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German Expressionist Sculpture 

This exhibition and its catalogue are funded in part by grants from the National Endowment for the Arts and the 
National Endowment for the Humanities and by an indemnity from the Federal Council on the Arts and Humanities. 

German Expressionist Sculpture 

Organized by Stephanie Barron 

Los Angeles County Museum of Art 

Exhibition Itinerary: 

Los Angeles County Museum of Art 
October 30, 1983-January 22, 1984 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 
Smithsonian Institution, Wasiiington, D.C. 
April 4-June 17, 1984 

Josef-Haubricli Kunsthalle Koln 
July 7-August 26, 1984 

Edited by Barbara Einzig, Lynne Dean, 
and Andrea P. A. Belloli 

Designed by Jeffrey Mueller 

Typeset in Walbaum by Continental 
Typographies Inc, Woodland Hills, 

Reprinted in an edilion of 3,000 on Espel 
paper by Nissha Printing Co., Ltd., Japan 

Front co\er: 


Head of a IJonian. Head o/Erna 
(Frauenkopf. Kop/Erna). 1913 |19I2| 
(cal. no. 67) 

Bacl\ cover; 


The Avenger (Der Rdcher). 1914 

(cat. no. 9) 

Published by the 

Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 

5905 Wilshire Boulevard, 

Los Angeles, California 90036. 

Hardcover and paperback editions of 
this catalogue have been published by 
The University of Chicago Press, 5801 
South Ellis .Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 
60637, and the University of Chicago 
Press, Ltd., London, in association with 
the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. 

A German edition of this catalogue has 
been published by Prestel Verlag, 
Mandlslrasse 26, 8000 Munich 40, West 

Photographs ® 98 by the Los Angeles 
County Museum of Art, unless other- 
wise indicated. Catalogue first pub- 
lished in 1983 by the Los Angeles 
County Museum of .\rl. .\ll rights re- 
served. No part of the contents of this 
book may be reproduced without the 
written permission of the publishers. 

Original English translation of excerpt 
from Carl Einstein's .\egerplaslik by Jo- 
achim Neugroschel, 1983. Mi rights re- 
served by translator All other original 
English translations of essays and ex- 
cerpts appearing in the Documentary 
Section of this catalogue first published 
in 1983 by the Los Angeles County 
Museum of Art. All rights reserved. 

Catalogue essays by Wolfgang Henze, 
Joachim Heusinger von Waldegg, 
Dietrich Schubert. Martin Urban, and 
Gerhard Wielek, and Documentary Sec- 
lion essays by Theodor Daubler L. de 
Marsalle, Carl Georg Heise, P. R. 
Henning, Max Osborn, and .Max Sauer- 
landt were translated by Dr Hans 
Wagener, Professor of German, Depart- 
ment of Germanic Languages, UCLA. 

90 89 88 87 86 85 84 5432 

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data 

Main entry under title: 


Catalog of an exhibit organized by the Los Angeles County Museum of Art and 
also held at the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden and at Kunsthalle 

Bibliography: p. 

Includes index. 

I. Sculpture, German — Exhibitions. 2. Expressionism (Art) — Germany — 
Exhibitions. 3. Sculpture, Modern — 20th century — Germany — Exhibifions. 
1. Barron, Stephanie. 11. Los .\ngeles County Museum of Art. 111. Hirshhorn 
Museum and Sculpture Garden. IV. Kunsthalle Koln. 
NB568.5.E9G47 1983 730'.943'074 83-13552 

LACMA: ISBN 0-87587-115-1 (paper) 
The University of Chicago Press: 
ISBN 0-226-03820-3 (cloth) 
ISBN 0-226-03821-1 (paper) 


Stephanie Barron 

Theodor Daubler 30 

Carl Einstein 34 

Carl Georg Heise 37 

P. R. Henning 41 

L. deMarsalle 43 

Max Osborn 47 

Max Sauerlandt 51 


6 Foreword 

7 Acknowledgments 

9 Lenders to the Exhibition 

10 Contributors to the Catalogue 

1 1 Notes to the Reader 

13 German Expressionist Sculpture: An Introduction 
29 Documentary Section 

"Gela Forster" (1919) 

Excerpt irom African Sculpture (1915) 

"The Crucifix by Gies" (1921) 

"Clay - A Manifesto" (1917) 

"Concerning the Sculpture of E. L. Kirchner" (1925) 

Excerpt from Max Pechstein (1922) 

"Wood Sculptures By Kirchner, Heckel, and Schmidt-Rottluff 
in the Museum fiir Runst und Gewerbe, Hamburg" (1930-31) 

Catalogue Section 


Alexander Archipenlio 


Bernhard Hoetger 


Max Pechstein 


Ernst Barlach 


Joachim Rarsch 


Hermann Scherer 


Max Beckmann 


Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 


Egon Schiele 


Rudolf BeUing 


Karl Knappe 


Karl Schmidt-Rottluff 


Conrad Felixmiiller 


Georg Rolbe 


Martel Schwichtenberg 


Otto Freundlich 


Kathe Rollwitz 


Franz Seiwert 


Herbert Garbe 


Wilhelm Lehmbruck 


Renee Sintenis 


Oto Gutfreund 


Gerhard Marcks 


Milly Steger 


Erich Heckel 


George Minne 


Chrlstoph Voll 


Paul Rudolf Henning 


Albert Miiller 


William Wauer 


Oswald Herzog 


Emil Nolde 


Ossip Zadkine 

212 Bibliographies 

219 Photo Credits 

220 Index 

224 Trustees and Supervisors 


In 1931, Alfred H. BaiT, Jr., then director of The 
Museum of Modern Art, wrote in the catalogue of the 
Modern German Painting and Sculpture exhibition: 
"Many believe that German painting is second only to 
the School of Paris, and that German sculpture is at 
least equal to that of any other nation." The present 
exhibition and catalogue, devoted exclusively to 
Expressionist sculpture, allow us to recognize its ex- 
cellence and vitality. Never before, either in Germany 
or America, has there been such an exhibition. With 
few exceptions, sculpture has been omitted from sur- 
veys of the Expressionist movement as a whole and 
from general presentations of twentieth-century art. 
Yet the fact that a significant body of such work has 
survived, and that an even greater one was created, 
cannot be overlooked. 

This exhibition was conceived and organized by 
Stephanie Barron, Curator of Tvventieth-Cenlury .\rt at 
the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, over the last 
three years. It includes representative examples of 
German Expressionist sculpture from European and 
American collections and examines plastic works pro- 
duced by German artists and by their contemporaries 
elsewhere in Europe who were affected by the move- 
ment and its spirit. Much of the information presented 
in the exhibition and catalogue was acquired through 
research in books, catalogues, and periodicals from 
the early part of this centun that were made acces- 
sible by The Robert Gore Rifkind Foundation and 
Library of German Expressionism in Beverly Hills. 

with works from their collections for display in Los An- 
geles, Washington, D.C., and Cologne, have our 
sincere thanks; without them this exhibition would 
not have been possible. The early support of several 
of them was extremely important to the project: 
Dr Wolf-Dieter Dube, now Director-General, 
Staatliche Museen Preussischer Rulturbesitz, Berlin; 
Dr. Leopold Reidemeister, Director, Briicke-Museum, 
Berlin; Dr. Eberhard Roters, Director, Berlinische 
Galerie, Berlin; Dr Siegfried Salzmann, Director, 
Wilhelm-Lehnibruck-Museum der Stadt Duisburg; Dr. 
Martin Urban, Director, Nolde-Stiflung Seebiill; and 
European and American collectors Hans Geissler, 
Karl-Heinz Scherer, Titus Felixmiiller, and Robert 
Gore Rifkind. 

This catalogue was copublished in English in asso- 
ciation with The University of Chicago Press and in 
German by Prestel Verlag. Thus the history of a move- 
ment largely ignored by scholars and the general pub- 
lic will now be accessible to a wide audience. 

German Expressionist Sculpture has received major 
funding from the National Endowment for the Arts 
and the National Endowment for the Humanities; 
many foreign loans have been indemnified by the Fed- 
eral Council on the .\rts and Humanities. We are also 
grateful for support from the Goethe Institute for re- 
lated events. Without this support, an exhibition and 
publication of this magnitude would not have been 

It is a special pleasure for the Los .\ngeles County 
Museum of Art to collaborate, as it did in 1980 on The 
Avant-Garde in Russia, 1910-19W: New Perspectives, 
with the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, 
Washington, D.C. We are very pleased that the present 
exhibition will also travel to the Josef-Haubrich-Hof 
Kunsthalle Rbin where we anticipate that it will be as 
much of a revelation to viewers as it will be to their 
counlerparts in the United States. 

The lenders to the exhibition, who are listed sepa- 
rately in this catalogue and who have agreed to part 

Earl A. Powell ui 


Los Angeles County .Museum of Art 

Abram Lerner 


Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 

Siegfried Gohr 


Josef-Haubrich Kunsthalle Koln 


The organization of German Expressionist Sculpture 
has taken over three years and involved the 
cooperation of many institutions and individuals. Ini 
tial support for the project came from Earl A. Powell in, 
Director, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, and 
from the Board of Ti'ustees. The early and confident 
commitment of Abram Lerner, Director, Hirshhorn 
Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, D.C., as 
well as a generous grant from the National Endow- 
ment for the Arts provided critical support to the suc- 
cess of this venture. In 1981, 1 was awarded a McCloy 
Fellowship by the American Council on Germany that 
enabled me to travel throughout that country for one 
month to do research. Finally, the Museum's Modern 
and Contemporary Art Council has provided contin- 
ued support for the exhibition since its inception. This 
interest and enthusiasm has been much appreciated. 

To gather more than one hundred and twenty sculp- 
tures in a variety of media from over seventy lenders in 
Europe and North America has been an arduous 
adventure involving assistance from several individ- 
uals. In 1981, Dr. Wolf-Dieter Dube, now Director- 
General, Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz, 
Berlin, was a Scholar-in-Residence at The Robert Gore 
Rifkind Foundation in Beverly Hills. During those six 
weeks, and in the intervening two years. Dr. Dube was 
unfailingly helpful and encouraging, providing exper- 
tise and guidance to this project. Professor Peter W. 
Guenther, University of Houston, in addition to being a 
contributor to the catalogue, has been an exceptional 
colleague; he has reviewed manuscripts and transla- 
tions and made many valuable conceptual sugges- 
tions. Karin Breuer, my able research assistant, 
smoothly coordinated the graphic works in the show 
and collaborated on the checklist. The staff of The 
Rifkind Foundation over the past three years - 
Ms. Breuer, Gabrielle Oulette, Tjimkje Singerman, 
Ratherine Jones Isaacson, and Susan Trauger- 
has been extremely helpful. 

In Germany, Dr. Joachim Heusinger von Waldegg, 
Kunsthalle Mannheim, has been particularly helpful 
in locating sculptures by lesser-known artists of the 
twenties and has made many valuable suggestions 
about the organization of the project, as well as 
contributing to the catalogue. I also thank Dr Wolf- 
gang Henze, Campione d'ltaha (Lugano), for his assis- 
tance in securing works by Kirchner for the exhibition, 
for opening his Ivirchner archives to me for catalogue 
research, and for his essay on Kirchner's sculpture. 
Karlheinz Gabler, Frankfurt, generously made avail- 
able his rich archives on the Brijcke artists. Dr. 
Gerhard Wietek, Director, Schleswig-Holsteinisches 
Landesmuseum, contributed several essays to the 
catalogue and made many cogent suggestions con- 
cerning the entire project. Dr Eberhard Roters, Direc- 
tor, Berlinische Galerie, Berlin, has been unfailingly 
enthusiastic about and supportive of this project. Dr 
Siegfried Gohr, Director, Josef-Haubrich 
Kunsthalle Koln, and our German collaborator on the 
exhibition, was especially helpful in negotiating with 

lenders and locating photographs. (Unfortunately, 
because of their fragile nature, a few important wood 
and plaster sculptures [by Barlach, Belling, Heckel, 
Kirchner, Kokoschka, and Emy Boeder] could not be 
included in this exhibition.) 

This presentation has been enriched by conversa- 
tions and correspondence with each of the contribu- 
tors to the catalogue and with other individuals, 
including Thomas Borgmann (Cologne); Dr Lucius 
Grisebach (Berlin); France Roussillon (Montargis); Dr. 
Martin Schwander (Basel); Dr Heinz Spielmann 
(Hamburg); and Dr Beat Stutzer (Chur). Research on 
the sculpture of Barlach and Kollwitz and the prob- 
lems of casting took me to Hamburg, Giistrow, and to 
the H. Noack Foundry, Berlin. For their efforts on my 
behalf at these various locales, I am indebted to: Hans 
Barlach, Dr Hartmut Dietrich, and Dr. Isa Lohmann- 
Siems (Hamburg); Dr UII Eisel (Giistrow); and Dr 
Arne Kollwitz, Joachim Segeth, and Bernd Schultz 
(Berlin). In North America, Louis Danziger (Los An- 
geles); Professor Albert Elsen (Berkeley); Dr Naomi 
Jackson-Groves (Ottawa); and Professor Peter Selz 
(Berkeley) have willingly shared with me their ideas 
about the exhibition. Ernst Schurmann (San Fran- 
cisco) and Richard Schneider (Los Angeles), both of 
the Goethe Institute, have enthusiastically supported 
this project. 

I would like to thank my colleagues in the Museum 
who have been of great help over the past three years. 
Myrna Smoot, Assistant Director of Museum Pro- 
grams, has been instrumental in coordinating travel 
arrangements and resolving numerous problems in 
conjunction with the exhibition and catalogue. Editor 
Lynne Dean and former Editor Barbara Einzig, under 
the direction of Coordinator of Publications and 
Graphic Design Letitia Burns O'Connor and Head 
Publications Editor Andrea P. A. Belloll, have worked 
tirelessly with mountains of texts in English and Ger- 
man to produce a unified publication. Jeffrey Mueller 
responded creatively to the challenge of designing the 
catalogue. Museum Photographer Larry Reynolds 
took many of the photographs used in the catalogue, 
including those on the front and back covers. Col- 
leagues Peter Fusco, Curator of Decorative Arts and 
European Sculpture, and Scott Schaefer, Curator of 
European Paintings, have both shared with me their 
ideas about this exhibition. For the installation, I was 
fortunate to be able to work with architects Frank 
Gehry and Greg Walsh; their conception was realized 
by Jim Kenion, Head of Technical Services, and his 
able staff. Our Museum Registrar, Renee Montgomery, 
and her assistant John Passi worked for over a year, of- 
ten in consultation with conservators William Leisher 
and Billie Milam, to assure the safe transport of all the 
works in the exhibition. William Lillys and Lori Starr 
of the Museum's Education Department have both 
responded warmly and creatively to this project. My 
thanks also go to the several individuals who have pro- 
vided capable translation assistance, including Dr 
Hans Wagener, Professor of German, Department of 


Germanic Languages, UCLA: Joachim Neugroschel, 
who provided the excellent translation of the impor- 
tant and difficult excerpt from Einstein's Negerplastik; 
Dr. Alia Hall; and Museum Service Council Assistant 
Crete Wolf. 

In the Department of Tvventieth-Century Art, I am 
grateful for the encouragement of my colleague 
Senior Curator Maurice Tuchman and to Stella Paul, 
Curatorial Assistant, who has assisted on the exhibi- 
tion and catalogue in numerous areas. Ms. Paul also 
was instrumental in locating the Rirchner sculpture 
Female Dancer with Necklace (cat. no. 60), previously 
assumed lost. Our former department secretai^ Cathy 
Bloome enthusiastically and skillfully managed cor- 
respondence with over seventy lenders and a dozen 
contributors, as well as texts in two languages, with 
grace and aplomb. It was a special pleasure to work 
with her. Museum Ser\'ice Council Volunteer Grace 
Spencer has also been of great assistance on this 

The keen interest maintained by colleagues, collec- 
tors, and artists in the exhibition has been a source of 
constant inspiration. 1 thank all of them for helping to 
make this assessment of the forgotten sculpture of 
German Expressionism a reality. 

Stephanie Barron 

Curator of Tivcntieth-Centurv Art 

Lenders to the Exliibition 

Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio 

Arnhold Collection 

The Baltimore Museum of Art 

Bayerische Staatsgemaldesammlungen, Munich 

Berlinische Galerie, Berlin 

Briicke-Museum, Berlin 

Biindner Kunstmuseum Chur, Switzerland 

Conrad Felixmiiller Estate, Hamburg 

Deutsches Brotmuseum, Ulm, Federal Republic of Germany 

Erich Heckel Estate 

Ernst Barlach Haus, Stiftung Hermann F. Reemtsma, Hamburg 

Titus Felixmiiller, Hamburg 

Janet and Marvin Fishman 

Galleria Henze, Campione d'ltalia 

Georg Rolbe Museum, Berlin 

Gerhard Marcks Stiftung, Bremen 

Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg 

Hamburger Kunsthalle 

Paul Rudolph Henning, Berlin 

Hessisches Landesmuseum, Darmstadt 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 

Kunsthalle Bielefeld 

Runsthaus Zurich 

Kunstmuseum Hannover mit Sanimlung Sprengel 

Lehmbruck Estate 

Reinhard and Selma Lesser 

Los Angeles County Museum of Art 

The Minneapolis Institute of Arts 

Kaspar Miiller, Basel 

Musee de Peinture et de Sculpture, Grenoble 

Museum Folkwang, Essen 

Museum fiir Kunst und Gewerbe, Hamburg 

Museum Ludwig, Cologne 

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 

The Museum of Modern Art, New York 

Nolde-Stiftung Seebull 

Offentliche Kunstsammlung, Basel, Kunstmuseum and Kupferstichkabinett 

The Robert Gore Rifkind Collection, Beverly Hills, California 

The Robert Gore Rifkind Foundation, Beverly Hills, California 

Gary and Brenda Ruttenberg 

The St. Louis Art Museum, Missouri 

Collection Scherer, Efringen-Kirchen 

Schleswig-Holsteinisches Landesmuseum, Schloss Gottorf in Schleswig 

Kamiel and Nancy Schreiner, Amsterdam, The Netherlands 

Mr. and Mrs. Henry Sieger 

Mr and Mrs. Nathan Smooke 

Staatliche Kunstsammlungen, Kassel, Neue Galerie 

Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin, Nationalgalerie 

Staatsgalerie Stuttgart, Graphische Sammlung 

Stadtische Galerie im Stadelschen Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt am Main 

Stadtische Museen Heilbronn 

Stedelijk Museum, .\msterdam 

Tabachnick Collection, Toronto 

University of California at Los Angeles, Grunwald Center for the Graphic Arts 

Karen VoU 

Von der Heydt-Museum, Wuppertal 

VVilhelm-Lehmbruck-Museum der Stadt Duisburg 

Several anonymous lenders 

Contributors to the Catalo^e 

S.B. Stephanie Barron 

Curator, Tvventieth-Centur)' Art 
Los Angeles County Museum of Art 

R.B. Karin Breuer 

Research Assistant, Tvventieth-Century Art 

Los Angeles County Museum of Art 


The Robert Gore Rifkind Foundation, Beverly Hills 

P.W.G. Professor Peter W. Guenther 

University of Houston 

W.H. Wolfgang Henze 

J.H.v.W. Joachim Heusinger \on \Valdegg 

S.L. Slephan Lackner 

S.P. Stella Paul 

Curatorial Assistant, Twentieth-Century Art 
Los Angeles County Museum of Art 

D.S. Dr. Dietrich Schubert 

Professor of Art Histoi7 
University of Heidelberg 

M.U. Professor Dr. Martin Urban 

Nolde-Stiflung Seebiill 

G.W. Professor Dr. Gerhard Wietek 

Schleswig-Holsteinisches Landesmuseum, Schleswig 


Notes to tlie Reader 

For each object in this exhibition, the following information has been supplied when available or appropriate: title 
in English and German, date of execution, casting date, medium, edition number, dimensions, lender, catalogue 
raisonne reference, inscriptions, and foundry marks. Subtitles of works are indicated following a colon, and alterna- 
tive titles are indicated following a slash. Dimensions are given with height preceding width preceding depth, un- 
less otherwise indicated; abbreviations have been used as follows: 

b. - back l.b. - lower back 

b.l. - back left 1.1. -lower left 

b.r. - back right l.r. - lower right 

f. - front r. - right 
1. - left 

The catalogue entries are arranged chronologically. 

A general Bibliography appears at the end of the book, followed by individual Bibliographies for each of the artists 
featured in the exhibition. In selecting works for inclusion, emphasis was placed on oeuvre catalogues and on books 
which themselves contain extensive bibliographies. Citations appear in short form in the footnotes, using the 
author's last name (or the institution's name in the case of exhibition catalogues produced by museums or gal- 
leries) and the date of publication. For complete information, the reader should consult the Bibliography for the 
artist in question; the general Bibliography (if a single asterisk follows a work cited in short form); or the extensive 
Rirchner Bibliography (if a short citation is followed by two asterisks). 

A gray background is used throughout the catalogue to distinguish articles and photographs originally published 
during the Expressionist period. Coinparative photographs of objects not included in the exhibition are also set 
against a gray background. Photographs appearing in the Documenlary Section of the catalogue are not necessarily 
those that were used to ilhistrale the essays or texts as they were originally published. 




The Wood-Carver: Portrait ofE. 

L. Kirchner (Der Holzschnitzer: 

BildnU E. L. Kirchner), 1948 


50 X 30 cm. 

(IPAx 11'/. in.) 

The Robert Gore Rifkind 

Foundation, Beverly Hills, 


Dube, 331 


German Expressionist Sculpture: An Introduction 

Stephanie Barron 

German Expressionist sculpture occupies a distin- 
guished place in the history of modern art. However, 
except for the work of two well-known German sculp- 
tors-Wilhelm Lehmbruck and Ernst Barlach-the 
significance, and in fact the very existence, of this body 
of work created in the first third of the twentieth cen- 
tury are largely unrecognized. It is the aim of the cur- 
rent exhibition and catalogue to begin to rectify this 
art historical oversight. More than one hundred and 
twenty examples of German Expressionist sculpture 
by thirty-three artists are presented, together with 
thirty related works of art on paper. Included are 
sculptures by artists recognized for their work in this 
medium-Ernst Barlach, Wilhelm Lehmbruck, Georg 
Rolbe, Renee Sintenis, Gerhard Marcks-as well as 
sculpture by such figures as Kathe Rollwitz, Ernst 
Ludwig Kirchner, Erich Heckel, Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, 
Emil Nolde, Max Beckmann, Egon Schiele, and Otto 
Freundlich, whose reputations are based on their 
painting and graphic oeu\Tes. A significant number of 
works by lesser-known artists, who belonged to the 
second generation of Expressionism in the twenties- 
among them Herbert Garbe, Conrad Felixmiiller, Paul 
Rudolf Henning, William Wauer, and Christoph VoU- 
are also examined. Included in the catalogue are 
examples of the artists' rich and varied writings as 
well as evaluations by contemporary critics, scholars, 
writers, and poets. Seven essays and excerpts from 
contemporary texts, published in translation for the 
first time, highlight the German Expressionists' con- 
cern with particular materials and their attraction 
to African and Oceanic art. They also indicate the 
seriousness and passion with which the artists and 
writers of this movement addressed issues of impor- 
tance to themselves and their art in the teens, 
twenties, and thirties. 


The coming of age of modern art can be traced to the 
second decade of this century, when Cubism, Futur- 
ism, the Russian avant-garde, Dada, Surrealism -and 
German Expressionism-emerged simultaneously in 
France, Italy, Russia, Switzerland, and Germany. The 
German Expressionist, Russian avant-garde, and 
Surrealist movements were not limited to individual 
styles or media. Rather, they encompassed break- 
throughs in painting, sculpture, printmaking, film, 
theater, design, architecture, and especially in lit- 
erature. Frequently artists collaborated or experi- 
mented in different areas; painters and sculptors 
wrote plays and designed for the film or theater. Ger- 
man Expressionism was therefore more than a style. 
Emerging at a time of great cultural, economic, social, 
and political fiux, it reached maturity by the years of 
the First World War, attaining its height in the teens 
and during the Weimar Republic before coming to an 
end as a movement by the mid-twenties. 

The Expressionist era was one of great experi- 
mentation, excitement, and energy involving partici- 
pants in major German cities such as Berlin, Dresden, 
Munich, Hamburg, and Cologne, as well as in isolated 

towns-Worpswede, Giistrow, Liibeck, and Seebiill. 
The movement encompassed the work of many non- 
German artists, including the Austrians Oskar Ko- 
koschka and Schiele and the Swiss Hermann Scherer 
and Albert Miiller. It transcended national borders and 
spread across Europe, finding short- as well as long- 
term adherents in Belgium, Austria, Switzerland, 
France, Russia, and Czechoslovakia. Many artists of 
the period whose work is identified with other stylistic 
tendencies, such as Cubism or Futurism, or with other 
centers of artistic activity, created works which would 
be unimaginable without the model of German 
Expressionism. Some of these artists, like the 
Ukranian Alexander Archipenko or the Czechoslova- 
kian Oto Gutfreund, lived briefly in Germany and 
exhibited there. By including them in this exhibition, 
we wish to focus attention on those of their sculptures 
that are infused with an Expressionist attitude. 

The development of the German Expressionist 
movement is not easy to trace in a linear fashion. How- 
ever, as has been suggested elsewhere,' the move- 
ment manifested itself in four phases. It began with 
two artists' groups: Die Briicke (The Bridge) in Dres- 
den in 1905, and Der Blaue Belter (The Blue Rider) in 
Munich in 1911. The Briicke was founded by four 
young architecture students, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, 
Karl Schmidt-Rottlufl', Erich Heckel, and Fritz Bleyl, 
whose interests had turned to art. Influenced by 
Edvard Munch, Paul Gauguin, and Vincent van Gogh, 
they sought in their own work a new freedom of 
expression. A manifesto they wrote proclaimed their 
intense passion for art and their burning desire to free 
themselves from the conventions of established soci- 
ety; these artists sought to establish a "bridge" to the 
future. They were extremely prolific, both in painting 
and in the graphic arts -most especially, in the making 
of woodcuts. The four original Briicke artists invited 
others to join them; Nolde, Otto Mueller, and Max 
Pechstein were affiliated with the group for intermit- 
tent periods. 

Although most of the Briicke artists experimented 
with sculpture, only Kirchner and Heckel executed 
any three-dimensional work while the group was 
together. The studios of Briicke members, first in 
Dresden and then in Berlin, where they lived from 
1911 unfil their formal dissolution in 1913, were deco- 
rated extensively with carved furniture, exotic wall 
paintings, and many hand-colored and painted ob- 
jects. These objects, called Kunsthandwerk, were 
made for personal or family use (fig. 1, p. 14). Much 
Briicke carving was initially intended for private use 
and generally was not exhibited during the artists' 
lifetimes. Perhaps for this reason, Briicke sculpture is, 
for the most part, an aspect of its members' oeuvres 
unknown in the United States. 

Der Blaue Reiter, the other artists' group linked to 
the first phase of German Expressionism, was 
founded in Munich in 191 1 by Franz Marc and Wassily 
Kandinsky, both of whose work was in the process of 


1. Peter Guenther in Sarah Campbell BlafTer Gallery, 1977, 
p. 7ff.* 



Fig. 1 

Ivirchner, Mirror of the Four 
Times of Day (cat. no. 70), 
c. 1923. 

Fig. 2 

Photograpli by Rircliner, 
autumn 1924, showing a group 
of sculptures by Scherer: from 
left to right, Lovers (cat. no. 
1 14); Mother Nursing Child 
(cat. no. 117); Mother and Child 
(Mutter und Kind), c. 1924, 
wood, Kunstkredit Basel. At 
center right is Kirchner's Tivo 
Friends (Die Zivei Freunde), 
c. 1924-25, wood, Kunst- 
museum Basel. 

evolving toward nonobjectivity. In 1912, they 
coauthored an almanac, Der Blaue Reiter, one of the 
most important publications of modern art. This an- 
thology included articles on art, music, and theater 
and was illustrated with images of contemporary, Ro- 
manesque, Gothic, and Renaissance art, as well as 
non-Western and folk objects. While the Briicke artists 
were greatly impressed by the non-Western art they 
saw in museums in Dresden and Berlin and created 
their own environments to evoke it, Der Blaue Reiter 
responded differently. ,Vn article in the almanac dis- 
cussed masks, and the publication also included pho- 
tographs of many examples of African, Oceanic, and 
Pre-Columbian art. However, none of the Blauer Reiter 
artists created a significant body of sculpture. Marc 
and August Macke each created a few modest three- 
dimensional pieces, and many of the members of Der 
Blaue Reiter carved Kunsthandwerk foi' private use. 
Therefore, Der Blaue Reiter falls outside the perim- 
eters of this exhibition. 

The second phase of German Expressionism was 
marked by the artists' anticipation of involvement in, 
and response to the First World War. These artists 
approached the War with great zeal at first and with 
tremendous confidence in Germany's cause; the War 
was welcomed as a way to bring about a new social or- 
der. There was shock, frustration, and outrage as 
events unfolded, however, and the German Expres- 
sionist artists in particular mounted fervent calls for 
peace, both in their art and in the journals they spon- 
sored. Some found the hostilities unbearable and ulti- 
mately fled Germany. For example, following a ner- 
vous breakdown in Berlin, Rirchner moved to 
Switzerland in 1918 and settled in Frauenkirch, near 
Davos. In 1923, when the Kunsthalle Basel mounted a 
large exhibit of Kirchner's work, a group of young 
local arUsls responded enthusiasUcally. Several of 
them, including Albert Miiller and Hermann Scherer, 
decided to devote themselves to the ideals of the 
Briicke. With the latter as their model, they formed a 
group called Rot-Blau (Red-Blue). Beginning in 1923, 
Miiller and Scherer visited Kirchner in the mountains 
and started to experiment with wood carving (fig. 2, 
p. 14). 

Theimpactof the Warand its aftermath on artists in 
Germany was enormous and brought about the third 
phase of German Expressionism. At the end of the 
hostilities, the Expressionists were united in their 
struggle against the ofiicial regime. A period of exu- 
berant experimentation and interaction among media 
ensued. Participants in the movement felt strongly 
that only art could humanize a brutal world situation. 
On the heels of the revolutions in Russia and Germany, 
a number of Expressionists joined one of several of the 
short-lived radical arUsts' groups in Berlin-the 
Novembergruppe (November Group) and the Arbeits- 
rat fiir Kunst (Workers' Council for Art)-or in Dres- 
den-the Dresden Sezession: Gruppe 1919 (Dresden 
Secession: Group 1919). These associations sponsored 
a number of political and artistic activities and exhibi- 
tions. The Novembergruppe, founded by former 
Briicke member Pechstein in 1918, declared itself a 



group of radical artists and had as its motto "Liberty, 
Equality, Fraternity." Its members strove for harmony 
among the Expressionists, Cubists, and Futurists in 

Many second-generation German Expressionists 
who were members of these groups, including Oswald 
Herzog, Rudolf Belling, Freundlich, Garbe, Gala For- 
ster, and Emy Boeder, flirted with abstraction during 
this period, seeking to integrate it with the expressive- 
ness in their own work, thus providing their Ihree- 
dimensional pieces with a new-found tension. The 
motivating influence on the work of the November- 
gruppe and the Arbeitsrat fiir Kunst was the sculpture 
of Archipenko. As early as 1910, Archipenko's work 
had been based on a rhvlhmic handling of positive and 
negative space, light and shadow, and a dissolution of 
the human figure in Cubist-like faceted planes. 
Archipenko subordinated the evocative figure to the 
principle of rhythmic, dynamic form (fig. 3, p. 15, and 
cat. no. 2). 

In 1918, the influential Berlin dealer and publisher 
Herwarth Walden mounted an exhibition of Archi- 
penko's work at his Galerie Der Sturm. It greatly im- 
pressed a number of sculptors who had begun to em- 
phasize reductive qualities in their work, which 
tended toward abstraction. In the same year, Walden 
published a small pamphlet, Der Sturm: Eine 
Einfiihrung (Der Sturm: An Introduction), in which he 
attempted to divide the achievements of German 
Expressionism into separate sections-painting, sculp- 
ture, poetry, and music. In his discussion of sculpture, 
he described the expressive yet abstract style which 
would become characteristic of work of the twenties: 

Expressionist sculpture. ..attempts no longer to imi- 
tate forms in nature, but instead to create abstract 
images. Just as painting uses the surface as material 
for artistic representation, sculpture has the body 
shape as prerequisite. This shape, however, lies not 
in the imitation of nature, but in the relationship 
between the individual sculptural forms.^ 

Fig. 3 

Archipenko, Kneeling Couple in 
Embrace (cat. no. 2), 191 1-14. 

The sculpture of some members of the November- 
gruppe (Garbe, Belling, and Herzog) was clearly an 
extension of Archipenko's principles and translated 
his constructed forms into "Expressionist abstrac- 
tions." In Garbe's Sleep/Lovers (fig. 4, p. 15, and cat. 
no. 40), for example, the recognizable form of a man in 
repose was transformed into essential abstract and 
rhythmical shapes. .\n emphasis on voids as integrat- 
ing elements in sculpture and on the expressive ges- 
ture combined with a Futuristic dynamic of form is 
apparent in work by BelUng and Freundlich, both 
extant and destroyed.' 

After the War, Dresden, which a decade earlier had 
been the home of the Briicke artists, saw the birth of 


2. Walden, [1918], unpaginated.* 

3. This new trend was particularly suited to interpretations of 
another new art form - modern dance. The expressive move- 
ments of Mary Wigman, Isadora Duncan, Loie Fuller, and 
Martha Graham inspired many sculptors during the twenties. 

Fig. 4 

Garbe, Sleep /Lovers 
(cat. no. 40), 1919. 



Fig. 5 

VoU, Nude, Ecce Homo 
(cat. no. 146), 1924-25. 

Fig. 6 

Gela Forster (German, 


Conception (Empfdngnis) 



the short-lived Sezession: Gruppe 1919, which 
included among its ranks two important sculptors, 
Christoph Veil and Gela Forster, and the painter and 
graphic artist Conrad Felixmiiller, who created a 
small sculptural oeuvre. Voll, a prolific sculptor, was 
attracted by the inherent power of wood. His rough, 
unrestrained, striking human figures convey strong 
emotion. At the beginning of his career, Voll worked 
with wood by hacking away at the surface, thus 
imparting a characteristic brutality to his pieces. A few 
large works, including tlie life-size Nude. Ecce Homo 
(fig. 5, p. 16, and cat. no. 146), attest to VoH's technical 
mastery. The old man depicted in this latter sculp- 
ture -a universal figure accusing the society he con- 
fronts-directly and emotionally affects the viewer 
This remains one of the most memorable works of 
German Expressionism. Many years later, Gerhard 
Marcks remembered: "He [Voll] died very young and 
was certainly one of our best sculptors."^ 

Gela Forster married .Archipenko in 1922, and 
worked in Dresden and Berlin before emigrating to 
America a year later. Unfortunately, her enUre sculp- 
tural oeuvre from the early twenties has disappeared; 
it is known today only through photographs of three 
sculptures and contemporary accounts.'' In 1919, For- 
ster exhibited Man (figs. 4 and 5, p. 33), Conception 
(fig. 6, p. 16), and Awakening (figs. 2 and 3, p. 32) with 
the Sezession: Gruppe 1919. At the time, well-known 
critic Theodor Diiubler wrote of Man: "The entire 
sculpture climaxes in a ci7."'^ Forster's Conception, a 
monumental work in stone, recalls the Venus of 
Willendorf, a type of figme that recurs in German 
Expressionist works, conveying without excessive 
detail the feeling of a swollen, full, fecund body. 
Forster's sculpture, like much of the postwar work dis- 
cussed above, combined diverse elements into a kind 
of abstract emotionalism. 

By the mid-twenties, German Expressionism had 
ceased to be a \iable movement, although individual 
artists continued to work in an Expressionist mode. A 
number of other styles had begun to achieve wide- 
spread recognition, including Dadaism, Constructiv- 
ism, and Neue Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity), which 
made its appearance in the famous exhibit of 1925 in 
Mannheim. By this time, the Bauhaus, the most in- 
fiuential modern art school, was actively pursuing a 
direction which emphasized architecture and technol- 
ogy and showed little tolerance for the Expressionistic 
impulse. By the time the National Socialists came to 
power in 1933, German Expressionism as a movement 
was already over Due to the Nazis' systematic pro- 
scription, harassment, and defamation of modern art 
and their ultimate destruction of numerous objects, 
artists who previously had been popular and lauded 


4. Letter from Gerhard Marcks to Peter Guentlier dated March 
27, 1979. 

5. See translation of Daubler's article "Gela Forster" in this 
catalogue, pp. 30-33; and Alfred Giinther. "Vor Bildvverken 
von Gela Forster," Menschen: Buch-Folge Neuer Kunsl. vol. 2, 
no. 37, May 4, 1919, p. 1. 

6. Daubler, op. oil., p. 30 of this catalogue. 



were suddenly prohibited from exhibiting and work- 
ing and found their art removed from public display. 
Thus, during Expressionism's fourth phase, the Nazis 
confiscated hundreds of paintings, sculptures, and 
prints from public collections. In 1937 in Munich, for 
example, over seven hundred works of art by Nolde, 
Kirchner, Meckel, Kokoschka, Beckmann, Schniidt- 
Rotlluff, Randinsky, and dozens more were collected 
in the infamous Entartete Kunst (Degenerate Art) exhi- 
bition and documented in the accompanying cata- 
logue (figs. 7 and 8, p. 17). Any discussion of German 
Expressionism therefore must rely heavily on contem- 
porary documentation of the many important works of 
art which were destroyed by the Nazis or lost in the 
Second World War. 


Although German Expressionist sculptures were 
created during several decades by many artists in a 
wide variety of circumstances, some general charac- 
teristics may be established. Expressionism, it has 
been suggested by Ivan Goll, was "a belief, a convic- 
tion."" These sculptures seek to make visible the inner 
experience of humanity. They focus on the human im- 
age and on human psychology, evoking a specific 
political and social context, projecting a bitter reaction 
against existing conditions and expressing Utopian 
ideals. Frequently such sculptures possess bold colors 
and rough outlines; the forms are elongated and 
stretched to their limits or hewn from found wood. 
German Expressionist sculpture conveys an emotion- 
ally charged handling of subject matter. It demands an 
empathetic response from the viewer. Gesture is em- 
phasized over restraint, resulting in unconventional 
forms which convey an excess of feeling. 

Like many other artists of the early twentieth cen- 
tury, the German Expressionists maintained a keen 
interest in the inherent properties of materials and 
strove to interrelate subject matter with the most 
evocative and appropriate media. They shared with 
other modernists a respect for the power of non-West- 
ern art, seen in growing museum collections or while 
travelling. Much of their sculpture is imbued with the 
direct, evocative strength they admired in such ob- 
jects. For the most part, German Expressionist sculp- 
ture was carved or cast rather than modeled and pol- 
ished. The image is either blockhke-its formal 
definition integral with the shape of the original mate- 
rial-or it is distorted, as if trying to escape the con- 
fines of the medium. Much of this sculpture is monu- 
mental, if not in scale then in the feeling it imparts. 

The fact that the German Expressionist era was 
closely tied to the nationalistic hopes and final anguish 
of the First World War is clear from the use of titles like 
Fear, Hunger, Anger, Despair, and Mourning, or The 


7. In an article written on the "death" of Expressionism for the 
Yugoslavian journal Zenit, vol. 1, no. 8, 1921, p. 9, Goll stated: 
"Expressionism was not the name of an artistic form, but that 
of a belief, a conviction. It was much more a sense of a 
worldview than the object of an artistic endeavor." 

Fig. 7 

Cover oX Entartete Kunst 
(Degenerate Art) exhibition 
catalogue, 1937, with 
Freundlich's Neu) Man 
(Die neue Mensch), 1912, plaster 
(Gips); destroyed. 

Fig. 8 

Page \9 o{ Entartete Kunst 
exhibition catalogue, showing 
(clockwise from left) works by 
Veil, Kirchner, Meckel, Schniidl- 
Rottluff, and Eugen Molfmann. 

Fig. 9 

VoU, The Beggar (cat. no. 143), 
c. 1923. 



Fig. 10 

Pablo Picasso (Spanisii. 

Head of a fl'oman. 1909 

41x23.5x25.1 cm. 
Los Angeles County Museum of 
Art, Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Nathan 
Smooke in Memorj' of Joseph 
and Sarah Smooke and 
Museum Purchase with Funds 
Provided by Mr. and Mrs. Jo 
Swerling, Mrs. Harold M. Eng- 
lish in Memoi7 of Harold M. 
English, and Mn James Francis 

Fig. 11 

Auguste Rodin (French, 

The Walking Man, 1877 

84.5x42.5x55.5 cm. 
(33'/. X 16%x2iy8in.) 
National Gallery of Art, Wash- 
ington, D.C., Gift of Mrs. John 
W. Simpson, 1942 

Fig. 12 


Standing Female Figure, 1910 

191.2x54x40 cm. 
National Gallery of Art, Wash- 
ington, D.C., Ailsa Mellon Bruce 
Fund, 1965 

Avenger, The Ecstatic One, and The Beggar (fig. 9, 
p. 17, and cat. no. 143). The artists' reaction to and 
interest in probing the psyches of their subjects also 
led many of them to create piercing portraits and self- 
portraits. Frequently these were larger than life, with 
attention fixed on the face as the greatest signifier of 
human expression. Spiritual themes-the inner tur- 
moil of man, the expression of external chaos, or even 
specifically religious content-were extremely impor- 
tant. Some of the most moving German Expressionist 
works are modern interpretations of traditional 
themes-the Crucifixion, Pieta. Ecce Homo, or repre- 
sentations of figures such as Job or St. Sebastian. The 
introduction of Medieval and Renaissance iconogra- 
phy into a contemporary context lent such sculpture a 
compelling intensity and rooted it firmly in traditions 
of Northern European art. 



Masterpieces in sculpture were produced in all the 
major modernist styles-Cubism, Futurism, Construc- 
tivism, Dada, and Surrealism. However, none of these 
styles engendered a large body of work in three 
dimensions. The Cubists, for example, searched for a 
new pictorial fusion of mass and void in the repre- 
sentation of objects in space. A "cool," cerebral style of 
lines and shapes rendered in a monochromatic pal- 
ette. Cubism is essentially an art of two dimensions. 
Only a few significant examples in sculpture exist, 
such as Picasso's Head of a Woman, 1909 (fig. 10, 
p. 18). The tangible quahty of sculptural materials 
actually denies the ambiguous nature of Cubist im- 
ages." By contrast, the German Expressionist idiom 
could be rendered successfully in plastic terms: the 
love of raw materials, the exaggerated gestures, the 
concentration on psychological and spiritual themes, 
and the pure, unbridled energy characteristic of Ger- 
man Expressionist painting and graphics lent them- 
selves well to sculpture. 

Although it is commonly held that modernism in 
sculpture began with Rodin in Paris at the end of the 
nineteenth century, it is significant that one of the two 
earliest-and most important-German Expressionist 
sculptors, Ernst Barlach, studied in Paris around the 
turn of the centuiy but was unmoved by Rodin. In- 
stead, he was attracted to French artists of an earlier 
period-Jean Frangois Millet, Constantin Meunier, and 
Theophile Steinlen-whose images of workers and 
peasants appealed to his sensibility. On the other hand, 
for Wilhelni Lehmbruck, the other early German 
Expressionist sculptor, Rodin was a nemesis. 
Lehmbruck was aware of the French artist's Thinker 
and fValking Man (fig. 11, p. 18) as antecedents for the 
twentieth-century sculptor's exploration of modern 
man as his spiritual mirror image. It was not until 

8. Douglas Cooper, The Cubist Epoch, New York: Phaidon 
Books, 1970, pp. 231-62; Fred Llcht, Sculpture- 1 9lh and 20lh 
Centuries, New York: New York Graphic Society, 1967, pp. 40- 
42; Robert Rosenblum, Cubism and Tiventieth Century Art, 
New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1961, pp. 262-68. 



Lehmbruck actually confronted Rodin's work that he 
was able to free himself from the French sculptor's in- 
fluence and to create his own wholly original sculp- 
tures. In breaking free from the Academic tradition, 
Lehmbruck began, around 1910, to create a new kind 
of sculpture, as seen in the Standing Female Figure 
(fig. 12, p. 18),8 which he exhibited in the 1910 Salon 
d'Automne. He experimented with subjecting the 
human body to a recombination of individual parts to 
provide an evocative silhouette. At the 1912 Berlin 
Secession exhibition (and in Ihe Armory Show in New 
York the following year), Lehmbruck exhibited 
Kneeling Woman (fig. 13, p. 19) in which the full, round 
forms of earlier sculpture were replaced by elongated, 
mannerist lines. Lehmbruck rejected the traditional 
modulated, articulated surface in favor of essential 
forms and simple, attenuated gestures to convey 


As we have seen, the First World War initially was 
greeted with anticipation and pride. Many German 
artists served in the military, some on the front lines, 
others in the medical corps; some, including Franz 
Marc and August Macke, were killed. At the end of the 
War, Lehmbruck committed suicide. In the first few 
months of fighting, the Expressionist Barlach felt 
burning patriotism. His supreme war image is The 
Avenger (originally called Berserker) (fig. 14, p. 1 9, and 
cat. nos. 9 and 10), which represents a German patriot 
surging forward in his attack on the Allies, his move- 
ment checked only by the sword he holds over his 
head and back. By comparing the lithograph of the fig- 
ure in The Avenger-enlMed The Holy liar and pub- 
lished in the periodical Kriegszeit (IVartime) (fig. 15, 
p. 19, and cat. no. ll)-with the sculpture, we can 
understand how Barlach himself saw this figure -a 
looming, powerful, larger-than-life-size hero. As he 

I have been at work on my storming Berserker [The 
Avenger] and it begins to be important to me. Could 
it be possible that a war is being waged and I forget 
it over a hundred-pound image of clay? To me this 
Berserker is the cnstallized essence of War, the as- 
sault of each and every obstacle, rendered credible. I 
began it once before but cast it aside because the 
composition seemed to burst apart. Now the unbear- 
able is necessary to me.'" 

Barlach's figures of this period are highly compact and 
emotionally charged with extraordinary purpose. 

If young German artists approached battle with the 
zeal and fervor of Barlach's Avenger, they returned, if 


9. National Callers' of Art, Washington, D.C., The Art of 

II ilhelm Lehmbruck, e.xh. cat.. New York: The MacMillan Com- 
pany, 1972, p. 20. 

10. Naomi Jackson Groves, Ernst Barlach: Life in Work: Sculp- 
ture, Drawings, and Graphics; Dramas, Prose H'orks. and Let- 
ters in Translation, Konigstein im Taunus: Karl Robert 
Langewiesche, |1972], p. 69. See entryof September 5, 1914. 

Fig. 13 


Kneeling IToman, 1911 


175x68.5x138.5 cm. 



der Stadt Duisburg 

Fig. 14 

Barlach, The Avenger 
(cat. no. 9), 1914. 

Fig. 15 

Bariach, The Holy War 
( 11), 1914. 



Fig. 16 

Lehmbruck, The Fallen Man 
(cat. no. 91), c. 1915-16. 

Fig. 17 


Seated Youth (Sitzender 

Jangling), c. 1916-17 

Cast cement 

Stadelsches Runstinstitut, 


Fig. 18 


Memorial: The Parents 

(The Mother) (Denkmal: Die 

Eltern [Die MutterJ), 1924-32 


h: 122 cm. (48 in.) 

Eessen near Diksmuide, 


Versions of both The Mother 
and its pendant, The Father, 
executed in the workshop of 
Ewald Malare in 1954, are in 
the Church of St. Alban, 

at all, desolate, lonely, and defeated; if Barlach's fig- 
ures signal the high point of early hope and nationalis- 
tic pride in the War, Lehmbruck's Fallen Man (fig. 16, 
p. 20, and cat. no. 91) and Seated Youth (fig. 17, p. 20; 
cf cat. no. 92) represent the spiritual and moral col- 
lapse felt by the War's end. When art historian Paul 
Westheim, who was also Lehmbruck's first biog- 
rapher, returned home from the front on leave in 1916, 
he saw The Fallen Man for the first time: 

A fallen youth is depicted, cramped in his collapsed 
position.... What we see is a young warrior who 
somehow in the force of the charge. ..received that 
little piece of lead which has torn him down. But this 
is a death which the body is resisting. The body 
reacts and accuses, and screams, and refuses to 
accept the fact of its end. The head, beating down 
between the shoulderblades like fire slung from the 
cannon, bores into the ground in despairing help- 
lessness, as if protection could be found from the 
death being spewed forth that day... .A weapon, a tool 
of death now becomes useless, drops from his hand. 
For once again the world has collapsed, a world 
filled with love, filled with activity, filled with happi- 
ness, a world whose focal point had been this hero. 
There are no soft lines, no melting surfaces in this 
body. Even in the form there is groaning and grating 
and oppression." 

By 1917 many of Lehmbruck's friends-both Ger- 
man and French-had not returned from the War; he 
himself had moved to Switzerland, overcome by the 
catastrophe. The Seated Youth, perhaps a self-portrait 
or a generalized portrait of his artist friends, mourns 
for an entire generation. Il and The Fallen Man, so 
totally unlike traditional sentimental or triumphant 
memorial sculpture, depict sulfering, despair, and the 
mourning, rather than the celebration, of victory. 

Like Lehmbruck, Kathe Kollwitz also created a 
significant war memorial: the large stone sculpture of 
a kneeling mother and father for the cemetery in 

11. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1972, op. cit., 
pp. 29-30. 



Eessen near Diksmuide in Belgium (fig. 18, p. 20). 
Kollwitz was an intense pacifist who felt strongly about 
the human predicament and who experienced great 
anguish at the death of her son in the War. Several of 
her most powerful graphic and sculptural vvorlvs, 
including Tower of Mothers (fig. 19, p. 21, and cat. no. 
86) and the related cycle of seven woodcuts. The IVar 
(fig. 20, p. 21, and cat. no. 82), are eloquent arguments 
for peace. In the former she decries the conscription of 
young children into the army; the mothers militantly 
surround and defend their young. In formal terms this 
composition owes much to Barlach, whose sculpture 
and woodcuts influenced Kollwitz from 1917on. Tower 
of Mothers shares with Barlach's sculptures a depend- 
ence on the blocklike form as a basis for its overall 
definition. Although sculpted in the round, the figm-es 
barely project from the confines of the solid mass, 
seeming instead to merge with one another 


Sculptures such as Barlach's If iir Memorial for the 
Gihtrow Cathedral (cat. no. 21), Joachim Karsch's Job 
andHis Friends (fig. 24, p. 22; cf. cat. no. 59), Rollwitz's 
Pietd (cat. no. 85), Ludwig Gies' Crucifixion (fig. 21, p. 
21), Karl Albiker's 5/. Sebastian (fig. 22, p. 22), Voll's 
Nude, Ecce Homo (fig. 5, p. 16, and cat. no. 146), and 
Ossip Zadkine's I'rophet (cat. no. 150) all invoke famil- 
iar imagery to convey the artists' convictions with 
respect to contemporary events. The spirituality 
which these sculptors felt compelled to express was 
caused by the stress of the period in which they lived 
l^ut was well within the confines of German tradition. 
The expressive wooden carvings, especially of reli- 
gious subjects, produced by Northern Gothic artists of 
the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries were viewed 
with renewed interest by the German Expressionists. 
In adopting wood carving as a technique, they hoped 
to imbue their own works with a similar spirituality. 
Barlach, the preeminent and most prolific "modern 
Gothic," found in this Northern tradition a way to con- 
vey many of his most passionate concerns, among 
which was man's striving towards the spiritual; he be- 
lieved the human figure to be the "expression of God, 
insofar as he broods, haunts, and burrows in and 
behind man."'- 

Several of Kollvritz's sculptures also convey a deep 
spirituality. Her Pietd, permeated with the sorrow of a 
mother mourning her son, a victim of the War, recalls 
Renaissance antecedents. Lehmbruck's Fallen Man 
can be seen as a fallen St. Sebastian, one of the most 
popular figural types of the era. Albiker's disturbing 
depiction of that saint (fig. 22, p. 22) is an uncanny jux- 
taposition of Medieval form and modern content. 
These symbolic martyr figures convey the pathos and 
intense feelings experienced by the artists during the 
turbulent War years. Similarly, the Old Testament 
theme of "Job and His Friends" inspired both Karsch 
and Zadkine to create full-scale, multi-figure sculp- 
tures whose traditional symbolic significance may be 

12. Dube, 1972,p. 176.* 

Fig. 19 

Kollwitz, Tower of Mothers 
(cat. no. 86), 1937-38. 

Fig. 20 

Kollwitz, The Mothers: The lldr 
(cat. no. 82), 1922-23. 

Fig. 21 

Ludwig Gies (German, b. 1887) 

The Crucifixion 

Formerly St. Marienkirche, 

Liibeck; destroyed 

See also figs. 1-3, pp. 37-39. 


Fig. 22 

Karl Albiker (German, 


St. Sebastian (Der Heilige 

Sebastian), 1920-26 


h: 145 cm. (57'/s in.) 

Staatliche Kunstsammlungen 

Dresden, D.D.R. 

Fig. 23 


Job and His Friends (Hiob und 

seine Freunde), 1914 


h: 123 cm. (48'/2 in.) 

Koninklijk Museum voor 

Schone Runsten, Antwerp 

seen as an extension of the specific anguisli and dis- 
appointment of the postwar era (figs. 23 and 24, p. 22, 
and cat. no. 59). In the Karsch group, the figures 
gesticulate and rend their clothes; in the Zadkine they 
turn inward, seemingly overwhelmed by their grief. 

Perhaps the most moving of all German Expression- 
ist religious sculptures was the life-size wood crucifix 
created by Ludwig Gies and hung in St. Marienkirche 
in the northern city of Liibeck (fig. 21, p. 21)." This 
sculpture was so disturbingly Expressionistic-vrith 
explicit detailing of wounds and bodily contortion- 
that it w as immediately vandalized by the townspeople 
w hen it was installed. Subsequently the sculpture was 
destroyed enUrely. It may seem astonishing that a 
contemporary religious work hung in a northern Ger- 
man Gothic church in the 1920s could have aroused 
people's passions to such an extent. At the time, it was 
observed that "it would [have] be(en] hard to find a 
symbol that would impress posterity more powerfully 
and deeply with the meaning of the World War and its 
fallen heroes."'* By all accounts, the Gies Crucifurion 
was a masterpiece of carving, which created an 
acutely emotional impact. 


As previously mentioned, one of the great innovations 
of art in this century is to be found in the respect with 
which artists have considered the inherent properties 
of their materials. The Cubists and Constructivists in- 

1 5. See translation of Heise's "Der Kruzifixus von Gies" in this 
catalogue, pp. 37-40. 

14. Ibid., p. 39 of this catalogue. 

Fig. 24 

Installafionview ofKarsch'sJoi) 
and His Friends (Hiob und seine 
Freunde), 1919, p\asler (Gips), 
published in Beilage zur 
I bssischen Zeitung (Berlin), no. 
16, April 25, 1920, on the occa- 
sion of the Freie Sezession exhi- 
bition. This sculptural group 
won the Staatspreis der 
Preussischen Akademie der 
Kiinste (State Prize of the 
Prussian .'\cademy of Arts). 



li-oduced man-made and found objects into their 
work, thus challenging illusionism, the vei-j' basis of 
earlier representational art. The German Expression- 
ists exploited the natural properties of their materials 
and regarded their qualities as essential components 
of a complete aesthetic statement. Stone, clay, and- 
most importantly-wood particularly suited this aim. 
Unlike Medieval polychromed and gilded sculpture, in 
which the variegations of the wood were smoothed 
over or disguised, its natural form and density are 
significant aspects of German Expressionist sculpture. 

Although many of the sculptures in this exhibition 
are bronze, it is important to realize that very few of 
these were cast during the artists' lifetimes. Although 
Kollw itz and Lehmbruck, for example, obviously 
intended that their plasters be cast, it is not clear 
whether, in all cases, artists like Barlach and Karsch 
wished to have this done. Often due to financial con- 
straints and lack of patronage during their lives, work 
could only be cast posthumously. Barlach, however, 
was clearly a wood sculptor first and foremost. When 
one sees hisAvengerin bronze, one must keep in mind 
that the work was done first in clay and plaster (1914), 
then in wood (1922), and not until after 1930 in a 
bronze edition, cast at the urging of his dealer, Alfred 

The German Expressionists' particular attraction to 
wood coincided, in great measure, with their enthu- 
siasm for African and Oceanic art. This interest, char- 
acteristic of most modern movements, has been as- 
cribed to the widespread influence of Paul Gauguin 
and his work and to the attraction for artists of the 
collections in European ethnographic museums, 
which had opened at the end of the nineteenth centui-) 
in many European cities -among them the 
Volkerkunde-Museum (Ethnographic Museum) in 
Dresden. A keen public interest existed in this art, 
fueled by the Volkerkunde-Museum's elaborately 
illustrated portfolios and catalogues and by several 
popular publications dealing with African, Oceanic, 
and Eskimo art. On a formal level, the German 
Expressionists responded to such objects as inspira- 
tion for a great number of their experiments in wood. 
The formal characteristics of African works that 
attracted these artists are reflected in the frontal, 
iconic quality of their wood carvings as well as in the 
simplified forms of their paintings or the stark defini- 
tion of their woodcuts. 

Among the German Expressionists, it was the 
Briicke group which had the most intense interest in 
"primitive" objects. As Leopold Ettlinger has pointed 
out, these artists were probably most familiar with 
Oceanic art, since in 1907 the Asian, American, and Af- 
rican collections of the Volkerkunde-Museum were in 
storage so that the extensive holdings from the South 
Seas could be shown." The decoration of the Briicke 
artists' studios was inspired in part by wall paintings 
from the Palau Islands and other objects that they saw 
in the museum. 


15. Eltlinger, 1968. p. 196.* 

Fig. 25 


Sketch for Sculpture (Skizze zu 

Skulptur), 1912 

Pencil and chalk on paper 

48.5 X 38 cm. 

(191/8X15 in.) 

Biindner Kunstniuseum Chur 

In spite of the fact that Kirchner wrote in 1913 in his 
Chronik der K[unstler] Gfemeinschqft] Briicke 
(Chronicle of the Briicke Artists' Group) that he had 
"discovered primitive art in 1903," he does not seem to 
have created sculptural works before 1909.'" Although 
only he and Meckel made sculpture during the time 
that the Briicke was together, and plastic work by other 
artists dates from the later teens, the Briicke members 
clearly shared an interest in wood, in ethnographic 
art, and in the rough, unpolished, or uncamouflaged 

Kirchner was particularly articulate about the na- 
ture of wood carving and the creative process. As early 
as 1911 he wrote to the Hamburg collector Gustav 
Schiefler: "It is so good for painting and drawing, this 
making of figures, it lends wholeness to drawing and 
is such a sensual pleasure when blow by blow the fig- 
ure grows more and more from the trunk. There is a 
figure in every trunk, one must only peel it out" (fig. 
25, p. 23). '^ In 1925, Kirchner wrote under the pseud- 
onym Louis de Marsalle in the journal Der Cicerone 
about the importance of working in wood, arguing 
passionately in favor of direct carving as opposed to 
bronze or plaster casting.'" He also was keenly aware 
of the properties of various woods. In 1911 he wrote to 


16. E. L. Kirchner, 1915, translated in Chipp, 1973, p. 174-78." 

17. June 27, 1911, letter to Schiefler; see essay by Henze in this 
catalogue, p. 114. 

18. See translation of Rirchner's [de Marsalle's] "Ober die 
plasUschen Arbeiten E. L. Rirchners" in this catalogue, 
pp. 43-46. 



Fig. 26 

Schniidt-Rottluff, Red-Brown 

Head (cat. no. 124), 1916-17. 

Fig. 27 

Mother (Mutter), 1916 
41.3x32.4 cm. 
(16'/4X 125/4 in.) 

The Robert Gore Rifkind Collec- 
tion, Beverly Hills, California 

Fig. 28 


Benin (Nigeria) 


14.2x9.3x12.1 em. 


Seattle Art Museum, Katherine 

White Collection 


Fig. 29 


Moon (IVIond), 1919 


h: 105 cm. (415/8 in.) 


Schieller: "The maple wood that you sent us lends it- 
self well to being worked; it has such short fibers and 
is, as a whole, completely homogenous. One is 
tempted to polish it."'" 

Heckel, cofounder of the Briicke in Dresden, carved 
most of his sculptures from soft, easily manageable 
wood, such as linden, birch, poplar, and acacia. His 
sculptures appear to have been inspired either by 
ethnographic works or by the Gothic. They range from 
contorted, crudely carved nudes to softly modeled, 
taut female figures. All physiognomic articulation of 
these modern madonnas relates to the single, vertical 
tree trunk, the origin of the sculpture. Like fifleenth- 
centuiT church figures, they are often covered in 
opaque colors. Although Heckel stopped carving by 
1920, he remained fascinated by ethnographic sculp- 
ture, collected it, and used it as a motif in his later 
paintings and prints. His enthusiasm for carved fig- 
ures (if only for slightly over a decade) seems to have 
encouraged other artists to explore the medium.-" 

Briicke member Schmidt-RottlufFs carvings were 
largely executed around 1917, several years after the 
group disbanded. Most are blocklike, swiftly hewn, 
and more frontal and masklike than sculptures by 
Rirchner or Heckel (fig. 26, p. 24). These carvings and 
related woodcuts (fig. 27, p. 24) drew their subjects en- 
tirely from the artist's imagination, but they reflect 
strong inspiration from Benin and other African art 
(fig. 28, p. 24). Briicke member Emil Nolde actually 
traveled to the South Seas in 1913 and carved a small 
number of figures from the firewood he found on 
board ship. These figures possess strong resonances 
of the original shapes of the wood fragments. Although 
his predecessors or contemporaries had begun to 
make wood carvings inspired by what they saw on 
their artistic explorations, Nolde did no such sculp- 


19. See essay by Henze in this catalogue, p. 1 14. 

20. See essay by VVietek on Heckel in this catalogue, 
pp. 92-93. 



tural work while on the Islands, although he did create 
a great number of paintings, prints, and watercolors 
which vividly reflect his South Sea observations. 

Of the Briicke artists with a significant sculptural 
oeuvre, Pechstein stands somewhat apart from the 
others. His output must have numbered over twenty 
works, although all but a few have been lost. In 1914, 
perhaps under the influence of Gauguin and of his fel- 
low Briicke artists' attraction to non-Western cultures, 
Pechstein and his wife set off for the Palau Islands. 
The group of wood carvings (fig. 29, p. 24) that re- 
sulted from this trip is directly related to non-Western 
prototypes. They bear the mark of direct observation 
of Oceanic peoples and their ritual carvings; in fact, 
Pechstein used local carving tools, and many of his 
works share titles with the works which inspired 


One of the favored subjects of the German Expression- 
ist sculptor was the portrait head, which could com- 
municate in a highly condensed way all the expressive 
and psychological attitudes he wished to convey. Even 
artists who did no other plastic work, such as Otto Dix 
(fig. 30, p. 2'5), Kokoschka, and Schiele, were intrigued 
with portrait sculpture. Rokoschka's Self-Portrail as a 
Warrior (fig. 31, p. 25), done early in his life, remains 
one of the strongest statements of German Expres- 
sionist self-portraiture in sculpture.-- It reflects 
Schmidt-Rottlufrs belief in "...the head. ..[as] the gath- 
ering point of the whole psyche, of all expression."-' 
The Expressionists' approach to the portrait differed 
from that used by earlier artists; instead of concentrat- 
ing on commissioned or commemorative likenesses, 
they chose themselves and their friends - artists, writ- 
ers, critics, dealers - as subjects, or selected literary 
figures (Hamlet, Don Quixote) whose troubles and 
concerns mirrored the chaotic feelings and problems 
of their own era. In these portraits, most of which were 
cast in bronze, individual characteristics were em- 
phasized. The most compelling of these heads - 
mostly rendered in a frontal attitude - are those which 
are over-life-size and in which the impact and signifi- 
cance of the subject and its expressive interpretaUon 
are enhanced by the scale. Such sculptures were done 
by a variety of artists from the teens through the thir- 
ties. Beckmann's Self-Portrait (fig. 32, p. 26, and cat. 
no. 29), for example, created on the eve of the artist's 
persecution and forced exile from his native land, con- 
veys audacity and power. 

Even in portraits of specific individuals, the German 
Expressionists were not bound by traditionally ac- 
cepted notions of artistic likeness or beauty. Rather, 
they were more interested in capturing the ethos of 


21. See translation of excerpt from Osborn's Mai- Pechstein in 
this catalogue, pp. 47-50. 

22. Unfortunately, this extremely fragile work could not be 
borrowed for the present exhibition. 

23. See essay by Wietek on Schmidt-Rottkifr in this catalogue, 
p. 183. 


Fig. 30 

Otto Dix (German, 1891-1969) 
Portrait of Nietzsche, 1912 
Plaster (Gips), painted green 
58 X 48 cm. 
(23x19 in.) 

Formerly Stadt-Museum, Dres- 
den. Sold by the Nazis at the 
Galerie Fischer auction. Lu- 
cerne, 1939, lot 35; present loca- 
tion unknown. 

Fig. 31 

Oskar Kokoschka (Austrian, 


Self-Portrait as a Warrior, 1908 

Plaster, painted 

42 X 38 cm. 


Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 

Collection J. H. and E. A. Payne 



their subject, be it the acute intelligence of gallery 
owner Herwarth Walden as depicted by William 
Wauer (fig. 33, p. 26, and cat. no. 147), or the evocative 
spirituality of Rathe KoUwitz rendered by her close 
friend Barlach as part of his liar Memorial for the 
Giistrow Cathedral, 1927 (cat. no. 21). 

Fig. 32 

Beckmann, Self-Portrait 
(cat. no. 29), 1956. 

Fig. 33 

Photograph of Herwarth Wal- 
den with his portrait by Wauer 
(cat. no. 147). 


Many of the German Expressionists were involved 
with architectural sculpture, factory and urban design, 
and monumental sculpture, in addition to their work 
on a smaller scale. Barlach's liar Memorial and The 
Crucifixion by Gies have already been mentioned. 
Another important project, which can be seen today in 
the form of a re-creation, was Hoetger's 1927 commis- 
sion executed to adorn the facade of the Gewerk- 
schaftshaus-Volkshaus, Bremen, the Memorial to La- 
bor (fig. 34, p. 27, and cat. nos. 53-58). These eight 
nonheroic figures represent the exploitation of labor- 
ers in capitalist society in the form of weary workers 
and a worker with a child. One can hardly help but re- 
call Michelangelo's Slave cycle; both artists used a 
series of evocative, gesturing figures to express their 
sympathy for the downtrodden. These works also 
share formal characteristics: a strong reliance on the 
original blocky form and a contrasting of open ges- 
tures with the initial shape of the block. Just as 
Lehnibruck's Fallen Man depicted the soldier as the 
victim of war, and not as a triumphant victor, so, too, 
did Hoetger focus on the victimized laborer rather 
than the idealized worker championed in the nine- 
teenth century by Meunier, Jules Dalou, and Rodin. In 
this sense the Memorial to Labor is a typical German 
Expressionist work. 

A few years later, in 1950, Ernst Barlach received a 
large-scale commission for what certainly would have 
been his crowning achievement: The Community of 
Saints, sixteen over-life-size figures intended for the 
facade of St. Katherinenkirche in Liibeck (fig. 55, p. 27, 
and cat. no. 22). According to Carl Georg Heise, then 
director of the Museum fiir Kunst und Kulturge- 



schichte, Liibeck, Barlach's figures were not meant to 
represent the community of church saints, but rather 
the struggle and suffering of people tning to find a 
hnk between their lives of hardship and the redeem- 
ing powers of a higher world. AJthough this link could 
not always be found, humanity was always endeavor- 
ing to find it.-* Despite the fact that only three of the 
figures were completed before the Nazis came to 
power, we know from Barlach's sketches that this cy- 
cle would have been a monument to humanity's striv- 
ing for spirituality. 

The Expressionist Rudolf Belling derived his reputa- 
tion in the 1920s in great measure from his architec- 
turally related works. His "tectonic rooms" (now lost), 
a kind of Gesamtkunstwerk, or total work of art, creat- 
ed together with architects, resembled scenes from 
Expressionist films. These collaborations are indic- 
ative of the spirit of the twenties, during which the 
traditional boundaries between fine and applied art 
and among various disciplines were abandoned. The 
notion of Gesamtkunstwerk became a popular one and 
found adherents among artists throughout Europe- 
for example, Kurt Schwitters and Rudolph Steiner- 
who all created total art environments of which sculp- 
ture was an integral part. 

The Expressionism which flourished in painting in the 
twenties was characterized by often grotesque, some- 
times brutal subject matter, bold coloration, and a 
dense picture plane. It possessed a greater intensity 
than that of the teens, as can be seen in Felixmiiller's 
Death of the Poet IValter Rheinen 1925 (fig. 37, p. 28). 
Yet the sculpture from this same period, whether by 
Felixmiiller himself (fig. 36, p. 28, and cat. no. 37) or by 
his fellow artists, rarely achieved a similar intensity. 


24. See article by Isa Lohmann-Siems in Ernst Barlach 1S70- 
1970, Bonn-Bad Godesberg: Inter Nationes, 1971, p. 41, 
note 9.5. 

Fig. 34 


Weary Worker ivith Crossed 

Arms (cat. no. 55), 1928. 

Fig. 55 


The Community of Saints (Die 

Gemeinschaft der Heiligen), 


Charcoal on paper 

50 X 73.6 cm. 


Museum fiir Kunst und 

Rulturgeschichte, Liibeck. 

This drawing shows the general 
plan for the niche figures on the 
west facade of St. Ratherinen- 
kirche, Liibeck. 



Unlike the earlier Briicke period, when the painting, 
sculpture, and printniaking of Kirchner, Meckel, and 
others were so strongly interrelated, an interconnec- 
tion between two- and three-dimensional representa- 
tion was not as evident in the twenties. Most of the 
later Expressionist sculptors were more concerned 
with examining and reconcihng connections between 
the expressive gestures explored by their predeces- 
sors and a formal language borrowed from other 
stylistic arenas at this time. 

Although several artists represented in this exhibi- 
tion continued - or began - to execute sculpture in the 
thirties, this was more the exception than the rule. 
Essentially, by the late twenties, German Expressionist 

sculpture had begun to give way to the sculpture of 
Neue Sachlichkeit, to work which returned to classical 
themes and proportions, or to adaptations of Con- 
structivist assemblages of materials. For twenty years 
the German Expressionists had maintained a total in- 
volvement with the human figiu'e. While sculptors in 
other areas had moved away from figuration, the 
Expressionists examined the human form closely, fre- 
quently interpreted it through intense color and bold 
outlines, hacked it out of raw wood, and stretched it to 
its limits. In so doing, they orchestrated a resonant cry 
against the .\cademic tradition in sculpture. It is this 
legacy which we are only now beginning to recognize 
and understand. 

Fig. 36 

Felixmiiller, Woman with Flow- 
ing Hair (cat. no. 37), 1923. 

Fig. 37 


Death of the Poet Walter Rheiner 

(Der Tod des Dichters Walter 

Rheiner), 1925 

Oil on canvas 

185.5 X 129.5 cm. 

(73x51 in.) 

Private Collection, U.S.A. 


Documentary Section 

"GEL A FORSTER" (1919) 

Gela Forster, nee Angelica Bruno-Schmitz (1892-1957), was a sculptor and founding member of the short-lived 
Dresden Sezession: Gruppe 1919. In 1922, she married Alexander Archipenko and, after a year spent working in 
Dresden and Berlin, they emigrated to the United States. AH of Forster's sculptural work from this period has dis- 
appeared, and we know it only from photographs and laudatory contemporary accounts. Among these favorable 
appraisals was the following article by Theodor Daubler (originally published in the journal Neue Blatter fiir Kunst 
und Dichtung (New Newspaper/or Art and Poetry) in June of 1919 and reprinted in Theodor Daubler, Dichtungen 
und Schrijten, Munich: Rosel-Verlag, 1956). 

Daubler (1876-1934), a poet and author of the cosniogonic epic Das Nordlicht (Northern Lights) (1910), wrote 
numerous essays on modern art and became a champion of Expressionism. He was close to Barlach and served as 
the subject for one of that artist's sculptures in 1929. Daubler's art criticism exhibits a spirituality and intensity of 
language characteristic of literary Expressionism, and it shares with all poetry and writing the fate that such quali- 
ties can never be conveyed completely in translation. In a collection of essays entitled Der neue Standpunkt (The 
New Standpoint), published in 1916, Daubler praised modern artists ranging from Van Gogh and Cezanne to 
Picasso and Marc. The first line of his essay on Marc confirms an essentially Expressionist view of his age; "Our 
times have a great purpose: a new eruption of the soul." The images reproduced here were included in the original 
article. Permission to translate it is courtesy of Kosel-Verlag, Munich. - P.W.G. 

When Chagall allows heads to float about freely or 
when he sets them backwards on bodies, the sole 
reason for this is that the artist, in addifion to having a 
vehement sense of color, must also perceive violent 
actions and give them form. WTien Delaunay places 
houses askance, this represents a discovery that has fi- 
nally been made: space confined by a frame knows 
only the logic which governs the boundlessness of na- 
ture. Houses which incline toward the central core of a 
picture, or which in a given plane take both their own 
and a corresponding form of crystallization - these are 
not artistic nonsense! On the contrary: the frame 
should exert its influence. We are now learning to per- 
ceive as pedantic an approach that adheres to the laws 
of nature. This of course does not mean that from now 
on one cannot create in a traditional manner Cubism 
already provides the basis for a tremendous (nonvio- 
lent) organization of the spiritual. Nevertheless: mod- 
ern art is revolution, not only in an artistic sense, but 
even more in a poliUcal one! Beginning with Van Gogh 
the most sensitive minds began to foresee, in an un- 
canny way, the upheavals that we have been experi- 
encing for the past five years. Everything is the pre- 
lude to something unprecedented, even if that 
something has been expected for a long fime! Now 
man does not want to adapt to any conditions: he is 
crying out. At first always against something. Against 
everything that exists. Suddenly he also cries out for 
what he already holds to be attainable. Undergoing se- 
vere convulsions! 

No modern artist has perceived the rictus of this 
development in as cold-blooded and controlled a man- 
ner as Gela Forster in her [sculpture] Man [figs. 4 and 
5, p. 33]. This is revolution! Those who are passionate, 
eager for life, dare to engage in it. Prophets are often 
ascetics; revolutionary human beings often have con- 
tempt for the sensual. But this is not the case with 
those who most fundamentally undermine rotten con- 
ditions - particularly not with revolutionary artists. 
They aim for a stimulating effect: they yearn for the 
arrival of more free and beautiful generations! They 
are animated by an absolute, a magnificent eros. Love, 
a sensuous intoxication, shall be victorious over the 

conventional, the reasonable. When his voice 
becomes that of a man, the young boy cries out in pas- 
sion: he demands his woman. If he is a complete 
human being, he is possessed by a desire for erofic 
ideals, for a more glorious life for his children and his 
children's children. The rebel is always erotic: when 
he is an artist, he is often sensuous in the extreme. 
Something of this kind already stands before us in the 
work of Gela Forster.' The entire sculpture climaxes in 
a cry. The sculptor has reduced the head to its most 
primitive, the egglike shape of the skull: it has become 
the bearer, we can even say the revealer, of a tragic 
mouth. Eyes, nose have been incorporated into the 
mouth. The sexual agitation and, in the behavior of the 
limbs, the spiritually expressed agitation of this sym- 
bolic man are pressing toward only one goal: to 
declare a head with such a mouth to be artistically pos- 
sible now, yes, self-evident, proven by logic. Actually, a 
bropze! In spite of the missing legs and feet. Rodin's 
headless IValking Man [fig. 1 1, p. 18] was also cast. In 
this magnificent work the head is missing, so that the 
observer is shaken by a realization: the idea proceeds, 
though the head has been struck off. (Originally the 
sculpture represented John the Baptist.) In Gela 
Forster's intense sculpture the sensaUon rises 
powerfully: away with the feet; the cry (once sounded) 
resounds through the entire world. 

RottluiT Picasso [sic] has gained a deep understand- 
ing of African sculpture; Schmidt-RottlulThas also 
seen it. Gela Forster was able to perceive it fervently. 
The naivete in the sculptures of wild or semiwild peo- 
ples (1 am not speaking of the Benin) has had a much 
stronger effect on modern artists than have the statues 
of those races who disappeared long ago. But for none 
of these artists can we establish a dependence on the 
creafions of distant but surviving tribal cultures. 

Gela Forster's female statues Conception [fig. 1, 
p. 31] and Aivakening [figs. 2 and 3, p. 32] express 

1 . For an equally enthusiastic contemporary appraisal of 
Forster's sculpture, see Alfred Giinther, "Vor Bildwerken von 
Gela ForsXer'.' Menschen: Buch-Folge Neuer Kunst, vol. 2, no. 37, 
May 4, 1919, p. l.-Ed. 



Conception (Empfangnis), 
stone, lost. 



Fig. 2 

Awakening (Erwachen), stone, 
lost; side view. 

Fig. 3 

Awakening (Erwachen), stone, 
lost; front. 

experiences with which we are quite familiar. As a 
consequence these sculptures appear barbaric to us, 
yet vigorously and spontaneously perceived - not con- 
structed, heaped together, oppressive. The technique 
employed in these female forms is highly interesting: 
it provides a definite contrast to that seen in the afore- 
mentioned sculpture, Man. In the latter we find an al- 
most elegant and simultaneously strong rhythm, in the 
geometrical sense. The clearly delineated head cor- 
responds, in nearly measured fashion, to the two 
halves of the buttocks. In the case of female figures, 
particularly m Awakening, a greater compression is 
noticeable. The sense of style is less strained. The 
treatment of the skin is rough in all sculptures, but 
pronouncedly so with the female ones. Yet Gela For- 
ster in no way imitates Rodin's impressionistic tech- 
nique. Neither are we dealing principally with a treat- 
ment of the skin in her work, as in the work of 
Medardo Rosso.- This artist wanted to sculpt sunlight: 
he was less concerned with "human beings"; for him 
they were at best carriers and bearers of light. Rodin 
had an excellent command of the interplay of shad- 
ows. He created his own mode of presenting "skin." He 
too began with the sculpture of Rosso and Carpeaux.' 
Gela Forster again confronts us with the problem of 
"skin" in her three sculptures. She has already solved 
it for herself in an exciting and very independent way. 


2. Medardo Rosso (1858-1928): Leading Italian sculptor of the 
late nineteenth centuiy Rosso's strong Impressionist ten- 
dencies appear in his concern for representing the effects of 
light in his sculpture. - Ed. 

3. Jean Baptiste Carpeaux (1827-1875): Major nineteenth- 
century French sculptor, best known for his Dance (1896, fa- 
cade of the Paris Opera). - Ed. 



Fig. 4 

Man (DerMann), stone, lost; 
rear left. 

Fig. 5 

Man (Der Mann), stone, lost; 
rear right. 




Carl Einstein (1885-1940) was one of the most important writers and critics associated witli German Expression- 
ism. He established his reputation in 1907 with his novel Bebuquin, which was initially serialized in the periodical 
Opale and published in book form by Verlag Der Sturm in 1912. In addition, he translated Van Gogh's letters into 
German in 1914; copublished the bitter and satirical magazine Der blutige Ernst (Bloody Seriousness) with George 
Grosz; coedited the Europa-Almanach in 1925 with Paul Westheim; and in 1926 wrote his famous volume Kunst des 
20. Jahrhunderts (Art of the Tlventieth Century) as part of the Propylden Kunstgeschichte (Propylden History of Art), a 
highly important multi-volume reference work. In 1929, Einstein moved to France where he continued to be active 
as an editor, writer, and critic, and in 1936 he joined the Republican forces in Spain to fight against Franco. After 
twice being interned in France, he committed suicide in 1940 at the French-Spanish border as German troops 

The excerpts translated here are taken from Einstein's Negerplastik (African Sculpture) (originally published in 
1915 by Kurt Wolff Verlag, Munich), the first book to deal exclusively with the subject of African sculpture. Although 
in light of our present state of ethnological awareness many of the premises in Einstein's text necessarily appear 
unfounded and extremely romantic, it was nonetheless significant for its extremely positive endorsement of such 
work. Amplification, as opposed to a strictly logical argument, serves as the primary persuasive strategy in Ein- 
stein's text and suggests the impassioned stance he maintained toward his subject. The intensity and immediacy of 
emotional impact and the powerful simplicity which he ascribes to African sculpture are among the qualities which 
attracted the Expressionist artists - especially the members of the Briicke - to the works of African and Oceanic 
peoples. - P.W.G. 

Religion and African Art. African art is, above all, 
religious. The Africans, like any ancient people, wor- 
ship their sculptures. The African sculptor treats his 
work as a deity or as the deity's custodian. So, from the 
very beginning, the sculptor maintains a distance 
from his work, because the work either is or contains a 
god. The sculptor's labor is adoration from a distance. 
And thus the work is, a priori, independent. It is more 
powerful than its maker, who devotes his full intensity 
to the sculpture and thus, as the weaker being, sacri- 
fices himself to it. His labor must be described as reli- 
gious worship. The resulting work, as a deity, is free 
and independent of everything else.... The work will 
never be involved in human events, except as some- 
thing powerful and distanced. The transcendence of 
the work is both determined by and presumed in reli- 
gion.... The effect lies not in the artwork, but in its pre- 
sumed and undisputed godliness. The artist will not 
dare to vie with the god by striving for an effect; the 
effect is certainly given and predetermined. It makes 
no sense to regard such an artwork as striving for an 
effect, especially since the idols are often worshiped in 

The artist produces a work that is autonomous, tran- 
scendent, and not interwoven with anything else. This 
transcendence is manifested in a spatial perception 
that excludes any act by the viewer; a completely 
drained, total, and unfragmentary space must be given 
and guaranteed. Spatial self-containment does not sig- 
nify abstraction here; it is an immediate sensation. 
Wholeness is guaranteed only if the cubic [i.e., solid, 
three-dimensional] is achieved totally, that is, if noth- 
ing can be added to it. The activity of the viewer is en- 
tirely omitted.... 

A characteristic feature of African sculptures is the 
strong autonomy of their parts. This too is determined 
by religion. The sculptures are oriented not toward the 
viewer but in terms of themselves; the parts are per- 
ceived in terms of the compact mass, not at a weaken- 

ing distance. Hence, they and their limits are 

We also notice that most of these works have no ped- 
estal or similar support. This lack might come as a sur- 
prise, since the statues are, by our standards, ex- 
tremely decorative. However, the god is never pictured 
as anything but a self-sufficient being, requiring no 
aid of any kind. He has no lack of pious, venerating 
hands when he is carried about by the worshiper 

Such an art will seldom reify the metaphysical, since 
the metaphysical is taken for granted here. The meta- 
physical will have to be manifested entirely in the 
complete form, concentrated in it with amazing inten- 
sity. That is to say, the form is treated in terms of 
extreme self-containment. The result is a great formal 
realism.... Formal realism, which is not construed as 
imitative naturalism, has a given transcendence; for 
imitation is impossible: whom could a god imitate, to 
whom could he subjugate himself? The result is a 
consistent realism of transcendental form. The 
artwork is viewed not as an arbitrary and artificial cre- 
ation, but rather as a mythical reality, more powerful 
than natural reality. The artwork is real because of its 
closed form; since it is self-contained and extremely 
powerful, the sense of distance will necessarily 
produce an art of enormous intensity. 

While the European artwork is subject to emotional 
and even formal interpretation, in that the viewer is 
required to perform an active visual function, the Af- 
rican artwork has a clear-cut aim, for religious rea- 
sons beyond the formal ones. The African artwork sig- 
nifies nothing, it symbolizes nothing. It is the god, and 
he maintains his closed mjlhical reality, taking in the 
worshiper, transforming him into a mythical being, 
annulling his human existence.... 

For the artwork to have a delimited existence, every 
time-function must be omitted; that is, one cannot 
move around or touch the artwork. The god has no ge- 


netic evolution; this would contradict his valid exis- 
tence. Hence, the African has to find a depiction that, 
without the use of surface relief, shows a pious and 
nonindividual hand and instantly expresses it in solid 
material. The spatial viewing in such an artwork must 
totally absorb the cubic space and express it as some- 
thing unified; perspective or normal frontality is out of 
the question here, they would be impious. The art- 
work must offer the full spatial equivalent. For it is 
timeless only if it excludes any time-interpretation 
based on ideas of movement. The artwork absorbs 
time by integrating into its form that which we exper- 
ience as motion. 

Viewing Cubic Space... African sculpture presents 
a clear-cut establishment of pure sculptural vision. 
Sculpture that is meant to render the three-dimen- 
sional will be taken for granted by the naive viewer, 
since it operates with a mass that is determined as 
mass in three dimensions. This task appears to be dif- 
ficult, indeed almost impossible at first, when we re- 
alize that not just any spatiality, but rather the three- 
dimensional, must be expressed as a form. When we 
think about it, we are ovei-whelmed with almost in- 
describable excitement; this three-dimensionality, 
which is not taken in at one glance, is to be formed not 
as a vague optical suggestion, but rather as a closed, 
actual expression. European solutions, which seem 
makeshift when tested against African sculpture, are 
familiar to the eye, they convince us mechanically, we 
are accustomed to them. Frontality, multiple views, 
overall relief, and sculptural silhouette are the most 
usual devices. 

Frontality almost cheats us of the third dimension 
and intensifies all power on one side. The front parts 
are arranged in terms of one point of view and are 
given a certain plasticity. The simplest naturalistic 
view is chosen: the side closest to the viewer, orienting 
him, with the aid of habit, in terms of both the object 
and the psychological dynamics. The other views, the 
subordinate ones, with their disrupted rhythms, sug- 
gest the sensation that corresponds to the idea of 
three-dimensional motion. The abrupt movements, 
tied together mainly by the object, produce a concep- 
tion of spatial coherence, which is not formally 

The same holds true for the silhouette, which, per- 
haps supported by perspective tricks, hints at the cu- 
bic. At closer inspection, we see that the silhouette 
comes from drawing, which is never a sculptural 

In all these cases, we find the technique of painting 
or drawing; depth is suggested, but it is seldom given 
immediate form. These approaches are based on the 
prejudice that the cubic is more or less guaranteed by 
the material mass and that an inner excitement cir- 
cumscribing the material mass or a unilateral indica- 
tion of form would suffice to produce the cubic as a 
form. These methods aim at suggesting and signifying 
the sculptural, rather than going all the way. Yet this is 
not possible along these lines, since the cubic is pre- 


Carl Einstein and Dr. Eichhorn, 
director of the Ethnographic 
Museum of Berlin, inspecting 
the Flechtheim CoUecUon. 

sented as a mass here and not immediately as a form. 
Mass, however, is not identical with form; for mass 
cannot be perceived as a unity; these approaches 
always involve psychological acts of motion, which 
dissolve form into something genetically evolved and 
entirely destroy it. Hence, the difficulty of fixing the 
third dimension in a single act of optical presentation 
and vievring it as a totality; it has to be grasped in a sin- 
gle integration. But what is form in the cubic? 

Clearly, form must be grasped at one glance, but not 
as a suggestion of the objective; anything that is an act 
of motion must be fixed as absolute. The parts situated 
in three dimensions must be depicted as simulta- 
neous; that is, the dispersed space must be integrated 
in the field of vision. The three-dimensional can nei- 
ther be interpreted nor simply given as a mass. In- 
stead, it has to be concentrated as specific existence; 
this is achieved when that which produces a view of 
the three-dimensional and is felt normally and natu- 
ralisUcally to be movement is shaped as a formally 
fixed expression. 

Every three-dimensional point of a mass is open to 
infinite interpretation. This alone makes it almost 
impossible to achieve an unequivocal goal, and any 
totality seems out of the question.... 

The African seems to have found a pure and valid 
solution to this problem. He has hit upon something 
that may initially strike us as paradoxical: a formal 

The concept of the cubic as a form (only with this 
concept should sculpture be created, not with a mate- 
rial mass) leads directly to determining just what that 
form is. It is the parts that are not simultaneously visi- 
ble; they have to be gathered with the visible parts into 



a total form, which determines the viewer in a visual 
act and corresponds to a fixed three-dimensional 
viewing, producing the normally irrational cubic as 
something visibly formed. The optical naturalism of 
Western art is not an imitation of external nature. Na- 
ture, passively copied here, is the standpoint of the 
viewer. This is how we understand the genetic evolu- 
tion, the unusually relative quality of most of our art. 
European art was adjusted to the viewer (frontality, 
perspective); and the creation of the final optical form 
was left more and more to the actively participating 

The task of sculpture is to form an equivalent 
absorbing the naturalistic sensafions of movement, 
and thus the mass, in their entirety and transforming 
successive differences into a formal order This equiv- 
alent has to be total, so that the artwork may be felt, 
not as an equivalent of human tendencies directed 
elsewhere, but rather as something uncondiUonally 
self-contained and self-sufficient.... 

We have stressed that sculpture is a matter not of 
naturalistic mass, but only of formal clarification. 
Hence, the invisible parts, in their formal function, 
have to be depicted as a form; the cubic, the depth 
quotient (as 1 would like to call it), has to be depicted 
on the visible parts as form; to be sure, only as form, 
never blending with the objective, the mass. Hence, 
the depiction of the parts cannot be material or 
painterly; instead, they must be presented in such a 
way as to become plastic, a way that is naturahsUcally 
rooted in the act of motion, fixed as a unity and visible 
simultaneously. That is to say: every part must become 
sculpturally independent and be deformed in such a 
way that it absorbs depth, because the conception, 
appearing from the opposite side, is worked into the 
front, which, however, funcfions in three dimensions. 
Thus every part is a result of the formal presentation, 
which creates space as a totality and as a complete 
identity of individual optics and viewing, and also 
rejects a makeshift surrogate that weakens space, 
turning it into mass. 

Such a sculpture is strongly centered on one side, 
since this side manifestly offers the cubic as a totality, 
as a result, while frontality sums up only the front 
plane. This integrafion of the sculptural is bound to 
create functional centers. In terms of which it is 
arranged. These cubic points centraux [central points) 
instantly produce a necessary and powerful subdivi- 
sion, which may be called a strong autonomy of the 
parts. This is understandable. For the naturalistic 
mass plays no part, the famous, unbroken, compact 
mass of earlier artworks is meaningless; moreover, 
the shape is grasped not as an effect, but in its immedi- 
ate spatiality The body of the god, as dominant, eludes 
the restrictive hands of the worker; the body is func- 
tionally grasped in its own terms. Europeans fre- 
quently criticize African sculpture for alleged mis- 
takes in proportion. We must realize that the optical 
discontinuity of the space is translated into clarifica- 
tion of form, into an order of the parts, which, since 
the goal is plasticity, are evaluated dllTerently, accord- 

ing to their plastic expression. Their size is not crucial; 
the decisive feature is the cubic expression assigned to 
them and which they must present no matter what. 

However, there is one thing that the African es- 
chews, but to which the European is led by his com- 
promise: the modeling interpolated in the elementary; 
for there is one thing this purely sculptural procedure 
requires: definite subdivisions. The parts are virtually 
subordinate functions, since the form has to be 
concentratedly and intensely elicited in order to be 
form; for the cubic, as a resuh and as an expression, is 
independent of the mass. And only that is permissible. 
For art as a qualitative phenomenon is a matter of 
intensity; the cubic, in the subordination of views, 
must be presented as tectonic intensity.... 

1 would like to add something about the group. The 
group visually confirms the previously stated opinion 
that the cubic is expressed not in mass but in form. 
Othei-wise, [the group|, like any broken sculpture, 
would be a paradox and monstrosity. The group con- 
stitutes the extreme case of what 1 would like to call 
the remote sculptural effect: at closer inspection, two 
parts of a group relate no differently to one another 
than two remote parts of a figure. Their coherence is 
expressed in [their) subordination to sculptural in- 
tegration, assuming that we are not dealing simply 
with a contrasting or additive repetition of the formal 
theme. Contrasting repeUtion has the advantage of 
reversing directional values and thus also the mean- 
ing of sculptural orientation. On the other hand, jux- 
taposition shows the variation of a sculptural system 
within a visual field. Both are grasped totally, since the 
given system is unified. 




Carl Georg Heise (1890-1979) was cofoiinder with Hans Mardersteig of the important Expressionist art journal 
Genius (1919-21), which was published in Munich by Kurt Wolff Verlag. In 1920, he assumed the directorship of the 
Museum fiir Runst und Kulturgeschichte, Liibeck, and soon established himself as one of the outstanding museum 
directors of the period. In 1930, he commissioned Barlach to sculpt a series of sixteen larger-than-life-size figures 
for the facade of the Gothic brick St. Katherinenkirche in Liibeck (see cat. no. 22). He also was responsible for 
commissioning Sintenis' Daphne (cat. no. 135), which was installed in the sculpture garden of the Behn-Haus, 
Liibeck. Heise's support of the Expressionists and of Edvard Munch occasioned many attacks from the local press, 
and in 1930 he found it necessary to defend himself and his acquisition poUcies in a special publication. 

When the Nazis gained control in 1933, Heise was dismissed from his museum directorship and placed in "retire- 
ment." He then became an art critic for the Fr-ankfurter Zeitung until the Nazis removed him from this post. From 
1939 to 1945, he worked as a reader for Gebn Mann Verlag in Berlin, and in 1945, following the War, he was 
appointed director of the Hamburger Kunsthalle and became a professor at the Universitat Hamburg - positions 
which he held until 1955. 

Heise's "Der Rruzifixus von Gies" ("The Crucifix by Gies") was originally published in Genius, vol.3, no. 2, 1921, 
pp. 198-202. The creator of the crucifix, Ludwig Gies (b. 1887), was well known for his small sculptures and med- 
als. He was a professor at the Berliner Hochschule fiir freie und angewandte Runst from 1917 until 1937, when he 
was dismissed by the Nazis. In 1950, he accepted a professorship at the Werkschule in Cologne. - P.W.G. 

Ludwig Gies' crucifix was created as an entry for the 
war-memorial competition of St. Marienkirche in 
Liibeck. As was to be expected, the jury and the church 
board did not give the work serious consideration. For 
a moment it seemed as if the upper hand would be 
gained by the artistically educated members of the 
congregation's progressive governing body; they 
stood up for Gies' work with great warmth and energy. 
The crucifix temporarily found an ideal place in the 
ambulatory of the cathedral. At the same time, how- 
ever, a controversy about art ensued that excited peo- 
ple to the boiling point; its conclusion was made 
memorable by the wanton mutilation of the work. The 
head was knocked off and dumped into the millpond. 

Thank God, it was found and successfully restored. 
Then the crucifix adorned the hall of the Bauhaus at 
the Deutsche Gewerbeschau in Munich. Taken from its 
very dignified location, where it stood in the midst of 
life as the practical fulfillment of an artistic task of an 
important kind; uprooted by a referendum and re- 
turned to the art trade of the day as a wandering exhi- 
bition piece. It is hard to determine what is more 
significant: the work itself or its fate. Its existence is a 
testament to the infiltration of Expressionist form by a 
strong and particular religious emotion, and to the 
competent craftsmanship of a modern sculptor in the 
service of a noble and timeless purpose. Its destruc- 
tion, however, testifies to the increasing discrepancy 
between popular feeling and artistic culture in our 
time - to the dangerously increasing gravity of the 
situation we are in. Both aspects merit serious 

The work was created for a spacious church nave of 
the north German Gothic brick style. It respects this 
fact in structure, rhjlhm, and mood. The specificity of 
this task has dictated the fundamentals of form and 
craft. The austere artistic language of the energeti- 
cally drawn contours and violent contrapposto is not 
fashionable deviousness; rather it adapts to the picto- 
rial adornment of the Gothic period in conscious, vol- 
untary afiinity. The exacting simplification of all motifs 
is never stammering primitivity, but is intentionally 
directed toward achieving particular aesthetic elTects. 
The acute triangular form of the pulled-up knees, the 
pointed chin, the straight, upward-pointing fingers of 
the right hand are all new elements of an expressive 
feeling for beauty which is vei7 much personally 
determined. And the spiritual values are also of such 
deep and individual quality - particularly striking in 
such a frequently treated subject - that they alone 
would make the work one of the most valuable docu- 
ments of contemporary religious experience. The art- 
ist did not shy away from rendering the agonies of 
death in a moving, drastic manner Everything seems 
to show pain and torment. Yet in the compassionate 

Fig. 1 

The Crucifixion, installation at 
the Deutsche Gewerbeschau, 
Munich; destroyed. 



Fig. 2 

The Crucifixion (detail) 
Formerly St. Marienkirche, 
Liibeck; destroyed. 



bowed head, in the right arm's subdued gesture of 
blessing, the idea of sacrifice has gained such an 
urgent form in so touching and conciliatorj' a manner 
that sorrow and the conquest of sorrow are united in a 
majestic image of redemption. It would be hard to find 
a symbol that would impress posterity more pow- 
erfully and deeply with the meaning of the World War 
and its fallen heroes. 

The material, too, adapts to its surroundings; it is 
wood, which we have long been unaccustomed to 
using for works of such monumental dimensions. 
Thus the crucifix of 1921 becomes closely akin to the 
fifteenth-centurj' cross of triumph. In collaboration 
with the sculptor Hitzbergei;' the forms have been 
hewn out of a few huge oak planks, and in each indi- 
vidual form one feels the spirit of the material. The 
coloring is reserved, nowhere has the character of the 
wood been destroyed: the body has been stained a 
green-blue, the planks of the cross and the drops of 
blood, red; only the rays and the nimbus have been 
gilded. Ghostlike, the polished plate of the nimbus re- 
flects the green coloration of the head. This excellence 
in craftsmanship has symptomatic meaning: the more 
readily it is accepted that the time of the individual 
creator, the great master, is over, the more we wel- 
come a renewal of the principles of craftsmanship. 
They alone can slowly prepare the ground for a new 
blossoming of the highest personal achievement. 

The work was hung in the ambulatory of the Liibeck 
cathedral - against a plain white wall, the right hand's 
blessing a phantasmal silhouette before the tall 
church window. The effect was astonishing. An 

1. Otto Hitzberger (b. 1878): Expressionist sculptor of pri- 
marily religious subjects. - Ed. 

amazing phenomenon - a work of modern craftsman- 
ship and spirit proved to be equal to the architectural 
power of the Middle Ages. For in comparison, the work 
did not disappoint; it formed a harmonious sound vrith 
window, pillar, and cross vault. The seeming arbitrari- 
ness of intensely personal creativity derived [its] laws 
and proportions from the surrounding architecture. 
Anyone familiar with the tasks of practical art admin- 
istration knows what this placement means. It marks 
the moment in which desire and effort turn into fulfill- 
ment and mastery. In this seems to lie the ultimate 
significance of Gies" crucifix, which extends far 
beyond its artistic value as such. He has made visible 
his long-desired, finally achieved stage of 

Yet visible for whom? Can we speak of fulfillment 
and of having achieved a goal when only a few people 
share in it; when the masses not only remain bUnd, but 
reject, condemn, rage, stone? The newspapers started 
the controversy; the defenders remained in the minor- 
ity; the adversaries spoke of blasphemy, of folly, of a 
public disgrace that demanded expiation. They are the 
ones who are responsible for the mutilation. Not the 
fanaticism of an individual, but the indignation of the 
crowd passed sentence. As when in the case of politi- 
cal murder, the perpetrator is the instrument of blind 
mass hatred, in this instance the head of the Christ fig- 
ure fell as the blatant expression of the people's rage. 
The masses revolt against art. The long-suppressed 
indignation reached its height at the moment when, in 
the opinion of art lovers, a truly popular, practical task 
had been completed in a surprisingly safisfying man- 
ner It is easy and customary to shrug off this hate- 
filled discord between art and life by compassionately 
referring to the artistic narrow-mindedness of the 
masses. But this attitude only betrays a narrow- 
minded view of the world itself. To feel no urge to 
change this fatal condition is to lose every right to 
intervene as a supporter of art in the relationship 
between art and people. 

Many a mifigating argument vrill be advanced 
against anyone who emphasizes this conflict which, 
increasing from decade to decade, reduces the fun- 
damental effectiveness of the best of our new genera- 
tion of artists. It will be argued that good new art has 
never been popular at the time of its origination; that 
the master has always been ahead of the crowd; that 
prophets have always been stoned. That is certainly 
true. But is art prophecy? Certainly the Greek art of 
the Periclean age did not find such resounding reso- 
nance in every contemporary as in our textbooks 
today, two thousand years later; but a wait-and-see at- 
titude is far from hate and the rage of destruction. And 
who could possibly believe that an Athenian of the 
Golden Age might have desecrated the image of a god 
out of arUsdc fanaficism? A Raphael or a Rubens creat- 
ed in the limelight of his fame, during his own lifetime 
- not in great popularity, but enthusiastically sup- 
ported by the most powerful on earth. A Michelangelo, 
a Rembrandt became lonelier the higher he rose, but 
the favor of the people followed closely behind him. 
The people did not always understand in depth, but 

Fig. 3 

The Crucifi-xion, 
Formerly St. Marienkirche, 
Liibeck; destroyed. 



their understanding nevertheless was so fertile that 
the unmatched achievement of individual artists «'as 
able to define popular artistic conceptions of future 
epochs. This is no longer the case. After the slow 
decline of the Biedermeier spirit,- no uniform style 
could affirm the existence of a common culture. Cul- 
ture and art have declined to such an extent that even 
in the nineteenth century the illusion of a congenial 
taste only served to maintain the pretense of a uniform 
popular culture. The renaissance of the arts that then 
ensued took place for masters and connoisseurs only, 
in isolation from decisive world events. Since that 
time, the gap between people and art has vridened. 
Considering conflict of the belligerence that was dis- 
played in the Gies affair, this gap appears to have 
become unbridgeable. For a long time it was thought 
that what might be interpreted as necessary martyr- 
dom would prove in the course of time to be an un- 
avoidable absence of broad influence. Today such 
false pride in suffering must appear untimely to every 
intelligent person. However, the fact that Manet's and 
Cezanne's, Leibl's and even Liebermann's' art is 
beginning to be canonized on the art market and by 
the critics, should not mislead us into assuming that 
this art has ever been truly popular - or that it ever will 
be. It remains the concern of a small group of initiated 
connoisseurs. The separation of art and people is 
becoming greater, rather than diminishing. 

A second argument, however, appears to be almost 
more convincing. The art of our time supposedly has 
not reached its full zenith - so say the obliging 
intermediaries - it is a transitional product with all its 
weaknesses, but also with all the fascination of being 
ahead of its time. The artwork of the future, existing 
within it in embryo, should be venerated. For what 
could be more blissful than the first days? Archaic 
works of art of all styles and all cultures are being 
rediscovered as relatives, proving a point - only the 
coming decades of posterity will disclose the deepest 
meaning of the present. This may be true. But proph- 
ecy and desire are poor consolation for insufficient 
visible evidence. And does the enthusiasm of the art- 
ists and their chorus not all too oflen exhaust itself, 
even in relation to historic art, in admiration of some- 
thing that is not mature, something that is not the goal, 
but only a groping toward the goal? Do not misunder- 
stand me: this argument, which the best succumb to 
and which has become the teacher of us all, can bring 

2. Biedermeier: Term for a brief artistic period occurring 
around the middle of the nineteenth century, primarily in Ger- 
many and Austria, which might be characterized as dimin- 
ished Classicism. The term derives from two benevolent but 
provincial types created by Victor von Scheffel in the cari- 
cature journal Fliegende Blatter in 1848. While in general 
wori\S on art history, the Rococo is considered to be the last 
true European style, in Central European art histories, the 
Biedermeier plays the same role. - Ed. 

3. Wilhelm Leibl (1844-1900): A leading late nineteenth- 
century German Realist painter, intimately associated with the 
Munich School. Max Liebermann (1847-1935); German 
Impressionist painter who founded the Berlin Secession and 
was its president from 1898 to 1911. - Ed. 

about the blood transfusion necessary to an aging cul- 
ture. But would it not be wrong to demand that during 
this severe crisis the untrained person who enjoys not 
with his intellect, but with his pure instinct, be raised 
to lofty heights and deeply moved by such works of 
art? There exists no intellectual excuse sufficient to 
obscure the distance of the arts from the living partici- 
pation of the people. 

It would certainly be wrong if, frightened by this in- 
sight, one attempted to change art by force. On the one 
hand, a thoughtful feeling of responsibility prevents us 
from joining in the praises of present conditions, 
which open up ever more grotesquely the conflict 
between art and the judgment of the layman. On the 
other hand, a deeper insight into the developmental 
context prevents us from engaging in a foolish fight 
against symptoms which are not the cause but the 
effect. It keeps us from condemning the artists who, in 
greatest personal honesty, are under the spell of their 
dechning century. They are not the guilty ones, but we 
are; not their art is responsible, but our world view. To 
be more precise, our lack of ideological creativity. 
Only our changed heart can change art. No sculptor 
will be able to creatively bring about a new vision of 
the world; to demand this would be to place too high a 
value on the importance of the fine arts. The artist's 
obligation of leadership does not extend beyond mak- 
ing visible the best and deepest aspects of the domi- 
nafing spirit. This makes us fully aware of how little 
we are served today by the increasing participation of 
the general public in artistic problems; it shows us to 
how small an extent the overrating of art can initiate a 
transformation of the spirit. The determination of the 
existence of errors that does not point to any means for 
their correction may appear to be useless arrogance. 
But reflection on art should not lead to philosophical 
dilettantism. That has caused us enough harm. Our 
task can only be to define the value and the place of a 
work of art to the best of our knowledge. In the case of 
Gies' crucifix an attempt of this kind necessarily leads 
to evidence of a great achievement and its necessity, as 
conditioned by its time. Nobody will be able to over- 
step with impunity this stage of artistic development. 
Every advancement has to take this road. Commu- 
nities cannot be too strongly impressed with the fact 
that their active support of such attempts is essential 
to progress beyond the banal and imitative religious 
art of the past decades. When understood correctly, 
the attainment of such progress may be seen to be in 
the church's own best interest. But it is ultimately 
important for us totally to accept the fact that so far no 
goal has been reached. The heart blood of the noblest 
is flowing, but up to now it has been shed without 
guilt, and in vain. 



"CLAY - A MANIFESTO" (1917) 

While living in Switzerland, Paul Rudolf Henning (b. 1886) wrote "Ton - Ein Aufruf ' ("Clay - A Manifesto") as part 
of a larger work on modern art published by the Kunsthaus Zurich in 1917. It was reprinted both as the second pam- 
phlet produced by the Arbeitsrat fiir Kimst in 1919 and in the journal Mitteilungen des Deutschen Werkbundes, no. 5, 
1919-20. In 1980, it was again reprinted by the Akademie der Kiinste, Berlin, in the catalogue for its exhibition en- 
m\eA Arbeitsrat fur Kunst 1918-1 921. 

The overwhelming majority of sculptures produced in the period prior to the emergence of the Expressionist 
movement had been executed in stone, especially marble, or in bronze. Only with the Expressionists did wood again 
come into widespread use as a sculptural medium. In this article, Henning argues forcefully for a wider use of clay 
in sculpture - especially in the form of terracotta. He himself made terracotta sculptures (see cat. no. 5 1 ), as well as 
a number of very large reliefs for various buildings in Aachen, Cologne, and Berlin, but his advocacy of clay as a 
sculptural medium had only a slight effect beyond his own endeavors. This article is typical of the fervor and the 
vision of the future which dominated artists' writings of the period. For additional information on Henning, see this 
catalogue pp. 98-99. Permission to translate this essay is courtesy of Paul Rudolf Henning and the Akademie der 
Rijnste, Berlin. - P.W.G. 

Earth that can be molded and fired presents in- 
exhaustible possibilities for creating plastic values of 
the strongest effect. In spite of this, "works of clay" are 
extremely rare, in fact almost nonexistent, among 
modern sculptures. Stone, bronze, or wood - the "no- 
bler" materials - are given preference, although clay 
is likely to be found in the workshop of every sculptor 
The reason for the rarity of ceramic sculpture is nei- 
ther the unavailability of the material nor the tech- 
nical difficulty of the firing process, but rather the fact 
that today's artists, in spite of their daily handling of 
clay, are completely removed from actually working 
with its specific qualities. They have lost all feeling for 
modeling clay according to its nature; they have 
become blind to clay. Its greatest advantage - namely 
its plastic possibilities - has forced it into subordina- 
tion in relation to other materials. Taken out of the 
clay box, molded on a skeleton of wood, iron, or wire, 
treated with all kinds of tools, it becomes the shape, 
the model, for an "original" work of art. This model, 
though made from clay, is anything but earthen, hav- 
ing been knowingly used by the artist as a model for 
another material, as a means of experiencing a dif- 
ferent kind of material altogether- stone, bronze, or 
wood. In other words, the clay model's only purpose is 
to create and facilitate fiexibility of creative composi- 
tion within a different medium. After the plaster cast, 
the negative, has been taken from the clay model, it is 
worthless. It is cut to pieces, destroyed to the point of 
unrecognizability, thrown back into the clay box to be 
later resurrected in another model for another "origi- 
nal." The plaster mold is the only durable bearer of the 
work - from it the real original arises directly or in- 
directly. Even the few sculptors who present us with 
figures or other ceramic works make use of the plaster 
cast without much ado.' It is therefore no wonder that 
in the course of time sculptors have lost all under- 
standing of clay's inherent properties and, no longer 
able to disclose its possibilities of artistic expression, 
do not use clay anymore. Although no technical ar- 
guments can be advanced against the use of negatives 

1. The mindless adoption ol'lhe convenient and amiable plas- 
ter form is tlie cause of llie decline, of the low level of today's 
art of scLiIptnre. - P. R. \\. 

in the making of ceramic works, as long as the end 
result possesses the absolute quality of clay, such use 
provides no basis for creating or even promoting the 
understanding of clay's specific qualities. But as soon 
as we remember that clay, directly shaped by hand, 
formed into hollow bodies of a thousandfold variety, 
can be fired as a true original, then the greatness of its 
specific qualities will stimulate us to take advantage of 
the unprecedented freedom that the use of clay gives 
us - a freedom that can be increased to reach incredi- 
ble proportions. The experience of this freedom over- 
whelms anyone who has been in a position to witness 
the emergence of such original works of art, and we 
need not be materialists to want to free a kind of mate- 
rial from its worst servitude and to lead it back to its 
original wealth of creative possibilities. Only then will 
the sculptor speak a powerful, free, and above all 
immediate language of form; he will experience, as in 
a new dimension, things he never dreamt of 

If we want to create compositions that stand in- 
dependently, that is, in a more or less upright position, 
then we have to begin froin the base, inolding the pli- 
able, shapable clay into hollow or solid forms from the 
bottom upward. We thus literally realize the idea of the 
construction and experience static forces with our 
senses. By considering the weight of clay itself and 
how it can be built up or extended in individual or 
combined forms, forms originate which correspond to 
the laws of static forces and which are specific to the 
nature of clay -works of art are born, communicating 
the rhythm of their inner construction. Herein lies the 
main element of the "completely formed" terracotta. 

Another aspect is the plastic interpretation of clay. 
This quality is increased many times as soon as we 
abandon our idea of pure statics, as soon as we com- 
pletely neglect the laws of gravity, beginning with any 
kind of form and developing the creation of this form 
in all directions, adding on in the process. Because as 
long as one maintains the connections between the in- 
ner hollow spaces, one is able to "pot together" any 
plastic idea. An entire network of pipes or discs of clay, 
or whatever one may call them, may appear before our 
eyes. Yes, even separately shaped, individually fired 
pieces may be connected by seams - a language of 



sculpture which has no equal! And in addition, there is 
our basic ability to enliven the physical surface of the 
clay original by way of contrast, the subtractive func- 
tion, the cutting out of the clay wall: this piercing, this 
true clay-quality, this making "the hollow" visible, the 
shard audible! The expression of a work of art can be 
Increased to vehement heights by means of this rhyth- 
mic piercing and by the inclusion of something so far 
unmentioned: color. The fired piece of clay will have 
different colors depending on the kind of earth used, 
on the mixture of different kinds of earth, on the 
admixture of chemicals, etc. Apart from this color of 
its own, terracotta can be given color in a number of 
different ways. In addition to the simple technique of 
painting the work with color, there are, of course, 
transparent and opaque, shiny and diiU glazes that 
may be applied - glazes that in the firing process com- 
bine with the clay and become permanent. The spec- 
trum of color has been steadily extended through the 
untiring efforts of chemistry and now affords our art- 
ists a choice of countless combinations. In addition to 
the painted terracotta, monochrome glazed sculpture 
has been preferred by the past era of artistic imitation. 

Finally, let us realize how much our means of 
expression is enriched as soon as we break the bonds 
of the merely "imitative." For then we may take up a 
linear, spatial, or multicolored approach to ceramics, 
either emphasizing or denying the plastic form itself. 
Thus clay, in boundless freedom, opens the road to the 
abstract, the purely spiritual. Manifestations which 
are yearning for life find in clay incomparably fertile 
ground for form, color, and architectonic structure. 
The immediate unification of tectonics and color with 
the plastic cannot be valued too highly when we speak 
of clay. Our ability to produce weatherproof ceramics 
has suddenly made architectural applications possi- 
ble. In addition to glass as a colorful building material 
(see Taut's glass house),^ clay will bring joy to those 
architects who want to redeem mankind from the 
deadly gray-on-gray of our cities. 

2. Bruno Taut (1880-1938): One of the few Expressionist ar- 
chitects. For Ihe Ausstellung des Deutschen llerkbundes of 1914 
in Cologne, Taut built a "glass house" for the Luxfer-Prismen- 
Syndikat that influenced many younger architects. It was built 
of steel, cement, and colored glass and had glass mosaics as 
floors. Taut attributed his love for glass partly to the poems of 
Paul Scheerbarth, which were published under the title of 
Glasorchitektur (Glass Architecture) in 1914. Scheerbarth be- 
lieved that glass walls would improve humanity since people 
would be visible to one another most of the time. - Ed. 




Louis de Marsalle was the pseudonym adopted by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner for several essays and articles he wrote 
on the subject of his own work. In 1920, the highly sensitive Kirchner first employed this nom de plume in an article 
entitled "Zeichnungen von E. L. Kirchner" ("The Drawings of E. L. Kirchner"), which appeared in the important art 
journal Genius. This article was illustrated with twenty-one of Kirchner's drawings. Other "de Marsalle" publica- 
tions included: "Uber Kirchners Graphik" ("Concerning Kirchner's Graphic Work"), Genius, 1921; "Uber die 
Schweizer Arbeiten von E. L. Kirchner" ("Concerning E. L. Kirchner's Swiss Period"), the foreword to the catalogue 
of an exhibition of his works held at the Galerie Ludwig Schames in Frankfurt in 1922 (reprinted in Europa- 
Almanach in 1925); and "Uber die plastischen Arbeiten E. L. Kirchners" ("Concerning the Sculpture of E. L. 
Kirchner"), Der Cicerone, vol. 17, no. 14, 1925, pp. 695-701, which is translated here. The images reproduced as 
figures 1-3 and 5-7 were included In the original article. Kirchner wrote two additional catalogue introductions 
under this pseudonym, one for an exhibition of his work held at the Galerie Aktuaryus, Zurich, in 1927 and one for 
an exhibition held at the Kunsthalle Bern in 1 933 - at the time, the largest exhibition of Kirchner's work ever held. 

In choosing his pseudonym, Kirchner created a French critic who openly admired his German style. Although he 
never revealed his reasons for adopting this disguise, it is generally agreed by scholars that the choice was made as 
a conscious attempt on Kirchner's part to counter the widely held opinion that modern art both originated and 
experienced Its zenith in France. Permission to translate this essay is courtesy of Dr. Wolfgang Henze, Campione 
d'ltaHa. - P.W.G. 

When one frequents the workshops of creative art- 
ists, one often experiences surprises. When I visited 
the studio of E. L. Kirchner one day, 1 found there a 
number of sculptures of all sizes and of different kinds 
of material -sculptures Kirchner was using to explain 
his Idea of sculptural form to a young artist. 

Although some museums and private collectors own 
a few of his pieces, Kirchner's plastic work Is almost 
unknown, and 1 believe it Is finally time to publish 
something In relaUon to it. Kirchner's sculpture Is not 
only of great importance In regard to his own work but 
during the past years has also had a stimulating effect 
on a number of young artists. Thus it seems to be in a 
position to Initiate a new movement In the very back- 
ward sculpture of our time. As far as 1 know, Kirchner 
is in our day the only sculptor whose forms cannot be 
traced back to classical antiquity. Just as in his paint- 
ings, he gives his experiences direct form in char- 
acters taken from contemporary life. His sculpting 
began simultaneously with his painting, thus going 
back to the year 1900.' Both modes of artistic expres- 
sion ran so closely parallel to one another and so com- 
pleted each other that, in many cases, the same prob- 
lem is addressed in the paintings as in the sculptures. 
Kirchner's sUU llfes and Interiors often contain figures 
that he has sculpted earlier. Thus he transposed a 
form from one mode of artistic expression to another, 
unfil he found the solution offering the strongest 
expression. In this manner, Kirchner gained the in- 
sight that the intensive study of nature and the assis- 
tance of the imagination could create a new form far 
stronger and of more Intense effect than a natin-alistic 
rendiUon. He discovered the hieroglyph and enriched 
our modern period with an important means of 
expression, just as in their own time Seurat Invented 
the louche, the breaking up of color, and Cezanne the 
system of the cylinder, cone, and sphere. 

Kirchner's sculptural efforts, which extend over a 
period of twenty-five years, very clearly show his 

1. For a discussion of the difficulties encountered in dating 
Kirchner's work, see essay by Henze, p. 1 14. - Ed. 

development in this respect. Already the early, wooden 
Crouching IVoman, taken as a total composition, is an 
absolute hieroglyph of the term Crouching. The com- 
position of the body, which has been condensed Into 
the cube, could not have been rendered more In- 
tensely or unequivocally. At the same time the figure 
possesses great liveliness. However, these works of 
Kirchner have hardly anything in common with what 
one nowadays refers to as sculpture. They are as far 
removed from the Greek as from the African, for they 
are born from the immediate perception of today's life. 
Certainly, It is a long way from this early Crouching 
IVoman to the Friends [fig. 5, p. 46] or the Lovers [fig. 3, 
p. 53]. But the thread of development is nowhere 

It is most significant that from the very beginning 
Kirchner rejected as Inartistic a working method gen- 
erally practiced by sculptors today: namely, proceed- 
ing from a clay model by way of a plaster impression to 
the actual material. He creates his figures directly out 
of the material. One has to realize that in the case of 
the old working method, only the clay model is actually 
created by the artist, whereas the end result and all 
work toward it is done by other hands. In light of this, 
the dismal uniformity of our sculpture exhibitions 
becomes readily comprehensible, and in viewing the 
sculptures one often asks oneself what In these works 
of art the artist is actually still responsible for. In the 
case of sculpture the material is far more decisive 
than in painting; and the sculptor leaves it to other 
hands to fashion this material. How different that 
sculpture appears when the artist himself has formed 
It with his hands out of the genuine material, each cur- 
vature and cavity formed by the sensitivity of the cre- 
ator's hand, each sharp blow or tender carving ex- 
pressing the immediate feelings of the artist. One 
must keep this in mind when viewing the Female 
Dancer wilh Exlended Leg which he carved out of oak 
[fig. 1, p. 43, and cat. no. 66], or the Head o/Erna [fig. 3, 
p. 44, and cat. no. 67], or the Friends. 

What would one have to say concerning paintings 
for which the painter provided only outlines, speclfy- 


Female Dancer with Extended 
Leg (cat. no. 66), 1913. 


De marsalle 

Fig. 2 

Crouching Woman (Hockende), 


Cast tin 

h: approx. 20 cm. (i'A in.) 

Photograph by Kjrchner 

Fig. 5 

Head of a Woman, Head o/Erna 
(cat. no. 67), 1913; photograph 
by Itirchner. 

ing which colors were to be applied within them, but 
lea\'ing the execution to an assistant? For in painting, 
this would be analogous to what is today standard 
practice in sculpture. 

In sculpture Kirchner discovered very important 
laws: above all, the overriding importance of the large, 
total form and its creation from the proportions of the 
individual forms. He sculpts the wood block according 
to its nature, forming the small form out of the large. 
He finds a method by which the changed proportions 
may remain subservient to the overall composition. So 
the Friends give the impression of being as big as gi- 
ants, although they are only 175 centimeters high, 
because they have larger-than-life heads. Rirchner's 
stri\'ing for monumental simplicity induces him to 
press the human body into ever simpler form. For 
example, in the Lovers he reduces the female nude to 
a pointed oval shape and thereby strongly and in- 
tensely expresses the soft sensuahty of the female 

He finds new solutions for the equilibrium of mov- 
ing bodies. Kirchner's Rearing Horseman maintains 
his equilibrium because the horse's legs have been 
made stronger. In a much more primitive manner, the 
Baroque sculptor balanced the equestrian statue of 
Augustus the Strong in Dresden-Neustadt by making 
the tail larger. 

In my essay on Rirchner's graphic art which ap- 
peared in Genius. I attempted to demonstrate, using 
the Melancholy Woman as an example, that Kirchner 
has found a novel way to solve the problem of render- 
ing the expression of the soul in sculpture. There, in 
order to create this expression, he shaped the eye into 
a speaking hieroglyph. In Woman and Girt [fig. 6, 
p. 46], Illustrated here, Kirchner put the expression of 
maternal concern into the shaping of the mouth. All 
these things have been rendered in a purely sculptural 

manner. No matter what Kirchner creates, he will 
never become unsculptural. 

He also places color in the service of his sculpture. 
With complete freedom and nonobjectivity, it is 
employed to heighten and accentuate the sculptural 
idea. There are figures from earlier times, such as the 
Crouching Woman, in which coloring creates form di- 
rectly. There are heads on which the eyes and mouth 
have been painted in order not to interrupt the larger 
form. Often this results in very special effects. The 
richness of color of Medieval sculptures seems about 
to rise again, except that the modern period applies 
color very differently than did the old masters. 

Kirchner's sculpture works mainly with simple 
basic shapes: cylinder, cone, egg-shape, and sphere. 
Cube and oblong occur more indirectly as forms of 
composition. These simple forms do not originate 
from mathematical speculation, but rather from a 
drive toward monumentalily. Kirchner desires and 
forms men and beings, not soulless artistic shapes. 
This alone distinguishes his works from the rest of 
modern sculpture which, with a few exceptions, is ori- 
ented more or less toward arts and crafts. 

Kirchner is one of the veiy few contemporary artists 
who is gifted enough to create new forms and a new 
style. But his works also have a spiritual message. That 
is their specifically German quality. They mean some- 
thing, one may think of something when viewing 
them, yet they are not literary. A work such as Friends 
would be wonderful in a modern meeting room of 
modern men, because of its external shape as well as 
its spiritual meaning. The material that Kirchner 
most prefers is wood. He also likes to work in stone, 
and a few figures from his hand are cast as well. 
The works reproduced in this article constitute a 
selection from his entire sculptural oeuvre between 
1900 and 1924-25. 


De marsalle 

Fig. 4 

Group of paintings, together 
with six sculptures from the 
years 1910-11, photographed 
by Kirchner. The painting The 
Bosquet; Square in Dresden 
(1911; Gordon, 198) may be 
seen at lower right. Since Josef 
Feinhals acquired this painting 
in May 1912 at the Cologne 
Sonderbund exhibition, the 
photograph must originate no 
later than that date. Lower left: 
Nude with a Bath Towel/Bathing 
Woman (Akt mil Thch/Badende) 
[1905], wood, formerly in the 
collection of the Museum fiir 
Kunst und Gewerbe, Hamburg, 
See fig. 1, p. 52. 


De marsalle 

Fig. 5 

The TUv Friends (Die Zwei 
Freunde), 1924-25 
Wood, painted 
h: 175 cm. (68% in.) 
Kunstmuseum Basel 

See woodcut (cat. no. 72) and 
painting of the same name and 
date (Gordon, 763). Subjects are 
Hermann Scherer (right) and 
Albert Miiller (left). Also see 
photo of the artists, fig. 12, 
p. 128. 

Fig. 6 

Mother and Child/flbinan and 

Girl (Mutter und Kind/Frau 

und Madchen), 1923 

Wood, painted 

h: 90 cm. (35y8 in.) 

Private Collection 

Photograph by Rirchner 

Fig. 7 

Cow(Kuh), 1920-23 
Swiss stone-pine, painted 
Private Collection 

Photographed by Kirchner in 
1925 in front of the Wildboden 
House in Davos. 

« r 




Max Osborn (1890-1946) was the editor of the 1 bssische Zeitung, one of the oldest and most widely circulated BerUn 
newspapers. In addition to being an influential journalist and sensitive observer, he was one of the best-known the- 
ater and art critics of his day. His 1922 monograph Max Pechstein - originally published by Propyliien Verlag and 
excerpted here -was the first comprehensive work on the famous Briicke artist. Other works by Osborn include Der 
Holzschnill (The Woodcut), published in Bielefeld in 1905, and his memoirs, Der bunte Spiegel: Erinnerungen aus 
demKunst-, Kidtur- und Geislesleben derJahre 1890 bis 1933 (The Colored Mirror: Memoirs oj the Artistic, Cultural, 
and Intellectual Life of the Years 1890 to 1933), which were published in New York in 1905 and contain important 
observations on the Expressionist period. The images reproduced here as figures were included in the original text. 
For additional information on Max Pechstein, see this catalogue, pp. 168-69. - P.W.G. 

The strong sense of form which led the painter 
Pechstein to the graphic arts also initiated his experi- 
ments with sculpture. Impressionism had rarely sent 
its disciples to the neighboring country. Yet the move- 
ment of those who aspired to a decorative-monumen- 
tal style of painting - that movement which had once 
accompanied the triumphal procession of the plein- 
air painters - was characterized by its development of 
a secret love of sculpture. The German-Romans 
heeded this call until the time of KJinger.' Expression- 
ism, separated from them by oceans but nevertheless 
connected by the secret channels of a subterranean 
stream - Marees^ - in accord with its nature had to 
feel itself drawn back to sculpture. 

Looking at Pechstein's paintings, at Pechstein's 
head and body, one would think that he would have 
worked even more as a sculptor on the side. But time 
and again it becomes obvious that by nature his sen- 
sual world view is so specifically focused with such 
intensity on the enjoyment of color that he could never 
be lured too far away by the abstraction of pure form. 
At any rate, his delight in craft at times moved him to 
also be active in the latter arena. 

Here, too, one can trace a logical and clear stylistic 
development running parallel to that of his painting.... 
In 1909, Pechstein carved several sculptures that did 
not deny their origin in the final phase of Impression- 
ism. Rodin's art seems to have acted as godfather 
Pechstein created a male bust that he himself cast, 
using a plaster model. He utilized the tin of discarded 
paint tubes. The bust is completely oriented toward 
capturing the momentary impression, toward move- 
ment. Just as Rodin had before, Pechstein made an at- 
tempt to capture the liveliness of natural appearances, 
to grasp the elements of a motion, the transition of a 
motion, detached as autonomous parts from the pic- 
ture of reality. This manner is represented even more 
pronouncedly in a bronze, the subject of which is a 
mother breast-feeding her child. The movement is 
tremendously bold. The mother's body is bent foi-ward 
beyond all natural posture, coiled, almost distorted. 
Obviously, Pechstein's intention is not simply to model 
the two figures, but rather the mystery of motherly 


1. Max KJinger (1857-1920): Nineteenth-century sculptor, 
graphic artist, and painter of complex allegories. - Ed. 

2. Hans von Marees (1837-1887): Important nineteenth-cen- 
tury German Romantic painter, who resided in Italy from 1873 
until his death. - Ed. 

Fig. 1 

Head(Kopf), 1908 
Plaster (Gips) 

nurturing. He wanted to express the essence of moth- 
erhood. The exaggeration was intended to serve this 
purpose. But within these parameters his presentation 
is completely in the manner of Rodin or of the younger 
Belgians who followed the French master. As in the tin 
bust, muscles and tendons, particularities of bone 
structure and skin, continue to speak. Later on such 
works can no longer be found. For in Pechstein's later 
sculptures, even when he allows his imagination to 
roam freely, he now seeks to concentrate the message 
of form; he is attempting a definite structure of 
authoritative planes, which are defined by clear, 
unambiguous contours. Once in a while he found a 
piece of marl on the North Sea island of Helgoland, 
and was unable to resist the temptation to carve a few 
small figures with his knife out of the soft and arfistic 
material - mermaids [figs. 4 and 5, p. 49], small squat- 
ting figures, half-animal, half-human, as if a wave had 
washed ashore a few petrified creatures from the bot- 
tom of the sea. They are odd sisters of the round, nude 
women who crouch on the beach in Pechstein's 
coastal paintings. They are miniature versions of the 
massive women with whom we are familiar, whose 
animalistic physicality is here turned, in a funny and 
secretive way, into that of fairy-tale creatures. 

But the true joy of sculpting took full possession of 
Pechstein only when he discovered the material that 
perfectly corresponded to his character: wood. A 
carved bust of 1913 reveals the complete transforma- 
tion. The material was problematic; it offered stronger 
resistance; therefore the depiction of nature was 
reduced to what constitutes its critical surface com- 



Fig. 2 

Head (KopJ), 1913 



Fig. 5 

J^ase Carrier (cat. no. 1 12), 1909. 

plexes. The stricter style of Pechstein the painter is 
mirrored here. And just as the South Sea journey 
brings this style to fruition in Pechstein's painting, 
here too, Pechstein's sculptural activity culminates in 
the decorative simplification of his carved figures of 
1919. This simplification constitutes a stripping away, 
consciously and fundamentally, of everything that 
might be considered imitative of nature. The Nun [fig. 
8, p. 50], the Moon [fig. 9, p. 50], the Quarter Moon [fig. 
6, p. 49] - these are carvings which to a large extent re- 
flect the primitive artistry with which Pechstein had 
become familiar on the Palau Islands: small idols, 
freed from the tree trunk, whose shapes shimmer 
through the enchantment; dreamlike appearances, 
the head and limbs of which are beginning to move in 
what seems to be the twilight of half-consciousness. 
They have a motionless, strictly bound posture, with 
extreme concentration on the structure of form. Just 
as in Pechstein's woodcuts, color is often added to 
these woodcarvings as an enlivening element. The fig- 
ures are painted in dark, full, and expressive colors, 
the strong contrasts of which adapt to the crude spatial 
cuts of the knife. The tones correspond to the material 
and become one with it. Thus these fruits of leisure 
hours filled with rich imagination have become 
impressive and enigmatic symbols of Pechstein's idea 
of art. 



Fig. 4 

Mermaid (Meerweibchen), 1913 



Fig. 5 

Young Mermaid (Meerjunges), 




Photograph by Pechstein 

In Osborn's publication, the 
date given for this sculpture 
was 1918. This has been 
changed here to follow Wietek 
(see p. 169). 

Fig. 6 

Quarter Moon (Viertelmond), 



Destroyed 1945 in Pechstein's 

Berlin studio. 



Fig. 7 

Wood Sculpture (Holzskulptur), 
1919; lost. 

Fig. 8 

The Nun (Die Nonne), 1919 



Fig. 9 

Moon (Nlond), 1919 


h: lOScm. (4|y8in.) 

Destroyed 1945 In Pechstein's 

Berlin studio. 






In 1919, [Friedrlch August] Max Sauerlandt (1880-1934) was appointed director of the Museum fiir Kunst und 
Gewerbe, Hamburg. In this position, he became the first German museum director to acquire and exhibit Briicke 
sculpture systematically in a public museum. As early as 1926, he began planning an exhibition of Briicke sculpture 
and crafts, and the 1 929 reinstallation of the modern collection enabled him to exhibit Briicke works throughout the 
Museum fiir Kunst und Gewerbe. Sauerlandt also served as the acting director of the Landeskunstschule Hamburg 
starting in 1930 and was a professor at the Universitat Hamburg, where in 1933 he taught a course - remarkable in 
its time - entitled "German Art of the Last Thirty Years." 

Several of Sauerlandt's many publications were devoted to the introduction and defense of the German Expres- 
sionists. In 1932, aware of the political threat posed by the Right, he wrote to a Danish friend describing the Expres- 
sionists as "the pillars of the bridge. ..which is built across the abyss threatening us." Sauerlandt was frequently criti- 
cized for his acquisition of Expressionist art and was removed from his university and museum positions by the 
Nazis shortly before his death in 1934. The essay translated here was originally published as "Holzbildwerke von 
Kirchner, Heckel und Schmidt-RottlulTim Hamburgischen Museum fiir Kunst und Gewerbe" in the journal Museum 
der Gegenwart: Zeitschrift der Deiitschen Museenjur Neuere Kunst, no. 1, 1930-31. The images reproduced here as 
figures 1 and 3 - 7 were included in the original essay. Permission to translate this essay is courtesy of the Museum 
fiir Kunst und Gewerbe, Hamburg, and Frau Charlotte Specht, Hamburg. - P.W.G. 

These fictions, these hieroglyphs that every art 
needs, are understood so poorly by those who want 
all truths to be natural, and who thereby tear art out 
of its sphere. - Goethe, Plato as a Companion of 
Christian Revelation, 1826 

In 1910, the decisive year for the contemporary 
period of German art. Max Liebermann, in his last 
term as president of the Berlin Secession, declared the 
following before Manet's Execution of the Emperor 
Maximilian: "In the face of this painting we find the 
confirmation of the truth that yesterday's revolutionar- 
ies have become today's classics." 

Since then the wheel has continued to turn, and the 
revolutionaries of 1910, who had been rejected by that 
exhibition, have become the recognized leaders of 
1930.' We are indebted to them for the most beautiful 
gift that a work of art can provide: a powerful height- 
ening and expanding of our perspective on life, a com- 
plete renewal of our world view. 

Perhaps it is possible to find within a period's final 
style, with all its apparent contradictions, the begin- 
nings of the new - transitional forms that are, as they 
say, latent. Yet the common opinion of current histori- 
ans - who would like to believe in an even flow of 
development and who hold that a violent break with 
tradition is impossible - is wrong. Even in the stream 
of artistic events there are cataracts - revolutions that 
bring forth an entirely new picture. 

We have witnessed such a spiritual revolution. It 
took place during the fertile five years prior to the year 
1910. With infallible instinctual certainty the artists 
who at that time created the foundations of a new form 

1. The jury of the Berlin Secession rejected twenty-seven 
Expressionist artists who thereupon founded their own e.xhi- 
bilion group - the Neue Sezession. Among the rejected were 
the members of the Briicke (Kirchner, Pechstein, Schmidt- 
RotUulT, and Mueller), as well as Moriz Melzer, Caesar Klein, 
Walter Helbig, Georg Tapperl, Jakob Steinhardt, and others. 
The Neue Sezession exhibited fifty-six paintings at the Galerie 
M. Macht in Berlin in 1910. - Ed. 

sensed that the ring of the developmental chain was 
closing. In their own time they sensed what Philipp 
Otto Runge- felt a hundred years earlier when he 
wrote: "Today once again something is coming to an 
end." Now what was coming to an end was the period 
of Impressionism, the last sigh of rehef of a long life of 
art, which in its best representatives had certainly 
shown greatness. 

It was a rich time for painting, which was then 
experiencing its first blossoming. Never hefore had so 
many great names and works appeared - and yet it 
was only the beginning. 

The works of art created during that period have 
made us aware of needs that we never experienced 
before, and in this awareness lies the path of our reju- 
venation: a need for form and color that are neither a 
rendition of reality nor an intensification of the forms 
and colors of reality but on the contrary, something en- 
tirely different that must autonomously stand in op- 
position to the appearance of reality, for the work of art 
bears within itself the law of its own form. 

Will the art of our times have far-reaching effect? 
One cannot measure with a yardstick effects upon the 
soul. Not breadth, but intensity of effect is decisive. And 
this intensity of the immediate effect is there. It guar- 
antees a breadth of effect as well. Spiritual change has 
always come about in this way: from the few to the 
many - but only if the few are conscious of their ob- 
ligation. The generation growing up today is already 
changed deep inside; it has, consciously or uncon- 
sciously, taken on the character of the new form. And 
this art has already proven to have the strength that 
brings forth life. 

We can without doubt say this in regard to painting. 
But it does not yet apply, at least not yet in the same 
degree, to the plastic form of sculpture. Nostra culpa. 

Who, after all, knows anything about the fact that 
sculpture, too, as is only natural, has experienced the 

2. Philipp Otto Runge (1777 - 1810): Outstanding painter rec- 
ognized by Goethe and others as the founder of German 
Romanticism. - Ed. 





Nude with a Bath Towel/Bathing 

Woman (Akt mit Tuch/Badende), 


Wood, painted 

Formerly Museum fiir Runst 

und Gewerbe, Hamburg 

Destroyed by the Nazis in 1937 

The 1905 date was provided In 
the original essay. For a discus- 
sion of the difficulties encoun- 
tered in dating Rirchner's 
sculpture, see Henze, p. 1 14. 

Fig. 2 


(German, 1893-1946) 

Portrait of Max Sauerlandt 

(Bildnis Max Sauerlandt) 



45.3 X 33.5 cm. (17% x 13'/. in.) 

Museum fiir Runst und 

Gewerbe, Hamburg 

(in exhibition) 

In the background of this por- 
trait of museum director Max 
Sauerlandt is Rirchner's Nude 
with a Bath Towel/Bathing 
H'oman (Akt mil Tuch/Badende), 
1909-10, [1905], (fig. 1, p. 52). 

same decisive new beginning during the same deci- 
sive years? If one runs through the old exhibition cata- 
logues of the Berhn Secession from the first decade of 
our century, it becomes frighteningly clear to what ex- 
tent the feeling for the true arfistic value of plastic 
form had died off in Germany at that time. That the 
boundai-y between nature and art had been obscured 
by a "monstrous skillfulness" holds true even more for 
the sculpture of that time than for its painting. 

And yet these years may be seen to have been of 
equally fundamental importance for sculpture when 
we look at the first plastic works of the same artists 
who initiated the new era of painting. But these first 
sculptures remained at that time, and even today, un- 
seen in the studios. Or they remained accessible only 
to the few, in the rooms of individual confidants. 

This achievement cannot be recognized completely, 
and will remain without effect, if these works do not 
also find their long-overdue place in public collec- 
tions, as is now the case in Hamburg. 

Ihe Nude with a Bath Towel / Bathing Woman [fig. 1, 
p. 52] drying herself off, sculpted by Rirchner in 1905, 
is the first and perfect example of the meaning of the 
"rhythm of the closed form" and "closed composition" 
in plastic art. In one uniform motion of articulated 
limbs, the human form, its height towering diagonally 
to the left, has been projected into the full alder block. 
It has been cut out of the full block, carved out in the 
powerful and lively rhj-thm of the constructed masses 
of head, trunk, legs, and feet with heavy blocks under- 
neath. The rh>1hm of color is equally grand, the strong 
and uniform yellow of the body being structured by 
the black, whereas the white of the bath towel height- 
ens the intensity of the black and yellow, binding the 
mass of the block together 

The pure, full colors of the painted wood nowhere 
cover up the structure of the wood or the traces of the 
work. Every blow of the axe and every cut of the knife 
remain directly, sensually perceptible, touchable to 
the eye. This is a genuine, unconcealed art of wood 
sculpture, quite different from the colorful wooden 
sculptures of the Middle Ages in which the back- 
ground of chalk and layers of paint and gilding make 
the wooden core completely disappear. In contrast, the 
particular artistic charm of this sculpture lies in the 
extremely fresh and lively treatment of the wood 

This is a figure that has been created by virtue of a 
truly admirable free spirit and inner independence, 
and its early year of creation initiates an era. Its spirit 
may be seen in all other wooden figures of this artistic 
circle, up to the present day: in the works of Erich 
Meckel, who uses color more sparingly most of the 
time; and in those oi Schniidt-Rottluff, whose plastic 
forms themselves are so sharply and deeply struc- 
tured, so markedly chiseled, that color is no longer 
required for the intensification of the rhythm of forms. 
On the contrary, color serves to bind the forms 
together into one unit. 

This may be seen, for example, in the two birch 
Heads in the Hamburg Museum. They originated dur- 



ing the War, in the year 1917. One of them is uniformly 
painted a dark red [Red Head, fig. 7, p. 54); the other 
one, Young Lithuanian IVoman [fig. 6, p. 54], a brilliant 
green. The colors hold their own beautifully next to 
the refracted, dense glass colors of Schmidt-RottlufTs 
first mosaic from the year 1924. The mosaic and sculp- 
tures are both in Hamburg; they are exhibited in the 
same staircase setting, which was remodeled in 1930. 

The forms of drawing, painting, and sculpture grow 
out of one and the same root. Kirchner still has his 
drawings of the same model who served as the basis 
for the yellow Nude with a Bath Towel / Bathing 

The idea for the Lovers [fig. 3, p. 53) of 1923 goes 
bacli even further. The woodcut Before the People 
(Schiefier, 65, ill. [Dube 1, 45))' originated in 1900, as 
the fifth page of the cycle Man and libnian. [In the 
woodcut) in front of a light background the couple, 
embracing and walking on the crest of a hill, to the 
right; in the foreground, a sardonically laughing and 
finger-pointing crowd; on the left black margin, white 
ornamental lines repeat in abstract form the contents 
of the picture. Fully twenty-four years later, the final 
painted version of this motif followed, in the great 
painting of Rirchner's mature style )fig. 4, p. 53). One 
year previously, he had carved the Lovers from a huge 
block of Swiss stone pine, the "wonderftil high moun- 
tain tree," as he writes. In the entire alpine area, all the 
way down to Salzburg, its resinous wood is used for 
carving, particularly for the big masks.' 

The composition of the painting, with its large areas 
of color, has been anticipated by the wooden sculpture, 
with its contrasting orange-colored ocher of the 
female and the reddish brown ocher of the male body, 
as in the painting of classical antiquity where the 
sexes are differentiated through a stark contrast in 
color Again, as in the case of the Nude with a Bath 
Towel / Bathing llbman, in this instance of a couple 
speaking in subdued gestures, color serves not only to 
sexually differentiate but also to interpret the clear 
structure of the masses and to give a lively rhythm to 
the plastic-spatial form. 

Schmidt-RottlufPs archetypal artistic method and 
Meckel's tender form contrast with Kirchner's ingen- 
ious mode, in spite of the identical pictorial material 
and the basically idenfical technique. This is exempli- 
fied for Schmidt-Rottluff by the aforementioned Heads 
of 1917, in which grim seriousness and heated passion 
are restrained; for Meckel, by a large Standing Woman 
)fig. 5, p. 54) of 1912, a Mary under the Cross, or even 
better, a Madonna of the Annunciation. It is a sculpture 
of maple wood which shyly covers its nakedness, so to 
speak, in itself. 

One may be in doubt as to which of these plastic 
styles should be awarded the highest rank. Yet in each 


3. Dube, 1967." -Ed. 

4. Ttie "big masks" referred to here are an important south- 
ern German and Austrian form of folk art. Ttiese masks are 
worn at Fasching (the season prior to Lent) in parades and 
processions. - Ed. 

Fig. 3 


Lovers (Liebespaar), 1923-24 

Swiss stone pine 

Formerly Museum fijr Runst 

und Gewerbe, Hamburg; 


Also known as Couple. 

Fig. 4 


Tivo Against the World (Das 

Paar vor den Menschen), 1924 

Oil on canvas 

150.5x100.5 cm. 


Kunsthalle, Hamburg 

Gordon, 765 



Fig. 5 


Tall Standing H'oman (Grosse 

Stehende), 1912 


h: 175 cm. (68% in.) 

Formerly Museum fiir Kunst 

und Gevverbe, Hamburg; lost 

since 1937 

Vogt, 8 

Acquired in 1930 by Max 
Sauerlandt for the Museum fiir 
Kunst und Gewerbe, Hamburg, 
this was one of Heckel's largest 
figures. Confiscated by the Na- 
zis in 1937, it was illustrated in 
the Entartete Kunst catalogue 
(p. 19), where it was described 
as a work "which truly bears a 
greater likeness to gorillas than 
to human beings." Also exhib- 
ited at the fYeie Sezession exhi- 
bition, Berlin, summer, 1920 
(see fig. 1, p. 112). 

one, the specific form is unequivocally defined in it- 
self, as is also the case in the painting styles of the 
same artists, who thus once more prove their inner 
freedom and their independence. 

Certainly, this is a kind of form we are unaccus- 
tomed to. Even today, all of this has a strange effect on 
us. But it is a kind of form that is speaking to us clearly, 
in the primeval sounds of plastic creativity and spiri- 
tual expression. These heavy and serious sculptures of 
our lime emphatically declare that art is no child's 
play, that works of art are not being created for enter- 
tainment, and that the often misused word beautiful 
has lost all meaning in relation to the work of art, 
because its creation has a different starting-point and 
a different goal than the starting-point and goal of so- 
called classical art. Certainly, it is an art that grew out 
of our time, not in spite of it or against it. It reveals the 
deep spiritual problems of our present day. But by 
presenting them, it already contains their solution. 

Such a form of art could be found only on individual 
paths, and he who before these works of art - be it in a 
laudatory or a shoulder-shrugging manner - speaks of 
"Negro art," only proves that he does not possess a 
sense for the decisive differences of artistically related 
phenomena, which it is all-important to see and to 
perceive. In order to become a work of art, every new 
perception demands its own techne, so as to unite the 
content and craft-method of the sculpture. If a new 
interpretation of the world were expressed in the 
usual form, by the usual means, it would have a lit- 
erai7 originality at best. The new work of art can only 
find its inception in the fusion of new perception with 
new form, as we find in these modern sculptures. 

Kg. 6 


Young Lithuanian Woman 

(Litauisches Mddchen), 1917 


Formerly Museum fiir Kunst 

und Gewerbe, Hamburg; 


Grohmann, p. 280 

Fig. 7 


Red Head (Roter KopJ), 1917 


Formerly Museum fiir Kunst 

und Gewerbe, Hamburg; 


Grohmann, p. 280 



Fig. 8 

Briicke art as installed by Max 
Sauerlandt in the stairwells of 
the Museum fiir Kunst und 
Gewerbe, Hamburg, 1930-33. 
From left to right: a Schmidt- 
Rottluff mosaic; Meckel's Tall 
Standing Woman (fig. 5, p. 54); a 
Schmidt-Rottluff woodcut; and 
Schmidt-Rottluff s Red Head 
(fig. 7, p. 54). 

Fig. 9 

Briicke art as installed by Max 
Sauerlandt in the stairwells of 
the Museum fiJr Kunst und 
Gewerbe, Hamburg, 1930-33. 
From left to right: Schmidt- 
RottlufTs Young Lithuanian 
IVoman (fig. 6, p. 54); a woodcut 
by Schmidt-Rottluff; Kirchner's 
Lovers (fig. 3, p. 53); and 
Kirchner's Nude with a Bath 
Towel/Bathing Woman (fig. 1, 
p. 52). 



Alexander Archipenko 
Born 1887 Kiev, Russia; 
died 1964 New York, U.S.A. 

Alexander Archipenko is 
regarded as one of the 
most experimental sculp- 
tors of the first third of our 
centurj. His numerous in- 
novations in form, tech- 
nique, and materials ex- 
erted an extraordinary 
influence on the course of 
development of modern sculpture. 

In 1902, he entered the art school in Kiev, but, after a 
period spent studying the fundamentals of painting 
and sculpture, he developed a definite aversion to aca- 
demic instruction. He moved to Paris in 1908 and 
began studying Egyptian, Assyrian, Archaic Greek, 
and early Gothic works on his own. Archipenko re- 
marked of this time: "My real school was the Louvre 
and 1 attended it daily."' 

While the earliest bronze sculptures that 
Archipenko created in Paris were influenced by the 
decorative lines of Jugendstil, or Art Nouveau (e.g., 
Adam and Eve, 1908), the works of the following year 
reveal a turn toward the primitive. His Suzanne of 
1909 (stone, Norton Simon Museum, Pasadena, 
California), a voluminous torso with heavy hips, large 
hands, and reduced forms, would be unimaginable 
without the precedent of the blocklike sculptures of 
Andre Derain. Derain's Crouching Figure ( 1907, stone. 
Museum des 20. Jahrhunderts, Vienna) is immediately 
called to mind. 

In 1910, Archipenko joined the Cubists and exhib- 
ited his works in the Salon des Independants. He began 
to engage in the geometric subdividing of the human 
body into the fragmented forms typical of Cubism. The 
figure became merely a vehicle to be transformed into 
a rhythmic interplay of volume and concave form, of 
light and shadow. 

In this connection, the previously unpublished 
sculpture Kneeling Couple in Embrace (cat. no. 2) is 
exemplary. It combines the pronounced blocklike 
character of the sculptures of 1909-10 with a stylized 
interlacing of figures engaged in coordinated pro- 
cesses of motion. This latter motif is also apparent in 
the two sculptures entitled The Kiss (1910 and 191 1, 
plaster [GipsJ, 1911 version destroyed), in which the 
bond of the figures to the block is further strengthened 
by a strong base. The special weight and expressive 
deformity assumed by the forms in the Kneeling Cou- 
ple are not solely due to the choice of wood as a me- 
dium. In fact, as opposed to the sculptures of the 
Briicke artists, the effect of the wood as material has 
been considerably reduced. Archipenko was con- 
cerned with the extreme abstraction of the physical 
form and its transformation into a rhythmically ani- 
mated configuration. In this particular sculpture, the 
difTering degrees of abstraction evidenced in the var- 
ious forms refiect a stage of the artist's development; 
the fusion of objective form and autonomous structure 
feels slightly forced. 

1. Quoted in Wiese, 1923. 

The bronze Draped libnian (cat. no. 1 ) is even more 
dominated by contrasting forms, which in this case 
comprise a traditional motif of figural sculpture -body 
and garment. The contrast of the softly rounded, styl- 
ized body and the hard, angular folds of the material is 
diminished by abstraction - notably the cutting off of 
the left arm. Apart from these characteristics, the fig- 
ure owes its Expressionist effect to the tension of its 
proportions and to the dynamic equilibrium of the 
body. As in {he Kneeling Couple, the shape of the base 
emphasizes the three-dimensionality of the sculpture. 

In 1912, Archipenko sent his work to the Folkwang 
Museum in Hagen, where his first German one-man 
exhibition was held. In Germany, sculptors reacted 
slowly to Archipenko's innovations, due in part to the 
adverse conditions which existed during the First 
World War. In their ready-mades, the Dadaists were in- 
fiuenced by his novel creative techniques and com- 
binations of materials, while the late Expressionists of 
the Berlin Novembergruppe (Belling, Emy Roeder, 
Garbe, and Herzog) took up his less provocative sculp- 
tural forms, concentrating on the Cubist reduction of 
form and on the activation of voids. 

During the early teens, developments in 
Archipenko's work were various and complex. He 
arrived at an equal treatment of void and mass, as seen 
in his Striding Man (1912, bronze) and Woman Comb- 
ing Her Hair (c. 1914, bronze). This dissolving of form 
was followed by constructions related to Synthetic 
Cubism. The IValking Woman (1912, bronze) consists 
of a combination of heterogeneous parts which no 
longer imitate organic forms but merely invite objec- 
tive associations through structural context. 

Apart from these pioneering works, a second group 
developed, which at first glance appears more conven- 
tional. It replaced the montage principle with the 
dynamic arabesque of motion. Like the first group, 
however, volume was reduced and composition light- 
ened. In Red Dance (fig. 2, p. 58), the figure reaches out 
into or embraces space, animating the spatial environ- 
ment. The figure's communication of specific sculp- 
tural values is more important than its objective motif 
of motion. The free proportioning of the body em- 
phasizes the rhythm of movement, and the parallel 
and symmetrical relations of the individual parts of 
the body reveal the contrast of mass and space. Blue 
Dancer (1913, bronze) is a comparatively more bal- 
anced version of this dance motif. 

A third group of works, even more important for the 
development of modern sculpture, also originated 
around 1912. The "sculpto-painfings" display rhyth- 
mic contrasts through new combinations of materials 
- wood, glass, wire, found objects - as well as novel 
techniques - for example the combination of collage 
and painting (e.g., Medrano I. 1912, figural construc- 
tion of wood, glass, metal, metal wire; probably 
destroyed during World War I). In his selection of new 
materials on the basis of their aggressive modernity, 
Archipenko fulfilled Boccioni's demand as stated in 


Ills Manifesto tecnico della scultura futurista.- 
Archipenko's technique of assemblage furthered the 
development of the collage into three dimensions. 

Archipenko's Carrousel Pierrot (1913, painted plas- 
ter fOipsJ. The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, 
New \brk) synthesized some of his innovations; the 
robotlike sculpture demonstrates mechanization of 
the figure by the introduction of abstract geometric 
elements. The thin, flat planes and the mechanical for- 
mal connections of Archipenko's 1913 bronze head 
constructions and his sculpture fioxfrs (c. 1913, 
bronze) (the latter was described by art historian 
Carola Giedion-Welcker as a "plastic play of fugues") 
correspond to the principles of Synthetic Cubism 
found in Duchamp-Villon's //orsf (1914, bronze) and 
Jacob Epstein's /Joc/i- flri// (1913-15, bronze). 

By the beginning of the twenties, critical awareness 
of Archipenko's historical merits had lessened, in part 
due to the altered orientation toward Neue Sachlich- 
keit. The critic Carl Einstein attempted a polemical 
devaluation of Archipenko as an imitator of Picasso's 
Cubist painting. At times it appeared as if Archipenko 
was himself in compliance with such polemics, for 
during the twenties he was largely content with creat- 
ing variations on his previous inventions, although 
some new figure types were added. An exhibition tour 
of Europe in 1919-21 made Archipenko's work widely 
known, and in 1921 he had his first American one-man 
exhibition at The Museum of Modern Art in New York. 
In 1921-23, Archipenko lived in Berlin, where he met 
his wife, the sculptor Gela Forster (nee Angelica 
Bruno-Schmitz), who was a member of the Sezession: 
Gruppe 1919. (See pp. 30-33 of this catalogue for a 
conlemporan' account of Forster's work.) During this 
period, .Archipenko's reputation in Germany was at its 
peak, but the artist's one-man exhibition at the 
Runsthalle Mannheim in 1922 was to be his last Ger- 
man exhibition for many years. 

When Archipenko moved to the United States in 
1923, his work was already well known from his 
participation in the 1915 Armory Show. Upon his 
arrival in New York, he founded an art school and in 
1924 invented the ".\rchipentura" - a variable image 
system or "movable painting" which presented that 
medium in temporal as well as spatial terms. 

Sustained European connections are reflected in the 
artist's portraits of the twenties and thirties. From the 
very beginning of his career as a sculptor, Archipenko 
had created portraits, his stylistic range extending 
from naturalism to the extreme Head Construction 
with Crossed Planes (1913, bronze). Archipenko's por- 
trait of Wilhelm Furtwangler (cat. no. 3) was based on 
his impressions of the conductor's performance at a 
concert in New York in 1927. The vivid modeling of the 
sculpture's surface, the impressive play of light and 

2. Umberlo Boccioni, Manifesto tecnico delta scuttiira 
fiiturista, published as a leaflet in Milan by Poesia, April 1 1, 
1912; reprinted as Technical Manifesto of Futurist Sculpture 
1912, trans. Robert Brain, in Futurist Manifestos, ed. Umbro 
Apiilliinio, London: Thames & Hudson, 1973, pp. 51-65. 

shadow, and the extension of gestures into space cre- 
ate a baroque realism that recalls the work of Rodin, 
whom Archipenko had so strongly opposed in his early 

In 1937, Archipenko's works were removed from 
German museums as "degenerate." But his productiv- 
ity in America was unabated. In 1928, he had become 
an American citizen; American museums were eager 
to acquire his work, and he was also in demand as a 
teacher. Invitations included one from Laszio Moholy- 
Nagy to teach at the New Bauhatis in Chicago. 
Archipenko created an extensive oeuvre in America 
and continued to develop the themes of his earlier 
work. An Archipenko retrospective was organized by 
the UCLA Art Galleries in 1967. - J. H. v W. 


Fig. 1 

Archipenko at work on Woman 
in Vase-Form (Frau in I'asen- 
form), 1919. 

Fig. 2 

Red Dance (Holer Tanz), 


Plaster (Gips), tinted red 

h: 90 cm. (35.4 in.) 

Karl Ernst Osthaus Museum, 




Cal. no. 1 

Draped Woman (Frau mil 
Tuch), 1911 /cast later 
Bronze, 6/6 
56 X 29 X 32 cm. 
(22 X ll'/ax 12'/2in.) 
Kunsthalle Bielefeld 

Inscribed Archipcnko/ Paris with 
casting number on base. From an 
edition of 6, cast at the Modern Art 
Foundry, New York. 

Cat. no. 2 

Kneeling Couple in Embrace 

(Kniendes Paar in Umarmung), 



32 X 33 X 23.4 cm. 

(12% X 13x9'/4in.) 

Staatliche Runstsammlungen 

Rassel, Neue Galerie 

Cal. no. 3 

ll'ilhelm Fiirtwangler Conduct- 
ing (iVilhelm Furtwdngler 
dirigierend), c. 1927-28 

93.5 X 85 x 72 cm. 
(36y4x33'/2X 285/8 in.) 
Hessisches Landesmuseum, 

Inscribed .-Irc/i/pen/co on r. sleeve; I'V. 
Furtwanglcr dirige a New York 1927 
on b. r; Dedie a Alfred Flechtheim en 
souvenire dc son SO anniversaire on 
1. side of garment; Lumiere on b. 1. 
(indicating that a light should fall on 
the figure in the direction of the 
arrow). Baton added later From an 
edition cast in 1928 on the occasion 
of Alfred ["lechtheim's 50th birthday. 
Another edition was cast by H. 
Noack, Berlin in I960 for the 
Philharmonic in the same city. 



Ernst Barlach 
Born 1870 Wedel; 
died 1938 Rostock. 

Ernst Barlach was born in 
the northwest of Germany, 
the eldest son of a physi- 
cian who died when he 
was only fourteen. From 
1888 to 1891, he studied at 
llie Hamburg Runst- 
gewerbeschule. He contin- 
ued his education at the 
Dresden Kunstal<adeniie, studying under the sculptor 
Robert Diez from 1891 to 1895, and additionally spent 
two short periods at the Academic Julian in Paris. 

Upon finishing his studies, Barlach, although tech- 
nically proficient and certainly aware of the 
semiclassical style preferred at the time, had not 
experienced any significant artisfic development. He 
was hired by his friend Karl Gaber to assist in the ex- 
ecution of architectural sculptures for the city halls of 
Hamburg and Altona, but somehow felt dissatisfied. 
He stayed in Berlin for two years and then returned in 
frustration to Wedel, his hometown, where he began 
to make small ceramic sculptures. In 1904, he taught 
for a year at the Fachschule fiir Keramik in Hohr but 
returned to Berlin in 1905. 

The year 1906, however, witnessed two important 
events: the birth of Barlach's illegitimate son Nikolaus, 
whom he adopted after a legal battle, and Barlach's 
emergence as a sculptor. For two months during this 
year, he traveled - to Warsaw, Kiev, and then to 
Kharkov to visit his brother. On this trip, he suddenly 
began to see the world and the human form in a new 
way. No single event effected this change; it was rather 
as if a vague but long-standing idea had finally made 
its importance felt. Barlach now fully realized that 
there was a way to fuse the depiction of man's inner 
emotions, hopes, dreams, disappointments, and 
sufferings with his outward appearance. The simpli- 
city of the people Barlach encountered in the context 
of the vast Russian landscape proved to be a revelation. 

In his Russian diaries,' Barlach described this new 
vision, and, shortly after his return to Berlin, he trans- 
lated it into small sculptures. The garment of the Blind 
Beggar (cat. no. 4) already shows his characteristic 
avoidance of the particular and accidental. The Rus- 
sian Beggarwoman with Bowl (cat. no. 5) was the art- 
ist's second attempt to represent his Russian exper- 
ience. Paul Cassirer, the famous gallery owner, oft'ered 
Barlach a contract with a yearly salary in 1907, and the 
artist, now thirty-seven, began to work intensely, al- 
most as if to make up for lost time (see Russian 
Beggarwoman II (cat. no. 7]). 

Barlach's first wooden sculpture was the bearded 
Russian Shepherd {1907; Schult, 77). In a diary entry of 
January 1908, he noted that his lack of experience in 
working with wood had resulted in his cutting himself 
while creaUng this sculpture.- Despite this mishap, 


1. Barlach, 1958, pp. 239fr. 

2. In a letter to Arthur Eloesser, October 1, 1932; see Ernst 
Barlach, Leben und iVerk in seinen Briefen, ed. Friedrich Dross, 
Munich; R. Piper & Co. Verlag, 1952, pp. 174-75. 

Barlach came to prefer wood as a sculptural material 
and maintained this preference throughout his life. 
His second work in this medium, the heavy Seated 
llbman of 1908 (cat. no. 8), resembles an archaic 
fertility figure. A human mountain with large hands 
resting on her spread knees, the llbman's generalized 
forms emphasize her essential humanity. In the same 
year, Barlach made his first large wood sculpture. 
Shepherd in the Storm (Kunsthalle Bremen; 
Schult, 93). 

In 1909, Barlach won the Villa Romana Prize which 
provided a stipend for a ten-month stay in Florence, 
but Italian art failed to influence him. \\Tiile in Italy, he 
continued to work on pieces which he had brought 
with him from Germany, as well as spending time with 
the poet Theodor Daubler and the writer Moeller van 
den Bruck. Soon after returning to Germany, Barlach 
moved to the small northern town of Giistrow, where 
he remained for the rest of his life. He not only contin- 
ued working untiringly in sculpture and graphics, but 
also began a serious writing careen In 1912, his first 
drama, Der tote Tag (The Dead Day), illustrated with 
twenty-seven of his own lithographs, was published by 
Paul Cassirer. His work could now be divided into 
three parallel pursuits: sculpture, graphic art, and 

The First World War occasioned a three-month in- 
terruption of Barlach's work, during which he served 
in a nearby camp. Along with other German Expres- 
sionists, including Kirchner and Beckmann, Barlach 
initially welcomed the War as a vehicle for social 
change. Within two years, however, the artist, and 
most of the Expressionists with him, had come to rec- 
ognize its inhumanity. The Avenger {caL nos. 9 and 10), 
with its Cubist and Futurist elements, is one of the 
most dramatic and powerful of Barlach's works. It 
belongs to that group of sculptures designated 
Berserker (Schult, 105 and 1 18) by the artist. In 1914, 
Barlach could comment enthusiastically: "To me this 
Berserker is the crystallized essence of War, the assault 
of each and every obstacle rendered credible."' The 
same figure used in \.he Avenger appears in the litho- 
graph The Holy War (cat. no. 11). Another wartime 
work. The Ecstatic One: The Desperate One (cat. no. 
12), was modeled after a Giistrow bricklayer. It is one 
of Barlach's most dramatic figures and one in which 
gesture is all-important. Wearing a long, heav^ over- 
coat, the figure takes a great stride forward; his face is 
raised, his mouth is agape, his elbows are sharply 
angled upward with his hands locked behind his head. 
The torso is one solid block and only a single large fold 
of the coat - reaching from the right hip to the left calf 
- defines the figure. 

The first large exhibiUon of Barlach's work was held 
in 1917 in Paul Cassirer's gallery in Berlin. About two 
dozen wood sculptures, as well as numerous draw- 
ings, lithographs, and plaster models were shown. As 
important as the exhibition was, it did not prove to be a 
commercial success. Nevertheless, the critics became 

3. Barlach, 1959, p. 43. 


aware of the "new" sculptor; Cassirer was pleased; 
and later Barlach gratefully wrote in his autobiog- 
raphy, "He [Cassirer] took my lambs out to pasture, he 
cared for the freezing first born."+ 

Barlach's second play, Der arme letter (The Poor 
Cousin), was published in 1918. In the same year, he 
created Man in the Stocks in wood (cf. cat. no. 14), a 
sculpture which communicates man's "imprison- 
ment" in this world, as well as indicating the percep- 
tion of a power that can release him. The position of 
the figure's head and hands in this sculpture is closely 
related to that depicted in the later lithograph Ex 
projiindis (1924). Barlach also began to make his first 
woodcuts in 1918; these established a new standard of 
expressiveness and strength in his work. The woodcut 
The Transformations of God: The First Day (cat. no. 
17) was based on drawings made in 1919-20 and was 
cut in wood in 1920-21. It is the first print from the 
portfolio The Transformations of God and inspired the 
sculpture God the Father Hovering (cat. no. 18). 

The year 1919 saw Barlach made a member of the 
Preussische Akademie der Kiinsle in Berlin and the 
creation of his sculpture Hooded Beggarwoman/ 
Charity (cat. no. 15). This work is a three-dimensional 
enlargement of the woman seen in the center of the 
relief Death and Life (cat. no. 13); this same figure 
reappears on the lower left of the Magdeburg ll'ar Me- 
morial (1929; see below). 

Throughout the twenfies, Barlach's reputation grew. 
In 1924, he received the prestigious KJeist-Preis (KJeist 
Prize) for his dramatic and written works, and in 1925, 
he was made an honorai^ member of the Miinchner 
Akademie der Kiinste. In February 1926, Cassirer's 
gallery presented thirty-seven wood sculptures in an 
exhibition which established Barlach's fame; he was 
then fifty-six years old. Cassirer himself, however, was 
unable to share in this "victory," having committed 
suicide shortly before. 

Ofilcial commissions followed this success, includ- 
ing some for war memorials. The War Memorial for 
the Gilstrow Cathedral (fig. 2, p. 68) was a life-size 
human figure suspended horizontally from two strong 
chains. The raised head and the garment, which 
becomes wider toward the naked feet, indicate less a 
flying than a hovering motion. Aside from the Singing 
Man of 1928 (Schult, 343), this memorial is probably 
Barlach's best-known work. The artist made a present 
of the work to the Giistrow Dom (cathedral); the con- 
gregation paid only for the bronze. The sculpture was 
dismantled in 1937 by the Nazis and melted down for 
scrap metal. A second bronze was made from the 
original form in 1942, and it survived the War. It is now 
installed in the .Antoniterkirche in Cologne. An addi- 
tional bronze was cast from this second one and has 
been installed in the Giistrow Dom. Barlach stated that 
he had the face of Kathe Rollwitz in mind when he 
sculpted the head. 

Other sculptural commissions executed by Barlach 
include those for the Universitatskirche in Kiel (1928; 

4. Barlach, 1928, p. 44. 

cut in three parts 1937-38; reassembled and currently 
in front of the Nikolai-Rirche, Kiel); for the Mag- 
deburg Dom (1929; in 1934 moved into the basement 
of the Nationalgalerie, Berlin, due to the protests of 
right-wing members of the congregation); and for 
Hamburg (the first proposal was rejected; a second 
commission was completed in 1932; it was removed in 
1937). Some commissions were rejected upon submis- 
sion: the city council of Malchin and right-wing 
groups protested Barlach's designs, and the same fate 
befell his Pietd intended as a war memorial for 
Stralsund. The nonheroic forms with which Barlach 
conveyed the sufferings of widows, orphans, and of the 
soldiers themselves, as well as his expression of res- 
ignation in the face of man's inhumanity to man, were 
clearly unacceptable to the increasingly nationalistic 
right wing. 

In 1930, Barlach had been approached by Car! 
Georg Heise, director of the Museum fiir Kunst und 
Rulturgeschichte, Liibeck, to sculpt a group of sixteen 
figures which were to fill the niches of the Gothic brick 
west facade of St. Katharinenkirche in Liibeck. The 
plan allowed for the creation of two versions of each 
figure; one version was to be sold to cover expenses 
for each Liibeck figure. Between 1930 and 1932, 
Barlach made three figures, which he referred to as 
Community of Saints: The Beggar (cat. no. 22); The 
Singer {1951; Schult, 389); and The Woman in the Wind 
(1932; Schult, 411). But the sale of the duplicate ver- 
sions was disappointing; protests in Liibeck were loud, 
and the project was discontinued. In 1952, Barlach 
suggested that Gerhard Marcks be asked to complete 
the group. Only after the Second World War did 
Marcks finish five figures, the cycle having been 
reduced to eight. 

From among Barlach's sculptures of these years, 
The Fluteplayer (1936) is included in the exhibition in 
three versions: a plaster (cat. no. 24), a bronze (cat. no. 
25), and a teakwood sculpture (cat. no. 26). These 
works were executed nearly sixteen years after the 
preparatory drawing of 1919-20 (cat. no. 16) and indi- 
cate Barlach's thematic continuity. They also permit a 
study of the way he worked in different media. The lit- 
tle shepherd, leaning backward and playing his 
shawm, is nearly covered by his large cloak. Only his 
sharply angled legs, his hands, and his face are articu- 
lated. Thus enveloped, he appears to be transported by 
his music. 

Barlach's works give form to the most fundamental 
level of human life and suffering, frequently touching 
upon hunger and misery, death and grief. No acci- 
dental or nervous gesture breaks the closed forms; the 
heavy garments prevent detail from disturbing formal 
unity. The faces, too, avoid specifics, summarizing in- 
stead a state of existence. There are, however, no 
abstract forms in the works of Ernst Barlach. For this 
artist, only the human form was capable of canning 
meaning for man. If the term E:rpressionism indicates 
an art which manifests in visible forms the inner life of 
mankind, then of all Expressionists Barlach must be 
considered the greatest. 



Before the thirties, Barlach had refrained from 
entering into poHtical discussions. Looliing bacl; at the 
First World War, however he reproached himself for 
not speaking out against it. WTien the Nazis came to 
power in 1933, the shy and withdrawn Barlach gave a 
radio address in which he protested against the e,\pul- 
sion of Heinrich Mann and Rathe RoUwitz from the 
Akademie der Riinste. 

Both are degrading, silence and compulsion to si- 
lence. For example, when an artist may not create 
art because the realization of his most burning wish 
is prohibited everywhere by the ideological cate- 
chism of those in authority, this must be regarded as 
degrading, since it denies validation of his madness 
[from the outside] to equal his achievement of self- 

Barlach's works were taken out of the 1936 exhibition 
of the Preussische Akademie der Riinste, together 
with those of Rollwitz and Lehmbruck, and a volume 
of Barlach's drawings, ready for distribution to the 
bookstores, was confiscated. By July-August 1937, 381 
of Barlach's works had been seized from various 
museums and removed from public view. In Decem- 
ber, he was informed that he would no longer be 
permitted to exhibit. One year later, Barlach died in a 
clinic in Rostock and was buried on October 28, 1938, 
in Ratzeburg with Georg Rolbe, Rathe Rollwitz, 
Gerhard Marcks, Rarl Schmidt-Rottluff, and Hermann 
F. Reemtsma in attendance. - P.W.G. 

Although in February of 1933, Barlach was honored 
with the prestigious Orden Pour le Merite (Order of 
Merit), the highest peacetime honor which Germany 
had to bestow, one month later, when the church coun- 
cil of Magdeburg began to demand the removal of his 
war memorial, he became aware of the bitter times 
ahead. Friends still bought or commissioned works, 
and the collector Hermann F. Reemtsma made it possi- 
ble for him to complete Frieze of the Listeners (Schult, 
317- 31), which was originally begun as the base for 
a memorial to Beethoven (fig. 1, p. 62). 

In 1935, however, the Nazi attack on Barlach's art 
became even more obvious-After a successful opening 
performance of his drama Die echten Sedemunds (The 
Genuine Sedemunds) in Altona, subsequent perfor- 
mances were prohibited. A sculpture. Das ll'iedersehen 
(sometimes called the Doubting Thomas; Schult, 307), 
was removed from view at the museum in Schwerin. 

5. Barlach, 1959, p. 421. 



Barlach in his studio, 1935; in 
background. Frieze of the Lis- 
teners (Fries der Lauschenden) 
(Schult I, 317-331). 



Cat. no. 4 

Blind Beggar (Blinder Bettler), 
1906/cast 1912-13 

25.6x23.1 X 19.6 cm. 
(10 X 9 X yVio in.) 
The Robert Gore Rifkind Collec- 
tion, Beverly Hills, California 
Schult I, 60 

Inscribed Schivarzburger 
IVerkstaUen fUr Porzellankunst or\ 
underside of base next lo form num- 
ber V 61; blue insignia of running 
fox on underside of base. From a 
large, unnumbered edition cast in 
1912-13. Cf. Schult 1, 59 (Mutz 

Cat. no. 5 

Russian Beggarwonian with 
Bowl (Bussische Bettlerin mil 
Schale). 1906/cast 1912-13 

23.5 X 25.3 X 18.2 cm. 
(9V4 X 10 X 7'A in.) 
The Robert Gore Rifkind Collec- 
tion, Beverly Hills, California 
Schult I, 62 

Inscribed Schivarzburger 
i'VerkstdttenJur Porzellankunst on 
underside of base next to form num- 
ber U 62; blue insignia of running 
fox on underside of base. From a 
large, unnumbered edilion cast in 
19t2-t3. Cf.SchultI, 61 (Mutz 

Cat. no. 6 

Five Figure Studies (Filnf 

figurliche Studien). 1906-07 

Pencil on paper 

26.4 X 35.9 cm. 

(lOVsx 14"/sin.) 

Ernst Barlach Hans, Stiftung 

Hermann F. Reemtsma, 


Schult III, 473 

Page 14 of Barlach's "Russian 
Sketchbook"; one figure is inscribed 
wdrmt die Hdnde (warming the 
hands). The figure on the bottom r. 
is one of several sketches of Russian 
beggarwomen; her pose strongly 
suggests that of the sculpture Rus- 
sian Beggarwonian I] (cat. no. 7). 

Cat. no. 7 (ill., p. 65) 
Russian Beggarwoman 11 
(Russische Bettlerin II). 1907 
Plaster (Stukkoguss), inider 
dark shellac 
24 X 44.5 X 19 cm. 
The Robert Gore Rifkind Collec- 
tion, Beverly Hills, California 
Schult I, 70 

Inscribed E. Barlach on I. side of 
base. Cf. Schult I, 71 (bronze). After 
Barlach created the original clay 
sculpture, this plaster (Stukkogiiss) 



was casl from the first mold, at the 
same time that the plaster model 
(ll'erkmodeH) was made. Tlie model 
for the bronze is in the collection of 
the Barlach family., p. 63) 
Seated IVoman (Sitzendes IVeib), 

20.5 X 17.2 X 10 cm. 
Germanisches National- 
museum, Nuremburg; 
on Loan from a Private 
Collection, PI 3048 
Schull 1, 80 

Inscribed E. Barlach on b. lower r. A 
plaster (Gips) from 1906-07 (Schult 
1, 75) in the Ernst Barlach Nachlass 
in the Ernst-Barlach-Gedenkstatte 
der DDR, Giislrow — hereinafter re- 
ferred to as Giistrow — was the 
model (lierkmodell) for this piece. 
Two numbered bronzes (Schult I, 
76) were cast in 1947. An edition of 
bronzes, to be consecutively num- 
bered 3-15 and to be cast at H. 
Noack, Berlin, was announced in 

Cat. no. 9 

The Avenger (Der Rdcher), 1914 
Plaster (Stukkoguss), under 
dark shellac 
45.5 X 61 x 23 cm. 
(18x24x9'/. in.) 
The Robert Gore Rilliind Collec- 
tion, Beverly Hills, California 
Schult I, 166 
(Los Angeles only) 
Ex-coll. Hallerman, Kiel 

One of 5 plasters made in 1914 from 
Barlach's original clay model. 
.\nother plaster (Stukkoguss), 
slightly damaged, is currently in 
Giistrow. The plaster work model 
(GipS'fVerkmodell) used for the 
bronze edition begun in 1930 is still 
in the possession of the Barlach fam- 
ily and is housed at the H. Noack 
Foundrj', Berlin. It shows the wear of 
many castings. The exhibited plas- 
ter is the only one of the 5 which 
retains its original character. One of 
the plasters served as the model for 
the larger 1922 wood version (Schult 
I. 271). The wood version, formerly 
in the collection of the INational- 
galerie, Berlin, was sold by the Nazis 
at the Galerie Fischer sale, Lucerne, 
1959 (lot 3). This sculptural image 
was initially called Berserker i\r 3. 



12 10 

The Avenger (Der Rdcher), 

1914/cast after 1930 


44 X 22 X 58 cm. 

(I7'/8X 9x25 '/sin.) 

a) Hirshhorn Museum and 
Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington, D.C. 
(Los Angeles and Washington 

b) Museum Ludwig, Cologne 
(Cologne only) 

Schuit 1, 167 

From a projected edition of 10 
bronzes cast under the auspices of 
Barlach's dealer Alfred Flechtheim 
at the H. Noack Foundi7, Berlin, 
beginning in 1930. (Cf Schuit I, 166 
(plaster) and Schuit I, 271 [wood].) 
Many editions have been cast at the 
H. Noack Foundry from the plaster 
work model (Gips-H'erkmodelt) 
which is currently in the possession 
of the Barlach family The first 
bronzes cast were numbered. After 
1933, however, the numbers were 
abandoned in par't to frustrate any 
iNazi attempt to determine the total 
number of casts in existence; the Na- 
zis considered Barlach a degenerate 
artist. Schuit has incorrectly indi- 
cated that the bronze was stamped 
with a date of 1922. 

Cat. no. 11 

The Holy War (Der 
heilige Krieg), 1914 
Lithograph, p. 3 from the pe- 
riodical Kriegszeit (JVartime), 
no. 17, December 16, 1914 
41.3x25.4 cm. 

The Robert Gore Rifkind Center 
for German Expressionist Stud- 
ies, the Los Angeles County 
Museum of Art. The Robert 
Gore Rifkind Library, Pur- 
chased with Funds Provided by 
Anna Bing Arnold, Museum Ac- 
quisition Funds and 
Deaccession Funds 
Schuit II, 65 

This lithograph was drawn after the 
then-in-process plaster (Gips) of 
The Avenger (Der Rdcher). See cat. 
no. 9. 12 

The Ecstatic One: The Desperate 

One (Der Ekstatiker: Der 

Verzweifelte), 1916 


52 X 16x35 cm. 

(20y2 x 6'/4 x IS'A in.) 

Kunsthaus Zurich 

Schuit I, 181 

Inscribed E Barlach 1916 on base, 
1. 1. The plaster from 1911-12 
(Schuit 1, 1 19) in Gustrow was the 
model (J'Verkmodell) for this piece. 



Cat. no. 13 

Death and Life (Tod und Leben), 

1916-17/cast posthumously 

Bronze relief 

50.5 X 41.8 X 3.3 cm. 

(19% X 16'/2X I'/sin.) 

Ernst Barlach Haus, Stiftung 

Hermann F. Reemtsma, 


Schult 1, 186 

Inscribed E Barlach 1. r. Four casts 
are stamped H. Noack Berlin. An edi- 
tion of 1 1 additional bronze casts 
uas announced in 1981. The plaster 
from 1916-17 (Schult 1, 185) was 
the model Olerkmodell) for this 

Cat. no. 14 

Man in the Stocks (DerMann im 

Stock), 1918 


35 X 23 X 23 cm. 

(135/4 X 9 X 9 in.) 

Private Collection 

Schult I, 205 

Signed E Barlach and stamped Rich. 
Barth Bin. .Mariendorf on l.b. This 
piece, formerly in the collection of 
Gustav Stein, is one of a few bronzes 
cast by the independent founder 
Richard Barth in Berlin between 
1940 and 1942. It is also one of a very 
small number of Barlach sculptures 
which were not cast by H. Noack in 
Berlin. This latter occurence is ex- 
plained by the fact that H. Noack, the 
"ofTicial" foundry for Barlach sculp- 
tures, was not permitted to operate 
fora period of a few years during the 


15 15 

Hooded Beggarwoman/ Charity 

(Verhiillte Bettlerin/Barm- 

herzigkeit), 1919 


38 X 30.5 X 34 cm. 

(15xl2x ISVsin.) 

Private Collection 

Schult I, 215 

Inscribed £ Bar/ac/i 1919 on base, 
1. 1. The plaster (Gips) from 1919 
(Schult I, 214) is in Gtislrow. Some 
bronzes were cast in 1961 (Ernst 
Barlach Haus, Hamburg); a total edi- 
tion of 15 casts was announced in 

Cat. no. 16 (ill., p. 70) 

The Fluteplayer (DerFloten- 

bldser), 1919-20 

Charcoal on paper 

34.8 X 25.1 cm. 

(13% X 9% in.) 

Ernst Barlach Haus, Stiftung 

Hermann F. Reemtsma, 


Schuh III, 1366 



This drawing was originally a study 
for one of Barlacli's wood sculptures 
for tiie home of Leo Levin in Bres- 
lau. The project was never realized, 
but the sculpture Der Flotenblaser 
(cat. no. 26), which follows the com- 
position of this early drawing, was fi- 
nally carved in 1936. 17 

The Transformations of God: 
The First Day (Die Wandlungen 
Gottes: Der erste Tag). 1920-21 
Woodcut, pi. 1 from the portfo- 
lio Die IVandlungen Gottes 
2.5.7 X 35.9 cm. 
The Museum of Modern Art, 
New York. Gift of Victor S. 
Schult II, 164 

From a series of seven woodcuts 
based on Barlach's drawings from 
1919-20. The sculpture God the 
Father Hovering (Schwebender 
Gollvaler), 1922 (cat. no. 18) was 
inspired by this woodcut. 

Cat. no. 18 

God the Father Hovering 

(Schwebender Gottvater), 1922/ 

cast later 

Unglazed Meissen 

50.5 X 33 X 50 cm. 

(195/4 X 13 X 19y4in.) 

Los Angeles County Museum of 

Art, Gift of Dr. and Mrs. Ronald 



Schult 1, 276 

Inscribed £i}ar/acft on 1. side of 
base; Meissen casting stamp on 
back of base; casting number on 
underside. This work was originally 
cast in a large edition. Further casts 
were made beginning in 1956; this 
piece appears to be a fairly early 

Cat. no. 19 (ilL, p. 69) 
The Dancer (Der Tdnzer), 1923 
Wood relief 
92 X 43 X 9 cm. 
(36'/4X 17x3'/2in.) 
Kunstmuseum Hannover mil 
Sammlung Sprengel 
Schult I, 281 

Inscribed £ Barlach / 92J at 1. 1. The 
plaster (Gips) from c. 1923 (Schult 1, 
280) in Giistrow was the model 
(IVerltmodell) for this piece. 

Cat. no. 20 (ill., p. 69) 

The Spendthrift III (Der Ver- 

schivender III), 1923 

Wood relief 

92 X 42.7 X 9 cm. 

(36'/5 X 163/4 X 31/2 in.) 

Kunstmuseum Hannover mit 

Sammlung Sprengel 

Schult 1, 279 



Fig. 2 

War Memorial for the Gihtrow 
Cathedral (Giistrower Ehren- 
mal), 1927/cast 1952 

71x74.5x217 cm. 
Schult I, 336 

Re-cast presently installed in 
Antoniterkirche, Cologne. 






Inscribed E Barlach at 1. 1. The plas- 
ter (Gips) from c. 1923 (Schult 1, 278) 
in Giistrow was the model 
(Werkmodell) for this piece; cf. 
Schult I, 256 (Der lerschwender 
[plaster]) and Schult I, 257 (Der 
Verschwender II [plaster]). 

Cat. no. 21 

Head: Detail of the War Me- 
morial for the Giistrow Cathe- 
dral (Kopf: Teil des Giistrower 
Ehrenmals), 1927/cast after 
the War 

35 X 33.5 X 27.8 cm. 
(13 X 13'/8X 11 in.) 
Offentliche Kunstsammlung, 
Schult I, 337 

Cf. Schult I, 335 (plaster [Gips], now 
destroyed, for the large bronze 
monument), and Schult I, 336 
(bronze monument). An edition 
which would bring the total number 
to 15 was announced in 1981. 

Cat. no. 22 

The Beggar (Der Bettler), 1930/ 
cast 1981 
Bronze, 1/8 
217x58x45 cm. 
(85y8x22%x 17% in.) 
Deutsches Brotmuseum, Ulm, 
Fed. Rep. of Germany 
Schult I, 354 

Inscribed with casting number. The 
original version oi Der Bettler vias 
from a series (never completed) of 
16 figures intended to adorn the fa- 
cade of St. Katherinenkirche, 
Liibeck. This piece is from an 
announced edition of 8, cast by H. 
Noack, Berlin, in 1981. The plaster 
from 1930 (Schult I, 353), now in 
Gustrow, was the model 
(IVerkmodell) for the earlier casts. 
Cf. also Schult I, 352 and 355. 23 

Portrait of Paul Wegener I 
(BildnisPaul Wegener I), 1930 

51.5x34.5x30 cm. 
(201/4x135/8x115/4 in.) 
Bayerische Staatsgemalde- 
sammlungen, Munich 
Schult 1, 360 

Inscribed E Barlach 19^0 at neck, 
1. 1., and H. Noack Berlin-Friedenau, 
Paul Wegener was a famous German 
film actor of the 1920s. This piece is 
from a projected edition of 10 cast in 
1930 by H. Noack; the edition was 
not completed. (See discussion 
under cat. no. 10.) The location of 
the plaster is unknown (cf. Schult I, 



Cat. no. 24 

The Fluteplayer (DerFlot- 
en blase r). 1936 
Plaster (Gips), under 
light shellac 
59.8 X 38 X 25.5 cm. 
(23'/2 X 15 X 10 in.) 
The Robert Gore Rifkind Collec- 
tion, Beverly Hills, California 
Schult I, 468 

Following the creation of the origi- 
nal clay form, Barlach created 2 
plasters from the first mold: this 
cast, whicli is preserved under light 
shellac, and a second plaster used as 
the model {IVerkmodeU) for the 
bronzes (Schult 1, 469) and currently 
in the collection of the Barlach fam- 
ily. See also the larger wood \ ersion 
(Schult 1, 470), and cf Groves, (Eng. 
ed.), p. 122. 

Cat. no. 23 

The Fluteplayer (Der Flot- 

enbldser), 1936 


60 X 36 X 24 cm. 

(23'/2X 14'/4x9'/2in.) 


der Stadt Duisburg 

Schult 1, 469 

Inscribed E Barlach on 1. r side, H 
Noack Berlin casting stamp on back. 
Cast from the plaster of 1936: cf cat. 
no. 24 (Schult 1. 468). Cf also Schult 
1, 470. 

Cat. no. 26 

The Fluteplayer (Der Flot- 

enbldser). 1936 


81 x 52.5 X 34 cm. 

(SlVs X 205/8 X 13% in.) 

Private Collection, West 


Schult I, 470 

Inscribed £ Bartac/i 19}6 on base, 
1. b. This is one of two wood versions; 
cf. also Schult 1, 471 and, further, 
Schult 1, 468 and 469. 

f-^ v> ft*. K.-- ■ ■ p ' ca 






Max Becktnann 

Born 1884 Leipzig; 

died 1950 New York, U.S.A. 

The painter Max 
Beckmann was already 
fifty years old when he pro- 
duced his first sculpture, 
Man in the Dark (cat. no. 
27), in 1934. It was the sec- 
ond year of Hitler's rule 
over Germany. To Beck- 
mann, an avowed liberal 

and a passionate individualist, it seemed that deep 

darkness had fallen on his homeland. 

The Man in the Dark interacts forcefully with the 
space surrounding him. His three-dimensionality is 
such that only the plastic medium could express and 
contain it. The arms, bent forward, sideways, and up- 
ward, define the three dimensions. The face is averted 
from the direction of the man's cautious steps, as if he 
were afraid of bumping into an obstacle. The feet 
seem enlarged and flattened by the will to chng to tac- 
tile, solid ground. The hands are fearful question 
marks: Where am I going? The folds of the garment 
are swept sideways by unseen forces. The psychologi- 
cal paradox of progressing against unknown odds 
leads to an almost baroque contrapposto. The idea of 
the individual menaced from all sides demanded to be 
rendered in the round. It remained doubtful as to 
whether the forlorn figure - like the artist himself - 
would find his way out. 

Beckmann had become accustomed to recognition 
early in his career. Born in Leipzig in 1884, he entered 
the Weimar Academy in 1 900 and received the coveted 
Villa Romana Prize in 1906. His works were acquired 
by many public and private collections. In 1925, he 
took over the master class at the Stadelsches 
Kunstinstitut in Frankfurt. He had numerous exhibi- 
tions. His biting social criticism, his almost magical 
skill with colors and forms -these were the subjects of 
eager discussions in contemporary articles and mono- 
graphs about him. Therefore, he was deeply hurt 
when, in 1933, the Nazis dismissed him from his teach- 
ing post in Frankfurt and forbade an exhibition 
already assembled in Erfurt. From then on, one Verbot 
followed another. Many of Beckmann's dealers and 
collectors emigrated from Germany. Together with all 
the other Expressionist, abstract, and Surrealist art- 
ists, he was designated as "degenerate." In 1936, the 
Berlin Nationalgalerie - where formerly he had en- 
joyed his own exhibition room - threw out the last 
Beckmann painting. In the cultural life of Germany, he 
was now a "nonperson." 

The need to assert himself may have been the mo- 
tive behind Beckmann's creation of his massive Self- 
Portrait (cat. no. 29). This 1936 bronze almost bursts 
with existence - it proclaimed to the fates that Max 
Beckmann was a presence to be reckoned with. Beck- 
mann had painted and etched numerous self-por- 
traits; their expressions range from sarcasm to philo- 
sophical introspection, from sociable amusement to 
pride. The bronze self-portrait is calm. It shows hardly 
any bitterness; it is animated with a searching earnest- 
ness. The wide, expressive mouth, turned down at the 

corners, seems on the verge of proclaiming some 
important truth. The eyes, in contrast, are coolly fixed 
on distant things; they show the reticent glance of a 
habitual observer, not a doer. The piece itself em- 
bodies a vital, weighty force, difficult to subdue. 

Beckmatm's reasons for trying sculpture were prob- 
ably different in each case. The spiral movement of 
Man in the Dark would have been less effective on the 
fiat surface of a stretched canvas. The Self-Portrait 
uses sheer mass as an artistic motif. ,4rfom and Eve 
(cat. no. 28), like the Self-Portrait sculpted in 1936, re- 
alizes a juxtaposition of large and small. The very 
minuteness of Eve crouching on Adam's hand 
demanded definition in three dimensions. The propor- 
tion of this miniature female body would have been 
much less surprising if it were drawn or painted and 
could thus possibly suggest illusionai7 perspective. 
Cast in bronze, the intention of the artist is clear: he 
wanted Eve tiny, Adam large. The snake, symbol of 
lust, has already entwined Adam as he stares into the 
distance, trying to imagine what the future might hold. 

In addition to the three sculptures in this exhibition, 
Beckmann created five more bronzes. The Dancer and 
Crouching Woman were made in 1935. On the opening 
day of the Entartete Kunst exhibition in 1937, 
Beckmann emigrated to Holland, and ten years later 
he moved to the United States. In 1950, the last year of 
the artist's life, when he was working contentedly in 
America, he executed his three last sculptures: Back 
Bend, Snake Charmer, and Head of a Man. These 8 
sculptures, in comparison to his 835 oil paintings and 
more than 300 graphic works, may seem only a side- 
line of his vast oeuvre. But he took his excursions into 
the plastic realm seriously, including painted statues 
in some of his triptychs. The Self Portrait sculpture, 
for example, appears in the Still Life with Bust (fig. 2, p. 
73), providing a dark, looming presence between the 
pale green and pink flowers and curtains. His deep 
feeling for the sculptor's particularly sensuous activity 
was expressed in a fascinating oil painting. The Sculp- 
tor's Dream, of 1947 (Giipel, 737). The sculptor lies 
asleep on his bed; from behind him, two gigantic 
hands grip his shoulder and stomach, squeezing and 
molding his living body. 

Beckmann knew all about the problems of being a 
sculptor. Yet we cannot consider him a born one. When 
Michelangelo, on orders from the Pope, painted the 
fantastically varied figures in the Sistine Chapel, he 
could not invent significant landscapes to set off the 
human bodies. When they use brush and ink or oil 
paint, most carvers and shapers of stone or clay ne- 
glect trees, flowers, houses, clouds, and other at- 
mospheric phenomena. Beckmann, on the other hand, 
was an inspired painter of landscapes and on occasion 
brought this quality of inspiration to the medium of 
sculpture as well. - S.L. 



Cal. no. 27 

Man in the Dark (Mann im 

Dunkel), 1934 /cast later 


h: 56 cm. (22 in.) 

Bayerische Staatsgemalde- 

sammlungen, Munich 

All the plasters orBeckmarin's sculp- 
tures were shipped Irom Amsterdam 
when he emigrated to America. In 
1957. it was decided posthumously 
by Beckmann's dealer Catherine 
Viviano (New York), Dr. Alfred 
Hentzen (Hamburger Kunsthalle), 
and Dr. Kurt Martin (Munich) to 
destroy each plaster after 5 casts had 
been completed. Three additional 
bronze casts ofMann im Dunkel 
exist in German private collections. 

Cat. no. 28 

Adam and Eve (Adam and Eva), 

1936/cast 1968 


85 X 33.3 X 36.8 cm. 

(33'/2X 13'/8X 14'/2in.) 

a) The Robert Gore Riflcind 
Colleclion, Beverly Hills, 
California (Los Angeles only) 

b) Hirshhorn Museum and 
Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington, D.C. 
(Washington and Cologne only) 

This piece is from an edition of 5, 
cast between 1958 and 1968. Other 
casts exist in the collection of Mr. 
Stanley Seeger, Jr. (cast 1958-59); 
the Busch-Reisinger Museum, Har- 
vard University. Cambridge. Mas- 
sachusetts (ex-coll. Irving Rabb); 
and a German private collection 
(formerly the estate of the artist). 
There is a plaster in the collection of 
Mathilde 0- Beckmann, New York. 
Cf. painting Studio: Nigiii (Atelier: 
Nacfit). 1931/ 1938 (Gopel, 510). 




Cat. no. 29 

Self-Portrait (Selbstbildnis), 

1 936 /cast later 


35.2 X 33 X 27.3 cm. 

(13%x 13x 10'/. in.) 

a) The Robert Gore Rifkind 
Foundation, Beverly Hills, 
California (Los Angeles and 
Washington only) 

b) Hamburger Kunsthalle 
(Cologne only) 

Three casts were executed by ttie 
Curt Valentin Gallery, New York, in 
the 1950s. These are now in The 
Museum of Modern .Art, New York; 
the estate of Morton D. May, St. 
Louis; and the Hamburger 
Kunsthalle. In 1968, three additional 
casts were executed. They are now 
in the collection of Mathilde Q. 
Beckmann, New York; The Robert 
Gore Rifkind Foundation, Beverly 
Hills, California: and the collection 
of Peter Beckmann, Murnau. The 
sixth cast was made for Peter 
Beckmann with the permission of 
Dr Alfred Hentzen and Alfred Barr, 
Jr, The Museum of Modern .\rt, 
New Y'ork. A stone cast also exists in 
the collection of Mathilde Q. 
Beckmann, New York. Cf Gopel, 


Beckmann, late 1920s. 

Fig. 2 

Still Life with Bust (Stilleben mit 

Plastik), 1936 

Oil on canvas 

80 X 50.5 cm. 

(31.5x19.9 in.) 

Mr. and Mrs. Stephan Lackner 

Gopel, 448 



Rudolf Belling 

Born 1886 Berlin; 

died 1972 Krailling, near Munich. 

Rudolf Belling's post- 
humous fame in Germany 
as a pioneer of abstract 
sculpture is based primar- 
ily on two works, Triad (fig. 
2, p. 77) and the robotlike 
head Sculpture 2) (1923, 
bronze). These sculptures 
originated during the 
period following World War 1, when Belling - one of 
the cofounders of the Novembergruppe and the 
Arbeitsrat fUr Kunst - adapted the ideas of Russian 
revolutionary art and attempted a synthesis of pre- 
vious modernist inventions. A symbolic representa- 
tion of three art forms - painting, sculpture, and archi- 
tecture - Triad combines tendencies of Cubism, 
Futurism, and Expressionism. Its contrapuntal com- 
bination of mass and space, which is in some respects 
indebted to the work of Archipenko, anticipated 
Belling's later concept of space. The latter was clearly 
formulated in the artist's theoretical work and re- 
alized on a large scale in his "Cubist" design for the 
ceiling of the Scala Casino (1920, architect Walter 
Wiirzbach, Berlin; destroyed in World War 11). Belling, 
a brilliant self-propagandist who understood his era, 
soon found himself celebrated as the spokesman of a 
new Architekturu'ollen (architectural will) in plastic 
art.' During the early twenties Belling created a num- 
ber of remarkable works in conjunction with ar- 
chitects. These collaborations signal his transition 
from Expressionism to Neue Sachlichkeit and testify 
to his ability to integrate sculpture within architec- 
tural settings. In this respect, the fountain in front of 
the Berlin villa of the lawyer and notary Goldstein 
(1923, concrete with metal spirals; destroyed 1926) 
was noteworthy in its combination of Constructivism 
and the machine aesthetic that characterized this 
period. Yet during the late twenties. Belling dis- 
appointed many observers by moving in the direction 
of stylized, Art-Deco-like figural sculpture. After his 
1937 emigration to Turkey, where he became chair- 
man of the sculpture department at the Academy of 
Fine Arts in Istanbul and then joined the architecture 
faculty at the Istanbul Technical University the artist 
attempted to reincorporate elements of his progres- 
sive early oeuvre, but the late abstract works manifest 
his metamorphosis from a genuinely experimental 
artist into a conforming modernist. 

Belling began his career as a sculptor after serving 
an apprenticeship from 1905 to 1907 as a Modelleur 
(modeler), Kleinplastiker (maker of small sculptures), 
and sculptor With his colleague Emil Kasedow, he 
established an independent studio for decoration, 
Kleinplaslik, and arts and crafts in Berlin. In 1909, he 
began receiving commissions for set designs, includ- 
ing work for the important theater dii-ector Max Rein- 
hardt. In 1912, he entered the Runstakademie in Ber- 
lin-Charlottenburg, where he worked in the studio of 

1. Paul Westheim, "Auftakl des Architekturwollens," Das 
Kunstblatt, vol. 4, no. 12, December 1920, p. 366. 

Peter Breuer, a sculpture professor at the Kunst- 
akademie, until 1922. 

Belling's earliest independent works in three 
dimensions, IJbunded Soldiers (1915, bronze). Combat 
(1916, bronze), and Fema/e Dancer (1916, gilded wood, 
three versions: Saarland-Museum, Moderne Galerie, 
Saarbriicken; Georg Rolbe Museum, Berlin; 
Runstmuseum, Diisseldorf) justify art historian .\lfred 
Ruhn's classification of him as a "sculptor of rhythmic 
motion." Belling later characterized this first phase of 
creativity himself: "Masses are broken and pierced, 
consciously turning away from the blocklike mass. At 
the beginning the figures are still realistic; then they 
become fi'cer."- In its contrast between body and gar- 
ment, Female Dancer is reminiscent of the Jugendstil 
character of such works as Hoetger's figure for the 
Fountain of Justice in Elberfeld (1910, bronze; 
destroyed). Its serpentine turning and the symmetri- 
cal posture of the arms may be compared to Georg 
Rolbe's Dancer Nijinsky (1914, bronze). But with 
respect to formal abstraction, Belling's figure sur- 
passes these other sculptui-es. The starkly angled 
limbs create an expressive spatial dynamic of motion, 
foreshadowing later sculptures which share the dance 
motif, such as Group Dance (1917; destroyed). While 
neither the later work nor Female Dancer attained the 
level of the prewar works of Archipenko (e.g.. Red 
Dance, 1912 - 13; fig. 2, p. 58), Belling did achieve this 
in his Expressionist groups of 1918, The Man (lime- 
stone, Museum Folkwang, Essen) and Squatting Man 
and Standing Woman (plaster [GipsJ; destroyed). 

Belling continued to simplify physical forms, reduc- 
ing the human figure to a cipher With Triad, his sec- 
oird phase of creativity began. This sculpture w as 
entered in the Kunstausstellung Berlin of 1920 in the 
true spirit of the Gesamtkunstwerk, and the artist sup- 
posedly intended to recreate it in another version "six 
meters high, built of brick and colorfully plastered."' 
The abstraction of the dancers' forms cannot be 
regar-ded as a singular phenoiuenon. Other Berlin 
sculptors such as Rarl Herrmann and Gar'be were 
pursuing a similar goal by this time. Herzog had 
attained completely abstract works in 1918-19, and 
Wauer was working even earlier, in 1916, with pierced 
masses (e.g.. Living Iron, bronze). What distinguished 
Belling was the methodical nature of his ideas. Triad is 
a sculpture in the round, meant to be seen from mul- 
tiple viewpoints. The formation of three-dimension- 
ally effective Raumkorper (spatial bodies; Belling's 
term) through use of clear cubic forms was the con- 
sciously articulated, progressive element in Belling's 
sculpture. This element was cited by him as char-acter- 
istic of his plastic art in intentional opposition to the 
"picturelike" compactness of the sculptures of the Mu- 
nich classicist Adolf von Hildebrand. 

Belling's concept of "tectonic form" was expanded 


2. Gallery Weyhe, New York, Belling, exh. cat, 1935. 

3. Ttiis piece appears as number 1096 in the catalogue for the 
Kunstausstellung Berlin. 1920. 


in his construction of entire rooms as Raumkunst (spa- 
tial art). These projects, as previously mentioned, 
originated in collaboration with Novembergruppe 
architects Walter Wiirzbach, Max and Bruno Taut, Al- 
fred Gellhorn, and Wassili Luckhardt, and were fol- 
lowed by designs for advertising. The latter included a 
sculpture for an automobile company at the Berlin 
Avus Speedway (1920, painted cement; destroyed), 
designed in collaboration with Luckhardt, and papier- 
mache mannequins for the windows of department 
stores in Berlin and Paris. While these works were cre- 
ated primarily as a means of financial support, they re- 
flected the eclectic styles and influences that are seen 
in Belling's sculptures of 1921. 

In this same year, Alfred Kuhn declared: "Possibly 
after so much deceptive Expressionism, so much 
mendacious ecstasy, the exclusively intellectual, 
which without a doubt is more in tune with today's 
mentality than righteous screams and gestures of 
embracing mankind, must again be stressed."* In 
making this statement, Kuhn was referring to 
Archipenko's development, but he could have been 
describing that of Belling, whose Gesture of Freedom 
(1920, mixed media: wire, cloth, and plaster; 
destroyed) had already parodied Expressionist-revo- 
lutionary pathos. The Mahogany Head of the following 
year (cat. no. 30) presents a mixture of Expressionist 
characteristics and the Neue Sachlichkeit's smooth- 
ness of form. The head depicts a character typical of 
the revolutionary postwar era, the fanatic agitator (cf. 
Felixmiiller's painting, Otto Riihle Makes a Speech 
[1920, Nationalgalerie, Berlin, DDR], and George 
Grosz's caricatures). The strong emotion and tight 
Cubist and Expressionist formal language of Gesture 
of Freedom are combined in Mahogany Head w\lh the 
"spatial body" concept. The face is hollowed out so 
that the nose appears to be freestanding, as if 
stretched on a frame between forehead and upper lip, 
and the cylinders of the eyes protrude. A dynamic 
structure of individual forms has been developed out 
of alternating positive and negative volumes. At the 
same time, elements of abstract African sculpture 
have been combined with those of mimetic natural- 
ism: the mouth is opened in a scream, the eyes in an 
excited glance. In such hybrid forms, the final stage of 
Expressionism, or rather its transition into other 
styhstic forms, is documented. The hollowness within 
the head, the abstraction of parts of the face (nose, 
lips) anticipate Belling's later head constructions (e.g.. 
Sculpture 2}), whereas the base combined with the 
shape of the neck anticipate characteristics of the por- 
trait mask of the director Joseph von Sternberg (1930, 

Organic Forms: Striding Man (cat. no. 31), of the 
same year as Mahogany Head, demonstrates how 
closely combined objective and expressive forms were 
in Belling's work at the beginning of the twenties. Of 
course, here the influence of Italian Futurism was 
stronger, as can be seen in the dynamic, spiralhke, 

4. Kuhn, 1921, p. 124.* 

turning motion of the figure, the opening up of vol- 
ume, the simultaneity of man and machine, technical 
power and organic form (cf. Umberto Boccioni's 
Unique Forms of Continuity in Space, 1913/cast 1931, 

In the course of the twenties, BeUing's popularity 
increased, primarily as a result of his architectonic 
works. In 1924, a one-man exhibition was arranged for 
him in the Nationalgalerie, Berlin, and the wood ver- 
sion of TYiad was purchased by that museum. Belling 
demonstrated his skill as a craftsman in large commis- 
sioned works for German and Dutch labor unions 
(1925-32), which he executed primarily in metal. One 
of the most original portrait masks of this time is that 
of the well-known Berlin collector and dealer Alfred 
Flechtheim (cat. no. 32). Here Belling has reduced the 
portrait to the most characteristic facial features, the 
fashioning of which is similar to a caricature (see fig. 
3, p. 77). This sculpture, which appears to be without 
mass or weight, originated as a wire construction. In 
its utilization of negative form as a plastic means, it 
follows Archipenko's works of the early twenties. 

When, at the beginning of the thirties, BeUing's style 
changed to one of naturalistic classicism, this only 
increased his public recognition, as was evidenced by 
his election to the Akademie der Kiinste in 1931. In 
1937, however, his artwork banned in Germany- TViad 
was shown at the Entartete Kunst exhibition - Belling 
emigrated to Turkey. After 1945, his final phase of cre- 
ativity began, including abstract-symbohc and some 
neo-Jugendstil works. Not until 1966 did Belling 
return to Germany, settling in Krailling near Munich. 
- J. H. v. W. 



Cal. no. 30 

Mahogany Head (Kopfin 

Mahagoni), 1921 


53 X 20 cm. 

(20% X 7% in.) 

Von der Heydt-Museum, 


Nerdinger, 37 

\nsa-\beA Rudolf Belling 21. This is 
one of 5 known examples of lliis sub- 
ject; a second is in the Belling estate, 
while the present location of the 
third is unlinown. 51 

Organic Forms: Striding Man 
(Organische Formen: Schrei- 
tender), 1921 
Bronze, silver-plated 
h: 54.6 cm. (21'/2in.) 
The St. Louis .\rt Museum, Mis- 
souri, Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Mor- 
ton D. May, 236:1959 
Nerdinger, 38 

Inscribed Rudolf Belling 21 on base. 
This is one of three linown casts; the 
other two are in the Saarland- 
Museum, Moderne Galerie. 
Saarbriiclien, and the Belling estate. 

Cat. no. 32 

Portrait of the Art Dealer Alfred 

Flechtheim (Bildnis des Kiinst- 

handlers Alfred Flechtheim), 

1927/ cast after World War II 


18.7 X 12 X 13 cm. 

(7% X 45/4x5 '/a in.) 

The Minneapolis Institute of 

Arts, The John R. Van Derlip 


Nerdinger, 58 

Inscribed Rudolf Belling 1927 on 
base. Tliree casts were produced 
originally; they are now in The 
Museum of Modern Art, New Yorii; 
the Museum Boymans-van 
Beuningen, Botterdam; and the 
collection of Wolfgang Werner, Bre- 
men. Each measures 19.3 cm. (17'/2 
in.) in height. The plaster model 
(Jf'erkmodell) was destroyed during 
World War 11, after which Belling 
created new models of a slightly 
smaller size from which this piece 
was cast. There are at least 9 of 
these newer casts. 




Belling at work in his studio, 
c. 1923. 


Fig. 2 

Ttiad (Dreikkmg), 1919 

90x85x77 cm. 

Fig. 3 

Alfred Flechtheim 



Conrad Felixmiiller 
worked in three dimen- 
sions for only a single year 
of his long artistic career 
Five of an original group of 
either seven or nine wood 
reliefs and sculptures are 
preserved; all of them 
were made in 1923. These 
Conrad Felixmiiller figures, as singular as they are when compared with 

his paintings and graphic works, are signiFicanl 
Born 1897 Dresden; because they were made during a period in which the 

artist abandoned his earlier Expressionist convictions 
died 1977 Berlin. for the more naturalistic approach which he main- 

tained for the rest of his life. Although they are not 
typical of either his earlier or later works, these sculp- 
tures are significant as examples of the stylistic search 
undertaken by many other artists of Felixmiiller's gen- 
eration at this time. 

Felixmiiller was a wimderkind - at age fourteen he 
began drawing lessons at the Kunstgewerbeschule in 
Dresden. From 1912 to 1915 he studied painting at the 
Kunstakademie, Dresden. His first exhibition was held 
in 1914 at the then-famous J.B. Neumann Galerie in 
Berlin. A year earlier he had completed a portfolio of 
thirteen woodcuts. Songs of Pierrot Lunaire, which 
was published in 1915 by Emil Richter's gallery in 
Dresden. In October of 19 12, Felixmiiller had attended 
a performance of Arnold Schonberg's melodrama 
Pierrot Lunaire, op. 21, based on poems by Albert 
Giraud. It featured AJbertine Zehme, who spoke and 
sang dressed in a Pierrot costume, while the orchestra 
played behind a screen. This new music and its excit- 
ing performance moved Felixmiiller deeply, 
prompting the woodcuts which, although obviously re- 
lated to work by Munch and the Briicke artists, made 
free and individual use of the Expressionist idiom. 
Schonberg, impressed by the portfolio which 
Fehxmiiller had sent to him, invited the young artist to 
the first performance of his Gurrelieder in Leipzig. 
This meeting resulted in an astoundingly sure etched 
portrait of the composer, which swelled the graphic 
oeuvre of the seventeen-year-old artist to forty-four 
works. Perhaps the youngest accomplished artist in 
Dresden, Conrad Felixmiiller was also undoubtedly 
one of the most talented. Fortunately, he was not 
drafted until almost the end of the War in 1917. He 
abhorred the fighting and refused to serve actively, 
deciding instead to work for a short period as a nurse 
in a psychiatric hospital in Arnsdorf.' 

In 1916, Felixmiiller had begun to attract like- 
minded men and women to the Expressionist soirees 
which he held in his Dresden studio to encourage 
young poets, writers, political activists, and artists to 
exchange their views of the times and of their art. Dur- 
ing this period Felixmiiller became acquainted with 
Herwarth Walden and his journal Der Sturm, and in 
1915-16 contributed graphic works to that publica- 
tion, as well as exhibiting in the Galerie Der Sturm. In 

1. See his autobiography entitled "DerProlet (Ponecke)," Die 
Aktion. vol. 10, no. 23/24, June 12, 1920, cols. 333-36. 

1916, he made contact with Franz Pfemfert, editor of 
the politically aggressive iournal Die Aktion, and sub- 
sequently began to publish graphic works and articles 
there. This friendship lasted until 1928. Felixmiiller's 
activities in Dresden multiplied. He published work in 
many of the Expressionist journals such as Die Sichel 
(The Sickle), Die Schone Raritdt (The Beautiful Curio), 
and others. He became cofounder of the influential 
journal Menschen (Mankind) and when the War was 
over became the leader of the Sezession: Gruppe 1919, 
which was composed of the most gifted young artists 
in Dresden, including Otto Dix, Lasar Segall, Otto 
Schubert, Otto Lange, Forster, and Voll. 

After having organized the Sezession's first two 
exhibitions, Felixmiiller became disappointed in his 
colleagues since they did not share his strong political 
commitments, and he left the group. In the meantime, 
he had married Londa Freiin von Berg, and after a 
short period spent in Wiesbaden visiting an early pa- 
tron, the collector Heinrich KirchholT, he settled with 
his young family outside Dresden in the small town of 
Klotzsche and tried to earn a living. In 1920, 
Felixmiiller received the Grosser Staatspreis fiir 
Malerei (Great State Prize for Painting), a prize which 
granted its winner one year of study in Rome. Instead 
of going to that inflation-ridden city, however, 
Felixmiiller obtained permission to spend the allotted 
time in the Ruhr district, where his brother was a min- 
ing engineer. While there, he discovered the harsh and 
poverty-stricken world of the miners which he 
depicted so convincingly that the famous comedy 
writer and dramatist Carl Sternheim credited him 
with having painted the first true proletarians.- 

A slowly developing disappointment with the Wei- 
mar Republic and the necessity of supporting his fam- 
ily led Felixmiiller to a change in style. This began 
with slight modifications in the coloration of his paint- 
ings, greater naturalism in his graphic works, and 
increased classicism in his portraits. Felixmiiller's 
great woodcuts of the well-known German painters 
Lovis Corinth (1925) and Max Liebermann (1926) and 
dramatist Carl Sternheim (1925) are high points of this 
new stylistic direction. Felixmiiller never joined the 
Neue Sachlichkeit movement. He remained an "en- 
gaged" artist, but his work shifted from an agitated, 
political stance to a more balanced view of life. His 
concern with the didactic potential of his art is dem- 
onstrated by a number of graphic portfolios which he 
produced at this time. 

In 1937, the Nazis confiscated 151 of Felixmiiller's 
works from various public collections. Prior to this 
time, they had exhibited 40 of them in an exhibition of 
"degenerate" art called Spiegelbilder des Verfalls (Mir- 
ror Images of Decay) held in .\pril 1933 in Dresden; 
now 7 works were included in the Entartete Kunst 
exhibition in Munich. 

During the Nazi period, Felixmiiller continued to 
work vrith no chance of exhibiting, and at the very end 

2. Carl Sternheim, "Felixmiiller," Der Cicerone, vol. 15, no. 19, 
October 1923, pp. 881-87. 


of the Second World War he was drafted. His house 
and studio in Berhn were bombed. He was talten pris- 
oner on the Russian front and only returned to Ger- 
many in the fall of 1945. In 1949, he was appointed a 
professor of painting and drawing at the Martin-Lu- 
Iher-Universitat, Halle. He retired in 1962, again mov- 
ing to Berlin, where he died in 1977. Prior to his death, 
however, he had the satisfaction of seeing himself 
"rediscovered" in a number of exhibitions in presti- 
gious museums in both East and West Germany. WTiile 
his later, more realistic paintings and graphics 
received due recognition and praise, the public was 
especially surprised by his earlier, powerful Expres- 
sionist works, which had not been seen for many 
years. Felixmiiller was none too pleased by this em- 
phasis on works which he regarded as youthful ab- 
errations; as early as 1926, he had attempted to "re- 
call" such works, trying to exchange them for more 
recent productions.^ 

In the few sculptures that Felixmiiller created, one 
can detect forms that he had used in graphics and 
paintings, in combination with hints of his new styhs- 
tic direction. All of the sculptures represent erotic 
female nudes. Yet while some of the sculptures are re- 
lated in their reference to primitive fertility fetishes, 
the variety of the forms is remarkable. 

The Nude in Coat (cat. no. 35) is the most Expres- 
sionist of these sculptures. The effect of the erotically 
distorted breasts and hip is strengthened by the trian- 
gular form of the face. Neither the feet nor hands are 
sculpted in detail and the elongated neck emphasizes 
the difference between the turn of the head and the 
focus of the eyes. An earlier color lithograph of 1918, 
Loving IVoman (Sohn, 140) as well as the woodcut 
Flowing Hair of Ihe same year (Sohn, 136) reveal the 
artist's preoccupation with hair as a dominant deco- 
rative motif. The similarity with the engraving entitled 
Beloi'ed Wife (cat. no. 33) is obvious, although the re- 
lief is more provocative and forthright. 

Standing Nude with Flowing Hair {caX. no. 36) again 
displays the hair motif and exaggerated Expressionist 
concerns. The torso of a nude woman is framed by an 
undulating mass of hair; her left hand supports her left 
breast. Her head is tilted to the right and slightly down- 
ward. The facial structure is simplified but natural 
enough to be interpreted easily as a thoughtful, medi- 
tative expression. The distance between chin and 
breasts is unnaturally extended and accentuated by 
the long, flowing hair. 

While all of Felixmiiller's reliefs and sculptures are 
erotic, their expression ranges from the bluntly 
provocative to the dreamy and contemplative. When 
one compares the earlier woodcuts and lithographs of 
1918, for instance, with some of the etchings in the 
1925 portfolio entitled IVoman, the position of the 
sculptural works at the threshold of a changing style 


5. For example, from the collector Heinrich Kirchhoff in 
Wiesbaden. See the letter to KirchhofT of September 28, 1926, 
in Archiv fiir Bildende Runst am Germanischen National- 
museum, Nuremberg. 

becomes clean The Expressionist Felixmiiller had be- 
gun to see life differently, as had so many other 
Expressionists of the "second generation." - P.W.G. 



Cat. no. 33 

Beloved Wife (Geliebte Frau), 


Steel engraving, from the 

portfolio 6. Stahlstiche (6 Steel 


25 X 19.5 cm. 

(9Vi X 7710 in.) 

Titus Felixmiiller, Hamburg 

Sohn, 252 

This engraving depict.s the curva- 
ceous female nude with long, wavj- 
hair favored by Feh.xmiiller in the 
1920s. This figure, embraced by the 
male in the background, is seen 
again in the sculpture Lovers (cat. 
no. 34). 

Cat. no. 34 

Lovers (Liebespaar), 1923 

Oak relief 

85 X 25 X 3 cm. 

(33'/2x9%x I'/sin.) 

Conrad Felixmiiller Estate, 


Signed and dated. No. P7 in the art- 
ist's work catalogue in the archives 
of the Germanisches National- 
museum, Nuremberg, 







Cat. no. 35 

Nude in Coat (Nackte im Man- 
tel), 1923 
Oak relief 
39 X 12x6.5 cm. 
Conrad Fellxmiiller Estate, 

Signed and dated. 

Cat. no. 36 

Standing Nude with Flowing 

Hair (Stehende Nackte mit 

offenem Haar). 1923 


33 X 7 X 8 cm. 


Berlinische Galerie, Berlin 

Inscribed witii signature and casting 
number on base. No. P4 in the art- 
ist's work catalogue in the archives 
of the Germanisches National- 
museum, Nuremberg. The clay 
model (Ton-l'Verkmodetl) and plaster 
(Gips) model no longer exist. Three 
editions cast in 1923 (March -June) 
resulted in 4 bronzes. Faience casts 
were also made in 1927. An edition 
of 6 bronzes, cast under the auspices 
of Gerhard Sohn, was executed in 
llambiu'g in 1982 on the occasion of 
the 85th anniversary of the artist's 
birth. K\\ bronzes are inscribed with 
a signature on the base; the 1982 
edihon is also numbered. 

Cat. no. 37 

Woman with Flowing Hair 

(Frau ini offenen Haar), 1923 

Oak relief 

46 X 15x2 cm. 

(ISVs X 6 x y, in.) 

Conrad Felixmuller Estate, 


No. PI in the artist's work catalogue 
in the archives of the Germanisches 
Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg. 



Otto Freundlich 
Born 1878, Stolp (Pomerania); 
died 1942 or 1943. probably at the 
Majdanek concentration camp, 
near Lublin, Poland. 

Otto Freundlich, one of the 
pioneers of abstract paint- 
ing, left behind a small but 
incomparably original 
plastic oeuvre. Its impor- 
tance for the development 
of modern sculpture, how- 
ever, has only been recog- 
nized during the last few 
years. From 1902 to 1904, Freundlich studied art his- 
tory with the famous scholar Heinrich VVolfflin. He did 
not begin his artistic career, however, until age twenty- 
nine, following a stay in Florence. Freundlich himself 
felt that his real talent was painting and not sculpture, 
in which he engaged only sporadically and in conjunc- 
tion with his work as a painter Paralleling the impor- 
tance of his late pictures, his sculptures attained great- 
est significance after 1925. E,\pressionist character- 
istics imbue his entire oeuvre, which is indebted for its 
more Constructivist attributes to the Parisian avant- 
garde. (Beginning in 1908, Freundhch resided primar- 
ily in Paris.) 

The artist's first creative period, from 1907 to 1924, 
had its roots in Jugendstil and turn-of-the-century 
ideas of Gesamtkunstwerk. His plastic art followed his 
growing painterly abstraction but with a certain lag; 
this is explained by the special problems inherent in 
sculptural realization. 

Freundlich began a series of sculpted heads in 
1906-07 with a mask, described by the arfist himself 
as a "Medusalike, highly stylized self-portrait" (plaster 
[GipsJ; lost). In the Standing Mask (cat. no. 39) and 
Male Mask (cat. no. 38), architectonic construction 
prevailed even more distinctly over the objective indi- 
vidual form. The absence of the neck in the Standing 
Mask emphasizes the plastic structure: chin, nose, 
mouth, and forehead are elementai7 building ele- 
ments of the head. Yet the animated surface and undu- 
lating contours still display Rodin's influence. In his 
memoirs, Freundlich indicated that "from 1907, inde- 
pendent of any school, I began in my painting to utilize 
colorful, clear, and purely constructive spaces, lacking 
in either naturalistic or Impressionist elements, and 
from 1908 on I have been faithful to this technique."' 
Such tendencies in Freundlich's sculpture were first 
suggested by the 1910 Bust of a JVonian {piaster fOipsJ. 
Wallraf-Richartz-Museum, Cologne), in which the 
surface of the face is tightly stretched and rhythmically 
contrasted to the incised eyes and mouth. The series of 
heads reached its initial high point in the larger-than- 
life sculpture of 1912, The New Man. This work was 
illustrated by the Nazis on the cover of the 1937 
Entartete Kunst exhibition catalogue and thus gained 
an unfortunate notoriety (fig. 1, p. 85). Here the head 
has been transformed into an architecture of basic 
plastic masses. Its surface is animated not in an 
Impressionistic manner, but by the building up of bits 
of clay, giving the sculpture the quality of masonry. 
The angular heaviness of this upturned head, the pro- 

1. Otto Freundlich, "Autobiographische Notiz," 1941, in 
Schriften, ed. Uli Bohnen, Cologne: DuMonl, 1982, p. 252 ff. 

nounced facial features, compressed contours, and 
emphasized jaw are reminiscent of Easter Island 
heads. In the few paintings extant from this period 
(e.g.. Abstract Composition, 1911, private collection, 
Hamburg), a comparable abstraction is noticeable - 
optical impressions were transformed into a system of 
rhythmically arranged, sharply delimited spaces, 
tectonically fitted together. Freundlich denied the in- 
fluence of Cubist painting, although he was a friend of 
Picasso and well informed in regard to Cubist develop- 
ments (in 1909 he had a one-man show at Clovis 
Sagot's gallery).- Yet a stylistic comparison of his paint- 
ings from 191 1 to 1912 with those of Francis Picabia, 
for example, from the same period (e.g.. Procession in 
Seville, 1912, Rothschild Collection, New York) reveals 
distinct parallels which are hardly conceivable with- 
out a knowledge of Cubism. 

By the beginning of World War I, Otto Freundlich 
had created an important early oeuvre that had 
received recognition at a number of international 
exhibitions, such as the Neue Sezession Berlin (191 1- 
12), the Cologne Sonderbund exhibition (1912), the 
Moderne Kunst Kring in Amsterdam (1912), Herwarth 
Walden's first Herbstsalon (1913), and the Cologne 
Werkbund exhibition (1914). The prewar years had 
provided him with new sources for the development of 
his ideas concerning Gesamtkunstwerk. His acquaint- 
ance with .Jean Arp and .Arp's circle, the tapestries he 
designed for the two Van Rees, and his study of Medi- 
eval stained glass were particularly influential in this 

Shortly before the beginning of World War I, 
Freundlich returned to Germany and served as a 
medic in Cologne, yet even these adverse conditions 
did not discourage him. In a letter of November 15, 
1916, he wrote, "The more unspiritual, the more bru- 
tal the present, the more spiritual, the finer things one 
must do. That is strength."' Through the politically 
active writer Ludwig Rubiner, he established closer 
contacts with the antiwar movement surrounding the 
periodicals DieAktion and Zeit-Echo (Echo of the 
Time), for which he wrote articles and produced 

Freundlich's first experiments with abstract sculp- 
ture began about 1916 and resulted in rhythmic 
configuraUons emphasizing the horizontal dimension; 
their biomorphic shapes were evocative of Arp. 
Freundlich's modeling in accordance with the princi- 
ples of rhythmic planes was probably advanced 
considerably by his work in stained glass and mosa- 
ics.-* The large mosaicBirth of Man (1918-19, Grosses 
Haus, Stadtische Biihnen, Cologne) was commis- 


2. The Parisian art dealers Clo\is Sagot and Daniel 
Kahnweiler were two of the most important Cubist dealers. 

3. Rheinisches Landesmuseum Bonn, 1978. p. 44. 

4. In his le.\t of 1934 "Die VVege der abstraklen Kunst," 
Freundlich himself cited the techniques of stained glass and 
mosaic as examples of the free organization of two-dimen- 
sional areas. See Ausl, Otto Freundlich 1S7S-194}: Aus Briefen 
und Avfsatzen, 1960. 


sioned by the Cologne merchant and collector Joseph 
Feinhals, who supported Freundlich as early as 1913 
and financed his Cologne studio. During the period of 
1919-20, a time of new beginnings and ideas of 
community, Freundlich created another large archi- 
tectural mosaic, a memorial to the VVissinger family in 
the Stahnsdorf cemetery near Berlin. This work was a 
collaboration with two Novembergruppe colleagues: 
the architect Max Taut and the sculptor Rudolf Belling. 
Freundlich's contribution to this joint venture was the 
sculpture for the tombstone. 

Freundlich's development during the twenties was 
characterized by increasing abstraction and the com- 
plete renunciation of objective detail. It can be traced 
particularly well by considering his stained glass win- 
dows from the first half of the decade. Work in this me- 
dium directed Freundlich's attention increasingly 
toward problems of light in painting, where his con- 
trasts of light and dark communicate a polarity of 
meaning. Light is not a means of creating illusions of 
space, but rather a substance that constitutes forms. 
Freundlich's angular breaking up of two-dimensional 
planes came about when he became acquainted with 
what he termed 

"The intimate combination of all pictorial planes, 
each one of which, like a cell in an organism, is 
transferring power to another cell, resulting in an 
uninhibited circulation of power throughout the 
whole organism. I had to eliminate the egocentric 
element, so closely associated with the depiction of 
man, plant, and object; I had to arrive at a kind of 
dialectic language of the colors themselves."^ 

Such insights had consequences for Freundlich's 
sculptural modeling. With regard to its degree of 
abstraction, the Head of 1925 (plaster; destroyed) 
might be considered a nonfigurative architecture of 
plastic masses. Yet the sculpture derived its blocklike 
expression specifically from this objective ambiva- 
lence. As in the case of the earlier heads, the composi- 
tion is expressive but has become more compact and 
dynamic. Thei/ead's structure of restrained upward 
movement was developed through the contrast of 
towering and hanging volumes, as well as the con- 
sequent activation of the spaces between them. It is 
only a small step to the two monumental sculptures 
Ascension (1929, bronze) and Architectural Sculpture 
(1934, bronze), with which Freundlich, now a member 
of the Constructivist group Abstraction Creation 
(Abstraction Creation),'^ attracted attention in Paris. 
These two sculptures display an ambiguous verti- 
cality; they are not modeled out of one mass but are 
built up from individual, independent forms - a pro- 
cess of accumulation comparable to the construction 
of prehistoric dolmens. These two pieces are the most 
significant in Freundlich's sculptural oeuvre. 
IIIMllll IMIIIilllMllllllllllllllllllllllillllllllllMlllllMIIIIIIIIII 

5. See Otto Freundlich, "Bekenntnisse eines revolutionaren 
Malers," 1935, in Aust, op. cit. 

6. Members included Piet Mondrian, Jean Arp, Wassily 
Kandinsky, and Robert Delaunay. 

Freundlich developed his late work with an amazing 
consistency and under the most difficult material con- 
ditions. During the thirties the constant theorefical re- 
flection that characterized his career reached a philo- 
sophical penetration of the highest level, as is 
evidenced in his wrifings.'' Whereas in Germany his 
works were removed from museums and displayed at 
the Entartete Kunst exhibiUon of 1937, they continued 
to draw attenfion at important international exhibi- 
tions, such as the Basel Konstruktivisten show (1937), 
the Amsterdam. 46s<raA:ZeA'unsi exhibition (1938), and 
the London Modern German Art exhibition (1938). At 
the beginning of 1939, Freundlich, who was Jewish, 
was interned. He was released the following year as 
the result of Picasso's intervention. Soon after, he suc- 
ceeded in fleeing to the eastern Pyrenees, where he 
went into hiding unfil 1942. In December of that year, 
he was arrested at St. Martin-de-Fenouillet and ulti- 
mately deported to Poland. He either died en route or 
in the concentration camp of Majdanek near Lublin. 

In the fifties, Freundlich's Paris studio in the rue 
Henri-Barbusse was opened to the public. The influ- 
ence of his painting is recognizable in the \i\id work of 
the Ecole de Paris (among others that of Serge 
Poliakoff and Maurice Esteve). Since the sixties, 
considerable and growing interest has developed in 
Freundlich's late projects such as the Lighthouse of the 
Seven Arts (c. 1936, plaster /Gips/ model. Estate of Otto 
Freundlich, Pontoise, France), a construction which 
was planned to accommodate the sculptures of a num- 
ber of artists. - J. H. v. W. 

7. Otto Freundlich, "Die Wege der abstrakten Kunst," 1934, in 
Aust, op. cit. no. 7; "Richtlinien tiir den Unterricht in der 
bildenden Kunst," 1935, D-page typescript, Estate of Otto 
Freundlich. Pontoise, France: and "Ideen und Bilder," 1940- 
42. 82-page typescript. Estate of Otto Freundlich, Pontoise, 
France, abridged in Rheinisches Ijandesmuseum Bonn, 1978, 
pp. 262-66. 





Cat. no. 38 

Male Mask (Mdnnliche Maske), 



32.7 X 22 X 12 cm. 

(12% X S'/s X 4y, in.) 

Private Collection, Cologne 

Heusinger von Waldegg, 54 

(Cologne only) 

Presumably 2 casts exist. This one is 
unsigned: another cast is signed O.F. 
under the chin. 

Cat. no. 39 

Standing Mask (Stehende 

Maske), 1909 


51.5 X 42.5 X 44.5 cm. 

(20'Ax 16% X 17'/2in.) 

Private Collection, Cologne 

Heusinger von Waldegg, 55 

Inscribed Otto 1909 on base, r. f. 
Exhibited at the Neue Sezession 1. 
Graphische Ausstellung, 1910, no. 17; 
and at the Sonderhund, Cologne, 




Cover of Entartete Kunst 
(Degenerate Art) exhibition 
catalogue, 1937, with 
Freundlich's New Man (Die 
neue Mensch) 1912, plaster 
(Gips); destroyed. 


Fig. 2 

Head(Kopf), 1912 

Plaster (Gips) 


Heusinger von Waldegg, 62 



Herbert Garbe 

Born 1888 Berlin; 

died 1945 as French prisoner of war 

Herbert Garbe studied 
sculpture at the 
Runstgewerbeschule in 
Munich and at the 
Runstakademie in Berlin 
(1910-12). After complet- 
ing his training, he main- 
tained a studio at the latter 
institution. His early sculp- 
tures, which the scholar Alfred Ruhn described as 
"graceful Rococo art," were figural, decorative, and 
characterized by rhythmic motifs depicting motion. 
Due to Garbe's military service during World War 1, his 
early oeuvre is not extensive, yet it is important insofar 
as such works as the Tragic Group (1912, plaster 
[Gips]; destroyed) reveal the beginnings of his later 
two-figure, dancelike sculptures of 1919-20. This 
later group represents the sculptor's brief Expression- 
ist interlude, which would be unimaginable without 
the influence of the group motifs of Archipenko and 

Even Garbe's striding nude of 1918, Walking IVoman 
(plaster /G/ps/; destroyed), with its head leaning back 
and its hands groping and outstretched, is still so 
conventional in its static composition, geared toward a 
single view, that one could never have predicted 
Garbe's work of the following year - couples engaged 
in complicated, intertwined motions. The sculptures 
of 1919-20 are the work of an average artist who tem- 
porarily assumed progressive traits due to his associ- 
ation with the inspirational Novembergruppe. Garbe's 
most important encounter in this circle was with the 
sculptor Emy Boeder, whom he married in 1920. 
Shared characteristics may be seen in the work of 
these two artists, particularly around 1920, including 
the use of common motifs - for example, in Sleep/ 
Lovers of 1919 (cat. no. 40) and Boeder's Sleeping Cou- 
ple (1920, stucco; destroyed). During this period, both 
artists were intensely preoccupied with the fashioning 
of reliefs (cf Garbe's reUef Three llomen, 1919-20, 
wood, Nationalgalerie, Berlin), an interest which for 
Garbe served as pictorial clarification of his sculptural 
motion-motifs. Garbe's and Boeder's choice of wood as 
a preferred material allowed their plastic forms new 
concision and angularity. 

There were, of course, significant differences in 
their work as well: whereas Emy Boeder was con- 
cerned with depicting her own spiritual experience by 
means of a closed, outwardly calm form, Garbe sought 
to convey the same feelings in extroverted depictions 
of motion. His sculptural groups of 1919 -£ros (wood; 
lost). Blue Group (terracotta; destroyed), Sleep/Lovers, 
and Group of Death (two versions; both lost) - now 
originated in quick succession. The themes of these 
works are those of Expressionism - eroticism, conflict, 
ecstasy. As in expressive dance, the motion-motifs are 
composed of rhythmic parallels and contrasts. The 
interweaving of the bodies, angular positioning of 
arms and legs, and inclusion of negative space are 
close to Belhng's 1917-19 formulations. For example, 
the horizontal extension of the sculpture Sleep may be 
compared to that of BeUing's Group Dance (1917; 

destroyed); Eros is similar to Belhng's Standing Man 
with His Wife (1918, plaster [Gips]; destroyed). With 
respect to the contrast of movement involved in a 
standing figure bending toward a reclining one, both 
Eros and Sleep/Lovers are modeled on .-Vrchipenko's 
Dance Duo (1912, bronze). Archipenko's sculptures 
were shown in a large one-man exhibition in 
Herwarth Walden's Galerie Der Sturm in 1918. 

Of course, these comparisons can only go so far; 
Garbe's dancelike groups appear more conventional 
when viewed in relation to Belhng's Tiiad (fig. 2, p. 77) 
- an abstract sculpture which nevertheless depicts 
dancers. Belling was much more committed to struc- 
tural problems of Haumplastik (space sculpture) and 
the equal treatment and interdependence of positive 
and negative volumes. Garbe's work is closer to the 
sculptures of Novembergruppe artists Georg 
Leschnitzer or Max Krause that are characterized by 
simple reductions of physical forms. The contrast 
between compressed and extended shapes seen in 
Sleep/Lovers is likewise limited in its relationship to 
BeUing's Group Dance, for Belling has presented al- 
most mechanical dynamics of motion with no mimetic 
quality, whereas Garbe in his motion-motifs has 
depicted elementary feelings of mutual affection and 
commitment. His fashioning of the surface similarly 
serves as an expression of life processes. The cubic 
strengthening and limiting of the plastic form in 
Sleep/Lovers resembles armor, corresponding to the 
protective, closed quality of sleep; the angular, broken 
surface of the lost Group of Death sculptures cor- 
responded to ideas of growth and transformation. 

Garbe and Boeder collaborated closely into the late 
twenties, but the differences between their sculptural 
ideas became more and more obvious. Garbe's in- 
clinaUon toward monumental individual figures was 
already noticeable in their joint exhibition at the 
Salerie Ferdinand Moller, Berlin, in 1927. At the begin- 
ning of the thirties, such a style was in complete agree- 
ment with then-prevalent neoclassicism and brought 
Garbe numerous public commissions for nudes, reli- 
gious figures, and portraits. In 1936, the National- 
galerie in Berlin bought the Female Harvester (1936, 
stone), an idealized depiction of a worker. At the same 
time, Garbe created genrelike studies of motion such 
as Goal-Keeper (1930, plaster /Gips7; destroyed). 

In 1936, Garbe was appointed as sculptor Richard 
Scheibe's successor to teach sculpture at the Stadel- 
sche Kunstschule in Frankfurt am Main. He held this 
post until he was fired in 1 94 1 , when the SS newspaper 
Schwarze Korps located some of his early Expression- 
ist work, and he was declared a "cultural Bolshevik." 
-J. H.v. W. 


Cat. no. 40 

Sleep/Lovers (Schlaf/ 

Liebespaar), 1919 


45 X 93 X 28 cm. 

(17%x 365/6x11 in.) 

Runstmuseum Hannover mil 

Sanimlung Sprengel 

Cat. no. 41 

The Desperate Woman (Die 
Verzweifelte), c. 1920 

110x60x30 cm. 
(43>Ax23%x 11 '/sin.) 
Berlinische Galerie, Berlin 




Oto Gutfreund 

Born 1889 Dvur Kralove, 


died 1927 Prague, Czechoslaval<ia. 

During tlie years prior to 
World War I, Cubism creat- 
ed no greater reverbera- 
tions outside France tlian 
in Prague, where its inter- 
pretations were often 
wtiolly independent of 
Frencli models. Art fiistori- 
ans, collectors, and local 
artists' groups appeared as mediators between Paris 
and Prague. Between 1910 and 1915, the collector and 
theoretician of Cubism Vincenc Kramaf acquired 
important works by Picasso, Braque, and Derain. 
Using Expressionism as a point of departure, the 
Czech painters Emil Filla, Bohumil Kubista, Vincenc 
Benes, and Antonin Prochazka, the sculptor Oto 
Gutfreund, and a few architects formed the Skupina 
vegtaruych umelcu (Group of Fine Artists). Between 
1911 and 1913, they propagated Cubism as the pro 
gram of their generation both in exhibitions and in the 
periodical Umekcky mcsicnik (Artistic Monthly). This 
popularization of Cubism was advanced by the appli- 
cation of its principles beyond the realms of painting 
and sculpture - in architecture and in decorative arts, 
such as furniture, ceramics, and glass. 

Ideas concerning the picture or sculpture as or- 
ganism, the logic of composition, the liberation of 
color from its imitative function, the use of planes, 
clear rhythm, and geometric forms - these were taken 
from French Cubism. But whereas the French one- 
sidedly stressed aesthetic categories, the Prague fol- 
lowers strove for a balancing of rational and emotional 
aspects, a harmony of geometric, constructive, and 
expressive orders. With reference to sculpture, this 
had the following implication: Gutfreund replaced the 
analytical French approach to sculpture, as seen, for 
example, in Picasso's early Cubist Head of a Woman 
(fig. 10, p. 18), with the idea of sculpture as materi- 
alization of feeling: "The sculpture is a materialization 
of the motifs effect.... The sculptor directly material- 
izes the vision reflected in his soul...."' Gutfreund's 
sculpture is a fusion, characteristic for the Prague 
Cubists, of "Gothic" expressive mysticism. Baroque 
dynamics, and French Cubist rationality. 

The intention to introduce a rational aspect into 
the treatment of emotion was already evident in Gut- 
freund's selection of the Frenchman Emile .\ntoine 
Bourdelle as his teacher. Bourdelle's tectonic concept 
of plastic art impressed Gutfreund when in 1909 he at- 
tended the artist's one-man exhibition in Prague; 
Gutfreund consequently studied with Bourdelle in 
Paris from 1909 to 1910. A certain proximity to the 
French sculptor's emotional stance may be seen in the 
firm, simplified form of one of Gutfreund's first inde- 
pendent works - a portrait of art critic and historian 
Antonin Matejcek (1910, bronze), a close friend of the 
artist during his stay in Paris and his traveling 
companion during a 1910 study tour of England, Bel- 

1. Oto GiUfreund, probably written in 1911, first published 
t912. Quoled from Museum des 20. Jahrhunderls, Vienna, 
1969, p. 14. 

gium, Holland, and Germany. Yet with respect to the 
tectonic structuring of the portrait, Gutfreund set his 
own course. "For a sculptor," he wrote in his Paris 
diary, "it is not enough to be skilled in modeling. A 
sculptor must, above all, be a mathematician who 
fashions the mass according to a previously consid- 
ered plan, that is, he must also be an architect."- 

In 1911, Gutfreund executed a number of sculptures 
with literary subject matter that typify the aforemen- 
tioned mix of elements from Expressionism, Cubism, 
and the Baroque. The latter term applies in the sense 
that the animated masses of these works function as a 
means of psychic dramatization. However, Gutfreund 
distinguished himself from Baroque sculpture and 
those who continued its tradition, such as Rodin, and 
in this difference lies his modernity. Instead of the dra- 
matic fervour of the Baroque, he strove for an equal- 
ization of plastic energies; instead of structuring mass, 
he utilized organized planes: "The new sculpture does 
not know weight, since volume is replaced by plane. 
Consequently it does not know a center of gravity. This 
is the basic formal difference between Baroque and 
contemporai7 plastic art."' In addition to the deforma- 
tion of natural forms, the Gothic lengthening and lit- 
erary subject matter may be considered to be Expres- 
sionist characteristics. Gutfreund chose troubled 
protagonists from world literature: Job, Hamlet, Don 
Quixote - sceptics, ponderers, visionaries. Ang's; (cat. 
no. 42) recalls figures encountered in the writing of 
Dostoevski and in Edvard Munch's paintings (in 1907 
there was a large Munch exhibition in Prague).. -Ireg'ii 
combines a formal system of rhythmic planes with 
expressive content; it embodies the welling up of fear. 
This impressioTi is suggested more by the angular, 
broken surface than by mimetic expression. All lines 
direct the viewer's eye up the tapered form toward the 
head, which remains untouched by the system of lines. 
In comparison, the figure's gesture - the arms crossed 
over the chest and the head sunken into the garment - 
is formally less productive of this effect. Similar formal 
principles are noticeable in the figures Hamlet (1911, 
bronze) and Don Qui.iote (cat. no. 43), which origi- 
nated during the same year. But whereas the surface 
oUngst was made dynamic through the faceting of 
planes, in Hamlet the surface is torn open and drama- 
tized by differently accented concentrations of form. 
The alternation of hollowed-out and expressively 
protruding shapes, together with the farcical length- 
ening of proportions, creates a bizarre intensification 
of expressive meaning. With regard to the combina- 
tion of Gothic verticality and Cubist dynamics, the fig- 
ure has been compared to Lehmbruck's Rising Youth 
(fig. 3, p. 147). 

The surfaces of the 1911 figures are deformed and 
geometric, but these qualities appear merely to have 
been imposed upon the sculptures as a transposition 
of the formal principles of Cubist painUng. This treat- 
ment changed in works created from 1912 to 1913, 

2. Muzeum SzUikl vv Lodzi. 1971. p. 16. 

3. Museum des 20. Jahrhunderls. Vienna, 1969, p. 19. 

where the surface was increasingly torn up and rup- 
tures of form occurred. The organic flexibility of the 
figures and literary subject matter were given up in fa- 
vor of complex structures. The sculptures gained new 
spatial qualities; they were now dramatized from the 
inside out. In the Violoncellist (1912-13, bronze), a 
new systematic alternation of positive and negative 
volumes occurred, almost concurrently with 
Archipenko's experiments with concave plastic art. 
Gulfreund's portrait llki (cat. no. 44) demonstrates 
the sovereign application of this newly acquired tech- 
nique. Built up from an invisible core toward the out- 
side, the forms may be read in a dynamic, turning mo- 
tion, beginning at the neck through the rising cheeks, 
up to the curls of the hair. The individual forms of the 
face - mouth, nose, eyes - are included in a continuum 
of positive and negative volumes. Contours appear as 
lines of power, illustrative of the energies emanating 
from the center. Deep breaks in the mass and protru- 
sions of form reveal an alternating play with space. 
FUi\1hmically structured, the composition of the head 
unites content and form, endowing the work with a 
particular kind of charm and at the same time mark- 
ing its distance from the de-psychologized, systemati- 
cally organized Cubist head constructions of Picasso 
and Archipenko. Viewing Picasso's Head of a IVoman 
at a May 1913 exhibition in Prague, Gutfreund stated: 
"Picasso dissects the surface of the object, destroys its 
specific organism in order to build something new. 
The unity of organism and object must be preserved."* 

The closeness of Gutfreund's sculpture to Cubist 
problems of form is probably greatest in Cubist Bust 
(1912-13, bronze). This development was interrupted 
by World War I, at the outbreak of which Gutfreund 
volunteered for the Foreign Legion and was con- 
sequently interned numerous times in a camp in 
southern France. There he created the abstract sculp- 
ture Sitting IVoman (1916, Nationalgalerie, Prague), 
which, nailed together from old boards, may be 
regarded as an incunabulum of Constructivist sculp- 
ture. In line with the neoclassicist tendencies of the 
twenties, around the beginning of the decade 
Gutfreund's oeuvre took a turn toward objective, re- 
alistic sculpture with social subject matter. His group 
sculptures /nrfusfrK and Commerce (1923, painted 
wood, Nationalgalerie, Prague) have appropriately 
been termed "industiy genre" by Eduard Trier. 

In 1926, Gutfreund was appointed professor of 
architectural sculpture at the Kunstgewerbeschule, 
Prague. The next year, before reaching the age of 
thirty-eight, Gutfreund drowned in the river Moldau. 
His most important sculptures are in the National- 
galerie, Prague. Whereas his realistic work was fa- 
vored for a long time, Gutfreund's significance as an 
important experimental creator of Cubist sculpture 
went unrecognized until barely two decades ago. 
- J. H. V. W. 

4. Muzeum Sztuki w Lodzi, 1971, p. 18. 



Cat. no. 42 

Angst, 1911 


h; 148 cm. (58>/. in.) 

Private Collection 

Inscribed -1/6 G. This piece is from 
an edition of 6 cast during the art- 
ist's lifetime. The plaster model is in 
the Nationalgalerie, Prague. \ small 
bronze maquette also exists; 2 casts 
are in a private collection in Wash- 
ington. One larger version was 
commissioned in 1981 in 
commemoration of the Holocaust; it 
is installed in the Jewish Pavilion at 
the Auschwitz Museum. 

Cat. no. 43 

DonQuU'ote. 1911 

h:38cm. (15 in.) 
Private Collection 

Inscribed .//6 G., 1. r This piece is 
from an edition of 6 cast during the 
artist's lifetime. The plaster model is 
in the Nationalgalerie, Prague. The 
plaster model was exhibited in 1913 
at Herwarth VValden's Galerie Der 
Sturm, Berlin, in the Erster 
Deutscher Hi-rbstsalon. no. 153. 

Cat. no. 44 

I'iki, 1912-13 


h: 33 cm. (13 in.) 

a) Reinhard and Selma Lesser 
(Los .\ngeles only) 

b) Private Collection (Washing- 
ton and Cologne only) 

a) No inscription. From an edition 
cast in the 1960s by Fionrini and 
Carney, London. One of 3 or 4 casts 
from a proposed but incomplete edi- 
tion of 7. 

b) Inscribed 6/6 G. Six casts were 
executed during the artist's lifetime 
from the plaster model. The plaster 
is now in the Nationalgalerie, 
Prague. Five additional casts are lo- 
cated in the Nationalgalerie, Prague 
(2 copies); National Museum of 
Wales, Cardiff; Museum Folkwang, 
Essen; and the Gutfreund Estate, 
Prague. Exhibited in 1913 at 
Herwarth Walden's Galerie Der 
Sturm, Berlin, in the Erster 
Deutsclier Herbstsalon, no. 153. 




Gutfreund in his studio, 1912; 
left, Don Quixote (cat. no. 43), 
far upper- right, /4«g-st 
(cat. no. 42). 





Erich Meckel 

Born 1883 Dobeln (Saxony); 

died 1970 Hemmenliofen. 

In one of her earliest let- 
ters to the Hamburg collec- 
tor Gustav Schiefler, Emil 
Nolde's wife, Ada, wrote: 
"Here in Dresden I'm in 
contact with the young, 
active members of the 
Brilcke, and it's very inter- 
esting and stimulating to 
be in touch with their art and their perceptions. 
Recently Meckel has produced beautiful raw wood 
sculptures, and he made me happy by placing two of 
them in my room. He is a fine human being, so lyrical, 
so much of a feeling for poeti^ and desire for 
beauty...."' This undated letter, probably written in 
March 1907, is an important document of the early 
Briicke years.^ It confirms that Nolde and his wife - 
both considerably older than the members of the Dres- 
den group and stylistically rooted in the nineteenth 
century - were able to recognize the future signifi- 
cance of a kind of art which only shocked most mem- 
bers of their generation. Nolde acknowledged his debt 
to the Briicke; his affiliation with this group was 
important not only for his own painting, but also 
because it brought about the subsequent contact of the 
other Briicke artists with Gustav Schiefler. 

Ada Nolde's letter also indicates how important 
Erich Heckel's initiative and unifying influence were 
at this time for the artists' group that he had 
cofounded. What is perhaps most surprising is the 
willingness Nolde's wife expressed to have wood 
sculptures by Heckel, an artist who, in contrast to her 
husband, had never received any training in wood 
carving, in her home. Unfortunately it is impossible to 
ascertain exactly which figures she was referring to. 
Paul Vogt, who compiled a work index for Heckel dur- 
ing the artist's lifetime, identified the earliest works as 
a terracotta figure of a gnomelike old woman executed 
in 1904 (Vogt, 1) and two heads of 1905 (Vogt, 2 and 3), 
carved from alder The natural, mythical qualities of 
the head of a bearded man suggest associations with 
the heads of moimtain giants, which Nolde drew in 
1895-96 and published as printed postcards.' In any 
event, mutual influences must be assumed, and they 
ultimately led to Nolde's resumption of his carving.* 

Approximately twenty sculptures by Heckel can be 
identified from the period prior to World War I; six 
hmestone reliefs were created after World War II. This 
count excludes clay reliefs and handicrafts, several of 
which are known. Aside from the terracotta of 1904, 
the early sculptures are exclusively wood figures, 
carved from various softwoods such as alder, linden, 
maple, birch, acacia, and poplar Real hardwoods - 
such as oak - do not seem to have been used, perhaps 


1. Letter in the estate of Gustav Schiefler, kindly made avail- 
able by his daughter Ottilie. 

2. Cf. Reinhardt, 1977/78, pp. 4011.* 

3. Cf. Altonaer Museum in Hamburg, 1973. 

4. Cf Schleswig-Holsleinisches Landesmuseum and Museum 
fiir Runst imd Gevverbe, Hamburg, I960.* 

because it was not in Heckel's nature to willfully work 
against his material. The desired form had to grow out 
of the organic wood. Heckel sought a meeting of idea 
and material more intensely and certainly earlier than 
his Briicke colleagues. He researched and experi- 
mented with a variety of possibilities and freely shared 
his results. Any kind of purism, as far as materials 
were concerned, was as foreign to him as formal 
virtuosity. His expression was intended to reveal his 
inner disposition; the sculpted figure represented its 
creator. Those fortunate enough to have met Heckel 
know what this meant and can easily understand why 
Nolde felt so close to Heckel's wooden figures and why 
he was inspired by Heckel and other Briicke artists to 
create woodcuts. Interestingly, Nolde had not pre- 
viously used this graphic technique, which may be 
thought of as the negative form of carving.' 

Of the four Heckel sculptures in this exhibition, 
Cao'clid of 1906 (cat. no. 45) was created first. Al- 
though an early work, it displays qualities which had 
already become characteristic of the artist's wood 
sculptures, such as a imique symbiosis of barbaric 
strength and sensitive tenderness. Here we also see 
Heckel's economical use of color, which appears to 
seep out of the wood, accentuating its primitive qual- 
ity. When Heckel used color in his plastic art, he did so 
sparingly, predominantly in the area of the head. Black 
dominates, and more than two colors are rarely 

Like his colleagues, Heckel frequently depicted his 
wood figures on postcards which he sent to close 
acquaintances." Of particular interest is one dated 
December 1, 1910 (fig. 5, p. 95), which was drawn in 
color and sent to the art historian Rosa Schapire.' On 
it, Heckel indicated that he had sent her three of his 
wood sculptures as well as a pewter cast by Rirchner 
Of the two figures impulsively drawn on the image 
side, the left one can also be recognized in a still life of 
1920 (Vogt, 16). Like several other Heckel sculptures, 
it fell victim to the Second World War 

From other such postcards and letters it is evident 
that after paying visits to the Briicke arUsts in Dres- 
den, Gustav Schiefler was so impressed with their 
sculpture that at the beginning of 191 1 he sent them 
trunks of maple trees from Hamburg (see p. 1 14). 
Heckel "chopped" two female figures out of this dense 
wood." One of these, Tall Standing lloman, was 
acquired in 1930 by director Max Sauerlandt for the 
Hamburg Museum fiir Kunst imd Gewerbe and was 
published in an essay by Sauerlandt (included in this 
catalogue in translation; see pp. 51-55; fig. 5, p. 54). 

5. Rirchner refers to this fact and to Nolde's communication of 
the art of etching to the Briicke artists. See Kirchner, 1913.** 

6. Cf Gerhard Wietek, Gemalte Kiinstlerpost: Karten und 
Briefe deutscher Kiinstkr aus dcm 20. Jahrhundert, Munich: 
Thiemig, 1977. 

7. Cf. Gerhard Wietek, ed., Maler der Briicke: Farbige 
Kartengriisse an Rosa Scliapire, Wiesbaden: Insel, 1958; 
Wietek, 1964. 

8. See Heckel's letter to Schiefler of February 1911. 


The second figure carved from Schiefler's maple, 
Standing Girl (fig. 1, p. 94), remained in the artist's 
possession and was acquired by the Hamburg 
museum in 1966." (The largest of Meckel's extant 
wood sculptures, this figure is unfortunately in fragile 
condition and could not be included in this exhibition.) 
The smaller Crouching Woman (cat. no. 46), carved 
out of soft linden, dates from the same year. It too, is 
riddled with cracks and shows considerable touching 
up of the surface by the artist. This sculpture can be 
identified in one of Meckel's paintings of the same 
period (Vogt, 1912/46) and in a woodcut as well (cat. 
no. 50). In Meckel's paintings, sculptures appear fre- 
quently (see Vogt, 1906/8), perhaps for the first time in 
a self-portrait of 1906 and certainly not for the last in a 
still life of 1960 (Vogt, 6) that most likely shows an 
early figure which no longer can be identified. Other 
paintings and drawings circa 1912 also depict sculp- 
tures; old studio photographs (figs. 2 and 3, pp. 94-95) 
provide an additional indication of Meckel's sculptural 
production at this time, which has been largely lost.'" 
During this same period, Meckel began sending many 
of his works to exhibitions." 

In the essay mentioned above, Sauerlandt compared 
the Tall Standing IVoman of 1912 to "a Madonna of 
Annunciation. ..which shyly covers its nakedness, so to 
speak, in itself." Thus he acknowledged the religious 
element in Meckel's art, which achieved particularly 
strong expression in his sculpture. In the same year, 
Meckel created the life-size figure of a naked praying 
man with arms uplifted (fig. 2, p. 94) and the clothed 
Draped IVoman (fig. 6, p. 95), which has been at the 
Briicke-Museum since 1966. The latter work seems to 
have its models in Gothic sculptures of Mary under the 
Cross. Perhaps these works by Meckel also suggest 
that foreboding of the First World War with which the 
German Expressionists are often credited. 

The erotic Bathing Woman with Towel of 1913 (cat. 
no. 47) is certainly one of Meckel's most powerful fig- 
ures. It has been privately owned by the family of Max 
Sauerlandt since 1920.'- Sauerlandt was acquainted 
with Meckel from before World War I, and he was the 
first German museum director to regularly include 
the sculpture of the Briicke in the exhibition and ac- 
quisition activities of a public museum. 

Meckel served as a medic in Flanders during the 
First World War, which determined a more significant 


9. Ct. Heinz Spielmann in Jahrbuch der Hamburger 
Kunstsammlungen, vol. 12, 1967. pp. 222fr., and in Museum fiir 
Runsl und Gevverbe. Hamhur^. Ausgewdhlte IVerke aus den 
Erwerbungen 1962-1971 des Museums JiirKunst und Gewerbe, 
exh. cat., 1972, p. 342. 

10. For example, letter from Meckel to Rosa Schapire of .luly 
15, 1909, ill. as no. 39 in Altonaer Museum in Hamburg, 1973. 

11. At the important Briicke exhibition held at Galerie Gurlitt, 
Berlin, in April 1912, Heckel was represented by twelve paint- 
ings, six drawings, and four sculptures. The exhibition trav- 
eled to the Galerie Commeler in Hamburg. 

12. Cf. Heckel's letters to Sauerlandt of December 12 and 20, 
1920, in the collection of the Staatsbibliothek, Hamburg. 

break in his sculpture than in his painting. The last 
wood figure to have been preserved is the Standing 
Figure of 1920 (cat. no. 48). The slender girl's figure, 
which has been peeled out of soft poplar wood and 
remains enveloped by it, surpasses the earlier figures 
in the flowing compactness of its rhythmic contours 
and smooth surface. The sculpture derives from a 
time when many of the nudes in Meckel's paintings, 
most of which he created at Osterholz on the Baltic 
Sea, looked like animated wood figures which had 
found their way out of the studio and back into na- 
ture." On the occasion of a visit to the Breslau studio 
of his former Briicke colleague Otto Mueller, Heckel 
expressed great interest in Mueller's carved, jointed, 
marionettelike figures.'* 

.\lthough we know from his letters that other figures 
originated in Osterholz during the summers between 
the two world wars," it may be said that Meckel ended 
his activity as a wood sculptor and an Expressionist 
graphic artist with Standing Figure. In its wholeness 
and graceful dignity it may be interpreted as the 
expression of his own philosophy of life. From 1920 
until his death, he devoted himself to exhausting the 
possibilities inherent in painting and graphics. - G.W. 


13. In this respect the nude in the triptych Bathing IVoman 
(Vogt, 1919/3) is exemplary. 

14. Heckel drew^ these figures, which could not be located for 
this exhibition, on two postcards, ill. VVietek. 1977, op. cit., 

p. 111. 

15. Communication in Heckel's letter to Sauerlandt of June 21, 




Standing Girl (Slehendes 
Mddchen), 1912 
Maple, painted 
h: 145 cm. (57'/8 in.) 
Museum fiir Kunst und 
Gewerbe, Hamburg 
Vogt, 6 

Fig. 2 

Sculptures by Meckel in his stu- 
dio: left, Standing Girl (fig. 1); 
center, Tall Standing llbnian 
(Grosse Stehende), 1912, maple, 
lost (Vogt, 8); right, Praying 
Man (Betender Mann), 1912, 
poplar, destroyed 1944 (Vogt, 



Fig. 5 

Sculptures by Heckel in his stu- 
dio: most are destroyed; lower 
left Crouching Woman 
(cat. no. 46). 

Fig. 4 

Crouching Woman (Hockende), 


Painted linden 


Vogt, 4 

Photographed by Kirchner 

Vogt dates this piece 1906, how- 
ever, style and coloring cor- 
respond to Kirchner's sculp- 
tures of 1909-10. 

Fig. 5 

Postcard from Heckel to Rosa 
Schapire, December 1, 1910; 
:? Kunsthalle Mannheim. 

Fig. 6 

Draped Woman (Frau mit 

Tuck), 1912 


h: 103 cm. (401/2 in.) 

Briicke-Museum, Berlin 

Vogt, 9 



Cat. no. 45 

Cwyatid (Trdgerin), 1906 
Painted alder 
h: 34.7 cm. (13% in.) 
Museum fiir Runst und 
Gewerbe, Hamburg 
Vogt, 5 

Cat. no. 46 

Crouching Woman (Hockende), 


Painted linden 

30xl7x 10 cm. 

(IPA X 6% X 4 in.) 
Erich Heckel Estate 

Vogt, 7 

Cf. painting Vogt, 1912/46 and 
woodcut Diibe, 432 C (cat. no. 50). 

Cat. no. 47 

Bathing IVoman with Towel 
(Badende mil Thch), 1913 
Maple, painted red and black 
52 X 14 X 10 cm. 
(20% X 51/2x4 in.) 
Private Collection 
Not in Vogt 

Inscribed £//left f. 111. in Schleswig- 
Holsteinisches Landesmuseum and 
Museum fiir Runst und Gewerbe, 
Hamburg, 1960, p. 6. Acquired from 
the artist by Max Sauerlandt. 

Cat. no. 48 

Standing Figure (Stehende), 



79x 13x 13 cm. 


Erich Heckel Estate 

Vogt, 12 





Cat. no. 49 

Still Life with Stool and Wooden 
Figure (Stilleben mit Hocker 
undHolzfigur), 1924 
Watercolor and crayon on paper 
47.5 X 38.5 cm. 
(18% X 15'/8 In.) 
Private Collection 

Although not identical in pose, the 
sculpture featured here is probably 
Standing Figure (eat. no. 48). The 
slietchy quality of the drawing may 
account for this discrepancy, al- 
though a similarly posed figure was 
depicted in 2 Meckel paintings: Still 
Life with Wooden Figure (Stilleben 
mit Hol2,figur), 1913 (Vogt, 1913/65), 
and Zinnias: Still Life (Zinnien: 
Stilleben), 1921 (Vogt, 1921/28). 

Cat. no. 50 

Still Life ivith Wooden Figure 

(Stilleben mit HolTfigur), 1960 


15.4 X 12.1 cm. 

(6'/s X 4% in.) 

Dube, 432 C 

Erich Heckel Estate 

Meckel was fond of including depic- 
tions of his sculptures in his paint- 
ings, but rarely included them in his 
graphics. Mowever, in this late wood- 
cut the sculpture Crouching Ifbnian 
(cat. no. 46) is seen as a decorative 
table ornament at 1. 1. of the 



Paul Rudolf Henning 
Born 1886 Berlin; 
lives in Berlin. 

After studying architecture 
and sculpture at the 
Runstgewerbeschule In 
Dresden, Paul Rudolf 
Henning opened his own 
studio in Berlin In 1907. 
Shortly thereafter he had 
his first exhibition at the 
famous Galerle Gurlitt, 
and from 1912 on he exhibited at the Freie Sezession 
in Berlin. In 1914, he moved to Paris, exchanging his 
studio with WUhelm Lehmbruck. 

Having served as a volunteer at the outbreak of 
World War I, he moved in 1916 to Zurich, where he 
quickly met Dadaist comrades such as Jean Arp, 
Viking Eggehng, and Marcel Janco. On April 11, 1919, 
these artists formed a group, calling themselves 
Artistes Radlcaux (Revolutionary Artists). Henning 
signed the manifesto originated by this group, but It 
was never formally Issued. 

In 1919, prompted by his friend the architect Erich 
Mendelsohn, Henning returned to Berlin, where he 
became active In the Arbeitsrat fiir Runst. His work at 
this time was primarily sculptural. He executed large 
terracotta reliefs for the facade of the Mossehaus, 
where the newspaper Berliner Zeitung was published, 
and for the Haus Griinfeld and the Haus Bahls in Ber- 
lin, including a work which employed quotations from 
Nietzsche's -4/so sprach Zarathustra as motifs. 
Henning also executed significant bronze portrait 
busts of the Italian composer Ferrucclo Busoni, 
Mendelsohn's wife, Louise, the arfist Max Pechstein 
(cat. no. 51 A), and others, as well as creating large 
sculptural works for buildings in Aachen, Berlin, Co- 
logne, and other cities. In the mid-twenties, however, 
he began to concentrate on architecture, designing a 
number of large apartment houses and planning 
building programs for a section of Berlin, as well as for 
Nuremberg and Troppau. 

Henning's sculpture The Dance of Charlotte Bara 
(cat. no. 51) was created during a stay in Ascona, 
Switzerland, where he had redesigned the Castello 
San Materno for Paul Bacharach, Charlotte Bara's fa- 
ther. Bara was a famous dancer whose "Cathedral" 
dance was the inspiration for the sculpture. Its three 
nearly abstract terracotta forms are evocative of Bara's 
highly stylized performances and often hieratic cos- 
tumes. In the newspapers of the time, her dances were 
compared to "age-old priestly rituals," and Bara 
herself was likened to sculptures from the cathedrals 
of Naumburg and Strasbourg or figures in the paint- 
ings of Domenlco Ghirlandalo or even Mathis 
Griinewald. The Dutch publicaUon Het Volk wrote: 

Her dance is the realization of faith in God. It is as if 
in the quietude of a cathedral the figure of a saint 
steps from its niche and. ..personifies the spirit of the 
building, and our hearts thirst for the fountain of 
life. How does such a young child gain such depth 
and soulfulness? This is genius pure and simple, this 
is maturity born without the need for experience.' 
- P.W.G. 

1. Quoted in Fritz and Hanna Winllier, Derheilige Tanz, 
Rudolfstadt: Grelfenverlag, 1923, pp. 24-25. 




Cat. no. 51 

The Dance of Charlotte Bara 

(Der Tanz der Charlotte Bara), 



Three parts: 39 x 32 x 32 cm. 

(IS'/s X 12% X 125/8 in.); 36 X 31 X 

19 cm. (141/8 X 12'/4 X 71/2 in.); 

23 X 38 X 43 cm. (9 x 15 x 17 in.) 

Berlinische Galerie, Berlin 

Cat. no. 51A 

Three Portraits: a) H. M. 

Pechstein, b) Professor Jessen, 

c) Herr Escher, c. 1918 


a:37x25x 17 cm. 

(145/5 x9y5x6yio in.) 

b: 38 X 28 X 26 cm. 

(15x 11 x lO'Ain.) 

c: 37 X 27 X 25 cm. 

(UVs X 103/5 X 9y5) 

Lent by the Artist, Berlin 

The portrait of the artist Pechstein 
(a) is inscribed //A«y/'fl// on the 1. b. 
and stamped // .'Voacfr Berlin; the 
portrait of Professor Dn Jessen of 
Davos, Switzerland (b) is signed 
Henning on the lower front and 
stamped H Noack Berlin; the portrait 
of the violinist Escher of Zurich, 
Switzerland (c) is inscrihei F Escher 
JUr Henning/Zurich IS and stamped 
///Voac/conthe 1. 1. 



Oswald Herzog 

Born 1881 Haynau (Silesia); 

date and place of death unknown. 

Oswald Herzog's training 
as a sculptor began at an 
early age in Liegnitz, 
where he was engaged in 
the trade of Stuckhand- 
uerk, or ornamental 
stuccowork. He came to 
Berlin in 1900 and contin- 
ued to work as a craftsman 
while at the same time attending various art schools. 
Herzog was an established Berlin artist by the time he 
became associated with the famous Sturm circle led 
by publisher and gallery owner Herwarth Walden, 
who sponsored an exhibition of the artist's work at the 
Galerie Der Sturm in 1919. In a publication of the pre- 
vious year. Der Sturm: Eine Einfiihrung. Walden had 
introduced Herzog as an artist who was enlivening the 
European sculptural tradition much in the same man- 
ner as Archipenko.' Herzog in turn contributed wood- 
cut illustrations to Walden's periodical Der Sturm in 
1917 and 1919, as well as an essay entitled "Der 
abstrakte Expressionismus in der bildenden Runst," 
which delineated some of his sculptural leitmotifs.- 

As early as 1919, Herzog was included in the mem- 
bership of the Novembergruppe, whose political and 
artistic activities were the focal point of postwar cul- 
tural life in Berlin. A series of art exhibitions was 
arranged by the group in 1919-20, and Herzog was 
frequently a participant. In later Novembergruppe 
exhibitions, he served as a jury member ( 1 922), and in 
the Ausstellung 10. Jahre Novembergruppe (1929), he 
was on the exhibition committee as director of the 
sculpture section. 

.iVIthough Herzog had achieved objectless sculptiire 
by 1918-19. his contribution to the history of abstract 
sculpture has thus far been overshadowed by that of 
Rudolf Belling. While the letter's pieces were lauded 
as more formally vigorous and tectonic, Herzog's 
oeuvre was valued for its flexibility and lyricism. His 
contribution to abstract Expressionist sculpture was 
recognized by art critic Alfred Kuhn in his article "Die 
absolute Plastik Oswald Herzogs."' Ruhn described 
Herzog's work of 1914, a time when his sculpted sub- 
jects could still be identified as human forms, al- 
though the rhythm in these forms was the essential 
quality he sought. As articulated by Herzog in his Der 
Rhythmus in Kunst und Natur (Rhythm in Art and Na- 
ture) (1914), the task of Expressionist sculpture was to 
render the spiritual life of organic matter. External 
forms were seen to be expressions of inner processes 
of motion - "tectonics of nature" - which could be 
sculpturally translated through rhythm of line and 
plane. Herzog stressed that Futurism and Expression- 
ism were to be succeeded by a Neue Sachlichkeit in 
which the artist would no longer allow his will to 
speak through the depiction of objects but would 


1. "Die expressionistische Plastik" in Walden, [1918].* 

2. Oswald Herzog, "Der abstrakte Expressionismus in der 
bildenden Kunst," Der Sturm, vol. 10, 1919/20, p. 29. 

3. Kuhn, 1921.* 

become like nature itself, his creative volition clothed 
in rhythmic, objective form. "Rhythm is the proportion 
oftimeand space - the absolute law of growth and 
decay," he wrote later.^ 

In Herzog's early works such as Ecstasy (fig 1, 
p. 101), the human form was not the measure of the 
sculpture, but an embodiment of a supernatural prin- 
ciple. In the next few years, it dissolved more and 
more; individualized modeling was minimized and 
soon disappeared. By 1918-20, as seen in Kneeling 
IVoman (cat. no. 52), the human figure had been elon- 
gated, twisted, and distorted until it was only vaguely 
recognizable in its basic shape. Herzog's work had 
become what Kuhn termed "active sculpture," which 
"is not in conformity with anthropocentric thinking. It 
presupposes a type of man who is somehow cosmic or 
transcendental - a religious ascetic who sees himself 
as part of a larger whole, of a system which can no 
longer be comprehended intellectually...."' 

"The forms originate individually in rhythmic im- 
pulse and fiuctuate in the timely expiration of an 
experience," wrote Bruno Reimann in his preface to 
Oswald Herzog: Sinfonie des Lebens ( 192 1),'' and 
accordingly Herzog's works were often entitled using 
musical terms such as Adagio, Furioso, and Harmony. 
His sculptural demonstrations of the energies of 
movement, emotion, and music evolved further into 
complex compositions of planes, cubes, straight lines, 
and volute curves. Works such as Ecstasy (1919) (fig. 1, 
p. 101), Symphony: Strength, Joy, Sorrow (1921), and 
Scherzo (1927) represented the transformation of 
architectural elements into sculptural entities convey- 
ing clear and emotional meaning. 

Herzog was active with the Novembergruppe until 
about 1951. In 1957, two of his sculptures were 
included with other Noveiubergruppe works in Wolf- 
gang Willrich's book Sduberung des Kunstlempels, a 
Nazi-inspired assault on modern art in which artists 
were declared degenerates.' No death date is known 
for Herzog, who was by some accounts lost in the Sec- 
ond World War. - R.B. 


4. Grohmann, 1928. 

5. Kuhn, 1921, p. 245.* 

6. Bruno Reimann, Oswald Herzog: Sinfonie des Lebens, photo- 
graphic portfolio, Berlin, 1921. 

7. Wolfgang Willrich, Sduberung des Kunstlempels. Munich 
and Berlin: J.F. Lehmanns Verlag, 1937. 


Cat. no. 52 

Kneeling IVonian (Kniende), 

c. 1920 


h:50cni. (igVsin.) 

Staatliche Museen Preussischer 

Rulturbesitz, Nationalgalerie, 


1 _ 



Ecstasy (Ferzuckung), 1919 


53.5x41 cm. 

(211/8X16% in.) 

On loan to Runsthalle 



Bernhard Hoetger 

Born 1874 Horde (Westphalia); 

died 1949 Beatenberg, Switzerland. 

"Art is world, is all-encom- 
passing, is totality, is GOD. 
The artist is the purifica- 
tion-vessel for the most 
beautiful and most awful 
experiences, a frightening 
aesthelicist, a dancer on 
the fields of the dead, a fil- 
ter, a detoxifier. Art creates 
the ethical mind, becomes s t r e n g t h.. ..Sculpture as 
art is monumental....Plastic art is rhv-thmical, it is 
open passion...."' 

Written by Bernhard Hoetger in 1919, this passage 
testifies to the influence on him of Nietzsche's aes- 
thetic and to the synthesis of ethos and eros in the art 
of the years immediately preceding and following 
World War I. It also emphasizes the significant distinc- 
tion Hoetger made between "sculpture," which is 
antitransitory, bound to the large, blocklike form, and 
"plastic art," which is subject to the laws of painting 
and allows for the transitory and the momentary.- This 
latter notion recalls Rodin, whose infiuence was domi- 
nant at the turn of the century. 

As Lehmbruck was to do later, Hoetger studied at 
the Kunstakademie in Diisseldorf. In 1900, he visited 
Paris on the occasion of the Exposition Universelle 
(International Exposition) and Rodin retrospective, 
and his enthusiasm for the city and for Rodin 
prompted him to remain there.' Between 1901 and 
1904, working under the poorest conditions, Hoetger 
created a number of masterful sculptures, including 
The Blind (c. 1901, two versions: bronze and terra- 
cotta) and Fertility (fig. 1, p. 104 ). Although stylistically 
infiuenced by Rodin, Hoetger's themes were close to 
the realism of Constantin Meunier, and his sculptures 
of workers became well known in Paris. 

Together with the sculptor Carl Milles, Hoetger 
founded the Societe des Artistes Realistes 
Internationals (Society of International Realist Art- 
ists),* and the artist Theophile Steinlen arranged for 
him to work for the magazine L'Assiette au Beurre 
(Butter Plate). In October 1903, this periodical devoted 
a special issue, entitled Dur Labeur (Hard Labor), to 
Hoetger Karl Ernst Osthaus, who had previously 
commissioned Minne to create The Fountain of 
Kneeling Youths for the Folkwang Museum in Hagen 
(see fig. 1, p. 157), met Hoetger at this time and 
arranged for the artist's first one-man exhibition. 

In 1904, Hoetger created Loi'ers (plaster; probably 
destroyed), which was influenced by Picasso's rose 
period,'' and the next year, after marrying Helene 


1. Hoetger, 1919, p. 172. 

2. SeeHofmann, 1958.* 

3. Werner, 1977; Dietrich Schaherl, Die Kunst Lehmbrucks, 
Stuttgart and Worms: Werner'sche Verlagsgesellschafl, 1981, 
pp. 51,63. 

4. Werner, 1977. 

5. Karl E. Schmidt, "Bernhard Hoelgery Zeit$ckr{fifiir 
bildende Kunst, vol. 16, 1905, pp. 37fr. 

(Lee) Haken, he executed two important sculptures: 
Portrait of Lee Hoetger, rigidly chiseled from marble 
(Museum Folkwang, Essen) and the beautiful 
Elberfeld Torso (bronze). Hoetger exhibited both 
works at the Salon d'Autoinne. where they were placed 
next to Maillol's Woman (1904, bronze). Seeing these 
works, Rodin commented: "Hoetger found the way I 
was looking for, and if I were not an old man, I would 
go this way, the way to the monumental, which is the 
only right one."*^ In 1906, Hoetger created two sculp- 
tures of women - Smile and Flight of Thoughts (each 
of which was executed twice, once in gilded bronze 
and once in cast stone) - works which further tran- 
scended the style of Rodin's bronzes in their dense and 
terse forms. Hoetger's works of this period also display 
his assimilation of ethnographic art and of Paul 
Gauguin's painting and sculpture. Thus, as early as 
1905, Hoetger anticipated both Picasso's turn toward 
the "primitive" (cf. Picasso's //carf o/a lloman [fig. 10, 
p. 18|; Self Portrait of 1906; and Demoiselles d'Avignon 
of 1907) and Brancusi's departure from Rodin's style 
in about 1907 (The Prayer, bronze). 

The Elberfeld Torso. Smile, Flight of Thoughts, and 
the Darmstadt Torso (1909, bronze; commissioned by 
the art patron E. von der Heydt) established Hoetger's 
reputation. In 1907, the sculptor left Paris to return to 
Germany, where he began to concentrate primarily on 
crafts and furniture. He also built the Worpswede 
monumeiU (still in existence) to his friend the painter 
Paula Modersohn-Becker, who had died in the same 
year In 1910, he was commissioned by Von der Heydt 
to create the Fountain of Justice in Elberfeld (bronze; 
destroyed). In September of the same year, he exhib- 
ited with Wassily Kandinsky and Franz Marc at the sec- 
ond exhibition of the Neue Kiinstlervereinigung 
Miinchen. In 1911, he was invited to join the Darm- 
stadt artists' colony, and in the course of the next three 
years, he created four large reliefs with figural friezes 
for the sycamore grove there (fig. 2, p. 104).'' These 
works delineate a lyrical Expressionism that drew in- 
creasingly upon exotic and primitive art. At this time 
Hoetger was engaged in studying Romanesque and 
Gothic sculpture, as well as the art of Mrica and the 
Far East. 

Unlike that of Lehmbruck, Hoetger's sculpture was 
not decisively influenced by the outbreak of the War. 
His art reached a highpoint in the Egyptian-style bust 
of the dancer Sent M'Ahesa (1917, gilded bronze). The 
works of this period, along with those of other leading 
Expressionists, deformed the human figure without 
ceasing to embody it. 

Hoetger dedicated his Pieta (fig. 4, p. 105) to the 
workers who lost their lives in the November Revolu- 
tion in Bremen and erected it at the Bremen-Walle 


6. Interview with Rodin by Louis Vauxcelles in Gil Bias, 1905, 
as quoted in Werner, 1977. 

7. Hans Hildebrandl. Der Platanenhain -ein Monumentalwerk 
Bernhard Hoetgers. Berlin: Cassirer, 1915. 


Cemeterj'.' An Expressionist monument like few otli- 
ers, it depicts a mourning mother with her dead son, a 
young worker As in Lehnibruck's drawings, the Chris- 
tian motif of the Pieta was adapted to an expression of 
conteniporai7 sorrow.' In 1935, the National Socialist 
bureaucracy destroyed this work. Hoetger's member- 
ship in the Novembergruppe and devotion to the so- 
cialist goals of the revolution were the cause of this 
attack. He created another Expressionist monument 
to the men killed in action, particularly those of 
Worpswede - the Peace Memorial: Lower Saxony 
Monument (fig. 3, p. 105), which fortunately was not 
destroyed. Constructed of brick and resembling a 
huge bird rising above the landscape, this work is an 
Expressionist phoenix.'" 

Hoetger's social involvement is recognizable in 
other projects as well. Around 19;6-17 he collabo- 
rated with Martel Schwichtenberg on plans for the 
Bahlsen cookie factory (the TET-city)." In 1927, 
Hoetger was commissioned to decorate the facade of 
the Gewerkschaflshaus-Volkshaus, Bremen (a labor 
union building; fig. 5, p. 106); this became the Me- 
morial to Labor. In 1928, he completed the eight fig- 
ures making up this composition, six of which are 
included in this exhibition: old and young people (cat. 
nos. 53, 54, 57, and 58), a weary worker (cat. no. 55), 
and a worker with a child (cat. no. 56). In the following 
year, Georg Biermann published an open letter to the 
artist, in which he described these works: 

The gesture of your figures is unnerving. You are 
revealing the sense of becoming and of passing 
away, of birth and of death. ..yet in this instance it is a 
sense which does not open the gate to the last free- 
dom but brings eternal sleep, sinking into the finite 


8. Carl E. Uphoff, "Hoetger," Der Cicerone, vol. 11, 1919, pp. 
427-58; Sophie D. Gallwitz, Dreissig Jahre llbrpswede, Bre- 
men: Angelsachsen-Verlag, 1922, pp. 47-51; Dietrich Schu- 
bert, Fcsfec/irf/? //o(/"^an^Braun/f/s, Tubingen: F. Piel/J. 
Traeger. 1977. p. 405: R.P. Baacke and M. Nungesser, "Ich bin - 
Ich war - Ich werde sein: drei Denkmaler der deutschen 
Arbeiterbewegung in den 20er .lahren," in llemgehort die 
fl'ell^ exh. cat., Berlin. 1977, pp. 291-92; Grosse Kunstscliau, 
Worpswede, 1982, p. 48. 

9. The Pieta is predominantly employed in those war memori- 
als which, instead of celebrating heroes, bemoan the dead. 
Such memorials include those by F. Behn (I iersen), 
Lehmbruck (drawings, 1918), and Hoetger (cf. Schubert, 1981, 
op. cit., pp. 206- 12 and pp. 2571T.). 

10. Hoetger himself wrote a short statement about the Peace 
Memorial: Lower Saxony Monument (see Gallwitz, 1922, op. 
cit., pp. 48-50; Roselius and Drost. 1974. pp. 75fr.); the text is 
in the Worpswede Archive, Haus in Schluh. (I would like to 
thank Mr Hans II. Rief, Worpswede, for his kind assistance.) 
On May 10, 1951. Hoetger described the monument in a letter 
as follows: " did not turn out to be a war memorial, but a 
memorial of mourning, with a view toward peace." 

1 1. Kunstverein Hannover, D/t' H^ue TE T-Fabrik, exh. cat., 
1917; Roselius and Drost, 1974; W. Pehnt, Die Arefiitektur des 
Expressionismus, Stuttgart: 1974. ATET is a type of Egyptian 
amulet in the shape of a knot that is usually placed in a grave 
to protect the dead. It is a symbol of eternal life. 

and resting from the miserable burden of everyday 
life. Almost cruel in this respect is the symbol of the 
old woman who, exhausted from the burden of la- 
bor, is barely able to stand on her feet any longer.'^ 

In contrast to the idealized workers' memorials that 
were produced in the late nineteenth century (by .lules 
Dalou, Meunier, and Rodin), Hoetger, like Kathe 
KoIIwltz, chose as his subject matter the exploitation 
of the worker by capitalist industry." In the figures for 
the Bremen Volkshaus, all African and Egyptian influ- 
ences were overcome in favor of a new kind of real- 
ism. Only the fact that the figures appeared nude and 
therefore timeless connects them with Expressionism. 
In 1933, the original figures were destroyed by the 
National Socialists; Hoetger was declared "degen- 
erate" and in 1936 was harshly attacked in the SS pub- 
lication Schwarzes Korps. For years only small bronzes 
of the Volkshaus figures were kept and exhibited in the 
Bottcherstrasse in Bremen. But in 1974, on the occa- 
sion of Hoetger's hundredth birthday, the senate of 
Bremen decided to reconstruct the sculptures, and in 
1979 this cycle of "life under the stigma of labor" was 
again affixed to the former home of the labor union.'* 

A statement by Carl UphofTin his 1919 evaluation of 
Hoetger remains significant: 

A new mankind will rise: a new spirit will come. 
Because to be human means to be spiritual. ...By 
means of the spirit man is able to produce and to 
form new things, things that never before existed. 
The new spirit of man is eager for community.'' 



12. Quoted from Biermann, 1929, p. 52 (also quoted in 
Roselius and Drost, 1974). 

15. Claude Keisch, "Ein Bildhauertraimi um die Jahrhundert- 
wende: Das Denkmal der Arbeit," Bildende Kunst, (East Ber- 
lin), 1971, pp. 187-95; J. A. Schmoll [Eisenwerth, pseud.], 
"Denkmaler der ,\rbeit," \i\Denkmiilerini I^.Jaiirhundert, ed. 
Hans-Ernst Mittig and Volker Plagemann, Munich: Prestel 
Verlag, 1972, pp. 275ff. Concerning Rodin's project see also 
Renate Liebenwein-Kramer, "Le monument au travail," 
Jahrbuch der Hamburger Kunstsammlungen, vol. 25, 1980, pp. 

14. Biermann, 1929, pp. 49-55. About the reconstruction of 
Hoetger's Volkshaus figures in Bremen, sec Wolfgang Schmitz, 
"Unter dem Stigma der .\rbeit," Tendenzen, (Munich), nos. 
126/127, 1979, pp. SOff.; Grosse Kunstschau, Worpswede, 1982, 
pp. 49ff. 

15. Uphoff, op. cit., p. 429. 



Fertility (Fecondite), 1904 


h: 48 cm. (18% in.) 

Bremen Boselius Collection 

Fig. 2 

Relief in the Sycamore Grove 

(Relief im Platanenhain), 



Malhlldenhohe, Darmstadt 


Fig. 3 

Peace Memorial: Lower Saxony- 
Monument (Friedensmal: 
Niedersachsens tein), 1915-22 

Fig. 4 

Pie td for the Dead of the 

November Revolution of 1918 

(Pietdfiir die Oefallenen der 

November-Revolution), Bremen, 



Destroyed in 1933 by the Nazis 



Fig. 5 

Bremen, 1928, with sculptures 
by Hoetger, front view. 

Fig. 6 

Photographs taken in 1928 of 
cat. nos. 53, 54, 55, and 56 


Cat. no. 53 

Old Man (Alter Mann), 1928/ 

caste. 1970 


h:64cni. (25'/+in.) 

Private Collection 

The 4 bronzes now in ttie 
Nationalgaierie, Berlin (cat. nos. 54, 
56, 57, and 58) and 2 additional ones 
now in Dortmund wei-e used to cre- 
ate larger-scale versions which 
were installed in 1928 at the 
Gewerkschaftshaus-Volkshaus, Bre- 
men. They were destroyed by the 
Nazis and replaced in the 1970s with 
replicas. Old Man and cat. no. 55 
were recast in Dortmund around 
1970 from the original bronzes. 

Cat. no. 54 

Old Woman (Alle Frau). 1928 


61 X 23 ,\ 21 cm. 

(24 X 9 X 8'/, in.) 

Staatliche Museen Preussisclier 

Kulturbesitz, Nationalgaierie, 


Inscribed Hoetger and .4. Bischoff 
Diisseldorf on pedestal. See discus- 
sion under cat. no. 53. 



■61*. irtifV^j^icacccNfvi 



Cat. no. 55 

Weary Worker with Crossed 

Arms (Milder Arbeiter mit 

gekreuzten Armen), 1928 /cast 

c. 1970 


h: 69 cm. (27i/8 in.) 

Private Collection 

See discussion under cat. no. 53. 

Cat. no. 56 

Worker with Child (Arbeiter mit 

Kind). 1928 


77 X 20 X 26 cm. 

(oOVs X 7V5 X lO'A in.) 

Staatliche Museen Preussischer 

Kulturbesitz, Nationalgalerie, 


Inscribed Hoetger and A. Bischoff 
Dihseldorf on pedestal. See discus- 
sion under cat. no. 53 






Cat. no. 57 

Young Girl (Junges Mddcheii), 



76x 16x 17 cm. 


Staatliche Museen Preussischer 

Kulturbesitz, Natioiialgalerie, 


Inscribed Hoetger and A. Bischojf 
Dtisseldorf on pedestal. See discus- 
sion under cat. no. 53. 

Cat. no. 58 

Young Man (Jilngling). 1928 


70 X 22 X 19 cm. 

(27'/2 X 85/8 X 7'/2 in.) 

Staatliche Museen Preussischer 

Kulturbesitz, Nationalgalerie, 


Inscribed Hoetger din& A. Blschoff 
Dilsseldorf on pedestal. See cat. no. 





Joachim Rarsch's early 
Expressionist sculptures - 
primarily heads and indi- 
vidual figures - bear a 
critical relationship to the 
years 1917-20, during 
which they were created. 
Karsch had studied at the 
Kunstgevverbeschule in 
Joachim Karsch Breslau from 1911 to 1914 and from 1915 to 1917 at the 

Kunstakademie in Berlin, along with Garbe and 
Born 1897 Breslau; Belling. During this period, he had already developed 

an interest in literary characters as sculptural sub- 
died 1945 Gandern. jects. In the inner conflicts of protagonists created by 
Dostoevski, Leo Tolstoy, Franz Werfel, and Rainer Ma- 
ria Rilke, he perceived correspondences to the confu- 
sions prevailing in his own time. These same char- 
acters had previously attracted the attention of the 
"first generation" of Expressionists. In Karsch's work, 
however, they received a typically late Expressionist 
treatment; they were given a refined psychological 
characterization, which is conveyed through a man- 
nered virtuosity of technique. 

The use of the head as a subject provided the sculp- 
tor with an opportunity to combine naturalism and a 
heightened psychological symbolism. Thus, Karsch's 
mask of a prisoner of war, Wikulow (fig. 2, p. 1 12), 
created while he was fuinUing a civil service obliga- 
tion in Silesia, is as much a psychological study as are 
the portraits he drew in 1917-18 for Dostoevski's 
Brothers Karamazov and Rilke's novel Die 
Aufzeichnungen des Malle Laurids Brigge. ' 

The head included in this exhibition, .4 Friend of Job 
(cat. no. 59), may also be understood as a psychologi- 
cal study. This bronze is a detail from a larger-than- 
life-size group of four kneeling figures, Job and His 
Friends (fig. 1, p. 1 12). Karsch created this group in 
1919, the same year he moved to Berlin. It won him the 
Staatspreis (State Prize) - a Rome prize - given by the 
Preussische Akademie der Kiinste to enable young art- 
ists to study in Italy. Karsch, however, was unable to 
make use of his stipend, as the studios of the Villa 
Massimo had been confiscated by the Italian govern- 
ment at the end of World War I. Soon after /oft and His 
FYiends was exhibited in Berlin at the Freie Sezession 
exhibition of 1 920, Karsch destroyed the group (except 
for the head-detail) because he was unable to store 
the sculpture in his small Berlin studio. 

Closely following the Bible (Job 2:13), the original 
sculptural arrangement presented Job with his three 
friends, Eliphaz the Temanite, Bildad the Shuhite, and 
Zophar the Naamathite, who came to console and la- 
ment with him. They tore their clothes in grief: "So 
they sat down with him upon the ground seven days 
and seven nights, and none spake a word unto him: for 
they saw that his grief was very great." This theme and 
its formulation were clearly Expressionist, as may be 
seen in the elongation of the Friend's head and its 

1. Some of these drawings from 1917-1918 were published in 
Wclfradt, 1918. 

emphatically realistic detail. Elegant and decorative 
lines of predominantly autonomous formal value are 
combined with realistically modeled, individual facial 
forms. The mannerism apparent in this sculpture, like 
that of the aforementioned drawings, is undeniably re- 
lated to German late Gothic sculpture (cf. the work of 
Tilman Riemenschneider). The refinement of the 
modeling reveals a distinct, final stage of Expression- 
ism. Significantly, Karsch later condemned this phase 
as a "mistaken direction" but, nonetheless, the motifs 
and spiritual context of such sculptures continue in 
different forms in his later work. 

Melancholy, a bronze male head created in 1927, 
translates the expressive emotion of.-l Friend of Job 
into the classic formal language of the later decade. 
Yet the rough surface of Melancholy vi as, intended to 
deny the calmness of the form. At this time, Karsch felt 
spiritually close to Lehmbruck and to the contem- 
porary painter Carl Hofer, whose "clarity of soul and 
greatness of maturity"- attracted him. The simplifica- 
tion of form and the sincerity of its human message 
became more and more important to Karsch as the 
mendacious heroism and idealism of Nazi art chal- 
lenged him to clarify his view. In 1937, the year of the 
Entartete Kunst exhibition, he articulated his goal: ferret life out of its most hidden corners, where 
it silently reveals itself in the awkward, unbeautiful 
movements of the children, the dreamy state of girls 
in self-absorption, ugly in this thoughtlessness of 
which they themselves are not conscious.' 

Karsch's individual and group sculptures and fig- 
ural reliefs of the early thirties represent the mature 
phase of his work. Reading Couple (1931, wood, 
Nationalgalerie, Berlin) may be interpreted as a para- 
phrase of Barlach's Reading Monks, III (1932, wood, 
Nationalgalerie, Berlin). During this period Karsch 
was concerned with the depiction of figures who 
shared spiritual bonds and had become one in their 
loneliness. His bronze sculpture of 1940 is a resigned 
commentary on the unrealized possibilities of his gen- 
eration. On February 27, 1941, depressed and worn 
out, he wrote: 

We are, as il turns out, a generation that simply has 
been used up by histoi^. The waste that has fallen 
out in the Great Change. After this War we will be 
old people and we have not yet really lived.^ 

When in February of 1945 Karsch witnessed the Rus- 
sian occupation and the destruction of his studio in 
Grossgandern near Frankfurt an der Oder, he commit- 
ted suicide together with his wife. - J. H. v. W. 


2. Karsch, 1928, pp. leiff. 

3. Wilhelm-Lehmbruck-Museum der Stadt Duisburg, 1968. 

4. Ibid. 


Cat. no. 59 

A Friend of Job (Ein Freund 
Hiobs), 1919-20/cast 1978 

26.2x28x21.4 cm. 
(lOVsx 11 X 83/8 in.) 
The Robert Gore Rifkind 
Foundation, Beverly Hills, 

Inscribed Fiissel Berlin and /// on 1. b. 
edge. One of 3 casts executed since 
1967, this piece was made in 1978. 
The plaster (Gips) is in the Joachim 
Karsch Archiv, Berlin. It was 
originally part of a life-size plaster 
group, Job and His Friends (Hiob 
und seine Freunde), exhibited at the 
Freie Sezession exhibition, Berlin, 




3ur Crbffnung ber Gommcr^-JlusftcUung bcr Jr'-'i'-Mi ocjiclfion in "iicrlin: 
-Mid in 6cn Siauptfaol mit ber iniob'Sruppc bcs Q3ili>I)nnccs 3onci)im Snrfd). 



Installation view: Job and His 
Friends (Hiob und seine 
Freunde), 1919, plaster /G/ps/, 
destroyed except for the head .4 
Friend of Job (cat. no. 59), at the 
Freie Sezession exhibition, Ber- 
lin, summer 1920; photograph 
from the newspaper Beilage zur 
Vossischen Zeitung, (Berlin), no. 
16, April 25, 1920. In the back- 
ground is Heckel's sculpture 
Tall Standing Woman (Grosse 
Stehende). 1912 (Vogt, 8), for- 
merly in the collection of the 
Museum fiir Kunst und 
Gewerbe, Hamburg (see 
Sauerlandt essay, p. 53). 

Fig. 2 

Wikulow (Maske, Bildnis eines 

Russen), 1918 


h: 22.5 cm. (SVio in.) 



Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 

Born 1880 Aschaffenburg; 

died 1938 Frauenkirch, near Davos, 


On April 17, 1925, E. L. 
Kirchner wrote to art his- 
torian Will Grohmann: 
"My friend de M. [Louis de 
Marsalle, Kirchner's 
pseudonym] reminds me 
that the time has come to 
publish my sculpture. This 
agrees with your decision 
to publish, for historical reasons, my figures prior to 
those of the Swiss sculptors whom 1 inspired." 
Kirchner suggested that Grohmann base his essay on 
de Marsalle's which, however, appeared the same 
year. Since the publication of that essay (which is 
included in translation in this catalogue, pp. 43-46), 
no comprehensive study has been made of Kirchner's 
sculpture. A brief survey of his entire oeuvre and the 
state of research on it is necessary, however, prior to 
any discussion of the sculpture. 

Kirchner was a draftsman, graphic artist, painter, 
sculptor, and photographer. Additionally, numerous 
textiles and rugs were produced according to his 
designs. He has left us an important body of theoreti- 
cal work concerning art in general and his own art in 
particular; it includes essays, his diai7, and one of the 
most voluminous correspondences known to art his- 
tory. These writings complement Erika Billeter's por- 
trait of Kirchner as an artist who sought to express 
himself in \'irtually all media.' They complete the 
"environment" which Kirchner created around him- 
self; an environment which, by virtue of the intense 
interrelationships of media it proposed, continuously 
provided the artist with a rich source of inspiration. 
Kirchner's theories relating to sculpture in particular 
have been considered by Eduard Ti'ier, although he re- 
fers exclusively to Kirchner's aforementioned essay.- 

Kirchner's paintings have been published by Donald 
Gordon and his graphic work by Annemarie and Wolf- 
Dieter Dube in oeuvre catalogues. Lothar Grisebach 
has already published much of Kirchner's written 
work, and his correspondence with the Hamburg 
collector Gustav Schiefler will soon be edited by 
Annemarie Dube. Karlheinz Gabler has made a spe- 
cial effort to produce a scholarly commentary on the 
drawings, sculptures, and photographs, and Hans 
Bolliger's secondary bibliography on Kirchner goes far 
beyond the usual. Oeuvre catalogues for the drawings, 
pastels, and watercolors, as well as for the sculptures, 
must still be published. This exhibition brings us 
closer to a serious consideration of the sculpture; the 
fact that one of the exhibited works. Female Dancer 
with Necklace (cat. no. 60) previously was known only 
through a studio photograph of 1910 (fig. 1, p. 120) 
raises hopes that other Kirchner sculptures may even- 
tually be found. 

A large part of Kirchner's sculptural oeuvre has dis- 
appeared and is known only through photographs and 


1. See Billeter, "Kunst als Lebensenfwurf," in Nationalgalerie, 
Berlin, 1979. 

2. Trier, 1971.* 

written references. These losses were due primarily to 
three catastrophes. Kirchner sculptures were among 
the 639 works confiscated from German museums in 
1937, as part of the Nazi campaign against "degen- 
erate art." Nude with a Bath Towel /Bathing Woman 
(1909-10; fig. 14, p. 129) and Cowp/e (1923-24) (fig. 3, 
p. 53), which were taken from the Museum fiir Kunst 
und Gewerbe in Hamburg, for example, were lost or 
destroyed in this manner' Kirchner scholar Eberhard 
Kornfeld has described the second cause contributing 
to losses as follows: 

When on March 13 [1938] the news of Austria's 
annexation sends shock waves throughout the 
world, [Kirchner] begins to fix more and more on 
the idea that some day German soldiers will also 
stand before his "Haus auf dem Wildboden." The 
sculptures decorating the exterior of the home are 
removed and destroyed.-* 

Available information suggests that many of the 
house's interior carvings were also destroyed. 
Kornfeld further affirms: "Undisputed. the fact that 
Kirchner destroyed and burnt all his wood blocks, and, 
above all, his Adam and Eve chair." .A third loss most 
likely occurred when the Wildboden household inven- 
tory was publicly auctioned after Erna Kirchner's 
death in October 1945. Whatever was not sold was 
burned in front of the house. Presumably some of 
Kirchner's decorative works and smaller sculptures 
perished at this time. The Kunstmuseum Basel 
catalogued twenty-three sculptures in the estate. 

In comparison to the regrettable state of preserva- 
tion of the actual works, our knowledge of the many 
sculptures Kirchner created is very good. Aside from 
the theoretical statements already mentioned and his 
references to his sculptural works in correspondence, 
Kirchner began to depict his sculptures in paintings 
and graphics in 1909, and in 1910, he began to photo- 
graph them.' Although Kirchner was often a hesitant 
participant in negotiations concerning publications 
about himself, many books and articles discussing his 
works appeared during the twenties, and these often 
included reproductions of his sculptures. Beginning in 
1912, Kirchner sent his sculptures to various exhibi- 
tions and always made sure that good catalogues were 
prepared to document them. On the basis of these var- 
ied sources, today we can estabUsh a sculptural oeuvre 
of over one hundred works. Nearly all pieces were in 
wood; the exceptions consisted of early cast, modeled, 
or stone sculptures and a few embossed and ham- 


3. Paul Ortwin Rave, Kunstdikatur im Dritten Reich, Berlin; 
Gebr. Mann, 1950; and Franz Roh, Entartete Kunst: 
Kunstbarbareiini Dritten Reich, Hannover: Fackeltrager- 
Verlag Schmidt-Kiister, 1963. 

4. Kornfeld, 1979, pp. 321-22. 

5. Kirchner's photographs and other important photo docu- 
mentaUon of his life were made available in 1981 in the 
Fotoarchiv Ernst Ludviig Kirchner of Hans Bolliger and Ro- 
man Norbert Ketterer, Campione d'ltalia, Switzerland. Also 
see Gabler, 1979-80. 



mered items executed in a small format. Considering 
the size of this body of work and the importance of 
Kirchner's sculptural theories, the artist's plastic work 
goes far beyond that of a peintre sculpteur (painter- 
sculptor). Kirchner produced sculpture throughout 
his entire creative life; not only is it an integral part of 
his whole oeuvi-e because of its theoretical and prac- 
tical interrelationships with other techniques, but 
qualitatively it is also extraordinarily important. 
Kirchner was a sculptor, and, as was the case with his 
work in other media, he was a sculptor possessed of 
the highest degree of individuality. 

From late 1901 through 1905 Kirchner received 
architectural training at the Technische Hochschule 
in Dresden, although this period was interrupted by 
studies of pictorial art in Munich from 1903 to 1904. By 
his own account, he began to both paint and sculpt 
before the summer of 1903. The plastic work known to 
us, however, cannot be dated earlier than 1909, al- 
though it is possible that his small modeled clay fig- 
ures could have originated before then. Based on a 
photograph illustrating six of Kirchner's clay figures, it 
seems that these works were closer in style to his post- 
Impressionism of 1906-08. Only a single clay relief of 
1909 survives from this period.'' The pewter figures, 
one of which Kirchner photographed (see fig. 3, 
p. 120), represent a transition to the Briicke style of 

The discrepancy between the dates which Kirchner 
assigned to his sculptures and those we have estab- 
lished may be explained by the fact that, after the 1913 
dissolution of the Briicke, he tended to predate espe- 
cially his works created in Berlin and Dresden, fearing 
that people might claim he had imitated other artists. 
As the years went on, this tendency increased and was 
compounded by Kirchner's failing memory. This latter 
development sometimes resulted in errors involving 
postdating as well. The dating of one of the early 
surviving pevvier sculptures illustrates this problem. 
The work is a standing female nude, thirteen inches in 
height, illustrated by Grohmann in 1926 and dated 
1913 by the artist. Yet this figure was, without a doubt, 
created by 1911 in Dresden, during Kirchner's preoc- 
cupation with Benin sculpture. (At this time the collec- 
tion of the Volkerkunde-Museum in Dresden strongly 
inspired Kirchner and the other Briicke artists). While 
in Dresden, Kirchner also created sandstone sculp- 
tures; three of these survive. 

In 1904, Kirchner had begun to draw on numerous 
European sources, which initially influenced his 
painting. Beginning in March 1910 when he encoun- 
tered Patau and Cameroon sculpture, his plastic art 
was greatly affected as well. As Donald Gordon has ob- 
served, Kirchner's art attained liberation and indepen- 
dence by adopting the sweUing physicality and mature 
plasticity of the figural frescoes of Ajanta, India, which 
he observed from photographs in the Dresden library 
6. See Grisebach, no. 62 with ill., in Nationalgalerie, Berlin, 

in 1905 and copied from in 1910-1 1." Gordon reported 
only their influence on Kirchner's painting, but the ob- 
vious impact on his sculpture must also be noted, for 
after the Ajanta contact his human figures are full and 
spatial in both two- and three-dimensional media. 
This is clearly demonstrated in the sculptures of 1910- 
1 1 (fig. 14, p. 129) and in the volumes and basic posi- 
tion o\ Dancing Woman (cat. no. 61). However, in the 
latter sculpture the elegance of Ajanta was surren- 
dered in favor of the more angular and compact forms 
of African plastic art. 

Apart from the aforementioned early works, 
Kirchner's sculptures from 1910 on were carved or 
"hewn" exclusively from wood. As was the case for his 
works in other media, they were conceived with a defi- 
nite sense of immediacy, following a few sketches. On 
June 27, 1911, Kirchner wrote to Gustav Schiefler: 

The maple wood that you sent us lends itself well to 
being worked; it has such short fibers and is, as a 
whole, completely homogenous. One is tempted to 
polish it. I've made a silting figure with a bowl on 
her head, and now am working on a standing one in 
dancing position. It is so good for painting and draw- 
ing, this making of figures, it lends wholeness to 
drawing and is such a sensual pleasure when blow 
by blow the figure grows more and more from the 
trunk. There is a figure in every trunk, one must only 
peel it out. 

In October-November of the same year, the artist 
moved from Dresden to Berlin. From there he contin- 
ued his periodic visits to the Baltic island of Fehmarn, 
where in 1912 he drew Sketch for Sculpture (fig. 4, 
p. 121). The sketch shows a tree trunk which, although 
healthy, is rendered with attention to its deformities 
and sprouting branches. Incorporated in the trunk is a 
sketch of a female dancer with a raised arm. On the 
back of the drawing the artist wrote: 

The figure on the verso remains incomplete. It is 
probably still lying on the Fehmarn beach today. In 
1912 I wanted to create a dancer, and in Fehmarn I 
accidentally found a piece of wood suitable for hen I 
just drew the form of the trunk and composed and 
drew the figure within it. This is the drawing. E. L. 
Kirchner 1912. 

From a piece of wood either found by chance or 
received from Gustav Schiefler, the latent figure was 
composed and peeled out. By avoiding any polishing, 
the power of the material was reinforced; the roughly 
carved surface usually remained visible, although 
from their inception Kirchner always imagined adding 

7. Regarding the extra-European influences on Kirchner's art, 
of. Schlesvvig-Holsteinisches Landesmuseum and Museum 
fiir Kunst und Gewerbe, Hamburg, i960;' Sciineckenburger, 
1972;* ilenlzen, 1959;* and others, who refer primarily to 
Cameroon and Palau. Regarding the assimilations from 
.\janta. see Donald E. Gordon, "Kirchner in Dresden,". -Ir/Bu/- 
letin, vol. 48, 1966, pp. 335-66. 



color to these works. He only polished his sculptures 
under special circumstances; this occurred later while 
he still was living in Berlin and then in Davos, where 
he moved in 1918. 

Kirchner's sculpture Head of a Woman. Head of 
Erna (cat. no. 67, and fig. 3, p. 44) may now be dated 
with certainty to the summer of 1913, on the basis of a 
postcard (fig. 10, p. 125) and letter to Schiefler On the 
postcard, a photo of the head, Kjrchner wrote, "Here is 
a wood sculpture which I've carved from oak wood 
that drifted ashore." .\nd in the letter of August 12 
which followed he added: 

The head which I sent you is a wood carving (oak); 
I've made a few figures of this kind here. They give, 
in addition to the freedom of drawing, the cogent 
rhythm of the form enclosed in the block. And these 
two elements provide the composition of the 

The Head of a Woman had been initiated in many 
drawings, paintings, and graphics of 1912 and 1913. It 
constitutes a high point in Kirchner's preoccupation 
with portraying his wife, Erna, which, however, is 
evidenced only two more times in his plastic art: in the 
"abstract" double portrait of 1928-30, Self-Portrait 
and Erna (Swiss stone pine, Galerie Roman Norbert 
Ketterer, 44), and in the subdued Erna Kircliner of 
1935 (Swiss stone pine, Galerie Roman Norbert 
Ketterer, 42). In Davos, Kirchner had discovered the 
type of wood frequently employed there for carving - 
Swiss stone pine (Arve) that grows at altitudes 
between five and eight thousand feet. On November 2, 
1918, he wrote about it to Nele van de Velde: 

Now I have a wonderful kind of wood for carving, 
the Swiss stone pine. I've never seen any other wood 
which lends itself so well to cutting. These pines 
grow high up, close to the snow line. The wood, 
despite its softness, is very resistant." 

In the firm, full forms of Female Dancer with Neck- 
lace (cat. no. 60) Kirchner transcended his Ajanta 
models, and his Briicke friends as well, for whom 
sculpture remained a less autonomous discipline that 
was more dependent on its "primitive" models. After 
his move to Berlin, Kirchner kept a large African 
sculpture in his studio, and most likely used it in direct 
imitations. As of 1912 and later it was depicted many 
times;-' a tall, relatively slender figure with a rigid 


8. Kirchner's letter of November 2, 1918, to Nele van de Velde 
in Ernsl Ludwig Kirchner, Briefe an Nele und Henry van de 
I'elde. Munich: R. Piper & Co. Verlag, 1961, pp. 10-11. 

9. Kirchner first mentioned the title Erna with Idol (Erna mit 
Gotze) to Schiefier as the Utie for a woodcut (Dube, 205). 
When Schiefier inquired about its meaning, Kirchner changed 
the title (in his letter of July or August 1918) to lloman with, Af- 
rican Sculpture (Frau mit Negerplastik). In Nationalgalerie, 
Berlin, 1979, Grisebach describes drawing no. 136 as an "imi- 
taUon of an African sculpture, created for the MUlM-lnstitut, 
jointh founded by Kirchner and Max Pechstein in 1911. ..(oral 
communication by Karlheinz Gabler, Frankfurt)." 

form and smooth surface, it displays characteristics 
which we also find in Kirchner's own sculptures of 
19 12. FemaZe Dancer (fig. 5, p. 121, right) is typical in 
this regard, and both Nude Girl (cat. no. 64) and Nude 
lloman. Sitting with Her Legs Crossed Under Her (cat. 
no. 65) were also created using these slender but full 
forms. The harsher and more extended forms typical 
of the summer of 1913 find expression in Head of a 
lloman, Female Dancer with Extended Leg (cat. no. 66, 
and fig. 1, p. 43)), Turning Nude (cat. no. 68), and 
Standing Female Nude (cat. no. 69). Kirchner's sculp- 
tural activity in Berlin came to an end with military 
service and an illness which began in 1915-16. The 
projects of this period remained plans: these included 
the memorial Blacksmith ofHagen; Symbol of War; a 
relief for a private residence, entitled Soldier's Death; 
and a type of cast-iron cooking pot which was 
designed for use during wartime in order to conserve 
the copper traditionally used for this purpose. 

After the confusing years of war and sickness, 
Kirchner settled down in September 1918 in the "Haus 
in den Larchen" in Frauenkirch near Davos, com- 
pletely furnishing it with carved Swiss stone pine. As 
early as October of that year Helene Spengler reported 
to Eberhard Grisebach: "What. ..amazed me, was a 
tray which Kirchner has carved for his own use, 
incredibly exact and pretty." Letters and diary entries 
detail his activities further: in February 1919, he was 
working on two reliefs for the studio door; a painted 
chest with figural supports had already been com- 
pleted; the first carved chairs were finished in March, 
in April the first bed. The first freestanding Davos 
sculpture. Boy with Hatchet (private collection, Frank- 
furt), appeared in October, and in the same month 
work began on a carved bed for Erna (Collection 
Eberhard Kornfeld, Bern). Several sculptures with 
farm life as their subject were done, among them Cow 
(fig. 7, p. 46), Farmer with Cow, Prancing Horse, and 
Female Ancestors. Kirchner was inspired not only by 
his new home and en\ironment, but also by the plans 
of Belgian architect Henry van de Velde to build 
"Homes on the Lake" in Uttwil, which would have 
included large commissioned sculptural projects ex- 
ecuted by Kirchner. These plans, along with all larger 
commissions, remained unrealized.'" In furnishing 
his own home, Kirchner created what he had always 
desired - a total work of art. Even the pillowcases and 
tablecloths were embroidered by Erna and other 

10. Kornfeld gives an exact description of the correspondence 
with Henry van de Velde from the end of April 1917 to the year 
1924, when Littwil had already ceased to be a topic of discus- 
sion, yielding to plans for Kirchner's sculptural decoration of 
the new building for the Kroller-Miiller-Museum. The failure 
of these two plans seems to have had the same cause as the 
failure of Kirchner's other large commissions, e.g., the paint- 
ing of the interior hall in the Folkwang Museum in Essen 
(1927-37). If one analyzes the manner of working and think- 
ing of the persons responsible for the commissioning of these 
large projects, one must conclude that they lacked under- 
standing of Kirchner's art; in the Van de Velde projects, despite 
complete mutual respect, an all-too-divergent concept of 
design obtained. 



women according to his designs. He decorated both 
the interior and exterior of the home affectionately 
and exactly. In 1927, after giving a detailed description 
of all the furnishings he had created for the living 
room, he wrote in his diary: "Everything is KJrchner's 
work. .\nd all these figures have dreamlike large faces, 
and they are filled with heavy inner movement."" 
Only within the context of this larger environment can 
Kirchner's sculptures of 1919-23 be judged fairly In 
crowded reliefs and compact forms, Rirchner related 
parables drawn from his own life and the lives of the 
peasants around him. The timeless Dance Between the 
Women and the continually recurring March to the 
Meadows were depicted framing each side of the stu- 
dio door: nude women supported the seats of the 
chairs; and time and again he employed the theme of 
Adam and Eve. Yet only a few sculptures per se origi- 
nated during these years. 

This changed when the failure of Van de Velde's 
plans became clear and when, during 1923-26, 
Kirchner received new impetus from his young disci- 
ples, the Swiss artists Hermann Scherer and Albert 
Miiller To be sure, during the summer of 1924 he did 
keep working vrith Scherer on the furnishings for the 
newWildboden home, to which he had moved in Octo- 
ber 1923. As Kirchner expressly remarked in a letter to 
Schiefier of December 10, 1924, he and Scherer 
together created the sculpted posts for the patio. Their 
collaboration had already begun in August of the pre- 
vious year, when Scherer visited Kirchner for the first 
time. Whereas Kirchner's sculptures of 1919-23 were 
in most cases intended to be viewed from one side 
only, now he recommended creating sculptures meant 
to be seen in the round. Mother and Child/nbman and 
Girl (fig. 6, p. 121) of 1923 combines the sculptural 
experiences of Dresden, Berlin, and the "Haus in den 
Larchen" - the swelhng physicality, power of serious 
expression, and representation of the simple life. 

During the years 1924-26, Scherer created - often 
together with Kirchner at Wildboden - his own limited 
but intense sculptural oeuvre. Kirchner summarized 
the results of his collaboration with Scherer in a pho- 
tograph (fig. 13, p. 128) taken in the fall of 1924, which 
shows three Scherer sculptures next to the house. 
Scherer's Mother Nursing Child (cat. no. 1 17) is ele- 
vated, and on the right is Kirchner's Tlvo Friends, a 
portrait of Scherer and Miiller (see also cat. no. 72, and 
fig. 12, p. 128). During this same period, Miiller also 
created sculptures in this "early Wildboden style" that 
Kirchner photographed in front of the house or under 
the trees, observing irregular lighting. Miiller pre- 
sented him with a self-portrait carved from wood. A 
few of Kirchner's sculptures from these years have 
been transmitted to us by his photographs; unfortu- 
nately, hardly anything has been preserved. 

Kirchner had high expectations that Miiller and 
Scherer would be able to pass on his ideas about art to 
the next generation. When both died, one shortly after 
the other in December 1926 and May 1927, Kirchner 

ll.Grisebach, |1968],p. 156. 

lost hope, and in Miiller, he lost a true friend as well. 
The disappointment Kirchner felt may help to explain 
why he primarily destroyed sculptures which origi- 
nated at this time. In contrast, we know of twenty-one 
sculptures by Hermann Scherer which originated dur- 
ing these three years, most of which have been pre- 
served. They give a more comprehensive picture of 
the endeavors undertaken by the three artists than do 
the few Kirchner sculptures from the period which 
have survived. 

Thus around the mid-twenties Kirchner's Expres- 
sionist period as a sculptor came to an end. During the 
following years his sculpture, paintings, and graphics 
became more abstract, reaching their most reduced 
forms in the early thirties, for example, in the Self-Por- 
trait with Erna (1932, Gordon, 946) and in ihe Reclin- 
ing Woman (1933, Galerie Roman Norbert Ketterer, 

Kirchner always defended himself vigorously when 
the influence of other artists on his work was men- 
tioned, but he did not extend this practice to earlier 
German or extra-European art.'- These are the influ- 
ences which were most important in his plastic art; 
the former may be seen in the direct relationship 
between Nude Girl (cat. no. 64) and portrayals of the 
female body by the German artist Lucas Cranach." In 
December 1919, while working on the carvings for the 
bedframe he created for Erna, Kirchner wrote in his 
diary: "How much more advanced is the African in this 
kind of carving." Although the British art historian 
Frank Whitford would have us disregard Kirchner's 
own statements about his art in favor of relying solely 
on an examination of his works, '+ this is not entirely 
possible. The explanation of why Kirchner categori- 
cally refused to acknowledge some of the obvious in- 
fiuences on his work while confirming others with 
equal conviction may provide us with new insight. 

Of course, the jealousy that made Kirchner disclaim 
his contemporary models would have been inappro- 
priate to those more removed in time and space. But 
the true explanation certainly lies deeper: we may 
approach it by considering the chronological 
sequence of the influences on Kirchner's sculptural 
oeuvre. Extra-European art was experienced first and 
most powerfully from March 1910 to the spring of 1911 
and was the last significant influence on Kirchner's 
work. Together with his appreciation of earlier Ger- 
man art, this remained the only effective influence un- 
til the mid-twenties. 


12. In tiis 1925 draft for ttie Grotimann monograph of 1926 
(Grisebach, [1968],pp. 84-85), for example, Kirchner wrote in 
detail about his encounter with African and Palau carving, as 
well as with Indian temple paintings and sculptures. The same 
references are to be found in the Briicke chronicle. 

13. Cr Lotliar Grisebach, "Kirchner und Cranach," in E. L. 
Kirchner: Aquarelle. Zeichnungen und Druckgraphik aus dem 
Besitz des Stddel Franl0irl am Main. exh. cat., Bonn-Bad Go- 
desberg, 1980. 

14. Frank Whitford, "Kirchner und das Kunstuiteil." in 
Nationaigalerie. Berlin. 1979. 



The development of works within the various media 
Kirchner employed was not independent; there were, 
as previously stressed, intense interactions between 
them. The nudes in the painting Fii^e Bathers at the 
Lake (1911, Briicke-Museum, Berlin; Gordon, 194) - 
which reveals the first and most definitive formal in- 
fluence of the Ajanta figures - were still painted in the 
white-pink incarnate that Kirchner had used cus- 
tomarily for nudes in his paintings. In 1911, Kirchner's 
sculpture, which had previously been only partially 
painted with black outlining the contours, began to 
show the use of overall yellow-ocher or yellow-brown 
incarnate as in the Moritzburg bathers." This yellow 
was heightened only by a dark color (black or dark 
brown) for hair, eyes, and mouth. From 1912 on we 
find this woodlike coloring in his paintings as well, 
particularly in close-up bathing scenes and in interi- 
ors, for example, in the painting Striding into the Sea 
(fig. 15, p. 129). Not only are the yellow incarnate and 
full "plastic" form of this painting's two swimmers 
surprising; their motion is definitely "wooden." They 
seem to be sculptures, striding into the sea! We ob- 
serve the same phenomenon in the painting Brown 
Nude at the Ulndow (VVestfalisches Landesmuseum 
fiir Runst und Rulturgeschichte, Miinster; Gordon, 
260; Nationalgalerie, Berlin, 140). It almost seems as if 
not the real Erna, but Kirchner's sculptural incarna- 
tion of her, is standing by the window in this work. In 
fact, the image here represents a careful preparation 
for the Head of a Woman, Head of Erna. Kirchner con- 
firmed these observations when on June 6, 1913, he 
wrote from Fehmarn to Gustav Schiefler; 

The earlier influences did not extend beyond short- 
lived elTects in isolated areas and individual cases. 
The plastic art of Cameroon and the frescoes of 
.^janta, however, remained a continual inspiration for 
him and his sculpture. In this context, the valences of 
Kirchner's individual expressive techniques must be 
reevaluated. Our knowledge of Kirchner's art will be 
expanded and transformed by the monograph with 
oeuvre catalogue now being prepared for his sculp- 
ture.'" With its publication, it will no longer be possi- 
ble to ignore this work, which, along vrith that of 
Expressionism as a whole, has been previously over- 
looked all too frequently. - W. H. 

16. Now in preparation by Dr. 'Wolfgang Henze. - Ed. 

To be sure, I don't notice exactly how I'm changing, 
but what is new comes from the interactions 
between painting and drawing, between the sculp- 
tural working with wood and the material demands 
of graphic art. 

On December 18, 1914, he wrote from Berhn: 

The sculptures have also been completed. This 
working in conjunction with the plastic is of more 
and more value to me; it facilitates the translation of 
spatial concepts onto the two-dimensional plane, 
just as it helped me earlier in finding the large 
closed form. 

Of interest here also are the prices which Kirchner 
asked for his sculptures at exhibition, which were 
equal to those for his most expensive paintings and 
even higher than those of his paintings during the last 
years of the War. These indicate the value which 
Kirchner himself assigned to his plastic work. 

Kirchner's amazingly open admission of the extra- 
European influences on his oeuvre is e.xplained by his 
understanding of their overwhelming importance. 

15. From 1909 to 1911, the Brucke artists spent summers at 
the Moritzburg lakes, and many renditions of this locale ap- 
pear in their works of these years. - Ed. 




Ail Kirchner titles and dates have 
been proposed by Wolfgang Henze, 
who is preparing a catalogue 
raisonne ofKirchner's sculpture. 
Newly ascribed dates are followed 
by previously known or published 
dates in brackets. 

Cat. no. 60 

Female Dancer with Necklace 
(Tanzerin mil Halskette), 1910 
Painted wood 
54.3 X 15.2 X 14 cm. 
(215/8 X 6 X 5'/2 in.) 
Lent Anonymously 

Inscribed ELK on base and signed 
E. L. Kirchner under base. For an 
extended period of time, Female 
Dancer with Necklace stood on a 
wooden pedestal to the right of the 
mirror in Kirchner's Dresden studio. 
The Crouching Woman (1909-10, 
painted wood, private collection; 
Nationalgalerie, Berlin, 63) stood on 
another pedestal to the left. Both 
sculptures were depicted in a paint- 
ing shown in a Briicke exhibition at 
Galerie Gurlitt, Berlin, in 1912 (not 
in Gordon). Cf. drawing, 1911, 
Grisebach, [1968], p. 189, woodcut, 
Dube, 708, and Hg. 1, p. 120. 

Cat. no. 61 

Dancing Woman (Tanzende), 


Wood, painted yellow and black 

87 X 35.5. X 27.5 cm. 

(34 '/2X 14 X 10% in.) 

Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam 

(Los Angeleis only) 

Sticker inscribed Holzplastik 
Tanzende/ [E.j L. Kirchner/Berlin- 
Wilmersdorf/ [Durlacher] stras[se] 
14 II affixed under base. This sculp- 
ture is depicted on a postcard to E. 
Meckel, dated 6.19.191 1, now in the 
Altonaer Museum in Hamburg. Cf 
painting Gordon, 58 (verso), and 
woodcut Dube, 193. 

Cat. no. 62 

Interior 11 Onterieur n), 1911 
Ink and pencil on paper 
33.5 X 28.5 cm. 
Briicke-Museum, Berlin 

Both pedestals flanking the mirror 
in Kirchner's Dresden studio hold 
sculpture; on the right. Crouching 
Woman (Hockende), 1910, and on 
the left Female Dancer with Necklace 
(cat. no. 60). 

"^tAl-^^ ^^au 





Cat. no. 63 (ill., p. 122) 
Nude with Black Hat (Akt mit 
schwarzem Hut), 1911-12 
65.8x21.5 cm. 
(25ya X 8'/2 in.) 
Graphische Sammlung, 
Staatsgalerie Stuttgart 
Dube, 207 III 

See the discussion concerning Nude 
Girl (cat. no. 64). 

Cat. no. 64 (ill., p. 122) 
Nude Girl (Nacktes Mddchen), 
1912 [1917] 
Painted wood 
11:63 cm. (245/4 in.) 
Stadtische Galerie im 
Stadelschen Kunstinstitut, 
Frankfurt am Main 

Inscribed ELK in pencil on sole of 
foot. This worli was previously dated 
1917, based on Grohmann. However, 
a comparison with the painting 
Standing Nude with Hat (Stehender 
Akt mit Hut) of 1910 (Gordon, 163) 
and with cat. no. 63 indicates a date 
for the sculpture in the same period. 
Cf etching Dube, 528 II. (In recent 
correspondence, Annemarie Dube 
suggested 1919, and Rarlheinz 
Gabler, 1917, while Eberhard 
Kornfeld concurred with the Frank- 
furt museum's and the author's 1912 

Cat. no. 65 (ill., p. 123) 

Nude 11 Oman, Sitting with Her 

Legs Crossed under Her 

(Nackte, mit untergeschlagenen 

Beinen sitzende Frau), 1912 


Sycamore, hair painted black 

h: approx. 48.5 cm. (19'/2 in.) 

Galleria Henze, Campione 


This piece was previously dated 
1914 on the basis of a 1933 exhibi- 
tion catalogue of Kirchner's work 
from the Kunsthalle Bern. However, 
stylistic considerations suggest a 
date of 1912. 




Sam and Milly in Kirchner's 
Dresden Studio, c. 1910, photo- 
graph by Rirchner. Sam and 
Milly were performers from the 
Circus Schumann and favorite 
models of the Briicke artists. 
Female Dancer with Necklace 
(cat. no. 60) is on wood pedestal 
at right, to its left, flanking the 
mirror, is Crouching Mbman 
(Hockende), 1909-10, painted 
wood, private collection 
(Nationalgalerie, Berhn, 63). 
Above the mirror is one of 
Kirchner's clay reliefs 
(Nationalgalerie, Berlin, 62), 
originally intended for a tiled 

Fig. 2 

Standing Female Nude (cat. no. 
69), photograph by Kirchner. 
This photograph was taken in 
the Haus in den Larchen in 
Davos in front of the still unfin- 
ished painting Team of Horses 
with Three Farmers (Pferde- 
gespann mit drei Bauern), 
1920-21 (Gordon, 675). 

Fig. 3 

Crouching Woman (Hockende), 



h: approx. 20 cm. (VA in.) 

Photograph by Kirchner 

Exhibited at the Galerie Arnold, 
Dresden, September 1910. 



V ;f 

Fig. 4 

Sketch for Sculpture (Skizze zu 

Skulptur), 1912 

Pencil and chalk on paper 

48.5 X 38 cm. 


Bijndner Kunstmuseum Chur 

Fig. 5 

Tlvo Sculptures with Back- 
ground of Paintings, c. 1913, 
photograph by Rirchner. Right: 
Female Dancer (Tdnzerin), 
1912, h: 134 cm. {52V* in.), pri- 
vate collection. Left: Standing 
II Oman (Stehende). 1912. Both 
paintings in background dated 
bv Gordon to 1912. 

Fig. 6 

Mother and Child/ Ifbman and 
Girl (Mutter und Kind/Frau 
und Mddchen), 1923 
Wood, painted 
h: 90 cm. {o'iVa in.) 
Private Collection 
(Nationalgalerie, Berlin, 355) 
Photograph by Kirchner 

This sculpture stands at the 
beginning of Kirchner's associ- 
ation with Scherer and Miiller 
at Wildboden House, during 
which time Kirchner created a 
remarkable number of two- 
figure works. 


KiRCliNER 66 (ill., p. 119) 

Female Dancer with Extended 

Leg (Tdnzerin mit gehobenem 

Bein), 1913 

Black punk oak, painted blue 

and black 

66.5 X 21 X 15 cm. 

(26'/8 X 8'/4 X 5% in.) 

Private Collection 

Tliis work i.s illustrated in tCirchner 
(de Marsalle. pseud.], 1925, pp. 69511. 
It was e.xliibited in Rirctiner exliibi- 
tions at tile Kunstverein, Jena, and 
in 1933 at the Kunsllialle Bern. no. 

Cat. no. 67 (ill., p. 124) 
Head of a ll'oman. Head oJErna 
(Frauenkopf, KopfErna). 1913 

Wood, painted ocher and black 
35.5 X 15 X 16 cm. 
(14 X 5% X 6'/4 in.) 
The Robert Gore Rifkind Collec- 
tion, Beverly Hills, California 

111. de Marsalle, 1925. pp. 695IT.. and 
Grohmann, pi. 31 (dated 1912). A 
photograph of this sculpture on a 
postcard from Kjrchner to Gustav 
Schiefler. dated July 23, 1913, con- 
firms a date of 1913. See text and fig. 
10, p. 125. Cf woodcut Dube, 414. 

Fig. 7 

The Dancer Nina Hard in 
Kirchner's "Haus in den 
Ldrchen" in Davos, photo- 
graphed by Kjrchner during the 
summer of 1921. On the left is 
Nude Girl (cat. no. 64). The 
photo demonstrates Kirchner's 
photographic abilities; here, 
just as in his paintings, the 
female nude is seen as sculp- 
ture and consciously contrasted 
with the wooden figure. 

Fig. 8 

Nude Girl (cat. no. 64), photo- 
graph by Kirchner. 



Cal. no. 68 (ill., p. 126) 
Turning Nude (Akt, sich 
umdrehend), 1913 

65.9 X 14 X 13 cm. 
(26 X 5'/2 X 5'/8 in.) 
The St. Louis Art Museum, Mis- 
souri, Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Mor- 
ton D. May, 402:1955 

This woA was exhibited in 1919 at 
the liunstsalon Schames, Frankfurt 
(as no. 51) and was acquired by Rosi 
and Ludwig Fischer 69 (ill., p. 119) 

Standing Female Nude 

(Stehender weiblicher Akt), 1914 


Hardwood, oiled and painted 

h: 96.5 cm. (38 in.) 

Allen Memorial Art Museum, 

Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio, 

R. T. Miller, Jr. Fund, 55.29 

(Los Angeles only) 

Stylistic similarities with Kirchner's 
mature Berlin style of 1914 suggest 
this date as opposed to the previous 
dating of 1919. Illustrated in de 
Marsalle, 1921,p.252. 

Fig. 9 

Nude Woman, Sitting with Her 
Legs Crossed Under Her (cat. 
no. 65), photographed by 
Kirchner in the Haus in den 
Larchen, Davos, in front of an 
unidentified painting. 







Fig. 10 

Postcard from Kirchner to Gus- 
tav Schiefler with photograph of 
Head of a Woman, Head ofErna 
(cat. no. 67), July 23, 1913; pri- 
vate collection, Hamburg. 


Cat. no. 70 

Mirror of the Four Times of Day 
c. 1923 

Swiss stone pine, painted 
oxblood red 
173x82x 16 cm. 
(68'/8X 321/4x6 'A in.) 
Germanisches National- 
museum, Nuremberg 
HG 11616 

This mirror frame is depicted in an 
etching (Dube, 552). 

Cat. no. 71 

Rider: Table Leg (Reiter: 

Tlschfuss), 1923-24 

Swiss stone pine 

62.5 X 38 X 38 cm. 

(245/8 X 15 X 15 in.) 

Biindner Kunstmuseum Chur, 


This sculpture is described by Nele 
van de Velde in her discussion of a 
visit to l\irchner's//au5 in den 
Larclien. October 1920 (E. L. 
Kirchner, Brie/e an Sele unci Henry 
van de lelde. Munich: R. Piper & Co. 
Verlag, 1961, pp. 28-30). 




Fig. 11 

The Organist Spina and his 
Wife, c. 1926, photographed by 
Kjrchner before the Mirror of 
the Four Times of Day 
(cat. no. 70). 


Cat. no. 72 

The Friends (Die Freunde), 1924 
84 X 54.5 cm. 
(33'/8 X 2VA in.) 
Grunwald Center for the 
Graphic Arts, University of 
California at Los Angeles 
Dube, 552 1 

This is the woodcut version of 
Kirchner's painting with the same 
name of 1924-25 (Gordon, 763) and 
of the sculpture The Th'o Friends 
(Die Zwei Freunde), also from c. 
1924-25 (fig. 13, p. 128). The sub- 
jects are .Ubert Miiller (left) and 
Hermann Scherer (right). See fig. 
12, p. 128. 




Fig. 12 

Rot-Blau members Miiller (left) 
and Scherer (right), c. 1925. 

Fig. 13 

Group of Sculptures by Her- 
mann Scherer Together with 
"The Two Friends" by Kirchner, 
c. 1924-25, photographed by 
Kirchner in Front of Wildboden 
House. Scherer's sculptures 
have been dated to 1924. The 
crates on which they stand were 
probably used to send them to 
the April 1925 Rot-Blau exhibi- 
tion in Basel. Scherer's Lovers 
(cat. no. 1 14) is at left and his 
Mother Nursing Child (cat. no. 
117) is in the center. 

Fig. 14 

Kirchner sculptures from the 
year 1910-1 1, all now lost or 
destroyed, photographed by the 
artist, 191 1-12. Nude with a 
Bath Towel/Bathing ll'onian 
(Akt mit TUch/Badende), for- 
merly in the Museum fur Kunst 
and Gewerbe, Hamburg, is pic- 
tured at lower left. 

Fig. 15 

Striding into the Sea (Ins Meer 
Schreitende), 1912 
Oil on canvas 
146 x200 cm. 
(571/4X78'/. in.) 
Staatsgalerie Stuttgart 
Gordon, 262 and National- 
galerie, Berlin, 141, color 




Karl Kjiappe received his 
training as a sculptor at the 
Munich Runslgewerbe- 
schule and Runstaka- 
demie. He became famiUar 
with architectural sculp- 
ture at an early date; in 
1910, he worked on the 
monumental sculptures 
Karl Knappe designed by his contemporary Georg Wrba for the 

Dresden railway station. In 1911, he received the 
Born 1884 Kempten; Rome Prize, which enabled him to study the sculp- 

tures of Michelangelo. From 1912 to 1918, he created 
died 1970 Munich. numerous works - crafts as well as artworks - in 

collaboration with various architects; he was encoin-- 
aged in this direction by his friendship with the sculp- 
tor Ludwig Gies (see pp. 37-40). 

Knappe's work did not exhibit obvious Expressionist 
trails until the early 1920s, when he began to execute 
expressively deformed works in wood. He subordin- 
ated artistic ideas to the "laws" governing the material 
itself which, in his view, already contained all of its 
sculptural possibilities, linappe developed his own 
technique of working, hollowing out a tree trunk or a 
stone and leaving the material close to its raw state (cf. 
Great Harvest, 1935, wood, Staatsgalerie Stuttgart, and 
Tree of Stone, 1929, created for a housing development 
in Munich-Schwabing). The characteristics of the 
material dictated the results, which ranged from 
baroque and exuberant to strictly bound forms. In his 
limestone reliefs for the Munich memorial to the dead 
of World War I (1922-26), the sculptor shallowly 
carved marching soldiers into the stone. The figures 
are rhythmic in their repetition; concave and convex 
forms speak with equal clarity. Knappe employed this 
technique of the "negative-cut" several times in vary- 
ing materials (cf. Jl'oman Playing the I'iolin, with Deer 
and Bee, 1926, brick, location unknown). This form, 
which suggests the cinematic motion of the Futurists, 
had been developed by sculptors such as Gies, particu- 
larly for the modeling of plaques. 

One of the most original works executed in this 
somewhat Cubist technique is Knappe's portrait of the 
well-known Berlin painter Max Liebermann (cat. no. 
73). This work is illustrative of Knappe's special atten- 
tion to positive and negative values and to the quality 
of the material - in this case, the bronze patina. The 
lengthy neck is intercepted by the condensed form of 
the skull and is thus transformed into an image of psy- 
chic energy. Knappe intensified the ambiguity of 
Liebermann's features, recalling the sculptural char- 
acter studies of the eighteenth-century artist Franz 
Xaver Messerschmidt and of Honore Daumien The 
artist was particularly concerned with implying con- 
trasts in the character of the person portrayed, for 
example, those of distance and spiritual alertness, 
calmness and keen intellect. 

Knappe continued working in Expressionist forms, 
despite the dominance of neoclassicism in the late 
twenties. This fact contributed to his being fired in 
1933 by the Nazis from his teaching position at the 

Technische Hochschule in Munich. His studio with 
most of his early works was destroyed in 1944, but 
after 1945 the rebuilding of West Germany brought 
him numerous commissions for windows, mosaics, 
and sculptures. - J. H. v. W. 


Cat. no. 73 

Max Liebermann, 1 925 


63.5 X 18x26 cm. 

(25 X 7</8 X 10'/. in.) 

Private Collection, Germany 

Liebermann was a famous Berlin 
painter who was the leader of the 
Berlin Secession. 



Max Liebermann, 1932. 



Georg Kolbe 

Born 1877 Waldheim (Saxony); 

died 1947 Berlin. 

Georg Kolbe enjoyed criti- 
cal and financial success 
throughout a long and 
productive career, during 
which he was briefly 
linked with German 
Kxpressionism. His initial 
Iraining in Dresden, Mu- 
nich, and at the Academic 
Julian in Paris was devoted to drawing and painting. In 
1898, while pursuing an independent plan of study in 
Rome, Kolbe stopped painting and, under the tutelage 
of Louis Tuaillon and August Gaul, learned the fun- 
damentals of sculpture. By 1903 he had established 
permanent residency in Berlin, but that city was to 
serve him only as a home base. During the next two 
years he traveled to Egypt, England, France, Greece, 
Italy, Russia, and Spain. In 1905, he was awarded the 
Villa Romana Prize and spent the year in Florence. 
In 1909, Kolbe visited Rodin's Paris studio, and a 
great deal of critical attention has since been devoted 
to determining the degree and nature of Kolbe's ties to 
the French sculptor. Stylistic affinities with Rodin's 
work seem particularly pronounced in Kolbe's sculp- 
ture prior to 1920, his preoccupation with the nude 
being an obvious common characteristic. Maria von 
Tiesenhausen, the artist's granddaughter and former 
director of the Georg Kolbe Museum in Berlin, has 
indicated, however, that "Kolbe and Rodin never 
talked with one another even when Kolbe visited 
Rodin's studio in 1909."' 

Kolbe's early years of travel seem to have provided a 
more significant basis for his eclectic and complex 
blending of styles and sources. His youths and maid- 
ens are embodiments of a gentle, contemplative aes- 
thetic that reveals none of the vigor apparent in 
Rodin's work. The softly mottled treatment of Kolbe's 
bronzes results in a diffused flickering of light, unlike 
the high drama of Rodin's extremely personal and 
heavily worked surfaces. Through the rhythmical 
arrangement of limbs and body, Kolbe investigated 
mass, contour, and proportion, concerns which main- 
tained primacy over the exploration of an Impression- 
ist exterior. 

Aristide Maillol must also be considered in an 
examination of Kolbe's aesthetic. Formal simplifica- 
tion became increasingly important to Kolbe, and he 
consistently represented the female body in firm, 
rounded forms. The vaguely sensual, passive, monu- 
mental woman stands above all as an expression of 
grace and architectonic clarity. Kolbe looked to Maillol 
and to Adolf von Hildebrand for a reaffirmation of the 
traditional emphasis on formal structure and propor- 
tion, while at the same time, he was influenced by the 
very different spirit he found in the work of Rodin, who 
"grasps life with a genial hand and refined impres- 

1. See Maria von Tiesenhausen's foreword to Andrew Dickson 
While Museum of .\rt, Cornell University, Ilhaca, 1972, 

sion."- Committed to an aesthetic that studied, assimi- 
lated, and synthesized the art of the past, Kolbe wrote: 
"By attaching threads to the most noble epochs of 
sculptin'c, they (today's sculptors] serve their art with 
keen understanding. In this manner sculpture con- 
quers the expression of contemporary life."' 

In the early twenties, Kolbe's regard for the sculp- 
ture of antiquity found expression in such works as the 
Assumplion of the Blessed I'irgin (1921, bronze). The 
frontality, extreme stylization, and monumcntality of 
these sculptures recall both Egyptian and Archaic 
Greek art. 

A lifelong association with Karl Schmidt-Rottluff 
began in 1919, when the two artists met at 
Lehmbruck's funeral. At this juncture, an important 
shift took place in Kolbe's art, which during the next 
few years was allied with German Expressionism. His 
passive monumentality gave way to the expression of 
emotion through gesture, as seen most vividly here in 
Anger (cai. no. 75). He altered anatomical proportions 
to conform to a surge of emotion represented not in 
the facial expression, but in the gesture that arcs and 
ricochets through the entire body. The limbs and the 
drapery covering them were reduced to a severe 
angularity. The exaggerated gesture of the arms, vehe- 
mently extending upward, is complemented by the 
counterthrust of the trunk. The face of this figure 
remains strangely impassive, as if the gesture alone 
were the subject of the work. This piece appears to 
contradict the interpretation of Alfred Barr, who 
included Kolbe in the important exhibition Modern 
German Painting and Sculpture at The Museum of 
Modern Art, New York, in 1931. Barr emphasized 
Kolbe's classical bronzes and perceived the artist as a 
"mild and gracious spirit..." whose work did not carry 
the emotional impact of that produced by some of his 
peers: "Kolbe rarely informs his figures with strong 
emotion. Even when their postures are violent they 
seem posed rather than convincing expressions of 
pain or joy."^ 

Anger is especially noteworthy for its use of wood as 
a material. Kolbe may well have been inspired by 
Schmidt-Rottlufiand other Briicke artists to utilize this 
material, with which he had had very little prior exper- 
ience. His early work was almost exclusively modeled 
in clay and then cast in either plaster or bronze. There 
is no bronze version of Anger In contrast to the Briicke 
commitment to carving directly in wood, however, 
Kolbe made a small plaster model of his sculpture and 
then commissioned another artist, Gobes, to produce 
the large version in wood from this maquette.' 


2. Quoted from Kolbe's essay, "Ausdrucks-plastik," 1912, in 
Heller, 1974, p. 52. 

5. Ibid., p. 53. 

4. Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1931, p. 41.* 

5. This information was provided in correspondence of Octo- 
ber 1982 with Dr Ursel Berger, Director, Georg Kolbe 
Museum, Berlin. 


hike Anger. Kolbe's Bather (cat. no. 74) is an expres- 
sion of pure rhjlhniic gesture. The figure is partially 
enveloped by heav7 drapei-y which defines the con- 
tour of the body. Nun I/Dancer, included in this exhibi- 
tion in both bronze (cat. no. 79) and wood (cat. no. 78) 
versions, goes even further in the expressive use of 
drapery. The figure is completely sheathed; the folds 
and patterns of the cloth accentuate and articulate the 
body's gentle curve. Based on two drawings also in the 
exhibition, and both entitled Dance Study (cat. nos. 76 
and 77), the subject of these sculptures would seem to 
be a dancer, rather than a nun as has been previously 

Kolbe devoted considerable attention to drawing 
throughout his life, yet he believed that drawing and 
sculpture were radically different pursuits and that the 
sculptor must be capable of full expression without 
depending on two-dimensional studies. In 1921, he 
wrote: "To the sculptor, drawing is a special language, 
a language which can live next to his work - but which 
has nothing in common with the nature of his sculp- 
tural methods of expression."^ 

Kolbe's interest in emotional expression through 
angular stylization soon abated; the works from the 
late twenties reveal his return to a more realistic 
conception of the hiunan form. By the 1950s he was 
portraying grandiose, idealized visions of the Nordic 
race in heroic poses. These young, muscular men and 
women provoked the following description by Rudolf 
Binding in 1933: "...A keen ambitious self-conscious 
race, asserting its own youth and contemporaneity 
and emblazoning this on its banners. Such a race is 
demanded by the world we are entering: Georg 
Kolbe's world."' Curiously, Hitler had wanted to 
include Kolbe in the list of degenerate artists, and it 
was Goebbels who actively campaigned to maintain 
the artist's standing." Kolbe continued his work virtu- 
ally undisturbed during the Third Reich. Although he 
never actually joined the Nazi party, he was consis- 
tently included in Nazi-approved exhibitions of the 
late thirties and forties. His ambivalence, however, can 
be felt in his remarks on the Nazi destruction of 
Lehmbruck's Kneeling One: "The wonderful 
sculpture. ..they destroyed.... stupid warriors and 
monuments of princes enjoy the approval of the bour- 
geois."" - S.P. 


6. Kolbe, 1921, pp. 15-16. 

7. Ouuteclfroni Rudolf Binding, IbmLeben dcrPlastik, 1933, in 
Heller, 1974, p. 51. 

8. Ibid., p. 50. 

9. Grzimek, 1969, p. 85.* 



Cat. no. 74 

Bather (Badende), 1921 


h: 71 cm. (28 in.) 

Georg Kolbe Museum, Berlin 

Inscribed GK and H .\(iack Berlin 
Friedenau on b. of plinth. Tliis is a 
unique cast. 

Cat. no. 75 

Anger (Zorn). 1923 


h: 165 cm. (65 in.) 

Georg Kolbe Museum, Berlin 

Inscribed GK on b. of plinth. 
Originally referred to as Flame 
(Flanime), this sculpture was carved 
by the sculptor Gobes after a model, 
but was probably supervised and 
finished by Kolbe. The plaster model 
executed at a smaller scale, is now 







Cat. no. 76 

Dance Study (Tanzstudie), 1923 

Pen, pencil, and sepia on paper 

49.5 X 34.6 cm. 

(19'/2 X 13V8 in.) 

Georg Rolbe Museum, Berlin 

Based on the existence of this draw- 
ing and cat. no. 77, a more appro- 
priate title for the sculpture known 
as Nun I (Nonne I) would be 
Dancer (Tdnzerin). 

Cat. no. 77 

Dance Study (Tanzstudie), 1923 

Pen, pencil, and sepia on paper 

49.5 X 34.6 cm. 

(19'/2X 135/8 in.) 

Georg Kolbe Museum, Berlin 

Cat. no. 78 

Nun 1/ Dancer (Nonne 1/ 

Tdnzerin), 1923 


h: 70 cm. (271/2 in.) 

Georg Rolbe Museum, Berlin 

Inscribed GK on b. of plinth. See 
discussion under cat. no. 76. 

Cat. no. 79 

Nun I /Dancer (Nonne 1/ 
Tdnzerin), c. 1923/cast later 

27.7 X 8.6 X 10.8 cm. 
(10% X 3% X 41/4 in.) 
The Robert Gore Rifkind Collec- 
tion, Beverly Hills, California 

Inscribed GA' and //. Noack Berlin on 
b. of sculpture. The size of the edi- 
tion is unknown. 




Kathe Kollwitz 

Born 1867 Kiinigsberg; 

died 1945 Moritzburg. 

Kathe Kollvvltz is well 
known for her powerful 
depictions of the human 
condition in masterful 
firaphic form. She is less 
known for her sculpture, 
an oeuvre of approxi- 
mately twenty-five pieces 
created throughout her 
career with the same power and many of the same 
themes and compositions which characterize her 
graphic work. 

Kollwitz probably learned the fundamentals of 
sculpture at the Academic Julian in Paris, where she 
studied in 1904. As an established artist new to this 
medium, she admired the work of Meunier, and while 
in Paris actively sought to broaden her knowledge of 
contemporary work with visits to the studios of Rodin 
and Hoetger. Rodin's sculpture greatly impressed her; 
his influence can be seen in her early work, particu- 
larly in Lovers / ( 191 1, plaster; destroyed) and Mother 
with Child on Her Shoulder (undated, bronze). 

In 1910-11, after she had returned to Germany fol- 
lowing her studies in Paris and also in Italy, Kollwitz 
devoted herself almost exclusively to sculpture 
because, as she explained, her artistic work was in 
need of "rejuvenation." She had already attained great 
popular success with her graphic cycles; sculpture 
presented a challenge beyond the secure base of 
graphic media. 

Kollwitz's intense early work in sculpture (she creat- 
ed at least eight pieces from 1911 to 1917) marked the 
beginning of a difficult relationship with plastic tech- 
niques. Throughout her diary entries and letters to 
friends there are references to being "afraid of sculp- 
ture,"' yet at other times she reported that it was 
bringing her success: "1 should have more confidence 
in myself, considering my ability even in sculpture ."- 
Toward the end other life she took special pleasure in 
creating thematically powerful sculptures whose 
small size reflected her failing strength, modest 
income, and the severe restraints imposed on her 
career by the Nazis.' 

Apart from her initial studies in Paris, Kollwitz 
received no additional formal training, declining 
opportunities for professional criticism so as to avoid 
becoming academic. Most other pieces were modeled 
in clay or plaster - only a few were cast in bronze. 
Some, such as the monumental Memorial: The Parents 
(1924-32; stone copies made in 1954 installed in St. 
Alban's Church, Cologne |fig. 18, p. 20]), were chiseled 
in stone by other sculptors after Kollwitz's plaster 


1. See diary entry of April 30, 1922, in Kollwitz, 1955, p. 104. 

2. Diary entry of September 1913, quoted in Museum Villa 
Stuck, Munich, Kiitlie Kollwitz: Zeichnung, Graphik, PlasUk, 
e\h. cat., 1977. 

3. Cr. letter ofMay 6, 1957, to Hanna Loehnberg in Kathe 
Kollwitz, Briefe der Freundschaft und Begegnungen, Munich: 
List, 1966. p. 36. 

models. Kollwitz sometimes worked on several sculp- 
tures simultaneously. Based on extant drawings, it 
seems that she made numerous preparatory sketches 
for some but not all other sculptures. 

From 1917 to 1920, Kollwitz came under the direct 
artistic influence of Barlach, whom she greatly 
admired and with whom she shared an artistic focus 
on the human predicament. Seeing Barlach's wood- 
cuts greatly affected her graphic and sculptural style. 
For both artists, the block form was the basis from 
which sculptural figures emerged. Protruding limbs 
were rare; in fact, much of the figure was often con- 
cealed by folds of heavy drapery. One side of the sculp- 
ture was usually treated as the main view, with em- 
phasis being placed on frontality. Figures often 
coalesced until they were indistinguishable from one 
another This style demanded careful attention on the 
part of the viewer in order to determine the meaning 
of the figure's placement. However, Kollwitz was not 
concerned with formal aspects per se. When she vis- 
ited Milly Steger's studio, she declared that for Sieger 
there existed "only formal problems"; she was "set- 
ting out from quite another end than I."' Steger's 
extreme Expressionism astonished Kollwitz, perhaps 
because the strength other own sculpture lay in the 
Expressionistic themes employed, rather than in 
exaggeration, abbreviation, and distortion of form. 

Kathe Kollwitz created her sculptural representa- 
tions entirely from personal perceptions, which often 
necessitated a transformation of the accepted 
compositional mode. This approach becomes evident 
when one compares her two Lovers. The first version, 
of 191 1, known today only from photographs, appears 
to derive from Rodin's Aw* (c. 1880-82, bronze). The 
second version. Lovers II of 1913 (cat. nos. 80 and 81), 
is a distinct departure from the standard depiction of 
an ecstatic, passionate pair of mature lovers. Instead, 
Kollwitz's couple is young and serious, exhibiting an 
awkward, slightly restrained sensuality. Her impres- 
sively individual treatment was well received by the 
jury of the Berlin Freie Sezession when it was exhib- 
ited in 1916, but it was not popular with the public at 
large. This initial coolness may have been due to the 
difficulty found in reading the sculpture as a pair of 
lovers, or even as a man and woman; it has also been 
called a mother and child. Kollwitz nevertheless 
continued to maintain that "art for the average on- 
looker does not need to be shallow."' 

In a sculpture of 1937-38. Toiver of Mothers (cat. no. 
86), the subject is more easily readable, and the mean- 
ing of the composition can be clearly understood as 
mothers protecting their children from a threatening 
presence or force. Kollwitz first conceived of this 
sculpture-in-the-round much earlier, when she began 
work in 1922 on the graphic cycle /far (1922-23, 
series of seven woodcuts); there a woodcut of the 
identical subject was included (cat. no. 82). When in 
1938 the sculpture was finally realized, the Nazis 


4. Kollwitz, 1967. 

5. Rauhul. 1966, p. 250. 


removed il from an exhibition at the KJosterstrasse 
Stndio, BerUn, on the grounds that "in the Third Reich, 
mothers have no need to defend their children. The 
state does that for them."'' 

During this period, Kollwitz was also working on 
another group, the Piela (cat. no. 85). hi her prelimi- 
nary work on this piece RoUwitz had intended to 
depict an old person, but "it turned out to be some- 
thing like a Pieta, a mother sitting with her dead son ly- 
ing in her lap, between her knees. It is no longer grief, 
but meditation."' Once the Pieta figures were realized, 
she intended to transform the Christian theme into a 
secular, more universal one, for "...mine is not reli- 
gious.... My mother is musing upon her son's failure to 
be accepted by men. She is an old, lonely, darkly brood- 
ing woman."" The piece is an unmistakably personal 
work, certainly a reflection of the artist's maternal and 
humanitarian compassion and perhaps, as in other 
works, an expression of her deep feelings about the 
loss of her own son in World War 1. 

While the woman of the Pieta is not specifically 
herself, Kollwitz's likeness does appear in several 
other sculptures such as Memorial: The Parents 
(Mother) (fig. 18, p. 20), The Lamentation (cat. no. 87), 
and a self-portrait bust (cat. no. 83) on which she 
worked from 1926 to 1936. Kollwitz called it a "face 
mask," a literal image of herself. The facial expression 
is calm, wearv', and somber, very much like the self- 
portrait drawings of this period (see cat. no. 84). In its 
larger-than-life size and detailed modeling, the Self- 
Portrait is a symbol of Kollwitz's simple, earnest, and 
direct humanity. - R.B. 


6. Otto Nagel, Kdthe Kollwitz. Greenwich, Conn,: New York 
Graphic Society, 1971, p. 78. 

7. Cf. diary entry of October 22, 1937. in Kollwitz, /c/i sah die 
llett mit liebeivllen Blicken: Bin Leben in Selbstzeugnissen, 
Hannover: Fackeltrager-Verlag, 1968. p. 511. 

8. Cf. diary entry of December 1939 in Kollwilz, 1955, p. 126. 



Cat. no. 80 

Lovers (Liebespaar), 1913 


h: 74.3 cm. (29'/i in.) 

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 

Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Hyman W. 

Swetzoff in Memoiy of Mr. and 

Mrs. Solomon Swetzoff 

Some confusion has surrounded the 
histor>' and title of this sculpture, 
stemming from the fact that 2 plas- 
ters exist, this and a second one in 
the KolKvitz Estate. Berlin. In 1913, 
Kolhvitz wrote in her diar}': "I am 
working on the group of lovers with 
the girl sitting in the man's lap" 
(Rollwilz, 1955, p. 61, entry of 
September 1913; the German ver- 
sion of the diary and the Kolhvitz 
family's personal copy, however, 
both give a date of November 1913.) 
The Boston plaster was brought to 
the United States by Hyman Swetzoff 
around 1954, and 6 signed and num- 
bered casts were made from it by the 
Modern Art Foundry, New York, un- 
beknownst to the Kolhvitz family. 
This sculpture has also been known 
as Mother and Child. 


Fig. 1 

Kathe Rollwitz in her studio 
with Mother with Tlvins (Nlutter 
mit Zwillingen), 1924-37. 



Cat. no. 81 

Lovers II (Liebespaar II) 

1913/cast after 1954 


71 X 47 X 49 cm. 

(28xl8i/2X igViin.) 

a) The Robert Gore Rifkind Collec- 
tion, Beverly Hills, California (Los 
Angeles only) 

b) Hirshhorn Museum and Sculp- 
ture Garden, Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, Washington, D.C. (Washington 

c) Private Collection (Cologne only) 

The plaster used to cast this sculp- 
ture was evidently in a private 
collection in Canada after World 
War II and was subsequently re- 
turned to the artist's family in the 
1960s. Ten numbered casts were 
made from this plaster by H. Noack, 
Berlin. The Rifkind bronze (a), cast 
from the Kollwitz family plaster, is 
4/10. The Hirshhorn bronze (b), cast 
from the Boston plaster, is 6/6; see 
discussion under cat. no. 80. The Co- 
logne bronze (c) is 5/10. .\s of June 
1985, 7 of the 10 bronzes had been 
cast by H. Noack from the Kollwitz 
family plaster 




- 1 * 



Cat. no. 82 

The Mothers: The liar (Die Mul- 
ter: Der Krieg). 1922-23 
Woodcut, pi. 6 from the portfo- 
lio The Mar (DerKrieg) 
54 X 40 cm. 
(ISVsX 155/4 in.) 
Arnhold Collection 
KJipstein, 182 

Tills woodcut is Kollwitz's third 
firaphic version of tlie subject, fol- 
lowing an elctiing and a lithograpti, 
botti from 1919. She first thought of 
executing this composition in sculp- 
tural form in the spring of 1922; it 
was finally realized in 1937-38 as 
Tower oJMolhers (cat. no. 86). 

Cat. no. 83 (ill., p. 139) 

Self-Portrait (Selbstbildnis), 

1926-36/casl after 1945 


37 X 23 X 28 cm. 

(14'/jx9x 11 in.) 

a) Los Angeles County 

Museum of Art, Purchased with 

Funds Provided by the Mira T. 

Hershey Memorial Collection 

79.3 (Los Angeles only) 

1)) Hirshhorn Museum and 

Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian 

Institution, Washington, D.C. 

(Washington and Cologne only) 

Inscribed: A'o//«'i7c b. r.\H. Noacli 
Berlin, I. b. edge. Nine or 10 casts 
made during the artist's lifetime 
bear the stamp H. Noack Berlin- 
Friedenau. Another 9 or 10 were cast 
posthumously by the family from the 
original plaster and are marked H. 
Noack Berlin. No additional casts are 

Cat. no. 84 (ill., p. 139) 

Self-Portrail from the Front 

(Selbstbildnis en face), 1934 

Charcoal and black crayon on 


43 x 33.5 cm. 

(17 x 13'/4in.) 

Los Angeles County Museum of 

Art, Los Angeles County Funds 


Timm-Nagel, 1246 







Cal. no. 85 

Pietd, 1937-38/cast before 



38 X 28.5 X 39 cm. 

(15 X 11 'Ax laysin.) 

Gary and Brenda Ruttenberg 

Inscribed Kollwitz at 1. b. edge; 
Noach Berlin on lower b. r. A small 
number of casts were made before 
1945. Since the War Hans Kollwitz 
and his son, Dr Arne Kollwitz, have 
authorized approximately 20 casts 
by H. Noack, Berlin. No additional 
casts are planned. 

Cal. no. 86 

Tower of Mothers (Tlirm der 

Mutter), 1937-38/cast later 


27 X 27.5 x 28 cm. 

(10% X 10%xllin.) 

a) The Robert Gore Rifkind 
Collection, Beverly Hills, 
California (Los Angeles only) 

b) The Baltimore Museum of 
Art; Given in Memoiy of Joseph 
Katz, by His Children, BMA 
1965.38.1 (Washington and Co- 
logne only) 

Inscribed Kollwitz and H. Noack 
Berlin at 1. b. edge. Only a small 
number of bronzes was cast before 
1945. Approximately 20 casts exist 
today. No more are being made. 

Cal. no. 87 

The Lainentation: To the Mem- 
ory of Ernst Barlach. Jlho Died 
in 193S (Die Klage: Zurn 
Gedenken des 1 9}S verstorbenen 
Ernst Barlach), 1938 

26 X 26 X 10 cm. 
(lO'A X lO'A X 3% in.) 
Mr. and Mrs. Henrj' Sieger 

Inscribed Kollwitz and H. Noack, 
Berlin. A few examples may have 
been cast prior to 1945. Today, 
according to Dr Arne Kollwitz, 
approximately 40-50 bronzes exist; 
this was the artist's most popular 



Wilhelm Lehmbruck 

Born 1881 Duisburg-Meiderich; 

died 1919 Berlin. 

Wilhelm Lehmbruck was 
born the son of a laborer. 
During his relatively short 
career from 1901 to 1919, 
he explored the entire 
spectrum of modern sculp- 
ture. In 1901, he studied 
under Carl Janssen at the 
Kunstakademie Diissel- 
dorf, modeling figures (Bathing llbman, fig. 2, p. 147), 
portrait busts, and reliefs. His eclectic, searching 
oeuvre combined social naturalism, literary symbol- 
ism, the influences of Rodin and Meunier, and the Aca- 
demic themes of the German Empire. Within these 
works were hints of the new modes of creativity that 
came to the fore in 1909-10, when Hoetger, 
Constantin Brancusi, and Barlach began to react 
against the heritage of the nineteenth centur)'. As 
Lehmbruck's contemporaries and critics, such as 
Theodor Daubler, Paul Westheim, and Carl Einstein, 
soon came to recognize, his works as early as 1902 dis- 
played an intense concentration on the animated indi- 
vidual figure and on the depiction of space.' In works 
such as Anita K. (1906), Mother and Child (1907, 
bronze), and Small Standing Woman (1908, bronze), 
however, Maillol's influence can be seen. This is 
because Lehmbruck's works of around 1909 dem- 
onstrated a short-lived synthesis of the French sculp- 
tor's quietness of form with Hans von Marees' tech- 
nique, thus combining Mediterranean sensuality with 
the axial dominance of Northern nudes. In October 
1910, at the eighth Salon d'Automne exhibition, 
Lehmbruck exhibited his Tall Standing IVoman (1910, 
cast cement) next to Maillol's Pomona (c. 1910, 

Yet most Lehmbruck scholars, including the authors 
of exhibition catalogues since 1949, consider this 
significant early oeuvre only to have become truly 
interesting around 191 1, when Lehmbruck was able to 
move to Paris. At this point, he abruptly turned away 
from Rodin and broke with his previous style. Kneeling 
I'Voman (fig. 13, p. 19) was described by Daubler as a 
preface to Expressionist sculpture.- Lehmbruck 
distinguished himself as an Expressionist by lengthen- 
ing the human figure and emphasizing its significance 
as the bearer of emotions, ethical attitudes, and ideas. 
In 1913, he reached an artistic high point in the cre- 
ation of Rising Youth (fig. 3, p. 147), a sculptural proto- 
type of the E.xpressionist adolescent. A drawing in the 
Staatsgalerie Stuttgart confirms the sculpture's 
Nietzschean origins; here a youth, next to a tree, ges- 
tures as if illustrating the dialogue in Also sprach 


1. Theodor Daubler, Der neue Standpunkt, rev. ed., ed. Fritz 
Loffler. Dresden: .less, 1957, p. 162 (originally published in 
1916. Dresden: HellerauerVerlag); Westheim, 1919; Carl Ein- 
stein, IMlhelm Lehmbrucks graphisches llerk. Berlin: Cassirer, 
1913; idem. Die Kunst des 20. Jahrhunderts. 3rd ed., Berlin: 
Propylaen-Verlag, 1931, pp. 221iT. 

2. Daubler, 1937, op. cit., p. 162. 

Zarathustra - "Von Baum am Berge" ("By the Moun- 
tain Tree").' 

Lehmbruck's fame, prior to World War I, was estab- 
lished by his participation in many important exhibi- 
tions. In April of 1912, the exhibition Wilhelm 
Lehmbruck-Egon Schiele was organized by Karl Ernst 
Osthaus at the Folkwang Museum in Hagen, dem- 
onstrating the kinship between the two artists. The 
significant Muderne Kunst exhibition at the same 
museum in June-.Iuly 1912 included Lehmbruck's 
watercolors and oil studies as well as sculptures, indi- 
cating that he regarded himself as both a two- and 
three-dimensional artist.* From May to September of 
1912, the Westdeutscher Sonderbund sponsored an 
international exhibition, in which Van Gogh, Cezanne, 
Gauguin, Munch, and Picasso were well represented. 
Fourteen sculptures by George Minne were also on 
view, as well as sculptures by Richard Engelmann, 
Barlach, and Hans Haller. Lehmbruck exhibited two 
important works: Tall Slanding IVoman and Kneeling 
Woman. He also sent works to the 1912 Sonderbund 
exhibition, the i9l3 .irmoiy Show in New York, Chi- 
cago, and Boston, and the llerkbund exhibition of 1914 
in Cologne.^ In the same year, he had a one-man exhi- 
bition at the Galerie Levesque in Paris. 

Thus the years before World War 1 saw Lehmbruck 
as the great hope of the new sculpture. This art was in 
no sense given over to mere formal experimentation 
with concave and convex surfaces, but rather used the 
human figure to convey the ideas of Expressionism. In 
1920, the art historian Willi Wolfradt emphasized that 
the subject of Expressionist sculpture was the human 
body." The abandonment of the human figure as a car- 
rier of symbols, promoted by Brancusi between 1908 
and 1913, led to a crisis in European plastic art around 
1912, a crisis which must be recognized as that of the 
human figure versus abstraction - "inner sound" 
(Kandinsky and Marc) versus objectivity and the 
depiction of man (Beckmann, Lehmbruck, Schiele).' 

While this crisis was occurring in painting and 


3. Frledrich Nietzsche, /liso sprach Zarathustra, in tVerke: 
Kritische Gesamtausgabe, ed. Giorgio Colli and Mazzino 
Montinari, vol. 6. pt. t, Berlin: de Gruyler, 1967, pp. 47-48. 

4. Here we cannot deal with Lehmbruck's paintings, pastels, 
or watercolors; see Margarita Lahusen, "Aspekle der Malerei 
Lehmbrucks," in VVilhelm-Lehmbruck-Museum der Stadt 
Duisburg, 1981, pp. 200-211. 

5. Gerhard Handler, "W. Lehmbruck in den .\usstellungen und 
der Kritik seiner Zeit." in Soriderband ft ilhelm Lehmbruck, 
Duisburger Forschungen, vol. 13, Sladtarchiv Duisburg, 1969, 
pp. 2 Iff.; National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1972, 

p. 181, Cologne exhibit date incorrectly given as 1913; Schu- 
bert, 1981, pp. 181-84. 

6. Wolfradt, 1920, p. 34;* and Kuhn, 1921, pp. 114IT.' 

7. Regarding the significant controversy between Beckmann 
and Marc in Pan, vol. 2, 1912, pp. 469, 485, 556, see Selz, 1957, 
pp. 238-40;* also Dietrich Schubert, "Die Beckmann-Marc 
Kontroverse von 1912: 'Sachlichkeit' versus 'innerer Klang,' " 
in Runsthalle Bielefeld, Ma.i' Beckmann: diejriihen Bilder. exh. 
cat., 1982, pp. 175-87. 


sculpture, the First World War broke out in the sum- 
mer of 1914, and Lehmbrucl< had to leave Paris. He 
became a medic; deeply horrified by the slaughtering 
of nations, he was able to move to Zurich at the end of 
1916. But even before that, he began to create male 
rather than female figures. Their style represents 
Lehmbruck's achievement: the tight, tectonic human 
figure symbolizes the period's intense strife. ( iolenl 
Man (cat. no. 89), created in 1914-15 in Berlin, was 
Lehmbruck's first sculptural reaction to the Wan It 
would be more aptly called Man Struck. 

During this period Lehmbruck expanded his con- 
tacts with artists and writers such as Theodor Diiubler, 
Ludwig Rubiner, Max Liebermann, Carl Einstein, Fritz 
von Unruh, and others. After the dissolution of the Ber- 
lin Secession in 1913-14 and the establishment of the 
new Freie Sezession, Lehmbruck joined the latter, 
thus making the acquaintance of the painters 
Waldeniar Rosier and Beckmann. The three served 
together on the executive committee and jui-y of the 
Freie Sezession. Thus Beckmann's and Lehmbruck's 
acquaintance was firmly established; the latter's large 
figures created in 1915-17, such as The Fallen Man 
(cat. no. 91) and Seated Youth (cat. no. 92), must have 
had an effect on Beckmann. Most of the work on The 
Fallen Man was done in Berlin in 1915, and it was 
exhibited for the first time in Februai^ of the following 
year at the second exhibition of the Freie Sezession. In 
contrast to numerous war memorials of those years, 
this symbolic figure is nude; it is a symbol for all the 
war dead of Europe. In its bridgelike tectonics it con- 
stitutes, along with Seated Youth, the pinnacle of 
Lehmbruck's art and a central work of twentieth-cen- 
tury sculpture. Seated Youth originated in Zurich and 
in September of 1916 was exhibited in the Kunsthalle 
Basel with the title Bowed Figure and later in Berlin at 
the fourth Freie Sezession exhibition with the title The 
Friend." Whereas Fallen Man of 1915 primarily sym- 
bolizes the fate of European youth in World War 1, 
Seated Youth expresses universal mourning for those 
who die in war 

Although his art had achieved great importance, in 
March of 1919 Lehmbruck committed suicide. His 
works of the period prior to his death include portraits 
of such cultural figures as Daubler (1916-17, crayon, 
Lehmbruck Estate), von Unruh (1917, cast stone), and 
Clara Burger (1917-18, cast stone), as well as 
drawings of Rubiner (fig. 5, p. 149), and Leonhard 
Frank. A few sculptures which reduced the human fig- 
ure but did not formally abandon it also were devel- 
oped: Head of a Thinker with Hand (cat. no. 96) and 
the animated Female Torso (cat. no. 95). The latter 
work reflects Lehmbruck's love for Viennese actress 

8. National Gallery of Art, 1972, no. 48; Sctiubert, 1981, pp. 
230ff. We cannot discuss fully here the different coloration of 
the terracotta, stone, and bronze versions; cf color pi. in 
Wiihelm-Lehmbruck-Museum der Sladt Duisburg, 1981, no. 
52, and in Sladtische Museen lleilbronn, 1981. 

Elisabeth Bergner, embodied in the form of a Daphne.*' 
Head of a Thinker with Hand is both a compressed 
continuation of the 1915 Rising Youth, with the elon- 
gated head representing the dwelling place of the 
spirit, and a self-portrait of Lehmbruck at the end of 
World War 1, in both material and spiritual trouble. Un- 
doubtedly Von Unruh had this work in mind when he 
wrote in a 1919 letter to the writer Kasimir Edschmid: 

In the final analysis a man presents himself to us, 
whose mind comprises all of the feelings of con- 
scious humanity, just as the dome of a cathedral con- 
tains the prayers of the faithful. A type that the great 
German sculptor Lehmbruck, who recently passed 
away, tried to create intimately and constantly.'" 

9. Wilhelm Weber first recognized that this was a Daphne: see 
" 'Wolle die Wandlung"...zur Daphne von Wilhelm 
Lehmbruck," in Stadtische Museen Heilbronn, 1981, pp. 66- 
72. Regarding Lehmbruck's late work, cf. Runstmuseum der 
Sozialislischen Republik, 1976, cat. no. 70,* and Dietrich Schu- 
bert, "Deutsche Bildhauer," IVellkunst, vol. 47, no. 6, March 15, 
1977, pp. 546-47. 

10. Schuberl, 1981, pp. 247-49; Kasimir Edschmid, ed., Briefe 
der Expressionisten, Frankfurt am Main: Verlag Ullstein, 1964, 
pp. 145^6, and idem, ed., Schopferischc Konfession, rev. ed., 
Berlin: E. Reiss, 1920, pp. 21-24. 



Cat. no. 88 

Head of an Old Woman (Kopf 
einer alien Dame), 1913 
Plaster, colored ocher 
52 X 13.5 X 19 cm. 
(20'/2 X 5Vs X V/2 in.) 
der Stadt Duisburg 

Cat. no. 89 

I'lolent Man / Man Struck 
c. 1914-15 

Cast cement (Steinguss), col- 
ored black 
45 X 19x21 cm. 
(175/4 x7'/2x8ys in.) 
der Stadt Duisburg 

A plaster also exists in the 
Nalionalgalerie, Berlin, and a 
bronze in ttie Kiinslmuseum 
Hannover mil Sanimlnng Sprengei. 

Cat. no. 90 

Sketch for the Fallen Man 

(Skizze zum Gesturtzten), 

c. 1915 

Charcoal on paper 

26.7x42.6 cm. 


Lehmbruck Estate 

Cat. no. 91 

The Fallen Man (Der Gestiirzte), 

c. 1915-16/cast posthumously 


78 X 239 X 83 cm. 

(30y4 X 94'/8 X 325/8 in.) 

Bayerische Staatsgemalde- 

sammlungen, Munich 

The plaster and a cement cast are in 
the Wilhelm-Lehmbruck-Museum 
der Stadt Duisburg. Another bronze 
is in the Nalionalgalerie, Berlin. 

Cat. no. 92 (ill., p. 146) 

Seated Youth (Sitzender 

J angling), 1916- 17/ cast 

c. 1919 


109.5 X 76.8 X 114.8 cm. 



der Stadt Duisburg 

Inscribed W. Lehmbruck and 
Gegossen Erzgiesserei Ferd. V. Miller 
Milnchen. This work has also been 
referred to as The Friend (Der 
Frcund) or The Bowed Figure (Der 
Gebeugte). A plaster, cast in 1917, 
exists in the National Gallery of Art, 
Washington, D. C. A tinted cement 
cast is in the Sladelsches Kunst- 
institut, Frankfurt. 













Cat. no. 93 (ill., p. 145) 
Collapse: Dying Warrior 
(Zusammenbruch: Sterbender 
Krieger), 1917 
11.5x20.5 cm. 
(4'/2 X 8'/8 in.) 
Lehmbruck Estate 
Petermann, 165 

This etching closely resembles 
Lehmbruck's many preparatory 
drawings for the sculpture The 
Fallen Man (cat. no. 91). 

Cat. no. 94 (ill., p. 145) 

Ode to the Genius II (Ode an den 

Genius II), 1917 


19.3 X 30.2 cm. 

(75/8 X 11% in.) 


der Stadt Duisburg 

Petermann, 162 

The winged genius figure seen in 
this etching is identical in pose to 
the fallen man in the sculpture The 
FallenMan (cat. no. 91). Lehmbruck 
has included elements of landscape 
in his etching (unusual within his 
printed oeuvre). 




Fig. 1 

Lehmbruck in 1918 with his 
sculpture Seated Youth 
(cat. no. 92). 

Fig. 2 

Bathing JVoman (Badende), 



66 X 38 X 24 cm. 



der Stadt Duisburg 

Fig. 3 

Rising Youth (Emporsteigender 

Jiingling), 1913 


228 X 76 X 62 cm. 

(895/4 X 29% X 245/8 in.) 

Lehmbruck Estate 



Cat. no. 95 

Female Torso (fVeiblicher 
Torso), 1918 
Cast cement (Steinguss) 
77.5x42x19.5 cm. 

(30'/2X 16'/2x75/8in.) 
der Stadt Duisburg 

This piece is also referred to as 
Daphne. Bronze casts exist in the 
Pfalzgalerie, Kaiserslautern, and the 
Lehmbruck Estate. 

Cat. no. 96 

Head of a Thinker with Hand 

(Kopfeines Denkers mitHand), 

1918 /cast later 


64.5 X 57.2 X 29.8 cm. 

(255/8 X 221/2 X IPAin.) 

Lehmbruck Estate 

Inscribed Lehmbruck and H. Noack 
Berlin. Stone casts exist in the 
Museum des 20. Jahrhunderts, Vi- 
enna; the Nationalgalerie. Berlin; 
and the Museum am Ostwall, 



Fig. 4 

Torso of Kneeling Woman (Torso 
der Knienden), 1911 
Cement Cast 
h;82cm. (32'/4in.) 
Nationalgalerie, East Berlin 







Ponnil LiidKig 




lit AKTIOK B<i«lonni 



Fig. 5 

Portrait ofLudwigRubiner 

(Bildnis Ludwig Rubiner), 

c. 1917 


Photograph from the periodical 

DieAktion, vol. 7, April 1917 

Fig. 6 

Praying If Oman (Betende), 1918 

Stone cast 

83 X 56 X 50 cm. 

(32'/. X 22x195/4 in.) 

Kunsthaus Ziirich 



Gerhard Marcks 

Born 1889 Berlin; 

died 1981 Burgbrohl/Eifel. 

The sculptural and graphic 
works of Gerhard Marcks 
pro\1de proof that Expres- 
sionist form was also 
deeply indebted to Archaic 
Greek models. Marcks, 
who decided to become a 
sculptor at an early age, 
rejected the common Aca- 
demic approach to sculpture and in 1907 became a 
kind of apprentice to August Gaul, a sculptor famous 
for his depictions of animals. The following year, 
Marcks began working in the studio of the sculptor 
Richard Scheibe, who served as his "teacher, 
Maecenas, enemy, model, public, and tuxedo lender."' 
The two worked together creating sculptural reliefs 
for an exhibition hall to house machinery which was 
designed by Walter Gropius for the IVerkbund exhibi- 
tion of 1914. 

Marcks spent a compulsory year in the army in 
1912, and the First World War saw him in uniform 
once again. Following the War, in 1919, Gropius asked 
Marcks to join the faculty of the newly founded 
Bauhaus in Weimar. Marcks taught there until 1925, 
developing a close friendship with painter and graphic 
artist Lyonel Feininger On one occasion, Feininger 
wrote to Marcks: "You are a form-giver far beyond the 
mere representation of nature, translating nature in- 
stead into its pure essentials in order to reveal its deep 
character."- It was also Feininger whom Marcks cred- 
ited with having inspired him to begin his woodcuts 
which, strongly abbre\'iated in form, are typically 
Expressionist in their stark combination of black and 
white. As the head of the ceramics department at the 
Bauhaus, Marcks used the material at hand to create 
Small Head (cat. no. 97) and other small ceramic 
sculptures. These works are Expressionist in their 
decreased emphasis on individual features in favor of 
more "universal" representation. Marcks created a 
large number of drawings and small models of this 
type of head, indicating the seriousness of his search 
for a new form. 

When the Bauhaus moved to Dessau in 1925, adopt- 
ing the motto ".\rt and Technology - a New Unity," 
Marcks felt that he no longer belonged there and ac- 
cepted a teaching position at the Runstgewerbeschule 
Burg Giebichenstein near Halle. While at Giebichen- 
stein, he concentrated on his sculpture. His time for 
creative work became limited, however, when in 1930 
he took over as interim director after the resignation 
of the school's founder, the highly respected architect 
Paul Thiersch. In 1928, Marcks had traveled to Greece, 
where he discovered Archaic sculptural forms, which 


1. Letter from Gerhard Marcks in Berlin to his brother Her- 
bert, daled .\ugiist 31, 1910, and published in Germanisches 
Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg, 1979, p. 21. 

2. Letter from Lyonel Feininger in New York to Gerhard 
Marcks, dated March 9, 1941, and published in Kolnischer 
Kunstverein, Gerhard Marcks fVerke derKolnerJahrc: 1950 bis 
1969, e.\h. cat.. 1969. 

he regarded as an affirmation of his commitment to 
the human figure. For Marcks, the characters of Greek 
mythology - Orpheus and Tantalus, Prometheus and 
Odysseus, Oedipus and Ariadne - provided true and vi- 
tal models of human experience. In regard to his 1957 
bronze sculpture o{ Orpheus, Marcks stated; "I wanted 
to express that Orpheus was an ordering principle 
([like] J. S. Bach) in contrast to ecstasy. He was torn 
apart by the maenads, spirits of trance, passion, and 
disorder.. .for me, he was a statement of faith."' The 
last figure Marcks completed depicted Prometheus 
being set upon by the eagle (plaster, 1980). 

The Nazis fired Marcks from his position at 
Giebichenstein in 1933 and included his work in the 
Entartete Kunst exhibition of 1937. He then moved to 
Mecklenburg, but shortly thereafter returned to Ber- 
lin. Forbidden to exhibit, he resumed his work in 
graphics, a medium he had neglected after moving to 
Giebichenstein. During the Second World War, he lost 
his house, studio, and many of his works in one of the 
bombings of Berlin, and he returned once again to 

Immediately following the War, the Landeskunst- 
schule in Hamburg appointed Marcks a professor. It 
was here that he received the important commission 
to complete the cycle of eight figures for the west fa- 
cade of St. Ratharinenkirche in Liibeck (see fig. 35, 
p. 27). Ernst Barlach had already executed three of 
these figures (1930-32; see \\\sBeggar, cat. no. 22) and 
suggested that Marcks complete the cycle. Today the 
eight figures stand in their niches like different tones 
in a single melody. Barlach and Marcks shared the 
same credo. They were convinced that the sculptor's 
task is to render visible man's vulnerability and 
strength, his misery and joy. While formal dilTerences 
in the figures reflect the artists' unique personalities, 
this group of sculptures as a whole is remarkable for 
its success in blending a modern treatment of the 
human image with the church's Gothic brick 

Prometheus Bound II of 1948 (cat. no. 98) was the 
culmination of Marcks' attempt to solve the problem 
of creating a truly expressive figure in a static position. 
Its precedents are to be found in graphic studies (cat. 
nos. 99 and 100) as well as the earlier sculptures 
Sealed Boy and Tantalus (both 1944, bronze). 
Chronologically the latest Expressionist sculpture in 
this exhibition, Prometheus Bound II is a mature work 
that joins Expressionist elements with Marcks' inher- 
ent understanding of the Greek genius. Prometheus, 
punished for bringing fire stolen from Olympus to 
man, sits in bitter defeat and grief. His fettered hands 
rest on one knee, his head on the other. His spirit has 
deserted him and with it the will to protest or rebel 
against his punishment. Marcks created this figure as 
a symbol of the sulTerings endured in the Second 
World War. It is reminiscent of Lehmbruck's Seated 
Youth, (cat. no. 92), but it does not convey the same 

3. Letter from Gerhard Marcks in Cologne to Peter Guenther 
dated August 2, 1971. 


sense of the defeated and suffering revolutionary. 
Thus, in sensibihty, it is perhaps even more closely re- 
lated to Lehmbruck's FaHcn Man (cat. no. 91). 

In 1949, Marcks executed a monument to the people 
of Cologne who had died during the Second World 
War, and in the same year he received the Goethe- 
Medaille (Goethe Medal) from the city of Frankfurt in 
recognition of his achievements. In 1950, he moved 
permanently to Cologne, where he completed a 
commissioned monument dedicated to the civilians 
who had died in the bombing raids on Hamburg. In 
1952, he was made a knight of the Orden Pour le 
Merite and was awarded the Stephan Lochner- 
Medaille from the city of Cologne. Commissions for 
the cities of Frankfurt, Aachen, Bremen, and others 
followed, frequently competing for time with works 
which Marcks wished to do for himself. Woodcuts, 
lithographs, and in the later years landscape pastels 
became more frequent in his oeuvre, along with a 
number of animal sculptures. In an interview given in 
1978, Marcks said: " gathers experiences and 
only becomes human by correctly using these exper- 
iences. For this, later life is the best time. Then one 
can think: what is really important?"* His works have 
provided us with his own answer. - P.W.G. 

4. Gerhard Marcks Stiflung, Bremen, Gerhard Marcks zum 90. 
Geburmag, exh. cat., 1978. 



Cat. no. 97 

Small Head (Kleiner KopJ), 

c. 1923 


21 X 12.7 X 11.5 cm. 

(S'Ax 5x41/2 in.) 

Private Collection, New York 

Busch-Rudloff, 108a 

Cat. no. 98 

Prometheus Bound II 
(Gefesselter Prometheus II), 
79x51 cm. 
Museum Ludwig, Cologne 
Busch-Rudloff, 522 

Busch and Rudloff have identitied 
6 casts of this piece, 4 without cast- 
ing numbers and 2 inscribed with 
casting numbers //'and 11. Cf. 
Busch-Rudlorr,431 and 440 for 
descriptions of the now-destroyed 
piasters, Prometheus. 1943, and 
Prometheus Bound I (Gefesselter 
Prometheus I), 1944. 


Cat. no. 99 

Study for Prometheus (Studie 

zum Prometheus). 1948 

Pencil on paper 

28.3x21.8 cm. 


Gerhard Marcks Stiftung, 

Bremen, St. 72/1298 

Cat. no. too 

Study for Prometheus (Studie 

zum Prometheus), 1 948 

Pencil on paper 

29.5x21 cm. 


Gerhard Marcks Stiftung, 

Bremen, St. 72/1295 








George Minne 

Born 1866 Ghent, Belgium; 

died 1941 Laethem-Saint-Martin, 


George Minne's works 
from about 1885 until 1909 
are outstanding examples 
of the close connections 
which existed between 
three ostensibly very dif- 
ferent stylistic directions. 
Through his friendship 
with the great Belgian po- 
ets and writers Maurice Maeterlinck, Gregoire le Roy, 
and Emile Verhaeren, Minne was drawn early to a 
Symbolist aesthetic; at the turn of the centun and the 
height of his career, he lived and worked amid the 
reigning spirit of Art Nouveau. It was George Minne's 
special gift to combine Symbolist and Art Nouveau 
elements with forms and concepts which are clearly 
forerunners of Expressionism. 

In 1882, Minne entered the Koninklijke Academic 
voor Schone Kunsten in Ghent as a student of architec- 
ture, his father's profession, and studied there until 
1884. Contrary to his family's wishes, he worked on his 
own from 1885 to 1889. His early paintings and sculp- 
ture show an Academic orientation in their use of stan- 
dard historical subjects and classical forms. An impor- 
tant breakthrough for Minne came in 1886, when 
Maeterlinck and Le Roy returned from a trip to Paris, 
where they had met the French Symbolists and estab- 
lished a strong friendship with Villiers de I'lsle-Adam 
and his circle. At the Belgians' request, Minne pro- 
duced a number of drawings and woodcuts as illustra- 
tions for Le Roy's Symbolist poetry and Maeterlinck's 
plays. He became a member of the important Belgian 
Symbolist art group Les Vingt (The Twenty) with 
which he exhibited beginning in 1890. This group had 
been founded in Brussels in 1884 by Octave Maus, a 
law7er, art critic, and editor of the influential Revue de 
I'Art Moderne (Modern An Review). Les Vingt's more 
famous members included Fernand Khnopff, James 
Ensor, Theo van Rysselberghe, and Henry van de 

Minne was deeply committed to the Symbolist 
credo, which held the inner world of the soul to be of 
primary importance. Problems addressed by the Re- 
alists and Impressionists were those of the visible, 
external world, and as such were considered 
unimportant when compared with the Symbolist aim 
of comprehending underlying and universal truths. 
Minne drew on the art of the Pre-Raphaelites, as well 
as Gothic and Northern Renaissance traditions. He 
was also impressed with the work of Rodin and in 1890 
traveled to Paris to meet him. In 1898, Minne settled 
permanently in Laethem-Saint-Martin, a small town 
near Ghent which gradually developed into an artists' 

Minne is best known as a sculptor, and it is in his 
three-dimensional works that the presaging of 
Expressionism is most visible. The Symbolist inten- 
tion and Expressionistic distortions of The Prayer (cal. 
no. 101) not only exemplify Minne's capacity for syn- 
thesis, but also effectively counter the sweetness 
which is generally associated with late nineteenth- 

century treatments of religious subjects. The nun's 
cowl covers her forehead close to the brow, and the 
roughly worked garment appears to deny that she has 
shoulders; thus the hands and the wrinkled, quiet face 
are dominant. Significantly, Minne carved this piece in 
wood aware that the roughness would enhance and 
strengthen the mysterious expression of the face. Is it 
grief, contemplation, or the apprehension of a vision 
which Minne has depicted? This ambiguity is charac- 
teristic of the Symbolist approach. 

Minne's renown arose primarily from one specific 
motif- the kneeling boy. First established in 1896 with 
Small Kneeling Figure, this image preoccupied the art- 
ist for many years. It was repeated in The Small Relic- 
Carrier (1907, marble, Roninklijk Museum voor 
Schone Kunsten, Antwerp) and again in Kneeling Fig- 
ure of 1898 (cat. no. 102), reaching its culmination in 
The Fountain of Kneeling Youths (fig. 1, p. 157). This 
latter work was commissioned by Karl Ernst Osthaus, 
the founder of the Folkwang Museum in Hagen, who 
already owned a number of Minne's works. When 
Heni7 van de Velde designed the new Folkwang 
Museum building, he suggested that a work by Minne 
should stand in the circular entrance hall under the 
colored glass dome. The sculptor made a number of 
sketches and models until he arrived at the composi- 
tion of five identical boys kneeling on the unadorned 
rim of a circular basin. Their bodies, whose elegance 
echoes Italian Mannerist sculpture of the late six- 
teenth century, are held in precarious balance, since 
each boy leans slightly backward while his head is 
tilted forward and downward. The complexity of this 
position is denied by the smoothness of the marble's 
white surface, which achieves near-abstraction. Calm, 
ennui, narcissism, inner pain. ..all of these can be read 
into the sculpture. Art historian Julius Meier-Graefe 
wrote that the repeated figure of the boy bears a "par- 
oxysm of pain transcending physical affiiction,"' indi- 
cating his fine understanding of the contradictions ex- 
pressed by this form. The seeming awkwardness of 
the attenuated bodies gives way to a strange and mov- 
ing power when seen in their rhythmic circle. Each of 
the figures is completely self-occupied; the Flemish 
poet Karel van de Wiestyne called the fountain 
Narcissus in Five-Fold Reflection. The image of 
Narcissus was important to both the Symbolists and 
practitioners of Art Nouveau.- 

When either the single figures or the group of five 
was exhibited, the public was hardly prepared for this 
violaUon of the still-dominant semiclassical style. 
They were less understanding of Minne's other 
adolescent figures from this same period, which dis- 
play even more expressive gestures. This expressive- 
ness conUnued to increase unUl 1911, when Minne 
turned to more reahstic forms. He taught drawing at 
the Academy in Ghent from 1912 to 1914 and spent the 


1 . Julius Meier-Graefe, "Das plastische Ornament," Pan. vol. 
4, no. 4, 1898, p. 259. 

2. See Paul Valery. "Narcisse parle," in Album de vers anclens, 
Paris: Editions de la N.R.F., 1933. 


War years in England, primarily making charcoal 
drawings. After the War, he took up sculpture again, 
concentrating on maternal figures which conform 
closely to the marble block. His innuence on 
Lehmbruck is an important direct link to German 
Expressionist sculpture. 

Honors came late to Minne. In 1930, he was given 
the title of Baron and had the Grand Officer's Cross of 
the Order of Leopold bestowed upon him. - P.W.G. 101 

The Prayer (OraisonJ, 1894 


h: 46 cm. (18'/io in.) 

Museum Folkwang, Essen 

Puyvelde, 16 

This work was also executed in mar- 
ble and bronze. 



Cat. no. 102 

Kneeling Figure (L'agenouille), 



h: 78 cm. (SO'A in.) 

Mr. and Mrs. Nathan Smooke 

Pujvelde, 26 

This piece was formerly in the 
collection of Robert von Hirsch. 
Minne's original marble sculpture 
group of 5 kneeling youths (1898 — 
1905) was commissioned by Karl 
Ernst Osthaus for the Folkwang 
Museum, Hagen. Today the original 
group is in the Museum Folkwang, 
Essen, and a copy is in the original 
location in the Karl Ernst Osthaus 
Museum, Hagen. This sculpture is 
one of several versions Mlnne ex- 
ecuted of the same figure type used 
in the fountain. 




Fig. 1 

The Fountain of Kneeling Youths 
(Brunnen mitjunfknienden 
Knaben), 1898-1905 

Formerly Folkwang Museum, 
Hagen; presently Museum Folk- 
wang, Essen 



Albert Miiller 

Born 1897 Basel, Switzerland; 

died 1926 Basel, Switzerland. 

The Swiss painter Albert 
Miiller first was exposed to 
the work of Ernst Ludwig 
Kjrchner during the 1923 
Kirchner exhibition held at 
the Kunsthalle Basel. As a 
result of this encounter, 
specific changes occurred 
'-t^ in Miiller's own art. Prior 
to the Kirchner exhibition, he had studied in Paris and 
Munich, traveled to Italy, and worked briefiy with the 
Swiss painter Cuno Amiet. He had not received any 
formal training as a sculptor, but had already gen- 
erated a modest oeuvre of paintings on glass in addi- 
tion to his canvases and graphics. Miiller's paintings 
from after the exhibition are characterized by stark 
coloration and compelling frontality. Further, along 
with his friend and fellow Basel artist Hermann 
Scherer, Miiller began to carve wood sculptures. 

Miiller, Scherer, Paul Camenisch, and other young 
Swiss artists were inspired by Kirchner's work to form 
a group modeled after Die Briicke, which they called 
Rot-Blau. Like Kirchner and the members of the 
Briicke, the Rot-Blau artists were committed among 
other things to an aesthetic which would encompass 
carved objects intended for everyday use, as well as 
painting and sculpture. Of all the sculpture by mem- 
bers of this group, Miiller's most clearly reflects 
Kirchner's influence. 

Miiller was personally encouraged by Kirchner, 
whom he visited at Frauenkirch in 1924, to explore 
working in wood. Immediately after this visit, Miiller 
carved his first sculpture, Standing Figure (cat. no. 
103). Scherer was also encouraging. Responding to a 
photograph oi Standing Figure that Miiller had sent to 
him, Scherer wrote, "...the figure which you sent the 
photo of looks very good. It would be wonderful if very 
soon a sinall army of sculptors existed."' 

The works in Miiller's modest sculptural oeuvre all 
bear the mark of his hand on their rough-hewn wood 
surfaces. The artist seems to have been primarily 
interested in carving out his form as opposed to refin- 
ing it. Miiller painted his sculptures, but in a manner 
that was quite different from that of Scherer, whose 
plastic works are almost entirely covered with striking 
hues. In Crouching Woman (cat. no. 104; see 
Kirchner's ovra photograph, fig. 2, p. 159), for exam- 
ple, Miiller limited his application of color in order to 
emphasize certain aspects of physiognomy- e.g., hair, 
nipples, face - in much the same way that Kirchner 
applied paint. This coloration gives the sculptures a 
starkness which in turn emphasizes their naivete and 
straightforwardness. Several of Miiller's carvings 
were objects intended for personal use, for example, a 
decorative, carved bed which resembled in spirit the 
Kunsthandwerk of the Briicke artists. 

Miiller's work of 1925-26 continued to resemble 
Kirchner's in its attitude toward the sculptural surface, 
as well as in its composition. Both artists created 


l.Stutzer, 1981, p. 169. 

sculptures which were not particularly complex in 
their organization or their basic structure, as most of 
them were fashioned from a single piece of wood. For 
both Kirchner and Miiller the basic form remained the 
tree trunk, and their sculptures were linked to this 
form. The notion shared by these artists that each 
sculptural detail, each cut made in the wood, should 
reflect a deliberate choice on the sculptor's part, as 
well as an expression of himself and his feelings, had 
been outlined in Kirchner's article of 1925 "Concern- 
ing the Sculpture of E.L. Kirchner," written under his 
pseudonym (see pp. 43-46). 

While all that remains of Miiller's sculpture today is 
three finished and two unfinished sculptures and 
three bedframes made for his children, he most likely 
created many other sculptures which have not sur- 
vived. Some were probably unfinished at the time of 
his death and were subsequently discarded or lost. 

In December of 1926, Miiller died unexpectedly 
from an attack of typhus. He and Scherer were repre- 
sented by Kirchner in his life-size sculptural portrait 
The Tivo Friends, c. 1924-25 (figs. 5, p. 46, and 13, 
p. 128). -S.B. 



Miiller's sculptures in his house 
in Obino, probably photo- 
graphed by the artist. 

Fig. 2 

Miiller with his sculpture 
Crouching Woman (cat. no. 
104), photographed by 

Fig. 3 

MiJUer with one of his sculp- 
tures at Frauenkirch. 



Cat. no. 103 

Standing Figure (Stehende 

Figur), 1924 

Stained wood, with painted face 

h: 105 cm. (4P/8in.) 

Kaspar MUUer, Basel 

Stutzer, S.l 






V/ K'^d 






Cat. no. 104 

Crouching Woman (Hockende), 

c. 1925 

Painted wood 

68.5 X 36.5 X 39.5 cm. 

(27 X H'/sx 15'/2in.) 

OfTenUiche Kunstsammlung, 


Stutzer, S.2 




Emil Nolde 

Born 1876 Nolde (Schleswig); 

died Seebull 1956. 

Emil Nolde, born Emil 
Hansen, grew up on the 
land far removed from art. 
It was thought that he 
would become a farmer 
like his father and fore- 
fathers. But the boy dreamt 
of being an artist - he 
loved colors and painting. 
Finally his fatherrealized that his son was of no use for 
work on the farm and sent him to apprentice at the 
Sauermann carving school and furniture factoi-y in 
Flensburg. At the age of twenty Nolde was certified as 
a journeyman sculptor. One of his final projects in this 
capacity was a group of four melancholy owls for the 
desk of Theodor Storm, the country's most famous 
writer (see fig. 1, p. 164). 

Nolde thus received training as an expert craftsman 
- a wood-carver, if not exactly a sculptor. He was 
experienced in dealing with wood, knew its prop- 
erties, and had learned to judge it in terms of its prac- 
tical quality and usefulness. This was, however, some- 
thing of an obstacle to his development as an artist. 
Thus, almost two decades passed before Nolde was 
able - in an act of spiritual and artistic liberation - to 
free himself from the restrictions of both his exper- 
ience as a wood-carver in furniture factories and of his 
employment from 1892 to 1897 as a drawing teacher in 
a St. Gall trade school. In 1898, he resigned his secure 
teaching position to become a painter. He traveled to 
Munich, Paris, Copenhagen, and Berlin, finally settling 
in a remote fisherman's house on the island of Alsen. 

About 1904-05, Nolde hesitantly emerged in public 
as an independent and original painter. When the 
young artists of the Briicke group saw some of his 
paintings in a Dresden exhibit, they were excited by 
his "storms of color" and in 1906 wrote him a letter 
praising his work and ofiering him membership in 
their group.' Schmidt-RottlufT came to Alsen for four 
months to work near Nolde, who, from the fall of 1906 
to the end of 1907, participated as an active member in 
all of the Briicke exhibits, proclamaHons, and activi- 
ties. At this time, however, Nolde thought of himself 
only as a painter. When in 1906, after a long hiatus, he 
again picked up the car\ing knife, it was only to make 
printing blocks for woodcuts, following a suggestion 
from Schmidt-Rottluff who procured the necessary 
tools for him. Nolde was aware that his Briicke friends 
Rirchner and Heckel were sculpting in wood, as 
Heckel had sent him a photograph of his own sculp- 
ture at the end of 1906. On March 2, 1907, as if to 
encourage Nolde to do similar work, Heckel wrote to 
him: "I have finished two new wood sculptures. The 
wood was very hard, but it was wonderful to come up 

1. Letter from Schmidt-RottlulT, as representative of the 
Brucke, to Emil Nolde, April 2, 1906, in the archive of the 
Nolde-Stiftung Seebull. Reprinted in Emil No[de, Jahre der 
Mmpfe, Berlin: Rembrandt Verlag, 1934, pp. 90-91, and in 
idem, 1976, p. 146. 

against resistance and also to have to bring all one's 
physical strength into play."^ 

It was not until his journey of 1913-14 to the South 
Seas, New Guinea, the Palau Islands, Java, and Burma 
that Nolde yielded to temptation. During the long sea 
voyages he discovered the stove wood in the ships' gal- 
leys: "I was looking for parficularly beautiful kinds of 
wood, which were in ample supply and were used only 
as firewood." He picked up his pocketknife and carved 
a number of small, narrow figures. Corresponding to 
the size of the firewood, they are only 25 cenfimeters 
(QVa inches) high or even smaller. One of these works 
was lost on the trip, but twelve survive and are in the 
collection of the Nolde-Stiftung Seebiill. Five of them 
are included in this exhibition (cat. nos. 105, 106, 107, 
108, and 109). 

Are these pieces more than playful products of 
craftsmanship? Nolde assessed them thusly: "I just 
tried to get a little beauty out of the firewood." He pro- 
tested nonetheless when the figures were viewed as 
casual amusements. They originated efTortlessly dur- 
ing the voyages "with their vegetative calm," and this 
differentiates them from the sculptures of Heckel, who 
spoke of the challenge of having "to bring all one's 
physical strength into play." Heckel's sculptures are 
heavier, denser, and larger than Nolde's; his Draped 
Woman (fig. 6, p. 95), for example, is over a meter 
high.' Heckel could also claim to have retained the 
identity of his material; the peculiarities and structure 
of the wood are integral parts of the expression and 
content of his sculpture. The traces of workmanship 
were not erased or smoothed over, but remain visible 
and expressive. But while Heckel, like Kirchner and 
Schmidt-RottluIT, used tools appropriate for working 
with tree trunks - hatchets, planes, and chisels - 
Nolde picked up light, narrow pieces which could be 
held in one hand and carved them only with his 
pocketknife. He traced the forms of growth, the flow of 
the grain, the branching, and the knots in a tender dia- 
logue. In each piece of wood he "saw all kinds of little 
figures which only needed to be released." The slen- 
der Young Woman with Raised Arms (cat. no. 109) 
grows like a mandrake out of the narrow firewood. 
The posture and gesture oi Prophet (cat. no. 107) were 
predetermined by the fork of a branch. The dual fig- 
ures in Couple or Woman with Child (both 1913-14, 
Nolde-Stiftung Seebiill) are bound together in an or- 
ganic unity, fused like the wood fibers. 

Nolde loved collaborations with nature. He enjoyed 
seeing colors blossom "as if by chance," taking form 
by themselves. He was pleased when rain and sand 
were driven by a storm onto a canvas or when the cry- 


2. Postcard from Erich Heckel in Dresden to Emil Nolde in 
Jena, March 2, 1907, in the archive of the Nolde-Stiftung 

3. See pi. in Schleswig-Holsteinisches Landesmuseum and 
Museum filrKunstund Gewerbe, Hamburg, 1960, p. 19.* 



stalline patterns of frost became part of a picture's cre- 
ation. In his etchings, he utihzed the "arbitrary" struc- 
tures formed in the corrosion process. Similarly, when 
producing his woodcuts, he liked to incorporate the 
grain and knots of the soft pine surface in his 

Most of his figures originated without preliminary 
drawings - "with the raw material in the hand, 
between the fingers."* Two small statues based on 
female dancers Nolde saw at a Javanese wedding (cat. 
no. 106) and in Mandalay, Burma, are exceptions. In 
his memoirs he wrote that the fiery, wild twirling of 
these dances made him extremely excited. He cap- 
tured them in several colored pencil drawings and 
carved two figures from his sketches. The dancers 
wear tight gowns of a shining bronze - the actual gar- 
ments were of yellow silk - and the eyes of the Bur- 
mese dancer are small rubies. Some of Nolde's other 
wood sculptures are also lightly tinted. 

In 1925, Nolde created two brick sculptures, a man's 
head and the smaller Tk'O Heads: Man and Woman 
(cat. no. 1 10). Their concisely simplified forms join 
with the peculiarly crumbly texture and deep red color 
of the unusual material. The complete agreement of 
form and material goes far beyond a craftsman's sense 
of doing jusfice to the material. The same holds true 
for Nolde's work in embossed metal, for the jewelry of 
gold and simple stones, silver, tortoise shell, and ivory 
that he made for his wife, Ada, or for his ceramic 
works made in 1913 in a pottery in Flensburg - plates 

4. This is how Nolde described "the works of primitive peo- 
ples" in a book about the "artistic expressions of primitive 
peoples" on which he worked in 1911-12 (the book never got 
any further than the introduction). It is, however, an apt inter- 
pretation of his own creations. 

with masks, female dancers, and animals, and colorful 
versions of reliefs of two dancing girls, reminiscent of 
the painting Candle Dancers of 1912 (Nolde-Stiflung 
Seebiill). His work in other materials, whether wood, 
stone, metal, or ceramics, cannot be divorced from his 
paintings. Thus, we frequently come across his carved 
wooden figures, just as we do the exotic sculptures, 
masks, and other objects from his own collection, in 
his paintings and watercolors.' The small watercolor 
in this exhibit. Cyclamen and Stone Sculpture: Two 
Heads (cat. no. Ill), is an example of this. -M.U. 

5. See Martin Urban's introduction in Kunsthalle, Bielefeld, 


Owl (Eule), 1888 


Nolde-Sliftung Seebull 

Created for the desk of the 
writer Theodor Storm. 





Cat. no. 105 (ill., p. 167) 

Bearded Man (Bdrtiger Mann), 


Wood, partially colored 

h: 24.3 cm. (QVe in.) 

Nolde-Stiftung Seebiill 106(111., p. 167) 

Javanese Dancer (Java- 

Tdnzerin), 1913-14 

Wood, partially colored and 


h: 22.6 cm. (878 in.) 

Nolde-Stiftung Seebull 

Cat. no. 107 (ill., p. 166) 
Prophet (Prophet). 1913-14 
Painted wood 
h: 24.2 cm. (QVi in.) 
Nolde-Stiftung Seebull 108(111., p. 167) 
Standing Woman (Stehende 
Frau), 1913-14 
Wood, partially colored 
h:24.3cm. (gysin.) 
Nolde-Stiftung Seebull 109(111., p. 166) 
Young Woman with Raised Arms 
(Mddchen mit erhobenen 
Armen), 1913-14 
Wood, partially colored 
h: 22.4 cm. (8% in.) 
Nolde-Stiftung Seebull 110 

lioo Heads: Man and Woman 

(Zwei Kopfe: Mann und Frau), 



9.8 X 12 X 7.5 cm. 

(3% X 45/4 X 3 in.) 

Nolde-Stiftung Seebiill Ill 

Cyclamen and Stone Sculpture: 
JUio Heads (Alpenveilchen und 
Steinplastik: zwei Kopfe), 
c. 1930 
22.6 X 26.2 cm. 
(8%x 10% in.) 
Nolde-Stiftung Seebiill 

The sculpture in this watercolor is 
Thjo Heads: Man and IVoman (cat. 
no. 110). 














Max Pechstein 
Born 1881 Eckersbach, 
near Zwickau; 
died 19S5 Berlin. 

Sj^'^ Max Pechstein joined the 
Briicke artists - Kirchner, 
Heckel, Schmidt-Rottluff, 
and Fritz Bleyl - in 1906 
and left the group in 1912, 
one year before it dis- 
banded. Although not a 
founder, during the years 
of his participation 
Pechstein was tlic group's best known and most suc- 
cessful member. He was the first to receive recogni- 
tion, honors, and significant commissions; he traveled 
widely and made the acquaintance of many other 

Today this situation seems almost to be reversed. 
The work of Kirchner, Heckel, and Schmidt-Rottluff 
has been the subject of much scholarly investigation 
and is easily accessible in museum collections. Yet 
there is still no comprehensive monograph on Pech- 
stein, and his entire graphic oeuvre has not been pub- 
lished.^ Moreover, the presentation' and concentra- 
tion of his widely scattered artistic legacy in public 
collections,^ necessary for an objective evaluation of 
his achievements. Is still incomplete. The reasons for 
this relative neglect are many The rediscoveiy and 
scholarly investigation of German Expressionism 
began in the late 1950s, and by this time, unlike 
Schmidt-Rottluff and Heckel, Pechstein was dead. 
Consequently the chief documentary source for a 
study of his work, the artist himself, was no longer 
available. 5 In addition, even during Pechstein's life- 
time there was a wide dIfTerence of opinion in evalu- 
ations of his work, and this has most probably infiu- 
enced later judgments." Finally, a vast amount of his 
work was lost or destroyed in the War or as a result of 
political persecution. 


1. For the most comprehensive documentation available, see 
Reinhardl, 1977/78. pp. 204IT.* 

2. Ibid., p. 155.* 

3. The last major exhibition (including a catalogue) of 
Pechstein's paintings was sponsored in 1982, on the occasion 
of his hundredth birthday, by the Pfalzgalerie, Kaiserslautern. 

4. Even in the Briicke-Museuni, Berlin, which was established 
through Schmidt-Rottluffs endowment and augmented by 
Heckel's estate, Pechstein is not yet well represented. 

5. A number ofyears ago the artist's two sons, Frank Pechstein 
(b. 1913) and Max K. Pechstein (b. 1926), began recording 
their personal knowledge of their father's life and art, as well 
as documenting it as the basis for eventual scholarly investiga- 
tion. I would like to thank both of them for giving me impor- 
tant information and making documents available for this 

6. Hentzen, 1959,* does not mention Pechstein. He was, how- 
ever, included in the 1960 exhibition organized by Martin Ur- 
ban; see Schleswig-Holsteinisches Landesmuseum and 
Museum fUr Runst und Gewerbe, Hamburg, I960.* 

The collector and art historian Lothar Buchheim's 
consideration of Brticke sculpture refers to Heckel, 
Kirchner, and Schmidt-Rottluff, but not to Pechstein, 
who is treated exclusively as a painter and graphic art- 
ist.' However, contemporary scholars did not neglect 
this aspect of Pechstein's oeuvre." In his memoirs, 
Pechstein wrote that while a student at the Dresden 
Kunstgewerbeschule, he participated in a competition 
on the occasion of the 1902 Internationale Rauinkunst- 
Ausstellung and was awarded the prize for sculpture." 

Pechstein, who came from a family of craftsmen and 
was himself trained as one, saw no need for Kirchner's 
philosophical claim for the equal status of the fine and 
applied arts. This background also helps to explain 
why Pechstein devoted so much space in his memoirs 
to methods of fabricating objects, particularly in the 
detailed description of his 1914 visit to the Palau Is- 
lands. Pechstein made this journey "to look for Ely- 
slum In Palau" and to find the "unity of nature and 
man,"'" but with the outbreak of World War I he cur- 
tailed his travels and returned to Germany. The artist 
considered his use of native sculpting tools to be 
essential, and acquired them specifically for utilitarian 
purposes from private ethnological collections and 
dealers. Pechstein took pleasure in the creative pro- 
cess and for him it was uncomplicated by theory; this 
does not facilitate the separation of his sculpture per 
se from related works of craftsmanship. 

In Dresden and Berlin, Pechstein was just beginning 
his artistic career. He had married early, in 191 1. His 
economic situation provided a practical motivation for 
creating his own furnishings and decorations, as well 
as a rationale for accepting work outside the strict 
boundaries of painting and graphic arts. This com- 
mercial work included murals, mosaics, stained glass 
windows, glazed tiles, painted wall coverings, and em- 
bossed works In precious and common metals." His 
numerous pieces of metal and amber jewelry differ 
only in their smaller scale from those objects com- 
monly referred to as sculpture. '- 

At present, approximately twenty sculptures by Max 
Pechstein can be identified in photographs and graph- 
ics. Most have been lost or destroyed. They can be 
divided on the basis of date and material Into three 
groups of roughly equal size. A brief chronological 
note is of use here. In the fall of 1907, after having 
been awarded the Sachsischer Staatspreis fUr Malerei 
(Sa.xon State Prize for Painting), Pechstein traveled to 
Rome and then to Paris, where he stayed, with occa- 


7. Buchheim, 1956, pp. 77fT.* 

8. Friedeberger, 1913, pp. 76011; Fechter, 1921, p. 45 (ill.); 
Heymann, 1916, illustrates two sculptures; Ruhn, 1921;* Os- 
born, 1922. 

9. Pechstein, 1960. 

10. Ibid., pp. 54fr. 

U.Kriiger, 1965. 

12. Schleswig-Holsteinisches Landesmuseum and Museum 
fiir Kunst und Gewerbe, Hamburg, I960.* 


sional visits to Berlin, until the summer of 1908. His fi- 
nal move to Berlin probably did not take place until the 
spring of 1909. 

The works of the first group date from 1908 to 1909; 
they were probably created by the time Pechstein 
moved from Dresden to Berlin, but after his travels to 
Rome and Paris. These sculptures were initially mod- 
eled in plaster and then cast in metal. Among them are 
a male bust and an acrobatic group consisting of three 
nudes." Of this group the only piece which survived is 
the I'ase Carrier (cat. no. 112), a relief made from the 
tin of discarded paint tubes. This work conveys 
Pechstein's intention to free himself in his sculpting 
from traditional techniques and to indulge his urge 
toward experimentation. The model for this relief was 
Pechstein's future wife, Lotte, then seventeen years 
old.'-* The motif of a person carrying a burden on the 
head, which occurs frequently in Pechstein's work, 
derived from his time spent in Italy; the light-catching 
and animatedly reflective surface with its Impression- 
ist effect points to France and especially to Rodin's 
work. Rodin's influence is even more evident in other 
sculptures of this group, for example in a head of 1908 
(fig. 1, p. 47). With creative results such as these, 
Pechstein proved himself to be a mediator between 
French elements and the art of the Briicke." 

The six identifiable sculptures of the second group 
all date from 1913. Pechstein's nude figures Dancer 
and Female Dancer (probably destroyed)"^ character- 
ize the calculated attention which the Briicke artists 
brought to the study of the human body's form and 
freedom of movement.'" Dance had played a central 
thematic role in Pechstein's work for many years. The 
two dance figures are Expressionist in their exag- 
gerated motion. The Expressionist quality of Runner of 
the same year (probably destroyed) is focused in the 
figure's head, which is depicted at the moment of 
greatest strain. Runner is certainly the strongest piece 
among the sculptures of 1913, most of which were 
intended to be cast in bronze and are now lost.'*^ In 
choosing bronze, a traditional material in Academic 
sculpture, Pechstein differed from his Briicke friends, 
who favored wood. Only one wood sculpture of his 
from 1913 is known - a head (fig. 2, p. 48) with magi- 
cal, spellbinding features that for the first time betray 
Pechstein's earlier encounter with exotic sculptures in 
the Volkerkunde-Museum in Dresden. This wooden 
figure recurs in several of Pechstein's paintings. Its 


13. Documented in a photograph in Pech.stein's estate. 

14. Lotte also served as model for one of Kolbe's most famous 
sculptures, the Female Dancer of 1912 (Nationalgalerie, East 

15. Cf Reinhardl, 1977/78, p. 142.* 

16. 111. Ileymann, 1916, pi. 28. 

17. Kirchner stressed this goal, which also was articulated by 
others, in the Chronik der K[unstlerJ G[emeinschafl] Briicke, 

18. Fechter, 1921,p.45. 

distinct forms and metallike surface treatment further 
distinguish it from the contemporaneous wood figures 
of Rirchner and Heckel, with whom Pechstein had 
particularly close contact.'-' Closer to the Briicke style 
are Mermaid (1913; fig. 4, p. 49) and Young Mermaid 
(1917; fig. 5, p. 49). Two letters, both dated May 27, 
1917, bear pen-and-ink draw ings which depict the lat- 
ter sculpture next to others also carved from marl and 
thus far unidentified (fig. 1, p. 170). 

Five carvings of 1919 form a discrete third group. 
These sculptures are Pechstein's most direct and 
compelling transformations of Palau motifs. Because 
they were so heavily based on personal experience, 
their abstraction and individual adaptation did not go 
as far as Kirchner's and Schmidt-RottlufTs wood fig- 
ures which had been inspired by similar models. The 
latter two artists were neither as impressed nor as 
bound by a knowledge of their figures' original signifi- 
cance and context as was Pechstein. He had not only 
acquired and used native tools, but had also used 
names common in Palau as titles for some of his sculp- 
tures - for example Moon (fig. 9, p. 50) and Quarter 
Moon (fig. 6, p. 49). He also carved furniture with the 
forms and motifs he had seen in the South Seas.-" After 
1919 there does not seem to have been another simi- 
larly productive period of concentrated sculptural 
work. Yet Pechstein did intensify his contact with 
sculptors such as Belling and Garbe, friends with 
whom he joined the Novembergruppe and the 
Arbeitsral fiir Kunst in Berlin. Most probably Pechstein 
did create occasional carvings or sculpture - they of- 
ten occur in his later paintings, drawings, and graphic 
works. But because he surrounded himself with sculp- 
tures, cult objects, and tools from the South Seas, it is 
often difficult to ascertain which works are from his 
own hand. - G.W. 

19. 1 am referring to their time spent together in 1910 at the 
Moritzburg lakes near Dresden and to the unsuccessful 
MUlM-lnstitut that Pechstein attempted to establish. 

20. Cf. chest (destroyed) ill. in Osborn, 1922, p. 239. 


^. h^*^ i(»4Tt •'-'c^ •^' 

Fig. 1 

Letter from Pechstein to Herr 
Rerstenberg, May 27, 1917. 
Drawing includes the sculpture 
Meerjunges (Young Mermaid); 
see fig. 5, p. 49. 





( ase Carrier (Vasentrdgerin), 


Tin relief 

21x16x5 cm. 

(8'/4 X 6'/+ X 2 in.) 

Private Collection, Hamburg 

Signed and dated. Osborn assigned a 
date of 1908 to tliis worlt. 113 

Self-Portrait with Idol and Nude 
Figure / Self-Portrait in the Stu- 
dio (Selbstbildnis mit Gotzen 
und Aktfigur/ Selbstbildnis im 
Atelier), 1922 
50 X 40 cm. 
(195/8x155/4 in.) 
Private Collection, Hamburg 
Not in Fechter 

The figure of the idol, I. r. of com- 
' position, miglit well be one of Pech- 

stein's own primitivistic pieces, per- 
. haps the now-lost A/oo/i of 1919 (see 

fig. 9, p. 50). 



Hermann Scherer 
Born 1893 Riimmingen; 
died 1927 Basel, Switzerland. 

Any discussion of the work 
y-' ^^B^ A^ T of Swiss artist Hermann 
^^■^HH^^iiK Scherer inevitably leads to 
an examination of his com- 
plex relationship with 
Ernst Ludw'ig Kirchner. 
While Scherer was trained 
as a stonemason and creat- 
ed rather academic sculp- 
tures under the tutelage of Swiss sculptors Otto Roos 
and Carl Burckhardt, he cast aside this training when 
introduced to Kirchner's work in Basel in 1923. The 
large exhibition of Kirchner's paintings and graphics 
held in June of that year at the Runsthalle Basel pro- 
vided an opportunity for Scherer and the young Basel 
artists Albert Mliller and Paul Camenisch to study and 
discuss Kirchner's work in depth. Scherer was so 
moved by it that in August he went to visit Kirchner, 
who had been living at Frauenkirch near Davos since 
1918. The next year, Scherer created his first sculpture 
directly influenced by Kirchner; subsequent paintings 
and prints reflect Kirchner's style as well. 

Scherer, Miiller, and Camenisch visited Kirchner 
frequently over the next two years, forming the Rot- 
Blau gi'oup which they modeled on Die Briicke. 
Kirchner - who for years had dreamt of forming a 
school of artists with views similar to his own - was 
delighted by the excited response he found among 
these young artists. VSTiile the group lasted only a few 
years (cut short by the early deaths of Scherer and 
Miiller), for a while it fulfilled Kirchner's hopes for a 
progressive artistic community. Kirchner commemo- 
rated Miiller and Scherer in a life-size sculpture and in 
a large woodcut entitled The Friends (fig. Id, p. 128, 
and cat. no. 72; also see fig. 12, p. 128). 

During his brief career, Scherer is known to have 
created over twenty wood sculptures; today almost all 
are extant. The subjects of these works are human fig- 
ures in direct, emotional relationships - a mother and 
child, lovers, and friends - many of whom are depicted 
in startlingly primal postures. Kirchner wrote, "The 
woman that Scherer creates is neither a Venus nor a 
Madonna; she is a woman who, half bent over and 
looking around with the eyes of a mother, is taking a 
child across a shabby-looking street. She is a certain 
type of our time."' Compositionally, Scherer's works 
have a complexity generally absent from Kirchner's 
carvings; he was undaunted by large-scale groups of 
intertwined figures. In three sculptures, Mother Nurs- 
ing Child (cat. no. 1 17), Lovers, c. 1926 (cat. no. 120), 
and Sleeping IVoman with Boy (cat. no. 121), Scherer 
combined a reclining figure with another interwoven 
body. Although the positions and perspectives are 
awkward, Scherer managed to convey a sense of com- 
pressed space. 

Lamentation (cat. no. 1 18) is Scherer's most ambi- 
tious sculpture, depicting a mother with her dead son 

1. Kunsthalle Basel, Geddchtnisausslellung, exh. cat., 1928, re- 
printed in Galerie Thomas Borgmann, Cologne, 198t, 

and mourning daughter. The smooth surfaces of this 
work, as well as those o{ Sleeping PVoman with Boy and 
Lovers, c. 1926, were painted with eerie, lifeless, and 
unreal colors. These uncharacteristic yellows, greens, 
and oranges were applied to extremely naturalistic fig- 
ures, creating a contrast that leaves a haunting image 
in the viewer's mind. Unlike much of Kirchner's and 
Miiller's sculpture, which is rough-hewn and bears 
chisel marks, Scherer's sculpture has carefully 
smoothed and polished surfaces. 

Not surprisingly, many of Scherer's sculptures are 
related to large, forceful woodcuts which depict simi- 
lar subjects. Lamentation is represented in the wood- 
cut Self-Portrait with "Lamentation" (cat. no. 1 19). 
The Lovers sculpture of 1924 (cat. no. 1 14, and fig. 2, 
p. 175), three-quarters life-size, is also directly related 
to a woodcut of the same title (cat. no. 1 16). The latter 
share a directness of approach; one feels that the artist 
attacked the wood with similar force in both the print 
and the sculpture. 

At the April 1925 Rot-Blau exhibition at the 
Kunsthalle Basel, Scherer's sculpture appeared in 
great proliferation and made a very strong public 
impression. Although by this time Kirchner already 
had a large oeuvre of carved sculpture (though slight 
in comparison with his graphics and paintings), little 
of it had been seen publicly. Perhaps it was this Rot- 
Blau exhibition which prompted Kirchner's concern 
that his own sculpture would be overlooked. At this 
time he WTOte to art historian Will Grohmann, "My 
friend de M. [Louis de Marsalle, Kirchner's pseud- 
onym] reminds me that the time has come to publish 
my sculpture."- He was concerned that the work of the 
Swiss artists would become known without recogni- 
tion of their inspirational source - his own sculpture. 
Immediately thereafter, under his pseudonym, 
Kirchner wrote an article in Der Cicerone that was the 
first extensive publication of his sculptural accom- 
plishments (see translation included in this catalogue, 
pp. 45-46). 

Unfortunately, the Rot-Blau group did not last long, 
for Miiller died luiexpectedly in 1926. That same year 
Scherer fell ill, and he died in May 1927. A memorial 
exhibition of his work was held at the Kunsthalle Basel 
in 1928. On the occasion of his death, Scherer was 
lauded in newspapers and periodicals by artists and 
critics, including Kirchner and the critic Georg 
Schmidt. - S.B. 

I III iiiii III I nil III I III 1 1 III nil I III III! I III! Mil nil nil I III I mil I II I iiiiiii 

2. Grisebach, 11968), p. 215;" also in Stutzer, 1981, p. 171. 



Photograph of the Jiingere 
Easier exhibition, held at the 
Kunsthalle Basel, spring 1925, 
showing sculptures by Herman 



Lovers (Liebespaar), 1924 


h: 112 cm. (44 in.) 

Collection Scherer, Efringen- 


Borgmann, 2 115(111., p. 178) 

Lovers (Liebespaar), 1924 


66 X 22 X 23 cm. 

(26 X 8'/2 X 9 in.) 

Private Collection, Basel 

Borgmann, 8 116 

Lovers (Liebespaar), c. 1924 
84.5 X 54.5 cm. 
OfTentliche Kunstsammlung 
Basel, Kupferstichkabinett 

The mirror-image printing ol' tlie 
woodcut process reversed ttie posi- 
tion of tlie male and female figures 
in the sculpture being depicted, 
Lovers (cat. no. 1 14). 117 (ill., p. 178) 

Mother Nursing Child (Mutter 

Kind saugend), 1924 


w: 70 cm. (27'/2 in.) 

Collection Scherer, Efringen- 


Borgmann, 1 

This photograph was taken 
by Rirchner. 118 (ill., p. 176) 

Lamentation (Totenklage), 


Painted wood 

h: 166 cm. (65% in.) 

Collection Scherer, Efringen- 


Borgmann, 1 1 





Fig. 2 

Lovers (cat. no. 1 14), photo- 
graph by Rirchner. 










SCHERER 119(111., p. 176) 
Self-Portrait with "Lamenta- 
tion" (Selbstbildnis mit 
"Totenklage"), c. 1924-25 
63 X 44 cm. 
(24^/4 X 17% in.) 
Collection Scherer, Efringen- 

The scene, ob\iously the artist's stu- 
dio, shows the upper portion of his 
sculpture Lamentation (cat no. 118) 
amidst painted canvases. 

Cat no. 120 

Lovers (Liebespaar), c. 1926 
Linden, painted with tempera 
54.5 X 125x51 cm. 
Offentliche Kunstsammlung 
Basel, Kunstmuseum 
Borgmann, 13 

Cat. no. 121 (ill., p. 177) 
Sleeping Woman with Boy 
(Schlafende Frau mit Knaben), 

Painted wood 
50 X 135 X 5 cm. 
(19'/2 X 53y4 x 2 in.) 
Private Collection 
Borgmann, 18 







Egon Schiele 

Born 1890 Tulln, Austria; 

died 1918 Vienna. Austria. 

Egon Schiele belongs 
among those Austrian art- 
ists who made truly signifi- 
cant contributions to mod- 
ern art after the turn of the 
centui-y. Early in his career 
he exhibited frequently in 
Germany, gaining consid- 
erable recognition there. 
In 1916, the German journal DieAktion devoted a spe- 
cial issue to him. Although by this time he had begun 
to sell some of his works to a small circle of admirers, 
his dennitive success did not occur until the great 1918 
exhibition of the Vienna Secession, where the central 
room was reserved for nineteen of his oil paintings. 
We will never know if this new stature might have 
occasioned a change in his view of man or the arts. He 
died at age twenty-eight - three days after the death of 
his pregnant wife - during the inOiienza epidemic of 
1918 that devastated a himgry and exhausted Central 

Most of Schiele's paintings and even more of his 
drawings and watercolors are dominated by line, 
which often acts as a border limiting his strong and 
freely employed colors. This line is fervent, nervously 
sensitive, and frequently abstract, without ever 
becoming physically inaccurate. The human figure 
was often placed within undefmed or vacant space. 
The concentration on the body's form and gesture 
functions as a seismographic notation of the emotions 
and humanity of the model. 

Schiele began studies at the Art Academy of Vienna 
in 1906, and the following year established a friend- 
ship with the artist Gustav KJimt, who was twenty- 
eight years his senior. At this time, Rlimt was both a 
famous and, due to his expressively erotic works, an 
infamous artist. Recognizing Schiele's talents, KJimt 
introduced him to some of his own patrons, as well as 
advising him and encouraging him to break with the 
traditional academy after only three years of study. 

In 1910, with some fellow students, Schiele founded 
the Neukunstgruppe (New Art Group), even writing a 
manifesto which proclaimed that "the new artist is 
and must be himself without reservations; he must be 
a creator, he must unreservedly - without recourse to 
the historical or acceptable - build the foundations [of 
the new art] entirely by himself."' This nonpro- 
grammatic stance gained the group a few exhibitions, 
but ultimately made a rather negligible impact on the 
Viennese art scene. For a while Schiele worked for the 
Wiener Werkstalte, the famous Viennese design asso- 
ciation which ushered in a new style in utilitarian ob- 
jects, everyday clothing, and interior design. 

Schiele left Vienna twice for short periods but found 
the provincial towns of Krumau and Neulengbach 
depressing and their inhabitants resentful of his 
hfestyle. He lived with his model, Valerie Neuzil, in 
Krumau and while in Neulengbach was falsely 

1 . Egon Schiele, "Die Kunst - Der Neukiinstler," Die Aktion, 
vol. 4, no. 20, May 16, 1914, col. 428. 

accused of seducing a minor. During this latter in- 
cident, the police confiscated some of his drawings as 
pornographic, and one of them was burned by the 
judge. Schiele was sentenced to twenty-four days in 
jail, but having already been detained for twenty-one, 
he had nearly served his time. 

The unabashed and often shocking frankness with 
which Schiele depicted men and women as sexual be- 
ings brought him greater fame than did his large num- 
ber of portraits. These portraits can be compared in 
the power of their psychological insight to those of the 
other great Austrian Expressionist, Oskar Kokoschka. 
The latter portrayed the intense individuality of his sit- 
ters using changing approaches and techniques, while 
Schiele invariably uncovered vulnerable, haunted per- 
sonalities. This is particularly true of his many self- 
portraits, in which he accentuated mood by emphasiz- 
ing harshly confrontational postures and masochistic 
forms which seem to border on self-flagellation. 

All of Schiele's works challenged the society of the 
period. Contrary to the contemporary bourgeois ideal 
of an elegant, cleverly designed appearance, Schiele 
depicted man and woman as prisoners of their sexual- 
ity and demonstrated the loneliness of their existence. 
It was nearly impossible for the public of his time to 
recognize that his work was not voyeurism, but in- 
stead a brutally honest expression of what society tried 
to conceal beneath civility and silence. The Vienna of 
this era was, after all, the arena in which Sigmund 
Freud worked and lived and in which Otto Weininger 
published Geschlecht und Charakter (Sexuality and 
Character) in 1903, committing suicide shortly there- 
after. Weininger had separated man and woman into 
irreconcilable opposites, and it is this strain in society 
that Schiele made visible. 

Schiele created only one sculpture during his life- 
time, a self-portrait (cat. no. 122). When compared 
with his drawn and painted self-portraits, this bust ini- 
tially seems to lack their overwhelming strength, 
conviction, and near-brutality. The tilt of the head, the 
wide-open yet empty eyes, and the carefully shaped 
mouth present a self-image free from the strains so 
pronounced in his other self-portraits. The bust shows 
an openness new in Schiele's work that can only be 
partially explained by the difference in medium. Far 
removed from the driven, martyred images of earlier 
years- best exemplified in a 1914 drawing of himself 
as St. Sebastian - this sculpture with its upward gaze 
signifies a spiritual search and a new and more self- 
tolerant vision. It reveals Schiele's youthful death as 
an even more profound loss. - P.W.G. 


Cat. no. 122 

Self-Portrait (Selbstbildnis), 
c.l917-18/cast 1920s 

28.5 X 18 X 25.5 cm. 
(IIV4X71/8X 10 in.) 
The Robert Gore Rifklnd Collec- 
tion, Beverly Hills, California 

No inscription. An edition of 5 
bronzes was cast in ttie 1920s and an 
additional 2 bronzes were cast in 
1961. Both editions were taken from 
the plaster (Gips) now in the 
Historisches Museum der Stadt, Vi- 
enna. An edition of 7 stone casts was 
also executed. In 1980 an edition of 
300 bronzes (measuring 26.5 cm. 
[10'/2 in.] in height and inscribed 
Egon Schick 19S0) was announced. 




Karl Schmidt-Rottluff 
Born 1884 Rottluff (Saxonyl; 
died 1976 Berlin. 

The art of Karl Schmidt- 
RoUlufT, the youngest 
founding member of the 
Briicke, is rigorous and un- 
compromising. It was not 
intended to please, to meet 
the viewer halfway, or to be 
beautiful in any traditional 
sense. When asked about 
his artistic goals, the artist responded: 

Concerning myself I know that I have no program, 
only the inner longing to grasp what I see and feel 
and to find its purest expression. At this point I only 
know that these are things I come close to through 
art, not intellectually nor by means of the word.' 

Before he became a painter, Schmidt-Rottluff, like 
most of his Briicke friends, had wanted to be an archi- 
tect, and the laws and logic of construction came to fig- 
ure centrally in his work. Sculpture, with its immedi- 
acy of material, has a definite and unshakable place in 
his oeuvre.- The distinction between fine and applied 
art was basically foreign to the Brucke artists,' and 
Schmidt-Rottluff in particular would have been the 
last to value his signature more highly on a painting or 
sculpture than on a carved and painted wooden chest, 
an amber pendant set in silver, or a napkin ring of 
ivory or horn.^ 

In 1913, in the Chronik der K[unsllcr] Glemein- 
schaft] Brucke, Kirchner credited Schmidt-Rottluff 
with having made "the first lithographs on the stone," 
and the title page of the 1909 Brticke Jahresmappe 
(Annual Portfolio), which was devoted to Schmidt- 
Rottluff, bore Kirchner's own woodcut of his reticent 
friend.'' Nonetheless, Schmidt-RoltlufT undoubtedly 
attained his greatest success as a graphic artist in his 
woodcuts," which led him directly to wood sculpture. 
The colored relief with two female nudes of 1911 
(Briicke-Museum, Berlin) can also be considered a 
wood block on the basis of its pictorial, flat composi- 


1. "Das Neue Programm: Antwort auf eine Rundfrage iiber 
kiinstlerische Programme," Kiinst unci Kiinstler, (Berlin), vol. 
12, 1914, p. 308. 

2. In 1956, Grohmann catalogued only thirteen sculptures l}y 
Schmidl-Rottluff (pp. 159 ff.; all ill.). 

3. Both forms of creativity were combined in a Schmidt- 
Rottluff exhibition arranged by Max Sauerlandt in 1925 for the 
Museum fiir Kunst und Gewerbe in Hamburg. Cf. Max 
Sauerlandt, "Karl Schmidt-RottkifT- Ausstellung Im Museum 
fur Kunst und Gewerbe," Hamburger Fremdenbtatt, June 1 1, 
1925. The next comparable exhibition in which Schmidt- 
Rottluff was well represented did not take place until 1960 at 
the Schleswig-Holsteinisches Landesmuseum in Schleswig 
(see Schleswig-Holsteinisches Landesmuseum and Museum 
fiir Kunst und Gewerbe, Hamburg, I960).* 

4. Schmidt-Rottluff signed the major portion of his 
Kunstbandiverke and occasionally dated such pieces. 

5. Dube, 706; ill. in Grohmann, 1956, p. 160. 

6. See Wietek, 1971. 

lion.' The same might be said of the carved and color- 
fully painted wooden boxes, many of which the artist 
created during his summers at Dangast between 1907 
and 1912.' Emma Ritter, the Oldenburg painter then 
staying with Schmidt-Rottluff, witnessed "a creative 
power and abundance I have never seen anywhere 
before," and she expressly records his "releasing of 
wood sculptures from large blocks."" 

Yet it seems as if Schmidt-Rottluff- in contrast to 
Heckel or Kirchner - did not execute any truly three- 
dimensional figures before World War I. The heads 
created prior to that time retain the form of the origi- 
nal wood block. Simply cleaved from it, they are fin- 
ished only frontally.'" These faces, torn rather than 
carved out of the wood, bring to mind Schmidt- 
Rottluff s four embossed brass reliefs of the evangel- 
ists (1912, Briicke-Museum, Berlin), which were 
included in the Cologne Sonderbund exhibition." A 
mask, now in the collection of the Schleswig- 
Holsteinisches Landesmuseum, is similar to them in 
material and technique, although it is even more styl- 
ized. During this period Schmidt-Rottluffs dialogue 
with Cubism and abstraction was less visible in his 
works that address the human figure than in the 
wooden and metal objects which he was prolifically 
creating. After returning from a 1911 stay in Norway - 
during which he probably encountered wood and 
stone as materials - he exhibited no less than fifteen 
wooden boxes adorned with colorfully painted carv- 
ings. In the aforementioned Sonderbund exhibition of 
1912, he was the only Briicke painter who exhibited 
works of craftsmanship, specifically jewelry.'- In the 
If'erkbund exhibition of 1914 he exhibited a cabinet 
made to his specifications, as well as a small chest 
One might say that Schmidt-Rottluff developed his 
ideas in painting and graphic arts and then expressed 
them in his sculptural work a few years later, achiev- 
ing great success. His oeuvre of 1916 and 1917 alone 
justifies high praise when considered in the context of 
German Expressionist sculpture as a whole. 


7. Color ill. in Weslfalisches Landesmuseum fiir Kunst und 
Kulturgeschichte, Miinster. Reliefs: Formprobieme zwischen 
Malerei und Sfiulplur im 20. Jahrhunderl, exh. cat., 1980, p. 

8. Most of Schmidt-RotUufFs Kunsthandwerlce are preserved 
in the Briicke-Museum, Berlin, and they are partly published 
in the 1977 catalogue of that museum. As far as other public 
colIecUons are concerned, one may refer to the Museum fiir 
Kunst und Gewerbe in Hamburg and the Schleswig- 
Holsteinisches Landesmuseum in Schleswig. 

9. As quoted in Landesmuseum fiir Kunst- und 
Kulturgeschichte, Oldenburg, Maler der Briicke in Dangast 
von 1907-1912. exh. cat., 1957, pp. 298-314. 

10. Photographs of these works are in Rosa Schapire's estate. 

11. Leopold Reidemeister, "Die 4 Evangelisten von Karl 
Schmidt-Rottluff und die Sonderbund-Ausstellung in Koln 
1912" Briicke-Arcliin vol.8, 1975-76. 

12. Sonderbund VVestdeutscher Kunstfreunde und Kiinstler, 
Cologne, Internationale Kunstausstellung, exh. cat., 1912, nos. 


Approximately forty wood sculptures are extant 
today, although they were originally probably greater 
in number These works date from an immensely cre- 
ative period and may be seen as representing 
Schmidt-Rottluff s response to World War 1: 

I now feel strong pressure to create something as in- 
tense as possible. The War has swept away for me all 
that is past, all appears weak, and 1 suddenly see 
things in their awesome power. 1 never liked that 
sort of art which is a beautiful fascination for the 
eyes and nothing more, and 1 feel in an elemental^ 
way that one must grasp even more powerful forms, 
so powerful that they can withstand the impact of a 
people's lunacy." 

Although Schmidt-Rottluff never saw front-line duty, 
the pressure of the War is captured and concentrated 
in his sculptures. In 1916, he was transferred to the 
press department of Hindenburg's headquarters in 
Kovno, Russia,'* where he was in the company of fel- 
low painters Magnus Zeller and Hermann Struck, as 
well as poets such as Alfred Brust, Herbert Eulenberg, 
Arnold Zweig, and Richard Dehmel. Unable to paint 
during this period, the artist must literally have used 
every free moment to have created such a large num- 
ber of sculptures. Birch, alder, and pine were obtained 
from the siu'roimding forests and worked with the 
most primitive tools. The significance of trees in 
Schmidt-Rottluffs work deserves considerable atten- 
tion, for it is not only the wood itself with which he had 
such a close relationship, but with its original form. 

More than a quarter of the documented sculptures 
from the War years are total figures (females and a few 
male nudes, as well as clothed figures), while the 
majority consists of heads and some masks. Typologi- 
cally and psychologically, the heads are highly dif- 
ferentiated, although connections between them do 
exist. In several instances their closest relatives are to 
be found in Schmidt-RottlufTs graphic art. Wilhelm 
Niemeyer, the art historian and co-organizer of the 
Sonderbund exhibition, emphasized how wrong it 
would be to view these sculptures as simple trans- 
formations or even imitations of ethnographic, and in 
particular African, plastic art. In 1920, he wrote: 

Not the content, but the deepest creative spirit of 
natural peoples is in Schmidt-RottlufPs art, which is 
entirely structural in form. In order to arrive at his 
purely spiritual creations, he completely breaks 
down the natural appearance into units of pure 
imaginative form and out of these units reconstructs 
the worldview as a structure of deep intimacy... In 
dealing with all this, there is no talk of exterior, 
intended imitation; this affinity of form is an inner 


1 3. Undated letter ofl914 to the lawyer Ernst Beyersdorff, 
who was one of the so-called "passive" members of the 

I+. Cr Hans Frenlz, "Briicke im Krieg; Der Maler Schmidl- 
Rollluffund seine Gefahrten,"i)(ef urcte no. 14, April 5, 1958. 

harmony. A new feeling for the earth, which lifts Eu- 
ropean man above his narrower, more familiar artis- 
tic traditions, is at work here...." 

With one exception, all of the sculptures in the 
present exhibition are from the War years, which were 
so decisive for Schmidt-RottlufPs plastic and graphic 
art. The Green Head (cat. no. 125) is the earliest piece, 
and in this sculpture we find the greatest tension 
between the fibrous wood, intact in its natural state, 
and the carving, which sharply defines the form. Of 
the two full figures in the exhibition, /Irfonng- Man of 
1917 (cat. no. 1 25) was created together with at least 
two male nudes that are variations on the same 
theme. "* Their surfaces, appearing to be embossed, 
simulate metal. In fact, bronzes were cast from some 
of these wood sculptures - for example, a praying fig- 
ure, which w ith a number of similar works has been 
lost."' In some of these figures, the hands and feet are 
missing, yet the basic rhjlhm of motion is unimpaired. 
Through this reduction, expressiveness is increased. 
The SittingMan of 1917 (cat. no. 128) is one of 
Schmidt-RottlufTs strongest creations, and its hieratic 
severity is reminiscent of early Romanesque or 
Archaic sculpture. In such monumentally stylized 
heads as the Green-Red Head (cat. no. 127), Schmidt- 
RottlufTs work achieved its final formal appearance. 
As the artist wrote in a letter to Gustav Schiefler: 

On various occasions 1 arrived at an intensification 
of forms which, to be sure, contradicts scientifically 
determined proportions yet in its spiritual dimen- 
sions is well balanced. In relation to other parts of 
the body, in many instances I increased the head to 
monstrous size - it is the gathering point of the 
whole psyche, of all expression. But all other parts of 
the body tend in their spiritual motions toward the 
head; they gather in it. Thus the form develops such 
large scale completely on its own. With breasts it is 
no different. They are an erotic moment. But I want 
to separate this from the fiux of e.xperience; I would 
like to establish a connection between the universal 
and what is of this earth. Perhaps one may say this is 
an eroticism intensified into the transcendental....'" 

The question of the relationship of Schmidt- 
RottlulTs sculpture to that of tribal art, briefly 
addressed above by Niemeyer, occasionally led during 
the artist's lifetime to exhibitions in which his works 


15. Niemeyer, 1921. Also see Gerhard Wietek, "Wilhelm Nie- 
meyer und Karl Schmidt-Rottluff," Nordelbingeru vol. 49. 1979, 
pp. 112fr. 

16. Grohmann, 1956. p. 280 (ill.). 

17. See Schleswig-Holsteinisches Landesmuseum and 
Museum fur Kunst und Gewerbe. Hamburg, I960, no. 275 
(ill.).* Also cf. Brucke-Museum, 1977, no. 99 (ill.). 

18. Undated [1913] letter to Gustav Schiefler. 



were juxtaposed with African art.'-' Such installations 
had the artist's approval. Schmidt-RottlufT, who sur- 
rounded himself Willi ethnographic objects and who 
frequently included them in his still lifes, could be as- 
sured that such proximity would only make ob^^ous 
the great distinction between influence and original 
creation. Formal concerns and their possible sources 
were only one aspect of the phenomenon known as 
German Expressionism, in which content and convic- 
tion played a role of at least equal value. During the 
1916-17 period in Russia, Schmidt- RottlulT had 
already begun to create his first religious graphic 
works, and his Christ cycle of 1918 constitutes a high 
point of Expressionist religious art.-" 

The art historian Rosa Schapire, with whom 
Schmidl-Rottluff had been friends since 1908, was the 
first to be concerned with his sculptures, and she 
planned to publish them after completing the cata- 
logue of his graphic art in 1923.-' Schapire personally 
owned the largest collection of his sculptures, and in 
1921 Schmidt-Rottluff had decorated her Hamburg 
apartment with wall paintings, furniture, carpets, and 
other objects made either by him or according to his 
designs, as well as with his paintings and sculptures. If 
these rooms sfill existed, as Will Grohmann has right- 
fully stated, one would have to "transport them to a 
museum as a document of the artisfic spirit of the 
time."-- During the Second World War they were 
destroyed; Schapire was forced to emigrate to Eng- 
land, taking with her a large part of her art collection. 
Although she was unable to realize her plan to publish 
Schmidt-RottlufTs plastic work, some of the sculptures 
went to other private collections or were returned to 
the artist, who had lost most of his own work. Shortly 
before her death, Schapire instigated an exhibition of 
Schmidt-RottlufTs art at the museum in Leicester, 
England, which included recent stone carvings.-' Al- 
though few people in Germany were then familiar 
with the artist's work, the British art historian A. C. 
Sewter recognized the carvings of the early 1950s as 
representing "a post-war development of Schmidt- 
RottlufTs work. ..more primitive and more calm in 
effect than most of his earlier creations. Vaguely remi- 
niscent both of Gauguin's sculpture and of early Mexi- 
can carvings, they nonetheless have a distinctive char- 
acter and an appealing simplicity and vitality."-* In 


19. The first such juxtaposition occurred in the exhibition of 
the Kestner-Gesellschafl, Hannover; see the exhibition cata- 
logue Schmidt-Rottluff und i\e§erkunst, 1920. 

20. Cf.Wietek, 1971, pp. 16311. 

Schmidt-RottlufTs later years, he maintained an 
Expressionist style far longer than any of his fellow 
Briicke artists who survived the Second World War. 
The stone carvings constitute a second phase of inten- 
sive occupation with plastic and craftsmanlike tasks, 
one which is not inferior to the earlier period. 
Throughout his oeuvre, Schmidt-RottlufTs paintings 
and graphics were strongly interconnected with the 
sculptural and craftsmanlike works, and these mutual 
interpenetrations await further research. - G.W. 

21.Wietek, 1964. 

22. Grohmann, 1956, p. 47. 

23. Leicester Museum and Art Gallery, 1953. 

24. Sewter, 1953. 




128 123 (ill., p. 187) 
Green Head (Griiner Kopf), 

Polychromed alder 
h:41 cm. (IG'/sin.) 
Landesmuseum, Schloss 
Gottorf in Schleswig 
Not In Grohmann 

Cat. no. 124 

Red-Brown Head (Rot- 

brauner KopJ), 1916-17 

Painted wood 

h: 17.6 cm. (6% in.) 

Private Collection, West 


Not in Grohmann 

Cat. no. 125 (ill., p. 187) 
Adoring Man (Adorant), 1917 
Painted wood 
h: 37.5 cm. (14=74 in.) 
Private Collection, Hoflieim 
Not in Grohmann 

Cat. no. 126 (ill., p. 187) 

Blue-Red Head (Blauroter Kopf), 


Stained wood 

h: 30 cm. (11% in.) 

Briicke-Museum, Berlin 

Grohmann, p. 280, ill. 



Cat. no. 127 

Green-Red Head (Griin- 
roterKopJ), 1917 
Painted wood 
h:41 cm. (161/8 in.) 
Briicke-Museum, Berlin 

One of at least 2 Schmidt-RotUulT 
sculptures known as Green Head 
(Griiner Kopf). 

Cat. no. 128 (ill., p. 185) 

Silting Man (Sitzender Mann), 


Painted wood 

62x 17x 19 cm. 

(24'/2 X eVs X 17'/2 in.) 

Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam 

Grohmann, p. 280 

(Los Angeles only) 

Ex-coll. Dr. Rosa Schapire, 


Cat. no. 129 

The Mourner (Trauernder), 


Wood, stained green 

80 X 36 cm. 

(3iy2 X 14'/8 in.) 

Briicke-Museum, Berlin 

Grohmann, p. 239, ill. 









Martel Schwichtenberg 

Born 1896 Hannover; 

died 1945 Sulzburg (Baden). 

Although the painter Mar- 
tel Schwichtenberg was 
one of the best-known Ger- 
man artists of the period 
between the wars, her 
work and achievement 
ciurently await redis- 
covery.' In both her life 
and her art, she was a pro- 
totype of the Golden Twenties. Her father, a petty civil 
servant, having died young, Schwichtenberg was 
raised by her mother, who arranged for her to receive 
private art instruction in Hannover. She began formal 
studies in 1914 in Diisseldorf, first at a private school 
and then at the Runstgewerbeschule, where she stud- 
ied under Wilhelm Kreis, one of the most important 
German architects of his generation. At this time she 
published her first woodcut series, Cinnabar, which 
already reveals the infiuence of Futurism. Her first 
one-person exhibition was held in Hagen, Westphalia, 
in 1 91 5, followed by another at the Folkwang Museum, 
Hagen, where she met its founder, Karl Ernst Osthaus, 
as well as artists active in that area such as Henry van 
de Velde, Christian Rohlfs, and the sculptor Milly 
Steger. It was here that she may also have met Bern- 
hard Hoetger, with whom she worked at the Bahlsen 
cookie factory in Hannover, beginning in 1917.- Liber- 
ally sponsored by the company's owners, art lovers 
who favored modern marketing techniques, 
Schwichtenberg's employment at Bahlsen provided 
her with permanent economic support. She designed 
the Bahlsen trademark, which is still in use today, 
containers, and posters, as well as creating murals and 
large windows for the factory itself. The extent of her 
parUcipation in Bahlsen's TET-city plan, a collabora- 
tion with Hoetger that failed due to inflation and Her- 
mann Bahlsen's death, must still be clarified. Wood- 
cuts which appear to have been executed by Schwich- 
tenberg and are included in her estate extended this 
realistic construction project into Utopian dimensions. 

Schwichtenberg spent the summers of 1918 and 
1919 at the artists' colony in Worpswede near Bremen, 
where the natural lyricism of her early years gave way 
to a revolutionary socialist phase.' In 1920, she 
acquired a studio of her own in Beriin, at that time an 
intellectual, artistic, and social center, and adopted the 
city's demanding fox-trot rhjihm. Courted by literary 


1. Apart from short entries in artists' dictionaries and the like, 
no detailed appreciation of Martel Schwichtenberg exists thus 
far. Biographical data provided here is based on the artist's 
manuscript Mein Leben, which was written in abbreviated 
fashion shortly before her death and left to her friend, the art 
historian Hans Hildebrandt. 

2. Hermann Bahlsen: Festschrift zum 75jdhrigen Bestehen. 
Hannover, 1969, pp. 62, 153ff. 

3. Cf. Wietek, 1976, pp. lOOfT. (see contribution by R. V. Riedel). 

men, including Johannes R. Becher,' in 1920 she mar- 
ried the painter Robert W. Huth, who was particularly 
influenced by Schmidt-RottlufTs monumental Expres- 
sionism. During this short marriage, the couple spent 
the summers of 1921 and 1922 near Schmidt-RottlufTs 
house in Pomerania, and Schwichtenberg also came 
under his influence. This influence is documented in 
the six lithographs of the/4!is Pommern (From Pomer- 
ania) series as well as in the two wood reliefs dis- 
cussed below.5 During the winter months, Schwich- 
tenberg made the acquaintance of many artists, 
including Nolde, Otto Mueller, Pechstein, Archipenko, 
and Belling, but her closest friendship, which began in 
1920, was with art historian William Valentiner and 
his wife. In 1923, the three traveled to Italy, where 
against the background of the clear architectonics of 
the Italian landscape, Schwichtenberg's individual 
style emerged - an unshaded and colorful Neue 

During the following decade Schwichtenberg deter- 
mined, particularly with her portraits, the atmosphere 
of Berlin's numerous art exhibitions prior to the Hitler 
era. She had personal and reciprocal relationships 
with those who commissioned her work - including 
Valentiner, Barlach, the actress Tilla Durieux, and art 
dealer Alfred Flechtheim. Flechtheim, for example, 
displayed her work alongside that of Marie Laurencin 
and Sintenis, creating in this exhibition a harmony in 
which the various sounds retained their individuality. 
Schwichtenberg's close circle of friends was made up 
primarily of writers such as Walter Hasenclever, Rene 
Schickele, and Colette, some of whom she had met 
during her extended friendship with publisher Kurt 

When the National Sociahsts assumed power, 
Schwichtenberg emigrated by way of Italy to South Af- 
rica, whose landscape and people fascinated her and 
inspired numerous watercolors. Unfortunately most 
of these, along with her other belongings, burned in a 
1938 fire that destroyed her Johannesburg home. At 
the beginning of 1939 she accepted an invitation from 
the Valentiners, who had emigrated, to join them in 
the United States." But in August of that same year, she 
decided to return to Germany, where the outbreak of 
the War took her freedom of choice from her. After 
spending the first winter of the War in Berlin, she took 


4. Johannes R. Becher, who began as an Expressionist, joined 
leftist-radical movements as a young man. After his return 
from the Soviet Union in 1954, he became East Germany's 
state secretary of cultural affairs and author of its national an- 
them. See Becher. 1920. 

5. Published in 1923 by the Kestner-GesellschafI in Hannover 
as the fourth in their famous graphic series, following works 
by El Lissitzky. Schmidt-Rottluff, and Max Kaus. III. Wieland 
Schmied, IVegbereiier zur modernen Kunst: 50 Jahre Kestner- 
Gesellschaft, Hannover: Fackeltrager Verlag, 1966, p. 297. 

6. In 1930, Schwichtenberg had participated in Valentiner's 
exhibition Modern German Art at The Harvard Society for 
Contemporar>" Art, Cambridge, Mass. (April-May). 


refuge in the Black Forest, mo\ing from place to place. 
At the beginning of this period she painted landscapes 
and, toward the end, still lifes of her immediate sur- 
roundings. Though mortally ill, she nonetheless in- 
vented a new graphic process. A few months after the 
end of the War, Martel Schwichtenberg died before 
reaching the age of fifty. She bequeathed her estate to 
Eva KJinger, a friend of many years, and to her hus- 
band." It then passed into the custody of the Schleswig- 
Holsteinisches Landesmuseum, which is still engaged 
in the scholarly investigation of it. The legacy, which 
has been augmented by the Klingers, is an important 

There are few sculptural works in Schwichtenberg's 
oeuvre. The catalog of her 1922 exhibition at the 
Galerie Ferdinand Moller in Berlin lists three wood re- 
liefs, in addition to twenty-five paintings, nineteen 
watercolors, and numerous drawings and graphics. 
The reliefs - Self-Portrait (cat. no. 130) and the two re- 
liefs entitled Pomeranian IFomen (figs. 1 and 2, 
p. 191) -are perhaps the artist's only works which may 
properly be considered sculpture, and even these are 
close to woodcuts in technique. Schwichtenberg had 
become familiar with the latter process at an early age, 
and she created a total of approximately forty wood- 
cuts. The Self-Portrait, part of the estate now owned by 
the Schleswig-Holsteinisches Landesmuseum, is the 
smallest of the three panels, each of which is carved 
from a thick wooden board and occasionally bright- 
ened with red color. Self-depictions play an important 
role in the artist's work, and the signature carved at 
the lower right seems to confirm that this is indeed a 
self-portrait.^ StylisUc considerations indicate that this 
work originated no later than 1920, when Schmidt- 
RottlufTs influence was not yet dominant, and the art- 
ist was still close to her collaborative work with 
Hoetger. The preservation of large planes, the concave 
differentiation of forms, and the occurrence of unex- 
pected ornamentalism are reminiscent of Hoetger's 
brick reliefs, in which he broke his Jugendstil ties and 
drew closer to Expressionism,'" a transition which in 
Schwichtenberg's case was less abrupt. The Pomer- 
anian Women reliefs, acquired in 1972 by the Altonaer 
Museum in Hamburg," were probably created later 
than the Self-Portrait. Published in 1921,'- they 
already revealed Schmidt-RottlufTs influence. The 
three reliefs are not necessarily related to each other; 
created for their own sake, they are intended as 
autonomous pictures which require individual 
frames. - G.W. 


7. Cf. Klinger, 1976, pp. 148ff. 

8. Cf. Schleswig-Holsteiniscties Landesmuseum, 1981, 
pp. 27fr. 

9. Ibid., pp. 180, 183. 

10. Cf. C. W. Uphoff, Bernhard Hoetger, Junge Kunst, vol. 3, 
Leipzig, 1919. 

ll.Knupp. 1972,p. 148. 

12. Wilhelm Niemeyer and Rosa Schapire, eds., Kiindung - 
eine Zeitscliriftjur Kunsl. sen 1, no. 9/10, September /October 



Cat. no. 130 

Self-Portrait (Selbstbildnis), 

c. 1920 

Painted wood relief 

35 X 32.5 cm. 

(13% X 12% in.) 


Landesmuseum, Schloss 

Gottorf in Schleswig 





Pomeranian Women (Pommern- 

frauen), c. 1921 

Oak relief, lightly tinted 

45 X 32.2 X 2 cm. 

(175/4x125/8X3/4 in.) 

Altonaer Museum in Hamburg 

Fig. 2 

Pomeranian Women (Pommern- 

Jrauen), c. 1921 

Fruitwood relief, lightly tinted 

43.5x30.5x2 cm. 


Altonaer Museum in Hamburg 



The works of Franz 
Seiwert, an important but 
little-known graphic artist, 
painter, and sculptor, 
clearly demonstrate the 
writer Ivan GoH's assertion 
that Expressionism was 
not "the name of an artistic 
form but that of a belief, a 
Franz Seiwert conviction."' Seiwert was one of the most politically 

active of the Expressionists. A strong and faithful 
Born 1894 Cologne; Catholic who had attacked the church for failing to 

prevent the horrors of World War I, he belonged to a 
died 1933 Cologne. number of antiwar groups, particularly that centered 

around Franz Pfemfert and his journal DieAktion in 
Berlin. Later Seiwert became a member of the Anti- 
Nalionale Sozialisten Partei (Anti-National Socialist 
Party) and was a close friend of Ret Marut, the editor of 
the radical journal Der Ziegelbrenner (The Brick- 
maker). (Marut is better known as B. Traven, the nom 
de plume he adopted after his participation in the Mu- 
nich revolution and subsequent flight to Mexico.) 

Seiwert himself wrote a great number of articles for 
various political and artistic journals, and like so many 
"second-generation" Expressionists, he demanded a 
new didactic art capable of communicating its mes- 
sage to the masses. He opposed the self-glorification of 
artists; gallery promotions; aesthetic criticism; and the 
practices of the art trade in general. With a group of 
friends he formed the Gruppe Progressiver Riinstler 
(Group of Progressive Artists) in the early twenties, 
and in 1929 he became cofounder and editor of the 
radical journal a-z, which existed until 1933. His 
political activities were uniformly pacifist and social- 
ist, based upon his strong religious convictions. 

Seiwert studied at the school of the Rautenstrauch- 
Joest-Museum in Cologne from 1913 to 1915, and he 
worked for an architect prior to beginning indepen- 
dent work as an artist in 1916. His earliest works were 
graphics (wood and linoleum cuts), many of which 
were published in DieAktion. From 1917 to 1919, he 
published a number of woodcut portfolios, the first of 
which consisted of seven works appearing under the 
title Sieben Klcinge zum Evangelium Johannis (Seven 
Sounds for the Gospel of John). These early graphics 
do not differ greatly in form from the idiom prevalent 
in most contemporary Expressionist journals. 

When Seiwert began to paint around 1919, he 
quickly developed a very different style. He abbre- 
viated the human form into a deindividualized, static 
type. Faces became masklike, bodies flat and stylized, 
and space was indicated by the overlapping of forms. 
Most, if not all, of Seiwert's paintings express his 
strong social concerns. It was only logical that he 
would ultimately extend this same formal canon to his 
graphics, and the power of these hinnan hieroglyphs 
became even more obvious when he employed them 
in advertising and exhibition design. During this same 

1. Ivan GoU in an article on ttie "death" of Expressionism writ- 
ten for the Yugoslavian journal Zenit, vol. 1, no. 8, 1921, 
p. 9. 

period, Seiwert also painted a number of abstract com- 
positions which retain his characteristic orderly, 
nearly geometric approach. 

Seiwert was acquainted with many artists during his 
lifetime, among them Max Ernst. This friendship 
faded in 1919, however, when Seiwert recognized that 
the Cologne Dadaist did not share his social concerns. 
In contrast, the friendships he formed with the painter 
Heinrich Hoerle and with Freundlich, both of whom 
shared his political and social convictions, were espe- 
cially important to him. It was undoubtedly Freundlich 
who encouraged Seiwert to begin to sculpt, and many 
of Seiwert's three-dimensional works were made dur- 
ing PYeundlich's stay in Cologne. Seiwert, in turn, in- 
fluenced several younger artists, among them Gerd 
Arntz and August Tschinkel, who later transformed 
Seiwert's painting style into the graphic forms 
employed to develop the first successful visual pre- 
sentation of statistics (known as the Vienna Method of 
Pictorial Statistics). 

Seiwert's sculptural work is unique in his oeuvre for 
its relative lack of political content. Constantly chang- 
ing his approach to the three-dimensional form, 
Seiwert made approximately sixty sculptures, mostly 
in a small format. Few of them are extant, and very few 
can be securely dated. These works consist of highly 
imaginative heads, a few figures characterized by 
strongly expressive gestures, and some Constructivist 
compositions. The small Head of Christ (cat. no. 131) 
conveys an expression of suffering which seems due 
in part to the artist's obvious struggle with the clay 
medium. The head is tilted to the right; the face is 
elongated, and this elongation is accentuated by the 
wavy forms of the hair and beard. The crown is icono- 
graphically indistinct, but it enhances the dignity of 
the head. It is well known that Seiwert was deeply 
moved by the Medieval sculpture found in many Co- 
logne churches, and the angle of this particular head 
recalls that often seen in Medieval sculptures of saints, 
where it was used to indicate mourning or suffering. 

The Caller I oi 1919 (cat. no. 132) is one of Seiwert's 
few sculptures dominated by a single, strong gesture. 
Leaning slightly backward, the figure has cupped his 
hands around his mouth to give additional volume to 
his call. Convenfionally dressed in trousers and jacket, 
he was assigned no indication of social status, and the 
extremely abbreviated facial features make his age dif- 
ficult to ascertain. His legs are placed slightly apart, 
emphasizing the urgency of his call. This increases the 
symbolic import of this sculpture, which suggests a 
rallying cry addressed to the Expressionists during 
this period of revolution. 

Seiwert's friendship with Freundlich and the 
encouragement of the older and more experienced 
sculptor undoubtedly influenced the Head of about 
1919 (cat. no. 133). Its form is related to Freundlich's 
masks of 1909-12. The elongated and slightly undulat- 
ing head is an extreme abbreviation and has roots in 
the ancient or ethnographic art which stimulated 
younger artists at this time. The nose ridge recalls 
Cycladic sculpture, joining the two deep hollows of the 


eyes and ending in a tight, small mouth. The Head is a 
hierarchic, haunting image of man's confrontation 
with hfe; its abstraction prevents any precise defmi- 
tion of underlying emotions. It shows a greater mas- 
ter>' of the medium and a far more advanced sense of 
three-dimensionality than is seen in the Head of 

The Large Head with Open Mouth (cat. no. 134) ap- 
pears as a further step toward a concept of "man" 
which is so abstract that the head alone is capable of 
representing his very being. Here the open mouth 
evokes less a cry of strength and urgency (cf. The 
Caller I) than one of pain and suffering. Contrary to 
the hierarchic and meditative Head, this work articu- 
lates the theme of man's vulnerability introduced by 
the earlier Head of Christ. 

Only a photograph of the plaster model of the sculp- 
ture entitled ffbr/cer of about 1925 (Bohnen, 393, 394) 
remains. (.\ variation of the same figure is extant, how- 
ever, as a wooden replica in the collection of Professor 
Kubicki, Berlin.) In this sculpture, Seiwert most 
closely approximated a three-dimensional translation 
of the figures seen in his paintings. The degree of 
stylization permits the viewer to describe the work as 
an idol. Another sculpture meriting special attention is 
Seiwert's memorial for his mother (stone, 1929, 
Nordfriedhof Roln; Bohnen, 397). Based on Brancusi's 
famous Kiss for the grave of Tanosa Gassevskaia 
(1910, Cimetiere Montparnasse, Paris), Seiwert's 
sculpture modified its source into a flat relief which 
articulates his concern with geometric order 

Within the development of Expressionist sculpture, 
Seiwert's works are important examples of the 
continuous effort made by a very talented artist to per- 
fect an additional medium of expression. Seiwert was 
occupied with sculpture for only a limited period dur- 
ing his artistic career, the years between 1916 and 
approximately 1926 (the aforementioned memorial of 
1929 is an exception, but Seiwert only made the model 
for this work and left the execution to a stonemason). 
These plastic works as a whole are of less significance 
as Expressionist accomplishments than as examples 
of Seiwert's search for new forms. 

Seiwert died in 1933 of an X-ray burn, which he had 
sustained at the age of seven and suffered from all his 
life. His death came just before the Nazis could destroy 
his work and, in all probability, the artist himself. 
- P.W.G. 







Head ofChiist (ChristuskopJ), 

c. 1916-17 


h: 27 cm. (10% in.) 

Museum Ludwig, Cologne 

Bohnen, 342 132 

The Caller I (Der Rufer I), 1919 


h: 42 cm. (16'/2 in.) 

Museum Ludwig, Cologne 

Bohnen, 352 

Two versions in fired clay exist in 
German private collections. The 
Caller IKDer Rufer II). fired clay 
(Bohnen, 353), is lost. 

Cat. no. 133 

Head(Kopf), c. 1919 
Plaster (Gips), painted 
h: 35.5 cm. (14 in.) 
Kamiel and Nancy Schreiner, 
Amsterdam, The Netherlands 
Bohnen, 357 134 

Large Head with Open Mouth 

(Grosser Kopf mil offenem 

Mund). c. 1920 

Fired and stained clay 

38 X 18 X 18 cm. 

(15x7x7 in.) 

Private Collection, Cologne 

Bohnen, 369 





Renee Sintenis 

Born 1888 Glatz (Silesia); 

died 196S Berlin. 

In 1908, at age twenty, Re- 
nee Sintenis began her 
artistic training at the 
Kunstgewerbeschule in 
Berlin, where she studied 
portrait painting under 
Leo von Konig and then 
sculpture under Wilhehii 
Haverkamp. Early in her 
career she made sculpture her primary commitment 
and adopted a style and choice of motifs that were to 
become her trademark. The majority of her work is 
not Expressionist in character; there are many exam- 
ples of small, delicately modeled bronzes, often 
portraying young animals at play or at rest. Her sen- 
timental treatment of the leggy, often awkward, 
stances of such beasts brought her an invitation to 
exhibit in 1915 with the Berlin Secession. This oppor- 
tunity, no doubt, led her into association with impor- 
tant members of the Berlin art circle, including 
Barlach, Kolbe, Lehmbruck, and Ernesto de Fiori. Her 
early works won the acclaim of Rainer Maria Rilke. 
This famous poet, who had served as Rodin's secretary 
and been associated with the Worpswede artists' 
colony, became a patron to the young Sintenis and in- 
troduced her to important contemporary literary fig- 
ures. Her work excited a great deal of attention, and 
she was included in Alfred Hentzen's important pub- 
lication, Deutsche Bildhauer der Gegenwart of 1934,' 
as well as being represented in the seminal 1931 exhi- 
bition held at The Museum of Modern Art in New York 
- Modern German Painting and Sculpture. 

Sintenis' oeuvre of basically sentimental animal fig- 
ures was punctuated by her most important large- 
scale commission. Daphne (cat. no. 135), which marks 
an exceptional moment in her career. A small bronze 
maquette. Small Daphne, created over a decade ear- 
lier in 1918, served as its prototype. A continuing 
thread of interest in subjects from Greek mythology 
can be traced throughout Sintenis' career. Here the 
legend of Daphne, as related in Ovid's Metamorphoses, 
served as an inspiration. Desperate to escape Apollo's 
sexual advances, the virgin nymph Daphne invoked 
her father, Peneus, a river god, who transformed her 
into a laurel tree. 

No sooner had she finished this prayer then a deep 
lethargy seized her limbs, her tender breasts were 
covered over by a delicate bark, her hair grew out in 
leafy sprigs, her arms in branches, and her swiftly 
fleeing feet were held fast by sluggish roots.- 

In this work, Sintenis captured Daphne's transition 
from woman to tree. The attenuated body has begun to 
lose its human proportions. An extremely slender 
form has superseded any reference to human physical 
breadth. Knees, elbows, and breasts have become 

gnarled, and hair is represented by soaring, fiamelike 
leaves. The angular silhouette describes changes typi- 
cal of the direction and growth observed in a tree's 
trunk and branches; the woman's limbs no longer 
carry the promise of their anatomical function. (The 
Daphne legend had also inspired Lehmbruck's Female 
Torso of 1918 (cat. no. 95]. Lehmbruck's anatomical 
distortions, however, are even more pronounced than 
those of Sintenis.) 

Sintenis' Daphne was commissioned by Carl Georg 
Heise, director of the Museum fiir Runst und 
Kulturgeschichte, Liibeck, for the museum's sculp- 
ture garden. At the museum, the piece was installed in 
close proximity to a tree standing on the border of the 
neighboring property, in such a manner that the 
work's raised arms merged with the tree's upper 
branches. Four casts of the sculpture were made. The 
version at Liibeck was the only one in the edition to be 
gilded. A year after Sintenis created Daphne, Heise 
commented on the significance of the step she had 

The art of Sintenis has been called precious and 
there has been an attempt to confine her to the 
salon. But without losing any charm she here enters 
the demanding realm of "free sculpture" in a pre- 
sentation of a work of outwardly enlarged measure- 
ments - Daphne, two-thirds life-size. Thus she most 
conspicuously reveals her nature, which is not one 
of playful daintiness but of the true grace that arises 
from mature mastery.' 

In the remainder of her oeuvre, Sintenis con- 
centrated largely on male athletes and animal figures. 
Her Self-Portrait of 1933 (cat. no. 136), however, is 
another unusual example of her potential for expres- 
sion. The self-portrait was explored by a significant 
number of German Expressionist sculptors. Sintenis' 
treatment of the three-dimensional volume was radi- 
cal; she presented herself literally as a mask, as if the 
face had broken free from the head. The androgynous 
quality of the face and the attention to the signs of age 
conveyed in the mottled surface are Expressionist in 

Sintenis was nominated to the Berlin Academy in 
1947, where as a professor she enjoyed considerable 
popularity until 1955. She died in 1965 in Berlin, rela- 
tively forgotten after a decade of secluded retirement 

3. Heise, 1931, p. 72. 


1. Hentzen, 1934, pp. 60-62.* 


2. Satia and Robert Bernon, Myth and Religion in European 
Painting: 1200-1700. New York: George Braziller. 1973, p. 79. 




Cat. no. 135 

Daphne (Daphne), 1930 


h: 145 cm. (57 in.) 

a) The Museum of Modern Art, 
New York (Los Angeles and 
Washington only) 

b) Museum Ludwig, Cologne 
(Cologne only) 

A smaller bronze version, Small 
Daphne (Kteine Daphne), 1918, 
is 30 cm. (1 r/s in.) in iieight. 136 

Self-Portrait (Selbstbildnis), 

26.5 X 14.2 X 13.5 cm. 
(lOVsx 55/8x55/8 in.) 
The Robert Gore Rifkind Collec- 
tion, Beverly Hills, California 

A terracotta version is in the collec- 
tion of llic Leicestersliire Museums 
and .Art Galler>; England. 



Milly Steger 

Born 1881 Rheinsberg; 

died 1948 Berlin-Wannsee. 

Milly Steger studied sculp- 
ture with Carl Janssen in 
Diisseldorf, with Rolbe iu 
Berlin, and with Rodin and 
Maillol in Paris. Very early 
in her career, she received 
the support and recogni- 
tion of renowned art critics 
and museum directors 
such as Hans Hildebrandt, Alfred Ruhn, and Max 
Sauerlandt (see p. 51). This esteem was evoked pri- 
marily by her special gift for architectural sculpture. 
Karl Ernst Osthaus, the director of the Kolkwang 
Museum in Hagen and a promoter of the integration of 
modern art in public spaces, recognized the architec- 
tonic qualities of Steger's sculpture. Following Steger's 
participation in the Berlin Secession of 1910, he in- 
vited her to Hagen. There she became a member of 
the am Stirnband artists" colony, meeting congenial 
artists such as Jan Thorn-Prikker, who had revived the 
art of stained glass; the painters Christian Rohlfs and 
Emil Rudolf Weiss; and the architect and craftsman J. 
L. M. Lauweriks. At this time Steger created a number 
of decorative architectural sculptures for her own 
home, as well as for several public buildings. 

In 1911, the Hagen city building office commis- 
sioned four large, pillarlike, female stone figures for 
the newly opened municipal theater. The sculptures 
Steger created were not traditional; they emphasized 
structural elements. Cubist abstraction of form, and 
the substantive quality of the material. The citizens of 
Hagen rejected these works as immoral, and the ef- 
forts of the Berlin sculptor August Gaul, as well as 
those of museum directors Ludwig .lusti, Hans 
Swarzenski, and Hans Tschudi were required to 
appease the populace. (After they were damaged in 
World War II, the figures were repaired by Hagen 
sculptor Karl Niestrath.) Other commissions followed, 
among them two larger-than-life plaster (Gips) fig- 
ures which Steger designed for the niche next to the 
entrance of the Folkwang Museum. Due to the War, 
the sculptures could not be cast in bronze; today a sin- 
gle bronze head above the entrance testifies to this 
thwarted project. Through Osthaus' contacts, Steger 
was able to show her sculptures at a number of impor- 
tant International exhibitions both before and during 
World War 1, and in 1914, he succeeded in having her 
appointed Hagen's city sculptor. 

Of the few sculptures for public spaces which Steger 
made or designed between 1914 and 1918, only the 
Blacksmith of Hagen memorial design need be men- 
tioned. Ernst Ludwig Kirchner also entered the com- 
petition for this sculptural commission, but neither he 
nor Steger was selected the winner. This sculpture, as 
well as others, such as a panther for the city hall of 
Hagen, demonstrate the characteristic quality of 
Steger's modeling, which was determined by the 
tectonic conditions of architectural sculpture. In all 
phases of her work the influence of George Minne, 
whose sculpture was so visible at the Folkwang 
Museum (fig. 1, p. 157), remains unmistakably 

Not until Sieger's return to Berlin in 1918 did the 
blocklike compactness and static quality of her figures 
loosen under the influence of Expressionism. Steger 
now chose wood rather than stone as her material. 
The motion of her figures became freer, the rhythm 
more excited; dancelike, they often display extreme 
torsions (cf.Jephthah's Daughter, fig. 1, p. 199) and 
constant shifts of equilibrium. Alfred Ruhn has com- 
mented on Steger's expression of a polarity of psychic 
states: "The tendency on the one hand toward life, 
physicallty, affirmation of the senses, roundness, and 
the tactile, and on the other striving for desensual- 
ization, asceticism, a turning away from the physical: 
these are the two poles from whose antithesis the 
work of the artist creatively emerges."' By comparing 
Steger's Youth Risingjroin the Dead (cat. no. 138) with 
Winners Kneeling Figure (cat. no. 102), one may dis- 
cern how Steger incorporated such expressive values 
within the architectonic modeling of her figures 
through the use of flowing contours, contrasts of hori- 
zontal, vertical, and diagonal lines, and emphasized 
breaks at shoulder, waist, and knee. In contrast to the 
more stereotyped facial features of contemporary fig- 
ures by Hoetger, Emy Roeder, and Garbe, the dramati- 
cally enlarged eyes and open mouth of the Youth Ris- 
ing from the Dead are more expressively modeled. In 
Kneeling Youth and Two Girls (cat. no. 137), we see a 
similar Expressionist concentration on psychological 
characteristics, such as the inclination of the head and 
mimetic details. As in the earlier, architecturally re- 
lated figures, the interplay of body and garment is an 
important element which intensifies the composi- 
tion's expressiveness. 

Beginning in 1923, Steger returned to a more natu- 
ralistic style while retaining some Expressionist fea- 
tures, such as an inclination toward the decorative and 
the use of certain characteristic postures, for example, 
the crouching female figure. Because of this continu- 
ity, the styhstic boundaries of the sculptor's Expres- 
sionist phase, which may be said to fall roughly 
between 1918 and 1922, are not absolute. Steger's 
close contacts in the world of dance are documented 
in a number of portraits, such as those of the actresses 
Gertrud Eysoldt (executed in the 1930s) and Helene 
Thimig (c. 1924, bronze) and of the dancer Mary 
Wigman (c. 1920; destroyed). With the exception of 
Steger's architectural works in Hagen, only a few of 
her sculptures survive. Works by her can be found in 
the collections of the Rijksmuseum Kroller-Miiller, 
Otterlo; the Wilhelm-Lehmbruck-Museum der Stadt 
Duisburg; and the Nationalgalerie, Berlin. - J.H.v.W. 

l.Kuhn, 1923. 

198 137 

Kneeling Youth and Tlvo Girls 

(Kniender JCingling and zwel 

Mddchen), c. 1919-20 


99 X 26 X 48 cm. 

(39 X 10'/4X 18% in.) 

Private Collection 138 

youth Rising from the Dead 

(A ufers tehen des Jilngling), 

c. 1919-20 


h: 115 cm. (43 'A in.) 

Stadelsches Kiinstinstitut, 

Frankfurt am Main 


Fig. 1 

Jephlhah's Daughter (Jeptas 

Tochter), c. 1918 


Formerly Museum Folkwang, 

Essen; destroyed in 1944 



Christoph Voll 
Born 1897 Munich; 
died 1939 Karlsrulie. 

Cliristopli Voll was a mem- 
ber of the generation 
which inherited an Ex- 
pressionist legacy from the 
artists of Die Brijcke and 
Der Blaue Reiter. This sec- 
ond generation of Expres- 
sionists had to interrupt its 
studies to endure the First 
World War and in doing so not only lost four years, but 
returned home far more politically and socially ori- 
ented than its predecessors. 

It is still unknown why, after the death of his father, 
VoH's mother left her small child in an orphanage in 
Kotzing, Bavaria. Only in Voll's earliest works can we 
perceive the influence of these inflexible and depress- 
ing surroundings. At age fourteen, Voll refused to 
accept religious training and was instead apprenticed 
to a stonemason in Dresden. The War interrupted this 
training, and he served from 1917 on, largely at the 
front line. Interestingly, this experience was rarely 
interpreted in his work. When the War ended, Voll re- 
turned to Dresden where he attended the Kunst- 
gewerbeschule for a short time and then entered the 
Kunstakademie to study for three years (1919-22). 

There was never any question as to whether Voll 
would become a sculptor. He initially worked in hard- 
wood, literally hacking out figures of nuns with small 
children. Typical of this period are sculptures such as 
Children's Funeral (cat. no. 144) and Blind Man with a 
Boy (c. 1925-26, oak, Staatliche Kunsthalle, Karls- 
ruhe). Concerning the latter sculpture, Voll stated that 
the child would feel the blind man's hand on his head 
even if he lived to be seventy years old. All these sculp- 
tures were based on memories of the artist's youth and 
convey the loneliness and frightening isolation of chil- 
dren among adults. The strength of the rough wood 
surface contrasts with, and thus accentuates, the fig- 
ure's vulnerability. 

Voll's many drawings were generally ideas for sculp- 
tures and usually placed the figure in an undefined 
space. His earhest woodcuts show a dependency upon 
the forms used by the young artists of the Sezession: 
Gruppe 1919 in Dresden. This group included, among 
others, Felixmiiller, Forster, Otto Dix, Eugen Hoff- 
mann, and Lasar Segall and provided an opportunity 
for them to interact with poets and writers. All of these 
artists were convinced of the new art's potential to 
make men better by confronting them with images of 
inner truth and human misery, which would in turn 
bring about radical changes in society. 

No work catalogue exists for Voll, but it is likely that 
his graphics were done primarily between 1919 and 
1924, since some of them were shown at his first large 
exhibition at the Dresden gallery of Emil Richter in 
April 1922. Others were shown in the 1924 exhibition 
of the Sezession: Gruppe 1919. He also created water- 
colors whose sketchlike freshness, simplicity of com- 
position, and use of limited colors handled with a 
broad brush make them remarkable complements to 
the sculpture, drawings, and graphics. Voll's use of 

bold, bright colors derives from the Briicke artists and 
other Expressionists, but the blocklike treatment of 
the figures is very much his own; see The Family of 
about 1922 (cat. no. 139). In confronting the viewer 
with this fused image of three family members, he em- 
phasized the inherent strength of a tightly interlocked 

The Family may depict the same models seen in two 
of the early wood sculptures, Male Worker with Child 
(cat. no. 140) and Worker's Wife with Child (cat. no. 
141). In the former, the man wears the typical worker's 
cap and carries a small container in his hand. Consid- 
ering the period in which the sculpture was made, this 
may indicate that he was going to receive the bread 
and milk distributed daily by the Hoover-Speisung, the 
food program for children initiated by President Hoo- 
ver. The latter sculpture, Worker's Wife with Child, 
makes a clear political statement. Although the body of 
this middle-aged woman looks strong, her hanging 
breasts and protruding belly beneath her simple dress 
reveal a past of hunger and need. The artists of the 
Sezession: Gruppe 1919 wanted to agitate to change a 
society which remained unmoved by such examples of 
miseiy While both of these works suggest a narrative, 
they are also examples of a consummate artist's ability 
to make highly abbreviated statues approximate real- 
ism and simultaneously to express the inner state of 

The Beggar (cat. no. 143) parallels the works of such 
artists as Otto Dix, whom Voll knew well in Dresden, 
and George Grosz. Crippled war veterans, such as the 
one depicted in this sculpture, were frequently forced 
to resort to begging or attempting to sell shoelaces or 
matches on the streets. Voll made use of all the avail- 
able Expressionist devices in order to heighten the im- 
pact of this work. The base retains the form of the 
original tree trunk and the surfaces remain rough. 
The indistinct but rather primitive features of the fig- 
ure, the slightly open mouth with thick lips, the broad 
nose, and the worker's cap pulled down over the fore- 
head make this image that of a "typical" proletarian. 
The human and helpless gesture of this cripple, how- 
ever, displays Voll's full commitment to the Expres- 
sionist call for a humanization of society. In all the 
preparatory drawings for this beggar (see cat. no. 
142), the figure retains its outstretched hands. 

In Children's Funeral (cat. no. 144), the strong but 
wrinkled face of the man forms the top of a nearly 
pyraiTiidal structure. His deep-set eyes and straight 
moustache, accentuating closed but well-formed lips, 
create a rather nondramatic appearance. Until one 
recognizes that he carries the coffin of a child under 
his arm, the sculpture seems confusing in its forms. 
The smaller nuns lack all dramatic impact; the group 
of children has been placed at the front. Hardly more 
than sketches, these children move forward with 
folded hands, probably singing a hymn, as if to em- 
phasize that what takes place behind them is beyond 
their understanding. Yet they can also be read as rec- 
ognizing their own fate reflected in this experience. 

In October of 1923, Voll obtained a job teaching at 


the art school in Saarbriicken. By this time he had 
married and had a daughter, and for the first time, he 
was able to count on a regular salai^. Although he 
continued to work in wood, he also began to use more 
expensive materials, such as stone, and to work on a 
larger scale. His exclusive prior use of wood may 
therefore have been at least partially motivated by 
economics. With the change in location from Dresden 
to Saarbriicken, the orphanage subjects began to fade 
and a new, more realistic style became apparent. 

In Nude with Drapery (cat. no. 145), the direction of 
German Expressionist sculpture became obvious: 
details were regarded as disruptive to the perception 
ofform as an elucidation of a state of mind. It was from 
this image that Voll's large, warm, expansive, and fre- 
quently idealized female statues developed. 

Nude, Ecce Homo (cat. no. 146), a life-size depiction 
of pain, age, and sadness, is an outstanding example of 
German Expressionist sculpture. The figure bends 
fonvard with closed eyes, one hand held out as if ask- 
ing for a gift. Despite his wrinkled, aged body we sense 
that this man was once strong. As a number of 
preparatory studies indicate. Vol] was inspired by the 
figure of a beggar whom he saw frequently in Saar- 
briicken. But the sculplme is far from being a realistic 
depiction of this man. Usually interpretations of the 
Ecce Homo theme - Christ standing before Pilate - 
depict an individual confronting a crowd. This figure, 
though alone, makes its plea so emoUonally that no 
viewer can escape its directness. The gift which the 
empty hand requests is not material. Voll has used 
distortion to dramatize the image, so that not only the 
hands perform the important gesture, but the whole 
figure of the nude man has become one moving accu- 
sation of mankind. 

The Saarbriicken community was not extremely 
supportive of Voll, but he did obtain a commission for a 
mother and child for the facade of the savings associ- 
ation there (1927, bronze). This work quite obviously 
took the taste of the commissioners into account. In 
the same year, however, Voll exhibited in Berlin at the 
J.B. Neumann Galerie and at Galerie Nierendorf, 
receiving fine reviews of his more Expressionist 
works. The year after, he won the prize for sculpture at 
the exhibition of the Akademie der Kiinste in Berlin. 
On the basis of this recognition and his reputation as a 
creative and successful teacher, Voll was named 
Professor of Sculpture of the Karlsruhe Runstaka- 
demie. There he continued to work in hard stone 
(Carrara marble and both black and red Swedish gran- 
ite) on larger-than-life figures, primarily female ones. 
Many successful exhibitions followed. At an interna- 
tional sculpture exhibition in Zurich in 1931, Voll was 
represented by the sculpture .-1 IVorker (1926; lost) 
which, however, was defaced. Voll was a tireless artist 
and according to his daughter completed approxi- 
mately 140 large and small sculptures and a very large 
number of drawings, graphics, and walercolors - all in 
a lifespan of forty-two years. 

When the Nazis began to enforce their "ideas" of 
art, Voll was immediately dismissed from his teaching 

position. The director of the Nalionalgalerie in Berhn, 
Dr. Alois Schardt, borrowed a black granite statue. Eve 
(1933), for an important planned exhibition of modern 
German art, but the Nazis prevented the show from 
opening. Furthermore, Voll's works were represented 
in the Enlarletc Kunst exhibition and catalogue of 1937 
(seefig. 8, p. 17). 

As with so many other German Expressionists of his 
generation, Voll's works fall into two clearly delineated 
periods: the Expressionist period, which lasted until 
about 1924-25, and a second, more classical or realis- 
tic period. In his last international exhibifion at the 
Kunsthaus Ziirich in 1937, his nine sculptures and sev- 
enteen drawings were shown next to works by Karl 
Albiker, Wilhelm Gerstel, Kolbe, Marcks, and Otto 
Schiessler. In short, Voll was rightfully considered one 
of Germany's important sculptors. The fact that so 
many of Voll's works survive is due to a circumstance 
almost accidental in nature. Edvard Munch, the great 
Norwegian artist, had backed an exhibition of Voll's 
work in Scandinavia. By the time the Nazis had prohib- 
ited this exhibition, the sculptures were already in 
Denmark and were hidden there during the War. Since 
that time, Voll's widow and daughter have seen to it 
that the works were returned to Germany, and some of 
them have found their way to the United States. 
- P.W.G. 





Voll in his Dresden studio, 1924. 



142 139 

The Family (Familie), c. 1922 
Watercolor on paper 
45.2 X 34.5 cm. 
(17'/. X nVain.) 
Karen Veil 

This watercolor may depict the 
models for 2 sculptures: Male 
Worker with Child (cat. no. 140) and 
llorker's lli/e with Child (cat. no. 

Cat. no. 140 

Male Worker ivith Child 

(Arbeiter mil Kind), c. 1922 


h:79cm. (31 'A in.) 

Janet and Marvin Fishman 141 

Worker's Wife with Child 

(Arbeiterfrau mil Kind), 1923 


h: 90 cm. (35% in.) 

Janet and Marvin Fishman 

Cat. no. 142 

Beggar (Bettler), c. 1923 
Ink on paper 
26 X 21 cm. 
Karen Veil 

This is one of several preparatory' 
drawings for the sculpture The Beg- 
gar (cat. no. 143). 143 

The Beggar (Der Bettler), c. 1923 


37 X 15 X 20 cm. 

(14% X 6 X 7'/, in.) 

Karen Voll 




Cat. no. 144 

Children's Funeral (Kinder- 
begrdbnis), c. 1923 
Moor oak 
38x30x51 cm. 
(15 X Iiy4x20in.) 
Stadtische Museen Heilbronn 
(Cologne only) 

This sculpture was exhibited in 1960 
at Lenbachhaus, Munich, under the 
title Burial of an Orphan (Begrdbnis 
eines llaisenkindes). 

Cat. no. 145 

Nude with Drapery (Akt mil 

TUch), c. 1924 


45 X 18 X 18 cm. 

(173/4 X TVs X 7'/8 in.) 

Karen Voll 

Cat. no. 146 

Nude, Ecce Homo (Akt, Ecce 
Homo), 1924-25 

164.5 X 37.5 X 50 cm. 
(64% X 14% X 195/8 in.) 
The Robert Gore Rifkind Collec- 
tion, Beverly Hills, California 

Signed loll on base at 1. 








William Wauer 

Born 1866 Oberwiesenthal 


died 1962 Berlin. 

William Wauer was an 
exceptional artist of the 
Expressionist era, a man of 
versatile talents who 
worked both indepen- 
dently and in association 
with the leading cultural 
groups of his time. His 
studies at the Dresden, 
Berlin, and Munich Kunstakademien from 1884 to 
1887 were followed by nearly two years of study in the 
United States, providing the basis for his pursuit of a 
degree in art history at the University of Leipzig. In 
1896, however, rather than taking his examinations, 
he spent a year in Rome copying works by the Old Mas- 
ters. Two years later, in 1899, he became the editor of 
the innovative, but short-lived, Berlin magazine 
Quickborn (Fountain of Youth). Around 1900, Wauer 
worked for the popular magazine Die IVoche (The 
Week) and later became an advertising consultant for a 
number of large firms. He then moved to Dresden, 
continued his advertising activities, founded a weekly 
magazine, Dresdner Gesellschaft (Dresden Society), 
and earned his livelihood primarily as a theater critic. 

In 1905, Wauer returned to Berlin and worked for a 
short time for the important theater director Max 
Reinhardt until joining forces with the Hebbel Theater 
and finally becoming the director of the KJeines The- 
ater. Then, in 1911, he changed careers again and 
became active in the young film industry. He gained a 
reputation as a director and produced all of the films 
starring the great German actor Albert Bassermann. 

While still immersed in the film world, he attended 
the 1912 Italian Futurist exhibifion at Herwarth 
Walden's Galerie Der Sturm. Wauer, who had always 
painted as a hobby, was so impressed by the exhibit 
that he decided to dedicate himself to the \'isual arts. 
In March of 1918, he exhibited some of his painfings at 
the Galerie Der Sturm and in March of 1919 had his 
only one-man exhibition there. He became a close 
associate of Walden and published graphic works in 
the periodical Der Sturm, as well as a number of theo- 
retical and combative articles about the "new" art - 
Expressionism. Walden was so impressed by Wauer's 
pantomime play. Die vier Toten von Viametta (The Four 
Dead from Viametta), that he wrote the music for it. 
The play was performed on October 12, 1920, in Dres- 
den with very limited success and once more in the 
Uberbrettl, a Berlin cabaret. Throughout these years 
Wauer moved through the "Expressionist scene" with 
great vitality and inventiveness. 

In 1924, however. Expressionism began to suffer 
from a change in public taste and interest. When the 
artistic circles surrounding Walden and Der Sturm 
began to dissolve, Wauer tried to stem the dissolution 
by founding and becoming the president of the 
Internationale Vereinigung der Expressionisten, 
Kubisten, Futuristen und Konstruktivisten (Interna- 
tional Organization of Expressionists, Cubists, Futur- 
ists, and Constructivists), later called Die Abstrakten 
(The Abstractionists). The group was prohibited in 

1933, and it was inevitable that the Nazis would not 
permit Wauer to continue his work. For a while he 
seemed willing to accept Nazi aesthetics but soon re- 
ahzed that this went against his better judgment. He 
survived the Nazi period with the help of friends and 
his wife, and after the War he began to paint and 
exhibit again. 

Wauer's close friend and associate Lothar Schreyer, 
who was director of the Sturm Theater, declared that 
"the rhythmic line (Boccioni) and the rhythmic plane 
(Archipenko) are united for the first time in the sculp- 
tural work of the German William Wauer."' Although 
this was certainly an overstatement, it is striking that, 
especially in Berlin, Wauer's sculptures have been 
nearly forgotten. His work is somewhat problematic 
for art historians, since he frequently used the idioms 
of other artists, and a work catalogue does not yet 
exist. Some of his pieces, however, have certainly viith- 
stood the test of time, among them the 1919-21 por- 
trait busts of Wauer's friends within the Sturm circle - 
intriguing attempts to incorporate Cubist planes 
within three-dimensional Expressionist forms. The 
bust of Herwarth Walden (cat. no. 147) was the first of 
this group. The head is set on an elongated neck that 
curves in a slight diagonal and is surrounded by styl- 
ized hair which gives the impression of an Egyptian 
crown. Walden's deep-set eyes, the prominent planes 
of his cheeks, his sensitively molded mouth, and 
strong nose and eyebrows are all clearly recognizable 
(see fig. 1, p. 207). The likeness to the model is surpris- 
ing when one takes into account the fact that the 
sculptor isolated Walden's characteristic features and 
reassembled them in puzzlelike fashion. Nearly a pen- 
dant to this work is the bust of the actor Albert 
Bassermann (cat. no. 148). 

The head of Rudolf Blumner (cat. no. 149) is tilted 
slightly backward, with closed eyes and sharp lines 
connecting the nose and open mouth. Such a pose 
would have been characteristic of Bliimner, who was a 
famous reader of Expressionist poetry and prose 
within the Sturm circle. A close friend of Nell and 
Herwarth Walden and of Wauer, Blumner published 
many theoretical essays on contemporary art. 

Wauer's artworks, arranged chronologically, 
together with manuscripts of his numerous radio pro- 
grams, his articles on the theater, and his theater 
designs give a clear impression of the trends within 
post-World-War-I German Expressionism and await 
further exploration. - P.W.G. 

1. Lothar Schreyer, "Die neue Kunst," Z3er S(urm, vol. 10, 
1919-20, p. 104. 


Fig. 1 

Herwarth Walden with his por- 
trait by Wauer (cat. no. 147). 






WAUER 147 

Herwarth Walden, 1917/cast 

after 1945 


h:53 cm. (20% in.) 

Tabachnick Collection, Toronto 

Verj' few casts of Wauer's sculptures 
were made between 1917 and 1928. 
This piece was cast by Fiissel, Ber- 
lin, after World War II but during 
Wauer's lifetime. Seven casts in- 
scribed with Roman numerals (and 
one hors du commerce) are known. 

Cat. no. 148 

Albert Bassermann, 1918/cast 

between 1945 and 1962 


51.1 X 18.7 X 19 cm. 


The Robert Gore Rifkind 

Foundation, Beverly Hills, 


\nscT\he A Albert Bassermann on f of 
pedestal neck; //C /-/// on inside of 
neck; and W.JK on r. of pedestal. One 
of 3 casts with Roman numerals, 
made for Mrs. Wauer, done by W. 
Fiissel. Berlin, after World War II but 
during the artist's lifetime. Another 
edition of 7 examples with Aj'abic 
numerals and one stamped addition- 
ally HC. exist. 

Cat. no. 149 

Rudolf Blumner. 1919 


h: 55 cm. (215/8 in.) 

Berlinische Galerie, Berlin 

Inscribed Rudolf Blumner on f of 
pedestal neck. Seven casts (and one 
hors du commerce) are known. 




Ossip Zadkine 

Born 1890 Vitebsk, Russia: > 

died 1367 Paris, France. 

Ossip Zadkine is among 
thai group of Russian art- 
ists - including Marc 
Chagall, VVassily Kan- 
dinsky, and Archipenko, to 
name only a few - who, 
after emigrating to Europe, 
changed the direction of 
modern art. In 1910, fol- 
lowing a substantial but frequently interrupted period 
spent studying sculpture in England and France, 
Zadkine settled in Paris. His considerable oeuvre con- 
tains over two hundred works displaying a continually 
changing approach to the human figure. Influences 
visible in his sculpture include sources as diverse as 
Russian icons and African and Oceanic art; contem- 
porary parallels may be found in the works of such art- 
ists as Derain, Brancusi, and Picasso. The variety evi- 
dent in Zadkine's work makes it impossible to classify 
him underany of the popular rubrics of twentieth-cen- 
tury sculpture. 

The artist first made his mark in 1911, when he 
exhibited at the ninth Salun d'Automne in Paris along 
with his friends Lehmbruck, Raymond Duchamp-Vil- 
lon, and Archipenko. His early works show a romantic 
and refined tendency, which was altered by the impact 
of the First World War, during which he served in the 
French army. After the War an obvious change took 
place in his art which might be described as an 
increased sensitivity to his material, accompanied by a 
greater receptivity to Cubism. While Zadkine cannot 
be called an Expressionist, his works executed 
between 1914 and 1918 reveal the formal concerns of 
Expressionism, such as elongations and deformations 
of the human figure and emphatic stylization of the 
human face. The work included in this exhibition. The 
Prophet (cat. no. 150), retains the form of the original 
tree; the attenuated figure leans slightly backward. 
The head with its indistinct crown resembles Zad- 
kine's earlier sculptures in its nearly masklike form. 
The Prophet at first sight gives the impression of an Af- 
rican fetish. It has also been compared to Russian 
Lechii idols and the Baba sculptures of southern Rus- 
sia, as well as Gauguin's sculptures, which Zadkine 
could have seen in Paris. Zadkine himself recognized 
the importance of the "primitivism" so widespread in 
Europe at this time. In an article written about a 1919 
Paris exhibition of African art organized by Paul 
Guillaume, Zadkine stated that the African sculptor 
was "a priest" whose admirable desire was to create 
"the image, the icon."^ Regardless of all its possible 
sources of influence, Zadkine's Prophet is one of his 
outstanding "Expressionist" works, conveying a spiri- 
tuality rarely found in French sculpture of this peiiod. 

Ossip Zadkine was greatly respected and admired 
during the years between the wars; his many public 


1. After 1914 Zadkine stated that lie tiad been born in Smo- 
lensk, Russia, where his parents tiad moved later, in fact. 

2. Ossip Zadkine, "Un exposition d'art negre," Sic, vol. 4, nos. 

commissions and his participation in important Eu- 
ropean and American exhibitions made his works well 
known. At the great Musee des Beaux Arts exhibition 
in Brussels in 1933, which occurred at the same time 
as the incipient Nazi suppression of modern art in 
Germany, Zadkine exhibited 139 sculptures and 47 
gouaches. During the German occupation of France, 
he found refuge in the United States. He taught at the 
Art Students' League in New York and exhibited at the 
Wildenstein Gallery. In 1945, he returned to Paris and 
taught sculpture at the Academic de la Grande 
Chaumiere, and in 1949, the Musee Nafional d'Art 
Moderne, Paris, presented a comprehensive exhibi- 
tion of his works. Among his most famous later sculp- 
tures is the large figurative piece The Destroyed City 
(1946-53, bronze), which stands at the harbor of 
Rotterdam in the Netheiiands. - P.W.G. 



tri 150 

The Prophet (Le Prophete), 

219x31 x26cm. 
(86'/. X 12V4X lO'Ain.) 
Musee de Peinture et de Sculp- 
ture, Grenoble 
Jianou, 14 

Inscribed Zadkine 1914 on base, 1. 1. 
The date of this sculpture is debated. 
Whiie the signature on the base 
states 1914, de Ridder has dated it 
1918; the Jianou oeuvxe catalogue 
lists it as 1914; and Raynal's mono- 
graph lists the date as 1917. 




General Bibliography 

Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, 
Gauguin to Moore: PrimitivLsm in 
Modern Sculpture, exh. cat., 1981. 

Schmidt-RottlulTand lUrchner were 
included in this exhibition. 

Sarah Campbell BlalTer Gallery, 1 Ions- 
ton, Deutsclier Expressionismus: Ger- 
man Expressionism: Toivard a New 
Humanism, by Peter Guenther, exh. 
cat., 1977. 

Brattskoven, Otto, "Holzbildvverke der 
Get^enwarl^' Kunst derZeit. vol. 1, no. 
10/11, ,luly-Augtist 1930, pp. 238-4.5. 

Briicke-Museum, Berlin, Katalog der 
Genmlde, Glas/enster and Skutpturen, 
Berlin: Briicke-Museum, 1971. 

Buchheiin, Lothar Giinther, Die 
Kiinstlergemeinschajt Briicke, 
Feldafing: Buchheim Verlag, 1956. 

Brief section on sculpture. 

Daubler, Theodor, "Gela Forster," Neue 
Blatter ^fiir Kunst und Dichtung, vol. 2, 
June 1919, pp. 51-53. (Reprinted in: 
Daubler, Theodor, Dichtungen und 
Schrifien, Munich: Kosel-Verlag, 

Included in translation in this cata- 
logue, pp. 30-33. 

Dube, Wolf-Dieler, Expressionism, Lon- 
don: Thames and Hudson, 1972. 

Einstein, Carl, Negerplastik. Munich: 
Kurt Wolff, [1915]. 

Excerpt (pp. 251-61) included in 
translation in this catalogue, 
pp. 34-36. 

, Pf'erke, ed. Rolf-Peter Baacke and 

.lens Kwasny, vol. 1, I90S-I9IK. Ber- 
lin: Medusa, 1980. 

Elsen, Albert E., Modern European 
Sculpture 191 S -1945: Unknown Be- 
ings and Other Realities. New York: 
George Braziller, 1979. 

, Origins of Modern Sculpture: Pio- 
neers and Premises, New York: George 
Braziller, 1974. 

Discussion of Barlach, Lehmbruck, 
and several other Expressionists. 

Ettlinger, L. D., "German Expression- 
ism and Primitive Art," Burlington 
Magazine (London), vol. 110, no. 781, 
April 1968, pp. 191-201. 
Particular emphasis on the accom- 
plishments of the Briicke artists. 

Franzke, Andreas, Skulpturen und 
Objekle von Malern des 20. 
Jahrhunderts, Cologne: DuMont 
Buchverlag, 1982. 

Discussion of Beckmann, Otto Dix, 
Rirchner, Schmidt-Rottluff, Kollvvitz, 
and others. Brief bibliographies. 

Fuchs, llcinz R., Plastik der Gcgenicart, 
Baden-Baden: llolle Verlag, 1970. 

Galleria del Levante, Miuiich, Dresdener 
Sezession: 1919-1923. exh. cat., 1977. 

Essays by Fritz Liiffler, Emilio 
Bertonati, and Joachim Heusinger 
von Waldegg. Excellent reproductions 
of original documents, illustrations of 
lost works, and biographies. 

Giedion-Welcker, Carola, Contemporary 
Sculpture:. 'In Evolution in I blume and 
Space, rev. ed.. New York: G. Willen- 
born, 1961. (Also published in Ger- 
man: Plastik des XX. Jahrhunderts: 
Volumen und Raumgestaltimg, Stutt- 
gart: Verlag Gerd Hatje, 1955.) 

Goldwater, Robert, Primitivisin in Mod- 
ern. Art. rev. ed.. New York: Vintage 
Books. 1967. 

Originally published in 1938. Includes 
important chapters on primitivism, 
Die Briicke, and Der Blaue Reiten 

Grohmann, Will, Zwischen den beidcn 
Kriegen II: Bildende KunsI und 
.irchitektur, Berlin: Suhrkamp Verlag, 

Discussion of Barlach and Lehm- 

Grzimek, Waldemar, Deutsche Bildhauer 
des Zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts: Leben, 
Schulen, IVirkungen. Munich: Heinz 
Moos Verlag, 1969. 

With chapters on Barlach. Knibe, 
Freundlich, Karl Albiker, Lehmbruck, 
Belling, Marcks, and Karsch. 

[Guenther, Peter, see Sarah Campbell 
Bluffer Galleiy] 

Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New 
York, Expressionism: .i German In- 
tuition 1905-1920, exh. cat., 1980. 
(Also published in German: Oeutscher 
Expressionismus 1905-1920. ed. Paul 
Vogt, Munich: Prestel Verlag, 1981.) 

Essays by Wolf-Dieter Dube, llorst 
Keller, Eberhard Roters, Martin 
Urban, and Paul Vogt. 

Hamilton, George Heard, Painting and 
Sculpture in Europe: 18S0-1940. 
Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin 
Books. 1967. 

Discussion of Barlach and Lehm- 

Haus der deiUschen Kunst, Munich, 
Entartete "Kunst". 4usstellungs/iihrer, 
exh. cat., Berlin: Verlag fiir Kullur und 
Wirtschaftswerburg, 1937. 

Infamous exhibition mounted by the 
Nazis in order to condemn modern 
art as "degenerate." The show, which 
opened in Munich and traveled to sev- 
eral other German cities, included 
730 works of art prominently featured 
German Expressionists. A sculpture 

by Freimdlich was selected for the 
cover of the catalogue, which 
included illustrations of sculptures by 
Kirchncr, Schmidt-Roltlufl', VoU, 
Eugcn HolTman, and Richard 

Haus der Kunst, Munich, Die Dreissiger 
Jahre: Schauplatz Deutschland, 
exh. cat., 1977. 

Includes a chapter on sculpture by 
Giinter Aust. 

Heise, Carl Georg, "Der Kruzifixus von 
Gies," Genius, vol. 3, no. 2, 1921, 
pp. 198-202. 

Included in translation in this cata- 
logue, pp. 37^0. 

, ed.. Die Kunst des 20. 

Jahrhunderts. Munich: R. Piper & Co. 
Verlag. 1957. 

Includes a discussion of sculpture by 
Hans Platte. 

Henning. P. R.. Ton - Ein .\ii.fri{f. 
Kunsthaus Ziirich. 1917. (Reprinted: 
as the second pamphlet of the 
,'\rbeitsrat fiir Kunst in 1919; in 
Mitteilungen des Deutschen 
Hcrkbundes, vol. 5, 1919-20. pp. 141- 
44; in .-Irbeitsratjur Kunst 1918-1921, 
exh. cat., Berlin: Akademie der 
Kiinste, 1980, pp. 98-99.) 

Included in translation in this cata- 
logue, pp. 41—12. 

Hentzen, Alfred. Deutsche Bildhauer der 
Gegenwart. Berlin: Rembrandt Verlag, 

Important early discussion by the 
director of the Hamburger Kunst- 
halle. Includes many illustrations, 
although several are of non-Expres- 
siotiist works. 

Hentzen, Alfred, "Kunsthandwerkliche 
Arbeiten der deutschen Expressio- 
nisten und ihrer Nachfolger," in Fest- 
schri.ftfiir Erich Aider zum 60. 
Geburtstag 20.10. 1 95 7, Studien zu 
Werken in den Sammlungen fiir 
Kunst und Gewerbe in Hamburg, 
Hamburg: Museum fiir Kunst und 
Gewerbe, 1959, pp. 311-30. 

Extensive article discussing Barlach, 
Nolde, Kirchner, Schmidt-Rottluff. 
Heckcl, Franz Marc, August Macke, 
Marcks. and others. 

flofmaun. Werner, Die Plastik des 20. 
Jahrhunderts. Frankfurt am Main: 
Fischer Biicherei, 1958. 

KJiemann, Helga, Die Novembergruppe, 
Berlin: Gebr. Mann Veriag, 1969. 

Reproductions of original documents, 
together with biographies and 


Kuhn, Alfred, Die neuere Plastik: 
Achtzefinhundert bis zur Gegenwart, 
Munich: Delphin Verlag, 1921. 

Cites Garbe, Sieger, Herzog, 
Archipenko, Belling, and Wauer, in 
addition to Barlach, Lehmbruck, and 
the Briicke artists. 

Runstmuseum der Sozialistischen 
Republik. Deutsche Bildhauer 
1900-1933. exh. cat., Bucharest: 
Kunstmuseum der Sozialistischen 
Republik; Wilhelm-Lehmbruck- 
Museum derStadt Duisburg, 1976. 

Wilhelm-Lehmbruck-Museum der 
Sladt Duisburg, Hommage d 
Lehmbruck: Lehmbruck in seiner Zeit, 
exh. cat., 1981. 

With articles by Alfred Hentzen, 
Thomas Strauss, Margarita Lahusen, 
Karl-Egon Vester, Siegfried Salzmann. 
Includes discussions of Lehmbruck, 
.4rchipenko, Gutfreund, Rarl Albiker, 
Barlach, floetger. Kolbe, and Minne. 

Mijnchner Stadtmuseum, Die 
zwanziger Jahre in Miinchen, exh. 
cat., 1979. 

Sculpture section of exhibition cata- 
logue written by Gerhard Finckh, 
Helga SchmoU, and J. A. Schmoll 
(pseud. Eisenwerth). 

The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 
German Art of the Ih'cntieth Centurt: 
exh. cat., 1957. 

Contributions by Werner Haftmann 
(painting), Alfred Hentzen (sculp- 
ture), and William S. Liebermann 
(prints). Eleven of the thirty-nine 
artists in the exhibition were repre- 
sented by sculpture. 

, New York, Modern German Paint- 
ing and Sculpture, Intro, .\lfred H. 
Barr, exh. cat., 1931. 

Barr cites the achievements of Ger- 
man sculpture as among the most 
important in contemporary art. Of 
the 123 exhibited works, 54 were 

Myers, Bernard S., The German Expres- 
sionists: A Generation in Revolt, New 
York: Praeger, 1957. 

Osborn. Max, Der bunte Spiegel: 
Erinnerimgen aus dem Kunst-, Kultur- 
und Geistesleben derJahre 1890 bis 
1933, New York: B. F. Krause, 1945. 

Oslen, Cert von der, Plastik des 20. 
Jahrhunderts in Deutschland, 
Osterreich und der Schuviz, 
Konigslein im Taunus: H. Roster, 

Raabe, Paul, ed. Index Expressionismus: 
Bibliographic der Beitrdge in den 
Zeitscbriften und Jahrbiichern des 
literarischen Expressionismus 1910- 

1923, 18 vols., Nendein, Liech- 
tenstein: Rraus-Thomson, 1972. 

Vol. 5 indexes articles and illustra- 
tions of sculpture found in 106 Ger- 
man periodicals and yearbooks pub- 
lished between 1910 and 1925. 

ed.. The Era of German Expres- 
sionism, Woodstock, N.Y.: The Over- 
look Press, 1974. 

Reinhardt, Georg, "Die friihe Briicke," 
Briicke-Archin (Berlin: Briicke- 
Museum), vol. 9/10, 1977/78. 

[Rifkind Collection. Robert Gore, see 
Frederick S. Wight Art Gallery.] 

Roh, Franz, German Art in the 20th Cen- 
tury, Greenwich, Conn: New Y'ork 
Graphic Society, 1968. (Also published 
in German; Deutsche Malerei von 
1900 bis heule, Munich: Verlag F. 
Bruckmann, 1962.) 

Roters, Eberhard, Ber/in 1910-1933. 
New York; Rizzoli, 1982. 

Includes a chapter on sculpture by 
Joachim Heusinger von Waldegg. 

San Diego State University, University 
Gallery, .-In alle Kiinstler! Ilar-Bevolu- 
tion-lVeimar, by Ida Ratherine Rigby, 
exh. cat., 1983. 

Excellent discussion of German art- 
ists active from 191810 1925. Prepared 
as the catalogue for an exhibition of 
136 prints, drawings, and posters 
from The Robert Gore Rifltind 
Foundation. Includes a bibliography. 

Sauerlandt, Max, "Holzbildwerke von 
Rirchner, Meckel imd Schmidt- 
Rottluff im Hamburgischen Museum 
fiir Runst und Gewerbe," Museum der 
Gegenwart: Zeitschrift der Deutschen 
Museen fiir Neuere Kunst (Berlin; 
Ernst Rathenau Verlag), vol. 1. no. 3, 
1930-31, pp. 101-11. 

Included in translation in this cata- 
logue, pp. 51-55. 

Schleswig-Holsteinisches Landes- 
museum and Museum fiir Runst und 
Gewerbe, Hamburg, P/a6'(/A- und 
Kunsthandiverk von Malern des 
deutschen Expressionismus, by Martin 
Urban, exh. cat., 1960. 

Exhibition of over three hundred 
works, with a text by Martin Urban. 

Schneckenburger, Manfred, "Bemer- 
kungen zur 'Briicke' und zur 
'primitiven' Runst" in IVeltkulturen 
und moderne Kunst, exh. cat., Hans 
der Runst, Munich, 1972, pp. 456-74. 

An article comparing Briicke and 
"primitive" sculpture in the catalogue 
of an extensive exhibition prepared 
on the occasion of the 1972 Olympic 

Selz, Peter, German Expressionist Paint- 
ing, Berkeley and Los Angeles: 
University of California Press, 1957. 

Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, East Ber- 
lin, /{«'o/urton undRealismus: 
Revolutiondre Kunst in Deutschland 
1917 bis 1933, exh. cat., 1979. 

Steingraber, Erich, ed., Deutsche Kunst 
der 20erund 30erJahre, Munich: 
Verlag F. Bruckmann, 1979. 

Joachim Heusinger von Waidegg's 
chapter on sculpture pays particular 
attention to the various geographic 
centers of activity. Many lesser- 
known artists are discussed. 

Trier, Eduard, Bildhauertheorien im 20. 
Jahrhundert, Berlin; Gebr. Mann 
Verlag, 1971. 

[Urban, Martin, see Schleswig- 
Holsteinisches Landesmuseum and 
Museum fiir Runst und Gewerbe, 

Frederick S. Wight Art Gallery, Univer- 
sity of California, Los .\ngeies, Ger- 
man Expressionist. -irt: The Robert 
Gore Ri^fkind Collection, exh. cat., 

Excellent reference for graphics and 
periodicals of the period. 

Walden, Herwarth, ed., Der Sturm: Eine 
Einfiihrung, Berlin; Verlag Der Sturm, 

Westheim, Paul,.4rc/ii7fA(on/A des 
Plaslischen, Berlin: Ernst Wasmuth, 

With illustrations of works by 
Archipenko, Belling, and Jacques 

Willett, John, Expressionism, London; 
VVeidenfeld & Nicholson, 1970. 

Wolfradt, Willi, Die neue Plastik, TribUne 
der Runst und Zeit, ed. Rasimir 
Edschmid, vol. 1 1, Berlin: Erich Reiss 
Verlag, 1920. 

Theoretical discussion of contem- 
porary sculpture, its relationship to 
Rodin and the nineteenth century. 
Makes reference to many artists rep- 
resented in this exhibition, among 
them; Minne, Rolbe, Hoetger, Lehm- 
bruck, Wauer, Herzog, .\rchipenko, 
and Barlach. 



Alexander Archipenko 

Archipenko, Mexander, Archipenko: 
Fifty Creative Years 190S-195S, New 
York: Tekhne, 1960. 

Daubler, Theodor, Ivan Goll, and Blaise 
Cendrars, Archipenko-Albuin, Pots- 
dam: Gustav Kiepenheuer Verlag, 

Hildebrandt, Hans,/l/&ramipr 
Archipenko, Berlin: Ukrainske Slowo, 

Karshan, Donald, Archipenko, 
Tijbingen: Ernst Wasmuth Verlag, 

Museum ol Modern Art, New York, 
Alexander Archipenko: The Parisian 
Years, exh. cat., 1970. 

Schacht, Roland, Alexander Archipenko, 
Sturm-Biiderbuch, no. 2. Berlin: 
Verlag Der Sturm, 1915. 

UCLA Art Galleries, Los Angeles, 
Alexander Archipenko: A Memorial 
Exhibition, exh. cat., 1967. 

Wiese, Erich, Alexander Archipenko, 
Leipzig: Klinkhardt & Biermann, 

Ernst Barlach 

Barlach, Ernst, Das dichterische lierk in 
drei Bdnden, ed. Friedrich Dross, vol. 
2, Die Prosa I, Munich: R. Piper & Co. 
Verlag, 1958. 

, Das dichterische Werk in drei 

Bdnden, ed. Friedrich Dross, vol. 3, 
Die Prosa II, Munich: R. Piper & Co. 
Verlag, 1959. 

, Die Brie,fe, ed. Friedrich Dross, 2 

vols., Munich: R. Piper & Co. Verlag, 

, Ein selbsterzdhltes Leben, Berlin: 

Paul Cassirer Verlag, 1928. 

, Ernst Barlach 1870-1970, Bonn- 
Bad Godesberg: Inter Nationes. 1971. 

With extracts from Barlach's autobio- 
graphical writings, as well as articles 
by Klaus Giinther and Isa Lohmann- 
Siems. English text. 

Groves, Naomi Jackson, Ernst Barlach: 
Life in Work: Sculpture, Draivings, 
and Graphics: Dramas, Prose Works, 
and Letters in Pranslation, Ronigstein 
im Taunus: Karl Robert Lange- 
wiesche, |1972|. (Also published in 
German: Ernst Barlach: Leben im 
Werk: Plastiken, Zeichnungen und 
Graphiken, Dranwn. Prosawerke und 
Briefe, Konigstein im Taunus: Karl 
Robert Langewiesche [1972].) 

The translated edition is one of the 
few comprehensive texts available in 

Kunsthalle Koln, Ernst Barlach: Plastik, 
Zeichnungen, Druckgraphik, exh. cat., 

Contains an excellent article on 
Barlach's materials by Dr. Isa 
Lohmann-Siems, "Zum Problem des 
Materials bei Barlach." 

Schult, Friedrich, Ernst Barlach 

Werkverzeichnis, 3 vols., Hamburg: Dn 
Ernst Hauswedell & Co. Verlag, (vol. 1: 
Das plastische Uerk, 1960; vol. 2: Das 
graphi-sche Uerk. 1958; vol. 3: llerk- 
kalalog der Zeichnungen, 1971). 

Catalogues raisonnes of Barlach's 
sculpture, graphics, and drawings. 

Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, East Ber- 
lin, and Akademie der Kiinste der 
DDR, East Berlin, Ernst Barlach: Werk 
und flerkentu'iirfe ausfUnfJahr- 
zehnten, 3 vols., exh. caL, 1981. 

Max Beckmann 

Catherine Viviano Gallery, New York, 
The Eight Sculptures of Max 
Beckmann, exh. cat., 1977. 

Gopel. Erhard and Barbara, Max 
Beckmann: Katalog der Gemdide, 1 
vols., Bern: Galerie Kornfeld & Co., 

Catalogue raisonne of Beckmann's 

Lackner, Slephan, Ich erinnere mich gut 
an Max Beckmann^ Mainz: Florian 
Kupferberg Verlag, 1967. 

, Ma,v Beckmann, New York: Harry 

N. Abranis, Inc., 1977. 

Excellent English-language study of 

Rudolf Belling 

Belling, Rudolf, "Skulptur und Raum," 
Der Futurismus, vols. 7-8, 1922, 
pp. 1-3. 

Heusinger von Waldegg, Joachim, "Ru- 
dolf Belling und die Kunststromungen 
in Berlin 1918-1923...," Pan(/!fon; 
Internationale Zeitschrift flir Kunst, 
vol. 41, no. 4, October-December 

A review of VVinfried Nerdinger's 
recent monograph and catalogue 

Nerdinger, Winfried, Rudolf Belling und 
die Kunststrtjmungen in Berlin 1918- 
1923: mit einem Katalog derpla- 
stischen Werke, Berlin: Deutschcr 
Verlag fUr Kunstwissenschafl, 1981. 

Contains a catalogue raisonne. 

Schacht, Roland, "Archipenko, Belling 
und Westheim," Der Sturm, vol. 14, 
no. 5, 1923, pp. 76ff. 

Schmoll, J. A., [Eisenwerth, pseud.], 
"Zum Werk Rudolf Bellings," in Ru- 
dolf Belling, exh. cat., Munich: Galerie 
Retterer, 1967. 

This includes a catalogue by H. D. 

Conrad Felixmuller 

Archiv fiir Bildende Kunst am 
Germanischen Nalionalmuseum, 
Nuremberg, Conrad Felixmidler: 
Werke und Dokumente, exh. cat., 1982. 

Contains considerable archival mate- 
rial, a bibliography, and an exhibition 

Gleisberg, Dieter, Conrad FelixtnUller, 
Dresden: VEB Verlag der Kunst, 1982. 
Most recent comprehensive mono- 

Sohn, Gerhart, Conrad Felixmiiller: Ion 
ihm - iiber ihn, Diisseldorf: Graphik- 
Salon Gerhart Sohn, 1977. 

, ed., Conrad Felixmiiller: Das 

graphische Uerk, Diisseldorf: 
Graphik-Salon Gerhart Sohn, 1975; 
addendum 1980. 

Catalogue raisonne of Felixmiiller's 
graphic work. 

Otlo Freundlich 

Aust, Gunter, Otto Freundlich 1S78- 
194i, Cologne: Verlag M. DuMont 
Schauberg, 1960. 

, Otto Freundlich 1878-1943: Aus 

Briefen und Aufsdtzen, Cologne: 
Verlag Galerie der Spiegel, 1960. 

Bohnen, Uli, ed., Schriften: Ein 
Uegbereiter der gegenstandlosen 
Kunst, Cologne: DuMont Buchverlag, 

Elsen, Albert E., Modern European 
Sculpture 1918-1945: Unknown Be 
ings and Other Realities, New York: 
George Braziller, 1979, pp. 96fr. 

Gindertael, R. V., "Otto Freundlich," Art 
d'aujourd'hui, vol. 5, nos. 7-8, 1952, 
pp. 59ff. 

[Heusinger von Waldegg, Joachim, see 
under Rheinishes Landesmuseum 

Remy, Tristan, "Otto Freundlich," 
Maintenant, vol. 5, 1947, pp. 128ff. 

Rheinisches Landesmuseum Bonn, Otto 
Freundlich, 1878-1943: Monographic 
mit Dokumentalion und Werkverzeich- 
nis, exh. cat., 1978. 

Contains a catalogue raisonne by 
Joachim Heusinger von Waldegg. 

Roditi, Edouard, "The Fate of Otto 
Freundlich," Commentary, vol. 20, 
no. 3, 1955, pp. 248fr. 

Wenkenpark Riehen, Basel, Skulptur im 
20. Jahrhundert, exh. cat., 1980. 

Herbert Garbe 

Biermann, Georg, "Der Bildhauer H. 
Garbe," Jahrbuch der jungen Kunst, 
Leipzig: Klinkhardt & Biermann, vol. 
1, 1920, pp. 233ff. 

Galerie Curl Buchholz, Berlin, Herbert 
Garbe/ Karl Rossing, exh. cat., 1936. 

Grzimek, Waldemar, Deutsche Bildhauer 
des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts, 
Wiesbaden: R. Lowit, 1969, pp. 127, 
146, 202. 

Hentzen, Alfred, "Herbert Garbe," Die 
Aun,s(, vol. 75, 1937, pp. ISff. 



Oto Gutfreund 

Lamac, M., "Oto GiUfreiind, der 
friiheste kiibistische Bildhauer 
Europas ," Alte und moderne Kunst, 
vol.3, 1958, pp. 19-21. 

Los Angeles County Museum of Art and 
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, The 
Cubist Epoch, by Douglas Cooper, exh. 
cat., London: Phaidon, 1970. 

Muscik, J., "Oto Gutfreund," Das 
Kunstwerk, vol. 22, no. 9, 1968-69, 
pp. 63ir. 

Museum des 20. Jahrhunderts. \'ienna, 
Oto Gutfreund, exh. cat., 1969. 

Muzeum Sztuki w Lodzi, Oto Gutfreund. 
exh. cat., 1971. 

Strauss, Thomas, "Lehmbruck. 
Mestrovic, Strusa and GiUfreund," in 
Hommage a Lehmbruck, exh. cat.. 
VVilhelm-Lehmbruck-Museum der 
Stadt Duisburg, 1981, pp. 186-99. 

Erich Heckel 

AJtonaer Museum in Hamburg, Erich 
Heckel, 1 88} -1970: Genialde, Aqua- 
relle, Graphik, Jahresbldtter, gematte 
Postkarten und Brief e aus dem Besitz 
des Museums, exh. cat., 1973. 

, Kunst und Postkarte, exh. cat., 


Dube, Annemarie and Wolf-Dieter eds., 
Erich Heckel: Das graphische IVerk, 
New York: Ernst Rathenau, 1964. 

Catalogue raisonne of Heckel's 

Vogt, Paul, Erich Heckel, Reckling- 
hausen: Verlag Aurel Bongers, 1965. 

Monograph containing a catalogue 
raisonne of Heckel's paintings as well 
as illustrations of several of his 

Wietek, Gerhard, "Dn phil. Rosa 
Schapire," Jahrbuch der Hamburger 
Kunstsammlungen, vol. 9, 1964. 
pp. 115-52. 

Paul Rudolf Henning 

There is no bibliographic information 
available for this artist. 

Oswald Herzog 

Casson, Stanley, "Oswald Herzog and 
the German Artists of the inorganic' 
School," in XXth Century Sculptors, 
London: Oxford University Press, 
1930, pp. 77-87. 

Grohmann, Will, ed.. Kunst derZeit: 
Sonderheft Zehn Jahre November- 
gruppe (Berlin), vol. 3, no. 1-3, 1928, 
p. 14. 

Herzog, Oswald, Der Rhythinus in Kunst 
und I\'atur: Das H'esen des Rhythmus 
und die Expression in der Natur und in 
der Kunst, Berlin: Selbstverlag des 
Verfassers, 1914. 

Kliemann. Helga. Die Movembergruppe, 
Berlin: Gebr Mann Verlag, 1969. 

Ruhn, Alfred, "Die absolute Plastik Os- 
wald Herzogs," Der Cicerone, vol. 13, 
no. 8, April 2 1 , pp. 245 - 52. 

Bernhard Hoelgcr 

Biermann, Georg, "Hoetgers Denkmal 
der Arbeit," Der Cicerone, vol. 21, 

Bottcherstrasse Bremen and 
Westfalischer Kunstverein MUnster 
Bernhard Hoetger- Geddchtnis- 
Ausstelhing zu seinem 90. Geburtstag, 
exh. cat., 1964. - 

Grosse Kunstschau, Worpswede, Bern- 
hard Hoctger - Bildhauer, Maler, 
Baukiinstler Designer, exh. cat., 1982. 

Hoetger, Bernhard, "Der Bildhauer und 
der Plastiker," Der Cicerone, vol. 1 1, 
1919, pp. 165-73. 

Roselius, Ludwig, and Suse Drost, Bern- 
hard Hoetger 187-1-19-19: SeinLeben 
und Schaffen., Bremen: Verlag H. M. 
Hauschild, 1974. 

Schubert, Dietrich, "Hoetger's 
Waldersee-Denkmal von 1915 in 
I lannover," llallraf-Richartz- 
.lahrbuch, vol. 43, 1982. 

Werner, Wolfgang, ed., Bernhard 
Hoetger: Plastiken aus den Pariser 
Jahren: 1900-1910, Bremen: Wolf- 
gang Werner, 1977. 

Excellent documentation of these 
years of Hoetger's life. 

Joachim Karsch 

Galerie Nierendorf, Berlin, yoac/i/m 
Karsch - Geddchtnisaustellung. exh. 
cat., 1965. 

, Berlin, Joachim Karsch zum 

achtzigsten Geburtstag, exh. cat., 

Hatis der Ostdeutschen lleimat, Berlin, 
Joachim Karsch -Plastiken und 
Zeichnungen aus Gross-Gandern, exh. 
cat., 1974. 

Historisches Museum der Stadt 
Heilbronn. Joachim Karsch: Plastik, 
Zeichnungen aus derZeit 1916-1943, 
by Andreas Pfeiffer, exh. cat., 1978. 

Karsch, Joachim, "Ein Brief," Das 
Kunstblatt, vol. 12, no. 2, February 
1928, pp. 161ff. 

Osborn, Max, ed., I'ossische Zeitung, 
no. 16, April 25, 1920, suppl. 

Roditi, Edouard, yoac/i™ Aar,sc/i, Ber- 
lin: Gebr Mann Verlag, 1967. 

Sonntag, Fritz, Briefe des Bildhauers Jo- 
achim Karsch aus den Jahren 1933- 
1945, Beriin: Gebr Mann Veriag, 1948. 

VVilhelm-Lehmbruck-Museum der 
Stadt Duisburg, yoac/ij'mAarscft, exh. 
cat., 1968. 

Wolfradt, Willi, "Joachim Karsch," Das 
Kunstblatt, vol. 2, no. 12, December 
1918, pp. 382-85. 

Concerning the Scholarship on Ernst 
Ludwig Kirchner (bibliography pre- 
pared by Dr. Wolfgang Henze) 

For the most complete bibliography to 
date, see Bolliger, Hans. "Bibliog- 
raphie," in Ernst Ludwig Kirchner: 
Zeichnungen und Pastelle, ed. R. N. 
Ketterer, Stuttgart: Belser Verlag, 1979, 
pp. 249-89. This comprehensive work 
includes Kirchner's published and 
unpublished writings in sections one 
and two. Other major sources include: 

Dube, Annemarie and Wolf-Dieter, E. L. 
Kirchner: Das graphische ll'erk, 2 
vols., Munich: Prestel Verlag, 1967. 

The catalogue raisonne of Kirchner's 
graphic vs'ork. 

Gordon, Donald E., Ernst Ludwig 
Kirchner, Cambridge, Mass.; Harvard 
University Press, 1968. 

The catalogue raisonne of Kirchner's 

Grisebach, Lothar, E. L. Kirchners 
Davoser Tagebuch: Eine Darstellung 
des Malers und eine Sammlung seiner 
Schriften, Cologne: Verlag M. DuMont 
Schauberg, |1968]. 

The following are the most important 
publications that have appeared since 
Bolliger's bibliography. 

BUndner Kunstmuseum Chur, E. L. 
Kirchner und seine Schiller im 
Biindner Kunstmuseum Chur. exh. 
cat., 1980. 

Galerie Roman Norbert Ketterer, 
Campione d'ltalia bei Lugano, Das 
IVerk Ernst Ludwig Kirchners: 
Malerei^ Grafik. Plastik, Zeichnung, 
exh. cat., 1980. 

Gercken, Giinther, Ernst Ludwig 
Kirchner: Holzsehnittzyklen - Peter 
Schlemihl, Triumph der Liebe, 
Absalom, Stuttgart: Belser Verlag, 

Gordon, Donald E., "Ernst Ludwig 
Kirchner: By Instinct Possessed," .4rt 
in America, vol. 68, no. 9, November 
1980, pp. 80-95. 

Grisebach, Lucius, Ernst Ludwig 
Kirchner: Gross-stadtbilder. Munich: 
R. Piper & Co. Veriag, 1979. 

Henze, Anton, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner: 
Leben und ll'erk. Stuttgart: Belser 
Veriag, 1980. 

Kornfeld, E. W., Ernst Ludwig Kirchner: 
Dresden, Berlin, Davos - Nachzeich- 
nung seines Lebens, Bern: Galerie 
Kornfeld & Co., 1979. 

Kunstmuseum Basel, E. L. Kirchner, exh. 
cat., 1979. 

Museum der Stadt Aschaffenburg, E. L. 
Kirchner and E. L. Kirchner Zeich- 
nungen, 2 vols., exh. cat., 1980. 



Nationalgalerie, Berlin, Ernsl Ludwig 
Kirchner ISS0-I93S. exh. cat., 1979. 

With essays by Erika Billeter, Hans 
Bolliger, Georg Reinhaidt, Wolf- 
Dieter Dube, Lucius Grisebach, 
Annette Meyer zu Eissen, Dieter 
Honisch, Leopold Reidemeister, and 
Frank Whitford. Extensive catalogue 
for the centenaiy exhibition which 
included fifteen sculptures. 

Reidemeister, Leopold, "Ernst Ludwig 
Kirchners Berliner Strassenszene von 
1913: Eine INeuerwerbung des 
(Berlin: Brucke-Museum), vol. 11, 
1979-80, pp. 13-15. 

Reinhardt, Georg, 'im Angesicht des 
Spiegelbildes...Anmerkungen zu 
Seibstbildniszeichninigen Ernst Lud- 
wig Kirchners," Briicke-Archiv. (Ber- 
lin: Briicke-Museuni),vol. 11, 1979- 
80, pp. 18-40. 

Schiefler, Gustav, Die Graphik E. L. 
Kirchners bis 1910, Berlin: Euphorion 
Verlag, 1920. 

Staatsgalerie Stuttgart, Ernsl Ludwig 
Kirchner in dergrapfiischen 
Sammiung der Staatsgalerie Stutt- 
gart, exh. cat., 1980. 

Stadelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt, 
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner: Aquarelle, 
Zeichnungen und Druckgraphik aus 
dem Bcsilz des Stddel, Frankjurt am 
Main, exh. cat., 1980. 

Wahl, Volker, "Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 
und Jena," Forschungen und Berichte, 
vols. 20-21, 1980, pp. 473-501. 

Concerning (he Sculpture of Ernst 
Ludwig Kirchner (bibliogiaphy pre- 
pared by Dr. Wolfgang Henze) 

Cohn, Alice, "Plaslik und Zeit," Das 
Kunstblrilt, vol. 5, no. 11, 1921, 
pp. 34711. 

Gabler, Karlheinz, "E. L. Kirchners 
Doppelrclief: Tanz zw ischen den 
Frauen-Alpaufzug: Bemerkungen zu 
einem Hauptwerk expressionistischer 
Plastik," Briicke-Archiv, (Berlin: 
Brucke-Museum), vol. 11, 1979-80, 
pp. 3-12. 

Contains contemporary photographs 
by Kirchner of hi.s sculpture, studios, 
and models. 

Gbpel, Erhard, "Das wiederhergestellte 
Kirchner-Haus in Davos" Iferk, no. 12, 
1964, pp. 4.54-62. 

Grohmann, Will, Das I'Verk Ernst Lud- 
ivig Kirchners, Munich: Kurt Wollf, 

Kirchner, E. L., Chronik der KfiinstlerJ 
Gfeineinscha,ftJ Briicke, privately 
printed, 1913. (Reprinted in: 
Kimsthalle Bern, Paula Modersohn 
und die Maler der Briicke, exh. cat.. 
1948; and llcrschel B. Chipp, Theories 
of Modern Art, Berkeley and Los An- 
geles: University of California Press, 
1968; 2nd ed. 1973.) 

E. L. Kirchner |L. de Marsalle, pseud.], 
"Uber die plastischen Arbeitcn von E. 
L. Kirchner," Der Cicerone, vol. 17, no. 
14, 1925, pp. 695-701. (Reprinted in 
Grisebach, |1968|.) 

Included in translation in this cata- 
logue, pp. 43-46. 

, "Uber Kirchners Graphik," Ge- 
nius, vol. 2, 1921, pp. 250-63. 

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Ernst 
Ludwig Kirchner, exh. cat., 1968. 

Rosenthal, Donald A., "Two Motifs from 
Early Africa in Works by E. L. 
Kirchner,"/4ft/!and/un^en und Berichte 
des Staatlichen Museuins,/ur 
I olkerkunde Dresden, vol. 35, 1976, 
pp. 169-71. 

Karl Knappe 

Grzimek, Waldemar, Deutsche Bihthauer 
des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts, 
Wiesbaden: R. Lovvit, 1969, pp. 27, 

Knappe, Karl, Das Gesetz heisst Hand 
der Ausweg: Plastik, ed. Helmut Beck, 
Stuttgart: Stuttgarter Verlag, 1950. 

Schnell, Hugo, "Karl Knappe," Das 
Munster, vol. 12, 1959, pp. 280rf; 
vol. 15, 1962, pp. 96ff 

Schwemmer, Gottlieb, "Die Kunst Karl 
Rjiappes," Der Kunstwart, vol. 3, 
December 1931, pp. 185-88. 

Weiss, Ronrad, "Der Bildhauer Karl 
Knappe," Jahrbuch der Jungen Kunst, 
(Leipzig: Klinkhardt & Biermann), 
vol.5, 1924, pp. 249-55. 

Georg Kolbe 

Andrew Dickson White Museum of Art, 
Cornell University, Ithaca, Georg 
Kolbe: Sculpture, from the Collection of 
B. Gerald Cantor, exh. cat., 1972. 

Casson, Stanley, "The Recent Develop- 
ment of Georg Kolbe," International 
Studio, vol. 96, August 1930, 
pp. 17-20. 

Heller, Reinhold, "Georg Kolbe: A Re- 
valualion,",4po//o, n.s.,vol.99, no. 143, 
January 1974, pp. 50-55. 

Kolbe, Georg, "Plastik und Zeichnung," 
Genius, vol. 3, no. 1, 1921, pp. 15-16. 

Valentiner, Wilhelm R., Georg Kolbe: 
Plastik und Zeichnung, Munich: Karl 
Wolff, 1922. 

Kathe Kollwitz 

KJipstein, August, Kiithe Kollwitz: 
I'erzeichnis des graphischen IVerkes, 
Bern:Klipstein&Co., 1955. 

A catalogue raisonne of Kollwitz's 

Kollwitz, Kathe, Das plastische IVerk, ed. 
Hans Kollwitz, pref Leopold 
Reidemeister, Hamburg: Christian 
Wagner Verlag, 1967. 

, The Diaries and Letters of Kathe 

KolUvitz, ed. Hans Kollwitz, trans. 
Richard and Clara Winston, Chicago: 
H. Regnery Co., 1955. 

Meckel, Christoph, Ulrich Weisner, and 
Hans KoUwitz, Kathe Kollivitz, Bonn- 
Bad Godesberg: Inter Nationes, 1967. 

Nagel, Otto, and Werner Timrn, Kiithe 
Kollwitz: Die Handzeichnungen, Ber- 
lin: Hensehelverlag Kunst und 
Gesellschaft, 1972. 

Catalogue raisonne of Kollwitz's 

Rauhut, Use, "Liebe und Verantwortung 
der Mutter, ein tragendes Thema im 
plastischen Werk von Kathe Kollwitz," 
Bildende Kunst, 1966, pp. 250-55. 

Roussillon, France. "La sculpture de 
Kathe Kollwitz," unpub. Ph.D. diss., 
Sorbonne, June 1983. 

University Art Galleries, University of 
California, Riverside, Kathe Kollwitz, 
1S67 -194}: Prints, Drawings, Sculp- 
ture, exh. cat., 1978. 

Wilhelm Lehnibruck 

Badt, Kurt, "Die PlasUk W. Lehm- 
brucks," Zeitschriftfiir bildende Kunst, 
vol.31, 1920, pp. 169-82. 

Very important early assessment of 

Heusinger von Waldegg, Joachim, "Die 
Runst Lchmbrucks," Pantheon: 
Internationale Zeitschriftfiir Kunst, 
vol. 41, no. 3, July-September 1983. 

A review of Dietrich Schubert's recent 

National Gallery of Art, Washington, 
D.C., The Art of Ifilhelm Lehmbruck, 
exh. cat.. New York: The Macmillan 
Company, 1972. 

Petermann, Erwin, Die Druckgraphik 
von IJilhelm Lehnibruck: I erzeichnis, 
Stuttgart: Verlag Gerd Halje, 1964. 

An oeuvre catalogue of Lehmbruck's 

Salzmann, Siegfried, /Jas Wilhelm- 
Lehmbruck-Museum, Reckling- 
hausen: Verlag Aurel Bongers, 1981. 

Schubert, Dielrich, Die Kunst 
Lehmbrucks, Stuttgart and Worms: 
Werner'sche Verlagsgesellschaft, 

Extensive monograph, copiously 
documented and illustrated. 

Stadtische Museen Heilbronn, Wilhelm 
Lehmbruck, exh. cat., 1981. 

Contains articles by Wilhelm Weber, 
Andreas Pfeiffer, Dietrich Schubert, 
Siegfried Salzmann, Waldemar 
Grzimek, Karlheinz Nowald, 
Margarita Lahusen, and Paul Pfister. 

Westheim, Paul, IVilhelm Lehmbruck, 
Potsdam and Berlin: Gustav 
Kiepenheuer Verlag, 1919. 



Wilhelm-Lehmbruck-Museum der 
Stadt Duisburg, Hommage a 
Lehmbruck. exh. cal., 1981. 

See general bibliography citation. 

Gerhard Marcks 

Buscli, GiJnter. and Martina RiidlofT, 
eds., Gerhard Marcks: Das plastische 
lierk, Frankfurt am Main; Propjiaen 
Verlag, 1977. 

Contains the catalogue raisonne of 
Marcks' sculpture. 

Gerhard Marcks Haus, Gerhard Marcks 
Ham: Plastik, vol. 1, Bremen; Gerhard 
Marcks Stiftung, 1971. 

Germanisches Nationalmuseum, 
Nuremberg, Dokiimente zu Leben iind 
U'crk des Bildhauers und Graphikers 
Gerhard Marcks, exh. cat., 1979. 

University of California, Los .\ngeles, 
Gerhard Marcks: A Retrospective 
Exhibition, exh. cat., 1969. 

George Minne 

Alhadeff, Albert, "George Minne; Fin de 
Steele Drawings and Sculpture," 
unpub. Ph.D. diss., New York Univer- 
sity, 1971. 

Haesaerts, Paul, Laelhem-Saint-Martin: 
Le village elu de 1'art.flamand Brus- 
sels; Arcade, 1965. 

Langui, Emile, Expressionism in Bel- 
gium, Brussels: Laconli, 1972. 

Puyv elde, Leo van, George Minne. Brus- 
sels: Editions des "Cahiers de 
Belgique," 11930], 

Contains the catalogue raisonne of 
Minne's sculpture. 

Bidder, Andre de, George Minne, Ant- 
werp: DeSikkel, 1947. 

Albert Miiller 

Biindner Runstmuseum Chur, E. L. 
Kirchner und seine Schiiler ini 
Biindner Kunstmuseum Chur exh. 
cat., 1980. 

Kunstmuseum Winterthur, 
Expressionismus in der Schweiz 1915- 
1930, exh. cat., 1975. 

Stutzer, Beat, Albert Miiller und die 
Basler Kiinstlergruppe Rot-Blau, 
Munich: Prestel Verlag, 1981. 

Contains a catalogue raisonne of 
Miiller's paintings, decorative arts, 
and sculpture. Extensive bibliography 
and documentation. 

Emil Nolde 

Haflmann, Werner, Emil Nolde, New 
York; Harry N. Abrams, 1959. (-Also 
published in German; Emil Nolde. 
Cologne; Verlag M. DuMont Schau- 
berg, 1958.) 

Kunsthalle, Bielefeld, Emil Nolde: 
Masken und Figuren, by Martin 
Urban, exh. cat., 1971. 

Museum of Modern Art, New York, Emil 
Nolde, by Peter Selz, exh. cat., 1963. 

Nolde, Emil, Das eigene Leben: Die Zeit 
derJugend 1S67-1902, Flensburg: 
Wolff, 1949. 

This forms the first volume of Nolde's 

Nolde, Emil, Mein Leben. Cologne: 
DuMont Buchverlag, 1976. 

Abridged version of the four-volume 

Reuther, Manfred, "Emil Nolde und 
Heinrich Sauermann: Die Flens- 
burger Lehrjahre 1884-1888," in 
Heinrich Sauermann (1842-1904): 
Ein Flensburger Mobelfabrikant des 
Historismus. exh. cat., Stadtisches 
Museum Flensburg, 1979. 

[Selz, Peter, see Museum of Modern Art, 
New York.] 

Urban, Martin, Emil Nolde: Flowers and 
Animals: ll'otercolors and Drawings. 
New York; Praeger, 1965. (.Also pub- 
lished in German; Blumen und Tiere: 
Aquarelle und Zeichnungen. Cologne; 
Verlag M. DuMont Schauberg, 1965.) 

, Emil Nolde: Landscapes: 

IVatercolors and Drawings. New York: 
Praeger. 1970. (.\lso published in Ger- 
man; Landschaften: Aquarelle und 
Zeichnungen. Cologne: Verlag M. 
DuMont Schauberg, 1969.) 

[Urban, Martin, see Kunsthalle, 

Max Pechstein 

Fechter, Paul, Das graphische IVerk iMax 
Pechsteins, Berlin; Fritz Gurlitt Verlag, 

Text and catalogue raisonne of Pech- 
stein's graphic work; few illustrations. 
Only five hundred copies published. 

Friedeberger, Hans, "Plastiken und 
neue Zeichnungen von Max Pech- 
stein bei Gurlitt," Der Cicerone, vol. 5, 
1913, pp. 760-62. 

Heymann, Walther, Max Pechstein. Mu- 
nich; R. Piper & Co. Verlag, 1916. 

Kriiger, Giinther, "Die Jahreszeiten: ein 
Glasfensterzyklus von Max Pech- 
stein," Zeitschrift des deutschen 
Vereins filr Kunstwissenscha.ft, vol. 19, 
nos. 1-2, 1965, pp. 77-94. 

Osborn, Max, Max Pechstein, Berlin: 
Propylaen Verlag, 1922. 

Excerpt (pp. 230-36) included in 
translation in this catalogue, 
pp. 47-50. 

Pechstein, Max. Erinnerungen, ed. 
Leopold Reidemeister, Wiesbaden: 
Limes Verlag, 1960. 

Pfalzgalerie Kaiserslautern, Max 
Pechstein, exh. cat., 1982. 

Hermann Scherer 

Biindner Kunstmuseum Chun E. L. 
Kirchner und seine Schiiler im 
Biindner Kunstmuseum Chur, exh. 
cat., 1980. 

Galerie Thomas Borgmann, Cologne, 
Hermann Scherer: Holzplastiken 
1924-26, exh. cal., 1981. 

Contains a catalogue raisonne and re- 
prints of articles from the 1920s. 

Kunstmuseum Winterthur, 
Expressionismus in der Schweiz 
1915-1930, exh. cal., 1975. 

Stutzer, Beat, .Albert Miiller und die 
Basler Kiinstlergruppe Rot-Blau. 
Munich; Prestel Verlag, 1981. 

Extensive bibliography on the Rot- 
Blau group. 

Egon Schiele 

Comini, Alessandra, Egon Schiele's Por- 
traits. Berkeley and Los Angeles: 
University of California Press, 1974. 

Extensive bibliography. 

Kallir, Otto, Egon Schiele: The Graphic 
Work, New York: Crown, 1970. 

, Egon Schiele: Oeuvre Catalog of 

the Paintings, New York: Crown, 1966. 

Catalogue raisonne of Schiele's 

Leopold, Rudolf, Egon Schiele: Paint- 
ings, IVatercolors, Drawings, New 
York: Phaidon, 1973. 

Nebehay, C. M., Egon Schiele IS90- 
191 S: Leben, Briefe, Gedichte, 
Salzburg; Residenz Verlag, 1979. 

Karl Schmidt-Rottlurr 

Brijcke-Museum, Berlin, Karl Schmidt- 
Rottluff: Das nachgelassene IVerk seit 
den zwanziger Jahren: Malerei, 
Plastik, Kunsthandwerk, exh. cat., 

With illustrations of several sculp- 
tures by Schmidt-Roltluff. 

Grohmann, Will, Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, 
Stuttgart: Verlag W Kohlhammer, 

Catalogue raisonne of Schmidt- 
RottlufTs paintings with illustrations 
of thirteen sculptures. 

Kestner-Gesellschafl, Hannover, 
Schmidt-Rottluff und Negerkunst, exh. 
cat., 1920. 

The first exhibition comparing sculp- 
ture by a Briicke artist to .\frican art. 

Leicester Museum and Art Gallery, 
Schmidt-Rottluff: Graphic llorks and 
Stone Carvings, exh. cat., 1933. 

Niemeyer, Wilhelm, "Der Maler Karl 
Schmidt-Rottluff," Kiindung - eine 
Zeitschrift fiir Kunst, o.s., vols. 4-6, 
1921, pp. 56-68. 



Rathenau, ErnsL. ed.. Karl Schmidl- 
RotUuff: Das graphische li'erk seit 
1923, New York: Ernst Rathenau, 

An illustrated catalogue of Schmidt- 
RottlulTs graphics from the years fol- 
lowing 1923. Schapire's publication 
had catalogued works through that 

Schapire, Rosa. Karl Scbmidt-Rottliiffs 
graphisches Herk bis 1923, Berlin: 
Euphorion Verlag, 1924. 

An early catalogue raisonne of 
Schmidt-RolllufTs graphics; unillus- 

Sewter, A. C, "A German Sculptor: 
Schmidt-RottlufTs Carvings at Leices- 
ter," Manchester Guardian, Septem- 
ber 24, 1953. 

Wietek, Gerhard, "Dr phil. Rosa 
Schapire," Jahrbuch der Hamburger 
Kunstsammlungen, vol. 9, 1964, pp. 

, Schmidl-Hollluff: Graphik, Mu- 
nich: Verlag Karl Thiemig, 1971. 

Recent catalogue of Schmidt- 
RottlufTs graphic oeuvre. 

Martei Schwichtenberg 

Becher, Johaimes R.. "Heiligsprechung 
einer Malerin," in Ewig iiuAu/ruhr, 
Berlin: E. Rowohit, 1920. 

Duricux, Tilia, "Martei," in Omnibus: 
Almanachfiir das Jahr 1931, ed. Mar- 
tei Schwichtenberg and Curt Valentin, 
Berlin and Diisseldorf: Galerie 
Flechtheim, 1931, pp. 187-89. 

Klinger, Heinz, Wege und Nebenwege: 
Erinnerungen eines Hamburger 
Arztes, Hamburg: Hans Christians 
Druckerei und Verlag, 1976. 

Knupp, Christine, "Nenerwerbungen 
{mX" Jahrbuch. ed. Gerhard Wietek, 
Hamburg: Altonaer Museum, 1972. 

Schleswig-llolsteinisches Landes- 
museiim, Behchte 1980, ed. Gerhard 
Wietek, Schleswig-Holsteinisches 
Landesmuseum, 1981. 

Schleswig-Holsteinisches Landes- 
museum, Schleswig-Holsteinische 
Kiinstlerportrdts: aus dem Besland des 
Schleswig'Holsteinischen Landes- 
museums, exh. cat., 1981. 

Wietek, Gerhard, ed., Deutsche 
Kiinstlerkolonien und Kiinstlerorte, 
Munich: Verlag Karl Thiemig, 1976. 

See contribution by K. V. Riedel. 

Franz Seiwerl 

Bohnen. Lli, and Dirk Backes. eds., Der 
Schritt, der einmol getan wurde, wird 
nicht zuriickgenommen: Schriften ~ 
Franz IV. Seiwert, Berlin: Kramer, 

[ , see also Kolnischer Kunstverein.] 

Kolnischer Kunstverein, Franz W. 
Seiwerl. 1894-1933: Leben und Iferk, 
exh. cat., |1978]. 

Contains a catalogue raisonne by Uli 

Kolnischer Kunstverein, Vom Dadamax 
bis zum Grungiirtel: Koln in den 
zwanziger Jahren, exh. cat., 1975, 
pp. 91-114. 

Neue Gesellschafl fiir bildende Kunst, 
Berlin, Politische Konstruktivisten: Die 
"Gruppe Progressiver Kiinstler" Koln, 
exh. cat., 1975. 

Renee Sintenis 

Crevel, Rene, Renee Sintenis, Berlin and 
Leipzig: Klinkhardt & Biermann, 

Heise, Carl Georg, "Daphne," Kunst und 
Kunstler, vol. 29, 1931, pp. 72-73. 

Article by the director of the Museum 
fiir Kunst und Kulturgeschichte, 
Liibeck, who commissioned the 
Daphne sculpture. 

Kiel, Hanna, Renee Sintenis, Berlin: 
Rembrandt Verlag, 1956. 

Leonard, 11. Stewart, "Contemporary 
German Sculpture by Sintenis, Kolbe, 
Lehmbruck, and Wimmer," Bulletin of 
the City .Art Museum of St. Louis, Sum- 
mer 1950. pp. 44-47. 

Milly Steger 

Grautoff, Otto, "Milly Steger," Die Kunst 
Juralle. vol. 41, July 1926, pp. 321 -28. 

Hildebrandt, Hans, "Milly Steger," Das 
Kunstblatt. vol. 12, 1918. pp. 372-77. 

Kuhn, .Alfred, Die neuere Plastik: 
Achtzehnhundert bis ziir Gegemvart, 
Munich: Delphin Verlag, 1921, pp. 

, "Milly Steger," £)eu£scfteA'unsrufirf 

Dekoration, vol. 51, January 1923, pp. 

Christoph Veil 

Galleria del Levante, Munich, Christoph 
I oil: Radierungen und Holzschnitte. by 
Erhard Frommhold, exh. cat., 1981. 

, Der Bildhauer Christoph loll, by 

Wilhelm Weber, exh. cat, 1975. 

Early photographs of the sculptures 
by Ugo Mulas, as well as many docu- 
mentary photographs. 

Stadtische Kunsthalle Mannheim, 
Christoph loll: 1897-1939, exh. cat., 

William Wauer 

Laszlo, Carl, Hilliam ll'auer. Basel: Edi- 
tions Paderma, Carl Laszlo. [1979|. 

Contains many illustrations of sculp- 
tures, paintings, and drawings. 

Schreyer, Lothar, Erinnerungen an 
Sturm und Bauhaus: lias ist des 
Menschcn Bild?. Munich: Albert 
Langen, 1956. 

Walden, Nell, and Lothar Schreyer, eds., 
Der Sturm: Ein Erinnerungsbuch an 
Herwarth IValden und die Kiinstler 
aus dem Sturmkreis. Baden-Baden: 
Woldemar Klein, 1954. 

Ossip Zadkine 

Czwiklitzer, Christophe, Ossip Zadkine: 
Le sculpteur-graveur de 1919 d 1967. 
Paris: Christophe Czwiklitzer, 1967. 

Jianou, lonel, Zadkine. Paris: Arted, 
1964; 2nd ed. 1979. 

Includes a catalogue raisonne. 

Lichtenstein, Christa, Ossip Zadkine 
(1890-1 967): Der Bildhauer und seine 
Ikonographie. Berlin: Gebr. Mann 
Verlag, 1980. 

Extensive documentation and com- 
parative photographs. 

Raynal, Maurice, Ossip Zadkine. Rome: 
Editions de "Valori PlasUei," 1921. 

Ridder, Andre de, Zadkine. Paris: 
Chroniques du Jour, 1929. 

Early catalogue of Zadkine's 


Photo Credits 

Unless otherwise noted, all pho- 
tographs are courtesy of the lender. 

Dr Karl Albiker, Karlsruhe: fig. 22, 
p. 22. 

Altonaer Museum in Hamburg, 
Norddeutsches Landesmuseum: 
figs. 1&2, p. 191. 

Briicke-Museum, Berlin: fig. 6, p. 95. 

©Biindner Kunstmuseum Chur: 
fig. 25, p. 23; fig. 4, p. 121. 

The Busch-Reisinger Museum, The 
Busch-Relslnger Museum Harvard 
University, New York: Abbe\ille 
Press, 1980 (photo: Amy Binder); 
cat. no. 98, p. 152. 

©Erben Otto Di.\, Baden: fig. 30. 
p. 25. 

Ursula Edelmann FFM: cat. no. 64, 
p. 122; cat. no. 138, p. 199. 

Egon Schiele Archive, Graphische 
Sammlung Albertina: portrait photo. 
p. 180. 

Ernst Barlach Hans, Hamburg 
(photo: Heinz-Peter Cordes): cat. 
nos. 9 & 10, p. 64; cat. nos. 14 & 16, 
p. 66; cat. no. 26, p. 70. 

Titus Feli.xmiiller: cat. no. 34. p. 80; 
cat. nos. 35 & 37, p. 81. 

Fetzer, Bad Ragaz: cat. no. 41. p. 87. 

©Fotoarchiv Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, 
Hans Bolliger& Roman Norbert 
Ketterer, Campione d'ltalia: figs. 2 & 
3, p. 44; fig. 4, p. 45; figs. 6 & 7. p. 46; 
fig. 4, p. 95; figs. 1, 2, & 3, p. 120; 
figs. 4, 5, & 6, p. 121; figs. 7 & 8, 
p. 122; fig. 9, p. 123; fig. 10, p. 125; 
fig. 11, p. 127; fig. 13, p. 128; fig. 14, 
p. 129; fig. 2, p. 159; fig. 2, p. 175. 

Foto Studio van Santvoort, 
Wuppertal: cat. no. 30, p. 76. 

©Reinhard Friedrich: cat. no. 54, 
p. 107; cat. no. 56, p. 108; cat. nos. 57 
& 58, p. 109; cat. no. 74, p. 134. 

H. G. Gessner: cat. no. 1, p. 58. 

Erhard and Barbara Gopel. Max 
Beckmanii: hatalog der Gemdlde, 
2 vols., Bern: Galerie Kornfeld & Co., 
1976: fig. l,p. 73. 

Graphisches Kabinett, Kunsthandel 
Wolfgang Werner: fig. 5, p. 106. 

Frances Archipenko Gray: fig. 1, 
p. 58. 

The Gutfreund Family, Prague: fig. 1, 
p. 91. 

Paul Rudolf Henning: cat. no. 51 A, 
p. 99. 

Jack Higbee, 1978: cat. no. 85, p. 140. 

IFOT, Grenoble: cat. no. 150, p. 211. 

Indiana University Art Museum 
(photo: Ken Strothman & Harvey 
Osterhoudt): cat. no. 147, p. 209. 

Wolfgang Isle: fig. 2, p. 94; fig. 3, 
p. 95; cat. nos. 46 & 48, p. 96. 

Ruth Kaiser. Europhot: cat. no. 21, 
p. 68. 

Karl Ernst Oslhaus Museum, Hagen: 
fig. 2, p. 58. 

Florian Karsch, Berlin: figs. 1 & 2, 
p. 112. 

Bernd Kirtz BFF: cat. no. 89, p. 144; 
cat. nos. 90, 93, & 94, p. 145. 

©Prof Dn Arne A. Kollwitz, Berlin: 
fig. 18, p. 20; fig. l,p. 138. 

Koninklijk Museum voor Schone 
Kimsten, Antwerp: fig. 23, p. 22. 

Kunsi der Zeit. nos. 1-3, 1928: fig. 1, 
p. 77; portrait photo, p. 100. 

Kunsthalle Mannheim: fig. 1, p. 101. 

Kunstmuseum Basel: fig. 5, p. 46. 

Stephan Lackner: fig. 2, p. 73. 

Landesbildstelle Wiirttemberg, 
Stuttgart: cat. no. 73, p. 131. 

Lehmbruck Estate: cat. nos. 88 & 
89, p. 144; cat. nos. 90, 91, 93 & 94, 
p. 145; cat. no. 92, p. 146; figs. 1, 2, 
& 3, p. 147; cat. nos. 95 & 96, p. 148; 
figs. 4, 5, & 6, p. 149. 

©Lars Lohrisch: cat. no. 53, p. 107; 
cat. no. 55, p. 108; cat. nos. 99 & 100, 
p. 153. 

Los Angeles County Museum of Art: 
fig. 10, p. 18; fig. 37, p. 28; cat. nos. 4 
& 5, p. 63; cat. no. 9, p. 64; cat. no. 7, 
p. 65; cat. no. 18, p. 67; cat. no. 24, p. 
70; caL no. 28, p. 72; cat. no. 29, p. 73; 
cat. no. 50, p. 96; cat. no. 59, p. 1 1 1 ; 
cat. no. 67, pp. 124-125; cat. no. 79, 
p. 135; cat. nos. 81, 83 & 84, p. 139; 
cat. no. 86, p. 141 ; cat. no. 102, p. 156; 
cat. no. 122, p. 181; cat. no. 146, p. 

Eric E. Mitchell: cat. no. 60, p. 118. 

Ugo Mulas: cat. no. 146 (detail), 
p. 205. 

Museum Folkwang, Essen: fig. 1, 
p. 199. 

Museum fiir Kunst und Gewerbe, 
Hamburg: fig. 2, p. 52; fig. 1, p. 94; 
cat. no. 47, p. 97. 

Museum fiir Kunst und Gewerbe, 
Hamburg, and Hamburger 
Kunsthalle: figs. 8 & 9, p. 55. 

Museum fiir Kunst und 
Kulturgeschicbte, Liibeck: fig. 35, 
p. 27. 

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston: fig. 31, 
p. 25. 

NaUonal Gallery of Art. Washington, 
D.C.:ngs. 11 & 12, p. 18. 

©Nolde-StifinngSeebtilLfig. 1, 
p. 164;cat.nos. 110& lll,p. 165; cat. 
nos. 107 & 109, p. 166; cat. nos. 105, 
106, & 108, p. 167. 

Omnibus: Almanaeh au^fdas Jahr 
1952, Berlin and Diisseldorf: Galerie 
Flechtheim, 1932: fig. 1, p. 35. 

©Max K. Pechstein, Hamburg: fig. I, 
p. 47; figs. 2 & 3, p. 48; figs. 4, 5, & 6, 
p. 49; figs. 7, 8, & 9, p. 50; cat. no. 1 12, 
p. 170; fig. 1, p. 170; cat. no. 113, 
p. 171. 

Der Querschnitt, April 1, 1928 
(photo: Reiss): fig. 3, p. 77. 

Der Querschnitt, nos. 3-4, Fall 1923: 
portrait photo, p. 196, 

Rembrandt Verlag: fig. 1, p. 62. 

Renger Foto: cat. no. 101, p. 155. 

Rheinisches Bildarchiv, Koln: fig. 2, 
p. 68; cat. nos. 38 & 39, p. 84; cat. nos. 
131 & 132, p. 194; cat. nos. 133 & 134, 
p. 195. 

The Robert Gore Rifkind Founda- 
tion, Beverly Hills, California: 
frontispiece, p. 12; fig. 27, p. 24; fig. 
1, p. 31; figs. 2 & 3, p. 32; figs. 4 & 5, 
p. 33; fig. 1, p. 35; fig. 1, p. 37; fig. 2, 
p. 38; fig. 3, p. 39; fig. 1, p. 52; figs. 3 & 
4, p. 53; figs. 5, 6, & 7, p. 54; cat. no. 
ll,p. 64;cat. no. 17, p. 67; fig. 3, 
p. 77; figs. 1 & 2, p. 85; cat. no. 82, 
p. 141; fig. l,p.202. 

©Henning Rogge, Berlin: cat. no. 62, 
p. 1 18; cat. nos. 127 & 129, p. 186; cat. 
no. 126, p. 187. 

Ernst Scheel: cat. no. 112, p. 170. 

Schleswig-Holsteinisches Landes- 
museum, Schleswig: fig. 5, p. 95; cat. 
no. 125, p. 187. 

©Dietrich Schubert: figs. 1 & 2, 
p. 104; figs. 3 & 4, p. 105; figs. 2 & 3, 
p. 147;figs.4,5, &6, p. 149. 

Schweiz Institut fiir Kunst- 
wissenschaft Ziirich: fig. 12, p. 128; 
figs. 1 & 3, p. 159; cat. no. 103, 
pp. 160-61; fig. l,p. 173. 

Seattle Art Museum: fig. 28, p. 24. 

Sirius Fotodesign und Bildjour- 
nalismus: cat. no. 88, p. 144; cat. no. 
92, p. 146; cat. nos. 95 & 96, p. 148. 

©Staatliche Museen Preussischer 
Kulturbesitz, Nationalgalerie, Ber- 
lin: fig. 1, p. 147. 

Staatliche Museen Preussischer 
Kulturbesitz, Nationalgalerie, Ber- 
lin, Ma,r Liebermann in seiner Zeit, 
1979, e\h. cat., p. 110: fig. 1, p. 131. 

Staatsgalerie moderner Kunst, Mu- 
nich: cat. no. 23, p. 68; cat. no. 27, 
p. 72; fig. 2, p. 77; cat. no. 91, p. 145. 

Stadelsches Kunstinstitut, Frank- 
furt: fig. 17, p. 20; cat. no. 33, p. 80. 

Hans Wauer, Berlin, and Atelier T. M. 
Christoph Marlendwalder, Basel: 
fig. 33, p. 26; fig. 1, p. 207. 

Wolfgang Werner, Bremen: fig. 6, 
p. 106. 

Baron Dietrich von Werthern: cat. 
nos. 139 & 140, p. 202; cat. nos. 141, 
142, & 143, p. 203; cat. nos. 144 & 
145, p. 204. 

Wilhelm-Lehmbruck-Museum der 
Stadt Duisburg (photo: Sirrus): 
fig. 13, p. 19. 

Liselotte Witzel:fig. l,p. 157. 

Helen VVolfi': fig. 1, p. 31; figs. 2 & 3, 
p. 32; figs. 4 & 5, p. 33; fig. 1, p. 37; 
fig. 2, p. 38; fig. 3, p. 39. 



.\ule: Numerals in bold lype indicate 

Adam and Eve tlieme, 71, 72, 116 

African art: Einstein on, 34-36; Head 
(Benin), 28; inlluence of, 14, 23, 30, 
102,114, 115, 116n, 117,183, 184,210. 
See also "Primitive" art 

Ajanta frescoes; inlluence of, 114, 1 16n, 

DieAktion.7S,82, 192 

Albiker, Karl, 20l;Der heilige Sebastian, 

Amiet, Cuno, 158 

am Stirnband artists' colony, 198 

Anloniterkirche, Cologne, 61, 68 

Arbeitsrat fiir Kunst, 14, 15, 41, 74, 98, 

Archipenko, Alexander, 13, 15, 16, 30, 
56-59, 89, 206; influence of, 15,74,86, 
188; photo of, 58; I'Yau mil Titch, 56, 
58, 59; Kniendes Paar in Umarmung, 
15, 56, 59; Roter Tanz, 56, 58; llilhelm 
Furtwdngler dirigierend, 57, 59 

Architectural sculpture, 60, 74, 75 

Armory Show (New York 1913), 19, 57, 

Arp, Jean, 82,83n, 98 

Art Nouveau, 56, 154 

a-z, 192 

Bara, Charlotte, 98 

Barlach, Ernst, 18, 19, 21, 23, 37, 60-70, 
142, 150, 188, 196; innuence on 
Rollwilz, 21, 136; photo of, 62; Bildnis 
Paul Hegenerl. 68, 69; Blinder Hetller. 

60, 63; Der Ekslatiker: Der 
I'erzweijelle. 60, 65; Der Flolenbldser. 

61, 66, 67, Id: Fries der Lausehenden, 

62, 62; Fiinffigurliehe Studien, 63; Die 
Genwinsehafi der Heiligen, 26-27, 27, 
61, 69; Giistrower EhrenmaU 21, 26, 
68, 69; Der heilige Krieg, 19, 19, 60, 64, 
65; Kopf: Teil des Giislrower Ehren- 
mals, 68, 69; Der Mann im Slock, 61, 
66; DerRdcher. 19, 19, 23, 60, 64, 65; 
Russische Bettlerin mil Schale, 60, 63; 
Russische Bettlerin II, 63, 65; 
Schwebender Gottvater, 61, 67; 
Sitzendes iVeib, 60, 63, 64; Der Tdnzer, 
67, 69; I erhullte Bettlerin/ Barm- 
herzigkeit, 61, 66; Der I'erschwender 
III, 67, 69 

Barr, Alfred, 6, 132 

Barron, Stephanie: essays by, 13-28, 

158. 172 
Barth, Richard, foundry, 66 
Bassermann, Albert, 206; portrait of, 

208, 209 
Bauhaus, 16, 37, 150; Chicago, 57 
Becher, Johannes R., 188 and n 
Beckmann, Max, 13, 17, 71-73, 142; 
photo of, 73;/ldam and Eva, 71, 72; 
Mann im Dunkel, 71, 72; Selbstbildnis, 
25, 26; Stilleben mil Plastik, 71,73 
Belling, Rudolf, 15, 27, 56, 74-76, 83, 86, 
100, 169; photo of, 77; Bildnis des 
Kunsthdndlers Alfred Flechtheim, 75, 
76, 77; Dreiklang, 74, 75, 77, 86; Kopf 
in Mahagoni, 75, 76; Organische 
Formen: Schreilender, 75, 76, 77 

Benin sculpture: Head, 24, 1 14 

Bergner, Elisabeth, 143 

Berlin Secession, 40, 51 and n, 52, 143; 

exhibitions, 19, 57, 196, 198 
Biermann, Georg, 103 
Billeter, Erika, 113 
DerBlaueReiter, 13,200 
Der Blaue Reiler ialmanm:). 14 
Bleyl, Fritz, 13 
Boccioni, Umberto, 56, 206 
Bolliger, Hans, 113 
Bourdclle. Emile Antoine, 88 
Brancusi, Constantin, 102, 142, 193,210 
Breuer, Karin: essays by, 100, 136-37 
Die Brucke, 13, 117, 120, 163, 168, 169, 

172, 182; exhibitions, 51, 55, 93; 

"primitivism," 14, 23-25, 34, 115; 

influence of, 78, 132, 158, 200 
Brucke-Museum, Berlin, 93, I68n, 182n 
Bruno-Schmitz, Angelica. See Forster, 

Buchheim, Lothar, 168 
Burckhardt, Carl, 172 

Camenisch, Paul, 158, 172 
Cassirer, Paul. 60-61 
Castello San Materno, .\scona, 

Switzerland, 98 
Cezanne, Paul, 30, 40, 142 
Chagall, Marc, 30 
Colette, 188 

Constructi\ism, 1 6, 22, 74, 82, 83, 89, 1 92 
Cranach, Lucas, 1 16 
Crucifixion theme, 18 
Cubism, 13, 15, 18, 22, 30, 56, 57, 88; art 

dealers, 82n; influence of, 56, 57, 60. 

74,82,88,89, 130, 182, 198,206,210 

Dada, 13, 16,56,98 
Dalou, Jules, 26, 103 
Dance theme, 15n, 74, 169 
Darmstadt artists' colony, 102 
Diiubler, Theodor, 16, 30-32, 60, 142, 

Daumier, Honore, 130 
Dehmel, Richard, 183 
Delaunay, Robert, 30, 83n 
Derain, Andre, 56, 210 
Deutsche Gewerbeschau (Munich), 37 
Diez, Robert, 60 
Dix, Otto, 25, 78, 200; Portrait of 

Nietzsche, 25 
Dostoevski, Fedor, 1 10 
Dresden Sezession: Gruppe 1919, 14, 

Dube, Annemarie and Wolf-Dieter, 113, 

Duchamp-Villon, Raymond, 57 
Duncan, Isadora, 15n 
Durieux, Tilla, 188 

EcceHumo theme, 18, 201 

Eggeling, Viking, 98 

Einstein, Carl, 54, 36, 57, 142, 143; photo 

of, 35 
Engelmann, Richard, 142 

Ensor, James, 154 

Enlartete Kunst exhibition and cata- 
logue (1937), 17, 17, 54, 75, 78, 82, 83, 
85, 150,201 

Epstein, Jacob, 57 

Ernst, Max, 192 

Erster Deutscber Herbstsalon (Berlin 
1913), 82, 90 

Escher, llerr; portrait of, 99 

Ethnographic art. See "Primitive" art 

Ettlinger, Leopold, 23 

Eulcnberg, Herbert, 183 

Eysoldt, Gertrud, 198 

Fcinhals, Josef, 45, 83 
Peininger, Lyonel, 150 
Felixmuller Conrad, 15, 16, 27, 78-81, 

200; Frau im offenen Haar, 28, 81; 

Gelieble Frau. 79, 80; Liebespaar, 80; 

Nackte imMantel. 79, Si; Stehende 

Nackte mit offenem Haar, 71,81; Der 

Tod des Dichters Walter Rheiner, 27, 28 
Filla, Emil,88 
Flechtheim, Alfred, 23, 59, 65, 188; photo 

of, 77 
Folkwang Museum, Hagen: exhibitions, 

56, 102, 142, 154, 156, 157, 188 
Forster, Gela, 15, 16, 57, 78, 200; Daubler 

on, 30-33; Empfdngnis, 16, 16, 30, 51; 

Erivachen, 30, 32, 52; Der Mann, 16, 

30, 32, 33 
Freie Sezession exhibitions, 22, 54, 98, 

110, HI, 112, 136, 143 
Freundlich, Otto, 13, 15, 82-85, 192; 

Kopf, 85; Mdnnliche Maske, 82, 84; Die 

neue Mensch. 1 7, 82, 85; Sleliende 

Maske, 82, 84 
Fuller, Loie, 15n 

Furtwangler, Wilhelm: portrait of, 57, 59 
Futurism, 13, 15, 18, 60, 74, 75, 100, 188, 


Gabler, Karlheinz, 113, 119 

Galerie Der Sturm, Beriin, 15, 78, 82, 86, 

90, 100,206 
Galerie Ferdinand Moller, Berlin, 86, 

Galerie Fischer auction (Lucerne 1939), 

Galerie Gurlitt. Berlin, 93n, 98, 1 18 
Galerie Lcvesque, Paris, 142 
Galerie Ludwig Schames, Frankfurt, 43, 

Galerie Nierendorf, Berlin, 201 
Garbe, Herbert, 13, 15, 56, 74, 86-87, 

169; Schlaf/ Liebespaar, 15, 15, 86, 87; 

Die I erzweifelte, 87 
Gauguin, Paul, 13, 23, 25, 102, 142, 184, 

Gaul.August, 132, 150, 198 
Genius, 37, 43 
Gerstel, Wilhelm, 201 
Gesamtkunstwerk, 27, 74, 82 
Giedion-Welcker, Carola, 57 
Gies, Ludwig, 130; The Cruciflrion, 21, 

21, 22, 57, 38, 59; Heise on, 37-40 
Goebbels, Joseph Paul, 133 


Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 51 and n 

Gogh, Vincenl van, 13, 30, 34, 142 

Goll, Ivan. 17 and n, 192 

Gordon, Donald, 113, 114 

Gothic inHuence, 21, 24, 37, 56, 88, 93, 

102,110,154, 192 
Graham, Martha, 15n 
Grisebach, Eberhard, 115 
Grisebach, Lothar, 115 
Grohmann, Will, 184 
Grosz, George, 34, 75, 200 
Gruppe Progressiver Kiinsller, 192 
Guenther, Peter W.: editorial notes by, 

30, 34, 37, 41, 43, 47, 51; essays by 

60-62, 78-79, 98, 150-51, 154-55, 

180, 192-93, 200-201. 206, 210 
Giistrovv (Ernst Barlach Nachlass, 

Ernst-Barlach-Gedenkstatte der 

DDR), 64, 65, 66, 69 
Gutfreund, Oto, 13, 88-91; photo of, 91: 

Angst, 88, 90, 91; Don QuLrotc. 88, 90, 

91;fiA:i, 89, 90, 91 

Haller. Hans, 142 

Hamburger Kunsthalle, 37 

Harvard Society for Contemporary Art: 
Modern German Art exhibition 
(1930), 188n 

Hasenclever, Walter, 188 

Haverliamp. Wilhelm, 196 

Heckel, Erich, 13, 17, 23, 24, 52, 53, 
92-97, 163; Sauerlandt on, 52, 53; 
Badende mit 'Ihch, 93, 96. 97; Betender 
Mann. 93, 94; Frau mil Ihch. 93, 95, 
96; Grosse Stehendt: 55. 54, 55, 92, 93. 
94, U2;HofATnrfe(1906).95; 
Hockende (1912). 93. 95. 96; Der 
Holzschnitzer: Bildnis E. L. Kirchner. 
12; Slehende. 93. 96; Slebendes 
Mddchen. 93, 94; Stillcben mit Hocker 
und Holzfl^ur. 96, 97; Stilleben mit 
Holzflgur, 96, 97; lYdgerin. 92, 96, 97; 
other works, 17, 95 

Heise, Carl Georg, 26-27, 37, 61, 192; 
essay by, 37-40 

Henning, Paul Rudolf, 13. 41, 98-99; 
essay on clay, 41 -42; Der Tanz der 
Charlotte Bara. 98, 99, 98-99; por- 
traits of Pechstein, Jessen, Escher, 99 

Henlzen, Alfred, 196 

Henze, Wolfgang: essay by, 113-17 

Herzog, Oswald, 15, 56, 74, 100-101; 
Kniende, 100, 101; lerzuckung, 100, 

Heusinger von Waldegg. .loachim: 
essays by. 56-57, 74-75, 82-83. 86. 
88-89,110, 130, 198 

Hildebrandt, Hans, 188n, 198 

Hitler. Adolf. 133 

Hitzberger, Otto, 39 and n 

Hoerle, Heinrich, 192 

Hoetger, Bernhard,26, 102-9, 142, 188, 
\mAlteFrau, 106, Ml -.Alter Mann. 
106, Wl;.irbeiter mit Kind, 106, 108; 
Fecondile. 102, 104; Friedensmal: 
Niedersach^enstein. 102, 103, 105; 
GevverkschaRshaus-Volkshaus sculp- 
tures, 26. 27. 103, 106-9; yung-fs 

Mddchen. lOS;Jiingling, 109. Milder 
.Arbeitcr mit gekreuzten .Armen. 27, 
106, 108; Pietdfurdie Gefallenen der 
.\orember-flevolution. 102-3. 105; 
Belie/in Plantanenhain. 104 

Hofer, Carl, 110 

Hoffmann, Eugen, 200; in Entartete 
Kunsl. 17 

Janco, Marcel, 98 

Janssen, Carl, 198 

.lessen. Professor: portrait of, 99 

Job theme, 18,21 

.lugendstil, 56, 75,82. 189 

Jitngere Basler ^\\nb\i\on (Basel 1925): 

photo of. 173 
Justi, Ludwig, 198 

Kahnweiler, Daniel, 82n 

Kandinsky, Wassily, 15, 17, 83n, 102, 142 

Karsch. Joachim. 1 10-12; ///o6 und seme 
Freunde.2\. 22, 22. 1 10. 1 12; Ein 
FreundHiobs. 110. 111. \\2: llikidou: 
110, 112 

Kestner-Gesellschaft, Hannover: 
Schmidt-Rottlulf exhibition (1920), 

KJrchner, Erna, 1 13, 1 15; portraits of 44. 

Kirchner, Ernst Ludwig, 15, 14, 17. 23- 
24.43-46, 51n, 52-53, 113-29. 169, 
182; exhibitions, 43, 158, 172: influ- 
ence (jf 95, 158, 163, 172; photos by. 
14.44-46.95. 120-23, 123, 127-29, 
159, \l3:Akl mit schwarzem Hut, 119, 
122;, 1A:( mit Tuch i Badende. 45, 52, 52, 
53,55, 113,129, 129; Akt.sich 
umdrehend. 115, 123, 126; The 
Bosquet: Square in Dresden, 45; 
FYauenkopf. hop/ Erna. 43. 44. 115. 
117, 122, 124. 125; Die Freunde.iiS. 
172; Hockende (pewter), 120; 
Hockende (wood), 45, 44, 1 18, 1 18, 
120; Hockende (tin), 44; Ins Meer 
Schreitende, 117, i29; Interieur II, 118; 
Kuh, 46, l\5;Liebespaar, 43, 44, 53, 53, 
55, i 15; Mutter und Kind / Frau und 
Mddchen, 44-, 46, 116, i2i;j\ackle. mil 
untergeschlagenen Beineti sitzende 
Frau, 115, 119, {25; Nacktes Mddchen, 

115, 116, 119. 122; Das Paar vor den 
Menschen, 53; Pferdegespann mit drei 
Bauern, 12Q; Belter: Tischfuss, 126; 
Skizze zu Skulptur, 23, 1 14. 121; 
Slehende. 121; Stehender tveiblicher 
Akt. 1 15, 119, 120. 125; Tanzende. 114, 
118; Tdnzerln. 1 15, 121; Tdnzerln mit 
gehobenem Bein. 45. 45. 115, 119, 122; 
Tdnzerln mit Halskette, 113, 115, 118, 
120; I iertageszeitenspiegel, 14, 126. 
127; Die Zwei Freunde, 14. 43, 44, 46, 

116, 128 
KJimt, Gustav, 180 
Klinger, Max, 47 and n 
Klosterstrasse Studio. Berlin, 137 
Knappe, Karl. 130-31;A/a.r 

Lleberniann, 131 

Kokoschka. Oskar, 13. 17, 180; i>//- 
Portralt as a llarrlor, 25, 25 

Kolbe, Georg, 13, 62, 74, 132-35, 196, 
198. 201; Badende. 135, 154;NonneI/ 
Tdnzerln. 133, 135; Tanzstudie, 133, 
135;Zorn, 132, 134 

Kollwitz, Arne, 141 

Kollwitz, Hans, 141 

Kollwitz, Kfithe, 20-21, 23, 26, 61, 62, 
103, 136-41; photo of, 158; Denkmal: 
Die Eltern, 20, 137; Die Klage: Zum 
Gedenken des 193S verslorbenen Ernst 
Barlach, 137, 140, 141; Llebespaar, 
136, 1^^; Llebespaar II, 136, 159; Die 
Mutter: Der Krleg, 21, 140, 141;Mutter 
mil Zwllllngen, 15H; Pletd,21, 137, 
140, 141; Selbstblldnis. 137, 139, 140; 
Selbstblldnis en/ace. 137, 139, 140; 
7i/rm der Mutter. 21. 21. 136. 140. 141 

Kornfeld, Eberhard, 1 13, 119 

Krause, Max, 86 

Krlegzelt. 19 

Kuhn, Alfred, 74, 75, 86, 100, 198 

Kunslausslellung Berlin (1920), 74 

Kunsthalle Basel, 14, 143, 158, 172; 
Jlingere Baster exhihilion (1925). 175 

Kunsthalle Bern, 43, 122 

Kunsthalle Mannheim, 57 

Kunsthandwerk. 15, 14, 158 

Kunsthaus Ziirich, 201 

Kunstverein, Jena, 122 

Lackner, Stephan: essay by, 71 

l.ange. Otto, 78 

Lchmbruck. Wilhelm, 15, 18-19,23.62, 
98, 142-49, 192; photo of 147; Piela 
theme, 103 and n; Badende. 142, 147; 
Betende. 149; Blldnls Ludwig Rublner, 
149; Emporstelgender Jungling, 88, 
142, 143, 141;Der Gesturzte,20,2li,21, 
143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 151; Kneeling 
Uoman, 19. 19. 142; Kopf einer alien 
Dame. 144; Kopfeines Dcnkers mit 
Hand. 143. 148; Ode an den Genius II, 
145. 146; SitzenderJungling. 143, 144, 
146; Skizze zum Gesturtzten, 144; 
Standing Female Figure, 18, 19; 
Sliirmender / Gelrojfener. 143, 144; 
Torso der Knienden. 149; iVeibllcher 
Torso. 148. 192; Zusammenbruch: 
Sterbender Krieger. 145. 146 

LeibI, Wilhelm, 40 and n 

Le Roy, Gregoire, 154 

Leschnitzer, Georg, 86 

Levin, Leo, 67 

Liebermann, Max, 40 and n, 51, 78, 143; 
portrait of, 130, 131; photo of, 151 

London: A/orfern German Art exhibition 
(1938), 83 

Luckhardt, Wassili, 75 

Macke, .\ugust, 14, 19 
Maeterlinck, Maurice, 154 
Maillol. Aristide, 132, 142, 198 
Marc, Franz, 13, 14, 19, 30, 102, 142 
Marcks, Gerhard, 13, 16, 61, 62, 150-53. 
201; Gefesseller Prometheus II, 150, 



\i2: Kleiner hupj: 150, \52\Sludie zum 
Prometheus, 152, 153 

Mardersteig. Hans. 37 

Marees, Hans von, 47 and n, 142 

Marsalle, Louis de, 43-46. See also 
Kji'chner. Ernst Ludwig 

Maus. Oclave, 154 

Meicr-Graefe, Julius, 154 

Mendelsohn, Erich, 98 

Mendelsohn. Louise. 98 

Menschen, 78 

Meunier, Constanlin, 18,26, 102, 103, 
136, 142 

Milles, Cari, 102 

Millet, Jean Francois, 18 

Minne. George, 142, 154-57; 
L'ai:enouillc. 154, 156; Brunnen mil 
^funfknienden Knaben, 102, 154, 157; 
Orai&on, 154. 155 

Modersohn-Becker, Paula, 102 

Moholy-Nagy, Laszlo, 57 

Mondrian. Piel, 83n 

Mueller, Otto, 13, 51n, 93, 188 

MiJller, Albert, 15, 14.46. 116. 121. 158- 
62, 172; as KJrchner subject. 46. 116. 
128; photos of. 128, 159; Hockende. 
158. 159. \62: Slehende Figiir, 158, 

Munch, Edvard. 13. 37. 78, 88. 142. 201 

Museum Folkwang. Essen. 156. 157 

Museum fiir Kunst und Gevverbe. Ham- 
burg, 51. 52-54. 55. 182n 

Museum fiir Runsl und Kidlur- 
geschichte. Liibeck, 37 

Museum of Modern Art. New York: 
Archipenko exhibition. 57; Modern 
German Painting and Sculpture exhi- 
bition (1931). 6. 132 

Nationalgaleric. Berlin. 7 1 . 20 1 
Nationalgalerie, Prague, 89, 90 
National Socialist Party: repression of 

modern art, 16-17,37,51,54,62,64, 

65, 71. 100. 103. 105, 107, 130. 133. 136, 

150, 201, 206 
Nesch, Rolf: Bildnis Max Sauerlandt, 52 
Neue Kiinstlervereinigung Mijnchen. 

Neue Sachlichkeit, 28, 57, 74, 75, 100. 

188; exhibition (Mannheim 1925). 16 
Neue Sezession (Berlin). 5 1 n; exhibition 

(1911-12). 82 
Neumann. J.B.. Galerie. Berlin. 78. 201 
INiemeyer. Wilhelm, 183 
Nietzsche. Friedrich: influence of. 98. 

102, 142 
Noack, H., foundry, 66 
Nolde, Ada, 92 
Nolde, Emil, 13, 17,24-25,92, 163-67; 

Alpenveilchen und Sleinplastik: zwei 

Kopfe, 164, iG'i: Bartiger Mann, 165, 

167;£u/c 163. iM;Javu-Tdnzerin, 
165, i61;Mddchen mit erhobenen 

Armen, 163, 165, 167; Prophet. 163, 
165, lS6;StehendeFrau, 165, 167; 

Zwei Kop/e: Mann und Frau, 164, 165 
Novembergruppe (Berlin), 14-15, 56. 
74,75,86, 100, 103, 169 

Oceanic art: iullucncc of, 14, 23. 24-25. 

34. 48. 163. 164. 210. See also Palau 

Osborn, Max, 47; on Pechstein. 47-48 
Osthaus, Karl Ernst, 102. 142, 154, 188, 


Palau Islands: influence of, 23. 25. 48. 

114. 116n. 163, 168. 169 
Paul. Stella: essays by. 132-33. 196 
Pechstein. Max. 13. 14. 25, 47-48. 51n, 

1 I5n. 170. 188; photo by. 49. portrait 

of, 98, 99; Aofi/'(plaster), 47; Ao/)/ 

(wood), i8; Meer/unges, 49, 169, 170; 

Meerweibchen, 49, 169; Mond, 24, 48, 

50, 169, 171;;Vonnf, 48, 50; 

Selbstbildnis mit Gotzen undAktftgur/ 

Selbstbildnis im Atelier 171; 

lasentrdgerin, 4S, 169, 170, 171; 

Viertelmond, 48, 49, 169 
Pechstein, Max K.. ie8n 
Pfemfert, Franz, 78, 192 
Picasso, Pablo, 30, 82, 83, 102, 142, 210; 

Head of a Woman, 18, 18, 88, 89. 102 
Pieta theme, 18, 103 and n 
"Primitive" art: influence of, 22-25. 82. 

102. 115,163. 164. 169. 210. *f a/so 

African art 

Reemtsma. Hermann F.. 62 

Reimann. Brimo. 100 

Reinhardt. Max. 74.206 

Richter, Emil, gallery of. 78, 200 

Rjemenschneider, Tilman, 1 10 

Rilke, Rainer Maria. 1 10. 196 

Ritler. Emma. 182 

Rodin. Auguste. 18-19. 26. 88; innuence 

of. 19.82. 102. 132. 136, 142, 169. 198; 

The llalkingMan, 18. 30 
Roeder. Emy, 15.56.86 
Rosier. Waldemar, 145 
Rohlfs, Christian. 188.198 
Rosso. Medardo, 32 and n 
Rot-Blau group. 14, 158, 172; exhibition 

(Basel 1925), 129, 172 
Rubiner, Ludwig, 82, 143 
Runge, Phillipp Otto, 51 and n 

Sagot, Clovis, 82 and n 

St. Alban's Church, Cologne, 136 

St. katharinenkirche, Lubeck, 26, 27. 61, 

69. 150 
St. Marienkirche. Liibeck: Gics' crucifix 

at. 37. 39 
St. Sebastian theme. 18. 21. 180 
Salon dAutomne (Paris 1910). 19. 102. 

Salon des Independanis (Paris 1910), 56 
Sauerlandt, Max, 51 -54, 52, 55, 92, 93, 

182, 198 
Schapire, Rosa. 92. 95. 184 
Scheibe. Richard, 86. 150 
Scherer. Hermann. 13, 14, 116, 121, 158, 

172-79; as Rirehner's subject, 46. 

116, 128; photo of, 128; photos of 

groups of sculptures, 14, 128, 129, 173; 

Liebespaar (I'oni- works), 14, 128, 172, 
174, 174. 175. 178, 179; Mutter und 
hind. \A-, Mutter Kind saugend, 172, 
1 74, 1 78; Schlafende Frau mit Knaben, 
172, 177, 178; Selbstbildnis mit "Toten- 
klage," 172, 176, 178; Totenklage, 172, 
174, 176 

Schieller, Gustav, 92, 183; KJrchner cor- 
respondence, 23, 24, 1 13, 1 14, 115, 
116,122, 125 

Schiele, Egon, 13,25, 142, 180-81 

Landcsmuseum. 182 and n, 188 

Schmidl-Rottlun'. harl. 13. 17. 24, 25, 30, 
31n,52,53, 62, 169, 182-87; influence 
of, 132, 163, 189; other work, 17, 53, 
55;Adorant, 183, 185, ISl; Blauroter 
Kopf, 185, 187; GriinerKopf, 183, 185, 
187; Griinroter Kopf, 185, 186; 
Litauisehes Mddchen, 53, 54, 55; Mut- 
ter, 24; fiotbrauner Kopf, 185; Roter 
Kopf, 52-33, 54, 55; Sitzender Mann, 
183, 185, 186; tYauernder, 186 

Schonberg, Arnold. 78 

Die Schiine Raritdt, 78 

Schreyer. Lolhar, 206 

Schubert, Dietrich: essays by, 102-3, 

Schubert, Otto, 78 

Schwichtcnberg, Martel, 103, 188-91; 
Pommernfrauen reliefs. 189. 191; 
Selbstbildnis, 189. 190 

Schwitters. Kurt, 27 

Segall, Lasar, 78, 200 

Seiwert, Franz, 192-95; Christuskopf, 
192, 193, 194, 195; Grosser Kopf mit 
offeiwrn Mund. 193, 195;Ao/j/', 192, 
\9'i: Der Rufer I. 192-93, 194, 195 

Die Sichel. 78 

Sintenis, Renee, 13, 37, 188, 196-97; 
Daphne, 37, 196, 197; Selbstbildnis, 
196, \91; Small Daphne, 196. 197 

■Sonderfcund exhibition (Cologne 1912), 
45, 82, 142, 182, 183 

Spengler. Helene, 115 

Spiegelbilder der I erfalls exhibition 
(Dresden 1933), 78 

Steger, Milly, 136, 188, 198-99; 
.Au^ferstehender Jiingling, 198, 199; 
Jeptas Tochter, 198, i99;Kniender 
Jungling und zivei Mddchen, 198, 199 

Steiner, Rudolph, 27 

Steinhardt, Jakob, 51 n 

Steinlcn, Theophile, 18. 102 

Sternbeim, Carl, 78 

Storm, Theodor, 165, 164 

Struck, Hermann, 183 

Der Sturm, 78, 100,206 

Swarzenski, Hans, 198 

Swetzofl", Hyman, 138 

Svmbolism, 154 

Tappert, Georg, 51n 
Taut, Bruno, 42 and n. 75 
Taut. Max. 75, 83 
Thimig, Helene, 198 
Trier, Eduard. 89. 113 
Tschinkel. August. 192 



Tschudi, Hans, 198 

Umelechy mcsicnik (Artistic Monthly), 

Uphoff, Carl, 103 

Urban, Martin: essay by, 163-6+ 

Valentine, William, 188 and n 

Van den Brucli, Moeller, 60 

Van de Velde, Henry, 1 15 and n, 1 16, 154, 

Van de Velde, Nele, 126 

Venus of Willendorf, 16 

Verhaeren, Emile, 154 

Vienna Secession, 180 

Les Vingt, 154 

Vogt, Paul, 92, 95 

Vijlkerkunde-Museum (Ethnographic 
Museum), Dresden, 23, 114, 169 

Voll, Christoph, 13, 16, 78, 200-205; 
photo of, 202:.4A:(, Ecce Homo, 16, 16. 
21, 201, 204, 205;.4/c( mit TUch, 201, 
2M;Arbeiter,frau mit Kind. 200, 203; 
Arbeiter mit Kind. 200, 202, 203; Der 
Bettler (drawing), 203; Der Settler 
(oak), 17, 200, 203; Familie, 200, 202, 
203; Kinderbegrdbnis, 200, 204 

Von der Heydt, E., 102 

Von Hildebrandt, Adolf, 132 

Von Tiesenhausen, Marie, 132 

Von Unruh, Fritz, 143 

W'alden, Henvarth. 15, 78, 82, 100; photo 
of, 26, 207; portrait of, 26, 26. 207, 209. 
See also Galerie Der Sturm 
Wauer, William, 13, 74, 206-9;.4/fter( 
Bassermann, 206, 208, 209; Rudolf 
Blumner, 206, 208, 209; Herivarth 
Walden, 26, 26, 206, 207, 209 

Wegener, Paul, 69; portrait of. 69 

Weiss, Emil Rudolf. 198 

((frfcfcund exhibition (Cologne 1914), 
82, 142, 150, 182 

Westdeutscher Sonderbund exhibition 
(1912), 142 

Westheim, Paul, 20, 34, 142 

Whitford, Frank, 116 

Wiener Werkstatte, 180 

Wietek, Gerhard: essays by, 92-93, 
168-69, 182-84, 188-89 

Wigman, Mary, 15n, 198 

Willrich, Wolfgang, 100 

Wdlfflin, Heinrich, 82 

Wolff, Kurt, 188 

Wolfradt, Willy, 142 

Wood: Expressionists' use of, 14,21,22- 
25, 47-48, 60, 86, 92, 114, 130, 183 

World War I; effect on Expressionists, 
13, 14, 17, 19, 22. 39, 60, 93, 137, 143, 
183, 192, 210 

World War II, 17,150 

Worpswede artists' colony, 188, 196 

Wiirzbach, Walter, 75 

Zadkine, Ossip, 210-ll;//(ofc und seine 
Freunde, 22, 22; Prophet, 21, 210, 211 

Zeit-Echo, 82 

Der Ziegelbrenner, 192 

Zweig, Arnold, 183 


County of Los Angeles 

Board of Supendsors, 1983 

Michael D. Antonovich 

Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 

Board of Trustees, Fiscal 1985-84 

Mrs. F. Daniel Frost 

Deane Dana 

Edmund D. Edelman 

Kenneth Hahn 

Peter F. Schabarum 

Harry L. Hufford 

Chief Administrative Officer 

and Director of Personnel 

Julian Ganz, Jr. 

Norman Barker, Jr. 


Eric Lidow 

Charles E. Ducommun 

Mrs. Harry Wetzel 

Donald Spuehler 

Honorary' Life Trustees 
Mrs. Freeman Gates 
Mrs. Alice Heeramaneck 
Joseph B. Roepfli 
Mrs. Rudolph Liebig 
Mrs. Lucille Ellis Simon 
John Walker 
Mrs. Herman Weiner 

Mrs. Howard Ahmanson 
William H. Ahmanson 
Howard P. Allen 
Robert 0. Anderson 
Mrs. Anna Bing Arnold 
R. Stanton Avei7 
Daniel N. Belin 
Mrs. Lionel Bell 
B. Gerald Cantor 
Edward W. Carter 
Hans Cohn 
Justin Dart 
Joseph P. Downer 

Richard J. Flamson iii 
Arthur Gilbert 
Stanley Grinstein 
Dr. Armand Hammer 
Felix Juda 

Mrs. Howard B. Keck 
Harry Lenart 
Robert F. Maguire in 
Mrs. David H. Murdock 
Dr. F'ranklin D. Murphy 
Mrs. Edwin VV. Pauley 
Sidney R. Petersen 
Henry C. Rogers 
Richard E. Sherwood 
Nathan Smooke 
Ray Stark 
Hal B. Wallis 
Frederick R. Weisman 
Dr. Charles Z. Wilson, Jr. 
Robert Wilson 

Earl A. Powell in 



This beautifully illustrated book is the first 
comprehensive examination of the German 
Expressionist sculpture created during Ihr 
first part of this century. It includes more 
than one hundred fifty sculptures in wood, 
bronze, stone, plaster, and porcelain by 
thirty-three artists, as well as many related 
graphic works. Among the artists repre- 
sented are Barlach, Beckmann, Heckel, 
KJrchner, KoUwilz, Lehmbruck, Schielf 
and Schmidt-Rottluff, as well as lesser 
known artists from the second wave of 
German Expressionism, such as Garbe, 
Henning, Karsch, Seiwert, and Voll. Essa,\.s 
discussing the sculpture of each artist ha\ c 
been contributed by noted German and 
American scholars. 

Translations of seven contemporary arti- 
cles on sculpture by important Expression- 
ist critics and artists appear here for the 
first time, and documentary photographs ol 
both extant and destroyed works- used 
throughout the catalogue-further enhaiico 
appreciation and understanding of the 
sculpture and its' original context. 

The introductory essay by Stephanie . 
Barron gives a critical overview of German 
Expressionist sculpture, affording the 
reader insight into the artists' concerns and 
evoking the cultural milieus of the era.