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Full text of "The German emperor's speeches : being a selection from the speeches, edicts, letters, and telegrams of the Emperor William II"

Presented to the 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 
LIBRARY 

by the 

ONTARIO LEGISLATIVE 
LIBRARY 

1980 



THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S 
SPEECHES 



THE ; > 

GERMAN EMPEROR'S-* 
SPEECHES 



BEING A SELECTION FROM THE SPEECHES 

EDICTS, LETTERS, AND TELEGRAMS 

OF THE EMPEROR WILLIAM II. 



TRANSLATED BY 

LOUIS ELKIND, M.D. 



LONGMANS, GREEN, AND 
39 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON 
NEW YORK AND BOMBAY 

1904 
All rights reserved 




PREFATORY NOTE 

THE present selection from the Speeches, Edicts, Letters, and 
Telegrams of the German Emperor has been made from 
a volume of Kaiserreden, published in Leipzig in 1902. In his 
preface the German editor, Mr. A. Oskar Klaussmann, tells us 
that his object in making this collection was to give a character 
sketch of the Emperor, as illustrated by his own utterances. 
Mr. Klaussmann expressly disclaims any political or personal 
motives in the preparation of his volume, and has merely 
selected such speeches, etc., as seemed to shed an interesting 
light on the talents, character, and views of the Emperor, and 
connected them by means of a brief explanatory text, in order 
to put the reader in possession of the circumstances under 
which each utterance was made. 

The thanks of the publishers are due to the following for 
the permission they have kindly given to incorporate various 
passages in this volume : To the Editor of the Times, for the 
text of the speech on page 100 ; to the Editor of the Saturday 
Review, for permission to reprint the extracts given on page 105 ; 
to Mr. S. S. McClure, for a portion of the article by Bear- 
Admiral Evans on page 284; to Sir E. J. Eeed, for permission 
to reprint a portion of an article written by him for the Deutsche 
Eevue of Stuttgart on page 107. The article was written in 
English, but as the English original was not available it was 
necessary to retranslate it from the German, and the author is 
in no way responsible for this retranslation. 

The translation has been revised throughout by Mr. J. W. 
Bartram, M.A., who has also added a few footnotes explanatory 
of the Emperor's allusions. 

LONDON, January, 1904. 






t ' n ! ,n 1 . 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

INTRODUCTION . . . . ... 1 

PRESERVATION OP THE PEACE OF THE WORLD . 14 

THE EMPEROR AND FRANCE . . . ... 35 

THE EMPEROR AND THE CATHOLIC CHURCH . . 56 

THE EMPEROR AND THE WORKING CLASSES . . 74 

THE EMPEROR AND THE IMPERIAL TERRITORIES . . 91 

THE EMPEROR AND ENGLAND . . ... 98 

THE EMPEROR AND THE GERMAN FEDERAL PRINCES . . .115 
THE EMPEROR AS UPHOLDER AND PROTECTOR OF THE EMPIRE . .138 

THE EMPEROR AND HIGHER EDUCATION . . . 152 

THE EMPEROR IN RELATION TO ART AND SCIENCE . . .178 

THE EMPEROR AS STUDENT AND OLD MEMBER OF THE BORUSSIA KORPS 195 

EMPEROR AND THE GERMAN ARMY . . . 201 

EMPEROR AND THE GERMAN NAVY . ... 234 

THE EMPEROR AND THE GREAT ELECTOR . ... 260 

THE EMPEROR AND HIS FAMILY RELATIONS . ... 267 

THE EMPEROR AND THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA . . . 280 

THE EMPEROR AS MARGRAVE OF BRANDENBURG . . . 288 

THE EMPEROR ON COMMERCE AND NAVIGATION . ... 304 

THE EMPEROR ON THE TROUBLES IN CHINA . ... 313 

THE EMPEROR'S VISIT TO PALESTINE . . . . . 318 

THE EMPEROR WILLIAM AS A PREACHER . . . . 323 

INDEX 329 



THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S 
SPEECHES 

INTRODUCTION 

fTlHE year 1888, which proved so eventful for the German 
JL Empire and its Imperial Family, began under inauspicious 
circumstances. For more than a year the political horizon had 
been overcast with dark, threatening clouds. Germany was ap- 
parently on the verge of a war, which she would have to carry on 
simultaneously against two Powers Kussia and France. The 
Tsar Alexander III. was completely under the influence of the 
Pan-Slavists, and these again were in agreement with the French 
Nationalists and Boulangists, who made every effort to force on a 
war against Germany. Forged documents were secretly placed in 
the hands of the Tsar with a view to persuading him that the old 
friendship which had existed between Kussia and Germany since 
the time of Napoleon had been betrayed by Germany in the 
basest manner. At the last moment, however, Bismarck succeeded 
in convincing the Tsar that these documents were valueless, and 
in proving that they were forgeries ; but even this did not over- 
come the suspicions which Alexander III. entertained against 
Germany. Kussia armed herself with great speed, and massed 
such numbers of troops on the German and Austrian frontiers 
that it was only out of consideration for the character of their 
relations with Kussia, which had been fairly satisfactory since 
1878, and prior to that time distinctly friendly, that the German 
Government refrained from despatching an ultimatum to the 
Kussian Cabinet. In February, 1888, the relations between the 
two countries became worse than ever, though on the 31st of 
December, 1887, the Reichsanzeiger had published the forged 
documents and commented in a very friendly spirit on the 



2 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

"misunderstanding" on the part of Russia. The desired effect, 
however, was not produced in Russia, and the tone of the Russian 
and the French Press gradually became more and more truculent. 
Then, on the 3rd of February, the whole political world was 
startled by the announcement of the Austro-German Alliance. 
Though the wording of the document showed clearly enough that 
the alliance was of an entirely defensive character, and that it 
was far from the intention of either Austria or Germany to 
attack any State, the professional political agitators in Russia 
and France of course seized the occasion to make further attacks 
on Germany. At home, however, the question of a loan for the 
purpose of increasing the fighting strength of the army was 
discussed in the Reichstag, and the political world, in a state of 
great expectation, hoped that Bismarck would address the House 
and give a full explanation of the situation. " This speech of 
Bismarck's," said the Neue Freie Presse in its issue of the 1st of 
February, "which has not yet been delivered, keeps the whole 
world in suspense." 

On the 6th of February the Chancellor at last delivered the 
expected speech. He was, of course, obliged to admit that the 
relations between Germany and Russia had recently suffered a 
severe shock. Yet all the time he was attempting to build golden 
bridges for the Russian Government, and took great pains to make 
the world believe that the estrangement was but temporary, and 
that even the concentration of Russian troops on the German 
frontier was for some other purpose than an attack on Germany. 
Notwithstanding this, however, Bismarck declared, in the name 
of the whole German people, that for the defence of their sacred 
possessions they were determined to carry on, if necessary, a war 
even along two fronts at once. But, at the same time, he kept 
pointing out that Germany was not planning any war of offence ; 
she preferred to let herself be attacked. " If that should happen, 
then the whole of Germany, from the Memel to the Lake of Con- 
stance, would flare up like a powder-mine and bristle with arms. 
No enemy will venture to try conclusions with the furor teutonicus 
which is aroused in the event of an attack." The ever-memorable 
words with which the Chancellor concluded his speech found a 
powerful response throughout the German Empire. "We may 
easily, perhaps too easily, be won over by a display of kindness 
and good-will, but certainly not by threats. We Germans fear 
God, but nothing else in the world ; and it is precisely the fear 
of God which makes us desire and foster peace. The nation, 
however, that breaks the peace will soon learn that the warlike 



INTRODUCTION 3 

and exultant love of the Fatherland, which, in 1813, called the 
entire population of the then weak, small, and exhausted Prussia 
to arms, is to-day the common property of the German nation at 
large ; and, further, the nation that makes an attack on Germany 
in whatever way it may be will discover that she is fully 
armed and united, and that each soldier cherishes in his heart the 
firm conviction that ' God will be with us/ " 

The effect of the Chancellor's speech was heightened by the fact 
that the Eeichstag referred the Loan Bill to the Committee of 
Ways and Means, without debate, and passed the Army Bill 
en lloc on a second reading. 

The strong desire for peace which was expressed in the 
Chancellor's speech made an exceedingly favourable impression 
on the whole world, and, at the same time, the energy and the 
preparedness for fighting which the speech displayed had the 
effect of temporarily silencing the mischief-makers. 

Prince William, who had not the least idea himself how near 
he was to the position of Emperor and ruler of the destinies of 
the Empire, felt himself constrained to counteract the rumours 
which gathered round his person. He was thought to be not only 
an enthusiastic soldier, but also ambitious of military distinction, 
and a hot-head who in his youthful rashness was supposed to be 
ready to stake everything that the German Empire had won in 
the last two decades on the chances of a wanton war. 

On the 8th of February two days after the Chancellor 
delivered his famous speech Prince William attended a banquet 
given by the Diet of the province of Brandenburg, and, in reply 
to the address of the Governor, von Achenbach, made a speech 
with a view to repelling all these insinuations. His concluding 
words were as follows : 

"Whilst passing through the province in the course of the 
manoeuvres, the fertile condition of the fields and the flourishing 
state of your industries sufficiently convinced me as to where the 
real source of national prosperity and productive labour is to be 
found. I am well aware of the fact that by the public at large, 
and particularly in foreign countries, I am represented as enter- 
taining a wanton and ambitious craving for war. May God keep 
me from such criminal folly ! I repudiate all such imputations 
with indignation ! But, gentlemen, I am a soldier, and all the 
Brandenburgers are I know that soldiers. Hence, let me quote, 
in conclusion, with special reference to the province of Branden- 



C' 
*' | 



4 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

burg, the words which were pronounced by our great Chancellor 
in the Reichstag on the 6th of February, the day on which the 
House gave the splendid spectacle of the representatives of the 
people walking hand in hand with the Government : ' We Bran- 
denburgers fear God, but nothing else in the world.' " 

Four weeks after this speech the Emperor William I. died. 
The Crown Prince, Frederick William, even then stricken with 
mortal illness, ascended the throne. But by June 15th the 
Imperial Standard was again flying at half-mast on the Castle 
of Friedrichskron, near Potsdam. The Emperor Frederick III. 
was dead ; the royal sufferer had gone to his rest. 

When the Emperor William ascended the Throne of Prussia, 
and thereby became the head of the German Empire, he addressed 
the following three proclamations to the Army, the Navy, and 
the Prussian People respectively. 

"PROCLAMATION TO THE ARMY. 

"The Army, which has only just laid aside the outward signs 
of mourning worn for its Emperor-King William I., my dearly 
loved grandfather, whose memory will be perpetuated in its 
heart, has suffered a new and heavy blow through the demise of 
my dear, sincerely-beloved father, his Majesty the Emperor and 
King Frederick III., whose death occurred to-day at five minutes 
past eleven o'clock in the forenoon. 

"These are indeed days of sore trial and affliction, in which 
God's decree has placed me at the head of the Army, and it is 
with deep emotion that I first address myself to my Army. 

"The confidence, however, with which I take up the position 
to which I am called by God's will, is unshakably firm, for I 
know what a high sense of honour and duty my glorious ancestors 
have implanted in the Army, and I also know to what a high 
degree that sentiment has always been manifested. 

" In the Army a firm, inviolable attachment to the Sovereign is 
the inheritance which is handed down from father to son and 
from generation to generation, and so I point to my grandfather, 
whose personality stands before the eyes of each one of you as 
a type of a glorious and venerable Ruler indeed, a type more 
beautiful and one which appeals more eloquently to the heart 



PROCLAMATION TO THE NAVY 5 

cannot be imagined : and to my dear father, who, as Crown 
Prince, earned a place of honour in the annals of the Army, and 
also to a long line of illustrious predecessors whose names are 
inscribed in brilliant letters on the scroll of history, and whose 
hearts beat warmly for the Army. 

" We belong to one another, I and the Army. We were, indeed, 
born for one another, and therefore let us always hold firmly 
together, whether God ordains peace or storm. You are about 
to take the oath of allegiance and obedience, and on my part I 
solemnly vow always to be mindful of the fact that the eyes 
of my ancestors are looking down upon me from the other 
world, and that one day I shall have to render to them an 
account of both the glory and the honour of the Army. 

" Castle of Friedrichskron, June 15th, 1888. 
" WILLIAM." 

"PROCLAMATION TO THE NAVY. 

" It is with deep emotion that I have to inform the Navy that 
to-day, at five minutes past eleven o'clock in the forenoon, my 
dear father, his Majesty the German Emperor and King of 
Prussia, Frederick III., gently fell asleep in the Lord, and that, 
in assuming the position destined for me by the will of God, the 
government of my ancestral lands, and with it the chief command 
of the Navy, has passed into my hands. 

" It is, indeed, a grave and solemn occasion on which I address 
the Navy for the first time. We have only just laid aside the 
sombre signs of mourning for my dear grandfather of im- 
mortal memory, the Emperor William L, who, as recently as last 
year, while visiting Kiel, expressed in most glowing terms his 
great satisfaction with, and recognition of, the high standard to 
which the Navy had attained under his glorious reign ; and now 
the flags are again flying at half-mast for my beloved father, 
who felt such great delight at, and took such keen interest in, 
the development and progress of the Navy. 

" Now a time which evokes feelings of deep and genuine loyalty 
serves to strengthen and confirm the hearts and minds of men. 
And so, while faithfully keeping in our hearts the memory of my 



6 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

grandfather and father, let us look forward with confidence to the 
future. The Navy is aware that not only does it afford me great 
pleasure to be associated with it by official ties, but that also a 
keen and warm interest has connected me with it ever since my 
earliest youth an interest which, indeed, I fully share with my 
dear brother, Prince Henry of Prussia. The high sense of honour 
and of faithful fulfilment of duty which inspires the Navy is well 
known to me, and, further, I know that each one of you is pre- 
pared, if necessary, readily to sacrifice his life for the honour of 
the German flag. Under these circumstances I am able in this 
hour of sorrow to declare with the fullest confidence my belief 
that we shall hold firmly and unswervingly together in good and 
in evil days, in sunshine and in storm, ever bearing in mind the 
glory of the Fatherland and ever ready to shed our heart's blood 
for the honour of the German flag. With such aims to guide 
us, God's blessing will be with us. 

" Castle of Friedrichskron, June 15th, 1888. 
" WILLIAM." 

"TO MY PEOPLE. 

"God's decree has once more inflicted upon us the most pro- 
found grief. Scarcely has the grave closed over the mortal 
remains of my grandfather of immortal memory, and now his 
Majesty, my deeply-loved father, has also been called from this 
world to enter into his everlasting peace. The heroic energy, 
based on Christian resignation, with which, notwithstanding his 
sufferings, he faithfully performed his kingly duties, encouraged us 
to entertain the hope that his life would for some time be spared 
to the Fatherland. But God ordained otherwise. The Eoyal 
sufferer, whose heart beat true for all that was noble and beauti- 
ful, was only privileged for a few months to display on the Throne 
those high qualities of mind and heart which earned for him the 
love of his people. The high virtues that adorned him, the many 
victories he once gained on the battlefield, will be gratefully re- 
membered as long as German hearts beat, and immortal fame will 
shed a lustre on his chivalrous figure in the history of the 
Fatherland. 



SPEECH FROM THE THRONE 7 

" Having succeeded to the Throne of my ancestors, I have taken 
over the government, relying upon the King of Kings, and I have 
vowed to God that, acting in accordance with the example of my 
predecessors, I will endeavour to be a just and clement Kuler, 
that I will encourage piety and the fear of God, that I will uphold 
peace and promote the welfare of the country, and, further, that I 
will strive to be a helper to the poor and oppressed and a faithful 
guardian of the law. 

"I pray to God to give me strength to fulfil these kingly 
duties which, by His will, have devolved upon me, and in doing so 
I am supported by that confidence in the Prussian people which 
a review of our past history affords me. The Prussian people 
have always, both in good and in evil days, stood faithfully by 
their Kings, and I, too, rely upon this attachment, which has 
proved to be indissolubly firm in all times of difficulty and 
danger during the reigns of my fathers, and I do so in the 
consciousness that I reciprocate it from the bottom of my heart, 
as becomes a devoted Euler of a faithful people, both of us equally 
strong in our attachment to the common cause of the Father- 
land. It is from the consciousness of this reciprocated love, which 
unites me with my people, that I derive the confidence that God 
will bestow upon me strength and wisdom to discharge the duties 
of my kingly office for the benefit of the Fatherland. 

"Potsdam, June 18th, 1888. 

"WILLIAM." 

What the Ernperor expressed in these three proclamations he 
set forth more fully in the speech from the throne with which, 
a few days later, he opened the German Parliament. 

SPEECH FROM THE THRONE AT THE OPENING OF THE 
REICHSTAG, ON JUNE 25TH, 1888. 

"Gentlemen, I greet you with a heart that is full of deep 
sorrow, and I know that you share my grief. 

" The unspeakable sufferings of my lamented father, which are 
still fresh in your memory, and the touching circumstance that 
only three months after the demise of his Majesty, the Emperor 
William, it devolved upon me to ascend the Throne, have deeply 



8 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

affected all Germans, and our affliction has met with warm sym- 
pathy in all countries of the world. Overwhelmed with this grief, 
I implore God to grant me strength for the performance of the 
high duties, the fulfilment of which His decree has placed in my 
hands. In assuming this office I have before my eyes the example 
of pacific rule which the Emperor William, after severe wars, 
bequeathed to his successors, and which was also followed by my 
late father during his reign, so far as his illness and death did not 
prevent him from carrying out his intentions. 

"Gentlemen, I have summoned you for the purpose of de- 
claring before your Assembly to the German people that I am 
determined, as Emperor and King, to take that course which 
enabled my late grandfather to win the confidence of his Allies, 
the love of the German people, and the respect of foreign countries. 
Whether I shall be successful to the same extent of course rests 
with God ; but for my part I will endeavour to achieve that end 
by earnest devotion to duty. 

"The principal duties of the German Emperor consist in up- 
holding, by military and political measures, the interests of the 
Empire in relation to foreign countries, and in watching over the 
execution of the Imperial laws at home. The first of these laws 
is the Imperial Constitution, and it is one of the noblest privi- 
leges and duties of the German Emperor to preserve and protect 
all the rights which it confers on the two legislative bodies of 
the nation and on every German subject, and also those rights 
which it guarantees to the Emperor and to each of the federated 
States and its Sovereign. In accordance with the Constitution, 
I have to co-operate in the legislation of the Empire more in my 
capacity as King of Prussia than in that of German Emperor; 
but in both it will be my endeavour to proceed with the work of 
Imperial legislation in the spirit in which it was established by 
my lamented grandfather. I will adopt his message of Novem- 
ber 17th, 1881, in its entirety, and in the sense of that message 
I will continue my endeavours to make Imperial legislation render 
in the future to the working population that protection which, 
in accordance with the principles of Christian morality, it is 
able to extend to the weak and oppressed in their struggle for 
existence. I hope that in this way it will be possible to effect 



SPEECH FROM THE THRONE 9 

an adjustment of unhealthy social contrasts, and I feel confident 
that my endeavours for our national welfare will meet with the 
unanimous support of all loyal subjects of the Empire and of 
the allied Governments, and that they will not dissociate them- 
selves from us to form separate factions of their own. I also 
deem it imperative to continue our national and social progress 
in the paths of legality and to offer firm resistance to all ten- 
dencies the object or effect of which is to subvert the order of 
the State. 

"As regards foreign politics, I am determined to keep peace 
with everyone, so far as it lies in my power. My love for the 
German Army, and the position I occupy in regard to it, will 
never lead me into the temptation to endanger the benefits which 
the country derives from peace, provided, of course, that war does 
not become a necessity forced upon us by an attack upon the 
Empire or its Allies. The object of the Army is to secure 
peace for us, or, if peace is broken, to be in a position to fight 
for it with honour. And that, with God's help, the Army will be 
able to accomplish, now that its strength has recently been supple- 
mented by the Army Bill which you passed unanimously. But 
to make use of this strength for aggressive purposes is far from 
my intention. Germany is in no need of fresh military glory, 
nor does she require any new conquests, for she has already 
obtained once for all, on the field of battle, the right to exist 
as an united and independent nation. 

" Our Alliance with Austria-Hungary is a matter of public 
knowledge. I adhere to it with German sincerity, not merely be- 
cause it happens to be concluded, but because I see in this defensive 
association the foundation of the balance of power in Europe as 
well as a legacy derived from German history, the terms of which 
are now approved of by the public opinion of the entire German 
Fatherland; and, moreover, it is also in accordance with the 
traditional international law of Europe as it was universally 
recognised down to 1866. 

" Again, historical relations and present national needs of a like 
character unite us to Italy. Both countries are anxious to hold 
fast to the blessings of peace, so that they may be able to work 
undisturbed for the consolidation of their newly won unity, the 



10 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

development of their national institutions, and the promotion of 
their welfare. 

" The agreements which we entered into with Austria-Hungary 
and Italy permit me, much to my satisfaction, to continue the 
careful cultivation of my personal friendship with the Emperor of 
Russia and of the peaceful relations which for a century have 
existed between us and the neighbouring Russian Empire, and 
which correspond with my own desires as well as with the 
interests of the Fatherland. 

"As regards my endeavours on behalf of peace and the care 
which I entertain for our Army, I place myself willingly and 
conscientiously at the service of the country ; and I rejoice in our 
traditional relations with foreign Powers, from which my efforts 
on behalf of peace will derive the necessary support. Trusting 
in God and in the military efficiency of our people, I confidently 
hope that it will be granted to us for a long time to come to 
foster and consolidate, by peaceful labour, what was won on the 
battlefield under the guidance of my two last predecessors on 
the Throne, who are now resting in God." 

SPEECH FROM THE THRONE ON THE MEETING OF THE 
PRUSSIAN DIET ON JUNE 27TH, 1888. 

" Illustrious, noble, and honoured Gentlemen of both Houses of 
the Diet, It is in a season of sorrow that I bid you welcome for 
the first time from this place. The sceptre rested but a few 
months in the hand of my deceased father, yet long enough to 
show what manner of ruler our Fatherland has lost in him. The 
majesty of his appearance, the nobility of his character, the 
glorious part which he played in the great destinies of his 
country, and the heroism of the Christian resignation with which 
he fought against his dread malady, have reared for him an im- 
perishable monument in the hearts of his people. I tender to all 
who have approached me with their condolences my royal thanks 
for the countless proofs of loyal feeling and loving sympathy 
which have reached me during these, for me, so trying days. 

"And whereas by the demise of my father the crown of my 
ancestors has descended to me, it has become requisite for me at 



SPEECH FROM THE THRONE 11 

the commencement of my reign to summon you round me, and 
without delay to take the oath prescribed by the Constitution. 

" I swear that I will uphold the Constitution of the Kingdom 
firm and inviolable, and that I will reign in accordance with the 
same and with the laws, so help me God. 

"Gentlemen, in his glorious reign, rich in noble achievements 
both in war and peace, the Emperor William created the Prussia 
that we see to-day, and realised the national unity to which the 
nation aspired. 

"Animated by the same filial devotion which I feel towards 
him, my father, now at rest in God, after his accession to the 
throne, adopted in the public documents which represent the 
political legacy he bequeathed to us, the policy and works of my 
late grandfather, and I am resolved to follow him in this path 
both in the government of Prussia and in the field of Imperial 
policy. As King William I. did, so will I, true to the oath I have 
sworn, loyally and conscientiously respect and protect the laws 
and the rights of the representatives of the people, and with 
equal conscientiousness I will maintain and exercise the con- 
stitutional prerogatives of the Crown, so that some day I may 
hand them over unimpaired to my successor on the throne. It is 
far from my intentions to disturb the confidence of the people 
in the stability of our Constitution by any attempts to extend the 
rights of the Crown. My existing prerogatives, as laid down by 
our Constitution, suffice to ensure the due measure of monarchical 
influence which Prussia requires, according to its historical develop- 
ment, its present composition, its position in the Empire, and the 
temperament and habits of its own people. I am of the opinion 
that our Constitution contains a just and beneficial division of 
our joint work between the different powers of the State, and for 
this reason, and not solely on account of my oath, I will uphold 
and protect it. Following the example of my illustrious ancestors, 
I shall at all times deem it my duty to accord my royal protection 
to all religious creeds in my land in the free exercise of their 
faith. 

" I have learnt with special satisfaction that our recent ecclesi- 
astical legislation has tended to impart to the relations of the 
State to the Catholic Church and its Spiritual Head, a form 



12 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

acceptable to both parties. I will make it my endeavour to 
maintain religious peace in the land. 

" The reform of our domestic administration was, in the main, 
effected in the last session of the Diet. The passage of the new 
legislation affords a proof that the conception of the dignity of 
self-government has passed into the living consciousness of the 
people, and that the requisite resources have been readily placed 
at the service of the public welfare. It is my will and pleasure 
to hold firmly to this valuable result achieved, and by adapting 
and strengthening the new institutions, contribute to the per- 
manency of their successful working. 

" In matters of finance I hold fast to the old Prussian traditions, 
which laid the foundation of the prosperity of our country, and 
enabled the State to meet its obligations even in times of distress 
and difficulty. I am able to look with satisfaction upon the 
financial position of the State, as I find it on my accession, thanks 
to the care of my ancestors on the throne. This favourable 
position of the Budget of the State has permitted me to make 
a successful beginning with the relief of taxation of the Communes 
and the less wealthy classes of the community. It is my pleasure 
that this aim should be pursued still further, and that in like 
manner urgent needs, which have hitherto had to be postponed 
owing to the inadequacy of the means available, should next be 
satisfied. 

" The devastating floods by which wide and fertile portions of 
the country were visited in the spring of this year claim my full 
sympathy. By the readiness with which you voted abundant 
supplies my Government has been enabled to heal many of the 
wounds inflicted, and take fresh precautions to avert such 
calamities for the future. If any consolation could be afforded 
to the sorely tried inhabitants of the districts affected, it would 
be found in the noble rivalry with the care of the State which 
has been displayed by all ranks and all classes of the population, 
and even by Germans residing in foreign lands. I feel it in- 
cumbent on me to express from this place my thanks to all who 
have contributed to relieve this distress. 

"Gentlemen, at the close of a legislative period you can look 
back with satisfaction at the important results which have been 



SPEECH FROM THE THRONE 13 

secured, thanks to your harmonious co-operation with the Govern- 
ment. On looking back at the past I feel confident that for the 
future, too, we shall succeed by our common labours, supported by 
mutual confidence and undisturbed by differences of opinion on 
any points of fundamental importance in promoting the prosperity 
of the country. 

"Gentlemen, in an hour of sorrow have I undertaken the 
duties of my royal office, but I enter on the task committed to 
me by the disposal of God with all the confidence of a high 
sense of duty, and in performing the same keep before my mind 
the saying of the great Frederick, that in Prussia ' the King is the 
First Servant of the State.' " 

During the reign of the Emperor Frederick both France and 
Kussia maintained to some extent an attitude of armed suspicion. 
But now, on the accession of his youthful successor, who, in the 
opinion of his antagonists, did not enjoy any measure of support 
from the political parties and the German Sovereigns, the time 
seemed to have arrived for a renewal of the secret and open 
political attacks on Germany. Now was the opportunity for the 
Emperor William to show the whole world that he was a lover 
of peace, and, further, that he would take every step possible 
to remove all misunderstandings, and thus maintain peace. And, 
indeed, he himself felt that it was incumbent upon him that 
he should demonstrate that he was, above all, an Emperor devoted 
to peace and conciliation. 



, 

. 






THE PKESERVATION OF THE PEACE 
OF THE WORLD 



pronounced indication of peaceful intentions, which the 
__ Emperor displayed in paying a series of foreign visits im- 
mediately after his accession, was specially emphasised by the 
fact that the first Sovereign to be visited was the Emperor 
of Russia. It might have been thought that he would begin 
by visiting one of the German reigning Princes of one of the 
Monarchs of the Triple Alliance. But no, his first journey took 
him to the most powerful antagonist of his Empire to the Tsar ; 
and he paid this visit in order that he might personally express to 
the Ruler of Russia his desire for the preservation of peace. The 
very circumstances of his journey and visit showed a complete 
departure from precedent. The Emperor travelled by sea. He 
left Kiel for St. Petersburg on the 14th of July on his old yacht 
ffohenzollern, attended by Prince Henry, Count Herbert Bismarck, 
at that time Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, General von 
Hahnke, the Chief of the Military Cabinet, and a large suite. 
On the 19th of July the two Sovereigns greeted one another on 
the high seas off Kronstadt, and in the afternoon of the same 
day the Emperor was received by the Tsarina at Peterhof, and 
a family dinner and a ministerial banquet followed. Before the 
Emperor took his departure from Kronstadt his visit terminated 
on the 24th of July a breakfast was given on board the Hohen- 
zollern, at which the Emperor Alexander and his Consort were 
present. The Tsar was chivalrous as ever, and the manner in 
which the Emperor utilised the occasion to work in favour of 
peace made a strong impression on the Russian potentate and 
aroused in him great admiration for the young Ruler. There 
cannot be any doubt that this, the first step which the Emperor 
William took in the cause of the preservation of peace, proved 
to be one of great significance, and later on helped to dissipate 
the dark thunder-clouds which hung over the political horizon. 

14 



THE PRESERVATION OF PEACE 15 

The terms in which the toasts were proposed at the family dinner 
given on the 19th of July at Peterhof have never been published, 
but though it is certain that they were most cordial, the Eussian 
Press did not by any means discontinue its intrigues against 
Germany. It showed a disposition to treat the Emperor's visit 
ironically, and, indeed, indulged in such offensive insinuations that 
the NorddeutscJie Allgemeine Zeitung felt called upon to offer an 
explanation. " The initiative of the Emperor's visit to St. Peters- 
burg," it said, " naturally originated, we repeat, in Berlin, but the 
inference that the German Government felt more strongly than 
did the Cabinet in St. Petersburg the desirability of such a 
rapprochement is but the conceited imagination of Asiatic arro- 
gance and Asiatic ignorance." 

The Emperor William had, indeed, reason to be well satisfied 
with his visit to Krassnoje Selo and Peterhof. On his way home 
from Kronstadt he visited the King of Sweden at Stockholm, and 
there his personal demeanour won for him the sympathy and the 
good-will not only of Oscar II. himself, but of the entire popula- 
tion of the Swedish capital as well. In reply to the toast of his 
health, which was proposed by the King of Sweden at the banquet 
given in his honour on the 26th of July, at the Koyal Palace of 
Stockholm, the Emperor said : 

" May the traditions which unite the Swedish with the German 
people, and my House with the Swedish Eoyal Family, and, above 
all, the bonds of friendship which were formed between my 
grandfather, my father, and your Majesty, endure for ever. The 
splendid reception accorded to me in this beautiful country affords 
me strong evidence of the sympathies which unite the Teutonic 
to the Scandinavian peoples." 

In case of war the friendship indeed, even the neutrality of 
Sweden would, at that time, be of great importance to Germany. 

From Stockholm the Emperor set out straight for the lion's 
den. He visited Copenhagen. Since the events of 1864 the 
Danish Court had been a hotbed of intrigue against Germany. 
It was through Copenhagen influence that the Tsar, who was a 
son-in-law of the King of Denmark, was induced to lend a willing 
ear to the Pan-Slavists, and to entertain a certain bitterness of 
feeling against Germany. The genial bearing and manners of 
the Emperor, however, created a very favourable impression on 
the members of the Danish Eoyal Family, and disarmed them of 
their prejudices. The reception extended to the Emperor at 



16 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

Copenhagen was cordial in every respect. At the banquet which 
was given at the Castle of Amalienborg on the 31st of July, 
the Emperor William, responding to the toast of his health 
proposed by King Christian IX., made the following reply : 

" I express to your Majesty my respectful thanks for the toast 
of my health. I hope that I may often be permitted thus to visit 
your Majesty here. I drink to the health of your Majesty, her 
Majesty, and the whole Royal Family." 

But this love of peace on the part of the young German 
Emperor was apparently misunderstood in France. It was con- 
sidered to be suggestive of weakness, perhaps also of fear, and 
the French Press did not hesitate to declare that if the German 
Emperor was really anxious for peace, he could certainly purchase 
it by the voluntary retrocession of Alsace-Lorraine. These in- 
sinuations on the part of the French called for an energetic reply 
which would show how groundless they were, if only to protect 
the manifestations of the Emperor William II. in favour of peace 
from being misinterpreted in any way, and in order to make his 
further endeavours for the maintenance of the peace of Europe 
more effective abroad. 

On the 16th of August, the anniversary of the battle of Mars- 
la-Tour, the monument erected by the Third Army Corps to Prince 
Frederick Charles was unveiled at Frankfort-on-the-Oder. The 
Emperor was present at the ceremony, and, in reply to the 
Chief Burgomaster's address, delivered the following speech, 
the concluding part of which was evidently directed against the 
French insinuations : 

" My Chief Burgomaster : I express my cordial thanks for the 
words which you have just addressed to me, and I beg you 
to convey my heartfelt thanks to the city for the warm 
reception it has extended to me. I am, as you have just pointed 
out, very well aware of the bonds of sincere and faithful devotion 
which for many centuries past have united the city of Frankfort 
to my House. My grandfather knew it well, and it was this 
reason which determined him to select this city as the place 
for the statue. It was by his order that the late Prince was 
appointed to the command of the Third Army Corps. The strong, 
determined character of the Prince, his powerful will and strategic 
genius, specially qualified him for the chief command of the Army 



THE PRESERVATION OF PEACE 17 

Corps and to train up the sons of Brandenburg in a hard, stern 
school to that state of efficiency which they displayed in the 
battles of Vionville. The present is a solemn time. The great 
generals who led our army to victory the two great cousins, 
the Crown Prince and Prince Frederick Charles are no longer 
amongst us. So long as history exists, so long will my father, as 
the German Crown Prince, and my uncle, as the German Field 
Marshal par excellence, be regarded as the foremost champions 
and founders of the Empire. 

" Just as the people of Brandenburg with unflagging energy and 
indefatigable industry wrest a livelihood from the sandy soil of 
their country, so, eighteen years ago, did the Third Army Corps 
wrest victory from the enemy. The splendid results, however, 
which the Army Corps achieved it owes to the Prince and the 
training he gave it. 

" I raise my glass to the welfare of the city of Frankfort and to 
the health of the Third Army Corps. But, gentlemen, there is 
one point I should like to call your attention to in regard to the 
memorable day we are celebrating. There are people who have 
the audacity to maintain that my father was willing to part with 
what he, in conjunction with the late Prince, gained on the battle- 
field. We, who knew him so well, cannot quietly tolerate, even 
for a single moment, such an insult to his memory. He assuredly 
cherished the same idea as we do, namely, that nothing should be 
surrendered of what had been gained in those great days. We 
all know the Third Army Corps as well as the entire Army 
that on this point there can be only one opinion, namely, that 
we would rather sacrifice our eighteen army corps and our forty- 
two millions of inhabitants on the field of battle than surrender 
a single stone of what my father and Prince Frederick Charles 
gained." 

In order to foster the good relations between Sweden and 
Germany, the Emperor seized the opportunity of the birth of his 
fifth son to request the King of Sweden to act as sponsor to the 
newly-born Prince. On the 31st of August, in the presence of 
King Oscar II., the christening took place in Berlin, and both the 
Swedish and the German Press spoke in the most sympathetic 
terms of the good relations which existed between the two 



18 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

monarchs. In the meantime the Emperor paid a visit to King 
Albert of Saxony at Dresden, who was very friendly disposed 
towards him, and subsequently set out for Stuttgart, Munich, 
Vienna, and Rome. The visits to the Court of Vienna and to 
the Quirinal served not only to display the Emperor's love of 
peace in the best possible light before the whole world, but also 
to kindle the zeal and enthusiasm of the nations of the Triple 
Alliance. 

At the conclusion of these journeys the Emperor was gratified 
at being able to declare that "it was his firm conviction that 
peace would be preserved for a long time to come." 

In spite of this, the political outlook in Europe in 1889 was 
not altogether cloudless. However, the efforts of the German 
Emperor on behalf of peace undoubtedly had at least the effect 
of causing the enemies of Germany to maintain an attitude of 
watchfulness instead of precipitating the moment of conflict by 
some act of violence. 

The Emperor continued his efforts on behalf of peace, and took 
a most important step in his mission by making a journey to 
England. He already enjoyed the good- will of the people of the 
British Empire because he was the grandson of the greatly-beloved 
Queen Victoria. But that he did not visit England merely as 
a relation of the British Royal Family was made evident by 
the fact that he was accompanied on his voyage by a German 
squadron. The excellent relations which existed between the 
two Courts were demonstrated by an exchange of appointments. 
The Emperor William was appointed honorary Admiral of the 
British Fleet, and in return he appointed Queen Victoria 
honorary Colonel of the Prussian Regiment of the 1st Dragoon 
Guards, and the Duke of Cambridge honorary Colonel of the 
28th Regiment of Infantry. The Emperor's visit lasted from 
the 1st to the 7th of August. Every mark of honour which he 
showed to his grandmother was regarded as a special attention to 
the nation. Very great pleasure was expressed at the action of 
the Emperor in ordering a deputation of the 1st Dragoon Guards 
to proceed from Berlin to England for the purpose of being pre- 
sented to their Royal Colonel. The presentation took place at 
Osborne on the 5th of August, on which occasion the Emperor 
addressed the following words to the Queen : 

"I beg to express my sincerest thanks that your Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to accept the position of honorary Colonel 
of the Royal Prussian Regiment of the 1st Dragoon Guards. My 



THE PRESERVATION OF PEACE 19 

Army is proud of the fact that, by means of this appointment, 
it is allowed to number among its officers the Euler of the 
greatest naval power in the world. Above all, however, the 
hearts of the officers and men of your Majesty's regiment beat 
more proudly at the thought that they belong to a regiment 
which has the honour of being called ( The Queen of England's 
Own.' 

"One reason why I have selected this regiment is because in 
the course of its history it has won well-earned laurels by its 
discipline in time of peace and by its heroic conduct in war, this 
being particularly the case in the last campaign at Mars-la-Tour. 
A second reason is because it is the only cavalry regiment in the 
Prussian Army in which my lamented father underwent his train- 
ing as a cavalry officer. 

" I do not for one moment doubt that the officers and men of 
the Prussian Regiment of the 1st Dragoon Guards, ' The Queen of 
England's Own,' are conscious of the high honour which has been 
bestowed upon them, and that they will at all times make every 
effort to continue to be worthy of it." 

On the same day the Emperor took part in a regatta in San- 
down Bay, and subsequently, in reply to a toast proposed by the 
Prince of Wales, said : 

" I appreciate very highly the great honour which the Queen 
has shown me in appointing me Admiral of the British Fleet, 
I rejoice greatly to have been present at a review of the navy, 
which I regard as the most magnificent in the world. Germany 
possesses an army commensurate with her needs, and if Great 
Britain has a navy corresponding to her requirements Europe in 
general cannot fail to regard it as a most important factor for 
the maintenance of peace." 

The day before his departure from England the Emperor was 
present at a sham fight, at which 29,000 British troops stationed 
in the camp at Aldershot took part. At the luncheon in the 
Coinmander-m-Chief's quarters the Duke of Cambridge proposed 
the toast of the Emperor, whereupon the latter replied : 

"It gives me special gratification to appoint the Duke of 
Cambridge, the Commander-in-Chief of the British Army, honorary 






5 :; - jj 

w. i 

l 



20 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

Colonel of the 28th Kegiment of Infantry, for this regiment has 
had in its time the Duke of Wellington, our comrade in arms at 
Waterloo, as honorary Colonel. To the end of his life rny grand- 
father preserved the friendship made with England when the two 
armies mingled their blood. 

"The British troops have filled me with the greatest admira- 
tion. If the possibility of a volunteer army is ever doubted, 
I shall be able to give such an army a testimony of efficiency. 
At Malplaquet and at Waterloo Prussian and British blood was 
shed in a common cause." 

Jt was not only in the British Royal Family that the Emperor's 
personality gained for him a great deal of good-will, for the British 
people themselves, who are not easily won, became equally favour- 
ably disposed towards him. 

Shortly after his return to the German capital the Emperor 
received a visit from the Emperor of Austria, who was welcomed 
with the greatest enthusiasm by the people of Berlin. The pre- 
sence of the Emperor Francis-Joseph gave the Emperor William 
an opportunity of once more emphasising the peaceful intentions 
of the Triple Alliance and the intimacy of the relations which 
existed between Austria-Hungary and Germany. At the banquet 
which was given on the 13th of August, 1889, after the review 
held in honour of his Imperial guest, the Emperor said : 

"With a heart full of joy I welcome your Majesty to my 
capital, in the same place in which my grandfather greeted you 
when last you were here. The enthusiastic reception given to your 
Majesty by my people may have made you feel how warm and 
spontaneous is the desire for the continuation of the friendship 
which has existed between our peoples for centuries. But above 
all, my Army, of which your Majesty has just seen a part, is proud 
to be submitted to the keen, soldierly inspection of your Majesty. 

"Both my people and my Army hold firmly and faithfully 
to the alliance concluded between us, and the latter is well aware 
that for the preservation of the peace of our respective countries 
it may be called upon to stand by the side of the brave Austro- 
Hungarian Army and take up a common position, and, if it should 
be the will of Providence, to fight shoulder to shoulder. With 
these thoughts in my mind, I raise my glass and drink to the 



THE PRESERVATION OF PEACE 21 

health of your Majesty, of your whole House, and of our brave 
Austro-Hungarian comrades." 

From the llth to the 13th of October, 1889, the Emperor of 
Kussia was in Berlin on his return visit to the Emperor. The 
Emperor William allowed nothing to be overlooked which would 
tend to make the stay of his guest as agreeable as possible, and 
to assure the Tsar of his love of peace and his firm adherence to 
the friendship with Eussia. At the State banquet given in the 
"White Hall" on the llth of October, the Emperor, in a short 
speech, proposed the toast : 

"I drink," he said, "to the health of my esteemed friend his 
Majesty the Emperor of Kussia, and to the continuance of the 
friendship which has existed between our Houses for more than a 
century, and which I am resolved to foster as an inheritance 
handed down by my forefathers." 

Two days later, at a breakfast given in the officers' mess-room 
of the Emperor Alexander Kegiment of Grenadier Guards in 
honour of the Tsar, the German Emperor referred to the Kussian 
Army in the following words : 

" On an occasion such as that of to-day, which so closely concerns 
a regiment that can look back upon a long and glorious history, and 
that has the honour to have its Eoyal Colonel in its midst, thoughts 
of other times naturally arise. My mind takes me back to the 
days when my lamented grandfather, then a young officer, received 
on the field the Order of St. George, and obtained, amidst a rain 
of bullets, the command of the Kaluga Eegiment. 

"I mention this in order that we may drink to the common 
glorious memories and traditions of the Eussian and Prussian 
Armies. I drink to the health of those who fought so heroically 
in defence of their fatherland at Borodino, and who, in alliance 
with us, shed their blood in gaining victory at Arcis-on-the-Aube 
and at Brienne. I drink to the health of the brave defenders of 
Sebastopol and to those brave men who gained such glory at 
Plevna. I request you, gentlemen, to empty your glasses with me 
in drinking to the health of your comrades of the Eussian Army." 

On the 18th of October the Emperor and his Consort started on 
a journey to the south-east of Europe. The primary object of this 



22 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

journey was to be present at the wedding festivities given in Athens 
on the occasion of the marriage of the Emperor's youngest sister, 
Princess Sophia, to the Duke of Sparta, eldest son of King George 
of Greece. The Imperial couple left Athens on the 31st of October 
and proceeded to Constantinople, where they arrived on the 2nd of 
November. The splendid manner in which the Sultan received 
them, and the striking cordiality and good understanding which 
marked the intercourse of the two monarchs, showed that the 
Emperor William had also gained the Sultan as a friend, and 
that the Turkish Sovereign might be relied upon to support 
Germany and to assist in maintaining the peace of the world. 

The prospect of the maintenance of peace was more favourable 
at the end of 1889 than was the case twelve months previously, 
and with perfect justice could the Emperor say, " I believe that 
with the help of God I have succeeded in ensuring the preserva- 
tion of the peace of the world for many years to come." 

The Emperor of Kussia gave an unmistakable sign of his desire 
for peace when, at the beginning of 1890, he addressed a letter to 
the Governor -General of Moscow, which letter was afterwards 
published in the Kussian Government Messenger, in which he said: 

"On the threshold of the New Year I pray to God that the 
development of the internal prosperity of our beloved Fatherland 
may proceed without hindrance in the midst of that peace which 
we all so greatly desire and which will promote the happiness of 
the world." 

There gradually spread throughout the civilised world the con- 
viction that the Emperor William, who had been regarded as a 
man of bellicose disposition, was a sincere lover of peace, and the 
Emperor seized every opportunity that presented itself to try 
to ensure the general acceptance of this view of his motives. 
Characteristic of his efforts on this particular matter was the 
toast which he proposed on the 10th of August at the banquet 
given on the occasion of the taking over by Germany of the island 
of Heligoland: 

" Without a battle, without the shedding of a single tear, this 
beautiful island has passed into my possession. The many tele- 
grams which I have received to-day from the Mother -country 
show with what approval the acquisition of the island is regarded. 
I will point out the circumstances under which Heligoland has 
been regained. I am proud that the transfer has been brought 
about peacefully. On the last occasion I was here, in 1873, I 



THE PRESERVATION OF PEACE 23 

said to myself that I should be happy if I lived to see the island 
once more German. 

"And now we have acquired the island by a treaty freely 
entered into by the Government and Legislature of a country to 
which we are related by blood. I feel it incumbent upon me, 
therefore, to drink to the health of the illustrious lady to whom 
we are indebted for the transfer of the island. Queen Victoria 
governs her country with great foresight and wisdom, and she 
attaches great importance to living in friendship with me and my 
people. She appreciates German officers as highly as German 
melody. Long live the Queen of England ! " 

A second visit to the Emperor of Eussia was made by the 
Emperor on the 17th of August, 1890. As on the previous occa- 
sion, he went by sea, but this time landed at Eeval, and thence 
proceeded to Narva. The presence of the Ministers and Am- 
bassadors at this meeting of the two Emperors, which lasted 
till the 23rd of August, was a proof of its importance. But there 
were not wanting voices in the German Press which regarded 
this second visit to Kussia as unnecessary, and it was asserted 
that the German Sovereign had not met with so cordial a recep- 
tion as his amiable intentions deserved. These opinions were 
energetically protested against in German semi-official journals, 
and time has shown that the visit had a good effect in promoting 
satisfactory relations, and in increasing the personal friendship 
which existed between the two monarchs. 

On the 1st of October, 1890, the Emperor William set out on 
another visit to his ally the King and Emperor Francis-Joseph. 
Despite the short duration of his stay in the Austro-Hungarian 
capital, the Emperor was accorded a welcome by the citizens 
which, it was acknowledged unanimously by the Vienna Press, 
resembled a triumphal procession. 

Then, on the 1st of July, the Emperor visited the Queen-Eegent 
of the Netherlands, and his personal demeanour easily succeeded 
in winning for him the general good- will of the placid and some- 
what phlegmatic Dutch people. The toast which Queen-Eegent 
Emma proposed was responded to by the Emperor in these 
words : 

"The Empress and I beg to thank your Majesties for your 
cordial reception and for the kind words which your Majesty has 
addressed to us. I am happy to be able to stay for a while in 



24 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

the Netherlands, and am particularly pleased to visit Amsterdam. 
The House of Orange and my House are closely related, and 
Germany owes much to the historic House of Orange and Nassau." 

The newspapers of most countries had for a considerable time 
past been occupying themselves busily with the personality of 
the Emperor William, and now the Dutch papers began to show 
similar interest, and discussed in a most friendly manner his love 
of peace and his evident intention to do all he could to preserve 
the peace of the world. 

The foreign Sovereign whom the Emperor next met was King 
Charles of Eoumania, who arrived in Berlin on the 27th of 
October, 1891. The cordial words which, according to a Bucharest 
report, the Emperor addressed to his guest, contained much that 
would give pleasure to the Roumanian Monarch, for the conclusion 
of the speech was as follows : 

"I have received your Majesty as a dear relative who will 
revive many memories in this capital, in which you spent a 
part of your youth. Unhappily, many of those whom your 
Majesty loved are no longer with us, but I am certain that the 
memory of them remains dear to the heart of your Majesty. The 
same degree of love which your Majesty found here in former 
days is extended to you at the present time, and will continue to 
be yours in the future." 

In July, 1891, there came to pass that deeply important 
political event which France had long been striving to bring 
about, and which Germany had for, years been expecting with a 
certain amount of anxiety, namely, the striking rapprochement 
between France and Russia. On the 23rd of July a French 
squadron arrived at Kronstadt, and the honours which were 
accorded to the officers and men by the Russians evoked almost 
delirious joy in the hearts of the French people. The Tsar, in 
the toast which he proposed on the 28th of July, referred with 
emphasis to the friendship which existed between France and 
Russia. This friendship which France had at last succeeded in 
purchasing not, however, without a heavy financial outlay in 
subscribing to a Russian loan would in all probability have 
seriously shaken the confidence in the maintenance of peace 
throughout Europe had it not been that by the efforts of the 
German Emperor this success of the French had been to a large 
extent already neutralised. The French people were soon given 



THE PRESERVATION OF PEACE 25 

to understand that the Tsar was by no means inclined to set his 
troops in motion against Germany for the purpose of helping 
France in any possible attempt to regain the lost provinces of 
Alsace-Lorraine. 

Between the 30th of May and the 2nd of June, 1892, the 
Emperor William and his Consort entertained the Queen-Eegent 
and the young Queen of the Netherlands at Potsdam. At a 
banquet given on the 31st of May the Emperor said : 

"With heartfelt and deep emotion I express to your Majesty 
and your Majesty's daughter the gratitude of the Empress and 
myself that you should have disregarded the fatigue of a long 
journey and have deigned to come here to visit us. We are both 
deeply mindful of the cordial and friendly reception which was 
extended to us last year by your Majesty and the entire population 
of the Netherlands those dear, brave, and industrious people who 
support so loyally and so firmly their Eoyal House. 

" Your Majesties will be met on all sides here by reminiscences 
of past associations. The one name which unites my family with 
that of your Majesty, and which forms a link between our land 
and the Netherlands, is Orange. Orange is the colour of our 
Order, and Orange blood runs in our veins. With the greatest 
respect and the deepest devotion is the name of Orange mentioned 
by my House, for from the powerful line of Orange my predecessors 
learned much. To this day we are still full of admiration for the 
remarkable deeds which those great Eulers accomplished in time 
past. 

" I conclude with this wish : May the Lord in Heaven hold His 
hand with blessing over your Majesty, over your country, and 
over this young scion of the House of Orange, to whom the entire 
people of the Netherlands are so devotedly attached." 

On the 7th of June, 1892, the Emperor of Eussia, accompanied 
by the Tsarevitch, passed through Kiel, and was there received by 
the German Emperor. The first meeting took place on the Imperial 
yacht Holienzollern. At the banquet subsequently given, at the 
Eoyal Palace the Emperor William proposed the following toast : 

" I drink to the health of the Eussian Emperor, whom, with his 
gracious consent, I am now able to call Admiral & la suite of my 
Navy. Long live the Tsar ! " 






26 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

It was perhaps out of regard for his friendship with France 
that the Tsar worded his reply in the French language. 

"I am greatly pleased," he said, "at the distinction which 
has been conferred upon me and at the reception which has 
been accorded to me, and I drink to the health of my dear friend 
and cousin. Long live the German Emperor and the German 
Navy!" 

Alexander III. left Kiel Harbour the same evening and pro- 
ceeded to Copenhagen. The Kussian Press admitted the import- 
ance of the meeting which had taken place, and agreed that it 
conduced to the maintenance of that universal peace, of which 
all stood so greatly in need. One of the most influential Eussian 
papers went so far as to remark : 

" Passions will abate of themselves. "We are tired of living in 
a state of constant apprehension with regard to foreign affairs. 
It is high time that every State devoted most of its attention 
to its own internal development." 

The visit of King Humbert and Queen Margherita of Italy to 
the German Emperor and Empress which lasted from the 20th 
to the 24th of June, 1892 gave occasion to a splendid demon- 
stration in favour of peace. After the review in the Lustgarten 
at Potsdam, held on the 21st of June, the Emperor addressed 
his Italian guests in these words : 

"The visit of your Majesties has not only filled my Consort 
and myself with great joy, but has also given the utmost satis- 
faction to all my subjects. It has made us happy, and calls for 
our thanks that your Majesties have been graciously pleased to 
undertake the long journey from your own beautiful country 
to this place. 

" Your Majesties are not unfamiliar with the Palace which you 
again honour with your presence. On a previous occasion this 
palace was privileged to receive you within its walls, namely, 
when you performed that kind service for my ever-lamented 
father at the christening of my youngest sister. His figure, 
which you then saw in all its beauty and majesty, is already a 
centre round which legends have gathered ; but this same young 
Princess is with us, and it gives me special pleasure to announce 
to-day, in the presence of her august god-parents, her engage- 
ment to be married. 

"Though that hero, my father, is now no more, there remain 



THE PRESERVATION OF PEACE 27 

the intimate relations and the brotherly friendship and affection 
between our two Houses and between ourselves. The acclama- 
tions of my people which greet your Majesties, and which will be 
accorded to you to-morrow by the citizens of Berlin, will help to 
show you how greatly the entire population of Germany appre- 
ciates the visit which your Majesties are making to this country. 
The fair sister Germania greets her beautiful sister Italia, and 
through my mouth she greets both your Majesties. My glass is 
raised to your health and your welfare, and to the wish that the 
blessing of God may rest upon you and your beautiful country 
a country which affords such particular pleasure to so many of 
my subjects and my comrades when they are received there so 
hospitably." 

Two days later the Italian Eoyalties visited Berlin, and there 
received a welcome which was enthusiastic to a degree. 

The year 1893 brought with it no change in the grouping of the 
European powers. The conviction gained ground everywhere that 
neither Germany nor the German Emperor would be instrumental 
in bringing about a war. The almost universal opinion which 
prevailed at the time when William II. ascended the throne had 
been entirely changed; the German Euler had come to be generally 
regarded as one who would not only preserve peace for Germany, 
but was also interested in maintaining the peace of the world. 

The marriage of Princess Margaret with Prince Frederick 
Charles of Hesse took place in Berlin in January, 1893. The 
Tsarevi^ch of Kussia, now the Emperor Nicholas II., was present 
at the 'ceremony. During the Tsarevitch's visit to Berlin the 
Emperor accompanied his guest to the breakfast given by the 
Emperor Alexander Kegiment of the Grenadier Guards, and there 
proposed the following exceedingly gracious toast : 

"With your Imperial Highness's permission I, as the oldest 
comrade of the regiment, will, following our ancient custom, 
propose the first toast in honour of your Imperial Highness's 
illustrious father. All of us in this regiment bear gratefully in 
memory the gracious words with which his Majesty the Tsar 
rendered the regiment happy when he visited us in 1889. The 
many favours and the active interest with which his Majesty has 
always honoured his regiment, as well as the friendly sympathy 
which he bestows on the festive occasions of my house, the most 



28 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

distinguished proof of which is his sending your Imperial Highness 
to take part in the festivities which have just concluded, demand 
from me the expression of my warmest thanks. We all recognise 
in your Imperial father, not only the exalted Colonel of this 
regiment and our most noble comrade, but also, above all, the 
upholder of time-honoured monarchical traditions and of oft- 
proved friendship and intimacy with my illustrious predecessors, 
which Eussian and Prussian regiments sealed in former times 
with their blood on ther battlefield facing the enemy." 

A further proof of the cordial relations which existed between 
the Emperor William and his Allies was afforded by the visit 
which he paid to Borne in company with his Consort, in order to 
participate in the festivities held in honour of the silver wedding 
of the King and Queen of Italy. They left for the Italian capital 
on the 17th of April, and on the 22nd were present at the great 
State banquet which was given in the Quirinal. On that occasion 
the Emperor, in reply to King Humbert, said : 

" Your Majesties will, perhaps, permit me first of all to express 
to you the heartfelt thanks of the Empress and myself for the 
splendid welcome which has been extended to us by your 
Majesties, by the citizens of Eome, and by the people of Italy. 
I recognise in this another proof of the personal friendship which 
your Majesty felt towards my grandfather and my father, and 
which you now extend to me. I have acted in the spirit of both 
in travelling to this city personally to tender to you my congratu- 
lations on this festive occasion. 

"In addition to our personal friendship there is the warm 
sympathy which unites the peoples of Germany and Italy, and 
which at the present time is being expressed with increased 
ardour. 

" I also thank you most sincerely on behalf of the distinguished 
guests who are here assembled for your warm reception. The 
enthusiastic tributes of loyalty which are being paid to your 
Majesties sound in our ears like the beautiful tones of the golden 
chord of a people's love for its Sovereigns. It is to us a touching 
sight thus to see an entire people participating with joy in the 
happiness of its Royal Family indeed an unmistakable sign of 



THE PRESERVATION OF PEACE 29 

the deep, mutual affection which exists between the Koyal House 
of Savoy and the people of Italy. 

" We all unite in the wish that Heaven's protection and bless- 
ing may continue to rest upon your Majesties and all the Eoyal 
Family, for the welfare of Italy and of Europe." 

On their way back from Home the Emperor and Empress paid 
a short visit to Lucerne, where they arrived on the 2nd of May. 
Having crossed the Lake of Lucerne, the Imperial couple were 
welcomed by the President of the Swiss Confederation, M. Schenk, 
and at the dejeuner which followed the Emperor expressed his 
thanks in these words : 

" Mr. President : Your kind invitation to the Empress and 
myself to stay here on our way home for a few hours gave us 
both sincere pleasure. With cordial thanks on behalf of ourselves 
and the entire German people I acknowledge your warm wel- 
come and the home -like reception given to us by the people 
of Switzerland. 

" The beautiful scenery which you have just pointed out to us 
is not unfamiliar to me, for in my young days I was once 
privileged to enjoy the prospect of these mountains and lakes a 
pleasure which every year falls to thousands of my countrymen, 
who are not only refreshed and invigorated, but also enjoy your 
country's hospitality. 

"It is with satisfaction that I am able to state that the good, 
friendly, and neighbourly relations which have existed for ages 
between our countries are still unchanged, and I trust that the 
intercourse which was more firmly established by the treaty 
between Switzerland and Germany will develop prosperously in 
the future, thereby contributing to the maintenance and strength- 
ening of the friendship which exists between the two peoples." 

The visit was a personal success for the Emperor, and the tone 
of the Swiss papers towards Germany has been more friendly 
ever since. The President of the Confederation, in the speech 
with which he greeted the Imperial visitors, spoke with special 
appreciation of the Emperor's love of peace. 

" The whole of Switzerland," he said, " rejoices at this memor- 
able day. She sees in this meeting a confirmation of the excellent 
relations which exist between the great German Empire and the 



30 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

Swiss Confederation. Ever ready to defend with all their strength 
their independence and freedom, the Swiss people take the deepest 
interest in all efforts and demonstrations which have for their 
object the preservation to the nations of the inestimable blessings 
of peace, the powerful defender and protector of which the Federal 
authorities greet in your Majesty to-day." 

The great manoauvres conducted near the Ehine and in the 
Imperial Territories (Alsace-Lorraine) were attended by Victor 
Emmanuel, the Crown Prince of Italy, as a sign of the good 
relations existing between Germany and Italy. The Emperor 
on various occasions at Coblenz and Metz took the opportunity 
to refer repeatedly to the excellent relations existing between the 
two countries. 

On the 31st of October of the same year a Kussian squadron 
arrived in the harbour of Toulon, in order to return the visit 
of the French squadron to Kronstadt. Very cordial telegrams 
were exchanged between President Carnot and the Emperor 
Alexander III., but, nevertheless, this complimentary visit of 
the Eussian warships had but little influence on the political 
affairs of Europe. 

The year 1894 brought with it an important decision in favour 
of peace. The Treaty of Commerce with Kussia was passed by 
the Keichstag on the 16th of March, and by its means the rela- 
tions of Germany with the Empire of the Tsar have undoubtedly 
been improved. 

On the 7th of April the Emperor William met the King of 
Italy in Venice, and on the 5th of August he proceeded to England, 
where he was, as usual, received with great cordiality by the 
Eoyal Family and the people. 

Then came the death of Alexander III., who passed away on 
the 1st of November. The Emperor William was at Stettin at 
the time, and it was while lunching in the new barracks of the 
2nd Grenadier Guards that the news of the decease of the Tsar 
was conveyed to him. He immediately rose from his seat and 
said : 

" As, at the last review held by my grandfather, the Corps was 
not privileged to be led in review past my grandfather by the 
then Governor of Pomerania, my late father, for at that time 
the shadow of death lay over my father and indeed darkened 
the whole year, so on this occasion news of a mournful event- of 
far-reaching importance has just reached our ears : His Majesty 
the Tsar is dead ! 



THE PRESERVATION OF PEACE 31 

"Nicholas II. has ascended the throne of his ancestors cer- 
tainly one of the most difficult inheritances which a Prince can 
enter upon. We who are assembled here and who have just 
been glancing back at our traditions, may also bear in mind the 
relations which, dating from olden time and now again renewed, 
unite us to the Eussian Imperial House in the brotherhood of 
arms. We join in wishing for the Emperor who has just suc- 
ceeded to the throne that Heaven may give him strength to fulfil 
the onerous duties of the position he has just assumed. Long 
live the Emperor Nicholas II. ! Hurrah ! " 

The friendly feeling which has always prevailed between the 
Emperor Nicholas and the Emperor William has had the good 
effect of promoting a better understanding between the two 
countries over which they respectively rule. 

The opening of the Kiel Canal in June, 1895, gave the 
Emperor William an admirable opportunity of manifesting his 
desire for peace. The programme for the opening of the Canal, 
which was drawn up from the Emperor's suggestions, resulted in 
a magnificent demonstration in favour of peace, so much so that 
even France could not refrain from taking a part in the proceed- 
ings, at which the Emperor repeatedly spoke in the interest of 
the peace of the world. On June the 18th, at the preliminary 
festival held at Hamburg, he said in reply to the address of the 
Burgomaster, Dr. Monckeberg : 

"My respected Burgomaster: I am deeply touched by the 
words which I have just heard, but I am touched above all by the 
reception which Hamburg has extended to me, the like of which 
I have but seldom experienced. It was no artificial, no ordinary 
enthusiasm that greeted me. With the force of a hurricane did 
the acclamations of the citizens ring in my ears. I know well that 
I must not be so presumptuous as to suppose that these accla- 
mations were intended for my own person ; indeed, I recognise in 
them but an expression of the pride with which the hearts of the 
whole German people are beating, who are proud to see the new 
united Empire represented by its Princes and distinguished 
visitors. Pray receive from me my sincerest thanks, and be the 
interpreter of my gratitude to the citizens of Hamburg. 

"Such moments as those of to-day fill our minds with many 



32 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

memories, and, above everything else, with memories which arouse 
feelings of gratitude. We must remember gratefully, but with 
sorrow, the great Emperor who has passed away, and also his 
illustrious son, under whom the work to which you have referred 
was begun. All of us still remember the enthusiasm which was 
displayed when my late grandfather paid his last visit to this city. 

"We unite two seas. To the sea our thoughts are turned 
the sea, which is the symbol of eternity. Seas do not separate ; 
they unite ; and the seas which form this bond of union are now 
united by this new link for the blessing and peace of the nations. 
The powerful squadrons of ironclads which are assembled at Kiel 
Harbour should also be regarded as a symbol of peace, of the 
co-operation of all the civilised nations of Europe in the uphold- 
ing and maintaining of the civilising mission of Europe. 

" We have glanced at the eternal sea, let us now turn our eyes 
to the sea of the nations. The attention of all peoples is directed 
towards these proceedings, and with eager gaze. They have 
an intense wish for peace, for only in peace can international 
commerce develop. It can only prosper in peace, and peace we 
must have and will uphold. In this peace may Hamburg's 
commerce flourish and grow ! In whatever part of the world it 
may make its way, it will be followed and protected by the 
Imperial Eagle." 

Notably peaceful was the speech which the Emperor delivered 
on the 21st June after laying the last stone of the canal : 

"It is with delight and pride," he said, "that I look upon 
this magnificent assembly, and at the same time, in the name 
of my august Allies, welcome most cordially all those who are the 
guests of the Empire. We express our sincere thanks for the 
interest which you have shown in the completion of a work 
which, planned and constructed as it was in time of peace, is 
to-day thrown open to the intercourse of the world. 

" The idea of uniting the North and Baltic Seas by a canal did 
not originate in our day. Far back in mediaeval times sugges- 
tions and plans were made for the carrying out of such an 
undertaking, and in the eighteenth century the Eider Canal was 
constructed a work which, though it affords a splendid proof of 



THE PRESERVATION OF PEACE 33 

the constructive skill of that time, was only intended to be 
navigable for small vessels, and has become quite inadequate to 
meet the increased requirements of the present age. It was 
reserved for the newly-established German Empire to bring this 
great undertaking to a satisfactory conclusion. 

" MjL-4^-grandaJbher. his Imperial Majesty the Emperor 
William the Great, rightly recognised the importance of such 
a canal as a means of increasing the prosperity of the nation and 
of strengthening our defensive power,, and he spared no pains in 
devoting himself to facilitating the drawing up of plans for the 
construction of a water-way of great carrying capacity between 
the North Sea and the Baltic Sea, and to the work of removing 
difficulties which stood in the way of the realisation of such 
a project. Gladly and confidently was he seconded by the govern- 
ments of the Federated States of the Empire, and no less loyally 
was the Royal initiative followed by the Reichstag, so that eight 
years ago the work was energetically begun, and so well was 
it carried on that an ever-increasing degree of public interest 
was evoked. All that the most advanced skill of the engineer 
could accomplish, all that was possible in the way of willing 
and arduous labour, and, lastly, all that could be done, in accord- 
ance with the principles of the humane social policy of the Empire, 
for the care of the many workmen who were employed, has been 
lavished on this work ; and, therefore, the Fatherland can rejoice 
with me and rny august Allies at the successful accomplishment 
of this undertaking. 

" But it was not only for our national interests that we worked. 
In accordance with the great civilising mission of the German 
people, we open the gates of the canal to the peaceful intercourse 
of the nations with one another; and it will be to us a matter 
for joyful satisfaction if an increasing use be made of the canal 
as evidence of the recognition of the motives which have actuated 
us, as well as a sign that it is helping to promote the welfare 
of nations. 

"The participation in these festivities of the Powers, whose 
representatives we see amongst us and whose magnificent ships we 
have admired to-day, I welcome with all the greater satisfaction 
because I think I am right in inferring from it the complete 



34 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

appreciation of our endeavours, the very object of which is to 
maintain peace. Germany dedicates the work inaugurated to-day 
to the service of peace, and will consider herself happy if, in this 
service, the Kaiser Wilhelm Canal at all times tends to promote 
and strengthen our friendly relations with other countries." 

This exceedingly peaceful speech of the Emperor met with 
the hearty approval of the Tsar Nicholas II., for that Monarch, 
speaking on the 12th of July at a banquet at Peterhof, referred 
to the Emperor's address, and said that "the tone of it found 
a joyful echo in his own heart." The relations between the 
German Emperor and the autocratic ruler of Eussia became 
more and more cordial, and though the Tsar thoroughly upheld 
the understanding which his father had concluded with France, 
he by no means showed himself unfriendly to either the Emperor 
William or the German Empire. Indeed, one might not be far 
wrong in assuming that Nicholas II., who was destined to show 
to the whole world that he is an ardent supporter of peace, made 
use of the good relations existing between Russia and France to 
try to effect a rapprochement between France and Germany. 



THE EMPEROE AND FEANCE 



AT the time when the Emperor William came to the throne France 
JLA. had not recovered from the confusion created by the Boulangist 
party. Boulanger's importance lay merely in his constant harp- 
ing on revenge and the perpetual girding at Germany, stirred up 
by him and his accomplices. When, in March, 1888, the Ministry 
of M. Tirard resolved to remove Boulanger from the command 
of the 13th Army Corps on the ground of insubordination, the 
General, who had only lately become a member of the Chamber 
of Deputies, had now for the first time a free hand in his agitation 
on behalf of a revision of the Constitution, and in the event of 
his efforts being successful might well have become a danger to 
the peace of the world. 

The year 1889 brought for France the centenary of the Great 
Kevolution and the Exhibition held in celebration of that event. 
In the lifetime of the Emperor William I. Germany declined 
to take part in the Exhibition an attitude which greatly em- 
bittered Frenchmen against the Empire. On the 6th of May the 
Exhibition, which was expected to prove a brilliant financial 
success for Paris, was opened, and that at a time when it was 
generally thought that the end of the Republic was near at hand. 
The League of Patriots under Deroulede, which had determined 
not to allow the idea of revenge to subside, had some time pre- 
viously gone over to Boulanger. But it was destined to experience 
great disappointments. Boulanger fled when the Government 
determined to prosecute him, and went first to Brussels and 
thence to London. The alliance which the French Government 
were so desirous of concluding with Russia remained only a 
remote possibility so long as the internal affairs of the Republic 
continued to be in a state of such grave uncertainty. It was 
necessary for the Government to convince the Tsar that they 
were determined to maintain order; they therefore resolved, 
after some hesitation, to prosecute all the members of the League 
of Patriots, including Boulanger, on a charge of endangering the 

35 



36 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

safety of the State. Boulanger, Dillon, and Rochefort were con- 
demned in contumaciam to be removed to a fortress, and although 
Boulanger issued a manifesto to the people protesting against 
the sentence, it had not nearly the same effect as his previous 
utterances. At the close of the Exhibition both President Carnot 
and the Prime Minister, M. Tirard, were in a position to make 
reassuring speeches as to the maintenance of peace. 

At the suggestion of the Emperor William II., an International 
Labour Conference was held in Berlin in 1890. One of the 
French delegates was the well-known politician Jules Simon, 
who formed a high opinion of the personality of the young 
Monarch. Possibly it was due to Simon's influence that at that 
time one of the Paris papers, Le Parisien, published the following 
article : 

" When he opened the Reichstag, the Emperor William delivered 
a speech in which he referred in very reassuring terms to the 
maintenance of peace, and also expressly declared his purpose of 
devoting ever-increasing attention to the study and the solution 
of social problems. 

" The character of the young Sovereign becomes more strongly 
pronounced every day. Assuredly he is and remains a soldier in 
the first place, for when he was enumerating the list of reforms 
he contemplated, he let fall at the end of his speech a warning 
for disturbers of the peace, just in the same way as he secures 
the maintenance of peace in Europe by the constant formation of 
new regiments. 

"Nevertheless, the grandson of the German William the 
Conqueror has evidently set his heart on winning the working 
classes to his side. He understands the requirements of the time 
and loyally recognises the necessity of ameliorating the condition 
of those who lead lives of toil and suffering. 

"We Frenchmen at first mistrusted the successor of Frederick III. 
At the time of his accession it was commonly believed that some 
high-handed diplomatic proceeding or some frontier incident, mag- 
nified out of all proportion to its real significance, would lead to 
war. We have also smiled at his restless activity, his odes to the 
stars, his .reviews, his innumerable hunting expeditions, and his 
rescripts on the minutest details. 

"But we must cease to scoff. The Emperor William has the 
will to do what is right and good. He is a hard worker, and has 
an excellent grasp of things about which Sovereigns, as a rule, do 
not trouble themselves. 

"Not that this constitutes a reason sufficient to make us 



THE EMPEROR AND FRANCE 37 

sympathetic towards him (too much blood lies between him and 
France for that), yet it does afford a reason why we should no 
longer speak of him in depreciatory terms. Our country can 
successfully meet the new tactics of her enemies, but only on 
condition that we place ourselves in the van of progress, that we 
continue to be the benefactors of mankind by breaking with old 
forms and striving to advance." 

It was not till the year 1894 that Jules Simon published in the 
Revue de Paris of August 1st a portrait sketch of the Emperor 
William II., the following extracts from which are likely to be 
still of interest : 

"THE EMPEROR WILLIAM II. 

"In spite of this ambitious title I do not propose to give a 
portrait, not even a sketch. I have been frequently asked for a 
portrait of William II., but I have made up my mind not to 
produce one. In the first place I lack the necessary leisure, and 
I should have to spend more time upon it than I can well afford. 
The man who would draw this portrait must be thoroughly 
conversant with the history of Europe subsequent to the death 
of the Emperor Frederick, for there is scarcely any event in 
which William II. has not had a hand. The writer would also 
have to study the diplomacy and life of the Court, even to the 
smallest details, for one of the most peculiar and characteristic 
features of the disposition of the young Emperor is his mastery 
of the most important and the most trivial matters alike. He 
knows in advance what the reports of his chancellors and 
chamberlains contain. Moreover, it is essential that his biographer 
should be intimately acquainted with the life of many contem- 
poraries who have had to do with the Emperor William II. For 
example, he must be familiar with the life of Prince Bismarck, 
who, in certain respects, became a sharer in the Imperial dignity, 
as well as that of Count Moltke, whose career was as glorious as 
that of Bismarck, though less stormy. I have in my possession 
none of the material necessary to draw a portrait, and the subject 
is too serious for one to rest content with a simple sketch. 

"My friends have objected that I have seen the Emperor 
William and that I have chatted with him. True, and so, too, 
have all diplomatists who have spent any time in Berlin. A man 
like this cannot be summed up in half an hour, or even in two 
hours. 

" There are two kinds of statesmen, the silent and the talkative. 
The former are for ever posing as possessors of secrets, although 



38 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

they have none in their keeping, and the latter are liberal with 
their confidences, so that it is easy to see that their only purpose 
is to speak much. The former lead curiosity astray by the 
deficiency and the latter by the superfluity of their words. 

" Now I am willing to assert that it is absolutely necessary to 
make a third category for William II. He speaks much because 
he thinks much, and he confides to you his thoughts without 
knowing you, because it is his deliberate intention to take the 
whole world into his confidence. 

" The Emperor conceived the idea of summoning a congress to 
study social and labour questions. He invited all the nations of 
Europe to send deputies to the Congress to Berlin, and his wishes 
were met in nearly every quarter. 

" Our Ministers felt strongly convinced that for France to hold 
back under these circumstances would be a false step and equiva- 
lent to a renunciation of her position. Mons. Spuller (at that 
time Minister for Foreign Affairs) came to ask me to be a member 
of the French delegation. . . . 

"The Congress was held in apartments at the Chancellor's 
Palace, that is to say, at the residence of Prince Bismarck, whose 
position, to all appearances, had not yet been shaken, although it 
was immediately before his fall. The Emperor did not come to 
the opening of our Sessions, and never appeared at the Congress, 
but we were invited to a grand Court reception, to a concert held 
in honour of the Prince of Wales, and to a banquet which the 
Emperor gave in our honour. These monarchical ceremonies 
afforded an interesting spectacle for me who was not brought up 
on the lap of duchesses, and likewise for my French colleagues, 
who had never known the Emperor Napoleon III. personally. 
The Royal Palace at Berlin in no respects resembles the old 
Tuileries. It is a huge building, very lofty, in the form of a 
quadrangle, surrounding a big stone court absolutely devoid of 
ornaments, and with a terrace on one side which might possibly 
be taken for a garden. The saloons in which the Emperor 
receives are all on the first floor. One has first to mount 
several flights of steps, which might well be taken for a servants' 
staircase were they not extremely well lighted and paved with 
slabs of white marble. There is another magnificent flight of 
stairs intended solely for the Royalties. We suddenly found 
ourselves in front of a door of quite ordinary dimensions guarded 
by two splendid soldiers ; this was the entrance into the saloon 
into which one entered without being announced, and there many 
of the invited guests had already assembled. These saloons are 



THE EMPEROR AND FRANCE 39 

large and numerous; it struck me that they contained few pictures 
or works of art. . . . 

" The whole crowd thronged in the direction of a great door in 
the saloon at the moment in which the Eoyalties were announced. 
The Emperor and Empress greeted right and left, and chatted for 
a moment with distinguished visitors. The Emperor spoke a few 
amiable words to me, and the Empress did the same. This, I am 
told, is a rarely granted favour on her part. The Court Marshal 
invited me to take my place at table at the Emperor's right hand. 

" I thus found myself at table between the Emperor and a lady, 
who was, I believe, one of the Maids of Honour or the chief Lady- 
in- Waiting. The Empress sat at the Emperor's left hand, and on 
her left the Bishop of Breslau, my colleague and vice-chairman 
of the Congress, who is now His Eminence Cardinal Prince-Bishop 
Kopp. Von Moltke sat opposite the Emperor, and consequently 
immediately in front of me. The Emperor chatted with me all 
dinner time. My memory is not reliable enough for me to be 
able to report exactly what he said on that day, and what he 
might have been kind enough to say on some other day. But I 
remember at least the chief conversations which I had the honour 
of having with him. On the day on which, standing on the dais, 
he received the whole Court there were naturally no conversations, 
nor at the grand concert which was given in the White Hall. 

" The Emperor has established another kind of Court of which 
he himself spoke to me, the entree into which is as eagerly 
coveted as was that into the Marly Gathering of Louis XIV. 

"The Emperor receives every week on an appointed evening 
twenty friends and no more. I quote his own words : 

" ' I receive twenty friends and no more, officers and professors. 
The public believe that we come together to hold a kind of 
secret conclave. It is supposed that we spend our time talking 
politics. Quite the contrary. We come together to enjoy our- 
selves and to have a drink (Godailler). We talk of art and 
literature.' 

" The Emperor honoured me with an invitation to one of these 
private gatherings. I again mounted the staircase leading to the 
State apartments, this time in the company of our amiable and 
tactful President, Herr Berlepsch, the Minister of Commerce. 

"Half-way up the stairs we called a halt at the lower floor, 
where in one of the apartments I discovered several officers, whom 
my companion joined. Suddenly I found myself alone, and was 



40 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

feeling somewhat uncomfortable, because I did not know who 
was receiving us just at this moment. It was towards evening 
the room was none too brightly lit up, and the light of the 
departing day was struggling with the illumination of the candles. 
The entire furniture consisted of a number of chairs and a large 
table covered with green cloth. I thought I was in one of the 
ante-rooms, when an officer, stepping forward from a group, came 
towards me and asked whether I had enjoyed my visit to Sans- 
Souci. I immediately recognised the Emperor. I had, as a 
matter of fact, visited Sans-Souci that morning with his permission 
and in one of the Koyal carriages which he had most amiably 
placed at our disposal. He wanted to know exactly what I 
thought of Sans-Souci. I told him that I did not care much for 
Voltaire's room, which had been furnished in a somewhat affected 
style. He immediately began to speak to me of Frederick the 
Great's room. 

"'I saw that too/ I said, 'and I also found his writing-desk, 
but did not see his flute.' He answered, with a smile, that I 
should at least see some scores of his flute concertos, of which he 
was having an edition prepared on which much labour was being 
expended, and of which he would send me a copy. It would 
be impossible to make a present in a more courteous way. Some 
time later the book was handed to me in Paris through the 
German Embassy. 

" We took our places round the green table, and, as on the day 
of the banquet, I was informed that I was to take my seat at 
the right hand of the Emperor. Everybody began to drink and 
smoke. This time I had a long conversation with the Emperor. 
The meeting lasted till long after midnight. Before I report on 
this conversation I must say something concerning the language 
employed by the Emperor. 

" He speaks French. 

"Fluently? 

" With great fluency. 

" Correctly ? 

" Very correctly. 

" With any foreign accent ? 

" Not the slightest. Of us two he was the one that spoke the 
purer French, for I have a slight, probably a very slight, Breton 
accent in my speech, and the Emperor speaks like a Parisian. 

"He asked me how I found his pronunciation. I told him 
that he spoke like a Parisian. ' That is not surprising/ he said. 
'I have a friend' (he always likes to use this expression, even 



THE EMPEROR AND FRANCE 41 

when he is speaking of his servants) ' who was my tutor for ten 
years and still resides with me. He is a Frenchman and a Purist. 
Have you ever heard me make use of an incorrect expression ? ' 

"(I am not only a member of the Academy, but also a mem- 
ber of the committee for the publication of the great French 
Dictionary.) 

" ' On one occasion,' I said. I saw the Emperor looked surprised. 

" ' When was that ? ' he asked. 

"'When your Majesty told me that we met to have a drink 
(Godailler).' 

" ' Godailler is a good French expression ; it is in the Dictionary 
of the Academy.' 

" ' Yes, it is in the dictionary, but it is not used in the Academy 
or in the saloons of the Academy.' 

" ' I will make a note of it. And was that the only time ? ' 

"'I assure your Majesty that you are as great a Purist as 
your tutor.' 

" He seemed to be much amused at this trifle. In the further 
course of the conversation I observed that he possessed an extra- 
ordinarily accurate knowledge of the principal French writers. 
Knowing as I do that he constantly keeps au courant with all 
details of affairs of State and the army, and seeing how busy and 
active his life is, I could not imagine how he could find time to 
read our French novels. He assured me also that he was fond of 
family life, and that he was never happier than when he could 
dine at home alone with his wife like a good citizen of Berlin, 
and that she was in the habit of reading aloud a chapter from a 
novel before they retired to rest. Now this statement is undoubt- 
edly true, because he has made it. This universality seems almost 
incredible, but he has a mind that never rests, that never loses 
a moment of time, and that grasps everything with astonishing 
rapidity. 

"I wanted to get from him some expression of opinion con- 
cerning our modern writers, and he gave me one without much 
pressing. Immediately it became clear that he had a like and a 
dislike both extremely strong. His admiration was for Ohnet, 
concerning whom he expressed his opinion in a few amiable words 
with all the skill of a professional critic. He had an antipathy 
against Zola, and I must say it was a very strong one. I en- 
deavoured to defend my famous countryman by saying that he 
was an incomparable story-teller and an excellent observer. 

" ' I know very well that he has many strong points,' said the 
Emperor ; ' but unfortunately it is not to these that he owes his 



42 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

success, but rather to the immoral and filthy things with which 
he poisons his writings. 

" ' Now it is just Zola that France at this moment prefers to all 
other writers. He it is who arouses such an enthusiastic admira- 
tion, and this gives to us foreigners the right of forming a very 
strong opinion on the subject of the state of morals in France.' 

" I suffered very keenly at that moment, and all the more so as 
the Emperor expressed his opinion without any unkind intention, 
and without any malice prepense. 

" ' I am told/ said the Emperor, ' that a new book by him will 
shortly be published. You will see this, too, will be devoured, and 
your entire literature will for the moment be entirely cast in the 
shade by the new work/ 

" I ventured to remark that Zola was read in Berlin also. 

"'Yes, with disapproval/ said the Emperor, 'and also out of 
curiosity. His readers here are very few and far between, but 
among the French he will be in everybody's hands/ 

" I would gladly have asked the Emperor for his views on some 
political questions, but could not draw him without overstepping 
the limits of courtesy. I made several attempts with all the 
tactfulness at my disposal, and in so doing assumed a most 
innocent appearance, but the Emperor has an indescribable way 
of not hearing what is said at certain moments. I was fortunate 
enough, however, to hear two remarks fall from his lips which I 
heard not without joy, although they are quite general in their 
character. We were speaking of war, and the Emperor re- 
marked : 

" ' Since my accession to the throne I have thought much on 
this subject, and I am of opinion that in the position in which I 
am placed it is of far greater service to me to confer benefits on 
mankind than to inspire them with fear/ Then when I began to 
discuss the question of a possible war between our two countries, 
and added that France was for the most part devoted to peace, 
the Emperor, with extraordinary impartiality, said : 

"'I can assure you your army has worked hard, it has made 
great progress, it is ready for war. If, though it seems to me 
quite impossible, it should ever find itself face to face with the 
German Army on the field of battle, no man could predict the 
issue of this conflict ; therefore I regard as a fool and a criminal 
the man who would attempt to drive these two nations into war/" 

A political rapprochement between Germany and France " was 
at that time quite out of the question. Notwithstanding this, 
however, the Emperor William believed that on some neutral 



THE EMPEROR AND FRANCE 43 

ground, especially that of art, it was possible for him gradually 
to pave the way to a better understanding between the two 
countries. With this object in view he induced his mother, the 
Empress Frederick, just before she set out for England on a visit 
to Queen Victoria in February, 1891, to travel by way of Paris, 
and, whilst in the French capital, to make an effort to obtain the 
consent of French artists to send pictures to the forthcoming 
International Art Exhibition to be held in Berlin. This visit 
of the Empress was the first made by any member of the 
German Eoyal House since the outbreak of the Franco-German 
War. At first the Parisian population was undemonstrative, 
though respectful, and most of the newspapers referred in a 
very kindly tone to the arrival of the Empress and her object 
in making the visit. "The people," said Le Parisien, "take a 
common-sense view of the matter, and while evincing no par- 
ticular inclination towards the German Empress, manifest a 
kindly curiosity, for after all she only tolerated, she did not cause, 
the war. 

Le Gaulois, anti-German as a rule, praised the noble womanly 
virtues of the Empress, and admitted that in her opinion of France 
she was just. Le Temps referred to the fact that the august visitor 
had on various occasions expressed the opinion " that the cultiva- 
tion of the fine arts must inevitably draw the nations closer 
together," and the article concluded with the words that "perhaps 
we are now witnessing the first attempt to put this policy into 
practice, and it may be that in the visit of the Emperor's mother 
we have the first step in such a rapprochement." Other papers 
remarked to the effect that "under the banner of the beautiful 
a calming of passions is taking place, the full effect of which 
cannot yet be realised." 

The conciliatory attitude of the Parisian populace and Press 
is worthy of particular notice, for in certain quarters the Emperor 
William was blamed for having, it was alleged, exposed his mother 
to imminent danger in sending her to Paris. The Emperor, how- 
ever, knew perfectly well that in influential circles there was a 
tendency towards conciliation and mutual understanding. 

The Empress Frederick arrived in Paris on the 18th of February, 
and by the 24th all the newspapers had discussed the question as 
to whether the time had not arrived for France to consider the 
advisability of a Franco -German rapprochement. By far the 
greater portion of the Press viewed the idea more or less favourably. 
This, however, was not in accordance with the programme of the 
League of Patriots. The Boulangists held a meeting, at which, 



44 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

without more ado, the presence of the Empress Frederick in 
Paris was described as an affront to the French nation. This 
meeting took place on the 25th, and was followed, on the 26th, by 
demonstrations and by the unanimous refusal of the artists who 
had already half promised to exhibit at the Berlin Exhibition to 
carry out their previous intention. The excitement of the 
Parisians, artificially aroused by the Boulangist party, rose to 
such a height in a few hours that it became advisable for the 
Empress to leave the French capital, and this she did in the midst 
of elaborate precautions for her safety. Happily for the sake of 
peace and happily also for the French Government, she was able 
to take her departure without the occurrence of any grave 
incident. Thus was brought about, by the agitation of the League 
of Patriots and the Boulangists, the frustration of the Emperor 
William's desire a desire strongly approved of by a great many 
of the most influential people in France, and which aimed at 
making possible a rapprochement between two peoples who for 
twenty years had maintained an attitude of distrust toward one 
another. Naturally enough, Germany could not allow this dis- 
courteous treatment of the Empress Frederick to pass unnoticed, 
and she replied to the demonstrations of the politicians of the 
Paris clubs by making more stringent the passport regulations 
in Alsace-Lorraine, by which means intercourse between the 
Imperial Territories and France was almost completely suspended. 
This retaliatory action on the part of the German Government 
increased still further the bitter feelings prevailing in France, 
and, as a consequence, the Boulangists were able, on the 16th of 
July, to interpellate the Government in the Chamber of Deputies 
with regard to the passport arrangements in Alsace-Lorraine. 
The Government, however, declined to discuss the matter, for 
they wished to avoid friction with Germany. But despite this 
resistance on the part of the Ministry, the Chamber, in the 
first flush of excitement, decided to discuss the interpellation by 
286 votes against 203. Fortunately, however, the Government 
succeeded in bringing about an adjournment of the House, and 
on the following day the Chamber, after a further consideration 
of the whole circumstances, yielded to the wish of the Govern- 
ment and declined to press the matter further, the voting being 
319 to 3 in favour of the Ministry. 

Notwithstanding this unpleasantness, however, the year 1891 
brought with it favourable prospects of reconciliation between 
France and Germany. On the 10th of October of that year 
Strassburg accorded a splendid ovation to the Governor, Prince 



THE EMPEROR AND FRANCE 45 

Hohenlohe, on his return from Berlin, for during his absence the 
stringency of the passport regulations had been relaxed. An 
exceedingly good impression was made in France, as well as in 
Alsace-Lorraine, by Prince Hohenlohe's declaration that the de- 
cision to remove the obnoxious regulations was due to the 
Emperor William. 

The Emperor William gave a fresh proof of his conciliatory 
spirit in the speech which he delivered on December 14th at 
Stettin on the occasion of the launching of the ironclad Weissen- 
burg. In the course of his speech the Emperor William re- 
marked : 

" This name is to remind us of that great time when our united 
German Fatherland rose and achieved its unity on a field of 
battle. That name is to remind us of the deeds which my 
lamented father, whose memory will be held in honour down to 
the most remote future as that of a hero, performed at the head 
of the united German Army. 

"Thou shalt bear the name of that day which was of crucial 
importance to our history, for it was the foundation-stone of the 
building which was completed with the coronation of our Emperor. 
That name shall remind us of the field of battle on which, for 
the first time under the leadership of the Crown Prince Frederick 
William, the united German armies triumphed over their chival- 
rous foe, and by this first victory of German arms won the 
assurance of further victories." 

This single word " chivalrous " sufficed to inspire the friends of 
reconciliation in France with renewed courage. 

After the settlement of the Panama scandal, the year 1893 
brought about an improvement in the internal condition of 
France. The Republic did not disappear, but it became evident 
that, after Boulanger had been disposed of, more healthy con- 
ditions had come to prevail even in parliamentary life. 

On the 18th of October Count Mlinster, the German Ambassador 
at Paris, sent the following telegram to Madame MacMahon : 

"As soon as his Imperial Majesty heard the news of the 
irreparable loss which has befallen you, his Majesty, desirous of 
giving expression to his deep sympathy, commanded me to place, 
in his Imperial name, a wreath on the bier of the brave and noble 
Field-Marshal MacMahon. In conveying to you my personal 
sincere feelings of sympathy I respectfully request you kindly 



46 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

to inform me at what time and place I may have the honour 
of carrying out his Imperial Majesty's command." 

This amiable attention on the part of the German Emperor 
made a considerable impression in France, and at the beginning 
of November Jules Simon was able, in speaking of the Alsace- 
Lorraine question in the Figaro, to adopt a tone which would have 
been over- venturesome two years previously. He wrote : 

" How often has the remark been made in Germany, ' You are 
obstinately determined not to sign the receipt : make up your 
mind to the final loss of the two provinces, which, after all, is an 
accomplished fact, and peace between the two countries is assured.' 
I quite believe it. Only the Prussians who give us this advice 
did not follow it themselves after the battle of Jena. They know 
just as well as we do that honour does not allow us to consent to 
this. In the presence of our brothers, germanised against their 
will, who stretch out their arms towards the old Fatherland, we 
cannot subscribe to the conquest. It is not our duty to take 
upon ourselves obligations for the future. But what is per- 
missible and possible to us is to postpone all idea of revenge and 
war. That we do. Public opinion demands a truce for a long 
period, terminable at short notice, on the basis of uti possidetis. 
It is ready to accept a truce to the end of the century in the 
hope that time will accomplish its work of tranquillisation and 
appeasement. This is now the language we hold and the part 
we play." 

On the 24th of June, 1894, M. Carnot, the President of the 
French Eepublic, fell a victim to the dagger of an Italian 
anarchist at Lyons. The first foreign personage who expressed 
his sympathy at this terrible occurrence was the German Emperor. 
He telegraphed as follows : 

"To Madame Carnot, Paris. Her Majesty the Empress and 
myself are deeply moved by the terrible news which has reached 
us from Lyons. Be assured, Madame, that our whole sympathy 
and all our feelings are with you and your family at this moment. 
May God give you strength to bear this terrible shock. Worthy 
of his great name, M. Carnot died like a soldier on the field of 
honour. WILLIAM I. R" 

The telegram which the Emperor William sent to the widow of 
the murdered President had an excellent effect, and was on the 
whole commented on in very sympathetic terms by nearly all the 
Paris papers. The German Emperor decided to give a further 



THE EMPEROR AND FRANCE 47 

proof of good feeling. Two French naval officers who had been 
sentenced to four and six years' imprisonment respectively in a 
German fortress for espionage, and had been confined in the 
fortress of Glatz for some six months, were pardoned by the 
Emperor with an explanation that his reason for this action was 
to give proof of his sympathy with the French nation at this 
moment of national sorrow. This chivalrous conduct of the 
Emperor made a deep impression on wide circles in France. The 
majority of the Parisian papers expressed in quite enthusiastic 
terms their gratitude for the explanation given by the German 
Emperor. The newly appointed President, Casimir Perier, called 
at the German Embassy in person to express his thanks for the 
sympathy and chivalrous conduct of the Emperor. It may be 
interesting here to recall the fact that a part of the German 
Press by no means approved of this action of the German Emperor. 
It was contended that he had gone too far in his conciliatory 
policy towards France. But the Emperor understands the char- 
acter of the French people better, and, indeed, we shall see that 
by this chivalrous action he broke the ice which had hitherto 
prevented the establishment of good relations between France 
and Germany. For the excellent results which followed the 
Emperor's course in this matter have entirely justified his action. 

Concerning this chivalrous conduct of the Emperor towards 
the French nation J|ules Simon in the year 1896 wrote in his 
book, Four Portraits i "I cannot refrain from remarking that 
during the last few weeks the attitude of the German Emperor 
towards France has confirmed my general impressions and hopes. 
The noble language in which he couched his letter of condolence 
to Madame Carnot has made a great impression in the country. 
On the day of the funeral, at the moment at which the funeral 
cortege was being formed in order to proceed to the Cathedral of 
Notre Dame and thence to the Pantheon, the German Ambassador, 
Count Munster, communicated to the Government the fact that 
the Emperor had pardoned two French officers, one of whom had 
been sentenced to six, and the other to four years' detention in a 
German fortress on account of one of those crimes which do not 
affect a man's honour, and which merely represent a continuation 
of the war. At the very moment at which the Ambassador re- 
ceived on behalf of his master the thanks of the President of 
the French Eepublic our two countrymen had already been set 
at liberty. 

"I regard the Emperor William II. and Pope Leo XIII. as 
the most interesting figures of our time. I keenly regret that 



48 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

I do not know the Pope. I have come into personal contact with 
the Emperor, and I have, like everybody else, attempted to make 
a study of him in his actions. Everything to his honour that I 
heard of I considered it my bounden duty also to tell in public. 
He is in my eyes one of the great hopes of peace. I believe, 
I know, that he has set his heart on peace. He is no enemy 
of France; he has studied her from all points of view. Under 
difficult circumstances he has shown her gratitude and friendship. 
But yet I have not forgotten the memory of 1870, and have 
never even for one moment lost sight of the hopes of France. 
But I set peace with honour above every other blessing, and, like 
the Emperor, I firmly believe that every hour of peace is a gain 
in the cause of peace itself." 

In the last days of May, 1895, the Apostles of Revenge in France 
again excited themselves about a step of the German Emperor. 
The French Republic, along with other powers, received an invita- 
tion to the great Festival of Peace which the Emperor William 
had intended to celebrate at the inauguration of the Kiel Canal. 
The Nationalist intransigeants naturally protested against France 
being represented at Kiel by a squadron. They maintained that 
Alsace-Lorraine would regard this visit of the French fleet to 
Kiel as a notification of the final surrender of the provinces lost 
in 1871 ; but at the session of the Chamber of Deputies on 
May 31st M. Hanotaux, the French Minister of Foreign Affairs, 
was in a position to prove that France had every reason to be on 
good terms with Germany. 

Revolutionary changes were impending in Asia. England and 
Japan were said to have concluded an alliance, the sole object of 
which was the partition of China, and thereby the opening out 
of the great Far Eastern question for Europe. Russia, France, 
and Germany were combining in a common diplomatic action in 
raising protest. This joint procedure was the first occasion on 
which France and Germany were seen standing shoulder to 
shoulder, at least, on the field of diplomacy, and it achieved the 
desired success. This action stands out as the most important 
and the most momentous event of the year 1895. The French 
Minister of Foreign Affairs could vouch for the fact that Germany 
had done France a great service, and that it would therefore be 
very improper to make no response or to reply in an offensive 
way to an international courtesy such as that which the Emperor 
had shown them by his invitation to the inauguration of the 
Kiel Canal. However, by way of a slight concession to the in- 
transigeants, it was arranged that the French warships should 






THE EMPEROR AND FRANCE 49 

run into the Kiel Eoads in company with the Kussian. It, there- 
fore, had now become possible for voices publicly to make 
themselves heard in France, like that of General Dubarail, 
ex-Minister of War, who wrote in the Gaulois: "The peaceful 
intentions which the Emperor William has manifested since his 
accession to the throne make it our duty to take part in the 
celebrations at the opening of the Kiel Canal." 

Jules Simon wrote in the Figaro supporting the participation 
of the French squadron in the Kiel festivities : 

"These great patriots (i.e. the Nationalists) would do well to 
remember that they have already plunged us into war once. It 
was they who shouted in the year 1870 : 'To Berlin ! To Berlin ! ' 
They then marched out to Berlin, but got no farther than Sedan. 
Would they like to begin again ? Perhaps they call that patriot- 
ism. We have very often heard these voices of impotent hatred 
during the last twenty-five years. Those who were at Bordeaux 
when Thiers laid the preliminaries of peace, concluded at Ver- 
sailles, on the table of the National Assembly will still remember 
the howl of fury which then resounded from some of the benches. 
People knew that the Treaty had been signed, and that the salva- 
tion of the country was at stake. But yet they played the comedy 
of patriotism. Every man in France who had the least claim to 
be considered of importance at that time said to the country 
firmly, though with despair at heart, let us save what is still left 
us. To-day the flag on which we are supposed to be casting 
dishonour by allowing it to float among the flags of all Europe 
at Kiel will still appear as glorious and respected as it was a 
hundred years ago. I could have wished that in the year 1895 
we could have been spared the old song of 1871 concerning the 
invincibility of France and its people. One forgets that the 
Germans have toiled just as indefatigably as we ourselves, and 
that nowadays war is a question not of heroism, but of science." 

In the year 1895 the leading newspapers of Paris drew atten- 
tion to the fact that there were mistaken notions abroad concerning 
the position of affairs in Alsace-Lorraine. It was supposed that 
the Alsacians were impatiently waiting for the moment at which 
they would be recovered by France, whereas the contrary was the 
case. The Alsacians were extraordinarily content with their con- 
dition. Trade and industry were flourishing under the secure rule 
of Germany, and the germanisation of the conquered districts was 
proceeding slowly, but surely and irresistibly. 

The year 1898 brought with it for France the miserable Dreyfus 
affair, which caused intense excitement in the country during the 



50 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

following years, and attracted the attention of the whole civilised 
world. It was not without deliberate intention that Germany 
too was dragged into this affair by those elements of the French 
population, which offered a decided opposition to a rapprochement 
with Germany. Germany was declared to be the power to which 
the traitor Dreyfus was said to have sold the important documents, 
and in the last phase of the trial even the person of the German 
Emperor was directly dragged into the affair. In spite of all 
official and semi-official denials that either the German Govern- 
ment, or, still less, the German Emperor, had ever had anything 
to do with Dreyfus, the truth of the story of the discovery of a 
suspicious document in the Emperor's bedroom was still believed. 
It was beyond question a sign of the continuous improvement of 
the relations between France and Germany that even the lying 
stories against Germany and its Emperor, which were set in 
circulation by the Dreyfus affair, could not bring about the re- 
newal of the exasperation of France against Germany. 

In the beginning of July the French Merchant Service suffered 
a disaster by the foundering of the Bourgogne. The Emperor, 
who was then cruising in Norway, addressed a telegram with 
an expression of his sympathy to the President of the French 
Kepublic. 

The opening days of 1899 brought a proof of the improved 
relations between the German Empire and France. On account 
of a slight indisposition the Emperor William was unable to hold 
in person his usual New Year's Eeception in his Palace at Berlin 
The President of the French Kepublic instructed the Ambassador 
at Berlin to go at once to Potsdam and make enquiries concern- 
ing the Emperor's condition. Immediately after his recovery on 
January 10th the Emperor William in person returned this visit 
to the French Ambassador at Berlin. Only a few days later 
the Emperor William had once more occasion to testify to his 
sympathy with the French nation. 

President Faure succumbed to an attack of apoplexy, and on 
February 18th the Emperor William addressed the following 
telegram to the President's widow : 

" Deeply moved by the news of the death of your husband, the 
President of the French Eepublic, I hasten to express to you my 
sincere sympathy with you in your terrible loss. The Empress 
unites with me in the most earnest prayers that God Almighty 
may give you strength to bear the sorrow which has afflicted 
you." 



THE EMPEROR AND FRANCE 51 

The Emperor William also paid a visit of condolence to the 
French Ambassador immediately on his return to Berlin from a 
shooting expedition at Hubertusstock. Whilst the German 
Emperor was at the French Embassy news was brought of the 
election of Loubet to the Presidency of the Eepublic. 

At the command of the Emperor Adjutant- General Prince 
Anton Kadziwill, Count Wedel, Master of the Horse, and three 
other gentlemen, went to Paris to attend the funeral of President 
Faure. The Paris newspapers discussed in extraordinarily sym- 
pathetic terms the honour which the Emperor William Joy this 
action paid to the deceased President. 

The 6th of July brought another event, the significance of 
which some of the French and Eussian newspapers vainly 
attempted to depreciate. While on his cruise in Norway the 
Emperor found, on his entry into the harbour of Bergen, the 
German training-ship Ghieisenau and the French training-ship 
Iphigtnie. This meeting was naturally not a mere accident, but 
arranged by previous consultation with the French Government. 
The Emperor, in admiral's undress uniform, visited the French 
training-ship, extended his hand to each of the officers, thoroughly 
inspected the vessel as well as the crew, and then invited the 
French cadets to visit him on board the Hohenzollern. 

Immediately after this the Emperor addressed the following 
telegram to President Loubet : 

"I have had the pleasure of seeing young French sailors on 
board the training-ship Iphig6nic. Their military and sympathetic 
conduct, worthy of their noble country, has made a deep im- 
pression on me. My heart as a sailor and comrade rejoices at 
the kind reception which was accorded to me by the commander, 
officers, and crew, and I congratulate myself, Mr. President, on 
the fortunate circumstance which has allowed me to meet the 
Iphigtnie and your amiable countrymen. "WiLHELM." 

The answer of President Loubet ran as follows : 

"I am deeply touched by the telegram which your Imperial 
Majesty has addressed to me after your visit on board the training- 
ship Iphigtnie, and I cannot refrain from thanking your Majesty 
for the honour which you have paid our sailors, and for the words 
in which you have been kind enough to describe the impression 
which this visit has left in your memory. LOUBET." 



I ,2 



52 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

On July 7th the officers and some sixty cadets from the 
Iphigenie paid a visit on board the Hokenzollem, off Bergen. 
Paris newspapers reported of this visit: "The Emperor, who 
again appeared in undress uniform with a cape reaching below 
his knees, was most kind and affable. He greeted his visitors 
with the words ' Voici vos camarades ; il y en a dix qui savent le 
franqais; pour les autres vous vous debrouillerez/ (Here are 
your comrades ; ten of them understand French ; with the others 
you must get along as best you can.) Then bread and butter and 
refreshments were handed round." The French report concluded 
with the words : " Taking it all round we maintained our correct 
attitude. The ice block is too thick to melt at the first ray of 
sunshine." 

On August 18th, 1899, the Emperor William was present at 
the consecration of the Monument to the First Eegiment of 
Foot Guards erected on the battlefield of St. Privat, and there 
delivered the following address: 

" Many solemn and hallowed memories gather round the com- 
memoration that we hold to-day, and cause our hearts to beat 
higher. My First Kegiment of Foot Guards, represented by my 
own household company, its glorious colours and many old 
comrades who once fought and bled on this spot, is to-day to 
unveil a monument in memory of the fallen. My youngest 
regiment is to take part in this ceremony, and also the whole of 
the German Army represented by the troops of the Sixteenth 
Army Corps. This is almost the only regiment which has hitherto 
not been represented by a monument on this blood-drenched spot, 
and yet it has every claim to such an honour. Although through- 
out its history it has been closely associated with my House, and 
appointed to train up the princes and kings of our family, and 
therefore may be rightly regarded as an appanage of our House 
and family, yet his Imperial Majesty, my grandfather, did not 
hesitate for one moment to risk for the welfare of the Fatherland 
those troops that he loved so well. How the regiment fought 
and bled, how it kept its oath to the colours, how its conduct won 
the praise of the great Emperor, and its sufferings and losses his 
tears, history tells us, and now the regiment joins me, as its oldest 
comrade, in erecting this memorial stone to its heroes who rest 
under the green sod. The form chosen for this monument varies 



THE EMPEROR AND FRANCE 53 

somewhat from those usually found on fields of battle. The 
angel clad in armour, peacefully resting, leans upon his sword, 
adorned with the proud motto of the regiment, 'Semper talis.' 
I would suggest then that a general significance be attached to 
this figure. It stands upon this blood -drenched field like a 
guardian angel over all the brave soldiers of both armies both 
French and German who fell here. For the French soldiers too 
sank into their glorious graves fighting bravely and heroically for 
their Emperor and Fatherland, and if our colours in mutual 
greeting are lowered before the brazen statue and mournfully 
rustle over the graves of our dear comrades, so, too, may they 
wave over the graves of our enemies, and whisper to them that 
we think with mournful respect of the brave dead. With deep 
gratitude and looking up to the Lord of Hosts for His guidance 
most graciously vouchsafed to our great Emperor, we will try to 
picture to ourselves that on this very day the souls of all those 
who once stood face to face on this field in hot strife, now gathered 
round the throne of the Almighty Judge, and united in the 
eternal peace of God, are looking down upon us." 

After that the Emperor handed over the monument to the 
Sixteenth Army Corps and the President of the district. 

This speech of the Emperor was very sympathetically received 
in France, and also the Kussian papers referred to it in terms of 
gratitude. 

At the invitation of the German Emperor, given on the occasion 
of the Eussian mano3uvres at which they were present, two French 
officers, General Bonnal and his aide-de-camp, visited Berlin in 
May, 1901, and were the recipients of special marks of attention 
on the part of their Imperial host. He invited them to be present 
at a brigade exercise which he holds annually in memory of his 
father, the Emperor Frederick. Once, and once only, as Crown 
Prince, had the Emperor William the opportunity of leading his 
troops, the brigade under his command as Major-General, past the 
Emperor, even then suffering from his fatal malady. It was in the 
Park adjoining the Castle of Charlottenburg that the Emperor 
Frederick, seated in a carriage, witnessed the march past of the 
troops commanded by his son. Since that time the Emperor has 
never failed to hold manoeuvres of the brigade of Foot Guards 
every year on the 29th of May, and, therefore, it was a special 
mark of attention and honour to invite the French officers to 



54 THE GERMAN EMPERORS SPEECHES 

witness this military spectacle. After the manoeuvres, breakfast 
was partaken of in the mess-room of the officers of the 2nd 
Regiment of Foot Guards, to which the French General and 
his aide-de-camp were invited. On this occasion the Emperor 
delivered a tactful and diplomatic speech, which made a great 
impression both at home and abroad. 

"Gentlemen," he said, "I have to-day had the honour to 
command the 2nd Brigade of Foot Guards. This day is a great 
anniversary ; it is a day which I always have observed and always 
will observe faithfully ; it is the day on which I led the Brigade 
before the late Emperor Frederick. We will raise our glasses, 
in silence, to his memory." After his guests had answered this 
call, the Emperor continued. " Please fill the glasses again. I am 
particularly rejoiced to be able to announce on this occasion that 
peace has been concluded in the Far East and that the troops can 
be withdrawn. This event has brought for me acknowledgments 
and thanks from all quarters, and also a telegram sent person- 
ally by the Emperor of Kussia, which I have received to-day. It 
runs as follows: 'For your services in the China difficulty I 
tender to your Majesty my cordial thanks. Count von Waldersee 
has accomplished with dignity and skill a difficult and thankless 
task. I express my complete appreciation.' 

"A special honour is conferred on the brigade to-day, in that 
it is privileged to welcome in its midst two officers of the French 
Army. This is the first occasion on which it is thus honoured, 
as this is the first time, also, that German and French troops 
have fought shoulder to shoulder as good brothers and comrades 
in arms against a common enemy. Three cheers for the two 
French officers and the entire French Army ! Hurrah ! hurrah ! 
hurrah!" 

General Bonnal expressed in French his most cordial and 
hearty thanks for the privilege of attending these memorable 
manoeuvres, as well as for the many flattering attentions which 
the Emperor and the German officers had accorded to him and to 
his aide-de-camp, and concluded his acknowledgments with the 
words: "Three cheers for the German Army and its soldier 
Emperor ! Hurrah ! " 

In quite recent times various French people have been the 



THE EMPEROR AND FRANCE 55 

guests of the Emperor William, and some of them have not failed 
to give an account of their interviews with the Emperor, and 
of what they had seen and experienced in Germany, in the Paris 
newspapers. 

The eruption of Mount Pelee, on the French island of 
Martinique, and the consequent catastrophe, led to an exchange 
of telegrams between the Emperor and President Loubet. The 
Emperor wired : 

"To His Excellency the President of the French Eepublic. 

" I am deeply moved by the news of the terrible disaster which 
has occurred at St. Pierre, and which has cost the lives of almost 
as many people as perished at Pompeii. I hasten to express to 
France my sincere sympathy. May Almighty God comfort the 
hearts of those who deplore irreparable losses. My Ambassador 
will forward to your Excellency the sum of 10,000 marks, to be 
devoted to the assistance of the sufferers. 

"WILLIAM I. R." 

To this M. Loubet replied: 

"To His Majesty the Emperor William, Wiesbaden. 

"Profoundly touched by the evidence of sympathy which 
your Majesty has graciously expressed to me respecting the 
terrible calamity which France has experienced, I beg of you 
to accept my heartfelt thanks as well as the assurance of the 
gratitude of the victims whom it is your intention to help." 

The visit which President Loubet paid to St. Petersburg in 
May, 1902, on which occasion assurances of friendship between 
France and Eussia were proclaimed aloud, and the renewal of 
the Triple Alliance in the following month, did not arouse any 
excitement in the political world. These two events, which were 
previously regarded as conditions of peace, are now looked upon 
as sure guarantees of the preservation of peace. Throughout the 
civilised world there is a conviction that the peace of the world 
is assured for a long time to come, and it is recognised that 
this is largely due to the conciliatory policy of the German 
Emperor. 



THE EMPEROR AND THE CATHOLIC 
CHURCH 

T the opening of the Prussian Diet, which took place twelve 
days after his accession, the Emperor William made the 
following utterance in his speech from the Throne : 

"Following the example of my illustrious ancestors, I will 
always consider it my duty to afford to the adherents of all 
religious creeds in my country my Royal protection in the free 
exercise of their belief. I have noticed with special satisfaction 
that the recent ecclesiastical legislation has resulted in a settle- 
ment of the relations between the State and the Catholic Church 
and its Spiritual Head. I shall strive to preserve ecclesiastical 
peace in the country." 

When, in the early part of October, 1888, the Emperor visited 
Rome, he not only made a stay with his ally, King Humbert, but 
also went to the Vatican in order to h rt " ^ a personal interview 
with the Pope, and by this means to try to bring about a final and 
peaceful understanding with the Catholic Church. From the 
Prussian Embassy he drove to the Vatican, accompanied by 
Prince Henry and a large suite. The Emperor had a long con- 
versation with Leo XIII., first of all in private, and then Prince 
Henry was also received by the Pope in the inner apartments. 
How great was the animosity of the German Clerical, or Centre, 
Party against the Government was evidenced by the fact that 
this step of the Emperor's was regarded by the entire ultra- 
montane Press as a direct affront to the Pope and the Church, 
because the Emperor, immediately after his visit to the Vatican, 
declared, in the course of a toast which he proposed in the 
Quirinal, that he visited the King of Italy in his " Capital." It was 
said to be positive sacrilege on the part of the Emperor to sanction 
in this way the " robbery of territory," which was perpetrated 
by the House of Savoy at the expense of the Papacy. What 

56 



THE EMPEROR AND THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 57 

really passed between the Pope and the Emperor during their 
interview was not known, but all sorts of conjectures were made ; 
and it was asserted in some quarters that nothing but the un- 
expected arrival of Prince Henry prevented the conversation from 
taking a somewhat unpleasant turn. In German anti-clerical 
circles, also, there was by no means a general approval of the 
Emperor's visit to the Pope, and men found it impossible to clear 
their minds of the feelings engendered by the Kulturkampf 
against the Koman Curia and the Centre. 

On the 7th of November, 1888, the Emperor gave a gracious 
reply to the address of congratulation which had been presented 
to him by the German Catholic Bishops on the 29th of August. 
This Imperial reply was addressed to Dr. Krementz, Archbishop 
of Cologne. In it the Emperor said : 

" It was with great satisfaction that I received the congratula- 
tory address which you, my Lord Archbishop, and your right 
reverend brethren addressed to me from Fulda. The double afflic- 
tion which it has been God's will should this year have descended 
upon me, my House, and the Fatherland is so touchingly referred 
to in your address, that even amongst the many expressions of 
sympathy which I have received your condolences are beyond 
measure precious to me. Nor am I less deeply touched by your 
patriotic blessing of my accession to the Throne. My life and my 
work belong to my people, the promotion of whose welfare is the 
noblest task of my kingly office. My knowledge that the 
religious freedom of my Catholic subjects is secured by right and 
by law strengthens my confidence in the lasting preservation of 
religious peace. In sincerely thanking you, my Lord Archbishop, 
and the co-signatories of the address for your expressions of 
loyalty, I am, your Grace's loving Sovereign, K WlLLIAM KEX 

The Emperor addressed the following letter to Pope Leo XIII. 
on the 8th of March, 1890 : 

"Most Exalted Pontiff: The noble pronouncements in which 
your Holiness always exerts your influence in favour of the poor 
and the distressed of the human family give me hope that the 
International Conference, which, at my invitation, will be held at 
Berlin on the 15th inst., will enlist the sympathy of your Holiness, 
and that you will follow with interest the course of the delibera- 



58 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

tions which have for their object the amelioration of the condition 
of the working classes. Under these circumstances I regard it as 
my duty to submit to your Holiness the programme which will 
form the basis of the labours of the Conference, the success of 
which will be greatly facilitated if your Holiness will lend your 
beneficent assistance to the philanthropic work which I have in 
hand. I have therefore invited the Prince Bishop of Breslau, 
whom I know to be imbued with the ideals of your Holiness, to 
take part in the Conference as my proxy. I gladly seize the 
opportunity now presented to me to renew to your Holiness the 
assurance of my reverent regard and my personal esteem. 

" WILLIAM." 

The Pope replied in gracious terms, and concluded with the 
words : 

" Before we close this letter we desire to give expression to the 
satisfaction which we felt when we learned that your Majesty had 
invited the Prince Bishop of Breslau, Monsignore Kopp, to take 
part in the Conference as your proxy. He will certainly feel 
highly honoured by this proof of the great confidence which your 
Majesty has shown him on this occasion. With the liveliest 
satisfaction do we express to your Majesty the sincere wishes 
which we entertain for your well-being and for that of your Eoyal 
Family." 

In the same letter the Pope congratulated the Emperor on 
his happy thought of summoning the Labour Conference. All 
this led to a great change in the attitude of the whole Clerical 
Party towards the Emperor, a proof of which was given when he 
paid a visit to Herr Windthorst, the leader of the Clerical Party 
in the Keichstag, who was dangerously ill, and by the further fact 
that he was represented at Herr Windthorst's funeral, which took 
place at Hanover. 

~In November, 1891, Bishop Florian Stablewski was appointed 
Archbishop of Posen and Gnesen. He delivered a speech on the 
Catholic Day* at Cologne, in which he declared that a monarch 
has ascended the throne who has shown that he possesses the 
qualities necessary to fulfil the duties of his high office and to 
meet the requirements of the time. 

* Katholikentag is a triennial Congress of Roman Catholics from all parts of 
Germany (also attended by foreign delegates) held in different German towns, at 
which speeches and prayers are made in furtherance of the Roman Catholic cause 
and in support of the Centrum. 



THE EMPEROR AND THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 59 

On June 12th, 1892, the Emperor William received the newly- 
appointed Archbishop to accept from him the oath of allegiance 
in the Chapter House of the Koyal Castle at Berlin. After the 
presentation by the Minister of Public Worship, the Archbishop 
addressed the Emperor and then took the oath. Thereupon the 
Emperor addressed the following speech to the Archbishop : 

" I thought it expedient to receive your Grace on your entering 
upon your new office, and to accept in person the solemn vow 
which you have just made, and which you have ratified by 
your oath. 

" The duties which await you are onerous. The peculiar condi- 
tions existing in your diocese call for a special measure of wisdom 
and loyalty. When I suggested to his Holiness the Pope that 
your Grace should be appointed to the Archiepiscopal See of 
Gnesen-Posen, and as your Sovereign now accord to you my 
Imperial recognition of your elevation, it was done with con- 
fidence that in your responsible position you will at all times 
practise the principles which as a Christian and as a subject you 
owe to me, your Sovereign, and to the State of which you are a 
citizen. I hope that you will succeed in reconciling, so far as 
it lies within your sphere, those conflicting opinions, the existence 
of which among the children of a country admits of no justifica- 
tion, and in fostering and nourishing in those who are committed 
to your charge as Archbishop of the diocese the spirit of respect 
and loyalty towards me and my House, of obedience to the Powers 
ordained of God, of observance of the laws of the country, and of 
harmony amongst its inhabitants. 

" I cherish this hope with all the greater confidence now that 
you have fearlessly declared these principles to be your own, and 
thereby have given me an assurance that the pastoral staff of the 
archdiocese will henceforth rest in a firm, faithful, and just hand. 
With these feelings I welcome your Grace to your new office, and 
I trust that in the administration of the same you will have the 
blessing of God." 

On the 19th February, 1893, Pope Leo celebrated his fiftieth 
anniversary as a Bishop. On that occasion the Emperor William 
was represented by a special envoy, General von Loe, who was 



60 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

the bearer of a mitre a gift from the Emperor to the Pope to 
Rome. In making the presentation General von Loe said : 

" His Majesty, the Emperor and King, has commanded me to 
place in the hands of your Holiness this letter, which contains 
the sincere congratulations of his Majesty on this memorable 
anniversary, which has drawn representatives of all nations around 
the Holy See. His Majesty requests your Holiness kindly to 
accept, as a memento of the 19th of February, this symbol of 
the Bishop's dignity to which Providence elevated your Holiness 
fifty years ago to-day. His Majesty is from the bottom of his 
heart glad on this occasion to repeat to your Holiness the 
warm expression of his friendly feelings, and to associate himself 
with the good wishes of his Catholic subjects. As for myself, 
belonging as I do to the great Catholic community of Germany, I 
am proud and happy to have been chosen by my illustrious 
Sovereign to act as an interpreter of his feelings to the venerable 
person of your Holiness." 

A few weeks later, on the 23rd of April, the Emperor paid a 
second visit to the Pope at the Vatican. On this occasion he was 
accompanied by the Empress, and the character of the present 
meeting was in every respect different from that which took place 
in the year 1888. All ceremony was waived, and the meeting was 
of an essentially private and friendly character. 

On September 3rd, 1893, the Emperor came to Metz to attend 
the manoeuvres, when Bishop Fleck addressed the monarch in 
the following terms : 

" May your Imperial Majesty deign to permit me in the name 
of the clergy of the Diocese of Metz, as well as in my own, to 
offer you our most respectful homage. The honour which the 
German Emperor does our country by his visit is all the more 
highly valued because your Majesty intends to establish your 
residence in Lorraine ; and we are all the more delighted at this, 
because your Majesty will here have an opportunity of coming 
into closer contact with our industrious population, of becoming 
acquainted with their peaceful and religious disposition, and of 
showing them your paternal good-will. So far as the clergy of 
Lorraine are concerned, I would like to address a request to your 
Majesty. May your Majesty be pleased to form your opinion of us, 
not from what hostile newspapers circulate to our discredit, but 
from our actions. Our endeavours are, above all, directed towards 
maintaining the religious spirit and respect for morality among 
our people, and also to keeping them free from those subversive 
doctrines which threaten the very existence of society, and, above 



THE EMPEROR AND THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 61 

all, from the inevitable fruits of such doctrines, especially the 
undue desire for pleasure and decadence of morals. By pursuing 
such aims we hope, within the limits of our powers, to do good 
service to the German Empire and win the sovereign approval of 
your Majesty." 

The Emperor thereupon made a longer speech in reply to the 
Bishop, expressing to him his warmest thanks for the words of 
welcome he had addressed to him. The Emperor added that he 
was especially thankful for the assurance which the Bishop had 
given him with regard to the endeavours of the clergy to main- 
tain the religious spirit and morality among the people. That 
was, he thought, one of the greatest tasks of the Holy Father, as 
the Emperor had been able to see on the occasion of the interview 
which he had had with the Pope last spring. Thereupon the 
Bishop took the liberty of telling the Emperor that the Pope had 
mentioned this interview in talking to him, the Bishop, and had 
expressed his joy at knowing himself to be of one mind with 
the German Emperor on the subject in question. The Emperor, 
visibly pleased at these words, replied that he had lately received 
reports from the Pope, according to which his health was wonder- 
fully improved, and that he was preparing a new pastoral letter 
on the social question. At the end of his speech the Monarch 
again renewed the expression of his satisfaction at the Bishop's 
words, which so entirely accorded with the aims he himself pro- 
posed to pursue, and on taking his departure said, " I am thankful 
to all those who support me in this work." 

On the 18th of March, 1895, there occurred the death of 
Herr von Schorlemer-Alst, the well-known leader of the Centre 
Party. The Emperor sent the following telegram to the son of 
the deceased : 

"The news of the decease of your father has filled me with 
profound sorrow. He was a man who distinguished himself as 
much by his devotion to his Fatherland as to his Church, and was 
often to me a friend and a counsellor. The sorrow which not 
only his native province, but the greater part of the Fatherland, 
will experience at his death, may help to lighten your grief. 
From myself, however, I beg you and yours to accept my sincere 
condolences." 

By the Emperor's order the Civil Cabinet telegraphed to the 
Westphalian Agricultural Association : 
" His Majesty the Emperor and King is deeply touched by the 



62 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

melancholy news of the decease of Freiherr von Schorlemer-Alst, 
and desires to express to the Westphalian Agricultural Association 
his Imperial sympathy at the loss of their estimable President." 

On the 19th of May, 1897, the Emperor proceeded from Cologne 
to the Benedictine Abbey of Maria Laach, the church of which 
had been restored partly by Imperial assistance. Abbot Benzler 
welcomed the Emperor and his Consort in an address, in which 
he said : 

" The ground on which your Majesties stand is one of the most 
glorious spots in the history of Christian civilisation in Germany. 
The Emperor's magnanimous assistance has restored the church 
to its original purpose, and the sacred building is revived to the 
undying glory of its Koyal Patron." 

The journey to Palestine in the year 1898 afforded quite a 
number of instances of amiable attentions on the Emperor's part 
towards the German Catholics, the Eoman Curia, and the Pope. 
On October 26th the Imperial couple were welcomed in Haifa by 
Father Biever, the leader of the Catholic colony, and the Emperor 
replied as follows : 

"Your patriotic address has filled me with extreme pleasure, 
and I thank you heartily for it. In return I gladly seize the 
opportunity to declare once and for all that my Catholic subjects 
can rely on my Imperial protection, wherever and whenever they 
may stand in need of it." 

At the reception in the German Consulate the Emperor in- 
formed Father Schmidt, the Director of the German Catholic 
Hospice at Jerusalem, that he had resolved to present the plot 
of land known as the Dormition de la Sainte Vierge in Jerusalem, 
acquired by him during his stay in Constantinople, to the German 
Palestine Association for their free use and benefit on behalf of 
German Catholics. The Emperor also informed the President 
of the Palestine Association, Herr Jansen, of Aix-la-Chapelle, of 
his intention in the following telegram : 

" His Majesty the Sultan has made over to me the plot of land 
known as the Dormition de la Sainte Vierge, situated in this city. 
I have resolved to assign it to the Palestine Association for their 
free use and benefit on behalf of German Catholics. I am pleased 
thus to be able to supply a much-felt want of my Catholic 
subjects. They may in this see a proof of the paternal care with 



THE EMPEROR AND THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 63 

which I, although I ain of another Confession, have always striven 
to watch over their religious interests." 

The Emperor also sent the following telegram to the Pope : 

" I am fortunate in being able to bring to the knowledge of your 
Holiness the fact that, thanks to the kind agency of his Majesty 
the Sultan, who readily gave me this proof of personal friendship, 
I have been able to acquire the plot of ground known as the 
Dormition de la Sainte Vierge, in Jerusalem. I have decided to 
place this land, which has become holy through so many sacred 
associations, at the disposal of my Catholic subjects, and especially 
the German Catholic Palestine Association. It has gladdened my 
heart to take this opportunity of declaring how dear to rne are the 
religious interests of the Catholics which Divine Providence has 
entrusted to me. I beg your Holiness to accept the assurance 
of my sincere friendship." 

The Pope thereupon replied as follows : 

" We are greatly touched by the telegram which your Majesty 
has been pleased to address to us in order to bring to our know- 
ledge your decision to make over to your Catholic subjects 
the piece of land called the Dormition de la Sainte Vierge, 
which your Majesty has acquired. While expressing our own 
lively satisfaction, we feel assured that all Catholics will be filled 
with gratitude to your Majesty, and we gladly unite with the 
others in expressing our most sincere thanks/' 

On the 31st of October, 1898, after the consecration of the 
Evangelical Church of the Kedeemer, the Imperial couple pro- 
ceeded to the Dormition, where Father Piavi, Latin Patriarch of 
Jerusalem, Father Schmidt, Director of the German Catholic 
Hospice, and several other leading members of the Koman clergy 
had assembled. A detachment of sailors from the Hertha, with 
the band, had also been drawn up there. After greeting those 
present, the Emperor addressed them as follows : 

"As twenty -nine years ago his Majesty, the Sultan Abdul 
Aziz, handed over to my lamented father the plot of land on 
which stands the Evangelical Church consecrated to-day, so has 
his Majesty, the present reigning Sultan, been moved by a spirit 
of amity to present to me this plot, in order that buildings 
may be erected thereon for the use and benefit of German 



64 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

Catholics. It is with heartfelt thanks to his Majesty the Sultan 
that I take over the plot of land, and I hope that this gift, 
which is an expression of sincere friendship and at the same 
time of special interest in my German subjects, may, in the hands 
of the German Catholic Palestine Association, become a blessing 
to my Catholic subjects and, in particular, to their labours in the 
Holy Land. 

" I, William II., German Emperor and King of Prussia, do now 
hereby take over this ground." 

Thereupon the Emperor ordered the detachment of sailors to 
" Present Arms ! " and commanded that the Koyal Standard be 
hoisted on the spot to the strains of the saluting march. Father 
Piavi expressed his thanks in the warmest terms, and added : 

"The Holy Father is much touched by and very grateful for 
your Majesty's noble idea." 

On the 3rd of November the Emperor and Empress paid a visit 
to the German Catholic Hospice in Jerusalem. At the entrance 
their Majesties were received by the Director of the hospice, 
Father Schmidt, who was accompanied by the staff of Borromean 
Sisters attached to the institution. After the Imperial couple had 
taken up positions in the principal room of the building, which 
was decorated with pictures of the Royal guests, Father Schmidt 
delivered the following address : 

"With great respect and pleasure I welcome your Imperial 
Majesties within the walls of the German Catholic Hospice. Our 
institution is but young as yet, but it resembles the sown seed 
which sprouts up lustily, giving promise of fine blossom and of 
development into a fruitful tree. Here in the East we live in a 
barren and a dry land, but when at length the shadow falls on the 
sun-parched land everything thrives and breaks into blossom. 
And now with cooling and refreshment the shadow of the Emperor 
has fallen on the soil in which our seed-corn has been sown. 
Wherever that shadow falls there must spring forth the beautiful 
and the great. 

" The foundation of this establishment was a matter of necessity, 
for in the general rivalry of all nations and creeds to benefit the 
Holy Land, the Catholic population of the great German Empire 
could not lag behind. Good men and true, both clerical and lay, 
took the work in hand. It has so far been greatly furthered 
by a noble zeal for the Faith and the honour of the Fatherland ; 
the blessing of the Father of our Church has made it fruitful; 



THE EMPEROR AND THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 65 

and now your Majesty has in a magnanimous manner conferred 
upon the institution your Imperial patronage and active interest. 
I therefore pray your Imperial Majesty to deign to accept the 
grateful thanks of the German Palestine Association thanks 
spoken simultaneously from the hearts of millions of German 
Catholics. 

" Whilst standing, only three days ago, on the heights of Zion, 
it was with joy and feelings of gratitude that, in recalling two 
great names which are closely associated with Mount Zion, I 
wished for your Majesty a long, glorious, and vigorous reign like 
that of King David. To-day I have yet a third wish, suggested 
by the very spot on which we are now standing. Not far from 
this house there stood, thousands of years ago, the prophet 
Isaiah, who uttered the prophecy of the Virgin and of Immanuel, 
the fulfilment of which has transformed the face of the earth. 
May this Immanuel and this is the highest blessing we can 
invoke upon your Majesty be with you in all the great plans, 
the accomplishment of which you have so much at heart, 
and likewise the strong, joyful, confident belief of the inspired 
prophet. And now for our Sovereign Lady, the illustrious and 
noble Princess at your side, for her also shall be invoked the 
wish of all our hearts. About two thousand years ago for it is 
well-nigh as long since as that there tarried here in Palestine 
the first Christian Empress, Saint Helena. Her every step was 
attended by good deeds, and her memory is blessed in the East 
to the present hour. Such an undying memory here in the Holy 
Land do we wish your Majesty ; and when, after a long life, you 
quit this world, may you attain to a glorious home on high in 
the heavenly Jerusalem by the side of the Empress Helena. 
For our house I may venture to add the hope that a period of 
growth and happy prosperity will now dawn, and that the 
institution will long enjoy the refreshing and cooling shadow of 
your Majesty." 

The Emperor thereupon replied as follows : 

"I thank you, in the first place, for your patriotic address. 
Your institution stands, as you said, under the shadow of my 
protection. This shadow is thrown by the same black and white 
shield which I have stretched out over your brethren and co- 
religionists who, for Christ's sake, are risking their lives and their 
blood in the Far East for the propagation of the Gospel. For the 
purpose of protecting them, my brother is now out there with a 

F 



66 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

powerful squadron of ironclads, and the ensign which protects 
them is here also floating over you. On my return to the Father- 
land I will see to it that your fellow countrymen are informed 
how laboriously you toil out here, and what splendid results your 
institution, the excellent reputation of which had already reached 
my ears, is able to show. It is indeed a blessing to this country 
and its people." 

On the 23rd of October, 1899, Bishop Simar, of Paderborn, 
was elected Archbishop of Cologne, and soon afterwards took 
the prescribed oath of loyalty to the Emperor at the Royal Palace 
in Berlin. The Emperor replied in the following words : 

"I was desirous of receiving in person the oath of allegiance 
which your Grace has just taken, and I am glad to see you before 
me on your entrance upon your new charge. As head of the 
diocese of Paderborn you have in full measure come to under- 
stand the toils as well as the blessings of the episcopal office. 
It is no doubt with deep regret that you are quitting that sphere 
of labour which you had come to love so well, but I have learnt 
with satisfaction that you will cheerfully obey the summons to 
the archiepiscopal see of Cologne. I have gladly signified to the 
metropolitan chapter my approval of your election, and I now 
confer on you my sovereign recognition. I confidently hope that, 
as in the past, so now in a wider sphere of activity, you will with 
entire devotion instruct the flock entrusted to your pastoral care 
in all Christian virtues, and especially that you will foster the 
spirit of respect and loyalty towards me and my House. It will 
be your duty to train the faithful members of your Church's body 
to become both good citizens and good patriots. Your oft-proved 
loyalty of spirit gives me assurance that you will know how to 
govern your new charge with equal blessing to Church and to 
State. May God's grace be with you !" 

The ninetieth birthday of Pope Leo was celebrated on the 
2nd of March, 1900. On that occasion there was an exchange 
of compliments between the Emperor and his Holiness. The 
Emperor telegraphed : 

" I pray your Holiness to accept my hearty congratulations on 
your ninetieth birthday. I cherish the most sincere desire 



THE EMPEROR AND THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 67 

for your happiness and your health, and I pray God that He 
may bestow all His blessings on your Holiness." 

The Pope's reply was :-* 

"In the congratulations which your Majesty was gracious 
enough to send us on our ninetieth birthday we see with pleasure 
a fresh proof of your friendly sentiments. For this may your 
Majesty accept our thanks, as well as the wish, which we for our 
part express to Almighty God, for the welfare and the happiness 
of your Majesty and the whole Imperial Family. T VT TT 

.LEO -A.JL11. 

The Catholic Mission in China has always enjoyed the support 
of the Emperor. The Catholic missionary bishop Anzer has, 
when visiting Berlin, often been the guest of the Emperor, and 
has advised him on various important Chinese affairs. The 
action undertaken against China in the year 1900 was partly in 
aid of the Catholic Mission. The Archbishop of Cologne, the 
Bishop of Metz, and the* Archbishop of Posen and Gnesen issued 
instructions to their clergy that prayers should be offered in the 
churches on behalf of the Expedition to China. 

Proceeding from Bonn on the 25th of April, 1901, the 
Emperor, accompanied by the Crown Prince, once more visited 
the Maria-Laach Abbey, in order to view the interior decoration 
of the Abbey church, carried out at his expense. Abbot Benzler 
received the Emperor in cordial terms. The Emperor returned 
his thanks for the friendly welcome, and referred to the remark of 
the Abbot that the Benedictine Order had wished piously to 
restore the Abbey church on the lines on which his forefathers 
had built it. He, the Emperor, fully anticipated that its original 
intentions would continue to be cherished and pursued by the 
Order. He had therefore taken care that its ancient property 
should be given back to the Order. The Order could rest assured 
of his protection and favour. All endeavours to preserve the 
religion of the people might rely upon his support. 

Abbot Benzler soon afterwards became Bishop of Metz, and 
took the oath of allegiance to the Emperor at Potsdam on 
October 24th, 1901. 

The words which the Emperor addressed to Bishop Benzler 
were as follow : 

"Since the establishment of German rule in Alsace-Lorraine, 
this is the first occasion on which a high dignitary of the Catholic 
Church in these provinces has personally taken the oath of allegi- 



68 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

ance to the German Emperor. That you, my Lord Bishop, are 
called to this see gives me particular satisfaction, and it has filled 
me with gratification that the weighty question of the appoint- 
ment to the episcopal see of Metz has been decided so happily. 
Gladly, therefore, have I placed you in possession of all the 
dignities and privileges connected with this office. Surely no 
easy matter has it been for you to leave your peaceful retreat 
in the beautiful convent by the Lake at Laach, where I have so 
often been your guest and at the same time a witness of your 
work quiet yet rich in blessings and to enter into a new sphere 
of activity, with its heavy burden of important duties. But the 
wisdom and loyalty which have illuminated your whole career 
will, in your new position, enable you to find the right path, so 
that now in this wider and more important field of labour 
blessings may attend your work. It will be your bounden duty 
to foster harmony, to strengthen among the flock entrusted to 
your episcopal care the spirit of respect towards myself, and to 
promote love for the German Fatherland. The activity you have 
displayed in the past and the spirit of loyalty you have always 
exhibited are to me a guarantee that such will be the case." 

On the 3rd of December, 1901, the installation of the Suffragan- 
Bishop of Strassburg, Zorn von Bulach, took place in the 
Emperor's presence. The speech which the Emperor made at 
the dtjeuner which followed was to this effect: 

"It has filled me with satisfaction that a native of Alsace- 
Lorraine has been appointed Suffragan-Bishop in the ancient 
diocese of Strassburg. You, right reverend sir, are a son of 
Alsace and a scion of an old Alsatian family, which from a remote 
antiquity has furnished to its country many distinguished men, 
and you are now called upon, as Suffragan-Bishop, to take up your 
position beside the Bishop of your native diocese. Gladly have I 
installed you, therefore, in all the dignities and privileges attached 
to that office, and I could not deny myself the pleasure of re- 
ceiving personally from you also the oath of allegiance, as I did 
so recently from the Bishop of Metz. The assurances of loyalty 
and the good wishes that you have just expressed for me and 
my House, as well as your past services to Church and State, 



THE EMPEROR AND THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 69 

strengthen iny belief that you, too, will regard it as your bounden 
duty to promote harmony, to strengthen the spirit of respect 
towards myself, and to increase the love of the German Fatherland 
in the diocese of Strassburg, so far as it lies in your power. In 
doing so you will only be following the example of your prede- 
cessors, who, in the days of the Holy Eoman Empire, remained 
true to Emperor and empire in good and evil days." 

While the Emperor was in Metz in May, 1902, he visited the 
cathedral, and was welcomed by Bishop Benzler in the following 
address : 

"Will your Imperial and Koyal Majesty permit me, on your 
entry into this noble House of God, to bid you a most respectful 
welcome ? We have to thank the high artistic feeling and active 
encouragement of your Majesty for the fact that this glorious 
edifice now begins to reveal its beauty to the admiring gaze as 
it will appear when restored and completed. The main entrance, 
a splendid example of style, is now approaching completion, and 
already we can form some conception of the appearance of the 
interior of the Cathedral as it will be when restored to its original 
magnificence. It was a sublime idea that inspired the builder of 
the Cathedral of St. Stephen at Metz. Stephen, we are told in 
the Acts of the Apostles, with his dying eyes saw the Heavens 
open mdit cwlos apertos. The story goes that the spirit of the 
artist seized that moment to embody it in stone. In the lofty 
choir the martyr is just sinking down under the shower of stones 
cast by the Jews ; his failing eye looks up to the glory of Heaven, 
which seems to stream through the lofty stained windows into 
the high-vaulted building. Other cathedrals may surpass it in 
vastness of dimensions, in impressiveness of massive effects, but 
so far as noble proportion, beauty of outline, and intellectual 
mastery over the material employed are concerned, the Cathedral of 
St. Stephen at Metz may rank with the most noble examples 
of the Gothic style. Your Imperial and Koyal Majesty has been 
pleased to recognise the eminent importance of our cathedral, 
and has most generously assisted in its restoration. May it 
please your Majesty to receive in return for such high favours 
the most respectful thanks of the Bishop, the Cathedral Chapter, 
and the whole diocese. May the blessing of Almighty God, to 
whose glory your Imperial and Koyal Majesty has assisted this 
cathedral towards its artistic completion, descend in richest mea- 
sure upon your Imperial and Koyal Majesty, upon her Majesty 
the Empress, and upon the whole Imperial and Koyal House." 



70 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

On the 19th of June, 1902, the Emperor paid a visit to the 
town of Aix-la-Chapelle. Accompanied by his Consort, he viewed 
the minster, and was there greeted by the prelate, Dr. Bellerheim, 
in the following address : 

"The debt of gratitude which the Chapter of the Collegiate Church 
owes your Imperial Majesty can never be repaid. This sacred duty 
we perform in the solemn services of prayer and praise which, for 
a thousand years and more, have re-echoed from the high-sprung 
arches and vaulted roof of our Collegiate Church. Day by day 
throughout the year do we pray in this place for Emperor and 
Empire. These prayers begin when the first blush of dawn rises 
from the lap of morning, they continue when the sun reaches its 
meridian, and, your Majesty, they do not die away on our lips till 
the shadows of evening are falling. May the Imperial Eagle 
spread its sheltering wings over this holy place of prayer until 
the last morsel of mosaic shall have been inserted in its place." 

Thereupon the Emperor replied as follows : 

" I thank the Chapter of this Foundation from my whole heart 
for the noble address which we have just received. If all the 
clergy of your Church are like-minded with yourselves, then the 
safety of our Fatherland is well assured. 

" It affords me great pleasure that I am able personally to 
further and take under my patronage the work of continuing the 
decoration of your church. In so doing I am but continuing in 
the spirit of my predecessors. My lamented grandfather and my 
father regarded it as an imperative duty to restore to its pristine 
splendour this beautiful House of God, and we now continue the 
work which the great Charles once began. Throughout the 
centuries a certain spirit has pervaded the Teutonic character 
the love of Nature, which the Creator implanted in our hearts 
to be a true birthright of us Germans. They have exhibited the 
same spirit in their art as applied to the ornamentation of their 
churches, and no German can free himself from the influence of 
the models which were thus originated, the protection of which 
becomes the duty of the Sovereign. 

"I shall be glad if Heaven will, in the evening of my life, 
permit me to see the completion of this church." 

On the same day the Emperor, in the Council Chamber at Aix-la- 
Chapelle, replied as follows to the address of Chief Burgomaster 



THE EMPEROR AND THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 71 

Veltmann a reply which did not fail to attract attention, especially 
in Catholic circles, even outside the borders of Germany : 

"My dear Chief Burgomaster: In the name of her Majesty 
the Empress and in my own I thank you sincerely, and from the 
bottom of my heart, for the indescribably patriotic reception which 
all quarters of the city of Aix-la-Chapelle have accorded to us. 
It was one of the dearest wishes of my heart to visit the town of 
Aix, and I thank you for the opportunity you afforded me by 
your invitation. Who on such historic soil as this of Aix can 
fail to be deeply moved by the echoes and the sounds of the past 
and the present ? Who can fail to recall the acts of Providence 
when he surveys the history of the centuries during which our 
Fatherland has been associated with Aix-la-Chapelle? Aix is 
the cradle of the German Imperial power, for here the great 
Charles set up his throne, and the town of Aix has since retained 
some reflex of his glory. So powerful and so great a figure was 
this mighty Germanic Prince, that Kome herself offered him the 
dignity of the ancient Eoman Caesars, and he was chosen to 
enter upon the heritage of the Imperium Bomanum assuredly 
a splendid recognition of the efficiency of our German race then 
first entering on the stage of history; for the sceptre of the 
Caesars had slipped from the feeble grasp of their successors, 
crumbling and insecure the Koman fabric was tottering to its fall, 
and only the appearance on the scene of the Germans, flushed 
with victory and unspoiled in spirit, was able to divert the history 
of mankind into a new channel, which it has followed ever since. 
It goes without saying that the powerful Charles, the great King 
of the Franks, drew upon him the gaze of Kome, who saw in him 
her bulwark and protector. But to unite the office of the Eoman 
Emperor with the dignity and burdens of a Teutonic king was a 
task beyond the power of man. What he, with his mighty per- 
sonality, was able to accomplish, fate denied to his successors, and 
in their anxiety to gain the empire of the world the later Imperial 
dynasties lost sight of the German nation and country. They 
marched to the South in order to retain the empire of the world, 
and, thereby, forgot Germany. Hence our kingdom and nation 
gradually broke up. Just as the aloe, when it puts forth its 
blossoms, devotes its whole strength to this one task, unfolds 



72 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

from its ascending crest bloom after bloom to the astonishment 
of the beholder and then breaks and dries up at the root, so also 
fared the Holy Koman Empire. 

"And now another Empire has arisen. The German people 
again have an Emperor, of their own making. Sword in hand, on 
the field of battle, the crown was won and the banner of the Empire 
once more floats high in air. With the same enthusiasm and love 
with which the German people clung to their ancient Imperial idea 
did the new Empire come into existence, only with other problems 
to solve. It is shut off from the outer world and confined within 
the limits of our country, in order that we may gather strength by 
way of preparation for the tasks which lie before our people at home, 
and which in the Middle Ages could not be performed at all. And 
we see that the Empire, although still young, grows in strength 
year by year, while on all sides ever-growing confidence is placed 
in it. The mighty German Army, however, is the mainstay of the 
peace of Europe. True to the Teutonic character, we confine our 
Empire within definite limits, that we may have unlimited scope 
for the development of our resources within. In ever-widening 
circles does our speech extend its influence even across the sea. 
Into far-distant lands do our science and research wing their way. 
There is no work in the field of modern research which has not 
been published in our tongue, and no discovery in science which 
we are not the first to turn to account, to be subsequently adopted 
by other nations. Such is the World Power to which the German 
spirit aspires. If we would do justice in all respects to the great 
tasks laid upon us, we must not forget that the main foundation 
upon which this Empire rests is based on simplicity, the fear of God, 
and the high sense of moral duties possessed by our ancestors. With 
what sore affliction was the hand of God laid upon our country at 
the beginning of last century, and how mighty was the arm of 
Providence which shaped and welded the iron in the furnace of 
affliction until the weapon was forged. So I hope that all of you, 
clergy and laity alike, will help me to preserve religion among 
the people. Together must we labour to preserve to the Germanic 
race its vigour and the moral basis of its strength. That, how- 
ever, is only possible by preserving for it religion Protestant and 
Catholic alike. My joy to-day is the greater because I have im- 



THE EMPEROR AND THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 73 

portant news for the dignitaries of the Church who are here 
represented, and which I am proud to be able to impart to them. 
Here stands General von Loe, a trusty servant of his Sovereigns. 
He was sent by me to Kome to attend the Jubilee of the Holy 
Father, and when he presented to his Holiness my congratulations 
and my gift, and informed him, in friendly conversation, of the 
outlook in our German lands, the Holy Father replied that he was 
pleased to be able to tell him that he had always thought highly 
of the piety of the Germans, especially of the German Army. 
His Holiness could tell him even more, and he asked him to deliver 
this message to his Emperor, that the country in all Europe in 
which decency, order, and discipline still holds widest sway, in 
which respect for authority, veneration for the Church, and free- 
dom for every Catholic in the confession of his faith still prevails, 
was the German Empire, and that for this his thanks were due 
to the German Emperor. 

" This, gentlemen, justifies me in saying that both our creeds, 
side by side, must keep in view the one great aim, namely, the 
upholding and strengthening of the fear of God and reverence for 
religion. Whether we are men with modern ideas, whatever the 
sphere of action in which our lot is cast, it is all one and the same 
thing. He who does not base his life on religion is lost. And so, 
since on this day and in this place it is a fit and proper occasion 
not only to speak but also to make a vow, I hereby declare that I 
place the whole Empire, the whole people, my Army, symbolically 
represented by this baton, myself and my House under the Cross 
and under the protection of Him, of Whom the great apostle 
Peter said, ' Neither is there salvation in any other : for there is 
none other name under Heaven given among men whereby we 
must be saved,' and who has said of Himself, ' Heaven and earth 
shall pass away, but My words shall not pass away.' 

" I drink to the welfare of the town of Aix in the firm convic- 
tion that the words which I have spoken will fall on good ground 
here, for I am firmly convinced by what I have to-day seen of the 
citizens of this town, old and young, that in the future our House 
and our Throne will continue to find strong support within these 
walls. 

"Long live the town of Aix-la-Chapelle!" 



3 

; ---< to. 



THE EMPEROR 
AND THE WORKING CLASSES 



IN" his speech from the Throne at the opening of the Reichstag 
on October 22nd, 1888, the Emperor expressly declared : 

"I have undertaken as a precious inheritance from my late 
grandfather, now resting in God, the task of continuing the social 
legislation commenced by him. I do not indulge the hope that 
the troubles of the time and the afflictions of mankind can be 
abolished from the world by legislative measures alone, but I con- 
sider it the duty of the State to work, as far as in it lies, for the 
alleviation of present economic distresses, and, by organised effort, 
to bring about the practical recognition of that love for one's 
neighbour which grows in the soil of Christianity, as a duty to be 
undertaken by the collective power of the State, The difficulties 
which stand in the way of a comprehensive compulsory insurance 
of all working men against accidents and sickness are great, but, 
thank God, not so great as to be insurmountable. As the result 
of comprehensive preliminary inquiries, a Bill will be submitted 
to you which offers a workable means of attaining this end." 

A few days after this speech, on November 16th, 1888, the 
Emperor received, whilst at Breslau, a deputation of representa- 
tives from both Protestant and Catholic Labour Associations, and 
replied to their addresses in these words : 

"I thank you, gentlemen, for the honour which you did me 
yesterday by your splendid torchlight procession, and for the 
sentiments of loyalty to me and my House to which you have just 
given expression. It gave me double pleasure that in paying 
this honour the workmen of both creeds joined with such complete 
unanimity. 

74 






THE EMPEROR AND THE WORKING CLASSES 75 

" The welfare of the working men lies near to my heart. The 
workmen of Breslau were the first to recognise this and to give ex- 
pression to their loyalty towards me and my House. I am convinced 
that you will display this fidelity in the future, whenever occasion 
demands. I hope and desire that the example given by the 
working men of the capital of Silesia will be imitated by workers 
in all parts of the Empire, and that they will stand faithfully by 
my House with like unanimity. I request you to make this 
known to the working men who took part in the torchlight pro- 
cession, as I was not then able to express to all of them my Eoyal 
thanks." 

On April 30th, 1889, the German National Exhibition of Means 
for the Prevention of Accidents was opened. It was under the 
patronage of the Emperor. At the opening ceremony the Em- 
peror made the following speech : 

" It is with pleasure that I welcome this proof of the endeavours 
to afford increased security to the working men against the dangers 
incident to their calling, which have become greater in recent 
times, to raise the economic position of the working classes by 
well-devised measures, and to give expression to the idea of 
practical philanthropy even in our public enactments. 

"Present and future generations will never forget what they 
owe to my grandfather now resting in God that he brought 
home to the national conscience the importance of this endeavour 
on behalf of the community. I have approached the social 
problems with which we have to deal with a full conviction of 
the necessity of finding a solution for them. I count upon the 
intelligent and ready co-operation of all classes of the people, 
especially of the workers, whose welfare is the object of these 
undertakings, and of the employers of labour, who in their own 
interests are willing to make the increasingly heavy sacrifices 
entailed. 

"The Exhibition of Means for the Prevention of Accidents is 
one of the results of these endeavours. It proves to what extent 
up to the present the provisions of the laws have taken practical 
shape. The necessary trouble and labour spent upon the organisa- 
tion of the Exhibition will, I hope to God, be followed by great 



76 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

blessings. To all who have contributed their share to this 
work I express my thanks and my acknowledgments. May the 
Exhibition help all who are concerned to realise how much can be 
done to protect the workman and to promote his interests." 

A few days later a general strike of coal-miners began in 
the collieries of the Kuhr district, which threatened to paralyse 
the whole commerce and industry of the country, especially as the 
men in the other Prussian coalfields were ready to join the strikers. 
In order to adjust the differences between the masters and the 
men, the Emperor received a deputation from each of the con- 
tending parties. To the deputation of the miners, received on the 
14th of May, the Emperor said : 

" Every subject who prefers a wish or petition has, as a matter 
of course, the ear of his Emperor. I have shown this in permitting 
the deputation to come hither and personally to lay their wishes 
before me. You have, however, put yourselves in the wrong, for 
the step you have taken is illegal, inasmuch as the fourteen days' 
notice, on the expiration of which you would have been legally 
entitled to stop work, has not been given. Consequently, you are 
guilty of breach of contract. It is self-evident that this breach 
of contract has irritated and injured the masters. Furthermore, 
men who refused to strike were prevented by violence or threats 
from continuing their work. Then, again, some workmen have 
defied the authorities and have seized property which does not 
belong to them, and, in individual cases, have even actively resisted 
the military power which had been summoned to preserve order. 
Finally, you insist that work shall be resumed only on condition 
that in all mines your entire demands are conceded. As regards 
your demands, I will have them thoroughly investigated by 
Government officials, and will transmit the result of the inquiry 
to you through the proper authorities. If, however, any excesses 
be committed against public order and tranquillity, or if it should 
become evident that Social Democrats are connected with the 
agitation, I shall not be able to take into consideration jour 
wishes with my royal favour; for to me the word Social Democrat 
is synonymous with enemy of Empire and Fatherland. If, there- 
fore, I observe that social democratic opinions are concerned in the 



THE EMPEROR AND THE WORKING CLASSES 77 

agitation and incite to unlawful resistance, I will intervene with 
unrelenting vigour and bring to bear the full power which I 
possess, and which is great indeed. Now retire, consider what 
I have said, and try to influence your comrades, so that they may 
come back to their senses. But above all, under no circumstances 
must any of you hinder your fellow-miners who wish to resume 
work from doing so." 

To the deputation of the mine-owners of the Euhr Coalfield 
who appeared before him on May 16th, 1889, the Emperor said : 

"Gentlemen : I have granted you audience, since it is naturally 
a monarch's business to hear both parties when his subjects require 
adjustment of differences that have arisen between them and 
loyally approach the Chief of the State. Two days ago I heard 
the men, and am pleased to see you before me to-day. As to 
the cause of the strike and the means of settling it, I still await 
detailed information on these points from my officials. I am par- 
ticularly anxious to bring to an end the great Westphalian strike 
as soon as possible, because it has caused widespread injury to the 
whole country, and is also extending into Silesia. You know what 
I said to the men ; it was published in all the newspapers yester- 
day. I indicated my position with the greatest clearness. The 
men themselves made a good impression on me, for it would seem 
that they held aloof from social democracy. That the words I 
spoke to them have been favourably regarded in working-class 
circles in Westphalia I gather from telegrams, and I am delighted 
to hear that attempts at interference on the part of Social Demo- 
crats have been energetically repelled. The negotiations which, 
as I am glad to hear, you, Herr Hammacher, as President of the 
Masters' Association, have conducted with the men's delegates, 
have been brought to my knowledge through the Ministry of the 
Interior, and I desire to express my acknowledgment of the 
conciliatory spirit you have shown towards the men, and by means 
of which the basis for a possible understanding has been secured. 
I shall be delighted if that proves to be the basis of an agree- 
ment between masters and men. There is still one other point I 
wish to emphasise from my point of view if you, gentlemen, are 
of opinion that the men's delegates whom I received were not the 



78 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

authoritative representatives of the strikers, that would not alter 
the case. Even if they only had a part of the men behind them, 
and expressed the opinion existing in their circles, the moral 
influence of the attempt to bring about an understanding will 
none the less be of considerable value. If, however, they were 
actually the delegates of the men, and represented the opinions of 
the whole of the Westphalian miners, and, further, if they regard 
favourably the proposals which you have made to them, then I 
trust to their common sense and patriotism to do their best, and 
not without success, to bring their comrades back to work as soon 
as possible. I would, on this occasion, urgently recommend to all 
parties concerned that the mining companies and their agents 
should always in the future keep themselves in the closest possible 
touch with the men, so that such agitations as these will not 
escape their notice. For it is impossible that the strike could 
have developed if there had not been much preparation. Evidences 
of such preparations have, I am informed, been discovered. The 
intention was to bring about a general strike, but at a later period, 
and this strike in Westphalia was entered upon prematurely. I 
beg you to give the men the opportunity to formulate their 
demands, and, above all things, to remember that those companies 
which employ a great number of my subjects to labour for them 
have also a duty to perform to the State and the communes con- 
cerned, that is, to care for the welfare of the workmen to the best 
of their ability, and, in particular, to prevent the population of a 
whole province from again becoming involved in such difficulties. 
It is but human nature that every man should seek to earn for 
himself the best livelihood possible. The men read newspapers, 
and know in what ratio their wages stand towards the profits 
of the companies. That they should wish to have some share 
in such profits is intelligible enough. For that reason I would 
ask you on each occasion to examine the state of affairs with the 
greatest earnestness, and, when possible, to try to obviate such 
things for the future. I can only impress upon you, that the 
work which the President of your Association began yester- 
day with such success should as soon as possible be brought 
to a favourable termination. I regard it as my Royal duty to 
give my support to all concerned, masters and men alike, when 



THE EMPEROR AND THE WORKING CLASSES 79 

differences of opinion arise, and it will be in proportion to the 
pains you take to further the interests of all your fellow-citizens 
by fostering general good-will and guarding against agitations of 
this kind." 

During his visit to Worms December 8th, 1889 the Emperor 
granted an audience to a deputation of the workmen's com- 
mittee, and was presented by them with an address and a 
garland of flowers. His speech on that occasion was as follows : 

"I gladly accept the address and the garland as a token of 
your love and loyalty. I am aware of the fact that the workmen 
of Worms have always distinguished themselves by their loyalty 
to the Empire and their patriotism, and I therefore hope that 
in the future, also, they will turn a deaf ear to all solicitations 
and temptations, and will preserve the sentiments of loyalty 
which they have hitherto displayed." 

The year 1890 was prolific in endeavours on the part of the 
Emperor which were directed towards the amelioration of the 
economic condition and the protection of the working classes. 
On the 8th of February the Eeichsanzeiger published the follow- 
ing Imperial Edict : 

" To the Imperial Chancellor. 

"I am resolved to offer a helping hand for the amelioration 
of the condition of the labouring classes of Germany, as far as the 
circumstances, which necessarily limit the extent of my care, 
will permit. These limitations arise out of the necessity of 
preserving the capacity of German industry to compete in the 
markets of the world, and thereby to render secure its own 
existence and that of the employed; for a decline of home 
production, brought about by the reduction in sales abroad, 
would deprive not only the employers but also their workmen 
of their bread. The difficulties which lie in the way of 
ameliorating the position of our working men, and which are 
due to international competition, cannot, it is true, be entirely 
overcome, but they certainly may be lessened, but only by an 
international understanding between the countries interested in 
the control of the markets of the world. Convinced that other 
Governments, also, are imbued with the desire to submit to a 
joint investigation, the efforts in regard to which the workmen of 



80 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

these countries are now conducting international negotiations 
among themselves, I desire that official inquiry should be made, 
in the first instance, by my representatives in France, England, 
Belgium, and Switzerland, as to whether the Governments of 
those countries are disposed to enter into negotiations with us, 
with a view to coming to an international agreement on the possi- 
bility of meeting those needs and wishes of the working men which 
have been brought to light by the strikes of the last few years. 

"As soon as my suggestion has been accepted in principle, I 
command you to invite the Governments of the countries which 
are equally interested in the labour question to a Conference, 
for the purpose of discussing the points at issue. 

"To the Minister of Public Works and for Commerce and 
Industry : 

"On my accession to the Throne I announced my resolve to 
promote the further development of our legislation in that same 
direction in which my grandfather, now at rest in God, in the 
spirit of Christian morality, interested himself in the welfare of 
the economically weaker portion of the nation. However valu- 
able and successful the measures which have hitherto been taken 
by the Legislature and Executive for the amelioration of the 
condition of the working classes, yet they do not entirely solve 
the problem which is laid upon me. Besides the further extension 
of legislation dealing with the insurance of workmen against 
accidents, the existing provisions of the Factory Acts with regard 
to the condition of workers in factories are to be submitted to a 
thorough investigation, in order to meet the complaints and 
wishes which have made themselves heard in this field, so far 
as they are found to have been justified. This investigation must 
proceed from the assumption that it is one of the functions of 
the State so to regulate the time, the length of hours, and the 
conditions of the work, that the health of the workers may be 
maintained; and the dictates of morality, the economic needs of 
the workers, and their claim to a position of equality in the eyes 
of the law, may not be lost sight of. In order to foster peaceful 
relations between the workers and their masters, we must con- 
sider the drawing up of legal regulations relating to various 
methods in which, by means of representatives possessing their 



THE EMPEROR AND THE WORKING CLASSES 81 

confidence, the workers may have some share in the regulation of 
common affairs, and be able to protect their interests in nego- 
tiating with the masters and with the officials of my Government. 
By some such arrangement we must enable the workers to give 
free and peaceful expression to their wishes and grievances, and 
give the authorities of the State opportunity constantly to acquire 
information concerning the circumstances of the workers, and to 
keep in contact with the latter. I would like to see the State 
mines develop into pattern institutions in respect of care for the 
workers, and for private mines I am endeavouring to bring about 
the establishment of an organic connection between my mining 
officials and the working of such mines, with a view to placing 
them under a system of inspection, corresponding to the inspec- 
tion to which factories are submitted, as it existed down to the 
year 1869. In order to facilitate preliminary discussion on these 
questions, I desire the State Council to assemble under my presi- 
dency, and with the addition of such technical experts as I shall 
summon for this purpose. I reserve for my consideration the 
selection of the latter. Among the difficulties which we have to 
confront in regulating the position of the working classes in the 
sense I purpose, those are most important which arise from the 
necessity of sparing home industries that they may be in a 
position to compete successfully with foreign countries. I have 
therefore instructed the Imperial Chancellor to suggest to the 
Governments of those States whose industry, in competition with 
our own, controls the markets of the world, the meeting of a 
conference, in order that we may endeavour to lay down uniform 
international regulations with regard to the limits to be imposed 
upon the demands made on the energies of the workers. The 
Imperial Chancellor will communicate to you a copy of the Edict 
I addressed to him." 

On February 14th, 1890, the State Council met at the Royal 
Palace at Berlin, and was opened by the Emperor with the 
following speech : 

"Gentlemen, Members of the State Council. 
"Through my message of the 4th instant the information 
was conveyed to you that I am desirous of availing myself of 



82 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

the advice of the State Council in regard to those measures 
which are necessary for the better regulation of the condition of 
the labouring classes. It is in accordance with the important 
position which the State Council occupies in the kingdom, that 
the weighty questions of this nature, which await a satisfactory 
solution, should be subjected by you to a minute examination 
before the draft of the Bill has been drawn and submitted to the 
parliamentary bodies, in whose hands our constitution has placed 
the final decision. 

"I lay stress on the importance of a Council composed of 
representatives of the most varied vocations, in the light of the 
practical experience represented by its members, submitting the 
proposals I have in view to a thorough and unbiassed examination 
with reference to their efficacy, practicability, and scope. 

"The problem, to find a solution of which I have summoned 
you here, is important and urgent. The protection to be given 
to the working classes against the arbitrary and almost unchecked 
exploitation of their labour ; the restriction which the dictates of 
humanity and the laws of natural development demand should 
be placed on child labour; the consideration of the position of 
women in the households of working men, morally and economi- 
cally important as that is for family life, and other matters 
closely concerning the working classes, are capable of much better 
regulation. Then, also, expert knowledge must be brought to bear 
on the consideration of the extent to which our industries are 
capable of bearing a greater burden of cost of production result- 
ing from stricter laws in favour of working men, without 
diminishing the field of remunerative employment open to our 
workers owing to the keen competition in the markets of the 
world. That would only result in injury to the economic 
position of the workers instead of the improvement which I 
am endeavouring to bring about. The most careful consideration 
is in a high degree necessary if this danger is to be avoided. 
The happy solution of these burning questions of our time is 
the more important, inasmuch as they obviously are. closely 
associated with the international agreement on the same matters 
which I have proposed. 

"Not less important, for the securing of amicable relations 



THE EMPEROR AND THE WORKING CLASSES 83 

between employers and employed, are the means by wbich a 
guarantee may be given to working men that, through repre- 
sentatives who enjoy their confidence, they shall have a voice in 
the regulation of their common employment, and be enabled to 
uphold their interests in dealing with their employers. 

"We must endeavour to establish connections between the 
representatives of the men and the State mining officials and 
inspectors, and in this way to draw up rules and regulations 
which will make it possible for working men to give free and 
peaceful expression to their wishes and interests, and will at the 
same time give the State authorities the opportunity, by hearing 
those directly interested, of keeping themselves constantly and 
reliably informed of the circumstances of the working men and 
of maintaining that contact with them which is so desirable. 
Moreover, the further development of the industrial enterprises 
carried on by the State into models of efficient care for the 
employees calls for most thorough and expert consideration. 

"I rely on the well -proved and faithful devotion of the 
Council to the task which lies before it. I do not overlook 
the fact that this is precisely one of those fields in which we 
must not look to State agency alone to effect every improvement 
that might be desired, There remains open to the free activity 
of philanthropy, to the Church, and to the school a wide field 
rich in blessings, and by them must the legal enactments be 
supported and fructified, in order that their full effects may be 
realised. But if, by God's help, you succeed in satisfying the 
legitimate aspirations of the working classes on the basis of the 
suggestions I am about to lay before you, then your labour will 
be certain to receive my Eoyal thanks and the gratitude of the 
nation. 

" The programme to be submitted to your consideration will be 
forwarded to you without delay. I appoint to take part in the 
deliberations both Committees for Commerce, Industry, Public 
Buildings, Kailways, and Mines, and for matters of domestic 
administration, and to these I will add a number of experts. 

I request the members of these Committees to be in the rooms 
which shall be assigned to them at eleven o'clock on the 26th 
inst. I appoint as Chairman, Chief Burgomaster Miquel, and as 






,=> 




84 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

Deputy-Chairman, Herr Geheimer Finanzrat Jencke. I reserve 
to myself the right to call, after the conclusion of the delibera- 
tions of the Committees, a second meeting of the State Council, 
and I hope that your work will receive Heaven's blessing, without 
which no work of man can prosper." 

In a private conversation with Herr von Eynern a few days 
later, the Emperor made the following remarks : 

" Whether we receive thanks or ingratitude for our endeavours 
on behalf of the amelioration of the condition of the working 
classes, I shall never allow these efforts to flag. I have the con- 
viction that the introduction of the proposed State protection will 
lead us to the end in view, namely, the reconciliation of the 
working classes to their position in the social fabric. In any 
case, I have a clear conscience concerning all our efforts in this 
matter." 

Cardinal Manning, who was regarded as a leading authority in 
the field of social reform, wrote, at about that time, in reply 
to questions which had been addressed to him by a German 
publicist : 

" You ask me for my opinion regarding the German Emperor's 
proposal for a Conference on the labour question and the condition 
of the millions of people who in every country in Europe live on 
the wages of their labour. I regard the Imperial act as the 
wisest and the worthiest which has been performed by any 
Sovereign of our time. The present condition of the wage- 
earners of every European country is a serious danger to each 
State. The long hours of toil, the labour of women and children, 
the scanty wages, the uncertainty of employment, the competition 
engendered by modern economic conditions, and the destruction 
of domestic life which results from these and other similar causes, 
have ended in making it impossible for a worker to lead a life 
worthy of a human being. How can a man who labours fifteen 
or sixteen hours a day be a father to his children? How can a 
woman who is away from home all day long fulfil the duties of 
a mother? Domestic life is in this way made an impossibility, 
and yet it is upon family life that the whole system of human 
society rests. If the foundation is injured, what will become of 
the building ? The Emperor William has, therefore, shown him- 
self to be a true and far-sighted statesman." 



THE EMPEROR AND THE WORKING CLASSES 85 

Herr Deppe, the master locksmith of Magdeburg, subsequently 
published his impressions, from which the following is a quo- 
tation : 

"As one of the experts who, enjoying the confidence of the 
Emperor, were summoned to attend the meetings of the commit- 
tees of the State Council, I had at three sittings the pleasure of 
sitting under the Presidency of the Emperor from ten o'clock in 
the morning till half -past six in the evening, with a short interval 
for luncheon. The Emperor knew how to open, adjourn, and 
close the meetings ; when to call on delegates to speak and when 
to speak himself, and when to cut short a speaker who had 
wandered from the point. The first to be in his place, he was 
the last to leave it, and he followed the course of the proceedings 
with unwearying attention. During the luncheon intervals, when 
the Minister of the Interior dispensed hospitality in an informal 
way at different tables, the strenuous devotee of duty became the 
most affable of monarchs. Indeed, one altogether forgot that he 
was the German Emperor when one stood alone with him or in a 
circle of others surrounding him, discussing this or that question." 

The proceedings of the Council were closed by the Emperor on 
the 28th of February, 1890, with the following words : 

" I ask you, gentlemen, to combat the notion which has obtained 
such currency among the public that we have assembled here in 
order to discover a panacea for the relief of all social evils and 
sufferings. We have honestly endeavoured to find means to effect 
some improvements and to determine the limits within which 
measures for the protection of the working classes may and 
should be carried. I trust that good will accrue from your 
deliberations." 

The State Council was followed by the International Labour 
Conference, which was opened on the 15th of March at the resi- 
dence of the Chancellor by Herr von Berlepsch, the Prussian 
Minister of Commerce, who welcomed the delegates in a speech 
which he delivered on behalf of the Emperor. 

On the 6th of May the Emperor opened the Reichstag in person, 
and, at the beginning of his speech, said : 

"Now that the General Election is over, and you have been 
returned to work in common with the allied Governments, I 
welcome you at this entry of the Reichstag on its eighth legisla- 
tive period, and I confidently hope that you will succeed in 



86 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

carrying to a satisfactory solution the important legislative ques- 
tions which you will be called upon to consider. Some of these 
questions are of such an urgent character that it seemed advisable 
not to postpone the meeting of the Keichstag any longer. 

" Amongst them I particularly include the question of further 
legislation for the protection of the working classes. The strike 
movement that prevailed in the course of the past year in some 
parts of the country has prompted me to institute an inquiry into 
the question as to whether our Legislature, so far as is compatible 
with the existing order of things, sufficiently takes into account 
the legitimate and realisable aspirations of our working popula- 
tion. The point at issue is, in the first place, how to secure 
Sunday as a day of rest for the workers, as well as the restriction 
of female and child labour as enjoined by the dictates of humanity 
and the laws of natural development. The allied Governments 
have convinced themselves that the proposals made by the last 
Keichstag could, so far as their main principles go, be passed into 
law without any injury accruing to other interests. Connected 
with these there are a number of other matters which have been 
shown to be capable of and, indeed, to call for improvement. 
This category includes in particular enactments relating to the 
protection of working men against dangers to life, health, and 
morals, as well as to the promulgation of labour regulations. 
Then, also, the regulations relating to the workmen's pass-books 
should be supplemented in order to strengthen parental authority 
against the increasing laxity of discipline amongst young workers. 
The remodelling and further development of the Industrial 
Kegulation Act which are thereby rendered indispensable are 
detailed in the programme, which will be submitted to you without 
delay. A further proposal aims at the better regulation and 
organisation of the industrial Courts of Arbitration, so that in 
the event of disputes arising between employers and employed 
these courts may act as boards of conciliation to arrange the 
terms under which work shall be continued or resumed. 

" I trust to your willing co-operation in order to bring about an 
agreement between the legislative bodies concerning the reforms 
proposed to you, and thereby to effect a considerable progress in 
the peaceful development of the condition of our working men. 



THE EMPEROR AND THE WORKING CLASSES 87 

The more the working-classes recognise the conscientious earnest- 
ness with which the Empire strives satisfactorily to better their 
condition, the sooner will they realise the dangers which will 
accrue to them if they make extravagant and impracticable 
demands. In the due care of the working men lies the most 
effective means of strengthening those forces which are called 
upon to resist with uncompromising severity every attempt to 
subvert by force the reign of law and order. 

" In carrying out this reform, however, only such measures can 
be regarded as practicable as will not endanger the industrial 
activity of the nation or the most vital interests of the working 
men themselves. Our industry is only one portion of the 
economic work of the nations who participate in the competition 
for the markets of the world. Bearing this in mind, I have made 
it my duty to bring about an exchange of opinions between the 
European states that find themselves in a similar economic posi- 
tion, with a view to discovering to what extent a common 
recognition of the problems awaiting legislative solution regarding 
the protection of working men can be secured and carried into 
effect. I feel it my duty to acknowledge gratefully that this 
suggestion has received the same response from all the states 
concerned, including those in which the subject has already been 
discussed and brought near to a solution. The proceedings of the 
International Conference which was held here filled me with 
particular satisfaction. The resolutions passed constitute an 
expression of common views concerning the most important 
sphere of labour in which our modern civilisation can work. 
The principles laid down will, I doubt not, continue to sow the 
seed which, by God's help, will spring up to be a blessing to the 
working men of all countries, and will not fail to yield fruit by 
promoting harmony in the relations of the nations one with 
another." 

The Emperor paid a visit to Krupp's works at Essen on the 
20th June, 1890, and to a deputation of seven hundred working 
men he addressed the following words : 

"I express to you, German working men, my cordial thanks. 
You know that my House has always cared for the working 



88 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

classes. I have indicated to the world the path along which I 
intend to walk, and I say again to-day that I shall continue in 
the same path which I have taken hitherto. 

"I was particularly gratified at being able to infer from your 
excellent demeanour that you understand me, and believe that we 
are on the right path. Above all am I pleased to have the 
opportunity of revisiting these works, the master and the work- 
men of which are of such immense importance to our Fatherland. 
Krupp's works have earned for German working men and German 
industry a world-wide fame which no other firm has equalled, 
and, therefore, I thank Herr Krupp and his employees, and I 
request you to raise a vigorous cheer for the health of Herr Krupp 
and the welfare of Krupp's firm." 

On the 13th of September a banquet was given at the Royal 
Palace of Breslau, on which occasion the Emperor said : 

" I once more repeat the thanks of the Empress and of myself 
for the cordial reception which we have met with in the province, 
and for the loyal feelings which you have manifested towards us. 
And at the same time I give further expression to my satisfaction 
at being at last able to be again among my subjects in Silesia. 
As in the old days, at the time of the regeneration of our country, 
this province was the first to answer the call of my great-grand- 
father to win back for the country its independence, so also in 
domestic affairs it was this province which, to my great joy, took 
the first steps to give effect to those proposals of mine, the object 
of which is to secure the welfare of the working people. With 
commendable zeal the clergy and laity act together in order to 
improve the condition of the lower classes, and to maintain order 
in the life of the province. Men like the Prince of Pless and 
the Prince-Bishop of Breslau take the lead and set an excellent 
example, which is not without good effect. I must not omit to 
express my Eoyal thanks to these two leaders, as well as to many 
others in the province who have followed their example. With 
my thanks I associate the hope that the good example which 
the province has set may be followed, irrespective of parties 
and creeds, in all parts of the Empire, and that our citizens 
will at last awaken from the slumber into which they have 



THE EMPEROR AND THE WORKING CLASSES 89 

allowed themselves to be lulled, and will no longer leave to the 
State and its officials the burden of the campaign against the 
revolutionary elements, but will lend a hand to the work them- 
selves. I am convinced that if the province continues to walk 
in its present path, not only itself, but my whole country will 
succeed in restoring veneration for the Church, respect for the 
law, and loyal obedience to the Crown and to its wearer." 

On opening the third session of the ninth Eeichstag on the 8th 
of December, 1894, the Emperor said, amongst other things : 

"May God's blessing rest on this House. May the greatness 
and the welfare of the Empire be the end in view to which all 
who are called to work in these chambers strive with self-sacrificing 
devotion to attain. 

" I feel especially anxious that this wish should be realised in 
respect of the economic and social reform questions which are to 
be brought to a solution by your co-operation. Faithful to the 
traditions of our ancestors, my illustrious Allies, as well as myself, 
consider that the noblest duty of a Government is to protect 
the weaker classes of society and to assist them to attain to a 
higher economic and moral condition. The duty of striving with 
all one's energy to this end is the more imperative, the more 
strenuous and severe the struggle for existence becomes for the 
different classes of the people. Supported by the conviction that it 
is incumbent upon the State to safeguard the general well-being 
of the nation and the principles of equitable justice against the 
conflicting interests of the various sections of the community, 
the Federal Governments will continue in their endeavour to 
preserve and to foster among the people the feeling of content- 
ment and of unity by mitigating present economic and social 
contrasts. 

" Should this course, to which I expect you will give unreserved 
support, prove to be an assured success, then it would seem to be 
necessary to offer a more effective resistance to the dangerous 
attitude of those who attempt to interfere with the Government 
authorities in the fulfilment of their duties. Experience has 
shown us that the existing enactments do not provide us with the 



90 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

necessary powers for carrying out that work. The Federal 
Governments are therefore of opinion that our common law needs 
to be supplemented. A Bill will be submitted to you without 
delay, which, chiefly by means of an extension of the existing 
penal laws, will have the effect of securing the protection of order 
in the State. I am confident that you will give to this serious 
work your energetic co-operation." 



THE EMPEEOE AND THE IMPEEIAL 
TEEBITOKIES 



IN the preceding chapters we have frequently made reference 
to the interest which the Emperor William II. has shown in 
Alsace-Lorraine, and we have been able to give many instances 
of the kindly sentiments of the Emperor towards the people of 
those provinces. The regermanisation of the Imperial Territories 
has made such progress that even French patriots are obliged to 
admit that Germany has by this time completed the second con- 
quest a moral one of Alsace-Lorraine, and that the Emperor 
William has contributed largely to this result. The Emperor and 
Empress had made several visits to the Imperial Territories 
previous to March 14th, 1891, when the Emperor received a depu- 
tation of the Provincial Committee of Alsace-Lorraine, who 
begged for the suspension of the stringent passport regulations. 
To this request the Emperor replied : 

" It gives me satisfaction that the Provincial Committee have 
applied directly to me concerning a question of great importance 
to the interests of Alsace-Lorraine. For my own part, I see in 
this action a welcome proof of the rapidly increasing acknowledg- 
ment, which my good-will and the share I take in the development 
of your native province receive from the different classes of its 
inhabitants. Further, I gladly accept the assurance that the 
people of Alsace-Lorraine, remaining true to the position assigned 
to them by the Constitution, repel every attempt at interference 
by foreign elements, and look to the Empire alone for the pro- 
tection of their interests. 

"Though I thank you for this expression of loyalty to the 
Empire, I regret that for the present I cannot fulfil your wishes. 
I must limit myself to the expression of the hope that before very 
long circumstances will once more allow of the introduction of 

91 



92 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

some relaxation of the regulations controlling the traffic across the 
western frontier. This hope will be the earlier realised the more 
firmly the people of Alsace-Lorraine are convinced of the impossi- 
bility of loosening the bonds which unite the provinces to 
Germany, and the more resolutely they manifest the resolve 
always to remain true and unswerving in their loyalty to me and 
to the Empire." 

In the autumn of 1892 the Emperor intended to visit the 
Imperial Territories, but, owing to the threatened spread of 
cholera, the previously announced military manoauvres had been 
countermanded. In the autumn of 1893, however, he proceeded 
to Metz, arriving there on the 3rd of September. To the speech 
of welcome delivered by Burgomaster Halm, the Emperor 
replied : 

" It is with deep emotion that I enter the town of Metz, and 
though I did not come last year as I wished to do, I am glad 
to observe that the reasons for my remaining away are correctly 
understood. 

" I am delighted to see the memorial of my lamented grand- 
father completed, and I am also glad to be able to have my 
troops marched past it. Metz and my Army Corps form the 
cornerstone of the military power of Germany, and are intended 
to protect the peace of Germany indeed, of all Europe that 
peace, which I am firmly determined to preserve. 

" I thank the citizens of Metz for their splendid reception, and 
I request you to convey my thanks to them by placard. Though I 
have removed my headquarters to Urville, I could not as a land- 
owner of Lorraine well do otherwise, for my Lorrainers were 
desirous that I should be there. As a token of my Imperial 
favour, I hand to the Burgomaster a golden chain of office, which 
the Burgomasters of Metz may wear to all future time. I am 
particularly pleased to be able to hand this chain to the present 
Burgomaster." 

The same day the Emperor proposed the following toast at the 
State dinner given in the Officers' Club at Metz : 

" My toast to-day is the Imperial Territories and, of the 
Imperial Territories, the people of Lorraine. I express my warmest 



THE EMPEROR AND IMPERIAL TERRITORIES 93 

and heartiest thanks to the Lorrainers for the sincere and friendly 
reception they have accorded to me. Shouts of welcome, happy 
faces, and happily inspired words have met me on my way, and 
have placed me under heartfelt obligations. I see in these ovations 
this festal mood of the people of Metz and, indeed, of the 
whole province a confirmation of the fact that Lorraine is con- 
tent to form an integral part of the Empire. Before the eyes of 
the inhabitants there has marched a portion of Germany's great- 
ness, of Germany's unity the head of the Empire, and with him, 
united in loyal friendship and firm allegiance, illustrious relations 
and cousins and reigning Princes of German lands. I observe with 
satisfaction that Lorraine has learnt to understand the Empire's 
greatness and its own place in the Empire. 'We Lorrainers are 
loyal and conservative to the backbone, and we wish to work 
in peace to cultivate our fields and to enjoy undisturbed what we 
have earned.' Such were the words that rang in my ears at my 
reception at Kurzel. Now, gentlemen, to help forward the fulfil- 
ment of this wish and to give you a proof of my desire to be in 
a position to understand your aspirations, I have made for myself 
a home in your midst, and I feel happy when among my neigh- 
bours in Urville. In this you may perceive the assurance that 
you can go your ways undisturbed and peacefully follow your 
several trades and professions. The united German Empire gives 
you the assurance of peace. German you are, and German you 
will remain. So help us God, and our German sword." 

On September 9th the Emperor proceeded to Strassburg, and 
was welcomed by Burgomaster Back. In reply he said : 

"My dear Mr. Burgomaster: I thank you cordially for your 
friendly words. I am delighted to be able to greet your Town 
Council here, the representatives of the citizens who have re- 
ceived me to-day with such a brilliant display of bunting and 
such heartfelt acclamations. I am extremely sorry that my visit 
to the ' wondrous lovely town ' must on this occasion be so brief ; 
but the countermanding of the Wlirtemberg manoeuvres has so 
disorganised my general travelling arrangements that they will 
not permit of my making a longer stay. 

"My devotion to, and love of, your noble town that pearl of 



94 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

the German lands would properly call for a prolonged visit. In 
my young days I often sang, as every German has, the song, ' 
Strassburg, Strassburg, thou wondrous-lovely town/ and I also 
prayed God that Strassburg, for which I always had a particular 
regard, might again become German. This wish has happily been 
realised since then, although it was not my fortune that I should 
contribute towards its fulfilment. I treasure Strassburg as one of 
the finest of German cities, and am persuaded that the Strass- 
burgers also feel happy in their reunion with the German Empire. 
I felt this deeply the last time I was here, when I arrived 
quite unexpectedly. When I found on my return from the 
Polygon that the streets had been so beautifully decorated in so 
short a time, and when I heard the hearty cheers with which 
I was received, I was really delighted. Though I cannot stay 
longer now, I hope to make up for it later on by more frequently 
finding occasion to spend more time here and without taking you 
by surprise. I feel quite at home among you, and, accordingly, 
have established for myself a shooting estate in the neighbour- 
hood. That alone will bring me back among you. 

" Once more, dear Mr. Burgomaster, I tender my best thanks 
to the Town Council and the whole population for their splendid 
welcome." 

Whilst at Metz, in May, 1898, the Emperor received a deputa- 
tion of the Town Council on the 9th inst. In answer to the 
address of the Chief Burgomaster, who expressed the thanks of 
the town for the dismantling of the forts and gave voice to the 
feeling of certainty that the old German loyalty to the Sovereign 
set over them by God and his Royal House would endure, the 
Emperor said that his thanks were heartfelt, and . that he was 
greatly pleased and satisfied at the loyal greeting which had 
been paid to him by the citizens of Metz. He was particularly 
gratified that so many old inhabitants had joined in the demon- 
strations. He would always retain the liveliest interest in the 
town of Metz. 

A banquet was given in the Imperial Palace of Strassburg on 
the 5th of September, 1899, on which occasion his Majesty 
said : 

"I must at once tell you how sorry the Empress is that she 
is not able to be at my side here and personally to give you her 



THE EMPEROR AND IMPERIAL TERRITORIES 95 

hearty greeting; she regrets her inability to visit the public 
institutions, as she feels it to be her duty, and thereby give many 
people pleasure and comfort. Many years have now passed (it 
was, in fact, in the time of my grandfather) since I first had the 
opportunity of studying the Imperial Territories, and taking part 
in the festivals which were held here in those days. Even during 
the last ten years of my reign I have had frequent opportunities 
of watching the course of events, and I can with deep feeling and 
great thankfulness now express, in every respect, my belief that, 
so far as this question is concerned, the ever- increasing sincerity 
and warmth of the welcomes and the enthusiasm which I have 
met with here are a clear proof that the Imperial Territories 
understand and appreciate the advantages which they have gained 
by being incorporated in the German Empire. Wherever one 
looks, cheerful activity, strenuous and active labour, progressive 
development, and far-reaching advancement are seen. Gentlemen, 
I congratulate you on the condition in which I have found the 
Imperial Territories. I honour the feelings of those of the 
older generation who have found it difficult to adapt themselves 
to the new conditions. I am thankful for and touched at the 
rejoicings of those of the young generation who have grown up 
under the banner of the Empire. Before all else, however, I 
would impress upon the reverend heads of the Church, who have 
so great an influence upon our people, that they should labour 
with all their might, and with all the powers at their command, 
to the end that respect for the Crown and confidence in the 
Government may take ever deeper and deeper root ; for in these 
revolutionary times, when the spirit of unbelief is abroad in all 
lands, the sole support and only protection of the Church are 
to be found in the Imperial hand and under the aegis of the 
German Empire. I think, if I have read aright the hearts of 
the people of Strassburg, that the joyous reception which was 
accorded to me to-day, and yesterday also on my return from the 
review, arose partly from the thoughts which the splendid sight 
of the warlike sons of this country called up in the minds of the 
inhabitants of the ancient and beautiful city, by which the feeling 
has been strengthened anew in them that sub umbra alarum 
(under the shelter of the wings) of the German Imperial Eagle, 



96 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

the Imperial Territories are safe, come what may. Therefore, I 
raise my glass and drink to the prosperity of the Imperial 
Territories in the hope that they may long enjoy a period of 
unruffled peace, for quiet, energetic, and progressive development. 
All that I can do to keep and rule my country in peace shall be 
done, and I will see to it that you shall share the benefit of this. 
Long live Alsace-Lorraine ! " 

On May 12th, 1900, the Emperor transmitted from Metz to the 
Governor of Alsace-Lorraine, Prince Hohenlohe-Langenburg, the 
following edict : 

" I have resolved that the fortifications in process of construc- 
tion at Metz shall be named as follows: The work on the 
Gorgimont to be called 'Port Crown Prince'; the work by Le Point 
du Jour, ' Fort Empress ' ; the work by Saulny, ' Fort Lorraine.' 
This shall be a sign of how greatly I and my House are interested 
in the welfare of the Imperial Territories, and I am particularly 
pleased to give you this information." 

Another telegram which the Emperor sent on March 1st, 1901, 
to Prince Hohenlohe-Langenburg had reference to the resolution 
which the Provincial Committee passed on February 28th, 1901, 
in favour of the restoration of the Hohkonigsburg. 

"Your communication has afforded me the greatest pleasure. 
Inform the gentlemen that from the bottom of my heart I am 
grateful to them, and that I am highly pleased that the Imperial 
Territories so correctly understand, and in such friendly fashion 
support, my interest in, and my efforts on behalf of, the restoration 
of the splendid castle." 

On the receipt of Architect Ebhardt's report regarding the 
rebuilding of the Hohkonigsburg, the Emperor replied: 

"I received your information with great satisfaction, and I 
am firmly confident that your well-tried and conscientious skill 
will help me to carry out a restoration of the castle which will 
be worthy of the German Empire, and which will show our 
twentieth-century contemporaries how in olden time our fore- 
fathers built and furnished their homes. May the building, 
carried out in exact reproduction of the past, be a source of con- 
stant and proud pleasure to all visitors and to the beautiful 



THE EMPEROR AND IMPERIAL TERRITORIES 97 

Imperial Territories, and may it keep alive the memory of the 
great families who once reared the flower of German culture and 
chivalry within its walls." 

The repeal of the Dictatorship Paragraph and the following 
speech of the Emperor afford the latest proof of his good-will 
towards the Imperial Territories : 

" The repeal of the Dictatorship Paragraph has for many years 
been the wish of the people of the Imperial Territories. It was 
brought to my notice when I ascended the throne. There are two 
reasons why I did not grant this wish in the first years of my 
reign. I had, on the one hand, first to win the love and loyalty 
of my subjects and to earn the appreciative confidence of my 
colleagues, the Federal Princes. On the other hand, at the time of 
my accession I was regarded abroad with deep, though unfounded, 
mistrust, for it was presupposed that I was striving for the 
laurels of war. It was, therefore, my duty to show to the world 
at large that the new German Emperor and the Empire were 
determined to devote their strength to the preservation of peace. 
These tasks required a long period of time for their realisation. 
The German people now know along what path I am resolved to 
walk for their benefit. Their Princes stand loyally by me with 
their help and counsel. Foreign Powers, far from seeing in us a 
menace to peace, are accustomed to regard us as steadfast up- 
holders of peace. Now that the Empire is consolidated within, 
and has obtained a universally respected position abroad, I con- 
sider, at the beginning of the twentieth century, that the moment 
has come at which I am able to grant the population of the 
Imperial Territories this proof of my Imperial good-will and 
confidence. The determination is the easier to me, because in the 
course of my reign the relationship between Alsace-Lorraine and 
myself has assumed a more and more intimate character, and the 
welcomes which the people extend to me become warmer and 
warmer. Once more, gentlemen, accept my most cordial thanks 
for the loyal attitude of the Imperial Territories, upon which I 
rely with implicit trust." 






sl 



THE EMPEROR AND ENGLAND 



WHEN the Emperor William ascended the throne, Germany's 
relations with England, especially with the English Eoyal 
Family, were very cordial. Shortly after the death of the Emperor 
William I., Queen Victoria of England, who as a rule used to 
avoid Berlin, made a long stay in the German capital, and during 
her presence in that city an interview took place between the 
Queen and Prince Bismarck, concerning which all sorts of political 
speculations were spread abroad. In the course of November, 
1888, the Anglo-German Agreement concerning the disturbances 
in East Africa was signed, under which a joint blockade was 
established along the East Coast of Africa, which formed part of 
the possessions of the Sultan of Zanzibar. In the following year, 
early in August, the Emperor William paid his visit to the 
English Court, accompanied by a German squadron. 

At Osborne a family banquet was given, and on that occasion 
Queen Victoria appointed the Emperor Honorary Admiral of 
the British Fleet. In return for the honour thus bestowed upon 
him the Emperor conferred the rank of Honorary Colonel of 
the First Regiment of Dragoon Guards on the Queen, and 
appointed the Duke of Cambridge Colonel of the 28th Regiment 
of Infantry. The Emperor ordered a deputation of the First 
Regiment of Dragoon Guards to proceed at once from Berlin 
to England for the purpose of being presented to the Queen. 
On the 5th of August the presentation of this deputation took 
place. On that occasion the Emperor addressed his grandmother 
in a speech which will be found on page 18. 

On the following day, the Emperor, in replying to the toast 
of his health proposed by the Prince of Wales at the banquet 
given after the regatta, delivered a speech, of which the con- 
cluding words run as follow : 

"If the British nation possesses a fleet commensurate with 
its requirements it will be regarded by Europe in general as a 
very important factor for the preservation of peace." 

98 



THE EMPEROR AND ENGLAND 99 

The Emperor also witnessed a sham fight of troops in the camp 
at Aldershot. At the luncheon in the Commander-in-Chief's 
quarters the Duke of Cambridge proposed the toast of the 
Emperor, whereupon the latter replied in a speech in which he 
referred to the fact that at Malplaquet and Waterloo Prussian 
and British blood had been shed in a common cause. 

On October 26th, 1889, the Emperor arrived in Athens in 
order to be present at the wedding of his youngest sister to 
the Crown Prince of Greece. On the 30th the Emperor in- 
spected the British men-of-war lying at anchor in the harbour 
of the Piraeus, and was present at the luncheon given on board 
his flagship by the British Admiral Hoskins. The toast of his 
health having been duly proposed, the Emperor replied : 

"I am proud of the rank which Queen Victoria has conferred 
on me. One might suppose that my interest in the British Navy 
dated from my appointment as Admiral, but that is not the case. 
From my earliest youth upwards, from the day when I ran 
about as a boy in Portsmouth Dockyard, I have been greatly 
interested in British ships. To-day's inspection of the men-of- 
war afforded me great pleasure, and I congratulate you on their 
appearance. Nelson's famous signal is now no longer necessary. 
You all do your duty, and we, as a young naval nation, go to 
England to learn something from the British Navy." 

In the year 1890 an agreement was arrived at between the 
German and British Governments by which the German sphere 
of influence in East and South -West Africa was delimited. 
Germany resigned all her protectorates (Witu and Somaliland) 
north of the Kiver Juba, gave her consent to Great Britain 
taking over the Protectorate over the dominions of the Sultan 
of Zanzibar with the exception of the strip of coast-line leased 
to the German East African Company, and in return the British 
Government ceded the island of Heligoland to the German 
Emperor. 

In 1891 the Imperial pair again proceeded to England, on 
which occasion the visit was not only to the Eoyal Family, 
but also to the nation at large. On July 10th the Emperor and 
Empress accepted the invitation of the Lord Mayor of London, 
and after the Emperor's health had been proposed in a toast in 
which the Lord Mayor laid stress upon the fact that the Emperor 
had shown himself the worthy successor of his honoured grand- 



100 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

father, the great founder of German unity, the Emperor replied in 
English as follows: 

"My Lord, receive my most heartfelt thanks for the warm 
welcome from the citizens of this ancient and noble metropolis. 

" I have always felt at home in this lovely country, being the 
grandson of a Queen whose name will ever be remembered as a 
noble character and a lady great in the wisdom of her counsels, 
and whose reign has conferred lasting blessings on England. 
Moreover, the same blood runs in English and German veins. 
Following the example of my grandfather and my ever-lamented 
father, I shall always, as far as it is in my power, maintain the 
historical friendship between these our two nations, which, as 
your Lordship mentioned, have so often been seen side by side 
in defence of liberty and justice. I feel encouraged in my task 
when I see that wise and capable men, such as are gathered here, 
do justice to the earnestness and honesty of my intentions. 

"My aim is, above all, the maintenance of peace, for peace 
alone can give the confidence which is necessary to the healthy 
development of Science, of Art, and of Trade. Only so long as 
peace reigns are we at liberty to bestow our earnest thoughts 
upon the great problems, the solution of which, in fairness and 
equity, I consider the most prominent duty of our time. 

"You may therefore rest assured that I shall continue to do 
my best to maintain and constantly to increase the good relations 
between Germany and the other nations, and that I shall always 
be found ready to unite with you and them in common labour for 
peaceful progress, friendly intercourse, and the advancement of 
civilisation." 

The Emperor visited England again in 1892. He witnessed 
the yacht races at Cowes, decided between July 30th and August 
9th, and personally took part in the race for the Queen's Cup. 

On January 22nd, 1893, the Duke of Edinburgh visited the 
Emperor and Empress in Berlin, and a luncheon was given in his 
honour at the Royal Palace, at which the Emperor thus expressed 
himself : 

"The British Navy is for the German Navy not only a model of 
technical and scientific perfection, but its heroes also, Nelson for 



THE EMPEROR AND ENGLAND 101 

instance, and others, have ever been, and ever will be, the guiding 
stars of German naval officers and crews, who are not less filled 
with the spirit of patriotism than the leaders of that much- 
respected nation. Though the German Navy is specially intended 
for the safeguarding and preservation of peace, it will, I am 
confident, do its duty if called into action. 

"And should it ever happen that the British and German 
navies have to fight side by side against a common foe, then the 
famous signal, 'England expects that every man will do his 
duty/ which England's greatest naval hero gave out before the 
battle of Trafalgar, will find an echo in the patriotic heart of the 
German Navy." 

On June 23rd the Emperor William despatched the following 
telegram of condolence from Kiel to the First Lord of the 
Admiralty in England: 

" The news of the foundering of H.M.S. Victoria with Admiral 
Sir George Tryon and 400 brave sailors on board has just reached 
me. Words cannot express my sorrow for the loss of so noble a 
man and so fine a ship. As an Admiral of the Fleet I am grieved 
from the depth of my heart at the disaster which has befallen the 
British Navy. It is a national calamity. My officers and my 
seamen express through me to their comrades of the British 
Navy their warmest sympathy. As a sign of mourning, I have 
ordered that the British flag shall float next our own at half-mast 
on board my ship. WILLIAM, 

" German Emperor, King of Prussia, Admiral of the Fleet." 

The Anglo- German Agreement regarding the delimitation of 
frontiers at Kilimanjaro was concluded on the 29th of July. 
On August 1st the Emperor William took part at Cowes in the 
yacht race for the Queen's Cup. On November 15th the Con- 
vention between Germany and Great Britain concerning the 
delimitation of the spheres of influence in the hinterland of the 
Cameroons was concluded. Then, on February 24th, 1894, 
followed the Anglo-German Customs Convention relating to Togo- 
land and the districts of the Gold Coast east of Volta. The 
Queen of England appointed the Emperor to the Colonelcy of the 
English Regiment of the First Royal Dragoon Guards. During 



102 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

the presence of a deputation of this regiment in Berlin the 
Emperor, on June 7th, made the following speech: 

" I drink to the welfare of the English Regiment of Dragoons, 
to belong to and command which fills me with the greatest pride. 
This makes me a member of the staff of English officers, and in 
this manner a new tie has been formed between the British and 
the Prussian armies, which for a long period of years have been 
bound together. 

" On the day on which the Prussian Regiment of Dragoon 
Guards (Queen of Great Britain and Ireland's Own) has displayed 
its traditional high standard of excellency, for which I have gladly 
expressed my very sincerest acknowledgments, I am delighted to 
see before me representatives of my English Royal Dragoons, to 
drink whose health I call upon the gentlemen sitting around the 
table. Hurrah!" 

On August 5th the Emperor was again at Cowes. 

At the opening of the Kiel Canal the relations between 
Germany and Great Britain were still most cordial. On June 
26th, 1895, the Emperor made the following speech on board the 
British battleship Royal Sovereign, then lying in the harbour of 
Kiel : 

" In thanking the Admiral for his friendly words, I at the same 
time desire to give expression to the feelings which I and my 
officers entertain for you and your comrades. As soon as I was 
informed that the Queen had determined to send the Channel 
Squadron to attend the ceremony of opening the Kiel Canal, I 
telegraphed the news to my officers, and the intelligence was 
everywhere received with hearty pleasure. I can only say that 
the appearance of the Channel Squadron in these waters has 
greatly contributed to the brilliancy of the festivities. Ever since 
our Fleet was established we have always exerted ourselves to 
form our ideas in accordance with yours, and in every. way to 
learn from you. The history of the British Navy is as familiar 
to our officers and seamen as to yourselves. You referred to 
my rank as Admiral of the Fleet. I can assure you that one 
of the happiest days of my life, one which I shall not forget 
as long as I live, was that on which I inspected the Mediterranean 



THE EMPEROR AND ENGLAND 103 

Squadron, and went aboard the Dreadnought, on which occasion 
my flag was hoisted for the first time. Never before in Kiel 
waters has the standard of the German Emperor floated side by 
side with the British Admiral's flag on a warship, or Admiral 
Alington acted as my flag-captain. 

" I am, however, not only an Admiral of the British Fleet, I am 
also a grandson of the mighty Queen of England. I hope that 
you will express our most heartfelt thanks to her Majesty for her 
graciousness in sending you here, and that the recollections you 
take with you from Kiel will be friendly and agreeable. We 
work as hard and as fast as we can, and every man is anxious to 
do his duty, as Nelson said in his last message." 

A few weeks later, however, the relations between Germany 
and Great Britain became strained, for which the Press, generally 
speaking, was mainly responsible. In August the Emperor again 
came to England in order to take part in the regatta, and on 
the llth paid a visit to Lord Lonsdale. The English Press 
adopted a tone towards the Emperor which aroused fierce resent- 
ment in Germany. 

The English journals gave the Emperor to understand that, 
though his attitude had hitherto been favourable to Great Britain, 
it was much to be desired that the relations between the two 
countries should become somewhat better, and that it was for the 
Emperor to show a more accommodating spirit in his dealings 
with England. This ill-feeling was due to the fact that Germany, 
in concert with certain other Powers, had raised a protest against 
the convention which Great Britain wished to conclude with the 
Congo Free State, and through which the interests of a number 
of European Powers in West Africa would be seriously injured. 
And it was precisely this tactless behaviour of the English Press 
that marked the commencement of that hostility to Great Britain 
which was to develop to such a degree in Germany during the 
next few years. 

The first days of 1896 brought with them truly unpleasant 
events in South Africa. As early as December 24th, 1895, the 
German Consul in Pretoria had notified his Government that an 
English party in Johannesburg was brewing mischief. On the 
30th the Germans resident in Pretoria called upon the Emperor 
for protection, and the German Consul craved permission to 
summon to the Transvaal capital a detachment of sailors from 
the German warship Seeadler, then lying in Delagoa Bay. Two 



104 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

days later (January 1st, 1896) representations were made by 
Germany in England on account of the hostilities in the Trans- 
vaal, and on the same day the German Consul in Pretoria tele- 
graphed that the troops of the Chartered Company under Jameson 
had invaded the Transvaal. They were surrounded by the Boers 
at Krugersdorp and forced to surrender. The British Government 
now determined officially to forbid the raiders to operate on their 
own account. On January 3rd, however, the German Emperor 
telegraphed to Mr. Kruger, the President of the South African 
Kepublic : 

"I express to you my sincerest congratulations that you and 
your people have succeeded by your own energy, without appeal- 
ing to the aid of friendly Powers, in defeating the armed forces 
which, as disturbers of the peace, invaded your country, in re- 
establishing order, and in protecting the independence of the 
country against attacks from without." 

This telegram raised a storm of anger in Great Britain. In 
London demonstrations took place against Anglo-German busi- 
ness firms, and some of the British newspapers indulged in 
disgraceful invectives against the person of the German Emperor. 
The latter, however, took not the slightest notice of these attacks. 
As a matter of course he did not allow the members of the world- 
renowned society of English naval engineers, the Institution of 
Naval Architects, who came on a visit to Germany on May 27th, 
to suffer for the abusive comments of the British Press. On the 
10th of June a meeting of the society was held in the Technical 
High School at Charlottenburg, which the Emperor himself 
attended. Two days later, by the Emperor's command, a tattoo 
was held in the park of the New Palace at Potsdam, which was 
illuminated in honour of the members of the Engineers' Congress, 
and on this occasion also he was present. 

In the year 1897 the British Press continued its attacks on the 
German Emperor and Germany. In June, however, the British 
Government was questioned in Parliament on the subject of the 
political situation, and the Colonial Minister, Mr. Chamberlain, 
was obliged to admit that better relations with Germany were 
desirable. To a certain extent Great Britain was obliged to 
give up the old policy of isolation, especially as affairs in China 
were involving her in great difficulties. It was not to Great 
Britain's interest that China, conquered by Japan, should be totally 
dismembered, but she did not feel herself strong enough to under- 



THE EMPEROR AND ENGLAND 105 

take alone the protection of China. The relations between the 
German and British reigning families continued, despite the 
bickerings of newspapers and diplomatists, to be very cordial. 
On September 4th a camp- service was held on the Waterloo- 
platz at Hanover, at the termination of which the Emperor rode 
into the square formed by the troops round the altar and 
delivered an address, the text of which has unfortunately never 
been published. He pointed out, however, that the troops stood 
upon historic ground, and in sight of the Waterloo Column. At 
Waterloo British and Germans fought shoulder to shoulder in 
brotherhood in arms, and but a few hours previously the British 
Army in Africa had gained a victory over a far more numerous 
foe. The Queen of England was the honorary Colonel of a 
German regiment and belonged accordingly to the German Army, 
and therefore the Emperor called upon the troops to raise a 
cheer for the Queen of England. The British victory to which 
the Emperor referred was gained by General Kitchener on the 
2nd of September at Omdurman over the Dervishes, who were 
commanded by the Khalifa. By this victory the power of the 
Khalifa was destroyed, and the murder of Gordon, which was 
committed in Khartoum in the year 1885, was avenged. 

In the year 1898 voices were heard in the newspapers in 
England in favour of the German Emperor. The article entitled 
"The German Emperor A Keminiscence," which appeared in 
the Saturday Review of February 12th, 1898, contained, amongst 
other things, the following : 

" Now, although our Press follows the public movements of the 
Emperor William almost, if not quite, as closely as it does the 
movements of our own Eoyal Family and public men, the infor- 
mation it vouchsafes about his private movements, his tastes and 
his entourage, is meagre in the extreme. What is the result? 
The English public, the most newspaper-reading public in the 
world, except the American, form their ideas of one of the most 
prominent figures of the day entirely from one side of his 
character, and that the least attractive side. If the principal 
English journals had been able to send correspondents to Kiel 
last summer, about the time of the Queen's Jubilee, and these 
correspondents had faithfully transmitted all that they saw and 
heard, they would have done much to clear away misconceptions 
concerning the Emperor's feeling towards the English. 

"The Kiel Eegatta, which has now been instituted for some 
years, comes off annually towards the end of June, and last year 
his Majesty, with the twofold object of giving a fillip to the 



106 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

regatta it is a great scheme of his to make it approximate in 
some degree to our Cowes week and of doing honour to our 
Queen's Jubilee, announced his intention of giving a prize to be 
competed for by English yachts only, the course to be from 
Dover to Heligoland. From the moment the first English yacht 
hove in sight the Emperor was on the alert to show the com- 
petitors and their friends every politeness in his power. It is no 
easy matter to make fifteen or twenty Englishmen most of 
whom did not know a single German present, and the majority 
of whom had never seen each other before feel at home in a 
strange land ; but the German Emperor did it, and that quickly. 
He gave no one any time to adopt the usual noli me tangere 
attitude which is so easy to assume and so hard to shake off. 
That attitude would be absurd in the presence of the Emperor 
William when he has thrown off his official entourage and is 
enjoying a well-earned rest on his own yacht. He is so alive his 
laugh is even catching ; and the small jokes thrown in from time 
to time all combine to make the ordinary mortal abandon what- 
ever reserve he has come prepared with. His Majesty, knowing 
that the competitors had either missed altogether or curtailed to 
a great extent their participation in the Jubilee celebrations in 
England, most kindly gave a large state dinner-party on his 
yacht, the Hokenzollern, in honour of her Majesty's Jubilee, to 
which he invited all the Englishmen who had sailed over the 
course for his Cup. Not only were all the entertainment 
arrangements carried out in the most elaborate and successful 
manner, but also all details about tugs to tow the yachts, 
moorings, and such minutiae, which ensure the comfort of a 
yachtsman, were thought out beforehand, down to the slightest 
particulars ; and these arrangements, I believe, all emanated from 
the German Emperor himself. 

" I have given this very slight sketch of the German Emperor's 
reception of a contingent of English yachtsmen at Kiel merely 
in order to point out that there is a side to his Majesty's 
character of which we at home hear and see too little. So long 
as we only have an opportunity of judging the German Emperor 
from his actions and his speeches as reported in our newspapers, 
so long, I am afraid, will he remain more or less unpopular 'in this 
country. His actions and his words are there, and they do not 
please us ; but the man is not there, to impress himself upon us. 
The vitality which prompts his actions, and the love of excitement 
which is responsible for those speeches, are hidden from us : we 
are distrustful, we don't exactly know what of, but we are dis- 



THE EMPEROR AND ENGLAND 107 

trustful ; so we shake our insular heads, and say, * We do not like 
the German Emperor.' We should, perhaps, be less far wrong if 
we rushed to the opposite extreme." 

The German Emperor and Empress did not pay another visit 
to England till 1899, on which, however, London was not touched, 
and it was merely a question of a visit to their relations at 
Windsor. 

In April, 1899, the late Mr. Cecil Ehodes was received by the 
Emperor in order to explain to him the proposed Cape to Cairo 
telegraph line, which in the course of its construction was to 
cross German territory. Ehodes reported of his audience with 
the German Emperor : 

" It is true that at first he felt as if a cool wind was blowing in 
his face, but this feeling soon gave place to a sincere admiration 
when he observed the Emperor's extreme interest in all colonial 
matters and an absolutely startling knowledge of all details, even 
the most trivial, bearing on the subject. The three-quarters of 
an hour's audience had simply flown, the conversation in par- 
ticular had not flagged for a second, and in his questions the 
Emperor displayed diplomatic skill of the very highest order." 
Besides this, Khodes could not find words strong enough to praise 
the affability of the Emperor to all the guests invited to the 
dinner given by Sir Frank Lascelles. "One could not conceive 
a sharper contrast between the Emperor at the audience and the 
Emperor as the guest of her Britannic Majesty's Ambassador, 
here the most perfect affability and there every inch an Emperor." 

In February, 1900, the most important of the English Naval 
Architects, Sir Edward Eeed, published an article on the Emperor 
William II. in the Deutsche Revue of Stuttgart, which is all the 
more noteworthy as Sir Edward had repeatedly had much inter- 
course with the German Emperor : 

" What struck me most when I was in Berlin was the remark- 
ably accurate and detailed knowledge possessed by the Emperor 
with regard to subsidiary matters which often lie outside the 
range of observation of responsible state officials. This was 
especially noticeable in various interviews extending over several 
hours, and relating to the greatest variety of subjects; but it 
struck me most of all in the case of subjects connected with 
naval matters. When a point was touched upon which is indeed 
of the utmost importance in naval warfare, I was amazed to find 
that his Majesty possessed a more complete, more up-to-date, and 
a more thorough knowledge than his own ministers in this special 
department, or than I myself possessed. And this knowledge 



108 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

was acquired by experience in the most practical and reliable 
way. In discussing various other subjects, on which I required 
information in the ordinary course of my profession, I found 
myself talking to an unmistakably able and quite first-rate 
specialist, and indeed to one whose opinions were entirely free 
from that bias which one so often meets with in specialists. 
I very much doubt whether any other Admiral of the Fleet in 
the British Naval Service (for his Imperial Majesty has most 
graciously accepted this position from our gracious Sovereign 
Queen Victoria) would have shown himself so thoroughly well- 
informed concerning the most trivial detail of the ship or its 
machinery as was my Imperial host. Assuredly none of the 
views we hold could be broader and more comprehensive than 
those of his Imperial Majesty, who was as ready to recognise 
a good arrangement or any kind of improvement on board a 
French warship as anyone could possibly be. There is very often 
an inclination among us to look with a certain degree of admira- 
tion, and often with a quite undue degree of admiration, on 
details of organisation in the army, national defence, or naval 
service, to which we have been long accustomed. It may indeed 
be that the German mind is less pliant than the British, or 
less disposed to acquiesce in the traditional because it is tra- 
ditional, or it may be that this particular German mind was an 
exceptionally thorough-going one; but at any rate it was a fact 
that the raison d'etre of each individual detail in the arrangements 
of a modern ship had to be demonstrated if it chanced to come 
up in the discussion, and it was his Majesty's opinion that no 
possible practical improvement ought ever to be sacrificed to 
gratify some prejudice, or neglected through mere indifference. 

" There is no doubt that his Majesty the Emperor William II. 
has recognised in a practical manner the value of sea-power for 
an Empire like his own. Foolish and thoughtless people who 
imagine that the atmosphere around them is wonderfully clear and 
the phenomena it exhibits palpably distinct, while as a matter 
of fact, though they themselves are unconscious of it, they are 
living in a fog, people of this kind, who are everywhere to be 
found in great numbers, may see in the naval aspirations of the 
German Emperor nothing but a desire to rival Great Britain, 
France, or Kussia, or the wish to attain the position of the first 
sea-power in the world. Only I believe that in this respect I 
know the Emperor's thought, and I consider that his view simply 
amounts to this, that a great Empire like the German Empire, 
which has many important interests abroad, cannot possibly main- 



THE EMPEROR AND ENGLAND 109 

tain its position without a reasonable extension of its naval 
forces; still less can it without such increase do justice to its 
desire for colonies or to the undoubted capacity for colonisation 
possessed by the German people. It is true that on Germany 
lies the onerous necessity of maintaining a great highly-organised 
land army, but nobody who is familiar with Prussian history, and 
knows the persistent, self-sacrificing, and determined efforts which 
have raised Prussia and with it Germany to their present military 
position, can for one moment regard any relaxation of those 
efforts in face of the great armies which threaten it from the 
right hand and the left as practicable. But the function of the 
armies of Germany is essentially defensive, and the German 
Emperor is not the man merely to think of the purposes of 
defence. The productive capacity of his Empire, and in no slight 
degree also the possibility of its expansion, urgently engage his 
attention, and objects like these can be best served only by the 
increase of sea-power. He perceives, and perhaps clearer than 
anybody else, that great nations at least, those of Teutonic 
stock can no longer remain cribbed, cabined, and confined 
within the barriers and frontiers of their actual territories. The 
sea is, if I may be allowed the expression, a wide territory, 
gloriously beautiful and of unfathomable wealth, which science 
has opened up to the nations by her discoveries, and to make it 
available for their own purposes, even in conjunction with many 
others, is an object of lawful ambition for rising nations. It 
certainly is and, so far as can be foreseen, will remain for the 
most part a highway of international commerce, only as such it is 
of great importance for a manufacturing and commercial nation, 
and on it move the ships of Germany, and will in any case 
continue to do so to the no slight advantage of the Fatherland. 
Merchant vessels of the highest tonnage, and new routes for 
trading steamers, are beginning to carry the German flag into 
every quarter of the world, and this rapidly rising ocean traffic, 
with the interests which it creates abroad, must naturally look to 
the German Government for such protection as only a navy can 
afford. It is on these weighty and urgent grounds, I have not the 
slightest doubt, that the German Emperor seeks to effect a con- 
siderable increase of his sea-power, although it is not impossible, 
nay, it is even probable, that as in the case of his army so, too, 
with reference to his navy, he has to some extent in his eye his 
neighbours East and West. As an Englishman, I confess that I 
cannot regard with complete indifference the expansion at sea of 
any other nation than my own, for it is a constant threat to a 



110 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

supremacy of which I am not a little proud. But as an English- 
man I am also quite ready to acknowledge that the threat from 
Germany is of a perfectly legitimate and honourable character, 
and such that Great Britain may regard it in an entirely friendly 
spirit." 

After drawing in his article a very interesting parallel between 
the constitutions of England and Germany and the sovereigns of 
these states, and after further satisfying himself by his observa- 
tion that the unfavourable opinion of William II. was more and 
more tending to disappear in England, " because it yielded to the 
conciliatory character and really admirable eloquence by which 
even the shortest speeches of his Majesty were distinguished," 
Sir Edward went on to say in his essay: "There is one point, 
with regard to which, as it has always appeared to me, an abso- 
lutely unjust judgment has been passed in England and elsewhere 
on the action of his Majesty. I mean the despatch of an ex- 
tremely kindly telegram to President Kruger after the Jameson 
Eaid. I will readily admit that there was a phrase contained in 
that telegram which I have special reason to regret, and that the 
telegram itself, being addressed by a great European Emperor to 
the Chief of a Republic, which at least in an international sense 
undoubtedly stood under the suzerainty of Queen Victoria, and 
to a personage who had robbed Germans and English alike of 
their legal rights, was a subject on which more than one opinion 
could be expressed. But, on the other hand, the raid itself, 
whatever the treatment that provoked it, was so gross an act of 
violence that it naturally produced the strongest indignation in 
the entire world; and nowhere, I venture to say, was this in- 
dignation stronger than in England itself, when the details of the 
affair came to be known there. It so happens that I can throw some 
light on this subject. An English gentleman who had visited 
South Africa three months before the raid, and had first of all 
stayed a considerable time at Cape Town, wrote to me from the 
Orange Free State in October. In his letter he informed me that 
a plan was afoot to put a stop to the gross abuses of the 
Transvaal Government that its days were numbered. He then 
added : ' This will not be done with the knowledge of the British 
Colonial Office, neither will the red-coats, or British soldiers, 
be required to assist ; the people who would do the business 
were those who managed the Matabele affair.' The absurdity of 
the scheme was patent, and no less obvious was its monstrosity. 
In case of success, it could only have had the effect of compelling 
the Government to resist the invaders by force of arms, that is to 



THE EMPEROR AND ENGLAND 111 

say, to send British soldiers against their own countrymen, 
against people of our own kith and kin. It would have been an 
absolute impossibility to allow the raiders to get off scot-free and 
enjoy the fruits of their crime. Although, as I have hinted 
above, I had accurate general information about the affair, yet I 
was not a little astonished when a few weeks later news of the 
raid reached Europe, and I was no less surprised when I heard 
that the German Emperor had at once expressed his detestation of 
this outrage or announced his sympathetic approval of the success- 
ful resistance of the Boers. Telegrams like that of his Majesty 
are the work of the moment, and ought not to be placed in the 
same category with diplomatic or international negotiations. 
The unfortunate part of it was that it took some considerable 
time before it could be brought home to all the world that the 
indignation at the raid, when once the details were known, was 
as much a matter of course and as great in England as in 
Germany or elsewhere, and every assumption to the contrary 
would be an injustice to the English people. 

" There was perhaps once a time when the supposed preference 
of the Emperor William II. for England and English sports filled 
certain people in Germany with displeasure. But this feeling, if 
it ever really existed, has disappeared, for recent years have 
afforded more than sufficient proof that Germany and German 
interests always take the first place in the Emperor's heart, and 
hold uninterrupted sway. That is not a matter of which we 
English have any right to complain, and as a matter of fact no 
Englishman does complain of it. In my opinion, however, the 
German people ought to freely allow that the English take a 
keen interest in the Emperor William, and always bid him most 
heartily welcome to their shores. If I may regard myself, in a 
certain sense, as a representative of English opinion, I gladly 
take it upon myself to declare that the English nation wishes 
long life and prosperity to their Emperor for the sake of Germany, 
and will rejoice to see Germany win all the successes and triumphs 
to which its many admirable qualities give it every right to aspire 
in peaceful rivalry with us and other nations." 

The Anglo-German understanding on the China question was 
arrived at on the 16th of October, 1900, in which it was settled, 
that certain ports situated on the rivers and coasts of China should 
be free and open to the commerce and every other legitimate enter- 
prise of the subjects of all nations without distinction. The 
German and British Governments did not wish to make use of 
the present complications in China for the purpose of gaming 



112 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

territorial advantages on Chinese territory, and they at the same 
time desired to prevent any other Power from enriching itself at 
China's expense. Both Governments resolved to communicate 
this to the other Powers, especially France, Italy, Japan, Austria- 
Hungary, and Kussia, as well as to the United States of America, 
and to invite their adhesion. This Anglo-German understanding 
relieved Great Britain of much anxiety, and it was an important 
step in the direction of the speedy re-establishment of peaceful 
and orderly conditions in China. During the European inter- 
vention British and German troops fought as brothers side by 
side, and the British officers were not slow to acknowledge, in 
speaking of our troops, German bravery and efficiency. 

The beginning of the year 1901 brought with it the death 
of Queen Victoria. From the midst of the rejoicings and festivities 
in honour of the two-hundredth anniversary of the establishment 
of the Prussian Kingdom, the Emperor, on January 19th, hastened 
to the deathbed of his grandmother. This step, as well as the 
attitude he showed in the days immediately following, took the 
hearts of the British people by storm, and to-day one can say 
that scarcely any personage is more popular and beloved in Great 
Britain than the German Emperor. On January 23rd the Emperor 
despatched the following Army Order from Osborne : 

"The decease of my beloved, highly-honoured, ever-lamented 
grandmother, Victoria, Queen of Great Britain and Ireland, 
Empress of India, has plunged me and my House in the pro- 
foundest grief. I am well aware that my Army condoles with 
me sincerely in the painful loss that I have sustained, and, 
accordingly, I hereby order : All the officers of my Army to wear 
mourning for a fortnight ; in the First Kegiment of Dragoon 
Guards (Queen of Great Britain and Ireland's Own) this mourn- 
ing to last three weeks. During the first three days flags on all 
military buildings to be at half-mast, and no musical instrument 
to be played, except in case of alarm of fire or in the event of 
a general alarm." 

On January 27th King Edward VII. appointed the German 
Emperor a British Field-Marshal. The Emperor thereupon sent 
the following telegram to the Prime Minister, Lord Salisbury : 

"The King, my illustrious uncle, has conferred upon me the 
rank of Field -Marshal in his Army, and I am informed that 
my appointment is to be gazetted on my birthday. I hasten to 



THE EMPEROR AND ENGLAND 113 

tell you how highly I value this special proof of his Majesty's 
friendship for me. I ain delighted at the thought that I shall 
henceforward belong to the highest rank of his Majesty's brave 
Army." 

He telegraphed the same message to Lord Koberts, who had, 
until recently, been in supreme command against the Boers. 

After the funeral ceremonies, at which the Emperor was greeted 
by the English public with every mark of respect, a farewell 
dinner was given on the 5th of February by the British Eoyal 
Family, on which occasion King Edward addressed warm and 
touching words to his Imperial guest. The Emperor William 
replied : 

"Nothing has filled me with greater satisfaction than the fact 
that I have been privileged to be present with my relatives to 
witness the last moments of the great and noble life of my 
beloved grandmother, for whom, since my earliest youth, I have 
been inspired with feelings of the most sincere love and venera- 
tion. I thank his Majesty the King that he has conferred upon 
me the rank of Field-Marshal in the British Army. This honour 
enables me to wear the same uniform as that worn by the Duke 
of Wellington and Lord Koberts, and this compliment will be 
very highly appreciated by my own Army. I reciprocate in the 
heartiest manner the cordial feelings which your Majesty enter- 
tains with reference to the relations between both our Empires." 

To the Lord Mayor also the Emperor, at his departure, said 
that between himself and the deceased Queen a very close and 
affectionate relationship had existed. He could not have done 
anything else than come to England when his grandmother was 
seriously ill. The Emperor added that the moving spectacle of 
the 2nd of February, on the occasion of the funeral procession 
through London, had made a deep impression upon him. He had 
never beheld anything of the kind before, and it was deeply 
impressed on his mind. 

From the inaugural ceremony at the Marienburg on June 5th, 
1902, the Emperor sent the following telegram to King Edward : 

" The solemn consecration of the Church of St. Mary has just 
taken place, and was very impressive. I thank you once more for 
your gracious letter, which Lord Breadalbane conveyed to me, and 



114 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

for the deputation of Knights of the Order of St. John, which 
you sent over. It is not the first time that British knights have 
trod the ground of Marienburg, for, as a local tradition tells us, 
Henry, Earl of Bolingbroke (afterwards Henry IV.), came here 
with a body of English knights and afterwards fought side by 
side with the knights of the Teutonic Order, under the leadership 
of their Grand Master, against the Heathen." 

To the Coronation of King Edward, which was arranged to 
take place on June 26th, the Emperor sent his brother, Prince 
Henry, as his representative. On the 24th of that month, how- 
ever, King Edward became very dangerously ill, and was obliged 
to undergo an immediate operation. The Emperor did not fail to 
evince his sincerest sympathy with his sick uncle. On June 26th, 
the day fixed for the Coronation, the Emperor was in Kiel, and in 
the afternoon caused the Fleet to be informed by flag signals that 
he had placed King Edward of England a la suite of the German 
Navy. From his bed of sickness the King returned thanks for 
his new distinction. The British Monarch recovered very rapidly 
from his malady, and on August 9th the Coronation of the British 
King and Queen was solemnised in Westminster Abbey. On that 
occasion also the German Emperor sent his brother, Prince Henry, 
who was accompanied by the Princess, as his representative. 



THE EMPEROR AND THE GERMAN 
FEDERAL PRINCES 

AS the Emperor has repeatedly declared, he regarded it as his 
J\_ first duty after ascending the throne to win the confidence of 
his colleagues, as he is wont to call the Federal Princes. He 
expressly said : 

" It is a different matter when a man ninety years old directs 
the Government, as did my late grandfather, a man who could look 
back on a laborious and successful life. He was the oldest of the 
Eoyal colleagues. His word and his counsel were sought for, and 
everyone paid deference to him. I come to the throne a man of 
thirty years of age. No one knows me. I must first of all gain 
the confidence of my colleagues." 

That the Emperor was successful in gaining this confidence 
there can be no doubt. But it is of the highest importance 
for the stability of the German Empire and for the prestige 
which the Empire enjoys in foreign countries that the fullest 
harmony in all matters should prevail amongst the Federal Princes, 
as well as between the Emperor and the Federal Princes. 

The Emperor has quite a number of avowed friends among the 
Federal Princes. The Grand Duke Frederick of Baden is his 
own uncle, and the lamented King Albert of Saxony, who died 
not long ago, rendered the Emperor happy by his paternal affec- 
tion a devotion which was returned in the sincerest manner. 

The Emperor William missed no opportunity of doing honour 
to King Albert, who was regarded by the German people not 
only as one of the Federal Princes, but also as the last surviving 
great commander who fought for the foundation of the new 
Empire. King Albert, on his part, took every opportunity of 
appearing in Berlin, when he felt it incumbent upon him to 
show attention to the Emperor or to give special emphasis to 
the harmony prevailing between the German Federal Princes. 

115 



116 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

It is known that the Emperor Frederick III. in his lifetime, and 
with a presentiment of his approaching death, commended his 
son to King Albert and solicited his love for him. And with 
that kind conscientiousness which distinguished Saxony's noble 
Euler, King Albert retained to the end his paternal affection and 
love for the Emperor, the son of one who was his comrade-in-arms 
in 1870. As we shall see below, the speeches of the Emperor on 
various occasions with reference to King Albert of Saxony are 
characterised by particular cordiality and warmth. 

The Emperor began his series of visits to the German Courts in 
September, 1888. On the 28th of that month he was entertained 
by King Charles of Wurtemberg. At the banquet given in his 
honour at the Royal Palace at Stuttgart he proposed the following 
toast : 

"It is with deep emotion that I express to your Majesty my 
grateful thanks for your gracious invitation and for the cordial 
welcome which you and your subjects have accorded to me. I beg 
your Majesty to believe me when I say that I have come here 
with specially warm feelings; for this highly favoured land and 
this splendid people over which your Majesty reigns produced in 
mediaeval times some of the noblest German princes who ever 
guided the destinies of the Empire. Especially am I drawn here by 
the fact that this Swabian country was the cradle of my House 
also, and that in my veins, as in the veins of those who are present 
here, flows Swabian blood. Inspired by firm and unshakable 
attachment to this land and to its Sovereign, I raise my glass to 
the health of his Majesty the King and her Majesty the Queen 
of Wurtemberg. Long may they live ! " 

From Stuttgart the Emperor proceeded to Munich. In reply 
to an address of welcome by Chief Burgomaster Widenmayer, 
delivered on the 1st of October, he said: 

" I express to you my cordial thanks for your words, and at the 
same time acquaint you with the pleasure it has given me to 
enter within these familiar walls and to make the nearer acquaint- 
ance of the Bavarian people, who have played such an important 
part in the history of the German Empire. Many noble families 
have borne rule in Bavaria, but the noblest and most glorious is 
the present ruling family, a family whose interests are so closely 
connected with those of the House of Hohenzollern. May I, while 



THE EMPEROR AND THE FEDERAL PRINCES 117 

guiding the destinies of the German Empire in the spirit of my 
grandfather, long be permitted to remain associated in those bonds 
of cordial friendship, which exist between the reigning Houses of 
Bavaria and Prussia, with the Prince Eegent, who was, even in those 
days, on most intimate terms of friendship with my grandfather." 

On the 2nd of October a State banquet was given at the Eoyal 
Palace in Munich, on which occasion the Prince Eegent Luitpold 
welcomed the Emperor in cordial terms, to which the Emperor 
replied as follows : 

"When, by Heaven's inscrutable decree, I was called to the 
Imperial throne after the death of my dear grandfather and father, 
my heart was weighed down with a load of anxiety concerning 
the great responsibilities of my new office. But in the con- 
scientious performance of my duties, my anxiety quickly turned 
into satisfaction with my position. 

" Your Eoyal Highness in the most gracious manner transferred 
to me the old and well-tried friendship which united you to my 
grandfather. As, in 1870, the Bavarian Eoyal House took the first 
step towards the regeneration of our united Empire, so also did 
your Eoyal Highness set an example for the German Princes, for 
you were the first to offer me, with a firm grasp of the hand, 
your advice and friendship. To my sincere gratitude for that act 
of true friendship I desire to add my most hearty thanks for the 
overpoweringly impressive and splendid reception extended to me 
by your House and your people. 

" I gladly take this opportunity to express to your Eoyal High- 
ness my feelings of warmest and most cordial friendship, and to 
promise that I, with the loyalty of a true Hohenzollern, will in 
good and in evil days stand united in the bonds of close relation- 
ship with the House of Wittelsbach and the brave Bavarian 
people. The high mission of our great German people and the 
Fatherland demands that our utmost efforts should be devoted to 
the common welfare, but that is only possible when the Princes 
of the Empire stand shoulder to shoulder in firm and loyal 
comradeship. 

"May it please God long to preserve your Eoyal Highness 
for the welfare of Bavaria and of our German Fatherland. His 
Eoyal Highness the Prince Eegent ! Long may he live ! " 



118 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

The Emperor next joined a shooting party, which was arranged 
by Prince Adolph of Schauinburg-Lippe for the 16th of January, 
1889. In responding to the proposal of his health, he said : 

"I trust that your Serene Highness will permit me to lay 
at your feet my warmest thanks for the gracious words which 
you have addressed to me, and for the cheering and cordial recep- 
tion which your city has accorded to me. I am exceedingly glad 
that I found it possible to carry out my visit to your Court and 
your House, for from my youth up I have learned to value and to 
love your Serene Highness as the oldest friend and the most 
faithful Ally of my grandfather. I associate with the expression 
of my feelings the request that you will transfer that affection 
and love to his grandson." 

The Emperor paid a visit to Oldenburg in April, and on the 
14th received an address of welcome from Chief Burgomaster 
Schrenck, to which he replied: 

"My dear Chief Burgomaster: I express to you my cordial 
thanks for the magnificent reception given to me. It is with 
much pleasure that I have paid a visit to the Court which is 
so closely connected with me and my House by ties of friendship 
and relationship. Please convey, on my behalf, to the city of 
Oldenburg my thanks for the kindnesses which have been shown 
to me. I repeat that I was highly gratified by the reception." 

At the Palace the Emperor replied as follows to the address of 
welcome proposed by the Grand Duke Peter : 

"Permit me, your Royal Highness, to lay at your feet my 
dutiful and sincere thanks for the kind, friendly, and cordial 
reception which I have met with to-day among you. Having 
long wished to pay a visit to a dear friend, and a dear and faith- 
ful Ally of my grandfather, I rejoice in being able to spend this 
day with you. I am at the same time pleased to have been able 
to observe the genuinely warm and patriotic feelings of your 
subjects, and I pray God that your people may long be privileged 
to live under your wise and just rule. I request you, gentlemen, 
to join me in giving expression to the hope that his Royal High- 
ness the Grand Duke of Oldenburg, and her Royal Highness the 
Grand Duchess, may long be spared to us." 



THE EMPEROR AND THE FEDERAL PRINCES 119 

On the 26th of April the Emperor went to Weimar, the birth- 
place of his grandmother, the Empress Augusta. To the address 
of welcome, presented by Chief Burgomaster Pabst, he replied : 

"I rejoice greatly to be in Weimar, the native place of my 
dear grandmother. I have long had the wish to become acquainted 
with this city, which, through its artistic and scientific associa- 
tions, occupies a prominent position in the German Fatherland: 
this city, whose destiny it was to be the home of the great poets 
of the nation. The enthusiastic reception which has been given 
to me has gratified me greatly, and I desire you to convey my 
thanks to the citizens." 

Shortly afterwards on the 19th of May the Emperor was in 
Brunswick, where, in reply to the address delivered in the Palace 
by the Kegent, Prince Albrecht of Prussia, he spoke as follows : 

" Allow me, your Koyal Highness, to tender to you my sincere 
and deeply-felt thanks for the gracious words which you have 
just addressed to me, and also to express my thanks to your 
country, your subjects, and your city for their cordial reception, 
which came from the heart and went to the heart. 

"I may also say that I am deeply moved when I recall to 
mind on what historic German soil we are standing, and how 
German to the very backbone are the people in whose midst we 
are. Your Koyal Highness described, in elegant and terse phrases, 
the history and the progress of the country and the people of 
Brunswick, and it may be added that for centuries intimate 
and close relations have existed between our respective Houses, 
and that our House gratefully remembers that the Brunswick 
Princes, mindful of their duty as German Sovereigns and of the 
greatness of our German Fatherland, risked their lives in support 
of my House. With these traditions gratefully in mind, I express 
my warmest thanks, and I rejoice to see how your people, faithful 
to these traditions, have given a fresh proof of their loyal sen- 
timents. In common with other German countries, Brunswick 
helped to re-establish the German Empire in the seventies by 
drawing sword and fighting the enemy, and I, therefore, desire 
again to tell you how deeply and warmly moved I am at the 
thought that I am the first German Emperor who has been 



120 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

enabled to visit this ancient and typical German city. I hope 
that God will permit me to lead the united German Fatherland 
peacefully and tranquilly along the path which my lamented 
grandfather traced out, and along which this very land of Bruns- 
wick has so joyfully shown the others the way. 

" I should like, in addition, to give expression to my joy at 
seeing how Prince and people, in close union with one another, 
strive and toil to attain the desired end, and I at the same time 
should like to express my particular gratification that the time- 
honoured tradition that Brunswick Princes become Prussian 
Field-Marshals is once more exemplified to-day." 

The 18th of June, 1889, brought with it the celebration in 
Dresden of the eighth centenary of the House of Wettin. The 
Emperor was present, and, speaking in reply to King Albert's 
address of welcome, said: 

"Permit me, your Majesty, to tender to you my heartiest 
thanks. As a Monarch it was my duty, and as a relative it was 
a dictate of my heart, to convey to you my respects on this day, 
when your Majesty, together with your people, celebrates so 
unique a festival. I speak from the heart and for all present 
when I exclaim God protect, God bless, and God preserve your 
Majesty and your whole House ! His Majesty the King of Saxony ! 
Long may he live ! " 

King Charles of Wiirtemberg celebrated the twenty-fifth 
anniversary of his accession on the 25th of July. The Emperor 
visited Stuttgart to take part in the festivities, and, at the 
State cttjeuner given at the Kosenstein Palace, made a speech. 
He said : 

" Your Majesty may permit me to express, on behalf of all the 
cousins here present, our cordial and sincere thanks to your 
Majesty for the cheers which have just been given for us. 

"It is the privilege of the German nation that the German 
peoples share joy and sorrow with their ancestral princely Houses. 
It is, in particular, the loyal Swabian folk who are to-day holding 
high festival in fullest sympathy with your Majesty and your 
House. Following the example of the people, we Princes have 
hastened hither from all parts, for we rejoice when one of us lives 



THE EMPEROR AND THE FEDERAL PRINCES 121 

to celebrate a happy festival, and, as we are sensible of a common 
bond of sympathy, we are glad to be able to join him in the 
celebration. I speak in the name of my relatives and cousins 
when I exclaim God protect, God bless your Majesty, and your 
whole House. May it be granted to your Majesty that your 
people may adhere to you and to your House firm, fearless, and 
faithful till far distant centuries ! " 

On August 19th, 1889, the Emperor and Empress, on their way 
through to the Imperial Territories, visited the family of the 
Grand Duke of Baden at Karlsruhe. At the State banquet the 
Emperor said, in reply to the Grand Duke Frederick of Baden : 

" I express to your Eoyal Highness my heartfelt thanks for the 
kindly and affectionate words you have addressed to me. 

"I thank you from the bottom of my heart for the welcome 
accorded me by the City of Karlsruhe and for the loyal greeting 
of the land, which has rung in our ears from the throats of 
eighteen thousand of your countrymen the Baden Veterans' 
Societies. 

" I am infinitely glad to be able once more to stay among you 
in these Halls, so familiar to me and thronged with so many dear 
memories. They are to me filled with recollections not only of 
my earliest childhood, in which I often had the privilege of 
spending here my most happy hours, for I was treated almost as 
a son of the house; they are also rich to me in pleasant memories 
of the time when I was often able to stay here in the company of 
my late grandfather and my late father. 

"The sons of the land, who to-day offered me their homage 
and marched smartly past in the old discipline which they had 
once learnt when wearing the soldier's handsome uniform, are the 
men who took part in the fight at the time of the unification of 
the Empire, and also the men who by the very geographical posi- 
tion of the country would be the first to spring to arms to protect 
the Empire should danger threaten it from without. 

"But I am specially glad to be able to greet in your Eoyal 
Highness the self-same Prince whose energy was so conspicuous 
through the whole period of the rise and unification of the great 
German Empire. 



$ 
* I 



122 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

" Nobody in the whole Empire, least of all myself, will forget 
that in your Royal Highness we see the embodiment of the idea 
of Imperial unity, and that your Royal Highness was the first 
German who gave the first cheer for the new German Empire." 

On September 17th the Emperor stayed at Dresden on the 
occasion of the grand manoeuvres of the 12th Army Corps. In 
the Royal Castle the Emperor dedicated the following heartfelt 
words to his Royal host : 

" I beg your Majesty to allow me to lay at your feet my tribute 
of heartiest thanks for your gracious words. 

" With joy and deep emotion do I take the opportunity of pay- 
ing a debt of gratitude to your Majesty on this spot where, seven 
years ago, my late grandfather expressed his full approbation to 
the 12th Army Corps. 

" It is a great debt which I have to discharge. For many years 
has your Majesty, with unvarying faithfulness and love, cared for 
me and been solicitous on my behalf. As your Majesty well 
knows, my late father once committed me to your Majesty's 
special care, with the request that you would look after me 
should anything ever happen to him. 

"Most nobly has your Majesty carried out this request, and 
for many years of iny life have I now found in your Majesty a 
sincere friend and fatherly adviser. I have the greatest pleasure 
in expressing in this place my hearty thanks. 

" In your Majesty I honour the contemporary who, under the 
command of my late grandfather, by glorious achievements gave 
effective co-operation towards the recovery of our ancient freedom 
and the re-establishment of the German Empire. 

" Scarcely has that glorious day so full of high import to our 
nation, which we celebrate anew year by year, on which the might 
of the enemy collapsed and on which your Majesty's Corps threw 
such a weighty argument into the scale passed and gone, than 
your Majesty once more now assembles the warlike sons of 
Saxony to show that the tradition and the work which as far 
back as the year 1870 could show important results are. still 
uninterruptedly and vigorously continued in time of peace. 

" But we, gentlemen, take our glasses and drink to the health 



THE EMPEROR AND THE FEDERAL PRINCES 123 

of the noble Euler, the Leader tried in battle, the Father of his 
Country, who was able a few months ago to celebrate with his 
people that incomparably beautiful festival to the health of 
his Majesty King Albert of Saxony. Three cheers for his 
Majesty ! " 

At a luncheon given at Metz after a review held on the 9th of 
September, 1893, the Emperor referred in the following terms of 
praise to the Grand Duke Frederick of Baden : 

"With all my heart I congratulate the 15th Army Corps and 
its Commander on this day's display. The 15th Army Corps 
went through its manoauvres in my presence in faultless style, and 
I can only repeat here the praise which I gave to the Corps on the 
field of review. The perfect training which the Corps displayed 
in to-day's review proved to me with what zeal, energy, and 
devotion the officers have worked in all the arms of the service, 
it proved to me that the Corps still retains in full life and vigour 
that loyalty to the old traditions which it showed in the past, and 
that it is stimulated by the praise which my lamented grandfather 
once bestowed upon it, by the aims and methods which he pre- 
scribed for us soldiers and acted up to himself, and, above all, by 
the ground on which the Corps stands and the noble and beauti- 
ful German town in which it is quartered. It makes the occasion 
one of special honour for the Corps that the Commander, under 
whose eyes it daily throughout the year becomes more efficient, 
is to-day celebrating his birthday. My esteemed Grand Duke of 
Baden, who fulfils his duties as Commander with self-sacrificing 
devotion, with indefatigable industry, and with the greatest zeal, 
is one of the Princes whose experience extended throughout the 
glorious days of my grandfather, one of the German Princes who 
are always in their place when the time comes to act in the 
interest of the German Empire and the German Fatherland. In 
calling for cheers for the Army Corps, I at the same time, and 
with all my heart, call for cheers for his Eoyal Highness the 
Grand Duke of Baden." 

A few days later (llth of September, 1893), after the review of 
the 14th Army Corps, the Emperor again referred to the Grand 
Duke in cordial terms, which were as follows: 



124 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

"Your Royal Highness's gracious words, and the reception 
which you, your House, and your subjects have extended to me, 
have made me your debtor, and it is with deep emotion that I 
express to you my cordial thanks. 

" How could it be otherwise ? The road which I have taken 
to this place on my way from the Castle* on the Rhine, 
where, surrounded by sacred memories, I have just been staying, 
has led me over the ground on which our Empire was wrought 
and the German Imperial crown won in battle. In this beautiful 
country, in this hospitable house, in these chambers which are so 
familiar to me, everywhere do memories rise before me and link 
themselves into an indissoluble chain, as did those which I left 
behind me at Coblenz. 

" To-day, too, out yonder in the field, who did not recall with 
heavy heart the occasion when, for the last time, troops deployed 
before my grandfather in their manoeuvres ? And who did not 
miss at the head of the two regiments which have to-day been 
presented to our inspection, with a heart full of pain, the stately 
figure of the founder of German unity, and the form, heroic as 
Siegfried, of the Emperor Frederick ! The memory of that great 
pair is cultivated and treasured with sincere attachment to the 
past by your Koyal Highness and your House. Both you and 
your Royal Consort here have, in the course of your lives, follow- 
ing after and walking in the footsteps of those two noble rulers 
who have gone before us, always been faithful and devoted to 
your high duties, and your thoughts always directed to the 
welfare of your subjects. And, your Eoyal Highness, you do not 
forget that you are not only the father of your country but also 
the leader of its troops. It has been shown to-day that the 14th 
Army Corps in no respect falls short of the others in efficiency. 

" Dear recollections of past times unite me to the 14th 
Army Corps also. Was it not my privilege to receive, whilst a 
member of the corps, the approval of the late Emperor? It 
was on Baden soil that the regiment, the uniform of which I 
wear to-day, was given to me, the only regiment I ever commanded. 
The words which my grandfather then addressed to me are 
written on my heart in letters of gold. I have adopted them as 

* Coblenz. 



THE EMPEROR AND THE FEDERAL PRINCES 125 

a guidance for my military life. But the influence of your Eoyal 
Highness in military affairs goes back further still. I may re- 
mind you that when, last spring, I was by permission of your Eoyal 
Highness allowed to rest here for a few hours after spending glorious 
days in the beautiful land of the South, not only to us two, but also 
to many good Germans, did the thought suggest itself : Will our 
nation still be equal to its duties ? Will it ever deviate from the 
path which the Emperor William marked out for it? Will it 
show itself unworthy of the great deeds of the Emperor Frederick ? 
When the critical moment approached and our people had to be 
again led along the right path, it was your Koyal Highness who, 
with glowing and emphatic words of encouragement, first touched 
that chord which ever thrills through the nation. The military 
spirit was aroused ; and from one end of Baden to the other a new 
enthusiasm sprang into life among the warriors who had fought 
under the Emperor William and the Emperor Frederick, and 
whose breasts were decked with the badges won in past campaigns; 
and our people recovered their senses. I thank your Koyal 
Highness for your support, and I also thank my cousins of the 
German Empire. Every Prince did what he could to lead his 
men out again and to rally them together once more round the 
banner of the Fatherland. Thanks to your united efforts, the 
German nation stands newly armed, a bulwark of defence, like 
that old hero of the gods, Heimdall, watching over the peace 
of the world at the gate of the Temple of Peace of not merely 
Europe, but of the whole earth. 

" May it be granted to our German nation that it will never 
become unfaithful to this great civilising mission, that task which 
God appointed for it to do and which my grandfather marked out. 
May such Princes as your Royal Highness and my cousins always 
be granted to us, and then shall we be able to say of ourselves 
and of the German Empire something similar to what was once said 
by my lamented great-grandfather : * You have harassed me from 
my youth up, but you have never been able to overcome me.' " 

On the 13th of March, 1892, the Grand Duke Ernst Ludwig 
succeeded his father, Ludwig IV., on the throne of Hessen. The 
Emperor William is related to the Grand Duke of Hessen by 
close family ties, for the mother of the latter, the Princess 



126 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

Alice of England, was sister of the Empress Frederick. On the 
occasion of his visit to Darmstadt on the 15th of October, 1894, 
at a banquet given at the Grand Ducal Castle, the Emperor 
referred to these family relations in the following terms : 

" I thank your Koyal Highness for the kind words which you 
have addressed to me on behalf of your people. I am deeply 
moved at the sight of these apartments, with which are associated 
so many memories that are dear to me, those apartments in which 
we have seen our predecessors moving to and fro. I cannot lay 
my thanks at your feet without remembering your father and 
your excellent mother, who will never be forgotten by me. I sum 
up my thanks in the words: May God protect you and your 
House ; may God bless you, your House, and your people." 

From Hubertusstock the Emperor sent the following letter on 
the 16th of February, 1896, to Prince Leopold of Bavaria, the 
second son of the Prince Kegent Luitpold : 

"Most Illustrious Prince, dear Friend and Cousin: I have 
already expressed to your Royal Highness in a telegram, sent on 
the 12th inst., the great pleasure which I received from your com- 
munication that your Royal Highness had been appointed Colonel- 
General* of Cavalry with the rank of Field-Marshal, and have 
tendered to you my cordial congratulations on your well-deserved 
promotion. I feel it my duty, however, particularly to assure 
your Royal Highness that the entire Prussian Army, which has 
the honour to be allowed to count your Royal Highness *?. 
honorary colonel of one of its regiments, takes the keenest in- 
terest in your Royal Highness's promotion, and joins with me in 
my congratulations. It knows that your Royal Highness has 
given many proofs of the most active interest in the development 
and efficiency of the Army, as well as in the welfare of the 
German Fatherland. As my grandfather now resting in God 
many years ago recognised with joyful heart your glorious achieve- 
ments in the last war, and as I, also, was not long ago namely, 
on the twenty- fifth anniversary of Villepion able to give ex- 

* Generaloberst, Colonel-General. A special rank of honour in the German Army, 
equivalent to that of Field-Marshal, but belonging to some special arm of the 
service. In 1893 there were two Colonel-Generals of Cavalry, the Grand Dukes 
of Baden and Saxony, and one Colonel-General of Infantry, von Pape. Prince 
Bismarck also held the rank of a Colonel-General of Cavalry. 



THE EMPEROR AND THE FEDERAL PRINCES 127 

pression to my admiration of your Eoyal Highness, I now desire 
to express with all sincerity my earnest wish that your Koyal 
Highness may, with God's help, be granted many years of fresh 
and full manly activity in your present high military rank, in 
order that you may confer still further benefit on the Army and 
the German Fatherland. Assuring you of my profound respect, 
I remain, your Koyal Highness's affectionate cousin." 

In the company of King Albert of Saxony the Emperor held, 
on the 3rd of September, 1896, a review of the 12th Army Corps 
in the training camp at Zeithain. At a banquet given subsequently 
at the Albrechtsburg the King welcomed his Imperial guest, who 
replied : 

" With deeply-moved heart I express to your Majesty my 
sincere thanks for the gracious words to which you have given 
utterance in this noble and historic hall. The veteran sons of 
Saxony, with their King at their head, afforded a spectacle which 
must have filled every Saxon with pride, and still more every 
soldier's heart. I go still further. It is not Saxony only that 
participates in this day's proceedings, but I and my Army as well. 
A'| number of my Guards were privileged to stand under your 
Majesty's command. Your Majesty has ever shown paternal care 
fo(r me in counsel and in action when some weighty matter called 
for decision. Now that the Emperor William the Great and my 
father are gone from among us, my Army has all the stronger 
claims on your Majesty's person as Field-Marshal and as comrade- 
in-arms of his Majesty the Emperor William I., and in giving 
expression to the wish that the good God may bless, protect, and 
safeguard your Majesty for the welfare of Saxony as well as for 
the German Army, I know that I am in accord not only with 
your own faithful generals, but also with all my officers. With 
these sentiments I raise my glass, firmly convinced that my Army 
will, if necessary, follow its Field-Marshal in the future with the 
same confidence that it showed in the past. His Majesty the 
Field-Marshal and King of Saxony ! Long may he live ! " 

The Grand Duke Frederick of Baden celebrated, on the 9th of 
September, 1896, the seventieth anniversary of his birth, and on 
that occasion received from the Emperor William, who was staying 
at Gorlitz, the following telegram : 



128 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

" The seventieth anniversary of your birth, on which day proofs 
of sincere veneration and love are conveyed to you by your people 
and from all parts of Germany, calls upon me to send to you my 
sincerest congratulations. I joyfully recognise how eminent have 
been your services in the founding and the preservation of the 
power of our common Fatherland, and how well you have known 
how to draw the ties of friendship between ourselves, our Houses, 
and our Governments more and more firmly together. I thank 
the Almighty that He has been pleased to spare you for so long 
a time, and I implore Him to keep you still longer in vigorous 
activity, to enjoy the gratitude of the German people, and 
the veneration of the Federal Princes, for the welfare of your 
country and the entire Empire. The Empress most sincerely 
joins me in my congratulations and good wishes, and, as duty 
detains me, she will represent me before you." 

Three days later the Emperor sent the following letter from 
Gorlitz to King Albert of Saxony : 

"Most Illustrious and Mighty Prince and dearly-beloved Cousin 
and Brother: On my departure to-day from your Majesty's do- 
minions, in which this year's instructive autumn manoeuvres of four 
Army Corps have taken place, I feel in duty bound to express once 
more, as I have repeatedly done, my sincere appreciation of the 
excellent state of the 12th (Koyal Saxon) Army Corps. The 
review, which is the best test of bearing and discipline, was 
excellent; and the subsequent manoeuvres, which frequently in- 
volved severe exertions on the part of the troops, showed the 
warlike training of Saxony's sons to be of the most efficient 
character. The men proved in a most convincing manner that 
the experienced eye of your Majesty, their Field-Marshal, with 
clear purpose in view, is constantly resting upon your soldiers to 
the welfare of the entire Fatherland, and they also showed that 
the spirit of their fathers continues to live in them. I. request 
your Majesty to have the goodness to thank your troops and their 
commanders, and to intimate to them the fact that the course of 
this year's great manoeuvres has filled me with particular satis- 
faction and with a firm belief in their military efficiency. Your 
Majesty may permit me to express to your illustrious brother, 



THE EMPEROR AND THE FEDERAL PRINCES 129 

the Field-Marshal and General in command, his Eoyal Highness 
Prince George, Duke of Saxony, my personal thanks for the success 
he has achieved and for his conspicuous ability in commanding 
his troops. Your Majesty may also be pleased to accept my 
acknowledgment of the kind hospitality which you accorded to 
me at Dresden as well as at the Albrechtsburg, a place so 
intimately associated with the history of the Eoyal Family of 
Saxony, and also of the welcome which your country and the 
people of Saxony gave to my numerous troops. With the assurance 
of my profound reverence and sincere and warm friendship, I 
remain, your Majesty's affectionate cousin and brother." 

On the occasion of the centenary of the birth of the Emperor 
William I., which was held on the 22nd of March, 1897, there 
gathered around the Emperor in Berlin nearly all the German 
Federal Princes. At the banquet given at the Eoyal Castle the 
Emperor proposed a toast in the following words : 

"A spirit of deep-felt and profound festive joy has spread 
throughout the German people, and, participating in this feeling, 
the Princes have assembled in order to celebrate the memory of 
the late great Emperor. 

" I beg to express my sincere and hearty thanks to my illus- 
trious relations, uncles, and allies, and to all the representatives of 
those foreign Sovereigns who did not wish to hold aloof, but 
desired to participate in our festival, thus affording us a further 
proof that a common great family tie unites the Eoyal Houses of 
Europe, and that the joy or grief of one House is shared by all 
the others. 

" It is not my intention here to laud the merits of my great 
ancestor, my grandfather. The proceedings we have just witnessed 
and the behaviour of our people show how vividly the work and 
the personality of the departed stand before the eyes of all. 

" I think that his spirit is walking to-day amongst his people, 
and certainly visited his colours to-day. We remember him in 
his humility, his unassuming simplicity, and his devotion to duty, 
we remember him as the son of the glorious and charming Queen, 
and we remember him as the one who said that he learned more 
from his humiliations than from all his successes. 



130 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

"The memory of him should be to us, illustrious Princes and 
relatives, a fresh incentive to live and to work for our subjects, 
as he did, for the common aim of the advancement of civilisation 
and for the preservation of peace. But now that we are renewing 
to one another our vows to knit close the ties of firm friendship 
and brotherhood in arms, let us raise our glasses and, with a 
toast to the welfare of the German Fatherland and the German 
people, pay reverence to his memory and bid a welcome to our 
Princes. The German people, its Fatherland, and its Princes ! 
Hurrah ! Hurrah ! Hurrah ! " 

On the 30th of August, 1897, the Emperor held a review of 
the 8th Army Corps, of which the Hereditary Grand Duke of 
Baden had a short time previously been appointed Commander. 

Soon afterwards the Emperor and the Empress, the Prince 
Regent of Bavaria, the Kings of Saxony and Wlirtemberg, and 
the Grand Duke of Hesse, who were afterwards joined by King 
Humbert of Italy, witnessed the grand manoeuvres between the 
two Bavarian Corps and the Army Corps of the Imperial Terri- 
tories and the Rhine Province. At the State banquet subsequently 
given at the old Castle of Nuremberg, the Prince Eegent of Bavaria 
proposed a toast. 

" On behalf of the citizens of Nuremberg," he said, " the ancient 
history of which town is so closely connected with the glorious 
House of Hohenzollern through the Burgrave of Nuremberg, it 
is my gratifying duty to express once more my heartfelt thanks 
to his Majesty the German Emperor and to the illustrious 
Empress for their gracious presence at the reviews of the two 
Bavarian Corps. Their Majesties! Long may they live!" 

Thereupon the Emperor replied : 

" I tender to your Royal Highness my most grateful thanks for 
the gracious sentiments which you have again expressed. 

" I cordially congratulate you on to-day's brilliantly successful 
review; but it is with a heart even more deeply moved that I 
express to your Royal Highness my thanks that, through your Royal 
Highness's kind invitation, it has at last been granted to me to 
stay in this ancient and glorious city, so intensely German, and in 
the Castle which my ancestors, with traditional loyalty, for centuries 
preserved and ruled on behalf of the German Emperors. I look 
on these venerable walls with special devotion when I remember 



THE EMPEROR AND THE FEDERAL PRINCES 131 

the fact that it was precisely in Nuremberg and in this Castle that 
the most intimate connection between the House of Wittelsbach 
and the House of Hohenzollern is to be found. As good friends 
and comrades, the young Burgrave and the young Wittelsbach 
rode in the train of the German Emperors, and fought for 
Emperor and Empire. My ancestor, Frederick IV.,* together 
with the subsequent German Emperor, Ludwig f of Bavaria, was 
knighted at Rome by Henry VII., { and that same ancestor of mine 
fought as a brave man at Miihldorf, and helped the great ancestor 
of your Royal Highness to consolidate the power of the Crown. 
I venture, therefore, as a Nuremberger and a Burgrave to express 
to your Royal Highness my cordial thanks, and to associate with 
them the wish that God may hold His hand with blessings over 
your Royal Highness and your House." 

On his way back from Palestine the Emperor passed through 
Munich on the 25th of November, 1898, and paid a visit to the 
Prince Regent. Differences of opinion had arisen between 
Munich and Berlin on the occasion of the introduction of the 
new code of military law, with regard to the constitution of the 
Supreme Military Court of Appeal. "Whilst the Emperor," 
said the Reichsanzeiger, "was in Munich, his Majesty and the 
Prince Regent personally discussed the new code of military law, 
and a complete understanding between them was arrived at. The 
Prince Regent agreed to the institution of a Bavarian 'Senate/ 
sitting in the Supreme Military Court of Appeal at Berlin, and, 
on the other hand, the Emperor granted to Bavaria the right to 
appoint the President as well as the members of the Bavarian 
' Senate,' and also its Judge-Advocate." 

* Frederick IV. of Hohenzollern, Burgrave of Nuremberg. The first of the 
family to hold the title was Conrad, who became Burgrave in 1170. 

t Ludwig, Duke of Bavaria, was elected Emperor in 1314, and Frederick, Duke 
of Austria at the same time. This disputed election "plunged the empire into 
inextricable confusion." 

$ Henry VII. (Henry of Luxemburg) was Emperor from 1308 to 1313. "Clearly 
the best Kaiser that could be had. A puissant soul who might have done great 
things had he lived" (Carlyle, Friedrich I., p. 104). He made an expedition into 
Italy in 1310, and was poisoned there in 1313. 

Muhldorf on the Inn in Bavaria. The battle was fought on September 28th, 
1322. " Ludwig rather held aloof rearward ; committed his business to the Hohen- 
zollern Burggraf." Frederick the Hapsburger, Duke of Austria, was defeated and 
taken prisoner, and Ludwig of Bavaria became sole Emperor, dying in 1347. 
Ludwig was "progenitor of the subsequent Kurfursts of Baiern '" (Carlyle, 
Friedrich /., pp. 107, 137). 



132 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

After the review at Forchheim, at which the Emperor was 
present, on the 8th of September, 1899, he proceeded to Karlsruhe 
in the company of the Grand Duke of Baden. Eesponding to 
the toast which was proposed at the banquet, given at the Castle 
in his honour, the Emperor said : 

" Your Royal Highness may permit me to lay at your feet my 
heartfelt thanks for your kind words, as well as my sincere and 
cordial congratulations on the splendid and successful movements 
which the 14th Army Corps went through to-day, in spite of all 
difficulties. Your Royal Highness had the kindness to draw our 
attention to the past, and there rose up before us all a series of 
pictures of this place, and of this Palace in particular, which made 
our hearts heavy and drew the tears to our eyes. We remem- 
ber how twenty years ago the review of the same Army Corps 
was led and attended by heroic figures who are no longer here 
the great Emperor at the head of the regiment that I have led 
to-day, my late father, radiant with the bright promise of the 
future, at the head of his regiment, and the conqueror of Nuits.* 
They have gone ; we remain ; and it is our duty to preserve what 
they bequeathed us. In this respect to-day's review is worthy of 
the others, a matter of pride for our people and our country, and 
a warning to foreign nations ; for gold and red, black and red, 
green and white, or black and white, flag was ranked with flag, 
forming in their collective might a bulwark of defence round the 
golden banner of our country, to protect it and to safeguard it. 
And it was not with the least satisfaction that I noticed that the 
review was witnessed by our second line of supports, I mean the 
old soldiers who had the honour to fight under our ancestors and 
who saw the great days of the old Emperor. That all this should 
be, however, we owe to the circumstance that it was granted to 
the great Emperor, after many years of trial and preparation, to 
find Princes in Germany, who brought with them hearts full of 
enthusiasm for the great cause and unhesitatingly placed them- 
selves at his side. The surest bond to cement the unity of our 
Fatherland is loyal co-operation and blood shed on the battlefield 
in a common cause. May the closing century find our young 

* The small fortified town of Nuits, near Dijon, was taken by the Baden troops, 
under von Werder, after a severe engagement on December 18th, 1870. 



THE EMPEROR AND THE FEDERAL PRINCES 133 

Empire and our Army in the same condition in which our great 
Emperor bequeathed it to us, and may we always be mindful 
that it is our duty to protect religion, which should be preserved 
for the nation, and to uphold morals and order. May there 
always stand at our side German Princesses, like the great 
Empress and her illustrious daughter, who, with loving hand, 
everywhere relieve the sufferings of the poor. And in the 
century to come, in spite of all new spirits and ideas, may the 
old loyalty to the monarchy show itself firm as a rock and as an 
example for other countries. I make my bow of respect to the 
noble princely pair who, in long laborious lives, have realised 
these ideals, and by their lives have become a pattern and 
ensample for us to follow." 

King Albert of Saxony celebrated, on the 21st of June, 1899, 
the fiftieth anniversary of his appointment as Knight of the 
Prussian Order "Pour le M^rite." The Emperor sent his con- 
gratulations through a special deputation, headed by Prince 
Albrecht of Prussia, the Kegent of Brunswick. 

On the 23rd of June, 1900, the Emperor sent to the Grand 
Duke August of Oldenburg, who had just come to the throne, 
the following telegram: 

"Bound to you by ties of sincere friendship, it was to me a 
dictate of my heart to render to your dear father the last honours. 
His decease has moved me deeply, for I know that your noble and 
high-minded father, whose whole life was devoted to his country 
and to the great Fatherland, was also devoted to me. Be assured 
that I shall never forget him." 

Duke Alfred of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha died on the 30th of July, 
1900, and the Emperor, who was then on board the Hohenzollern, 
lying off Heligoland, issued the following order : 

"With my Navy I mourn with deep grief the decease of his 
Eoyal Highness Duke Alfred of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, the first 
reigning German Prince who was both a German and a British 
Admiral. In the deceased my Navy has lost a dear friend and a 
noble supporter, one who was full of the warmest interest in the 
development and extension of the Navy. In order to give special 
expression to our feelings of deepest sorrow, and the honour in 



134 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

which we hold the memory of the deceased, I hereby order : (1) 
that my ships in home waters must keep the flags at half-mast 
till the funeral has taken place ; (2) that naval officers must wear 
bands of crape on the left fore-arm, and (3) that at the funeral 
ceremonies the following must attend, (a) the Inspector-General 
of the Navy, (6) a deputation consisting of a Rear- Admiral and 
one officer of each inferior rank, to be selected by the commanders 
of the naval stations, (c) a warrant officer, a petty officer, and an 
able-seaman from each of the two naval stations." 

Owing to the injury which the Emperor received during his 
stay in Bremen, where a madman threw a piece of iron into the 
Royal carriage, the Emperor was not able to proceed to Munich 
to take part in the celebration of the eightieth birthday of 
the Prince Regent, which was held on the 12th of March, 1901. 
He was, however, represented by the Crown Prince, and also sent 
a telegram, which was worded as follows : 

"I deeply regret that circumstances compel me to be absent 
from to-day's festivities, which are given in honour of your 
eightieth birthday. Be assured, however, that my warmest 
thoughts are of you and that I am with you in spirit. My 
eldest son will represent me. Allow him to tell you with what 
sincere pleasure I recall to my mind to-day your robust form, 
and how much I, together with the Bavarian people, and, indeed, 
the whole Fatherland, desire the well-being of such a Prince and 
hero, in whom God has preserved one of the most illustrious 
comrades-in-arms of the Emperor William the Great, whom may 
He long keep in your present wonderful strength and vigour." 

On April 26th, 1902, amid extraordinary enthusiasm on the 
part of the entire population of his country, the Grand Duke 
Frederick of Baden celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of his 
accession. The Emperor arrived at Karlsruhe in the morning, 
and at the great banquet replied to the toast proposed by the 
Grand Duke : 

" Your Royal Highness has been graciously pleased to think of 
me, too, at to-day's festival, and with deep emotion do I rise to 
express my thanks for the extraordinarily friendly words, words 
that go straight to the heart, which your Royal Highness has 



THE EMPEROR AND THE FEDERAL PRINCES 135 

just uttered. As this hall and this spot, on which I remember 
to have seen the tall, venerable figure of my late grandfather, and 
by his side the glorious form of my father, so, too, does every 
corner of the Castle at Karlsruhe evoke memories which are most 
dear to my heart, and it was only natural that in this so un- 
common and uniquely beautiful festival, which God's grace and 
favour has granted to your Eoyal Highness and your House, I 
too should desire to be allowed to take my humble part. A 
pattern of self-sacrificing devotion to duty in administrative 
and military affairs alike, a faithful comrade-in-arms and promoter 
of the ideas of my late grandfather, a diligent and zealous 
guardian of the precious treasures and possessions won for our 
German nation in all these respects a pattern for our younger 
generation, does your Eoyal Highness stand before the eyes of the 
generation which I represent, and which has grown up under 
the influences of the great year. It can only confer the highest 
honour on me, and at the same time arouse feelings of deepest 
gratitude, if from the mouth of the representative of the genera- 
tion of my grandfather, from the very lips of your Royal Highness, 
I learn that you are in complete sympathy with the principles by 
which I endeavour to rule. For that means that these principles 
are pursuing the path which my grandfather of immortal memory 
has traced out for us. I would to God that it had pleased Him to 
preserve my splendid father's life for many a long day. But now 
that it has been decreed otherwise I, too, am firmly resolved to 
meet the heavy responsibility of the inheritance that has fallen to 
me, by devoting to it all my powers. This is best accomplished 
by fostering the army. I trust that I shall succeed, by careful 
fostering, in maintaining it in the condition in which my grandfather 
handed it to me, as an instrument in his hands to preserve peace, 
to gain the victory in war, and as an incomparable school for the 
education of our people. But I can only imagine such a work 
a credit, and at the same time a profit, too, if patterns and 
examples, such as your Royal Highness is among the Princes of 
the German Empire, stand by my side. For it is easy to under- 
stand that an older generation, when it is suddenly deprived of 
its revered Head, must find it difficult to be led by a younger 
hand, for opinions change as completely as do the problems of the 



136 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

time. When, therefore, from such renowned lips and from such 
a quarter, words of encouragement and praise are uttered, I draw 
from them courage for further effort. I will conclude my words 
by imploring not merely in my own name, but also in that of 
every German, with my whole heart, God's blessing on your 
Eoyal Highness and your House, that you may continue to stand 
by my side as my adviser, and stand before our eyes as our 
pattern and example. We give expression to our sentiments 
by calling for three cheers for his Koyal Highness the Grand 
Duke of Baden ! " 

On July 16th, 1902, the fiftieth anniversary of the foundation 
of the Germanic Museum was celebrated at Nuremberg. The 
Emperor and Empress, a number of German Federal Princes, and 
scholars of repute assembled at Nuremberg to attend the festivities. 
The Prince Eegent Luitpold of Bavaria gave a banquet in the 
Town Hall at Nuremberg in honour of the guests. After he had 
bidden the Emperor and the Princes welcome at the banquet, the 
Emperor rose and made the following speech : 

" From the bottom of our hearts flow the grateful thanks which 
her Majesty the Empress and myself tender to your Eoyal 
Highness. In the first place, as Honorary Colonel, I thank you, 
in the name of my infantry regiment, for the gracious honour 
paid to the memory of my ever-lamented grandfather, his Majesty 
the Emperor William the Great, by your Eoyal Highness confer- 
ring his monogram on the regiment. In the second place, I thank 
your Eoyal Highness for your invitation to the splendid festival 
of the jubilee of the Germanic Museum. The festival that we 
have celebrated was German to the core, for everything that we 
Germans indicate with pride as Germanic civilisation is embodied 
in the Museum, and this symbol of Germanic civilisation em- 
bodying the idea of German unity has been taken under its care 
and protection by the House of Wittelsbach, following its ancient 
tradition in loyalty to Emperor and Empire. Not only the citi- 
zens of Nuremberg, not only the sons of Bavaria, but all the 
Germanic races turn their eyes hither to-day and join us in this 
festival, to that, too, the German Princes here assembled bear 
witness. On the bloody field of battle, when the victory was 
won, the German Princes clasped hand in hand together, and, 



THE EMPEROR AND THE FEDERAL PRINCES 137 

surrounded by their cheering regiments, their peoples in arms, 
restored the German Empire. Passed and gone for ever, if God 
wills it, is the awful time, the time when there was no Emperor. 
Once again is the proud banner of the Empire reared aloft, the 
black eagle on the field of gold, surrounded by the standards of 
the princely houses, and to guard it are encamped around it the 
legions of the warlike peoples of Germany flashing and gleaming 
with arms. What enemies feared, what doubtless denied, what the 
envious sought to hinder, is at last an accomplished fact. With 
deep thanks to God, whose guiding hand has so wonderfully led 
my House from the time of our Burgraviate to the present day, 
I stand with deep emotion on the soil of Nuremberg, proud of my 
rank as Burgrave in the presence of the illustrious Kegent and 
the Father of this land. With the same loyalty with which of 
old the Burgraves of the early German Emperors guarded and 
protected the Palatinate, so, too, will I guard the jewel of the 
Empire, firmly relying on the tried loyalty to the Empire of 
the House of Wittelsbach. And now rise to your feet, men of 
Nuremberg and Bavaria ; let us raise our glasses to greet the wise 
head of the House of Wittelsbach. Long life to the Prince 
Regent; may God protect him and his House. Thus does the 
Burgrave of Nuremberg, the Hohenzollern, greet the administrator 
of the Kingdom of Bavaria, of the House of Wittelsbach. 
Hurrah ! " 



THE EMPEROR AS UPHOLDER AND 
PROTECTOR OF THE EMPIRE 

THE EMPEROR AND THE IMPERIAL IDEA 

WHEN on his journeys, when receiving deputations, in opening 
the Eeichstag, and at the celebrations of national anni- 
versaries, the Emperor constantly advocates in vigorous speeches, 
often rising into bursts of poetic eloquence, an ideal conception 
of Imperialism. 

When the war of 1870 broke out, of which the prize of victory 
was the unified German Empire, the then Prince William was 
only eleven years old. Yet it was with the deepest interest 
that the boy followed from a distance the phases of the war 
and the heroic progress of his universally -beloved father, and 
was fired with enthusiasm at the victories achieved in this 
tremendous struggle. Eight years after his accession, the twenty- 
fifth anniversary of the Peace of Frankfort and the refounding of 
the German Empire was celebrated, and the Emperor William 
seized the occasion repeatedly to dwell on the Imperial idea. 

On January 17th, 1896, the Prince Kegent Luitpold of Bavaria 
sent the following telegram to the Emperor : 

" On the eve of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the re-establish- 
ment of the German Empire, I am anxious to express to your 
Imperial Majesty my sincerest congratulations. Twenty-five years 
ago the new German Empire was founded. Now it stands firm, 
united within and respected without. May Providence bestow 
blessings on it in the future." 

To this the Emperor replied : 

" I thank your Eoyal Highness with my whole heart for the 
loyal congratulations expressed to me on the occasion of the 
twenty-fifth anniversary of the restoration of the German Empire. 
The bond which, during the twenty-five years now gone by, has 
closely drawn together the Teutonic races and their Princes will, 

138 



AS UPHOLDER AND PROTECTOR OF EMPIRE 139 

I trust to God, prove itself in the future also to be firm and 
indissoluble." 

On the 18th of January a divine service was held at the Eoyal 
Palace in Berlin, which was followed by a banquet in the White 
Hall. The members of the existing Eeichstag and the surviving 
members of the Reichstag of 1871 were among those who were 
invited to be present. The Emperor made his appearance, sur- 
rounded by all his dignitaries and full Court pageantry, and read 
aloud the following message to the nation : 

" We, William, by the grace of God German Emperor, King of 
Prussia, and so forth, do hereby make proclamation and let all 
men know by these presents : Twenty-five years have gone by 
since the day on which his Majesty, our grandfather, now at rest 
in God, assumed, in compliance with the unanimous request of 
the German Princes and Free Towns and the wishes of the 
Nation, the German Imperial Crown. We have therefore deter- 
mined solemnly to celebrate that memorable event, which 
brought to final and brilliant fulfilment the long-cherished hopes 
of the German people, and gave to the re-established Empire 
that position among the nations of the world, to which its history 
and the high state of its civilisation entitle it. 

"We have summoned to this celebration the plenipotentiaries 
of our illustrious Allies and the representatives of the people, as 
well as those who at that great time took a prominent part in the 
great work of the unification of the German States. 

" Surrounded by the colours and standards of glorious regiments, 
witnesses of the heroic courage of our armies, which on that day 
greeted the first German Emperor, let us picture to ourselves with 
deep emotion the inspiriting spectacle which the united Fatherland 
united in its Princes and its peoples presented to contem- 
poraries. Looking back on the twenty-five years now gone by, 
we feel ourselves moved, first of all to express our humble thanks 
to Divine Providence, whose blessing has so manifestly been be- 
stowed upon the Empire and its members. The vow made on 
the assumption of the Imperial dignity by his Majesty, our never- 
to-be-forgotten grandfather, and confirmed by his successors to the 
crown, namely, to protect with German fidelity the rights of the 
Empire and of its members, to uphold peace, to preserve the 



140 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

independence of Germany, and to strengthen the might of the 
nation, has, with God's help, been kept to this day. 

"Conscious of the fact that it was called upon to uplift its 
voice in the council of the nations on behalf of peace, without 
fear or favour, the young Empire has been able to devote its 
undisturbed attention to the perfecting of its internal organi- 
sation. 

"In joyful enthusiasm over its unity and powerful position, 
passionately longed for and dearly won, and firmly trusting in the 
leadership of the great Emperor and in the counsel of experienced 
statesmen, especially of its Chancellor, Prince Bismarck, the 
effective strength of the nation set itself unreservedly to the per- 
formance of the common task. With intelligent forethought and 
readiness to make any sacrifice, the Empire made clear its deter- 
mination to hold and to secure what had been gained, to heal the 
evils of the economic position, and, striking out a new course, to 
pave the way to the promotion of a spirit of contentment among 
the different classes of the population. 

"Let us rejoice over what has already been effected in this 
direction. 

"In addition to the development of our defensive strength, 
which for the protection of the independence of the Fatherland 
it is our Imperial duty to maintain at the height of efficiency, 
legislature and executive in German States have earnestly applied 
themselves to the fostering of the general welfare in every sphere 
of public life and economic activity. 

" Free scope for the development of the intellectual and material 
strength of the nation, the promotion of the public welfare thus 
obtained, the construction of a uniform code of law, the securing 
of an impartial administration of justice commanding respect, 
and the education of the young in the fear of the Lord and in 
loyalty to the Fatherland these are the goals towards which the 
Empire has unceasingly striven. However excellent the results 
which have so far been obtained may be, we must not grow weary 
of continuing the task which lies before us. The further develop- 
ment of the Imperial institutions, the strengthening of the bond 
that unites the German peoples, the necessity of averting the 
many dangers to which we are exposed, as well as the claims of a 



AS UPHOLDER AND PROTECTOR OF EMPIRE 141 

rapidly progressing development of all branches of human activity, 
constantly demand our unwearying and devoted attention. 

" As we ourselves renew our vow to emulate the example of our 
grandfather, now resting in God, in the faithful fulfilment of 
duty, so we address to the whole nation our Imperial command 
to cast aside all considerations of party interest, to keep in view, 
together with us and our illustrious Allies, the welfare of the 
Empire, and with German loyalty to place themselves at the 
service of the whole, in order to promote by common effort the 
greatness and the happiness of our dear Fatherland. Should this 
be done, we may confidently hope that the blessing of Heaven 
will not fail us in the future, and, as in that great time which we 
are now celebrating, we shall meet every attack upon our inde- 
pendence with a united and firm front, and be able to devote 
ourselves undisturbed to the fostering of our own interests. 

" The German Empire, far from being a danger to other states, 
will thus be respected and trusted by the nations, and will remain 
as heretofore a mainstay of peace. 

" That this be so may God ordain ! " 

Thereupon the Emperor took hold of the flag of the First 
Eegiment of Guards, lowered it, and said : 

" In the presence of this sacred banner, which is covered with 
the glory of well-nigh two hundred years, I renew the vow to 
uphold the honour of the people and the Empire, both at home 
and abroad. One Empire, one People, one God ! " 

At the State banquet in the afternoon the Emperor made the 
following speech : 

" This day is a day of thankful retrospect, as indeed the whole 
year with its round of festivals is one long day of thanksgiving 
and memorial of the great Emperor now resting in God. On 
this day rests the blessing, and over it hovers the spirit of him 
who is buried at Charlottenburg and also of him who lies in the 
Friedenskirche. That which our fathers hoped for, that which 
the youth of Germany dreamed of, sang of, and longed for to 
them, to the two Emperors, in conjunction with the Princes, was 
it granted to win in fight the German Empire, and to re-establish it. 



H2 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

We can enjoy these blessings with thankful hearts: we can rejoice 
on this day. At the same time, however, there rests upon us the 
solemn duty of retaining what the great rulers won for us in battle. 
The German Empire has become a world empire. Everywhere 
in far-away parts of the globe live thousands of our compatriots. 
German goods, German science, German manufactures cross the 
ocean. The value of that which Germany has on the sea amounts 
to thousands of millions. To you, gentlemen, falls the serious 
duty of aiding me firmly to unite this greater German Empire 
to our Fatherland at home. The vow which I made before you 
to-day can only be adequately fulfilled, if your support, inspired 
with a unanimous and patriotic spirit, is given to me in fullest 
measure. With the hope that in complete concord you will 
help me to fulfil my duty, not only to our compatriots at home, 
but also to the many thousands of our countrymen abroad, which 
is to protect them when I am called upon to do so, and also with 
the exhortation which is applicable to us all, 'That which thou 
hast inherited from thy fathers, that thou must thyself acquire 
in order to keep it/ I raise my glass to the welfare of our be- 
loved German Fatherland and exclaim : The German Empire ! 
Hurrah ! and again Hurrah ! and yet once more Hurrah ! " 

On the occasion of these national celebrations the following 
Imperial Edicts were published : 

" We, William, by the grace of God King of Prussia, do com- 
mand, in order to celebrate, by an act of comprehensive grace, the 
twenty-fifth anniversary of the day whereon the German Empire 
was re-established, that to all those persons against whom, up 
to the present day, through judgment or verdict of a Prussian 
civil tribunal, for any minor offence involving imprisonment or 
fine, or for a misdemeanour involving imprisonment, there is a 
legal sentence of not more than six weeks, or, in the case of fines, 
of not more than one hundred and fifty marks, such penalties, 
in so far as they have not yet been fully carried out, or the 
still outstanding costs shall, as an Act of Grace, be remitted. 
Sentences of simple imprisonment are not covered by this Act 
of Grace, in cases where a term of surveillance by the police 
authorities of the district is included in the sentence. 



AS UPHOLDER AND PROTECTOR OF EMPIRE 143 

" Our Ministry of State is charged with the duty of the publi- 
cation and carrying out of this Edict without delay." 

A special Edict extended this Act of Grace to corresponding 
sentences within the jurisdiction of the tribunals of Alsace- 
Lorraine. 

In the same spirit Edicts were issued to the Prussian Minister 
of War and to the Secretary of State for the Navy. The Charter 
concerning the foundation of the "Wilhelin-Order" is as follows: 

"We, William, by the grace of God King of Prussia, and so 
forth, have resolved, on the occasion of the twenty-fifth anni- 
versary of the day of the Proclamation of the Empire at 
Versailles, to found an Order to perpetuate the memory of the 
peaceful achievements of our grandfather, now at rest in God, 
his Majesty the Emperor and King, William the Great, and 
also to be an incentive to the present and future generations 
to co-operate for the good of the people in the spirit which 
is expressed in the august message which he delivered on 
November 17th, 1881, the fulfilment of which devolves upon us 
as a sacred inheritance. The Order shall bear the name of 
Wilhelmorden, and shall consist of one class, the bestowal of which 
we reserve to ourselves and our successors, and for which are 
equally eligible such men or women, whether married or single, 
as have done conspicuous service in furthering the welfare and 
improvement of the people generally, and especially in the 
domain of social politics, in the spirit of the message of the 
lamented great Emperor. As a badge of this Order we have 
chosen a gold ornament to be worn on a chain of gold, which 
bears on its obverse the effigy of the lamented Emperor and 
King, with the inscription, ' William, King of Prussia,' and on its 
reverse the initials of our name with the Eoyal crown above 
them, the date of the foundation of this Order, and, as an 
inscription below, the motto, ' Strive in memory of the Emperor 
William the Great.' " 

The Emperor issued the following Edict to the Imperial 
Chancellor on the 22nd of January : 

"With heart-stirring enthusiasm the German nation, in full 
concord with their illustrious Princes, have celebrated the twenty- 



144 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

fifth anniversary of the re-establishment of the Empire, and at 
the same time has not only thought with gratitude of the men 
whose wisdom and devotion brought about the long-desired re- 
unification of the German races into a strong community com- 
manding the respect of the world, but has also vowed from the 
bottom of its heart to prove worthy of the great past and 
ever to stand with the loyalty of German lieges by Emperor and 
Empire. In glowing terms has this vow been brought to my 
notice in the telegrams and communications which thousands of 
Germans at home and abroad have addressed to me on this 
occasion of the national celebration of the memorable event, as 
an expression of their pure love of the Fatherland. I have been 
heartily rejoiced at this, and am strengthened in the belief that 
the German nation will never allow the acquisitions of January 
18th, 1871, to be taken from them, but, trusting in God, will ever 
know how to defend their most precious possessions. To all who 
have made known to me their co-operation in the further con- 
solidation of German unity and in the promotion of German 
welfare, and who in loyal attachment have thought of me, I 
express my warmest thanks. I request you to publish this 
Proclamation forthwith." 

On the twenty-fifth anniversary of the signing of the Peace of 
Frankfort a memorial of the Emperor William I. was unveiled in 
the presence of the Emperor and Empress at Frankfort-on-Main. 
At the State banquet, which was given in the Palmengarten, the 
Emperor replied to the toast proposed by Chief Burgomaster 
Adickes : 

"My esteemed Chief Burgomaster: Who to-day would find 
fault with me if, on such an occasion and surrounded by such 
acclamations, my heart were stirred by special emotions? For it is 
seldom granted to a nation to celebrate such a festival as that of 
to-day, and on such an occasion as this. Wherever German hearts 
are beating, the man of Teutonic race has this day fallen on his 
knees and returned thanks to his Maker that, under His guardian- 
ship, the Empire is again united. As becomes an old Imperial 
and coronation city, Frankfort has in worthy and patriotic fashion 
appreciated and celebrated this day. I tender heartfelt thanks on 



AS UPHOLDER AND PROTECTOR OF EMPIRE 145 

behalf of the Empress and myself for your friendly words and 
for the magnificent welcome which your citizens have given to us. 
Above all else, however, I must express my gratification that you, 
correctly appreciating the significance of to-day's celebration, have 
opened it with the ceremony of the unveiling of the memorial 
statue of my late grandfather, for it is very fitting that on the 
day when the signing of peace is celebrated we should look upon 
his figure. Our thoughts wander back to the time when the 
young Prince dwelt in grievous distress with his mother and sorely 
tried father at the far end of East Prussia, and we perceive in the 
career of this great man, so full of trial, how the Almighty Creator 
guides Kuler and people in order to fashion the instrument which 
was some day to give back peace to the world. Years passed over 
the head of my grandfather, and severe times of trial came to 
him when he was in full manhood, and it was only at a time 
when, in the case of other men, life begins to draw to a close, 
that he reached the beginning of his glory. That scene at 
Konigsberg rises vividly before the eyes of all of us, when, 
speaking with emphasis of the Kingdom by the Grace of God, 
he took the sceptre in one hand and the sword of Empire in 
the other, and giving the glory to God alone, received from 
Him his office. He accordingly became the chosen instrument, 
but not that only, for he also became an example for the rest of 
us, an example for all monarchs, who can only achieve good for 
their people and with their people, when they are firm in the 
belief that their office is granted to them by Heaven, and that 
the day will come when Heaven will demand of them an account 
of their stewardship. After he had achieved unparalleled successes, 
he had the happiness in his later years to see his German people 
united at his back; a sunny old age upon the throne of the 
reunited Fatherland was vouchsafed to him. That is why I thank 
you as his grandson. And, again, a word of thanks to the 
instrument with which he won for us the Empire, with which he 
gained for himself the Imperial crown our Army. He wrought 
this weapon, he cared for it, he fought for it. It never played 
him false, and it achieved that work which we now behold with 
astonishment to-day. As a result of the perfection to which it 
attained in the hand of the old master after a glorious war, it 
L 



146 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

brought to our people, to Europe, to the world, twenty-five years 
of peace. And so I hope that every one of you will agree with 
me in this, that it is our duty to hold in respect, regard, and 
honour our nation in arms, and to keep it clear of all party strife 
and all meddling with political doctrines. May they remain far 
from you also ! The Army and the Emperor at its head alone 
can secure the safety of the Empire and the peace of the world. 
With a thankful heart to him who made us this gift, I hope that 
a further period of twenty-five years of peace may be granted 
to us, and that during this peace the Empire may develop its re- 
sources, and, like this city, become a magnificent product of peace. 
I have been heartily delighted at the sight of splendid Frankfort, 
which, thanks to the enterprise of its citizens, and also to its 
present and its former famous burgomasters, has risen to such 
a prominent position. I express the hope that it may be the 
destiny of the City of Frankfort and of my whole people and 
Fatherland still further to develop their resources in a long period 
of peace, and that, as hitherto, the German Michael, resplendent 
in golden armour and keeping guard by the gate of the world's 
Temple of Peace, will take care that no evil spirit shall ever be 
able to unjustly disturb the peace of our land." 

The following telegram was despatched to Prince Bismarck, at 
Friedrichsruhe : 

"The Peace of Frankfort, which was signed twenty-five years 
ago, and the memory of which was but just now solemnly 
celebrated by the unveiling of an equestrian statue of the 
Emperor William the Great, now at rest in God, marked the 
conclusion of a mighty epoch in which Germany. recovered her 
unity and greatness, as well as her proper position in the council 
of the nations. It is my desire and duty to express to you again 
to-day in all gratitude and veneration, my dear Prince, the 
acknowledgment of the memorable services you rendered at that 
time. Besides the name of the great Emperor William, the 
name of his great Chancellor will for ever shine in history, and 
the sentiment of undying gratitude to you will for ever dwell in 
my heart." 



AS UPHOLDER AND PROTECTOR OF EMPIRE 147 

On May 17th, 1896, the following Imperial Edict was sent to 
the Imperial Chancellor, Prince Hohenlohe : 

" On the occasion of the anniversary of the day on which, tive- 
and-twenty years ago, the glorious Peace of Frankfort was signed, 
a number of telegrams have come to me from different parts of 
the German Fatherland, from veterans, from Veterans' Societies, 
and from other festive associations of patriotic citizens of the 
Empire, in which expression is given to loyalty to Emperor 
and Empire, to joy over our great achievements, and to the hope 
of the further peaceful development of German might and power. 
With these were associated many suggestions that the celebration 
should be utilised to perpetuate to all time the memory of those 
great days by the erection of other memorials and monuments in 
honour of the hero Emperor William the Great, now at rest in 
God, and of the faithful sons of the Fatherland who fell on the 
field of honour. I have been greatly delighted by these manifes- 
tations, and I take this method of expressing my Imperial thanks 
to all concerned. I request you to publish this Proclamation 
forthwith." 

About six weeks later (July 3rd, 1896) the Emperor despatched 
the following telegram to the Imperial Chancellor from Christian- 
sund, in Norway : 

" I express to your Serene Highness my great satisfaction at the 
definite completion of the great work which secures a uniform 
code of Civil Law to Germany. To this expression of satisfaction 
I gladly add my special thanks for your vigorous co-operation 
in, and successful management of, this work, in the completion of 
which I see the creation of a new bond of union for the Father- 
land as an Imperial whole." 

The Emperor also utilised the hundredth anniversary of the 
birth of the Emperor William I. March 22nd, 1897 as an 
occasion on which to further the Imperial idea. He issued the 
following proclamation : 

" To my Army. 

" The Fatherland to-day solemnly celebrates the day on which, 
a hundred years ago, there was given to it the Emperor William 
the Great, the noble Euler who, in accordance with the Will of 



148 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

Providence, gave an Emperor to the German people, whom he 
led to the unification they longed for. When a hostile attack 
threatened Germany's frontiers and assailed her honour and 
independence, the long-separated peoples of the North and the 
South again came together. Sealed on the battlefields of France 
with streams of the blood of heroes, the brotherhood in arms of 
the German armies became the corner-stone of the new Empire 
and the bond which everlastingly unites the Princes and peoples 
of Germany. Of this unification the splendid monument which 
the love and veneration of the German people to-day dedicates to 
their great Emperor, the Father of the Fatherland, is convincing 
evidence. This festival will remain indelibly engraven on all 
hearts that beat for the honour and welfare of Germany, and 
above all on the hearts of those who followed the victorious 
colours of William the Great and who were privileged to assist 
him in the completion of the work of his life. 

" I will bestow a special honour on this day of rejoicing, inas- 
much as my Army is henceforth to wear the colours of their 
common Fatherland. The badge of unity achieved, the German 
cockade, which by the unanimous resolution of my august Allies 
is at this very hour to be given to their troops also, shall for all 
time be to my Army a visible exhortation to stand firm for the 
glory and greatness of Germany, and to protect it with blood and 
life. 

" Full of gratitude and trust does my eye rest upon my Army, 
for I know that the Army, on which the anxious love of the great 
Emperor was lavished from the years of his youth to the last 
moments of his long life, on which God had showered so many bless- 
ings, and to which he bequeathed as a precious heritage the spirit 
of discipline, obedience, and loyalty, by means of which alone great 
deeds are possible, will ever be mindful of its high mission, and 
that it will fulfil every task entrusted to it. I therefore bestow 
upon it the medal which I have had struck in memory of this 
day. May each man, who is found worthy to wear on his breast 
the effigy of the noble Emperor, emulate his example of genuine 
love of country and devoted fulfilment of duty. Then will 
Germany victoriously overcome all dangers which, by God's will, 
may threaten her in the course of the ages." 



AS UPHOLDER AND PROTECTOR OF EMPIRE 149 

The furtherance of the Imperial idea is best effected by the 
preservation of all that is characteristically German, by the pro- 
tection which the German Emperor affords to German manners 
and German customs. That he is ready to afford this protection, 
if needs be, even where resistance is to be overcome, the Emperor 
proved in his speech of June 5th, 1902, on the occasion of the 
consecration of the restored Marienburg. 

In reply to the toast proposed by Prince Albert, the Grand 
Master of the Order of St. John, the Emperor said : 

" Most Illustrious Grand Master and Honoured Brethren of the 
Order of St. John. 

" To-day sees the Order of St. John assembled at my command 
in the Marienburg by arrangement with his Eoyal Highness my 
uncle, in order that we may welcome with joint hospitality the 
guests whom we have such pleasure in seeing among us here to- 
day. This is the second time that we have assembled together 
since my accession to the throne, and I feel it incumbent on 
me to express to the Order my fullest gratitude and thanks for 
the loyal and diligent work, which it is accomplishing and has 
accomplished in the field allotted to it. I have given expression 
to the measure of my gratitude by granting the Order permission, 
by an Edict issued to his Eoyal Highness, to wear my likeness 
on its dress. On that occasion the meeting was held in the 
apartments in the Sonnenburg, in which the history of the Order 
is centred, and to-day on this memorable spot by the cradle of 
the Teutonic Order. 

" Founded in a foreign land, under a burning sun, to support 
German brothers in distress, side by side with the Order of 
St. John and the Knights of the Temple, its purpose was once 
more to liberate Jerusalem, and once for all to preserve the Holy 
Sepulchre for the Cross. Yet this hope was never realised ; for 
soon after the foundation of the Teutonic Order* Western 
Christendom was compelled to abandon all hope of retaining the 
Holy Land as a territorial possession. 

* The Teutonic Order: a military and religious Order, founded about 1191, to 
help the sick and wounded in the Holy Land. When the Crusades were over, and 
Jerusalem finally lost, the Order moved to Prussia, where the people were still 
heathen. The capital of the Order and residence of the Grand Master, from 1309 
to 1457, was Marienburg, in West Prussia, near Danzig. 



150 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

"Assuredly in those days many a brother of the Order must 
have heaved a sigh of pain, and many a German must have asked 
himself, ' What will now become of us ; what duties must we set 
ourselves to undertake ? ' But I think that this is just where we 
may see the finger of Providence. Not on a foreign soil, where 
the European had not established his home and where the Cross 
had not yet gained a firm footing, but here at home on the border 
of the Empire, did Providence set the Order its task. And how 
has it fulfilled it? A more eloquent tongue than mine has 
described that to us in the church in noble language. Grand 
and noble in all its works and all its plans, both with regard to 
its policy, its campaigns, and its architecture, the Order to some 
extent represents the acme of German efficiency, and all through 
the whole time of the Middle Ages, when the splendid ideals of 
Emperor and Empire quickly faded away and vanished, did the 
German people rejoice in these Brothers and Sons of its race and 
take pride in the noble works of the Order. 

" I have already once taken opportunity in this Burg and on 
this spot to lay stress on the fact that the ancient Marienburg, 
this bulwark of old days in the East, this point of departure of 
the civilisation of the lands lying east of the Vistula, should 
always remain an emblem of the duties that await us Germans. 
And now it has again come to this pass. Polish arrogance will 
encroach on German influence, and I am compelled to call on 
my people to protect its national possessions. And here in the 
Marienburg I declare my expectation that all brethren of the 
Order of St. John will always stand at my service, if I call upon 
them to protect German manners and German customs, and with 
this wish and with the expression of this hope I raise my glass 
to the health of the Most Illustrious Grand Master and to the 
Order of St. John." 

The music then broke into fanfares. 

Prince Albert returned thanks to the Emperor for his words : 
" I beg to express in the name of all the Knights here assembled, 
and all who were unable to attend our festival, our firm con- 
viction that, if your Majesty turn to the Knights of the Order 
and require aught at our hands, we are ready to stand at the 
service of your Majesty with all the powers at our command." 



AS UPHOLDER AND PROTECTOR OF EMPIRE 151 

Scarcely had the cheers for his Majesty died away when the 
Emperor rose to make a second speech, in which he gave his 
greeting to the Knights of the Teutonic Order from Vienna and 
from the Bailey wick of Utrecht, and said : 

" The great, the glorious law which our Redeemer has given to 
mankind, the noble law of brotherly love, unites the Orders, to 
whatever creed they may belong, in the great object of assisting 
suffering humanity to the best of their power, and thereby pro- 
moting the work of the redemption of mankind following the 
example of our Saviour. As then to-day, in this ancient church 
of the Virgin Mary, we have together bowed our knees before the 
Most High, to whom we must all render our account, and under 
whose protection we all stand ; so may the common work of the 
Orders be furthered, be it on the field of battle, be it in the 
hospital, be it in the maintenance of our customs and our manners, 
and the protection of all that is good German, both here and 
across the border." 



THE EMPEROR AND HIGHER EDUCATION 



WHILST the Emperor was still Prince William his parents 
arranged for him and his brother, Prince Henry, to attend 
the Cassel* Gymnasium. Cassel was specially selected because it 
was a place where as was not the case with the metropolis their 
serious studies would not be interfered with by external distrac- 
tions, and, further, because of the excellent reputation the 
Gymnasium at Cassel and its head master, Prof. Dr. Vogt, 
enjoyed. When the Crown Prince and Princess intimated to the 
head master their desire to send their sons to the institution 
which he directed, he replied that he regarded the desire of their 
Eoyal Highnesses as a command, but at the same time he stated 
that he would expect from his future pupils the strict performance 
of the same duties and respect for the same order and discipline 
as was exacted from other pupils. He could not allow any dis- 
tinction. This reply entirely met the views and anticipations of 
the Royal parents, and accordingly, in the autumn of 1874, Prince 
William and Prince Henry were sent to Cassel. 

The report on Prince William made by Privy Councillor Wiese, 
whose duty it was to inspect the Gymnasium, is interesting. 
" It is well known," the report says, " that in the autumn of 
1874 Prince William entered the Lyceum Fridericianum or the 
Gymnasium at Cassel, where he was placed in the Upper Second 

* 1. The German Gymnasium is a classical school with nine classes in three 
divisions arranged thus: Division I., upper classes (Oberprima, Unterprima, Ober- 
secunda), Division II., middle classes (Untersecunda, Obertertia, Untertertia). 
Division III., lower classes (Quarta, Quinta, Sexta). The Progymnasium is a 
gymnasium lacking some of the higher classes and providing a six years' course 
instead of nine. 

2. The Realgymnasium is a gymnasium with a tendency to modern subjects. 
English takes the place of Greek, and more time is given to French and natural 
sciences. The Realprogymnasium corresponds similarly with the progymnasium. 

3. The Realschule is a higher school in which the classical languages are not 
taught ; it has six classes, while the Oberrealschule has nine. Much attention is 
given to modern languages and natural sciences in these schools. (See German 
Higher Schools, by James E. Russell, Ph.D., p. 122). 

152 



THE EMPEROR AND HIGHER EDUCATION 153 

Form, remained for three years, and then, at the beginning of 
1877, passed the Leaving Examination in a most creditable 
manner. In accordance with the explicit orders of the Crown 
Prince and Princess, their son was treated in the same way as his 
fellow-pupils in respect of the demands made by the institution 
on his industry and general capacity." 

On his last tour of inspection, which Wiese undertook in June, 
1875, shortly before his retirement from office, he visited, amongst 
other schools, also the Gymnasium at Cassel. Keferring to his 
intercourse on that journey with the Heir to the Crown of Prussia 
and Germany, he says : 

"Prince William came on horseback every morning from 
Wilhelmshohe, where he resided, and was in his place in his 
class, at that time the Lower First, punctually at seven o'clock. 
By desire of the Emperor the class which the Prince attended 
was limited to twenty-one pupils. So far as his conduct and 
his bearing were concerned I did not find him different from his 
fellow-pupils: in disposition he was modest and unassuming. I 
ascertained that the Prince showed a particular liking for Horace. 
He had voluntarily translated several odes and learnt them by 
heart, and the head master told me that he occasionally brought 
with him to the school ancient coins and illustrations of classical 
objects which he thought would elucidate some passage. He 
evinced the greatest interest in history. He answered all the 
questions which I put to him in examination, and when having 
heard of his excursions I asked him if he had been to Gelnhausen, 
and, as he answered in the affirmative, we made use of the local 
traditions of Barbarossa to enter into an excursus on the history 
of the German Emperors, which he followed not only with delight, 
but also with a knowledge which was not confined to names and 
dates." 

As regards his conduct whilst out of school, another authori- 
tative report states that "The school-fellows of the Prince are 
agreed that, together with youthful high spirits, he always 
showed a spirit of camaraderie, but that, though frank and 
lively in disposition, he never overstepped the bounds of restraint 
imposed on him by his position, and knew how to avoid with tact 
a tone which was unbecoming his rank. The seriousness and 
firmness of his character were displayed even in the fun and 
merriment in which Prince William took part. The demands, too, 
upon his sense of duty and his power of work were even then 
very exacting. In addition to the school tasks there were military 
studies and martial exercises, and, further, in his last year, seeing 






154 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

that the Prince was to leave the Gymnasium on the attainment 
of his majority, the ordinary curriculum was augmented by several 
lessons a week. The Court Theatre was visited but seldom, indeed 
practically only on the birthdays of members of the Koyal 
Family. Proficient, like his father, in all physical exercises, the 
Prince delighted in summer in attending the military bathing 
establishment in the Fulda, where he showed himself to be a 
particularly good swimmer. 

"After Prince William had passed his final examination, a 
farewell luncheon was given in his residence on the 26th of 
January, 1877. The guests included the masters who had given 
instruction to the Prince, the scholars who had passed the Leaving 
Examination, and a few others. At the banquet the Prince de- 
livered a well-worded speech and called for cheers for the masters 
and the school. The masters were decorated with orders. In 
return for an album of seventeen photographs which the Prince's 
fellow-pupils presented to him, each of these pupils received a 
cabinet photograph of their princely school-fellow, in civilian 
attire or in uniform, according to choice. On the back of the 
photograph was the Prince's autograph signature. 

"On the occasion of this luncheon, as well as throughout his 
residence at Cassel, one had an opportunity of admiring the 
Prince's savoir-faire, remarkable in one so young. The position 
which he occupied naturally led to him being brought into 
contact not only with his school-fellows but also with the leading 
military and civil authorities and other prominent personages 
of the town and district, and receiving visits from them." 

What his Eoyal Highness thought in after years of the educa- 
tion he received and the method of instruction, is shown in a 
letter which he wrote to a certain magistrate, who had sent him 
two pamphlets on school reform. 

"I have read What we Suffer From," he says, "with great interest 
and still greater satisfaction. So there has at last appeared one 
who energetically attacks the most fossilised and most mind- 
destroying of all systems. Every word of what you say in this 
book I can endorse. I have fortunately been able to convince 
myself, by two and a half years of experience, what iniquities are 
perpetrated on our young people. How many of the ideas you 
mention coincide entirely with my own private convictions! I 
will mention a few. Of the twenty-one scholars of the First 
Form to which I belonged nineteen wore glasses, and three of 



THE EMPEROR AND HIGHER EDUCATION 155 

these had to put a pince-nez before the spectacles in order to be 
able to see the blackboard ! Homer, that glorious man, about 
whom I have always been enthusiastic, Horace, Demosthenes, 
whose speeches must have filled everyone with delight, how 
were they read ? With enthusiasm for the battle or the arms, 
or the descriptions of nature? Not at all. Under the scalpel of 
the grammatical and fanatical philologist each clause was dissected 
and split up till, to his delight, he had found the bare skeleton, and 
then exhibited for the admiration of all in how many different 
senses av or CTTI or something of that kind could be used as a 
prefix or a suffix. It was enough to make one weep ! The Latin 
and Greek essays raving nonsense! What a waste of labour and 
effort! And what stuff it was, after all. I believe that Horace 
would have given up the ghost for very terror. 

" Away with this tomfoolery ! War to the knife against such 
teaching ! The result of this system is that our youths know 
much more of the syntax and grammar of the dead languages 
than the ' auld Greeks ' themselves. They know by heart all 
the commanders and the battles and the disposition of troops in 
the Punic and Mithradatic Wars, but are very much in the dark 
concerning the Seven Years' War, to say nothing of the much too 
modern wars of '66 and '70, which they have not yet 'had' ! 

"As regards physical development, I also am quite of the 
opinion that the afternoons should be entirely free. Instruction 
in gymnastic exercise should form the recreation of the youngsters. 
Small paths for obstacle races, and quite natural obstacles for 
climbing over, would be of value. And it would be an excellent 
plan if, in all towns where troops are stationed, a non-commissioned 
officer exercised and drilled all the older boys with sticks two or 
three times a week, and instead of the ridiculous class-walks, as 
they are called (with fancy stick, black coat, and cigar), the youths 
were taken for a military march and then did a little field service, 
even though the latter degenerated into romping and horse-play. 

" Our scholars of the First Form are much too blast to take off 
their coats and have a set-to. But what else could be expected 
from such creatures ! Therefore war & outrance against this system, 
and I am quite ready to assist you in your endeavours. I am 
glad to have found a plain speaker who has also grasped the idea." 



156 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

One can well understand from the contents of this letter that 
the Emperor William included Higher Education in the pro- 
gramme of reforms which he drew up after his accession and 
proposed to carry into effect. 

The first such reform related to the education of young soldiers 
in the Military Colleges (Kadettenhauser). The Emperor did 
not, as we know, send his sons to a Gymnasium or Oberrealschule 
(Classical or Higher Modern School), but had them educated in 
the Military College at Plon. 

A Cabinet order of the Emperor, dated Berlin, February 13th, 
1890, and addressed to the Director of Military Education, and 
relating to the instruction in Military Colleges, ran as follows : 

"I regard it as necessary that the education of our cadets, 
while still retaining the general principles laid down by my 
grandfather, his Majesty the Emperor and King, William I., 
who, never resting in his care for the Army, introduced the 
curriculum of the Eealgymnasium, should undergo a further 
remodelling and deepening in the following respects : 

" 1. The aim and end of all education, especially military 
education, is formation of character, based on the due co-ordina- 
tion of physical, intellectual, and religious training and discipline. 
No side of education should be favoured at the expense of 
another. The present curriculum for cadets makes, according to 
my observations, too exacting demands on a large number of 
pupils. Teaching must be simplified by the elimination of all 
unnecessary details, and particularly by a better choice of matter 
to be committed to memory, so that the less talented pupils may, 
with ordinary industry, follow the instruction given without over- 
pressure and may cover the full course of work in the prescribed 
time. What the instruction loses in this way in extent it will 
gain in thoroughness. The teachers must henceforth arrange the 
course of work in all subjects and for all stages in accordance 
with this principle. 

"2. Simplified though it will be, the instruction must at the 
same time be rendered still more efficient, with a view to giving 
the cadets not only the grounding and accomplishments which 
are specially necessary for the military profession, but also an 
intellectual equipment which will enable them some day in the 
army, the great school of the nation, to exert a morally improving 



THE EMPEROR AND HIGHER EDUCATION 157 

and educative influence, or should they later on adopt some other 
career than that of the army, to fill their place with credit. As 
regards religious instruction, the ethical side of it should be given 
the greatest prominence, the chief stress being laid on the pupils 
being educated in the fear of God and in the joyful acceptance of 
the Christian faith, to be exacting towards themselves, and tolerant 
towards others ; and they should be strengthened in the convic- 
tion that loyalty and devotion to Kuler and Fatherland, as well 
as the fulfilment of all duties, rest on God's commandments. The 
instruction in history must aim more than hitherto at cultivating 
a proper comprehension of present-day affairs, and especially of 
the Fatherland's share in them. Accordingly, greater stress is to 
be laid on German history, particularly that of modern and most 
recent times. Ancient and mediaeval history should be so taught 
that, by means of examples drawn from those epochs, the scholars 
may be made more open to learn lessons of heroism and historical 
greatness, and also obtain a good perception of the origin and 
development of our civilisation. 

"Geography, political as well as physical, should begin in the 
lowest class with one's native country, and should, above all, 
supplement and support the instruction in history given in the 
different stages. Another aim of geographical instruction is to 
make the pupil more intimately familiar with the Fatherland and 
its characteristic features, and, further, to give him some under- 
standing and correct idea of foreign countries. The German 
language should form the central point of the entire scheme of 
instruction, and in the acquirement of every subject the pupil 
must be trained to the full use of his mother-tongue. In the 
lessons in German as well as in those in literature, in selecting 
passages for reading, lectures, and essays, side by side with 
classical antiquity, its myths and civilisation, special attention 
should also be given to the Germanic legends and the national 
subjects and writings, and the pupil should also be made familiar 
with the intellectual life of other important civilised nations of 
the present time, by introducing him to individual masterpieces 
of their respective literatures. In giving instruction in modern 
languages, from the first stages upwards, the object to be kept in 
view is to stimulate and teach the cadets to make practical use of 



158 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

these languages. To what extent I think it is imperative that 
the curriculum in force for the Cadet Corps should be changed 
you will soon be informed by the Ministry of War. I have, in 
what I have said above, thrown increased duties on the officials 
concerned in the education and training of the cadets, which will 
make wider demands on their insight and energy. I am, however, 
convinced that, with the aid of your long-proved devotion and your 
faithfulness to duty, you will be able successfully to solve these 
problems in the sense that I desire, and to my entire satisfaction. 
With the suggestions which you have made, as to the manner in 
which young soldiers should be prepared, whilst in the military 
schools, for the educative requirements of their calling, I am in 
full agreement. I desire that this my Imperial Message shall be 
brought to the general notice of the Army, and I have, therefore, 
addressed it to the Ministry of War." 

Towards the end of 1890 Herr von Gossler, the then Prussian 
Minister of Public Worship and Instruction, summoned, at the 
command of the Emperor, forty-five experts to a Conference, 
which was to be held in the Ministry of Worship in Berlin, to 
discuss the question of educational reform in the Secondary 
Schools. The proceedings of the Educational Conference were 
opened by the Minister of Public Instruction on December 4th, 
1890. The Emperor attended its first meeting and delivered the 
following speech : 

" I welcome you with all my heart, and I desire to express my 
thanks to the Minister for having, although overwhelmed with 
all kinds of work, undertaken to preside over this assembly. 

" I am firmly convinced that no one is more able or better 
qualified justly to conduct such an inquiry and to contribute to 
its solution than our Minister of Public Instruction, of whom 
I may positively say and that without exaggeration that the 
German Empire and the Prussian Kingdom have not, for many 
years past, had such a painstaking, devoted, and able Minister in 
charge of his department. I confidently hope that, thanks to 
your co-operation, this work will not only be promoted, but also 
brought to a happy solution. 

After the commencement of the proceedings the Emperor 
made another and longer speech, which ran as follows: 



THE EMPEROR AND HIGHER EDUCATION 159 

"Gentlemen, I have asked leave, first of all, to address a few 
words to you, because I am anxious that you should understand 
from the beginning what I think on this matter. It is certain 
that many things will be discussed without our being able to 
arrive at any definite decision, and I believe that many points 
also will still remain obscure, and I therefore thought it advisable 
not to leave you in doubt as to my views. 

" I would like to remark, in the first place, that this is not a 
political school question, but merely concerns technical and 
scholastic measures which we have to devise in order adequately 
to educate our growing youth to meet present-day requirements, 
the position which our Fatherland occupies in the world, and the 
circumstances of our national life. And I wish to mention one 
thing more. I should be pleased if we called these proceedings 
and deliberations not by the Trench term ' Schulenquete ' (school- 
enquete), but by the German term ' Schulfrage ' (school-question). 

" I have read through the fourteen points on the agenda, and I 
find that they may easily mislead us into formulating some cut- 
and-dried scheme. This I should regret in the highest degree. 
The chief point is that the spirit of the matter should be grasped, 
and not merely its outward form, and therefore I have, on my 
part, drawn up a few questions (I will have them circulated 
amongst you) which I hope will also receive due consideration. 

" First of all, then, ' School hygiene independent of gymnastic 
exercises/ a matter which needs very careful consideration. Then 
there is the question of the ' Eeduction of the curriculum ' (the 
consideration of what should be eliminated), and 'Courses of 
study for the different subjects ' and the ' Method of training in 
school organisation/ the main points of which have already been 
suggested. Further, 'Has the bulk of unnecessary matter been 
eliminated from the examinations ? ' and ' How is overcrowding of 
the curriculum to be avoided for the future?' 'How shall the 
work be supervised when it has been completed ? ' ' Eegular and 
occasional inspection by various higher authorities.' 

"I place these questions on the table of the house. Anyone 
who desires may examine them and further inform himself. The 
whole question, gentlemen, has developed gradually and quite 
spontaneously. You have to deal with a subject which I am 



160 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

firmly convinced you will, by means of the exhaustive treatment 
which you will bestow upon it and the form which you will 
impress upon it, present to the nation as the fruit of your 
mature consideration. 

" There would perhaps have been no necessity for the Cabinet 
Order (that of 1817), to which the Minister had the goodness to 
refer, had the schools occupied that position which they ought 
to do. I should like to say here that, if I am somewhat severe 
in my subsequent remarks, I do not refer to any man personally, 
but to the whole system, to the whole position. If the schools 
had done what is to be expected of them and I can speak to you 
from personal experience, for I attended a gymnasium and know 
how things are managed there they would of their own accord 
have taken up the fight against Social Democracy. The teaching- 
staff would have combined to take the matter firmly in hand 
and have instructed the rising generation in such a manner, that 
young men who are now of the same age as myself, say about 
thirty, would already have formed the material with which I 
could work in the State in order quickly to become master of 
the movement. That, however, has not been the case. The 
last occasion, on which our schools had a decisive influence on 
the mind of our Fatherland and worked for our national develop- 
ment, was in the years 1864 and 1866-70. In the Prussian 
schools the Prussian teachers were the apostles of the idea of 
unity, which they inculcated everywhere. Every scholar who 
left school with his certificate and joined the Army as a one- 
year volunteer, or entered on some other walk of life, was 
agreed on the point that the German Empire should be re- 
established and Alsace-Lorraine regained. But with the year 
1871 this came to an end. The Empire is united: we have 
obtained what we desired, and there the matter ends. 

"But now the schools, taking their stand on the newly- won 
national basis, should have inspired the young people and made 
it clear to them that the new Imperial organisation was formed 
to be preserved. There is, however, nothing of the kind to 
be seen, and consequently, even in the short time which has 
elapsed since the Empire was founded, centrifugal tendencies 
have developed. The position which I occupy enables me to 



THE EMPEROR AND HIGHER EDUCATION 16l 

form an accurate judgment on this point, for all such matters are 
brought to my notice. 

" The cause of this state of affairs is to be found in the educa- 
tion of our children. In what respects is it wanting ? It is, of 
course, wanting in many respects. The chief trouble is that since 
the year 1870 the philologists have sat in the Gymnasia as beati 
possidentes, and have laid the chief stress on the subject-matter, on 
learning and knowing, rather than on the formation of character 
and the requirements of modern life. I know, Doctor Hinzpeter, 
that you are an enthusiastic philologist, but nevertheless you will 
excuse my remarks, for the evil, according to my view, has gone 
so far that it cannot go any further. Less stress has been laid on 
practice than on theory, a fact which is illustrated by the require- 
ments for the examinations. In these, the underlying principle is 
that the pupil must, above everything else, know as many things 
as possible, but whether such knowledge fits him or not for the 
duties of life is quite a minor question. If one discusses this 
matter with one of these gentlemen, and attempts to make it 
clear to him that a youth ought, to some extent at least, to be 
practically equipped for the duties and problems of life, he 
always replies that this is not the business of the school, the 
main province of which is to train the mind, and that if this 
training is thoroughly done, then the youth will by its means 
be able successfully to face the difficulties of life. I, however, 
believe that such a point of view is one by which we cannot 
be guided any longer. 

"Turning now to the schools, and especially to the Gymnasia 
themselves, I may say that I am perfectly well aware that in 
many quarters I am regarded as a fanatical opponent of the 
Gymnasia, and that I have often been played as a trump-card in 
support of other types of school. That, however, is not the case. 
Anyone who has himself attended a Gymnasium, and has looked 
behind the scenes, knows what it is that is wanting. That which 
is wanting more than anything else is a national basis. The 
basis of instruction in the gymnasium must be German. We 
ought to educate young Germans, not young Greeks and Eomans. 
We must break away from the basis which has existed for 
centuries, from the old monkish education of mediaeval times, 

M 



162 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

when Latin, together with a smattering of Greek, was of most 
importance. That is no longer our standard. We must make the 
German language the basis of instruction. German composition 
must be the central point around which everything else revolves. 
If a scholar in his final examination writes a faultless German 
^ 'essay, we can form an opinion from it and estimate the degree 
to which his mind has been educated, and sum up his general 
capacity or the reverse. There are, of course, many who will 
object and say : ' A Latin essay is very serviceable, for it helps 
a person to learn a foreign language/ and I know not what 
besides. Yes, gentlemen, I have gone through the process myself. 
But how is a Latin essay written ? I have known many cases in 
which a scholar has received, say, ' On the whole, satisfactory/ 
for his German essay and 'Good' for his Latin essay; but he 
deserved punishment instead of praise, for it was quite clear that 
he had not written his Latin essay by legitimate means. Of all 
the Latin essays which we wrote not one in twelve was done 
without a ' crib.' Yet such productions were marked ' Good ' ! 
So much for the Latin essay. But when we had to write at the 
Gymnasium an essay on 'Minna von Barnhelm' the result was 
' barely satisfactory.' Therefore, I say, away with the Latin 
essay ; it interferes with us, and it leads to a waste of time which 
might be devoted to German. 

" I should like to see the national spirit fostered still more by 
the teaching of history, geography, and legendary lore. Let us 
begin at home. When we know all the ins and outs of our 
different chambers and rooms, then we can go to the museum and 
look around there. But, above all, we must be well up in the 
history of the Fatherland. When I was at school we had very 
cloudy ideas on the Great Elector; the Seven Years' War was 
beyond our ken altogether; and history ended with the French 
Revolution at the close of last century. The Wars of Liberation, 
which are most important for the young citizen, were not touched, 
and it was only through the very interesting supplementary 
lectures given by Dr. Hinzpeter that, thank God, I was able 
to learn something of these things. But that is precisely where 
the punctum saliens lies. Why are so many of our young men 
led astray ? Why do so many reformers of the world make their 



THE EMPEROR AND HIGHER EDUCATION 163 

appearance with their incoherent, confused theories ? Why is it 
that there is always so much grumbling at our Government, and 
why are we so often referred to foreign countries for an example? 
Because young men do not know how our conditions have 
developed, and, further, that they are but the outcome of the era 
of the French Kevolution. And therefore I am firmly convinced 
that, if we make clear to our young folk the main points of the 
transition from the French Kevolution to the nineteenth century 
in a simple, objective manner, they will come to an understanding 
of present-day questions very different from that which they have 
hitherto had. They are then in a position to improve, and to 
enlarge their knowledge by means of the supplementary lectures 
which they can attend at the University. 

" A consideration of the hours during which our young people 
work shows that it is absolutely necessary that the number of 
hours of study should be reduced. Dr. Hinzpeter will remember 
that at the time when I attended the Cassel Gymnasium the first 
outcry was raised by the parents and families of the scholars. 
Inquiries were therefore made by the Government. We were 
obliged every morning to give to the head master slips of paper 
on which were written the number of hours we had spent in pre- 
paring at home the lessons for the following day. The figures 
which I will give refer only to the First Form. Now, gentle- 
men, ' these records, which were quite reliable and in my case 
Dr. Hinzpeter was able to check them showed that each scholar 
spent from five and a half to six and a half or seven hours on 
his home work. This was for boys going in for the Leaving 
Certificate Examination. If you add to them the six hours spent 
in school and the two hours for meals you will see what remained 
of the day. If it had not been that I had occasion to ride in and 
out and otherwise move about in the open air, I should not have 
known what the outside world was like. Such hours of work as 
those could not, of course, be imposed permanently on young 
people. My belief is that there must be thorough reform from 
top to bottom, and that the strain must be relaxed. It does not 
do. We must not bend the bow too tight and keep it on the 
stretch. We must now make things easier. We have already 
gone beyond the extreme limit. The schools have over-produced, 



164 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

ihtfcA'Si 

and, to my mind, have turned out too many highly educated 
men, more than the nation requires and more than the people can 
support. That saying of Prince Bismarck's is quite correct ; the 
proletariat is made up of people who have passed higher examina- 
tions. The so-called * Hunger candidates/ especially the journalists, 
are mostly old Gymnasium boys down on their luck. They are a 
danger to us. This surplus quantity, which is already excessive, 
has made the country like a sodden field that can absorb no more 
water. It must be redressed. I will therefore no longer license 
a Gymnasium which cannot clearly show its claim to existence 
and its necessity. 

" The question is, then, how can we best meet people's wishes 
with regard to classical education, with regard to modern education, 
and with regard to the privilege of the one year service in the 
Army. I take it that the matter can be settled quite simply if we 
will put a clear interpretation on our previous views, and take a 
radical step by saying: Classical schools (Gymnasia) with classical 
education, a second class of school with modern education, but no 
modern-classical schools (Eealgymnasia). The Eealgymnasia are 
only hybrid institutions; they only provide a hybrid education, 
and the net result is an incomplete preparation for future life. 

" Not without just cause do the Headmasters of the Gymnasia 
complain of the monstrous dead weight of scholars that they have 
to drag along, scholars who never come up for examination, but 
merely want to gain the privilege of serving as one year volunteers. 
Well, this difficulty can be simply overcome by inserting an 
examination at the stage at which the one year volunteer thinks 
of leaving, and besides this, making this privilege dependent upon 
the possession of a leaving certificate from the Eealschule (modern 
school) in cases where the scholar attends a Eealschule. We 
shall then very quickly see the whole troop of candidates for 
the privilege of serving one year in the army flocking from the 
Gymnasia to the Eealschule; for when they have gone through 
the course at the Eealschule they have all they require. 

"To this I add yet another point to which I have already 
referred : it is this. The relief of the overcrowded curriculum is 
only possible if we simplify the programme of the examinations. 

" Let us take grammar altogether out of the final examination, 



THE EMPEROR AND HIGHER EDUCATION 165 

and insert it one or two classes lower. Introduce at this stage 
an examination, a purely grammatical examination, and then you 
can submit the youth to as severe a test as you may deem 
desirable, and you can then combine with this examination the 
1 volunteer ' examination, and, in the case of those who intend to 
become officers, the examination for a commission in the Army, so 
that they have no further examination to pass. When the exam- 
inations have been modified in this respect, and the Gymnasia 
thus relieved, then will the momentum that has been lost in the 
school, especially in the Gymnasium, be recovered, I mean educa- 
tion proper, the formation of character. It is impossible, with 
the best will in the world, to carry out this branch of education 
when thirty boys are in one class and have to master such an 
amount of work, and when, in addition as is often the case the 
teacher is a young man whose own character is not yet fully 
formed. I should like to mention here a saying of Dr. Hinzpeter's 
'He who would educate must himself be educated.' It can- 
not be said that this is universally true of the great body of 
teachers. 

"To make education possible, the classes must be relieved by 
reducing the number of scholars. This will be effected in the 
way I have just described. 

" Then we must do away with the idea that a teacher's whole 
duty is to give so many lessons every day, and that when this 
task is accomplished his work is done. Since the school takes 
our youth away from home for so long a time as is actually the 
case, then it must accept the responsibility of educating him in 
every respect. Form the minds of the young, and then we shall 
have different men leaving school. Then, also, we must abandon 
the principle that knowledge, not life, is the most important point 
to be considered. Our young people ought to be trained to meet 
the practical needs of modern life. 

"The statistical returns of the spread of certain diseases, 
especially short-sightedness, among the pupils are truly alarming, 
but the figures for several other diseases are wanting. Consider 
what a generation is growing up for the defence of our country ! 
I look for soldiers. We want vigorous men who will also be intel- 
lectual leaders and servants of the Fatherland. The great mass of 



166 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

short-sighted people is mostly good for nothing, for how can a man 
who has not the proper use of his eyes be expected to accomplish 
much in later life? In the First Form the number of short- 
sighted pupils is in some cases as high as 74 per cent. I can state 
from personal experience that despite the fact that at Cassel we 
had the use of a good-sized room the teachers' conference room 
which was splendidly lighted from one side and well ventilated, 
in accordance with the wish of my mother nineteen of the twenty- 
one pupils wore spectacles and three of these were unable to see 
as far as the blackboard even when they had their glasses on. 
These things condemn themselves and must be remedied. It is, 
therefore, very urgent that the question of hygiene should be 
taken up in the training colleges for teachers. It should be obli- 
gatory for teachers to go through a course of instruction in this 
subject, with the further condition that every teacher whose 
health permitted must be proficient in gymnastic exercises and 
practise them every day. 

" Gentlemen, those are in general the principles which I wished 
to point out to you. I am deeply interested in them, and I can 
only assure you of this : the voluminous communications, petitions, 
and requests which I have received from parents though we 
parents were told last year by my esteemed friend Dr. Hinzpeter 
that we had no voice in the education of our children render it 
my duty, as universal father of the country, to declare that this 
shall go no further. Gentlemen, people ought not look at the 
world through spectacles, but with their own eyes, and should 
find pleasure in everything around them their Fatherland and 
its institutions. You are now called upon to assist in this work." 

The concluding meeting of the Conference took place on the 
17th of December, 1890, on which occasion the Emperor spoke 
as follows: 

"At the opening of the Conference I did not entertain the 
least doubt as to the course which it would pursue and the 
success which would attend its efforts, and to-day, at the con- 
clusion of your deliberations, I express my full appreciation of 
the fact that, as the outcome of strenuous effort and free exchange 
of opinions and ideas, you have arrived at the conclusions to which 



THE EMPEROR AND HIGHER EDUCATION 167 

I pointed the way and have adopted and pursued the line of 
thought I suggested to you. Before we close the Conference, 
however, I desire to discuss a few more points in which you may 
be interested. 

" You were surprised, I am told, that in my opening address I 
made no particular reference to religion. I was under the impres- 
sion that my views and thoughts regarding religion, that is, the 
relation of every man to God, what they are and how sacred and 
holy they are to me, were as clear as the sun, and that everyone 
in the country was familiar with them. It goes without saying 
that I will, as King of Prussia, as well as summus episcopus of 
my Church, make it my most sacred duty to take every care that 
the religious sentiments and the Christian spirit are fostered and 
increased in the schools. May the school respect and revere 
the Church, and may the Church in its turn assist the school and 
facilitate the further accomplishment of its tasks. Then we shall 
be able to educate our young people up to the requirements of 
our modern national life. I think I have said quite enough on 
that point. 

"I completely approve of everything you are agreed upon. 
There is, however, one point which is not as yet quite settled, and 
that is the question of the final examination. I hope that later 
on you will give your opinion as to the views and suggestions of 
the Minister of Public Instruction. 

" We find ourselves, gentlemen, at a turning-point in time. The 
present century is passing away, and we shall soon enter into a 
new one. It has always been the privilege of my House I mean 
my ancestors have always shown that by constantly feeling the 
pulse of the time they were able to anticipate the future course 
of events. Consequently, they remained at the head of the 
movements which they had resolved to guide and lead on to new 
aims. I believe that I have rightly understood the aims of the 
new spirit and of the century which is now drawing to a close, 
and I am resolved, as I was in the case of Social Kef or m, to 
follow modern tendencies in the matter of the education of the 
rising generations, for if this is not done now we shall be com- 
pelled to do it in twenty years time. It must therefore fill all of 
you with feelings of special satisfaction and gratification that you 



168 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

were selected to lay down the fundamental principles of the 
system to be adopted and to work with me and to open out 
for me the new paths along which we will guide our youths in 
the future. And I am firmly convinced that the blessings of 
thousands of mothers will be called down on the head of every 
one of you who have participated in these deliberations. My 
thanks are due to you all. I do not except anyone, no matter 
whether you have worked entirely in keeping with my own views, 
or whether, after a severe struggle, you have sacrificed preconceived 
opinions and have given way on those points which you thought 
you were justified in advocating. May it in the future be a satis- 
faction to you that in making these sacrifices you contributed 
materially to the success of this work. 

"I should like, though as a rule I do not care about reading 
other people's compositions aloud, to call your attention to an 
article which I consider particularly noteworthy as well as well- 
written, for it illustrates in every respect the views which were 
in my mind when I addressed you about fourteen days ago. I 
should therefore like to read out to you the chief points dwelt on 
in the article. It was published in the Hanover Courier in its 
issue of the 14th of this month. Under the heading ' Misunder- 
standings ' appeared the following paragraph : ' Anyone who 
fully realises the striking contrast between past and present will 
be penetrated with the conviction that the new National System 
ought to be preserved, and that it is a task worthy of the full 
power of a man to assist in the maintenance and peaceful 
development of this system. It is clear that the teacher must be 
allowed the greatest freedom in explaining the circumstances of 
an unhappy past; but it is equally obvious that only he who 
faithfully and with the fullest conviction supports the Monarchy 
and the Constitution should be allowed to teach our young people. 
An adherent of Eadical dreams of an Utopia is no more fit to 
be employed as an educator of young people than in the offices of 
the Government. The teacher is, as regards both his privileges 
and his duties, first of all a servant of the State, and what is 
more, of the State as at present constituted. If he strenuously 
acts up to his position and his duties, he will have accomplished, 
to a large extent at least, what is expected of him, and will render 



THE EMPEROR AND HIGHER EDUCATION 169 

our youth strong to resist all revolutionary tendencies. Other 
important duties which attach to his position, such as the careful 
cultivation of character and of independent thought and judgment, 
must remain undiscussed for the time being, and so also must 
the question as to how far our teachers have hitherto fulfilled the 
duties here described. We will go into these matters on another 
occasion. But no one can seriously hold the opinion that the 
teachings of Social Democratic theories should be discussed in 
school, or even that they should be refuted by authoritative 
statements or in free discussion. He who has attained to a clear 
understanding of the organisation of the State and of the origin 
and progress of our State will be able to detect the absurd, the 
detestable, and the dangerous character of Social Democratic 
theory and practice, and he will regard it as his duty manfully 
to take his place in the ranks of those who defend our State against 
hostile attacks, whether from within or from without. It is one 
of the highest duties of the Government to gain the permanent 
sympathies of all moderate and sensible men by a wise spirit of 
conciliation in all matters that concern the public welfare and 
freedom. 

"'Another matter of complaint which, also, is based on mis- 
conceptions, is that our whole classical education is threatened 
with destruction. We believe that those who so vehemently 
declare these fears are not true friends of that education; and 
they certainly cannot be spared the reproach of having a quite 
superficial knowledge of what is meant by classical education.' 

"Gentlemen, the man who wrote this article understood 
my ideas, and I am grateful to him that he has taken pains to 
popularise them. 

" I should like to mention one word more regarding our places 
of military education the Cadet Schools. These colleges were 
referred to in this meeting rather as models, and, indeed, it was 
suggested that the system which prevails in them should be 
adopted in the High Schools. 

" Gentlemen, the Cadet Corps is an institution sui generis ; it is 
intended for a special purpose it exists, as it were, for itself, and 
stands under my immediate supervision. Consequently, it does 
not concern us here at all. Before I conclude I should like to 



170 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

summarise my views, and in doing so I may refer to another 
maxim of my House, which was quoted to-day by a prominent 
member of this conference : ' Suum cuique,' which means, ' to 
everyone what is due to him/ and not 'the same to all.' And 
that is precisely the principle by which we were guided in our 
present deliberations, as well as in the conclusions you have 
arrived at. Hitherto, if I may say so, our youths were led from 
Thermopylae vid Cannae to Kossbach and Vionville ; but I would 
lead them from Sedan and Gravelotte vid Leuthen and Kossbach 
to Mantinea and Thermopylae. I think this is just the right way 
along which we ought to guide our youths. 

" And now, gentlemen, pray accept my most cordial thanks, as 
well as my grateful acknowledgment of all that you have so far 
accomplished. I have embodied my thoughts and commands for 
the further development of this matter, in which we all take such 
a deep interest, in a Cabinet Order, to which I should like to ask 
you gentlemen to listen." 

Thereupon Privy Councillor von Lucanus read the following 
Cabinet Order : 

"To the Minister of Ecclesiastical Affairs, Instruction, and 
Medical Affairs: 

" It filled me with joy and gratification to observe the earnest- 
ness of purpose and the devotion to duty with which all who have 
participated in the deliberations of the Educational Conference 
have contributed to the solution of this problem, which is so 
highly important from the national point of view and in which I 
take so deep an interest. I cannot, therefore, refrain from express- 
ing to all members of the Conference my sincere gratitude and my 
Eoyal thanks. I am especially indebted to you for the skilful 
and vigorous manner in which you have conducted the proceedings, 
and I rejoice to be able to declare that as a result of your de- 
liberations the hopes which I entertained at the opening of the 
Conference have been brought appreciably nearer to realisation. 

"In order to be able to draw up as soon as possible definite 
plans for putting into practice reforms based on the mass of 
valuable material which we have before us, I request you to 
submit to me without delay suggestions for the formation of a 



THE EMPEROR AND HIGHER EDUCATION 171 

Committee, which should consist of five or seven members, to 
whom should be entrusted the work : (1) Of sifting the material, 
of closely examining it, and of reporting upon it within the 
shortest time possible; and (2) Of inspecting certain institutions 
of high reputation in Prussia and in other of the Federal States 
in order to supplement the material already acquired on the 
practical side. 

"I entertain the hope that these preliminary measures will 
enable you to draw up and place before me a plan for the carrying 
out of the important reforms of higher education and to make 
the necessary financial estimates within such time, as will allow 
of the new proposals being introduced on the 1st of April, 1892. 

" I desire you to report to me from month to month on the 
progress of this matter. There is another important point which 
I will refer to. I do not overlook the fact that the new reforms, 
if carried into effect, will make greater demands on the time 
and responsibility of the whole of the teaching-staffs. I trust 
to their sense of duty as well as to their patriotism to apply 
themselves to their new tasks with loyalty and devotion ; and I 
deem it to be imperative that their position in general, their 
social status and their remuneration, shall be placed on a footing 
corresponding with their increased responsibilities. I expect that 
you will give your special attention to this matter and report on 
it to me." 

The encouragement which the Emperor has given to the promo- 
tion of physical exercises in the Secondary Schools has borne 
abundant fruit. Kowing, in particular, has been practised as- 
siduously by the students of the higher institutions in Berlin. 
Several untoward events, however, having occurred, the Emperor 
issued the following order to the Minister of Public Instruction 
and the Minister of Finance : 

" With the object of ensuring an increased vogue of the health- 
giving exercise of rowing among the scholars of our Secondary 
Schools by placing the sport in Berlin under proper rules and 
regulations, I hereby ordain that in future the following rules 
must be observed : (1) the students are to be systematically kept 
apart from rowing clubs of adults, (2) the exercise is to be con- 
trolled by an experienced coach and a qualified physician, (3) the 



172 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

public are not to witness the boat races, but specially invited 
relatives and friends of the students of the different colleges may 
be invited to do so, (4) special racing-craft are not to be used, 
and in racing for prizes the course must not exceed twelve 
hundred metres, (5) only students of the two highest forms are 
to take part in the races. In order that these regulations may be 
carried into effect, I will place at your disposal a sum of 35,000 
marks from my Privy Purse, to be used for the purpose of pro- 
viding a course for rowing and a boat-house, and rowing appliances 
for all the school boat clubs in Berlin. I will also offer, in place 
of the perpetual challenge trophies hitherto competed for, two 
trophies for the winners in the Annual Boat Kace; one for the 
best actual speed attained, the other for the best performance 
of a school in respect to the general training of the crew. These 
prizes are to be the permanent property of the successful insti- 
tutions." 

The Emperor is also much interested in the promotion of 
technical sciences in general. This is shown to mention only one 
instance by his vesting in the Prussian Technical High Schools 
the right of conferring the Degree of Doctor of Engineering. 
At the end-of-the-century celebrations at the Technical High 
School of Charlottenburg, the Principal, Professor Eiedler, read 
aloud a report of the words which the Emperor had addressed to 
the representatives of the Technical High Schools of Prussia 
when they returned him thanks for granting them the right of 
conferring degrees : 

" It gave me great satisfaction to confer honour on the Technical 
High Schools. You know that very great opposition had to be 
encountered. It is now overcome. I wished to bring the 
Technical High Schools to the forefront, for they have important 
problems to solve, not only of a technical but also of a social 
character. Up to the present, however, they have not been solved 
so successfully as I could wish. It is within your power to 
exercise great influence in many ways on our social conditions, 
because your close connection with work and workers and indus- 
tries naturally gives you abundant opportunities for stimulating 
and influencing others. Though your efforts have unfortunately 
hitherto ended in complete failure so far as their influence on 



THE EMPEROR AND HIGHER EDUCATION 173 

social problems goes, you are destined to accomplish a great work 
in the future. I count upon the Technical High Schools ! 

" I regard Social Democracy as a passing phase which will wear 
itself out; but you must make clear to your pupils what are 
the social duties which they owe the working men, and not lose 
sight of the great general problems. I rely upon you. There 
will be no lack of effort or of appreciation. Our technical educa- 
tion has already achieved great successes. A great deal of 
technical knowledge is needed throughout the country. How 
great a demand for technical experts there is for laying cables 
and in the Colonies ! German technical ability is already very 
highly esteemed. Families of position who once seemed to hold 
aloof now send their sons to study technology, and I hope that 
this tendency will increase. In foreign countries, also, your 
reputation is great, and, indeed, foreigners speak with the greatest 
enthusiasm of the technical education which some of them received 
in your High School. It is well that you should attract foreigners 
also. That creates respect for our work. Even in England I have 
always met with the most genuine respect for German technical 
ability, and I have recently in that country again had evidence 
of how much our technical education and achievements are appre- 
ciated. Devote yourselves, therefore, with full energy to the great 
economic and social problems which confront you." 

On the 19th of October, 1899, the Technical High School of 
Charlottenburg celebrated its centenary. The Emperor was 
present and said : 

" On this day of celebration I very well remember the occasion, 
fifteen years ago, when my grandfather honoured this building 
with his presence. If the Monarch, whose memory we all revere, 
then expressed the hope that the intellectual life which would 
develop in the building would be as splendid as the internal and 
external decorations which had been lavished upon it, and if he 
gave special expression to the wish that the institution would at 
all times fulfil its duties brilliantly and occupy a fitting position 
among the High Schools, then I am able to-day to declare with 
satisfaction that his hope and his wish for the progress of the 
institution which may be regarded as his own creation have so 



174 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

far been splendidly fulfilled, and that this Technical High School 
can now, in company with the others, claim to stand on an equality 
with the Universities, the highest seats of learning in the country. 
It is a great pleasure to me to give evidence of my approval of 
this by bestowing upon the Technical High Schools the privilege 
of conferring special scientific degrees which will be in keeping 
with their special character. That in the furtherance of the 
scientific work of the High Schools the intimate connection of 
theory with practice will not be neglected, and that the Technical 
High Schools will aim at constantly deriving new life and support 
from the stimulating contact with actual life, may the statues of 
the two men* which will henceforth adorn the front of this 
building serve as tokens. 

" So long as German technical science preserves the memory of 
these men and strives to emulate the example which they set, it 
will hold its own with honour in the competition with other 
nations. There is no conflict of interest between the Technical 
High School and the other superior seats of learning, and there 
is no other rivalry than that each of them and each of their 
members should fully carry out the duties which life and science 
lay upon them, bearing in mind Goethe's words : 

" ' Let none be equal to other, but all to the highest be equal. 

How shall this be ? Let each strive to perfection himself.' 

"If the Technical High Schools, which have obtained such 
splendid results in the course of the century now drawing to a 
close, remain faithful to this truth, then the coming century will 
find them so equipped that they will be able to fulfil the task 
which the progressive development of the civilisation of the 
people demands of technical science in an ever-increasing degree. 
Marvellous have been the achievements of technical science in 
our day, but they were only possible because the Creator of 
Heaven and Earth has conferred on man the capacity and the 
desire to penetrate ever more deeply into the mysteries of His 
work, and to become better acquainted with the forces and 
the laws of nature in order to press them into the service 
of mankind. As is the case with every other true science, 

* Krupp and Siemens. 



THE EMPEROR AND HIGHER EDUCATION 175 

technical science always leads back to the origin of all things, 
the Almighty Creator, and before Him we must bow ourselves in 
humble thanks. Only by working on this basis, on which the late 
Emperor, William the Great, lived and worked, can the efforts of 
our sciences be rewarded by lasting success. Teachers and pupils, 
hold firmly to this truth, and then your work will not fail to 
receive God's blessing. This is my wish which accompanies the 
institution into the new century." 

After the discussion on the reform of Secondary Education, 
which was held for the second time in the course of the year 
1900 at the instance of the Emperor, his Majesty on November 
26th, 1900, issued the following Cabinet Order to Dr. Studt, the 
Minister of Ecclesiastical Affairs and Instruction : 

"With reference to the Eeport of the 20th November of this 
year, I express my approval and consent that the reform of Second- 
ary Schools, which was instituted by me in the year 1892, should 
be carried on a step further in the following respects : 

" (1) With reference to the privileges enjoyed by these institu- 
tions, we must start from the assumption that the Gymnasium, 
the Eealgymnasium, and the Oberrealschule are to be regarded 
as on a footing of absolute equality with respect to the general 
intellectual training supplied, and that it is only indispensable to 
supplement the course of instruction to the extent that many 
studies and many professions require special preliminary know- 
ledge, the imparting of which is not part of the duty of every 
institution, or, at any rate, not to the same extent. 

" In accordance with this view, we must take into consideration 
the advisability of extending the privileges enjoyed by the more 
modern type of school. At the same time, the best way has been 
pointed out to improve the status and the attendance in these 
institutions, and in this way to work in the direction of the greater 
popularisation of modern studies. 

" (2) By thus recognising in principle the equality of the three 
kinds of Secondary School, we are enabled to lay greater stress on 
the special characteristics of each, but with regard to this point I 
will not offer any objection to the corresponding strengthening of 
Latin in the curriculum of the Gymnasia and the Eealgymnasia, 



176 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

but I do lay special stress, considering the great importance which 
is now attached to the knowledge of English, on the advisability 
of this language being taught in a more thorough-going fashion in 
our Gymnasia. Therefore, side by side with Greek, English should 
everywhere be allowed as an alternative subject in all classes below 
the lower second form, and besides this, in the three upper classes 
of the Gymnasia, wherever local circumstances render it advisable 
to make English a compulsory subject in the place of French, 
still retaining the latter, however, as an optional subject. It also 
appears to me desirable that in the curriculum of the Oberreal- 
schule, if room can be found for it in the Time Table, Geography 
should receive a greater amount of attention. 

" (3) Since the year 1892, unmistakable progress has been made 
in several directions in scholastic affairs. But there is still room 
for further advance. And in particular Headmasters, bearing in 
mind the maxim multum, non multa, will to an increased extent 
have regard to the fact that an equally high level of performance 
is not to be exacted for all branches of study, but that the most 
important of them, having regard to the character of the different 
institutions, must be brought forward more prominently and 
studied more deeply. 

" In teaching Greek, the utmost emphasis must be laid on the 
necessity of disregarding useless minutiae, and special care must 
be taken that not merely the ethical conceptions of the Greeks, 
but also the intimate connection between the ancient world and 
modern civilisation, should receive due attention. 

" In modern languages, special emphasis is to be laid upon skill 
in speaking and the power to understand current writers. 

" In teaching History, too, lacunae still make themselves felt : for 
example, the neglect of important sections of ancient history and 
the insufficient detail with which German history during the nine- 
teenth century is treated, with special reference to its ennobling 
memories and the great achievements on behalf of our Fatherland. 

" With regard to Geography, it is much to be desired that not 
only in the Gymnasia, but also in the Kealgymnasia, the teaching 
of this subject should be in the hands of specialists. 

" In teaching Natural Sciences, larger space must be devoted to 
the underlying theories and to experimental work, and the teaching 



THE EMPEROR AND HIGHER EDUCATION 177 

must be made more alive by more frequent excursions. In Physics 
and Chemistry the Applied and Technical sides are not to be over- 
looked. 

"With regard to the teaching of Drawing, it may be said in 
general that the capacity of delineating by a rapid sketch the 
object seen deserves attention, and in the Gymnasia it is desirable 
to so arrange the work that those scholars in particular who 
propose to devote themselves to technological subjects, natural 
sciences, mathematics, or medicine, may make diligent use of the 
optional drawing lessons. 

"In addition to the Physical Exercises, which must be more 
adequately practised, in drawing up the Time Table greater 
attention must be given to Hygiene, especially by securing more 
appropriate times and material lengthening of the hitherto in- 
adequate intervals for recreation. 

" (4) Seeing that the Final Examination has not realised what 
was expected of it at its introduction, and in particular has rather 
stimulated than checked the excessive tendency towards taking 
University Courses, it is to be abolished as soon as possible. 

" (5) The organisation of schools, after the model prevailing at 
Altona* and Frankfort, has, so far as our present experience goes, 
on the whole maintained its ground in places where it was adopted. 
By affording a basis, which also includes the Eealschule, it gives 
us at the same time a social advantage which must not be under- 
valued. I should like, therefore, to see this experiment not merely 
continued in an effective manner, but also tried on a wider basis 
where existing conditions are favourable. I confidently hope that 
the measures to be hereafter adopted, for the due execution of 
which I rely on the ever proved sense of duty and intelligent 
devotion of our teachers, will confer a blessing on our Higher 
Schools, and will, to some extent, help to bring about a soothing 
and conciliating adjustment of the differences between the repre- 
sentatives of the classical and the modern tendencies in education.' 

* In 1878 a new type of school the Reform School (Reform-schule) was intro- 
duced at Altona, and the same plan was adopted at Frankfurt-am-Main in 1892. 
The principle of the Reform School is "comparatively short and intensive courses." 
In the first three years French is the only language taught ; Latin is introduced in 
the fourth year in the Realgymnasmm, and English in the Realschule. See 
Russell's German Higher Schools, p. 400. 

N 



THE EMPEROR IN RELATION TO 
ART AND SCIENCE. 



TTNDOUBTEDLY the Emperor William II. has a talent for 
U painting and considerable artistic tastes inherited from his late 
mother, who shared these talents with all her sisters. The Em- 
press Frederick, as is shown by pictures in existence, was herself 
a very skilful painter, and also took care that the innate capacity 
of her children, especially of the Emperor, should be developed 
by systematic training. In the year 1886 an oil-painting, re- 
presenting a large seascape, was exhibited at the Berlin Art 
Exhibition. In the background of the picture rose lofty ranges 
of hills, in the middle of which a snow-clad, flat-topped mountain 
is lost in the clouds. In the middle of the bay lying at the foot 
of this flat-topped mountain on a calm sea is a stately warship 
busy at gunnery practice. To the left of the warship are a few 
sailing vessels. This picture was signed "William, Prince of 
Prussia," and was the work of the present Emperor. But the 
Emperor is dexterous, not merely in wielding the brush, but also 
in the application of the drawing pencil. When architectural 
drawings are submitted to him, he frequently marks with quick, 
decided strokes on the edge of the drawing suggestions for some 
alteration in the plan. It is well known that he has often 
suggested pictures to different artists; for instance, the painter 
Knackfuss, and historical pictures have been frequently produced 
by the painter Eochling from direct sketches by the Emperor. 
The great armed archangel, which was erected on the battlefield 
of St. Privat in memory of the First Regiment of Foot Guards, 
was executed by the sculptor Schott after a sketch by the 
Emperor, and also numerous figureheads on his ships of war 
have been modelled after sketches by the Emperor ; for instance, 
the picture of a galleon on the armoured cruiser Furst Bismarck. 

But, above all, the Emperor is interested in the theatre, because 
he regards the stage as one of the most valuable means of in- 
structing the people and of propagating certain ideas. It is well 

178 



IN RELATION TO ART AND SCIENCE 179 

known that both Wildenbruch and Joseph Lauff have written 
pieces in accordance with special notes, or at the suggestion of 
the Emperor. Also L'Arronge has collaborated with the Emperor 
in the rearrangement of Lortzing's opera, Regina. The artists 
with whom the Emperor comes in contact are loud in praise of 
his talent for stage management, his ingenuity in arranging 
scenes, his talent in working out stage effects, and, above all, of 
his extraordinary affability towards the artists who execute his 
ideas. 

Concerning his personal interviews with the German Emperor, 
Baron von Berger, the present manager of the German Theatre 
at Hamburg, related : 

" Both at Vienna and in Wiesbaden I had the pleasure of being 
privileged on several occasions to have lengthy conversations 
with the Emperor William II. on art and the drama. Now if 
you imagine that on the occasion of these conversations you are 
expected to keep your real views out of sight, you are greatly 
mistaken. Rarely in my life have I been brought into contact 
with such a determined, active, and living personality. If the 
Emperor William II. enters into a conversation with anyone, he 
must and will get at the real opinion of the man he is talking to. 

" At any rate, that is the characteristic course the conversation 
takes, and if a man has not nerves of iron he generally collapses 
and becomes incoherent or foolish. Directly that moment arrives 
the Emperor breaks off the conversation. As a rule he confines 
himself to asking questions. Very seldom does he allow free play 
to his own views, but when he does do so he reveals an astonish- 
ing delicacy of feeling, combined with an incisive, aphoristic 
manner of expressing himself. But most of all do I admire 
the Emperor's way of putting questions. In these questions he 
reveals an exceptional talent for generalship. With each fresh 
question he at once wins a further victory over the man he is 
questioning. First of all he feels where the land lies. A few 
answers and he has got his bearings. Then follows question after 
question ; he constantly gets nearer and nearer to the point, and 
ends by completely exhausting the subject. In these questions 
he displays a high degree of innate intelligence, and uncommonly 
fine instinct for every subject. Only a man who grasps an idea 
as quick as lightning can ask such exact, such rapid, and such 
sure questions. No single question is unnecessary. He energetic- 
ally steers direct to the goal. He must learn everything that 
one knows about the matter. Then the amount of reading the 
Emperor possesses is as astonishing. From many of his remarks 



180 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

I could see that he is well acquainted with modern literature, 
and that he is extremely well up in all the new works that 
appear. In this connection his capacity for very rapid reading 
stands him in good stead. He reads, so to speak, by pages; merely 
skimming through a book for the first time, he grasps the gist 
of it with astonishing certainty. Is modern German literature 
entirely to his taste? It would be hard to say, but I scarcely 
think that it could satisfy him. 

"The Emperor looks upon art as the most effective means of 
educating the people. Does modern art in his eyes effect this 
purpose? I doubt it. Besides this, I think I am right in 
assuming that modern German dramatic literature cannot meet 
with the approval of the Emperor if only because he likes great 
and powerful actions and events of world-wide importance. Can 
an Emperor who stands at the head of the great German Empire, 
and has grown up amid stirring historical events, regard art in 
any other way ? I scarcely believe it. How great his love for 
art is, is proved by his impulsive suggestions and his own 
attempts, and in the case of an Emperor it is impossible to set 
too high a value on this attitude. His dramatic ideas which he 
has executed by Lauff prove that he has a good eye for the 
dramatic possibilities of events in history. If the works of the 
poet Lauff are to some extent failures, Lauff alone can be held 
responsible for that. He is not powerful enough to be able to 
realise the powerful ideas of the German Emperor. The Emperor 
prefers grandeur, characters of world-wide significance, display, 
and abounding beauty in art. And what true artistic man does 
not share this feeling ? We all long for such a one. When will 
the poet come ? " 

Some years ago the music-director Muck was conducting a 
Court Concert at Potsdam. The Emperor had that evening expressed 
his intention of personally handing to Herr Muck the Order of 
the Ked Eagle which he had conferred upon him, and asked his 
Chief Court Marshal, Count von Eulenburg, to bring him the 
Insignia of the Order. Count von Eulenburg told the Emperor 
in reply that he was not able to procure an Order in Potsdam 
at a moment's notice. Thereupon the Emperor replied, " Go and 
find some aide-de-camp who is wearing the Order of the Red 
Eagle." At the Emperor's command the Order was immediately 
taken from an aide-de-camp and handed to the Emperor who, in 
the most amiable manner, delivered it to music-director Muck with 
the words, " I have first of all had it taken from an aide-de-camp's 
coat, for I was quite anxious to hand you this Order in person." 



IN RELATION TO ART AND SCIENCE 181 

On the day after the celebration of the tenth anniversary of 
his accession in the year 1898, the Emperor summoned the 
members of the Berlin Court Theatre to the Concert Hall of the 
Koyal Opera House, and made the following speech to them : 

" I have requested you to assemble here because I wished you to 
take some part in to-day's festival, like all the others who have 
come to-day to join us in its celebration. When I came to the 
throne ten years ago I came straight from the school of idealism 
in which my father had trained me. I was of the opinion that 
it was above all things the function of the Eoyal Theatre to 
cultivate idealism among our people, in which, thank God, it is 
still so rich, and the warm springs of which still well up 
abundantly in its heart. I felt convinced and assured that the 
Eoyal Theatre should be an instrument in the hand of the 
monarch just as much as the school and the university, whose 
function it is to train the rising generations and to prepare them 
for the preservation of the highest intellectual possessions of our 
splendid German Fatherland. In precisely the same way the 
stage must contribute to the formation of the mind and character, 
and to the ennobling of the moral conceptions of the people. The 
theatre, too, is one of the tools with which I work. I feel it my 
duty to express to you all my most hearty, sincere, and deep-felt 
Royal thanks, for the readiness with which you have undertaken 
this duty. You have entirely realised the high expectations which 
I had formed from the personnel of my opera and my theatre. 
It is the duty of a monarch to interest himself in the theatre, as 
I have seen from the example of my late father and grandfather, 
just because it may be a vast power in his hand ; and I thank you 
that you have understood how to cultivate and interpret in such 
a magnificent style our splendid, beautiful language, and the 
creations of our great thinkers, and of those of other nations. I also 
thank you for carrying out all my suggestions and wishes. I can 
say with pleasure that all countries follow with attention the 
work of our Royal Theatre, and look upon its achievements with 
admiration. I am firmly convinced that the labour and trouble 
that you have spent on your performances will not have been 
bestowed in vain. I beg you now to continue to give me your 
assistance, each in his own way and in his own place, with firm 



182 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

trust in God, to serve the spirit of idealism, and to continue the 
combat against that materialism and ungerman mode of thought, 
under the influence of which, unfortunately, many a German 
stage has already fallen. And so will you stand firm in this 
conflict and persist in faithful endeavour. Be assured, then, that 
I will at all times keep my eye on your performances, and that 
you may be sure of my thanks, my care, and my gratitude." 

During the performance of Oberon, at the Wiesbaden Festival 
in May, 1902, the Emperor received Marguerite Durand, the chief 
editress of the Paris political women's paper, La Fronde, in the 
Green Room. At his audience the Emperor made the following 
noteworthy remarks : 

"The theatre should not be merely an important factor in 
education, the propagation of morality, but should also be the 
embodiment of grace, beauty, and artistic imagination. We should 
leave the theatre not discouraged at the recollection of mournful 
scenes, of bitter disappointments, but purified, elevated, and with 
renewed strength to fight for the ideals which every man strives 
to realise. . . . 

" Actual life makes it its duty to bring before our eyes day by 
day the most miserable realities. Our modern authors, who have 
ever more and more inclined to set this before our eyes on the 
stage, are setting themselves an unwholesome task, and producing 
work which cannot but have a depressing influence upon us." 

Then the Emperor began to speak again of Oberon, and said : 

" Believe me, madam, the public is at the bottom of my opinion. 
This Oberon, the fairy-like decorations and mise en scene of which 
we have been this evening admiring, has, within two years, been 
performed some seventy times at Wiesbaden, and always with 
uniform success. Hiilsen surpassed himself in it. I have in him 
a splendid man who understands my ideas, and has found means 
to translate them into reality. He is an indefatigable, creative, 
great, very great, artist." 

On May 2nd the Berlin Academy of Arts, in the presence of 
the Emperor, celebrated the two hundredth anniversary of its 
foundation. In reply to the address of Privy Councillor Prof, 
von Ende, the Emperor replied: 

" It affords me heartfelt pleasure to be able to receive in person 



IN RELATION TO ART AND SCIENCE 183 

the loyal greeting of my Academy of Arts on this two hundredth 
anniversary, which you are celebrating to-day. I thank you, the 
President of the Academy, for the excellent report on the develop- 
ment of the Academy during those stages of its existence through 
which it has passed. My heart is thrilled to-day with a feeling 
of deep gratitude towards the founder of the Academy, my 
exalted ancestor, King Frederick I., and his illustrious successors 
on the throne. With an intelligent appreciation of the ennobling 
influence of art on the minds of the people, with far-seeing look 
and protecting hand, even in times of trouble and distress, they 
have indicated and made smooth the path for the prosperous 
development and cultivation of our national art. That the latter 
has attained to its present pitch of excellence, we owe, not least 
of all, to the faithful labour of the Academy in all its branches, 
and in particular we have to thank those men who have worked 
as teachers or scholars at the Academy of Arts in this city. Let 
me tender you my royal thanks for all that the Academy has 
brought to maturity in the way of permanent, genuinely artistic 
fruit, during the two hundred years of its existence. I also trust 
that the artists, who are at present gathered in the Academy, will 
throw their whole strength into the effort to cultivate high art 
in a truly artistic spirit, and to prepare a worthy home for the 
Academy pupils entrusted to their guidance. In your hands lies 
the responsibility of fostering the sacred flame, and nourishing 
the fire of genuine artistic inspiration, without which all work 
in the domain of art becomes stunted and valueless. As true 
inspired servants of art hold fast to the traditional ideals, and 
then you may be ever assured of my Imperial protection and my 
special favour. I hope that I shall be privileged to be able to 
assign new and worthy accommodation to both the Academic High 
Schools. May the Academy continue to develop and flourish also 
in the centuries yet to come. May art unfold itself in ever purer 
and brighter brilliancy, and be a source of rich blessing to our 
dear German Fatherland. May God grant it." 

The great interest which the Emperor takes in the imitative 
arts, painting, and sculpture, is shown by the frequent visits he 
pays to artists' studios. On the occasion of these visits, in which 
he associates in a natural and affable way with the artists, he 



184 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

freely gives suggestions, encouragement, and praise, but he also 
does not neglect the material side of art, and takes care that 
commissions should be given to painters and sculptors. He him- 
self spends sums of money, which run into millions of marks, for 
the encouragement of painting and sculpture, and knows also 
how to induce wealthy personages, with whom he comes into 
contact, to give similar encouragement to art. The decoration of 
the *Siegesallee was not merely set on foot by the Emperor in 
order to erect statues in memory of his ancestors, but, in the first 
place, in order to give the most excellent sculptors an opportunity 
to exercise and turn their art to profitable account. 

How highly the Emperor appreciates art and artists is best 
shown by his bestowing the highest Prussian Order of the Black 
Eagle on Prof. Menzel. On New Year's Day, 1899, the Emperor 
instructed Anton von Werner, Director of the Academy, to bestow 
the Order, by which Master Menzel received at the same time a 
patent of nobility, in the following telegram : 

"I have conferred my high Order of the Black Eagle on his 
Excellency, Prof. Dr. von Menzel. This, the highest mark of 
honour ever paid to an artist, is intended to be a token of my 
gratitude for the service which he has rendered to my House by 
his art, and at the same time an incentive to the disciples of art 
and painting to strive to walk in the path so successfully pursued 
by Menzel, and to do likewise." 

On January 21st, 1899, the Emperor addressed the following 
letter to the Association of Berlin Artists : 

"The Association of Berlin Artists has conveyed to me, in 
their address of the 3rd and telegram of the 9th of this month, 
on the occasion of the bestowal of the high Order of the Black 
Eagle on Acting Privy Councillor Dr. Adolf von Menzel, the 
thanks and loyal respect of the artists of Berlin. I have been 
most gratified by this address, and learn from it with satisfaction 
what joyful response this honour paid to the great master has 
met with in the world of art. Gladly do I give expression to my 
renewed hope that the bright example of Adolf von Menzel may 
be zealously followed among the disciples of art, and that German 
art, mindful of its great importance for the general welfare, will 
* Siegesallee, the " Avenue of Victory," at Berlin. 



IN RELATION TO ART AND SCIENCE 185 

hold fast to the well-tried principles which, springing as it 
does on national soil, it has established in the course of its 
development." 

The last passage refers to the Emperor's dislike for the new 
tendency in painting, the so-called "secession." The Emperor 
has sharply criticised the extravagances of this modern tendency. 

The Emperor also expressed himself against the secession in 
the speech which he delivered on December 18th, 1901, to the 
artists who had taken part in the production of the monuments 
in the Siegesallee, in the Tiergarten at Berlin, and on that 
evening had been invited to a festivity in the Palace at Berlin. 
This festivity did not take the form of an official function, but, to 
a certain extent, of a private affair of the Emperor's. The banquet, 
too, did not take place in the official state apartments, but in 
the Emperor's private apartments. The guests, with the Emperor 
in their midst, had taken their seats at a single long table ; at 
the end of the banquet the Emperor delivered the following 
speech to the sculptors present: 

" This 18th day of December is an important date in the history 
of our native Berlin Art, inasmuch as the gracious patron of 
Museums, my late father and his Consort, a Princess of high 
artistic talent, dedicated the Museum of Ethnology fifteen years 
ago to-day. This was, to a certain extent, the last great final act 
which my father performed in this direction, and I consider it 
a special piece of good fortune that on this very anniversary we 
have been able to bring to a conclusion the works connected with 
our Siegesallee. I joyfully take this opportunity to express to 
you in the first place my congratulations, and in the second place 
my thanks for the admirable way in which you have helped me 
to realise my original idea. 

" The drawing up of the programme for the Siegesallee occupied 
a number of years, and it was Prof. Dr. Koser, the esteemed 
historiographer of my House, who enabled me to set you gentle- 
men your task in a comprehensible form. When once the 
historical basis had been found, it was possible to take a further 
step, and directly the personalities of the Princes had been 
settled, it was possible also, resting on historical research, to 
settle on the more important men who helped them in their work. 
In this manner originated the groups, and, to a certain extent 



186 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

influenced by history, the form which the group should take was 
arranged. 

" When once this portion of the programme had been completed, 
naturally came the most difficult part of all, the question will it 
be possible, as I hoped, to find so many artists in Berlin who will 
be able to work on a uniform scheme to carry out this programme. 
In approaching the solution of this problem, I had in my mind, 
in the event of its successful accomplishment, to show the world 
that the most favourable condition for the solution of an artistic 
problem was not to be found in the calling of committees or in 
the appointment of all kinds of prize courts and competitions, 
but that the old way practised in ancient classical times, and also 
subsequently in the Middle Ages, that is to say, the direct inter- 
course of the person who gives the commission with the artist, 
affords the best guarantee for an artistic result and successful 
performance of the task. 

"I am therefore specially obliged to Prof. Eeinhold Begas, 
because, when I approached him with this thought in my mind, 
he declared to me without hesitation that there was absolutely 
no doubt that enough artists could always be found in Berlin to 
carry out such an idea without difficulty, and with his assistance, 
and thanks to the acquaintances which I had made among the 
sculptors of this city by means of my visits to exhibitions and 
studios, I have indeed succeeded in gathering together a staff, the 
greater part of which I see assembled round me to-day, with the 
help of which I could undertake this task. 

"I feel sure that you cannot refuse to bear me witness that 
with regard to the programme I have worked out I have made 
the treatment of it as easy as possible for you, that I have set 
and laid down the limits of your commission in general terms ; 
but in every other respect I have given you the most absolute 
freedom, not only freedom in combination and composition, but 
even freedom to throw into the work so much of your own 
individuality, as every artist must do in order to impart to a 
work of art his own individual character; for every true work 
of art should contain in itself a grain of the artist's individual 
character. I believe, if I may use the term, that on the com- 
pletion of the Siegesallee, we may record this experiment as 



IN RELATION TO ART AND SCIENCE 187 

successful. It only needed personal intercourse between him who 
gave the commission and the artist who executed it to banish 
every doubt, to answer every question, and no difficulties of a 
more serious kind presented themselves. 

"I think, therefore, that from this point of view we may 
altogether look back on our Siegesallee with satisfaction. You 
have each in your own way performed the task to the best of 
your ability, and I am conscious that I have helped you by 
allowing the fullest measure of freedom and leisure, as indeed 
I consider necessary for the artist. I have never entered into 
details, but have contented myself with merely giving the in- 
itiative, the original impulse. With pride and joy the thought 
fills me to-day that Berlin can boast to the whole world of a body 
of artists who have been able to accomplish this magnificent work. 
It shows that the Berlin School of Sculpture stands upon a level 
which can scarcely have been surpassed, even in the time of the 
Eenaissance, and I think that every one of you will admit 
without a touch of envy that the active example of Eeinhold 
Begas, and his conception of the subject based upon his know- 
ledge of the antique, has been the guide of many of you in the 
execution of this great task. In this respect, too, we might 
draw a parallel with the great artistic performances of the Middle 
Ages and the Italians, inasmuch as the sovereign and art-loving 
Prince, who gave the commission to the artists, also found the 
masters, to whom a number of young men attached themselves, 
so that a definite school thereby grew up and enabled them to 
perform excellent work. 

"Well, gentlemen, to-day, at the same hour, the Pergainon 
Museum has been opened at Berlin. I consider this, too, to be 
a very important episode in the history of our art, and a good 
omen and a fortunate coincidence. What will be presented in 
this building to the admiring visitor is a wealth of beauty, the 
most splendid that can be conceived collected in one place. 

"How is it with art in general throughout the world? It 
takes its models and draws from the springs of great mother 
Nature, and she, Nature, in spite of her great, apparently un- 
restricted, boundless freedom yet moves according to everlasting 
laws, which the Creator has set for Himself, and which can never 



188 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

be transgressed or broken without endangering the development 
of the world. Just so is it with art, and when we look at the 
splendid remains of classical antiquity there conies across us 
again the self-same feeling: Here, too, prevails an eternal per- 
manent law the law of beauty, the law of harmony, the law 
of aesthetic. This law is expressed by the ancients in such a 
marvellous, overpowering way and such perfect form, that we, 
with all our modern delicacy of feeling and all our practical skill, 
are proud if we are told, with regard to some specially excellent 
performance, this is almost as good as was done nineteen hundred 
years ago almost! 

"With this thought in my mind I should like to urgently 
impress upon you the idea that sculpture has still for the most 
part remained untouched by the so-called modern tendencies 
and movements. It still stands there noble and sublime ; maintain 
it so, and do not allow yourselves to be induced by any judgment 
of men or any far-fetched doctrine to forsake those principles 
on which it is based. Art which exceeds the laws and limits 
which I have indicated is no longer an art, but mere mechanical 
skill, mere craftsmen's work, and that must art never become. 
Under the much-used word freedom, and under its banner, artists 
often degenerate into monstrosity and exaggeration and conceit. 
The man who breaks away from the law of beauty, the feeling 
for aesthetic and harmony of which every human heart is sensible, 
even when it is unable to give it expression, and finds his main 
principle in the thought of some special tendency, some definite 
solution of what are rather technical problems, sins against the 
prime spring and origin of art. 

" Yet, again, art must be helpful, must influence our people in 
an educative way; it must also make it possible for the lower 
classes of society, when hard toil and labour are over, to rise again 
to ideals. The great ideals have become for us Germans a 
permanent possession, while other nations have more or less 
lost them. The German nation is now the only people left which 
is called upon in the first place to protect and cultivate and 
promote these great ideals, and one of these great ideals is that 
we should render it possible for our working and toiling classes 
to take pleasure in the beautiful, and to work up and out of their 



IN RELATION TO ART AND SCIENCE 189 

everyday range of thought. If art, as is frequently the case now, 
does nothing more than represent misery as still more hideous 
then it actually is, it thereby sins against the German people. 

"The cultivation of ideals is at the same time the greatest work 
of civilisation ; and if in this respect we wish to be and remain 
a model to other nations, the whole German people must assist 
in the work; and if civilisation is to fully perform its task, it 
must permeate to the lowest ranks of the people. That result 
can only be brought about if Art lends her hand to the task, if 
she elevates instead of sinking into the mire. 

"As the Sovereign of this country, I often feel with some 
vexation that art in the person of its masters does not combat 
such tendencies with sufficient energy. I do not for one moment 
fail to see that many a strenuous character is to be found among 
the adherents of these tendencies, whose intentions are perhaps 
of the best, but none the less, he is on a false track. The true 
artist needs no mountebank tricks, no puffs in the Press, no 
connection. I do not believe that the great masters of art whom 
you regard as your models, either in ancient Greece or in Italy, 
or in the time of the Eenaissance, ever resorted to advertising, 
as it is to-day frequently practised in the Press, to give special 
prominence to their ideas. They worked according to the abilities 
that God gave them, and for the rest they let people talk. The 
honest and true artist must also act on like principles. 

"Art which descends to advertising is no longer art, even if 
it be lauded a hundred or a thousand times over. Every man, 
however simple-minded he may be, has a feeling for what is 
beautiful, or ugly, and to cultivate this feeling still further among 
our people, I need the help of all of you, and for producing in 
this Siegesallee a piece of such work I give you my special 
thanks. Gentlemen, even now I can inform you that the im- 
pression which the Siegesallee makes upon strangers is quite 
overpowering. All over the world an extreme respect for German 
art is observable. May it ever remain at this high level, and 
may my grand and great-grandchildren, if I should have any, 
ever see such masters standing at their side. Then, I am con- 
vinced, will our people be able to love what is beautiful and 
ever to prize their ideals." 



190 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

On January 25th, 1902, the Emperor visited the Museum of 
Arts and Crafts at Berlin, where on the anniversary of the 
wedding of the late Emperor and Empress a painted window had 
been placed in the grand staircase of the Museum, and dedicated 
to the memory of the Emperor and Empress Frederick. In reply 
to the address of the Minister of Public Worship and the 
Director-General of Museums, the Emperor said : 

" I beg to express to your Excellency my most hearty and deep- 
felt thanks for the noble words with which you have referred 
to the life-work of my late parents. With the unveiling of this 
memorial window the institutions which owed their existence to 
my parents have in the first place expressed their gratitude, and 
in the second place produced a work of permanent value. It 
would certainly have been in accordance with the heart's desire 
of us all, if to-day we had been gathered round the two founders 
and patrons of this house in order to present this gift to them 
as a greeting. 

" The institution which originated in the ideal, noble, and pure 
conception of my parents must continue to be conducted in the 
same spirit. This institution was intended to restore to the 
people what the grievous years of trial, which passed over our 
nation and country in the storms of the last century, have 
destroyed and taken from them. The precious collections which 
find a home here testify to the art, the love of art, and the 
intelligent appreciation of art possessed by our forefathers, and I 
am of opinion that the task of these institutions can never be 
better performed in the spirit of my parents, than if this feeling 
for art be kindled to a new life in our people to such an extent, 
that no object may be taken into use which does not boast of 
an artistic form, and that the artistic form may constantly be 
derived from that traditional feeling for beauty which has been 
handed down to us from previous centuries. For the sense of 
beauty lies deep in the heart and nature of every man. The 
thing of beauty which man has once created remains beautiful for 
all time, and we who follow have only to hold fast to the beautiful 
and to adapt it to the needs of our daily life. May the students 
at this institution also ever keep this truth again before their eyes. 

" The blessing is streaming down upon us from an ideal figure 



IN RELATION TO ART AND SCIENCE 191 

in the likeness of my father, supported by the love of his people, 
and standing by the side of my late mother, his Consort; a 
splendid figure, the hem of whose garment was never soiled by 
the dust of the street, and so, too, the splendid radiant image of 
my mother, that tender-hearted lady whose every thought was 
art, and in whose mind everything, however simple it might be, 
that was to be fashioned for daily use was endued with beauty. 
A breath of poetry surrounded her. The son of these two parents 
is now standing before you as their heir and executor. And so, 
as I have already declared, I too regard it as my duty, in the 
spirit of my parents, to hold my hand over my German people, 
its rising generation, to cultivate in them the sense of the 
beautiful, to develop in them a taste for art, but only on a 
definite path, only within definite limits, which lie in the feeling 
for beauty and harmony, that exists in the hearts of men. So 
from the bottom of my heart I express the wish that from 
this noble building and the institutions that belong to it a 
blessing in full abundance may stream over our people, that the 
taste of the people, its pleasure and joy in the beautiful, may 
be here cultivated and stimulated in order that, now that we have 
advanced so far that our people are able to accomplish more in 
the domain of art than was possible in the earlier and more 
troubled times, we may again rise to that stage of development 
at which our fathers stood centuries ago. That is the wish of my 
heart." 

The Emperor takes the keenest interest in exact science, its 
investigations and progress. He takes care to be immediately 
informed of new discoveries and noteworthy phenomena by 
specialists like Prof. Slaby, Director-General Eathenau, etc. He 
has experimental lectures delivered in his private circle on new 
ideas, which he follows with the most intense interest, and he 
even finds time to make himself acquainted with the contents of 
the newest scientific works so far as they have any interest for 
him. 

Besides this he possesses an institution which daily gives him 
most accurate information of everything of public interest. This 
is the Literary Bureau of the Prussian Ministry of the Interior. 

On the 19th March, 1900, the Academy of Sciences at Berlin 
celebrated the two hundredth anniversary of its foundation. At 



192 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

the instance of the Emperor the ceremonial festival took place 
with great pomp in the White. Hall of the Koyal Castle. The 
ceremony was introduced by music and song, then the presiding 
secretary of the Academy of Sciences delivered a lecture and 
read out the names of the personages who had been elected 
honorary members of the Academy. In a short speech Dr. Bosse, 
Minister of Public Worship, referred to the influence of the 
Academy on the intellectual development of the land and people. 
"My predecessors in office, like myself, have become more and 
more accustomed to go for advice to the Academy of Sciences on 
great scientific questions, and I can acknowledge with the liveliest 
gratitude that it has always proved a ready, loyal helper in our 
labours, and has taken a prominent part in much that the Ministry 
of Public Worship has been enabled to accomplish in this field." 
The Minister further communicated an edict of the Emperor's by 
which the number of seats for ordinary members in each section of 
the Academy was raised from twenty-seven to thirty. The newly 
created seats were to be applied in the Philosophical-Historical 
section preferably to German Philology, in the Physical-Mathe- 
matical section preferably to Technical Sciences. Further, the 
Minister published a list of honours conferred on the occasion of 
the Jubilee festival. Finally the Minister was able to communicate 
a special festival gift of the Emperor which he had devoted to the 
Academy ; it consisted of means for the publication of the works 
of William von Humboldt, also of a Dictionary of Classical Law, 
all of which were placed at their disposal from the Emperor's 
Privy Purse. To increase the Scientific Fund of the Academy 
available for extensive undertakings, an amount of 25,000 marks 
was inserted in the Prussian Budget for 1900 by the Government, 
and also in the same Budget provision was made for four scientific 
posts which it was intended to establish for special undertakings. 
Then came the following speech by the Emperor, which the 
monarch delivered standing under the canopy: 

"In bidding you welcome on this day of your Jubilee in this 
Hall of my Castle, consecrated by great memories, I gladly call to 
mind the relations which connect your Corporation with my Eoyal 
House. The intelligent interest which the elector Frederick III. 
took in the far-seeing plans of Leibnitz called it into being. The 
Great Frederick impressed upon it the stamp of his genius. All 
the Kings of Prussia have exercised control over this creation as 
direct patrons, assisting, guiding, furthering its work, so that the 



IN RELATION TO ART AND SCIENCE 193 

saying of the Emperor William the Great that 'the feeling of 
sympathy for science which is innate in every Prussian King is 
also active in me ' was expressed with special force in relation to 
you. I rejoice to be able to acknowledge to-day that now for 
over two hundred years the Academy of Sciences has maintained 
its vitality unimpaired, and that it has fully answered the ex- 
pectations which my ancestors rested in it. There is assuredly a 
good reason for the fact that German science has developed in 
close connection with the Universities, and I do not doubt that, 
as our great Helmholtz, whom we shall ever bear in mind, testified, 
abundance of life and energy may be infused into research by the 
instruction given at the Universities, and by intercourse with our 
young students. None the less has the organisation and conduct 
of scientific work by the Academies been shown to be an 
essential, and for the attainment of great results indispensable 
element of scientific progress. More than a century ago, before 
the University of Berlin came into existence, did the Berlin 
Academy pursue the task of doing simultaneous service to all 
branches of science. Now if to-day, in order to extend this work, 
I have increased the number of ordinary members in the 
Philosophical -Historical section by the addition of some seats 
specially intended for the study of German Philology, I am led 
to my decision by the thought that German Philology, to which 
reference was made even in 1700 in the Charter of your founda- 
tion, needs to be specially cultivated in the capital of the now 
united German Empire. At the same time, it appeared to me 
to be indispensable in like manner to strengthen the number of 
seats in the Physical-Mathematical section, having regard to the 
present importance of technology. As the Academy has from 
the first fully grasped the universal nature of its field of labour, 
so, on the other hand, it may be placed to its credit that it has 
stood entirely aloof from the pursuit of all interests extraneous 
to science. 

"It is true that great events in the life of the nation have 
also been reflected in its work, and in the words of its orators on 
festal occasions have not seldom found enthusiastic expression, 
yet it has persistently disdained to descend into the turmoil of 
political passions, and has rather at all times seen its highest 



194 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

duty to consist in the pure and disinterested pursuit of science. 
By this unselfish devotion, to which it owes so much and which 
is a pledge of the future success of its activity, it at the same 
time subserves the divinely appointed purpose of all knowledge, 
which is to lead men to a deeper acquaintance with divine truth. 
As the natural sciences seek as their ultimate aim to fathom the 
prime cause of all existence and all growth, so in the words of 
Goethe, himself once a foreign member of this Corporation, ' the 
conflict of belief and disbelief remains the real, the sole, and the 
deepest theme of the history of the world and humanity, to 
which all the rest are subordinate,' and we may add, in the spirit 
in which he wrote, the active intervention of God in the affairs 
of the human race. Thus does it remain true also of your 
labours, as Leibnitz desired that it should be, that 'the honour 
of God and the best interests of the human race should be 
constantly promoted by the sciences.' That this may always be 
the result of your efforts, may the blessing of the Most High 
continue to prevail over you in the new century." 



THE EMPEROR AS STUDENT AND 
OLD MEMBER OF THE BORUSSIA KORPS 



IN the autumn of 1877 Prince William began a two years' 
course of study at Bonn University. The Emperor was a 
member of the Borussia Korps, and was a jovial, light-hearted 
student, who still remembers with pleasure his student days and 
fellow-students. The annual festivities of old Bonn Borussians 
residing in Berlin are regularly attended by the Emperor, and 
on the occasion of the festival held in 1887 in commemoration of 
the founding of the Borussia Korps he visited Bonn in person. 

Prince William rose, as he remarked in the opening words of 
his toast, to tender his thanks as a member of the Eoyal House 
for the ovation accorded to its head. In his survey of the history 
of the Prussian Korps, the celebration of the sixtieth anniversary 
of the foundation of which was the occasion of the present 
gathering, the Prince bore witness to the fact that in this very 
history the Bonn Borussia Korps had exemplified its loyalty to the 
Prussian Fatherland. In the Prussian Army the First Kegiment 
of Guards had always been selected to introduce the Princes of 
the House of Hohenzollern into the traditions of our army, and 
to train them up to its high sense of duty. In the course of time 
a similar connection has been formed with the Bonn Borussia 
Korps with respect to University studies. This Korps had in- 
variably been selected to number amongst its members the 
Princes of our Koyal House, and in a like manner many sons 
of the first princely houses of the entire German Fatherland. 
The fact of this distinction being conferred on the Korps proved 
that the right spirit had been found to prevail both in this Korps 
and at the University of Bonn. The colours of the Korps were 
those of the House of Hohenzollern, our Prussian national colours. 
Strangers often look upon these colours as too sober and un- 
ostentatious. But these very colours exactly correspond in their 
sober character to the history of our Prussian Fatherland, which 

195 



196 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

in sore struggles had to win its way through sad destinies and 
days of gloom to the position it holds to-day. The noblest 
symbol of this struggle is the Iron Cross which bears these 
very colours. May the devotion to duty, which our fathers before 
us exhibited under these colours, descend to the younger brothers 
of this Korps. Above all, may each one fulfil with the utmost 
loyalty and devotion the duties of the office which it will be his 
lot some day to assume. At the close of his speech, which was 
delivered with energy, Prince William drank to the health of the 
Bonn Borussia Korps, expressing the hope that this Korps would 
continue to persevere and nourish in loyalty and love to the Koyal 
House and the Fatherland. 

On May 7th, 1891, the Emperor, who was staying at Bonn on 
a visit, took part in the Kommers * held by the Bonn Korps at the 
commencement of the summer term, and delivered the following 
speech on the occasion : 

" I beg to offer the last speaker and the entire Bonn ' Council 
of Elders 'f here assembled my thanks for the kindly welcome 
you have given me. And in particular I especially thank the 
' Council of Elders' and all the Bonn students for the beautiful 
torchlight procession which they yesterday held in my honour. 
I rejoice at the good feeling caused among the general body 
of the students by the very arrangements, which were so tact- 
fully and so courteously conducted by the 'Council of Elders.' 
I trust that these good relations will long endure, and that this 
harmonious feeling may be a model for the relations existing in 
the ' Council of Elders ' and the general body of the students in 
all other German Universities as well. 

"I agree with every word which the previous speaker has 
uttered concerning the importance of the life of the Students' 
Korps and the educational significance of the same for the whole 
subsequent life of a student. I recognise in them the sentiments 
of the Bonn ' Council of Elders/ the familiar, the well-tried, the 
old sentiments still subsisting in your hearts, and I see that you 

* Kommers, from Lat. Comraercium, "intercourse, "is an elaborate drinking-bout 
of German students, without which no University festival is complete. A Kommers 
is always given at the beginning and end of each term, in honour of the " freshmen " 
(Fuchskommers) and of those "going down" (Abschiedskommers) respectively. 

t The "Council of Elders" (Seniorenkonvent or S. C.) is formed by all the 
Students' Korps in a University City, and in it only the Captains of these Korps 
have a vote. 



THE BORUSSIA KORPS 197 

still continue to bear in mind the significance, the aims and 
objects of the German Students' Korps. 

" It is my firm conviction that every young man who joins a 
Students' Korps will receive the true direction of his life from the 
spirit which prevails in it. It is the best education which a young 
man can get for his future life. And he who scoffs at the German 
Students' Korps does not understand their real meaning. I hope 
that as long as there are German Korps students, the spirit that 
is fostered in their Korps, and by which their strength and 
courage are steeled, will be preserved, and that you will always 
take delight in handling the duelling blade. The real meaning of 
our duels is often misunderstood by the general public. But that 
must not lead us astray. You and I who have been Korps 
Students know better than that. As in the Middle Ages manly 
strength and courage were steeled by jousts or tournaments, so 
the spirit and habits which are acquired from membership of a 
Korps furnish us with that degree of fortitude which is necessary 
to us when we go out into the world, and which will last as long 
as there are German Universities. You have been good enough 
to refer to my son to-day, and I give you my hearty thanks for 
doing so. I trust that the young man will in due course be intro- 
duced to the ' Council of Elders ' of this University, and that he 
will then meet with the same kindly sentiments that were 
extended to me." 

Ten years after the last speech, in the year 1901, the Emperor 
was able to make good his promise that " the young man will in 
due course be introduced to the Bonn ' Council of Elders.' " The 
Crown Prince matriculated at Bonn on April 24th, and at the 
" Kommers " held in his honour the Emperor replied as follows to 
an address made to him by Student von Alvensleben : 

"My dear young commilitones, there was no need for you to 
devote any special consideration, or lay any special stress on the 
feelings which thrill through my heart when I find myself once 
more in dear Bonn among the students. Before my mind's eye 
rises a glorious bright picture, full of the sunshine and happy 
contentment which in those days filled every moment of my 
existence. Joy in life, joy in people, old as well as young, and 



198 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

above all joy in the young German Empire, even then growing in 
strength. 

The wish then that above all fills me at the present moment, 
when I am sending my dear son in turn to take his place in your 
midst, is that an equally happy student life may be in store for 
him to that which was once mine to enjoy. And how, indeed, 
could it well be otherwise? Why Bonn, beautiful Bonn, is so 
accustomed to the bustle and stir of youth in the heyday of life, 
and seems as though created by nature for this very purpose. 
The Crown Prince may here find many a reminiscence of his 
glorious grandfather, who never could forget Bonn, whose kindly 
eye lit up with joy when the name of the city he had come to 
love so well was mentioned; of his great-grandfather, the noble 
Prince Consort, the life companion of that Eoyal lady now 
departed, who ever strove to create peaceful and friendly re- 
lations between her people and our own, both nations of German 
stock, and of so many another German prince who has here 
undergone his course of preparation for his subsequent career. 

" But yet again. Bonn lies on the Rhine, the river where grow 
our vines, the name of which is endeared to us by our legends, 
the river where every castle, every town, speaks to us of our past. 
Father Rhine shall cast his spell and exert his influence also over 
the Crown Prince. And when the merry wine cup circles and 
a cheerful song resounds, your spirit, filled with the glad moment, 
shall rejoice and rise in exaltation as befits high-spirited German 
youths. Yet let the spring, from which you quaff your draught 
of joy, be clean and pure as the golden juice of the vine, let it be 
deep and lasting as Father Rhine. When we look round in our 
joyous Rhineland our history rises before our eyes in visible 
form. Yes, they ought to rejoice that they are young Germans 
when they traverse the space from Aix-la-Chapelle to Mainz, that 
is to say, from Charlemagne to the time of the zenith of the glory 
of Germany under Barbarossa. 

"But why was it that nothing came of all this splendour? 
Why did the German Empire sink into decay ? Because the old 
Empire was not founded on a strictly national basis. The idea 
of universal rule that underlay the Holy Roman Empire pre- 
cluded a development on national German lines. The essence 



THE BORUSSIA KORPS 199 

of nationality is demarcation from the outside world by definite 
boundary to correspond to the personal characteristics of a nation 
and its racial idiosyncrasies. Thus it was inevitable that the 
glory of Barbarossa should fade, and the stability of the old 
Empire be destroyed, because owing to its universalism the 
process of crystallisation into a nation I mean into a nation as 
a whole was impeded. For smaller sections did crystallise in 
the shape of strong principalities, and laid the foundation on 
which new forms of constitution could subsequently be erected. 
Unfortunately, however, in the process, they and their rulers 
came into conflict with Emperor and Empire, the representatives 
of the idea of universalism. The Empire became constantly 
weaker and weaker, and its internal peace was wrecked. Only 
too truly must the weighty words of Tacitus, that great student 
of Germany, be written of this phase in the development of our 
German nation : Propter invidiam ! The Princes were jealous of 
the power of the Emperors, as they were once of Arminius, in 
spite of his victory. The nobles were jealous of the newly 
acquired wealth of the cities, and the yeomen of the nobles. 
What deplorable consequences and what sore calamities has not 
our dear, beautiful Germany suffered propter invidiam I The 
banks of Father Rhine could tell us something of this ! Well, 
the attempt which then failed God permitted one successfully 
to accomplish. 

" Aix-la-Chapelle and Mainz are to us historical memories ; but 
the longing desire for unification persisted in the German heart, 
and the Emperor William the Great and his faithful servants 
together accomplished it. Therefore turn your eyes towards the 
* German Corner ' * at Coblenz and the Niederwald at Etidesheim. 
Those monuments convey the lesson, and impress upon you that 
you are now Germans in a German land, citizens of a German 
nation with strictly defined frontiers, and that you are all here 
preparing some day to take your part in working for its welfare 
and development. The Empire stands before your eyes, rising 
up in splendid growth ; let thankful joy and gladness fill your 
hearts, and let the firm, manly purpose as Germans to work for 

* Das Deutsche Eck : the spot where the Mosel falls into the Rhine, the site of an 
imposing national monument. 



200 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

Germany, to elevate, strengthen, and support it, be kindled within 
you. The future is waiting for you, and will make use of your 
powers. But not to squander them in cosmopolitan dreams, or 
to place them at the service of one-sided party tendencies, but 
to help to strengthen the thought of nationality and to cultivate 
our ideals. By God's grace our German stock has been able to 
produce mighty heroes of thought from Boniface and Walter 
von der Vogelweide down to Goethe and Schiller, and they have 
become a light and a blessing to all posterity. They worked 
for humanity at large, and yet they were strictly self-contained 
Germans, that is to say, personalities, men. We need such men 
to-day more than ever. May you too strive to become such men ! 
" But how shall this be possible ? who will help you to attain 
thereto ? One, and One alone, whose Name we all bear, who has 
borne and purged away our sins, who lived before us, and worked 
as we should work, our Lord and Saviour ; may He implant 
moral earnestness in your hearts, that your motives may ever 
be pure and your aims ever noble. Love of father and mother, 
love of home and country, are founded on love for Him. Then 
will you be secure against allurements and temptations of every 
kind, above all, against vanity and envy, and be able to sing and 
say : ' We Germans fear God, and naught else in the world.' 
Then shall we too take our place in the world, firmly established 
and pursuing our civilising mission, and I shall close my eyes 
in peace if only I see such a generation springing up to gather 
round my son. Then Germany, Germany above everything ! In 
this confident expectation I call 'Prosperity to the University 
of Bonn! 1 " 



THE EMPEROR AND THE GERMAN ARMY 



ON February 8th, 1888, the new Army Bill was passed in the 
German Reichstag with unusual unanimity. In response to 
the famous speech of Bismarck, Baron von Frankenstein, of the 
Centre, in the name of his party moved that the Bill authorising 
a loan in connection with the proposed increase of the German 
Army be referred to the Committee of Ways and Means without 
debate. This course was adopted, and the second reading of the 
Army Bill immediately followed. Baron von Frankenstein moved 
that the Bill pass en bloc without debate. This motion, too, was 
passed by the Reichstag. There is no doubt that this action of 
the Reichstag made the Emperor William I., at that time on the 
verge of the grave, happy in his last days on earth. In the 
course of a few months followed the double change of Sovereign 
in Germany and Prussia, which did not fail to leave its mark on 
the inner life of the Prussian-German Army. In his short reign 
the Emperor Frederick at once caused the ideas which had long 
since been worked out by him to be embodied in new regulations, 
and his son continued the work. The cuirassiers discarded the 
cuirass and the cavalry adopted the lance as a weapon. A new 
manual of drill, directions for garrison duty and other far-reaching 
regulations were issued in quick succession. The two new 
Emperors made great changes in the personnel of the officers. 
No fewer than sixty-five generals and one hundred and fifty-six 
staff-officers, including those who had died, quitted the service in 
the year 1888. New chiefs were appointed to eight out of the 
fourteen Army Corps and to twenty-two out of thirty-three divisions 
and to fifty-two out of one hundred brigades of infantry and 
cavalry. On August 3rd, 1888, Field-Marshal Count Moltke handed 
in his resignation as Chief of the Headquarters Staff. The young 
Emperor accepted the resignation of the old hero in graceful 
terms worthy of the occasion. The Field-Marshal's place was 
taken by his former assistant, General Count Waldersee. 

The Cabinet letter with which the Emperor William II. on 

201 



202 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

August 10th, 1888, answered Moltke's farewell visit ran as 
follows : 

"In your letter of the 3rd inst. you explained to me with 
that clearness and unselfishness which have shone through your 
whole life, the necessity of a decision, the reason of which I 
cannot, unfortunately, fail to see, but the importance of which 
is so weighty, that I can only partially comply with your request. 
At the great age to which, to the extreme joy of my dear grand- 
father, to the blessing of the army and the well-being of our 
Fatherland, God's gracious providence has permitted you to attain, 
I cannot venture any longer to exact from you the active exertions 
which are inevitably connected with the performance of the duties 
of your office, but so long as you live I cannot dispense with your 
counsel, and I must still keep you for the army which will look 
up to you with boundless confidence so long as God's will allows. 
If therefore, in compliance with your request, I herewith relieve 
you of your position as Chief of the Headquarters Staff of the 
Army, I do so with an expression of my anxious wish and full 
expectation that you will continue to remain in touch with the 
more important affairs of the Headquarters Staff, and that you 
will allow your successor, whom I have appointed, to call on you 
for your advice in all questions of importance. You have retained 
your intellectual vigour to such a high degree that it will be 
also possible for you to unite with this the position of President 
of the Committee of National Defence, which I accordingly confer 
upon you. Since my father, now at rest in God, first fell ill, the 
business of the Committee of National Defence has felt the entire 
want of a guiding hand, and the importance of such control is 
constantly increasing, so that it affords me special relief to be 
able to place it in your hands. 

"With regard to your remuneration for the future, I have 
instructed the Minister of War to continue to pay your previous 
salary, and also informed him that your previous official residence 
is still at your disposal. I also comply with your expressed wish 
for the appointment of a personal aide-de-camp. Thus I believe 
I have established you in a position in which I hope you will be 
able to work with blessing to our country for many years to come. 



THE EMPEROR AND THE GERMAN ARMY 203 

None the less there still remains the deep regret of seeing you 
quit that post in which you have written your name on the scroll 
of honour of the Prussian Army, and have made it a name held 
in respect throughout the world. But the power of time is 
stronger than that of men, and you who have everywhere else had 
victory in your hand must also bow to it. I refrain from tender- 
ing you on this occasion, in words, my special thanks for all that 
you have done as Chief of the Headquarters Staff. I can only 
point to the historical records of the last fifty years, and declare 
with the fullest conviction, that as Chief of the Headquarters 
Staff of the Army your memory will be held in the highest 
esteem so long as there remains a German soldier, a German 
heart to beat, or any soldierly feeling. 

"With high esteem and gratitude, 

"Your King, 

"WILLIAM K." 

On April 24th, 1889, the Schwedt Dragoons celebrated in the 
presence of the Emperor the two hundredth anniversary of the 
formation of the regiment. On this occasion the Emperor William 
delivered the following speech : 

" Two hundred years is a long span in these days of ours, when 
events move so fast. When I survey the history of the regiment 
during these two hundred years, I can only on this occasion 
remark that there is one day in the course of the two hundred 
years of the history of this regiment of which I cannot forego to 
make mention. Of all the glorious days which this regiment has 
experienced under the leadership of my ancestors, I specially 
refer to one day, the day of Kollin.* The severe defeat which 
the great King sustained was mitigated by the victorious deed 
of this very regiment, which was the only regiment in the army 
able to achieve any special success, so that under the personal 
leadership of the King it could be marched past the front of the 
camp with five colours taken from the enemy as a pattern of 
bravery. 

" Well, gentlemen, this regiment has maintained in honour and 
unfailingly upheld the traditions cherished in the regiment down 

* Frederick the Great was disastrously defeated by Daun, at Kollin, on June 18th, 
1757. 



204 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

to that troublous time when our army collapsed. None the less, 
like the Phoenix, rising with renewed youth, this regiment has 
known how to rise again from the ashes of the past, and again to 
gather laurels for its royal house and to twine them round its 
standards. 

" I herewith express my thanks to the regiment, and to those 
who have stood in its ranks and fostered its spirit, for all that 
they have accomplished. I have a firm confidence that our sons 
of the Mark of Brandenberg will ever uphold the old spirit of 
their province, and, when the moment arises for them to prove 
their mettle, will again help to win honour for the regiment. 

"But the regiment has also for many a long year been inti- 
mately associated with my House in the person of its chief down 
to the present holder of the office. May the regiment feel joy 
and pride at the honour of seeing Field-Marshal Prince Albert at 
its head. I rejoice that I have this opportunity of expressing 
these sentiments. I know the warm, deep interest with which 
the Prince thinks and cares for the regiment, and how often I 
have heard the name of the regiment uttered by his lips. 

" I now call upon you with me to raise your glasses with these 
thoughts: Old is their banner, Old their honour, Young their 
hearts, And keen their blade. Three cheers for the regiment and 
its exalted chief." 

The year 1890 produced on the 15th of February two extremely 
important Cabinet Orders of the Emperor. The first related to 
the organisation of the Cadet Corps,* the second Cabinet Order 
dealt with the punishments incurred for ill-treatment of sub- 
ordinates, and ran as follows : 

" To the Minister of War. 

" It has been brought to my notice by the reports handed in to 
me by Generals in command with reference to punishments in- 
flicted for ill-treatment of subordinates that the regulations laid 
down in the Order of February 1st, 1843, have not yet been 
thoroughly grasped and put into practice in the spirit in which 
they were issued. In my army every soldier is to receive lawful, 
just, and worthy treatment, because such treatment forms the 
essential foundation towards fostering and promoting in the same 

* See p. 156. 



THE EMPEROR AND THE GERMAN ARMY 205 

willingness and devotion to their calling, and love and confidence 
in their superiors. If cases of continued systematic ill-treatment 
of subordinates arise, in handing in their reports Generals in 
command are to indicate on which of the officers lies the responsi- 
bility of the defective supervision, and what steps have been 
taken on their part to prevent such occurrences for the future. 
After that you have to take the necessary steps, and to forward 
to the Generals in command also these remarks of mine to which 
the last promotions gave rise." 

On the 29th March the Emperor issued a Cabinet Order, relating 
to the position of officers, which created an extraordinary stir 
both at home and abroad, and which ran as follows : 

"I have already expressed on New Year's Day, in speaking 
to the Generals in command, my views in regard to the supply 
of officers for the army. Since then, in addition to other in- 
formation concerning the private incomes customary at the time 
and deductions from officers' pay for regimental expenses, reports 
have also been laid before me concerning the status of candidates 
for commissions in the army. These afford a proof that the 
procedure in the army is not everywhere based on uniform 
principles, and I therefore consider it necessary to give renewed 
expression in detail to my wishes in the matter for all who are 
concerned. The gradual increase of the cadres in the army has 
considerably raised the total number of officers allowed for in 
the estimates. To fill these places it is urgently necessary to 
procure a supply of suitable officers in as large numbers as 
possible, especially having regard to the demands that the event of 
war makes on the army. At the present moment there are con- 
siderable vacancies in the staffs of almost all the regiments in our 
Infantry and Field Artillery. This state of things renders the 
duty of commanding officers to attract an adequate and suitable 
supply more urgent and pressing every day. The higher stage 
of education prevailing among our people renders it possible to 
widen the circles which can be taken into consideration for 
bringing our supply of officers up to its full complement. In 
these days nobility of birth alone cannot, as formerly, claim the 
privilege of supplying the army with its officers. But the nobility 



206 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

of sentiment which has at all times animated our officers shall 
and must be maintained unimpaired, and such result is only 
possible, if our future officers are drawn from those classes in 
which this nobility of sentiment forms the atmosphere of their 
homes. Side by side with the scions of the noble families of the 
land, side by side with the sons of my brave officers and officials, 
who, by old tradition, form the backbone of our body of officers, 
I look to find the future supporters of my army also among the 
sons of honourable families of the middle class, in which love 
of King and Fatherland, warm sympathy with the military class, 
and Christian morality are fostered and cultivated. I cannot 
approve the action of many commanding officers in laying down 
one-sided principles of their own for securing a supply of officers, 
if, for example, they confine within such narrow limits the in- 
tellectual training required of them, that the passing of the 
school-leaving examination is made an indispensable condition 
before a young man can be given his commission. I must dis- 
approve of entry into the army being made dependent upon 
the possession of a substantial private income, a state of things 
which can only keep out of the army the sons of families not 
endowed with much wealth, but in sentiment and conception 
of life closely akin to our officers. In order to check such an 
undesirable state of things, I hereby declare my will and pleasure 
that, as a rule, commanding officers shall not require more than 
forty-five marks private income per month in the Infantry, 
Eifles, Foot Artillery, and Pioneers ; seventy marks in the Field 
Artillery; and one hundred and fifty marks in the Cavalry. I 
am well aware, of course, that the circumstances in large garrisons, 
and particularly those of the troops forming my guard, may call 
for some slight addition to these amounts. But I cannot but 
think it prejudicial to the interests of the army if in the Infantry 
and the Rifles, etc., the necessity for private income rises so high 
as seventy-five to one hundred marks per month, and in some 
cases even more, and in the Cavalry, particularly in the Guards, 
it has reached such a height that it renders it almost impossible 
for a country gentleman to place his sons in his favourite arm 
of the service. Such exaggerated demands can only injure the 
supply of officers, both in respect of quantity and quality. It 



THE EMPEROR AND THE GERMAN ARMY 207 

is against my wishes that in my army the prestige of the officers 
should be in proportion to the amount of private income required 
to join the regiments, and I have a specially high opinion of 
those regiments, the officers of which are able to make themselves 
comfortable with small means, and yet do their duty with that 
satisfaction and cheerfulness which have ever distinguished 
Prussian officers. 

" It is the duty of the commanders of troops to devote all their 
energies to work to this end. They have continually to make it 
clear that it is more than ever necessary to-day to awaken and to 
train up characters, to increase the spirit of self-sacrifice among 
their officers, and to help to accomplish that end their own 
example is of primary importance. Now as I again make it 
the duty of commanding officers to check the manifold excesses 
of luxury which are continually being brought to light in the 
form of costly presents, frequent banquets, and extravagant ex- 
penditure on social occasions and the like, so too do I consider 
it advisable to emphatically oppose the idea that the commander 
himself, by virtue of his position in the service, is called upon to 
make any extensive expenditure for the purpose of entertaining. 
Every officer can, by rendering suitable support to a simple social 
life corresponding to his rank, deserve well of his circle of com- 
rades ; but it is my wish that only generals in command should 
be called upon to entertain, and in my army it should never be 
the case that staff officers with good service to their credit should 
look with regret on the pecuniary sacrifice which presumably 
awaits them in the event of their some day attaining the rank of 
regimental commander. 

" Together with the memoranda concerning candidates for com- 
missions, I will from time to time have reports laid before me 
with regard to the private income and deduction from pay 
customary in different bodies of troops. Now as I am hereby 
determined to make special note of such officers as do not support 
the efforts of their superiors to bring about greater simplicity 
of life, so will I to a large extent form my opinion of all my com- 
manding officers according as to whether they succeed or not in 
attracting a suitable and sufficient supply of young officers, and in 
making the life of their officers as simple and inexpensive as possible. 



208 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

" I desire with all my heart that when his duty is done every 
officer may lead a happy life, but we must earnestly and vigorously 
resist the tendency of luxury to get the upper hand in the army." 

On October 26th, Count Moltke celebrated at Berlin his 
ninetieth birthday. The Emperor celebrated in a truly noble 
and magnificent style the festival of this faithful servant of his 
country. He had for that day all the regimental colours and 
standards of the garrison of Berlin transferred to the residence of 
the venerable Field-Marshal, where these old symbols remained 
till next day. From his own private means the Emperor pre- 
sented the Field-Marshal with a marshal's baton worth several 
hundred thousand marks, a masterpiece of metal, velvet, enamel, 
and brilliants. In company with the King of Saxony, the Grand 
Dukes of Baden, Saxony, and Hesse, with all the field-marshals 
and all the generals in command, the Emperor appeared in person 
at Moltke's residence and there delivered the following speech to 
him: 

" My dear Field-Marshal, I have come to-day with these illus- 
trious gentlemen and the leaders of my army to express to you 
our most hearty and most sincere congratulations. To-day is 
for us a day of retrospect, and above all things a day of gratitude. 
I first of all express to you my thanks in the name of those with 
whom you worked and fought and who have departed from among 
us, but whose most loyal and devoted servant you were. I thank 
you for all you have done for my House, and thereby for the 
furtherance of the greatness of our Fatherland. We greet in 
you not merely the Prussian General who won for our army the 
glory of never being beaten in the field, but also the man who 
helped to found and to fashion our German Empire. You see here 
high and illustrious princes from all parts of Germany, but above 
all his Majesty the King of Saxony, that loyal ally to my grand- 
father, who could not forego the pleasure of testifying to you in 
person his respect. Everything reminds us of the time in which 
he and you had to fight for the greatness of Germany. 

"The high distinctions which my late grandfather conferred 
upon you have left me nothing more in my power but to testify 
with all the emphasis I can my thanks in person. Therefore I 
request you to be good enough to receive from me a token of favour, 
the only one which I, as a young man, am able to tender to you. 



THE EMPEROR AND THE GERMAN ARMY 209 

"It is the prerogative of the monarch to have standing in his 
ante-chamber his regimental colours, those emblems by which 
his army swears allegiance, which flutter in the breeze before 
his army, and which are a visible token of the honour and bravery 
of his army. This privilege I have the most special pride in 
foregoing for to-day, and I request you to be kind enough to 
allow the colours of my guard, which have so often waved in your 
midst in the heat of battle, to be placed in your residence. There 
is a glorious history attached to those ribbons and flags, torn with 
shot, which stand here before you, a history which was for the 
most part written by you. As a personal memento from myself, 
I request you to kindly accept in remembrance of to-day this 
badge of rank with its rich external embellishments. Your own 
proper Field-Marshal's b&ton, which you won in time past amid 
the fire of battle facing the enemy, has long since been resting 
in your hands ; this one is only a symbol, an emblem, as it were, 
of all I can personally offer you in the way of respect, veneration, 
and gratitude. 

" Gentlemen, I request all, with one accord, to unite with me 
in a prayer : May God bless, preserve, and protect our venerable 
Field-Marshal for many a long day for the welfare and honour 
of the Fatherland. We but give expression to our feeling of 
gratitude that, great man that he is, he has been able not 
merely to be present among us, but also to form a school of 
training for the leaders of the army, for the future and for all 
time, who, reared in his spirit, will develop to the utmost the 
greatness, strength, and might of our army, when we call for three 
cheers for his Excellency the Field-Marshal, Count Moltke." 

In the year 1890 a further increase was made in the peace 
strength of the German Army. In a speech from the throne, with 
which the Emperor opened the Eeichstag on the 6th May, amongst 
other things he said : 

" Since the principles of the constitution of our army were laid 
down for a definite period, the organisation of the armies of the 
states whose frontiers are conterminous with our own has been 
extended and completed in a manner not foreseen at the time. 
It is true that we, too, have not omitted to increase our defensive 
p 



210 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

forces so far as this was possible within the limits prescribed by 
the law. However, all that could be done in this respect was not 
sufficient to prevent a dislocation of the general situation to our 
disadvantage. An increase in the peace establishment and additions 
to our troops, especially in the case of the Field Artillery, can no 
longer be delayed. A Bill will be laid before you, according to 
which the necessary increase of the strength of our army will 
come into force on October 1st in this year." 

In the year 1891 the presentation of new colours took place on 
April 18th, and the nailing of the new colours for the newly 
enrolled regiments was performed in the Koyal Castle at Berlin. 
A few hours later, in the presence of the Emperor and Empress, 
the foundation of the new Luther Church was laid. Count Moltke 
also took part in this ceremony. In the afternoon a banquet was 
given, at which the Emperor delivered the following speech : 

" ' Pro Gloria et Patria.' This is the motto for the day. 

" It is a day of retrospect and thoughts of patriotism, of that 
courage and confidence which have never forsaken Prussia and its 
army. If to-day I speak for our whole country, I do it with the 
recollection that 370 years ago, on a certain 18th of April, that 
brave monk of Wittenberg uttered his great saying, ' Here stand 
I, I can do naught else, so help me God.' The first man who in- 
terested himself in the intrepid monk was a warrior named George 
Frundsberg, who cried out to Luther, ' Little monk, little monk, 
thou walkest on a perilous way/ and God blessed the path he 
walked to the salvation of our nation and, above all, of our home. 

" Many a similar path has our nation, our House, and with it 
the Prussian Army, trodden. The 18th of April has always been 
for us a day of memories. On April 18th, 1417, the Burgrave 
Frederick I. was invested with the fief of the Mark of Branden- 
burg.* On April 18th, 1864, Prince Frederick Charles, after a 
long interval of peace, led the Prussian and the Austrian Armies 
at Diippel against a brave enemy, and afforded his troops an 
opportunity of storming the entrenchments of their brave adver- 
saries. In memory of the importance of this anniversary, I have 
presented to the regiments new colours and standards. It is the 
soldier and the army, not Parliamentary majorities and votes, 

* At Constance. See note on p. 302. 



THE EMPEROR AND THE GERMAN ARMY 211 

that have welded the German Empire together. My confidence 
rests upon the army. 

" These are serious times in which we live, and it may be that 
in the coming years evil times are in store for us. But in facing 
them I call to mind the saying of my late grandfather, spoken to 
the officers at Coblenz : ' These are the gentlemen on whom I can 
rely.' That, too, is my belief and confidence. Come what may, 
we will hold high our colours and our traditions, bearing in mind 
the saying and the brave deeds of Albrecht Achilles,* who said, 
4 1 do not know any more reputable place to die in than in the 
midst of my enemies.' That, too, is my own deepest conviction, 
on this rests rny unshakable confidence in the loyalty, the 
courage, and devotion of my army, but first and foremost of all 
my comrades who are posted on the frontier. In this spirit I call 
for three cheers for my army, and for the regiments who have 
received new colours from me to-day." 

A few days after this, on April 25th, at ten o'clock in the even- 
ing, occurred the sudden death of General Field-Marshal Count 
von Moltke of a stroke of apoplexy. The Emperor was at 
Weimar, and sent the following telegram to the relatives of the 
deceased at Berlin : 

"I feel stunned; return at once; beg you to consult Hahnke 
first concerning arrangements for funeral. I have lost an army 
and can scarcely comprehend it. WILLIAM I. K." 

On the next day the Emperor issued the following Cabinet 
Order : 

" By God's inscrutable decree last evening, General Field- 
Marshal Count von Moltke was summoned from this life. With 
deep grief do I see the grey hero, my faithful friend and adviser, 
torn from my side. I most bitterly deplore the irreparable loss 
which with me and my army the whole German Fatherland has 
sustained. High honour be paid to his memory, which for all time 
will live undiinmed on the scroll of the world's history, and will 
be preserved for future generations as the type of the deep 

* Albert, Elector of Brandenburg, 1471-86. "A tall, fiery, tough old gentle- 
man, of formidable talent for fighting, who was called the ' Achilles of Germany ' 
in his day " (Carlyle, Friedrich /., p. 153). Ancestor without break of all sub- 
sequent Hohenzollern Princes. 



212 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

thinker and the great General. To the very last breath of his 
life did the deceased serve me and my illustrious ancestors with 
modest simplicity, self-denying devotion to duty, and unswerving 
loyalty, and by his eminent gifts and by his brilliant achieve- 
ments, both by his victories in war and in the quiet work of 
peace, has done indescribable service for the glory of the army 
and the welfare of the Fatherland, for which our gratitude will 
never fade away." 

On the occasion of the Jubilee of the 150th year of its 
existence, celebrated by the Torgau Battalion of Pioneers, No. 3 
(Von Kauch), on November 25th, 1891, the Emperor said : 

" I have come here to be present at the commemoration day of 
the Von Rauch Battalion of Pioneers, which can look back on a 
great and glorious past ; I have come to-day to do honour to the 
Pioneers as an arm of the service. For though a battalion of 
Pioneers does not strike dismay into the heart of the enemy with 
colours flying and beat of drum, but rather by its invisible labours 
lays open the breach into the entrenchments of the enemy for 
the main body of the infantry to take them by storm, yet it is as 
dear to my heart as are the other arms of the service. 

" I stand in closer connection with the battalion than you 
might have imagined, and I stay with pleasure amidst the officers 
of the battalion which has maintained the old Prussian loyalty 
inviolable, and still maintains it inviolable, but above all for this 
reason, with which many of you may well be unacquainted, that 
I owe to my former instructor, Lieut.-Colonel Diener, who was a 
member of the battalion here, all the knowledge I possess in this 
branch of military science, my knowledge of fortification and of 
military mining. 

" Lieut.-Colonel Diener was free from all prejudices ; he looked 
with an open mind to the future, and did not hesitate to replace 
the traditional or the obsolete by new and correct methods. May 
the influence of Lieut.-Colonel Diener, though he is no longer on 
the active list, be long retained for the benefit of the army. 

" The very name of your arm gives us a pledge that this arm 
must be an arm of progress, for one speaks of pioneers of civilisa- 
tion, pioneers of science, and pioneers of labour, but always in this 
sense that the word connotes progress. 



THE EMPEROR AND THE GERMAN ARMY 213 

" The spirit that pervades the battalion is good, a genuine old 
Prussian spirit. It is iny wish and hope that it may remain so 
for the future. The personality of the commander of the corps 
of Engineers and Pioneers, and that of the present commander 
of this battalion, are a pledge to me that my views in this respect 
will not merely be understood, but also carried into effect. The 
new weapons demand new ideas in the science of fortification. 
It is therefore your duty to look to the goal steadfastly, and free 
and untrammelled by preconceived notions. I do not doubt that 
if ever demands are made on the battalion like those at Schweid- 
nitz, Diippel, and Alsen, that the battalion will then once more 
twine new laurels in the glorious scroll of the Prussian Army. 
The heroic deed of Klinke* and his comrades, which to some 
extent belongs to the battalion, or, at any rate, to this arm of the 
service, has become a pattern and emblem for subsequent genera- 
tions in the battalion. 

" I confidently expect that my Pioneers will ever, as heretofore, 
for the future lead the way for my army, and explode the breach 
through which the hand of the storming party can be thrust. 

"Well, then, let us drink to the health of the Von Kauch 
Battalion of Pioneers, and to the hope that yet other battalions of 
this arm of the service may be able to celebrate a like festival. 
Prosperity to the Von Eauch Battalion of Pioneers ! " 

The year 1892 brought with it a new Army Bill, the object 
of which was to increase the peace strength of the German Army. 
Before the Bill was introduced into the Eeichstag (the Imperial 
Chancellor, Count Caprivi, did not deliver the speech, in which 
he introduced it into the Eeichstag, till November 27th), it was 
very hotly discussed in the newspapers. 

On August 18th, after the review on the Tempelhof Field, 
the Emperor delivered a speech to the superior officers, in which, 
in referring to his criticism of the review, he expressed in very 
vigorous and unmistakable language his surprise at the fact that 
of late, to an increasing extent, exclusively military matters have 
been discussed in the daily press, amongst them points of such 
purely theoretical character as the shooting trials with rifles of 

* At the storming of the second entrenchment at Dtippel, Pioneer Klinke, at 
the sacrifice of his own life, blew up with a bag of powder a wall of palisades which 
was dealing widespread death and destruction to the storming columns. 



214 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

a new calibre. He especially disapproved of the articles in the 
press, which could only have been the work of military hands, 
and which passed very various opinions on the projected increase 
of the army; and in particular discussed far-reaching questions 
of army organisation from the point of view of economy, even 
referring to the introduction of a two years' service as though 
it were within the range of possibility. 

Discussions of this kind on an Army Bill, to which he had not 
yet even given his approval, belonged entirely to the realm of 
fancy. In the opinion of extensive circles, a two years' military 
service appeared to be an arrangement fitting to the time, but 
it was inconceivable without a guarantee of some special equiva- 
lent service to redress the loss. Even if the majority in the 
Keichstag was not patriotic enough to pass at the same time as 
the Bill, based on a two years' service, the necessary supple- 
mentary measures to which he had referred, he declared that 
he would still rather have a small well-disciplined army than 
a great mass of men. 

On November 22nd the Emperor opened in person the second 
session of the eighth German Keichstag, and in his speech from 
the throne said with reference to the new Army Bill : 

" In the peaceful relations in which we stand to all Powers, and 
in the consciousness that in the pursuit of our common aim we 
shall also for the future continue to enjoy that efficient support 
of the Federal States to which we are so much indebted, I 
venture to cherish the hope that Germany will not be disturbed 
in its peaceful endeavour to further its ideal and economic 
interests. 

"Yet the development of the defensive power of other 
European States renders it a serious and even imperative duty 
for us also to take into consideration the development of the 
powers of defence of the Empire by thorough -going measures. 
In effecting this development, it is only by carrying jiut the well- 
t.n'pd ^prinm'plA^kf :..nm'vArBa,l rmlitsuy aftrYvg that we can expect 
that those qualities of our army, on which its strength and its 
high reputation are based, can continue to secure for Germany 
also for the future that position of authority amongst the Powers 
which she has hitherto enjoyed. The allied Governments, unani- 
mously impressed by this conviction, are proposing for your 
acceptance a Bill, which, by a further readjustment of the peace 



THE EMPEROR AND THE GERMAN ARMY 215 

strength of our army, enables us to utilise to the full our defensive 
power. In this proposal they do not labour under any delusion 
as to the magnitude of the sacrifice demanded from the nation J 
only they feel with me confident that the necessity of this sacrifice 
will be more and more widely recognised, and the patriotic feeling 
of the people will be ready to bear those burdens, which must 
needs be borne for the honour and safety of the Fatherland. In 
the effort to lighten these burdens as far as practicable, the term 
of service in the army will, in point of fact, be reduced to the 
minimum which is acknowledged as permissible from a military 
point of view. At the same time, owing to the higher standard 
of education and the availability of younger recruits for the 
conscription, not merely will a sensible inequality in the in- 
cidence of universal service be redressed, but also the economic 
and military drawback which is involved by drawing recruits 
from an older class of men will be diminished. At the same 
time relief will be afforded to recruits of this age, to an extent 
which they have not been able to enjoy under the present 
arrangements. 

" In order not to burden the Budgets of the Federal States with 
the provision of the necessary means for the army, it is intended 
to procure these means by tapping new sources of revenue for the 
Empire. Consequently, Bills are at present awaiting the decision 
of the Federal Council, which provide for an increase of the 
duties on beer, brandy, and certain stock exchange transactions. 
In spite of the not inconsiderable increase of expenditure, which, 
however, as a rule keeps within the limits laid down in the 
estimates, or is based upon their legal obligations, for which the 
Imperial Budget has to make provision for the coming year, 
the Federal States will receive from the Empire in the assign- 
ments * due to them more than sufficient cover for the matricular 
contributions * which all furnish in common. Having regard to 

* Every excess of expenditure over revenue on the part of the German Empire 
is met by dividing the deficit among the Federal States in proportion to their 
population ; the amount thus payable by each State is its ' ' matricular contribution. " 
Six and a half million pounds sterling of the proceeds of customs duties, tobacco tax, 
etc., go to the Imperial Exchequer, the remainder being distributed amongst the 
States in the form of assignments (Uberweisungen) to enable them to meet their 
matricular contribution. (See The German Empire of To-Day, by "Veritas," p. 291). 



216 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

the demands which the Bill drafted for the development of our 
army organisation and the financial proposals connected there- 
with make upon your energies, besides the Budget of the allied 
Governments, only those measures will be submitted to you, the 
passage of which seems to be a matter of special urgency. 

" Gentlemen, in inviting you to enter on your labours, I know 
there is no necessity for any special exhortation to carry out your 
discussions in a patriotic spirit. The firm will of the people to 
maintain the inheritance of their fathers, to secure peace, and to 
preserve for the beloved Fatherland its most precious possessions 
will, I am convinced, lead you to a unanimous decision on the 
principles brought forward by me and my illustrious allies. If 
this is the case, the Empire will be able to face the future without 
apprehension, trusting in God and in its own strength." 

Both the last months of the year 1892 and the beginning of 
the year 1893 were largely occupied with the Army Bill, which 
had little prospect of being accepted by the Keichstag, seeing that 
even the Conservatives were inclined to vote against the measure. 
On January 1st, 1893, at his New Year's reception of the generals, 
the Emperor delivered a speech, in which he expressed himself 
very sharply against the opposition to the Bill. He declared he 
would " smash this opposition." 

On January 7th the Kreuzzeitung gave up its previous opposi- 
tion to the Bill. On May 6th there was a division in the Reichstag, 
which gave 210 votes against and 162 votes for the first section 
of the Army Bill ; this was immediately followed by a dissolution 
of the Reichstag. 

On May 9th, after an inspection, the Emperor delivered the 
following speech to the generals and staff officers on the Tempelhof 
Field: 

" Since we saw one another last, some changes have taken place 
with regard to the Army Bill. I could not have anticipated its 
rejection, and had hoped that it would have been passed un- 
conditionally by the patriotic spirit of the Reichstag. I was, 
unfortunately, deceived in that expectation. A minority of 
patriotically minded men was unable to do anything against the 
majority. In the debates passionate words were spoken which 
are not heard with pleasure among educated men. I had to pro- 
ceed to a dissolution, and I hope to obtain from a new Reichstag 



THE EMPEROR AND THE GERMAN ARMY 217 

the approval of the Army Bill. Should, however, I be dis- 
appointed in this hope too, I am determined to do all I can to 
attain my object, for I am too strongly convinced of the neces- 
sity of these proposals in order that I may be able to pre- 
serve the general peace. There has been some talk of inciting 
the masses. I do not believe that the German people will allow 
itself to be stirred up by outsiders. On the contrary, I know 
that in these army proposals I am at one with the Federal 
Princes, with the people, and with the army. I thank you, 
gentlemen, I wanted merely to express my views in your presence, 
as I did at the first inception of the Bill." 

When on July 15th the Army Bill passed the Eeichstag, the 
Emperor sent telegrams to Herr Stumm, one of the Deputies, and 
to the leader of the Poles, von Koscielski. The telegram to the 
latter ran as follows : 

" I thank you and your countrymen for your loyalty to me and 
my House. You are a pattern for all. For your devoted work I 
confer on you the Order of the Crown, 2nd Class." 

On September 2nd, 1893, the review of the Eighth Army Corps 
took place near Treves. In the afternoon of the same day a 
review dinner was given at Coblenz, at which also Crown 
Prince Victor Emmanuel of Italy (the present King) was present. 
At the banquet the Emperor delivered the following speech : 

" My honoured generals, nine years have now passed since the 
corps last had its imperial manoeuvres. The Emperor William 
held the review. Her Majesty the Empress Augusta led her 
regiment past the saluting point. My father and Field-Marshal 
Count Moltke were amongst the spectators. Since then all these 
exalted personages have been taken from us, and with the dignity 
of the Crown the baton of supreme command over the Prussian 
Army and over the German Army has passed into my hands. 

"To-day I express to you from the bottom of my heart my 
entire satisfaction and my royal thanks for the manner in which 
you have trained my Eighth Army Corps. You have known how, 
following the old Prussian tradition a tradition which rests upon 
the experiences of centuries to act up to the praise which my 
late grandfather lavished on his corps, and to maintain the corps 
at that high pitch of excellence which your monarchs expect from 



' "'* 





. 



218 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

you. I express my congratulations for to-day's review to you 
and to the entire corps from this place, from which so many 
a word has already been addressed to you. We are assembled 
in the house in which, before his accession to the throne, with 
earnest and devoted labour, the Emperor William quietly worked 
out his schemes and made his preparations in order to fashion the 
Prussian Army into that instrument which was destined one day, 
in union with their German brothers, to unite our German Empire, 
and to restore it to its former glory. 

"And to you, gentlemen of the Queen Augusta Regiment, I here 
speak words of farewell. You are leaving a place where the 
regiment has been quartered for three-and-thirty years in cordial 
and close intimacy with the citizens, where it has grown up and 
developed under the eyes of a chief who cared for her regiment 
in a way that can scarcely be surpassed. The eyes of the late 
Empress rested on the regiment at every moment, and your 
earnest work in time of peace, as well as the laurels which you 
twined round your colours, have always found their crown and 
reward in the constant favour evinced by the chief to her 
regiment. Those yet among you who took part in them can 
remember, with grateful heart all through their lives, the happy 
hours which the Empress always knew how to confer on her 
regiment, and how earnest and how soldierly her conception of 
your duties was, is shown specially by those glorious moments 
when the young recruits of the regiment were privileged to take 
the oath of allegiance in her presence by the grand staircase 
of this hall before their colours, and once even personally to the 
Emperor William himself. What high value her Majesty laid 
upon this oath, she proclaimed by telling me personally that one 
could not explain to the young soldier soon enough the full 
weight of his responsibility and the greatness of his duty laid 
upon him. How she followed all the vicissitudes of the regiment ! 
I remember, above all, the day when it marched to the front, 
when she, with tears in her eyes and her blessing, dismissed the 
regiment, and called to the officers that, come what might, they 
must always feel and conduct themselves as sons of their mother. 
And when on the evening of the bloody day of St. Privat, after 
a hard-fought victory, the regiment left three-quarters of its 



THE EMPEROR AND THE GERMAN ARMY 219 

officers on the field of battle, the survivors, true to the spirit 
of those who fell in the battle, announced to her Majesty that 
they had remained faithful to their oath and their promise as sons 
of their mother and had done their duty. 

"Well, gentlemen, you are leaving this station. May the 
memory of your exalted chief ever be an incentive to the 
regiment to remain at its high level of efficiency. We, your com- 
rades of this corps, all bid you farewell, and I bid you welcome 
to your new home. May you find yourselves at home on the 
soil of Brandenburg, and develop there the same efficiency that 
you have developed here. I am firmly convinced, my dear Loe, 
that although no one of the great men, in whose presence you 
commanded the corps nine years ago, is any longer among us, 
yet these were in the spirit present with us to-day, and were 
well content, as I am, with the Eighth Army Corps." 

The Emperor's address in the Lustgarten, at Berlin, on Novem- 
ber 15th, 1894, on the occasion of the swearing of the recruits, 
ran as follows : 

" Now that you have just taken the oath to me, I greet you as 
my soldiers. If you will be good soldiers, you must also be good 
Christians and religious at heart. A special coat of honour has 
been given you as soldiers of my guard. Do not forget that you 
wear the uniform of your King. Hold that uniform in honour, 
and reflect that you enjoy the advantage of serving under my 
eyes, and that on your enrolment in the army you have gained in 
distinction. Look now at the colours standing before you, with 
which is entwined a glorious history. Never suffer them to be 
insulted; think of the statues of kings and generals that look 
down upon you, think of your oath, then you will be good soldiers. 
Never forget that you are called to be defenders of our Father- 
land, that you are bound to uphold order and religion in the 
land. Now go, do your duty, which shall be taught you by my 
command." 

The year 1895 brought a number of twenty-fifth anniversaries 
of the campaign of 1870. The Emperor celebrated the anniver- 
sary of St. Privat, on August 15th, by a grand review of the First 
Brigade of Infantry of the Guard. In connection with this he 
delivered the following speech : 



220 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

" Comrades of the First Brigade of Infantry of the Guard. 

"I have assembled you here to-day in order to join you in 
commemorating the glorious day of St. Privat, on which, fi ve-and- 
twenty years ago, the Prussian Guard keeping their oath with 
well-tried loyalty and devotion twined new laurels round the 
old colours, so often crowned with victory. The Guard was 
privileged to win the victory under the personal leadership of 
the great Emperor, suffering, it is true, heavy and severe losses, 
but displaying the traditional courage and steadfastness of 
Brandenburgers. 

" But I will remind you, grenadiers of the First Regiment of 
Guards, of the tenth anniversary of this day, and how the great 
Emperor William, fifteen years ago to-day, stepped into the square 
to salute you on this glorious day. He told you on that occasion 
that for him the First Kegiment of Guards stood before him as 
representatives of the whole army, and that the words he ad- 
dressed to you were meant for the whole army. 

"So let it be, too, to-day. I will bestow on the regiment to- 
day a special mark of recognition, and confer on it a token of my 
royal gratitude. You shall, from henceforth, bear on your colours 
the ribbon of the Order of the Black Eagle, with the Badge of 
this Order. The colours of my House shall henceforth be dis- 
played before the regiment as a fresh exhortation to maintain, as 
has hitherto always been the case, the loyalty to me and my 
House which they have sworn, and that they may know that 
they are connected with me by a special tie of personal association. 

" But you others ought to regard this honour as one which is 
at the same time paid to you too, and always keep in your 
memory the great day on which, by your victory, you helped to 
accomplish the unity of Germany. You ought to feel it an 
honour that I have assembled you round me to-day in this place 
to stand before the house, with which are associated so many 
joyous as well as painful memories of the heroic Emperor 
Frederick, who has so often seen the representatives of the army, 
the Depot Battalion of Infantry, march past him in this place. 

" But should it ever come about that I am compelled to summon 
my army to the frontiers for the protection of the Fatherland, 
then I expect that the First Brigade of Infantry of the Guard 



THE EMPEROR AND THE GERMAN ARMY 221 

will at all times do its duty with the same loyalty and devotion 
which it exhibited five-and-twenty years ago to-day at St. Privat." 

Almost fourteen thousand veterans attended a military fete on 
the Tempelhof Field, near Berlin, on August 19th. The Emperor 
appeared on horseback at this general muster of the Veterans' 
Societies and addressed the following words to the old soldiers : 

" Attention ! Following the example of my glorious grand- 
father, we have begun our commemoration of the great day of 
St. Privat with thanksgiving to God because he was on our side 
and helped to win the victory for the just cause. Without any 
feeling of vainglory, with full recognition of the brave devotion 
with which our enemy fought, we are proud that by this victory 
our Fatherland once more became united. 

"I am glad to welcome here among you so many veteran 
warriors of my grandfather. May to-day be a new starting- 
point, both for you and to others through your example, again to 
work for your King and for your Fatherland by peaceful means, 
and true to the oath you once swore to the colours, to oppose those 
tendencies which lead to revolution by cultivating respect for the 
law, by cultivating religion, by cultivating love of your Eoyal 
House, and in a true soldierly spirit to rally round your King. 
May you take this with you as the task I lay upon you, and may 
you teach it to your children. 

"In special recognition of the performances of the army 
five-and-twenty years ago, I yesterday issued an Army Order 
commanding that all Knights of the Iron Cross shall receive a 
silver oakleaf bearing the number ' 25,' and that all possessors of 
war medals who were present at any battle shall receive clasps to 
their Orders on which shall be inscribed the battles and engage- 
ments, so that everyone who sees you may immediately recognise 
at what place you distinguished yourselves. From these marks 
you may learn how gratefully my heart beats towards you, and how 
truly I believe that I am acting in the spirit of my grandfather. 
Now go and do what I have commanded you." 

The five-and-twentieth anniversary of the Battle of Sedan was 
celebrated in Berlin by a review of the Corps of Guards on 
September 2nd. King Albert of Saxony, to whose army in 1870-1 



222 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

the Prussian Corps of Guards had belonged, also attended this 
review. King William II. of Wurtemberg was also present at 
the festival. At the banquet the Emperor spoke in the following 
terms : 

" If to-day I propose the health of my Guards, it is because my 
heart is moved with joy, for solemn and beautiful beyond ordinary 
is to-day's commemoration. The whole people kindled into wild 
enthusiasm formed the background for to-day's review, and the 
feeling that prompted this enthusiasm was the recollection of the 
figure and the personality of the great departed Emperor. Who- 
ever yesterday or to-day looked at the colours adorned with the 
oakleaf cannot have done so without a sorrowful feeling stealing 
across his heart ; for the spirit and the words which spoke to us 
from the rustling of these tattered colours told of the great 
events which happened five-and-twenty years ago, of the great 
hour, of the great day when the German Empire rose again. 
Fierce was the battle, hot the strife, and mighty the forces which 
met in conflict. Bravely fought the enemy for his laurels; the 
brave French Army fought for its past, for its Emperor, with the 
courage of despair. The Germans fought for their possessions, 
their hearths and homes, and the unity which was to be theirs, 
and that is why our hearts are so strongly stirred, that everyone 
who has worn the Emperor's uniform, or who still wears it to-day, 
is during these days treated with special honour by the people, a 
signal outburst of gratitude towards the Emperor William I., and 
on us, especially the younger men among us, lies the task of 
maintaining what the Emperor established. 

" Yet amidst this high, noble, festal joy is struck a note which 
is indeed out of harmony with it. A mob of men, unworthy of 
bearing the name of Germans, dares to insult the German people, 
dares to drag in the dust the, to us, hallowed person of the 
venerated deceased Emperor. May the entire nation put out its 
strength to repel these unheard-of affronts. If this is not done, 
I call on you to defend us from this band of traitors, and to do 
battle to deliver us from such elements. 

"Still I cannot empty my glass to the health of my Guards 
without thinking of him under whose command they fought five- 
and-twenty years ago to-day. The former Commander of the Army 



THE EMPEROR AND THE GERMAN ARMY 223 

of the Meuse is standing before you. For the last five-and-twenty 
years his Majesty the King of Saxony has loyally shared with us 
all the joys and all the sorrows which have visited our House and 
country. Likewise, too, the King of Wiirtemberg, whose highest 
satisfaction it is to have stood in the ranks of the Hussar 
Kegiment of Guards and to have served the Emperor William, 
and who hastened hither to celebrate with us this day in true 
comradeship. As I have said, we can only vow to maintain what 
these gentlemen have won for us. I therefore conclude with a 
health to the Corps of Guards, to the health of the two noble 
rulers, and, above all, to the Commander of the Army of the 
Meuse, his Majesty the King of Saxony. Long life to him ! " 

Immediately after this King Albert rose to propose the follow- 
ing toast : 

" In thanking your Majesty in my own name and that of the 
King of Wurtemberg for your gracious words, I venture to place 
myself once more to-day at the head of the Corps of Guards, 
and in its name to empty my glass in honour of its exalted Chief. 
His Majesty the Emperor's Health." 

On October 30th the Light Infantry Battalion of Guards kept 
the anniversary of Le Bourget, on which occasion the Emperor 
made the following speech : 

"With sincere gratitude have I heard the vow which the 
Commanding Officer of the Light Infantry Battalion of Guards 
has just made on behalf of the officers and members of the 
battalion, both on the active and the retired lists. 

"If, to-day, I rise to speak in this place, it is under special 
circumstances which excite deep emotion in my heart in address- 
ing you. For only a few weeks ago I rode over* the whole 
ground which the Light Infantry Battalion of Guards traversed 
under the fire of the enemy, suffering terrible losses, in order to 
realise the task which the brave battalion had to perform. I can 
only repeat that the feelings which stole over me and the officers 
in attendance on me were so overpowering, that one can only bare 
one's head in silence at the thought of such heroism. It was incom- 
prehensible to me that any living thing could have remained alive. 

* In the middle of October the Emperor was in the Imperial Territories, and 
had visited the battlefields. 



224 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

" But, as the Commanding Officer has already impressed upon 
us, let us trace back these heroic deeds to their ultimate source, 
the spirit implanted by my grandfather. It is my wish, and 
I exhort you to see that the three supreme military virtues 
fostered by that spirit sense of honour, blind and absolute 
obedience, and a bravery that overcomes all opposition may 
continue for the future also to be cherished in the battalion, and 
in the entire army, for so long as this is done we can face every 
emergency with a tranquil mind. 

"In his Order to Prince Frederick Charles, my grandfather 
declared, * without August 16th, no 18th, and without this no 
September 2nd.' So may these great days remain inscribed in 
indelible letters on our inmost hearts. We will preserve and 
extend what our forefathers won for us. Confident that the 
Light Infantry Battalion of the Guards uses its utmost endeavours 
to the peaceful attainment of this object, and if need arise, to 
gathering new laurels in war to entwine with the old, I empty 
my glass to the health of the battalion. Three cheers for the 
Light Infantry Battalion of the Guards." 

On January 1st, 1897, a Cabinet Order was issued by the 
Emperor, the object of which was to prevent duelling among 
the officers. 

"I forward to the Ministry of War herewith the regulations 
signed by me to-day supplementing the introductory order of the 
ordinance of May 2nd, 1874, relating to the Courts of Honour of 
the officers of the Prussian Army, with instructions to make 
known the aforesaid regulations to the army, and with further 
directions that commanding officers are to direct the attention of 
officers to these regulations at frequent intervals. 

" To the Ministry of War. 

"It is my will and pleasure that more vigorous steps than 
heretofore be taken to prevent duels between my officers. The 
occasions for duels are often of a trivial character, private quarrels 
and affronts, an amicable settlement of which could be effected 
without detriment to military honour. 

" Officers must admit the injustice of attacking the honour of 
another. But if an officer has done this wrong by some hasty 



THE EMPEROR AND THE GERMAN ARMY 225 

impulse or in a moment of excitement, he is acting in a chivalrous 
spirit if, instead of persisting in his wrong, he makes advances 
with a view to an amicable settlement. In like manner, whoever 
has suffered any insult or affront is bound to accept any advances 
made with a view to a reconciliation, so far as military honour and 
good morals allow. 

"It is therefore my will and pleasure that the Court of 
Honour shall on principle co-operate to effect an arrangement 
in affairs of honour. It has to carry out this duty with the 
conscientious endeavour to bring about an amicable settle- 
ment." 

On June 16th, 1897, the Emperor and Empress were at Liegnitz 
to celebrate the hundredth anniversary of the formation of the 
King's Kegiment of Grenadiers. The Emperor delivered the 
following speech at the officers' mess-room: 

"Gentlemen of the King's Kegiment of Grenadiers, old and 
young. 

" Assuredly no one will be surprised if I feel no little emotion 
in standing before you and addressing you to-day on the 
hundredth birthday of the regiment. A few days ago the 
regiment would have had the great Emperor as its chief for 
eighty years, and yesterday was the ninth anniversary of the 
death of its second supreme commander. So far as man could 
see, the great Emperor might well have been standing on this 
spot, or, at least, his son could have addressed you certainly out 
of the fulness of his heart and with a more eloquent tongue than 
mine. But it was otherwise decided by God's disposal and decree, 
and now I stand before you, as their successor on the throne and 
in supreme command of my army, to tender you in the name 
of my predecessors my hearty congratulations and my royal 
thanks for what the regiment has achieved. The regiment lives 
on historic ground. On a spot where once in the Middle Ages 
German bravery stemmed the onslaught of the Slav, and thereby 
saved the civilisation of the West, has the regiment grown great, 
surrounded by the memorials of the glorious campaigns of 
Frederick the Great. 

" The regiment has a history without parallel. I need merely 
Q 



226 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

mention the landmarks of Etoges and Weissenburg ; but the 
regiment has distinguished itself, not merely on the field of battle, 
but also in more peaceful work and in the training of generals ; 
and when I see all the generals and staff-officers, old and young, 
who have proceeded from the regiment, it is a proof of the spirit 
existing in this regiment. This spirit, which I wish may remain, 
may be maintained, and preserved in this regiment, also, thank 
God, prevails throughout the entire army ; and the more per- 
sistently it is cultivated in the army, the more efficient it is, for 
the main strength of the army is the power and force of tradition, 
and tradition is specially strong in this regiment. It is the power 
of tradition which on the field of battle as well as in peace makes 
men's hearts beat higher for king and country, and inspires them 
to brave deeds. When I now take my glass and drink to the 
health of the regiment, I do it in remembrance of my late grand- 
father, to whom, when he was a young man, this regiment was 
given as a reward for his bravery and for the brave conduct 
of the regiment. This regiment may look back with pride on a 
glorious past. I greet it in the name of those who fell at Geisberg, 
whose graves I have just seen. The monuments and the graves 
of the fallen were visible to me from the distance. I do it in the 
hope that this regiment will throughout its history distinguish 
itself by brave deeds and devotion to duty, and will continue to 
put in practice the same sentiments as heretofore." 

On November 16th, 1897, the oath of allegiance was admin- 
istered to the recruits of the Potsdam garrison. The Emperor 
addressed the newly sworn recruits, saying, amongst other things : 

"He who is no good Christian is no good man and also no 
Prussian soldier, and can under no circumstances perform what 
is required of a soldier in the Prussian Army. Your duty is not 
light. It demands of you self-discipline and self-denial, the two 
highest qualities of the Christian ; also absolute obedience and 
submission to the will of your superiors." 

On June 15th, 1898, the tenth anniversary of his accession, 
the Emperor assembled the regiments of Life Guards in the 
Lustgarten at Potsdam, and delivered the following address to 
them : 



THE EMPEROR AND THE GERMAN ARMY 227 

"The most important inheritance which my illustrious grand- 
father and father bequeathed to me, and which I entered upon 
with joy and pride, is the army. To my army did I address my 
first proclamation when I ascended the throne, and to it do I now 
again address my words on entering into this new decade, to you 
who are now assembled here the First Eegiment of Foot Guards, 
in which I was brought up, the regiment of the King's Body- 
guard as being the most distinguished regiment of the Guards of 
the Prussian Kings, the regiment of Hussars of the Life Guards 
which I myself have commanded, and the Depot Battalion of 
Infantry which represents the entire army, and which in Potsdam 
enjoys the honour of furnishing the guard for the King and his 
House. Scarcely ever was an army plunged into so great grief as 
was mine in the year 1888. Never has an army in the course of 
a single year lost two so mighty leaders crowned with laurels and 
the glory of victory, who were also at the same time its supreme 
commanders. 

"With deep gratitude do I look upon the years which have 
elapsed since then. Seldom, indeed, has a time of such trouble 
passed over the head of a successor to a throne, who had to see 
his grandfather and his father die within so short a space. With 
deep sorrow did I take up the crown ; on all sides men doubted 
me ; on all sides did I encounter misconceptions. One thing alone 
had confidence in me, one thing alone believed in me it was the 
army, and supported by it, and relying upon our God as of old, 
I undertook my heavy office, knowing well that the army was the 
main support of my country, the main pillar of the Prussian 
throne, to which God's decree had called me. So then I turn first 
of all to-day to you and express to you my congratulations and 
thanks, in which I, at the same time, include with you all your 
brothers in the army. I am firmly convinced that during the 
last ten years, by the self-sacrificing devotion of officers and men, 
by its loyal, devoted work in peace, the army has been maintained 
in that splendid condition in which I received it from the hands 
of my late grandfather. During the next ten years we will 
continue to work together in loyal association, with unquestioning 
fulfilment of our duty, with the old unwearied industry ; and may 
the main pillars of our army ever be unassailed ; these are, bravery, 



228 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

sense of honour, and absolute, iron, blind obedience. That is my 
wish which I address to you and with you to the whole army." 

The Emperor began the year 1899 in military respects by an 
act of piety. He revived the traditions of the Hanoverian and 
Hessian regiments, which disappeared in consequence of the 
annexation of the two countries in the year 1866 and the in- 
corporation of their contingents in the Prussian Army. 

On January 24th, 1899, on the Waterloo Square in Hanover, 
the Emperor held a review of the troops in garrison there, and 
issued to them the following Cabinet Order of January 24th. 

" To the Staff of the Tenth Army Corps. 

"When my grandfather, now resting in God, in the year 1870 
drew the sword to repel the enemy's invasion, the brave sons of 
Hanover stood loyally by their new King and their German Father- 
land, and displayed the old Hanoverian bravery on bloody fields 
of battle. On the imperishable scrolls of honour of the past they 
inscribed the new names of Spichern, Metz, Beaune la Kolande, 
Le Mans. Thus did they show themselves worthy of their an- 
cestors, the victors of Krefeld, Minden, and Waterloo, as well as 
the brave warriors on the Spanish Peninsula. I have resolved 
to revive the memories which are so dear to you and to the 
whole Province of Hanover, and which on the dissolution of 
the Hanoverian Army lost the chief centre where they were 
cherished. From henceforth the Prussian troops, among whom 
the old Hanoverian warriors were incorporated, are to be the 
bearers of the traditions of the former Hanoverian regiments 
and to perpetuate their distinctions. I will thereby give to 
the warriors of 1870 and 1871 both a new token of my royal 
gratitude, and also a recognition of the many specially eminent 
services which have won for the Hanoverian soldiers at all times 
an honourable name. At the same time, I cherish the hope that 
now all former members of the Hanoverian Army will find once 
more the centre so long missed, round which, in the circle of their 
younger comrades, they can cherish the proud memories of their 
ancestors." 

At the subsequent lunch given in the officers' mess-room of the 
Prince Albert Kegiment of Fusiliers at Hanover, the Emperor, 



THE EMPEROR AND THE GERMAN ARMY 229 

according to the Hanover Courier, delivered the following 
speech : 

" One of the main principles which, so long as I have had the 
honour to be at the head of my army, I have in all places pro- 
claimed and upheld, is tradition, and this thought led me to form 
the resolution which has been carried into execution to-day. I 
believe that I can rely upon the approval of all if I assume that 
the honours ordered by me to-day have filled the hearts of 
all of you with joy, because by their means tradition is preserved 
and the glorious names of the past are revived. With all my 
heart do I congratulate the Tenth Army Corps, that it can now 
look back with pride on the glorious days of the Hanoverian 
Army, the days of Krefeld, Minden, and Waterloo. But I have 
been, above all, influenced by this aspect of the case, that I have 
regarded it as a special hardship to the old soldier living in retire- 
ment, that he no longer has the privilege of sharing joy and 
sorrow with his comrades in the army. I deemed it desirable to 
fill this void for you to-day by reviving the traditions of the 
Hanoverian regiments in the new regiments of the Tenth Army 
Corps, and thereby reawakening in the minds of these gentlemen 
the memory of the military days of their youth. The members 
of the old Hanoverian Army may now find themselves quite at 
home in the regiments of the Tenth Army Corps and the other 
Hanoverian troops. And may the Tenth Army Corps ever remain 
conscious of the proud exploits of the old Hanoverian Army." 

A great gambling trial and various scandals revealed the fact 
that usury was systematically practised on officers. In order to 
check this evil, the Emperor issued the following Cabinet Order 
on February 23rd, 1899 : 

"I have repeatedly had my attention drawn by occurrences 
of late to the frequency with which the sordid offers of pro- 
fessional money-lenders are sent to the officers of my army. 
The thoughtlessness of youth and want of experience in monetary 
affairs frequently result in the opportunity thus presented giving 
rise to grievous distress, nay, even to absolute ruin. I wish to 
be assured that all possible means have been taken to remove 
temptations of this kind from my officers. My Order of July 5th, 



230 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

1888, which sought to effect this, must always be regarded by 
every officer as my earnest will. I decree that for the future 
every officer has to report to his superiors without delay all such 
sordid offers of money as are forwarded to him. I require the 
general staffs and other competent military authorities, when 
once the punishable nature of the offer is established, and if 
possible a judicial verdict obtained from the courts, to com- 
municate all such cases forthwith to the Ministry of War. The 
latter has then to take the necessary steps to publish the names 
of the men who carry on this kind of business and details of 
the case. This, my Order, is to be published in ^he Army 
Gazette." 

At the command of the Emperor, the commencement of the 
twentieth century was celebrated on January 1st, 1900. 

On this New Year's Day, a camp service was held in the 
Arsenal at Berlin, after which the Emperor delivered the follow- 
ing speech to the assembled officers : 

" The first day of the new century sees our army that is to 
say, our nation in arms gathered round its regimental colours, 
kneeling before the Lord of Hosts ; and truly, if anyone has a 
special reason to kneel before God to-day, it is our army. A 
glance at our colours suffices to explain my meaning, for they 
are the embodiment of our history. How did the century just 
past find our army at its dawn ? The glorious army of Frederick 
the Great had fallen asleep on its laurels, and had become fossil- 
ised in the petty details of military pedantry ; its generals were 
decrepit with age and incapable in war; its officers had grown 
unaccustomed to strenuous work, and were sunk in luxury, self- 
indulgence, and inordinate self-esteem. In a word, the army had 
not only become incompetent to do its duty, it had forgotten 
it. Sore was the retribution from heaven which overtook it and 
smote our nation. It was humbled to the dust, the glory of 
Frederick faded away, its colours were broken to pieces. In the 
seven long years of bitterest servitude God taught our nation 
to recover its senses, and under the weight of the foot of a 
haughty conqueror our people evolved from its heart the noblest 
of thoughts, that it is the highest honour to devote life and 



THE EMPEROR AND THE GERMAN ARMY 231 

goods in military service to the Fatherland: universal liability 
to service. My great-grandfather gave it form and life, fresh 
laurels crowned the newly created army and its young colours. 
But yet universal military service only acquired its peculiar 
significance under the influence of our great departed Emperor. 
In the retirement of his study he laid his plans of reorganisa- 
tion for our army, in spite of the resistance offered by ignorance. 
Yet victorious campaigns crowned his work in a manner never 
anticipated. His spirit inspired the ranks of his army, just as 
his trust in God spurred it on to unexampled victories. With 
this, his own creation, he brought the German peoples together 
again, and restored to us the German unity so long desired. To 
him we owe it that by virtue of this army the German Empire 
again commands respect, and resumes its appointed place in the 
council of the nations. Gentlemen, it now lies with you to main- 
tain, also in the new century, the old qualities by which our 
forefathers made the army great, and to put them into practice : 
simplicity and unassuming modesty in daily life, absolute sur- 
render of self to the service of the King, and entire devotion of 
all the powers of body and mind with restless energy to the 
perfecting and development of our troops. And as my grand- 
father did for his land army, so, too, will I for my navy in the 
same manner, without faltering, continue and carry through 
the work of reorganisation, so that it, too, may be able to stand 
with equal authority at the side of my combative forces on land, 
and that by its means the German Empire may be in a position 
to win also abroad a place it has never yet attained. With 
both combined, I hope to be able, with firm confidence on God's 
guidance, to realise the truth of the saying of Frederick William I.: 
" If one will decide anything in the world, the pen will not do 
it unless it is sustained by the power of the sword." 

In a special edition the Army Gazette published the following 
Army Order : 

" To my Army. 

"The century is now ended which at its commencement saw 
the Fatherland in its deepest humiliation, and the conclusion of 
which was crowned by the restoration of Emperor and Empire. 



232 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

"The German Empire had collapsed under the blows of the 
conqueror, the might of Prussia had dwindled away, and the 
army of the great King, which had triumphantly bidden defiance 
to a world in arms, had ceased to exist. 

"It is true that after seven never-to-be-forgotten years of 
suffering, Prussia, with marvellous recuperative power and all the 
strength of a people driven to despair, burst the chains of foreign 
domination, and thereby gave back Germany to itself. It is true 
that in the War of Liberation its newly created army entwined 
countless wreaths of glory round its banners, yet the highest 
reward for its self-sacrificing devotion was still denied to our 
Fatherland, and the inextinguishable longing for the unification 
of Germany still remained unsatisfied. The German peoples 
lived side by side amid constant bickering and estrangement, but 
Germany remained of slight account in the council of the 
nations. 

" At last God caused the men to arise in it who completed the 
work of unification begun on blood-drenched fields of battle. 
To-day our common great Fatherland stands forth, a mighty 
power, a bulwark of peace, protected by its army, in which pre- 
vails a spirit of unanimity. 

" With a heart filled with gratitude do I, on the turning day of 
the century, raise my eye to the throne of the Almighty, who has 
done so great things for us ; to Him do I and my people in arms 
pray that He may continue to be with us also in the future. 

"Filled with pride and joy, I call to mind those whom He 
made the instruments of His will: my sorely tried great- 
grandfather, the great Emperor of immortal memory, my dearly- 
loved father and their faithful allies; their counsellors and 
generals, who made sharp the sword of Prussia, and when the 
hour of battle struck led its army from victory to victory; the 
men who for the liberation of the Fatherland and its honour 
gladly and without fear sacrificed life and limb. The memory of 
these heroes will remain indelibly fixed in the heart of the 
German nation. 

" I thank my army for all that it has accomplished for my 
House and for the Fatherland during this long period of time, 
for its devotion and spirit of self-sacrifice, for its bravery and 



THE EMPEROR AND THE GERMAN ARMY 233 

loyalty. And when to-day its glorious colours, decked with 
laurels, are lowered before the altar of the Almighty to receive 
from my hands the commemorative token which, in accordance 
with the unanimous resolution of my exalted allies, is to be 
bestowed on the colours of the entire German Army as a fresh 
pledge of its unity and solidarity, then shall it renew the oath 
at all times to emulate the deeds of our fathers and forefathers, 
with whose blood was cemented the bond, which now and for 
all future time unites the princes and peoples of Germany. 

"And if ever again, by the will of Heaven, fresh storms shall 
burst over our Fatherland, and once again thrust the sword into 
the hands of its sons, they will but spend their force on my brave 
army, it will be and remain what it was and is a rock on which 
rests the might and greatness of Germany. May God grant it. 

" WILLIAM. 

"BERLIN, January 1st, 1900." 



THE EMPEEOR AND THE GEEMAN NAVY. 



T the time when the Emperor William came to the throne the 
German Navy consisted of twenty-seven ironclads, mostly of 
old construction, and twenty-three cruisers, which also were of 
obsolete pattern. To-day Germany's Navy includes thirty-five 
armoured ships, the majority being new and powerful, and 
thirty -nine cruisers of the most modern type ; and a still greater 
number of ships is either being built or is projected in accord- 
ance with a definite ship-building programme. When in a few 
years Germany possesses a fleet which will be able to give proper 
protection to her enormous over-sea commerce and to render her 
shores safe against hostile attack, and which will be in keeping 
with the world-wide power of the German Empire, the credit of 
this will belong for the most part to the Emperor, for it will be 
his achievement. He has created not only the Navy itself, but 
also the enthusiasm for it. He has thrown himself heart and 
soul into the advocacy of a powerful Navy. With heart and 
hand, with word and deed, with pen and pencil, he has striven 
for the Navy and its development. Germany will have to thank 
him that in the future she will have that strong fleet, which, to 
quote his own words, " we so bitterly want." 

If people had been aware of the zeal with which the un- 
assuming Prince William, who then appeared to be a long way 
from the throne, studied and worked in the privacy of the Potsdam 
Marble Palace, there would not have been so much surprise at the 
fact that immediately after he ascended the throne he showed a 
striking interest in naval matters. By means of untiring industry, 
a highly-developed faculty of grasping facts, and a magnificent 
adaptability, he has become a first-rate naval expert, and is as 
familiar with all the details of the naval service and naval science 
as any professional naval officer of long standing. Equipped with 
this knowledge, he has been able to reorganise, modernise, and 
develop the Navy, and to raise it to that powerful fighting 
machine which it is to-day. 

234 



THE EMPEROR AND THE GERMAN NAVY 235 

A great disaster was experienced by the then weak German 
Navy on the 16th of March, 1889. A terrible hurricane swept 
the harbour of Apia (Samoa), and three German warships the 
cruiser Adler, the gunboat Jlber, and the corvette Olga were 
stranded. The last-mentioned was refloated and her crew were 
saved, but the two others were lost, crews and all. The corvette 
Alexandrine was ordered to Samoan waters to take the place of 
the lost ships. Before her departure the Emperor visited her and 
addressed the officers in the Naval Club at Wilhelmshaven as 
follows : 

"The words which the Admiral in command has just spoken 
have touched me deeply, and I thank you all most cordially for the 
sentiments to which he has given expression on your behalf. 

" There are two reasons why I was anxious to see you. First, 
because I desired to bid farewell to the corvette which I once 
christened, in obedience to the Imperial command of my late 
grandfather. She bears the name of the favourite sister of the 
ever-lamented Sovereign, of the one surviving member of the 
Emperor William's generation. May the corvette which is 
privileged to bear so illustrious a name gain great honour! 
May God ever hold over her His protecting hand ! 

"Secondly, because, like you, I wished to join in doing 
honour to the memory of the brave men whom death has taken 
from us in such a sudden way in Samoa. Sorrow shared is half 
sorrow. They were brave men, and certainly to many of you 
good friends and comrades. They showed their bravery a few 
months ago. But we need not indulge in useless lamentations 
for them. No ; let them serve us as an example. After fighting 
victoriously against men they met an honourable death in battling 
courageously against the fury of the elements. God willed that 
it should be so. They died for Emperor and Empire. I should 
like to recall certain beautiful and poetic words which will be 
familiar to most of you. When, with bowed head, the Admiral 
Medina Sidonia told the King of Spain that his mighty Armada 
had been destroyed, the King comforted him and said, ' God is 
over us ! I sent you out against men, but not against waves and 
rocks.' And so it was in our case. May every one of you who 
is a commander, or who will become one, always remember that 
the commander who, by God's will, loses his ship or goes down in 



236 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

her after gloriously contending with the elements, dies, in my 
opinion, quite as glorious a death as the leader who falls sword 
in hand at the head of his regiment whilst in the act of storming 
the enemy's position. Our comrades in Samoa and those on the 
Augusta were not merely drowned, they died fulfilling their duty 
to the last moment. Comrades, may the noble example which 
those brave men have given to us ever light our path and incite 
us to emulation ! May the spirit of devotion, discipline, and 
endurance unto death, which has at all times distinguished my 
Navy, be retained in the future ! With these sentiments in my 
mind I raise my glass and drink to the German Navy, its brave 
officers in particular. Hurrah ! " 

A Bill was introduced into the Eeichstag in March which 
had for its object the reorganisation of the Naval Administration. 
The functions of the Admiralty were divided between a Com- 
mander-in-Chief and a Secretary of State for the Imperial Navy. 

In order to give to the German fleet in home waters a more 
convenient base, the Emperor acquired, by a treaty signed on 
the 1st of July, 1890, the island of Heligoland from the British 
Government. On the 10th of August the Emperor visited the 
island, took part in the ceremony of transfer, and issued the 
following proclamation to the inhabitants : 

"People of Heligoland: In consequence of a treaty which I 
have made with the Government of her Majesty the Queen of 
Great Britain and Ireland, the sovereignty of this island and 
its appurtenances has passed into my possession. In a peaceful 
way, therefore, you return to that political relationship with the 
German Fatherland, to which your history, your position, and 
your commercial interests naturally point. Community of race, 
language, customs, and interests has for ages kept you near to 
your German brothers. Thanks to the beneficent wisdom of your 
late rulers this position has undergone no alteration during the 
time in which the island has been a part of the powerful British 
Empire. All the more joyfully does every German join with me 
in welcoming you to reunion with the German people and Father- 
land. 

" The details of the constitutional form which this reincorpora- 
tion will assume are reserved for my decision, with the co-operation 



THE EMPEROR AND THE GERMAN NAVY 237 

of the competent representative bodies appointed under our 
Constitution. In solemnly taking over for all time for myself 
and my successors the possession of Heligoland and its appur- 
tenances, I trust to your well-proved loyalty, and believe that 
now that you are henceforward to be German subjects you will 
be faithfully and unswervingly devoted to me and to the Father- 
land. I, for my part, assure you that your rights shall have my 
protection and care. I will see to it that right and justice are 
impartially upheld amongst you, and that your native laws and 
customs shall remain as nearly as possible unchanged. For the 
future, also, a beneficent and paternal Government will endeavour 
to promote your interests and to foster the economic welfare of 
the island. In order to render easier the transition from the old 
conditions to the new the present generation will be exempted 
from the universal obligation to serve in the Army or the Navy. 
The customs duties now in force on the island will not be altered 
in any respect for several years. All rights of property which 
individuals or corporations have obtained from the British Govern- 
ment and which exist in Heligoland will remain in force. The 
fulfilment of the obligations corresponding to these rights will 
henceforth be undertaken by me and my Government. My 
special attention will be given to the maintenance of the religion 
of your ancestors and to the support of your church and school. 
It is with satisfaction that I receive Heligoland into the fringe 
of German islands which skirt the coast of the Fatherland. May 
your reunion with Germany, and your participation in Germany's 
glory, independence, and freedom produce lasting blessings for 
you and your successors ! May God will that it be so ! " 

The Emperor also addressed the crews of the warships which 
were assembled at Heligoland, and said : 

" Comrades of the Navy : Four days ago we celebrated the 
anniversary of the battle of Worth, at which, acting under my 
late grandfather, my father dealt the first hammer-stroke for the 
erection of the new German Empire. And now, after a lapse of 
twenty years, I incorporate with the German Fatherland, without 
battle and without bloodshed, this last piece of German ground. 
The island is destined to be a bulwark in the sea, a protection to 



238 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

German fishermen, a port of supply for my warships, and a place 
of refuge and protection in the German Ocean against all the 
enemies who may venture to show themselves upon it. 

" I take possession of this island, to whose inhabitants I have 
given my greeting, and in order to observe this event I command 
that my standard be hoisted and by its side that of my Navy." 

A naval banquet was given in the Castle of Gravenstein on the 
6th of September, 1890. The Emperor was present and proposed 
a toast, which ran as follows : 

" Admirals and Commanders of my Squadron : I express to 
you my sincere admiration of the performance which I have 
witnessed to-day. You have just concluded a course of training, 
and I rejoice to see that the aims I proposed to you and the 
wishes which I expressed have been taken to heart and carried 
out. You have, at the end of a three months' course, proved, in 
a way that redounds to your great honour, not only your skill in 
tactics and the handling of your ships and the squadron, but also 
the care with which you have instructed your men in gunnery, 
and I extend my praise to the commanders and also to the naval 
officers and the battery officers. 

" The crews of my torpedo-boats also have shown how well in 
every respect that flotilla, both as a whole and in detail, can 
perform its work. I am firmly convinced that, thanks to the 
efficiency of its training and the devotion, discipline, and fidelity 
with which its officers carry out their duties, my Navy will be 
able to accomplish any task, no matter how difficult, which I may 
have to give it, and this to my entire satisfaction and for the 
welfare and glory of the Fatherland." 

The Emperor was at Kiel on the 4th of January, 1892, when 
the naval recruits took the oath of allegiance. He addressed 
them in these words : 

" Your oaths have been heard by Almighty God and by myself. 
It will be your duty whilst on my ships to carry the honour of 
Germany to all parts of the world. Our Navy is, of course, still 
small compared with that of our enemies abroad, but the secret 
of your strength lies in good discipline and in the obedience of 
the crews to their supreme commander and their superior officers. 



THE EMPEROR AND THE GERMAN NAVY 239 

" Wherever you may be, either at home or in foreign parts, 
whether protecting colonies or on a scientific expedition, con- 
duct yourselves properly and always be mindful of your duties as 
German sailors. Your ancestors before you won a good name 
abroad. Uphold it, and stand faithfully to Emperor and Empire 
everywhere. And, further, do not forget what your parents 
taught you religion and the fear of God. If you retain these, 
your life in the service will be happy." 

Another day of misfortune for the German Navy was the 16th 
of February, 1894. Whilst the Brandenburg was taking a trial 
trip with forced draught the main boiler-tube burst, the explosion 
causing the death of over forty men. On the 17th, the Emperor 
sent the following telegram to Captain Bendemann, I.N., at 
Kiel : 

" Greatly shocked by this terrible misfortune, I hasten to express 
to you and to the entire crew my heartfelt and most profound 
Imperial sympathy. The heroic death suffered, whilst faithfully 
fulfilling their duty, secures for the victims an honourable place in 
my memory and in the annals of my Navy for all time. All of us 
are in the hands of God. Firmly trusting in Him we bow our- 
selves in devotion to Him and submit ourselves to His inscrutable 
will, and we look forward to the future with confidence and hope. 
I will erect in the Garrison Church at Kiel a memorial tablet to 
those who have lost their lives, and for the rest 'Full steam 
ahead!'" 

The victims of the explosion were buried on the 20th of 
February, and, by order of the Emperor, were accorded the same 
funeral honours as those who fall before an enemy. 

On the same day, the Emperor witnessed a number of naval 
recruits take their oath at Wilhelmshaven, and also inspected the 
ironclad Konig Wilhelm, which on that day completed twenty- 
five years' service. At a lunch on board he spoke as follows : 

"To-day's festival affords us an opportunity to glance back at 
the past which lies behind us, and I wished, surrounded by hearty 
comrades, to learn how it fared with our Navy. 

" Our thoughts go back to the time of my late grandfather, who 
had a victorious campaign behind him and a still more glorious 
one before him. The Prussian Navy was then at the beginning 



240 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

of its development. The spirit of the most earnest fulfilment of 
duty and the most faithful devotion inspired its members. My 
late father at that time came on board this ship, which, together 
with the Kronprinz and the Friedrich, Karl, was anchored off 
Wilhelmshaven. I myself, then a boy of tender years, was 
taken on board on that occasion, and I very easily recall the 
moment when the towering masses of the rigging of the frigates, 
standing clear against the horizon, came into my view, and what 
an impression it made on us children. 

" Unfortunately it was not vouchsafed to the Konig Wilhelm 
to fight, hull to hull and side to side with the enemy. Only a 
few ships have had the privilege of meeting the foe, and the 
Konig Wilhelm had to be content with the somewhat thankless 
role, in which very little genuine glory could be obtained, of 
protecting the coasts of the Fatherland. Anyone who is able to 
put himself into the place of and understand the feelings of 
those men who lay off the coast for months, close to the enemy 
whom they were not allowed to attack, would feel his heart break 
for very bitterness and discontent. But with an alacrity worthy 
of all praise they rendered their services, obeyed the orders of 
their supreme commander, and, by their discipline, laid the 
foundation of the greatness of the Navy of to-day. 

"The last notable public act of my late grandfather was the 
laying of the foundation-stone of one of the greatest constructive 
works of modern times, namely, the canal which unites the 
Baltic Sea and the German Ocean. That was the last occasion on 
which the Konig Wilhelm saw her illustrious chief. Since that 
time a tradition has grown up in the service, and the twenty-five 
years through which we have passed have been of great value to 
our Navy. By means of the sustained attention and the un- 
wearying labour which have been bestowed on the needs of the 
Navy, it has attained to such a high position that a tribute of 
sincere admiration is paid to it all over the world. Eecent events 
have made it clear that the Navy lives in all hearts, and the 
numerous expressions of sympathy which I have received from 
friendly Sovereigns are evidence that the intimate connection in 
which I stand to my Navy is appreciated everywhere. 

" All the works of man perish and decay. I do not entertain 



THE EMPEROR AND THE GERMAN NAVY 241 

any doubt that the Konig Wilhelm, though no longer equal to 
the requirements of modern tactics, would always do itself credit 
if sent against an enemy, and that the officers and crew would 
make up for what may be lacking in other respects by bravery 
and devotion to duty ; and I believe that the spirit of unshak- 
able loyalty and fidelity will continue to be fostered on this ship. 
My late grandfather once said to his veteran generals that the 
most prominent virtues of officers and men should be loyalty, 
bravery, and obedience. I drink to these and at the same time 
to the officers and crew of his Majesty's ship Konig Wilhelm." 

In April, 1894, the Imperial Family stayed at Abbazia. The 
Emperor paid a visit to the Austrian naval port of Pola on April 
6th, and at a dinner given in the officers' mess-room, referred to 
the Austrian Navy in the following terms : 

" It has long been my desire to establish closer relations with 
the Austrian Navy. Several of my commanders, Prince Henry in 
particular, have often told me of the courteous treatment which 
they have received at your hands. I thank you cordially for the 
reception which my warships met with four years ago in the 
harbours of Austria -Hungary, and I associate with my thanks 
my wishes for the prosperity of the Austro- Hungarian Navy. 
After visiting the monument of the brave naval hero whose 
memory will never be forgotten, Admiral Tegetthoff, the victor of 
Lissa,* whose spirit lives, not only in the Austro-Hungarian, but 
also in the German Navy, I can best state my wishes and those 
of my comrades in these words: Wherever the call of the Emperor 
Francis Joseph, my best friend, with whom I am united in the 
most intimate friendship and the most cordial brotherhood in arms, 
may lead you, let your watchward ever be ' Full steam ahead.' " 

On the 3rd of December, 1894, at Kiel, the Emperor addressed 
the recruits as follows : 

" The oath is sacred, and sacred also is the place on which you 
have taken it, for you have before you the altar and the crucifix. 
It is a sign that we Germans are Christians, that in every under- 
taking we engage in, especially the most important of all, namely, 
the training for the defence of the Fatherland, we always begin 

* Off Lissa in the Adriatic the Italians were defeated by the Austrians on 
July 20th, 1866. 

R 



242 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

by giving honour to God. You wear the Emperor's uniform, you 
have thereby been given a preference over other men, and been 
placed on an equality with your comrades of the Army and the 
Navy. You occupy a position very different from the one you 
were in before, and you have taken duties upon yourselves. You 
will be envied by many for the uniform which you wear. Hold it 
in honour ; do not bring disgrace on it. This can best be done by 
remembering your oath, which should be specially easy for you, 
seamen, for whilst on the sea you will have the opportunity of 
learning in manifold ways of the almighty power of God. What 
is the secret of the fact that we have so often overcome the enemy 
with inferior numbers ? It is discipline. What is discipline ? It 
is united co-operation, united obedience. That our early ancestors 
already practised this principle one instance will show. On one 
occasion when they took up arms and marched against the 
Eomans, they crossed the mountains and suddenly caught sight of 
the innumerable troops of the enemy, and then they realised what 
a difficult task lay before them. But they rendered honour to God, 
for they prayed first, and then linking themselves together, man to 
man, with chains, threw themselves on the enemy and defeated 
them. We no longer have need of real chains, we have an inspirit- 
ing religion and the oath. Kemain faithful to your oath, and 
keep it in mind whether you are at home or abroad. Hold high 
the flag black, white, and red which stands here before you; 
and think of your enemy, think of your Emperor." 

The following, also, is an address which the Emperor delivered 
(on the 5th of March, 1895) to a body of recruits : 

"You have come here to take the oath of allegiance. This 
is an old custom of our ancestors, who regarded the faithful fulfil- 
ment of the oath as a sacred duty. As I, your Emperor and Euler, 
devote all my efforts and endeavours to the Fatherland, so rests on 
you the responsibility of placing your life's energies at my dis- 
posal. For you have sworn the oath as Christians, and it was as 
Christians that you were addressed by the two servants of God. 
On our flag you see the eagle, the noblest of creatures. Exulting 
in his strength, he soars in the air in the rays of God's sun ; he 
knows naught of fear or danger. Such should be your ambition 



THE EMPEROR AND THE GERMAN NAVY 243 

and all your aims. You are entering now upon a period in the 
course of which you will, at times, experience difficulty in carry- 
ing out the duties which are imposed on you by the service, and 
there may be hours in which you will feel that you are unequal 
to your tasks. At such times remember that you are Christians ; 
think of your parents and of the mother who taught you the 
Lord's Prayer. 

"You are expected to be dignified and of good behaviour in 
representing your Fatherland in foreign parts. Our Navy is, to 
the outward eye, but small, but what makes us stronger than 
other navies is discipline and strict obedience to superiors. These 
principles will help our Navy to prosper and become great in 
times of peace, so that it may promote the welfare of the country, 
and, let us pray God, destroy the enemy in war. Take the old 
Brandenburgers as models ! " 

On the 26th of July, 1895, the following Cabinet Order was 
issued by the Emperor : 

"The solemn and weighty words uttered by my late grand- 
father, which must be regarded as authoritatively settling the 
standard of duty for officers for all time, ought still to be upheld 
by the officers of my Navy unaltered. Inquiries held by a Court 
of Honour for which formal rules of procedure have already 
been drawn up are to be brought to a conclusion as quickly 
as possible at the place where they were first instituted. In 
cases in which doubts arise as to the competency of the Court 
or as to the interpretation or application of the rules regulating 
the conduct of cases brought before Courts of Honour, the 
Admiral in command is to settle the matter, but in exceptional 
cases my decision should be directly requested." 

The 23rd of July, 1896, was a day of great grief for the 
German Navy, but at the same time also a day to be remembered 
with pride. The gunboat Iltis foundered in a typhoon off the east 
coast of the Chinese province of Shantung. At the moment at 
which the vessel sank the captain, standing on the bridge, called 
for three cheers for the Emperor, which were given enthusiastic- 
ally by the crew. Of the eighty-five sailors who manned the 
Iltis only ten escaped. The Emperor sent the following telegram 
to Admiral Knorr from Bergen in Norway : 



244 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

"It fills me with profound sorrow to learn of the loss of my 
gunboat Htis, which, in carrying out her duties, foundered on the 
Chinese coast with all her officers and the great majority of 
her crew. I have lost many brave men, at the head of whom 
was a distinguished and able commander. The Fatherland will 
mourn with me, and the Navy will warmly preserve the memory 
of those who, up to their last breath, regarded the fulfilment 
of duty as the highest obligation of life." 

At the Naval Eeview at Spithead in honour of the Diamond 
Jubilee of Queen Victoria, in June, 1897, Germany was repre- 
sented by the old warship Konig Wilhelm, commanded by Prince 
Henry. The Emperor telegraphed to his brother in these words : 

" I greatly regret that I was not able to place at your disposal 
for the Eeview a better ship than the Konig Wilhelm, which will 
not compare with some of the splendid warships which other 
nations will send. This is one of the regrettable consequences 
of the attitude of those unpatriotic men who have succeeded 
in hindering the supply of necessary ships, but I will never rest 
until I have raised my Navy to a position similar to that occupied 
by my Army. I expect of the men of the Konig Wilhelm that 
their conduct at the Eeview will reflect honour on the name of 
Germany." 

Since the year 1897 the Emperor has systematically striven to 
create a strong public feeling in favour of a powerful Navy. 
Among other things, he has had comparative tables of the Navies 
of all countries drawn up, copies of which were sent at his order to 
the members of the Eeichstag, to the magistrates of towns, and to 
other prominent people. On every available opportunity he has 
exerted his full personal influence on behalf of the increase of 
the Navy. Interest in the Navy has gradually been aroused in 
all parts of the Empire, and the foundation of the Navy League 
has done much to win converts for the Emperor's idea. 

On November 30th, 1897, the Bill for the Increase of the 
German Navy was introduced into the Eeichstag, which on 
December 9th referred it to the Committee of Ways and Means. 

To the recruits who took their oath at Wilhelmshaven on the 
2nd of March, 1898, the Emperor said : 

" You have, as seamen, sworn the oath on the black, white, and 
red flag. Black is symbolical of work and mourning, white of 



THE EMPEROR AND THE GERMAN NAVY 245 

pleasure and recreation, and red of the blood which many of your 
ancestors shed for the Fatherland. I wish to remind you of the 
fact that brave seamen have met death in the waves whilst giving 
their last thoughts to the dear Fatherland and the flag to which 
they swore the oath of fidelity. 

" Many of your comrades have gone forth in order to protect 
the interests of the Fatherland, for wherever a German has fallen 
while faithfully fulfilling his duty to the Fatherland, and there 
lies buried, and wherever the German Eagle has thrust his talons 
into a country, that country is German, and will remain German. 
Go your way and do your duties as you have just sworn to do in 
God's sight." 

The Bill for the increase of the Navy passed the Eeichstag on 
the 28th of March, 1898, on the third reading. On this the 
Emperor telegraphed as follows to the Grand Duke Frederick 
of Baden: 

" The Navy Bill has just been passed by a large majority on the 
third reading. To you, above all, are my thanks due for your in- 
defatigable efforts and for that devotion and energy with which 
you always stand by me in all matters concerning the welfare of 
the Fatherland. In gratitude for this I place you a la suite of 
our Eoyal Marines, whose brave lads are protecting our flag in the 
Far East. May God bless you ! " 

In answer to the telegraphic announcement, made on the 25th 
of May, of the foundation of the Institution of Naval Architects, 
the Emperor expressed his satisfaction at this new step in the 
field of German naval activity. In his telegram he said : 

"I am greatly pleased to hear of the foundation of the 
Institution of Naval Architects. Like the British Institution of 
Naval Architects, of which I rejoice to say that I have been a 
member for a number of years, it will be called upon to promote 
a great industry which exercises a far-reaching influence on the 
prosperity and development of the nation. I trust that the 
Institution will have great success in this wide field. It may 
then always be assured of my warm interest." 

The cruiser Kaiser returned from the east coast of Asia in 
October, 1899. Shortly afterwards she was inspected by the 
Emperor, who addressed the crew. His words were: 



246 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

" With deep gratitude to God, who kept His protecting hand 
over you, I warmly welcome home this good ship and her brave 
crew. At the same time I express the thanks of myself, your 
supreme commander, and of the entire German Fatherland, for the 
honour which you have again brought to the name of Germany 
in foreign parts. These thanks apply especially to those of the 
crew, who, weapon in hand, stand before me and who took part in 
the capture of Kiau-Chau, which was effected by my order. 
Thank God, old and young, high and low throughout the German 
Empire now follow with affectionate interest the work of each of 
our few warships which has duties to perform in foreign waters. 
The doings of my ship Kaiser in particular have been followed 
with beating heart and keen interest as she has been carrying out 
her work at Chin-Chu, and there does not live a German man or 
a German woman in all our broad land who did not read with joy 
and pride the news which reached home telling us how manfully 
you and your comrades of the cruiser squadron upheld the honour 
of Germany. It is to me a special satisfaction that this good 
ship, now a quarter of a century old, and probably near the end 
of her career of service, has been able to bring it to so worthy a 
close. She owes her existence to the Fatherland, which was 
reunited by the great Emperor, her name to the title which for 
centuries was mentioned with respect by the entire civilised world, 
and which, long the object of passionate desire of our fathers, 
was revived and adorned by the commanding figure of William 
the Great. During the time she has been in commission my ship 
Kaiser has always upheld with honour in foreign waters the flag 
of the new German Empire, and the name of the gallant Admiral 
Batsch is inseparably associated with her. With grateful recollec- 
tions do my thoughts dwell on the weeks which I spent on board 
this ship during my cruise in the Mediterranean, now about ten 
years ago. Then my ship Kaiser had the privilege of carrying, 
for the first time since the days of Frederick of Hohenstaufen, 
the banner of the German Emperor in the sunny waters of Greece 
and the Golden Horn. Owing to the deplorable want of good 
large ocean-going ships, I was compelled once more to send out to 
East Asia this old vessel, which was not originally intended to be 
a cruiser. Having splendidly fulfilled her task, she has returned 



THE EMPEROR AND THE GERMAN NAVY 247 

home with honour, and has brought with her a model crew and 
an admirable staff of officers. May each of my ships, some day 
in the course of its existence, be able to look back upon such 
satisfactory achievements and earn as much approval from her 
supreme commander as is the case with my good old Kaiser." 

In reply to a telegraphic announcement of the formation of a 
Provincial Committee of the Navy League in Konigsberg, the 
Emperor, on November 6th, 1899, replied to Count Wilhelrn von 
Bismarck, the Governor of the Province of East Prussia : 

" From the telegram which I have received to-day I learn with 
pleasure and satisfaction that a committee of the German Navy 
League has been formed in Konigsberg which will represent the 
whole province. In thanking you cordially for your assurances of 
loyalty and devotion to my person, I express the hope that, as- 
sisted by the German Navy League, we shall succeed in convincing 
the German nation more and more of the necessity of a powerful 
Navy, commensurate with our interests and able to protect them. 
It has afforded me special satisfaction that the province of East 
Prussia which set a noble example in a time of trouble at the 
beginning of the century despite the fact that a great part of its 
rural population has to contend with serious difficulties, is ready, 
in its well-proved loyalty, willingly to make sacrifices on behalf 
of the welfare of the Fatherland." 

The following telegram was sent by the Emperor to Prince 
William of Wied in reply to one despatched at the banquet of 
the General Meeting of the Navy League, held at Berlin on 
January llth, 1900: 

" The greeting and homage submitted to me by the General Meet- 
ing of the German Navy League have afforded me great pleasure, 
and I thank you cordially for the vow you have taken loyally to 
co-operate in one of the most important of our national duties, 
namely, the raising of our Navy to a strength commensurate 
with the position of Germany and of Germany's interests. I wish 
further success to the patriotic efforts of the Nfavy League to 
promote among all classes of the German people an understanding 
of how urgent it is that the Navy should be increased." 

A Bill to amend the German Navy Act was introduced 
on the 8th of February, 1900, by which a still further increase 



248 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

of the Navy was sanctioned. On the following day the Emperor 
telegraphed to King William II. of Wiirtemberg concerning the 
formation of a branch of the Navy League. He said : 

"I thank you sincerely for having become patron of the 
Wiirtemberg Provincial Committee of the German Navy League, 
for in doing so you give further evidence that the Princes of 
Germany take the lead in all endeavours on behalf of the welfare 
of our Fatherland. I also request you to convey to Prince Carl of 
Urach my thanks for his having placed himself at the head of the 
Provincial Committee. I hope that the events of the last few 
days will still further convince large numbers of people that not 
only Germany's interests, but Germany's honour also, are upheld 
on distant seas, and that Germany must therefore be powerful at 
sea." 

As can easily be understood, it was with more than ordinary 
satisfaction that the Emperor received the information that 
branches of the Navy League had been formed in Alsace-Lorraine 
one in Strassburg which was to embrace that city and the sur- 
rounding districts, and others in other places. Prince Hohenlohe, 
the Governor of the Imperial Territories (Alsace-Lorraine), com- 
municated this welcome intelligence to his Majesty, whose reply, 
dated the 3rd of March, 1900, was : 

"Greatly pleased at your report regarding the formation of 
branches of the Navy League in the city of Strassburg and the 
surrounding rural districts and in other cities of the Imperial 
Territories, which are so dear to me, I congratulate you and 
myself that you have become patron of these new branches, and 
the inhabitants of Alsace-Lorraine on their praiseworthy attitude 
towards our national interests. That Germany's need of a strong 
Navy should meet with more and more recognition in the Imperial 
Territories speaks well for the growth of German national senti- 
ments among the Alsace-Lorrainers, and that these views as 
regards the Navy should spread in an inland province shows that 
it is understood that a defensive fleet does not merely serve to 
protect the interests of the traders of our great commercial cities, 
but that it is also needed, and bitterly needed, for the protection 
of the industry of our entire people and their success in the 
world." 



THE EMPEROR AND THE GERMAN NAVY 249 

On the 23rd of November, 1900, the Emperor was again present 
at the swearing-in of the naval recruits at Kiel, and on that 
occasion addressed them as follows : 

"I have on many a previous occasion accepted the oath of 
allegiance taken here by young recruits. 

" By quiet and peaceful work our Navy slowly developed year 
by year, and now and again during this period of peaceful 
development down to the moment of the loss of our little Iltis, 
some instance of heroism in the squadron shone out as an 
example that could be given you to follow. But all at once a 
change came over the scene. During the few months which 
have elapsed since the end of last year some of the ships of our 
Navy have been sent far abroad, and are acting in concert with 
those of other civilised and Christian nations in the cause of 
the Faith and in restoring order. And whilst out yonder guns 
are thundering and men distinguishing themselves by their 
bravery and some of them courageously laying down their lives, 
you young recruits swear your oath on the flag. I verily 
believe that everyone must feel a touch of inspiration when he 
stands before the altar and looks at the crucifix, and I should 
imagine that all those who here took their oath in my presence 
and are now fighting in a foreign country know what their oath 
on the flag means and why I insist that it should be taken 
with due solemnity. For I am firmly convinced that many of 
those who are abroad have gone through some hour or minute in 
which they have found themselves suddenly left to their own 
resources and have then at once thought of their oath. I can say 
with pride and joy that my sons have not disappointed me. I 
readily acknowledge the work which your brothers have accom- 
plished abroad. We must not forget the new word of command 
which was first uttered by a foreign Admiral, 'Germans to the 
front.' When your brothers succeeded in cutting their way 
through the enemy and rescuing their comrades, it was because 
they remembered the oath which they took on the flag. I should 
like to mention an example which has been followed by those who 
have been lost, whether carried off by deadly bullet, or by deadly 
disease. In 1870, when my illustrious grandmother, the Empress 
Augusta, was honorary Colonel of the 4th Regiment of Grenadier 



.M 



250 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

Guards, and the regiment was sent on active service, she gathered 
the officers round her, and said to them : ' I expect only one thing 
of you, and that is that your regiment will bear itself well in 
any circumstances ; that my sons will not bring disgrace on their 
mother.' When on the 18th of August nearly half the officers 
and men fell, the Empress was informed by telegraph that the 
regiment was proud to say that her sons had obeyed the order of 
their mother and had done her honour. I mention this as an 
example for all of us. Finally, let us recall the words of the 
Great Elector : ' Lord, show me the way which I must go.' His 
way led him over heights and through depths, through victories 
won and disappointments. But he never despaired. You, too, 
must walk in the same path. Walk in the ways for which you 
can answer to your God and to me. Now go and do your duty as 
you shall be instructed." 

A relieving force sailed from Wilhelmshaven on the 4th of 
March, 1891, for Kiau-Chau. The Emperor bid farewell to them 
on board the transport, saying : 

"Soldiers, you are about to start on a voyage to a foreign 
country, the inhabitants of which, during the course of the last 
few months, have had personal experience of what German dis- 
cipline, German bravery, and German training mean. The 
foreigner has learned the consequences of offending the German 
Emperor and his soldiers ; a severe lesson has been given to the 
enemy; and all nations have learnt how German soldiers fight, 
conquer, and die. All the world respects our system of training 
and our military science. May you, therefore, display discipline, 
obedience, and bravery above reproach in addition to all good 
mental and physical qualities in the foreign country to which 
you are ordered ! May you strive to make the glory of the 
Fatherland known over the whole world ! May you keep the 
escutcheon of the Army and the Navy unsullied and the German 
flag without a stain ! I expect of you that you will be as success- 
ful as your comrades who are already fighting abroad." 

In its issue of the 18th of November, 1901, the Lokalanzeiger 
said : 

" It is doubtful whether in the history of the German Empire 



THE EMPEROR AND THE GERMAN NAVY 251 

or the Kingdom of Prussia it had ever before happened that at a 
private assembly, before which a lecture was given, and the 
lecture was followed by a discussion, the Monarch, like any other 
person desiring to take part in the discussion, has asked leave to 
speak, ascended the platform, and given free and unrestrained 
expression to his opinions. That is what the Emperor William 
did at the third ordinary general meeting of the Institution of 
Naval Architects, which was held this morning in the Hall of the 
Technical High School at Charlottenburg. The Emperor arrived 
punctually at nine o'clock, accompanied by Vice- Admiral von 
Tirpitz, State Secretary of the Imperial Navy Office, in order to 
hear the lecture, the subject of which was, ' The Development of 
the Mounting of Guns on board line- of -battle ships, and the In- 
fluence which it has exercised on their Form and Structure.' 
In the discussion which followed, one speaker gave a few supple- 
mentary details, and another criticised some of the points raised 
by the lecturer. It was thought that the discussion had come to 
an end when the Chairman formally asked whether anyone else 
desired to speak, and there was general astonishment when the 
Emperor raised his hand and then mounted the platform. The 
assembly wished to listen to the Imperial address standing, but 
the Emperor graciously motioned them to resume their seats. 
Then he spoke, somewhat as follows : 

" I think that in this assembly the subject under discussion has 
been regarded principally from the technical point of view, but 
perhaps a few comments from another standpoint may not be 
without interest. I allude to the influence of military require- 
ments upon the development of naval construction and the 
position of the guns. The lecturer went back to the time of 
the line-of-battle ship, remarking that stern-fire and bow-fire had 
been developed to a quite insignificant extent. A line-of-battle 
ship is designed to fulfil quite definite military and technical 
requirements. But I think that perhaps it would have been 
possible to go back further still. If the lecturer had gone back 
to the time of the galley, he would have found that even in those 
days the bow in this type of vessel had been very strongly 
developed. If one will only compare the galley with the later 
line-of-battle ship, I think it will be found that the former 
was relawely superior in some respects, for in calm weather it 
resorted taits own independent motion. Consequently, a fleet of 



252 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

galleys employed entirely different tactics to those of a fleet of 
line -of -battle sailing ships it could not fail to make greater 
play with its artillery. Therefore galleys were drawn up in 
battle with a wide front, as is shown by the greatest sea-fight of 
those times, the battle of Lepanto,* in which Admiral Don John 
of Austria crushed the enemy's fleet through the superiority of 
the bow-fire of his guns. These requirements are the results of the 
tactics employed, and tactics again are the result of the manner in 
which we employed the forward motion of the vessel before the days 
of steam by turning to account the power of the wind ; and this 
again depends on the military qualities of the nations in question 
with regard to their greater or less development from a military 
point of view, and their qualities for purposes of offence or 
defence. We see by the use which England made of her line-of- 
battle ships how they preferred, in that country, to attempt to 
break through the wide formation of the enemy, and to crush 
their van and their rear by developing the fore-and-aft line of 
their ships. It was for such tactics that the English line- of - 
battle ships were specially constructed. This shows us that 
sufficient stress has not been laid on the extreme necessity of 
bow and stern fire. English and French frigates, however, when 
chased by an enemy of superior strength, if they could not shake 
him off, mounted five or six heavy guns ; and we see from this 
how, even in those days, the independent mounting of the guns 
engaged men's thoughts. As regards the point raised by the 
speakers who followed the lecturer, namely, that in the develop- 
ment of naval construction England and France were the greatest 
authorities, I am fully in agreement with them. 

"I should like, however, to point out why German naval 
construction can claim the right to take an independent course. 
Our endeavours have from the outset been guided by the fact 
that it is advisable that naval officers, those who have to navigate 
the ship, should, as far as possible, exercise a controlling influence 
on those to whom the design and construction of the ships are 
entrusted. The result of following this principle is that the types 
of our ships have been developed solely in accordance with military 
requirements, in contradistinction to the system of former times, 
* October 7th, 1571. 



THE EMPEROR AND THE GERMAN NAVY 253 

when the ship-builder merely constructed a vessel and the Navy 
navigated her. Such principles are out of date. Certainly the 
ship-builder must seek to effect the compromise already referred 
to with the gun-fire, the engine-power, and the requirements of 
naval tactics. I believe, therefore, that the types of vessel at 
present existing in our Navy will be further and extensively 
developed, and that as fighting units they will accomplish all 
that can be required of them from a military point of view ; 
and, further, I believe that the co-operation of our naval archi- 
tects and our splendid ship-building yards will turn out some good 
work. 

" And now that I have ventured to give my views on the field 
of military requirements to this distinguished assembly, I should 
like to add a little anecdote. Some fifteen or twenty years ago 
my interest in and zeal for all that concerns naval affairs led me 
to request a senior officer to explain to me what the metacentre 
was. His reply was that he did not know exactly himself, and 
that it was a mystery. He could only say this much, that if the 
metacentre was in the truck the ship would capsize ! " 

As is well known, the voice of the Emperor is full and strong. 
He is an impressive and vigorous speaker, who never pauses and 
is never at a loss for a word. Towards the end of his speech, 
when he narrated the humorous little anecdote, he assumed an 
easier tone. As far as the concluding part of his remarks is 
concerned, one must acknowledge that it formed a very tactful 
and gracious finish to a speech in which the Monarch had dis- 
played such varied technical, historical, and military knowledge. 
Then with a slight bow he left the platform. The assembled 
members were at first undecided whether they should applaud or 
not, but in a few moments their cheers burst out spontaneously. 

In order to further the propaganda on behalf of the Navy, 
the Emperor gave orders that a torpedo-boat flotilla should be 
sent up the Rhine. The project was a great success, and the 
officers and crews of the boats met with an enthusiastic reception 
everywhere. 

Before the flotilla set out on its voyage up the river, the 
Emperor telegraphed (on the 3rd of April, 1900) to the Chief 
Burgomaster of Cologne. He said : 

"A torpedo-boat flotilla will, by my orders, proceed up the 



254 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

Rhine this spring. It has received instructions to call at Cologne 
and give that city a greeting from the sea. I recommend it to the 

hospitable and jovial citizens of Cologne. Cologne for ever ! " 

^ 

This visit to the Rhine ports led to an exchange of telegrams 
between the Emperor and the Federal Princes through whose 
territory the flotilla passed. The Grand Duke Ernest of Hesse 
sent the following telegram from Darmstadt to his Imperial 
Majesty : 

" I beg to inform your Majesty that this day I received your 
Majesty's Rhine torpedo-boat flotilla on my frontier at Bingen, 
and proceeded with it to Mainz. This being the first occasion on 
which German warships have visited my country, I am greatly 
desirous of expressing to your Majesty the feelings of joy which 
filled me and my people when we saw a part of that defensive 
power whose duty it is to preserve the greatness of Germany." 

The Emperor's reply ran as follows : 

" I thank your Royal Highness from my heart for the warm and 
patriotic reception, in which your Royal Highness has taken part, 
given by Hesse to the Rhine torpedo-boat flotilla. Just as the 
flotilla, in spite of all difficulties, penetrates further and further 
into the interior of Germany, so also, I am convinced, will the 
enthusiasm, intelligence, and interest regarding our responsibili- 
ties at sea make, under the leadership of its Princes, more and 
more progress among the German people, to the benefit of the 
Fatherland, and cause it to be respected on sea as well as on land." 

Later on the Grand Duke of Baden received the following 
telegram from the Emperor : 

" Your Royal Highness : I tender to you my warmest thanks for 
your friendly communication to me and for the enthusiastic recep- 
tion which has been extended to my torpedo-boat flotilla in Baden. 
It has pleased me greatly that your Royal High ness's capital 
and place of residence, Karlsruhe, has made the most of the 
opportunity to greet within its walls the officers and men of the 
flotilla, and to give splendid testimony of the keen and intelligent 
interest in the Navy which fills all minds. The magnificent 
reception which the torpedo-boat flotilla has met with everywhere 
in its passage up the Rhine strengthens my confidence that my 



THE EMPEROR AND THE GERMAN NAVY 255 

efforts to create for Germany a powerful Navy will, thanks to the 
willing co-operation of the German nation, led by its illustrious 
Princes, produce results fraught with many benefits. I request 
your Koyal Highness to express, on my behalf, my cordial thanks 
to the citizens of Karlsruhe for their loyal greetings." 

Prince Luitpold of Bavaria telegraphed to the Emperor in these 
words : 

" The information has been received that a part of the torpedo- 
boat flotilla sent by your Majesty up the Ehine has put into a 
Bavarian port (Germersheim) on its way to Strassburg. The first 
visit of German warships to Bavaria for which we are indebted 
to your Majesty's own initiative calls for an expression of the 
feelings of pleasure which it gives me and for the sincere hope 
that the realisation of the responsibilities of the German Empire 
on the ocean will spread more and more throughout the nation." 

To this the Emperor replied on the 18th of May, 1900 : 

"I express to your Royal Highness my warm thanks for the 
kindly wishes which you have addressed to me on the occasion of 
the visit of my torpedo-boat flotilla to a Bavarian port on the 
Ehine. I was very glad to give the inhabitants of your Eoyal 
Highness's beautiful Bavarian country an opportunity of enter- 
taining in their midst a part of the German Navy, and I hope that 
the sight of the warships will afford pride and joy to the people 
who, under the guidance of their illustrious Prince, take such a 
deep interest in the national task at sea." 

On the 12th of June, 1900, the Bill to amend the Navy 
Act was passed on a third reading. The Senate of the Free City 
of Hamburg telegraphed its congratulations to the Emperor, to 
which he replied : 

" I have received your telegram with satisfaction. I see in your 
words a fresh proof that you have understood the purport of my 
endeavours, and have supported me in the work which I have 
undertaken. How grateful I am to the Almighty for this latest 
success you will well understand. May He still further assist us 
to carry the work begun to a successful conclusion, to which end 
we must all actively devote our energies." 



256 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

Another telegram which the Emperor sent in reply to a message 
of congratulation on the passing of the Navy Bill was to the Board 
of Directors of the Hamburg- American Line. 

" I thank you for your telegram," he said. " I have spared no 
effort, and am greatly pleased to have attained the end in view. 
For the faithful and indefatigable help which has been given to 
me by all who supported me I hereby express my gratitude and 
acknowledgments. But we must go still further, if our Navy is- 
really to command respect at sea and to become an addition to 
the power at my disposal to preserve the peace of the world." 

Every effective increase of the German Navy in ships and 
other war material fills the Emperor with especial joy. This is 
particularly noticeable in his speeches and telegrams on the 
occasion of the launching of vessels. His speeches on these 
occasions are distinguished by special vigour, by poetic turns, 
and the introduction of historical allusions and comparisons. 

On Septemher 22nd, 1891, at the Vulcan Shipyard, Stettin, 
the Emperor christened the ironclad Brandenburg, and made the 
following speech : 

"A new ship built after the designs made by my Navy has 
just been constructed at the Vulcan Shipyard, which is celebrated 
both at home and abroad for artistic and sound workmanship, and 
has provided our Navy with many a splendid vessel, and the 
moment has now come at which it is to be handed over to its 
element. It shall now receive a name on which it will confer 
honour and glory. 

"So, thou proud vessel, bear a name which is as a foundation 
and corner-stone in the history of our Fatherland, and is the name 
of a whole country which, lying in the centre of our kingdom, is 
inhabited by a small nation, which, poor, steadfast, loyal, and 
brave, is most closely connected with the family of the Hohen- 
zollerns, and in union with the House of Hohenzollern has made 
itself feared and respected far and wide. Above all, it was a 
Prince of our House by whose energy Stettin was compelled for 
the first time to surrender its key, but the envy of an enemy 
wrested this town from him again before it became for ever 
incorporated with Prussia. The great Hohenzollern, whose banner 
with the Red Eagle has floated far and wide over the seas, has 



THE EMPEROR AND THE GERMAN NAVY 257 

given his name to the land. Go thy way then, built under the 
protection of the Eed Griffin, bear the banner of the Eed Eagle 
to far distant seas as an emblem of loyalty and courage. I 
christen thee Brandenburg" 

On July 27th, 1892, the Emperor christened the ironclad 
Heimdall, at Kiel. 

"A new and stately vessel of my Navy, shalt thou glide into 
thy element, well prepared to perform thy task. Thou shalt 
practise all the good qualities which are represented in the 
Imperial Navy obedience, discipline, and, above all, loyalty to 
the profession. May thy crew ever do its duty. 

" We are now called upon to give the ship a name. Its name 
will be taken from the earliest history of our forefathers in the 
north. Thou shalt receive the name of the god to whom was 
entrusted, as his main function, the duty of defence ; of that god 
whose bounden duty it was to protect and keep the golden gates 
of Walhalla from every base intruder. As the god when danger 
was afoot blew a far-sounding blast on his golden horn and 
summoned the gods to the battle in the twilight of the gods, 
and by his horn scattered confusion and destruction among the 
ranks of his enemies, so may it be with thee. 

" Glide down into thy element ; be thou ever a faithful warden 
of the seas; be thou ever a faithful custodian of the honour of 
our nation the honour of our flag. And if ever the day comes 
when thou art called upon to do battle, deal destruction and 
devastation in the ranks of thy enemies. 

"Bear in honour the name Heimdall." 

After the ironclad the Kaiser Karl der Gfrosse had been 
launched at Hamburg on October 18th, 1899, a banquet was 
given in the Town Hall by the City of Hamburg, at which the 
Emperor delivered the following speech : 

"It affords me special pleasure on to-day's historical anniversary 
to be able to stay once more in your midst. I feel myself both 
refreshed and reinvigorated as often as I feel the waves of the 
fresh sparkling life of a Hansa city washing round me. It is 
a solemn act at which we have just been present, when we were 
able to commit to its element a new fragment of the floating 



258 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

defensive power of the Fatherland. Everyone who was present 
at the ceremony may well have been impressed by the idea that 
this proud vessel could soon be started on its future work. We 
are urgently in need of it, and bitterly do we want a strong 
German Navy. Its name reminds us of the first brilliant period 
of the old Empire and its mighty protector. And in that time, 
too, falls the very earliest beginning of Hamburg, if only as a 
point of departure for the missionary activity in the service of 
the mighty Emperor. Now, thanks to the Emperor William 
the Great, our Fatherland is once more united, and in course of 
splendid development abroad. And here in the heart of this 
mighty emporium of commerce one feels that full strength and 
elasticity which the German people by its resolute spirit is able 
to bestow on its undertakings. And here, too, is appreciated at 
its proper value the absolute necessity for our foreign interests 
of a strong protecting force, and how indispensable it is to in- 
crease our fighting force at sea. Yet the feeling of this necessity 
extends but slowly in our German Fatherland, which unfortu- 
nately still wastes its strength too much in fruitless party strife. 
With deep anxiety I have had to observe what slow progress 
interest in and understanding of great questions of world-wide 
importance have made among the Germans. If we look round 
us, how the world has changed its countenance during the last 
few years. Old world - empires perish, and new ones are in 
process of creation. Nations have suddenly appeared within the 
horizon of the peoples, and enter into keen competition with 
them, of which but a short time ago the layman would have 
taken but little notice. Products which work revolutions in the 
field of international relations, as well as in the domain of the 
national economic life of the people, and which in ancient times 
would have required centuries in which to develop, are now 
perfected in a few months. The result is that the problems 
which have to be faced by the German Empire and people have 
grown to a formidable extent, and thrown on me and my Govern- 
ment unusual and severe effort, which can only be crowned with 
success if the Germans stand at our back united and firm, and 
renouncing party discord. But to do this our people must 
resolve to make sacrifices ; above all, they must divest themselves 



THE EMPEROR AND THE GERMAN NAVY 259 

of their passion for seeking the highest good in ever more and 
more sharply accentuated party struggles. They must cease to 
place the party above the welfare of the whole. They must 
check their old hereditary fault of making everything the subject 
of unrestrained criticism, and must call a halt before the limits 
imposed by their own most vital interests. For it is just these 
old political sins which are now avenging themselves on our sea 
interests and our Navy. If the strengthening of the Navy, in spite 
of constant entreaties and warnings during the first eight years 
of my reign, had not been persistently refused, in the course of which 
time I was not even spared scorn and mockery, how differently 
would we then have been able to promote our thriving commerce 
and our interests over the sea. Still my hopes that the Germans 
will nerve themselves have not yet vanished. For strong and 
mighty is the love of Fatherland that beats in their hearts. To 
this the October bonfires bear witness, which they are to-day 
lighting on the hilltops, and with which they are joining in 
celebrating the memory of the splendid figure of the Emperor 
whose birthday was to-day. And indeed it is a wonderful 
structure that the Emperor Frederick with his great father and 
their great paladins helped to erect, and bequeathed to us as the 
German Empire. In all the glory of its magnificence it stands 
there, the Empire which our fathers yearned to see, and of which 
our poets have sung. Well, then, instead of quarrelling as hitherto 
in barren strife as to how separate chambers, halls, or sections 
of this building ought to be furnished, may our people, blazing 
up like the October bonfires in enthusiasm for ideals, strive to 
emulate their ideal second Emperor, and, above all, take pleasure 
in the noble structure and help to protect it. Proud of its 
greatness, conscious of its intrinsic value, in its development 
respecting every foreign State, joyfully making the sacrifices 
required to establish its position in the world, renouncing party 
rancour, united and of one mind, standing behind its Princes and 
its Emperor, will our German people help the Hanse cities to 
further their great work for the welfare of our Fatherland. This 
is my wish to-day, with which I raise my glass to the health of 
Hamburg." 



THE EMPEROR AND THE GREAT ELECTOR 



IT has always been characteristic of great men that they have 
their particular heroes, whose achievements they endeavour to 
emulate. In the case of the Emperor William, his ancestor the 
Great Elector is the one whom he has taken as his model and 
whose example has inspired him. He has made mention of this 
on several occasions. 

"We stand, so to speak," he has said, "under the shadow of 
the man who with all his heart and strength was devoted to 
his country, and who by strenuous and unceasing effort raised 
Brandenburg from a condition of poverty and humiliation to a 
compact and united state. He is the one among my ancestors 
whom I have regarded with the most enthusiastic admiration, and 
from my youth up have set before my eyes as my model." 

Some of the most eloquent speeches which the Emperor has 
delivered have been on the subject of this particular predecessor. 
The 1st of December, 1890, was the two hundred and fiftieth 
anniversary of the accession of Frederick William to the throne. 
In memory of that day the Emperor held a very remarkable and 
impressive military ceremony before the monument of the Great 
Elector on the Castle Bridge, and addressed the troops present as 
follows : 

" We celebrate to-day the two hundred and fiftieth anniversary 
of the accession of my famous ancestor, the Great Elector. He it 
was who laid the foundation-stone in the work of consolidating 
the Electorate of Brandenburg, from which there developed the 
Kingdom of Prussia, and, eventually, the German Empire. He 
a new Army, which was actuated^by fear of God, 
it obedience, and steadfast cohesionT We Branden- 



know what he accomplished in the battle of Fehrbellin, 
in which he risked his own life. His work in time of peace, also, 

260 



THE EMPEROR AND THE GREAT ELECTOR 261 

by which he strengthened his State, is not unmentioned in the 
pages of history. With his deeds in mind, we call for three cheers 
for Brandenburg, Prussia, and the German Empire." 

The following is a letter which the Emperor addressed to Dr. 
Hinzpeter, of Bielefeld, his former tutor, on the llth of July, 1899, 
and which refers to the Great Elector : 

" It is my intention to present to the city of Bielefeld a repro- 
duction in bronze of the exceedingly successful statue of the 
Great Elector which is intended for the ' Siegesallee.' This will 
be a token of my grateful recollection of the reception given to 
me by the city and will serve as an indication that, like this 
ancestor of mine, I am the possessor of an inflexible determination 
to proceed fearlessly in the path that has once been recognised as 
the right one, and this in spite of all opposition." 

The unveiling of this monument was performed on the 6th of 
August, 1900, on which occasion the Emperor addressed the 
assembled company. He said : 

"As an acknowledgment of the reception given to me by my 
faithful city of Bielefeld and my Eavensbergers, and in remem- 
brance of the bonds which for centuries have united it to my 
House and of the fidelity which it has ever shown to the same, 
I have resolved to present to it the monument of the Great 
Elector which has been placed here, of the Prince to whom this 
country, our entire Fatherland and my House owe such infinite 
thanks, and whom his enemies themselves called Great during 
his lifetime. Let us transport ourselves back to the time when 
the Elector, then quite young in years,* took up the reins of 
Government. What did he find? Devastated fields, villages 
burnt, and a famine-stricken and impoverished people, who were 
harassed on all sides and whose country had been the happy 
hunting ground of the wild bands who for the last thirty years 
had been desolating Germany with war. The task which con- 
fronted him was so enormous and so difficult that one could have 
forgiven him if, young as he was, he had shrunk from attempting 
it because of his youth. But with unshakable confidence in 
God and an iron will he set about his task; he welded his 

* Frederick William, the Great Elector, reigned from 1640 to 1688. Born Feb- 
ruary 6th, 1620. 



262 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

straggling territories into a united whole and developed com- 
merce and agriculture in an incredibly short time, considering 
the age in which he lived; he created a new Army which was 
devoted to him, and, in short, he laid the foundations of our State 
and of our Army, and was soon able to look back on great successes. 
"His position was such that he held the balance of power in 
Europe, and when he hastened from one part of his country to 
another in order to protect it and to uphold its honour, the poet 

could sing of him : 

' Swift was the gallop 

From Rhine to Rhin,* 
And hot was the battle 
At Fehrbellin.' 

"The whole series of deeds which he accomplished proceeded 
from his hope of creating a great and powerful northern Empire 
which should some day serve to weld together the different German 
States. Empires of world-wide power, however, are not built up 
in a day. But he laid the foundation and the corner -stone of 
the Empire, _and . the weighty hammer-strokes which he dealt on 
its behalf created fox me a firm basis. What great joy it was 
for him when, staying in the midst of his Kavensbergers in this 
castle which was so dear to him, he could let his eyes travel over 
the beautiful country, for which in weal and woe he laboured so 
unremittingly, and whose increasing prosperity was a matter of 
such happiness to him ! What joy it must have afforded him to 
see his dragoons here on his marches to the west country, which 
was then considered so remote, and which he conquered and 
vowed to retain and protect ! 

" How different is it now ! The Kingdom of Prussia developed 
from the State which he founded, and by the instrumentality of 
Prussia the German Empire was united and welded together. 
The Great Emperor, the great ancestor's great successor, carried 
out what the other planned. How was it possible for me, in 
making this brief retrospect of the history of our country and 
our House, to be able to record these wonderful successes of our 
House ? Only because each of the Hohenzollern Princes was 

* The Rhin is a small stream in Prussia. The Elector defeated Sweden at 
Fehrbellin on the Rhin, in 1679. 



THE EMPEROR AND THE GREAT ELECTOR 263 

from the outset of his career conscious that he was only God's 
vicegerent upon earth, that he would have to render an account 
of his work to a higher King and Master, and that he must faith- 
fully perform the work appointed him by the Almighty to do. 
Hence, too, that firm conviction of his mission that has filled each 
one of my ancestors, and hence that inflexible force of will which 
enabled him to carry out the task which he set himself. 

" May it then be vouchsafed to me also, that I may walk in the 
path which my great ancestor laid down for us, not only for the 
welfare of the whole Empire in general, but also of this beautiful 
little country in particular. Perhaps I may be able to fulfil that 
part of his dream which, owing to the subsequent struggles that 
we encountered in the course of our development, has had to 
remain in abeyance. I mean the way over the sea. The work 
which the Great Elector in those days could only suggest and 
initiate we are in a position to carry out on a large scale now 
that we have a great united German Fatherland. We have recently 
had experience of this. German armies, under the protection of 
German colours, and composed of sons of all parts of our Father- 
land from the Baltic to the Yosges are marching forth in order 
to fight, shoulder to shoulder, for the black, white, and red flag ; 
to set the seal on the greatness and the glory of the Fatherland 
abroad, and to show that the arm of the German Emperor extends 
to the most distant parts of the world. 

" All this would have been impossible had it not been for the 
Great Elector and his work. I hope, therefore, that every one of 
my subjects will be inspired by the same spirit and proceed with 
his work of helping me. Every man has his task to perform and 
an aim to pursue, and if every man interpreted his duty as 
strictly as did the Great Elector, and all the members of my 
House, in the conviction that he is responsible, and that he will be 
called upon to render an account of what he has done, then I am 
firmly convinced that a great future awaits our German Father- 
land. Then, unmindful of the dark clouds which are passing over 
us, I shall be able to say of my Eavensbergers, as did Eberhard* 

* Eberhard der Greiner, E., the " Quarrelsome," was Count of Wiirteinberg from 
1344 to 1392. He got his name from the continual hostilities with the Free Cities 
and Knights in which he was engaged. It was of Eberhard I. (im Bart), the 



264 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

the Quarrelsome of old, that I can fearlessly lay my head on the 
lap of every one of them." 

Having concluded his speech, the Emperor was offered the cup 
of honour by Chief Burgomaster Bunnemann, which he drank 
with the words " The Count of Ravensberg to his Ravensbergers." 
He subsequently planted an oak which had grown from a sapling 
which he had set in the garden of his tutor, Dr. Hinzpeter, some 
years previously. 

In the presence of the Emperor and the Empress, their son, 
Prince Adalbert, and Prince Henry of Prussia, a monument to the 
memory of the Great Elector was solemnly unveiled on the 20th 
of June, 1901, in the gardens of the Naval Academy at Kiel, and 
salutes were fired by the warships lying in harbour. The speech 
which the Emperor delivered on that occasion ran as follows : 

" Trodden-down crops, wasted fields, burned villages, disease, 
famine, and misery such was the condition of things in this 
sandy province of Brandenburg when the young Electoral Prince, 
who was but a youth, succeeded to the throne on the sudden 
death of his father. His inheritance was, indeed, no enviable 
one. The task which lay before him appeared to be only capable 
of accomplishment by a man of mature years who was conversant 
with all the circumstances, and even he might have found it too 
difficult. Undismayed, however, the youth entered upon his task, 
and, with wonderful skill, succeeded in accomplishing it. Keep- 
ing the end which he had decided upon always in view, not 
allowing anything to turn him from his path, the Great Elector, 
with unflagging energy, raised and strengthened his country, 
placed its people in a position to defend themselves, drove the 
enemy from his frontiers, and soon acquired such a position in 
the world that his contemporaries, his adversaries in particular, 
gave him the name of 'the Great' during his lifetime, a distinction 
which, as a rule, is given by a grateful people to a Sovereign after 
his death in recognition of a laborious life full of responsibility. 
And this youth, who developed into a mighty prince, and who, by 
dint of hard work, made his country great, was the first Ruler 

" Bearded" Eberhard, of whom this story is told. He was Count of Wiirtemberg 
from 1459 to 1495, in which year he was made Duke by Maximilian I., and died in 
1496. He was a generous and beloved ruler and the first German Prince who of his 
own accord gave a constitution to his people. Cf. Justinus Kerner's well-known 
poem, Der reicJiste Fiirst. 



THE EMPEROR AND THE GREAT ELECTOR 265 

who pointed to the sea. He founded the Brandenburg Navy. 
It is certainly their bounden duty for the German Navy to erect 
a statue to him, the sight of which will act as an encouragement 
to officers and men and will help to confirm their loyalty. 
God ordained that the Prince should spend his youth in the 
Netherlands, and he there learnt how to appreciate and to foster 
labour and industry, intercourse with foreign nations, and the 
advantages of commerce. The lessons he learnt whilst living 
amongst an industrious, simple nation of sailors of German 
race he subsequently transferred to his own country. But the 
Brandenburg Navy, placed in the care of experienced Nether- 
landers Admiral Eaule and his brother prospered under his 
powerful protection and guidance. After the death of the Great 
Elector, however, his creation also passed away, neither he nor his 
Navy having been able to reap the fruit of their work. Those 
who succeeded him to the Crown had to fight for the right to 
make their voice heard in the affairs of the world and to govern 
their people within their frontiers peacefully and undisturbed. 
The consequence was that attention was drawn from the sea and 
was for centuries concentrated on the long and severe struggles 
which consolidated Brandenburg and Prussia. Through God's 
Providence and the work of the successors of the Great Elector, 
based on the mighty foundation-stone which he laid, the power 
of our Family grew until the House of Hohenzollern was in a 
position to assume the Imperial Crown of Germany, that family 
power which is the due of the German Emperor to enable him 
to uphold with firmness the Empire's welfare all over the world, 
and to give to his flag an importance which will command for 
it the respect of his adversaries. The monument has been erected 
in front of the Naval Academy. The youths to whom the future 
belongs, the youths who will reap the fruit of our work, who 
will some day tend the seed we have sown and harvest its 
produce, should direct their eyes to the statue of this Prince, 
and form themselves by his example to be God-fearing, strict, 
inexorably strict, towards themselves and others, and to rely 
firmly upon God, whose ways the Elector was anxious to learn, 
undismayed by any vicissitude, not discouraged by any disappoint- 
ment, which, indeed, in his Christian spirit he regarded merely as 



i 



266 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

a trial sent from above. Such was the life of the Great Elector, 
and such should be yours also. The main principle which enabled 
him, despite all reverses and disappointments, all hardships and 
trials, never to lose courage and hope, was the red thread running 
through his life, and which is well expressed in his motto: Nomine, 
fac me scire viam, quam ambulem.' So let it be also with the 
officers and crews of my Navy. So long as we work on this 
principle, we can, unconcerned, overcome every difficult stage in 
the development of the Navy and our Fatherland, which God, 
in his Providence, may perhaps have in store for us. That is the 
way by which you should walk. Let that be the principle on 
which my Navy is based. Let it enable you to be victorious in 
battle and to bear up against all reverses until the sun breaks 
through the clouds. With these thoughts in my mind I present 
this monument to the Naval Academy, which will henceforth 
protect and keep it in honour. May this institution produce men 
who will equal the one whose statue now stands before you. Let 
the covering fall." 

One of the most prominent traits in the character of the 
present Kuler of Germany is filial piety, and it is this which 
has instilled into him profound respect for the memory of his 
ancestors and deep love of his living relatives. With veneration 
and enthusiasm does the Emperor cherish the memory of his 
grandfather. With something approaching idolatry did he love 
his father, and he was tenderly attached to his mother and his 
grandmothers, especially Queen Victoria of England. That he 
is a model family man, a chivalrous and devoted husband, and 
a strict but tender father, is well known. These are facts which 
in themselves are quite sufficient to explain how it is that in so 
many of his most important speeches the Emperor refers to the 
dead and the living members of his house. 



THE EMPEROR AND HIS FAMILY 
RELATIONS 

ON August 23rd, 1888, a few weeks after his accession, the 
Emperor was received at Sonnenburg into the Order of the 
Knights of St. John. The ceremony was performed by the Grand 
Master, Prince Albrecht of Prussia, and at the banquet the Emperor 
addressed him in the following speech : 

" Your Koyal Highness may be pleased to accept my heartfelt 
thanks for the cordial words to which you have just given 
utterance. It has, indeed, always been one of the desires of my 
heart to belong to this noble Order and to possess its badge. I 
am firmly of opinion that the King of Prussia should possess the 
badge of the Order, The great problems which confront me, and 
which concern the promotion of the general welfare of my subjects, 
I am not able to solve through the agency of the State officials 
alone. For the elevation and the strengthening and developing of 
the moral and religious life of my people I require the assistance 
of the noblest in the land my nobility and I see them united 
in goodly numbers in the Order of St. John. It is my heartfelt 
hope that my efforts will have the beneficent support of the Order 
of St. John, and that this will enable me to promote and increase 
the spirit of religion and Christian discipline, and morality 
among the people, so that I may realise the great ideals to 
which I devote myself. Those of us who to-day have together 
received the simple white cross, and also those of us who already 
possessed it, will now drink to the health of the Prince, who 
through his high sense of duty, which has ever been characteristic 
of the House of Hohenzollern, his Christian spirit, and the self- 
sacrifices which he so willingly imposes upon himself, has raised 
the Order to the high position which it now occupies. His Eoyal 

267 



268 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

Highness, Prince Albrecht of Prussia, Eegent of Brunswick, the 
Most Serene Grand Master of the Order of St. John of the 
Hospital at Jerusalem, long may he live ! " 

At the banquet given to the Provincial Diet of the Ehine 
Province on September 1st, 1893, the Emperor said : 

" A splendid reception accorded to a Kuler by his faithful sub- 
jects always touches his heart. I have experienced such receptions 
in many provinces, but that of the Rhinelanders speaks to my 
heart with special force. 

"On these banks of the Rhine, that river of romance so 
familiar in our history, where every mountain has its story and 
every House of God speaks its sublime message, every note of 
welcome and every cordial word must exercise a magic spell on 
the human heart. The charm of poetry casts its glamour over 
everything here, and especially is this true of the city of Coblenz, 
which is so particularly rich in memories of an historical and 
personal character. I therefore express my cordial thanks to the 
citizens of Coblenz, as well as to my faithful Rhinelanders, for 
the reception which her Majesty the Empress and myself have 
met with here to-day. It is with deeply moved heart that I 
speak to you here in this place, in the building which is so 
intimately associated with the history of my late grandfather 
and the life of my late grandmother. Solemn and serious, 
beautiful and tender, are the recollections which thrill through 
our hearts. Yet the whole picture which opens out before our 
eyes as we look back shows us a life more full of blessings and an 
active existence more richly rewarded than that of almost any 
other person. We feel the pervading hand of the illustrious 
lady who once lived in these apartments, and we can still find 
evidences of the blessed work of the Empress Augusta in all 
parts of the province. Happily the same love and devotion which 
the province entertained for my grandparents, and which they 
reciprocated, unite us also. As was the case with my late father, 
so also had I the privilege of passing two glorious years of youth 
a time which I shall never forget at the Alma Mater in your 
midst. 

"I sum up, then, all that I feel and think in the wish that 



HIS FAMILY RELATIONS 269 

the province may prosper, and also that it will bear in mind the 
lesson taught by history, which tells us that it was the firm and 
loyal co-operation of Kuler and people which brought about the 
greatest achievements, and that the Khine Province did its share 
in assisting my grandfather when he recovered the Nibelung 
treasure of unity for the German Fatherland. I hope that the 
absolute loyalty of the Khine Province to me, together with my 
faithful good-will for its inhabitants, will enable us to continue 
to walk in the right path, for the welfare of the Rhine Province 
and of our great and dear united German Fatherland." 

On the 19th of November, 1890, the Emperor gave his sister 
Victoria in marriage to Prince Adoph of Schaumburg-Lippe. At 
the wedding breakfast the Emperor proposed the following toast: 

" If," he said, " all had been in accordance with our wishes, my 
late father would have been seated in this place and would have 
greeted and blessed his daughter as a bride. Providence, how- 
ever, has decreed otherwise. 

" But may the blessing of the departed rest upon you, together 
with the blessing of our dearly loved mother and (here the 
Emperor turned to the bridegroom) the blessing of your parents. 
May the newly wedded pair ever rely firmly upon me and my 
protection, and may the bridegroom be welcome as a member of 
my House." 

Amidst great popular enthusiasm a statue of the Emperor 
William I. was unveiled by the Emperor at Bremen on the 18th 
of October, 1893. A banquet was subsequently given at the 
Town Hall, when his Majesty, replying to the toast of his health 
proposed by the Burgomaster, delivered the following speech : 

"We have just witnessed a beautiful ceremony a ceremony, 
indeed, full of high significance, for the loyal Hanseatic town of 
Bremen has solemnly paid its debt of gratitude to the memory 
of the old Emperor William. A more suitable day for such 
a celebration could scarcely have been selected, for the 18th of 
October is the anniversary of the Battle of the Nations at Leipsic, 
in which the Monarchs who constituted the 'Holy Alliance* 
freed Prussia, Germany, and, indeed, one may say, the whole 
of Europe, from the iron yoke of oppression. And, further, the 



270 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

18th of October was the birthday what a glorious augury for 
the future ! of his successor, the Emperor Frederick III. Whilst 
still young he cherished in his breast a presentiment of events to 
come and a burning desire for the unity of our beloved Father- 
land, and then, when the bright day of the new German Empire 
dawned, he, then a mature man, was able to realise the dreams of 
his youth. On the bloody field of battle, with German sword in 
hand, the son won for his father the German Imperial crown, and 
to the heavy hammer-strokes he dealt do we owe it that the 
armour of the Empire was so strongly wrought. The first 
German Crown Prince, with his halo of victory, ever stands 
before the eyes of the German nation. 

" To-day, on the anniversary of his birth, the statue of his aged 
hero father has been unveiled, and we have before us, modelled in 
bronze, the majestic and stern features of the Emperor William. 
How wonderfully was he guided by divine Providence ! What a 
magnificent destiny was that which God granted to him ! The 
illustrious man, after so many anxieties and vicissitudes, was sum- 
moned to reign at an age when, as a rule, men retire from the toils 
of life. How unexpectedly great were the successes which he, 
with the aid of God, achieved ! He was appointed by God to 
realise the hopes of the German nation, and, with the Imperial 
crown which he won by his victories on the battlefield, to re- 
establish the unity of the Fatherland. Happily, he was also 
enabled to find for the accomplishment of this work great men 
who shared the honour of executing his plans and aiding him 
with their counsel. 

"Truly is Bremen justified in erecting the monument which 
was unveiled to-day to the memory of the old Imperial hero. 
I thank you, as a son, for the choice of the day ; I thank you, 
as a grandson, for the honour paid to my grandfather; and I thank 
you, as Emperor, for the cordial reception which your city has 
extended to me, and for the manner in which ancient traditions 
are fostered by you. All my efforts will be directed to following 
in all my life and in all my endeavours the example of the illus- 
trious Ruler whose statue in bronze now greets us from yonder 
place. Bremen, too, may always rely upon my constant care and 
interest as well as upon my Imperial protection. May the com- 



HIS FAMILY RELATIONS 271 

merce of the city of Bremen develop under the shadow of peace, 
may it flourish and prosper, mindful of the great days of the old 
Hanseatic League, whose motto not only you, but all of us must 
constantly bear in mind if we desire to make progress in the 
markets of the world: 'Navigare necesse est, vivere non est 
necesse.' " 

On August 31st, 1897, a monument to the Emperor William I. 
was unveiled at Coblenz at the " German Corner," the spot where 
the Moselle falls into the Khine. On the arrival of the royal 
couple by boat a hymn of welcome was sung by the combined 
choral societies of Cologne and Coblenz. This was followed by 
a speech from the Prince of Wied. At a banquet given by the 
Khine Province his Majesty proposed the following toast : 

" Only a few weeks have gone by since the cheers, which were 
raised when the monument of my late grandfather was unveiled 
at Cologne, died away, and again do I owe a debt of gratitude 
to the Ehine Province, this time for the delightful days, which 
I shall never forget, which we have been able to pass in the 
province, first in the old city of Cologne, and afterwards in our 
progress through the country, especially the quiet home on the 
Lake at Laach, where the sons of St. Benedict conduct their pious 
work and show to the world that they can serve God and at the 
same time do much to cultivate and to foster fidelity to King and 
love of Fatherland. To-day brings with it yet another ceremony 
of unveiling a memorial to the great Emperor. By the green 
waters of the Ehine there proudly stands the noble monument of 
the Emperor which the city of Coblenz is now called upon to pro- 
tect, and it is with deep emotion that I, his grandson and his suc- 
cessor to the Crown, speaking on behalf of myself and his daughter, 
my esteemed aunt, express our warmest thanks for the magnificent 
monument and for this splendid ceremony. Fashioned in bronze 
and stone, the monument, impressive in its striking proportions, 
rises mirrored in the everlasting stream, the home of legend. But 
still more touching than the bronze and stone is the appeal to the 
heart made by the rejoicing of the people, the gratitude of a nation 
to the departed Ruler, whose great virtues and achievements have 
been enlarged upon so eloquently and in such detail by my cousin, 
the Prince of Wied. But the most beautiful sight by the monument 



272 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

was the ring of grizzled veterans who, under the great Emperor, 
helped to forge and to establish our Empire. Truly the people 
have reason to raise monuments to him and to testify their grati- 
tude. In Coblenz, in particular, these feelings of gratitude appeal 
deeply to the heart, for it was during the time of his residence 
at Coblenz that the great Emperor worked out with patience 
and foresight the plan of the reorganisation of the Army, and 
at the same time engaged in work in the field of national life 
and policy, which bore excellent fruit after he had been called 
upon, at an advanced age, to ascend the throne. 

" It was from Coblenz that he went forth to assume the Crown 
as the chosen instrument of the Lord, and as such he always 
regarded himself. He has lifted up once more in the sight of us 
all, and above all, of us Princes, and helped to restore to its 
pristine brilliancy a jewel that we may prize as something high 
and holy. It is the Kingship by the grace of God, the Kingship 
with its heavy duties, its never-finished, unending toils and 
labours, with its dread responsibility to the Creator alone, from 
which no man, no minister, no House of Deputies, and no people 
can release the Prince. Conscious of his responsibility, and re- 
garding himself as God's instrument, the great Emperor in 
deepest humility proceeded along his path. He gave us back 
unity and the German Empire. Here in this beautiful province 
his lofty ideas were conceived and matured; this province he 
ever held in deep affection; this city he loved; his consecrated 
foot trod its soil; and the whole province shared his joys 
and his sorrows. I am, therefore, almost overcome by emotion 
when I speak to you Rhinelanders on this day and in this place, and 
I express to you my heartfelt thanks for the honour you have paid 
to my grandfather and to his memory. As for myself, I will regard 
it as my sacred duty to proceed along the path which the great 
Ruler indicated to us, and with protecting care for my country to 
hold my hand over this precious jewel, and in that traditional 
spirit which is firmer than iron and the walls of Ehrenbreitstein, 
I will as your Sovereign commit this province to my loving and 
paternal care. I look upon it as a diamond set between two 
emeralds, and I sincerely hope and trust that, in the enjoyment of 
lasting peace, its people will continue to prosper, that the vine- 



HIS FAMILY RELATIONS 273 

dressers will sing their songs on the hills undisturbed, and that 
the hammer will resound in the smithy without ceasing, so that 
by our peaceful labours we may show the world what the German 
Empire, and especially the Ehine Province, is capable of accom- 
plishing. With these sentiments in my mind, and in the spirit 
which actuated my late grandfather, I raise my glass and drink 
with my whole heart to the prosperity of my Khineland, the Ehine 
Province, the beautiful land of the vine." 

In the presence of a large circle of near relatives and friends, 
including the Empress, the Empress Frederick, the King of 
Wtirtemberg, and Prince and Princess Henry of Prussia, the 
Emperor performed the ceremony of unveiling a monument erected 
to the memory of the Emperor Frederick III. on the battlefield of 
Worth, on the 18th of October, 1895. His Majesty said : 

" Esteemed Comrades in arms of my father and Gentlemen : At 
the request of her Majesty, the Empress Frederick, and on behalf 
of my House, I have to thank you for having spared no effort in 
helping to erect this splendid monument and for your presence 
here on this day. 

" With deeply moved heart is my august mother present here 
to-day, mindful of the fact that it was granted to her, whilst 
leaning on the arm of her husband, to hear on this spot from 
his own lips the news of the first great victory which he gained. 
My very special thanks are, therefore, due to her Majesty that 
she graciously consented to be present here where now stands this 
noble statue of my father. The tribute which has just been paid 
to his memory could not have been more beautifully or more 
touchingly expressed. But our feelings here in the presence of 
this statue and in consideration of the twenty-fifth anniversary 
of the great time of the regeneration of our Fatherland, in which, 
at this very spot, South and North German blood first united to 
cement the bond which helped to build up anew the German 
Empire these emotions, I say, deeply stir the hearts of all of us. 

" Finally, in the presence of the statue of the victorious and 
illustrious Monarch, we, of the younger generation, solemnly vow to 
preserve what he won for us on the battlefield, to guard the Crown 
which he wrought, to defend the Imperial Territories against all 



274 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

comers and to keep them German so help us God and our German 
sword. 

" Now let us raise a cheer for my august mother, whose presence 
has added so much lustre to to-day's proceedings Her Majesty, 
the Empress Frederick ! Hurrah ! " 

On May 7th, 1898, the Emperor gave a banquet to the members 
of the Reichstag, then just prorogued. He invited them to a 
dinner in the White Hall of the Castle, and at table delivered the 
following speech : 

" Before you depart for home," he said, " it is my strong desire 
to add to the expression of my thanks as Emperor, which I have 
already tendered to you to-day, my thanks as a son, together with 
the thanks of my Imperial mother, the Dowager Empress, for your 
touching resolution to make us the gift of a monument of my late 
father. In doing this you have made it easier for me to fulfil my 
duties as a son, and have given to my mother the gratifying 
opportunity of employing her artistic tastes in assisting to carry 
out this beautiful piece of work. 

" I am confident that, when you have returned each to your own 
family circle and particular calling in life, you will feel that my 
counsellors and I have honestly endeavoured to continue in the 
path which was laid down for us by the great Emperor, a repre- 
sentation of whose noble features now faces this chamber. 

" In bidding you good-bye on your departure for your homes, I 
cannot do better than express the wish and make the request 
which are the outcome of my own experience that just as the 
great Emperor derived all his strength and encouragement from his 
relation and his responsibility to his God, so may each of you, what- 
ever your station in life, whether high or low, and whatever form 
of creed you profess, make up your mind that, whatever the future 
may have in store for you, whatever the work which you contem- 
plate doing this year, you may take such a view of your respon- 
sibilities that when some day you shall be summoned to appear 
before Heaven's tribunal, you may stand before God and your old 
Emperor with a clear conscience, and when you are asked whether 
you worked for the welfare of the Empire with all your heart, 
you will be able to strike your breast and frankly answer, ' Yes.' 



HIS FAMILY RELATIONS 275 

The source from which my grandfather derived strength to 
accomplish his deeds and achievements, and my father to enable 
him to win his victories and bear his sufferings, is also the source 
of my strength. I am determined to proceed in the way and to 
adhere to the aim which I have set myself, in the firm conviction 
which I should like to impress upon all of you, which for us and 
for every man should be the guiding principle of his life 'A 
safe stronghold our God is still 1 In hoc signo vinces. 

" And now let us give expression to the thought which moves 
our hearts and cry, Our dear Fatherland ! Our splendid German 
people ! May God preserve and protect them. Hurrah ! " 

The eldest son of Prince Henry of Prussia, Prince Waldemar, 
entered the German Navy at Kiel on the 20th of March, 1899. 
In all matters of this kind concerning his family the Emperor 
shows particular interest, and he made a special visit to Kiel in 
order to be present at the simple ceremony. 

" This is an important day for the German Navy. The eldest 
son of Prince Henry, who is now in the Far East in command of 
the squadron of cruisers, wears for the first time the uniform which 
is worn by his father and many able officers in the service of the 
Fatherland. It is one of the privileges of the Princes of the 
House of Hohenzollern that they can from their tenth year devote 
their energies to the service of the Fatherland by entering at that 
age the 1st Kegiment of Guards, a regiment which has numbered 
many Hohenzollern Princes amongst its officers. I hope that the 
Hohenzollern Princes will devote their services to the Navy with 
the same zeal, and I trust that the Navy will see this hopeful 
young Prince grow up into an able, brave, and chivalrous officer, 
who will be as distinguished for his energy and devotion, and for 
the same patriotism as is his illustrious father. May our con- 
gratulations be heard in the newly acquired German territory 
beyond the sea." 

On May 6th, 1900, the German and Prussian Crown Prince 
completed his eighteenth year, and thereby attained his majority. 
In the morning, at the lunch given in the Pillar Hall of the Eoyal 
Castle, at Berlin, in honour of the birthday of the Crown Prince, 
the Emperor made the following speech to the deputation of the 
First Kegiment of Grenadier Guards : 



276 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

" I have determined, by way of marking my appreciation of the 
importance of this day, to appoint my eldest son, the Crown 
Prince, in la suite of your regiment the regiment which was so 
near and dear to the heart of my revered father, and in which he 
took such special pride, a sentiment which he once expressed in 
very cordial terms in the midst of his regiment on the day of the 
festival at Konigsberg. I have, therefore, further determined 
again to confer on the regiment its ancient title, the ' Crown 
Prince's Own/ that name, the 'Crown Prince's Own,' on which 
my father shed such lustre, that name under which the regiment 
faced the foe with distinction, by which it has ever continued to 
be named in its native province of East Prussia, and which has 
also survived in the regiment itself unofficially. The regiment 
will display the monogram of King Frederick III. But in order 
that the name King Frederick III. may be retained in the 
infantry in my Army, it will be transferred to the Eleventh 
Eegiment of Grenadier Guards, which my late father once com- 
manded. I appoint the Crown Prince a la suite of the ' Crown 
Prince's Own ' Kegiment, in the hope that when he has attained 
the rank of colonel he will also be honorary colonel of the 
regiment." 

Then the Emperor turned to the Crown Prince: 
"You are to-day taking an important step forward in life. 
The rank of the Crown Prince was raised to so high a level by 
your late grandfather, who was in this position for the longest 
and most important period of his life, that it will be the work of 
a life, and will demand your full strength as a man, to maintain 
this position in the high place which it has occupied since the 
time of your grandfather in the heart of the German people and 
the Army. First as Crown Prince of Prussia, then as Crown 
Prince of the German Empire, when the latter was welded together 
in the year 1870-1, does this glorious figure, which at the end 
suffered so unspeakably, tower aloft in history and live in the 
heart of the nation as the Crown Prince par excellence. The 
respect which your grandfather won in the world and among his 
people for the position of the German Crown Prince is for you 
an inheritance, which you have to maintain unimpaired and to 
increase. Of this be sure, that you need all your strength of 



HIS FAMILY RELATIONS 277 

manhood to do justice to your high and onerous task. This is 
the thought that moves me to-day in bringing you into personal 
relation with the ' Crown Prince's Own ' Eegiment." 

On October llth, 1900, at the Saalburg, near Homburg, the 
Emperor laid the foundation-stone of a Museum of the Antiquities 
found on the frontier of the old Eoman Empire, with the words: 

" Our first thought to-day reverts with sorrowing gratitude to 
my father, the Emperor Frederick III., whose memory will ever 
live among us. The Saalburg owes its restoration to his energy 
and his active interest. Just as in the far east of the Monarchy, 
the mighty stronghold, which once planted German civilisation 
in the East, rose from its ruins at his bidding, and is now 
rapidly approaching completion; so on the heights of lovely 
Taunus, like the Phoenix, rose from its ashes the ancient Eoman 
fort, a witness of the power of Eome, a link in the mighty brazen 
chain which the legions of Eome laid round the mighty Empire, 
and which at the bidding of a Eoman Emperor, Csesar Augustus, 
imposed his will on the world, and opened out the whole world 
to that Eoman civilisation which fell on Germany with special 
fertilising power. Thus with the first stroke do I dedicate this 
stone to the memory of the Emperor Frederick III., with the 
second stroke to our German youth, the rising generations who 
may here learn in the newly erected Museum the meaning of a 
world-empire, and with the third to the future of our Father- 
land, that it may be destined in times to come, by the harmonious 
co-operation of princes and peoples, its armies and citizens, to 
become as mighty, as strongly united, and carry the same weight 
as did once the Eoman World-Empire, so that some day in the 
future, as in ancient times it was said, 'Civis Eomanus sum,' it 
may now be said, f I am a German citizen.' " 

On the occasion of this ceremony the Emperor sent the follow- 
ing telegram to Professor Mommsen at Charlottenburg : 

"Theodoro Mommseno, antiquitatum romanarum investigatori 
incomparabili, praetorii Saalburgensis fundamenta jaciens salutem 
dicit et gratias agit Gulielmus Germanorum Imperator."* 

* "William, the German Emperor, while laying the foundation-stone of the 
Saalburg Prsetorium, presents his greeting and thanks to Theodore Mommsen, the 
incomparable student of Roman antiquities." 



278 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

Professor Mommsen replied : 

" Germanorum principi tarn majestate quam humanitate gratias 
agit antiquarius Lietzelburgensis." * 

On September 7th, 1890, at a banquet given by the members 
of the Provincial Diet of Schleswig-Holstein, at GliLcksburg, the 
Emperor William delivered a speech in which he paid a tender 
and graceful compliment to his consort : 

" I express to you the thanks of the Empress and myself for the 
kind words which you have just addressed to us, and I also thank 
the whole province for to-day's rejoicings and for the reception 
which has been accorded to us. But it did not require this day's 
proceedings to convince us of the warmth and loyalty of the senti- 
ments of the province toward us. 

" The link which unites me to this province, and which makes 
this province dearer to me than any other, is the gem which 
sparkles by my side, her Majesty the Empress, a daughter of this 
province, a model of all the virtues that adorn a German Princess. 
I owe it to her that I am able to fulfil the onerous duties of my 
position with a cheerful mind and devote myself to them to the 
best of my power. 

" You have been good enough to say that you feel safe under my 
rule and that you look with confidence to the future. And so also 
do I, if I am supported by such men as you men of Schleswig- 
Holstein. I hope that I shall succeed in my efforts to banish the 
shadow to which you pointed, but I can only do so if every 
German for his part gives me his assistance. I hope and expect 
that the inhabitants of this province, each in his own particular 
sphere of activity, will co-operate in the work of firmly upholding 
established law and order against the revolutionary elements. 

" If every citizen will do his duty, then I shall be in a position 
to look after their interests and peacefully to guide the destinies 
of our Fatherland for the welfare of us all ; and I am confident 
that, come what may, you will tranquilly and patiently await 
the development of our legislation and internal affairs, and that, 

* "The Antiquarian of Lietzelburg (Charlottenburg) returns thanks to the German 
Prince who excels in majesty and wisdom." Charlottenburg (Charlotte's Town), was 
so named by Frederick I., King of Prussia, after the death of his wife, Sophie 
Charlotte, in 1705. Till then the village was called Lutzelburg, or Littletown. 
(See Carlyle, Friedrich, vol. i. p. 37.) 



HIS FAMILY RELATIONS 279 

in accordance with your well-tried loyalty and devotion, you will 
lend me your aid. Thus then I raise my glass and drink to 
the native Province of my Consort. Prosperity to my loyal 
Province of Schleswig-Holstein." 

The above speech is one of those in which the Emperor has 
given public expression to his admiration for his Consort, to whom, 
as he said, he is greatly indebted. Even more interesting compli- 
ments to the Empress were paid by the Emperor on the occasion of 
the seventy-fifth anniversary of the establishment of the students' 
Korps Borussia at Bonn. The celebration was held on the 18th of 
June, 1902, and among the proceedings was a grand students' 
" Kommers," in which the Emperor and the Crown Prince took 
part, while the ladies, among them the Empress, were seated in 
the gallery. 

In the course of the "Kommers" the Emperor himself took 
the chair, and rose to propose the following toast to his Consort : 

"When our ancestors gathered together at an assault-at-arms, 
a bevy of fair ladies looked down upon them, but in the whole 
history of German Universities there is no record of a Univer- 
sity being honoured as you are honoured to-day. In the heart 
of this beautiful city of Bonn is present her Majesty the Empress, 
the first time the highest lady of the land has ever attended a 
students' 'Kommers.' This unexampled honour is conferred on 
Bonn and in Bonn on the Borussia Korps. I hope and expect 
that every young Borussian on whom the eye of her Majesty 
rests to-day will receive from this honour an inspiration which 
will last him throughout his life. All of us, whoever we may be 
general, statesman, lieutenant, or country gentleman unite in 
loyal gratitude and homage to her Majesty the Empress. We 
drink the very good health of her Majesty in a mighty 'sala- 
mander.' " * 

* Salamander. The process of "rubbing" a "salamander" by German Uni- 
versity students is thus described by Mr. F. Marion Crawford in Greifenstein, 
chap. vi. : "Every meeting of the Korps begins and ends with a 'salamander.' At 
the President's word the glasses or stone jugs are moved rhythmically upon the 
oaken board. Another word of command, and each student empties his beaker. 
Then the vessels are rattled on the table, while he slowly counts three, with the 
precision of a military drum, then struck sharply again three times, so that they 
touch the table all together, and the meeting is opened or closed as the case may be. 
The same ceremony is performed when the health of anyone is drunk by the whole 
Korps." 



THE EMPEROR AND THE UNITED STATES 
OF AMERICA 



T IKE all clear-sighted European politicians, the Emperor William 
Jj has watched with interest, and at the same time with appre- 
hension, the almost fabulous growth of the United States of 
America during the last decades, especially in regard to its 
economic position. Ever since the time when he was Prince 
William, the Emperor has endeavoured, at least by reading and 
serious study, to make himself familiar with the circumstances of 
America in this respect, and he has always regretted that it was 
not his privilege to get personal information on the spot by means 
of a journey to North America. When in the year 1888 the 
Emperor came to the throne, the relations of Germany with North 
America had been for some decades extraordinarily friendly and 
pleasant. 

In September, 1889, a new ambassador, Mr. Phelps, was 
appointed to the post at Berlin. On September 26th he was 
received by the Emperor to hand over his credentials, and on 
this occasion the Emperor made the following speech to him : 

" I have heard with great pleasure the words with which you 
have introduced yourself, and I do not for one moment doubt that 
you will be always successful in your efforts to cultivate the good 
relations between your country and my empire, which have now 
subsisted for a century. From my youth up I have had the 
greatest admiration for the mighty and rising commonwealth 
which you are appointed to represent here, and the study of 
your history in time of peace and in war has always had for me 
a special interest. Among the many eminent qualities which 
your countrymen possess, it is, above all, their spirit of enterprise, 
their sense of order, and their inventive capacity, which attract 
the attention of the whole world. G^-mans feel themselves all 

280 



THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 281 

the more drawn towards the people of the United States because 
they are connected with the North Americans by the many 
close ties which community of origin involves. The prevailing 
sentiment of the two nations is that of close relationship and 
tried friendship, and the future can only strengthen the heartiness 
of our relations." 

In the year 1892 the American newspapers emphasised the fact 
that the Emperor William II. was the only European ruler who 
had sent a congratulatory message to the American Kepublic on 
the occasion of the Columbus Festival, which took place in Chicago 
in October. This telegram was addressed to Mr. Wharton, Secretary 
of State for Foreign Affairs, at Washington : 

" The German Emperor commands the German Ambassador to 
express to you his sincere congratulations on the occasion of the 
four hundredth anniversary of the discovery of America, and 
unites with them his hearty wishes for the continued development 
of the great country to the Government of which you belong." 

On February 17th, 1898, the American warship Maine was 
blown up in Havana Harbour, and on this occasion the Emperor 
addressed the following telegram to President McKinley : 

"Allow me to express to you and your country my sincere 
sympathy at the terrible loss of the Maine and the death of so 
many brave officers and men." 

In addition, the German Ambassador in Washington, Dr. von 
Holleben, was at once commanded to seek an audience of the 
President of the United States in order personally to convey the 
expression of the Emperor's sympathy at the great calamity which 
had befallen the American people. Mr. McKinley's reply to the 
Emperor's sympathetic message was well received by the entire 
German Press. "Expressing," he said, "the deep sorrow of a 
stricken people, I gratefully acknowledge your Majesty's message 
of sympathy." 

The outbreak of the Spanish-American War, however, brought 
with it a change of feeling on the part of the American people ; 
but it was not until after peace had been concluded that the most 
regrettable incident affecting the relations of the two countries 
arose. Captain Coghlan, an officer of the American Navy who 
distinguished himself in the war, together with his fellow-officers 



282 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

of the United States cruiser Raleigh, was entertained at a banquet 
given by the Union League Club of New York, and in replying to 
the toast of his health declared that he had heard Admiral Dewey 
make some very offensive remarks against Germany. Not content 
with this, the Captain went still further, and sang a song in which 
the German Emperor was insulted. This banquet was a private 
affair, but the facts found their way into the newspapers, and 
Captain Coghlan's conduct not only produced an outburst of indig- 
nation in Germany, but was also severely censured by almost the 
whole American Press. The feeling of Germany against Captain 
Coghlan was all the greater because of the view held in that 
country that a naval or military officer should not concern himself 
with matters outside his sphere of activity, but, despite this 
resentment, the Government and the people were anxious that 
nothing should happen which would have a prejudicial effect on 
German-American interests. Still, however, the incident could 
not be allowed to pass unnoticed, and the German Ambassador at 
Washington was instructed to call on the Secretary of State and 
lodge a complaint. He was at first informed that the matter was 
not a State affair, but merely the thoughtless utterance of a naval 
officer; but subsequently both the Secretary of State and the 
President personally expressed their regrets at what had occurred. 
These strained relations soon gave way to quieter feelings, however, 
but not before the German inhabitants of the United States had 
vigorously asserted themselves in that country. A great number 
of German societies were formed, and on one day in Chicago alone 
as many as forty each held a meeting and expressed a determina- 
tion to uphold German honour in America. Then also a number 
of the largest German- American newspaper proprietors decided 
that in future they would work in common for the protection of 
their own and the Fatherland's interests. It was doubtless with 
the object of removing the last traces of unpleasantness that the 
Emperor sent his brother to represent him at the christening 
of his Majesty's yacht the Meteor by Miss Alice Eoosevelt on 
Shooter's Island. 

Since the year 1898 the American newspapers have occupied 
themselves much with the personality of the German Emperor. 
On July 5th, 1900, President McKinley telegraphed to the German 
Emperor : 

" The confirmation of the news of the murder of the Ambassador 
of your Majesty at Pekin impels me to express to your Majesty 
and the family of Baron von Ketteler my deep sympathy, and 
that of the American people." 



THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 283 

The Emperor immediately telegraphed back : 

" I express my most sincere thanks to your Excellency for the 
warm words of sympathy with which you refer to the murder 
of my representative at Pekin. I see in your message that com- 
munity of interests which knits together all civilised nations." 

Later in the year the work of laying the first German cable 
between Germany and America was completed, and the Emperor 
telegraphed as follows to the President : 

" On the occasion of the opening to-day of the new cable which 
brings Germany into closest telegraphic communication with 
the United States, I rejoice to express to your Excellency my 
satisfaction at the completion of this important work of peace. 
I know that your Excellency is at one with me in the wish and 
the hope that the laying of this cable will promote the general 
prosperity and contribute to the maintenance and strengthening 
of the friendly relations existing between our two countries." 

The terrible calamity which befell the city of Galveston, Texas, 
in the autumn of 1900 called forth the sympathy of the whole 
civilised world. The German Emperor was one of the first to 
express his sorrow. 

"I wish to acquaint your Excellency," he telegraphed to Mr. 
McKinley, " how deeply grieved I am over the calamity which has 
befallen the flourishing city and harbour of Galveston and other 
parts of Texas, and I join you and the people of the United 
States in mourning the great loss of life and property which has 
been caused by the tornado. The greatness of the calamity, 
however, is equalled by the indomitable spirit of the citizens of 
the New World, which has always enabled them to triumph in 
their many encounters with the hostile forces of nature. I enter- 
tain the sincere hope that Galveston will rise to new prosperity." 

On September 10th, 1901, President McKinley was- attacked 
by an anarchist and severely wounded. The Emperor immediately 
telegraphed to Buffalo : 

" I am deeply distressed by the news of the dastardly attempt 
on your life, and beg to express to you my sympathy and that 
of the entire German nation with you, and with the sorrow with 



284 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

which your land is afflicted. May God grant you sure and 
speedy recovery." 

The Emperor and Empress also addressed a telegram to the 
President's wife : 

"The Empress and myself are struck with horror at the attempt 
against your husband, and beg to express our deepest sympathy 
and the hope that God will restore McKinley to health." 

After this the following communication was sent by the 
Embassy of the United States at Berlin to the German Foreign 
Office : 

" The touching expression of sympathy of their Majesties the 
German Emperor and the Empress has been communicated to 
Mrs. McKinley. The Embassy has been requested to express in 
her name her heartfelt thanks." 

Not only Germany, but also the entire world admired the 
dexterous way in which the Emperor William used the oppor- 
tunity afforded by the launching of his yacht Meteor at Shooter 
Island, near Staten Island, in order to promote friendly inter- 
course with the United States of America. The splendid reception 
which was given to Prince Henry as brother and representative of 
the German Emperor in America by the Government, the Germans, 
and also by Anglo-Americans is still fresh in our memories. 

An article published in Pearson's Magazine in the June number, 
1902, is of special interest. The author of this article is no other 
than Eear-Admiral Evans, who has been a lifelong acquaintance 
and a good friend of Prince Henry, who greeted him in the name 
of the American Government on his arrival in New York, was 
attached to him during his whole stay in America, and was in 
attendance upon him in all his journeys and at all receptions. 

Evans writes, for instance : 

" Now of course the Germans among us interested the German 
Prince very personally, but he was interested in them as Ameri- 
cans. Immense numbers of them appeared everywhere, and he 
inquired for their welfare ; but the answer that pleased him best 
from the rest of us was that they made such good citizens, and 
from them that they were doing well by America. 

" In every public speech to them he said that they could best 
show their loyalty to the Fatherland by being loyal to the United 
States, the country of their adoption, and their reply that this 
was their sentiment also and their highest purpose, gave him a 
gratification that was plainly genuine. 



THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 285 

"He was deeply interested whenever he caught sight of the 
German veterans of the Franco-Prussian War. In Milwaukee, 
where a hundred or more of these old soldiers of '70-71 were 
lined up, he and his officers stopped to speak to them, and here 
and always these greetings were touching and kind. 

" Now the purpose of Prince Henry's visit was very simple 
it was, like the visit itself, friendly. He said so himself, repeating 
it time and again in his public speeches; and what he said publicly 
was exactly what he said privately. 

"Being with him all the time, I enjoyed his confidence, and 
he talked about this point several times. Always he said that 
he had come to extend across the ocean the hand of friendship ; 
there was nothing more in it nothing more subtle or complex. 

" Of course he and his suite were here to see things, and, each 
an expert in his profession, they saw much and they saw it 
keenly, with understanding and a willingness to learn. 'Keep 
your eyes and ears open and your mouth shut,' Prince Henry 
said his brother's instructions were. I believe this was all there 
was of it, this and the personal interest of the Prince in the 
American people, which was personal, mind you, and sincere ; 
and in ships, machinery, industries, and business. 

" Prince Henry gave a formal lunch on board the Deutsckland 
before sailing for home. All those who had accompanied him 
on his trip were present and enjoyed the hour of familiar con- 
versation where true feeling found its way to the surface. Each 
one was toasted by his Eoyal Highness, and then in a few heart- 
felt words he expressed his warm personal thanks for the service 
we had done him. There was real sentiment in what he said, and 
each of us felt it. 

" As representative of the Navy I said a few words, and they 
indicate, and were meant to indicate, my views as to the object 
and result of the Prince's visit. I said : 

"'Prince Henry, and brother officers of the German service, 
representing the Navy of the United States, I say to you that we 
are glad you came, we are sorry you are going, and we hope you 
will come again. It gives me pleasure to grasp the friendly hand 
so courteously extended to us across the North Atlantic.' 

"The grasp that I received across that breakfast-table con- 
vinced me that there was strength of muscle as well as friendship 
behind. 

"In these few words I indicate just what I think of Prince 
Henry's visit. It was purely and simply a visit of friendship to 
cement the friendly relations existing between two great nations. 



286 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

Those who were doing the cementing on both sides had their eyes 
and ears open, and, as a rule, their mouths shut. 

" After a close personal relation with his Eoyal Highness during 
his entire visit, and many most intimate and confidential conver- 
sations, I feel justified in saying that I have given above the sole 
object of his visit. I may say, further, that he was gratified and 
satisfied with the result. For myself, I may say I am, as I have 
always been, proud of my countrymen in this case for the hearty 
and courteous greeting they gave my country's guest." 

Out of gratitude for the excellent reception which his brother 
had met with in America, and in order to give the American 
people a new proof of sincere friendship, the Emperor William, 
it is well known, lately decided to present to the American nation 
the statue of Frederick the Great, to be set up in Washington. 
On May 14th, 1902, the Emperor telegraphed from Wiesbaden to 
President Roosevelt : 

"I still stand under the deep impression which the splendid 
and cordial reception of my brother Prince Henry by the citizens 
of the United States of America has made upon me. In the 
speeches with which he was welcomed, repeated reference was 
made to the fact that my ancestor Frederick the Great had 
always maintained a friendly attitude towards the young American 
Republic at the time of its birth, thereby laying the foundation of 
those friendly relations which have always subsisted between our 
two countries. I propose to follow the example set by the great 
King. I should like to keep alive the memory of the visit of 
Prince Henry by a gift to the American people which I beg you 
will accept on their behalf. I propose to present to the United 
States a bronze statue of Frederick the Great, to be set up in 
Washington, on a site which you will kindly select. May this 
gift be regarded as a lasting token of the cordial relations which 
have been successfully cultivated and developed between our two 
great nations." 

In reply to this telegram the following answer in German was 
sent to Wiesbaden : 

" I am deeply touched by your generous and friendly offer. I 
thank you heartily for it in the name of the United States, and 
will immediately lay it before Congress. It will certainly afford 
our nation the greatest pleasure to receive from your hands a 



THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 287 

statue of the celebrated monarch and soldier, Frederick the Great, 
one of the greatest men of all times; and a special appropriate- 
ness lies in the fact that a statue is to be erected here in the city 
of Washington, the capital of the Eepublic, on the birth of which 
he looked with such friendly interest. For this new proof of your 
friendly sentiments to our country, I thank you in its name. The 
gift will assuredly be here regarded as a fresh token of friendship 
between the two nations. We hope and firmly believe that in 
years to come this friendship will become still stronger and firmer. 
It is a good omen for the welfare of the entire human race that 
at the commencement of this century the American and the 
German nations work together in a spirit of hearty friendship. 

" KOOSEVELT." 



THE EMPEROR AS MARGRAVE OF 
BRANDENBURG 



IT is customary for the members of the Diet of Brandenburg to 
assemble on certain occasions at an official banquet, and, as a 
rule, the Emperor is one of the guests and takes the opportunity 
to deliver a speech. The utterances which his Majesty has made 
on these occasions are not only most characteristic of his oratorical 
style, but are at the same time of particular interest from the 
political point of view, for nearly all of them have contained 
warmly expressed and unrestrained criticisms of and allusions to 
matters of public concern, and one or two have aroused an extra- 
ordinary amount of comment in foreign countries as well as at 
home. Before he came to the throne he attended at least one of 
these banquets, and then made an important utterance. It is a 
matter of common knowledge that when the present Emperor was 
Prince William it was generally believed that he had a burning 
ambition to excel as a soldier and that he was certain to plunge 
the Empire and some foreign Power into all the horrors of war. 
For a long time he submitted to these imputations in silence, but 
eventually repudiated them in the firm words which will be found 
on page 3. That speech cleared the air considerably, for most 
thoughtful people accepted in full the assurances of the Prince, 
and time has shown that their confidence was not misplaced. 

A year later, after the Emperor had ascended the throne, he 
addressed the members of the Brandenburg Diet on the last day 
of the Session. His Majesty said : 

" I have come here because I did not wish the Session to close 
without passing at least a few minutes with you. The Governor 
was good enough to invite me to this year's banquet, and it would 
have given me great pleasure to accept the invitation, but as it 
fell on the very day before the anniversary of the death of my 
grandfather, I was, unfortunately, not able to do so. But, as I have 

288 



AS MARGRAVE OF BRANDENBURG 289 

already said, I could not allow a year to pass without spending 
a short time in the company of my Brandenburgers, so I decided 
to pay you a hurried visit and to give to all of you, gentlemen, 
my greeting. 

" The first and most illustrious name in my full list of Koyal 
titles is that of Margrave of Brandenburg, and, naturally enough, 
I always regard myself as Margrave when I am amongst you, for 
I am your direct head. That in itself is sufficient to make me 
feel that I ought to be in your midst when you are assembled 
together. 

" We have this year undergone experiences, the like of which 
have scarcely ever occurred to a people or a family. Indeed, so far 
as I am aware, history does not record any case similar to ours. 
We have lost two Kings. Within a short period of time I have 
seen a grandfather and a father die before me, and I think that 
that is training enough for a young man who is called upon to 
rule such a country as this. I was well aware that I had in 
a special degree the sympathy of the Province of Brandenburg, 
and in particular of its representatives here present. We have 
now known one another intimately for a long time, and, therefore, 
I was certain that you in this province would understand the 
difficulty of the circumstances in which I was placed, and would 
not hesitate for a moment to show me your sympathy and to 
support me in my task. 

" What my principles are, you are well aware. I made you 
acquainted with them last year, and I leave it to your judgment 
to say whether I have acted up to them or not. 

" I think I can safely say that the industry of the province is 
improving in every respect, that commerce and the general 
prosperity are on the increase. 

" I rejoice to have been able to spend these few minutes with 
you to-day, and I trust that the Provincial Diet may succeed in 
solving the problems which it has to consider this Session. I 
hope that circumstances will allow us to meet again next year, 
and I may add the one request that you, gentlemen, will in the 
future as in the past, continue to manifest and to preserve the 
traditional Brandenburg loyalty." 



290 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

On the 5th March, 1890, the Emperor was present at the 
banquet given at the Kaiserhof Hotel, and spoke as follows : 

" Gentlemen : I first of all thank you for the desire you 
expressed to see me amongst you this evening. Apart from the 
short visit which I paid to the Chamber at the conclusion of 
last year's sittings, three years have passed since I was with my 
Brandenburgers, during which time many things of deep concern 
to my House and to the province of Brandenburg have happened. 

"The intimate connection which exists between the House of 
Hohenzollern and Brandenburg, and which is so much admired 
yet so little understood by foreigners, rests above all upon the fact 
that, in contradistinction to the case in many other States, 
Brandenburg was privileged to show, in times of the greatest 
misfortunes, its loyalty to its ruling House. Let me remind you 
of my ancestors, and especially of the Great Elector of whom 
I always take a special pleasure in speaking to you, for even in 
his own lifetime he was named the Great and of Frederick the 
Great. Each of these Sovereigns always considered it to be his 
first duty, not to exploit for his own advantage the State which 
he had once adopted in exchange for his more beautiful for such 
men call it home in South Germany, but to merge his interests 
entirely in those of the new land of his adoption, and to regard 
it as his highest duty to strive incessantly for its welfare. On 
those journeys to which your President has just referred, I do not 
merely endeavour to learn something of the countries which I 
visit and of their national institutions, and to cultivate friendly 
relations with their Kulers. But besides that, these journeys, the 
purport of which has so often been misapprehended, are valuable 
to me inasmuch as they place me beyond the reach of party con- 
flict and enable me to watch home affairs from a distance and 
quietly to examine them in all their bearings. Anyone who has 
been on the high seas, and has stood alone on the bridge at night, 
only God's starry heaven above him, and has then held com- 
munion with himself, will be able to understand the value of one 
of these journeys. I should like to recommend many of my 
countrymen to pass hours such as these, in which they could 
give to themselves an account of their aims and achievements. 



AS MARGRAVE OF BRANDENBURG 291 

Then they would be cured of presumption, and that is a lesson of 
which we all stand in need. 

" There hangs in my room a picture which was for a long time 
forgotten. It depicts a line of proud ships each flying the flag on 
which is the red eagle of Brandenburg. This picture reminds me 
every day that the Great Elector rightly understood that if the 
province was to make the most of its industry and productive 
capacity it must obtain for itself a position in the markets of the 
world. Enormous has been the progress of Prussian and German 
industries and commerce since then, and especially during the 
reign of my grandfather. I regard it as one of my highest duties 
to promote the further development of our economic activity. 
I have, therefore, after endeavouring to secure peace with foreign 
nations, directed my attention to domestic affairs. I have adopted 
as my own the aims proposed by my late grandfather in his 
message. Following in his footsteps, I regard it as my chief care 
to devote myself most earnestly to the question of the welfare of 
the lower classes of my subjects. For the successful issue of the 
deliberations of the State Council, which I hope will soon be 
embodied in legal form to the advantage of the Fatherland, my 
thanks are due not least to the loyal and self-sacrificing co-opera- 
tion of men of Brandenburg. The principles which I have already 
mentioned to you, and which guided my ancestors and the House 
of Hohenzollern in general, in the view they took of their position 
towards the province of Brandenburg, were embodied in the 
highest degree by my late grandfather. He regarded his position 
as a task appointed him by God, to which he consecrated himself 
by devoting all his powers to its performance till the last moment 
of his life. His belief is also mine, and I deem the country and 
the people that have passed into my care to be a talent entrusted 
to me by God, which, as it is expressed in the Bible, it is my 
duty to increase and multiply, and for which I shall some day 
be called upon to give a reckoning. I trust, to the best of my 
power, to be such a faithful steward with my talent, that I may 
hope to gain many another talent besides. I welcome with all 
my heart those who wish to assist me in my work, no matter 
who they may be, but those who oppose me in this work I will 
crush. Should times of difficulty be in store for us, I shall trust 



292 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

to the loyalty of my Brandenburgers, and I hope that they will 
faithfully assist me to fulfil my duties. Kelying upon that, and 
recalling their motto "Here good Brandenburgers all," I drink 
to the health of my Brandenburgers and this dear province." 

A very remarkable speech was that delivered on the 24th of 
February, 1892, at the banquet of the Provincial Diet of Branden- 
burg, when the Emperor said : 

" You have assembled together for your work, and, in accord- 
ance with tradition and as good Brandenburgers, have not forgotten 
your Margrave. For this I express to you my cordial thanks. It 
is always a particular pleasure to me to be in the midst of my 
Brandenburgers, especially when the whole province is so worthily 
represented as it is by the present assembly. 

"The words which have just been spoken and which have 
given renewed expression to your loyal feelings have gladdened 
my heart. It is doubly agreeable, and at the same time en- 
couraging to me in my difficult task, to find that my efforts on 
behalf of my people are so gratefully and so warmly recognised. 
Unfortunately, however, it has of late become customary to find 
fault with everything that the Government does. On the slight- 
est pretext the tranquillity of the people is disturbed and their 
pleasure in the existence, vigour, and prosperity of our great 
Fatherland is embittered. All this carping and fault-finding 
finally gives rise in the minds of many people to the idea that 
our country is the most unfortunate and the worst-governed in 
the world, and indeed that it is torture to live in it. That this 
is not the case we, of course, know perfectly well, but would it 
not be better if these dissatisfied grumblers shook the dust of 
Germany from their feet and withdrew as quickly as possible from 
these miserable and distressful surroundings ? They would thus 
be put out of their misery, and they would at the same time do 
us a great favour. We live in a state of transition. Germany is 
gradually growing out of her childhood, and -will soon be entering 
upon her period of youth. It is, therefore, high time that we 
should throw off our childish ailments. We are passing through 
difficult and exciting times, in which, unfortunately, the judgment 
of the great majority of the people is wanting in objectivity. 
They will be followed by more tranquil days if only our people 



AS MARGRAVE OF BRANDENBURG 293 

will earnestly concentrate their energies, realise their duties, and, 
refusing to be led away by outside influence, will place their trust 
in God and in the unsparing diligence and paternal care of their 
hereditary Kuler. 

" I should like to illustrate this stage of transition by a story 
which I once heard. Sir Francis Drake, the famous English 
admiral, had landed in Central America after a difficult and 
exceedingly stormy voyage across the Atlantic. He was en- 
deavouring to find that other great ocean, of the existence of 
which he was convinced, though most of his companions held a 
contrary opinion. A native chief, struck by the searching ques- 
tions and enquiries of the admiral, and greatly impressed by his 
personality, said to him, ' You seek the great water ; follow me, 
and I will show it to you.' And then the two, despite the warn- 
ing cries of the companions of the admiral, ascended a lofty 
mountain. After fearful difficulties they arrived at the summit. 
The chief pointed to the sea which lay behind them, and Drake 
saw the wild, tossing waves of the ocean which he had crossed. 
Thereupon the chief turned round, guided the admiral round a 
small, rocky prominence, and suddenly, like a mirror gleaming in 
the golden rays of the rising sun, the broad expanse of the Pacific 
Ocean revealed itself to his enraptured eyes majestically calm. 

" So may it be with us also ! The firm consciousness that your 
sympathy accompanies me in my work constantly inspires me 
with new strength to persevere in my task and to continue in the 
way which Heaven has marked out for me. 

"In addition to this there is the feeling of responsibility to 
our Supreme Lord above, and, also, my steadfast conviction that 
He who fought on our side at Kossbach and Dennewitz will not 
fail us now. He has taken such infinite pains with this our 
ancient province of Brandenburg and our House that we cannot 
believe He has done so for naught. No; on the contrary, Bran- 
denburgers, a great future is still reserved for us, and I am still 
leading you on to a glorious destiny. Only do not let a gloom be 
cast on your outlook into the future, or the pleasure you take in 
united effort be lessened by mere carping criticism and dis- 
contented partisan talk. Catchwords alone are powerless to 
effect anything, and to the incessant, captious criticisms of the 



294 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

new course of our policy and those who are responsible for it I 
quietly but firmly reply, ' My course is the right one, and in it 
I shall continue to steer. That my brave Brandenburger crew 
will help me to do so, I sincerely hope." 

In reply to an address made by Governor Dr. von Achenbach, 
Minister of State, on March 1st, 1893, at the banquet of the 
Provincial Diet of Brandenburg, the Emperor said : 

"My dear Governor, and you, my honoured countrymen of 
Brandenburg: I beg you to accept, first of all, my thanks for 
your wish to see me in your midst. The sentiments of loyal 
devotion which his Excellency has expressed on your behalf 
awake a joyful responsive echo in my heart. Such sentiments as 
these are an avowal of that firm confidence on your Sovereign 
and his endeavours, which is the noblest reward that can be 
bestowed on me and my trusty advisers in our heavy labours. 

" The present age delights in casting many a glance backward 
at the past, and in comparing it with the existing state of things, 
mostly to the disadvantage of the latter. He who can look back 
at such a glorious past as, thank God, we Germans can, does well 
to do so, in order to learn many a lesson therefrom. In a 
monarchical state this is called tradition. But it should not 
merely cause us to launch out into unavailing lamentations about 
men and things which are no longer in existence, we ought 
rather to refresh ourselves in our recollections, as in a spring, that 
rising from it strengthened and reinvigorated we may devote 
ourselves to a joyous activity and happy exercise of our powers 
of work. Our first and foremost duty is to show ourselves 
worthy of our ancestors and their achievements. And that we 
can only do by an unde via ting adherence to the paths which they 
traced out for our guidance. 

"The noble form of our great departed Emperor William is 
ever present to our eyes with its mighty triumphs. To what 
were they due ? To the fact that my grandfather had the most 
firm belief in his divinely appointed office combined with the 
most unwearied devotion to duty. The Province of Brandenburg 
stood by him, and the whole German Fatherland too. Well, 
gentlemen, I grew up and was reared by him in these traditions, 
and I too cherish the same belief. My highest reward is, there- 



AS MARGRAVE OF BRANDENBURG 295 

fore, to labour night and day for my people and their welfare. 
But I do not disguise from myself the fact that I can never make 
all the members of our nation equally happy and contented. But 
I have good hope that I shall succeed in bringing about a state of 
things with which all can be content who have the will to be so. 

<r lt is my earnest wish that this will may become stronger day 
by day in my people ; that all good Germans and, above all, my 
Brandenburgers may help me in my task is my request. And it 
is my hope that our entire German Fatherland may thereby gain 
strength at home and respect and esteem abroad. Then may I 
say with a good courage, ' We Germans fear God and naught else 
in the world.' " 

Governor von Achenbach also made an address to the Emperor 
at the banquet held on February 24th, 1894, to which the latter 
replied : 

" My honoured Governor : I beg to offer you my hearty deep- 
felt thanks for the kind words which you have addressed to me 
in the name of the Province of Brandenburg. In the course of 
your speech the call ( Here good Brandenburgers all ' rang in our 
ears, and to this call we may add that other, the battle-cry of my 
ancestors, ' Here good Hohenzollerns all.' 

" A glance at the history of our lands of Brandenburg suffices 
to show how the Hohenzollerns and Brandenburg have ever be- 
longed to one another, and how by the force of events and the 
historical development of our land they now form but a single 
conception. You have referred to various moments, to epochs 
with which are connected important episodes in the history of 
our House and country. You have laid stress on the manner in 
which my ancestors and the forefathers of the Brandenburgers 
here assembled worked and laboured at a common task. There is 
a special significance in your striking this note at the present 
time. 

"Even the Margrave of Brandenburg can only work for his 
country with a view to its material prosperity, if he knows him- 
self secure of the confidence of his Brandenburgers. That my 
ancestors, and in particular that one to whom we most delight to 
look back as to the greatest of all Brandenburgers I mean the 



296 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

Great Elector were able to accomplish so much for their country, 
is due to this mutual confidence of prince and people, is due above 
all to the knowledge that the reigning House of Hohenzollern is 
equipped with a high sense of duty derived from the consciousness 
that it is appointed by God to its position, and that to Him alone 
and to its own conscience has it to render an account of all that 
it does for the welfare of the land. 

" Let us, then, cultivate the love of our Fatherland, let us teach 
our children to glory in our great united German Empire, of 
which, after all, Brandenburg is the main pillar. And if we 
cannot do so from the impulse of our own heart, let us learn to 
do so from other nations. By this I mean to refer to the Dutch 
people, our kinsmen in race and religion, among whom the Great 
Elector had to spend his early youth in order that he might sub- 
sequently practise the lessons he learnt there for the benefit of 
the whole. How deeply rooted in the consciousness of the people 
of that country is the feeling of what the reigning House has 
done for Holland, is shown by a simple, touching incident which 
occurred when once a Dutch peasant woman with her little 
children entered the house, in the wall of which were visible the 
bullet-holes made by the fatal shot by which William of Orange * 
fell. When the old woman came to this spot, she turned to her 
children and pointing to the marks with her finger said, ' That is 
William.' 

" Well ! we too will do the same. Let us look back to the year 
1866 and the year 1870, and then we too can say, 'That is 
William.' They are great things which my illustrious ancestors 
have won for us all. Even under the Great Elector the Eagle 
of Brandenburg was feared by our foes also on the water, and 
now the Province of Brandenburg has lately had the kindness to 
present a flag to the ironclad Brandenburg, so that last autumn 
it was possible, for the first time for two hundred years, to see 
the red eagle floating in the blue sky. Once again I express to 
you my most hearty thanks for this gift. 

" Since then a day of distress has come to the ship, and bitter 

William of Nassau, Prince of Orange (W. The Silent), Stadtholder of Holland 
and Zealand, was shot by a fanatic at Delft on July 10th, 1584. (See Motley's 
Dutch Republic, Part VI. cap. 7. ) 



AS MARGRAVE OF BRANDENBURG 297 

trouble befallen the crew.* Gentlemen, the men who fell on 
board the Brandenburg died like Brandenburgers, and showed 
that in the performance of their duty they remained true to their 
oath till death. By way of thanks for your kind gift, and in 
remembrance of this ship, I beg to hand you here a picture which 
you may hang up in your hall here in memory of the time of the 
Great Elector." 

The next of the speeches which we may give was delivered on 
the 20th of February, 1896, and was as follows : 

"In the autumn of last year I went over the battlefield of 
Metz a bright spot in the history of the foundation of our 
Empire. I ascended to the summit of the hill on which the 
Brandenburg Corps delivered its attack, in order to help to win 
the Imperial crown for its King and Margrave. It was with 
moved heart and tear-dimmed eye that I looked upon the field, 
and I saw in mind the companies and regiments of Branden- 
burgers pass by, struggling along their bloody path. In mind I 
saw soldiers fall struggling in the throes of death, their failing 
eyes turned towards heaven and their hearts filled with the cer- 
tainty of victory and that the battle was won. And then, for 
the first time, the real greatness of the work which the province 
did for its King in the great war became clear to me, and in my 
heart there was born the conviction that for a people which could 
accomplish so much nothing is so good, nothing so great, that 
their Margrave is not bound to do it for them by way of thanks. 
Such was my glance at the great time which we lived over again 
in our reminiscences. 

" And now let me describe to you an incident which occurred 
at the time of the celebrations held last year. We human beings 
are wont to associate the natural phenomena which we see around 
us with the hand of God. When the Hohenzollern was nearing 
the entrance to the Kaiser Wilhelm Canal night was just giving 
place to day; a heavy storm hung over us, and lightning and 
thunder alternated in rapid succession, presenting an impressive 
spectacle. Nature seemed to be in great commotion. As so 
severe a tempest might possibly cause the abandonment of the 

* On February 17th, 1894, a fatal boiler explosion had occurred on board the 
ironclad Brandenburg. 



298 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

opening ceremony, or even of the whole programme, my heart 
became alive with anxiety as to whether we should, after all, 
succeed in carrying it out. For it was the great work which had 
been begun by my grandfather, and which before the eyes of the 
whole world had been brought to completion, and an anxious 
prayer went up from my heart, and I prayed Heaven to vouch- 
safe to us, in Its grace, a sign as to whether or no a fine day 
would be granted us. The ship swung into the lock and passed 
through. On the other side, at the mouth of the canal, there had 
been erected two great wooden towers similar to those built in 
old times by the Crusaders for the purpose of enabling them to 
breach the walls of castles and towns. From both towers hung 
German flags, and a thick rope lay stretched across the canal 
from tower to tower. Slowly, in death-like silence, the great ship 
moved forward. Behind us the last claps of thunder rolled away 
and the last flashes of lightning gleamed ; and before us rose 
a dark cloud, out of which anon a golden radiance began to 
shine. The vessel reached the rope. It was drawn taut. The 
resistance seemed beyond our power to overcome ; the towers 
cracked, but the line was broken, and the HoTienzollern passed 
into the canal. At that moment the first rays of the bright sun 
rose through the clouds and dissipated them, and in less than 
an hour afterwards the sun was shining in his full strength. At 
this sublime signal the canal was declared to be open, and then 
the vessel, flying the flag of the newly united Empire, was greeted 
by a thundering salute from the ships of the whole world. 

"Well, gentlemen, such is my retrospect, such is the total 
benefit which we have derived from the work of the last twenty- 
five years. And now there devolves upon us the duty of looking 
forward. What we have lived to see, what has been accomplished, 
we owe to the great Emperor William and to his confidence in 
God. The whole celebration of last year merely resolved itself 
into a panegyric on his personality, which has now indeed 
become sacred in our eyes. It is to us the embodiment of the 
unification of the new German Fatherland, which so many longed 
to see. It is our sacred duty to defend the person and the 
hallowed memory of this illustrious ruler, so pure and noble, 
against every assailant, come he whence he will. I am firmly 



AS MARGRAVE OF BRANDENBURG 299 

convinced that as the appeal which I once addressed to you 
that you would rally round me and help me in my work has 
met with so warm a response, we shall, assisted by other help, be 
able to make still further progress. 

" I am thinking now of German women and maids. When I 
was on the battlefield of Yionville I thought of how nobly they 
gave their sons, their husbands, and their lovers to assist in the 
work of regaining for us the Empire. It is incumbent upon 
them that they should bring up a new generation of vigorous 
men. In our mother, our good German woman, lies a vast 
reserve of power that none can overcome. May she, in her 
position as mother, always be mindful of her enormous impor- 
tance, and may the women of your province in particular always 
remember that they should help to rear for us a brave and 
vigorous generation of young Brandenburgers full of trust and 
confidence in God. 

" As for you, gentlemen, who, with proudly-beating heart and with 
high hopes, are gathered here, I call upon you to renew to me 
the vow contained in the words which are engraved on the badge 
of the Order dedicated to the memory of the Emperor William, 
1 work in memory of the Emperor William,' and that each in his 
own particular place, whether he be member of Provincial Diet, 
Councillor, or simple yeoman, will join the others and work for 
the welfare of the Fatherland." 

On February 26th, 1897, the Emperor was again present at the 
dinner given by the Governor to the Members of the Provincial 
Diet of Brandenburg. At the end of his speech, Governor von 
Achenbach called for cheers for the Emperor, and the latter, after 
returning thanks, went on to say : 

"Let us glance at the pages of history. What was the old 
German Empire ? How often did separate parts of it strive and 
struggle to come together to form a united whole, partly in order 
to work together for the good of the whole and partly to ensure 
the possibility of protecting the entire State against attack from 
without? This dream was never realised. The old German 
Empire was harassed from without by its neighbours, and dis- 
tracted by party rivalries within. The only Sovereign who 
succeeded to a certain extent in uniting the whole land was the 



300 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

Emperor Barbarossa. To this very day the German nation is 
thankful to him for what he did. After his time, however, our 
Fatherland fell into decay, and it seemed as if there would never 
rise a man capable of welding it together once more. Providence, 
however, created this instrument, and chose the man whom we 
could welcome as the first great Emperor of the new German 
Empire. We are able to trace his career, to see how he slowly 
developed from the sore time of trial up to that point in his life 
when, already a man of mature years, in fact on the verge of old 
age, he was called upon to fulfil his task, after years of prepara- 
tion for his call, and with the great thoughts fully formed in his 
brain which were to enable him to effect the re-establishment of 
the Empire. We see how he first of all raised an army of the 
hired peasant sons of his provinces, and constituted them into a 
powerful, splendidly equipped force. We see how, by means of 
his army, he succeeded gradually in acquiring predominant power 
in Germany and in raising Brandenburg -Prussia to the leading 
position. This having been done, the moment arrived for him to 
call upon the entire Fatherland to rally round him, and on the 
field of battle he united those who had been adversaries. Gentle- 
men, if that illustrious man had lived in the Middle Ages he 
would have been canonised, and bands of pilgrims would have 
travelled from all lands to offer up prayers at his tomb. Thank 
God, this is also the case to-day. The door of his sepulchre 
stands open. Every day some of his faithful subjects visit his 
tomb and take with them their children, and strangers go there 
for the pleasure of seeing this splendid old man and his statues. 
But we, gentlemen, will take special pride in this powerful man 
and great Kuler, because he was a son of Brandenburg. That God 
selected a Brandenburger must have been a matter of some special 
significance, and I hope that it will be the privilege of this province 
to continue to promote the welfare of the Empire. The House of 
Hohenzollern and Brandenburg are indissolubly united, and the 
very fibres of our strength and activity spring from the Province 
of Brandenburg and are rooted in its soil. So long as the peasant 
of Brandenburg stands by us, and we can be certain that Branden- 
burg will respond to our work and help us, no Hohenzollern will 
despair of his task. This task is sufficiently difficult in itself, 



AS MARGRAVE OF BRANDENBURG 301 

but it is made still more so. I allude to a certain duty which 
devolves upon every one of us, whoever and wherever we may 
be. To the fulfilment of this common duty we are called by the 
memory of the Emperor William the Great, and in fulfilling it 
we will rally round him and round his memory, as the Spaniards 
did once round the Cid. This duty, which is a burden imposed 
upon us all, and which we are bound to undertake in memory 
of him, is to fight against revolution with every means at our 
command. That party which dares to attack the foundations of 
the State, which rebels against religion, and which does not even 
spare the person of the Sovereign, must be crushed. I shall 
rejoice to know that every man's hand is in mine, be he work- 
man, landowner, or prince, if only I have his help in this conflict. 
And we can only carry this combat to a victorious issue if we 
always bear in mind the man to whom we owe our Fatherland, 
our Empire, who, by God's Providence, was surrounded by so 
many trusty and able counsellors, who had the honour of being 
permitted to carry out his intentions, and who, filled with the 
spirit of this noble Emperor, were all the instruments of his 
sovereign will. We will work according to the right, and will not 
desist in the struggle, so that we may free our country of this 
malady which is invading not only our people, but also our family 
life, and, above all, is striving to shake the position of woman, the 
most sacred thing that we Germans know. I hope, therefore, to 
see my Brandenburgers rally round me if the fiery signal should 
be raised, and with this hope in mind I exclaim : The province 
and the Brandenburgers. Hurrah ! " 

One more of the Emperor's speeches to the members of the 
Brandenburg Diet may be given. It was delivered on the 3rd 
of February, 1899. His Majesty said : 

"My esteemed Governor and dear friends of the Province of 
Brandenburg : The address which we have just listened to 
has described in brief outline in patriotic language, glowing 
with poetic eloquence, the deeds of my House and the history 
of our people. I believe that I but give expression to the feel- 
ings which are in the heart of every one of you when I say 
that there were two circumstances which made it possible 



302 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

for my ancestors and my House to accomplish their task in 
the manner they did. The first, the main circumstance was 
the fact that, above all other Princes, and in an age when 
such thoughts and feelings were perhaps as yet somewhat un- 
common, they felt and asserted their belief that they were 
personally responsible to the Lord in Heaven. The second 
circumstance was that they had the people of Brandenburg 
at their back. If we transport ourselves in imagination to the 
time when the Governor of the country,* Frederick I., was 
nominated Elector, and exchanged his glorious native home in 
Franconia for the province of Brandenburg, which was then 
in a condition which the descriptions of the historians scarcely 
enable us to realise, then the only intelligible reason we can 
assign for the exchange is that he felt in himself the call to come 
to this land, entrusted to him by favour of the Emperor, in order 
to restore here law and order, not merely because the Emperor 
willed it for his own pleasure, but because he was convinced that 
this task was appointed him from on High. We can trace the 
same belief in all my ancestors. Our great struggles with foreign 
foes without and our domestic legislation at home were always 
guided by the thought of their responsibility for the people placed 
under their rule and for the country entrusted to their care. 

" It was after the great and glorious events of the years 1870-71. 
The troops had come back home, the rejoicing and enthusiasm had 
abated, and the old occupations and the foundation and develop- 
ment of the newly- won Fatherland were now to begin. The three 
paladins of the great old Emperor found themselves for the first 
time seated alone at dinner together the great General, the 
mighty Chancellor, and the faithful Minister of War. As soon 
as the first glass had been emptied to the Sovereign and the 
Fatherland, the Chancellor spoke, and, turning to his two com- 
panions, said : ' We have now accomplished all that we fought for, 
struggled for, and suffered for. We now stand at the summit of 
our highest hopes. What is there that can interest or inspire 

* Frederick VI., Burgrave of Nuremberg, arrived at Brandenburg on June 24th, 
1412, as Statthalter or Vicegerent. On April 30th, 1415, he was made Elector by 
the Emperor Sigismund (Super Grammaticam), and was actually invested with the 
office iii Constance on April 17th, 1417, as Elector, Frederick I. (See Carlyle, 
Friedrich /., p. 135.) 



AS MARGRAVE OF BRANDENBURG 303 

us or kindle our enthusiasm after what we have experienced?' 
There was a short pause ; then, suddenly, the old strategist 
answered : ' We can watch the tree grow.' And then profound 
silence reigned in the room. Yes, gentlemen, the tree which we 
see growing, and which we have to foster, is the German Imperial 
oak. It is destined to healthy growth, for it stands under the 
care of the Brandenburgers, in whose country it is rooted. It has 
weathered many a storm and has frequently threatened to decay, 
but the trunk and its offshoots, rooted in the soil of Brandenburg, 
will, by God's grace, endure to all eternity. 

"I can therefore to-day only renew my vow to do everything with- 
in my power. Even my journey to the Holy Land and its sacred 
places will be valuable to me in my task of protecting, tending, 
and cultivating this tree, and, like a good gardener, of pruning 
the superfluous branches and attacking the vermin which gnaw at 
its roots in order to exterminate them. I hope, therefore, it will 
be vouchsafed to me to see this picture: the oak grown into a 
magnificent tree, and the German Michael standing before it, his 
hand on his sword-hilt, gazing across the frontier, ready to protect 
it. Secure is that peace which stands behind the shield and 
under the sword of the German Michael. 

"It is a glorious undertaking for all nations to aim at the 
establishment of peace, but there is a flaw in all these calcula- 
tions. So long as mankind is possessed by original sin, so long 
will war and hatred, envy and discord, prevail, and so long will 
man attempt to overreach his neighbour. The standard of right 
and wrong applying among men applies also amongst nations. 
Let it, therefore, be the aim of us Germans at least to stand 
together firm as a solid rock. Against this rocker de bronze of the 
German nation, both far beyond the seas and here at home in 
Europe, may every wave that threatens peace dash in vain. 

" The first who are called upon to help me in this task are the 
province of Brandenburg and its people, and as I assume that you 
will not find any difficulty in following the black and white 
banner and the red standard of your Margraves, I hope that you 
will understand the reason why I intend to rely upon the province 
in the future as I have done in the past, and that in so doing I 
count upon your faithful co-operation." 



THE EMPEROR ON COMMERCE 
AND NAVIGATION 



ONE of the Emperor's best-known utterances is " Our future 
lies upon the water." This in itself is almost sufficient to show 
that he is keenly interested in matters relating to commerce, 
navigation, and seamanship, as well as to the development of 
his Navy. 

Interesting and characteristic was the speech which His Majesty 
delivered on board the North German Lloyd steamship Fulda, at 
Bremerhaven, on the 1st of April, 1890, when he was the guest of 
the North German Lloyd : 

" In thanking you," he said, " for the kind words with which 
you have welcomed me, I at the same time express to you the 
special pleasure it has afforded me that I have at last been able 
to fulfil my long-cherished wish personally to inspect the working 
and management of this great company, the North German Lloyd. 
I can assure you that of the many interests which I have to care 
for, and to promote which concerns my Government and my 
Empire, there are scarcely any with which I am more particularly 
in sympathy than the prosperity and the career of your company. 
Each new vessel built by your company, each new success which 
one of your vessels achieves, each new service established, fills 
me, and not me only, but also many other people of this country 
like-minded with myself, with pride and satisfaction. The great 
emporium which we have seen to-day in all its palatial splendour, 
the mart for so many necessaries of life destined to be re-exported, 
is the distributing port from which the Lloyd ships rapidly convey 
products to every quarter of the world. The magnificent vessels 
which are so greatly admired, not only by Germans, but also, and 
especially, by foreigners, and which cut through the waves with 
such speed, in the first place, carry with them everywhere the 

304 



ON COMMERCE AND NAVIGATION 305 

products of our Fatherland, and, secondly, they are a token of our 
skill in naval architecture, our speed of construction, and at the 
same time give some indication of the extent of our mercantile 
marine. I think therefore that I may say, without exaggeration, 
that wherever they go they may display themselves with legitimate 
pride before the world. 

" It is, of course, my first duty to do everything that is possible 
to preserve peace, and this is only natural, considering what work 
the Lloyd is called upon to perform ; for trade and commerce can 
only thrive and flourish when business can be conducted under 
sure care and protection. There may be moments when mis- 
givings arise in the world of commerce, when it seems to the 
uninitiated outsider that critical times are approaching. You 
may, however, rest assured that there are many things which are 
not so bad as they appear. By way of illustration I should like 
to draw a conclusion with reference to our circumstances from 
a natural phenomenon. I am passionately fond of the sea, and 
delight in observing and watching natural signs, and, like a true 
German, like to draw conclusions from nature to meet my own 
case. It was on my first voyage with a squadron in the Baltic 
Sea; we had been steaming through a thick fog since three 
o'clock in the morning. We could hear nothing but the hooting 
of the syrens and, from time to time, the reports of signal guns, 
which indicated the positions of the ships. At eight o'clock we 
wished to change our course, but the fog was so dense that we 
could not see as far as the chart-house on our vessel, to say 
nothing of from one ship to another, and doubts arose as to 
whether the change of course could be made. However, it was 
made, and about an hour afterwards we on board the Hohenzollern 
suddenly emerged from the bank of fog and steamed into a fresh 
breeze and calm water, with blue sky overhead and the morning 
sun shining brightly. Our gaze was first directed back to the 
bank of fog which lay on the sea like an enormous cloud and 
from which the sound of hooting syrens was carried towards us, 
when suddenly we saw, high in the clouds, as if carried in the 
hand of a cherub, the German flag moving slowly through the 
clouds by itself. It was the admiral's flag flying on the mainmast 
of the Kaiser, which was still sailing at the head of the squadron 



306 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

through the fog and had followed in our wake. This sight was 
so surprising that all of us who were on the bridge involuntarily 
drew our heels together and stared at this phenomenon. Ten 
minutes later the whole squadron, which had taken the new 
course, had emerged in faultless order from the fog. Gentlemen, 
from this illustration I conclude that whatever fogs and dark 
hours may be in store for our Fatherland and our mercantile 
marine and commerce, we Germans will succeed in emerging 
from them, and, by earnestly striving forward, will reach the end 
which we have in view, actuated by the sound principle that 
' We Germans fear God, but naught else in the world/ I should 
therefore like to make a request to you, namely When any- 
thing is mentioned in the Press or in public life which is some- 
what obscure, for unfortunately it not rarely happens that my 
words and utterances are given a meaning which they do not 
bear, remember what I have told you, and remember also the 
maxim of an old Emperor, who said, ' The Emperor's word must 
not be twisted or explained.' " 

The following telegram was sent by the Emperor on the 1st of 
June, 1896, to the Board of Directors of the North German 
Lloyd : 

"As an indication of my special Imperial good-will, I have 
conferred upon the captains of German merchant ships the right 
to quarter the Iron Cross on the German mercantile flag so 
long as they are officers of the Naval Keserve. I should like 
this distinction to be the means of tightening the bonds which 
bind my Navy to the mercantile marine, upon whose support 
in time of war it relies. At the same time the officers of the 
Eeserve should regard the distinction as a recognition of their 
position and as an encouragement to them to distinguish them- 
selves in the future as in the past by conscientious discharge of 
duty in navigating the ships entrusted to them." 

The Emperor and Empress visited Stettin on the 23rd of Sep- 
tember, 1898, in order to be present at the opening of the new 
harbour of that port. In reply to the speech made by Chief 
Burgomaster Hacken on this occasion in front of the engine-house 
in the new harbour, the Emperor said : 

" I congratulate you with all my heart on the work which is now 



ON COMMERCE AND NAVIGATION 307 

accomplished. You began it in a spirit of adventure, but you 
could only do so thanks to the care of my late grandfather, the 
great Emperor, at whose command the girdle of iron which en- 
circled Stettin was removed. From the moment when the city, 
relieved in this way by Eoyal permission, was free to expand, 
from that moment you were able to take a wider and broader 
view of things, and your city did not hesitate to do so. With 
true Pomeranian pertinacity and stubbornness you have succeeded. 
I am pleased to see that the old Pomeranian spirit remains alive 
in you and has driven you from the land to the water. Our 
future lies upon the water, and I am firmly convinced that the 
enterprise which you especially, Mr. Chief Burgomaster, have pro- 
moted with such vigour, such far-seeing discernment, and such cease- 
less care, will, centuries hence, be associated with your name and 
thankfully acknowledged by the grateful citizens of Stettin. And 
I, your Sovereign and your King, express to you my thanks for 
having raised Stettin to such a state of prosperity, and I hope 
and expect indeed I may say, I require that the city will 
in the future continue to develop at this rate, and that your 
attention, never distracted by party quarrels, ever fixed on the 
welfare of the whole, may bring it to a height of prosperity which 
we cannot as yet even imagine. That is my wish." 

On the 1st of July, 1899, the Emperor visited Ltibeck, and was 
received by the Burgomaster, Dr. Klug, and the Committee of 
the Yacht Club. He was present at a lunch given by the Yacht 
Club in the Cellar of the Town Hall, and made the following 
reply to an address from the Burgomaster : 

" I thank your Magnificence for the words which you have just 
addressed to me. It is with joy that, on behalf of the Imperial 
Yacht Club, of which I am Commodore, and also on behalf of all 
fellow-yachtsmen, I greet the newly established Llibeck Yacht Club. 
I hope that the founding of this club may be taken as a sign of the 
tendency of the nation to seek its future more and more upon the 
water. It is a matter of course that in this tendency the lead is 
taken by the Hanseatic towns, and, naturally, before all others, by 
the ancient capital of the Hanse, Liibeck, this noble old city, 
where every inch of ground and every drop of water relates 



308 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

volumes of history as to what its energetic citizens have been 
capable of accomplishing. And that reminds me of an ancient 
motto of Lubeck ' It is easy to nail the pennon to the mast, but 
it costs much to take it down 'with honour/ That is a saying 
which every yachtsman would do well to remember as he sets out 
for the start in the morning. The promotion of yacht-racing will, 
I hope, help to develop interest in all that concerns our economic 
relations with foreign countries, to strengthen the desire for enter- 
prise abroad, and to promote the training of able yacht-sailors. I 
should, however, like to see the ancient motto considered from a 
wider, nobler point of view. I have in my mind another flag 
the banner of our Empire. We are indebted to the Emperor 
William the Great for it. He nailed it to the mast, and there let 
it remain fast, as once did Nelson's flag. Let us, therefore, do 
everything that we can in order that it may float there aloft with 
honour, so long as God in Heaven pleases, and, if He should ordain 
that it be lowered, then may He grant that it be only 'with 
honour.' 

"I drink in memory of the glorious history of the ancient 
capital of the Hanseatic League, to the prosperity of the City of 
Lubeck and its Yacht Club." 

This speech of the Emperor was entirely impromptu. The 
gist of the speech, " the flag is easily nailed to the mast, but it 
costs much to take it down," could not have been in the Emperor's 
mind before he entered the Town Hall Cellar, to which this was 
his first visit. One wall of the banqueting-room was adorned 
with the motto: "Let us ponder well: the pennant is easily 
nailed to the mast, but it costs much to take it down with honour." 
On this saying, which among all the mottoes at once attracted the 
Emperor's attention, the monarch built up his pithy speech. 

On August llth, 1899, the Emperor William entered the 
village of Kauxel, near Dortmund, where the Imperial Chancellor 
and the Ministers, v. d. Kecke, Thielen, and Hammerstein received 
him. From this place he drove in a carriage along the Dortmund- 
Ems Canal to the pavilion, where the reception by the Canal 
Commission took place. The Emperor then went on board the 
government steamer Strewe, and proceeded up the canal to the great 
floating canal lift, fourteen metres high, near Henrichenburg. When 
the Emperor's boat had passed the lift it continued its journey 



ON COMMERCE AND NAVIGATION 309 

to Dortmund. The school children of the surrounding villages 
and the local societies lined the banks of the canal the whole 
way. On landing at the Dortmund Harbour the Emperor pro- 
ceeded to the pavilion to dedicate the harbour. The ceremony 
was opened with song, and then Chief Burgomaster Schmieding 
addressed a speech to the Emperor in which, after referring to the 
universal enthusiasm of the people, he expressed the hope of the 
assistance of the State in the present difficult position of canal 
traffic. In reply to the address the Emperor said : 

"My honoured Chief Burgomaster : I beg to express to you my 
heartiest thanks first of all for your invitation, which enables me 
to visit your city, and in the second place for your welcome and 
for the decorations of your city and your suburbs. 

" I would gladly have come here sooner, but that anxiety at the 
state of my wife's health led me to her side first, and not till I 
felt sure that I could leave her with a quiet mind, and without 
a feeling of suspense and anxiety, could I make up my mind to 
visit your city. 

" The work which I have inspected to-day will, I hope, enable 
the city of Dortmund to resume the flight which in former days 
it took over the sea. Only I would like to believe that the canal, 
as we see it at the present moment, is only a portion of the work. 

"It is to be thought of in connection with the great Central 
Canal, which I and my Government are firmly and irrevocably 
determined to construct. 

" It is, of course, difficult quickly to bring home to the people 
such great new ideas and to awaken an intelligent interest in 
them ; but I believe that as time goes on the conviction will ever 
more and more gain ground, that the development of our great 
water-ways is absolutely necessary, and will be fraught with 
blessings for both interests, industry and agriculture. 

"The first impulse for the construction of water-ways can be 
found some centuries ago. Two of my greatest ancestors, the 
Great Elector and Frederick the Great, were the most important 
makers of water-ways. With far-sighted wisdom the Great 
Elector turned his eyes towards Emden, and even in those days 
intended to connect this city by a water-way with the Mark of 
Brandenburg, and thereby to help to raise it to prosperity. I am 



:# 

*s' 



310 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

firmly convinced that this city, too, will succeed in connection 
with Dortmund and, further, with the hinterland that belongs to 
it, in once more having a great and prosperous future to look 
forward to. 

" I know, too, that in the great Hanse towns on the North Sea 
schemes are already afoot which, if they are ever carried out, 
promise the most magnificent future for the Dortmund-Ems 
Canal. 

" We must not forget that the constantly growing needs of our 
country also demand increased and easier means of transport, and 
as such we must look upon the water-ways side by side with the 
railways. The interchange of bulky goods in the interior, which 
is above all things of benefit to agriculture, can only be effected 
by water, and so I hope that the representatives of the people, 
yielding to this aspect of the matter, will furnish me with the 
means, I hope, in the course of this very year, to give my 
country the blessings of this canal for their use and benefit. 

" I hope therefore, from the bottom of my heart, that this so 
richly thriving and, as one can see on all sides, rapidly rising city 
will advance to a new, undreamt-of future, and that in developing 
its resources it will be true to the old Hanse traditions. 

" The support which was wanting to the Hanse in the old days, 
a strong, united Empire obeying a single will, that we have once 
more gained by the grace of Heaven and the achievements of my 
grandfather, and this power shall be thrown into this great work 
with all its weight. I pledge my word to that." 

When the sailing regatta on the Lower Elbe was over, a dinner 
was given on June 19th, 1901, on board the pleasure steamer 
Victoria Louisa, belonging to the Hamburg-American Line, at 
which the Emperor and Prince Henry were also present. In reply 
to an address of welcome from the Burgomaster of Hamburg, 
Dr. Monckeberg, the Emperor delivered a speech : 

"I tender your Magnificence my heartiest thanks for your 
eloquent words. I beg to express to you and to all my comrades 
upon the water my joy that it has been my privilege once more 
to appear as a competitor in the races held under the auspices of 
the North German Regatta Club. In his short and pithy speech 



ON COMMERCE AND NAVIGATION 311 

his Magnificence has drawn so excellently that it could not be 
improved upon, a picture of the development of our Fatherland 
in the field of water sports during the last year, and its relations 
to foreign countries. My whole task for the future will be to 
enable the seeds that have now been sown to germinate in peace 
and security. In spite of the fact that we have not yet got a 
Navy commensurate with our requirements, we have fought for 
and won our place in the sun. It will now be my task to take 
care that this place in the sun remains ours by undisputed right, 
so that its beams may work with fertilising energy on our trade 
and commerce abroad, on our industry and agriculture at home, 
and on sailing sport on our waters, for our future lies upon the 
water. The more Germans come out on to the water, whether to 
compete in sailing matches, or to voyage across the ocean, or in 
the service of our naval ensign, the better it is for us. For when 
once the German has learnt to turn his eyes towards the spacious 
and great, the petty which encompasses him on every side in his 
daily life disappears. But if any man will gain this high and 
free outlook over the world, a Hanseatic city will afford him the 
most suitable standpoint for this purpose. And the lesson we 
have so far learnt from the history of our development is, indeed, 
nothing else than what I have already insisted on, when I sent 
my brother out to the East Asiatic station. We have followed to 
its logical conclusions what the Emperor William the Great, my 
ever memorable grandfather, and the great man whose monument 
we have just unveiled, bequeathed to us as their creation. These 
conclusions consist in the fact, that we put out our strength where 
in former days the Hanseatic League had to desist, because the 
vivifying and protecting force of the Imperial power was wanting. 
So let it, then, be the duty of my House to foster and protect 
trade and commerce in profound peace for many a long year to 
come. I see in the events which have been enacted in China, 
and which have now been brought to a conclusion by the return 
of the troops, a guarantee that the peace of Europe is assured for 
many a long year; for the performances of the various contingents 
have evoked an expression of opinion, based on mutual esteem and 
a feeling of comradeship, which can only contribute to the perma- 
nence of peace. In this peace, I hope, our Hanse towns will flourish 



312 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

and our new Hanse will trace out its path and win and acquire 
new markets for its goods ; and then can I, as Supreme Head of 
the Empire, rejoice at every man from a Hanse town, be he from 
Hamburg, Bremen, or Liibeck, who goes forth into the world, and 
with farseeing look, seeks out some spot where we can drive in a 
nail on which to hang our armour. Therefore I feel that I am 
only expressing your own inmost thoughts when I acknowledge 
with thanks that the Director of this Company, who has placed 
at our disposal to-day this wonderful vessel named after my 
daughter, has gone forth as a bold pioneer of Hanseatic enter- 
prise, to make peaceful conquests for us; conquests, the fruits 
of which our grandchildren will some day gather. In the joyful 
anticipation that this enterprising spirit of the Hanse may ever 
further and further spread its influence, I raise my glass and ask 
all those who are my comrades upon the water to join me in 
cheers for water sports and the Hanseatic spirit." 



THE EMPEROR ON THE TROUBLES 
IN CHINA 

IT will doubtless be well remembered that during the serious 
troubles in China, in the year 1900, the Emperor's policy was 
from first to last marked by great firmness, and that he left no 
stone unturned to avenge the murder of his Ambassador and to 
restore order. The speeches in which he discussed the situation 
attracted unusual attention, and this was particularly the case 
with the one which he delivered at Wilhelmshaven on the 2nd of 
July, when he bade good-bye to the first battalion of Marines 
which left Germany for the Far East. His Majesty's words 
were : 

" Into the midst of profound peace the firebrand of war has been 
hurled not, alas ! unexpected by me. A crime unheard of in its 
arrogance, horrible in its barbarity, has struck down my trusted 
representative, and taken him from us. The Ambassadors of other 
Powers, together with the comrades who were sent to protect 
them, are in jeopardy of their lives ; perhaps this very day they 
have already fought their last fight. The German flag has been 
insulted, and the German Empire defied. This calls for condign 
punishment and revenge. The situation has developed with fear- 
ful rapidity and is now most serious, and, since I called you under 
arms for mobilisation, has become even more grave. The re- 
establishment of order, which I hoped to effect with the aid of the 
Marines, has now become a very difficult task one which can 
only be accomplished by a combined body of troops of all civilised 
Powers. On this very day the Admiral of the squadron of cruisers 
has requested me to take into consideration the advisability of 
despatching a division. You will meet a foe who has no more 
fear of death than you have. Trained by European officers, the 
Chinese have learnt how to use European arms. Thank God, 

313 



314 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

your comrades of the Marines and of my Navy, whenever they 
have met the enemy, have strengthened and maintained the old 
military prestige of Germany, have defended themselves gloriously 
and victoriously, and have accomplished their tasks. So I send 
you out to avenge this wrong, and I will never rest till the 
German flag, together with those of other Powers, floats victoriously 
above the Chinese standards, and planted on the walls of Pekin, 
dictates peace to the Chinese. You are to maintain good com- 
radeship with all the troops with whom you come into contact 
Russians, British, French, or whatever else they may be. They 
all fight for one cause civilisation. 

" We have in mind something higher also, namely, our religion 
and the defence and protection of our brothers out there who, 
at the risk of their lives, have taken up the cause of the Saviour. 
Remember the honour of our arms, remember those who fought 
in the past, and go forth with the old motto which is on the flag 
of Brandenburg to guide you : 

" ' Vertrau' auf Gott, dich tapfer wehr', 
Daraus besteht dein' ganze Ehr' ! 
Denn wer's auf Qott herzhaftig wagt, 
Wird nimmer aus der Welt gejagt ! ' 

"The flags which float over you here will be taken under fire 
for the first time. See that you bring them back clean, spotless, 
and without stain. You will not lack my thanks and my interest, 
my prayers and my solicitude ; they will not fail you ; I will 
follow you with them." 

In view of the seriousness of the situation, the order was given 
to form an expeditionary corps of the strength of a composite 
brigade, consisting of volunteers from the Army. 

On July 27th, 1900, the Emperor delivered the following 
speech to the troops sailing from Bremerhaven for China imme- 
diately before their departure : 

" Great responsibilities are they which have fallen to the lot of 
the newly created German Empire across the sea, responsibilities 
far greater than many of my countrymen expected. The German 
Empire, from its very nature, is bound to come to the assistance 
of its citizens whenever they are oppressed in a foreign land. 



ON THE TROUBLES IN CHINA 315 

The problems which proved insoluble to the Holy Roman Empire, 
the modern German Empire is in a position to solve. The means 
that enables it to do this is our Army. By the loyal work of 
thirty years of peace, it has been trained according to the 
principles laid down by my late grandfather. You, too, have 
received your training according to those principles, and are now 
to be put to the proof before the enemy, to see whether they 
will stand the test. Your comrades of the Navy have already 
stood the test, and have shown you that the principles of our 
training are sound, and I am proud also of the praises from the 
lips of foreign commanders which your comrades out yonder have 
won. I look to you to do the same as they. A great task awaits 
you; you are to redress the grievous wrong that has been per- 
petrated. The Chinese have trampled on international law, they 
have, in a manner unheard of in the history of the world, hurled 
foul scorn at the sanctity of the Ambassador and the duties of 
hospitality. Such conduct is all the more revolting, because the 
crime was committed by a nation which is proud of its imme- 
morial civilisation. Maintain the old Prussian excellency ; prove 
yourselves Christians in the cheerful endurance of suffering ; may 
honour and glory attend your colours and your arms; set an 
example to all the world of discipline and obedience. You know 
right well that you are to fight against a crafty, brave, well- 
armed, barbarous foe. If you fall into his hands, then know that 
quarter will not be given, prisoners will not be made ; wield your 
weapons to such effect that for a thousand years no Chinaman 
shall ever again dare to look askance at a German. Uphold 
discipline; God's blessing be with you, the prayers of a whole 
nation, my best wishes go with you every one. Open the way 
for civilisation once for all. You may now start on your voyage. 
Good-bye, my comrades ! " 

Another notable speech was that which his Majesty delivered 
at Cassel on the 18th of August, the occasion being the departure 
of Count von Waldersee and his staff. 

" I salute you," he said, " at the moment of your departure from 
the Fatherland, and I congratulate you on having been chosen 
to take part in the campaign in China as the staff and under 



316 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

the guidance and leadership of our trusted Field-Marshal, Count 
von Waldersee. 

" Dear Waldersee, I congratulate you on the fact that I am able 
to-day to salute you once more as Commander of the united troops 
of the civilised world. It is of great significance that your appoint- 
ment had its origin in the suggestion and by the wish of his 
Majesty, the Emperor of all the Kussias, the mighty Monarch 
whose power is felt in far distant Asiatic countries. This demon- 
strates once more how closely related are the old military traditions 
of the two Empires. It is a great joy to me, that upon the sug- 
gestion of his Majesty the whole civilised world without distinc- 
tion spontaneously entrusted to your Excellency the command of 
their troops. We, as Prussian officers, are grateful and full of 
pride that this duty has been laid upon you, for it indicates 
a universal recognition of our military life and work, as well 
as of our military system and of the training and leadership 
of our generals and officers. As a token of your dignity I hand 
over to you on this day your Field-Marshal's baton, and I hope 
that you will wield it with your wonted vigour and with the con- 
fidence which you have always shown on important occasions. 
Above all things, however, I hope that you will be supported by 
Providence, without whose aid even the most accomplished soldier 
can do nothing. 

"I conclude with the wish that your Excellency may be per- 
mitted to perform your tasks, whether they are protracted or of 
short duration, sanguinary or otherwise, as you yourself would 
wish, and as we, who have entrusted our troops to you, unani- 
mously desire. I trust, in the interests of all our nations, that 
our common expedition may be a firm guarantee of that mutual 
toleration and general peace among all European Powers, which 
his Majesty, the Emperor of Russia, attempted to bring about last 
year in another way. That which was not granted to us that we 
should accomplish in peace, we may perhaps now win while we 
have our weapons in hand." 

After order had been restored, Prince Chun came to Europe on 
a penitential mission. He visited Potsdam, and on the 4th of 
September, 1901, stood at the foot of the throne and expressed 
his regrets to the Emperor. 



ON THE TROUBLES IN CHINA 317 

His Majesty replied to the Prince's address as follows : 
" It is not an occasion of joyful festivity or the desire to fulfil a 
simple act of courtesy that has prompted your Imperial Highness 
to visit me, but a most lamentable and grievous occurrence. My 
Ambassador at the Court of his Majesty, the Emperor of China, 
Baron von Ketteler, was struck down by a murderous weapon, 
which was raised in the capital of China by a soldier of the 
Imperial Chinese Army, acting under the order of a superior. 
An unheard-of crime, equally condemned by international law 
and the custom of all nations. I have just heard from the 
lips of your Imperial Highness how sincerely and deeply his 
Majesty, the Emperor of China, regrets this occurrence. I readily 
believe that your Imperial Highness's Imperial brother had 
no share in this crime and the outrages against inviolable 
legations and peaceful foreigners which followed it. All the 
greater, therefore, is the culpability of his counsellors and his 
Government. They must not imagine that they can atone for, 
and be excused of, their culpability by means of a penitential 
mission alone, but only by their subsequent conduct in accord- 
ance with the precepts of international law and the customs of 
civilised nations. If his Majesty, the Emperor of China, conducts 
in the future the government of his great Empire strictly in the 
spirit of these precepts, then his hopes will be fulfilled, the sad 
consequences of the disorders of last year will be forgiven, and 
between Germany and China there will again permanently prevail 
peaceful and friendly relations, which will be a blessing to both 
nations and, indeed, to the whole civilised world. With the 
sincere and earnest wish that it may be so, I bid your Imperial 
Highness welcome." 



THE EMPEROR'S VISIT TO PALESTINE 



fTlHE genuine piety with which the German Emperor is en- 
JL dowed, and which is partly inherited and partly the result of 
education, was the incentive which led to his journey to the Holy 
Land, a journey which was undertaken at great cost and under 
great difficulties. 

Leaving Berlin on the llth October, 1898, his Majesty, accom- 
panied by his Consort, proceeded to Palestine by way of 
Constantinople, and on the 30th of the month arrived at 
Bethlehem. During his stay in that place his Majesty made the 
following speech : 

" If I am to acquaint you with the impressions which I have 
received during the past few days, then I must say that I have, 
on the whole, been greatly disappointed. When I heard that 
others, my Chief Court Chaplain, for instance, had received exactly 
the same impressions as myself, I thought that I need not with- 
hold them from you. It may be that the very unfavourable 
approach to the city of Jerusalem contributed much to our dis- 
appointment. When one observes the present condition of the 
Holy Places, and the state of affairs there, it is enough to break 
one's heart. And yet it is a stupendous event, on the scene of 
which we are standing, the emanation of the Creator's love, and 
how out of keeping with it is what we have seen. I am, therefore, 
doubly pleased to have obtained here in Bethlehem, at the 
ceremony in which I have taken part, the first inspiring im- 
pressions which I have received in the Holy Land. The very 
example given us by Jerusalem is an urgent warning to us to 
keep in the background as far as possible the minor differences of 
our creeds, so that, firmly united here in the East, the Evangelical 
Church and the Evangelical Faith may carry on their work. 
Otherwise we can do nothing. We can only make progress by 

318 



THE EMPEROR'S VISIT TO PALESTINE 319 

means of example and pattern, and by showing that the Gospel 
is a gospel of love in all parts of the world, and that it bears 
other kind of fruit. Nothing but the lives which Christians lead 
can make any impression upon Mohammedans. No one can blame 
them if they have no respect for the name of Christian. For the 
Christians are split up into rival sects, and they have to be even 
restrained from flying at one another's throats by external force 
of arms. Under every possible kind of political pretext they filch 
from the Mohammedans one piece after another to which they 
have no right, and, consequently, the good name of Christianity 
has lost much of its influence, and has now reached its present 
low level. 

"But now it is our turn. The German Empire and the German 
name have acquired a prestige throughout the Ottoman Empire 
greater than they have ever enjoyed before. It is incumbent 
upon us to show what the Christian religion really is, and that 
it is our simple duty to exercise Christian charity even towards 
Mohammedans, not by means of dogma or attempts at prose- 
lytising, but merely by example. The Mohammedan is a zealot 
in religion, so that nothing is effected by preaching alone. But 
our civilisation, our institutions, the kind of example we set them 
by our lives, the manner of our conversation among them, the 
evidence that we are united amongst ourselves these are the 
things that matter. They form a kind of examination which we 
have to pass on behalf of our Protestant Creed and Faith, by 
means of which we can give a proof of what Christianity is, and 
by which they can learn to take some interest in our religion 
and our Creed. Take care that this is done." 

On October 31st the consecration of the Protestant Church of 
the Kedeemer took place. After the conclusion of the ecclesias- 
tical ceremony the Emperor read out the following address : 

" God in His grace has vouchsafed to us to be able to consecrate 
this House of God, dedicated to the Eedeemer of the world, in 
this city sacred to all Christians. The work which my ancestors, 
now at rest in God, have for more than half a century longed to 
accomplish, and, as furtherers and patrons of the work of love 
established in this city by the Evangelical Community have 



320 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

striven to perform, has now been completed by the erection and 
dedication of this church of the Kedeerner. In this place the 
hearts of men shall, by the winning power of ministering love, 
be turned towards Him in whom alone the tormented human 
heart finds salvation, rest, and peace for time and eternity. Far 
beyond the bounds of Germany Evangelical Christianity follows 
our ceremony with sympathy and intercession. The deputies of 
the Evangelical Church congregations and numerous Evangelical 
co-religionists from all over the world have come here with us 
to be personal witnesses of the completion of that work of faith 
and love by which the name of the Divine Lord and Kedeemer 
shall be glorified, and the building up of the kingdom of God on 
earth shall be furthered. 

" Jerusalem, that city built on a hill, which we see at our feet, 
vividly calls to our mind that stupendous work of redemption of 
our Lord and Saviour. It bears witness to us of that common 
work which independently of creeds and nationality unites all 
Christians in Apostolic Faith. 

"The world-renewing power of the Gospel, which went forth 
from this place, urges us to follow its teaching. It exhorts us to 
look up with the eye of faith to Him who died for us upon the 
Cross, to Christian resignation, to the practice of unselfish love 
for all men, and it gives us a sure promise that if we faithfully 
hold fast to the pure doctrine of the Gospel, even the gates of 
Hell shall not prevail against our dear Evangelical Church. 
From Jerusalem came that Light to the world, in the brightness 
of which our German nation grew great and glorious. The 
Teutonic nations became what they are under the banner of the 
Cross at Golgotha, the symbol of self-sacrificing love for one's 
neighbour. 

" As almost two thousand years ago, so too to-day shall that call 
ring through the world which sums up the longing hope of us all 
'Peace on earth.' Not splendour, not power, not glory, not 
honour, no earthly blessing is it that we seek here ; we pine, we 
pray, we strive alone after the sole, the highest blessing, the 
salvation of our souls. And as I on this solemn day repeat the 
vow made by my ancestors at rest in God, ' I and my House will 
serve the Lord,' so do I call upon all of you to make the same 



THE EMPEROR'S VISIT TO PALESTINE 321 

vow. Let every man, whatever his position in life, whatever his 
calling, take care that all who bear the name of the crucified 
Lord may so walk under the banner of His glorious name, that 
they may triumph over all the powers of darkness, that spring 
from sin and selfishness. May God grant that from this place 
rich streams of blessing may flow over all Christendom ; that on 
the throne and in the cottage, at home and abroad, trust in God, 
love for our neighbours, patience in suffering, and unflagging 
industry, may ever remain the noblest ornament of the German 
nation ; that the spirit of peace may ever more and more permeate 
and sanctify the Evangelical Church. We have the firmest trust 
and confidence that He, the gracious God, will hear our prayer. 
He, the Almighty God, is the strong rock of defence on whom 

" With force of arms we nothing can, 
Full soon we were down-ridden ; 
But for us fights the proper Man, 
Whom God Himself hath bidden. 
Ask ye, Who is this same ? 
Christ Jesus is His name, 
The Lord Zebaoth's Son ; 
He and no other one 
Shall conquer in the battle." * 

Whilst he was in Jerusalem the Emperor passed through the 
colony of Templars on the 1st of November, and, replying to 
an address of welcome, said : 

" It is a great pleasure to me to see so many of my countrymen 
here, and I thank you for the splendid reception which you have 
given to me. I rejoice that you have recognised the necessity 
of affording your neighbours a good example by the lives which 
you lead, and in doing this you have shown how to win respect 
for the name of Germany in this country. You have, as I have 
observed in regard to other colonies, conferred honour on the 
name of Germany by means of your industry and piety, you 
have gained for yourselves a good reputation here and abroad, 
and you have shown how one must set to work to restore a barren 
ground to fertility. You are, so far as I know, for the most part 
Swabians. I have telegraphed to the King of Wlirtemberg that 

* The second stanza of Luther's Psalm, "Erne Feste Burg ist unser Gott," 
translated by Thomas Carlyle, 1831. 



322 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

I have found many of his countrymen thriving at Haifa and 
Jaffa, and have received from him a reply, in which he requests 
me to convey to you his greetings. For you who live here it 
is easier than for others to find ever fresh incentives to do good, 
for you reside so near to the Holy Places. I hope that in 
the future, as at present, friendly relations with the Ottoman 
Empire, and especially the friendship which exists between his 
Majesty the Sultan and myself, will tend to facilitate your task. 
If any one of you is in need of my protection, then I am here. 
He may appeal to me, no matter what creed he professes. For- 
tunately, the German Empire is in a position to afford its subjects 
abroad permanent protection." 

On returning to Berlin, where they arrived on the 1st of 
December, the Emperor and Empress were welcomed at the 
Brandenburg Gate by the municipal authorities. In reply to the 
address, the Emperor spoke as follows : 

" On behalf of the Empress, I thank you cordially for the re- 
ception which you have extended to us in the name of the City 
of Berlin. I am glad to set foot in my native city again on re- 
turning from so long a journey, abounding in powerful impressions 
in the domain of religion, art, and industry. 

"Of all that I should like to tell you to-day I may mention 
one thing, but that of a highly gratifying character. Wherever we 
went, on all seas and in all countries and all cities, the German 
name had a sound which it never had before. It is respected and 
held in honour as it never has been before. My hope is that this 
will continue, and that our journey will have helped to open up 
fresh fields where German enterprise and German energy can 
.display their activity, and further, that I have succeeded in 
advancing the noble work of securing the general peace of the 
world." 



THE EMPEROR WILLIAM AS A PREACHER 



IF there is no chaplain on board a German man-of-war, divine 
service is conducted on Sunday by an officer on deck. This 
service appeals to everybody by its simple character, and is a 
memorable experience to one who has at any time been present 
on such an occasion. 

If the Emperor is on board he conducts divine service, whether 
the vessel is in harbour or at sea. 

In the German Navy it is the usual custom for the officer con- 
ducting divine service to read out the prayers and a sermon from 
a book, but the Emperor delivers sermons of his own composition, 
one of which has become public property. 

The Emperor delivered this sermon on board the Holienzollern 
off Heligoland on July 29th, 1900. 

" Seventh Sunday after Trinity. The grace of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, the love of God, and the fellowship of the Holy Ghost be 
with us all. Amen. 

"Text Exodus xvii. 11: 'And it came to pass, when Moses 
held up his hand, that Israel prevailed ; but when he let down his 
hand, Amalek prevailed.' Amen. 

" It is a striking picture that our text presents to our minds. 
Israel is marching through the wilderness from the Ked Sea to 
the Mount of Sinai. But suddenly the heathen nation of the 
Amalekites meets them on the way and would bar their passage, 
and a battle ensues. Joshua leads the young warriors of Israel 
into the conflict; their swords clash, and a hot, bloody struggle 
begins in the valley of Eephidim. But, lo, whilst the battle 
sways this way and that, the holy men of God Moses, Aaron, and 
Hur go up to the top of the hill ; they stretch out their hands to 
Heaven, they pray. Down below in the valley the company of 
fighters, above on the hilltop the company of prayer ; such is the 
battle scene in our text. 

323 



324 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

" Who to-day can fail to understand what it will say to us ? 
Yet once again is the spirit of the heathen Amalekites stirring in 
distant Asia, and is striving with great might and craft, with 
burning and bloodshed, to bar the way to the trade and thought 
of Europe, and to check the triumphant march of Christian 
morality and Christian belief. 

"And now again God's command has gone forth, Choose out 
men, go out and fight against Amalek. A hot, bloody struggle 
has begun. Already many of our brothers are standing there in 
the fire, many are on their way to the shores of the enemy, and 
you have seen the thousands who responded to the call of volun- 
teers for the front. Who will be the protector of the Empire ? 
Even now they are assembling, and with colours flying are 
entering into the fight. 

" But as for us who must remain behind at home, as for us who 
are bound by other sacred duties, tell me, hear ye not the call of 
God, which goeth forth to you and says to you, Arise, go up to 
the top of the hill, hold up your hands towards heaven? The 
prayer of the righteous prevaileth much, when it is in earnest. 

"Well, then, yonder in a far land the companies of fighting 
men, here at home companies of men of prayer, let that be our 
sacred battle picture to-day. Then let this peaceful hour of 
morning warn us, let it warn us of the sacred duty of intercession, 
and let it remind us of the sacred power of intercession. 

" The sacred duty of intercession. 

"Assuredly it is a stirring moment when a vessel with its 
young crew on board weighs anchor. Have you not seen the 
light in the eyes of your warriors? Have you not heard the 
cheers from their thousand throats ? But when the shores of 
home disappear in the distance, when they enter the glowing heat 
of the Ked Sea or on the mighty billows of the ocean, how easily 
do courage and enthusiasm grow faint. 

"Assuredly it is a moment of exaltation when, after the long 
voyage, the straight lines of the German forts are sighted in the 
far distance, when the black, white, and red flag of the German 
colony comes into view, and your brothers in arms are standing 
on the shore to bid you welcome with their cheers; but when 



THE EMPEROR WILLIAM AS A PREACHER 325 

after that come the long marches in the burning sun, the long 
nights of bivouac in the rain, how easily do the spirit and strength 
fall away. Assuredly it is a moment to which all have long looked 
forward, when at last the drums beat for the storming and the 
trumpets peal for the battle, and when the word of command 
rings clear : ' Forward against the enemy ! ' But when amid the 
thunder of the guns and amid the hail of shells comrades fall to 
right and to left, and the batteries of the enemy will not yield, 
how easy then it is for the stout heart to begin to quail. 

" Christian men, in order that our brothers yonder may keep 
cheerful hearts even in their hour of most pressing need, that 
they may remain true even under the most exacting duty, that 
they may remain undaunted even in the greatest peril, they need 
more than ammunition and sharp weapons, even more than youth- 
ful courage and fiery enthusiasm ; they need the blessing from 
above, otherwise they could not win and hold their victory they 
need that heavenly world which is open only to prayer. Prayer 
is the golden key to the treasure-house of our God, and he who 
has it has also the promise : ' Whosoever asks, he shall receive.' 

" Or shall we perchance lay our hands idly in our bosoms ? 
Woe unto us if we are slothful and remiss, while they are plying 
their hard and bloody handiwork. Woe unto us if we are merely 
curious spectators of the great spectacle standing behind the lines, 
while they are struggling in hot fight unto death. That would 
be the spirit of Cain with his cruel words, " Am I my brother's 
keeper ? " That would be indeed faithlessness towards our brave 
brothers who are risking their lives. 

" Never. We will not only mobilise our battalions of soldiers, 
but also a holy fighting company of men of prayer. 

" Yes, how many a petition and how many a prayer may we 
not offer up for our brothers marching into the field. They must 
be the strong arm that punishes the assassins, they must be the 
mailed fist plunging into the wild turmoil. Sword in hand must 
they intervene in defence of our most sacred possessions. 

" So with our prayers we will accompany them over the billowy 
deep, on their marches, into the thunder of battle, and into the 
stillness of the hospital. We will pray the Lord God that they 
may stand manly and strong at their posts; that, heroic and 



326 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

undaunted, they may fight their battles ; that, brave and un- 
complaining, they may bear their wounds ; that God may grant 
those who meet their death in the fire a blessed end, and may 
give them the reward of their loyalty ; in short, that He may 
make our warriors heroes, our heroes conquerors, and may then 
bring them back to the land of their fathers, with the laurel 
round their helmets and with the badge of honour on their 
breasts. 

" The sacred power of intercession. 

" Perhaps we do not believe in the sacred power of intercession. 
Well, then, what says our text ? * When Moses held up his hand, 
Israel prevailed.' The earnest prayers of Moses blunted the 
swords of the enemy. They pierced like a wedge into the battle 
array of the enemy ; they caused them to waver, and fastened 
the victory on to the fluttering banners of Israel. And if the 
prayers of a Moses accomplished that, shall not our prayers have 
a like power ? God has not withdrawn a single word of His 
promises. True prayers have power even to-day to throw down 
the dragon banner into the dust, and to plant the banner of the 
Cross on the wall. 

" And Moses stands not alone with his intercession. Lo ! 
yonder on the height of Sodom stands Abraham interceding 
before his God, and by the power of his petition rescues Lot 
from the burning city. Shall not our prayers, too, succeed in 
rescuing our fighting comrades from out the fire of the battle ? 

" See, yonder in Jerusalem the young Christian congregation 
have fallen on their knees; their leader, their father, lies bound 
in prison, and lo ! with their prayers they call the angel of God 
into the gaol, and he leads Peter forth uninjured. Shall not our 
prayers have the power even to-day to burst open the doors of 
the oppressed, the prisoner, and the persecuted, and to place the 
angels at their side to help them ? 

" ' Oh, the unacknowledged might 
Of the prayers of saints, 
Nothing without prayer is wrought 
Or in joy or sorrow. 
Step by step 
It works with us, 
Wins the victory for our friends, 
Brings to naught our foes.' 



THE EMPEROR WILLIAM AS A PREACHER 327 

" Yes, God liveth as of old. Our great Ally still reigneth, the 
Holy God who cannot suffer sin and iniquity to triumph. He 
will lead His holy cause against an unholy nation. The Almighty 
God, who can smite through the strongest walls as through 
gossamer, who can scatter like a heap of sand the mightiest 
armies, the merciful true God who in His Father's heart bears 
the joys and sorrows of His children, who hears every sigh and 
sympathises with every sorrow. Pious prayers open His fatherly 
hand, and it is filled with blessings. Earnest prayers open His 
fatherly heart, and it is full of love. Yes, faithful persistent 
prayers bring down the living God from Heaven and place Him 
in our midst, and if God is with us who can be against us ? 

" Well, then, yonder on the mountain-top mysterious bells are 
hung by ropes. They are rung by no human hand. While it is 
sunshine they hang silent and voiceless, but when the storm wind 
arises then they begin to swing, commence to ring, and the sound 
of bells is heard far down in the valley below. 

" Now the Lord God has hung in every human heart a bell of 
prayer, and in the sunshine and prosperity of life how oft does it 
hang still and silent, but when the storm wind of distress rages, 
then it begins to ring. How many a comrade, who has forgotten 
how to pray, will yonder learn again to fold his hands in prayer in 
the life and death struggle. Necessity teaches to pray, so let it 
be at home too. Let the solemn days which have dawned, let the 
storm of war which has burst upon us set the prayer bells ringing. 
Let us pray for our fighting brothers. Not only now and again 
in the solemn hour ; no, no, let us be true in prayer. Just as our 
fathers of old in times of war rang bells every evening and at 
their sound bared their heads and prayed, * Lord Jesus Christ, 
abide with us because it is now evening,' so let us not for a single 
day forget to make intercession. Moses held his hand up until 
the going down of the sun ; until Joshua had discomfited Amalek 
with the edge of the sword. Our fight is not ended on a single 
day, but let not your hands grow weary ; let them not fall, until 
the victory is won. Let our prayers be a wall of fire round the 
camp of our brothers. 

" How will it strengthen, inspire, and kindle them, the thought 
that thousands, nay millions, are thinking of them with hearts of 



328 THE GERMAN EMPEROR'S SPEECHES 

prayer ! The King of Kings calleth for volunteers for the front. 
Who will pray for the Empire ? Oh, would that it might be said 
here : the King called and they all came, all of them ! Let not 
one of us be absent. He is a true man who knows how to pray. 

" Some day history will describe the struggles of these times. 
But man sees only what is before his eyes ; he can only say what 
the wisdom of leaders, the courage of troops, the sharpness of 
weapons have accomplished. But some day eternity will reveal 
yet more. It will show how the secret prayers of the faithful 
were a mighty power in these conflicts, how once again the old 
promise was fulfilled * Call unto Me in the hour of need, and I 
will rescue thee.' And therefore be steadfast in prayer. Amen. 

" Prayer : 

" Almighty God, our dear Father in Heaven, Thou Lord of 
Hosts and Leader of the battle, we raise our hands up to Thee in 
prayer. On Thy heart we lay the thousands of our brothers in 
arms, whom Thou Thyself hast called to the fight. Guard these 
our sons with Thy almighty protection, lead our men to mighty 
victory. On Thy heart we lay the wounded and the sick; be 
Thou their comfort and their strength, and heal the wounds they 
have received for King and Fatherland. On Thy heart we lay 
those for whom Thou hast decreed to die on distant battlefield ; 
be with them in their last fight, and give them everlasting peace. 
On Thy heart we lay all our people. Make true, holy, and increase 
the enthusiasm which now glows through all our hearts. Lord 
our God, we venture forth in reliance on Thee. Lead Thou us in 
the battle. We boast, Lord, that Thou art our helper, and in 
Thy name we unfold our banner. Lord, if we forsake not Thee, 
Thou givest us Thy blessing. Amen." 

The Emperor concluded with the Lord's Prayer and the Blessing. 



INDEX 



A. 

Academy of Arts, at Berlin, 182, 183. 

Academy of Sciences, at Berlin, 191-4. 

Accidents, exhibition of means for pre- 
vention of, 75. 

Achenbach, Governor von, 3, 294, 295, 
299. 

Actors, address of William II. to Berlin, 
181. 

Admiral, William II. as a British, 18, 
19, 98, 99, 101, 103, 108. 

Adolph, Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe, 

118, 269. 

Aix-la-Chapelle, Collegiate Church of, 

Aix-la-Chapelle, visit of William II. to, 

70-3. 
Albert, King of Saxony, 18, 115, 116, 

120, 122, 123, 127, 128, 133, 221, 

223. 
Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, 98. 

See also Edward VII. 
Albrecht, Prince Regent of Brunswick, 

119, 133, 149, 150, 267, 268. 
Albrecht Achilles, 211. 
Albrechtsburg, the, 127, 129. 
Aldershot, visit of William II. to, 99. 
Alexander III., the Tsar, 1, 14, 21, 22, 

23, 25, 26, 30. 

Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. 100, 
133, 134. 

Alice, Princess, of England, 126. 

Alsace-Lorraine, 16, 25, 44, 45, 46, 48, 
49, 248. 

Alsace-Lorraine, the dictatorship para- 
graph, 97. 

Alsace-Lorraine, passport regulations for, 
45, 91, 92. 

Anglo-German Agreement of 1888 (on 
East Africa), 98. 

Anglo-German Agreement of 1890 (on 
E. and S.W. Africa, Zanzibar, Heligo- 
land), 99. 



329 



Anglo-German Agreements of 1893 (on 
Kilimanjaro ; Cameroons), 101. 

Anglo-German Agreement of 1894 (on 
Togoland and Gold Coast), 101. 

Anglo-German Agreement of 1900 (on 
China), 111, 112. 

Anniversary, 25th, of Peace of Frankfort, 
137-47. 

Armada, the Spanish, 235. 

Arminius, 199. 

Army Corps, Third, 16, 17. 

Army Corps, Eighth, 130, 217. 

Army Corps, Tenth, 229. 

Army Corps, Twelfth, 122, 127, 128. 

Army Corps, Fourteenth, 124, 132. 

Army Corps, Fifteenth, 123. 

Army Corps, Sixteenth, 52. 

Army, increase of the German, 201, 209, 
210, 213-17. 

Army, Proclamation to the German. 4, 
227. 

Art, views of William II. on the in- 
fluence of, 180. 

Artistic talents of William II., the, 178. 

Artists. See Commissions to. 

Athens, visit of William II. to, 22, 99. 

August, Grand Duke of Oldenburg, 133. 

Augusta, the Empress, 119, 217, 218, 
249, 250, 268. 

Augusta Victoria, the Empress, 65, 278. 
279, 309, 318. 

Austro-German Alliance, the, 2, 9. 

B. 

Barbarossa, the Emperor, 153. 198, 246, 

300. 
Beautiful, William II. on cultivation of 

the, 190, 191. 

Begas, Professor Reinhold, 186, 187. 
Benzler, Bishop, 62, 67. See also Metz, 

Bishop of. 
Berger, Baron von, 179. 



330 



INDEX 



Berlepsch, Herr von, 39, 85. 
Bethlehem, visit of William II. to, 318. 
Bielefeld, visit of William II. to, 261. 
Bismarck, Count Herbert, 14. 
Bismarck, Count Wilhelm von, 247. 
Bismarck, Prince, 1, 2, 98, 140, 146, 164, 

302. 

Bonn, University of, 195-200, 268, 279. 
Bonnal, General, 53, 54. 
Boulanger, General, 35, 36, 45. 
Boulangists, the, 1, 35, 43, 44. 
Brandenburg, S.M.S., 239, 256, 296, 297. 
Brandenburg, Diet of the Province of, 

3, 288, 292, 295, 297, 299, 301. 
Bremen, visit of William II. to, 134, 

269. 
Bremerhaven, visit of William II. to, 

314. 

Breslau, the Prince Bishop of, 39, 58, 88. 
Breslau, visit of William II. to, 74, 88. 
Brunswick, visit of William II. to, 119. 
Burgraves of Nuremberg, the, 130, 131, 

137. 

C. 

Cadets, education of German, 156-8, 169, 

204. 

Cambridge, the Duke of, 18, 19, 99. 
Cameroons, the, 101. 
Canal, the Dortmund-Ems, 308, 309. 
Canal, the Eider, 32. 
Canal, the Kaiser Wilhelm, 31-4, 48, 

49, 102, 103, 240, 297, 298. 
Cape to Cairo Telegraph, the, 107. 
Caprivi, Count, 213. 
Carnot, President, 30, 46. 
Cassel Gymnasium, Prince William at, 

152, 153, 154, 163. 
Catholic Church, relations of the German 

Government to, 11. 
Centre, the, 57, 58, 61. 
Chamberlain, Joseph, 104. 
Charlemagne, 70, 71, 198, 258. 
Charles, King of Roumania, 24. 
Charles, King of Wiirtemberg, 116, 120. 
Charlottenburg, the Technical High 

School at, 104, 172, 173-5, 251. 
China, affairs in, 105, 111, 112, 313-17. 
China, the expedition to, 65, 67, 249, 

250, 311, 313, 314, 315, 316, 324. 
Christian IX., King of Denmark, 16. 
Christiansund, visit of William II. to, 

147. 

Chun, Prince, 316, 317. 
Classics, William II. on the study of the, 

155, 161, 162. 
Coblenz, visit of William II. to, 199, 

268, 271. 



Cockade, the German, 1 48. 
Code, new, of Civil Law, 140, 147. 
Code, new, of Military Law, 131. 
Coghlan, Captain, 281, 282. 
Cologne, the Archbishop of, 57, 66, 67. 
Colonies, the German desire for, 109. 
Columbus Festival, the, 281. 
Commissions to Artists, William II. and, 

184, 186, 187. 
Congo Free State, the, 103. 
Constitutional Oath, the Prussian, 11. 
Copenhagen, visit of William II. to, 15. 
Courts of Honour, in Army and Navy, 

224, 243. 
Cowes, visit of William II. to, 100, 101, 

102. 

D. 

Darmstadt, visit of William II. to, 126. 

Delagoa Bay, 103. 

Dictatorship paragraph, repeal of the, 

97. 

Don John of Austria, 252. 
Dormition de la Sainte Vierge, the, 62, 

63, 64. 

Dortmund, visit of William II. to, 309. 
Drake, Sir Francis, 293. 
Dresden, visit of William II. to, 120, 

122. 

Dreyfus Affair, the, 49, 50. 
Duelling, William II. on, 197, 224. 
Diippel, Battle of, 210, 213. 
Durand, Marguerite, 182. 

E. 

Eberhard the Quarrelsome, 264. 

Edinburgh, the Duke of, 100. See also 
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, 

Educational Conference of 1890, 158-71. 

Edward VII., 112, 113, 114. 

Elector, the Great, 250, 260, 261, 263, 
264-6, 290, 291, 296, 309. 

Emden, 309. 

Emma, Queen-Regent, of the Nether- 
lands, 23, 25. 

Ende, Professor von, 182. 

Ernst Ludwig, Grand Duke of Hesse, 
126, 254. 

Evangelical Christianity, William II. 
on, 320, 321. 

Evans, Rear-Admiral, 284, 285, 286. 

F. 

Far East, the, 48, 54, 65. See also China. 
Faure, President, 50. 
Fehrbellin, Battle of, 260, 262. 






INDEX 



331 



Field-Marshal, William II. as a British, 

112, 113. 

Forchheim, visit of William II. to, 132. 
Francis Joseph, the Emperor, 20, 23. 
Franco-German War, the, 138, 222, 285. 
Franco-Russian Alliance, the, 24, 55. 
Frankfort, the Peace of, 138. 
Frankfort-on-Main, visit of William II. 

to, 144. 

Frankfort-on-Oder, 16, 17. 
Frederick IV., Burgrave of Nuremberg, 

131. 
Frederick I., Elector of Brandenburg, 

210, 302. 

Frederick I., King of Prussia, 183. 
Frederick the Great, 13, 40, 203, 225, 

230, 286, 287, 290, 309. 
Frederick William I., King of Prussia, 

231. 
Frederick William III., King of Prussia, 

231. 
Frederick III., Emperor, 4, 53, 201, 259, 

270, 273, 274. 

Frederick, the Empress, 43, 44, 126, 273. 
Frederick, Grand Duke, of Baden, 115, 

121, 123, 124, 125, 127, 128, 130, 132, 

134-6, 245, 254. 
Frederick Charles, Prince (the "Red 

Prince"), 16, 17, 210, 224. 
Frederick Charles, Prince, of Hesse, 27. 
Frederick William, the Crown Prince 

(afterwards Emperor Frederick III.), 

4, 17, 276. 
Friedrichsruhe, 146. 

G. 

Galleys contrasted with line-of- battle 

ships, 252. 

Galveston destroyed by a cyclone, 283. 
George, Duke of Saxony, 129. 
German Corner, the, at Coblenz, 199, 

271. 

German East Africa Company, the, 99. 
German Emperor, duties of the, 8. 
Germanic Museum, the, at Nuremberg, 

136, 137. 

Glucksburg, visit of William II. to, 278. 
Goethe, 119, 174, 194, 200. 
Gorlitz, the Emperor William II. at, 128. 
Gossler, Herr von, 158. 
Grace, Act of, 1896, 142, 143. 

H. 

Hahnke, General von, 14, 211. 
Haifa, German colony at, 62, 322. 
Hamburg, speech at, 31, 257, 310. 



Hamburg - American Line, the, 256, 

310. 

Hanover Courier, the, 168, 229. 
Hanoverian Army, traditions of the, 

228, 229. 
Hanse, the, 257, 259, 271, 307, 308, 310, 

311, 312. 

Heimdall, 125, 257. 
Heligoland, cession of, to Germany, 22, 

99, 236-8. 

Henry IV., King of England, 114. 
Henry VII. , the Emperor, 131. 
Henry, Prince, of Prussia, 14, 56, 57, 

114, 241, 244, 273, 275, 282, 284-6. 
Hinzpeter, Dr., tutor of William II., 

161, 162, 163, 165, 166, 261, 264. 
History, how taught in the schools, 155, 

157, 162, 163, 176. 
Hohenlohe, Prince, 45, 96, 147, 248. 
ffohenzollern, the yacht, 14, 25, 51, 106, 

133, 297, 298, 305, 323. 
Hohkonigsburg, the, 96. 
Holleben, Dr. von, 281. 
Holy Alliance, the, 269. 
Holy Roman Empire, the, 71, 72, 198, 

199, 299, 300, 315. 
Homework in German schools, 163. 
Hoskins, Admiral, 99. 
Hulsen, the actor, 182. 
Humbert, King, of Italy, 26, 27, 28, 

56. 
"Hunger Candidates," the, 164. 



Ideals, William II. on the cultivation of, 

182, 183, 188, 189. 
Ill-treatment of subordinates, William II. 

on, 204. 

Iltis, foundering of S. M.S., 243, 249. 
Industrial Arbitration, Courts of, 86. 
Injury to the Emperor by a madman, 

134. 

Insurance, compulsory, of workmen, 74. 
International market, competition in 

the, 81, 87. 

Iron Cross, the, 196, 221, 306. 
Italy, German Alliance with, 9, 10. 

J. 

Jameson Raid, the, 104, 110, 111. 
Jerusalem, Evangelical Church of the 

Redeemer at, 63. 
Jerusalem, German Catholic Hospice at, 

62, 63, 64. 

Jerusalem, impressions of, 318. 
Johannesburg, 103. 



332 



INDEX 



K. 

Kaiser, S.M.S., 245, 246, 247, 305. 
Karlsruhe, visit of William II. to, 121, 

132, 134. 
Ketteler, Baron von, murder of, 282, 

283, 313, 315, 317. 
Kiao-Chau, annexation of, 246, 250, 

275. 
Kiel, visit of William II. to, 102, 103, 

114, 275. 

Kiel Regatta, the, 105. 
Khalifa, the, 105. 
Kingship by the grace of God, the, 145, 

263, 272, 291, 294, 296, 302. 
Kitchener, Sir H., 105. 
Kuackfuss, the painter, 178. 
Kollin, Battle of, 203. 
Kommers, William II. at a students', 

196, 279. 
Kbnigsberg, William I. assumes the 

Crown at, 145. 
Konig Wilhelm, S.M.S., 239, 240, 241, 

244. 

Kopp, Prince Bishop. See Breslau. 
Korps Life, William II. on the true 

meaning of, 197. 
Koser, Prof. Dr., 185. 
Kruger, the Emperor's telegram to 

President, 104, 110. 
Krupp's Avorks, visit of William II. to, 

87, 88. 



Labour Conference, the International, 

36, 57, 58, 80, 81, 84, 85, 87. 
Lascelles, Sir F., 107. 
Lauff, Joseph, the playwright, 179, 

180. 
Launching of ships, speeches at the, 45, 

256-9. 
Leaving certificate, the school, 153, 154, 

164, 167, 177, 206. 
Leibnitz, 194. 

Leipzig, Battle of the Nations at, 269. 
Leo XIII., Pope, 47, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 

61, 63, 66, 67, 73. 
Leopold, Prince, of Bavaria, 126. 
Lepanto, Battle of, 250. 
Liberation, the War of, 232. 
Liegnitz, visit of William II. to, 225. 
Light Infantry Battalion of Guards, 

223. 

Lissa, Battle of, 241. 
Literary bureau, the Emperor's, 191. 
Loe, General von, 59, 60, 73, 219. 
London, visit of William to the City of, 

100. 



Loubet, President, 51, 55. 
Louise, Queen, of Prussia, 129. 
Liibeck, visit of William II. to, 307. 
Lucerne, visit of William II. to, 29. 
Ludwig of Bavaria, the Emperor, 131. 
Luitpold, Prince Regent of Bavaria, 117, 

126, 131, 134, 136, 137, 138, 255. 
Luther, Martin, 210, 321. 



M. 

MacMahon, Marshal, 45. 

Maine, loss of the, at Havana, 281. 

Malplaquet, the Battle of, 20, 99. 

Manning, Cardinal, 84. 

Maria Laach, the Abbey of, 62, 67, 

Marienburg, the consecration of, 113, 

114, 149, 150, 277. 
Mars-la-Tour, Battle of, 16, 17, 19. 
Matricular contributions, 215. 
McKinley, President, 281, 282, 283, 

284. ' 

Menzel, Professor von, honoured, 184. 
Mercantile Marine, growth of the Ger- 
man, 109, 304, 305. 
Message of January 18th, 1896, to the 

German nation, 139. 
Metacentre, anecdote about the, 253. 
Meteor, launch of the yacht, 282, 284. 
Metz, visit of William II. to, 60, 69, 92, 

94, 96, 123. 

Metz, the Bishop of, 60, 61, 67, 68, 69. 
Metz Cathedral, 69. 
Michael, the German, 146, 303. 
Military Law, new Code of, 131. 
Minden, Battle of, 228, 229. 
Modern languages in school curricula, 

176. 

Mohammedans, William II. on, 319. 
Moltke, Count von, 39, 201, 202, 203, 

208, 209, 210, 211, 217, 302, 303. 
Mommsen, Professor Theodor, 277, 278. 
Muck, music director, decorated, 180. 
Miihldorf, Battle of, 131. 
Munich, visit of William II. to, 116. 
Minister, Count, 45, 47. 
Museum of Arts and Crafts at Berlin, 

190, 191. 

N. 

Napoleon I., 232. 

National Defence, Committee of, 202. 
Nationalists, the French, 1, 48, 49. 
National spirit, cultivation of the, in 

schools, 157, 161, 162, 163, 168, 169. 
Nature in Art, William II. on, 187, 

188. 



INDEX 



333 



Naval Academy, William II. at the, 
264. 

Naval Administration, reorganisation of 
the, 236. 

Naval Architects, the (British) Institu- 
tion of, 104, 245. 

Naval Architects, the (German) Institu- 
tion of, 245, 251. 

Naval Reserve, the, 306. 

Navy, increase of the German, 245, 247, 
248, 255, 256. 

Navy League, the German, 244, 247, 248. 

Navy, Proclamation to the German, 5. 

Nelson, Admiral, 99, 100, 101, 308. 

Neue Freie Presse, the, 2. 

Newspapers, William II. on military 
discussions in, 213, 214. 

Nicholas II., the Tsar, 27, 30, 31, 34, 
316. 

Niederwald Monument, the, 199. 

Norddeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung. the, 
15. 

North German Lloyd, the, 304, 305, 
306. 

Nuremberg, visit of William II. to, 130, 
131, 136. 

0. 

Oberon, Weber's opera, 182. 

Officers in Army, status and supply of, 

William II. on, 205-8. 
Oldenburg, visit of William II. to, 118. 
Omdurman, the Battle of, 105. 
One-year volunteers, 164, 165. 
Orange, the House of, 24, 25. 
Orange, William of, 296. 
Osborne, visit of William II. to, 98. 
Oscar II., King, 15, 17. 
Overpressure in schools, William II. on, 

156, 163, 166. 
Overproduction by higher schools, 163. 



P. 

Paderborn, the Bishop of, 66. 
Palestine Association, the German, 62, 

63, 64, 65. 
Palestine, the journey of William II. to, 

62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 131, 303. 
Pan-Slavists, the, 1, 15. 
Paris Exhibition, the, 35. 
Patriots, the French League of, 35, 43, 

44. 

Pelee, eruption of Mt., 55. 
People, Proclamation to the German, 6. 
Pergamon Museum, the, 187. 



Peter, Grand Duke, of Oldenburg, 118. 
Phelps, Mr., American Ambassador, 

280. 
Philologists, William II. on fanatical, 

155, 161. 
Physical exercises in secondary schools, 

155, 171, 177. 

Pioneers, the Torgau battalion of, 212. 
Pless, the Prince of, 88. 
Pola, visit of William II. to, 241. 
Poles, the, 150, 217. 
Political outlook, the, in 1888, 1, 2, 3, 

13, 14, 15. 

Political outlook, the, in 1889, 18. 
Posen and Gnesen, the Archbishop of, 

58, 59, 67. 
Pretoria, 103, 104. 
Prussian Diet, speech at meeting of the, 

in 1888, 10, 56. 



Q- 

Questioning, the Emperor's skill in, 107, 
179. 

R. 

Recruits, swearing in of, 219, 226, 238, 

241, 242, 244, 249. 

Reed, Sir E. J., on William II., 107-11. 
Regatta on the Elbe, 310, 311, 312. 
Regiments 

Alexander Regiment of Grenadiers, the, 
21, 27. 

Dragoon Guards, the First Royal 
(British), 101, 102. 

Grenadiers, the King's Regiment of 
Prussian, 225. 

Infantry, 28th Regiment of Prussian, 
18, 20. 

Prussian Dragoons, the First, 18, 19, 
98, 112. 

Prussian Foot Guards, First, 52, 195, 
220, 275. 

Schwedt Dragoons, the, 203. 
Eeichsanzeiger, the, 1, 79, 131. 
Reichstag, speech to the members of the, 

274. 
Reichstag, speech at opening of the, 

1888, 7, 74. 
Religion, the Emperor on the necessity 

of, 73, 167. 
Rhodes, Cecil, 107. 
Roberts, Lord, 113. 
Rbchling, the painter, 178. 
Roon, von, 302. 
Roosevelt, President, 286, 287. 
Rossbach, Battle of, 293. 



334 



INDEX 



S. 

Saalburg, the, 277. 

St. John, Knights of the Order of, 114, 

149, 267. 

St. Petersburg, visit of William II. to, 14. 
St. Privat, Battle of, 52, 53, 219-21. 
St. Privat, the monument at, 52, 53, 

178. 

" Salamander," a students', 279. 
Salisbury, Lord, 112. 
Samoa, the hurricane at, 235, 236. 
Sans-Souci, a visit to, 40. 
Schools, German secondary, 152. 
Schorlemer-Alst, Herr von, 61, 62. 
Science, the end of all, 175, 194. 
Sculpture, Berlin school of, 187. 
Sea-power, the importance of, to Ger- 
many, 108, 109, 231, 234, 244, 247, 

248, 255, 259, 263, 311. 
"Secession," the, criticised by William 

II., 185, 188, 189. 
Sedan, Battle of, 221, 222. 
Steadier, S.M.S., 103. 
Seniorenkonvent, 196, 197. 
Seymour, Admiral Sir E., 249. 
Shortsightedness in German schools, 

154, 165, 166. 
Siegesallee, the, at Berlin, 184, 185, 186, 

187, 189, 261. 

Simon, Jules, 36, 37, 46, 47, 48, 49. 
Simon's, Jules, account of William II., 

37-42. 
Social democracy, the Emperor on, 76, 

77, 89, 160, 169, 173, 222, 278, 292, 

301, 303. 

Social legislation, 74, 80, 82, 83, 89. 
Sonnenburg, the, 149, 267. 
Sophia, marriage of Princess, 22, 26, 99. 
Spanish-American War, the, 281. 
Spithead review, 1897, 244. 
Sports, the Emperor's taste for, 111. 
Stage, William II. on the influence of 

the, 181, 182. 
State Council, the, 81-5. 
Stettin, visit of William II. to, 306. 
Stockholm, visit of William II. to, 15. 
Strassburg, visit of William II. to, 68, 

93, 94. 

Strassburg, the Bishop of, 68. 
Strike of coal-miners, 76-9. 
Strikers, warnings to, 77. 
Studios, visits of William II. to artists', 

183, 184. 
Stuttgart, visit of William II. to, 116, 

120. 

Sultan, the, of Turkey, 22, 63, 64, 322. 
Switzerland, visit of William II. to, 29. 



T. 

Teachers, responsibility of, 158, 160, 165, 

168, 169. 
Technical High Schools, the Prussian, 

172, 173, 174. 

Templars, the Knights, 149, 321. 
Teutonic Order, the, 114, 149, 151. 
Theatre, Berlin Court, 181. 
Togoland, 101. 
Torpedo-boats, flotilla of, up the Rhine, 

253-255. 

Trafalgar, the Battle of, 99, 101. 
Training ships, French and German, 

meet, 51, 52. 

Triple Alliance, the, 9, 14, 18, 20, 55. 
Twentieth century, commencement of 

the, 230-3. 

U. 

Unity of Germany, re-establishment of 

the, 141, 142, 258, 270. 
University of Berlin, 193. 
Urville, William II. establishes a home 

at, 92, 93. 
Usury in the Army, William II. on, 229. 



V. 

Veterans' societies, 121, 147, 221. 
Victor Emmanuel, King of Italy, 30, 

217. 
Victoria, Queen, 18, 23, 98, 99, 112, 113, 

266. 

Victoria, foundering of H.M.S., 101. 
Vionville. See Mars-la-Tour. 



W. 

Waldemar, Prince, 275. 

Waldersee, Count, 201, 315, 316. 

Warlike ambitions repudiated by Wil- 
liam II., 3, 36, 288. 

Waterloo, the Battle of, 20, 99, 105, 
228. 

Waterways, importance of inland, 309, 
310. 

Weimar, visit of William II. to, 119, 
211. 

Weissenburg, the Battle of, 44, 226. 

Wellington, the Duke of, 20, 113. 

Wettin, the House of, 120. 

Wied, the Prince of, 247, 271. 

Wiese, Inspector, report on Prince 
William by, 152, 153. 



INDEX 



335 



Wildenbruch, the playwright, 179. 
Wilhelmina, Queen of the Netherlands, 

25. 

Wilhelm-Order, founded, 143, 299. 
Wilhelmshaven, visit of William II. to, 

235, 239, 313. 
William I., the Emperor, 4, 129, 145, 

148, 201, 226, 231, 262, 270, 271, 272, 

296, 298, 300, 308. 
William II., King of Wurtemberg, 222, 

223, 248, 321, 322. 
William, Prince of Prussia (afterwards 

William II.), 3, 195. 
William, Crown Prince, 134, 275, 276, 

277. 
Windthorst, Herr, 58. 



Wittelsbach, the House of, 117, 131, 

136, 137. 
Workmen, deputations of, received by 

William II., 74, 76, 79. 
Worms, visit of William II. to, 79. 
Worth, Battle of, 237, 273. 



Y. 

Yacht clubs, William II. on, 307, 308. 

Z. 

Zanzibar, 98, 99. 

Zeithain, the training camp at, 127. 

Zola, the Emperor's views on, 41, 42. 



PLYMOUTH 
WILLIAM BRENDOST AND SON, PRINTERS 



H Classified Catalogue 

OF WORKS IN 

GENERAL LITERATURE 

PUBLISHED BY 

LONGMANS, GREEN, & CO. 

39 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON, E.G. 

91 AND 93 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK, AND 32 HORNBY ROAD, BOMBAY 



CONTENTS. 


PAGE PAfiP 


BADMINTON LIBRARY (THE). - 12 


MENTAL, MORAL, AND POLITICAL 


BIOGRAPHY, PERSONAL ME- 


PHILOSOPHY - - - 17 


MOIRS, &c. g 


MISCELLANEOUS AND CRITICAL 


CHILDREN'S BOOKS ... 32 


WORKS ... . 38 


CLASSICAL LITERATURE, TRANS- 
LATIONS, ETC. - 22 


POETRY AND THE DRAMA - - 23 


COOKERY, DOMESTIC MANAGE- 


POLITICAL ECONOMY AND ECO- 


MENT, &c. - - - . . 36 


NOMICS 20 


EVOLUTION, ANTHROPOLOGY, 

&C - - - - - - -21 


POPULAR SCIENCE - - - - 30 


FICTION, HUMOUR, &c. - - 25 


RELIGION, THE SCIENCE OF - 21 


FINE ARTS (THE) AND MUSIC - 36 


SILVER LIBRARY (THE) - - 33 


FUR, FEATHER AND FIN SERIES 15 


SPORT AND PASTIME - - - 12 


HISTORY, POLITICS, POLITY, 
POLITICAL MEMOIRS, &c. - - 3 


STONYHURST PHILOSOPHICAL 


LANGUAGE HISTORY AND " y 


SCIENCE OF 20 TRAVEL AND ADVENTURE, THE 


LOGIC, RHETORIC, PSYCHOLOGY, 


COLONIES, &c. . ... ii 


&c. 17 


WORKS OF REFERENCE- 31 


INDEX OF AUTHORS AND EDITORS. 


Page 


Page 


Page 


Page 


Abbott (Evelyn) 3, 19, 22 


Balfour (A. J.) - 13,21 


Buckle (H. T.) - 3 


Cross (A. L.) - . 5 


(J. H. M.) 3 
(T. K.) - 17, 18 


Ball (John) - - n 
Banks (M. M.) - - 24 


Bull(T.) --- 36 
Burke (U. R.) - - 3 


Crozier(J.B.) - - 9, 17 
Cutts (Rev. E. L.) - 6 


(E. A.) - 17 
Acland (A. H. D.) 3 


Baring-Gould (Rev. 
S.) - - -21,38 


Burne-Jones (Sir E.) 36 
Burns (C. L.) - - 36 


Dabney (J. P.) - - 23 
Dale (L.) 4 


Acton (Eliza) - 36 


Barnett(S.A.andH.) 20 


Burrows (Montagu) 6 


Dallinger (F. W.) - 5 


Adelborg(O.) - 32 


Baynes (T. S.) - - 38 


Campbell (Rev. Lewis) 21 


Dauglish (M. G.) - g 


/Eschylus - 22 


Beaconsfield (Earl of) 25 


Casserly (G.) - - 3 


Davenport (A.) - 25 


Agacy (H. A.) - 20 


Beaufort (Duke of) 


Chesney (Sir G.) - 3 


Davidson (A. M. C.) 22 


Albemarle (Earl of) 13 


12, 13, 14 


Childe-Pemberton (W. 


(W. L.) - - 20 


Alcock (C. W.) 15 


Becker (W. A.) - 22 


S.) --- 9 


Davies (J. F.) - - 22 


Allen (Grant) - 30 


Beesly (A. H.) - - 9 


Chisholm (G. C ) - 31 


Dent (C. T.) - - 14 


Allgood (G.) - 3 


Bell (Mrs. Hugh) - 23 


Cholmondeley-Pennell 


De Salis (Mrs.) - 36 


Alverstone (Lord) 15 


Belmore (Earl of) - 3 


(H.) --- 13 


De Tocqueville (A.) - 4 


Angwin (M. C.) 36 
Annandale (N.) 21 


Bent (J. Theodore) - n 
Besant (Sir Walter)- 3 


Christie (R. C.) - 38 
Churchill (Winston S.) 4, 25 


Dent (P. O.) - - 32 
Devas (C. S.) - - 19, 20 


Anstey (F.) - 25 
Aristophanes - 22 


Bickerdyke (J.) - 14, 15 
Bird(G.) 23 


Cicero - - - 22 
Clarke (Rev. R. F.) - 19 


Dewey (D. R.) - - 20 
Dickinson (W. H.) - 38 


Aristotle - - 17 


Blackburne (J. H.) - 15 


Climenson (E. J.) - 10 


Dougall(L.) - - 25 


Arnold (Sir Edwin) 11,23 


Bland (Mrs. Hubert) 24 


Clodd (Edward) -21,30 


Dowden (E.) - 40 


(Dr. T.) - 3 


Blount (Sir E.) - 9 


Clutterbuck (W. J.)- 12 


Doyle (Sir A. Conan) 25 


Ashbourne (Lord) 3 


Boase (Rev. C. W.) - 6 


Cochrane (A.) - - 23 


Du Bois (W. E. B.)- 5 


Ashby(H.) - 36 
Ashley (W. J.) - 3, 20 


Boedder (Rev. B.) - 19 
Bonnell (H. H.) - 38 


Cockerell (C. R.) - n 
Colenso (R. J.) - 36 


Dunbar (Mary F.) - 25 
Ellis (J. H.) - - 15 


Atkinson (J. J.) 21 
Avebury (Lord) 21 
Ayre(Rev. J.) - 31 
Bacon - 9,17 


Booth ( A. j) - - 38 
Bottome (P.) - - 25 
Bowen (W. E.) - 9 
Rrassey (Lady) - n 


Collie (J. N.) - - 12 
Conington (John) - 23 
Converse (F.) - - 25 
Conybeare(Rev.W.J.) 


(R. L.) - - 17 
Erasmus - 9 
Evans (Sir John) - 38 
Falkiner (C. L.) - 4 


Bagehot (W.) - 9, 20. 38 
Bagwell (R.) - - 3 
Bailey (H. C.t - - 25 


Bright (Rev. J. F.) - 3! & Howson (Dean)" 33 
Broadfoot (Major W.) 13 1 Coolidge (W. A. B.) 11 
Brooks (H. J.) - - 17 Corbett (Julian S.) - 4 


Farrar (Dean) - - 26 
Fite(W.)- - - 17 
Fitzwygram (Sir F.) 38 


Baillie (A. F.) - - 3 
Bain (Alexander) - 17 


Brough (J ) - - 17 j Coutts (W.) - M 
Brown (A. F.) - - 32 Cox (Harding) - 13 


Ford (H.) 16 
Fountain (P - - n 


Baker (Sir S. W.) - n, 12 


Bruce (R. I.) - - 3 Crake (Rev. A. D.) - 32 


Fowler (Edith H.) - 26 


Baldwin (C. S.) - 17 


Buckland (Jas.) - 32 Creighton (Bishop) - 4, 6, 9 


Francis (Francis) - i(j 



INDEX OF AUTHORS AND EDITORS continued. 



Page 


Page 


Page 1 Page 


Francis (M. E.I - 26 


Jameson (Mrs. Anna) 37 


Nansen (F.) - - is Stanley (Bishop) - 31 


Freeman (Edward A.) 4, 6 


efferies (Richard) - 38 


Nash(V.)- - - 7 | Steel (A. G.) - - 13 


Fremantle (T. F.) - 16 


Jekyll (Gertrude) - 38 


Nesbit (E.) - 24 Stephen. (Leslie) - 12 


Frost (G.)- - - 38 


Jerome (Jerome K.) - 27 


Nettleship (R. L.) - 17 1 Stephens (H. Morse) 8 


Froude (James A.) 4,9,11,26 


ohnson (J. & J. H.) 39 


Newman (Cardinal) - 28 


Sternberg (Count 


Fuller (F. W.) - - 5 


Jones (H. Bence) - 31 


Nichols (F. M.) - 9 


Adalbert) - 8 


Furneaux (W.) - 30 


; yce(P. W.) - 6,27,39 


Oakesmith (J.) - - 22 


Stevens (R. W.) - 40 


Gardiner (Samuel R.) 5 


Justinian - - - 18 


Ogilvie(R.) - - 22 


Stevenson (R. L.) 25,28,33 


Gathorne-Hardy (Hon. 


Kant (I.) - - 18 


Osbourne (L.) - - 28 


Storr (F.) - - - 17 


A. E.) - - 15, 16 


Kaye (Sir T. W.) - 6 


Packard (A. S.) - 21 


Stuart- Wortley (A. J .) 14, 15 


Geikie (Rev. Cunning- 
ham) 38 
Gibson (C. H.)- - 17 


Keary (C. F.) - - 23 
Keller (A. G.) - - 21 
Kelly (E.)- - - 18 


(W.) - - 33 
Paget(SirJ.) - - 10 
Park(W.) - - 16 


Stubbs (J. W.) - - 8 
(WO- '- - 8 
Stutfield (H. E. M.) 12 


Gilkes (A. H.) - - 38 


Kendall (H. C.) - 24 


Parker (B.) - - 40 


Suffolk & Berkshire 


Gleig (Rev. G. R.) - 10 


Kielmansegge (F.) - 9 


Payne-Gallwey(SirR.)i4,i6 


(Earloi) - - 14 


Graham (A.) - - 5 


Killick (Rev. A. H.) - 18 


Pears (E.) - - 7 


Sullivan (Sir E.) - 14 


(P. A.) - - 15, 16 


Kitchin (Dr. G. W.) 6 


Pearse (H. H. S.) - 6 


Sully (James) - - 19 


(G. F.) - - 20 


Knight (E. F.) - - n, 14 


Peek (Hedley) - - 14 


Sutherland (A. and G .) 8 


Granby (Marquess of) 15 
Grant (Sir A.) - - 17 


KostlinQ.) - - 10 
Kristeller (P.) - - 37 


Pemberton (W. S. 
Childe-) - - 9 


(Alex.) - - 19, 40 
Suttner (B. von) - 29 


Graves (R. P.) - - 9 


Ladd (G. T.) - - 18 


Penrose (H. H.) - 33 


Swinburne (A. J.) - 19 


(A. F.) - - 23 


Lang (Andrew) 6 ,13, 14, 16, 


Phillipps-Wolley(C.) 12,28 


Symes(T. E.) - - 20 


Green (T. Hill) - 17, 18 


21,22, 23,27, 32,39 


Pierce (A. H.) - - 19 


Tallentyre (S. G.) - 10 


Greene (E. B.) - - 5 


Lapsley (G. T.) - 5 


Pole(W.)- - - 17 


Taylor (Col. Meadows) 8 


Greville (C. C. F.) - 5 


Laurie (S. S.) - - 6 


Pollock (W. H.) - 13, 40 


Theophrastus - - 23 


Grose (T. H.) - - 18 


Lear (H. L. Sidney) - 36 


Poole(W.H.andMrs.) 36 


Thomas (J. W.) - 19 


Gross (C.) - - 5 


Lecky (W. E. H.) 6, 18, 23 


Poore (G. V.) - - 40 


Thomas-Stanford (C.) 16 


Grove (Lady) - - n 


Lees (J. A.) - - 12 


Portman (L.) - - 28 


Thomson (H. C.) - 8 


(Mrs. Lilly) - 13 


Leslie (T. E. Cliffe) - 20 


Powell (E.) - - 7 


ThornhilKW. J.) - 23 


GurnhillQ.) - - 18 


Lieven (Princess) - 6 


Powys (Mrs. P. L.) - 10 


Thornton (T. H.) - 10 


Gwilt(J.)- - - 31 


Lillie (A.)- - - 16 


Praeger (S. Rosamond) 33 


Thuillier (H. F.) - 40 


Haggard (H. Rider) 


Lindley(|.) - - v 


Pritchett (R. T.) - 14 


Todd(A.)- - - 8 


IT, 26, 27, 38 


Lodge (H. C.) - - '6 


Proctor (R. A.) 16, 30, 35 


Toynbee (A.) - - 20 


Halliwell-Phillipps(J.) 10 
Hamilton (Col. H. B.) 5 
Hamlin (A. D. F.) - 36 


Loftie (Rev. W. J.) - 6 
Longman (C. J.) - 12, 16 
(F. W.) - - 16 


Raine (Rev. James) - 6 
Randolph (C. F.) - 7 
Rankin (R.) - - 8, 25 


Trevelyan(SirG.O.) 
6, 7, 8, 9, 10 
(G. M.) - 7, 8 


Harding (S. B.) - 5 


(G. H.) - -13,15 


Ransome (Cyril) - 3, 8 


(R. C.) - - 25 


Hardwick (A. A.) - n 


(Mrs. C. J.) - 37 


Reid (S. J.) - - 9 


Trollope (Anthony)- 29 


Harmsworth (A. C.) 13, 14 


Lowell (A. L.) - - 6 


Rhoades (J.) - - 23 


Turner (H. G.) - 40 


Hart (A. B.) - 5 


Lucian 22 


Rice (S. P.) - - 12 


Tyndall (J.) - - 9, 12 


Harte (Bret) - - 27 


Lutoslawski (W.) - 18 


Rich (A.) 23 


Tyrrell (R. Y.) - - 22, 23 


Harting(J. E.)- - 15 
Hartwig (G.) - - 30 


Lyall (Edna) - - 27, 32 
Lynch (G.) - - 6 


Richmond (Ennis) - 19 
Rickaby (Rev. John) 19 


Unwin (R.) - - 40 
Upton(F.K.and Bertha) 33 


Harvey- Brooks (E.G.) 38 


(H. F. B.)- - 12 


(Rev. Joseph) - 19 


Van Dyke (J. C.) - 37 


Hassall(A.) - - 8 


Lytton (Earl of) - 24 


Riley(J.W.) - - 24 


VanderpoeHE. N.) - 37 


Haweis (H. R.) - 9, 36 


Macaulay (Lord) 7, 10,24 


Roberts (E. P.) - 33 


Virgil ... 2 , 


Head (Mrs.) - - 37 


Macdonald (Dr. G.) - 24 


Robertson (W. G.) - 37 | Wanner (R.) - - 


Heath (D. D.) - - 17 


Macfarren (Sir G. A.) 37 


Robinson (H. C.) - 21 


Wakeman (H. O.) - 8 


Heathcote (J. M.) - 14 


MackaiHJ. W.) -10,23 


Roget (Peter M.) - 20, 31 


Walford (L. B.) - 29 


(C. G.) - - 14 


Mackenzie (C. G.) - 16 


Romanes (G. J.) 10, 19,21,24 


Wallas (Graham) - 10 


(N.) --- ii 


Mackinnon (J.) - 7 


(Mrs. G. J.) - 10 


(Mrs. Graham) - 32 


Helmholtz (Hermann 


Macleod (H. D.) - 20 


Ronalds (A.) - - 17 


Walpole (Sir Spencer) 8, 10 


von) - - - 30 


Macpherson(Rev.H.A.) 15 


Roosevelt (T.) - - 6 


(Horace) - - 10 


Henderson (Lieut- 


Madden (D. H.) - 16 


Ross (Martin) - - 28 


Walrond (Col. H.) - 12 


Col. G. F. R.) - 9 


Magnusson (E.) - 28 


Rossetti (Maria Fran- 


Walsingham (Lord) - 14 


Henry (W.) - - 14 Maher (Rev. M.) - IQ 


cesca) 40 


Ward(W.) - - 40 


Henty (G. A.) - - 32 


Mallet (B.) - - 7 


Rotheram (M. A.) - 36 


(Mrs. W.) - 29 


Higgins (Mrs. N.) - ' 9 


Malleson (Col. G.B.) 6 


Rowe (R. P. P.) - 14 


Warner (P. F.) - 17 


Hifey (R. W.) - - 9 


Marbot (Baron de) - 10 


Russell (Lady)- - 10 


Watson (A. E. T.) 12, 13, 14 


Hill (S. C.) - - 5 


Marchment (A. W.) 27 


Sandars (T. C.) - 18 


Weathers (J.) - - 40 


Hillier (G. Lacy) - 13 


Marshman (J. C.) - 9 


Sanders (E. K.) 9 


Webb (Mr. and Mrs. 


Hime (H. W. L.) - 22 


Mason (A. E. W.) - 27 


Savage- Armstrong(G.F.)25 


Sidney) - - 8, 20 


Hodgson (Shadworth) 18,38 
Hoenig (F.) - 38 


MaskelyneH. N.) - 16 
Matthews (B.) - 39 


Scott (F. J.) - - 8 
Seebohm (F.) - - 8, 10 


(judge T.) - 40 
(T. E.) - - ig 


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Mill (John Stuart) -18,20 Sheppard (E.) - - 8 
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Milner (G.) - - 40 Skrine (F. H.) - 9 


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- (M. A. S.) - 3 


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Wotton(H.) - - 37 


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Moran (T. F.) - - 7 Somerville (E.) - 16, 28 


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Hutchinson (Horace G.) 
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Morgan (C. Lloyd) - 21 Sophocles - - 23 
Morris (W.) - 22, 23, 24, < Soulsby (Lucy H.) - 40 


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26 MESSRS. LONGMANS & CO.'S STANDARD AND GENERAL WORKS. 



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16 



MESSRS. LONGMANS & CO.'S STANDARD AND GENERAL WORKS. 27 



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