Skip to main content

Full text of "The Germania & Agricola...: With Notes..."

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was prcscrvod for gcncrations on library shclvcs bcforc it was carcfully scanncd by Googlc as part of a projcct 

to make the world's books discoverablc onlinc. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to cxpirc and thc book to cntcr thc public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subjcct 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expircd. Whcthcr a book is in thc public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, cultuie and knowledge that's often difficult to discovcr. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this flle - a reminder of this book's long journcy from thc 

publishcr to a library and fmally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Googlc is proud to partncr with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to thc 
public and wc arc mcrcly thcir custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken stcps to 
prcvcnt abusc by commcrcial partics, including placing lcchnical rcstrictions on automatcd qucrying. 
Wc also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use ofthefiles Wc dcsigncd Googlc Book Scarch for usc by individuals, and wc rcqucst that you usc thcsc filcs for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrainfivm automated querying Do nol send aulomatcd qucrics of any sort to Googlc's systcm: If you arc conducting rcscarch on machinc 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a laige amount of tcxt is hclpful, plcasc contact us. Wc cncouragc thc 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each flle is essential for informingpcoplcabout thisprojcct and hclping thcm lind 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatcvcr your usc, rcmember that you are lesponsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
bccausc wc bclicvc a book is in thc public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countrics. Whcthcr a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and wc can'l offer guidance on whether any speciflc usc of 
any speciflc book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearancc in Googlc Book Scarch mcans it can bc uscd in any manncr 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Googlc's mission is to organizc thc world's information and to makc it univcrsally acccssiblc and uscful. Googlc Book Scarch hclps rcadcrs 
discovcr thc world's books whilc hclping authors and publishcrs rcach ncw audicnccs. You can scarch through thc full icxi of ihis book on thc wcb 

at || 



Har1aie83'8 Introductory Latin Book intended as an Elementary 
Drill-Book on the Inflectious and Principles of the Langaa^e. 

— p« JsLfin nm.mmar fnr Sr.hnnUi And-CnWpiarM. HAviflAd 





« / li ^ » 

Presented to the riiiverslty of Michlgan by Mrs. Frieze ^ 

h and her dauRhters, July, 1890. 

JNores, i/Tiucai ana isxpranaTory; a L.encon, licograpnicai «na 
Ilistorical iDdexe^, and a Map of Gaul. By J. A. Spencer, D. D. 
1^0. 408 pages. 

Cicero'8 Select Orations. With Notes for the nse of Schools and 

Colleges. By E. A. Johnson, Profettsor of Latin in the Unlver- 

Bity of New York. 13mo. 459 pages. 
Cicero de Officiis. With English Notcs, mostly tranelated from 

Zamp and Bonnell. By Thomas A. TnACHSR, of Yale College. 

12mo. 194 pages. 

/ ~ 

/ , 

Horaoe, The Works of. With EngllBh Notes, for the nse 
Schools and Colleges. By J. L. Limcoln, Profes>8or of Latin 
Langaage and Literatnre in Brown University. 13mo. 675 pages. 

Livy. Selectiona frum the flrst flve books, together witb the twen- 
ty-flrst and twenty-second books entire. With a Plan of Rome, 
and a Map of the Paseage of Hannibal, and English Notes for 
the nse of Schools. By J. L. Lincoln, Prof. of the Latin Lan- 
gnage and Literatnre in Brown UniYen>ity. 12roo. 329 pages. 

QuintnB Cnrtilis: Life and Exploits of Alexander the Grcat. 
Edited aiid illastrated witb Engli«>h Notes, by Wilijam Henby 
Cbosbt. 12mo. 886 pages. 

8allast'8 Jagortha and Catilina. With Notes and a Yocabu- 

lary. By Butlbb and Stubgus. 12mo. 897 pages. 

It is believed that this will be fonnd snperior to any edition 
heretofore pnblished in this coniitry. 

The Histories of Tacitns. With Notes for Colleges. By W. S. 

Ttleb, Professor of Latin and Oreek in Amherst College. 

12mo. 453 pages. 
TaoitnB^B Germania and Agrioola. With Notes for Colleges. 

By W. S. Ttlbb. 12mo. 198 pages. 
Virgil'8 JEneid.* With Ezplanatory Notes. By Henbt Fbiezb, 

Professor of Latin in tbe State University of Michigan. (Re- 

cently pnblished.) 12mo. 698 pages. 

The type is nnnsnally large and di(>tinct. The work contains 
eighty-flve engravlngs, whicb delineate the nsages. cnstoms. weap- 
ons, arts, and mytbology of tbe ancients, with a Yiyiducss tnatcan 
be attaiued only by pictoiial illustrations. 


A First Greek Book* and Introdnctory Beader. By A. 

IIarkness, Ph.D., author of "ArnoWs First Latin Book.' 

*'Secnud Latin Booli," etc. (Becently published.) 12mo. 

ActS of the Apostles, according'to the text of Augustus IIaiin. 

With Noies and a Lexicon by Johk J. Owen, D.D., LL. D. 

With Map. l2mo. 
Amold'8 First Oreek Book,* on the Plan of the First Latin 

Book. 12mo. 297 pages. 
tlmold'8 Fractical Introdnction to Oreek Prose Composi- 

lion.* 12mo. 297 pages. 

' Second Part to the ahove.* i2mo. 248 pascs. 




- \ i i .' > 









649 & 661 BROADWAY. 


Sirzmi^ Meording to Act of Oongrees, In tbe jeer 1860; by 


In the GlerlB Offloe of the Distiict Gonrt for tbe Soatberti Distrlet oC 




^^^^i^^^^rf^W %^.^^^*^ 

rius ecQtloii of the Germania and Agricola of Tacitus is 
designed to ineet the following wants, which, it is believed, 
have been generally felt by teachers and pupils in American 

1. A Latin text, approved and established by the essentiai con- 
currence of all the more recent editors. The editiOns of Tacitus 
now in use in this country abound in readings purely conjectu- 
ral, adopted without due regard to the peculiarities of the author, 
and in dircct contravention of the critical canon, that, other 
things being equal, the more dif&cult reading is the more likely 
to be genuine. The recent German editions labor to exhibit and 
e3q)lain, so far as possible, the reading of the best MSS. 

2. A more copious illustration of the grammatical construc- 
rions, also of the rhetorical and poetical usages peculiar to 
Tacitus, without translating,. however, to such an extent as to 
fiupersede the proper exertions of the student. Few books 
require so much illustration of this kind, as tiie Germania and 
Agricola of Tacitus ; few have received more in Germany, yet 
few so little here. In a writer so concise and abrupt as Tacitus, 
it has been deemed necessary to pay particular regard to the 
connexion of thought, and to the particles, as the hinges of tliat 

3. A comparison of the writer and his cotemporaries witfa 
authors of the Augustan age, so as to mark concisely the 
changes which had been already wrought in the language and 
taste of the Roraan people. It is chiefly with a view to aid such 
% coraparison, that it has been thought advisable to prefix a Lift) 

ul Tacitus, which is barren indeed of personal incidents, bnt 
which it is hoped may serve to exhibit the author in his relation 
to the history, and especially to the literature, of his age. 

4. The department in which less remained to be done than 
any other, for the elucidation of Tacitus, was that of Geography. 
History, and ArchsDology. The copious notes of Gordon and 
Murphy left little to be desired in this line ; and these notes are 
not only accessible to American scholars in their original forms, 
but have been incorporated, more or less, into all the college 
editions. If any peculiar merit attaches to this edition, ui this 
Hepartment, it wili be found in the frequent references to such 
classic authors as furnish collateral information, and in the 
illustration of the private life of the Romans, by the help of such 
recent works as Becker'8 Gallus. The editor has also been 
able to avail himself of Sharon Turner's History of the Anglo 
Saxons, which sheds not a little light on the manners of the 

6. Many of the ablest commentories on the Germania and 
Agricola have appeared witliin a comparatively recent period, 
some of them remarkable examples of critical acumen and 
exegetical tact, and others, models of school and college 
editions. It has been the endeavor of the editor to bring down 
the literature pertaining to Tacitus to the present time, and to 
embody in small compass the most valnahle results of the 
labors of such recent German editors as Grimm, Giinther, 
Gruber, Kiessling, Dronke, Roth, Ruperti, and Walther. 

The text is, in the main, that of Walther, though the otlieir 
editors just named have been consulted; and in such minor 
diflefences as exist between them, I have not hesitated to adopt 
the reading which seemed best to accord with the nsage and 
genius of Tacitus, especially when sanctioned by a decided pre- 
ponderance of critical sufOrage. Other readings have been 
referred to in the Notes, so far as they are of any considerable 
importance, or supported by respectable authority. Partly for 
eonvenience, but chiefly as a matter of taste, I have vcntured 
to foUow the German editions in dispensing entirely with diacri 
tical marks, and in some peculiarities of less importance, which 
if not viewed with favor, it is hoped, wili not be judged witk 


leverily. The punctuation is the result of a diligent comparison 
of the best editions, together with a careful study of the con 
nexion of language and of thought. 

The German editions above mentioned, together with sevenu 
French, English, and American works, have not only been con- 
fitantly before me, but have been used with great freedom, and 
credit awarded to them accordingly. Some may think their 
names should have appeared less frequently; others that they 
fihould have received credit to a still greater extent Suffice i\ 
to say, I have never intended to quote the language, or borrow 
the thoughts of an author, without giving his name ; and in mat- 
ters of fjEu^t or opinion, I have cited authorities not only when I 
have been indebted to them for the suggestion, but whenever, in 
a case of coincidence of views, I thought the authorities would 
be of any interest to the student. « 

I have not considered it needful, with German scrupulosity, td 
distinguish between my own references and those of others. It 
may safely be taken for granted, that the major, perhaps the bet- 
ter, part of them have been derived from foreign sources. But 
no references have been admittg^ on trust. They hava Leen care* 
fully verified, and it is hoped that numerous as thcy are, they 
wiU be found pertinent and useful, whether illustratiie of things, 
or of mere verbal usage. Some, who use th^. oook, will doubtlesB 
find occasion to follow them out either in whole or in part ; and 
those who do not, will gain a general impression as to the sourceti 
from which collateral information may be obtained, that will be 
of no small value. 

The frequent references to the Notes of Pii>fessor Eingsley» 
will show the estimatlon in which I hold them. Perhaps I havc 
used them too freely. My only apology is, that so far as they 
go, they are just what is wanted ; and if I had avoided using 
them to a considerable extent, I must have substituted something 
less perfect of my own. Had they been more copious, and 
extended more to verbal and grammatical illustrations, thcse 
Notes never would have appeared. 

The editor is convinced, from his experience as a teacher, 
that the student of Tacitus will not master the difficultiet, or 
appreciate the merits, of so peculiar an author, unless his 


peculiarities are distincily pointed out and explained. Indecx^ 
tbe student, in reading any classic author, needs, not to be 
carried along on the broad shoulders of an indiscriminate trans- 
lator, but to be guided at everj step in learning his lessons, 
by a judicious annotator, who will remove his difficulties, and 
aid his progress ; who will pgint out to him what is worthy of 
attention, and guafd him against the errors to which he is con« 
stantly exposed ; for first impressions are lively and permanent, 
tnd the errors of the study, even though corrected in the reci- 
tation, not unfrequently leave an impression on.the mind which 
is never efliiced. 

Besides the aid derived from books, to which the merit of this 
edition, if it have any merit, will be chiefly owing, the editor 
takes this opportunity to acknowledge his many obligations to 
those professors and other IRerary gentlemen, who have extended 
to him assistance and encouragement To Prof. H. B. Hackett, 
of Newton Theological Seminary, especially, he is indebted for 
favors, which, numerous and invaluable in themselves, as the 
results of a singularly zealous and successful devotion ta 
classical leaming, are doubly grateful as the tokens of a per- 
sonal friendship, which began when we were members of 
the same class in college. The work was commenced at his 
suggestion, and has been carried forward with his constant 
advice and co-operation. His ample private library, and, 
through his influence, the library of the Seminary, have 
been placed at my disposal ; and the notes passed under his eye 
and were improved in not a few particulars, at his suggestion, 
though he is in no way responsible for their remaining imper- 
fections. I have also received counsel and encouragement 
\n all my labors from my esteemed colleague, Prof. N. W. 
Fiske, whose instructions in the same department which has 
since been committed to my charge, first taught me to love the 
Greek and Latin classics. I have only to regret that his ill health 
and absence from the country have preveuted me from deriving 
still greater advantages from his leaming and taste. An unfore- 
seen event has, in like manner, deprived me of the expected co- 
operation of Prof. Lyman Coleman, now of Nassau Hall College 
in N. J., in conccrt with wh:m this work was planned, and waa 


to nave been executed, and on whose ripe scholarship, and 
fiuniliaritjr with the Gennan kmguage and literatnre, I chiefly 
relied for its successful accomplishment 

I should not do justice to my feelings, were I to omit the 
expression of my obligations to the printer and publishers for 
the unwearied patience with which they have labored to perfect 
the work, under all the disadvantages attending the superin- 
tendance of the press, at such a distance. If there should stiU 
be found in it inaccuracies and blemishes, it will not be because 
they have spared any pains to make it a correct and beautiful 

It is with unfeigned diffidence that l submit to the public this 
first attempt at literary labor. I am fully sensible of ita 
many imperfections, at the same time I am conscious of an ability 
to make it better at some future day, should it meet the favor- 
able regard of the classical teachers of our land, to whom it is 
dedicated as an humble contribution to that cause in which 
tLey are now laboring, with such unprecedented zeal. Should 
it contribute in any measure to a better understanding, or a 
higher appreciation by our youthful countrymen of a ckssie 
author, from whom, beyond almost any other, I have drawn in 
struction and delight, I shail not have labored in vain. 

JtnkerH CoUegt, June 1, 1847. 


^ •» 

TnB text of this edition hos been carefully revised and coiu- 
pared with those of Doderlein, Halle, 1847, Orelli, Zarioh, 
1848, and Kitter, Bonn and Cambridge, 1848. The notei 
also have been re-examined and, to a considerable extent, 
re-written ; partly to correspond with the progress of my 
own mind, partly in accordance with snggestions derived 
from the above named editions, and from friendly criticisms 
either by letter or in the publio journals. Among the jour- 
nals, I am particularly indebted to the Bibliotheca Sacra and 
the Kew-Englander ; and for communications by letter, I am 
under especial obligations to Professors Grosby and Sanborn 
of Dartmouth College, Bobbins of Middlebury, and Lincolu 
of Brown University. 

In revising the geography of the Germania, I have con- 
eulted, without however entering much into detail, Ukerfs 
invaluable treatise on the Geography of the Greeks and 
Romans, whose volume on Germany contains a translation 
and running commentary on almost the entire work ol 
Tacitue. Particular attention has been paid to the ethnology 
of the tribes and nations, in reference to whose origin and 
early history Tacitus is among the best authorities. In this 


'department tbe works of Prichard and Latham have beeQ 
my cbief reliance. Grimm and Zenss, thongb often referred 
to, I regret to say I bave been able to consolt only at second 

* hand. 

In sending ont tbis revised edition of these most deh'ght- 
ful treatises of an antbor, in the study of wbbse works I 
never tire, I cannot bnt express tbe hope, that it has been 
Dot a little improved by these alterations and additions, while 
it wiU be fonnd to have lost none of the essential featurei 
by whicb the first edition was commended to so good a 
measure of public favor 

W. S. TTUtt. 

Amke^ J/iiy, 186i 


It iB the olEce of genius and learning, as of light, to iliustrate 
oCher things, and not itself. The writers, who, of all otheri 
perhaps, haye told us most of the worki, just as it has heen 
and is, have told us least of themselvee. Their character we 
may infer, with more or less exactness, from their works, hut 
their history is unwritten and must for ever remain so. Homcr, 
though, perhaps, the only one who has been argued out of 
ezistence, is by no means the only one whose age and birth- 
place have been disputed. The native place of Tacitus is 
mere matter of conjecture. His parentage is not certainly 
known. The time of his birth and the year of his death arc 
ascertained only by approximation, and very few incidents are 
recorded in the history of his life ; still we know the period is 
which he lived, the influences under which his character was 
developed and matured, and the circumstances under which he 
wrote his immortal works. In short, we know his times^ 
tfaough we can scarcely gather up enough to denominate his 
Ufe; and the times in which an author lived, are often an 
important, not to say, essential means of elucidating his 

Caius Cornelius Tacitus was bom in the early part of the 
reign of Nero, and near the middle of the first century in the 
Christian Era. The probability is, tliat he was the son of 
CoroeliuB Tacitus, a man of equestrian rank, and procurator 
af Belgic Gaul under Nero ; that he was bom at Interamni 


in Umbria, and that he received a part of his educatlon at 
Massilia (the modem Marseilles), which was then the Athens 
of the West, a Giecian colony, and a seat of truly Grecian 
cultnre and refinement. It is not improbable that he enjoyed 
also the instructions of Quintilian, who for twenty years taught 
at Rome that pure and manly eloquence, of which his Institutes 
fumish at once such perfect rules, and so fine an example. 
If we admit the Dialogue de Claris Oratoribus to be the work of 
Tacitus, his- beau-ideal of the education proper for an orator 
was no less comprehensive, no less elevated, no less liberal, 
than that of Cicero himself ; and if his theory of education 
was, like Cicero's, only a transcript of his own education, he 
must have been discipUned early in all the arts and sciences — 
in all the departments of knowled^ which were then cultivated 
at Rome ; a conclusion in which we are confirmed also by the 
accurate and minute acquaintance which he shows, in his other 
works, with all the afllairs, whether civil or military, public or 
private, literary or religious, both of Greece and Rome. 

The boyhood and youth of Tacitus did, indeed, fall on evil 
times. Monsters in vice and crime had fiHed the throne, till 
their morals and manners had infected those of all tlie people. 
The state was iistracted, and apparently on the eve of dissolu- 
tion. The public taste, like the general conscience, was 
perverted. The fountains of education wer« poisoned. 
Degenerate Grecian masters were inspiring their Roman 
pupils with a relish for a flEdse science, a frivolous htyature, a 
vitiated eloquence, an Epicurean creed, and a voluptuous life. 
' But with sufficient discemment to see the follies and vicea 
of hifl age, and with sufficient virtue to detest them, Tacitus 
miist have found his love of wisdom and goodness, of liberty 
and law, strengthened by the veiy disorders and faults of thd 
tiines. If the patriot ever bves a well-regnlated Ireedom, it 


wiU be in and afler the reign of a tyraut, preceded or followed 
by what Ib Btill worse, anarchy. If the pure and the good 
ever reverence purity and goodness, it wiU be amid the general 
prevalence of vice and crime. If the sage ever pants after 
wisdom, it is when the fountains of knowledge have become 
corruptedv The reigns of Nero and his inunediate successors 
were probably the very school, of all others, to which we an 
moBt indebted for the comprehensive wisdom, the elevated 
sentiments, and the glowing eloquence of the biographer of 
Agricola, and the historian of the Roman Empire. His youth 
saw, and felt, and deplored the disastrous efiects of Nero'9 
inhuman despotism, and of the anarchy attending the civil 
wars of Cralba, Otho, and Vitellius. His manhood saw, and 
felt, and exulted in the contrast fumished by the reigns of 
Vespasian and Titus, though the sun of the latter too soon 
went down, in that long night bf gloom, and blood, and terror, 
the tyranny of Domitian. And when, in the reigns of Nerva 
and Trajan, he enjoyed the rare felicity of thinking what Le 
pleased, and speaking what he thought, he was just fitted in 
the maturity of his faculties, and the extent of his observation 
and reflections, " to enroll slowly, year after year, that dreadful 
reality of crimes and sufierings, which even dramatic horror, 
in all its license of wild imagination, can scarcely reach, the 
long unvarying catalogue of tyrtmts and executioners, and 
victims that retum thanks to the gods anJ die, and accusers 
rich with their blood, and more mighty aa more widely hated, 
amid the multitudes of prostrate slaves, still looking whether 
there may not yet have escaped some lingering virtue wLich 
it may be a merit to destroy, and h«iring scarcely leisure co 
fee. even the agonies of remorse in the continued flense of chc 
precariousness of their own gloomy existence."* 

• • Brown'8 Philosophy of the Mind 


Tacitus was educated for the bar, and continued to plead 
eauses, occasionally at least, and with not a littie success, 
even af)er he had entered upon the great business of his life, 
as a writer of history. We find references to his first, and 
perhaps his last appearance, as an advocate, in the Letters of 
Piiny, j\rhich are highly complimentary. Tbe first was, when 
Pliny was nineteen, and Tacitus a little older (bow much we 
are not informed), when Tacitus distinguished himself, so as 
to awaken the emulation and the envy, though not in a bad 
senso, of Pliny. The last was some twenty years later, when 
Tacitus and Pliny, the tried friends of a whole life, the brightest 
ornaments of literature and of the forum, were associated by 
the choice of the Senate, and pleaded together at the bar of 
the Senate, and in tbe presence of the Emperor Trajan, for 
the execution of justice upon Marius Priscus, who was 
accused of mal-administration in the proconsulship of Africa. 
Pliny says, that Tacitus spoke with singular grayity and 
eloquence, and the Senate passed a unanimous vote of appro- 
bation and thanks to both the orators, for the ability and suc- 
cess with which they had managed the prosecution (Plin. 
Epis. ii. 11). 

We have also the conunents of Pliny on a panegyrical 
oration, which Tacitus pronounced, whcn consul, upon his 
predecessor in the consular office, Verginius Rufus, perhaps 
the most remarkable man of his age, distinguished alike as 
a hero a statesman, and a scholar, and yet so modest or so 
wise that he repeatedly refused the ol^r of the imperial purple. 
** Fortune," says Pliny, " always faithful to Verginius, reserved 
for her last favor, such an orator to pronounce a eulogium on 
sacli virtues. It was enough to crown the glory of a weU 
tjwnt life" (Plin. Epis. ii. 1). 

The speeches in the historical works of Tacitus, thoagli 


nther conciso and abstract for popular orations, are full of 
fbrce and iire. Some of them are truly DemoGthenic in tlieii 
impassioned and fiery logic. Tbe specch of Galgacus before 
the Briton army, when driven into the extremity of Caledonia 
by the Romans under Agricola, can hardly be surpassed fof 
patriotic sentiments, vigorous reasoning, and buming invectire. 
The address of Germanicus to his mutinous soldiers (in the 
AnnaDs) is not less remarkable for tender pathos. The sage 
and yet soldierlike address of the aged Galba to his sdopted 
son Piso, the calm and manly speech of Piso to the body guard, 
the artful harangue of the demagogue Otho to his troops, the 
no less crafty address of Mucianus to Vespasian, the headlong 
rapidity of Antonius' argument for immediate action, the 
plausible plea of Marcellus Eprius against the honest attack 
of Helvidius Priscus, and the buming rebukes of the intrcpid 
Vocula to his cowardly and treacherous followers — all these, 
in the Histories,8hownoordinary degree of rhetorical skill and 
versatility. Indeed, the entire body of his works is animated 
with the spirit of the orator, as it is tinged also with the color- 
ing of the poet. For this reason, they are doubtless deficient 
in the noble simplicity of the earlier classical histories; but 
fcr the same reai^n they may be a richer treasure for tlie 
professional men a; least of modem times. 

Of his marriage with the daughter of Agricola, and its 
influence on his charactcr and prospects, as also of his passing 
in regular gradation through the series of public honors &t 
Rome, beginning with the quaestorsjiip under Vespasian, and 
ending with the consulship under Nerva, Tacitus informs us 
himself (A. 9, His. i. 1), barely alluding to them, however, in 
the general, and leaving all the oetails to mere conjecture. We 
leam to onr surprise, that he not only escaped the jealousy 
9f the tyrant Domitian, but w&s even promoted by him to the 


office of Quindeciinvir and Praetor (Ann. ii. 11). Beyond 
these vague notices, we know little or nothing of his course 
of lifo, except tbat Pliny says (Epist. iv. 13), he was much 
esteemed by the learned and the great at Rome, who wcnt in 
crowds to hls levees. Of the time of his death, we can only 
conjecture, that he died before the Emperor Trajan, but afler 
his friend Pliny — ^the former, because, had he outlived the 
Emperor, he would probably have executed his purpose of 
writing the history of his reign (His. i. 1) ; the latter, because, 
if he had not survived his friend, Pliny, who lamented the 
death of so many others, would not have failed to pay the last 
tribute to the memory of Tacitus. 

It is generally admitted, though without direct testimony, 
that Tacitus died not witliout issue. That excellent princoi 
M. Claudius Tacitus, deduced his pedigree from the historiau, 
and ordered his imagt) to be set up, and a complete collection 
of his works to be placed in the public archives, with a special 
direction that twelve copies should be made every year at the 
public expense. It is greatly to be regretted that such praise« 
worthy precautions should have failed to preserve for us that 
treasure entire! 

The age of Tacitus is usually styled the silver age of Roman 
literature; and it merits no higher title, when compared 
with the golden age of Augustus. It*was the good fortune 
of Augustus to gain the supremacy at Rome, when society 
had reached its maximum of refinement, and was just ready to 
enter upon its stage of corruption and decline. Hence his 
name is identified with that proud era in literature, in producing 
which he bore at best only an accidental and secondaiy part 
In the literature of the Augustan age, we admire the substance 
of leaming and philosophy without the show, the cultivation 
of taste without the parade of criticism, the £BBcination of poetr| 


M^ithout its corruption, and the use of eloquence witiiout iti 
abuse. Grecian Tefinement was no longer despised ; Grecian 
effeminacy had not yet pre^^ailed. The camp was not now the 
bome of the Romans ; neitner were the theatres and the schools. 
They had ceased lo be a nation of soldiers, and had not yet 
become a nation of - slaves. At no other period could Rome 
have had her Cicero, her Livy, and her Virgil. 

The silver age produced no men who '< attained unto these 
first three." But there are not wanting other bright names to 
associate with Tacitus, though most of them lived a little 
sarlier than he. There was Seneca, the Philosopher, whose 
style, with its perpetual antitheses, is the very worst of the 
age, but his sentiments, perhaps more or less under the 
influence of Christianity, approach nearer to the Christian code 
of morals than those of any other Latin author. There were 
Martial and Juvenal, whose satires made vice tremble in its 
high places, and helped to confer on the Romans the honor of 
originating one species of literary composition, unknown to 
the Greeks. There were Suetonius and Plutarch ; thc one 
natural, simple, and pure in his style, far beyond his age, but 
without much depth or vigor of thought ; the other involved and 
afiected in his manner, but in his matter of surpassing richness 
and incalculable worth. There wad the elder Plmy, a prodig^ 
of leaming and industry, whose researches in Natural History 
cost him his life, in that fatal eruption of Vesuvius which 
buried Herculaneum and Pompeii. There was also the judicions 
Quintilian, at once neat and nervous in his language, delicate 
and correct in his criticisms, a man of genius and a scholar, a 
teacher and an ezemplar of eloquence. Finally, there were 
the younger Pliny and Tacitus, rival candidates for literary and 
piofessional distinction, yet cherishing for each other the most 
levoted and inviolable attachment, each viewing the other ai 


the omament of their country, each urging the other to wrltt 
the history of their age, and each relying chiefly on the gcnius 
of the other for his own immortality (Piin. Epis. vii. 33). 
Their names were together identified by their contemporaries 
with the literature of the age of Trajan : " I never was touched 
with a more sensible pleasure," says Plinyi ii^ one of his beauti- 
ful Letters^ (which rival Cicero's in epistolary ease and elegance), 
^than by an account which I lately received from ComeliuB 
Tacitus. He informed me, that at the last Circensian Games, he 
sat next a stranger, who^ after much discourse on various topics 
of leaming, asked him whether he was an Italian or a Provincial. 
Tacitus replied, ' Your acquaintance with literature must have 
informed you who I am.' 'Aye,' said the man, 'is it then 
Tacitus or Pliny I am talking with?' I cannot express how 
nighly I am pleased to find, that our names are not so much 
the proper appellations of individuals, as a designation of learn- 
ing itself " (Plin. Epis. ix. 23). Critics are not agreed to 
which of these two literary friends belongs the delicate encomium 
of Quintilian, when, afler enumerating the principal writers of 
the day, he adds, ^ There is another omament of the age, who 
will deserve the admiraticm of posterity. I do not mention him 
at present ; his name wiU be known hereafter." Pliny, Tacitus, 
and Quintilian, are abo rival candidates for the honor of having 
written the Dialogue de Claris Oratoribus, one of the most 
valuable productions in ancient criticism. 

As a writer, Tacitus was not free &om the faults of his age. 
The native simplicity of Greek and Latin composition had 
passed away. An afiected point and an artificial brilliancy 
were substituted in their place. The rhetoric and philosoph^r 

* Eleven of tbese are addressed to Tacitus, and two or three 
are written expressly for the purpose of fumishing materiaU foi 
his hiftory. 


9t the schools had infected all the departments of litcr&ture 
Simple narrative nb longer suited the pampered taste of the 
readers or the \iriters of history. It must be highly seasoned 
with sentimentalism and moralizing, with romance and poetry. 
Tacitus, certainly, did not escape the infection. In the lan« 
guage of Macaulay, " He carries his love of ef^t far beyond 
the limits of moderation. He tells a fine story finely, but he 
cannot tell a plain story plainly. He stimulates, till stimulants 
lose their power."^ We have taken occasion in the notes to 
point out not a few ezamples of rhetorical pomp, and poetical 
coloring, and even needless multiplication of words, where 
plainness and precision would have been much better, and 
which may well surprise us in a writer of so much conciseness. 
Lord Monboddo, in a very able, though somewhat eztravagant 
critique on Tacitus, has selected numerous instances of what 
he calls the omamented dry style, many of which are so concise, 
80 rough, and so broken, that he says, they do not deserve the 
name of composition, but seem rather like the raw materials of 
history, than like history itself (Orig. and Prog. of Lang., vol 
iii. chap. 12). 

Still, few readers can fail to pronounce Tacitus, as Macaulay 
affirms, and even Lord Monboddo admits him to be, the greatest 
of Latin historians, superior to Thucydides himself in the 
moral painting of his best narrative scenes, and in tho delinea^ 
tion of character without a rival among historians, with scarcely 
a superior among dramatists and novelists. The common style 
of his narrative is, indeed, wanting in simplicity, and some- 
times in perspicuity. He does not deal enough in the spocific 
and the picturesque, the where, the when and the how. But 
when his gubject comes up to the grandeur of his conceptiona, 

* See a fine article cn history, Ed. Rev., 1828. AIbg io 
Macaulay's Miscellanie». 


ftnd the strength of his language, his descriptions are grmphic 
and powerful. No battle scenes are more grand and terrific 
than those of Tacitus. Military men and scholars have also 
remarked their singular correctness and definiteness. The 
military evolutions, the fierce encounter, the doubtful struggle, 
the altemations of victory and defeat, the disastrous rout and hot 
pursuit, the camage and blood, are set forth with the warrior*8 
accuracy and the poefs fire ; while, at the same time, the 
conflicting passions and embtions of the combatants are dis- 
cemed, as it were, by the eye of a seer — ^their hidden springs 
of action, and the lowest depths of their hearts laid bare, as if 
by the wand of a magician. In the painting of large groups, in 
the moral portiaiture of vast bodies of men under high excite- 
ment and in strenuous exertion, we think that Tacitus far 
Burpasses all other historians. Whether it be a field of battle 
or a captured city, a frightened senate or a flattering court, 
a mutiny or a mob, that he describes, we not only see in a 
dear and strong light the outward actions, but we look into the 
bearts of all the mixed multitude, and gaze with wonder on the 
changing emotions and conflicting passions by which they are 

His delmeations of individual character are also marked by 
the same profound insight into the human soul. Like the old 
Latin Poet, he might have eaid, 

** Homo Bam ; nihil humani a me alienam pnto." 

There is scarcely a landscape picture in his whole gal- 
lery. It is full of portraits of men, in groups and as indivi- 
duals, every grade of condition, eveiy variety of character. 
performing all kinds of actions, exhibiting every huntan passion, 
tbe colors laid on with a bold hand, the principal features 
presented in a strong light, the minuter sfrokes omitted, tlie 


loil and delicate finish despised. We feel, that we have gained 
not a little insight into the chaiacter of those men, who are 
barely introduced in the extant books of Tacitus, but whose 
history is ^ven in the books that are lost Men of inferiox 
rank even, who appear on the stage only for a short time, 
ievelope strongly mai^ed characters, which are drawn witb 
dramatic distinctness and power, while yet the thread of history 
18 never broken, the dignity of history never sacrificed. And 
those Emperors, whose history is preserved entire, — ^with them 
we feel acquainted, we know the controlling principles, as weU 
as the leading events of their iives, and we feel sure that we 
could predict how they would act, under almost any imaginable 

In a fJEuthful portraiture of the private and public life of the 
degenerate Romans, there was much to call for the hand of a 
master in satire, And we find in the glowing sketches of our 
author, all the vigor and point of a Juvenal, without his vulgarity 
and obscenity ; all the buming indignation which the Latin is 
so peculiarly capable of expressing, with all the vigor and 
stateliness by which the same language is equally characterized. 
Tacitus has been sometimes represented as a very Diogenes, 
fof carping and sarcasm — a veiy Aristophanes, to blacken 
character with ridicule and reproach. But he is as £Eir removed 
from the cynic or tho bufibon, as from the panegyrist or the 
flatterer. He is not the indiscriminate admirer that Plutarch 
was. Nor is he such a universal hater as Sallust It is the 
&ult of the times that he is obliged to deal so much in censure. 
If there ever were pSrfect monsters on earth, such were sevoral 
of the Roman Emperors. Yet Tacitus describes «few, if any, 
of them without some of the traits of humanity. He gives ua 
in his history neither demons nor gods, but veritable men and 
Women. In this respect, as also in his descriptions of battles* 


Tacitus is decidedly superior to Livy. Tlie charactcrs of Uvj 
are distinguishable only as classes — the good all very good. 
the bad very bad, the indiflferent very indifferent You dis- 
cover no important difierence between a Fabius and a Marccllus, 
further than it lies on the face of their actions. In Tacitus, 
the characters are all individuals. Each stands out distinctly 
from the surrounding multitude, and not only performs his 
own proper actions, but is govemed by his own peculiar 
motives. Livy places before us the statues of heroes and 
gods ; Tacitus conducts us through the crcwd of living men. 

In an attempt to sketch the most striking features of Tacitus, 
as a writer, no critic can omit to mention his sage and pithy 
maxims. Apothegms abound on every page— sagacious, tmth* 
ful, and profound in sentiment, in style concise, antithetic and 
sententious. Doubtless he is excessively fond of pointed 
antithesis. Perhaps he is too much given to moralizing and 
reflection. It was, as we have said, the*fault of his age. But 
uo one, who is &miliar with Seneca, will severely censure 
Tacitus. He will only wonder that he should have ri^en so 
&x above the faults of his contemporaries. Indeed, Tacitus 
interweaves his reflections with so much propriety, and clothes 
his apothegms with so much dignity — ^he is so manifestly com- 
petent to instruct the world by maxims, whether in civil, social^ 
or indi^idual Jife, that we are far from wishing he had indulged 
in it less. His reflections do not interrupt the thread of his 
narrativc. They grow naturally out of his incidents. They 
break forth spontaneously from the lips of his men. His 
history is indeed philosophy teaching bjp examples ; and hls 
pithy sayings are truly lessons of wisdom, embodied in the 
Ibrm most likely to strike the attention, and impress the 
memory. We should love to see a collection of apothegma 
&0OI the pen of Tacitus. It would make an admirable book 


of laconics. No book would give you more ideas in fewef 
words. Nowhere could you gain so much knowledge, and 
lose 80 little time. The reader of Tacitus, who will study him 
with pen in hand, to mark, or refer to the most striking pas« 
sages, will soon find himself master of a text book in moral 
and political science, we might say a text book in human 
nature, singularly concise and sententious, and what is not 
always trne even of concise and sententious writers, as singularly 
wise and profound. In such a book, many of the speeckes would 
find a place entire; for many of them are little else than 
a series of condensed, well-timed, and most instructive 

But the scholar, who is on the lookout, will find lurking in 
every section, and almost every sentence, some important truth 
in morals, in poUtics, in the individual or social nature of man. 
Ncither the editor nor the teacher can be expected to develope 
these sentiments, nor even, in many instances, to point them 
out That labor must be performed by the scholar; and his 
wiU be the reward. 

No hasty perusal, no single reading of Tacitus, will give a 
just conception of the surpassing richness of his works. They 
must be studied profoundly to be duly appreciated. They are 
a mine of wisdom, of vast extent and unknown depth, whose 
treasures lie chiefly beneath the sur&ce, imbedded in the solid 
rock which must be entered with mining' implements, explored 
with strong lights, and its wealth brought up by severe toil 
and eweat. 

* E g the speech of Galba to Pi<m His. i. 15, l<i. 





Crip. 1. Germaniae 8itus : 2. incolae indigenae: aactores geL 
tis : nominis origo : Hercules. 3. Baritus : ara Ulixis. 4 
Germani, gens sincera: habitus corporum. 5. Terrae natu- 
ra: non aurum, non argentum, nec aestimatam. 6. Ger* 
manorum arma, equitatus, peditatus, ordo militiae: 7. reges, 
duccs, sacerdotes : 8. feminarum virtus et veneratio : Ve- 
leda: Aurinia. 9. dii, sacra, simulacra nuUa. 10. Auspicia, 
sortes : ex. equis, e captivo praesagia. 11. Consnltationes 
publicac ct conventus. 12. Accusationes, poenae, jus reddi» 
tum. 13. Scuto frameaque omati juvenes, principum comi- 
tes: eonim virtus et fama. 14. Gentis bellica studia. 15. 
\n pace, venatio, otium : Collata principibus munera. 16. 
Urbes nullae : vici, domus, specus sufugium hiemi et recep- 
tarulum frugibus. 17. Vestitus hominum, feminarum. 18. 
Matrimonia severa : dos a marito oblata. 19. Pudicitia. 
Adultehi poena : Monogamia : Liberorum numerus non 
finitus. 20. Liberorum educatio : Successionis leges. 21. 
Patris, propinqui, amicitiae, inimicitiaeque susceptae: homi' 
cidii pretium : Hospitalitas. 22. Lotio, victus, ebriorum 
rixae : consultatio in conviviis. 23. Potus, cibus. 24. 
Spectacula: aleae furor. 25. Servi, libertini. 26. Fenua 
ignotum : Agricultura : Anni tempora. 27. Funera, sepid- 
cra, luctus. 

18. Singularum gentium instituta : Galli, olim valida gens, Xu 


Germaniain transgressi, Helvetii, Boii : Aravisci, Osi, incer« 
tum genus : Germanicae originis populi Treveri, Nervii 
Vangiones, Triboci, Nemeties, Ubii. 29. Batavi, Catlorunj 
prolos : Mattiaci: Decumates agri. 30, 31. Cattorum regiu^ 
habitus, disciplina militaris ; vota, virtutis incentiva. 32. 
Usipii, Tencteri, equitatu praestantes. 33. Bructerorum 
sedes, a Chamavis et Angrivariis occupatae. 34. Dulgibini : 
Chasvari : Frisii. 35. Chauci, pacis studio, justitia, et 
virtute nobiles. 36. Cherusci et Fosi, a Cattis victi. 37. 
Cimbrorum parva civitas, gloria ingens : Romanorum cludes : 
Germani triumphati magis quam victi. 38. Suevorum nu 
merus, mores. 39. Semnonum religio, victimae humanae 

40. Longobardi : Reudigni : Aviones : Angli : Varim : £u 
doses: Suardones: Nuithones: Herthae cultus communis. 

41. Hermunduri. 42. Narisci : Marcomanni : Quadi. 43. 
Marsigni : Gothini : Osi : Burii : Lygiorum civitates, Arii, 
Helvecones, Manimi, Elysii, Naharvali ; horum numen Alcis : 
Gotones : Rugii : Lemovii. 44. Suiones, classibus valentes. 
45. Mare pigrum: Aestyi, Matris Deum cultorcs, succinum 
legunt : Sitonibus feraina imperat 46. Peucini, Venedi, 
Fenni, Germani, an Sarmatae 7 Eorum feritas, paupertaiC : 
Hominum monstra, Hellusii, Oxiones. 

L Germania omnis a Gallis Rhaetisque et Panno 
niis Rheno et Danubio fluminibus, a Sarmatis Daci^- 
que mutuo metu aut montibus separatur; cetera 
Oceanus ambit, latos sinus et insularum immensa 
spatia complectens, nuper cognitis quibusdam genti- 
bus ac regibus, quos bellum aperuit. Rhenus, 
Rhaeticarum Alpium inaccesso ac praecipiti vertice 
ortus, modico flexu in occidentem versus, septentrio- 
nali Oceano miscetur. Danubius, molli et clementei 
edito montis Abnobae jugo effusus, plures populoa 
adit, donec in Ponticum mare sex meatibus erumpat : 
leptimum os paludibus hauritur. 

TI. Ipsos Germanos indigenas crediderim, minime- 


qiie aliarum gentium adventibus et hospitiis mixtos ; 
quia nec terra olim, sed classibus advehebantur, qui 
mutare sedes quacrebant, et immensus ultra, utque 
sic dixerim, adversus Oceanus raris ab orbe nostra 
navibus aditur. Quis porro, praeter periculum horridi 
'et ignoti maris, Asia aut Africa aut Italia relicta, 
Germaniam peteret, informem terris, asperam coelo, 
tristem cultu aspectuque, nisi si patria sit? Celebrant 
carminibus antiquis (quod unum apud illos memoriae 
ct annalium genus est) Tuisconem deum terra editum, 
et filium Mannum, originem gentis conditoresque. 
Manno tres filios assignant, e quorum nominibus proxi- 
mi Oceano Ingaevones, medii Hermiones, ceteri Istae- 
vones vocentur. Quidam autem, ut in licentia vetustatis, 
plures deo ortos pluresque gentis appellationes, Marsos, 
Gambrivios, Suevos, Vandalios, affirmant ; eaque vera 
et antiqua nomina. Ceterum Germaniae vocabulum 
recens et nuper additum ; quoniam, qui primi Rhenum 
transgressi Gallos expulerint, ac nunc Tungri, tunc 
Germani vocati sint : ita nationis nomen, non gen- 
tis evaluisse paulatim, ut omnes. primum a victore ob 
metum, mox a seipsis invento nomine Germani voca- 

III. Fuisse apud eos et Herculem memorant, pri- 
mumque omnium virorum fortium ituri in proelia ca- 
nunt. Sunt illis haec quoque carmina, quorum relatu, 
quem baritum vocant, accendunt animos, futuracque 
pugnae fortunam ipso cantu augurantur : terrent enim 
trepidantve, prout sonuit acies. Ncc tam voccs iilac, 
quam virtutis concentus videntur. AfTectatur prae- 
cipue asperitas soni et fractum murmur, objeclis ad 
03 scutis, quo plenior et gravior vox rcpercussu intu- 
Uiescat. Ceterum et Ulixem quidam opinantur longo 


illo et fabuloso errore in liunc Oceanura delatum, 
adisse Germaniae terras, Asciburgiumque, quod in 
ripa Rheni situm hodieque incolilur, ab illo constitu- 
tum nominatumque. Aram quin etiam Ulixi conse- 
cratam, adjecto Laertae patris nomrne, eodem loco 
olim repertam, monumentaque et tumulos quosdara 
Graecis litteris inscriptos in confinio Germaniae 
Rhaetiaeque adhuc exstare : quae nequc confirmare 
argumentis, neque refellere in animo est : ex ingenio 
8U0 quisque demat, vet^addat iidcm. 

IV. Ipse eonim opinionibus accedo, qui Germaniae 
populos nullis aUis aliarum nationum connubiis infec- 
tos propriam et sinceram et tantum sui similem gen- 
tera exstitisse arbitrantur : unde habitus quoque 
corporum, quanquam in tanto hominum numero, idem 
omnibus ; truces et caerulei oculi, rutilae comae, 
magna corpora et tantum ad impetum valida ; laboris 
atque operum non eadem patientia : minimeque sitira 
aestumque tolerare, frigora atque inediam coelo solove 

V. Terra, etsi aliquanto specie differt, in universum 
tamen aut silvis horrida aut paludibus foeda : humi 
dior, qua Gallias ; ventosior, qua Noricum ac Panno- 
niam aspicit : satis ferax ; frugiferarum arborum 
impaliens : pecorum fecunda, sed plerumque impro- 
cera ; ne armentis quidem suus honor, aut gloria 
frontis : numero gaudent ; eaeque solae et gratissimae 
opes sunt. Argentum et aurum propitii an irati dii 
negaverint, dubito. Nec tamen aflSrmaverim, nuUam 
Germaniae venam argentum aurumve gignere : quis 
enim scrutatus est ? possessione et usu haud perinde 
afficiantur. £st videre apud illos argentea vasa, 
iegatis et priiicipibus eorum muneri data, non in alia 


vililate, quam quae humo finguntur • quanquam piox- 
imi, ob usum commerciorum, aurum et argentum in 
pretio habent, formasque quasdam nostrae pecuniae 
agnoscunt atque eligunt : interiores simplicius et 
antiquius permutatione mercium utuntur. Pecuniam 
orobant veterem et diu notam, serratos bigatosque. 
ArgbTitum quoque, magis quam aurum sequuntur, 
nuUa affectione animi, sed quia numerus argenteorum 
facilior usui est promiscua ac vilia mercantibus. 

VI. Ne ferrum quidera superest, sicut ex gcnere 
telorum coUigitur. Rari gladiis aut majoribus lanceis 
utuntur : hastas, vel ipsorum vocabulo frameas ge- 
runt, angusto et brevi ferro sed ita acri et ad usum 
habili, ut eodem telo, prout ratio poscit, vcl cominus 
vel eminus pugnent : et eques quidem scuto fra- 
meaque contentus est : pedites et missilia spargunt, 
plura singuli, atque in immensum vibrant, nudi aut 
sagulo leves. NuUa cultus jactatio ; scuta tantum 
lectissimis coloribus distinguunt : paucis loricae : vix 
uni alterive cassis aut galea. Equi non forma, non 
velocitate conspicu*. : sed nec variare gyros in morem 
nostrum docentur. In rectum, aut uno flexu dextros 
agunt ita conjuncto orbe, ut nemo posterior sit. In 
universum aestimanti, plus penes peditem roboris : 
eoque mixti proeliantur, apta et congruente ad eques- 
trem pugnam velocitate peditum, quos ex omni juven- 
tute delectos ante aciem locant. Definitur et nume- 
rus : centeni ex singulis pagis sunt : idque ipsum 
niter suos vocantur ; et quod primo numerus fuit, jam 
nomen et honor est. Acies per cuneos componitur 
Cedere loco, dummodo rursus instes, consilii quam 
formidinis arbitrantur. Corpora suorum etiam in 
lubiis proeliis referunt. Scutum reliquisse, prae- 


cipuum flagilium ; nec aut sacris adesse, aut eonci 
lium inire, ignominioso fas ; multique superstitei 
bellorum infarr.iam laqueo fmierunt. 

VII. Reges ex nobilitate, duces ex virtute sumunt 
IN^ec regibus infinita aut libera potestas : et duces cx 
emplo potius, quam imperio , si prompti, si conspicui, 
si ante aciem agant, admiratione praesunt. Cetenim 
neque animadvertere neque vincire, ne rerberare 
quidem, nisi sacerdotibus permissum ; non quasi in 
poenam, nec ducis jussu, sed velut deo imperante, 
quem adesse bellantibus credunt : effigiesque et signa 
quaedam, detracta lucis, in proelium ferunt. Quod- 
que praecipuum fortitudinis incitamentum est, non 
casus nec fortuita conglobatio turmam aut cuneum 
facit, sed familiae et propinquitates, et in proximc 
pignora, unde feminarum ululatus audiri, unde vagitus 
infantium : hi cuique sanctissimi testes, hi maximi 
laudatores. Ad matres, ad conjuges vulnera ferunt; 
nec illae numerare, aut exigere plagas pavent ; ci- 
bosque et hortamina pugnantibus gestant. 

YUI. Memoriae proditur, quasdam acies, inclinatas 
jam et labantes, a feminis restitutas, constantia pre 
cum et dojectu pectorum et monstrata cominus capti- 
vitate, quam longe impatientius feminarum suarum 
nomine timent : adeo ut efficacius obligentur animi 
civitatum, quibus inter obsides puellae quoque nobiles 
imperantur. Inesse quin etiam sanctum aliquid et 
providum putant : nec aut consilia earum aspernantur, 
aut responsa negligunt. Vidimus sub divo Vespa 
f«iano Veledam diu apud plerosoue numinis loco 
habitam. Sed et olim Auriniam et complures alias 
vcnerati sunt non adulatione, ncc tanquam facerent 



IX. Deorum maxime Mercurium colunt, cui certis 
Jiebus humanis quoque hostiis litare fas Iiabent. 
Hcrculem ac Martem concessis animalibus placant : 
pars Suevorum et Isidi sacrificat. Unde causa ei 
origo peregrino sacro parum comperi, nisi quod 
sififnum ipsum, in modum libumae figuratum, docet 
advectam religionem. Ceterum nec cohibere parieti- 
bus deos, neque in uUam humani oris speciem 
assimuhre, ex magnitudine coelestium arbitrantur : 
lucos ac nemora consecrant, deorumque nominibus 
appellant secretum illud, quod sola reverentia vident. 

X. Auspicia sortesque, ut qui maxime, observanf. 
Sortium consuetudo simplex : virgam, frugiferae 
arbori decisam, in surculos amputant, eosque, notis 
quibusdam discretos, super candidam' vcstcm temere 
ac fortuito spargunt : mox, si publice consuletur, 
sacerdos civitatis, sin privatim, ipse paterfamihae, 
precatus deos coelumque suspiciens, tcr singulos 
tollit, sublatos secui)dum imprcssam ante notam 
interpretatur. Si prohibuemnt, nulla de eadem re 
in eundem diem consultatio ; sin permissiim, aus- 
piciorum adhuc fides exigitur. Et illud quidem etiara 
hic notum, avium voces volatusque interrogare : 
propriura gentis, equorum quoque praesagia ac 
monitus experiri ; publice aluntur iisdem nemoribus 
ac lucis candidi et nullo mortaU opere contacti : quos 
pressos sacro curru sacerdos ac rex vel princeps civi 
talis comitantur, hinnitusque ac fremitus observant. 
Nec uUi auspicio major fides non solum apud plebem, 
8ed ^pud proceres, apud sacerdotes ; se enim minis- 
trrs deorum, iUos conscios putant. Est et aUa 
observatio auspiciorum, qua gravium beUorum even- 
tus explorant ; pjus gcntis, cum qua beUum est, 


captivum, quoquo raodo interceptum, cura eleclc 
populariura suorum, patriis quemque arrais, coramil 
lunt : victoria hujus vel illius pro praejudicio ac 

XI. De minoribus rebus principes consultant; de 
majoribus omnes : ita taraen, ut ea quoque, quorum 
penes plebera arbitrium est, apud principes perlrac- 
tentur. Coeunt, nisi quid fortuitura et subitum 
inciderit, certis diebus, cum aut raclibatur luna aut 
impletur: nara agendis rebus hoc auspicatissiraura 
}nitiura credunt. Nec dierura nuraerura, ut nos, sed 
Doctiura computant. Sic constituunt, sic condicunt: 
nox ducere diera videtur. IUud ex libertate vitium, 
quod non siraul, nec ut jussi conveniunt, sed et alter 
et tertius dies cunctatione coeuntiura absumitur. Ut 
turbae placuit, considunt armati. Silentium per sacer- 
dotes, quibus tura et coercendi jus est, iraperatur 
Mox rex vel princeps, prout aetas cuique, proul 
nobiHtas, prout decus bellorura, prout facundia est, 
audiuntur, auctoritate suadendi magis, quara jubendi 
potestate. Si displicuit sententia, fremitu asper- 
nantur ; sin placuit, frameas concutiunt. Honora- 
tissimum assensus genus est, armis laudare. 

XII. Licet apud concilium accusare quoque et 
discrimen capitis intendere. Distinctio poenarura ex 
delicto : proditores et transfugas arboribus suspen- 
dunt; ignavos et irabelles efcorpore iufames coeno 
ac palude, injecta insuper crate, mergunt. Diversitas 
v.upplicii iliuc respicit, tanquam scelera ostendi 
uponeat, dura puniuntur, flagitia abscondi. Sed 
et levioribus delictis, pro modo poenarum, equorum 
Decorumque numero convicti mulctantur : para 
.Aulctae regi vel civitati, pars ipsi, qui vindicatuTi 


vel propiiiquis ejus exsolvitur. Eliguutur in iisdem 
conciliis et principes, qui jura per pagos vicosque 
reddunt. Centeni singulis ex plebe comites, con- 
silium simul et auctoritas, adsunt. 

XIIL Nihil autem neque publicae neque privatae 
rci, nisi armati agunt. Sed arma ^umere non ante 
cuiquam moris, quam civitas suffecluruni probaverit. 
TuHi in ipso concilio, vel principum aliquis vel pater 
vel propinquus scuto frameaque juvenem ornant : 
haec apud illos toga, hic primus juventae honos : 
ante hoc domus pars videntur, mox reipublicae. 
Insignis nobilitas, aut magna palrum merita, princi- 
pis dignationcm etiam adolescentulis assignant : 
ceteris robustioribus ac jampridem probatis aggre- 
gantur ; nec rubor, inter comites aspici. Gradus 
quin etiam et ipse comitatus habet judicio ejus, quem 
sectantur: magnaque et comitum aemulatio, * quibus 
.primus apud principem suum locus, et principum, cui 
plurimi et acerrimi comites. Haec dignitas, hae vires, 
magno semper electorum juvenum globo circuradari, 
in pace decus, in bello praesidium. Nec solum in 
sua gente cuique, sed apud finitimas quoquc civitates 
id nomen, ea gloria est, si numero ac virtute comitatus 
emineat: expetuntur enim legationibus et muneribus 
ornantur et ipsa plerumque fama bella profligant. 

XIV. Cum ventum in aciem, turpe principi virtute 
vinci, turpe comitatui, virtutem principis non adae- ' 
quare. Jam vero infame in omnem vitam ac pro- 
brosum, superstitem principi suo ex acie recessisse. 
Ulum defendere, tueri, sua quoque fortia facta gloriae 
ejuB assignare, praecipuum sacramentum est. Prin- 
cipes pro victoria pugnant ; comites pro principe. Si 
civitas, in qua orti sunt, longa pace et otio torpeat 

24 C. CORN. TAC1TU9 

plerique nobilium adolescenlium petunt ullro eoi 
nationes, quae lum bellum aliquod gerunt ; quia et 
ingrata genti quies, et facilius inter ancipitia clares- 
cunt, magnumque comitalum non nisi vi belloque 
tuentur : exigunt enim principis sui liberalitate illum 
bellatorem equum, illam cruenlam viclricemque 
frameam. Nam epulae et, quanquam incompti, largi 
tamen apparatus pro stipendio cedunt : materia muni- 
ficentiae per bella et raptus. Nec arare terram, aut 
expectare annum, tam facile persuaseris, quam vocare 
hostes et vulnera mereri. Pigrum quinimmo et iners 
videtur, sudore acquirere, quod possis sanguine 

XV. Quoticns bella non ineunt, non multum 
venatibus, plus per otium transigunt, dediti somno 
ciboque, fortissimus quisque ac bellicosissimus nihil 
agens, delegata domus et penatium ct agrorum cura 
feminis senibusque et infirmissimo cuique ex familia : 
ipsi hebent; mira diversitate naturae, cum iidem 
homines sic ament inertiam et oderint quietem. •' Mos 
est civitatibus ultro ac viritim conferre principibus tcI 
armentorum vel frugum, quod pro honore acceptum, 
etiam necessitatibus subvenit. Gaudent praecipuc 
fmitimarum gentium donis, quae non modo a singulis, 
agdpubHce imgmgjUirf: electi equi, magna arma, 
plialerae, torqucsque. Jam et pecuniam accipcre 


XVI. Nullas Germanorum populis urbes habitari, 
satis notum est: ne pali quidem inter se junclas 
sedes. Colunt discreti ac diversi, ut fons, ut campus, 
ut uemus placuit. Vicos locant, non in nostrum 
morem, connexis et cohaerentibus aedificiis : suam 
quisque domum spatio circumdat, sive adversus casufl 


ignis remedium, sive inscilia aedificandi Nc caemen- 
lonira quidem apud illos aut legularum usus : maleria 
ad omnia utuntur informi et citra speciem aut delec-» 
talionem. Quaedam loca diligentius illinunt terra ita 
pura ac splendente, ut picturam ac lineamenta colorum 
iinitetur. Solcnt et subterrancos specus aperire, eos- 
que multo insuper fimo onerant, suffugium hiemi 
et leceptaculum frugibus : quia rifforem frigorum 
ojusmodi locis moUiunt : et, si quando hostis advenit, 
aperta populatur, abdita autem et defossa aut igno- 
rantur, aut eo ipso fallunt, quod quaerenda sunt. 

XVII. Tegumen omnibus sagum, fibula, aut, si 
desit, sphia consertum : cetera intecti totos dies juxta 
focum atque ignem agunt. Locupletissimi veste dis- 
tinguuntur, non fluitanle, sicut Sarmatae ac Parthi, 
sed stricta et singulos artus exprimente. Gerunt el 
ferarum pelles, proximi ripae ncgHgcntcr, uheriores 
exquisitius, ut quibus nuUus per commercia cuhus. 
EHgunt feras, et detracta velamina spargunt macuHs 
peUibusque beUuarum, quas exterior Oceanus atque 
ignotum mare gignit. Nec aHus feminis quam viris 
habitus, nisi quod feminae saepius hneis amictibus 
velantur, eosque purpura variant, partemque vestitus 
superioris in manicas non extcndunt, nudae brachia ac 
lacertos : sed et proxuna pars pectoris patet. 

XVIII. Quanquam severa ilhc malrimonia ; nec 
uUam morum partem ir.agis 'audaveris: nam prope 
«oh barbarorum singuHs uxoribus contenti sunt, ex- 
ceplis admodum paucis, qui non hbidine, sed ob 
nobilitatem, plurimis nuptiis ambiuntur. Dotem non 
uxor marito, sed uxori maritus offert. Intersunt 
parentes et propinqui, ac munera probant : munera 
oon ad dehcias muhebres quaesita, nec quibus nova 


nupta comatur: sed bores et frenatum equum ei 
scutum cum framea gladioque. In haec munera nxot 
accipitur; atque invicem ipsa armorura aliquid viro 
afTert : hoc maximum vinculum, haec arcana sacra, 
hos conjugales deos arbitrantur. Ne se mulier extra 
virtutum cogitationes extraque bellorum casus putet, 
ipsis incipientis matrimonii auspiciis %dmonetur, 
venire se laborum periculorumque sociam, idem in 
pace, idem in proelio passuram ausuramque : hoc 
juncti boves, hoc paratus equus, hoc data arma de- 
nuntiant ; sic vivendum, sic pereundum : accipere se, 
quae liberis inviolata ac digna reddat, quae nurus 
accipiant rursus, quae ad nepotes referantur. 

XIX. Ergo septa pudicitia agunt, nuUis spectacu- 
lorum illecebris, nuIHs conviviorum irritationibus 
corruptae. Litterarum sccreta viri pariter ac feminae 
ignorant. Paucissima in tam numerosa gente adul 
teria ; quorum poena praesens et maritis permissa. 
Accisis crinibus, nudatam, coram propinquis, expellit 
domo maritus, ac per omnem vicum verbere agit : 
publicatae enim pudicitiae nulla venia : non forma, 
non aetate, non opibus maritum invenerit. Nemc 
enim illic vitia ridet : nec corrumpere et corrumpi 
saeculum vocatur. Melius quidem adliuc eae civi- 
tates, in quibus tantum virgines nubunt, et cum spe 
votoque uxoris semel transigitur. Sic unum accipiunt 
maritum, quo modo unum corpus unamque vitam, ne 
ulla cogitatio ultra, ne longior cupiditas, ne tan 
quam maritum, sed tanquam matrimonium ament 
Numerum liberorum finire, aut quenquam ex agnati» 
Dccare, flagitium habetur : plusque ibi boni mores 
valent, quam alibi bonae leges. 

XX. In orani domo n^idi ac sordidi, in hos artus ir 


nacc corpora, quae miramur, excrescunt. Sua quem* 
que mater uberibus alit, nec ancillis ac nutricibus 
delegantur. Dominum ac servum nuUis educationis 
deliciis dignoscas : inter eadem pecora, in eadem 
humo degunt ; donec aetas separet ingenuos, virtus 
agnoscat. Sera juvenum Venus ; eoque inexhausta 
pubertas : nec virgines festinantur ; eadem juventa, 
similis proceritas : pares validaeque miscentur ; ac 
robora parentum liberi referunt. Sororum filiis idem 
apud avunculum, qui ad patrem honor. Quidam 
sanctiorem arctioremque hunc nexum sanguinis arbi- 
trantur, et in accipiendis obsidibus magis exigunt; 
tanquam et in animum firmius, et domum latius 
teneant. Heredes tamen successoresque sui cuique 
Hberi : et nullum testamentum. Si liberi non sunt, 
proximus gradus in possessione fratres, patrui, 
avunculi. Quanto plus propinquorum, quo majoi 
affinium numerus, tanto gratiosior senectus, nec uUa 
orbitatis pretia. 

XXI. Suscipere tam inimicitias, seu patris, seu 
propinqui, quam amicitias, necesse est : nec implaca- 
biles durant. Luitur enim etiam homicidium certo 
armentorum ac pecorum numero, recipitque satis- 
factionem universa domus : utiliter in publicum ; 
cuia periculosiores sunt inimicitiae juxta libertatem. 
Convictibus et hospitiis non alia gens effusius indul- 
get. Quemcunque mortalium arcere tecto, nefas 
habetur : pro fortuna quisque apparatis epulis excipit. 
Cum defecere, qui modo hospes fuerat, monstrator 
hospitii ct comes : proximam domum non invitati 
adeunt : nec interest ; pari humanitate accipiuntur. 
Notum ignotumque, quanlum ad jus hospitis, nemo 
liscernit Abeunti, si quid poposcerit, concedere 


moris : et posccndi invicem eadem facilitas. Gauden! 
rauneribus : sed nec data imputant, nec acceplis 
obligantur. Viclus inter hospites comis. 

XXII. Statim e somno, quem plerumque in diem 
cxtrahunt, lavantur, saepius calida, ut apud quos 
plurimum hiems occupat. Lauti cibum capiunt : 
separatae singulis sedes et sua cuique mensa : tum 
ad ncgotia, nec minus saepe ad convivia, procedunt 
armati. Diem noctemque continuare potando, nuUi 
probrum. Crebrae, ut inter vinolentos, rixae, raro 
conviciis, saepius caede et vulneribus transiguntur. 
Sed et de reconciliandis invicem inimicis et jungendis 
affinitatibus et asciscendis principibus, de pace deni 
que ac bello pleruraque in conviviis consultant : 
tanquam nullo magis tempore aut ad simpHces 
cogitationcs patcat animus, aut ad magnas incalescat. 
Gens non astuta nec callida aperit adhuc secreta 
pcctoris licentia joci. Ergo detecta et nuda omnium 
niens postcra die retractatur, et salva utriusque tem- 
poris ratio est : deliberant, dum fingere nesciunt ; 
constituunt, dum crrare non possunt. 

XXIII. Potui humor ex hordeo aut frumento, in 
quandam similitudinem vini corruptus. Proxirai ripae 
et vinum mercantur. Cibi simplices ; agrestia poma, 
rccens fera, aut lac concretum. Sine apparatu, sine 
blandimenlis, expeUunt famem. Adversus silim non 
eadem tempcrantia. Si indulseris ebrietati sug- 
gcrendo quantum concupiscunt, haud minus facile 
vitiis, quam armis vincentur. 

^XXIV. Genus spectaculorum unum alquc in omni 
coetu idem. Nudi juvenes, quibus id ludicrum est, 
inter gladios se atque infestas framcas saltu jaciunt. 
Exercitatio arlem paravit, ars decorem : non m quaes- 


um tamcn aut mcrcedem ; qnamvis audacis l asciv iae 
pretium est voluptas spectantium Aleam, quod 
mirere, sobrii inter seria exercent tanta lucrandi per- 
dendive temerjtate, ut, cum omnia defecerunt, extremo 
ac novissimo jactu de libertale ac de corpore conten- 
dant. Victus voluntariam scrvitutem adit : quamvis 
juvenior, quamvis robustior, alligari se ac venire 
patitur : ea est in re prava pervicacia : ipsi fidem 
vocant. Servos conditionis hujus per commercia 
tradunt, ut se quoque pudore victoriae exsolvant. 

XXV. Ceteris servis, non in nostrum morem des- 
criptis per familiam ministeriis, utuntur. Suam 
quisque sedem, suos penates regit. Frumenti 
modum dominus, aut pecoris aut vestis, ut colono, 
injungit : el servus hactenus paret ; cetera domus 
officia uxor ac liberi exsequuntur. Verberare servum 
ac vmculis et opere coerccre, rarum. Occidere solent, 
non disciplina et severitate, scd impctu et ira, ut 
inimicum, nisi quod impune. Liberti non multum 
supra servos sunt, raro aliquod momcntum in domo, 
nunquam in civitate ; exceptis duntaxat iis gentibus, 
quae regnantur : ibi enim et super ingenuos et supei 
nobiles ascendunt : apud ceteros impares hbertini 
libertatis argumentum sunt. 

XXVI. Fenus agitare et in usuras extendere, igno 
tum : ideoque magis servatur, quam si vetitum essct 
Agri pro numero cultorum ab universis in viccs occu 
pantur, quos mox inter se secundum dignationem 
oartiuntur : facilitatem partiendi camporum spatia 
praeslant. Arva pcr annos mutant : et superest ager ; 
nec enim cum ubertate et amplitudine soli labore con- 
tcndunt, ut pomaria conserant et prata separent et 
hortos rigent : sola tcrrae seges impftratur. Unde 


annum quoque ipsum non in totidem digeruni species 
hiems et ver et aestas intellectum ac vocabula habent 
autumni perinde nomen ac bona ignorantur. 
^ XXVII. Funerum nulla ambitio; id solum observa- 
lur, ut corpora clarorura virorum certis lignis cremen- 
lur. Struera rogi nec vestibus nec odoribus cumulanf 
sua cuique arma» quorundam igni ' et equus adjicitur. 
Sepulcrum caespes erigit ; monumentorum arduum ct 
operosum honorem, ut gravem defunctis, aspernantur. 
Lamenta ac lacrimas cito, dolorem et tristitiam 
tarde ponunt. Feminis lugere honestura est; viris 
meminisse. Haec in commune de omnium Ger 
manorum origine ac moribus accepimus : nunc sin- 
gularum gentium instituta ritusque, quatenus differant, 
quae nationes e Germania in Gallias commigraverint, 

XXVIII Validiores olim Gallorum res fuisse, 
summus auctorum divus Julius tradit: eoque cre- 
dibile est etiam Gallos in Germaniam transgressos. 
Quantulum enim amnis obstabat, quo minus, ut 
quaeque gens evaluerat, occuparet permutaretque 
sedes, promiscuas adhuc et nulla regnorum potentia 
divisas ? Igitur inter Hercyniam sylvam Rhenumque 
et Moenum amnes Helvetii, ulteriora Boii, Gallica 
utraquc gens, tenuere. Manet adhuc Boihemi nomen, 
signatque loci veterem memoriam, quamvis mutatis 
cultoribus. Sed utrum Aravisci in Pannoniam ab 
Osis, Germanorum natione, an Osi ab Araviscis in 
Germaniam commigraverint, cum eodem adhuc ser- 
monc, institutis, moribus utantur, incertum est : quia, 
pari olim mopia ac libertate, eadem utriusque ripae 
bona malaque erant. Treveri et Nervii circa affecta 
tionem Germanicae originis ultro ambitiosi smt, tan 

0£ GERMANIA. 31 

quam per hanc gloriam sanguinis a similitudine et 
inertia Gallorum separentur. Ipsam Rheni ripam 
haud dubie Germanorum populi colunt, Vangiones, 
Triboci, Nemetes. Ne Ubii quidem, quanquam 
Romana colonia esse meruerint ac libentius Agrip- 
pinenses conditoris sui nomine vocentur, origine 
erubescunt, transgressi olim et experimento fidei 
super ipsam Rheni ripam collocati, ut arcerfent, non 
ut custodirentur, 

XXIX. Omnium harum gentium virtuie praecipui 
Batavi, non multum ex ripa, sed insulam Rheni amnis 
colunt, Chattorum quondam populus et seditione 
domestica in eas sedes transgressus, in quibus pars 
Romani imperii fierent. Manet honos et antiquae 
societatis insigne : nam nec tributis contemnuntur, 
nec publicanus atterit : exempti oneribus et collationi- 
bus et tantum in usiim proehorum scpeshi, velut 
tela atque arma, bellis reservantur. Est in eoderih 
obsequio et Mattiacorum gens ; protulit enim magni- 
tudo populi Romani ultra Rhenum, ultraque veteres 
terminos, imperii reverentiam. Ita sede finibusque in 
sua ripa, mente animoque nobiscum agunt, cetera 
similes Batavis, nisi quod ipso adhuc terrae suae solo 
et coelo acrius animantur. Non numeraverim inter 
Germaniae populos, quanquam trans Rhenum Danu- 
biumque consederint, eos, qui Decumates agros 
exercent. Levissimus quisque Gallorum et inopia 
audax, dubiae possessionis solutn occupavere. Mox 
limite acto promotisque praesidiis, sinus imperii et 
pars provinciae habentur. 

XXX. Ultra hos Chatti initium sedis ab Hercynic 
ealtu inchoant, non ita elTusis ac palustribus locis ut 
ceterae civitates, in quas Germania patescit ; durant 


siquidem colles, paulatim rarescunt, et Chattos suos 
saltus Hercynius prosequitur simul atque deponit. 
Duriora genti corpora, stricti artus, minax vultus et 
major animi vigor. Multum, ut inter Germanos, 
rationis ac solertiae : praeponere electos, audire 
praepositos, nosse ordines, intelligere occasiones, 
differfe impetus, disponere diem, vallare noctem, for- 
tunam inter dubia, virtutem inter certa numerare : 
quodque rarissimum nec nisi ratione disciplinae con- 
cessum, plus reponere in duce, quam exercitu. Omne 
robur ia pedite, quem, super arma, ferramentis quoque 
et copiis onerant. AHos ad proeliumirevideas,Chat- 
tos ad bellum. Rari excursus et fortuita pugna ; 
equestrium sane virium id proprium, cito parare 
victoriam, cito cedere : velocitas juxta formidinem, 
cunclatio propior constantiae est. 

XXXI. Et aliis Germanorum populis usurpatum 
rara et privata cujusque audentia apud Chattos in 
consensum vertit, ut primum adoleverint, crinem bar- 
bamque submittere, nec, nisi hoste caeso, exuere 
votivum obligatumque virtuti oris habitum. Super 
sanguinera et spolia revelant frontem, seque tum 
demum pretia nascendi retulisse, dignosque patria ac 
parentibus ferunt. Ignavis et in)bellibus manet 
squalor. Fortissimus quisque ferreum insuper annu- 
lum (ignominiosum id genti) velut vinculum gestat, 
donec se caede hostis absolvat. Plurimis Chattorum 
hic placet habitus. Jamque canent insignes, et hosti- 
bus simul suisque monstrati. Omnium penes hos 
initia pugnarum : haec prima semper acies, visu nova ; 
nam ne in pace quidem vultu mitiore mansuescunt 
Nulli domus aut agei aut aliqua cura : prout ad quem 
que venere, aluntur : prodigi alieni. contemptores sui 

DE 6ERMAN1A. 33 


donec exsanguis senectus tam durac virtuli impares 

XXXn. ProximiChattiscertum jam alveo Rhenum, 
quique terminus esse sufficiat, Usipii ac Tencteri 
colunt. Tencteri, super solitum bellorum decus, 
equestris disciplinae arte praecellunt : nec major apud 
Chattos peditum laus, quam Tencteris equitum. Sic 
inslituere majores, posteri imitfintur; hi lusus infan- 
tium, haec juvenum aeraulatio, perseverant senes • 
inter familiam et penates et jura successionnm equi 
traduntur ; excipit filius, non, ut celera, maximus 
natu, sed prout ferox bello et melior. 

XXXIII. Juxta Tencteros Bructeri olim occurre- 
bant : nunc Chamavos et Angrivarios immigrasse 
narratur, pulsis Bructeris ac penitus excisis vicinarum 
consensu nalionum, seu superbiae odio, seu praedae 
dulcedine, seu favore quodam erga nos deorum : nam 
ne spectaculo quidem proelii invidere : super sexaginta 
milHa, non armis telisque Romanis, sed, quod mag- 
nificentius est, oblectationi oculisque ceciderunt. 
Maneat, quaeso, duretque genlibus, si non amor nos- 
tri, at certe odium sui : quando, urgentibus imperii 
fatis, nihil jam praestare fortuna majus potcst, quam 
hostium discfjrdiam. 

XXXI V. Angrivarios et Chamavos a tergo DulgiDi:*i 
et Chasuarii cludunt aliaeque gentes, haud perinde 
memoratae. A fronle Frisii excipiunt. Majoribus 
minoribusque Frisiis vocabuhim est ex modo virium : 
utraeque nationes usque ad Oceanum Rheno prae- 
texuntur, ambiuntque immensos insuper lacus et 
Romanis classibus havigatos. Ipsum quin etiam 
Oceanum illa tentavimus : et supercsse adhuc Her- 
«uHs columnas fama vulgavit ; sive adiit Hercules, 


0eu, quicquid ubique magniiicuin est, in claritatem 
ejus referre consensimus. Nec defuit audentia Druso 
Germanico : sed obstitit Oceanus in se simul atque in 
Herculem inquiri. Mox nemo tentavit ; sanctiusque 
ac reverentius visum, de actis deorum credere, quam 

XXXV. Hactenus in Occidentem Germaniam novi- 
mus. In Septentrionem ingenti flexu redit. Ac primo 
statim Chaucorum gens, quanquam incipiat a Frisiis 
ac partem littoris occupet, omnium, quas exposui^ 
gentium lateribus obtenditur, donec in Chattos usque 
sinuetur. Tam immensum terrarum spatium non 
tenent tantum Chauci, sed et implent : populus iuter 
Germanos nobilissimus, quique magnitudinem suam 
malit justitia tueri : sine cupiditate, sine impotcntia, 
quieti secretique, nulla provocant bella, nullis raptibus 
aut latrociniis populantur. Id praecipuum virtutis 
ac virium argumentum est, quod, ut superiores agant, 
non per injurias assequuntur. Prompta tamen omni- 
bus arma, ac, si res poscat, exercitus, plurimum 
virorum equorumque : et quiescentibus eadem fama. 

XXXVI. In latere Chaucorum Chattorumque 
Cherusci nimiam ac marcentem diu pacem illacessiti 
nutrierunt ; idque jucundius, quam tutius, fuit : quia 
inter impotentes et validos falso quiescas ; ubi manu 
agitur, modestia ac probitas nomina superioris sunt. 
Ita, qui olim boni aequique Cherusci, nunc inertes ac 
stulti vocantur: Chattis victoribus fortuna in sapien 
kiam cessit. Tracti ruina Cheruscorum et Fosi, con 
termina gens, adversarum rerum ex aequo socii, cuir 
in secundis minores fuissent. 

XXXVIL Eundem Germaniae sinum proximi 
Oceano Cimbn tenent, parva nunc civitas, sed gloria 


mgens ; veterisque famae lata vestigia manent, utra- 
que ripa caslra ac spatia, quorum ambitu nunc quoque 
metiaris molem manusque gentis et tam magni exitus 
fidem. Sexcentesimum et quadragesimum annum 
urbs nostra agebat, cum primum Cimbrorum audila 
sunt arma, Caecilio Metello et Papirio Carbone con- 
sulibus. Ex qu^ si ad altcrum Imperatoris Trajani 
consulatum computemus, duccnti ferme et decem anni 
colliguntur ; tamdiu Germania vincitur. Medio tam 
longi aevi spatio, multa invicem damna : non Samnis, 
non Poeni, non Hispaniae Galliaeve, ne Parthi qui- 
dem saepms admonuere : quippe regno Arsacis acrior 
est Germanorum libertas. Quid enim aliud nobis, 
quam caedem Crassi, amisso et ipse Pacoro, infra 
Ventidium dejectus Oriens objecerit ? At Germani, 
Carbone et Cassio et Scauro Aurelio et Servilio 
Caepione, M. ^quoque Manlio fusis vel captis, quin- 
que simul consulares exercitus Populo Romano, 
Varum, tresque cum eo legiones, etiam Caesari 
abstulerunt: nec impune C. Marius in Italia, divus 
Julius in Gallia, Drusus ac Nero et Germanicus in 
suis eos ' sedibus perculerunt. Mox ingentes C. 
Caesaris minae in ludibrium versae. Inde otium, 
donec occasione discordiae nostrae et civilium armo- 
^um, expugnatis legionul;ii hibernis, etiam Gallias 
affectavere: ac rursus pulsi, inde proximis temporibus 
triumphati magis quam victi^ sunt. 

XXXVin. Nunc de Suevis dicendum est, quorum 
non una, ut Chattorum Tencterorumre, gens : majorem 
enim Germaniae partem obtinent, propriis adhuc 
nationibus nominibusque discreti, quanquam in com- 
mune Suevi vocentur. Insigne gentis obliquare 
crinem nodoque substringere : sic Suevi a ceteris 


Germanis, sic Suevorura ingenui a servis sepanintur 
in aliis gentibus, seu cognalione aliqua Sucvorum, 
seu quod saepe accidit, imitatione, rarum et inira 
juventae spatium ; apud Suevos, usque ad caniticm, 
horrentem capillum retro sequuntur, ac saepe in ipso solo 
vertice religant. Principes et ornatiorem habent : ea 
cura formae, sed innoxiae : neque enim ut amcnt 
amenturve ; in altitudinem quandam et terrorcm, 
adituri bella, compti, ut hostium oculis, ornantur. 

XXXIX. Velustissimos se nobilissimosque Suevo 
rum Semnones memorant. Fides antiquitalis religione 
firmatur. Stato tempore in silvam auguriis patrum et 
prisca formidine sacram, omnes ejusdem sanguinis 
populi le^ationibus coeunt, caesoque publice homine 
celebrant barbari ritus horrenda primordia. Est et 
alia luco reverentia. Nemo nisi vinculo ligatus ingre- 
ditur, ut minor et potestatem numinis prae se ferens. 
Si forte prolapsus est, attoUi et insurgere haud 
licitum : per humum evolvuntur : eoque omnis super- 
stitio respicit, tanquam inde initia gentis, ibi regnalor 
omnium deus, cetera subjecta atque parentia. Adjicit 
auctoritatem fortuna Semnonum : centum pagis habi- 
tantur; magnoque corpore efficitur, ut se Sucvorum 
caput credant. 

XL. Contra Langobardos paucitas iiobilitat : phi 
rimis ac valentissimis nationibus cincti, non pei 
obsequium, sed proeliis et periclitando tuli sunt 
Reudigni deinde et Aviones et Anglii et Varini ei 
Eudoses et Suardones et Nuithones fluminibus aut 
silvis muniuntur : nec quidquam notabile in singulis 
nisi quod in commune Nerthum, id est Terran? 
matrem colunt, eamque intervenire rebus hominum. 
iivehi populis arbitrantur. Est in insula Oceani 


:aslum nemus, dicatumque in eo vehiculum, vesle 
contectum • atlingere uni sacerdoti concessum. la 
adesse penetrali deam intelligit, vectamque bubus 
fcminis multa cum veneratione prosequitur. liaeti 
tunc dies, festa loca, quaecumque adventu hos- 
pitioque dignatur. Non bella ineunt, non arma 
eumunt ; clausum omne ferrum : pax et quies tunc 
tantum nota, tunc tantum amata, donec idcm sacerdos 
satiatam conversatione mortalium deam templo reddat. 
Mox vehiculum et vestes, et, si credere velis, numen 
ipsum secreto lacu abluitur. Servi ministrant, quos 
statim idem lacus haurit ; arcanus hinc terror sancla- 
que ignorantia, quid sit illud, quod tantum perituri 

XLI. Et haec quidem pars Suevorum in secretiora 
Germaniae porrigitur. Propior, ut quo modo paulo 
ante Khenum, sic nunc Danubium sequar, Hermun- 
durorum ' civitas, fida Romanis, eoque solis Ger- 
manorum non in ripa commercium, sed penitus, 
atque in splendidissima Rhaetiae provinciae colonia. 
Passim et sine custode transeunt : et, cum ceteris 
gentibus arma modo castraque nostra ostcndamus, his 
domos villasqvie patefecimus non concupiscentibus. 
In Hermunduris Albis oritur, flumen inclitum ct 
notum olim ; nunc tantum auditur. 

XLn. Juxta Hermunduros Narisci, ac dcinde Mai- 
comanni et Quadi agunt. Praecipua Marcomannorum 
gloria viresque, atque ipsa etiam sedes, pulsis olim 
Boiis, virtute parta. Nec Narisci Quadive degene- 
cant. Eaque Geimaniae velut frons est, quatenus 
Danubio peragitur. Marcomannis Quadisque usque 
ad nostram memoriam reges manserunt ex gente 
psorrm, nobile Marobodui et Tudri genus : jam el 


externos patiuntur. Sed vis et potentia legibus e:i 
auctisritate Romana : raro armis nostris, saepius 
Deotifhia juvantur, nec minus valent. 
l XLin. Retro Marsigni, Gothini, Osi, Burii, terga 
Marcomannorum Quadorumque claudunt : e quibus 
Marsigni et Burii scrmone cultuque Suevos referuni 
Gothinos Gallica, Osos Pannonica lingua coarguit nor* 
esse Germanos, et quod tributa patiuntur. Partem 
tributorum Sarmatae, partem Quadi, ut alienigenis, 
imponunt. Gothini, quo magis pudeat, et ferrum 
eflfodiunt. Omnesque hi populi pauca campestrium, 
ceterum saltus et vertices montium jugumque inse- 
derunt. Dirimit enim scinditque Sueviam continuum 
montium jugum, ultra quod plurimae gentes agunt : 
ex quibus lalissime patet Lygiorum nomen in plures 
civitates diffusum. Valentissimas nominasse sufficiet, 
Arios, Helveconas, Manimos, Elysios, Naharvalos 
Apud Naharvalos antiquae religionis lucus ostenditur. 
Praesidet sacerdos muliebri ornatu : sed deos, inter- 
pretatione Romana, Castorem Pollucemque memo- 
rant : ea vis numini ; nomen Alcis. NuIIa simulacra, 
nullum peregrinae superstitionis vestigium : ut fra- 
tres tamen, ut juvenes, venerantur. •Ceterum Arii 
super vircs, quibus enumeratos paulo ante popu- 
los antecedunt, tnices, insitae feritati arte ac ten» 
pore lenocinantur. Nigra scuta, tincta corpora : 
atras ad proelia noctes legunt : ipsaque formidine 
atque umbra feralis exercitus terrorem inferunt, nullo 
hostium sustinenle novum ac velut infernum aspcc- 
tum : nam primi in omnibus proeliis oculi vincuntur. 
Trans Lygios Gothones regnantur, paulo jam adduc- 
lius, quam ceterae Germanorum gentes, nondum 
tomen supra libertatem. Protinus deinde ab Oceanc 


Rugii et Lemovii * omniumque harum gentium in- 
signe, rotunda scuta, breves gladii, et erga reges 

XLIV. Suionum hinc civitates, ipso in Oceano, 
f raeter viros armaque classibus valent : forma navium 
eo differt, quod utrimque prora paratam semper ap- 
pulsui frontem agit: nec velis ministrantur, nec remos 
in ordinem lateribus adjungunt. Solutum, ut in qui- 
Dusdam fluminum, et mutabile, ut res poscit, hinc vel 
illinc remigium. Est apud illos et opibus honos ; 
eoque unus imperitat, nullis jam exceptionibus, non 
precario jure parendi. Nec arma, ut apud ceteros 
Germanos, in promiscuo, sed clausa sub custode et 
quidem servo : quia subitos hostium incursus prohibet 
Oceanus, otiosa porro armatorum manus facile las 
civiunt : enimvero neque nobilem neque ingenuum 
ne libertinum quidem, armis praeponere regia utilitas 

XLV. Trans Suionas aliud mare, pigrum ac prope 

immotum, quo cingi cludique terrarum orbem hinc 

fides, quod extremus cadentis jam solis fulgor in 

ortus edurat adeo clarus, ut sidera hebetet ; sonum 

insuper audiri, formasque deorum et radios capitis 

aspici persuasio adjicit. Illuc usque, et fama vera, 

tanium natura. Ergo jam dextro Suevici maris littore 

Aestyorum gentes alluuntur : quibus ritus habitusque 

Suevorum ; lingua Britannicae propior. Matrem 

deum venerantur : insigne superstitionis, formas 

apronim gestant ; id pro armis omnique tutela : 

securum deae cultorem etiam inter hostes praestat. 

Rarus ferri, frequens fustium usus. Frumenfa 

ceterosque fructus patientius, quam pro solita Ger- 

manorum inertia, laborant. Sed et ipare sQrutantur 


ac soli omnium »uc€inuroy quod ipsi gFesum vocaiit 
inter vada atque in ipso littore legunt. Noc, quae 
natura quaeve ratio gignat, ut barbarls, quaesilum 
compertumve. Diu quin etiam inter cetera ejec- 
tamenta maris jacebat, donec luxuria iKJstra dedit 
nomen : ipsis in nullo usu : rude legitur, informe 
perfertur, pretiumque mirantes accipiunt. Succum 
lamen arborum esse intelligas, quia terrena quaedam 
atque eliam volucria animalia plerumque interlucent, 
quae implicata humore, mox, durescente materia, clu- 
duntur. Fecundiora igitur nemora lucosque, sicut 
Orientis secretis, ubi thura balsamaque sudantur, ita 
Occidentis insulis terrisque inesse, crediderim ; quae 
vicini solis radiis expressa atque liquentia in proxi- 
mum mare labuntur, ac vi tempestatum in adversa 
littora exundant. Si naturam succini admoto igne 
tentes, in modum taedae accenditur, alitque flammam 
pinguem et olentem : mox ut in picem resinamve 
lentescit. Suionibus Sitonum gentes continuantur. 
Cetera similes, uno diSerunt^ quod femina domina- 
tur : in tantum non modo a libertate, sed etiam a 
servitute degenerant. 

XLVI. Hic Sueviae finis. Peucinorum Vene 
dorumque et Fennorum nationes Germanis an Sarma 
tis ascribam, dubito: quanquam Peucini, quos quidan. 
Bastarnas vocant, sermone, cultu, sede ac domiciliis, 
ut Germani, agunt. Sordes omnium ac torpor pro- 
cerum : connubiis mixtis, nonnihil in Sarmatarum 
habitum foedantur Venedi multum e^ moribus 
traxerunt. Nam quidquid inter Peucinos Fennosque 
silvarum ac monlium erigitur, latrociniis pererrant. 
Hi tamen inter Geirmanoa potius referuntur, quia ei 
domos figunt et scuta gestant et pedum usu ac 



pernicitate gaudent ; qiiae omnia diversa Sarmatis 
sunt, in plaustro equoque viventibus. Fennis mira 
feritas, foeda paupertas : non arraa, non equi, non 
penates : victui herba, vestitui pelles, cubile humus : 
sola in sagittis spes, quas, inopia ferri, ossibus 
asperant. Idemque venatus viros pariter ac feminas 
aht. Passim enim comitantur, partemque praedae 
petunt. Nec aliud infantibus ferarum imbriumque 
suffugium, quam ut in aliquo ramorum nexu contegan- 
tur : huc redeunt juvenes, hoc senum receptaculum. 
Sed beatius arbitrantur, quam ingemere agris, illa- 
borare domibus, suas alienasque fortunas spe metuque 
versare. Securi adversus homines, securi adversus 
deos, rem difficillimam assecuti sunt, ut illis ne votc 
quidem opus esset. Cetera jam fabulosa : Hellusios 
et Oxionas ora hominum vultusque, corpora atque 
artus ferarum, gerere : quod ego, ut incompertum, in 
medium relinquam. 




C^p. 1. Scribendi clarorum virorum vitam mos antiquus, 2. sub 
malis principibus periculosus, 3. sub Trajano in lionorem 
Agricolae repetitus a Tacito, qui non eloquentiam, at pietatem 
pollicetur. 4. Agricolae stirps, educatio, studia. 5. Positis 
in Britannia primis castrorum rudimentis, 6. uxorem ducit: 
fit quaestor, tribunus, praetor: recognoscendis templorum 
donis praefectus. 7. Othoniano bello matrem partemque 
patrimonii amittit 8. In Vespasiani partes transgressus, 
legioni vicesimae in Britannia praepositus, alienae famae 
cura promovet suam. 9. Redux inter patricios ascitus Aqui- 
taniam regit. Consul factus Tacito filiam despondet. Bri- 
tanniae praeficitur. 

0. Britanniae descriptio. Tbule cognita: mare pigrum. 11. 
Britannorum origo, habitus, sacra, sermo, mores, 12. militia, 
regimen, rarus conventus : coelum, solum, metalla, margarita. 
13. Victae gentis ingenium. Caesarum in Britanniam expe- 
ditiones. 14. Consularium legatorum res gestae. 15. Bri- 
tanniae rebellio, 16. Boadicea duce coepta, a Suet. Paullino 
compressa. Huic succedunt ignavi. 17. . Rem restituunt 
Petilius Cerialis et Julius Frontinus ; hic Silures, ille Brigan- 
tes vincit ; 18. Agricola Ordovices et Monam. Totam 
provinciam pacat, et 19, 20. moderatione, prudentia, abstinen- 
tia, aequitate in obsequio retinet, 21. animosque artibus e( 
voluptatibus moliit. 


E2, 23. Nova expeditio novas gentes aperit, quae praesidio 
iirmantur. Agricolae candor in communicanda gloria. 24. 
Consilium de occupanda Hibernia. 25 — 27. Civitates trans 
Bodotriam sitae explorantur. Caledonii, Romanos aggressi, 
consilio ductuque Agricolae pulsi, sacrificiis conspirationem 
civitatum sanciunt. 28. Usipiorum cohors miro casu Bri- 
tanniam circumvecta. Agricolae filius obit. 29. Bellum 
Britanni reparant Calgaco duce, cujus 30 — 32. oratio ad suos. 
33, 34. Romanos quoque hortatur Agricola. 35 — 37. Atrox 
et cruentum proelium. 38. Penes Romanos victoria. Agri- 
cola Britanniam circumvehi praecipit. 

39. Domitianus, fronte laetus, pectore anxius, nuntium victoriae 
excipit. 40. Honores tam^n Agricolae decemi jubet, condito 
odio, donec provincia decedat Agricola. Is redux modeste 
agit. 41. Periculum ab accusatoribus et laudatoribus. 42. 
Excusat se, ne provinciam sortiatur proconsul. 43. Obit non 
sine veneni suspicione, a Domitiano dati. 44. Ejus aetas, 
habitus, honores, opes. 45. Mortis opportunitas ante Domi- 
tiani atrocitates. 46. Questus auctoris et ex virtute solatia. 
Fama Agricolae ad posteros transmissa. 

L Clarorum virorum facta moresque posteris 
tradere, antiquitus usilatum, ne noslris quidem tem- 
poribus quanquam incuriosa suorum aetas omisit, 
quotiens magna aliqua ac nobilis virtus vicit ac super- 
gressa est vitium parvis magnisque civitatibus com- 
mune, ignorantiam recli et invidiam. Sed apud 
prices, ut agere digna memoratu pronum magisque in 
aperto erat, ita celeberrimus quisque ingenio ad pro- 
dendam virtutis memoriam, sine gratia aut ambilione, 
bonae tantum conscienliae pretio ducebatur. Ac pleri- 
que suam ipsi vilam narrare fiduciam potius morum, 
quam arrogantiam arbitrati sunt : nec id Rutilio el 
Scauro citra fidem aut obtrectationi fuit : adeo virtu 
tes iisdem tenjporibus optime aestimantur, quibus 
facillime gignuntur. At nunc narraturo mihi vitam 


defuiicti hominis, venia opus fuit : quam.non petissem 
incursaturus tam saeva et infesta virtutibus tempora 

IT. Legimus, cum Aruleno Rustico Paetus Thrasea, 
Herennio Senecioni Priscus Hclvidius laudati essent, 
capitale fuisse : neque in ipsos modo auctores, sed 
in libros quoque eorum saevitum, delegato triumviris 
ministerio, ut monumenta clarissimorum ingeniorum 
in comitio ac foro urerentur. Scilicet illo igne vocera 
populi Romani et libertatem senatus et conscientiam 
generis humani aboleri arbitrabantur, expulsis insuper 
sapientiae professoribus atque omni bona arte in 
exilium acla, ne quid usquam honestum occurreret. 
Dedimus profecto grande patientiae documentum : et 
sicut vetus aetas vidit, quid ultimum in libertate esset, 
ita nos, quid in servitute, adempto per inquisitiones et 
loquendi audiendique commercio. Memoriam quoque 
ipsam cum voce perdidissemus, si tam in nostra potes- 
tate esset oblivisci, quam lacere. 

HI. NuDC demum redit animus : et quanquara 
primo statim beatissimi saeculi ortu Nerva Caesarres 
olim dissociabi]es miscuerit, principatum ac liberta- 
tem, augeatque quotidie fehcitatem imperii Nerva 
Trajanus, nec spem modo ac votum securitas publica, 
sed ipsius voti fiduciam ac robur assumpserit ; natura 
tamen infirmitatis humanae tardiora sunt remedia, 
quam mala ; et, ut corpora nostra lente augescunt, cito 
exstinguuntur, sic ingenia studlaque oppresseris faci- 
Hus, quam revocaveris. Subit quippe etiam ipsius 
incrtiae dulcedo : et invisa primo desidia postremo 
amatur. Quid, si per quindecim annos, grande mor- 
lahs aevi spatium, multi fortuitis casibus promptissi- 
mus quisque saevitia principis interciderunt ? Pauci, 
et, ut ita dixerim, non modo aliorum, sed etiam nostr 

agricola. 45 


siipcrstitcs sumus, exemptis e media vita tot annis, 
quibus juvenes ad senectutera, senes prope ad ipsos 
exactae aetatis terminos per silentium venimus. Non 
iamen pigebit vel incondita ac rudi voce menwriam* 
prioris servitutis ac testimonium praesentium bonoruia 
■^composuisse. Ilic interim hber honori Agricolae 
«oceii mei destinatus, professione pietalis aut luudatus 
erit aut cxcusatus. 

IV. Cnaeus Julius Agricola, veteri et illustr* 
Forojulicnsium colonia ortus, utrumque avum pro- 
curatorcm Caesarum habuit : quae equestris nobilitas 
cst. Pater Julius Graecinus, senatorii ordinis, studio 
eloquentiae sapientiaeque nottus, iisque ipsis virtutibus 
iram Caii Caesaris meritus : namque M. Silanum accu- 
sare jussus et, quia abnuerat, interfectus est. Mater 
Julia Procilla fuit, rarae castitatis : in hujus sinu in- 
dulgentiaque educatus, per omnem honestanim artium 
cultum pueritiam adolescentiamque transegit. Arce- 
bat eum ab illeoebris peccantium, praeter ipsius bo- 
nam integramque naturam, quodstatim parvulus sedem 
ac magistram studiorum Massiliam habuit, locum 
Graeca comitate et provinciali parsimonia misium 
ac bcne compositum. Memoria teneo solitum ipsura 
narrare, se in prima juventa studium philosophiae 
acrius, ullra quara concessum Romano ac senatori, 
hausisse, ni prudentia matris incensum ac flagrantem 
aniraum coercuisset. Scilicet sublime et erectum 
ingeiiium pulchritudinera ac speciera excelsae mag 
nacque gloriae veheraentius, quara caute, appetebal : 
inox raitigavit rado et aetas: retinuitque, quod esi 
difficillimum, ex sapientia raodura* 

V. Prima castrorum rudimenta in Britannia Sue 
U*fuo PauUino, diiigenti ac moderato duci, approbavit 


eleclus, quem contubernio aeslimarel. Nec Agricola 
licenler more juvenum, qui mililiam in lasciviam ver- 
tunt, neque segniter ad voluptates et commeatus 
titulum tribunatus ^t inscitiam retulit : sed noscere 
provinciam, nosci exercitui, discere a pentis, sequi 
optimos, nihil appetere jactatione, nihil ob formidinem 
recusare, simulque et anxius et intentus agere. Non 
sane alias exercitatior magisque in ambiguo Brilannia 
fuit: trucidati veterani, incensae coloniae, intcrcepti 
exercitus ; tum de salute, mox de victoria, certaverc. 
Quae cuncta, etsi consiliis ductuque alterius agcban- 
tur ac summa rerum et recuperatae provinciae gloria 
in ducem cessit, artem et usum et stimulos addiderc 
juveni ; intravitque animum militaris gloriae cupido 
ingrata lemporibus, quibus sinistra erga eminentes 
^ interpretatio, nec minus periculum ex magna fama, 
quam ex mala. 

VI. Hinc ad capessendos magistratus in urbem 
digressus, Domitiam Decidianam, splendidis natalibus 
ortam, sibi junxit ; idque matrimonium ad majora 
nitenti decus ac robur fuit ; vixeruntque mira con- 
cordia, per mutuam caritatem et invicem se ante- 
ponendo : nisi quod in bona uxore tanto major laus, 
quanto in mala plus culpae est. Sors quaesturae 
provinciam Asiam, proconsulem Salvium Titianum 
dedit: quorum neutro comiptus est; quanquam et 
provincia dives ac parata peccantibus, et proconsul in 
omnem aviditatem pronus, quantalibet facilitate' rc- 
dempturus esset mutuam dissimulationem mali. Auc- 
tus est ibi filia, in subsidium simul et solatium : nam 
filium ante sublatum brevi amisit. Mox inter quaes- 
turam ac tribunatum plebis atque etiam i^sum tri- 
bunatus annum quiete et otio transiit, gnanis ' suk 


Nerone temporum, quibus inertia pro sapientia fuit 
Idem praeturae tenor et silentium ; nec enim jurisdic- 
lio obvenerat : ludos et inania- honoris raedia-xationis- 
atque abundanliae duxit, uti longe a luxuria, ila famae 
propior. Tum electus a Galba ad dona templorum 
recognoscenda, diligentissima conquisitione fecitr ne 
cujus «Iterius sacrilegium respublica, quam Neronis 

VII. Sequens annus gravi vulnere animum domum- 
que ejus afflixit: nam classis Othoniana, hcentcr vaga, 
dura Intemelios (Liguriae pars est) hostihter popula- 
tur, malrera Agricolae in praediis suis inlerfccit : 
praediaque ipsa et magnam patrimonii partem diripuit, 
quae causa caedis fuerat. Igitur ad solerania pictatis 
profectus Agricola, nuntio afFectati a Vespasiano 
imperii deprehensus ac statira in partes transgressus 
est. Initia principatus ac statura urbis Mucianus 
rcgebat, juvene admodum Doraitiano et ex patcrna 
fortuna tantura hcenliara usurpante. Is missum ad 
delectus agendos Agricolara integreque ac strenue 
versatura, vicesiraae legioni, tarde ad sacramentura 
transgressae, praeposuit, ubi decessor seditiose agere 
narrabatur : quippe legatis quoque consularibus niraia 
ac forraidolosa erat. Nec legatus praetorius ad cohi- 
bendura potens, incertura, suo an mihtura ingenio : ita 
successor siraul et ultor electus, rarissima moderatione 
maluit videri invenisse bonos, quam fecisse. 

VIII. Praeerat tunc Britanniae Veitius Bolanus 
placidius, quara feroci provincia dignura esi : tera- 
peravit Agricola vim suara ardoreraque corapescuit, ne 
incresceret ; peritus obsequi eruditusque utiha hones- 
tis miscere. Brevi deinde Britannia consulareni 
Petilium Cerialem accepit. Habuerunt virtutes spa- 




tium cxemplorum. Sed primo Cerialis labores niodo 
8t discrimina, mox et gloriam communicabat : saejie 
parti exercitus in experimentum, aliquando majoribus 
copiis • ex eventu praefecit : nec Agricola unquam in 
suam ifamam gestis exsultavit ; ad auctorem et ducem, 
ut minister, fortunam referebat : ita virtute in obse- 
quendo, verecundia in praedicando, extra invidiam, 
nec extra gloriam erat. 

IX. Revertentem ab lcgatione legionis divus Ves- 
pasianus inter patricios ascivit, ac deinde provinciae 
Aquitaniae praeposuit, splendidae in primis' dignitatis 
administratione ac spe consulatus, cui destinarat. 
Credunt plerique militaribus ingeniis subtilitatem 
dcesse, quia castrensis jurisdictio secura et obtusior 
ac plura manu agens calliditatem fori non exerceat. 
Agricola naturali prudentia, quamvis inter togatos, 
facile justeque agebat. Jam vero tempora curarum 
remissionumque divisa : ubi conventus ac judicia pos- 
cerent, gravis, intentus, severus, et saepius miseri- 
cors ; ubi officio satisfactum, nulla ultra potesta- 
tis persona : tristitiam et arrogantiam et avaritiam 
exuerat : nec illi, quod est rarissimum, aut facilitas 
auctoritatem aut severitas amorem deminuit. Integri- 
latem atque abstinentiam in tanto viro referre, injuria 
virtutum fuerit. Ne famam quidem, cui etiam saepe 
boni indulgent, ostentanda virtute, aul per artem 
quaesivit: procul ab aemulatione adversus coUegas, 
procul a contentione adversus procuratores, et vinceie 
sglorium, et atteri sordidum arbitrabatur. Minus 
triennium in ea legatione detentus ac statim ad spem 
consulaius revocaius esi, comitante opinione Britan- 
niam ei provinciam dari nullis in hoc suis sermonibus 
sed quia par videbalur. Haud semper en'at fama 


aliquanJo ct elegil. Consul egregiae lum spei fiiiam 
juveei mihi despondit ac post Consulatum collocavll. 
et statim Britanniae praepositus est, adjecto pontifica- 
tus sacerdotio. 

X. Britanniae situm populosque, multis scriptoribus 
memoraios non in comparationem curae ingeniive 
referam^ scd quia lum primum perdomita est, Ita 
quae priores nondum comperla eloquentia per- 
coluerc, rerum fide tradentur. Britannia, insularum 
quas Romana notitia compleclitur, maxima, spatio ac 
coelo in orientem Germaniae, in occidentem His- 
paniae obtenditur: Gallis iu meridiem etiam inspici- 
iur: septemtrionaiia ejus, nullis contra terris, vasto 
atque aperto mari pulsantur. Formam totius Britan- 
niae Livius veterum, Fabius Rusticus recentium 
eloquentissimi auctores, oblongae scutulae vel bipenni 
assimulavere : et est ea facies citra Caledoiiiam, unde 
et in universum fama est transgressa : sed immeniuni 
et enorme spatium procurrentium extremo jam littcre 
terrarum, veiut in cuneum tenuatur, Hanc oram 
riovissimi maris tunc primum Romana classis cir- 
cumvccta insulam esse Britanniam affirmavit, ac 
simul incognitas ad id tempus insulas, quas Orcadas 
vocant, invenit domuitque, Dispecta e^t et Timle, 
natahactenus jussum^et hiems appetebat ; sed mare 
pigrum et grave remigantibus ; perhibent ne ventis 
quidem perinde attolli: credo, quod rariores terrae 
montcsque, causa ac materia tcmpestatum, et profunda 
moles continui maris tardius impellitur. Naturam 
Oceani atque acstus neque quaerere hujus opcris est, 
ac multi retulere ; unum addiderim : nusquam latms 
dominari mare, nmltum fiuminum huc atque iliuc 
fcrre, nec littore tenus accrescere aut resorberi, sed 


influere pcnitus atque ambire, ct jngis etiani atquc 
montibus inseri velut in suo. 

XI. Ceterum Brilanniam qui mortales initio colue 
rint, indigenae an advecli, ut inter barbaros, panim 
compertum. Habitus corporum varii : atque ex ec 
argumcnta ; namque rutilae Calcdoniam habitantium 
comae, magni artus, Germanicam origincm asseve- 
rant. Silurum colorati vullus et torli plerumque 
crines ct posita conlra Hispania Iberos veteres 
trajecisse easquc scdcs occupasse fidem faciunt. 
Proximi Gallis ct similcs sunt ; seu durante originis 
vi, seu, procurrenlibus in diversa tcrris, positio coeli 
corporibus habitum dedit : in universum tamen aesti- 
manti, Gallos vicinam insulam occupasse credibile 
esi. Eorum sacra deprehendas superstitionum per- 
suasione : sermo haud muUum diversus ; in depo»- 
cendis periculis eadem audacia et, ubi advenere, in 
detrectandis eadem formido. Plus tamen ferociae 
Britanni praefcrunt, ut quos nondum longa pax emol- 
lierit: nam Gallos quoque in belHs floruisse acce- 
pimus : rnox segnitia cum otio intravit, amissa virtute 
pariter ac Hbertate ; quod Britannorum ohm victia 
evenit : ccteri manent, quales Galli fuerunt. 

XII. In pcdite robur : quaedam nationes el curru 
proeliantur : honestior auriga, clientes propugnant. 
Olim regibus parebant, nunc per principes factionibus 
et studiis trahuntur : nec aliud adversus vahdissimas 
gentes pro nobis utilius, quam quod in commune non 
consulunt. Rarus duabus tribusve civitatibus ad pro- 
pulsandum commune periculum conventus : ita, dum 
wnguli pugnant, universi vincuntur. Coelum crebria 
imbribus ac nebuHs foedum : asperitas frigorufn 
abest. Dierum spatia ultra nostri.orbis mensuram, 


ttt nox clara et exlrema Britanniae parle bre\is, ut 
finem alque initium lucis exiguo discrimme internos- 
cas. Quod si nubes non officiant, aspici per noctem 
solis fulgorem, nec occidere et exsurgere, sed translre 
affirmant. Scilicet exlrema et plana terrarum, humili 
umbra, non erigunt tenebras, infraque coelum et 
sider^ nox cadit. Solum, praeter oleam vitemque et 
cetera calidioribus terris oriri sueta, patiens frugum, 
fecundum Tarde mitescunt, cito provenunt : eadem 
utriusque rei causa, multus humor terrarum coelique 
Fert Britannia aurum et argenlum et alia metalla, pre- 
tium victoriae : gignit et Oceanus margarita, sed 
subfusca ac liventia. Quidam artem abcsse legenti- 
bus arbitrantur : nam in Rubro mari viva jac spirantia 
saxis avelK, in Britannia, prout expulsa sint, coiligi : 
ego facilius ciediderim naturam margaritis deesse. 
quam nobis avaritiam. 

XIII. Ipsi Britanni delectum ^c tributa et injuncta' 
imperii munera impigre obeunt, si injuriae absint: has 
aegre tolerant, jam domiti ut pareant, nondum ut 
serviant. Igitur primus omnium Romanorum divus 
Julius cum exercitu Britanniam ingressus, quanquam 
prospera pugna terruerit incolas ac littore potitus sit, 
potest videri ostendisse posteris, non tradidisse. Mox 
l:ella civilia et in rempublicam versa principum arma, 
ac longa oblivio Britanniae etiam in pace. Consilium 
?d divus Augustus vocabat, Tiberius praeceptum. 
Agitasse C. Caesarem de intranda Britannia salis 
constat, ni velox ingenio, mobilis poenitentiac, et 
ingentes adversus Germaniam conatus frustra fuissent. 
Divus Claudius auctor operis, transvectis legioriibui 
auxiliisque et assumpto in partem rerura Vespasiane : 


quod inilium venlurae mox fLrtunae fuil : dQinitao 
gentes, capti reges, et monstratus fatis Vespasianus. 

XIV. Consularium primus Aulus Plautius prae- 
positus, ac subinde Ostorius Scapula^ uterque bello 
egregius : redactaque paulatim in formam provinciae 
proxima pars Britanniae : addita insuper veteranorum 
colonia : quaedam civitates Cogiduno regi donatae (ia 
id nostram usque memoriam fidissimus mansit) ut 
vetere ac jam pridem recepta populi Romani con- 
suetudine, haberet instrumenta servitutis et reges. 
Mox Didius Gallus parta a prioribus continuit, paucis 
admodum castellis in ulteriora promotis, per quae 
fama aucti officii quaereretur. Didium Veranius 
excepit, isque intra annum exstinclus est. Sue- 
tonius hinc Paullinus biennio prospcras res habuit, 
subactis nationibus firmatisque praesidiis : quonim 
fiducia Monam insulam, ut vires rebellibus ministran- 
lem, aggressus, tcrga occasioni patefecit. 

XV. Namque absentia legati remoto metu, Britanni 
agitare inter se mala servitutis, conferre injurias et 
interpretando accendere : nihil profici patientia, nisi ut 
graviora, tanquam ex facili toleraniibus, imperentur : 
singulos sibi olim reges fuisse, nunc binos imponi : e 
quibiis legatus in sanguinem, procurator in bona 
saeviret Aeque discordiam praepositorum, aeque 
concordiam, subjectis exitiosam : alterius manus cen- 
luriones, alterius servos vim et contumelias miscere. 
Nihil jam cupiditati, nihil libidini exceptum : in 
proelio fortiorem esse, qui spoliet; nunc ab ignavis 
plerumque et imbellibus eripi domos, abstrahi liberos, 
injungi delectus, tanquam mori tantum pro patria 
nescientibus : quantulum enim transisse militum, si 
«ese Britanni numerent ? sic Germanias excussissf 


jugum : et flunune, non Oceano, defendi : sibi pa- 
triam, conjuges, parentes, illis avaritiam et luxuiiam 
causas belli esse. Recessuros, ut divus Julius 
rccessisset, modo virtutes majorum suorum aemula- 
rentur. Neve proelii unius aut alterius eventu paves- 
cerent : plus impetus, majorem conslantiam, penes 
miscros esse. Jam Britannorum etiam deos misereri, 
qui Romanum ducem absenlem, qui relegatum in alia 
insula exercitum detrncrent : jam ipsos, quod difficilli- 
mum fuerit, deliberare : porro in ejusmodi consiliis 
periculosius esse deprehendi, quam audere. 

XVI. His atque talibus invicem instincti, Boudicea, 
generis regii femina, duce (neque enim sexum in 
imperiis discernunt) sumpsere universi bellum : ac 
sparsos per castella milites consectati, expugnatis 
praesidiis, ipsam coloniam invasere, ut sedem servi- 
tutis : nec ullum in barbaris saevitiae genus omisil 
ira et victoria. Quod nisi Paullinus, cognito proviii- 
ciae motu, propere subvenisset, amissa Britunnia 
foret : quam unius proelii fortuna veteri paticuliae 
restituit, tenentibus arma plerisque, quos conscientia 
defectionis et propius ex legato timor agitabat, ne, 
quanquam egregius cetera, arroganter in deditos et, ut 
suae quoque injunae ultor, durius consuleret. Missus 
igitur Petronius Turpilianus, tanquam exorabilior : et 
delictis hostium novus, eoque poenitentiae mitior, com- 
positis prioribus, nihil ultra ausus, Trebellio Maximo 
provinciam tradidit. Trebellius segnior, et nullis cas- 
trorum experimentis, comitate quadam curandi provin- 
ciam tenuit. Didicere jam barbari quoque ignoscere 
vitiis blandientibus : et interventus civilium armorum 
praebuit justam segnitiae excusationem : sed discordia 
laboratum, cum assuetus expeditionibus miles otio 


^asciviret. Trebellius fuga ac latebris Vitata exerci 
tus ira, indecorus atque humilis, precario mox 
praefuit : ac velut pacti, exercitus licentiam, dux 
salutem ; et seditio sine sanguina stetit. Nec Vettius 
Bolanus, manentibus adhuc civilibus bellis, agitavit 
Britanniam disciplina : eadem inertia erga hostes, 
similis petulantia castrorum : nisi quod innocens 
Bolanus et nuUis delictis invisus, caritatem paraverat 
loco auctoritatis. 

XVII. Sed, ubi cum cetero orbe Vespasianus ct 
Britanniam recuperavit, magni duces, egregii exerci- 
tus, minuta hostium spes. Et terrorem statim intulil 
Petihus Ceriahs, Brigantum civitatem, quae nume- 
rosissima provinciae totius perhibetur, aggressus. 
Multa proeha, et aliquando non incruenta • magnam- 
que Brigantum partem aut victoria amplexus est aut 
bello. Et, cum Ceriahs quidem alterius successoris 
curam famamque obruisset, sustinuit quoque molem 
Juhus Frontinus, vir magnus quantum licebat, vaU 
damque et pugnacem Silurum gentem armis subegit, 
suf er virtutem hostium, locorum quoque diflScultates 

XVIII. Hunc Britanniae statum, has bellorum 
viccs media jam aestate transgressus Agricola invenit, 
cum et mililes, velut omissa expeditione, ad securita- 
tem, et hostes ad occasionem verterentur. Ordovicum 
civitas, haud multo ante adventum ejus, alam, in 
finibus suis agentem, prope universam obtriverat . 
Boque initio erecta provincia : et, quibus bellum 
volentious crat, probare exemplum, ac reccntis legali 
animum opperiri, cum Agricola, quanquam trans 
vccta aestas, sparsi per provinciam numeri, praesumpta 
«pud miHtcm illius anni quies, tarda et contraria 


bellum inchoaturo, et plerisque custodiri suspecta 
potius videbatur, ire obviam discrimini statuit: con *^ 
tractisque legionum vexillis et modica auxiliorum 
manu, quia in aequum degredi Ordovices non aude- 
bant, ipse ante agmen, quo ceteris par animus simili 
periculo esset, erexit aciem : caesaque prope universa 
gente, non ignarus instandum famae, ac, prout prima 
cessissent, terrorem ceteris fore,Monam insulam, cujus 
possessione revocatum PauUinum rebellione totius 
Britanniae supra memoravi, redigere in potestatem 
animo intendit. Sed, ut in dubiis consiliis, naves ' 
deerant : ratio et constantia ducis transvexit. De- 
positis omnibus sarcinis, lectissimos auxiliarium, 
quibus nota vada et patrius nandi usus, quo simul 
seque et arma et equos regunt, ita repente immisit, 
^t obstupefacti hostes, qui classem, qui naves, qui 
mare expectabant, nihil arduum aut invictum credi- 
derint sic ad bellum venientibus. Ita petita pace ac 
dedita insula, clarus ac magnus haberi Agricola : 
quippe cui ingredienti provinciam, quod tempus alii 
per ostentationem aut officiorum ambitum transigunt, 
labor et periculum placuisset. Nec Agricola, pros 
peritate rerum in vanitatem usus, expeditionem .aut 
victoriam vocabat victos continuisse : ne laureatis qui- 
dem gesta prosecutus est : sed ipsa dissimulatione 
famae famam auxit, aestimantibus, qiianta futuri spe 
tam magna tacuisset. 

XIX. Ceterum animorum provinciae prudens, 
simulque doctus per aliena expcrimenta parum pro- 
fici armis, si injuriae sequerentur, causas bellorum 
statuit excidere. A se suisquc orsus, primum domum 
«uam coercuit; quod plcrisque haud minus arduum 
est, quam provinciam rci^crc. Nihil pcr libertos 

56 c. coRX. TACin 

BeiTOsque publicae rei: dod studiis pnTatis nec p.i 
commendatione aut precibus centurionom milites 
ascire, sed optimum quemque fidiiFsimum putare * 
omnia scire, non omnia e^Lsequi : panris peccatis 
reniamy magnis severitatem commodare : nec poena 
semper, sed saepius poenitentia contentus esse : 
ofEciis et administrationibus potius non peccaturos 
praeponerCy quam damnare, cum peccassent. Fru- 
menti et tributorum auctionem aequalitate munerum 
mollirey circumcisis, quae, in quaestum reperta, ipso 
tributo gravius tolerabantur : namque per ludibrium 
assidere clausis horreis et emere ultro frumenta, ac 
vendere pretio cogebantur : devortia itinerum et lon- 
ginquitas rej^onum indicebatur, ut civitates a proximis 
hibemis in remota et avia referrent, donec, quod 
omnibus in promptu erat, paucis lucrosum fieret. 

XX. Haec primo statim anno comprimendo, egre- 
giam famam paci circumdedit; quae vel incuria vel 
intolerantia priomm haud minus quam bellum time- 
batur. Sed, ubi aestas advenit, contracto exercitu, 
multus in agmine laudare modestiam, disjectos coer 
ccre : loca castris ipse capere, aestuaria ac silvas ipse 
practentare ; et nihil interim apud hostes quietum 
pati, quo minus subitis excursibus popularetur: atque, 
ubi satis terruerat, parcendo rursus irritamenta pacis 
ostentare. Quibus rebus multae civitates, quae in 
illum diem ex aequo egerant, datis obsidibus, iram 
posuere, et praesidiis castellisque circumdatae tanta 
ratione curaque, ut nulla ante Britanniae nova pars 
illacessita transierit. 

XXI. Sequens hiems saluberrimis consiliis ab« 
iumpta : namque, u"; homines dispersi ac rudes, eoque 
in bella ficiles, qu 3ti et otio per voluptates assues 


cerent, liortari privatim, adjuvare publice, ut templa, 
fora, domus exstruerent, laudando promplos et cas- 
ligando segnes : ita honoris, aemulatio pro necessitate 
orat. Jam vero principum filios liberalibus artibus 
crudire, et ingenia Britannorum studiis Gallorum 
aTitcfcrre, u^qui modo linguam Romanam abnuebant, 
eloquentiam concupiscerent. Inde etiam habitus nos- 
tri honor et frequens toga : paulatimque discessum ad 
delenimenta vitiorum, porticus et balnea et convi- 
viorum elegantiam : idque apud imperitos humanitas 
vocabatur, cum pars servitutis esset. 

XXII. Tertius expeditionum annus novas gentes 
aperuit, vastatis usque ad Taum (aestuario nomen 
est) nationibus : qua formidine territi hostes quan- 
quam conflictatum saevis tempestalibus exercitum 
lacessere non ausi ; ponendisque insuper casteUis 
spatium fuit. Annotabant periti non aHum ducem 
opportunitates locorum sapientius legisse : nullum ab 
Agricola positum caslellum aut vi hostium expugna- 
tum aut pactione ac fuga desertum. Crebrae erup- 
tiones: nam adversus moras obsidionis annuis copiis 
firmabantur : ita intreprda ibi hiems, et sibi quisque 
praesidio, irritis hostibus eoque desperantibus, quia 
sohti plerumque damna aestatis hibernis eventibus 
pensare, tum aestatc atque hieme juxta pellebantur. 
Nec Agricola unquam per ahos gesta avidus inter- 
cepit : seu centurio seu praefectus, incorruptum facti 
testem habebat. Apud quosdam acerbior in conviciia 
narrabatur; ut erat comis bonis, adversus malos inju- 
cundus : ceterum ex iracundia nihil supererat ; secre- 
lum et silentium ejus non timeres : honestius putabat 
oiFendere, quam odisse. 

XXJII. Quarta aestas obtinendis, quae percurrerai. 


msumpta : ac, si virlus exerciluum et Romani nominis 
pfloria patcretur, inventus in ipsa Britannia terminus 
Nam Clota et Bodotria, diversi maris aestibus pei 
immensum revectae, angusto* terrarum spatio dirimun- 
tur : quod tura praesidiis firmabatur : atque omnis 
propior sinus tenebatur, summotis velut in aliam 
insulam hostibus. 

XXIV. Quinto expeditionum anno, nave prima 
Iransgressus, ignotas ad id tempus gentes crebris 
simul ac prospcris proeliis domuit: eamque partem 
Britanniae, quae Hiberniam aspicit, copiis instruxil 
in spem magis quam ob formidinem ; si quidem 
Hibernia, medio inter Britanniam atque Hispaniam 
sila et Gallico quoque mari opportuna, vaientissimam 
imperii partem magnis invicem usibus miscuerit. 
Spatium ejus, si Brilanniae comparetur, angustius, 
nostri maris insulas superat. Solum coelumque et 
ingenia cultusque hominum haud multum a Britannia 
differunt : in melius aditus portusque per commercia 
et negotiatores cogniti. Agricola expulsum seditione 
domestica unum ex regulis gentis exceperat ac specie 
amicitiae in occasionem retinebat. Saepe ex eo 
audivi, legione una et modicis auxiliis debellari obli- 
nerique Hiberniam posse. Idque etiam adversus 
Britanniam profuturum, si Romana ubique arma, et 
yelut e conspectu libertas tolleretur. 

XXV. Ceterum aestate, qua sextum officii annum 
mchoabat, amplexus civitates trans Bodotriam sitas, 
quia motus universarum ultra gentium et infesta 
hostilis exercitus itinera timebantur, portus classe 
exploravit: quae, ab Agricola primum assumpta in 
Dartem virium, sequebatur egregia specie, cum simu) 
terra, simul mari bellum impelleretur, ac saepe iisdem 


castris pedes equesque et nauticus miles, mixti copiia 
et laetitia, sua quisque facta, suos casus attollercnt : 
ac modo silvarum ac montium profunda, modo tem- 
pestalum ac fluctuum adversa, hinc terra et hostis, 
hinc victijs Oceanus militari jactantia compararen- 
•lur. Britannos quoque, ut ex captivis audiebatur, 
visa classis obstupefaciebat, tanquam, aperto maris 
3ui secreto, ultimum victis perfugium clauderetur. 
Ad manus et arma conversi Caledoniam incc/entes 
populi, paratu magno, majore fama, uti mos est de 
ignotis, oppugnasse ultro, castella adorti, metum, ut 
provocantes, addiderant: regrediendumque citra Bodo- 
triam, et excedendum potius, quam pellerentur, specie 
prudentium ignavi admonebant : cum interim cognos- 
cit hostes pluribus agminibus irrupturos. Ac, ne 
superante numero et peritia locorum circumiretur, 
diviso et ipse in tres partes exercitu incessit. 

XXVI. Quod ubi cognitum hosti, mutato repente 
oonsilio, universi nonam legionem, ut maxime invali* 
dam, nocte aggressi, inter somnum ac trepidationem 
caesis yigilibus, irrupere. Jamque in ipsis castns 
pugnabanty cum Agricola, iter hostium ab exploratori- 
bus edoctus et vestigiis insecutus, velocjssimos equi- 
tum peditumque assultare tergis pugnantium jubet> 
mox ab universis adjici clamorem ; et propinqua luce 
fulsere signa : ita ancipiti malo territi Britanni : et 
Romanis redit animus, ac, sccuri pro salute, de gloria 
certabant. Ultro quin etiam crupere : et fuit atrox in 
ipsis portarum angustiis proelium, donec pulsi hos 
les ; utroque cxercitu certante, his. ut tulisse opem 
31is, ne eguisse auxilio viderentur. Quod nisi palu 
des et silvae fugientes texissent, debellatum illa vic 
tfNria foret. 


XXV II. Cujus conscientiaac fama feiox exerc Iub, 
nihil virtuti suae invium : penetrandam Caledoniam, 
inveniendumque tandem Britanniae terminum con- 
tinuo proeliorum cursu, fremebant: atque illi modo 
cauti ac sapientes, prompti post eventum £^c magnilo- 
qui erant. Iniquissima haec bellorum conditio est : 
prospera omnes sibi vindicant, adversa uni imputan- 
tur. At Britanni non virtute, sed cccasione et arte 
ducis rdti, nihil ex arrogantia remittere, quo minus 
juventutem armarent, conjuges ac liberos in loca tuta 
transferrent, coetibus ac sacrificiis conspirationcra 
civitatum sancirent: atque ita jrritatis utrimque animis 

XXVIII. Eadem aestate cohors Usipiorum, per 
Germanias conscripta, in Britanniam transmissa 
magnum ac memorabile facinus ausa est. Occiso 
centurione ac militibus, qui ad tradendam disciplinam 
immixti manipulis exemplum et rectores habebantur, 
tres liburnicas, adactis per vim gubematoribus, ascen- 
dere : et uno remigante, suspectis duobus eoque 
interfectis, nondum vulgato rumore ut miraculum 
praevehebantur : mox hac atque illa rapti, et cum 
plerisque Britannorum, sua defensantium, proeho con- 
gressi, ac saepe victores, aliquando pulsi, eo ad ex- 
tremum inopiae venere, ut infinnissimos suorum, mox 
sorte ductos, vescerentur. Atque circumvecti 
I^ritanniam, amissis per inscitiam regendi navibus, 
pro praedonibus habiti, primum a Suevis, mox a 
Frisiis intercepti sunt : ac fuere, quos per commercia 
venunidatos et in nostram usque ripam mutatione 
cmentium adductos, indicium tanti casus illustravit. 

XXDL Initio aestatis Agricola, domestico vulnere 
ctus, anno ante natum lilium amisit. Quem casuoi 


neqae, ut plerique fortium virorurn, ambitiose, neque 
per lamenta rursus ac moerorem muliebriter tulit : et 
in luctu bellum inter remedia erat. Igitur praemissa 
classe, quae pluribus locis praedata, magnum et incer- 
tum terrorem faceret, expedito exercitu, cui ex Britan- 
nis fortissimos et longa pace exploralos addiderat, ad 
montem Grampium pervenit, quem jam hostis inse 
derat. Nam Britanni, nihil fracti pugnae prioris 
eventu, et uhionem aut servitium exspeclames, tan- 
demque docti commune periculum concordia propul- 
sandum, legationibus et foederibus omnium civitatum 
vires exciverant. Jamque super triginta miUia arma- 
torum aspiciebantur, et adhuc affluebat omnis juven- 
tus et quibus cruda ac viridis senectus, clari bello et 
8ua quisque decora gestantes : cum inter plures duces 
virtule et genere praestans, nomine Calgacus, apud 
contractam multitudinem proelium poscentem, in 
hunc modum locutus fertur : 

XXX. " Quotiens causas belli et necessilatem nos 
tram intueor, magnus mihi animus est hodiernua. 
diem consensumque vestrum initium libertatis totius 
Britanniae fore. Nam et universi servitutis expertes, 
et nullas ultra terrae, ac ne mare quidem securum, 
imminente nobis classe Romana : ita proelium atque 
arma, quae fortibus honesla, eadem etiam ignavis 
tutissima sunt. Priores pugnae, quibus adversus 
Romanos varia fortuna certatum est, spem ac subsi- 
d^am in nostris manibus habebant : quia nobihssimi 
totius Britanniae eoque in ipsis penetralibus siti, nec 
servientium littora aspicientes, oculos quoqne a con 
tactu dominationis inviolatos habebamus. Nos terra- 
ram ac libertatis extremos, recessus ipse ac sinua 
fomae in hunc diem -^efendit • nunc terminus Eri- 


taniiiac patet ; atque omne ignotum pro magnifico 
est. Sed nulla jam ultra gens, nihil nisi fluctus et 
saxa, et infestiores Romani : quorum superbiam frus- 
tra per obsequium et modestiam effugeris. Raptores 
orbis, postquam cuncta vastantibus defuere terrae, et 
mare scrutantur : si locuples hostis est, avari ; si 
pauper, ambitiosi: quos non Oriens, non Occidens 
satiaverit. Soli onmium opes atque inopiam pari 
affectu concupiscunt. Auferre, trucidare, rapere, 
falsis nominibus imperium ; atque, ubi solitudinem 
faciunt, pacem appellant." 

XXXI. " Liberos cuique ac propinquos suos natura 
carissimos esse voluit ; hi per delectus, alibi servituri, 
auferuntur • conjuges sororesque, etsi hoslilem libi- 
dinem effugiant, nomine amicorum atque hospitum 
polluuntur. Bona fortunasque in tributum egerunt, 
annos in frumentum : corpora ipsa ac manus silvis ac 
paludibus emuniendis inter verbera ac contumelias 
conterunt. Nata servituti mancipia semel veneunt, 
atque ultro a dominis aluntur: Britannia servitutem 
suam quotidie emit, quotidie pascit. Ac, sicut in 
familia recentissimus quisque servorum et conservis 
ludibrio est, sic in hoc orbis terrarum vetere famulatu 
novi nos et viles in excidium petimur. Neque enira 
arva nobis aut metalla aut portus sunt, quibus exer- 
cendis reservemur. Virtus porro ac ferocia subjec- 
torum ingrata imperantibus : et longinquitas ac 
secretum ipsum quo tutms, eo suspectius. Ita, 
sublata spe veniae, tandem sumite animum, tam 
quibus salus, quam quibus gloria carissima est. 
Trinobantes, femina duce, exurere coloniam, ex- 
pugnare castra, ac, nisi felicitas in socordiam vertis- 
eet, exuere jugum potuero : nos intpgri et indomiti 


el libertatem non in poenitentiam laturi, primo slatim 
congressu nonne ostendamus, quos sibi Caledonia 
viros seposuerit ? An eandem Romanis in bello vir- 
lulem, quam in pace lasciviam adesse credilis ?** 

XXXn. "Nostris illi dissensionibus ac discordiis 
clari, vitia hostium in gloriam exercitus sui vertunt : 
quem contractum ex diversissimis gentibus, ut secun 
dae res tenent, ita adversae dissolvent : nisi si Gallos 
et Germanos et (pudet dictu) Britannorum plerosque, 
licet dominationi alienae sanguinem commodent, diu- 
tius tamen hostes quam servos, fide et aflfectu teneiri 
putatis : metus et terror est, infirma vincula carilatis . 
quae ubi removeris, qui timere desierint, odisse inci- 
piont. Omnia victoriae incitamenta pro nobis sunt: 
nullae Romanos conjuges accendunt; nulli parentes 
fugam exprobraturi sunt; aut nulla plerisque patria, 
aut alia est. Paucos numero, trepidos ignorantia, 
coelum ipsum ac marc et silvas, ignota omnia cir- 
cumspectantes, clausos quodammodo ac vinctos dii 
nobis tradiderunt. Ne terreat vanus aspectus et auri 
fulgor atque argenti, quod neque tegit neque vulnerat. 
. n ipsa hostium acie inveniemus nostras manus : 
ignoscent Britanni suam causam : recordabuntur 
Galli priorem libertatem : deserent illos ceteri Ger- 
mani, tanquam nuper Usipii reliquerunt. Nec quid- 
quam ultra formidinis : vacua castella, senutn 
coloniae, inter male parentes et injuste imperan- 
tes aegrd municipia et discordantia : hic dux, hic 
«xercitus: ibi tributa et metalla et ceterae servien- 
tium poenae : quas in aeternum perferre aut statim 
ulcisci in hoc campo est. Proinde ituri in aciem et 
majores veslros et posteros cogitate." 

XXXin. Bxcepere orationem alacres, ut barbarit 


nioris, canlu et fremilu clamoribusque disffonis. Jam 
que agmina, et annorum fulgore» audentissin» 
cujusque procursu : simul inslruebanlur aciej : cunn 
Agricola, quanquam faelum et vix munrmeritis coerci- 
lum militem adhortatus, ita disseruit : " Octavus 
annus est, commilitones, ex quo virtute et auspiciii 
imperii Romani fide atque opera veslra Brilanniam 
vicistis : tot expeditionibua, tot proeliis, seu fortitudine 
adversus hoste» seu patientia ac labore paene adversus 
ipsam rerura naturam opus fuit, neque me militum 
neque vos ducis poenituit. Ergo egressi, ego veterum 
lcgatorum, vos priorum exerciluum terminos, finem 
Britanniae non fama nec rumore, sed castris et armis 
tenemus. Inventa Britannia et subacta. Equidem 
saepe in agmine, cum vos paludes montesve et 
flumina fatigarent, fortissimi cujusque voces audie- 
bam, Quando dabilur hostis, quando acies ? Veniunl, 
e latebris suis extrusi : et vota virtusque in aperto, 
omniaque prona victoribus, atque eadem victis 
adversa. Nam, ut superasse tantum itineris, silvas 
evasisse, transisse aestuaria pulchrum ac decorum 
in frontem ; ita fugientibus periculosissima, quae 
hodie prosperrima sunt. Neque enim nobis aut loco- 
rum eadem notitia aut commeatuum eadem abundan- 
tia : sed manus ct arma et in his omnia. Quod ad 
me attinet, jam pridem mihi decretum est, neque 
exercitus neque ducis terga tuta esse. Proinde et 
honesta mors turpi vita potior ; et incolumilas ac 
decus eodem loco sita sunt : nec inglorium fuerit, i» 
ipso terrarum ac naturae fine cecidisse." 

XXXIV. " Si novae gentes atque ignota acies con 
stitisset, aliorum exercituum exemplis vos hortarer 
nunc vestra decora recensete, vejjtros oculos interro- 


gale. li sunt, quos proximo anno, unani lcgionera 
furlo noctis aggressos, clamore debellastis : ii cetero- 
rum Britannorum fugacissimi, ideoque tam diu super- 
stites. Quomodo silvas saltusque penetrantibus 
fortissimum quodque animal contra ruere, pavida et 
inertia ipso agminis sono pelluntur, sic acerrimi 
Britannorura jam pridem ceciderunt : reb'quus est 
numerus ignavorum et metuentium , quos quod tan- 
dem invenistis, non restiterunt, sed deprehensi sunt • 
novissimae res et extremo metu corpora defixere 
aciem in his vestigiis, in quibus pulchram et spec- 
tabilem victoriam ederetis. Transigite cum expedi- 
tionibus : imponite quinquaginta annis magnura diera : 
approbate reipubhcae nunquara exercitui iraputari 
potuisse aut raoras belli aut causas rebellandi." 

XXXV. Et alloquente adhuc Agricola, mintura 
ardor erainebat, et finera orationis ingens alacritas 
consecuta est, statiraque ad arraa discursura. Instinc- 
tos ruentesque ita disposuit, ut peditura auxilia, quae 
octo miUia erant, raediara aciera firraarent, equitum 
tria raillia coraibus afFunderentur : legiones pro vallo 
stetere/Jngens victoriae decus citra Roraanura san- 
guinem bellanti,^et auxilium, si pellerentur. Britan- 
norum acies, in speciera siraul ac terrorera, editioribus 
locis constiterat ita, ut priraura agmen aequo, ceteri 
per acclive jugura connexi velut insurgerent : raedia 
carapi covinarius et eques strepitu ac discursu cora- 
plebat. Tura Agricola superante hostiura multitudine 
veritus, ne simul in frontera, simul et latera suorum 
pugnaretur, diductis ordinibus, quanquam porreclior 
acies futura erat et arcessendas plerique legionea 
adraonebant, proraptior in spera et firraus adversin, 
diraisso equo pedes ante voxilla constitit 


XXX\X Ac primo congressu ciniims cerlabatur 
simul conslantia, simul arte Britanni ingentibus gladiii 
et brevibus cetris missilia nostrorum vitare vel excu- 
tere, alque ipsi magnam vim telorum superfundere : 
donec Agricola Batavorum cohortes ac Tungro- 
rum duas cohortatus est, ut rem ad mucroncs ac 
manus adducerent: quod et ip^^is vetustate militiae 
exercitalum, et hostibus inhabile parva scuta et enor- 
mes gladios gerentibus : nam Britannorum gladii sine 
mucrone complexum armorum et in aperlo pugnam 
non tolerabant. Igilur, ut Batavi miscere ictus, ferire 
umbonibus, ora foedare, et stratis qui in aequo obsti- 
terant, erigere in colles aciem coepere, ceterae cohor- 
tes, aemulatione et impetu commistae, proximos 
quosque caedere ; ac plerique semineces aut integri 
festiuatione victoriae relinquebantur. Interim equi- 
tum turmae fugere, covinarii peditum se proelio 
miscuere : et, quanquam recentem terrorem intu 
lerant, densis tamen hoslium agminibus et inaequali- 
bus locis haerebant : minimeque equestris ea pugnae 
facies erat, cum aegrc diu stantes simul equorum cor- 
poribus impellerentur, ac saepe vagi currus, exterriti 
sine rectoribus equi, ut quemque formido tulerat. 
iransversos aut obvios incursabant. 

XXXVn. Et Britanni, qui adhuc pugnae expertes 
summa collium insederant et paucitatem nostrorum 
vacui spernebant, degredi paulatim et circumire terga 
vincenlium : ni id ipsum veritus Agricola, 
quatuor equitum alas, ad subita belli retentas, venien- 
tibus opposuisset, quantoque ferocius accurrerant, 
»anto acrius pulsos in fugam disjecisset. Ita con- 
ailium Britannorum in ipsos versum : transvectaeque 
Draecepto ducis a fronte pugnantiuno alae, av«rsain 


hostium aciem invasere. Tum vero palenlitus locis 
grande et atrox speclaculum : sequi, vulnerare, capere 
atque eosdem, oblatis aliis, truddare. Jam hostium, 
prout cuique ingenium erat, catervae armatorum 
paucioribus terga praestare, quidam inermes ullro 
ruere ac se morti offerre ; passim arma et corpora et 
taceri artus et cnienta humus : et aliquando etiam 
viclis ira virtusque; postquam silvis appropinqua- 
runt, collecti primos sequentium incautos et locorum 
ignaros circumveniebant. Quod ni frequens ubique 
Agricola validas et expeditas cohortes indaginis modo, 
et, sicubi arctiora erant, partem equitum dimissis 
equis, simul rariores silvas equitem persultare jussis- 
set, acceptum aliquod vulnus per nimiam fiduciam 
foret. Ceterum, ubi compositos firmis ordinibus 
sequi rursus videre, in fugam versi, non agminibus, 
ut prius, nec alius alium respectantes, rari et vita- 
bundi invicem, longinqua atque avia petiere. Finis 
sequendi nox et satietas fuit : caesa hostium ad decem 
millia : nostrorum trecenti sexaginta cecidere : in quis 
Aulus Atticus praefectus cohortis, juvenili ardore et 
ferocia equi hostibus illatus. 

XXXVin, Et nox quidem gaudio praedaque laeta 
victoribus : Britanni palanles, mixtoque virorum 
mulierumque ploratu, trahere vulneratos, vocare in- 
tegros, deserere domos ac per iram ultro incendere : 
eligere latebras et statim relinquere : miscere invicem 
consilia aliqua, dein separare : aliquando frangi as- 
pectu pignorum suorum, saepius concitar : satisque 
constabat, saevisse quosdam in conjuges ac liberos, 
lanquam misererentur. Proximus dies faciem vic- 
toriae latius aperuit : vastum ubique silentium, secreti 
•M^Ucs, fumantia procul tecta, nemo exploratoribus 

5b C. CORN. TACm 

y obvius V ^uibus in omnem partem dimissis, ubi 
incerta fugae vestigia neque usquam conglobari hos 
tes compertum et exacta jam aestate spargi bellum 
nequibat, in firies Horestorum exercitum deducit. Ibi 
acceplis obsidibus, praefecto classis circumvehi Bri 
tanniam praecepit. Datae ad id vires, et piaecesse 
rat terror. Ipse peditem atque equiles lento itinerc, 
quo novarum gentium animi ipsa transitus mora 
terrerentur, in hibernis locavit. Et simul classis 
secunda tempestate ac fama Trutulensem portum 
tenuit, unde proximo latere Britanniae lecto omni 

XXXEX, Hunc rerum cursum, quanquam nuUa 
verborum jactantia epistolis Agricolae actum, ut 
Domitiano moris erat, fronte iaetus, pectore anxius 
excepit. Inerat conscientia derisui fuisse nuper fal- 
sum e Germania triumphum, emptis per commercia, 
quorum habitus et crines in captivorum speciem for- 
marentur: at nunc veram magnamque victoriam, tot 
millibus hostium caesis, ingenti fama celebrari. Id 
sibi maxime formidolosum, privati hominis nomen 
supra principis attolli : frustra studia fori et civilium 
artium decus in silentium acta, si militarem gloriam 
alius occuparet : et cetera utcumque facilius dis 
simulari : ducis boni imperatoriam vJrtutem esse. 
Talibus curis exercitus, quodque saevac cogilationis 
indicium erat, secreto suo satiatus, optimum in 
praesentia statuit reponere odium, donec impetus 
famae et favor exercitus languesceret : nam etiam 
tum Agricola Britanniam obtinebat. 

XL. Igitur triumphalia ornamenta et illustris sta- 
tuae honorem et quidquid pro triumpho datur, multo 
verborum honore cumulata, decerni in senatu jubet ; 


iddique insuper opinionem, Syriam proviflciam Agri- 
cx>1ae destinari, vacuam tum morte Atilii Rufi con- 
sularis et majoribus reservatam. Credidere plerique 
libertum ex secretioribus ministeriis missum a<l 
Agricolam codicillos, quibus ei Syria dabatur, tulisse 
cum praecepto, ut, si in Britannia foret, traderetitur : 
eumque libertum in ipso freto Oceani obvium 
Agricolae, ne appellato quidem eo, ad Domitianum 
remeasse : sive verum istud, sive ex ingenio principis 
fictum ac compositum est. Tradiderat interim Agri- 
cok successori suo provinfciam quietam tutamque. 
Ac, ne notabilis celebritate et frequentia occurrentium 
introitus esset, vitato amicorum officio, noctu in 
urbem, noctu in palatium, ita ut praeceptum erat, 
venit : exceptusque brevi osculo et nuUo sermone 
turbae servientium immixtus est, Ceterum, ut mili- 
tare nomen, grave inter otiosos, aliis virtutibus tem* 
peraret, tranquiUitatem atque otium penitus auxit, 
cultu modicus, sermone facilis, uno aut altero ami- 
corum comitatus ; adeo ut plerique quibus magnos 
viros per ambitionem aestimare mos est, viso aspecto- 
que Agricola, quaererent famam, pauci interpreta- 

XLL Crebroper eos dies apud Domitianum absens 
accusatus, absens absolutus est. Causa periculi non 
crimen ullum aut querela laesi cujusquam, sed in- 
fensus virtutibus princeps et gloria viri ac pessimum 
uiiroicorum genus, laudantes. Et ea insecuta sunt 
reipuWicae tempOTa, quae sileri Agricolam non sine- 
rent : tot exercitus in Moesia Daciaque et Germania 
Pannoniaque, temeritate aut per ignaviam ducum 
amissi : tot militares viri cum tot cohortibus ex* 
pugnati et capti : nec jam de limite imperii et ripa 

70 C. CORN. rACITl 

sed dc hibernis legionum et possessione dubitatum 
Ita, cum damna damnis ccntinuarentur atque omnis 
annus funeribus et cladibus insigniretur, poscebatur 
ore vulgi dux Agricola : comparantibus cunctis vigo- 
rem, constantiam et expertum bellis animum cum 
inertia et formidine ceterorum. Quibus sermonibus 
«alis constat Domitiani quoque aures verberatas, dum 
q>timus quisque libertorum amore et fide, pcssimi 
malignitate et livore, pronum deterioribus principem 
exstimulabant. Sic Agricola simul suis virtutibus, 
simul vitiis aliorum, in ipsam gloriam praeceps agc- 

XLII. Aderat jam annus, quo proconsulatum 
Asiae et Africae sortiretur, et occiso Civica nuper 
nec Agricolae consilium deerat, nec Domitiano exem- 
plum. Accessere quidam cogitationum principis 
periti, qui, iturusne esset in provinciam, ultro Agri- 
colam interrogarent : ac primo occultius quietem et 
otium laudare, mox operam snam in approbanda 
excusatione offerre : postremo non jam obscuri, sua- 
dentes simul terrentesque, pertraxere ad Domitianum ; 
qui paratus simulatione, in arrogantiam compositus, 
et audiit preces excusantis, et, cum annuisset, agi 
sibi gratias passus est : nec erubuit beneficii invidia. 
Salarium tamen, proconsulari solitum offerri et qui* 
busdam a se ipso concessum, Agricolae non dedit: 
sive offensus non petitum, sive ex conscientia, ne, 
quod vetuerat, videretur emisse. I^prium humani 
ingenii est, odisse quem laeseris : Domitiani yero 
natura praeceps in iram, et quo obscuriory eo irrevo- 
cabili(»', modeiatione tamen prudentiaqiie Agricolae 
leniebatur: quia non contumacia neque inani jacta- 
tione libertatis famam fatumque provocabat. Sciant, 


quibus moris illicita mirari, posse etiam sub mulis 
principibus magnos viros esse : obsequiumque ac 
modestiam, si industria ac vigor adsint, eo laudis 
excedere, quo pierique per abrupta, sed in nullum 
reipublicae usum, ambitiosa morte inclaruerunt. 

XLin, Finis vitae ejus nobis luctuosus, amicis 
trislis, extraneis etiam ignotisque non sine cura fuit. 
Vulgus quoque et hic aliud agens populus et ven- 
titavere ad domum, et per fora et circulos locuti sunt : 
nec quisquam audita morte Agricolae aut laetatus est 
aut statim oblitus. Augebat miserationem constans 
rumor, veneno interceptum. Nobis nihil comperti 
affirmare ausim : celerum per omnem valetudinem 
A? jus, crebrius quam ex more principatus per nuntios 
visentis, et libertorum parimi et medicorum intimi 
venere : sive cura illud sive inquisitio erat. Supremo 
quidem die, momenta deficientis per dispositos cur- 
sores nuntiata constabat, nullo credente sic accelerari, 
quae tristis audiret. Speciem tamen doloris animo 
vultuque prae se tulit, securus jam odii, et qui facilius 
dissimularet gaudium, quam metum. Satis consta- 
bat, leclo testamento Agricolae, quo cohaeredem 
optimae uxori et piissimae filiae Domitianum scripsit, 
laetatum eum velut honore judicioque : tam caeca et 
corrupta mens assiduis adulationibus erat, ut nesciret 
a bono patre non scribi haeredem, nisi malum princi- 

XLIV. Natus erat Agricola, Caio Caesare ter- 
tium consule, Idibus Juniis : excessit sexto et quin- 
quagesimo anno, decimo Kalendas Septembris, Col- 
lega Priscoque consulibus. Quod si habitum quoque 
ejus posteri noscere velint, decentior quam sublimior 
fuit ; nihil metus in vultu, gratia oris supererat * 


boniim virum facile crederes, magnum libenter. E 
ipse quidem, quanquam medio in spalio integrae aeta- 
tis ereptus, quantum ad gloriam, longissimum aevum 
peregit. Quippe et vera bona, quae in virtutibus sita 
sunt, impleverat, et consulari ac triumphalibus 
ornamentis praedito, quid aliud adstruere fortuna 
poterat ? Opibus nimiis non gaudebat ; speciosae 
contigerant. Filia atque uxore superstitibus, potest 
videri etiam beatus ; incolumi dignilate, florente fama, 
salvis affinitatibus et amicitiis, futura effugisse. Nam 
sicuti durare in hac beatissimi saeculi luce ac princi- 
pem Trajanum videre, quod augurio votisque apud 
nostras aures ominabatur, ita festinatae mortis grande 
solatium tulit, evasisse postremum illud tempus, quo 
Domitianus non jam per ii^Jervalla ac spiramenta tem- 
porum, sed continuo et vehit uno ictu rempublicam 

XLV. Nou vidit Agricola obsessam curiam, et 
clausum armis senatum, et eadem strage tot consu- 
larium caedes, tot nobihssimarum feminarum exsiha 
et fugas. Una adhuc victoria Carus Metius censeba- 
tur, et intra Albanam arcem sententia Messalini 
strepebat, et Massa Bebius jam tum reus erat. Mox 
nostrae duxere Helvidium in carcerem manus : nos 
Maurici Rusticique visus, nos innocenti sanguine 
Senecio perfudit. Nero tamen subtraxit oculos jussit- 
que scelera, non spectavit : praecipua sub Domitiano 
miseriarum pars erat videre et aspici : cum suspiria 
iiostra subscriberentur ; cum denotandis tot hominum 
palloribus sufficeret saevus ille vultus et rubor, quo 
se contra pudorem muniebat. Tu vero felix, Agri- 
cola, non vitae tantum claritate, sed etiam opportuni- 
tate mortis. TJt perhibent qui interfuerunt novissimia 


aennonibus tuis, constans et libens fatum excepisti; 
tanquam pro virili portione innocentiam principi 
donares. Sed mihi filiaeque ejus, praeter acerbita- 
tem parentis erepti, auget moestitiam, quod assidere 
valctudini, fovere deficientem, satiari vultu, complexu, 
non contigit : excepissemus certe mandata vocesque, 
quas penitus animo figeremus. Noster hic dolor, nos- 
Irum vulnus : nobis tam longae absentiae conditione 
ante quadriennium amissus est. Omnia sine dubio, 
optime parentum, assidente amantissima uxore, super- 
fuere honori tuo : paucioribus tamen lacrimis composi- 
tus es, et novissima in luce desidcravere aliquid oculi 

XLVI. Si quis piorum manibus locus, si, ut 
sapientibus placet, non cum corpore exstinguuntur 
nr.agnae animae, placide quiescas, nosque, domum 
luam, ab inlirmo desiderio et muliebribus lamentis 
ad contemplationem virtutum tuarum voces, quas 
neque lugeri neque plangi fas est : admiraXione te 
potius, te immortalibus laudibilis, et, si natura sup- 
peditet, similitudine decoremus. Is verus honos, ea 
conjunctissimi cujusque pietas. Id filiae quoque 
uxorique praeceperim, sic patris, sic mariti memoriam 
venerari, ut omnia facta dictaque ejus secum revol- 
vant, form#mque ac figuram animi magis quam cor- 
poris complectantur : non quia intercedendum putem 
imaginibus, quae marmore aut aere finguntur; sed 
ut vultus hominum, ita simulacra vultus imbecilla 
ac mortalia sunt ; forma menlis aeterna, quam tenere 
et exprimere non per alienam materiam et artem, 
sed tuis ipse moribus possis. Quidquid exAgricoIa 
amavimus, quidquid mirati sumus, manet mansurum- 
que est in animis hominum, in aetemitate temporum 


fama rerum. Nam multos yeterum, velut inglorios. 
et ignobiles, oblivio obruet : Agricola posteritati nar 
ratus et traditus superstes erit. 



£)£V£BAL words, which occur most frequently in the Notes, ai-e 
abbreyiated. Of these the foUowing chisses may require explnna- 
tiou. The other abbreyiations are either farailiar or sufficiently 
obvious of themselves. 

1. "WoRKS OF TAcrrus. 












Annotatobs citkd as 

Br. . 
D. or Dod. 
Dr. . 





Gr. . 

GQn. . 

K. . 

Ky. . 

Mur. . 

Or. . 

Pass. . 

R. • 
Rhen. . 

Rit . 

Rup. . 

W. . 

Wr. . 















H. . . . 
Beck. GalL . 
Bot Lex. Tac 
For. and Fac. • . 
Tur. His. Ang. Sax. 
Z. • • • 

8. Otheb Avthobities. 

Harknesd' Lathi Grammar. 

Becker's Gallus. 

B6tticher's Lexicon Taciteum. 

Forcellini and FaccioIati*8 Latin Lexicou 

TumeT'8 Histoiy of the Anglo-Saxonik 

Zumpfs Latin Grammar. 




Tnit Tix^fttise Dk Situ, Mo.mus ft Populis Germaniae. was -^ntku 
(as appears from thc treatise iiBeiQ eee § 37) in tlie Becond coDBulship 
of the Emperor Trajan, A. U. C. 861, A. D. 98. The design of the 
author in ita publication has boen variously interpreted. From the 
censure which it frequently passes upon the corruption and degen- 
eracy of the Umes, it has been considered as a mere satire upon Ro- 
man mannere, in the age of Tacitus. But to saj nothing of the ill 
adaptation of the whole plan to a satirical work, there are lai^e 
parts of Ihe treatii^e, which must have been prepared with great la- 
bor, and yet can have no possible bearing on such a design. Satires 
are Tiot wont to abouud in historical notices and geographical details, 
especially touching a foroign and distant land. 

The same objection lies a^^nst the political cnds, which have 
been imputed to the author, such aa the persuading of Trajan to en 
gage, or not to eugage, in a war with tlie Germans, as the most po* 
tent and dangerous enemj of Rome. For both these aims have been 
alleged, and we might content oursclves with placing the one as an 
ofi&et against the other. But aside from the ncutralizing force of such 
contradictioDS, wherefore such an imposiug array of geographical re- 
search, of historicallore, of political and moml philosophy, for the 
accomplishment of so simple a purpose ? And why is the purposp 
80 scrupulously concealed, that oonfessedly it cau be g^Nthered «nlv 
from obscure intimations^ and those of ambiguous iroport? Benidf^ 
tliere are passages whose tendencj must have becn alrectlv countoi 
to eitlici of these alleged airas (cf. note ^ 38). 


Tbe aathor does indeed, in the passage just cited, seem to uppre 
eiate with almost prophetic accuracj, those daDgers to the Roman 
Empire, which were so fearfullj illustrated in its subsequcDt fall be* 
neath the power of the German Tribes ; and he utters^ as what truc 
Roman would not in such forebodings, the wamings and the praj- 
ers of a patriot sage. But he does this only in episodes^ which are 
Bo manifestlj incidental, and yet arise so naturallj out of the narra- 
tive or description, that it is truljsurprising it should eyer have oo- 
ciirred to anj reader, to seek in them the kej to the whole treatisei 

The entire warp and woof of the work is obviously histori' 
eal and geographiedL The satire, the political maxims» the moral 
sentiments, and all the rest; are merely inddental, interwoyen for 
the sake of instruction and embellishment^ inwrought because a mind 
Bo thoughtful and so acute as that of Tacitus, conld not leaye them 
out. Tacitus had long been collecting the materials for his Roman 
Histories. In so doing, his attention was necessarilj drawn often 
and with special interest to a people, who, for two centuries and 
more, had been the most formidable enemj of the Roman State. lu 
introducing them into his hietory, he would naturallj wish to give 
Bome preliminary account of their origin, manners^ and institutions» 
as he does in introducing the Jews in Uie Fifth Book of his Histories, 
which happens to be, in part^ prescryed. Nor would it be strange, 
if he should, with this yiew, coUect a mass of materials» which he 
could not incorporate entire into a work of such compass, and wliich 
any slight occasion might induce him to publish in a separatc form, 
perhaps as a sort of forerunner to his Histories.* Such an occasion 
now was fumished in the campaigns and yictories of Trajan, who, 
at the time of his eleyation to flie imperial power, was at the head 
of the Roman armies in German j, where he also remained for a year 
or more after his accessionto thethrone, tillhe had reueiyed the sub- 
mission of the hostile tribes and wiped awaj the disgraoe which the 
Germans^ bejond anj other zuition of that age, had brought upon 
*iie Roman arms. Such a people, at such a time, could not £ail to be 
an object of deep interest at Rome. This was the time when Taci» 
tus published his work on Germanj ; and such are belieyed to have 
been the motives and the eircumstances, which led to the under- 
taking. His grand object was not to point a satire or to oompass a 

* It has eren been argved by highly respectable scholani, that the Germa iia of 
Tacitufl is iteelf only such a collection of materials, not pnblished by the Author, 
ind neTsr intended for publication in that fom. But it is quite too methodicalf toc 
•tudied, and too finished a work to a** ** of th^t suppoaition (cf. Prolegoni. of K > 


political end, but As he himself informs us (§27), to treat of the ori 
gin and uianners, the geographj and history, of the German Tribes 
The same candor and sincerity, the same correctness and truthful 
nese^ which charactenze the Historiea» mark also the work on Ger- 
manj. The author certainlj aimed to speak the truth, and nothing 
but the truth, on the subject of which he treats. Moreoyer, he had 
abundant means of knowing the truth, on all the main points, in the 
character and history of the Germans. It has eyen been argued 
trom such ezpression as vidimtis (§ 8), that Tacitus had himself becn 
in Germany, and could, therefore, write from personol obsenration. 
But the argument proceeds on a misinterpretation of his language 
(c£ note in loc cit), And the use of €u:cepimus (as in § 27 X 
shows that he deriyed his information from others. But the Ro- 
mans had been in constant intercourse and connection, ciyil oi^ 
military, with the Geimana^ for two hundred yearsL German j fur- 
nished a wide theatre for their greatest commanders^ and a fruitiul 
theme for their best authors^ some of whom, as Julius Csesar (to 
whom Tadtus particularlj refers^ 28), were themselyes the chiel 
actors in what they rehtto. These authors» some of whose contribu- 
tions to the historj of Germany are now lost (e. g. the elder Plin j, 
who wrote twentj books on the German wars), must haye all been 
in the hands of Tacitus^ and were, doubtless^ consulted bj him ; not^ 
howeyer, as a seryile copjist^ or mere compiler (for he sometimes 
differs from his authorities^ from Caesar eyen, whom he dedares to 
be the best of them), but as a discriminating and judicious inquirer. 
The account of German customs and institutions maj, therefore, be 
relied on, firom the intrinsic credibilitj of the author. It receiyes 
oonfirmation, also, from its general accordance with other earlj ao- 
eounts of the Germans» and with their better known subsequent 
historj, as well as from its strong analogj to the well-known habits 
of our American aborigines^ and other tribes in a like stage of ciy- 
ilization (c£ note, $ 16). The geographical details are composed 
with all the accuracj which the eyer-shifting poutions and relations 
of waning and wandering tribes rendered poeeible in the nature ol 
the case (df. note, § 28). In sentiment^ the treatise is surpassinglj 
rich and instructiye, like all the works of this prince of philosophical 
historiana. In stjle, it is condse and neryous» jet quite rhetorical, 
and in parts^ eyen poetical to a &ult (see notes passim, c£ als(\ 
Monboddo*s critique on the stjle of Tadtus). "The work," sajs 
La Bletterie, "is brief without being superfidaL Within the oom- 
pasa of a few pages^ it comprises more of ethlcs and politioi^ morf 

SO ' . •;. ; NOTES. 

fine delineatioDS of ^i^cter, more Bubstance and pitli (<tft), tbav 
cau be collected from mauy a ponderous yolumc. It is not oue oi 
those bareljT agreeable descriptions, which gradnallj' diffuse their 
influeuce oyer the soul, and leaye it in undisturbed tranquillity. It 
is a picture in strong light^ like the subject itsel^ fuU of fire, ot 
Bentiment^ of lightning-flashes, that go at once to the heart We 
imagine ourselVes in Germany ; we become iamiliar with these so- 
ealled barbarians; we pardon their faults» and almost their yieee^ 
out of regard to their yirtues ; and in our moments of enthusiasm» 
we even wish we were Germans.** 

The following remarks of Murphy will illustrate the yalne ol 
tlie treatise, to modern Europeans and their descendants. " It is a 
draught of sayage manners^ delineated hj a masterly hand; the 
^ore interesting, as the part of the world which it describes waa 
the seminary of the modern European nations, the Vagina Gentium, 
as histoidans haye emphaticallj called it. The work is short^ but^ 
as Montesquieu ob^eryes» it is the work of a man who abridged 
eyery thing, because he knew eyery thing. A thorough knowledge 
of the transactions of barbarous ages^ will tbrow more light ihan is 
generally imagined on the laws of modem times. Wherever the 
barbarians, who issued from their northem hive, settled in new 
habitations, they carried with them their native genius^ their origi- 
oal manners, and the first rudiments of the political system which 
has prevailed in different parts of Euroi^e. They established mon- 
archy and liberty, subordination and freedom, the prerogative ol 
the prinoe and the rights of the subject^ all united in so bold a com- 
bination, that the iabric, in some places, stands to this hour the 
wonder of mankind. The Britbh constitution, says MonteBquieu, 
came out of the woods of Germany. What the state of this coiintry 
(Britain) was \i afore the arriyal of our ^zon ancestors» Tacitus haa 
shown in the life of Agricola* If we add to his account of the Ger- 
mans and Britons, what has been tranBmitted to us, oonceming 
them, by Julius Caesar, we shall see the origin of the Anglo-Sazon 
government^ the great outline of that G^thic constitution undet 
which the people enjoy their rights and liberties at this hour. 
Montesquien, speaking of his own country, declares it impossible to 
form an adequate notion of the French monarchy, and the changes 
of their govemment^ withont a previous inquiry into the mannen^ 
genius» and Bpirit of the German nations. Much of what wos in« 
eorporated with the institutions of those fierce invaders, has flowed 
down in the stream of time, and still mingles with our modern 


(tirBpnidence. The subjcct^ it is coDceiyed, is interesling to every 
Briton. In the mannei'8 of the Germans^ the reader will see our 
present frame of goyernment^ as it were, in its cradle, gentia eu 
nabtda nostrael in the Germans themselyes, a fierce and warlike 
people, to whom this country owes that spirit of liberty, which, 
through so many centuries^ has preserved our excellent forra ol 
govcrnment^ and raised the glorj of the British nation : 

Genus unde Latinum, 

Albanique patres, atque altae moenia Romae." 

Chap. L Germania stands first as the emphatic word, and ii 
followed bj omnia for explanation. Oermania otnni» here does not 
include Germania Prima and Secunda, which were Roman pro- 
yinces on the lefb bank of the Rhine (so called because settled bj 
Germans). It denotes Qermany proper, as a vjholey in distinction 
from the provinces just mentioned and from the seyeral tribes, of 
which Tacitus treats in the latter part of the work. So Caesar (B. 
G. 1, 1) uses Gallia omnia^ as exclusive of the Roman proTinces 
called Gaul and inclusiye of the three parts^ which he proceeds to 

Gallis-PannoniiB, People used for the countries. C£ Hisw 
6, 6 : Phoenices, Gavl, now France ; RhaetiOf the country of the 
Grisons and the Tyrol, with part of Bayaria; Pannonia, lower 
Hungary and part of Austria. Germany was separated from Gaul 
by the Rhine ; from Rhaetia and Pannonia, by the Danabe. — Rheno 
et Danvhio. Rhine and Rhone are probably different foi^ms of the 
same root (Rh-n). Danube, in like manner, has the same root as 
Dnieper (Dn-p) ; perhaps also the same as Don and Dwina (D-n). 
Probably each of these roots was originally a geneno name for 
ftver, foater^ stream, So there are seyeral Avona in England and 
Scotland. Ct Latham*a Germania sub yoc. 

SarmeUis Dadique, The Shtyonic Tribes were called Sarma* 
tians by the ancients. Sarmatia induded the oountry north of the 
Carpathian MountainSk between the Yistula and the Don in Enrope^ 
together with the adjacent part of Asia, without any definite limita 
towards the north, which was terra incognita to the ancienta — in 
short, Sarmatia was Ruatia, as far as known at that time. Dacia 
lay between the Carpathian mountains on the north, and the Danube 
on the Bouth, including Upper Hungary, Transjlyania, WalladLiai 
•ud Moldayia. 

Mutuometu, Rather a poetical boundary! Obscrve also thi 

62 NOTE8. 

alliteration. At the same time, the words are not a bad deficriptiof 
of those wide and eolitary wastes, which, as Caeaar informs us (BL 
G. 6, 23), the Germans delighted to interpose between themselyefl 
and other nationa, so that it might appear that no ane dared to dweli 
near them, — Montibut, The Garpathian. — Cetera, Ceteram Ger» 
maniae partem. 

Sinut, Thifl word denotes anj thing with a cnrved ontrme (c£ 
29, also A. 23) ; hence bajs, peninsulaa, aud prominent bends or bor- 
dei-s, whether of land or water. Here peninstUas (particularly that 
of Jutland, now Denmark), for it is to the author's purpose here to 
speak of land rather than water, and the ocean is mcre properly 
said to embraee peninsulaa, than ffiUfa and bai/s, Its association 
with islanda here favors the same interpretation. So Passow, Or., 
Rit. Others^ with less propriety, refer it to the ff^lfs and baya, 
which so mark the Baltic and the German Oceans. — Oceanus here, 
includes both theBaltic Se% and the German Ocean (Oceonus Sep- 

Intylarum-ipatia, Jalanda of vcut extent, yiz. Fnnen, Zealand, 
«fec Scandinayia also (now Sweden and Norway) was regarded bjr 
the andents as an island, cf. Flin. Kat Hi& iy. 27 : quarum (insu- 
larum) clarissima Scandinavia est^ incompertae magnitudinisw 

Nuper-^egibua, Understand with this clause ut comperium est 
The aboye mentioned features of the Northem Ocean had been 
diseovered in the proeecution of the late wars, of the Romans, among 
the tribes and kings previouslj' unknown. Nuper is to be taken in 
a general 8ense=recentioribus temporibus» c£ nuper additum, § 2, 
where it goes back one himdred and fiftj years to the age of Julius 
Caesar.— ^tfZ^tim. War in general, no particular war. — Versua, 
This word has been oonradered hj some as an adverb, and hj others 
as a preposition. It is better however to regard it as a participle, 
like ortus, with which it is eonnected, though without a conjunction 
ezpressed. Ritter omita in, 

MoUi et elementer edUo, Ofgentle dope and moderate elevation in 
stndied antithesis to inaeeesso ae praedpiti, lofty and steep, In like 
roanner, jugo, ridge, summit, is contrasted with vertice^ peak, keightt cf 
Virg. likiL 9, *J : moUi clivo ; Ann. 17, 88 : colles clementer asmrgentes, 
The Bhaetian Alpe^ now the mountains of the Giisons. Alp is a 
Celtic word-^hiU. Alhion has the same root— Ai% country. Mons 
Abnoba (aL Amoba) is the northern part of the Schwartzwald, or 
Black Forest — Erumpatt aL erumpit. But the best MSS. and aU 
the recent editions haye erumpat : and Tacitus never uses the prea 


ind oftei donec, until, ct Rup. & Rit in loa Wlicnever he nse^ 
the present after doneCf until, he seemB to have conceived the rfila* 
tion of the two dausea^ which it connecta» as that of a means to aa 
end, or a condition to a result^ and hence to have used the subj. 
cf. chap. 20: separet; 31. absolvat ; 86: finuetur ; Ann. 2, 6: 
misceatur. The two examples last cited, like this, de^cribe the 
course of a river and boundary line. For the genei*al i*ule of the 
modes after donec, see H. 522 ; Z. 575. See also notes H. 1, 13. 
85. — Septimum, According to the coramon understanding, the 
Danube had seven mouths. So Strabo, Mela, Ammian, and Ovid ; 
Plinj makes six. T. reconciles the two accouDtei Tlie efiim in- 
serted after septimum in most editions is not found in tbe best 
mss. and is unnecessarj. Or. & Rit omit it 

II. Jpaoa marka the transition from the counti^y to the people>« 
the Oermans themselves, So A. 13: IpH Britannt. 

Crediderini. Subj. attice. A modest way of expresping his 
opinion, like our: I should saj, I am incHned to thiuk. H. 4S6, 
L 8 ; Z. 527. 

Adventibus et hospitiis. Jmmigrants and visitors. Adventibwi 
certae sedes, hospitiis preregrinationes significantur. Giin. Both 
abstract for ooncrete. Dod. compares t-KoiKoi and filroiKou 

Terra-advehebaniur. Zeugma for terra adveniebant^ clasBibns 
advehebantur. H. 704, 1. 2 ; Z. 776. 

Nec-et. These correlatives connect the membere more dosely 
than et-et; as in Greek ofirc-r4. The sentiment here advanced 
touching colonization (as by sea, rather than by land), though true 
of Carthage, Sicily, and most Grecian coloniea, is directly the re- 
verse of the general fietct; and Gei*many itself is now known to have 
receiyed its population by land emigration, from westem Asia. The 
Germans, as we leam from affinities of languages and ocoasional 
references of historians and geographers» belonged to the same great 
stock of the human family with the Goths and Scythians, and may 
be traced back to that hive of nations, that primitiye residence of 
mankind, the country east and south of the Caspian Sea and in the 
vicinity of Mount Ararat : cf. Tur. His. Ang. Sax. B. IL C. 1 ; also 
'Donaldson*s New Cratylus, B. I. Chap. 4. Latham*s dogmatic 
skepticism will hardly shake the now established faith on this subjeet. 
•The ecience of ethnography was unknownto theancients. Tacitus 
had not the remotest idea, that all mankind were sprung frora a 
common ancestiy, and diffused themselves over the world from a 
oommon ccntre, a fact asserted in the Scriptures, and daily rceeiving 

84 NOTES. 

fresh oonfirmation from literature and science. Hence he Bpeaks «4 
the Germans as indigenaSf which he ezplains below t>y editum lerrc^ 
sprung from the earth, like the mutum et turpe pecus of Hor. Sat 
1. 8, 100. cf. A. 11. 

Mutare quaerehani, Qitaerere with inf. is poet constr., found, 
however, in later prose writera» and once in Cic. (de Fin. 313: 
quaeris scire, enclosed in brackets in Tauchnitz'8 edition), to avoid 
repetition of cupio. Cupio or volo mtUare would be regular classia 

Adverstis. That the author here uses adversus in some unusual 
and recondite sense, is intimated bj the dause : ut aic dixerim. It 
b understood hj some, of a sea unfriendly to navigation, But ita 
connexion bj que with imm^nsua tUtra^ shows that it refers to posi- 
Hon, and means lying opponte, i. e., belonging, as it were, to anothcr 
hemisphere or world from ours; for so the Romans regarded th€ 
Northern Ocean and Bntain itsel^ cf. A 12 : ultra nosiri orbis men- 
Buram; G. 17: exterior oceanus. So Cic (Som. Scip. 6.) says: 
Homines partim obliquos^ partim aversos, partim etiam adveraos. 
Btare vobis. This intei*pretation is confirmed by ab cbe nosira in 
the antithesis. On the use of ut sic dixerim for ut sic dicam, which 
is peculiar to the silver age, see Z. 528. 

Asia, sc Minor. Africa, sc the Roman Province of that name, 
comprising the temtory of Cai*thage. — Peteret The question im- 
plies a negative answer, cf. Z. 530. The subj. implies a protasia 
understood : if he could, or the likc H. 602. 

Sit Praesens, ut de re vera. Giin. Nisi si is nearly equiva- 
lent to nisi forte : unless perchanee ; unless if we may suppose the 
case. Ct Wr. note on Ann. 2, 63, and Hand's Tursellinus, 3, 240. 

Metnoriae et annalium. Properly opposed to each other as tradi- 
ilon and writien history, though we are not to infer that writteu 
books exbted in Germany in the age of Tacitus. 

CarminibTiS. Songs, hallads (from cano). Songs and rude 
poetry have been, in all savage countriea^ the memorials of publio 
transactions, e. g. the runes of the Goth:\ the bards of the Britona 
and Celts, the scalds of Scandinavia, <fec 

Tuisconem. The god from whom Tuesday takes its name, ai 
Wednesday from Woden, Thursday from Thor, &c, cl Sharon Tur- 
n9r's His. of Ang. Sax. app. to book 2. chap. 8. Some find in th6 
name of this god the root of the words Teutonic, Dutch (Gcrm. 
Ocntsche or Teutsche^ &c AI. Tuistonem, Tristonem, <fec More likei^ 


'tt has the same root as tlie Latin diyuS) dius, deus» and the Gieelt 
$€u>St Stbf, 0t6st c£ 6rimm'8 JDeutsche Mythologiet sub y. 

Terra edUwm^ndigena above ; and yriyeirfis and a\n6x0<^v lu 

Oripwt«m=aiictores. It is predicate after Manniem. 

Ut in licentia vetustatis» As in the license of antiquityt i. c 
since such license is allowed in regar i to oncient times. 

Ingaevones, "According to some German antiqnaries, the 
Ingaevones are die Einwohnert those dwelling inwards towards the 
Bea; the Istaevones are die Westwohner, the iDhabitants of the 
western parts; and the Hermiones are the Herumwohnert midland 
inhabitants,'* Ky. c£ Kiessling in loc Others, e. g. Zcuss and 
Grimm, with more probability, find in these names the roots oi 
German words significant of honor and bravertfy assumed bj differ- 
ent tribes or confederacies as epithets or titles of distinction. Grimm 
identifies these three divisions with the Franks, Saxons^ and Thn- 
ringians of a later agc See further, note chap. 27. 

Voeentur, The subj. expresses the opinion of others, not the 
direct affirmation of the author. H. 629 ; Z. 549. 

i>6o=hoc deo, sc Mannus»Germ. Mann, Eng. Man. 

MarsoSf Gambrivios, Under the names of Franci and Salii these 
tribes afterwards became formidable to the Romans. Cf. Prichard*a 
Researches into the Physical History of Mankind, Vol. IH. chap. 6, 
sec ^.-^StievoSf cf note, 38. — Vandalios, The Vandals, now sc 
familiar in historj. 

Additumt sc esee, depending on affirmant. 

Ntme Tungrif sc yocentur, c£ His. 4, 15, 16. In confirmation 
of the historical accuracy of this passage, Gr. remarks, that Caes. 
(B. G. 2, 4) does not mention the Tungri, but names four tribes on 
the left bank of the Rhine, who, he sajs, are called bj the common 
name of Germans; while Pliny (Nat His. 4, 81), a century later, 
giyes lot the namcs of these four tribes, but calls them by the new 
aame Tungri, 

Itorvocarentur, Locus yexatissimus 1 exclaim all the critica. 
And so they set themselves to amend the text by conjecture. Some 
have written in nomen gentis instead of non gentis. Others have 
proposed a victorum metu, or a victo ob metvm, or a victis ob metum, 
But these emendations are whoUy conjectural and unnecessary. 
GUnther and Walch render a victore^ from the yictorious tnbe, i. v, 
after the name of that tribe. But a se ipsis means by themselyes , 
and the antithesis doubtless requires a to be understood in the sanit 

8b NOTES. 

Benae in both clauses. Gruber tranalates and explaius thus : ** Ib 
this way the name of a single tribe, and not of the wfaole people, 
has come into use, so that oll, at first bj the victor (the TungriX in 
order to inspire fear, then bj themselves (bj the mouth of the whole 
people), when once the name became known, were called bj the 
name of Grermans. That ia, the Tungri called all the kindred 
tribes that dwelt beyond the Rhine, Germans, in order to inspire 
fear bj the wide eztension of the name, since they gaye themselyes 
out to be a part of so yast a people ; but at length all the ti'ibea 
began to call themselves bj this name, probablj because thej were 
pleased to see the fear which it excited." This is, on the whole, the 
most satisfactoiy explanation of the passage, and meets the essential 
concurrence of Wr., Or. and Dod. — Germani, If of German etymo- 
logy, thifl word«— gehr or wehr (Fr. guen*e) and mann, mtn oftoar; 
hencc the metuSf which the name carried with it If it is a Latin 
word con^esponding onlj in aense with the original German, theu 
'^rethren, It will be seen, that either etjrmology would accord 
with Griiber*8 explanation cf the whole passage — in either case, the 
name would inspire fear. Tlie latter, however, is the more pro- 
bable, cf. Ritter in loc. A people often bear quite dilferent names 
abi*oad from that bj which ihey call themselves at home. Tha» 
the people, whom we call Germana, call themselvea Devische (Dutch), 
and are called by the French Allemands^ cf. Latham. Voearentur 
is subj. because it stands in a subordinate dause of the oititio obliqua, 
cf. H. 531 ; Z. 603. 

Metum, Here taken in an aetive sense; ofbener passive, but 
osed in both senses. Quintilian speaks of metum duplicem^ quem 
patimur et quem facimus (6, 2, 21). cf. A. 44: nihil metus in vultu, 
L e., nothing to inspire fear in hia countenance. In like manner 
admiratio (§ 'Z) is used for the admiration which one excites, though 
it usuallj denotes the admiration which one feels. For o6, cf. Ann. 
1, 79 : ob m/xlerandas 7lber's exundationeg. 

Nationis-genti», Gent is often used by T. as a synonym with 
naiio. But in antithesis, gena is the whole, of which nationes or 
popiUi are the pai^ta. e. g. G. 4: populos-gentem ; § 14: nationes- 
^entu In like manner, in the ciWl constitution of Rome, a gens iu 
cluded sevcral related /amilies, 

IIL Herculem, That is, Romana interpretatione, cf. § 84. The 
Romana found their goda everywhere, and ascribed to Herculea. 
quidquid ubique magnificum eat^ ct note 34 : quicquid-eonsensimtu 
That tliis is a Roman account of the matter ia evident, from thc iiac 



of eo9f lor if the Germans were the Bubject of memorMntf se niiwt 
have been used. On the use of et here, cf. note 1 1. 

Primumi^ut prineipem, foiiissimum. Gun. 

Saec quoque, Maee is rendered swh hj Ritier. But it Beemt 
rather, as Or. and Dod. explain it^ to implj nearness and familiaritj 
to the mind of the author and his readers: theae well known songs. 
So 20: in haec eorpora, quae miramur, Quoque, like quidem^ fol- 
lows the emphatic word in a clause, H. 602, m. 1 ; Z. 865. 

JRelatUf called cafUu9 trux, H. 2, 22. A Tacitean word. Freund. 
Cl H. 1, 80. 

Baritum, Al. barditum and barritum. But the latter has nc 
ms. authority, and the former seems to haye been suggested \>y the 
bards of the Gauls, of whose existence among the Germans howeyer 
there is no evidence. Dod. says the root of the word is common to 
the Greek, Latin, and German languages, yiz. haren, i. e. fremere, a 
verb still used hj the Batavians, and the noun har, i. e. carmen. 
of frequent occurrence in Saxon poetr j to this day. 

Terrent trepidantve, Hiey inspire terror or tremhle toith fear, 
according as the line (the troops drawn up in battle arraj) hoM 
soundedf so. thiB haritus or battle cry. Thus the Batayians per- 
ceived, that the sonitus aciei on the part of the Romans was more 
feeble than their own, and pressed on, as to certain triumph. H. 4, 
18. So the Highlanders augured yictory, if their shouts were 
louder than those of the enemj. See Murphj in loco. 

RepercuMU, A post-Augustan word. llie earlier Latin authora 
would have said repercMSOf or repercutiendo, The later Latin, like 
the English, uses more abstract terms. — Nec tamHoiderUur. Nor do 
those carmina »eem to he so much voices (well modulated and har- 
monized), as acclamations ' (jm&nijnoTia, but inarticulate and indis- 
tinct) of courage, So Pliny uses concenttts of the acclamations of 
the people. Panegjr. 2. It is often applied bj the poets to tLe 
concerts of birds, as in Virg. Geor. 1, 422. It is hero plural, c£ 
Or. in loc The reading vocis is without MS. authority. 

XTlixem, "The loye of fabulous history, which was the passion 
of ancient timea^ produced a new Hercules in every country, and 
made Ulysses wander on every shore. Tacitus mentions it as a 
romantic tale ; but Strabo seems willing to countenance the fiction, 
and gravely tells us that Ulysses founded a city, called Odyssey, in 
Spaio. Lipsius observes, that Lisbon, in the name of Strabo, had 
the appellation of Ulysippo^ or Olisipo. At this rate, he pleasantly 
»ddS| what shovld hinder us inhabitants of the Low Countries from 


8? NOTES. 

Bssertmg that UlyBscs built the city of UlyBsiDgfl» and Ciroc ioaniM 
that of Circzea or Ziriczee f *' Murphj. 

Falrtdoto errore, Storied, celehrated in sonfft ct fiEtbulosns Hy« 
daspes. Hor. Od. 1, 227. Uljsees haying tpandered westvfard gay« 
plausibility to alleged traces of him in Gaul, Spain aud Germany 
— Asdburgium, Now Asburg. 

Q^in etiamf cf. notes, 13 : quin etiam^ and 14 : quin imm4>,~~Ulix% 
i e. ab Ulixe, cf. Ann. 15, 41 : Aedes statoris Joyis Romulo Tota, L e. 
bj Romulu& This usage is espeeially frequent in tbe poets and th« 
later prose writers» e£ H. 888,n. 8 ; Z.419; and in T. aboye all 
others^ c£ £dt Lex. Tac sub JDativtM, Wr. and Rit understand 
howeyer an altar (or monument) consecrated to Uljsses, i. e. erected 
in honor of him bj the citizens. 

Acfjecto, Inscribed with the name of his father, a» well as hi» 
own, L e. AacpruiS];. 

Graecis litteria, Greeian eharacierSf c£ Caes, B. 6. 1, 29: Ia 
castris Helvetiorvmj tabulae repertae sunt litterisGrcuds confectae; 
and (6, 14): Galli in publicis priyatisque rationibus Graeeis vtunr 
tur litteris, T. speaks (Ann. 11, 14) of alphabetic charaoters, a» 
passing from Pheuicia into Greeee, and Strabo (4y I) traces them 
from the Grecian colonj at Marseillea^ into Gaul, whence Ihej 
doubtless passed into Germanj, and eyen into Britaiiw 

lY. Aliis aliarum, The Greek and Latin are both fo^d of a 
repetition of different cases of the same word, eyen where one ol 
them is redundant, e. g. ol^cy tHot (Hom. H. 1, S9)^ and particu 
larlj in the words HxAos and alius, Aliis is not however whollj 
redundant ; but brings out more full j the idea : rut itUermarriageg, 
MM «ith one nation, and anotker with another, Walch and Ritter 
omit alii*, tho^ugh it is fbund in all the MSS. 

Infectos, Things are said infiei and hnbui, whieh are so pen^ 
trated aud pcrmeated bj something else, that that something be> 
oomes a part of its nature or subfltance; as infieere colore^ sangume^ 
reueno, animum yirtutibusL It does not neceauirilj implj coirup- 
tion or degeneracj. 

Propriamsimilem, Three epithets not essentiallj ditterenl^ 
Qsed for the sake of empha8is=j>«cMZtar, pure, and tm-generiM, 
SmilU takes the gen., when it expresses^ as here, an intemal rA* 
i^mblanof) In eharaoter; qt^^er^iiie thi3 dat., c£ Z. 411, H. 891, 2. 4. 

JffoHtus, Form and fe^tures^ extemi^ f(ppf)aranee. The phjsi* 
cal featureB of the Gerii^ns as described bj T^tus, tbough Gltil] 
llifficient ^ difltinguish ^em from the more squth^rn E^iropear 


Dationfi» haye proyed leas permanent than their mcntal and social 

Idem omnibus, CC Juy. 13, 164: 

Caerttla quis stupuit Germani lumina 7 flavam 
Caeaariem^ et madido torquentem comua cirm t 
Nempe quod liaec illis natura est omnibua una. 

Magna corpora. "Sidonius ApoUinaris sajs, that, being in 
Gennany and finding the men so yerj tall, he could not addreaa 
yerses of six feet to patrons who were seyen feet high : 

Spernit senipedem stilum Thalia, 

£z quo eeptipedes vidit patronos." Mur. 

Skeletons, in the ancient grayes of Germany, are found to yary 
from 6 ft. 10 in. to 6 ft. 10 m. and eyen 1 ft Ci Ukert^ Geog. IIL 
1. p. 197. These skeletons indicate a atrong and ^tell formed bodjr. 

Impetum, Temporary exertion, as opposed to peraevering toil 
and efort, lahoris atqne operwn, 

Eadem^ Not so much patientia, as ad impetum, valida, See a 
like elliptical use of idem § 23 : eadem temperantia ; § 10 : iisdem 
nemoribus. Also of totidem ^ 26. 

Minime-asmeverunt " Least of all, are they capable of sustain- 
ing thirst and heat; cold and hunger, they are accustomed, by 
their soil and climate, to endure." Kj, The force of minime is 
confined to the first chiuse, and the proper antithetic particle ia 
omitted at the beginning of the second. Tolerare depends on 
assueverunt, and belongs to both clauses. Ve ia distribntiye, refer- 
ring coelo to frigora and solo to inediam. So vel in H. 1, 62 : 
strenuis vel ignayis spem metumque addere»— «trenuis spem, ignayis 
metum addere. 

y. ffumidior-ventotior. Humidior refers to paludibtMf ventosiot 
to aUvis; the mountains (which were exposed to sweeping wind») 
being for the most part coyered with foresta^ and the low gro^mda 
with marshes. Vento9us=lS.Gmena ^yc/x^cif, windy, i e. lofty. IL 
8, 805 : "IXiov ijPtfiStffffav, 

Saiis ferax. Satis=segeiibu8 poetice. J^eroo; is constructed 
with abL, yid. Virg. Geor. 2, 222: ferax oleo. 

Impaiiens. Kot to be taken in the absolute sense, cf. § 20. S8» 
86, where fruit trees and fruits are spoken of 

Improcera agrees with peeora understood. 

Armentis. P«(;ora>— flocks in general Armenta (fi'om ara U 
plough), htrger cattle in particular. It may inolude horsea. 

90 NOTES. 

Suus honor. Tlielr proper, L e. usual size and beauty. 

Gloriafrontis. Poetice for cornua, Their homs werc small. 

Numero, Emphatdc: numher^ rather than quality, Or, wit^ 
Ritter gaudent may be takeu in tbe sense of enjoy^ possess : they havt 
a good number of them, In the same seuse he interprets gaudent in 
A. 44 : opihus nimiis non gaudebat. 

Iratiy sc. quia opea sunt irritamenta maJorum. Ov. Met 1 
WO. — Negavefint. Subj. H. 625; Z. 652.-Affir7naverim. cL notey 
2: erediderim, 

Nvllam venam. " Mines of gold and silycr have since becD 
discoYcred in Germany; the former, indeed, inconsiderable, but 
the latter yaluable.'* Ky. T. himself in his latcr work (the An- 
nals), speaks of the discoyery of a silver mine in Germany. Ann. 
11, 20. 

Perinde. Not 8o mtich as might he expeeted^ or ns the Roman», 
and o^er ciyilized nations. So Gi*onoyiu8) Dod. and most com- 
mentators. See Rup. in loc. Others^ as Or. and Rit allow no 
ellipsis, and render : not mueh. See Hand*8 Tursellinus, yoL lY. p 
454. We sometimes use w4 8o muehf not so very^ not 8o bad^ &e., 
for not very^ not mucJi, and not bad. Still the form of expression 
Btrictly implies a comparison. And the same is true of haudperinde, 
cf. Bot Lex. Tac 

^st videre. ^st for licet. Graece et poetice. Kot so used in 
the earlier Latin prose. See Z. 22*7. 

Nofi in alia vilitatef L e. eadem vilitate, aeque yilia^ held in the 
8ame low estimation. — Eumo, Abl. of materiaL 

Proximi, sc. ad ripam. Kearest to the Roman border, opposed 
to interiore8, 

Serrato8, Not elsewhere mentioned ; probably coins with ser- 
rated edgea^ still found. The word is post-Augustan. 

Bigato8. Roman coins stamped with a biga or two-horse 
chariot Others were stamped with a quadriga and called quadri- 
gatL The bigati seem to haye circulated freely in foreign lands, 
cf. Ukert'8 Geog. of Greeks and Romans» III. 1 : Trade of Germany 
and places cited there. ** The serrati and bigati were old coins, of 
purer silver than those of thc Emperors." Ky. Cf. Pliny, R N. 
88, 13. 

SequwUur. Sequi— iczpetere. So used by Cia, Sal , and the 
best writera. Gompare our word 8eek. 

Nulla €tffeetione animi, Not from aity partiality for the 8ilvef 
in itedf (but for convemence). 


Nvmtrut, Greater nmnber and consequently less relative valac 
of ihe silyer coina. On quia^ c£ note, H. 1, 31. 

VL Ne — quidem. Not even, L e, iron is scarce as well as gold 
and silyer. The weapons found in ancient German grayes are of 
atone, and bear a etriking rescmblance to thoee of the Amehcon 
Indians. Cf. Ukert, p. 216. Ad Terba, el note, Hi& 1, 16 : n#- 
fueris. The emphatic word always Btands bstween ne and quidem 
H. 602, ni. 2 ; Z. 801. — SuperetL Ifl o?er and above, L e. abounds 
So superest ager, ^ 26. 

Vel. Pro «vwc, Ciceroni inauditum. Giin. Cf. note, 1*7. 

Framea^ The word is still found in Spain, as well as Germany 
Lancea is also a Spanish word, cf. Freund. 

Nudu C£ § 17, 20, and 24 Also Caes., B. G. 6, 21 : maguo 
corporis parte nuda. 

Sagulo. Dim. of sago. A small short cloak. — Zewea^leviter 
indutL The dause nvdi-leves is added here to show, that their dress 
is favorable to the use of missiles. 

Missilia spargunt, Dictio est Yirgiliana. K. 

Coloribu8. Ct nigra scuta, § 43. "Hence ooats of arms and 
the origin of heraldiy." Mur. 

Chdtua, Military equipmenta. Cultus complectitur omnia, quae 
studio et arte eis, quae natura instituit, adduntur. IL 

Ca^s atU galea. CasHsy properly of metal ; galea of leather 
(Gr. yaXirij ; though the distinction is not always observed. 

Equi-conspicu». Cf. Caes. B. G. 4^ 2. 7, 65. 

Sed nec variare. JBut (L e. on the other hand) theg are not even 
(for nec in this sense see Ritter in loc) taught to vary their curvet 
(L e. as the antithesis shows, to bend now towards the right and 
now towards the left in their gjrations), but they drive them straight 
forward or hy a constant bend toioards the right in so eonnected a 
circle ^. e. a complete ring), th€tt no one is behind (for the obvious 
reason, that there is neither beginning nor end to such a ring). 
Such is on the whole the most satisfactory explanation of this diffi- 
cult passage, which we can give after a careful examination. A 
different version was given m the first edition. It refera not to 
battle, but to equestrian exercises^ c£ Gerlach, as cited by Or. 
in loc. 

Aestimanti, Greek idiom. Elliptical dative, nearly equivalent 
to the abl. abs. (nobis aestimantibus), and called by some the dat 
abs. In A. 11. the ellipsis is supplied by credibile eat. Cf. Botti 
"sher^s Lex. Tac sub J)ativu9. 


92 NOTSS. 

Eoque mixti, Eof cansal partic1e=for that reason. Caosai 
adopted this arrangement in the battle of Pharsalia. B. C. 3, 84 
The Greeks also had ir^^oi ifumrot, Xen. Hellen. 7, 6. 

CerUeni, A hundred is a &yorite number with the Germaiifl 
and their desoendantflL Witneas the hnndred pctgi of the Suevi 
(Caes. B. G. 4^ l^ and of the Semnones (G. 89), the eantona of 
Switzerland, and the hundreds of onr Saxon ancestors in England. 
The centeni hefe are a military division. In like manner, Caesar 
(B. G. 4, 1) speaks of a thousand men drafted onnually from each 
pagus of the Suevi, for military service abroad. 

Idque ipaum. Predicate nominative afber a verb of calling, H. 
862, 2. 2) ; Z. 894. The division was called a hundred, and eacfa 
man in it a hundreder; and such was the estimation in which this 
service was held, that to be a hmidreder, became an honorable 
distinction, nomen et Aonor— honorificum nomen. 

Cuneoa. A body of men arranged in the form of a wedge, L e 
narrow in front and widening towards the rear ; hence peculiarly 
adapted to break the lines of the enemy. 

CotuUii quam formidinie, Supply magie, The concisenoss 
of T. leads him often to omit oue of two correlative particles, of 
note on minime, 4. 

Referunt, Carry into the rear, and so secure them for burial. 

Etiam in dubiia proeliis, £ven while the battle remains unde- 
cided. Giin. 

Finienmt, In a present or aorist sense, as often in T. So pro- 
hibueruntf § 10 ; plaeuit and displieuit, 11, ct Lex. Tac Bot^ 

VIL Heges, civil rulers; duees, military commanders. Ex»m, 
secundum. So ex ingenio, § 8. The govemment was elective, jet 
not without some regard to hereditarj distinotions. They chote 
(mmunt) their sovere^gn, but choee him from the rojal family, or 
at leas^i one of noble extraction. They diose also their oommander 
— the jrfng, if he was the brave&t and ablest warrior ; if not^ they 
were at liberty to choose some one else. And among the Germans, 
as among their descendante^ the Franks» the authoiity of the com- 
mander was quite distinct from, and sometimes (in war) paramount 
to, that of the king. Here Montesquieu and others find the original 
of the kings of the firat i*ace in tho Frenc^ monarchy, and the 
mayors of the palace, who once had so much power in France. Cf. 
Sp. of Laws^ B. 81, chap. 4. 

Nee is correlative to et, The kings on the one Jiand do noi 
posiess unlimited or unrestrained authority, and the eommanders o% 


the oiheTf &Q. Injinitax^ine modo ; libera^^ine yinculo. Wr. Pa 
^««^a^^riglitful powep, autiioritj; jwfeft^to— «power without regard 
(o right^ ability, foroe, c£ note» 42. Ad rem, ct Caes. B. O. 5, 27 
Ambioriz tellB Caeaar, that though he gOTerned, yet the peoplo 
made laws for him, and the supreme power was ahai-ed equall^ h^ 
tween him and them. 

£!xemplo-4mperio, '**D<Uive aftcr funtmmare to tet 'on, example, 
ralker than to give command.^ So Giiiber and Ddd; But Wr. and 
Rit with more reason consider them as ablatives of means iimiting 
a Tcrb implied in du^cet : oommanders (command) more by example, 
than ky oMtkority (official power). See the principle well etated and 
illuatrated in Doderlein^s Eesay on the style of Tacitus, p. 15, in my 
edition of the Histories. 

Admir^ione praeamL Cfain influenee, or aseendency, by meam 
of tke admiration which tkey inspire, c£ note on metus, ^ 2. 

Agant, Subj., ut ad judiciimi admirantium, non mentem scrip- 
Ijoris trahatur. Giin. 

Animadoerlere^in\/er^<x>T^ C£ H. 1, 46. 68.. Kone but tke 
priestt are alloQoed to pnt to doath, to plmce in irons, nor even (ne 
quidem) to scottrge, Thus punishment was «lothed with divinA 

Effigies et sig$ux, Images and standards, i e. imagea, which 
serre for standarda. Images of wild beasts are meant^ cl H. 4^ 22: 
depromptae eilvis lucisTC ferarum imagines. — Turmam, cavalry* 
Ouneumf infantry, but sometiraes bodi. Conglobatio is found <Nily 
in writera after the Augustan age aad rarely in them. It oocurs iii 
Sen. Q«L Nat 1, IS, e£ Freuad. 

Familiae is lcss comprehensiTe tiban propinquitaltes, Audiri, se. 
solent C£ A. 34 ruere, Wr. calls it histor. in£, and Bit pronounces 
tt a gloBS. 

Pignom. WhatcTer is mort dear, parttenlarly mothers, wItc^ 
and children. — Unde, adT of place, referring to inproximo. 

Vulneraferunt, i e. on their rctum from battle. 

Exigere, Examine, and compare, to see who has the most and 
the most honorabl^ or perhaps to sootlie and dress them. — Cibos et 
hortcanina, Observe the singular juxtaposition of things so unlike. 
Sc 1: metu aut montibus; A. 25: copiis et laetitia ; S7: nox H 
satietas; 88: gaudio praedaque, 

VIII. Constantia precumf^mportunate entreaties. 

Objectu peetorum. By opposing their breasts, not to the enemy 

di NOTES. ^ 

but to their retreiitiiig liusbands, praying fbr death io preference t§ 

Monitrata-eaptivitate. Ceminus limits captivitate, pointing U> 
captiyity as just before them. — Impatientitt», Jmpatienter aud 
impaiieniia (the ady. and the subst) are post-Augnstan worda. The 
adj. (irapatiens) is found earlier. Qt Freunti. 

Feminarwnf-nomine, i. e. propter feminas luas. Giin. So Gic. : tuo 
Bomine et reipublicaescson youi* aecouot and for the sake of the re* 
public But it raeans perhaps more than that here, yvL. m the per* 
Bon o£ Ther dreaded captivity more fbr their women than for 
themselves. Adeo^^ntomueh tkat. 

Inesae, se. feminis. Tkey think, there in in their ytomen tom^ 
thing sacred and prophetie. C£ Caes. B. G. 1, 50, where Caesar is 
informed by the prisoners^ that Ariovistus had declined an engage- 
ment^ because the vfomen had declared against coming to action 
before the new moon. — Consilia, advice in general; responsa, in- 
spired anstoere, when consulted. 

Vidimue. i e. she lived in our day — ^under the reign of Vespa- 
tA9LXi.—Veledam, C£ R 4, 61. 65. 

Auriniam. Aurinia seems to have been a comroon name in 
Germapy for prophetess or wise woman. Perhaps— Al-ranas^ 
women knowing all things. So Veleda^^iB» woman. Cf. Wr. 
in loc 

Non adulatione, etc " Kot through adulation, nor as if they 
were raising mortals to the rank of goddesses." Ey. This is one 
of those oblique oensures on Roman customs in which the treatise 
abounds. The Romans in the exccss of their adulation to the im- 
perial family made ordinary women goddesses» as Drusilla» sister of 
Caligula» the in&nt daughter of Poppaea (Ann. 15, 23), and Poppaea 
herself (Dio 63, 29). The Germans^ on the other hand, really 
thought some of their wise women to be divinc C£ His. 4, 62, and 
my uote ibid. Reverence and affection for woman was character* 
istic of the German Tribes^ and from them has diffused itsell 
throughout European society. 

IX. Deorum. T. here, as elsewhere, applies Roman namee^ fmd 
puts a Roman construction (Romana interpretatione, § 43), upon the 
godfl of other nations, c£ ( 8. 

Mercurium. So Caes. B. G. 6, lY : Deum maxime Mercuriuro 
colunt Probably tjie German Woden, whoee name is preserved in 
oiir WeJnesday, as that of Mercnry is in the French name of the 
wnie day, and who with a name slightiy modified fWoden, Wuotai^ 


Odin), was a prominent object of worship among all tlie nations of 
Northem Europe. Mar% is perhaps the Qerman god of war (Tiw, Tiu, 
Tuisco) whence Tuesday, French Mardi, cf. Tur. His. Ang. Sax. App. 
to B. 2. chap. 3. Herculem is omitted by Ritter on evidence (partly 
external and paHly intemal) which is entitled to not a little con- 
sideration. Hercules is the god of strength, perhaps Thor. 

Ceriis diehus. Statis diebus. Gun. 

Humani9-ho8tii8, Even facere in the sense of sacrifice is con- 
strued with abl. Virg. Ec. 3, 77. Quoque^QYen. For its position 
in the sentence, cf. note, 3. 

Concessis animalibus. Such as the Romans and other civilized 
nations offer, in contradistinction to human sacrifices, which the 
author regards as tn-concessa. The attempt has been made to re- 
move from the Germans the stain of human sacrifices. But it rests 
on incontrovertible evidence (cf. Tur. His. Ang. Sax., App. to B. 2. 
cap. 3), and indeed attaches to them only in common with nearly 
all uncivilized nations. The Gauls and Britons, and the Celtic 
nations generallj, carried the practice to great lengths» ct Caes. B. 
G. 6, 16. The neighbors of the Hebrews offered human victims in 
great numbers to their gods, as we leara from the Scriptures. Nay, 
the reproach rests also upon the Greeks and Romans in their early 
history. Pliny informs us» that men were sacnficed as iate as the 
year of Rome 657. 

Jsidi. The Egyptian Isis in Germanyl This shows, how far 
the Romans went in comparing the gods of different nations. Gr. 
Ritter identifies this goddess with the Nertha of chap. 40, the 
Egyptian Isis and Nertha being both equivalent to Mother I^th, 
the Terra or Tellus of the Romans. 

lAhumae, A light galiey, bo called from the liburnians, a peo- 
ple of niyricum, who built and navigated themu The Hgnum^ here 
likened to a galle/, was more probably a rude crescenf^ connected 
with the worship of the moon, cf. Caes. B. G. 6, 21: Germani 
dcorum numero ducunt Solera et Lunam. 

Cohihere pan«<i6v»— aedificiis includere, K. T. elsewhere speaki 
ol temples of German divinities (e. g. 40 : templum Nerthi ; Ann. 
1, 61 : templum Tanfanae) ; but a oonsecrated grove or any other 
«acred place was called templum by the Romans (templum from 
rdfAyto, cut ofi^ set apart). 

JEx magnitudine, j^a>"4ecundnm, cf. ex nohilitate, ex virtute § 7. 
Ex magnitudineiB predicate after arhitrantur: th^deem it unbeeank 
ing the greatneia, etc 

90 MOTE8. 

ffumani-^peciem, Images of tbe gods existed at a later da^ 
in Germauj (S. Tur. His. of Ang. Sax., App. to B. 2. cnp. 8). But 
this does not proye their existeuce in the days of T. Even af 
late as A. D. 240 Gregory Thaumaturgus expressly dedares, thei*b 
were no images among the Goths. 'No traces of temple-walls or 
images have been discovered in connection with the numerous sites 
of ancient altars or places of offering which have been exhumed in 
Germanfff though both these are found on the borders^ both soutb 
ftnd west^ d Ukert» p. 236. 

Imcos et nemora. " Lucus (a \i5io|, crepusculum) sylva densior, 
obumbraus; nemus (v€fios) Bjlva rarior. in quo jumenta et pecora 
pascuntur." Bredow. 

Deorumqite-vident. They invoke under the name of gods that 
tKystertous existencet tohich they see (uot under any human or otber 
visible form, but) with the eye of spiritual reverence alone. So Gr. 
and K. Others get another idea thus loosely expressed : Tiiey give 
to that sacred recess the name of the divinity that fills the place, 
which is never pro&ned by the steps of man. 

8ola reverentia, cf. sola mente applied by T. to the spiritual 
religion of the Jews, H. 6, 5. The religion of the Germans and 
other noHhem tribes was more spiritual than that of southem* 
nations» when both were Pagan. And after the introduction of 
Chriatianity, the Germans were disinclined to the image-worship of 
the Papists. 

X. Auspicia aortesgue. Auspicia (avis-spicia) properly divina- 
tion by observing the flight and cry of birds ; sortes, by drawing 
iots * but both often used in the general sense of omens^ oracles. 

ui qui maxime, sc. observant Ellipsis supplied by repeating 
observant^io the greatest extent» none more. 

Simplex- Sine Romana arte, et Cic de Div. 2, 41, E!. The 
Bcythians had a similar method of divining, Herod. 4, 67. Indeed, the 
practice of divining by rods has hardly ceased to this day, among 
thf descendanta of the German Tribes. 

Temere, without plan on the part of the diviner. — Fortuito, undet 
llie direction of chance. Gr. 

8i publiee consuletur, If the question to be decided is of a 
public nature. Consuletur, fut, beoause at the time of drawing 
lots the deMberation and decision are future. Or it may refer to 
the eonsultation of the gods (c£ Ann. 14, 80 : cotisulere deos) : if it 
M by the state that the gods are to be contulted. So Ritter in hia 
last edition. 


TVf singulos iollil, A tliree-fold drawing for the eake of cer- 
tunly. Thus Arioyistus drew lots three tiines toaching the death 
«f Yalerius (Cae& B. G. 1, 53). So also the Bomans drew lots three 
dmes, TibuL 1, 3, 10: sortes ter Bustulit Such is the interpreta^ 
tion of these d»pated words by Grtiber, Ritter and many others^ 
and sudi is oertainly their natural and obvious meaning: ke taket 
np tkree times wm after another all the slips he has eeattered {^t- 
fere is hardly applicable to three only): if the signs are twice or 
thrioe £Eivorable, the thing is permitted ; if twice or thrice un&yor- 
able it is prohibited. The knguage of Caesar (in loc; cit) is still 
more explicit: ter iortibus consuUtun, But Or., Wr. and Dod. 
understand simply the taking up of three lots one eadi time. 

8i prohibuerunt bc sortes— diL The reading prohibueruntML, 
prohibuerint) is fayored by the anak^gy of iidisplicuit, ll,^iLd 
other passages. Sin (>->«t-n0) is particularlj freq^uent in antithesis 
with «f, and takes the same oonstruction after it 

Auspieiorum-exigitur. Auspiciorum, here eome other omena^ 
than lots ; such as the author proceeds to specify, Adhuc^-^ hoc; 
praeterea) i e. in addition to the lots. The sense is: besides draw' 
ing lotSy the persuaMon produeed by auspices i« required 

JStiam hie, In G^rman j also (as well as at Bome and other 
well known countries). Hie is referred to Rome bj some. But 
it was hardly needful for T. to inform the Romans of that custora 
at Rome. 

Proprium gentis, R is a peeuliarity of the German raee. It 
is not^ howeyer, exdusiyely German, Something similar prs- 
vailed among the Persianfl» Herod. 1, 189. 7, 56, Darius Hystaspoa 
was indebted to the neighing of his horse for his eleyation to tha 

Hsdem memoribus, § 9. — MbrtcUi op tffg — h ominum opere.—- 
Contaeti, Notio oontaminandi inest^ K — Pressi eurru, Hameased 
to the sacred chariot More common, presa jugo. Poetice. 

ConseioSf sc deorum. 7%« priests eonsider themselves the ter' 
vants of the gods^ ihe horses the confidants of the same. So TibuUut 
•|)eaks of the eonscia fibra deorum, TibuL 1, 8, 8. 

Committwii, Con and mitto, eend together^-eTU/a^g m JighL 
A technical expreasion used of gladiators and champions. 

Pra^udicio, Sttre prognostie, Montesquieu finds in this cns* 
lom the origin of the duel and of knight^rrantry 

^XL Apud-pertractentur Are handled, L e. discuased, amon^^ 
\ e. by V*£ chiefs, se. before being referred to the people. 

98 R0TB8. 

yiti refers Dot to coeunt, but to eertis diebtu. 

Fortuitum, casual, miforefleen ; subitum, requiring iDiitiedialt 

Inchoatur-impletur, Ariovistus would not iight before thc new 
moon, Caea. B. G. 1, 50. 

Num/erun^-noetium^ Of whieh custom, we have a relic and • 
proof in our seyen-nz^^/ and fort^n^A^. So also the Gauls. CaeA. 
B. G. 6, 18. 

Congtituunt^^eQYee^ determine; comficKTt^— ^roclaira, appoint^ 
The con in both implies eoncerted or publie action. Thej arc forcnsi« 

Kox-^idetur, So with the Atheniana, Macrob. Saturn. 1, 8. ; 
and the Hebrewa» Gen. 1, 6. 

Mx lihertate^ sc. ortunif arinng from. GOn. 

Nec utjussi, Not precitely ai the appointed time, but a day or 
two later, if they choose. 

Ut turbae placuit ITif— simul ac, as soon as, when, It is the 
time qf commencing their ieiision, that depends on the will of the 
multitude; not their sitting armedf for that they always did, et 
frameaa concutiunt at the close of the section ; also § 13 : nihil 
neque publicae neque privatae rei nisi armati agunt To express 
this latter idea, the order of the words would have been revei^sed 
thus : armati considunt, 

Tum et coercendi. When the session is commenced, then (tum) 
the priests have the right not merelj to command sileuce, but also 
{et) to enforce it, This use of et for etiam is very rare in Cic, bui 
frequent in Livy, T. and later writers^ See note, His. 1, 23. 

Jmperatur, Imperare plus est^ quam jubere, See the cliiuax in 
Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 98 ; jubeo, cogo atque impero. Impero is properly 
militarj command. K. 

Proitt refers, not to the order of speaking, but to the degree ol 
influence they have over the people. Gr. — Aetae, Our word 
alderman (elderman) is a proo^ that office and honor were conferred 
on age by our German anoestors. So tenator (senex) bmong th« 

ArmiB laudare, L e. armis concussis. " Montesquieu a of opinioo 
that in this Treatise on the manners of the Germans, un attentivt 
reader may trace the origin of the British constitution. Tnat beau- 
tifiil system, he says, was formed in the forests of Geruiany, Sp. oi 
Laws 11, 6. The Saxon Witena-gemot (Parliament) was, beyond 
all doubt^ an improved political institution, grafted <: a the righti 


fXflreiBed by the people in their own country." Murphy, c£ S. Tar. 
Hi& of Ang. Saz. B. 8. cap. 4. 

XIL Aecu8are-4niendere» To accvM and impeach for capital 
erimeB, Minor offencea were tried before the courts descrlbed at 
ihe end of the section. — Quoqtte, In addition to the legislative 
power Bp)ken of in. the preyious secticn, thecouncil jxercised also 
certain judicial functions. Discrimen capiiis intendcre,'.X\i, to 
endeavor to hring one in danger of losing his life. .• i*^ 

Ignavo9-4nfameB, The sluggish, the cowardlyt and the irr^ure ; 
for Bo eorpore infames usually means^ and there is no sufficient rea- 
Bon for adopting another sense here. Jnfames foeda Veneris aversae 
nota. K. 6r. understands those, whose persons were disfigured by 
dishonorable wounds) or who had mutilated themselves to ayoid 
militarj duty. 6uo. includes both ideas : quoamque, non tantura 
venereOf corporis abusu contemptL 

in«<per— superne. So 16: multo inrnper fimo onerant. 

Diversitas is a post-Augustan word, c£ Frmind, sub y. 

Bluc respieit. Has respect to this principle. ScelerA^^riines ; 
fiagitia^^^ceSf low and base actions. Scelus poena, flagitium con- 
temptu dignum. 6un. 

Leviorihus delictis. AbL abs.»— u?A«n lighter offences are comr 
mitted; or abl. of circum.>^n case of lighter offences. 

Pro modo poenarum. Such is the reading of all the MSS. Pro 
modo, poena is an iugenious conjecture of Acidalius. But it is un 
necessarj. Render thus: in ease of lighter offences^ the convicted 
persons are .mulcted in a number of horses or cattle, in proportion 
to the severity of the sentehce adjudged to he due. 

Qui vindicatur. The injured party, or plaintiff. This principle 
of pecimiary satisfiaction was carried to great lengths among the 
Anglo-Saxons. See Tumer, as cited, 21. 

Qui reddunt, Whose husiness ot eustom it is to administer jus- 
tice, dto. E. proposes reddant, But it is without authority and 
would giye a less appropriate sense. 

Centeni. Ct note^ $ 6: centeni ex singulis pagis. '^Sunt in 
quibusdam locis 6ermaniae, yelut Palatinatu, Franconia, etc Zent- 
gericht (hundred-courts)," cf. Bem^er. 

Consilia et auctoritas, Abstract for concrete— A2« advisers and 
ths supporters ofhis dignity, 

XIII. NihU nisi armatL The Romans wore arms only in timt 
•f wai or on a joumey. 

4 . ^-., «... -- l^ 

* > ,t * • 

100 NOTES. 

MoriSf 8C. esi A favorite expression of T. So 21 : conoedert 
moris (est). And in A. 89. 

Suffecturum probaverit On examinaiion ka» pronounced him 
competent (sc to bear arms). Subj. after aniequam, H. 523, IL ; 
Z. 676. 

Omani, Omat would have been more oommon Latin, and 
would have made better English. But this construction is not un- 
frequent in T., cf. 11 : rez vel princeps audiuntur. Kor is it with- 
out precedent in other authorsb Cf. Z. 8*74. Ritter reads proptnqui, 
Tbe attentive reader will diseover here traces of many subsequent 
usagcs of chivalry. 

Haec toga. This is the badge of manhood among the Germana^ 
as the toga viiilis was among the Romans. The Rc xians assumed 
the toga at the age of seventeen. The Athenians weie reckonedas 
^E^77/3o« at the same age, Xen. Cyr. 1, 2, 8. The Germans (in their 
colder climate) not till the 20th year. Caes. B. G. 6» 21. 

Dipiationem, Rank, title. It diifers from dignita» in being 
more extemaL C£ H. 1, 19: dignatio Caenaris; 8, 80: dignatio 
viru Ritter reads dignitatem^ 

Asmgnant High hirth or great merita of their father» asngn 
(i. e. mark out, not consign, or fully confer) the title of chief even to 
young men, 

Gradua-habet. Observe the emphatic position of gradtut, and 
the force of quin etiam ipae : Oradations of rank^ moreover the 
retinue itself ha», L e. the retainers are not only distinguished as a 
body in following such a leader, but there are alao distinetioM 
among themselves. Quin etiam seldom occupies the second place 
r. is fond of anastrophe. Cf. Bot Lex. Tac. 

Sir-emineat. If he (cuique) atands pre-eminent for the mtmher 
and valor of his followers. Comitatus is gen. Mnineat, subj. pres. 
H. 504 k 509 ; Z. 524. 

Ceteris-aspici. These noble youth, thus designated to the rank 
of chieftains, attach themselves (for a time, with some followers per- 
hape) to the other chiefs, who are older and already distinguishedt 
'tor are they ashamed to be seen among their attendants. 

Quibus-cuif sc sit— >toAo shall have, etc 

IpsafamcL Mere reptttation or rumor without coming to armi^ 

Profiigant^^&d. finem perducunt. So Kiessling, Bottioher and 
l^und. Ritter makes iU^propellunt, frighten away. Profigart 
hella, proelia, &c, is Taeitean. Profligare hostes, &c, is the coinmo* 


XIV. Jam vero«-porro. Cf. Bot Lex. Tac It marks a Iraiin 
tioii to a topic of special importance. C£ H. 1, 2. See Bod. in loc. 

Mecesaiaae. All the beet Latin writers ai'e accustomed to use 
the pi*eterite after pudet^ taedet^ and other words of the like signi- 
fication. Giin. The canse of shame is prior to the shame. 

Infame. "When Chonodomarus» king of the Alemanni, was 
taken prisoner hj the Bomans, his military companions, to the 
number of two hundred, and three of the king*s most intimate 
fnends^ thinking it a most flagitious crime to liye in safetj after 
such an event^ surrendered themselves to be loaded rith fettera 
Ammian. Marcell. 16, 12, 60. There are instances of thesame kind 
m Tacitus." Mur. Cf. also Caes. B. G. 3, 22. 7, 40. 

Defendere, to defend him^ when attacked ; tuieriy to trotect him 
at all times. 

Praecipuum sacramentum. Their mast sacred duty^ Gttn. and 
K. ; or tlie chief part of their oath^ Gr. — Glareacunt-tuentur. So 
Bitter after the best MSS. AL clarescant-twantury or tueare. 

Non nin, In Cic usually sepamted by a word or a clause. In 
T. generally brought together. 

Exigunt They expect. — Illum-illam. Angl. thia-thatt cf. hine^ 
hinCf A. 25. — Bellatorem equwn. C£ Virg. G. 2, 145. 

Jncomptir-apparatus. JSntertainmentSf though inelegant yei libercU, 
Apparatm is used in the same way, Suet. ViteL 10 and 18. — Gedunt 
m^ua dantur. Giin. 

J^ec arare, etc The whole language of this sentence is poeti- 
cal, e. g. the use of the inf. afber persuaaeris, of annum for aunuam 
mensem, the sense of vocare and mereri, <fec Vocaret L e. provo- 
care, ct H. 4, 80, and Virg. Geor. 4, 76. Mereriy earn, deserve, i. ei. 
bj bravery. 

Pigrum et iners. Piger est natura ad laborem tardns; inera^ 
in quo nihil artis et vii*tutis. K. Render : a marh of stupidity 
and incapacity. 

Quin immo, Nay hutf nay more. These words connect the 
dause, though not placed at the beginning, as thej are by othef 
wiiters. They seem to be placed afler pigrum in order to throw it 
.nto an emphatic position. So gradus quin ettamy 18, where see 
uote. — Foaais. You, i. e., any one can. Z. 524. Cf. note H. 
1, 10 : laudares. So persuaeertM in the preceding senteDce. The 
iubj. gives a contingent or potential turn— ca» proeurey sc if you 
will would perettade, sc if you should try. An iudefinite penoo 

102 N0TE8. 

is always addressed m the subj. in Latin, eyeii when the ind. woulc 
be tiBed if a definite pei^son were addrossed. Z. 524. 

In the chieftains and their retainers, as described in tlie lust 
Iwo sections» the reader cannot fail to discover the germ of the 
feudal system. Cf. Montesq. Sp. of Laws» 80, 3, 4 ; also Robertson'i 
Chaa V. 

XV. Non mvltum. The common reading (mnltnm without 
the negatiye) is a mere conjecture, and that suggested by a misap 
prehension of the meaning of T. Non mtUtum is to be taken com< 
paratively. Though in time of peace they hunt often, yet they 
spend 80 much more time in eatingf drinking^ and sleeping, that the 
former is comparatively smalL Thus understood, tais passage of 
T. is not inconsistent with the declarations of Caesar, B. G. 6, 21 ; 
Yita Germanorum omnis in venationibus atque in studiis rei mili> 
taris coDsistit Caesar leaves out of account their periods of inao- 
tion, and speaks only of their active employments» which were war 
and the chase. It was the special object of Tacitus, on the contrary, 
to give prominence to that striking feature of the German character 
which Caesar overlooks; and therein, as "Wr. well observes, the 
later historian shows his more exact acquaintance with the Germana. 
Non multum, as opposed to plutt, is nearly equivalent to minus, 

Venatibus, per otium, Enallago for venatibus, otio, H. '3r04, m. 
Tliis figure is very frequent in T., e. g. § 40: per obsequium, 
proeris ; A. 9 : virtute aut per artem ; A. 41 : temeritate aut per 
ignaviam, &c Seneca, and indeed most Latin authors^ prefer a 
simil^r construction in antithetic clauses; T. seems rather to 
avoid it In all such cases however, as the examples just cited 
show, per with the acc is not precisely equivalent to the abL Tha 
abL is more active and implies means, agency ; the acc with per 
is more passive and denotes manner or occasion. 

Delegata, transferred» 

Familiae, ffousehold, properly of servants (from fiime!, Oscan 
for servant), as in chapp. 25 and 82 : but sometimes the whole 
family, as here and in chap. 7 : familiae et propinquitaieti, 

Ipsu The men of middle life, the heads of the /amt/ia«. 

Diversitaie. Contrariety. — Am^nt. Subj. H. 618, I. ; Z. 677. — 
Oderint. Per£ in the sense of the pres. H. 297, 1. 2 ; Z. 221. 

Inertiam, Inertiam^^xidleness, freedom from business and oara 
(fix>m in and ars) ; quietem^ranquillityj a life of undisturbed re- 
poee without action or excitemeni CC 14 : ingrata genti quies. Jm 
khis account of the habita of the Qermans^ one might easily fanoy 



k« was leading a description of tlie manner of life among onr Ame> 
lican Indians. It may be remarked here, once for all, Uiai tlib re> 
Bemblance may be traced in Tery manj particulars^ e. g. in their 
personal independence, in the military chieftains and their foUoweri^ 
in their extreme fondness for the hardships and dangers of war, in 
their strange inactivitj, gluttony and drunkennesb in peace, in their 
deliberatiTe assemblies and the power of eloqnence to sway their 
oonnselB^ in their half electiTe, half hereditary form of goTemment^ 
in the spiritnality of their conceptions of God, and some other fea* 
tures of their religicn (Robertson has drawn out this comparison in 
his history of Charles Y). All tribes in a rude and saTage state 
must haTe many similar nsages and traits of character. And this 
resemblanoe between the well-known habits of our wandering 
saTages and those which T. ascribes to the rude tribes of Germany, 
may impress us with confidence in the truthfulness of his narratiTe. 

Vel armentorum vel frugvm, PartitiTe gen. Supply aliquid.-— 
Vel^el=whether — or, merely distinctiTe ; aut-^tit^^ther — or, ad- 
TcrsatiTC and exclusiTC. Velr^el (from volo) implies, that one may 
ehoone between the altematiTes or particulars named ; atU-aut (from 
a9, a&risX that if one is affirmed, the other is denied, since both 
cannot be true at the same time. Ct note, A. 17: aut-aut.^ 
Pecuniam, An oblique censure of the Romans for purchasing 
peace and alliance with the Germans» cf. H. 4, 76. Herodian 6, 7 : 
rovTtf yap (sc. xp^'^'^^) fJ^iC^a Ttpfxaw6i ireidoprat, tfnXdpyvpol t< 
5yret ical r^y tlpiiyriy &el irphs rohs Pttfiaiovs XP^^^^ KairriX.e6oyr€S. 
On et, c£ note 11. 

XYL Populia, DatiTe of the agent instead of the abL with 
aoT ah. C£ note S: UlixL 

J^d-quidem. These words are always separated, the word on 
which the emphasis rests being placed between them. H. 602, IIL 2 ; 
2. 801. Here howcTer the emphasis seems to belong to the whole 
clau8e<— /n/0r se, sc sedes junctas inter 9e. 

Co^un^^in-colunt Both often used intransitiTely, or rather 
with an ellipsis of the object»"— (ftoe//. 

JDxsereti ao diversi. Separate and scattered in dififerent directions^ 
L e. without regular streets or highways. See Or. in loc 

Ut fon9-plaeuit Hence to this day, the names of German towni 
ofben end in bach (brook), feld (field), holz (groTc), wald (wood), bom 
(spring). On the permanence of names of places, isee note H. 1, 58L 

Connexitf with some interTening link, such as fences^ hedgei^ 
■nd outhouses ; cohaerentibus, in immediate contact. 

104 NOllSS. 

Jtemedium-4nsciti(L It may be <is a remedy, eic-~of ii may 6r 
thfough iffnoranee, etc Sive-eive expresseB an alternatiye condi 
tionally, or contingentlysit may be thus» or it may be thns. Gom- 
pare it with vel-ifel, chap. 15, and with aut'-aut, A 17. See also 
Ramshom^s SjnonymB, 188. Remedium is acc in app. with the 
foregoiog dause. Inacitia is abl. of cause=per inscitiam. 

Caementorum. Properlj hetm stone (from caedo), but in nsage 
any building stone. — Tegidarrmi. Tilee, anj materials for the roof 
(tego), whether of brick, stone, or wood. 

Citra, Properlj this side of , hence short o^ or toithout,' aa 
nsed by the later Latin authora. This word is kindred to eis, L e» 
w with the demonstrative prefix ee, CC Freund sub y. 

Speeiem refers more to the eye, delectationem to the mind. Taken 
with citre^ thej are equivalent to adjectives, connected to informi 
and limiting m/iteria (citra speciem— >non specioea, Giin.). Render: 
rude materiali, neither beautiful to the eye nor attraetive to the taste. 
Materia is distinctively wood for building. Fire-wood is lignum, 

Quaedam loca. Some parts of their houses, e. g. the waUs. 

Terra ita pureL Probably red earth, such as chalk or gypsum. 

InUtettiT. ReKmhles painting and colored outlines or figures. 

Aperire, "PoeiAce^^xcavate, Cellars under ground were un- 
known to the Romans. See Beck. GaL, and Smith^s Dict Ant. 

Ignorantur-fallunt, They are not hnoton to exist, or else (though 
known to exist) they escape discovery from the very fact that they 
must be sought (in order to be found). Gun. calls attention to the 
multiform enallage in this sentence : 1. in number (popt/flatur, igno- 
rcmtur, fcUlunt); 2, of the active, paasive, and deponent verbs; 8. 
in the change of cases (aperta, acc ; abdita and defossa, nom.). 

XVIL Bagwn. A short^ thick cloak, wom by Roman soldiem 
and counirymen. 

^6ii/»— figibula, any artificial fastening; «ptno^naturaL 

Bi desit, Observe the differenoe between this clause, and n 
guando advenit in the preceding chapter. This is a mere supposi- 
tion without regard to fact; that implies an expectation, that th« 
case will sometimes happen. 

Cetera intectu Uncovered astothe rest of the body, cf. 6 : nudi 
aut sagjilo leves. 

Tcios dies, Acc of duration of timc — ^^^nf— vivunt K. 

Fluitante. The flowihg robe of the southern and eastenf/ 
DAtions; stricta, the oloee dress and short elothes of the northero 

6EBMANIA. 105 

Afius exprimerUe. Quae tam arte artus includit^ ut emineaDl^ 
earumque lineamenta et forma appareant^ K. K. and Gr. under- 
Btand tibis of ooat and yest^ as well as breeches ; Giin. of breechea 

Proximi ripae, Near the banks of the Rhine and the Danube, 
Bo as to haye commercial intercourse with the Romans. These 
haying introduced the doth and dress of the Romans, attached 
little importance to the manner of wearing their skina. But thoee 
in the interior, having no other apparel, yalued themselves on the 
nioe adjustment of them. 

CulHUf artificial refinement Cf. note, 6. 

Maeuli» pellibusque, for macnlatis pellibus or maculis pellium, 
perhape to ayoid the concnrrence of genitiyes. 

Belluarumr-gigmt. OceantM-Miterrae, quas Oceanus alluit ; and 
6e//iMi0— lutrae, mustelae, erminiae, eto., so K But Gr. sajs belluae 
cannot mean such small creatures, and agrees with Lipsius, in tnder- 
standing by it marine animals» seadogs, seals, <&c. Freund connects it 
in deriyation with 3^f>, fera (bel— ber— ther— fer), but defines it as 
properly an animal remarkable for size or wildness. Exter%oT Oeear 
n««~Oceanus extra orbem Romanum, further explained by iffnotum 
mare. Cf note, 2 : adyersus Oceanus. 

ffabitus, here— yestitus ; in § 4.»— forma corporis. 

Saepius, oftener than the men^ who also wore linen more or 
less. GQn. 

Purpwra. Facta e succo plantis et floribus expresso. Gfln. 

yudae-lacertos. Graece et poetice. Brachia a manu ad cubi- 
tum; lacerti a oubito ad humeroa 

XVIIL Quanquam^-^d tamen, L e. notwlthstanding the great 
freedom in the dress of German women, yet the marriage relation 
is sacred. This nse of quanquam is not nnfi*equent in T., and 
Bometimes occurs in Cic, often in Pliny. See Z. 841, N. 

Qui amUuntur. This passage is construed in two wajs: toho 
are aurrounded (ambiuntur^circumdantur, cf. H. 5, 12.) 5y many 
toives not to grati/y Iwtty httt to increase iheir ranh and influence (oh 
ja. the sense for the sake of c£ ob metum, 2). Or thus : viho (take 
manj wiyes) not to graiify lust, but on account of their rank th^ 
are solieited toform mdny matrimxmial alliances. For av^o in thii 
■ense and with the same somewhat peculiar construction after it, Be< 
H. 4, 51 : tantis soeiorum auxiliis ambiri ; also Virg. Aen. T, 888 ' 
•onnnbiis ambire Jjatinum. The latter is preferable, and is adopted 

i06 NOTES 

bj "Wr., K, 6r., «fec The former by Gun. and othen. ArioTlBtiu 
had two wiyes. Caes. B. G. 1, 53. 

Probantf c£ probaverit^ 13, note. — Comatur. Subj. denoUng 
the intentiou of the presenta toith which ahe is to be adomed, H 
>00, 1 ; Z. 667. 

Frenatumy bridled, eapanaonedi-^aratus below. 

/n haee munera^ iirl ro6rois rois Swpols. /n=supon the basis c( 
. on condition of, So Liy. : in has leges^ in easdem lege& 

Iloc-vinculum. So, ^ 13: haeo apud illos toga. In both pa»- 
sages the allusion is to Roman customs (for which see Becker*i 
Gallus^ Exc. 1. Scene 1). In Germanj, these presenis take the plaoe 
of the confarrecUio (see Fiske^s Manual, p. 286. 4. ed.), and the yari- 
ous other methods of ratifjing the man*iage oontract at Rome; 
theaef of the religious rites in which the parties mutuallj engaged 
on the wedding daj (see Man., p. 287). — Conjugales deos, Certain 
gods at Rome presided oyer marriage, e. g. Jupiter, Juno, Venua^ 
Jugatinus^ Hjmenaeus, Diana, <bc 

Extra. Cic would have said expertem or positum extra. But 
r. is fond of the adv. used ellipticall j. 

Auspiciis^nitiafory rites, 

Denuntiant, proclaim, denote, — Acdpere depcnds on denuntiant 
or admonetur, 

MurtuSf qua^-referantur, Rhenanus conjectured ; rursusque-re- 
ferant, which has since become the common reading. But referantur 
is the reading of all the MSS., and needs no emendation ; and qu^e, 
with as good authoritj as que, makes the oonstmction more natural 
and the sense more apposite. The passage, as Gr. well suggesti^ 
eonsists of two parts {accipere-reddai, and quae-aeeipiantr^eferantwr^ 
taeh of which indudes the two ideas of receiving and handing down 
to the next generation. Render thus: she U reminded that she re- 
eeives gifts, fohieh she is to hand over pure and unsullied to her 
children ; which her davghters-in-law are to receive again (sc from 
her Bons, as she did from her husband), which are to he transmitted 
hy them to her grand-children. 

Heferantur, In another writer, we might expect referant to 
oorrespond in construction and subject with {iccipiant, But Tacitui 
18 fond of yarjing the construction. C£ Botticher^s Lex. Tac, and 
note, 16: ignorantur. 

XIX Septa. &o the MSS. for the most part AI. septae, Mean« 
mg: with chastity guarded, sc by the sacredness of marriage an^ 
irae ezcellent institutions of the Germans. 

6ERMANIA. 107 

KfUlu-<orruptae, Ilere, as eveiy whcre else in this ti*eatise, T. 
kpl^ean as the censor of BomaQ mannera. He has in mind thoM 
fimitful Bources of cormption at Kome, public ehows, (c£ Sen. Epist. 
7: nihU vero est tam damnosum bonis moribus^ quam in aliquo 
tpeetaado desidere), conyiyial entertainments (c£ Hor. Od. 3, 6, 27^ 
and epistolarj correspondence between the two sexes. 

Litterarum secreta^^i\.era& secretas, secret correspondence be- 
tween the sexes^ for this limitation is obvious from the connexion. 
^Praeaena, Immediate. 

Maritia permiaaa^ sc. as a dom£8ti4! crime, cf. Caes. B. G. 6, 19: 
Via^in uxores, sicut in liberos, yitae necisque habent potestatem. Cf 
Beck. Gall, Exc 1. Sc. 1. 

Aceisit crinibus, as a special mark of disffrace, cf. 1 Cor. 1 1, 6. 
So in the laws of the Lombards» the punishment of adulteresseo waj 
decalvari etfustigarL — Omnem vicum, the whole village, ct Germania 
omnifl, 9 1. — Aetate^^juventa, 

Nonr4nvenerit 8he toould notfind^ could not expect tofind, Thi» 
use of the perf subj., for a softened fut, occurs in negatiye scn- 
tences oftener than in positiye ones. C£ Amold's Prose Comp. 417, 

>Sia4et</i«m»— indoles et mores saeculi, the spirit of the €^e, the 

Adftue (=ad-hoc) is generally used by Cicero, and ofben by 
Tacitus^ in the sense either of still (to this day), or moreover (in 
addition to this). From these, it passed naturally, in Quintilian ana 
the wiiters after him, into the sense of even more, still more, even, 
especiaJly in connection with the comparatiye degree ; where the 
anthors of the Augustan age would haye used etiam. See Z. 486 * 
Botticher*s Lex. Tac. sub. voce ; and Hand*s Tursellinus, voL 1. j 
165. Melius quidem adhuc^still better even. For a verb, supply 
9unt or agunU C£ note A. 19 : nihil. 

Eae dviiaies. Such as the Heruli, among whom the wife was 
expected to hang herself at once at the grave of her husband, if sho 
would not live in perpetual infamy. At Rome, on the conti-ary, 
divorces and marriages might be multiplied to any extent, cf Mart^ 
6^ 7 : nuUt dedmo viro ; also Beck. as above cited. 

Bemely like &ira|, onee/or all. 

Transigitur, Properly a business phi*ase. The business if 
done upf brought to an end. So A. 84: transigite cum expedi- 

(08 NOTES. 

Ulira, 6C. pirmum maritumt So tlie ellipsis might be supplied 
UJtra here is eqmyalent to longior in the next clanse, as T. often 
pntB the adyerb in plaoe of the adjeotiTO^ whether qualifying o& 

Ne tanquam-amenty bo. maritum : that they may not love a hus* 
band merely om a husband but as they loYO the married state, Se€ 
this and similar examples of hrachylogy well illuatrated in Doder- 
lein'B Easaj on the stjle of Tacitua, H. • p. 14. Since but one marriage 
was allowed, all their love for the married Btate must be concen- 
irated in one husband. 

Numerum-finire, In any way contrary to nature and by d^fign. 
Giin. Qyjodfiehat etiam ahortus procuratione, K. 

Exagnatis, Agnati hoo loco diountur, qm post famUiam eon- 
stitutamf ubi haeres jam est^ deinde naaeuntur HeaB. T^ put such 
to death was a barbarous custom among the Romans. Ct Ann. 3» 
25 ; Bce Beck. GalL Exo. 2. scene 1. 

Alibi. e. g. at Rome. — Boni mores va, bonae leges. These worda 
myolye a aentiment of great importance, and of uniyersal applica- 
tion. Good habits whereyer they exist, and especially in a rcpublic^ 
are of fai* greater yalue and efficacy than good laws. 

XX. NudL Cf. 6 : nudi aut sagulo leyes. Not literally naked, 
but slightly clad, c£ Sen. de benef. 5, 13 : qui mMle vestitum et pan- 
noeum yidit^ nudum se yidiflse dicit 

Sordidi. Giln. understands this of personal filth. But this ia 
inoonsistent with the daily praotioe of bathing mentioned, § 22. It 
doubtless refers to the dreaa, as 6r. and K. imderstand it: nudi ac 
aordidi^^oorly and meanly dad. So also Or. 

Qyae miramur. C£ 4 : magna eorpora. See also Oaes. B. G. 1« 
39. 4, 1. On haeCf see note, 8 : haee quoque. 

Ancillie ae nutrieibue. So in the DiaL de Clar. Orat, T. ani- 
madyerts upon the custom here obliquely censured: nuno natus 
infans delegatur Graeculae alicui andllae. In the early ages oi 
Roman History it was not so, see Becker^s Gall. Kxo. 2. soene 1.— 
Delegantur. Delegamua, quum, quod ipai £aoere debebamus^ id per 
alterum fieri curamus. E. 

Separet. For the use of the Bubj. pres. after donecj aee nole, 1 
erumpat. — Agnoecai^tB^\sX ut agnosoatur. So Dod., GuTi. and K. 
But it is better with Gr., to regard the expreaaion as poetioal, and 
wirtue^ as personified: and valor achnowledge them, so. as braye 
men and therefore by implication free bom. 

F«n9M3«oonoubita& — Pybertaa^^xiMBA generandL Gr. 0£ 


C/OAS B. 6. 6, 21 : qui diutisfiime impuberes permaDfieinmt^ maximaai 
inter suos ferunt laudem. 

Ftrj^n««/6«iiiuiJi/uri«4iuptiaeTirginumfe8tiiiaiitur, poetice. The 
words properare, festinare, accelerare are nsed in both a trans. and 
intrans. senBe, cf. Hist 2, 82 : festinabantur ; 8, 87 : feBtinareutur. 
Among tibe Romans» bojs of fourteen contracted marriage with. 
girlfl of twelve. Cf Smith's Dic. Ant 

JSadem, rimilit, parea. The comparison is betwcen the youth of 
the two sexes at the time of marriage ; the j mariy at the same age^ 
equal in stature and equal in strength. Marriages unequal in these 
respecta^ were frequent at Bome. — Parea-^iscentur. Plene : pares 
paribuB^ validae yalidis miscentur. On this kind of brachylogj, see 
further in l>dd. Essaj on style of T., H. p. 16. Miacentur bas a 
middle sense, as the passive often has^ particularly in Tacitus. Cf. 
note 21 : obligantur, 

Jleferunt, Cf. Yirg. Aen. 4, 829 : parvulus Aeneas^ qui te tamen 
ore referreL See note, 89 : auguriis. 

Ad patrem. Ad is often equivalent to apud in the best Latin 
authors; e. g. Cic. ad Att 10, 16: ad me fuit"-«pud me fuit. 
Rhenanus by conjecture wrote apud patrem to correspond with 
apud avunculum. But Passow restored ad with the best reason. For 
T. prefers different words and constructions in antithetio dauses. 
Perhaps also a different sense is here intended from that which 
would have been ezpressed by apud. Wr. takes ad in the sense, in 
respeet to : as in respect to a father, i. e. as thej would have, if he 
were their father. 

JExiffimtf sc. hunc nexum^^rorum filios. 

Tanquam, like Greek «» to denote the views of others, not of 
the writer. Hence followed by the subj. H. 681 ; Z. 671. 

M in animum, /n^quod attinet ad, in respect to, The com* 
monlj received text has ii et animum, which is a mere conjecture 
of Rhen. According to K., teneant has for its subject not sororum 
filiif but the same subject as exigunt. Render : Since, as they mp- 
po9e, both in retpect to the mind (the affections), they hold it more 
atronglt/f and in reepect to Hiefamily, more exten$ively. 

Jleredes properly i*efer8 to property, auccesaores to rank, though 
ihe distiuction is not aiways observed. — lAberi includes both suui 
ftnd daughtera. ' 

Patrui, patemal nncles; avunculi, matemaL 

Propinquif blood relations ; affinet, bj marriage. 

Orbitatia pretia, Pretia^-^oemia. Orbitatia^^hildleaanea^ 

I 10 NOTES. 

Those «rho had no childrcD, were courted at Home for thc oake ol 
their propertj. Yid. Sen. ConsoL ad Marc 19: in civitate nostra» 
plus gratiae orbitas confert^ quam eripit So Plutarch de Amore 
Prolissays: the childless are entertained bj the rich, courted by 
the powerful, defended gratuitouslj hj the eloquent : many, who 
, had friends and honors in abundance, have been stripped of both 
hj the birth of a single child. 

XXL Necesse est. It is their duty and the law of custom. G&a. 
— iVJjo— non tamen. — Homicidium, A post-Augustan word. 

ArmerUorum ac pecorum, For the distinction between these 
wordS) see note, § 5. The high yalue which thej attached to their 
herds and flocks, as their aolae et graiisnmae opes, may help to ex- 
plain the law or usage here specified. Moreoyer, where the indi- 
yidual was so mudi more prominent than the state, homicide even 
might be looked upon as a priyate wi*ong, and hence tp be atoned 
for hy a pecuniarj satisfaction, c£ Tur. Hist. Ang. Sax., App. No. 8, 
chap. 1. 

Juxta libertatemf i. e. aimul cum lihertate, or inter liberos homi- 
nes. The form of expression is characteristic of the later Latin. 
G£ Hand's Tursellinus, yoL TLL p. 588. Tacitus is particularly 
partial to this preposition. 

Convictibus, refers to the entertainment of countrjmen and 
friendsy hospitiis to that of strangers. 

Profortuna. Aecording to his means. So Ann. 4, 28: fortunaa 

DefeceTCy sc epulac Quum exhausta sint^ quae apparata erant^ 
ct 24: omnia defecerunt 

Hottpes, Properly stranger; and hence either guest or hott. 
Ilere the latter. — C<mus. Gueat. So Giin. and the common edi- 
tions. But most recent editors plaoe a colon afber comes, thua 
making it predicate, and referring it to the host becoming the 
guide and companion of his guest to another place of entertainment 

Nbn invitatif i. c etiam si non inyitati essent Gtin. 

Jiee interest, L e. whether inyited or not 

<7us hospitis. The rigkt of the guest to a hospitable reception. 
6o Cic Tus. Quaes., 1, 26 : jus hominum. 

Quantum ad belongs to the silyer age. In the golden age thej 
laid: quod attinet ad, or simply ad. Gr. Cicero howeyer haa 
pumtum in, N. D. Z,'1 ; and Oyid, quantum ad, A. A. 1, 744 Ct 
F^reund sub yoce. 

Imputaivt. Make charge or aecount of. Nearly confined to th« 

GERMANIA. 1 1 1 

Jftter Latin. Frequent in T. in the reckoning boUi of debt au<] 
eredit^ of pmise and blame. Cic said : assignare alicoi aliquid. 

Obligantur, L e. obligatos esse putaut Forma passiva ad niodum 
medii verbi GraecL Giin. Cf. note, 20 : miscentur, 

Victus-comis. The mode of life hetween host and guest tj 
efmrteo^ts, For t;tc^M«-=nianner of life, cf. Cic. Inv. 1, 26, 35. 

XXIL £1 is not exactlj equivalent here to a, nor does it mean 
•imply after, but immediately on awaking otit of&ieeip. — Lavantur^ 
wash themselves^ l e. bathe ; like Gr. \oCofxai. So aggreganiur, 13 ; 
Migantur^ 21, et passim. 

Calida, sc aqua> ct in Greek, ^€pfi^ Xouta^at, Aristoph. Nub. 
1040. In like manner Pliny uses frigida, Ep. 6, 16: semel 
iterumque frigidam, poposcit transitque. Other writers speak of 
the Germans as bathing in their rivers^ doubtless in the summer ; 
but in the winter they use the warm bath, as more agreeable in 
that cold dimate. So in Russia ahd other cold countiies^ c£ Mur. 
in loco. 

iSeparatae-mensa. Contra Romanorum luxuriam, ex more fere 
ffbmerici aevi Giin. 

Sedes, opposed to the triclinia, on which the Romans nsed to 
recline, a practice as unknown to the rude Germans, ag to the earltf 
Greeks and Hebrews. See Coler. Stud. of Gr. Poets, p. Tl (Boston, 

Negotia. Plural— ^A^V various pursuits. So Cic de Or. 2, 6 : 
forensia negotia. Negotium^^neo-^tium, C. and G. being originallj 
identical, as they still are almost in form. — Armati. Ct note, 11* 
ut turbae placuit. 

Continuare, eie. est diem noctemque jungere potando, sive dio 
nocteque perpotationem continuare. K. 

Ut, sc solet fieri, c£ ut in licentia, § 2. The clause limits crehrae; 
it is the frequent occurrence of brawls, that is customary among 
those given to wine. 

Transiguntur, See note on transigitur, § 19. 

Aaciscendie* i. e. assumendis. 

Simplicee manifestly refers to the expression of thought ; ex- 
plained afterwards by fingere nesciunt— ^ranAr, ingenuoue. Ct 
His. 1, 15: iimplicissime loquimur ; Ann. 1, 69: simplices curas, 

Astutor-^llida. Astutus est natura, callidus multarum reruxD 
peritia. Rlt AsttUus, cunning ; callidus, worldly wise. Dod. 

Adhytv. Ts this dai/f despite the degeneracy and disUonestY c/l 


112 NOTES. 

Ihe age. So Dd<}. and Or. Rit. sajB ; quae adliuc pectore eh 
erant. Others stiil make it^^ticmr, even, Cf, note, 19. 

JRetraciatur, Reviewed, recomtdered. 

StUvor-ratio est, The proper relation of hoth time» Is preservedt 
w* thc adTantage of both \a secured, as more fully explaiued in tht 
next member, Tiz. by disettsaing tohen they are incapahle of difgttia^ 
and decidinfff when they are not liahle io miatake. C£ Or. La loe», 
ftud Botticher, sub t. 

Paasow well remarks, that almost cTeiy German usage, mcB- 
tioned in this chapter, is in marked contrast with Roman mannem 
ftnd customa 

XXIIL Po^m— ^ro potu, or in potum, dat of the end. So 46 ; 
Yictui herba, Tcstitui pelles. T. and Sallust are partieularly fond 
of this constiniction. Cf. Bot. Lex. Tac., sub Dativua. 

Hordeo aut frtmiento. Eordeo^harley ; frumento^ properly 
finiit (frugimentum, fruit /rar* i^ox^y, i. e. grain), grain of any kind, 
bere wheatf cf. Yeget R. M. 1, IS : et militespro frnmento bordeum 
eogerentnr accipere. 

Similitttdinem vini. Beer^ for which the Greeks and Roman» 
had no name. Hence Herod. (2, 77) speaks of oJvos iK Kptdtw 
iceiconiixlvos, among the Egyptians. 

Corrupiui. Cum Taeitea indignatione dictum, cf. 4 : infecios, eo 
Giin. But the word is often used to denote mere change, withoul 
the idea of being made worse, cf. Virg. Geor. 2, 466 : Nee casia 
liquidi eorrumpitur usus oliTi. Here render/erwie«^«i 

Ripae^ sc. of the Rhine and Danube , i. e. the Roman border, aa 
in 22 : proximi ripae. 

Poma, Fruits of any sort, cf. Pliny, N. H. 17, 26 : ai-borem 
Tidimus omni genere pomorum onustum, alio ramo nuclhu9y alU^ 
haeds, aliunde "nte^ Jicis, piriSj etc. 

Jieeensfera. Veniaon, or other game freshy i. e. recently taJcen^ 
m distinction from the tainted, whicli better suited llie luxuriout 
taste of the Romans. 

Lac eoncretum. Called caseus by Caes. B. G. 6, 22. But thc 
Germans, though they lived so much on milk, did not understanc 
the art of making chee«e, see Pliny, "N. H. 11, 96. " De caseo noL 
cogitandum, potius quod nostrates dicunt dickemilch " (L e. cisr 
dled mUk). Giin. 

Apparatu. Luxurious preparation. — Blaivdimentis. Dai^Uiek 

Haud minusfaeile. Litotes for multo facilius. 

£hrietaii. Like the American Aborigines» see note. ^ 1& 


XXIV. Nvdi Se6note,{20. 

Quibus id ludicrum, For whom it is a spoft; not whoso hmi 
ness it is to fai'nish tbe amuaement : that would be guorum ett 
K. and Gr. 

/n/e»^a«=Borrectas contra 8altante9. K. — Decorem. Poetic 

Qi^oes/i^m-oquod quaeritur, gain: — Mercedenif stipulated pajr, 

Quamvis limits audacis^^darihg as it is (as jou please). 

Sobrii inter seria, At Rome gaming was forbidden, except at 
the Satumalia, c£ Eor. Od. 3, 24 58 : vetita legibus alea. The 
remarkable circumstance (quod mirere) in Germany was, that they 
practised it not merelj as an amusement at their feasts, but when 
Bober among (inter) their ordinary every-day pursuits. 

Nomssimo, The last in a series, Very frequently in this sense 
in T., 80 also in Caes. Properly newest» then latest, last, Ct note, 
His. 1, 47. ExtremOf inyolying the greatest hazard, like our extreme : 
last andfinal (decisiye) throw, This excessive love of play, extend- 
ing even to the sacri£ce of peraonal liberty, is seen also among the 
American Indians, see Kobertson, Hist of America^ voL 2, pp. 202- 
8. It ischaracteristic of barbarous and savage life, cf. Mur. in loco. 

J)e lihertate ac de corpore, Hendiadys=/)er«(ma/ liberty, 

Voluntariam, An earlier Latin author would have used ipse, 
tdtrOy or the like, limiting the subject of the verb, instead of the object 
The Latin of the golden age prefers concrete words. The later Latin 
approached nearer to the English, in using more abstract terms. C£ 
note on repercussUf 3. 

Juvenior, More youthfvl, and therefore more vigorous; not 
merely younger (junior). See Dod. and Rit in loc Forcellini and 
Freund cite only two other examples of this full form of the com- 
parative (Plin. Ep. 4, 8. and Apul. Met 8, 21), in which it doei 
not differ in meaning from the common contracted form. 

jgiia-talis or tanta. Siich or to qreat, Gr. 

J*ervicacia. Pervicaces sunt, qui in aliquo certamine ad vineef^ 
dum perseveraht, Schol. Hor. Epod. 17, 14. 

' Pudore. Shame, disgrace, So also His. 3, 61 ; contrary to UM^pe 
of earlier writers, who use it for sense of shame, modesty, 

XXV. Ceteris, AIl but those who have gambled away their 
own liberfjy, as in § 24. — In nostrum morem, «fec, with 8|>ecifio 
dnties distributed through the household (the slave-household. o£ 
mot<^ 15), as explained by the following clause. On the extrem« 

U ( . NOTE8. 

ttibdiyiBioD of office among slayeB at ^ome Bce Beck. GoIL Ex«l %, 
Ba S ; and Smith^s Dic. Antiq. imder Servus. 

i)e«ert/>^aa-^imen8a, distributa. Giin. 

Fcmiliam, Here the entlre hody of servantit, c£ note, ( 15. 
Quisqtte. Each aervant has his own honse and h<ftne. 
Ui eolono. Like the tenant ot farm^r among the Romans; alar 
the yassal in the middle ages, an^. the serf in Modern Europe. 

Ilactenus. Thus far, and no farthcry i. e. if he pajs his rent oj 
tax, no more is required of him. 

Cetera. The rest of the duties (usuallj ptrformed by a Homan 
iervant)t yiz. those of the house^ the mfe and children (sc of the 
master) perform. Gr. strangely refers uxor et liberi to the wife and 
children of the seryant Passow also refers domus to the houBe oi 
the seryanty thus making it identical with the penates aboye, with 
which it seems rather to be contrasted. With the use of cetera here, 
compare His. 4, 66: ceteru7n vulg^is^the rest, yiz. the common 
Boldiers, and see the principle well illustrated in Doderlein's Essay, 
His. p. 17. 

Opere. Hard labor, which would serve as a punishment The 
Komans punished their indolent and refractory domestics, by send- 
ing them to labor in the country^ as wcU as by heavj chains {inn- 
culis) and cruel flagellations (verberare). Thej had also the power 
of life and death (occidere). Beck. Gall. Exc. 2. Sc. 2 ; Smith's Dic 
Ant. as above. 

Non disciplinor-ira. Hendiadys— non disciplinae severitate, scd 
irae impetu. Cf. His. 1, 51 : severitate disciplinaei 

Nisi-impune, i. e. without the pecuniary penalty or satisfaction, 
which was demanded when one put to death an enemj {inimicym). 

Liherti-libertini. These words denote the same persons, but 
with this diiference in the idea: libertm=^^Q freedman of some 
particular master, lihertinus^oue in the condition ol a freedman 
without reference to an j master. At the time of the Deceravirate, 
and for some time afber, liberti^emancipated slaves, libertiniawthe 
descendants of such, cf Suet Claud. 24. 

Quae regnantur. Govemed by kings. Ex poctarum more dic- 
tnm, cf Virg. Aen. 6, 794: regnata per arva. So43: Qothonei 
regnantur, and 44 : Suiones. Gun. 

Ingenvos^iTQQ bom ; nohilesmm^i^ born. 

Ascenduntj i. e. ascendere possunt 

Oeteros. Bj sjneflia (sce Gr.) for ccteras. sc gcnteSb 


fmpareSf sc. ingenuis et nobilibos. 

Libertatis argumentum^ inasmtich as tbey value libcrtj and 
etUfenship too much to confer it on freedmen and slaves. Thia 
whole topio of freedmen is an oblique censure of Koman custom in 
the age of the Emperors, whose freedmen were not unfrequently 
their fayorites and prime ministers. 

XXVL Fenu9 agitare, To loan money ai interesi, 

Et in usuras extendere. And to put out that interest again on 
intereat, The other explanation, yiz. that it means simply to put 
money at interest^ makes the last clause whollj superfluous. 

Servatur, Is tecured, sc abstinence frcm usury, or the non- 
existence of usurj, which is the essential idea of the preceding 

Ideo-vetitum emety sc ignoti nuUa cupidol Cf. 19: boni mores^ 
TB. bonae leges. Giln. The reader cannot fail to recognize here^ 
as usual, the reference to Rome, where usury was practised to an 
exorbitant extent. See Fiske's Manual, § 270, 4 and Amold's Hi& 
of Kome, yol. 1. passim. 

Uhiverns, Whole elans, in distinction from indiyidual owners. 

In vices. By tums, Al yices, yice, yicis. Dod. prefers in 
vicis ; Rit in yicos— for i. e. by yillages. But whether we traLs- 
iate by turns or by yillages, it comes to the same thing. CL Caea. 
3. G. 6, 22. 

Camporum, arvay ager, solij terrae, «fec These worde differ froiii 
each other appropriately as follows : Terra is opposed to mare et 
ooelum, yiz. earth, Solum is the substratum of any thing, yiz. solid 
ground or soil, Oampu» is an extensive plain or leyel surface, 
whcther of land or water, here Jlelds, Ager is distinctiyely the 
territory that surrounds a city, yiz. the public lands, Arvum i» 
ager aratus, yiz. plough lands, Bredow. 

Superest, There is enough, and more, c£ § 6, note. 

Lahore contendunt, They do not strive emulously to equal the 
^ertility of the soil by their own industry. Passow. 

Imperatur, Just as frumentum, commeatus, obsides, etc, impe- 
rantur, are demanded or expected Giin. 

Totidem, sc quot Romani, c£ idem, 4, note. Tacitus ofix^n omita 
one member of a comparison, as he does also one of two compara- 
tive partides. 

Species, Parts, Sometimes the logical divisioos of a genus; so 
«sed by Cic and Quin. (§ 6, 58) : cum genus dividitur in speciesw 

Intellectum, A word of the silver age, c£ note on voluntarian^ 

116 NOTES. 

24. Intellectum — liabcDt--artf understood and named. "Qiuuq 
distortum dicendi genuBl" 6ud. 

Autumni-ignoraniur, Accordiogly in EDglish, spring, summer 
and winter are Saxon words, while autumn is of Latin origin (Aue- 
tumnus). See Diibner in loc. Still Buch words as H&rfest; Her 
pist^ Harfst, Herbst» in other Teutonic dialects, apply to the au- 
tumnal season, and not^ like our word harvest^ merely to the fruiti 
of it 

XXVn.' Funera, proprie de toto apparatn sepulturae. £ 
Funeral rites were performed with great pomp and extravaganoe at 
Kome ; ct Fiske's Man., § 840 ; see also Mur. in loco, and Beok. 
OalL Exc Sc 12. 

Ambitio. Frimarilj the solicitation of offioe bj the* candidate ; 
then the parade and displaj that attended it ; then parade in gene- 
ral, especiaHy in a bad sense. 

CertiSf L e. rite statutis. Gun. 

(}umtUant. Structura est poetica, cfl Yirg. Aen. 11, 50: cumM' 
latque altaria donis. K, 

£quu9 adyiaitur, Herodotus relates the same of the Scythians (4, 
71); Caesar, of the Gauls (B. 6. 6, 19). Indeed all rude nations 
burj with the dead those objects which are most dear to them 
when liying, under the notion that they will use and enjoy them in 
a future state. See Bobert8on's Amer. B. 4, <&c., &c 

Sepulerupi-erigit. Still poetical ; literally : a iurf reart the 
iomb. (X His. 5, 6 : Libanum erigit 

Ponvn^-^eponunt So Cic Tusc Qu. : ad ponendum dolorem 
C£ A. 20 : posuere iram. 

J^eminis-meminisae, Cf. Sen. £p. : Yir prudens memiuisse per- 
Beyeret^ lugere desinat 

Aceepimue, Ut ab aliis tradita audivimus» non ipsi cognoTimoi. 
K. See Preliminary Remarks, p. 79. 

In commune, Cic would haye said, uniyerse, or de uniyem 
originc Gr. Cic uses in commune, but in a diflFerent sense, viz. 
for the common weal. See Freund, sub yoc. 

InatitutOy political ; ritu*, religious. 

Quae naiionea. And wkat tribes, etc ; quac for quaeque bv 
asyndeton, or perhaps, as Rit suggests, by mistake of the copyist 
^Commigraverint. Subj. of the indirect question. Gr. 265, Z. 552. 

German critics have expended much labor and research, in 
defining the locality of the Beveral German tribes with which th« 
reDiainder of the TreatiBe is occupied. In so doing, they rely not 

GERMANIA. - 117 

rnily on hlstorical data, but also on the traces of ancient namei 
Bt.ill attached to cities, forests^ inountains, and other locallties (ct 
Dote, 4 1^>)* These we shall sometimes advert to in the notes. 
But on the wliole, these speculations of German antiquarians ai>e 
not only less iiiteresting to seholars in other countries, but n:-e 
io nnsatAsfactory and contmdictory among themselv-es, that, for 
the most part, we shall pass them over with very little atten- 
tion. There is manifestly an intrinsie difficulty in definiug the 
erer ehangiog iimits of uncivilized and unsettled tribes. Henoe 
the irreconcilable contradietions between tincieni autkorittes, tm 
well as modern critiqued, on diis subject Tacitus, and the 
Roman writere genemlly, beti*ay their want of defiuite know- 
ledge of Germany by the frequency with which they specify tlw 
names of mountains and rivers. Hie following geographioal out- 
' tine is from Ukert, and must suffice for the geography of the pemain- 
der of thd TVeatise: Tn the comer between the Rhine and the 
DaiAibe, are the Deenmates Agri, perhaps as far as the Mayne, 29. 
Northward oa the Ithin« dwell the Mattiaei, whose neighbors on 
the east «re the Chatti, 30. On the same river farther nortfa are the 
Usipii and the Tencteri; then the Frisii S2-S4. Eastward of the 
Tencteri dwell tibe Chamavi and the Angrivarii (earlier the Bruc- 
ten), and east or eoatheast of them ihe Dulgibini and Chasuarii, 84, 
and otber small tribes. Eastwar^ of the Frisii Germany juts out 
£Eir towards the. noilh, S5. On the coast of the bay thus formed, 
dwell tJie Chauci, «ast of the Frisii and the above mentioned tribes; 
on the flouth, tbey reach to the ChattL East of the Chauci and 
the Chatti are the Cherusei, S6^ whose neighbors are thc Fosi. The 
Cherusci perhapa, sccording to Tacttus^ do not reach to the ooean ; 
and ia the «ngle of ihe above bay, he places the Cimbri, 87. Thns 
Tacitna represents the westem half of Germany. The eastem is of 
greater dimensiona. There are the Suevi, 38. He calls the 
country Suevia, 41, and enumerates many tribes, which belong 
there. Eastward of Uie Chenisci he plaoes the Semnones and 
Langobardi; nortfa of them are the Reudigni, Aviones^ Anglii, 
Varini, Eudoses, Suardones and Noithones; and all these he may 
have regarded as lying in tbe interior, and as the most unknown 
tribes, 41. He then mentions the tribes that dwell on the Danube, 
«astward from the Decumates Agri : the Hermunduri, in whose 
eonntry tlve Elbe has its source; the Narisci, Marcomanni and 
Qnadi, 41-42. Ibe Marcoraanni hold the eountry which the Boii 
ibrmerly possessed ; and noilhward of them and the Quadi, dueflj 

i 1 8 NOTES. 

:>n tlie moiintains wliich ron through Sucvia, are the MMfngii^ 
Gothini, Osi and Barii, 43. Farther north are the Ljgii, consis^ 
tng of manj tribee^ among which the most distinguished are th« 
Arii, HelYecones» Manimi, Eljeii and Nahar\ali, 48. Still fartJier 
Qorth dwell the Gothones» and, at the Ocean, the Rogii ajnd 
LemoYii Upon islands in the ocean live the Suiones, 44 Upon 
\he mainland, o^ the coast^ are the tribca of the Aestyi, and -near 
them, perhaps on islands, the Sitones^ 45. Perhaps he assigned 
to them the immense islands to which he refers in his first chapter. 
Ilere ends Sueyia. Whether the Peucini, Yenedi and Fenni are to 
be reckoned as Germans or Sarmatians^ is uncertain, 46. The Hel- 
lusii fmd Oxonae are fabulous.'* 

The foUowing paragraph from Prichard^s Researches embodies 
Bome of the more general conclusions of ethnographers, especiall j ol 
^euss^ on whom Prichard, in common with Ore|li and many other 
Bpholara^ places great reliance. ** Along the coast of the German 
0(!ean and across the isthmus of the Cimbrio peninsula to the akore 
of the Baltic^ were spread the tribes of the Chauci and Frisi], the 
Anglii, Saxones and the Teutones or Jutes, who spoke the Xoto- 
Qerman languages, and formed one of the four diyisions of the 
German race, oorresponding as it seems with the Inffoevonet oi 
Tacitus and Pliny. In the higher and more central parts^ the 
second great diyision of the race, that of the Hermiones, was Bpread, 
the tribes of which spoke Upper or HighrGerman dialects. Begin- 
ing in the West with the countrj of the Sigambri on the Rhine^ and 
from that of the Chei*usci and Angriyarii near the Weser and tha 
Hartz^ this division comprchended, besides those tribes^ the Chattiy 
the Langobardi, the Hermunduri, the Marcomanni and Quadi, the 
Lugii, and bejond the Yistula the Bastamae, in the neighborhood 
of the Carpathian hills. To the eastward and northward of the last 
mentioned, near the lower course of tlie Yistula and thence at least 
as far as the Pregcl, were the primitive abodes of the Goths and 
their cognate tribee^ who are perhaps the Istaevones,** The fourth 
division of Frichard embraced the Scandinayians, who spoke a lan* 
guage kindred to the Germans and were usually classed with them. 
Those who would ezamine this subject more thoroughly, will coii- 
9ult Adelung, Zeuss» Grimm, Ritter, Ukert, Prichard, Latham, &q^ 
who have written expressly on the geography or the ethnography 

XXYIIL Summus auctorum, i. c. omnium scriptorum is» qui 
plurimum auctoritatts fdeique habet. K. C£ Sueton. Caes. 66». 


Though T. commends so highly the autlwrity o Caesar os a writer, 
jet he differs from him in not a few matters of fact, as well aa 
opiuion ; owing chie^', doubtless» to the increased means of infor* 
mation which he possessed in the age of Trajan. 

J)ivu8 Jtdius. jDtvtM— deified, divine ; an epithet applied to 
the Koman Emperors after their decease. — Tradit, Cf. Caes. B. G. 
6, 24 : fuit antea tempus^ cum Germanot GcUli virtute mperarefU, 
ultro bella inferrent^ propter hominum multitudinem agrique 
Inopiam trans Khenum colonias mitterent. Liyy probablj refers 
to the same eyents^ when he says (Lib. 5, 34), that in the reign 
of Pri^siis Tarquinius, two immense bodies of Gauls migrated and 
tcok possession, the one of the Hercynian Forest, the otlier of Upper 

Amnis. The Rhine. — Promiscuas. Unnettledy ill defined. 

Q^ominus after a verb of hiudei-ing is followed by the subj. H, 
499 ; Z. 648. 

NiUlor-divisaSj i. e. not distributed among different and powerftd 

Hercyniam silvam. A series of forests and mountains, stretching 
from Helvetia to Hungary in a line parallel to the Danube, and 
described bj Caesar (B. G. 6, 25), as nine day*s journey in breadth 
and more than sixty in length. Tbe namc seems to be preserved 
in the modem Hartz Forest, which is however far less extensive. 

Igitur-Helveiii^lgitur regionem inter, etc See note on colunt, 
16. Igitur seldom stands as the first word in a sentence in Cicero. 
C£ Z. 357 ; and Kiihner*8 Cic. Tusc. Qu. 1, 6, 1 1. Here it mtro- 
duces a more particularexplanation of the general subject mentioned 
at the close of the previous chapter. So in A. 13. When so used, 
it sometimes stands first in Cic, always in T. Cf. Fi*eund sub v. 
Touching the Helvetii, see Caes. B. G. 1, 1 ; T. His. 1, 67. 

Boihemi nomen. Compounded of Boii and heim (home of the 
Boii), now Bohemia. Heim^ham in the termination of so many 
names of towns, e. g. Framing^om, Notting^am. The Boii were 
driven from their countiy by the Marcomanni, 42. The fugttives 
are snpposed to have carried their name into Boioaria, now Bavaria. 
Ct Pricliard*s Physical Kesearches, Vol. III. Chap. 1, Sec 6 ; and 
LAtham's Germany of Tacitus in loco. 

Germanorum nationCy i. e. Gennan in situation, not in origin, foi 
this he expressly denies or disproves in 43, from the fact that tliey 
epoke the Pannonian langnage, and paid tribute. The doubt ex- 
pi^esacd here has roference only to their original location^ not to 

120 NOTE8. 

their original stock, and is therefore in no waj inconaistcnt witii 
the affirmation in chapter 43. 

CWm— nnce. Hence foUowed bj subj. H^ 618, L ; Z. 577. 

Utriusque ripae. Here of the Danube, the right or Pannonian 
bank of which was occupied by the Aravisci, and the left or Ger- 
man bank hj the Osi. So clsewhcre of the Rhine^ 37, and of both, 
17, and 23. 

Treveri, Hcnce modcm Trevee, 

Circa, In rettpect to, A ubc foreign to the golden oge of Latin 
eomposition, but not unfrequent iu the silyer age. See Ann. 11, 2. 
16. His. 1, 43. Ci Z. 298, and note, 11. 1, 13. 

Affectationem, Eager cUsire to pasa for native Germans. Ad 
yepbum, cf. note, H. 1, 80. 

Ultro, Iladically the same with w/^ro— beyond. Properly 
beyond expectation, beyond necessity, beyond measure, beyoud 
any thing mentioncd in the foregoing coutext. Hence nnex- 
pectedly, freely, cheerfully, very mucli, cven more. Here very, 
quite, Gr. 

Inertia Oallorum, T., says Gun., is an evcrlasting pei^sccutor of 
thc Gauls, cf. A. 11. 

Haud Jw6zc— =haud dubii. It limits Gennttnorum populL Un 
doubtedly German trib^. 

Meruerint. Kot merely dcseiTcd, but earned^ attained. For the 
Bubj. after quanquam, cl note, 35. 

Affrippinenaes. From Agrippina, daughter of Gcrmanicus and 
wife of Claudius. Ann. 12, 27. Now Cologne. 

Conditoris. Conditor with the earlier lAtins is an epicene, con- « 
ditrix bcing of later date. Hcre used of Agrippina. Of oourse tui 
cannot agrce with conditoris, It is a rellcxive pronoun, the objeo- 
tive gen. after conditoris^^ihei founder of themselves^ i. e. of their 
Btate, cf. odium sui, 33. 

Experimento, AbL on trial, not for ; i. e. in consequence of 
being found faithfuL Jn reference to the Ubii, cl Ilis. 4, 28. 

XXIX. Virtute sc bellica. 

Kon midtum ex ripa. A small tract on the bank, biit chiefly an 
itland in tfie river, Ci His. 4, 12: extrema Gallicae orae, simulqntt 
insulam, occupavere. 

Cliattorum quondam, The very name Batavi is thonght by 
«ome to be a corrupted or modified form if Chatti. Sec Rit in 



iVmMffremi», When is not known, but Julius Caesar fonnd 
th«^ already in poeaession of their new territorj. B. G. 4^ 10. 

Fierent, Subj. after ^aa-quilma^^suchi-jhat. H. 500, 2 ; Z. 656, 

Nee^antemnMtUw. Are neither iiitfuDnored, So in Hia. 4, It. 
the Batayians are called trihUorum expHtet, 

Oneribw, I%e burdens of regular taxation^ — CoUationibun. 
Extraordmary eoHtrihUions. 

TelOf offensive; armay defensive armor. 

In tua ripa. On the right or east«rn bank of the Ehine. Agum 
M to be taken with m ttuia ripa, as well as with nobutcum, which 
ni £ antithetio to each otlier, . Meaning: in atoation G«rmana^rin 
fs>eling Romans. 

MetUe animoque, In mind and tpirit, Mem is prvperlj the 
understanding, animus th« feeling pai*t, and both together compre- 
hend the whole souL 

Acrius anitnantur. Made more eoura^eous hy the infiuence y* 
Uteir very soil a$tdclimate even (adhuc^ c£ note, 19), 

Niimeraverim, Suhj cf note, 2: crediderim, 

DecumaJtea-exerxent. Eaercent^^-^cohiut, So Yirg. tellurem, ter> 
ram, humum, solum, dcc, €xereere. 

Z)«ct(mafe»— viecumanos. Oocurs only here. Tiihe«paying landn 
For their location, see notc, 2V. 

Duhiae posse^ionis, i, e. in>securey till confirmed by Hmite act9 
promotisque praesidiis, i, e. extending the boundary and advancing 
ihe garrisons or outposts, 

Sinus, Extrem^e bend or border. C£ note, 1. So Vii-g. (Greor. 2, 
123) calls India extremi sinus oi*bis. 

Provinciae. A province, not an j particular one. 

XXX. Initiitm inckocuU, Fkonastic So initio orto^ His. 1, 
V6; inilium coeptum, Ilis. 2, 79; perferre toleraverit^ Ann. 8, 8. 
Ulira is &r1l)er back fiom the Rhine. Chattorum sedes ubi nuno 
magnus ducatus et prindipatus Hassorum, quorum nomen a Chattifl 
deductum. Ritter. ■ CSia^fi"— HeMians^ as Gcrm. wasser-»Eng. 
wai^er, and irpAoow^pArric, 

Effusis, Loca effusa sunt^ quae latis campis patent K. Thii 
use belongs to the later Latin, though Horace applies the word witfa 
late to the sea: effusi late maris. Gr. 

Durmnt siquidemf ete. On the whole, I am constrained to yield 
to tibe authority and the arguments of Wr., Or., Dod., and Rit, and 
placc t^e pause before durant, instead of after it as in the first 

122 KOTS8. 


edition. JDurarU precedes Hquidem for the sake of empba^ifl^ juit 
as quin immo (chap. 14) and guin etiam (18) jield their phftca 
to the emphatic word. These are all departm^es from establisbed 
HBage. See notes. in loc. dt. Que must be understood after paula- 
tim : it is inserted in the text bj Kitter. 

jRareseimt, Become fewer and farther apari So Yirg. A«d. 3, 
411: Angusti rarescent claustra Peloru 

Chattoa auos, As if the Chatti were thc children of tho Foroet, 
and the Forest emphatically their country. Passow. 

Prosequitur^ deponit, Begins^ continuea, and ends with ib« 
ChattL Poetical»-is coextensive with. 

Jhiriora, sc solito, or his» cf. Gr. 256, 9. — Stricti^ sinewt/, Uron^^ 
which has the same root as stringo, 

Ut inter OermanoSf l e. pro iugenio Germanorum, Giin. So we 
say elliptically : for Germans. 

PraeponerCy etc. A series of infinitives without connectives 
denotibg a hastj enumeration of particulars ; elsewhere, sometimei^ 
a rapid succession of eyents. Cf. notes, A. 36, and H. 1, 86. TUo 
particulars here enumerated, all refer to military procecdings. 

Disponere-noctem. They distribute the day, sc as the period c f 
yarious labors ; they fortify the night, sc. as the scene of danger. 
Still highlj poetical. 

Hatione. TFay, manner. Al. Romanae. 

Ferramentis. Iron toolsy axea, mattocks, <tc — Copiis. Pto 

Pari, Predicate of pitgnOf as well as excursus. — Veloeit.cU' 
applies to cavalry, cunctatio to infantry; ^*j«a:<a— connected with* 
allied to, cf. juxta libertatem, 21. 

XXXI. Alii^-populis. Dat. after usurpatum, which with ita 
odjuncts is the subject of vertit, See same construction, His. 1, 18 : 
observatum id antiquitus comitiis dirimendis non terruit Galbam, 
etc, c£ also A. 1. — Audentia occurs only thrice in T. (G. 81. S4. 
Ann. 15, 53), and once in Pliny (Ep. 8, 4). It differs from audacia 
in being a virtue, 

Vertit Intrans. Not so found in Cic, but in liv., Caes., and 
Ba]]., not unfrequent. Gr. Cic however uses anno vertente. 

In consenmm vertit, Has become the common custom, 

Ut primum, Just as soon as, A causal relation is also implied ; 
banoe followed by the subj. 

Cfrinem-submittere, JYe find this custom (of letting the hair and 


beard grow long) later among tlie Lombards and the Saxons» c£ 
Tm*n. Hi& Ang. Saz., App. to B. 2. 

SuperspoliOf i. e. over the hloody spoils of a slain enemy. 

Revelanty i e. thej remoye tlie hair and beard, which haye so 
iOng veiled the face. 

Metidisse^^epaid, diseluirged their obligaticM to thone wko gave 
theni hirth, 

Squalor, This word primaril j denotes roughneas ; Becondarilj' 
uod usuallj hlth : here the deformitj of unshorn hair and beard. 

InsHper, i e. besides the long hair and beard. The proper posi- 
tion of inauper ib, as here, between the adj. and subs., cf. 34: 
iromensos insuper lacus; see also insuperf 12. 

Ahsolvat,. Subj. after donec. Sofaciat below. See note, 1. 

Hic-habitus, sc ferreum annidumj cf. 17. P/wrtm?**— permultis, 

Plaeet. Antithetic to ignominiosum genti, Very many of the 
Chatti are pleased with that which is csteemed a disgraoe by most 
Germans, and so pleased with it as to retain it to old age, and wear 
it as a badge of distinction (canent insignes), 

Nova. AL torva, StrangCf unusual. Placed in the van (prijna 
aeies), because as the author says, § 43 : primi in omnibus proeliia 
ocidi vincuntur. 

Mansuescunt, Primarilj said of wild beasts, accustomed to the 
hand of man or tamei. So immaniSf not handled, wild, savagei 
The clause introduced bj nam illustrates or enforces visu novOf and 
may be rendered thus: for not even in time of peaee do they grow 
trentle and put on a milder aspect, 

Exsanguis, Usually lifeless or pale. Here languidf feeble, 

XXXII. -4/vtfo— quoad alveum. Abl. of respect^ H. 429 ; 

Certam. Fixedy well defined^ i. e. not diyided and diffused, (so as to 
form of itself no suificient border or boundary to the Roman Empire) 
as it was nearer its souroe among the Ghatti So this disputed word 
Deems to be explained by the author himself in the following dause ; 
qmque terminus esse suffidat^^rid such th(U it suffices to he a hound- 
ary, Qui^talis vt ; hence followed by the subj. H. 600, 1. ; Z. 668. 
8o Mela (3, 2) cor.trasts solidus et certo cdveo lapsus with hue et illue 

J5?n<;<ms-«apud Tencteros, by enallage, cf. note on ad patrcm^ 
■JO, and other references there. The Tencteri and Usipii seein to 

124 ROTB8. 

haye been at leogth absorbed into the ma« ol people, 'who a]»p€ir 
under the later name of Alemanni, C£ Prichard. 

Jfamiliam. Servants^ cl note on same word, 15. See also Beck 
Gall., Exc. 1. Sc 1. — Ptfnote«— our homestead. 

Jura tucccMionum^heir loomsy all that goes down bj hereditar^ 

Esdpit Here in the unusual eense of inkerits. — Cetera, sa 
JKra srjccessionufn, 

Bello. Abl. and limits both feroz and melior. Meaning : Th» 
horses are inheritedf not Uke the rest of the estate, hy the eldest rnm^ 
but hy the hravest, 

XXXIIL Occurrehant, Met the view^ presented themselves, A . 
moBt the sense of the corresponding English word. The structui i 
of uarraiur (as impers.) is very rare in the earlier author^ who 
would saj : ChamMvi narrantur, Cf. His. 1, 60. 90. The Chcmavi, 
«fec, were joined afterwards to the Franks. Cf. Prichard. The 
present town of Ham in Westphalia probably preserves the name 
and gives the original localitj of the Chamavi^ the present Eugem 
that of the Angrivarii. The termination varii or uarii probably*» 
inhabitants ot Thus Angrivarii— inhabitants of Engern Chasuarii 
■i-inhabitants of the river Ilase. The same element is perhapi 
contained in the termination of Bructert and Tenctm. See Latham 
in loco. 

Nosy sc Romonos. J^rgro— indined to (cf. vergo), towards. 

Spectactdo, Ablativc Invidere is constructed by the Latins in the 
following ways: invidere alicui aliquid, alicui alicujus rei, alicui 
aliqua re, alicui in aliqua rc Hess. The construction here (with 
the abL of the thing, which was the object of envy) belongs to the 
Bilver age. Cf. Quint (Inst 9, 3, 1) who contrasts it with the usage 
of Cicero^ and considers it as illustrating the fondness of the age for 
figurative languagc 

Ohlectationi oculisque, Hendiadys for ad oblectationem oculo 
rum. The author here exults in the promiscuous slaughter of the 
German Tribes by each other*s arms, as a brilliant spectade to 
. Roman eyes — a feeling little congenial to the spirit of Clvristianity, 
Lut necessarily nurtured by the gladiatorial shows and bloody 
amusements of the Romans, to say nothing of the habitual hoetility 
«rhich they waged against all other nations, that did not subrait to 
Qieir dominion. 

QuaesOf sc deos. Though fortune is spoken of below, as oon- 
irolling the destiny of nations. This passage shows dearly thal 


Tacitus» with all his partialitj for German manners oud moraifl^ 
Bti]l retains the heart of a Roman patriot. He loyes his eountry- 
with all her fault», and bears no good-wili to her enemies, however 
manj and great their yirtues. The pasuage is important^ as illus- 
trating the spirit and design of the whole Treatise. The work waa 
Dot written as a blind panegyric on the Germans, or a spleenj 
satire on the Romans. Neither was it oompoeed for the purpose oi 
stirring up Trajan to war against Germany ; to such a purpose, suoh 
a clause^ as urffentibtu imperii fatis, were quite adverse. Least oi 
all was it written for the mere postime and amusement of Koman 
readers. It breathes the spiiit at once of the eamest patriot^ and the 
high-toned moralist 

Odium mi, Cf. note, 28 : conditor, Hatred of themselves ; i. e. 
of one another. So in Grcek, the reflcxiye pronoun is often used 
for Tthe reciprocaL 

Qaando^since , a subjective reason. Cf. note, Ilis. 1, 31 ; ard Z. 
346. — UrgerUibua-fcUiSf sc to discord and dissolution, for such were 
the forebodings of patriotic and sagacious minds ever after the oyer> 
throw of the Republic, even under the prosperous reign of Trajan. 

XXXIV. A tergOf i. e. further back from the Rhine, or towards 
the East — A frvate^ nearer the Rhine or towards the West Both 
are to be referred to the Angrivarii and Chamavi, who had the 
Dulgibini and the Chasuarii in their rear (on the east), and the 
Frisii on their front (towards the west or northwest). — Frisii, the 

Majoribus-mrium, They have the name of Greater or Leaa 
FHsiif a^cording to the measure of their strcngth, For this sense 
of ex see note 7. For the case of majoribus minoribusque see Z. 
421, and H. 887, 1. 

Praetexuntur, Are bordered by the Rhine (hemmed, as the toga 
praetexta by the purple) ; or, as Freund explains^ are covered by it> 
L e. lie behind it — Immensos lacus, The bajs» or arms of the sea, 
at the mouth of the Rhine (Zujder Zee, etc), taken for lakes by T. 
and Pliny (Ann. 1, 60. 2, 8. N. H. 4, 29). They have been greatly 
ehanged by inundationa See Mur. in loco. 

Oceanum, sc. Septentrionalem. — Sua^ sc. parte. — Tentavimus^ 

Herculis columnas. "Wherevcr the land terminated, and it 
appeared impossible to proceed further, ancient maritime nationi 
feigned pillars of Hercules. Those mentioned m tbis passage Bome 

126 NOTSA. 

%athon have placed at the extrcmity of Friesland, and others at Uii 
entmnce of the Baltic.*' Ky. c£ note, 8. 

Adiit, i. e. yere adiit, a^tually yisited that part of the world. 

Quiequid-consemnmus. This passage is a standard illustrati<m 
of the Romana iruerpretatione (^ 43), the Roman construction, whidi 
the Romans put upon the mythology and theology of other nation& 
It showB that they were accustomed to apply the names of their 
gods to the gods of other nations on the ground of some resemblanoe 
in character, history, worship, <&c Sometifnes perhaps a resemblance 
in the namea constituted the ground of Identification. 

J)ru8o Germanico, Some read Druso et Germanico; othera 
Druso, Germanico, as a case of asyndeton (Gr. 323, 1 (1.)) ; for both 
Drusus and Germanicus sailed into the Northem Ocean, and it i» 
not known that Germanicus (the son of Drusus and stepson of Tibe- 
rius, who is by some supposed to be meant here) is ever caHed 
Drusm Gennanicus. But Drusus, the father of Germanicus^ ia 
called Drusus Germanicus in the Histories (5, 19), where he is spoken 
of as having thrown a mole or dam across the Khine ; and it is not 
improbable tliat he is the person here intended. So K., Or. and 

Se, l e. Ihe Ocean. See H. 449, H. ; Z. 604. 

In^iiri. Imitersonal^^inveatigation to he made. E. suggcsts in- 
guirenti, agreeing with Germanico. But T., unlike the earlier 
Latin authors, not unfrequently places an infin. after a verb ol 

Credere quam scire. T. perhnps alluded to the precept of the 
Philosopher, who said : Deum cole, atque crede, sed noli quaerere. 

XXXV. Jn Septentrionem^ etc On the North^ it falU back, sc. 
into the Ocean, vdth an immense bend or peninsula, The flexus here • 
spoken of is called iinua in chap. 87, and describes the Cimbrio 
Chersonesufl, or Danish Peninsula. See Dod., Or. and Kit in Iocl 
— Ac prim4> statim, Andfirst immediately^ sc. as we begin to traoa 
the northem coast — Lateribus^ sc the eastern. 

Q^anquam followed by the subj., seldora in Cic, but usually ic 
T., Z. 574, Kote. Cf. note, His. 5, 21. — Sinuetur, sc southwarda, 
Donecsinuetur. Cf note, 1 : erumpat, 

Inter Germanos. Considered among the Germans, in the esHmm 
tion of the Germana. 

Quiqfte-tueri, A claute connected to an adj. (nobilissimusX q( 

GEfiMANlA. 127 

«ertam,qiiique, 82. Qui in both passage»— talis» ut. Hence followed 
bj subj. H. 601, I. ; Z. 558. 

Jmpotenti<i, ungoverned pasaionf hcpArtiau Impotentia seldom 
denotes want of power, but usuallj that unrestrained passion, wbich 
results from the want of abilitj to control one*s selt 

Ut-agant depends on assequuntur. Subj. H. 490 ; Z. 531, d. 
• Si res poscat. Some copies read : si res poscat exerdtui, But 
poBCO and postulo seldom haye the object expressed in such clause!^ 
ef. 44 : ut res poscit ; 6 : prout ratio poecit. So also Cic and Sall., 
pass. Exercitm is subject nom., promptua being imderstood, aa 
pred. ; and plurimum virorum equorumque ezplains or rather eu- 
forces exercitus : and, if the c<Me demand, an army, the greatest abun- 
dance of men and horses, 

QuieacentibuSf i e. bellum non gerentibus ; eadem, i. e. the same^ 
88 if engaged in war. 

XXXVL CTierusci, It was their chief, Arminius (Germ. Her 
mann), who, making head against the Romans, was honored as th« 
Deliyerer of Germanj, and celebrated in ballad songs, which are 
preserred to this daj. See his achieyements in Ann. B. 1, and 2. 
Thia tribe became afterwards the head of the Sazon confederacj. 

Mareentcm, Enervating. So marcentia pocula, Stat. Sily. 4> 
6, 56. It ia us'aallj intransitiye, and is taken here bj some in &e 
Bense of languid, eneryate (literall j withered). — Tllacessiti is a post- 
Augustan word. Cl Freund. 

Impotentes. Cf. impotentia, 85. 

Ecdso quiescas. Falleris, dum quiescis. Dilthej. Cf. note, 14: 

Uhi manu agitur. Where matters are decided bj might rather 
than right. C£ manu agens, A. 9. 

J^omina superioria, Virtuea (onlj) of the stronger partg, ihe 
oonqueror. Thej are deemed yices in the weaker. 

Chattia-cessit : tohile to the ChcUti, who were victoriov^ stteeeu 
W(t8 imputed for vjisdom. The antithetic particle at the beginning 
of the clause b omitted. C£ note, 4 : minime. 

Fuissent. Subj. after cum signifjing cdthough. H. 516, H. 

XXXVIL Sinum^ Peninmla, . sc the Cimbric Cf. note, 85 : 
flexu; 81: sintbs. 

Cimhri, The same with the Cimmerii, a once powerf al raco^ 
vbo, migrating from westem Asia, that hiye of nations^ oyerran a 
large part of Europe, but their power being broken bj the Roman^ 

128 NOTES. 

uid themselyes being oYerrun and conquered by tlie Gotbio or Qer 
Duui Ti'ibefl^ they were pushed to the extreme westem pointB of the 
«ontinent and tb^^ BritiBh Isles^ where, and where alone, distinct 
traces of their language and literatnre remain to this day. They 
have lefb their name indellbly impressed on different localities in 
tfaeir route, e. g. the Cimmerian Bosphorua, the Gimbric Chersonesui 
(now Jutland, occupied by the Cimbri in the days of T.), Cumber- 
land (Cumbria, from Cimbri) <&c The ancient name of the Welsb 
was also Cymri, c£ Tur. His. Ang. Sax. 1. 2. • 

Oloria is abL limiting ingens, 

Castra ae apcUia. In apposition with lata ves^i^ta==spatioMi 
castra or castrorum spatia. H. 704, IL 2 ; Z. 741. 

Utraque ripa, sc of the Rhine, the riyer and riyer bank bj emi- 

Molem mamisque, The mass of their popvlation^ and ihe nmm^ 
ber of their armiea, Obserye the alliteration, as if he had said : 
D^easure the mass and might. 

£!xitu8f i. e. migraiionis, Often used in this sense, c£ Cae& B. 
C. 8, 69 : Salutem et exitum sibi pariebant — Fidem^ proof 

Sexcentesimumr-annum^ T. follows the Catonian Era. Accord 
ing to the Yarronian Era, received by the moderns, the date woul4 
be A. U. C. 641— A. C. 113. 

Alterum-conMilatum, The second consnlship of Trajan (when 
he was also Emperor) waa, after the reckoning of Tacitus, A. U. G. 
850, according to modem computation, 851— A. D. 98. This year 
doubtless marks the time when this treatise was written, else why 
selected f 

Vtndtur, So long is Germany in being conquered. (The wopi» 
was never completed.) C£ lir. 9, 8 : quem per annos jam propc 
triginia ffincimus, 

Mediospatio, In the intervening period, sc of 210 years. 

Samnis-Galliaeve, The Romans had fought bloody, and some 
times disastrous battles with the Samnites (at the Caudine Fork^ 
Liy. 9, 2,), with the Carthaginians (in the seyeral Punio Wars), witb 
the Spaniai'ds under Yiriathus and Sertorius (Florus^ Lib. 2.\ with 
the Gauls (Caes. B. G. pass.). But none of these were so sanguinary 
«8 their wars with the Gtormans. 

Adfnonuerey sc vulneribus, cladibus— castigavere. 

Regno-libertae, Liberty and monarchy in studied antithesis. I 
meADfl to imply that the former is the stronger principle of the two 


Arsaeis, The familj name of the Parthian kings, as Pharaoh 
aad Ptolemy of the Egyptian, Antiochus of the Sjrian, <&o. 

Amwo it ipsCf Bc. oriens; the Eaat ittelf also lost its prince 
(Pacoruft), in the engagement^ as well as the Romans their leader 
(Grassus). — Objecerit, reproach va with, Subj. Cl n. G. 2 : peteret, 
, Ventidium, Commander under Anthony, and conqueror of the 
Parthians m three battles^ A. U. C. 715. He was raised from the 
lowest rank and the meanest emplojment^ hence perhaps the ex* 
pression, dejectus infra^ humhled heneath Ventidius, 

Carhone-Manlio, Cneius Papirius Carbo defeated at Noreja, A. 
U. 641 (Liv. £pit 63.), L. Cassius Longinus defeated and slain, 64t 
(Caes. B. O. 1, 7. 12.), M. Aurelius Scaurus defeated and taken cap- 
tive, 648 (Liy. £pit. 67.), Seryilius Caepio and M. Manlius defeated 
with great slaughter at Tolosa, 649^ (Liv. Epit. 67.), Quintilius Varua 
defeated and slain, 762 (Suet Oct 23.) — all these victories over the 
Romans in their highest strength and glory-^ither in the time of 
the Repvhlic {Populo JRomano), or of the Empire under Augustus 
(CaeBari) — all these attested the courage and military prowess of the 
Germans ; and they were still, for the most part^ as free and aa 
powerful as ever. 

Caiu9 Marius almost annihilated the Cimbri at Aquae Sextiae, A. 
U. C. 662. 

J)ru8us, Claudius Drusus invaded Germany four times» 742-3, 
and finally lost his life by falling from his horse on his return, cf. 
Dio. Libb. 54. 56. 

J^ero, coramonly known as Tiberius (brother of Drusus and step- 
Bon of Augustus), had the command in Germany at three different 
limes, 746-7, 766-9, 764-6, c£ Suet Tib. 9. seq. 

Chrmanicus, son of Drusus, made four campaigns in Germany, A. 
P. 14-16, cC Ann. B. 1. and 2. 

C, Caemris, Caligula, cf Suet Calig. ; T. Hia. 4, 15. 

Discordiae-armorum. The civil wars after the death of Nero 
nnder Galba, Otho, and Yitellius. 

Expugtiatia-hihemia, By the Batavians under Civilis. His. 4^ 
12 seq. ; ^ A. 41. 

Affectavere. Aspired to the governm^nt ofy ct. note on affecta- 
tionem, 28. After donec^ T. always expresses a single definite past 
ftction by the perl ind., cf. A. 36 : donec-cohortatua est ; a repeated, 
or continued past action by ihe imp. subj. cf. note, A. 19 : donee^ 
peret ; and a present action, which is in the nature of the case alse 
a oontinued action, by the pres. subj. cf note, 1 : separet. 

130 NOTES. 

Triumpliatu Poetice, cf. Virg. Aen. 6, 887 : Triumpbata Oo 
rintho ; Hor. Od. 8 8, 48 : Triumphati Medu The reference here k 
o the ridicnlous trium}.h of Domitian, A. 89, in which Blayea^ pur- 
chased and dressed out for the purpose, were bome as captivea 
through the streeta. 

XXXVIIL Suevis, In the time of T. a powerful confedera^, 
embracing all the tribes enumerated in 89-45, and covering all the 
eastera and larger half of Germanj. But the confederacj was sooo 
dissolyed and seldom appears in subsequent historj. We still hAve 
a trace of their narae in the Modern Suabia, The name is supposed 
bj Bome philologists (e. g. Zeuss) to dcnote unsettled wandererB 
(Gerra. Schweben, to wave, to hover, cf. Caes. B. G. 4, 1 : Sueyis 
non longius anno remanere uno in loco, etc.) ; as that of the Saxona 
does settlerS) ovfixed residents (Germ. Sasscn), and thatof the Franka^ 
freemen, See Rup. in loc. An ingenious Article in the North Ame- 
rican Review (Julj, 1847), makes the distinction of Suevi and non- 
Suevi radical and permanent in the religlon and the language <4 
the Germans ; the Suevi becoming Orthodox Catholics, and the non- 
Suevi Arians in Ecclesiastical Historj, and the one High-Dutch and 
the other Low-Dutch in the development of their language. 

Adhue, C£ note on it^ 19. As to position, c£ insuper 81, and 
84. The Suevi are still {adhuc) divided into distinct tribes bearing 
distinct names, though united in a coufederacj. Cf. Hand's Tursel- 
linus, 1, 168. Dod. renders besides, sc the gcneral designation of 

/n commune. In cotnmon. Not used in this sense by Cic, Caea. 
and Liv., though frequent in T. Gr. Cf note on the same, 27. 

Obliqtiare, To tum the hair backf or comb it up contrarj to ita 
natural direction — ^and then fasten it in a knot on the top of tlie 
head {svbstringere nodo) ; so it seems to be «xplained bj the author 
himself below : horrentem capillum retro sequuntur ac inipsotolo 
vertice religant Others translate obliquare bj ttoist, Manj ancient 
writers speak of this manner of tjing the hair among t/ie Germana^ 
ct Sen. de Ira. 8, 26. ; Juv. 18, 164. 

A terviB separantur, Separantur=distmgu\iiitxir, Servanii 
among the Snevi seem to have had their hair shorn. So also it wai 
among the Franks at a later date. Yid. Greg Tur. 8, 8. 

Harum et intrOf etc Enallage, cf. note certum quiquCf 82. 

Jietro sequuntur^ l e. follow it hack^ as it were, in its growth, 
and tie it up on the very crown of the head only^ instead of letting it 
h»Eg down, as it grows (submittere crinem). So K.« Or. and man^ 

6EEMANIA. 131 

otliera. Passow and Dod. take sequuntur in the sense of denrei 
deliglU in (oup word seek). The word beare that sense, e. g. 6: 
argentuin magis quam aurum seqiiuntur, But then what is retrc 
sequuntur ? for retro must be an adjunct of sequuntur both froin 
position, and because there is no other word which it can limit 
Saepe impliea, that sometimes they made a knot elsewhere, but 
often tJiey fasten it there, and there only. Seo Or. in loc. Tliie 
whole paasage illustrates our author'8 disposition to avoid technical 
language. Cf. note, H. 2, 21. 

Innoxia^. Hamdess^ unlike the beautj cultivated araoug the 
Bomans to dazzle and seduca 

In altitudineniy etc.. I^hr the sake of (increased) height and terror, 
L e. to appear tall and inspire terror. Cf. note, A. 5 : tn jacta- 
tionem ; A. 7 : in suam famam. Tlie antilhetic part' ele is omitted 
before this clause as it often is bj our author. 

Ut hostium oculist to strike with terror the eyes of the inemj , 
for primi in omnibus proeliis octdi vincuntur, 43. 

XXXIX. Vetustissimos. Oldest. Vetus is old^ of long duration 
(^Tos, aetasj . antiquus, andenty belonging to a precedivg age (ante) 
Recens (fresh, youn§) is opposed to the former : novus (new, modern), 
to the latter. See Ramshom and Freund. 

Fides anttquitatis. Antiquitatis is objective gen.— </«« helief or 
persuasion o/ their antiquity. 

Augurits-saeram. The coramentators all note the texameter 
Btructure of these words, and many regard them aa a quotatiou 
from s6me Latin poet The words themselves are also poetical, e. g. 
potrum for majorumf and formidine for religione. The coloring ia 
Virgilian. Ct Aen. 7, 172; 8, 598. See Or. in loc. and Prelimiuary 
Hemarks to the Histories» p. 234. 

Legationibus eoeunt. Just as we say : convene by their delegatet^ 
or representatives. 

JPwi/ice— publica auctoritate, cf. sarae word, 10. 

Primordia, Initiatory rites. 

Minory sc. numine. Inferior to the god. 

PraQ se ferens. Expressing in his external appearance, or 
bearing in his oton person an acknov^^edgment of the power of the 

Evolvuntur'^^ evolvunt^ c£ Ann, 1, 13: cum Tiberii genua 
advolveretur ; also lavantur^ 22. 

Eo-tanquMm. Haa reference to this point, as if i. e. to thii 
apinion, viz. that thence, etc. Cf illue respicit tanqvam^ 12. — Inde, 

132 NOTES. 

From the gi'oye, or tlie god of the p^ye. Cf. 8 : Tm§ctmefi% , . 
oTtgincfn gcrUts, 

Adjicit atictoritatem, sc isti supcrstitioni. 

Magno corjoorc— reipublicae magQitudine. Corpore, the bodj 
politic. So His. 4, 64 : redisse vos in corpus nomenque Germano* 
rum. — Habitantur, Al. habitont and habitantium, by conjecture. 
Tlie subject is the Semnonian country implicd in Seinnonum : the 
Semnoniana infiabit a hundred villages, is the idea. 

XL. Langobardos, The Lombards of Mediseval history; so 
called probably from their long beards (Germ. lang and bart). First 
mentioned bj Yelleius, 2, 106 : gens etiam Germana fcritate ferocior. 
See also Ann. 2, 45. 46. 62-^4. — Faucitas here «tands opposed to 
the magno corpore of the Semnones in 89. 

Per-periclitando, Tjiree different constructions, cf. notes IC 18. 

ReudignL Perhaps the Jutes, so intimatel j associated With the 
Angles in subsequent history. See Or. in loc In like manner, 
Zeuas identifies the Suardones with the Ileruliy and tlie Nuithone» 
with the Teutones. Suardones perhaps—Atcorif-men. 

Anglii, The Englidh reader will hcre recognize the tribe of 
Germans that subsequently invaded, peopled, Und gave name to 
England ('^Angl-land), commonlj designated as the Anglo-SaxonSk 
T. does not mention the Saxons, They are mentioned by Ptolemy 
and others, as originally occupying a territory in this same part of 
Germany. They became at length so powerful, as to give their 
name to the entire confederacy (including the Angles), which ruled 
uorthern Germany, as the Franks (the foundere of the French 
monarchy) did southem. The Angles seem to have dwelt on the 
right bank of the Elbe, near its mouth, in tlie time of T. 

I^erthum, This is the reading of the MSS. and the old editions. 
It cannot be doubted that T. speaks of Hertha (see Turn. Hia. Ang. 
Bax., App. to B. 2. chap. 8). " But we must take care not to coiv 
rect our author himsel£" Passow. Grimm identifies this deity 
with Niordhr of the Edda, and dcrives the name from Nord 
(North). — Terram matrem, The Earth is worshipped by almost all 
heathen nations, as the mother of men and the inferior gods. See 
Mur. in loco. Cf. 2 : Tmsconem Deum, terra edltum ; also note, 9 * 

Insula, Scholars differ as to the Island. Probabilities perhapa 
are in &vor of Rugen, where the secretus lacus mentionod below ii 
■ttll shown, still associated with superstitious legends. 

Castum, Polluted hy nothing profane, So Hor : eastis lucts. 

GERMAMIA. ^ 133 

Penetralif viz. the aacred vehicle, 
Dignatur, Deems toorthy of her visits. 

Templo, 8C tke sacred groye. Templum, like rfficuost deuotca 
«Dy place set apart ^from rifjivui) for sacred purposes, cf. 9. 

Numen ipsum^ The goddesB herselfj not an image of lier ; for 
the Germans have no images of their gods, 9. Ab/uitur, as if coa- 
taminated hj intercourse with mortals. 

Perituriy etc Which can he seen only on penaltg of deaih. 
XLL PropioTf sc to the Romans. — Hermundurormn, Kittei 
identifiea the name {Ilermun being omitted, and dur being^thur) 
and the people with the T^imngians. Cf. note 2 : Ingaevones. 

Non in ripa, Not only (or not so much) on the border (the river- 
hank), but also within the bounds of the Roman Empire. 

Bplendidismncir-covWiia^ This flourishing colonj had no di»- 
tinctive name in the age of T. ; called afterwards Augusta Vinde- 
licorum, uow Augsburg. 

Passim, Wherever they chose — Sine cusiode. Not so other& 
Ct His. 4, 64: ut inermes ac prope nudi, sub custode et pretio 

Cumr-ostendamus. Cum=while^ alihovgh. Honce the subj. 
Non concupiscentibus. Since they were not covetous, Giin. Gr 
renders : thov^h they were not equally desirous of it. 

Notum-auditur, The Elbe had been seen and erossed by Drusu» 
DomitiuB, and Tiberius. But now it was known only by hearsay 
See a like patriotic complaint at the dose of 87. 

XLIL Marcomannh^mmen of the roarchea. See Latham in loc 
^SedeSf sc Bohemia,— Pi<^«i« olim BoiiSy cf. 28. 

Degenerawty sc a reliquorum virtutey i. e. the Narisci and Quad: 
are not unworthyy do notfall short of the braverj of their neighbora, 
the Marcomanni. 

Peragitur, Al. protegitury porrigitury <fec Different words are 
Bupplied as the subject ofperagitury e. g. Passow iter. ; Rit cursus; 
K. frons. The last is preferable. The meaningis: This country 
(sc of these tribes) is thefronty so tohspeak (i. e. the part facifig thi 
Romans) of Oermanyy so far as it is formed by the Danvhey i. e. bo 
far as the Danube forms the boundarj between Germany and th« 
Roman Empire. 

MaroboduL Cl Arn. 2, 62 ; Suet Tib. 87. 
JSxtemoSy sc reges^ viz. the kings of the HermundurL Aiin. 2, 
^^.'•^Potentia. Power irrespective of right, Potestas is lawfu! 
tnUhority. Sce note^ 7 

134 N0TE8. 

Kee minut valmif sc beiDg aided hj our money, tliaa they 
would be if tbey were reinforced by oui* arms. Tliis ulauseln BonM 
eopies stands at the beginnin^; of 43. 

XLIU. Retro, Back from the Danube and the Roman border. 
— Referunt, Jiesemble. Poetical, ct 20. 

Ut qiiod patiuntuTt sc proves that thej are not of German origiii. 
They paid tribute as foreigners. The Gothini were probably a 
**emnant of the expelled Boii. Cf. note, 28, and Prichard, as thcr« 
oited. Hence their Gallic language. 

Quo magia pudeat. They have iron beyond even most of the 
Germans (ct 6), but (shame to tell) do not know how to use it in 
asserting their independence. Subj. H. 49Y ; Z. 536. 

Pauca eampestrium, Poetical, but not uncommon in the later 
Latin. So 41 : secretiora Germaniae ; Ilis. 4, 28 : extivma Galliarum. 
H. 896, m. 2. 3) ; Z. 436. 

Jugum, A mountain chain. — Verlicea. Distinct summits. 

Insederunt, This word usuallj takes a dat, or an abl., with in, 
But the poets and later prose writers use it as a transitive verb with 
the acc— Aave aettled, inhabited. Ct H. 371, 4; Z. 386; and 
Freund sub voce. Observe the comparatively unusual form of the 
perf. 3d plur. in -erunt instcad of -ere. Cl note, His. 2, 20. 

JVam«n— gens. So nomen Latinum»->Latins. Liv. pass. 

JnterpretatioJie Romana. So we are every where to understand 
Roman accounts of the gods of other nations. Thej transferred to 
them the names of theii* own divinities according to some slight^ 
perhaps fancied resemblancc C£ note, 34 : quicquid eonsensimus. 

Ea via numini, i e. these gods render the same service to the 
Germans» as Castor and Pollux to the Romans. 

AlciSf dat pL Perhaps from the Slavonic word holcy=«C-^»^ 
Greek for Castor and Pollux. Referable to no German root 

Peregrinaey sc Greek or Roman. — Tamen, Though these goda 
bear no visible trace of Greek or Roman origin, yet thej are wor- 
shipped as brothers» as jouth, like the Greek and Roman 7^tn«.— 
&uperstitionis^ve\i^om%. Ci, nStes, His. 8, 68 ; 6, 13. 

Lenocinantur, Cherisk, increasc Used rhetorically ; properly, 
to pander. — Arte, sc nigra scuta, <fec — Temporc, sc atras nocte»% 
/bc — TinctOr^tattooed. 

Ipsaque formidine, etc And by the very frightfvlness and ska- 
dow of the deathlike army, Umbra maj be taken of the literal 
skadows of the men in the night^ with Rit, or with Dod. and Or., of 

GE&HANIA. 135 

ihe general image cr aspect of the armj. Feralis^ as an a jj.| ii 
found onlj in poetrj and poet-Angustan prose. See Freund. 

Qothones, Probablj the Getae of earlier, and the Goths of later 
history. See Or. in loc and Grimm and other authorities as theit 
cited. The Rugii have perpetuated their name in an island of tlie 
Baltic (Rugen). 

Adductitis, Lit with tighter rein, toith more ahsolute potoer cf. 
Hia. 3, 'I : adductiue^ quam ciyili bello, imperitabat. The adv. ia 
used onlj in the comp. ; and the part. adductus is post-Augustan. 
Jam and nondum both have reference to the writer^s progreas in 
going over the tribes of Germany, those tribes growing less and 
less free as he advances eastward : already under more subjection 
than the foregoing tribea, but not yet in such abject slayery, as some 
we shall soon reach, sc. in the nezt chapter, where see note on 

Supra, So as to trample down liberfy and destroj it. 

Protinut deinde ab, etc. I^ext in order^ from the ocean, L e. with 
territory beginning from or at the ocean. 

XLIY, Suionim, Swedes, Not mentioned under this name, 
howeyer, by anj 5ther ancient author. 

Ipso. The Bugii, &c, mentioned at the close of the preyioui 
Bection, dwelt by the ocean {ab Oceano); but the Suionea in the 
ocean (m Oceano). Ipso marks this antithesis. 

In Oceano, An island in the Baltic Sweden was so regarded 
07 the ancients, c£ 1, note. 

Utrimque prora, Naves biprorae, Such also had the Yeneti, 
Caes. B. G. 3, 13. Such Germanicus constructed, His. 3, 4*7. So 
also the canoes of the N. Am. Indians. 

Jlinistrantur, sc nayes — the ships are not fumiahed vnth 
mV^ c£ His. 4, 12: viros armague ministrant, Or it may be 
taken ifl the more literal sense: are seryed, l e. worked, man- 
nged. Cf. Virg. Aen. 6, 802: velisque ministrat — In ordinem, 
For a row, L e. so as to form a row, cC Z. 814 : also Bit. and 
i>od. in loc The northmen (Danes and Swedes) became afber- 
wards still more Ceunous for nayigation and piratical exoursionfl^ 
till at length thej settled down in great numbers in Franoe and 

In quibusdam Jluminum, Riyers with steep banks requiro thc 
MirB to be remoyed in order to approach the bank. 

Ftt-hanot, Contrary to the usual fact in Germany, c£ 6. 


186 N0TE8. 

Exc€pti(mibu9. Limttations.-^am, Now, L e. here^ oppuMii 
to the foregoing accounts of free state» and limited monarchies, 

Frecario, Propei'ly: obtained by enWeecty, Henoe: dependeni 
an tlte will of another, cf* A. 16. — Parendt. A genind irith passiv« 
Beuse, lit vnth 9io precanous right of heing oheyed. So Paaa, K., Wr. 
and Gun. 

In promiscuo. Tne DriTilege of wearing arms is not oonceded 
to the mass of the ocople.'— J^if qicidem^et eo, and that too. 

Otiosa-manus. A\. otioitae bj oonjecture. But manus, a colleo* 
liTC nouu sing. takes a pi. Tcrb, cl H. 461, 1 ; Z. 866. "^ 

JRegia utUitas «^— >regibus utile est 

XLV. Pigrum. Cf. A. 10: pigruro et graTC. Tlie Northem 
or Frozcn Ocean, of which T. seems to haTC heard, thougb sonae 
refer it to the northem part of the Baltie. %ee Kj, in loe; 

IKne, For this reason^ yiz. quod extremus, etc 

In ortus. 2111 tfte nsings (pl.) of the sun, u e. from daj to day 
Buccessiyel j. It was known in the age of T. that the longest day 
grew longer towards the nortb, till at length it became six montha 
(cf. Plin. N. H. 2, 77^ though T. supposed it to be thus long at a 
lower latitude than it reallj was, c£ A. 12. 

Sonum-aapici. The aurora borealis, some suppose. 

Persuasio adjicit. The common helief addSf i. e. it is furt/ter 
helievedf cf. His. 5, 5. 13: persuasio inerat. 

Illuc-natura. Tantum is to be connected with illue u9qrM, 
Thuifar only nature extends. So thought the ancients. Cf. A. 8^! 
in ipso terrarum ae naturaefine. Et verafama is parenthetic. Th« 
author endorses this part of the stor j. 

Ergo marks a retum fi*om the aboTe digression. 

Suevid maris, The Saltic, 

Aestyorum^^eastem men, modem Esthonians. Their language 
was probablj neither German nor Bnton, but SlaTonic. * 

Matrem Deum, Cjbele, as the Romans interpreted it^ c£ 4S. 

Insigne-gestant. Wom, as amulets. 

Frumenta lahorant, i. e. labor /or, or to produeCf com. C£ Jlor 
Epod. 6, 60. Lahorare is transitiTC onlj in poetrj and poet-Au^r^ia- 
tan prose. Elahorare would impl j too much art for the author*t 
purpose. See Rit in loc. 

Sueetnum, AmheTf an important artide of commerce in early 
iges^ combining some yegetable juice (hence the Latin name, irom 
mteeuf) with some mineral ingredients. — Oletum, This name wa* 

3£RMANIA. 137 

«razuiferred to glaa», when it came into use. The ruot is German. 

Compare x^^^C"^ T>6d, 

i^recMnon tamen. Yet it U nof, etc. 

Ut barbaris. Cf. ut inter barbaros, A. 11. Barbaris is dati^c 
in apposition with iis, which is nnderstood after compertum. 

Qtiae-ratio, Whai power or proceas of nature, 

Donee-dedit, 01 note, 87 : affcctavere, 

Plerumque, Often ; a limited sense of the word peculiar tc 
post-Augustan Latin. C£ G. 13: ip&a plerumqHe fama bella pro- 
fligant; and Freund ad t. 

Qw«e-earpm«a— quorum 8uecu8 expressus, etc 

In tantunu To 9uch a degree, Frequent onlj in late Latin. 

A servitvte, They fall short of liberty in not being free, like 
Dost of the Germans ; and they fjBll below slayery itsel^ in that 
they are slayes to a woman. 

XLVL Venedorum et Fennorum^ Modem Vends and Finmt, 
or Fen-men. C£ Latham in loc. — Ac torpor procerum, The 
chief men are lazy and stupH besides being filthj, like all the 

Foedaniur, Ct infectos, 4. — Habitum^ here personal appear- 
ance, cf. note, 17. — Ex moribus, sc. Sarmatarum. 

Erigitur, Middle sense. Raise tliemselves, or rise, cf. eTolyun- 
tur, 39. 

Figunt. Have flxed habitationSf in contrast with the Sarma- 
tians^ who liyed in carts. C£ Ann. 13j 54;: fixerant domas FrisiL 
AL fingunt, 

Sarmaiis, The stock of the modem Russians, cf. 1. note. 

Cubile, We should expect cubili to correspond with viciui 
and veatituti, But c£ note 18: referantur; 20: ad patrem, <Scc. 

Comitanturf L e. feminae eomitantur yiris. 

Ingemere-illahorare, Toil and groan upon hmtses and lands, 
L e. m building and tilling them ; though some understand domi- 
bus and agris as the places in which thej toiL 

Veraare, To be constantly employed in increasing the for- 
tune of themselyes and others^ agitated meanwhile by hope and 

Seeuru Because they have nothing to lose. 

Hlia, Emphatio. I%ey, nnlike others, haye no need, Ao. CC 
apud illot, 44. 

In micdium retinquam, Lcaye for the public^ * e. undeddea 

138 IT0TE8. 

Relinquere in medio is tho mcre common exjiression. Bdttlclier i£ 
hia Lez. Tac. expluns it^ as equivnlent bj Zeugma to in tns 
tHum voeatvm relinguam in medio» So in Greek, ^r and c^i odeD 


• • • 

The Biography of Agricola was written earty in tbe reign of TrnjaB 
(which commenced A. U. C. 851. A. D. 98), oonseqiiently about the 
same time with the Germania» though perhaps Bomewhat later (cf. 
notes on Germania). This date is established bj inference from the 
anthor's own language in the 3d and the 44th sections (see notes). 
In the former, he speaks of the dawn of a better day, which opened 
indeed with the reign of Nerva, but which is now brightening con- 
stantl j under the auspices of Trajan. The use of the past tense 
(miscuerit) here in respect to Nerra, and of the present (attgeat) in 
respect to Trajan, is quite conclusiye evidcnce, that at the time of 
writing, the reign of Nerra was past^ and that of Ti^ajan had 
ahready begun. 

The other passage is^ if possible, still more clearlj demonstrative 
of the same date. Here in drawing the same contrast between past 
tjrannj and present freedom, the author, withoutmentioning Nervai 
reoords the desire and hope, which his father-in-Iaw expressed in hii 
hearing, that he might live to see Trajan elevated to the imperial 
throne— language very proper and courtly, if Trajan were already 
Emperor, but a very awkwara oompliment to Nerya, if, as many 
eritics suppose, he were still the reigning prince. 

It is objected to this date, that if Nerva were not still living, Taci- 
tus oould not have fuled to attach to his name (in ^ 3.) the epithet 
Divtu, with which deceased Emperors were usually honored. And 
from the omission of this epithet in connection with the name of 
Nerva, together with the terms of honor in which Trajan is men- 
fcioned, it is inferred that the piece was written in that brief period 
of three months, which intervened between the adoption of Trajan 
by Nerva, and I^einra^s death (see Brotier and many others). Bul 

140 NOTES. 

the application of ihe cpitliet in question, was not a matter oj 
nccessitj or of nniycrsal practice. Its omission in this case might 
have bcen accidental, or might haye proceeded from unknown rea- 
Bons. And the bare absence of a single word surely cannot be 
cntitled to much weight, in comparison with the obvious and 
•loiost necessarj import of the passagcs just cited. 

The primarj object of the work is sufficiently obvious. It wai 
to honor the memorj of the writer*s excellent father-in-Iaw, Agrioola 
(c£ § 8: honori Agricolae, mei soceri, destinatue). So fJEtr from 
apologizing for writing the life of so near a fiiend, he fcels assured 
that hb motiyes will be apprcciuted and his design approyed, how- 
eyer impcrfect maj be its execution ; and he deems an apologj neoes 
sary for haying so long delayed the performanoe of that filiol duty. 
After an introduction of singular beautj and appropriatenesB (cf. 
notes), he sketches a brief outline of the parentage, education, and 
earlj life of Agricola, but draws out more at length the historj of hii 
consulship and command in Britain, of which the foUowing Bom- 
mary, from Hume's History of England, may not be unprofitable to 
the student in anticipation : " Agricola was the general, who finally 
established the dominion of the Romans in this island. He goyemed 
it in the reigns of Yespasian, Titus, and Domitian. He carried hb 
yictorious arms northward ; defeated the Britons in eyery encounter, 
pierced into the forests and the mountains of Caledonia, reduoed 
eyery state to subjection in the southem parts of the island, and 
chased before him all the men of fiercer and more intractable Bpirita^ 
who deemed war and death itself less intolerable than servitude 
under the yictors. He defeated them in a decisiye action which 
they fought under Galgacus ; and having fixed a chain of garrisona 
between the friths of Clyde and Forth, he cut off the mder and more 
barren parts of the island and secured the Roman province froui 
the incursions of the more barbarous inhabitants. During these 
military enterprises, he neglected not the arta of peace. He intro- 
duced laws and civility among the Britons ; taught them to desira 
and raise all the conveniences of life ; reconciled them to the Ro. 
man language and manners; instructed them in letters and science; 
and employed every expedient to render those chains which 
he had forged both easy and agreeable to them." (Uis. of Eng. 
vol. 1.) 

The hifttory of Agricola during this period is of course IbA hia- 
iory of Britain. Accordingly the author prefaces it with an outline 
of the geographioal features, the situation, soil, climate, productioitf 


ADcl, 80 far as known to the RomanSy the past Llstory of the Island. 
Tacitaa possessed peculiar advantages for being the historian of th< 
earlj Briton& His father-in-law was the nrst to snbject the whol« 
island to the swaj of Rome. He travei^sed the country from south 
to north at the faead of his armies» explored it with his own eja, 
and reported what he saw to our author with his owa lips. H<o 
saw the Britons too, in their native nobleness, in their primitive love 
of libertj and vii^tue ; before thej had become the slaves of Romaa 
arms^ the dupes of Roman arts^ or the victims of Roman vices. A few 
peragraphs in the conciae and nervous stjle of Tacitus^ have made us 
qirite acquainted with the Britona, as Agricola found them ; and oa 
the whole, we have no reason to be ashamed of the primaeval inhab- 
Hants of the land of our aneestry. They kivew their rights» they 
prized them, they fougbt for ihem bravely »nd died for them nobly. 
More harmonj among themselves might have delayed, but could 
not have prevented the ifinal cata^ro^^e. Rome in the age of Tra- 
jnn was irresistible ; and Britain became a Roman province. This 
portion of the Agricola of Tacitus, and the Germania o( tke same 
author, entitle him to the peculiar affection and lasting gratitude 
of those, whose veins flow with Briton and Anglo-Saxon blood, os 
the histoi*ian, and the contemporarj historian too, of their earlj 
fathers. It is a notable providenee for us, nay it is*a kind provi- 
dence for mankind, that has thus preserved from the pen of the 
most sagacious and reflecting of all hiertorians an account^ too brief 
lliough it be, of the origin and antiquities of the people that of ali 
others now exert the widest dorainion whether in tlie political or 
the mo^l world, and that have made those countries which were in 
bis daj shrouded in darkness, the radiant points for the moral and 
spiritual illumination of our race. "The child is father to the man," 
and if we would at this day investigate the eleraents of English Uw, 
we have it on the authoritj of Sir William Blackstone, that we 
must trace them back to their founders in tiie eustoms of the Britons 
and Germans, as recorded by Caesar and Tacitus. 

With the retirement of Agricola from the command in Britain, 
the author falls back more into the provinee of biography. Tho 
few occasional strokes» however, in whitA the pencil «f Taciiug 
htm sketched the character of Domitian in the back ground of the 
pioture of Agriecla are the more to be prized, because his history oi 
Ihat reign is lost 

In narrating the closing seenes of Agricola s life, Taeitus breatliei 
flie v^rj spirit ^f an affectionato son, without sacrificing the inii 

142' noTES. 

partialitj and gravity of the historian. and combiiies all a moum 
cr*B aimplicity aud siucerity with all the orator^s dignity and do- 

IIow tenderlj' he dwells on the wisdoin and goodneas of L^ 
departed father ; how artlessl j* he inteivperses hia own sympathief 
and regretfl» eyen as if he were breathing out his sorrows amid a 
circle of sympathizing friends I At the same time, how instrnetiw 
are his reflections, how noble his seutiments, and how weighty hia 
words» as if hc were pronouucing an eulogium in the hearing of the 
world and of posterity I The sad experieuce of the writer in the very 
troubles through which he follows Agricola, conspires with the affeo- 
tionate remembrance of his own loss in the death of such a father, 
to giye a tinge of mehmoholj to the whole biographj ; and we 
•hould not know where to look for the composition, in which ao 
perfect a work of art is auimated bj so warm a heart In both 
these respects^ it is decidedly superior to the Germania. It is 
marked hj the same depth of thought and conciseness in diction, 
but it is a higher effort"' of the writer, while, at the same time^ it 
gives UB more insight into the character of the man. It has lesB ol 
satire and more of sentiment. Or if it is not richer in refined sen- 
timcnts and beautiful reilections, they are interwoven with the nar- 
rative in a manner more easy and natural. The sentiments seem to 
be only the language of AgricoIa*s virtuous heart, and the refleo- 
tions, we feel, could not fail to occur to such a mind in the contem- 
plation of such a character. There is also more ease and flow in tfae 
language ; for coucise as it still is and studied as it maj appear, it 
seems to be the very style wliich is best suited to the subiect and 
most natural to the author. In auother writer we might call it 
labored aud ambitious. But we cannot feel that it cost Tacitus very 
much effort. Still less can we charge him with an attempt at dia- 
play. In shor^ an air of confidence in the dignity of the subjec^ 
and in the powers of the author, pervades the eutire structure ol 
this fine specimen of biography. And the reader will not deem 
that confidence ill-grounded. He cannot fail to regard thia^ as 
among the noblest, if not the very noblest monument ever reared 
to the memory of any individual. 

** We find in it the flower of all the beauties^ which T. has scat- 
t^red Ihrough his other works. It is a chef-d*oeuvre, which satisfiea 
nt once the judgment and the fancy, the imagination and the hearL 
It is justly proposed as a model of historical eulogy. The praiseii 
bestcwed have m them notliing vague or far-fetched, they rise frov 

AG&ICOLA. 143 


^e umple fiusts of the narratiTe. Every thing produces attachment 
every thing conyejs instruction. The reader loyes Agricola, admirei 
him, conccives a passion for him, accompanies him in his campaigns, 
ehares in his disgrace and profits by his example. The interest goes 
on growing to the last. And when it seems incapable of further 
increase, passages pathetic and sublime transport the soul out of 
itsel^ and leave it the power of feeling only to detest the tjrant^ 
and to melt into tenderness witliont weakness oyer the destinj of 
tho hero." (La Bletterie.) 

I. ITsilatum, A pai^ticiple in the acc agreeing with the preced* 
ing clause, and forming with that clause the object of the verb 
omisit — Ne-quidem, Cf. G. 6, note. 

Incurio8a suorum. So Ann. % 88: dum yetera extollimus, re< 
centium IncuriosL Incurioms is post-Augustan. 

Virtus vicit--vitium^ AlUteration, which is not unfre^uent in T. 
as also homoeoteleuta, words ending with like soundsw Dr. 

Ignorantiamr4nvidiam. The gen. recti limits both subs., whicb 
properlj denote different fiEiultS) but since thej are usually associ 
ated, they are here spoken of as one {yitiunC^. 

In aperto. Literally, in the open field or way ; hence^ free /rom 
obstructions, SaL (Jug. 5) uses it for in open day, or clear light. But 
that sense would be inappropriate here. £astf. Not essentially 
different from pronum, which properly means inclified, and henoe 
easy. These two words are brought together in like manner in 
other passages of our author, ct 83 : vota yirtusque in aperto, om- 
niaque prona yictoribus. An inelegant imitation may be thus ex- 
pressed in English : down-hill and open-ground work. 

Sine gratia aut ambitione, Without courting favor or teeking 
preferment, Oratia properly refers more to the present, ambiHo 
to the future. Cf Ann. 6, 46 : Tiberio non perinde gratia praesen- 
tium, quam in posteros ambitio. Ambitio is here used in a bad 
■ense (as it is sometimes in Cic) For still another bad sense of tlM 
word, cl G. 27. 

144 NOT£S. 

Celeberrimus quisque. Such men aa Pliny Ihe elder, Claadiuf 
PoUio, and Julius Secundufl^ wrote biographies. Also Husticus and 
Senecia See chap. 2. 

Plerique, Not most persons, but many^ or very many. Ct Hia. 
1, 86, and 4, 84, where it denotes a less numbcr than plures and 
plurimi, to which it is allied in its root (j^le, ple-us, plus, plerna. 
See Freund ad v.) 

Suum ipH vitam. AiUohiography. Cic in his Epist to Luo> 
ceius sajs : If I cannot obtain this favor from you, I shall perhapa 
be compelled to write my own biograf hy, multorum exemplo et 
clarorum virorum. When ipse is joined to a possessive pronoun in a 
reflexive dause, it takes the case of tlie subject of the dause. Cf 
Z. 696, Note; H. 452, 1. 

Fiduciam morum. A mark of conscloua integrity; literally 
confidence of, i. e. in their morals. Morum is objective gen. For 
the two accusntives (one of which howeyer is the clause «*a7n-nar- 
rare) after arbitrati mnt^ see Z. 394 ; H. 878. A gen. maj take 
the place of the latter acc, csse being understood, Z. 448. 

RutUio. Rutilius Rufus, consul A. U. C. 649, whora Cic (Brut. 
80, 114.) names os a profound scholar in Greek literature and phi- 
losophy, and Velleius (2, 13, 2.) calls the best man, not merely of 
his own, but of any age. He wrote a Roman history ih Greek. 
Plut Mar. 28. His autobiography is mentioned only by Tacitus. 

Scauro. M. Aemilius Scaurus, consul A. U. C. 639, who wrote 
an autobiography, which Cic (Brut 29, 112.) compares favorably 
with the Cyropaedia of Xenophon. 

Citrafidem'. Cf. note G. 16. — Aut ohtrectationi. Enallage, ct 
note, G. 16. Render: Thia in the case of Rtitilius and Scaurus dia 
not impair (puBlic) confidenCe or incur (public) censure. 

Adeo. To such a degree, or so true it is. Adeo conchisiva, et 
in initio sententiae collocata, ad mediam latinitatem pertinet Dr 
Livy uses adeo in this way often ; Cic uses tantum^ 

At nunc, etc But noio (in our age so different from tho&e better 
days) in undertaking to write (i. e. if I had undertaken to write) the 
life of a man at the tim^ of his death, I shotUd have needed per- 
mission ; which I would not have asked, since in that case / shonld 
have fcUlen on times so eruei and hostile to virtue. The referenee 
(B particularly to the time of Domitian, whose jealousy perhapa 
occasioned the death of Agricola, and would have been offended by 
the very asking of permisfiion to write his biography. Accordingly 
the historian proceeds in the next chapter to illustrate the treat 

At3EIC0LA. 145 

menlv which the biographerB of eminent men met with frcm that 
emel tyrant. Opusfmt stands instead of opus fuisset. C£ His. 1, 
16: dignua eram; 8, 22: ralio fuit; and Z. 618, 519. The con- 
eise mode of nsing the future participles iiarraturo and incursatuna 
(in place of the verb in the proper mood and with the proper con- 
{unctionS) i^ when, unce) belongs to the silyer age, and is foreign to 
the languoge of Cicero. Such is the intei*pretation, which after a 
(horough reinvestigation, I am now indined to applj to this much 
disputed pasenge. It is that of Ritter, It wiil be seen that the text 
also differs alightly frora that of the first edition [in-eursaturus in- 
Btead of ni cursaturus). Besides the authcrity of Rit, Dod., Freund 
and otiiers, I have bcen influenced by a regard to the usage of 
Tacitus, which lends no sancitlon to a transitiye sense of cursare. 
€f. Ann. 15, 50; His. 5, 20. In many editions, mihi stands before 
nunc narraturo. But nunc is the emphatic word, and should stand 
first, as it does in the best MSS. 

II. Legimua. Quis? Tacitiis ejusderaque aetatis homines alia. 
Ubi f In actis diumis. Wr. These journals (Fiske's Man. p. 626., 
4. ed.) published such events (c£ Dio. 67, 11), and were read 
through the empire (Ann. 16, 22). T. was absent from Rome when 
the events here referred to took place (cf. 45: longae absentiae). 
Hence the propriety of his saying lcffimus, rather than vidimus or 
meminimuSy which have been proposed as corrections. 

Aruleno Rustico. Put to death by Domitian for wiTiting a me- 
moir or penegyric on Paetus Thrasea, cf. Suet Dom. 10. 

Paetus Uirasea. Cf. Ann. 16, 21: Trucidatis tot insignibns 
viris, ad postremnm Nero virtutem ipsam exscindere concupivit, in- 
terfecto Thrasea Paeto. 

Herennio Senecioni. Cf. Plin. (Epist 7, 19), where Senecio i» 
said to have written the life of Helvidius at the request of Fannia, 
wife of Helvidius, who was also banished, as accessory to the crime^ 
but who bore into exile the very books which had been the caus» 
of her exile. For the dat. cf. note, G. 8 : UlixL 

Priscus ITelvidiuSf son-in-law of Thrasca and frieud of th« 
younger Pliny^ was put to death by Vespasian. Suet Vesp. 15; 
Hia. 4, 6 • Juv. Sat 6, 36. 

Zaudati essent. The imp. and plup. subj. are used in narratioB 
•fter eum^ even when it denotes time merely. Here however a 
«insal connection is also intended. H. 518, H. ; Z. 577, 578. 

TViumviris. The Triumviri at Romc^ like the Undecimviri (iil 

146 !fOT£S. 

Mtita) at Athens, had cbarge of th« prisoiu and execatiwii^ foi 
which purpose they had eight lietors at their oommand. 

Comitio aeforo, The comitium was a part of the forum. Yc( 
the words are often used together (cfl Suet. Caea. 10). The eomitium 
was the proper place for the punishment ofcriminalst and Uie word 
forum suggests the further idea of the publicitj- of the book-buming 
in the presence of the assembled people. 

Conssientiamf etc. 7%e consciottsneaa^ i. e. common knou^edgu 
of mankind; for eonscientia denotes what one knows in cod> 
mon with othera» as well as what he is conscious of in himselC C£ 
His. 1, 25 : conseimtiam facinoris ; Cic. Cat 1. 1 : omihium horum 
eonacientia. In his Annals (4, 85), T. ndicules the stupiditj of 
those who expect by any present power, to extingui&h the memory 
also of the next generation. The sentiment of both passages is juat 
and fine. 

Sapientiae professoribus, PhilosopherSt who were banished hj 
Domitian, A. D. 94, on the occasion of Rusticu8*s panegyric oo 
Thrasea. T. not unfrequently iutroduccs an adJitional circumstance 
by the abl. abs., as here. 

Ne occurreret. Ne with the subj. expresses a negative intention ; 
vJt non a negatiye result H. 490 ; Z. 632. 

Inquisttiones. A system of espionage, sc by the Emperor*s took 
and informers. — -£V— etiam, even. Cl note, 1 1. Al. etiam. 

Metnoriam-perdidissemus, i. e. we should not have dared to re- 
member, if we could have helped it 

III. Bt quanquam, Et pro sed. So Dr. But nunc demum animtu 
redit implies, that confidence is hardly restored yet ; and the reason 
for Bo slow a recovery is given in the foUowing clause. Hence et 
18 used in its proper copulative oi* expiicative sense. So "Wr. De- 
mum is a lengthened form of cbe demonstrative dem. Cf i-dem, 
tan-<2»n, 84 Nunc demumi^vvif d//. Freund. 

Priino statim, Statim gives empbasis: at the very com^^^encemeni, 
ete. ; c£ note, 20. — Dissociahilv% incompatible, 

Augeatque-Trajanus, Thia marks the date of the o*mpo6itioD 
ea^y ii the reign of Trajan, cf. G. 87 ; also p. 189 supra. 

Seeuritas publica, **And puolic security has asswned not nnljf 
hopes and tffisheSy hut has seen tfiose totshes arise to conftienc^ atuk 
ttability. Securitas pvhlica was a current expreasion and wish, and 
was frequently inscribed on medals.'' Ky. 

Assumpserit. This word properly belongs only to fidnnan^ •» 
ro^ur. Bpem, ac votum would require rather eonjceperit, Zeugme 


Subit Sieals trt, lit creeps nnder. C£ note, H. 1, 13. 

InvUa primo-nmeUur. The original perhaps of Pope'8 lines 
rioe iB a monster, <bc. 

Quindeeim annoa, The reign of Domitian from A. D. 81, to 
A.D. 96. 

FoTtuitis casibus, Natural and ordinarj death, as opposed to 
death by Tiolence, saevitia prifidpis. — Promptissimu» quisque, 
The ahlest^ or att tlie ablest, Quisque with a superlatiye, whether 
«ingular or plural, is in general equiyalent to omnes with the posi- 
d\e, with the additional idea however of a reciprocal compariaon 
among the persons denoted hj quisque. Z. '710| 6. 

Ui ita dixerim, An apologj for the strong expression nostri 
superstites : survivors not of others only, but so to speak, of ourselves 
also ; for we can hardlj be said to haye lived under the tyrannj of 
Dom., and our present happy life is, as it were, a renewed existence, 
after being buried for fifteen jears. A beautiful conceptionl The 
use of dixerim in preference to dicam in this formula is character- 
istic of the later Latin. Cf. Z. 528. The et before this clause is 
omitted bj some editors. But it is susceptible of an explanation, 
which adds spirit to the passage : A few of us suryive, and that not 
mcrelj ourselves, but so to speak, others also. In the Augustan age 
superstes was^ for the most part, followed bj the datiye. 

Tamen. Notwithstanding the unfavorable circumstances in 
which I write, after so long a period of deathlike silence, in which 
we have almost lost the gift of speech, yet I shall not regret to have 
oomposed even in rude and inelegant language^ etc. For tho con- 
struction of pigebit, cf. Z. 441, and H. 410, 6. 

Memoriamr-composuisse. Supposed to refer to his forthcoming 
history, written, or planned and announced, but not yet published. 
Some understand it of the present treatise. But then interim 
would have no meaniug ; nor indeed is the language applicable to 
his Agricola. 

Interim, sc editus or yulgatus, published m^anwhile, i. e. while 
preparing the history. 

The reader cannot but be struck with the beauty of fhis intro- 
duction. It is modest^ and at the same time replete with the dignitj 
of oonscious worth. It is drawn out to considerable length, yet it 
is all 80 peiiinent and tasteful, that we would not spare a sentenoa 
or a word. With all the thoughtful and sententious breyity of th« 
«zordiums of Sallust^ it has far more of natural ease and the beantv 
of appropriateness. 

&48 KOTES. 

lY. Cnams Jtdita Agricola, Eyeiy Roman bad &t leant tbrea 
names : the nomen or name of the gens, which alwajs euded in •m 
(Julius); the praenomen or indiyidual name ending in t» (Cnaens); and 
the cognomen or famil j name (Agricola). See a brief account of A. 
in Dion Cassius 66, 20. Mentioned onlj bj Dion and T. Al. Gnaeus, 
C. and G. being originally identical. 

ForojtUiensium eolonia, Now Frejua, A wolled town of Gallia 
Narbonensis^ built hj Julius Caesar, and used as a naval Ktation hj 
Augustus (cf. Uis. 8, 43 : elauttra maris), Augustus lent tiuther the 
1>eaked ships captured in tlic battle of Actium, Ann. 4, 5. Henoe 
|)ei-haps called iUusiria. 

Procuratorem Caesarum, Collector of imperial revenuea in 
the Iloman Provinces. 

Quae equesiris-esty L e. the procurator was, as we eay, ex officio^ 
a Koman knight. The office was not conferred on senators. 

Jufiua Graecinus. Cf. Sen. de Benef 2, 21 : Si exemplo magni 
animi opus est, utemur Graecini Juliiy viri egregii, quem C. Caesar 
occidit ob hoc unum, quod mclior vir esset., quam esse quemqoam 
tyranno expediret. 

Senatorii ordinis. Pred. after fuit underetood, with ellipsis <M 
vir, H. 402, III. ; Z. 426. 

Sapientiae. Philosophy, cf. 1. — Caii Caesaris. Known in Eng* 
lish histories by the name of Caligula. 

Marcum Silanum. Father-in-law of Caligula, cf Suet Calig. 
23 : Silanum item socerum ad necem, secandasque novacula fauce» 

Jussus. Supply est, T. often omits est in the first of two paasive 
verbs, cf. 9 : detentus ac statim . . . revocatus est In Hand^s Tui*- 
sellinus (2,474) however, jussus is explained as a participle, and quia 
abnuerat as equivaXent to another participle»-Aavtn^ beeti commanded 
and kaving refused. 

Abnueratf lit. had refuscd, becau«e the refusal was prior to the 
riaying. "We, with less accuracy, say refused. Z. 505. 

Jtarae castitatis. Ellipsis of miUier. H. 402, IH. ; Z. 426. 

In-indulgentiaque, Brought up in her bosoin and tender lovi. 
Indulgentia is more firequentl j used to denote excessive tendernesa. 

Arcebat has for its subject the clause, guod statimf etc. He waa 
guarded against the allurements of vi.ce bj the wholesome influenoes 
thrown ai "ind him in the place of his early education. 

Massilfam^ Now Mai^seilles. It waa settled bj a colony o. 
Phocaeans. Hcnce Graeca comitate. Cf also Cicero*s aocount d 


Jie high culLure and refinenient of MasBlIia (Cic. pro Flacco, 26). — 
Provinciali parsimonia. Paraimonia in a good sense; cconofny, 
as oppoeed to the luxury and extravagance of Italy and the City. 

Locumr-mixtum. Enallage for locus^ in quo mixta erant» eta 
H. 704, III., cf. 26 : mixti copiis et laetitia. — Ben£ composilum denote? 
a happy combination of the elements, of which mixtum expresses 
only the co-existenec, 

AcriuSf 8C aequo*—too eagerly. II. 444, 1, and Z. 104, 1. note. 

Concessumsenatori. Military and civil studies were deemed 
more appr^priate to noble Roraan youth, than literaturc and philo- 
Bophy. Senatori must of course refer, no. to the offiee of A., but to 
his rank by birth, cf. senatorii ordinis above. 

ffausisse, ni-coercuisset, An analysis of this sentence ahowa, 
that there is an ellipsis of hausurum fuisse : he imhihedy and would 
have continued to imbibe, had not, &c In such sentences» which 
abound in T. but are rarely found in Cic, ni is more readily trans- 
lated by hut, Cf. Z, 519. 6 ; and note, His. 3, 28. For the applica- 
tion of haurire to the eager study of philosophy, cf Hor. Sat 2, 4, 
95: haurire vitae praecepta heatae, and note, His. 1, 51: hauscrunt 

Prudentia matris. So K"ero*s mother deterred him from the 
studif of philosophy. Suet Ner. 52. 

Ptdchritudinem ac speciem. The heautiful image, or beau ideal, 
by hendiadys. Cf. Cic. Or. 2 : species pulchritvdinis. See Rit. 
m loc 

Vehementius quam caute. For vehcm^ntius quam cautius, which 
ts the regular Latin construction. T. uses both. Cf Z. 690, and 
note, His. 1, 83. 

Mox, In T. subsequently, not presently. R. 

Jietinuitqjte-modum, And, whclt ia most diffiadt, h^ retaifiea 
from philosophy tnoderatior. — moderationin all things,but especially 
in devotion to philosophy itself, where moderation is difficult in 
propoilion to the excellence of the pursuit^ as was shown by the 
extravagance of the Stoics and some other Grecian sects. As to the 
sense of modum, cf. Hor. Sat 1, 1, 106 ; est modus in rehus ; and for the 
sentiment^ Hor. Ep. 1, 6, 15: Insani sapiens nomen ferat, aequus 
iniqui, tdira quam satis est virtutem «t petat ipsatn, 

V. Castrorum. This word is used to express whatever per* 
tains to military life, eduoation, t.Q., as the context may requir<i. 
Evoiy Roraan youth who aspircd to civil office, must have a mib 
tary education. 

!50 NOTES. 

Diligenti ae moderato, Careful and prudentf ct oui autLori 
cliaracter of the Bame oommander, Ilifl. 2, 25 : cunctator naiurci^ eta 

Approbavit^ie.c\i, ut ei probarentur. Dr. It ia a construcilo 
praegnansw He obtained the first rudiments of a military education 
under Paullinaa, and he gained his approbation. 

ElectuB-^Btimaret, Having heen ehoaen as one whom he «fotUa 
estimate (i. e. test his merit) by tenting together^ i e. by making him 
nis companion and aid. Young men-of rank and promise were 
thus asBociated with Roman commandersw Cf. Suet» Oaefl. 2. T., aa 
asual, ayoids the technical waj of expressing the rolation. Ad 
vcrbum, contubemium, cf. note, Hia. 1, 43. Others make aa^ hnaret 
"^ignum aestimaretf and contubernio abL of price. Ct Dod. 
and Dr. 

Licenter-iegniterj sc. agens. lAcenter refers to voluptates, segni- 
ter to cotnm£atti8,—' CommeattM^furloughs^ ahsence from duty.—^ 
Iiucitiatrif sc tribunatus—i^^norance of hia official diUg or inexperi- 
ence in war. — Rettdit. Referre ad is used very much like the cor- 
roBponding English, viz. to refer to an object^ or devote to an end. 
Sense : He did not take advatUage of his official standing and hi* 
military inexperiencCf to give up his tim£ to ease and pleaeure, "Wr, 
takes rettdit in the more ordinary sense of brought back, thus : A. 
did not bring back (to Rome) the empty name of Tribune and no 
military experience, there to give himself up to leisure and pleasure. 
The former version accords better with tlie language of the whole 
passage. "Wr. questions the authority for such a use of referre, But 
it maj be found, e. g. Plin. Epist 1, 22 : nihil ad ostentationem, 
omnia ad conscientiam refert, 

Noscere-noacif etc. T. is fond of such a series of inf. depending 
on some one finite yerb understood, and hence doselj connected 
with each otlier, cfl G. 80 : pmeponere, etc note, Here supply from 
retvlit in the preceding number the idea : he made it his businesM 
or aim to knoWf etc The author'8 fondness for antithesis is very ol>. 
Bervable in the several successive pairs here : noscere-nosci ; diseere^ 
tequi; appetere-recusare ; anxiua-intentus. 

In Jactationem, AL jactationc In denoting the object or pui^ 
pose, Z. 814: he coveted no appointment for tlie sake of display ; kn 
deelined none through fear, 

Anxius and intentus qualify agere like adverbs cf. K. Exc 28, l. 
7« conducted himself both toith prudenee and with energy, 

^drerct^a^tor— agitatior. So Cic Som. Scip. 4 : agitatus et ezer 
'vtatuB animus; and Hor. Epod. 9, 81 : Sjrtes Noto exercitatao. 


Ineensae eolfmiae, Camalodtinuin, Londinium and Vei ulamitkin. 
Ci, Ann. 14, 83, where however the historian does Eiot expressly 
saj, the last two were SumecL 

Jn oTnlngvo^ambigfia, in a critical state. R. 

Alterius, sc ducis. — Artem et imtm. Military science and expe- 

Summa . . . cessit, The general maneigement (ct notes^ H. 1, 87. 
2, 16. 83) and the glory of recoverit^ the province toent to the general 
(to his credit). The pnmarj meaning of cedere is to go, See Freuud 
Bub V. — Juvenif sc. A. 

Tum, BC while veterani trucidarentur, etc — MoXf sc when 
Paullinus and A. came to the rescuc 

I^ec minuSf etc A remark worthj of notice and too often 

YI. Magistratus, The regular course of offices and honors at 

Per-anteponendo, Enallage, cf. G. 15, note. Per here denotes 
manner, rather than means (c£ p^ lamentOf 28) ; and anteponendo 
likewise— anteponentes. R. Render: mviually loving ani preferring 
one an^ther, — Nisi quod^but, Cf. m, 4. There is an ellipsis be- 
fore nisi quod, which R. would supplj thus: greatly to the credit 
of both parties — but more praise helongs to the good toife, etc Major 
sc quam in bono viro. So, after plus supply quam in raalo viro : 
But more praise helongs to a good wife, than to a good husband, hy 
4U much as more hlaine attaches to a had vnfe, than to a bad 

Sors quaesturae, The Quaestors drew lots for their respective 
provincesw Their numbcr increased with the increase of the empire, 
till from two thej became twentj or more. As at firat a Quaestoi 
Accompanied eadi Consul at the head of an armj, so afberwarda 
each Proconsul, or Govemor of a province, had his Quaestor to col- 
lect and disburse the revenues of the provincc The Quaestorship 
waa the first in the course of Roman honors. It might be entered 
opon at the age of twentj-four. 

Salvium Titiantmu Brother of the Emperor Otho. See Hia^ 
B. 1 and 2. passw For the office of Proconsul, <&c, see note, His. 
1, 49. 

Parata peccantihus, Jteady for wicked rulers, i e. affo. ding great 
fiicilitiefl for extortion in its corrupt and servile population. Paratus 
with a dat of the thing, for which there is a preparation, is pecn- 
«iar to poetry and post-Augustan prosc Cf. Freund ad v. Ad 

152 NOTES. 

rem. c£ Cic Ep ist. ad Quint 1, 1, 6 : tam corruptrice piovinciii, m 
Asia ; and pro Mur. 9. 

QuantcUibet facilitate. Any indu]gence (license) however great 

Hedempturtu esaet, Subj. in the apodosia answering to a pro- 
tasis understood, sc. if A. would have entered into the plot Ct 
H. 602. Observe the use of essei rather than /uisaet to denote what 
the proeonsul would have been ready %o do ai any iime during thdr 
eoniimiance in office. Ct Wr. in loc. 

^Dissimulationem. Concealment (of what is true) ; simulatio^ on 
the other hand, is nn allegation of what is false. 

Aitctus est filia. So Cic ad Att 1, 2: filiolo me auctum scita 

Ante tublatum. Previously born, For this use of sublatum^ 
see Lexicon. — Brevi amisitf he lost shortly after ; tliough It 
takes amisit as perf for plup. and renders lost a ehort time 

Mox inier, etc, sc annum inter, supplied from ctiam iptum . • • 
annum below. 

Tenor et eilentium. Hendiaays for continuum silentium, or 
tenorem silentem. R. 

Jurisdictio. For the adminietration of justice in private ca^ei 
kad notfallen to hislot. Only two of the twelve or fifteen Praetors^ 
viz. the Praetor Urbanus (see note H. 1, 47) and the Praetor Pere- 
grinus (who judged between foreigners and citizens) were said to 
exerciae jurisdictio. The adjudication of criminol causes was called 
quaeetiOf which wos now for . the most part in the hands of tho 
senate (Ann. 4» 6), from whom it might be transferred by appeal to 
the Pitiefect of the City or the Emperor himselC The Praetoni 
received the jurisdictio or the quaestio by lot ; and in case the for* 
mer did not fall to them, the office was almost a sinecure ; except 
that they continued to preside over the public games. See further, 
on the name and office of Praetor, His. 1, 47, notc For the plup, 
in obvenerai, see note, 4 : abnuerat. 

£V— et omnino. 17ie games and in general thc pageaniry of 
office (inania honoris) expected of the Praetor. Observe the usc ol 
the neuter plural of the adj. for the subst, of which, especially be- 
fore a gcn., T. is peculiarly fond. > 

Medio rationis. The text is doubtfuL The MSS. vacillate be- 
tween medio ratinois and modo rationia; and the recent editiona, 
for the most part^ follow a third but wholly conjectural rcading; 
l^ moderatumis. The sense is the same with either reading: fii 


Ci4iducted the jame9 and ihe empty pageantry of office in a happy 
mean (partaking at once) ofprudence andplenty, See Freund ad duco, 

U*ir-propior, Ab far from Ittxury, so (in the same proportion) 
nearer to glory, i. e. the farther from luxury, the nearer to glory 
C£ Freund ad utu 

Zonge-propior, Enallage of the adv. and adj. cf. G. 18: extra. 

Ke sensisset Wouldnot havefelt, etc., i e. he recovered all tho 
plundered offerings ot the temple, but thoee which had been sacii* 
legiously taken away by N^ero for the supply of his vicious pleaaurea, 
This explanation supposes a protasis understood, or rather implied in 
guam Neronis, Cf H. 608, 2. 2). The plup. subj. admits perhaps 
of another explanation, the subj. denoting the end with a view to 
which Agricola labored (H. 681 ; 25. 649), and the plup. covering 
all the past down to the time of his labors: he labored that the re- 
public might not have experienced, and he virtually effected that it 
had not experiencedf since he restored everything to its former 
state, the plunder of Nero alone excepted. See Wr. and Or. in loc 
Perhaps this would not be an unexampled praegnantia for Tacitua. 
For sentire in the sense of experiencing especially evU^ see Hor. Od. 
2, Y, 10, and other examples in Freund sub v. 

VIL Classis Othoniana. Ad rcm. c£ His. 2, 12, seqq. — Licenter 
vaga, JHoaming in quest of plunder. — Intemelios. Cf note, 2, 18. 
— /n praediis suis. On her oton estates, Praedia indudes boih lands 
and buildings. 

Ad sdetnnia pietatis, To perform the last offices of filial 

Jiuntio deprehensus, Supply est, cf. 4 : jussus. Was overtakcn 
Hfiexpectedly hy the news of Vespasian^s claim {nominatf^m) to ih. 
ihrone, — Affectati, C£ note, O. 28. — In partes^ to his (Veap.) party, 

Prino-.paiuSy sc Vespasiani. — Mftdanus regebat, Vesp. was de- 
tained ia Egypt for some time after his troops had eniered Rome 
under Mucianus; meanwhile Mucianus exercised all ttie iuiperial 
power, cf. His. 4, 11. 39: vis penes Mucianum erat. 

Juvene-usurpante, Dom. was now eighteen years old, cf His. 
4, 2: nondum ad curas intentus, sed stupris et adulieriis fiXium 
prificipis agebat, 

ISf sc Mucianus. — Vicesimae legioni, One of three legions, at 
ttiat time stationed in Britain, which submitted to the governmenl 
«f Vesp. tarde and non sine motu (His. 3, 44). 

Decessor, Predecessor, It was Roscius Coelius. His, 1, 60. 

Legaiis-consularibus, Governors or Proconsuls. Ihe proTince* 

154 NOTES. 

were goverened hj men wbo bad been consulB (consulare^), aiid m 
legatus meant anj commifisioned officer, these were diBtinguished aa 
legaii conmlares, With reference to tbis consolar antbority, the 
■ome were called proconniles, Cf. note, H. 1, 49. Trebellius Maxi- 
mus ond Yettius Bolanus are bere intended. Ct 16. and Hi& 1, 60. 
2, 65. iTtmta— Justo potentior. Dr. 

LegaiuB praetorius^legattu legioniSf commander o/ the legion^ 
C£ note, His. 1, 7. Here tbe same person as decessor, 

Invenisse quam fecisse, etc, inyolyes a maxim of policy worlh 

Vin. Pladdius. Wiih less energy, See more of Bolanus at 
close of 16. 

Dignnm est A general remark, applicable to any such pro- 
vince. Hence tbe present^ for wbicb some would substitute erat 
or esset, 

Ke incresceretf sc ipse: .lest he shotdd heccme too great, i. e. 
rise above bis superior and so excite bis jealousy. Referred by 
W. to ardorem for its subject But tben ne incresceret would b« 

Constdarem, sc Legatum— Governor, ct 7, note. 

Petilius Cerialis. Cf. 17. Ann. 14, 82. His. 4, 68. 

Hahuerunt-exemplorum, JSad room for exertion and so for mI- 
ting a good example, cf. Ann. 13, 8: videbaturque locus virtutibof 
patefactus. Tbe position of hahuerunt is empbatic, as if be had 
taid : ihen had virtues, etc See Rit in loc. 

Communicahat, sc cum A. — Ex eventu^ from ilie event^ L e. m 
tonsequence of his success, 

In stmmfamam, Cf. in jactationem, 5, note. 

Extra gloriam is sometimes put for sine glorid, especially by 
tlie late writera. His. 1, 49 : extra vitia, Hand*s Turs. 2, 679. 

IX. Hevertentenif etc Returning from bis command in Britain. 
— Divus, Ct notes, G. 28 ; His. 2, 83. 

Vesp,~ascivit, By virtue of bis office as Censor, tbe Emperor 
claimed tbe rigbt of elevating and degrading tbe rank of tbe citi- 
zcns. Inasmucb as tbe families of tbe aristocracy always indine to 
run out and becomc extinct^ tbere was a necessity for an occasional 
reHBupply of tbe patrician from the plebeian ranks, e. g. by Juliua 
Caesar, Augustus and Claudius (Ann. 11, 25), as well as by Yespa- 
tian (Aur. Yic Cae8.9. Suet 9.)~~Provinciae-praeposuit. Aquitania 
was one of seven provinces^ into whicb Augustus distributed Gaul, 
■nd wbich witb tbe exception of Narbonne Gnul, were all subjeot 


to the immediate disposal and control of the Empeior himsclf 
It was the soTlth-westem part of Gaul, being cnclosed bj the 
Bhone, the Loire, the Pjrenees and the Atlantic 

Splendidae-desiinarat, A province of the first importance both 
in its government (in itself considered), and the prospect of the con- 
tulfihipt to which he (Yesp.) had destined him (A.), sc. as soon as his 
office should have expired. 

Subtilitatem ^ caXlidit&iemy nice discernment^ discriminatioK. 
^Exerceat. Obscrve the subj. to express the views of othera^ nct 
of the author. H. 531 ; Z. 571. 

Secura-agewL Requiring less anxious thought and mental ac%Jh 
men, and proceeding more hy physical force. Secura^minua anxia. 
Dr. C£ note, His. 1, 1. Obttmor^minvLB acuta. 

Togatos. Civiliana in distinction trom milit^jy mcn, like A 
The toga was the drcss of civil life to some extent in the province» 
(cf. 21, His. 2, 20), though originally worn only in Rome. (Beck. 
Gaa, Exc Sc 8.) 

Jiemissionumque. The Greeks and Romans both used the p1. 
of many abstracts, of which we use only the sing. For examplep 
see R. Exc 4 For the piinciple cf. Z. 92. 

Curarumr-divisi. This clause means not merely, that his time 
was divided between business and relaxation ; but that there was a 
broad line of demarcation between them, as he proceeds to explain. 
/>tvt«a«diversa inter se. Dr. So Virg. Georg. 2, 116: divisae arbo- 
ribus patriae—countries are distinguished from each other by their 
trees. Jam vero. Ct note, G. 14. 

ConventuSf sc juridici =c(mr^<. Tlie word designates also the 
districts in which the courts were held, and into which each pro- 
vince was divided. C£ Smith*s Dict of Ant. : Conventua. So Pliny 
(N. H. 8, 8.) speaks of juridici conventua. Tacitusi, as usual, avoida 
the technical designation. 

Xlltra. Adv. for adj., c£ longe^ 6. — Persona. 1. A mask (per 
and sono), 2. Outward show, as here. 

Tristiiiamr-exuerat. Some connect this dause by zeugma with 
the foregoing. But with a misapprehension of the meaning of 
txuerat, which^-waa enJtirely free frcm; lit had divested himself 
o£ Thus understood, the dause is a general remark touching the 
ebaracter of A., in implied contrast with other men or magistrates 
with whom those vices were so common. So in Ann. 6, 25, Agrip- 
pina is said to have divested herself of vices {vitia exuerat) whiob 
were common among women, but which never attached to her. 

156 N0TE8. 

ycuiilitas. Opposed to Beveritas^^kmdneBa, indulgeuoe. 

Ahttinentiam. This word, though Bometimes dcnoting tempcr 
ance in food and drink, more properlj refera to the desire and afle 
of money. Abstinentia is opposed to avarice ; continentia to aen- 
ntal pleasufe. C£ Plin. Epis. 6, 8: alieni abstinentissimus. Hero 
render honestj, integrity. 

Cui-ind\dgent. See the same sentiment^ His. 4, 6: quando 
etiam sapientibus cupido gloriae novissima exuitur. 

Ostentanda-artemf cf. 6: per^-anteponendo ; also G. 15, note. 

Collegas. The governors of other provinces. Tlie word meana 
chosen together ; hence either those chosen at the same election or 
those chosen to the same office. Cf. H. 1, 10. 

Procuratorea. There was but one at a time in each province. 
There maj have been several however in succession, while A. was 
Proconsul. Or we maj understand both this clause and the pre- 
ceding, not of his government in Aquitania in particular, but as a 
genecal fact in the life of A. So K For the office, see note, 4; and 
for an instance of a quarrel between the Proconsul and the Pro- 
curator, Ann. 14, 88. 

^«m— vinci as the antithesis shows, though with more of tlie 
implication of dignity impaired (worn off) by conflict*with in- 

Minua triennium^ Quam omitted. See H. 417, 3 ; Z. 485. 

Comitante opinione. A general expectation attending hiin^ aa it 
were, on his return. 

Nullis sermonibus. Ablative of cause. 

Elegit. Perl to denote what hoB infact taken place. 

X. Jn comparaiionem. C£ in suam famam, 8, note. 

Perdomita esL Completely subdued. 

Rerum Jide^faithfvlly and truly ; lit. with fidelity to facta. 

Britannia. It has generally been supposed (though Geaeoiaa 
denies it in his Phenician Paloeographj) that Britain was known to 
the Pheuicians, those bold navigators and enterprising merchanU of 
antiquity, under the name of the CassiterideSf or Tin Islanda. Greeli 
authors make early mention of Albion (plural of Alp ?) and lerne 
(Erin) as British Islands. Bochart derives the name (Britain) from 
the Phenician or Hebrew Baratanac, " the Land of Tin ;" others 
from the Gallic Britti, Painted, in allusion to the custom among the 
mhabitants of painting their bodiea. But according to the Welsh 
Triads, Britain derived its name from Prydain, a king, who early 
rcigned in the island. Cf. Turner^s His. Ang. Sax. 1, 2, seqq. Th« 


geographical descriptioii, 'wliich follows, caDnot be exonerated froiu 
the chorge of yerbiage and grandiloqnence. T. wanted the art oi 
Bajing a phdn thing plainlj. 

Spatio ae coelo, Brit not only stretches out or liea over against 
these several countries in nttiationy but it approaches them also in 
elimate : a circumctance which illustrates the great size of the 
island (c£ maxiTMif above) and prepares the waj for the description 
of both below. 

Qennaniae and JSitpaniae are dat after obtenditur. The mis- 
taken notion of the relatiye position of Spain and Britain is shared 
with T. by Caesar (B. G. U\ Dion (39, 50), and indeed by the 
aucients in geueraL It is so represented in maps as late as llichard 
of Cirencester. C£ Frichard, III. 3» 9. 

JStiam impidtur, It is even teen by the Gauls, iropl jing nearei 
approach to Gaul, than to Germanj or Spain. 

NvlliB terris, AbL abs., eontra taking the place of the part, oi 
rather limiting a part understood. 

lAvivB, In his 105th Book; now lost^ except in the Epitome. 

FabiuB Jiusticus, A friend of Seneca, and writer of historj ii: 
the age of Claudivs and Nero. 

Oblonffoe ecutulae, Geometrically a trapezium. 

Ft ett eafaeies, And euch is the fomif exclusive of Caledonia^ 
%oIience the account has been extended aho to the voltole Island. 

Sed-teniuiiur, JBut a vast and irregtdar extent of lands jutting 
out here {jam^ c£ note, G. 44) on this remotest shore (i. e. widening 
out again where thej seemed already to haye come to an end), is 
narrowed down as U were into a tuedge, The author likens Cale> 
donia to a wedge with its apex at the Friths of Clyde and Forth, 
and its base widening out on either side into the ocean bejond. 
Enormis is a post-Augustan word. Nouissimi^^Gxireme, remotest 
G. 24» note. 

Affirmavit, Estahlished the fact, hitherto supposed, but not 
lullj ascertained. This was done in Agricola's last campaign in 
Britain, c£ 88. 

Oreadas, The Orknejs. Their name occurs earlier than this, 
bat ihej were little known. 

JHspeeta est. Was seen through the mist, as it were ; discovered 
in Qid distance and obscuritj. C£ note, H. 4» 55 : dispecturas Gal- 
liai^ etc. 

Hliule. AL Thyle. What island T. meant^ is unceiiain. It hai 
been referred bj different critics, to the Shetland, the Hebridea^ and 

158 NOTES. 

•yen to Iceland. The account of the island, like that of the 
rounding ooean, is obviouslj drawn from the imagination. 

Nam hdctentUf etc. JP^ar tJteir arders were to proeeed thu9 far 
on\jf and (besides) winter toas approaching. Cf. hactenuSj G. 25^ 
and appetere, Ann. 4, 51 : appetente jam luce, The editions gene- 
rallj haye nix instead of Juesum. But Rit and Or. with reason 
follow the oldest and best MSS. in the reading jmsum^ which with 
the slight and obviouB amendment of nam for quam bj Rit. rendcrs 
this obscure and vexed passage at lcngth easj and clear. 

Pigrum et grave. See a similar description of the Northeru 
Ocean, G. 25: pigi*um ac prope immotum. The modem reaJer 
need not be informed, that this is an entii*e mistakC) aa to the mat- 
ter of fact ; those seas about Britain are never frozen ; ihough the 
naFtrigators in this voyage might easily have magnified the perils and 
liardships of thcir enterprise, bj transferriug to these waters what 
thej had heard of those further north. 

Perinde, Al. proinde, These two forms are written indiscri- 
rainatelj in the old MSS. The meaning of ne perinde here is not 
Mo muchf BC as other scas. Cf note, G. 5. 

Jie ventia-attolIL Directly the reverse of the truth. Those 
seas, are in fact, remarkably tempestuous. 

Quod-impellitur, False philosophj to explain a fictitious phe- 
nomenon, as is too often the case with the philosophy of the 
ancients» who little undcrstood natural science, cf. the astronomy of 
T. m 12. 

Neque-ae, Corrolatives. The author assigns two reasons why 
he does not discuss the subject of the tides : 1. It does not suit the 
design of liis work ; 2. The subject has been treatcd by many othcr^ 
e. g. Strab. 3, 5, 11 ; Plin. N. R 2, 99, «fec 

Mvltum fluminum, Mtltum is the object of /i?rre, of which 
mMre is the subject, as it is also of all the infinitives in the senteuce. 
Fluminum is not rivers but currents among the islands along the 

Nec littore tenu^ etc " The ebbings and flowings of the tide are 
not conflned to the shore, but tJie sea penetrates into the heart of 
the countryy and toorke its toay among the hilh and mountains, om 
in ita native bed." Ky. A description very appropriate to a coast 
•o cut up by aestuaries, and highly poetical, but wanting in aim- 

Jugia etiam ac montibus, Jugis, et G. 48. Ac. Atgue in tlie 


aommoD editionsw But ae, besides being moro frequeut beforc a 
oonsonaut, ia found in the best MSS. 

XL Indigenae an advecH, Ct notey G. 2: indigenas. 

Ut tniiBr barbaroe, sc fieri solet Cf. nt in licentia, G. 2 ; and 
ut inter Germanoe^ G. 80. 

Rutilae-asieverant Qt the descnption of the Geimans, G. 4 
The inhabitants of Caledonia are of the same stock aa the other 
Britons. The condusion, to which our author inclines below, yiz. 
that the Britons proceeded from Gaul, ia sustained bj the authority 
of modern ethnologista. The original inhabitants of Britain are 
found, both by philological and historical evidence, to have be- 
longed to the Celtic or Cimmerian stock, which once overspread 
nearlj the whole of central Europe, but wcre oyerrun and pushed 
off the stage bj the Gothic or German Tribea, and now have their 
distinct representatiyes onlj in the Welsh, the Irish, the Highland 
Scotch, and a few similar remnants of a once powerful race in the 
extreme west of the continent and the islands of the sea. C£ 
note on the Cimbri, G. 37. 

Silurum. The people of Wales. 

Colorati fnUtus, JDark complexion. So with the poets» colorati 
Indi, Seres, Etrusci, <ba 

Hispania, Nom. subject of faciunt, with crineSy <&o. 

IberoB, Properly a people on the Iberus (EbroX "^^^ gave their 
name to the whole Spanish Peninsula. Thej belonged to a differ- 
ent race from the Celtic, or the Teutonic, whlch seems once to have 
inhabited Ital j and Sicilj, as well as parts of Gaul and Spain. A 
•dialect *3 still spoken in the mountainous regions about the Bay ol 
Biscay, and oalled the Basque or Bisoajan, which differs from any 
other dialect in Europe. C£ Prichard's Physical Researchea^ yol. 
IIL chap. 2. 

Proximi Gdllis. C£ Caes. B. G. 5, 14 : Ex his omnibus longe 
Bunt humanissimi, qui Cantium (Eent) incolunt^ quae regio est ma- 
ritima omnis, nfique multum a Oallica differunt cMuuetudine» JA 
mmaleo : those neareat the Gaula are also like thejn, 

Durante vi, Either beeaute the infiuence of a eommon origin 
wtiU eontinueSf etc. 

Proeitrrentibut-terria, Or becauee iheir territoriee running oui 
^owarde one another, literallj, in oppoHte direetione, Britain to- 
wards the south and Qa.vl towards the north, so as to approach 
coch other. See Rit, Ddd. in loa, and Freund ad divereus, 

Po9itio-dedU, The idea of similaritj being alreadj ezpressed io 


nmileif is uiMlerstood here: their BitaatioL in the saBie eMnuite 
{eoeh} lias giyen them the same personal appearance. 

Aestimanii, Indef. dat after credibiU etty cf. note, G. 6. 

Eqrvm refers to the Gaula. You (indet subject^ c£ (jti.eeca^ G 
86) may discoyer the religion of the Gaule (among the Britom) 
in their full belief of the same snperstitions. So Caes, B. G. d, 18: 
disciplina in Britannia reperta atque inde in Galliam translata efiee 
existimatnr ; and he adds, tliat those who wished to gain a more 
perfect knowledge of the Druidical system still went from Gaul to 
Britoin to learn. Sharim Turner tbinks, the sjstem must haya 
been introduced into Brilain from tbe Eoet (perhaps India) by the 
Pheniciana, and thence propagated in GauL Hia. Ang. Sax., B. 1, 
chap. 5. 

Perntasione. See the same use of the word, His. 5, 5 : eademque 
de infemis persuasio. 

In-perictdis, The same seDtiment is expressed hj Caesar (Bw 
G. 3, 19). 

Ferodae, In a good sense, courage, cf. 81 : yirtus ac feroeia. 

Pratf/erwn/— prae se ferunt^ i. e. exhihit 

Ut quo8. Ui quif like qui alone, is followed bj tlie subj. to ex- 
press a reason for what precedes. It maj be rendered hj heeoMM 
or 9ince with the demonstratiye. So quippe cui placuiuet, 18. C£ 
Z. 565 and fl. 519, 8. 

OalloB floruitse, Cl G. 28. 

Otio^ Opposed to hellis, peace. — Amissa virtute. AbL abflk 
denoting an additicmal circumstance. Cf. 2 : expulHs-profnMorilnUf 
notc — Olim limits vidis, 

XIL Honestior, The more honorable (l e. the man oi rank) i% 
the charioteer, his dependents fight (on tbe cliariot)^ The reyerBr 
was true in the Trojan War. 

Faetionibus /raA«n/t^»-distrabuntur in factiones. Dr., and 
Or. T. is fond of using simple for compound ycrb& See note^ 
22 ; also numerous exomplea in the Index to Notes on the Hia- 

Civitatibus. Dat for Gen. — Pro nobis. Abl. with prep, tof 
dat Enallage. R. — Convenius, Convention, meeting. 

Coelum-foedtim, The fog and rain of the British Islcs aro stin 
proyerbiaL'-ri)terum spatia, etc C£ Caes. 518. 

Qttod d — i and if, From the tendency to connect aen 
tenoes by relatiyes irose the use of quod before certain cor 
lunctionfs particularly «», m«rely pa a copulative (^f Z. 80*7 


t1«o Freund sub y. The fact alleged iu this sentenoe la bb fiilse 
as the philosophy by which it is explained in the next^ c£ GL 45 : 
in ortua^ note. 

Seilieet-eadit Thb explanation proceeds on the assumption 
that night is caused bj the shadow of mountains, behind which the 
Bun sete; and since these do not exist in that levcl extremity 
of the earth, the sun has nothing to set behind, and so there ia 
no night. The astronomj of T. is about of a piece with his natural 
philosophy, o£ 10. — Extrema-terrarum. Cf. note, 6 : inania 

Non eriffunt, lit do not elevate t]|e darkness, i e. do not cnst 
their shadow so high (in/ragtte-eadit), as the skj and the stars ; 
hence thcj are bright (elara) through the night 1 1 Flinj also 
supposed the heavens (above the moon) to be of themselves per- 
petually luminous, but darkened at night bj the shadow of the 
earth. N. R 2, 7. 

Praeter, Beyond. Hence either besides or except, Here the 
latter. — Fecundum. More than peUiem, fruitfvl even. — Proveniunt, 
Ang. comeforward. 

Fert-aurum, etc This is also affirmed by Strabo, 4^ 6, 2, but 
denied by Cic. ad Att. 4» 16, 7, and ad Div., 7, 7. The modems 
decide in favor of T. and Strabo, though it is only in incon- 
siderable quantities that gold and silver have ever been found in 

Margaritcu Tlio neuter fonn of this word is seldom used, never 
by Cicera See Freund sub v. 

Rubro mari, The Hed Sea of the Greeks and Romans em 
braced both the Arabian and the Persian Gulfs ; and it was in th( 
latter especially, that pearls were found, as they are to this day. 
Ct Plin. W. H. 9, 64 : praecipue laudantur (margaritae) in Persieo 
ctmi maris rubru For an explanation of the name (Red Sea), see 
^nthon's Classical Dictionary. 

Fxpulsa sint, Cast out, i e. ashore, by the toaves, Subj. 
in a subordinate clause of the oratio obliqua. H. 681 ; Z. 


J^aturam-avaritiam, A very characteristio sentence, both for 
iti antithesis and its satire. 

. XUL Ipsi Britanni, Ipsi marks the transition from th« 
«nmtry to the people. ct ipsos Germanos, G. 2. 

Obeunt properiy applies only to munera, oot to tributa and delec' 

162 NOTES. 

tumf which would require toterant or some kindied Te:lx Zengimk 
H. 704, L 2 ; Z. W. 

Igitur=fum, In tlie first sentence of the section the anthoi 
has indicated hia purpoee to speak of the people of Britain. And 
now in pursitatme of thtU detiffn, he goes back to the commenoe* 
ment of their history, as related to and known by the Romana 
C£ note, G. 28. 

Dvms, Cf. note, G. 28: D. Julius. For Julius Caesar's cam- 
paigns in Britain, see Caes. B. G. 4, 21. scq. ; 5, 0. seq. ; Strabo^ 
Lib. 4, <bc 

Consilium, Ilis €uivice^{to his successor). Sce Ann. 1, 11.— 
Praeeeptum. A cotnmand (of Augustue^ which Tib. affected to hold 
sacred). Anu. 1, 77 ; 4, 87. 

C, Caesarem^ Caligula, cf. 4, note. — Agita&se^ etc c£ 39. Hia 
i, 15; Suet Calig. 44. 

Ni-fuistent. Cf. Al, 4, note. The ellipsis raay be supplied 
thus: he meditated an -invasion of Brit and vmild have invaded it^ 
had he not been velox ingenio^ etc But in idiomatic £ng. ni— but 
Of course fuisaet is to be supplied with velox ingenio and mobilis 
poenitentiae. AI. poenitentia. But contrary to the MSS. Mobilie agreea 
with poenitentiae (c£ liy. 81, 82: celerem poenitentiam), which is 
a qunlifying gen. Gr. 211. R. 6. Lit of repentance eatty to he mooed, 
Render : ficJcle of purpose, 

Auctor operis, Auctor fuit rei adversus Britannos gerendae et 
feliciter gestac Dr. See on the same subject Suet Claud. 17.— 
Awumpto VespoMano, c£ Suet Vesp. 4. H. 8, 44. 

Quod-fuit. Yespasian^s participation in the war against Brit 
was the commencement of his subsequent brilliant fortunes. 

Monatratus fatis^ i. c a &tis, bg the fates, The expression ig 
borrowed perhaps from Virg. Aen. 6, 870: Ostendent terris hunc 
tantum fata. 

XIV. ConnUarium. Cl note on it 8. — Aulus Plautius. Ann. 
18, 82; Dio. 60, 19.-— Ostoriua Scapula. Ann. 12, 31-30.— Proartma^ 
Mi Romae. 

Veteranorum col^mia, Camolodunum. Ann. 12, 82. NowCol- 
chester. Dr. — M reges. Kings also^ i. e. besides other means.— 
Ut vetere, etc So in the MSS. and earliest editions. Rhenanui 
transferred ut to the place before haberet which it occupies io 
the common editions. But no change is necessary. Rendert 
that in accordance toith their established custom^ the lioman peopU 


uiighl have kififfs ako at (he instrumerUs o/ reducing (the Britons) Ut 

Didiue Oallue, Cf. Ann. 12, 40: arcere hostem satis habe< 
bat — Parta a prioribiM. The acquisitions (conquests) o/ his pre- 

Attcti officiL 0/ enlarging the boundariet o/ his governmeni, 
Officium is used in a like sense^ Caes. B. C. 3, 5 : Toti officio mari- 
Umo praepositus, etc. So Wr. ; Or. and Dod. nnderatand bj it 
^yoing beyond the mere performance of his dv/ty, It was his duty to 
protect his proyince: he enlai^ed it, — Qwxereretur, Subj. in a 
relative clause denoting a purpose. H. 600 ; Z. 667. 

Veraniue, Ann. 14, 29. — Patdlinus, Ann. 14, 29-30. 

Monam insulam, Now Anglesej. But the Mona of Caesar ia 
the Isle of Man, called bj Plinj Monapia, The Mona of T. was 
the chief seat of the Dinitds, hence ministrantem vires rebellibus, 
foT the Druids onimated and led on the Briton troops to battle. 
T. has given (Ann. 14^ 80) a very graphic sketch of the mixed 
fflultitude of armed men, women like fiiries, ond priests with handa 
nplifted in prajer, that met Faullinus on his landing, and, for a 
time, well nigh paralyzed his soldiers with dismay. In the same 
eonnexion, he speaks also of the human socrifices and other bar- 
Varous rites^ which were practised bj our Briton Fathers in honor 
Df their gods. 

XV. Interpretando, By putting their omif L e. the woret con- 
itruction upon them, 

JHx /acili^f&eile. A frequent form of expression in T., ad Grae- 
oorum consuetudinem. Dr. See R. Exo. 24. 

Singuloe-binos, Distributives—on« /or each tribe — two /or eaeh 

Aeque-aeque, like Greek correlatives ; alike fatal to their 
subjects in either case, So biioitas fiiv and dfiolws 94, Xen. Mem. 1, 
6^ 18; Plat Symp. 181. 0. 

Alteriue manua centuriones, alteriua servos, This is the reading 
if the latest editions (Dr. Wr. Or. and R.), and the best MSS., 
though the MSS. differ somewhat: Centurione, tlie hands (instru- 
m^nts) o/the one, and servants, the hands o/ the othT, added insult 
tio injury, For the use of marMS in the above sense, reference ia 
made to Cic. in Yer. 2, 10, 27: Comites illi tui delecti manuB 
erant tuae. So the eenturiont of the legate and the servants of the 
procurator are said bj onr author to have robbed the Briton 

164 NOTES. 

king PraButagus of his kingdom and his palace, Ana 14, 31, whiflk 
is the best commentarj on the pasaage before us. 

Ab ignavU, By the feeble and oowardlj. Antithetio to for 
tioretn, In battle, it is the braver that plundere uh ; htU now (it if 
a special aggravation of our snfferings, that) by the feeble and eow 
ardly, <&c So in contempt, they call the yeterans, ct 14: vet&' 
ranorum eolonia ; 82 : senum colonia, 

Tantum limits pro patria ; as if it was for their eountry only 
thej knew not how to die. 

8i sese^ etc, L e. in eomparison with their own numbera. 

Patriatn-parenteSf bc eausas belli esse, 

RecessisseU Obserye the aubj. in the subordinate daueos of the 
oratio obliqua throughout this chapter. H. 531 ; Z, 608. 

Neve-pavescerant, This verb would have been an imperaliye in 
the oratio recta, Z. 603, c Neve is appropriate either to the imp. 
or the Bubj. 

XYL Instinctiy i. e. furore quodam afflati. Dr. For a fiiller 
account of this revolt^ see Ann. 14, 81-38; Dio. 62, 1-13. 

Bovdicea, Wife of Pi^asutagus, king of the Icenu. When oon* 
quered, she ended her life bj poison, Ann. 14, rfY. 

Expugnatis praesidiis, Having stormed the fortretae», Tha 
force of ex in this word is seen in that it denotes the actual 
earrying of a place bj assault^ whereas oppugnatus only denotea 
the assault itselt So iK-iro\iopKrj^fls™iaken in a siege, iroXiopin^^ef* 

Ipsam coloniam, Of note 14 : veteranorum colonia. 

In 5ar6art»— qualis inter barbaros esse solet. R. Exc. 25. 

Ira et victoria. Hendiadys. Render: Nor did they in the e»- 
eitement of victory omit, etc So Dr. R. and "Wr. Ira may, how^ 
ever, refer to their long cherislied resentment. Ira causam, vietoria 
facultatem explendae saevitiae denotat Rit. — Quod nisi. And 
Jiadnot, etc 0£ note, 12: quod si, 

Patientins, Most Latin authors would have said: ad patien- 
tiam. R. Patientia here— «u5mtmof\ 

Ten^ibus-plerisque, Though many still retainedf L e. did not 
lay down their arms, 

Propius, Al. proprius, But that is purely conjecturaL Ady. 
tor adj., et ultra, 8 ; longe, e^propior, like the propior eura ci 
Ovid. Metamor. 13, 578. Render: a more urgent fear, Som« 
would connect propius with agitabat notwithstanding its remote 


Sitae quoque. Hia ovm aiao, sc as well as that of ihe Kmplre. 

Duriua, sc aequo. H. 444, 1. cfl 4 : acritu, note. 

Delictia-notrus, A etranger to their favlti, Cf. ^ ItaL 6, 254 
aovusqne dolori. "Wr. Cl BoL Lex. Tac, Dativns. 

Poenitentiae mitior, i. e. mitior erga poeniteDtiam, or Sacilior 
erga poenitentea. Poenitentiae dat. of object 

Compoaitis prioribus, Having restored thinga to their /ormer 
^iet state, 

Nullis-^xperimentis, Uhdertak:ng no militarg expeditioM, Or. 
"'Castrorum, Cf. 5, note, 

Comitate-tenuit, " Retained the proiRnce hy a popular manner 
of administeritig the governm^.'* Ky. — Gurandi. Note, H. 1, 52. 

Jgnoscere, Froperlj not to notice, hence to view vnth iiidulgenee^ 
to indulge in, 

Vitiis blandientibus. The reference is to the luxurious nni vir 
dous pleasures of the Romana, which eneryated the BntH^ns^ c£ 21, 
at dose, where the idea is brou^t out more full j. 

Cumr-lascivireL Cumf^since, Heace the subj. 

Precario, Cf. note, G. 44. — Mbx, ct note 4. 

Velut pacti implies a tactt compact It was underatood betweea 
them, that the army were to enjoy their liberty ; the general, hii 
Jife. Supplj sunt with pacti. Dod. and Wr. supply essent ; but 
they read haee for et before seditio contrary to the best MSSw 

£^ seditio, JEt^and so, Al. haec seditio. 

Stetit, Not fltopped, but stood, as in our phrose : sitood them in 
ee much. So Ovid : Multo sanguine — ^victoria stetit, And T. Hi& 
8, -53 : Majore cJotmio— yeteres civium discordias reipublicae stetisse. 
Rcnder: cost no blood, Dr. 

Pettdantia, Insubordinatum. — yisi quodf but, cf. 6. 
JBolantis, If the reader wishes to know more of the officers 
named in this chapter, for Turpilianus, see Ann. 14, 89. His. 1, 6; 
Trebelliua, His. 1, 60; Bolanns, Ann. 16, 8. His. 2, 66. 79. 

Caritatem — auctcaritatis, **Had conciliated affectian as a subsH' 
imtefor authority.^ Ky- 

XVIL Recuperavit, AI. reeiperavit. The two forms are written 
iadiscriminatelj in the MSS. The word may express either the re- 
•OTery of what was lost, or the restoration to health of what was 
^iseased. Either would make a good sense here. C£ chap. 6 ; also 
Cic. Phil. 14, 18: republica recuperata. Or. ren^QV^ cLcquired cujfait^ 
ee. what had previously belonged, as it were, to him, rather than to 
tiie bad emperors who had preceded him. 

166 NOTE& 

PetUiw CeritdU, Ct Dote^ 8. — Brigantum. Cf. H. 8, 45; Aim 
12, 82. Their territorj embraced Cumberland, Westmorelanc^ 
Lancashire, Durham and Torkahire. 

Avi victoria cnU hello, L e. either received thetr submiasion aftef 
the vietftry, or involved them in the ealamitie^ qf war. AtUr-aut 
generallj adversative— either— or on the contrary. Velr^l only 
dujunctive— whether— or. Cf. note on vel-vel, G. 16. 

Alterf.i*t. Another than Julius FrontinuB, L e. b j iinplieatioa, 
one different from him, leaa brave and great. Cf. His. 2, 90: tao' 
quam apud alterius civitatis senatum; 3, 13, note. Aliu9 is the 
word usuallj appropriated to express this idea. Alter generalljr 
implies a resemblanee between eontrasted cbjeeta. See Freund, 
»d v. 

Obruiaget-tustinnit, These words primarily refer to pkjsieAl 
Anergies, and are exactly couBterpsLrt^-crushed-gustained 

Quantum licebat limits vir magnus : eu great a man, a» it wom 
permiited him to be, restricted as he was in his resources, perhaps 
by the parsimony of the Emperor. On Julius Frontious^ cf. H. 4^ 
89. He was the friend of Pliny the Younger (Plin. Ep. 9, 19) and 
therefore probably of Tacitus. His books on Stratagems, and on 
the Aqueducts of Kome are still extant. — Super, over and above^ 
L e. besidet, 

XYIII. Agentemy sc excubias or stationem=stationed in, cf. 
His. 1, 4*7 : copias, qnae Lugduni agebant Ala, Ct note, H. 1, 54» 

Ordovicum civitat, Situated over against the Island Moni^ 
noiiii of the Silures, L e. in the northern part of what is now 

Ad^erteretitur, Were tuming themselvea (middle sense) towardi^ 
L e. looHng to orfor, Occasionem^ An opportunityy sc to attack 
the Romans in their security. AL tUerentur. 

Quibut-erat Tliey toho toished for toar. Greek idiom for qni 
bellum volebant See Kuhner*s Greek Gram. 284, 10, c, cf. His. S, 
48: volentibus ftiit> etc, and note, ibid. In Latin, the idiom oc- 
curs chiefly in Sallust and T. See Z. 420, and H. 88Y, 8. 

Ae-opperiri. AL atU by conjecturc But cu>^ac tam^n, ana 
yet, C£ Ann. 1, 36 : exauctorari — ae retineri sub vexillo. 

Transvecta. AI. transacta. Ct His. 2, 76: abiit et tratuvecium 
§aS tempus. Onlj T. uses the word in reference to timc 

■ jVumm— cohortes or manipuli, cl His. 1, 6: multi numerL 
This use of the word is post-Augustan. Cf. note, His. 1, 6. 

Tarda et contraricL In appoa with the foregoing cla uao a ■ 


eirctpnaiances ialculcUed to retard and oppose him in commenein^ 

PleriBque, sc. of the infeiior ofBcers. lliej tliought it best that 
those parts of the conntrj, whose fidelitj was qucstiooable {smapectd) 
ehould be secured by garrisons {cttstodiri). Potiu» is an adj. and 
goes with videbatur^^t seemed preferable, 

Legionum vexillis, Some underetand this of yeteran soldier^ 
who had served out their time (twenty years), but were still sul 
vexillis (not dismissed). So R. and W. Others of parts bf th^ 
legions detached for a season sub yexillis (nnder separate standards) 
So Gronoyius. The word seems to be used in both seuscs. Sec 
note, H. 1, 31. 

In aequum. Into the plain. Aeqnua, prira. level, fience aequor, 

Erexit a/nem. Led his troops up the steep. So Ilis. 3, 71: tri 
gunt adem per adversum eollera. 

Ac-ceteris. And that according as the firRt enterprises weiU (cf. 
note, 5 : cessit\ vmdd be tlie terror in the rest of his engageraentsi 
Cf. H. 2, 20 : gnarus^ ut iniiia belli provenissent, famam in ceterafore, 
AL fore universa. 

Possessione. TaJcing possession, cf. 14. A possldere^ i. e. occu- 
pare, non a possldere, quod est occupatum tenere. Rit. For tlie 
abl. without o, cf. H. 2, 79 : Syria remeans. 

Ut in dubiis consiliiSy sc fieri solct. Generals are not apt to be 
prepared beforehand for enterprises^ not contemplated at all in their 
Driginal plans. 

Qtd-expectabant. Who were looking out for (ex and specto) a 
fleet, for ships, in a word for the sea, i. e. naval preparations in 
geneiul, instead of an attock bj land. The language is highly 
rhetorical. — Crediderint Livy, Kepos and Tacitus nse the perf, 
subj. after utj denoting a consequenoe, when a single, specific past 
act is expressed ; when a repeated or continued action, the imp. 
8ubj. Most writers use the imp. in both cases. See H. 482, 2, aiid 
480 ; Z. 616 ; also Z. 604, Kote, and note H. 1, 24 : dederit, 

Officiorum ambitum, " Complimmts of office" Ky. 

Placuisset. Subj. cf. note, 11: ut quos. 

^gcpeditionemr-cmUinuisse. He did not call it a campaign or a 
victory to have kept the conquered in subjection. 

Lawreaiis sc litteris. It was customary to communicate the 
newB of victory to the Emperor and Senate, by letters bound with 
bay leaves^ cf. Liv. 6, 28 : litterae a Postumio laureatae sequuntur 

168 1COTE8. 

Wlthout lUterM, it occurs only here. Or. So in H. S, 77. T 
ayoida the technical expreesicn and emplojs the wqrd laurea, Beldoni 
used in this Bcnse. 

Dissirmdatione, C£ note, 6. — AestimantibuSy cf. aestimanti, 
11. The aspiring, and especially the vain, may }earn from thia 
passage a lesson of great practical yalue. Compare also § 8, at 
the close. 

XIX. Aliena experimenta, The experience of otJiers. 

Nihil. EUipsis of agere (which is inserted without MS. authority 
in the common editions). So Cic Phil. 1, 2 : Nihil per senatum, 
etc Cf. G. 19 : adtiucy note. 

Ascire, aL accire. To receive into regvlar service. The referencft 
is to the transfer of soldiers from the raw recruits to the legionai 
Bo W. followed bj Dr. R. and W. The ncxt clause implies, tlmt 
he took care to receive into the service none but the best men 
(optimum quemque), whom he deemed trugttoortht/ (fidissimum) jnst 
mproportion as they wefe good. This use of two superlativea 
mutually related to each othcr, the former with quisqv^^ is frequent 
in Latin and resembles the English use of two comparatives: the 
better, the more trustworthy. CC Z. 710, b. ; also note, 8: promp- 
tissmus quisque. 

Sxaequi^pxmire. A sense peculiar to the later Latin. Cic and 
Caes. use peraequi. For a similar use of the word in the expression 
of a similar sentiment, see Suet Jul. 67 : Delicta neque observabat 
omnia neque pro modo exsequebatur. Compare our word exe- 
cute. And mark the sentiment^ as a maxim in the science of gov- 

Severitatem commodare. W. with Dr. and R. make this an 
example of zeugma. And in its ordinary acceptation (i. e. in the 
eense to give) the word commodare certainly applies only to veniam, 
and not to severitatem. But commodare in its primary signification 
means to adapt; and in this sense, it suits both of its adjnncts: Jfe 
adapted (awarded) pardon to small offences, severe punishment to 
great ones. So Wr. For the series of infinitives, cf. notea, 5 : nosci, 
etc ; G. 80 : praeponerct etc 

Nec poena — contentus esse. Kor toas he always content with pui^ 
ishmenif hut oftener vnth repentance. Mere punishment wiihctit 
reformation did not satLsfy hira ; reformation without punisLment 
BatiBfied him better. 3ee Dod In loc Here too eome have callod 
ID the aid of zeugraa. 


AudionBm, Al. exactionem. The former is the reading of th€ 
greater part of the MS3. and the later German edition& Atietionem 
tributorum refers to the increased tribute exacted by Vesp. c£ 
Sueton. Yesp. 16: auxisse tributa proyiodia^ nonnullis et 

Munerum. DutieSy burdem. — Circumdsis, C£ note, 2 : expulBte, 
etc., and 11 : amissa virtute. 

If^am^ue-eogebantur. Tiie best version we can give of this ob« 
WTure passage is as follows : For ihe^ were compelled in mockery to 
tit hy the closed granaries and to buy corn ncedlesdy (beyond what 
was n«ce8sary, cf. note on ultro, G. 28, wben thej faad enough of 
tlieir own) and to sell it at a fixed price (prescribed by the pur- 
chasers). It faas been made a question, wfaether the granaries of tbe 
Britons» or those of tbe Romans are here meont Dod., Dr. and R, 
advocate the former opinion; Walch, Wr., Or., and Rit the latter 
According to the former view, the Britons were often obliged to 
buy com of the Romans, because they were forbidd«n to use their 
own, to supply themselves and their £&milie8 ; according to the laf>> 
ter, because they wcre required (as explained below) to cany their 
contributions to a quarter so distant from their own granariesy that 
they were fein to buy the corn rather at some nearer warehousc of 
the Romans. The selling at a fixed price is equally intelligible on 
either supposition. Or. foUowing the best MSS. reads ludere pretio, 
which Rit has amended into colludere pretio. UJtro may well 
enough be rendered moreover or eften^ thus giving emphasis to 

Devorlia itinerum^ Bye roadtt, explained by avia^ as longinquitat 
18 by remota. The object of requiring the people to convey their 
eontributions to such distant and inconvenient pointa^ was to com- 
pel them to buy of the Romans, or to pay almost any sum of money 
to avoid compliance. The reader of Gic. will remember in illustra- 
tion of this whole pass^e, the various arts to which Verres is said 
to have had recourse to enrich himself, at the expense of the people 
df his province (Cic. in Ver. 8, 72, and 82), such as refusing to accept 
ihe contributions they brought^ obliging them to buy of him at fais 
•wn price, requiring them to carry supplies to points moet distant 
and difficult of aceess, ut vecturae difictUtate ad guam vellent aesti' 
fnat'*onem pervenirenL 

Omnibua, sc et in<»lis et militlbus; petucis, sc praefectis aut 
piablicaniB. Dr. 

Donec-fieret, Tfae subj. here denotes a purpose or object ia 

i70 HOTC8. 

yiew, and thAetore follows donec accordiDg to ihe rale. E. 522^ 
n. ;• 2j. 670. TacituB howeyer always expresses a repeated pasS 
aotion after thmee bj the imp. subj. Ct note, 37 : affectavere; Hi 
1, 13. 35. 

XX. Statim. Emphatic, like fvdvs. Ct Thucyd. 2, 47: roi 
dfpovs fi/^vs apxoiiftfov: at the vefy beginning of sunmier. So 
in § 3. 

Intolerantia, a1. tolerantia, but without MS. authonty. Incuria 
18 negligence, Intolerantia is insufferable arroganee, eeverity, in a 
word intolerance. So Cic : Buperbia atque intolerantia. 

QtMe-timebatur. And no wonder, since ubi solitudinem £Ehciaut, 
pacem appellant^ 30. 

MultuSf al. militum. Multue in the recent editiona. Mttltus^ 
frequena, cl Sal Jug. 84 : multus ac ferox instare. — Modeatiam-diS' 
*ecto8. These word» are antithetic^ thongh one is abstract and the other 
concrete. The whole dause may be literally rendered thus : ever 
present in ifie line of march, he comm^nded good order {disciplifie), 
ifie dieorderly he reairained 

Popidareturf bc. A. Quominw, that ndti^iU: hU he ravaged 
their country by unexpected invaeions. 

Irritamenta. Inducements.^-Pacis. Ang, to or /or peace. 

Ez aequo egerant^ lit. had acted (lived) on an equality, L e. had 
maintained iheir independence, cf. Hi& 4, 64: aut ex aequo agetift 
aut aliis imperitabitis. 

Iram posuere, Cf. Hor. Ars Poet : et iram coUigit ac pomii 
temere. See also G. 27: ponunt dolorem, etc 

Ut-transierit. The dause is obscure. The best that can be 
made of it is this : ihey were encompassed hyforts and garrisons wUh 
90 much skill and care that no part of Britain hitherto new vfent over 
(to the enemj) mth.impunity (literallj unattacked). For the mean- 
ing of novat cf. 22. For iransierit, cf. iransiiio, H. 2, 99 ; 8, 61 ; 
and Freund, sub y. This is Walther's interpretatioa I^ with 
Ernesti, Dr. and some others, we might suppoee a sic, ita or iam to 
be understood with illaeessita, we might obtain perhaps a better 
sense^ yiz. came over (to the Komans) wUh so lUtle annoyance (from 
the enemy). In the last edition a meaning was attached to transierii 
{remained, sc unattacked)^ for which I now find no suffident 
authoritj. Among the manj amendments^ which haye been sug 
geeted, the easiest and best is that of Susiui^ foUowed hy Wexiuev 
Dfibner, Or. and Rit„ yiz. placing Hlaeessiia transiit at the begin- 
ling of the next chapter. But this does yiolence not onlj to M3 

AOEICdLA. 171 

tuthoritj, but to Latin usage in making the adverb lU, 8o ai, at, 
follow tanta. In such a connection, lU must be a conjunctioui-* 
80 fhat, that, See Freund sub v. For the perf. subj. cf. note, 18: 

Praesidiis castellisqtte. Gordon, in his Itinerarium Septentrio* 
nale, found more remains of Roman works in that part of Britain 
here referred to, tban in an j other portion of the Island. 

XXI. Ut-a88U€8eerent. In order that they migkt heeome habi' 
tttated, etc — In hella faciles. Easily inclinedto wars. C£ Ann. 14, 4: 
facili ad gaudia. AL in hello, hello, and in hellum. — Otio. See note^ 
11 : otio. — Privatim. As a private individual; puhlice, hy publie 
authorityy and of course from the puhlic treasury, ct note G. 39: 
publice. — Jam vero. Moreover, cf. G. 14, note. 

Anteferre. "Wr. takes this word in its primary 8ense»-bear 
before, L e. carry beyond : he carried (advanced) the native ialenta 
of the Britons heyond fhe leaming of the Gatds. But there is no 
authority for such a uae of the word, when followed by the acc 
aud dat It is doubtless used in its more ordiuary sense ; and the 
preference which A. expressed for the genius of the Britons over the 
learning of the Gauls, stimulated them to greater exertionsi. It is 
Bomewhat curious to observe thus earlj that mutual emulation and 
jealousj, which has marked the whole history of Britain and France. 
The national vanity of La Bletterie is sorely wounded by this re- 
mark of T. See his note in loco, also Murphy's. — Toga^ C£ note 
on togatos, 9. 

Ut-^ncupiscerent. Ut=8o that, denoting a consequence. The 
verb here denotes a continued or habitual state of mind. Hence 
the imp. subj. C£ note, 18: crediderit. 

Discessum, sc. a patrum moribus ad vitia varia. Dr. 

I>elenimenta>^il]&y quibus animi leniuntur, Dr. CharmSj hlanr 
dishmenta, Ct H. 1, 11, The word is not found in Cic. or Caes. 

Humanitas, CHvilization, refinement, Compare the professor- 
ehips of humanity in European Univeraities. 

Pars servitutis, For the sentiment^ c£ His. 4, 64 : voluptatibui^ 
quibus Romani plus adversus subjectos, quam armis valent Oum 
^rs^vhile, although. Hence the subj. 

XXIL Tertitts-annus. Third campaign, 

Taum, The Frith of Tay. — Nationibus, Here synonymous with 
jentes ; sometime? less comprehensive, c£ note, G. 2. 

Pactione acfuga, Al. Smt fuga, but without authority. Ther9 

172 NOTE8. 

are but two distinct clauses marked hj atU-atU: either iakett b$ 
assatut or ahandoned by capitulation andjlight. 

Nam-firmahantur, This clause assigDs a reason, why Ibe R<>- 
Diaos were ahle to make frequent Borties (crehrae eruptiones)^ tul 
Bupplies of provision so abundant, as to be proof against blockade. 

Moraa ohsidionis. A protracted siege, or hlockade, 

Annuis copiis, Supplies for a year. This is the primary sig- 
nification of annwus ; that of our word annual is secondary. 

InXrepida-pra€sidio=ihibem& quieta ac tuta ab hoBtibus. Fac. 
and For. — Irritis^ hafflcd Seldom applied to persons hj proee 
writers. Cf. IL 4, 82. 

Pensare. R. rcmarks a peculiar fondness in T. for the use of 
tlie Bimple verb instead of the compound, e. g. mL<^ for omissa» ' 
sietens for resistens, flammare for inflammare, etc. So here pensare 
i^-^ompensare. Cf. 12: trahu7iiur, note. 

Avid-uSy Bc laudis — = per aviditatem laudis et gloriafit R : A. 
never in his eagemess for glory arrogated to himself the honor of 
the achievements of others. — Seu-seu. JSvery one, whether centurion 
or praefect (commander of a legion, cf. note, H. 1, 82.), vxu sure to 
have in him an impartial toitness to his deeds. 

Acerhior, cf. note on durius, 16. — Apud guosdam=sA quibusdam. 

Secretum et silentium. Reserve and silence. So W. and Ky. 
But R. and Dr. : private interviews (to be summoned to which by 
Bome commandera was alarming), and neglect of the usual salutcb- 
tions in puhlic (which was also often a token of displeaBure on the 
paii) «of a Buperior officer). The former is the more simple and 
obvious» though it must be confessed that the latter is favored bj 
the U8U8 loquendi of T., in regard especiallj to secretuniy cf. 89 ; 
Ann. 3, 8, where secreto is opposed to palam; and Hifl. 4, 49: in- 
ccrtum, quoniam secreto eorum nemo adfuit. 

XXUL Ohtivsndis. Securing possession of. — Pateretur, sc. 
terminum inveniri. — In ipsa JBrit. In the very nature or structiire 
of the island, as described in the sequel. See Or. in loc. 
aota et Bodotria. Frith of Clyde and Frith of Forth. 
Revecta£, i. e. the natural current being driven back by the tide 
from the sea on either Bide. Angusto-spatio. It is now cut across 
by a Bhip canal. 

Propior «ni«»— peninsula on the south side of the Friths^ ct 
note on sinus G. 1, and 29. Sinus refers particularly to the eurved 
horder on this side the aefituaries. This Dordcr (whereyer the fintti 


frere bo nArrow as to reqnire it), as well as the narrow isthmiu^ 
was occupied and secured {tenebatur) hj garrisons. ' 

XXIV. Nave prima. The first Roman ship that ever visited 
those shorea, So Br., Dr., etc 27te foremost ship^ sc, A. himsel^ 
followed by others in a line. So Ritter. Wr., and some others under- 
btand it of a voyage frora Rome^ where they suppose him to have 
passed the winter, aud whence he crossed over to Britain bj tlie 
tarlieat vessel in the spring. W. and R. roake prima equivalent to 
an adv. and render: crossing bver for the firttt time hy sliip. Or, 
ttlso msLke& prima=^tum primum^ 

Copiis. Here troops with their equipments— /brce;, cf. 8 : majo» 
ribus copiis. — Medio siia lying between, not midway between. E, 
— In spemrformidinem, More with the hope of invading Irelaud, 
than through fear of invasion by the Irish. — Valentissimam partem, 
viz. Gaul, Spain and Britain. 

Miscuerit. The subj. here denotes the aim or purpose of the 
projector : it would have done so in his view. 

Invicem-^^ji adj. mutual. — Nostri maris. The Mediterranean. 

Differunt : in melius. The authorities dififer greatly as to the 
reading, the pointing and the interpretation of this passage. Some 
copies omit in. Others insert nec before it Some place the pauso 
before in meliuSf others after. Some read differt, others differunt 
Nec in meliits would perhaps give the better sense. But the read- 
ing is purely conjectural. I have given that, which, on the whole, 
leems to rest on the best authority, and to make the best sense. 
The sense is : the soilf climatej ffcc, do not differ much from ihose 
of Britain. But that the harhors and entrances to the country are 
better (liL differ for the better, differre in melius), is ascertained 
through the medium of the m^rchants^ who resort thither for trade 
[foT Ireland had not yet» like Britain, been ezplored by a Roman 
army). So Wr. and Dod. On in melitcs^ see note H. 1, 18. Or. acJ 
Rit make the comparison thus: the harbors and entrances are 
better known, than the soil, dimate, &c, The common interpreta- 
tion is: the harbors, <&c, of Ireland are better known, than thoae 
of Britain. But neither of these interpretations accounts for the 
position of melius ; and the last is in itself utterly incredible. 

Ex eOf sc A. Pass. and Dr. understand it of the Irish chie^ and 
iufer that T. had been in Brit But A. is the subject of the next 
•enlenoe without the repetition of his name, as it would have been 
repeated, if this sentence referred to another. 

174 MOTBS. 

XXY. Amplexus, Some supplj bello, as in 17 : bello ampiexua 
But better : embracing in hU plan of operationa, i e. extending 
his operations to those iribea, 

Hostilis exercitus, Al. hostili exercitu. But hostilis exerdtus is 
the MSS. oud earliest editiona. — Infenta is here active : hostile t9i> 
roads of the enermfs forces, 

In partem virium. J^or^ i, e. as a part of hisforce, 

Impelleretur, wos borne on with rapid ond resistless power. 

Profundor-adversa, Cf. note, 6 : iminia honoris, 

Mixti copiis et laetitia, Uniting their stores arid their pUasmeB, 
L e. their respective means of entertainment. For mixti^ cl 4: 
locum-mixtum. For copiis in this sen^^e, 22: annuis copiis. For 
the other senae, viz. forces, 24: copiis, ncte. 

ffine-hinc^^on this side — on that. Cf. note G. 14: illum-Ul^nn, 
— Victus. AL auctus, 

Ad manns et amia, Ang. to arms. 

Oppugnasse depends on fama. Tlieir preparations were great. 
Rumor as usual {uti mos^ etc.) represented them still greater ; for 
the rumor went abroad, that the Caledonians had commenced offenr^ 
sive operatious {oppugnasse ultro). — Castella adorti is the means by 
which they metum addiderantf i-e. had inspired additioncd fear, 

Pluribus agmh%ibus. In several divisions. Accordingly it u 
added : diviso et ipse, A, himself also, i. e. as well as the Britonfl^ 
fiaring dividcd^ etc 

Agmen (from ago), properlj a bodj of men on the march,— 
ExcrcittiSf under military drill (exerceo.) 

XXYL Quod ubi, etc. When this was knoumt etc Latin 
writers, as well as Greek, generally link theh* sentencea, chaptera^ 
&c, more dosely together, than English. Hence we are ofben 
obliged to render their relative by our demonstrative. See Z. 803. 
Ubi, here adv. of time, as in 20, 38, et passim. 

Certabant. K"ot fought with the enemy, but vied with each 
other. So below: nti'oque-certantc Hence followed bj de glorii^ 
not pro gloria, which some would substitute for it : secure for (in 
regard to) safetg, they vied mth each other in respect to (or tn) 
^lory, With pro salute, ct Hia 4> 58 : pro me securior. 

Erupere. Sallied forth, sc from the camp. 

Utroque exercUu, Each of the two Roman armies. 

Qwod, C£ 12, note. — Debellatwm, lit the war would have bcc» 
fiiMight fnUf i. e. ended. 

ACrEICOLi^. 175 

XXVIL Cm/m« refers to victoria in the previow flcction (cf. quod 
26, Dote) : inspirited by the consciousnes8 and the glory of this victory, 

Modo catilL Compare the sentiment with 25.: specie praden- 
tium, etc 

Arte-ratif al. arte usos rati by conjecture. But T. is fond of 
wch ellipses: The JBritons, thinking it was not by superior braveryt 
bnt by favoring circumstances (on the part of the Romans) and the 
$kill of their commander (sc that thej had been defeated). Eit 
reads superati, 

Utrimque. Both the Romans and the Britons ; the KomanB ex 
«ted by their victory, the Britons by their coetibus ac sacrificiis. 

Discessum, They separatedf viz. after the oattle and at the 
doee of the campaigii. 

XXVIII. Cohors Usipiorum. See same story, Dio Cass. 66, 

Adactis, Foreed on board. — ^iZemt^an^^M-gubernaL te, to avoid 
sameness, with gttbematoribus, Br. R. supposes that having but 
one pilot left^ oolj the vessel on which he aailed was rowed, while 
the others were towed bj it; and this rowing under his direction is 
nscribed to him. Some MSS. and m&nj editions read remigra$Ue, 
which Bome translate : making his escape, and others connect with 
tnterfectiSf and suppom that he also was slain in trying to bring baek 
his boa\ to shore. Whether we read remigante or remigrante, the 
■ignification of either 'lA unusual. 

Fraeveliebantur. Sailed along the coast (in sight of land). 

Inopiae is govemed by eo, which is the old dat^o such a 
degree. — Ad extremum^^at last. 

Vescerentur foUowed by the acc H. 419, 4. 1) ; Z. 466. For 
the imp. Enibj. c£ note 21 : tU-concupiscerent, 

Amissis-navibtts. This is regarded by some as proof that all 
the steersmen wcre slain or escaped. Dr. answers» that it may refer 
only to the tioo ships that were without steersmen. 

Suevis. A people of Northem Germany (G. 88, seq.) whither, 
after having circumnavigated Britain, the Usipii camc — Mox, sub» 
sequently, some having escaped the SuevL 

Fer commercia. In trade, cl same in 39. 

Nostram ripam. The Gallic bank of the Rhine, which was the 
border of the Roman Empire, cf. G. passim. 

Quos-indicium-4llustravit. Whom the account of so wonderful 
«n adventure rendered illustriou& The rule would require ihn 
8ul)j. H. 601, L 2; Z. 561 

176 NOtES. 

XXIX. Initto aestatis, l e. in the beginning . f the nexl Biuii 
mer (the 7th campatgn, c£ 25: antaie^ qua uxtunif etcX as th* 
whole history shows. See especially proximo annOf 34. Hence th€i 
proprietj of commencing a new section here. The common edition» 
begin it below : I(/itur, etc. 

Plerique, Cf. note on it» 1. — Fortium virorum. Militart, 

Ambitiose, with affected fortitude, stoiealli/. — ^wr*M*— contra, on 
ihe contrary, showing the antith. be ween amSitiose and per latnenta, 
— Per lamentOf cf. 6 : per caritatem. — Igitury cf. 13, note. 

Quae-faceret^ut ea faceret. H, 600 ; Z. 667. 

Incertum is explained by pluribus locis. Render : general alann. 
— Expedito^^uxe impedimentis, armis solis instructo. Fac and For. 
— Montem Grampium. Now Orampian hills. 

Crudor-tenectus. Cf. Virg. Aen. 6, 304 : sed cruda deo yiridisqne 
tenectus. Crudus is rarely found in this sense except in the poeta. 
Crudus properly— bloody {eruor, eruidus) ; hence the successiye 
significations, raw, unripe, fresh, vigorous. — Stia di^ro— praemia ob 
virtutem bellicam accepta. K Any and all hadges of distinetion, 
especially in arms. Wr., Or. and Dod. 

XXX Causas bellL Explained by universi servitutis experteu 
below, to be the defence of their liberties. In like manner, nosiram 
necessitatem is explained by nullae tUtra terrae : there is no retreat 
for us, etc — Animus. Confidence. 

Proelium-arma. T. has a passion for pairs of worda, especially 
nouns, of kindred signification. See examples in Index to His 
tories ; and in this chapter, spem ae subsidium ; reeessus ac sinus , 
obseguium ae modestiam. 

Priores pugnae^ sc. in which the Caledonians took no part— 
Pugnae is here, by a figure put for the combatants themselTes» who 
are represented as looking to the Caledonians» as a kind of corps 
de reserre, or last resource. 

JFo. For that reason. The best things are always kept guarded 
and concealed in the penetralia. There may also be a refereuce to 
a faet stated by Caesar (B. G. 5, 12), that the inhabitants of tiu> 
interior were aborigines^ while those on the coast were immigrantsL 

Terrarumr-extremos. The remotest of men and last of freemen, 
— Recessus-^famae. Our very remoteness and obseurity, This is 
the most common and perhaps the most simple translation, making 
stfitM ya»MMk-">seclu8ion in respect to famc Perhaps, howerer, it 
Moords as well witli the usual signification of the words» and bettoi 


wiih the conDexion an J spirit of the speech, to take nnuB fama€ in 
the sense, retreat of glory, or glorioui retreoL So "Wr. His inter- 
pretation of the passage and its connexion is as follows : our very 
remoteness and our glorioua retreat have guarded U8 till this dag, 
BtU now the furthest extremity of Brit, is laid open (u e. our retreat 
is no longer a safeguard) ; afid every thing unknoton is esteemed greai 
(i. e. this safeguard also is remoyed — ^the Bomans in our midst no 
longer magnifj our strength). Rit encloses the dause in bracketa^ 
as a gloss. He renders sinuafamae^ bosom of fame^ fame being per- 
soniiied as a goddess. R., Dr., Or. make /ama^ dative after defendii 
«>has kept back from fame. 

Sed nidlajam^ etc Bat now all the above grounds of confi- 
dence— our remoteness, our glory, our greatness magnified by the 
imagination of onr enemies, from the very fact that we were un- 
known to them — all these are removed ; we hare none behind us 
to fall back upon, as our countrjmen in former battles have leaned 
upon us — and we are reduced to the necessitj of self-defence and 
self-reliance. The sed seems to be antithetic to the whole as far 
back as priores pugnae; whereas nune is opposed only to the 
clause which immediately precedes it^ and constitutes an antitheais 
within an antithesis. 

InfestioreSj sc quam fiuctus et saxa. 

Effugeris, Ct note G. 19: non invcnerit ; also saiiaverit yi^t 

Et mare, Et^^^so. Cf note, G. 11. 

Opes atque inopiam. Abs. for conc.»rich and poor nations. 

Falsis nominibus is hj some connected with rapere. But better 
with appellant, They call things by false names, vizL plund^, «n- 
pire; and desolationy peace, 

XXXL ^nnoa— annonam, yearly produce, c£ G. 14: expectare 
annum. So often in the Poets. — Infrwnentum^ For supplies, The 
reading of this clause is much disputed. The text follows that of 
W. and ^ and is approved by Freund. For the meaning oi 
egeruntf cL praedam egesseruntf H. 3, 33. 

Silvis-emuniendis^Yns per silvas et paludes muniendis. E. 

Sefncl, Once for all, G. 19. — Emit^ sc tributis pendendis; 
paseit, sc frumento praebendo. K 

Portus, quibus exercendis, W. and Dr. explain this of collecting 
revenue at the ports (i. c farming them), a thing unknown to the 
CQ) ly Britons ; Wr. of rowing, servile labor. Why not refer it to 
the constructio^i or improvement of harbors f By rendering exereety 

178 NOTBS. 

^ wotktnff, improvinff, we make it appllcable alike to liarborm 
mines and field& — Re»ervem,ur, Sabj. in a relatiye dauae denoting 
a purpose. H. 600 ; Z. 567. 

Fotuere. Observe the ind., wbere we nse the potentiaL It )8 
eapeciallj freqnent with /MMfum, debeo, &c Z, 518 and 519. 

Nonne impliea an aflSrmatiye answer. Z. 352, and H. 846, IL 1. 2). 

In poenitentiam, aL in praesentiam. The general idea is easen- 
tially the Bame with either reading. Non in praetenti ain i ■ no i to 
obtain our freedom /or the present merdy, Non in poenitenti am» ■ 
not about to obtain our freedom merely to regret t<; L e. in sueh a 
nionner as the Brigantes^ who forthwith lost it \>y their aocordia. 

XXXIL Nin <i»nisi forte, cf. note, G. 2 : nisi si patria^ 

Pudet dicttt. The supine after pudet ia fonnd onlj here. Qnin- 
tUian howeyer has pudendum dicti*. Cf. Or. in loc; and Z. 441. 

Commendenty etc. AltJiough they give up their blood to (L e. 
shed it in support of) a foreiffn tyranL — Tamen is antithetio 
to licet: although thej give, yet longer enemies, than alave» (ot 

Metua-est. It ia fear and terror (sc that keep them in subjeo- 
tion), tDeak bonds of affection. 

Remxyveris-desierint. Fut. perf C£ note, G. 23: indulseria. 

Nulla-aut alia. Some of the Roman soldiers had lost all attach- 
racnt to country and could not be eaid to haye anj countrj ; others 
bad one, but it was not Britain, it was far awaj. 

Ne terreat. The third person of the imperatiye is for the moet 
part avoided in ordinarj language ; and the pres. subj. is nsed in 
its stead. Z. 529, I^ote. 

Nostras manus, « e. those readj to join us and aid our armi^ 
Tiz. (as he goes on to say), the Gauls and Germans^ as well as tbe 
Britons now in the Roman ranks. — Tamquam^ust as (tam-quam), 
Dod. renders, just as certainly ca. 

Vaeua. — Destitute of soldiers. — Senum, sc veterani et emeritL 
Ct note, 16. Aegra^^isaffected. Ct H. 2, 86. 

Ilie duXf etc Mere a general, here an army (sc the Roman, 
awaits you) ; there tributes, mineSy &c (and you must conquer the 
former or endure the latter — these are jour onlj altematiyes). 

In hoc campo est. Depends on this baitle feld, — ^T. has laid oa< 
all his strength on this speech. It can hardlj be matched for mar 
tial force and sententious breyitj. It breathea^ as it should in thc 
fuonth of a Briton, an indomitable spirit of libertj, and romindi 

AO&ICOLA. 179 

OB, in many featnres, of the concentrated and fieiy eloquende, wliich 
has 80 often roused our American Indians to defend their altars and 
revenge their wroDgs, 

XXXIII. Ut ftarbaris moris. Al. et barbari moris. But com* 
pare 89 : ut Domitiano moris erat; His. l^ 15: ut moris est. Supply 
est here : (m is tJie custom of (lit to) barbarians, Z. 448, & H. 402, 1. 

Agmina, sc. conspiciebantur. — Procursu is the meaES by whicli 
ths gleam of armor was brought into view. 

AcieSf sc Britannorum. The Roman armj was still within the 
eamp, ct munimentis coerdtum^ below t.. -^^ 

Coercitum — qui coerceri potesL Tlie part,- used in the sense 
of a yerbal. So monstratus^ G. 31, which, Freund sajs, is Tacitean. 
The perf part pass. with negative prefix in often takes this sense. 
Z. 328. C£ note, His. 5, 7 : inexhaustum. 

Octavus annus. This was AgricoIb*s seventh summer in Britain. 
Sec note 29 : initio aestatis. But it being now later in the season, 
than when he entered Britain, he was now entering on his eighth 
year. Cf. Rit in loc. 

Virtute-Romani. By the valor and favoring auspices of the 
Roman Empire. "War was formerlj carried on auspiciis Popvii 
Rom. But after Augustus, auspiciis Ifnperatoris or Jmperii Rom. 

Mxpeditionibus-proeliis. These words denote the tim^ of poeni- 
tuit {}n or during so many, etc) — Patientia and labore are abh 
after opus. 

Terminos. Acc. after egressi (H. 371, 4) : having transeendea 
the limits. Cf. Z. 387. 

PamOf rumore. Synonjms. Also castriSf armis. C£ note, 80. 

Vota-aperto. Yowr vows and your valor noto havefree scope (are 
^ the open field), cf note 1 : in aperto. 

In frontem. Antith. to Jugientibus. Hence =— progredien- 

Hodie. To-day^ i. e. in our present circumstances of prosperity, 

Nee-fuerit. Nor will it have been ingloriouSf sc when the thing 
•hall have been done and men shall look back upon our achieve- 
ments. The fiit. pert is appropnate to such a oonception. 

Naturaefne. Cf. note, G. 45: illuc usque natura. 

XXXIY, Hortarer. JAteTaXlj, I woidd be exhorting you. Theuse 
of the iraperf. subj. in hypothetical sentences, where we should use 
t plup. (I would haye exhorted jou), is frequent both in Qreek and 
tAtiiu eyen when it denotes a complete past action, ct Z. 52& 

180 N0TE8. 

When the action is not complete, as here^ the Latio form is at oaet 
more liyelj and more exact than the Engliah. — Proximo ann^ 
Thifl same expression may signifj' either the next year, or the last 
year. Here of course: the Uut year, referring to the battle de- 
Bcribed in 26, cf. also note 29 : Initio aeatatis, 

Furto noctii, Cf. Virg. Aen. 9, 897 : fraude noctis. 

Contra ruere. Jiush forth to meet, penetrantibuSf etc R. and 
Wr. take ruere for perf. 3d pL inatead of ruerunt, since T. uses the 
fcrm in ere much more than that in erunt, Kit makes it inf. after 
tolet understood, or rather implied in pelluntur, wiiich^p«//t iolent, 

Quoa-quod, Whom, as to tliefact that you have cU lengih found 
(it is not because) they have taJcen a standf but they have been over^ 
taken. Ct Wr. and Or. in loc. On deprehensi, ct note, T. On 
qitod""^ to thisj that, eee examples in Freund, or in anj L«x- 

Noviesimae-vestigiie. TJie exiremity of their cireumatances, and 
their bodies (motionless) toith terror have brought them to a ttand 
for battle on this apotf etc One MS. reads novissime and omltB 
aciem, which reading is followed in the common editions. 

Extremo metu is to be closely connected with corpora, For the 
seuse of defixere^ cf. Ann. 18, 5 : payore defixis. 

JSderetis, Subj. cf. H. 600, 2 ; Z. 656, a. 

Transigite cum expeditionibus^^mte expeditiones. Br. C£ G. 
19 : cum spe-transigitur, note. 

Quinquaginta annis, So many years, it might be said to be in 
round numbers^ though actuallj somewhat less than fifbj years^ 
since the dominion of Kome was first established in Britain under 
the Emperor Claudius. C£ 13, supra. — ^The epeech of A. is not 
equal to that of Galgacus. He had not so good a cause. He could 
not appeal to the sacred principles of justice and liberty, to the love 
of home and household gods. But he makes the best of a bad cause 
The speech is worthy of a Roman commander, and touches witb 
masterly skill all those chords in a Koman soldier^s breast^ that were 
never touched in vain. 

XXXV. Et^^mboth, Both while he was speaking and after he 
had ceased, the soldiers manifested their ardor, etc. 

Instinctos. Cf. note 16: instinctL 

Aciem firmarent^^Qicm firmam facerent» of which use there aift 
dzamples not only in T., but in Liv. Dr. The auxiliary foot /orm«a 
or made up (not merely strengthened) the eentre, — Affundertniur 


^lVett aUaehed tc^Fro vallo, On ihe rampart ; properly on Jb€ 
tore part of it. Cf. note, H. 1, 29. 

Ingen^-decus, In app. with leglones-ttetere. 

JBellantif bc Agricolae. AL bellandi 

In speciem. Cf. in suam famam, 8, and in jactationem, 5. 

Aequo. Supply consisteret to correspond with insurgeret 
Zeugma. Cl note, 18 : in aequum. 

Media campi, The intervening parts of the plain, bc bctweea 
tlie two armies. — Covinarius is found only in T. Covinarii^ihe 
eesedarii of Caesar. CoyaHus erat currus Belgarum, a quibus eura 
Britanni acceperant Dr. 

Pedes. Nom. sing. in app. with subject of eonstitit. 

XXXVI. Ingentibtts gladiis, etc. So below: parva scutat etc 
The small shield and broad sword of the Highlanders. 

J)onee-cohortatu8 est. Ci note, G. 3*7 : affectavere. — Batavorum 
eohortes. AL ires-cohartea, But the number is not specified in the 
best MSS. In the Histories» eight cohorts of Batavians are often men- 
tioned as constituting the auxiliaries of the 14th legion, which was 
now in Britain. See Kit in loc 

Ad mucrones. The Britons were accustomed to fight with f he 
edge of the sword, and cut and hew the enemy. The Romans, on 
the contrary, made use of the point. Of course in a close engage- 
menty thej would have greatly the adyantagc Br. — Ad manua. 
The opposite of eminus, i. e. a cloee engagement. The same thing is 
expressed below hj complexum armorufn. 

In aperto pugnam. Literally a fight in the open field, i. e. a 
regular pitched battlct which with ito compact masses would be less 
favorable to the large swords of the Britons^ than a battle on 
ground uncleared of thickets and forests. Al. tn arto, 

Miscere, ferire, etc A series of inf. denoting a rapid succession 
of eyents, cf. note, 5: noscere-nosci; G. 80: praeponere. 

Equitwn turmae, sc Britannorum. The word turmae is appli- 
eable to such a cayalry as theirs^ cf. Ann. 14, 84: Britannorum 
eopiae passim per cateryas et tttrmas exsultabant. Br. Kj. and 
others here understand it of the Roman cayalry. But R. Dr. and 
"Wr. apply it to the Britons^ and with reason, as we shall see below, 
and as we might infer indeed from its dose connexion with covinari^ 
iet the covinarii were certainly Britons. 

Ptditum proeliOf hostium agminibus. These also both refer to 
tfie Britons, The coyinarii were interspersf^ among their own 

182 N0TE8. 

mfantiy, and, as the Romans adyanced, became entangled witb 
them. This is disputed. But the small number of Romans slun in 
the whole battle is alone enough to show, that their cavaliy wa0 
not routed, nor their infantry broken in upon by the chariota of the 
enemy. Moreover, how could T. properly use the word hostiwn oi 
his own country men T 

Minimeqtie^ etc. This is one passage, among a few in T., whicb 
is so manifesUy corrupt that no sense can be made of it, as it stands 
in the MSS. Tbe reading given in the text is the simplest of all the 
conjectural rendings that have been proposed. li ie jhat of Br. and 
£., and is followed hy the common editiona Cavalry took a large 
part in the battle. But the battle wore little the aspect of an 
equestrian fight; for the Britons, after maintaining their position 
with difficultj for some time, were at length swept awaj by the 
bodies (the mere uncontrolled bodies) of the horses — ^in short^ the 
ridtf^rs had no control over horses or chariot^ which rushed on with- 
out drivers obliquely athwart^ or directly through the lines» as their 
fears severally impelled them ; all which was in marked contrast tc 
a Roman's idea of a regular battle of cavalry. 

XXXVII. Vacui. Freefrom apprehenaion, 

Nu Ct note 4 : nL — Svhita hclli, Unexpected emergencies aris* 
ing in the course of the battle. C£ 6 : inania honoris. 

Grande et atrox spectaculumy etc See a similar desciiption in 
Sal. Jug. 101. The series of infinitives and the omission of the con* 
nectives (asyndeton) make the succession of events very rapid and 
animated, Compare the famous veni, vidi, vto, of Caesar. 

Frout-^at, According to their different natural disposition, 
L e. tlie timidy thovgh armed, turned their backs be/ore in/erior 
numbera ; tohile tHk brave, though unarmed, met death in the 

Praestare terga is an expression found only in T. 

Et aliqttandOf etc. Et^^^LC tamen, And yet (notwithstanding 
the flight of crowds and the passive death of some as above) some- 
times to the conquered aho there was anger and hravery. The 
language is Yirgilian, c£ Aen. 2, 367. 

Quod, C£ note 12. — Ni /reqtLens-fidueicm /oret. "Had not A., 
who was everywhere present, caused some strong and lightly equip- 
ped cohorts to encompass the ground, while part of the cavaliy 
having dismounted, made thelr way through the thickets» and part 
on horseback scoured the open woods^ some disaster would have 
prcoeeded from this excess of confidence." Ey. 


XXXVIIL Gaudio pnudaque laetfu Ct note, G. 7: eibot li 
kortamina. Obserye also tne juxtaposition of tempestats and fama 
in this same chapter. 

Separarey sc consilia, i. e. they sometlm^s act in concertf some- 
times proviie only for their individual safety. 

Pignorum. Cf. note G. 7 : pignom — Saevisse. Laid violent 
kands. "This picture of rage and despair, of tenderneae, furj, 
tncl the turault of contending passions, has all the fine touches 
jf a master who has studied human nature." Mur. — Secreti»^ 

Ubu Wheny cf. 26. Ita dii-ect influence extends to nequibatf 
and with its clause, it expresses the reason why A. di«w off his 
forces into the country of the HorestL — Spargi hellum — diversis 
locis, vel diviso exercitu, vel vagando bellum geri. R 

Secundor-fama. favored hy the toeather atid the glory of their 
past achievements (lit. the weathcr and f&mefollounng them, secunda 

TVutulensem portum^ Some port, now untnown, probably near 
Jie mouth of the Tay or the Forth. Unde qualifies lecto. R With 
redierat a corresponding adv. denoting whither, is to be supplied : 
whence it had set sail, and whither, after having surveyed all the 
nearest coast of Britain, it had now returned. ffad retumed, i. e. 
prior to entering the port ; the action of redierat, was prior to that 
of tenuit. Hence plup. Proximo^ nearest^ sc to the scene of Agii 
cola's operations, L e. the whole northern coast from the Forth to 
the Clyde and back again. This was all that was necessary to 
prove Britain to be an island (cf. chap. 10), the southern coast 
having been previously explored. 

XXXIX Aetum^ Al. auctum, a conjecture of Lipsiu& Actwn 
mmdrjated of reported — Moris erat. H. 402, 1. ; Z. 448, N. 1. 
N. 1. 

Falsum-triumphum. He had returned without so much aa 
seeing the enemy (Dio Cass. 67, 4); and yet he bought slavea^ 
dressed them in German style, had their hair stained red (G. 4: 
rutilae comae) and lefb long, so ^s to re$^mble Germans, and then 
marched in triumph into Rome with his train of pretended cap> 
iivesl Caligula had doue the same before him. Suet. Calig. 47. 

yormarentur. Subj. in a relative claiise denoting a purpose 
[quorunu^ut eoii-um). H. 600 ; Z. 667. 

Studia-acta. Lawyers and politicians, all pub.ic men, hftd been 
gagged and silenced by Domitian 


IS4 N0TE8. 

Alhu, Anolher than the Emperor. — Occuparet^^re-ocetipy^ fc 
«8 io rob him of it 

Uteumqne. Somehow, possibly, perhaps. Otfier thinga perhapi 
were more ecLsily concealed ; but ihe merit of a good cotnmander wa4 
an imperial prerogative. 

Quodgtte-scUiatua. And tohat toas a proof of some crud pur- 
poie^ voholly abaorbed in his retirement (where he never plotted any 
thing but mischief^ and where in early life he is Baid to have 
amudcd himself with killing flica, Suet Dom. 8). Cl Plin. 
Pancgyr. 48: nec nnquam ex solitudine sua prodeuntem, nisi nt 
eolitudinem faceret Tlie whole passage in Pliny is a graphic pio- 
ture of the same tyrknt^ the workings of whose hcart are here so 
laid bare by the pen of Pliny*8 friend Tacitus. Seereto-satiaim 
may also be translated : satvtfied toith his oton aecretf L e. keeping to 
himself his cherished hatred and jealousy. — LanguescereL Subj. 
after donec, Cf. note, G. 37 : affectavere. 

Reponere odium. See lexicon under repono for this phrase. 

Lnpetus-exercitus. Until the freshtiess of his glory, and his 
popularity vnth the army should gradually decline. 

Etiarn tum obtinebatf i e. he was still in possession of the 
qovernmentf and of couree in command of the army, in Britain. 

XL. Triumphalia ornamenta. Not a real triumph, which 
from the reign of Augustus was conceded only to the Emperor or 
tlie princes of the Imperial Family ; but tnumphal insignia, Buch 
as the corona^ laurea, toga praetexta, tunica palmata^ sella curulis, 
&G. Dr. 

Jllustris statuae. Called laureata^ Ann. 4, 23; triumpJialis, 
His. 1, 79. 

Quidquid datur. Besides the omamenia above mentioned, sacri- 
fices and thanksgivings werc offcred in the name of the victoriouii 
commander. Dr. 

Addique. A1. additque. Addique is th^ reading of tlie MSUi. 
end old editions. And it suits better the genins of Dom. ; he did 
not express the opinionem himself, for it was not hie real intention, 
but he ordered some one to put it in circulation w if from hina, 
that he might have the credit of it and yet not b<» hound by it— « 
Destinarif sc. by Domitian. 

Majoribus reservatam. Jlffl;;oWfti*«»illu8trioribup Sjria wa* 
the richest province in the Empire, and the praefectsbi;^ of it tb« 
moet honorabl ) office. 

AG&ICOLA. 185 

Ex aeeretioribuj ministeriia, One o/ his private seeretarieft^ or 
totifidential agents, 

Codicillos, Uodcr the Emperora this word is used to denote an 
tiDperial letter or diploma. Properlj a billet^ diminutive of codex, 
tublet {^^"^audeXf trunk of a tree). 

Syria dahatur. Syria was one of the Provinces» that were at 
the disposal of the Emperor. 

Ex ingenio principis. In accordance with (cf. ex, G. 7) the (dis* 
nmulating) genius or policy of Bomiiian, The design, if not real, 
at least imputed to him, was to withdraw Agricola from his pro* 
vince and his troops at all events, bj the offer of the best province 
in the Empire if need be ; but that object having been secured bj 
Agricola*s voluntarj retirement, the offer, and even the ordinarj 
civilities of life, especiallj official life, were deemed unnecessarj. 
Compare tliis with the concluding sentence of the preceding 

Celebritate et frequentia. Hendiadjs : By the number of dii- 
tinguislted men who might go out to meet him (and escort him into 
the citj"). 

Cy?cf'o»— sftlutatione. Dr. — Brevi osculo, lit a ha»ty kissnstcold 
and formal scUtUation, The kiss was a common mode of salutation 
among the Komans^ in the age of the Emperors. See Becker*8 
Gallus, p. 64. 

Ihirbae servientium. The usual and characteristio associatea^ 
as well as attendants of Domitian. A severe cut» though quite in- 
cidental and very concise. 

Otiosos. Antith. to militare. Men in civil life, cf. note ou 
t>/ftO, 11. 

Otium auxit, Augere otium— sequi altissimum otium. Dr. 

P«if7ti«— inwardly, i. e. sincerely, zealously. So R. But Dr.— 
proreus, omnino, valde. — Cvltu m^dicus. Simple in dress, cC note 
on eultus, G. 6. — Comitatits, passive, so used bj Cic also. — Uho aut 
altero. One or two. 

Per ambitionem=ex vitae splendore et numeroso comitatu. Br. 
cf. note on amhitiOt G. 27. 

Quaererent-dnterpretarentur. Many inquired (with woiider) 
into the reputation (of a man so unassuming), and few explained oy 
\inderstood (the true reason of his humble mauner of life). Inter* 
tfretarentur, not famam but the fects above mentioned, and the 
iiAcessity A- was imder of living as he did. — Viso aspectoque. Ou 
lecina him and directin^ their attention particularly tn hi**i. 

186 N0TE8. 

XLL Cfrimen^public accutation. — Querela^privaie conplaini 
'^-Frineep*, gloria, genu%. Supply, a« » predicate, eai««a /)tfricu/< ; 
these were the causea that put A*s life in jeopardj. 

Militares v«n— ducea. So Corbulo is called, Ann. 15, 26. 

Expugnati et capti. Defeated and taken capttve, For. and FacL 
Properl 7 expvgnare is said of a fortress or cit j. Bnt ix troXutpKfw is 
Greek is used in the same way, of personSb Compare expugnaH» 
praesidiitf 16, note. The wan» particularly referred to are thoae 
ngninst Decebalua^ leadcr of the Daciana, which lasted four jears 
nnd in whicli Mocsia also wos invaded by tl>e Dacians, and seyeral 
Roman armies with their commaDders were ket (^uet Dom. 6.) ; 
and that of the Pannonian legions against the German tribes of thc 
Marcomanni and the Quadi (Dion, 67, 7). 

Hibemis-duhitatuan^ i. e. the enemj not only met tbem on the 
riyer banks^ which formed the bordera of the empire, bat attocked 
the winter quarters of their troops, and threatened to take awajr 
the ten*itorj thej hAd alreadj acquired. 

FuneribuSf sc. militarium yirornm. — Cladihu», ee, eobortiunau 

Amore et fide, Out ef affection and fidelity (sc. to their im- 
perial master). — Malignitate et livore. Out of envy and halred (sa 
towards A.). 

Pronum deteriorihus, Inclined to the worse measures, or it may 
be, to the worse cuivisers. 

In ipsam-agebatur^^inyiio gloria aucta, mmulque pernicies BO" 
celerata. "W". 

XLII. Asiae et Africae. He drew lots, which he shonld haYe^ 
both being put into the lot — Proconsulatum. See H. 1, 49. note^ on 
proconsuL A. had alreadj been consul, 9. 

Sortiretur. In which he UKndd, or such that he mustf obtaiH 6f 
lot, etc. Cf. H. 601, 1. ; Z. 658. 

Occiso Civica. C£ Suet Dom. 10: complures senatores, et ii) 
his aliquot consulares^ interemit^ ex quibua Civicam Cerealem in 
ipso Asiae proconsulatu. 

^ee Agricolae-exemphim. A warning was not wanting to A. 
(to ayoid the dangerous post) ; nor a precedent to Dom. (for dispo» 
ing of A. in the same waj if he accepted the of&ce). 

Iturusne esset. Subj. cf. H. 625 ; Z. 662. — Interrogareni. H. 
600 ; Z. 667. 

In-excusatione. ''- tyging his request (before Dom.) to (^ e» 


AGmuOLA. 187 

Parcdng simulaiioeie, AL simulationi. Fur^ivskcd with deceU^ 
unned, as it were, with hypocrisy, 

In arroganti^an compoutus. Assuming a proiid demeanor, 

Bcfveficii invidia^ Ut tha odium of such a kifidfieis 90 ediom m 
favor. The idea is, he did not blush to let A. i^tum thauks for a 
signal injury, as if it were a real kindneds. **A refinement <A 
o-uelty not unfrequently practised by tJie woirvt Romnn Emperoi-a." 
Ky. The only peculiarity in the case of Dom. was, tlie unblush 
ing impudence with which he perpeti-ated the wrong; c£ 45. See 
a fine eommentary on this passage in Sen. de Benel 4^ 17 : Quis 
est^ qui non beneficus videri vclitf qui non inter scelera ^ injurias 
opinionem bonitatis affectetf velit quoque iin videri heneficium, 
dedisse, quos laesit/ gratias itaque agi tibi ak kis, quok afflixere, 

Salarium. Pi-operly salt-money, i. e. a small allowance to tlie 
soldiera for the puix^hase of salt. C£ clavari*imt £L S, 50^ note. But 
after Augustus, ofiieial pay, salary. 

Ne-emiise. That he might not appear to kave ptirchased m 
compliance mth hit virtual prohibitiofi (viz. of A.'8 accepting the 

Proprium humani, etc. Mark the sentiment. 

Jrrevocabilior. More tmplacable. Fouod in this sense only in 
T. Cl Bot Lex. Tac 

Hlicitct. Unlawful, L e. forbidden by the powers that be. Ex- 
plained by eotitumacia and innfd jaetatione libertatis above. T. is 
animadverting upon tibe conduct of eei^tain «toics and republicane^ 
who obtruded t^ir opinions upon tiiose ia power, aud eoveted the 
glory of martyrdom. 

Eo-excedere. Beach the same height of distinction. E** 
Old dat c£ eo inopiete 28, note. Excedere, lit come out to^ 
arrive at Cf. VaL Max. 5, 6, 4: ad mmmum imperii /asligium 

Per abmpta. ** Througfi abrapt and dangerous paths.** Ky. 

Ambitiosa morte, L e. morte ultro adita captandae gloriae causa 
%piKi posteroa. For. and Fac 

XLIIL Luctuogus, afflietive, is stronger than tristie, sad. 

V^ulgus, The lower classes, the ignorant and indolent rabble.— 
Populus, The common people, tradesmen, mechanics, and the likei 
Hence, aliud agens, which implies that they were too busy with 
lofpething else of a private nature, to give much attention to pnblia 

183 NOTE8. 

tfTairs or tho concerus of their neighbors. — PoptUvt and vulguh aR 
bronght together in a similar way, Dial. de Clar. Orat 7 : Vulgui 
quoque iraperitum et tunicatus hic populus, etc 

Nolm-atttciin, I shoitld not dare to affirm thcU vje (the fricnds ol 
A.) fmnd any conclmive proof that he was poisoned. — Ceterum. 
BtU. This implies that the circumstantial evidence, which he goet 
on to specify, convinced the writei and hia friends, as well as the 
public, that poison administered by direotion of Dom., was reolly 
the means of hastening A. out of the world. Dion Cassius expressly 
afflrma, that he was poi:»oned, 6G, 20. 

PrincipcUus, The impenal government iu general, L e. former 

Momenta ip-^a deficientis, JSach sueceMive slage of his decline, 
Ip»a is omitted in the common editiens. But it rests on goi»d 
authority and it adds to the significance of the elause : tke verp 
momentSf as it were, were rcported to Doro. 

Per dispositoa cursorcs, Dom. appears not to have been ai 
Rome at this time, but in the Alban Yilhi (cl 45), or somewhcre 

Constabat. Tliat was ftn admitted point^ about which there waa 
entire agreemcni (con and «/o). 

Animo vultuque. Hent^iadys: he loore in his countenance an 
ezpreasion of hearifelt grief. 

Securus odiL Now, that A. was dead, Dom. had nothing to 
fear in regard to the object of his hatred^ or the ffrcUiJieation of hU 
hate. Odiu Gen. of the re^oect — Qw-dissimiUaret. Qui^^alig, 
utf hence the subj. H. 501, 1. ; Z. 558. 

Zccto testamento. Whcn A.** wHl was rcad. 

Honore judidoque. As if a mnrk of honor and esteem. K saysM 
judicio honorifico. — Piissimae, devoted. affectionate. 

Malum principem, It was customarv for rich men at Rome, who 
were anxious to secure any of their pronertv to their heirs^ to be- 
queath a part of their estates to bad empe^ors in order to secure 
the remainder from their rapacity. 

This and several preceding sections present a most graphic otil- 
line of the life and times of Dom., the more to be pnzed. becausa 
the full picturCf which T. doubtless drew of him in th*» Histories. ii 
lost. The Histories and the Annals are a vast portrnit gallerv fiill 
of Buch pictures drawn to the life. 

XLIV. Natus-excessit. The dates assigned for A.*8 birtli an<l 
'leoth, do not agree with the age ascribed to him. Thcy may b^ 

AORiCOLA. 189 

hai*m(mized in either of two ways, each of which has its adyocates; 
by reading primum instcad of iertium, or, which is pcrhaps a moi*e 
probable amendment, since it only alters the relative position of the 
two characters, hy reading LIV instead of LVI. 

Quod sL And if, «o?o if. — Jlabitum, Piraonal appearancCy c£ 
G. 5. 

Decentior giiam sublimior. Wdl proportionedf rather than 
Ull. R. 

Nihil metus. Nothing to inspire feat in his countenance, 
Antith. to gratia-mpererat : kiridnesa of expression rather prevailed. 
Bo Gr. and R. For this sense of metus, see note G. 2 : ob metum. . 
Dod. distingoishes betwecn vultxu and ori%, maki ng the formei refer 
more to the eyes (as if from volvoy the rolling of the eve), to which 
it belongs to express anger and fierceness; the latter to the mouth, 
which is more expressiye of kindness. 

Medio-aetatia. We should hardly say so of a man dying ai 
66. But in Dial. de Clar. Orat., T. speaks of 120 years, as uniua 
hominis aetas. 

M vera hona. T. has here in mind the distinction made b; 
philosophers, particularly the Stoics, between the yirtues, whicb 
they called the only real good^ and the gifts of fortune, which thcy 
declared to be indifferent. — Et-ety both-and^ marks the distinctiou 
more strongly. 

Jmpleverat. JETad enjoyed to thefull, 

Constdari. Having attaitied to the rank of cmisvl (tbe summlt 
of a Roman*s ambition) and Kaving been honored toith triumphal 
insignia, Al. consularibus. But constdari has the better authority 
and makes the bettcr seiise. 

Opibua-contigerant, Great riches he did not desire; a respecta- 
ble property it toas his goodfortune to possess^ e£ o : medio rationia 
atque abundantiae. Al. non contigerant But considerable pro- 
perty is implied in the circumstauces attending his will, 43, also 
in his not asking the usual salary, 42. Dion Cass say^, however, 
(66, 20.), that A. spent his last days in want, as tvell as in disgrace, 
For another explanation of gaudebdi^ cl n. G. 6. 

Quod-ominabatur, Qtiod is omitted in the comraon editions. 
But it is found in the MSS. And it may be explained on the 
principle of Zeugma^ by supplying with durare and videre a verb 
huplied in grande solatium tulit thus : though {sicuti) it vfoidd have 
ieen a great graiification to A. to behold the dawn of this auspiciout 
stge and see Trajan Emperor^ of which he expressed in my hearing 

• 190 NOTE&. 

m 9ort of prophetic antieip<Uion and desire, yet (ita\ etc DioL 
Cassius affirms (69» 12), tbat by auguries the elevation of Tmjan tc 
the tbi'one was foretold, as early aa A. U. C. 844, L e. tw> year% 
before the death of A, The reference to Trajan here, as in S, 
marks clearly the date of the composition, c£ not*, 3 : augeatque 

Spiramentcu Breathing-spelhf L e. intervals to recover and 
take breatb in. The word is found only in poetry and poet-Augus- 
tan prose, and, in the expressive sense in which it is here used, onl j 
in Ammian. Marc 29, 1. See Or. and Freund. 

Velut uno iciu, The comraentators illustrate the force of thia 
expression hy reference to Cftligula*8 wish (Vid. Sen. de Va. 8, 19), 
thnt the Koman people had but one neck, ut scelera sua in unum 
ictum et unum diem cogeret 

XLV. Non vidit Bid not see, ns he would have done, had he 
lived a few yeara longer. This passage resembles Cic. de Orat 8, 2, 
8, too closely to be mere coincidence. Imitator tamen, id quod uni 
Tacito contigit^ auctoi^e suo praestantior. Rit. 

Consularium, Rhen. collects from Suet the names of several 
victims of Dom.'s displeasure, tolio had heen conauls. 

Feminarunu Pliny has preserved the names of several of this 
list — Gratilla, wife of Kusticus, Arria, wife of Thrasea, Fannia, 
daughter of Thrasea and betrothed to Helvidius. Their husbanda 
will be remembered as having been mentioned in 1 and 2. 

Caru9 Metius. An infamous informer, cf. Pliu. Epist 7, 19 ; Juy. 
1, 36; Mart 12, 26, 6. 

Censehatur. Was honoredy ironice. Censeri est aestimari, siye 
existimationem consequL Br. 

^UtiOHvictoria. He had occasioned the death of but one innocent 
yictim. — Adhuc. Up to the death of A., cf 6. 38 : adhuc^ note. 

Alhanam arcer^. A favorite retreat of Dom. (situated at the 
foot of the Alban Mount^ about seyenteen miles from Rome), where 
he sometimes convened the Seuate. and held his court with its troop 
of informers, ct note, 43 : cursores. Kit in loc suggests, that by 
the use of arcem instead of palatiuniy T. means to represent Donu» 
tian as shutting himself up, like many tyrants, in a fortified ca<!tle, 
and thence seuding forth the emissaries of his jealousy and cruelty. 

Sententia. His voicCj his sentiment expressed in council bcfoi'« 
Dom. '—Intra Alhanam arcem, i e. privatety^ not puhlicly, as after 
wards at Kome. 


Meisalinu Fuit mter principes adulatorca ot delatorea. I)r. cC 
riio. Epist 4, 22; Juv. 4, 113, seq. 

MoMa Be6iu8, Primus inter pares of Domitiaa^s tools. H« 
began his career tiiider Vesp. cf. His. 4^ 50. He was afterwardi 
impeached aad ooQdemoed at tlie iostance of the Proviaoe of Bae- 
tica, Pliny and Seoecio advocates for the impeachmeniy Plin. Epist 
V, 33 ; 3, 4 ; 6, ^^«'Wam tunu At that very time on trial, not merelj 
mlready at Ihat tiftie, Ci Hand's Tursel. 8, 113. 

NoBtra^ sc of the Senate, of which T. was a member, though 
ftbroad at the time. Helvidius was arrested in tke tenate hmtse, ci 
Plin. Ep. 9, 13. Tbis was Helvidius the som, who was put to death 
by Dom. (Suet 10), as his father was by Vesp. (Suet 15). 

Vi^ua, AL divisus. rt»iM-*8pecics» adspectus» Wr. — Perfudit. 
Zeugma. Uadei^stand in the first clause korrore perfudit (Dr.) or 
probro affecit (R.): the fpectmcle of Jfauricvu tuid Jtu9ticus (hun'ied 
awaj, the oae io exile, the other to death), jUled «s mih horror ; 
«00 were stained bf the innocent hlood of Senecio. Of Rusticus and 
Senecio, see 2, note. Of Maurhcus, see Plia. Ep. 4, 22: «[uo viro 
Dihil firmius^ aihil verius. Also Plin. Ep. 3, 11. 

Videre, sc. Domitianum. — A^ici^ sc « Domitiana For differ- 
«nce in the signification ia these words^ cfl 40: viso aspectoque, 

Sitspiria-subscriberentur. When onr sighs (of sympathy with 
the condemned) were registtred against us (by spies and informers, 
as a ground of accusation before the Emperor). 

Jinbor, E^dness, referring to th« complexion of Dorl, which 
was such as to conoeal « blush, c£ Suet Dom. 18: vulta ruboris 

Opporiunitate mortis, An expression of Cic, in the similar 
passage above cited (de Orat ^ 2, 8), toudiing the death of Crassua. 

Pro virili portionef lit for one man^s diare, referring primarilj' 
lo pecuntarj assessments. Here : for thy part^^so far ^ tkou wast 
tencemed, A. died with a oalmness whlch would Bcarcelj admit 
of the suppo»tion, tbat fae felt himself to be a victim of poison and 
unperial jealousy. 

£Uiaque ejus. The apostrophe i« laere dropped to be resumed 
ai optime parentum. So the Jk^S. For they read ^us here, and 
wnissus est below. lUftenaniis oraitted ejus, and wrote es iot €St; 
«nd ha has been followed in the.oommon editions sinoe. 

CDn^one. By Ihe circumstanoe, or hj virtue tyf our loii|; 
•faieiiO0b T. and his wi£s had parted with A. four jrears befon 

192 N0TE8. 

bii dcatli, and bad been abeent from Rome evcr sincc, where ot 
wby does not appear. 

Superfwre. Cf. tuperest, G. 6, note. 

XLVL 8apientibu9, Cf. sapientiae professoribus^ 2, note. — Tb 
immortalihus laudihus. I feel constrained to recur to the reading 
of Lipsius and Ritter, it is so much more spirited than quam tem- 
poralibua. Potius manifestlj' should refer back to lugeri and 
plangi. The companson conlained in the raore common reading i^ 
uncolled for in the connection, and of little significance in itscll 
The MSS. read temporalibus laudibus without qttam and this raay 
be more easilj resolved into te immorlalibuSf than qnam can be 
supplied. — Similitudine. Al. aemulntione. For such a use of 
similitudo, cf. Cic Tusc Quaest 1, 46, 110: quorum (sc Curii, 
Fttbricii, Scipionum, etc), nmilitudinem aliquam qui arripuerit^ etc 

Decoremun. Ennius (cited by Cic Tusc Q. 1, 49, 117, and de 
Senect 20, 73), uses the same word in expressing the same senti- 
meut: nemo me lacrumis decoret nec funem fletu faxit C£ also 
O. 26. 

Formam. This makes the sense so much better (than famcmC^ 
that R Dr. Wr. R. and most others have adopted it against tlie 
authority of the MSS. cf. forma m^ntis^ below, and Cic passim. 

Intercedendum^ To be prohibited. Properly said of a veto intev 
poaed hy the Tribunes ; theu of any prohibition. — .^on quict^^no^ 
thafy is characteristio of late writers. It is followed by the subj. 
Z. 637, and note H. 1, 15. 

Manet, mansurumque ett. Cf. Vell. Paterc 2, 66, 5: vivit^ 
vivetque per omnem saeculornm memoriam. The periphrastic foi*m 
(tnansurum est) differs however from the future [manebit), as our 
ia to remain from will remain. See Z. 498. 

Oblivio obruet, sc for want of a historian, carent quia vatt 
saerOf cf. Hor. Od. 4, 9, 25, seq. Bj mvJtoa veterum, T. means many 
ancients of real voorth. So velvi implies. A. is to be immortalized 
through his biographer. This is implied in narratia et traditus, 
Ancient authors thought it not improper to express a calm conscioua- 
ness of merit and a proud confidence of immortalitjr. T. is very 
modest and deHcate in the manner of intimating his expectationa 
8ut the sentiment of these last words is substantiallj the same 
with the line of Horace : Exegi monumentum aere perennius. The 
rhole peroration of this Biographj is one of singular beauty and 
moi*a] elevation. Pathetic, yet calm, rich in noble sentimenta and 
animated bj the purest and loftiest spiiit, it is a fit topstone ta 

A6RIC0LA. 193 

tliab moDUineDt^ ia respect to which T. felt so well fouaded an 
BfisiiraDce, wbich still manet mansurumque est in animis hominwn, 
In aeternitate tetnporumy fama rerum^ There is scarcely aD edu- 
cated youth iu CbristeDdom who is Dot as faDiiliar with the Dame 
of ^gricola, as with that of ^aeas aad Uljssea. Aad the odIv 
reasoD why we kaow aDjthiag of these heroea^ is the geaius of their 
respective biographers. There had beeu other Agricolas before 
the age of Ti^ajaa, as there had beeu other heroes like .^eas, and 
other wandering sages like Ulyeses, before the war of Troy. But 
they found do Tacitus, Virgil, aud Uoii^er to record their advcDtuiv 
ous aad virtuous deeds. It is the prerogative of emincDt writera 
to confer iraraortality ; aad though Alexauder would prefer to be 
Achilles rather thau Iloraer, we should have kaowa little of hifl 
achievementa, had hc not encouraged scholars as well as wciTiors^ 
and rewarded gonius no less thaa valur. 


Harkness^s Elements of Latin Grammar. 

This work is intended especlaUj for those who do not contemplate 
ft collegiate course, but it majr be successfulljr used in anj school where, 
for special reasons, a small grammar is deemed desirable. The beginner 
needs to store his mind at the outset with the laws of the language in 
■uch forms of statement as he can carrjr with him throughout his whole 
course of studjr. The convenience and interest of the student in this 
regard have been carefulljr consulted in the preparation of this manual. 
All the paradigms, rules, and discussions, have been introduced in the 
ezact language of thc author's Grammar, bj which it maj at anj time 
be supplemented. While, therefore, in manj schools this work wiU be 
found a sufficient Latin Grammar, it maj be used in others, either as 
preparatorj to the larger Gramraar, or in connection with it. 

No separate references to this volume will ever be needed in cditionii 
of Latin authors, as the numbering of the articles is the same as in the 
larger Grammar. 

From Pres. Coblbioh, Tmnessee Wealet/' 
an Uhiversitj/. 

" This work is verj timefy. I regard 
it as iDdispeiiBabie iii many sctiools in the 

From Prof. W. IT. ToTma, Ohio Urd- 

** I most heartflj commend thls work. 
I have for somo time felt its need. It 
eeems to make jour Latin coorse com- 

From Prof. C. G. Httdsoit, Gtnesee Wea- 
leya/n Seminary^ Lima^ N. Y. 

" I can heartilj recommend It I think 
that it is SQperior to aU rivals.'** 

From Prof. H. D. Walkeb, OrangetiUe 
Academy^ Pa. 

" In mj opinion, no work of Professor 
flarkness will be mnre widelj nsed, or 
more yaloable. than thls. It supplles a 
want long teXt bj teaehers. It is clear, 
thorongh, and snfficientlj extended for 
ordinarj students." 

jFVo»» Prof B. H. Manlet, ComeU Ool- 
lege, lowa. 

" I think it one of the finest compendi- 
nms of Grammar I have ever seen. It 
mnst prove of great service as a prepara- 
«orj driU-book.'' 

From Prof L. P. Pabssr, lowa CoUege. 

"I feel nnder personal obligation for 
this new incentive and aid to classical 

From H. F. LAin5, IRgh School, TempU- 
ton^ Maes. 

** It is exncUy adapted to onr wants. 
We nse all of Harkness^s books — Gram- 
mar, Beader, and Composition. We con- 
sider them emphaticallj * the best.' ^ 

From Prof. J. A. Kbllt!B, EeideJberg 
College^ Ohio. 

** I waa Bnrprised to find so ftill an ont- 
Hne of Latin Grammar comprised within 
Buch narrow limits.^^ 

From Prof. M. B. Bboww, Notre-Danu 

*'In mv opinion, it is lust the book 
which has long been needed. It is a book 
to be leamed ewtire.9316. is complete as ftr 
as it goes. Prof. Harkness deserves th» 
thanks both of students and teachers.^ 

From Eev. B. G. Nobthbop, Secretary 
qf Board qf Edvcation^ Qmn. 

**I am highlj pleased with Harkness^s 
Elements of Latin Grammar. Its brevi^ 
commends it for beginners and for all 
contemplattng a partia) Latin ooora» oi 


A Latin Gramniar for Schools and CoUeges. 

By A. HARKNESS, Pn. D., Profesaor in Brown University. 

To explain the general plan of the work, the Publishers ask the atten- 
tion of teachers to the foUowing extracts from the Preface : 

1. This volume is designed to present a systematic arrangement of the 
great facts and laws of the Latin language ; to exhibit not only grammat- 
ical forms^ and constructions, but also those vitcUprinciples which under- 
lie, control, and explain them. 

2. Designed at once as a text-book for the class-room, and a book of 
reference in study, it aims to introduce the beginner easily and pleasantly 
to the first principles of the language, and yet to make adequate provL 
eion for the wants of the more advanced student. 

3. By brevity and conciseness in the choice of phraseology and com^ 
pactness in the arrangement of forms and topics, the author has endeav- 
ored to compress within the limits of a convenient manual an amount of 
carefully-selcoted grammatical facts, which would otherwise fiU a mucb 
larger volume. 

4. He has, moreover, endeavored to present the whole subject in the 
light of modem scholarship. Without encumbering his pages with any 
unnecessary discussions, he has aimed to enrich them with the prculicak 
results of the recent labors in the field of philology. 

6. Syntax has received in every part special attention. An attempt 
has been made to exhibit, as clearly as possible, that beautiful system of 
laws which the genius of the language — that highest of all grammatical 
authority — ^has created for itself. 

6. Topics which require extended illustration are first presented in 
their completeness in general outline, before the separate points are dis- 
cussed in detail. Thus a single page often foreshadows all the leading 
features of an extended discussion, imparting a completeness and vividnesa 
to the impression of the leamer, impossible under any other treatment. 

7. Special care has been taken to explain and illustrate with the requi^ 
Bite fuhiess all difficult and intricate subjects. The Subjunotive Mood — > 
ihat severest trial of the teacher^s patience — ^has been presented^ it is 
hoptd, in a form at once simple and comprehensivoi 


Harkness^s Caesar. 

This edition of Gsesar^s Oommentarics, intendcd to follow the Latin 
Roader, aims to introduce the student to an appreciative studj of Latin 
authors. The text is the result of a careful coUation of the several edi- 
ti^Ds most approved hj European scholars. The notes are intended to 
g'.iidc the faithful efifbrts of the learner, and to furnish him such collateral 
information as will enable him to understand the stirring eyents recordcd 
in the Oommentaries, and such special aid as will enable hini to surmount 
rcal difficulties of construction and idiom. They will thus, it is hoped, 
rendcr an acceptable service both to the instructor and the learner, by 
lightening the burden of the one, and by promoting the progress of the 
other. The dictionary has been prepared with special reference to the 
wants of the student. 

The Life of Osesar, thc Map of Gaul, and the diagrams and illustra- 
tions which accompany the notes, will greatly add to the value of the 

Ffom Pres. AiKnr, Vhion College^ N. Y. ' 

** This edition of the Commentaries is 
admirably suited, not merely to give tbe 
Btadent an acqaaintanee with his immedl- 
ate text-book, bat also to develop those 
habitsof investigation, that thoughtfUlness 
in regard to the scope of the whole subjoct, 
and that style of vigoroos, tasteftil, and 
idiomatic rendering, which are among the 
rarest, as they are certainly among the 
most important, results of classicai study." 

From 8. H. Tatloe, LL. D., PhiUipa 
Academy^ Andover^ Masa. 

"The notes are prepared with a judi- 
cions appreciation of the wants of the pupil. 
They show the hand of tho flnished scholar, 
as well as of the experienced teacher.^^ 

From Prof. W. A. Paokasd, Prinoeton 
CoUege^ N. J. 

** The notes are models of what the be- 
ginner needs to interest and gnide him. 
The text is flimished with the best illus- 
trations in the way of maps and plans.^* 

From Prof. W. T. Johnsow, Notre-Dame 
Univeraity, Ind. 
"Thia Is certainly an excellent text- 
boolc — superior to any othcr edition of the 
Commentaries now in use." 

From Pres. MoEldownet, AUnon CW- 
lege^ Mich. 

" Thii» is the most vaiuable edition of 
Cttaar with which I am acquainted.*^ 

From Prof. H. W. Hatnks, University </ 

" Never befbre have I seen snch 4 lucld 
and simple explanation of Ceesar^s bridge 
across the Bhine.^^ 

From Prof. C. S. HABBmGTON, Weeleyan 
Unvoetmty^ Conn. 

"The student who uses this edition 
must read Caesar with a lively relish." 

From Prof. W. A. Stevbws, Denieon Uni- 
vereity OMo. 

"■ The notes are gotten np on the right 
principle, and are greatly superior to those 
of similar works in England.^ 

F^om Prof J. E, Gintneb, Otterbein Uni- 
veraity^ Ohio, 

"This is the only edition of Csesar rec- 
onmiended to our dasses.*^ 

From A. D. Sandbobv, Witton Seminary, 

" I know of no work of the kind in 
which the notes so ftilly meet the wants 
of both teacher and pupu. I am delighted 
with the life of Caesar.'^ 

From Prof. 8. Hasseli^ >Stof0 Normal 
UniverHty^ Pel. 

" This edition of Caesar Is snperior to 
aU others puUished in this conntiy. Tha 
biograpliical sketch of the Komaa 0019- 
mander is a splendid production.^^ 


ArnoWs First Latin Book ; 

RemodcUed and Rcwritteii) and adapted to the OUendorff Methodof 
Instruction. B7 ALBERT HARENESS, A. M. 12mo, 302 pagea. 

Undcr the Uibors of tbe present anthor, the work of Amold has imdei^goiM radical 
ehanges. It has boon adapted to the OUendorff improyod method of instroction, and is 
Buperlof to the fbrmer work in its plan and all the dotails of instmction. Wliile it pro- 
•cods in oommon with Amold on the principle of imitation and repetitlon, it puraues 
much more exactly and withasurer step the progressive method, and aims to make th« 
pupll mastor of every indlvidual subjoct belbre he proceeds to a new one, and of each 
Bubject by itself beforo tt is combincd with others ; so that he is bronght gndJuUy MiaA 
snroly to onderstand the most difflcult combiuations of the langoage. An Impoctaiii 
feature of this book iss that it carrios along the Syntax pari pawu with the Etymologx, 
BO that the studcnt Is not only all the while bccoDiing fiunlliar with tho forma of thelan- 
gnage, but Is also Icarnlng to constniot sentcncos and to undorstond the mntaalrelaUooa 
of their componcnt pnrts. 

Special care has bcen takon in tho exerclsos to present such idioms and «zpreaslona 
alone as are aulhorizcd by tho best clossic authors, so that tho leamer may aoqoire by 
example as woU as procopt, a distinct idea of puro Latinity. 

It has bcon a leading objoct with tho author so to classify and arrange tiie Tirioiis 
toplcs as to simpliiy tho subjoct, and, as fiiraspossible, toremovethedishearteniiigdifll- 
eulties too ofton oncountorcd at the outsot in the study of an anciont langoage. 

From "W. E. Tolman, Instruetor in Providenee IRgh Sehooi. 

** I have nscd Amold'8 Fhrst Latin Book, remodeUed and rewritten by Mr. HarimeM, 
In my classes during the past year, and find it to be a work not bo mndi remodelled and 
rcwritten as one entirtly new^ both in its plan and in its adaptation to the wanta of the 
beginnor iu Latin.^^ 

From Wm. BirssBLL, Editor qft/ts First Serieaqfthe Bostan JoumalqfJBdneaiion, 

**The form which thls work liaa takcn nnder the skiUftil hand of Mr. H. Is mariced 
throughout by a method purely elomontary, perfectly simple, graduaHy progresBive, and 
rigorously oxact Pupils trainod on such a manual cannot f^ of beoomlng dtstingniahed, 
tn their subsequent progress, for preclsion and correctness of knowledge, and fiurn^ild 
advanccmont in gonulne scholarsiiip.^ 

From OsosGK Capeox, Principal of WoreesUr ITigh SohooL 

** I havo examincd the work wlth care, and am happy to say that I flnd it snpMior 
to any similar work with which I am acquainted. I sliall recommend it to my nozt 

From J. E. Boise, Professor qfAneient Languagea in Miehigan Uhiventti^, 

** I have cxamined your First Book in Latin, and am exceedingly pleased both wttli 
the plan and execution. I shall not fhil to nae my influenoe toward tntrodndng tt tnto 
the classical schools of this Stote.'' 


«^ ■ — — — — — ^— ™— — _^,«,^ 

Second Latin Book. 

Comprising an Historical Latin Reador, with Notes and Rules for 
Translating, and an Exercise Book, developing a Complete Ana- 
lytical Sjntax, in a series of Lessons and Exercises, involving 
the Construction, Analysis, and Reconstruction of Latin Sen^ 
tences. By ALBERT HARKNESS, A.M., Senior Master in the 
Providence High SchooL 12mo, 362 pages. 

This work is designed as a seqael to the aathor^s ^ First Latin Book." It comprisei 
a complete analytical syntax, exhibitlag the essential structore of the Latin language, 
from its slmplest to its most expanded and elaborate form. 

The arrangement of the lessons is decidedly philosophical, gradually progressive, 
and in strict accordanoe with the law of development of the human mind. Every new 
principle is stated ta simple, clear, and accurate langoage, and illastrated by ezamples 
c ireAiIly selected from the reading lessons, which the student is required to translate, 
aualjrze, and reconstmct He Is also exerdsed in forming new Latin sentences on given 
models. This, while it glves variety and interest to what would otherwise be in the 
highest degree monotonoua, oompletely flxes in the mind the subject of the Ies8on,both 
by analysis and synthesis. 

The careful study of this yolnme, on ihe plan recommended by ihe author, wiU 
greatly fitcilitate the pupiTs progress in the higher departments of the language. Such 
is the testimony of the numerons institutions in which Harkness's improved edition 
•f Amold has been introduced. 

thwn. J. A Spenoeb, D. D., laU Prqfeeaor qfLaUn in Burlington CoUege^ X. J. 

"Thepresent volumo appears tome tocanyout excellently fhe system on which* 
the late lamented Amold based his educational woi^ ; and in the Selections for Bead* 
ing, the Notes and Rules for Translating, fhe Exerdses in Translating into Latln, the 
Analyses, etc^ I think it admirably adapted to advance the diligent studcnt, not only 
rapiaty, but soundly, in an acquaintance with the Latin luiguage." 

From Pbof. Gammell, ofBroum Uni/oersUy, 

"■ The book seems to me, as I onticipated It would be, a valaable additlon to the works 
now in use among teachers of Latin in the schools of the United States, a^d for many 
of them it wili undoubtedly form an advantageous substitute." 

From Peof. LcrooiJf, qfBrown VnherHty. 

" It seems to me to cany on most successftilly the method parsued In the Plrst 
Book. Thongh briei; it is very compreheasive, and oombines judicious and skilfhlly- 
formed exercises with systematic instruction." 

From J. J. OwBir, D. D., Profemor ofVie LaHn and Oreds Lomguagea and lAUra* 

ture in the Free Academy, Kew York. 

**This Seeond Latin Book glves abundant evldence of the aathor'8 leamlng and 
tact to arrange, shnplifV, and make accessiUe to the youthftil mlnd the great and fhnda^ 
mentai principles of the Latin language. The book is worthy of a place in ever/ 
•laasical school, and I trust will have an extensive sale.^ 

From Peof. Akdsbson, ofL&wUKmrg UfUveraity^ Pennayhaania. 

*• A faithfhl use of the work would cUmlnish the dradgeiy of the studenf s earHer 
•tudies, and fkdHtate his progress in his subsequent oonise. I wish the work a widt 


Arnold^s Latin Course : 


vlsed and Carcftilly Corrected, by J. A. Spenceb, D. D. 12mo, 869 pages. 

vlsed and careftilly corrected by J. A. Spenoeb, D. D. 12mo, 856 pages. 
III. COENELIUS NEPOS. With Questions and Answers, and an Imitative EzerdM 
on oach Chapter. With Notes by E. A. Johnson, Professor of Latin, in Unl- 
versity of New Tork. New edition, enlarged, with a Lexicon, Historical aod 
Goographical Index, etc 12mo, 850 pages. 

Amold^s Classical Series has attained a drcabtion almoffi; nnparaHeled, having been 
Introduced into nearly ail the leading edacational institations in the United States. 
Tho secret of this success ia, that the author has liit apon the trae system of teachlng 
the ancicnt languages. He exhibits them not as dead, but as living tongnes ; antt by 
imitation and repetition, the means which Nature hcrself points out to the child leam- 
ing liis mother-tongnie, he fitmiliarizes the student with the idioms empk^ed by tbe 
elegant writers and speakers of antiquity. 

The Fhrst and Second Latin Book should be pnt into the hands of the beginnen, wh» 
will soon acqaire from its pages a bctter idea of the language than coold be gained l^ 
months of study according to the old system. The reason of this is, that every thlng 
has a practical bearing, and a principle is no sooner leamed than it is applied. The pnpU 
is at once set to work on excrcises. 

The Prose Composition forms an exccllent seqaol to the above work, or xnay be 
nsed with any other coorse. It teaches the art of writing Latin more correctly and 
thoroughly, more easily and pleasantly, than any other work. In its pages Latin syno. 
nymes are careftilly iilustrated, differences of idioms noted, cautions as to common eirors 
impressed on the mind, and every help afforded toward attaining a pure and flowing 
Latin style. 

Fr<m N. "Wheelee, Principal of Worcester CovmJty Hlgh School, 

" In the skill with which he sets ibrth the idiomatic pecttiiaritiM, as well as in the 
dlrectness and symplicity with which ho states the fects of the ancient langoages, Mr. 
Amold has no superior. I know of no books so admlrably adapted to awaken an inter- 
Mt in the study of the language, or so well fitted to lay the foundation of a correct schol- 
anhip and remied taste." 

From A. B. EirssELT<, OaJdand Bigh School. 

" The style in which the books are got up are not thelr only recommendatlon. "With 
thorongh instraction on the part of the teacher using these books as text-booka, I am 
'■'>nMent a much more anmle return for the time and laborbestowedby our youth ui)on 
Uitin must be secured. The tlrae cercainly has come when an advance must be made 
tipon the old methods of instruction. I am glad to have a work that promises so many 
A ivantages as Arnoid's First and Second Latin Book to beginners.^ 

lYom C. M. Blake, Claasical Teacher^ PhiladelpMa, 

" I am much pleased with Araold^s Latin Books. A class of my older boys hare JiiBi 
flnished the First and Second Book. Thcv had studied Latin lor a long time beu)t% 
bnt never undergtood it, they say, as they do now.^^ 


Germania and Agricola of Caius Cornelius 
Tacitus : 

With Notes for CoUeges. By W. S. TYLER, Professor of the Greek 
and Latln Languages in Amherst Coll^e. 12mo, 193 pages. 

Tacitns'8 account of Qermany and life of Agricola are among the most Ikscinating 
and instmctive Latin dassics. The present edition has been prepared ezpressly for 
college classes, by one who knows what they need. In it will be found: 1. A Latin 
text, approved by aU the more recent editors. 2. A copioos illastration of the gram* 
maticai constractiQns, as weQ as of the rhetorical and poetical usages peculiar to Taci- 
tas. In a writer so ooncise it has been deemed necessary to pay particular regard to 
the connection of thought, and to the partides as the hinges of that connection. 8. 
€k>nstant comparisons of the writer with the authors of the Angnstan age, for the pur- 
pose of indicatiDg the dianges which had aheady been wrought in the language of tho 
Boman people. 4. An embodimrat in smaU oompass of the most valuable labors of such 
recent German critics as Grimm, GQnther, Gruber, Kiessling, Dronke, Both, Buperti, 
«nd Walther. 

From Pbop. LcrooLir, of Brovm Vfihersity, 

"I havo found the book in daily use with my class of very great servloe, very practf- 
eal, and well suited to the wants of stndents. I am very much pleased with the Life 
•f Tacitus and the Introduction, and indeed with the Hterary character of the book 
throughout We sliall make the book a part of our Latin oourse." 

The Histoiy of Tacitus : 

By W. S. TYLER. With Notes for Colleges. 12mo, 453 pages. 

The text of Tacitus is here presented in a jform as oonrect as a comparison of the best 
editions can make it. Notes are appended tor the student^s use, which oontain not only 
the grammatical, but likewise all the geographical, archffiological, and historical illustra- 
tions that are necessary to render the author inteHigible. It has been the constant aim 
of the editor to carry students beyond the diy details of grammar and lexicography, 
and introduce them to a fkmiliar acquaintance and lively sympathy with the author and 
his times. Indexes to the notes, and to the names of persons and places, render refer 
•nce easy. 

Prom Peop. Hackbtt, of N&wUm Theoloffical Seminary. 
**The notes appear to me to be even more neat and elegant Uian those on the 'Ger- 
iDsnia and Agricola.^ They come as near to snch notes as I would be glad to write mj- 
•elf on a dassic, as almost any thing that I have yet seen.^* 


The Works of Horace. 

With English Notes, for the use of Schools and Colleges. Bj J. L 
LINCOLN, Professor of the Latin LaDguage and Literature in 
Brown University. 12mo, 6*76 pages. 

The text of this edition Is mainly fhat of Orelli, the most Important readings of other 
«ritics being given in foot-notes. The volome is introdaced with a biographicalsketcb 
of Uorace and a criUque on his writings, which enable the student to enter intelligently 
on his work. Pecullar grammatical constructions, as well as geographical and historicai 
allusions, are explained in notes, which are Juat fidl enough to aid the pupil, to exdte 
him to gain a thorough understanding of the author, and awaken in him a taste for philo- 
logical studies, without taking all labor off his hands. While the chief aim has been to 
impart a clear idea of Latln Syntax as exhibited in the text, it has also been a ehorished 
object to take advantage of the means so Yariously and richly iUmished by Horace tat 
promoting the poetical taste and literary culture of the student. 

From an artide by Pbof. Bahs, of fhe Universtty qf Heidelberg^ in the HHdelberg 

Annala qf Liierature, 

"There are already several Amerlcan edltions of Horaoe, intended fiir fhe nse of 
schools; of one of these, which has passed through many editions, and has also been 
widely circulated in England, mention has been formerly made in this joumal j bat that 
one we may not put upon an equality with the one now before us, inasmnch as this has 
taken a difierent stand-point, which may serre as a sign of progress tn thia depHrtment 
of study. The editor has, it is true. also intended his work for the use of schoolB, and 
has Bought to adapt it, in all its parts, to such a use ; but stiD, wfthout kMlng slght of 
this purpose, he has proceeded thronghout with more independence. In the prepaz»' 
tion of the Notes, the editor has Ihithfmly observed the piinciples (Udd down In nis pref- 
ace); the explanations of the poefs words commend themselves by a oompressed 
brevity which limits itself to what is most essential, and by a sharp precislon of expres' 
sion ; and references to other passages of tiie poet, and also to grammars, dictionarlM, 
etc^ are not wanting.^ 

Sallusfs Jugurtlia and Catiline. 

With Notes and a Vocabulary. By NOBLE BUTLER and HINARD 
STURGIS. 12mo, 897 pages. 

The editors hare spent a vast amount of time and labor in correeting the text, by s 
tomparison of the most improved Gte'rman and English editions. It is believed that this 
will be found superior to any edition hitherto pubUshed in this countiy. In aooordanoe 
with their chronological order, the ^^ Jugurtha^ precedes the **Catffine.** The Notes are 
oopious and tersely expressed; they display not only flne schoIarsUp, but (wfaat is 
quite as necessary in such a book) a practlcal knowledge of the difBculties which the sta- 
dent encounters in reading this author, and the alds that he requires. The Yocabiikry 
was prepared by the late Wiluam H. O. Butlb. It will be found an able and iUthftil 


VirgiFs ^neid. 

With Explanatory Notes. By HENRY S. FRIEZE, Professor of 
Latin ia the State University of Michigan. Hlustrated. 12mo, 
698 pages. 

The appearance of thia edition of Virgirs ^neid will, it is believed, 
be hailed with delight bj all classical teachers. Neither expense nor 
pains have been spared to clothe the great Latin epic in a fitting dreas. 
The type is unusually large and distinct, and errors in the text, so an- 
noying to the leamer, have been carefully avoided. The work contains 
eighty-five engravings, which delineate the usages, costumes, weapons, 
arts, and mythology of the ancients with a vividness that can be attained 
only by pictorial illustrations. The great feature of this edition is the 
scholarly and judicioos commentary fumished in the appended Notes. 
The author has here endeavored not to show his leaming, but to supply 
Buch practical aid as will enable the pupil to understand and appreciate 
what he reads. The notes are just full enough, thoroughly explaining 
the most difficult passages, while they are not so extended as to take all 
labor off the pupiPs hands. Properly used, they cannot fail to impart an 
intelligent acquaintance with the syntax of the language. In a word, this 
work is commended to teachers as the most elegant, accurate, interesting, 
and practically useful edition of the ^neid that has yet been published. 


I^om JoBS H. BBinmsR, Preaident (^ BitDosse CoUege. 

*The typography, paper, and bindlngr of Ylii^s ^eid, by Frof. Frleze, are all that 
aeed be desired; while the leamed and Judicioas notes appended, are very valnable in* 

From Prineipal o/Piedmont ( Va.) Academy. 

** I have to thank you fbr a oopy of Profl Frieze^s edition of the .£neid. I have been 
ezoeedintfly pleased in my examination of it The «Ize of the type fi*om which the text 
Is printed, and the Ihaltless execntion, leave nothing to be deslred in these respects. 
The adherenoe to a standard text throoghout, increaaeB the value of this editiont" 

From D. G. Moou, Prineipal U. Bigh School, RvUand. 

"The copy of Frieze^s *Vfrgfl' ftnrwarded to me was doly recelved. It is so evi- 
dentiy snperior to ony of the other editions, that I shall nnhesitatingly adopt it in m/ 


Select Orations of M. Tullius Cicero : 

With Notes, for the usc of Schools and CoUeges. B j K A. JOHN- 
SOX, Professor of Latm in the Univeraity of New York, 12nM), 
459 pagcs. 

Thls edition of Cicero'8 Solect Orations possesses some special advantages tar Oie sta- 
dent which are both new and important It is the only edition which contains the im. 
proved text that has been prcpared by a reccnt careftil oollatlon and oorrect decipbering 
of the bc8t manuscrlpts of acero'8 writings. It is the work of the celebrated OrelU, Mad- 
vig, and Klotz, and has becn done since the appearance of OreIli's complete editk>n. The 
Notes, by Professor Johnson, of the New York Universlty, have been mostly selected, 
with grcat care, from the best German anthors, as well as the Engiiah edition f^ Amold. 

Frcm Thomas Chask, Tutor in LaHn in Hareard UfUverHty. 

^ An edition of Cicero like Jolxnaon's has k>ng been wanted ; and the cxceDenoe of Um 
text, the illastrations of words, particles, and prononns, and the expbnaticm of Tailoaa 
points of eonstruction and interpretation, bear witnees to the £ditor's fluniliarity witli 
some of the most important rcsults of modmi schoiarship, and entitle his work to a larg* 
shore of public ilivor.'^ 

** It seems to us an improvemont upon any edition of these Orations that haa been 
pnblished in this country, and will be found a valoable aid in their studies to the lovci» 
of classical literaturo."— TVoy Daiiy WJUg. 

Cicero de Ofl&ciis : 

With English Notes, mostly translated from Zumpt and Bonnell. By 
THOMAS A. THACHER, of Yale CoUege. 12mo, 194 pages. 

In this edition, a few historical notes have been Introduced In cases where thelMe- 
tionary in common use has Dot been found to contain the desired information ; the design 
of which is to aid the leamer in understanding \hQ contents of the treatises, the thoughta 
and reasoning of the anthor, to explain gnumnatical diflBcuIties, and inculcate a knowi- 
edge of grammatical principles. The Editor has aimed thronghout to gnide rather thao 
carry the learner through difficulties; requiring of him more study, in conaeqaenoe <A 
his help, than he would have dovoted to the book without it 

From M. L. Stoevke, Profesaor of the Latin Language and lAterature in PmvMeyl' 

vania CoUege. 

"I have cxamined with much pleasnre Frof. Thacher^s edition of Cioero de Officila, 
and am convinced of its excellence. The Notes have been prepared with great care and 
good judgment Practical knowledge of the wants of the student has enabled the Editor 
to Aimish just the kind of assistance required ; grammatical difficulties are removed, and 
the obscurities of the treatlse are explatned, the interest of the leamer is eliclted, aod his 
Indnstiy directed rather than superseded. There can be but one opinion with regard to 
the merits of the work, and I trust that Professor fThacher will be disposed to continue 
JKia labors so careftilly commenoed, In this department of dassical learnlng.^ 


Lincoln^s Livy. 

Selections from the first Five Books, together with the Twenty-First 
and Twenty-Second Books entire ; with a Plan of Rome) a Map 
of the passage of Hannibal, and English Notes for the use of 
Schools. By J. L. LINCOLN, Professor of the Latin Language 
and Literature in Brown University. 12mo, 329 pages. 

The publiahers believe that in this cdition of Livy a want is snpplied which has beeii 
universally felt; there being pre^ous to this no American edition fUmished with the re- 
quisite aids for the successflil study of this Latin antbor. The text is chiefly that of Al- 
Bcbefski, which is now generally received by the best critics. The notes liave been pre- 
parcd with special rcference to the grammatical stndy of the langnage, and the illnstration 
of its forms, constmctions, and idioms, as osed by Livy. They will not be found to foster 
habits of depcndenoe in the student, by snpplying indiscriminate translation or unneces- 
sary assistance; but come to liis help only in such parts as it is fSdr to suppose he can- 
not master by his own exortions. They also embrace aU necessary information relating 
to history, geogrraphy, and antiquities. 

lincoln^s livy lias l)een highly commended by critics, and is used in nearly aU th« 
colleges in the country. 

From Pbof. Andbrson, of Waterville CoUege. 

"A carefUI examination of several portions of yourwork has convincod me that, for 
the use of students, it is alt(^ether superior to any edition of livy with which I am ac- 
quainted. Among its excellences you will permit me to name the close attention given 
to particles, to the subjunctive mood, the constant reference to the grammars, the dia- 
crimination of words nearly synonymous, and the care in giving the localities mentioned 
in the text The book will be hereafter used in our college." 

Beza^s Latin Yersion of tlie New Testa- 

12x110, 291 pages. 

Tho now-acknowledgod propriety of givlng studcnts of languages familiar works for 
translation— thus adopting in the schools the mode by which tho child first leams to talk 
— -has induced tho publication of this new American edition of Beza's Latin Version of 
tho New Testament Ever since its first appearance, this work has kept its place in tho 
general esteem ; while more recent versions have been so strongly tinged with the pecu- 
liar views of the translators as to make them acceptable to particular classes only. The 
editor has exerted himsclf to render the present edition worthy of patronage by its su- 
perior accuracy and neatness ; and the publishers flatter themselves that the pains b«- 
«towed wifl insuro for it a prcference over «ther editions. 



Csesar^s Commentaries on tlie Gallic War. 

With English Note8, Critical and Explanatory ; aLcHcon, Geographi. 

cal and Historical Indexes, a Map of Gaul, etc. By Rev. J. A. 

SPENCER, D. D. 12mo, 408 pages. 
In the preparatlon of thls volume, great care has hecn taken to adapt It In every pe- 
•pect to the wants of the young stndent, to make It a meana at the aame time of advan- 
dng hlm iD a thorough knowledge of Latin, and hisphing him with a deshne for ftirther 
aoqualntancewiththeclassicsofthelanguage. Dr. B^cer haa not, like some commen- 
tators, given an al»undance of help on the easy passages, and aUowed the diflQcult onet • 
to speak for themselves. His Notes are on those parts on whldi the pupU wants them, 
and explaln, not only grammatical diflOculties, hut aUusions of every kind in the teiL A 
weU-drawn sketch of Cfflsar's Ufe, a Map of tiie region in which his campaigns were car- 
ried on, and a Vocabulary, which removes tiie neoessity of using a large dictionaiy and 
the waste of time consequent tiiereon, enhance the value of the volume in no Bmafl d«- 

Quintus Curtius : 

Life and Exploits of Alexander the Great. Edited and illustrated 

with English Notes. By WILLLiM HENRY CROSBY. 12mo, 

385 pages. 

Curtius^s nistory of Alexander the Great, though Uttie used 1n the schools of thls 

«ountry, in England and on the Continent holds a high place in the estimation of cla^* 

cal instructors. The interesting character of its subject, the eleganoe of its style, and the 

purlty of its moral sentiments, ought to place it at least on a par with Offisar^s Oommen- 

taries or SaUusf s Hlstories. The present edition, by the late Professor of Latin in Bnt> 

gers CoUege, is unexceptionable in typography, convenient in Ibrm, scholarly and prac' 

tical in its notes, and alLogether an admirable text-book fbr classes preparing Ibr ool- 


From Prof. Owen, offhe Neuo Torh Ftm Academy. 

"It gives me great pleasure to add my testimonial to the many you are recelvtng In 
&vor of the beautlftil and weU-edited edition of Qulntus Curtius, by Prof "Wm. Henry 
Crosby. It is seldom that a dassical book is submitted to me for examination, to which 
I can give so hearty a reconmiendation as to this. The extemal appearance is attracti ve *, 
. the paper, type, and binding, being Just what a text-book should be, neat, clear, and du* 
rable. The notes are briefl pertinent, scholar-Iike, neither too exuberant nortoo meagre^ 
but happily exemplif^ing the golden mean io desirable and yet so very diflScuIt of afr