <Sd)tojj ? er ofterretdjifdje raf 5- 

Ofl er retd)? 5D?an fagt, bajj er fefjr retd) tfl 



SEPARABLE VERBS. 



2Barum $at ber (Partner 

men ntd)t tegoffen ? 
2Ba3 Derfpradj'ber 
28er on Sfynen fyqt mit hnber* 

fprodjen ? 
$at biefer 9ttann fein 

beforgt (attended to) ? 
Robert <5te etnen 23rief bon 

rent 5^unbe erljatten? 
tljun bte Sauern? 
te btele 



(Sir ttnrb fte btefen 3lbenb begte^en. 
(gr berf))rac^, fic^ gu beffern. 
^itemanb Don un b,at ^b/nett totber* 

fpro^en. 
S'Jetn, er fyat e6 gan^It^ 



$onnen <Ste metne @ebanfen er* 

ratten ? 
^aben bte ftetnbe bte (Stabt 3er== 

[tort? 
$at ber ^ontg bent S^rone ent* 

fagt? 
Stffen (Ste, toer btefeS (a 

broken 



3d) erb,otte oft S3rtefe toon tljm. 

@te bebauen bte ^elber. 

>er Sob b,at mtcf) aller ntemer 

^reunbe beraubt. 
3c^ ^abe fte oft erratfyen, aber nt^t 

immer. 

JMn, fte ^aben fte md)t gerflort. 



unften femes 

tn, ntetn ^err, id) ttetfc e ntc^t ; 
id) b,abe eS nic^t gerbroc^en. 



THIRTT-FIRST LESSOR 

SEPARABLE VERBS. 

(Irfnubnre ^cittuorter.) 

1. In a separable verb, the prefix is detached and 
becomes a separate word in the present and imperfect 
indicative and subjunctive and in the imperative. Thus : 
obfc^retben, to write off, copy (from fdjretben, write, and ab, 
off), has t^ fcfyretbe ab, ic^ fc^rteb ab (imperfect), fcfymbe ab 
(imperative), etc. 

2. In all the remaining parts of the verb, the prefix 
precedes the verbal stem and is written in one word with 
it, e.g., obfcfyreibenb, copying ; abfdjretben, to copy. 

3. Note, however, that the fle of the past participle is in- 
serted between the prefix and the verb, e.g., abcjefcfyrieben, 



228 SEPARABLE VERBS. 

and that the same is true of ju used with the infinitive, 
e.g., abjufcfyretben. 

4. In a dependent clause (see 'page 82), the VERB comes 
last, so that we should expect for The letter which you 
copied, er 33rief ben <Ste abfcfyrieben and not .... fcfyrieben 
ob. But when the rules of arrangement require the VERB 
last in the clause, the prefix always comes immediately 
before it, and is written as one word with it, e.g. t above, 
abfcfyrteben. "We thus have for every separable verb two 
forms for the present and imperfect indicative and sub- 
junctive, as follows : 

In clauses not dependent : In dependent clauses : 

Pres. Indie, id) fdjreibe ab, Pres. Indie, id) abfrfjretbe, 

Impf. Indie, id) f d)ricb ab, Impf. Indie, id) abf d)rieb, 

Pres. Subf. id) (djretbe ab, Pres. Subf. id) abfdjretbe, 

Impf. SubJ. id) fdjriebe ab. Impf. Subj. id) abfdjriebe. 

5. Separable verbs are accented on the prefix, as has 
been already stated 2, page 10. 

6. Partial conjugation of a separable verb. (See also 4.) 

5lbf$retben, to copy. 

PRESENT. IMPERFECT. 

id) fdjretbe ab *, I copy id) fdjrteb ab, I copied 

bu f djreibft ab, bit frfjrtebfl ab, 

er fdjretbt ab, er fdjrteb ab, 

hnr f d)retben aB, tmr fdjrteben ab, 

i^r f djretbt ab, tljr fdjrtebet ab, 

fte fdjretben ab. fie frfjrieben ab. 

First Future, id) werbc abfdjrctben, I shall copy. 

Perfect, id) fyabe abgefdjrteben, I have copied. 

Pluperfect, id) ^atte abgefd^rteben, I had copied. 

Sec. Future, id) toerbe abgefdjncben ^aben, I shall have copied. 

i When the prefix follows the primitive (of. 4), it is usually separated from it by 
ord or two. indeed normally by the whole of the BEST of the clause. 



SEPARABLE VERBS. 229 

First Cond. td) tuiirbe obfdjreiben, I should copy. 

Sec. Cond. id) toiirbe abgefdjrteben Ijaben, I should have copied 



IMPERATIVE. 



fdjretbc ab, | cotrv fdjretben hnr ab, let us copy, 

jdjretben (2te ab, j *^" 

INFINITIVE. 
abfdjreiben and ab^ufdjreiben, to copy. 

PABTICIPLES. 

Pres. ob[d)reibenb, copying. Past. aBjjefd)rteben, copied. 

7. The following prefixes always form separable verbs ^ 

ab, off, down entgegen, to meet toS, loose, off 

an, on, at entgtoei, in two, apart mit, with 

oitf, up, upon fort, forth, away nad), after 

au3, out, from gegen, against ob, over, on 

bet, by, beside, with gegeniiber, opposite Dor, before 

bettor, before in, in hjeg, 'away 

ba, bar, there b,eim, home 311, to 

cut, in, into fyer, toward one ^uriicE, back 

empor, up, aloft ^in, from one ^ufammen, together. 

8. Also : compound prefixes made up of prefixes found 
in the preceding list or that on page 234, e.rj. t orcm, 
ahead; iibereitt from liber and ein. Especially frequent are 
compound prefixes one part of which is fyin or fyer, e.g., 
fyeraulcwfen, to run out (to us); litnauSlaufen, to run out 
(away from us who are indoors). 

9. We have just seen that compound prefixes made up 
of simple separable prefixes are themselves separable. 

In the same way, when a separable prefix comes first, 
and is followed by an inseparable one, as in abbeftellen, 
the verb is conjugated like a separable, infinitive with 
jit, ftbjubeficUen; present indicative, id) beftelle ab, -except 
that, of course, the past participle (abbeftellt) has no ge. 

i This list is taken, with some trifling changes, from Whitney's Grammar. 



230 SEPARABLE VERBS. 

10. We have not included in the list of separable pre- 
fixes on page 229, a number of nouns and adjectives 
each used as a separable prefix in perhaps only a singl* 
compound. Examples of such compounds follow : 

PRESENT. PAST PAUT. 

fefjljdjtagen ', to fail id) fdjlage feb,l feb,lgefd)lagen. 

freifprcdjen, to acquit id) fpredje frei freigefprodjen. 

t gietrfjfommen, to equal id) fomnte gteid) gtetdjgefommen. 

itebfyaben, to love id) fyabe lieb liebgefyabt. 

fttflfd)tt)eigen, to be silent id) frfjroeige ftttt ftiflgefd)h)iegen. 

ftattfinben, to take place id) ftnbe flatt jtottgefunben. 

OBSERVATIONS. 

1. Dependent clauses, as has been already stated page 
82, 4, take the VERB at the end. If this VERB is a sep- 
arable one, it takes in the simple tenses, i.e., those which 
need no auxiliary to form them, the same form as if it 
were inseparable. This rule has already been stated at 
greater length, page 228, 4. Ex. : 

2)er 23rief, foeldjen id) fefct abfrfjreibe. 

The letter which I am copying now. 

3d) ttwnfdje, bofc <3ic Ijeute nidjt 

I wish you not to go out to-day. 

5HS id) in tyan$ anfam *c. 

When I arrived in Paris, etc. 

2Benn <Sie ^u Diet clb au^gegeben 

If you have spent too much money, etc. 

2. $erab, fyerein, ^crunter, etc., imply motion totvards 
the person who is speaking ; while fnnab, ^tnctn, ^inuntcr, etc., 
imply motion away from the speaker. Ex. : 

$ommen (Sic ^erein, Come in. 

(Come towards me who am in the room.) 

i When spelled separately, tbe three first verbs have a different meaning, viz. : fe$l 
fcfctagen means to miss one's blow; fret fpre$en, to speak frankly; gleii lommen, to oem 
directly. 



SEPAEABLE VERBS. 231 

$el)en @ic Ijtnetn, Walk in. 

( The speaker is outside.) 

CWjen 3te Ijtnauf, Go up stairs. 

( The speaker is below ; motion away from him.) 

jtomusen ie ijerauf, Come up. 

(The speaker is upstairs ; motion towards him.) 

WORDS. 

ba 2lnerbtetcn, the offer anftretdjen, to paint 

bte Sftotf), the distress frtfd), freshly, newly 

bte ^etdjnun.q, the drawing abtragen, to carry off 

bte ^itgcl, the ball nneber fyerfteflen, reg. to restore 

ber $itge(, the hill IjtnabroIIen, reg. to roll down 

ber ()itrm, the tower erfemten, to recognize 

ber Strjt, the physician, doctor toortreff'Kdj, excellent 

bte Skrdnberung, the change ungufrte'ben, discontented 

ber ^3 (an, the plan bermutl)Itd), probably 

ber 33udjl)anbler, the bookseller f abretfen, to set out 

bte ramnta'ttf, the grammar betfte^en, irr. to assist 

ber 33ifd)of, the bishop tiorftetten, to introduce, present 

ber Slbenb, the evening an^teljen, irr. to put on (clothes) 

abbremten, to burn down abfd)lagen, irr. to refuse. 

aufgefyen (of the sun), to rise 

READING EXERCISE 77. 

3rf) fdjretbe btefen 33rtef ab. 2Ber fdjrteb btefen 33rtef ab ? $art 
^at t()n abgefcf)neben. 2Bann fmgen @te an, i^n abjufdjretben ? 3d) 
(jabe fcf)on geftern 5lbenb angefangen unb fa^re btefen 9)forgen fort. 
2Btr ftnb um ^alb fcrf)3 U^r angefommen. a8 9JJabrf)en fdjlofj bte 
J^iire ^u. -3d) nefyme mtt 33ergnugen 3I)r giittgeS (kind) Slnerbteten 
an. tet)et anf, $tnber, e tft 3>eit. 3)te ^tnber ftnb (have) bent 
Sfet nad)ge(aufen. S)a ganje 3)orf iff abgebrannt. -3d) gtng ntd)t 
aug, tocti id) fran! ftar. aben @te S^ren f^reunb ^uriidbegleitet ? 
gurdjten <5te ntdjtg, id) ftee S^nen bet ! 



78. 

I copy all my letters. Are you going out ? Yes, I am going 
out. My brother set out for (nad)) London this morning. 
The concert begins at 7 o'clock. Assist your neighbor in his 
distress. Pray, present me to your friend. In summer 2 the 



SEPARABLE VlalBS. 

8 sun ' rises at three o'clock in the morning (beg 3ft.). The sun 
has (ift) risen beautifully. Leave out this page (cite) when 
you copy the letter. It is already copied. Take your draw- 
ing away- Our friends went away from here at six o'clock. 
Do you not take me with (you) ? I accept your offer with 
great pleasure. The young man has spent his time very 
badly. The doctor communicated this news to me. Do not 
detain him [any] longer. Put on your shoes. How did you 
spend your evening yesterday ? I went out I was not yet 
dressed. 

BEADUTO EXERCISE 79a. 

efen <5te mtr btefeS fdjime ebirfjt t>or. eben <Sic $d)t (care), 
bte Jf)iire ift frtfd) angeftrtdjen. @tnb bte (Spctfen (dishes) fefjon ab= 
getragen ? er Sebtente tragt fte cbcn (just) ab. <2tnb bte Thibet 
angefteibet? 2)a$ $tnberntdbd)en (nurse) fletbet fie eben an. SBctcfje 
nte Don ber SBafjrfyett ab. jDer <Sturm ^at nacfjgelajfen (aufge^ort). 
3)a3 (d)tff n>ar gefunfen ; gtuanjig ^erfoHen futb (have) itmgefom* 
men. jDer 2)teb ift batoon getaufen. 35er ^aufmann retfte tm ganjen 
(whole) ^anbe um^er (fyerum). !Da8 ^abe i^ S^nen DorauSgefagt 
2)er Slr^t ift eben borbetgegangen. 

9tufga6e 79b. 

The ball rolled down the hill (ace.). The luggage was car- 
ried out. We have (ftnb) ascended (on, auf) the tower. Much 
rain produces weeds (Unfraut). The hunter rambles about in 
the forest. Captain B. has (ift) just ridden by. I had no 
time to carry the child about The messenger brought the 
letter back. Great changes have taken place (10) in the 
administration (taat3toertt)altung). Mr. Murray is an excel- 
lent physician ; he has entirely restored my health. I agreed 
with the bookseller for (toegen, lit. on account of, in regard to) 
a new grammar. We met with some friends in Paria The 
plan which we had made has completely failed. I have just 
(eben) sent back the books you had lent me. If you refuse 
(Observation 1) him such a trifle ($letmgfett), * he ' will be very 
discontented. If I introduce you to the count (dot.), J you 
1 will probably be invited to (jum) dinner. When 1 Mr. Grove 
was introduced to the Bishop, "he Recognized an old friend 
in 



i See foot-note 1, p. ISO. 



SEPARABLE VERBS. 



233 



>aben <Sie 3fyre Ueberfeijimg 

fdjon abgefd)rieben ? 
Um uwmcl llfyr gefyen <Sie biefen 

Sibenb auS ? ' 
(Sinb <Sie geftern audj nidjt (not 

either) auSgegangen? 
SBann reifen (Sic ab ? 

2Ber Ijat ba $inb auSgefleibet? 

<2o( id) mid) anffcibcn ? 

2Ber l)dt meine (Sticferei (em- 

broidery) tteggenommen? 
2Bann geljt bie Sonne auf ? 

2Birb ber Offisier b,eute l)ier t)or= 

bei'reitcn ? 
-3ft ber 33cbiente fdjon gururfgc* 

f ommen ? 
2Ber tjat 3^nen btefe SRadjrtdjt 

mitgctfjeUt ? 
SBann fangt ba Sweater an? 



^>at ber (Sdjnetber meinen 

mitgenontmen ? 
2Bie fontmt biefer^)itnb ^ie 
2Ber gefyt bem )t)eim entgegen? 
^at bad Concert' geftern ftatt= 

gefunben (taken place) ? 
3ft ber cfangene toerurtljeUt 

iuorben ? 

^onnte man biefeS Dor^ej'fe^en? 
SEoflen <Sie ein n)enig (for a 

little while) Ijcrauffonmtcn ? 
^onnen (Sic tnorgen Ijeriiber* 

fontmcn '? . 
3ft e3 ertaubt fjinein gn getjen ? 

S3ringt man meinen goffer 
(trunk) fjerauf? 



d) fdjretbe fie eben ab. 3d) rterbe 
aud) bie toon geftern abfd)reiben. 



qeb,e id) nid)t ait8. 
id) ^atte feine 
getjen. 
3d) gebenfe (intend) morgen friilj 

ab^ureifen. 

2)ie gutter fjat e auge!teibct 
3a, fleiben <Sie ftd) an. 

9^iemanb nimmt t)ier (Sttua^ njcg. 
3nt @ommer get)t fte um 3 H^r be8 

9J?orgen8 auf. 
S3ermut^id), benn (for) er reitet 

jeben Xag b,ier borbet'. 
yidrif er bleibt immer fo lange 

au. 
5D?ein 9?ejfe ?ubn)ig t^eitte fie mir 

ntit. 
S3 fangt im SBinter itm fed)3 Ur, 

im (Sommer um fieben Ub,r an. 
Sr f)at ib,n mitgenommen; aber 

nodj nid)t juriidgebradjt. 
(Sr ift mir nadjgefaufen. 

unb id) geb/en iljm entgegen. 



, e ftnbet erfl ^eitte ftatt. 
3m egentb,eit (contrary), er ift 
freigefprod)en iworbcn (Note 3). 
(Serai^, e8 jnar Ieid)t 
3d) b,abe fe^t feine 



3a, id) toerbe einen ^tugenblid I)in= 

iibergcfyen. 
3a, mein ^err, treten (Sic nur 

l^erein. 
6r ift fdjon oben (up stairs). 3dj 

fyabe ib,n felbft (jtnaufgetragen. 



234 SEPARABLE YERBS. 

VEEBS WITH THE PEEFIXES burd), fiber, 5C. v 

1. be, emp, etc., (page 222), always form inseparable 
verbs, and ab, an, etc., always form separable verbs; but 
each of the prefixes in the following list forms some 
verbs which are separable and others which are insep- 
arable. 

burd), through Ubcr, over imter, under 

fyinter, behind urn, about unber l , against 

liucber, again 

2. It happens frequently indeed that burcfy, fytnter, fifcer, 
etc., form one compound verb which is separable and 
another compound verb which is inseparable, from the 
same simple verb. The separable compound and the 
inseparable compound will be spelled in the infinitive 
in just the same way, e.g., it'berfeijen, separable, to set (some- 
thing) over, like iiberfe'^en, inseparable, to translate. 

3. They differ, however, 

a) In accent, as has just been indicated, llc'berfe^en 
separable is (like abfe^en, etc.) accented on the prefix, and 
iiberfe'fjen inseparable (like befe^en, etc.) is accented on the 
verbal stem. 

1) Of course, in conjugation, u'berfe^en having (like 
abfefcen, etc.) id) fe&e iiber, itberjufefcen, ubero,efet, and uber* 
fe'&en, (like befefcen, etc.) having id) itberfe'fce, ju iiberfe'fcen, 
past participle iiberfefct'. 

c) In signification. Ue'berfe^en means to set over, across 
(e.g., to ferry across a river). Ueberfe'&en means to translate. 

\ Were it not that wiber, which properly means against, is sometimes written, and 
printed where nrieber, again, ought to stand, it (mibet) would have been omitted from 
this list, for in its proper sense of against it is inseparable. SBtebtt, on the contrary, is 
almost always separable. SBofl forms some separable and some inseparable verba 
So does mt&, but it is generally inseparable. The rule given 3, c, does not apply com- 
pounds of cott and mi|>. 



SEPAEABLE VERBS. 235 

The following examples (from Whitney's Grammar) will 
illustrate still further this difference in signification. 

Separables. Inseparables. 

burrfj'brtngen, to crowd through burdjbrtn'gen, to penetrate, per- 
fyhi'tergefyen, to go behind fyinterge'ljen, to deceive [meate 

um'geljen, to go around, re- umge'ljen, to evade 

volve 

un'tertoerfen, to throw under itntertoer'f en, to subject, subjugate 
toie'berljolen, to fetch back tweberfyo'ten, to repeat. 

4. The separables, it will be noticed, are translated in 
English by two words, one of which gives the sense of 
the simple verb, e.g., bringen, to crowd, and the other the 
sense of the prefix, e.g., bitrcf), through. 

5. The inseparables, on the other hand, are translated 
by a single word. 1 (Compare in English I took over with 
/ overtook, and / set up with / upset.) 

6. There are, however, not a few cases in which an 
English verb having been rendered by a certain German 
compound verb, that compound verb may be conjugated 
either separably or inseparably as the writer chooses. 
Thus The rat gnawed through it may be translated, 
to gnaw through being burcfynagen, either 3)ie SRatte nagte 
eg burdj or )ie 9tatte burcfynagte eg. 

7. When an intransitive verb is compounded with one 
of the prefixes in the above list, the inseparable com- 
pound is more apt to take an accusative after it than the 
separable, compound. Thus from itber and gefyen, itbcrge'tyen 
means to pass over to omit (e.g., 3$ itbergcfye bag Uebrige, 

i The student acquainted with Latin will notice that in one or two of the examples 
lust given, the inseparables are translated by English verbs derived from the Latin, 
and that the Latin originals of these verbs correspond exactly in composition to the 
German verbs, thus unter=rcer'fen to sub-jicere and rcieber^olen to re-petere, 



236 SEPARABLE VERBS. 

I pass over the rest] ; while ii'bergefyen means to pass over, 
intransitive, as in the sentence, This misprint passed over 
into the second edition, )tefer 2)rucffel)ler ging in tic jroette 
SUtggabe iiber. 

WORDS. 

bte efme, the sinew bte djarfe, keenness 

bcr ^otijetbtcner, the constable bte ebutb, patience 

ber ^evftcmb, understanding ber. Safe, the sentence 

bte 3d)rift, the writing ber $tttfd)er, the coachman 

ba$ @efiU)f, sentiment, feehng ber (Sturm, the storm, 

Some of the words in the following exercises must be looked for in the 
Vocabulary at the end of the book. 

READING EXERCISE 80. 

Sftan fyat bent ^Jferbe bte Seljncn bitrd)ge[d)mtten. (8 regnet ftarf, 
Iajfen <3te un8 unterfteljen. eftern ftnb rotr and) ttntergeftanbeit, at3 
e8 onftng ^efttg gu regnen. 9Jitt ebttlb fe^t man Me burd). 97ac^ 
etner Stunbe ftnb hnr umgefel^rt. eftent fott (is said) Sentonb tm 
293a(be umgebrarf)! 1 worben fein. 3ft bte^ ber@rf)tffer h)eld)er un^ itber* 
gefe^t^at? $ennen Ste ben Sdjrtftftetter (author) lueldjer ?amorttne' 
sBerfe tn'^ eutfcf)e itberfe^t Ijat? 5)er ^atfer t>on Defterret^ ^atbte 
gan^e ^roDtnj burc^retft. !Die Corner fyaben t)tele 5So(!er unterjoc^t. 
jDer ^otijetbtener ^at ba gange ^>aug bnrcfjfitdjt. 9)tetn @p^n ^at bte 
Settling be3 efdjafte^ iibentommen. 3^re SSorte ^aben mtd^ don ber 
SBaljrfiett ber <2ad)e iibergeugt. On biefer (Sdjute njerben bte ^noben 
big (till) $um 14. Oa^re unterridjtet. 223 te fonnten te (e) unter* 
ne^nten, bte^ gu t^un? emitter ubertrifft atte beutfc^en J)trf)ter 
(poets) an Stefe be efit^ ; aber er n)irb toon otlje an ^arfe 
be 55erftanbeg itbertroffen. ^(o^ltc^ fa^en h)tr ung toon getnben nm= 
ringt -3d) bttte @te, balb UJteberjuIommen. 

9lufiiobr 81. 

When (al$) we came to the river, we crossed in a little boat. 
Can you tell me who has translated Milton's Paradise Lost 
(ertorene$ ^arabteS) ? I have no mind to translate this book. 
You should throw on (over) your cloak. A whole regiment of 



i We should have expected the Inseparable umbrt'ngen In the sense of kill, and it is 
actually sometimes found, but um'brtngcn is much more frequent. 



SEPARABLE VERBS. 237 

infantry (3nfanterieregiment) went over to (ju) the enemy. Why 
did you pass over (iiberge'ljeu) this sentence ? I omitted (liber* 
ge'ljen) it, because it seemed to me too difficult. Three vessels 
went down (perished) in the last storm. The coachman has 
upset the carriage. Have (finb) you had much intercourse with 
Mr. A.? I wish I were so happy [as] to have much inter- 
course with him. What business have you undertaken: 
Have you repeated your lesson ? You must change your dress 
(fid) umf(eiben), or (fonft) you cannot go with us. This box 
must be examined. Our house is surrounded with a garden. 
Mr. F. has killed himself. Have you a mind to sign this 
paper ? I have already signed it. 



BEADING LESSON. 

2>er Sirocco. Sirocco. 

(Sine ber grofcten ^(agcn 1 fur gang Statien, befonberS 2 fur 
unb icitien, ift ber @irocco=2Binb. (Sr Ijetfjt aud) (Suboftttrinb, in 
9lfrifa (Satnum, iu ber djttteig $of)tt. 3n 9?eapel unb in anbern 
Sljeiten 3talienS toeljt 3 er nidjt fo fyefttg toie tit icttien, njetdjeS nafyer 
bet 2lfri!a liegt, bauert 4 aber mefyrere 2Bod)en unb Iaf?t SDiutljtoftg* 
fett 5 unb ^tebergefdjlagenfjett 6 juriid 1 . 3n 9Zeape( toeljt er tin OuU fo 
^ct, bajj bie aWenfdjen gan^ erfdjtafft 7 unb entnerfct 8 rterben. 
Xljatigfeit 9 in bem 2ftenfd)cn erftirbt 10 , nnb bie gefa&,rttd)ften n 
h)iirben barau entfte^en (arise), toenn er in (Stcilien langer atg 30 bt 
40 (Stunbeu ftie^tc, unb nid)t bon etnem ^orbminbe begleitet 13 luare, 
nieldjer bie Sftenfdjen loieber ftarft. 

(Sobatb ber Sirocco gu h)e!^en anfdngt, ^iefyt 14 ftd) Seberntann in bie 
aufer guriiii, mad)t S:f)iiren unb $enfter gu, ober be^dngt 15 in (Smtan* 
gelung 16 toon genfterfd^eiben (panes), bie ^enfter unb anbere Ocffnun* 
gen mtt naffen Jud^ern unb fatten ". Qn ben trafeen fieb,t man 
feincn 9J?cnfd)en. 5lud) auf ben ^elbem tb,ut 18 ber (Suocco oft 
gropen djaben 18 ; er berfengt 19 bie rcifer unb ^flangen fo, baf^ 



i plague. 2 especially, s to blow. 4 bauem, to last. & despondency. 6 dejection. 
" relaxed, s enervated. 9 energy. 10 etflerfien, to die away. 11 dangerous, inconse- 
quence. K accompanied, (i.e., here, followed). H fid) jururfjie^en, to retire, is to hau b ' 
with. 16 in. the absence, n mats, is to do much damage. 19 to scorch. 



238 



VERBS WITH fetlt. 



man fte gu ^ufoer jerretben 1 fann, aid loenn fte au$ einem l)eien 
)fen famen. (JMurf'Udjernmfe 2 toeljt er ntdjt gan^ nafye am 23oben s . 
!Dte eute, toelrfje in ben Strafcen unb auf bem %-ei'tx ftnb, toerfen 4 fid) 
befctoegen auf ben 23oben nteber 4 , imb fo tfyut er iljnen feinen 
(haxm). 



THIRTY-SECOXD LESSON. 



CONJUGATION OF VEKBS WHICH FOEM THEIR 
PERFECT WITH fctn INSTEAD OF fcaben. 

1, SReifen, to travel 



INDICATIVE. 


SUBJUNCTIVE. 


Present. 


id) reife, I travel 


id) reife 


Imperf. 


id) reifte, I travelled 


id) reifte 


Future. 


id) toerbe retfen 


id) ttjerbe reifen 


Cond. 


id) h)iirbe reifen 





Perfect. 


id) bin geretf^Ihave trav- 


id) fet gereift 




bu bifl gereift [elled 


bu fetft gereift 




er iji gereift 


er fei gereift 




hrir finb geretfi 


hnr feten gereift 




i^r feib gereift 


iljr feiet gereift 




@ie flnb geretfi 


@ie feten geretft 




fte ftnb gereift 


|te feien geretft 


Pluperf. 


id) war gereift 


td) todre geretft 




bu toarft gereifi 


bu tDareft gereift 




er ttar gereift 


er toa're gereift 




h)ir niaren gereijl 


h)tr njaren gereifl 




iljr niaret gereift 


iljr UJdret geretft 




@ie njaren gereifl 


@ie toa'ren gereift 




fte toaren geretft 


fte toaren geretft 


Sec. Put. 


id) toerbe gereift fern 


id) luerbe geretft fein . 




bu njirft gereift fein ?c. 


bu h)erbeft gereift fein K. 


Sec. Cond. 


id) ttsurbe geretft fein or 


id) toa're gereifl. 



1 to rub to powder. 2 fortunately. 3 ground. < to prostrate one's sell 



VERBS WITH fein. 



239 



2. e^en, to go. 



INDICATIVE. 

Present. id) gelje, I go 
Imperf. id) ging, I went 
bu gingft, er ging 
First Fut. idj toerbe geljen 
First Cond. idj tottrbe gef)en 
Perfect. 



SUBJUNCTIVE, 

idj gelje 
id) gingc 

idj toerbe geljett 



I have 
[gone 



Pluperf. 
Sec. Fut. 
Sec. Cond. 



idj fet gegangen 
bu feifl gegangen 
er fet gegangen 
tmr feien gegangen 
ifjr fetet gegangen 
<3te feten gegangen 
fte feten gegangen 
id) n)are gegangen 
idj roerbe gegangen fein 



id) bin gegangen, 

bit btft gegangen 

er ift gegangen 

hrir ftnb gegangen 

iljr fetb gegangen 

@ie ftnb gegangen 

fte ftnb gegangen 

id) tt)ar gegangen 

id) werbe gegangen fein 

id) toiirbe gegangen fein or idj toare gegangen 2C. 
NOTE. The third person singular of an intransitive verb may be used 
impersonally with e3 for its subject in the passive, e.g., (gg urirb iriel gereijl, 
(It is traveled a good deal), There is a good deal of traveling. @g toutbe 
barufcer ^erjlic^ geladjt, (It was, etc.) They laughed heartily over it. 1 

3. Intransitive verbs which take fein to form 
perfect. 

K eUen, 4 to hasten 
einbrtngen, to penetrate 
etnfdjtafen, to fall asleep 



the 



abfaden, to decay 
abiaitfen (of time), to expire 
B abretfen,* to leave, set out 
abtt)etd)en, to deviate 
anfommen, to arrive 
ouffteljen, to rise, get up 
B aufroadjen, to awake 
B auSarten, to degenerate 
au^gleiten, to slip 



entflieljen, ) to run away 
entfontmen, } to escape 
entfaufen, to escape 
crbletdjen, to turn pale 
crfdjeinen, to appear 
ertrtnfen, to be drowned 



B begegnen, 3 to meet, to happen fafjren, to drive, see p. 200. 

berften, to burst fatten, to fall 

Meiben, to remain, to stay fltegen, to fly, see p. 209. 

ba&onluufen, to run away flieljen, to flee 

1 Compare the Latin ilur (it is gone) meaning they go, 

2 Those preceded by B are regular. 

3 This verb sometimes takes Ijaben,] 
Xbese verbs take fein or $&, 



240 VERBS WITH few. 

fliepen 1 , to flow nfrfjettern 1 , to be wrecked 



B folgen l , to follow 

gebeifyeu, to prosper, to thrive 

gefyen, to go 

9 eli f'' [ to succeed 
geratgen, ) 

genefen, to recover 

geratfyen ( hi or unter GtroaS), to 



d)letd)ett, to sneak 

djmeljen, to melt 

djuninmen, to swim, see p. 181. 

mfen, to sink 

'pojteren geljen, to go walking 

pringen \ to leap 

'tefjen, to stand, see p. 375. 



get into (e.g., a predicament) ftetgen, to mount 

gefd)el)en, to happen fterben, to die 

fjinaufgefycu or =ftetgcn, to go up BJtiirjcn, to fall, to rush 

Ijmimtei-gefycn, ) to descend uberemfommen, to agree 

Ijhmbftetgen, j to get down itm'fommen, to perish 

Bflettcru, to climb Btierborren, ) . wither 

fommen, to come B bertoetfen, j 

B tonben \ to land, go on shore toerfdjtwnben, to disappear 

laufen, to run toorbeu or Doriiberge^en, to pass 

B ntarf rf)tren *, to march rta^fcn, to grow 

reitcn, to ride Bhjanbern, to wander 

B retfen l , to travel toetcfyen, to yield 

B rennen, to run toerben, to become, to get 

Broften l t to rust BgitrUcffeljren, to return. 

Also most of the simple verbs in the list above when 
compounded with other prefixes than be, 4 

4 The following intransitive verbs are among those 
conjugated with 



atfymen, to breathe tocfjen, to laugh 

beKen, to bark fdjtoetgen, to be silent 

bliifyen, to bloom raud)en, to smoke 

bluten, to bleed f Alajen, to sleep 

bauern, to last fdjreten, to cry out 

fedjten, to fight tattjen, to dance 

glanjen, to shine toetnen, to weep 

^ordjen, to listen gogern, to hesitate 

fdntpfen, to fight toofynen, to reside, to dwell. 
3d) b/abe geat^met, id) ^abc geblutet, id) b,abc gclad)t :c. 



1 See foot-note 4, p. 239. 

2 The prefix be gives a iransitive sense to the verb, as has been already stated, pago 
33. Ex.; ftctjeu, intr., to mount; beflcigen, trant., to ascend. 



VERBS WITH fetn. 



241 



5. A great many verbs modify the vowel of the infini- 
tive to form causatives. Thus from fallen, to fatt, eomes 
fallen, to cause, to fall, to fell, (e.g., a tree). Sometimes the 
vowel of the imperfect is chosen, as in the case of fafyren, 
below. Instead of a, e is often printed, see fpringen 
below. Examples : 



emfd)(afen, to fall asleep 
ertrinfen (imp. ertrcmf), to be 

drowned 

: of)ren (fuljr), to go, etc. 
-alien, to fall 
lichen (ftofj), to flow 
fyangen, to hang 
lauten, to sound 
Itegen (lag), to lie 
fdjttrimmen (fdjnwmm), to swim 



Men (fan!), to sink 

tfccn (fa, to sit 

pringen (fprang), to leap, to 

jump, to burst, to crack 
fteigen, to mount 
trinfen (tranf), to drink 

berfcfytomben (erfd)tt>anb), to 

vanish 
hnegen (og), to weigh (e.g., 

ten pounds) 



B emfdjtafern, to put asleep 
B ertrcinf en, to drown, tr. 

Bfiiljren, to lead 

B fatten, to fell 

Bflojjen, to float, tr. (e.g., a raft) 

Blja'ngen, to hang up, tr. 

B tauten, to ring (the bell) 

B legen, to lay, to put 

B fcfyttemmen, float, tr. (by means 

of a current of water), 

wash (e.g., horses in a pond) 

"enfen, to (make) sink 

een, to place, to set 

prengen, to break open, to 

blow up 
B ftetgern, to raise (a price) 
Btranfen, to water (e.g., a 

horse) 
B Derfdjtoenben, to squander 

Btoagen, to weigh (e.g., a bag 
of flour). 



It will be noticed that the vowel of the imperfect is chosen when that of 
the infinitive is incapable of modification, and that several causatives are 
formed somewhat irregularly. 



WORDS. 



bie <d)tlbtoad)e, the sentinel, 

sentry 

ber $naft, the report, crack 
bie ^djtung, esteem 



} 



""* 

ber 33oben, the ground, bottom 
bie efafyr, the danger 



VERBS WITH fettt. 

ba Unterneljmen, the under- ber %tl\tn, the rock 

taking gu SBett gefyen, to go to bed 

ber 2ftttbitrger, fellow-citizen ergtefyen, to educate, bring up 

bet )o(3f)auer, the wood-cutter jjerbet'eilen, to hasten hither 

bte $itfte, the coast, shore fiirdjterltd), dreadful 

bte tabling, the cargo fcorftdjttg, cautious 

ber @raben, the ditch Ijoflanbifd), Dutch 

bte ganttUe, the family friilj, early; miibe, tired. 

READrNTO- EXERCISE 82. 

)aS 33ud) tiegt auf bent Xtfdje. -3d) fdjltef unter etnem 23aume. 
>ie @d)Ubn>ad)e Ijat am b,ore geftanben. 2)te 2ftabdjen ftnb in ben 
artcn gcgangen, urn (in order to) nac^ i^ren ^ofen gu fe^en. 2Btr 
ftnb geftern bom Sanbe gurucfgefe^rt, too njtr bret 2Boc^en gebtteben 
toaren. 2JJetn 3*eunb I)! (was) in (Engtanb geboren 1 ; aber er t|l in 
^ranfreid) ergogen worben. 3luf (upon) bte 9Jacf)rtd)t toon ber ^ranf- 
Ijett fetneg (Sob,ne tft ber 33ater ^erbetgeetlt 3)er ^rteg gn)tfd)en bte* 
fen 3et 53olfern ^at nod) ntd)t begonnen. 2Btr ftnb 2lSe iiber btefen 
fnrdjterlidjen ^natt erfdjroden. SSa^ ifl t^m gefd)eb,en? 2)a8 groe 



Unterne^men be errn turner tft ntdjt getungen. !Dtefer 2ftann tfl 
in ber ?ld)tung fetner 9)Jttbiirger feb,r gefunfen. 3)er (Sotbat tft an (of) 
fetnen 2Bunben geftorben. !Der @d)nee tft gefdjmoljen. 3)tefeS ^letfd) 
tft ntdjt genug gebraten (roasted). 2)er ^ot^auer Ijat bte Gtdje ge* 
foUt. Sin 9Jabennefl t^ ^eruntergefat(en. ^tele 5lrten (kinds) toon 
Sl^ieren, toetdje in friiljeren 3 euen au f ^ er roe Qtkbt b,aben, ftnb 
bation t>erfd)ttmnben. (Sin ^ottanbtfd)e @d)tff tft an ber $itfie 5lfrifa'^ 
gefdjettert ; bte gange ?abung tfl imtergegangen. 3)er grote X^ett ber 
Sftannfrfjaft (crew) tjl (have) itntgefommen ; nur etnige QJiatrofen, 
toetdje an'3 anb gefdjraommen ftnb, b,aben ftd) gerettet 

9(uf8atJC 83. 

1. I travelled in Spain. Our uncle (is) arrived yesterday. 
The child has fallen into a deep ditch. We sat round (urn) the 
table. The candlestick stands on (auf, dot.) the table. The 
little boy sits on the chair; his mother placed (fete) him on 
it (baraitf). Many English families reside in Germany and 
Italy. The books lie on the table ; I laid them on it. , How 
did you (Ijaben @te) sleep last night? I slept pretty (}temltd)) 
well ; I was tired when I went to bed ; I had worked very 

i See page 140, 5 and 132, . 



VERBS WITH fettt. 



243 



hard (ftarf). At what hour did you (ftnb (Ste) fall asleep? I 
fell asleep at half past eleven. The slave has hardly (faum) 
escaped. 

2. The purse has fallen to (auf) the ground. The regiment 
has marched nine hours a (ben) day. The peasants have gone 
to (in bie) town. The servant has jumped out of the window 
of the third story (3tocf). Nothing of importance (2Bid)tige$) 
has happened. These plants have not thriven in our garden. 
The glass is cracked. They (man) have broken open the door. 
The dog has crossed (swum over) the river. Did you water 
the horses? How many pounds does the trunk weigh? 
"Weigh it, if you please (gefafligft). We have not yet weighed 
it ; I think it weighs sixty pounds. A man has been (ifl) 
drowned. 



tft gefcf)efc,en? 
Urn nneutel llfyr ftnb <ie Don 

granffurt abgereift ? 
SBann finb <ie fyter ongefom^ 

men? 
SBcmn fteljen <Sie be3 9#orgen$ 

auf (get up) ? 
SBarum ftnb ie fo erfdjroden? 

<inb (Sic attetn na^ 33riiffel ge* 

rctft? 
SSollen <Stc cm rtentg (a bit, a 

while) nut un3 fpojteren 



grennb 



(S$ ift etttaS 2Bid)ttge8 gefdjeljen. 
2Bir ftnb tint b,atb fed)3 abgereift. 
egen 



SBann tft 
fet)rt? 



SBte fomntt e, ba btefer 33aum 

itntgefatten tft ? 
2Barum tft biefe ^amtlte fo arm 

genjorben ? 
2Bo ^aben te btefe ^arte ge* 

funben ? 
2Ber Ijat fte baf)tn genjorfen ? 



urn 6 Uljr ; abet Ijettte 
bin id) tint 7 llfyr aitfgeftanben. 
ben einen fitrd)terlid)en 
ge^ort. 

in, ntein SBruber ift mitgegan* 
gen. 

banlen Oljnen, rt)ir ftnb biefen 
SRorgen fd)on gegangen. 



SScr btet SBpdjen ( ago); abet er 
tfl nidjt b,ier gebtieben, er ift toie* 
ber abgereift. 



^ol^auer ^at ib,n gefattt. 
ber SJater nid)t arbeiten 



at man bie 
(watered) ? 



getvanft 



<Sie b,at auf bent 33oben gelegen. 
5d] fann e3 nidjt fag en ; toieKetdyt 

ift fte b,inuntergefaUen. 
Oa, ber @tUhted)t (hostler) ^at 

fte ebcu get vault. 



244 



IMPERSONAL YEBBfl. 



THIRTY-THIRD LESSON. 



IMPERSONAL VERBS. 

I UiiperjonUrtje Stirtoortrr.) 
EXAMPLES. 



1NFLNIT1VK. 



regnen, to rain 

fdjneien, to snow 

ijageln, to hail 

bonnern, to thunder 

bitten, to lighten 

friereu, to freeze 

reifen, (to have hoar-frost) 

tbcmen, to thaw 

togen, to dawn 

fleben, (to have) 



PRESENT. 

eg regnet, it rains 

eg fcfjneit, it snows 

eg Ijagelt, it hails 

eg bonnert, it thunders 

eg blifct, it lightens 

eg frtert, eg gefriert, it freezes 

eg reift, there is hoar-frost 

e8 tfyaut, it thaws 

e5 tagt, day is breaking 

eg giebt, there is, there are. 



These are all regular, except c3 friert ( see p. 201, No. 117) and e3 
and they are all conjugated with Ijafcen, as : 

CS Ijat fleregnet, e^ ^at gcbonnert, e8 Ijat flebtifet, jc. 

1. c^ncien, to snow. 

INDICATIVE. 

Present. eg frfjnett, it snowa 

Imperfect. eg fdjnette, it snowed. 

First Put. eg ttnrb fc^neien, it will snow. 

First Cond. eg tourbe fdjneten, it would snow. 

Perfect. eg l)at gef^neit, it has snowed. 

Pluperf. eg ^atte gefc^neit, it had snowed. 

Sec. Fut. eg ttirb gefcijneit ^aben, it will have snowed. 

Sec. Cond. eg toiirbe qefcfmeit baben 1 -4. , i ^ 
or eg batte gefdjneit, \ li would 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Present. eg frfjnete. 

Imperfect, eg fc^netete. 

First Fut. eg roerbe f^neien. 

Perfect. eg Ijabe gefd^nett. 

Pluperf. eg b,otte gefrfjnett. 

Sec. Fut. eg toerbe gef^neit b/aben. 

Imperative, eg fcb,neie. 



IMPERSONAL 7ERBS. 245 

Tnfin. Pres. fdjneten, Perf. gefdjneit Ijabett. 

Partic. Pres. fcfjnetenb, Past, gefcfjneit. 

2. (3 gtebt (or gibt), there is, there are. 

Present. e8 gtebt or gtbt, there is, there are. 

Imperf. e8 gab, there was, there were. 

First Fut. e8 tmrb geben, there will be. 

First Gond. e nwrbe geben (e3 gcibe), there would be. 

Perfect. e fjat gegeben, there has (have) been. 

Pluperfect. e$ fyatte gegeben, there had been. 

Sec. Fut. e$ tirirb gegeben fyaben, there will have been. 

Sec. Gond. e loiirbe gegeben fyabcn, there would have been, 

etc., etc., through the subjunctive, imperative, 

infinitive, and participles. 

OBSERVATIONS. 

1. There are two ways of translating there is, there are, 
into German, eS gtbt, which takes an accusative after it, 
and c ifl (or e$ ftnt>), which takes a nominative. (0 gtbt is 
perhaps oftener used than e3 ift, and seems to be chosen 
for sweeping, comprehensive assertions, especially neg- 
ative ones, and for questions. 1 

1. @3 gtbt tooljl gitte unb fd)Ied)te 23iicfjer. Of course there arc 

good books and bad ones. 

2. G3 gtbt Seute, ftetdje bte <Sd)5nljeit ber Xugenb borjteljen. There 

are people who prefer beauty to virtue. 

3. (23 gtbt 33ogetnefter, tteldje efjbar ftnb. There are birds' nests 

which are edible. 

4. 2Ba gtbt e3 9?eue3? What is (there new) the news? 

5. (53 gtbt ntrfjtS @d)6nere3 al3 ba3. There is nothing handsomer 

than that. 

i 63 tfl, eS ftnb, have also, as we have seen page 87, the sense of it is and they are. e.g., 
08 ijl ein grofjet unb, It is a big dog; 6S ftnb otbaten, It is or they are soldiers. Often 
the same German sentence may be translated into English in either way. See ex- 
amples 6, 7, and 8. 

If we translated the examples above in such a way as to bring out distinctly tho 
difference between e3 gtbt and e3 Ijl, we should render e3 gibt in 1, 2 and 3, There i* 
such a thing as; 4 would become What is there in the way of news, it there any- 
thing ? (while 2Ba-3 ift e iJ2eue3 ? would have meant What is the news, for 1 know there 
is some ?) On the other hand, we should render 6, What is on the table is a novel of 
Dickens', 7, What is in the cage is a canary bird. 8, What is on tfcat tree is two 
birds, 



246 IMPERSONAL VERBS. 

6. (2s iff cm 9ioman ton )trfen8 aitf bem tfcf). There is a novel 

of Dickens' on the table. 
1. (53 ift em (anartentiogel in bem $a'ftg. There is a canary-bird 

in the cage. 
8. gS ftnb gum $ogel aitf jenem Itetnen 33aume. There are two 

birds on that little tree. 

NOTE. When c iji would be used in a question or in the question order 
as in the second example, the e3 is dropped. Ex. : 



3JI 2Bcm in biejer 

Is there any wine in this bottle? 

?n biefet glafcfye ift 2Betn, 
here is wine in this bottle. 

2. To indicate weather or time, impersonal sentences 
are formed with c tft, as in English : 

eS tfl fait, it is cold e8 tft fpat, it is late 

e8 ift hwrm, it is warm e8 tfl 3lbenb, it is evening 

e ift bunfet, it is dark e tfl ^aib fe^ U^r, it is half 

past five, etc. 

3. Some personal verbs are occasionally used imper- 
sonally, thus : 

e8 fdjetnt, it seems e bcwert, it is (e.g., long or not 

e8 betrtfft, it concerns long) 

eg folgt, it follows e8 er^ettt, it appears 

e$ fe^It (an, with the dot.), it is e8 nttfct nt^t, it is of no use 

wanting e$ bebarf, it requires 

e gefd)tei)t, it happens e8 fangt an, it begins 

e8 geniigt, it suffices e8 fommt barauf an, it depends 

eS lautet, the bell rings e8 tfi fetn ^nwfd' there is no 
e8 fcfjtagt ge^n ll^r, it strikes doubt. 

ten o'clock 

4. The following are, many of them, translated by 
English verbs which are not impersonal. 

With the accusative. With the dative. 

e8 freitt mid) *, (it rejoices me) eg tfl mtr letb, ) T 
I am glad eg tlmt mtr tetb, j A 

i Some of these are used also personally, viz.: 3<6 freue micfe, t* Sin Bun^ng or ic^ abe 
te^ bin burfiig or ic^ ^abe Durfl ; i$ ftiere, id) raunbere nit*, i$ fcbaubere. 



IMPERSONAL VERBS. 247 

eg rcitt mid), (it rues me) I re- eg gefaftt mir, (it pleases me) I 

pent am pleased 

eg fdjmerst midj, (it pains me) eg nii^t mir nid)tg, it is of no use 

I grieve to me 

eg friert midj 1 , 1 am cold eg fdjroinbelt mir, I am giddy 

eg fd)aubert mid), I shudder eg begcgnet mir, it happens to me 

eg jammert mid), I pity eg gelingt mir, I succeed 

eg biinlt mid), it appears to me eg liegt mir bid baran, it is im- 
eg Humbert mid), I wonder portant for me 

eg toerbriefet mid), it vexes me eg fommt mir Dor, it seems to me 

eg Ijungert mid), I am hungry eg fciHt mir ein, it occurs to me 

eg burftet mid), I am thirsty eg ift mir tooljt, I feel well 

eg fd)icft fid), it is proper eg ift mir ttmrm 3 , 1 am warm 

eg Derftefyt fid), of course, it is roag fefytt -3f)tten ? what is the 

a matter of course matter with you ? 

eg frcigt fid), it is doubtful (whether) 

5. We can often in English begin a sentence with there 
and put the subject of the verb after it, e.g., There lived 
once a powerful king. There in such a sentence is trans- 
lated e$. 

@g fam ein 2Banberer bie (Strafce enttang. 

There came a wanderer along the road. 

C?g gingett bret 3ager auf bie 3agb. 

Three sportsmen went hunting. 

(g ftclen >agelforner fo gro roic Xaubeneter. 

There fell hail-stones as large as pigeon's eggs. 

6. We have already seen, page 239, that intransitive 
verbs can be used in the passive with e for a subject. 
Transitive verbs are used in the passive with co in a 
similar way. In English we use they and the active 
voice. 

(g ftirb in )cutfd)Ianb biel gefungen unb getanjt, 
or: 2ftan fingt unb tanjt toiel in 2)eutfd)Ianb. 

They sing and dance a great deal in Germany. 

i See foot-note 1, p. 246. 

s We cannot say : id) bin ann. Neither do we say: t<$ bin lott, but : 8 l{l mtt foU 
W W) feint. 



248 IMPERSONAL VERBS. 

Sg rtwrbe m'el gegeffen, abet mefyr getrunfen. 
Much was eaten, but more drunk. 
(g rotrb wet tom $rieg gerebet. 
There is a good deal of talk about war. 

WORDS. 

ber 33etruger, the cheat bie 2Bolfen, the clouds 

bte 23eb,arrlid)fett, perseverance bag jDtntenfafc, the inkstand 

bte <Sd)imertgfeit, the difficulty ber ^Ijifofopb/, the philosopher 

cine 33 rifle, a pair of spectacles bte $teiber, pi. clothes 

ber >afen, the port, harbor bte efeflfd)aft, the company 

bag <S>d)aufptel, the spectacle tyeftig, violent 

ber 2Bortwed)fel, the dispute bod), yet 

iibertmn'ben, to overcome ettrig, eternal, everlasting 

fyefl, clear gtauben, to believe 

offen, open ijanbeln, to act 

baitent, to last folgtid), consequently. 

READIiro EXERCISE 84. 

1. (Sdmeit e? ^etn, eg frfjnett ntd^t, e regnet. (S3 nrirb batb 
tjageln. @ ware gut, toenn e8 fc^netete. (Sg rourbe fc^neien, rtenn 
eS nt^t fo fatt ware. (Sten (just now) fyat e gebonnert. (g hnrb 
no^ me^r bonnern. 3)te fttitte tft Dorbet (over), e tljaut. -3(^ 
gtaube, ba e morgen t^auen tuirb. @ reitt mid), baft id) geftern 
ntc^t nod) SDtannfyetm gegangen bin. S3 imrb @te reuen, luenn (Sic 
ba ^ferb nid)t taufen. Ste gefattt e O^nen in ^art^? (S3 gefaflt 
niir feb,r. Sg nmnbert mic^, ba @ie noc^ ^ier ftnb. @g berbrte^t 
mtc^, baft id) ni^t ba gemefen bin. $ommt eg 3b,nen nid)t bor, 
at ob (as if) (ginigeg uon btefem otg gefto^len toorben tuSre ? Sg 
fangt an, Ijett gu werben. 



2. (5g nU^t ^b,nen nid^tg, fo mete Stidjer ju faufen, hjenn (Sic ftc 
nt(^t tefen. @g erfyeflt aug 3^rer r^ab/tnng (from your report), 
baft ber $aufmann etn 33etriiger ifl. Sg feb,ten b,eute brei (Sdjuter. 
6g rent mid), meine Ur Derfauft 311 Ijaben. @g gtebt ein eroigeg 
eben. 2Benn eg fein ert)igeg Seben gabe, fo warcn bie 2ftenfd)etf itn* 
gtiidEK^cr alg bte Sljiere. SD'Jtt (by) 33eb,arrttd)fett gelingt eg ting, afle 
^rotertgfeiten ju tibernnnben. Sg ^efiel mir feb,r loofyl in ber(55efett* 
fd)aft ber jungen Seittc. g giebt 33rtt(en fitr atte 2titgen, fotgttc^ n>trb 
eg aitd) cine fur bte 3b,rtgen geben. Sg ftanb ein 2Bagen bor bem 
(Jg war (ein) fdjrecfttdjeg Better, atg ttur ben ^afen t>er* 



JMPEKSONAL VERBS. 249 

lichen ; bod) bauerte eg md)t lange, big bte onne burd) bte SBolfen 
brang (pierced). 

Sfitfanbc 85. 

1. It rains; yesterday 2 it 'snowed. Last (Sefcten) winter 
' it l snowed much. It will soon haiL It has rained all night 
(bte gauge s JJad)t), and this morning 2 it feezes. It thunders ; 
do you hear it? How many times (mal) has it thundered? 
It has just (ebeit) lightened. I did not think that it would 
lighten. Is there [any] ink (3)tnte) in your inkstand? There 
wOl be a great many (fefyr feiele) walnuts this year. There are 
streets in London which are two miles long. There are 
people who believe nothing. There have been philosophers 
at (311) all times. Is there [a] fire in my room? No Sir,* there 
is no fire in your room ; but I will make [one] directly (gteid)). 

2. The boy is hungry and thirsty. It is very important to 
me to know what they do. I shudder when I think how many 
[of the] poor 3 have l no 2 clothes, although (obfdjon) it 3 freezes 
a so 2 hard (ftarf). We wonder that he is silent (fdjluetgt). It 
does not seem to me that you will succeed. Mr. Dean had 
company last night (geftern 2lbenb); they played and danced a 
good deal (tne(). It occurs to me that I have left my door 
open. It appears that he has not attended (fid) abgegeben b/at) 
to (mtt) that business. It is proper to act so. There were al- 
ready a great many people in the ball-room (tm 33attfaal) when 
I arrived; There was no play yesterday. "Was there a violent 
dispute ? I do not think there can be a more beautiful old 
castle in the world than that of Heidelberg. Is there any 
news (anything new) ? There is no news to-day. 



>omterte8? 3d) Ijabe mdjtS geljort. 

Saben (5te ben 53ftlj gefeljen? -3a, eg fyat feljr ftarf gebttfct. 

tauben (5ie, baft e8 ijeute 9?ad)t 3d) glaube md)t, ba eg frieten 
frieren hnrb ? tmrb; aber eg totrb fdjneien. 

2Bie gefattt e 3b,nen in Bonbon? (3 gefattt mtr fe^r. 

at eg -Oiljrem Sruber in tymt* (58 fdjetnt, ba eg i^m fefyr gut gfr 

rifa gefaflen? fatten !jat. 

5ft eg fait? jem, eg ift ni(f)t met)t fatt. 



Germaiis omit 3Kein err, Sir, except in indignant or ceremonious address. 



250 IMPERSONAL TEEBS. 



gel)ft GtiMS an bicfcm e(be? 3a, eS fefjten brei Sfjafer. 
GHanben 3te, bag baS Setter (Ss fdjeintmir fo; toenigftenS fangt 

fid) dnbcrn (change) roirb ? eg an, roarm gu roerben. 

25 a$ Uegt Oljnen baran? (Ss liegt mir fefyr met baran. 

2i"trb e$ biefeg 3af)r guten 2Bein !>ie9Jebleute (vine-growers) fagen, 

gebcn? ba^ e^ fe^r melSBein gebeu roirb. 

C^cniigt c^, mcmcn Seamen git ^ein, <tc miiffeu auc^ bag 3)atum 

unterfdjreiben ? beifiigen (add the date). 

28a fc()tt i^in ? S feb,ten ib,m ^teibcr unb etb. 

2Ba8 lierbrte^t <2ie? (S oerbrte^t mid), bafj id) gu ^>au[c 

bteiben mu^. 

SSaS ift 3^ncn gcidjefjen ? 5 fd)toinbett mtr. 

25 arum finb Sic traurig ? (3 fdjmer^t mid), ba id) metnen 

trpiten 3)iener Dcrtorcn ^abc. 
3ft nod) ^ta^ fitr mid) auf biefcr 2Bir toerben 3b,nen (for you) ^(afc 

iBanf (bench) ? madjcn. 

ibt e etnjag 9eiie8 ? 3d) hjeip nid)t, al8 (except) bag 

^err S. geftern geftorben ift. 

READINra LESSON. 

$te Stenc unb bic 2au6e. The Bee and the Dove. 

Sin 23icnd)en ftet in eincn Sad). 1 

3)ie3 fab, oon oben 2 eine aube; 

ie brad) cin 23la'ttd)en Don ber Saube * 

Unb umrf'8 ib,r ju. 2)a 33iend)cn fdjnjamm bantad)/ 

Unb Ijatf fid) gliidlid) au bem 33ad). 

fuller ,3"t biefetbe Staubc 

tt)tebcr friebtid) s auf ber aube. 
3)a e fdjtid) cin 3ager lei ' Ijeran 
Unb Icgtc fd)on bie gttnte an.* 
(Sdjon b,attc er ben ab,n gcfpannt:' 
9JZein 5Bicnd)en fam unb ftad) ib,n in bie anb; 
^Juff ! 10 ging ber <3d)u baneben (one side). 
2)ie Xaube flog babon. 25em banfte " fte tb,r ?eben? 

i brook. - from above. arbor. 4 after it. ' peaceably, e then, i softly. bU 
Rtinte antegen, to aim at, (<it., was placing the gun to [his shoulder]). ben $a$n fpannen, 
to cook the gun. 10 bang I u Uutcn instead of oerbontetw to owe. 



REFLEXIVE VERBS. 



THIRTY-FOURTH LESSON. 

REFLEXIVE VERBS. 

(Shtrf jicitnhc ,-{ritUiurtrr.) 

1. When the action of a verb returns upon the subject, 
the verb is called reflexive. Such verbs are conjugated 
with two pronouns of the same person, one the subject 
and the other the object. They take fyaben to form the per- 
fect, see page 171, 8. 

Many German reflexive verbs are translated in English 
by intransitives, e.g., ftd) freucn (lit., to rejoice oneself) by 
to rejoice. 

CONJUGATION OF A REFLEXIVE VERB. 

id) freuen, to rejoice. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

IMPERFECT. 

icf) freute mid), I rejoiced 

bit freuteft bid), 

er freute fid), 

fie freute fid), 

tmr freuten un$, 

tfjr freutet eitrf), 

@te freuten fid), 

fie freuten fid). 

CONDITIONAL. 

id) toiirbe mid) freuen, I should, etc. 
bu toitrbeft bid) freuen, 
er roitrbe fid) freuen, :c. 

PLUPERFECT. 

id) fyatte mid) gefreut 
bu Ijatteft bid) gefreut 
er fyatte fid) gefreut JC, 



PRESENT. 

id) freue mid), I rejoice 

bu freuft bid), 

er freut fid), 

fie freut fid), 

toir freuen un$, 

t()r freut cud), 

<2>te freuen fid), 

fte freuen fid). 

FHIST FUTURE. 

id) lucrbe mid) freuen, I shall, etc. 
bu nn'rft bid) freuen, 
er urirb ftd) freuen. K. 

PERFECT. 

td) ^abe mid) gefreut 
bu Ijaft bid) gefreut 
er Ijat fid) gefreut jc. 



SECOND FUTURE. 

id) nierbe mid) gefreut fyaben 
feu lutrft bid) gefreut Ijaben :c. 



252 REFLEXIVE VERBS. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 
PRESENT. IMPERFECT. 

id) frcitc mid) id) freucte midj 

bu freueft bid) jc. bu freueteft bid) :c. 

PERFECT. PLUPERFECT. 

id) fyabe mid) gefreut id) fycitte mid) gefreut 

bu fyabcft bid) gcfreut K. bu fjdttefl bi^ gefreut jc. 

IMPERATIVE. 
SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

freue bid), } freuen fair unS, let us rejoice 

freuen <3ie ftd), j ^ freut eud), freuen (Sic fid), rejoice. 

And so on in the other tenses of the subjunctive, in the infinitive (ftdj 
freuen, fid) gefreut Ija&enJ, and in the participles (ficfy freuenb). 

INTERROGATIVE FORM. 
PRESENT. IMPERFECT. 

freue id) mid) ? do I rejoice freute id) mid) ? did I rejoice ? 
freufl bu bid) ? :c. freuteft b bid) ? jc. 

NEGATIVE FORM. 

Present, id) freue mid) nid)t, I do not rejoice, etc. 
Imperf. freute id) mid) nid)t? did I not rejoice? etc. 
Perfect, fyabe id) mid) nidjt gefreut? have I not rejoiced? etc. 

2. Of course almost any transitive verb may be used 
flexivelv : 



reflexively : 



-3d) fleibe baS ^inb on. 3d) fteibe mid) an. 

I dress the child. I dress myself. 

(5r oerrtmnbete ben naben. @r berwunbete ftd). 

He wounded the boy. He wounded himself. 

3. There are, however, a great many reflexive verbs, 
properly so called, verbs, that is, always employed with the 
reflexive pronoun, and having no meaning without it, whilst 
others have a different sense when the reflexive pronoun 
is omitted. We subjoin in alphabetic order those most 
in use. In the following list fid) is in the accusative. 



BEFLEXIVE VERBS. 



253 



fid) cmfrf)icfen (gu), to prepare 
fid) cwffyalten, to stay 
fid) bebonten (fitr), to thank 
fid) beeilen, to hasten 
fid) befinben, to be (in a cer- 
tain place) or to be (in 
good or bad health) 
ftd) befleiftigen, to apply one's 

self 

fid) begeben, to go (to a place) 
fid) beijelfen, to make shift 
fid) beHagen (iiber), to complain 

of 

lid) befiimmern Cunt), to care 
rid) belaufen (cmf), to amount 
|td) bemad)tigen, to seize, to 

take possession of 
fid) ergeben (dot.), to surrender 
fid) erfjolen (turn), to recover 

from illness 

fid) erinnern (gen.), 1 to recol- 
lect 

fid) erfcitten, to catch cold 
fid) erhmbigen, to inquire 
fid) fu'rdjten (Dor), to be afraid 
fid) gebutben, to have patience 
fid) gercofynen (an, with the ace.), 

to accustom one's self to 
fid) graiuen, to grieve 
fid) irren, to be mistaken 
fid) fiimmern (urn), to see to 
fid) niifycrn (dot.), to approach 
fid) nafjren (on), to live on 
fief) fdjamen (gen., or iiber, with 
ace.), to be ashamed of 



fidj bemiiljen, to endeavor, to 

take the trouble 
fid, tollmen, > t b h 
fid) betrogen, > 
fid) befinncn (iiba), to reflect 
fid) beroerben (nm;, to apply (for) 
fid) biirfen, to stoop 
fid) einlaffen (in), to enter into 
fid) entfyalten (gen.), to abstain 
fid) entfdjUeJsen, to resolve, to 

make up one's mind 
fid) erbarmen (gen.), to have 

mercy on 

fid) ereignen, to happen 
fid) erfreuen (gen.), to enjoy (e.g., 

good health) 

fid) fefynen (nad)), to long for 
fid) feljen, to sit down 
fid) ftellcn (al ob), to feign 
fid) unterftefy'en, to dare, venture 
fid) untertjol'ten (iiber), to con- 
verse 

fid) berirren, to go astray 
fid) berlaffen (auf, with the ace.), 

to rely (depend) on 
fid) berfiinbigcn, to sin 
fid) berfeljen, to make a mistake 
fid) toerfpciten, to be (too) late 
fid) berftetten, to dissemble 
fid) toorbereiten, to prepare 
fid) lueigcrn, to refuse 
fid) U)iberfe^en (dot.), to oppose 
fid) iDiinbeni (iiber), to be sur- 
prised at 
fi^ gutragen, to happen. 



NOTE. A verb is sometimes used reflexively instead of being put in, 
the passive, e.g. : 
SDer (Sdjluffcl ^at ftt^ gefunbcn, The key has been found (lit., found itself). 



i @i<$ (rinnern takes also the proposition an with the accusative, as : 3$ mnntrf 

BlU aJergHUjjcn an joucu Xag, (or j 



254 REFLEXIVE VEBRS. 

4. Iii the following list jtcty is in the dative. 

fid) anmaftcn, to presume, be ftd) fdjmeidjeln, to flatter one's 8elf 

presumptuous (or ace.) ftd) fcerfdjaffen, to procure 

fid) ausbitten, to request fid) ttorneb/men, to take the resolu- 

fid) einbilben, to imagine, fancy tion, make up one's mind 

fid) Me ^retfyett nefymen, to take fid) toorfteflen, to imagine 

the liberty fid) toclje tljun, to hurt one's sel 
fid) getrauen, to dare (or ace.) 

EXAMPLES. 

Sing, id) fd)meid)te mtr PL hrir fdjmeirfjetn nn8 

bit fd)meid)elft bit <Sie fdjmeidjefa fid) 

et fdjmetdjelt ftd). fte fdjmetdjetn ftd). 

5. Some phrases with reflexive verbs : 

SSemiiljen <3te ftd) ntdjt, Do not take the trouble. 

@eben te ftd) 9)?iif)e, Take pains. 

(Sr erfjolt ftd) icmgfam, He recovers slowly. 

3d) erinnere mid) feine$ 9?amen, I recollect his name. 

<ie trren fid), rneut $err, You are mistaken, Sir. 

(Sr ^at fid) fefyr oerdnbert, He is quite altered. 

2)a3 2Setter anbert ftd), The weather is changing. 

3)cc SBtnb le.qt ftd), The wind is going down. 

3d) begcbe mid) nad) ^ranffurt, I am going to Frankfort 

(Sr beritft ftd) auf mid), He refers to me. 

3d) entljalte mid) be8 SSeineS, I abstain from wine. 

(S ereignete ftd), It happened. 

2Btr fii^ten un8 gliidlid), We feel happy. 

3)te Sljiire offnctc fid), The door opened. 

fteljmen Sic fid) in 2ld)t, Take care. 

Oe^ctt <Sic fid), Sit down (take a seat). 

$)ie 3ad)e Der^att fid) fo, The matter is as follows. 

@ic jerftreuten fid), They dispersed. 

SKenben 2te fid) an ben $onig. 

Address yourself (apply) to the king. 

3d) argere mid) liber biefen 3Sorfafl. 

I am vexed with this occurrence. 

<2ie radjten ftd) an i^ren ftdnben. 

They avenged themselves on their enemies. 



BEFLEXIVE VERBS. 255 

WORDS. 

ber 2ftutij, courage tyauftg, frequently 

. 1t , . f j the sentence unfdjulbtg, innocent 

ICU/ { the judgment fcertljeibigen, to defend 

bag ^ortjaben, the project, the bcroeifen, to prove 

purpose itbei^eu'gen, to convince 

bte ^ufrtebenfyett, the satisfac- aufgebeu, to give up 

tion ur'tfyeilen, to judge 

bte Sftedjnung, the account, bill betreffen, angefyen, to concern 

ber ^Sorgefeljte, the superior Dermetben, to avoid 

foaS 23etragen, the behavior tciie^en, to hurt. 

READING EXERCISE 86. 

<3te trren fid), mein >err ; id) bin nid)t ber (the one), ben <3te 
fudjen. SBergeifjen ne, id) fycibe mid) nnrf(id) (really) geirrt. 9Jik 
tiabeg ^at fid) in ber (5d)(ad)t bei aSarat^on, X()emiftof(eS in ber 
Sd)(ad)t bei atami^ augge^eidjnet. (^eroo()nen @ie fid), friib, auf* 
jitfteb,en. er 2Sotf nab.erte fid) nttr auf (as near as) je^n <Sd)rittc 
(pace). SD'iitb/ribateS toertfyeibigte fid) mit groem s JJ^ut^e gegen bic 
Corner. SBenn bu bid) iiber bag Iu(f S 2lnberer freitft, fp benieift bieg, 
ba bu ein guteS ^erj ^aft. 2Bir b,aben un bemiit)t, i()n toon feinem 
Unredjt (of "his being wrong) gu iibergeugen ; aber er Ipnnte fid) 
ntd)t entfd)Iie^en, fein ^Borb/aben aufjugeben. S)er ^onig meigerte fid), 
ba Urtf)eit 311 unterfdjreiben. (Ste ttwrben fid) beffer befinben, twenn 
@ie fid) geit)i3b,nten, I)aufiger in ber fvifdjen 8uft fpajteren 311 gefyen. 
Od) fe^ne mid) nad) 9Jub,e. Od) njerbe mid) bemiib,en, ^KtteS ju 3;^rer 
^ufrieben^eit 311 tooUbringen. 3d) wiirbc mid) fdjamen, fo etiua3 
(such a thing) 311 tfyim. 3)er funge 3Kann b,at fid) inuner gut be* 
tragen. 

SlufgoBc 87. 

1. We rejoice greatly (fefyr) to see you. I am mistaken. 
You have also been mistaken. Charles has wounded himself 
with his penknife. All nations long for liberty. The enemy 
have (has) surrendered (themselves). If they had not sur- 
rendered (themselves), Hhey Vould have all been killed. Dear 
Sir, have mercy on me (meiner)- Nobody must imagine him- 
self (to be) 1 without faults. That man was a bad father ; he 
did not care for his children. I recollect to have seen that 
lady, but I cannot remember her name. As (une) I see, 2 you 
1 enjoy (a) good health. . 

iBemem'ber that words enclosed in a parenthesis (....) are to be translated, and 
irords in brackets [....] are to be left out. 



256 



REFLEXIVE VERBS 



2. My tailor's bill amounted to a hundred and fifty florina 
I hastened to pay it, as soon as (fobalb aU) I 5 got (befam) 
1 money. Young people must not take the liberty to judge 
of (iiber, ace.) things which do not concern them. A good 
Christian does not avenge himself on his enemy. "We were 
mistaken in the name of the street. Do not feign [to be ) 1 so 
innocent ; be ashamed of (gen. ) your behavior, and resolve to 
avoid -such 'a 3 fault 4 for the future (fitnftig). He who is 
conscious of having (to have) done his duty, may quietly 
await (entgegenfefyen) the judgment (dot.) of his superiors. 

Spreiplwng. 



3d) freue mid), <5te 311 fefjen, 

mein >err. SJBie befinben @te 

ftd,? 
$Me beftnbet ftdj 3ljr 33ruber, 

ber (>err) om'tan? 
>aben Ste (id) entf d)loff en, bie 

9ieif e 311 unterneljmen ? 

Sluf roen Derlaffen (rely) <2tc 



tier* 



ftd) ? 



SBerben <3ie 3f)r >au8 berfau* 

fen? 
lonben <2ie, ba 

foaten njerbe ? 
S3or mem fiird)ten 
S3ilben (Sic ftd) cut, aUetn njetfe 

$n fein? 
S;djamt fii^ btefet Oungltng ntci^t 

itber fein Sctragen? 
>aben <Sie ?uft (a mind) mtt 

mtr in' Sweater ^u gefyen ? 
^>aben @te ftc^ toerlefct (toel^e ge* 

tb,an) ? 
SBte ^odj belief ft*; bte 9?ed)nung 

3^re8 2Birt^e8 (landlord)? 
SBomtt fcefdjafttgen <2ie ftc^ ge* 

gentuartig (at present) ? 
SStrb O^re 2ttuttcr balb 

lommen? 



banfe Sfnten, ic^ beflnbe mid), 
ott (dot.) fei anf! feb,t 



befinbet fti^ ntd^t rooljt, er b,at 

fid) erfaltet 
3d) ^abe mtc^ nod) ntdb,t entfd)Iof* 

fen; aber i^ h)erbe mid) balb 

entfdjliefjen. 
3^ bertaffe mid) auf bte iite be 

prften. 
(2te irren ft^, t^ toerbc c ntc^t 

Derfaufen. 
SBenn <2te fc^nett geb,en, toerben 

<Ste ftd) ntd)t berf paten. 
3^ fitrdjte mid) tor biefem ^unbe. 
OJetn, aber id) gtaube, bte <Sad)t 

beffer gu berfte^en at^ ^tnbere. 
od) ! e^ fdjetnt, ba er fid) fdjtimt; 

er fommt ntd)t me^r 311 itn. 
O ia, luenn Sic marten roolten, bid 

id) mid) angefleibet b/abe. 
3a, meine anb blntet; id^ I)abe 

mid) an ctncnt 9?aget toerlefct. 
belief fid) auf breumbad^ig 



3d) lefe <d)itter'3 ,,ieb toon ber 
lode" (Song of the BeU). 

3d) tueife nid)t, wann fie fommt; 
aber id) feb,ne mic^ feb,r na^ iljr. 



Uee foot-note 1. p. 255. 



ADVERBS. 257 

28<mmt ftnb Sic nidjt fritter 

gefommen? 2Btr Ijaben unS tm SBalbe bertrrt. 

SBerben (Sic fid) urn cine tette 3d) fyabe mid) fdjon urn mefyrere 

betoerben? betoorben; aber big jetJt (as yet) 

fyabe id) feine erfyatten. 

(Soft ber Shrift fid) an feinem S^ein, S^riftug Ijat gete^rt, bag 

^einbe radjen? man feine f^einbe lieben fott. 

etrauen (Sic fid) Uber ben 3d) toitt tierfudjen (try), eg jn 

9J^ein ^u fd)rt)immen? t^un. 

Ueber wag (tooriiber) beftagt ftd) @ie beHagt ftrf) 6er bag 33etrage 

-3^re Gutter? 



THIRTY-FIFTH LESSON. 

ADVERBS. 

(Son ben Umftaiiajtudrtcrn.) 

1. The shortest form of an adjective in the positive or 
comparative degree may be used in German as an adverb, 
e.g.: 

>er tener nmrbe retdj beto^nt. 
The servant was richly rewarded. 
3)iefer Srief ift fdjon gefd)rieben. 
This letter is beautifully written. 
SDfein S3rief ift fdjoner gefdjrieben atg 3^rcr. 
My letter is better written than yours. 

2. There are only a very few adjectives, however, whose 
superlatives can be used adverbially ; thus we could not 
use retdfyft to mean tJie most richly nor fcfyonft to mean tlie 
most beautifully. The superlative of these adverbs is 
am vetcfyften, am fcfyonften. Other adjectives used as 
adverbs form their superlatives in the same way, e.g. : 

gut, beffcr, am beften, well, better, best. 

faut, fauler, am faulften, lazily, more lazily, most lazily. 



258 



ADVESfifl. 



3. This information concerning adverbs has already 
been given on page 113. To what was said there about 
such forms as ouf '3 fdjbnjh (not the most beautifully, but most, 
Le., very beautifully) we may add that a few adjectives in 
the superlative form adverbs in en$, e.g. t fpatefienS, at the 
latest; tyb'cfyftenS, at the highest estimate. 

1. Adverbs of Place. 



toe, where ? 

toofyin, whither? 

ttioljer, whence? 

flier, here 

t baljtn, ) thither 

t bortfyin, ) that way 

barm, therein, within 

au^en, I outside 

braufjen, ) out of doors 

toon auften, from outside 

auS'toenbig, on the outside 

< en ' [within 
brmnen, ) 

toon innen, from within 
in'ttoenbta, on the inside 
oben, \ up stairs 
broben, ) above 
t fytnauf l , up, up stairs 
unten, ) down stairs 
brunttn, j below 



one 



Ijterljer, hither, this way 
|ierau8, hence 

h^?'l there 
bafelbft, ) 

ft feit'wdrt^, sideways, on 

side 
ttredjtS, on the right, to the 

right 

ft ItnfS, on the left, to the left 
ft bieffettS, on or to this side 
tt jenfettS, on or to that side 
baneben, close by the side of it 
gegenii'ber, opposite 



ntrgenbS, nowhere 



born, before, in front 



ttng^um, all around 
tt runb Ijerum, round about 
behind 



i The adverbs fyinetn, ^eretn, $tnau8, ^ctauS :c. are frequently preceded by a substan- 
tive with the preposition ju, as : Sr (am jur (ju ber) I^ure tyerein, He came in at the door; 
>er 93ogel (log jutn genjler ^tnauS, The bird flew out through the window, etc. Concerning 
the difference between l)er: and lnn=, see page 230. 

t Adverbs thus marked are used to denote direction with verbs of motion. (Com* 
pare Ijier, here, with ftytertyer, hither.) 

ft Adverbs thus marked may be used to denote direction with verbs cf motion, e.g., 
Cr fprang feitroirtS, He uprang one side. But also to denote situations, t.g.. CDa8 $au8 fieJH 
fcitioirtS con bem SBege, The house stands off one side of the road. 



ADVEEBS. 



259 



t aufwdrtS, upwards 
t abunirtg, downwards 

backwards 
j 

t tjor'toarts, forwards 
311 >aufe, at home 
tnarf) |Jaufe, home 



together 
betfantmen, ) 

ft au$etnanber, asunder 

ttjeit, fern, far, far off 

, abroad, outwards 
', on the way. 



2. Adverbs of Time. 



toantt, when? 

eben, just 

eben jetjt, just now 

je^t, nun, now 

jemalS or je, ever 

mentals or nte, never 

ttietftenS, mostly 

gegennjartig, at present 

fonft, efjebem, ) formerlv 

etjemate, toormafe, jf 1 ^ rly 

frii^er, efjer, sooner, earHer 

manrfjmat, 

guiueien, >- sometimes 



fpater, later 
etnft, emftntafS, once 
etntnal, once, one day 
tteultd), the other day 

not long ago 



anrfjmat, 
uiueijen, >- 
tgnjetlen, ) 



bann unb h)ann, now and then 
oft, oftmate, often 
^ciufig, frequently 
felten, seldom 

bon nun an, from this time forth 
ton iet an, henceforth 
fettbem, since then 
gteid), | directly 
fogleirf), j immediately 
balb, soon 
SlnfangS, at first 
guletjt, at last 
bt$b,er, hitherto, tOl now 
bi fe^t, as yet, till now 
hneber, again 
erft, only, not till 
r, afterwards 



iinlangft, ) a little while ago 

toor ^urgent, ) not long ago 

fcinfttg, in j^ufunft, in future 

fdjon, bereitS, already 

nod), still, yet 

trod) einmal, once again, once 
more 

nod) nid)t, not yet 

nod) nte, never before, never yet 

Ijeute, to-day 

geftern, yesterday 

toorgeftern, the day before yester- 

ntorgen, to-morrow ' [day 

morgen friib,, to-morrow morn- 
ing 

iibennorgen, the day after to- 
morrow 

tonge, lange tyit, long (time) 

fiiinbiid), hourly 

ttigUd), daily 

ja^rlid), yearly 

attmtiltg, ) by degrees 

nad) unb nad), ) gradually 

enbltd), at last, at length 
^ then, at that time 



260 



ADVERBS. 



tinnier, attqeit, always 
ouf or fitr tntmer, for ever 
etnftroeiten, meanwhile 
getoofjnlid), usually 



), suddenly 
gtetd) nadjfyer, immediately after- 
augenbttrf(td), instantly [wards 
fpornftretd)3, at full speed. 



3. Adverbial Phrases of Time. 



tin 3af)r, in the year 
tin ommer, in summer 
am 3)tenftag, on Tuesday 
am Sftorgen, be3 SJf orgenS l or 

2ftorgen3, in the morning 
2fttttag3 or urn Sfttttag, at noon 
SBormittagS, in the forenoon 
ftarfjmtttagS, in the afternoon 
am 3lbenb, be3 3lbenbS, or 

$lbenb3, in the evening 
gur red)ten e'it, } in time, 
bet ,3etten, ) betimes 
biefen 2 2ftorgen, this morning 
etneg SageS, 1 one day 
etneS SttbenbS, one evening 
fjeutgutage, now-a-days 
niidjfter Sage, one of these days 
um Oftern, about Easter 
gegen 1 1 Ufyr, about 11 o'clock 
em loentg or 10 U6r, a little 

before ten o'clock 
bi 10 Ufjr, by ten o'clock 
bei 8onnenaufgang, at sunrise 
bet SageSanbritcf), at day-break 
or 8 Jagen, a week ago 
tor 14 agen, a fortnight ago 
gum lefctenmal, for the last 

time 

big jefct nod) ntdjt, not as yet 
crfl morgen, not till to-morrow 
bret Sage tang, for three days 
feit bret Sag en, these three days 



am Sag or bet Sag, by day 
bet 9?acf)t, be 9tadjt3, by night 
(Sonntagg, on Sunday 
gum erften Sftale, ) for the first 
gum erflenmale, j time 
ba narfjfte 2)tal, i^e next time 
gur 3eit, in the time 
um 1 (em) Ub,r, at one o'clock 
tm 5lnfang, in the beginning 
am (Snbe, at the end 
am lOten 3ttat, ) on the 10th of 
ben lOten 3)Jat, [ May 
groetmal be Sage^, twice a day 
etnen Sag um ben ) every 
anbern, atte 2 Sage, j other day 



' everyday 
jeben Sag, ) 

ben gan^en Sag, all day 

^eute itber 8 Sage, this day week 

b,eute iiber 14 Sage, this day fort- 

night 

Sag fur Sag, day by day 
auf etntge eit, for a while 
cine ,3tlaitg, for a time 
Don ,3ett gu 3 e '^ from time to 

time 

Dor ,3 e i ten > *** ld. times 
an etnem fc^onen 9)Jorgcn, on a 

fine morning 
in enter fatten 9?ad)t, on a cold 

night. 



1 The genitive of nouns is used to express indefinite time, just as in English we say 
of a fine summer's day, (though we could not say of the 29<A of July). 

2 The accutative used to express definite time. 



ADVERBS. 261 

WORDS. 

ber $anfnrnn, the merchant ber >ienft, the service 

ber ^tingling, the youth libel gelaunt, ill-disposed, cross 

bic 5lr,$net, the medicine grojjmutf)tg, magnanimous, gen- 

ber 3euge, * ne witness erous 

bie Jpanblung, the action totflfomnten, welcome 

ba^ Sager, the camp gefattigft, if you please 

ba$ (Sprtdpoort, the proverb eintwUigcn, to consent 

bte (de, the corner belaftigen, to trouble 

ber eiftltdje, the clergyman unauffjorlid), incessantly. 

READING EXERCISE 88. 

1. 2Bofjer fommen (Sic? 3d) fomme toon 2Bien. 3)er Sftann, 
toetdjen <Sie fudjien, topfynt ntdjt fyier ; cr toofynt toeit bon fyier. !>er 
$nabe ftel rucftingg in ben $(u$. -3d) fa ait^ttjenbig bet bent ^ut= 
fdjer; bie 3)amen fafjen inttienbig tin OmnibuS. ^inggum marcn 
geinbe. 3Kan fie^t bie gum Oitnglmge immer bei[ammen. 9Kein 
^au fte^t rcd)tl, ba 3t)rige UnfS. 2)er ^err tft nid)t git ^aitfe ; 
fudjen (Sic tfyn anber^iup. 3)a^ 5Dorf liegt feitroarts. -3ft 3t)rc 
Sautter unten ? 9|Mn, (ie ift oben. <Sofl id) ^inaufge^en unb e ifyr 
fagen ? 2Benn (Sic fo gut fein tuoHen. 3d) begegnete bent ^aufmann 
unternjeg. 



2. 3)er ^ranfe mn ftunbtid) etnen offet bofl 3lr^net ne^men. 
?lnfang8 foottte er nid)t, aber jutetjt miUigte er ein. 33on jeljt on toerbe 
id) flei^iger fctn ; biSfjer fjabe id) nid)t Diet gearbeitet ^icmatg rtjerbc 
id) jene Stunbe toergcffen. 9Kein 2)iener erfyatt monatlid) ^eljn ufben, 
atfo jafyrltd) jufammen ^unbert unb ^an^ig ntben. ^eulid) mar id) 
3euge enter groJ3tnutl)tgen ^anbtung. ^ormittagS arbeite id), ^ad)* 
mtttag^ ge^e id) fpa^teren. tlnfcr Str^t ift ntand)mal iibet gelaunt. (Sic 
mtiffen gletd) nadjfyer bie (Stabt berlaffen. 2)er SDfftjier ritt fporn s 
ftretd)^ in' JBager ber ^einbe. 

Stufgaie 89. 

1. Where is my stick ? You will find it there in the corner. 
T beg your pardon (id) bitte urn gfetgefymg), it is not here ; it 
must be elsewhere. You are welcome everywhere. Where 
(whence) does the letter come from ? It comes from America. 
Come down, if you please. I could find him nowhere. Where 
is my dog ? He is out of doors. The clergyman's house ia 
very far off. I was not at home. You may go home. I have 



262 ADVERBS. 

heard it somewhere. Have you searched everywhere ? The 
one went hither, the other iMther. I could open the door 
neither from within, nor from without Do just as if (al8 
toenn) you were at home. 

2. Did you know him formerly ? Yes, I have known him 
long. I shall be 2 at ($u) your service 'presently. He was 
not often happy, because he was idle. He is more frequently 
at the coffee-house than at home. She has arrived sooner 
than I. She is 2 better 'to-day 1 than she was yesterday. Go 
2 away 'instantly. My uncle will always be satisfied. Could 
you not come earlier? The next time 2 I 'shall be 2 here 
'betimes. 2 I am seldom alone. Have you seen our friend 
lately ? Yes, I saw him the other day ; and I hope I shall 
see him again very soon. At present Ve 'are incessantly 
troubled by beggars. I am in the habit (id) pflege) of seeing 
him (to see him) now and then. 

4. Adverbs of Quantity and Comparison. 

tote, how? beinafye, fajl, almost 

toternd, hrie fdjr, how much? nitr, blog, afletn, only 

bid, much meifteng, mostly 

ntefjr, more fjod)fteng, at the highest, at moat 

nod), still toenigftenS, at least 

nod) meljr, still more fyateftenS, at the latest 

nod) groet, two more onberg, otherwise 

i The order to-day better and not better to-day is in accordance with an Important rule 
concerning the arrangement of the BEST of the clause. This rule requires that the 
sense shall be suspended, that is, as it were, that we shall know all about a thing, 
before we hear the thing itself. In the English sentence " He went to-day in the rain 
without an umbrella to Boston," the sense is suspended, we hear all about his going to 
Boston before we hear that he went to Boston. In clauses in which the sense is 
suspended, there is no possibility of inserting a period before the end ; thus neither 
lie went to-day, nor He went to-day in tlie rain, nor He went in-day in the rain without an 
umbrella could have a period after it, the sense is not complete. This is an easy way 
of distinguishing clauses in which the sense is suspended from others in which it is 
not. On the other hand in the sentence, " He went to Boston to-day in the rain with- 
out an umbrella," there are no less than three places before the end, where the inser- 
tion of a period would leave perfect sense before it. The latter is not the German way, 
the German sentence must be constructed on such a plan that a period can not be 
inserted before the end is reached, e.g., we must have She w to-day better and not She is 
better period possible) to-day. 

t Observe that when an adverb or adifrbial expression (see p. 260) begins the sentence, 
the \XBSprecedei the subject (see p. 83, 4). 



ADVERBS. 



am metflen, most 

fcfyr, rcd)t, very or much 

jit, 311 fefyr, too or too much 

git met, too much 

ntd)t3, nothing 

gar nidjtS, nothing at all 

!etn ntcljr, no more 

ctu)a8, 1 somewhat 

cm ttentg, j a little 

fyhtla'ngUd), sufficiently 

gcmtg, enough 

fa urn, scarcely 

etmgermafecn, | somewhat 

gcttn|fenna|$en, j 

gtcmUd), tolerably, pretty 

itm tneteg, | by far 

bet toettem, j by a great deal 

itm bte cilfte, by half 

nod) einmal fo , twice as, as 

again 

ungeftifyr, etroa, about 
gerabe, precisely, exactly 



fonft, else 

fottft nid)t, nothing else 
fo, ebenfo, so, as 
eben fo fefyr, as much 
ebenfo hjenig al3, just as little 
as 



, Hkewise 
gtetdjfara, as it were 
win fo meljr, the more 
nm fo tuemger, the less 
fogar', felbft, even 
tttdjt etnmat, not even 
ganj, quite 

gan^Iidj, wholly, entirely 
toottenbS, completely, quite 
gan^ nnb gar, thoroughly 
tb/ettoetfe, partly 
befonberg, ) especially 
tn^befonbere, j particularly 
fyauptfa'djUd), chiefly 
uber^aitpt, ) generally 
im Slttgemetnen, ) in general 



5. Adverbs of Affirmation, Doubt and Negation, 



fa, ja bod), bod), 1 yes 
fa nio()l, yes, certainly 
aflerbingg, by ah 1 means 
jebenfattS, at all events 
gcttnfj, surely, certainly 
fid)erltd), certainly 
fietttd), to be sure 
fitr)ab / r', toafyrltd), truly 
JytrfUd), really 
tit ber Xfyat, in fact 
gern or gcrtte, willingly 
ungcrn, unwillingly 
netn, no 
!etnegn)eg8, by no means 



nwljrfdjetnttd), 
toermuttjltd), 
h)al)d)afttg, truly 
gufattig, by chance 
tnettetdjt, etnw, perhaps 
fd)tuerltd), scarcely 
flljne Ametfel, no doubt 
toergebitd), ) j 

bergeben^, umfonft, ) 
burd)ait, absolutely, quite 
and) ntd)t, not either 
ntd)t etnmat, not even 
ntematS, never 
ntd)t nteljr, no more 



is used to contradict a denial, e.g., A says : ie gtng geflern nii^t au8 (She did not 
go out yesterday) ; B replies : 25od; (Yes, she did). 



264 ADVERBS. 

nid)t, not mmmernteljr, never more, by no 

gar nirfjt, ) not at all means 

bitrdjaitS nid)t, j by no means tm egentf)et(, on the contrary 

melmeijr, rather. 

6. Interrogative Adverbs. 

toamt, when ? hne met nod), how much more ? 

toarum, why hue mete nod), how many more ? 

e P al , b '' I wherefore? * Ia "9 e ' h ow lon ^ ? 

tue^iDe gen, ) too, where ? 

tone, how? too^tn, whither, where? 

tote fo, how so ? tooljer, whence ? 

tote t)tel(e), how much (many) toobur^, by what means? etc. 



7. Adverbs of Order. 

erftenS, fur'S erfle, first gtoetmal, twice 

gtoettenS, secondly bretmat, three times 

brttten^, thirdly totermal, four times [more 

DtertenS, fourthly nodh etnmat, once again, once 

ferner, further noq gtoehnal, twice more 

^enta^, hereafter guerfl', at first 

bann, fobattn, then gule^f, at last 

ctnmal, once 

8. Adverbs ending in roeife, 

Some of these are formed from nouns and others from 
adjectives (the latter in the genitive singular feminine). 
The termination tuetfc (English wise in likewise, etc.), is 
by origin the noun SBeife, manner. 



e, partly 1 Ijeerbentoeife, in flocks 

ftutfroetfe, piece-meal gtitcflidjerroetfe, fortunately 

Ijaufentoetfe, by heaps, in crowds ung(urf(td)erraetfe, unfortunately 

majfentoetfe, in masses etufdlttgerroetfe, in a silly manner 

ftronttoetfe, in streams tropfenroeife, by drops, etc. 

i The Latin partim,frustatim, gregalim, etc. 



ADVERBS. 265 

9. Other Adverbs of Frequent Occurrence. 

nlfo, so, thus, therefore bage'gen, ) on the contrary, 

and), also, too (aud) ntd)t, not Ijingcgen, ) on the other hand 

either 2 ) bafjer', beftttegen, ) therefore, on 

aujjerbem, besides, moreover ba'rum, beftfyalb, ) that account 

balb balb, now now; some- nid)t nur } re C not only 

times sometimes nid)t attetn > 1 S 4 but 

bemnad), accordingly ntd)t bloS ) ^' ( also 

bennod), and yet, still mdjtSbeftotoemger, nevertheless 

beffenun'geadjtet, nevertheless nod), nor 

befjgtetdjen, likewise jefct, nun, now 

befto, ) the (with a following fo, so, thus 

urn fo, ) comparative) fonfl, else, or else, otherwise 

bod), iebod), ) yet, still t^etlS t^ct(, partly partly 

gtetdjttjo^l, ) however iiberbteft, besides, moreover 

fenter, further iibrtgeng, as for the rest, however 

folgltd), | consequently btelme^r, rather, on the con- 
ntit^in, j accordingly trary 

inbejfen, unterbeffen, meanwhile toeber nod), neither nor 

fcmm, scarcely fioWr indeed, it is true. 
bcmn, ba, then 

DEGREES OF COMPAEISON. 

Besides adjectives used as adverbs, the following are 
also compared : 

COMPARATIVE. SUPERLATIVE. 

tool)l, well beffer, better am beften, the best 

Bassoon {gj* 

gcrn \ willingly Itcber, rather am Itebften, best 

oft, often ofter, oftener am b/auftgften, the oftenest 

fefyr, very ^o'djft, a'u^erft, extremely 

iibel, badly, ill argcr, worse am orgften, the worst 

bid, much mdjr, more am metften, most 

IB:-} 

2 Thus, 3jo6 aollen ir aud) nirfjt, We don't want that either. 

i em, KeBet, am Itebften are used to translate the English, I like, I like better, I like 
best, as : 3$ faiele gern, 1 like to play ; id; tanje lieber, I like dancing better ; 3^ f' n 8* 
am Ucfcftcn, I like to sing best, 



266 ADVERBS. 

WORDS. 

bcr 9?ebd, the mist tb,orid)t, stupid, foolish 

bag 3 u f ammentreffen, the meet- gefd)icft, skilful 

ing toon 9euem, anew 

bag $cfid)t, the face, coun- angreifen, to attack 

tenance ftitten, to quiet 

bag SBerfpredjen, 1 the promise fid) t>erflid)ten, to engage 

bag SJhtrren, 1 the murmurs, treulid), faithfully 

grumbling bertuerfen, to reject 

bcr 23or'fd)(ag, the proposal ridjtig, correctly 

berberben, to spoil ougfeljen, to look (e.g., well, ill). 

READING EXERCISE 90. 



1. 2Bie Ijaben <Sie gefdjtafen, mem $err? <Sdjr gut, id) banle 
3f)nen. 2Bie met db fjaben @te? 3d) Ijabe nid)t m'el, id) ^abc 
fc^r iuentg. (Sin beutfrfjcS (Spridjmort fagt: ,,3u ttjenig unb gu bid 
Dcrbirbt aileg <2pid." 2Seife ber ^nabe genug? Sr wet^ gar^iidjtg. 
3)erjentge icirb ben ^jjreig er^alten, h)eld)er am beften lefen unb am 
fdjonften frfjreiben fann. 2)er 9^ebd ift nad) unb nad) tierfdjrtunben. 
2J?an fyat mir nidjt einmat geantwortet. $"ein 9JJenfd| fann immer 
gludltd) fein. SBcrben @ie morgen mit ung ^u SJiittag fpeifen? 
SJiorgen fann id) nidjt, aber iibermorgen hjerbe id) fommen. 

2. eb^en <5ie redjtg, id) merbe linfg geljen. 3)er ftuge 9Kann irrt 
ftd) (is mistaken) fdten ; ber unDorftd)tige irrt fid) am fyaufigften. 
Ser efdjidtefte ttirb am meiften getobt toerben. Sir f)aben lange 
gemartet. (2ie fatten (ought to have) nod) langer warten foUen. 
SSenn ber ^ud)g bie toilben Sienen angreift, fo werfen fie fid) f)aufen* 
loeije auf ifjn. 2)?e^r alg einmal gdang eg (bem) $otumbug, bag 
9J?urren fciner @d)iffgmannfd)aft (crew) gu fliflen ; abcr batb nad)b,er 
Oegannen fie Don 9Zeuem gu murren ; enblid) berpflidjteten fie fid), nod) 
brei Sage ju geb/ordjen. 5tm britten Sage fa^en fie nnrfUd) Sanb. 

9tufflobc 91. 

1. When shall you set out ? To-morrow or the day after 
to-morrow. He has been * three * times 6 here J at 2 least. He 
is improving (mad)t ^ort|d)ritte), especially in German. That is 
beautiful indeed. We were attacked unawares (unoerfdjeng), 
and have scarcely escaped. We went there by turns (ab-- 

i These arc Infinitives used aa nouus, (literally, the to promise). 



ADVERBS. 



267 



toedjfefnb). He will (e$ nnrb tfjm) by no means succeed. Our 
meeting was quite by chance. I am not at all surprised at 
your saying so (baft <2te :c.). How much do you charge 
(forbern) for it ? It will cost you twenty florins at most (at the 
highest). It is about thirty miles off (roett). 

2. It is not otherwise. At present 2 1 'want nothing else. 
At first 2 1 1 thought I knew his face. If we have given a 
promise, let us faithfully keep (fyalten) it; else Ve 'shall cer- 
tainly lose our good name. "We dine precisely (piinftltd)) at 
four o'clock. I think he will not willingly do it. Perhaps 
*you 'would do better not to reject his proposal. He writes 
less correctly than his cousin. Miss Mary is less happy than 
you think. It is quite in vain to talk to (mit) this man; he will 
never listen to you (auf @te fyoren). 



SBoljer fommen <Ste, metn 

greimb? 
aben (te btefe Sfteife 311 (on) 

uft ober gu SBagen gemadjt? 
-3ft 3fjre (Sdjroefter gu >aufe ? 



SSann fommt er nad) ^>aufe ? 
3d) [pbe Ste tange ntdjt gefeljen; 

n?o rooren (te ? 

3Bie biele SBorter foU id) ternen? 
S^arum tft btefcr SDfaun immcr 

franf? 
2Bte finben 1 (like) <Sie ba $ait 

beg errn 33.? 
2Boflen te auf mid) toarten 

(wait for me) ? 
2)tefer 33rtef tft ntd)t fdjim gc- 

fd)riebcn. 28te fommt eg? 
prtdjt bicfci 9J?ann (Sngtifd) ? 
SBann muarten <Ste -3f)ren 



fomnte tion $6tn (Cologne). 

un, 311 (by) 2Baffer; id) retfc 

Ueber 311 SBaffer al 311 Sanb. 

etn, fie tft auSgegangen. 
(gr tft fyeute tt)af)rfd)etn(id) in vm' 

ferm arten. 

(Sr tutrb gegen ad)t Uf)r fomjnen. 
Od) tvar metften^ $it aufe; id) roat 

ittdjt gan$ tuo^I. 

jroet eiten (pages). 



m'e(. 

tft tnioenbtg fcb.r fd)5n ; abet 
ouSroenbtg fte^t e8 att ait. 

Sin hjentg, aber ntd)t langc. 

3d) ^abe tljn gu fdjnett gefdjrteben. 
@r fprtdjt fe()t gut. 

3d) ertuartc iljn btcfcn ^adjmittag. 



i J4terallj- : How do you find, etc., (i.e.. What do you think of, etc.) 



268 ADVERBS. 

28irb cr afletn fontmen? (5r roirb totefletdjt fetnen <3oljn mit* 

brtngen. 

cfyt ber $nabe gern (does he )e8 2)torgen8 gefyt er gern tit bte 
like) in bie Sd)ute ? djule ; aber 9tad)mtttagS fptelt 

er lieber. 
(5f|en (Ste gerne du'nfen (ham)? 3a, abet tcb effe Iteber SBraten 

(roast meat). 

READING LESSON. 
$er bttttftorc fiottie. The Grateful Lion. 

(Sin ormer flabe, ber au bent ^jattfe fetne^ ^errn entfto^en ftar, 
iourbe gum Jobe tierurt^etlt (condemned). 2)an fiib,rte i^n ouf 
einen gropcn ^la^, 1 njet^er mtt 2ftcmern untgeben tear, itnb Ite^ ctnen 
furdjtbaren lOonjen onf tb/n log (loose). attfenbe on 2JZett[d)en 
toaren 3 eu 9 en btefeg @c^aufptel. 

' er ^btoe fprang grtntmtg 2 auf ben artnen 3)Jenf^en; adetn $\o& 
lid) btteb er ftefjen, luebette s mtt bem c^hjetfe, b^itpfte * toott greube urn 
t^n fyerunt itnb letfte tb,nt freunbttc^ bte ^>anbe. -Sebermann tjerhjunbertc 
fi(^ B itnb fragte ben <S!I(U)en, rote ba8 fomme.* 

2)er <2f(aDe erjafjlte olgenbe : n ^llg tc^ metnem ^>emt entlattfen 
tear, oerbarg id) mi^ in einer ^ol)te 7 mitten in ber 2Biifte. 8 )ann 
lam auf einmal btefer Joroe ^eretn, minfette 9 unb ^etgte mtr feme ^a^e, 1 * 
in ber etn grower !Dorn ftaf. 3d) gog th^m 11 ben 3)orn tjerauS, unb toon 
ber 3^it an berjorgte 12 mtci^ ber lOoroe mtt 2Btlbpret 13 unb tutr lebten in 
ber >ol)le frteblt^ gufammen. S3et ber lebten 3agb tourben nut 
gefangcn unb toon etnanber getrennt. 14 Stun freut ft(^ bag gute ljter, 
mid) iuieber gcfunben gu b^aben." 

Sltleg 53olf roar itber (at) bie 3)anlbarfeit btefeg rottben Jb^iereg cnt- 
gitdt, 15 unb bat lout urn @nabe 16 fiir ben flatten unb ben ?6roen. 
)er Sftaue rourbe fret getaffen unb reid)lid) befdjenft. 2)er ?jjroe 
folgte tb,m roie ein treuer unb, unb blieb intmer bet iljnt, ob^ne Oentanb 
ein ?etb (harm) gu tb^un." 

i square. - fiercely, furiously. 3 to wag (with) his tail. < to jump, s to be astonished. 
6 to come to pass. ' cavern. 8 desert. $ to whine, lopaw. n for him. i - to supply. 
13 game, i to separate, r enraptured, ic pardon. 1 7 see the 44th lesson. 



CONJUNCTIONS. 269 

THIRTY-SIXTH LESSON. 

CONJUNCTIONS. 

(Son ben SHudcUiortrrn.) 

1. COPULATIVE AND DISJUNCTIVE CONJUNCTIONa 

The following conjunctions have, as has been already 
stated, no effect on the order of the parts of a German 
clause : 

unb, and aber or afletn, but [trary 

ober, or fonbern, but (i.e., but on the con- 

benn, for, since fotooljl a(3, both and. 

EXAMPLES. 

3d) muJ3 ju >aufe btetben, benn id) bin franf. 
I must stay at home, for I am ill 
>er (Straujj fyat $lu.}cl, aber er fcmu ntd)t fltegen. 
The ostrich has wings, but he cannot fly. 

The student will notice that the order of the words in the German 
translation of for lam sick, etc., is the same as in the German translation 
of / am sick. 

NOTE 1. 9t6cr is sometimes placed elsewhere than at the beginning of 
the clause, like however in English. 

er SSatcr aBer fprad), But the father said or The father however said. 
cr (Straujj fyat $tuget, et fann aber nidjt fttegcn. 

IToTE 2. Examples of the use of afcer and fonbern. 

I am sorry, we have no apples but we can give you pears. 

(S3 tljut mix Ictb, ir fyo&en fcine Stc^fct, aficr tr fonnen 3^ncn 93irnen 

flefccn. 

You are mistaken, they are not apples but (on the contraryj pears. 
Ste irren jtdj, e3 (inb nid)t Slcpfel fontoern SSitnen. 
He loves her, but not so very much. 
Sr lie&t (ie, aber nirfjt fo fc^r. 

He does not love her, but (on the contrary) hates her. 
Sr liebt (ie ntdjt, fonbern cr C)at fie. 

Sib" er and afletn (but) may be used after an affirmative clause or after 
a negative clause ; fonbern (but on the contrary) only after a negative 
clause. 



270 CONJUNCTIONS. 

WORDS. 

bie djtodgerin, the sister-in- bie 9Zaljrung, the food 

law ber qjfel, the top, summit 

fdjaben (dot-.), to injure na, wet 

ba3 $oh,r, the reed toerfcb>enben, to waste 

fief) btcgen, to bend ber 3ftitfd)uler, the school-feUow 

rufyig, quietly bie SRegel, the rule 

ermafynen (ace.), to speak to fortfatjrcn, to continue 

(i.e., admonish) boS gemetne 23olf, the populace 

ber SSorrourf, the reproach jufammentrejfen mit ^emanb, to 

meet with. 



READING EXERCISE 92. 

3>dj !jabe ben SBrief gefd)rieben, unb metn Sruber fjat if)n abgefdjrie* 
ben. <2ie miiffen mir ba 23ud) ^urucfgeben, ober ic^ rterbe e^ bent 
eljrer fagen. 2)ie ^tnber fonnten bie $irfd)en n'tdjt effen, benn fie 
nmren ntrfjt retf. (5ie fbnnen jefct auggel^en ; aber >te miiffen um tier 
llfjr roieber guriic! fein. 3f)re (SdjtDogerin tjat mir erfprorf)en, mid) in 
bonbon ju befucf)en ; aber fie fyat nic^t SSort geb,a(ten ; aurf) b^at fte mir 
gar ntcfjt gefcfjrieben ; be^roegen (bemnad)) tDerbe id) auf fie ntd)t meb^r 
twarten. ^ntioeber miiffen @ie Pei^ig arbeiten, ober bie (5d)it(e frei= 
niiflig t)erlaffet, fonj't roerbcn @ie fortgefdjtcft toerben. 2Beber fein 
Ofyetm nod) fein^ 2onte toerben biefeS ertauben. (Sowob^t ber 23ater 
al^ bie DJiutter b,aben ben @ofm gefuc^t. Der gere^te 2)tann f^abet 
Weber bem 9Jeidjen noci) bent Airmen. 2)er Oc^fe bient itnS nid)t nur 
jur -Kafyrung, fonbern aucq gur Arbeit (labor). 



Slufeobc 93. 

1. You and I. He or she. "We have written a long exer- 
cise, but we have not learnt it (The) gold and (the) silver 
are metals. You must go home directly, or you will get wet ; 
for it will soon rain. The reed bends, but (it) does not break. 
We shall defend our country with courage, and we shall 
quietly await the enemy. You ought to speak to your chil- 
dren, for they are very naughty. I do not know liirn by sight 
(oon ($eftd)t), but I know him by reputation (bem 9Jamcn nad)). 
I expected reproaches from my mother, but she did not say 
anything. Did you see Mr. Long to-day? Yes, but I could 
not speak to him (mtt ifym fpredjen). I must stay at home, for 



CONJUNCTIONS. 271 

1 am not quite well Do not waste your time, for life is made 
of it (bamu$). Some of my schoolfellows are ill ; consequently 1 
they cannot come to (in bte) school 

2. Some one has done it, either you or your brother. I do 
not know the man, for I have never seen him. This horse 
may be very strong, nevertheless 1 2 it l does not please me. I 
have shown him the rule, yet 1 he has not understood it. He 
was very tired, nevertheless he continued working (to work). 
Scarcely had he pronounced these words, J when (ba, literally 
then) the 4 populace 2 threw 3 themselves on him. He has not 
only promised him something, but also given it. I know 
neither him nor his wife. I did not expect to see you here ; 
the (befto) greater is my pleasure to meet you. I can neither 
read nor write. Not only the king was expected, but also the 
queen and the princess. 

SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS. 

All conjunctions, except and, lx>th, but, either, for, and or 
are subordinating conjunctions. They are so called 
because they introduce clauses in which no assertion is 
expressly made, clauses that is of subordinate importance. 

a) Simple Subordinative Conjunctions. 

afe, when obgletrf)', obfdjon', ) fl, ouff j. 

cbtooljt', hnetool)!', ) 



bebor', efye, before 

bt^, until fett, fettbem', since (time) 

bo, since (reason) \\o oft al3, whenever 



baf?, that 



obalb, as soon as 



bamit', that, in order that fotange, as long as 

falls, in case that un'gead)tet, notwithstanding 

inbem', while toa'f'renb, 2 while 

|e , the (with the comp.) hjenn, when, if 

nodjbem', after mil, because 

ob, whether tote, how, as 

toofern', if, provided. 

1 An adverb, not a conjunction. Use the question order. 

2 Instead of roiljrenb, while, we sometimes use inbeflen, as a subordinating conjunction, 
as : iiSir gingen im (fatten tyajieren, intejjen ct ju SRittag {petfie. 



272 CONJUNCTIONS. 

EXAMPLES. 

(58 tsar bier ttfjr, ats bic <2onne aufgtng. 

It was four o'clock when the sun rose. 

2Barten <2ne, bis id) mctnen 23rief toflenbet Ijabe. 

Wait till I have finished my letter. 

predjcn oie taut, bamit' irf) ie tocrftefye. 

Speak aloud that I may understand you. 

9?arf)bem nnr miteiuanber (together) gcfriU)ftitcft fatten, gingctt 

totr (not tmr gingen) fpagtercn. 
2Bafyrenb wir Garten fptelten, lafen unfere 5"unbe (not itnferc 

greunbe lafen) bie 



Subordinating conjunctions require the VERB (see 4, page 
82,) to be put at the very end of the clause. When a 
subordinate clause, otherwise called a dependent clause, 
comes first in the sentence, the principal clause takes the 
inverted order, as in the last two examples. 

OBSERVATIONS ON SOME OP THE CONJUNCTIONS. 



, when, as, than. 

1. When may be translated alS, provided a single occa- 
sion in the past is referred to. 



51(3 ber Heine ^rinj bie fjiir berfcfjtoffen fanb, hwrb' er bofe. 
When the little prince found the door locked, he got 

angry. 

dafar fd)idft abienu3, a(3 er biefeS erftiljrt. 
Caesar sends Labienus, when he learns this. 

2. In other cases, when may be translated ttjenn. 



2Benn ber fteine ^rinj bie Jfjiir tterfdjtpffen fanb, toitrb' er bofe. 
When (whenever, if) the little prince found the door 
locked, he got (used to get) angry. 

3. 9113 is translated than after comparatives, e.g., fritter 
S ttrir, grojjer al 



CONJUNCTIONS. 273 

4 3(13 is translated as after fo, e.g., fo friify al3 ttrir, fo 
groj? a(3 .>etnrid), and in such phrases as the following: 

(r fungirt at$ tettoertrcter, He acts as substitute. 

5. 5113 is translated but after nicfytS, nirgent>3, etc., e.g. : 

ate Safyrljett, Nothing but trutL 
ate Ijter, Nowhere but here. 



$U, as, since. 

1. 2)a means since, and introduces a reason. <So occurs 
more frequently than not at the beginning of the principal 
clause of sentences in which ta introduces the subordinate 
clause, provided the subordinate clause begins the sen- 
tence. <5o may be either omitted in translating or trans- 
lated why. 

3)a ber $nabe fo fleifjig tft, (fo) mu man i^n beto^nen. 
Since the boy is so industrious, he is to be rewarded. 
5Da tcf) ifyn nt^t fenne, fo tann id) i^m nidjt trauett. 
Since (or as) I do not know him, (why) I cannot trust 



2. (Settbent means since, and introduces a clause stating 
when something mentioned in the principal clause began. 

(Sr fdjttmgt, 1 feitbem id) f)ter bin. 

He has been silent since I have been here. 

Sn&em', while. 

3nbetn' means ivhile, but instead of a clause beginning 
with ivliile we often use in English the present par- 
ticiple. 

Snbcm id) in ba 3^ mmer trat, rief id) .... 

As I entered the room or entering the room, I cried ---- 

QIC fagte ju mir, tnbcm er mir bie ^>anb briitftc jc. 

Shaking hands with me, he said, etc. 

Snbem er fcinen 5lrm ouSftrerfte, Stretching out his arm. 



i See foot-note to Exercise 96. 



274 CONJUNCTIONS. 



), obirfjon, obuiuljl, though. 

1. :Db is sometimes separated by a word or two from 
the second syllable in these conjunctions, just as if we 
should say in English to home wards instead of towards 
home. Thus we may say either Obgleicfy Sari nicfyt franf tjt, 
get)t er (bocfy) nicfyt in ben arten, or )b Sari gleid) u. |. n>.' 
Although Charles is not sick, (nevertheless) he does not go into 
the garden. 

2. )oct) stands in the same relation to obgleidj, etc., as fo 
does to ba. See the last example. But bod) need not 
come first in the principal clause, as fo always does. 

@0 and bod) may both of them be used at the same 
time. They are translated by a single nevertheless, e.g., 
Sari nicfyt franf ijt, fo ge^t cr boc| nicl)t in ben arten. 



Sftann, teenn, nI3. 

The English conjunction when is translated sometimes : 
tt>ann, sometimes toenn, and sometimes al^. For al$ see 
page 272. 

a) 

1. SSann is interrogative. 



rterbcn (Sic fommen? "When will you come? 
(Saaen <Ste mtr, iuann (Sic fommen rooflen. 
Tell me when you will come. 

2. SSann answers to the English whenever , as: 

iann (Sic h) 
a (whene^v 

b) wenn. 



@ie fonnen e$ fd^icfen, toann (Sic 

You may send it when (whenever; you like. 



1. See 2, on page 272. 



i u. f. a. stands for unb fo wetter and means and to forth. 



CONJtJtfCTlONS. 275 

2. SBenn must often be translated if, e.g., SBenn eg fcfyneit, 
(fo) ttnrb er ftcl) gerotp erfalten, jf/" it snows, (why) he certainly 
witt catch cold. 

(So is inserted or omitted with n?cnn just as with ba, see 
page 273. 

When the condition introduced by toenn is more likely 
than not, not to be realised, the verb of the condition is 
put in the subjunctive, e.g., <Sie wtrben jtc^ fefyr frcuen, roenu 
er fame, You would be very glad if he should (were to) 
come, (but it seems as if he were not coming), on the other 
hand, (Sie luerben u. f. w., roenn er fommt, You will, etc., if 
he comes (and it seems as likely as not he may). 

WORDS. 

ba$ efangnifj, the prison auSlofdjen, to put out 

ba3 emitter, thunderstorm ftoren, to disturb 

ber ^auf, the bargain toSbredjen, to break loose 

bte ^fli^t, the duty ^lunbern, to plunder 

piinftttrf), punctual ^ogern, to hesitate 

bienen, to serve benac^rt^ttgen, to inform 

fjeran'nafyen, to approach e^rgei^tg, ambitious 

ougiDcidjcn, to avoid berbeffern, to mend 

bunfel, dark erftaunt, astonished 

itberfal'Ien, to overtake, attack gegemnarttg, present 

READING EXERCISE 94. 

1. 5lte id) na^ >aufe fant, ging id^ gu Sett. 3$ fdjtief nocfj, al8 
mein Sebieuter in'^ Dimmer trat obatb (at^) tc^ ben Srief 
empfangen ^atte, rei|te icf) ab. 3)ie otbaten pliinberten bte Stabt, 
bis ber euerat i^nen ein ,3ie( (end) fe(3te (stopped them). SBarten 
(Sie, bi^ id) angeftetbet bin. Xa ber s ^rbeiter fcljr fleiftig war, (fo) 
Jcurbe er gut bejafjtt. 2)te 3)iebe merben in bie efangniffe gebrad)t, 
bamit fte nic^t me|r fte^ten. (Sh,e (or beoor) man ein neue^ ^(eib an^ 
gie^t, mu man bie ^pa'nbe rein luafdjen. <3o lange bie 9J?en(d)en 
gefunb (inb, benfen fie felten [baran], bag fie aud) !ranf toerben 
fonnen. 



276 CONJUNCTIONS. 



2. 2ftan toeift nid)t, ob bte <3terne bettofjnt fmb ober nidjt. 
fprad) nut tfynt, obgletd) (or obfdjon) id) iljn nid)t fannte. 
fatten n>ir ben ipfct be3 23erge3 beftiegen, al$ ba3 etuttter toSbrad). 
(58 ift etn Icidjter $auf, ttenn Jreunbe burd) iite geroonnen hjerbcn. 
2)te gegemuavtige 3ett ift bte befte, toeil fte itnfere eigcnc (own) ift 
3)ie nnlben (9anfe ftnb fdpucr 311 fdjtejjen, mii fte fdjneU unb fefyr ^oc^ 
fltegen. 2Benn man bte efafjr ^eranna^en fteb/t, fo fann man ib,r au^* 
loetdjen; abev tuenn fte un fc^tafenb iiberftittt, fo wtrb fte unS ftd)erlid) 
berberben. 



95. 

"When I arrived here, "it J was quite dark. As (since) he 
does not work, I shall give him nothing. Put out the candle, 
before you go to bed. I wish you (id) bttte <2ie) to wait till I 
have done my exercise. Since (ba or feitbem, according to the 
sense) I have lost my friend, I am quite alone. He told me 
that the child was dead. I see that you have not yet finished 
your business. She has been 1 very well, since she has been 1 
in (anf) the country. I am astonished, that you have not yet 
departed. Since (ba) you are my friend, you will not hesitate 
to tell me the truth. Is it possible that he has arrived already 
(fdjon) ? After I had breakfasted, I took a walk, although it 
rained a little. The city [of] Paris has become much more 
beautiful since (feit) you saw (have seen) it. As soon as thtf 
general arrives, you will inform us of it Has he not asked 
you, if 2 you had [a] mind (tifi) to take a walk with him? 

96. 

I was scarcely ten years old when I lost my father. The 
more I study German, the more a I l like this language. "When 
you are ready, we will take a walk (fpa^ieren gefyen). There will 
always be wars among men (nnter ben Sftenfdjen) as long as they 
are ambitious. I do not know whether he is rich or poor. 
Pardon your enemies (dot.), since God pardons you also. Ask 
him, if 2 he will sell his horse. Why did you sleep so long? 
I slept so long because I was very tired. I will pardon you, 
if you promise me (dot.) to be more punctual in future. 
Though we did not make the world, we may help [to] mend 

i German nses the present (not the perfect) to express what " has been and still is " 
(Whitney). The sentence above means, She has been and still is, etc. So rjflo the im- 
perfect and not the pluperfect for what had been and still was. 

* When if means whether, it must bo translated 06. 



CONJUNCTIONS. 



277 



it. If you are poor, do not wish to seem rich. The master 
will not pardon him, until he improves ((id) bcffert). He will 
never learn, since he is idle. While I was there, tranquility 
prevailed (ijerrfdjte) in the country. I do not know how he 
will get rid of it (eg log toerben nnrb). 

b) Combinations of two Subordinative Conjunctions. 



alg big, until 
alg ob, | as if (takes 
alg ftenn, } subj.) 
alg baft, but that, but 
cmftatt bag, instead of 
aiif baft, in order that 
big (baft), till, until 
t banttt ntd)t, lest l 
tm gall (baft), in case 
je - - befto, the the 

the comp.) 
je nadjbem, according as 
gletd) tutc, fo trie, just as 
ofnie baft, without, but 2 
felbft toenn, even if 



the 



.fo baft, so that 

ttne aud), ) however (with 
fo aud), > an adj. or adv. 
fo fefyr aud), ) between) 
t>orauggefet3t baft, supposing, pro- 
vided that 



ttoofern 



(with 



nid)t, ) 
ntdjt, j 



, , 
u 



. 

t toenn nur, provided 

t trenn aud) nod) fo, though (or 

if) ever so 
urn 311 (with the inf.), in order to. 



OBSERVATIONS. 

1. Those of the above combinations marked t require 
the second component to be placed after the subject, and 
if there are personal pronouns, also after these, as : 

cl)cn Sic fd)nett, batnit @te ntdjt 1 iiberrafdjt tterben. 

Go quick, lest you be surprised. 

SSenn er mid) nid)t begafylt jc., Unless he pays me, etc. 

SBenn er aud) nod) fo mete 33ud)er fya'tte :c. 

Though he had ever so many books, etc. 



i Lest in the sense: for fear of, after a negative clause, is sometimes translated au8 
Surest (fca&)- After the verb to fear, furd^ten, it cannot be translated bamtt nidjt, but 
must be rendered simply by baft. Ex.: 

I did not go there, lest I should disturb him (au8 gurctyt in ju floren}. 
I feared lest he should die, id) furd)tete baj) er jlerben mcc^te. 
The French sans que. 

3 Unless, is sometimes e fei benn, ba|, but this is rather antiquated; it occurs often la 
Luther's translation of the Bible. 



278 CONJUNCTIONS. 

2. Not to know but has to be translated by a periphra- 
sis. Ex. : 

I don't know but (that) he is alive stilL 
3d) tDCtfc nid)t, meUetdjt (perhaps) lebt et nod). 



3. 2ll bap is further used to translate the English 
infinitive after too . . .for . . . Ex. : 



This news is too good for me to believe it. 

)iefe 9?ad)rid)t tft gu gut, ate baft id) fte glauben fonntc. 

4 )l)ne ta corresponds to the English but in such 
phrases as the following : 

Not an hour passes, but I see him. 

(3 bergeljt feme tunbe, ofyne ba id) Ujn felje. 

5. 3e and bejlo are used as follows. Notice the order. 

3e meljr (3tc f)cute lernen, bejlo me^r rttffen <3ie morgett 

The more you learn to-day, the more you know to-morrow. 

6. The dash between fo fefyr aud) in the list above in- 
dicates the place for the personal pronouns. If the subject 
is a noun, fo fefyr aud) need not be separated : 

(So feljr id) ifjn aud) gebeten Ija&e. 
Much as I have begged him. 
(So fet)r audj mein 35atet iljn gebeten l^at. 
Much as my father has begged him. 

7. 2Bic aud), fo aud), take the adjective or adverb 
between them, as : 

2Bie reid) aud) (or fo reid) aud)) 3% 33ater fein mag. 
However rich your father may be. 
(So fd)5n c8 aud) fcin mag, fo fann e mir bod) nid)t3 nii^en. 
However handsome it may be, it cannot be of any use 
to me. 



CONJUNCTIONS. 279 

8. Examples of the use of fonrie and gleidjttrie: 

(So tote bte <Sonne tfyre trafyten aitf bte Srbe fenbet. 
As the sun darts his beams upon the earth, etc. 
3)er 9?etb, gletd) tote jcbe anberc i'ctbenfdjaft :c. 
Envy as well as every other passion, etc. 

c) Interrogative Adverbs. 

Interrogative adverbs may be used as conjunctions to 
introduce indirect questions. 

toann, when tote lange, how long toortn, wherein 

toaritnt, why too, where tooran, whereat 

toeftfyalb, ( where- tooljer, whence toobet, whereby 

toefctoeqen, j fore toofytn, whither tooDon, whereof 

tote, how toobttrcf), whereby 1 tooraitf, whereupon 

totemet, how much toomtt, wherewith 1 toorunter, among 

which, etc. 

EXAMPLES. 

^ragen (Ste t^n, toann tdj tf)n ju ^attfe ftnben toerbe. s 
3d) toet^ ntdjt, toarum er metnen Srtef ntrf)t er^alten ^at 
agen @te mtr, tote lange <Ste ba geblteben finb. 
<Ste fonnen btetben, too <Stc fmb. 
SBtffen @te, too^er er fommt ? 

tft ba^ ait8, toobon <Ste geftern gefprodjen ^aben. 



NOTE. Observe that it is often better to finish the principal clause 
before the subordinate clause is begun. It would be clumsy to say: 
id), ttnemel @te Bejaljlt Ijafcen, ftagen ? 

I have not been told where he has gone. 

3Kan Ijat mit nidjt gefagt, ivo^tn cr gegangen ifl. 
not : 3Kan ^at mtr ntdjt, io^m er gegangen ifl, gefagt. 

WORDS. 

bte S^at, the act, deed tafterfyaft, vicious 

bte <2td)erl)ett, security fid) jurii^teb.en (refl.\ to retire 

bte Unru^e, uneasiness fdjoben, to injure, to hurt 

bte 33eletbtgung, the insult befreten, to hberate 

bag Sofegelb, the ransom ertangen, to obtain 

lOr, by what, with what, etc., etc. 

? Tie direct <juestion would be : SBann roerbe l^ i^n ju J^aufe fmbeij? 



280 CONJUNCTIONS. 

itngefdjirft, awkward fyerrfdjenb, dominant 

berouuberngtuurbtg, admirable broken, to threaten 

bte Scibenfdjaft, the passion ftreben, to strive 

bcr SBeiftonb, the assistance bertrauen, to trust 

l)etrptf)en, to marry bifligen, to approve (of) 

ft, doubtful, dubious gufdjreiben, to attribute. 



HEADING EXERCISE 97. 

1. (5$ fdjehtt mir, at$ ob (or alg luenn) id) biefen errn fdjon 
gefefyen fya'tte. >iefe 23eleibigung ift gu gro, alS bafj id) tiflfrfjttmgen 
beobadjten fonnte. 3d) tteife nid)t anberS, ate bafj feme efd)afte gut 
gefyen. 9Jiein getnb I)at mid) 311 jefyr beleibtgt, al bafe id) ib^m ber= 
get^en fonnte. Karl fptclt, anftatt ba er feine ^lufgabe lernt. Sartcn 
(Ste, big ba id) fcrtig bin. -fteljmen @ie einen ^egenfdjtrm, bamit 
(Sic nid)t na^ luerben. 3d) toerbe ib^m bie (Srlaiibntg nid)t geben, 
tocnn er oud) nod) fo feljr btttet Oe laftertjafter bie SRenfdjen finb/ 
befto mefyr Unrub^e b^aben fie. 

2. 3e falter bie ?uft ift, beflo meb^r toiegt fie; |e toarmer fte ifl, bcfto 
leidjter ift fte. 3)u toirft betob^nt werbcn, |e nad)bem bit fleifeiq bift, 
S)icfer junge JDZenfd) ift feljr ungefdjidt ; er nimmt nie (StroaS in ^ie 
^anb, otjne ba er e ^erbridjt. 2Bir !onnen biefe 5lufgabe nid)t 
madjen, loenn ie nn nid)t fyetfen. 3e me^r @ie mir broken, befto 
ioeniger tuerbe id) Sfynen ge^ordjen. !J)er efangene n?irb feine $ret* 
^eit nid)t ertangen, toenn er nid)t ein b^ob.eg bfegelb be^ab^tt. SSie 
gro aud) ber 9tub,m btefeg gurften fein mag, ber feineS Waters war 
nod) grower. 



It seems to me as if I had seen you somewhere. Give me 
your letter that (in order that) I [may] send it to the (aitf bie) 
post-office. He says he will not marry until he has a pro- 
fession (einen SBeruf). In case you want my assistance, call me. 
Head it twice, lest you forget it. The lady must be careful, 
lest she fall (pres. subj.). The merchant will sell much or 
little according as the price is high or low. The longer you 
(man) sleep, the lazier you become. The more frequently you 
practise what you had in your music lesson, the better 2 you 
1 will play it He cannot play but (transl. without that) he 
hurts himself (fid)). Get in without his seeing you (transl. 
without that he sees you). The plebeians (bie ^lebejer) in- 
tended to leave Rome, in case the patricians (bie ipati^ier) did 



CONJUNCTIONS. 281 

not keep their word. "We will not go unless she invites us. 
Ronr.ilus disappeared without any one's knowing in (auf, ace.) 
what manner he had perished. 

99. 

1. We shall not go into the (auf bo) country unless he con- 
sents to come with us. The night came, so that I was obliged 
to retire. Though he is very learned, nevertheless he is not 
vain. Nobody can trust you (dot.), unless you bring good 
security. My friend said he would lend me a hundred 
pounds, provided I would give them back to him within (in) 
three months. However admirable the act of William TelJ 
may have been by (bttrd)) which he liberated his country from 
a cruel tyrant, its morality (ifyr fittltd)er SBertl)) is dubious. I 
cannot do it unless you help me. Provided you know the 
dominant passion of any one, you are sure to please him- 

2. Unless the Lord build the house, they labor (fo arbeiten 
btejentgen) in vain who build it. Though you [should] have 
the best master in England, if you do not learn your grammar 
well you will never speak good German. Tell me, if you 
please (qefafligft), where I [may] find your umbrella. I do not 
know why he has not yet written to me. Ask him when he 
will come. Although Antiochus approved [of] Hannibal's ad- 
vice, s yet a he Vould not act according to it (barnarf)), lest the 
victory should (mod)te) be attributed to Hannibal, and not 

to him. 



$onnett (3tc btefe 5lrbett tljun? 9ftd)t oljtte ba @tc mtr Ijetfen. 
SSirb ber Strbeitcr belofynt tter* 

ben ? 3a, toenn er ftet^tg tft. 

^ennen <3te mid) ? ^etn, abcr e3 fdjetnt mtr, atS ob tdj 

<Sie fcfyon gefefyen Ijatte. 

2Burbc ber efangene freigelaf* -3o, nadjbem ec ein fyofyeS S5fegelb 

fen? be^It^atte. 

2Ber ^at btefen ^naben getobt? (Soroofyt ber Skater al3 bte SJiutter. 
tnb @ie geftern fpagteren ge* 

gangen? Oa, obfd^on e geregnet l)at. 

3ft Sorb 2JJ. ein geleljrter 3Wann ? @r ift fefjr gele^rt; beffenungeoditct 

tft er nicqt ftol^. 
2Barum pll id) biefe Slufgabc 

nod) etnmat fdjretben ? 2)antit bit fte beffer Icrneji. 



282 PREPOSITIONS. 

28a3 fatten (think) (2>ie toon 3d) gtaube, baft er ein redjtfdjaffe* 

>errn SBeife ? ner 2ftann ift. 

3ft e3 gefimb (wholesome), 9Mn, je longer man fdjlaft, befio 

lange 311 f djlafen ? trager unrb man. 

SStrb ber Sefyrer tfjm tier3eib / en? -Kid)! eb,er, ate big er fid) beffert. 

^>aben (2ie mid) fjier erroartet? ^etnegroegg ; befto mefyr freue i^ 

mic^, (Sie ^ier 3u finben. 

S5?irb ber ftiirft ^ter bleiben? 3d) 3tt>eifle, ob er b,ier bleiben hnrb. 

Soil id) 3t)nen 3b,r S3itc^ 3urucf* 3e e^er @ie eS t^un, befto ange* 

fdjtrfen? ne^mer njirb e8 mir fcin. 

3ft bcr $ranfe aufgeflanben ? 3a, obgteic^ ber 2lr3t eg i^m t)er 

botcn f)at. 
Stiffen @ie, niarum er nic^t 

lommt? (Sr ^at eg mir md)t gefagt 



THIRTY-SEVEfTTH LESSON. 

PREPOSITIONS. 

(Bon ben SJormorttrn.) 

1. Prepositions with the Accusative. 

big, till oljne, without, but for 

burd), through, by fonber, without (rare) 

fiir, for um, about, round, at 

gegen, 1 towards, against, to toiber, against 

The adverbs : 
entlang, along ^inbnrd^, through 

M' UP S-" ab ; [down. 

^mauf, j * ^inuntcr, ) 

and other compounds of tyer and tym are used with the 
accusative, but follow it 

EXAMPLES. 

35itrdj bog Xb,or, Through the gate. 

3)urd) n)eld)e SKittet? By what means? 

ftiir 3^re cfittjeficr, For your sister. 

egen mid), Against me. 



i There is an old expression : gen Qimmel, up to heaven, for gegen ben $immc(. 



PREPOSITIONS. 283 

egen ba ebtrge, Towards the mountains. 

>f)ne etnen pfennig, Without a,penny. 

Urn bie <2tabt, About the town. 

Urn ben tfd), About the table. 

SBiber feincn SBttten, Against his will. 

!>te <3tiege In'nauf fytnimter, Up stairs, down stairs. 

2)en gfof enticing, Along the river. 

2. Prepositions with the Dative. 

, out of, from na'djjt, junadjft, next 

r, except, besides nebft, fammt, together with 

bet, near, with by, at fett, since, for 

btnnen, within ( of time) toon, from, of, by 

nut, with bon on, from, since 

nad), after, according to gu, to, at 

ob, on account of (obsolete) big 311, till, as far as. 

Further : 

cntgegen, against jufofge/ according to 

gegenuber, opposite to mhnber -i in PP sition 
gemci^, according to ' | contrary to. 

which are placed after their substantives. When ttddj 
means according to, it also may follow its noun. 

EXAMPLES. 

bem mufe ((Garten), Out of the house, from the garden. 
er etnetn Coffer, Besides a portmanteau. 
33et ntetnem ^reunbe, At my friend's (with my friend). 
33 ei unferer 21'nfitnft, On our arrival 
SBtnnen tuentgen SKtnitten, Within a few minutea 
311 bem nacfjften !Dorfc, As far as the next village. 

ber <Srf)tad)t, After the battle. 

btefer 9?eget, According to this rule. 

inetner 9)?einung, In my opinion. 
j>em fitter narf), According to age. 
^a'djft (5unacf)(t) bem itge(, Next the hill. 
9?ebft (fammt) meinen ^tnbern, Together with my children. 



is generally employed with the genitive case, but when placed after th 
substantive, it governs the dative. Ex.. ^ufolge 3tyre3 SJitfttaaeS (SBefel8), OP 
e, according to your order. 



284 PREPOSITIONS. 



Sett jener 3 e ^, Since (from) that time. 

mditeit (Sltent, By (from) my parents. 

iliubl)eit an, From childhood. 
Sr fam jit mtr, He came to me (to my house). 
Diehtcn $cfef)(en entgegen, Against my orders. 
)em s JJatf)b,aufe gegeniiber, Opposite the town-halL 
Ofyrem ^Bimfcfje gemcifj, According to your wish. 
S)cm Sefeljle beg $omgg gwmber, Contrary to the order of 

the king. 

WORDS. 

ber ^ugbogel, ^ e bird of pas- ber Strom, the stream 

sage fpc^teren gefyen, to walk 

ber ^fau, the peacock ber ^piigel, the hill. 
bie SBrilcfe, the bridge 

READING EXERCISE 100. 

(Sin anarien&oget flog burcf) ba3 ^enfter unb fe^tc fid) auf etnctt 
S3aum. 3)er ^nabe f)at gegen ben Saum gefc^offen. et ^bflt^ 
gegen 3ebermann. 3)er unb lief eintge SJiate um ba^ au ((jerunt) 
unb fud^te feinen errn. 3>r ^irfd) rul)tc tm fatten enter (Stdje. 
3)te 3u9^oget berlaffen un$ tm erbft (autumn) unb fefyren tm 
ling gu un3 juriirf. 3fofep^ tfl lod^renb etntger t'\t Sftatte bet 
pb,ar geh>efen. jDie ^amtlte beg Sorb 33. woijnt auf bem anbe. 
^fau tft ber fdjonfte unter ben ^Sogetn. 

uf 9 a6c 101. 

1. I went through the forest. This book is for your brother. 
Go round the garden. I got this package (^cfdjen) by a mes- 
senger, it is for you. Let us walk through the town. Nobody 
can swim against the stream. The ball rolled down the hill. 

2. Somebody has taken my purse out of my pocket. Lord 
E. wishes to go to France. He will depart within the next 
week. I shall go out after (the) dinner. Where does that 
gentleman live? He lives near the bridge, opposite the 
church. 

3. Prepositions with the Genitive case. 

anftatt or ftatt, instead of um totflen, for the sake of 

aujjerljalb, without, outside unbefdjabet, without prejudice ta 



PREPOSITIONS. 285 

bieffettS, on this side of trofc, 1 in spite of 

Ijalber or Ijalben, for the sake of ungead)tet,'' ! notwithstanding 

jenfeitci, on the other side of umoett (unfern), not far from 

innerljalb, within (place) toennpge, by means of 

fraft, by virtue of toermittelft (mtttelft), by means of 

IcingS, along ttmljrenb, during 

tout, according to toegen, 2 on account of 

oberfyalb, above jufolge, in accordance with. 

unterfyalb, below 

EXAMPLES. 

Sfnftatt etne SrtefeS, Instead of a letter. 
5luerl)alb ber tabt, Without (outside) the town. 
2)ieffeitS be3 $luffe3, On this side of the river. 
3enfeitS beg 2fteere3, Beyond the sea. 
Snnerfyalb ber Sftauer, Within the wall 
)berb,atb ber ^Briicfe, Above the bridge. 
Unterfyalb beg 3)orfe8, Below the village, etc. 

4. Prepositions with the Dative and Accusative. 

There are nine prepositions which govern sometimes 
the dative and sometimes the accusative. They are all 
prepositions of place, though many of them are used also 
to express relations of time, etc. 

They take the dative when there is no question at all 
of motion, e.g., His hands are in his pockets, There was 
no traitor among you, and also when the motion is 
spoken of as taking place (i.e., not ending merely) at, 
upon, behind, etc., something, e.g., They run about at home, 
He was walking behind the walL 

They take the accusative when the object of the pre- 
position is spoken of as the end or goal of the motion, 

1 fiingS, trofc and juf ctge are sometimes used with the dative, as : tro(} meinem 83efe$I, in 
spite of my order. See foot-note p. 283. 

2 ttnflead)tet and roegen may be placed after their nouns, as : reegen meiner S^re or ntetnei 
Ctrc iccgen, on account of my honor. alber or fatten (rather rare) always follows iU 
noun. 



286 PKEPOSITIONS. 

e.g., He sprang among the combatants, They went behind 

the screen. 

Ueber, however, takes the accusative in such phrases as 
across t/ie river (although the river is not the place where 
the motion ends) and indeed in every other sense except 
that of rest upon or above. 

These nine prepositions are : 

an, at, on iiber, over, above; (with the 
ouf, upon, on ace.), across 

fyinter, behind imter, under, among 

in, in; (with the ace.), into Dor, before, ago 1 

neben, beside, by the side of gtmfcfjen, between. 

EXAMPLES. 

2Btr ftefjen an bent ^u^e (dot.) beg 33erge. 

We stand at the foot of the mountain. 

SStr fteflten ung an bag (ace.) Xfyor. 

We placed ourselves at the gate. 

(Sr fyatte einen mt aitf bent $opfe (dot.). 

He had a hat on his head. 

(Sejje bid) auf biefen (gtufyl (ace.). 

Sit down (place yourself) on this chair. 

3)ie gifrfje leben in bent (im) SBaffer. 

The fish live in the water. 

S)o $inb ift in bag (in'S) 2Baffer gefaflen. 

The child has fallen into the water. 

$)er ^of ift neben bent ^aufe. 

The yard is near (by) the house. 

3d) legte bag 33urf) neben mid^. 

I laid the book beside me. 

2Btr fefcten iiber ben gtu. 

We crossed the river. 

2)er mnb Uegt unter bent Sif^c. 

The dog lies under the table. 

3)te $ofee froc^ unter bag SBett. 

The cat crept under the bed. 

i Sot* used of time, always takes the dative 



PREPOSITIONS. 287 

3dj ftanb uor bem Slufgana. 1 ber Sonne auf. 
I got up before sunrise. 
j)te Xriuipen riicften toor bte tabt. 
The troops marched to the town. 
Rrotfcfjen bem wgel imb bem SBadje. 
Between the hill and the brook. 
|)ange baS SBUb jtmfdjen bte gluei ^enfter. 
Hang the picture between the two windows. 

NOTE. To fix a limit, these prepositions may be preceded by 615, 
answering to the English as far as or to, as: big nacf) 9tom, as far as 
Home; big an bte or big jur renje, to the frontier; big auf ben 33erg, to the 
top of the mountain. 

OBSERVATIONS. 

It is difficult for an Englishman or American to use the 
prepositions in German correctly, or even having dis- 
covered the right preposition to be sure what case to put 
after it. Thus we say to bdieve in and to doubt of, the Ger- 
man to believe on (an) and to doubt on ; we say, That 
belongs in the corner, the German, That belongs into 
(in with the ace.) the corner. The student should, 
in the first place, cultivate, from the beginning, a 
habit of grammatical observation while reading German 
or listening to spoken German, and, in the second, con- 
sider whether the English usage is the logical one. It is 
evident for instance that He put his hand in his pocket 
really means He put his hand into his pocket, and that 
the German in must in this instance be followed by the 
accusative. 

At. 

a) Before the name of a town, in, e.g., at Prenzlau, in 
^renjlau. (We say in in English also, provided the town 
is a large one, e.g., in Boston.) 

6) At the castle, auf bem <5rf)lof$. 
At market, auf bem 2Jiarfte. 

i See the foot-note p. 286. 



288 PREPOSITIONS. 

At the post-office, auf ber ^oft. 
At the ball, auf bem 33afl. 

The accusative after auf, e.fj., auf t>en 2ftarft. of course 
means to market, etc. 

c) At -with the time of the day or night is itm, e.g^ at 
three o'clock, urn brei U^r. 

d) At is in in 

3m 3lnfcmg, at the beginning (but am (Snbe, at the end). 
3m Sllter Don fedjjtg 3af)ten, at the age of sixty years. 

e) At is jit in at home, ju aufe. 

By. 

f) By followed by the name of the agent, with the 
passive voice, is 0tt, e.g., I am loved by my father, 3$ 
roerbe on meinem SSoter gelicbt. 

gr) 5y denoting neighborhood, is bet, e.g., By the house 
stands a tree, 33ei bem ^)aufe fte^t ein S3aum. 



h) By in the sense of by means of, is bitrcfy, e.gr., By 
practice, turd) Ucbung. 

t) ^y Zawc? is JU ?ant>, and 6y ivater, Jit SBajfer. 

In and Into. 

j) As has been said already, in is Tery frequently 
translated in with the dative, and into in with the accusa- 
tive. 

&) In German is auf Deutjfy and in the country, auf t>eftl 



On. 



Z) On the table, auf bem S;if^. 
On the floor, auf bem 



PBETOSIT10NS. 289 

On the tree, auf bem 23aum. 

Frankfort on the Main, granffurt am 2ftam. 

On Tuesday, am Stcnftag (or simply SDtenftag). 

On the first of May, am erften 2Jiai (or simply ben erften 

Slit). 

On my arrival, bet meiner Slnfunft. 
On this occasion, bet btefer elegenfjeit. 
On horseback, gu ^Jferbe. 
On that condition, unter biefer 33ebtngtutg. 

To. 

m) To followed by a proper noun which is the name of 
a place, is nad), e.g., to Germany, nad) )eittfd)lanb; to 
Berlin, nad) ^Berlin. So also home (meaning to one's home) 
is nad) $aitfe. 

n) To a person or a person's is JU, e.g., Come to me, 
$ommen (Sne Jit mir ; I am going to my uncle's for vaca- 
tion, 3$ gefye ju meinem OnFel fur bie gerien. 

o) To followed by the name of a place not a proper 
noun, is an with the accusative (but see b at the end and 
m at the end, also p), e.g., To the railway, an bie @ifen* 
bafyn ; to the bridge, an bie 33ru'cf e. 

p) To followed by the name of a building which one 
enters, is in with the accusative, e.g., To church, in 



With. 

q) With denoting companionship, is ttttt, e.g., John with 
his wife and children, 3o^nn mit feiner grau unb ftinberru 

r) With meaning at tfie hoitse of, is bet, e.g., He lives with 
me, (r roofynt bei mir. 

s) With meaning in the case of, among, is bet, e.g., With 
the Prussians it is otherwise, 33ei ben ^>reuen iji e$ anbera: 
S3ei un^ nrirb man nid^t franf, 



290 PREPOSITIONS. 

Further information concerning the prepositions ia 
given in the 49th Lesson. 

WORDS. 

bte tt>ei$e 9fttbe, the turnip Dottfommen, perfect 

ber33efef)l,the order, command bte geftung, the fortress 

ber odjrtftfteUer, the writer bte $opelle, the chapel 

bte $orftellung, the remonstrance ber SJerluft, the loss 

ba$ anbgut, the estate ber ^ittjpfab, the foot-path 

f ett racmn, how long ? betradjten, to look at, con- 

bte ^etratt), the marriage sider 

ftettern, to cHmb betracfytltcf), considerable 

aitStaufen, to set sail erfafyren, to learn, to hear 

ftd) tJerfatnmeln, to assemble (news). 

READING EXERCISE lOlb. 

2)te $orf)tn l)at gelbe SRiiben (carrots) gefocfjt anfktt toetfjet 
9?iiben. 3)te 3)amen flnb Idng be Iuffe fpagteren gegangen. 
S3or fec^ U^r toerbe t^ nt^t noc^ aufe fommen ; warten <Sie Iteber 
(you had better wait) bt8 morgen. SBegen beiS rotbrtgen (contrary) 
SBtnbeS fonnte ba^ <Sd)iff ntd^t auSlaufen. @ett tnann wo^nen <3ie 
in biefem ^>aufe ? @ett gtoet SKonaten. 33et JageSanbm^ gingen 
$olumbii8 unb feme efa^rten an' anb unb na^men Seft^ (pos- 
session) oon ber Onfel tm "iftamen be ^ijntgg on (Spanien. SBafj* 
renb biefer Seremonten toerfammetten ft<f) bte 3fnbianer ^aitfenroctfe itm 
bte pantet unb betrac^teten batb bte fremben n)eten Scanner, batb 
bte fcfjnrimmenben ^ditfer, auf welc^en jte tiber ba0 9Keer gefommen 
toaren. 

9dtfgaBe 102. 

1. I shall take my umbrella instead of my stick. May I 
send my daughter instead of my wife ? Why did you go to 
Baden ? I went there on account of my health. There are a 
great many (fefyr toiele) foreigners at Baden during the summer; 
during winter there are fewer. The Royal Garden is without 
the town. Mr. B. lives on the other side of the river. Ac- 
cording to an order of the Emperor Napoleon, "several French 
writers Vere 'obliged (mttfeten) to leave France, notwithstand- 
ing their remonstrancea We obtained the permit ((Srtaubntfe) 
by means of your aunt's influence. Mr. P. got a fine estate 
by (means of) his marriage. Richmond lies 12 miles above, 



291 



ftnd Greenwich 5 miles below London bridge (ber onboner 
S3rit(fe). Nothing is perfect on this side the grave. Not far 
from the hill stands the chapel. He takes a walk notwith- 
standing the bad weather. The garden is situated (liegt) out- 
side the town. He is a rich man in spite of this considerable 
loss. 

2. "Who knocks at the door ? Put the flower-pot before my 
window. To (an) whom (ace.) did you write a letter? 1 
wrote to the duke of Wellington. I found this ring before 
the sofa. Who laid this book on my table? The servant 
stood at (an) the door of the house and looked after the birds. 
This old man is above (itber) ninety years old. The enemy 
lay six months before the fortress which was built on the 
mountain. Men do much for the sake of (beg) money. The 
prisoner looked up to heaven. According to the king's com- 
mand the troops must march. The castle of the duke is on 
the other side of the river. Along the river there is a foot- 
path ( 



2Bo tooljnen (live) <Ste? 
2Belrf)e3 tft ber fdjonfte itnter ben 

SBogeln? 

2Bo leben bte $(ffen? 
2Bol)ttt flog ber $anartenr>ogel? 
2Bo fa er narfjfyer? 
SBann berlaffen bte 3 u 

Suropa? 

gefyen fte ? 



nirfjt 



at bte ^ocfjtn geforfjt? 
(Sic metnen 
gefe^en? 
2Bo finb (te btefen 9)iorgen ge* 

toefen? 
SSaritm finb (Sic fo trattrtg ? 

S&o finb <Ste bent errn 9^. be* 

gegnet (met)? 
&ft ber 2)iann ertrunfat (drown- 

ed) ? 



3d) toofjne bet bent (Sdjtoffe. 

2)er ''Pfau gilt (passes) fiir ben 

fd)onften itnter ben SBogeln. 
3n fyctfjcn iinbcrn. 
(Sr flog auf euten 33aum. 
(5r faft anf bent 2)adje. 
Ont |>erbft, t>or bent 5lnfang be 

2Bmterg. 
On fitbltrf)e (southern) a'nber, 

metftcnS narf) 3lfrtfa. 
elbe 9tuben ftatt ^artoffeln. 
2)od), er tft eben urn ba3 au ge= 

laufen. 
3rf) ^abe etnen pajtergang langS 

beg 5f"ff^ gentad)t. 
2Begen etneg gro|en5?erlufte (loss) 

ber nttrf) betroffen ^at. 
2luerf)alb ber (Stabt, gegeniibet 

bemSal)nl)ofe(railway-station). 

Oa, et nebft wd ^ 



292 PREPOSITIONS. 



SBoljin gefyt bet &orf) ? (r gel)t auf ben 2Karft. 

SKoljin retft ber rof ? (Sr reift aitf bag ?onb. 

2Bo lebt 3fjre ante ? <ie tebt im Sommcr auf bem 

anbe, im SBintcr in bev <5tabt. 

HEADING LESSON. 

2>a8 5erbro(f)cnr gufeifen. The Broken Horse-shoe. 
(Sin 33auer ging nut feinem oljne, bem fletnen ljotna8, in bic 



tabt. f ,@ie^'," fagte er unterwegS ^u i^m, ,,ba Uegt etn tiitf toon 
cinem ^ufeifen auf ber (grbe/ Ijebe 2 eg auf unb ftecfe e$ in betne 
Slafrfje." ,,211) !" terfefete 3 S^omaS, r ,e ifl nid)t ber SJKu^c JDcrtV 
ba^ man ftc^ bafiir biicft. 6 " >er 53ater erh)iberte s ni^t, natjm bag 
(gifen unb ftedte e8 in feine afd)e. 5m nadjften )orfe berfaufte er 
e bem (Scfomtebe 6 fiir brei feller' unb faufte $irfcfcen bafiir. 

^>ierauf fe^ten fte ifjren 2Seg fort. !iDie >itje 8 mar fe^r gro. SKan 
fafy toeit unb breif toeber >au, noc^ SKalb, no^ Ouette. 10 Ijoma 
Derging 11 beina^e bor 2)urft unb fonnte feinem 53ater nur mit 
folgen. 

2)ann Iie biefer, mie bur^ 3 u f a K/ s eine $irfcfie fatten. 
^ob 2 fie fo gierig 14 auf, at hienn eg olb toare, unb fterfte fie fcfjnett 
in ben 93?unb. (Sinige d^ritte 15 roeiter Iie ber 33ater eine 
^irfd^e fatten, nielcfje SfyomaS mit berfelben ierigfeit 16 ergriff. 
bauerte fort," big er fie atte aufge^oben ^atte. 

Sltg er bie lefcte gegeffen ^atte, roanbte ber 53ater ft^ ju iljm f)in unb 
fagte : ,,@ie^, roenn bu bid^ ein einjigeg 9}?al ptteft biicfen njotten, 
um bag ufeifen auf^u^eben, fo nmrbeft bu nic^t not^ig 18 ge^abt 
fyaben, bic^ ^unbert 2J?a( fUr bie $irfd)en 3u biicfen." 



i ground. 2 auffieben, to pick up. s replied. < worth the trouble, e to stoop. the 
smith. 7 farthing. 8 the heat. tax and wide. 10 spring, ncerge^en, to die. 12 diffi- 
culty. is by chance. H greedily, eagerly. 15 steps. ie greediness, i" lasted, con- 
tinued. is (would BO t have bad necessary^ would not have needed. 



INTERJECTIONS. 



293 



INTERJECTIONS. 



olj! ad)! et! ah! oh! 

ad) ! ah ! alas ! oh dear ! 

Ijc! tjc ba! ho! I say! 

ait! oh! 

ot) ! fyo ! oh ! ho ! 

o toefye ! oh dear ! alas ! 

tfff! paff! bang! 

pfui! fie! pish! 

bolt! halt! stop! 

jJoUa! holla! hoUo! 

fad)te! gently! 

toeg ba ! out of the way ! 

fort ! be gone ! be off ! 

po taufenb ! what the deuce ! 

ft! ftttt! hush! hist! 

teiber! alas! unhappily! 



Ijetfa! huzza! hurrah! 

judjlje! hurrah! 

Ijm! humph! hum! 

fo! indeed! 

aiif! up! 

9ldjtung! take care! attention! 

fiettl hail! 

SBelje! woe! 

Better! fire! 

otttob ! God be praised ! 

red)t fo ! 'tis well ! all right ! 

gut! good! 

toorttmrtS! forwards! 

311 ilf e ! help ! 

2Ber ba! who's there I 



PKOMISCUOUS EXERCISES FOE TRANSLATION AND 
CONVERSATON. 1 



1. 

Have you a pail* [of] gloves ? Yes Sir, I have two pair. 
What has the merchant ? He has different (or many) kinds 1 
[of] wares (SBaaren). Have you any friends? I have some 
friends. How many friends have you? I have six faithful 2 
friends. Have your friends [any] wine or beer ? They have 
some wine. Has the shoemaker good shoes ? He has always 
good shoes and good boots. What have the Englishmen ? 
They have fine horses. Has the captain any good sailors ? 
He has some good and some bad ones. 3 Have you much 
bread and cheese ? I have a good deal (Diet). Have you 
enough ? I have quite 4 enough. What day of the month is 
it s ? It is the twelfth. Is it not the thirteenth ? No, Sir, it 

i These Exercises may be translated and written with the other Exercises as soon 
as the pupil has gone through the 25th Lesson, or even sooner. 
1. i oielerlei. 2 treu. 3 see p. 120, Obs. 2. ' gatij. i see p. 124, Obs. 2. 



294 EXERCISES. 

is the eleventh or twelfth. What horses have you? We have 
our own 6 horses. 

2. 

Have you much salt? I have only a little, but I have 
enough. Has the woman much silk V She has not much, 
she has not enough. Have you any more 1 wine ? I have 
some more wine. Have you any more money ? I have no 
more 2 money (fctn elb mefyr). Which volume 8 of my work 
have you ? I have the second. Have you as much 4 gold as 
silver? I have neither gold nor silver. Have you as many 
stockings as shoes? I have more stockings than shoes. Has 
this soldier as much courage as I have? He has quite as 
much. Has the foreigner [a] mind 5 to buy this house ? He 
has a mind to buy it. Has your cousin a mind to sell his 
horse? No, he has not a (fetne) mind to sell it, he will 
keep 8 it. 

3. 

Am I (Ijabe tdj) right to take 1 a walk ? You are quite right. 

Is he wrong to spend 2 his money ? He is wrong to spend 
too much money. To ( 311) whom do you wish to go ? I wish 
to go to my uncle's. Is your brother at home ? He is not 
yet at home, but he will soon come home. Do you wish to 
speak to (mit) some one ? Yes, I wish to speak to some one. 

To whom do you wish to speak ? I wish to speak to your 
aunt. Do you wish to drink some red wine ? I prefer (jtelje 
Dor) some white wine. What does the little girl wish to 
drink ? She wishes to drink some TniVk. Are you going 
home ? Not yet, but in an hour. Do your boys like* to go 
to school? They prefer 4 to have private lessons (^rttiat* 
ftunbcn). Who wishes to write a letter? My daughter 
wishes to write several letters. To (an) whom (ace.) will she 
write ? She will write to her [female] friends. Who shall 
take 5 these letters to the (aitf bie, ace.) post-office ? The ser- 
vant may take them there.* 



3. 2 see p. 343 14. ibcrSanb. ifbfnToBtet. sfinfl, f. btfyilfen. 
sauSjugeben. ge^cn . . . gem. * cotjte^en, ep. verb, sttagen. ba$ 



1. 6<igen. 

2. i see p. 343, 13. 

3. ijuma^en. sauSjugeben. ge^cn . . . gem. * cotjte^en, ep. verb, sttagen. ba$ta. 



EXERCISES. 295 

4. 

"What have you to do (tljun) ? I have to write a French 
exercise. 1 What has your brother to do ? He has to do 2 his 
German exercise for to-morrow. What did the Englishman 
answer you(dat.) ? He answered nothing. Did he not say 
he would come to (ju) me ? No, Sir, he said nothing at all 8 
Where is the child of my neighbor ? He is in your garden. 
Have you many flowers in your garden ? We have flowers of 
all kinds. 4 Are you in want of (brcwd)en) my knife ? I am 
not in want of it, but I want a penknife. What o'clock is it ? 
It is four or half past. Did your friend not say it was (e8 
to tire 5 ) a quarter past four? No, Sir, he said it was a quarter 
to five. At ( um) what o'clock do you go out ? I go out at 
six o'clock this evening. 

5. 

Will you stay here ? I cannot stay here, I am engaged. 1 
Is it late ? It is not late, it is but (erft) eight o'clock. Can 
you lend me a pen or two ? There, Sir, there are four excel- 
lent [ones]. What have you to say [to] me ? I have a word 
to say to you. About (liber) what? It concerns (betrifft) your 
manservant. Do you love your uncle ? Yes, I do love him. 
Does your sister love you ? She does love me. Do the 
Americans like (the) tobacco ? They like it very much. Do 
you know my cousin (f.) ? I know her very well. Does she 
know your grandfather ? She does not know him. Did your 
uncle send you any money ? He sent me seventy florins. 8 
What do you buy at (cmf, dot.) market? I buy potatoes. 
Are you afraid 3 to go out in the night ? I am not afraid at all. 
Does the father work as much as the son ? The son works 
much more, because he is young and strong. 

6. 

Do you find what you are looking 1 [for]? I have found 
what I was looking for. Who was looking for me ? Your 

4. i ?lufga6e, f. s ju ma^en. 3 gat mcf>t8. < see p. 1. 1. 8. 6 When bafi (that) is left out 
at the beginning of a dependent clause, the verb of the dependent clause is generally 
put in the subjunctive, and is never put at the end. 

6. i certymtert or befaiftigt. 2ulten. s giw^ten U ft$ ? 

6. i to look for jucijen. 



296 EXERCISES. 

master looked for you. Can the cook find what he looks for? 
He cannot find it. What is he doing? He is killing a 
chicken. 2 Are you going for 3 anything ? Yes, I am going 
for something. Tell me what you are going for? I am going 
for some meat. "Whom does your mother send* *for? She 
sends for the cook (/.). Do you learn German? I do learn 
it. How long have you been learning 6 it? I began it two 
months ago. Do you speak French ? No, Sir, not yet, but I 
am learning it. How many lessons have you a (in ber) week? 
I have a lesson every other day. Are these men English ?' 
No, they are Scotch." Do they study German? I do not 
know, but I believe [they do]. What does your pupil want? 
He wants a new book. Does he want anything else ? T Yes, 
he wants a new coat and a pair of boots. 



7. 

Does the foreigner intend 1 to stay here ? No, he intends to 
depart. When do you intend to sell your house ? I intend 
to sell it to-day. Whose cloak is this? 3 It is mine. Whose 
hats are these ?* They belong* to the Englishmen. What 
book are you reading ? I am reading a novel 4 by Sir Walter 
Scott. Do you know that man? I do not know him. 
Have you seen him already ? I have seen him somewhere. 
Where have you been ? I have been (in) at (the) church. Where 
has your wife 5 been ? She has been 2 at church ^o. Has 
your sister ever (fdjon) been in France ? She has never been 
there. Does she intend to go there? She intends to go 
there next year. Were you at the ball last night? 6 I was 
not there. Will there be a ball this evening ? It will not 
take place. 7 When have you been at (in) the theatre ? I was 
there yesterday. 

8. 

Can you swim as well (gut) as a sailor? 1 I cannot swim as 
well as a sailor. Can this boy swim better than I ? He can 

6. srin ufm. >to go for, fcolen. * to send for some one, na$ 3emanb f&irfen; to 
end for something, ttmaS Ijotcn laften. < Bee p. 846, 3. stubst. not adj. " fonjl GhcaS. 

7. i to intend, gebenlen, molten, eortyafcen, gefonnen fttn. J see p. 72, Note 1. sgefyoren 
(dot.), t btr SRoraan. & gtau. geflern a&enb, : jlattfmben. 

8. 



EXERCISES. 297 

rwim better than you. At what o'clock did Mr. Green break- 
fast ? He breakfasted at nine o'clock. Did he dine before 
(c()c) he left? 2 No, Sir, he left before (the) dinner. Have 
you told 2 me J it? I told 2 you (dot.) l it the day before yester- 
day. What words have you written? I have written these 
three words. "Which books have you read? I have read the 
book you lent me. Have you had your shoes mended 3 (flicfcn 
laffen) ? I have not yet had them mended. Have you had 
your handkerchiefs or your stockings washed? 3 I have 
neither had the one (bte einen, pi.} nor the other washed. 
Why do you not eat ? I do not eat because I am not hungry. 
-Why are you not hungry? Because I have eaten some 
bread and ham. 4 Are you thirsty ? I am not thirsty, I have 
drunk some beer. 

9. 

Is your servant a good one ? He is a good one. Is he as 
good as mine ? I think he is better than yours. Are you 
satisfied with him. Quite satisfied. Do you like 1 fish ? I 
like fowl 2 better. Does your aunt like mutton ? She likes 
roast mutton and roast veal. Do the scholars like to learn 
by heart? 3 They do not like learning by heart, they like 
writing better.* To (an, ace.) whom do you address 5 your 
letters ? I address them to a friend. Do you admire this 
work ? I do admire it. How do you amuse the ladies ? I 
play [on the] piano. Have you helped your sister (dot.) ? I 
could not help her. Have you asked 6 for wine ? No, I have 
ordered 7 tea. Have you bought this map? 8 I have bor- 
rowed 9 it. Have you satisfied your relations ? 10 They ask 6 
nothing. Has the boy fed 11 his birds ? He feeds them every 
morning. Did you guess (fyaben @tc . . . erratljen) the riddle ? n 
I could not guess it. Have you sold your field ? I do not 
intend to sell it. 

10. 

Have you lost (the) hope ? I never lose hope. Has the 
gardener planted some trees ? He has planted many trees. 

8. 2 to leave, afcreifen. s see p. 327, a 4 @d)lnfen. 

9. i (Sffen @ie gern ? 2 epgcL 3 augroenbtg. < fie f$rel6en IleBet. G abrefjtren. s to ask 
for, Berlcmgen (ace.}, i fcejleHen. fianbfarte, f. entte^nen. 10 gjerwanbten. u to feed, 
fttttent. 



298 EXERCISES. 

Has the soldier cleaned 1 his gun ?* He is just cleaning it. 
Why has the tailor not cleaned the coat? Because it was not 
sent [to] him. Has the cook roasted the hare V He will 
roast it to-niorrow. Has the maid had 3 her gloves washed ? 
She has had them washed. - Who has had these boots 
mended? The servant took (trug) them to (ju) the shoe- 
maker. Why does she open the window ? She likes fresh 
air. Why does she shut the door ? She did not 4 wish to 
(rooflte) have a draught. 5 Has (ift) the man risen early? He 
has risen late because he is ill. Will he not put out 6 the 
fire ? No, he wants it still (nodj). What does he boil ? He 
boils potatoes and carrots. Did you empty 7 the bottles? All 
the bottles are emptied. Are they clean? They are very 
clean; you may put* in them what you like. 



11. 

Is the boy dressed ? He is dressed. Did he dress him- 
self? Yes, he dressed himself. Were his shoes cleaned? 
The servant cleaned them. Did he wash his hands? He 
washed his face and his hands. When did the ship set 1 sail ? 
The ship set sail the day before yesterday. Do they travel 
by ($u) land or by sea? They travel by land. For (auf) 
whom (ace.) do you wait? I wait for my coachman. Have 
you spoken about the matter? 2 We had no time to speak 
about it. Have you learnt (ba3 and inf.) reading of him? I 
learnt it of his brother. Do you know your lesson ? I think 
I know it; I have taken 8 pains. Does the pupil read well 
(gut)? He reads pretty (jiemlid)) well. How many pages 
does he write every day? He writes only one page, and that 
is enough. Have the boys done their exercise ? They are 
doing it still. What verb 4 have they learned ? They have 
learned an irregular 8 verb. Have they written it? They 
must not write it 



10. i reinigcn. 2 ba3 eweljr. * laffen. < not a, teinen. & 3 U 9 m - * au8I6f$n. 
' leeren. $itmnt$iin. 

11. i to set sail, afciegeln. >bie@a$e. to take pains, jl$ (dot.) 2Rfl$e gefon. ba 

3 itroort. 



EXEKCISES. 299 

12. 

Which is the best place ? The first place is the best. At 
what hour do we dine ? "We dine at one o'clock. What 
kind of meat is that? This is mutton. How much do you 
charge 1 for (the) dinner ? One shilling. Is dinner ready ? 
Yes. Where is my dog ? He is before the door. To whom 
does that house belong ? It belongs to Mr. Lyon. Is that 
true ? That is quite true. Did you understand me ? Yes, 
Sir, [I did]. Is the carriage come? The carriage is not yet 
come, but the horses are come. - What (rote) do you call this 
country ? It is Bavaria. 2 Will you come with me ? I have 
no time. Have you been to the post-office? I shall 
go there directly (g(etd)). Are there [any] letters for me? 
Not to-day. What do you think of this letter ? I cannot 
understand it. When shall we set off? In a few days. 
Will you take a walk 3 in the garden? With great pleasure, if 
you will go with me, 

13. 

Did 1 you tell him to come (baft cr foramen fott) ? Yes, Sir, 
[I did]. Did she get up early? She got up very late. Why 
has this boy no handkerchief? He has lost it. What is the 
price of that cloth? 2 This cloth is very cheap (roofylfetl). Can 
you not take less? I cannot let you have (geben) it cheaper. 
Have you no better? 3 I have [some] better, but it is dearer. 
How is the weather to-day ? It is very fine. Shall we 
have fine weather to-morrow ? I am afraid it will rain. Is 
(the) dinner served ?* The servant is serving it. Shall I give 
you some soup ? Yes, Madam, if you please. Do you like 
fruit?* I like it very much. Will you have some potatoes? 
If you please. 6 Do you breakfast before you take a walk? 
No, I take a walk before I breakfast. How long were you 
ill? I was ill [for] a fortnight (14 age). Were you at (the) 
market? I have not been there. Has your aunt been in 
(auf) the country? She has not been there yet, but she will 
go soon. Has she been anywhere ? She has been with (bet) 
her cousin. 

12. i forbtrn, certangen. 22?anern. sttnen pojietgong madjen. 

13. i Translate : have you told. 2 Stu$, n. letn beflereS ? 4 aufgetrojro. 

(i.e., t$ bine, I ask [.you for itj). 



300 EXERCISES. 

14. 

"Who has burnt 1 my letters? The servant has burnt them. 
Has Charles torn his coat ? His brother tore it. Has the 
boy broken a chair ? He has broken a table and a chair. Is 
your neighbor as poor as he says ? He is not so poor. Does 
your tailor make good coats ? He makes good (ones) and bad 
(ones). Have you consulted 2 your friends? They were not 
at home when I called 3 on them. Have you paid [for] the 
wine ? I have paid [for] the dinner but not for the wine. 
Did the servant light 4 the professor downstairs ? She had no 
candle. Had they warmed the bed ? They had warmed it 
Where were (fmb) 5 you born ? I was born in Italy. In 
which of these streets does he live ? He lives in Frederick(-) 
Street. How shall you spend 6 this evening ? I "hardly 
a know myself. Will you go to the play (inS Sweater) with me ? 
(I) thank you; I will be ready at seven o'clock. Is (the) tea 
ready ? It will be ready in a moment. When may I send 
you this letter? Whenever 7 you please. Where shall I send 
it to V I will give you my address. 8 



15. 

When shall you set out for (nacf)) Paris? The day after to- 
morrow. Might I trouble 1 you with a letter ? I shall take it 
with great pleasure. Will you take tea* with me ? (I) thank 
you, I am engaged; it is impossible for me. When shall I 
see you again ? I will call on you this evening after supper. 
Will you play [at] cards ? I play very indifferently.* Do 
you like to play [at] whist (2Bf)tft) ? Yes, I like to' (fpiele c|crn). 
- - How high do you play ? As high as you please. How 
many points* have you ? I have only ten points. Any news 
(ettt)a 9?eue$) of your brother? I have not heard from him 
[for] a long time. Were many spectators there ? There were 
a great many. Will you soon go into (auf) the country ? ' I 
intend setting out in a week. 

14. ivtrtrenncn. afcefwrgen. 3 to call on, 6efu<$en. 4 b,lnuntertu$ten (dot.), sge* 
p. 140, 5. r. jubringt n. 7 irann e 3fmen gef&Ot. e bie Hbreffe. 

15, i bcllftiflen, bemttben. : ju Slbcnb et)B- qlei^gulttg. < b ti<$, ber $ntt. 



EXEECISES. 301 

16. 

"Will you help me [to] work ? I am sorry, I have no time. 
Will you have the goodness to pass 1 that plate to me ? With 
much pleasure. When shall we go to bathe ? This evening, 
if you like. How is your grandmother ? She is not quite 
well, she has caught 2 a cold. How does Mr. Gray look ? 3 He 
looks very well; he is in very good health. Why did he send 
for the physician ? His daughter is ill. Of (an) what illness 
did your neighbor die ? He died of apoplexy. 4 Why does 
this little girl cry ? What has happened to her ? She cries 
because her mother died yesterday. Why do you laugh at 
(Uber) this man ? I do not laugh at him, I laugh at his dress. 5 
Have you known 6 this professor long ? I have known him 
about a year. Is that bread sufficient for you ? It is quite 
sufficient for me; but not for the children. 



17. 

Will you ask your nephew whether he is satisfied with the 
cloth I have sent him ? When I see him, I will ask him. 
May I ask you for 1 a little water to wash 2 my hands ? I will 
go for it directly. Have they served up 3 the soup ? It was 
served up some minutes ago. Do the windows look 4 into the 
street ? No, they look on the yard. Which is the shortest 
way to the library ? 6 Go down this street, and when you come 
to the foot (cm' (tnbe) turn to the right, and you will see it in 
(cmf) the large square. Did you forget your books when you 
went to school ? We never forgot anything. How many 
times have you been in Paris? Only three times. How 
many birds has the hunter shot ? He has killed about thirty. 
Does this merchant sell on credit ? 6 He does not sell on 
credit. Have you seen the fine rifle 7 1 have won ? I should 
like to see it. Has the prince bought the beautiful carriage 
of which I spoke to you? No, Sir, the man asked a great 
deal (met) too much. Whom did you see at the ball ? A 
great many fine ladies and gentlemen. 

16. i rdcfcen. 2 to catch a cold, fic erfilten. s auSfc^en. * am djlagfluf . 
c see p. 346, 3 

17. i to ask for, um GhuaS bitten. 2 see p. 336, 1. 3 aufeetragen. * ge$(n auf. 
JBtbltot&et. eauf firebtt'. 



Part II. 



SYNTAX 



THIRTY-EIGHTH LESSON. 

THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. 

1. There are more phrases in which the definite article 
is inserted in German, and omitted in the English trans- 
lation, than there are phrases in which it is omitted in 
German, and inserted in the English translation ; that is 
to say, it is more used in Ger an than in English (and we 
may add, less used in German than in French). 

2. The cases in German in which it may be inserted 
or not, as the writer or speaker chooses, are numerous. 
So, too, poets insert it in cases where we should expect 
it to be omitted, just because they need an extra syllable 
to fill out a line; and they omit it in cases where we 
should expect it would be inserted, in order to get rid of 
an inconvenient extra syllable. 

3. In as much as the definite article is declined, it might 
be used, if prefixed to a noun which had several cases 
alike, to inform the reader or listener what case was really 
meant. Thus, ^etnrici) may be nominative, dative, or ac- 
cusative, while ber $einric| can be nominative only, bent 
^etnricf) dative only, and ben |)einrid) accusative only. As 
a matter of fact, the definite article is inserted in German 
where it might be omitted, for this very purpose of avoid- 
ing ambiguity. 3)iefelbe liebte -)einricl) tnnig, may mean 
either: a) This same woman loved Henry tenderly, or 
b) Henry loved this same woman tenderly; but, >icfelbe 



306 DEFINITE ABTICLE. 



liebte ben $einrid) inntg, can only mean a), and, )iefelbe 
liebte ber etnrtd) inntg, can only mean 6). 

The genitive plural of all nouns is like the nominative 
and accusative plural, and always, or almost always, takes 
the definite article, to distinguish it at once from the lat- 
ter, e.g., )ie greunfcftyaft ter SBeiber (not bie ^reunfcfcfyaft 
SReiber) ifi nicfyt tote unfere, Women s friendship is not like 
ours. Of course, the article is not needed when there is 
an adjective agreeing with the genitive plural. 

4. South Germans are, perhaps, more prone than North 
Germans to insert the definite article in cases where usage 
allows either its insertion or omission, e.g. t to say ber 
bu)e instead of Stye. 

Special cases follow. 

5. a) It is more usual, but it is not obligatory, to in- 
sert the definite article before abstract nouns, in those 
cases in which it is in English omitted, e.g., to say : 

ber ^letfj, industry (not the bte tite, goodness, kindness 

industry) bte 23efd)afttgung, employment 

bte Xragfyett, idleness bte ebttlb, patience 

bte 33Ubung, learning bte Ungebulb, impatience 

bte Stebe, love bte ^ufnebenljett, contentment 

ber $afj, hatred bte djonfjett, beauty 

bte ftreimbfdjaft, friendship bte Ougenb, youth 

bte getnbfdjaft, enmity bag SUter, old age 

bte llnbanfbarfett, ingratitude bte efrfjtcfjte, history 

ber s #be(, nobility baS (Stinjtentfjuin, Christianity 

bte ^egterung, government ba8 Subentfjiun, Judaism. 
bte 2ftonard)te, monarchy 

ancient history, bte atte efd)trf)te. 
Gen. of industry, be3 ^ktfceS ; of youth, ber Ougenb zc. 



but also: (Scfyonfyett erge^t, Beauty is perishable, etc. 

So also with adjectives, e.g., (bte) umjoUfommene <3c^on^eil 
gefdllt mir auc^, Imperfect beauty pleases me too. 



DEFINITE ABTlCLE. 30? 

Proverbs, since brevity is the soul of wit, tend to omit 
the definite article, e.g., .>od)murt) (not ber $ocfymu$) fommt 
i>or bent fllle/ Pride comes before a foil. 

b) In those cases where we, in English, must have the 
definite article before an abstract noun, German must 
have it too, e.g., The goodness of his heart, bie lite (not 
iite simply) fetne |)erjen3 ; The beauty of her style, bie 
cfyonfyeit (not @ct)5iu}eit simply) ifyreg <5tpl$. 

c) When an abstract noun is used instead of the plural 
of a concrete noun, e.g., nobility for nobles, or Christianity 
for Christians, it must have the article in German. Thus : 
3)er Slbel emporte ftc!), The nobility revolted; )a$ G$rifient$um 

ifylt, Christendom mourned him. 



6. a) When a common noun in the singular is used in 
the sense of the plural preceded by all, e.g., man to mean 
all men, and the fox to mean all foxes, the noun must in 
German be preceded by the definite article, e.g., ^)at ber 
guc^g fetn eimffen? Has the fox no conscience? )er 2ftenf$ 
if} fterblicf), Man is mortal 

5) The same assertions might be made using $ucf)S and 
Jftenfd) in the plural. In that case, these nouns might or 
might not be preceded by the definite article, e.g., abett 
(bie) gucfyfe fein enriffen ? (Die) SWenfc^en ftnb fterbltd). 

7. a) Titles (t.e. t the German equivalents of Mr., Count, 
Queen, Captain, etc.), when followed by the name of a 
person, take in the nominative more usually no article, 
e.g., rof SStSmarcf is more usual than ber raf 33i3marcf, 
The same is true of the genitive when it precedes the 
noun; e.g., raf 33tgmarcf g Sfebe, Count Bismarck's speech^ 
is more usual than be$ rafen 53t3marcf 



308 DEFINITE ABTICUB. 

b) The other cases, including the genitive following its 
noun, except the nominative used in address, i.e., the 
vocative, take the article perhaps rather more frequent- 
ly than they omit it, e.g., bie SRebe beS rafen SBtgmarrf 
seems to be as common, or commoner, than bte Stebe raf 



c) The nominative used in addressing a person cannot 
take the article, e.g., -fxrr 53raun ! (not ber |>err 33raun) id) 
bitte vte, Mr. Brown! I bey of you. 

d) Any case preceded by an adjective must take the 
article, e.g., bte gutc ^tonigin Suife (not gute simply) folgte, 
Good Queen Louisa followed. Except in addressing a per- 
son, e.g., ?ieber (not ber Itebe) eneral tgel, [age nur ja, 
Dear General Slgel, do say yes. 

8. Names of substances and materials, e.g., gold, wood, 
yrass y lime, wool, meat, etc., etc., when used to mean a 
quantity of gold, wood, etc., but without saying what par- 
ticular gold, wood, etc., do not take the article, e.g., ib 
mir olb, Give me gold, 3$ tyolte frifc$e3 Staffer, I got some 
fresh water. 1 

In other cases they must take the article, if the article 
would be inserted in English, e.g., ($Hb mir ba$ olb, tooyon 
tU fprucfyft, Give me the gold of which you spoke. Even 
where the article would not be inserted in English, it is 
more i^ual to insert it in German, e.g., )a$ olb tfl fcfytoer, 
Gold is heavy; )a$ ftittffy ift jie^t t^eiter, Meat is dear note. 

9. The plurals of concrete substantives are used in the 
same way, e.g., (r fyatte gebern in bcr $anb, He had pens in 
his hand; 3$ miJcfyte (Sier, I want some eggs* 

So further, where the article would be used in English, 

i We may also say: etrcaS Suit, etoaS Sal} ic., ft little (or some) gold, salt, etc. 
i We may also say: eintge gebern, einige liter x., a few (or acme) pens, eggs, etc. 



DEFINITE ARTICLE. 309 

!Dre gebern, bie tKott maci)t, The pens Gillott makes. And. 
finally, !Dte (tal)lfefcern ftnb jeljt bidig itnt> gilt, Sted pens are 
now cheap and good, which is more usual than tat)lfet>ern 
Bimply. 

10. Names of the seasons and months take the article. 
Days of the week must take it when they are modified 
by an adjective or governed by the preposition an, e.g., 
2)er SBintcr ift fyter immer fait, Winter is always cold here} 
im SBinter, in uinter; am 5 re ^ a S/ on Friday. 

11. The student may note the following substantives as 
used with the article where they would not be in English. 
A number of them come under rules already given. 

ber 9ftenfd), man, mankind bag IM, fortune, happiness 

bte 9JZenfd)en, men bag Ungliicf, adversity, misfor- 

bte Scute, people bag @rf)icffat, fate [tun 

bag $riit)ftiic!, breakfast bte ^eit, time 

bag SJJtttageffen, dinner bag efe, law 

bag 5lbenbeffen, supper bie ^atur, nature 

ber Xfyee, tea ber .t)immel, heaven 

ber )itrft, thirst bag Seben, life 

ber ^unger, hunger ber ob, death 

bte itte, custom ber $rteg, war. 

Hence : after dinner, nad) bent SOJittageffctu 

12. Also the following phrases : 

5)ie meiften SKenfrfjcn, Most men. 

(r Juo^nt in ber <3tabt, He lives in town. 

S)ag ^inb ift in ber @d)u(e, The child is at school. 

3)er ^nabe ge^t in bte @d)ttle, The boy goes to school. 

3n ber ^irrfjc, At church; in bie $ird)e, To church. 

13. The definite article is used where we say a in stat- 
ing prices, e.g., Three shillings a pound, HDrei @rf)iUtna,e t>a3 
*iPfunt>, A pound costs three shillings, >a ^funb foftct 



310 DEFINITE ARTICLE. 

14. As we have seen before, the definite article is fre- 
quently used where we use a possessive adjective before 
parts of the body,e.(/., &arl fyat (ftcfy, dot.) bag 33ein gebrodjen, 
Charles has broken his kg. 

REPETITION OF THE ARTICLE. 

15. When several substantives come in succession, and 
the definite or indefinite article has been expressed be- 
fore the first, it should be expressed before all the rest 
also, unless the nouns are in the plural. 



SNeffer itnb bie abet, ber ?bffct unb ber Setter. 
The knife and fork, the spoon and plate. 
(Sin <8d)ul)inacf)er, em <2rf)neiber unb ein ^mtmadjer fajjen in 

einem SfiStrtljSljaufe. 

A shoemaker, tailor, and hatter were sitting in a tavern. 
>ic 23riibcr unb (2cf)tt>eftcrn, The brothers and sisters. 
S)ie Siefen unb (bie) Briber, The meadows and fields. 

With plural nouns, however, of very dissimilar sig- 
nification, the article should be repeated, e.g., 9hir bie in* 
ber unb bie (Scfyulben blieben i^m iibrig,*0/% the children and 
debts were left him. 

POSITION OF THE ARTICLE. 

16. The article always precedes its noun and every- 
thing that modifies its noun. Its exceptional position in 
English after both, half, double, quite, too, so, as, and how, 
is not admissible in German. But see 17 and 19, p. 312. 

Both the pupils, 5)te betbcn (Sdjiiter. 
Half an hour, (gtne fyotbe (Stunbe. 
Double the sum, ie boppette (Summe. 
So good a father, gin fo guter Skater. 1 
Quite an old hat, (Sin gcm3 otter 



i But also : <o ein gutet SSater, cf. the English, Such a good father. 



DEFINITE ARTICLE. 311 

The only exception is with att t e.g., Wit bit 3ftfyte fcineg 
Seben$, Ml the years of his life. 

READING EXERCISE 103. 

3>te Sragljett tft erne bofe (Sigenfdjaft. 1 >te djorujett unb bte 
Sanftmutf) finb nid)t immer bemnigt. 2 2ftarg ttmt bet ben 3tomern 
bcr ott be^ $dege8. cc caf 3)erbi) ift berueift. 3 2)te prftert 
finb 2Jlenfdjen unb fonnen nicfyt tmnteu ijelfen. Qn Station ift bet 
gutter nid)t fait; bagegen tft bee ommer fe^u ^etp. 3)tt3 s ilbenbeffen 
ift berett. S)ie (rbe unb bee ^>immet finb bag 2Betf otteg. ie 
9Jtitur tft ettt^pffeneS 33nc{). ^ommeit 3ie nad) bem gculjftitcf gu mtr, 
obeu menu >^te Ueber 4 rooden, narf) bent 3)iittageffen. 2BteteI foftei 
bte ftfofdje? J)te ^lafc^e foftet etnen fjalben @n(ben. Stettiet !oftel 
bie (de opn btefem Xud^e? 3% Derlaufe e8 311 (fitc) fitnf utben bte 
(Sfle. 2)tefer $nabe ^at ben 3lrm gebrocfjen; feine (S^mefter ^at fid) 
ait8 Unadjtfamfeit 5 in bte anb gcfdjnttten. 3d) fyabe einen tod, 
etnen 9frgenfd)irm unb ein ^afttmeffer gefauft. 2)er (Skitter ^at etne 
^atbe cite au^wenbig (by heart) geternt 3d) Ijabe t^m bie boppette 
(Summe be^a^tt. 

SlufgaBc 104. 

Time is precious. Fortune is changeable. 1 Spring is a fine 
season. Horses are useful animals. Iron and copper 2 are 
more useful than gold and silver. Adversity borrows 3 its 
sharpest sting (>2>tad)e(, m.) from our impatience. Ingratitude 
dries up (uectcodnet) the fountain 4 of all goodness. Concealed 5 
hatred is more dangerous than open enmity. Learning is an 
ornament (3tevbc) to youth (gzn.) and a comfort (Xroft, m.) to 
old age. 6 Employment is necessary to man. Industry is the 
true philosopher's stone (3tein ber 2Bctjen), that turns 7 all 
metals into gold. The sweetest salve (2atbc) for misery 8 is 
patience, and the only (etn^ige) medicine for want (bte 9?ott)) is 
content. Tea is ready. Nature is contented with little, but 
the cravings of luxury (bte 33ebiirfniffe beg ?urug) are boundless/ 
Those who wish to study history, ought to begin with ancient 
history. 

103. i quality. 2 united, a has gone away, left town. * like better, B from careless 
ness. 

104. i BerSnberlidj. ^baSSupfer. 3 6orgen, entle^nen. -bie Ouette. -w&orgetu sthe 
Old age, bad Sitter. ipeldjer . . . encanbelt, 8 ba (Slenb. 



312 DEFINITE ABTIOLE. 

17. The following examples illustrate the use of the 
definite article with all, all : 21U t>ie 23iid)er jtnt> angefommen, 
Att tltose books have arrived, or with not quite the same sig- 
nification : 2ltle 33ucf)er ftnb angefommen and Die 33itcfyer ftnb 
alle angefontmen, both of which mean : AU the books have 
arrived. In the same way in the singular : 2111 t>o3 elt> ifi 
in'g Staffer gefallen, 2llle$ elb ifl u. f. w. and DaS efo 
ift alleS u.,f. w. 

But when the article would be left out with aU, it must 
be also with all, e.g., Slllc SScrfammlungen son ^rotefhnten, 
AU assemblages of Protestants; SllleS ^apicrgclt) tjl gefd^r^ 
fid), AU paper-money is dangerous. 

18. S3eite, both, may be preceded by the article, or the 
article may be entirely omitted. But see 74, 3 and 75, 6. 

3V S 'b 1 f 111 ^ t)er 1 c *) hmn fc en - Both have vanished. 



19. Examples of the use of ntattd), many a: 



9Jiand)ei: 3ftann, many a man. 
2ftcmd)e3 2Wanne, many a man's, etc. 
or: 3#and) ein 3JJann, maud) eine Cannes ?c. 
3)a8 mondje ute, bag bu oon i^m er^a^Ift. 
The many good things (many a good thing) you tell of 



In the plural : 



Scanner, many men. 
2ftand)er Scanner, of many men, etc. 
2)tc mandjen banner, btc it. f. to. The many men who, etc. 
3)er mandjen banner, btc it. f. to. Of the many men who, etc. 

20. $ein geringerer means no less a, e.g., $ein geringercr 
bcr ^ifd^of, No less a man than the Bishop. 



DEFINITE ARTICLE. 313 

21. The article is generally omitted before tlie names 
of the cardinal points of the compass : -ftorben or Jftitter* 
nad)t, the North; iiten or SJHttag, tJie South; )fkn 01 
Bergen, the East; Sfikften or Slbenb, tJte West, and of the 
intermediate points, -ftorboft, North-east, etc., when these 
Words are preceded by a preposition, as : 



Oft nad) SBcfl fasten, To sail from East to West. 
9it(anb Uegt gegen Often, Eussia lies towards the East 

But in with the dative generally takes the article, as: 
SDie (Sonne gefyt tm Seftcn itnter, The sun sets in the West. 
In other constructions the article must be used, e.g. : 

23t8 baft ber Oft mtt ttnlben Sftofen 
3)en 33albad)in be tmme(6 f^miicft. 
Until the East with its wild roses 
The canopy of heaven decks. 

22. Such phrases as : The river is a deep one, are much 
the more frequently translated as if they read : The river 
is deep ()er gfap ift tief). 

23. A noun limited by the genitive of the relative pro- 
noun must not have the article expressed, e.g., we must say 
in German not the flower of which the beauty, but, the flower 
whose beauty, bie SBlume, beren 



24. The following verbal and adverbial phrases omit 
the article. Such phrases generally omit it in English. 

311 cmb, by land <w8 Skrbritft, from vexation 

311 2Baffer, by water aitg )afj, from hatred 

jju ^pferb, on horseback 9?ed)t Ijaben, to be right 

311 Sag en, in a carriage llnred)t fyaben, to be wrong 

jju <d)iff, on board ship ^linger fjaben, to be hungry 

tor mnger, of (with) hunger 2)urft ^aben, to be thirsty 

bor 35urfl, of thirst 311 SKittag effen (fyetfen), to dine 



314 DEFINITE AETICLE. 

Bet ao., by day gu iftadjt effen, to sup 

bet 9Jad)t, by night SBort fatten, to keep one's word 

mit 33ergniigen, with pleasure Sttft b,abcn, to have a mind 

9teJ)enfd)aft abtegen, to render um ^ergeiljung bitten, to beg 

account pardon 

in 51jnmacf)t fallen, to swoon lauben bcimeffen, to give credit, 
Sdjrecfen etnjagcn, to terrify believe in 

f)eil ncfymen, to take part ^itlfc teifhn, render assistance 

Slbfdjtcb nefymen, to take leave gu ^nlfe fommen, to come to one's 
laufcn, to run a risk assistance or help 



$(cf)t fyabcn, ) to take gu Sett geljen, to go to bed 

, ) 



ftcf) in 5ld)t neljmen, ) care ro bieten, to bid defiance 

(SJcbutb b,aben, to have patience gu runbe ge^en, to perish 

Sftttteib or SJtttlctbcn b,aben, to gu tonbe lomnten, to succeed 

have compassion gu tcmbe bringen, to accomplish 

gu Stjett njerben, to fall to one's (Srroaljnimg t^un, to mention 

lot um ^atb, fragen, iio ask for advice, 

OBSERVATION. 

"Words which occur in the subsequent exercises, and 
have not been given in previous lessons, must be looked 
for in the Vocabulary at the end of the book. 

READING EXERCISE 105. 

3d) fyabe Sfaifdj uub 23rob gegeffen. efjen @|c auf ben Sftarft unb 
taitfen (Sic Gutter unb Sier. i?ei^en @te mtr eiuige gebern ; tc^ mu 
einige 33riefe f^retben. 5lmerifo liegt gec)en 2Beften. (gnbe gut, 5lUe3 
gut. eroatt geb,t toor 9terf)t. On metneS ro^toaterS arten ftel)t 
ein alter 9?ubaum, beffen (Stamm (trunk) gan$ {job,! 1 tft ^ier tft 
ba Sud^, beffen iSerfaffcr @ie fo feb,r Dere^ren. SSotten @tc fdjon 
Slbf^teb ne^men ? Stctfcn @ie gu 'jpferb ober gu 2Bagen? <Sie ntiiffen 
ebulb fyaben. ^aben btefe ^erren 2Betn ober 33tcr getrunfen ? <Stc 
^aben ferfjS ^^fc^en SSein unb etntge (afer 33ter getrunfen. 9?etfen 
<2>ie gu Staffer ober gu anb? 3d) reife gu Sanb. 3 U SSafjer lauft 
man efab^r gu ertrinfen. 1 @te ^aben 9Je^t ^aben ie fc^on oon 
J^ren ^reunben ?lbfc^ieb genommen ? 9Zoc^ md)t ; aber i^ toerbe e8 
ntorgen t()un. ^rauletn (SHfabet^ tfl in JOb/nmac^t gefatten. 
mann ^atte 2J2ttteiben mit ib.r. 

106. i hoQow. 2 to be drowned. 



DEFINITE ARTICLE. 815 

StufguBe 106. 

1. "We had some cheese, bread, and butter. Do you want 
anything? Yes, I want some sugar and coffee. America lies 
towards the West. Content is better than (gefyt iiber, cc.) 
wealth. Henry's cousin is very ill The boy whose books 
were found under the table, has been punished for his care- 
lessness. 1 Charles has gone to bed. I have read all the let- 
ters which your brother wrote (has written) to my sister. My 
uncle (has) travelled a great deal (met) by water and by land. 
Am I right to take a walk ? Yes, you are quite right. 

2. Is he wrong to spend 2 his money ? He is wrong to spend 
too much money. At what o'clock do you dine ? We dine at 
five. Dinner is ready. Are you hungry ? I am hungry and 
thirsty. I do not like to go out by night. This gentleman 
has German lessons, 3 but, I believe, only twice a (bie or in bcr) 
week I must take leave of (oon) you. What' a mistake! 5 
What beautiful peaches ! 6 How much do they cost a piece ? 
She is 2 so 3 kind 'a lady. Macbeth was not willing to commit 7 
so great a crime. 8 

EEADEKTG LESSON". 



SSerferetfjcn. The Double Crime. 

j>ret (gintoofyner bon 33att retften mil einanber ; fie fonben etnett 
djafc 1 imb tfyetlten tf)n. @tc fe^ten iljren SBcg fort, inbem 2 fte fid) 
liber ben ebraud) (use) nnterfyietten, 2 ben fte bon tfyren SfteidjtJjihnertt 
madjen luoflten. te ebengmittet, 3 toeldje fte nut fid) genommwt 
fatten, tnaren aufgejefjrt; 4 fie tamen iiberetn, 5 baft (Stner oon tb,nen in 
bie (Stabt ge^en fottte, urn h)dd)e (some) jn faufen, nnb ba bet 
Oihtgfte biefen 2luftrag 6 iiberne()men foUte ; er gtng fort 

UntertoegS fagte er gu ftd) felbft : 9^iin bin id) retd) ; aber id) tourbe 
btel retdjer fetn, n)enn i^ adetn gertefen tuare, at3 ber <Sd)afc gefunben 
rturbc. . . . 3)tefe groet 9)Jenfd)en ^aben nttr nteine 9Jeid)rt)iimer ent* 
riffen. ^onnte id) fte ntd)t luieber befommen (get)? 2)aS mitrbe 
mtr leidjt fetn: id) biirfte (need) nur bie ?ebenmittcl bergtften/ bie id) 

106. i SRa^llfjtgfeit, f. sauSgefcen. setunben. <aS far. *gbler, m. e 



i treasure. 2 conversing (see p. 273, the oonj. inbera). a provisions. 4 to consume. 
to agree, c commission. 7 to poison. 



31G 



DEFINITE ARTICLE. 



fcmfen foK; bet mctner 9iiicffeljr nnirbe id) fagen, bajj id) in her tabt 
gu -DJittag gcfbeijl Ijabe; meine efab,rten toiirben oljne 2JHfjtrauen bo* 
bon effeu, uitb ftc nwrben fterben. 3d) fyabe jefct nitr ben britten b,eU 
bc3 <2d)ae3, unb bann tuiirbe id) 9lfle3 befommen (get). 

Onbeffen fagten bie beiben anbern SReifenben gu einanbcr: SSit 
braudjen bie efeflfdjaft biefeS jungen 2}ienfc^en ntc^t ; rtnr ^aben ben 
*2d)a^ mit ifym t^eilen miiffen; [em Xb/ett ttwrbe bie unfrtgen bernie^rt 1 
\jabm, unb tuir tociren feb,r reic^. (Sr n>irb baib hjieberfommen, toir 
Ijaben gute 2)old)e, hjir woflen ib,n tobten. 

3)cr jiinge 3)cen[c^ font mit bergifteten ?ebenmitteln juriicf ; feine 
@efob,rten ennorbeten ib,n ; fte afjen ; fte ftarben ; unb ber @d)afc ge> 
^temanb. 
o fanben atte brci t^ren terbienten (deserved) goljn. 



Ser retfle 1 mit einanber? 
2Ba fanben fte aitf bent SBege ? 
2Sa tb/aten fte mit bemfelben? 
2Bobon fpradjen fte untertoegS ? 



SII3 ib,re 2eben8mittet oufgege^rt 
hjaren, h)Q befc^toffen (de- 
termine) fte, gu tb,un ? 

2Ber mute geb,en? 

SBeld^en s $lan fafete (made) bte* 
fer untertoegS ? 

SSarum hjottte er biefeS tb,un ? 



toottte er bei fetner 9?itrffeb,r 
gu feinen efdb,rten fagen ? 
SBeldjen (Srfolg (result) Ijoffte er 
bon biefen 2Borten ? 



!I)rei (Sinhjo^ner ber (Stabt Salt. 

(Stnen @^a^. 

<Ste t^eilten ib/n unter ftd). 

@ie unterb/tetten ft^ iiber ben e* 

braud), ben fte bon bent etbc 

mac^en hjottten. 
<Sie famen uberein, ba etner bon 

tb,ncn in bie <Stabt geb,en follte, 

um ttjel^c gu foufen. 
2)er jitngfte bon ib.nen. 
6r befd)(og, bie ^ebengmittet gu 

bergtften. 
Um ben <2d)afc fitr ftt^ aflein gu 

befommen. 
2)a er fd)on in ber Stabt gefbetfi 

fyabe. 
(5r b,offte, feine efab/rten hmrben 

bann ob,ne 2KtRtrauen bie ber 

gtfteten beifen effen. 



i to increase. 

* 2Ber must have iU verb in the singular, unless the verb is fein, . g.. 23et Ifl bet 
rjJann ? SDer finb bie Ceute ? And even fein, if ns3d aa an auiilliary. must hava a sin- 
gular vsrb, e. g., iSet ijl angef otnmen ? 2)ie 3Sj. 



GENITIVE OF SUBSTANTIVES. 317 

2Ba8 fatten bie betben inherit (Ste tooflten tfjn ermorben, toenn er 
tt>ci()renb feiner ^bioefenfyett gnrudla'me. 
fcerabrebet (agreed) ? 

3u toeldjem ftoedt (purpose) ? Urn feinen &,eH beg djatseS fur 

fid) befyalten 311 fonnen. 

friifyrten fie iljren gntfdjtufc anS 3a, fie tobteten ifyren ^ameraben. 
(carry out) ? 

t^aten fie bann? @ic aften Don ben peifen. 

tear bie ^olge babon? @ie ftarben an bem ifte, 

geljorte bann ber @rf)at5? (gr gefyorte 



THIRTY-NINTH LESSOtf. 

GENITIVE OF SUBSTANTIVES. 

1. The genitive, as we know, is the case denoting pos- 
session and other relations much like possession, e.g. f 
ber $unb beg artner^ ble flatter beg 2lpfelbaumeg, bag Dad) 
beg $aufeg, Not unfrequently especially in the case of 
names of persons and places it precedes the other noun, 
e.g., beg artnerg !>imb, |>einrid)'g Sater, 53erlin'g Um= 
gebungen But the genitive plural without the article is 
very naturally avoided, compare page 305, 3, at the end. 

2. In many cases a substantive connected with another 
substantive by the preposition of, is rendered in German 
by a compound substantive, e.g. : 

bie 2Baf)rft,eit3Uebe, the love of truth (lit., truth-love) 

bie J)id)tfimft, the art of poetry 

ein Stumenfranj, a wreath of flowers 

bag @d)tad)tfe(b, the field of battle 

ein 33htt3tropfen, a drop of blood 

etn efdjaftgnwnn, a man of business. 

3. The genitive case of a substantive is often used as 
an adverb, either alone, or with an adjective. Ex.: 



818 GENITIVE OP SUBSTANTIVES. 



be 9D?orgen8 (or am 2ftorgen), in the morning 

beg Slbenbg (or am 2lbenb), in the evening 

breimal be$ 3af)m% three times a year 

gerabeS (geraben) 2Beg3, straightway 

meineg JhMffenS, so far as I know 

langfamen @d)ritte3, with tardy step, at a slow pace. 

NOTE 1. However, when a single occasion is referred to, the accusative 
must be used, as: 

35ie[en 2Kor$en, This morning. 

CDicfen 2lbenl>, This evening. 

$)en (or am ) jefynten Jjuli, On the tenth of July. 

Sefctcn (nadjften K.) onntag, Last (next, etc.) Sunday. 

3$ eroarte nteinen greunb ieten Slugenblti. 

I expect my friend every moment. 

The accusative is also required when the substantive expresses the 
length of time something lasts, e.g. : 

@ie Ijat 3ttei tunben (ace.) ge^tafen. 
She has slept (for) two hours. 

4. When the noun before of is a general term for what 
the noun after of denotes, e.g. in such phrases as, TJie city 
of London, The month of May, German does not put the 
second noun in the genitive. 

Norn. baS &i$mgreuf) (Sngfcmb 

Gen. be8 ^ontgretdjS (Snglanb 

Dot. bem $omgretrf) (Sngtanb 

Ace. ba ^ontgretd) (Snglanb. 

So also with the day of the month, e.g., The second of 
May, ber jroeite -Jftai ; On the 4th of July, am 4ten Suit. 

5. This is also the case after nouns of measure, weight, 
number, and quantity. Ex. : 

Gin ($Ha$ SSaffer, A glass of water. 
(Sin ^Pfunb Slitter, A pound of butter. 
3toei ^funb ^leifdj, Two pounds of meat. 
Sine gfafcfje SSein, A bottle of wine. 
3c^n (gflen Jud), Ten yards of cloth. 



GENITIVE OF SUBSTANTIVES. 319 

$unbert 93falter SSai^en, A hundred bushels of wheat. 
Sin Regiment (Solbaten, A regiment of soldiers. 
(Sine >eerbe (Sdjafe, A flock of sheep. 

The former noun even if denoting more than one, is 
singular, and indeclinable, e.g., mit jwet *Pfunt> gleifd), but 
it is declinable and put in the plural if feminine, or a 
foreign word (10.4) or a noun of time (198 1 ). The latter noun 
is indeclinable unless the sense requires it to be in the 
plural, e.g. t ber jiuei la SBaffer, son tret $eerben (B$afeiu 

When the latter noun is preceded by an article, adjective or adjective 
pronoun, it must be put in the genitive or else in the dative with toon, 
e.g., ber brei Steflimentcr (toon frcmjoftfcfyen) olbaten. 

READING EXERCISE 107. 

2)eS atfer8 SBtfle mufj gefcfjefjen (be done). 3)e3 $naben ^letfc 
ift be(of)nt toorben. 2Bir erttarten jeben Sag einen rief t>on emi ^3. 
j)er 5lrjt riet^ mir, be 2Rorgen imb be ^benb einen Soffel ftott Don 
biefer Slr^net gu neljmen. 2)Jeine 2Biffen ift bonbon bie gro^te 
<tabt in (Suropa. Sangfamen (2cf)ritte fu^r ber Sagen be8 fonig* 
U^ien ^ringen bitrd^ ben ^arf. !J)tefen 5lbenb Ijabe icf) nid)t tit, 
tnetne tunbe (lesson) ju nefymen. te Unberfttat eibelberg ift 
berii^mt. 2)en 3WoIften 2fyril 1852 befuc^te i^ ba @d)lad)tfelb oon 
2BaterIoo. 

ttufgofic 108a. 

This is my father's house. The city of Rome is very old. 
The city of St. Petersburgh was built by Peter the Great. 
"When do you wish to have your lessons, in the evening, or in 
the morning? I am engaged (befdjciftigt or tierfyinbert ) in the 
morning; it would be most convenient 1 for me to take them 
in the afternoon between two and four. The kingdom of 
Saxony (Sacfjfen) has an extent 2 of only 280 German square 
miles. 3 The streets of (fcon) Paris are more beautiful than 
those of London. The month of July was very hot. Bring 
me a glass of beer. 4 

6. The sign of the genitive, of, may, in most cases, be 
translated son, e.g.: 

lOSa. i am angene^mflen or am paffenfcjien. - Suctefynunc} ucn. = C,uatrutmcilm. 



320 GENITIVE OF SUBSTANTIVES. 

a) After substantives expressing rank or title. Ex. : 

)te $bmgin toon 'Stoamen, The queen of Spain. 
35er ^crgog toon SBettington, The duke of Wellington. 

V) Before cardinal numbers : 

Sin 'fllaiin toon breiftig Oafyren. 

A man of thirty years. 

3n etner (Sntfernung toon fed)8 2fteifcn. 

At a distance of six miles. 

(Sr ftarb tin fitter toon jtebenjig Safyren. 

He died at the age of seventy years. 

c) Before the names of metals and other materials, if 
the adjective be not preferred. Ex. : 

(Sin (Sdjtff toon (Sifen, 1 A ship of iron. 

(Sin 33ed)er toon olb, A cup (goblet) of gold. 

Sine iBilbfaute toon 2Jarmor, A statue of marble. 

d) After the demonstrative, relative, and indefinite pro- 
nouns, after the ordinal numerals, and the superlative 
degree, of is mostly rendered by 5) on, though the genitive 
may also be used. Ex. : 

jDcrjenige toon Sljren (ScfjiUern, toetdjer *c., (That one of etc.) 
2Betd)er toon biefen Qftannern ? Which of these men ? 
(Sinige toon meinen reunben, Some of my friends. 
3)cr get)ntc toon 30 (Sdjulern, Of 30 scholars the tenth. 
3Me fd)6nfte alter ftrauen or ) The handsomest of all 
3)te fd^bnfte toon alien ^'&uen, I women. 

7. Nouns which in English may be followed by of and 
a present participle used substantively, are often followed 
in German by JU and the infinitive, e.g. : 

$)ie $unfl gu tanjen, The art of dancing. 

3)a3 eljeimntjj reic^ gu toerben, The secret of becoming rich. 

8. Verbal nouns" which take of after them in English, 

i Or : etn cifcratS <$tff, (in golbenct SSedjer, cine marmcrne 23ittfSuIe. 
3 I.e., aouns which have about the same sense as the present participle used sub- 
Btantively, e.g., thought (almost the same as thinking). 



6ENITIYE OF SUBSTANTIVES. 

when translated into German often take other preposi- 
tions than con, e.g. : 

2)er ebanfe an ott, The thought of God. 
3)ie untrdjt tior bem obe, The fear of death. 
35te iHebe gum Seben, Love of life. 

SDf angel an elb, From want of money. 



These prepositions are generally the same as the cor- 
responding verbs take. Thus we say : 3$ bcufe an Ott. 

READING EXERCISE 108b. 

3)ie $onigin toon (Sngtanb tft ftolg auf ifjre Marine (navy). 3JZan 
bant je^t gange (Sdjiffe Don (Stfen. 3ft bicfer 3ing tton olb ober 
toon (Silber? (r ift t>on olb. SBetcfjer Don btefen ^nabcn fyat ben 
erften ]3ret^ er^atten? (5^ h)at Outiu^; er tuac ber erfte toon funfgtg 
(Scf)itlern. 3)ie ^unft gu rtngen ift fefyr alt; fie btii^te am meiflen bei 
(with) ben atten riecfjen. JDa 53er(angen (desire) nad) 9Mcf)tb,um 
toerantat btefen 9)Jann, fo groftartige 1 Unterne^mungen gu mad)en. 
3)ie SHebe gum ?eben ift atten 2ftenfd)en angeboren; 2 bagegen ift bie 
gurdjt bor bem Sobe itjnen anergogen. 3 

9tnf8Qk 109. 

Two of my brother's children have died. The queen of 
England has married 1 Prince 2 Albert. We saw a large fire at 
(in) a distance of about (uitgeftifyr, ado.) seven miles. Grateful 
nations erect 3 statues of bronze (@rg) or stone [to] their great 
men. Emily was the handsomest of all the young ladies at 
the ball. Not one (fetner) of my friends has written to me. 
On the tenth of July, 2 I ^hall make a journey of ten miles to 
see (urn . . . gu befurfjen) a gentleman of high rank (9?ang), who 
is a Frenchman and the father of nine children. Most of the 
pupils were not prepared for the lesson. Which of the ser- 
vants is 4 to go ? Some of the finest houses of the town are 
burnt down. 5 My friend has discovered a new way 6 of catch- 
ing fish. The habit 7 of taking snuff (gu fd)nupfen) is very com- 

108b. i grand, great. 2 Innate, s imbibed by education. 

109. i aeheiratfyet. 2 See p. 307, 7. 3rrid;ten. < foil. 5 abcjebratmt. e 2Het{jobe, f, 7 bit 
nljeit. 



mon in Germany. The traveller was obliged to return for 
want of money. When nothing but (al$) the fear of punish- 
ment prevents" us from acting wrong (23ofe8 311 tfjun), 2 we 'are 
guilty in the eye* of God. 

READING LESSON. 

ttfyljon* bcr tf iutftc. 

9fltob,on8 V., b'mg toon 5lrragomen, genannt berOroftmiitljige^hjar 
her >etb feineg 3ab,rb,unbert3; er badf)te nur barauf (of making), 5ln* 
bere gliicf Ud() 311 madden. 2)iefer ^nrft ging gern ofyne ($efolgc (^suite) 
unb gu ^ufc burd) bie @traen fetner ^auptftabt. 511^ man U)m eiuft 
SBorftellungen 2 iiber 3 bie efa^r macf)te, welder er feinc ^erfon au8* 
fe^jte, 4 fo anttuortete er : f ,(Stn S3ater, tuetdjer mitten unter feinen ^ut* 
bem um^erge^t, ^at nic^tS ^u fitrdjten." 

2)ian fennt folgenben 3"9 6 &on fetner ^retgebigfett: 6 31I etner t>on 
feinen c^a^meiftern' t^m etne urnme toon taufenb ^Dufaten brac^te, 
fagte ein Offijter, njelc^er eben ivtgegen 8 tear, gang leife 9 311 3emanb: 
w SBenn td^ nur biefe umme ^dtte, hJiirbe tc^ gtudfltrf) fein." ,,3)u 
fottji e (so) fern !" fpracq ber $i>nig, rteldqer e geb,6rt ^atte, unb Uefe 
ib/n biefe taufenb' jDufaten mit ftd^ ne^men. 

5lud ber folgenbe 3ug geugt 10 toon feinem ebetn Giljarafter: Sine mit 
9ftatrefen unb olbaten betabene ateere" ging unter; er befiefylt, 
i^nen >ilfe gu letften; man bebenft ftcf). 12 SDann ftoringt Sttpljon^ felbfl 
in cin 23oot, inbem er 3u benen, toeld^e ftd^ toor ber efab,r fiird^teten, 
fagte: $$ toifl Ueber ber efa^rte al ber .Siifdjauer 13 ib,re3 Sobe3 
fein." 



SBer war ^llsb/onS V. ? @r war ^b'ntg toon 9lrragonien. 

5Bte ttjurbe er genannt? (Sr b / te ber ro^mutb/igc. 

^luf toaS bac^te er nur? 5(nbere gtiicflicf) 3u madfjen. 

Ste ging er gern burcf) bie tabt ? )b,ne efotge unb 3u gnfe. 

109. s un terfiinbert. otn ben Hugen otteS. 

i magnanimous. 2 remonstrance. 3 concerning, t to expose, strait, instance. 
e munificence. ' treasurer. * present, slow. 10 bears witness (to), n galley. 12 to 
hesitate, is the spectator. 



MODAL AUXILIARIES. 



323 



833eW)e 25orftetdmgen marfjte man 
tb,m befefyalb ? 
s unttoortete er baraitf ? 



brarfjte ifjm einmal fetn 



cr fetne 



SSer rtmc gerabc (just then) gu= 

gegen ? 
2Ba8 fagte biefer Officer leife in 

fetner eg emu art? 
2Ba fagte barauf ber $ontg ? 

2Bte betodfyrte (showed) er em 

onbereS 9Jiat fcine ^cidjften* 

Itebe (humanity)? 
Unb at^ DZtemattb b,elfen wotlte, 

raa t()at er? 
SBelcfye ebelu SBorte [prac^ er bet 

biefer 



etuer efal)r 



Sin SSater b,at unter fetnen ^inbern 
gu fiird)ten. 



(Sine uijttne ton taufenb !Dufaten. 

(gin Officer. 

Oc^ tBiirbe gliicf(id) fein, rtenn id^ 

btefe @etb ^atte. 
2Benn btefe (Smnme (Sic gtiicf(id) 

ma^t, fo fotten (ie fie l^nben. 
5lte etne mit otbaten belabene 

ateerc unterfanf, befall er fo- 

gtei(^, ib/nen 311 |nlfe 311 fommen. 
(Sr fprang fetbft in ein 33oot unb 

ruberte (rowed) itjnen ju >ttfe. 
(Sr fogte: ,,3f^ tuttt lieber ber @e* 

fab,rte at ber 3 u ^ auer $*& 
fein." 



FORTIETH LESSOtf. 

THE MODAL AUXILIARIES. 

(See the 17th Lesson, p. 93.) 

verbs mbgen, f ftnnen, etc., are defective ; they have, 
for instance, no passive, and are most of them rare in the 
imperative. The corresponding verbs may, can, etc., are 
still more defective, wanting not only these parts, but also 
the infinitive, the participles, and, of course, all compound 
tenses. May, ccw,etc , have also the imperfect indicative just 
like the imperfect subjunctive, i.e., in both of these tenses 
might, could, etc. (see I, 2, below). For these and other 
reasons, especial care is needed in translating tnijgen, 
nen, etc., into English, and may, can, etc., into German. 



324 MODAL AUXILIARIES. 



1. $5nnen, to be able (id) Fonne, I can), denotes pos- 
sibility of any and every kind. 

a) 3nm imb gum fomten nidjt fiinf madjen. 

Two and two cannot make five. 
6) (g fann nidjt fein, bafe er gelogcn Ijat 

It cannot be that he has lied. 

c) (Sin ?af)iner fann nidjt geb,en. 
A lame man cannot walk. 

d) <2ie fonnen nidjt fyerein, nrir fmb befdja'ftigt 
You cannot come in, we are busy. 

e) 3d) fann eg toirflidj ntdjt ertauben, c: iwire cine iinbc. 
I really cannot allow it, it would be a sin. 

2. If could is equivalent to was able, it is, of course, in 
the indicative, and must be translated fonnte; if it is equi- 
valent to could or should be able, it is, of course, in the 
subjunctive, and must be translated fonnte. I trembled 
so violently that I could not speak : This does not mean, 
I trembled so violently that / should not be able to speak, 
but, I trembled so violently that / was not able to speak. 
Therefore we translate : 3$ jittcrte fo fyeftig, bap id) nid)t 
fprecfyen Fonnte. If I went, I could not dance, means: If I 
went, / should not be able to dance, and the German is : 
SBenn id) ginge, fonnt 1 id) nid)t tanjen. 

3. &bnnen, in speaking of languages, is translated to 
know, to understand. 



Do you understand French ? 

4. When can is equivalent to am in a condition to, it may 
be translated bin im <3tant>e. 

I cannot lend you any money, for I have lost all my own. 
3dj bin md)t im (Stanbe Ofynen clb 311 borgen, benn id) fyabe 
afl baS meinigc berloren. 



MODAL AtTXTLIABIES. 325 

5. I cannot help or forbear, is, i$ fcwtt ntt^t uml)tn. Ex.: 

I could not forbear laughing. 
3d) fonnte ntd)t umfyin, gu torfjen. 
or: 3d) fonnte mid) be 2ad)enS ntdjt entljalten (keep from). 

n. Sftogen, wollen, im 23egrtff [ein. 

1. Sftbgett expresses that the speaker has no objection 
to another person's doing anything. Ex.: 

SDu ntagft ben Storf begotten, You may keep the stick. 
<2ie mogen ben 33nef lefen, You may read the letter. 
NOTE. This is, as we have seen I, 1, d, one of the senses of fonnen, and 
we can also say: u fonnft ben tocf beljalten, @ie fonnen ben iBrtef lefen jc. 

2. It denotes a possibility granted by the speaker, i.e. t 
something which may be true, but about which he is not 
perfectly certain : 

Sr mag ein eljrltdjer 2Rann fetn, He may be an honest man. 
@5 mag toafyr fetn, It may be true. 

3. It denotes a liking or desire. Ex. : 

jDaS angen mag er nidjt, Dancing he does not like, 
(gr mag ntdjt tanjen, He does not want to dance. 

4. Observe the following forms. 

May you get well very soon ! ($enefe redjt batb ! 
O that you might get well, etc. 2ttod)teft bn u. f. to. 

5. To be going or about to do something, is translated 
in various ways, commonly by eben ttMen, im 33egrtff fein, 
ouf bent $>itnft ftefyen (to be on the point of). Ex. : 

(gr rttfl eben obretfen or er ftefyt auf bem ^5un!te abguretfen. 

He is just going to set out. 

(Sr toofite eben antworten. 

He was about to reply. 

(gr war im Segrtff 311 f))red)en. 

He was going to speak. 



326 MODAL AUXILIARIES. 

READING EXERCISE HOa. 

$cmnfl bit mtr fagen, roarum bein 23ruber morgen nid)t $u mtr 
fommen fann? Xer $nabe fann ba3 SSurf) befyalten; id) braudje e3 
ntdjt mcfjr. iJBcnn unfcre Solbatcit bie <3tabt befyaitpten fimnten, fo 
unite bcr ^teg 1 nidjt jroeifelfyaft.* $b'nnen (5ie Xeutfd) ? -ftein, idj 
fanit e3 nod) nic^t; abet id) lerne e^. 3^ ^dtte bort fcin mogen. 5U 
id) im Scgviff roar, ba ^en)ler jit offnen, roar 5ltteg ftitt. Od) topflte 
eben in ba^ ^8ab gefyen. 3cf) bin im Segriff nad) (Snglanb gu reifen. 
9Wan roodte ft^ eben ju Xifc^e fefcen, al ber eneral in'S 3^ mmet 
trat. 

lufflttfic HOb. 

Can you come to-morrow instead of to-day? No, Sir, I 
cannot. You may stay 1 where you are. Have you learnt your 
lesson? I could not learn it, I had no book. I would learn it 
if I had a book. The man could not lift (aufljeben) the stone. 
Do you intend 3 to go to America ? I was just about correcting 
your exercise, when your father came 3 to see me. I had [a] 
mind (Suft) to call 3 upon him (tb,n gu befudjen), but my mother 
did not wish it. 

m. Saffen. 1 

1. Saffen means to let, i.e. about the same as to permit, 
e.g., 3$ roecfte ttyn ntcfyt, id) lief ityn fcfylafen, / did not wake 
him, I let him sleep. 

a) Instead of gefyen ttrir (in the first person plural of the 
imperative) we can say lafjt iin3 gefyen, let its go; and so 
with all other verbs besides 



2. ?affen means in the second place to cause, and is fol- 
lowed by the accusative of the person or thing caused to 
do something, and by an infinitive showing what he is 
caused to do. When used in this way, we generally 
translate laffen, to have. 

HOa. i the victory. 2 dubious. 

HOb. i See page 279, Note. 2 to intend Is gebenfen, or^a6tn, beafifti^Haen and gtfonntn 
lein. s to come or go to tee and call upon ion) aptrtort are both : 3'manfc fcefudjen. 

i Cailen is not a modal auxiliary. It has, however, some of the same grammatical 
peculiarities as the modal auxiliaries, and is conveniently treated in the same 
chapter. 



MODAL AUXILIARIES. 327 

Qfy Ite fte 311 mtr fontmen. 

I had them come to me. 

5Du ttifst gen)o()iiltd) .^etnrtcf) Ujn Ijeretnrufen. 

You generally have Henry call him in. 

a) The following sentence is ambiguous : )it laft $ein* 
rid) rufcn. It might mean : You have Henry caM, and it 
might mean : You have (somebody) call Henry. It would 
be much more apt, however, to mean the latter. Such 
sentences, those that is, in which we, leave it indefinite 
who in particular does the thing, and speak only of its 
being done by some one or other, often take another 
form in English, like this, You have Henry called, e.g. : 

I am going to have my wood sawed. 
3dj null mein ^>otj fdgen laffen. 
Where do you have your books bound ? 
2Bo laffen @ie 3l)re SBudjer btnben? 



And we can even translate, I had myself called by a 
servant, by : 3$ licp mid) on etnem S3ebienten rufen, instead 
of saying : I had a servant call me, 3d) liep etiten 33et>tenten 
mid) rufen. 

6) The same construction, i.e., that with the subject of 
the verb which is in the infinitive omitted, is allowable 
with laffen, meaning (not to cause, but) to alloiv, e.g. : 

3d) ttrifl bag mb Der^tetjen taffen, ba btc 2Jhttter eg fo feljr 

berfanqt 
I will allow the child to be spoiled, since the mother 

desires it so much. 
5)a8 laft id) nid)t ^toetmal gefdje^en. 
That I do not let happen twice. 

3. ?affen, to cause, is sometimes used where we say teU 
or bid, e.g. : 

?affen @te bte 3)ame ^eretntreten. 
Tell (have) the lady to come in. 



328 MODAL AUXILIARIES. 

(Sr licfj ben 2?oten braufcen toarten. 

He told (had) the messenger to wait outside. 

4 Examples of laffen with ftd) : 

<E8 lat ftd) ntd)t begreifen, bafe u. f. tt>. (lit., It does not allow 

itself to be conceived that, etc.). 
It cannot be conceived that, etc. 
j>ariiber lafjt ftd) 33tele3 fagen. 
A good deal can be said on that subject 
Sr Uefe ftd) rufen. 
He had himself called. 

BEADING EXERCISE Ilia. 

2Btr liefcen bie $mber big adjt Ub,r fdjlafen. 3d) werbc e bon bent 
Sifdjler 1 ntadjen laffen. 2Ber b,at biefeg au bauen laffen ? SMetn 
9^a^bar fyat eg fiir fetnen ob.n bauen laffen. 8a ben ^utf^et 
anfpannen. 2 S)er 9?td)ter lie bte efangenen tior ftcf) fontmen. 9Ketn 
err, te b,aben un lange toarten laffen. laffen Ste mtr (for me) 
ben <Sd)netber rufen. 8 2Ber ftd) betriigen 4 lafet, cerbtent betrogen ^u 
rterben. 2)er ?e^rer Ijat feme @d)uler eine englifdje Uebcrfefcung 
raad)en laffen. 6 Saffen @te un einen S^agtergang niad)en. 3)er 
SSater lte ba ^inb taufen 6 unb t^m ben ^amen 9Jhrie geben. affet 
bie ^inber ^ereinfommen. >a tdt ftd) ( 4) ntdjt b,offen. SDa 
(there, under those circumstances) la'jjt ftd) ntd)t tfjun. 



Let me do it. I have him work six hours every day. Let me 
go. Let us take a walk Let the old man sit down. Her 
father allowed her to marry. The governor 1 caused the mur- 
derer to be arrested (2, a). The admiral caused the crew 2 to 
disembark (au8fd)tffen). You must have a new house built. 
The mother had her child pray 3 every morning and evening. 
Where do you have (get) your books bound? I get them 
bound by Mr. Long. Bid the gentleman come in. Who shall 
(foU) pick the cherries? I will have them picked by John. 
Have you had (page 98, 3) the general invited ? Yes, I have 
sent him an invitation. 4 This cannot be proved (4). That 
cannot be helped. 

Ilia, i the joiner. 2 to harness the horse. 3 to send for. < to deceive (here with the 
pasgive meaning, to be decfived). 5 See page 98, 3. f to be christened. 
lllb. i fcer 6to*tyotter. 2 bie 3RannT$aft. * betcn. * cine Qinlabung. 



MODAL AUXILIARIES. 329 

IV. <Solien, miiffeju 

is often followed by an infinitive expressing 
what it is the duty of its subject to do. In this sense, 
we translate it a) sometimes shall, e.g. t in the Ten Com- 
mandments : 

u foflft mrf)t fte^tcn. 
Thou shalt not steal 1 

5) But, more frequently, must: 

3ljr fottt bor jeljn Uljr 311 23ette geljett. 
You must go to bed before ten. 

2. The infinitive after folfen is sometimes to be taken as 
expressing rather what is vehemently desired shall be 
done, than as expressing what it is one's duty to do, e.g. : 

(5ie foflen mid) je^t anfyoren obcr ntmmer meljr. 
They shall (must) listen to me now, or never. 
2BaS fofl idj iefet tfmn? 
What shall (must) I do now? 

3. 2ftitffen can be used in almost the same sense as 
follen 1 and 2. 

4 The imperfect subjunctive and pluperfect subjunc- 
tive of follen are translated ought and ought to have, 

@r fottte feme djulben be^afylen. 

He ought to pay his debts. 

(Sr fycitte feme <5d)ulben bejo^Ien fotten. 

He ought to have paid his debts (see p. 98, 3).* 

@te Ijcitte'tt Sfyre Seftton lernen follen. 

You ought to have learnt your lesson. 

3<f) Ijatte ge^en foflen. 

I should (ought to) have gone. 

1 The student must remember that (except in questions) it is only in the 2d and 3d 
persons that shall, in English, corresponds to follen in German. / shall love (1st person 
etc., is the future, tdj icerbe Iie6en. 

2 Compare in English the vulgar : He had ought to pay his debts. 



330 MODAL AUXILIARIES. 

5. If I should [love, etc.] may be translated either bj 
the imperfect subjunctive of Iteben, etc.; i.e., ttcnn id) liebtc, 
or as follows : n>enu id) lieben follte. 

323 enn er fommcn foflte, fo fagen <Sie iljm biefeS. 

If he should come, tell him this. 

SSenn e3 regnen foflte (or oflte e8 regnen), fo toerben hrir gu 

mufe bleiben. 

Should it rain, we shall stay at home. 
SBenn id) ifyn feljen foflte, fo toerbe id) ifym bie 3Saljrljeit fagen. 
If I should see him, I shall tell him the truth. 

6. ollen, most usually in the present indicative, may 

mean am (art, is, etc.) said, e.g. : 

)a eftament fott falfd) fetn. 

The will is said to be false. 

(r fott in 9lmertfa geftorben fein. 

He is said to have died in America. 

7. (Sollen is frequently followed by an infinitive ex- 
pressing what is expected of the subject, e.g. : 

(r fptt fpateftenS ntorgen anfomtnen. 

He is to arrive to-morrow at the latest. 

Sir foflten e8 nur bem S3urgermcifter mitt^eilen. 

We were to communicate it only to the Burgomaster. 

8. (2ollen seems sometimes to have bebeutett, signify, 
mean, understood after it, e.g., 2Ba$ foil bie3 2lUe^ ? What 
is all this (intended) to signify? i.e., What does att this 
mean? 

READING EXERCISE 112. 

SSir fotten ott fttrrf)ten unb lieben. JDit foHjl ntdfjt 35b'fe don 
beinem 5)7(i(^ften reben. <Sie fottten ott banfen, bo @ie au biefer 
efa^r gerettet 1 tuorben ftnb. 323ir foUen bitrd) 5lnberer 5^ler lernen, 
unfere eigenen 311 tierbeffem. 3)u ^atteft btefem SWanne nid^t trauen 8 
foflcn. Saltgula befall, ba bie Corner iljm gottlidfje (S^re ertoeifen* 
foflten. 2)ie 2Wenfd)en foflten ftc^ nic^t tiber bie S3orfe^ung* befiagen, 
uenn fte burrf) i^re eigenen gel)ler leiben. 2)er ^ranfe ^atte nod^ met 

'12, i tp rescue, to trust, render. 



MODAL AUXILIAKIES. 331 

Strjnet nefjmen mitffen," toenn er nicfjt geftorben ttmre. )er raf fofl 
aiif ber Oagb fcin. Sr foil ftd) in bie intft 6 beS alten ^ihtigg etn 
gcfd)Urf)en 7 (jaben. SRorgen foil bcr &onig in bic <Stabt fontmen. 
foil biefe ernftljafte 2#iene? 2Ba$ follen atle biefe 



Hufoabe 118. 

We are to be there at ten o'clock. Thou shalt not tell 1 lies. 
You shall not do what you like (ttwnfdjen), but what you ought. 
Which of your servants is to go ? John or James ? James is 
to go. You should have invited also the old judge. She 
ought to be silent. Should the weather be fine to-morrow, 
you may expect me at eight o'clock. If the merchant should 
ask 2 for money, tell him that I have none. You ought to rise 
earlier. The boy ought to have 3 written his exercise. He is 
said to be an honest man. Their cousin is said to have gone 
to America. Mr. Taylor is said to have taken poison. 4 These 
ladies are supposed to be very rich. You ought to have learnt 
the whole page by heart (augfoenbig). If we were to (should) 
call on you, should you be at home ? I see you are crying ; 
what is the meaning of these tears ? 5 (8) What shall we do 
with this robber ? 6 

Y. On 2)urfen. 

1. The most usual signification of biirfeit is to be per- 
mitted. It is translated into English in various ways, 
according as the agent which grants or does not grant the 
permission, etc., varies, e.g. : . 

a) Supposing the agent is a person or persons : 

Jftan barf ein 33iicf) cms ber Sibliotljcf gttet 2Bod)en bdjalten. 

You can (may) keep a book out of the library two weeks. 

arf id) bte (Sfyre fjaben :c. 

May I have the honor, etc. 

90? an barf b,ier nitr im 3uli ^ifrfje fanaen. 

You can (are allowed to) catch fish here only in July. 

112. s See page 99, 4. 6 favor. 1 to insinuate, s ceremonies, i.e., bowings and 
scrapings. 

113. i to tell lies, tftgen. 2 to ask for something, etooS eeriongtn (ace.), a See page 
99,4. <3tft. oZ^r&ncn. 



332 MODAL AUXILIARIES. 

<5ie biirfen ntcfjt taut fprerfjen, '3 tfl tterboten. 
You mustn't speak loud, it's forbidden. 

b) Supposing what permit or do not permit are con- 
siderations of right and wrong, e.g. : 



ener 
The editor of a paper ought to accept no presents. 

Or considerations of any other kind whatever, e.g. : 

2ftan barf ntdjt blaue |>anbfd)ub,e tragen. 
A person should not (cannot, must not) wear blue glovea 
9?un, ie biirfen getmjj anneljmen, bafe u. f. to. 
Well, you certainly may (can, have a right to) assume 
that, etc. 

2. A less frequent sense of burfen is to need. This is 
found mostly with nur, only; faum, scarcely; or erft, first, 
only, not titt, e.g. : 



Sr barf nur em etngetne^ 2Bort f 

He need only speak a single word. 

SBtr burfen e8 faum an bte anberen fc^reiben, bte hJtffcn e fa fc^on. 

We scarcely need write it to the rest, they certainly know 

it already. 

-3d) barf eg erfl morgen fagen. 
I need not say it till to-morrow. 

Of course, biirfen in all these sentences is in danger of 
being taken to mean to be permitted. We can remove all 
ambiguity by using braud)en in the place of burfen, e.g., 
(r braucfyt nur ein einjelneS 2Bort ju fpred)en. 

3. A third sense of biirfen is found only in the imper- 
fect subjunctive (burfte), with which tt)0^l is very often 
joined. 



@r burfte ftob,! je^t fecf)8 3ab,re alt fern. 
He is probably now six years old. 
3)a8 burfte Ijeute ber ^afl fetn. 
That is very likely the case to-day. 



MODAL ATJXILIABIES. 338 

>er $aifer biirfte oor gefyn Saijren fraftiger getoefen fein. 
The emperor was, I suppose, stronger ten years ago. 
!Da3 biirfte woijl in ber 3uhtnft n ^t me ') r evtaubt fein. 
I suppose that will not be allowed any more in future. 

We add probably, or I suppose, or very likely, or some 
such words to the verb after bitrfen, and put it (the verb 
in English) in the indicative. 1 

VI. General Bemark on all the Modal Auxiliaries. 



or gefyen, and other infinitives of nearly the same 
meaning as ttytttt and c;efyen, are frequently omitted after 
the modal auxiliaries, e.g. : 

(Sr fcmn morgen Ijin. 

He can go there to-morrow. 

SSir biirfen e8 nirf)t. 

We are not permitted to do it. 

3d) fytitte Ijinauf foflen. 

I ought to have gone up there. 

af$ mid) b,in. 

Let me go there. 

READING EXERCISE 114. 



$ranfe eute biirfen biefe peife 1 nicf)t effen. prf) barf !etncn 
SBein trinfen. (Sie burfen biefen S3rtef lefen, tuenn @ie tuoHen (Kke). 
2)er efangene burfte fein 2Beib unb feme inber nic^t me^r fe^en, 
betior er auf ba8 @rf)iff gebrarfjt wurbe. 3)arf id) @te morgen befudjen? 
jDiefe 9}Jabd)en Werben Ijeute nid)t auf ben S3att gefjen biirfen, rtenn 
tb,re Gutter nidjt beffer toirb. 5D?an barf ifym nur in' efid)t feb,en, 
fo erfennt man ben 3)ieb. )arf man in ben fonigtidjen arten ^inein* 
ge^en? Oebermann barf b^inein. 3)arf man fragen, an ttm @ie 
benfen ? @r biirfte biefeS roo^t nid)t n>agen (dare). 2)er ^vanfc b,at 
leine Kr^nei ne^men tooflen; aber er b,at gemu^t 2 

i Illflrfen/ meaning to dare, is obsolete (see, for instance, Sanders' large German dic- 
tionary under biirfen), and students should avoid this translation (to dare) which still 
lingers in grammars and dictionaries and among teachers. Of course, bftrfen ap- 
proaches the meaning dare in such sentences, as : 3d) Ijobe mu$ ertMtet, i<$ barf ntdjt au& 
gcftcn, I have caught cold, I ought not (cannot) to go out. 

111. i food, diah. 2 See page 98. 3. 



334 MODAL AUXILIARIES. 

Slufeabc 115. 

Charles may play. We have no right not to invite 
May I see what you are writing ? The pupils have not been 
allowed to go out. May I ask, why not ? He cannot look me 
in the face (mk in'S eftd)t fefjen). How could he undertake 
this, without 1 mentioning it to his father ? We shall probably* 
not be allowed to buy these books. You are not to pay the 
waiter. 3 The children are not allowed to play in this room. 
He may (3) very likely have been mistaken (firfj getrrt fjaben). 
Have you been allowed to read the letter of your aunt? Yes, 
I was allowed to. 

READING LESSON. 

Tie fedjS SSortlein. 



<Sedj SBortfein nefjmen mid) in ^Inforud) 1 jeben ag: 
3d) foil, id) mitft, id) fann, id) totfl, id) barf, id) mag. 
3d) jofl ift baS efefc, t>on ott in'6 crj gefd)rieben, 
S)a8 $ki? nad) 8 toeld^em id) bin Don ntir felbfl getrieben. 
3^ mu, ba ifi bte (S^ranf, 4 m 5 rocker mt^ bic SBcft 
53on einer, bic SRatur toon anb'rer cite ^a'lt. 
3d) fann, ba ifl ba 2Kafe ber rair Derlie^'nen 6 ^raft, 
3)er J^at, bcr gertigfeit, 7 bcr $unft unb 2Bi{fcnfdjaft 
3^ n)itt, bte Ijod)fte ^ron' tfl biefeS, bie mid) fdjmiicft,* 
3)a iji ber ^eifyeit <2teget, bem eifle aufgebriicft.' 
3(^ barf, ba ifl gugteid) bie Onfc^rift 10 bei 11 bem <2iegel, 
S3ei'm aufget^anen X^or bcr gretljett aud) ein 9?iegeL" 
3(^ mag, ba8 enbttc^ ifl, roa gnrifdjen 5ltten f^njimmt, 
gin Unbeftimmteg," bag ber Slugenbluf beftimmt. 
3dj fofl, id^ mu, id) fann, id) raid, ic^ barf, id) mag, 
S)te <5e^fe ne^men mt^ in ?lnfprud) jeben Sag. 
S?ur roenn 2)u w fetbfl mi^ le^rfl, roeife i^, h)a8 jeben Xag 
3d) fott, idj mu^, ic^ fann, id) h)ifl, ic^ barf, id) mag. 



115. i cfene e3 ... 311 fagen. s raa^ri^etnti^. s fieflner. 

i claim me. 2 the goal, stewards. -the bounds, limits. 6 within, cgnmted* 
dexterity. 8 adorns. 9 impressed. 10 inscription. 11 in the case of, tor. 12 bolt, 
la omething vague, indefinite. H Thou, O God. 



335 

FORTY-FIRST LESSON. 

REMARKS ON THE USE OF THE PRONOUNS. 

(See the 23rd, 24th, and 26th Lessons.) 

L Personal Pronouns. 

1. When a relative pronoun in the nominative relates to 
a personal pronoun of the first or second person, the per- 
sonal pronoun is repeated after the relative. S. p. 156, 4. 

3d), ber id) iljn fenne, I who know him. 

2)u, ber bit tfyn nid)t fennft, You who do not know hira. 

2Bir, bie totr jung fmb, "We who are young. 

2. The most frequent use of the genitive of personal 
pronouns is after verbs governing the genitive, and as a 
partitive genitive preceding numerals. Ex.: 

(5r fpottete meiner, He mocked me. 

3d) eritmere mid) f enter, I remember him. 

Unfer gefyn, Ten of us. 

3Ijrer gnxm^ig, Twenty of them. 

NOTE. This genitive is likewise compounded with the prepositions 
toegen, fyalfcen, and uriflen, in which case the final r is changed into t, as: 
metnetroegen, on my account; IJfyretoegen, on your account; um fetnetttntten, 
for his sake, etc. 

3. The dative and accusative plural of the reflexive 
pronoun ftd) may take a reciprocal signification, that is, 
mean one another or to one another instead of themselves or 
to themselves. Ex. : 

!>ie $tt>et (Sdjroeftern gteidjen fid) (or eincmber). 
The two sisters resemble one another. 
S)te[e Seute befdjtntpfen fid) (or emcmber). 
These people disgrace one another. 



336 PRONOUNS. 

IL Possessive Pronouns. 

1. My, thy, his, her, our, etc., are not generally used 
with parts of the body (hand, arm, etc.), when it is per- 
fectly clear whose hand, arm, etc., are meant The de- 
finite article takes their place, e.g. : 

Have you washed your hands? 
>a|t bu bie >tinbe getoafdjen ? 

2. The dative, more rarely the accusative, of the person 
whose hand, arm, etc., are meant, may be added, e.g. : 

>at er bem f leincn >einrid) ba3 mar gef djmtten ? 

Has he cut little Henry's hair ? 

3d) fyatte mtr fdjon ^roetmat ba3 (or cut) 23etn gebrodjetu 

I had broken my leg twice before. 

3d) fyatte mid) in ben ginger gefdjnitten. 

I should have cut my finger. 1 

3. Adjectives in the predicate are, we know, used in 
their shortest form (see "page 102, 2), e.g., Setter ut iff 
fyapd) (not fyapdjer), That hat is ugly; @ie ijl fefyr QUtig 
(not giittge), She is very kind. 

2fteitt, betlt, etc., except in one case to be mentioned 
below, conform, as would be expected, to this rule, e.g., 
Setter $ut tfi tf)r, That hat is hers; )ie anbfd)utye roaren 
Ultfer, The gloves were ours. 

When, however, e$ is the subject of the verb, mein, betn, 
fein, etc., in the predicate, must agree in gender, number, 
and case with the noun for which e stands, i.e., if e3 
stands for a singular noun, we have metner, meitte, or mei* 
ne, according to the gender of that noun, and if it stands 
for a plural noun, meine, e.g., && (ber ut) ifl fetner, @6 (tie 
geter) ifl eitre, @g (ba^ S3ud^) roar itnfereg/ @g (a plural noun 

1 When the name of the person Is put in the accusative, it will be noticed that the 
part of the body takes a preposition. 

2 But when ea stands for a neuter noun in the singular, we can have also the short 
form in the predicate, i e., here, Q8 (_ia3 iu$) mar unfer. 



PRONOUNS. 337 

of any gender) warcn beine gewfen, They would have been 
yours. 1 

4. Observe the following expressions : 

A horse of ours, (in3 unferer ^pferbe. 

A friend of mine, (giner meiner ^reunbe or ein 3*euKb *>on 

mir. 
A relation of yours, (giner 3I)rer SBertnanbten or ein 33er* 

irmnbter con Sfynen. 

The construction with son and the dative seems hardly- 
allowable in the case of mere ownership, e.g., in the first 
example. 

READING EXERCISE 116. 

3d), ber id) Sltteg nut (meinen) eigenen 5htgen gefeljen fyabe, fann 
bag befte geugnife 1 geben. (Stiver griebe, ber bu bom )tmmel fomtnft, 
erfitHe mein >er$. (grbarmen (ie fid) nteiner. 3d) bin urn feinet* 
foiUen geftroft loorben. S)ie jungen !?eute toerjei^en fid) leid)t ifjrc 
(follies). 3ft e tua^r, bafe ^arl ben $lrm gebrodjen t)at? 
, er b,at nid)t nur ben 5lrm, fonbern aud) ba6 ^Bein gebrodjen. 2)a8 
fiet ouf bie ^niee unb betete. (Siner meiner ^Bettern ift geftern 
geftorben. >iefer (Stocf ift mein. -3d) ftanb an bem genfter unb 
fyatte ein S3ud) in ber ^>anb. -3t)r ginger btutet; 2 tjaben <Sie ft^ 
gefc^nttten? 3d) ^abt mid) mit einer 9?abcl 3 in ben finger geftocb/en. 
(Sie biefen jungen SD^ann ? -3a, er ift ein better t>on mir. 



117. 

We who are old cannot enjoy 1 these pleasures. He who 
wished to injure me, has served me. They laughed (Iad)ten) 
at us. 2 We left England for her sake. Do not these two 
girls love one another tenderly ? 3 The boy had a cap 4 on his 
Lead. He has lost his senses (SBerftanb, masc. sing.). The queen 
had a crown 6 on her head and a scepter 6 in her hand. My 
heart beats for (t)or) joy. The prisoner has cut his throat 
("patS). I am wounded in (an) my shoulder. 7 In firing (beim 
oSfd)ief3en) the gun (gen.), 2 I J have wounded my hand. This 
hat is not mine, it belongs to my brother. That pencil is 

i This rule, given by the grammarian Heyse, is frequently violated. 

116. i evidence. ~ to bleed ? needle. 117. i gentefien. - at us may be translated 
either with the genitive nnfet or with the preposition fiber with the accusative 
s 3&rtli$. * cine ajiu^e. '> ft tone, f. 6 copter or jtjiter. " Sdjulter, f. 



338 

mine, the other is his. A relation of yours is gone to America 
A cousin of yours came yesterday to see us. The naughty 
boy threw a snow-ball 1 at (ait) the man's (dot.) head. 

ITL Relative Pronouns. 

In English a relative clause sometimes begins, not with 
the relative, but with a substantive, e.g. : An estate the 
right to which is in dispute, A picture the value of which is 
unknown. In German the relative clause must begin 
either with the relative or with a preposition governing 
the relative. Thus we must change the examples above 
into: A picture whose value, An estate to which the 
right. 

I have some jewels the price of which" I do not know. 

33) fjabe etnige Suroeten, bercn ^ret^ id) ntcfjt fenne. 

We went to a house, from the windows of which (from 
whose windows) we saw it. 

2Bir gingen in em >au8, aug beffen ^enftern hnr e8 faljen. 

A machine by means of which one can fly. 

(Sine Sftafcfjtne, Dermtttelft beren man fUegen fann. 

2. The genitive of the English relative pronoun pre- 
ceded by att is put in the same case as oJL Ex. : 

He had five children, all of whom died in their infancy. 
(r fyatte fiinf $tnber, bte afle in iljrer $inbljeit ftarben. 

3. This is also the case when aR precedes a personal 
pronoun. Ex. : 

All of us, hrir Me. 
All of you, <Sie afle. 

4 Such as, when equivalent to those who, is translated 
bteiemgen (or bte) roelcfye. 

Such as are poor, bte, toetdje arm ftnb. 

i SinccbaU, m. 

ill of which be changed into whose, the two languages agree: whose price, tcren (pi.) 
fruit. 



339 

NOTE. @o in the sense of toetdjer (nominative and accusative singulai 
and plural) is obsolete, as: 3Son 2lllen fo (.Me) ba famen, Among all that 
came. 

a is not unfrequentiy redundant in relative clauses, e.g., in the last 
example. 

5. As to after such, is translated by baf? with the in- 
dicative or subjunctive. 

I placed myself in such a position as to oversee all. 

3d) berfetste mid) in eine folrfje (Stettung, baft id] Side iiberfefjen 

fonnte. 

I ask for such pay that I can (may be able to) live in the city. 
3d) fcerlange eine foldje Sefolbimg, baft id) in ber @tabt roofynen 

fb'nne. 

READING EXERCISE 118a. 

2)er (Sngta'nber, beffen @olm bet 3lmett roolmt, I)at feine 23rieftafdje 
berloren. !Der alte 3JJann, mit beffen (So^n id) nad) (Sngtanb geretft 
bin, ift geftorben. 2)er $rembe, auf beffen ^edjtfdjaffen^eit 1 id) gafytte, 
I)at mid) betrogen. iejenigen iceldje (such as) toir bi jet (as yet) 
gefeb,en ^aben, gefatten un nid)t. SBerben ie atle 23iid)er beb.atten, 
bte id) Sfynen geftern gefdjidt b^abe? 3d) fann nod) nid)t fagen, ob id) 
fie al(e beb,atten raerbe; aber bie beiben, toetdje id) beftettt (ordered) 
rterbe id) gertnft befallen. 



Stufgofic 118b. 

That is the goal 1 towards (nad)) which he strives. 8 A bird 
whose wings have been clipped 3 cannot fly. It is an illness 
against (gegen) the progress 4 of which one cannot apply 5 re- 
medies 6 too quickly. Charity, 7 the practice 8 of which is our 
duty, makes us good and happy We call that heavenly 
body, 9 by the brightness 10 of which our eyes are dazzled, 11 the 
sun. Such as are good and industrious, may go home with 
me. I found myself in (such) a position 12 (as) to observe all 
that went on (gorging) around me. 

IV. Indefinite Pronouns. 

1. 5lll r oil, before the definite article and before the de- 
monstrative and possessive pronouns is best not declined, 

118a. i honesty. 

118b. iba3iel. ^ftrcten. 6efd)nitten or geftufct. -i gfortftyritt, m. soniBenbcn. e^dtratttel, 
p. tbieStete. sUebung, f. 9 $tmmel3fctper, m. iotait3, m. H uetfclenbet. i2telluitfl, t 



340 PRONOUNS. 

e.g., 31(1 ber lanj, All the brilliancy ; 2(U feincr <3olbaten, Of 
all his soldiers ; 33et all biefen (Sfyrcn, With all these honors. 

2lUe may be used instead of all in all cases, numbers, 
and genders, although Germans generally prefer all, e.g., 
33et alie biefen (Sfjren. 

It is not incorrect to decline all before the parts of 
speech mentioned above, e.g., filler ber lanj, Siller fciner 
Soltatcn, 33ci alien biefen (Sfyren. It is more usual to find 
it declined in the plural than in the singular. 

2. All meaning the whole and agreeing with a singular 
noun is most frequently translated gan J, as : 



All the year, 3)a^ gange 3aljr. 
All day, )en gotten ag. 
All night, bie gan^e 9Za^t 
Notice the article. 

3. anj, aU, remains unchanged before neuter names 
of countries and towns in all the cages. Ex. : 

All England would rise, 0113 (Snglanb nwrbe auffteljen. 
In all France, 3n gang 
All Paris, c 



4. 5lUe^ generally means everything; it is sometimes, 
however, applied to persons. Ex. : 

freitt ft<f), Everybody rejoices. 
flie^et, Everybody flees. 



5. 9llle3 toa^ is much more frequent than alle$ ba$, as: 
, ttia id) gefefycn ^abe, All I have seen. 



6. Every may be translated either by the singular 
|eber or the plural alle. Ex. : 

Every day, 3eben Jag or afle age. 



PRONOUNS. 341 

Every year, 3ebe8 Safjr or atte 3af)re. 

Every twenty-four hours, 5lfle bier unb ^ttanjtg <3tunben. 



7. Usage differs as to the declension of tttel (mvxti, 
many) and tt>ent (little, few, sometimes a few) used with- 
out the article. The pupil will be safe in using them in 
the singular as indeclinable, and in declining them in the 
plural. 

(r Ijat inct elb, He has much money. 

3dj fyabe loentg 3ett, I have little time. 

,>aben @ie tiiele g^eunbe? Have you many friends? 

3d) ()abe nur roenige ^reunbe, I have but few frienda 

SBenige (or toentge Scute) ttnffen ba8, Few people know that. 

8. (tn roenig, a little, is indeclinable : 

@eben <2tc mtr em iucntg at,5, Give me a little salt. 

ein toentg S3rob unb ^letfd^, With a little bread anfl meat. 



9. 33eibe, both, is sometimes used without a substantive, 
as : 53etbe ftnb tot>t, Both are dead. It never admits a 
genitive after it, compare III, 2. Ex. : 

2Btr 23etbe, Both of us. 

@tc 33etbe (or bie 33eiben), Both of them. 

TO un SSetben, With both of us. 

3n btefen betben ^ciufern, In both (of) these houses. 
NOTE. The English both and are conjunctions, and are rendered jo> 
teoljl at (see p. 269). Ex. : Both silver and gold, Softool @U6er all 
olb. 

10. Either has several different senses in English, with 
different translations for each in German. 

a) It may mean, "I (you, he, we, etc.) do not care 
which," e.g., Which horse will you take ? Answer, Either. 
Wo can say for this either in German, (3 ifl mtr enter lei 
(It is just the same to me) ; or, (g$ macfyt mtr 9?i(|t0 auS (It 
makes no difference to me) ; or, Ste <>te Wollen (Just as 
you choose). 



342 PRONOUNS. 

&) It may mean both, e.g., You must not think of these 
houses, either is too dear for you. Here we can use in 
German beibe. 

c) It may mean either the one or the other. In this case 
we translate it entroeber ber etnc ober ber anbere, e.g., You 
must decide yourself whether to use the indicative or the 
subjunctive mood, the passage allows either, ... tie (Stellc 
erlaubt entroeber ben einen ober ben onberen. 

d) It may be correlative to or, e.g., Either you or he, 
(ntroeber <ie ober er; Either (the) one or (the) other, Gntte 
roeber ber Sine ober ber Slnbere. 

11. Neither (or n'>t either) may be translated either by 
Weber ber (Sine nod) ber Slnbere (Neither [the] one nor the 
other),*or by Reiner on 33eiben (Not one of the two), or 
by Reiner simply, e.g. : 

I can praise neither (woman). 

3d) barf toeber bte (Sine nod) bie 5lnbere toben. 

I think they will adopt neither (thing). 

33) gtaube man totrb ^eing tton SBetben anne^men. 

On neither side. 

Sluf fetner (Scttc. 

12. Not any is Fein ; not anybody, 97iemanb ; not anything, 
9Hd)tg. Ex.: 

We have not had any, 2Btr Ijaben fetnen (or feme or fetnS or 

rd. feine) ge^abt. 
Have you not heard of anybody? |>aben <3ie toon ^iemanb 

ae^ort? 
I did not buy anything, Oc^ f)abe ni^tg gefauft. 

But not may be translated nicfyt, when there is a very 
strong emphasis on the following word, e.g., Did you not 
see one (L e., not a single individual)? $aben t* nic^t 
Sinen gefe^en? Did he not say something? $at er 
gefagt? 



PRONOUNS. 43 

13. Other is translated ember, when it means of cnotJier 
kind, e.g. : 

Another wine would be wholesomer. 

(Sin anberer SBein toa're gefunber. 

This horse does not suit me, I must have another. 

5Dte8 ^Jferb gefattt mir nid)t, id) ntufc ein anbereS fyaben. 

But when other means more of the same kind, it is 
translated nod) (adverb), e.g.: 

Another glass of wine would have certainly made it worse. 
9?od) ein Ia3 28ein fjatt' e getoifc fdjltmmer gemorfjt. 
Two horses are not enough, I must have another. 
3toei ^ferbe [inb nirfjt genug, id) mufc nod) einS fjoben. 

In English we often say more instead of other, e.g., Two 
horses are not enough, I must have one more, 
ftnb nt$t gemtg, t^ mu nocfo etn^ 



14. No more or no longer (or not any more, not any 
longer) is ntcfyt mefyr, or if there is a noun with which fcin 
can agree, Fein mefyr, e.g. : 

He does not call on us any more. 

(r befudjt un nid)t me^r. 

We have no longer a father. 

2Bir ^aben feinen 2$ater me^r. 

Since then I do not joke with any more Scotchmen. 

eitbem fdjer^ id) mit feinen djotten me^r. 

READING EXERCISE 119 a. 

^e^men <Ste bag gange titd? ^ein, id) brandje nur nienige Ken. 
i^anj ^3ari^ mar erteudjtet. 1 !Diefe ^fton^en finbet man in ganj 
3)eutfd)(anb. 2Sir mufcten ben gan^en Jag arbetten. 3d) fann Oljnen 
nid)t S 2ltteg er^afyten, uia id) erlebt (experienced) b,abe. 2Sir ftnb 
atte reid)Ud) befdjenft 2 njorben. 2Bir atte tuaren Ijungrig unb burfttg. 
(Sine ^rau Ijatte etne enne, hjeldje atte age ein (Si lepte. >err 
Skitter ift nttt un8 Setben nod) ^ariS gereift. @iner Don (Sitd) 
fterben, |agte ber dauber ju un^. SBotten (5ie nod) einen 5(pfe( 
, id) banfe, id) effe feinen mefyr. 2Botten @ie einen anbcren 



U8b. i iliuminatea. 2 rewarded. 



344 PRONOUNS. 

b>ben? 2Bic biele (Sdjiiter fyaben (Sic nodj? 3dj Ijabe nodj geljn. 
err 21. fyat fetnen 23ebtenten mefyr. 

Slufga&c 1191). 

The travellers have been robbed of all their luggage 1 (gen.). 
We worked all day and night, but we could not finish our 
work. In all Europe such a man is not to be found ($u finbcn). 
I will tell you all I know. All of you have been warned 
(geroarnt) by the policeman. 2 I did not see anything. They 
were every day entertained 3 with songs, the subject (egen* 
ftanb) of which (pi.) was the happy valley. Take another cup 
of tea. Have you any more brothers 4 and sisters ? I have no 
more brothers, but two sisters. My father has no more 
horses ; he has sold them all. 

BEADING- LESSON. 
(fyiftct. Epictetns. 



ar ein (Sfla&e be (Spaph>obi'ru8, unb h>tte 
trie! bon feinem ^errn 1 ju erbulben; a&er cr Ijatte cine grojje unb ftarfe 
ecle. 2118 ehtfl (SpapljrobituS i^m etnen ^eftigen (Sdjlag* auf ba3 
S3ein gegeben ^attc, fo wanttc Sptftct iljn fatt (coolly), ba cr c ih^m 
nidjt breci^en fottte. 3)cr ^crr berboppette fcute trcid^e,* fo ba ct 
iljnt ben ^noi^en* gerf^iug'. j>er 2Bctfc antwortetc ib^m, ob^ne ftdj ju 
cntriiflen: 4 ,,^atte ic^ eS bit nic^t gefagt, ba bu e8 mir ^erf^Iagen 
toiirbcfl!" 

(Sptftct mar immcr bergniigt, felbfl (even) in bcr (SflaDereL $$ 
Bin," fagtc er, ,,an ber <3tefle, wo bic Borfefjung 5 njttt, bafe i^ fei; mt(^ 
bartiber 311 beftagen, ^eit ftc beleibigcn." 2)ie jttjei runbteb^ren' 
feiner 2Jiorat toaren: w 5Biffe ju bulben unb bid) 311 entljalten." 7 (Sr 
fcnb in fid) felbfl bie nb'tfyigen ^>ilf8mittel, 8 urn ben erflen biefet runb* 

c* in 2tuiibung 9 ju bringen. 

,,2Bir b^aben fcb,r Unredjt/ fagte er biSweilen, ,,bie ^rmutb^ anjutta* 
ba^ fte un^ ungtudlid) madje; e ifl ber Sfyrgeij, 11 eg ftnb unferc 



119b. ifcaSSepirf. -'ber ^oUjei'ttener. -untcr^altcn. ^ brothers and sisters, btfC^f^rcifier. 
i master. 2 blow. 3 the bone. 4 to grow angry. : Providence, c principles. ' to 
abatain. s resource, 9 to practice, to carry out. into accuse, u ambition. 



PRONOUNS. 345 

itnerfa'ttlidjen 1 23egierben, lueldje un8 toafyrljaft etenb ntadjen. SBaren 
hrir erren ber ganjen 2Belt, fo fonnte unS Ujr SBefiJ} nid)t t>on gurd)t 
unb Summer (trouble) fret madjen; bie SBernunft attein 2 tjat biefe 
eiualt." 

(Spiftct ftarb in etnent fefyr Ijofjen fitter unter ber 9?egierung be8 
)te irbene Sampe, njomit er feine pfjilo* 
erleud)tete, n)itrbe einige 3 e ^ na ^) feinem Xobe 
fiir 3000 SDradjmen (2700 granfen) oerfauft. 



SBer tnar (Spiftet? Sin ^b,ilofop^' unb ein (Sffabe 



9Bar fein >err giitig gegen i^n ? -ftetn, er luar tjart^ergig unb grau* 

fain. 
21 (^ biefer ib,m einft l^eftig auf ba6 (Sr raarnte ib,n, er fotte ib,m ba3 

Sein fd)(ng, toatS fagte er? 33ein nid)t gerbred)en. 

2Ba tfjat aber Spapljrobitug ? (Sr toerboppette feine treidje unb 

jerfdjtug ifym hJtrfltd) ba 33ein. 
SBurbe (Spiftet bariiber entriiftet? 0Jetn, er anttoortete gang ru^ig, baf, 

er e8 ib,m orau8gefagt ^abe. 

23 ef fagte er fid) bariiber, bafj er '^etn, er unterlwarf (submitted) 
<flat>e war ? ftd) ruljig feinem <Sd)icffal. 

fagte er? (Sr fagte: ,,3d) bin an ber tette, 

h)ob,tn bie S3orfe^ung mid) gefefct 



tcaren feine gtoei @runb> ^SSiffe ju bulben unb bid) ju ent* 

le^ren? fatten." 

3ft eg bie 5lrmut^, bie un un> D^idjt bie 2lrmut^, fonbern unfere 

gtitrftid) mad)t? Segierben. 

SSann ftarb Spiftet? llnter Marcus ^lureliu^, in einem 

fe^r ^otjen filter. 
2Bie tt)euer luurbe feine irbene 

uerfauft? ^ur 3000 5)rad)men. 



i insatiable desires. 2 reason. 3 night-watch. 



346 TENSES OF INDICATIVE. 

FORTY-SECOND LESSOtf. 

THE TENSES OF THE INDICATIVE. 

The use of the tenses in German differs very little from 
the use of the tenses in English. 

L The Present 

1. There is, in most cases, only one form for each of the 
tenses in German, e.g., icfy lefe, icf) lag, icfy fyabe gelefen, and 
with this one form we must translate every one of the 
three forms for the simple tenses which exist side by side 
in English, e.g., I read, I am reading, I do read, and of 
the two forms we have for the compound tenses, e.g., I 
have read, I have been reading. 

3d) friifyftiicfe eben, I am just breakfasting. 

(r fdjlaft, He is sleeping. 

3d) fyabe ben ganjen ag getefen, I read all day. 

2. The Present is employed for the Future oftener 
than is the case in English. Ex. : 

3d) reife biefen Slbenb ab. 
I leave town this evening. 
3n bret agen fomme id) nneber. 
In three days I shall be back. 

3. The Present is used in German especially with fcfyon, 
already, or feit, since (preposition), for the English Perfect, 
when the latter expresses something that has been and 
still is. See the foot-note to Exercise 96. Ex.: 

2Bie lange ftnb @te fd)on fyter? 

How long have you been here ?' 

2Bte lange lernen (ie fdjon j>eutjdj ? 

How long have you been learning German ? 

i The B*nae of Etc tange fmfc Si* fyier gem'fcn ? is : How long were you here 7 



TENSES OF INDICATIVE. 347 

3d) feme eg feit arfjt Sttonaten. 

I have been learning it these eight months. 

>aben Ste bicfcn 33ebtenten fdjon lange (not gefyabt) ? 

Have you had this servant long ? 

-3d) fyabe tfyn fdjon jtoet Saljre (or feit toet 3al)ren). 

I have had him these two years. 

II. The Imperfect. 

1. The imperfect is used to express what occurred fre- 
quently, e.g., @r fagte, He used to say ; @ie fdjliefen geroityit* 
lid) ad)t tunbcn, You used to sleep generally eight hours. 

2. It is used to describe the circumstances, i.e., to say 
what was going on at the time something else happened, 
e,g.: 

Most of them were smoking and playing chess when you 

came in. 
3)te 2JMften raudjten imb fptelten <Sdjarf) al3 (Sic ^eretngetreten 

finb. 
You came in as most of them were smoking and playing 

chess. 
<3te finb Ijeretngetreten ate bte SD'letften raudjten unb @rf)arf) 

ftnelten. 

3. It is the tense used in the more dignified kinds of 
narration, e.g., in histories and speeches. In speaking of 
every day matters, however, the perfect is more usual, 
unless the speaker was an eye witness of what he states, 
in this latter case he uses the imperfect, e.g., He died be- 
fore I was born, (r tft fleftorben, efy' tcfy geboren bin; but, 
911$ id) aitf ber 23riicfe war, ftel etn HetneS ilttnb tn'g SSoffer, 
When I was on the bridge, a little child fell into the water. 

4. It is used to express what had been, and still was, 
especially with fd)0tt and feit. Compare I, 3. 

2Bte tang tt>aren <Ste frfjott ba ? 
How long had you been here ? 
And so on through all the examples in I, 3. 



348 TENSES OF INDICATIVE. 

5. See HE, 1, at the end. 

The Perfect 



1. One use of the German perfect has been already 
mentioned, II, 3. In this use, it translates our shortest 
form of the imperfect, e.g., (Sr ifi ^rettag nacl) 9tom ge* 
gangen, He went to Rome Friday. There are also cases 
where the German imperfect is best translated by our 
perfect, e.g., 3$ ging btefen SBinter nur etnmal auf $ (ig, 1 
have been on the ice only once this winter. 

2. As a general rule, an English perfect may be trans- 
lated either by a German perfect (but see I, 4), or by a 
German imperfect, e.g., I have seen him, 3$ fyab' ifyn ge* 
fefyen or 3$ faf) ifyn ; You have already heard, gentlemen, 
that, etc., (te erfufyren fcfyon (or <5ie fyaben fcfyon erfafyren), 
meinc >erren, bap it. f. n>. 

3. The auxiliary which forms the perfect and pluper- 
fect indicative and subjunctive, is often omitted in a de- 
pendent clause, e.g., ap cr fo frity gefommen [ift under- 
stood], fann mid) nur fretien, That he has come so early, can 
only give me pleasure ; $einrtd) nwpte fd)on, ba bic ^Bnigtn 
eg n>afyrfd)einlid) in Sd^erj gefagt [(>atte understood], Henry 
knew already that the queen had probably said it in joke. 
The same way in the passive, e.g., @ic befyauptete, ba ter 
&bntg nicfyt getobtet roorben [fei understood], She maintained 
that the king had not been killed. 

IV. The Pluperfect 
1. This tense is employed as in English. Ex. t 

2U3 (nadjbem) id) btc ,8 c i tun 9 geMen Ijatte, ging id) au. 
\\Tien (after) I had read the newspaper, I went out 



TENSES OP INDICATIVE. 349 

2. See ITT, 3, for the omission of the auxiliary forming 
the pluperfect. 

3. See II, 4, for the German imperfect translating the 
English pluperfect. 

READING EXERCISE 120. 



2)ie (Stabt 9?om Uegt aitf fieben >ugetn. 9?ad) bem SSinter fommt 
ber grilling. 3)er $nabe fdjneibet (makes) feine gebern felbft. 2)ie 
Slrmutb, toofmt oft neben bem Ueberfluffe. 1 101 orgen $lbenb reife id) 
nad) traftburg; ttotlen <ie mid) begleiten? ^DiogeneS tooljnte in 
einem gaffe- 3d) fenne (I, 4) iljn fett feiner $inbb,eit. )urd) wen 
nwrbe 5lbel getobtet? 3)ie Suben tooimten guerft im ?anbe ofen; 
Ijernad) ^ogen 2 fie in ba^ cmb Canaan. S3or brei SBodjen fyat ber 
-Sager einen ^-irfd) gefdjoffen. 2Bir tcerben ba^ 9)feb,I bei einem anbern 
Scider faufen. >aben @ie Ob,re 3lrbeit geenbigt? Sir fyaben fie nod) 
nidjt geenbigt. 2ftan b,at otle Offi^iere beftvaft, ivetdje bie gab.nen 
toertaffen b,aben. ie Stjrier fatten burd) iljren (Stotj 3 ben ^fintg 
efoftriS gegen fid) aufgebradjt/ ber in (Sgtjpten I)errfd)te unb fo biete 
9teid)e 6 erobert b,atte. 3d) Ijatte meine efd)afte fdjon beenbtgt, ai8 id) 
3;b,ren 53rief erb,iett. Wtt er mir bie efd)id)te er^afjtt b,atte, fd)lief er 
etn. (S3 b,at biefeS 3ab,r nid)t biete Srauben gegeben. (Sobalb id) 
mein etb er^olten b/abe, ttjerbe id) biefe (Stabt bertaffen. 

9litfabc 121. 

1. "What are you doing? I am reading a very amusing 
book; you must read it too; to-morrow I will send it [to] you. 
Napoleon the First died in the year 1821. My friend has 
published 1 a new English grammar. The servant has killed 
his master. Were you ever in France ? No, Sir, I intend to 
go there next year. After I have read the book, you shall 
have it. We waited [a] long time for you (auf <2ie). I have 
been writing letters all day. When shall I have the pleasure 
of seeing you ? I have always received 2 him kindly. These 
two moil will have done their work when you return. 

2. We shall have our dinner at six. He has lived long in 
Switzerland. He lived long in Switzerland. Is it long since 



i abundance. 2 went, moved. 3 pride, 4 irritated. 5 kingdom. 



350 TENSES OF INDICATIVE. 

you breakfasted ? It is an hour and a half. I perceived (II, 3) 
it the other day. I have perceived it for (since) several days. 
I wore 1 that coat two years. I have worn this coat nearly two 
years. How long did you wear these boots ? They are worn 
out (abgetragen). How long have you lived in this house ? I 
have lived in it these three years. Have you known these 
people long ? I have known them [for] many years. 



READING LESSON. 

1 aug betn Selien etnrtd)8 beS $ierten. 

>ie beriifjmte <Srf)(ad)t toon 3t>ri) afletn fb'nnte ben9?anten>etnrtdj'8 
be8 SHerten unfterblid) madden. 2113 ^eerfiifjver 2 imb (Solbat getgte er 
eben fo t)iel efdjidltdjfeit* at$ apfer!ett. 23or bem SBegtun be8 
reffen$ 4 burdjritt er bte 9Mf)en s nut einer l^ettern SlZiene, njetdje ben 
@teg border berfiinbete, unb fagte 311 fetnen !Jruppen : ,,$inber, n)enn 
bte Stanbar'ten end) fefjlen, 6 fo toerfammelt end) itm nietnen n)eten 
^eberbnfd),' t^r toerbet i^n tmmer auf bem SSege ber (to) S^re unb 
be 9tu^meg ftnben; ott tft fur un3." 9Zad) etntger ,3ett glaubte 
man, er njare tnt djtadjtgetilmmel 8 umgefommen. 5113 er tmeber gum 
33orfdjetn 9 fam, mit bem 33Iute ber fit'infa bebedt, fo rtwrben feme 
olbaten ^elben. ie 53erbiinbeten 10 hiurben in (Stiirfe gefjauen. 2)er 
SWarfdjafl uon 33tron lommanbtrte ba 9tefert)efor^ unb b,atte, olme 
eben in ber t^e be3 efedjteg ju fein, etnen grofcen 5lnt^eil :i am 
(Siege. r tuttnfdjte u bem ^b'nig mit btefen SSorten liirf: 1 * @tre, 
(Sic ^aben fyeute get^an, tua 33tro:f ti/un fottte, unb 33tron, ttjaS bet 
tb,un fottte." 

3)te 2)?Ube be (Sfegerg zdfiffle* ilcn 9Jub,m be3 Xriumpb,^. 
bte grangofen," f ^cic nv tnbetr, cr bte gludjtlwge 14 berfotgte. 
biefe ^iige maten 16 ben .qro^en SO^att^ toeldjer bte ^unft befa^,^ bte 
gehJtnnen, 



12L itragen. 

i trait. 2 commander, genent. dSkUL <battj\ s ranks, stall. 1 plume. smSlee. 
store-appear. iothe Leagnei'S llghare. is tc congratulate, isto enhance. ufngi 
tives. i :. to paint, describe. 



TENSES OF INDICATIVE. 



351 



mu befonberS bte enugtljuung 1 berounbern, roeldje cr bent 
errn Don (3d)omberg gab. >iefer (general ber beutfdjen ^nlfStruppen 
Derlangte etuige Jage Dor ber d)(ad)t bte Sofynung 2 feiner ruen. 
2)a8 @elb mangelte; 3 eine 33eroegung be3 llnroiflenS 4 reifet ben $ontg 
fu'n: ,,9?ie," antroortete er, ,,I)at em 2)?ann ton 2ftutf) am Xage Dot 
etner rf)larf)t etb cerlangt." SBoU 9Jeue 5 iiber bte frdnfenbe ebb,af^ 
ttgfett 6 ergrtff er, urn fie tm'eber gut gu ma^en, 1 ben ^lugenbltcf, too 
man fampfen mollte. 8 ^err oon djomberg," fagte er, ,,td) fyabe <2te 
or etnigen Jagen beletbtgt. 5)tefer Sag tft m'ettetrf)t ber lefcte metne 
?eben^: id) nntt ntd)t bte Sb/re etne^ (gbelmannS mit mir nef)men; id) 
fenne Sb,r 33erbienft unb ^^ren attutb,; id) bitte @ie um Serget^ung; 
umarmen @te mid)." 

(Sdjomberg antraortete tb,m: &$ ift njab/r, ba 3fb,re SD'Jajeflat mid) 
Ie^tb,in 9 Dernwnbete; b/eute tbbten te mid): benn bie Sb,re, bie @ie 
mir antfyun, gwingt mid), bei biefer etegenfyeit fitr ie 311 jterben." 
U)er bratte J)eutfd)e jetdjnete fid) aitd) U)irf(id) burd) feine Saoferfeit 
au, nnb tourbe an ber cite be8 ^b'nigg getobtet 



2Betd)e <Sd)Iad)t b,at ben -ftamen 
etnrid)g IV. unfterblid) ge* 
madjt? 

geigte er babei? 



2Betd)e 2Borte fprad) er Dor ber 
<5d)Iad)t gu feinen Solbaten? 

fftr ein ^u^rer (guide) 
roitrbe biefer ib.nen fein? 
fommanbirte ba 



roeldjen 23orten roiinfdjte 
biefer bem ^onig litd ju 
feinem@iege? 
2Bie roar er afe (Sieger ? 



3)ie @d)Iad)t bei 

(Sben fo toiel ef^idlidjfeit 
9)?utl) unb Xapferfeit 

2Benn fie i()re ^a^nert Derlieren, 
fottten fie ftd) um feinen weiften 
^eberbufd) fdjaaren (collect). 



gu 9?ul)m unb (Sfjre. 



)er 



!Der 9arfd)aa 33iron. 

,,<Sire," frad) er, ,,(2ie b,aben b,eute 

get^an, roaS Siron b,citte tb,un 

fotten." 
(5r roar feb,r milbe. 



i satisfaction. 2 pay. s was wanting. Danger. 5 repentance, s vivacity i explosion 
f feeling). 7 to repair, make up for. * they were going to ng lit. 9 the other day. 



352 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 



233 ie jetgte er biefeS ? 

2Bte benafjm (behaved) er ftd) 
gegen ben (general u. (t>on) 
djomberg ? 

>atte er tfyn beteibigt ? 



Set roeldjem 



(occasion) ? 



2Bann fudjte er fein Unrerfjt ttne= 
ber gut ju madjen ? 
fagte er 311 tfym? 



2Bar t>on <3d)ontberg babitrdj 
befriebigt ? 



(fate) 



fiir ein rfjirffat 
fyatte er bonn? 
2Bar djomberg 



(5r rtef ben olbaten ju, ba^ fte bte 

grangofen retten follten. 
Sr gab ifym eine glan^enbe enug= 

tljuung. 

3;a, ber ^ontg, ^at ifjm etnen un* 
Dcrbienten Sortoutf gcmadjt. 

311^ ber (general etntge Jage Dor 
ber @d)Iad)t bte fcofjnimg fitr 
feme Xru^pen Derlangte. 

3m IJlugenbttd bor bent 33egtnn ber 
@d)Iad)t. 

ff 3d) tt)tU bte (Sfyre etne (SbelmannS 
ntd)t nttt nttr in' rab neb,men. 
SSer^et^en <5te nttr, enerat." 

ert)t^ ; er fagte: btefe ?lu^3etd)-= 
nttng (distinction) gttnnge tb,tt, 
fur fehten $ontg 311 fterben. 

(Sr iourbe an ber (Seite be8 
jjetbbtet. 
, er war ein 3)eutfd)er. 



FORTY-THIRD LESSON. 

THE SUBJUNCTIVE. 

The cases in which a writer or speaker may decide for 
himself whether he will use the indicative or subjunctive, 
those, that is, in which the rules of the language per- 
mit either mood, are frequent in German as they are in 
English. In both languages also, the subjunctive and in- 
dicative have often the same form, e.g., I see, 3$ fefye, may 
be either indicative, or subjunctive. 

1. a) 2)afl, um ba, and bamit, all meaning in order tliat, 
and t>a . . , . nidjt, which last we may translate either a) in 
order that .... not, or 6) lest, take, in books, the subjunc- 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 353 

tive perhaps more frequently than they do the indicative, 
and, in conversation, the indicative perhaps more fre- 
quently than the subjunctive. Ex.: 

ege baS $mb auf bag 33ett bamtt bte Sautter eg fteljt 
Lay the child on the bed so its mother may see it. 
28aff)htgton fdjnneg um ba fein aft nicf)t gefranft nmrbe. 
Washington kept silence so that his guest might not be 
mortified. 

b) Another way of translating in order that, is with lint 
ju and the infinitive, e.g., Mm fetnen afi nicfyt ju franfen, In 
order not to mortify his guest. 

2. a) SBenn, meaning if, takes the subjunctive when- 
ever it would be allowable to use the subjunctive in En- 
glish after if, e.g. : 

If he was (or were) sick, he would not be here. 

SBenn er franf ware, nwrb' er nicfyt fyter fetn. 

But even if he was (here were could not be used) sick 

he did not show it. 

2Benn er and) franf tuar, falj man eg tt)nt bocf) nic^t an. 
If you had seen him, you would have admired him. 
2Benn <Ste iljn gefe^en fatten, fo tuiirben fte i^n betuunbert I)a6en. 

In such examples as this last, it might puzzle the stu- 
dent to determine whether had seen was indicative or 
subjunctive in English. For such cases we may lay down 
another rule, as follows : 

b) The subjunctive must be used after wenn, meaning 
if, provided the speaker assumes the condition intro- 
duced by wenn to be contrary to the facts of the case. 
,(In the last example given, it is assumed that you [really] 
did not see him.) 

c) In other cases, the English verb which we are in 
doubt whether to call indicative or subjunctive, may, 
wi hout any change of sense, have another form substi- 



354 SUBJUNCTIVE. 

tuted for it which will leave no doubt in the mind of the 
student, e.g., for If he came to-morrow and told you he 
was sorry, we may substitute, If he should come, etc., or, 
If he were to come, which are evidently not indicatives. 

NOTE 1. We sometimes use if in English where we might use whenever. 
2Benn translating this kind of if, takes the indicative, e.g., If he were sick 
(i.e., whenever he was sick), he would abstain from wine, SEenn er front 
fcar u. f. to. 

NOTE 2. If, meaning whether, i.e., introducing an indirect question, 
must be translated not u>enn, but ob, and takes the indicative or sub- 
junctive, as the writer chooses, e.g. : 

?dj fragte t&n, ofc er jufrteben toare (or tear), 
asked him whether he was satisfied. 
2Bir moditen ttnffcn, ofe er fjter i|i (or fet). 
We should like to know whether he is here. 

NOTE 3. 2({3 toenn, tote toenn, and alS o&, all meaning as if, fall under 
the rule 2, a. 

As if he was (were) sick. 

2113 oS er franf todre. 

It looks as if it would get colder. 

&8 fyat ben Snfdjein, al3 toenn e falter toerben tourbe. 

Another way of translating as if, is by al3 simply, with the question 
order, i.e., the SUBJECT immediately following the VEBB (see page 82, 3), 
e.g. : %{$ tear' er franf, As if he were sick. 

3. a) Another way of translating if, is by the question 
order and the indicative or subjunctive, according as the 
one or the other would have been used if roenn had been 
used. The other half of the sentence, i.e., the conclusion, 
if it comes after the condition, generally begins with fe, 
which we can translate then or why, or leave untrans- 
lated, as we choose. Thus, taking the examples already 
given under 2, we can change them into : 

28 dr* cr franf, fo nriirb' er ntdjt l)ter fein. 

Sar er aurf) franf, fo faf) man e$ tf)m bod) nidjt an. 

fatten <5?te tljn gefeljen u. f. to. 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 355 

1} The question order may also be used in the place of 
, meaning wlwnever (see 2, Note 1), e.g., SBar er franf, 
fo wollt' er feinen 2Bein trtnfen, Whenever he was sick, he was 
unwilling to drink any wine. 

c) When the question order is used to mean if or wfon- 
ever, the YEKB must come at the very beginning of the 
clause, e.g., Whenever he was sick, must not be trans- 
lated, $ranf war er, for this would mean, He was sick (see 
page 82, 3), but, SBar er franf. 



er Better nad) >aufe, . . . Better !am er nad) >aitfe. 

If he caine home in good He came home in good spirits. 

spirits, . . . 

>att' er e$ fritter gefagt, . . . ^ritljer fyfttf er eg gefagt. 

If he had said so earlier, . . He would have said so earlier. 

$omm' id) fritl) an, ... $riU) fomm' id) an. 

Whenever I arrive early, . . I arrive early. 

READING EXERCISE 122a. 



<Sd)tcfe ber armen ^rau ben ^tad)3, bamtt fte t^n gtetd) tyinne. 
SBenn er fritter lame, hmrbe er mid) git ^aiife finben. 2Senn man @te 
l^ier fa'nbe, fo hjaren <5te bevloren. 2Benn er ftet^tg tocire, fo tottrbe id) 
i^n toben. 3d) foikbe e t^un, tuenn id) ettoaS babet geh)anne. SBenn 
(Safar nid)t ermorbet tworben toare, fo fytitte er, eben fo rt)ob,I al8 lit* 
guftug, bte Corner an feme errfdjaft geiuo^nt. 5)er alte SD^ann geljt, 
afe ob er laljm iuare. 3)er ^nabe Itegt ba, afe rtenn er fd)Uefe. (Sr 
fprad), nite luenn er toafynftmttg njare. atte id) gettmftt, ba^ $err 
Hitler b,ter tft (in English, was), fo ttwrbe id) tb/n befud)t (called 
upon) fjaben. @te burften ntd)t fpredjen, and) loenn @te geb^ort fatten 
er tion ben ^naben tiertangte. 



SlufpBc 122b. 

I take medicine that I [may] recover. 1 He speaks aloud (in 
order) that every one may hear him. Send him away lest he 
[should] be found here. I should be happy if I had as many 
books as you [havej. If he were rich, he would buy a car- 
riage and horses. The hypocrite 2 speaks as if he were re- 

i gen^fen. x i 



356 SUBJUNCTIVE. 

iigious. 8 I should go to Paris myself if I had time. He 
spoke as if he were commanding it. Many a man would live 
happier, if he were contented. The pupils would have been 
more advanced ( Jortfcfjrttte gemarf)t fyaben), if you had adopted 4 
another method. If you were in, you certainly heard the 
music. 

4. a) Verbs of thinking, feeling, wishing, and the like, 
and of saying or communicating intelligence in any other 
way than by saying (e.g., writing), may take a subjunctive 
with ba. They are, perhaps, even more likely to take 
the subjunctive, and not the indicative, when t>ajj is left 
out (in which case the normal order is used), e.g. : 

(r fd)rteb, ba er 311 fpat angefommen todre. 
He wrote that he had arrived too late. 
3d) metne er fct unfdjulbig. 
I am of opinion he is innocent. 
3d) n)iinfd)e, ba e3 gletd) fertig toerbe. 
I wish that it may be (it to be) finished at once. 
2Btr roerben iljm fdjretben, bafc e3 feuten ^itffdjub fyaben fonne. 
We will write i-o him that it cannot have any postpone- 
ment 

6) These very same verbs may also have the indicative, 
when what comes after the ba is looked upon as a fact, 
or, at any rate, as pretty certain to be a fact, e.g. : 

3d) metne, er ijl unfdjutbtg. 

I am of opinion he is innocent. 

c) The student will perceive that, according to the rule 
last laid down, verbs of knowing, proving, being con- 
vinced, seeing, and the like, will be much more apt to 
'have an indicative than a subjunctive after them, e.y. : 

3d) roetf?, ba er e3 getfyan Ijat. 
I know that he did it. 



while, 3$ roeif , fcafj cr e gettyan fyabe, would hardly occur. 

laab. 3fromm. <annV^men. 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 357 

If it did occur, it would mean something like : I have 
heard (you need not tell me again) that he did it, and 
would not imply that the speaker believed himself in the 
guilt of the person spoken of. 

5. a) Suppose we have in English the imperfect of one 
of the verbs mentioned in 4 a), followed by that, ex- 
pressed or understood, and a dependent clause. In this 
case, the verb of the dependent clause is in English 
always in the imperfect or pluperfect, and never in the 
present or perfect, e.g., The minister said that man was 
mortal ; He wrote he intended to leave town ; We did not 
learn that they had finislied it. 

b) In German, on the other hand, the verb of the sec- 
ond clause is more frequently in the present than in the 
imperfect, and, sometimes, in the perfect instead of the 
pluperfect, e.g., )er eiftttdje fagte, bap ber 9)?enfd) fterbUcfy 
fet; (r fcfyrteb, cr roc lie abreifen; 3Bir erfitfyren nidjt, ba 
fte e3 ju Qtnbe gebracfyt fyaben. These are the tenses 
required in English, if we change the verb of saying, etc., 
into the present, e.g., The minister says that man is 
mortal, etc. 

c) There are, however, some English sentences in which 
the tense of the dependent clause remains the imperfect 
or pluperfect even after changing the verb of saying, etc., 
into the present. Thus, He said he thought his mother 
was sick a great deal before her marriage, becomes : He 
says he thinks his mother was (not is), etc. ; We called 
your attention to the fact that we had in 1860 nearly suc- 
ceeded, becomes : We called your attantion, etc., that we 
had, etc. In such cases, it is not usual, when translating 
into German, to make the change of tense mentioned 
in b. 



358 SUBJUNCTIVE. 

6. Indirect questions take in German sometimes the 
indicative and sometimes the subjunctive. They are, 
perhaps, more apt to take the indicative after a verb in 
the present or future, and the subjunctive after a verb in 
the imperfect, perfect, or pluperfect Thus, 2Bir fragen, 
ob ber 3"3 angerommen ifi, We ask wJietJier tJie train has ar- 
rived; ie woUtcn wifien, ann cr gejiorben fci (compare 
6,6). 

7. Yerbs ot commanding, ordering and the like, may 
take follen in the present or imperfect subjunctive or the 
present indicative after them. Thus, 3$ befal;l, bafii bie 
SdnUer im 3^nter bleiben follten, I ordered the pupils to re- 
main in the room (that the pupils should, etc.) ; 2Bir wollen 
tfym fagen, cr foil e3 erl)inbern, We will tett him to prevent it. 

8. Verbs of fearing, asking and wishing, may take the 
imperfect subjunctive of mbgen after them. Thus, 2Btr 
fur d) ten, baj? er un tabeln moc^tc, We fear he may blame us; 
3^ bittc, bu moc^tefl ju mir fommen, I beg you witt come to 
me ; 3d) fyattc getmmfd)t, er mbt^tc ni^t crfdjeincn, / should 
have unshed he would not appear. 

READING EXERCISE 123a, 

SBttten <Stc 3^rc cfjtoefter, ba^ fie botb ^ter^er fomme. (5 toare 
gu luiinfdien, bo^ jencr ^o^c S3oimi ^ter ftanbe. ^ebennann tuiinfcfit, 
ba bcr (general btc djtadjt getwuinen modjte (gciuinue). (S h)fire 
gu tuiinfrfjen, baft ber enevat bte (Srfjladjt geioannc. Sir fitrdjten, 
ba^ ba CnS berften mod)te. 3d) njiinfdje, baft er balb genefe. 3d) 
toiinfdjte, ba^ meine Sodjter balb fame. 3d) befe^Ie, ba^ er ba& 
toerlaffe. 

12Bb. 



Do you think he mil come? I am afraid he will come. I 
will order him to retire 1 (that he retire). I ordered that he 
should retire. I fear the ice* may break. I fear [lest] he 

123b. i refl. v., ft$ junitf jietyen. 



IMPERATIVE. 359 

[should] come. I wish the work 1 were done. I wished that 
he might win the prize. 4 I fear [lest] he should die of (an) his 
wounds. I feared he would dislocate 5 his arm, if he were to 
lift 6 that heavy weight. Turn 7 this wicked fellow away, said 
the duke, lest he should pervert these honest people. It would 
be [a] pity (rfjabe), if that beautiful fruit were to spoil (ber- 
barbe). 

9. The third person singular of the imperative may 
either be formed with foil, e.g., (Er foil loben, as already 
given, or we may use the third person singular of the 
present subjunctive, as in the following examples : 

(Sin 3eber tljue feme ^ftidjt, Let everybody do his duty. 

cwg lebe ber $omg ! Long live the king ! 

@ott fegne @te ! God bless you ! 

2>te iebe fet ofyne alfd), Let love be without dissimulation. 

10. The following are examples of the use of the sub- 
junctive in exclamations. 

) ba metn greunb fame ! 

Oh that my friend would come ! 

) toare id) bodj retd) ! or, >afj id) bod) reirf) toare! 

Oh, if I were rich ! 

atte id) tljtt bod) nic gefefyen! ()afc id) tfyn bod) me gefeljm 

Ijfttte !) 
Would I had never seen him ! 



The Imperative Mood. 

1. This mood presents no difficulty, except that when 
is the subject, it must always be expressed (i.e., can 

never be understood), e.g., Give me, is eben <2>ie mir, and 
never eben mir. 

2. Note the following different ways of translating the 
English imperative, first person plural : 

123b. 8 bte 9lr6ett. < b ^JreiS. s certenfen. 6 i.c. lifted, tubj. ~ to turn away, f ortjagen. 



360 IMPERATIVE. 



$lrbeiten tour, 
Sir tootten arbetten, 
?a| un3 arbeiten, 
1'aftt unS arbeiten, 
Saffen 3ie unS arbeiten, 



Let us labor! 



Sap u. f. lt>. would be used to a single intimate friend; 
tapt u. f. . to several, and, Saffen <Stc it. f. tt>. to persons 
with whom one was not so well acquainted. 

READING EXERCISE 124. 

1. Wlem <Sofm fagte mir, er fjabe ^opfroeb,. 9Jtan fdjrieb mir neu* 
lid), ba >err (. franf ware, unb baft fein 53ruber nad) $lmerifa 
gegangen ware. 9)iau fagt, ber ^ontg b,abe bein eneral eiue gro^e 
Ungererfjtigfett jugefiigt (done). 2Ran fagte, ber @raf fet geftorben; 
iHetn ict) ^abe feitbem erfab,ren, bajj btefe 9iad)rid^t falf^ tft. 5Dian 
?raa,te i^n, warum er feine 2litfgabe itidjt gej^rteben b,atte. Sr ant- 
roortete, er ijabe feine 3^it geb,abt. SWcntor ^at mtr oft er^d'fytt, wetdjcn 
?Rub,m U(t)ffe unter ben rtedjen erlangt ^abe. )er enerat beb,aup* 
tete, bafe ber ^nebe gefrfjtoffen fet. 

2. 9ftan b.at mtd^ oft toerftdjert, baft bte tucffetigfeiten 1 biefer 2Be(t 
nur bon turner !Dauer feten. S^rft, man wirb 3)tr fagen, J)u feiefl 
attmad)tig; man Wtrb 3)tr fagen, !it)u feieft Don 3)einem 5Sotfe ange* 
betet. a |>altet tmmer, wa tb,r berfprod^en ^abt; abcr Derftorerfjci ntcqtg 
unbeba^tfam. 5 olbatcn! laftt un oorwdrtS marfcfjiren; la'jit un8 
flegen ober fterben. 2Btr tooflen ein wenig fbagteren ge^en. (Sr tft ber 
^>err, er tb,ue, raa t^m h)ob,t gefattt. ott fbrad): S^ werbe (let 
there become light, i.e., let light come into being) id)t, unb e8 
h)arb 2trf)t. C> batten bo^ 5tde wie bu unb tc^! 2Barc er bo^ 
(O that he were, though) oufrtdjttg ! ) bo bte $6nigin noc^ 
lebtet 

125. 



1. My brother told me that he had lost his purse. He main- 
tained 1 that he was right. What did your friend tell you ? 
He told me you would come to see him 2 some day (einmal). 
The lawyer declared that he could not do it. I hope he may 
not be mistaken. She told me that the tree was in blossom.* 
They said we could not rely 4 upon him. People say that the 

124. i enjoyments. 2 to adore. 3 inconsiderately. 

126. ibfliaupten. 2 to come to see. befu^en. sS&IOi^t. < to rely, fl$ cerlaflen ouf (aoe.) 



IMPERATIVE. 361 

king will come to this town to-morrow. Did you believe that 
I had advised him to do so (baS) ? I know (4, c) that he was 
ill. We thought he was a clever physician. We all hoped 
that our father might recover, but in vain. 

2. Were but (bod)) all men as honest as they ought to be ! 
I did not insist that your brother was (perf.) at the play 8 
yesterday. He said that his brother had great influence with 
(bet) the duke. Were you not afraid that he might steal your 
money? The duke ordered that they should (4) help the 
poor man. May God preserve 6 us from (Dor) war ! Educate' 
your mind and (your) heart while you are young. Mary told 
her maids that she would have left 8 them this dress rather 
(Ueber) than the plain garb 9 which she wore (peif. subj.) the 
day before, but that it was necessary for her to appear at the 
ensuing solemnity (bet ber beDorfte&enben geterlidtfeit) in a decent 
habit. 10 

READ IN G LESSON. 

$>te gejirufte Srcue. Fidelity Tried. 



$)er $altfe SftuteuiefnK fyatte etnen fremben 2lrjt, 9?anten 
toeldjen er tuegen fetner gropen elefyrfantfett 1 fefyr efjrte. (Sintge )of* 
leute mad)ten iljin btefen 9ftcmn toerbadjtig 2 imb fagten, cr fonne fid) auf 
feme rene nidjt roofyl tjerlaffen (rely), ba er etu ^u^Iiinber" fei. >ei 
^atife tourbe itnru()tg imb tnottte t^n priifen, 4 in tme fern btefer 3lrg* 
h)ot)n 5 begriinbet tucire. @r Ue^ i^n 311 fid) fontmen unb fagte: ,,>o* 
natn, id) ^abe unter mctncu (Smtrn etnen gefal)rtid)en ^etnb, gegen 
iueldjen id) luegen fetneg ftarlen ^nb/ange^ 6 fetne etwatt 7 gebraudjen 
fann. ^ab.cr befe^te id) tr, ba^ !Du ein fetneg (Sift bereitcft, ba$ an 
bcm Jobten feine @)3ur toon fid) jitrurftd^t. 3d) ttntt i!^n morgen 311 
einem aftma()I (feast, dinner) etntaben itnb mid) fetner auf btefe 
2Betfe entlebtgen." 8 

^onatn antinortete mnt^tg: ,,3JMne Stffenfdjaft erftrerft 9 fid) nttr 
onf 5lrjiteten, bte ba Seben erfyalten; 10 anbere fann id) ntd)t beretten. 



126. s im St^eater. tca>at)ren. "bitbcn. s^interlafjen. sfcaS elnfacbe eianb. 

i learning. 2 made this man suspicious to him, i.e., made him suspicious of this 
man. sforeigner. <try. Ssuspicion. party. 'useforce. s get ri<5 of him. to 
extend. 1 preserve. 



362 



IMPERATIVE. 



3d) b,abe mid) aud) me bemufyt, e3 gu lernen, roetl idj glaubte, bafe bei 
23el)errfd)cr ber tuafjten (Slaubtgen 1 feine fotdjcn $enntnijfe toon mir 
forbern roiirbe. 2Benn id) fyierin llnredjt getljan b,abe, fo erlaube mtr, 
)einen >of gu fcerlaffen." 

Sftuteroeful erroiberte, bag fet mtr etne leere (gntf djufbtgttng ;* roer 
bie b,eilfamen 2J?itteI fenne, ber fenne aud) bie fd)abltd)en. (Sr bat, er 
brofyte, er Derfprad) @efd)enfe. Umfonft; >onain btteb bei feiner 3tnt* 
ort. (Snbtid) ftettte ftd) s ber $alife ergiintt, rtef bie 2Bad)e unb 
befall, biefen tuiberfpenftigen 4 9ftann tn' efa'ngni gu fitb.ren. 3)a3 
gefdjab,; aud) luurbe ein nnbfd)after 5 unter bent @d)etne etneS e* 
fangenen gu tb,m gefe^t, ber ib,n auforfd)en unb bem $altfen oon 
5lflem tua8 iponain fagen toiirbe, ^adjvtdjt geben 6 foUte. 5lber ^onatn 
terrietb, 7 mit fetnem SBorte feinem SKitgefangenen, hjarum ber $altfe 
auf tb,n gitrne. 8 2lHeg, was er fagte, roar, ba er unfdjutbig roare. 

(To be continued.) 

Sprcdjiibung. 

fitr etnen ?lrgt b,atte ber (5r ^atte etnen fremben 
ajiuteroeful an feinem meng 



SSer madjte ib,n oerbfidjttg ? 
ttJetdjem runbe? 

be^^alb ber^alife 



uerlangte er Don 



Sann fottte bie Skrgiftung ftatt* 
fiuben ? 
antnjortete 



2Bar ber &altfe mit biefer 
wort gufrieben ? 



^>onatn gule^t nad) (yield) ? 
tb,at gute^t SDhtteroeful? 



(Stntge netbifdje (envious)^ofleute. 

SBett er ein $lu3tanber roar. 

(Sr befdjlofc, tb,n gu pritfeu (ib,n auf 

bie ^robe gu ftellen). 
(Sr fottte ein feineS tft bereiten, 

um einen (Smir gu bergiften. 
5lm anbern Xage bei einem aft* 

mafjle. 
~ er biefeS nid)t berfte^e, unb 

ba e8 ein fd)Ied)ter ebraud) 

feiner SQSiffenfdjaft fetn roitrbe. 
er beftanb (insisted) au| 

fetnem 33efel)te; er bat, er brofyte 

unb Derfprad) tljm efd)enfe. 
97ein, er blieb ftanbljaft bet feinet 

^tntroort. 
Sr Itefc tb,n tn' efangni^ fe^en. 



2 excuse, s to feign. < obstinate, -spy. G to inform. 



JtoreveL 



INFINITIVE. 363 

fixmatn cittern ttn efang- 9?em, ein ^unbfdjafter ttmrbe jit 
nifj ? ifym gefefct. 

fottte biefer tfywt ? @r follte bem talifen toon Client 

9tod)rtd)t geben, wag onam 
fctgen roitrbe. 

fagte ber Slrjt itber bte llnge* 9Jetn, er fagte nur, ba^ er wt* 
rerfjttgfeit beg f alifen ? fdjulbig fet (or tt>are). 



FORTY-FOURTH LESSON. 

THE INFINITIVE. 

I. The Infinitive used as a Substantive. 

1. The Infinitive is sometimes used substantively, either 
with or without the definite article. It is translated in 
English by the present participle : or by the infinitive. 

3)a8 SRettett tft etne cmgenefyme 33ett)egvmg. 

Riding is an agreeable exercise. 

>a3 Cefen ermitbet bie Slugen. 

Reading fatigues the eyes. 

eben ift (ettger ate nefjmen. 

It is more blessed to give than to receive. 

NOTE. Concerning the participle present with of before it, see p.372,2a 

II. The Infinitive without lt. 

1. The Infinitive without Jit is used after the auxiliaries 
of mood foflen, tootten, mitffen, fdnnen, mdgen, bitrfen. Ex. : 

Sir fbnnen $)eut|cf) fpredjen, We can speak German. 

2. Further after the following verbs: fefyett, prett, fii^Ien 
(to feel), ternen (to learn), tel)ren (to teach), fyetften (to bid), 
fyetfen (to help), marfjen, and taffen. Ex. : 

bte ^rau Dorbetgetjen, I saw the woman pass, 
leljrt beten, Poverty teaches to pray. 



364 

Sttetn <2oljn ternt (Sng(ifrf) lefen. 

My son learns to read English. 

3)ian ()iep ben $naben Ijinauggeljen. 

They bade the boy go out. 

3d) l)ovtc nietnen greunb in etner efeUfdjaft fhtgett. 

I heard my friend sing at a party. 

(r liefe ben jPiann Ijeretnriifen, He had the man called in. 

NOTE. The above verbs, with the exception of fu^ten, Icfrrcn, and some- 
times Icrnon, have this peculiarity, that they form the perfect, pluperfect, 
and future perfect with the infinitive instead of the past participle, when 
these tenses are connected with another infinitive. Ex. : 



te bag 23itcf) Itegen feljen (instead of gefeljen) ? 
2)?an ftat mi* rufcn taffen. 
3$ feabe fie fingen fyoren. 
cr aWann ^at mir arbeiten ^elfen. 
25 tr fyabcn j^ramoftfi^ f^rec^en lernen (or gelernt). 
28 o {jafccn Sie i^n fcnnen fldernt ? 
Where have you made his acquaintance ? 

3. The infinitive without JU is further used in some 
peculiar expressions with the following verbs : 

Sleiben: Itegen bfeiben, to remain lyin^, down; fi^,en Hetben, to 
remain sitting; ftefyen btetben, to remain standing, etc. 

egen: fd)tafen legen (lit., to lay to sleep), to put to bed. 

efycn, reitcn and fofjren: fpajteren geljen, to go walking; fpojtercn 
retten, to go riding (a-horseback) ; fpajteren fab,ren, to go 
driving; 1 fdjlafert ge|en, to go to sleep ; betteln pe^en, to go 
begging. 

HI. Infinitive with JU. 

1. The infinitive depending on a substantive, takes JU. 
Ex.: 

^aben (te l?ufl (a mind) tn'S Sweater gu geljen? 
dr Ijatte ntdjt ben 3)?ut^ itber ben ^Iu 511 fcfynnmmen. 
2Bann merbe id) ba 3Sergniigen b,aben (Sie tnieber ^u feljen ? 

2. The infinitive depending on an adjective, takes JU. 
Ex.: 

i fpnjleren means to take exercise for pleasure, and fpojtmn ge&en, to walk far pleasure, 
and so on with the rest, fpajimn ( <= in order to take exercise for pleasure) modify 
(jig the following verb. 



INFINITIVE. 365 

3)|efe3 ebid)t ift (ctd)t gu lernen. 

SDiefet Srief ift fdjwer gu lefen. 

3$ bin. becjievtg (anxious) gu erfaljren, tucr e8 getljan Ijat. 

3, The infinitive depending on any verb, except those 
mentioned under II, takes jit. In English, the second 
verb is sometimes not in the infinitive at all, but in the 
present participle. Ex. : 

gr fing an gu tadjcn, He began laughing. 

3d) fiirdjtete gu fpcit gu fommen (to come too late). 

I was afraid of being too late. 

SBcmn Uk'rben <5te auffjoren gu fcfyreiben? 

When will you cease writing? 

jDec Sflaoe bemiiljte fid) bte @unft fetneS errn gu ertangen. 

The slave endeavored to obtain the favor of his master. 

3)er $apttdn iibercebete bett ^rembeu mtt ifym gu ge^en. 

The captain persuaded the stranger to go with him. 

4 When the auxiliaries tyakn and fettt are followed by 
an infinitive, it takes ju. Ex. : 

3d) f)ab9?td)t8 gu tljun. 

^abert @tc mir StroaS gu fagen ? 

Bag ift ba gu tb,un, gu gtauben, gu anttoorten? 

(g ift gu bebauern, bafc biefer 9)iann geftorben ift. 

NOTE. The infinitive after the verb to be, is in English commonly the 
infinitive passive ; in German it must be the infinitive active, when the 
sense is capable or worthy of being. Ex. : 

It was not to be avoided, @3 iar ntdjt ju ttermetben. 

His death is to be feared, etn Sob ift gu furdjten. 

That book is not to be had, ^etteS 93udj ift niojt 

A change is much to be wished for. 

Sine SSeranberung tft fefyr ju rt)iinf(Sen. 



EXERCISE 126a. 

1 ift eine fd)(e^te elDpb,n^eit. 3 U b ^ ( to mucn ) 
fd^tafen ift eben fo ungefunb, ate gu ftiet effcn. 3d) ^abe ba iBuc| 
nod) nidjt lefen ISnnen. ^aben <Sie tefen twoflen ? 9^ein r id) (jabe 
fc^reiben tootten. ^etfen (Sic mir meine Ueberfe^ung madden. 2Bcr 
^at bic^ geb,en ^et^en? @r b,at mi^ tangen geleb,rt. 3^ b,abe ib,m 

1360. i taking snuff. 



366 

arbetten Ijelfen. 3mb 3ie geftent fpajieren gegangen? 9Jetn, id) 
bin fpajtcren gevitten. 3)er $omg ijat mir bte (Srlaubnuj gegeben 
etnen >egen 311 tragen. $ennen 3ie ein ftdjereS 2)Httel bie ilNauje 311 
DertUgen? 2 a3 ftdjcrfte 2)?tttel unfer eben 311 miangern, tft jeben 
SlugenbltdE be3 !age3 gut anjuroenben. 3d) t)abe feine ^offnung 
meljr ntcinen oerloreuen 3ob,n loieber gu flnben. 

^tufgabe 126b. 

Eating and diinking make one (Sinen) sleepy. To speak 
too much is dangerous. These people's laughing is very un- 
pleasant. 1 I bade him do it I saw him come. They 
could not make me laugh. Learn to do good (@utec<). Have 
you seen the young girl dance ? No, but I have heard her 
sing. When our friends help us to work, we ought to be 
grateful 2 to them. Let us take a walk. Shall we have the 
pleasure of sseing you to morrow ? I have no mind to make 
the bargain (ben >anbet etn3iigef)en) for fear of losing by it. The 
slaves had no desire to run off (fort), knowing (as they knew) 
what the consequence 3 would be. I am eager 4 to learn music. 
He was near (nab,e baran) dying. The pupil was tired 8 of read- 
ing German, What have you to do? I have a letter to write. 
A pardon is not to be hoped [for]. 

5. The infinitive with JU is further required after the 
prepositions anflatt aud ofyne. Ex. : 

Shtflatt gu lacfjen, ttmttte er. 

(5r ging au3, ofyne mid) $u fragen. 

SJiandje eute roerben geb,afjt (hated), ofjne e3 gu berbtenen. 

IV. The Infinitive with urn and JU. 

1. This is required after substantives and verbs, when 
a design or purpose is expressed by the English infinitive. 
Ex.: 

mben 3ie elb erfjatteit, urn ein ^pferb gu faufen? 

3d) braudje papier, urn etnen 33rief $11 fdjretben. 

3d) retfe, inn bie SSelt gu fe^en. 

136*. 2 to destroy. 

126b. i imangenefyn. sbanfbar. 



INFINITIVE. 367 

2. It is also required after adjectives preceded by JU 
(too), or followed by gemig. Ex. : 

@ie tft gu fung, um biefe Arbeit jit terrid)ten (to do). 
>err 31. tft nidjt reid) genug, um btefeS Sanbgut (estate) ju 
faufen. 

Y. The English. Accusative and Infinitive. 

1. The accusative with the infinitive used in English 
after the verbs to know, to desire, to wish, to mean, etc., 
must be changed in German into a subordinate clause 
with bap, in which the accusative governed by such a 
verb appears as the nominative. For instance the fol- 
lowing sentence : We knew him to be a bad general, is 
translated into German: We knew that he was a bad 
general, SBtr nmpten, bap er ein fcfylecfyter eneral roar (or 
tft) 1 (indicative present or imperfect). Ex. : 

I knew the captain to be a good rider. 

3d) rotate, baft ber auptmqmt ein guter better roar. 

I wish her to do the work. 

3d) rciinfdje, ba fie bte Slrbett tljite. 

We wished our friends to come in. 

roimfdjten, bafj uufere g^eunbe Ijereinfommen modjtett. 



We have already seen (II, 2) that the accusative with 
the infinitive occurs after a few verbs in German. 

VI. The EUiptical Infinitive. 

1. The infinitive after how, what, and where may be 
translated into German by the infinitive and follen, ttliif* 
fen or fbnnen. Ex. : 

I do not know where (I am) to go. 

3d) tt>et nid)t, roofyin id) gcfyen foil. 

Tell hirn how (he is, must or can) to do it. 

ogen @ie il)m, rote er eg madjen fott (mitfe or farm). 

i 3jl is required if he still is a bad general. 



368 INFINITIVE. 

It may also be translated by the simple infinitive, e.g* t 

nid)t n>a$ $u tbitn. 



READING EXERCISE 127. 

9lnftatt 311 arbetten, ging er fpa^teren. (3 b,at aufgefyort $u regncn. 
3d) freue mid), 311 fpren, ba 3b,r @ob,n fold)e (Sfyrenbegetgungen 1 
empfangen h,at. 2)er 2?o[e Ijat 9itd)t8 gu Ijoffen. 3d) fyatte' 9tid)t3 
mtt biefcm fd)led)ten 2J?enfd)en 311 fdjajfen (do). jDtejer ^ranfe b,at 
btete Sdjmzrjen 311 erbulbeu. 3)er ^)aui)tmann war 311 miibe, urn @ie 
fo fpat 511 befudjen. SDci- 9^id)ter b,at ben efangcnen in'S efangntg 
fiiljren taffen. 3)u btft ntd)t tuitrbtg, btefc Seto^nung 311 em^fangcn. 
SJJetn s JJad)bar b,atte btc ^bftdjt, 2 fein ^aug ju fterfaufen, urn feine 
<Sd)utben 3 be^a^leu gu fonnen. 

Kufgafie 128. 

We lost our time without knowing it. The boy is con- 
tinually 1 playing 2 instead of learning hif lesson. We cannot 
betray 3 the truth without being (rendering ourselves) guilty. 
He did so (e$), in order to frighten* you. My children must 
learn to draw, in order to be able to draw landscapes. 5 At last 
I began to long 6 for my native country, 1 that I might {translate: 
in order to) (IV) repose after my travels and fatigues. 8 The 
early death of the hero was much to be regretted. 9 If he were 
not ashamed 10 of confessing 11 the truth, he would say that he 
did not begin to work before ten o'clock. The stream 12 is too 
rapid 1 * to be often frozen (gefrteren, active). She knew him to 
please (V) everybody. I wish you to read the history of 
England by (oon) Macaulay. When you know a poor man to 
be honest and industrious, you ought to esteem him more 
highly (b,bb,er) than a rich man who violates" the duties of 
a Christian. 

READING LESSON. 

$te gqiriiftc Sreue. ((Sdjutfj.) 

ftad) ctntgen 2JJonaten Uep ber $attfe ifyn hneber toor fid) rufen. 
Sluf emern Stfdje lag em ^paufen olb, >tamanten unb foftlidje Stoffe; 

127. i honors. 2 intention. 3 debts. 

138. i fortrcibttnb. 2 see p. 130, Note 1. seertatfjen. * erfdjreden. '< Canbfdjaften. ''>fu$ 
fetynen tud). " ba8 SSaterlanb. s anftrenaungen. sbebauern. ie to be ashamed, fi$ i^licen, 
12 tcr Strom, "reifienb. n 



369 



baneben aber ftanb ber Confer 1 nut einer eifcel 2 in ber 3 >anb itnb etnent 
<d)Uierte unter bent 3 2lrme. ,,2)u fjaft nun geit genug gefyabt," fmg 
2Kutett)eful on, W 2)id) $u bebenfen 4 unb bag Unrest (fault) Pettier 
iJBiberfpeufttgfeit 5 ehtjufeljen. 9^un ttaljle: entroeber nimm biefe 
9fetd)t()iuner unb tfyue metnen 2Bitten, ober berette )id) $u ehtem fdjtmpf* 
lid)en 6 Xobe I" 2lber ^onatn antioortete, bie (Scfjanbe liege nid)t in bet 
trafe, foubern in bem 55erbred)en. (Sr fonne fterben, o^ne bie (Sfyre 
feuieg 3tanbe! 7 unb feiner 2Btffenfd)aft 3U beftecfen. 8 3)er ^olife fei 
ber ^err feine^ Seben8; er tfjue, 9 h)a ii)m gefotte. 

,,@el)t ^inaug !" fagte ber $attfe 311 ben llmfte^enben; unb al$ er 
allein tuar, reid)te er bem getoiffenfyaften 10 onain bie >anb unb f^rad^: 
,,onoin, id) bin mit !Dtr jufrteben; 3)u bift ntetn ^reunb unb id) ber 
2)etnige. 3)?an I)at mir )eine Sreue t)erbad)tig gemad)t; id) mufcte 
jDeine (g^rlid)feit priifen, u um getoift ju ttierben, ob id) mid) tioftfommen 
ouf 2)td) tsertaffen fonne. 9?id)t al etne 33elof)nung, fonbern al3 ein 
3eid)en 12 meiner ^reunbfdjaft hjerbe id) !Dir biefe efd)ente fenben, bie 
S)eine 9?ed)tfd)affen^eit nid)t berfii^ren 13 lonnten.", 

@o fprad) ber $alife unb befafjt ben )ienern, ba otb, bie (Sbel 
fteine unb bie (Stoffe in ^>onain' ^au^ ju tragen. 



2Bie tange blieb ^onain tm e* 

fangni^ ? 
2113 9J?utetnefut it)n mieber rufen 

Ite, )oa geigte er i^m ? 

^atte ber >en!er in ber 
>aub ? 

tertangte nun ber 
oon feinem 5lrjte ? 

antiuortete ^>onain? 



feijte er nod) Ijtn^u (add)? 



(Sinige Donate (tang). 

2luf ber etnen eite einen ifrf) mit 

otb unb >iamanten, auf ber 

anbern etnen enfer. 
Sr Ijatte eine eifjel in ber ^>anb 

unb ein @d)R)ert unter bem 3lrnt. 
onaht fottte tudfjlen giuifdjen 9teid) 

t^um unb Xob. 
3)ie Sdjanbe liege ntd)t in bet 

(Strafe, fonbern im 53evbred)en. 
)er ^aifer tf)tte, n?a i^m gefafle. 



i the executioner. 2 scourge, s see p. 310, 14. 
ness. c shameful. " profession. 8 to stain. 



to consider. 5 obstinacy, stubborn- 

. . . . 9 see p. 359, 9. 10 conscientious 

honest, n to prove, put on trial. 12 token, is to corrupt. 



B70 PRESENT PARTICIPLE. 



(submit) er ftd) enbltcf) in 'ftein, er blieb ftcmbfjaft b f eutei 
ben Stllen beS $alifen V SBeigerung (refusal). 

26ie belofynte 3Huteu>eful ib,n ba* (r [ogle, baft er mit tb,m gufrieben 
fur ? fei, unb geftanb ib,m, bag er tfyn 

nur b,abe priifen rooflen. 

2Bte nannte er tb,n ? (r nonnte tb,n feinen reunb. 

Unb rate begeugte (show) cr if>m @r Iie ba^ o(b, bte belftetn? 
feine 2)anfbarfeit? unb fojlbaren toffe 

SKob.nung bringeru 



FORTY-FIFTH LESSON. 

THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE. 

1. a] The present participle may be employed in Ger- 
man as in English like an adjective, e.g. ' 

Sin toetnenbeS $inb, A weeping child. 

(gute Uebenbe Gutter, A loving mother. 

35ie aufqeb,enbe onne, The rising sun. 

2)ie ermunternben 2Borte, The encouraging words. 

All the examples just given are of the present parti- 
ciple immediately preceding and qualifying a noun, i.e., 
used as an attributive adjective, and it is used thus much 
oftener than as a predicate adjective, i.e., standing alone 
after some part of fein, to be. Instead of, a$ &int> war 
ttetnent, we must say, )og fttnb toeinte ; instead of, Xic 
Sautter ifi liebcnt, Die Gutter ifl Uebmll, etc. 

b) Nevertheless, there are a few present participles 
which may be employed with the greatest freedom io 
every way in which genuine adjectives are employed, 
thus: 

belefyrenb, instructive briicfenb, oppressive 

betriibenb, afflicting ermtibenb, fatiguing 

bringenb, pressing fltejjenb, fluent, flowing 



PRESENT PAKTtCIPLE. 371 

l)tnretJ3enb, overpowering toerletjcnb, offensive 

retgenb, charming imterfyaltenb, amusing, etc. 



EXAMPLES. 

<Sie fang reijenb, She sang charmingly. 

2)a8 ift mefyr ermlibenb al3 erqutcfenb geraefen, That was more 

wearisome than refreshing. 
3)rtngenbere efd)dfte, More pressing affairs. 
(Sr bat un8 bnngenber a(8 ttorljer, He begged us more press- 

ingly than before. 

@te entfernten fid) fdjttietgenb, They departed silently. 
(Sr fagte mtr, ftetS ladjenb . . . , He said to me, laughing all 

the while . . . 
(Sr raudjte, (tc^ (affig auf bent (Sttenbogen ftiiljenb, He was 

smoking, supporting himself carelessly on his elbow. 

c) In the last two examples the present participle tells 
us what was going on at the same time with the action of 
the principal verb, he was laughing at the same time 
that he said to me, etc.; he was supporting himself on 
his elbow as he smoked. It is more usual in such cases 
to translate the English present participle by inbem (in 
tJmt, while) and the indicative, e.g., (r rmtcfyte, tnbem er jtcf) 
Idfftg auf bem (SUenbogen ftii^te. 3nbem is used also to 
translate the English present participle preceded by by, 
e.g., By showing, 3nbem er (eg, fte u.f.ro.) jetgt (jeigte u.f.ro.) 

d) Sometimes ittfcem (while) would not give the force of 
the English participial clause, and another conjunction 
must be chosen, e.g. : 

Believing you were dead, I went on. 
!Da (since) id) glaubte Sie rtmren tobt, fo gtng trf) tBctter. 
The sun rising, the stags showed themselves at our left, 
(gobatb (as soon as) bte (Sonne aitfging, getgten ftrf) bte >trfd)e 

Itnfg oon m\%. 
He accepted the position, knowing all the while that she 

had been lying. 
(r nafjm bte tette an, obtt>ol){ (although) er ttwfjte fte 

getogen. 



372 PRESENT PARTICIPLE. 

Henry coming over to us, we sat down to discuss the 

matter. 
2113 (when) emrid) 311 un fyeruberfom, ba fefcten n)it unS, inn 

bte <ad)e 311 befpredjen. 

e) In other cases again, the student will see that the 
English present participle used as an adjective is equi- 
valent to a relative clause. It may then be so translated 
into German, e.g. : 

A man, suddenly springing out of the bushes, etc. 
(Sin 3Waun, ber plolid) cms bent eftra'ud) fprang :c. 
A fellow holding such opinions. 
(Sin $ert, ber foldje 2ftetmmgen |)at. 



/) Cumbrous constructions like the following occur 
much more frequently in books and newspapers than in 
conversation : 



(Sin mid), id) toetfc ntd)t ttmritm, immer tabetnber ^rtttfer. 
(A me, I do not know why, always blaming critic) i.e., 
A critic (who is) always blaming me, I do not know why. 

2. a) We have already seen that the English present 
participle used as a noun is often translated by the in- 
finitive (see page 363, 1). 

NOMINATIVE. 

Heading (the reading of) good books is necessary for 

young people. 

$)a$ Sefen guter 33ud)er ift fungen Seuten notfyig. 
Card-playing and smoking are expensive habits. 
3)o ^avtenfptelen unb 9tourf)en ftnb foftfpiettge (Setuoljnljetten. 
Dying is hard, (Sterben ift fdjnjer. 
Denying his guilt would be shameful. 
(S3 ware fdjanblid) fcine djulb gu fcerleugnen. 

GENITIVE. 



Of dancing I am tired, 2)& Xan^enS bin id) mttbe. 
Instead of crying, 3lnftatt be^ 3Betnen. 



PRESENT PARTICIPLE. 373 

Bat: 

The art of writing, $)te unft 311 frfjretben. 

The pleasure of seeing you, )a$ 33ergnugen @te 311 fe!jen. 

Compare page 318, 4. 

With anftatt, the infinitive with JU is more usual, e.g.> 
ilnftatt ju weinen. 

DATIVE. 

He became a declared enemy of (to) smoking. 

!em 9Jaud)en ttntrbe er ein erflarter ^einb. 

I am not to blame for the want of an answer so long (for 

the long being deficient of an answer). 
9ln bem langen S 2(u8bleiben einer Slntwort bin id) nidjt 



ACCUSATIVE. 

I Kke fishing very much, 3d) fyabe bag 2lnge(n feljr gent. 
He went away without paying us, (r ging fort o^ne un^ ^u 

bqafyten. 
He began speaking, (Sr ftng an gu fpred^en. 

6) Another way to translate the present participle used 
as a noun, is by a clause beginning with a conjunction, 
very frequently bap, e.g. : 



junge eute gnte 33itd)er lefen, ift notfytg. 
Stnftntt ba^ @iner rtjeinte (Instead of that a fellow cried). 
j>arcm baf? bie ^Inttuort fo langc au^btieb, bin id) ntc^t djulb. 
Your fishing I Kke very well (I am quite willing you 

should fish). 

afe (te cmgeln, (jab' id) fefyr gent. 
I wrote without my father's knowing it. 
3d) fdjvteb, o^ne baf? mein $ater e n)uf?te. 
He wished to copy the letter before his uncle's seeing it. 
(r oolite ben 33rief abfdjveiben, eb/e fein )nfcl ib,n fa'b.e. 
We noticed his looking at her. 
2Bir bemerften, ba er fie anfaf). 
We heard of his becoming a soldier. 
2Bir (jortcn, baft er Sotbat geiuorbcn Juar. 

1 Although an adjective, usually printed -with a capital letter. It has the same f'ornj 
30 the noun efyulb, ffuilt, and is not used attributively.' 



374 PRESENT PARTICIPLE. 

I spoke of (my) going to Paris. 

3d) fpraf) bauon, baft id) nad) ^artS gefyen tooflte. 

I have nothing against your going there. 

3d) fyabe S jjid)t3 bagegen, bag <3te baln'n gefyen. 

The landlord insisted on our taking horses. 

Set Strtlj beftanb barauf, baft hnr -Pferbe neljmen fotttcn. 

Besides her being rich, 2Iuperbem baft fte reid) tft. 

He saved himself by jumping through the window. 

Sr rettete ftd) baburd), baft er aug bent ^enfter fprang. 

The prisoner was hanged for .killing a man. 

>er @efaugene rtwrbe gefyangt, toett cr emeu SJJann getobtet Ijatte. 

You must have perceived it, while speaking with him. 

@te ntuffen e bemerft ^oben, wa^rcnb <3te mtt t^m [pradjcn. 

After having (I had) gone over the bridge, I had a 

splendid view into the valley. 
9?adjbem id) bie SBrurfe pafftrt fyatte, Ijatte id) etne ^crrtid)c 2lu3* 

ftdjt tn' X^aL 

After having received my money, I paid my creditors. 
9?ad)bem id) mem e(b erljalten ^atte, begaljltc id) metiic 

(ciubtger. 

READINQ EXERCISE 129a. 

err 5J?iiffer tuar ein forgfamer 2?ater unb etn Itebenber atte. 3)aS 
S5Ub ftettt (represents) ein ladjenbeS ^tnb bor. 2)te folgenbe 5luf- 
gabe tft ju itberfe^en. Sampe'^ 9iobinfon Srufoe tft ein fcljr nnter* 
^attenbeg unb beteb,renbe3 Slid). 3)a 33aben tfl gefunb. U)a8 
3etd)nen tft etne tngenefyme 58efd)afttgung. 3)a3 ^adjett mandjer 
Scute tfl unangenef)nt. fatten @te bie Sljre jetne 33efanntfd)aft gn 
ntadjen '? 5)a^ 3pa3terengef)en tft fitr mid) fefjr ermiibenb. !0efcn unb 
<Sd)teiben tft fiir alle Scute notljig. 9J?etne $mi Itebt baS 9Jaud)cn 
ntdjt. 3d) fanb etne ^tafd)e, nieldje rotb/en SSetn entb,telt. @te ftng 
?ben an etnen 33rief ^u fd)retben. 3d) war nafje baran, nad) S 3lmertfa 
luSguroanbern. (Sic mitffen fortfa^ren (Snglifd) 311 lernen. 



130a. 

I am going to Paris in a few daya I saw the dying old 
man. You will find the word on the following page. That 
was a very fatiguing journey. My friend lives in a charming 
region. 1 Biding and dancing are good physical 3 exercises. 
Js learning necessary for young people? The burden 3 is 
oppressive. Clouds* are formed from the vapours arising" (1, e) 

130&. KSejenb, f. *torperU$. sfcU 8a|t. < bie Soften. 



PRESENT PARTICIPLE. 376 

from the earth. I have seen a book containing beautiful 
poems. Alexander asked his friends standing (1, e) about his 
death-bed, 6 if (ob) they thought they could find a king like 
him. She was near dying. He told me trembling, that he 
had lost all his money. Speaking thus, she stabbed 7 herself. 
Eliza Veeping 'bitterly, threw herself into her mother's arms. 
The father stood mourning 8 by the tomb 9 of his son. The 
surgeon began dressing (oerbmben) the wound. The rising 1 * 
sun disperses 11 the fog. 

READING- EXERCISE 130b. 

3d) IaS bte 3eitung, oljnc baft er eS bemerfte. 2Btr fpradjen babon, 
baft tuir nad) 2Sten gefyen toottten. >er <Sd)iiter ttmrbe geftraft, roeii 
er tra'ge gewefen tft. (5r war bofe 1 Uber mid), baft id) tfyn getoecft Ijatte. 
3d) ittar geftcrn in Sfjrem >aitfe, ^nc e3 ju tmffen. >urd) bag 
23eobad)ten 2 btcfer ^egeln faun man mele ^etjter bermetbcn. 3d) wcrbe 
fpajteren gefyen, narfjbcm id) meinc efdjcifte beenbtgt f)abe. 3d) fanb 
btefeg ^acfdjen btefen SO^orgen, a(8 (on) id) au bem ^aitfe gtng. 2)a 
id) finbc, baft e8 mtr unmogtid) fetn totrb, ntetn $erfpred)en ju 
fo ne^me 3 id) mem 2Bort 



131. 

She noticed my looking at her. She cannot endure 1 his 
going away. I am sure of his having done it. I am rejoiced 
at hearing of him. The overseer repented 2 having been so 
cruel to (gegen, towards) the slaves and began treating 3 them 
with more humanity. 4 Hearing the noise 5 of the cannon, we 
started 6 up. Having seen him, I went to his brother. We 
form our mind by reading (2, b) good books. We have obtained 
peace by making great sacrifices. 7 You will learn to speak 
French by writing it. The setting 8 sun indicated that it would 
be useless pursuing 9 the fugitives. 10 Having taken leave, 11 he 
departed. Being poor, he had been neglected. Having no 
money, I could not depart. Having told his ridiculous 
stories, he went off (fort) laughing. Mary and her brother 
Henry, perceiving a pretty butterfly," endeavored (fudjten) to 
catch it. Conjecturing (1, d) (uermutfyen) that I was rich and 



130a. bo8 SEobtfcett. 7erbof(fyen. strauem. afcaSQrab. iouf8Ben. nettrei6en. 
130b. i angry with. 2 to observe, s to retract. 

131. irttagen. 2 bereute bajj. sbeljanbetn. < 2Henft6,tt<$f eit. 6ber1)onn. 
ito make sacrifices, Dpfer bringen. 8 untergetjen. scerfotflen. 



376 PRESENT PARTICIPLE. 

finding that I was ignorant, he thought it would be easy to 
deceive me. The old man having spoken thus, the assembly 
dispersed. 1 * 

READECTQ LESSON. 

fiiefee. Filial Love. 



(Sin beriifjmter preufjtfdjer eneral' hmr in feiner Sugenb (gbetfnabe 1 
an bem |>ofe grtebrid)3 beS rofcen. (Sr fyatte fetnen 23ater ntefyr unb 
feme Gutter naljrte fid)* fummerlid) 3 in iljrem SStttroenftanbe.* 5US 
em guter ofnt nmufdjte er, fie unterftitfcen 5 311 fonnen, aber toon feinem 
geringen el)alte 6 fonnte er 9?id)tg entbeljren. 7 

$>od) fanb er ein 2ftittet, (gtroaS fur fie 311 erwerben. 3ebe 97ac^t 
mute ndmttc^ einer &on ben (SbeUnaben in bem 3^ mmer oor ^ cm 
djtaffabinet beg $omg8 luad^en, urn btefem aufgurtarten, 8 wenn er 
Stwa uertangte. 2)a 2Bacf)en tuar 3JJan^em gu befc^tuerUd), unb 
fte iibertrugen 9 ba^er, wenn bte ^et^e 10 an fie fam, tyre SSarfjen 5lnbe* 
ten. 2)er arme (Sbelfnabe futg an, btefe 2Badjen fiir 5lnbere gu iiber* 
nefjmen; er fturbe bafiir be^a^It, unb ba elb, rtel^e^ er bafiir erl^ielt, 
fparte er gufammen, 11 uub fd^tdte e bann fetner Gutter. 

inmal fonnte ber ^ontg beS ^adjtS nic^t f^tafen unb moflte ft^ 
(Sth)a bortefen laffen. 12 @r ftingette," er rtef; aber ^iemanb fam. 
Snbltc^ ftanb cr felbft auf unb gmg in baS ^eben^immer, urn gu fe^en, 
ob letn ^Jage ba rtare. ^ter fanb er ben guten 3unglmg, ber bte 
SSac^e ubernommen Ijatte, am Jtfc^e ft^enb. S3or tfym lag ein ange* 
fangener Srtef an feme SQiutter; aUein er war uber bem djreibcn 
etngefd)lafen. 3)er ^ontg f^tt^ ^erbet (stole near) unb lag ben 
Slnfang be8 S3rtefe8, h)elcf)er fo lautete (ran) : ,,9fteme befte, gettcbte 
Gutter! !Dtefe ift fd^on bie brttte 9^ac^t, ba id) fur @elb wadje. 
Setna^e fann id) eg ntdjt me^r aug^alten. 1 * Snbeffen freue id) mid), 
ba^ id) nun toteber ge^n 2:t;aler fiir @te berbtent ^abe, 1 ' weldje id) 
Olmen ^ierbei fd)ide. M 

131. 13 aiiScinanber gefien. 

i a page. 2 support. 3 with difficulty. * widowhood. succor. 6 salary. 1 spar-\ 
K to wait upon. * handed over. 10 turn, u to collect, to save. 12 see p. 326. is to ring 
tho bell. " to stand, to endure, i; to earn- 



PRESENT PARTICIPLE. 



377 



eritfjrt iiber ba8 gute er^ beg 3imgling3 Iat ber $omg ifjn 
fdjlafen, geljt in fein gimmti:, fyolt $wei Gotten mit SDufaten, ftecft tym 
eine in jebe afdje imb tegt fid) wieber fdjfafen. 

1(3 ber (Sbetfnabe erwadjte unb ba3 elb in fetnen afdjen fanb, 
fouittc cr wol)( benfcn, tooljer c3 gcfommen fei. Sc freute ftrf) 3^ac 
fefjr baruber, loctt er nun feine Gutter nod) beffer unterftufeen fonntc; 
bo^ erfdjra! er andj ^ugteid), aiett ber $imig i^n fdjtafenb gefunben 
Ijatte. 2lm SKorgcn, fobalb er ^urn ^onig lam, bat er bemutljtg 1 urn 
S3ergebung tuegen feine^ 2)tenftfel)(er3 2 unb ban!te Ujnt fiir baS gnabtge 
S)cr gute $onig lobte feine finblirfje ?iebe, ernannte 3 i^n 
jum* Offtjier unb fdjenfte i^m nod^ (besides) eine (Summe 
elb, urn ftc^ 2ltfe3 anfdjaffen 5 ^u fonnen, n)a3 er $n feiner neuen 
0tettc &rancf)te. 

3)er trefftidje (So^n ftieg Jjernacf) tmmer ^o^er' unb btentc imtet 
me^reren preuifc^en ^onigen atS etn tapferer general bil ra feiu 
oe0 filter. 



war em preuifd)er enerat 

in feiner 3ugenb? ^ 
atte et bamatS feine (SItern 

nod)? 

3Ba8 war btefe alfo? 
^onnteberSoIjnjieunterflit^en? 



(gr war (Sbetfttabe an bent 



SDZtttet fanb er, (SttoaS 
fiir fie ju erwerben (earn) ? 

2ln weffen tette wacfjte er? 
SSarunt wadjten fte nirf)t felbft? 
mad)te er mit bent etbe, 

baS er auf biefe 2Beife erwarb ? 

(3 ber $6nig einmat nid)t fd)(a* 

fen fonnte, wa3 tl)at er ? 

13 9Jiemanb fant, wa8 tat er? 



@ein 33ater tebte nid)t me^r; abec 

feine Sautter. 
(Sie war eine 2Bitttoe. 
S3on fetnem exalte !onnte er e8 

nirf)t tun. 
(Sr Wad)te fur etb in bent SJor* 

Dimmer bor bent @rf)Iaffabinet 



2ln ber Stette anberer Sbetfnaben. 
(S3 war ifynen gu befd)wer(id). 
@r fdjicfte e feiner Gutter, um fte 
ju unterftii^en. 

G?r ftingette unb rtef. 
Sr ftanb auf, nm gu feljen, ob fern 
tm ^or^immer wftre. 



1 humbly. 9 fault in service, s to name, to appoint. 
to boy. e high and higher. 



4 gee p. 389, 3. s to procura. 



373 



PAST PARTICIPLE. 



fnfj cr Ijter? 



tjatte er tior fidj tiegen ? 
2tu iuen rear biefer $3rief geridjtet ? 
2Bte tautete ber 



2BtetneI fyatte er fdjon ertuorbcn? 
2ccfte ber $onig ih,n auf ? 
28a8 tfjat er UberbieS? 



51(3 ber (Sbelfnabe ettuadjte, 

empfanb er? 
SBarum war er erfc^rodeu? 



t(jat er am 2J?orgen? 



2Bie behjte^ tf)in ber 
2Bof)ItuoUen (favor) ? 
hwrbe fpater au8 (of) i 



fein 



2)er gute Oflngttng fag fc^tafenb 

am Stfd^e. 

(Sinen angefangenen Srtef. 
5ln feine Gutter. 
W 3)icfe ift fdjon bte brttie ^ac^t, 

ba trf) fur etb ttjac^e." 
3e^n Skater, 
^ein, er Iie i^n fcfjlafen. 
(r ^olte a^et gotten >itfaten unD 

ftecfte t^m in jebe Xafttje etne. 
@r war 2lnfang3 erfdjroden, freute 

ficl^ aber bod) itber ba olb. 
SBett er etnen jDienftfebler began* 

gen (committed) fjatte. 
(Sr bat ben $"b'mg um Sergebung 

unb banfte tljm fiir bag efrfjenf. 
@r madjte ib.n gum Officer unb 

fdjenfte t^m nod] etb bagu. 
Sr ftieg nad) unb nad) immei 

unb wurbe ^ute|jt enerat. 



FORTY-SIXTH LESSON. 

THE PAST PAKTICIPLE. 

1. The past participle is used very frequently in every 
way in which a genuine adjective could be used, e.g. : 

>er geftebte $oter, The beloved father. 
(Sin gefegneteS Sanb, A fertile (blessed) country. 
(Sin gebriirftereS 53otf, A people more oppressed. 
)er geeb/rtefte ^rofeffor, The most honored professor. 
%n gelefjrteften gefd)rieben, The most learnedly written. 
<5ie finb gefiirdjtet, You are feared. 

2. We call attention to the following words which are 
in form past participles, but used more frequently as ad- 
jectives than to form compound tenses. Each has a de- 
rivative beginning with UlU 



PAST PAETICIPLE. 379 

befcnmt, known unbefannt, unknown 

bemtttclt, well off unbemittelt, without means 

beriifymt, renowned unberiifymt, unrenowned 

gelefyrt, learned ungeleljrt, unlearned 

gefcfjicft, clever, skilful ungefdjicft, awkward 

geroofynt, accustomed ungetoofyut, unaccustomed. 

3. The past participle of neuter verbs of motion is 
used with fommen and gefyen, instead of the present par- 
ticiple, as : )er &nabe fain gelaufen, gefprungen, geritten, ge* 
fafjren, The boy came running, riding, etc. ; thus also, gc^ 
flogen, gefc^mommen, gefrodjen u. f. n>. fommen. Somewhat 
similiar is serloren ge^en, to be (get) lost. Ex. : 

Sine 23vteftafd)e ift tertoren gegangen (has been lost). 

4. The following past participles may be used much 
like conjunctions : 

gefe^t (lit. set), suppose 
angenommen, (assumed), assuming 
auggenommcn (excepted), except 
abgefefyen (looked off), let alone 
abgeredjnet (deducted), not counting 
gugegeben (granted), granting. 

Thus: 



e ft) are fo, Suppose it were so. 

^Ibgeeb/en babon, ba^ er aud^ gu arm ifi, Let alone that he is 
too poor besides. 

5. The past participle is often employed instead of the 
imperative. In English, the present participle is some- 
times used with a negative in a similar manner. Ex. : 

umgefefjrt ! (turned about) about face ! 
aufgefdjaut ! look up ! 
auSgetrunfen ! empty your glass! 
ntd)t nteljr geiueint! no more cryingl 
ntd)t geplaubert ! no talking ! 



380 FUTURE PASSIVE PAKTICIPLE. 

The Future Passive Participle. 

There is in German a future passive participle, answer- 
ing to the Latin participle in dus (e.g., laudandus, a, um). 
It is formed from the present participle (e.g., lobcnb) by 
placing ju before it. Ex. : 

3)a3 311 lobenbe $inb, The child to be praised. 
3)te git fyotfenbc Srnte, The harvest to be hoped for. 
3)a3 $u fiirdjtenbe Unglitcf, The misfortune to be feared. 

In the predicate, JU lobett is used, e.g., 2)a3 $int> ift JU 
foben, The child is (worthy) to be praised. 

READING EXERCISE 132. 

Sftetne geliebte ante ift geflorben. Unfer Dereljrter ^Jrofeffor tfl 
franf. ^eter ber @roe roar ber gebilbetfte 9Jiamt in Sftufclanb. S'Jero 
war ber gefiirdjtetfte romifc^e ^atfer. !Der Ijeute gefattenc <Scf)nee ifl 
gnjet $itfj ^od^. 2)cmoft^eneS tear ber beritljmtefle grie^tfc^c ^iebner. 
2)er @ret ging gebitcft (stooping) an einem Stabe unb betteltc. 2)te 
gu crfitttcnbe ipftic^t roar fc^njer. <2t^itfen @te mtr ben ju fdrbenben 1 
|>ut. 5lbgefe^en a Don bem (Srfolge/ mufc man btefe Untente^mung 
bttttgen. 3)te jit gebenbe Dper ift Don (by) Sfcoffini. @r tfi etn 
iDtrftic^ ju empje^tenber SOtann. >te 311 erniartenbe 5tnfunft unferer 
getiebten ^ontgin erfiittt atte erjen mtt greube. err ^a^bar, ge 
trunfen ! 3)te langgena^rte* ^>offnung ift enblirf) erfiittt morbcn. (Sin 
ftarfeg emitter mit ^agel 5 ^at bie fe^nttc^ft ge^offte (Srnte ucrnidjtet.* 
2)a8 geprefetc ^erj fit^tte ft^ erletcf)tert am t^eitne^menben 53ufen eineS 
getiebten 2rreunbe8. erit^rt Don ben 2Borten beg atten 2J2anne^, 
offnete er bie f)ttre unb Uep tf)n etntreten. 2)er arme tubent, afl 
feineS etbeS beraubt, fe^te betriibt feinen 2Beg fort, bi er, in einem 
2)orfe angefommen, ganj ermiibet ftc^ aitf eine San! fe^te. 

7tufgabc 133. 

1. Mr. A. is a renowned painter. If you study much, you 
will become a learned man. He stood there quite puzzled. 1 
This man died unknown and unrenowned. The knight 2 re- 
turned discouraged 3 and dejected. 4 The most honored man is 

132. ito dye. 2 without regard to. 3 result, t i.e., lange genS^rte, long-cherished, 
bt. nourished, s hail, s destroy. ' touched, moved. 
U3. ictrUjjen, eerwtnt. afcersRUUr. sentmut^tgen, reg. v. < niebetgeft^lagen. 



FUTURE PASSIVE PAETICIPLE. 381 

not always the best man. The most learned people often 
write the worst. Arrived at (in ivith dat.) the village, he pro- 
ceeded (gtng cv in) to the inn where nobody recognised 6 him ; 
he was so changed and sunburnt. 6 The life of eveiy man ia 
a continuous 1 chain of accidents. 8 The problem 9 to be solved 1 ' 
has been communicated [to] all the students. 

2. Beloved and esteemed by every one, *the 'old man died 
' at the age of ninety years. It is a fact 11 not to be denied, 1 * 
that no man has any claim 13 to perfection. My neighbor came 
running to inform me that the queen had arrived. The prince 
came driving in a coach with six horses. The danger to be 
avoided 14 is not yet over (novuber). Do you understand the 
sentence 15 to be learned? Where is the boy [who is] to be 
punished? Protected by an almighty God, 2 we x may go 
through this life without fear, if we do not deviate 16 from the 
right path. Well begun, half done, is a German proverb. 



BEADING LESSON. 

SJtotm mit ber eifmten 9Hal(c. The Iron Mask. 

(Stntge Sftonate nadj bent Xobe be8 $arbtnat3 2ft a 3 a r t n eretgnete 
fid) in ^ranlreid) etne SBegebenljett, 1 ttetdje ntd)t U)re3gleidjen 2 Ijat. (Sin 
tmbefannter efangener, ber grower al3 getoofmlid), jnng unb Don ber 
fdjonften unb ebetften eftalt 3 war, tourbe mit bent groftten @eljetnmt* 
fat ba$ (3d)to ber (St. 2ftargaretf)en*3nfet tm ^rofcenc 
gefdjuft. tefer efangene tmg unteriuegS eine 2)?a3fe, beren 
ftuc! 6 taljlfcbern 7 tjatte, tuelc^e tt)w bie gretljeit tte^en, mit ber 
anf fetnem cfic^te ju effen. (53 tear 23efel)l gegeben tuorben, if;n ju 
tobten, luenn er fid) entbetfte. Sr btieb anf ber 3ttfel, bt etn .Officer, 
9?omcn <5auit=aKor, tm ^a^re 1690 Dberauffefjer" ber Saflttti 

133. serfennen. efonnoerbrannt. "fortfcfeen, to continue. Use the past part. sci 
92lufga6e. iI6fen. nj^atfa^e. i^Ieugnen. isSlnfpru^ auf. ncrraeiben. isfca 



i event, occurrence. 2 its equal. SKcineSgletdjcn, beineSgteic^en, etc., are indeclinable, 
i.e.. the same form answers for any gender, or case, and either number. There is a 
similar word from the demonstrative bcr, namely, beScjIetdjen (' the like of that '). Poi 
t>e8g!euen, bevgletcfyen may be used. 3 figure, stature. < secrecy, sbay. e chin-piece 
7 spring. 8 overseer, governor. 



382 FUTURE PASSIVE PARTICIPLE. 

hmrbe. 2)iefcr fyoltc iljn toon ber @t. 2ftargorctljen*3nfet ab, unb 
fiifyrte ifjn, immer ucrtarbt, 1 in bie SaftiUe. $urj toor feiner 23er* 
fefcung 2 befudjte iljn ber SftarquiS toon SoutxnS auf biefer 3nfel imb 
fprad) nut iijin ftefyenb unb mit einer S 2ld)tung, 3 bte an (Sljrfurdjt grengte 
(came near to veneration). 

>iefer Unbefanntc iourbe in bie Saftitte gefii^rt, n>o er eine fo gutc 
SBo^nung tine in einem (d)Io|fe er()ielt. SDZan toerfagte 4 i^m ni^tS 
toon bem, h)a er Derlangte; er fanb fein gro^te^ 33ergniigen an feljr 
fetnem 2Sei3eug 6 unb an <5pien; 6 er fpielte auf ber uitarre. 2J?an 
^telt il)m etnen feljr guten Jifc^ unb ber )berauffef)cr fc^te fidf) felten 
cor t^m. (Sin atter 5lr^t au ber 33afttfle, ber oft biefen 2JJann in 
(einen ^ranf^eiten be^anbett 1 Ijatte, fagte, ba er nie fein eftdjt 
gefe^en ^abe, obfc^on er oft feine 3 un 9 e uno oen 9^ e ft feineg ^orperS 
unterfuc^t fyatte. (Sr h)ar auerft fd)on geu>ad)fen (made), fagte biefer 
^trgt; feine >aut War ein njenig gebraunt; er erregte 8 ^ntereffe burd) 
ben blofien 9 Xon feiner timme; nie beflagte er ftd) uber feinen 3"* 
ftanb, unb Ue 9fiemanb merfen, 10 n?er er fein fb'nnte. 

(To be continued.) 

QUESTIONS. 

K.B. The pupil is requested to seek the answers to the following questions in the 
Beading Exercise above. 



begab ftdj batb nad) bem obe beg arbmat SKagarin ? 

h)urbe auf baS @d)to^ ber @t. 2Jiargaretljen*3nfel gefdjirft? 
2Bo tiegt biefe 3nfel? 
SBa trug ber efangene beflanbig ? 
2Bie lange blieb er auf ber 3nfel? 
SSo^in fufyrte i^n @aiut=2)?ar ? 
2Ber ^atte il)n oor feiner SSerfe^ung befudjt? 
2Bie ^atte er fid) gegen if)n benommen (behaved) ? 
355a erljielt ber Unbefannte in ber Saftifle ? 
SQln ma8 fanb er fein gro|teS 53ergnUgen ? 
2Ber be^anbette i^n in feinen $ran!ljeiten? 
2Ba fagte biefer S 2trgt oft? 
SSoburd) erregte er Sntereffe? 

i masked, 2 removal. 3 respect. 4 to deny, to refuse. & linen. 6 lace, i to attend. 
c to excite, to cause. mere. 10 to perceive. 



ADJECTIVES. 383 

FORTY-SEVENTH LESSON. 

ADJECTIVES. 

Adjectives in German almost always follow the nouns 
or pronouns qualifying them, e.g., 2)ret ^ u btett, Three 
feet broad; 93?tt einer tym eigenen Unpartfyeiltcfyfeit, With an 
impartiality peculiar to him; >e3 eben ffltt, Weary of life; 
3n feinc -ftacfybarin serliebt, In love with his neighbor. 

L Adjectives which take the Accusative after them. 

1. Adjectives of weight, measure, age, or value, require 
the accusative. Such are : 

fdjluer, heavy, weighing Ijodj, high 

long, long ttef, deep 

breit, broad, wide grofc, great, large, tall 

alt, old toerti), worth. 

EXAMPLES. 

3)er (Stein toar geljn ^funb fd^mer. 

The stone weighed ten pounds. 

>te Waiter ift jttmn^tg ^u tang. 

The wall is twenty feet long. 

3)te grau tear fec^^ig 3a^re aft. 

The woman was sixty years old. 

>ier ift em geljn ^funb fd^ttjerer (Stem. 

Here is a stone weighing ten pounds. 

(Sie bauten etne ^njei^unbert $atfj fange SWauer. 

They built a wall two hundred feet long. 

IL Adjectives 1 which take the Dative after thena. 

abgenetgt, disinclined anftofctg, oflEensive 

fi^n(td), like befannt, known 

angeboren, innate begretflicf), conceivable 

angemeffen, appropriate bequem, convenient 

, agreeable befjagttd), comfoi-table 



i This list contains also some past participles which are frequently used as acU 
jectives. 



384 ADJECTIVES. 

befcfyuenid), troublesome Ueb, ) -, 

banfbar, grateful tfjeuer, ) 

btenlid), serviceable tnoglid), possible 

ei9eu ' ! neculiar nad)th,eilig, ) prejudicial, detri- 

eigentl)iimud), ) * fdjdblid), j mental, hurtful 

fremb, strange nafye, near 

gefyorfam, obedient niigucf), useful 

geiuogen, favorably inclined treu, ( foy.uf.ji 

giinftig, favorable getreu, [ 

geneigt, kindly disposed iiberlegen, superior 

getoadjfen, equal to unmbgUd), impossible 

gleid), like, equal \ivtf)a$t, odious 

gndbig, gi-acious, kind t)ortb,eHb,aft, advantageous 

|ei(fam, salutary roillfommen, welcome 

laftig, troublesome ^utraglid), conducive, beneficial 

EXAMPLES. 

>er (So^n tfi (or fiefyt) fetnem 5Sater ab.ntt^. 

The son is like (resembles) his father. 

3)ie gtebe ^ur Oreifyett ift bem 2Ken[d)en angeboren. 

The love of liberty is innate in man. 

3)ie Arbeit tear ben (Solbaten laftig. 

The labor was disagreeable to 'the soldiers. 

5)a8 Saben ift ber efunbb/eit feljr gutrdgUd^. 

Bathing is very conducive to health. 

(g toar mtr unmoglid) ju fommen. 

It was impossible for me to come. 

HEADING EXERCISE 134a. 

5)tefe ^ugel ifl me^r ot ^e^n ^funb fitter. 2Bte tang tfl bteje 
Strafe? @ie ijl ^ttjei^unbert unb gnxntjtg 5u (ang. 3)te ^einbc 
gruben emen gtuotf ^u bretten raben. 5luf bem ^(a^e 1 fteft etne 
ungefd^r bieqtg ^u ^o^e (Saute.' 2)tefe @efd)id)te tjl affen gran^o* 
fen roo{)t befannt. 3u trie! effen ifl ber efunb^eit nad)tb,eiUg. !Det 
^ontg n>ar btefem ^ofmanne 3 feb,r geiuogen. @eib euern 2Boijltfc,atern 
ftet^ 4 banfbar. (Setb nte gefuljttoS gegen bte ?etben enter Sfthmenfdjen. 
J>te tange 9?etfe h)ar bem often 2ftanne feb,r befcf)n)crttd); er fonnte fie 
nid)t toeiter fortfefcen. S)ie geinbe maren un an gafy weit iibertegen; 
beflo (the) fioljer n>aren tuir anf (see IV) unfern @ieg, nid^renb b 
feinblid)e enerat Uber feine 9?ieberlage befd)dmt n>ar. 

184*. i square. 3 column, pillar, s courtier. J always. 



ADJECTIVES. 386 



134b. 

My room is twenty feet long and fifteen wide. The boy 
climbed over x a 5 wall ^en 3 feet 4 high. In the room we found 
J a 6 man "about 'sixty-five 4 years "old. London-bridge is nine 
hundred and twenty feet long, fifty-five high, and fifty-six 
wide. The monument of London is a round pillar, two 
hundred feet high ; it stands on a pedestal 1 twenty feet high. 
Travelling is conducive to health. Your horse is much superior 
to mine. Smoking is not conducive to health, at least for 
those who have feeble lungs. 2 

IIL Adjectives 1 which take the Genitive after them. 

bebitrftig, ) in want of, to$, rid of 

benotljtgt, j in need of mad)ttg, master of 

betouftt, conscious mtibe, ) tired of, 

eingebenf, mindful fatt, j weary 

fafyig, capable fcfjutbtg, guilty 

frob,, glad tb/ttyafttg, partaking 

getocirtig, in expectation of ttberbriiffig, tired of, weary 

geltnJ3, certain toerbcidjtig, suspected 

fjabfyaft, getting possession of toerhiftig, having forfeited. 

Also, 

t, unconscious, uneingebenf, unmindful, etc. 



EXAMPLES. 

3)te ^Innen ftnb be8 etbe bebitrfttg (benotf)tgt). 

The poor are in want of money. 

3)ev &ote luar be 2Bege3 ntdjt fitnbtg (or unfunbtg). 

The messenger was unacquainted with the waj. 

S)er eneral tear beg $erratl)3 tjerbad^tig. 

The general was suspected of treason. 

3d) bin be 3lrbettenS miibe. 

I am tired of working. 

IV. Adjectives 1 which take Prepositions after them. 

ndjtfam auf (ace.), attentive to bcmge toor, afraid of 

beforgt fiir, anxious about befc^cimt ttber (ace.), ashamed of 

134b. i gu&gefJeH. 2 etne ^ica^e Sunge (sing.~). 

i Thisjist contains also some past participles which are frequently used as adjectives. 



886 

begtertg uadj, desirous of gterig nad), covetous of 

befrett or fret tion, rid of gletdjgUtig gegen, indifferent to 

efyi-getjtg narf), ambitious of gefiifyuoS gegen, insensible of 

empfiing(id) fiir, susceptible of nadjlajjtg in (dot.), careless of 

empftnbUd) iiber (occ.), sensi- retd) an (dot.}, rich in 

tive about flotj auf (ace.), proud of 

etferftidjttg auf or gegen (ace.), toerliebt in (ace.), in love with 

jealous of (a rival) 1 iiberjeugt tion, convinced, sure of 

ettel auf (ace.), vain of unnuffenb in (dot.), ignorant of 

ermiibet Don, tired by or with toerfdjroenbertfd) nut, prodigal of 

: a'f)tg $u, able, capable of jttmfelljaft iiber (ace.), dubious of 

; rolj iiber (ace.), glad of gufrteben mtt, satisfied with 

rucfjtbar an (dot.), productive of un$ufrieben mit, dissatisfied with. 

EXAMPLES. 

(Sgtypten tfi fru^tbar an SBaumroofle. 
Egypt is productive of cotton. 
S)er ^iingltng tear begterig na^ ^enntniffe*. 
The youth was desirous of knowledge. 

V. Adjectives modified by an Adverb or an Adverbial 

Phrase. 

In English, the adverb or adverbial phrase (usually) 
follows the adjective ; in German, it precedes it. 

(Sin met gelefeneS 23ucf), A much read book. 

$>er burcq 9?ub,e geftdrfte $i>rper, The body strengthened by 

repose. 

(gin nacf) enntntffen begteriger Bungling. 
3)ie bem 2J2enfc^en angeborene Siebe gur ft 



EXERCISE 135a. 

3dj bin mtr fetner (Sc^ulb berout. 2)te 5lurt)anberer btteben ib,re 
S5atertanbe ftetS eingebenf unb waren niematg gletdjgiitttg (indifferent) 
gegen ba8 @d)tcffa( beffelben. 3eber 9Kenf^ mu ftet be8 lobe^ 
getticirttg fetn, benn ber Job Derfcfjont S^iemanb. 3)te "Dame erfdjraf 
fo feb,r, ba fte ber pradje nid^t meb,r mtirfjttg roar. 3)fan b,tett tb,n 
enter foldjen fd)tt)ar5en Sb,at ntrf)t fa'fytg. 3dj bin be^ ?eben^ nnb be3 



i See the foot-note on the next page. 



ADJECTIVES. 387 

)errfd)en3 mitbe, fo fprad) ber giirft gu fctncn (Soljnen. 2)er <3d)iUet 
war gleidjgiltig gegen alle (Snnatjnimgen feine3 et)rer3. (*3 tft nidjt 
ber Sttiifye iwertt) (worth the trouble), biefen 33rief nod) einmai ab^n* 
[dpiben. 2)ie -Jrauen fatten nid)t etferfitdjtig fern iiber 1 ifyre 2)amter. 
(Sin mit feinem <3d)id"fale gufriebener 2#enfd) ift immer glitdUd). 



135b. 

We are always mindful of our duty. They were not quite 
Bure of their advantage. 1 O tell us, how did you become 
master (moid)tig) of the castle? I am tired of reading. The 
young man was not capable of such a deed. He who kills a 
man, is guilty of a great crime. I am not satisfied 2 with your 
behavior. I am quite convinced of his innocence. England 
is rich in coal. 3 The foreigner was ignorant of the language 
of the country; he was (i.e., became, ttmrbe), therefore, soon 
tired of his stay. 4 

136. 

Young people should be civil to everybody. I am satisfied 
with my pupils. The boy is fatigued with running. Human 
life is never free from troubles. 1 Many men are dissatisfied 
with their condition. 2 Those who commit suicide 3 must be 
very tired of their lives (sing.}. Let us never do anything in 
secret, 4 of which we should be ashamed if it became known. 
At last I feel myself rid of that tedious 5 disease. It is my 
duty to tell you that you are totally ignorant of (in) the most 
important 6 facts' of history. I do not like persons who are 
cruel to (gegen) animals. The tailor showed me a letter (V) 
written by his son. A man well instructed (unterrid)tet) in 
history judges 8 (the) events with impartiality. 9 He who is un- 
mindful of his domestic 10 duties, and not careful of his chil- 
dren, is an enemy to (gen.) his family and his country ; he is 
guilty of great sins, the consequence 11 of which (pl.) u he can- 
not foresee. 18 



135a. i Gifcrfft^ttg takes ilfcer before the name of the person in whose affection one 
Wants no rival, but gegen or auf before the name of the rival. 

135b. i SBort^etl, m. 2 jufrieben. 3 ftofjlen (pZ.). 4 Stufentljalt. 

136. 1 2Hae, aSeWrcerbe, f. 2 tie Sage ('nfir).eelbflmorb begetyen. 4{m el)etmen. sfana* 
aettig. enjtdjttg. i f>atia<$eu. 8 beurtl;etlen. s Unpartb,eitt<$fett. 
\pl.). 12 Bee p. 338, 1. 



388 ADJECTIVES. 

BEADING LESSON. 

$rr Miami mit tier ctjmtcn iUiasfc. 

2)iefer Unbefannte ftarb im 3aljre 1103 unb nwrbe bet -iftadjt im 
$ird)f)of ber ^oufe^farret 2 begraben. $Sa3 bag (Srftaunen toerbop- 
pelt, ift, baft 3U ber dt f al3 man ifyn nad) ber <5t. 2)iargaret^eu-3ajel 
fdjicfte, in (Suropa letn angefefyener 3 2ftann t>erfd)tt)anb. Unb bod) mar 
: biefer efangene ofyne 3 loe if e ^ em folder: benn ^olgeubeS M te ftdj 
in ber erften tit, ate er auf ber 3nfet war, 3ugetragen. 4 3)er >ber 
auffe^er fteUte felbft bie @d)ttffeln auf ben Stifc^, unb narfjbem er i^n 
eingef^loffen Ijatte, ging er weg. (Sinft fdjrieb ber efangene 
auf einen filbernen Setter nnb rtarf ben Setter ^um genfter 
gegen etn <Sc^iff, tt)el^e am Ufer lag, faft am 
3)er 5if^c r f ^nt btefeS c^iff ge^orte, fanb ben Setter, Ijob i^n auf unb 
brad)te i^n bem Oberauffe^er guriid. (Srftaunt fragte biefer ben ^tfc^er: 
w aben @ie getefen, h)a0 auf biefem Setter gefc^rteben ftet)t, unb fjat 
Oemanb i^n in -3^ren >a'nben gefe^en?" S)iefer 2Hann hwrbe feft< 
ge^atten, 6 bi ber 9luffef)er ftc^ mo^I tierfic^ert ^atte, bafe er nirf)t lefen 
lonnte, unb baft ber Setter toon ^iemanb gefeljen hiorben itiar. r ,@et)en 
@ie," fagte er, w @ie fmb fe^r gtuctlirf), ba <Sie nic^t lefen fonnen." 

^err ton d^amtttart nmr ber lefete SKtntfler, n>etcf)er biefeS fonberbare 
e^eimnt tuute. 3)er 2ftarfrf)att 80 geuittabe, fein (Sdjujiegerfo^n,' 
bat iljn bei fetnem Sobe auf ben $nteen, i^nt angugeigen, toer ber 2Hann 
niare, ben man nie anberS !annte, at unter bem 9?amen: W 3)er 5Kann 
mit ber eifernen 3)?afe." (J^amtttart antwortete i^m, ba e eiu 
<StaatSgel)eimmf$ fei, unb ba er einen (gib geleiftet 7 ^abe, e nie 311 
entbeden. 

QUESTIONS. 
9Bann flarb btefer Uubefannte? 
SBo tt)urbe er begraben? 

trug ftc^ einft auf ber Snfet ju? 

fagte ber Oberauffetjer gn bem gifcfjer? 

gef^a^ bann biefem Sftanne ? 



i churchyard. 2 Parish of St. PauL s distinguished. 4 happened, s detained. 
son-in-law, l taken an oath. 



CASES GOVERNED BY VERBS. 389 

2Bte lange ttwrbe er feftgeljalten ? 

it tt>eld)en SBorten rourbe er entlaffen (dismissed)? 
roar ber efcte, ber biefeS el)etmm| roufjte ? 
gab S^amittart bem 



FORTY-EIGBTB LESSON. 

THE CASES WHICH DIFFERENT VERBS 
GOVERN. 

L Yerbs which in German are followed by the Nominative. 

1. The nominative case is required by the following 
verbs : 

fetn, to be fdjeinen, to appear, to seem 

toerben, to become, to get ijetfsen, to be called, to bear a 
bleiben, to remain name. 

EXAMPLES. 

^apoteott foar em grower ^efbljerr (general). 
3)er junge SD'Jenfcf) ift @otbat getoorben. 
fc^etnt em guter ^tan (gu fetn). 



2. By the passive of the following verbs, which, in the 
active, govern two accusatives (e.g., !Dic 3&ger ncnnen Me 
SDfyren be^ ^afen Soffel, Hunters call the hare's ears spoons], 
as: 

nennen, } , CQ ^ f^elten, to abuse for, scold as 

fyetpen, j ' fc^impfen, to insult as 

e.g., @r TOitrbe raf genannt. 

3. The verbs : to appoint, erncnnen ; to choose, ertt)5I)(en ; 
to make, macfyen, which require in English a nominative 
after them in the passive, require in German the prepo- 
sition ju with the article (jum). Ex. : 

31. ift gum >auptmann ernannt toorben. 
r. A. was appointed captain. 



CASES GOVERNED BY VERBS. 



(r tft gum 3)oftor gemacfyt toorben. 
He was made a doctor. 

3um stands here, and in some other cases, for jtt cincm, 
and not for ju t>em. 

NOTE. The verb crfldren/ to declare, requires the preposition fur. Ex.: 
He was declared a thief, (Sir Wurbe fiir etnctt 3)ieb erfldrt. 
Palmer was found guilty, Calmer aurbe fiir fcfyulbig erfldrt. 

So also does (jalten, to hold, consider, e.g., %d) ^alte btejen Sag fiir er 
U>ren, I consider this day as lost. 

ZL Verbs which in German govern the Dative. 

1. The following verbs, most of which govern in En- 
glish the accusative of the person, take in German the 
dative of the person: 1 

etnteurfjten, to be evident 



, to dissuade 
antttjorten, to answer 
onljangen, to adhere 
anfteljen, to fit (of clothes); 

also, to suit, please 
Befefylen, to command, order 
tftulfteidjen, 2 to evade 
tbegegnen, to meet, to occur, 

to happen 
beljagen, to please 
tbefommen, to agree with a 

person 
tbet>orftel)en (also Ija&en), to 

impend 

beiftimmen, ) to agree with 
beipfltrfjteiT, j some one 
betftefyen, to assist 
banfen, to thank 
bienen, to serve 
broken, to threaten 
teinfaffen, to occur, suggest 

itself 



tentlaufen, to abscond 
entfpreiijen, to answer, to cor- 
respond with, to accord with 
erfaiiben, to allow, permit 

f^ Iett ' r 1 to be wanting 
ntangeln, ) 

fluc^en, to curse 

tfolgen, to follow 

frofjnen, to indulge in 

gebiiljren, to be due 

gef alien, to please 

|ejfen, to help 

mifatten, to displease 

gefyorrfjen, to obey 

ge^oren, to belong 

f gelmgen, to succeed 

geniigen, to suffice 

geretrfjen, to redound, conduce 

gegtemen or Clemen, to befit 



1 Examples of these verbs followed by two objects : 3$ antroortete tym bie8 ; 3$ rUt| 
tbm bit grofcte SBorfii^t, I counseled him the greatest prudence. 

2 Thoee marked with t are conjugated with fetn, to ba. 



CASES GOVEBNED BY VERBS. 391 

gtcidjen, to be like fid) untetfoerfen, to submit 

fief) iwfyeni, to approach fttorcmgefyen, to precede 

jjulbtgen, to do homage toorbeugen, to obviate 

nii^en, to be useful toefyren, to prevent, ward off 

ratfyen, to advise floeidjcn, to give way, to yield 

fdjabeu, to injure fttnberfteb,en, | , . , 

tocfje tfjun, to hurt (id) nuberfefeen, f * 

"djeinen, to seem toiberfpredjen, to contradict 

'djmetdjeht, to flatter totttfafyren, to comply with, to 

'teuern, to check indulge 

troljcn, to bid defiance toofyltDoHen, to favor, to wish 

trcuten, to trust well 

mttrauen, to mistrust guljoren, to listen 

tunterliegen, to succumb fjufommen, to fall to one's share 

and many verbs compounded with bet, cntgegen, nacfy, or, 
ttriber and ju, 

EXAMPLES. 



SDtefeg $Ieib fte^t mtr md)t an. 

This dress is not becoming to me. 

3d} bin ifym biefen SKorgen begegnet (met). 

-3d) ftttnme bem ^Rebner Dottfommen bet. 

I entirely agree with the speaker. 

2)er $rieg bro^t biefem anbe, War threatens this country. 

SBoflen @ie mtr b.elfen? Will you help me? 

OBSERVATION'S. 

As these verbs do not govern the accusative of the 
person, they cannot be used in the passive with a per- 
sonal subject. The English passive with a personal sub- 
ject must be translated by the active, or else the passive 
with e3 used, as explained p. 141, 7. 

He was readily obeyed, 2ftcm geb,ord)te tfjm bereitrotfltg, ot 

(S8 tourbe tfjm beretnmfltg gefjorrfjt. 

We were displeased with their society, 3fjre <$efeflfd)aft 
un8. 



A good many verbs do not easily admit of the imper- 
sonal use in the passive with e$. 



392 CASES GOVERNED BY VERBS. 

2. The following verbs which take two objects, a per- 
son and a thing, require the person, in the dative, and the 
thing in the accusative. 

ab[d)tagen, to refuse neljmen, to take from a person 



anbieten, to offer 
auSfefcen, to expose 
bringen, to bring 
entpfeljlen, to recommend 



'agen, to teU 

tfjenfen, to present with, give 

cfytden, to send 

djulben, fcfjulbig fein, to owe 



leifyen, to lend ftefylen, to steal "from 

entretjjen, to snatch away toerbanfen, to owe 

ergafylen, to relate, to teU toer^eiljen, to pardon 

geroafcren, to grant berfdjaffen, to procure 

geben, to give toorlefen, to read to a person 

erfparen, to save (trouble) toibnten, to devote, dedicate 

leiften, to perform ^eigen, to show 

liefern, to furnish, provide gufdjretben, to ascribe, impute. 

EXAMPLES. 

(Seben <3ie bem $naben ba3 33ud). 

3d) entri^ (snatched away from) bent olboten bag etoeljr. 

(Sagen <Sie mir bie 2Bal)rf)eit (truth). 

6r fd^enfte bent $naben etnen ulben. 

If both objects are nouns, the dative generally precedes 
the accusative (see the preceding examples) ; if both are 
personal pronouns, the accusative generally precedes the 
dative ; if one is a pronoun and the other a noun, the 
pronoun conies first, e.g., agen <3ic eg mir, ?eif)en @tc fte 
i^m, SBerjetljen <5ie mir meinc c^ult), SSerjeifyen ic eg bem 
armen $inbe. 

EXERCISE 137. 



1. 2ttem SBebtenter tjl e in e^rlt^er 9ftann. (Sin ^arr bteibt tntmcr 
ein SRarr. 2)a fdjeint etn gUti!ltd)er ebanfc. 1 9Kein 9?cffc tft 
Officer gcrtjorben. 2)er ^centbc h)nrbe fiir etnen SBetriiger* erftart. 
3d) fyabe meinem fjrcunbc abgeratb^en, biefe 2Berf ^eraugjugeben. 1 
S33oS ^at man 3ljnen geantrtortet ? SKan ^at mir gar 9Jid)t3 geant* 
toortet. SDiefe SKo^nung fte^t mir ni^t an; fte ift $u ftetn fiir mid). 



, J87. i thought. i cheat, stopubliab. 



CASES GOVERNED BY VERBS. 393 

5U$ ber 9icbner geenbigt Ijatte, fttmmte (pfltdjtete) tijm bte ganje S5er* 
fammlung bei. )er gmft afynte ba3 Ungliid: nid)t, loefrfyeS Umt bebor* 
ftonb. rtnfen (Ste gent 33ter ? 3d) trinfe e3 gent; aber e3 befommt 
mtr ntd)t gut; e3 fdjabet metner efunbb,eit. 

2. >te $mber, toetdje tlji-en (Sttent nidjt geljordjen, mtfsfaflen ott 
tefer ^ammerbiener btente bem rafen on ^]3. breipig Oa^re lang 
mtt ber groten reue unb ^In^anglidjfeit. 4 2)iefc tette tft bem 
gele^rten s ^rofeffor entgangen, fonft loiirbe er gewtR eine lange 5tb^anb- 
lung 6 bariiber gefc^rteben Ijaben. 2)er !Dteb tft bem efangutgioarter 6 
entlaufen. 3d) begegnete ^eute etnem metner otten greuube, loelrfjet 
gefonneu tft, in etniger ty'it nad) Otalten gu retfen. 5d) rietl) i^m fe^r, 
feine 9tetfe ntdjt lange gu tierfc^teben. (Sr getgtc fetnem ^eunbe bte 



Slufgofic 138. 

1. Henry is a little boy. John has become [a] soldier. 
Aristides was called the just. My neighbor was abused [as] a 
cheat (Setriiger). Is it true that your cousin has been ap- 
pointed a judge? I will make him my (jit metnem) friend. 
What has happened to you? What did you answer your 
master? The captain threatened the soldiers. Nobody has 
ordered the man to open the gate. 1 It was impossible for me 
to resist his entreaties. 2 This circumstance must displease the 
merchant. We should always assist our neighbors when they 
are in want of 3 assistance. To whom does this hat belong? 
It belongs to the hatter ; he brought it to me that I might 
buy it. Why do you not answer your master when he ques- 
tions 4 you? He always bids defiance to his enemies. 

2. To avoid death he seized a plank. 5 Let us follow this 
example. I met him at the town-gate. 6 Why did you not 
thank your master ? I have not met him these (fettj several 
weeks. The beggar approached me in a suspicious manner 
(auf cine tevba'd)ttge 2Betfe). Children must obey their parents. 
The slave hardly escaped his pursuers. 7 How is your uncle 
pleased* with Frankfort ? He is very well pleased. If you 
will listen to me, I will read you a chapter (etn $ojritelj of 
Macaulay's History of England. Show me your paintings, 9 
and I wj'l show you my dra wings. Could you lend me a dol- 

137. 4 attachment. r -> treatise, essay, e jailer. 

138, i ba3 3^or. 2 bte SBttte. s to be in want, fcraudjen (ace.). * fragen. s e\n 93rett, n. 
ba8 Stabttfyor. bet SSerfoIger. s Translate : How does Frankfort please, etc. sbie 3HaI 
rei, ba ScmaU c, 



394 CASES GOVERNED BY VERBS. 

lar or two ? I will lend you them, if you will give me them 
back to-morrow. Show the stranger the way. Do not believe 

this liar. 10 

III. Verbs which in German govern the Genitive. 

1. The following verbs take their object in the genitive; 
some of them may take a preposition : 

bebiirfen, 1 to need Barren, to wait patiently for 

ermcmgeht, to be without lad)en, J to laugh at, to deride 

gebenfen, remember, mention fdjonen, 1 to spare 
fpottett, 2 to mock. 

2. The following require the person in the accusative, 
and the thing in the genitive : 

(uiftagen, ) to accuse of entfefcen, to dismiss from 

befdjulbtgen, ) to charge with itbcrfjeben, to relieve of or from 

berattben, to rob of, bereave of iiberfiiljren, to convict of 

entbinben, to release from, to fcerfidjern, to assure of 

absolve from toitrbigen, to favor with. 
entfleiben, to deprive of 

3. The following reflexive verbs govern a second object 
in the genitive : 

ftdj cmneljmen, to interest one's fid) entftnnen, ) to recollect 

self in fid) eminent, j to remember 

ftd) bebienen, to make use of fid) enttooljnen, to disaccustom 

ftd) befletfctgen or befletfjett, to one's self to, to break off the 

apply one's self to habit of 



ftd) bemad)ttgen, to seize, to 

take possession of 
fid) entfyatten, to abstain from, 

to forbear 
ftd) entlebtgen, to get rid of 



Id) erbormen, to have mercy on 
iid) enocfyren, to keep off 
id) erfreiten, to enjoy 
id) riifjmen, to boast of 
Id) fdjftmen/ to be ashamed 



fid) entfdjlagen, to part with ftd) tierfefyen, to expect from (a 
ftd) toerfid)ern, to make sure of person) 



.138. 

1 93efcurfen takes sometimes, and fdjcnen generally the accusative. 

2 fia$cn, fpotten, and fid; jcbamen prefer the preposition fiber with the accusative. $at 
ren may take auf with the accusative. 



CASES GOVERNED BY VERBS. 395 

4. Observe also the following uses of the genitive : 



fterben, To die of hunger. 
ptb'fclidjen JobeS ftcrben, To die a sudden death. 
<3eine$ SBegeS gefyen, To go one's way. 
@ie flnb be$ obe8, You are a dead man. 
ute3 SJiutfyeS fern, To be of good cheer. 
3)er >offnung leben, To hve in hopes. 
3)er 9utje pflegen, To take one's ease to rest. 
3)er 2#einung or ber 5lnfid)t fetn, To be of the opinion. 
2Btflen3 fern, To purpose, to intend. 
,3iele8 toerfefyfen, To miss one's aim. 



(Sinen be3 SanbeS berttmfen, To exile some one. 

S 2lmte3 marten, To attend to one's office or business. 

READING EXERCISE 130. 



1. 3d) bebarf 3b,reS 23eiftanbe3 je^t nidjt me^r. 2Btr h)offen beS 
empfangeucn SBofen nid)t gebenfen. 2Bir Barren immer nod) ber (2nt* 
fcfjeibung. 1 2BaS fiir eineS 53erbred)enS ift biefer SOfamt angeftagt? 
2Kan ftagt i^n eineS 2)iorbeg 2 an. 2Bilb,eIm ift einer Unwa^r^eit 
iiberfitfjrt njorben. -3d) ging an iljr borbet unb ttmrbigte fie feineS 
33ticfeS. 3)ie ^rait b,at fid) be arnuen $inbe3 angenonimen unb iljm 
etnige $(eibung3ftitrfe gegeben (gefdjenft). SSarum bebient fid) biefer 
9ftann einer ^riide? 3 SBeil er einen lawmen ^u^ Ijat. !Die Dauber 
bemadjtigten ftdj meineS Coffers. 3)ieine ro|mutter erfreut fid) in 
tfjrem t)ob,en Stlter nod) einer guten (^efunbb.eit. (Sntb.attet end) be$ 
Sranntroeing, 4 benn er gerftort eitere efunb^eit. 2)ie ^otijet fyat fid) 
ber 3)tebe oerftdjert. 

2. 3d) gfaube <Ste git fennen, mem ^err; aber td) fann mtdj Ob,rer 
ntd)t erinnern. (Sntfd)(agen <3tc fid) biefer triiben ebanfen; <Sie 
roerben 3()r Ungtiirf nur bergro^ern. (Srbarmet end) ber Airmen unb 
UngtiidUd)en. eb,en (Sic rub,ig ^fjreS 2BegeS. garret beS ^errn 
(or auf ben ^errn), er nnrb end) nid)t tierlaffen. 5 (3 tierlob,nt ftd) ber 
9Jiii()e, biefc 3?etfe ju unterneb,men. 3d) bin ntd)t biefer 5lnftd)t; idj 
gtaube Dielme^r, man fotttc fid) atter weiteren @d)ritte 6 entb.atten. 
^adjbem id) mefyrere S^adite geroad)t b,atte, fonnte idj raid) beS d)IafeS 
nid)t rae^r erwe^ren. 9D^ein .^au^^err 7 ift fyeute eineS b(o^Ud)en XobeS 

. --- __ - ___ - ^ 

J39. i decision. 2 murder, s crutch. 4 brandy. '< forsake. G steps. 7 landlord. 



396 CASES GOVERNED BY YEBES. 

geftorben; gcftern ttmr er nod) gcm$ gefimb urM mimter. 2)er $ranfe 
mujj beu iftulje pflegen, fonft fann et nidjt genefen. 

Shtfoabc 140. 

1. I need a sharp knife to cut 1 this meat. She derided my 
threats. 2 "Never 'mock the unfortunate. Are you still in 
want of my assistance ? The prisoner has been accused of a 
murder. They accused me of a falsehood, 3 because they did 
not understand what I said. The trees are bereft of their 
leaves. The soldiers were absolved from their oath. 4 The 
prince assured them of his favor. The captain released him 
from his promise. Belisarius was deprived ot all his digni- 
ties 6 and cast into prison. Why have you abstained from 
smoking? Because it did not agree 6 with me. 

2. The old man remembered the days of his youth. Having 
no scissors at hand (bet ber >cmb), we made use of a knife. The 
Jews abstain from pork 7 according to the law of Moses. We 
were not expecting such an answer. Did anybody make sure 
of his pocket-book ? This lady has disaccustomed herself to 
coffee. Remember always your benefactors. * The king had 
mercy on the poor prisoner and set him free. 9 Be ashamed 
of your behavior. Are you obliged to make use of spectacles 
(einer 33rifle) ? I have made 10 use of them from (since) my 
sixteenth year. Do you remember your absent friends ? I 
'always Remember 'them. 



BEADING LESSON". 

$reunbfdjafi be Aiotfcr* ftarft V. 

SttS $art V., ber foster beutfdjer $atfer ttmrbe, nadj bem cbe 
fcineS rofetoaterS, beg $otug8 fterbtncmb, nad) 9ftabrtb retfte, urn toon 
bem $omgretd) panten SBefifc 311 nefjmen, fyatte er etnen fraujoftfdjen 
(Srafen, be 23offit, in fetnem cfotge. )te ungett)6b,nltcf)e rb'fce 1 bte* 
feS nmgen 9JJanne8, feme forperltdfje enjanbtb/eit, toetdje ib,n gum 
trefftt^en better madjte, feme jituorfommenbe 2 jDienftbefU[)enb,eit 3 imb 



UO. i See p. 366, IV. zCDto^unj. sbieCOge. 4 ber Gib. sbieSBfttbe. eSeep. 390. I. 
* (^tDetnefleif^. s ber 2BoIt$ater. to set free, bie grei^elt f^cnfen. 10 See p. 394, 3. 
- tallnese, size. 1 obliging. 3 attention to his duties. 



CASES GOVERNED BY VERBS. 397 

feme itbrtgen (other) Itebcngnntrbtgen (Sigenfdjaften fatten tljn bem 
$aifer fo Ueb gentadjt, baft er intmer bet ifym bletben muftte. 

(Shift fyatte $arl cine grofte Stagb 1 beranftaltet 2 unb fete 3 etnem (Sber 
(boar) tief in ben SBalb fytnetn ntit fo(d)er >ie nad), baft cr ben 2Beg 
toerfeljlte (lost), unb -ftientanb iljrn $u fotgen toagte alg 4 be Soffit. 
Slber biefer fyatte ba Ungliicf, fid) an etnem fcergifteten 3)otd)e gu t>er=> 
hjunben, U)eld)en er nad) bamatiger 5 eh)ol)n^eit ber fpanifd)en 3ager 
bet fid) trug. obalb $art bag Slut bemerfte, lt)etd)e fein SHebttng 6 
(lost), fragte er iljn erfdjroden, ob ber (ber tf)n bernjunbei 
S)er raf er^ab/Ite, n)a t^m begegnet toa're unb fitgte bet, ba 
er ^ieinanb ate 1 fid) felbft $ornmrfe ju mad)en 7 ^abe. j 

>er ^ontg fannte feb,r rto^t bte tobtlid)e 2Btrfung 8 be tfte, fo 
6alb e tn'g Slut itbergegangen tt)are. Um fetnen Stebling ^u retten, 
gebad)te er ntdjt ber etgenen Sebenggefa^r; er f^rang bom ^ferbe, be* 
fat)I aud) bem @rafen abjufteigen 9 unb fid) gang fetnem SBtflen ^u 
unterwerfen. 3)er raf mad)te jniar @tnh)enbungen; 10 aber ber $ontg 
be^arrte 11 auf bem ebetn (Sntfd)Iuffe, fetnem ^reunbe ba3 ^ebcn gu ret> 
ten, ober mtt t^m 311 fterben. (r rt bte ^(etbung bon ber 2Bunbe 
n)eg, fog bag Slut gu mieberfioltenmalen 12 aug unb fbte eg toeg. 3)iefe 
entfdjtoffene unb fjodjljergtge ^anblung belo^nte ben tontgttdjcn ^reunb 
mtt ber ^reube, fetnem $reunbe bag Seben gerettet gu ^aben, ol^ne nad)* 
f^eittge fotgen fiir bag fetntge. 

2Ber fottte nid)t btefe ibab.re, aufobfernbe 13 ^reunbfdjaft etneg ber 
miid)tigften errfdjer ber (Srbe benjunbem ! 



QUESTIONS. 

Sllg ber ^ontg ^erbtnanb toon <3toanten ftarb, iuer erbte (in- 

herited) bag $8mgretd) ? 
SBarum reifte ^art nad) SDteWb? 
2Ber uwr in bem cfotge ^'artg beg $iinften? 
2BeId)e (Stgenfdjaften geid)neten ben rafen be Soffit aug ? 
2Bag gefd)a^ einmat bei einer groften -3agb ? 
2Bag fUr ein Unglud Ijatte be Soffu? 

ia hunt. 2 to get up. ^nai^fefeen, to pursue. 4 but. oof that time (adj.). c favor. 
lie. i to reproach, s effect. to alight. 10 objections, u to insist, ^repeatedly. 



e. o reproac 
IB self sacrificing. 



398 



CASES GOVERNED BY VERBS. 



2tt3 bcr $onig ba3 33Iut bemerfte, toaS fragtc ct? 

3U8 $ar( evfufyr, nwS bem rafen begegnet tear, h>a8 befdjlojj er 

311 tfjun? 

2Ba3 tljat er alsbamt? 
2Ba3 befafyt er bem rafen 311 tljun? 
2BoUte be Soffit e$ biilben? 
9luf wa^ be^arrtc (or beftanb) ber ^5nig? 
2luf weldje 2Bet[e rettete ^arl bem Orafert ba Sebeu? 

mit| man in biefent ^atte bewunbetn? 



IV. Verbs followed by Certain Prepositions. 
1. The preposition an is required by the following ^erbs : 



abrefftren (an) (ace.), direct to 

benfen (ace.), think of 

ftcf) geroofynen (ace.), accustom 

oneself to 

fid) toenben (ace.), apply to 
itbertreffen (dot.), excel in 
fterben (dot.), die of 
trf} antefmen, j , v lean 
, j v ' h 



fid) leljnen, 



against 



gtauben (ace.), believe in 
fdjreiben (an) (ace.), write to 
tfyettneljmen (dot.), sympathize in 
gttwfeln (dot.), doubt of 
berjtoetfetn (dot.), despair of 
ertnnern (occ.), remind of 
fid) ertnnern (oec.), recollect 
^tnbern (dot.), hinder from 
ftdj radjen (dot.), revenge on. 



2. The preposition flitf is required by: 



adjtgeben (auf) (ace.), pay atten- 
tion to 

fld) Dertaffen (ace.), rely on 
antroorten (ace.), answer 
(ace.), trust in 



toarten (ace.), wait for 
ftdj betaitfen (ace.), amount to 
goljlen (occ.), count "upon 
befi^arren (dot.), \ , . . 
befie^en (dot), j to msist 



3. 8(uS is required by: 



trtnfen (au8), drink out of 
toerb, become of 



ftberfefcen, translate from 
befteb,en, consist ol 



4 Set is required by: 



fcefd)tt)6ren (bet), entreat (a per- 
son) by 
bet 2>eite legeu, lay aside 



tt)ob,nen, live near (a town) or 

at (a person's) 
bletben bet, stay with. 



CASES GOVERNED Bt YERBS. 



399 



5. iJiit is required by: 



fciirgen (fur), | go bail, answer 
gut fteljen, ) for warrant 
bonfen, thank for 



forgen, take care of 
beftrafen, punish for 
fatten, consider. 



6. $tt is required by: 



ftdj mtfdjen (in) (ace.), meddle 
with 



beftefjen (dot.), consist in 
euuoUltgen (ace.), consent to. 



7. SKit is required by: 



anfangen (nut), begin with 

ftd) abgeben, attend to 

fid) befdjafttgen, be occupied with 

bebeden, cover with 

betaben, load with 

tereintgen, join with 



fpredjen, speak with 
fcergletdjen, compare with 
berfeljen, provide with 
bcefjren, honor with 
2ftttleib ^aben, have pity on 
beloljnen, reward with. 



8. $(lllj is required by : 



abretfen (nad)), set out for 
geljen, go to 
fid) begeben, repair to 
^ielett, aim at 



ffreben, aspire to 
fragen, ask after 
fid) feljnen, long for 
fdjtden, send for. 



9. lUbet (ace.} is required by : 



urtljetten (iiber), judge of 

!Iagen, fid) beftagen, complain of 

errot^en, blush at 

fadjen, Laugh at 

fpotten, mock at 

berfugen, dispose of 

fid) erfunbtgen, inquire about 

jjerfaflen, pounce upon 



ftd) JDitnbern, wonder at 

ftd) freuen, rejoice at 

itarfjbenfen, reflect on 

ftd) imterljalten, converse about 

^crrfdjen, reign over 

fid) fdjamen, be ashamed of 

fid) argcrn, be vexed at. 



10. Uw is required by: 



ftrieten (urn), play for 
fid) (be)fiimmern, care for 
bitten, ask for 



ftd) ftretten, contend with one 

another for 
fidj beroerben, apply for. 



400 PREPOSITIONS. 



11. Son is required byi 



fpredjen (won), speak of 
ijerfommen, come from 
kben, live on 



befreien, Liberate from 
abroeidjen, deviate from 
fid) nafyren, feed on. 



12. $or (dot.) is required by : 

ftd) fiirdjten (ttor), be afraid of ftcfj Ijiiten, beware of 
gtttern, tremble at (i.e., fear) toarnen, caution against. 

13. 3u is required by: 
geljen/ go to (a person) I madjen, make (see page 389) 



FORTY-NINTH LESSON. 

PREPOSITIONS. 

L Kemarks on some German Prepositions. 
2Ctt, at 

EXAMPLE. 

3emanb flopft an bte J^ure, Somebody knocks at the dooi 
n translated otherwise than at: 



(r ftarb an bcr d^olera, He died of the cholera. 
id) anteljnen an (ace.), To lean against. 
2Ctr gtauben an ott (ace.), We believe in God. 
5ln Oentanb (ace.) ben!en, To think of some one. 
3wetfc(n an (dot.), to doubt (of). 
id) radjen an (dot.), To take revenge on. 
(g tft an mtr ju fptelen, It is my turn to play. 
(Sin 23rtef an mid) (or fiir mid)), A letter for me. 
5ln ben Ufern beg 9Hein3, On the banks of the Ehine. 
3d) ^abe an U)n gefd^rieben, I have written to him. 
granffitrt am (an bem) 9)?ain, Frankfort on the Main. 
Stfjcil an einer <3adje nefjmen, To take part in something <w 
sympathize with a person in it 



PREPOSITIONS. 401 

9WangeI an elb (dot.), For want of money. 
an $erftanb (dot.), Rich in wit (sense). 
5ln bent S 2lrnt ergreifen, To seize by the arm. 
2in ber >anb tterrounben, To wound in the hand. 

8(uf, on or upon. 

EXAMPLES. 

)ag 33ud) Itegt auf bent tfdj, The book lies on the tabld. 
5luf translated otherwise than on or upon: 

5luf bag Sanb geljen, To go into the country. 

2luf bie ^oft gefjen, To go to the post-office. 

5luf ber 3agb fetn, To be out hunting. 

5luf meine Soften, At my expense or cost 

(3 fommt auf (Ste an, It depends upon you. 

2litf ber Strafe, In the street. 

2luf9Mfen, Abroad. 

@tcf) auf ben 2Beg mac^en, To set out. 

?luf (Sttua (ace.) 3tc^t geben, To pay attention to something. 



Slu 



f morgen, For to-morrow. 



Sluf furje 3 e ft> For a short time. 

2luf bent anbe, In the country. 

Sluf Sefeljt (dot.) beg omgg, By the king's command. 

3lu f btefe 2Betfe, In this manner. 

5luf rote lange? For how long? 

3luf tmmer, auf erotg, For ever. 

Sluf ber SBett, In the world. 

5luf ber ^tetfe, Travelling. 

Sag fjcipt auf 3)eutfc^ (ace.) . . . That is in German . . . 

Sg tft bret ^Biertel auf fecfjg U^r x It is a quarter to six. 

5Cu8, out of or from. 

EXAMPLES. 

Slug bent 3twmer, Out of the room. 

5lug (Sdjrotidje, From weakness. 

2Bag roirb autf ntir werben? What will become of me? 

Slug urdjt fterben/ To die from or of fear. 



402 PREPOSITIONS. 



(Srfaljrung, From experience. 
SBerfefyen, By mistake, through inadvertence. 
bcr SJfobe, Out of fashion. 
bem jDeutfcfyen tn'8 ^in^ofifc^e itberfefcen. 
To translate from German into French. 



t, at, near, by. 

EXAMPLES. 

Set btefett SBorten, At these words. 

Set metner $nhmft, On my arrival 

Set 9tod}t, By night. 

Set 3eit, In (good) time, betimes. 

Sletben @te bei mtr, Stay with me. 

Set ofe fetn, To be at court. 

3n ber c^tac^t bet 2Jiarengo, At the battle of (near) Marengo. 

S3et guter efunb^eit fern, To be in good health. 

33 et ageg'3lnbru<f), At day-break. 

Set fyettem Xage, In broad day-light. 

SBet Jag unb bet 9Jarf)t, By day and by night 

33et ?t(^t arbetten, To work by candle-light. 

S3et ber ^anb fii^ren, To lead by the hand. 

S3etm piet, At play. 

3d) rtef tljn bet fetnem 9?amen, I called him by his name. 

2)tefe3 fteb,t bet 3b,nen, That depends upon you. 

3<J) b,abe fein etb bet mtr, I have no money about me. 

Set Sifrfje fetn, To be at table. 

Set rat, With us. 

Set ben foment, With or among the Eomans. 

Set fotc^en Unterne^mungen, In the case of such enterprises. 



j, through. 

EXAMPLES* 

9dj Bin bttrc!) ben SSotb gegangetu 

I went through the forest. 

jDttrd) em Srett, Through a plank. 

3)urd) hjet^eS 2Kittet? By what means? 

3d) hmrbe burcf) etnen ^Sfett nernjtmbet. 

I was wounded by an arrow. 

$>te ganje dt m'nbur^, All the time. 



403 

, for. 

EXAMPLES. 

<tn 2fttttel fUr (or gegen) bag 3 a ntoe ^ 

A remedy for the tooth-ache. 

(Stiirf fiir (Stiicf, Piece by piece. 

2Bort fur Sort, Word for word. 

33iirgen fitr (StnmS, To answer for, be security for something. 

@ie forgt fiir 2lfle$, She sees to everything. 



t, against, towards. 
EXAMPLES. 

egen bte Sftauer, Against the wall 

eg en fecf)$ Uljr, By (or toward) six o'clock. 

Sftilbtljattg gegen bte Airmen, Charitable to the poor. 

Unempftnbttcf) gegen, Insensible to. 

egen baare ^Be^a^Iung, For cash. 

(3 finb gegen ^toet tunben, It is about (but not more than) 

two hours, 

aub gegen afle S3itten, Deaf to all entreaties. 
3% Uebel tft ^i^t gegen ba fetntge (or femes). 
Your illness is nothing compared with his. 

$n, in or into. 

EXAMPLES. 

5n granfretdj, In France. 

3n $ari8, In Paris. 

3m ^rit^ting, In spring. 

3n etnem Son, With (or in) a tone. 

3n ber (Sdjnle fetn, To be at school 

3m (grnft, Seriously, in earnest. - 

-3n SBer^toetfhmg fetn, To be in despair. 

(Strf) in ben finger fdjnetben, To cut one's finger. 

5m Segrtff fetn or ftefjen, To be on the point. 

Qn bie htd)t jag en or fdjtagen, To put to flight 



j, after. 

EXAMPLES. 

^aufe geljen, To go home. 
2)er 2Beq nac^ ber <2tabt, The way to the town. 



404 PREPOSITIONS. 

3d) gelje nad) 2Bten, I am going to Vienna. 

ftad) 23elieben, As you like. 

ftad) metnen SBefefylen, According to my orders. 

ftad) SBerlauf Don $md 2)Jonaten, At the end of two months. 

9?ad) (or in) alpfjabettfdjer Drbnung, In alphabetical order. 

Oemanb fragt nad) Sfyten, Somebody asks after you, 

9fad) ifym laufen, To run after him. 

llcbcr, over. 

EXAMPLES. 

tlcber ton Ijoljen SBergen, Over the high mountains. 

Ueber ben ffinfc fefcen, To cross the river. 

SJerfiigen (te iiber metnen 23eute(, Dispose of my purse. 

(3 ift iiber em ^atbeS 3ab,r, It is above six months. 

^eute iiber ad^t Xage, This day week. 

2)en ommer iiber, During the summer. 

<2>td) iiber (StttwS (t)er)n)unbern, To be astonished at something. 

<5id) freuen iiber, To rejoice at 

Sarfjen iiber, To laugh at 

geb,t iiber metne ^rafte, That is above (beyond) my 
strength. 

35orf Uegt uber bent ^luffe, The village lies over the river. 

tint, round or about 

EXAMPLES. 

Um'8 jjeuer ^emm, About the fire-place. 

04 toM tijn urn Statb, fragen, I will consult him (ask him for 

advice). 

3d) bitte @te um SJer^ei^ung, I beg your pardon, 
llm elb fptelen, To play for money. 
Um ttnemet Uljr ? At what o'clock? 
Um etn Ub,r, At one o'clock. 
(S^ ift um tfyn gef^efjen, It is all over with him. 
SBefiimmern <5te ftrf) nid^t um mtcf), Don't care for me. 
Gr b,at ftc^ feb,r um mid) berbtent gemo^t. 
(He has made himself very deserving by what he has done 

for me.) He has put me under great obligations. 
35iefer 2Beg ijl um gtoet <2>tunben (9)?etlen) turner. 
This road is shorter by two leagues (miles). 



PREPOSITIONS. 405 

Hitter, under. 

EXAMPLES. 

Unter ber Sfogieritng $arl$ beS roften. 

In the reign of Charlemagne. 

Unter gnjolf Saljren, Under twelve years. 

2Ba8 fitr em Unterfdjieb unter (gtwfcfjen) . . . 

What difference between . . . (See page 73, 2). 

Unter btefer 23ebingung, On that condition. 

Unter (Seget gefjen, To set sail. 

Unter btefen 9JMnnern, Among these men. 

<2te befommen eS nicfyt unter gefjn l)alern. 

You will not get it for less than ten dollars. 

Unter bem tjd) fyerbor, From under the table. 

$01t, of, from. 

EXAMPLES. 

^erfommen Don Sinem, To come from some one. 

t$om erften ^ebruar an, Beginning with the 1st of February 

(from the 1st of February on). 
S3on 3emanb (or don (Setten SemanbeS), From any one. 
$on gan^em ^er^en, With all my heart. 
3)teje3 33uc^ tft bon ot^e gefd^rieben hjorben. 
This book was written by Goethe. 
S3om 9#orgen bi gum 2lbenb, From morning till evening. 
23on ^arig big Bonbon, From Paris to London. 



Sot, before. 

EXAMPLES. 

S3or geljn U^r, Before ten o'clock. 
SB or brei Xagen, Three days ago. 
<icf) fiir^ten bor, To be afraid of. 
<5d)ritt bor d^ritt, Step by step, 

bor etwa6 Bitten, To beware of. 

ber <5tabt njob/nen, To live outside the town. 

^reube ioeinen, To weep with (or for) joy. 

2lnfer Itegen, To lie at anchor. 

8, to. 

EXAMPLES. 

,3u iener ^tlt, At that time. 

$)te Siebe gum 9tuljni, The love of glory. 



406 PREPOSITIONS. 



be8 9luguflu$, At the time of Augustua 
3u >aufe fetn, To be at home. 
3d) begab nticf) 311 tfym, I went to him. 
3u 33ette gefyen, To go to bed. 
,Hu SBagcn, In a caniage. 
3u ^ferb, On horseback. 
,3u gup, On foot 

$11 gletdjer ,3ett, At the same time. 
,>$u (Sfyren bcr $omgin, In honor of the queen. 
3u <wb unb 311 SBaffer, By land and by water. 
,3um @IM, Fortunately. 
^unt 1 23etfptel, For example. 
,3u biefem 3^^ -^ or ^ s purpose. 
unt 1 (gefangenen madjen, To take prisoner. 

311 einem ^letbe ne^men, To take one's measure. 

READING EXERCISE 141. 



3rf) benfe oft on <2ie. 3d) fonnte metne 9?et[e ntdjt fortfefccn au 
SRanget an etb. 2)ie <2d)tffe finb berettg oiif fyoljer (See. 3)ie 
S3dgel, meld)e unS im ^erbfte Derlaffen, feljren tin griifyling guriirf. @ 
loar tin ommer Don 1840. 3ft ber >err gu ^aufe '? ^etn, er tft 
an^gegaugen. @r fpetft Ijcitte in ber (tabt. 3d) bin aitf offener 
trafee befdjtmpft 1 roprben. 2)te ftetne djaar ntad)te ftd) ^aijn* 
burd) bte geinbe. 2ftetn <d)mager hjtrb fpateftenS in bret Jagen an* 
fontmen. 2Ba^renb btefeS gangen 50tonat^ ^at eg ntdjt etn etn^tge^ 
2)Jat geregnet. $)er ^>unb fprang unter bem tfd) b/eroor. 33om 
(Srften bt junt lOe^ten. ett tuann tft 3ulte etne Satfe? <Ste tft e 
fett tl)rer ^tnb^ett. 3(nfangS fatten bte 9tbnter feme geftnngen; 3 fte 
fefcten tl)r ganged ^Bertrauen auf tljre ^)eere, 4 loetdje fte la'ngS ber gtuffe 
legten, n)o fte toon (Sntfernung gu ntfernung Jfjiirnte erridjteten, 5 uw 
bte (Solbaten bartn unterjubrtngen. 6 

142. 

^lleranber ber @rofce ftarb in ber 33Iutb,e beS ?eben. ^[efop blii^te 
gur 3 e it <2oton'8. 33or bret Jagen fyaben h)ir einen SBoIf ertegt. 1 
3d) toerbe bor ad)t Sagen nid)t att8geb,en; ber 3lrjt b,at e8 ntir ber* 
boten. 3d) nierbe @te nad) ben SRarftbretfcn be3ab / Ien. granj bet 
Srfte n)itrbe in 3talien gefangen unb nad) (Spanten abgefii^rt. egeo 
Slbenb fab, man am >immel eine feurige ^ugel. 8 SDiein ^J3ater ift nro 



i See page 389, 3. 

141. i to insult. 2 way. 3 fortress. < army. 5 te erect. 6 to shelter. 

142. i killed. sbalL 



PREPOSITIONS. 407 

jhjet Itljr abgereift. Set feiner 5lbretfe toar bte gan^e ^amtlie toerfam 
mett. (r imrb in ^arig toon feinem 33ruber mit offenen Airmen em* 
pfangen roerben. <3inb @ie gu anb Ijierljer gctommen? 3a, id) bin 
nut ber (Sifenbafyn gefommen. 9Jian mujj nidjt au^ igennujj 1 ba8 
ute t^un. 9teifen (Sic 311 IJSferb ober git 2Bagen ? $eine^ toon beu 
ben; icf) reife 311 @^iffe. 3c^ banb etn Saf^entu^ um feinen $lrtn. 
^inb tt)einte bor ^reuben. ^eibelberg Uegt an ben Ufern be^ 



IL Remarks on some English Prepositions. 

Above. 

Above, followed by an expression of time or number, 
and signifying more than or longer than, is rendered in 
German by liber with the accusative, or mefyr dl$. Ex. : 

The fight lasted above four hours. 

3)er $ampf bauerte ttber (or mef)r at3) mer <2>timben. 

It is above twenty miles from here. 

0*3 ift tiber (mefyr ate) ^toan^ig 2)?eUen Don fjter. 



About. 

About 1, meaning around, is um ; 2, in the signification 
concerning, it is liber with the accusative ; 3, in speaking 
of things which people carry about them, it is bei, Ex.: 

1. All thronged about the prince. 
Sltte brdngten fid) unt ben ^itrften. 

2. I will speak to him about this affair. 

3$ rt)erbe tiber biefe 9Ingetegenljeit mit iljm fpre^cn. 
We shall consider about this matter. 
2Bir toerben tiber biefe (Sad)e nadjbenfen. 

3. I have no money about me. 
3d) b,abe tein etb bet mtr. 

At. 

At 1, denoting position, is frequently translated an with 
the dative ; 2, meaning occupied with, it is bet ; 3, after 
words of emotion, e.g., derision, anger, surprise, joy, sor- 

U2. 'selfishness. 



408 PREPOSITIONS. 

row, etc., it is uber with the accusative ; 4, followed by a 
person's name in the possessive case, it is bei Ex. ; 

1. At the door, 2ln ber Xtjite. 

2. We were at dinner. 

2Btr nmren beim 2#ittageffen (bet tfdj). 
He is quarrelsome at cards. 
(gr ift jtinfifd) beim @m'el. 

3. She laughed at him, @tc (ad)te uber tljtt. 
I am surprised at what you say. 

3d) bin erftaunt uber baS, tt)o @ie fagen. 

4. "We were at your aunt's, 2Btr toaren bei 3tyrer ante. 

By. 

1 . by followed by the agent after the passive voice, is 
translated son. Ex.: 

Mr. Bell is respected by everybody. 
err S3ett tmrb Don Sebermann gead)tet 
Troy was destroyed by the Greeks. 
nwrbe tion ben rtec^en jerfiort. 



2. In oaths and asseverations by is translated Bcf : 
He swears by his honor, (gr fdjrtort bet fetner (Sfyre. 

3. By, after such verbs as to sell, to buy, to work, and 
preceding a noun of weight, measure, or time, is translated 
Jtflcfy (either after or before its noun), or by adding roetfe to 
the noun, e.g., pfuntweife, tagroeife, roodjenroetfe :c. Ex.: 

I sell the tea by the pound. 

3d) Derfaufe ben ljee nad) bent ''Pfimb/ or bent ^Pfunbe nadj, or 

pfnnbnmfe. 

We work by the hour or by the day. 
2Btr arbetten nod^ ber tunbe ober nad^ bent Xage. 

4. When preceding a numeral immediately followed by 
an adjective of dimension, by is translated by Uttt> Ex.: 

This room is fifteen feet long by ten wide. 
2>tefe gimmer tjl fitnfje^n ^ufj tang unb ge^n brett 



PREPOSITIONS. 409 

5. By, meaning by means of, e.g. t after to kill, to wound, 
etc., is translated burdj. Ex.: 

The officer was wounded by a bullet. . 
3)er Officer nwrbe burd) etue $ugel bernwnbet. 
Achilles was killed at the siege of Troy by an arrow. 
2id)ttle3 tmtrbe bet ber 33elagerung Don Stroja burd) einen ^pfeU 
getobtet. 

From. 

1. From to, with the common noun of place repeated, 
is on jit. Ex.: 

He went from street to street, from town to town, etc. 
Sr gtng bon (Strode 311 (Strode, toon (Stabt ju <5tabt, jc. 

2. But when the nouns denoting place are proper 
names of towns, villages, countries, etc., to is nacfy, e.g.: 

From Paris to Rouen. 33on ^artS nadj Sftouen. 

3. "When the nouns are nouns of time, from to is 
MS, e.g. : 

From Easter to Christmas. SSon Ofiern HS SSet^nadjt. 

4. So also when extent of space is indicated, e*g.s 

It rained violently from Strasburg to Berh'n. 
(S^ regnete ^eftig toon @trabitrg bis ^Berlin. 
It would be too far from here to Paris. 
(8 toare 311 tuett bon fjier bt 



5. JVom under is unter ^eror. Ex.: 
From under the table, llnter bem jt{d) 



In. 

1. A pain (in) is translated by a compound word, such 
as : $opfwe$, ^atewc^, Bafwwef) ic. Ex.: 

I have constantly a pain in my head, 
3id) fjabe immcr ' 



410 PREPOSITIONS. 

2. In after words denoting hurting, wounding, etc., and 
preceding a possessive adjective with any part of the 
body, is to be rendered by an with the definite article : 

The child fell down and was injured in the shoulder. 
2)a3 $mb fid unb berttwnbete fief) an ber @d)itlter. 
3. In the morning, >>lm SUZorgen or (be$) 2ftorgenS. 
In the evening, tfoi 5lbenb or (beS) Slbenbg. 
In the morning (i.e., to-morrow morning), 2ftorgen frii^. 
In the evening (i.e., this evening), >eute 



Oil or upon. 

1. On or upon is most generally auf. Ex.: 

He climbed upon the tree, (gt ttetterte auf ben 33aum. 

2. After the verb to live, on or upon is rendered by 
Don, and after to play, on is not translated at alL Ex.: 

The prisoner lives on bread and water. 
3)er efangene lebt tion 33rob unb SBaffer. 
You play on the violin, and I play on the flute. 
<Sic fpieten SBtoIine unb tcf) fpiele 



3. The preposition on before the days of the week and 
with dates, is either translated am, or by the accusative 
without a preposition. Ex.: 

Come on Sunday, $ommen <2>te (am) (Sonntag. 
On the twelfth of May, Urn (or ben) $h6lften 



Over. 

This preposition is commonly translated fiber. 
The adverb over meaning past, may be translated 
fiber. Ex.: 

As soon as the rain is over, (Sobatb ber 9?egen boriiber tfi 
Is dinner over? 3|t ba8 2fttttageffen bomber? 



PREPOSITIONS. 411 

With. 

L With is rendered by ttor after verbs of dying, perish- 
ing, etc. Ex.: 

He died with cold, (gr ftarb bor $a'Ite. 
NOTE. To die of is translated fterbm an. Ex. : 

He died of his wounds, @t [tarb an feinen SBunben. 

2. With must not be translated after the following 
verbs : to meet with, begegnen (dat.); to trust with, atwr* 
trouen (dat of person, and ace.); to reproach with, sower* 
fen (dat. of person, and ace.). These German verbs gov- 
ern the accusative without a preposition. Ex.: 

He trusted me with (i.e., entrusted to me) his son. 

(r ticrtraute mir feinen @ol)n an. 

I reproached him with his ingratitude. 

3d) toarf ifym feme Unbanfbarfeit Dor. 

OBSERVATION. 

Prepositions are placed in German before the inter- 
rogative and relative pronouns which they govern; in 
English they are sometimes placed after : 

"Whom do you speak to ? Sftit toem fpredjen <Ste ? 
What's that for? u hwS tft baS ? 
The man you are interested in. 
3)er 2ftcmn, filr ben (Sie fid) tnterefftren. 

ufgok 143. 

1. Where are you going? I am going into the country. 
Goethe died at Weimar in the year (tm 3al)re) 1833. My 
friend arrived in the early part (in the 1 beginning) of the 
summer. Is this book to (nad)) your taste ? 2 No, I do not 
like it (It does not please me). I met that gentleman on my 
journey in Italy. The poor man had to choose between 
slavery* and death. Why has she been so unjust towards her 
parents? Did you arrive before or after four o'clock? Before 
the church there are three high poplars. 4 I found this letter 

143. iam. 



412 PREPOSITIONS. 

among my papers. Brandy 5 is the source of great evils (among) 
that nation. They (man) told me amongst other things that 
the ship had been taken by the enemy. 

2. He has sold all his horses except one or two. I went 
from Hamburgh to Altona. Now we turn to (towards) the 
south. Among the German merchants in London there are 
many charitable 6 men. He lives with his brother. The tailor 
will come to your house to-morrow. Where do you come 
from ? I come from my aunt'a The wooden horse was out- 
side the walls of Troy. 7 The patient is at present out of 
danger. Nobody besides myself was present. 8 Out of (t>on) 
sixty soldiers who made the attack, 9 twenty-five fell into the 
hands of the enemy. The dog sprang [out] from under the 
table. 

144. 

1. My father was not above twenty-two years old when he 
was married. 1 My uncle's country-house 2 is very handsome, 
but it cost him above eighty thousand florins. It is above a 
year since my friend set off for 3 America. Home was built by 
Romulus. The poor man was driven 4 out of his house by his 
creditors. 5 I will get up to-morrow at six o'clock. Were you 
at Mrs. D.'s ball last night ? I will pay you at the end of this 
month. I rejoice greatly at your [good] luck. 6 She always 
smiles 7 at every thing which is said. Where was your sister 
this morning ? She was at her aunt's. My chest 8 is one foot 
and a half deep by two wide and four long. Harold was 
wounded by an arrow. 9 

2. William the Second was killed by an arrow in the New- 
forest. Charles was wounded in the arm and not in the leg. 
I have very often a pain in my teeth. Upon what instrument 
does your sister play ? She plays on the piano. That happened 
on the 12th [of] March. I am in the habit 10 of taking a cup 
of coffee as soon as (the) dinner is over. When you meet a 
poor man, never reproach him [with] his poverty. France 
extended from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. What does 
he complain 11 of? 

143. sber SBronntwetn. 6ott$aH9. 7 $n>ia. 8 aegenmfttttg. sSlngrtff, m. 

144. ito be married, ft$ w^etrotyen. *Sanbau8. sna<$. <trei&en. 6ts u 6iger. 
e GHurf. ' tidjeln. E tie tf ifte. fcer $f eiL 10 to be in the habit, pjlcgen or aenofru f eia. 
n ftagcn after. 



413 

BEADING LESSON. 



$ranadf) tear nidjt nut ber grb'ftte SDtater feiner e\t, fonbern 
aud) ein 2ftann Don eblem erjen unb grojjem SBerftanb. <Sd)on in 
feiner Ougenb tuenbete er feine 3eit fefjr gut an, imb bafyer fam eg, bafj 
cr foeit friiljer ein nu^Udjer 2ftenfd) uwrbe alS 2lnbere. 3m nemije^nten 
-Saljre feineS filters lernte 1 ifyn 2 ber $urfiirft (Elector) Don <ad)fen, 
-Sofyann griebrid), al3 einen gefd^idten Bungling fennen, 1 unb nafym 
i^n auf feiner 9?eife in'^ elobte ^?anb 3 ntit fid). 9?ad) ber ^iicffe^r 
in'S 33aterlanb bertef er in an feinen >of nad^ 3Bittenberg unb madjte 
i^n bafelbft 3um Siirgermeifter. 4 (Sin cingiger 3 U 9 (trait) feiner 
fd)imen (Seele ift ^inreidjenb, 5 feinen (l)arafter 311 fdjitbern. 5lt8 fein 
err, ber imglitdlic^e ^urfiirft Oo^ann ^ri^rid)' bci SJZii^tberg in 
(Sac^fen in bie efangenfdjaft 6 ^aifer ^arte V. geratfyen 7 h)ar, erinnerte 
fic ber $aifer, ba ^ranac^ i^n al ^nabe gemalt ^atte, unb liejj biefen 
eblen 9)iater in fein ager fommen. 

w Sie alt toar td^ bamate, ate bn mid) malteft ?" fragte ber $aifer. 
,,(Sure SWaieftat," antmortete $ranad), , f n>ar ad)t ^a^re alt. (3 getang 
tnir nid)t etjer, 8 (Sure 2ftajeftcit gum (Stittft^en gu bringen, a(6 bi 8 5^r 
^ofmetfter 9 toerfdjiebene Saffen an bie 3Sanb fytingen Iie. SSd^renb 
(Sie biefe friegerifdjen ^nftrumente mit unDeriuanbten (fixed, staring) 
Slugen betrjid^teten, ^atte ic^ 3eit, 3b^r Sitb ju enttoerfen." 10 ,,$8itte 
(ask) bir cine @nabe toon mir aufi, Staler !" fagte ber ^aifer. 

jDemiit^ig ftel iljm 2 ^ranadj ju 5 u e un & ^ at / wilt X^rancn tn ben 
5litgen, nid^t um cine <2hmtme @elb ober urn einen Sitel, fonbern unt 
bie grei^eit feineS ^urfurften. S)er 2JJonard^ geriet^ 7 in bie grofcte 
53erlegen^eit; fein ^perj U)ar burd) biefen gered^ten SOBunfdf) erne 1 ? treuen 
Untert^anen 11 fe^tt getroffen, unb bod) gtaubte er, ben redjtfd)affenen 
^ranad^ fiir' erfie 12 abnmfen" ?n mitffen. B 5Du Bift ein bratier 3Kann," 
fagte cr 311 ifym; ,,ab"cr e Ware mir lieber getoefen, tnenn bu um ettuaS 
2lnbere3 gebeten ^citteft." 2113 nac^ einigcr 3eit ber ffitrfiirft feine 

i Itnnen lernen, to become acquainted with. 2 See p. 420. 13. s Holy Laud. < mayor. 
see p. 389, 3. 5 sufficient. captivity. to get, to fall, s niefct e^er aI8 bi8, (not earlier 
than until), not before, a governor, tutor, 10 to sketch, draw, n subject. 12 for the 
first, i.e., for a time, u to refuse. 



414 ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS. 

$reil)ett erlangte, lief} er biefcn feinen treuen 3)tencr me Don fetner 
<2eite; er nutate in fetnem djloffe tuofynen unb felbft bei eljrenDotlen 1 
elegenfyeiten neben ifym im SBagen ftfcen. 

QUESTIONS. 

SBer toar uca $ranad) ? 

2Bte fam e, bap er fritter al 5lnbere ein nu^Itd^er 

tourbe? 

SSann lenite i^n ber ^urfurfl toon <2>ad)fen fennen? 
SBie Jieg ber tfurfiirft? 
SB5o^in na^m er t^n mtt ftcf) ? 
2Ba t^at er narf) fetner ^kudEfe^r? 
SOSeldjer fcfjb'ne S^arafterjug tutrb toon t^m ergafyft? 
SBel^e grage rtdjtete ber $atfer an ben 9)taler? 
2Sa antttjortete t^m ^ranad^ ? 
SBetdje nabe bat ftd) ber Skater tion bem ^aifer 
etna^rte ib,m ber ^atfer feine 33itte ? 
SBaS fagt' er 311 i^m ? 
Sie eb,rte ber $urfiirft ben Staler, na^bem er feine 

toieber erlangt 



FIFTIETH LESSON. 

THE ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS. 

(9Bortfolge.) 

The general rules which govern the arrangement of the 
words in a German sentence have already been given on 
page 80 and the following pages. We shall recapitulate 
here what was said there, and give besides some further 
rules. 

1. Sentences are either a) declaratory, or 6) inter- 
rogative, or c) optative. Declaratory sentences state 
facts ; interrogative sentences ask questions, and optative 
sentences express wishes or commands, the latter employ- 
ing for this purpose the imperative or subjunctive. Ex- 

i ceremonial. 



ARRANGEMENT OP WORDS. 415 

amples of optative sentences are : Come here. Would I 
had never seen them 1 May you look at this as I do I 1 
See 6, c. '. 

2. Sentences frequently contain two or more clauses. 
One of these, or sometimes more than one, states the 
fact, asks the question, or expresses the wish, and this 
we shall call the principal clause. In the following ex- 
amples the principal clauses are in italics, and others, i.e., 
dependent clauses, in ordinary type : / hope that you will 
be punctual. They galloped their horses and arrived so 
early that they saw him. If we are cautious, and do not 
say what we have seen, we shall not be molested. Let me 
know when you arrive. When does he think it "best to let 
them know that there is no hope? Of course, a great 
many sentences contain only principal clauses, but no 
sentence can contain only a dependent clause or depend- 
ent clauses. 

3. Somewhat the more usual way in German to arrange 
the parts of the principal clause of a declaratory sen- 
tence, is to put the SUBJECT first, then the "VERB, and then 
all the REST. 

a) By the SUBJECT we mean the grammatical subject 
and its modifiers ; by the VERB, however, we mean only a 
single word, that word, namely, which changes to denote a 
difference of person or number. For examples see page 81. 

b) The order laid down in 3, called the Normal Order, 
is the same as that of the same kind of clauses in En- 
glish, e.g., <ie liekn einanber, They love eachothcr. If we 

i Of course, not declaratory sentences alone but also interrogative and optative 
sentences may justly be held to state facts. Thus, Has Henry arrived? states the fact 
that the speaker is curious to know whether, etc., and Come here states the fact that 
the speaker desires some one to approach. However, the defects in the definitions 
given in 1 do not seem likely to mislead the student and cause him to assign any given 
sentence to a wrong class. 



416 ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS. 

represent the subject by S, the verb by V, and all the 
rest of the clause by R, its formula is SVR. When R 
consists of several words, their arrangement (for which 
rules will be given further on) may differ from that re- 
quired in English, e.g., Sic | tyaben | einanber gefefyen, 
They | have \ SEEN EACHOTHER. The vertical lines in this 
and other examples divide the three component parts 
of the clause from one another. 

4. The only other way to arrange the parts of the prin- 
cipal clause of a declaratory sentence, is to begin with 
any fraction of the REST of the clause, 1 and then let fol- 
low first the VERB, then the SUBJECT, and then the other 
fractions of the REST of the clause. This order may be 
called the Question Order, inasmuch as in questions too 
the subject follows the verb. The formula for it, if we 
represent the different fractions of the REST, by r, r', r", 
r'", etc., is rVSr'rV", etc. Examples : efhrn | Ijab' | id) | 
@te auf ter traf c gefefyen, Yesterday I saw you in the street. 
<5ie | faf) | id) | gefhrn auf t>er trafje, You I saw yesterday 
in the street. 2luf t>er trapc | fal) | id) | <5ie gejkrn, In the 
street I saw you yesterday. 

a) It is hardly allowable to put two (or more) fractions 
of the REST at the beginning, and say for instance, @ie 
gcflern U. f. n>. ; but we may put the whole of the REST at 
the beginning, provided it is indivisible into fractions. 
We then have EYS, e.g., )en | Ueb' j id), That man I love; 
cflcrn | ftarb | er, Yesterday he died. 

For exceptions see 10 a, 13, and 15 6. 

5. The formula for a question, i.e., for the principal 
clause of an interrogative sentence, both in English and 

i The REST of the clause is all that is left after taking away the SUBJBCT. the 
and, if there should be a conjunction or relative, these latter also. 



ARRANGEMENT Of WOfcDS. 417 

German, is YSE, e.g., <inb | <ie | franf ? Are \ you \ sick? 
$aben | roir j ba$ 33ucl) gefauft? Did [ we \ buy the bok? 

6. This is also the formula for the principal clause of an 
optative sentence, e.g., SBdre | er J mtr fyier! Were \ he \ only 
here I But : 

a) The subject of the verb in the imperative is gener- 
ally omitted if of the second person, e.g., &omm fyer ! 
Come (sing.) hither 1 @agt mir, Tett (pi.) me! 1 

b) The subject of the third person singular of the 
present subjunctive, when this latter is used like an im- 
perative, is oftener put before the verb than after it, e.g., 
(r fomme is more frequent than 5tomm' er. 

c) Exclamatory sentences beginning with That or 
tJiat (2)a{j or ) bap) must be classed as dependent clauses, 
something like / wish (3d) mocfyte) being understood at 
the beginning, and not as optative sentences. They do 
not take the Question but the Dependent Order (8), e.g., 
> bap ic() ifw nte gefefyen fyatte, that I had never seen him! 
Without ba the order is, ) l;att' tc^ u. f. W. Sfiie takes 
either order, e.g. 2Bic er mt^ liebt ! or 2Bie Hcbt er mi(^ ! 

7. Dependent clauses have been denned page 82, 4, 
and page 415, 2. Should this definition still leave it dif- 
ficult for the student to recognize one when met with, it 
may be well to remember that such clauses are always 
used as nouns, or as adjectives, or as adverbs. 

a) A substantive dependent clause, like a substantive, 
may be a) the subject of a verb, or b) its object, or c) in 
apposition, etc., e.g: 

a) That, I confessed, is true. 

6) You claim that I confessed. 

c) The fact that he confessed is admitted. 

i This rule applies to tu and i$r, not to ie; e.g., jtcmmen it $. 



418 AK&AtfGEttENT OF WOKD8. 

b) An adjective dependent clause, like an adjective^ 
qualifies a noun or pronoun, e.g. : 

The men ivho are persecuting its . . . . 
You whom I have seen before .... 
The place where they disappeared .... 

c) An adverbial dependent clause, like an adverb, quali- 
fies a) an adjective, b) verb, c) adverb or d) preposition. 

a) Calmest when he was in the greatest danger .... 
6) I hear as well as I ever did. 
I will refuse if you like. 

c) He acted unwisely in that he disclosed his plan of defence 

too early. 

d) He is as much above us as the rest are below. 

d) So that any clause which is the subject or object of 
a verb, qualifies a noun, or an adjective, etc., etc., must 
be a dependent clause. 

8. Dependent clauses take the VERB at the very end, 
their formula being SKV. 1 For examples see page 82, 4. 

a) Exception 1. They take the Normal Order, however, 
when there is no connecting word (i.e., conjunction or 
relative) expressed, i.e., when the dependent clause comes 
close to the principal clause without the intervention of 
a singfe word. Thus, @r fcfyrieb, bap cr morgen anfommen 
ttntrbe must be changed, if we leave out bap, into (r fcfyrieb, 
cr nnirbe morgen anfommen. 

For other exceptions see 11 and 12. 

9. When bap is expressed, and then unt> brings in an- 
other clause depending on bap understood, either the De- 
pendent Order or the Normal Order may be used. Thus, 
I am convinced that you have acted wisely up to the 
present time, and [that you understood} will act just as 

i Sometimes a clause contains only the SUBJECT and the VKBB, and no BEST, e.g., the 
second clause of the following sentence, 3$ $offe, tap er lebt. 



ARRANGEMENT Off tfORDH. 419 

wisely in future too, may be translated either, 3d) bin 
tiberjeugt, baf @ie bis jefct f(ug gefyanbelt fyaben unb [bap it 
understood] aud) in ber 3ufunft ebcnfo Flug tyanbeln werben or 
. . . unb roerben and) u. f. n>. 

10. For convenience of comparison, we consider here 
ft similar case in which not the Dependent but the Ques- 
tion Order is involved. What order shall be used when 
unb comes after the Question Order, and when the frac- 
tion of the REST of the sentence which caused the 
Question Order to be used in the first clause (compare 4), 
is understood again after unb ? Suppose, for instance, we 
have the following sentence to translate into German: 
He was convinced by these considerations, and I was only 
Irritated (in which, of course, by these considerations is 
understood in the second clause), and we choose to begin 
in German with >urd) btefe 33etrad)tungen. 

a) In this case, it is much better to use the Normal 
Order in the second clause, e. g., 2)urcfy btefe 33etraci)tungen 
' er iiberjeugt unb id) nwrbe nur gereijt. 



11. The order used in questions (5) may be used to ex- 
press a condition, the conditional conjunction (e.g., tt>emt, 
if; gefefct, provided; falls, supposing, etc.) being left out. 
Thus we may say either, 2Benn er morgen fommt (8) or 
$ommt er morgen (VSE), gfalla id) bie grait fetye or <Sety' id) 
bie grau. 

a) 2ftorgen fommt er ntd)t cannot be used to mean If he 
does not come to-morrow, the sense would be He does not 
come to-morrow. That is to say, to express a condition, 
the VERB must come first, and not any fraction of the REST 
of the sentence, the order must be VSR, and not 
rVSr'rV". 



420 ARRANGEMENT OP WORDS. 

12. This same order must be used after al, meaning 
as if, e.g., 2113 roar' er aitper ftcfy, As if he were beside himself, 
for which we could say, using alg ob, 211$ ob er aujjer ft$ 
ware. 

13. We shall hear, when the arrangement of the words 
of the REST of the clause among themselves comes to be 
treated of, that the oblique cases of personal pronouns 
generally come first. Their tendency to take an early 
place is so great, that in the Question and Dependent 
Orders they frequently precede even the subject, e.g., 
efhrn tyat tfyn mein 23ruber auf ber <3rra e gefefyen, instead 
of eftern tyat mein Sruber tfyn u. f. ro. 2Bir gtauben, bap ifm 
mein 33ruber geftern ouf ber <8trape gefefjen fyat, instead of 
2Bir glauben, bap mein SBruber t^n u. f. n>. 

a) The same thing frequently takes place in questions 
and optative clauses, e.g., 2Bie I)at 2$nen bie SSorlefung ge* 
fallen? instead of 2Cie fyat bie SSorlefung u. f. w. How did 
the lecture please you? @et mtr etnja^ 3^t gegbnnt! instead 
of @et etwa^ $tit u. f. W., Let some time be granted me ! 

b) But in none of the cases mentioned in the last two 
paragraphs, can the oblique case of a personal pronoun 
precede the subject, when that subject itself is a personal 
pronoun. The following sentences, for instance, are bad 
German : efrern f)ab' i^n id) auf ber trape gefetyen ; 2Bir 
glaitben, bap tyn er . . . , fyat ; 2Bte fyat 3f>nen @ie gefallen ; 

gegonnt! 



14. A fraction of the REST of the clause sometimes be- 
gins a question, e.g., 2ftorgen will er abretfen ? To-morrow 
is he going away ? i.e., Is it to-morrow he is going away ? 
In this case, a considerable emphasis is laid in speaking 
on the word or words beginning the question. 



ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS. 421 

15. It has been remarked (see 4), that when a fraction 
of the REST begins a principal clause, the VERB must be 
brought in immediately after this fraction. A dependent 
clause beginning the sentence has just the same effect, 
i.e., requires the order rVSr'r'V", in which r represents 
the dependent clause. Thus we may say either, 3d) reife 
morgen ab, wenn er eg oerlangt, I have town to-morrow, if he 
demands it, or, with the dependent clause first, SBenn er eg 
serlangt, reif id) morgen ab. In the same way either, 3d) 
fmb' eg ganj red)t, baj? er bie @tetle md)t annimmt, I consider 
it quite right that Jie does not accept the position, or, 2)ap er 
bie tetfe nid)t annimmt, ftnb 1 id) ganj red)t. 

a) When a sentence begins with a condition, as in the 
first example just given, the principal clause (the con- 
clusion) generally begins with fo (then), e.g., a more usual 
form for the first example would be .... fo reif id) mor* 
gen ab. 

b) When this fo is not inserted, the conclusion very 
frequently contrary to the rule in 15 takes the normal 
order, e.g., 2Benn er eg tterlcmgt, id) reife morgen ab, or 
see 11 SBerlangt er e$, id) reife morgen ab. 

16. Three adverbs, bod), inbeffen and jebod), all meaning 
hoivever, do not require the Question Order, when they 
begin a principal clause, they sometimes take the 
Question, and sometimes the Normal Order. The sense 
is the same with the one order as with the other. Thus, 
)od) (inbeffen, jebod)) id) rootlf eg md)t glauben, However, 1 
was unwilling to believe it, or, )od) (inbeffen, jebod)) wollt 1 idj 
eg md)t glauben. 

a) The words just enumerated can be placed even be- 
tween the subject and the verb, e.g., 2Btr bod) WOllen eg md)t 
glauben, We though are not going to believe it. 



422 ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS. 

17. 2lber, alfo, inbeffen, jebod), namlicfy sometimes occuf 
between the SUBJECT and the VERB, and this not in the 
Dependent Order alone (the only order in which the SUB- 
JECP is regularly and usually separated from the VERB), 
but also in the Normal and in the Question Order. Thus, 
(r aber roollt' e3 md)t erlauben, He, however, would not allow 
it. They are thrown in, as it were, parenthetically, with 
a pause before and after them. 

18. The only words except, of course, the SUBJECT 
which can begin the principal clause of a declaratory 
sentence, and not require the Question Order, are a) those 
mentioned in 16 ; b) unt>, aber, allein, fonbern, benn, entweber, 
and ober ; c) any adverbs which, if placed elsewhere than 
close to the subject, might be misunderstood. Examples 
under c are : Only I (and no one else) wanted to dance, 
ftitr id) roollte tanjen. 3$ roollte nur tanjcn would mean, / 
wanted only to dance (and do nothing else). So also : 2ludj 
flrir roaren babet, We, too, were present; 33efonber3 bte 2)eute 
fc|en rourbett emport, The Germans especially got (were) en- 
raged. 1 

19. The order VSR sometimes occurs, not in a ques- 
tion, but in a declaratory clause to make an emphatic as- 
sertion. Usually, but not always, in such casss bod) or ja 
is inserted somewhere after the VERB. Thus, 3ft w bodj 
nicfyt ber cinjige, He, certainly, is not the only one (He isnt 
the only one though}. 3ft i<* femer, ber mir nid)t 9led)t gabe, 
Why, there is no one who would not say I am right. 

20. It need hardly be noted that an interrogative or 
relative pronoun or adverb must come at the beginning 

i 92ut id), audj mir, bfonb8 bte Deutfaen, etc., In reality foil under the definition of the 
SUBJECT, as given page 415, 3 a. Such phrases might, however, have caused the student 
trouble, and, for this reason, they have received especial and separate mention. 



ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS. 423 

of its clause, any formula laid down to the contrary not- 
withstanding. Thus, 2ln wen fdjreiben <5ie ? )er Sftann, an 
ben id) fdjrieb; not, <d)reiben <5ie an wen? etc. 

21. When in the Dependent Order the perfect or plu- 
perfect indicative or subjunctive is used, the VERB (i.e., in 
this case the auxiliary fyaben or fein in the present or im- 
perfect indicative or subjunctive) is often omitted. Thus, 
@r betyauptete, bap er nur wegen ber SDfaetye gefommen (ware 
understood), He maintained that he had only come on ac- 
count of the rent; 3d) ajaube nid)t, bap felbft 2)tcfen$ etwag 
23effereg fyer0rcjebrad)t (fyat understood), I do not believe that 
even Dickens has pi'oduced anything better. 

22. The modal auxiliaries and a few other verbs often 
form their perfect and pluperfect with their infinitives 
instead of their past participles (compare page 98, 3). 
When these peculiarly formed tenses occur in a depend- 
ent clause, the VERB is placed not last of all, but just be- 
fore the infinitives. Thus we do not have, (r fd)rieb, bap 
er eg nid)t $un fbnnen tyabe; nor, 2Btr glauben nicf)t, bap erbtc 
@telle annefymen wollen fyat, We do not believe that lie wanted 
to accept the position, but . , . nicfyt fyabe tl)im fbnnen, and 
.... bte telte ^at anne^men wollen. 

a) Even in dependent clauses without these peculiarly 
formed tenses, and without a modal auxiliary, the VERB 
may be placed immediately before, instead of immediately 
after, a participle and an infinitive, two or more infinitives, 
or two participles. Thus, 3d) fyoffe, bap bit mid) wirfi tanjen 
fefyen fbnnen. But it is more usual to place the VERB at 
the end. 

23. In the Dependent Order a compromise is some- 
times made, and the VERB placed, not after all, but after 



424 ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS* 

only a part of the REST. This is, of course, most fre- 
quently the case when the REST is very long. Thus, in 
translating, " He said that his wife never went to church, 
even in fine weather, without an umbrella, a water-proof, 
and overshoes," we need not put the German for went at 
the very end. We can insert it after to church in fine 
weather, and say : (r fagte, baj? feine $rau aitcfy bet fctycncm 
SBettcr nic in tie ftircfye ging ofyne ^cgenfc^irm, Stegenmantel 
unt> ummifdfyufye. 

a) Germans always avail themselves of this privilege 
of bringing in the verb before the very end of the de- 
pendent clause, when they have to do with a dependent 
clause itself containing two or three shorter dependent 
clauses. Let us take the English sentence, We hope (at) 
that you will not, (0) if you can conscientiously do other- 
wise, object to a candidate (y) who served so gloriously 
in the campaign ( f> ) which we had just finished (e) 
when you arrived among us. Here " that you will not 
object to a candidate " is the main dependent clause. It 
would be extremely awkward, however, to put werben, wiff, 
just before the full stop and after the four minor depend- 
ent clauses. The order in German might be as follows, 
using English words so that the student may concentrate 
his attention on the arrangement exclusively : We hope 
that you, if you conscientiously otherwise do can, to a 
candidate not object will, who so gloriously in the cam- 
paign served, which we just finished had, when you 
among us arrived. 

24. That certain tenses of separable verbs have a dif- 
ferent form when used in dependent clauses, has already 
been stated page 228, 4 



AKRANGEMENT OF WORDS. 425 

25. As for the arrangement of the different parts of the 
REST among themselves, an important general rule has 
already been given in the foot-note on page 262. Com- 
pare also page 81, 2. The student will notice that this 
rule, or an extension of it, requires the different fractions 
of the REST to be arranged in a series proceeding from 
the least to the most important, from that one, often the 
oblique case of a personal pronoun, which receives the 
least emphasis in speaking the sentence, to that one 
which receives the most emphasis. 1 

26. When the present or imperfect indicative or sub- 
junctive, or the imperative of a separable verb is used in 
the Normal or the Question Order, the prefix generally 
comes last, e.g., 3d) fcfyreib' 3f>nen, roenn @ie e$ serlctngen, 
SlUeg in einer Socfye recfyt fcfyon ob, I will copy everything for 
you nicely in a week, if you require it. 

a) But when the REST is long, and in conversation 
even when it is not, the separable prefix may be brought 
in after only a single word, or only a word or two, of the 
REST. Compare 23. Thus, 3$ fcfyreib' 3Jwen 2We$ rec|t 
fcfyon ab in einer SBocfye, roenn @ie eg serlangen. 

27. Just before the separable prefix, if there is one, 
otherwise at the very end, come the infinitives and par- 
ticiples, and in the reverse of the English order, e.g., @r 
ttrirb geliebt roorben fein, He witt have been loved; (r f>at mid) 
nicfyt fpredjen fyoren fbmten, He was not able to hear me speak; 
<r fet erleitmbet worben, Let him have been slandered. 

a) But when ju precedes the infinitives, these follow 
one another in the English order after the participle on 

i Considerations of euphony and of perspicuity, i.e., considerations quite outside of 
the rules of grammar, often determine the arrangement of the BEST. 



426 ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS. 

which they depend, e.g., (r fyot mir neulid) gerattyen, roenig* 
fteng jit serfucfyen, ifyn ju lieben, He advised me lately at least 
to attempt to love him. Compare, as to the position of gc* 
ratten here, 23. 

6) Negative adverbs, e.g. t nicfyt, me, ntrgenbg, are apt to 
be placed just before the infinitives and participles. 97id)t 
always follows nod), and generally follows other adverbs 
and adverbial phrases of time, such as ^eutc, geftent, tn 
ielen 



28. When a verb takes two objects, one a person, and 
the other a thing, the thing generally comes later in the 
clause than the person, e.g., <r befd)ulbtgte bte grew beg 
)iebftof)lg, He accused the woman of theft ; 2Bir tyoben geftern 
ben ^inbern ein 33uc^ gefc^enft, We presented a book to the 
children yesterday. 

a) But the oblique case of a personal pronoun, whether 
referring to a person or a thing, comes at the very begin- 
ning of the REST, e.g., 2Btr fyaben eg neitHcfy feinem 5Sater in 
$tt>ei 53rtefen oUj^anbtg mitgetfyetlt, We lately, in two letters, 
communicated it in full to his father. See c. 

5) "We have seen already (compare 13) that a personal 
pronoun in the genitive, dative or accusative comes in 
some cases between the VERB and the SUBJECT away from 
the other fractions of the REST. 

c) When there is one personal pronoun in the dative 
and another in the accusative, the accusative generally 
precedes the dative, e.g., 2)etn 33ater gob bid) mir ; 2)er Dn* 
fel gob eud) tljnen, fte eu<$, un 3fynen. 

d) But mtr'S (i.e., mir eg) and bir'S (Le. t bir c$) are just as 
usual as eg mir and eg bir. 



427 



OBSERVATIONS OP SPECIAL IMPORTANCE IN TRANS- 
LATING FROM GERMAN INTO ENGLISH. 

29. There are a number of words in German which 
are sometimes relatives and sometimes demonstratives. 



Demonstratives. 

ber, bie, bag, that (man, woman, 
thing) 

ba, there, then 

banttt, with that, with it 

inbem, at this moment 

inbeffen, meanwhile, notwith- 
standing 

fo fd)6n, fo gut, fo oft u. f. h)., so 
beautiful, so good, so often, 
etc. 



Relatives, 
ber, bie, ba8, who, which 

bo, where, when, since 
bam it, in order that 
inbem, in that, as, while 
inbeffen, while 

fo fdjb'n it. f. to., beautiful as, 
good as. 



One of the most frequent of all the mistakes made by 
beginners, is to translate this class of words wrongly, i.e., 
as demonstratives when they are relatives, and vice versa. 
There need, however, be no hesitation from which column 
to choose, if the order of the German clause is noted. If 
these words begin the clause, and the verb comes at fche 
end, they are relatives, otherwise they are demonstratives. 

Demonstratives. Relatives. 

)er gefottt mir, (Sin Sftann, bcr mir gefafft, 

That man pleases me. A man who pleases me. 

3)ie mod)t' id) (or id) mod)te bie) (Sine grou, bie id) fefyen modjte, 
fefyen, tteldje u. f. tt). 

I should like to see the 
woman who etc. 

(Sr fommt bo, 

He comes there. 

2)a fommt er, 

There he cornea 

3) omit fann er (or er fann bamit) 
atteS erfafjren. 

"With that he can learn every- 
thing. 



A woman (whom) I should like 

to see. 

3)a er fommt u. f. to. 
Since he comes, etc. 



2)amtt er afleS erfafjren fann, 

In order that he may be able to 
learn everything. 



428 ARRANGEMENT OP WORDS. 

Demonstratives. Relatives, 

(8 ift jo fdjon greitnbe |u fyaben, <2o fdjon c3 tft ^reiinbc ju Ijaben, 

mbd)te id) bod) lieber feme b e i 

9lrt Ijaben. 
It is so nice to have friends. Fine as it is to have friends, I 

should rather not have any 

of thai kind. 

30. If in any clause of a German sentence the verb im- 
mediately precedes the subject, it must be either because, 

a) The writer has chosen to begin with some other 
word than the subject (compare 4) ; 

b) The clause is conditional (compare 11), in which case 
we shall have a conclusion expressed or understood; 

c) The clause is interrogative (compare 5), when it will 
be followed by a mark of interrogation (?) ; 

d) The clause is optative (compare 6), when it will be 
followed by a mark of exclamation (!) ; 

Or finally e) because an emphatic assertion is intended 
(compare 19). 

EXAMPLES. 

L 

1. 3dj beljaupte, ba btefer ^elbljerr, loetdjen $tfe bettntnbern, fetn 
SBaterlanb Ijatte (22) rettctt fonnen, toenn ntrfjt 1 bte 9JJenge bcr ^etnbc 
jeben 2Btberftanb unmoglid) gemadjt Ijatte. 

2. Behind) bcr Some nwrbe in bte 3ld)t erflart (declared an out- 
law), toett er fetnen $atfer bertaffert Ijatte, at3 btefer nttt ben om* 
barbifdjen tSbten fampfte, ttjeldje ftd) ber !atferttd)en Oberfyerrfdjaft 
]u ent^te^en (withdraw) ftrebten. 

3. (Sine 9J?at(anbtfd)e efanbtfdjaft Don fedjjeljn abeltgen 502annern, 
on beren <Sptfce (head) bte (ionfutn ber tabt ftanben, begab ftd) nad) 
&>bt, um mtt bem ^atfer itber bte Untertucrfung gu untertjanbetn. 

i W<$t might have come after getnbe. No rale has been given for its position before 
the subject, bat menn ni<$t may be regarded as a compound conjunction, like unlett in 
English, or nui in Latin. 



ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS. 429 

4. 2Ba mtr gu unffen frommt (profits) ; tooran id] oljne efaljt 
meiner (Seete ntdjt ^tueifetn barf; ba3 tft mit leferlidjer (legible) @d)rift 
in mein enriffen eingegraben. 

5. !Dte $(uft (cleft) gtm'fdjen ott unb bem 9ftenfd)en ifl fo grofc, 
bafe ber 2#enfd) jroeifefa miifcte, je 311 bem ^nfdjauen beS ^flrfjften 311 
elangen, tuenn (13) iljm ott nidjt felbft entgcgen fame. 

n. 

1. jDteienigen, roelc^e ftc^ um etn 5lmt beluarben (solicited), 
fannte (30, a) tyil\W ber 3 me ^ e ' auc *) e ^ e f te f^ C^> & ) Dorftetten 
lie^en, fo gut nrie oon ^erfon. 

2. @g gtebt egenben ber (Srbe, fo lute ,3dten in ber efc^t^te be8 
eingelnen 9J?enfdjen unb ganger Golfer, in benen bie 5 u ^e ber eben* 
frafte glcid)fam (as it were) iiber i^re 2)amme getreten tft, unb wo mit 
jeber Sljat ba iBermogen ^um Sljun, mit bem enu^ ba efynen 
(desire) fi^ fteigert. 

3. ^{ato erjd^It, ba <So!rate8 auf einem ^elbjuge, ben er mit 2Uct* 
6iabe gemeinfrfjaftlid) mad^te, tton bem atljentenftfdjen ^eere gefe^en 
toorben fei, roie er etnft einen ganjen Xag unb etne 9Jac^t long bi an 
ben anbredjenben Sftorgen unberoeglic^ auf etner ^telle ftanb (23), mit 
einem Slide (23), fteldjer anjeigte, ba er feb,r angeftrengt iiber einen 
egenftaub uad)barf)te. 

4. SBenn aurf) 1 (though) einige Xb.iere an eftatt bem 2Jienfd)en 
fi^nlirf) finb; wenn s ^tnbere iljn an ^orperfraft, an djarfe eingetner 
(Sinne iibertreff en (excel) ; luenn nod) s jlnbere meilraiirbige Seineif e con 
$Utgb,eit geben (15 and 15, a) : [fo] bteibt bod) (16, a) jmifdjen ib/nen 
unb bem SRenfdjeu eine uniiberfteiglidje ^(uft, itber loetdje bie Sb,iere 
ftd) auf feine SBeife anjuna^ern tiermogen, toeil ib,nen bie ^Sernnnft unb 
beren (its) 2fo$brurf, bie pradje, feb.lt. 

ufgoBe 145. 

London is a very large town. I have bought a beautiful 
garden for my children. We have had clear days but dark 
nights. We cannot see all the numberless (^afyftoS) stars. 
Henry was to-day more industrious than yesterday ; he will 
be most industrious to-morrow. They went away from here 
at four o'clock. He often visited us formerly. They entered 
(into) the wood and soon perceived the habitations* of men. 
I do not know the man whom you are speaking of. The first 

i fte* foot-not* page 428. 2 



480 AKfcANGEMENT Of WORDS. 

battle (which) they fought was with the Saracens. 1 I did not 
know who it was. To be sure (gettnfc), I have told him (da!.) it. 
I am infinitely obliged 2 [to] you. I was wandering through 
the street with a heavy heart. Finally (enblirf)) we discovered 
the truth. I hav not been anywhere. Prosperity 3 gains 
friends, and adversity tries (pritft) them. Without a friend the 
world is but (uur) a wilderness. 4 What does this man teach 
your children? He teaches them to read and write. The 
tempest increasing, 5 "the 3 ships ^ost sight of each other 
(toertoren au3 bem eftcfyt). 



BEADING LESSON. 

$et cble Officer. 

3n bem le^ten rtege, ben ^rcmfretrf) gegen (Seamen fiiljrte, fatten 
bte beutfdjen ^ntfstruppen ein Stabtdjen an ben Ufern be fpantfdjen 
^luffeS Sajo befefct, aber nur etne fdjroadje Sefafcung (garrison) boa 
22 2ftaun bartn gelaffen. $)tefe nwrben auf ,3ureben 6 fpantfc^er (2ol 
baten bon ben Stnioo^nern ermorbet. 9?itr einer entfam,' unb brac^te 
bte 97arfirid)t toon ber btutigen fyat fat ba frangbftfc^e Sagev. >tet 
forberte man, beS 33etfpiel3 hjegen, bluttge 9?ad^e. 8 ogletd^ er^iett ber 
babtfdje ^auptmann . ben SSefeljI, mtt einer 5lbtb,ettung 9 feiner Snip* 
pen bte @tabt ^u umrtngen, nteberjubrennen unb in etnen tetnljaufen 
gn Dertuanbeln; 10 bte 33enio^ner foflten etngefc^toffen (shut in) bletben 
unb tnuntljattgerSkrjtoetflung 11 t^re abe u toon ben gfammen bergeljren 
(passive in English, compare p. 327, a) feljen. 25on btefer 
reget ertoartete ber fran^oftf^e enerat ben beften grfotg. 
iDeutf ^e ^aren attSgef rfjttf t, ben f d)tnal)ttd)ften Zob Ujver Sriiber gn radjen, 
unb ti)i 5lnfit^rer luar tm ganjen ^>eer at einer ber tapfevften, entfc^Iof* 
fenflen 13 unb mutfjtgflen Offtgtere befannt. 

er ttmr noc^ me^r at ba. @em ebte, meufrf)enfreunblt^e 
ttjurbe mtt raufen 14 erfuHt, at? er ben Sluftrag 15 t>erna^m. 
fonnte unb tooflte er t^n ntd)t ablelmen. 18 3)a na^e fdjrerf lic^e 
fo bteter ungtiidtt^er SJJenf^en, bte an bem 2ftorbe grotent^et( un< 

zeerfeunben. 3ba8Wcf. <2Bufle, f. f- june^men (see page 371, d). pr> 
to escape. vengeance. company. 10 to turn. 11 despair, 
ubozxor. is order. i to decline, to reftuw. 



ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS. 431 

fdjutbtg nwren, ergretft feme eble eele. (Scfyon fteljt er tm etfte bie 
tabt auflobern, 1 fyb'rt bag $lagegefd)rei ber 3=rauen, bag Sammer^ 
gcfdjrei 2 ber $inber unb ($reife, bag ^b'djeln 3 ber Sierbcnben; unb 
entroorfen 4 ift fdjon fein ^lan, feft fetn Sntfdjluft. 5)iod) 5 in fpater 
9?arf)t giebt er feinen euten (men, soldiers) ben ^efefjl ^um s #ufbrud). 8 
>er 2Beg fii^rte 7 an einem ^tofter uorubcr, bag untDett ber bebrob,ten 
tabt lag. )ag fluge itnb menfdjenfreimbltc^e Seneb.men beg 23or* 
ftetjerg 8 unb ader Setooljner beffetben gegen ^ reun ^ uu ^> ^cinb Ijatte 
ib,nen ben c^ntj unb bte Stebe beiber Xb,et(e erroorben, unb btefeg n>ab,re 
^ottegfiaug jur 5 re if^tte 9 fiir j;eben ^lit^tigen gemadjt. 2)er ^aupt* 
mann . berlangt (Sinla unb etne Unterrebung 10 mit bem ^Jrior. 
33eibeg icurbe tfym geioci^rt (granted). er ^ertrautefte 11 fetner Seutc 
kgleitete ib,n. 

9Ja^ etner b,atben (Stunbe le^rte er gu ben etntgen jurucf, aber 
cittern; fetn iBegletter ift unbemerft unb Dermuntmt 12 burc^ cine anbere 
b,ur b.tnauggefc^Iupft unb l^at balb auf einem ntifyern SBege bie gum 
33erberben beftimmte 13 (Stabt erreicfyt, hjelc^er (dot.) er mit etnent 
(Sc^retbcit beg ^Jriorg atg ein ^tmmelgbote erfd)eint. 3)te SSeiber unb 
$inber, franfen banner unb retfe fmb etngclaben, ftc^ unb iljre 
auf bem nadjften 2Beg nac^ bem ^lofter gu flitdjten. 3)er 
bcginnt, burc^ ben "DJtonbfrfjein begiinftigt. 9Kutter, ii>re augtinge 1 * 
an ber 33ruft ober auf bem ^itcfen, eroffnen ben 3"9> banfborc ii^ne 
tvagen bie 9)Jutter. So getangen (reach) fte an bag Softer, too ber 
^rior fte mit feinen 9)ioncf)en gaftfreunbticf) aufnimmt. SBa^renb beffen 
Ijat ber uwrfere ^)au))tmann fetne Seute auf einem anbern 23ege gegen 
bie <3tabt gefitb,rt. (Sr la'Rt 16 fte umrtngen, boc^ fo, ba jener 2Beg 
^lofter off en blieb; er befteljlt ben juriicfgebtiebenen 2fttinnern, 
unb otj auf^utljurmen. 17 (g gef^ie^t, 18 unb balb lobern 1 toon alien 
(Seiten tjelle, b,ol)e ^lammen in ber 9J?orgenrotl)e auf; aber l)inter bem 
^euer m^en fidjer bie werfc^onten (spared) ^aufer unb >iitten, unb 
an iplitnberung roirb nidjt gebadjt. 



ito blaze up. 2 lamentation, sthe groans of the dying. * thrown off, made. 
seven, i.e., even beforo day-break, r. to set out. " oorubevf ft^ren, to pass. prior. 
9 asylum. 10 interview, i: trusty, confident. 12 disguised, is see page 386, V. npxo 
oesaiou, march, i-baby. ic see page 337, a n to heap up. i* they do so. 



432 AKRANGEMENT OF WOBDS. 

QUESTIONS. 

2Ber Ijatte tm lefcten fyamfdjen $riege etn tabtdjen befefct? 

2Ba$ ereignete fid) bamalS ? 

2luf roeffen 3 ure ^ en 9 e f^ a &k butttge Xljat? 

2Bitrben 5lUe getobtet? 

Ste erfufyr man bie Sftadjridjt tm frangoftfdjen ager? 

2Ba3 berlangte man Ijter ? 

2BeI(^en Scfe^t ertjiett ber babtfdje au|itmann ^>.? 

SBarum beyfpradj fid) bcr fran3ofifdjc enerat ben beften (Srfolg ? 

fiir cm SDiann hjar fener ait^tmann ? 

faQ er frfjoit tm etfte ? 

ijorte er im etfte? 
tn fiifyrte t()n fetn 2Beg? 

fatten ftc^ ber ^Borfte^er unb bte 33etooljner jeneS 
tmmer benommen? 

bege^rte bafelbft ber babtfdje ^aitptmann? 

er aEein ? 

2Ba njurbe an fetnem Segtetter? 
SGBeldje Stnlabung ent^tett ba <2>rf)retben be 
2Bte niar ber 39 ber ^liid)tlinge befdjaffen ? 
2Bte lie^ ber an})tmann bte bebro^te tabt ttmringen? 
2$on ftia Iat er ein ^eiter anmad)en? 
SBrannten bte $aufer? 
^n loa totrb nid)t gebadjt? 

Shifgafic 146. 

This being resolved, 1 my wife undertook to manage* the 
business herself. The horse was unfit 3 for the road, as he 
wants an eye. Leaving my cloak behind me, I set out to view* 
the town a little. As I was going across one of the principal 
squares, 6 1 was followed by 6 a little boy, who insisted on clean- 
ing' my boots. He was provided 8 with a footstool 9 and with 
brushes ; and I do not doubt [but] that he would have 
polished 10 my boots admirably. However, I had neither time 
nor inclination, and as this was the case, declined 11 the honor. 
The boy followed me through several streets, and I never 
stopped but (ofyne ba) he put down his stool and wanted 
(toottte) to begin. When he had exhausted 12 his powers of 

146. i fcefdjloffen. 2 auSftitjren (carry out), suntauglid). -i&etracbten. s$(a$. etransl.. 
little boy folio wed me (dot.), and.... 'pufeea. orfe$en. @$eme(,m. 



AKRANGEMENT OF WOBDS. 433 

persuasion 13 and found me deaf to entreaty, 14 he departed in 
search of 15 a less obstinate subject. 16 

147. 

They who have employed the study of history, for (ju) their 
instruction, 1 for the regulation 2 of their private matters, 8 and 
for the management 4 of public affairs, must agree with me, 
that it is the most pleasant school of wisdom. It is a familiar- 
ity 5 with past ages, 6 and an acquaintance with all the heroes of 
them. 1 It is, if you will pardon the similitude, 8 a perspective- 
glass 9 carrying 10 your soul to (in) a vast distance and taking in 
the farthest objects of antiquity. It informs 11 the understand- 
ing by the memory ; 13 it helps us to judge of what will happen, 13 
by showing 14 us the like 15 revolutions of former times. For 
mankind being 16 the same in all ages, agitated 17 by the same 
passions and moved 18 to action by the same interests, 19 Nothing 
'can come to pass, 20 but (oljne baft) some precedent 21 of the like 
nature ($lrt) has already been produced ; and having the 
causes before our eyes, we cannot easily be deceived in the 
effects, 22 if we have judgment 23 enough to draw the parallel* 4 

(Dryden.) 

READING LESSON. 

eblc Officer. 



jtnetftunbtgem 23ranbe imrb cm (Silbote 1 an ben general 
gefdnrft, um 9?ad)taft 2 ju erbttten. liefer feljrt nut bem Sefefjle juriicf, 
baft bie tabt bis Mtag brennen ntiiffe. 3 ogtetd) ttrirb ber iibrtge 
SBorratf) toon olj unb <5trof) jut tluterljaltung be geuerS fyerbeU 
gefdjafft unb ba$ eball 4 etntger offentltd)en ^aufer, bie man, um bod) 
SnuaS ju gerftoren, niebergertffen I)atte, roirb ju gteid)em gtotdt ber* 
braudjt. gnbltd) fd)lagt bie gw5lftc tunbe unb gibt bag 3 e ul) en 



146. is Ue6metungfunfl. u SSitte. 15 um ju fu^en. ie 2Renf$. 

147. i SBele^rung. 2 afZtc^tf^nur. a ipricat^ngelejen^etten. < SBenoaltung. s SSettraut^elt. 
bo8 3eitaUer, use the sing. T see page 147, 7. bag Ieic^ntf . tn Sprfpe!H'. "see 
page 372, le. 11 bete^ren. isbae cba<$tntjj. is what will happen, bag ^ufunftige. "see 
page 371, Ic. isa^ultc^. ie see page 371, 1 d. neneflt. is angetrieben ju ^anfceln. "bog 3ns 
tereffe. 20 to come to pass, gejc^e^en, ftc^ ereignen. 21 ein frfl^eter gaU. 22 bie SBirfunj. 
as Urt^etlgftaft. 24 ben SBetglei^ ju jiefcen. 

i courier. 2 pardon. * see page 356, 4 a, and page 367, 5, a, 6. timbers. 



434 ASBAtfaEMEtfT OF WORDS. 



e, ber ehtem umfyrcn rtuntpl)3uge gteid)t: benn unter ben 
feitben tft ntd)t (Suter, ber nid)t greubentfyriinen nieint. 23egteitet toon 
bet: ntannUd)cn 33ettol)nern bet tabt, toeldje ben (Sotbaten bie eroefyre 
uub Sormfter 1 tragen, fie mil iljren 2)anffagungen unb <2>egenltmtnfd)en 
^berfdjittten, 2 getangt ber bunte 3 aufe jum Softer. 3Me toon bent 
fernen fteuer erfdjrecften reife, SSetber nnb $inber ftitrjen ben ^om* 
menben mit angftUdjen 5 ca 9 cn entgegen. 2lber batb nnrb ber fitrc^ter* 
Ucb,e 3 loe 'f e t 3^ [ro^Itc^en enjt^eit, at^ fie bernefymen, 4 ba ber eble 
$>auptmann nidjt nur i^r Seben, [onbern aud) ib,re ^aufer unb liter 
gerettet fyabe. @ie ftiir^en tior iljm nteber, jte liiffen itjin bte anbe; er 
!ann fi^ ber lebfyafteften 5leuerungen 5 be 3)anfe3 fautn ertoe^ren. 8 

!j)ann trttt 7 ber ^rtor, ein e^rraiirbtger rei in Uberljaaren, mtt 
X^ranen in ben $ugen ib,m entgegen/ nnb ^tte tueidjen eb.rfurc^tstiofl 
guriicf. r ,Sbter Bungling," fpridjt er, inbem er ib,n mit ^ttternbem ?lrm 
on fetn erj briiiit, ,,fur jDeine S^at tft jeber So^n ju flein; nur in 
Reiner Sruft ftnbeft 2>ii ben h)itrbigen. 3luc^ finb ttrir arm unb 
beft^en WufytS, roaS wir !Dtr anbteten fonnten. 3d) felbft b,abe nia 
nod) btefeS ^reuj mit (Sbelfteinen, ba^ tdj afe 3 e ^ en wetner SKurbe! 1 
trage; nimm el; Ia mic^ e8 5)tr um^angen, nid^t all ein (Sefdjent, 
fonbern all ein Slnbenfen an bie tjergangene S'la^t. 3 tt)ar 3^ren fdjon 
anbere (Sijrenjeidjen 9 2)etne 33ruft; bod^ fet bal britte, bal bit 
3>tr iueitjt, 10 S)ir ntd^t minbir n>ert^ ! SSe^e bem Xa^fern, 
ber nidjt menf^Ii^ ift; aber <3egen itber j;eben ^rieger, ber fo fortftifyrt, 
fein ! 3)arum fegnen 2)id) bie eretteten, barunt fegne td| 
barum fegnc" 3)t^@ott! " 

3)er auptmann ri ftc^ tief erfd^itttert 12 tol unb fefjrte mit fetner 
Ibraoen <2c^aar in bal ?ager ^urittf. 5lber n)te nwrb ib,m ju 9)?ut()e/ 3 
all er am anbern 9)iorgen toon etnem feiner ^reunbe erfu^r, ba^ ber 
fransoftfdje enerat Don bem SSorfatt unterridjtet fet ! Sltte Offt^icre 
ttiaren Don biefem gur afct cmgelaben, ber ^auptmann burfte md)t 
fe^ten. 9Ktt mannttdjer 5 a ff un 9 u un & geftdrft toon bem 33eroutfetn 
feiner Ijodjljerstgen S^at, gtng er einer, toietteic^t ente^renben 16 (Strafe 

i knapsack. 2 load, s the mingled troop. 4 learn. 5 manifestations 6 to keep off. 
: came to meet. 8 dignity. 9 decoration, badge of an order. ioto dedicate, to devote. 
11 see page 420, 13 a. 12 moved, u how did he feel 1 1 1 compos are. i- diahouoring, 
infamous. 



ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS. 435 

entgegen, roeil er ben 23efef)( feineS SSorgefeJjten nidjt befotgt Ijatte. 
!Der eneral empfing iljn mit fyofyem Srnfte unb nnnfte ifym in em 
^ebengimmer. Sftit ftopfenbem Bergen fotgt ber >auptmann. (Sic 
fmb aUein. -3e^t ergreift ber eneral feine >anb, blicft ifyn mit feudjtem 
5luge etne SSeite an, reiftt i^n an ftc^, umarmt ifyn mit eftigfeit unb 
(fpric^t: ff @tc berfte^en mic^ !" 2)ann fe^rt er mit i^m pr @efeflfrf)aft 
gurucf. 

2Ber mo^te 1 nic^t fo gefeljtt, toer moc^te ntc^t fo geftraft ^aben! 
3)er auptmann fc^icfte ba ^reuj feinen ^Semanbten unb fcfjrieb 
babei: , f !Dag ift bie einjige Seute, 3 bie ic^ in panien gemacb,t ^abe 
unb madjen ttierbe. llngern trenne ic^ mid) bation. S3erfauft e3 unb 
be^afjtt bation meine djutben, bie id) Ijinterlaffen ^abe." S)te 23er* 
njanbten fatten aber fdjon la'ngft bie djulben bega^It, unb 
nun ats einen 5<*tttiltenfd)at$. 3 



QUESTIONS. 

gefdjieb/t nad) ^rteiftiinbigem Sranbe? 
SBetdje Slntwort brad)te ber Sitbote ? 
SD3a gefd)ieb,t nun ferner ? 
2Sem gleidjt ber 5lbjug ber Jruppen? 
W.8 bie (Sotbaten ab^ogen, n)a8 tb,aten bie banner? 
2Sa tljaten bie rei[e unb ^rauen, alg man beim ^(ofier at 

langte ? 

2Ba8 ^atte ib,nen ber cble ^auptmann gerettet? 
2Bie rebete ber -)3rior ben oanptmami an (address) ? 
SBetdjeS 5tnbenlen (token) gab er ib,m? 
2Ba gefdja^ am anbcrn SCRorgen tin ?ager? 
2Bie ging ber ^aitptmann gu feinem enerat? 

b,atte er gu furdjten? 

em))fing i()n ber encrat? 
niaren feine 2Borte? 

fdjrieb ber .^auptmann an feine SBertoanbten, at3 er ba 
nad) O au f e fdjirfte ? 

fatten bie 35erroanbten fdjon borfjer getb,an ? 

ift au3 betn ^reuje geworben ? 



1 would not like. 2 booty. 3 hair-loom. 



436 EXERCISES. 

PBOMISCUOUS EXEKCISES IN TRANSLATION AND 
CONVERSATION. 

(Continued from page 301.) 

18. 

Are you acquainted with M., the French captain ? Yes, Sir, 
I made his acquaintance last year at Baden. Has the servant 
cleaned my spurs? 1 He is still cleaning them. Has the 
butcher bought fat oxen ? He has bought fat oxen and cows, 
but no calves nor 2 sheep. Is this the coach-office ?* Yes, 
Madam, here it is. When does the stagecoach 4 start ? There 
is one in the morning at seven o'clock, and one in the evening 
at six. How many places have you remaining in the evening 
coach ? There are only two left. I want three, can I have 
them for to-morrow ? Yes, you can have them. How much 
do you charge for a place ? Three florins and a half. Do 
children pay full 6 price ? No, children pay only (the) half-price. 

"When must I send the luggage? 8 An hour before the coach 
starts. 7 At what o'clock shall we arrive at B. ? Between three 
and four in the afternoon. Do we pass 8 through S. ? No, you 
leave the town on your left 

19. 

"What is his manner of life? 1 He leads a very retired life 
(lives very retired). 2 What services does he render 8 his fellow- 
citizens? 4 None, that (fotriel) I know [of]. Is he resolved to 
sell his estate ? 6 He will sell it, if he finds a purchaser. 6 How 
much does he ask for it? He asks five thousand pounds. 
How long have you been in Germany ? I have been here these 
three months. How much do you pay a month 7 for your 
lodgings? 8 I pay a hundred florins a month. How many 
rooms have you ? I have five rooms, a parlor (33efudJ3immer), a 
dining-room, and three bed-rooms. What curtains' have 
you ? I have white and red curtains. Have you your own 
furniture (2)?obet, pi-) ? No, I have hired it. How much do 
you pay for it ? A hundred and twenty florins for six months. 

How many English miles 10 make one German mile ? Five 



18. i pornen. "- unb feine. s bit ga^rppjl. btt littoacjen. ben flatten $13. G ba3 
f plcf. i abgcfien. * lommcn, paftlren. 

19. i Die 2cfcenSrei)(. > juriicf gejojen. * If men. -' ter SftUfrurger. t bs ui or Content 
ftfefc. TmoMtiut. SBofcnuttj, ting. SBor&ang, m. lo 



EXERCISES. 487 

English miles and a half are equal 11 to one German mile. 
How far is it from Heidelberg to Frankfort ? It is ten German 
miles or fifty-five English miles. Were your parents in 
Switzerland last year ? They were not there last year, but they 
intend going there this year. 

20. 

To whom have you presented 1 your flowers? To the lady 
who came to see my sister. What wine is that ? Good old 
rhine-wine. Where can I buy good ink? The stationer 2 in 
William-street sells very good ink. Which do you prefer, 
veal or mutton ? I like both, but I prefer ham. What have 
you bought in this shop ? I bought steel-pens and pencils. 
Where have you seen the finest horses? In England. Is 
there an English physician in this town ? Yes, there are two 
English physicians and a French one. Is [there] good wine 
to be had 3 here ? Yes, but bad beer. How much richer are 
you than your neighbor? I need not tell you. Which flow- 
ers are finer than mine ? The flowers of my (female) neighbor 
are much prettier. Which edifice 4 is the highest in the town? 
The church is the highest. Why do you not let him alone 
(geljett) ? I want to speak to him. 



21. 

Did the coachman put the horses to 1 [the coach] ? Nobody 
has ordered it. Have you sent for the music-master ? Yes, I 
have, but he is not at home. Is it allowed to speak to the 
prisoners ? That cannot be allowed. May the tailor come ? 
He may come if he likes. Does, this young man smoke 
cigars? Yes, he smokes every day five or six. Have you 
spoken to the lawyer ? 2 I spoke to him, but he would not hear 
me. Who can judge 3 a person* without knowing him ? 
Nobody should do so. Are you not allowed to play in this 
room ? No, we must play in the yard. Did the lady let the 
children play in her room. Yes, she did, but only for an 
hour. What shall I say of such behavior? 5 You must blame 
it. What am I to do? You are to work instead of playing. 

19. n gtet$ (dat.). 

20. i ttfcerreidjen or fcfyenfen. 2 ber @$ret6materiaflen=&nbter. 3 ju fw&en. < Oebiube, n. 

21. i anfeannen. 2 ber 9lbo!at'. fceurt&eilen. < einen 2Henf(en. ba8 SJettagen ei 



438 EXERCISES. 

Ought I to have gone to Baden ? Either to Baden or to Ems. 

Are these men really so selfish ? 6 They are the most selfish 
men I ever knew. Is anybody knocking? Yes, some one 
knocked at the door. Who is there? It is I, your friend B. 

How do you do? I thank you, I am quite well. 



22. 

Why did you not thank your master? I have not seen 
since last week. What is the matter with you (fefylt 3f)tten) ? 
I am not quite welL The father would not believe his son 
any more (no more believe), because he had told a falsehood. 
Do not wish him anything bad. This cloak does not belong 
to you, it belongs to the doctor. What did the baron present 
(|"d)enfen) to his niece? He presented her [with] a new bonnet. 
I wish you a good morning. To what physician did you 
send your card ? I sent it to Mr. Murray. Have you anything 
to tell me ? Yes, I have a word to say to you. What is it ? I 
must speak to you alone. Do you understand what I say ? I 
understand you well. Why don't you answer me ? I don't 
know what I am to answer you. What do you mean by that 
(bamit) ? Nothing that (roaS) concerns 1 you. What is your age 
(How old are you) ? I am fifteen years old. How old is your 
brother? He is almost 2 eighteen. I thought he was 3 older. 

23. ON MEETING A PERSON. 

Good morning, sir. I (have the honor to) wish you (a) 
good day. How do you do 1 to-day ? I hope you are in good 
health. I am very well How does your father do ? He is 
not quite well How does all the family do ? (How do they 
all do at home ?) I thank you, they are all in good health. 
How is Mrs. B., your aunt? She is a good deal better. She is 
tolerably well She is rather 2 unwell. She is very ill 
What ails (fefjlt if)r) her? (What ia the matter with her?) She 
has a cold (fjat fief) ertci(tet). I am very sorry to hear it. How 
long has she been ill (unwell) ? I did not 'know that she was 
ill What is her illness ? She has a fever. 3 Does she take 
anything for it? The doctor comes every day. He says that 



21. 

32. i fctrtfftn. fceinafic. s Bee p. 367. 8 a, fc. 
. ifafctfinbeu. sjUmfafc. = tag guiec. 



EXERCISES. 439 

It will not be of any consequence (turn SBebeittung). So much 
the (befto) better. I am very glad of it. I am very happy to 
hear it, 

24. NEWS. 

Is there any news 1 to-day? Do you know anything new? 
"What news can you tell us? I know nothing new. There is 
no news. I have not heard of anything. Have you read the 
news-papers ? What do the papers say ? I have read no paper 
bo-day. Did you see that in any paper ? It is only mentioned 3 
in a private (^rtoat-) letter. This news wants confirmation. 1 
I have that news on (from a) good authority. 4 I have it (from 
the) first hand. Has that news been confirmed ? That report 
has proved (fid) ge^eigt al3) false. Is war still spoken of (do 
people still talk of war) ? No, people speak of it no longer. 
Have you heard anything of (non) your brother ? I have not 
heard from him these 5 two months. He has not written for 
(fett) three months. I expect a letter from him every day. 

25. BREAKFAST AND DINNER. 

Have you breakfasted ? Not yet. You come just in time 
(gerabe rerfjt) ; you must breakfast with us. Breakfast is ready. 

Do you drink tea or coffee ? I prefer coffee. What shall I 
offer you? Here are rolls 1 and toast. 2 Which do you like 
best ? I shall take (of) both. How do you like (fmben (ie) 
the coffee ? Is it strong enough ? It is excellent. Is it sweet 
enough ? Make yourself (Do as if you were) at home. At 
what time do we dine to-day ? Do we dine at five o'clock ? No, 
we shall not dine before six o'clock. Shall we have anybody 
at dinner to-day ? We expect Mr. Black and Miss White. 
What have we [got] for our dinner? Shall we have any fish? 
There was not a fish in the market. What shall I help 3 you 
to ? 3 Will you have some soup ? I thank you, I will trouble you 
for (bitten lint, pre*. indie.) a little beef. It looks so very nice. 

Which way (lute) shall I cut it? Any way (2Btc <te tooflen). 
Will you have it weE done (ttiel) or undergone ? 4 Eather well 
done, if you please. I do not like it underdone. I hope this 
piece is to your liking. 5 It is excellent Now I am going to 

24. i etroaS 9?eue8. 2 erro&nn. s fccbarf b 93efl&Hgung. * dttH. s frit. 

25. i 93r5b$en. gcrcftcte iBrotjdjnttun. 



440 EXERCISES. 

send you a piece of this pie.' I had rather take a little piece 
of that pudding. 1 Try 8 both. Shall I send you a slice 9 of 
this leg of mutton (^pammettffeule) ? Give me but very little of 
it. You eat nothing. I beg your pardon, I am eating very 
heartily (mit giitem 



26. TRAVELLING BY RAIL-ROAD (mit bet tfatBaljn). 

I intend to set off to-morrow for Paris. At what o'clock 
does the first train 1 start?* Here is the time-table 3 for the 
summer with the fares (^rcifcn). The first is a mixed train 
and goes very slowly. Does it stop often ? It stops at every 
way-station (3tt>tfd)enftatton), and is liable* to all sorts of delays. 6 
The next train goes much faster. Where is the railway- 
station? 6 Near the gate on the right hand. "Where do you 
take the tickets (23tttete) ? The first opening 7 on the left hand 
is for the second and third classes, and the next for the first. 
How are tho second class carriages made ? They are covered 
(gebecft) and have windows or slides 8 on the sides. Are the 
seats stuffed ? 9 No, you find stuffed seats only in the first class 
carriages. What have I to pay ? Fifty francs for yourself 
and some francs for your luggage. 10 Where is my luggage ? 
The porter is just taking it from the scales 11 and bringing it 
out. Will he place it on the top of (oben auf) the carriage in 
which I have taken my seat ? No, Sir, all the luggage is put 
into the luggage-van." Now, good bye. 



ANECDOTES FOR TRANSLATION INTO GERMAN. 

1. 

A sick man being asked, 1 why he did not send for (nad)) a 
physician, answered : "It is because I have no mind (uft) to 
die yet" (fdjon). 

95. 5pajlet, f. ' bet Cubbing, StloS. s trfu*en. 9 eine Sdjnttte. 

M. i br 3 U 3- * a&gefcn. s bet Jatyrtcnjjlan. 4 unterwotfen. & SSerjogerunj. 33af>n 
bof, m. 1 6$altet, m. s @$iebfenflcr. 9 gepoljtat, 10 epicf, n. n bit SBage. sing, n btf 
9<p&(tmagen. 

1. i vil* ein gtftajt reutbe 



EXERCISES. 441 

2. 

Milton being asked by (toon) a friend whether (ob) he would 
instruct 1 his daughters in the different languages, replied : No, 
Sir, one tongue 2 is sufficient for a woman." 

3. 

An Irishman meeting 1 another (dot.) asked him, what had 
(ttmre) become of (au8) their old acquaintance 2 John. " Alas 
(ad)) ! my dear," replied the other, " poor John 3 was condemn- 
ed 4 to be hanged, but he saved his life by dying 6 in prison." 

4. 

Socrates being asked by one of his friends, what was 1 the 
way to gain 2 a good reputation, replied : " You will gain it, if 
you endeavor 3 to be what you desire to appear." 



5. 

An Alderman 1 of London once requested an author to write 
a speech for him to speak 2 at Guildhall. "I must first dine 
with you," replied he, " and see how you open your mouth, 
that I may know what sort of words [will] fit it." 8 

6. 

An old philosopher observing a young man who had too 
great a (a too great) volubility 1 of tongue, 2 spoke thus to him : 
" Take notice, 3 my friend, that nature 2 has given us two ears, 
and but (nitr) one mouth, that we 4 [may] listen much and 
speak little." 

7. 

A certain professor, lecturing 1 a young man on (toegen) his 
irregular conduct, added with great pathos : 2 " The report 8 of 



2. i unterri^ten. 

3. i 3113 fcegegneie. 2 ber SSefannte. 3 put the definite article. 4 urt!jeitt. 6 batmr<$ 
ba|) et 3c. (see p. 373, 2 &.). 

4. i see p. 358, 6. 2 ju erroerfcen. s fu fcemfltyen. 

6. 1 5K,itI)3ljerr. 2 roelcfye et in . fatten rooHte. s fflr lljn paffetu 

6. i (Seldufigfeit. 2 put the article. 3 fcefcenfen <te. -i bamlf 

7. i au8f$eUen. 2 sjJatfcoS, m., al&ung. s bte 9Ja$ric$t eon. 



442 EXERCISES. 

your vices will bring your father's grey hairs -with sorrow to 
(in) the grave." "I beg your pardon, Sir," replied the pupil, 
" my father wears a wig." 4 

8. 

A nobleman of N. standing at a window, and seeing an ass- 
driver beat his ass unmercifully, 1 cried to him : 2 "Have done, 8 
have done, rascal, else I shall have you whipped." 4 The ass- 
driver answered : " Pardon, good Sir, I did not know, my ass 
had friends at court (bet >ofe)." 

9. 

"When Cortez returned to Spain, he was coolly 1 received by 
the emperor Charles V. One day he suddenly presented him- 
self to the monarch. 2 "Who are you?" said the emperor 
haughtily. 3 " The man," said Cortez, just as 4 haughtily, " who 
has given you more provinces than your ancestors left 6 you 
cities." 

10. 

A traveller coming into the kitchen of an inn 1 on (in) a very 
cold night, stood so close to 2 the fire, that he burnt 3 his boots. 
A man who sat in the chimney-corner, 4 cried to him : " Sir, 
you'll burn your spurs presently." 6 "My boots "you 'mean, I 
suppose (ttermittfjlid)) ? " said the gentleman. "No, Sir," replied 
the other, " they are burnt already." 

11. 

A village-blacksmith 1 murdered a man, and was condemned 
to be hanged. The chief peasants 2 of the place joined together 3 
and begged the judge that the blacksmith might not suffer/ 
because he was 5 necessary to the place, which could not do 
without 6 a blacksmith, to shoe 7 horses, mend 8 wheels, etc. But 
the judge said : "How 'then ^an 2 I execute the judgment?" 
A laborer said : " Sir, there are two weavers in the village, and 
for so small a place "one 9 *is enough, hang the other." 



7. 

8. i unbarmljerjig. 2 rief et u)m ju. ' 6ren @te auf. < pettfc6,en laffett. 

9. i fait. 2 bcr 9Bonardj', flonig. s ffolj. < ebenfo. tyinterlaffen 6,aben. 

10. i ein 2Dtrtfi86. au. 2 na$e Bet (dot.), s anbrennen. * bit ftaminM&fe. 6 Saft. 

11. i djtnteb. * tie Bornetyntften S3auern. s ttaten jufatnmen. < ben Sob leiben. * Sub- 
junctive. The subjunctive is used when Oiey taid, hetaid, I said, etc., m*y be sup- 
plied. 6 to do without, entbefyren (ace.). ? mn jit bef^Iagen. 8 auSbeffern. 9 see 
p. 119, 1. 



EXERCISES. 443 

12. 

A Persian philosopher being asked -by 1 what method he had 
acquired so much knowledge, 2 answered, "By not being 8 
ashamed to ask 4 questions when I was ignorant." 

13. 

A gentleman who had lent a guinea for two or three days to 
a man whose 1 promises he had not much faith in, 1 was very 
much surprised to find that he very punctually kept his word 
[with] him. The same man being some time after desirous 3 
of borrowing 3 a larger sum, " 4 No," 'said "the 3 other, " you have 
deceived 4 me once, and I am resolved 5 you shall not do it a 
second time (mat)." 

14. 

A young fellow having been very extravagant, 1 wrote to his 
father for (urn) more money, using every argument ; but. 
nothing would prevail (fyctfen). At length he very ingeniously 2 
wrote to his father that he was dead, and desired (bat) him to 
send money to pay [for] his burial. 3 

15. 

A poor man finding one night 1 thieves in his house, said to 
them, without being frightened : 2 " I do not know what you 
are looking [for] in my house by night ; as for me, 8 I cannot 
find anything in it in broad day-light."* 

16. 

A rich farmer' in Devonshire made a will 2 in which the fol- 
lowing article 3 was found (ftanb) : " I bequeathe 4 to John Wilkes, 
late* member of Parliament for Aylesbury, five thousand pounds 
sterling, as (ate) a grateful return 6 for the courage with which 
he defended the liberty of his country, and opposed 7 the (dot.) 
dangerous progress of arbitrary power." 8 

12. i auf weldje SBeife. 2 ScnntnifK, pi. 2 see p. 373, 26. < to ask questions, fragen or 
gtogen jletlen. 

13. i fcefjen 33erfpre$ungen cr m$t traute. 2 1 am desirous of, i<$ tcftnfae. s ju letyen, 
entlef)nen. * getSufdit. s enti'Atoffen. 

14. i Bfdjroenfcerif$. 2 [tnnretdj. " 33egrlSntfc, n. 

15. i einmal 9Zadjt8. 2 ofine baruber 511 erf*cfen. 3 maS tnidj Bctrifft. Bel Ijeflem Xage. 

16. i >J51^tet. 2 JCeftament', n. s arttfet, m. < erma$en. s cotmoligem SKiiglteb. s SB 
Settling, i ft$ roiterjefete. SBiUfilit^errf^aft, f. 



444: EXERCISES. 

17. 

The Emperors Theodosius, Arcadius and Honoring wrote 
'to 'Bufinus *the "Praetor : " If any body speaks ill (33ofe3) ol 
ourselves or our administration, 1 "we 'will not have* him pun- 
ished. If he spoke through levity, 3 he is to be despised : if it 
was 4 through madness, he is to be pitied : 6 if it was an insult,* 
he is to be forgiven."' 

18. 

A countryman who was passing 1 over the Pont-au-Change* 
in Paris, perceived no wares 3 in several of the shops. Prompt- 
ed 4 by curiosity, 2 he 'went into a broker's shop : 5 " Sir," asked 
he, with a simple look, " tell me what goods 3 you sell." The 
merchant, wishing to amuse himself at the man's expense," 
answered : "I sell asses' heads" :' "Faith (njafjrUdjy replied 
the countryman, " you must have a great demand 8 for them ; 
for I see but one left (itbrig) in your shop." 

19. 

Some courtiers reproached (madjten 33ortourfe) the emperor 
Sigismund, because,' instead of having 2 his vanquished enemies 
put to death (tobten), he 1 loaded 3 them with favors, 4 and put 
them in a position to injure 6 him : "Do I not destroy my 
enemies," said he, " by 6 making them my friends ? '" 

20. 

Malec, vizir (SBejter) of the Caliph 1 Mostadi, had just obtained* 
a victory over the Greeks, and had taken 3 their emperor in a 
battle. Having* had this prince brought 4 into his tent, he 
asked him, what treatment 5 he expected from the conqueror. 
" If you make war 6 like a king," answered the emperor, " send 
me back again : if you wage 6 it like a merchant, sell me : if 
you make 6 it like a butcher, slaughter me." The Turkish 
general sent him back without a ransom. 7 

17. i SRegierung. 2 see p. 326, 2. 3 a<<3 8ei<tfmn. roenn eg au8 2Ba$nfmn gf$a. s be= 
bauern. B S3eleibigung. ' see p. 141, 7 and p. 380. 

18. i gtng. 2 tie ban3=23rurfc. 3 ZBaaren. 4 angetrie&tn. s 2tobllab<n. auf ftoflen 
b SKanneS. 7 QfelSKpft. e 5Ko*frage batna*. 

19. i ei( er. * (ajfen (see p. 327, a). 3 ubcrfyiufen. * unfi6q(igungen. f(^aben (dot.). 
Bee p. 373, 26. "> see p. 389, 3. 

20. i bet ftaltfe, 2nd decl. 2 erringen, genlnnen. 3 gefangen gcnomraen. < see p. 423, 22. 
93e&anblun j. 6 ftrieg fO^ien. Ccjegclb, n. 



EXEBCISES. 445 



21. 



Some Frenchmen, who had landed on the coast of Guinea, 
found a negro-prince seated 1 under a tree, on a block 2 of wood 
for 3 his throne ; three or four negroes, armed with wooden 
pikes, 4 served for his guards. His sable majesty "anxiously 5 
'enquired : " Do they talk much of me in France ? " 



23, 

The Duke of Ossona, Viceroy 1 of Naples, had gone on board* 
the galleys of the King of Spain, on a great holiday, to indulge* 
himself in a right he had to set a slave at (in) liberty. He 
questioned several of them, who all endeavored to excuse 
themselves, and convince him of their innocence. One alone 
s ingenuously 4 'confessed his crimes, saying that he was deserv- 
ing^ [of] a still greater punishment. "Turn 6 this wicked 
fellow away," said the Duke, " lest he (batnit er nid)t) pervert' 
these honest people." 

23. 

An apothecary having refused 1 to resign 9 his seat at the 
theatre to an officer's lady, the officer felt himself insulted and 
sent him a challenge. 3 The apothecary was punctual at the 
meeting (3ufammenfunft), but he observed, that not being ac- 
customed to fire, 4 he had to propose a way 5 of settling 6 the 
dispute. He 2 then.'drew from (au) his pocket a pill-box,' and 
taking from it two pills, thus addressed 8 his antagonist : " As 
(ol$) a man of honor, Sir, you certainly would not wish to fight 
me 9 except on (auf) equal terms ; here are two pills, one com- 
posed of the most deadly poison, the other perfectly harm- 
less : 10 we are therefore on equal ground, 11 if we each swallow 
one. You shall take your choice (bie 28aI)I fyafccn), and I pro- 
mise faithfully, to take that which you leave. 12 It is needless 
to add that the affair was settled by a hearty laugh. 



21. i ftfcenb. 2 ^cIjfcTorf. s ftatt eineg (instead of a). * Satije, f. & neugierig. 

22. i SSicefetrig ucn SReapet. 2 auf bie ateeren. ' urn etn JKetfyt augjuu&en, wetdjeS. * freU 
mutbui. s serbienen. 6 3agen @te fort. " eerberBe. 

23. i to refuse, fidjttdgern. sabjutreten. s erauforberung. ju f^tejjen. & ein SRtttel, n. 
ben treit & eijulegen. " eine 5piUenfcfya*teI. s anreben. 9 nidjt anberS initmii-jufe$ten al$ 
10 unf$ibtt$. 11 auf ^let^era SSoben. 12 ubrig lafjen. 



446 EXEBCISE8. 

24. 

A mendicant soliciting alms (um em Sltmofen) of Dr. Smollet, 
the latter gave him, through inadvertence, 1 a guinea instead of 
a shilling. The poor fellow, who was lame, hobbled 2 after him, 
and explained 8 the mistake.* " My God," remarked Smollet to 
a friend, "what a wretched lodging has honesty taken [up 
with] ! " Saying this 6 and adding 6 another to it, he returned 7 
the guinea to the overjoyed (tibergfticf Itdjen) and grateful beggar. 



25. 

Dr. Kadcliffe 'once 'refused 1 to take a fee 8 for attending a 
friend during a dangerous illness. Upon (nad)) his recovery, 
however, the patient presented him the proper 3 amount in a 
purse, saying : " Sir, in this purse I have put every day's fee 4 
and your goodness must not get 5 the better of my gratitude." 
The doctor eyed 6 the purse, counted the number of days, and 
holding out his hand, replied : " Well, I can hold out no 
longer ; singly 7 1 could have refused them for 8 a twelvemonth ;* 
but altogether they are irresistible." 



The late 1 General Schott, so celebrated for his success* in 
gaming, was one evening playing very high with the Count 
d'Artois and the Duke de Chartres, at Paris, when a petition* 
was brought up from the widow of a French officer, stating 4 
her various misfortunes, 5 and praying relief. 6 A plate was 
handed round, 7 and each put in (fytnein) one, two, or three 
louisd'or ; but when it was held 8 to the general, who was going 9 
to throw for a stake (<3at3, m.) of five hundred louisd'or, he 
said : " Stop a moment, if you please, Sir, here goes 10 for the 
widow!" The throw 11 was successful; and he instantly swept 
(fdjob) the whole into the plate, and sent it down to her. 



94. i in8 SSerfe^en. * finite t$m na<$. s erfllrte. * ben 3rrtum. s tnbem jc. unb no$ 
e*ne bajtt fftgte. i jurfofgefcen. 

26. i to refuse, jtcfy imjern. 2einonor. s entfpredjenb (corresponding). 4ba8$onorat 
fur jeben Stag. & to get the better of. uberftetflen, gvcjjer fern aU. o betta^tete. ' etnjfln. 
eta ganjeS 3ar lang. 

23. i oerftorben. 2 megen feineS Ift tm v<L s etne 93ittf*ttft. < to state (In which 
she, etc.) boriegen. s UnglttdSfMU. um UntertKlfeuna. ' teturaaeteUjt. eorgt^allen. 
> see p. 826, & w 6UJt* jlU (datj. 



EXERCISES. 447 

27. 

A little girl, five years old, was equally fond of her mother 
nnd grandmother. On the birthday of the latter, her mother 
said to her : " My dear, you must pray 2 God to bless 3 your 
grandmamma and let her live' to be very old." The child 
looked with some surprise at her mother, who perceiving it, 
said : " Well, will you not pray God to bless your grand- 
mamma and let her live to be very old ? " " Ah, mamma ! " 
said the child, " she is very old already, I had (mod)te) rather 
pray for her to (that she may) become young." 

28. 

Sir Isaac Newton's temper 1 is said (foft) to have been so 
equable 2 and mild that no accident could disturb 3 it. A re- 
markable instance 4 of this (bation) is related as (tme ) follows : 
Sir Isaac had a favorite 5 little dog which he called Diamond. 
Being one evening called out of his study 6 into the next room, 
Diamond was left behind (blieb guriirf). When Sir Isaac re- 
turned, having 7 been absent but a few minutes, ^he 'had the 
mortification 8 to find that Diamond had overturned 9 a lighted 19 
candle among some papers, which were the nearly finished 11 
labor of many years. The papers soon were (ftanben) in flames, 
and (were) almost consumed 12 to ashes. This loss, 13 2 from 14 
Newton's advanced age, Vas irreparable ; 15 but, without punish- 
ing the dog, 2 he Exclaimed : " O, Diamond ! Diamond ! you 
don't know the mischief 16 you have done ! " 

29. 

The prince of Conti being 1 highly pleased with 1 the intrepid 
behavior of a grenadier at the siege of Philipsburg, in 1734, 
threw him a purse, excusing 2 the smallness of the sum it con- 
tained, 3 as [being] 4 ^oo 3 poor l a reward for such courage, 
Next morning, the grenadier came to the prince, with two dia- 
rnond rings and other jewels 5 of considerable 6 value. " Sir, n 

27. i iiebte glet(f> fefir. 2 to pray God, either ott bitten or ju ott beten. bafi et fegne. 
* {efyr alt luerlen. 

28. i bag emfltfi, . 2 gleldjmatfc, tg. a pren. * Seifpkt. '> em 5iebling8b,ilnbdjen. Stubltn 
jtramer, n. ' nadjbera nur. s ben SBerbrufj. itmgeroorfen. i brennenb. n tctfenbet 
12 ju Hfcfje wbrannt. is ber SSerlujl. n me^en Ijofyen atteiS i-->itnerfe&Hdj. i6fca8Unl)ett. 

29. i n>elc^m ba uncrjArccfcnc 93cne^men fe6t geftet. 2 tnbem erfw^ roegen bet gctingcs 

6umme entf^ulbigte. s bie er enttyiett. * see p. 371. Id. s 3uwelen. e betra^tli*, bebeutenb 



448 EXEKCISE8. 

said lie, " the gold I found in your purse, I suppose 7 you intend- 
ed 7 for me ; but these 2 I ^ring back to you, having 8 no claim 
to them (^Iniprud) bavauf)." "You have doubly deserved 
them, by your braveiy and by your honesty," said the prince, 
" therefore you may keep them." 

30. 

Casimir 31, King of Poland, 1 received a blow from a Polish 
gentleman, named 2 Konarski, who had lost all 3 he possessed, 
while playing 4 with the prince. Scarcely was the blow given, 
when sensible 5 of the enormity of his crime, he betook himself 
to flight ; but he was soon apprehended by the king's guards, 
and condemned to lose his head. Casimir, who was waiting 
for (ouf, ace.) him in silence amid his courtiers, as soon as he 
saw him appear, said : " I am not surprised at (itbcr) the con- 
duct 7 of this gentleman. Not being able 8 to revenge himself 
on (on bent) fortune, it is not to be wondered 9 [at] that he has 
ill-treated 10 his friend. I am the only one to blame in thin 
affair, 11 for I ought not, by my example, to encourage 12 a per- 
nicious practice, 13 which may be the ruin of my nobility.*' 
Then turning to the criminal, he said : " I perceive, you are* 
sorry for your fault 14 that is sufficient; take your money 
again, and let us renounce gaming for ever." 

31. 

It is told 1 of Moliere that, on (on) the morning of the day on 
which he died, his wife and his friends, seeing how weak he 
was, tried to prevent his* playing that night but in vain. 
" A man," he said, " suffers long ere (efye) he dies : I feel that, 
with me, 3 the end is at hand ;* but there are fifty poor work- 
men who have only their day's wages 4 to live on, and who 
is to give them bread to night, if I do not play ? " So he went, 
and played the Halade Imaginaire? then went home to bed, 
and died. 

29. t befUmmten te cermutylicb. . s see p. 371, 1 d, 

30. i $olen. sSRomenS. saDeSwoS. 4seep.371,<f. 5hnSBrufctfetnber<Src|.. 
kit glu* t bf gab. i ba8 93etragen. baer ji$-.nt*t..fonnte. see p. 868, 4. Note. 
$anbrtn. n Sadie. ermutyigen. eta* erfcerblid)e <3enw$n$ett. " 

|etb. is auf ba8 Spiel etjtd>tta, 

31. i 2ttan etjiblt ten W. ? see p. 373. 36. ta| ef mtt mil |0 Cube y$L * Tfljrf-'frn. m 



/ EXERCISES. 449 

32. 

It happened at Athens, during the public representation 1 of 
a play exhibited 2 in honor of the commonwealth, 2 that an old 
gentleman came too late to get 3 a place suitable 4 to his age 
and quality." Several of the young gentlemen who observed 
the difficulty and confusion 6 he was in, made signs to him that 
they would make room for him, 7 if he would come (bafytn fame) 
where they sat. The good man bustled 8 "through the crowd 
Accordingly (batyer); but when he came to the seats 9 to which he 
was invited, they sat close 10 and exposed him, as he stood out 
of countenance, 11 to the whole audience. 12 The joke 13 went 
round (burd)) all the Athenian benches. But on (bet) those 
occasions [there] were also particular places assigned 14 for 
foreigners : when the good man skulked 15 towards the seats 
appointed 14 for the Lacedaemonians, these honest people rose 
up all to a man, 16 and with the greatest respect received him 
among them. The Athenians being suddenly touched 17 with 
a sense of the Spartan virtue and their own degeneracy 18 
applauded loudly (gave a thundering applause) ; and the old 
man cried out : " The Athenians understand what is good, but 
the Lacedaemonians practice it." 



DIOWYSITTS, PYTHIAS, AND DAMONS 

(A DIALOGUE.) 

Dionysius. Amazing ! 2 what do I see ? Pythias is arrived 
it is indeed Pythias. I did not think 3 it possible. He is come 
to 4 die, and to redeem (ertofen) his friend ! 

Pythias. Yes, it is Pythias. I had left the place of my con- 
finement 5 with no other view 6 than to pay to Heaven the vowa 
I had made ; to settle my family concerns 7 according (narf)) to 

32. i Slup^rung. 2 toet^eS ju G^ten ber 9ZepuBIi! or be gtetjlaatcS gegefcen tourbe. 3 See 
page 367, 2. * paffenb. s tanb. SSerlegenljeit. 7 i$m pafe tna^en. sbtingtef'^- 9 juben 
VBaufen. 10 gebr&ngt. n aujjer ftaifimg. i- bent ellrfjter be$ gaiijcn ^ublifumS. is 
$}. w fcefltmmt. u f$Ii$. is 2ltte 6t jum lefcten. n etgriffen. i (Sntartung. 

i This and the following piece may be translated more freely. 

zeltforal s t$ Ijtelt e ni(^t f Or racglidf. < See page 366, IV, 1. B fflefangenf^aft. 



450 EXEBC1SES. 

the rules of justice ; and to bid adieu 1 to my children, that 1 
might die tranquil and satisfied. 

Dionysius. But why dost thou return ? Hast thou no fear of 
(Dor bem) death ? is it 2 not 3 mad, 'then, to seek it ? 

Pythias. I return to suffer, 2 though I do not deserve death. 
Honor forbids me to let my friend die for me. 

Dionysius. Dost thou, then, love him better than thyself? 

Pythias. No, I love him as myself ; but I know I ought to 
suffer death rattier than my friend, since (ba) it was I whom 
thou hadst decreed to die (gum Job oerurtljetlt). It were not 
just that Damon should suffer, to 3 free me from that death 
which was not for him, but for me only. 

Dionysius. But thou sayest that it is as unjust to inflict* 
death [upon] thee as [upon] thy friend. 

Pythias. Very true, we are both innocent, and it is equally 5 
unjust to make (laffen) either of us suffer. 

Dionysius. Why dost thou, then, say that it were wrong to 
put 6 him to death instead of thee ? 

Pythias. It is equally unjust to inflict death either on Damon 
or on myself ; but I should be highly culpable to let Damon 
suffer that death which the tyrant had prepared for me. 

Dionysius. Dost thou return hither to-day with no other 
view than to save the life of thy friend, by losing thy own ? 

Pythias. I return in regard to 1 thee, to suffer a death which 
it is common 8 for tyrants to inflict; and with respect to 1 
Damon, to perform my duty by freeing him from the danger 
which he incurred 9 by his kindness to (gegen) me. 

Dionysius. And now, Damon, let me speak to thee. Didst 
thou not really fear that Pythias would never return, and that 
thou wouldst be put to death for him ? 

Damon. I was but (nur) too well assured that Pythias would 
return ; and that he would be more anxious 10 to keep his 
promise than to save his life. Would to heaven (SBoflte ott) 
that his relations and friends had detained 11 him by force ! 
He would then have lived for the comfort 12 and benefit'' 2 of 
good men ; and I should then have had the satisfaction of 
dying for him. 

i Ce6erceJ)t ju fagen. 2 to suffer, ben SEob erletben. s See page 366, IV, 1. * bit ben Zob 
ctufjuerlegen or b $tnjuri$ten. s ebenfo. to put somebody to death, etnen (ace.) fyin= 
rid'tcn. ~ in SScjuj auf bi*. s which tyrants commonly inflict (auferlegen). 9 in rcelcte cr 
10 baji im me$r baran gelegen wire, n jurutfijalten. w junt Xrojl unb jura 



EXERCISES. 

Dionysius. What ! art thou not fond of (Itebft bit ntdit) 
life? 

Damon. No, I am not, when I see and feel the power of a 
tyrant. 

Dionysius. It is well! Thou shalt see him no more : I will 
order thee to be put 1 to death (fytnricfjtefi). 

Pythias. Pardon the feelings of Damon, of a man who feels 
for his dying friend ; but remember that it was I who was de- 
voted (getoeifyt) by thee to death (dot.). I come to submit to 
it (mid) ifjm 311 unterwerfen), that I may (um gu) redeem my 
friend. Do not refuse me this comfort in my last hour. 

Dionysius. I cannot endure ((etben) men who despise death 
and defy 2 my power. 

Damon. Thou canst not endure virtue. 

Dionysius. No, I cannot endure that proud, disdainful (Ijorf}* 
miitfjtge) virtue, which contemns life, which dreads not pain> 
and which feels not the charms of riches 3 and pleasure. 

Damon. Thou seest, however, that it is a virtue which feels 
the dictates (@ebote) of honor, justice, and friendship. 

Dionysius. Guards, take (fiifyret) Pythias to execution. 4 We 
shall see whether Damon will still despise my authority. 

Damon. Pythias, by returning to submit himself to thy 
pleasure 5 has merited his life, and [deserved] thy favor, but I 
have excited thy indignation 6 by placing myself in thy power, 
in order to save him. Be 2 satisfied, ^en, with this sacrifice, 
and put me to death. 

Pythias. Hold, Dionysius ; remember, it was I alone that 
offended thee ; Damon could not. 

Dionysius. Alas, what do I see and hear? Where am I? 
How miserable, and how worthy to be so ! I have hitherto 
known nothing of true virtue. I have spent my life in dark- 
ness and error. 7 Not all my power and honors are sufficient 
to produce love. I cannot boast 8 of having 9 gained a single 
friend in the course of a reign of thirty years, and yet these 
two persons, in private life, 10 love one another tenderly, "fully 
Confide 11 in each other, are mutually happy, and ready to die 
for each other. 

Pythias. How couldst thou, who hast never loved any per- 
son, expect to have friends ? If thou hadst loved and respected 



i See page 367. V, 1. 2 trofcen (dot.), a 8Jeid)tl)ura. * jum 2obe. sgBUIfatyr, f., SBtllen, m. 
e Unretflen, m. 7 3rrtyum, ra. to boast, ftcfc rfi^mtn, rqfl. v. See page 372, 2 a. 10 in 
n certrauen (dot.}. 



452 EXEBCISES. 

men, thou wouldst have secured 1 their love and respect. Thou 
hast feared and oppressed mankind (bte 9ftenfd)en), and they 
[both] fear and detest 2 thee. 

Dionysius. Damon ! Pythias ! Condescend 3 to admit me as 
a third friend in a 'connexion 4 'so perfect. I give (fdjenfe) you 
your lives (sing.), and I will load 5 you with riches. 

Damon. We have no desire to be enriched by thee ; and as 
to 8 thy friendship, we cannot accept or enjoy it, till thou be- 
comest good and just. Without these qualities ^hou 'canst be 
connected with none but (nut 9?temanb al$ nut) trembling slaves 
and base flatterers. To be loved and esteemed by men 7 of 
free and generous minds,' thou must be virtuous, kind, just ; 
and know 8 [how] to live on a sort of equality (auf gteidjem ^JJ 6 ) 
with those who share and deserve thy friendship. 



THE DINNER-PARTY. 

I. THE INVITATION. 

Mr. Alway (reads). " Mr. and Mrs. Smith present their com- 
pliments (empfefylen fief)) to Mr, and Mrs. Alway, and request 
the honor of their company to dinner on Thursday next at six 
o'clock. An answer will oblige." (Um 51. tmrb gebcten.) 

Mrs. Alway. An invitation from the Smiths. Had we better 
(fotten ttur) go, do you think ? 

Mr. A. I'm not very anxious, 9 but we cannot decline with 
decency ( S 2lnftanb). 

Mrs. A. Thursday, too, is such an awkward day ! the things 
come home from the wash on Wednesday ; and we have enough 
to do the day after to arrange them. Yet I fear it can't be 
helped (roir fbnnen md)t auStteidjen). 

Mr. A. How long have we known 10 these people ? 

Mrs. A. Three or four months now ; but how they came to 
force" themselves upon us 11 2 I "scarcely Recollect. 

Mr. A. In the City, people shake their heads when they 
speak of Smith and his railway speculations. 12 

i ft$erli< erwotben. 2 eerabfdjeuen. s feib fo gut or geroityrt mtr bie S3ttte. * ber SBunb. 
* ftberb. iufen. as to, wo betrifft. ' eon freiftnmaen unb ebelmutb. igen SKlnnern. s et 



* %$ Sabe kin gto&eS aietlangen. 10 See page 346, 3. 11 fldj un aufjubr&ngen. 12 @petula< 
RMMt 



EXERCISES. 453 

Mrs. A. We must go, however, but if possible we will not 
ask 1 them back, and thus gradually drop 2 the acquaintance. 
Will you dictate me an answer ? 

Mr. A. (dictates). " Mr. and Mrs. Alway return their best 
thanks to Mr. and Mrs. Smith, and have much pleasure in ac- 
cepting their polite invitation." 

IL THE ABBXVAL. 

Mr. A. There seem to be many people ; for there are hats 
and cloaks enough in the hall. 3 

Mrs. Smith. We are delighted to see you ; allow me to in- 
troduce 4 you to the company. 

Mrs. A. (aside). Tell me, Mr. Alway, did you ever see such 
an extraordinary set ? 5 Where could Ihey have picked* them up? 

Mr. A. (aside). Heaven knows ! but I sincerely wish we had 
not come. 

Mr. Smith. Permit me, Mrs. Alway, to conduct you to (in) 
the dining-room. 

Mrs. S. Mr. Alway, will you take my right hand, 1 and assist 
me now and then with your advice in the carving department 
(tm 2litffrf)netben) ? 

Mr. A. If you like, I will take the trouble off (cw$) your 
hands. 

Mrs. S. I will not trespass (fiinbtgen) on your goodness. 
Mr. Smith will carve the principal things, and I have only the 
tongue and such trifles to look after. 8 

Mr. S. My dear, I have no napkin (@ert)tette, f.), and two 
spoons are wanting (fe^tcn). 

Mrs. S. How neglectful of John, not to see 9 to these things. 
Take the covers off the soup-tureens ((Suppenfdjuffeln). 

m. DUfNEK. 

Mr. S. John, soup for Mr. Alway. 

Mrs. S. Good Heavens, he has spilt 1 ' all the hot soup over 
Mr. Brown's feet. How could you be so awkward ! 

Mr. B. There is no harm done ; it has only splashed 11 me 
a little. The carpet has suffered most. 

i to ask back, rrieter etnlaben. 2 aufgefcen, fatten laffcn. 3 bet Corribor. * vorfteOen (dot.] 
5 (BtfeHfaaft, typfaaft. ouflefen. i fl$ ju melner Metytn fefctn. 8 ju fceforgen. 
fto. 10 erf<$(lttet. n befpri|t. 



454 EXERCISES. 

Mrs. S. That's of no importance (baS fjat IftidjtS ju fagen). 
May I give you some of this turbot ((gteinbutte, f.) ? 

Mrs. A. Not for me, thank you. I seldom eat fish ; I'm 
always afraid of the bones (rciten). 

Mr. S. May I have the pleasure of taking a glass of wine 
with you ? 

Mrs. A. I shall be most (feljr) happy. 

Mr. S. "Which will you take, Sherry or Madeira? 

Mrs. A. Sherry, if you please, but very little. 

Mrs. S. Shall I carve the poultry 1 Mr. Smith, or will you? 

Mr. S. I think you are more clever at such things, my dear. 

Mr. A. Here comes the Christmas-pudding, how fine it is ! 

Mr. S. Shall I give you some dessert ? 

Mrs. A. You are very kind ; I will take a few grapes. 

Mrs. S. Ladies, if agreeable, we will now leave the gentle- 
men to their meditations.* & ( 

IV. THE GENTLEMEN. 

Mr. A. Will you allow me to propose a toast ? 

Mr. S. I shall be delighted. Gentlemen, fill your glasses. 

Mr. A. I give 3 you the ladies. Bumpers, 4 gentlemen. 

Mr. B. I hear the Queen intends going Ao France again. 
Is it true ? 

Mr. S. I can't vouch (btirgen) for it ; but I think my friend 
Palmerston would have made me acquainted with the fact," 

Mr. B. You are making some very good speculations in 
Spanish stock, I believe. It appears to me very precarious." 

Mr. S. Things are looking up 1 in that quarter (anb). Be- 
tween ourselves 8 1 have made no bad thing 9 of it lately. The 
bottle stands with (bet) you, Mr. Alway. 

Mr. A. I am a poor (fdjtuadjer) drinker, and should prefer 
joining (gu gefyen) the ladies. 

Mr. S. No, we can't stand 10 that. Take one more glass of 
this claret 11 and then, I hope, coffee will be ready. 

Mr. A. Only one more then (olfo). 

Mr. S. What a loud knock 12 at the street-door! Whoever it 
may be, one would imagine he was going to knock the house 
down. 18 



i bo tflftgd. 2 93etra$tungen. s ouf bit efunb$ett. < olfe I4fer. 
fad>e. unft$r, gercagt. i fceffern ft$. unter unS gt fagt. s teine ftbtycn ej^afte. 
gefcen. n S3orbeau$*2Bin. w boS fllopfen. i etnfalagen. 



EXERCISES. 455 

Servant. Two gentlemen wish to see you immediately, Sir. 

Mr. S. Say, I am engaged (tierljinbert). 

Serv. They will take no denial (fie laffen ftcf) ntd)t abroetfen), 
Sir, and insist on seeing you at once (fogleid)). 

Mr. S. How very extraordinary. Gentlemen, may I claim 1 
your indulgence for a few moments ? 



V. THE LADIES. 

Mrs. S. What a bad fire the servant has kept up.' I must 
ring the bell and have it looked to. 3 The sofas and ottomans 
can also be drawn (geriicft) nearer to the fire-place. 

Mrs. A. It is not very cold, I think. 

Mrs. S. Perhaps not ; but a bright (Ijette) flame makes the 
room cheerful* 

Mrs. A. What a pretty canary-bird you have ! How tame 
it is! 

Mrs. S. Yes, I often let it fly about the room and it knows 
me quite well At tea it always comes to be fed, and hops 
about the table, 6 to pick up the crumbs. 

Mrs. d. Does it also sing well ? 

Mrs. S. Beautifully. See, how it flies about. Good heav- 
ens, it has flown into the fire and win be burnt [to death]. 

Mrs. A. The poor thing can't get out 6 again. Hark, how 
it crackles 7 in the fire ! How [very] shocking (fdjrecfltcf)) ! 

Serv. If you please ((Srlauben <Ste), Ma'am, master's gone* 
away in a coach with two strange-looking gentlemen. 

Mrs. S. Gone away in a coach ! 

Serv. Yes, Ma'am ; and he says you are not to be alarmed* 
if he stays out all night. (Mrs. 8. faints.)" 



VI. THE DISCOVERY. 

Mrs. A. Tell me what has happened. Why did Mrs. Smith 
faint? why did her husband go away in a coach? and why 
were we sent home so early ? 

Mr. A. The matter is evident enough. The man, as I sus- 
pected, is a mere adventurer. 11 



i bitten urn. s untet^alten. s nacfyfeljen laffen. freunbltdj. s auf bcm if$e $ernm, 
$erau8fommen. ' fricfyeln. to go away in a coach, wegfa^ren. 9 to be alarmed, tit 
fgiccfen. 10 tn )$nma$t fallen, o^nm&^tig roerben. u etn Hbenteurer, (SUtcfdrittet. 



456 CONVEBSATION. 

Mrs. A. But what has he done ? Is he a thief, or has he 
committed forgery? 1 

Mr. A. Not that exactly. 

Mrs. A. Then is he a coiner 2 perhaps ? I had a bad half- 
crown offered me (2#an bot mir . . . ) yesterday ; but I was not 
going to take it ! You (man) must get up very early indeed, if 
you think to take me in. 3 

Mr. A. It seems he had been speculating too extensively, 
and was unable to take up 4 bills which he had accepted for a 
large amount. 

Mrs. A. But what have they done with him ? 

Mr. A. The two gentlemen were sheriff-officers, 5 who came 
to convey him to a sponging-house (d)ulbf)ait$), from which 
he will in all probability be sent to the Queen's Bench. 6 

Mrs. A. A nice set of people we had got hold of. 1 I never 
liked the fellow's eye : and no doubt his vulgar wife was as bad 
as he. 

Mr. A. Not unlikely. However it will serve as a good 
lesson, 8 and teach us to be more cautious in future in accept- 
ing dinner-invitations from people we know so little about 



MATERIALS FOR GERMAN CONVERSATION, 

i. 

2Bo8 Ijabett @tc ba?' What have you there? 

2Ba8 ttoflen <Ste foufen? "What do you want to buy? 

>aben <5te ettoaS gefaitft? Did you buy anything? 

SBtebtet (wa8) loftet ba "ipfunb? How much a pound ? 

'(Jfunb foflet jroet (Sitlben. Two florins a pound. 

ftnbe baS feljr tljeuer. I consider that very dear. 

tft feb,r toofylfett (or bttttg). This is very cheap. 

taben @ic Sljr ^fcrb bertauft ? Have you sold your horse ? 

cf) fyabe e$ nocf) ntdjt berfauft. I have not sold it yet. 

2Boflen @ic e8 ntrfjt uerfaufen? Will you not sell it? 

3a, tcf) hntt e berfaufen. Yes, I will sell it. 

SSarum tooflen <Sie eg berfaufen? Why do you want sell it? 

3cf) braud^e etb. I need money. 



' tint ftilfcfiung. 2 (in galf^manjer. 3 anfflbren, ^intergefjen. * (inlofen. & g5cllji'coraraff 
(to, S^ultfltrt^tS^of, m. i in We m\x get oi$en en. 8t, Stftica, f. 



CONVERSATION. 



457 



S3rmgen <Sfe mtr 33rob ttnb Sutler. 

3d) Ijabe genttg gegeffen (bin fatt). 
>aben (Ste em tag SBetn ge* 

trunfen ? 

ter tft frifdjeg SSaffer. 
Xragen (Ste btefen SBrtef auf bte 

2Bag fagen (Sic? 
3d) fage Sfttdjtg (gar 
9JJit loem fpredjen (Sic ? 
33erfteljen (Ste toag id) fagc? 
3d) terfte^e ntdjt ~ 



Bring me some bread and 

butter. 
I have eaten enough. 

Did you drink a glass of wine ? 
Here is some fresh water. 
Take this letter to the post- 
office. 

What do you say ? 
I say nothing (at all). 
With whom are you talking? 
Do you understand what I say? 
I do not understand all 



toerlangen <Stc? 
SB 08 tt)im[d)en <3ie ? 
3d) tterlange 9?td)t3. 
^aben (Sic bte iltc. 
<Sie roiirben mid) fe^r tocrbfatben. 
(Sic finb [e^r giitig. 
5Ba fudjen @ie ba? 
3d) fudje mctnc Ub,r. 
Bag rotten @ie t|mt? 
5Ba ntadjen or t^un (Ste ba? 
3d) Icntc metnc 2Iufgabe. 
3d) iuerbe c mtt $ergniigen t^un. 
Stffen @te, ob er fommen totrb? 

3dj ttjetfi e ntdjt 
3d) inct| md)t8 batton. 
^ennen Ste btefen SJJann? 
3d) tenne Ujn feb,r gut. 
3d) fenne tfjn t)on eftdjt 
3d) fenne ib,n ntdjt. 



2. 

What do you want? 

What do you wish ? 

1 require nothing. 

Have the goodness. Be so kind. 

You would oblige me very much. 

You are very kind. 

What are you looking for? 

I am looking for my watch. 

What are you going to do ? 

What are you doing there ? 

I am learning my lesson. 

I will do it with pleasure. 

Do you know, whether he wiB 

come? 

T do not know. 
I know nothing about it. 
Do you know this man ? 
I know him very welL 
I know him by sight. 
I do not know him. 



lauben (Ste bag ? 
taitben (Ste bag (bod)) ntdjt. 
3d) ojtaube eg ntdjU 



3. 

Do you believe that ? 
Do not believe that. 
I do not believe it. 



458 



CONVERSATION. 



if* toafjr. S)a ift aBafjrljett. 



(ie fpafcen, @te fdjerjejt. 
<5inb @te nut ifynt gufrieben ? 
<3inb <Sie befriebigt? 
2Btr finb bamit befriebigt. 
3rf> bin 3b,r )iener. 
ift attertiebft 
$ergnugen! 



That is true. That is truth. 

I am of your opinion. 

You are joking. 

Are you satisfied with him ? 

Are you satisfied ? 

We are satisfied (with it). 

I am your servant. 

That is charming. 

What pleasure 1 

What joy 1 



2Ber tfl ba? 

(6 ift mein Sruber flarL 
2Bpl)tn' gefjen ie? 
2Bir ge^en tn'8 Sweater. 



@ie ge^t auf ben 2Warft. 
2Bot)er' fommen @ie ? or 
S3o fommen (Sic ^er? 
5^ fomme ait ber d)u(e. 
SBir fommen au bent Concert'. 
@ie fommt pon bent 33ofl. 
e^en @ie je^t nadj ^aitfe? 
e^en ie ni^t fo frfjned. 
9tu^en @ie ein hjenig au. 
fommen @ie batb nrieber. 
e^en @ie ^inaitf Ijimmter. 
eb]e fort ! e^en <5te fort ! 



uten SCRorgen (Xog), mein 
uten ^[benb, mein >err. 
ie ft^. 



ut, tcf) banfe 
Unb 6ie (felbft) ? 
2Bie ge^t e8 3lmen? 
r gut 
gut 



Who is there? 

It is my brother Charles. 

Where are you going ? 

We are going to the theatre. 

Where is the cook going ? 

She is going to market 

Whence do you come ? 

Where do you come from? 

I come from school 

We come from the concert. 

She comes from the ball 

Are you going home now ? 

Do not go so fast. 

Best a little. 

Come back soon. 

Go up (stairs), go down (stairs) 

Go away! Be off! (leave). 

5. 

Good morning, Sir. 

Good evening, Sir. 

Sit down, be seated. 

Take a seat 

How do you do ? 

Very well, I thank you. 

And you (yourself) ? 

How are you ? 

Not very well 

Tolerably well (pretty well). 



CONVERSATION. 



459 



3eigen <Stc mtr gefclfligft. 

3d) bttte <5te or bttte, fogen @te 

mtr. 

eben @ie mtr. Seifjen <2>ie ifynt. 
9ftad)en @ie mtr bag $ergnugen. 
3d) bitte @ie borttm. 
banfe 3b,nen. 

toerbunoen. 

err 9?. ju aufe? 
3a, er ift $u aitfe. 
<5inb <2>te ein 3)eutfd)er? 
3rfj bin ein (Snglanber. 
2)tefe 25ame tft eine (Snglfinbertn. 



(S tft fpat, e ift neun U^r. 
2Bann fterben <Sie au^ge^en? 
3d) raerbe ttm 10 llfir avtSgefjen. 
Urn fjalb od)t U^r. 
Um^rei $iertel auf fteben or 

ein 33tertel ftor fiebcn. 
tint ein 33iertel auf fed)8 or 
Urn ein SBiertel nad) funf. 
^unft 7 Uf)r. 

Urn 3J?tttag. Urn jtDoIf U^r. 
tint 9itternad)t. 
eftern SJtorgen. 
eftent 3lbenb. 
SSorgeftern. 
eute. Sftorgen. 
9Worgen frub,. 
Uebermorgen. 
S3 or ad)t, bier^e^n Jag en. 
3n fed) SSodjen. 
3n einigen Sagen. 

einent Stag gum anbem. 



2Ba fur Setter tflljeute? 

@ ift fd)6ne8 (fd)Ied)te) Better. 



Show me, if you please. 

Please tell me. 

Give me. Lend him. 

Do me the pleasure. 

I beg you. 

I thank you. 

Very much obliged to you. 

Is Mr. N. at home ? 

Yes, Sir, he is at home. 

Are you a German? 

I am an Englishman. 

This lady is an Englishwoman. 

6. 

What o'clock is it? 
It is late, it is nine o'clock. 
At what o'clock do you go out ? 
I shall go out at ten o'clock. 
At half past seven. 

J- At a quarter to seven. 

I- At a quarter past five. 

At seven precisely. 

At noon. At twelve. 

At midnight. 

Yesterday morning. 

Yesterday evening, last night 

The day before yesterday. 

To-day. To-morrow. 

To-morrow morning. 

The day after to-morrow. 

A week ago, a fortnight ago. 

In six weeks. 

In a few days. 

From one day to another. 

7. 

How is the weather to-day ? 
It is fine (bad) weather. 



4GO 



CONVERSATION. 



2BaS fte $errft*e SBetter! 

(3 ift fef)r fjeife (tuarm) (fait). 

(58 regnet. 

(58 ift nur em goiter. 

(58 ift feljr toinbig. 

3ft 31jnen nmrm? 

ftrieren @ie? 3ft 3ljnen fait? 

SBir werben etn (SJetm'tter befom* 

men. 

(58 bonnert. (58 blifct. 
>aben @ie ben Conner geljort? 
Setrf)' ein fdjimer ^Regenbogen. 
( gefjt ein falter 2Binb. 
3)er 2B inter fommt ^eran. 
(5 gefriert. 

(58 ijat biefe 9?ac^t gefroren. 
(58 f(^neit (e8 fattt (Sconce). 
IDte @onne fd^emt 
-3m (5onnenfcf)ein. 
35ie <Sonne gel^t untcr. 
3m 2ftonbfrf)ein. 
3)ie onne ge^t pra^tig aitf. 



g8 ift bunfet 

( ifl ^eller, ttc^ter Sag. 



What beautiful weather ! 

It is very hot (warm) (cold). 

It rains, it is raining. 

It is but a shower. 

It is very windy. 

Are you warm ? 

Are you cold ? 

We shall have a thunder-storm. 

It thunders. It lightens. 

Did you hear the thunder? 

What a beautiful rainbow! 

It is a cold wind. 

Winter draws near. 

It freezes. 

It froze last night. 

It snows. 

The sun shines. 

In sunshine. 

The sun sets. 

In the moonlight. 

The sun is rising beautifully 

clear. 

It is dark (night). 
It is bright day-light. 



IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS. 



SBerljat e 3^nen gefagt? 

Sag fott ba ^eifeen? 

#Bie neimt man (nne fyetfjt) btefeS ? 

if* 311 tljun? 

fatten @ie bation? 

freut mid) feljr. 
(58 tljut mir feljr letb. 
3cf) fjabe ?angenjeile. 
$% bin e8. Bit finb e. 



1. 

Who (has) told you? 

What does that mean? 

What do you call this ? 

What is to be done ? 

What do you think about it ? 

I am very glad (of it). 

I am very sorry. 

I am bored. 

It is I. It is we (us). 



CONVEBSATION. 



461 



Odj gefje memem 

gegen. 
eb,en <Si 
geljt 

eb,(t 
b,abe 



cnt* 



an. 



3d) fyabe eiuen bofen finger. 
8 feljlt ntir 9ftfd)t8. 
$aben@ie@elbbeif!d)? 
@ie feljen gut au8. 
SBotten (Sic mtr efeflfd)aft 

letften? 
(8 ift 3cit gum gffcru 



geberft? 

(Sffen ift aufgetragcu. 
Jragen (becten) (3tc ob. 



3m 5lnfang. 

Sajfcn <Sie mtc^ gc^ett. 

Soffcn (5ie meine Siic^er Itegen. 

3)icfc SRufter ftnb ntc^t iibet. 

SWtr ift 2We3 einertei. 

(Sinb <Sie ferttg ? 

3d) bin mit meiner Slufgabe 

ferti^. 

a tettb 3f)nen tuo^I befommen. 
SDaS Sier bcfommt mir nic^t gut. 
3c^ b,abe mtr ba8 33ein gebrocfjen. 
3rf) bin (totire) betna^e gefatten. 

Sr toerbient fctn 33rob. 
2Bie gefattt c8 Of^nen ^icr? 
2Bie gefattt Oljnen biefc tobt? 

(58 gefdflt mtr fefjr niob/t b,ier. 

2So flnb njtr fle^en gcblieben? 
Sr fpielt gernc. 



I am going to meet my friend. 

Go your way. 

That does not concern you. 
( What ails you? 
\ What is the matter with you ? 

I have a head-ache. 

I have a sore finger.. 

Nothing is the matter with me. 

Have you any money about you ? 

You look well 

Will you keep me company ? 
It is time for dinner (breakfast 

or supper). 
Is the cloth laid? 
Dinner is served up. 
Take away the things. 

2. 

At the beginning. 

Let me alone. 

Let my books alone. 

These patterns are not bad. 

It's all the same to me. 

Have you done (are you ready) ? 
j I have done my exercise. 
{ I am through with my task. 

That will agree with you. 

Beer does not agree with me. 

I have broken my leg. 

I had nearly fallen, came near 
falling. 

He gets his living. 

> How do you like it here ? 

il am very much pleased with 
this town. 
I like it very much. 
Where did we stop? 
He likes play, to gamble. 



COKVEKSATION. 



iftadjrtdjten toon ifjm? 
3d) fjabe lange 9?td)tg fcon ilnn 

gefyort. 
3d) luetp nid)t, roag idj babon 

fatten (or benfen) foIL 



(gg fragt 3emanb nadj 31jnen. 
2Ber fyat nad) mir gefragt? 
2Ber ttjartet auf mid)? 
SBarten ie ein nienig auf mid). 
2Ber ^at auS btefem @(a^ ge- 

trunf en ? 
^aben (Ste 31jre 5lnfld)t gednbert? 



Have you any news of him ? 
I have not heard of him for a 

long time. 
I do not know what to think of 

it 

3. 

Somebody is asking for you. 
Who asked for me ? 
Who is waiting for me ? 
Wait a moment for me. 
Who has drunk out of this 



te nod) (SttoaS gu fagcn? 
J^un @te, rtiag @ie tuotlen. 
Sluf jeben gatt. 
SBaS ben Srtef 3f)re <So^ne 

betrifft 

2)em fei, hne i^m inottc. 
(Sr ntad)t ftd) ebanfen barttber. 
3)a8 tft feme Shmft 
S'Je^men te (id) in 5ld)t. 
3d) njttt eg barauf anfommen taffen. 
@r ift ber beutfd)en pradjc 

madj tig. 

-3d) fann ifym bie (Stint bieten. 
3d) rtjerbe (Sic nad) aufe fiifyren. 



Have you changed your 

opinion ? 

Have you any more to say ? 
Do anything (or as) you please 
At any rate, at all events. 

As to the letter of your son 

Be that as it may. 

He troubles his head about it. 

Any one can do it. 

Look about you. Take care. 

I will take my chance of that. 

He is master of the German 

language. 
I can face him. 
I will see you home. 



3d) fann mid) nidjt toon ifjm (08* 

marfjen. 

2Metben <Sie nid)t ^u lange au8. 
3f)nen attein fann eg gettngen. 
2luf metner llljr ift eg bier Ufyr. 
(Sr nafjm eg mit enmtt. 
5r ift Don eburt ein ^Ton^ofe. 
<Sie ift met fyttbfdjer alg ifyre 



(Sic mfigen attein gefjen. 



I cannot get away from 

Do not stay beyond your time. 

None but you can succeed. 

It is four o'clock by my watch. 

He took it by force. 

He is a Frenchman by birth. 

She is prettier by far than her 

sister. 
You may go by yourself. 



CONVERSATION. 



463 



gefyt ncirfjfteg 3al)r auf 9?eifen. 

c roar im Segriff, toeggugeljen. 
: often 3)ingen oergeffen (Sic 

bag nidjt. 
(ie ift iiber gwan^ig. 
egen Sinbrudj ber 9<iad)t. 
2Bir raoHen einen ang burdj bie 

(Stabt madjen. 

@ott id) ifyn bacon benad)rid)tigen? 
3d) fonnte mid) beg gadjeng nidjt 

entb.alten. 

3d) tuitrbe 9?id)tg babei geniinnen. 
toirb redjt or gut fein. 



He goes abroad next year. 
I was about to go away. 

Above all, don't forget that. 
She is above twenty. 
Towards nightfall 
Let us take a turn about the 

town. 
Shall I send him word about it ? 

I could not keep from laughing. 
I should gain nothing by it. 
That will do. 



3d) bin nidjt reid) genitg, urn etne 

foldje 2luSgabe gu madjen. 
2BaS fjaben @te am 3luge? 
(S fefjlt ifjr trnnter (Stn>a. 

gaffen @ie fidj tion mir ratten. 
@ie ttwrben nidjt iibel baran t^un, 

baljtn 311 geljcn. 

25tefe ift fd)rt)er ju ertangen. 

2tt leidjter 2Mb,e. 

9^ad) meter SKu^e. 

(Sr iDctjj fid) in SltteS ju finben. 

@o Diet id) luei^. 

<So Diet id) mid) erinnere. 

-3d) rterbe fo frei fein, <ie gu be* 

fudjen. 

^eute iiber ein 3al)r. 
23ann njerben @ie niieber juritd* 

fommen? 

(S8 ift mir um fo lieber. 
-3d) fann ib,n nidjt augfte^en. 
2Benn id) ib,m je begegnen foflte. 
2Bag Uegt mir baran? 
(Slauben Sic, fo Ieid)t bauoti ju 

fommen ? 



5. 

I cannot afford to spend so 

much. 

"What ails your eye ? 
She always has something the 

matter with her. 
Be advised by me. 
It would not be amiss for you 

to go there (you had bettei 

go)- 

That is hard to come at 
With no great ado. 
After much ado (or trouble). 
Nothing comes amiss to him, 
As far as I know. 
To the best of my remembrance 
I shall take the liberty to cal) 

on you. 

By this time twelve months. 
How long will it be before you 

come back ? 
I like it all the better. 
I can't abide (bear) him. 
If I ever chance to meet him, 
What care I? 

Do you think to come off so? 



464 



CONYEKSATION. 



<5te tttitffen eS tfjun, <3ie mSgen 

tooflen ober nidjt. 
3d) bin ba^u genetgt. 
3d) frage ntd)ts barnad). 
$ef)ren @ic fid) nid)t baran. 
<Sofl id) ifjn b,olen loffen ? 
Oft ba8 3f)r (graft? 
SBenn e8 31jnen gefaflt, fo neljmen 



be- 



tfl. 



9?un, was fott btefeS 

beuten? 

S^ mocfjte loiffen, tua b 
5Da flecft (SttoaS ba^tnter. 
0^ Ijalte (ne^me) <Ste betm 3Sort. 

3$ tout 97t(^t3 bafttr. 

fonn nt^t ba^inter fommen. 
neljme e nid^t fo genau nut 



rtjofftc tc^ bodj fagen? 
3d) ^abe 9it^t baran au^ufefcen. 
2Bir miiffen un3 beljelfen. 
3)tc ai^c ^at ntd^t met auf fidj. 
mtt re^ten j)in 



fagen. 



gefdjteljt t^m re^t. 
fann mtr ^temanb Derbenfen. 
(Stcf) ben $opf gerbre^en. 
@te roerben au3gelad)t werben. 
(Sr Ijat fic^ auS bent taube ge 
mad)t. 



e. 

Willing or unwilling, you must 

do it 

I am inclined that way. 
I do not care. 
Never mind that 
Shall I send for him ? 
Are you serious ? 

If you like it, take it 

Well and what of all this? 

I wonder what this is. 

There is some mystery about it 

I take you at your word. 

That is not my fault 

I cannot help it. 

You cannot get at it. 

I am not so strict with him. 

What was I going to say ? 

I find no fault with it. 

We must make shift. 

It is of no great consequence. 

It is not at all right about it 

That does not signify. 

No matter for that. 

It serves him right 

No one can blame me for that 

To cudgel one's brains. 

You will be laughed at. 

He has taken himself of 



SOME GERMAN PROVERBS. 

1. 

$>er 9ftenfdj benf t'8, ott lenft'S. Man proposes, and God dis- 

posea 
2>uirdj 3djoben toirb man fliig. Experience makes a man wise. 



CONVERSATION. 



465 



(Sljrltd) ttjSfjrt am liingften. 
SllleS |t feine 3ett. 
(Site mit Belle. 

?lufgefd)oben tfl ntcfjt aufgeljoben. 
Sftufctggang tft afler Softer s <Jln* 

fang. 

53tele >anb' macfyen balb em (Snb. 
3)a3 Serf fobt ben 2#etfter. 

^rifrf) getoagt tft fjatb getljan. 
^rifdf) begomten, fyatb gettonnen. 
9lrmutl) tft feme <Sd)anbe. 
2Bte getoonnen, fo gerronnen. 
SSte bte Slrbeit, fo ber ?o^n. 
2Bte ber >err, fo ber 2)tener. 
Wofy fennt fein ebot. 
Sine c^walbc madjt fetnen 

ommer. 
(5tn Ungtiitf fommt Hte altetn. 

tft itngefunb. 
gebrannteS ^tnb fd^eiit baS 



Honesty is the best policy. 

All in good time. 

The more haste, the worse 

speed. 

Delaying is not breaking off 
Idleness is the beginning of all 

the vices. 

Many hands make quick work. 
The work recommends the 

master. 

Well begun is half done. 

Poverty is no disgrace. 
Lightly come, lightly gone. 
As the labor, so the reward. 
Like master, like man. 
Necessity knows no law. 
One swallow does not make a 

summer. 

Misfortunes never come singly. 
Too much of a good thing. 

A burnt child dreads the fire. 



Seber toetfj am beften, too ber 
<3cf)ul) tb,n briidt. 

tetd) unb gtetcf) gefettt ft<f) gent. 
SBo&on ba8 erj bott ift, gefyt ber 

9)htnb itber. 

(>er) )wtger tfl ber befte 
brtngt 9^ofen. 



Ser tttgt, ber ftte^tt. 

SBer juerft fommt, maljtt 
!Den ele^rten tft gut prebigen. 
3eber tft ftrf) felbft ber ^arf)fte. 
S3effer gtroaS, at ^trf)tg. 
etne Xopfe (aufen batb uber. 
9?egen folgt onnenf^etn. 



None knows so well where the 

shoe pinches, as he that 

wears it. 

Birds of a feather flock together. 
Out of the fullness of the heart 

the mouth speaketh. 
Hunger is the best sauce. 
Time and straw make medlars 

ripe. 
Show me a liar, and 111 show 

thee a thief. 

First come, first served. 
A word to the wise. 
Charity begins at home. 
Better aught than naught. 
A little pot is soon hot. 
After the storm comes a calm 



466 



CONVERSATION. 



2ftorgenftunb l)at olb t 



6 ift ntdjt 2lfle oft, hm8 glttnjt. 
Uebung modjt ben Sfteifter. 
Unred)t ut gebeifyt md)t. 
Untrattt berbtrbt md)t. 
fteue SBefen feljren gut. 
Cnbe gut, 2ltteS gut. 



Early to bed and early to rise 
makes a man healthy, wealthy 
and wise. 

All is not gold that glitters. 

Practice makes perfect. 

HI gotten wealth never prospers. 

Ill weeds grow apace. 

A new broom sweeps clean. 

All's well that ends well 



EASY CONVERSATION. 



2Ber Hotft an Me fjure? 

SKertftba? 

2ftad)en <5te auf. 

3)cr djttffd fterft. 

<5tnb (Sic nod^ tm Sett? 

<Ste()en <te auf. 

(gg ifl ,3eit aufgufte^en. 

(S ift Better Sag.^ 

SB arum fteljen @ie fo f|)at auf? 

3tf) bin borige S'ia^t iange auf* 

geblteben. 
Od) bin fefyr fpat tn' Sett gegan* 

gen unb ^abe fd^Iec^t gef^Iafen. 
323 aim ftefyen @ie gehjo^nlidf} auf ? 

llm fteben U^r. 

Unb urn hneoiet U^r finb <Ste 

Ijeitte aufgeftanben ? 
3d) ftanb mit onnenaufgang auf. 
3d) fd^Iafe ntd^t gern tange. 



?ernen (Ste !Deutfdj ? 

3a, me in ^err, ti^ lerne eg. 

fagt, <Sie tyredjen fe^r gut 



lefen ? 



3d) toerftefye e beffer, 

fpre^en fann. 
83erfte^en @ie, 



1. 

Who knocks at the door? 

Who is there? 

Open the door. 

The key is in the door. 

Are you in bed still ? 

Get up (rise). 

It is time to get up. 

It is broad day-light 

Why do you get up so late ? 

I sat up late last night. 

I went to bed very late, and 

slept badly. 
What time do you generally 

get up ? 

At seven o'clock. 
And what o'clock did you get 

up this morning ? 
I got up at sun-rise. 
I don't like to sleep long. 

2. 

Are you learning German? 
Yes, Sir, I am learning it (I do). 
They say you speak German 

very well. 
I understand it better than I 

speak it. 
Do you understand what you 

read? 



CONVERSATION. 



467 



Qdf raeitt >err, idj toerflelje atte 

beutfdjen Sitter, 
agen te mir einmal, toie nen* 

nen ie btefeS auf Sngltfdj ? 
3d) gtaube, man nennt e8 . . . 
pred)e id) gut au$ ? 

iemltd) gut 
te bebiirfen nur nodj cut toentg 
Uebung. 
SRtdjtS iwrb oljne 2ftitlje ertangt 



Yes, Sir, I understand all Ger- 
man booka 

Tell me, what do you call this 
in English? 

I believe they call it ... 

Do I pronounce well ? 

Pretty well 

You only want a little more 
practice. 

There is nothing to be got 
without pains. 



SRetn $err, finb ie cut SnglSu- 

ber? 

3a, metn err, 3f)nen ju bienen. 
prec^en @ie 2)eutf d^ ? 
3dj fpred^e e8 era njenig. 
2Ste lange fmb te f^on ui 



donate. 
te fpred^en gtemtt^ gut )eiitfdj 

fiir btefe furge ^tt 
3c^ abe feine 5 e ^9f"t te 

prerfjen. 

SDtefe wti'b ratt ber e\t fomnten. 
agt 3^nen 31jr Secret ntc^t, ba 

te imtuer 2)eutf(^ fpred^ea 

miiffen? 
S/ tttetn $err, er fagt e tntr 

fe^r oft f aber t^ niage e ntc^t 
eten te fuljii unb fpredjen te, 

o^ne $u beforgen, ob Ote etntgc 

^eljler madden ober ntd^t. 
SBenn id) fo fpred^e, fo iuirb mtdj 

Sebermann auStac^en. 

^ b,at Sfrcfjt^ ju fagen; akr 

c gtaube e ntc^t. 

tffea te ntd)t, ba, um gut 

fpred^eu 311 lernen, mau an* 
u jpvcJjeu? 



Sir, are you an Englishman? 

Yes, Sir, at your service. 

Do you speak German? 

I speak a little. 

How long have you been in 

Germany/ 
Ten months. 
You speak German pretty weH 

for such a short time. 

I have no fluency in speaking. 

This will come with time. 

Does not your master tell you 
that you must always speak 
German ? 

Yes, Sir, he tells me so very 
often ; but I do not dare to. 

Be confident, and speak with- 
out minding whether you 
make a few mistakes or not. 

If I speak so, everybody will 
laugh at me. 

No matter for that, but I do 
not think so. 

Do you not know that, to learn 
to speak well, you begin by 
speaking badly? 



APPENDIX. 



f flbeln imb <r$ljhmcietu 



fwljndjen unb bet 2>iamattt 



(Sin toerljungert mljnd)en fanb 

(Sinen feinen 35iamant 

Unb t>erfd)arrt' iljn in ben <Sanb. 



boc^, mtc^ gu erfreu'n," 
, biefer fdjone tein 
ein 2Bet3enfornd^en fern. 



!Du 33a^tetn, fltber^elt nnb War, 
3)u etlfl ftoriiber tmmerbar, 
5lm Ufer fte^' id^ f finn' unb ftnn' : 
2Bo fommjl bu l)er? So ge^ft bu Ijin? 



fomm' au bunfter ^etfen 
gauf ge^t ttber ^tum' unb 
metnem (Spiegel fd^niebt fo milb 
blauen immet freunbltd^ 33tlb. 



jD'rutn ^ab' i^ frozen ^inberfmn; 
(53 treibt mid^ fort, toei^ nid)t rto^in, 
35er mi(^ gerufen au8 bent (Stein, 
3)er, benf id), hrirb mein ^tt^rer fein." 

471 



472 APPKNDEL 

$er Crfjfc unb ber (vjcl. 



unb (gfel gonften ftd) 
33etm pajiergang um bie 2Bette, 
Set am ntetften 2Beil)ett Ijatte; 
Reiner ftegte, fetner twd). 

(Snbltd) fam man uberein: 
2)afc ber on)e, lucnn er roottte, 
2)iefen treit entf^eiben fottte, 

Unb toa8 fonnte ftiiger fein? 

Scibc tretcn, ticfgebiidtt, 
SSor be jt^tcrbe^errfc^erg ST^rone, 
2)cr mit cinem ebten ^o^ne 

Sluf bie8 'JJaar ^ernteberbltrft 



forirfjt bic 

3 bent fel unb bcm 
B 3|r feib afle betbc barren!" 
3eber gofft i^n an nnb 



-Unobc unb bie tattcht. 



(Stn ^nabc a^, njte titelc 

jDtc 3)atteln fiir fein eben gern, 

Unb um be8 uten biet ju ^aben, 
@o pftangt er einen jDattetfern 

3n fetne^ 33ater SBIumengarten. 
3)er S3ater fa^ t|m ta^etnb ju 
Unb fragte: ^IDatteln pflan^eft bu? 

O ^inb, ba mufet bu lange ttiarten ; 
3)enn luiffe, biefer eble S3 aunt 
Stragt oft nac^ jnian^tg 3at>ren faum 

te erften fetner ftifeen grttdjte." 
^arl, ber fid) beffen ntrfjt toerfa^, 
(Stanb aufangS gan^ betroffen ba ; 

balb nut frofytidjem eftrfjte 
9?uft er : ,,$)a8 fofl mid) ntd)t Derbriejjen ; 

Selo^nt bie j^eit nur meinen ^tet^, 

o fann id) |a beretnft at retS, 

je^t bsr ^nabe pflanjt, gente^en." 



APPENDIX. 

Xcr JViftfjcr. 

ein fttfdjer an bent Sad), rooflte ^ifd)lein fangen ; 

eg blieb ben gangen Jag leer bie 2lnget Ijangen. 
@nblid) gu(ft eg, unb er fab, $ifd)lein gappetnb fdjroeben. 
(SMbenrotb/lid) tying eg ba, fletyt ityn unt fein Seben. 



473 



ieber ftifdjer, Ia mt^ to$," fpradf)' nut gtatten 2Borten, 
2a mic^ in ber 25etten (<i)oofc, big ic^ gro gertorben." 

in, bag lann ni^t gefc^e^'n, fyier ^itft fetn Seflagen. 
id) je^t bid^ n)ieber gelj'n, mbd)t' 311 Diet id^ rtagen." 



,,3)enfe boc^, tt)ie !Iein ic^ bin ; fjaft ja faum brei 33ifftm. 
?a mic^ in bie glutl) ba^in ; toirft mid) nid)t bermiffen.* 
w 2BeiI bu gar fp nieblid) bift unb fo jung am ?eben, 
@ei bir eine fleine ^nft noc^ Don mir gegeben. 

2Birft bu aber grower fetn, benf an beine 2Borte, 
tefle bid^ gum ffange ein, b,ier an biefem )rte." 
^r6b,tic^ f prang bag gifdjlein ^in in bie 2Beflen!ii^Ic, 
Xrieb mit Iieiter'm, frozen 8inn feine luft'gen pietc. 

?llg ein 3ab,r tooriiber roar, bac^t' eg feiner SBorte, 
tellte fid) bent ^ifdjer bar an bemfetben Orte. 
j>od) ber fprac^ : ,,2BeiI bu fo treu an bent SSort 
?a ic^ bid^ auf immer frei, roitt bic^ niemalg fangen." 



(gg gingen brei Oager roo^I auf bie 
@ie rooflten erjagen ben roei^en ire. 

@ie tegten ftd^ unter ben annenbaum, 
3)a fatten bie brei einen fettfamen 2;raum. 

S)cr (Srftc. 

2ftir ^at getraumt, idq flopft' auf ben 33ufdj, 
2)a raufd)te ber >irfd) b,eraug, ^ufc^, ^ufc^ ! 

3)er 3 n)e i te - 

Unb alg er fprang mit ber unbe eflaff, 
2)a brannt' tc^ i^n auf bag gett, piff, paff ! 



474 



APPENDIX. 

2)er 2)rttte. 

Unb alS id) ben )irfd) an ber (grbe fab,, 
2) a ftiefc id) luftig in'S orn, trara ! 

<3o lagen fte ba unb fpradjen, bte brei, 
2)a rannte ber meifje $trfd^ borbeL 

Unb eb/ bie brei Oa'ger ib,n red)t gefeb,'n, 
@o h)ar er batoon iiber Siefen unb 6b,'n. 

8. ttylanb. 



3lefop gtng etnjl nod) etnem tabtc^en ^in. 
Sin SBanb'rer fam unb griite ib,n, 
Unb fragf : f ,2Bie lange, ftreunb, ^ab' t^ ^u ae^'n, 
gu bent ^leden bort, ben nnr toon toeitem feb,'n ? 
!" fprid)t $lefop. Unb er : B $a8 wet^ i 
roenn tc^ luetter fommen fott, 

Qfy geljen mu; attetn bu fottfi mtr fagcn : 
3n Ruemel tuuben?" ^un, fo aey!" W 3^ feb^e h)ob,t," 
S3nnnmt b,ier ber ^rembe, n ber ^erl tft tott; 

Od) ttjerbe ntdjtg t>on tb/m erfragen;" 
Unb breb,t ftd) meg unb ge^t. ,,Qt" ruft Stefop, ff eb SBort ! 
3tt)ei <Stunben bringen bi^ an ben beflimmten Ort." 

35er Sanb'rer btetbt betroffen fletien. 
&." ruft er, *unb n)te tt)ett bu'8 nun ?" 
,,Unb ttJte/ Derfe^t 5le|op, ,,!onnt' t^ ben 2lu8fp 

S3et)or id^ betnen ang gefe^en?" 



Xcr 3tf)atjflrabcr. 

2Bmjer, ber am Sobe lag, 

f etne ^tnber an unb fprad) : 
n $n unfer'm 2Bemberg liegt ein 
@rabt nur barnad) !" W s 2ln roetdjem 
(Sc^rte 5ltte taut ben 33ater an. 
ff @rabt nur!" O toeb,', ba ftarb ber SD^ann. 
^aum nmr ber ^llte beigefd^afft, 
<So grub man nad) au ?eibefraft. 



APPENDIX. 475 



>acfe, $arft uub (Spaten hmrb 
j)er ^Bctnberg um imb um gefdjarrt; 
3)a luar fetn Iofj, bet rufytg blteb, 
"Uftan uiarf bte (Srbc gar burdj'8 <Steb 
Unb ^og bte )arfen freug unb qurc 
9?ad) jebem (Steindjen l)tn unb fjer. 
?lttein ba hiarb fetn djafc berfpitrt, 
Unb 3eber ^tett fief) angefitfyrt. 
jDocf), faum erfdjten ba3 nad)fte ^afjr, 
(So nafjm man mit (Srftaunen tt)af)r, 
3)a^ jebe ^Rcbe bretfad) trug. 
S)a hmrben erft bte ofjne f(ng, 
Unb gruben nun, 3;af)r ein, 
tmmer mefjr 



Slinbc unb bet 8a!jme. 



S3on ungefafjr mitf? etnen 33ttnben 
(gin Saunter auf ber trafje finben, 
Unb 3ener f)offt fd)on freubenoott, 
ifnt ber Slnb're leiten [ott. 



ber ^afjme, , r betguftef)en ? 
-3d) armer 9)lann fann felbft ntd)t gefjen. 
3)od) fd)etnt'$, ba bu ju einer Soft 
fefjr gefunbe djuttern fjaft. 



(gntfd)Iiee bid), mid) fortjutragen, 
@o hjitt id) bir bie tege fagen; 
(So rtirb betn ftarfer ^u^ mein 
2)Zein IjetteS 5luge beine fein." 



S)er af)me fjangt mit fetnen 
(Sid) auf be8 S3Iinben breiten SRiicfen. 
SSereint mtrft alfo biefeS ^aar, 
ein^efn ^einem mb'glidj toar. 



3)u fjaft nid)t ba, tt)a8 3lnb're fjaben, 
Unb anbern mangeln beine aben. 
SluS biefer Unbottfommenfjeit 
(Sntfpringet bie ^efettigleit. 



476. APPENDIX. 

X rr iHri jntDr. 

(Sin Sanb'rer bat ben ott ber otter, 
25en ,3eu, kei ungeftitmem 2Better, 

Urn ftttte Suft itnb (Sonnenfrfjein. 
Umfonft ! 3 eug Ififct m rod)* betoegen. 
3)er >immel ftitrmt mit SBinb unb SRegen; 

2)enn ftiirmifc^ fottt' c8 ^eutc fetn. 

3)er 2Sonb'rer fc^t, mit bitfrer tlage, 
S)a^ 3 cug m ^ ^fetfe bic 3Wenfc^en plage, 

jfiic fau're 9teife mU^fam fort. 
@o oft ein neiter tunnttjinb toiit^et 
Unb fdjnett i^m ftitt^ufteb.'n gebietet, 

(So oft ertont ein ^dfternjort 

(gin nafjer 293atb fott i^n befrfjirmen. 
(Sr eilt, bem 9f egen unb ben turnten 

3n biefem >ol^e gu entge^'n; 
3)o^, eb,' bet 2BaIb tb,n aufgenommen, 
ieb/t fern er einen SRauber fommen 

Unb bleibt bor ^urd^t hn SKegen fteb,'n. 

er dauber greift narf) feinem S3ogen, 
SDen fc^on bie 9idffe fc^Iaff gejogen; 

(Sr giett unb fa^t ben ^Uger rooljt; 
2)o^ SBinb unb S^egen ftnb gurtnber; 
er ^3feil fciflt matt Dor bem bamieber, 

3)em er bag ^>erg burd^bo^ren fott. 

> ^or," Iat 3eu^ f^ ^orntg ^oren, 
2Birb bid) ber matte ^feil nun le^ren, 

Ob id) bent @turm' ^u wet erlaubt? 
^>att' id) bir onnenfdjein gegeben, 
(So b,Stte bir ber ^feil bag ?eben, 

2)aS bir ber (Sturm erfjielt, geraubt." 

(NM; 

SBtntermor^cn. 

!l5ie (Srbe fdjldft ! mit wetter ^iitte 

tat fie ber SBinter ^ugeberft; 
ie tft nid)t tobt, fie fdjtdft nur ftttte, 
23t8 bag ber Senj fte toieber toedtt 



APPENDIX. .47? 



llnb tote ba$ $mbtein ofyne orgen 
(Sid) an ben 2ftutterbufen fdjtniegt, 
<So rufy'n, an ifyrer 23ruft geborgen, 
!ie SBlumenfinber etngetoiegt. 

HDa traumen fte toon mitben Siiften, 
$om <Sonnenfd)ein, born flaren Jb,au; 
Unb fe^'n, beraiifcfyt toon fiien jDtiften, 
2)en griinen 2Batb, bie bunte 5lu'. 

<3te (aufc^en, toa bte SBoget fingen, 
llnb toa bte 2BeUe fagt im 33ad^; 
(Ste fofen nut ben Odjmetterltngen, 
2)te Stenen fitmmen: guten 



2)te 33 lumen ftrecfen ftd) nacfj oben, 
2)ie ^Jra^t jn fd^auen fern unb na^; 
3)a ift ber fcfyb'ne Sraitm gerftoben, 
Unb fte^ ber en$ ift h)irf(idf) ba. 

Grfetaann. 



f teber, Cflegien etc. 

efunben. 

0^ gtng tm 2BaIbe fo fitr mtc^ ^tn, 

Uub ntcqtS gu fttc^en, ba8 toar ntetn tun. 

-9m djatten fa 1 ^ tcf) etn 33titmd)en fie^n, 
2Bie (Sterne leudjtenb, toie 2leuglein f^on. 

3d) tootlt' eS bre^en, ba fagt' eS fetn: 
gum Selfen gebro^en fein?" 



3c^ grub's mit alien ben 2BiirgIetn au3, 
3um arten trug id)'8 am Ijitbfdjen 

Unb bftangt' eS toteber am ftttlen 5rt; 
jtoeigt e intmer unb bliiljt fo fort. 



479 APPENDIX. 

crbftlict>. 



Sotb fattt bon falben 

3>a lefcte 23latt Ijerab; 
2)ie 23iifrf)' unb 3Batber fd)tt)eigen, 

3>te 2Bett ift we ein rab. 
2Bo fmb fte nun geblieben 
2)ie $6g'lein all', bte Ueben? 

51^ ! fie fangen erft fo- fd^Sn ! 
2)er 9?eif ^at fte toerfrieben 

2Beg nber J^at unb 6lj'n. 

Unb bange njtrb'S unb banger 

Unb fib' in ftelS unb >ag; 
2)te ^acfjte tuerben longer 

Unb hirjer wirb ber Xag. 
3)ie anger finb toerfcfjttmnben 
Sn biefen triiben (Stunben, 

@ud)en ^rii^Iing anber^nio; 
Unb wo fie ben gefunben, 

3)a finb fte ttneber fro^. 

Unb toenn Don fatben ^ttietgen 

3)a6 Iet?te 33Iatt nod) fattt, 
SKenn 33iifrf)' unb SSatber fdjiuetgen, 

3H trauerte bte 2Belt, - 
3)ein gni^ing fann ntrf)t 
S3au' t^n in ^erjen^grunben ! 

(Sei bu fetber bir bein liict ! 
<So fannft bu ^ni^ing finben 

On jebem Hugenblidf. 

^cffraonn v. 



etn, ntciu 



en, ntetn erg, n 
3)en muben 5lugentiben 
!Der SMumen i)at gebrarf)t 
(Srquicfung^t^au bie 



@d)Iaf ein, ntetn erg, in ftrieben I 
2)a ?eben frfjltift |ienieben, 
2)er 2J?onb in (titter ^rarfjt, 
Sin ?luge otte^ roarfjt. 



APPENDIX. 



<Sd)Iaf cin, ntctn >erj, in ^ricben ! 
$on $urd)t unb ram gefdjieben; 
>er SBelten fyat bebadjt, 
9?immt and) em >er<5 in 



(Sdjlaf em, metn ^erj, in ^rteben! 
23on bofem raum gemieben, 
eftfirft toon (SlaubenSmadjt, 
^offnung ongelac^t. 



(Scfjtaf ein, metn ^er^, in ^rieben ! 
Unb n)enn bir ift befcfyieben 
3)er Xob Ijier in ber 
@o bift bu bort errt)acf)t. 

gt. 



29Bof)tcrnif. 

n)a i^ eu^ rtnft fagen ! 
l)at 3ef)n gefc^Iagen. 
betet unb bann ge^t 311 Sett; 
>od) lofc^t ba Sic^t au, eh/ i^r ge^t; 
d^Iaft fanft unb toof)! ! 3m ^>immel 
Sin flared ^Cug' bie ganje 



JP>gref, h)a id) eurf) rt)itt fagen ! 
SDie locf ^at (Stf gefrfjla^en. 
Unb toer noc^ bei ber 5lrbeit fdjrtnfct, 
Unb ter beim ^artenf^iel nod) fit, 
fag' i^'g tout unb beutlirf) nun: 



) eit(^ itjitt fagen! 
lot!' ^at 3 wi >If gcfd)tagen. 
2Bo nod) in ftitter 2Witternad)t 
(Sin franfeS er^ ttott Summer h>ad)t, 
@ott geb' ifim roft, toerlei^ i^m 
Unb fiib,r'8 bent fanften <2d)tummer 



^ euc^ n)itt fagen ! 
' (jat (SinS gefd)tagen. 
Unb too burc^ <2atanS Sift unb 
Sin 3)ieb ^infdjteic^t auf bunf lent 



480 APPENDIX. 

3d) nritt' nidjt fyoffen, boc^ gefd)tef)t'S; 
@o gel)' er fyeun, fetn 9<Jtd)ter fiefjt'S. 



>ijret, tuaS id) eud) nnfl fagen ! 
3)ie locf Ijat gmi gefd)lagen. 
llnb toem bte <Sorg', fdjon e^' c tagt, 
<5d)tt>er an bem madjen ^>er^en nagt: 
2)er onne Sropf, fetn <Sd)laf tft fort; 
ott forgt, tierlafj bt^ auf fetn 2Bort ! 



^ eud^ hnfl fagen ! 

t 3)rei gefc^Iagen. 
2)te SD^orgenftunb am >tmmel 
2Ber friebeboH ben Xag erlebt, 
35er banfe ott ttnb faffe 2Kttt^ 
e^' an' efc^aft ttnb olf ftc^ gut. 



Drifter. 



SBer me fern 33rob mtt X^ranen a, 
2Ber nte bte fummertioflen 9?dd)te 
3luf fetnem Sette rtetnenb fa, 
3)er fennt eud) nt^t, t^r ^tmmltf^en 



Sljr fu^rt tn ?eben itnS ^tnetn, 
O^r la^t ben Airmen fdjutbtg toerben, 
3)ann Uberlat iljr t^n ber $etn; 
2)enn atte djulb ra'^t fic^ anf Srben. 

(Soef^r. 



hn gritnen 

bte alien 9itftent 
SBanbelt letf am fdjonften 
SBunberfameS 



i Hebcl wrote this poem in one of the many peasant-dialects spoken in Germany. 
which, though not differing widely from the literary language, would nevertheless 
have been incomprehensible to the learner. 



APPENDIX. 

gaublein f prid)t: ott 
u bem Saub baueben, 
HOeS atfymet tief unb fiijj 
griebenSleben. 



Unb trie Slut' unb SBIatt am traudj 
(Stifl fid) nriegt im (SHcmge, 
SBiegt ft^ ntetne <SeeI' im >audj, 
3)er bur^ftromt ba ange. 

C. flbtf. 

60 ifl bas Wliirf ein fliidjtig Xing. 



6 ifl bo turf ein 
Unb njart gu alien agen; 
Unb jagteft bu um ber @rbe 
!J)u mbrfjteft e ni^t erjagen 



?eg' bid) Ueber in ra bott >uft, 
Unb ftnge beine Sieber; 

Dtetlei^t aug blauer Suft 

auf bt^ ^ernieber. 



Slber bann parf' eg unb Ijalt' e fefl 
Unb plaubrc nidjt tiiel bagnjifc^en; 
SBenn bu fo lang' e8 ttjarten td^t*, 
bir roieber enttt)ifc^en. 

3. Oeitrf. 



Toe tjcrlaffcnc 



, rtjann bie a^ 

bie (Sternlein toerf^toinbcn, 

id) am >erbe ft 

^ euer junben. 



on ift ber 
fpringen bie 
fc^aue fo brein, 
!2eib Derjunfen. 



482 APPENDIX. 



bo lommt e8 mir, 
Sreutofer $nabe, 
35afc icf) bie 9?acf)t Don btr 
etra'umet fyabe. 

Sfyrane auf Sfyra'ne bann 
turret fyernieber; 
@o fommt ber Sag Ijeran 
> ging' er wieber ! 



3d)ii 



ift bcr Sag be errn! 
bin attein auf toetter fflw 
Sine 2ttorgengto<!e nnr, 
(Stitte nat) unb fern. 

^[nbetenb fnte' icf) fyier. 
) fii^e^ rau'n ! geljetmeS 
Site fnieten 53iete ungefe^n 
Unb beteten mtt mir. 

3)cr ^immet na^ unb fern, 
<5r ijl fo flar unb feieritrf), 
@o gan^ afe wottt' er 5ffnen 
S)a0 ift ber Sag be3 errn! 



' oft im ^reife ber Sieben 
3n bufttgem rafe geru^t, 
Unb mir ein teblein gefungen, 
Unb aUeS n>ar ^ubjc^ unb gut. 

ab' einfam and) mic^ ge^armet 
-3n bangem, biifterem 2)?ut^ 

Unb Ijabe roieber gefungen, 
Unb atteS toar mteber gut. 

Unb mand)e, toa8 id) erfa^ren, 
Serfo^r* icf) in flitter 2ButIj, 

Unb lam icf) hneber ju ftngen, 
SCBar afleS auc^ ftieber gut 



APPENDIX. 483 

oflft nidjt un8 lange ftagen, 

2Ba8 atteS btr toefje tljut, 
IKur frtfrf), nur frifd] gefungen ! 

Unb afleS roirb ttneber gut. 



Xcr Irfjihtftc Hitgcnblirf . 

<3df)<m ift'3, wenn jtoci terne 
ftrf) fte^n am firmament/ 
n, njenn gtoeter Sftofen 
e ineinanber brennt. 



in 2Baf)rl)ett immer 
am fcfjdnften angufe^n, 
23Bte 3h)et, fo fid) lieben, 
@elig beieinanber fte^n. 

X. ffcme*. 



3;t^ trat in einen ^eitig biiflern 
(Stcfjiualb, ba ^ort' i^ tcif unb Unb 
(Sin 33ad)letn unter SBtiimen fliiftern, 
2Bie ba8 ebet &on einem 



Unb mid^ ergriff ein fiie8 raucn: 
(S^ raitfrfjt ber 2Batb ge^etmni^ott, 
31(8 mocfjt er mtr raa anbertrauen, 
noc^ metn ecj nic^t toiffen foff; 



moc^t' er Ijeim(td) mtr entbetfen, 
ottrt Sie&e fmnt unb njid; 
fdjten er ptoljtic^ ju erfc^recfen 
33or @otte8 W unb ttwrbe flUL 



HScffc OTofc. 

-9n etnem 33ud)e btatternb, fanb 
5c^ erne 9Jofe, ttcH, ^erbritrft, 
Unb rt>et^ auc^ nid^t mefyr, toeffen 
@ie einft fiir mid^ gepflucft 



APPENDIX. 

$ld) mefjr unb meljr im 2lbenM)aud(j 
33ertt>eft Srinn'rung ; balb gerfttebt 
Sftetn (SrbenlooS, bann toeijj id) aud) 
ifttd)t ntefyr, roer mid) getiebt ! 

SR. Sawu. 



SBenn bie age longer rterben, 
Sa^ft ba 0:3 aii(^ in ber 
etcf)ter totrb e bann auf (Srben, 
at^met 



atljmet Sujl unb e^nen; 

nur im jungcn Oa^t 
2)cnft ein firmer nod^ mtt 
S)ajj ein SSinter war ! 

$. Sinng. 

Sonctte. 

nt^t afe ^immel an bic 2Botfenfd)i^te, 
(Srprobe felbjl bein jugenWic^ efleber, 
SSirf muttg in bie f^tuanfen @d)alen nieber 
beine eigenen etmrfjte ! 



' ben eifl am felbflgef^affnen 
Unb forfdje b,euf unb forf^e morgen nneber, 
@enf nie gufrieben beine 5lugenliber, 
beinen tauben tagtic^ gu erid^te ! 



bu hunter toageft, o befdjontg'S 
ftie or ben SD'Jenfc^en burd^ ein gaglja 
S3elenn' e mit bent ftuimutf) eine 



)b fte bit flantntenb audf) ben 
5Diit ^tantmen tauft ber gmige ben 
3)er ftotj fott iiber tre SSaffer ftetgen. 



iltcbnt. 



SQSie iSnnt' idj bein bergeffen ! 
3d^ toeifj, ta bu mir bifi, 



APPENDIX. 485 

SBetm aud) bie 2Belt iljr StebfteS 
Unb SefteS balb fcergifct. 
3d) fing' eS IjeU unb ruf eg taut: 
SOtein 23aterlanb ift meine SBraut! 
3d) toeijj, toaS bit mir &tjt 

SKtc fonnt' td^ betn bergeffen ! 
3)etn benf i^ afle^ctt; 
3ify bin mit btr oer&unbett, 
9J?it btr in ^reub' unb Seib. 
-3(^ toitt fiir bid) im ^am^fc jle^tt, 
Unb fott e fein, mit bir toergeljtu 
3Bie !6nnt' ic^ bein tiergeffen ! 
S)ein benf i^ afle^eit. 

SBte Knnt' i^ bein bergeffen ! 
3tf] toei^, tpag bit tnir bift, 
o lang' etn auc^ on Siebe 
Unb 8eben in mtr ift. 
3(^ fudje nid)t al bici^ aflettt, 
2lfe beiner Siebe ttjertb, ^u fetn. 
SBie lonnt' i^ bein bergeffen ! 
3$ n)ei, roa8 bu mir bift. 

Hoffmann . 

9luf bet SBanberung. 

^ranfretd) unb bem 
3)a toacljfen unfre 9?eben. 

' mein ieb am gritnen S'J^et 

' mir meinen fitljlen SBein! 
S'Jur in jDeutfc^tanb, 
5Da toitt tc^ enng leben. 

tm fremben Sanbe tear t^ a 
SBalb bin id) fjeimpegangen. 

guft unb 2)urft babet, 
ual unb (Sorgen manc^ertet 
d^ 2>eutfd)lanb 
mein erj bertangen. 



i Itlt IB poetical for tfiat, and tfiai cerlangen itself poetical for utrtangtc. 



APPENDIX. 



3ft em ganb, e f)eit 

33liilm )rangen unb Sttronciu 
(Singe, fprad) bie 9omerin, 
Unb id) fang $um 9iorben fn'n: 

9?ur in j>eutfd)fanb, 

3)a mufc mein djafclein wolmett. 



2113 id) fa^ bie ^llpen h)ieber gliiljtt 
^eH in ber SKorgenfonne: 

riife' mein giebc^cn, gotbner 

riif ' mir meinen griinen 
ftur in 3)eutf(^tanb, 
S)a tooljnet f^reub' unb SBonne ! 

goffmann . 



inb fdjlaf t. 



5Die 5Dhttter InDt ben 
SJJit fii^en giebern ein; 
@r ttjitt'g ni(^t anberS 
<Sie mu^ am Sette fein. 



SBie fann'S ber (S^etnt nnr hnffett, 
Ob fie am 33ette ft^t, 
S)er faum au feinem 
^albem ?luge blifct? 



Unb h)te er o^ne Summer 
^rif t^ at^menb, roftg liegt ! 
$Da8 ifl ein fuer <Sd)tummer, 
SKorein bie ?ieb' un toiegt ! 

Gbuarb oon Banmtfelk. 

>ie (vinf c^r. 

S3et eutem SBtrt^e, toimberraitb, 
SDa war id^ jitngfl git afte; 
(gin ^olb'ner Slpfel war fein @d)Ub 
Sin etnem langen Slfte, 



AJTENDEX, 



ber gute 2lpfetbaunt, 
33et bcm id) etngefefyret; 
Sfttt filler $oft iinb frifdjem (Sdjawn 
er mid) luofyl genafyret; 



GS famen in fein grime 
SBiel tetdjt befdjnringte afte; 
te fprangen fret unb fytelten 
Unb fangen auf ba 53eftc. 

-3^ fanb em 33ett jit fuer 
Sluf meic^en, gritnen 3Jiatten; 
SDer SBirtI), er becfte fetbft mti^ 311 
fetnem fii^Ien fatten. 



fragf i^ nad) ber (Sd)ulbtg!ctt; 
SDa fcfjuttelt er ben SBtyfet; 
@e[egnet fet er atte tit 
Son ber SSunet bi aunt tj>feU 

BffHfc 



^ejler <ntnb fet betnent 3(^: 
S^te betn SBort ^u bredjen; 
SDrum Dor attent ^Ute btrf) f 
roe $u berfpredjen. 

Slber, oitf bid) fetbft gefteflt, 

Sanble gro im Seben, 
teid) al ptteft bu ber 2Bett 
SDrauf bein 2Bort gegeben. 

3. $antra 



G toar, al b^ott' ber ^>tmmel 
SDie (Srbe ftttt gefu|t, 
SDa^ fte im SBIittenfdjimmer 
5Son i^m nun traumen mit^t'. 

!l)te ?uft gtng burd) bie ^elber, 
2)ie ^lef)ren njogten fadjt, 
68 raufd)ten leif bie 2Botber, 
@o fternftar n>ar bie 9iad)t, 



APPENDIX. 

Unb nteine eete fponnte 
Seit tyre fttuget 0118, 
ftlog bnrd) bie ftiflen ganbe, 
^[18 floge fte nad) au8. 

3. *. Qi^tnborfp. 



fteDer, 



?ctfc $te6t burc^ mem 
?tebtic^c (Selautc; 

Ketne grU^t 

2Bette ! 



t8 an a 

2Bo bte SBtumen fpriefeen, 
2Bcnn bit etnc 9tofc frfjaufl, 
id) taff' fte grii^enl 



3)u toft n?ie erne SBIumc 
@o Ijolb unb fdjon itnb rein; 
3d) fdjou' bid) an unb 2Bel)mirt$ 
@d()Ieid)t mir in ^erj Ijinein. 



ifl, ate ob idj bte 

aupt bit tegen fottf , 
SBetenb, bag ott bid) erratic 
rein unb frfjon unb 



Snt hjunberfdjonen 
9118 afle $nopen fprangen, 
3)a ijl in nteinem ^er^en 
SDie Siebe aufgegangen. 



3m h)nnberfd)6nen 
Sll afle 3?i5g,et fangen, 
3)a ^afc' id) tin* geftanben 
SKein e^nen unb $erlangen 



489 



(Sin ^icfytenbaum fteljt einfam 
3m <Worben aitf falser |>olj'. 
3lnt fdjla'fert; mit roeifter 2)ecfe 
Umljuflen ifyn (ig itnb <3d)nee. 



(gr traumt toon etner 
2)ie, fern im 9J?orpenlanb, 
infant nnb fdjiuetgenb troucrt 
^u brennenber ^ 



Sorclct. 

nidjt, h)a fot( c3 Bebeutett, 
fo traurtg bin; 

(gin 9#ar<i)en au^ atten dttn, 
fommt mir ntdt au bent 



S5te guft ift fitf)l unb eg bunfett, 
Unb rul)ig flie^t ber 9^^ein; 
2)er ipfel be^ Series funfelt 
Om 2ibenbfomtenfd)ein. 

5Dte fc^onfte Oungfrau jtfcet 
!SDort oben njunberbar, 
-3^r gotbneS ef^meibe 
<Sie fcimmt iljr 



<Sie fcimmt eg mit golb'nem 
Unb ftngt ein Sieb babei; 
Ijat eine njunberfame, 
2JieIobei. 



3)en Differ im fieinen 
(Srgreift e mit wilbem 
(Sr fd^aut ni^t bie ^etfenriffe, 
(r frfjaut nur ^inauf in bie 

3d) gtoube, bie Setten 
3lm gnbe djtffer unb 
Unb bag Ijat mit iljrem 
2)ie Soretet get^an. 



490 APPENDIX. 

Tic At nltcn. 



>erje me in Siebe gliiljte, 
$uge nie im ,3orn geflammt, 
3)em ift erftorben tm cmiit^e 
ute, ba toon oben ftommt 



)er tft tm ttefften >ergen8grunbe, 
35er ift in tieffter (Beele f rf) I e d) t, 
2)et ift bis in bic lefcte tunbe, 
in ben 2ob, ber <Setbflfucf)t 

6 



$etn ?iiftd)en regt ftd^ in ben ,3toetgett, 
3)ie 33figtein ftnb in @<i)tof oerfunfen, 
2)te tb,aubef^rt)erten SBtumen neigen 
ST)ie buft'gen auptec fdjlummertrunfen. 



S3iet taufenb gotbne terntein geljett 
Sim tmmet ft^wctgenb auf unb nieber, 
Unb leife gie^t auS ftiflen ^fi^en 
S)er 2Konb fein golbneS ^ic|t ^ernieber. 

Unb ift mtr 9tub,e norfi befc^ieben, 
<2o mu fie b,ier ber eete fommen, 
933o mid^ in iljren ^ett'gen ^neben 
9Zatur ^at liebenb aufgenommen. 

3. ham. 



latt tin 



3d) ^ab' eine atte 
SDie ein atteS Silc^Iein b,at; 
6 tiegt in bem atten 
6in alteS, burreS SBIatt 



burr ftnb loob,! aud) bie 
einft im en^ ib,r'8 gepflitrft. 
mag bocf) bte 9Ute b,aben ? 
toeint, fo oft fie'S erblicft. 

. rita. 



APPENDIX. 491 

Stammer rfjmrr$, (antes dHutf. 

JD tm (Sdjmerge mufj id) fdpeigen, 
<2>d)Uefe' tip tief ing >erg fyinein. 
(Sr aflein tft gang mein eigen, 
33in mit ifjnt unb ott attein; 
Unb ob mir bag ^>er^ aud) brid^t f 
) tm c^merge fing' tc^ nic^t ! 



metn liirf, bag moc^t' tc^ fagen, 
Sftufen e in |cbe )f)r, 
6 Don cr^ gu Bergen ttagcn, 
JO bag meine brangt'g 
Oebe ?nft rt)irb ein 
) mein liuf ticrf( 

Want Sorfltt. . 

^m 3ammcr. 



enge ajyeti 
Sangfam gte^' tc^ wot etn^er, 
2Benn bte 5te^ren att' erblaffen 
SBon tterborg'nem <Segen fcf)h)er; 
Unb fo Jranbt' td^ ^in unb finne 
Unb mei ntd^t, tuag id) beginne. 



Unb ber btaue |nntmel njebet 
@id^ ^erunter Itdjt unb rt)arm, 
Unb bte gange (Srbe fc^iuebet 
S3raittltd) ftitt in feinent 5lrnt; 
, inbriinftig fufecg 9Mgen, 
n, glii^enb 



nenni tni^ ftol ) 



5^r nennt mtd^ flolg ! 2Ber Ijat mtc^ fo gemac^t? 
3^r fetbft, bte mic^ betrogen unb Derratljen ! 
SDte 9?egung, bte tljr fdjma^t, ift erft ermac^t, 
Hlg ic^ mein Xb/un bergttc^ mit euern 2;b,aten I 



492 APPENDIX. 



ncnnt mid) jbfy ! O h)tttet tljr, toie gcrii 
Unb freubenDofl ber ftarre tot^ t)erfd)anbe 
33or einem 2ftenfd)en, ber, em lifter <5tem, 
$od) iibcr mir unb mctueni SBefen ftiiubc ! 



egenDen, ilomaweu imfi 



!Dcr ttltt SBarbarofj'a, ber $atfer 

3m unterirb'f^en d^Ioffe Ijtilt er Derjaubert 

@r tfl ntematg geflorben, er lebt barm nod) fe 
@r ^at im <S^to erborgen gum (S^taf ftd) 



(Sr ^at ^tnabgenommen be8 9^et^e ^errttdjfeit 
Unb wirb etnfl mteberfommen mtt i^r, 311 fetner 



SDer tit^t tfl etfenbetnertt, barauf ber ^at[er ft^t; 
2)er Xif^ ift marmelftetnern, worauf fein ^aupt er 



<Setn SBart ifl nt^t Don ^ad^fe, er tft tton ^cue 
3ft burd) ben Zi\d) geioad^fen, worauf fein $inn 

(gr ntrft afe rt)te tm ^raume, fein $lng' l^atb offen gtoinft; 
Unb jc narf) tangent ^laume er etnem ^itaben lutnft 



<5r fpri^t im (Sdjlaf jnm ^naben: eV Ijm tor's @(^to, o 3 wer 9! 
Unb ftelj', ob nod^ bie SRaben ^erfliegen nm ben 



Unb h>enn bie atten 9^aben nod) ffiegen tmmerbar, 

id) and) nod) fd)lafen toerjaubert tmnbert 3a^r. 

|jft. 



APPENDIX. 493 

Siingcr. 



,,2Ba8 IjbV id) brauen bor bent Xljor, 
2Ba8 auf ber Sriide flatten? 

$afc ben efang bor imferm >l)r 
-3m <2>aale nneberfjaflen !" 

>er $onig fpradj'S, ber ^age lief; 

3)er $nabe fam, ber $omg rief: 
mir fyeretn ben Sllten I" 



w egriiet feib mir, eble erm, 
egriit tfyr, fi^one 2)amen ! 
S33eld)' reidjer $immel! tern bei (Stern 1 

2Ber lennet tb,re Seamen ? 
-Sfm @oal tioH ^rad^t unb 
t 3lugen eu^; b,ier tft 
ftaunenb gn 



S)er anger brttdt bie 5(ugen ein, 
Unb fd)lug in tiotten pnen; 

3)ie fitter fc^aitten mut^ig brent, 
llnb in ben <Srfjoo bie djoneit, 

3)er ^bnig, bent baS lOieb gefiel, 

$ie, i^n ^n eb,ren fiir fein @^iel, 
Sine golb'ne ^ette b/olen. 

W 2)ie gotb'ne ^ette gib mir nid^t; 

>ie ^ette gib ben bittern, 
SBor beren fii^nem Slngefic^t 

2)er ^einbe ^an^en f^Iittern. 
ib fte bent ^anjler, ben bu ^aff, 
Unb lajj ib,n noc^ bie gotb'ne Sajt 

3u anbern Saften tragen. 

Sc^ ftnge, njie ber 3$ogel ftngt, 
2)er in ben ^nmgen mo^net; 

3)a ^ieb, baS auS ber ^eb,Ie bringtr 
3ft ob,n, ber reidjticf) lo^net. 

SDod) barf id) bitten, bitt' id) einS: 

8a mir ben beften 23ed)er 
o(be reidjen, 



494 APPENDIX. 

(5r fefct' iljn on, er trcmf iljn au8: 
,,)2ranf ofl fttjjer 8abe ! 

JO tool)! bem fyodjbegliicften >au$, 
2Bo baS ift Heine @abe ! 

(Srgeljt'3 eud) wob,!, fo benlt an midj, 

Unb banfet ott fo ttjartn, att id} 
ftilr biefen nwf eud) banfe." 



SEer rettet fo fpat burc^ 9^a^t unb SBrnb? 
(S ift ber SBater mit feinem ^inb'; 
6r fyat ben ^naben ^ob/t in bem 5lrm; 
(Sr fa^t ib,n ftdjer, er fjfitt ib,n 



birgfl bu fo bang bem 
'ft, $ater, bu ben ^rlfonig ni^t? 
SDen rtenfbntg mit ^ron' unb (Sdjtueif ? 
@ob,n, e ift ein 



Itebe $inb, fomm, ge^' mit mir! 
fc^one ptele fpiel' ic^ mit bir: 
,' bunte 33Iumen fmb an bem (Stranb; 
SKeine ^flutter ^at man^ giitben eh)anb. - 



S3ater, mein 55ater, unb Ijb'refl bu ni 
erlenKnig mir leife tjerfpnc^t ?" 
w <et rub,ig, bleibe rub/ig, mein $inb ! 
Sn burren Slattern faufelt ber 2Binb. rt 

r 2Bittfl, feiner $nabe, bu mh mir ge^'n? 
Sfteine jtb'^ter foflen bit^ marten fdjb'n; 
SReine Stouter fub/ren ben nadjtttrfjen ^Rei^ 
Unb h)iegen unb tangen unb ftngen bic^ ein. 



S3ater, mein S5ater, unb fieljft bu nid^t bort 
erttonig'8 Xorfjter am buftern Ort?" 
*2Rem (Sob/n, mein ob^n, id) feb/ e^ genau; 
^ fc^einen bie aiten SBeiben fo grau." 



APPENDIX. 495 

W 3dj fiebe btdj, mid) rei$t beine fdjone eftalt; 
Unb bift bit nidjt nriflig, fo brand)' id) etoatt." 
,,2ftein $ater, mem $ater, j[etjt fafct er mid) an; 
(Srlfonig tjat mir ein eib'3 getfyan." 

SDem 3Satec graufet'g, er rettet gefdjttnnb; 
(Sr ^att in ben Slrmcn ba ac^jenbe ^inb, 
Srreidjt ben >of mit 9J^U^e unb 9?otlj; 
3n feinen Airmen bag $inb war tobt. 



retdjfie 



^^errlid^/' fprad^ ber $urft Don adjfen, 

,,0ft mein Sanb nnb feme 
itber fyegen feine Serge 
in mandjem ttefen 



mein Sanb in iipp'ger 
pra^ ber $urfitrft t)on bem 
,,olb'ne (Saaten in ben J^aiern 
2luf ben Sergen eblen SBein l u 



table, reic^e 
Subtnig, err 311 33aiern, 
,,@d)affen, ba mein Sanb ben en'ren 
nid)t fteb,t an 



(Sbedjarb, ber mit bem Sarte, 
2Burtemberg'3 getiebter >err, 

<2>prad) : ,,3ftein anb b,at fteine (Stabte, 
Sragt nid^t Serge filberf^roer; 



ein ^(einob b/att'^ berborgen: 
in SBatbern, noc^ (o gro, 
mein ^aupt !ann ftib,nUd) legen 
3febem Untert^an in J @c^oo." 

llnb e rief ber >err bon @ad)fen, 
5)er con 33aiern, ber bom ^^ein: 

,,raf im Sart! 3b,r feib ber reicbjte, 
(Suer 8anb tragt (SbelfteinV 

3. Semn. 



i For tn'n, and this again for in ben. 



496 APPENDIX. 

Sir >uffmutg. 

($ reben unb traumen bic 2ftenfd)en Diet 
33on beffer'n fitnftigen Stagen; 
SRacf) einem glucflirfjen golbenen 3i e t 
@tel)t man fte rennen unb jagen. 
3)ie SBelt tt)trb alt intb iroirb loteber jung, 
ber 3Jienfdf) ^offt immer 33erbefferung. 



2)te ^offniing fii^rt i^n in' eben ein, 
@te umflattert ben frol)Ucf)en ^naben, 
3)en Oiingttng begetftert ifyr 3uberfd)etn / 
(Sic rt)trb mtt bent reiS ntdjt begraben; 
2)enn befrfjltejjt er tm rabe ben miiben 
am rabe pflangt er bie offnung auf 



<5 ijl !ein teerer, f^meic^etnbet: 
(Srgeugt im e^trne beg Slfyoren; 
3m Bergen tunbet e taut ftdj an: 
3u wa Sefferm ftnb tpir geboren. 
Unb tt)a8 bie innere <3ttmme fpricl^t, 
ta'ufc^t bie ^offenbe @eete nid)t. 



tfl be 3)eutf^en 55aterlanb ? 

^3reu^enlanb? 3ft' @d)tt)aben(anb? 

h)o am ^^ein bie 9tebe blii^t? 

n)p am 33ett bie 2)?6e ^ic^t? 
) nein ! o nein ! o nein ! 
@ein SBatertanb mufc grower fein. 



ifl be 2)eutfrf)en 53aterlanb? 
Saierlanb? 3ft' teterlanb? 
too ber SWarfen s ^inb ftd) ftrerft? 
tt>p ber barter eifen retft? 
nein ! o nein ! :c. :c. 



APPENDIX. 

ijl beg eutfdjen Saterlanb? 
3ft'g 'ipommerlanb ? SBeftpfyalenlanb? 
too ber <3anb ber linen toeljt? 
ft'g, top bie 3)onau braufenb gel^t? 
) nein ! o nein ! ?c. :c. 



2Bag ift beg 3)eutfrf)en Saterlanb? 
@o nenne mir bag groe anb ! 

Sanb ber (Scfjweiaer, ift'8 Sljrol? 
Sanb wtb 53olf gefiet mir too^L 
2)od) nein ! boc^ nein ! K. K. 



tft be 3)entfcf)en 33aterlanb? 
nenne mir bag grofje ?anb ! 

eg ift bag >efterreid^, 
Sin (Sren nnb an (Siegen reidj. 
JO nein ! o nein ! K. :c. 



ift beg 3)entfrf)en 55aterlanb? 
(So nenne enblid) mir bag Sanb ! 
@o toeit bte beittf^e 3 un 9 e Ktngt 
Unb ott im immel Sieber ftngt: 
fott eg fein! bag fofl eg fein! 
, niacf'rer eutf^er, nenne beinl 



3)ag tft bag beutf^e SBaterlanb, 
933o (Sibe fc^tobrt ber 2)rit(f ber 
2Bo Sreue l)ett com ?tuge bti^t, 
Unb Siebe njarm tm er^en ft|t: 

>ag foil eg fein! bag foil eg fein! 

2)ag, njacf'rer >eutfrf)er, nenne beat I 

S)ag gange 35eittfd)lanb fott eg fein! 
O ott com ^immel, fte^' barein, 
Unb gib ung re^ten beutf^en 2ftittlj; 
mir eg Ueben treu unb gut ! 

2)ag fott eg fein ! bag fott eg fein ! 

2)ag gauge >eutfd)lanb foil eg fein ! 

IS. W. Jtrobt. 



498 APPENDIX. 

SdjillcrttJcilje. 



(Setft, SBerffarter, fteig' ju itn8 Ijernteber, 
@telj ! 2Btr brtngen bir em er3 mit )anf crfiittt 
3u bent umrb'gen fttftt tuetfye unfere ieber, 
>ulbigenb erfdjetnen ftn'r bor beinem 33ilb, 
Um ben ebelften Don 2>entfd)lanbS grofjen (SiJljnen, 
Sfttt bem eiotg griinen Sorbeer^njetg 311 fronen. 



SDu bift tmmer nod), tociS bu beretnfl 
UnfereS beutfrfjen eifte erftgebor'ner 

eitt' erf^etnft bu un^ ate em DerftdrteS SBefen, 
(Sd^webenb auf ^arnoffuS' b,ob,ent jDt^te 

Dimmer totrb be$ @^6nen 3;beat beralten, 

SSo bte traitten flange betner ^ra toalten. 



bein eniuS bor longer dt gef^affen, 
2)auern h)trb e8 en)ig in ber ^etten ^ludjt, 
Unb bte f^atften (Snfel njevben nt^t erj^taffen 
@tc^ gu laben on ber fiten, golb'nen gtudjt 
jDetne SSerfe n)erben unbergdnglt^ fteljen, 
SDenn bte (Setter fonnen ntd)t njte (Staub toerge^ett. 

3)'rum, tooS roe bu unb JtefeS Ijofl gefungen, 
2So bu @^one, SSafyreS, @bte8 un gete^rt, 

SQSeit tft'S iiber'3 SSoterlonb ^tnouSgebrungen, 
-3n ben fernften 9J?arfen btft bu b,od)geeb,rt. 

Qa f bag wette SSettmeer felbft fe^t feine (Sc^ranfc, 

Unb bein SRuljm njirb ert)ig fetn nrie ber ebanfe. 

Unb n)irb ehtft tm t^euern beutfdjen 53atertanbe 
@icf) bte n)ab,re ^reiftett einen Jempel bau'n, 

SBirb bie 97ac^h)elt fyod) im Udjtttmfloff'nen 9?anbe 
2ln ber (SingangSpfort' ben ^Ramen critter frfjau'n; 

tra^ten wirb fetn S3itb gefcfymitcft tm Sorbeerfrange, 

6iner onne gteid), im remften listen lanje. 

gttebrief) (Skitter's t^eurer 9[?ame btnbet hneber, 
Sa in 9^orb unb <iib bte elbftfud^t ftreng getgetlt 

$ente fit^ten 3tfle ftd) at beutfdje Sruber, 
a fein entu^ in unfrer JRttte teitt 

teute ftnb h)ir burd) ber Stntrac^t ftarfe S3anbe 
in geeinigt 33olf im etn'gen beutfc^en ?anbe. 

Cinil Otto. 



APPENDIX. 499 

efiei uniljrcnb bet 



SBater, idj rufe bid) ! 
SBriiflenb unwolft mid) ber $)ampf ber efd)ufce, 
(Spriiljenb um^ucfen mid) raffembe 2 
Jlenfer ber <Sd)fod)ten, id) rufe bid) ! 

SSater bit, ftifjre mid) ! 

SBater bit, fitfjre mtdj ! 
fttiljr' mid) jum (Siege, fii^r' mid) ^um Xobc; 

ferr, id) erfenne beine ebote; 
err, Jtie bit roiflft, fo fii^re mid). 
ott, id) erfenne bid) ! 

(5ott, id) erfenne bid) ! 
SBie im ^erbfttidjen SJaufdjen ber flatter, 
Site tm <Sd)Iad)tenbonnern)etter, 
Urqnett ber nabe, erfenne id) bid). 

SJater bu, fegne mid) ! 

SBater bu, fegne midj ! 
Sn beine ^anbe befell' id) mein eben, 
SDu fannft e nefymen, bu ^aft ea gegeben; 
3um !0eben, gum terben fegne mid). 

$ater, id) preife bid) ! 

SBater, id) preife bid) ! 
ift fein ^ampf fitr bie liter ber grbe: 
SDaS ^eiligfte fdjit^en U)ir mit bem djfterte; 
3)'rum fattenb unb fiegenb ^reif id) bid), 

ott, bir ergeb' id) mid) ! 



ott, bir ergeb' id) mid) ! 
SBenn mid) bie Conner beg pbe8 
SBenn meine 5tbern geoffnet flie^en; 
2)ir, mein ott, bir ergeb' id) mid) ! 

$ater f idj rufe bid) ! 

a. floratt. 



600 APPENDIX. 

ROB. 

2Bie rafft' tdj micfj auf in ber -ftaefjt, m bcr 
Unb fuljlte rnicf) fiirber gejogen; 
2)ie affen berliefe id), bom SBfidjter betoadjt, 
2)urd)h}anbelte fadjt 
On ber 9?ad)t, in ber ftad)t, 

ljor mit bem gotln'fdjen 33ogen. 



S)er 2Ku^Iba^ raufc^te burd^ fetftgen (Sdjadjt, 
3^ le^nte mid^ uber bie 23rMe; 
Sief itnter mtr naljm ic^ ber Sogen in 2ld)t, 
SDie tt)attten fo fod^t 

ber 9?arf)t, in ber 9?arf)t, 
mattte nid^t eine 



6 bre^te ftc^ oben, ungafylig entfac^t, 
5KeIobi(c^er Sanbel ber (Sterne, 
SDiit i^nen ber 9Konb in beruln'gter 
(Sie funfelten facfjt 
On ber 9?ac^t, in ber ftarfjt, 
taufc^enb entlegene 



Oc^ blirfte ^inoitf in ber -iftacfyt, in ber 
3d) blitfte ^inunter auf neue. 
) toe^e, h)ie ^aft bu bie Stage berbracfjt 1 
Kun ftitte bu fat^t 
On ber ftarfit, in ber 9?orf|t, 
Out podjcnben Bergen bie "Jienc ! 



teure, tnut^iger (Segler! @ mag ber Stft bid^ 
Unb ber Differ am teu'r fenfen bie laffige 
Ommer, immer nad) SBeft ! $)ort mu^ bie ^iifle fic^ geigen, 

Siegt fte bot^ beutlic^ unb liegt fdjimmernb tior beinem 23erftanb. 
Xraue bem leitenben ott unb fotge bem fc^nieigenben Settmeer I 
2BaY fte noc^ nic^t, fie ftieg' je^t au8 ben ^httfjen empor. 
bem eniu ftefyt bie 9^atur im eroigen Sunbe; 
ber eine iierfprtdjt, leiftet bie anbre 



APPENDIX. 501 

foielenbe Ainnfif. 

ptefe, $mb, tn bcr Gutter djopfj ! 5luf ber IjeiUgen 3nfel 
ginbet bet tritbe rant, finbet bte <2orge bid) nidjt. 

Siebenb fyalten bte 2lrme ber 2#utter bid) iiber bem 5lbgrunb, 
Unb in bag flutljenbe tab larfjelft bu fd^ulblog t)tnab. 

ptete, Uebltrfje Unf^utb ! 9^0^ ift 3lrfabten urn btd^, 
Unb bte frete S'Jatur folgt nur bem froljUdjen Srieb; 
oc^ erfdjafft ft^ bte ityptge ^raft erbt^tete djranfen, 
Unb bem tmfligen 3)iutt) fe^It nod) bte $fHd)t unb ber 
ptete ! 33alb ttitrb bte Arbeit fommen, bte ^agre, bte ernfte, 
Unb ber gebietenben ^Pfttrf)t mangeln bte Suft unb ber 



$00 tinb in ber Siege. 

litdltdjer (Saugttng ! btr tft em unenbttdjer SRaum norf) bte SBtcgc, 
SBerbe 2ftann, unb btr n)trb eng bie unenbltrf)e 2BeIt. 



bu ba ^firfjfle, ba$ ro^te? S)te ^flan^e fann e$ btrf) le^rctt 
jte hrittentoS tft, fet bu e tooKenb ba ift'8 ! 



iir ^eben. 



Smmer frrebe jum nn^en, unb fannft bu fetber !etn 
SKerben, al$ bteneubeg Iteb frf)Ite^' an etn an^eg bt an. 



ftreunb unb ^fcinb. 

er tfl mtr ber ^reitnb, bod) aurf) ben ^etnb fann trf) 
3etgt mir ber 9ceunb, h>ag id) fann, leljrt mid) bei ^etnb, \oa9 id) fofl. 



502 APPENDIX. 



jit fttmett, toa man Ijatte tfjim f 8 tin e it, tft ba tibetfte, 
toaS man tfyun fann. 

>er tots, cine eblc eibenfdfjaft, tft ntdjt blinb gegen eigne fttfytv, 
aber ber >oci)mutf) ift eg. 

(g gtbt hnrfttd) fe^r btete SD^enfc^en, bte bto tefen, bamtt fie nid^l 
benfen biirfen. 

SD^an mu fetnem Sftenfdfjen trauen, ber Bet feinen SSerftdjerimgen 
bte anb auf'8 ^erj legt. 



Sm guteS ^itnflrtjerf tann imb h)trb ^toar morafif^e ffrlgen 
ober moralifc^e ^^ecfe bom $iinfMer forbcrn, ^ei^t i^m fetn 
terberben. 



ef^etbte tft fd^on gebod^t rtorben; man mu{j nur berfud^en, 
nod) etnmal jit benfen. 

3)er Umgang mil ^raiien ifl ba3 Stement gitter (Sittea. 

SKer ber jDtc^thtnfl (Sttmme nic^t bernimmt, 
3P ein SBarbar, er fet aud^, toer er feu 



5 entfc^Iimtmett em (Sefc^te^t ber SWenfc^en nac^ bent anbem, aBer 
fanmer formt bie gefdjtiftige ^aitS^atterifd^e Sautter, 5?atur genannt, au 
bent abgelegten ^teiberftaat ber cittern ^tnber, etpcinber fitr bie 
iimgern. On einem Knberreid^en >aufe tft eS einmqi ntd^t anberS. 

S. Stern. 



APPENDIX. 503 



!>te tooljre feme &6engart, toetdje meljr tljut, alg nut 
cine gefaUene tttcfnabei aufljeben, entfpringt entweber aug bet Xtefe 
beg etfleg, ober aug ber gittte beg ^erjeng, unb toeber ber Sangmeiftet 
lefyrt fte, nod) (Eljefterfielb. 

fi.SB5rne. 



(Sg ift teidjt, ben ^>a, fc^njer, bie Stebe, am fd^ttjerflen/ btc 
gulttgfeit ju berbergen. 

iBorne. 



S3 tfl em fo gottttdj (Streben be8 9Kenf^ert, ^u fc^ftffctt, h)a8 toon 
feinem gemetnen 3 ID e( ^. un |> 9hi(jen berfc^tungen tt)trb, was imab* 
^angtg Don ber 2Se(t, in etgnem tange eroig prangt, toaS toon 
leinem ^Rabe be$ groen 9?abertt)erf^ getrieben lotrb unb fetneS treibt. 
^etne g^niwic fa? menfd)(icf)en 33ufen ftetgt b,6b,er unb geraber jum 
^immet ouf, atS bie ^unft ! ^ein SSefen toerbid^tet fo bie eifie* unb 
JperjenSfraft be SWettf^en in fid) fetber unb madjt i^n fo jum fetbfl* 
ftdnbtgen, menfd)Ucf)en @ott! 

SClect. 



d^tc ^elbenftnn reidjt fefl, fii^tt, tul^ta ber (Sefafyr bie 
unb, toetc^t fte bent eifernen jDrurfe nid)t, fo umfat et fte 

ringenb, big einet toon ben 3n)eien erliegt. ?lber er roirb nur angeboren; 

bie (Staube baumt fid) nie jur @td)e. 

2Bie rei^enbe fjiere Ieid)ter iibermannt ttoerben ate 3nfeftettfd)tt)arme, 
fo ift ber <Sieg nid)t liber bie fettenen unb grofjen, fonbern uber bie 
Keinen unb tagtidjen ^Berfudjungen beffer unb fdjioerer. 



2Beg mit ber (grbarmtidjfeit, bie fid) njtmmernb unter bag 
fdjmiegt, unb, mit bent <2>d)nupftud) in ber anb, bent (Srfjirffal Sob- 
lieber ftngt, ba eg nur nid)t Ijarter roerbe. S'Zur au8 bent 2lt6Ieten, ber 
ringenb ben 9ttefen beg 3ammerg umarmt, lowi ber 8ttefe tnerben, ber 
cine <Stirn toon $alte unb er^abeoe 53erad)tung bem ^oto^ beg 
entgegen toenbet 



004 APPENDIX. 



ftob bie redjtett gefer, bte nut imb ftfcer bem 93n<!je r!rf)ten. 
SDemt !ein SDidjter gibt etnen ferttgen tmmet; er ftettt nur bie 
$immel$teiter auf toon ber fdjonen (Srbe. 2Ber, git trage unb unlufttg, 
nicf)t ben 3#utl) fcerfpitrt, bie goftmen, lofen proffen 311 beftetgen, bem 
bleibt bcr ge^ctmnt^ttotte 23ud]ftabe ett)ig tobt, itnb er tljtite beffer, gu 
groben ob ju ^flugen, al^ mtt fo unnu^em Sefett mit^ig ju ge^cn. 

CSi^tnborff. 



U)tc (SHmmc ber 3cjt ruft bcm 
Join fetn SJortuartSfdjretten, feme SSejfcrttng, fetnen grci^eni SSertfj, fetn 
grfi^ereS tildf, fetn beffereS Seben, fern ^ortf^retten git bem 3iel, ba8 
tnner^atb ber rengen femes 2Btffen itnb ^onneng tiegt unb bort 
oitfgepettt toitrbe, atS bie tit itnb ber 2ftenfdj t^ren 5lnfang na^men. 
^apr^unberte ber ^inflerntfj, ber (^te^ttglett nnb ber etpaltti)at ftnb 
gefommen unb gegangen: itnga^Uge aWitttonen ^aben getttten, getebt 
tmb ftnb geflorben, um tfyn, ben 3Kenf^en, t)ortt)art gn toetfen. 2Ber 
t^n gurilcfflogen ober in fetnem Saitfe ouf^u^alten toerfit^t, ber Ijemmt 
erne mSc^ttge ^afc^ine, bie ben (Storefrteb tobt f^tagen ttnrb unb bie 
nur um fo ungejlitmer unb toitber fortrottt, toenn fte eine 3 e i^ an 9 au f s 
geljalten toorbm ifl 



9Bte bte ^atur bem gettbten SBefc^ouer ut bcr ffemftctt ^flange t^re 
rofie unb 5tt c 3 c t9t, fo faun aud^ ber SKenfd) e0 nidjt bermeiben, 
felbfl in ber unbebeutenbflen ^anblung ben efjatt unb bie 

feineS Onnern bem aufmerffamen ^crater gu ent^utten, 

3. a, 



mtt attem Urforungtidjen ba gcmetn, bag e oljne 
SKerfmal erfannt tttrb. S ifi unb geigt ftd^; e fann gewiefen, 

abtr ntcht b e nnefcn locrben. 



($ ftegt in ber twa^ren 2Burbe erne gefunbe Unbergagtljett, toetcfje ftd) 
nie fdjeut mtt 3lnbern in iSeritljntng unb emeinf^aft gu fomnten, fo 



APPENDIX. 505 

geringen (StanbeS fte aud) fein mb'gen. 5ftur bcr fatfrfje tolj b,al 
etiuaS $ranffjafte8 unb (SmpftnbltdjeS unb fdjrerft t>or ieber 33eritf)rung 
juritrf. 

3B. 



23eriid)ttid) ifl eine $rau, bic angert)ei(e Ijaben fann, toenn ftc 
ftinber Ijat. 



ftnb ternc, bic blo bet ^client ^tmmcnetten; aber bte 
35crnunft tft eine 9)?agnetnabet, bie ba$ (Srfjiff noc^ feiner ftiljrt, h)enn 
jene audj uerborgen finb, unb ntd^t me^r teu^ten. 



(Sine ^rau be^aitpte gegen if)ren 9Kann, toa fte rt)ttt, ber 3ftamt ifl 
btitdjau^ nid)t im tanbe, fte git njibertefjen unb ju beftegen. SDenn 
wenn er fte an <3d)htfetten unb 3Jebefaben feft ju fatten gtaubt, fo ift'S 
fo t)ie(, at^ wenn er einen 3 ll) i r tt8l:M ue k ber ouf ber (trbe liegt, an 
bcffen ^aben in bie ob,e gu jieljen fud^te; er toirb immer meljr 
in bie anb befommen unb ber ganje ^nauel nnrb ftd) baretn 
beln, aber auf bent Soben bleibt bod) ber 



S5erjage nid)t, toenn bu einmat feb/ttefl, unb beine gan^e 9Jeue fei etnc 
fdpnere 



3)er ^u^tfame erfdjrtdt Dor ber efa!jr, ber fttiQt in iljr, ber 
ige nad) tljr. 

3ean 



5)en ^u^m foff ber 2Seife beradjten, aber nirf)t bie (Sb,re. 
fetten ift (ljre, mo 9tub,m ift, unb faft nod) feltener ^ub/m, too (gfjre ifl. 

SfJei^t ben 2ftenfd)en au feinen S?erb,attniffen; unb h>a er baiit 
tfl, nur ba ifl er. 

Mi 



S8 ifl ntrf)t eben etwa^ @ettene, ba (giner feine (5b,re fftr ein 
(Sbrenjeidjen berfauft. 



506 APPENDIX. 



3um (Stftetbcn eineS @lud3 gefyott ftleife unb ebulb unb gut 
(Stljaltung beffelben geljb'tt 2ftafcigung unb $otftd)t. i'angfam unb 
Sdjritt t>ot <3d)titt ftetgt man etne Sreppe fyinauf. Slber in einent 
^ugcnbtirf fallt man Ijinab unb bringt SBunben unb <d)iuet$en genng 
wit auf bie (Stbe. 

3. 



ele^rfamfett tft em grower (S^Iuffelbunb, bet aber nod) tange nirfjt 
aide rfjtoffet auffdjUefet. ^ut ba ente tft bet 2)tettid), bet fiit 
atle pat. 

SBoIfj. 



t 55tet Serfjet bott ?ebenfteuben ftnb bem 2)?enfd)en befttmmt, bie iljm 
bte 9Jatut langfam nad^ einanbet tetd)t: einet fiit bie ^inbljeit, einer 
fiit bie ^naben^eit, einet fiit ba piingling^attet unb einet fiit ba 
?ebcn beg Cannes. -3n iebem ift bie 2Jiifd)ung auf ben inn unb bie 
$ta'fte bet 2Jienfrf)en betedjnet. 9?ut hjenn bet eine tangfam au^gcttun* 
len ift, fann bet folgenbe oljne 9iad)t^eit unb mit efdjmad genoffen 
toetben. 

3o^. Cubic. Qicalb. 



(S3 gtbt ^rtjetettet 5(tten tion 8*eunbfrf)aft. !J)ie einc iji Don <Staub 
auf <2d)mettetlingfliigetn; bie 2Kenfd)engeftd)tet ftnb gleid)fam nut 
bamit ge^ubett. 2)ie anbete ttagt bie ftifdje ftatbe einet ^ctbftlidjen 
^tudjt, beujeift imuenbicje 9teife unb <Suigfeit unb etquicft ben 
utftigen. 2Renfd)en, bte imntet ladjetn, aud) hjenn man fie aufwa'tts 
flteidjelt, fpldje 9)ienfd)en tyaben bie ^teunbfd)aft nut gepad)tet; fte ift 
nid)t tb,t @igentl)um. 2lu8 cinem ^|3ad)tgute gteb/t man fo biel S'Ju^en 
mb'gtid), unb nut bet (Sigentfyiimet metnt eS eb,tlid) mit feinera 
olnte eben tmmet auf S5ott^eit babct gu fe^en. 



APPENDIX. 507 



on , toon 

/) 
y. 



/ / 



*y ^wf(X,-y*t 

j/ 

^#**&&&-#**it 

// 
*7*'j 
/ 



a 



P P> /? / 
*', ^t/vt.?*/ ^*f 



/ y 

- **# -m 

# y 

.y -y 

C)! *****& ^f****f- '2-4'/4'#*#- 

/y 



'/" $ 

'*' *4/iW 

/ 



5Da 9?ei(^ bet fatten" ((pater ,,3)it 3beale unb bad Stbtn" u6eife^rt'6en). 



508 APPENDIX.' 

<J JL***- 

y y >// /? &/? s 

<i*-> ?V- s*7<t- srfrO ^/**4f~*f ^4&&f* 
/ / </ / 

&*./,**/ ffl***- /* //*<** ## ^***z/? 
/ / **/" / 



< 



/ 






.. 

*^ ^#*f* 



stS-Ct-jCf s#*'*f C / **&-*4f1*-#s s<fr-O &*4f *****& ^'tf' 



s~ &. 

s &**# ^&* 
/ 

.y /y y 

& ^****4& <tL4 
# 

/ y? - 

*f. s^/t&fi/ *<** 
/ 

yy / 

'fr?-&**tA 

/ 

<x<x-4*w &c 
s*xw W/ZiiHn^HW 



APPENDIX. 



509 






& ^**^ 

/ 

& . # / 
iw&ff s*t? stX''fr 

y 

/ a?- . 

-t f~**t*- 






$,. 

^&**t 

/'/y /?? y 

-C-O y&Z-tm'& 



^O/** 



y 

&# 



p^-b s*'/ *z*xy-*'fiJ . stStt-fis ^&*#^ ~&l**t+ 

@ 7 / 7 ' / / 




510 APPENDIX. 



(}!-&*& s*'*f s-nf*'**# f-v 



s*fe ^**o-ff ^*f**f-& *^i**#***&. /dw- 

/ <s </ y 

ltX^Hf**^ s^Hflftf^* ^*f ^0*1 

</ 

1 



/ 



*f ^&/**f 

&&44ir&?'-&'s **%f-# -tl***f4< ^&4wfei^'irf#*t 

*f #*& ^t&* 

<7 / 



s&t>ves&&#' ^/-cx^v^- ^*f*' f*f**##**f ^* l 4 



APPENDIX. 



2S. *>on 



an $rau toon SSoljogen. 



a. 






fx-^f^- 

/ 



yy 

^W^##^ 






*A 



// 

#4<# 

/ 



/ 

t/ll 



/ 

y& 



/*-( fa-Cm' ,*>&**' 



s^W'C-'ClffV**********- 



s& s*m-&- 



512 APPENDIX. 







**x-mf- 



s*$4X>**<f 

/?J&-*f c^-tX^-W-V 



/ 

y * 

^fiXs-e** 



y y -.// yy-y / 

&&#-&/( sf-74-j **<&' s**f 

/ / 7 /</ </ 

/. sy/ a tf: /. 

' 4*#^ t^/f#t*f , *rfS<v &s/t^ 441*^ 



/ 






APPENDIX. 513 



.//>. y . / yf x . 

f'6f*f f ^tuy.-tlf s>/*Ji/ s**t>-*4- s* 

/ 7 






y. / 

s f *.f 






/? 

**fmfit#*&' 



y 

^** ^7SM^<Mf* 

fff <ft-*ffrrfel!f^s eprtfy-IW-tffr**' ^f<Xs&*fs sdc*' '**f 



-x 

*<<i' st&*nr ***&& 
/ 



/ 



> s**f&4(-***' s******' ,Z'-<X' 

? // 

-c&t^& 

'*f ?**?# 

</ /</ 



5U 

/Y/ (7?. 0. ^ Q? A 

^tynt*?-**' c.^/fx'-tf >2^< L )C*'-*^**'' x'2'^x* jfy-'it-tt*' 

p & p ffv & y 

^M^*^^. xta-*##*#y^y^ij. 

oetlje an 6^iIIer. 

yy <?y o? - y -y 

^ &^c-ep#*f t-^-fn 1 *^ ^&^#*-#p4(^ s**t*v- 

// <7 / 

a? yy -X & ^ 

A)stX^^1f^ ^rf f^HKfO 

y y/ yf y^ y y 

4*1*^ fr&Vyi' **&<> fr-&* 1 

tx C ^ y^ . . yf^ . >^ 

' "I/ 

^4/tXs#^ facsfe f-tXstflf**' 

V 

t*f1f ^tX4f&****tS*f , f-0- 'l-CX'-O s**f ft* 






~ y 

^e*-*t**<x^t' : **w- 



c, 






^CXsV-M<# s*X-***f ^&<X^ &*>***/ ^*f ****** 

y/ * / y- ^ y 

l & ^*****/ ^<X.#&tWt/1*&V. ^ 
// 

**O s^xdfcj- *****'* fllMf** 






APPENDIX. 515 



* 



^2-*f / 



/ 



</ 

# (/slnfy*t-#. <J&/*-&#*#' &* 



</ 



/ 

tSi* 



/ 



- y 

ttvfr 



oetlje an 

't &V****f*-& ^-CK^O ^#4<0s *,&'* 



51C APPENDIX. 






'^f******' 4*fe~**<' ^&* 

^ / s*V4t**t^ s*****f*KX'*f*&& f<X. < 

*> y 

*t***44j!. . 4-acstt 
/ / / 

ff*f-& s***tt/ sHf-#&a--cxsfr4--. 

0* y 

**^ ct**f s**&*f s****^ 

sU-t#*fflt-*****' W/t&****f &**>& fffflf 



?> 

stffjf^ 

s&O 4td' stX&i>0 *****& ^**f*4S 

/ / 

v/ 

-> ,**&****' s**>*# s****4f- S&* 1 ?*- ^* 

y ^ 

?-****/. 

/ 

f*f'& /tX'-&**'s ^i/tt-/ 



yX- " fl /p y y / fly /* .%* 
*******', <* ^**#f ^**f ***- ***p ^* 

/y 
^y^ 



APPENDIX. 



517 





*-tV<#*f 

</ 






/ 

&*? 





Q> 
t/ 



y/ 

--Cl/ ^ 

o, yy a /? 

4^. ,*****/ '6-*-i>***/4i(#<) 
/ 



CD .y 

-4**'& 

(7 



513 APPENDIX. 

";/?</ $*" ' S J5? " P 

^/stM*- ;r/^22* 
7/0 '"*# </ 



</ 



Don C^tHcr mt btc ^rtnjcfftn Caroline 
fiouifc Don @ad)fcn9Bctmor. 



0%&f*f* sJ#**' %ja. 
/y " & ^y -/^ j/> 

Cd-**~e&*&'*xfe*' s_Jf*** i fe**&' 

./ j. ^^/-^y 
/ 

/ " 6h/2" ft v ft 

s*f&#-& **-^#*f4t*f^ i/A>fif*1l/ l --tW *<t**44/ 

^#*Z***>' J^^- ^ ***J/***' s****Z$ ^/ 

^L# **v^*>v, t**y *+y 

y ^ .s 

y /* / 



t/ <*f ^****1/ 



vitt**-&'Z*t**' ^vw r& s*>*#- Cd-vwd ^*+*tr 



APPENDIX. 



519 



/ - y 

.4'***&?- 






-l? 



-^^^ ^<X^*tV 



^r^?5^- 



9 

t / 



X^?- 

/ 



P /? P//' /&/ P 

s&'W'-O ^f**4'^*V-rt^ .Zfa'tt***' 

S / // 



c =&-* l *f*fs 



/ 

'i't^. 



&&&**'& 
U 



^ yf y- y 

. s&<X'?<S 4tf 

/ / </ 

-t-ffrvif otc'****', 



&& 



<? / 



521 



GEBMAN-ENGLISH YOCABULARY. 



ABBREVIATIONS. 



a. adjective. 
ado. adverb. 
art. article. 
comp. comparative. 
conj. conjunction. 
f. feminine noun. 
Jam. familiarly. 
Jig. figurative. 
(&) auxiliary, ^ateti 


i<l. itliomatical. 
imp. impersonaL 
int. interjection. 
intr. intransitive. 
irr. irregular. 
m. masculine noon. 
n. neuter noun. 
p. participle. 
pp. past participle. 
pi. pluraL 


poss. possessive. 
prep, preposition. 
pron. pronoun. 
refl. reflexive. 
reg. regular. 
s. substantive, 
(f) auxiliary, fetn. 
tr. transitive, 
v. verb. 



N.B. ( ) Figures in parentheses refer to pages. 

( ) !j in parentheses indicates that the verb takes fjafeen as its auxiliary. In 
the same way f indicates that it takes fetn. 

[ ] Figures in brackets preceding certain definitions refer to pages where 
the words appear with those special meanings. 

* An asterisk after a compound verb indicates that the prefix is separable. 

For the conjugation of compound irregular verbs, see the simple verbs in 
the list, p. 308. 

The termination of the genitive singular is given before that of the nomi- 
native plural. When the plural is not given, it is like the singular, or else 
does not occur. 

( ) Letters placed in parentheses show that there arc two forms in use. 

In case no endings are given under a compound noun, see the noun which 
conies last in the compound. 

Only those meanings are given which occur in this book. 

In the alphabetical arrangement, a, 2le, etc., are placed immediately after 
Or etc. , and ft is treated as if it were ff. 



522 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



2lal, m. -e8, -e. eel. 

$la, n. -ee, flfet. carrion ; 
carcass. 

ab, adv. off, down. 

abbrcd)en,* v. irr. break 
oft'. 

abbrtnncn,* v. irr. burn 
down. 

Slbcnt 1 , in. -s, -e. evening. 

-Jll'cnt'cfH 1 !!, n. -8. supper. 

9lbcnt>rotb, n. evening 
red, 

aber, conj. (269, Notes.) 
but. 

2(berg(anbc, m. -en8, -n. 
superstition. 

abfiil)ren,* v. carry off. 

abgeted)net, pp. except ; 
with the exception of. 

fibgcfel)en,/>p. -con, apart 
from. 

31bgrunt>, m. -e8, -unbe. 
abyss. 

abbaltcn,* v. irr. keep 
off. 

2lbf)anMung, f. t pi. -en. 
essay. 

abbangen,* v. irr. de- 
pend. 

abt)autn,*v. irr. cut off. 

ablegcn,* v. lay off. 

ablebnen,* v. decline. 

ableiten,* v. lead off. 

abmeffen,* v. irr. meas- 
ure ; survey. 

ubiicliiiiti!,- v. irr. take 
off ; grow less. 

abratben,* v. irr. dis- 
suade. 

abred>nen,* v. deduct. 

abreifen,* v. (f) depart ; 
set out. 

2Jbfd)icb, m. -(e)8, -e. de- 
parture ; nebmon, take 
leave. 

abfdjneiben,* v. irr. cut 
off. 

Slbfdwitt, m. -(e)8, e. pe- 
riod ; section. 

abfdjreiben,* v. copy. 

abfegeln,* v. (f) (set) sail. 

2lbfid)t, /., pi. -en. pur- 
pose. 

abftnninicn,* v. (f) de- 
scend ; be derived, 

abfJeigen,* v. irr. (f) 
alight. 

Slbtei,/ 1 . pi. -en. abbey. 

2lbtbeilung,/.,/>Z. -en. di- 
visiou. 



obtragen,* v. irr. carry 
(off) ; wear out. 

abtrcten,* v. irr. resign; 
yield. 

abitu'idKii,* v. irr. (f) de- 
viate ; differ. 

abmeifcn,* v. irr. refuse. 

ilbuH-H'ii licit,/, absence. 

abjicljcn,* v. irr. (\) 
march off. 

3tb^ug, rn. -e8, -juge. re- 
treat. 

2ld)fe, see r. 

2ld)fl,/., jo^.-n. shoulder. 

iu1)t, num. eight. 

2ld)t,/ attention; care; 
in tie - cr flare n, outlaw ; 
ge&en @ie -, take care. 

tu1n, adj. real ; true. 

2ld)tel, n. -8. (134/5) 
eighth. 

<id)ten, v. (130, 1) esteem. 

2Id)tting, /. esteem ; re- 
spect. 

iidit^chn, num. eighteen. 

ad)t^ig, num. eighty. 

cid))ett, v. groan. 

abelig, a. noble. 

>elige,m. (108, c).noble- 
man, 

^ber,/.,p?. -n. vein. 

SIMcr, m. -8. eagle. 

. -8. Adolphus. 
, m. -en, -en. law- 
yer. 

9lffe, m. -n, -n. ape. 

nhnct!, /'. have a presenti- 
ment of. 

iilnilid), a. like. 

3(bming, /., /)Z. -en. pre- 
sentiment. 

^ftre,/., pi. -en. ear. 

oil, (-er, e, e8). a. (see in- 
dex) all ; every ; every- 
thing ; -e8 was, what- 
ever. 

alletn, a. alone ; adv. 
only ; cow;. (269, Note 
2) but. 

91 IInuid)t, /I omnipotence. 

tillinad)tig, a. almighty. 

2Umofcn, n. -8. alms. 

Sllpe,/., pi.-n. alp ; Alps. 

oW, con;, (see index) as ; 
such as ; when ; than ; 
but; -reenn, -ob. (354, 
Note3)asif ; as though. 

n (f i), adv. thus ; so ; con- 
sequently ; therefore. 

nit, x. old ; of age. 



Wtr, m. (108, <). old man. 

2llter, n. -8. age ; old 
age. 

am = an bem. 

2lmalie,/. Amelia. 

^Imcritaner, m. -8. Am- 
erican. 

Finnic, /., pi. -n. wet- 
nurse. 

fflmt, n. -8. aemwr. office. 

ilnttiuaim, m. -8, -leute. 
bailiff; sheriff. 

an, prep. (285, 4) on ; at; 
in ; near ; to. 

aitbeten,* v . adore ; wor- 
ship. 

anbieten,* v. irr. offer. 

anbint'eii,* v. irr. bind ; 
tie. 

anbredjen,* v. irr. (f) 
break ; begin. 

Slnbrud), m. -(e)8, -U(^e. 
break. 

SlntYiifcn, n. remem- 
brance. 

anber, a. other. 

dnbcrn, (also reft.) v. 
change. 

anberg, adv. otherwise. 

anbcrdroo, adv. else- 
where. 

aiiN-i-thalb, a. (124, 5) 
one and a half. 

Sliierbictcn, n. -8. offer. 

anerjogcn, pp. imparted 
by *edu cation. 

Sliifiing, )//. -8, -dnge. be- 
ginning. 

aiifangcn,* v. irr. begin. 

<mfang, adv. at first. 

anfiitjren,* v. conduct 1 , 
deceive. 

3Infufircr, m. -8. leader. 

nngaffcn,* v. gape at. 

angeben,* v. irr. men- 
tion. 

angebcren, a. innate. 

angtl)tn,*v. irr. concern. 

Vngel, /. pi. -n. fish- 
hook ; rod, line and 
hook. 

cmqcncbm, agreeable. 

augrfdiivullcii, a. swollen. 

iiiiiu'fdioii, a. honorable ; 
of rank. 

angeflrengt, adv. in- 
tensely. 

angrcifen,* v. irr. attack. 

Slngft,/, pi. Wengfle. anx- 
iety ; fright 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



523 



, a. anxious. 

anbalten,* v, irr. con- 
tinue. 

ilnbang, in. -((), -dnge. 
appendage ; party. 

2lnbangltd)feit,/. -en. at- 
tachment. 

"JlMHagc,/. , pi. -n. accu- 
sation. 

anflageti,* v. accuse. 

ant leitcn,* v. dress. 

ant oinmcn,* v . irr. (f) ar- 
rive. 

anf*itifc(ig)en,* v. an- 
nounce. 

Sfnhmft,/. arrival. 

anlud)cn,* v. smile upon. 

anlangen,* v. (f) arrive. 

^litliilf, m. -fjeS, -d{fe. oc- 
casion. 

anfcgtn,* v. aim. 

anmibcn,* annafytrn,* v. 
(also reflex.) approach. 

anncbmen,* v. irr. take ; 
accept; fidj -, (with 
gen. ) to take care of. 

mionnm, a. anonymous. 

anratbcn,* v. irr. recom- 
mend. 

Snrcbe, /., pi. -n. ad- 
dress. 

onrcbcn,* v. address. 

anrenncn,* v. irr. (f) run 
against. 

onndjten,* v. cause ; do. 

Slnruf, m. -(e)3, -e. call. 

and = an baS. 

anfamntdn,* v. collect. 

anfd)affen,* v. procure ; 
buy. 

anfd)aucn,* v. look at. 

%tnfd)<namg, /., pi. -en. 
contemplation. 

?lnfd>ein, 7/i.-(c)8. appear- 
ance ; likelihood. 

aiifd)licfjcn,* v. irr. ft$ -, 
join. 

tlufid)t,/.,p?. -en. opinion. 

anfpanncn,* v. put to; 
harness up. 

anfpred)cn,*f . irr. please. 

3Infprud), m. -(e)8, -ud)e. 
claim ; in - ncbmcn, 
claim. 

aiiflatt, prep. (284, 3) in- 
stead of ; conj. - bay, 
instead of. 

anfleben,* v. irr. suit. 

anftofjen,* v. strike ; 
push ; hurt. 



anflretd)cn,* v. irr. paint ; 
mark. 

anftrengcn,* v. strain ; 
exert. 

2lnftrcngung, pi. -en, ef- 
fort. 

5ltitfml, m. -, -e. share. 

ontljun,* t 1 . irr. put on ; 
do. 

antreffcn,* v. irr. meet 
(with). 

antreten,* v. begin ; enter 
upon. 

2lntroprt, f., pi. -en. an- 
swer. 

ianertrmm,* v. confide. 

ann)CH^ln,"" v. reg. & irr. 
employ. 

antigen,* v. inform ; in- 
dicate. 

an\icl)tn,v. irr. attract; 
dress. 

2lpfd, in. -%, Stepfel, apple. 

3ipfclbaum,m. apple-tree. 

ilpril, in. -8. April. 

Slrabcr, m. -cS. Arab. 

$lrbeit, /., pi. -en. work. 

arbciten, v. (131) work. 

2lrbcitcr,;?i.-e6. workman. 

JJrrttpfhii, tn. -6. euspi- 
cion. 

arm, a. poor. 

?lrnie, m. (108, e). poor 
man. 

5lrmfcligfcit, /., pi. -en. 
poorness. 

$lrnuitb,/. poverty. 

Jlrva.u'iiii-ii, n. Arragon. 

3lrt, _/!, pi. -en. species; 
kind. 

arttfl, a. polite ; good. 

Slrjnri,/., pi. -en. medi- 
cine. 

3lrit, m. -e8, Slerste. phy- 
sician. 

2lfd)c,/ ashes. 

2lficn, 'n. -8. Asia. 

21 ft, in. -e, Slefic. branch. 
. -eS. breath. 

, atbenifd), a. 
Athenian. 

titbmen, v. breathe. 

llthlft, in. -en, -en. ath- 
lete. 

aud), conj. also ; too ; 
even ; - no<$, still. 

JIiic,/., pi. -n. meadow. 

ouf, adv. (58) in ; up ; 
jn-rp. (L'S5. 4) on ; - tin- 
inal, at once. 



; aufbringen,* v. irr. irri- 

tate. 



setting out; decamp- 

ment. 

cufr i-ucfcn,*v. press upon. 
,/.,^)Z.-n. theme. 
,*^. irr. give up. 
,* v. irr. (f) come 

up ; rise. 
aufgeflcirt,* a. enlighten- 

ed. 
auffjaltctt,* v. irr. delay ; 

hinder. 
aufbcbcn,* v. irr. raise ; 

lift (up) ; take up. 
anfbiJrcn,* v. cease ; leave 

off. 

auflubcrn,* v. (f) blaze up. 
aufmcrffiim, a. attentive. 
3lufmerffamfdt, /., pi. 

-en. attention. 
oufiiebmcii,* v. take up ; 

receive. 

aufopfcm,* v. sacrifice. 
aufrnfircn,* v. fid> -/ get 

up quickly. 
aufrcd)t, a. upright ; 

erect. 
aufrcibcn,* v. irr. de- 

stroy. 

aufrid)tig, a. sincere. 
outs. = auf baS. 
anffd)liegen,* v. irr. un- 

lock. 

2luffebcr, m. -8. overseer. 
atifftcbcn, v. irr. rise. 
aufftclfcn,* v. set up. 
nuftbiirnien,* v. pile up. 
2luftuig, m. -(e)8, -oge. 

commission ; order. 
auftarten,*y. wait(upon). 
auf 'm artd ,adv. upward(s). 
nufjebren,* v. consume. 
*21ugc, n. -8, -n. eye. 
lliuicnblicf, tn. moment. 
iiii.(cubiirflid), adv. in- 

stantly. 
3(ugcnli(e)b, n. -(e)8, -e 

and -er. eyelid. 
aud, adv. out ; prep. (283, 

2) out of ; through. 
auebittcn," v . irr. (fie^ et^ 

rcaS) request.. 
aubleiben,* v. irr. (f) 

stay out ; delay. 
audbvcd)en,* v. irr. break 

out. 
Sluebnirf, m. -(e)S, -fiift. 

expression. 



524 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



v. pump 

(flg.)- 

Slusfubr, _/,, pi. -en. ex- 
port. 

nudfiibrett,* v. execute; 
carry out. 

'Mtidga'ng, m. -(e)8, -ange. 
issue. 

au$iicbeii,*v. irr. expend; 
spend money. 

mu jebcn,*v. irr. go out; 
give out. 

audjjiefjcn,* v. irr. pour 
(oat). 

auSbaJtcn,* v. irr. hold 
(out). 

attSFIeibcn,* v. undress. 

"JliiMiiuJ'er, m. -8. for- 
eigner. 

audlaufcn,* v. irr. put to 
sea. 

aueili>fd)eti,* v. put out. 

auSncbmeit,* v. except. 

Sliisruf, m. -(e)8, -e. cry. 

atidrufcn,* v. irr. ex- 
claim. 

SliiiM-iir'nrni, f., pi. -en. 
exclamation. . 

SluSrufuii.jeroort, n. ex- 
clamation. 

audrubctt,* v. repose. 

audfd)icfen,* v. send 
(o it). 

miiMiltlii-pcii,* v. irr. shut 
oat. 

audfebcn,* v. irr. look ; 
appear. 

aiifi.-i-balti, adv. on the 
outside ; prep. (284, 3) 
without ; out of. 

aieugere, (a.) n. (108, c). 
exterior. 

Slcugerung, /. -en. mani- 
festation. 

rtiiftcrft, a. utmost; adv. 
extremely. 

andfe^en,* v. expose. 

au8fpred)en,* v. irr. pro- 
nounce. 

Sludfpmd), m. -e8, -ftdjc. 
judgment; verdict. 

Sluftralicit, n. -8. Aus- 
tralia. 

4u8ftreidKn,* v. irr. 
strike out. 

fludubung, f. practice ; 
execution. 

<rusnJil)len,* v. choose. 

MiMU'itttcvn,* v. (f) emi- 
grate. 



4, adv. outward. 

<m*n>eid)ett,* v. irr. (f) 
avoid, evade. 

iiusiDcnbig, adv. by heart; 
outside. 

aii*icid)iieji,* v. distin- 
guish. 

: 2lu$}eid)ttuna.,/., pi. -en. 
distinction. 

auejicben,* v. irr. un- 
dress. 

21 re, (Jtdjfe) /. -n. axle. 

-Jlrt, f.,pl. 2Ujte ; axe. 

baar, a. in cash. 

Sad), m. -e8, 93d$e. brook. 

Sacblcin, n. -8. little 
brook. 

bacfen, v. irr. bake. 

Sacter, m. -8. baker. 

93ab, n. -e8, 23dber. bath ; 
watering-place. 

baben, v. (130, 1) bathe. 

Snbcii, n. -8. bathing. 

bubifd), a. belonging to 
Baden. 

33abn, /, pi. -en. way; 
road. 

Jiii h lib of, TO. station. 

33nicr, TO. -8 & -n, -n. Ba- 
varian. 

33 me rn, n. -8. Bavaria. 

bate, adv. soon ; shortly. 

33albe,/. In (bet) -, soon. 

33alfcn, m. -n8. beam. 

Sail, w. -e8, 33atte. ball. 

SSaHabc,,/"., />Z. -n. ballad. 

SaHcn, m. -8, bale. 

Sanb, 71. (51, 12) -e8, -e. 
bond ; tie ; n. -e8, S3ans 
ber. ribbon ; m. -e8, 
83anbe. volume. 

bangc, a. anxious. 
I 35anf, /'., pi 23anfe. bench. 

33ar, m. -en, -en. bear. 

barmberfi;;, a. merciful. 

f&avmfycriitfleit, f. mercy. 

Sart, TO. -e8, drte. beard. 

Safe, ./'., pi. -n. cousin. 

bauen, v. build ; depend 
upon. 

93auer, TO. -n, & -8, -n. pea- 
sant; TO. & w. -8. cage. 

bii uf a I! hi, a. out of repair. 

Saum,m. (31) -e8, SBdume. 

' tree. 

3Baunutoollt,f. cotton. 

ba'unten, fid), v. rrjl. rear. 

Sntjcrn, n. -8. Bavaria. 

bcbaucn, v. cultivate. 



, m. -8. cup ; goblet. 

iH'rfci?, H. -8. basin. 

bebedVii, v. (''?2) cover. 

bftYiifcu, v. irr. consider; 
care for ; f^ -> hesitate. 

bctcuteu, v. signify ; 
mean. 

bebicnen, /<. [id) -, make 
Use of. 

33et>iente, m. -n, -n. ser- 
vant. 

JVbiniiuiti}, /., pi. -en. 
condition. 

bclrohcii, v. threaten. 

bcbiirtcii, v. ($) need ; 
want ; require, 

Scbiirfiuft, n. -ffeS, -ffe. 
need ; want. 

beeilcn, v. fid), hasten. 

33cfd)(, m. -(e)8, -e. com- 
mand ; order. 

lu'fdilcn, v. irr. com- 
mand ; order. 

beftnben, v. irr. find ; fidj 
-, to be ; rcie - ie ftd) t 
how do you do? 

bcflerfcn, v. stain. 

bcfU-ifien, v. irr. 6eftei^i 
gen, v. reg. p^ -/ reft. 
apply (one's) self ; 
study. 

bcfUfFett, pp. intent. 

33efliffenl)eft,/ assiduity. 

befolgen, v. follow ; obey. 

befragen, v. consult. 

befreien, v. free; deliver. 

bcfricbigcn, v. satisfy. 

bi-fiiblcH, v. feel of ; 
touch. 

bcijcbcn, ftrf), v. reft. irr. 
go ; betake one's self. 

iviielu'itbeit, /., pi. -en. 
event. 

bct)C()iien, v. (\ & 1)) meet. 

bciji' hut, v. irr. commit. 

bi-iicbi-cn, v. desire; re- 
quest. 

bc^eiftcrn, v. inspire. 

Begfer^e,/., 2.-n. desire. 

bet)ic@ctt, v. irr. water. 

^H-iiiiui, m. -e8. beginning. 

bcginnen, ''. begin. 

bc^lcitctt, v. accompany ; 
attend. 

SSegleiter, m. -8. compan- 
ion. 

bcgliirfcn, v. make happy. 

begrabcit, w. irr. bury. 

.iji, n. -fje8, -fj, 
funeral, 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



525 



begrdu'tt, v. irr. compre- 
ht.-n,!. 

33i % griff, m. -e3, e. idea ; 
im - jit, about to. 

biv,rimCcii, i: found. 

bcgunftigcn, v. favor. 

bebaltcn, z;. */. retain; 
keep. 

bdmiit'cln, /;. treat. 

bdKitigcn, v. hang (with). 

bebarren, v. persevere. 

bdnuTlid), a. persevering. 

ivluuTluiitdt, f. per- 
severance. 

bebtuiptcit, v. maintain ; 
hold ; assert. 

bciici n"d>cn, v. govern. 

Seberrfdjuttg,./! rule. 

!Bef)crrfd)cr, //*. -. ruler. 

bei, prep. (383, 2; 376) 
by ; near ; at. 

bttbe, a. (75, 3, 4; 312, 
IS) pi. -n. both ; the 
two. 

beifvigen,* v. add. 

bdgcfd)afft, pp. buried. 

Scil, n. -e3, -e. hatchet. 

bdlcgcit,* a. inclose. 

bciin = bet bent. 

Skin, 11. -e8, -e. leg. 

bcimibc, adv. nearly ; al- 
most. 

Seinflciber, pi. panta- 
loons; trousers. 

beipflid)ten,* v. assent. 

beifamnicn, adv. together. 

33dfv>td, n. -(e)8, -e. ex- 
ample. 

beifjni, v. irr. bite. 

Sdftanl 1 , m. -e. assist- 
ance. 

bdfU'bcn,* v. stand by ; 
assist ; help. 

bdftinHncii,*y. agree with 
(one). 

SPcitnig, M. -eS, -dije. con- 
tribution. 

bejnlirt, . ageil. 

bcfaiiiit, a. known ; ac- 
qnointed. 

93cFiitituiiaft, f., pi. -en. 
acquaintance. 

3?efcnntm8, n. -fieS, {)c. 
confession. 

bf (agcn, v. lament ; ft<^ -, 
complain. 

bcflcmnien, v. press ; op- 

plT'SS. 

befoiumen, v . irr. get ; (f) 
agree. 



bdoben, v. irr. load. 

bcKi|~n : ;cn, v. trouble. 

bclamcii, v. in: walk 
over ; amount. 

bdebrcn, v. instruct. 

bi-Iciiri-iif, a. instructive. 

bdeitugctt, v. oflfend. 

iV-lcitiginig, /.. pi. -en. 
offence ; insult. 

Selgicn, n. -8. Belgium. 

bdobtten, v. reward. 

^dPbnung, /., pi. -en. 
recompense. 

bciiuulmgci!, ft(^, v. refl. 
seize ; take possession 
of. 

bemcrfen, v. perceive; ob- 
serve. 

bcmitlcifcii, v. pity. 

bcntiiben, v. trouble ; |ic^ 
-, take pains ; fi<^ - urn, 
labor (at). 

bcnad)i-id)tigcn, v. inform. 

bencbmcn, v. in: fidj -, 
rcjl. behave ; act. 

beiieiE'cit, v. envy. 

beobad)tcn, v. observe ; 
keep. 

bequcnt, a. comfortable. 

bernubcii, v. rob. 

beraiifciKii, v . intoxicate. 
i bercd)ttcn, v. calculate. 

bercbcn, v. persuade. 

berett, a. eloquent. 

bcrcif,". ready; prepared. 

berettcn, v. prepare. 

bcreitd, adv. already. 

Scrcituug, /. prepara- 
tion. 

bercticn, v . repent. 

23erg, m. -eS, -e. moun- 
tain ; hill. 

bcrgcn, v. irr. hide. 

bergig, a. mountainous. 

berftcn, v. irr. (f) burst. 

35ernf, m. -ei, -e. profes- 
sion. 

beritfcn, r. irr. call ; ap- 
point. 

bcriibmt, a. celebrated. 

bcriibrcn, v. touch. 

Scriibrung, f., pi. -en. 
contact. 

33cfa$ung,/., pi. -en. gar- 
rison. 

bcfd)affcn, a. constituted. 

bcfd)citnen, v. make 
ashamed. 

bcfdjatttn, v. shade. 

befdjaucn, v. look at. 



5?efd)auung, /. contem- 
plation. 

93efd)eit>, m. -e8, -e. infor- 
mation. 

bcKbdbcn, v. irr. decree ; 
allot. 

befd>cibcn, a. modest. 

bcfd)cnfcn, v. present 
w.tii ; reward. 

bcfd)it*gen, v. fire upon. 

befd)impfcn, v. insult. 

bcfd)irmen, v. shelter. 

bcfd)[icficii, v. conclude ; 
resolve. 

befd)inu$en, v. soil. 

bcfd)6nigcn, v. palliate. 

bcfd)rctbcn, v. irr. de- 
scribe. 

befd)n>crcn, v. load. 

bcfd)rocrlid), a. trouble- 
some. 

bcfdwtngt, pp. winged. 

befd>n>6rcn, v. irr. swear 
to. 

93cfcn, m. -8. broom. 

bcfcecu, v. garrison, 

bcfkgcn, v. conquer. 

bcfinncu, fid), v. rejl. irr. 
recollect ; consider. 

93cfi$, m. -eS. possession. 

bcffcen, v. in: possess. 

bcfonbcrd, adv. separate- 
ly ; particularly. 

beforgen, v. attend to; 
take care of. 

33eforgnig,/>/. -fte. appre- 
hension. 

bcffcr, a. & adv. better. 

bcffern, v. mend ; repair ; 
ftdj -, become better. 

bcftiin Nij, a. constant ; 
incessant; continual. 

bcftcirfcii, v. strengthen. 

bcftdtigcn, v. conhrm. 

bcffc, a. best. 

bcftchcit, v. irr. endure ; 
insist. 

bcftcigcn, v. irr. ascend ; 
mount. 

beftcUcn, v. order. 

befttmmcn, v. determine; 
settle ; destine. 

bcftimmt, a. positive. 

iV ft mi lining, /. determi- 
nation. 

3vftiiuniuHgii>ivort, n. ar- 
ticle. 

bcftreitcn, v. irr. contest : 
dispute. 

iicfudj, >n. -e, -e. visit. 



526 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



befud)cn, v. visit ; call 
upon. 

beten, v. pray. 

bi'tik'iicni, v. assert. 

bmaduen, c luok at ; ex- 
auiiuu. 

95etrad)tung, /., pi. -en. 
contamplation. 

bctr.ad)tlid), a. consider- 
able. 

betragcn, v. irr. amount 
to ; fid) / behave. 

SBctragrn, n. -8. behavior. 

bctreffen, v. irr. concern. 

83etricger, SBetruger, m. -8, 
deceiver ; impostor. 

bcmnfcn, ftdj, v. reft. irr. 
get drunk. 

bttroflren, pp. struck ; 
perplexed. 

betntbcn, v. grieve. 

bctriibt, a. sad. 

betriigen, v. cheat. 

93ett, n. -c8, -en. bed. 

bf ttclii, v. b3g. 

ettlcr, in. -8. beggar. 

bcurtfocilen, fl. judge ; 
criticise. 

33eutc,/., ^Z. -n. spoil. 

23eutcl, m. -8. purse. 

&cuo(fcritng, /., pi. -tn. 
population. 

beoor, conj. before. 

beoorfUhcn, v. irr. im- 
pend. 

bftoiibmi, v. keep. 

benuil)reit, w. prove. 

bcroegcn, v. irr. move; 
induce. 

croegung, f.,pl. -en. im- 
pulse. 

erode, m. -e8, -t. proof. 

beroctfen, v. irr. prove. 

bcuu-rbcii, ft$, v. reft. irr. 
(urn) seek. 

betooliiicii, v. inhabit. 

95<Mul)iicr, m. -8. inhabi- 
tant. 

benmtrtern, v. (131, 3) ad- 
mire. 

bcnmnbcrndnnirbfg, a. ad- 
mirable. 

berouflt, a. conscious. 

Sttmifttfein, n. -8. con- 
sciousness. 

br*iif)lcn, v. pay. 

$<*ab(ung, /., pi. -n. 
payment. 

bcjciiqcn, v. testify. 

bjnwtjjcn, y. irr. conquer. 



I biegen, v. irr. bend. 
biegfom, a. pliant. 
Siene,/., pi. -n. bee. 
i^ier, w. -e3, -e. beer. 
bictcn, t;. irr. offer. 
33tlb, n. -e8, -et. image ; 

picture. 
bitten, v. form. 
BiQtt t n.-9,-t. note; ticket 
bidigen, v. approve. 

,/:, pi. -n. bandage. 
n. conjunc- 

tion. 

binten, v. irr. bind ; tie. 
33imbaum, m. pear-tree. 
95irne,/ pi. -n. pear. 
Sirfd),/, pi. -en. hunt. 
bid, ad?>. t-ojy. auf, with- 

in ; fci^^cr, till now ; fctg 

taf;in, till then ; fci$ tcifi, 

till ; until ; 6i jefct, till 

now. 
93ifd)of, m. -eg, -ofe. bish- 

op. 

Sigdjcn, n. -S. a little. 
99ifteit, in. -8. morseL 
bierocilcn, odv some- 

times. 

5^ittc,/,p?. -n. request. 
bitten, v. irr. ask ; beg ; 

pray. 
93ittentt, p., (108, c). beg- 

gar. 

blciKit, v. irr. blow. 
b(af|, a. pale. 
Slatt, n. -e, SBIattet. leaf. 
bKittern, v. turn over the 

leaves. 

blau, a. blue. 
SBIci, n. -e8. lead. 
blcibcn, ?. irr. (f) remain; 

stay ; - b i (ettoaS), per- 

sist in. 

b(eid), a. pale. 
Sleiflift, m. -(), -e. 

(lead) pencil. 
Slid*, TO. -e8, -e. look. 
blirfen, v. look. 
blint, a. blind. 



blind man. 
33Ii(j, m. -c8, -e. flash; 

lightning. 
b(:i;cn, n. lighten. 
&Ii$edfd)ne(le, /. quick- 

ness of lightning. 
blofl, a. bare. 
bh'il)cn,?;.bloom; flourish. 
^linndxn, n. -8. little 

liowtr. 



9?(ume,/., pi. -n. flower. 

Slumcnf rntii, in. garland. 

93lut, n. -eg. blood. 

bliiti-ii, v. bleed. 

SBlutbe, /., pi. -n. blos- 
som ; flower. 

93Iutbenfd)immer, m. -8. 
splendor of blossom. 

blutig, a. bloody. 

33obcn, TO. -8, U?Bten. 
ground ; soil ; garret ; 
floor. 

23ogcn, TO. -8. bow; sheet 
(of paper). 

^obnierroolt, TO. Bohemi- 
an forest. 

93oot, n. -e8, -e and SB6t. 
boat. 

936 rfe,/., pi. -n. purse. 

bofr, a. bad ; evil ; bag 
SBefe, evil 

boebaft, a. wicked. 

93ote, TO. -n, n. messen- 
ger. 

35ranb, TO. -e8, SBrdnbe. 
fire. 

93rannin>etn, TO. -e8, -. 
brandy. 

braten, v. irr. roast. 

33ratcn, m. -8. roast meat. 

braud)ctt, v. use; want; 
need. 

braun, a. brown. 

brduncn, v . brown. 

braufcn, v. roar. 

93raut, /., pi. S3raute, 
bride, fiancee. 

Srdutigam, m. -8, -e. 
bridegroom, fiance'. 

brao, a. brave ; honest ; 
good. 

brcdKti, v . irr. break. 

rei, TO. -e8, e. pap. 

brcit, a. broad ; large ; 
wide. 

brcmten, v. irr. burn. 

33rief, m. -e8, -e. letter. 

33ricfd)en, n. -8. note. 

SBrieftafdK, /. pocket- 
book (for letters, etc.). 

33riefn>cd)fel, TO. corre- 
spondence. 

33rif(e, /., pi -n. specta- 
cles. 

bringen, v. irr. bring; 
take. 

rob, n. -e8, -e. bread. 

riirfe,/., pi. -n. bridge 

rubr, tn. -I. ruteii 
brother. 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



52? 



br:'iric!i, v. roar. 

bnumncn, v. grumble. 

33rui!iicn, tn. -3. foun- 
tain ; well. 

Sriiffel, n. -3. Brussels. 

ruft, /'., pi. 2ku[te. 
breast ; chest ; bosom. 

Cube, m. -n, -n. boy. 

ud), n. -e, 33u$cr. book; 
quire. 

93iid)l>inbcr, m. -8. book- 
binder. 

SJudjbrurfcrfunft, f. art 
of printing. 

93ud)Iidnblcr, m. -8. book- 
seller. 

SPuc!) ftabc, m. -n,-n . letter. 

93ucf)t, /'.. pi. -en. bay. 

bitofcM, fid), v. reft, bow ; 
stoop. 

Sitnb, m. -(c)3, -e and 
unbe. league ; alliance. 

93iiiit?nig, n. -ffe8, fie. al- 
liance. 

bunt, a. variegated ; gay. 

9ttT$,f. t pi -en. castle. 

Surfer, m. -9. citizen. 

93tmjcrmeitler, in. mayor. 

S8tifci), m. -e8, Sujdje. 
bush ; thick'jt. 

SSufcn, m. -8. bosom. 

93utter,/. butter. 

<anbibat, m. -en and -8, | 
en. candidate. 

ffiafnr, m. Caesar. 

entner, m. -3. hundred- 
weight. 

ercmonie, /., pi. -en. 
ceremony. 

(Shanifter, m. -8, -ere. 
character. 

(51) or, i. -e3, (Jfyore. cho- 
rus ; n. choir. 

(Shrift, TO. -8. Christ; -en, 
-en. Christian. 

ignrre,/., ^Z. -n. cigar. 

itrtntc,/., >Z. -n. lemon. 

<6ln, rt. -8. Cologne. 

Gonccrt, . -(e)3, e. con- 
cert. 

(Sonfiil, m. -8, -n. consul. 

OHfTnc,/,7J/.-n. cousin. 

(Suhiir, /., /> -en. cul- 
ture. 

tjpern, n. -8. Cyprus. 

bo, (see Index) a<7t> . there ; 
here ; conj. since ; as ; 
then. 



babei, adv. (147, 6) there ; 
at it. 

it. -(9, adjer. roof. 
, m. -e8, S;d^{e. 
badger. 

baburd), adv. (147, 6) 
thereby. 

bafu'r, arfy. for that ; in- 
stead (of it). 

adv. in ex- 
change ; conj. on the 
other hand. 

bafjer, adv. thence ; conj. 
therefore. 

adv. thither ; 
there. 

irj, a. of that time. 
, adv. at that time. 
,/., pi. -n. lady. 

bamit, adv. with it or 
them; co/y. (352, 1, 
a.) that, in order to ; 
-ntd)t, lest 

&nmm, m. -e8, dmrae. 
dam. 

, m. -e8, ampfe, 
Oiie ; steam. 

$cinemarf, n. -8. Den- 
mark. 

bancbcn, adv. near it ; 
aside. 

bonicber, adv. down. 

!$anf, m. -e8. thanks. 

biinfbar, a. gratefuL 

il>anfbar?eit,/. thankful- 
ness ; gratitude. 

!S)anFfagung, /. thanks- 
giving. 

t>anten,v. (390, II. ) thank; 
be indebted to. 

bann, adv. then. 

baran, at it ; on it. 

barauf, adv. thereon ; 
upon that, it or them ; 
after that. 

baratiS, adv. thence. 

biirin, adv. in it ; within. 

barnad), adv. after it. 

bnriiber, adv. over that. 

barunt, adv. therefore. 

bad, sec fccr. 

bafe, (see Index) conj. 
that ; but ; -ni*t, lest. 
7>/. -n. date. 

$atum, n. -8, "Data & 1)a= 
ten. date. 

Waiter,/, duration. 

baticrn, v. last. 

baoon, adv. thereof ; of 
that 



baoonlaufen, v. run away. 
baor, adv. before it ; 

that. 

baju, a du. for it ; to it. 
ba)n>ii'dKii, ado. between. 
baiw>ifd)enlegen,* v. place 

between. 
December, m. -8. Decem- 

ber. 

JTede,/., pi. -n cover. 
becfcn, v. cover. 
^egcn, in. -8. sword. 
bcin, -e, betn, pron. (see 

Index) thy, your; of 

thee, of you. 
beiner, pron. gen. of bu, 

of you; of tliee. 
bcinige, (tct, btc, ba8) -n, 

-n. pron. (153, 33(5) 

thine; yours. 
bcmnad), conj. according- 



,/. humility. 
bentiitiiig, n. humble. 
benfen, v. irr. tliink. 



way of thinking. 
benn, conj. for ; than ; 

adv. then. 
ber, bie, bad, rel. pron. 

(see Index) that ; who ; 

art. (see Index) the. 
bcrartig, a. of that 

kind. 
bereinfl, adv. in (the) fu- 

ture ; once. 
bren, gen. pi. and gen, 

sing. fern, of ber, rel. 

and demotistr. pron. 

(152) of that person. o| 

those persons ; whose. 
berer, gen. pi. of ber, ~de- 

monstr. pron. (l. r -2, 1) 

of those persons. 
ber-, bie-, bajcnigc,;)ron. 

(152) -n, -n. he; she; 

that. 
ber-, bie-, badfcfbe, pron. 

(see Index) the same; 

he ; she ; it. 
berglctdjen, (381, foot- 

note 2) that sort of per- 

son or thing. 
be*, of the. 
bedgleidxn, see bergleidjcn ; 

nih'. likewise. 
beffen, pron. gen. *ing. 

of *cr, (152; 156; 146, 

5) of that; of which,- 

whose. 



528 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



p, adv. (116, 10) the ; 

so much- -fcefier, so 

much the better. 
bcdwegcn, adv. therefore. 
beutlid), a. distinct. 
ten t t\1i, a. German. 
Scutfcfac, m. & f. (1C8, c) 

German. 

&eutfd)fanb, n. Germany. 
Xiantant, m -en and -(e)3, 

-en. d.amond. 
biomantcn, a. of diamond. 
tidi, acms. of fcu, pron. 

(144^ thee ; you. 
Xid)ter, m. -8. poet. 
sfiducrin, /., pi. -nen. 

poetess. 

$icbtfunfl, /. poetry. 
birf, a. thick. 
35ieffopf, m. blockhead. 
tie, see ter. 
Ticb, m. -e3, -e. thief. 
fcieienigcn,/?J.^>ro. they; 

those. 
btcm-n, v. serve ; 6ei je- 

manb -, to be in some 

one's service. 
$iener, m. -8. servant. 
!t)icnf>, m. -e8, -e. service ; 

duty. 
XHcnftag, m. -(e)8. Tues- 

day. 
Sicnftfeblcr, neglect 

of duty. 
btefer, Heft, biefed or bied, 

pron. (1<5,71, 151) tins. 
*ing, n. (51, 12) -c8, -e. 

thing ; matter. 
fcingen, v. hire. 
tointtff, pi. -en. ink. 
Xintcnfuf), n. -e8, -foffer. 

ink-stand. 
bir, dat. of bu, pron. (to) 

thee. 
tod), odf. (see Index) 

yet ; yes ; however. 
Doctor, m. -8, -en. doc- 

tor. 

$o(d), m. -t8, -t. dagger. 
tonne rn, v. thunder. 

rn. -(e)8. 



Thursday. 
toppclt, a. double. 
ifcorf, n. -e, 6rfer. vil- 

lage. 
$0rn, m. -e, -en <fe CD6t 

ner. thorn. 
tort, adv. there. 
^rad>rae,/., pi. -n. drach- 

m(a). 



i 1 . press ; urge. 
, ad~~. without. 

brcbcii, u. (also rejl.) turn; 
twist. 

fcrei, a. three. 

Streieef, n. -8, -e. tri- 
angle. 

breterlei, adv. (121, 8) of 
three kinds. 

fcrcifad), a. threefold. 

brcinuil, adv. three times. 

brcMcbn, thirteen. 

breigig. a. thirty. 

brcfdicn, v. irr. thrash. 

bringcn, v. irr. (f) pene- 
trate ; enter ; break. 

britte, a. third. 

bntt(c)halb, a. two and a 
halt 

iDrittel, n. -8. third. 

brtttend, adv. thirdly. 

broben, v. threaten. 

^rurf, m. -e8, -e. oppres- 
sion. 

i^rueffebler, m. misprint. 

iTrucffpftcn, pi. expenses 
of printing. 

briicfcn, v. press. 

bu, pro>. (144) thou ; 
you. 

$ucaten, m. -8. ducat. 

!t>uft, m. -e8, 3)ufte. per- 
fume. 

buften, v. exhale fra- 
grance. 

buftig, a. fragrant 

bnlben, v. (130, 1) suffer; 
endure; tolerate. 

iuite,/. down. 

buntcl, a. dark ; gloomy. 

burd), adv. through ; 
prep. (383, 1; 403) 
through; by. 

bnrd)bobren,* v. stab. 

burcbbringen,* v. irr. (f) 
getthrough; penetrate. 

burehrtifen,* v. (f) travel 
or pass through. 

burdjrdten,* v. irr. (() 
ride through. 

bnrd)fdneiben,* v. irr. 
cut through. 

burd)feben,* v. irr. see 
through. 

burdtfeeen, v. bring 
about. 

^urd)fTd)t, f.,pl. -en. re- 
vision. 

burdifiditiq, a. transpar- 
ent; clear. 



burcbflromen,* v. stream 

through ; traverse. 
burd)fud)cn,* v. search ; 

Vlh.t. 

burd)anbern,* v. (f) 

wauder through. 
burfen, v. irr. (97, 331) 

need ; be at liberty. 
burr, a. dry. 
$urft, m. -eS. thirst. 
burflig, a. thirsty. 
biijier, a. dark; gloomy. 
b, n. -6, -e. dozen, 



eben, a. even; adv. just 
cbcnbcrfelbc, pron. the 

very same. 
ebenfp . . . roie or al<, adv. 

as ... as ; - oft, adv. 

as many times ; - oiel, 

adv. as much. 
@ber, m. -8. boar. 
0?cfe,/., 2>l- -n. corner. 
ebel, a. noble. 
(bclf nabe, m. -n, -n. page. 
GFbclman, pi. -Icute. no- 

bleman ; pi. nobles. 
ebedmitbig, a. noble. 
@belflein, m. preciout 

stone. 

(Sbuflrb, m. Edward. 
ebe, conj. before. 
ebebent, adv. formerly. 
eber, adr. before. 
eheft, ""''. soonest ; am 

-en, soonest; -en8. adv. 

shortly. 

ebrbar, a. honest. 
@bre, /., pi. -n. honor; 

reverence. 
chrcn, v. honor. 
(Sbrenbeieigung,/ (mark 

of) honor. 

(Sbrenoofl, a. honorable. 
(brfurd)t, /. reverence ; 

veneration. 
chrfurebtdooH, a respect- 

ful. 

i), m. ambition. 
, a. ambitious. 
ebrid), a. honest. 
<$brlid)(rit, /. honesty; 

integrity. 
ehrlod, a. honorless ; in- 

famous. 

ehrnmrbig, a. venerable. 
(*i, n. -e8, -er. egg. 
(Sidx, /., pi. -o. oak 

(tree). 
eidxn, a. oaken, 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



529 



@id)talb, m. oak-forest. 
(Sit, m. -e8, -e. oath. 

<$ifer, m. -8. zeal ; ardor. 

(ifitrfud)t,./; jealousy. 

eiferfud)tig, a. jealous. 

eigcti, a. own. 

<$igcnnu$, in. -e8. (self-) 
interest; selfishness. 

OFigcnfcflaft, /., pi. -en. 
quality. 

@i,)cnfd)ft$n>prr, n. ad- 
jective. 

@i>)cnti)um, n. -8, -tpmer. 
property. 

(igcnrl)iiincr, m. -8. own- 
er. 

cigcnthumlid), a. peculiar. 

etgcnt(id), a. propur. 

Gfilbptc, m. -n, -n. courier. 

eilen, i r . ( and f) hasten. 

ein, num. (119, 1) one; 
pron. (119, 1) einet, cine, 
ein(e)8, one ; a man ; 
some ; art. (18) a ; an. 

einanber, adv. (163, 2) 
one another ; each 
other. 

einbilben,* fid), v. reft, im- 
agine. 

(Sinbrurf, m. -(e)8, -urfc. 
impression. 

(Sitter, see ein. 

eincrlei, adv. (121, 8) of 
the same time. 

einfiid), a. simple. 

einfallcn,* v. irr. fall 
down; fid) - laffen, think. 

einfangen,* v. irr. catch ; 
shut up. 

(.^iiifUifs, m. -e8, -uffe. in- 
fluence. 

einft'ihrcn,* v. introduce. 

@infiihrung, f., pi. -en. 
introduction. 

(Sitting, m. -(e)8, -dnge. 
entrance. 

eingcbcnf, a. mindful. 

eittgdjen,* v. irr. (j) en- 
ter. 

eingcnommcn, a. prepos- 
sessed. 

eingrabctt,* v. irr. en- 
grave. 

einbflltcn,* v. irr. stop. 

einbcr, adv. along. 

citu ;, adv. in concord. 

einificn, v. a. (also rcjl. ) 
unite. 

einifjcr, -e, -e. pron. (75, 
6J some; any. 



', /. inn. 

(Sint iinfte, pi. revenues. 

etnfaben,* v. irr. invite. 

(Sinlaft, m. -fje8, -affe. ad- 
mission. 

cinmal, adv. once ; one 
time ; auf -, all at once ; 
nidjt -, not even. 

einricbten,* v. arrange. 

einfatn, a. alone ; lonely. 

einfd)lafen,* v. irr. (f) fall 
asleep. 

dnfd)letd)en,*t;. irr. (f) or 
fid; -, (1)) sneak, creep in. 

einfd)liefcn,* v. irr. shut 
in ; lock up. 

einfeben,* v. see ; con- 
ceive. 

(infid)t, f., pi. -en. in- 
sight. 

einft, adv. once. 

einfteHen,* leave off; fid) 
-, come to an appoint- 
ment. 

@intrad)t,/. concord. 

etntrcffen,* v. irr. (f) ar- 
rive. 

eintrcten,* v. irr. (f) en- 
ter. 

inoerfta'nbnif}, n. -ffe8, 
-ffe. understanding. 

einoerftcljcn,* fid;, v. reft. 
irr. or eincerftanben fcin 
mit, agree with. 

Crinroanb, m. -c8, -anbe. 
objection. 

einweid)en,* v. soak. 

einrocnbcn,* v. irr. and 
reg. object. 

@inrocnbnng, /., pi. -en. 
objection. 

einroiegcn,* v. lull to 
sleep. 

etntmlligen,* v. consent. 

Orinittohner, m. -8. inhab- 
itant. 

(in*af)l, /. singular 
(number). 

ein;dn, adv. singly ; a. ' 
(121, 10, 11) single, par- 
ticular. 

*v.irr. movein. ; 
tg, a. (121, 11) only ; 
one. 

(*id, n. -e8. ice. 

(Sifen, n. -8. iron. 

(Sifcnbiihn,/. railroad. 

ctfcrn, a. iron. 

eitcl, a. vain. 

ic,f.,pl. -n. elegy. 



, n. -eS. misery. 
;!, a. miserable. 

t, m. -en or -, 
-en. elephant. 
elf, Mum. eleven. 
O'-ifcnbdii, n. -(e)8. ivory, 
life,/. Eliza. 
He,/., jZ. -en. yard. 
<ltern, pZ. parents. 
@mpfang, m. -e8. recep- 
tion. 
empfattgen, v. irr. re-. 

ceive. 

mpf anger, m. - 8. receiv- 
er. 

i-iiipfcblcit, v . recommend; 
fid) -, present one's re-* 
spects (to one), i.e., 
take one's leave. 
(inpfel)Iung, /., pi. -en. 
recommendation. 

, v . irr. feel. 
, a. sensitive. 



ness. 

entpor, adv. on high ; up. 

emporfommen,* v. rise. 

empprragen,* v. tower. 

ctnppren, v. raise. 

(Smporer, m. -8. rebel. 

(mp6rung, f., pi. -en. 
insurrection ; revolt. 

(Snbe, n. -8, -n. end ; om 
-, in the end. 

enben, v . end ; finish. 

cnbltd), a. finite ; adv. at 
,last. 

eng(e), a. narrow. 

(Sngel, m. -8. angel. 

@ngld'nber, m. -8. Eng- 
lishman. 

cnglifd), a. English. 

cntbcbrcn, v. do without ; 
spare. 

(^ntbcbrung, f., pi. -tn. 
privation. 

entbecten, v. discover ; re- 
veal. 

(Snte,/., pi. -n. duck 

entcbren, v. disagree. 

entcbrenb, a. degrading. 

entfad)t, a. [32] fanned ; 
kindled. 

entferncn, v. fid) -, depart. 

(S?ntfcrnung, /., pi. -en. 
distance. 

ctttflicbcn, v. irr. (f) flee ; 
run (away) ; escape. 

entgegcn, adv. counter ; 
to meet. 



530 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



entgegengehen,* v. (f) go 

to meet. 
entiiegenfommen,* v. (\) 

come to meet (one). 
cntgegnen, v. reply, 
eiitrtcbcn, v. irr. (f) es- 
cape, 
cntlialu-.i, v. irr. contain ; 

iui' -, abstain, 
emf ontnten, v. irr. (\) es- 
cape. 
entlong, adv. and prep. 

along. 

entlaroen, v. unmask, 
entlatfen, u. irr. dismiss. 
(Fiitlafftntg, /., pi. -en. 

discharge, 
entdiufcn, v. irr. (f) run 

away. 
<ntlebigcn, ft<$, v. reft, get 

rid of. 

entlegen, a. distant. 
entnerven, v. enervate. 
entrdgcn, v. irr. tear ; 

extort, 
entriiftcn, v . irritate ; ftdj 

-, get angry, 
emfiigen, v. renounce, 
en ti'dicfccn, v. irr. decide ; 

settle. 
<nrfd)crt'ung,/, pi. -en. 

decision, 
entfdidifcn, v. irr. (f) fall 

asleep. 
cmfd)dvnit, ft$, v. reft. 

irr. get rid of; throw 

off. 
cnrfd)licften, v. irr. open ; 

ftd> -, resolve. 
emfd)loffcn, a. determin- 
ed : resolute. 
<iufd>(i>ffenhcit, /. reso- 
lution, 
entfdiliuniitcrn, v. fall 

asleep. 
mfd)lupfen, v. (f) slip 

from ; escape. 
<ntfd)lufl, in. -ffeS, -uffe. 

resolution. 

rntfdtulNgen, v. excuse. 
<ntfd)ult>igung, /., pi. 

-tn. excuse, 
cmfeelidi, a. horrible, 
entfpredjen, v. irr. suit, 

answer to. 
enrfprtngen, v. irr. (f) 

arise, 
en tjtchen, v. irr. (f) arise ; 

result, 
entroeter, conj. either. 



enttoerfen, a. irr. sketch. | 

cntrondKii, v. escape. 

ciiuu-iicit, v. irr. deprive 
of ; fidj -, escape. 

cnt}uefen, v. enchant. 

etttiiicf r, a. charmed. 

t*pheu, /. -e3. ivy. 

<3?pod)e,/., pi. -n. epoch, 

er, pron. he. 

crbiirmcn, v. move to 
pity ; ftd> -, take pity. 

erbdrntltd), a. miserable. 

(*rbannltd)fcit, /. pitia- 
bleness. 

crbaucn, v. build ; erect. 

(Srbt, m. -n, -n. heir ; n. 
(59, e) -3. inheritance. 

crbcn, v. inherit. 

crbttten, v. irr. beg. 

crblaffcn, v. (f) erbleidjen, 
v. irr. (i) grow pale; 
expire. 

erblicfen, v. perceive. 

{rbbttre,f.,pl. -n. straw- 
berry. 

(Srl-e, f. . pi. -n. earth ; 
ground. 

($rt>en(o, n. -e8, -e. des- 
tiny ; fate. 

erbulbeu, v. suffer. 

(reigncn, fic^, v. reft. 
happen. 

erfahrcn, v. irr. learn ; 
experience. 

@rfa^rung,/., pi. -en. ex- 
perience. 

erffnben, v. irr. invent. 

CSrfinfcung,/., pi. -en. in- 
vention. 

@rfo(<i, in. (e)8, -e. re- 
sult ; success. 

erfragen, v. find out by 
asking. 

crfreuen, v. delight ; p(^ 
-, rejoice. 

erfrieren, v. irr. (f) freeze. 

erfiillcn, v. fill ; fulfil. 

ergeben, past part, de- 
voted; humble. 

ffirgebung,/. submission. 

ergcben, v. irr. (f) come 
out ; happen. 

crgc^en, see ergofeen. 

ergtcften, v. irr. pour 
(out) ; ji$ -, empty. 

crgp$cn, v. delight. 

ergreifen, v. irr. seize ; 
take. 

erfialtcn,t>. irr. preserve; 
obtain; receive. 



erheben, v. irr. raise ; ele 
vitte. 

critclien, v. illuminate . 
a., pear. 

, v. heighten. 

/., pi. -en. 
elevation. 

crbolcn, fi$/ refl. re- 
cover. 

erhoren, v. hear. 

erinnern, v recall ; p$ -, 
remember. 

0?rinncrung, /., pi. -en. 
recollection ; memory. 

ertagen, v. get by hunt- 
ing ; kill. 

crfalten, fid), v. reft, catch 
cold. 

<rfaltung, /., pi. -en, 
cold. 

erfennen, v. irr. perceive ; 
recognize. 

<rfetmtni, /, pi. -ffe. 
perception. 

crtlaren, v. explain ; de- 
clare. 

erflarung,/., pi. -en. ex- 
planation. 

crflingen, v. irr. (f) 
sound ; resound. 

crfunt'igeit, fid), v. reft. 
inquire. 

crdingcit, v. attain; ob- 
tain. 

crdiiibcn, v. allow ; per- 
mit. 

(Srlaubnift,/. permission. 

erlrben, v. (live to) see; 
experiene. 

erlegcn, v. irr. kill. 

erleid)tcnt, v. relieve. 

<rUid)terung,/., pi. -en. 
relief. 

erleitditen, v. illuminate. 

crUn'dKn, v. irr. (f) go 
out ; be extinguished. 

crrmibnen, v. exhort ; ad- 
monish. 

(?rntabnung, /., pi. -en. 
exhortation. 

ermangcfn, v. fail. 

rauMgcfwtg/y. default. 

crmorben, *>. murder. 

cnniiten, v. tire ; fatigue. 

t*nni^ung,/. fatigue. 

crmuntern, v. encourage. 

erncntien, v. irr. appoint. 

C*rnft, in. -e8. earnf;st- 
noas ; gravity. 

crnftbaft, a. stern. 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



531 



<$rnte, /., pi. -tn. har- 
vest ; crop. 

erobcrn, v. conquer; take. 

eroffnen, v. open. 

erproben, v. try. 

crquicfeu, v. revive ; re- 
fresh. 

erquirfci^, a. refresh- 
ing. 

(frqiitrfimg, /, pi. -en. 
refreshment. 

eriMtljcii, v. irr. guesa 

crrcgcn, v . raise ; excite. 

@rregung, /., pi. -en. 
agitation. 

erreid)cn, v. reach. 

erretten, v . save ; rescue. 

crriditett, v. erect. 

crringcn, v. i/T. gain ; ob- 
tain. 

crfd>a(len, v. resound. 

<rfd)cinen, v. irr. (f) ap- 
pear. 

(Srfdmming, /., pi. en. 
apparition. 

erfd)ieflcn, v. irr. shoot; 
kill. 

erfd)laffen, v. (\) relax. 

crfd)(agen, v. irr. slay. 

rfd)recfcn, v. irr. (f) be 
frightened. 

erfdjrorfcu, a. frighten- 
ed. 

erfd)tittern, v. move. 

<rfd)iitterung, /. , pi. -en. 
emotion. 

erfr, a. (123) first ; adv. 
at first. 

erflniincn, v. (f) be aston- 
ished ; surprised. 

rftauncn, n. -. aston- 
ishment. 

erfteigen, v . irr. ascend. 

erften, adv. (134, 4) 
firstly ; first. 

erpcrben, v. irr. (f) die. 

erftrerfen, v. and ftd> -, ex- 
tend. 

ertonen, ?>. (f) sound. 

ertratiFcii, v. drown. 

crtriitfcn, v. irr. (f) be 
drowned. 

ern>nd)cn, v. (f) awake. 

erroarmen, v. warm. 

erroarten, v. expect. 

Qmoartiing, /., pi. -en. 
expectation. 

errocrfen, v. awaken. 

erroebren, fid?, v. reft. 
keep off. 



erroeifen, v. irr. render, 

tip (e.y., a person a 

kindness. ) 
<rn>erb, in. -(e)8, -e. pro- 

fit. 
ern>erben, v. irr. earn ; 

gain ; obtain. 
erro^ern, v. reply. 
ern>ifd)cn, v. catch. 
rj, n. -e, -e. ore. 
cr^iililcii, v. tell ; relate. 
@ri<Jil)hing, /., pi. -en. 

tale ; story 

credit-it, v. irr. educate. 
tnK\)un$, f. education. 
erjiirnen, v. make angry. 
critviitgcn, v. irr. force; 

extort. 
eS, prou. (see Index) it; 

there ; so. 

<fef, m. -g. ass; -donkey. 
effcn, v. irr. eat. 
@ffen, n. -8. meal ; din- 

ner ; food ; eating. 
(gffig, m. -8. vinegar. 
ctlirt), pron. some. 
etroad, prun. (166, 6) 

something ; anything ; 

adv. something, some- 

what. 

tud), pron. to you ; you. 
tuer, pers. pron. (144, 2) 

of you ; poss. pron. 

(72, III) your ; yours. 
(uropaer, m. -8. Euro- 

pean. 

emig, a. eternal. 
<, mpel, n. -3. example. 



f,/, pi. -n. fable. 

, m. -8. thread. 
fdfjig, a. capable. 
-Saline, /., pi. -n. flag; 

standard. 
faforen, . irr. (f) run ; 

ride ; drive. 
Sa&rt,/., pi. -en. passage ; 

expedition. 
fnlb, n. fallow. 
ffnlfc, m. -n, -n. falcon. 
SaH, w. -eg, Jade, fall ; 

case. 

fallen, v. irr. (f) fall. 
fallen, v. fell ; cut down. 
fnlfd), a. false. 
ftatnilie,./'., pi. -n. family. 
($antilicnfreid, m. domes- 

tic circle. 
$antilicit6d)a$, m. family 

treasure. 



Wang, m. -e, 
catch ; capture. 

fangen, v. irr. catch. 

Warbe,/., pi. -n. color. 

fa'rben, v. dye. 

Warre, m. -n, -n, bullock. 

Waft, //. -ffeg, gaffer, tub ; 
barrel. 

faffen, v. seize ; catch ; 
take ; conceive. 

Waffling,/, composure. 

faft, adv. almost ; nearly. 

faul, a. lazy. 

Wauf*,/., .p/. gaufle. fist. 

Webruar, m. -8, -e. Feb- 
ruary. 

fcd)teti, v. irr. fight 

Wefcer,/., pi. -n. pen. 

Weterbufd), m. plume. 

Wetermeffcr, n. penknife. 

felHen, v. err; mistake; 
be absent or wanting ; 
n>a8 feljlt 3nen? id. 
what ails you ? what 
do you want ? 

Webler, m. -8. fault ; mis- 
take. 

Weter, /., pL -n. celebra- 
tion. 

ivcicrtng, 771. holiday. 

fetcrlid), a. solemn ; fes- 
tive. 

fein, a. thin ; subtile. 

Weinb, m. -e3, -e. enemy. 

feiiiNidt, a. hostile. 

Wcinl>fd)aft, /., pi. -tn. 
enmity. 

Welt 1 , n. -e8, -er. field ; 
plain. 

WelMjerr, m. general ; 
captain. 

Welt^eugntetfter, m. mas- 
ter of the ordnance. 

Wefc;ug, m. campaign. 

Well, n. -eg, -e. skin ; 
hide. 

Weld, -en, -en, or gelfen. 
m. -8. rock. 

Wenfler, n. -8. window. 

i?cnftcrfd)cibe, f. pane. 

Wcrien, pi. holidays. 

fern, a. far ; distant. 

fertig, a. ready. 

Wmigfeft,/, pi. -en. dex- 
terity. 

fcffr, a. firm ; strong. 

feflfoalten,* v. hold fast; 
arrest. 



632 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



fcud)t, a. moist ; damp. 
9cuer, n. -6. tire. 
ftcuervfcti, /. furnace. 
feurig, a. fiery. 
9id>tt, f., pi. -n. pine. 
fjtgur,./:, />/. -en. figure. 
fiirten, v. in: find ; think. 
Singer, rn. -8. finger. 
ftnfltr, a. dark. 
9infterni%,f. darkness. 
ivifdi, >/t. -e8, -. fish. 
Stfd)fang, m. fishery. 
ftfdjrcid), a. abounding 

with fish. 

9ifd)er, w. -8. fisherman. 
ftladx,,/'., />?. -n. plain. 
d, w. -e. flax. 



. 

8?lamme,/., ^Z. -n. flame. 
flammcn, v . blaze. 
*lafd)c, /., pi. -n. bottle. 
pattern, v. flutter. 
fled)ten, v. irr. braid. 
SU'rfcn, MI. -8. spot ; 

stain ; market-town. 
flcbcn, t . implore. 
tfldieti, n. -8. supplica- 

tion. 

), n. -8. meat. 
m. -8. industry ; 

mit -, on purpose. 
fkigig, a. diligent, in- 

dustrious. 

flicgen, v. irr. (f) fly. 
flicbcn, v . irr. (f) flee ; 

run away. 
flicfcen, v. irr. (f) flow; 

run. 

%lintt,f.,pl. -n. gun. 
fludnen, v. (f) flee; ($) 

rave. 
flud)tig, a. fugitive ; 

hasty. 

Sliidrtigfeif,/. flightiness. 
<ltid)tling, /n. -(e)8, -e. 

fugitive. 

itlugcl, w*. -8. wing. 
Slur, /., pi. -n. field; 

floor. 

ft, w. -ff8, gliiffe, river. 
/(, -8. little 

river. 

jl, a. liquid. 

ni, v. whisper. 

lj, /. , pi. -en. flood ; 

pi. waves. 
9o(ge, /., pi. -n. conse- 

quence. 

folgen, w. (f) follow. 
folijcnt, a. following. 



fotglid), adv. consequent- 
ly ; then. 

fortern, v. demand; (cor 
(i<ertd>t) summon. 

fprnten, v. form ; make. 

ft>ifd)cn, v. search. 

furt, adv. on ; off; gone. 

fortbauern,* v. continue. 

fortfaljren,* v. irr. con- 
tin ue 

forrfliegen,* v. irr. fly 
away. 

fortgeJjeu,* v. irr. go 
away. 

fimreifcen,* v. irr. carry 
away. 

fortfd)iden,* v. send 
away. 

fartfd)rciten,* v. irr. pro- 
gress. 

forttragtn,* v. ifr. carry 
away. 

forttreibcn,* v. irr. drive 
along. 

8rage,/., pi. -n. question. 

fragen, v . ask ; question. 

franf, a. frank. 

Wranfreid), n. France. 

9ratt)ofe, MI. -n. -n. 
Frenchman. 

franjoftfd), a. French. 

Srau, j'., pi. -en. Mrs. ; 
wife ; woman. 

$raucn;inttner, //. woman. 

("vrnnlciii, n. -8. young 
lady ; (as title) Miss. 

frcd), a. impudent. 

5red)ljcit,yi, pi. -en. im- 
pudence; audacity. 

frei, a. free ; liberal ; in- 
dependent. 

frcigebig, a. liberal. 

ftreigebigfcit, f. gener- 
osity. 

frcilaffcn,* v. irr. (set) 
free. 

irrrimutli, m. candor. 

freifpredKn, v. irr. ac- 
quit. 

JrciftiUtc, /., pi. -n. re- 
fuge. 

freiroidig, a. voluntary. 

Sreiljeit,,/!. pi. -en. free- 
dom; liberty. 

fretiid), adv. to be sure. 

Sreitog, MI. -8, -<. Friday. 

freml>, a. foreign ; 
strange. 

gfrcmtc, >". (108, c) stran- 
ger. 



?reml>f, / foreign coun- 

try. 
freffen, v. irr. eat; de- 

vour. 



/., pi. - n . joy ; 

delight. 
9reuttntt)rane, f., pi. -n. 

tear of joy. 

t'vcutciuuiif , a. full of joy. 
freubig, a. joyful ; cheer- 

ful. 
freuen, v. make glad ; e8 

freut mi*, I am glad of 

it ; fi$ - ; rejoice ; be 

glad. 

?reuiib, m. -e, -e. friend. 
9rauMn,f. t pl. -r.en. 
ffcunMid), a. friendly ; 

kind. 
Jrcuiitfrfwft, /., pi. -en. 

friendship. 
tvrcocl, m. -8. offence. 
Sric^, -n8, -n. or 

en, 111. -8. peace. 
fricMidi, a. peaceful. 
ivi-ii-trid), . Frederick. 
frii^o(I, adv. peaceful- 

ly- 
fricren,t>. irr. (t>) be cold; 

(Q freeze ; e3 frievt mi<$, 

intcb friert, I am cold. 
frifd), a. fresh ; new. 
Srift, /., pi. -en. delay ; 

time. 

frol), n. glad ; pleased. 
frofjlid), a. glad ; joyons ; 

happy. 

fro mm, n. pious. 
frommcn, v. profit. 
Srpfd), m. -e8. grcfc^e, 

frog. 
$rud)t, /., pi. %rui)tt. 

fruit. 

frudnbor, a. fertile. 
friilj, . early ; soon. 
ifriilifttirf, n. breakfast. 
irrubc,/. early. 
friibcr, adv. formerly. 
.rriihluirt, tn. -8, -e. 

spring. 

.viutd, m. -c8, gudjfe. fox. 
fitiU'ti, v. direct ; fi$ -, 

yield. 

fiiiilcn, v. feel. 
fiihrtii, v. lead ; conduct 
Wi'ibrer, m. -8. leader. 
ijullr,/ abundance, 
fiiiilcn, v. till. 
fiinf, num. five. 
fiinftc, ". fifth. 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



533 



funftebalb? a. four and a 
half. 

ftiimtrl, n. -8. fifth. 

fiimV'bn, imm. fifteen. 

funfitig, num. fifty. 

5""Fe (gunfen) m. -n, 
(-8), -n. spark. 

funfehi, v. sparkle. 

fur, prep. (403) for. 

$urd)t, /. fear ; dread ; 
awe. 

furdjtbar, a. fearful ; 
dreadful. 

fi'ircf)tcn, v . fear ; dread ; 
ficfy -, be afraid. 

fiird)tcrlid), a. dreadful. 

furdjtfiim, a. fearful ; 
timid. 

fiirfrcr, 'idv. further. 

fitr'd = fur ba8. 

9iirfl, m. -en, -en. sov- 
ereign. 

Syiu-ftcmhum, -(e)8, -urnct. 
n. principality. 

gfurftiu,/., pi. -nen. prin- 
cess. 

n. pronoun. 
>n. -e, gufje, foot; 
ju -e, on foot. 

Sriippfab, m. foot-path. 

gutter, n. -8. food. 

abe,/., pi. -n. gift ; tal- 
ent. 

(Babel,/., pi. -n. fork. 

flahrcn, v. ferment. 

fflalecre,/., pi. -n. galley. 

Wii tiii, -e3, ancje. 
walk ; pace. 

and,/., //. anfe. goose. 

gan;, a. whole ; entire ; 
all ; adv. wholly; quite. 

an;e, n. (108, c) whole. 

gar, n. done*; adv. even ; 
- nidjt, not at all ; - oft, 
very often. 

a'rtdK", n. -9. little 
garden. 

ffiarten, m. -8, Garten, 
garden. 

artncr, m. -8. gardener. 

Wciffe,/., pi. -n. lane. 

fflaft, m. -e8, dfte. guest. 

Wiiftmahl,. n. feast. 

(*ntte, m. -n, -n. hus- 
band. 

(Qcbiilf, n. -8, -e. timber- 
work. 

(jebarcn, v. bring forth. 

n. -J. building. 



w. irr. give ; im- 
. (345, 1) be; e8 
qibt, there is ; there 
are; geben ie 8ld)t, take 
care. 

eberbe, /., pi. -n. ges- 
ture. 

ebct, n. -(e)8, -e. prayer. 

gcbietcn, v. irr. bid ; 
govern. 

Qtbilbet, a. cultivated ; 
educated. 

ebirgc, n. -8. mountains. 

geborcn, pp. born. 

geborgcn, p/J. safe ; snug. 

feebot, ii. -e8, -e. com- 
mand. 

cbraud), m. -(e), -au$e. 
use ; custom. 

gcbraud)en, v. use ; make 
use of. .. 

gebrd'ud)lid), a. custom- 
ary. 

eburt,/, ^Z. -en. birth. 

<9cfca'd)tntfj, n. -fjeS, -ffe. 
memory. 

cbanfe (cbanfen), m. 
-n8, -(,) -n. thought.; 
idea. 

get>cil)en, v. irr. (f) thrive. 

iictciif cu, v. irr. think of ; 
remember ; intend. 

cbid)t, n. -(e)8, -e. poem; 
pi. poetry. 

cfculfc,/. patience. 

cfaljr, '/, pi. -en. dan- 
ger. 

<icfaiirltd), a. dangerous. 

cfal>rlid)(eit, /. danger- 
ousness. 

cfiiljrtc, m. -n, -n. com- 
panion. 

iicfallcn, v. irr. please. 

tjcfa'lligft, adv. if you 
please ; please. 

gcfangcit, a. captive ; - 
ncfymcn, make prisoner. 

Wcfangcnc, m. -n, -n. 
prisoner. 

fficfantjcnfcftaft,/. captiv- 
ity. 

cfangnif, . -ffeS, -ffe. 
prison. 

cfangnigroarter, m. jail- 
er. 

Wcfcdjt, ii. -(e)3, -e. fight. 

cfiel'er, n. -8. plumage. 

fficfolgc, n. -3. suite. 

gcfriercn, v. irr. (f) 
freeze. 



cfubl, n. -(e)8, -e. feel- 
ing; sentiment. 

iii-fiihllt^, a. unfeeling. 

(icfurd)tct, pp. feared. 

geo.cn, prep. (408) to- 
wards ; to ; against ; 
about. 

<Begenl>,/., pi. -en. region. 

cgenftanb, m. -(c)8, 
-ante, object ; subject; 
article. 

egcntticil, m. contrary. 

gegcniiber, adv. and prep. 
opposite. 

egcitroart,/. presence. 

gcgcnroartig, a. present; 
adv. at present. 

ffietjalt, m. -(e)8, -e. con- 
tents ; salary. 

gcbctnt, a. secret. 

WcluMiiinift, n. -ffe8, -ffe. 
secret ; mystery. 

gebcimni^ooh, a. myste- 
rious. 

geben, v. irr. (f) go; walk; 
mte gcb,t e8 Stynen? how 
are you? how do you 
do? 

gebord)cn, v. obey. 

geborctt, v. belong. 

gcborfam, a. obedient. 

eifcl, eifjel, m. and f. 
-8. hostage ; /., pi. -n. 
scourge. 

eift, m. -e, -et. spirit } 
mind ; genius. 

gctftlid), a. spiritual. 

cifHid>e, m. (108, c) 
clergyman. 

geifireid), a. ingenious 
intelligent; witty. 

Wci$, '.n. -e8. avarice. 

gci)ig, a. covetous ; avari 
cious. 

eflaff, n. -e8. baying. 

gclangcn, v. (f) reach. 

gclaunt, a. disposed; 
tempered. 

elaute, n. ringing of 
bells. 

clb, n. -e8, -er. money. 

clbbcutcl, m. -8. purse. 

ge(egen, a. convenient. 

clegenbeit, /. -en. oc- 
casion. 

clebrfamfeit, /. learn- 
ing. 

dclchrt, a. learned. 

elcbrte, m. (108, c) 
learned man ; scholar. 



534 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



geltngcn, v. irr. (f) suc- 
ceed. 

jU'U'l>l-M, ?'. VOW. 

clobtc Slant, Holy Land. 

gcltcn, v. in: be worth ; 
- fur, pass. 

cnnul), n. -(e)8, -adjer. 
apartment. 

cntabi, m. -(e)8, -e. con- 
sort. 

rmdlbc, n. -g. painting. 

gcmein, a. common ; vul- 
gar. 

genicinfarn, a. common ; 
adv. in common. 

<*>cmcinfdum, /., pi. -en. 
intercourse. 

gemeinfd)aftlid), a. see *c 
metnfam. 

eim'ife, n. -g. vegetables. 

ciniilh, n. -eg, -et. mind ; 
soul ; heart. 

gcnnu, a. accurate ; ex- 
act. 

geneigt, a. inclined ; dis- 
posed. 

gcncfen, v. irr. (f) recover. 

gcnicgcn, v. irr. (131, 2) 
enjoy. 

gcitug, adv. enough. 

geniigen, v. be enough. 

t*n-tui.uImiitKi, f. satis- 
faction. 

fmifl, m. -Reg, -uffe. en- 
joyment. 

eographic,/. geography. 

rorg, m. -8. George. 

cpacf, n. -eg, -e. bag- 
gage. 

geprtftt, a. full ; bowed 
down. 

gtrafc(e), a. straight ; 
adv. just. 

geratben, v. irr. (f) pros- 
per; get (e.g., into 
trouble). 

qcrcd)t, a. just ; right. 

eredjtigfeit,/. justice. 

crcbe, n. -8." talk. 

f|crcid>cn, v. conduce. 

rid)t, n. -(e)8, -e. court 
of justice. 

ge ring, a. little ; small ; 
slight. 

gtrn(), adv. willingly ; 
with pleasure. 

crftf,/. barley. 

We nidi, m. -e8, -u$e. smell. 

cicint'te, m. (108, c) am- 
baseador. 



efant>rfd)aft, /, pi. -en. 
embassy. 

efang, m. -e, -ange. 
singing; song. 

cfd)aft, n. -eS, -e. busi- 
ness. 

gefd>aftig, a. busy. 

gcu1)rhftt, v. irr. be done ; 
happen. 

gefd)e^, a. clever. 

efdxnf, . -(e),-e. pres- 
ent ; gift. 

efd)id)te,/., pZ. -n. his- 
tory ; story. 

efd)icflid)Fcit, /. clever- 
ness. 

gefd)id?t, a. clever. 

efd)(ed)t, n. -tS, -er. 
gender; generation. 

efd)lcd)tdn>t?rt, n. arti- 
cle. 

Wefdintarf, ///. -eS. taste. 

WcHl)incite, m. -g. jew- 
els. 

efdjrci, n. -eg. cry. 

tfd)ti^, 11. -eg, -e. guns. 

gcfd)roint(c), a. swift; 
adv. fast. 

WcfdHoiftf r, pi. brothers 
and sisters. 

gcfd)top(len, pp. swollen. 

grfcdtg, a. sociable. 

efcJIigfeit,/. sociability. 

cfeHfd>aft, /., pi. -en. 
society ; company ; 
party. 

efce, n. -eg, -e. law. 

cid)t, n. -eg, -e. (51, 12) 
vision ; pi. -er. face ; 
countenance. 

gefonnen, a. inclined. 

efprdd), n. -eg, -e. con- 
versation. 

eflalt,/., />. -en. figure ; 
shape. 

iicftcbcn, v . irr. confess. 

geftern, adv. yesterday ; 
- 9lbenb, last night. 

gefiirnt, n. starry. 

grfunt 1 , a. healthy. 

efui^heit, /., pi. -en. 
health. 

getrouen, v. refl. venture. 

ctreife, . -8. grain. 

getrunFen, (past part, 
sometimes used <is im- 
jterative, of trinten) 
drink ! 

coatter, m. -g, (-n), pi. 
@ecatter(n), godfather. 



gcroadrfen, pp. made 
(for) ; equal (to). 

gerodhren, v. grant. 

croalt,/., pi. -tn. might; 
force ; power. 

geroaltig, . powerful. 

emalttljat,/. violence. 

cn>ant, n. -ei, -e, and 
-anter. garment. 

gcroiii^i, . adroit ; 
clever. 

<c!panfthcit, /. adroit- 
ness. 

genxirtig, a. - fein, expect 

crochr, n. -eg, -e. mus- 
ket; gun. 

@en>id)t, n. -eg, -e. 
weight; importance. 

gcrotnnen, v. irr. win. 

gctvift, a. certain. 

croificn, n. -B, con- 
science. 

gctvitKttluift, o- conscien- 
tious. 

geroifTcrma^en, adv. in 
some measure. 

emitter, n. -g. thunder- 
storm. 

gcrooqcn, a. attached ; 
well-disposed. 

gtropbnett, v. accustom. 

croofmrjett, f., pi. -en. 
custom ; habit. 

gctvohnlid), usual ; orcli- 
n'ry. 

ffieroolf, n. -eg, -t. clouda 

cnirj(e), n. -eg, (-8,) -e. 
spice. 

gicbt, see geben. 

gierig, a. eager ; greedy. 

ierigfeit,.^ eagerness. 

nicpcii, '. irr. pour. 

ift, n. -eg, -e. poison. 

iftbcdxr, m. poisoned 
cup. 

giftig, a. poisonous. 

ipftl, m. -8. top ; sum- 
mit. 

lan$, m. -eg. brightness; 
splendor. 

gldnjent 1 , n. bright ; bril- 
liant; shining. 

las, n.- e8, -afer. glass. 

Idedxn, n. -8. little 
glasB. 

glott, a. smooth ; bland. 

<5ltiube(n), m. -n8, -n. 
faitli ; belief. 

glauben, v. believe ; 
think ; suppose. 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



535 



gtattbig, a. believing. 

rjlc id), a. like ; equal ; 
parallel ; adv. equally ; 
immediately ; directly. 

g(eid>en, v. irr. be like. 

gleidifliiltirt., a. indiffer- 
ent. 

leidjgultigfett, /. indif- 
ference. 

ffilcidUu-i t , j. equality. 

Icid)ni, n. -fieS, -ffe. 
comparison. 

gleid)fam, <nlv. as it were. 

gleiten, v. irr. (\) glide ; 
slide. 

licl 1 , n. -e6, er. member. 

glimmcn, v. irr. glimmer ; 
glow. 

Icrfc, /., pi. -n. bell; 
clock. 

liirf, n. -eg. luck ; good 
fortune ; happiness ; 

- rounfdjen, congratu- 
late. 

gltirf lidi, a. lucky ; suc- 
cessful ; happy. 

g(iicF(id)crn>ctfc, adv. for- 
tunately. 

litrffeligfeit,/. felicity. 

gd'ilictt, v . glow ; be red- 
hot. 

futb, /., pi. -en. glow ; 
heat ; blaze. 

nflbe,/., pi. -n. pardon. 

gna'big, a. gracious. 

pit, n. -eg. gold. 

gotten, a. gold; golden; 

- retljlidj, between red 
and the color of gold. 

gotbifd), a. Gothic. 
ott, m. -eg, otter. God ; 

- Jet 3)anf, thank God ! 
gimlidi, a divine, 
rob, n. -eg, =dber. grave. 
graben, v. irr. dig. 
raben, m. -8, -aben. 

ditch; trench. 

ml 1 , m. -eg, -e. degree. 

rat", >n. -en, -en. count. 

rafin,/. , pi. -ncn. count- 
ess. 

ram, m. -eg. grief. 

gramen, v. also refl., 
grieve ; fret. 

ramma'tif, /., pi. -en. 
grammar. 

ras, n. -eel, -afcr. grass. 

grau, a. gray. 

raticn, 11. -6. horror. 

griiufam. a. cruel 



graufcn, v. impers. shud- 

der. 

raufen, n. -6. horror. 
gretfcn, v. irr. grasp ; 

seize. 

rei$, m. -eg, -e. old man. 
ren^e,/., pi. -n. liicit. 
grcttfcn, v. border. 
grcn^enlod, a. boundless. 
rted)e, nt. -n, -n. Greek. 
riedjcnlcurt, /. -g. 

Greece. 

gried)ifd>, a. Greek. 
grimnttg, a. fierce. 
grofj, a. (114, 6) great; 

large ; tall. 
grogartig, a. grand. 
ri)$c,/.,pZ. -n. size. 
rtrofictiilu-il*, adv. in a 

great measure. 
roftmutlj,/. generosity. 
grafjnriitlng, ". magnani- 

mous ; generous. 
rogmutrcr, /. grand- 

mother. 
rofjoater, m. grand- 

father. 

ruft,/., pi. -ufte. vault. 
griin, a. green. 
runb, m. -eg, pi. -unbe, 

soil ; reason. 
runMage, f., pi. -n. 

foundation. 
runMcljre, /., pi. -n. 

fundamental doctrine. 
runbfafc, in. -e, -a^e. 

principle. 
grii^cn, v. greet. 
uitanc,/.,/)?.-n. guitar. 
ult'en, rn. -g. florin. 
giilt'en, (old form, for 

gclben) a. golden. 
unft, /. favor ; kind- 

ness. 
tinftbcfeigting, /., pi. 

-en. favor ; kindness. 
giinftig, a. favorable. 
gut, a. (114, 6) good; adv. 

well ; - madjen, make up 

for ; tcieber - macfyen, re- 

pair. 
ute,/. goodness ; kind- 

ness. 
giitig, a. good ; kind. 



see ag. 

, n. -e, -e. hair. 
, #abt,f. property. 
I haben, v. aux. (77 ; 065, 
4) have. 



,f., pi. -n. hoe. 
, m. -g, ^afen. har- 
bor; port. 

^nfer, m. -g. oats. 

m. -eg, -e. hedge. 

m. -g. hail 
, v. hail. 

, n. -. thun- 
der-storm with hail. 
; fjaager, a. lean. 

bager, see 6,aager. 

^paljn, m., pi. ane. 
cock ; trigger. 

^>aInid)fH, n. -g. little 
cock. 

$ain, m. -eg, -e. grove. 

Ijalb, a. half. 

., (125, Note) pi. 
-n. half. 

, m. -eg, atfe. neck. 

fatten, v. irr. hold; 
keep. 

jammer, m. -g, jammer, 
hammer. 

^anb,/. , pi. anbe. hand. 

Ijanbeln, v. (131, 3) act ; 
deal. 

4>anMung,/., pi. -en. ac- 
tion. 

anbfdnili, rn. glove. 

ImiuH'tt, v. irr. hang ; be 
suspended. 

Iiatirt.ni, /. hang. 

^annd>en,/. Jenny. 

faring, m. -(c)g, -e. her- 
ring. 

$arb,/., pi. -n. rake. 

barmen, fi(^, v . reft, grieve. 

^armonie,/., pi. -en. har- 
mony. 

barren, v. wait. 

hurt, a. hard ; severe. 

bartbcrjig, a. hard-heart- 
ed. 

, m. -n, -n. hare. 

, /. -nuffe. hazel- 
nut. 

boffen, v. (131) hate. 

*>audi, m. -eg, -e. breath. 

baucn, v. hew ; cut. 

^aufc(n), m. -ng, (-g,) -n. 
heap ; pile ; troop 
-nroeife, adv. in crowds. 

bcitiftg, a. frequent. 

Vaiipt, n. -eg, ^tanpter. 
head. 

^aitvtmann, m. -%, Icute. 
captain. 

^auptftabt, f. -flabtf / cap- 
ital. 



536 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



l, m. -8, -e. chief 
part. 

Oaupttoort, n. -8, -aftrter. 
noun, substantive. 

nu, n. -e8, pi. auf, 
house ; ju -e, at home. 

(Kiu*d)cn, n. -8. little 
house. 

), a. thrifty, 
r, m.-n,-en. land- 
lord. 

mi*fcbluffel, m. -8. 
street-door key. 

J^aut,/., J9?. ijdute. skin. 

bcben, v. irr. lift ; raise. 

<eer, n. -e8, -e. army. 

pcerfiibrer, m. -8. gene- 
ral 

^eerb, ^eerbe, see b, 
Jjjerbe. 

$eft, w. -e8, -t. copy- 
book. 

bcftifl, a. violent. 

4?eftigfeit,/ vehemence. 

heiiett, v. bear ; cherish. 

4>eibe, m. (59, e) -n, -n. 
heathen ; /., pi. -n. 
heath. 

beilen, v. heal. 

heiliii, a. holy. 

beiliqeit, v. hallow. 

hcilfam, a. salutary ; 
heaL'ng. 

heim, adv. home. 

*eiinrttb,/. home. 

bcimlid), a. secret. 

3mtvu1t, m. -8. Henry. 

$c1ratb,/., pi. -en. mar- 
riage. 

beiriithcn, v. marry. 

IK-IB, a. hot. 

beifjen, v. tr. bid ; desire ; 
v. intr. be called ; 
mean ; toie - @ie ? what 
is your name ? 

better, a. cheerful. 

*elb, m. -en, -en. hero. 

$elbcnmutb, m. -ti. he- 
roic spirit ; courage. 

hrlr-emniitbig, a. heroic. 

iH-lfenfinn, m. heroic 
feeling ; heroism. 

lu-lu-ii, v. irr. help. 

befl, a. clear ; bright ; 
light. 

Seller, m. -8. farthing. 

>etnt>, n. -e8, -en. shirt. 

hcimncn, v. check. 

enFer, m. -8. execution- 
er. 



., pi. -n. hen. 
Oenriette, f. Harriet, 
ber, adv. hither ; here ; 

ago. 

bomb, adv. down, 
berabfallen,* v. irr. fall 

down. 
btrabfinfen,* v. irr. (\) 

sink down, 
bernn, adv. on ; near, 
berannaben,*?'. approach, 
berauf, adv. up. 
berauffteigen,* v. mount. 
berau8, adv. out. 
beraugeben,* v . irr. pub- 
lish, 
bcraiieitebmcn,* v. take 

out. 
beraudfpringen,* v. irr. 

(?) jump out. 
beraud}iebcn,* v. irr. 

draw out. 
bcrbei, adv. near ; up (i.e. 

towards a person). 
JxrbeiciUn,* v. (f) hurry 

up. 

berbei'bolcn,* v. fetch. 
berbeifd)affen,* v. bring. 
4>erbfl> m. -e3, -e. autumn. 
3erbft!ieb, n. -e8, -er. au- 
tumnal pong. 
$erb, m. -e8, -e. hearth, 
^erbe,/, pi. -n. flock 
herein, adv. in ; come in ! 
bereinf ommen,* v. irr. (f) 

come in. 
hereintreten,* v. irr. (f) 

step in. 

bcrn.n1), adv. afterwards. 
berniel'er, adv. down, 
^err, m. -(e)n, -en. mas- 
ter ; lord ; gentleman ; 

(Mr.), mein-!Sir! 
bcrrlidi, a. magnificent ; 

spl ndid. 
^errfdjaft, /., pi. -en. 

rule. 

berrfeben, v. reign ; rule, 
berftellen,* v. produce ; 

rcieber -, restore. 
beriiber,adz>. over; across, 
berum, adv. round, 
bmiiiter, adv. down, 
bcroor, adv. out ; forth. 
^eroorbringen,* v. irr. 

produce. 

^cr^, n. -enS, -en. heart. 
4>rr;eitei)riinb, m. -e8, 

-grunbe. bottom of the 

heart* 



4c>eriog, m. -8, -e. duke. 
benii, adv. hither. 
beu, n. -e8. hay. 
beucbeln, v. feign. 
beiite, adv. to-day. 
biemcbeii, "/''. here (be- 

low). 

bier, adv. here. 
bierauf, adv. hereupon ; 

after this. 
bierniis, adv. from, by 

this. 
bierbei, adv. with, in 

this. 

bicrber, adv. hither. 
bier in, adv. in here ; in 

this. 

biermit, adv. herewith. 
bieriiber, tdv. over this 

place ; at this. 
bierooii, adv. of, from 

this. 

^ilfe, (ulfe,)/. help. 
V>ilfoniittel, M.-8. remedy; 

resource. 



,p2. subsidi- 

ary troops. 

?>imniel, m. -8. heaven. 
t>iiniiH-I.bute, m. -n, -n. 

heavenly messenger. 
biintnlifd), a. heavenly. 
^in, adv. away. 
bincib, adv. down. 
binabftcijjen,* v. irr. de- 

scend ; go down. 
bt'nauf, adv. up. 
binauffabren,* v. irr. 

drive up. 
biiiauffteigen,* v. irr. 

mount. 

btnaud, adv. out. 
binausjoerfen,* v. irr. 

throw out. 
binaudfcbliipfen,* v. slip 

out. 
binaudfd)tncif|en,* v. irr. 

throw out ; fling out. 
bincin, '"/'. in. 
bineingeheii,* v. irr. go 

in. 

binreidtenb, a. sufficient. 
binreiften,* v. irr. carry 

along. 
binfcucn,* v. set; lay 

down. 
binter, a. hind ; back ; 

prep, behind. 
himerliiffett, v. irr. leave 

( behind). 
binterfi, a. hindmost. 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



537 



binubcr, adv. over ; 
across. 

tyinw, adv. to; towards; 
near. 

hiniufiigcn,* v . add to. 

bimukecit,* v. in: add. 

$irfd), i>i. -t&i -e. stag. 

$trte, *. -en, -en. shep- 
herd. 

#i$e,f. heat; ardor. 

fcod), . (109, y ; 114, 6) 
high; tall. 

bod)beriig, a. magnani- 
mous. 

^od)mutb,m.-8. haughti- 
ness. 

bod)fl, a. highest, arf. 
extremely. 

jof, . -e3, 6fe. court- 
yard. 

ftoffcn, v. hope. 

$offmmg, /., pi. -en. 
hope. 

'c, pi. courtiers. 
), . polite. 

, in. -(e)3, -e. cour- 
tier. 

4>ofm<mn, m. -8, -leute. 
courtier. 

ftoftneitfcr, m. -3. tutor. 

4>oftbor, n. (court)-yard 
gate. 

$bt)t,f.,pl. -n. height. 

hob I, a. hollow. 

$6l)lc, /., pi- -n. den; 
cave. 

$oi)n, m.. -(S. scorn. 

I) oil 1 , a. kind ; sweet. 

bofen, v. fetch ; draw. 

r, m. Dutchman. 
e,/. hell. 

\, n. -eg, 6tjer. wood. 
. wooden, 
r, rn. -8. wood- 
cutter, 
tig, a. woody. 

, m. -e, fl6jie. pile 
of wood. 

$onig, m. -8, honey. 

4>pr<U, m. Horace. 

hir.-d)cn, v. listen. 

ho'rcti, v. hear. 

4?orn, n. -(e)8, $6rne. 
horn ; bugle ; in'8 - 
ftofecn, sound the bugle. 

$ornunq, m. February. 

^ort, i. -(e)8, e. safe 
place, refuge. 

ht'ibfdi, a. handsome ; 
pretty. 



uf, in. -(e)8, -e. hoof. 
>iiKMVn, a. horseshoe, 
^iirtcl, '" -8. hill. 
3uini, . -e3, u^ntr. hen. 
.*3iil)iid)cit, n. -8. chicken. 
>ult,/. favor. 
l)ulbii)cn, v. do homage 

to. 

feiilfc, K. see tlfe. 
Q68t,f.,pl -n. cover. 
$unb, m. -(e)8, -e. dog. 
fmnbcrt, num. hundred. 
Giiiibin, f., pi. -nen. 

bitch. 

Hunger, *. -3. hunger. 
tiung(c)rig, a. hungry. 
fjungern, v. be hungry. 
Ijiipfett, v. leap, 
bufd), int. pop ! quick ! 
Jput, m. (59 e.) -e8, ^ute. 

hat. 
ut, /. (59, e) guard; 

care, 
biitcn, v. watch ; fic^ -, 

take care. 
J^iittc,/., pi. -n. hut 

id),pron. (144) I. 

ibm, pron. (144) him. 

ibn, pron. him. 

ibncn, pron. (144) (to) 
them; 3^nen (to) you. 

fhr, perspron. (140) ye ; 
to her ; jooss. adj. (73) 
her ; their ; 3r, your ; 
ber, Me, ba8 i^re, or i^rer, 
t$re, i^te8, pass. pron. 
(153) hers ; theirs ; ber, 
bie, ba8 3$re, or 36rer, 
3fyre, 3^3, poss. pron. 
yours. 

ihrige, (153) ber, bie, 
ba8. poss. pron. hers; 
theirs ; 3^rtge, yours. 

3abe,/ Iliad. 

im = in bent. 

imnur, adv. always. 

immcrbar, adv. ever ; al- 
ways. 

in, prep. (288) in; at; to. 

tnbriinfHg, a. fervent. 

inbcnt, ('(/'.'. during that 
time ; ronj. while ; as. 

inbcp, iitbcffcn, adv. in 
the mean time ; how- 
evor ; yet. 

3nbien, n. -8. India. 

3"tVmreric, infantry. 

inner, a. inner ; interior. 

3ncre, ?t. -n. interior. 



innerbulb, adv. andprep. 
within. 

itt = in ba8. 

3nfd)rift, /., pi. -en. in- 
scription. 

3nfcf t, n. -(e)8, -en. in- 
sect. 

i Sitfel,/., pi. -n. island. 
jnftrumcnt, n. -(e)8, -e. 
instrument. 

Sntercffe, n. -8, -n. inter- 
est. 

tnroenbig, adv. inside. 

irben, a. earthen. 
: irgcitb, some, or other, 
e.g., irgenb etner, some 
one, or other; irgenbs 
wo, somewhere or 
other. 

3rldnber, m. -8. Irish- 
man. 

irren, v. fti^ -, be mis- 
taken. 

3rrtbtiiu, TO. -(e)8, -iimet. 
error. 

3^tanb, n. -8. Iceland. 

3talien, n. -8. Italy. 

3talicncr, in. -8. Italian. 

ja, adv. yes ; yea. 

3agb, /., pi. -en. chase; 
hunting ; hunt. 

jagen, v. hunt ; chase. 

3ager, TO. -8. hunter. 

3abr, n. -e8, -e. year. 

3abrbunbcrt, n. century. 

jabrlid), a. yearly ; an- 
nual. 

3>immer, m. -8. misery. 

3ammergefd)rei, n. -8. la- 
mentation; cry of an- 
guish. 

3<muar, TO. -8. January. 
I je, adv. ever ; conj. je na$ 
bem, according as. 

tcbcr, j(be, tebed, dem. 
pron. (71) every ; 
each ; (ein) -er. every 
one ; anybody ; - mel 
djer. or ber, whoever. 

3ebermann, pron. every 
one ; anybody. 

iebod), conj. however. 

jemoU, adv. ever. 

jciiiatib, pron. (164, 5) 
somebody : anybody. 

jcner, jcnt, \tnti, pron. 
(71) that. 

it^tf adv. now ; at pros- 
ent. 



538 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULAKY. 



3o<b, n. -e8, -e. yoke. 

3obann, m. -8. John. 

3cbanna, f. Joanna ; 
Jane. 

3ute, MI. -n, -n jew. 

Sugent,./! youth. 

iugcntlid), a. youthful. 

3uli, in. -g. July. 

jung, a. young. 

3ungfer, f., pi. -n. maid. 

Sungfrau,/., pi. -en. vir- 
gin ; maid. 

3unggef<fl, m. -en, -en. 
bachelor. 

3ungling, M. -8, -e. youth. 

3unglingdalter, n. youth. 

iiingft, a. youngest ; adv. 
lately. 

3uni, MI. June. 

SarTee, MI. -8. coffee. 

ft line eli an*, n. (coffee- 
house) restaurant. 

ftafiq, m. -(e)g, -e. cage. 

Fahl, a. bald; bare. 

Sabn, MI. -eg, #d$ne, boat. 

Saifer, MI. -g. emperor. 

Saifcrtbum, n. empire. 

Salb, n. -(e)g, flatter, 
calf. 

SttilbSbratcn, MI. -g. roast 
veal. 

Salifc, m. -n, -n. Caliph. 

fait, a. cold. 

faltbliitig, a. cold-blood- 
ed ; ado. coolly. 

ScUte, /'. cold ; coldness. 

Sained, n. -e8, -e. camel. 

ft ii me rat, MI. -en, -en. 
comrade. 

Sam if o I, n. -8, -e, -fole. 
jacket. 

f (tinmen, v. comb. 

Summer,/, pi. -n. room. 

ttaniiitcrticncr, -8. valet- 
de-chambre. 

Scintpf, Mi. -e8, fldmpfe. 
combat 

r.inipfcii, v. fight. 

.Hiinancnpoqcl, 7/1; canary 
bird. 

Sanone, /., pi. -n. can- 
non. 

Sander, m. -8. chancel- 
lor. 

Sapefle,/., pi. -n. chapel. 

Capital, n. -()8, -ien. 
capital. 

apitdn, m. -g, -e. cap- 
tain. 



apian, m. -8, -e. chap- 
lain. 



,pl. -n. cara- 
van. 

Martina!, MI. -g, -ale. car- 
dinal. 

Farg, a. sparing ; stingy. 

Sari, Mt. Charles. 

Sarolint,/. Caroline. 

Sarmt, Mi. -g. cart. 

ft a rft, m. -eg, -. mat- 
tock, two pronged (po- 
tato) hook. 

! Sarte, /., pi. -n. card ; 
ticket. 

Sartcnfpid, n. game of 
cards. 

Sartbago, n. -. Car- 
thage. 

Sartoffe!,/., pi. -n. pota- 
to. 

Safe, m. -8. cheese. 

ft iitbolif , m. -en, -en. 

fatholifd), a. Catholic. 

Sa$c,/., pi. -n. cat. 

Sauf,Mi. -(e)8, flaufe. bar- 
gain. 

faufcn, v. buy. 

Sauftnann, MI. -(e)8, -Ieu= 
te. merchant. 

Faiiin, adv. scarce(ly). 

Seb!e,/,/jJ. -n. throat. 

fehren, v. turn. 

Fein, -er, fein, adj. no, not 
any ; flelner, -e, -8, 
pron. no one, nothing. 

fcincn>cg;e)9, adv. by no 
means. 

Fcinmal, adv. not once. 

Seller, m. -8. cellar. 

Fettnen, v. know ; be ac- 
quainted with. 

Scnner, m. -8. judge. 

fJcnntmg, /. -ffe. Tcnow- 
ledge. 

Serl, MI. -g, -e. fellow. 

Sent, m. -(e)g, -e. kernel; 
stone ; grain. 

Seffel, MI. -g. kettle. 

Ktttt,f.,pl. -n. chain. 

fiicfer, MI. -8. jaw ; /., pi. 
-n. pine. 

fticfcl, m. -8. flint ; peb- 
ble. 

Sint, n. -eg, -er. child. 

ft intciKti, Stntlein, //. -e. 
l.ttle clild. 

Sintennatcbcn, n. nurse. 

Sinterftnn, MI. child-like 
mind. 



Sinbcrfpiel, n. -8, -e. 
chila's play. 

ftintbcit, f. childhood. 
, rintifei), a. childish. 

Futtlicb, a. filial; child- 
like. 

ftinnfmcf, M. -, -e. chin- 
piece. 

-Wirdie, /., pi. -n. church. 

Sirrbbof, MI. -t&,pl. -$6fe, 
churchyard. 

Sirfcbt,/., pi. -n. cherry. 

SifTcn, n. -8. pillow. 

Stage, /., pi. -n. com- 
plaint. 

Ffagen, v. complain. 

Sfaggefcbrei, n. -eS. loud 
lamentations. 

F(ar, a. clear. 

Slaffe,y., pi. -n. class. 

Slee, MI. -8, -e. clover. 

ftlcit, . -e, -er. dress. 

Flciten, >. dress. 

ft letter, pi. clothes. 

Slcitcrburfte, /., pi. -n. 
clothes-brush. 

Skit ting, /., pi. -n. 
clothing. 

Mlcitiingaftiicf, n. -8, -e. 
clothes. 

Sleie,/ bran. 

Flein, a. little ; small. 

SkinigFcit, /., pi. -en. 
trifle. 

Sleinot, n. -(e)8, -e, and 
-ien. treasure. 

fkttcrn, r. (f) climb. 

Flingeln, >'. ring the bell. 

Flingeii, v. irr. sound ; 
tingle. 

Flopfcn, v . beat ; knock. 

Sloft, m. -e8, fllo|e. clod ; 
dumpling. 

Sfoftcr, n. -8, fllofler. con- 
vent. 

Sluft, /., pi. fllufte. gap; 
cleft ; chasm. 

Flug, a. wise ; prudent 

fthiflhcit, /. discretion ; 
wisdom ; good sense. 

Snabr, in. -n, -n. boy. 

Snnbcnalter, n. -8. boy- 
hcod. 

Snalf, ). -eg, -e. report; 
ezploalon. 

, a. scarce ; close. 
,.-(, at. -8. ball. 

Knt<ht, m. -eg, -e. slave. 

Fneifen, v. irr. pinch. 

Fncipcn, v. pinch. 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



539 



Knit, n. -(e), -e. knee. 
&nod)cn, >n. -3. bone. 
nofpe, /.,/>. -n. bud. 



cook. 

Fod)cit, v. cook ; boil. 
Coffer, m. -8. trunk. 
Stabler, m. -8. charcoal- 

burner. 
iiulpfj, //*. -ff3, -fle. colos- 

sus. 

Sffinct, m. -en, -en. comet. 
tommanbtrcn, v. a. com- 

mand. 
Fonuimi, v. irr. come ; 

come to pass. 
Compliment, n. -(e)8, -e. 

compliment. 
61113, m. -(e)8, e. king. 
Ai on iii in, /, />Z. -nen. 

queen. 

foniglid),. kingly; royal. 
6nigreid), n. -(e)8, -e. 

kingdom. 
f ounen, v. (93, 324) can ; 

be able. 

fionnen, n. -8. capacity. 
Ifopf, m. -e8, Ropfe. head. 
, M. -8. headache. 
b, . -e8, Rorbc. bas- 

ket. 
&prn, w. -e8, Corner. corn; 

rye. 

Korper, HI. -8. body. 
fprperlid), a. bodily. 
fiorperFraft, /. physical 

strength. 

Ati'Mcf, m. Cossack. 
Fofeii, v. chat. 
Soft,/. food. 
Foftbar, a. costly ; pre- 

cious. 
Soften, pi. costs ; expen- 

se(s). 

tofttn, v. cost. 
Foftlid), a. costly. 
Foftfpielig, a. expensive. 
raft, /, pi. flrafte. 

strength. 

ftraftcn, t. -8. collar. 
Fraben, ?'. crow. 
ftrollcv/, . -n. claw. 
&ranid), u'i. -e8, -c. crane. 
FnniF, ii. sick. 
fraitFcit, y. offend. 
frdnfciit 1 , adj. offending. 
Franfh'ift, '7 diseased. 
&rantt)eit,f., pi. -en. dis- 

ease ; sickness. 
a, m. -tt, -. circle. 



Fvcifclicii, n. screech. 

Ai in:;, M. -e8, -e. cross. 

f ricdu'it, v. irr. (f & fy) 
creep. 

icg, m. -(e)8, -e. war. 
, m. -8. warrior. 

friegerifd), a. warlike. 

ftric<j$)<it)laiut, n. -8, am= 
ter. army pay-office. 

^riepdminiftcr, m. -8. 
Minister of War. 

M'rttiF, /., pi. -en. criti- 
cism. 

v. crown. 
,/, pi. -en. coro- 
nation. 

Sfriirfc,/., pi. -n. Brutch. 

SJiid)e,/., pi. -n. kitchen. 

.U;id)i-n, m. -8. cake. 

(, /., ^>t -n. ball; 
bullet. 

ift,/., pZ. ffiilje, cow. 
OIc,^; coohiess ; cool. ', 

Fiibn, a. bold. 

Ftihitiici), adv. boldly. 

Stuiinncr, m. -8. grief. 

ttiinmcrlid), a. miserable. 

Stnntt,m. -n, -n. (59, E) 
customer ; f. know- 
ledge. 

Fittiffdjaftcit, v. make in- 
quiry. 

unl>fd)flfter, m. -8. spy. 

funftig, a. future. 

fitinf*,/., pi. Sunfle. art. 

Sfiinftier, m. -8. artist. 

JiunfttocvF, n. work of 
art. 

.frupfcr, n. -8. copper. 

Surfiirft, m. elector. 

fun, a. short. 

fiurjc, /, pi. -n. short- 
ness. 

it it ft c, /., pZ. -n. coast ; 
shore. 

Siiitfdjcr, TO. -8. coach- 
man. 

(aben, ?'. refresh. 

CabetmttF, in. -(e)S, -ante, 
refreshing drink. 

i*abfa(, n. -(e)8, -c. re- 
freshment. 

did)c(n, y. smile. 

ladicii, ?;. laugh ; smile. 

t'ndjd, m. -e8, -e. salmon. 

i'nbcn, m. -6, Saben, shop ; 
store. 

lat>tn,v. irr. lade; load; 
invite. 



, /., pi. -en. car- 



go- 

Sage, /., pi. -n position. 
ager, n. -8. camp. 
InSim, a. lame. 
i'alinic, m. (108, c) lame 

man. 
i'linnu, n. -c8, Cdmmer. 

lamb. 

fiampc,/., /??. n. lamp. 
Xant, n. -e8, -c, and Sons 

bet. land ; country. 
lanten, v. (130, 1) (f) land. 
anbgut, n. estate. 

m. peasant. 
./; highway. 
lang, a. long ; tall. 
Jaiti)jal)rti3, a. of many 

years. 

liiitftc, adv. long. 
Sange,/;, pZ. -n. length. 
angerocile, /. tedious- 

ness. 
Id'ngS, prep. (384, 3) 

along. 

(cmgfant, a. slow. 
fianje,/,^?. -n. lance. 
arm, m. -(e)8. noise. 
laffen,v. (326, III.) leave; 

let. 
Saft, /., pi. -en. load; 

burden; weight. 
Safier, n. -S. vice. 
Ca'fterer, m. -8. blasphe- 

mer. 

laftcrlnift, a. vicious. 
laftcrn, v. blaspheme. 
Sdftcrroort, n. blasphemy. 
lau, a. lukewarm. 
aub, n. -e8. leaves ; foli- 

age. 

aubc,.f., pi. -n. arbor. 
i'dublciu, n. -8. little 

leaf. 

ouf, m. -e8, Sdufe, course. 
laufcn, v. irr. (f) run. 
aune,/., pi. -n. humor; 

caprice. 

<m3, ./, pi. Caufe. louse, 
Inufdjcn, v. listen. 
laut, a. loud. 
la n ten, v. sound ; run. 
lebcn, v. (130, 1) live. 
eben, n. -8. life ; fur fein 

- flcrn effcn, be exces- 

siv^lv fond of. 
i'chcndnit, /. behavior; 

manners. 
ebcndgcfal)r, /. danger 

of life. 



540 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



cbendfraft,/. vital pow- 
er. 

l, pi. provi- 



sions. 

li-bluiu, a. lively. 
Vfblumintvit,/. vivacity. 
li-cf en, v. lick. 
Section,/., pi. -en. lesson. 
let'em, a. (of) leather ; 

leatuern. 
leer, a. empty. 
Iceren, v. (130, 1) empty. 
Icqeii, v. (130, 1) lay; put. 
egenbe, /., pi. -n. legend. 
el>rc, /'. , pi. -n. doctrine. 
lebren,Y (130, 1) teach. 
<l)rcr, m. -8. teacher ; 

master. 

etb, m., pi. -er. body. 
eibedfraft, /. strength 

of body. 
cid>e, /., j>Z. -n. dead 

body. 

Ieid)t, a. light ; easy. 
eib, ri. -(e)8. sorrow ; 

grief; einem ein -8 an: 

thun, injure one. 
Itit, iii'. e3 ijl, or, ttyut mir 

-, I am sorry. 
(eiben, v. irr. suflFer. 
fieibenfebaft, /., pi. -tn. 

passion. 
Inter, int. alas. 
Icihcn, v. irr. lend. 
leife, a. low ; soft. 
lei ft CH , v. do ; render ; per- 

form ; take (an oath). 
leiten, v. lead ; guide. 
etter, m. (59, E) -. 

guide; conductor. 
Setter, /., (59, E)pl. -n. 

ladder. 
c7tton, y., />Z. -en. les- 

son. 

lenfen, v. guide. 
enrer, m. -8. guide. 
enj, m. -e8, -e. spring. 
erdje, f.,pl. -n. lark. 
lernen, t;. (130, 1) learn ; 

study. 

lefen, v irr. read. 
efen, n. -8. reading. 
efer, m. -8, /. Seferin, pi. 

-nen. reader. 
leferlid), a. legible. 
U'St, a. last ; iinal. 
(extend, '.-'//'. last. 
leeterer, a. the latter. 
Icethin, adv. lately. 
leud)ten, v. shine. 



eud)ter, m. -8. candle- 
stick. 

leugnen, v. (130, 1) deny. 

X'eute, /;/. people. 

id)t, n. -(e)8, -e, and -er. 
light ; candle. 

iduftocr, m. -S, -ftode. 
candlestick. 

lieb, a. dear. 

iebe,/. love. 

lieben, v. (130, 1) love. 

Iieben0nmrtig,a. amiable. 

Vu-lu-iuMmirt'iiiFftt, j'.. pi. 
-en. amiability. 

Iteber, adv. rather ; soon- 
er. 

liebtofen, v. caress. 

lieblid), a. lovely. 

icbling, >/t. -8, -e. favor- 
ite. 
i ieb, n. -(e)8, -er. song. 

liefern, v. furnish ; give 
(battle). 

liciu'ii, /'. lie : - an, depend 
upon ; e8 Uegt mit fcaran, 
it is of importance to 
me. 

ilie,/., pi. -n. lily. 

linb, adj. soothing. 

ineal, n. -(e)8, -e. ruler. 

\mt, a. left. 

(tnfd, adv. to the left. 

ippe,/.,jt>Z. -n. lip. 

ift,/., pi. -en. cunning ; 
trick. 

ob, n. -e8. praise. 

loben, v. praise. 

lobensroerth, a. praise- 
worthy. 

t'obcaerhebmifl,/. praise. 

oe^, n. -8, Zbfyt. nole. 

lobcrn, r. blaze. 

6ffcl, m. -8. spoon. 

of)n, m. -(e)8, Soljne. re- 
ward ; wages. 

(pl)tun, v. reward; edlo^nt 
ftc^ ber 3DJu^e, it is worth 
while. 

i'li h 11 itmi, /., pi. -en. 
pay. 

006, n. -e8, -e. lot ; fate ; 
chance. 

orbeer,m. -8, -en. lau- 
rel. 

prbecrin>eig, m. branch 
of laureL 

lod, n. loose. 

lodbredKn,* v. irr. (f) 
hreak loose. 

I6fd)cn, v. extinguish. 



' Vi'tViKit 1 , .". ransom. 

lo$laffcn,* t;. irr. let 
loose ; let off. 

lodrt'ifjen,* v. irr. {td>, tear 
one's self away. 

Sotterit,f., pi. -n. lottery. 

pn>e, m. -n, -n. lion. 

6n>in, /., pi. -nen. li- 
oness. 

ucie,/. Lucy. 

ubn>ig, m. Lewis. 

uft, f.,pl. Sufte, air. 

Itigen, v. lie ; tell a false- 
hood. 

uife, /. Louisa. 

lullcii, v. lull. 

uft,/., pi. Sufle. desire ; 
mind ; pleasure. 
. gay ; merry. 

mad)fii, v. (130, 1 ) make ; 
do. 

SRacbt, /., pi. OKad}te. 
might ; power. 

mad)tig, a. mighty ; pow- 
erful ; master of. 

ajtabd)en, n. -8. girl. 

SRagb, /., pi. 2Ragbt. 
maid-servant. 

in, n. -8. maiden. 
:, m. -(e)8, and -en, 
pi. -e. magnet. 

fPtiifltictnabel,^/. magnetic 
needle. 

3Xnbl, n. -(e)8, -e, atid 
aabter, meal. 

SWai, m. -(e)8, May. 

tnaildnbifd), adj. Milan- 
ese. 

aXnjcflat, /, pi. -en. ma- 
jesty. 

SWal, n. -(e)8, -e. time. 

malen, v. paint. 

Staler, m. -8. painter. 

man, pron. (163) one; a 
man ; we ; you ; they ; 
men ; people. 

ntand), cr, -e, eS. pron. 
(105, 1; 312, 19; 103, 
Note 2) many a; many; 
some. 

mandxrlet, a. indecl. of 
several sorts ; many 
things. 

mandtmal, adv. some- 
times. 

watit. 

mangeln, v. want; be 
wanting. 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



541 



, ?. -(e)g, pi. Wan? 
ncv. ( :J, 1C) man. 

Wcmiilcin, n. -g. mani- 
kin. 

tnannlid), . masculine. 

2Jiniuifci)aft, /., pi. -en. 
crew. 

SRantel, m. -g.pl. aWantef. 
cloak. 

ajtargaretlje,/ Margaret. 

SWartc,/ Mary. 

SDtarine, /., p/. -n. navy. 

SXa'rfer, m. -8. Branden- 
burger. 

aXartt, m. -g, 2J2arfte. 
market. 

SWarftprda, m. market- 
price. 

ntarmclficincrn, a. mar- 
ble. 

tnarfd)i(e)ren, v. (127, 
Exc. 2) (f & !>) march. 

8Xarfen, p. an ancient 
tribe on the lower 
Rhine. 

j, m. -eg. March. 

., pi. -n. mask. 
$, n. e8, -e. measure. 
eff., pi. -n. mass. 

magig, a. moderate. 

ntiijjicjcn, v. moderate. 

SRd'gigt'ctt, f. temper- 
ance. 

SRaftigung, f. modera- 
tion. 

SWafjrcflcf, f. measure ; 
provision. 

SJlatrofc, m. -n, -n. sailor. 

matt, a. faint ; feeble ; 
dull. 

3attc,/, pi. -n. mat 

SRattigifcit, f. weakness. 

SKauer, f.,pl. -n. wall. 

aaul, . (-)g, hauler, 
mouth. 

SWaurer, m. -8. mason ; 
bricklayer. 

9Jtcwi, /., pi. SKaufe. 
mouse. 

SWecr, w. -c8, -e. sea. 

SWeerbufrn, m. -g. gulf. 

ystetfi, n. (-e)g, -e. flour. 

inchr, adv more. 

mclirer, a. (74, IV) sev- 
eral. 

ystfyv\tfy\, f. plural num- 
ber. 

nifitcn, v. irr. avoid ; 
shun. 

2ReiIe,/, pi. -n. mile. 



mein,pron. (18 ; 73, III ; 
144, 1 ; 33(5, U) my, of 
me ; fcer, tie, bag, - e. 
mine ; tie ajJeinen, my 
family. 

mcttifii, v. think ; mean. 

mcini^e, ber, bte, bag, a. 
(153) mine. 

TOeimitifl, f., pi. -en. 
opinion. 

metft, a. (74, IV) most ; 
am -en, adv. most. 

ittciftend, adv. mostly. 

iiu-ltcii v. milk. 

SKelobie,/., pi. -n. melo- 
dy. 

'Wcn^c, /., pi. -n. multi- 
tude ; crowd. 

SDlcnfd), m. -en, -en. man; 
mankind ; pi. people. 

menfd)cnfrcunb(id), a. hu- 
mane. 

SW<nfd)l)cit,/. humanity. 

incnfd)(ii1), a. human ; hu- 
mane. 

incrfcit, v. perceive ; -Iaf= 
fen. let know. 

9Rcrfina(, n. -g, -e. mark. 

incrtttwrbig, a. remark- 
able. 

mcfKit, v. irr. measure. 

SBleffer, n. -g. knife. 

3ttctal(,n. -(e)g, -e. metal. 

SJlc^ger, m. -g. butcher. 

mid), pron. (144, 1; 147, 
8) me ; - felbjl. myself. 

mitnt, f., pi. -n. look; 
countenance. 

im'rtfu'u, v. hire ; take. 

SfRild),/. milk. 

milb(e), a. mild ; gentle. 

SWillion, f. t pi. -en. mil- 
lion. 

minbcr, a. less ; smaller. 

SBtincrat, n. -(e)g, -e, and 
-ten. mineral. 

Wliiuitc, /., pi. -n. min- 
ute. 

mir, pron. dat. (144, 1 ; 
147, 8) me ; to me. 

mifd)cn, v. mix. 

atfd)iing, /., pi. -en. 
mixture. 

mitiuilU'ii, v. irr. dis- 
please. 

iiiiriiiii.icii, v. irr. (f) fail. 

inifuraitcii, /'. distrust. 

JJiifttraucn, >/. distrust. 

nut, adv. together with ; 
prep. (288^2)_with; by. 



1 SWitarbdter, m. fellow- 
contributor. 

2Kitburgr,m. fellow-cit- 
izen. 

SRitgefangene, m. and f. 
(108, c) fellow -prison- 
er. 

mitgcl)en,* v. go ; accom- 
pany. 

SWitlcib(en), n. -&. com- 
passion ; pity. 

mitUiMg, a. compassion- 
ate. 

SRitmcnfd), m. fellow- 
creature. 

imtttcJjmcn,* v. irr. take 
along with. 

SWitfd)uler, m. school^ 
fellow. 

aJiittag, m.-(e)g, -e. noon. 

-V.il m iH'ftVn, n. -g. din- 
ner. 

, ni.li'. at noon. 
, n. -8. means ; re- 
medy. 

tnittel, a. middle. 

niiiu'li'i, a. middlemost. 

mitten, adv. - in, in the 
midst. 

2><tttniad)t,/. midnight. 

mittcrnad)t,* v. at mid- 
night. 

mittljeilen,* v. give; com- 
municate. 

SDtittropd), m. -8, -e. Wed- 
nesday. 

mogcn, v. irr. (96, S25) 
be able ; like. 

SRoljr, m. -en, -en. negro. 

JOJuIfeii, pi. whey. 

tDiommii, m. -en, -en. 
monarch. 

9Konat, m. -(e)8, -e. 
month. 

mcnatltd), adv. monthly. 

3R6nd), m. -(e)8, -e. 
monk. 

, m. -(e)8, -e. moon. 
, HI. -g. moon- 
light. 

SWontag, m. -(e)8, -e. 
Monday. 

SWooS, n. -e8, -e. moss. 

501 oral,/, morals. 

tuoraltfd), a. moral 

SJforafi, m.-e8,-dfle. mire; 
swamp. 

SDlorb, m. -(e;8, -e. mur- 
der. 

SOterbcr, m. -9. murdexer. 



542 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



TOurgcn, m. -S. moruing. 

tnorgcn, adv. to-morrow. 

aRorgenglocfe,/. morning 
bell 

SJura.cnlaiit', n. East. 

TOorgenrotbe,/ dawn. 

tnorfd), a. rotten. 

mutt, a. weary ; tired. 

aXiibc, /, pi. -n. pains ; 
trouble. 

9Rubme, /., pi. -n. aunt. 

mubfatn, a. painful. 

9Xwrt, m. -(e)3, -e, 3Hun= 
be, and 3Kunfcer. mouth. 

iBiimffod), >n. head-cook 
(of a prince). 

munter, a. active. 

SWmitcrfcit, f. liveliness. 

tnurren, v. grumble. 

SRttrrcn, 7*. -8. grumb- 
ling. 

BtufEE,/. music. 

SWufificbrcr, rn.-S. music- 
teacher. 

TOudfel, m., and/. -, -n. 
muscle. 

nuiffen, v. (95, 329) be 
obliged ; must. 

TOuth, rn. mood ; cour- 
age ; nne rcarb iljm ju - e ? 
how did he feel ? 

ntutbig, a. courageous. 

imtrlilo*, a. discouraged. 

SRutbloftgfdt,/. want of 
courage. 

Stutter, /, pi. aflutter, 
mother. 

SWu$e,/., pi. -n. cap. 

nad), adv. - unb natty, by 
degrees ; - toie cor, now 
as before ; prep. (28o, 
2) to ; after. 

9fad)bar, m. -n, & -, pi. 
-n. neighbor. 

9tad)barin, /., pi. -nen. 
(female) neighbor. 

:iad)frem, adv. afterwards; 
con/', after. 

nad)benr<n,* v. irr. medi- 
tate. 

ttad)gebcn,* v. irr. yield. 

nacbber, adv. afterwards. 

Wad)(afi, m. -e8, -afie. ces- 
sation. 

nad)(affen,* w. irr. abate. 

nad)ldffii)> negligent ; 
careless. 

mid)lnufcn,* v. irr. (f) run 
alter. 



9tad)tntttag, m. after- 
noon. 

nadjitnittag*, adv. in the 
afternoon. 

9tad>rid)t, /., pi. -en, 
news. 

nadjifebtn,* v. irr. look 
after. 

nad)fe$en,* put after ; 
pursue. 

luuliff , a. next ; nearest. 

Sdd)fle, in. andf. (108, c) 
neighbor. 

XiidwtMiiicbc, /. charity. 

iuid)ftcn*, adv. soon. 

nad)fud)cii, v . search. 

Vtatbtff. , pi. SRa^te, night. 

9tad)tbeil, in. injury. 

iiiidHlu'ilh], a. disadvan- 
tageous; detrimentaL 

3iad)ttnnll, /., pi. -n. 
nightingale. 

?fiid>naci)e, /., pi. -n. 
night-watch. 

9Iad)tn>ad}ter > m. -8. 
watchman. 

9lacfen, m. -9. (back of 
the) neck. 

nacft, a. naked. 

/., />?. -n. needle. 
M. - 3, Stajel. nail 
v. gnaw. 

nail, italic, (114,6) a. near. 

mibbei, (/y. wi2A prep. 
close. 

nahcit, P. (f) approach. 

nabcrn, v. approach. 

nabrcii, v. feed; fu -, 
maintain one's self. 

9taf>ruitg,/., pi. -en. food. 

9{amc, m. -n, -n ; or 9ta= 
men, m. -3. name ; -8. 
by name ; called. 

it a m lid>, a. (71, I) same ; 
adv. namely. 

Warr, m. -n, -en. fool. 

Stofe,/., pi. -n. nose. 

naf , a. wet. 

Waffe,/ wet. 

9tation, /., pi. -n. na- 
tion. 

ytatur,f.,pl. -en. nature. 

9fcape(, n. -S. Naples. 

SWebel, in. -9. mist 

neben, prep, with dat. or 
ace. by ; close to. 

Kebi-itiHcnfd), rn. fellow- 
man. 

yttbtnuimmer, n. adjoin- 
ing room. 



nebH,prep. with dat. to- 
gether with. 

9?cff, in. -n, -n. nephew. 

iicbntcii, /;. irr. take. 

iii-iNi'd), i'. envious. 

ncigcn, v. incline. 

HI-MI, adv. no. 

iicmicn, v. irr. name; 
call 

9te$, n. -e, -e. net. 

nen, a. new ; eon -em. 
anew. 

nculid), a. recent ; late ; 
lately. 

iicuit, num. (119) nine. 

!iciin;cli!t, (119) nineteen. 

neuii)ig, num. ninety. 

nid)t, adv. not. 

Wid)te,/., pi. -n. niece. 

mdito, pron. (162) noth- 
ing. 

turfcii, v. nod. 

nie, adv. never. 

ttict'cr, a. low. 

nietcrbrennen,* v. irr. 
bnru down. 



low spirits. 

9?ie&er(age, /. -n. defeat. 
niet>erreifjen,* v. pull 

down. 
Micfrcrroerfen,* v. throw 

down ; ft$ -, prostrate 

one's self. 

nicMid), a. neat ; pretty. 
menial*, adv. never. 
9tomai(fc, pron. (162) 

-(e)8. nobody ; no one. 
niiiiiitcr, adv. never. 
iiiniiitcrnicbr, adv. never 

(more). 
IIP*, adv. (343, 13) still ; 

yet ; einer, another ; 

einmal, once more ; 

fo, ever so ; ni$t, 
not yet ; conj. nor. 

m. -e8, Jiortcti, m. 



-8. north. 

Jforrocjjctt, n. -9. Norway. 

Wotb, ./:, pi. 9Z6t^e and 

92ot6en. necessity ; dis- 

tress. 

Wotbburft, /. urgent 

want. 

ndtbtg, a. necessary ; - 
n, need. 

, v. compeL 
,/, pi. -en. zero. 
nun, adv. now ; well/ 
nur, adv. but ; only. 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



543 



9hif|, /., pi. SRuffe. nut. 
SHuftbaunt, m. -, -bourne. 

ni,t-tiee. 
SCiiijcii, >n. -8. use ; bene- 

iit. 
HUI.C", mieeii, c. be of 

use or service. 
), a. useful 



ob, eonj. whether. 

oben, adv. above ; on 

high ; up stairs. 
ober, a. upper ; ber, tie, 

-e. superior. 
Obcrauffcher, m. -8. su- 

perintendent. 
Oberberrfd)aft, /. sover- 

eignty. 

oberft, a. uppermost. 
obgleid), conj. though ; 

although. 
cbfd)on = ofcgleidj. 
Obft, n. -e8. fruit. 
Cdd, i. -en, -en; or Od>fc, 

-n, -u. ox ; steer. 
obe, a. empty ; desert ; 

waste. 

ober, conj. or ; or else. 
Ofen, in. -8, Cefen. stove. 
Qfenrobr, n. stove-pipe. 
offen, a. open. 
ofrcm(id), a. public. 
Officter, m. -8, -e. officer. 
offncn, v. awd ft$, open. 
Qeffuung, /, pi. -en. 

aperture. 
oft, ofterd, oftmald, adv. 

often ; frequently. 
ofter, a. frequent ; adv. 

oftener. 
Obcint, in. -(e)3, -e. un- 

cle 
oh lie, conj. and prep. 

without. 
Obnmad)t, f., pi. -en. 

swoon. 

Ohr, n. -c8, -en. ear. 
Obrring, m. ear-ring. 
per,/., pi. -n. opera. 
Orange, /., pi. -n. or- 

ange. 
Ort, m. -(e)8, -e, a/i<Z 

Ocrter. place. 
Oft, m. -e. east. 
Ocftreid), M. -8. Aus- 

tria. 
Oeftreider, m. -8. Aus- 

trian. 

oftreid)ifd|, a. Austrian. 
inb, m. east-wind. 



, . -(e)8, -e. pair ; 
couple ; em -, (52, 2 ) a 
lew. 

m. andf. -(e)8, -e, 
aU gia^ten. 
lease. 
Vndjtgut, n. lease-hold ; 

farm. 

pad)tcn, v. rent. 
4)arf, /. awd n. -(e)8, -e, 
ad ^drfe. pack ; n. (no 
pi.) rabble. 
Vactdtcti, n. -8. small 

packet ; parcel, 
parfcn, v. seize. 
'ViiiK, in. -n. -n. page, 
^alaft, m. -(e)8, ^oldpe. 

palace. 

Van toff el, m. -8, -n. slip- 
per. 

n. -(e)8, -e. paper. 
i. -vS, gSdpjie. pope. 
n. -e8, -e. para- 
dise. 

Varifer, .. -8. Parisian. 
'Vaj?, wt. -fje8, $af}e. pass- 
port. 
'Vathe, . and f. -n, -n. 

godparent. 

Vein,/., /?/. -en. torment. 
Verle, /. , pi. -n. pearl ; 

bead. 

Vcrfon, /., pi. -tn. per- 
son ; on - fennen, know 
by sight. 

Vetfdjaft, n. -S, -e. seal. 
1 , m. -(e)8, -e. path. 

, m. -(e)8, 
pole ; post. 

,/. Palatinate. 
, w. -(e)8, 
pledge. 
Vfanne, /. , pi. -n. pan. 
Vforrci, /., pi. -en. par- 
ish. 
Vfau, wt. -e8, -en, p?. -e, 

-en. peacock, 
pfeifen, v. irr. whistle. 
Weil, in. -(e)8, e. arrow. 
Pferd>, m. -(e)8, -e. fold. 
Werb, M. -(e)8, -e. horse. 
Wertcften, w. -8. little 

horse. 

Vftrftd), m. -(e)8, -e. 
peach. 

, f.,pl. -n. plant. 
, v. plant. 
,/., /?Z. -tu plum. 
. care, 
pflegcn, v. enjoy._ 



id)t,f., pi. -en. duty. 
pfltirfen, v. gather ; pick. 
i, y - plough. 
n. -(e)8, -e. pound. 
tn. -en, -en. 

philosopher. 
Vbilofopbie, /. -n. philo- 

sophy. 
philou'phiiM), a. philo- 

sophic (al). 

pboni^ifd), a. Phoenician. 
pieten, v. pick. 
Vilatud, in. Pilate. 
"Vilrtcr, m. -8. pilgrim. 
plagcu, v. plague; tor- 

ment. 
"Vlnti, m. -(e)8, -e. plan ; 

design. 

%Miinct, ??i.-en, -en. planet. 
plan, a. flat. 
pfae ! int. crack ! 



square; place. 
plaubern, v. talk. 
ploeltd), adv. suddenly. 
plump, a. clumsy. 
piiinbcrn, v. plunder. 
"VluMbertnijj, /., pi. -tn. 

plundering. 

podKii, v. beat ; knock. 
Voli)ei,/. -en. police. 
IMm-iMener, m. -8. po- 

liceman. 

polnifd), fi. Polish. 
portion, /., pi. -en. por- 

tion. 
Voft, /., pi. -en. post- 

office. 
9>rad)t,/. splendor ; mag- 

nificence. 

prii'ditifl, a. magnificent. 
prod)too(I, a. magnifi- 

cent. 
prangcn, v. shine; dis- 

play. 
Vrafifrcnt, m. -en, -en. 

president. 

Vrebigt,/. -en. sermon. 
Vreid, tn. -e8, -e. prize. 
preifen, v . irr. praise. 
preffcn, v. press. 
'Vn-ii^c, m. -n, -n. Prus- 

sian. 
Vreufgen, n. -S. Prussia. 

, a. Prussian. 
, m. -en, -en. prince. 
effin, /., pi. -nen. 

princess. 
Vrior, m. -. prior. 

f f.,pl. -n. trial 



544 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



Vrobucf t, n. -(e)8, -e. pro- 
duct 

profatt, a. profane. 

tyromnn,f.,pl. -en. prov- 
ince. 

prufcti, v. put to the trial. 

Vublifuiit, >t. -g. public. 

pubern, v. powder. 

"ViiUn-r, 7t. -g. powder ; 
gunpowder. 

<VimFt, m. -(e)8, -e. point 

ptinftlicb, a. punctual. 

puecn, v. clean. 

Vtjrendcn, />/. Pyrenees. 

final, r' , pi. -en. distress ; 
torment ; pang. 

fiuarj, m. -eg, -e. quartz. 

Cuelle, /., pi. -n. well; 
fountain. 

qticr, adv. across. 

Cuirl, 7. -(e)g, -e. twirl- 
ing-stick. 

Rabe, m. -n, -n. raven. 

Rabenneft, n. raven's 
nest. 

9ta<be,f. vengeance. 

racfocn, v. revenge ; 
avenge. 

Rad)eti, 7>t. -8. mouth. 

Rab, n. -(e)g, SKater. 
wheeL 

Rdbertoerf, n. clockwork. 

raffen, (aufraffen,) v. 
snatch up. 

Rant*, m. -(e)8, SRanfcer. 
edge ; margin. 

9taft(e)rmefFcr, n. razor. 

raffeln, v. rattle. 

Math, m. -(e)8. advice. 

ratben, v. advise. 

9tatbfd)lag, m. -(e)8, -age. 
advice. 

Watte,/., pi. -n. rat. 

rauben, v. rob ; prey. 

Waubcr, m. -8. robber ; 
highwayman. 

9taubtrti,f., pi. -en. rob- 
bery. 

Raud), m. -eg. smoke. 

ruiidicn, t>. smoke. 

9taudxn, re. -8. smoking. 

rducbcrn, v. smoke. 

raub, a. rough. 

Rauin, m. -(e)8, 9iaume. 
room ; space. 

9t<iupt,f.,pl. -n. caterpil- 
lar. 

auf djen, v. rush ; rustle. 



, /., jt>?. -n. vine; 
vine-branch. 

vine-grow- 
?. -en. bill ; 
account. 

redjt, a. right. 

3ted)t, n. -(e)8, -t. right ; 
justice; - tyaben, be 
right 

rcd)tfertigen, v. justify. 

rcd>n rt)affcM, a, just ; 
honest. 

9*ed)tfd)affenbeit, /. hon- 
esty. 

rcdus, adv. to the right. 

rcrf en, v. stretch. 

ytebt, /., pi. -n. speech ; 
discourse. 

Jiel'cfafrf it, m. thread of 
discourse. 

rtten, v. (130, 1) speak; 
talk. 

9^e^enart, /, pi. -en. 
phrase. 

n-Mid), a. honest. 

9te^ner, . -S. orator. 

iWcfornt, y., ^>t -en. re- 
form. 

Reformation, /, pL -en. 
reformation. 

yit$t\,f.,pl. -n. rule. 
m. -g. rain. 



i. rainbow. 

9tegenfd)irnt, m. -(e), -e. 
umbrella. 

rcgimn, v. (127, Ex. 2) 
govern. 

Rcgierung, /., pi. -en. 
government; reign. 

r cii it i' ii, v. rain. 

9tt<}un8,f.,pl. -en. move- 
ment. 

9teb, n. -(e)8, -e. deer. 

rcibcn, v. irr. rub. 

rtid), a. rich ; wealthy. 

Reid), n. -(e)8, -e. empire ; 
kingdom. 

fteidK, m. (108, c) rich 
man. 

rricblid), a. liberal. 

Reid)tbuin,/.-(e)8 ; -umer. 
riches ; wealth. 

reif, a. ripe. 

Reif, m. -(e)8, -e. hoar- 
frost 

Reife,/. maturity. 

Reib<, /, pi. -n. rank; 
turn. 

Rciben, in. -4. dance. 



9tcim,m. -(e), -t. rhyme. 

rein, a. clear. 

tviiiiiu'ii, v. clean. 

SNci*, tn. -e. rice 

9ttiit,f.,pl. -n. journey; 
travel ; voyage. 

reifen, v. (130; 131, 2) 
travel 

5Weifent>e, m. (108, c) trav- 
eller. 

reiften, v. frr. rush ; pull ; 
tear ; an fi$ -, seize 
upon. 

fteitpfert, n. saddle- 
horse. 

reitcn, v. irr. ride ; go on 
horseback. 

Wciter, n. -8. rider ; 
horseman. 

reiicn, i 1 . charm. 

rctinen, v. irr. run, 

Wefenx, /., pi. -m. re- 
serve. 

Weferocforp*, n. reserve 
corps. 

retten, v. (130, 1) save; 
rescue. 

yttue,f. repentance. 

rcuen, v. repent ; regret ; 
e8 reut mid), I regret. 

Revolution, /, pi. -en. 
revolution. 

9tbcin, m. -%. Rhine. 

ridjten, v. direct ; ad- 
dress ; judge. 

Wid)tcr, m. -g. judge. 

Miditiioiid, n. court- 
house. 

rid)tig, a. right ; duly ; 
correct 

ricdu-ii, v . irr. smell. 

9ticgel, in. -8. bar ; bolt 

Riefc, in. -n, -n. giant 

iff, . -(e)8, -e. reef. 

'Stint f it. -(e)8, -et. beef; 
ox. 

9ting, m. -(e), -e. ring. 

ringen, v. irr. struggle; 
wrestle. 

ringdum, adv. all around. 

rinnen, v. irr. (f) flow : 
leak. 

SWitter, m. -. knight 

rod)eln, v. rattle (in the 
throat). 

Wocf, m. -(e)8, SRotfe. coat 

rob, a. rough ; rude. 

Wobr, 7t. -(e)8, -e, and 
9ictyre. reed ; tube. 

9tr>ttt,f.,pl. -n. roll. 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



545 



rotttn, v. (f) roil ; [i$ -, 
roll (up) ; curl. 

Wo in, 7i. -8. Rome. 

ttontaii, . -(e)8, -r. no- 
vel. 

ftomonje, /, pi. -n. bal- 
lad. 

Vtomer, m. -8. Roman. 

Wofe,/, >Z. -n. rose. 

rofig, a. rosy. 

Wt>8, 71. -ffe8, -ffe. horse. 

rotl), a. red. 

iWptbe,/. redness; blush. 

ri.it hi idi, a. reddish. 

9tiibe, f. turnip ; get6e -, 
carrot ; rotfye -, beet. 

9tubin, m. -(e)8, -e. ruby. 

ftutfen, m. -8. back. 

9tudttl)r,f. return. 

rurflingd, adv. back- 
ward(s). 

rubcrii, v. (131, 3) row ; 
pull. 

Wubolf, m. -8. Rudolph. 

9tuf, m. -(e)8, -e. call ; 
reputation. 

rufen, n. irr. call ; -laffen, 
send for. 

9lut)e,f. rest. 

rtibig, a. quiet ; calm. 

iiKiibnt, m. -(e)8. glory; 
fame ; honor. 

riilmii, v. stir ; touch. 

riil) rent 1 , a. affecting. 

runt, a. round. 

Sftuffe, m. -n, -n. Rus- 
sian. 

9?ufl(<inb, 72. -8. Russia. 

SHufter,/. elm. 

<2>aal, m. -(e)8, die. hall. 

2aat,/., pi. -en. seed. 

Sadie, /., pi. -n. case ; 
matter. 

2 a cine, w. -n, -n. Saxon. 

Siidiu n, M. -8. Saxony. 

fad)ft'fd), a. Saxon. 

fudjtc, a. slow. 

2ocf, i. -e8, d<fe. bag. 

aft, >/i. -e8, aftc. sap. 

fagen, n. say ; tell. 

'2alpeter,//<. -8. saltpetre. 

2So[?, . -e8, -e. salt. 

^unu'(n), n. -n, -n8, -(3), 
joZ. -n. seed. 

fainmtttd), a. all. 

Zamftai), m. Saturday. 

Saiiiuni, m. -(e)S, -e. si- 
moon. 

t, a. Saint. 



, m. -(e)8, -e. sand. 
2iinb|ladK, ./'. -n. sand- 
])lain. 

fanft, a. soft. 
Zaufrlteit, Zntiftiiuuh, /. 
softness ; gentleness ; 
meekness. 

vSanqcr, MI. -8. singer. 

<2ara,/. Sarah. 

a^, in. -e8, a^e. sen- 
tence. 

fauer, a. sour. 

fcmgen, i. ir> - . suck. 

faugen, v. suckle. 

2iniijliiii}, m. -(e)8, -e. 
baby. . 

&iiiile,f., pi. -n. column. 

f.iufcln, v. rustle ; mur- 
mur. 

<2>d>aar,f.,pl. -en. troop; 
band ; tiock. 

fd>aaren, />. assemble. 

, m. -(e)8, -e, awd 
. shaft. 

, m. -n8, (-8), 
cfyaben. damage ; loss. 

fd>abcn, v. injure. 

fd>aMid), a. injurious ; 
hurtful. 

<Zd>af, n. -(e)8, -e. sheep. 

<2d)afer, m. -8. shepherd. 

2 di afc rin, /., pi. -nen. 
shepherdess. 

fd)affcit, v. irr. create ; 
reg. do ; work. 

Sdj.ile, /., pi. -n. scale 
(of a balance). 

fd>a(fcn, v. sound. 

<2d)am,/. shame. 

fd)aincit, fi(^, v. reft, be or 
feel ashamed. 

3d)4itbe, /. shame ; dis- 
grace. 

fd) in I 1 fid), n. infamous. 

fdjarf, a. sharp. 

3d)cirfc, /. sharpness ; 
acuteness. 

fd)arren, v. rake. 

3rtv.ittcti, m. -8. shade. 

3d)ii(j, m. -e8, c^oge. 
treasure. 

fd)Jieeit, v. (131, 2) value; 
esteem. 

d)ii^graber,m. treasure- 
seeker. 

2d)a^nieiftcr, m. treasu- 
rer. 

fd)auen, '. look. 

2.ci>auni, m. -(e) 
me. froth. 



. (e)8, -e. 
spectacle. 

d)iiufpicler, m. -8. actor. 

Zdnwfpidmii, /, pi. 
-nen. actress. 

Sdjeere,./'., pi. -n. (a pair 
of) scissors. 

fd)eer<n, v. irr. shear. 

Zdtcibc, f.,pl. -n. pane. 

fd)eibcii, ^. irr. depart ; 
separate ; divide. 

2dKin, m. -(e)8, -e. pre- 
tence. 

(M)ciiu-ii, v. irr. shine ; ap- 
peur. 

fdjcitcrn, v. be wrecked. 

d)elm / m.-(e)8, -e. rogue. 

fd)c(tcn, v. irr. scold ; 
chide. 

*d)id)t, f.,pl. -en. layer. 

fdm'Fen, v. send. 

3d)id*fa(, n. -(e)8, -e. des- 
tiny. 

fd)ieben, v. irr. push. 

3d)iegputoer, n. -8. (gun-) 
powder. 

, v. irr. shoot. 
, 7i. -(e)8, -e. ship. 

<2d)iffeiv m. -8. mariner. 

d)iffniaii!t, m. (rare) 
sailor. 

2d)tff 6ntaniifd)aft, /. , pi. 
-en. crew. 

m. -(e)8, -e. 7id 
-er. shield ; n. (59, #) 
sign. 

<3d)ilt>n>ad)e, /., pi. -n. 
sentinel. 

fd)il>mi, v. picture. 

d)iHing, m. -(e)8, -e. 
shilling. 

Zdiiiniiu-v, m. -6. lustre. 

fd)inipfcn, r. abuse; in- 
sult. 

fd)impf)id), . disgraceful. 

fd)tnt>rn, v. flay. 

3d)infcn, m. -8. ham. 

3d)(d)t, /"., pi. -en. battle. 

fd)l<id)tett, w. (130, 1) kill. 

<3d)lad)tfc(t>, n. battle- 
field. 

2d)Lii1)ti(i'tiiiiniicf, n. -t. 
(lin of battle. 

2d)laf, m. -(e)8. sleep. 

fdilafcn, v. irr. sleep. 

fd)laf(e)rig, a. sleepy. 

fd)lafern, v. irnpers. e4 
fc^lafcrt inic^, I am or 
feel sleepy. 

fdjlaff, a. alack ; relaxed. 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



-a$er. bed-room. 
fcdilaffnbinct, n. -8, -e. 

bed-chamber. 
<2dtIiif;hmiuT, n. bed- 

room. 



g, m. -(e)8. -age. 

blow. 
fcfclagen, v. irr. strike; 

beat ; defeat. 
fdihuif, a. slender. 
fitikdn, a. bad ; wicked. 
2dilcd)ttgfeit,/. badness ; 

iniquity. 
fdilcidKii, v. irr. creep ; 

sneak. 

fdilctfcii, v. drag. 
fdileifeii, v. irr. grind ; 

sharpen. 

(dilic^cn, v. irr. lock (up). 
fdilingeti, v. irr. twine ; 

twist. 
<2d>loft, n. -fte8, -offer. 

castle ; palace ; lock. 
fd)(ud)ien, v. sob. 
2d)lumincr, //(. -8. slum- 

ber. 

fdilijpfcit, v. slide. 
2d)IiR, m. -ffe8, -uffe. con- 

clusion. 

<2d)luffc(, m. -8. key. 
<2d)liiFfolqc,/. reasoning; 

conclusion. 
<2d)lufjfctte, /, pi. -n. 

chain of reasoning ; ar- 

gument. 

<2d)iiiad),/. insult. 
fdiniahcn, v. abuse. 
fd)imiblid), a. ignomini- 

ous. 
<2d)iiiiiu$, m. -eS, -aufe. 

banquet. 
diiiirid)flci, /, pi. -en. 

flattery. 

fdiiiKidH'lit, v. flatter. 
v2d)iiicidilcr, >n. -8. flat- 

terer. 
fd)mcifjcit, v. irr. smite ; 

dash. 
fd)ind}cii, v. irr. melt ; 

dissolve. 
<2d>mcn, m. -e8, and -en8, 

-en. pain. 

f dwierien, v. ache ; grieve. 
d)mcfterling, m. -(t)9. 

butterfly. 
fd)tnr tttrn, v. crack; dash; 

clang. 
ed)iniet>, m. -(e)8, -e. 

wnith. 



i'd)iiiic>)cit, v. crouch ; jul) 
an -, cling to. 

fdinitirfcii, v. adorn; de- 
corate. 

rdintuiMi;, a. dirty. 

2d)iioe, w. -8. snow. 

fd>nciben, v. irr. cut. 

2dmertcr, m. -8. tailor. 

fdincicn, v. snow. 

uliiicll, a. quick ; swift. 

fdmupfcn, v. take snuff. 

fd) on, id// 1 , already. 

fd)6n, a. fine ; beautiful. 

Zdii'iilicit, /., pi. -en. 
beauty. 

3dioofi, m. -e8, -e. lap. 

2d)6pfcr. m. -8. creator. 

d)ottlanber, m. -8. 
Scotchman. 

Sdminf, m. -(e)8, -anfe. 
cupboard. 

^dininfc, /, pi. -n. bar- 
rier. 

fdm-rfcii, v. frighten. 

2d)ri'cfcii, m. -8. terror. 

fdm-cf lid), a. terrible. 

2d)fci, nt. -e8, -e. cry ; 
scraam. 

d)reib(md), n. copy- 
book. 

fdin-ibi-ii, v. irr. write. 

3duvibcii, n. -8. letter. 

idnvifii, v. irr. cry. 

2d)fcincr, m. -8. joiner. 

fdjrdtcn, w. irr. (f) stride ; 
step. 

2d)rift, /., pi. -en. writ- 
ing ; works. 

Sdinftftcllcr, m. writer; 
autlior. 

2diritt, m. -(e)8, -e. step ; 
pace. 

3d)iih, m. -(e)8, -e. shoe. 

2d)uhtiiad)cr, ///. -8. shoe- 
maker. 

d)ult>, /., pi. -en. debt ; 
fault ; blame ; guilt. 

fdmlbfod, a. innocent. 

fdmlfrin, a. indebted ; 
owing ; - fetn, owe. 

Sdmlbi^fcit,/. debt; ob- 
ligation. 

2d)tilc,/., pi. -n. school. 

Zdniler, m. -8. scholar ; 
pupil. 

2d>uIter,/,^>Z. -n. shoul- 
der. 

, m. -peg, <$ufie. 
shot. 

,. -n, dish. 



fdiiittt (n, v. shake. 

. e3. protection. 
, m. -n, -n. rifle- 
man ; shot. 

fdjroadj, a. weak ; f eeble. 
v2d)Wii3er, m. -8, -dger. 

brother-in-law. 
direcigerin, /., />Z. -nen. 

sister-in-law. 
fd)iviiufcn, v. (t> and f; 
wave ; vacillate. 

, j.-e8,-anje.tail 
m. -c8, -drme 



fdjtoar;, a. black. 
fdnocbcii, v. hover ; float 
-2d)mebcn, n. -8. Sweden. 
2d)icif, in. -(e)8, -e. tail 
fdiiDci^cti, v. in: be silent. 
2ii)iocii]cii, >i. -8. silence. 
2d)roctn, n. -(e)8, -e. hog; 

Pig- 

d)ttij,/. Switzerland. 
3d)tt>fiicr, m. -8. Swiss. 
fdttpellcn, v. irr. (\) swell. 
fdjrocr, a. heavy ; seri- 

ous ; hard. 

fdimcrlid), a. scarcely. 
2d)rocrt, n. -(e)8, -er. 

sword. 
2d)icflcr, /., pi. -n. sis- 

ter. 
2d)iDicflcrfof)n, m. son- 

iti -law. 

fdiroierifl, a. difficult. 
<2d)tt>icrii)tctt, f. -en. dif- 

ficulty ; objection. 
fditoiniuicn, v. irr. swim. 
fdutMiiJvIn, /'. grow giddy. 
fd)n>iiibcn, v. irr. (f) van- 

ish ; die away. 
I'dmnmicii, v. irr. swing. 
fd)n>i6cn, v. sweat. 
fdttviircit, v. irr. swear. 
Scl.mc, m. -n, -n. slave. 
clat>erei, /. slavery. 
fed)*, a. six. 
fcdifte, a. sixth. 
U'di;cliit, a. sixteen. 

, a. sixty. 
, w. -8, -en. lake. 
2cc,/, p^. -en. sea. 
2ccle, /., pi. -n. soul; 

spirit. 

2c((cutc, pi. seamen. 
2cc!iiiinn, m. seaman. 
'. id, n. -8. sail. 
K tcin, v. ($ and f) sail. 
2cjeti, m. -8. blessing; 

prosperity. 



VOCABULARY. 



547 



$<gendnmnfd), m. bene- 
diction. 

Segler, ///. -8. sailor. 

fegncn, v. bless/ 

feben, ?;. irr. see. 

Sebne,/., /' -n. sinew. 

fcbneii, v. reft. fid) -, long. 

Sebneit, n. -8. longing ; 
desire. 

fd)n(id), a. longing; ar- 
dent. 

febr, adv. very ; much ; 
very much. 

feiben, a. silken. 

Seil, n. -(e)8, -e. rope. 

2eiler, m. -8. ropemaker. i 

fein, -e, -tS.pron. (18; 73, i 
III; 144, 3 ; 336, 3) his ; 
its ; of him ; of it. 

fein v. irr. (see Index) (f) ! 
be ; v . aux. be ; have. [ 

feinetroillcn, adv. for his 
sake. 

feinige, ber, bie, ba8, pron. 
(153) his ; one's ; ba8 -, 
one's (own) property ; 
bie -n, one's own. 

feit, prep. (283, 2) since ; 
-roann ? how long ? 

feitbem, adv. since that 
time ; ever since ; 
(conj.) since. 

eite, /., pi. -n. side ; 
page ; quarter. 

feitroarts, adv. sideways. 

felbft, a. (148, > ; 148, 9, i 
11 ; 163, 3) self; irf>, 
Wit -, I myself ; we ; 
ourselves ; adv. even. 

felbftftanbig, a. independ- 
ent. 

@elbftfud)t, /. selfislmess. 

felig, a. happy ; blessed. 

Scligfeit, /. happiness. 

feltcn, a. scarce ; adv. 
rarely; seldom. 

feltfam, a. strange ; odd. 

emmel,/, pi. -n. roll. 

fenben, v. irr. & reg. send. 

enf, w.-(e)8, -e. mustard. 

fen fen, v. lower. 

9tnft,f.,pl. -n. scythe. 

fcBcn, v. set ; put ; place. 

fid), pron. (144, 4: 147, 
8) himself ; herself ; it- 
self ; themselves ; each | 
other ; to himself, to 
herself, etc. ; yourself ; i 
to yourself. 
r, a. safe. 



Sid)erbeit,/. security. 

ft'dierlid), itdi<. surely. 
Zicilien, /<. -9. Sicily. 
fit, pron. (144,3) she; 

her ; it ; @te, (145, 2) 

you ; they ; them. 
Sieb, n. -(e)8, -e. sieve. 
fiebcn, a. seven. 
ft'ebicftn, a. seventeen. 
fteb;ig, a. seventv. 
fi'ctcn, v. in: boil. 
<2ieg, m. -(e)8, -e. victory. 
, 11. -8. seal. 
m. -. conqueror. 
n. -(e)8, -e. signal. 
3iibcr, n. -k. silver. 
nlbcrbdl, a. bright as 

silver. 

ftngen, v. irr. sing. 
finf en, v. irr. (f) sink. 
Zitm, m. -(e), -e. sense; 

feeling ; meaning. 
fi'nnrcid), a. ingenious. 
finitcn, v. think ; medi- 

tate ; reflect. 
Sitte, /., pi. -n. custom ; 

pi. morals. 
ficcn, v. irr. sit. 
2t(ae, see Sclatc. 
fo, adv. ami so, then, why; 

conj. as ; provided ; 

(rcl. pron.) who, 

which ; -etrcaS, such a 

thing. See Index. 
fobafr, adv. -aid. as soon 

as. 

fogar, adv. even. 
fogleid), adv. directly. 



, m. -(e)8 

son. 

26hiilcin, n. -%. little son. 
fold), -er, -e, -eS. pro/i. 

(72, 2) such. 
2ulfriit, m. -en, -en. sol- 

dier. 
follcn, v. (95 ; 329) shall ; 

ought ; is said ; is to. 
Summer, m. -8. summer. 
funberbar, a. singular. 
fonbern, conj. (209, Xote 

2) but. 
onnobcnb, m. -8, -e. 

Saturday. 

omie,/., pi. -n. sun. 
Sonneufd)ein, in. sun- 

shine. 
&onntag, m. -8, -e. Sun- 

day. 
fonft, adv. else ; other- 

wise; formerly. 



orge,/., pi. -n. care, 
furgcn, .'. take care, 
fcrgeiib, et. cartful. 
forgfciltig, a. careful. 
HMiH'hl, - a!8 (au^), con). 

as well as. 

ipniiicti, n. -8. Spain. 
Spanicv, i. -8. Spaniaid. 
fpotincn, v. strain , 

stretch ; bend, 
fparcn, v. lay or put by. 
Sparre(n), m. -n8, -n. 

rafter. 

fparfam, a. economical 
iSparfamfeit,/. economy, 
fpat, a. late. 
Spiiten, . -8. spade, 
fp liter, adv. afterwards; 

lat; r. 
fpdtcftend, adv. at the 

latest. 
, fpaji(e)ren, v. or -ge^en, 

take a walk, 
fpajiercnrdtcn,* take a 

ride. 

Spa^icrgang, m. walk. 
2pecf, m. -(e)8. bacon, 
fpeien, v. spit. 
Speife,/., pi. -n. food, 
fpcifcn, i'. eat ; dine. 
Spiegel, m. -8. mirror. 
Spiel, n. -(e)8, -e. play ; 

game. 

fpielcn, v. play. 
Spieler, m. -8. player. 
, Sptd*eug, n. plaything. 
Sptiuit, M. -(e)8. spinage. 
Spiitne, /., pi. -n. spi= 

der. 

fpinncn, v. irr. spin. 
Spital, n. -(e)8, -filer. 

hospital. 
Spi>e, /., pi. -n. top; 

lit- a 1 ; lace, 
fplittern, v. splinter. 
Spurn, m. -(e)8, peren. 

spur. 

fpprnen, v . spur. 
fpornftreid)8, adv. full 

peed 
Spradje,/.,p?.-n. speech; 

language. 
! (Zpriidjlejjrer, m. teacher 

of languages. 
fprcdien, r. irr. speak. 
Sprcdnibung, /. -en. ex- 

eic'sc in speaking. 
Spreu,j: chaff. 
Sprid)roort, n. proverb. 
j fpriegen, v. irr. (f) sprout. 



548 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



fpringen, v. irr. (\ and 6.) 
burst ; spring ; bound ; 
jump. 

eproffe,/.,/jZ. -n. round 
of a ladder. 

prud), m. -(e)8, -ucb.e. 
saying. 

fpriiben, v. emit sparks; 
dart. 

Spule,/., pi. -n. spool 

Spur, /., pi. -en. trace; 
track. 

2taat,m. -(e)8, -en. state; 
finery ; dress. 

Staatagebeimnifi, n. state 
secret. 

tab, m. -(e)8, -dbe. staff. 

Stadu-l, m. -8. sting. 

&tatt,f.,pl. -dbte. town; 
city. 

tab"l, m. -(e)8, -ab.le. 
steel. 

tablfe$r,/steel-spring. 

Stall, m. -(e)8, -atte. sta- 
ble. 

Stallftied)t, m. -6, -e. 
hostler. 

Ctainm, m. -(e)8, -amme. 
trunk. 

fhunnten, c. see afmammen. 

9tanb, ,u. -ei, -antic, sta- 
tion. 

tanbartc, /., ^>J. -n. 
standard. 

ftanfrbaft, a. firm. 

ftarr, a. strong ; heavy ; 
hard. 

9tdttt,f. strength. 

ftarfen, v. strengthen ; 
brace. 

ftarr, a. stiff. 

flatt, prep. (284, 3) in- 
stead of. 

ftattfinben,* take place. 

Staub, m. -<>8. dust. 

Staube, /., 2>l- -n. shrub. 

ft<d)en, v. irr. prick ; 
sting. 

Sterfnabcl, /., />?. -n. 
pin. 

ftcefcn, v. stick ; put 

Sttg, m. -(e)8, -e. (nar- 
row) foot-path. 

fie hen, v. irr. stand. 

fteblm, v. irr. steal. 

flcigen, v. irr. (f) mount ; 
nse. 

ftet^ern, v. raise. 

$tein, m. -(e)3, -e. stone. 

fltincrn, a, stone. 



! Steinhanfi-(n), in. heap of 
stones. 

m-iiiiiiit, a. stony. 

Sicllc, /., pi. -n. place; 
situation ; spot. 

ftcllctt, v. put ; place ; fufc. 
-, pretend. 

Stempcl, m. -8. stamp. 

fterben, t;. irr. (f) die. 

fierblid), a. mortal. 

Stern, m. -(e)8, -e. star. 
; Stcrnd)eii, n. -8. little 

star. 
i ftembell, a. starry. 

ftete, adv. always. 

Stctier, n. -8. hehn. 

fti-ueni, v. steer. 

Sticfcrei, /., pi. -en. em- 
broidery. 

fiicbeti, v. irr. (\) fly 
about 

Stiefel, m. -8, pi. tiefel 
or -n. boot 

ftill(c), a. still ; quiet. 

StiHe,/. stillness; calm. 

ftitlen, V calm; appease. 

Stillfdm'ciftdi, n. -8. si- 
lence 

ftillfiBen,* v. sit stilL 

Stimmc,/, pi. -n. voice. 

ftinfen, v. irr. stink. 

Stint, /, pi. -en, (-n.) 
forehead. 

Stort, w. -(e)8, -ocfe. 
stick; cane; story. 

Stod*dKn, n. -8. little 
stick. 

toff,m. -(e)8, -e. matter; 
stuff. 

ftplj, a. proud ; pride. 

stork. 

ftoren, v. disturb. 

Storcnfrieb,m. -8, -e. dis- 
turber. 

S tc$, in. -c8, -6pc. thrust ; 
shock. 

ftcfjm, v. irr. (f) push; 
thrust ; butt. 

Strafe,/., pi. -n. punish- 
ment. 

firafen, v . punish. 

ftraff, a. tense. 

Strahl, m. -(e)8, -en 
beam. 

Stranb, m. -(e)8, -e. 
beach. 

Strafje,/., pi. -n. street. 

Strattd),m.-(e)8, -r 
bush. 



Strauft, n>: -(e)8, -t. 

trich. 
Straufi, m. pi. 

bunch ; nosegay, 
ftrebeu, v. strive; seek; 

. -8. tendency. 
ftreefeit, v. stretch. 
Strcid), m. -(e)8, -t. 

stroke ; lash. 
t'tmdtdn, v. stroke. 
ft ri-idu-n, v. irr. rub ; 

stroke ; spread. 
Streif, m. -(e)8, -e ; or 

Streifcn, m. -8. streak. 
Sti-cit, m. -(e)8, -e. quar- 
rel ; contention, 
ftn-itcn, v. irr. contend ; 

quarrel. 

firm i;, a. strict ; severe. 
Strenge,/. severity. 
Strict, m. -(e)8, -. cord ; 

ropo. 

ftricfen, v. knit 
Strictna^l, /, pi. -n. 

kuilting-needle. 
Strob, n. -e. straw. 
Strohhut, m. straw-hat 
Strom, in. -e8, -erne. 

stream. 

flromcn, v. flow. 
Stitcf , n. -(e}8, -e. piece ; 

part. 

Sttibent, m. -en, -en. stu- 
dent. 

Stt^ten, pi. studies. 
fh^i(e)rcn, v. (127, Ex. 

2) study. 
Stubl, m. -(e)8, -fible. 

chair. 

ftuntm, a. mute. 
fluntpf, a. blunt. 
Stunbc, /., pi. -n. hour ; 

lesson. 

fiunMid), a. every hour. 
Sturm, m. -(e)8, -urme. 

storm. 

flurmcn, v. storm ; rage, 
ftiirmifd), a. stormy. 
Sturmtoinb, m. heavy 

gale. 
fiiir^cn, v (\) tumble; 

rush. 

fud)cn, v. seek. 
Siit, in. -eS. sowth. 
fiiMid), " southern. 
Siibofttoinb, ni. south- 
cast wind. 

SiiPitmib, m. south wind 
3unime,/.,j9Z.-n. amount 
niiiiiucn, c. hum ; buzz. 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



549 



,/., pi. -n. sin. 

uiiiNid), a. .sinful. 

Cuppe,/., pZ. -n. soup. 

fi'ifj, ". sweet. 

3iitfii)fcit, /., />. -en. 
bwoutness ; pi. , sweet 
things, e.g., candy. 

t)lbe,/., pi. -n. syllable. 

SabaF, m. -8, -c. tobacco. 

t'.itvlu, v. blame. 

SaMcr, m. -8. fault-finder. 

Safe!,/, pi. -n. table. 

lag, r'n. -e3, -e. day ; am 
antern -e, the next day ; 
6ei -e, by daylight ; e8 
nrirb -, the day breaks. 

tagen, v. dawn. 

td'glid), adv. daily. 

t.anne,f.,pl. -n. fir-tree. 

Samicbaum, m. fir-tree. 

Xante,/., pi. -n. aunt. 

San), m. -e8, Idnje. dance. 

tnn^cn, v. dance. 

San;ntcifter, m. dancing- 
master. 

tapfcr, a. brave. 

Sapferfcit, /. bravery ; 
valor. 

Safd)c,/, pi. -n. pocket. 

Safd)cntud), n. (pocket) 
handkerchief. 

Xnffe, /. , pi. -n. cup. 

Sa$e, /., p?. -n. paw. 

San, n. -e8, -e. rope. 

taub, a. deaf. 

Saubc, /., jZ. -n. pigeon. 

tatifcn, v. baptize. 

taugen, v. be of use ; do. 

taufrt)cn, v. deceive ; dis - 
appoint. 

taufetrt, num. (120, 5) 
-(e)8, -e. thousand. 

Seller, m. -8. plate. 

Sepptd), m. -(e)8, -e. car- 
pet. 

Sf)a(, n. -e8, -otcr. valley. 

Sbaler, m. -8. thaler. 

Sljat, /. , pi. -en. deed ; 
action ; act. 

tbcitig, ". active. 

Sfoiitigfcit,/. activity. 

Ibiiit, w. -e8, -e. dew. 

ihiiucn, v. eS ttunt, it 
thaws ; dew is falling. 

Xhciiter, n. -8. theatre. 

31)cc, ' -()8, -e. tea. 

Ibcetaffc, j. tea-cup. 

S^eiJ, m. and n. -(e)8, -e. 
part ; party. 



tlu-ilt'ii, i>. divide ; share. 

tlK-iliiciinicnt', .;. sympa- 
thizing. 

Jhciliii'linuiiig, /. sympa- 
thy. 

tlu-ncr, a. dear. 

Shier, n. -(e)8, -e. animal. 

Ilior, w. -en, -en. fool. 

-Jhur, ?i. -(e)8, -e. gate. 

2hprl)cit,/.,/>^. -n. folly. 

thovidjt, a. foolish. 

70}tant,f., pi. -n. tear. 

X^ron, m. -(e)8, -e. 
throne. 

Sl>roitbcf)ciguitg, /. ac- 
cession to the throne. 

tlntn, v. irr. do. 

Sl)ur(e), /.,//. -n. door. 

lininn, m. -(e)8, -urme. 
tower. 

tief, a. deep. 

Siefe, /., pi. -n. depth; 
abyss. 

ticfgcbiicft, a. bowing low. 

Siger, m. -8. tiger. 

Xinte, f., pi. -n. ink. 

linti-iifaR, //. inkstand. 

Xifd), /i. -e8, -e. table. 

SitcJ, wi. -8, title. 

od)ter, /., j?. Stouter, 
daughter. 

Xpdjtcrlcin, n. -8. little 
daughter. 

< 5:o^, m. -e8, -f. death. 

Xp^c^fa^, in. death. 

totcsnmtljig, a. death- 
defying. 

tobt, a. dead. 

ti.il 1 ten, v. kill. 

Sottciigrabcr, m. -8. 
grave-digger. 

tobtlid), a. deadly. 

tof(, a. mad ; insane. 

Son, m. -(e)8, Stone, 
sound. 

Sornifler, m. -8. knap- 
sack. 

Srad)t, /, pZ. -en. cos- 
tume. 

tra'gc, a. lazy ; idle. 

tragcn, v. irr. bear ; car- 
ry ; take ; wear. 

Ird'ghcit,/. laziness. 

Sranf, m. -fe)8, 
drink. 

tnniffii, v. give drink; 
water. 

Sraube, /, pi. -n. bunch 
of grapes. 

trmicn, v . trust. 



Srauer,/. mourning. * 

trauern, v. mourn. 

Xrauni, in. -(e)8, Sidume. 
dream. 

mumicii, v . dream. 

traurig, a. sad. 

Sraurigtctt,/. sadness. 

traut, a. beloved. 

treffcn, v. in: strike ; hit ; 
touch. 

Sreffen, n. -8. battle. 

trefflid), a. excellent ; 
capital 

trcibcn, v. irr. drive; 
carry. 

mmicn, w., also reft, sep- 
arate. 

Srennung, ,/'. separation. 

Srcppc, /., pi. -n. stair- 
case. 

trcten, v. irr. tread. 

treu, a. faithful ; true. 

Sixuc,/. fidelity. 

treulod, a. faithless. 

trculid), adv. truly. 

Srieb, m. -CO 3 / - im- 
pulse. 

triefen, v. drip. 

trinfen, v. irr. drink. 

Srinfen, . -8. drinking. 

Shumpt), m. -e3, -e. tri- 
umph. 

Sriump!))itg, m. trium- 
phal march. 

Srompcte, /, pi. -n. 
trumpet. 

Sropf, m. -e8, Slropft. 
simpleton. 

Sropfen, m. -8. drop. 

Srofl, m. -e8. consola- 
tion. 

Sro^, m. -e8. defiance. 

tro?, prep. (284, 3) in 
spite of. 

troijen, v. defy. 

Sro^fopf, m. sulky or 
obstinate person. 

triibe, a. dull ; gloomy. 

Sriibfrtl, n. and/., pi. -e, 
and -en. sorrow ; mis- 
ery. 

Srtimmer, pi. ruins. 

trunfcn, a. drunk. 

Xruppen, pi. troops. 

Sud), n. -(e)8, Zu^et. 
cloth. 

Xugci^,/. -en. virtue. 

tiigcnMuift, a. virtuous. 

Tiirtc, m. -n, -n. Turk, 

Surfei,/. Turkey. 



550 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



tin, m. -en, -en. ty- 
rant. 
Sprier, m. -6. Tyrian. 

Ucbel, n. -8. evil. 

iibcl, a. evil ; ill ; sick ; 
sickly ; adv. badly. 

Ikbcltluucr, m. -g. evil- 
doer. 

iiber, prep. (2-S6, 404) 
over ; above ; on ; at ; 
about. Prefix, V34. 

u'bcraH, <id. everywhere. 

iibcrbictcn, v. irr. out- 
bid. 

iiberbringcn, v. irr. bear ; 
deliver. 

iibcrfricfc, adv. besides. 

iibcrtriiffig, a. tired; dis- 
gusted. 

ubereilt, a. rash. 

iibercinfommen,* v. irr. 
agree. 

iibereinftimmcn,* v. agree. 

Ucberciuftimmung,/. har- 
mony. 

iiberfaUcn, v. irr. fall 
upon ; surprise. 

Ucberfluf?, m. -ffe8. abun- 
dance. 

iibcrfubrcn, v. convict. 

Ucbergung, m. -(e)S, -gan= 
ge. transition. 

fibergcben,* v. irr. go 
over. 

iibcrlrtffcn, v. irr. leave. 

uberlegen, a. superior. 

iibcrmanncn, v. overpow- 
er. 

ubermorgen, adv. day af- 
ter to-morrow. 

iibcrtieliiiicn, v. irr. un- 
dertake. 

Uebcrrocf, m. -(e)8, -rode, 
greatcoat. 

iibcr'0 = u6er baS. 

iiberfcbreiben, v. irr. in- ' 
scribe. 

iibcnMnittcn, ''. load. 

ul'er|M)it>einmen, v. over- 
flow. 

uberfe^en,* v. cross. 

iibcrfcecii, v. translate. 

Ueberfeenng, /., pi. -en. 
translation. 

ubcrtragen, v. transfer. 

^bcrtrcffcn, >:. irr. sur- 
pass ; excel. 

dbertrriben, v. irr. exag- 
gerate. 



ubertmnben, v. irr. over- 
come. 

iiber;euijen, v. convince. 

iibrt'g, u. spare ; remain- 
ing ; other. 

Ucbuitg, /, pi. -en. exer- 
cise. 

Ufer, n. -. shore ; coast ; 
bank 

llbr, /., pi. -en. clock ; 
watch ; rctcmel tfl bic 
U^t ? what time is it V 
jmet -, two o'clock. 

um, prefix (334) ; prep. 
(283, 1; 399, 404) 
around, about, by; um 
ju, (353, b; 366, IV.) 
in order to ; to. 

um unt> urn, adv. over 
and over. 

umamten, v. embrace. 

umbrtngen,* v. irr. kill. 

iininillcn, v. irr. fall 
down. 

umfhmcrtf, v. flutter 
around. 

Untgattg, m. -(e)8. inter- 
course. 

umgcinglid^, a. sociable. 

umgeben, v. irr. sur- 
round. 

umgurten,* v. a. gird 
round. 

umbangcn,* v. put on. 

umlKuieit,* v. irr. cut 
down. 

umber, adv. around. 

umbulien, v. envelop. 

umfcbren,* v. turn back. 

umfommen,* v. irr. (f) 
perish ; be lost. 

umringcn, v. Burround. 

ttinfiiiltiigcti, v. irr. em- 
brace. 

umfonft, adv. in vain. 

Untftant'aivim, //. adverb. 

llmftebenbcn, pi. by- 
standers. 

umftcden, v. surround. 

llnttt>cn^en,* v. turn 
round. 

umroerfen,* v. irr. over- 
turn. 

umroolfen) v. cloud. 

umfucten, v. flash around. 

unabbcingig, a. indepen- 
doiit. 

uitacbtfam, a. careless. 

Uitiidnfainf cit,/. heedless- 
ness. 



unartig, a. naughty. 
tin iiut'b 6 rli^, n. incessant. 
unaufmcrffam, a. inat- 

tentive. 
Uiuuifiiu-ftfiimfeit, /. in- 

attention. 



a. ncon- 

siderate. 
unbcbingt, a. uncondi- 

tional. 
iinbcfncNiit, a. unsatis- 

fied. 
usibegreiflicb, a. incom- 

prehensible. 

unbcf aunt, a. unknown. 
unbemerft, a. unnoticed. 
iiubffc Jinm t, a. indefinite ; 

undecided. 
unbciocglid), a. immov- 

able. 

unb, ronj. and. 
unerfdttiid), a. insatiable. 
Unfall, m. -(e), -fotte. ac- 

cident. 
un$taA)tct,prep. in spite 

of. 
ungead)tet, conj. al- 

though. 

Ungetulb,/". impatience. 
unget>ult>i'g, a. impatient. 
ungefabr, about; nearly; 

Bon -, adv. by chance. 
mi -cbcticr, a. prodigious. 
ungercd)t, a. unjust. 
Ungercd)tigfdt > /. injus- 

tice. 
ungefdn'dft, a. unskilful ; 

awkward. 

ungcfeben, a. unseen. 
ungefhim, a. stormy ; 

tierce. 

ungefunb, a. unhealthy. 
ungcroobnlid), ". unusual. 
llngliid?, n. -(e)S. misfor^ 

tune. 
unoji'icf (uh, a. unhappy ; 

unfortunate. 
Ungltid'efan, m. accident; 

misfortune. 
Uniiu'rfitii't, /, pi. -en. 

university. 
llnf often, pi. costs ; ex- 

penses. 

unhiftig, a. disinclined. 
ii iiiHiuii(irf), a. unmanly. 
uiitnoiftig, n. excessive. 
Unntci^igfett, /. excess; 

immoderateness. 
itniitcinMtlid), a. inhuman. 
unmbglid), a. impossible. 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



551 



miimi tbii|, a. ill-humored. 

uitnatiirlid), a. unnatural. 

unnotbig, a. unneces- 
sary. 

mimic-, a. useless. 

u it urgent lid), a. disorder- 
ly. 

llnort'miitii, /., pi- -en- 
disorder. 

unrcd)t, a. wrong. 

Uitrcd)t, n. -(e)8. wrong ; 
injustice ; - tyabcn, be 
wrong. 

iiurc.Klinujjui, a. irregu- 
lar. 

imrcif, . unripe. 

llnrubc,/. uneasiness. 

Hiiruin,), a. uneasy. 

und, pron. (144, 1) us; 
to us ; ourselves ; to 
ourselves. 

llnfd)u(t>, /. innocsnce. 

uufdmlN'g, a. innocent. 

itnfer, pron. (18; 144,3; 
336, 3) our, ours, of 
us ; ber, tie, bag unfere, 
unf(e)rtge, ours. 

unftd)cr, a. unsafe ; un- 
certain. 

unftcrblid), a. immortal. 

unten, adv. below ; down- 
stairs. 

unter, prefix (234) ; prep. 
(285, 4; 405) under; 
among ; a. under ; low- 
er. 

mucrbrcd)cn, v. irr. inter- 
rupt. 

untcrbringcn,* v. irr. 
lodge. 

tmtcrgcbcn,* v . irr. (f) go 
down ; sink. 

iintcrbaltcn, v. irr. enter- 
tain ; ftdj - mit, amuse 
oneself, converse with. 

Unterbaltung, /., pi. -c.t. 
keeping up. 

wntert)attteln, v. negoti- 
ate. 

untcrtrtifd), a. subter- 
ranean. 

untcrjodKti, v. subjugate. 

unterlicgcu, v. irr. (i) suc- 
cumb. 

untcrncbntcn, v. irr. un- 

dcrtah . 

Untcrncbmcn, n. -6. cr 
Untirnu- initial ii, /., pi. 
-en. undertaking; en- 
terprise. 



Unterrebitng, /., pi. -en. 

conference. 
Unrcrrid)t, in. -(e)8. in- 

struction. 
untcrrid)ten, /. inform ; 

tcfich ; instruct. 
untcrfd)crten, v. irr. dis- 

tinguish. 
unterfdjrdben, v. irr. sub- 

scribe ; sign. 
untcrfinfen,* v. (f) sink 
untcrft, . lowest. 
uirtcrfldjen,* v. irr. stand 

under. 
imtcntelu-ii, ficfy, v. reft. 

irr. dare ; venture. 
unterfircid)cn, v . irr. un- 

derline. 

iiiitcrftiiucit, v. support. 
Hiitcrftiieimg,/. support. 
uittcrfudictt, v. examine. 
imtertban, a. subject. 
Uittcrtlmit, m. -S, and-tn, 

-en. subject. 

tintcrthanifl, a. humble. 
untertrcten,* v. irr. (f) 

take shelter. 
untcriocgd, adv. on the 

way. 
unterroerfen, v. irr. sub- 

mit ; ftdj -, yield. 
Umerroerfung, /. subjec- 

tion. 

untbdtig, a. idle. 
itiu'ibcrftciiifid), a. insur- 

mountable. 
ttntibertrcfflict), a. unsur- 

passable. 

unocrbicnt,. undeserved. 
ttitocrroanbt; a. mit -en 

?lugcn, steadfastly. 
unt>cr)agt, <<. undaunted. 
Unvcnagt()cit, f. intre- 

pidity. 
uttviollFf ittiiicit, a. imper- 

fect. 



-en. imperfection. 
unoorfid)tig, a. incau- 

tious; careless. 
Uiunn-ftd)ttgfcit, /., pi. 

-en. imprudence. 
miwafir, a. untrue. 
Umimhrlicit, /., pi. -en. 

falsehood. 

unrocit, ado. not far. 
UnroiHc(n), in. -n3, (-%.) 

indignation. 
unroobl, a. unwell ; indis- 

posed. 



im;ahlbiir, u 
innumerable. 

un^tifriet'en, a. discon- 
tented. 

iippi;!, a. luxuriant. 

urfpriinglid), a. original ; 
primitive. 

Urtiml, . -(e), -e. judg- 
ment ; sentence. 

urtl)cilcn, v. judge. 

SJatcr, m. -, SBater. 
father. 

ivitcrlaitt 1 , n. native 
country. 

'iV'ild)cii, n. -. violet. 

oerabreben, v. (also refl.) 
agree upon. 

t>crabfd)cuen, i>. abhor. 

crad)ten, v. despise. 

t>era'd)t(id), a. contemp- 
tible. 

oernltcn, v. (f) grow old. 

uerdnbcrn, v. (also refl.) 
change ; alter. 

Seranterung, /., pi. -en. 
change. 

orraiilaffcn, v. cause. 

neraiiftnftcn, v. prepare. 

vcrbanncn, v. banish. 

ocrbannt, a. exiled. 

35crbanntc, m. and f. 
(108, c) exile. 

ocrbergcn, v. irr conceal; 
hide. 

oerbeffcrtt, v. improve ; 
correct. 

SStrbcffcrung, /., pi. -en. 
improvement. 

oerbicten, v. irr. forbid. 

ocrbmfccn, v. irr. bird or 
tie (up); unite ; oblige. 

t>crb(cid)CH, v. irr. (f) turn 
pale. 

ocrbraud)ctt, v. consume ; 
use. 

35crbrcd)cn, n. -8. crime. 

93erbunt>ctc, in. and f. 
(108, <) uily. 

t>crtad)ttfl, a. suspicious. 

ucrterbcii, v. irr. (}) epoil. 

$crfarbcn, n. -S. destruc- 
tion. 

crbtd)tcn, v. condense. 

uct^iciictt, v. earn ; de- 
serve. 

95erl>icnfl, in. -(c)8. earn- 
ings ; gain ; n. -(f)S t 
-e. merit. 

ucrboppdn, v . double. 



552 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



txrbriefjen, v. irr. vex ; 
grieve. 

oerctjrnt, v. admire ; 
honor ; revere. 

SJmljrer, m. -8. worship- 
per. 

Ofrfinctt, vcrdnigen, v. 
(also reft. ) unite ; com- 
bine. 

93f reinigtfii 2iantcn, (Me) 
pi. LI nited States. 

95f rfaffer, m. -8. author. 

oerlfl)lcn, <. lose ; miss. 

of rlolgcn, v. pursue ; per- 
secute. 

of rfiitmn, v. mislead ; 
tempt. 

vergangen, a. past ; last. 

3krftangciil)ctt, / past. 

oerflf bcit, v. irr. forgive ; 
pardon. 

ornif bf us, adv. in vain. 

Bergebung,/. pardon. 

vcrgcbcit, v. irr. (f) go 
away ; pass away ; die; 
fid) -, commit a fault. 

Dfrgdtfn, v. irr. reward. 

on flcucit, v. irr. forget. 

ttcrgtcftcn, v. irr. shed. 

oergiftfn, v. poison. 

Ofrgldd)en, v. irr. com- 
pare. 

ttrgnugen, v. please. 

Skrgniigen, n. -8. plea- 
sure. 

ocrgnugt, a. pleased. 

otrgroftern, v. increase. 

oerbnlten, v. irr. fid) -, to 
be; conduct one's self. 

93trbfllniifj, n. -fic8, -ffe. 
circumstance. 

ocrbnfit, a. hateful. 

or rbdmthf n, v. marry ; 
fid> -i get married. 

of rbdfjf n, v. irr. promise. 

t*rt)6bnen, v. deride ; 
scorn. 

of rbmtiicrn, v. (f) starve. 

txrirren, v. loseone's way. 

Skrirrung, /.,/>. -en. er- 
ror. 

Dtrjiingen, v. restore to 
youth. 

SSerfaiif, m. -(e)8, -faufe. 
sale. 

Of rfoufen, v. sell. 

SSerfebr, m. -(e)8. inter- 
course. 

perfcnnen, v. irr. mis- 
take. 



, ,-. acuse. 

ocrfloren, v. brighten. 

ocrflart, a. glonfied. 

wrflingen, v. irr. die 
away. 

ocrf lulu'ii, v. boil away. 

ixrfiinb(ig)en, v. foretell. 

txrlangett, v. desire ; ask. 

&crlangcn, n. -8. longing; 
desire. 

txrloingcrn, v. prolong. 

vcrlarocii, v. mask. 

oerlaffen, v. irr. leave ; 
forsake ; ftc - ouf, rely 
upon. 

iVdciicnlKtt, /., pi -en. 
embarrassment. 

9ScrUger,w.-8. publisher. 

iHTlcihcn, v. irr. lend; 
confer upon. 

pcrlcucij, v. hui't 

oerleumten, v. calumni- 
ate. 

oerfimn, v. irr. lose. 

tu'i-lolincii = lofmcn. 

aSerluft, m. -(e)8, -e. loss. 

ocrmchrctt, v. (also reft.) 
increase. 

ticrmcibcn, v. irr. avoid. 

tHTiiiicthcii, v. let. 

lu-nmfdKit, v. mix ; min- 
gle. 

frmiffen,w. miss; regret. 

oermogen, v. irr. be able. 

&ermdgen, n. -8. faculty ; 
fortune. 

oermutnmen, v. disguise. 

iH-rmmhlidi, a. probable. 

ocrtt ndylii f figcn , v. neglect. 

piTiiclinicn, v. irr. hear. 

ocrniducti, v. annihilate ; 
spoil. 

aSernunft, /. reason ; 
sense. 

of rpflidyfctt, v. fi<^, engage; 
bind one's self. 

tf rrnthen, v. betray. 

ajtrrdtfter, m. -8. traitor. 

wrrrfifeti, v. (\) go on a 
journey. 

oerfagcn, v. refuse. 

or rf a mine In, v. [id?, assem- 
ble. 

SJerfatmnhing,/., pi. -en. 
assembly. 

of rfdinffen, v. procure. 

oerfdmrren, v. bury. 

oerfdMebtn, t;. irr. putofF. 

f tfdiif bf it, a. different ; 
various. 



oc n'd)lif$cn, v. irr. shut; 
close. 

of rfdtlingfn, v. irr swal- 
low (up) ; devour. 

oerfdjontn, v. spare. 

ofrfd)iocigcn, v. irr. keep 
secret ; conceal. 

of rfdjwif iibi-ii, v. lavish ; 
squander. 

t>crfd)n>inben, v. irr- (f) 
disappear ; pass away. 

95erfd)n>immg, /,/?. -en. 
conspiracy. 

txrfeljen, [t(^, v. reft. irr. 
make a mistake ; ex- 
pect. 

2Jfrffl)fn, n.-S. oversight. 

ocrffiigcn, v. parch. 

of rfffecn, v. put ; place ; 
answer. 

93erfe$ung,/,.pZ. -en. re- 
moval. 

oerfjdiertt, v. assure ; ftd?, 
seize ; ascertain. 

9Serftd)rung, /., pi. -en. 
assurance. 

ocrfifgeln, v. seal (up). 

ocrfinfcit, v. irr. (\) sink 
(down). 

oerforgen, v. provide for. 

or rfpatcn, v. delay ; fid) -, 
be too late. 

otrfpiflfti, v. lose (at 

play)- 

t>erfpred)en, v. irr. pro- 
mise. 

Skrfprecfeett, n. -8. pro- 
mise. 

crfpiiren, v. feel; per- 
ceive. 

SBerftanb, m. -(e)8. un- 
derstanding; intellect; 
judgment ; sense. 

oerftatibifl, a. intelligent ; 
discreet. 

ofrftanMid), a. intelligi- 
ble. 

oerftefjen, v. irr. under- 
stand. 

wrftogen, v. irr. reject; 
cast ofF. 

erflr<id>en, v. (f) expire. 

Skrfud), m. -(e)8, -e. ex- 
periment. 

of rfiidjfn, v. try. 

Vfmid)nng, /., pi -en. 
temptation. 

ocrthf ibigcn, v . defend. 

oertiltifit, v. exterminate, 

ocrtrcuien, v. trust 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



553 



Bertrauen, n. -8. confi- 
dence. 

ocrtrauf, a. confidential. 

ocrtrdben, v. irr. expel. 

ocmrfadxti, v. cause ; oc- j 
casion. 

ocrurtbcilcn, v. condemn; 
sentence. 

ocrn>ad)fen, v. (f) grow to 
or together. 

t>croad)en, a. deformed, j 

of rmabreu, v. keep (safe- 
ly). 

ocrroanbdn, v. (also reft. ) 
change; turn. 

oerroanbt, a. related. 

Bcrroanbte, m. f. (108, c) 
relation ; relative. 

oeroerfen, v. irr. throw 
away ; reject. 

ocrtvcfcn, v. (f) die out ; 
decay. 

ocrnwnbcn, v. wound. 

oerounbern, v. a. aston- 
ish ; be astonished. 

95ernwnfd)ung,/., pi. -en. 
curse. 

ocr^agen, v. (f) despond. 

oerjaubern, v. enchant. 

vertebral, v. consume. 

vcr^eiben, v. irr. pardon ; 
forgive ; excuse. 

Cer^eibung,/. pardon. 

cr$n>dfeln, v. despair. 

SBenroetflung,/. despair. 

SSetter, m. -8. cousin. 

Die!, a. (103, Note 2; 341, 
7; 114, 6) much; pi. 
many; adv. much. 

mdmcbr, adv. on the con- 
trary. 

oidlddjt, adv. perhaps. 

ier, num. four. 

oicrcrlci, adv. (121) of 
four different sorts. 

oicrtc, fourth. 

oiert(e)balb, (125, Note) 
three and a half. 

SSicrtd, n. (124, 5) -8. 
quarter ; ein - auf ?ed)S, 
quarter past five. 

oicrtcns, adv. fourthly. 

vicr)cbn, num. fourteen. 

oicr^ig, num. forty. 

%pcal, m.. -(e)8, -e. vowel. 

9Sogd, m. -8, 936gel. bird. 

SBoif, n. -(c)8, Solfcr. 
people ; nation ; crowd ; 
- ba8 gemeine, the popu- 
lace 



oofl, a. full. 

vpllbringcn, v. irr. ac- 
complish ; perform. 

ootltg, a. entire ; com- 
plete. 

vpHfptnmen, a. perfect. 

oom = con bem. 

von, prep. (400, 11 ; 405) 
from ; of ; in ; by. 

oor, prep. (285, 4) be- 
fore ; of ; ago. 

oo ran, adv. before. 

prangdjcn,* go before. 

t>pran$fagen,* v. predict ; 
foretell. 

DprauSfchcn,*i>.zrr. fore- 
see. 

oprbct, adv. past ; over. 

oprbeigcbcn,*fl. irr. pass 

by- 

oorbctreitcn,* v. ride past. 

oorbcrcitcn,* v. prepare. 

orber, a. fore; front. 

vorbcrfic, a. foremost. 

oorcntljalten,* v. irr. 
withhold. 

aSorfoII, m. -(e)8, -fattc. 
occurrence. 

2Jorgefc$te, m. (108, c) 
superior. 

orbabn,*0. irr. intend. 

Corbabcn, n. -8. design ; 
intention. 

ajorliaiig, m. -(e) 
curtain. 

opr^er, adv. beforehand. 

oprljcrfeben,* foresee. 

oorbin, adv. before; just 
now. 

95prh.pf, m. -(e)8, -^ofc. 
porch. 

oprtg, a. preceding ; for- 
mer. 

oprfpinmcn,* v. irr. ap- 
pear ; seem. 

oprlefen,* v. irr. read 
(aloud). 

aSormittag, m. -(e)8, -e. 
morning. 

uprmtttagg, adv. in the 
morning. 

aSormunb, m. -(e)8, -mun= 
bet. guardian. 

ajprratb, m. -(e)8, -ratfye. 
stock ; store. 

oor'e = we ba8. 

ajprfa^, m. -e8, -fafee. de- 
sign. 

SJprfdjetn, m. jum - loms 
men, appear, 



&prfd)(ag, m. -9, -ige. 

proposal. 

95p rfehung,/. providenoa 
95prfid)t,/. precaution. 
oprft'dmq, a. cautious. 
prfid)tmagregel, /., pL 

-n. precautionary mea- 

sure. 

SBprflcftcr, m. -8. director. 
oprftcHcn,* v. represent ; 

fidj -, imagine. 
&prfte((ung, /. , pi. -en. 

representation ; re- 

monstrance. 
2kmbdl, m. -(e)8, -e. ad- 

vantage. 

oprtrcfflid), a. excellent 
opriiber, adv. past ; over. 
oprtvartd, adv. forward; 

on. 
oprroerfcn,* v. irr. re- 

proach. 
Rprroprt, n. preposi- 

tion. 
ajprnwrf, m. -(e)8, -nwrfe. 

reproach. 

,* exhibit. 



SBaare, f. , pi. -n. mer- 

chandise. 
toad), a. awake. 
2Bad)c,/. , pi. -n. guard. 
ttnidn-n, v . watch. 
28iidia, n. -e8. wax. 
road)fatn, a. watchful. 
tpnd)fcn, v. irr. (J) grow. 
2Bad)tcr, m. -8. watch- 

man. 

Wiirfcr, a. brave ; gallant. 
SBaffe,/., pi. -n. weapon. 
roagen, v. venture ; risk ; 

dare. 

SBagcn, m. carriage. 
2Baf)I,./"., pi. -0. choice. 
rcablcn, v. choose. 

, m. -(e)8. error. 
a. insane. 
-, a. true. 

, prep. (284, 3) 

during; conj. while. 
roafjrftaft, adv. in truth. 
SBabrhdt, /., pi. -en. 

truth. 
laahrnditncn, v. irr. per- 

ceive. 
tabrfd)citilid), a. prob- 

able ; likely. 

SBSaife, /., pi. -n. orphan. 
SBalb, m. -e8, 

wood; forest, 



554 



GEiiMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



28 nil, m. -e8, 38fifle. ram- 
part. 

SBaHfiifd), m. -eg, -c. 
whale. 

2Ba(Inuft, /., pi. -nufie. 
walnut. 

!*,/., pi. 3Banbe. wall, 
t, v. go ; walk. 

SBanbercr, m. -8. wan- 
derer ; traveller. 

nwitfcrn, v. wander. 

2SntiI>mmn, /., pi. -in. 
wandering. 

SBmigc, /", pi. -n. cheek. 

nmnn, adv. (274) when. 

28 op pen, n. -5. arms ; 
coat of arms. 

roartn, a. warm ; hot. 

58drntc,/ warmth. 

roarncn, v. warn. 

tinmen, v. wait. 

nnmitii, adv. (150; 165, 
3 ; 155, ! ) why. 

roaS, pron. (155, 165) 
which ; that ; what ; 
- au*, - immer, - nur, 
whatever ; something ; 
-furetn, (73,2; 151, 2, 
3) what ; what kind of. 

ttmfdKn, n. irr. wash. 

SEBaffer, w. -8. water. 

rocbcn, v. irr. soar ; 
weave. 

roccfcn, v. wake. 

roetdn, v . wag. 

roel'er, conj. neither ; - . . . 
nodj, neither . . . nor. 

28eg, m. -(e)8, -e. way ; 
road ; means. 

roeg, adv. away ; hence. 

tvegtn, prep. (284, 3) on 
account of. 

rocgflicgcn,* v. irr. to fly 
away. 

rocgnefjmen,* v. irr. take 
away. 

roegroerfcn,* v. irr. throw 
away. 

roeb, ndv. - t$un, to ache. 

58cf), n. -cS. pain ; mis- 
ery. 

nb(e), tn<. wo! woe! 

roe b en, v. blow. 

SBcbnmtb, /. grief ; sad- 
ness. 

SBeib, n. -(e)8, -er. wo- 
man ; wife. 

roctblid), a. feminine. 

tocicbcn, v. irr. (f) yield ; 
give way. 



SBeicbbeit,./'. softness. 
aStafrc, /., pi. -n. wil- 
low. 
tvcigern, v. ft*, refuse ; 

decline. 
SBcigerung, /. refusal ; 

denial. 

2Bcibc, /, pi. -n. conse- 
cration. 

tvcibcn, ?'. consecrate. 
38cibnad)t(n, m. /. n. 

Christmas. 
tocil, conj. because ; 

since. 

aScile,/. while. 
5Bcin, m. -(e)8, -e. wine. 
25citibcrfl, m. vineyard, 
I'.H-incii, v. weep, 
nrcife, a. wise. 
SBeife, m. (108, <) wise 

man. 
2Bcife,yi, ^)?. -n. manner; 

way ; tune. 
rocifen, v. irr. show. 
2Bctet)ctt,/. wisdom, 
ircip, . white. 
SBeigicug, n. -(e)8, -e. 

linen. 
tweit, a. wide ; large ; far ; 

far off; - iinb brett, adv. 

far and wide ; on - em, 

from far. 

SScUen, m. -8. wheat. 
3Bci)cnforn, n. grain of 

corn, 
ipi-lrf), intcrrog. pron. 

(151, 2 ; 153, 2) -er, -e, 

-c8, pl.-e. what; which; 

relat. (156) who ; that ; 

which ; who(so)ever ; 

which (so)ever ; what- 

(so)ever. 
inelf ni, v. ( f ) wither ; 

fade. 

2BeHf,/., pZ. -n. wave. 
28clt,/., pi. -en. world. 
iSdtrocifc, m. (108, <?) 

philosopher, 
iticin, dat. of tter. 
roen, ace. of met. 
tvcuN:n, v. reg. and irr. 

turn, 
wcnig, a. (103, Note 2 ; 

341, 7) little ; pi few ; 

am -ficn, least; -fien, 

at least. 
wcnn, conj. (274 ; .353, 2, 

a, 6, c; 354, Note 3; 

355, b) when ; if ; - oud>, 

though ; - nid;t, unless. 



r, pron. (150; 316, *) 
who ; - audj, - nut, - Inu 
mer, who(so)ever. 

ntcrben, v. irr. - um, sue 
for ; court. 

wcrbcn, v. irr. (89, 135), 
be ; become ; get : 
grow. 

rocrfen, v. irr. throw; 
fling. 

SBerf, n. -(e)8, -. work. 

roertb, a. worth ; dear. 

2Bertb, m. -(e)8, -e. value. 

ircrtbooll, . valuable. 

wcffcn, locft, gen. of wet, 

2Bcft, m. -(e)8, or, SEBeflen, 
m. -8. West ; Occident. 

2Bctte, _, 7>/. -n. wager; 
um bie -, in emulation 
of (each other). 

SBctfcr, n. -8. weather. 

roicbttg, a. weighty; im- 
portant ; SS>id)tige, im- 
portant matters. 

tvftcrlegcn, v. refute. 

roiberfpcnfiig, a. stub- 
born. 

SBil-crfpenfHgfeit, /. ob- 
stinacy. 



v. irr. con- 
tradict. 

SBiberftanb, m. resist- 
ance. 

wibrtg, a. contrary. 

roie, adv. how. 

roicber, adv. back ; again. 

twcberbaHcn,* v. re-echo. 

uneEvrlu'Ini, v. repeat. 

roiebcrfommcn,* v. irr. (f) 
come back ; return. 

wieiicit, v. rock. 

rotegtn, v. irr. weigh. 

roiebcrn, v. neigh. 

asicii, n. Vienna. 

2Bicfe,/.,^>. -n. meadow. 

milt, a. wild. 

2Bitt>, n. -(e)8. game. 

, n. -8. game. 
, m. and/. (108, c) 
savage. 

"IPillu-lin, m. -8. William. 

aille(n), m. -n8. will. 

niillciili.ii>, adv. spontane- 
ously. 

2l>illfpiiiwcti, n. -8. wel- 
come. 

loillfoniiiicn, ". welcome. 

9Binb, m. -(e)8, -e. wind. 
, v. irr. wind, 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



c, /., pi. -n. 
windmill. 

nwih-it, v. beckon. 

roiufdn, v. whine. 

SSJimcr, m. -S. winter. 

2.8mtcrmardKit, n. win- 
ter's tale. 

2Binterjdt,/. winter sea- 
son. 

2Bin$cr, m. -S. vine-dres- 
ser. 

SBipfcl, m. -8. summit. 

nrir, pron. (144, 1) we. 

roirf lid), a. real ; true. 

28irfmt.i, f.,pl. -en. ef- 
fect. 

2Birtb, m. -(e)n, -e. land- 
lord. 

n>ifd)cn, v. irr. wipe ; rub. 

iDiffen, v. irr. know. 

2Biffen, n. -8. knowledge. 

28iffenfd)aft, /., pi. -en. 
knowledge ; science. 

SSittroe,/, pi. -n. widow. 

SBitrocnftanb, m. -8. 
widowhood. 

2Birocr, m. -8. widower. 

SBi, m. -e8, -e. wit; 
jest. 

mo, adv. (157, 5, G) where. 

roobd, adv. at, by, near 
which; at, etc., what? 

2Bod)C,./!, pi. -n. week. 

rouburd), adv. whereby. 

toofiir, adv. wherefore ; 
for what ; for which ; 
for whom ; why. 

roolier, adv. whence. 

100 IHII, ado. whither. 

roolil, adv. well ; prob- 
ably, I suppose. 

tvoblfcil, a. cheap. 

9Scb(tbat, /. , pi. -en. 
benefit. 

aBol)ltl)rtter, m. -8. bene- 
factor. 

SBobltbiUerin,./^,/^. -nen. 
benefactress. 

SBublroofJcii, n. -S. good 
will. 

t, v. live ; dwell. 

3, /., pi. -en. 
dwelling. 

SBoIf, m. -(e)8, SBolfe. ! 
wol