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Full text of "The Germania and Agricola of Caius Cornelius Tacitus"

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APPLETONS' 




3 



Oi 



A Latin Grammar, for Schools and Colleges. BevlBed edition. 1881. 

The Blementa of Latin Grammar, for Schools. 

A Latin Reader, intended as a companion to the anthor^s Latin Grammar. 

A Latin Reader. With Exercisea. 

A New Latin Refu» "'i — »— - 



NotM, and Yoeabnlary. 



(S^^ P^/c<.^ iP'^c<:i-a ,cC . 

Standabd CitAasicAL Text-Books. 

• 

Barknen, Alliert. Serlet of Latin Text-Books. 19mo: 

. A Practical lotrodactlon to Latin Cbrnposition. For Scboola and Collegw. 
0B8ar*B Ck)minentarie» on the GalUc War. With Notes, Dietiooaiy, etc. 

New Pictorial Edition. 
Preparatory Course in LKtin Prose Authors, comprising Fonr Books of 
Ctt8ar*8 OaUlc War, Ballust's Catiline, and Biffht Oratiobs of Cicero. 
With Notes, Illustrations, a Map of Gaul, and a Special Dictionary. New 
Pictorial Edition. 
Sallast'ii Catiline. With Notes and a Special Dictionary. 
Cicero's Sel^t Oratioos. With Notes, etc 
The Same, with Notes and Dictionary. 
. This series has received the unqualiiied commendation of many of the 
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us» in eyery State of the IJDion, and, indeed, in nearly aU our loading classical 
institutions of every grade, hoth of school and college. 
Herbermann'i Sallust*s Jugurthine War. 
Horaoe. See Lincoln. 

Johngon, E. A. acero's Select Orations. With Notes. ISmo. 
Latin Speaker. See Sewall. 
Unooln, John L. Horace. With Notes, etc ISmo. 

Livy. With Notes, Map, etc ISmo. 

Ovid. 

Same, with Notes and Vocabulary. 

Idndsay, T. B. Gomelins Nepos. With Notes, Vocabulary, Index, and Exer- 
cises. lUttstrated. 12mo. 

Same, for Bight-Readiug. 

^ Lord'i Cicero^s LfloHus. 
* Qnintillan. See Fbibzb. 
Qtdntnji Cnrtins Bnftu. See Cbosbt, W. H. 
Sallust; See BuTLKB and Stttbgus, Habknxss, and HaBBXBMANN. 
Bewail, Frank. Latin Speaker. Easy Dialogues, and other Selections for Mem- 

ori^g and Declaiming in the Latin Language. 12mo. 
Spenoer, J, A. Casar's Commentaries. With Notes, etc. ISmo. 
Thaeher, Thomas A. Cicero's de Offlciis. Three Books, with Notes and Oon- 

^pectus. ISmo. 
Tyler, W. S. Germania and Agricola of Tacitus. With Notes, etc ISmo 

Histories of Tacitus. With Notes. ISmo. 

Vergil. See Fbiszb. 



GREEK. 

Adams, V. A. Greek Prepositions. 

Anabasis. See Boisi and Owbn. 

Antigone. SeeSMXAo. 

Arnold T. K. First Greek Book. Edited by Spknobb. ISma 




3 2044 102 772 043 





^l^l^p^/v"^ JL^^//^/^ 



THE 



GERMANIA AND AGRICOU 



CAIUS CORNELIUS TACITUS. 



BT 

W. S. TYLEB, 

wiLuaroN PBoneaoB of gbskk or amhuut oollmk 



BEVI8ED EDITION, WITB ADDITIOKa AITD BEFEBEFCES TO 

HAREKESS'S NEW STANDARD LATIN GRAMKAR. 

By henry M. TYLER, 

PBOnSSOB OF LATIN AND QXXKK IN SMITH OOLLIOS, AT NOBTHAMPTON. 



NEW YORK: 
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, 

1, 8, AND 6 BOND STREET. 
1890. 






«•-*/'-«» COLLEGE DBRARt 

fRCM THE GIFT OF 
CHARLES HERBERT TNURifl 



EiTTEXED, Aocording to Aet of CoDgreM, In the year 1658, Xxf 

D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, 

In the Clerk's Offloo of the DlBtrict Court for the Soathem Dtetrlct of 

New York. 



£ntbe£D, according to Act of CongresB, In the year 1878, by 

D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, 

In the Office ol the librarian of Congresa, at WaaUngton. 



EimsED, aooording to Act of Congresa, in the year 1883, by 

D. APPLETON AND COMPANY. 

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 



PREFACE. 



The plan and purpose of this work, which has 
been bo widely used as a college text-book for more 
than thirty years, are too well known to require ex* 
planation. It will only be necessary to state in a few 
words what has been done to improve the present 
edition. 

The text has been carefully revised and corrected 
after comparison with the most improved recent edi* 
tions. The Introductions have been enlarged and 
enriched with new materials, drawn largely from 
such sources as Maine's Treatise upon Ancient Law, 
Waltz's Deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte, and various 
other works upon Teutonic and Celtic antiquities. 
The Notes have been amended both by omissions and 
additions, the latter being intended ^specially to il- 
lustrate the geography, history, and archaeology of 



iv PREFACE. 

Germany and Britain, and the character, customs, 
and institutions of the early inhabitants. The recent 
editions most frequently consulted are the following : 
Germania, by Dr. Heinrich Schweitzer-Sidler, Halle, 
1874 ; Germania, by Karl MueUenhoff, Berlin, 1873 ; 
the French edition of the Agricola, by J. G^ntrelle, 
Paris, 1875 ; and the editions, covering both the 
Germania and the Agricola, by Ulrichs, 1875 ; Nip- 
perdey, 1876 ; Church & Brodribb, London, 1875 ; 
as also the work of Dr. A. Draeger, Ueber Syntax 
und Stil des Tacitus, Leipzig, 1874. The work of 
revising has been done, under my supervision, chiefly 
by my son, Henry M. Tyler, Professor of Greek and 
Latin in Smith College, Northampton, whose name, 
therefore, appears on the title-page ; and it has been 
performed with an earnest desire to make the revision 
thorough without changing the form and character of 
the original work, or increasing too much its bulk. 

The Maps have been taken (by an arrangement 
with its publishers) from the edition of Church & 
Brodribb, published by Macmillan, and will, I am 
sure, aid the student much in understanding the geog- 
raphy of our author. The editor cannot but express 
his obligations to the publishers, who have reprinted 



PREFACE. V 

and electrotyped anew the text as well as the Notes 
and Introductions^ and have spared neither pains 
nor expense to perfect its form and external ap- 
pearance. 

In sending out this again-revised edition of these 
most delightful treatises of an author in the study of 
whose works I never tire, I cannot but repeat the 
hope expressed in 1852 : that it has been not a little 
improved by these alterations and additions, while it 
will be found to have lost none of the essential feat- 
ures by which the first edition in 1847 was commend- 
ed to so good a measure of public favor. 

W. S. TVleb, 

AXBEBBT COLLEQE, Jtme, 187& 



LIFE OF TAOITUS. 



It is the offioe of genias and learning, as of light, to illus- 
trate other things, and not itself. The writers, who, of all 
others perhaps, have told us most of the world, jnst as it has 
been and is, have told us least of themselves. Their char- 
acter we may infer, with more or less exactness, from their 
works, but their history is unwritten and must forever remain 
so. Homer, though, perhaps, the only one who has been 
argued out of existence, is by no means the only one whose 
age and birth-place have been disputed. The native place of 
Tacitus is mere matter of conjecture. His parentage is not 
certainly known. The time of his birth and the year of his 
death are ascertained only by approximation, and very few 
incidents are recorded in the history of his life; still we 
know the period in which he lived, the influences under 
which his character was developed and matured, and the 
circumstances under which he wrote his immortal works. 
In short, we know his times^ though we can scarcely gather 
up enough to denominate his life; and the times in which 
an author lived are often an important, not to say essential, 
means of elucidating his writings. 

CAiirs CoBNBLius Taoitus was bom in the early part of 
the reign of Nero, and near the middle of the first century in 
the Christian Era. The probability is, that he was the son of 



2 LIFB OF TAdTUa 

GorneliTis Taoitns, a man of equestrian rank, and procurator 
of Belgio Gaul under Nero ; that he was bom at Interamna 
in Umbria, <uid that he received a part of his education at 
Massilia (the modem Marseilles), which was then the Athens 
of the West, a Grecian colony, and a seat of traly Grecian 
culture and refinement. It is not improbable that he enjoyed 
also the instructions of Quintilian, who, for twenty years, 
taught at Bome that pure and manly eloquence, of which 
his Institutes furnish at once such perfect rules and so fine 
an example. If we admit the " Dialogue de Claris Oratori- 
bus " to be the work of Tacitus, his ideal of the education 
proper for an orator was no less comprehensive, no less ele- 
vated, no less liberal, than that of Cicero himself; and if his 
theory was, Hke Cicero's, only a transcript of his own edu- 
cation, he must have been disciplined early in all the arts 
and sciences — ^in all the departments of knowledge which 
were then cultivated at Bome: a conclusion in which we 
are confirmed also by the accurate and minute acquaintance 
which he shows, in his other works, with all the affairs, 
whether civil or military, public or private, literary or religi- 
ous, both of Greece and Bome. 

The boyhood and youth of Tacitus did, indeed, fall on evil 
times. Monsters in vice and crime had filled the throne, till 
their morals and manners had infected those of all the people. 
The state was distracted, and apparently on the eve of disso- 
lution. The public taste, like the general conscience, was 
perverted. The fountains of education were poisoned. De- 
generate Grecian masters were inspiring their Boman pupils 
with a relish for a false science, a frivolous literature, a viti- 
ated eloqnenoe, an Epicurean creed, and a volnptaons life. 

But with Buflcient discernment to see the follies and vices 



LIFE OF TACITUS. 3 

of his age, and with saffioient virtne to detest them, Tacitas 
must have found his love of wisdom and goodness, of liberty 
and law, strengthened by the very disorders and faults of the 
times. If the patriot ever loves a well-regulated freedom, it 
will be in and after the reign of a tyrant, preceded or fol- 
lowed by what is still worse, anarchy. If the pure and the 
good ever reverence purity and goodness, it will be amid the 
general prevalence of vice and crime. If the sage ever pants 
after wisdom, it is when the fountains of knowledge have 
become corrupted. The reigns of Nero and his immediate 
successors were probably the very school, of all others, to 
which we are most Indebted for the comprehensive wisdom, 
the elevated sentiments, and the glowing eloquence of the 
biographer of Agricola, and the historian of the Roman Em- 
pire. His youth saw, and felt, and deplored the disastrous 
effects of Kero's inhuman despotism, and of the anarchy 
attending the civil wars of Galba, Otho, and Yitellius. His 
manhood saw, and felt, and exulted in the contrast furnished 
by the reigns of Vespasian and Titus, though the sun of the 
latter too soon went down, in that long night of gloom and 
blood and terror, the tyranny of Domitian. And when, in 
the reigns of Kerva and Trajan, he eiyoyed the rare felicity 
of thinking what he pleased, and speaking what he thought, 
he was just fitted, in the maturity of his faculties and the 
extent of his observation and reflections, "to enroll slowly, 
year after year, that dreadful reality of crimes and sufferings, 
which even dramatic horror, in all its license of wild imagin- 
ation, can scarcely reach, the long unvarying catalogue of 
tyrants and executioners, and victims that return thanks to 
the gods and die, and accusers rich with their blood, and 
more mighty as more widely hated, amid the multitudes of 



4 LIFE OF TACITUS. 

prostrate alaves, still lookisg whether there may not yet have 
escaped some lingering virtae which it may he a merit to de- 
stroy, and having scarcely leisure to feel even the agonies of 
remorse in the continaed sense of the precariousness of their 
own gloomy existence." * 

Tacitas was edaoated for the har, and continaed to plead 
causes, occasionally at least, and with not a little success, 
even after he had entered upon the great husiness of his life 
as a writer of history. We find references to his first, and 
perhaps his last, appearance as an advocate, in the Letters of 
Pliny, which are highly complimentary. The first was, when 
Pliny was nineteen, and Tacitus a little older (how much we 
are not informed), when Tacitus distinguished himself, so as 
to awaken the emulation and the envy, though not in a had 
sense, of Pliny. The last was some twenty years later, when 
Tacitus and Pliny, the tried friends of a whole life, the 
hrightest ornaments of literature and of the forum, were 
associated hy the choice of the Senate, and pleaded together 
at the har of the Senate, and in the presence of the Emperor 
Trigan, for the execution of justice upon Marius Priscus, who 
was accused of maladministration in the proconsulship of 
Africa. Pliny says that Tacitus spoke with singular gravity 
and eloquence, and the Senate passed a unanimous vote of 
approhation and thanks to hoth the orators for the ability 
and success with which they had managed the prosecution 
(Plin. Epis. ii. 11). 

We have also the comments of Pliny on a panegyrical 
oration which Tacitus pronounced, when consul, upon his 
predecessor in the consular office, Yerginius Bufus, perhaps 
the most remarkable man of his age, distinguished alike as a 

« Brown's " Philosophy of the Mind.** 



LIFE OF TACITUS. 5 

hero, a stateflman, and a soholar, and jet so modest or so 
wise that he repeatedly refused the offer of the imperial pur- 
ple. '* Fortune,'' says Pliny, '^ always faithful to Yerginius, 
reserved for her last favor such an orator to pronounce a eulo- 
ginm on such virtues. It was enough to crown the glory of 
a well-spent life " (Plin. Epis. ii. 1). 

The speeches in the historical works of Tacitus, though 
rather concise and abstract fcH* popular orations, are full of 
force and fire. Some of them are truly Demosthenic in their 
impassioned and fi^ry logic. The speech of Galgacus before 
tlie Briton army, when driven into the extremity of Caledonia 
by the Bomans under Agricola, can hardly be surpassed for 
patriotic sentiments, vigorous reasoning, and burning invec- 
tive. The address of Germanicus to his mutinous soldiers (in 
the Annals) is not less remarkable for tender pathos. The 
sage and yet soldierlike address of the aged Galba to his 
adopted son Piso, the calm and manly speech of Piso to the 
body guard, the artful harangue of the demagogue Otho to 
his troops, the no less crafty address of Mucianus to Yes- 
panan, the headlong rapidity of Antonius's argument for im- 
mediate action, the plausible plea of Marcellus Eprius against 
the honest attack of Helvidius Prisons, and the burning re- 
bukes of the intrepid Yocula to his cowardly and treacherous 
followers—all these, in the Histories, show no ordinary de- 
gree of rhetorical skill and versatility. Indeed, the entire 
body of his works is animated with the spirit of the orator, 
as it is tinged also with the coloring of the poet. For this 
reason they are doubtless deficient in the noble simplicity of 
the earlier classical histories ; but, for the same reason, they 
may be a richer treasure for the professional men at least of 
modem times^ 



6 UFB OF TACITUS. 

Of his marriage with the daughter of Agricola, and its in- 
flaence on his character and prospects, as also of his passing 
in regular gradation through the series of pnhlic honors at 
Home, heginning with the qnaestorship nnder Vespasian, and 
ending with the consulship under Nerva, Tacitus informs us 
himself (A. 9, His. i. 1), harelj alluding to them, however, 
in the general, and leaving all the details to mere conjecture. 
We learn, to our surprise, that he not only escaped the jeal-^ 
0US7 of the tyrant Domitian, hut was even promoted hj him 
to the office of Quindecimvir and Praetor (Ann. ii. 11). Be- 
yond these vague notices, we know little or nothing of his 
course of life, except that Pliny says (Epist. iv. 13) he was 
much esteemed hy the learned and the great at Rome, who 
went in crowds to his levees. Of the time of his death, we 
can only conjecture that he died hefore the Emperor Trajan, 
hut after his friend Pliny — the former, hecause, had he out- 
lived the Emperor, he would prohahly have executed his 
purpose of writing the history of his reign (His. i. 1) ; the 
latter, because, if he had not survived his friend, Pliny who 
lamented the death of so many others would not have fiEdled 
to pay the last tribute to the memory of Tacitus. 

It is generally admitted, though without direct testimony, 
that Tacitus died not without issue. That excellent prince, 
M. Claudius Tacitus, deduced his pedigree from the historian, 
and ordered his image to be set up, and a complete collection 
of his works to be placed in the public archives, with a special 
direction that twelve copies should be made every year at the 
public expense. It is greatly to be regretted that such praise- 
worthy precautions should have failed to preserve for ns that 
treasure entire. 

The oge of Tacitus is usually styled the edlver age of Roman 



LIFE OP TACITUa 7 

literatnre ; and it merits no higher title, when compared with 
the golden age of Aagastua. It was the good fortune of 
Angustns to gain the supremacy at Rome when society had 
reached its maximum of refinement, and was just ready to 
enter upon its stage of corruption and decline. Hence his 
name is identified with that proud era in literature, in pro- 
ducing which he bore at best only an accidental and second- 
ary part. In the literature of the Augustan age, we admire 
the substance of learning and philosophy without the show, 
the cultivation of taste without the parade of criticism, the 
fascination of poetry without its corruption, and the use of 
eloquence without its abuse. Grecian refinement was no 
longer despised ; Grecian effeminacy had not yet prevailed. 
The camp was not now the home of the Romans ; neither 
were the theatres and the schools. They had ceased to be a 
nation of soldiers, and had not yet become a nation of slaves. 
At no other period could Rome have had her Cicero, her 
Livy, and her Virgil. 

The silver age produced no men who ** attained unto 
these first three." But there are not wanting other bright 
names to associate with Tacitus, though most of them lived a 
little earlier than he. There was Seneca, the Philosopher, 
whose style, with its perpetual antitheses, is the very worst 
of the age, but his sentiments, perhaps more or less under 
the infiuence of Christianity, approach nearer to the Christian 
code of morals than those of any other Latin author. There 
were Martial and Juvenal, whose satires made vice tremble 
in its high places, and helped to confer on the Romans the 
honor of originating one species of literary composition, un- 
known to the Greeks. There were Suetonius and Plutarch ; 
the one natural, simple, and pure in his style, far beyond his 



8 LIFE OF TACITUS. 

age, but without much depth or vigor of thought ; the other, 
involved and affected in his manner, but in his matter of sur- 
passing richness and incalculable wortii. There was the elder 
Pliny, a prodigy of learning and industry, whose researches 
in Natural History cost him his life in that Yatol eruption of 
Vesuvius which buried Herculaneum and Pompeii. There 
was also the judicious Quintilian, at once neat and nervous in 
his language, delicate and correct in his criticisms, a man of 
genius and a scholar, a teacher and an exemplar of eloquence. 
FiuaUy, there were the younger Pliny and Tacitus, rival can- 
didates for literary and professional distinction, yet cherish- 
ing for each other the most devoted and inviolable attach- 
ment, each viewing the other as the ornament of their coun- 
try, each urging the other to write the history of their age, 
and each relying chiefly on the genius of the other for his 
own immortality (Plin. Epis. vii. 88). Their names were 
together identified by their contemporaries with the liter- 
ature of the age of Trtgan: *'I never was touched with a 
more sensible pleasure," says Pliny, in one of his beautiful 
Letters * (which rival Oicero^s in epistolary ease and elegance), 
'^ than by an account which I lately received from Gomelius 
Tacitus. He informed me that, at the last Giroensian Games, 
he sat next a stranger, who, after much discourse on various 
topics of learning, asked him whether he was an Italian or a 
provincial. Tacitus replied, * Your acquaintance with litera- 
ture must have informed you who I am.' *Aye,' said the 
man, * is it then Tacitus or Pliny I am talking with? ' I can- 
not express how highly I am pleased to find that our names 
are not so much the proper appellations of individuals, as a 

* Eleyen of these Are addressed to Tacitns, and two or three are written ex- 
pressly tor the purpose of fiimishing materials for his history. 



LIFE OP TACITUa 9 

designation of learning itself '^ (Plin. Epis. ix. 28). Oritics 
are not agreed to which of these two literary friends belongs 
the delicate enoominm of Qnintilian, when, after ennmerating 
the principal writers of the day, he adds, '* There is another 
ornament of the age, who will deserve the admiration of pos- 
terity. I do not mention him at present; his name will be 
known hereafter." Plinj, Taoitns, and Qointilian are also 
rival candidates for the honor of having written the Dialogae 
de Olaris Oratoribus, one of the most valuable productions in 
ancient criticism. 

As a writer, Tacitus was not free from the faults of his 
age. The native simplicity of Greek end Latin composition 
had passed away. An affected point and an artificial brill* 
iancy were substituted in their place. The rhetorio and phi- 
losophy of the schools had mfected all the departments of 
literature. Simple narrative no longer suited the pampered 
taste of the readers or the writers of history. It must be 
highly seasoned with sentimentalism and moralizing, with 
romance and poetry. Tacitus, certainly, did not escape the 
infection. In the language of Macaulay : ** He carries his love 
of effect far beyond the limits of moderation. He tells a fine 
story finely, but he cannot tell a pldn story plainly. He stim« 
ulates, till stimulants lose their power."* We have taken 
occasion in the notes to point out not a few examples of 
rhetorical pomp and poetical coloring, and even needless 
multiplication of words, where plainness and precision would 
have been much better, and which may well surprise us in a 
writer of so much conciseness. Lord Monboddo, in a very 
able, though somewhat extravagant critique on Tacitus, has 
selected numerous instances of what he calls the ornamented 

* Article on History, Ed. Bey., 1828. Also in Macaulay's " MlsoellanleB." 



10 LIFE OP TACITUS. 

dry style, many of which are so concise, so rongh, and so 
broken that he says they do not deserve the name of com- 
position, bnt seem rather like the raw materials of history 
than like history itself (Orig. and Prog, of Lang., vol. iii. 
chap. 12). 

Still, few readers can fail to pronounce Tacitns, as Ma- 
caolay afSrms, and even Lord Monboddo admits him to be, 
the greatest of Latin historians, superior to Thucydides him- 
self in the moral painting of his best narrative scenes, and in 
the delineation of character withoat a rival among historians, 
with scarcely a superior among dramatists and novelists. The 
common style of his narrative is, indeed, wanting in sim- 
plicity, and sometimes in perspicuity. He does not deal 
enough in the specific and the pictnresqne, the where, the 
when, and the how. Bat, when his subject comes up to the 
grandeur of his conceptions, and the strength of his language, 
his descriptions are graphic and powerfuL No battle scenes 
are more grand and terrific than those of Tacitus. Military 
men and scholars have also remarked their singular correct- 
ness and definiteness. The military evolutions, the fierce 
encounter, the doubtful struggle, the alternations of victory 
and defeat, the disastrous rout and hot pursuit, the carnage 
and blood, are set forth with the warrior's accuracy and the 
poet's fire ; while, at the same time, the conflicting passions 
and emotions of the combatants are discerned, as it were, by 
the eye of a seer — ^their hidden springs of action, and the 
lowest depths of their hearts laid bare, as if by the wand of a 
magician. In the painting of large groups, in the moral por- 
traiture of vast bodies of men under high excitement and in 
strenuous exertion, we think that Tacitus far surpasses all 
other historians. Whether it be a field of battle or a cap- 



LIFE OF TACITUS. H 

tared oitj, a frightened senate or a flattering court, a mntinj 
or a mob, that he describes, we not only see in a dear and 
strong light the oatward actions, bat we look into the hearts 
of all the mixed maltitade, and gaze with wonder on the 
changing emotions and conflicting passions by which they are 
agitated. 

His delineations of individaal character are also marked 
by the same profoand insight into the homan soaL Like the ' 
old Latin Poet, he might hare said, 

** Homo Bom ; nihil humani a ma aliennm pato.** 

There is scarcely a landscape pictare in his whole gallery. 
It is fall of portraits of men, in groaps and as indiyidnalsi 
every grade of condition, every variety of character, perform- 
ing all kinds of actions, exhibiting every haman passion, the 
colors laid on with a bold hand, the principal features pre- 
sented in a strong light, the minnter strokes omitted, the 
soft and delicate finish despised. We feel that we have gained 
not a little insight into the character of those men, who are 
barely introduced in the extant books of Tacitus, but whose 
history is given in the books that are lost. Men of inferior 
rank even, who appear on the stage only for a short time, 
develop strongly marked characters, which are drawn with 
dramatic distinctness and power, while yet the thread of his- 
tory is never broken, the dignity of history never sacrificed. 
And those Emperors, whose history is preserved entire, — with 
them we feel acquainted, we know the controlling principles, 
as well as the leading events of their lives, and we feel sure 
that we could predict how they would act under almost any 
imaginable circumstances. 

In a faithful portraiture of the private and public life of 
2 



12 LIFE OF TACITUS. 

ih0 degenorate^ Bomans, there was much to call for the hand 
of a master in satire, iVnd we fyid. in the glowing sketches 
of onr author all the vigor and point of a Juvenal, without 
his vulgarity and obscenity; all the burning indignation 
which the Latin is so peculiarly capable of expressing, with 
all the vigor and stateliness by which the same language is 
equally characterized. Tacitus has been sometimes repre- 
sented as a very Diogenes, for carping and sarcasm— a very 
Aristophanes, to blacken character with ridicule and reproach. 
But he is as far removed from the cynic or the buffoon as 
from the panegyrist or the flatterer. He is not the indiscrim- 
inate admirer that Plutarch was. Kor is he such a universal 
hater as Sallust. It is the fault of the times that he is obliged 
to deal so much in censure. If there ever were perfect mon- 
sters on earth, such were several of the Boman Emperors* 
Yet Tacitus describes few, if any, of them without some of the 
traits of humanity. He gives us in his history neither d^nons 
nor gods, but veritable men and women. In this respect, as 
also in his descriptions of battles, Tacitus is decidedly supe- 
rior to Livy. The characters of Livy are distinguishable only 
as classes— the good all very good, the bad very bad, the 
indifferent very indifferent. Ton discover no important 
difference between a Fabius and a Marcellus,. further than 
it lies on the face of their actions. In Tacitus, the char- 
acters are all individuals. Each stands out distinctly from 
the surrounding multitude, and not only performs his 
own proper actions, but is governed by his own peculiar 
motives. Livy places before us the statues of heroes and 
gods; Tacitus conducts us through the crowd of living 
men. 

In an attempt to sketch the most striking features of Taci- 



LIFE OP TACITUa 13 

tas, as a writer, no critic can omit to mention his Bage and 
pithy maxims. Apothegms abound on eyery page-Hsagacions, 
trnthfal, and profound in sentiment, in style concise, anti- 
thetic and sententious. Doubtless he is ezcessiyely fond of 
pointed antithesis. Perhaps he is too much given to moral- 
izing and reflection. It was, as we have said, the fault of his 
age. But no one, who is familiar with Seneca, will seyerely 
censure Tacitus. He will only wonder that he should have 
.risen so far above the faults of his contemporaries. Indeed, 
Tacitus interweaves his reflections with so much propriety, 
and clothes his apothegms with so much dignity — ^he is so 
manifestly competent to instruct the world by maxims, 
whether in civil, social, or individual life, that we are far 
from wishing he had indulged in it less. His reflections do 
not interrupt the thread of his narrative. They grow natur- 
ally out of his incidents. They break forth spontaneously 
from the lips of his men. His history is indeed philosophy 
teaching by examples ; and his pithy sayings are truly lessoDs 
of wisdom, embodied in the form most likely to strike the 
attention and impress the memory. We should love to see 
a collection of apothegms from the pen of Tacitas. It would 
make an admirable book of laconics. No book would give 
you more ideas in fewer words. Nowhere could you gain so 
much knowledge, and lose so little time. The reader of Taci- 
tus, who will study him with pen in hand, to mark or refer 
to the most striking passages, will soon find himself master 
of a text-book in moral and political science, we might say a 
text-book in human nature, singularly concise and sententious, 
and what is not always true even of concise and sententious 
writers, as singularly wise and profound. In such a book, 
many of the speech^ would find a place entire ; for many of 



14 LIFE OF TACITUa 

them are little else than a series of condensed, well-timed, 
and most instmctive apothegms.* 

Bat the scholar, who is on the lookout, will find lurking 
in every section, and almost every sentence, some important 
truth in morals, in politics, in the individual or social nature 
of man. Neither the editor nor the teacher can be expected 
to develop these sentiments, nor even, in many instances, 
to point them out That labor must be performed by the 
scholar ; and his will be the reward. 

No hasty perusal, no single reading of Tacitus, will give a 
just conception of the surpassing richness of his works. They 
must be studied profoundly to be duly appreciated. They are 
a mine of wisdom, of vast extent and unknown depth, whose 
treasures lie chiefly beneath the surface, embedded in the 
solid rock which must be entered with mining implements, 
explored with strong lights, and its wealth brought up by 
severe toil and sweat. 

* E. g., Qie Bpeech of Galba to Piso, His. i. IG, 16L 



0. CORN". TACITUS 
Srm, MORIBUS et populis germaniae. 



BREVIARimi LIBELLI. 

Cap. 1. Germaniae situs : 2. incolae indigenae : anctoresgen- 
tis: nominis origo : Hercules. 8. Baritos: ara Ulixis. 4. 
Germani, gens sincera: habitus corporum, 5. Terrae na- 
tura: non aurum, non argentum, neo aestimatum. 6. Ger- 
manorum arma, equitatas, peditatus, ordo militiae : 7. reges, 
duces, sacerdotes: 8. feminarum virtus et veneratio: Ve- 
leda : Aurinia. 9. dii, sacra, simulacra nulla. 10. Auspicia, 
sortes: ex equis, e captivo praesagia. 11. Consultationes 
publicae et conventus. 12. Acousationes, poenae, jus red- 
ditum. 13. Scuto frameaque ornati juvenes, principum 
comites : eorum virtus et fama. 14. Gentis bellica studia. 

15. In pace, venatio, otium : collata principibus munera. 

16. Urbes nullae: vici, domus, specus suffugium biemi et 
receptaculum frugibus. 17. Yestitus bominum, feminarum. 
18. Matrimonia severa : dos a marito oblata. 19. Pudicitia : 
adulterii poena : monogamia : liberorum numerus non 
finitus. 20. Liberorum educatio: successionis leges. 21. 
Patris, propinqui, amicitiae, inimicitiaeque susceptae: homi- 
cidii pretium: hospitalitas. 22. Lotio, victus, ebriorum 
rixae: consultatio in conviviis. 28. Potus, cibus. 24. 
Bpectaoula: aleae furor. 25. Servi, libertini. 26. Fenus 
ignotum: agricultura: anni tempera. 27. Funera, sepul- 
era, luotuB. 



16 C. CORN. TACITUS 

28. Slngularam gentium institnta: Galli, olim valida gens, 
in Germaniam transgressi, Helvetii, Boil: Aravisci, Osi, 
incertum genns : Germanicae originis popoli Treveri, Nervii, 
Vangiones, Triboci, Nemetes, Ubii. 29. Batavi, Ghattornm 
proles: Mattiaci: Decnmatesagri. 80,31. Ohattornmregio, 
habitus, disciplina militaris; vota, virtutis incentiva. 82. 
Usipi, Tencteri, eqnitatu praestantes. 83. Brncterornm 
sedes, a Ghamavis et Angrivariis ocoupatae. 84. Dulgub- 
nil: Ghasaarii: Frisii. 85. Ghaaci, pads studio, justitia, 
et Tlrtute nobiles. 86. Gberusci et Fosi, a Ghattis yictL 
87. Gimbrorum parva civitas, gloria ingens ; Romanorum 
clades : Germani triumphati magis quam yioti. 88. Suevo- 
rum Humerus, mores. 89. Semnonum religio, yictimae 
humanae. 40. Longobardi: JReudigni: Aviones: Angli: 
Yarini: Eudoses: Suardones: Nuitbones: Nerthae cultus 
communis. 41. Hermundnri. 42. Yaristi: Marcomani: 
Quadi. 43. Marsigni: Gotbini: Gsi: Buri: Lygiorum 
oivitates, Arii, Helvecones, Manimi, Elysii, Nahanarvali; 
borum num en Alois: Gotones: Rugii: Lemovii. 44. Sui- 
ones, classibuB valentes. 45. Mare pigrum : Aestii, Matris 
Deum cultores, succinum legunt : Sitonibus f emina imperat. 
46. Peucini, Yenedi, Fenni, Germani, an Sarmatae ? Eorum 
f eritas, paupertas : Hominum monstra, Hellusii, Oxiones. 

I. Gebmaiha omnis a Gallis Khaetisque et Panno- 
niis Bheno et Danubio fluminibuSy a Sarmatis Dacis- 
que mutuo metu aut montibus separatur : cetera 
Oceanus ambit, latos sinus et insularum immensa 
spatia eomplectensy nuper cognitis quibusdam genti- 
bus ae regibus, quos bellum aperuit. Bhenus, Rhaeti- 
carum Alpium inaccesso ac praecipiti vertice ortus, 
modico fiexu in oecidentem versus, septentrionali 
Oceano miscetur. Danubius, molli et clementer edito 
montis Abnobae jugo effusus, plures populos adit, 
donee in Ponticum mare sex meatibus erumpat : septi- 
mum OS paludibus bauritur. 



DE GERMANIA. 17 

n. Ipsos Oermanos indigenas crediderim, minime* 
que aliarum gentium adventibas et hospitiis mixtos ; 
quia nee terra olim, sed classibus advehebantur, qui 
mntare sedes qnaerebant, et immensus ultra, utque sio 
dixerim, adversus Oceanus raris ab orbe nostro navi- 
bus aditur. Quis porro, praeter periculum horridi et 
ignoti maris, Asia aut Africa aut Italia relicta, G^r- 
maniam peteret, inf ormem terris, asperam coelo, tris- 
tem cultu aspectuque, nisi si patria sitf Celebrant 
carminibus antiquis (quod unum apud illos memoriae 
et annalium genus est) Tuistonem deum terra editum, 
et fiUum Mannum, originem gentis eonditoresque. 
Manno tres filios assignant, e quorum nominibus proxi- 
mi Oceano Ingaevones, medii Hermiones, ceteri Istae« 
vones Yocentur. Quidam autem, ut in licentia vetus- 
tatis, plures deo ortos pluresque gentis appellationes, 
Marsos, Gambrivios, Suevos, Yandalios, affirmant ; 
eaque vera et antiqua nomina. Ceterum Germaniae 
Yocabulum recens et nuper additum ; quoniam, qui 
primi Rhenum transgressi Gallos expulerint, ao nunc 
Tungri, tunc Germani vocati sint : ita nationis nomen, 
non gentis evaluisse paulatim, ut omnes primum a 
victore ob metum, mox a seipsis invento nomine Ger- 
mani vocarentur. 

III. Fuisse apud eos et Herculem memorant, pri- 
mumque omnium virorum fortium ituri in proelia ca- 
nunt. Sunt illis haec quoque carmina, quorum relatu, 
quern baritum vocant, accendunt animos, futuraeque 
pugnae f ortunam ipso cantu augurantur : terrent enim 
trepidantve, prout sonuit acies. Neo tam voces illae, 
quam virtutis concentus yidentur. Affectatur prae- 
cipue asperitas soni et fractum murmur, objectis ad 
OS scutis, quo plenior et gravior vox repercussu intu- 



18 C. CORN. TACITUS 

mescat. Cetemm et XJlixem qtiidam opinantnr longo 
illo et fabuloso errore in hunc Oceanum delatum, 
adisse Germaniae terras, Ascibnrgiumque, quod in 
ripa Rheni situm hodieque incolitur, ab illo conBtitu- 
turn nominatnmque. Aram quin etiam XJlixi conse- 
eratam, adjecto Laertae patris nomine, eodem loco 
olim repertam, monumentaque et tumulos quosdam 
Graecis Utteris inscriptos in confinio Germaniae Rhae« 
tiaeqne adhuc exstare : qnae neque confirmare argu- 
mentis, neque ref ellere in animo est : ex ingenio suo 
quisque demat, yel addat fidem. 

lY. Ipse eorum opinionibus accedo, qui Germaniae 
populos nullis aliis aliarum nationum connubiis inf ec- 
tos propriam et sinceram et tantum sui similem gen- 
tem exstitisse arbitrantur : unde habitus quoque cor- 
porum, quamquam in tanto hominum numero, idem 
omnibus ; truces et caerulei oculi, rutilae comae, mag- 
na corpora et tantum ad impetum yalida ; laboris 
atque operum non eadem patientia : minimeque sitim 
aestumque tolerare, frigora atque inediam coelo solove 
assueverunt. 

V. Terra, etsi aliquanto specie diff ert, in universum 
tamen aut silvis horrida aut paludibus f oeda : humi- 
dior, qua Gallias ; ventosior, qua Noricum ac Panno- 
niam aspicit : satis f erax ; frugif erarum arborum im- 
patiens : pecorum f ecunda, sed plerumque improcera ; 
ne armentis quidem suus honor, aut gloria frontis : 
numero gaudent ; eaeque solae et gratissimae opes 
sunt, Argentum et aurum propitii an irati dii nega-||i'' 
verint, dubito. Nee tamen affirmaverim, nullam Ger- ' 
maniae yenam argentum aurumve gignere : quis enim 
scrutatus est ? possessione et usu baud perinde affici- 
untur. Est videre apud illos argentea vasa, legatis et 



DE GEBMANIA. 19 

prmcipibos eonun muneri data, non in alia vilitate, 
quam quae humo finguntur ; quamquam proximiy ob 
usum commercioram, aurum et argentom in pretio 
habent, formasque qnasdam nostrae pecuniae agnos- 
ctinty atque eligunt : interiores simplicius et antiquius 
permutatione mercium utuntur. Pecuniam probant 
veterem et diu notam, serratos bigatosque. Argentum 
quoque magis quam aurum sequuntur, nulla affectione 
animi, sed quia numerus argenteorum facilior usui est 
promiscua ao yilia mercantibus. 

VI. Ne ferrum quidem superest, sicut ex genere 
telorum coUigitur. Rari gladiis aut majoribus lanceis 
utuntur : hastas, vel ipsorum vocabulo f rameas ge- 
runt, angusto et brevi ferro sed ita acri et ad usum 
habili, ut eodem telo, prout ratio poscit, vel cominus 
vel eminus pugnent : et eques quidem scuto fra- 
meaque contentus est : pedites et missilia spargunt, 
plura singulis atque in immensum vibrant, nudi aut 
sagulo leves. Nulla cultus jactatio ; scuta tantum 
lectissimis coloribus distinguunt ; paucis loricae : vix 
uni alterive cassis aut galea. Equi non forma, non 
velocitate conspicui : sed nee variare gyros in morem 
nostrum docentur. In rectum, aut uno flexu dextros 
agunt ita conjuncto orbe, ut nemo posterior sit. In 
universum aestimanti, plus penes peditem roboris ; 
eoque mixti proeliantur, apta et congruente ad eques- 
trem pugnam velocitate peditum, quos ex omni juven- 
tute delectos ante aciem loeant. Definitur et nume- 
rus : centeni ex singulis pagis sunt ; idque ipsum in- 
ter suos vocantur ; et quod prime numerus f uit, jam 
nomen et honor est. Acies per cuneos componitur. 
Cedere loco, dummodo rursus instes, consilii quam 
formidinis arbitrantur. Corpora suorum etiam in 



20 C. CORN. TACITUS 

dabiis proeliis ref emnt. Scutum reliquisse, praecipu- 
um flagitium ; nee aut sacris adesse, aut concilium 
inire, ignominioso fas ; multique superstites bellorum 
inf amiam laqueo finierunt. 

VIL Reges ex nobilitate, duces ex virtute sumunt. 
Neo regibus infinita aut libera potestas : et duces ex- 
emplo potius, quam imperio, si prompti, si conspicui, 
si ante aciem agant, admiratione praesunt. Ceterum 
neque animadvertere neque vincire, ne verberare qui- 
dem, nisi sacerdotibus permissum ; non quasi in poe- 
nam, nee ducis jussu, sed velut deo imperante, quem 
adesse bellantibus credunt : effigiesque et signa quae- 
dam, detracta lucis, in proelium ferunt. Quodque 
praecipuum fortitudinis incitamentum est, non casus 
nee fortuita conglobatio turmam aut cuneum facit, 
sed f amiliae et propinquitates, et in proximo pignora, 
unde feminarum ululatus audiri, unde vagitus infanti- 
um : hi cuique sanctissimi testes, hi maximi lauda* 
tores. Ad matres, ad conjuges vulnera ferunt ; nee 
illae numerare, aut exigere plagas pavent ; cibosque 
et hortamina pugnantibus gestant. ; r-^ V t>^- 

VIIL Memoriae proditur, quasdam acies, inclina- 
tas jam et labantes, a feminis restitutas, constantia 
precum et objectu pectorum et monstrata cominus 
captivitate, quam longe impatientius feminarum sua- 
rum nomine timent : adeo ut efficacius obligentur animi 
civitatum, quibus inter obsides puellae quoque nobiles 
imperantur. Inesse quin etiam sanctum aliquid et 
providum putant : nee aut consilia earum aspemantur, 
aut responsa negligunt. Vidimus sub divo Vespa- 
siano Veledam diu apud plerosque numinis loco habi- 
tam. Sed et olim Albrunam et complures alias venerati 
sunt non adulatione^ nee tanquam f acerent deas. 



DE 6ERMANIA. 21 

IX. Deomm maxime Mercurinm colunt, ctii certis 
diebus humanis quoqne hostiis litare fas habent. Her- 
culem ac Martem concessis animalibus placant : pars 
Suevorum et Isidi sacrificat. Unde causa et origo 
peregrine sacro parum comperi, nisi quod signom ip- 
sum^ in modum libnmae figuratum, docet advectam 
religionem. Ceterum neo cohibere parietibus deos, 
neque in uUam humani oris speciem assimulare, ex 
magnitudine coelestium arbitrantur : lucos ac nemora 
consecrant, deommqae nominibus appellant secretum 
illud, quod sola reverentia vident. . ^ -^ , 

X. Auspicia sortesque, ut qui maxime, observant. 
Sortium consuetudo simplex : virgam, frugiferae ar- 
bori decisam, in surculos amputant, eosque, notis qui- 
busdam diseretos, super candidam yestem temere ac 
fortuito spargunt : mox, si publice consuletur, sacer- 
dos civitatis, sin privatim, ipse paterfamiliae, precatus 
deos coelumque suspiciens, ter singulos tollit, sublatos 
secundum impressam ante notam interpretatur. Si 
prohibuerunt, nulla de eadem re in eundem diem con- 
sultatio ; sin permissum, auspiciorum adhuc fides exi- 
gitur. Et illud quidem etiam hie notum, avium voces 
volatusque interrogare : proprium gentis, equorum 
quoque praesagia ac monitus experiri ; publice aluntur 
iisdem nemoribus ac lucis candid! et nuUo mortali 
opere contacti : quos pressos sacro curru sacerdos ao 
rex vel princeps civitatis comitantur, hinnitusque ac 
fremitus observant. Nee uUi auspicio major fides 
non solum apud plebem, sed apud proceres, apud 
sacerdotes ; se enim ministros deorum, illos conscios 
putant. Est et alia observatio auspiciorum, qua gra- 
vium bellorum eventus explorant ; ejus gentis, cum 
qua bellum est, captivum, quoquo modo interceptum, 



22 C. CORN. TACITUS 

cum electo populaxium suomm, patriis quemqne armis, 
committunt : victoria hujus vel illius pro praejudicio 
accipitur. ^ -^ -k^v . . 

XL De minoribus rebus principes consultant ; de 
majoribus omnes : ita tamen, ut ea quoque, quorum 
penes plebem arbitrium est, apud principes pertrac- 
tentur. Coeunt, nisi quid fortuitum et subitum inci- 
dent, certis diebus, cum aut inchoatur luna aut imple- 
tur : nam agendis rebus hoc auspicatissimum initium 
credunt. Nee dierum numerum, ut nos, sed noctium 
computant. Sic constituunt, sic condicunt : nox du- 
cere diem videtur. lUud ex libertate vitium, quod 
non simul, nee ut jussi conveniunt, sed et alter et 
tertius dies cunctatione coeuntium absumitur. Ut 
turbae placuit, considunt armati Silentium per sacer- 
dotes, quibus tum et coercendi jus est, imperatur. 
Mox rex vel princeps, prout aetas cuique, prout nobili- 
tas, prout decus bellorum, prout f acundia est, audiun- 
tur, auctoritate suadendi magis, quam jubendi potes- 
tate. Si displicuit sententia, fremitu aspemantur; 
sin placuit, frameas concutiunt. Honoratissimum as- 
sensus genus est, armis laudare. 

XII. Licet apud concilium accusare quoque et dis- 
crimen capitis intendere. Distinctio poenarum ex de- 
licto : proditores et transfugas arboribus suspendunt ; 
ignavos et imbelles et corpore inf ames coeno ac pa- 
lude, injecta insuper crate, mergunt. Diversitas sup- 
plicii illuc respicit, tanquam scelera ostendi oporteat, 
dum puniuntur, flagitia abscondi. Sed et levioribus 
delictis, pro modo poenarum, equorum pecorumque 
numero convicti mulctantur : pars mulctae regi vel 
civitati, pars ipsi, qui vindicatur, vel propinquis ejus 
exsolvitur. Eliguntur in iisdem conciliis et principes, 



DE 6EBMANLL 23 

qui jura per pagos vicosqne reddimt. Centeni singnlis 
ex plebe comites, consiliam simul et auctoritas, ad- 
sunt. 

Xin. Nihil autem neqne publicae neque priyatae 
rei, nisi annati agunt. Sed arma Bumere non ante 
cuiquam moris, quam civitas suffecturom probaverit. 
Turn in ipso concilio, vel principum aUquis vel pater 
vel propinquus scuto frameaque juvenem omant : haeo 
apud illos toga, hie primus juventae honos : ante hoc 
domus pars yidentur, mox reipublicae. Insignis no- 
bilitas, aut magna patrum merita, principis dignatio- 
nem etiam adolescentulis assignant : ceteris robustiori- 
bus ac jampridem probatis aggregantur; nee rubor, 
inter comites aspicL Gradus quin etiam et ipse comi- 
tatus habet judicio ejus, quem sectantur : magnaque 
et comitum aemulatio, quibus primus apud principem 
suum locus, et principum, cui plurimi et acerrimi comi- 
tes. Haec dignitas, hae vires, magno semper electo- 
rum juvenum globo circumdari, in pace decus, in bello 
praesidiunu Nee solum in sua gente cuique, sed apud 
finitimas quoque civitates id nomen, ea gloria est, si 
numero ac virtute comitatus emineat : expetuntur 
enim legationibus et muneribus omantur et ipsa ple- 
rumque f ama bella profligant. . \\ . 

XIV. Cum ventum in aciem, turpe principi virtute 
vinci, turpe comitatui, virtutem principis non adae- 
quare. Jam vero inf ame in omnem vitam ac probro- 
sum, superstitem principi suo ex acie recessisse. Ilium 
defendere, tueri, sua quoque fortia facta gloriae ejus 
assignare, praecipuum sacramentum est. Principes 
pro victoria pugnant ; comites pro principe. Si civi- 
tas, in qua orti sunt, longa pace et otio torpeat, pleri- 
que nobilium adolescentium petunt ultro eas nationes, 



24 C. CORN. TACITUS 

quae turn bellum aliqnod gemnt ; quia et ingrata genii 
quies, et f acilius inter ancipitia clarescunt, magnumque 
Gomitatum non nisi vi belloque tuentur : exigunt enim 
principis sui liberalitate ilium bellatorem equum, iUam 
cruentam victricemque f rameam. Nam epulae et, quan- 
quam incompti, largi tamen apparatus pro stipendio 
cedunt : materia munifioentiae per bella et raptus. 
Neo arare terram, aut expectare annum, tam facile 
persuaseris, quam yocare hostes et vulnera mereri. 
Pigrum quin immo et iners videtur, sudore acquirere, 
quod possis sanguine parare. 

XV. Quotiens bella non ineunt, non multum venati- 
bus, plus per otium transigunt, dediti somno ciboque, 
f ortissimus quisque ac bellicosissimus nihil agens, dele- 
gata domus et penatium et agrorum cura f eminis seni- 
busque et infirmissimo cuique ex f amilia : ipsi hebent ; 
mira diversitate naturae, cum iidem homines sic amcnt 
inertiam et oderint quietem. Mos est civitatibus ultro 
ac viritim conf erre principibus vel armentorum vel f r»i- 
gum, quod pro honore acceptum etiam necessitatibus 
subvenit. Gaudent praecipue finitimarum gentium 
donis, quae non modo a singulis sed publice mittun- 
tur : electi equi, magna arma, phalerae, torquesque. 
Jam et pecuniam accipere docuimus, 

XYI. Nullas Germanorum popuUs urbes habitari, 
satis notum est : ne pati quidem inter se junctas sedes. 
Colunt discreti ac diversi, ut fons, ut campus, ut ne- 
mus placuit. Yicos locant, non in nostrum morem, 
connexis et cohaerentibus aedificiis : suam quisque 
domum spatio circumdat, sive adversus casus ignis re- 
medium, sive inscitia aedificandi* Ne caementorum 
quidem apud illos aut tegularum usus : materia ad 
omnia utuntur informi et citra speciem aut delecta- 



DE 6ERMANIA. 25 

tionem. Quaedam loca diligentius illinunt terra ita 
pura ac splendente, ut picturam ac lineamenta colonun 
imitetur. Solent et Bubterraneos specus aperire, eos- 
que multo insuper fimo onerant, suffugium hiemi et 
receptacolam fmgibns ; quia rigorem frigonmi ejus- 
modi locis molliunt : et, si quando hostis advenit, aper- 
ta populatur, abdita autem et def ossa aut ignorantur, 
aut eo ipso f allunt, quod quaerenda sunt. 

XVII. Tegumen omnibus sagum, fibula, aut, si 
desit, spina consertum : cetera intecti totos dies juxta 
focum atque ignem agunt. Locupletissimi veste dis- 
tinguuntur, non fluitante, sicut Sarmatae ao Parthi, 
sed stricta et singulos artus ezprimente. Gerunt et 
f erarum pelles, proximi ripae negligenter, ulteriores 
ezquisitius, ut quibus nuUus per commercia cultus. 
Eligunt f eras, et detracta velamiDa spargunt maculis 
pellibusque belluarum, quas exterior Oceanus atque 
ignotum mare gignit. Nee alius f eminis quam yiris 
habitus, nisi quod f eminae saepius lineis amictibus ve- 
lantur, eosque purpura variant, partemque vestitus su- 
perioris in manicas non extendunt, nudae brachia ac 
lacertos : sed et proxima pars pectoris patet. 

XYIII. Quanquam severa illic matrimonia ; nee 
uUam morum partem magis laudaveris : nam prope 
soli barbarorum singulis uxoribus contenti sunt, ex- 
ceptis admodum paucis, qui non libidine, sed ob nobili- 
tatem, plurimis nuptiis ambiuntur. Dotem non uxor 
marito, sed uxori maritus offert. Intersunt parentes 
et propinqui, ac munera probant : munera non ad deli- 
cias muliebres quaesita, nee quibus nova nupta coma- 
tur, sed boves et f renatum equum et scutum cum 
framea gladioque. In haec munera uxor accipitur; 
atque invicem ipsa armorum aliquid viro affert : hoc 



26 C. CORN. TACITUS 

maximnm yincalum, haec arcana sacra, hos conjugales 
deos arbitrantur. Ne se mulier extra virtutum cogi- 
tationes extraque bellorum casns putet, ipsis incipientis 
matrimonii auspiciis admonetur, venire se labomm 
periculorumque sociam, idem in pace, idem in proelio 
passuram ausuramque : hoc juncti boves, hoc paratus 
equus, hoc data arma denuntiant ; sic vivendum, sic 
pereundum : accipere se, quae liberis inviolata ac dig- 
na reddat, quae nurus accipiant rursus, quae ad nepotes 
referantur. 

XIX. Ergo septa pudicitia agunt, nullis spectacu- 
lorum illecebris, nullis conviviorum irritationibus cor- 
ruptae. Litterarum secreta viri pariter ac feminae ig- 
norant. Paucissima in tam numerosa gente adulteria ; 
quorum poena praesens et maritis permissa. Accisis 
crinibus, nudatam, coram propinquis, expellit domo 
maritus, ac per omnem vicum verbere agit : publicatae 
enim pudicitiae nulla venia : non forma, non aetate, 
non opibus maritum inv^enerit. Nemo enim illic vitia 
ridet : nee corrumpere et corrumpi saeculum yocatur. 
Melius quidem adhuc eae civitates, in quibus tantum 
virgines nubunt, et cum spe votoque uxoris semel trans- 
igitur. Sic unum accipiunt maritum, quo modo unum 
corpus unamque vitam, ne ulla cogitatio ultra, ne lon- 
gior cupiditas, ne tanquam maritum, sed tanquam 
matrimonium ament. Numerum liberorum finire, aut 
quenquam ex agnatis necare, flagitium habetur ; plus- 
que ibi boni mores valent, quam alibi bonae leges. 

XX. In onmi domo nudi ac sordid!, in bos artus in 
baec corpora, quae miramur, excrescunt. Sua quemque 
mater uberibus alit, nee ancillis ac nutricibus dele- 
gantur. Dominum ac servum nullis educationis de- 
Uciis dignoscas : inter eadem pecora, in eadem humo 



DE GERHANU. 27 

degont ; donee aetas separet ingenaoSy virtus agnoscat. 
Sera juvenum Venus ; eoque inexhausta pubertas : neo 
yirgines f estinantur ; eadem juventa, similis proceritas: 
pares validaeque miscentur; ao robora parentum li- 
beri ref erunt. Sororum filiis idem apud avunculuniy 
qui ad patrem honor. Quidam sanctiorem arctio* 
remque bunc nexum sanguinis arbitrantur, et in accipi- 
endis obsidibus magis exigunt ; tanquam et in animum 
firmius, et domum latins teneant. Heredes tamen suc- 
cessoresque sui cuique liberi : et nullum testamentum. 
Si liberi non sunt, proximus gradus in possessione f ra- 
tres, patrui, avunculi. Quanto plus propinquorum, 
quo major affinium numerus, tanto gratiosior senectus, 
nee ulla orbitatis pretia. 

XXL Suseipere tam inimieitias, seu patris, seu 
propinqui, quam amieitias, necesse est : nee implaea- 
biles durant. Luitur enim etiam homicidium certo 
armentorum ao pecorum numero,- recipitque satisfae- 
tionem universa domus : utiliter in publicum, quia 
periculosiores sunt inimicitiae juxta libertatem. Con- 
victibus et hospitiis non alia gens effusius indulget. 
Quemeunque mortalium areere tecto, nefas habetur : 
pro foi-tuna quisque apparatis epulis exeipit. Cum 
def ecere, qui modo hospes f uerat, monstrator hospitii 
et comes : proximam domum non invitati adeunt : nee 
interest ; pari humanitate accipiuntur. Notum igno- 
tumque, quantum ad jus hospitis, nemo discemit. 
Abeunti, si quid poposcerit, concedere moris : et 
poseendi invicem eadem facilitas. Gaudent muneri- 
bus : sed nee data imputant, nee acceptis obligantur. 
Victus inter hospites comis. 

XXII. Statim e somno, quem plerumque in diem 
extrahunt, lavantur, saepius calida, ut apud quos plu- 



28 C. CORN. TACITUS 

rimnm hiems occupat. Lauti cibum capiunt : separa- 
tae singulis sedes et sua cuique mensa : turn ad nego- 
tia, nee minus saepe ad convivia, procedunt armati. 
Diem noetemque continuare potando, nuUi probrum. 
Crebrae, ut inter vinolentos, rixae, raro conviciis, 
saepius caede et vulneribus transiguntur. Sed et de 
reconciliandis invieem inimicis et jungendis affinitati- 
bus et asciscendis principibus, de pace denique ac 
bello plerumque in conviviis consultant : tanquam 
nuUo magis tempore aut ad simplices cogitationes 
pateat animus^ aut ad magnas incalescat. Gens non 
astuta nee callida aperit adhuc secreta pectoris licen- 
tia joci. Ergo detecta et nuda omnium mens postera 
die retractatur, et salva utriusque temporis ratio est : 
deliberanty dum fingere nesciunt ; constituunt, dum 
errare non possunt. 

XXin. Potui humor ex hordeo aut f rumento, in 
quandam similitudiiiem vini corruptus, Proximi ripae 
et vinum mercantur, Cibi simplices ; agrestia poma, 
recens fera, aut lac concretum. Sine apparatu, sine 
blandimentisy expellunt famem. Adversus sitim non 
eadem temperantia. Si indulseris ebrietati suggeren- 
do quantum concupiscunt, baud minus facile vitiis 
quam armis vincentur. 

XXIV. Genus spectaculorum unum atque in omni 
coctu idem. Nudi juvenes, quibus id ludicrum est, 
inter gladios se atque infestas frameas saltu jaciunt. 
Exercitatio artem paravit, ars decorem : non in quaes- 
tum tamen aut mercedem ; quamvis audacis lasciviae 
pretium est voluptas spectantium. Aleam, quod mi- 
rere, sobrii inter seria exercent tanta lucrandi perden- 
dive temeritate, ut, cum omnia defecerunt, extremo 
ac novissimo jactu de libertate ao de corpore conten- 



D£ GEKMANIA. 29 

dant. Yictus voluntariam seryitutem adit : quamvis 
juvenior, quamvis robustior, alligari se ac venire pati- 
tur : ea est in re prava pervicacia ; ipsi fidem vocant. 
Servos conditionis hujus per commercia tradunt, ut se 
quoque pudore vjictoriae exsolvant. 

XXV. Ceteris servis, non in nostrum morem de- 
scriptis per familiam ministeriis, utuntur. Suam 
quisque sedem, suos penates regit. Frumenti mo- 
dum dominus, aut pecoris aut vestis, ut colono, injun- 
git : et servus hactenus paret ; cetera domus officia 
uxor ac liberi exsequuntur. Verberare servum ac 
vinculis et opere coercere rarum. Occidere solent, 
non disciplina et severitate, sed impetu et ira, ut inimi- 
cum, nisi quod impune. Liberti non multum supra 
servos sunt, raro aliquod momentum in domo, nun- 
quam in civitate ; exceptis duntaxat iis gentibus 
quae regnantur : ibi enim et super ingenues et super 
nobiles ascendunt : apud ceteros impares libertini li- 
bertatis argumentum sunt. 

XXVI. Fenus agitare et in usuras extendere igno- 
tum : ideoque magis servatur, quam si vetitum esset. 
Agri pro numero cultorum ab universis in vices occu- 
pantur, quos mox inter se secundum dignationem par- 
tiuntur : f acilitatem partiendi camporum spatia prae- 
stant. Arva per annos mutant : et superest ager ; nee 
enim cum ubertate et amplitudine soli labore conten- 
dunt, ut pomaria conserant et prata separent et hor- 
tos rigent : sola terrae seges imperatur. Unde an- 
num quoque ipsum non in totidem digerunt species : 
hiems et ver et aestas intellectum ac vocabula habent ; 
autumni perinde nomen ac bona ignorantur. 

XXVII. Funerum nulla ambitio ; id solum obser- 
vatur, ut corpora clarorum virorum certis lignis ere- 



30 C. CORN. TACITUS 

mentur. Struem rogi nee vestibus nee odoribus cumu- 
lant : sua cuique arma, quorundam igni et equus adji- 
citur. Sepulcrum eaespes erigit ; monumentorum 
arduum et operosum honorem, ut gravem defunctis, 
aspemantur. Lamenta ac lacrimas .cito, dolorem et 
tristitiam tarde ponunt. Feminis lugere honestum 
est ; viris meminisse. Haec in commune de omnium 
Germanorum origine ac moribus accepimus : nunc 
singularum gentium instituta ritusque, quatenus dif- 
ferant, quae nationes e Germania in Gallias commi- 
graverint, expediam. 

XXVin. Validiores olim Gallorum res fuisse, 
summus auctorum divus Julius tradit : eoque credi- 
bile est etiam Gallos in Germaniam transgresses. 
Quantulum enim amnis obstabat, quo minus, ut quae- 
que gens evaluerat, occuparet permutaretque sedes 
promiscuas adhuc et nulla regnorum potentia divisas ? 
Igitur inter Hercyniam sylvam Rhenumque et Moenum 
amnes Helvetii, ulteriora Boii, Gallica utraque gens, 
tenuere. Manet adhuc £oihemi nomen, signatque 
loci veterem memoriam, quamvis mutatis cultoribus. 
Sed utrum Aravisci in Pannoniam ab Osis, Germano- 
rum natione, an Osi ab Araviscis in Germaniam com- 
migraverint, cum eodem adhuc sermone, institutis, 
moribus utantur, incertum est : quia, pari olim inopia 
ac libertate, eadem utriusque ripae bona malaque erant. 
Treveri et Nervii circa affectationem Germanicae ori- 
ginis ultro ambitiosi sunt, tanquam per banc gloriam 
sanguinis a similitudine et inertia Gallorum separen- 
tur. Ipsam Rheni ripam baud dubie Germanorum 
populi colunt, Vangiones, Triboci, Nemetes. Ne TJbii 
quidem, quanquam Romana colonia esse meruerint ac 
libentius Agrippinenses conditoris sui nomine vocen- 



DE GERMANIA. 31 

tur, origine erabescunt, transgress! olim et experi- 
mento fidei super ipsam Rheni ripam coUocati, ut 
arcerent, non ut custodirentur. 

XXIX. Omnium harum gentium virtute praecipui 
Batavi, non multum ex ripa, sed insulam Rheni amnis 
colunty Chattorum quondam populus et seditione 
domestica in eas sedes transgressus, in quibus pars 
Romani imperii fierent. Manet honos et antiquae 
societatis insigne : nam nee tributis contemnuntur, 
nee publicanus atterit : exempti oneribus et coUationi- 
bus et tantum in usum proeliorum sepositi, velut tela 
atque arma, belhs reservantur. £st in eodem obsequio 
et Mattiacorum gens ; protulit enim magnitudo populi 
Romani ultra Rhenum, ultraque veteres terminos, im- 
perii reverentiam. Ita sede finibusque in sua ripa, 
mente animoque nobiscum agunt, cetera similes Ba- 
tavis, nisi quod ipso adhuc terrae suae solo et coelo 
acrius animantur. Non numeraverim inter Germa- 
niae populos, quanquam trans Rhenum Danubiumque 
consederint, eos qui Decumates agros exercent. Le- 
yissimus quisque Gallorum et inopia audax dubiae 
possessionis solum occupavere. Mox limite acto pro- 
motisque praesidiis, sinus imperii et pars provinciae 
habentur. 

XXX. Ultra hos Chatti initium sedis ab Hercynio 
saltu inchoant, non ita effusis ac palustribus locis ut 
ceterae civitates, in quas Germania pateseit ; durant 
siquidem coUes, paulatim rarescunt, et Cbattos suos 
saltus Hercynius prosequitur simul atque deponit. 
Duriora genti corpora, stricti artus, minax vultus et 
major animi vigor. Multum, ut inter Germanos, 
rationis ac solertiae : praeponere electos, audire 
praepositos, nosse ordines, intelligere occasiones, 



32 0. CORN. TACITUS 

differre impetus, disponere diem, vallare noctem, for- 
tunam inter dubia, virtutem inter certa numerare : 
quodque rarissimum nee nisi ratione disciplinae con- 
cessum, plus reponere in duce, quam exercitu. Omne 
robur in pedite, quem, super arma, f erramentis quoque 
et copiis onerant. Alios ad proelium ire videas, Chat- 
tos ad bellum. Rari excursus et f ortuita pugna ; 
equestrium sane virium id proprium, cito parare victo- 
riam, cito cedere : velocitas juxta f ormidinem, cuncta- 
tio propior constantiae est. 

XXXI. Et aliis Germanorum populis usurpatum 
raro et privata cujusque audentia apud Chattos in 
consensum vertit, ut primum adoleverint, crinem bar- 
bamque submittere, nee, nisi hoste caeso, exuere 
votivum obligatumque virtuti oris habitum. Super 
sanguinem et spolia revelant frontem, seque turn 
demum pretia nascendi retulisse, dignosque patria ao 
parentibus ferunt; Ignavis et imbellibus manet 
squalor. Fortissimus quisque ferreum insuper annu- 
lum (ignominiosum id genti) velut vinculum gestat, 
donee se caede hostis absolvat. Plurimis Chattorum 
hie placet habitus. Jamque canent insignes, et hosti- 
bus simul suisque monstrati. Omnium penes hos 
initia pugnarum : haeo prima semper acies, visu nova ; 
nam ne in pace quidem vultu mitiore mansuescunt. 
Nulli domus aut ager aut aliqua cura : prout ad quem- 
que venere, aluntur : prodigi alieni, contemptores sui, 
donee exsanguis senectus tam durae virtuti impares 
faciat. 

XXXII. Proximi Chattis certum jam alveo Rhe- 
num, quique terminus esse sufficiat, Usipi ac Tencteri 
colunt. Tencteri, super solitum bellorum decus, eques- 
tris disciplinae arte praecellunt : nee major apud Chat- 



BE 6EKMANIA. 33 

tos peditum laus, quam Tencteris equitum. Sic in- 
stituere majores, poster! imitantur; hi lusus infan- 
tium, haeo juvenum aemulatio, perseverant senes : 
inter familiam et penates et jura successionum equi 
traduntur ; excipit filius, non, ut cetera, maximus natu, 
sed prout f erox bello et melior. 

XXXIII. Juxta Tencteros Bructeri olim occurre- 
bant : nunc Chamavos et Angrivarios immigrasse nar- 
ratur, pulsis Bructeris ac penitus excisis vicinarum 
consensu nationum, seu superbiae odio, seu praedae 
dulcedine, seu f avore quodam erga nos deorum : nam 
ne spectaculo quidem proelii invidere : super sexagin- 
ta millia, non armis telisque Komanis, sed, quod mag- 
nificentius est, oblectationi oculisque ceciderunt. Ma- 
neat, quaeso, duretque gentibus, si non amor nostri, 
at certe odium sui : quando, urgentibus imperii fatis, 
nihil jam praestare fortuna ma jus potest, quam hos- 
tium discordiam. 

XXXIV. Angrivarios et Chamavos a tergo Dul- 
gubnii et Chasuarii cludunt aliaeque gentes, baud pe- 
rinde memoratae. A fronte Frisii excipiunt. Majori- 
bus minoribusque Frisiis vocabulum est ex modo viri- 
um : utraeque nationes usque ad Oceanum Kheno 
praetexuntur, ambiuntque immensos insuper lacus et 
Romanis classibus navigates. Ipsum quin etiam Oce- 
anum ilia tentavimus : et superesse adhuc Herculis co- 
lumnas f ama vulgavit ; sive adiit Hercules, seu, quic- 
quid ubique magnificum est, in claritatem ejus referre 
consensimus. Nee def uit audentia Druso Germanico : 
sed obstitit Oceanus in se simul atque in Herculem in- 
quiri. Mox nemo tentavit ; sanctiusque ac reverentius 
visum, de actis deorum credere, quam scire. 

XXXV. Hactenus in occidentem Germaniam novi- 



34 C. CORN. TACITUS 

mus. In septentrionem ingenti flexu redit. Ac primo 
statim Chaucorum gens, quanquam incipiat a Frisiis 
ac partem littoris occupet, omnium, quas exposui, 
gentium lateribus obtenditur, donee in Chattos usque 
sinuetur. Tam immensum terrarum spatium non te- 
nent tantum Chauci, sed et implent : populus inter 
Germanos nobilissimus, quique magnitudinem suam 
malit justitia tueri : sine cupiditate, sine impotentia, 
quieti secretique, nulla provocant bella, nuUis rap- 
tibus aut latrociniis populantur. Id praecipuum 
virtutis ac virium argumentum est, quod, ut supe- 
riores agant, non per injurias assequuntur. Prompta 
tamen omnibus anna, si res poscat, exercitus, plu- 
rimum virorum equorumque : et quiescentibus eadem 
fama. 

XXXVI. In latere Chaucorum Chattorumque 
Cherusci nimiam ac marcentem diu pacem illacessiti 
nutrierunt ; idque jucundius, quam tutius, fuit ; quia 
inter impotentes et validos false quiescas ; ubi manu 
agitur, modestia ac probitas nomina superioris sunt. 
Ita, qui olim boni aequique Cherusci, nunc inertes ac 
stulti vocantur : Chattis victoribus f ortuna in sapien- 
tiam cessit. Tracti ruina Cheruscorum et Fosi, con- 
termina gens, adversarum rerum ex aequo socii, cum 
in secundis minores f uissent. 

XXXVII. Eundem Germaniae sinum proximi Oce- 
ano Cimbri tenent, parva nunc civitas, sed gloria in- 
gens ; veterisque f amae lata vestigia manent, utraque 
ripa castra ac spatia, quorum ambitu nunc quoque me- 
tiaris molem manusque gentis et tam magni exitus 
fidem. Sexcentesimum et quadragesimum annum urbs 
nostra agebat, cum primum Cimbrorum audita sunt 
arma, Caecilio Metello et Papirio Carbone consulibus. 



D£ GERMANIA. 35 

Ex quo si ad alterum Imperatoris Trajani conBulatnm 
computemus, ducenti ferme et decern anni coUigun- 
tur ; tamdiu Germania vincitur. Medio tain longi 
aevi spatio, multa invicem damna : non Samnis, non 
Poeni, non Hispaniae Galliaeve, ne Parthi quidem 
saepins admonnere : quippe regno Arsacis acrior est 
Germanorum libertas. Quid enim aliud nobis, quam 
caedem Crassi, amisso et ipse Pacoro, infra Ycntidium 
dejectus Oriens objecerit ? At Germani, Carbone et 
Cassio et Scauro Aurelio et Servilio Caepione, M. quo- 
que Manlio fusis vel captis, quinque simul consulares 
exercitus Populo Romano, Varum tresque cum eo le- 
giones, etiam Caesari abstulerunt : nee impune C. Ma- 
rius in Italia, divus Julius in Gallia, Drusus ac Nero 
et Germanicus in suis eos sedibus perculerunt. Mox 
ingentes C. Caesaris minae in ludibrium versae. Inde 
otium, donee occasione discordiae nostrae et civilium 
armorum, expugnatis legionum hibemis, etiam Gallias 
affectavere : ac rursus pulsi, inde proximis temporibus 
triumphati magis quam victi sunt. 

XXXV 111. Nunc de Suevis dicendum est, quo- 
rum non una, ut Cliattorum Tencterorumve, gens : ma- 
jorem enim Germaniae partem obtinent, propriis ad- 
huc nationibus nominibusque discreti, quanquam in 
commune Suevi vocentur. Insigne gentis obliquare 
crinem nodoque substringere : sic Suevi a ceteris Ger- 
manis, sic Suevorum ingenui a servis separantur : in 
aliis gentibus, seu coguatione aliqua Suevorum, sen 
quod saepe accidit, imitatione, rarum et intra juventae 
spatium ; apud Suevos, usque ad canitiem, horrentem 
capillum retro sequuntur, ac saepe in ipso solo vertice 
religant. Principes et omatiorem habent : ea cura 
formae, sedinnoxiae : neque enim ut ament amenturve; 



36 0. CORN. TACITUS 

in altitudinem quandam et terrorem, adituri bella, 
compti, ut hostium oculis, omantur. 

XXXIX. Vetustissimos se nobilissimosque Sue- 
vorum Semnones memorant. Fides antiquitatis religi- 
one firmatur. Stato tempore in silvam auguriis pa- 
trum et prisca formidine sacram, omnes ejusdem san- 
guinis populi legationibus coeunt, caesoque publico 
homine celebrant barbari ritus horrenda primordia. 
Est et alia luco reverentia. Nemo nisi vinculo ligatus 
ingreditur, ut minor et potestatem numinis prae se f e- 
rens. Si forte prolapsus est, attoUi et insurgere baud 
licitum : per bumum evolvuntur : eoque omnis super- 
stitio respicit, tanquam inde initia gentis, ibi regnator 
omnium deus, cetera subjecta atque parentia. Adjicit 
auctoritatem fortuna Semnonum : centum pagis habi- 
tantur ; magnoque corpore efficitur, ut se Suevorum 
caput credant. 

XL. Contra Langobardos paucitas nobilitat : plu- 
rimis ac valentissimis nationibus cincti, non per obse- 
quium, sed proeliis et periclitando tuti sunt. Reudig- 
ni deinde et Aviones et Anglii et Varini et Eudoses et 
Suardones et Nuithones fluminibus aut silvis muniun- 
tur : nee quidquam notabile in singulis nisi quod in 
commune Nerthum, id est Terram matrem colunt, 
eamque intervenire rebus hominum, invebi populis ar- 
bitrantur. Est in insula Oceani castum ncmus, dica- 
tumque in eo vebiculum, veste contectum : attingere 
uni sacerdoti concessum. Is adesse penetrali deam in- 
telligit, vectamque bubus f eminis multa cum venera- 
tione prosequitur. Laeti tunc dies, f esta loca, quae- 
cumque adventu bospitioque dignatur. Non bella in- 
eunt, non arma sumunt ; clausum omne f errum : pax 
et quies tunc tantum nota, tunc tantum amata, donee 



DE GERMANIA. 37 

idem sacerdos satiatam conversatione mortalium deam 
templo reddat. Mox vehiculum et vestes, et, si credere 
Velis, nnmen ipsum secreto lacu abluitur. Servi mi- 
nistrant, quos statim idem lacus haurit ; areanns hinc 
terror sanctaqne ignorantia, quid sit illud^ quod tan- 
turn perituri yident. 

XLI. Et haec quidem pars Suevorum in secretiora 
Germaniae porrigitur. Propior, ut quo modo paulo 
ante Khenum, sic nunc Danubium sequar, Hermun- 
durorum civitas, fida Romanis, eoque solis 6er- 
manorum non in ripa comm^rcium, sed penitus, atque 
in eplendidissima Khaetiae provinciae colonia. Passim 
et sine custode transeunt : et, cum ceteris gentibus 
arma modo castraque nostra ostendamus, his domos 
villasque patef ecimus non concupiscentibus. In Her- 
munduris Albis oritur, flumen inclitum et notum olim ; 
nunc tantura auditur. 

XLII. Juxta Hermunduros Varisti, ac dcinde Mar- 
comani et Quadi agunt. Praecipua Marcomanorum 
gloria viresque, atque ipsa etiam sedes, pulsis olim 
Boiis, virtute parta. "Nee Varisti Quadive degene- 
rant. Eaque Germaniae velut frons est, quatenus 
Danubio peragitur. Marcomanis Quadisque usque 
ad nostram memoriam reges manserunt ex gente 
ipsorum, nobile Marobodui et Tudri genus : jam et 
externos patiuntur. Sed vis et potentia regibus ex 
auctoritate Romana : raro armis nostris, saepius pecu- 
nia juvantur, nee minus valent. 

XLin. Retro Marsigni, Gothini, Osi, Buri, terga 
Marcomanorum Quadorumque claudunt : e quibus 
Marsigni et Burii sermone cultuque Suevos referunt. 
Gothinos Gallica, Osos Pannonica lingua coarguit non 
esse Germanos, et quod tributa patiuntur. Partem 



38 C. CORN. TACITUS 

tributorum Sarmatae, partem Quadi, ut alienigenis, 
imponunt. Gothini, quo magis pudeat, et fermia 
effodiunt. Omnesque hi populi pauca campestrium, 
ceterum saltus et vertices montium jugumque inse- 
derunt. Dirimit enim scinditque Sueviam continuum 
montium jugum, ultra quod plurimae gentes agunt : 
ex quibus latissime patet Lygiorum nomen in plures 
civitates diffusum. Yalentissimas nominasse sufficiet, 
Arios, Helveconas, Manimos, Elysios, ISTahanarvalos. 
Apud ISTahanarvalos antiquae religionis lucus ostendi- 
tur. Praesidet sacerdos muliebri omatu : sed deos, in- 
terpretatione Romana, Castorem PoUucemque memo- 
rant : ea vis numini ; nomen Alois. Nulla simulacra, 
nullum peregrinae superstitionis vestigium : ut fra- 
tres tamen, ut juvenes, venerantur. Ceterum Arii 
super vires, quibus enumerates paulo ante populos 
antecedunt, truces, insitae feritati arte ac tempore 
lenocinantur. Nigra scuta, tincta corpora : atras ad 
proelia noctes legunt ; ipsaque f ormidine atque umbra 
feralis exercitus terrorem inferunt, nuUo hostium 
Bustinente novum ac velut inf emum aspectum : nam 
primi in omnibus proeliis oculi vincuntur. Trans 
Lygios Gothones regnantur, paulo jam adductius, 
quam ceterae Germanorum gentes, nondum tamen 
supra libertatem. Protinus deinde ab Oceano Rugii 
et Lemovii : omniumque harum gentium insigne, ro- 
tunda scuta, breves gladii, et erga reges obsequium. 

XLIV. Suionum hino civitates, ipso in Oceano, 
praeter viros armaque classibus valent : forma navium 
eo differt, quod utrimque prora paratam semper ap- 
pulsui f rontem agit : nee velis ministrantur, nee remos 
in ordinem lateribus adjungunt. Solutum, ut in qui- 
busdam fluminum, et mutabile, ut res poscit, bine vel 



DE GEBMANIA. 39 

illino remiginm. Est apnd illos et opibns honos ; 
eoque onus imperitat, nullis jam exceptionibus, non 
precario jure parendi Nee arma, ut apud ceteros 
OermanoSy in promiscno, sed clausa snb custode et 
quidem servo : quia subitos hostium incorsus prohibet 
OceanuSy otiosa porro armatorum manus facile lasci- 
viunt ; enimvero neqne nobilem neque ingenunm, ne 
libertinum quidem, armis praeponere regia utilitas est. 
XLY. Trans Suionas aliud mare, pigrum ac prope 
immotum, quo cingi cludique terrarum orbem hino 
fides, quod extremus cadentis jam solis fulgor in ortus 
edurat adeo clarus, ut sidera hebetet ; sonum insuper 
audiri, f ormasque deorum et radios capitis aspici per- 
suasio adjicit. lUuc usque, et fama vera, tantum na- 
tura. Ergo jam dextro Suevici maris littore Aestio- 
rum gentes alluuntur : quibus ritus habitusque Suevo- 
rum ; lingua Britannicae propior. Matrem deum ve- 
nerantur : insigne superstitionis, f ormas aprorum ges- 
tant ; id pro armis omnique tutela : securum deae cul- 
torem etiam inter hostes praestat. Barus f erri, fre- 
quens fustium usus. Frumenta ceterosque fructus 
patientius, quam pro solita Germanorum inertia, labo- 
rant. Sed et mare scrutantur ac soli omnium succi 
num, quod ipsi glesum vocant, inter vada atque in 
ipso littore legunt. Nee, quae natura quaeve ratio 
gignat, ut barbaris, quaesitum eompertumve. Diu 
quin etiam inter cetera ejectamenta maris jaeebat, 
donee luxuria nostra dedit nomen : ipsis m nuUo usu : 
rude legitur, informe perfertur, pretiumque mirantes 
aecipiunt. Succum tamen arborum esse intelligas, 
quia terrena quaedam atque etiam volucria animalia 
plerumque interlucent, quae implicata humore, mox, 
durescentc materia, eluduntur. Fecundiora igitur ne- 



40 C. CORN. TACITUS 

mora lucosque, sicut Orientis secretis, ubi thura bal- 
samaque sudantur, ita Occidentis insulis terrisque in- 
esse, crediderim ; quae vicini solis radiis expressa 
atque liquentia in proximum mare labuntur, ac vi 
tempestatum in adversa littora exundant. Si naturam 
succini admoto igne tentes, in modum taedae accendi- 
tur, alitque flammam pinguem et olentem : mox ut in 
pieem resinamve lentescit. Suionibus Sitonum gentes 
continuantur. Cetera similes, uno differunt, quod f e- 
mina dominatur : in tantum non modo a libertate, sed 
etiam a servitute degenerant. 

XLVI. Hie Sueviae finis. Peucinorum Venedo- 
rumque et Fennorum nationes Germanis an Sarmatis 
ascribam, dubito : quanquam Peucini, quos quidam 
Bastamas vocant, sermone, cultu, sede ac domiciliis, 
ut Germani, agunt. Sordes omnium ac torpor proce- 
rum : connubiis mixtis, nonnihil in Sarmatarum habi- 
tum foedantur. Venedi multum ex moribus traxe- 
runt. Nam quidquid inter Peucinos Fennosque silva- 
rum ac montium erigitur, latrociniis pererrant. Hi 
tamen inter Germanos potius ref eruntur, quia et do- 
mos figunt et scuta gestant et pedum usu ac pemici- 
tate gaudent ; quae omnia diversa Sarmatis sunt, in 
plaustro equoque viventibus. Fennis mira feritas, 
f oeda paupertas : non arma, non equi, non penates : 
victui herba, vestitui pelles, cubile humus : sola in 
sagittis spes, quas, inopia f erri, ossibus asperant. Idem- 
que venatus viros pariter ac f eminas alit. Passim enim 
comitantur, partemque praedae petunt. Nee aliud in- 
fantibus ferarum imbriumque suffugium, quam ut in 
aliquo ramorum nexu contegantur : hue redeunt ju- 
venes, hoc senum receptaculum. Sed beatius arbi- 
trantur, quam ingemere agris, illaborare domibus, suas 



DE GERMANIA. 41 

alienasque f ortunas spe metuque versare. Securi ad- 
versus homines, securi adversus deos, rem difficillimam 
assecuti sunt, ut illis ne voto quidem opus asset. 
Cetera jam fabulosa : Hellusios et Oxionas ora homi- 
num vultusque, corpora atque artus ferarumj gerere : 
quod ego, ut incompertum, in medium relinquam. 



ON. JTJLII AGEIOOLAE 
VITA. 



BREVIARIUM. 

Cap. 1. Scribendi clarortim virorum vitam mos antiquns. 2. 
sub malia principibua pericrdostis. 8. sub Trajano in hono- 
rem Agricolae repetitus a Tacito, qui non eloquentiam, at 
pietatem pollicetur. 4. Agricolae stirps, educatio, studia. 
6. Positis in Britannia primis castrorum rudimentis. 6. 
nxorem ducit: fit quaestor, tribunus, praetor: recogno- 
scendis templorum donis praefectus. 7. Othoniano bello 
matrem partemque patrimonii amittit. 8. In Yespasiani 
partes transgressus, legioni vicesimae in Britannia praeposi- 
tus, alienae famae cura promovet suam. 9. Eedux inter 
patricios ascitus Aquitaniam regit. Consul factus Tacito 
filiam despondet. Britanniae praeficitur. 

10. Britanniae descriptio. Thule cognita : marepigrum. 11. 
Britannorum origo, habitus, sacra, sermo, mores. 12. mi- 
litia, regimen, rarus conventus : coelum, solum, metalla, 
margarita. 13. Victae gentis ingenium. Caesarum in Bri- 
tanniam expeditiones. 14. Consularium legatorum res 
gestae. 15. Britanniae rebellio. 16. Boudicea duce coepta, 
a Suet. Paullino compressa. Huic succedunt ignavL 17. 
Rem restituunt Petilius Cerialis et Julius Frontinus; hie 
Silures, ille Brigantes vincit; 18. Agricola Ordovices et 
Monam. Totam provinciam pacat, et 19, 20. moderatione, 
prudentia, abstinentia, aequitate in obsequio retinet. 21. 
animosque artibus et voluptatibus mollit. 



A6RIC0LA. 43 

22, 23. Nova ezpeditio novas gentes aperit, quae praesidio 
finnantur. Agricolae candor in commanicanda gloria. 24. 
Gonsilinm de occnpanda Hibernia. 26-27. Oivitates trans 
Bodotriam sitae explorantnr. Galedonii, Romanos aggressi, 
oonsilio dactaqne Agricolae pnlsi, sacrificiis conspirationem 
ciyitatam sancinnt' 28. Usipiorum oohors miro casa Bri- 
tanniam circuntvecta. Agricolae filios obit 29. Helium 
Britanni reparant Calgaco duce, cujus. 8(^2. oratio ad 
8U08. 83, 84. Romanos quoque hortatur Agricola. 85-87. 
Atroz et oraentum proelium. 88. Penes Romanos victoria. 
Agricola Britanniam circumvehi praecipit 

89. Domitianus, fronte laetus, pectore anxius, nuntium vie- 
toriae ezcipit 40. Honores tamen Agricolae decemi jubet, 
condito odio, donee provincia decedat Agricola. Is reduz 
modeste agit. 41. Periculam ab accusatoribus et laudator!- 
bus. 42. Excusat se, ne provinoiam sortlatur proconsul. 
43. Obit non sine veneni suspicione, a Domitiano dati. 44. 
£|jus aetas, habitus, honores, opes. 45. Mortis opportunitas 
ante Domitiani atrocitates. 46. Questus auctoris et ez vir- 
tute solatia. Fama Agricolae ad posteros transmissa. 

L Clakorum virorum facta moresque posteris tra- 
dere, antiquituB usitatum, ne nostris quidem tempori- 
bus quanquam incuriosa suorum aetas omisit, quotiens 
magna aliqua ac nobilis virtus vicit ac supergressa est 
vitium parvis magnisque civitatibus commune, igno- 
rantiam recti et invidiam. [ Sed apud priores^ ut agere 
digna memoratu pronum magisque in aperto erat, ita 
celeberrimus quisque ingenio ad prodendam virtutis 
memoriam, sine gratia aut ambitione, bonae tantum 
conscientiae pretio ducebatur. Ac plerique suam ipsi 
vitam narrare fiduciary potius morum, quam arrogan- 
tiam arbitrati sunt : nee id Rutilio et Scauro citra 
fidem aut obtrectationi f uit :) adeo virtutes iisdem tem- 
poribus optime aestimantur, quibus f acillime gignun- 

4 



C 
4A C. CORN. TACITI 

tur. At nunc narraturo mihi vitam def uncti hominis, 
venia opus f uit : quam non petissem incursaturus tarn 
saeva et inf esta virtntibus tempora. 

n. Legimus, cum Aruleno Rustico Paetus Thrasea, 
Herennio Senecioni Priscus Helvidius laudati eseent, 
capitale fuisse : neque in ipsos modo auctores^ sed in 
libros quoque eorum saevitum, delegate triumviris 
ministerio, ut monumenta clarissimorum ingeniorum 
in comitio ac foro urerentur. Scilicet illo igne vocem 
populi Bomani . et libertatem senatus ^et conscientiam 
generis humani aboleri arbitrabantur,\expul8is insuper 
sapientiae professoribus atque omni bona arte in ex- 
ilium acta, ne quid usquam honestum occurreret.^ De- 
dimus prof ecto grande patientiae documentum : et 
Bicut vetus aetas vidit, quid ultimum in libertate esset ; 
ita nos, quid in eervitute, adempto per inquisitiones et 
loquendi audiendique commercio. Memoriam quoque 
ipsam cum voce perdidissemus, si tam in nostra potes- 
tate esset oblivisci, quam tacere. 

nL Nunc demum redit animus : et quanquam pri- 
me statim beatissimi saeculi ortu Nerva Caesar res 
olim dissociabilcs miscuerit, principatum ac liberta- 
tem, augeatque quotidie felicitatem temporum Nerva 
Trajanus, nee spem modo ac votum securitas publica, 
sed ipsius voti fiduciam ac robur assumpserit ;''natura 1 
tamen infirmitatis humanae tardiora sunt- remedia, ) 
quam mala ^ et, ut corpora nostra lente augescunt, cito 
exstinguuntur, sic ingenia studiaque oppresseris f acilius, 
quam revocaveris. Subit quippe etiam ipsius inertiae 
dulcedo : et invisa primo desidia postremo amatur. \ 
Quid, si per quindecim annos, grande mortalis aevi 
spatium, multi f ortuitis casibus, promptissimus quisque 
eaevitia principis interciderunt ? ! Pauci, et, ut ita dix- 



AGMCOLA. 45 

erim, non modo aliomm, Bed etiam nostri Buperstites 
sumus, exemptis e media vita tot annis, quibus juvenes 
ad senectutem, senes prope ad ipsos exactae aetatis ter- 
tninos per silentium venimus.'] Non tamen pigebit vel 
incondita ac rudi voce memoriam prioiis servitutis ac 
testimonium praesentium bonorum composuisse. Hie 
interim liber honori Agricolae soceri mei destinatus, 
prof essione pietatis aut laudatus erit aut excusatus. 

IV. Qnaeus Julius Agbicola, veteri et illustri 
Forojulie»si«ffl colonia ortus, utrumque avnm procu- 
ratorem Caesarum habnit i^quae equestris nobilitas est.) 
Pater Julius Graecinus, senatorii ordinis, studio elo- 
quentiae sapientiaeque notus, iisque ipsis virtutibus 
iram Caii Caesaris meritus : namque M. Silanum ac- 
cusare jussus et, quia abnuerat, interf ectus est. Mater 
Julia Procilla fuit, rarae castitatis : in hujus sinu in- 
dulgentiaque educatus, per omnem honestarum artium 
cultum pueiitiam adolescentiamque transegit. ^ Arcebat 
eum ab illecebris peccantium, praeter ipsius bonam in- 
tegramque naturam, quod statim parvulus sedem ac 
magistram studiorum Massiliam habuit, locum Graeca 
comitate et provinciali parsimonia mixtum ac bene 
compositum. ( Memoria teneo solitum ipsum narrare, 
se in prima juventa studium philosophiae acrius, ultra 
quam concessum Homano ac senatori, hausisse, ni pru- 
dentia matris incensum ac flagrantem animum coercu- 
isset. 1 Scilicet sublime et erectum ingenium pulchritu- 
dinem ac speciem excelsae magnaeque gloriae vehe- 
mentius, quam caute, appetebat : mox mitigavit ratio et 
aetas : retinuitque, quod est difficillimum, ex sapientia 
modum. 

V. Prima castrorum rudimenta in Britannia Sue- 
tonio PaulUno, diligenti ac moderato duci, approbavit, 



46 C. CORN. TAcrri 

electus, quern contubernio aestimaret. Neo Agricolq 
licenter more juvenum, qui militiam in lasciviam ver- 
tunt, neque segniter ad voluptates et commeatus titu^ 
lum tribunatus et inscitiam retulit : sed noscere pro^ 
vinciam, nosci exercitui, discere a peritis, sequi opti- 
mos, nihil appetere in jactationem, nihil ob f ormidinem 
recusare, simulque et anxios et intentus agere. Non 
sane alias exercitatior magisque in ambiguo Britannia 
fuit : trucidati veterani, incensae coloniae, intercepti 
exercitus ; turn de salute, mox de victoria, certavere.i^ 
Quae cuncta, etsi consiliis ductuque alterius agebantur 
ac summa rerum et recuperatae provinciae gloria in 
ducem cessit, artem et usum et stimulos addidere juve- 
ni : intravitque animum militaris gloriae cupido ingra- 
ta temporibus, quibus sinistra erga eminentes interpre- 
tation nee minus periculum ex magna f ama, qiiam ex 
mala. 

VI. Hinc ad capessendos magistratus in urbem 
digressus, Domitiam Decidianam, splendidis natalibus 
ortam, sibi junxit : idque matrimonium ad majora 
nitenti decns ac robur fuit : vixeruntque mira concor- 
dia, per mutuam caritatem et invicem se anteponendo : 
nisi quod in bona uxore tanto major laus, quanto in ma- 
la plus culpae est. Sors quaesturae provinciam Asiam, 
proconsulem Salvium Titianum dedit : quorum neutro 
corruptus est : quanquam et provincia dives ac parata 
peccantibus, et proconsul in omnem aviditatem pronus, 
quantalibet facilitate redempturus esset mutuam dis- 
simulationem mail. Auctus est ibi filia, in subsidium 
simul et solatium : nam filium ante sublatum brevi 
amisit. Mox inter quaesturam ac tribunatum plebis at- 
que etiam ipsum tribunatus annum quiete et otio trans- 
lit, gnarus sub Nerone temporum, iquibus inertia pro 



AGRICOLA, 47 

sapientia f uitJ Idem praeturae tenor et silentium : neo 
enim jurisdictio obvenerat ; ludos et inania honoris 
medio rationis atque abundantiae duxit, uti longe a 
luxuria, ita f amae propior. Tum electus a Galba ad 
dona templorum recognoscenda, diligentissima conqui- 
sitione fecit, ne cujus alterios saciilegium respublica, 
quam Neronis sensisset. 

VII. Sequens annus gravi vulnere animum domum- 
que ejus affixit : nam classis Othoniana, licenter vaga, 
dum Intemelios (Liguriae pars est) hostiliter popula- 
tur, matrem Agricolae in praediis suis interfecit : 
praediaque ipsa et magnam patrimonii partem diripuit, 
quae causa caedis fuerat. Igitur ad solemnia pietatis 
profectus Agricola, nuntio affectati a Yespasiano im- 
perii deprehensus ac statim in partes transgressus est. 

I Initia principatus ac statum urbis Mucianus regebat, 
juvene adniodum Domitiano et ex'patema fortuna 
tantum licentiam usurpante.di Is missum ad delectus 
agendos Agricolam integreque ac strenue versatum, 
yicesimae legioni, tarde ad sacramentum transgressae, 
praeposuit^ ubi decessor seditiose agere narrabatur: 
quippe legatis quoque consularibus nimia ac formido- 
losa erat. Nee legatus praetorius ad cobibendum 
potens, incertum, suo an militum ingenio : ita succes- 
sor simul et ultor electus, rarissima moderatione maluit 
videri invenisse bonos, quam f ecisse. ^ 

VIII. Praeerat tunc Bntanniae Vettius Bolanus 
placidius, quam feroci provincia dignum est : tem- 
peravit Agricola vim suam ardoremque compescuit, ne 
incresceret ; peritus obsequi eruditusque utilia bones- 
tis miscere. Brevi deinde Britannia consularem Peti- 
lium Cerialem accepit. Habuerunt virtutes spatium 
exemplorum. Sed primo Cerialis labores modo et 



48 C. CORN. TACm 

discrimina, mox et gloriam communicabat : saepe 
parti exercitus in experimentum, aliquando majoribus 
copiis ex eventu praefecit : nee Agricola unquam in 
suam f amam gestis exsultavit ; ad auctorem et ducem, 
ut minister, f ortunam referebat : ita virtute in obse- 
quendo, verecundia in praedicando, extra invidiam, 
nee extra gloriam erat. / 

IX. Revertentem ab legatione legionis divus Ves- 
pasianus inter patricios ascivit, ac deinde provinciae 
Aquitaniae praeposuit, splendidae in primis dignitatis 
administratione ac spe consulatus, cui destinarat. 
Credunt plerique militaribus ingeniis subtilitatem de- 
esse, quia castrensis jurisdictio secura et obtusior ac 
plura manu agens calliditatem fori non exerceat. 
Agricola naturali prudentia, quamvis inter togatos, 
facile justeque agebat. /^Jam vero tempera curarum 
remissionumque divisa : ubi conventus ac judicia pos- 
cerent, gravis, intentus, severus, et saepius misericors ; 
tibi officio satisf actum, nulla ultra potestatis persona : 
tristitiam et arrogantiam et avaritiam exuerat : nee 
illi, quod est rarissimam, aut facilitas auctoritatem aut 
severitas amorem deminuit. Integritatem atque abs- 
tinentiam in tanto viro referre, injuria virtutum fue- 
rit. Ne famam quidem, cui etiam saepe boni indul- 
gent, ostentanda virtute, aut per artem quaesivit : 
procul ab aemulatione adversus coUegas, procul a con^ 
tentione adversus procaratores, et vincere inglorium, 
et atteri sordidum arbitrabatur. Minus triennium in 
ea legatione detentus ac statim ad spem consulatus 
revocatus est, comitante opinione Britanniam ei pro- 
vinciam dari, nullis in hoc suis sermonibus sed quia par 
videbatur." Haud semper errat f ama, aliquando et elegit. ' 
Consul egregiae turn spei filiam juveni mihi despondit 



AGRICOLA. 40 

ac post Consulatum coUocavit, et statim Britanniae 
praepositus est, adjecto pontificatus sacerdotio. ^ 

X. \ Britanniae situm populosque, multis scriptori- 
bus memoratos non in comparationem curae ingeniive 
ref eram ; sed quia turn primum perdomita est. Ita 
quae priores nondum comperta eloquentia percoluere, 
rerum fide tradentur. Britannia, insularum qua8 
Romana notitia complectitur, maxima, spatio ac coelo 
in orientem Germaniae, in occidentem Hispaniae ob- 
tenditur : Gallis in meridiem etiam inspicitur : sep- 
temtrionalia ejus^ nullis contra terris, yasto atque 
aperto mari pulsantur. Formam totius Britanniae 
Livius yeterum, Fabius Rusticus recentium eloquen- 
tissimi auctores, oblongae scutulae yel bipenni assimu- 
lavere : et est ea f acies citra Caledoniam, unde et in 
uniyersum f ama est transgressa : sed immensum et 
enorme spatium procurrentium extreme jam littore 
terrarum, yelut in cuneum tenuatur. Hanc oram 
noyissimi maris tunc primum Romana classis circum- 
yecta insulam esse Britanniam affirmayit, ac simul 
incognitas ad id tempus insulas, quas Orcadas yocant, 
inyenit domuitque. Dispecta est et Thule, nam hac- 
tenus jussum, et hiems appetebat ; sed mare pigrum 
et graye remigantibus ; perhibent ne yentis quidem 
perinde attolli : credo, quod rariores terrae montes- 
que, causa ac materia tempestatum, et profunda moles 
continui maris tardius impellitur. Naturam Oceani 
atque aestus neque quaerere bujus operis est, ac multi 
retulere ; unum addiderim : nusquam latins dominari 
mare, multum fluminum hue atque illuc f erre, nee lit- 
tore tenus accrescere aut resorberi, sed influere penitus 
atque ambire, et jugis etiam atque montibus inseri 
yelut in suo. 



60 C. CORN. TACITI 

XL Ceterum Britanniam qui mortales initio colue- 
rint, indigenae an advecti, ut inter barbaros, parum 
compertum. Habitus corporum yarii : atque ex eo 
argumenta ; namaue rutilae Caledoniam habitantium 
comae, magni artus, Germanicam originem asseverant. 
Silurum colorati vultus et torti plerumque erines et 
posita contra Hispania Iberos veteres trajecisse easque 
sedcs occupasse fidem faciunt. Proximi Gallis et 
similes sunt ; sen durante originis vi, seu, procurrenti- 
bus in divcrsa terris, positio coeli corporibus babitum 
dedit : in universum tamen aestima^ti, Gallos yicinam 
insulam occupasse credibile est. Eorum sacra depre- 
hendas superstitionum persuasione : sermo baud mul- 
tum diyersus ; in deposcendis periculis eadem audacia 
et, ubi advenere, in detrectandis eadem f ormido. Plus 
tamen f erociae Britanni praeferunt, ut quos nondum 
longa pax emollient : nam Gallos quoque in bellis 
floruisse accepimus ; mox segnitia cum o^ intravit, ' 
amissa virtute pariter ac libertate ; quod Britannorum 
olim victis evenit : ceteri manent, quales Galli fuerunt. Oi 
- XII. In pedite robur ; quaedam nationes et curru 
proeliantur: bonestior auriga, clientes propugnant. 
Olim regibus parebant, nunc per principes f actionibus 
et studiis trabuntur : nee aliud adversus validissimas 
gentes pro nobis utilius, quam quod in commune non 
consulunt. Rams duabus tribusve civitatibus ad pro- 
pulsandum commune periculum conyentus : ita, dum 
singuli pugnant, uniyersi yincuntur. Coelum crebris 
imbribus ac nebulis f oedum : asperitas f rigorum abest. 
Dierum spatia ultra nostri orbis mensuram, et nox 
clara et extrema Britanniae parte breyis, ut finem 
atque initium lucis exiguo discrimine intemoscas. 
Quod si nubes non officiant, aspici per noctem solis 



AGRICOLA. 51 

f ulgorem, neo occidere et exsurgere, sed transire affir- 
mant. Scilicet extrema et plana terrarum, humili um- 
bra, non erigunt tenebras, inf raque coelum et sidera 
nox cadit. Solum, praeter oleam vitemque et cetera 
calidioribus terris oriri sueta, patiens frugum, fecun- 
dum. Tarde mitescunt, cito proveniunt : eadem utri- i 
usque rei causa, multus humor terrarum coelique. ^ 
Fert Britannia aurum et argentum et alia metalla, 
pretium victoriae : gignit et Oceanus margarita, sed 
subf usca ac liventia. Quidam artem abesse legentibus 
arbitrantur : nam in Rubro mari viva ac spirantia 
saxis avelli, in Britannia, prout expulsa sint, coUigi : 
ego facilius crediderim naturam margaritis deesse,;^^^ 
quam nobis avaritiam. 

XIII. Ipsi Britanni delectum ac tributa et injuncta 
imperii munera impigre obeunt, si injuriae absint : has 
aegre tolerant, jam domiti ut pareant, nondum ut 
serviant. Igitur primus omnium Homanorum divus 
Julius cum exercitu Britanniam ingressus, quanquam 
prospera pugna terruerit incolas ac littore potitus sit, 
potest yideri ostendisse posteris, non tradidisse. Mox 
bella civilia et in rempublicam versa principum arma, 
ac longa oblivio Britanniae etiam in pace. Consilium 
id divus Augustus vocabat, Tiberius praeceptum.^ 
Agitasse C. Caesarem de intranda Britannia satis con- 
stat, ni velox ingenio, mobilis poenitentiae, et ingen- 
tes adversus Germaniam conatus frustra f uissent. Di- 
vus Claudius auctor operis, transvectis legionibus aux- 
iliisque et assumpto in partem rerum Yespasiano : 
quod initium venturae mox fortunae f uit ; domitae \ 
gcntes, capti reges, et monstratus fatis Yespasianus. 

XIY. Consularium primus Aulus Plautius prae- 
positus, ac subinde Ostorius Scapula, uterque bello 



62 C. CORN. TACITI 

egregins : redactaqne paulatim in f ormam provinciae 
proxima pars Britanniae ; addita insuper yeteranorum 
colonia : qaaedam civitates Cogiduno regi donatae (is 
ad nostram usque memoriam fidissimus mansit) ut 
vetere ac jam -pridem recepta populi Bomani consue- 
tudine, haberet instrumenta servitutis et reges. (^ox 
Didius Gallus parta a prioribus continuity paucis ad- 
modum casteUis in ulteriora promotis, per quae f ama 
aucti officii quaereretur. Didium Veranius excepit, 
isque intra annum exstinctus est. Suetonius hinc 
Paullinus biennio prosperas res habuit, subactis na- 
tionibus firmatisque praesidiis : quorum fiducia Mo-, 
nam insulam, ut vires rebellibus ministrantem, aggres- 
BUS, terga occasioni patef ecit. 

XV. Namque absentia legati remoto metu, Bri- 
tanni agitare inter se mala servitutis, conferre injurias 
et interpretando acoendere : nihil profici patientia, 
nisi ut graviora^ tanquam ex facili tolerantibus, im- 
perentur : singulos sibi olim reges fuisse, nunc binos 
imponi : e quibus legatus in sanguinem, procurator in 
bona saeviret. Aeque discordiam praepositorum, aeque 
concordiam, subjectis exitiosam : alterius manus cen- 
turiones, alterius servos vim et contumelias miscere. 
Nihil jam cupiditati, nihil libidini exceptum : in proe- 
lio f ortiorem esse, qui spoliet ; nunc ab ignavis ple- 
rumque et imbellibus eripi domos, abstrahi liberos, 
injungi delectus, tanquam mori tantum pro patria 
nescientibus : quantulum enim transisse militum, si 
sese Britanni numerent? sic Germanias excussisse 
jugum ; et flumine, non Oceano, defendi : sibi pa- 
triam, conjuges, parentes, illis avaritiam et luxuriam 
causas belli esse. Recessuros, ut divus Julius reces- 
sisset, modo virtu^^s majorum suorum aemularentur. 



AGRIOOLA. 53 

Neve proelii unius aut alterius eventu pavescerent : 
plus impetus, majorem constantiam, penes miseros 
esse. Jam Britamiorum etiam deos misereri, qui Ro- 
manum ducem absentem, qui relegatum in alia insula 
exercitum detinerent : jam ipsos, quod difficillimum 
fuerit, deliberare : porro in ejusmodi consiliis pericu- 
losius esse deprehendi, quam audere. 

XVL His atque talibus invicem instincti, Boudi- 
cea, generis regii femina, duce (neque enim sexum in 
imperiis discemunt) sumpsere universi bellum : ao 
sparsos per castella milites consectati, expugnatis prae- 
sidiis, ipsam coloniam invasere, ut sedem servitutis i^ 
nee uUum in barbaris saevitiae genus omisit ira et vic- 
toria. Quod nisi Paullinus, cognito provinciae motu, 
propere subvenisset, amissa Britannia f oret : quam 
unius proelii f ortuna veteri patientiae restituit, tenen- 
tibus arma plerisque, quos conscientia defectionis et 
propius ex legato timor agitabat, ne, quanquam egre- 
gius cetera, arroganter in deditos et, ut suae quoque 
injuriae ultor, durius consuleret. Missus igitur Pe- 
tronius Turpilianus, tanquam exorabilior : et delictis 
hostium novus, eoque poenitentiae mitior, compositis 
prioiibus, nihil ultra ausus, Trebellio Maximo provin- 
ciam tradidit. Trebellius segnior, et nuUis castrorum 
experimentis, comitate quadam curandi provinciam 
tenuit. Didicere jam barbari quoque ignoscere vitiis 
blandientibus : et interventus civilium armorum prae- 
buit justam segnitiae excusationem ; sed discordia la- 
boratum, cum assuetus expeditionibus miles otio lasci- 
viret. Trebellius, f uga ac latebris vitata exercitus ira, 
indecorus atque humilis, precario mox praefuit : ac 
velut pacti, exercitus licentiam, dux salutem ; et sedi- 
tio sine sanguine stetit. irJ^eo Vettius Bolanus, manen- 



64 C. CORN. TAOITI 

tibus adhuG civilibus bellis, agitavit Britanniam disci- 
plina ; eadem inertia erga hostes, similis petulantia 
castromm : nisi quod innocens Bolanus et nuUis delic- 
tifl invisus, caritatem paraverat loco auctoiitatis. 

XVII. Sed, ubi cum cetero orbe Vespasianus et 
Britanniam reouperavit, magni duces, egregii exerci- 
tus, minuta hostium spes. Et terrorem statim intulit 
Petilius Cerialis, Brigantum civitatem, quae numero- 
sissima provinciae totius perhibetur, aggressus. Multa 
proelia, et aliquando non incruenta : magnamque 
Brigantum partem aut victoria amplexus est aut bello. 
Et, cum Cerialis quidem alterius successoris curam 
famamque obruisset, sustinuit quoque molem Julius 
Frontinus, vir magnus quantum licebat, validamque 
et pugnacem Silurum gentem armis subegit, super 
virtutem hostium, locorum quoque difficultates eluc- 
tatus. 

XV 111. Hunc Britanniae statum, has bellorum 
vices media jam aestate transgressus Agricola invenit, 
cum et milites, velut omissa expeditione, ad securita- 
tem, et hostes ad occasionem verterentur. Ordovicum 
civitas, haud multo ante adventum ejus, alam, in fini- 
bus suis agentem, prope universam obtriverat : eoque 
initio erecta provincia : et, quibus bellum volentibus 
eratv^robare exemplum, ac recentis legati animum 
opperiri, cum Agricola, quanquam transvecta aestas, 
sparsi per provinciam numeri, praesumpta apud mili- 
tem illius anni quies, tarda et contraria bellum inchoa- 
turo, et plerisque custodiri suspecta potius videbatur, 
ire obviam discrimini statuit :A<;ontractisque legionum 
vexillis et modica auxiliorum manu, quia in aequum 
degredi Ordovices non audebant, ipse ante agmen, 
quo ceteris par animus simili periculo esset, erexit 



i' ^ 



AGRIGOLA. 55 



aciem : caesaque prope universa gente, iion ignarus 
instandum famae, ac, prout prima cessissent, tcrrorem 
ceteris fore, Monam insulam, cujus possessione revo- 
catum PauUinum rebellione totius Britanniae supra 
memoravi, redigere in potestatem animo intendit. 
Sed, at in dubiis consiliis, naves deerant : ratio et 
constantia ducis transvexit. Depositis omnibus sar- 
cinisy lectissimos auxiliarium, quibus nota vada et pa- 
trius nandi usus, quo simul seque et arma et equos re- 
gunt, ita repente immisit, at obstupefacti hostes, qui 
classem, qui naves, qui mare expectabant, nihil ardu- 
um aut invictum crediderint sic ad bellum venienti- 
bns. Ita petita pace ac dedita insula, clarus ac mag- 
nus haberi Agricola : quippe cui ingredienti provin- 
ciam, quod tempus alii per ostentationem aut ofBcio- 
rum ambitum transigunt, labor et periculum placuisset. 
Nee Agricola, prosperitate rerum in vanitatem usus, j 
expeditionem aut victoriam vocabat victos continuisse : 
ne laureatis quidem gesta prosecutus est : sed ipsa dis- 
simulatione f amae f amam auxit, aestimantibus, quanta I 
f uturi spe tam magna tacuisset. 

XIX. Ceterum animorum provinciae prudens, si- 
mulque doctus per aliena experimenta parum profici 
armis, si injuriae sequerentur, causas bellorum statuit 
excidere. A se suisque orsus, primum domum suam 
coercuit : quod plerisque baud minus arduum est, quam 
provinciam regere. (^Nihil per libertos servosque pub- j Z^' 
licae rei : non studiis privatis nee ex commendatione 
aut precibus centurionum milites ascire, sed optimum 
quemque fidissimum putare : omnia scire, non omnia 
exsequi : parvis peccatis veniam, magnis severitatem 
commodare : nee poena semper, sed saepius poeniten- 
tia contentus esse : officiis et administrationibus potius 



66 C. CORN. TACin 

non peccaturos praeponere, quam damnare, cum pec* 

cassent. Frumenti et tributorum auctionem aequali- 

tate munerum mollire, circumcisis, quae, in quaestum 

reperta, ipso tribute gravius tolerabantur : namque per 

I ludibrium assidere clausis horreis et emere ultro fru- 

^ menta, ac vendere pretio cogebantur : devortia itine- 

rum et longinquitas regionum indicebatur, ut civitates 

' a proximis hibemis in remota et avia ref errent, donee, 

quod omnibus in promptu erat, paucis lucrosum fieret. 

XX. Haec prime statim anno comprimendo, egre- 
giam f amam paci circumdedit ; quae vel incuria vel 
intolerantia priorum baud minus quam bellum timeba- 
tur. Sed ubi aestas advenit, contracto exercitu, mul- 
tus in agmine laudare modestiam, disjectos coercere : 
loca castris ipse capere, aestuaria ac silvas ipse prae- 
tentare ; et nihil interim apud hostes quietum pati, quo 
minus subitis excursibus popularetur : atque, ubi satis 
terruerat, parcendo rursus irritamenta pacis ostentare. 
Quibus rebus multae civitates, quae in ilium diem ex 
aequo egerant, datis obsidibus, iram posuere, et praesi- 
diis castellisque circumdatae tanta ratione curaque, ut 
nulla ante Britanniae nova pars illacessita transierit. 

XXI. Sequens hiems saluberrimis consiliis ab- 
sumpta : namque, ut homines dispersi ac rudes, eoque 
in bella faciles, quieti et otio per voluptates assuesce- 
rent, hortari privatim, adjuvare publice, ut templa, f ora, 
domus exstruerent, laudando promptos et castigando 
segues : ita honoris aemulatio pro necessitate erat. 
Jam vero principum iilios liberalibus artibus erudire, et 
ingenia Britannorum studiis Gallorum anteferre, ut, 
qui modo linguam Homanam abnuebant, eloquentiam 
concupiscerent. Inde etiam habitus nostri honor et f re- 
quens toga : paulatimque discessum ad delenimenta 



AGRICOLA. 67 

vitiorum, portious et balnea et conviviorum elegan- 
tiam : idque apud imperitos humanitas vocabatur, cum I 
pars servitutis esset. ^ 

XXII. Tertius cxpeditionum annus novas gentes 
aperuit, vastatis usque, ad Tanaum (aestuario nomen 
est) nationibus : qua formidine territi hostes quan- 
quam conflictatum saevis tempestatibus exercitum la- 
cessere non ausi ; ponendisque insuper eastellis spa- 
tium fuit. Annotabant periti non alium ducem op- 
portunitates locorum sapientius legisse : nullum ab 
Agricola positum eastellum aut vi hostium expugna- 
tum aut pactione ac fuga desertum. Crebrae erup- 
tiones : nam adversus moras obsidionis annuls copiis 
firmabantur : ita mtrepida ibi hiems, et sibi quisque 
praesidio, irritis bostibus eoque desperantibus, quia 
soliti plerumque damna aestatis hibemis eventibus 
pensare, tum aestate atque hieme juxta pellebantur. 
Nee Agricola unquam per alios gesta avidus inter- 
cepit : seu centurio seu praef ectus, incorruptum f acti 
testem babebat. Apud quosdam acerbior in conviciis )/ 
narrabatur ; ut erat comis bonis, adversus malos inju- 
cundus : ceterum ex iracundia nihil supererat ; secre- 
tum et silentium ejus non timeres : honestius putabat 
offendere, quam odisse. ^ 

XXni. Quarta aestas obtinendis, quae percurrerat, 
insumpta : ac, si virtus exercituum et Homani nominis 
gloria pateretur, inventus in ipsa Britannia terminus. 
Nam Clota et Bodotria, diversi maris aestibus per 
immensum revectae, angusto terrarum spatio dirimun- 
tur : quod tum praesidiis firmabatur, atque omnis 
propior sinus tenebatur, summotis velut in aliam insu- 
1am bostibus. ^ 

XXrV. Quinto cxpeditionum anno, nave prima 



58 C. CORN. TACITI 

transgressus, ignotas ad id tempus gentes crebris 
simul ac prosperis proeliis domuit : eamque partem 
Britanniae, quae Hibemiam aspicit, copiis instruxit 
in spem magis quam ob formidinem ; Bi quidem 
Hibemia, medio inter Britanniam atque Hispaniam 
sita et Gallico quoque mari opportuna, valentissimam 
imperii partem magnis invicem usibus miscuerit. 
Spatium ejus, si Britanniae comparetur, angustius^ 
nostri maris insulas superat. Solum coelumque et 
ingenia cultusque hominum baud multum a Britannia 
differunt : in melius aditus portusque per commercia 
et negotiatores cogniti. Agricola expulsum seditione 
domestica unum ex regulis gentis exceperat ac specie 
amicitiae in occasionem retinebat. Saepe ex eo audiyi, 
legione una et modicis auxiliis debeUari obtinerique 
Hibemiam posse. Idque etiam adversus Britanniam 
prof uturum, si Homana ubique arma, et velut e con- 
j spectu libertas toUeretur. 

' XXV. Cetemm aestate, qua sextum officii annum 
inchoabat, amplexus civitates trans Bodotriam sitas, 
quia motus universarum ultra gentium et infesta 
bostilis excrcitus itinera timebantur, portus classe 
exploravit : quae, ab Agricola primum assumpta in 
partem virium, sequebatur egrcgia specie, cum simul 
>^ terra, simul mari bellum impelleretur, ac saepe iisdem 
castris pedes equesque et nauticus miles, mixti copiis 
et laetitia, sua quisque facta, suos casus attoUerent : 
ac modo silvarum ac montium profunda, modo tem- 
pestatum ac fluctuum adversa, bine terra et bostis, 
hinc yictus Oceanus militari jactantia compararen- 
tur. Britannos quoque, ut ex captivis audiebatur, 
visa classis obstupef aciebat, tanquam, aperto maris 
sui secreto, ultimum victis perfugium clauderetur. 



* 



A6BIG0LA. 59 

Ad manus et anna conversi Caledoniam incolentes 
populiy parata magno, majore fama, uti mos est de 
ignotis, 'oppugnasse ultro^ castella adorti, metom, nt 
proYocantes, addiderant : regredic^domque citra Bo- 
dotriam, et excedendum potius, quam pellerentur, spe- 
cie prudentium ignavi admonebant : cum interim cog- 
noscit hostes pluribus agminibns irrupturos. Ac, ne 
superante numero et peritia locomm circomiretury 
diyiso et ipse in tres partes exercitu incessit. 

XXVI. Quod nbi cognitom hosti, mutato repente 
consilio, universi nonam legionem, ut maxime invali- 
dam, nocte aggressi inter somnum ac trepidationem 
caesis yigilibos, irrupere. Jamque in ipsis castris 
pugnabanty cum Agricola, iter hostiom ab exploratori- 
bus edoctus et vestigiis insecutus, velocissimos equi- 
tum peditumque assoltare tergis pugnantiom jubet, 
mox ab nniversis ad jici clamorem ; et propinqua luce 
f ulsere signa : ita ancipiti malo territi Britanni : et 
Bomanis redit animus, ac, securi pro salute, de gloria 
certabant. Ultro quin etiam erupere : et f uit atrox in 
ipsis portarum angustiis proelium, donee pulsi hos- 
tes ; utroque exercitu certante, his ut tulisse opem 
illis, ne eguisse auxilio yiderentur. Quod nisi palu- 
des et silyae f ugientes texissent, debellatum ilia yic- 
toria f oret. / •» 

XXVII. Cujus conscientia ao f ama f erox exercitus, 
nihil yirtuti suae inyium : penetrandam Caledoniam, 
inyeniendumque tandem Britanniae terminum con- 
tinuo proeliorum cursu, fremebant : atque illi modo 
oauti ac sapientes, prompti post eyentum ac magnilo- 
qui erant. Iniquissima haeo bellorum conditio est : 
prospera omnes sibi yindicant, adyersa uni imputan- 
tur. At Britanni non yirtute, sed occasione et arte 



60 C. CORN. TACITI 

ducis rati, nihil ex arrogantia remittere, quo minus 
juventutem armarent, conjuges ac liberos in loca tuta 
transferrent, coetibus ac sacrificiis conspirationem 
ciyitatum sancirent : atque ita irritatis utrimque ani- 
mis discessom. 

XXVin. Eadem aestate cohors Usipiorum, per 
Oermanias conscripta, in Britanniam transmissa, mag* 
nam ac memorabile f acinus ansa est. Occiso centu- 
none ac militibus, qui ad tradendam disciplinam im- 
mixti manipulis exemplum et rectores habebantur, 
tres libumicas, adactis per vim gubematoribuSy ascen- 
dere : et uno remigante, suspectis duobus eoque inter- 
fectisy nondum vulgato rumore ut miraculum prae- 
vehebantur : mox hac atque ilia rapti, et cum plerisque 
Britannorumy sua defensantium, proelio congressi, 
ac saepe yictores, aliquando pulsi, eo ad extremum 
inopiae venere, ut infirmissimos suorum, mox sorte 
ductoSy vescerentur, Atque circumvecti Britanniam, 
amissis per inscitiam regendi navibus, pro praedonibus 
habiti, primum a Suevis, mox a Frisiis intercepti 
sunt : ac f uere, quos per commercia venumdatos et in 
nostram usque ripam mutatione ementium adductos, 
indicium tanti casus illustravit. 

XXIX. Initio aestatis Agricola, domestico vulnere 
ictusy anno ante natum filium amisit. Quem casum 
neque, ut plerique f ortium yirorum, ambitiose, neque 
per lamenta rursus ac moerorem muliebriter tuUt : et 
in luctu bellum inter remedia erat. Igitur praemissa 
classe, quae pluribus locis praedata, magnum et incer- 
tum terrorem f aceret, expedito exercitu, cui ex Britan- 
nis f ortissimos et longa pace exploratos addiderat, ad 
montem Grampium peryenit, quem jam hostis inse- 
derat. Nam Britanni, nihil fracti pugnae prioris 



*tL>/ i,%-iu X -. "L^ ■i'-fo. 



AGRIOOLA. 61 

eyentu, et ultionem aut Bervitium exspectantes, tan- 
demque docti commoiie periculom concordia propul- 
Bandum, legationibus et f oederibus omnium civitatum 
yires exciverant. Jamque super triginta millia anna- 
torum aspiciebantur, et adbuc affluebat juventus et 
quibus cruda ac yiridis Benectus, clari bello et sua 
quisque decora gestantes : cum inter plures duces 
virtute et genere praestans, nomine CalgacuSy apud 
contractam multitudinem proelium poscentem, in huno 
modum locutus fertur : 

XXX. " Quotiens causas belli et neoessitatem nos-"'' '"^-^^ 
tram intueor, magnus mihi animus est hodiemum ^\ 
diem consensumque testrum initium libertatis totius "" 
Britanniae fore. Nam et universi servitutis expertes, 
et nullae ultra terrae, ac ne mare quidem seourumy 
imminente nobis classe Romana : ita proelium atque 
arma, quae fortibud bonesta, eadem etiam ignavis ;, 
tutissima sunt. O^Priores pugnae, quibus adversus Ro- 
manes yaria fortuna certatum est, spem ac ^ubsidium 
in nostris manibus habebant : quia nobilissimi totius 
Britanniae eoque in ipsis penetralibus siti, nee seryien- 
tium littora aspicientes, oculos quoque a contactu 
dominationis inyiolatos habebamus. Nos terrarum ac 

'libertatis extremos, recessus ipse ac sinus famae in 
bunc diem def endit : nunc terminus Britanniae patet ; 

(^ atque omne ignotum pro magnifico est. , Sed nulla 
jam ultra gens, nihil nisi ductus et saxa, et inf estiores 
Bomani : quorum superbiam f rustra per obsequium et 
mo^igatiam effugeris. Raptores orbis, postquam cuncta - / 
yastantibus def uere terrae, et mare scrutantur : si 
locuples hostis est, ayari ; si pauper, ambitiosi ; quos 
non Oriens, non Occidens satiayerit. Soli onmium 
opes atque inopiam ^ari affectu concupiscunt. Au- 



68 C. CORN. TACITI 

ferre, tracidare, rapere, falsis nominibus imperium; 
atque,*ubi solitudinem faciunty pacem appellant.*' * 

XXXL ^^ liberos cuique ac propinquos suos natnra 
carissimos esse voluit ; hi per delectus, alibi seryituri, 
auferuntur : conjnges sororesque, etsi bostilem libi- 
dinem effugiant, nomine amicorum atque bospitum 
poUuuntur. Bona f ortunasqne in tributmn egenint, 
annos in f nunentum : corpora ipsa ac manus silvis ao 
paludibus emuniendis inter verbera ac contumelias 
conterunt. Nata servituti mancipia semel veneunt, 
atque ultro a dominis aluntur : Britannia servitutem 
suam quotidie emit, quotidie pascit. Ac, sicut in 
familia recentissimus quisque servorum et conservis 
ludibrio est, sic in hoc orbis terrarum vetere f amulatu 
novi nos et viles in excidium petimur. Neque enim 
arva nobis aut metalla aut portus sunt, quibus exer- 
cendis resenremur. Virtus porro ac f erocia subjeo- 
torum ingrata imperantibus : et longinquitas ac secre- 
tum ipsum quo tutius, eo suspectius. Ita, sublata spe 
Teniae, tandem sumite animum, tarn quibus salus, 
quam quibus gloria carissima est. Brigantes, f emina 
duce, exurere coloniam, expugnare castra, ac, nisi 
f elicitas in socordiam vertisset, exuere jugum potuere : 
nos integri et indomiti et libertatem non in poeniten- 
tiam laturi, primo statim congressu nonne ostendamus, 
quos sibi Caledonia yiros seposuerit? An eandem 
Homanis in bello virtutem, quam in pace lasciviam 
adesse creditis ? " 

XXXn. ^' Nostris illi dissensionibus ac discordiis 
clari, vitia bostium in gloriam exercitus sui vertunt : 
quem contractum ex diversissimis gentibus, ut secun- 
dae res tenent, ita adversae dissolvent : nisi si Gallos 
et Oermanos et (pudet dictu) Britannorum plerosque. 



A6RIG0LA. 63 

( licet dominationi alienae sangoinem commodenty diu- 
tius tamen hostes quam servos,^ fide et afiPectu teneri^ 
putatis :* metus et terror est, infirma vincula caritatis : / 
quae ubi remoyeris, qui timere desierint, odisse inci- 
pient. Omnia yictoriae incitamenta pro nobis sunt : 
nuliae Homanos conjuges accendunt ; nulli parentes 
f ugam exprobraturi sunt ; aut nulla plerisque patria, 
aut alia est. Paucos numero, trepidos ignorantia, 
coelum ipsum ao mare et silyas, ignota omnia cir- 
cumspectanteSy clausos quodammodo ac yinctos dii 
nobis tradiderunt. Ne terreat yanus aspectus et auri 
fulgor atque argenti, quod neque tegit neque yul- 
nerat. In ipsa hostium acie inyeniemus nostras ma- 
nus : agnoscent Britanni suam causam : recorda- 
bunjbur Galli priorem libertatem : deserent iUos 
ceteri Germani, tanquam nuper XJsipii reliquerunt. 
Nee quidquam ultra f ormidinis : yacua castella, senum 
coloniae, inter male parentes et injuste imperantes 
aegra municipia et discordantia : hie dux, hie exer- 
citus : ibi tributa et metalla et ceterae , servientium 
poenae : quas in aetemum perferre aut statim ulcisci 
in hoc campo est. Proinde ituri in aciem et majores 
yestros et posteros cogitate." 

XXXin. Excepere orationem alacres, ujt barbaris 
moris, cantu et fremitu clamoribusque dissonis. Jam- 
■ que agmina, et armorum f ulgores audentissimi cujus- 
que procursu : simul instruebantur acies : cum Agri- 
cola, quanquam laetum et yix munimentis coercitum 
militem adhortatus, ita disseruit : ^^ Octayus annus est, 
commilitoneSy ex quo yirtute et auspiciis imperii Ro- 
mani fide atque opera yestra Britanniam yicistis : tot 
expeditionibus, tot proeliis, seu f ortitudiae adyersus 
hostes seu patientia ac labore paene adyersus ipsam 



64 C. CORN. TAcrn 

rerum naturam opus fait, neque me militum neque 
YOB duels poenituit. Ergo egressi, ego yeterum lega- 
torum, Yos priorum exercituum terminoSy finem Bri- 
tanniae non fama neo rumore, sed castris et armis 
tenemus.(;|bJnYenta Britannia et subacta. Equidem 
saepe in agmine, cum yos paludes montesYe et flumina 
f atigarent, f ortissimi cujusque Yoces audiebam, Quan- 
do dabitur hostis, quando acies ? Veniunt, e latebris 
fiuis extrusi : et YOta Yirtusque in aperto, omniaque 
prona Yictoribus, atque eadem Yictis adyersa. Nam, 
ut Buperasse tantum itineris, silyas eyasisse, transisse 
aestuaria pulchrum ac decorum in f rontem ; ita f ugi* 
entibus periculosissima, quae hodie prosperrima sunt. 
Neque enim nobis aut locorum eadem notitia aut 
commeatuum eadem abundantia : sed manus et arma 
et in his omnia. Quod ad me attinet, jam pridem 
mihi decretum est, neque exercitus neque ducis terga 
tuta esse. Proinde et honesta mors turpi yita potior ; 
et incolumitas ao decus eodem loco sita sunt : neo 
inglorium fuerit, in ipso terrarum ac naturae fine 
cecidisse." 

XXXrV. " Si noyae gentes atque ignota acies con- 
stitissety aliomm exercituum exemplis yos hortarer ; 
nunc yestra decora recensete, yestros oculos interro- 
gate. 11 sunt, quos proximo anno, unam le^onem 
f urto noctis aggresses, clamore debellastis : 11 cetero- 
rum Britannorum fugaclssimi, Ideoque tam diu super- 
stites. Quomodo silyas saltusque penetrantibus for- 
tissimimi quodque animal contra mere, payida et 
Inertia ipso agminis sono pelluntur, sic acerrimi Bri- 
tannorum jam pridem ceclderunt : reliquus est nu- 
merus ignayorum et metuentium ; quos quod tandem 
inyenistis, non restiterunt, sed deppehensi sunt ; no- 



AGBIGOLA. 65 

vissimae res et extreme metu oorpora defixere aciem 
in his vestigiiSy in quibus pulchram et spectabilem 
victoriam ederetis. Transigite cum expeditionibus : 
imponite quinquaginta annis magnum diem : appro- 
bate reipublicae nonquam exercitoi impntari potuisse 
aut moras belli aut causas rebellandi." 

XXXY. Et alloquente adbuc Agricola, militum 
ardor eminebat, et iinem orationis ingens alacritas con- 
secuta est, statimque ad arma disoorsam. Instinc- 
tos mentesque ita disposuit, ut peditum aoxilia, quae 
octo millia erant, mediam aciem firmarent, equitum 
tria millia comibus affunderentur : legiones pro vallo 
stetere, ingens victoriae deous citra Romanum san- 
guinem bellanti, et auxilium, si pellerentur. Britan- 
norum acies, in speciem simul ac terrorem, editioribus 
locis constiterat ita, ut primum agmen aequo, oeteri 
per acclive jugum connexi velut insurgerent : media 
campi covinarius et eques strepitu ao disoncsn oom- 
plebat. Tum Agricola superante liostium multitudine 
veritus, ne simul in f rontem, simul et latera suomm 
pugnaretur, diductis ordinibus, quanquam porrectior 
acies futura erat et arcessendas plerique legiones 
admonebant, promptior in spem et firmus adversis 
dlmisso equo pedes ante vexilla constitit. 

XXXYI. Ac primo congressu eminus certabatur ; 
simulque constantia simul arte Britanni ingentibus 
gladiis et brevibus cetris missilia nostrorum vitare vel 
excutere, atque ipsi magnam vim telorum superf un- 
dere : donee Agricola Batavorum cobortes ac Tun- 
grorum duas cohortatus est, ut rem ad mucrones ac 
manus adducerent : quod et ipsis vetustate militiae 
exercitatum, et hostibus inhabile parva scuta et enor- 
mes gladios gerentibus : nam Britannorum gladii sine 



-lo?"'' 



66 0. CORN. TACJin u ' / 

mucrone complexnm annorum et in aperto pugnam 
non tolerabant/'^Igitury ut Batavi miscere ictus, ferire 
nmbonibns, ora f oedare, et stratis qui in aequo obsti- 
teranty erigere in coiles aciem coepere, ceterae cohor- 
tes, aemulatione et impetu commistae, proximos quos- 
que caedere ; ac plerique semineces aut integri f esti- 
natione victoriae relinquebantur. Interim equitum 
turmae f ugere, covinarii peditum se proelio miscuere *. 
et, quanquam recentem terrorem intulerant, densis 
tamen hostium agminibus et inaequalibus locis haere- 
bant : minimeque equestris ea pugnae f acies erat, cum 
aegre diu stantes simul equorum corporibus impelle- 
rentur, ac Baepe vagi currus, exterriti sine rectoribus 
equi, ut quemque formido tulerat, transversos aut 
obvios incursabant. 

XXXYII. Et Britanni, qui adhuc pugnae expertes 
summa coUium insederant et paucitatem nostrorum 
vacui spemebant, degredi paulatim et circumire terga 
vincentium coeperant : ni id ipsum veritus Agricola, 
quatuor equitum alas, ad subita belli retentas, venien- 
tibus opposuisset, quantoque f erocius accurrerant, tan- 
to acrius pulsos in fugam disjecisset. Ita consilium 
Britannorum in ipsos versum : transvectaeque prae- 
cepto ducis a f route pugnantium alae, aversam hostium 
aciem invasere. Tum vero patentibus locis ^ande et 
atrox spectaculum : sequi, vulnerare, capere atque eos- 
dem, oblatis aliis, trucidare. Jam hostium, prout cui- 
que ingenium erat, catervae armatorum paucioribus 
terga praestare, quidam inermes ultro mere ac se mor- 
ti offerre ; passim arma et corpora et laceri artus et 
cruenta humus : et aliquando etiam yictis ira virtus* 
que; postquam silvis appropinquarunt, collect! pri- 
mps sequentium incautos et locorum ignaros circum* 



AOBICOUL 67 

veniebant. Qaod ni f requens ubique Agricola yalidas 
et expeditas cohortes indaginis modo, et, sicabi arcti- 
ora erant, partem eqxdtum dimissis equls, simul rari- 
ores silvas equitem persultare jussisset, acceptum ali- 
quod Yubias per nimiam fidaciam foret. Cetemm, 
ubi compositos firmis ordinibus sequi rursus videre, in 
f agam versi, non agminibosy ut prius, nee alius alium 
respectantes, rari et yitabundi invicem, longinqua at- 
que avia petiere. Finis sequendi nox et satietas f uit : 
caesa hostium ad decern millia : nostrorum trecenti 
sexaginta cecidere : in quis Aulus Atticus praef eo- 
tus cohortisy juvenili ardore et ferocia equi hostibus 
illatus. 

XXXYin. Et nox quidem gaudio praedaque laeta 
victoribus : Britanni paiantes, mixtoque virorum mu- 
lierumque ploratu, trabere vulneratos, vocare integros, 
deserere domos ao per iram ultro incendere : eligere 
latebras et statim relinquere : miscere inyicem consilia 
aliqua, dein separare : aliquando frangi aspectu pigno- 
rum suorum, saepius eoncitari : satisque constabat, 
saevisse quosdam in conjuges ac liberos, tanquam mi- 
sererentur. Proximus dies faciem victoriae latius 
aperuit : vastum ubique silentium, secreti coUes, f u- ^ r^ 
mantia procul teota, nemo exploratoribus obvius : qui- 
bus in omnem partem dimissis, ubi incerta f ugae ves* 
tigia neque usquam oonglobari hostes compertum et 
exacta jam aestate spargi bellum nequibat, in fines Bo- 
restorum exercitum deducit. Ibi acceptis obsidibus, 
praefecto classis circumvehi Britanniam praecepit. 
Datae ad id vires, et praeoesserat terror. Ipse pedi- 
tern atque equites lento itinere, quo novarum gentium 
animi ipsa transitus mora terrerentur, in hibemis loca- 
yit. Et simul classis secunda tempestate ao fama 



68 0. CORN. TAOiri 

Tratulensem portam tenuit, ande proximo latere Bri- 
tanniae lecto omni redierat. {/i< 

XXXIX. Hunc rerum cursum, quanquam nulla 
yerborum jactantia epistolis Agricolae actum, ut Do- 
mitiano moris erat, f route laetus, pectore auxius exce- 
pit. Inerat conscieutia derisui f uisse nuper f alsum e 
Germania triumphum, emptis per commercia, quorum 
habitus et erines in captivorum speeiem f ormarentur : 
at nunc veram magnamque victoriam, tot millibus 
hostium caesis, ingenti f ama celebrarL Id sibi maxi- 
me f ormidolosum, privati hominis nomen supra princi- 
pis attolli : f rustra studia fori et civilium artium de- 
cuB in silentium acta, si militarem gloriam alius occu- 
paret : et cetera utcumque f acilius dissimulari : ducis 
boni imperatoriam virtutem esse. Talibus curis exer- 
citus, quodque ss^evae cogitationis indicium erat, se- 
creto suo satiatus, optimum in praesentia statuit re- 
ponere odium, donee impetus f amae et favor exercitus 
languesceret : nam etiam tum Agricola Britanniam 
obtinebat. 

XL. Igitm' triumphalia omamenta et illustris sta- 
tuae honorem et quidquid pro triumpbo datur, multo 
yerborum honore cumulata, decemi in senatu jubet ; 
addique insuper opinionem, Syriam proyinciam Agri- 
colae destinari, yacuam tum morte Atilii Kufi consu- 
laris et majoribus reseryatam. Credidere plerique li- 
bertum ex secretioribus ministeriis missum ad Agrico- 
lam codicillos, quibus ei Syria dabatur, tulisse cum 
praecepto, ut, si in Britannia f oret, traderentur : eum- 
que libertum in ipso f reto Oceani obyium Agricolae, 
ne appellato quidem eo, ad Domitianum remeasse : 
siye yerum istud, siye ex ingenio principis fictum ao 
oompositum est. Tradiderat interim Agricola succes- 



AGRICOLA. 69 

sori suo provinciam quietam tutamque. Ac, ne nota- 
bilis celebritate et f requentia occturentiam introitus 
esset, vitato amicorum officio, noctu in urbem, noctu 
in palatium, ita ut praeceptum erat, venit : exceptus- 
que brevi osculo et nullo sermone turbae seryientium 
immixtas est. Ceterum, ut militare nomen, grave in- 
ter otiosos, aliis yirtutibus temperaret, tranquillitatem 
atque otium penitus auxit, cultu modicus, sermone fa- 
cilis, uno aut altero amicorum comitatus ; adeo ut ple- 
rique quibus magnos viros per ambitionem aestimare 
mos est, viso aspectoque Agricola, quaererent famam^ 
pauci interpretarentur, 

XLL Crebro per eos dies apud Domitianum absens 
accusatus, absens absolutus est. Causa periculi non 
crimen ullum aut querela laesi cujusquam, sed infen- 
sus yirtutibus princeps et gloria yiri ao pessimum ini- ( 
micorum genus, laudantes/' Et ea insecuta sunt rei- ^ 
publicae tempora, quae sileri Agricolam non sinerent : 
tot exeroitus in Moesia Daciaque et Germania Panno- 
niaque, temeritate aut per ignayiam ducum amissi : tot 
militares yiri cum tot cohortibus expugnati et oapti : 
nee j%m de limite imperii et ripa, sed de hibemis legio- 
num et possessione dubitatum. Ita, cum damna dam- 
nis continuarentur atque omnis annus funeribus et 
cladibus insigniretur, poscebatur ore yulgi dux Agri- 
cola : comparantibus cunctis yigorem, constantiam et 
expertum bellis animum cum inertia et f ormidine cete- 
rorum. Quibus sermonibus satis constat Domitiani 
quoque aures yerberatas, dum optimus quisque liber- v^ > 
torum amore et fide, pessimi malignitate et liyore, pro- 
num deterioribus principem exstimulabant. Sic Agri- 
cola simul suis yirtutibus, simul yitiis aliorum, in ipsam 
gloriam praeoeps agebatur, . .^ - 



C^i^ ^^- A "e^t c^. <. C-^ 



70 C. CORN. TACm 

XLII. Aderat jam annnSy quo proconsnlatum Asiae 
et Africae sortiretur, et occiso Civica nuper nee Agri- 
eolae eonsilium deerat, nee Domitiano exemplnm. Ae- 
eessere quidam cogitationnm principis periti, qui, itu- 
msne esset in proTineiam, nltro Agrieolam interroga- 
rent : ao prinio oeeultios quietem et otiiun laudare, 
moz operam saam in approbanda excusatione ofiPerre : 
postremo non jam obseuri, suadentes simul terrentes- 
que, pertraxere ad Domitianom ; qoi paratos simnla- 
tione, in arrogantiam eompositus, et audiit preces ex- 
eusantis, et, cum annuisset, agi sibi gratias passus est : 
nee erubuit beneficii invidia. Salarium tamen, pro- 
consulari Bolitum offerri et quibusdam a se ipso con- 
cessum, Agrioolae non dedit : sive offensus non peti- 
timi, sive ex conscientia, ne, quod vetuerat, videretur 
j emisse. '' Proprium humani ingenii est, odisse quern 
i laeseris^:^Domitiani vero natura praeceps in iram, et 
' quo obscurior, eo irrevocabilior, moderatione tamen 
prudentiaque Agrioolae leniebatur : quia non contu- 
macia neque inani jactatione libertatis f amam fatum- 
que provocabat. Sciant, quibus moris illicita mirari, 
posse etiam sub malis principibus magnos yiros esse : 
obsequiumque ao modestiam, si industria ao vigor ad- 
sint, eo laudis excedere, quo plerique per abrupta, sed 
in nullum reipublicae usum, ambitiosa morte inclarue- 
runt.-^ 

XLTTT. Finis vitae ejus nobis luctuosus, amicis 
tristis, extraneis etiam ignotisque non sine cura f uit. 
Vulgus quoque eti hie aliud agens populus et ventita- 
vere ad domum, et per f ora et circulos locuti sunt : 
nee quisquam audita morte Agrioolae aut laetatus est 
aut statim oblitus. Augebat miserationem constans 
rumor, veneno interceptum. Nobis nihil comperti af- 



AGBIGOLA. 71 

firmare ausim t'^ceterum per omnem yaletudinem ejus, 
crebrius quam ex more principatus per nuntios visentisy 
et libertorum primi et medicorum intimi venere : sive 
Gura illud sive inquisitio erat. Supremo quidem die, 
momenta ipsa deficientis per dispositos cnrsores nun- 
tiata constabat, nullo credente sic accelerari, qaae tris- 
tis andiret. Speciem tamen doloris animo yaltuque 
prae se tnlit, securus jam odii, et qui f acilius dissimu- 
laret gaudium, quam metum/ Satis constabat, lecto 
testamento Agricolae, quo cohaeredem optimae uzori 
et piissimae filiae Domitianum scripsit, laetatum eum 
velut honore judicioque : tam caeca et corrupta mens 
assiduis adulationibus erat, ut nesciret a bono patre 
non scribi baeredem, nisi malum principem. 

XLIV. ''Natus erat Agricola, Caio Caesare tertium 
consule, Idibus Juniis : excessit sexto et quinquagesi- 
mo anno, decimo Kalendas Septembris, Collega Pris- 
coque consulibus. Quod si babitum quoque ejus pos- 
teri noscere velint, decentior quam sublimior f uit ; 
nihil metus in vultu, gratia oris supererat : bonum yi« 
rum facile crederes, magnum libenter. Et ipse qui- 
dem, quanquam medio in spatio integrae aetatis erep- 
tus, quantum ad gloriam, longissimum aevum peregit. 
Quippe et vera bona, quae in virtutibus sita sunt, im- 
pleverat, et consulari ac triumpbalibus omamentis 
praedito, quid aliud adstruere f ortuna poterat ? Opi- 
bus nimiis non gaudebat ; speciosae contigerant. Fi- 
lia atque uxore superstitibus, potest yideri etiam bea- 
tus ; incolumi dignitate, florente f ama, salvis affinitati- 
bus et amicitiis, f utura efiPugisse. \ Nam sicuti durare 
in bac beatissimi saeculi luce ac principem Trajanum 
videre, quod augurio votisque apud nostras aures omi- 
nabatur, ita festinatae mortis grande solatium tulit, 



72 C. CORN. TACITI y^i 



\r'' 



evasisse postremnm illud tempuSy quo Domitianns non 
jam per intenralla ao spiramenta temporum, sed conti- 
nuo et velut uno ictu rempublicam exhausit. (ju 

XLY. Non yidit Agricola obsessam curiam, et- 
clausum armis senatum, et eadem strage tot consula- 
rium caedeSy tot nobilissimarum f eminarum exsilia et 
f ugas. Una adhuc victoria Cams Metius censebatur, 
et intra Albanam arcem sententia Messalini strepebat, 
et Mass a Bebius jam turn reus erat. Mox nostrae 
duxere Helvidium in carcerem manus : nos Maurici 
Busticique visus, nos innocenti sanguine Senecio per- 
f udit. Kero tamen subtraxit oculos jussitque scelera, 
non spectavit : praeoipua sub Domitiano miseriarum 
pars erat videre et aspici : cum suspiria nostra sub- 
scriberentur ; cum denotandis tot hominum palloribus 
sufficeret saevus ille vultus et rubor, quo se contra pu- 
dorem muniebat. Tu vero f elix, Agricola, non vitae 
tantum claritate, sed etiam opportunitate mortis. "^Ut 
perhibent qui interf uerunt novissimis sermonibus tuis, 
constans et libens f atum excepisti ; tanquam pro virili 
portione innocentiam principi donares. Sed mihi fili- 
aeque ejus, praeter acerbitatem parentis erepti, auget 
moestitiam, quod assidere yaletudini, fovere deficien- 
tem, satiari vultu, complexu, non contigit : excepisse- 
mus certe mandata vocesque, quas penitus animo fige- 
remus? Noster hie dolor, nostrum vulnus : nobis tam 
longae absentiae conditione ante quadriennium amis- 
BUS est. Omnia sine dubio, optime parentum, assi- 
^ente amantissima uxore, superf uere honori tuo : pau- 
cioribus tamen lacrimis compositus es, et novissima in 
luce desideravere aliquid oculi tui. 

XL VI. Si quis piorum manibus locus, si, ut sapien- 
tibus placet, non cum corpore exstinguuntur magnae 



AGRIOOUL 73 

animae, placide qoiescas, nosque, domiim tuam, ab in- 
firmo desiderio et maliebribns lamentis ad contempla- 
tionem yirtutum taanim voces, quas neque lugeri ne- 
que plangi fas est : admiratione te potius, te immor- 
talibus laudibus, et, si natura suppeditet, similitudine 
decoremus. Is verus bonos, ea conjunctissimi cujua- 
qne pietas. Id filiae quoque uxorique praeceperiniy 
sio patris, sic mariti memoriam venerari, nt omnia 
facta dictaqne ejus secum revolvant, formamque ac 
fignram animi magis qaam corporis complectantur : 
non quia intercedendum putem imaginibus, quae mar- 
more aut aere finguntur ; sed ut yultus bominum, ita 
simulacra vultus imbecilla ac mortalia sunt ; forma 
mentis aetema, quam tenere et exprimere non per ali- 
enam materiam et artem, sed tuis ipse moribus possis.^ 
Quidquid ex Agricola amavimus, quidquid mirati su- 
mus, manet mansurumque est in animis bominum, in 
aetemitate temporum f ama rerum. Nam multos ve- 
terum, velut inglorios, et ignobiles, oblivio obruet : 
Agricola posteritati narratus et traditus superstes erit 



NOTES. 



TABLE OF ABBREYIATMS. 



Several words, which occur most frequently in the Kotes, are 
abbreviated. Of these the following classes may require explanation. 
The other abbreviations are either familiar or sufficiently obvious of 
themselves. 



1. WOEKS OF 

A, . . 
Ann. . 
G. . . . 
H. . . . 
T. . . . 


Tacitus. 

. Agricola. 

Annals. 
. Geiinania. 

Histories. 
. Tacitus. 


Gr. 

Gun.. 
K. 

Ky. . 
Mur. . 
Or. . 
Pass. . 


. Gruber. 

Gunther. 
. Eiessling. 

Kingsley. 
. Murphy. 

Orelli. 
. Passow. 


2. Annotators cited as 
Authorities. 


R. . 
Rhen. . 
Rit. . 


Roth. 

. Rhenanus. 

Ritter. 


Br. . . . 
D. or Dod. 


Brotier. 
. Doderlem. 


Rup. . 
Sch.^ 


. Ruperti. 

Schweizer-Sidler. 


Dr. . . . 


Dronke. 


W. 


. Walch. 


E. . . . 


Emesti. 


Wr. . 


Walther. 




3. Other Authorities 


}. 


H. . . . 


. Harkness' Latin C 


frammar. 


A. and G. . 
Beck. Gall. . 


Allen and Green'oi 
. Becker's Gallus. 


lights Grammar. 


Bot. Lex. Tac. . 


Botticher's Lexicon Taciteum. 


For. and Fac. 


. Forcellini and Fac 


ciolati's Latin Lexicon. 


Tur. His. Ang. 8ax. 
Z. . . . 


Turner 
• Zumpt' 


s History of the Anglo-Saxons, 
s Latin Grammar. 



GEEMANIA. 



INTRODUCTION. 

Thsrk are two prominent causes which ought to make the *' 6er- 
mania" of Tacitus a work of peculiar interest to the English or 
American student. In the first place, the modem inductiye method, 
in its eager demand for data, drives its disciples to search unceas- 
ingly for the ultimate, most simplified facts. As a deserted quarry 
or a barren cliff has a worth above that of a king*s garden to the 
mind of the geologist, so the uncivilized life has come to have more 
interest than the civilized to the scholar who would seek to under, 
stand our modem institutions. As a picture of prehistoric society, 
the ** Germania *' stands almost if not quite alone. Scarcely has 
another similar treatise ever been written reclaiming from oblivion 
So many interesting facts. Then, in the second place, this work is 
of preeminent value to us, becaudc it is the early history of our own 
household, and conveys us back to the home of our common Ger- 
manic race. 

In attempthig to group together a few of the interesting facts 
which are illustrated here, we greatly need to start with some defi* 
nite conception of the grand distinction between primitive society and 
our own. Says Mr. Maine, in his work upon ** Ancient Law:*' 
" Society in primitive times was not what it is assumed to be at 
present — a collection of individtMU. In fact, and in the view of the 
men who composed it, it was an aggregation of families. The con- 
trast may be most forcibly expressed by saying that the unit of an 
ancient society was the family, of a modem society the individual'* * 
In manifest harmony with this principle, the nation again was com- 
posed of people of the same blood. ** Of this," says Mr. Mahie 

♦ "Ancient Law « p. 121. 



78 NOTES. 

again, '* we may be certain that all ancient societies regarded them- 
aelves as having proceeded from one original stock, and even la- 
bored under an incapacity for comprehending any reason except this 
for their holding together in political union." * 

The blood-connection, then, is of peculiar prominence in the or- 
ganization of all early societies. In the history of our Indo-European 
race we shall notice, further, that, in the governmental arrange- 
ments, the village community is of vast significance. From the 
history of India, which is too ancient to be traced, down through 
the emigrations of all the controlling peoples of modern Europe, and 
even revealing itself, like the unexpected undulation of a long-im- 
noticed wave, in the town governments of our Puritan ancestors, 
everywhere we notice the effect of this deep-seated idea of the rights 
and the privileges of the village. 

In theory, the inhabitants of the village were always regarded as 
descended from a common head. New inhabitants might be intro- 
duced ; but they must be treated as, in a manner, adopted children, 
and governed aooordmg to the family theory. And so these broth- 
ers in the community possessed not merely common political privi- 
leges, were not merely equal before the law, they were not mere 
members of a community, but they were communists ; not merely 
were their interests inseparable, but their inheritance was undivided. 
To quote again from the author whom we have already cited : ** The 
ancient Teutonic cultivating community consisted of a number of 
fkmilies standing in a proprietary relation to a district divided into 
three parts. These three portions were the Mark of the township 
or 'village, the Common Mark, or waste, and the Arable Mark, or 
cultivated area. The community inhabited the village, held the 
Qommon mark in mixed ownership, and cultivated the arable mark 
in lots appropriated to the several families. 

*^ Each family in the township was governed by its own free head, 
or pQilm*fcumli<ui^ The precinct of the family dwelling-house could 
be entered by nobody but hhnself and those under hjB pcUria potestaa 
— not even by officers of the law, for he himself made law within, 
and enforced law made without. 

** Confining ourselves to proprietary relations, we find that his 
rights or (what is the same thing) the rights of his family over the 

«»AnGleQt Law,"p.lM. 



GEBMANIA. 79 

common mark are controlled or mo^fied by the rights of erery 
other family. It is a strict ownership in common, both in theory 
and in practice. When cattle grazed on the common pasture^ or 
when the householder felled wood in the common forest, an «]ected 
or hereditary officer watched to see that the common domain was 
equitably enjoyed. 

^ The cultivated land of the Teutonic village community appears 
almost invariably to have been divided into three great fields. A 
rude rotation of crops was the object of this threefold division, and 
it was intended that each field should lie fallow once in three years. 
The fields under tillage were not, however, cultivated by labor in 
common. Each householder has his own family lot in each of the 
three fields, and this he tills by his own labor and that of his sons 
and his slaves. But he cannot cultivate as he pleases. He must 
sow the same crop as the rest of the community, and allow his lot in 
the uncultivated field to lie fallow with the others.*' * 

This is perhaps sufficient to give us at least some general con- 
ception of the communities which made up the German tribes. The 
unit was the family; the families united in the village were still 
intimately bound together by the sentiment of near kinship; the 
villages were component parts of the tribe ; the tribes recognized 
themselves as bound in fellowship with one another, forming a 
whole people. The government which especially afi^ected the indivi- 
dual was of course that of his native village conmiunity. Here the 
omnipresent law of tradition and custom held sway with most des- 
potic power. The villages of three thousand years ago are to this 
day extant in India, in parts of Russia, and in some other localities 
in Europe, thus bearing witness preeminently to this fact: how diffi- 
cult it is in such societies to introduce innovations, to lead men away 
from the notions of their fathers. The influence of that ancient vil- 
lage-life is felt among us to-day. 

And so it happened, as Tacitus lumself bears witness, that the 
ancient Germans did not build large cities. Each family had its 
preempted home, with the* ample court or yard in connection with it 
(Cap. XVI). We cannot affirm that the simple theory of the village 
Conmiunity was nowhere modified, that everywhere the customs re- 

* ** Village CkHBmniiltkw in the East and West,"* by Henry Somner Maine 
IPb 78-80. 



80 NOTES. 

mained identical, tliat innovatioDS were entirely kept out; but that 
it was the common type of German life. The householder abode in 
his own uncrowded dwelling, tilled, with the help of his household, 
his allotted portion of the cultivated domain, and pastured in the 
commons during the summer as many cattle as his field had enabled 
him to sustain through the winter's cold. 

It seems by no means improbable that the original idea was to 
divide the soil for tillage into equal portions, according to the num- 
ber of families. It was, perhaps, a part of this idea that the desired 
equality should be enforced by an occasional redistribution of the 
fields, as weU as by the unvarying laws with regard to crops. Caesar 
makes the distinct affirmation with regard to the Suevi, that " There 
was no tillable land in the possession of individuals, and it was not 
allowed among them to remain in one location for the purpose of 
cultivating the soil more than a single year." * He says, moreover, 
with regard to the Germans in general, that ** Their magistrates as- 
sign them land, and compel them to move from year to year." f 
This may of course refer simply to the changeable, wandering mode 
of life which at times was prevalent among them, and yet must be 
considered at least suggestive of a distinct theory of action. A 
similar statement is also made by Tacitus. This twofold assertion 
of the Roman authors must at least have been substantiated by some 
striking habits of change among the Germans. 

And yet it is evident that, even in this society, securely as it 
seemed to be moored to the ways of the past, the conservative and 
progressive elements were struggling together for the mastery. It 
is here in this question with regard to the ownership of the land 
that we can trace with especial distinctness the evidence of the con- 
flict The old tradition spoke only in favor of the mixed ownership ; 
the disciples of progress, as they had already begun to taste the 
sweets of freedom, were determmed to assert themselves as indepen- 
dent property-holders. Every student of Caesar and Tacitus has 
probably been conscious of the difficulty of understanding the pre- 
vailing usage of the German people with regard to the possession of 
the soil. The truth probably is that the prevailing usage was already 
undergoing rapid changes. It would seem to be the conclusion to 
which modem scholarship is coming that, even during the period 

t Caesar iv^l t Oaeaar vL, 22^ 



GERMANLL 81 

which elapsed between these two Latin authors, a verj considerable 
transformation had taken place. At the time when Tacitus com- 
posed his work the era of private property in land was already fairly 
oonmiencing: yet the reform moved on with halting and uneven 
pace, for its feet were still entangled in the bonds of tradition and 
custom. 

The villages seem to have been grouped together, for govern- 
mental purposes, in organizations arranged in some way according 
to hundreds. If we attempt to settle the quesUon in our minds, 
what the original basis of this division was, we shall soon find our- 
selves in the centre of one of the battle-fields of modem controversy, 
with the smoke of the confiict so thick about us that we lose our 
bearings at every turn. It was probably hardly the idea that a hun- 
dred villages should be thus associated, yet a hundred smaller grqups, 
formed upon the basis of kinship, may have been organized together 
for this purpose. It has been one of the prominent theories that 
the hundred was a union of that number of groups of ten families 
each. It has been suggested, on the other hand, that the hundred 
was a military division, receiving this name as a district by which a 
hundred warriors could be furnished and sustained. The truth is, 
however, that every such organization outgrows so soon its original 
limits that it becomes an almost hopeless task to attempt to define 
the primitive form. Yet, whatever may have been its origin, it is 
certain that this principle of organization was exceedingly ancient, 
reaching back even beyond the first occupation of German soil. We 
find traces of it among widely-separated members of the race — ^in 
the early history of the Anglo-Saxons in their occupation of Britain, 
among the Scandinavian tribes of the North, and perhaps in the can- 
tons (centeni) of Switzerland in the South. It is the idea of Mr. 
Waitz that the Latin wordpoffiu is employed by Caesar and Tacitus 
to represent this division of the hundred, though rather in its local 
than its political relation. This author gives, also in connection 
with this theory, a new interpretation to certain expressions of the 
Latin writers. Thus : * ** When Caesar speaks of the hundred pagi 
of the Suevi,f and Tacitus of those of the Semnones,:( the most con- 
siderable people of the Suevi, it is evident that merely the * hundreds ' 

* " Waltz Dentsche Yerfitssasgageschichte,^ p. Ifia. 
tCaaar,L87,aDdlv.l. $0«r.89. 



82 NOTEa 

were meant ' The hundreds of the Sueyi,* the Roman general was 
informed, * have reached even to the Rhine.' '* In a similar manner 
we should get an interpretation of the passage regarding the selected 
warriors in the sixth chapter of the Germania: they were called 
hundreders, not because of their exact number, but because selected 
from the pagWy which the Germans called the ** hundred." 

The taste for war among the ancient (Germans was of course thdr 
prominent characteristic. The citizens were preeminently soldiers, 
and hence their assemblies were always gatherings of armed men 
(Cap. XIII). The youth who received political rights gained them 
by being endowed in public with the priyilege of bearing arms ; it 
was a ceremony of interest not merely to him but to alL The coward 
who threw away his shield lost -all his dignity as a member of the 
State, entitled neither to its protection nor its privileges (VI). The 
weapons were both of stone and iron ; they were clubs and hammers as 
well as spears. Swords were not abundant, though some of the North- 
em tribes used them rather like large knives than in the usual form. 

So intent were these German tribes upon the pursuits of war, 
that those of the nobles whose position was such as to mark them 
as chiefs, were wont to gather about themselves groups of young 
men who trained themselves as professional warriors in the service 
of their leader. It is a matter of no small difficulty to determine 
who were entitled, by law or custom, to this distinction of being at- 
tended by a ** comitatus,** but it manifestly was not all of the nobles, 
nor does it seem to have been confined to the kings. Mr. Waits; 
reaches the conclusion that these chiefs (always denominated prin- 
cipes by Tacitus) were at the head of the " hundreds," thus being 
intermediate between the kings or national leaders and the common 
ranks of the nobility and people. They evidently differed widely 
among themselves in rank and power, and it was considered a pecu- 
liar honor to be under the patronage of those who were preeminent 
in dignity, and who were most abundant in warlike resources. 

These men of ancient days were, however, not entirely given 
over to military life. Among all descendants of the German race 
the banquet has never been neglected. Even Tacitus has apparently 
failed to ^ve to this the prominence which it deserves in a descrip- 
tion of Teutonic life. He refers (XXIII) to the Germans' fondness 
for beer and their general ignorance of wine. We cannot doubt that 
beer was a power even then. He gives us also a report of the maul- 



GEBMANIA. 83 

fold uses to which they put the feast, making it a place of consulta- 
tion as well as of eujoj^ment, in tnie modem Geiman fashion. He 
refers to the songs with which the people roused themselves as they 
entered the battle (III) ; but he has forgotten the singers who, like 
the Celtic bards and Scandinayian scalds, must then, as in later 
times, have been one of the chief adornments and enjoyments of the 
banquet. If we find in Ihose early days the seeds of German hilarity 
and (German valor, doubtless we might also find the elements of 
German song. The exhibition of the sword-dance (XTV) is made 
the illustration of their warlike enthusiasm ; their songs would im- 
doubtedly partake of the same sentiments, celebrating the glory of 
their race and the valor of theur warriors (XI). The feasts were, 
moreover, introduced for a variety of special occasions — at the birth 
of a child, or even after the death of a head of a family, at the bring- 
ing home of the bride, or at the introduction of the son to his life as 
a citizen warrior. 

The family relation received, both socially and politically, the 
very highest honor. Tacitus was himself peculiarly impressed* by 
the intimate union and complete sympathy of the husband and wife, 
by the interest of the woman in the conflicts of the man, and the re- 
spect which was paid to her opinion, as also by the purity and chas- 
tity which universally prevailed. We have already noticed that so- 
ciety was founded upon the family rather than the individual, but 
this power of family feeling had been so cultivated as to have pecu- 
liar force. The experience of war, quite as much as that of peace, 
was made to foster it : the family was kept together (XII), even the 
wife and mother accompanying her husband and son in the cam- 
paign. The widow was discouraged from a second marriage, and in 
many cases even followed her husband in voluntary death (XIX and 
note ibid.). The family connection was at every point made strong 
(XX). The strength of that family feeling of ancient days reveals 
itself not merely in the purity which was so impetuously protected 
and enforced two thousand years ago, but in the high estimate of 
home-life which prevails even now among the modem German peo- 
ples, illustrated among ourselves by the old proverb that the Eng- 
lishman's house is his castle, and, in fact, in the very existence of 
our expressive word home* 

•ChAp6.zviii.,ziz.,viiL 



84 NOTES. 

The mythology of the ancient Germans was rich and oopiona 
enough to proTe the brightness of their imagmation. Yet their re- 
ligious customs were simple and unconventionaL We find no trace 
among them of any well-defined organized priestly order,* so that m 
this respect they offer a striking contrast to their Celtic neighbors, 
who were bound fast by the authority of their Druids. The Germans 
were, however, very greatly influenced by religious feeling, offering 
their sacrifices and prayers with what was often superstitious devo- 
tion, and looking to their gods for guidance in all important move- 
ments (X). Their deities were something higher than representa- 
tives of startling physical phenomena ; they were rather the imper- 
sonation of qualities which the people held most admirable. They 
were worshiped without temples, though certain localities were set 
apart as sacred. They guided men in life, and in death received* 
them to themselves. 

The recognized source of authority in the government was the 
community — the people, the freemen. Each family had its acknowl- 
edged head, its paierfamiUati, who ruled his household not as an 
elected official, but as the natural guardian and governor of his own. 
And yet it would appear from the inferior position assigned to the 
in6rm, that mere age and natural priority did not govern, but that 
even the headship of the fiimily could be changed when the interests 
of the members demanded more forcible controL Each village, 
again, had its magistracy, though it was probably ruled far more by 
traditional usages than by any legislative ordinances. Each tribe, 
and each hundred, when called to act in the corporate capacity, had 
its appointed head or chieftain. In some cases they were ruled by 
kings, but even here the authority was sufficiently limited to prove 
how firmly the democratic idea was implanted in the Germanic mind. 

Distinctions of blood were nevertheless of very marked signifi- 
oanoe. The nobles constituted a class by themselves, with peculiar 
dignity among the people and peculiar opportunities for official pre- 
ferment The dignity of the king did not descend from father to son 
by one unvarying law, yet it was only from the line of the nobility 

* We do ondoabtedly find, even In the Gennaoia, repeated evldenoe of the 
•otiyity and even prominenoe of indlvldaal priests. It to quite probable that, in 
the changes wUch were oocnrring, they were beooming a recognised order, pre- 
pared to delinid their position in the State. As yet, howev«r, there aeems to be 
BO evldenoe of organiiatlon or daas prerogatives. 



GERMANIA. 85 

that a king could with any propriety be taken. Among the Chenuci, 
when their nobles had all fallen, it was deemed necessary to send to 
Borne for Italicus, who had there been educated into foreign ideas, 
and had become an ntter stranger to his people ; but he was sprung 
from the highest of their nobles, and only such an one could be their 
king.* As to the origin of this nobility it is impossible to speak 
with any certainty. It is, perhaps, a natural coojecture that these 
families were the descendants of the leaders under whom *the country 
was first occupied. 

'* They appoint their kings according to their noble birth,*' writes 
Tacitus, *' their leaders according to their yalor" (VII). Conspicu- 
ous merit on the battle-field could thus receive its proper reward, 
irrespective of the royal authority. That is, the democratic principle 
was so carried out that many of the most honorable positions were 
within the gift of the freemen. The chiefis or prineipeSy to whom we 
have already referred, seem to have held their office by election, and, 
apparently, as the times were ill adapted to frequent changes, they 
^rere chosen for life, or at least as long as their vigor should con- 
tinue. When the exigencies of war called out the combined re- 
sources of 4be whole tribe, the leader (dux) was chosen for the su- 
preme command, and must offer something more than mere rank by 
birth to recommend Um for the honor. 

Beneath the nobles and Hw freemen there were also lower ranks. 
There were freedmen of whom l^Mitus suggests that, under mo- 
narchical sway, as in other lands, they often obtained very exten- 
sive influence (XXV). And beneath these wei« also slaves, though 
from the very nature of the ancient German society we riwuld con- 
clude that their number could not be very large. 

There is hardly any picture taken from all history which could 
be more interesting to us, than to represent to ourselves those ancient 
popular assemblies where our Teutonic forefathers exercised their 
rights as freemen, and trained themselves to value and maintain the 
privileges which they there enjoyed. Here were the seed kernels 
from which a multitude of our free institutions have sprung. Some- 
times it was the village community, the far-away progenitor of the 
New England town-meeting ; sometimes it was the hundred choosing 
their chief^ perhaps appointing his council to attend him in his jadi> 

* Tao» Ann., zi. 16L 



86 NOTES. 

cial tours * attending to all the more general wants of society ; some* 
times it was even the whole tribe which met in congress to consult 
upon their interests. Some of these assemblies, perhaps more par- 
ticularly those of the hundreds, were held at stated interrals, and 
were the very life of the body politic. The people came together 
armed, as weapons were the honorable sign of citizenship. Mr. 
Freeman, in his ** History of the Growth of the English Constitu- 
tion," points out to us the same custom of popular assemblage exist- 
ing in Switzerland, even to our own times. The classical student, 
who is familiar with the picture presented by Homer, will find the 
perfect counterpart of these assemblies in the meetings of the Greek 
' warriors before the walls of Troy. The business was directed by 
the king or chief, while the different princes felt a peculiar responsi- 
bility, and claimed especial prominence in influencing the decision 
which should be reached. The freemen, however, must be won over 
to approve the conclusion which was to have the force of law. Popu- 
lar discontent might, perhaps, be vigorously corrected ; an ill-man- 
nered Thersites, failing to carry the popular feeling with him, might 
be dealt with unceremoniously for the sake of the pubKc impression, 
and yet the popular will must ratify the measure before it could be 
secure. This was the type of the ancient Aryan form of govern- 
ment ; and so the Germans came together to choose their leaders, to 
decide the questions of public interest, to act their part as freemen, 
and to introduce their children to the freeman's rights. Less im- 
portant decisions were reached by the chiefs alone; affairs of higher 
magnitude were similarly considered, but were brought before the 
freemen for ultimate decision. The principal men of the state spoke 
in behalf of their favorite plans, carrying weight according to the 
respect which was felt for their authority and opinion (XI). The 
will of the people was expressed, not by any showing of hands or 
counting of heads, but by the clash of arms and shouts of approval 
with which they signified their assent, or the cries of opposition by 
which they marked their disapproval, the original form of our own 
viva voce manner of voting. 

According to the conception of our forefathers, each assembly 
had also the authority of a court They were thus well provided 

• Oermania, zii. Comitea were appointed, aocording to Tacitus, to attend the 
princppe, Tho OmUni need not necessarily refer to a fixed number. They 
were the representatives of the division of the hundred. 



6EBMANIA. 87 

with Judicial tribunals, and were abundantly equipped with laws and 
legal forms. In the Ocrmania we have particular reference only 
to the courts of the hundreds, held by the prineeptj with his council 
of representative men (XII), as the full assembly would hardly be 
gathered for every case, but the authority would be delegated to 
those who could more efficiently exercise it. In a similar manner 
the cases pertaining to the village, or to the commonwealth, had a 
proper tribunal appointed, before which they could be tried, the 
authority coming in each case from the assembly of the freemen 
which the court represented, if it was not immediately exercised 
by it. 

In the matter of penalties and punishments the ancient German 
jurisprudence was eminently peculiar. In questions of public crime, 
which affected the standing of the individual before the naUon, the 
law was qute severe. Traitors and deserters were hung as a warn- 
ing to society. Those who were guilty of equally flagrant and even 
more shameful offences, the impure and the cowardly, were sunk in 
some foul quagmire, as if to bury the very memory of their abomi- 
nable example (XII). At the basis of all forms of punishment 
seemed to lie the idea that the offender should be made to suffer the 
loss of his rights as a citizen, in a degree corresponding to his mis- 
deeds. Thus the coward who had failed to perform his duty as a 
citizen soldier was deprived of all his privileges, and lost all the fiivor 
and protection of society (VI). In connection with minor offences, 
and even extending to oases of murder, the criminal, who would 
otherwise as an outlaw have been exposed to the revengeful attacks 
of those whom he had offended, was permitted to suffer punishment 
in the form of a fine, and the plaintiff was obliged to accept the 
satisfaction which was thus rendered (XXI). In the system which 
was built upon this principle, every grade of life m the state had its 
definite price. As the possessions of the freeman were, by the ten- 
dency of their institutions, kept nearly proportional to his position, 
suffering here he suffered in all his civil privileges, to a degree which 
made the compromise seem not unreasonable. At the same time, in 
the state of society which then existed, the custom referred to was 
of immense value m preventing the growth of intestine feuds, which 
would have been almost destructive to the commonwealth. 

Underlying all which we can say of the formal administration of 
the andent German government, the fact of preeminent mterest to 



88. NOTES. 

UB is the control which even then was exercised by pnblic sentiment 
Cowards and knaves were few, because they would not be tolerated. 
Violenoe was checked more by sentiment than by legislation. The 
government was simple and yet sufficient, because the subjects were 
a simple people. The magistrates, the chiefs, the national leaders, 
even the kings, were in the control of the freemen. The people may 
have been uncultivated, uncouth, barbaric, and their efforts and their 
toils, their methods both of enjoyment and of work, illustrated their 
semi-civilized characteristics, yet their homes were peaceful, their 
children were aspiring, thdr whole moral atmosphere was pure. 
There are to-day a great many millions of people scattered through 
Europe and America, constituting the most prosperous common- 
wealths which have ever been developed in human history, proving 
themselves the best dtizens which any commonwealth could possibly 
have, people who by their energy are conquering the world, and by 
their patient mdustry are holding its richest treasures, who have 
reason to look back with grateful appreciation to the vigorous virtues 
of their Germanic forefathers two thousand years ago. H. M. T. 

The treatise Db Situ, Horibus et Fopulib Germaniae, was writ- 
ten (as appears from the treatise itself, XXXVII) in the second con- 
sulship of the Emperor Trajan, A. U. C. 861, A. D. 98. The design 
of the author m its publication has been variously interpreted. From 
the censure which it frequently passes upon the corruption and de- 
generacy of the tiroes, it has been considered as a mere satire ^upon 
Roman manners in the age of Tacitus. But to say nothing of the ill 
adaptation of the whole plan to a satirical work, there are large parts 
of the treatise which must have been prepared with great labor, and 
yet can have no possible bearing on such a design. Satires are not 
wont to abound in historical notices and geographical details espe- 
cially touching a foreign and distnnt land. 

The same objection lies agfunst the political ends, which have 
been imputed to the author, such as the persuading of Trajan to en- 
gage, or not to engage, in a war with the Germans, as the most po- 
tent and dangerous enemy of Rome. For both these aims have been 
alleged, and we might content ourselves with placmg the one as an 
ofl&et against the other. But, aside from the neutralizing force of such 
contradictions, wherefore such an imposing array of geographical 
research, of historical lore, of political and moral philosophy, for 
ihfi aecomplishment of so simple a purpose ? And why is the par- 



6ERMANU. 89 

poee 80 scrupulously concealed that confessedly it can be gathered 
only from obscure intimations, and those of ambiguous import ? Be- 
sides, there are passages whose tendency must have been directly 
counter to either of these alleged aims (cf. note XXXTTT). 

The author does, indeed, in the passage just cited, seem to appre- 
ciate with almost prophetic accuracy those dangers to the Roman 
Empire which were so fearfully illustrated in its subsequent fall be- 
neath the power of the German tribes ; and he utters, as what true 
Boman would not in such forebodings, the warnings and the prayers 
of a patriot sage. But he does this only in episodes, which are so 
manifestly incidental, and yet arise so naturally out of the narrative 
or description, that it is truly surprising it should ever have occurred 
to any reader to seek in them the key to the whole treatise. 

The entire warp and woof of. the work is obviously hUt<meal and 
geographical. The satire, the political maxims, the moral sentiments, 
and all the rest, are merely incidental, interwoven for the sake of 
instruction and embellishment, inwrought because a mind so thought- 
ful and so acute as that of Tacitus could not leave them out Taci- 
tus had long been collecting the materials for his Roman Histories. 
In so doing, his attention was necessarily drawn often and with spe- 
cial interest to a people who, for two centuries and more, had been 
the most formidable enemy of the Roman State. In introducing 
them into his history, he would naturally wish to give some prelimi- 
nary account of their origin, manners, and institutions, as he does 
in introducing the Jews in the Fifth Book of his Histories, which 
happens to be in part preserved. Nor would it be strange if he 
should, with this view, collect a mass of materials, which he could 
not incorporate entire into a work of such compass, and which any 
slight occasion might induce him to publish in a separate form, per- 
haps as a sort of forerunner to his Histories.* Such an occasion 
now was furnished in the campaigns and victories of Trajan, who, 
at the time of his elevation to the imperial power, was at the head 
of the Roman armies in Germany, where he also remained for a year 
or more after his accession to the throne, till he had received the 

* It has eyen been ar^ed by highly respeetable Bcholars that the Germania 
of Tadtos is itself only sach a ooOeodon of materials, not published by the au- 
thor, and never intended for publication in that form. Bat it is qnite too me- 
thodical, too studied, and too finished a work to admit of that supposition (ct 
Prolegom. of K.). 



90 NOTiS. 

submission of the hostile tribes, and wiped away the disgrace which 
the Germans, beyond any other nation of that age, had brought upon 
the Roman arms. Such a people at such a time could not fail to be 
an object of deep interest at Home. This was the time when Taci- 
tus published his woric on Germany ; and such are believed to have 
been the motiyes and the circumstances which led to the under- 
taking. His grand object was not to point a satire or to compass a 
political end, but, as he himself informs us (XXVII), to treat of the 
origin and manners, the geography and history, of the German 
Tribes. 

The same candor and sincerity, the same correctness and truth- 
fulness, which characterize the Histories, mark also the work on 
Germany. The author certainly aimed to speak the truth and noth- 
ing but the truth on the subjects of which he treats. MoreoYer, he 
had abundant means of knowing the tnith, on all the main points, in 
the character and history of the Germans. It has even been argued 
from such expression as vidimtts (VIII) that Tadtus had himself 
been * in Germany, and could, therefore, write from personal obser- 
vation. But the argument proceeds on a misinterpretation of his lan- 
guage (cf. note in he, eU,), And the use of aecepimtis (as in XXVII) 
shows that he derived his information from others. But the Bo- 
mans had been in constant intercourse and connection, civil or mili- 
tary, with the Germans, for two hundred years. Germany furnished 
a wide theatre for their greatest commanders, and a -fruitful theme 
for their best authors, some of whom, as Julius Caesar (to whom 
Tacitus particularly refers, XXVIII), were themselves the chief ac- 
tors in what they relate. These authors, some of whose contribu- 
tions to the history of Germany are now lost (e. g., the elder Pliny, 
who wrote twenty books on the German wars), must have all been 
in the hands of Tacitus, and were, doubtless, consulted by him ; not, 
however, as a servile copyist or mere compiler (for he sometimes 

* Oastav FreytafiTi In bis ** Bilder aiu der deutschen Yergftngenheit,** argaes 
from the viyidneBS and minuteness of the descrlptlonB given that Tacitus must 
himself have traveled in Oermany, or have gained his information directly from 
some traveler of rank ; a military officer or a merchant wonld have given more 
prominence to other points— the soldierly qualities of the Germans and thehr rela- 
tions of rank, or their markets, methods of trade, or jadlclal cnstoms. He seems 
to be better acquainted with the tribes of the North (Ghatti, Ghand, IMsii, &c.) 
than with those of the Sonth. Thns in what he writes, as also in what he omits 
to write, he shows the peculiarities of a tourist 



GERMANIA. 91 

differs from his authorities, from Caesar even, whom he declares to 
be the best of them), but as a discriminating and judidons inqoirer. 
The acoonnt of German customs and institutions may, therefore, be 
relied on, from the intrinsic credibility of the author. It receiTes 
oonfirmation, also, from its general accordance with other eariy ac- 
counts of the Germans, and with their better known subsequent 
history, as well as from its strong analogy to the well-known habits 
of our American aborigines, and other tribes in a like stage of civ- 
ilization (cf. note XV). The geographical details are composed 
with all the accuracy which the CTer-shifting positions and relations 
of warring and wandering tribes rendered possible in the nature of 
the case (cf. note XXYIII). In sentiment, the treatise is surpassing- 
ly rich and instructiYe, like all the works of this prince of philosophi- 
cal historians. In style, it is concise and nenrous, yet quite rhetori- 
cal, and, in parts, even poetical to a fault (see notes jDOMi'm, cf. also 
Monboddo^s critique on the style of Tacitus). ** The work," says 
La Bletterie, ^ is brief without being superfidaL Within the com- 
pass of a few pages it comprises more of ethics and politics, more 
fine delineations of character, more substance and pith (ffue), than 
can be collected from many a ponderous volume. It is not one of 
those barely agreeable descriptions which gradually diflbse thdr 
influence over the soul, and leave it in undisturbed tranquillity. It 
is a picture in strong light, lik0 the subject itself full of fire, of 
sentiment, of lightning-flashes, that go at once to the heart We im-* 
agine ourselves in Germany ; we become familiar with these so-called 
barbarians ; we pardon their faults, and ahnost their vices, out of re- 
gard to their virtues ; and, in our moments of enthusiasm, we even 
wish we were Germans." 

The following remarks of Murphy will illustrate the value of the 
treatise to modem Europeans and their descendants : *' It is a draught 
of savage manners, delineated by a masterly hand ; the more inter- 
esting, as the part of the world which it describes was the seminary 
of the modem European nations, the Vagina Gkmtiux, as historians 
have emphatically called it. The work is short, but, as Montesquieu 
observes, it is the work of a man who abridged everything, because 
he knew everything, A thorough knowledge of the transactions of 
barbarous ages will throw more light than is generally imagined on 
the laws of modem times. Wherever the barbarians, who issued 
firom their northem hive, settied in new habitations, they carried 
1 



92 KOTEa 

with them thdr native genius, their original manners, and the first 
rudiments of the political system which has prevailed in different 
parts of Europe. They established monarchy and liberty, subordi- 
nation and freedom, the prerogative of the prince and the rights of 
the subject, all united in so bold a combination that the fabric, in 
some places, stands to this hour the wonder of mankind. The Brit- 
ish Constitution, says Montesquieu, came out of the woods of Ger- 
many. What the state of this country (Britain) was before the ar- 
rival of our Saxon ancestors, Tacitus has shown in the life of Agri- 
cola. If we add to his account of the Germans and Britons what 
has been transmitted to us concerning them by Julius Caesar, we 
shall see the origin of the Anglo-Saxon government, the great out- 
line of that Gothic constitution under which the people enjoy their 
rights and liberties at this hour. Montesquieu, speaking of his own 
country, declares it impossible to form an adequate notion of the 
French monarchy and the changes of their government, without a 
previous inquiry into the manners, genius, and spirit of the Grerman 
nations. Much of what was incorporated with the institutions of 
those fierce invaders has flowed down in the stream of time, and 
still mingles with our modem jurisprudence. The subject, it is con- 
ceived, is interesting to every Briton. In the manners of the Ger- 
mans, the reader will see our present frame of government, as it 
were, in its cradle, ffeftiia efmabula nottrae ! in the Germans them- 
selves, a fierce and warlike people, to whom this country owes that 
spirit of liberty which, through so many centuries, has preserved 
our excellent form of government, and raised the glory of the Brit- 
ish nation : 

" Qenus unde Latlnam, 

AJbanlqne patreB, atqoe altae moexda fiomae.** 

Chap. I. Germania stands first as the emphatic word, and is 
followed by omnU for explanation. Oermania amnis here does not 
include Oermania Prima and Seeunda, which were Roman prov- 
inces on the left bank of the Rhine (so called because settied by 
Germans). It denotes Germanic proper^ as a iohohy in distinction 
from the provinces just mentioned and from the several tribes, of 
which Tacitus treats in the latter part of the work. So Caesar (B. 
G. 1, 1) uses ChUia omtiM, as exclusive of the Roman provinces 
called Gaul and inclusive of the three parU^ which he proceeds to 
Bpedfy. 



GEBMANIA. 93 

GaRU-Pannoniia, People used for the oonntries. Cf. His. 6, 
6 : Phoeniees, GatU, now^ France ; Bhaeiia, the country of the Gri- 
Bons and the Tjrrol, with part of Bavaria ; FannoniOy Lower Hungary 
and part of Austria. Germany was separated from Gaul by the 
Rhine ; from Rhaetia and Pannonia, by the Danube. — Mheno et Da- 
ntibio, Rhine and Rhone are probably different forms of the same 
root (Rh-n). (It is a Celtic root, R-n meaning swift. Sch. S.). Ban- 
ube, in like manner, has the same root as Dnieper (Dn-p) ; perhaps 
also the same as Don and Dwina (D-n). So there are several Avon* 
in England and Scotland. Cf. Latham's Gtermania sub voc. 

SarmcUis Dacisque. The Slavonic Tribes were called Sarma- 
tians by the ancients. Barmaiia included the country north of the 
Carpathian Mountains, between the Vistula and the Don in Europe, 
together with the adjacent part of Asia, without any definite limits 
towards the north, which was terra incognita to the ancients — in 
short, Sarmatia was Rusna, as far as known at that time. Dacia 
lay between the Carpathian Mountains on the north, and the Danube 
on the south, including Upper Hungary, Transylvania, Wallachia, 
and Moldavia. 

Ifutuo metu, A rather poetical boundary I Observe also the 
alliteration. At the same time, the words are not a bad description 
of those wide and solitary wastes, which, as Caesar informs us (B. 
G. 6, 23), the Germans delighted to interpose between themselves 
and other nations, so that it might appear that no one dared to dwdt 
near them. — MorUihtta, The Carpathian. — Cetera, Ceteram Ger- 
maniae partem. 

Sinus, This word denotes any thing with a curved outline (cf. 
29, also A. 23) ; hence bays, peninsulas, and prominent bends or 
borders, whether of land or water. Here peninmdaa (particularly 
that of Jutland, now Denmark), for it is to the author's purpose 
here to speak of land rather than water, and the ocean is more prop- 
erly said to embrace peninsulas^ than gtdfs and hajfe. Its association 
with islands here favors the same interpretation. So Passow, Or. 
Rit. Others, with less propriety, refer it to the gvJfs and hays^ 
which so mark the Baltic and the German Oceans. — Oceanus here 
includes both the Baltic Sea and the German Ocean (Oceanus Sep- 
tentrionalis). 

Inmdarumr-spatia, Idands of v€ul exUnt, viz. Funen, Zealand, 
Ac Soan<^avia also (now Sweden and Norway) was regarded by 



94 NOTES. 

the ancients as an island, cf. PIul Nat His. iv. 21: qaamm (insu- 
laram) clarissima Scandinayia est, incompertae magnitudinis. 

Nuper*^eff%hu9, Understand with this clause ut c&mpertum eet. 
The above-mentioned features of the Northern Ocean had been 
discovered in the prosecution of the late wars of the Romans among 
the tribes and kings previously unknown. Nuper is to be taken in 
a general seDse=recentioribus temporibus, cf. nuper addiium^ § 2, 
where it goes back one hundred and fifty years to the age of Julius 
Caesar. — JBeUum, War in general, no particular war. — Venus, 
This word has been considered by some as an adverb, and by others 
as a preposition. It is better, however, to regard it as a participle, 
like ortusj with which it is connected, though without a conjunction 
expressed. Bitter omits in, 

MoUi et demenier edUo. 0/ffenUe dope and moderate devaiwn, in 
studied antithesis to inaecesso ac praecipUi, lofty and deep. In like 
mauner, ju^o, ridge^ summit, is contrasted with vertices peak, height, cf. 
Yirg. Eel 9, 7 : molU divo ; Ann. 17, 88 : ooUee demenier aesurgenies. 
The JRhaetian Alps, now the mountains of the Orisons. Alp is a 
Celtic word = hill. Albion has the same root = hilly country, Mons 
Abnoba (a Celtic word = water mountain, L e. mountains urrounded 
by water. Sch. S.) is the northern part of the Schwarzwald, or Black 
Forest. — Erumpat, al erumpit. But the best MSS. and all the re- 
cent editions have erumpat: and Tacitus never uses the pres. ind. 
after donee, uniU, cf. Rup. and Rit in loc. Whenever he uses the pres- 
ent after donee, until, he seems to have conceived the relation of the 
two clauses, which it connects, as that of a means to an end, or a 
condition to a result, and hence to have used the subj. cf. chap. 20 : 
eepard; 81. abtolvat ; 85. einuetwr ; Ann. 2, 6: miseeatur. The 
two examples last cited, like this, describe the course of a rirer and 
boundary line. For the general rule of the modes after donee, see H. 
619, 2, N. 2 ; A. and 6. 828 ; Z. 576. See also notes H. 1, 18. 86.— 18^ 
timum. According to the common understanding, the Danube had 
Mven mouths. So Strabo, Mela, Ammian, and Ovid ; Pliny makes 
six. T. reconciles the two accounts. The enim inserted after eepti- 
mum m most editions is not found in the best MSS. and is unneces- 
sary. Or. and Rit omit it. 

n. Ipeos marks the transition from the country to the people— 
Ihe Oermana tkemtdvee. So A. 18 : Ipsi £ritannu 

Crediderim. Sulj. attiee. A modest way of expressing his 



GEPwMAXIA. 95 

opinion, like our : I should saj, I am inclined to think. H. 486, 
I.N. 1; A. andG. 811; Z. 621 

AdverUUma et hospUiia, Immigrant and visitors, AdvsntiJms 
certae sedes, hot^UiU peregrinationes signilicantur. Griin. Both 
abstract for concrete. Dod. compares ImMmit and fjJroiKoi. 

Terra-cuivehebantur, Zengma for terra adveniebarU, classibus 
advebebantur. H. 636, II. 1 ; Z. 116. 

Nec-at, These correlatives connect the members more closelj 
than et-et ; as in Greek ofirt-ri. The sentiment here advanced 
touching colonization (as by sea, rather than by land), though true 
of Carthage, Sicily, and most Grecian colonies, is directly the re^ 
Terse of the general fact ; and Germany itself is now known to have 
received its population by land emigration from western Asia. The 
Germans, as we learn from affinities of languages and occaisional 
references of historians and geographers, belonged to the same great 
stock of the human family with the Goths and Scythians, and may 
be traced back to that hive of nations, that primitive residence of 
mankind, the country east and south of the Caspian Sea and in the 
vicmity of Mount Ararat : cf. Tur. His. Ang. Sax. B. II. C. 1 ; also 
Donaldson^a New Cratylus, B. I. Chap. 4. Latham's dogmatic skep- 
ticism will hardly shake the now established faith on this subject. 
The science of ethnography was unknown to the ancients. Tacitua 
had not the remotest idea that all mankind were spnmg from a 
common ancestry, and diffused themselves over the world from a 
common centre, a fact asserted in the Scriptures, and daily receiving 
fresh confirmation from literature and science. Hence he speaks of 
the Germans as indigenas^ which he explains below by editum terra, 
sprung from the earth, like the mutum et turpe pecus of Hor. Sat. 
1. 8, 100, cf. A. 11. 

Muiare quaerehant, Quaerere with inf. is poet, constr., found, 
however, in later prose writers, and once in Cic. (de Fin. 813 : quae- 
ris scire, inclosed in brackets in Tauchnitz's edition), to avoid repe- 
tition of cupio. Cupio or nolo mutare would be regular classic 
prose. 

Adversus, That the author here uses adoersus in some unusual 
and recondite sense is intimated by the clause : ui sic dixerim. It 
is understood, by some, of a sea unfriendfy to navigation. But its 
connection by que with immensfis tdtra shovrs that it refers to /Tosi- 
Uon^ and means lying opposiiSy i. e. belonging, as it were, to another 



06 KOTES. 

hemisphere or world from ours ; for so the Romans regarded the 
Northern Ocean and Britain itself, cf. A. 12 : ultra nostri orbis men. 
suram; G. 17: exterior oceanus. So Cic. (Som. Scip. 6) says: 
Homines partim ohliqaos, partim aversos, partim etiam advertoi, 
stare Yobis. This interpretation is confirmed by ab orbe nottra in 
the antithesis. On the use of tU tie dixerim for ut ne dieam, which 
is peculiar to the silver age, see Z. 628. 

Anuy 80. Minor. Africa^ so. the Roman Province of that name, 
comprising the territory of Carthage. — Peteret. The question implies 
a negative answer, cf. H. 486, n. ; A. and G. 265, 8 ; Z. 580. The 
Bubj. implies a protasis understood : if he could, or the like. 

8U. Praesens, ut de re vera. Giin. JVtM n is nearly equiva- 
lent to niai forte: unieae perchanee ; unless if we may suppose the 
case. Cf. Wr. note on Ann. 2, 63, and Hand's Tnrsellinus, 8, 240. 

Memoriae et annaUum. Properly opposed to each other as trtt- 
dition and toriilen history^ though we are not to infer that written 
books existed iu Germany in the age of Tacitus. 

CamUnibae, Songe^ ballade (from cano). Songs and rude poe- 
try have been, in all savage countries, the memorials of public trans- 
actions, e. g. the runes of the Goths, the bards of the Bntons and 
Celts, the scalds of Scandinavia, &c. 

TuigUyMm, The god from whom Tuesday takes its name, as 
Wednesday from Woden, Thursday from Thoi-r, &c., cf. Sharon Tur- 
ner's His. of Aug. Sax. app. to book 2, chap. 8. Some find in the 
name of this god the root of the words Teutonic, Dutch (Germ. 
Deutsche or Teutsche), &c. Possibly it has the same root as the 
Latin divus, dius, dcus, and the Greek duos^ Stos, 0c^s, cf. Grimm's 
Deutsche Myihologie^ sub. v. 

Terra editum = indigena above ; and yny fv^is &nd avT6xB«fr in 
Greek. 

Mannum. Probably a name derived from and simply representa- 
tive of the race, i. e. roan. 

Originem = auctores. It is predicate after Mannum, 

Ut in lieentia vetustaiit. As in the license of antiquity, L e. since 
such license is allowed in regard to ancient times. 

Ingaevones, " According to some German antiquaries, the Ingae^ 
vones are die EtntDohner, those dwelling inward toward the sea ; the 
Istaevones are die Westwohner, the inhabitants of the western parts ; 
and the Sermiones are die Merumioahnerf midland inhabitants," Ey. 



6EBMANIA. 97 

cf. Kiessling in loc. Others, e. g. Zeass and Grimm, with more 
probability, find in these names the roots of German words signifi- 
c.int of honor and brewer i^, assumed by different tribes or confedera- 
cies as epithets or titles of distinction. Grimm identifies these three 
divisions with the Franks, Saxons, and Thuringiaus, of a later age. 
See further, note chap. 21. We are unable to associate with these 
names any prominent influence in the political history of the nation, 
and yet they seem to be significant of the fact that long before the 
historical period the Germans were gravitating into three groups 
corresponding more or less closely to the Franks on the west, and 
the people of the High and Low German dialects north and east. 
Even among the Romans this does not appear to hare been taken 
as a complete classification, as Pliny the elder gives two additional 
groups. 

VbeerUur, The subj. expresses the opinion of others, not the 
direct affirmation of the author. H. 616, II. ; A. and G. 840 ; Z. 649. 

Deo = hoc deo, sc. Mannus = Qerm. Mann, Eng. Man. 

Marao8f Oambrivioa, Under the name of Franci and Salii these 
tribes afterwards became formidable to the Romans. Gf. Prichard's 
Researches into the Physical History of Mankind, YoL III. chap. 6, 
see. 2. — 8iuvot, ct note, 88. — Vandaliat, The Vandals, now so 
familiar in history. 

Addiium, sc. esse, depending on affirmant 

Nunc Tungrif sc. vocentur, cf. His. 4, 16, 16. In confirmation 
of the historical accuracy of this passage, Gr. remarks, that Caes. 
(B. G. 2, 4) does not mention the Tungri, but names four tribes on 
the left bank of the Rhine, who, he says, are called by the common 
name of Germane ; while Pliny (Nat. His. 4, 81), a century Uter, 
gives not the names of these four tribes, but calls them by the new 
name, Tunffri, 

Itcb'Voearentur, Locus yexatissimus I exclaim all the critics. 
And so they set themselves to amend the text by coi^ecture. Some 
have written in nomen gentie instead of non genlie. Others have 
proposed a vidorum melu^ or a vido ob mefum, or a vidit ob me- 
tum» But these emendations are wholly conjectural and unnecessary. 
Giinther and Walch render a vidore, from the victorious tribe, L e. 
after the name of that tribe. But a $e ipsie means bg themselves, 
and the antithesis doubtiess requires a to be understood in the same 
sense in both clauses. GrUber translates and expUins thus i " In 



98 NOTES. 

this way the name of a single tribe, and not of the whole people, 
has come into use, so that all, at first by the victor (the Tungri), in 
order to inspire fear, then by themselyes (by the mouth of the whole 
people), when once the name became known, were called by the 
name of Germans. That is, the Tungri called all the kindred tribes 
that dwelt beyond the Rhine, Germans, in order to inspire fear by 
the wide extension of the name, since they gave themselves out to 
be a part of so vast a people ; but at length all the tribes began to 
call themselves by this name, probably because they were pleased to 
see the fear which it excited." This is, on the whole, the most sat- 
isfactory explanation of the passage, and meets the essential con- 
currence of Wr., Or. and Ddd. — Oermani, If of German etjrmolo- 
gy, this word = gehr or wehr (Fr. guerre) and mann, men of war ; 
hence the metm^ which the name carried with it. If it is a Latin 
word corresponding only in wi^u with the original German, then = 
brethren. It will be seen, that either etymology would accord with 
Gruber's explanation of the whole passage — ^in either case, the name 
would inspire fear. There is a strong tendency among the latest 
commentators to consider the word as coming to the Roman from 
the Gkiuls, and hence of Celtic origin, a theory which this piissage 
of T. would rather strengthen than weaken. A people often bear 
quite different names abroad from that by which they call them- 
selves at home. Thus the people, whom we call Germans^ call them- 
selves Deutsche (Dutch), and are called by the French Allemande, 
cf. Latham. Voearentur is subj. because it stands in a subordinate 
clause of the oratio obliqua, cf. H. 624 ; A. and G. 886 ; Z. 603. 

Metum. Here taken in an active sense; oftener passive, but 
used in both senses. Quintilian speaks of metum dupUeem^ quern 
patimur et qnem facimus (6, 2, 21), cf. A. 44; nihil metus in vultu, 
i. e. nothing to inspire fear in his countenance. In like manner 
admiratio (§ 1) is used for the admiration which one excites, though 
it usually denotes the admiration which one feels. For o5, c£ Ann. 
1, 79 : ob moderandat liberie exundationea, 

yationia-geniie. Gene is often used by T. as a synonym with 
natio. But in antithesis, ffena is the whole, of which natiotiea or 
populi are the parts, e. g. G. 4 : populos-gentem ; § 14 : nationes- 
genti. In like manner, in the civil constitution of Rome, a genM 
included several related /ami/tev. 

III. Herculem^ Perhaps =: German Donar (Thorr). Romana 



GEKMANIA. 99 

inteipretatione = Hercules. The Romans found their gods every- 
where, and ascribed to Hercules, quidquid ubique magnificum est, 
cf. note 84 : gfUtequid-comennmus. That this is a Roman account 
of the matter is evident, from the use of «of, for, if the Germans 
were the subject of memoraui^ »e must have been used. On the 
use of et here, cf. note 11. 

Primum = nt principem, fortissimum. Gun. 

Hcue quoque. Baee is rendered ««eA by Ritter. But it seems 
rather, as Or. and Dod. explain it, to imply nearness and familiarity 
to the mind of the author and his readers : iheie well-known songs. 
So 20 : til haec enrpora^ qttae miramur, Quoqut, lilce guidem, fol- 
lows the emphatic word in a clause, H. 669, m. ; A. and G. 845 b ; 
Z. 865. 

Main, called eanttu trux, H. 2, 22. A Tadtean word. Freund. 
Cf. H. 1, 80. 

Baritum, AL barditura and banitum. But the latter has no 
HS. authority, and the former seems to have been suggested by the 
bards of the Gauls, of whose existence among the Germans however 
there is no evidence. Dod. says the root of the word is common to 
the Greek, Latin, and German languages, viz. baren^ i. e. frtmere^ a 
verb still used by the Batavians, and the noun bar, i. e. carmen, of 
frequent occurrence in Saxon poetry to this day. 

TerrerU trepidantve. They inejnre terror or tremble roithfeary ao- 
cording as the line (the troops drawn up in battle array) hat sounded^ 
sc. the baritus or battle cry. Thus the Batavians perceived, that the 
woniiiu aciei on the part of the Romans was more feeble than their 
own, and pressed on, as to certain triumph. H. 4, 18. So the High- 
landers augured victory, if their shouts were louder than those of 
the enemy. See Murphy in loco. 

Repercueeu, A post-Augustan word. The earlier Latin authors 
would have said repereueea, or repereutiendo. The later Latin, like 
the English, uses more abstract terms. — Niee tam-^ideniur. Nor do 
those earmina seem to be so mtich voices (well modulated and harmon- 
ized), 04 aedamaii<M8 (unanimous, but inarticulate and indistinct) of 
courage. So Pliny uses concentHs of the acclamations of the people, 
Panegyr. 2. It is often applied by the poets to the concerts of birds, 
as in Yirg. Geor. 1, 422. It is here plural, cf. Or. in loc. The read- 
ing vocis is without MS. authority. 

Ulixem, ^ The love of fabulous history, which was the passion 



100 NOTES. 

of ancient times, produced a new Hercules in every country, and 
made Ulysses wander on every shore. Tacitus mentions it as a ro- 
mantic tale ; but Strabo seems willing to countenance the fiction, 
and gravely tells us that Ulysses founded a city, called Odyssey, in 
Spain. Dpsius observes that Lisbon, in the name of Strabo, had 
the appellation of Ulysippo, or Olisipo. At this rate, he pleasantly 
adds, what should hinder us inhabitants of the Low Countries from 
asserting that Ulysses built the city of Ulyssinga, and Circe founded 
that of Circzea or Ziriczee ? " Murphy. 

^abulow errore. Storied^ celebrated in sonff, of. fabulosus Hy- 
daspes, Ho. Od. 1, 227. Ulysses having wandered westward gave 
plausibility to alleged traces of him in Gaul, Spain, and Germany. — 
Asciburgium, Now Asburg. 

Quin etiam, cf. notes, 18 : quin eUam, and 14 : quin immo. — 
Ulixif L e. ab Ulixe, cf. Ann. 16, 41 : Aedes statoris Jovis Romulo 
vota, i. e. by Romulus. This usage is especially frequent in the poets 
and the later prose writers, cf. H. 888, 1 ; A. and G. 232, a ; Z. 419 ; 
and in T. above all others, cf. Bot Lex. Tac sub DaUvue, Wr. and 
Rit. understand however an altar (or monument) consecrated to 
Ulysses, I e. erected in honor of him by the citizens. 

Adjeeto. Inscribed with the name of his father, as well as his 
own, 1. e. Aa€pTidIip» 

Oraeeis liiteris, Grecian characters^ cf. Caes. B. G. 1, 29 : In 
castris ffeivetiorumj tabulae repertae sunt Utteris Oraeeis confectae ; 
, and (6, 14) : Gaili in publicis privatisque rationibus Graecis tduntur 
Utteris, T. speaks (Ann. 11, 14) of alphabetic characters, as passing 
from Phenicia into Greece, and Strabo (4, 1) traces them from the 
Grecian colony at Marseilles into Gaul, whence they doubtless passed 
into Germany, and even into Britain. 

lY. Aliis aUarum, The Greek and Latin are both fond of a 
repetition of different cases -of the same word, even where one of 
them is redundant, e. g. oi6^€v oTos (Horn. IL 1, 89), and particularly 
in the words HkKot and alitts. Aliis is not, however, wholly re- 
dundant, but brings out more fully the idea : no intermamages, one 
with one nation, and another with anot/ier. Walch and Ritter omit 
aliis, though it is found in all the MSS. 

Infectos, imbued, changed. Things are said infici and imbui, 
which are so penetrated and permeated by something else, that that 
something becomes a part of its nature or substance, as inficere 



GERMANIA. 101 

colore, sanguine, Yeneno, anirnum virtutibos. It does not neces* 
sai-Uy imply corruption or degeneracy. 

Fropnamr^milem. Three epithets not essentially different, used 
for the sake of emphasis = peculiar, pure, and tui-generu, Similia 
takes the gen., when it expresses, as here, an intei-nal resembUnce 
in character; otherwise the dat., cf. Z. 411 ; H. 891, II. 4 ; A. and G. 
234 R. 

Habitus. Form and features, external appearance. The physU 
cal features of the Germans as described by Tacitus, though still 
sufficient to distinguish them from the more southern European na- 
tions, have proved less permanent than their mental and social char* 
acterifttics. 

Idem omnibus, Cf. Jut. 13, 164 : 

Caerula qulB Btnpuit O^rmani lurAina t Jknam 
Ctteeariem^ et mAdido torqnentem oomua drro ? 
N«mp6 quod huec iUiB naturn est omnibus itno. 

Truces omU, Caesar refers to the wild fierceness of the German 
glances, eyen inspiring fear among the Gauls (1, 89). 

Magna corpora. "^ Sidonius Apollinarius says that, being in Ger- 
many and finding the men so very tall, he could not address verses 
of six feet to patrons who were seven feet high : 

Spemlt senlpodem stilam Thalia, 

Ex quo Beptipedes vidit patronos.^ Mar. 

Skeletons in the ancient graves of Germany are found to vary 
from 5 ft. 10 in. to 6 ft. 10 in., and even 1 ft. Cf. Ukert, Geog. III. 
1. p. 197. These skeletons indicate a strong and weU-formed body. 

Impetum. Temporary/ exertion, as opposed to persevering toil and 
effort, laboris atque operum, 

Eadem. Not so much patieniia, as ad impetum vdida. See a 
like elliptical use of idem § 23 : eadem temperantia ; § 10 : iisdem 
nemoribus. Also of totidem § 26. 

Mlnime-assueverunt, " Least of all, they are capable of sustain- 
ing thirst and heat ; cold and hunger, they are accustomed, by their 
soil and climate, to endure.'' Ey. The force of minims is confined 
to the first clause, and the proper antithetic particle is omitted at 
the beginning of the second. Tolerare depends on assueverwU, and 
belongs to both clauses. Ve is distributive, referring eoeto to frigora 



102 NOTES. 

and ado to inediam* So vef in H. 1, 62 : strenuis vd ignaYis spem 
metumque addere = strenuis spem, ignavis metum addere. 

y. Terra, The soil of Germany has proved yariable, but seldom 
surpassingly fertile. From that day to this it has been famous for 
forests. The people were rather shepherds and herdsmen than culti- 
vators, and their peculiar wealth was in their flocks. Humidior^ 
ventonor. Sumidior refers to pdludibut^ vmUmor to ulvis ; the 
mountains (which were exposed to sweeping trinds) being for the 
most part covered with forests, and the low grounds with marshes. 
Veniosus = Homeric ^ycfi^cts, windy, i. e. lofty. II. 3, 806 : IXioy 

SatU/erax, Satis = aegeiibua poeHce. Ferax is constructed with 
abL, vid. Virg. Geor. 2, 222 : ferax olco. 

Jmpatiena. Not to be taken in the absolute sense, cf. § 20, 28, 
56, where fruit-trees and fruits are spoken of. 

Improcera agrees with peeora understood. 

Armentu, Peeora = flocks in general. Armenia (from ararfy to 
plough), larger cattle in particular. It may include horses. 

Sum honor. Their proper, i. e. usual size and beauty. 

Gloria frontis. Poetice for eomtta. Their horns were small. 

Nvmero, Emphatic: number^ rather than quality. Or, with 
Ktter, gaudent may be taken io the sense of enjoy, possess : they 
have a good number of them. In the same sense he interprets gai^- 
dent in A. 44 : opiinu nimiie nan gauddxit, 

Iratij sc. quia opee sunt irritamenta malorum, Ov. Met. 1, 140. 
^Negaverini, Subj. H. 629, 1. ; A. and G. 884 ; Z. 662.— ^^rmovertm, 
cf. note, 2 : erediderim, 

NuUam venam, " Mines of gold and silver have since been dis- 
covered in Germany; the former, indeed, inconsiderable, but the 
latter valuable." Ey. T. himself in his later work (the Annals) 
speaks of the discovery of a silver mine in Germany. Ann. 11, 20. 

Ferinde, Not ao much as might be expected^ or as the Fomans, 
and other civilized nations. So Gronovius, Dod., and most commen- 
tators. So Rup. in loc. Others, as Or. and Rlt, allow no ellipsis^ 
and render: not much. See Hand's Tursellinus, vol. IV. p. 464. 
We sometimes use not so much^ not so very^ not so bad^ &c., for not 
very, not much, and not bad. Still the form of expression strictly 
implies a comparison. And the same is true of hatul perinde^ ct 
Bot. Lex. Tac. 



GEBMANIA, 103 

Eat videre. Eat for licet, Graeoe et poetice. Not so used in the 
earlier Latin prose. See Z. 227. 

Non in alia viiitate, i. e. eadem vilitate, aequo vilia, held in the 
same hw estimation. — Humo, Abl. of material. 

Pnxnmiy so. ad ripam. Nearest to the Roman border, opposed 
to inUriorea. 

Serratoa, Not elsewhere mentioned; probably ooins with ser- 
rated edges, still found. The word is post-Augustan. 

Bigatos, Roman coins stamped with a biga or two-horse chariot 
Others were stamped with a quadriga toid called quadrigatl The 
bigati seem to have circulated freely in foreign lands, cf. tJkert^s 
Geog. of Greeks and Romans, III. 1 : Trade of Germany and places 
cited there. *' The sen-ati and bigati were old coins from the time 
of the Republic, purer silrer than those of the Emperors.^* Ky. G£ 
PUny, H. N. 33, 18. 

BeqmmtHr, Sequi = expetere. 6o used by Gc, Sal., and the 
best writers. Compare our word seek, 

NuUa affeetione anxmL Net from any parUality fenr the sUver in 
itself (but for conventence). 

Numertis. Greater number and consequently less relative value 
of the silver coins. On quia, cf. note, H. 1, 31. 

YI. Ife-quidem. Not even, i. e. iron is scarce as well as gold 
and silver. The weapons found in ancient Grerman graves are of 
stone, and bear a striking resemblance to those of the American 
Indians. Cf. Ukert, p. 216. Ad verba, cf. note. His. 1, 16: ne- 
fwitis. The emphatic word always stands between ne and qtddem. 
H. 669, III. 2; A. and G. 846, b; Z. mi.^Superest, Is over and 
above, i. e. abounds. So superest ager, § 26. 

Vd. Pro nve, Ciceroni inauditum. GUn. Cf. note, 17. 

Frameas, The word is still found m Spain, as well as Germany. 
Laneea is also a Spanish word, cf. Freund. 

NudL Cf. § 17, 20, and 24. Also Caes. B. G. 6, 21 : magna 
corporis parte nuda. 

Saguto, Dim. of sago. A small short cloak. — Leves = leviter 
induti. The clause midi-leves is added here to show that their dress 
is favorable to the use of missiles. Waits says : ** In summer they 
went lightly clad with a cloak and short waistcoat ; the rich were 
provided with a cotton or woollen undergarment. In the winter, how- 
ever, they wrapped themselves in sheepskin or skins of other ani- 



104 NOTEa 

male ; they wore also stockings and leather shoes. The dress of the 
women did not differ greatly from that of the men, but they nsed more 
generally of linen material, which they knew how to adorn with scar- 
let stripes.*' Wuitz, Deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte, p. 86. 

MasUia 9parffujU. Dictio est Yirgiliana. E. 

Cohribua, Cf. nigra scuta, § 43. '* Hence coats of arms and 
the origin of heraldry." Mur. 

CuUu8, Military equipments. Oultus complectitnr omnia quae 
studio et arte eis, quae natura instituit, adduntur. E. 

Cassis out galea. Cassis, properly of metal ; ffoUa, of leather 
(6r. ya\4ii) ; though the distinction is not always observed. 

.Equi-eanspicui, Gf. Gaes. B. G. 4, 2. 7, 66. 

Bed nee variare. But (i. e. on the other hand) they are not even 
(for nee in this sense see Bitter in loc.) taught to vary their curves 
(1. e., as the antithesis shows, to bend now towards the right and 
now towards the left in their gyrations), but they drive them straight 
forward or by a constant bend towards the right in so connected a 
eirde (i. e. a complete ring) that no one is behind (for the obvious 
reason, that there is neither beginning nor end to such a ring). 
Such is on the whole the most satisfactory explanation of this diffi- 
cult passage, which we can give after a careful examination. A 
different version was given in the first edition. It refers not to 
battle, but to equestrian exercises, cf. Gerlach, as cited by Or. 
in loc. 

AesHmanti, Greek idiom. Elliptical dative, nearly equivalent 
to the abl. abs. (nobis aestimantibus), and called by some the dat. 
abs. In A. 11. the ellipsis is supplied by credibile est, Gf. Botti- 
cher^s Lex. Tac. sub Dativus, 

Eoque mixti, Eo, causal particle = for that reason. Gaesar 
adopted this arrangement in the battle of Pharsalia, B. G. 8, 84. 
The Greeks also had W^oi ^iviroi. Xen. Hellen. 7, 6. 

CentenL A hundred is a favorite number with the Germans 
and their descendants. Witness the hundred pagi of the Suevi 
(Gaes. B. G. 4, 1), and of the Semnones (G. 89), the cantons of 
Switzerland, and the Aun<^re(2s of our Saxon ancestors in England. 
The centeni here are a military division. In like manner, Gaesar 
(B. G. 4, 1) speaks of a thousand men drafted annually from each 
pagus of the Suevi, for military service abroad. So in chap. 12 ii a 
reference to the courts of these divisions. 



GEBMANIA. 105 

Idqve iptum. Predicate nominatiTe after a rerb of calliDg, H. 
862, 2. 2) ; Z. 894. The diyision was called a hundred, and each 
man in it a hundreder ; and such was the estimation in which this 
service was held that to be a hundreder became an honorable 
distinction, nomen et honor = honorificmn nomen.* See Introduction. 

CuMOB, A body of men arranged in the form of a wedge, i e. nar- 
row in front and widening towards the rear ; hence peculiarly adapted 
to break the lines of the enemy. Each company was in this form, and 
in this form they were organized together for an army. The form was 
said to imitate that of a wild boar, or the boar's head. CH Waltz, p. 881. 

Qmnlii quam formidinU, Supply magU, The conciseness 
of T. leads him often to omit one of two correUtiye particles, cf. 
note on minime, 4. 

JteferunL Carry into (he rear, and so secure them for burial 

Etiam in dubiis proeliie. Even while the battle remains unde- 
cided. Giin. 

SetOum reliquisae. Arms were the sign of citizenship ; hence to 
leare them behind was punished with the loss of civil rights. 

Unierunt, In a present or aorist sense, as often in T. So pro- 
hibuentnt, % 10; placuU and displicuit, 11, cf. Lex. Tac. Bot. 

VII. Heffesy civil rulers ; dttcea, military commanders. JEk =: secun- 
dum. So ez ingenio, § 8. The government was elective, yet not with- 
out some regard to hereditary distinctions. They choM {sumuni) their 
sovereign, but chose him from the royal family, or at least one of 
noble extraction. They chose also their commander — ^the king, if he 
was the bravest and ablest warrior ; if not, they were at liberty to 
choose some one else. And among the Germans, as among their de- 
scendants, the Franks, the authority of the commander was quite 
distinct from, and sometimes (in war) paramount to, that of the king: 
Here Montesquieu and others find the original of the kings of the 
first race in the French monarchy, and the mayors of the palace, who 
once had so much power in France. Cf. Sp. of Laws, B. 81, chap. 4. 

Nee is correlative to ei. The hinge on the one hand do not poeeeaa 
unlimited or unrestrained authority, and the commanders on the other, 
etc. Infinita = sine modo ; libera = sine vinculo. Wr. Potestas = right- 
ful power, authority ; potenHa = power without regard to right, ability, 
force, cf. note, 42. Ad rem, cf. Caes. B. G. 5, 27. Ambiorix tells Cae- 
sar that, though he governed, yet the people made laws for him, and 
the supreme power was shared equally between him and them. 



106 NOTBS. 

JSxemplo-^mperio, " DoHve after wni =zare io bH an exan^iUf 
rather than to give commaneU* So Griiber and Dod. But Wr. and 
Bit. with more reason consider them as ablatires of means limiting 
a verb implied in dtioes : eommander* (command) more hy example^ 
than 6y authorittf (official power). See the principle well stated and 
illustrated in Doderlein's Essay on the style of Tadtus, p. 15, in my 
edition of the Histories. 

AdnUratiane praesunU Gain injluencet or owimdefuy, 6y meatu 
of the adnUnUion vhich they ff^ptre, cl note on metus, § 2. 

Affont SubJ. ut ad judicium admirantium, nan meotem scrip- 
toris trahatur. Giin. 

^mmocfoer^ertf = interficere. C£ H. 1, 46. 68. Ifone hut the 
priests are allowed to put to death, to place in trofw, nor even (ne quidem) 
to ecourge. Thus punishment was clothed with divine authority. 

migiee et eigna. Images and standards, i. e. images, which 
serve for standards. Images of wild beasts are meant, ci, H. 4, 22: 
depromptae silvis lucisve feramm imagines.— TVirmom, cavalry. 
Owuum, infantry, but sometimes both. Conglobatio is found only 
in writers after the Augustan age, and rarely in them. It occurs in 
Sen. Qu. Nat 1, 16, cf. Freund. 

FamiUae is less comprehensive than propinquUates, Audiri, sc 
Solent. Cf. A. 84 : ruere. Wr. calls it histor. in£, and Bit. pronounces 
it a gloss. 

JPignora, Whatever is most dear, particularly mothers, wivea^ 
and children. — Unde, adv. of place, referring to in proximo, 

Vulnera fervnt, I e. on their return from battle. 

Exigere, Examine and compare, to see who has the most and 
the most honorable, or perhaps to soothe and dress them. — Cihos et 
kortamina. Observe the singular juxtaposition of things so ui'like. 
So 1 : metu aut moniibus ; A. 26 : eopiis et laetitia ; S7 : nox et 
satietas; 88 : gaudio praedaque, 

YUI. Oonstantia preeum = importunate entreaties, 

Objeeta pedorum. By opposing their breasts, not to the enemy 
but to their retreating husbands, praying for death in preference to 
captivity. 

Afonstrata^<aptimtate, Cominus limits eaptivitale, pointing to 
captivity as just before them.— ympa^Mfi/ttMi. JmpaiienUr and 
impatientia (the adv. and the snbst) are post-Augostan words.. The 
adj. (imptttiena) is found earlier. €^. Freond. 



GERMANIA. 107 

J^eminarum-nominey L e. propter feminas suas. Can. So Cic. : tuo 
nomine et reipublicae = on your account and for the sake of the re- 
public. But it means perhaps more than that here, viz. in the per- 
son of. They dreaded captivity more for their women than for 
themselves. Adeo = inaomtich thai. 

Inesscy sc. feminis. The^ think there h in their women eame- 
thing eacred and prophetic, Cf. Caes. B. G. 1, 60, where Caesar is 
informed by the prisoners that Ariovistua had declined an engage- 
ment, because the women had declared against commg to action 
before the new moon. — ContUia^ advice in general; responsa^ in- 
epired antvaersy when consulted. 

Vidimiu, i. e. she lived in our day — ^under the reign of Yespa- 
sian.— Fe^eiom. Cf. H. 4, 61. 65, and 6, 24. 

Albrunay perhaps =: Al-runas, women knowing all things. So 
Veleda = wise woman. Cf. Wr. in loc. 

Non adiilationey etc. *' Not through adulation, nor as if they 
were raising mortals to the rank of goddesses." Ky. This is one 
of those oblique censures on Roman customs in which the treatise 
abounds. The Romans in the excess of their adulation to the im- 
perial family made ordmary women goddesses, as Drnsilla, sister of 
Caligula, the infant daughter of Poppaea (Ann. 16, 23), and Poppaea 
herself (Dio 63, 29). The Germans, on the other hand, really 
thought some of their wise women to be divine. Cf. His. 4, 62, and 
my note ibid. Reverence and affection for woman was character- 
istic of the German Tribes, and from them has diffused itself 
throughout European society. 

IX. Deorum, T. here, as elsewhere, applies Roman names, and 
puts a Roman construction (Romana interpretatione, § 43) upon the 
gods of other nations, cf. § 8. 

Mereurium, So Caes. B. G. 6, 17: Deum maxime Mercurium 
colunt. Probably the German Woden, whose name is preserved in 
our Wednesday, as that of Mercury is in the French name of the 
same day, and who, with a name slightly modified (Woden, Wuotan, 
Odin), was a prominent object of worship among all the nations of 
Northern Europe. Mara is perhaps the German god of war (Tiw, Tin, 
Tuisto), whence Tuesday, French Mardi, cf. Tur. His. Ang. Sax., App. 
to B. 2. ohap. 3. ffereulem is omitted by Ritter on evidence (partly 
external and partly internal) which is entitled to not a little con- 
sideration. Hercules is the god of strength, perhaps Thorr. 
8 



108 NOTES. 

CeriU diebuB, Statis diebus. GSn. 

Humanii-hostm, Eren faeere in the Bense of sacrifice is construed 
with abL, Tirg. Ec. 8, 77. The yictims selected were commonly pris- 
oners, criminals, or slaves. Quoqtte = even. For its position in the 
sentence, cf. note, 3. 

Concesris animalHnu, Such as the Romans and other civilized 
hatSons offer, in contradistinction to human sacrifices, which the 
author regards as tn-concessa. The attempt has been made to re- 
move from the Germans the stun of human sacrifices. But it rests 
on incontrovertible evidence (cf. Tur. His. Ang. Sax., App. to B. 2. 
chap. 8), and indeed attaches to them only in common with nearly all 
uncivihzed nations. The Gauls and Britons, and the Celtic nations 
generaUy, carried the practice to great lengths, cf. Caes. B. G. 6, 15. 
The neighbors of the Hebrews offered human victims in great num- 
bers to their gods, as we learn from the Scriptures. Nay, the re- 
proach rests also upon the Greeks and Romans in their early history. 
Fliny informs us that men were sacrificed as late as the year of Rome 
667. 

Isidi, The Egyptian It>is in Germany! This shows how far the 
Romans went in comparing the gods of different nations. Gr. Rit- 
ter identifies this goddess with the Nerthus of chap. 40, the Egyptian 
Isis and Nerthus being both equivalent to Mother Earth, the Terra 
or Tellus of the Romans. 

Idbumae* A light galley, so called from the Liburnians, a peo- 
ple of Dlyricum, who built and navigated them. The tiffnwn, here 
likened to a. galley, was more probably a rude crescent, connected 
with the worship of the moon, cfl Caes. B. G. 6, 21 : German! deorum 
numero ducunt Solem et Lunam, 

CMbereparietibw == aedificiis indadere, E. T. elsewhere speaks 
of temples of German divinities (e. g. 40: templo Nerthi; Ann. 
1, 61: templum Tanfanae); but a consecrated grove or any other 
sacred place was called templum by the Romans (templum from 
T4/uwy cut of^ set apart). 

Hx magwUudine, Ex = secundum, cf. ex nchilUate, ex virtutCy % 7. 
Ex maffnUudine is predicate after arbitraniur: (hey deem it uyibecom- 
ing the ffreainess, etc. 

Sumani-^peeiem. Images of the gods existed at a later day in 
Germany (S. Tur. His. of Ang. Sax., App. to B. 2. chap. 8). But this 
does not prove their existence in the days of T. Even as late as A. 



GESMANIA. 109 

D. 240, Gregory Thaumatargas expressly declares there were no ira- 
ages among the Goths. No traces of temple-walls or images hare 
been discovered in connection with the numerous sites of ancient 
altars or places of offering which have been exhumed in Chrmany^ 
though both these are found on the borders^ both south and west, 
cf. Ukert, p. 286. 

LucM et nemora, ** Lucus (a Xi^ki), crepusculum) sylva densior, 
obumbrans ; nemus (y4fios) sylva rarior, in quo jumenta et pecora 
pascuntur/' Bredow. 

Deorumque-vidcfU. They invoke under the narhe of god» (hot myt* 
ierioue existence, which they see (not under any human or other visible 
form, but) with the eye of spiritual reverence aUme, So Gr. and K. 
Others get another idea thus loosely expressed : They give to that 
sacred recess the name of the divinity that fills the place, which is 
never profaned by the steps of man. 

Sola reverentia, cf. sola mente applied by T. to the spiritual re- 
ligion of the Jews, H. 6, 6. The religion of the Gennans and other 
northern tribes was more spiritual than that of southern nations, 
when both were Pagan. And after the introduction of Christianity, 
the Germans were disinclined to the image-worship of the Papists. 

X. Auspieia eortesque, Atupicia (avis-spicia) properly divination 
by observing the flight and cry of birds ; eortea, by drawing lots : but 
both often used in the general sense of omens, oracles. 

Ut qui nuudmey sc. observant. Ellipsis supplied by repeating ob* 
servant = to the greatest extent, none more. 

2if6tis = probably runes. 

Simplex. Sine Romana arte, cf. Cic. de Div. 2, 41. The Scy- 
thians had a similar method of divining, Herod. 4, 67. Indeed, the 
practice of divining by rods has hardly ceased to this day among the 
descendants of the German tribes. 

TemerCj without plan on the part of the diviner. — IbrtuUoy under 
the direction of chance. Gr. 

Si public eonsuletur. If the question to be decided is of a public 
nature. Consuleturj fut, because at the time of drawing lots the de- 
liberation and decision are future. Or it may refer to the consulta^ 
tion of the gods (cf. Ann. 14, 80: consulere deos): if it is by t/ie state 
thai the gods are to be consulted. So Ritter in his last edition. 

Faterfamilias. An interesting proof of the freedom of the an- 
cient Geimans from the power of priestcraft 



no NOTES. 

Ter 9inffulos toUii, A threefold drawing for the sake of cer- 
tainty. Thus Ariovistus drew lots three times touching the death 
of Yalerius (Oaes. B. G. 1, 58). So also the Romans drew lots three 
times, TibuL 1, 8, 10 : sortes ter sustolit Sach is the interpreta- 
tion of these disputed words by Griiber, Ritter, and many others, 
and such is certainly their natural and obvious meaning: he takes 
up three times one after another all the slips he has scattered (qpar- 
ffere is hardly applicable to three only): if the signs are twice or 
thrice favorable, the thing is permitted ; if twice or thrice unfavor- 
able, it is prohibited. The language of Caesar (in loc. cit.) is still 
more explicit: ter sortibus eonstdtum. But Or., Wr., and Dod. 
understand simply the taking up of three lots one each time. 

Si prohibuerunt^ sc. sortes = dii. The reading prohibiierunt (aL 
prohibuerint) is favored by the analogy of si displicuit, 11, and 
other passages. Sin (= si-ne) is particularly frequent in antithesis 
with si, and takes the same construction after it 

Auspiciorum-exigUur, Atispidorum, here some other omens 
than lots ; such as the author proceeds to specify. Adhtte = ad hoc, 
praeterea, i. e. in addition to the lots. The sense is : besides draw- 
in ff lots, the persuasion produced by auspices is required, 

Etiam hie. In Germany also (as well as at Rome and other 
well-known countries). JRe is referred to Rome by some. But 
it was hardly needful for T. to inform the Romans of that custom 
at Rome. 

Proprium gentis, B is a peculiariitf of the German race. It 
is not, however, exclusively German. Something similar pre- 
vailed among the Persians, Herod. 1, 189. 7, 66. Darius Hystaspes 
was indebted to the neighing of his horse for his elevation to the 
throne. 

Jisdem memoribus, § 9. — Mortali cpere =ihommum opere. — 
Coniacti, Notio contaminandi inest, K. — Pressi eurru. Harnessed 
to the sacred chariot. More common, pressi jugo. Poetice. 

Conscios, sc. deorum. The priests consider themselves the ser- 
vants of the gods, the horses the confidants of the same. So Tibullua 
speaks of the conscia fibra deorum, TibuL 1, 8, 3. 

CommiUunt, Con and mitto, send together = en^n^e in fight, 
A technical expression used of gladiators and champions. 

Praejudicio, Sure prognostic. Montesquieu finds in this cus- 
tom the origin of the duel and of knight-errantry. 



^ 



GERMANU. Ill 

XI. Apud-pertradentur. Are handUdy i. e. discussed, among, 
L e, bifihe ehie/By so. before beiDg refen*ed to the people. 

Msi refers not to eoetmtj but to certia didfua, 

FortuUunty casual, unforeseen; subUuniy requiring immediate 
action. 

Inchoatur-4mpletur. Ariovistus would not fyht before the new 
moon, Gaes. B. 6. 1, 50. 

Numerum-noetium. Of which custom, we have a relic and a 
proof in our seven-ni^r^ and forirnighi. So also the Gauls. Gaes. 
B. G. 6, 18. 

ConsHtuunt = decree, determine ; condieunt = proclaim, appoint. 
The con in both implies concerted or public action. They are foren- 
sic terms. 

Nox^videhir, So with the Athenians, Macrob. Saturn. 1, 8.; 
and the Hebrews, Gen. 1, 6. So, according to mythology, Hemera 
was daughter of Erebus and Night. 

Ex libertatej sc. ortumy arising from. Gun. 

Neo ut jusH, Not precisely at the appointed timCy but a day or 
two later, if they choose. 

Ut turbae plaeuit, Ut = simul ac, as soon as, when. It is the 
time of commencing their aesaiouy that depends on the will of the 
multitude; not their sitting armed, for that they always did, cf. 
frameae concutiwit at the close of the section ; also § 18 : nihil 
neque publicae neque privatae rei nisi armati agunt. To express 
this latter idea, the order of the words would have been reversed 
thus : armati considunty cf. ium . . . procedunt armatiy 22. 

Tum et coercendi. When the session is commenced, then (Ium) 
the priests have the right not merely to command silence, but also 
{et) to enforce it. This use of et for diam is very rare in Gic, but 
frequent in lavy, T., and later writers. See note. His. 1, 28. 

Imperaiur, Imperare plus est, qnamjubere. See the climax in 
Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 98 ; jubeo, cogo atque impero. Impero is properly 
military command. K. 

ProtU refers, not to the order of speaking, but to the degree of 
influence they have over the people. Gr. — Aetaa. Our word 
alderman (elderman) is a proof that office and honor were conferred 
on age by our German ancestors. So senator (senex) among the 
Romans. 

Armta Usudarey i. e. armis concussis. " Montesquieu is of opinion 



112 NOTES. 

that in this Treatise on the manners of the Germans, an attentive 
reader may trace the origin of the British constitution. That beau- 
tiful system, he says, was formed in the forests of Germany, Sp. of 
Laws 11, 6. The Saxon Witena-gemot (Parliament) was, beyond all 
doubt, an improved political institution, grafted on the rights exer- 
cised by the people in their own country." Murphy. Cf. S. Tur. His. 
of Ang. Sax. B. 8. chap. 4. 

XII. AceuBare-intendere, To accuse and impeach for capital 
crimes. Minor oflFences were tried before the courts described at 
the end of the section. — Quoqw, In addition to the legialatiye 
power spoken of in the previous section, the council exercised oho 
certain judicial functions. JHeerimen capitis iniendere, tit. io 
endeavor to bring one in danger of losing his life. 

Ignavos-4nfames. The sluggish, the cowardly, and the impure ; 
for so eorpore infames usually means, and there is no sufficient rea- 
son for adopting another sense here. Infames foeda Veneris aversae 
nota. E. Gr. understands those, whose persons were disfigured by 
dishonorable wounds, or who had mutilated themselves to avoid 
military duty. Giin. includes both ideas : quoeungtie^ non tantum 
venereo, corporis abusu contemptL 

Insuper = supeme. So 16 : multo insuper fimo onerant. 

Diversity is a post-Augustan word, cf. Freund, sub v. 

lUue respicit. Eds respect to this principle. Scdera = crimes ; 
Jlagitia = vices, low and base actions. Scdus poena, Jlagiirum con- 
temptu dignum. Gun. 

Zeviorihus deiietis, Abl. abs. = when lighter offeneei are com* 
mitted; or abl. of circum. =r in case of lighter offences. 

Pro modo poenarum. Such is the reading of all the MSS. Fro 
modo, poena is an ingenious conjecture of Acldalius. But it is un- 
necessary. Render thus : in case of lighter offences, the convicted 
persons are mulcted in a number of horses or cattle, in proportion 
to the severity of the sentence adjudged to be due. 

Qui vindicatur. The injured party, or plaintiff. This principle 
of pecuniary satisfaction was carried to great lengths among the 
Anglo-Saxons. See Turner, as cited, 21 ; also Introduction. 

Qui reddunt. Whose business or custom it is to administer justice, 
etc. K proposes reddant. But it ia without authority and would 
give a less appropriate sense. 

CentenL Cf. note, § 6: centeni ex singulis pa^s. ''Sunt in 



GERMANIA. 113 

quibusdam locis Oermaniae, yelut Paktmato, Franconia, etc., Zent- 
gerlcht (hundred courts)/' cf. Bemegger. 

ConHlia et auctorUoi, Abstract lor concrete =:: Am adviaen and 
the supporters of his dignity » 

XIIL NihU nisi armada. The Romans wore arms only in time 
of war or on a joumej. 

MoriSy sc. est A favorite expression of T. So 21 : concedere 
mods (est). And in A. 89. 

Suffedurum probaverit. On examinaHon has pronottneed him 
€ompeteni (sc. to bear arms). Subj. after aniequam, H. 520, 1. 2 ; A. 
andO. 82'r; Z. 676. 

OmanU Omat would have been more common Latin, and would 
have made better English. But this construction ia not unfrequent 
in T., ct II : rex yd princeps audiuntur. Nor is it without prece- 
dent in other authors. Gf. Z. 874 ; H. 468, 4. Bitter reads pn^ 
pinqui. The attentire reader will discover here traces of many 
subsequent usages of «A»va/ry. 

ffttsc toga. This is the badge of manhood among the Germans, 
as the toga virilis was among the BomaAa. The Bomana ordinarily 
assumed the toga at the age of fourteen, though this was not univerL 
sally the case : cf. Smith's Die. Ant., Art. Impubes. The Germana 
(in their colder climate) not till the twentieth year. Gaes. B. G. 6, 
21. 

Dignationem, Bank, tide. It differs from digniias in being more 
external Cf. H. 1, 19 : lUgnaiio Caesaris ; 8, 80 : dignatio viri. Bit- 
ter reads dignOatem, 

Asnignani. High hirth or great merits of their fathers assign (L 
e. mark out, not consign, or fully confer) the tide of chief even to 
young men, 

Gradus-habet, Observe the emphatic position of gradus^ and the 
force of qiUn etiam ipse: gradations of rank^ moreover the retinue 
itself has, i. e. the retainers are not only distinguished as a body in 
following such a leader, but there are also distinctions among them- 
selves, Quin etiam seldom occupies the second place. T. is fond of 
anastrophe. Gf. Bot Lex. Tac. 

8i-emineai, If he (cuique) stands preeminent for the number and 
talor of his followers, Comitatus is gen. MnUieat^ subJ. pres. H. 
609 and 611, 1 ; A. and G. 807, b ; Z. 624. 

Ceteris-atpieL These noble youths, thus designated to the rank 



114 NOTES. 

of chieftiuns, attach ihemaelvea (for a time, with some followers, per- 
haps) to the other chiefs, who are older and already diaUriffuished, nor 
are they ashamed to be seen among their attendants, 

Qmbus-euiy sc sit = wlu> shaU have, etc. 

Ipsafama. Mere reputation or rumor without coming to arms. 

Profligant =: ad finem perducunt, virtuaUy bring to an end. So 
Eiesslmg, Botticher, and Freund. Bitter makes it — propeiliml, 
frighten away. Frojligare beUa,proeiia^ etc., is Tacitean. Profligare 
hostes, etc., is the common expression. 

XIY. Jam vero = porro. Cf. Bot. Lex. Tac. It marks a transi- 
tion to a topic of special importance. Gf. H. 1, 2. See Dod. in loc. 

Recesnsse, All the best Latin writers are accustomed to use 
the preterite after pudet, taedet, and other words of the like signifi- 
cation. Giin. The cause of shame is prior to the shame. 

Infame, " When Ghonodomarus, king of the Alemanni, was 
taken prisoner by the Romans, his military companions, to the 
number of two hundred, and three of the king's most intimate 
friends, thinkmg it a most flagitious crime to live in safety after 
such an event, surrendered themselves to be loaded with fetters. 
Ammian. Marcell. 16, 12, 60. There are instances of the same kind 
in Tacitus." Mur. Gf. also Caes. B. G. 8, 22. 7, 40. 

Defenders, to defend him, when attacked ; tueri, to protect him 
at all times. 

Praeeipuum sacramentum. Their most sacred duty, Giin. and 
K. ; or tlie chief part of their oath, Gr. — Clarescunt-iueatur, So 
Bitter after the best MSS. Al. elarescant-iueantur, or tueare, 

Non nisi. In Gic. usually separated by a word or a clause. In 
T. generally brought together. 

Mdgunt, They expect, — lUumrMlam. AngL this-that, cf. Ame- 
hine, A. 26.— -Bdlatorem equum, Gf. Yirg. G. 2, 146. 

Incompti-^ipparatus, Entertainments, though indegant yet liberal 
Apparatus is used in the same way. Suet. YiteL 10 and 13. — Ceduni 
r= lis dantur. Giin. 

I^ee arare, etc. The whole language of this sentence is poeti- 
cal, e. g. the use of the inf. sSter persuaseris^ of annum for annuam 
messem, the sense of vocare and mereri, etc. Voeare, I e. proTO- 
care, cf. H. 4, 80, and Yirg. Geor. 4, 76. Mereri, earn, deserve^ I e. 
by bravery. 

Pigrum et iners, Piger est natura ad laborem tardus ; iners, 



6ERMANIA. 115 

in quo nihU ariis et yirtutis. E. Render : a mark of stupidity 
and incapacity, 

Quin tmmo. ydy but, nay more. These words connect the 
clause, though not placed at the beginning, as they are by other 
writers. They seem to be placed after j^^um in order to throw it 
into an emphatic position. So gradus guin etiam, 13, where see 
note.— Po«si». You, 1. e. any one, can. H. 460, 1, N. 2. Cf.noteH. 1, 
10 : laudaret. So persuaseris in the preceding sentence. The subj. 
^7es a contingent or potential turn = can procure^ sc. if you will, 
would persuade, sc. if you should try. An indefinite person is al- 
ways addressed in the subj. in Latin, even when the ind. would be 
used if a definite person were spoken of. Z. 524. 

In the chieftains and their retainers, as described in the last 
two sections, the reader cannot fail to discorer the germ of the 
feudal system. Gf. Montesq. Sp. of Laws, 80, 8, 4 ; also Robertson^s 
Chas. V. 

XY. yon muiium. The common reading (multum without 
the negatiTe) is a mere conjecture, and that suggested by a misap- 
prehension of the meaning of T. Non mtdtum is to be taken cora- 
paratively. Though in time of peace they hunt often, yet they 
spend so much more time in eating, drinking, and deeping, that the 
former is comparatively little. Thus understood, this passage of 
T. is not inconsistent with the declarations of Caesar, B. G. 6, 21 : 
Yita Germanorum omnis in venationibus atque in studiis rei mili- 
taris consistit. Caesar leaves out of account their periods of inac- 
tion, and speaks only of their active employments, which were war 
and the chase. It was the special object of Tacitus, on the contrary, 
to give prominence to that striking feature of the Grerman character 
which Caesar overlooks; and therein, as Wr. well observes, the 
later historian shows his more exact acquuntance with the Ger- 
mans. Non multum, as opposed to plus, is nearly equivalent to 
minus, 

Venatihus, per otium, Enallage for venatibtts, otio, H. 686, lY. 
This figure is very frequent in T., e. g. § 40: per obsequium 
proeliis ; A. 9 : virtute aut per artem ; A. 41 : temeritate aut per 
ignaviam, ko. Seneca, and indeed most Latin authors, prefer a 
«tmt2ar construction in antithetic clauses; T. seems rather to 
mvoid it In all such cases, however, as the examples just cited 
show, j9fr with the ace. is not precisely equivalent to the abL The 



116 NOTES. 

abL IB more active and implies means, agency ; the aoc with pet 
is more passive and denotes manner or occasion. 

DeUgaiOy transferred. 

Senibua, The patriarchal idea yielded so far to the exigencies 
of circumstances that the responsibility of the head of the family was 
transferred to the son when the father became infirm. Thns, also, 
the aged Laertes is described in the Odyssey as occupied with his 
garden-plot 

Familiae. HcwehM^ properly of servants (from famel, Oscan 
for servant), as in chaps. 26 and 82: but sometimes the whole 
£anily, as here and in chap. 7: famiUae et prcpinguUatea, 

Ipsi, The men of middle life, the heads of the familiae. 

DivereiiaU, Contrariety. — Ameni. Sub}. H. 517 ; A. and G. 
826; Z. ^Il.'-Oderint, Perf. in the sense of the pres. H. 297, 
L 2 ; A. and 6. 143, N ; Z. 221. 

Inertiam, Inertiam = idleneu^ freedom from business and care 
(from in and aTe)\ quieUm = iranquiUHy, a life of undisturbed re- 
pose without action or excitement. Gf. 14 : ingrata genH guie$. In 
this account of the habits of the Germans, one migbt easily fancy 
he was reading a description of the manner of life among our Amer- 
ican Indians. It may be remarked here, once for all, that this re- 
semblance may be traced in very many particulars, e. g. in ihdr 
personal independence, in the military chieftains and their followers, 
in their extreme fondness for the hardships and dangers of war, in 
their strange inactivity, gluttony and drunkenness in peace, in their 
deliberative assemblies and the power of eloquence to sway their 
counsels, in their half elective, half hereditary form of government, 
in the spirituality of their conceptions of God, and some other fea^ 
tures of their religion. Robertson has drawn out this 'comparison in 
his history of Charles Y. All tribes in a rude and savage state 
must have many similar usages and traits of character. Aqd this 
reseroblanoe between the well-known habits of our wandering 
savages and those which T. ascribes to the rude tribes of Ger- 
many may impress us with confidence in the truthfulness of his nar- 
rative. 

Vd armefdorym vd frugwn. Partitive gen. Supply aliqaid.^ 
Vdr-vd ^ vik«iiher~ory merely distinctive; au^-ati/ s= «tM«rH>r, ad- 
versative and exclusive. Vd-^tel (from volo) implies, that one may 
ehooee between the alternatives or particulars named ; ou^-otil (from 



GEBMANU. 117 

ctS, aSrif), that if one is affirmed, the other ib denied, since both 
cannot be true at the same time. Cf. note, A. lY: atU^-aut, — 
Pecwfiiam. An oblique ceosure of the Romans for purchasing 
peace and alliance with the Germans, cf. H. 4, '76. Herodian, 6, 1 1 
rvOrff yitp (sc. XP^*'^) f^^fi^tt Ttp/iovhi vc^oKroi, ^iXipyvpol re 
vvTts Kcd rV tlfnivriP ocl wpbs Vufxaiovs XP^^ ica«i)A.c<^yrcs. 
On ef, cf. note 11. 

XVL Populu, Dative of the agent instead of the abL with 
aora6. Of. note 3 : Vlixi. 

Ne-quidem, These words are always separated, the word on 
which the emphasis rests bemg placed between them. H. 569, III. 2 ; 
A. and G. 845, b ; Z. 801. Here however the emphasis seems to be- 
long to the whole clause— Jft^^ m, sc. aedesjunetas inter se, 

Coluni r= in-colunt Both often used intransitiyely, or rather 
with an ellipsis of the object, = dvodl, 

DUereti ae div&nL Separate and scattered in different directions, 
I e. without regular streets or highways. See Or. in loc. 

Ui foM-placuit, Hence to this day, the names of German towns 
often end in bach (brook), feld (field), holz (grore), wald (wood), brun 
(spring). On the permanence of names of places, see note H. 
1, 58. 

CannexiSy with some intervening link, such as fences, hedges, and 
outhouses ; €oKaere»iihu9f in immediate contact 

The houses were finished partly with wood, partly with basket- 
work and clay : they were simple and arranged only for the necessi- 
ties of life. In cellars under the earth, they hid their fruits and other 
stores, and even themselves sought a similar refuge in the cold of 
the winter season. The stables and bams were for the most part 
near the dwelling ; to some tribes, it had always been their custom 
to unite them all under one extended roof. This was covered with 
reeds or with straw. Waitz. 

Ihmumr'apatio. H. 884, II. 2 ; A. and G. 225, D. 

Jiemedium-irucitia, Jl may he as a remedy^ etc— or it may he 
through ignaraneey etc. Sive-eive expresses an alternative condi- 
tionally, or contingently, = it may be thus, or it may be thus. Com- 
pare it with vd-vely chap. 15, and with autr-avi^ A. 17. See also 
Ramshom's Synonyms, 188. Semedium is ace. in app. with the 
foregoing dause. InseUia is abl. of cause, = per inscitiam. 

Caementorum. Properly hevm stone (from caedo), but in usage 



118 NOTES. 

any building sione,^- Tegtdarum. Tiles, any materials for the roof 
(lego), whether of brick, stone, or wood. 

Citra. Properly this side of, hence short of, or toUlunUy as 
used by the later Latin authors. This word is kindred to of , i e. 
if with the demonstrative prefix ee. Gf. Freund sub y. 

JSpeciem refers more to the ^«, ddeciaiionem to the mind. Taken 
with cUray they are equivalent to adjectives, connected to informi 
and limiting materia (citra speciem = non speciosa, Giin.). Render : 
rude materiaUy neither beauti/id to the eye nor attractive to the tatte. 
Materia is distinctively wood for building. Fire-wood is lignum, 

Quaedam loca. Some parts of their houses, e. g. the walls. This 
seems to refer even to the exterior of the house, as also in modem 
times we notice, in some parts of Switzerland, their fondness for orna- 
menting the outside walls. 

Terra itapura. Probably red earth, such as chalk or gypsum. 

Imitetur, Beeemblee painting and colored ouilinee or figures. 

Aperire. Poetice = exeava<0. Cellars under ground were un- 
known to the Romans. See Beck. Gal., and Smith's Diet. Ant. 

Ignorantur-falltmi. They are not known to exist^ or dee (though 
known to exist) they escape discovery from the very fad that they 
must be sought (in order to be found). Giin. calls attention to the 
multiform enallage in this sentence : 1. in number (populaturj igno- 
rantur, fallunt) ; 2. of the active, passive, and deponent verbs ; 8. 
in the change of cases (aperta, acb. ; ahdita and defossa, nom.). 

XVII. Sagum, A short, thick cloak, worn by Roman soldiers 
and countrymen. 

Fibula =: figibula, any artificial fastening ; spina = natural. 

Si desit. Observe the difference between this clause, and si 
quando advenit in the preceding chapter. This is a mere supposi- 
tion without regard to fact * that implies an expectation, that the 
case will sometimes happeb. 

Cetera inteeii. Uncovered as to the rest of the body^ cf. 6 : nudi 
aut sagulo leves. 

Totos dies. Ace. of duration of time. — Agunt = vivunt. K. 

Fluitante, The flowing robe of the southern and eastern na- 
tions ; stricta, the close dress and short clothes of the northern nations. 

Artus eaprimente. Quae tam arte artus includit, ut emineant, 
eammque lineamenta et forma appareant, K. E. and Gr. under- 
stand this of coat and vest, as well as breeches : G iin. of breeches only. 



^ 



GERMANIA. 119 

Proximi ripae. Near the banks of the Bhine and the Danube, 
BO as to have commercial intercourse with the Romans. These 
having introduced the cloth and dress of the Romans, attached 
little importance to the manner of wearing their akina. But those 
in the interior, having no other apparel, valued themselves on the 
nice adjustment of them. 

CuliuB, artificial refinement. Cf. note, 6. 

Jfacfdia pdlibwqw^ for maculatis pellibus or maculis pellium, 
perhaps to avoid the concurrence of genitives. 

BeUuarum-ffignU, Oceanus = terrae, quas Oceanus alluit ; and 
beUuiie = lutrae, mustelae, erminiae, etc., so Kiessling. But Gruber 
says heUuae cannot mean such small creatures, and agrees with lap- 
sius, in understanding by it marine animals, seadogs, seals, etc. 
Freund connects it in derivation with d^p, fera (bel = ber = ther = 
fer), but defines it as properly an animal remarkable for size or 
wildness. Exterior Oeeantu = Oceanus extra orbem Bomannm, 
further explained by ignotum mare, Cf. note, 2 : adversus Ocea- 
nus. 

Hahitm^ here = vestitus ; in § 4 = forma corporis. 

Saepitu, o/tener than the m^n, who also wore linen more or 
less. Giin. 

Purpura, Facta e succo plantis et floribus expresso. Gun. 

Nudae-laeertoa. Graece et poetice. Brachia a manu ad cubi- 
tum ; lacerti a cubito ad humeros. 

XYIII. Quanquam = sed tamen, i. e. notwithstanding the great 
freedom in the dress of German women, yet the marriage relation is 
sacred. This use of quanquam is not unfrequent in T., and some- 
times occurs in Oic, often in Pliny. See Z. 841, N. 

Qui ambintvtur. This passage is construed in two ways: uiho 
are surrounded (ambiuntur = circumdantur, cf. H. 6, 12) by many 
wives not to gratify lust, but to increase their rank and influence {ob 
in the sense for the sake of, cf. ob metum, 2). Or thus : who (take 
many wives) not to gratify Itui, hut on account of their rank they 
are solicited to form many matrimonial alliances. For ambio in this 
sense and with the same somewhat peculiar construction after it, see 
H. 4, 61 : tantis sociorum auxiliis ambiri ; also Yirg. Aen. 7, 883 : 
connubiis ambire Latinum. The latter is preferable, and is adopted 
by Wr., K., Gr., Sch., S., etc. The former by Gun. and others. Ario- 
vistus had two wives. Oaes. B. G. I, 53. 



120 NOTEa 

Proband cf. probayerit, IS, note. — Camaiur, Subj. denoting 
the intention of the presents with which she is to be adorned, H. 
497.1; A. and G. 817; Z. 667. 

Frenatum^ bridled, caparisoned = parahis beloir. 

In haec munera = M ro&rw roTs 9^pou. In = upon the basis of, 
on condition of. So Liv. : in has leges, in easdem leges. 

AUquid affert. These gifts from the bride or her guardian rep- 
resented the mutual alliance for protection and aid ; the wife was to 
share the husband's danger. 

Hoe-Mncuhmi, So, § 18 : haec apud illos toga. In both pas- 
sages the allusion is to Boman customs (for which see Becker's 
Gallus, £xc 1. Scene 1). In Germany, these presents take the place 
of the coftfarreatio (see Fiske's Manual, p. 286. 4. ed.), and the vari- 
ous other methods of ratifying the marriage contract at Rome; 
thescy of the religious rites in which the parties mutually engaged 
on the wedding day (see Man., p. 287). — Conjttffoles deos. Certain 
gods at Rome presided over marriage, e. g. Jupiter, Juno, Venus, 
Jugatinus, Hymenaeus, Diana, etc 

JSxtra, Gic. would have said expertem or posilum extra. But 
T. is fond of the adv. used elliptically. 

Au^nciis = initiatory rites, 

Denuntianif proclaim, denote. — Accipere depends on denuntiant 
or admonetur, 

BurstUy qttae-referantur, Rhenanus conjectured : rursusque-re- 
ferant, which has since become the common reading. But referantur 
18 the reading of all the MSS., and needs no emendation ; and quae, 
with as good authority as qtu, makes the construction more natural 
and the sense more apposite. The passage, as Gr. well suggests, 
consists of two parts {aedpere-^reddat, and qvtae-acHpianJt^referaniur), 
each of which includes the tioo ideas of receiving and handing down 
to the next generation. Render thus : she is reminded that she re- 
ceives gifts, which she is to hand over pure and unsuUied to her 
children ; which her daughters-in-law are to receive again (sc. from 
her sons, as she did from her husband), which are to be transmitted 
by them to her grand-children. In another writer, we might expect 
referoMt to correspond in construction and subject with accipiant 
But Tacitus is fond of varying the construction. Cf. Botticher's 
Lex. Tac., and note, 16 : ignoranhtr, 

XCL Septa, So the MSS. for the most part AX, septae. Mean- 



\ 



GBRMANIA. 121 

ing : with chastity guarded^ sc. by the sacredness of marriage and 
the excellent institutions of the Germans. 

MUlia-eorruptae. Here, as everyivhere else in this treatise, 
T. appears as the censor of Roman manners. He has in mind 
those fruitful sources of corruption at Rome, public shows (cf. 
Sen. Epist. 7: niliil vero est tarn damnomm bonis moribus guam 
in aliqtto spedacvio desidere)^ conriyial entertainments (cf. Hor. 
Od. 3, 6, 27), and epistolary correspondence between the two 
sexes. 

Litterarum secreta = litteras secretas, secret correspondence be- 
tween the sexes, for this limitation is obvious from the connection. 
— Prassens, Immediate. 

Metritis permissa^ sc. as a domestic crime, cf. Caes. B. G. 6, 19 : 
Yin in uxores, sicut in liberos, vitae necisque habent potestatem. €£ 
Beck. Gall., Exc, 1. Sc. 1. 

Accisis crirUbtis, as a special mark of disgrace, cf. 1 Cor. 11, 6. 
So in the law^ of the Lombards, the punishment of adulteresses was 
deealvari etfustigari, — Omnem vicum, the whole viUage, cf. Germaida 
omnis, § 1. — Aetate^ijuventa, 

Nonr^nvenerit. She tootUd not find, could not expect to find. This 
use of the perf. subj., for a softened fut., occurs in negative sen- 
tences oftener than in positive ones. Cf. Amold^s Prose Comp. 417, 
Kote. 

Saectdum = indoles et mores saeculi, the spirit of the age, the 
fashion. 

Adhne (= ad-hoc) is generally used by Cicero, and often by 
Tacitus, in the sense either of stUl (to this day), or moreover (in 
addition to this). From these, it passed naturally, in Quintillan and 
the writers after him, into the sense of even more, stiUmore, even^ 
especially in connection with the comparative degree; where the 
authors of the Augustan age would have used etiam. See Z. 486 ; 
Botticher's Lex. Tac. sub voce; and Hand's Tursellinus, vol. L 
p; 166. Melius guidem adhue = still better even. For a verb, supply 
sunt or agunt. Of. note A. 19 : nihU. 

Eae civitaies. Such as the Hcruli, among whom the wife was 
expected to hang herself at once at the grave of her husband, if she 
would not live in perpetual infamy. At Rome, on the contrary, 
divorces and marriages might be multiplied to any extent, cf. Mart 
6, 7 : nuMt dccimo viro ; also Beck, as above cited. 



122 NOTES. 

8emd, like Ihrat, onee/or alL 

Trandgilur^ Properly a business phrase. The business is 
doM up, Inmght to an end. So A. 84 : transigite cum expedi- 
tionibus. 

UUra, RC pirmum maritum. So the ellipsis might be supplied. 
Ultra here is equivalent to Ungwr in the next clause, as T. often 
puts the adverb in place of the adjective, irhether qualifying or 
predicate. 

Ne tanquamr-ameniy sc. maritum : that the^ may not fove a hus- 
band merely as a hiuband but as they love the married state. See 
this and similar examples of brachyloffy well illustrated in Doder- 
lein^s Essay on the style of Tacitus, H. p. 14. Since but one marriage 
was allowed, all their love for the married state must be concen- 
trated in one husband. 

Numerumr-Jlnire, In any way contrary to nature and by design. 
Giin. Quod fiebat etiam abortus procuratione. K. 

JSb agnatis. AgnaH hoc loco dicuntur, qui post familiam can- 
atUutamj ubi haeres jam est, deinde nascuntur, Hess. To put such 
to death was a barbarous custom among the Romans. Cf. Ann. 8, 
26 ; see Beck. Gall. Exc. 2. scene 1. 

Alibi, e. g. at Rome. — Boni mores vs. bonae leges. These words 
involve a sentiment of great importance, and of universal applica- 
tion. Good habits wherever they exist, and especially in a republic, 
are of far greater value and efficacy than good laws. This trait re- 
ceived a striking illustration at Rome, where from the time of Augus- 
tus onward attempts were repeatedly made to check by law the de- 
cay of family life, but these efforts proved utterly futile. 

XX. Nudi, Gf. 6 : nudi aut sagulo leves. Not literally naked, 
but slightly clad, cf. Sen. de benef. 6, 18 : qui male vestUum et pan- 
nosum vidit, nudum se vidisse dicit 

Sordidi, Giin. understands this of personal filth. But this is 
inconsistent with the daily practice of bathing mentioned, § 22. It 
doubtless refers to the dress, as Gr. and E. understand it: nudi ae 
sordidi = poorly and meanly dad. So also Or. 

Quae miramur, Cf. 4 : magna corpora. See also Caes. B. G. 1, 
89. 4, 1. On haee, see note, 3 : haec quoque. 

AnciUis ac nuiricibus. So in the Dial, de Clar. Oral, T. ani- 
madverts upon the custom here obliquely censured: nunc natus 
infans delegatur Graeculae alicui ancillae. In the early ages of 



i 



GEB^UKU. 123 

Roman History it was not so ; see Beoker*8 Gall. Exo. 2. scene 1.— 
DeUganiur. Ddegamw^ quum, quod t^' facere debebamus, id per 
aUerum fieri curamus. E. 

SepareL For the use of the subj. pres. after donecy see note, 1 : 
erumpat, — Affnoaeat = faciat ut agnoscatur. So Ddd., Gun., and E. 
But it is better with, Gr., to regard the expression as poetical, and 
virtus as personified*, and valor ackuwmUdge them, sc as brave 
men and therefore by implication free bom. 

FeniM = concubitus. — Pr<&«rfa« = facultas generan^ Gr. Gf. 
Caes. B. G. 6, 21 : qui diutissime impuberes permanserunt, maximam 
inter suos ferunt laudem. 

Virffineafettinantur = nuptiae yirginum festmantur, poetioe. The 
words properare, festinare, accelerare are used in both a trans, and 
intrans. sense, cf. Hist. 2, 82: festinabantur ; 8, 87: festmarentur. 
Among the Romans, boys of fourteen contracted marriage with 
gurls of twelye. Cf. Smith's Die Ant 

JSademy nmUis, para. The comparison is between the youth of 
the two sexes at the time of marriage ; they marry at the same age, 
equal in stature and equal in strength. Marriages unequal in these 
respects were frequent at Rome.— ParM-miseenA^r. Plene : pares 
paribus, yalidae yalidis miscentur. On this kind of brachylogy, see 
further in D5d., Essay on style of T., H. p. 15. MUeeniur has a 
middle sense, as the passive often has, partiouUriy in Tacitus. Cf. 
note 21 : MigarUur, 

BeferunL Cf. Yirg. Aen. 4, 829 : parvulus Aeneas, qui te tamen 
ore referret. See note, 89 : auguriis. 

Adpatrem, Ad is often equivalent to apud in the best Latin 
authors ; e. g. Cic ad Att 10. 16 : ad me fuit = apud me fuit 
Rhenanus by conjecture wrote apud patrem to correspond with 
apud avunculum. But Passow restored otf with the best reason. For 
T. prefers different words and constructions in antithetic clauses. 
Perhaps aUio a different sense is here intended from that wliich 
would have been expressed by apud, Wr. takes ad in the sense in 
respect io: aa in respect to a father ^ i. e. as they would have, if he 
were their father. 

Exigwnlt sc hunc nexum = sororum filios. 

Tanquam, like Greek &s to denote the views of others, not of 
the writer. Henoe followed by the sub]. H. 624 and ^l^ VL ; A. 
and G. 886 and 812 ; Z. 671. 



124 NOTES. 

' M in animttm. In = quod attinet ad, in reaped to. The com- 
monlj received text has u et animum^ which is a mere conjecture 
of Rhen. According to E., teneant has for its subject not Bororum 
JUii, but the same subject as exigunt. Render : iSimee, aw they wpm 
possy both in respect to the mmcf (the affections), iA^y hold it more 
ttrongly^ and in retpect to thefamilyj more extensively, 

fferedes properly refers to property, suecessores to rank, though 
the distinction is not always obserred. — Idberi includes both sons 
and daughters. 

Pairuiy paternal uncles ; avtmeuli, maternal 

Prcpinquij blood relations ; o^nes, by marriage. 

OrbUaiis preiia, Pretia =zproemia, Orbitaiis = childlessness. 
Those who had no children were courted at Borne for the sake of 
their property. Yid. Sen. ConsoL ad Marc. 19 : in civitate nostra, 
plus gratiae orbitas confert, quam eripit So Plutarch de Amore 
Prolis says : the childless are entertiuned by the rich, courted by 
the powerful, defended gratuitously by the eloquent: many, who 
had friends and honors in abundance, have been stripped of both 
by the birth of a single child. 

TCTl, Necesse est. It is their duty and the law of custom. Gun. 
— ^e0 = non tamen.^-iromtet(ft«m. A post-Augustan word. 

Armenlcn^m ae peeorum. For the distinction between these 
words, see note, § 6. The high value which they attached to their 
herds and flocks, as their sdlae et graiissimae opes^ may help to ex- 
plain the law or usage here specified. Moreover, where the indi- 
vidual was so much more prominent than the state, homicide even 
might be looked upon as a private wrong, and hence to be atoned 
for by a pecuniary satisfaction, cf. Tur. Hist Ang. Sax., App. No. 8, 
chap. 1. 

Jvaia libertatemy i. e. simid cum Ubertatey or inter liberos homi- 
nes. The form of expressdon is characteristic of the later Latin. 
G£ Hand's Tursellmus, vol. III. p. 688. • Tacitus is particularly 
partial to this preposition. 

Convictibw refers to the entertdnment of countrymen and 
friends, hospidis to that of strangers. 

Profortuna, According to his means. So Ann. 4, 23 : {brtnnae 
inops. 

Defecere, so. epulae. Quum exhausts sint, quae tfpparata erant, 
ef. 24 : omnia defecenmt 



i 



GERMANLL 125 

Bo9pe». Properly stranger; and hence either gttnt or hoU. 
Here the latter. — Comes, Ouesi, So Gun. and the common edi- 
tions, fiat most recent editors place a colon after eameSf thus 
making it predicate, and referring it to the host becoming the 
gaide and companion of his guest to another place of entertainment. 

Nim invUaii^ L e. etiam si non invitati essent Giin. 

J^ee interest^ I e. whether invited or not 

Jus hospiiis. The right of ike guest to a hospitable reception. 
So Cic. Tus. Quaes. 1, 2A : jus hominum. 

Quantum ad belongs to the silyer age. In the golden age they 
said: quod aitinet ad, or simply ad. Gr. Cicero however has 
quantum in, X. D. 8, 7 ; and Ovid, quantum od^ A. A. 1, 744. Gf. 
Freund sub voce. 

Coneedere, According to ancient custom, the host gave a pres- 
ent to the departing guest, an obligation which was so well under- 
stood that the gift might even be asked for. 

Imputant, Make charge or account of. Nearly confined to the 
later Latin. Frequent in T. in the reckoidng both of debt and 
credit, of praise and blame. Cic. said: assignare alicui aliquid. 

Obligantury i. e. obligatos esse putant. Forma passiva ad modum 
medii verbi GraecL GQn. Cf. note, 20: miscentur. 

Vietus-camis. The mode of life between host and guest is courte- 
ous. For vietus = manner of life, cfl Cic Iny. 1, 25, 86. 

XXU. JS is not exactly equivalent here to a, nor does it mean 
simply after, but immediately on awaking out of sleep. — Lavaniur, 
wash themselves, i. e. bathe ; like Gr. Ko^ofm, So aggregantur, 18 ; 
obiiganJtur, 21, et passim. 

Cdida, sc. aqua, cf. in Greek, b^piju^ Ao^cordoi, Aristoph. Xub. 
1040. In like manner Pliny uses frigida, Ep. 6, 16 : semel iter- 
nmque frigidam poposcit transitque. Other writers speak of the 
Germans as bathing in their rivers, doubtless in the summer ; but 
in the winter they use the warm bath, as more agreeable in that 
cold climate. So in Russia and other cold countries, cf. Mur. in loco. 

Separatae-mensa. Contra Romanorum luxuriam, ex more fere 
JBomerici aevi. Giln. 

Sedes, opposed to the triclinia, on which the Romans used to 
redine, a practice as unknown to the rude Germans as to the early 
Greeks and Hebrews. See Coler. Stud, of Gr. Poets, p. 71 (Boston, 
1842). 



126 NOTES. 

NegoUa, Plural = their rarious purtmJU, So Oic. de Or. 2, 6 : 
formna neffotia, Negotiiwn = nee-ciiym^ C and 6 bemg originally 
Identical, as^they still are almost in fwm, — Armatu Gf. note, 11 : 
tU turbae plaeuit, 

CofUinuare, etc est diem noctemqne jungere potando, are die 
nocteque perpotationem continnare. E. 

Ut^ sc. solet fieri, of. nt in licentia, § 2. The daase limits ere- 
brae ; it is the frequent oeeurrenee of brawls, that is castomary 
among those given to wine. 

Traneiffuniur. See note on transigitur, § 19. 

AecieeendiSy L e. assumendis. 

Simplieee manifestly refers to the expreuion of thought ; ex- 
plained afterwards hyfin^ere nesdunt =zfrank^ vfigenMime, QL His. 
1, 15 : eUnplicianme loqtdmur ; Ann. 1, 69 : eimplieee eurae. 

AeMa-eaUida, AshUua est natura, ealUdut multamm rerum 
peritia. Bit Attiaue, cunning ; eaUidue^ worldly wise. D5d. 

Adkue. To this day^ despite the degeneracy and dishonesty of 
the age. So P5d. and Or. Bit says : quae adhuc pectore clausa 
erant Others still make it = eHom^ even. Gt note, 19. 

Retraeiatur, Beviewed, reeonmdered. 

Salvor-ratio eet. The proper relation of both iimee i» preeerved^ 
or the advantage of both is secured, as more fully explained in the 
next member, viz. by dUeuseinff when they are ineapalde of dieffuUCy 
and deciding when they are not liable to mietake, CL Or. in loco, 
and Botticher sub v. 

Passow well remarks, that almost every German usage, men- 
tioned in this chapter, is in marked contrast with Bomaa mannera 
and customs. Bomans rose early, raclined at the table, and that 
together ; they considered it unbefitting to introduce business, and 
dishonorable to allow strife at the banquet, as it was also improper 
to indulge in rioting in the early part of the day. 

XXin. Fotui = pro potu, or in potum, dat of the end. So 46 : 
Yictm herba, vestitui pelles. T. and SaUust ara particularly fond 
of this construction. C£ B5t Lex. Tac, sub JkOioua. 

Eordeo aut frumento, Hordeo = barley ; frumentoy properly 
fruit (frugimentum, fruit jcor^ ^ioj^l^^ '^ 6. grain), grain of any kind, 
here toAMrf, cf. Veget B. M. 1, 13 : et mllites pro fhunento hordeum 
oogerentnr aocipere. 

BimiUtudinem vtm. Beer, for which the Greeks and Bomans 



GERMANU. 127 

had no name. Hence Herod. (2, 77) speaks of ohot U KpiS^imv 
T9Tonifi€¥oSt among the Egyptians. 

Carruptua, Cum Tacitea indignatione dictum, cf. 4 : infeetos, so 
Gun. But the word is often used to denote mere change, without 
the idea of being made worse, cf. Virg. Geor. 2, 466 : Nee casia 
liquidi corrumpilur usus olm. Here render fermented. 

Ripae, sc. of the Rhine and Danube, i. e. the Roman border, as 
in 22 : proximi ripae. 

Foma. Fruits of any sort, cf. Pliny, N. H. 17, 26 : arborem 
yidimus omni genere pomorum onnstum, alio ramo nueiinu, alio 
baccUy aliunde tfUe, ficia, pirit, etc. 

ReceiMfera, Venwm^ or other game fretky i. e. reeentiy iaken^ 
in distinction from the tainted, which better suited the luxurious 
taste of the Romans. 

Lae coneretum. Called eaaeut by Caes. B. G. 6, 22. But the 
Germans, though they lived so much on milk, did not understand 
the art of making cheese, see Pliny, K. H. 11, 96: **De caseo non 
cogitandum, potius quod nostrates dicunt dickemilch " (L e. curdled 
milk). Gun. 

Apparaiu. Luxurious preparaHon, — Blandimentii, Dainties. 

Baud mimte facile. Litotes for multo facilius. 

MrietaH, Like the American Aborigines, see note, g 16. 

XXIY. MuU. See note, § 20. This sword-dance is said to 
have been originally a religious observance. In some localities it 
has been practised as late as the seventeenth century. 

Quibiu id htdierum. For whom it i» a sport ; not whose business 
it is to furnish the amusement : that would be ipwrumesl. E. and Gr. 

Infestas = porrectas contra saltantefl. K.^Decorem, Poetic. 

Qiiaestum = quod quaeritur, ffoin. — Mercedem^ stipulated pay, 



Quamvis limits audacis = daring oc i^ if (as you please). 

Bobrii inter seria. At Rome gaming was forbidden, except at 
the Saturnalia, cf. Hor. Od. 8, 24, 68 : vetita legibus alea. The re- 
markable circumstance (quod mirere) in Germany was, that they 
practised it not merely as an amusement at their feasts, but when 
sober among (inter) their ordinary every-day pursuits. 

Novissimo, The last in a series. Very frequently in this sense 
in T., so also in Caes. Properly newest, then latest, last. Of. note. 
His. 1, 47. Fkiremo, involving the greatest hazard, like our extreme: 



128 NOTES. 

last and final (decisive) throio. This excessive love cf play, extend- 
ing even to the sacrifice of personal liberty, is seen also aknopg the 
American Indians, see Robertson, Hist, of America, vol. 2, pp. 202- 
8. It is characteristic of barbarous and savage life, cf. Mur. in loco. 

De lihertaie ae de corpore. Hendiadys = personal liberty. 

Voluntariam, An earlier Latin author would have used ipse^ 
tUtro, or the like, limiting the subject of the verb, instead of the 
object The Latiu of the golden age prefers concrete words. The 
later Latin approached nearer to the English, m using more abUraet 
terms. Cf. note on repercuaaii, 8. 

Juvenior. More yovthfvl^ and therefore more vigorous; not 
merely younger (junior). See Dod. and Rit. in loc. Forcellini and 
Freund cite only two other examples of this full form of the com- 
parative (Plin. Ep. 4, 8, and Apul. Met. 8, 21), in which it does not 
differ in meaning from the common contracted form. 

Ea = talis or tanta. Such or «o greai. Gr. 

Pervicac*a. Pervicacez sunt, qui in aliquo certamine ad vinccn- 
dum perse verant, Schol. Hor. Epod. 17, 14. 

Pudore, Shame, disgrace. So also His. 8, Gl ; contrary to usage 
of earlier writers, who use it for sense of shame, modesty. 

XXV. Ceteris. All but those who have gambled away their 
own liberty, as in § 24. — In nostrum morem^ etc., with specific duties 
distributed through the household (the slave household, cf. note, 15), 
as explained by the following clause. On the extreme subdivision of 
office among slaves at Rome see Beck. Gall. Exc. 2. Sc. 2 ; and Smith's 
Die. Antiq. under Scrvus. 

Descripla = dimensa, distributa. GUn. 

Familiam. Here the entire body ofservanlSy cf. note, § 16, 

Quisque. Each servant has his own house and home. 

Ut colono. Like the tenant or farmer among the Romans (the 
Roman colonuH was a serf attached to the land and transferred with 
it); also the vassal in the middle ages, and the serf in modem 
Europe. 

Hactenus. TTius far^ and nofarih/er^ i. e. if he pays his rent op 
tax, no more is required of him. 

Cetera. The rest of the duties (usually performed by a Roman 
servant)^ viz. those of the house, the wife and chUdreu (sc. of the 
master) perform. 6r. strangely refers uxor et liberi to the wife and 
children of the servant Passow also refers domus to the house of 



GEBMANIA. 129 

the senrant, thus making it identical with the pmaies above, with 
which it seems rather to be contrasted. With the use of cetera here, 
compare His. 4, 66 : celerum wdgua = the rest, viz. the common 
soldiers, and see the principle well illustrated in Doderlein^s Essay, 
His. p. 11, 

Opere, Hard labor^ which would serve as a punishment. The 
Romans punished their indolent and refractory domestics, by send- 
ing them to labor in the country^ as well as by heavy chains iyineulis) 
and cruel flagellations {verherare\ They had also the power of life 
and death (pceidere). Beck. Gall. Exc. 2. Sc. 2 ; Smith's Die. Ant as 
above. 

Won dUciplina-ira, Hendladys = non disciplinae severitate, sed 
irae impetu. Gf. His. 1, 61 : severiiate disciplinae, 

Mn-dmpune^ L e. without the pecuniary penalty or satisfaction, 
which was demanded when one put to death an enemy (tntmicum). 
Cf. 21. 

JAberti-4ib€rtini, These words denote the same persons, but 
with this difference in the idea : liberi'M = the freedman of some 
particular master, libertintu = one in the condiiion of a freedman 
without reference to any master. At the time of the Decemvirate, 
and for some time after, liberti = emancipated sUves, libertini = the 
descendants of such, cf. Suet. Claud. 24. 

Quae reffnantur. Governed by kings. Ex poetarum more dic- 
tum, cf. Virg. Aen. 6, 794: regnata per arva. So 43: Gothonea 
regnantur, and 44 : Suiones. Giin. 

Ingeniuos = free born ; iiobUes = high born. 

Aseenduni, i. e. ascendere possunt 

Ceteroi, By synesis (see Gr.) for ceteras, sc. gentes. 

JmpareSy sc. ingenuis et nobilibus. 

Idbertatit argumenium^ inasmuch as they value liberty and 
citizenship too much to confer it on freedmen and slaves. The 
whole topic of freedmen is an oblique censure of Roman custom in 
the age of the Emperors, whose freedmen were not unfrequently 
their favorites and prime ministers. 

XXVI. Fenui agitare. To loan money at interest, 

Et in uauraa eztendere. And to put out that interest again on 
interest. The other explanation, viz. that it means simply to put 
money at interest, makes the last clause wholly superfluous. 

Bervatur, h secured^ sc. abstinence from usury, or the non« 



130 NOTES. 

existence of usury, which ia the esseiitial idea of the preceding 
clause. 

Idto-vetUum esset, sc. ignoti nulla cupido I Cf. 19 : boni mores 
YS. bonae leges. Giin. The reader cannot fail to recognize here, 
as usual, the reference to Rome, where usury was practised to an 
exorbitant extent See Arnold's His. of Rome, voL 1 passim. 

Uhivenii. Whole cUau, in distinction from individual owners. 

In vices. By ttimt, Al. vices, vice, vicis. Dod. prefers in 
vicis ; Rit in vicos = for i. e. by villages. But whether we trans- 
late by turns or by villages, it comes to the same thing. Cf. Caes. 
B. 6. 6, 22. Perhaps the thought of Tacitus arose from the custom 
of frequent change between tilled and untiUed land, which was al- 
ways regulated and enforced by the strictest law of usage. 

Camparum^ arva^ offer, «o/t, terrae, etc. These words differ from 
each other appropriately as follows : Terra Is opposed to mare et 
coelum, viz. earth. Solum is the substratum of any thing, viz. solid 
ground or soil. Campus Is an extensive plain or level surface, 
whether of land or water, here fields, Ager is distinctively the 
territory that surrounds a city, viz. the public lands, Arvum is 
ager araius, viz. plough lands, Bredow. 

BuperesL There is enough, and more, cf. § 6, note. 

Lahore contendunt. They do not strive emulously to equal the 
fertility of the soil by their own industry. Passow. 

Imperaiur, Just as frumentum, commeatus, obsides, etc., impe- 
raniur, are demanded or expected, Giin. 

Totidem, sc. quot Romani, cf. idem, 4, note. Tacitus often omits 
one member of a comparison, as he does also one of two compara- 
tive particles. 

Species, Farts, Sometimes the logical divisions of a genus ; so 
used by Cic. and Quin. (§ 6, 68) : cum genus dividitur in species. 

Inielledum, A word of the silver age, cf. note on yoluntariam, 
24. Intellectum-habent = are understood and named, " Quam 
distortum dieendi genus I " Giin. 

Auiumnir4gnorantur, Accordingly in English, spring, summer, 
and winter, are Saxon words, while autumn is of Latin origin (Auc- 
tumnus). See Dubner in loo. Still such words as H&rfest, Her- 
pist, Harfst, Herbst, in other Teutonic dialects, apply to the au- 
tumnal season, and not, like our word harvest, merely to the fruits 
of it 



GERMANIA 131 

XXyn. I^mera^ proprie de toto apparata sepultarae* E. 
Faneral rites were performed with great porop and extravaganoe at 
Rome ; cf. Fiske'a Man. § 840 ; see also Mur. in loco, and Beck. 
GalL Exc. So. 12. 

AmhiHo. Primarily the solicitation of office by the candidate ; 
then the parade and display that attended it ; then parade in gene- 
ral, especially in a bad sense. 

CertiSf i. e. rite statutis. Gun. 

Cfumuiani. Stmctura est poetica, cf. Yirg. Aen. 11, 60: eumu' 
latqtte altaria donis. E. 

JEquua adjieitur. Herodotus relates the same of the Scythians 
(4, VI) ; Caesar, of the Gauls {B. G. 6, 19). Indeed all rude nations 
bury with the dead those objects which are most dear to them 
when living, under the notion that they will use and enjoy them in 
a future state. See Robertson's Amer. B. 4, etc., etc. 

Sqpylerumr-erigit, Still poetical; literaUy: a turf rears the 
tomb, Gf. His. 6, 6 : Libanum eriffii. 

Fanuni = deponunt. So Cic. Tusc. Qu. : ad ponendum dolorem. 
Cf. A. 20 : posuere iram. 

Feminit-meminieae, Cf. Sen. Ep. : Yir prudens meminisse per- 
sereret, lugere deslnat 

Aceepimus, Ut ab alils tradita audivimus, non ipsi cognovimus. 
E. See Preliminary Remarks. 

In commune, Cic. would have said, universe, or de universa 
engine. Gr. Cic uses in commune^ but in a dififerent sense, viz. for 
the common weal. See Freund sub too. 

Instituta^ political ; ritue^ religious. 

Quae nationee. And tohai tribes^ etc; quae for gftaeque by 
asyndeton, or perhaps, as Rit suggests, by mistake of the copyist. 
-^Commigraverini. Sub], of the indirect question. H. 629, 1. ; A. 
and G. 834; Z. 662. 

German critics have expended much labor and research, in 
defining the locality of the several German tribes with which the 
remainder of the Treatise is occupied. In so doing, they rely not 
only on historical data, but also on the traces of ancient names still 
attached to dties, forests, mountains, and other localities (cf. note, 
§ 16). These we shall sometimes advert to in the notes. But on 
the whole, these speculations of German antiquarians are not only 
less interestmg to scholars in other countries, but are so unsatisfac- 



132 NOTES. 

tory and contradictory among themselves, that, for the most part, 
we shall pass them over with very little attention. There is mani- 
festly an intrinsic difficulty in defining the ever changing limits of 
uncivilized and unsettled tribes. Hence the irreconcilable contra- 
dictions between ancient authmtietf as well as modem critiques, on 
this subject Tacitus, and the Roman writers generaUy, betray their 
want of definite knowledge of Germany by the frequency with which 
they specify the names of mountains and rivers. The following 
geographical outline is from Ukert, and must suffice for ih^ geography 
of the remainder of the Treatise : '' In the comer between the Rhine 
and the Danube, are the Decuniates Agri, perhaps as far as the 
Mayne, 20. Korthward on the Rhine dwell the Mattiaci, whose 
neighbors on the east are the Chatti, 30. On the same river farther 
north are the Usipii and the Tencteri ; then the Frisii, 82-84. East- 
ward of the Tencteri dwell the Chamavi and the Angrivarii (earlier 
the Bructeri), and east or southeast of them the Dulgibini and Cha- 
suarii^ 84, and other small tribes. Eastward of the Frisii Germany 
juts out far towards the north, 86. On the coast of the bay thus 
formed, dwell the Ghauci, east of the Frisii and the above mentioned 
tribes ; on the south, they reach to the Ghatti. East of the Ghauci 
and the Ghatti are the Gherusci, 86, whose neighbors are the FosL 
The Gherusci perhaps, according to Tacitus, do not reach to the 
ocean ; and in the angle of the above bay, he places the Gimbri, 87. 
Thus Tacitus represents the westem half of Germany. The eastern 
is of greater dimensions. There are the Suevi, 88. He calls the 
country Suevia, 41, and enumerates many tribes, which belong there. 
Eastward of the Ghemsci he places the Semnones and Langobardi ; 
north of them are the Reudigni, Aviones, Anglii, Yarini, Eudosea, 
Suardones and Nuithones ; and all these he may have regarded aa 
lying in the interior, and as the most unknown tribes, 41. He then 
mentions the tribes that dwell on the Danube, eastward from the 
Decumates Agri : the Hermunduri, in whose country the Elbe has its 
source; the Yaristi, Marcomani and Quadi, 41-42. The Marcomani 
hold the country which the Boii formerly possessed ; and northward 
of them and the Quadi, chiefly on the mountuns which run through 
Suevia, are the Marsigni, Gotbini, Osi and Burl, 48. Farther north 
are the Lygii, consisting of many tribes, among which the most dis- 
tingmshed are the Arii, Helvecones, Manimi, Elysii and Kahanarvali, 
48. Still farther north dwell the Gothones, and, at the ocean, the 



\ 



GEKMANU. 133 

Rugii and Lemovit. Upon islands in the ocean live the SuioDee, 44. 
Upon the mainland, on the coast, are the tribes of the Aestii, and 
near them, perhaps on islands, the Sitones, 46. Perhaps he assigned 
to them the immense islands to which he refers in his first chapter. 
Here ends Suevia. Whether the Pencini, Yenedi and Fenni are to 
be reckoned as Germans or Sarmatians, is uncertain, 46. The Hel- 
lusii and Oxonae are fabuloos." 

The following paragraph from Prichard's Researches embodies 
some of the more general conclusions of ethnographers^ especially of 
Zeuss, on whom Prichard, in common with Orelli and many other 
scholars, places great reliance. '* Along the coast of the German 
Ocean and across the isthmus of the Cimbric peninsula to the shore 
of the Baltic, were spread the tribes of the Chaud and Frisii, the 
Anglli, Saxones and the Teutones or Jutes, who spoke the I/m^ 
Oerman languages, and formed one of the four divisions of the Ger- 
man race, correspon^ng as it seems with the Jngaewma of Tacitus 
and PHny. In the higher and more central parts, the second great 
ffifidon of the race, that of the ffennioneSy was spread, the tribes of 
which i^ke Upper or High-Oerman dialects. Beginning in the 
West with the country of the Sigambri on the Rhine, and from that 
of the Gherusci and Ai^Tarii near the Weser and the Hartz, this 
division comprehended, bwides those tribes, the Chatd, the Lango- 
bardi, the Hermunduri, the Hwooniani and Quadi, the Lugii, and 
beyond the Vistula the Bastamae, in ^m neighborhood of the Car- 
pathian hills. To the eastward and northward of the last mentioned 
near the lower course of the Vistula and thence at least as lar as the 
Pregel, were the primitive abodes of the Goths and their oogaate 
tribes, who are perhaps the Itiaewmee,^^ The fourth division of 
Prichard embraced the Scandinavians, who spoke a language kindred 
to the Germans and were usually classed with them. Those who 
would examine this subject more thoroughly, will consult Adelung, 
Zeuss, Grimm, Ritter, XJkert, Prichard, Latham, etc., who have writ- 
ten expressly on the geography or the ethnography of Germany. 

XXVIII. Summtu auctorum^ i. e. omnium scriptorum is, qui 
plurimum auctoritcdi* fideique habet E. Ct Sueton. Caes. 56. 
Though T. commends so highly the avihorihf of Caesar as a writer, 
yet he diflfers from him in not a few matters of &ct, as well as opin- 
ion ; owing chiefly, doubtless, to the increased means of information 
which he possessed in the age of Tnyan. 



134 NOTES. 

Divus JiUvu8, Divui = ddfied, divine; an epithet applied to the 
Roman Emperors after their decease. — Tradii, Cf. Caes. B. 6. 6, 
24: fuit antea tempas, cum Oemtanos OaUi virtute tuperarent^ ultro 
bella inferrent, propter hominum multitudinem agrique inopiam trans 
Rhenum colonias mitterent. Livy probably refers to the same eyents, 
when he says (Lib. 6, 84), that m the reign of Prisons Tarquinins, 
two immense bodies of Gauls migrated and took possession, the one 
of the Hercynian Forest, the other of Upper Italy. 

Amnii. The RMne, — Promieeuae. UneeUUd^ ill defined. 

Quo mifttu After a verb of hindering is followed by the sabj. H. 
497, n. 2 ; A. and O. 881, e ; Z. 548. 

ytdla-divieaty Le. not dietrHntied among different and powerful kinge, 

Hercyniam eUivam, A series of forests and mountains, stretching 
from Helyetia to Hungary in a line parallel to the Danube, and de- 
scribed by Caesar (B. Q. 6, 26) as nine days* journey m breadth and 
more than sixty in length. The name seems to be preserved in the 
modem Hartz Forest, which is however far less eztensiye. 

Igiiur-Hdvetii = igitur regumem inter, etc. See note on eciunt^ 
16. Igitur seldom stands as the first word in a sentence in Cicero. 
H. 669, III. : and Euhner's Cic. Tusc Qu. 1, 6, 11. Here it intro- 
duces a more particular explanation of the general subject mentioned 
at the close of the previous chapter. So in A. IS. When so used, 
it sometimes stands first in Cic, always in T. Cf. Freund sub y. 
Touchmg the Helvetii, see Caes. B. 6. 1, 1 ; T. His. 1, 67. 

Boihemi nomen. Compounded of Boii and heim (home of the 
Boil), now Bohemia. Heim = ham in the termination of so many 
names of towns, e. g. FramingAam, Nottingham. The Boii were 
driven from their country by the Marcomani, 42. The fugitives are 
supposed to have carried their name into Boioaiia, now Bavaria. 
Cf. Prichard's Physical Researches, YoL IIL CLap. 1, Sec 6 ; and 
Latham's Germany of Tacitus in loco. 

Oermaru>rum natione^ i. e. Geiman in situation, not in origin, for 
this he expressly denies or disproyes in 43, from the fact that they 
spoke the Pannonian language, and paid tribute. The doubt ex- 
pressed here has reference only to their original /oeo/ton, not to their 
original stock, and is therefore in no way inconsistent with the affir- 
mation in chapter 43. 

Oum = iinee. Hence followed by subj. H. 617 ; A. and G. 826 ; 
Z. 677. 



6ERMANIA. 135 

Ulriutque ripae. Here of the Danube^ the right or Pannonian 
bank of which was occupied by the Aravisci, and the left or Ger- 
man bank by the Osi. So elsewhere of the Rhine^ 87, and of both, 
17, and 28. 

Treveru Hence modern Treves, — Nervii, They were on the coast 
of Nenria, reaching into the interior as far as modem Luzembarg. 

Cirea, In respect to. A use foreign to the golden age of Latin 
composition, bat not nnfreqnent in the silver age. See Ann. 11, 2. 
16. His. 1, 43. Of. Z. 298, and note, H. 1, 18. 

AffedaHonem, Eager detire to pass for natire Germans. Ad 
Tcrbum, cf. note, H. 1, 80. 

Ultro, Radically the same with uUra = beyond. Properly be- 
yond expectation, beyond necessity, beyond measure, beyond any 
thing mentioned in the foregoing context Hence unexpectedly, 
freely, cheerfully, very much, eren more. Here very^ quite, Gr. 

Inertia ChUorwn, T., says Gun., is an everlasting persecutor of 
the Gauls, cf. A. 11. 

Edud dvbie = baud dublL It lunits Germanorum populi. Un- 
doybtedXy German irihee, 

Vanffionee, The principal towns of the VanffioneBy Triboei, and 
Nemetee are found respectively in the modem Worms, Strasburg, 
and Speyer. Sch. S. 

Meruerint. Not merely deserved, but earned^ attained. For the 
subj. alter quanquaniy cf. note, 86. 

Affrippineneea. From Agrtppina, daughter of Germanicus and 
wife of Claudius. Ann. 12, 27. Now Cologne. 

CondUorie. CondUor with the earlier Latins is an epicene, con- 
ditrix being of later date. Here used of Agrippina. Of course eui 
cannot agree with eonditoria. It is a reflexive pronoun, the objective 
gen. after conditorie = the founder of themeelvee, L e. of their state, 
of. odium euij 88. 

JSKperimetito. Abl. on trial, not /or/ i. e. in consequence of be- 
hig found faithful In reference to the Ubii, cf. His. 4, 28. 

XXIX. Virtute, sa bellica. 

Nbn mtiftifm ez ripa. A amaU tract on ih/e bankj hut ehie/ly an 
island in the rUfer. Of. His. 4, 12 : extrema GalUcae orae, simulque 
insulam, occupavere. 

Chatiorum quondam. The very name Batavi is thought by some 
to be a'cormpted or modified form of ChattL See Bit in loc 



136 NOTES. 

Transffressus, When is not known, but Julius Caesar found 
them already in possession of their new territory. B. G. 4, 10. 

Itereni, Subj. after ecu-quibu9 = mch that, H. 600, 1 ; A. and 
6.820; Z. 656. 

Nee-eorUemnuntur. Are neither dishonored. So in His. 4, 17, 
the Batavians are called tributor^tm expertca. 

Fublieantte, The Roman tax-collector. 

Oneribtts. The burdens of regvUUir taxaiion, — CoUationibua, 
MUraordinary contributions. 

Matttaeorum, They occupied the region of modem Wiesbaden. 

Tela^ offensive ; arma^ defensive annor. 

In sua ripa. On the right or eastern bank of the Rhine. Agunt 
is to be taken with in sua ripa^ as well atT with nobiscuniy which are 
antithetic to each other. Meaning : in situation Germans, in feeliug 
Romans. 

Menie animoque. In mind and spirit. Mens is properly the 
understanding, animus the feeling part, and both together compre- 
hend the whole soul. 

Aerius animantur. Made more courageous by the injluence of 
their very soil and dimate even {adhue, cf. note, 19). 

Numeraverim, Subj. cf. note, 2 : erediderim. 

Lecumaies-exercent, Exercent = colunt So Virg. tellurem, ter- 
ram, humum, solum, etc., exercere. 

Decumates = decumanos. Occurs only here. Tithe-paying lands. 
For their location, see note, 27. 

Duibiae possessionis, i. e. insecure^ till confirmed by limite ado 
prdmotisque praesidiiSy i. e. extending the boundary and advancing the 
garrisons or outposts. Remains of the old Roman lines of fortifica- 
tion still exist, extending from the upper waters of the Danube to 
the Rhine. They were to a great extent the work of Trajan. 

8inu8. MUreme bend or border. Gf.note,l. So Yirg. (Geor. 2, 
128) calls India extremi sinus orbis. 

Provinciae. A province, not any particular one. 

XXX. Initium inchoant. Pleonastic. So initio orto. His. 1, 
76; initium coeptum. His. 2, 79; perferre toleraverit, Ann. 8, 8. 
Ultra is farther back from the Rhine. Ohattorum sedes ubl nunc 
magnus ducatus et principatus Hasaorum^ quomm nomen a Ghattis 
deductum. Ritter. Oha^ti t= Hewians, as Germ. wa«er==£ng. 
wa/er, and Tpdera» = wpdrrw. 



GERMANIA. 137 

EffiuU, Zoea effma sunt, quad latU eampU patent K. This 
use belongs to the later Latin, thoagh Horace applies the word with 
kUe to the sea : effusi late maris. Gr. 

Durant tiquidem, etc. On the whole, I am constrained to yield 
to the authority and the arguments of Wr., Or., Bdd., and Rit, and 
place the pause before durante instead of after it as in the first edi- 
tion. Durant precedes riquidem for the sake of emphasis, just as 
quin immo (chap. 14) and g^uin etican (IS) yield their usual place to 
the emphatic word. These are all departures from established 
usage. See notes in loc. cit. Que must be understood after paida- 
Hm : it is inserted in the text by Ritter. 

Jiareseunt Become fewer and farther apart So Yirg. Aen. 8, 
411 : Angtuli rareseent clauetra Peiori. 

Chattoe 9U0B, As if the Chatti were the children of the Forest, 
and the Forest emphatically their country. Fassow. 

Froeequiiur^ deponiU Begins, continues, and ends with the 
Chatti Poetical = is coextensive with. 

Duriora^ sc. solito, or his, of. — Strietif einewy^ 9trong^ which has 
the same root as etringo, 

Ui inter Oermanoa^ i. e. pro ingenio Gerroanorum, Giin. So we 
say elUptically : for Oermane. 

Praeponerey eta A series of infinitives without connectives, de- 
noting a hasty enumeration of particulars ; elsewhere, sometunes, a 
rapid succession of events. Cf. notes, A. 86, and H. 1, 86. The 
particulars here enumerated all refer to military proceedings. 

Dieponere-noctem, They distribute the day, sc. as the period of 
various labors ; they fortify the night, sc. as the scene of danger. 
Still highly poetical 

Hatione. Way, manner, AI. Romanae. 

Ferramentie. Iron tools, axes, mattocks, etc. — Copiis, Provisions 

Jtari, Predicate of pugna, as well as excursus, — Vdodtas applies 
to cavalry, eunetatio to infantry ; Juxta = connected with, allied to, 
cf. juxta libertatem, 21. 

XXXI. Aliis-populis. Dat. after usurpatum, which with its ad- 
juncts is the subject of vertii. See same construction, His. 1, 18 : 
observatum id antiquitus comitiis dirimendis non terruit Galbam, 
etc., cf. also A. 1. — Audentia occurs only thrice in T. (G. 81, 84 ; 
Ann. 15, 63), and once in Pliny (Ep. 8, 4). It diffisrs from audada 
in being a virtue. 



138 KOTE& 

Vertit Intrans. Not so found in Cic, but in Lit., Caes., and 
Sail., not unfrequent. 6r. Cic. howerer uses anno verierUe, 

In ctmaenaum vertil. Has become the common custom, 

Utprimum, Just as soon as, A causal relation is also implied ; 
hence followed by the subj. 

CrinemF-submUtere, We find this custom {of letting the hair and 
heard grow long) later among the Lombards and the Saxons, cf. 
Turn. His. Ang. Sax., App. to B. 2. 

Super-spolia, i. e. over the bloody spoils of a sUdn enemy. 

EtvdaofU^ I e. they remove the hair and beard, which hare so 
long veVed the face. 

HetuUsse = rqxttd^ discharged thdr obUffations to those who gems 
them birth. 

Squalor, This word primarily denotes roughness; secondarily 
and usually filth : here the deformity of unshorn hair and beard. 

Insuper^ l e. besides the long hair and beard. The proper posi- 
tion of insuper is, as here, between the adj. and subs., cf. 34 : im* 
mensos insuper lacus ; see also insuper^ 12. 

Absolvai, Subj. after donee, Gofadai below. See note, 1. 

Hio-habiiuSj sc. ferreum anmUum, cf. 17. Flurimis = permultis. 
Bit. 

Placet. Antithetic to ignominlUfsum genH. Very many of the 
Ghatti are pleased with that which is esteemed a disgrace by most 
Germans, and so pleased with it as to retain it to old age, and wear 
it as a badge of distinction {canent insignee). 

Nova, Al. iorva. Strange^ %tnusual. Placed in the van {prima 
act€s)j because, as the author says, g 43 : primi in omnibus proeliis 
octUi vincuntur. 

Mansuescunt, Primarily said of wild beasts, accustomed to the 
hand of man or tamed. So immanis, not handled, wild, sarage. 
The clause introduced by nam illustrates or enforces visu nova^ and 
may be rendered thus : for not even in time of peace do they grow 
gentle and put on a milder aspect, 

JExsanguis, Usually lifeless or pale. Here languid, feeble, 

XXXIL Alveo t=: quoad alyeum. Abl. of respect, H. 424 ; A. 
and 6. 263 ; Z. 467. 

CMum, Fixed, wdl defined, L e. not divided and difibsed (so as 
to form of itself no sufficient border or boundary to the Boman £m» 
pire) as it was nearer its source among the Ghatti. So this disputed 



^ 



GERMANIA. 139 

word seems to be explained by the author himself in the following 
clause : quique iermintu ease tuffidat •=. and such that it tufficea to he 
a boundary, Qiii = talis ui ; hence followed by the subj. H. 600 ; 
A. and G. 820 ; Z. 558. So Mela (3, 2) contrasts aolidua et certo alveo 
lapsus with hue et Uluc dispergitur, 

Teneteris = apud Tencteros, by enaUage, cfl note on ad paJtrem^ 
20, and other references there. The Tencteri and Usipii seem to 
have been at length absorbed into the mass of people, who appear 
under the later name of Alemanni. Gf. Prichard. They were origi- 
nally just north of the river Lippe, but in time of Tacitus were 
south of it. 

Familiam, Servants^ cf. note on same word, 15. See also Beck. 
Gall. £xc. 1. Sc. 1. — Penates = our homestead. 

Jura successionum = heirlooms^ all that goes down by hereditary 
descent. 

Mccipit, Here in the unusual sense of inherits. — Cetera, sc. Jura 
successionum. 

£eUo. Abl. and limits both feroz and meiior. Heaning : The 
horses are inherited, not, like the rest of the estaiCj hy the eldest son, 
hut hy the bravest. 

XXXIII. Occurrebant. Met the view, presented themselves. Al- 
most the sense of the corresponding English word. The structure 
of narratur (as impers.) is very rare in the earlier authors, who 
would say : Chamavi narrantur. Cf. His. 1, 50, 90. The Chamavi^ 
etc., were joined afterwards to the Franks. Cf. Prichard. Tbe 
present town of Ham in Westphalia probably preserves the name 
and gives the original locality of the Chamavi, the present Engem 
that of the Angrivarii. The termination varii or uarii probably = 
inhabitants of. Thus Angrivarii = inhabitants of Engem. Chasuarii 
= inhabitants of the riyer Hase. The same element is perhaps con- 
tained in the termination of Bructm and Tenctm. See Latham in loco. 

Ifos, sc. Romanes. Erga — inclined to (cf. verge), towards. 

Spectaculo. Ablative. Invidere is constructed by the Latins in the 
following ways: invidere alicui aliquid, alicui alicujus rei, alicui 
aliqua re, alicui in aliqna re. Hess. The construction here (with 
the abl. of the thing which was the object of envy) belongs to the 
silver age. Cfl Quint (Inst. 9, 8, 1), who contrasts it with the usage 
of Cicero, and considers it as illustrating the fondness of the age for 
figurative language. 
10 



140 NOTES. 

OblecttUioni octdisqite, Hendiadys for ad oblectationem ocalo- 
nun. The author here exults in the promiscuous slaughter of the 
German Tribes by each other's arms, as a brilliant spectacle to 
Roman eyes — a feeling little congenial to the spirit of Christianity, 
but necessarily nurtured by the gladiatorial shows and bloody 
amusements of the Romans, to say nothing of the habitual hostility 
which they waged agunst all other nations that did not submit to 
their dominion. 

Quaeao^ sc. deoa. Though fortune is spoken of below, as con- 
trolling the destiny of nations. This passage shows clearly that 
Tacitus, with all his partiality for German manners and morals, still 
retains the heart of a Roman patriot He lores his country with all 
her faults, and bears no good-will to her enemies, however many and 
great their virtues. The passage is important, as illustrating the 
spirit and design of the whole Treatise. The work was not written 
as a blind panegyric on the Germans, or a spleeny satire on the 
Romans. Neither was it composed for the purpose of stirring up 
Trajan to war against Germany ; to such a purpose, such a clause 
as urffeutibu8 imperii fcUis were quite adverse. Least of all was it 
written for the mere pastime and amusement of Roman readers. It 
breathes the spirit at once of the earnest patriot and the high-toned 
moralist. 

Odium 8UU Of. note, 28 ; eondiior. Haired of themtelvet ; I. e. 
of one another. So, in Greek, the reflexive pronoun is often used 
for the reciprocal. 

Qtkxfu/o = «tn<;e, a subjective reason. Cf. note. His. 1, 81 ; and 
Z. 846. — Urffentibfu-faHsy sc. to discord and dissolution, for such 
were the forebodings of patriotic and sagacious minds ever after the 
overthrow of the Republic, even under the prosperous reign of 
Trajan. 

XXXrV. A terffOf i. e. further back from the Rhine, or towards 
the East — A fronte, nearer the Rhine or towards the West Both 
are to be referred to the i^ngrivarii and Chamavi, who had the 
Dulgubnii and the Chasuarii in thdr rear (on the east), and the 
Frisii on theur front (towards the west or northwest), jpmit, the 
Frieslanders. 

Majoribw-virium, They have the name of Greater or LesB 
-FViatt, according to the meamre of their etren^h. For this sense 
of ex see note 7. For the case of majoribue minoribue^^ see Z, 



^ 



GERMANIA. 141 

421; H. 887, 1; A. and G. 281, b.-^Perinde, equatt^^ to the same 
extent. 

Pradexuntur, Are bordered by the Rhine (hemmed, as the toga 
praetexta by the purple) ; or, as Freund explains, are covered by it, 
i. e. lie behind it. — Immeruoa laew. The bays, or arms of the sea, 
at the mouth of the Rhine (Zuyder Zee, etc.), taken for lakes by T. 
and Pliny (Ann. 1, 60. 2, 8. N. H. 4, 29). They have been greatly 
changed by inundations. See Hur. in loco. 

Oeea$ium, sc. Septentrionalem.— 72^ sc. parte. — TetUavirhm ex- 
plored, 

Hercidia eolumnae, " Wherever the land terminated, and it ap- 
peared impossible to proceed further, ancient maritune nations 
feigned pillars of Hercules. Those mentioned in this passage some 
authors have placed at the extremity of Friesland, and others at the 
entrance of the Baltic.'* Ey., cf. note, 8. The way in which it is 
stated {fama vulgavit) suggests that it is a mere sailorV story, and 
may have alluded only to the peculiarity of the clifBk 

Adiil, i. e. vere adiit, aduaUy visited that part of the world. 

Quicquid-corueTuimut, This passage is a standard illustration 
of the Bomana inierpretaiione (§ 43), the Roman construction, which 
the Romans put upon the mythology and theology of other nations. 
It shows that they were accustomed to apply the names of their 
gods to the gods of other nations on the ground of some resem- 
blance in character, history, worship, etc. Sometimes perhaps a re- 
semblance in the names constituted the ground of identifica- 
tion. 

Drtuo Germanieo, Some read Druso et Grermanico; others 
Druso, Germanico, as a case of asyndeton (Gr. 823, 1 (1.)) ; for 
both Drusus and Germanicus sailed into the Northern Ocean, and 
it is not known that Grermanicus (the son of Drusus and stepson of 
Tiberius, who is by some supposed to be meant here) is ever called 
Dnmu Oermanicut. But Drusus, the father of Grermanicus, is 
called Drusus Germanicus in the Histories (6, 19), where he is 
spoken of as having thrown a mole or dam across the Rhine ; and 
it is not improbable that he is the person here intended. So K., 
Or., and Wr. 

8ej i. e. the Ocean. See H. 449 ; A. and G. 196 ; Z. 604. 

Inquiri. Impersonal = tni;ea%a^2on to be made. M suggests 
inquireniif agreeing with Oermanieo, But T., unlike the earlier 



142 NOTES. 

Latin authors, not unfreqnently places an infin. after a verb of hin- 
dering. 

Credere quam scire. T. perhaps alluded to the precept of the 
philosopher, who said : Deum cole, atque crede, sed noli quaerere. 
Murphy. 

XXXY. In Septentrwnem, eto. On the Norlh, it faVs haek^ sc. 
into the Ocean, toith an immense bend or pexunsula. TheJUxus here 
spoken of is called einttt in chap. 8Y, and describes the Gimbric 
Gbersonesus, or Danish Peninsula. See Dod., Or. and Bit. in loc — 
Ae primo etaiim. And firet immedMidy^ sc. as we begin to trace 
the northern coast. The important tribe of the Chauci (perhaps 
the same root as hohe^ fUgh) occupied a territory stretching from 
the river Ems to the Elbe. They are represented as dirided into 
the majares and minares separated by the Weser. — Laierilnie, sc. the 
eastern. 

Quanquam followed by the subj., seldom in Cic, but usually in 
T., H. 516, III., N. 1, 8). Of. note, His. 5, 21.-^Sinuetur, sc. south- 
wards. Ihnec sinuetur. Of. note, 1 : erumpat. 

Inter Germans, Considered among the Germans, in the estima- 
tion of ike Germans, 

Quique-tueri. A clause connected to an adj. (nobilissimus), cf. 
certum, quique, 82. Qui in both passage = talis, ut Hence fol» 
lowed by subj. H. 600, 1 ; Z. 668. 

Impotentia, ungovemed passion, iuepdreia. Impotentia seldom 
denotes want of power, but usually that unrestrained passion, which 
results from the want of ability to control one's self. 

Ui-offant depends on assequtmtur, Subj. H. 601, 11. ; A. and G. 
818, a ; Z. 681, a. 

JSi res poscat. Some copies read : si res poscat exercUus, But 
posco and postulo seldom have the object expressed in such clauses, 
cf. 44 : ut res poscit ; 6 : prout ratio poscit. So also Gic. and SaU., 
pass. EtercUus is subject nom., promptus being understood, as 
pred. ; and plurimum virorum equorumque explains or rather en- 
forces exereUus: and, if the case demand, an army, the greatest abun- 
dance of men and horses, 

Qiiiesceniibus, i e. bellum non gerentibus ; eadem, i. e. the same, 
as if engaged in war. 

XXXVL Cherusd, It was their chief, Arminius (Germ. Her- 
mann), who, makmg head agidnst the Komans, was honored as the 



k 



6EBMANIA. 143 

Deliverer of Geimanj, and celebrated in ballad songs, which are 
presenred to this day. See lus achievements in Ann. B. 1, and 2. 

MareerUem, Enervating, So mareentia poeufa. Stat. Silv. 4, 
6, 66. It is nsuallj intransitive, and is taken here by some in the 
sense of languid, enervate (literally withered). — Ulaeemti is a post- 
Augostan word. Gf. Freund. The tribe seems to have been weak- 
ened quite as much by civil dissension as by inactivity. 

ImpoteiUet, Gf. impotentia, 86. 

FaUo quieaeas. Fallens, dum quiescis. Dilthey. Gf. note, 14 : 
possis, 

Ubi mcmu agitur. Where matters are decided by might rather 
than right Gf. manu agerUy A. 9. 

Nomina superioris. Virtun (only) of the Wronger party^ the 
conqueror. They are deemed vices in the weaker. 

ChaUi9-cessU : while to the ChaUi, who were tnctorious^ niceess 
woe imputed for toiadom. The antithetic particle at the beginning 
of the clause is omitted. Gf. note, 4 : minime. 

IktiMent. Subj. after eum signifying although, H. 616, m. ; A. 
and G. 826. 

XXXYII. Sinum. Peninsula, sc. the Gimbric. Gf. note, 35: 
flexu; 81: einue, 

Cirnbri, This tribe, in the second century before Ghrist, was 
driven, as they said, by a flood, from their northern home, and 
brought upon the Romans some of the most desperate conflicts in 
which they were ever engaged. They were finally destroyed after 
years of terror by the power of Marius. 

Ohria is abL limiting ingens, 

Castra ae epatia. In apposition with lata vestigia = spatiosa 
castra or castrorum spatia. H. 686, III. 2 ; Z. 741. 

Utraqae ripa, sc. of the Rhine, the river and river bank by emi- 
nence. 

Molem manueque, 7^ maes of their population, and the nirni- 
her of their armies. Observe the alliteration, as if he had said : 
measure the mass and might 

Mdtus, L e. migrationis. Often used in this sense, cf. Gaes. B. 
6. 8, 69 : Salutem et exitum sibi pariebant. — F%dem, proof, 

Sexeentesimum-annum, T. follows the Gatonian Era, or simply 
intends to ^ve the round number. According to the Yarronian Era, 
received by the modems, the date would be A. XT. G. 641 = A. 0. 118. 



144 NOTES. 

AlUrtun''eonsuUUum, The second consulship of Trajan (when 
he was also Emperor) was, after the reckoning of Tacitus, A. U. C. 
860, according to modem computation, 861 = A. D. 98. This year 
doubtless marks the tim6 when this treatise was written, else why 
selected? 

VineUur, So long is Germany in being conquered. (The work 
was nerer completed.) Cf. Liv. 9, 8 : quern per annos jam prope 
triginta vineimua, 

Medio-tpaHo, In the intervening period^ sc. of 210 years. 

Samfiia^OalUaeve. The Romans had fought bloody and some- 
times disastrous battles with the Samnites (at the Caudine Forks, 
Liv. 9, 2), with the Carthaginians (in the several Punic Wars), with 
the Spaniards under Yiriathus and Sertorlus (Florus, Lib. 2), with 
the Gkkuls (Caes. B. G. pass.). But none of these were so sanguinary 
as their wars with the Germans. 

Aebnonuere, sc. vulneribus, cladibus = castigavere. 

Jiegno-iibertoM, Liberty and monarchy in studied antithesis. T. 
means to imply that the former is the stronger principle of the 
two. 

ArsacU. The family name of the Parthian kings, as Pharaoh and 
Ptolemy of the Egyptian, Antiochus of the Syrian, etc. 

Amisao et ipse^ sc. oriens; the East itself also lost its prince 
(Pacorus) in the engagement, as well as the Romans their leader 
(Crassus). — Ohjeeerity reproach tu with, Subj. Cf. n. G. 2 : peteret. 

Veniidium. Commander under Antony, and conqueror of the 
Parthians in three battles, A. U. G. 716. He was ridsed from the 
lowest rank and the meanest employment, hence perhaps the ex- 
pression, defeetus infrOy humbled beneath Ventidius, 

Carbone^Mdnlio, Gneius Papirius Carbo defeated at Noreja, A. 
XT. 641 (Liv. Epit. 63), L. Cassius Lon^nus defeated and slain, 64Y 
(Caes. B. G. 1, 7, 12), M. Aurelius Scaurus defeated and taken cap- 
tive, 648 (Liv. Epit. 67), Servilius Caepio and M. Manlius defeated 
with great slaughter at Tolosa, 649 (Liv. Epit. 67), Quintilius Varus 
defeated and slain, 762 (Suet. Oct. 23) — all these victories over the 
Romans in their highest strength and glory — either in the time of 
the RepMie {Populo Jiomano\ or of the Empire under Augustus 
(Caeaari) — all these attested the courage and military prowess of the 
Germans; and they were still, for the most part, as free and as pow- 
erful as ever. 



\ 



GEBlfANIA. 145 

Caius Marias almost annihilated the Cimbri at Aquae Sertiae, 
A. U. C. 662. 

jDriMiM. Claudius Drusus invaded Germany four times, 742-3, 
and finally lost his life by faUing from his horse on his return. Gf. 
Dio. Libb. 04, 66. 

jVtfTO, commonly known as Tiberius (brother of Drusus and step- 
son of Augustus), had the command in Germany at three dlffereut 
times, ne-Y, 766-9, 764-6, of. Suet. Tib. 9 seq. 

Germaniem^ son of Drusus, made four campaigns in Germany, A. 
D. 14-16, cfl Ann. B. 1 and 2. 

C Cae$ari9, Caligula, cf. Sttet Calig.; T. His. 4, 16. 

DUeordiae-armorum. The civil wars after the death of Nero 
under Galba, Otho, and Yitellius. 

MgwffruUia-fubemia, By the Batavians under Civilis. His. 4, 
12 seq. ; A. 41. 

Affeeiavere, Aspired to the ffovernmetU of^ c£ note on affecta- 
tionem, 28. After donee, T. always expresses a single definite past 
action by the perf. ind., of. A. 86: donee-eokortaiue est; a repeated, 
or continued past action by the imp. subj., cf. note, A. 19 : donec-^ 
Jieret ; and a present action, which is in the nature of the case also 
a continued action, by the pres. subj., cf. note, 1 : teparet, 

TriumphaU, Poetice, of. Yirg. Aen. 6, 837: Triumphata Co- 
rintho ; Hor. Od. 3, 8, 43 : Triumphati Medi. The reference here is 
to the ridiculous triumph of Domitian, A. 89, in which slaves, pur- 
chased and dressed out for the purpose, were home as captives 
through the streets. 

XXXYin. Suevie. In the time of T. a powerful confederacy, 
embracing all the tribes enumerated in 89-46, and covering all the 
eastern and larger half of Grermany. But the confederacy was soon 
dissolved and seldom appears in subsequent history. We still have 
a trace of their name in the modem Suabia, The name is supposed 
by some philologists (e.g. Zeuss) to denote unsOtled toanderere 
(Germ. Schweben, to wave, to hover, cf. Caes. B. G. 4, 1 : Suevis 
non longius anno remanere uno in loco, etc.), as that of the Sax- 
ons does settiers, or Jixed residente (Germ. Sassen), and that of the 
Franks, freemen. See Rup. in loc. An ingenious Article in the 
North American Review (July, 1847) makes the distinction of Suevi 
and non-Suevi radical and permanent iu the religion and the lan- 
guage of the Germans; the Suevi becoming Orthodox Catholics and 



146 NOTES. 

the non-Sueyi Arians in Ecclesiastical History, and the one High' 
Dutch and the other Low-Dutch in the development of their 
language. 

Adhue. Cf. note on it, 19. As to position, cf. ituuper^ 81 and 
84. The Sueyi are ttiU (adhiie) divided into distinct tribes bearing 
distinct names, though united in a confederacy. Cf. Hand's Tursel- 
llnus, 1, 168. Dod. renders besideit, so. the general deagnation of 
Suevi. 

In eommune, Jn common. Not used in this sense by CSc, Gaes., 
and Liv., though frequent in T. Gr. Cf. note on the same, 27. 

Obliquare, To turn the hair back, or comb it up contrary to its 
natural direction — and then fasten it in a knot on the top of the head 
(wb^rinffere nodo) ; so it seems to be explained by the author him- 
self below : horrentem eapiUum retro gequuniur ae in ipso solo vertice 
rdiganl. Others translate obliquare by twist. Many ancient writers 
speak of this manner of tying the hair among the Germans, cf. Sen. 
de Ira. 8, 26 ; Juv. 18, 164. 

A servis separaniur, Separaniur = distinguuntur. Servants 
among the Suevi seem to have had their hair shorn. So also it was 
among the Franks at a later date. Yid. Greg. Tur. 8, 8. 

Rarum et intra^ etc. Enallage, cf. note cerium guique^ 82. 

Hetro sequuutur, i. e. foUow it back^ as it were, in its growth, and 
tie Hup on the very crown of the head otdy^ instead of letting it hang 
down, as it grows (submittere crinem). So E., Or., and many others. 
Passow and Dod. take sequuntur in the sense of desire^ delight in 
(our word seek). The word bears that sense, e. g. 6 : argentum 
magis quam aurum sequuntur. But then what is retro sequuntur ? 
for retro must be an adjunct of sequwUur both from position, and 
because there is no other word which it can limit Saepe implies, 
that sometimes they made a knot elsewhere, but often they fasten it 
there, and there only. See Or. in loc. This whole passage illus- 
trates our author^s disposition to avoid technical language. Cf. note, 
H. 2, 21. 

Innoxiae, Harmless^ unlike the beauty cultivated among the 
JHomans to dazzle and seduce. 

In altitudinem^ etc. jPbr the sake of (increased) height and terror ^ 
L e. to appear tall and inspire terror. Cf. note, A. 6 : injadaiumem ; 
A. 7 : tn smam famam. The antithetic particle is omitted before 
this clause aa it often is by our author. 



GERMANIA. 147 

Ui hostium oeidia, to strike with terror the eyes of the enemy, for 
primi in omnibus proeliis ojuli vincuntur, 48. 

XXXIX. VOuttisnmoa. Oldest Vetua is old, of long duration 
{l^ToSf aetas) ; antiqutu, ancient, belonging to a preceding age (ante). 
Recena (fresh, young) is opposed to the former : nwms (new, modem), 
to the latter. See Ramshom and Freund. 

Semnona, as also the tribes mentioned in the next chapter, with 
the exception of the Longobardi, are to be located between the Elbe 
and the Oder. 

F^dea anfiquiiatis, Antiquitatia is objective gen. = the bditf, or 
perauaaiwi of their antiquity, 

Auffuriia-acuram, The commentators all notice the hexameter 
structure of these words, and many regard them as a quotation from 
some Latin poet The words themselves are also poetical, e. g. pat- 
rum for majorum, and formidine for rdigione. The coloring is 
Virgilian. Cf. Aen. 7, 172 ; 8, 598. See Or. in loc. and Preliminary 
Remarks to the Histories, p. 234. 

Legationibua coeunt. Just as we say : convene by their detegatea, 
OP repreaentativea. 

Publice = publica auctoritate, cf. same word, 10. 

Primvrdia. Initiatory rites. 

Minor, sc. numine. Inferior to the god. 

Prae ae ferena, Expreaaing in hia external appearance, or 
bearing in hia ovm peraon an acknowledgment of the power of the 
divinity. 

Evolvuntur = se evolvunt-, cf. Ann. 1, 13 : cum Tiberii genua 
advolveretur ; also lavantur, 22. 

Eo-4anquam, Ilaa reference to thia point, aa if, i. e. to this 
opinion, viz. that thence, etc. Cf. (Rue reapicit tanquam, 12. — Inde» 
From the grove, or the god of the grove. Cf. 2: Tuiaionem- 
originem gentia, 

AdjieU auctoritaiem, sc. isti superstition!. 

Magno corpora = reipublicae magnitudine. Corpore, the body 
politic. So His. 4, 64 : redisse vos in corpus nomenque Germano- 
rum. — Hahiiantur, Al. habitant and habitantium, by conjecture. 
The subject is the Semnonian country implied in Semnonum : the 
Semnoniana inhabit a hundred viUagea, is the idea. It is the same 
Statement which Caesar makes of the whole body of the SuevL 

XL. Langobardoa, The Lombards of Mediaeval history; so 



148 NOTES. 

called probably from their long beards (Germ, lang and bart). First 
mentioned by Yelleius, 2, 106 : gens etiam Germana feritate ferocior. 
Bee also Ann. 2, 46, 46, 62-64. — Paucitas here stands opposed to 
the magno corpore of the Semnones in 89. 

Per-periditando. Three different constructions, cf. notes 16, 18. 

Zeuss identifies the Suardones with the Heruli, and the Nuithones 
with the Teutones. StuirdoTies perhaps = noord-men, Eudoees per- 
haps = later Jutes. 

Anglii. The English reader will here recognize the tribe of 
Germans that subsequently invaded, peopled, and gave name to 
England (= Anghland)^ commonly designated as the Anglo-Saxons. 
T. does not mention the Saxoiu, They are mentioned by Ptolemy 
and others, as originally occupying a territory in this same part of 
Germany. They became at length so powerful as to give their 
name to the entire confederacy (including the Angles) which ruled 
northern Germany, as the Franks (the founders of the French 
monarchy) did southern. The Angles seem to have dwelt on the 
right bank of the Elbe, near its mouth, in the time of T. 

Nerthum, This is the reading of the HSS. and the old editions. 
It cannot be doubted that T. speaks of Hertha (see Turn. His. Ang. 
Sax., App. to B. 2, chap. 8). '* But we must take care not to cor- 
rect our author himself.^' Passow. Grimm identifies this deity 
with Niordhr of the Edda, and derives the name from Nord (North). 
— Terram nuUrem, The Earth is worshipped by almost all heathen 
nations, as the mother of men and the inferior gods. See Hur. in 
loco. Cf. 2 : Tuistonem Deum, terra edilum ; also note, 9 : Isidi. 

Insula. Scholars differ as to the Island. Probabilities perhaps 
are in favor of Rugen, where the teeretut lacm mentioned below is 
still shown, still associated with superstitious legends. 

Castum. Polluted by nothing prof ane. So'Eot: castialticU, 

Penetraliy viz. the sacred vehicle. 

JXgnattir, Deems toorthg of her visits. 

Templo^ sc. the sacred grove. Templum, like r4fjL§vosj denotes 
any place set apart (from tZ/ww) for sacred purposes, ct 9. 

JSfumen ipsum. The goddess herself^ not an image of her ; for the 
Germans have no images of their gods, 9. AUuiiur^ as if contam- 
inated by intercourse with mortals. 

Periturij etc. Which can be seen only on penalty of death. 

XU. Propior^ sc to the Romans. — Hervnianduriyrurn, Ritter 



GERMANIA. 149 

IdentifieB the name (Hermun being omitted, and dur being = 
ihur) and the people with the TAtiringians. - Gf. note, 2 : In- 
ffjevonea. 

yon in ripa. Not only (or not «o much) on the border (the riyer. 
bank), but also within the bounds of the Roman Empire. 

SpUndidimma-colonia, This flourishing colony had no distinc- 
tive name in the age of T. ; called afterwards Augusta Yindelicorum, 
now Augsburg. 

Pamm. Wherever they chose. — Sine custode. Not so others. 
Of. His. 4, 64: ut inermes ac prope nudi, ttib euttode et pretio 
coiremus. 

Cum-08tendamu9, Cnm = vhUe^ aUhouffh, Hence the subj. 

JVon concupUceniibw. Since tJiey were not covetous^ Giin. 6r. 
irenders : though they were not equally desirous of it. 

Noium-audiiur, The Elbe had been seen and crossed by Drusus, 
Domitius, and Tiberius. In the early age of the empire it seems to 
have been the hope to make the Elbe instead of the Rhine the 
boundary line. But now it was known only by hearsay. See a like 
patriotic complaint at the close of 87. 

XLII. Marcomani = men of the marches, or border-men. Sch. 
S., and Latham in loc— /Sede«, sc. Bohemia. — JPulsis olim Boiis^ 
of. 28. * 

Deyenerant, sc. a religuorum virtute, I e. the Yaristi and Quad! 
ore not unwortliyy do notfaU short of the bravery of their neighbors, 
the Marcomani. 

Perayiiur. Al. protegitur^ porrigitur^ etc. Different words are 
supplied as the subject of peragitur, e. g. Passow iter, ; Rit. eursus ; 
E. froM, The last is preferable. The meaning is : This country 
(sc. of these tribes) is the front, so to speak (i. e. the ^art facing the 
Jiomans) of Germany, so far as it is formed by the Danube, i. e. so 
far as the Danube forms the boundary between Germany and the 
Roman Empire. 

Marobodui. Of. Ann. 2, 62 ; Suet Tib. 87. 

ExUmos, sc. reges, viz. the kings of the Hermunduri. Ann. 2, 
62. — Potentia, Power irrespective of right Potestas is lawful a«- 
thoriiy. See note, 7. 

Nee minus valeni, sc being aided by our money, than they would 
be if they were reinforced by our arm. This clause in some copies 
stands at the beginiung of 48. 



150 • NOTES. 

XLm. JRetro. Back from the Danube and the Roman bord^ 
-^BeferutU, Resemble, Poetieal, cfl 20. 

Et quod peUiurUur, Bc, proves that they are oot of German origin. 
They paid tribute M/oreiffnera, The Gothini were probably a rem- 
nant of the expelled Boil Cf. note, 28, and Prichard, as there cited. 
Hence their Gallic language. 

Quo magia pudent. They have iron beyond even most of the 
Germans (ct 6), but (shame to teU) do not know how to use it in 
assertmg their independence. Subj. H. 497, 11. 2 ; A. and G. S17, 
b;Z. 686. 

Pauca eampegtrium. Poetical, but not uncommon in the later 
Latin. So 41: secretiora Germaniae; His. 4, 28: extrema Gallia^ 
rum. H. 897, 3 ; Z. 486. 

Jugum, A mountain chain. — Vertieea. DiaHnd summits. 

Insederunt. This word usually takes a dat., or an abL, with in. 
But the poets and later prose-writers use it as a transitive verb 
with the Bcc,=have aettled, inhabited. Of. H. 872; Z. 886; and 
Freund sub voce. Observe the comparatively unusual form of the 
perf. 8d plur. in -erunt instead of -ere. Of. note, His. 2, 20. 

Nomen = gens. So nomen Latinum =: Latins. Liv. pass. 

Inierpretatione Romano. So we are everywhere to understand 
Roman accounts of the gods of other nations. They transferred to 
them the names of their own divinities according to some slight, 
perhaps fancied, resemblance. Cf. note, 84: guicquid consent 
aimus. 

Ea via numiniy I e. these gods render the same service to the 
Germans, as Castor and Pollux to the Romans. 

Aleia^ dat. pi. Perhaps from the Slavonic word holey = xovpo^^ 
Greek for Castor and Pollux. Referable to no German root. 

Pcrcgrinae^ sc. Greek or Roman. — Tamen. Though these gods 
bear no visible trace of Greek or Roman origin, yet they are wor- 
shipped as brothers, as youths, like the Oreek and Roman Twina. — 
JSuperatiHonia = religionis. Cf. notes. His. 8, 68 1 6, 13. 

Zenocinantur. Cherish, increase. Used rhetorically ; properly, 
to pander. — Arte, sc. nigra scuta, etc. — Tempore, sc. atras noctes, etc. 
-^Tineta = tattooed. 

Jpaague formidine, etc. And hy the very /rightfulness and 
shadow of the deathlike army. Umbra may be taken of the 
literal shadows of the men in the night, with Rit., or with Dod. 



GEKHANIA. 151 

and Or., oi the general imaffe or aspect of the army. Feralis^ 
as an adj., is found only in poetry and post-Augustan prose. See 
Freund. 

Gothones, Perhaps the Getae of earlier and the Goths of later 
history. See Or. in loc. and Grimm and other authorities as there 
cited. The Rttgii have peipetuated their name in an island of the 
Baltic (Rugen). 

Addueiiua. Lit with tighter rein, toUh more dbaolute power^ cf. 
His. 8, 7: adductius, quam civili bello, imperltabat. The adv. ia 
used only in the comp. ; and the part adductus is poat-Augustan. 
Jam and nondum both have reference to the writer's progress in 
going over the tribes of Germany, those tribes growing less and less 
free as he advances eastward : already under more subjection than 
the foregoing tribes, but not yet in such abject slavery, as some 
we shall soon reach, sc. in the next chapter, where see note on 
/am. 

Supra, So as to trample down liberty and destroy it. 

Protinue deinde ab, etc. N^exi in order ^ from the ocean^ i. e. with 
territory beginning from or at the ocean. 

XLIY. Suionum, Swedee, Not mentioned under this name, 
however, by any other ancient author. 

Jpeo, The Rugii, etc., mentioned at the close of the previous 
section, dwelt by the ocean {ah Oceano) ; but the Sutones in the 
ocean (in Oceano). Ipso marks this antithesis. 

In Oceano, An island in the Baltic. Sweden was so regarded 
by the ancients, cf. 1, note. 

Utrimque prora, Naves biprorae. Such also had the Veneti, 
Gaes. B. G. 8, 18. Such Germanicus constructed. His. 8, 47. So 
also the canoes of the K. Am. Indians. 

Ministranturj sc. naves = the ships are not furnished with saifs^ 
cf. His. 4, 12 : viros armaque ministrant Or it may be taken in 
the more literal sense : are served, i. e. worked, managed. Cf. Yirg. 
Aen. 6, 302 : velisque ministrat. — In ordinem. For a rovj^ i, e. so 
as to form a row, cf. Z. 814 ; H. 486, 1. : also Bit and Dod. in loc. 
The Northmen (Danes and Swedes) became afterwards still more 
famous for navigation and piratical excursions, till at length they 
settled down in great numbers in France and England. 

In ^ibusdam Huminum, Bivers with steep banks require the 
oars to be removed in order to approach the bank. 



152 NOTES. 

Est-honos, Contrary to the usual fact in Germany, cf. 6. 

JSxcepHonibtu, Limitationt, — Jam. Now, i. e. kerCj opposed to 
ih% foregoing accounts of free states and limited monarchies. 

Frecario, Properly : obtained by entreaty. Hence : dependent on 
ike vnU of another, cf. A. 16. — Parendi, A gerund with passive 
sense, lit. toith no precarious right of being obeyed. So Pass., E., 
Wr., and Gun. 

In promiscuo. The privilege of wearing arms is not conceded 
to the mass of the people. — I^ quidem = et eo, and thai too, 

Otiosa-manus. Al otiosae by conjecture. But manus, a coUeo* 
tive noun sing., takes a pi. verb, cf. H. 461, 1 ; A. and G. 206, c ; Z. 
866. 

Jiegia utUitas est = regibus utile est. 

XLV. Pigrum, Cf. A. 10 : pigrum et grave. The Northern or 
Frozen Ocean, of which T. seems to have heard, though some refer 
it to ii\fi northern part of the Baltic. See Ey. in loc. For the pos- 
sible origin of this theory, see Smith's Clas. Diet., article Pytheas of 
Massilia. 

Hinc. For this reason, viz. quod extremvSj etc. 

In ortus. Till the risings (pi.) of the sun, i. e. from day to day 
successively. It was known in the age of T. that the longest day 
grew longer towards the north, till at length it became six months 
(cf. Plin. N. H. 2, 11), though T. supposed it to be thus long at a 
lower latitude than it really was, cf. A. 12. 

Sonum-aspici, The aurora borealis, some suppose. 

Persuasio adjicit. The common belief adds, \,t,Uis further fcc 
lieved, cf. His. 6, 6. 13 : persuasio inerat. 

lUuo^naiura, Tantum is to be connected with Ulue usque. 
Thus far only nature extends. So thought the ancients. Cf. A. 88 : 
in ipso terrarum ae naturae fine. Et verafama is parenthetic. The 
author endorses this part of the story. 

Ergo marks a return from the above digression. 

Stieffici maris. The Baltic. 

Aestiorum = eastern men, modem Esthonians. Their language 
was probably neither German nor Briton, but Slavonic. 

Matrem Leum, Cybele, as the Romans interpreted it, cf. 43. 

Insigne-gestant. Worn, as amulets. 

Frumenta Uxhorant, i, e. labor for or to produce com. Cf. Hor. 
Epod. 6, 60. Laborare is transitive only in poetry and post-AugoS' 



GERMANIA. 163 

tan prose. Elahorare would imply too much art for the anthor^s 
purpose. See Bit. in loc 

Suecinum, Amber, an important article of commerce in early 
ages, combining some vegetable juice (hence the Latin name, from 
tueeus) with some mineral ingredients. — Glesum, This name was 
transferred to glas8y when it came into use. The root is German. 
Compare x^^C^ ^^^ 

Nee = non tamen. Yet it U not, etc. 

Ui barbaria, Cf. ut inter barbaros, A. 11. Barbaria is datire 
in apposition with tw, which is understood after eompertum, 

Quae-r<a%o, What power or process of nature, 

Donee-dedU. Cf. note, Zl : affectavere, 

Flerumque, Often; a limited sense of the word peculiar to 
post-Augustan Latin. Cf. 6. 18 : ipsa plerumqw fama beUa profit 
pant ; and Freund ad v. 

Quae-eaqfressa = quorum succtis ezpressus, etc. 

Jn tarUum, To such a degree. Frequent only in late Latui. 

A servitute. They fall short of liberty in not being free, like 
most of the Germans ; and they fall below slavery itself, in that they 
are slaves to a woman. 

XLYL Venedorum et Fennorum, Modem Vend* and Mnns, or 
Fen-men. Cf. Latham in loc. — Ae torpor procerum. The chief men 
are lazy and stupid, besides being filthy, like all the rest. 

Foedantur, Cf. iufectos, 4. — Habitum, here personal appear- 
ance, cf. note, 17. — Ez moribus, sc. Sarmatarum. 

Frigitur, Middle sense, liaise themselves^ or rise, cf. evolvun- 
tur, 89. 

FigufU, HfiYeJixed habitations, in contrast with the Sarmatians, 
who lived in carts. Cf. Ann. 13, 64: fixerant domes FrisiL Al. 
fingunt, 

Barmatis, The stock of the modem Russians, cf. 1, note. 

CubUe, We should expect cubili to correspond with victui and 
vesiittUi, But cf. note, 18 : referantur ; 20 : ad patrem, etc. 

Comitantur, i, e. feminae comitantur viris. 

Ifigemere-illaborare. Toil and groan upon houses and lands, i. e. 
in building and tilling them ; though some understand domibfus and 
agris as the places in which they toil. 

Vetsare, To be constantly employed in increasing the fortune 
of themselves and others, a^tated meanwhile by hope and fear. 



154 NOTEa 

Seeuri, Because they hare nothing to lose. 

Iliis. Emphatic. Thei/^ unlike others, have no need, etc Ct 
apud illoSf 44. 

In medium relinqtiam. Leave for the public, i. e. undecided. 
Rdinquere in medio is the more common expression. Botticher in 
his Lex. Tac. explains it, as equivalent by Zeugma to in medium 
vocatum relinquam in medio. So in Greek, i¥ and us often inter- 
change. 



^ 



AGEIOOLA. 



It was under the shadow of the imperial halls which crowned the 
Palatine, girded about with the ponderous illustrations of Bome's 
inyincible strength, when the empire had just reached the cHmaz <^ 
its greatness, that Tacitus wrote his narratiTes of the wilds <^ Ger- 
many and Britain. How little did he imagme that the most appre- 
ciattre students of his writings would come from the faraway terri- 
tory of these wildernesses, when Rome would be chi^y ralued by 
the world as a vast museum of ruins, and his writings would become 
preSmineutly precious, not because of what they told of Romans, but 
because in theb pages the German and the Briton could find a few 
leaves of his own family record I 

Tacitus wrote his Agricola as a tribute of lore to a rcTcred fa- 
ther and friend: we ei\joy it rather as a story of England than of 
Rome. If we find that our blood is stirred to a quicker moiremeDt 
by our involuntary enthusiasm for Agricola, we yet nyoice that he 
found his campaigns arduous and his victories dearly bought, be- 
cause of the prowess of the men who fou^t for thdr freedom and 
their homes; if we admire his generalship, we are glad that it re- 
quired all the skill and persistency of an Agricola to reduce Britain 
to a Roman province. We do indeed love to cherish in fond remem- 
brance the manly virtues of the Roman commander, because we 
give a tribute of admiration to every form of human greatness ; but 
we search for the elements of strength in his uncivilized enemies 
with the feeling that they have a personal connection with ourselves. 

It is true that our family connection with the Britons of the time 
of Caesar and Agricola is at the most veiy finnt ; but they occupied 
the fiuBily homestead, and on their departure left behind them many 
a relic, the footprints of their life and labors, and their silent influ- 
ence has descended upon us. We gather with keen seat all the 
facts which are left to tell us who and wliat tiiey were. 
11 



156 NOTES. 

We know that these andent Britons in their blood-connection 
were Celts, belonging to the great race which was the advance 
guard of all whom we know as Aryan tribes in thdr emigration to 
the west, which, in its Tarions divisions, stretched its camping- 
grounds over almost the whole of Europe and even into a portion of 
Africa, and has left everywhere affixed to mountains and rivers the 
Celtic names which are the indL<tputable proof of its prodigious jour- 
neyings. It is only in the extreme west that they have been per- 
mitted to retain a home, and even two thousand years ago they were 
being crowded to the margm of the continent In (Hul, or modem 
France, and Britain they were then fighting to maintain their indepen- 
dence, and, though greatly divided in thdr tribal and political connec- 
tions, they recognized thdr common lineage, and felt for each other 
a common sympathy. The association between Britain and the con- 
tinent was tolerably close. Caesar was incited to conquer the island 
by the assistance which its inhabitants had given to the Gauls : the 
houses were like tliose upon the mainland;* a trade of considerable 
extent was sustiuned — altogether the civilization of the islanders 
was probably little if at all inferior to that of their continental 
cousins. And so, in the matter of talent, Agricola draws a com- 
parison between the two nations which is by no means unfavorable 
to the Briton.+ 

If we may trust the tradition handed down through a Roman 
poet three or four centuries before the Christian era, the Cartha- 
ginian Himilco described them as a numerous race, endowed wilh 
spirit, very dexterous, all busy with the cares of trade. There 
seems to be no possible doubt that from a most remote antiquity 
they were brought in contact with the commerce of the outside 
world, which sought eagerly for the product of their tin-mines. 
Strabo speaks of them as exporting also gold, iron, silver, com, cattle, 
skins, fleeces, and dogs>. The barrow tombs which have been opened, 
to reveal to the people of our generation the secreted relics of that 
old Celtic Hfe, have shown pottery of graceful forms, rings of gold, 
and a variety of objects evincing a considerable knowledge of the 
metallic arts. Thus from various sources we gain the evidence that 
the Britons had at least reached a pomt very far above the condi- 
tions of savages, 

• Caea. Comm. v., 18. t Ag. zzi. 



i 



AGRICOLA. 157 

Their government was in the hands of kings, but these ruled 
oyer very sraall dominions. The little proTinoe of Kent, the south- 
eastern corner of the island, was divided among four of these pettj 
sovereigns. The law of descent was apparently not unvarying ; even 
a woman, as in the case of Boadicea, might attain to the supreme 
power.* The authority of the chief was undoubtedly limited by the 
popular assembly which seems to have belonged to the primitive 
governments of all the Aryan tribes, and which we find in actual ses- 
sion in the references by Livy to the Gauls of southern France. The 
priests were, moreover, a most important element in the Celtic con- 
stitution, forming a power behind the throne which in many cases 
tlirust itself very far to the front. 

In their warfare the people proved that they were lacking neither 
in bravery nor in skill. It is in fact in connection with the accounts 
of their campaigns that we gain some of the strongest evidences of 
their advancement towards civilization. Cavalry was a strong arm 
of their service. They were even more famous, however, for their 
chariots, which they used with genuine Homeric energy, driinng with 
terrible shock and uproar against the enemy^s lines, and then dis- 
mounting to fight on foot when they found themselves among their 
foes. The Roman commander and historian felt bound to speak 
with admiration of the dexterity with which they guided and man- 
OBuvred their horses.f He even lets fall the confession that his 
heavy-armed legions were by no means a match for such an enemy. 
The art of fortification was certainly not ignored among them, as the 
capital of Cassivelaunus was declared by Caesar to have been ex- 
tremely strong, both by nature and art After all of Csssar's efforts 
for the subjugation of the island, it is the verdict of Tacitus that he 
accomplished little more than to prepare the way for those who were 
to follow. 

In religion the ancient Britons were bound fast under the power 
of the Druids. What this faith was or whence it came is a question 
which we can answer only in the most indefinite terms. The analogy 
of history would suggest that the system was imported from the 
East, and the character of the faith certainly points to the same 
conclusion. Tradition has taught us to shudder at the mysteries of 
its consecrated oak-groves, its superstitious reverence for the mistle- 

•Oaes.v.,9d. tOMS.iv,88. 



158 NOTKa 

toe, its horrid delight in human sacrifices. It was a faith which un- 
doubtedly covered some dark superstitions, but it also inculcated 
some truths of inestimable value. Among these was a belief in one 
Supreme Being, in the immortality of the soul, and in a future 
state of rewards and punishments, its teaching with regard to the 
ihture including also a theory of tiie transmigration of souls. It 
professed to reform morals, to secure peace, to encourage goodness. 
The Druids had manifestly made some progress in the study of 
astronomy, and they pretended to possess an extended knowledge of 
^e healing art. Their organization was quite complete, and they 
gained an influence over their followers wbfch secured to them enor- 
mous power. Caesar tells us that in Gaul there were only two 
classes of men held iu any honoiv- the Druids and the nobles. "The 
Druids preside in matters of religion, and interpret the will of the 
gods. They haTc the direction and education of the youth, by whom 
they are held in great honor. In almost all controrersies, whether 
public or private, the decision is left to them." This description is 
given with immediate reference to Gaul, but the system was the 
same on both sides of the channeL Britam was regarded, however, 
as rather the stron^old of the fiuth, and hither the Gallic youth 
who wanted the most complete training in its mysterious lore were 
sent to pursue their education, spending oftentimes twenty years In 
possesung themselves of its stores of wisdom. 

Mr. Nicholas, in his ** Pedigree of the English People,*' after 
stating such facts as he could gather with regard to these early Britons, 
sums up his conclusions in the following words : " Do not these 
fkcts and considerations present the ancient Britons as a people free, 
industrious, ingenious, spirited, with some knowledge of the arts of 
life, working in metals, commercially enterprising, ready to welcome 
strangers, holding intimate communication with the continent, sub- 
sisting in small kingdoms, each under its hereditary sovereign, prov* 
ing their respect for woman by entitling her to the throne, and so far 
advanced in intellectual, religious, and general culture, that the Gauls 
sent their sons to Britain for the most advanced education, especial- 
ly in that higher department of wisdom especially presided over by 
the Druids? " Such a people are certainly very far removed from 
mere barbarism. 

In the days of Agricola, Tacitus informs us that the people were 
very much divided among themselves, through the J^ousy and 



1 



AGRIOOLA. 159 

bickering of chiefs even more petty than th^ kings. They were 
obi^OQsly in an evil condition for resisting the might of the Roman 
JBmpire. And yet they proved to be no mean adversaries. Their 
spirit was high ; their governors needed policy, but were not wantmg 
In courage ; they might obey, but they would not be slaves. Where 
extreme necessity drove them to combine, they evinced no despicable 
Strength ; but it was only rarely that even a few states would be 
made to act together. When the Boman arms went northward into 
the very borders of Scotland, it was agam the old Roman weapon : 
the discord of the Britons availed even more than the arm of Agri- 
Gola. H. M.T. 

The biography of Agricola was written early in the reign of Tra- 
jan (which commenced A. U. C. 861, A. B. 98), consequently about 
the same time with the Germania, though perhaps somewhat later 
(cf. notes on Germania). This date is established by inference from 
the author's own language in the 8d and the 44th sections (see 
notes). In the former he speaks of the dawn of a better day, which 
opened indeed with the reign of Nerva, but which is now brighten- 
ing constantly under the auspices of Trajan. The use of the past 
tense (miscuerit) here in respect to Nerva, and of the pres^it (augeat) 
in respect to Tnyan, is quite conclusive evidence that, at the time of 
writing, the rdgn of Nerva was past, and that of Trajan had already 
begun. 

The other passage is, if possible, still more clearly demonstrative 
of the same date. Here in drawing the same contrast between past 
tyranny and present freedom, the author, without mentioning Nerva, 
records the desire and hope, which his father-in-law expressed in his 
hearings that he might live to see Trajan elevated to the imperial 
throne^language very proper and courtly, if Trajan were already 
Emperor, but a very awkward compliment to Nerva, if, as many 
critics suppose, he were still the reigning prince. 

It is objected to this date that, if Nerva were not still living, Taci- 
tus could not have failed to attach to his name (in § 3) the epithet 
JHtmSf with which deceased Emperors were usually honored. And 
from the omission of this epithet in connection with the name of 
NervCy together with the terms of honor in which IVaJan is men- 
tioned, it is inferred that the piece was written in that brief period 
of three months, which intervened between the adoption of Trajan 
by Nerva, and Nervals death (see Brotier and many others). But 



160 NOTES. 

the application of the epithet in question was not a matter of neoes- 
Bity, or of UDirersal practice. Its omission in this case might hare 
been accidental, or might have proceeded from unknown reasons. 
And the bare absence of a single word surely cannot be entitled to 
much weight, in comparison with the obvious and almost necessary 
import of the passages just cited. 

The primary object of the work is suflBciently obnous. It was 
to honor the memory of the writer's excellent father-in-law, Agricola 
(cf. § 8: honor! Agricolae, md soceri, destinatus). So &r from 
apologizing for writing the life of so near a friend, he feels assured 
that his motives will be appreciated and his design approved, how- 
ever imperfect may be its execution ; and he deems an apology nec- 
essary for having so long delayed the performance of that filial duty. 
After an introduction of singular beauty and appropriateness (ct 
notes), he sketches a brief outline of the parentage, education, and 
early life of Agricola, but draws out more at length the history of 
his consulship and command in Britain, of which the following sum- 
mary, from nume's ** History of England," may not be unprofitable 
to the student in anticipation : ^ Agricola was tlie general who final- 
ly established the dominion of the Ronoans in this island. He gov- 
erned it in the reigns of Vespasian, Titus, and Bomitian. He car- 
ried his victorious arms northward ; defeated the Britons in every 
encoimter, pierced into the forests and the mountains of Caledonia, 
reduced every state to subjection in the southern parts of the island, 
and chased before him all the men of fiercer and more intractable 
spirits, who deemed war and death itself less intolerable than servi- 
tude under the victors. He defeated them in a decisive action 
which they fought under Galgacus ; and having fixed a chain of gar- 
risons between the friths of Clyde and Forth, he cut off the ruder 
and more barren parts of the island, and secured the Roman prov- 
ince from the incursions of the more barbarous inhabitants. During 
these military enterprises, he neglected not the arts of peace. He 
introduced laws and civility among the Britons ; taught them to de- 
sire and raise all the conveniences of life ; reconciled them to the 
Roman language and manners ; instructed them in letters and sci- 
ence ; and employed every expedient to render those chains which 
he had forged both easy and agreeable to- them." (His. of Eng., 
vol. I.) 

The history of Agricola during this period is of course the his- 



\ 



AGRICOLA. 161 

tory of Britain. Accordingly the author prefaces it with an outline 
of the geographical features, the situation, soil, climate, productions, 
and^ so far as known to the Romans, the past history of the island. 
Tacitus possessed peculiar advantages for being the historian of the 
early Britons. His father-in-law was the first to subject the whole 
i.'^land to the sway of Rome. He traversed the country from south 
to north at the head of his armies, explored it with his own eyes, 
and reported what he saw to our author with his own lips. He saw 
the Britons, too, in their native nobleness, in their primitive love of 
liberty and virtue ; before they had become the slaves of Roman 
anns, the dupes of Roman arts, or the victims of Roman vices. A 
few paragraphs in the concise and nervous style of Tacitus have 
made us quite acquainted with the Britons, as Agricola found them ; 
and on the whole, we have no reason to be ashamed of the primeval 
inhabitants of the land of our ancestry. They knew their rights, 
they prized them, they fought for them bravely and died for them 
nobly. More harmony among themselves might have delayed, but 
oould not have prevented, the final catastrophe. Rome in the age 
of Trajan was urresistible ; and Britain became a Roman province. 
This portion of the Agricola of Tacitus, and the Germania of the 
same author, entitle him to the peculiar affection and lasting grati- 
tude of those whose veins flow with Briton and Anglo-Saxon blood, 
as the historian, and the contemporary historian too, of their early 
fathers. It is a notable providence for us — ^nay, it is a kind provi- 
dence for mankind — that has thus preserved, from the pen of the 
most sagacious and reflectmg of all historians, an account, too brief 
though it be, of the origin and antiquities of the people that of all 
others now exert the widest dominion, whether in the political or 
the moral world, and that have made those countries, which were in 
his day shrouded in darkness, the radiant pomts for the moral and 
spiritual illuminalion of our race. ** The child is father to the man," 
and if we would at this day investigate the elements of English law, 
we have it on the authority of Sir William Blackstone that we must 
trace them back to their founders in the customs of the Tritons and 
Germans, as recorded by Caesar and Tacitus. 

With the retirement of Agricola from the conmiand in Britain, 
the author falls back more into the province of biography. The few 
occasional strokes, however, in which the pencil of Tacitus has 
sketched the character of Domitian in the background of the picture 



162 NOTES. 

of Agricola, are the more to be prized, because his history of thai 
reign is lost. 

In narrating the closing scenes of Agricola*s life, Tacitus breathes 
the Tery spirit of an affectionate son, irithottt sacrificing the impar- 
tiality and grayity of the historian, and combines all a monmer's 
simplicity and sincerity with all the orator's dignity and eloquence. 

How tenderly he dwells on the wisdom and goodness of his de- 
parted father; how artlessly he intersperses his own sympathies and 
regrets, even as if he were breathing out his sorrows amid a circle 
of sjrmpathizing friends I At the same time, how instmctire are his 
reflections, how noble his sentiments, and how weighty his words, as 
if he were pronouncing an eutogium in the hearing of the world and 
of posterity ! The sad experience of the writer in the very troubles 
through which he follows Agricola conspires with the affectionate 
remembrance of his own loss in the death of such a father to give a 
tinge of meUncholy to the whole biography; and we should not 
know where to look for the composition, in which so perfect a work 
of art is animated by so warm a heart In both these respects it is 
decidedly superior to the Germania. It is marked by the same 
depth of thought and conciseness in diction, but it is a higher effort 
of the writer, while, at the same time, it gives us more insight into 
the character of the man. It has less of satire and more of senti- 
ment. Or if it is not richer in refined sentiments and beautiful re- 
flections, they are interwoven with the narrative in a manner more 
easy and natural. The sentiments seem to be only the language of 
Agricola*s virtuous heart, and the reflections, we feel, could not fail 
to occur to such a mind in the contemplation of such a character. 
There is also more ease and flow in the language ; for, concise as it 
still is and studied as it may appear, it seems to be the very style 
which is best suited to the subject and most natural to the author. 
In another writer, we might call it labored and ambitious. 
But we cannot feel that it cost Tacitus very much effort Still less 
can we charge him with an attempt at display. In short, an air of 
confidence in the dignity of the subject, and in the powers of the 
author, pervades the entire structure of this fine specimen of biog- 
raphy. And the reader will not deem that confidence ill-grounded. 
He cannot ful to regard this as among the noblest, if not the very 
noblest monument ever reared to the memory of any individual. 

*' We find in it the flower of all the beauties which T. has scat- 



AGRICOLA. 163 

tered through his other works. It is a eluf-^ceuvre^ which satisfies 
at once the judgment and the fancy, the imagination aud the heart 
It is justly proposed as a model of historical eulogy. The praises 
bestowed have in them nothing vague or far-fetched ; they rise from 
the simple facts of the narrative. Every thing produces attachment ; 
every thing conveys instruction. The reader loves Agricola, admires 
him, conceives a passion for him, accompanies him in his campaigns, 
shares in his disgrace, and profits by his example. The interest goes 
on growing to the last. And when it seems incapable of further 
increase, passages pathetic aud sublime transport the soul out of 
itself, and leave it the power of feeling only to detest the tyrant, 
and to melt into tenderness, without weakness, over the destiny of 
the hero." (La Bletterie.) 



I. Untatum, A participle in the ace. agreeing with the preced- 
ing clause, and forming with that clause the object of the verb omi- 
eit. — Ne-gwdem, Cf. G. 6, note. 

IncurioM morum. So Ann. 2, 88 : dum Vetera extollimus, re- 
centium incuriosi. Jneurio8iu is post- Augustan. 

Ne-omiiit, Referring perhaps to the works alluded to at the 
commencement of the next chapter. 

Vtrtua vicU-viHum, Alliteration, which is not unfrequent in T., 
as also homoeoteleuta, words ending with like sounds. Br. 

Jgnorantiam'4nvid9am, The gen. recti limits both substantives, 
which properly denote different faults; but since they are- usually 
associated, they are here spoken of as one {vUiitm), 

In aperto. Literally, in the open field or way ; hence, /ree/rom 
ehelruetione, Sal. (Jug. 6) uses it for in open day, or clear light. 
But that sense would be inappropriate here. JEa»y, Not essentially 
different from pronum^ which properly means indined^ and hence 
eaty. These two words are brought together in like manner in 
other passages of our author, cf. 33 : vota virtusque in aperto^ om- 
niaque prona victoribus. An inelegant imitation may be thus ex- 
pressed in English : down-hill and open-ground work. 

Sine graUa aut ambitione, Withoui courting favor or eeeJdng 
preferment Oraiia properly refers more to the present, amhitio to 



164 NOTES. 

the future. Cf. Ann. 6, 46 : Tiberio non perinde gratia praesentium, 
quam in posteros ambitio. AnUnHo is here used in a bad sense (as 
it is sometimes in Cic). For still another bad sense of the word, c£ 
G. 21. 

Cdeherrimiu guisgue. Such men as Pliny the elder, Claudius 
PoUio, and Julius Secundus, wrote biographies. Also Rusticus and 
Senecio. See chap. 2. 

PUrique, Not most persons, but many, or very many. Cf. His. 
1, 86, and 4, 84, where it denotes a less number than pUtret and 
plurimi, to which it is allied in its root (pie, ple-us, plus, plerua. 
See Freund ad v.). 

Suam ipri viiam. Autobiography. . Cic. in his Epist. to Luccdus 
says : If I cannot obtain this favor from you, I shall perhaps be 
compelled to write my own biography, mvUarym exemplo el danyrum 
virorum. When ipee is joined to a possessive pronoun in a reflexive 
clause, it takes the case of the subject of the clause. Cfl Z. 696, 
note; H. 462, 1 ; A. and G. 196, L 

Mdudam morum. A mark o/eaneeioiu integrity ; literally con- 
fidence of, i. e. in their morals. Morvm is objective gen. For the 
two accusatives (one of which, however, is the clause mam-narrare) 
after arlntrcUi mnt, see Z. 894 ; H. 878 ; A. and G. 289. A gen. 
may take the place of the latter ace, eue being understood, 
Z.448; H. 878, 1., N. 1. 

Hutilio. Rutilius Rufus, consul A. U. C. 649, whom Cic. (Brut 
80, 114) names as a profcuad scholar in Greek literature and 
philosophy, and Velleius (2, 18, 2) calls the best man, not merely 
of his own, but of any age. He wrote a Roman history in 
Greek.. Plut. Mar. 28. His autobiography is mentioned only by 
Tacitus. 

Seauro, M. Aemilius Scaurus, consul A. U. C. 689, who wrote 
an autobiography, which Cic. (Brut 29, 112) compares favorably 
with the Cyropaedia of Xenophon. 

Citra fidem. Cf. note, G. 16. — Aut obtreetationi. Enallage, ct 
note, G. 16. Render: 7%u in the ease ofButiliua and Scaurtu did 
not impair (public) eonfidence nor incur (public) centure. 

Adeo. To aueh a degree, or to true it it. Adeo conolusiva, et in 
initio sententiae collocata, ad mediam latinitatem pertinet Dr. Livy 
uses adeo in this way often ; Cic. uses tantum. 

At nunc, etc. But now (in our age so different from those better 



AGRICOLA. 165 

days) in undertaking to write (i. e. if I had undertaken to write) ih§ 
life of a man at the time of hie deathy I should have needed permis- 
sion; which I would not have asked, since in that case I should have 
fallen on times so cruel and hostile to virtue. The reference is par- 
ticularly to the time of Domitian, whose jealousy perhaps occasioned 
the death of Agricola, and would have been ofifended by the Tery 
asking of permission to write his biography. Accordingly, the his- 
torian proceeds in the next chapter to illustrate the treatment which 
the biographers of eminent men met with from that cruel tyrant. 
Opus fuit stands instead of opus fuisset, Cf. His. 1, 16 : dignus 
tram; 8, 22: roJtio fuit; and Z. 618, 619. The concise mode of 
using the future participles narraiuro and ineursaiurus (in place of 
the yerb in the proper mood and with the proper conjunctions, if, 
when, since) belongs to the silver age, and is foreign to the language 
of Cicero. Such is the interpretation, which, after a thorough rein- 
yestigation, I am now inclined to apply to this much-disputed pas- 
sage. It is that of Ritter. It will be seen that the text also differs 
slightly from that of the first edition (in-eursaturus instead of ni 
cursaiurus). Besides the authority of Bit, Dod., Freund, and others, 
I have been influenced by a regard to the usage of Tacitus, which 
lends no sanction to a transitive sense of cursare. Gf. Ann. 16, 60 ; 
His. 6, 20. In many editions, mihi stands before nunc narraturo. 
But nunc is the emphatic word, and should stand first, as it does in 
the best MSS. 

II. Legimus, Quis? Tacitus ejusdemque aetatis homines alii. 
Ubi? In actis diumis. Wr. These ^'oumoZs (Fiske*s Man. p. 626, 
4. ed.) published such events (cf. Dio. 67, 11), and were read through 
the empire (Ann. 16, 22). T. was absent from Bome when the 
events here referred to took place (cf. 46 : longae absentiae). Hence 
the propriety of his saying legimuSy rather than vidimus or memini' 
musy which have been proposed as corrections. 

Artdeno Rusiieo, Put to death by Domitian for writing a me- 
moir or panegyric on Paetns Thrasea, cf. Suet Dom. 10. 

Paetus Thrasea. Cf. Ann. 16, 21: Trucidatis tot insignibus 
viris, ad postremum Nero virtutem ipsam exscindere concupivit, in- 
terfecto Thrasea Paeto. 

Herennio Senedoni, Cf. Plin. (Epist 7, 19), where Senecio is 
said to have written the life of Helvidius at the request of Fannia, 
wife of Helvidius, who was also banished, as accessory to the crime, 



166 N0TB3. 

but who bore into exile the very books which had been the cause of 
her exile. For the dat cf. note, G. 8 : UlixL 

Fri8€U8 HdvidiiUy son-in-law of Thrasea and friend of the yonnger 
Pliny, was put to death by Vespasian. Suet. Vcsp. 15 ; His. 4, 5 ; 
JuY. Sat. 6, 36. 

Lauiati easent. The Imp. and plup. subj. are used in narration 
after cum, even when it denotes time merely. Here, however, a 
causal connection is also intended. H. 521, II. 2 ; A. and 6. 8^ ; Z. 
57Y, 678. 

Triumvirit, The Triumviri at Rome, like the Undecimviri (o2 
Mexa) at Athens, had charge cf the prisons and executions, for 
which purpose they had ei^t lictors at their command. 

Comiiio ae foro. The comitium was a part of the forum. Tet 
the words are often used together (cf. Suet. Caes. 10). The eomitittm 
was the proper place for the punishment of criminals, and the word 
forum suggests the further idea of the publi<uty of the book-burning 
in the presence of the assembled people. 

CofUcienHam, etc. 7^ consciausneskj i. e. eomfnon knowledge of 
mankind; for eanscientia denotes what one knows in common with 
others, as well as what he is conscious of in himselt Ct His. 1, 
25 : conseientiam faeinoria ; Cic. Oat. 1, 1 : omnittm horum con-- 
acientia. In his Annals (4, 35), T. ridicules the stupidity of those 
who expect by any prfsenl power to extinguish the memory also 
of the nexi generation. The sentiment of both passages is just and 
fine. 

Sapieniiae profesaorihua. Philoaophera^ who were banished by 
Domitian, A. D. 94, on the occasion of Rnsticus's panegyric on 
Thrasea. T. not unfrequently introduces an additional eireumdanee 
by the abl. abs., as here. 

Ne occurreret. Ke with the subj. expresses a negative intention ; 
ut non a negative result H. 497, 11. ; A. and G. 831 ; Z. 532. 

Inquiaitumea, A aystem of eapionage^ sc. by the Emperor's tools 
and informers. — Et = etiam, even, Cf. note, 11. Al. etiam, 

Memoriam-perdidiaaemua^ i. e. we should not have dared to re- 
member, if we could have helped it. 

III. JSl guanquam, Et pro aed. So Dr. But nunc demum ani- 
mua redU implies that confidence is hardly restored yet; and the 
reason for so stow a recovery is given in the following clause. Hence 
ei is used in its proper copulative or explicative sense. So Wr. 



AGBICOLA. 167 

Demum is a lengthened fonn of the demonstrative dem, Cf. i-dem^ 
tajk'demy 94. Nunc demum = yvv 8^. Freund. 

Primo tiatinu SUUim giyes emphasis: at the very commence- 
meni, etc. ; cf. note, 20. — DUeodabiUsy incompatible, 

Auffeaique-Trajantu, This marks the date of the composition, 
early in the reign of Trajan. See Introduction. 

Becuritae pubiica, ^^And public tecurity has tueumed not only 
hopes and wiehee, but has seen those wishes rise to confidence and sta- 
bility. Securitas pubiica was a current expression and wish, and 
was frequently inscribed on medals." Ky. 

Assumpserii, This word properly belongs only to fidudam ae 
robur. Spem ae votum would require rather eonceperit Zeugma. 

Subii. Steals in, lit creeps under. Cf. note, H. 1, 18. 

Invisa primo-amatur. The original perhaps of Fope^s lines : 
Vice is a monster, etc 

Quindeeim emnos. The reign of Domitian from A. D. 81 to A. D. 
96. 

Fortuitis casibus. Natural and ordinary death, as opposed to 
death by Tiolence, saevitia principis. — Frompfissimus quisque. The 
ablest, OT aU the ablest, Quisque with a superlative, whether singular 
or plural, is in general equiyalent to omnes with thd positive, with 
the additional idea, however, of a reciprocal comparison among the 
persons denoted by quisque. Z. 710, b ; H. 468, 1. 

Ui ita diterim. An apology for the strong expression nostri 
superstites: survivors not of others only, but, so to speak, of ourselves 
also : for we can hardly be said to have lived under tiie tyranny of 
Dom., and our present happy life is, as it were, a renewed existence 
after being buried for fifteen years. A beautiful conception I The 
use of dixerim in preference to dicam ua this formula is characteiistic 
of the later Latin. Cf. Z. 628. The et before this clause is omitted 
by some editors. But it is susceptible of an explanation, which adds 
spirit to the passage : A few of us survive, and that not merely our- 
selves, but, so to speak, others also. In the Augustan age superstes 
was, for the most part, followed by the dative. 

Tamen, Notwithstanding the unfavorable circnrostanoes in 
which I write, after so long a period of deathlike silence, in which 
we have almost lost the gift of speech, yet I shall not regret to have 
composed even in rude and inelegant language, etc. For the con- 
struction oipig^bit, cf. Z. 441 ; H. 410, IV. ; A. and G. 221, c. 



168 NOTES. 

Ifemoriam-eampondsM. Supposed to refer to his forthcoming 
historji written, or planned and announced, but not yet published. 
Some understand it of the present treatise. But then interim would 
have no meaning ; nor indeed is the language applicable to his AffH' 
cola. 

Interim^ sc. editus or vulgatus, published meanwhile^ i. e. while 
preparing the history. 

The reader cannot but be struck with the beauty of this intro- 
duction. It is modest, and at the same time replete with the dignity 
of conscious worth. It is drawn out to considerable length, yet it is 
all so pertinent and tasteful, that we would not spare a sentence or 
a word. With all the thoughtful and sententious brevity of the ex- 
ordiums of Sallust, it has far more of natural ease and the beauty of 
appropriateness. 

lY. Cnaetu Julius Agricola, Every Roman had at least three 
names : the nomen or name of the gens, which always ended in ius 
(Julius) ; the praenomen or individual name ending in us (Onaeus) ; 
and the cognomen or family name (Agricola). See a brief account 
of A. in Dion Oassius 66, 20. Mentioned only by Dion and T. Al. 
Gnaeus, 0. and G. being originally identical. 

Forojuliensium colonia. Now Frejus. A walled town of Gallia 
Narbonensis, built by Julius Oaesar, and used as a naval sUUion by 
Augustus (cf. His. 3, 43 : elaustra maris). Augustas sent thither 
the beaked ships captured in the battle of Actium, Ann. 4, 5. Hence 
perhaps called illusiris, 

Frocuratorem Caesarum, The procurators had charge of the 
revenue in those provinces which were under the immediate charge 
of the Emperor, in contradistinction from those which were under 
the Senate. 

Quae eguestris-€8i, i. e. the procurator was, as we say, ex officio, 
a Roman knight The office was not conferred on senators. 

JuUus Graecinus. Gf. Sen. de Benef. 2, 21 : f^ exemplo magni 
animi opus est, utemur Graedni Julii, viri egregii, quern 0. Caesar 
occidit ob hoc unum, quod melior vir esset, quam esse quemquam 
tyranno expediret. 

SenaiorU ordinis, Pred. after fait understood, with ellipsis of 
vir. H. 896, V. ; A. and G. 216 and 214, b; Z. 426. 

SapicnUae, Philosophy^ cf. 1. — Caii Cfaesaris, Known in Eng- 
lish histories by the name of Caligula. 



\ 



AGBICOLA. 169 

liareum SUanum, Father-in-law of Caligula, cf. Saet Galig. 28 : 
Snanum item socerum ad necem secandasque noTacola fauces com- 
pulit 

Justus, Supply est. T. often admits esf in the first of two passive 
verbs, cf. 9 : detentus ac statim . . . revocatus est In Hand's Tur- 
sellinus (2,474), however, jussus is explained as a participle, and quia 
banuerat as equivalent to another participle = having been wmmand- 
ed and having refused, 

Abnuerat, lit had refused, because the refusal was prior to the 
slaying. We, with less accuracy, say refused, Z. 606 ; H. 472. 

Barae castilaiis. Ellipsis of mvlier, H. 898, 1 ; A. and G. 214, 
b; Z.426. 

In-indulgeniiaque. Brought up in her bosom and tender love, 
Indulgentia is more frequently used to denote excessive tenderness. 

Arcebat has for its subject the clause, quod statim, etc. He was 
guarded against the allurements of vice by the wholesome influences 
thrown around him in the place of his early education. 

JfassUiam, Now Marseilles. It was settled by a colony of Pho- 
oaeans. Hence Oraeea comitate. Gf. also Cicero's account of the 
high culture and refinement of Massilia (Cic. pro Flacco, 26). — Pro- 
vineiaii parsimonia, Parsimonia in a good sense ; economy^ as op- 
posed to the luxury and extravagance of Italy and the city. 

Locumr-miTaum, Enallage for hcus, in quo mixta erant, etc. H. 
686, lY., cf 26 : mixtl copiis et laetitia. — Bene eompositwn denotes 
a happy combination of the elements, of which mixtum expresses 
only the eo-existence. 

AeriuSj sc. aequo = too eagerly. H. 444, 1 ; A. and G. 93, a ; 
Z. 104, 1, note. 

Coneestum-senatori, Military and civil studies were deemed 
more appropriate to noble Roman youth than literature and philoso- 
phy. Literary pursuits were encouraged, only so fiir as they could be 
proved to be pradieal, of immediate application in political life. 
Senatori must of course refer, not to the office of A., but to his rank 
by birth, cf. senatorii ordinis above. 

Eausisse, ni-coercutsset. An analysis of this sentence shows that 
there is an- ellipsis of hausurum fuisse : he in^ibedy and would have 
continued to imbibe, had not, etc In such sentences, which abound 
in T., but are rarely found in Cic., ni is more readily translated by 
but, Cf. Z. 619, 5 ; and note, His. 8, 28. For ihe application of 



170 NOTBa 

hmtrire to the eager study of philosopbj, of. Hor. Sat. 2, 4, 96 : hau- 
rire vitae praeeepta heatae^ and Note, His. 1, 61 : luaufirufU animo, 

Prudentia mairia. So Nero's mother deterred hun from the 
study of philosophy. Suet. Ner. 52. 

Pulehritudinem ae speciem. The beautiful imoffty or beau id6al, 
by hendiadys. Cf. Gic Or. 2 : speeiea puUMtUidinU, See Bit in loo. 

VehemeniiuB quam ^auU, For vekementiiua guam eov^iM, which 
is the regular Latin construction. T. uses both. Gf. Z. 690) and 
note, His. 1, 83 ; H. 444, 2, and N. 8. 

Max, In T. wbeequently, not presently. R, 

Betinuitque-modum. Andy whai is mod d^ffieuUy he reiaifud/ram 
phiiloaophy moderaium — moderation in all things, but especially in 
doTOtion to philosophy itself, where moderation is difficult in por- 
portion to the excellence of the pursuit, as was shown by the eztrar- 
agance of the Stoics and some other Grecian sects. As to the sense 
otmodum, cf. Hor. Sat. 1, 1, 106 : est modua in rebue ; and for the 
sentiment, Hon Ep. 1, 6, 15 : Inaani eajnen» nomenferat^ aeqwu tni- 
quiy vUra quam eads eat viriutein ai petat ipaam, 

V. Caatrarum, This word is used to express whatever pertains 
to military life, education, etc, as the context may require. Every 
Roman youth who aspired to civil office must have had a military 
education. 

DiligenH ae moderalo. Careful and prudent^ cf. our author's 
character of the same commander, His. 2, 25 : eufutaiar natura, etc. 

Jpprobamt =sfec\% ut &. probarentur. Dr. It is a constructio 
praegnana. He obtained the first rudiments of a military education 
under Paullinus, and he gained his approbation. 

JSUeiua-aeatimaret, Having been ehoaen aa one whom ha wndd 
estimate (i. e. test his merit) by making him hia companion and aid. 
The word eontubemiwn lost in later times its literal meaning, so that 
they could properly be called oontubemalcs without really living 
under one tent Cicero even applies the term to Caesar and Quiri- 
DU8, because the statue of the former stood in the temple of the 
latter. Young men of rank and promise were thus associated with 
Roman commanders. Cf. Suet Caes. 2. T., as usual, avoids the 
technical way of expressing the relation. Ad verbum, eontubemium^ 
of. note. His. 1, 48. Others make aeatimaret = digmtm aeatimaret, 
and eontubemio abl. of price. Cf. Bdd. and Dr. 

JAcenter-^egnitary sc agens. Lieenter refers to voA^ptofes, aegmter 



AGRICOLA. 171 

to commeaitu, — Commeatu$ ^zfurhu^hs, aUenee from duty. — Inaci" 
Oam^ 8C. tribunatus = ignorance of hit official duly or inexperience in 
war. — ReiuLil, Referre ad is used very much like the ccHresponding 
English, Tiz. to refer to an object, or devote to an end. Sense : He 
did not take advanioffe of his official standing and hie military inex- 
perienee, to give up hie Hme to ease and pUaeure, Wr. takes retulii 
in the more ordinary sense of brought back, thus : A. did not bring 
back (to Rome) the empty name of Tribune and no military experi- 
ence, there to give himself up to lebure and pleasure. The former 
Torsion accords better with the language of the whole passage. Wr. 
questions the authority for such a use of referre. But it may be 
found, e. g. Plin. Episi. 1, 22: nihil ad ostentationem, omnia ad 
conscientiam refert. 

' Noeoere^oeeiy etc. T. is fond of such a series of inf. depending 
on some one finite verb understood, and hence closely connected 
with each other, cf. G. 80: praeponerey etc., note. Here supply from 
retuUt in the preceding number the idea : he made ii hie bueineea or 
aim to knoWf etc. The author's fondness for antithesis is very ob- 
eerrable m the several successive pairs here : noscere-notei ; diecere^ 
eequi; appetere-reeueare ; anxiue^nlentue. 

In jaetationem, AL jactatione. In denoting the object or pur« 
pose, Z. 814 : he coveted no appointment for the sake of display; he 
dedined none through fear. 435, L 

Anxius and intentus qualify agere like adverbs, ef. R. Eze. 28, 1. 
Ife conducted himself both toith prudence and with energy. 

ExcrdiaHor = agitatior. So Gc. Som. Scip. 4 : agitatus et exer- 
citatus animus ; and Hor. Epod. 9, 81 : Syrtes Koto exercitatas. 

Incensae coloniae, Camalodunum, Londinium, and Yerulamium. 
Cf. Ann. 14, 88, where, however, the historian does not expressly 
say the last two were burned. The first of these seems to have 
been the only Oolonia. The veterans were established there A. D. 
48, by Claudius. The place fell into the hands of the Britons, in the 
revolt of Boadicea. 

In ambiguo = ambigua, in a critical state. R. 

AlteriuSf sc. duci3.— ^r/em et usum. Military science and expeirimce. 

Summa . . . cessU, The general management (cf. notes, H. 1, 
87. 2, 16. 88) and the glory of recovering the province went to the gen- 
eral (to his credit). The primary meaning of eedere iatogo. See 
Frennd sub v.— Jtft^ent, sc. A. 
12 



172 NOTES. 

Tum^ sc. wbile yeterani tnicidarentur, etc. — Mox^ sa when Paal- 
linus and A. came to the rescue. 

Nee mmiM, etc. A remark worthy of notice, and too often true. 

VI. MagUtratus. The regular eourte of offices and honors at 
Rome. 

Per'<Mlep<mmdo. Enallage, cf. G. 15, note. Per here denotes 
manner, rather than means (cf. per lametUa, 28) ; and antepatundo 
likewise = anteponentes. R. Render: mutually loving andprefer^ 
ring one another. — Niei quod = hut, Cf. nt, 4. There is an ellipsis 
before ntM quod^ which R. would supply thus : greatly to the credit 
of both parties— 6trf more praise beionga to the good unfe^ etc. Major, 
sc. quam in bono Tiro. So after plus supply quam in malo viro : 
Put more praise belongs to a goodvnfe, than to a good husband, by 
as much as mare blame attaches to a bad wt/tf, than to a bad husband. 

8ors quaesturae. The Quaestors drew lots for their respectiye 
provinces. Their number increased with the increase of the empire, 
till fVom two they became twenty or more. As at first a Quaestor 
accompanied each Consul at the head of an army, so afterwards each 
Proconsul, or Goyemor of a province, had his Quaestor to collect 
and disburse the revenues of the province. The Quaestorship was 
the first in the course of Roman honors. It might be entered upon 
at the age of twenty-four. 

Salvium Titianum, Brother of the Emperor Otho. See His. 
B. 1 and 2, pass. For the office of Proconsul, etc., see note. His. 
1,49. 

Paraia peecantilnts. Ready for vfieked rulers, i. e. affording great 
facilities for extortion in its corrupt and servile population. Paratus 
with a dat. of the thing, for which there is a preparation, is peculiar 
to poetry and post-Augustan prose. Cf. Freund ad v. Ad rem. cf. 
Cic. Epist ad Quint. 1, 1, 6 : tam corruptrice provincia, sc. Asia; and 
pro Mur. 9. 

Quantalibet facilitate. Any indulgence (license) however great. 

Redempturus esset, Subj. in the apodosis answering to a protasis 
understood, sc. if A. would have entered into the plot. Cf. H. 486 ; 
A. and G. 811. Observe the use of esset rather thanfuissd to denote 
what the proconsul would have been ready to do a< any time dui ing 
their continuance in office. Cf. Wr. In loc. 

Dissimulaiionem. Concealment (of what is true) ; simulatio, oq 
the other hand, is an allegation of what is false. 



AGMCOUL 173 

Auetm est JUia, So Cic. ad Att. 1, 2: filiolo me auctam 
scito. 

Ante aubialum, PrevioutJy h(»m. For this use of tutlaium^ see 
Lexicon. — Brevi amint, he lost shortly after ; though R. takes amisii 
as perf. for plup., and renders lost a short time before. 

Mox inter^ etc., sc. annum inter, Eupplied from etiam iptum . . . 
annum below. 

Juriedietio. Far (he adminisiration ofjiutiee in private eases had 
not fallen to his lot. Only two of the twelye or fifteen Praetors, yiz. 
the Praetor Urbanus (see note H. 1, 47) and the Praetor Peregrinus 
(who judged between foreigners and citizens) were said to exercise 
Jurisdiction The adjudication of criminal causes was called quaestio^ 
which was now for the most part in the hands of the Senate (Ann. 4, 
6), from whom it might be transferred by appeal to the Praefect of 
the City or the Emperor himselt The Praetors received the juriS' 
dicUo or the quaestio by lot ; and in case the foimer did not fall to 
them, the office was almost a sinecure ; except that they continued 
to preside over the public games. See further, on the name and 
office of Praetor, His. 1, 47, note. For the plup. in obveneral, see 
note, 4 : €ibnuerat. 

JES( = et omnino. The games and in general the pageantry of office 
{inania honoris) expected of the Praetor. Obsenre the use of the 
neuter plural of the adj. for the subst., of which, especially before a 
gen., T. is peculiarly fond. 

Medio rationis. The text is doubtful. The MSS. vacillate be- 
tween medio rationis and modo rationis ; and the recent editions, for 
the most part, follow a third but wholly cox\jectural reading, viz. 
moderationis. The sense is ihe same with either readmg: He 
conducted the games and the empty pageantry of office in a happy 
mean (partaking at once) of prudence and plenty. See Freund ad 
duoo, 

Uiir-propior. As far from luxury, so (in the same proportion) 
nearer to glory, i. e. the farther from luxury, the nearer to glory. 
Cr. Freund ad uti, 

Zonge-propior, Enallage of the adv. and adj., cf. G. 18: extra, 

Ne sensisset, Wotdd not have felt, etc., L e. he recovered all the 
plundered offerings of the temple, but those which had been sacri- 
legiously taken away by iV4;ro for the supply of his vicious pleasures. 
This explanation supposes a protasis understood, or rather implied 



174 NOTES. 

In quam Neronu. Cf. H. 507, N. 7 ; A. and G. 810, a. The plup. 
Bubj. admits perhaps of another explanation, the subj. denoting the 
end with a yiew to which Agricola labored (H.498j II. ; Z.549), and 
the plup. coyering all the past down to the time of his labors : he 
labored that the republic might not haye experienced, and he yirtu- 
ally effeUed thai ii had not expeneneed, since he restored eyerything 
to its former state, the plunder of Nero alone excepted. See Wr. 
and Or. in loc. Perhaps this would not be an unexampled pra/eg- 
natUia for Tacitus. For eentire in the sense of eaqtenendnff^ es- 
pecially evil, see Hor. Od. 2, Y, 10, and other examples in Freund 
sub y. 

VII. ClasgU Othoniana. Ad rem. of. His. 2, 12, seqq.^Xtoen^ 
voffo. Roaming in quest of plunder, — Iniemdioe, A region on the 
coast just east of modem Nice.*-/n praediis tuia. On her own 
estates, Praedia Includes both lands and buildings. 

Ad eolemnia pietatie. To perform the last offices ofJUial affection. 

Nuntio dqprehemue. Supply est, cf, 4 : jussus. Wae overtaken 
unexpectedly by the news of Vespasian's claim {nominaiion) to the 
throne. — Affeetati, Cf. note, G. 28. — In partes, to his (Vesp.) party, 

PrincipatuSy sc. Vespasianl — Mueianus reyebaL Vesp. was de- 
tained in Egypt for some time after his troops had entered Rome 
under Mueianus; meanwhile Mueianus exercised all the imperial 
power, cf. His. 4, 11. 89: yis penes Mucianum erat 

Juvene-usurpanie. Dom. was now eighteen years old, cf. Qis. 4, 
2 : nondum ad curas intentus, sed stupris et aduUeriisfUiumprinicipis 
agdnit. 

Is, sc. Mueianus. — Vieesimae leyioni. One of three legions, at 
that time stationed in Britain, which submitted to the goyernraent 
of Vesp. tarde and non sine motu (His. 8, 44). 

Deeessor. Predecessor. It was Roscius Coelius. His. 1, 60, 

Leyatis-eonsularibus. Governors or Proconsuls. The proyinces 
were goyemed by men who had been consuls (constUares) ; and as 
legatus meant any commissioned officer, these were distinguished as 
legaH considares. With reference to this consular authority, the 
same were called proconsules, Cf. note, H. 1, 49. Trebellius Maxi- 
mus and Yettius Bolanus are here intended. C£ 16 and His. 1, 60. 
2,66. jVtmta=rjusto potentior. Dr. 

Legatus praetorius = legatus legionis, commander of the legion, 
C£ note, His. 1, 7. Here the same person as deeessor. 



\ 



AQRIOOLA. 175 

Invemase quam feeisse^ etc., involyes a marim of policy worth 
noting. 

ym. Flaciditts. With less energy. See more of Bolanus at 
close of 16. 

2%niim eat, A general remark, applicable to any snch pror- 
ince. Hence the present, for which some would substitate erai or 
euel, 

Ne inereseeret, sc. ipse: iett he should beeome too greaty i. e. rise 
above his superior, and so excite his jealousy. Referred by W. to 
ardorem for its subject But then ne inereseeret would be superfluous. 

Consularemj sc. Legatum = Governor, cf. 7, note. 

PeiUius CerialU. Cf. 17. Ann. 14, 82. His 4, 68. 

HabuerunU-exemplorum, Had room for exertion and so for setting 
a good example^ cf. Ann. 18, 8 : videbaturque locus virtutibus pate- 
factus. The position of habueruni is emphatic, as if he had said : 
then had virtues^ etc. See Rit. in loc. 

Contmumcabat^ sc cum. A. — Ex eueniu, from the event, L e. in 
eonseqttenee of his stteeess. 

In suamfeanam, Ct ui jactationem, 5, note. 

JSetra gloriam is somedmes put for sine gloria, especially by the 
late writers. His. 1, 49 : extra viOa, Hand's Turs. 2, 679. 

IX. Bevertentem, etc. Returning from his command in Britain. 
'^Dimts. Cf. notes, 6. 28 ; His. 2, 83. 

Vesp,-aseivU, By virtue of his office as Censor, the Emperor 
claimed the right of elevating and degrading the rank of the citizens. 
Inasmuch as the families of the aristocracy always incline to run out 
and become extinct, there was a necessity for an occasional re-supply 
of the patrician from the plebeian ranks, e. g. by Julius Caesar, Au- 
gustus, and Clan^us (Ann. 11, 26), as well as by Vespasian (Aur. 
Vic. Caes. 9 ; Suet. 9). — Provindae-praeposuit, Aquitania was one 
of seven provinces, into which Augustus distributed Gaul, and which, 
with the exception of Narbonne Gaul, were all subject to the imme- 
diate disposal and control of the Emperor himself. It was the 
southwestern part of Gaul, being enclosed by the Rhone, the Loire, 
the Pyrenees, and the Atlantic. 

Sptendidae-dettinarat, A province of the first importance both in 
its government (in itself considered), and the prospect of the consuU 
ship, to tshieh he (Yesp.) had destined him (A.), sc as soon as his 
office should have expired. 



176 NOTES. 

SubHUtaUtn = caUiditatem, nice discernment, dUeriminaticn, — 
JBaerceai, Observe the subj. to express the views of others, not of 
the author. H. 616, IL ; A. and 6. 886 ; Z. 671. 

Seeura-agens, Requiring less anxtotw thought and mental acu- 
men, and proceeding more by phyeieal force. JSeeura = minus anzia. 
Cf. note, His. 1, 1. Obtunior = minus acuta. 

Togatoe, Civiliane in distinction from military men, like A. 
The toga was the dress of ciyil life to some extent in the provincet 
(cf. 21, His. 2, 20), though originally worn only m JRome, (Beck. 
Gall, Exc. Sc. 8.) 

Remiesionumque. The Greeks and Romans both used the pL of 
many abstracts, of which we use only the sing. For examples see 
R. Exc. 4. For the principle ct Z. 92 ; H. 180, 2. 

Curarumr-divisi, This clause means not merely that his time was 
divided between business and relaxation, but that there was a broad 
line of demarcation between them, as he proceeds to expldn. Diviea 
=z diversa inter se. Dr. So Yirg. Georg. 2, 116 : divisae arboribus 
patriae = countries are duAinguithed from each other by their trees. 
Jam vero, Cf. note, G. 14. 

Conveatue, sc juridici = eourte. The word designates also the 
districts in which the courts were held, and into which each province 
was divided. Cf. Smith's Diet, of Ant. : Conventus. So Pliny (N. 
&. 8, 8.) speaks of juridici conventus. Tacitus, as usual, avoids the 
technical designation. 

TJltra. Adv. for ac^., cf. longe, 6. — Penona. 1. A mask {per 
and eono), 2. Outward show, as here. 

TrietiHam-exuerai, Some connect this clause by zeugma with 
the foregoing. But with a misapprehension of the meaning 
of exuerai, which = woe entirely free from ; lit. had divested 
himself of. Thus understood, the clause is a general remark 
touching the character of A., in implied contrast with other men 
or magistrates with whom those vices were so common. So in 
Ann. 6, 26, Agrippina is said to have divested herself of vices 
(viiia exuera£) which were common among women, but which never 
attached to her. 

Faciliiae, Opposed to eeveritaa = kindness, indulgence. 

Abttinentiam, This word, though sometimes denoting temper- 
ance in food and drink, more properly refers to the desire and use 
of money. AUUnetUia is opposed to avarice; eonHneniia to eennuU 



AGRICOLA. 177 

pUamre, Cf. Plin. Epis. 6, 8 : alieni abstinentissimas. Here ren- 
der honesty, integrity. 

Cuv-indulgmt, See the same sentiment, His. 4, 6 : quando etiam 
sapientibus cupido gloriae novissima exuitur. 

(htentanda-arUm^ cf. 6 : per-anteponendo ; also G. 15, note. 

CoUegM. The goyemors of other provinces. The word means 
choien together ; hence either those chosen at the same election or 
those chosen to the same office. Cf. H. 1, 10. 

Proeuratoree, There was but one at a time in each province. 
There may have been several, however, in succession, while A. was 
Proconsul. Or we may understand both this clause and the preced- 
ing, not of his government in Aquitania in particular, but as a gen- 
eral fact in the life of A. So E. For the office, see note, 4 ; and for 
an instance of a quarrel between the Proconsul and the Procurator, 
Ann. 14, 88. 

AUeri ^yjnci as the antithesis shows, though with more of 
the implication of dignity impaired (worn off) by conflict with 
inferiors. 

Minus trienauum, Quam omitted. See H. 417, N. 2; A. and 
6. 247.C; Z. 486. 

Camiianie cpinione, A ffeneral expectation attending Aim, as it 
were, on his return. 

NuUie iermonibui. Ablative of eauae. « 

Megit Perf. to denote what ha$ in fad taken place. 

X. In eomparoHonem, Cf. in suam famam, 8, note. 

Ferdomita est. CompUtdg subdued, 

Jierumjide=/ai4h/uag and truly ; lit with fidelity to facts. 

Britannia, It has generally been supposed (though Gesenius de- 
nies it in his Phenician Paleography) that Britain was known to the 
Phenicians, those bold navigators and enterprising merchants of an- 
tiquity, under the name of the CaasiterideSj or Tin Islands. Greek 
authors make early mention of Albion (plural of Alp f ) and leme 
(Erin) as British Islands. Bochart derives the name (Britain) from 
the Phenician or Hebrew Baratanac, *' the Land of Tin ; " others 
from the Gallic BritHj Painted, in allusion to the custom among the 
inhabitants of punting th^ bodies. But according to the Welsh 
Triads, Britain derived its name from Prydain, a king, who early 
reigned in the island. Cf. Turner's His. Ang. Sax. 1, 2, seqq. The 
geograplucal description, which follows, cannot be exonerated from 



178 NOTEa 

the charge of yerbiage and grandiloquence. T. wanted the art of 
Baying a plain thing plainly. 

SpaHo ae eodo. Brit not only stretches out or lies over against 
these several countries in tUuoHon^ but it approaches them also in 
dimaU : a circumstance which illustrates the great size of the island 
(cf. maxima^ aboye), and prepares the way for the description of both 
below. 

Oermaniae and Httpamae ore dat after obtendUur. The mistaken 
notion of the relatiye position of Spain and Britain is shared with T. 
by Caesar (B. 0. 18), Dion (39, 50), and indeed by the ancients in 
generaL It is so represented in maps as late as Richard of Ciren- 
cester. Cf. Prichard, III. 3, 9. 

Miam inspicitur. It is ev^ teen by the Gauls, implying nearer 
approach to Gaul, than to Germany or Spain. GalUs, datiye. The 
datiye with the passive in place of the usual ablative, with a or ab, 
is a favorite construction with Cicero, and occurs in Tadtus's writ- 
ings repeatedly. Thirty instances are referred to by Draeger in his 
Syntax und Stil des Tacitus. 

Nvlli&-4err%8, AbL abs., contra taking the place of the part, or 
rather limiting a part understood. 

Idviua. In his 106th Book ; now lost, except in the Epitome. 

Jfabita Rtuticiu, A friend of Seneca, and writer of history in 
the age of Claudius and Nero. 

OUongae scutulae. Geometrically a trapenimi. 

Et ett ea fanes. And tueh is the form, txdusivs of Caledonia, 
tehenee the account has been extended also to the tohoU Island. 

Sed-4enwitur. But a vast and irregular extent of lands jutting 
out here (jam, cf. note, G. 44) on this remotest shore (i. e. widening 
out again where they seemed already to have come to an end) ti 
narrowed dovm as it were into a wedge. The author likens Caledonia 
to a wedge with its apex at the Friths of Clyde and Forth, and its 
base wid^ng out on either side into the ocean beyond. JSnarmis 
is a post-Augustan word. Ifbvissimi = extreme, remotest G. 24^ 
note. ■ ' 

J^fflrmavit, EstaUuhed the fact, hitherto supposed, but not fully 
ascertained. This was done in Agricola's last campaign in Britain, 
ct 88. 

Oreadas, The Orkneys. Their name occurs earlier than th]% 
but they were little known. 



AGRICOLA. 179 

Di^peeta est, W<u ^een through the mist, an it were; discovered 
Id the distance and obscurity. Gf. note, H. 4, 56 : dispecturas Gat 
lias, etc. 

J^nle. Al. Thyle. What island T. meant is uncertain. It has 
been referred by different critics to the Shetland, the Hebrides, and 
even to Iceland. The account of the island, like that of the sur- 
rounding ocean, is obviously drawn from the imagination. 

Nam kacUniUy etc. ^or their orders were to proceed iJvuefcar 
only, and (besides) winter woe approaching. Of. haetenut^ G. 26, and 
appeUre, Ann. 4, 61 : appelente jam luee. The editions generally 
have nix instead of jttseum. But Bit. and Or. with reason follow the 
oldest and best HSS. in the reading jKMvm, which with the slight 
and obvious amendment of nam for quam by Bit. renders this ob- 
scure and vexed passage at length easy and clear. 

Fiffntm et grave. See a similar description of the Northern 
Ocean, G. 45, and note : pigrum ac prope immotum. The modern 
reader need not be informed that this is an entire mistake as to the 
matter of fact; those seas about Britain are never frozen; though 
the navigators in this voyage might easily have magnified the perils 
and hardships of their enterprise by transferring to these waters 
what they had heard of those farther north. 

Ferinde, Al. proinde. These two forms are written indiscrim- 
inately in the old MSS. The meaning of ne perinde here is noi eo 
mtkshy sc. as other seas. Gf. note, G. 6. 

Ne ventii^-atiolli. Directly the reverse of the truth. Those seas 
are, in fact, remarkably tempestuous. 

Qitod-4mpelliiur, False philosophy to explain a fictitious phe- 
nomenon, as is too often the case with the philosophy of the an- 
dents, who little understood natural science, cf. the astronomy of T. 
in 12. 

Neque-ae, Gorrelatives. The author assigns two reasons why 
he does not discuss the subject of the tides: 1. It does not suit the 
design of his work ; 2. The subject has been treated by many others, 
e. g. Strab. 8, 6, 11 ; PBn. N. H. 2, 99, etc. 

Mulium flumiwum, MtUium is the object of ferrsy of which 
mare is the subject, as it is also of all the infinitives in the sentence. 
^timinum is not rivers, but currents among the islands along the 
shore. 

Nee Uttore ienus^ etc '* The Mings andjlowings of the Hde are 



180 KOTBS. 

noi confined to the «Aor», hul Ou ua penetraie$ ifUo the heart oj 
the eotmtry, and ieork» Us %oay among the hUU and mountain*, ae 
in its native hed,^^ Ey. A description very appropriate to a 
coast BO cut up by estuaries, and highly poetical, but wanting in 
simplicity. ^ 

JugiM etiam ac montilue. Jtigis, cf. O. 48. Ae, Atque in the 
common editions. But ae, besides being more frequent before a 
consonant, is found in the best MSS. 

XI. Indigenae an advedi, Cf. note, O. 2 : indigenaB. 

Ut inter barbaroe, sc. fieri solet. C£ ut in licentia, O. 2 ; and ut 
Inter Genhanos, G. SO. 

Rutilae^eetverant, Cf. the description of the Germans, G. 4. 
The inhabitants of Caledonia are of the same stock as the other 
Britons. The conclusion, to which our author Inclines below, viz. 
that the Britons proceeded from Gaul, is sustained by the authority 
of modem ethnologists. The original inhabitants of Britain are 
found, both by phOological and lustorical evidence, to have belonged 
to the Celtic or Cimmerian stock, which once overspread nearly the 
whole of central Europe, but were OYerrun and pushed off the stage 
by the Gothic or German tribes, and now have thdr distinct repre- 
sentatives only in the Welsh, the Irish, the Highland Scotch, and a 
few similar remnants of a once powerful race in the extreme west of 
the continent and the islands of the sea. 

Siiurum. The people of Wales. 

Colorati vuHm, Dark complexion. So with the poets, coloraU 
Indi, Seres, Etrusci, etc. 

HUpania, Nom. subject of facmni, with mnev, etc 

Iberoe, Properly a people on the Iberus (Ebro), who gave their 
name to the whole Spanish Peninsula. They beloDged to a different 
race from the Celtic, or the Teutonic, which seems once to have 
inhabited Italy and Sicily, as well as parts of Gaul and Spain. A 
dialect is still spoken in the mountainous regions about the Bay of 
Biscay, and called the Basque or Biscayan, which differs from any 
other dialect in Europe. Cf. Prichard's Physical Researches, vol. 
m. chap. 2. 

Proximi OaUie, Cf. Caep. B. G. 5, 14 : Ex his omnibus longe 
sunt humanissimi, qui Cantium (Kent) incolunt, quae re^o est ma- 
ritima omnis, neque muUum a Oattiea differvmt connietudine, JSt = 
aleo: thoee nearest the Gauls are also like them. 



AGRIC50LA. 181 

DuranU vi. Either because the influence of a eommon origin tHS 
eontinuesj etc. 

Frocurrentibus-terris. Or beeatue their territories running out 
tovoards one another^ literally, in opposite directions, Britain towards 
the soath and Gaul towards the north, so as to approach each other. 
See Rit, Dod. in loc, and Freund ad diversus. 

jPositio-dedit, The idea of similarity being already expressed in 
simUeSj is understood here : their situation in the same climate (coelo) 
has ^ven them the same personal appearance. 

Aestimanii, Indefl dat. after credible est, d. note, G. 6. 

JSbrum refers to the Gauls. Tou (indef. subject, c£ quiescas, G. 
86) may discover the religion of the Gauls (among the Britons) in 
their full belief of the same superstitions. So Caes. B. G. 6, 13 : 
disciplina in Britannia reperta atquc inde in Galliam translata esse 
existimatur ; and he adds that those who wished to gain a more per- 
fect knowledge of the Druidical system still went from Gaul to Briuin 
to learn. Sharon Turner thinks the system must have been intro- 
duced into Britain from the East (perhaps India) by the Phenicians, 
and thence propagated in GauL His. Ang. Sax., B. 1, chap. 5. 
Welsh tradition suggests that it came with the Eymri from the East. 

Superstitionum. The Romans gave this name to all forms of 
faith not recognized by themselves. 

Persuasione. See the same use of the word, His. 6, 6 : eademque 
de infemis persuasio. , 

In-perieulis, The same sentiment is expressed by Caesar (B. G. 
8, 19). 

Ferociae, In a good sense, courage, cf. 31 : virtus ac ferocia. 

Frcieferunt = prae se ferunt, i. e. exhibit, 

Ut quos. Ut quij like qm alone, is followed by the subj. to ex- 
press a reason for what precedes. It may be rendered by because 
or since with the demonstrative. So quippe eui plaeumet, 18. Gfl 
Z. 665; H. 617, 8; A. and G. 320, e. 

Oattos Jtoruisse, Cf. G. 28. 

Otio, Opposed to belli*, peace. — Amissa tdrtute, AbL abs. de- 
nothig an additional circumstance. Cf. 2: ezputsis-pro/essoribus^ 
note.— 0/tm limits vietis. 

Xn. Sonestior. The more honorable (i. e. the man of rank) is 
the charioteer, his dependents Jight (on the chariot). The reverse was 
true in the Trojan War. 



182 xonsa 

Fadianibua trakuntur = distrahantar in factiones. T. is fond of 
using simple for compound verbs. See note, 22 ; also numerous ex- 
amples in the Index to Notes on the Histories. 

CimlaHbua, Dat for gen. — Fro nobis, Abl. with prep, for dat 
Euallage. R. — Conventus, ConverUiofty meeting. 

Codum-foedum. The fog and run of the British Isles are still 
proYerbiaL-r-lK«rrim •paHa^ etc. Of Caes. 618. The days in Scot- 
land are in summer three or four hours longer than in Italy. 

Qu/od si = and if. From the tendency to connect sentences by 
relatives arose the use of qvod before certain conjunctions, particu- 
larly tt, merely as a copulative. Gf. Z. 807, also Freund sub v. 
The fact alleged in this sentence is as fiUse as the philosophy by 
which it is explained in the next, cf. 6. 45 : in ortus note. 

Scilieet'-eadU, This explanation proceeds on the assumption that 
night is caused by the shadow of mountuns, behind which the sun 
sets ; and since these do not exist in that level extremity of the 
earth, the sun has nothing to set behind, and so there is no night 
The astronomy of T. is about of a piece with his natural philosophy, 
cf. lO.-^JSitreyMt-terrarum, Cf. note, 6: inania honoris, 

Non eriffuni, lit. do not elevate the darkness, i. e. do not cast 
their shadow so high {in/r<igue-cadU)aLB the sky and the stars; hence 
they are bright {elara) through the ^ight ! I Pliny also supposed 
the heavens (above the moon) to be of themselves perpetually lu- 
minous, but darkened at night by the shadow of the earth. N. H. 2, 7. 

Fraeter. Beyond, Hence dther besides or except. Here the 
latter. — Fecundum, Uore ihaoi patiens, fruitful even. — Froveniuni. 
Ang. eome forward. 

Fert-aurumy etc. This is also affirmed by Strabo, 4, 5, 2, but 
denied by Gic. ad Att 4, 16, 7, and ad Div. V, 7. The modems de- 
cide in favor of T. and Strabo, though it is only in inconsiderable 
quantities that gold and silver have ever been found in Britain. 

Margarita. The neuter form of this word is seldom used, never 
by Cicero. See Freund sub v. 

Rubro mart. The Fed Sea of the Greeks and Romans embraced 
both the Arabian and the Persian Gulfs ; and it was in the latter 
especially that pearls were found, as they are to this day. Cf. Plin. 
N. H. 9, 64 : praecipue laudantur (margaritae) in Fersico sinu maris 
rttbri. For an explanation of the name (Bed Sea), see Anthon's 
Classical Dictionary. 



AGRICOLA. 183 

Mxpidta tint. Cast out, i. e. ashore^ hy the waves. SubJ. in a 
Babordinate clause of the oralio obliqua. H. 524 ; A. and 6. 336 ; 
Z.603. 

Naturam-avaritlam. A very characteristic sentence, both for 
its antithesis and its satire. 

Xin. Jpsi Briiannu Jpsi marks the transition from the country 
to the people, cf. ipsos Germanos. G. 2. 

Injuneta imperii munera. This refers to extra contributions in 
contradistinction from the r^ular tributa. Obeunt properly applies 
only to munera, not to tributa and deieetum, which would require 
tolerani or some kindred verb. Zeugma. H. 636, IL 1 ; Z. 755. 

Iffiiur = now. In the first sentence of the section the author has 
indicated his purpose to speak of the p4>(>pU of Britain. And tuno in 
pursuance of thai design, he goes back to the commencem^it of their 
history, as related to and known by the Romans. Cf. note, G. 28. 

Divus. Cf. note, G. 28 : D. Julius. For Julius Caesar's cam- 
paigns in Britain, see Caes. B. G. 4, 21, seq. ; 5, 5, seq. ; Strabo, Lib. 
4, etc. He made two expeditions. 

Consilium. His advice (to his successor). See Ann. 1^ 11.^* 
Praeeeptum. A eommoni (of Augustus, which Tib. affected to hold 
sacred). Ann. 1, 7Y ; 4, Z^. 

C, Caesarem. Caligula, ct 4, note. — Affiiasse, etc., cf. 89. His. 
4, 15; Suet Calig. 44. 

Jfir-fuissenk Cf. Ni, 4, note. The ellipsis may be supplied 
thus: he meditated an invasion of Brit, and would have invaded ii 
had he not beon vdoz ingenio, etc. But in idiomatic £ng. ni = but. 
Of course /uifM^ is to be supplied with veiUn ingenio and mobUispoe^ 
nitentiae, AL poenitentia. But, contrary to the MSS. Mobilis 
agrees with poenitenHae (c£ Liv. 81, 32 : celerem poenitentiam), 
which is a qualifying gen. H. 896, Y. ; A. and G. 215. Lit of re- 
pentance eaxy to be moved. Render : fieJde of purpose, 

Auctor cperis. Auctor fuit rei adversus Britannos gerendae et 
feliciter gestae. Dr. See on the same subject Suet. Claud. 17. — 
Assumpto Vespasianoj cf. Suet Yesp. 4. H. 3, 44. 

Quod-fuU. Yespasian*s participation in the war against Brit, 
was the commencement of bis subsequent brilliant fortunes. 

Monstraiusfatisy L e. a fatis, bg the fates. The expres8i<m is bor- 
rowed perhaps from Yirg. Aen. 6, 870 : Oatendent teriis hunc tantum 
/ate. 



184 NOTEa 

XIY. Constdarittm. Ct note on it, 8. — Atdw P/avftiis. Ann. 
IS, 82 ; Dio. 60, 19. He remained four years in Britain, and sub- 
dued the southern part of the island. He was highly honored by 
Claudius. — Ottoritu Scapula, Ann. 12, 81-39. He was the con- 
queror of Caractacus, king of the Silurae. — Proxima, so. Romae. 

Veteranorum coionia, Camalodunum. Ann. 12, 82. Now Col- 
'chester. — El rega. KingB aUo, i. e. besides other means. — Ut 
vdere, etc. So in the MSS. and earliest editions. Rhenanus trans- 
ferred tU to the place before habertt which it occupies in the com- 
mon editions. But no change is necessary. Render : that in accord- 
ance vfith their establiehed ctM^om, the Soman people might have hinge 
alao as the instruments of reducing (the Britons) to daverg, 

Didius Chllus. Gf. Ann. 12, 40 : arcere hostem satis habebat — 
Farta a prioribus. The acquisitions (eongttests) of his predecessors, 

Aueti officii. Of enlarging the boundaries of his government, 
Offlcium is used in a like sense, Caes. B. C. 8, 6 : Toti officio mari- 
timo praepositus, etc So Wr. ; Or. and Dod. understand by it 
going heywid the mere performance of his duty. It was his duty 
to protect his produce: he enlarged it. — Quaereretur, Subj. in 
a relative clause denoting a purpose. H. 497, 1. ; A. and G. S17 ; 
Z. 66Y. 

Veranius, Ann. 14, 29.— Paii2{ti<«s. Ann. 14, 29-80. 

Monam insulam. Now Anglesey. But the Mona of Caesar is 
the Isle of Man, called by Pliny Monapia, The Mona of T. was the 
chief seat of the Druids, hence minittrantem vires rebdlHnu, fur the 
Druids animated and led on the Briton troops to battle. T. has 
given (Ann. 14, 80) a very graphic sketch of the mixed multitude of 
armed men, women like furies, and priests with hands uplifted in 
prayer, that met PauUinus on his landing, and, for a time, wellnigh 
paralyzed his soldiers with dismay. In the same connection he 
speaks also of the human sacrifices and other barbarous rites which 
were practised by our Briton fathers in honor of their gods. 

XV. Interpretando, By putting their oton, i. e. the worst construc- 
tion upon them, 

JExfacili = facile. A frequent form of expression in T., ad Grae- 
corum consuetudinem. Dr. See R. Exc. 24. 

Singidos-binos. Distributives = one for each tribe — two for each 
tribe, 

Aeque-o/egue, Like Greek correlatives ; alike fatal to their sub- 



AGRICOLA. 185 

jects in either case. So dfioit^s /Up and SftoUts 94, Xen. Mem. 1, Q, 
18; PlatSymp. 181. C. 

Alterius matiui cefUurioneSy edierlus servos. This is the reading 
of the latest editions (Dr., Wr., Or., and R.), and the best MSS., 
though the HSS. differ somewhat: Centurions, the hands (instm- 
ments) of the one, and servants, the hands of the other, added insuU 
to injury. For the use of manus in the abo?e sense, reference is 
made to Gic. in Yer. 2, 10, 2Y : Gomites illi tm delecti manus erant 
tuae. So the centurions of the legate and the servants of the procura- 
tor are said by our author to have robbed the Briton king Frasuta- 
gus of his kingdom and his palace, Ann. 14, 81, which is the best 
commentary on the passage before us. 

Ah ignavis. By the feeble and cowardly. Antithetic io/ortio- 
rem. In battle, it is the braver that plunders us; but now (it is a 
special aggravation of our sufferings, that) by the/eehle and cowardly, 
etc. So in contempt they call the yeterans, ct 14: veteroHorum eolo' 
ma; 82: senum colonia. ^ 

Tanium limits pro patria / as if it was for th^r country only they 
knew not how to die. 

8i sese, etc., t e. in comparison with their own numbers. 

Jkitrian^-parentes, sc. causasbdli esse. 

Jleeessisset, Observe the subj. in the subordinate clauses of the 
oratio obliqua throughout this chapter. H. 524 ; A. and G. 836 ; Z. 
608. 

Ifeve-pavescereni, This verb would have been an imperative in 
the oratio recta, Z. 608, c Neve is appropriate either to the imp. or 
the sub. H. 628, III. 

XYI. InstincU, i. e. furore quodam afflati. Br. For a fuller ac- 
count of this revolt, see Ann. 14, 31-38; Dio. 62, 1-13. 

Boudieea, Wife of Prasutagus, king of the IceuL When con- 
quered, she ended her life by poison, Ann. 14, 37. 

Expugnatis praesidiis. Having stormed the fortresses. The force 
of ex in this word is seen in that it denotes the actual carrying of a 
place by assault, whereas oppugnatus only denotes the assault itself. 
So iK-woKiopKti^ls = taken in a siege, iroktopiai^is = besieged. 

Ipsam coloniam. Cf. note, 14 : veteranorum colonia. The Colo- 
nia was selected as the 0rst object of the resentment of the Britons, 
because here they had suffered especial wrong. The former owners 
had he&k driven from thdr homes to make room for the veterans. 



186 NOTES. 

In, harbaris = quails inter bariMkros esse solet R. Exc. 26. 

Ira ei tridoria, Hendiadys. Render: JVor did they in the csetla- 
ment of vidortf omtl, ete. So Dr., R., and Wr. Ira may, however, 
refer to thor hn^-^eriahed resentment Ira causam, ffidoria facol- 
tatem explendae saevitiae denotat. Rit. — Quod hmi. And had nol^ 
etc. Cr. note^ 12: guodn. 

Fatienliae^ Most Latin authors would h&ve said : ad patientiam. 
IkUieniia here = mbmimian, 

TemeniibuM-pleriique, Thmiffh maitjf ttiU retamed, i e. did not 
lay down, their amu, 

iVcymis. Al propritu. But that is purely coi^iecturaL Adv. 
for adj., cf. ultra, 8 ; longe, 6 = propior, like the propior cura of 
Ovid, lletamor. 13, 678. Render: a more tayeni fear. Some 
would connect propitu with agiiabai, notwithstanding its remote 
position. 

Suae quoque. Ei» own aUo, as well as that of the Empire. 

DurttM, sc. aequo. H. 444, 1. ; A. and 6. 93, a. Gf. 4 : am«f«, 
note. 

Ddietie^novu^ A aranger to their faults, Cf. SiL ItaL 6, 264 : 
novusque dolorl Wr. Gf. Bot. Lex. Tac. Datitmt. 

Poeniieniiae miiior^ L e. mitior erga poenitentiam, or iacllios erga 
poenitentes. Foeniieniiae dat. of object. 

Compositis prioribus. Saving restored things to their formar 
quiet state, 

NuUi9-€scpervmentis, Undertaking no miliiarg expeditions. Or. 
— Castrorum, G£ 6, note. 

Comitate-tenuit. detained the province by a popular manner of 
administering the government Ky. — Curandi, Note, H. 1, 62. 

Ignoscere. Properly not to notice^ hence to view with indutgenee^ 
to indulge in, 

Viiiis Uandientihus, The reference is to the luxurious and vi- 
cious pleasures of the Romans, which enervated the Britons, cf. 21, 
at close, where the idea is brought out more fully. 

CivUium armorum. The successive wars between the rival 
claimants of the imperial power : Galba, Otho, Yitellius, and Yespa- 
in. 

Discordia lahortUum, There was mutiny to contend against 

Cum-lasciviret, Cum = since. Hence the subj. 

Freeario, Cf. note, G. 44. — Moj^ cf. note 4. 



i 



AGRIOOLA. 187 

VeltUpaeH unpfieB a taeii compact. It was understood between 
them that the army were to enjoy th^r liberty ; the general, his life. 
Supply nuU with paetL Dod. and Wr. supply eneni ; but they read 
kaee for et before udUio contrary to the best MSS. 

M aeditio. El = and to. Al. haec seditio. 

BtdU, Not stopped, but stood, as in our phrase: stood them in 
80 much. So Ovid: Multo «an^tn«— yiotoria aMiU And T. His. 8, 
08: Hajore damno — veteres civium discordias rdpublicae aieUne, 
Render : co9t no blood. Dr. 

Petulaniia, Inxubordmation, — Nui quod, but, et 6. 

Bolanua, If the reader wishes to know more of the officers 
named in this chapter, for Turpilianus, see Ann. 14, 89, His. 1, 6 ; 
Trebellius, His. 1, 60 ; Bolanus, Ann. 16, 8, His. 2, 65, 19, 

CaHlaiem--auetorUatUn Sad cotieiUaied affection aa a wbaHluie 
for atUhority, Ky. 

XVn. JRecuperamL Al reeiperavit The two forms are written 
mdiscriminately in the MSS. The word may express either the re- 
covery of what was lost, or the restoration to health of what was 
diseased. Either would make a good sense here. Cf. chap. 6 ; also 
Cic. PhiL 14, 13: repuhlica recuperates. Or. renders acquired again, 
sc. what had previously belonged, as it were, to him rather than to 
the bad emperors who had preceded him. 

FetUiui CeriaUa, Gf. note, 8. He was a relative of Vespasian ; 
he was skilful, but rash. — Brigantum, Cf. H. 8, 46 ; Ann. 12, 82. 
The territory embraced Cumberland, Westmoreland, Lancashire, 
Durham, and Yorkshire. 

Aul victoria aut hello, i. e. either received their submission after 
the victory, or involved them in the calamiHes of war, Aut-aut gen- 
erally adversative = either-or on the contrary. Velr-vel only dis- 
junctive = whether-or. Cf. note on vel-vel, 0. 16. 

AlteriuB, Another than Julius Frontmus, L e. by implication, 
one different from him, less brave and great Cf. His. 2, 90 : tanquam 
apud alterius civitatis senatum; 8, 18, note. Alius is the word 
usually appropriated to express this idea. Alter generally implies a 
resemblance between contrasted objects. See Freund, ad v. 

Obruisset'Sustinuii. These words primarily refer to physical 
energies, and are exactly counterpart = crushed-susiained. 

Quantum Ueebat limits vir magnus : as great a man, as it was 
permitted him to be, restricted as he was in his resources, perhaps 
18 



188 HOTESL 

by tihe panjmony or joJoofly of the E mpq u r. Qn JoBiis Rrcmtiiiiia, 
ef. H.4,89. He wu the Inend of Flmjihe Tovoiger (Pfin. E^ 9, 
19), end llierefore probebljof Tadtauu Hu books on Stntagnns 
■nd on the AqoectiictB of Booie are stfll extant— jSbp^, over and 
abore, L e. ftotdSesi. 

XVHL Ordom€mnchiia», Sitoatedorer against the lalaiulXona, 
north of the SQiirefl, L e m the northern part of what is now Wak& 

Adwrtarenimr, Were tummg ihanedeea (middle aenae) tomarde^ 
L e. hoiking to or for. OeeaeUmem. An opptnfmuty, se. to attads 
the Bomana in their aecnrity. AL nferaiAir. 

Agewtem^ ae. exeabias or stationem =r stationed in, cf. His. 1, 47: 
copias, qoae Lagdani agebant. Ala, Ct note, H. 1, 64. 

Obtriverat. Bad suddenly and vUerig deetroyed, 

QuUnte-erat. They who wuhed for war, Qreek idiom for qfd 
helium Yolebant See Eobner's Greek Gram. 284, 10, c. ; c£ His. 8, 
43 : Yolentibus fiiit, etc., and note, ibid. In Latin, the idiom oc- 
ccrs chiefly in Sallust and T. See Z. 420; H. S87, N. 8; A. and 
Q. 286, c. 

Ae^opperiri. AL ant by conjecture. But ac=zae tamen,and 
yet, Cf. Ann. 1, 86 : exauctarari — ae retineri sub vexUlo, 

Tranteeda. AL traasacta. Cf. His. 2, 70: abiit et tranneehan 
est temptie. Only T. uses the word in reference to time. 

JTfimm = cohortes or roanipuli, c£ His. 1, 6: rnuhi nmneri. 
This use of the word is post-Augnstan. Cf. note, His.' 1, 6. 

Tarda et eontraria. In appos. with the foregoing clauses = 
eireumstances calculated to retard and oppose Jam in eommeneiny 
war, 

FUrisquef sc. of the inferior officers. They thought it best that 
those parts of the country whose fidelity was questionable (suspeeta) 
should be secured by garrisons (etutodirt), Potius is an ai^ ., and 
goes with vidtbaiur = U seemed preferable, 

Legionum vexUUs. Some understand this of veteran soldiers who 
had served out their time (twenty years), but were still sub vexiUis 
(not dismissed). So R. and W. Others of parts of the legions de- 
tached for a season sab vexillis (under separate standards). So 
Gronovius. The Word seems to be used in both senses. See note, 
H. 1, 81. 

In aequum. Into the plain. Aequns, prim, level, henee aequor, 



AGRICOLA. 189 

JE^exit aciem. Zed hia troop$ up the ete^. So His. 3, 71 : en- 
gunt aciem per adversum collem. 

Ac-<eferis, And that according ae the fint enterprises vtfid (of. 
note, 6 : cewi^X ^o^d he the terror in tho red of his engagements. 
Cf. H. 2, 20: gnarue^ vi inUia belli provettisseni^famam in cetera fore. 
Ah fore wiiverea, 

Foseeuione, Taking possession, cf. 14. A povUdSre^ i. e. occa- 
pare, non a poeetdsre, quod est occupatum tenere. Rit. For the 
abl. without a, ct H. 2, 79 : Syria remeane. 

Ut in dubiie coneUiis, sc. fieri solei. Generals are not apt to be 
prepared beforehand for enterprises not contemplated at all in their 
original plans. 

Auaaliarium, It is conjectured that these were Batavians, pre- 
pared for this exigency by their £&miliarity with the waters of the 
Rhine. 

Qid-expedabant, Who were looking oui for {ez and epedo) a 
fied^for ehipsy in a word /or the sea, i. e. nayal preparations in gen- 
eral, instead of an attack by land. The language is highly rhetorical. 
Crediderint, Liyy, Nepos, and Tacitus use the perf subj. after ut^ 
denoting a consequence, when a single, specific, past act is ex 
pressed ; when a repeated or continued action, the imp. subj. Most 
writers use the imp. in both cases. See H. 496, YI., and 490 ; A« 
and O. 287, id, and R; Z. 516 ; also Z. 504, note, and note H. 1, 24 : 
dederii. 

Sic venientibua. It would seem that these waters between An^ 
glesey and the mainland must have changed their depth since the 
times of Tacitus, as ships of considerable size now sail through 
these straits. 

Offieiorum ambUum, ComplimenU of ojfflee, Ey. 

PUuuind. Subj., cf. note, 111 ut quoe, 

JEqfedUionem'-conHnuieee, He did not eaU U a campaign or a tne- 
Urry to have kept the conquered in mbjedion, 

ZaureatiSj so. litteris. It was customary to communicate the 
news of victory to the Emperor and Senate, by letters bound with 
bay-leaves, cf. Liv. 6, 28 : liUerae a Postumio laureatae sequuntur. 
Without litierae^ it occurs only here. Or. So in H. 8, 77. T. avoids 
the technical expression and employs the word laureoy seldom used 
in this sense. 

JHsauMdatione, Cf. note, 6. — Aediinaniiiue, cf. aestimanti, 11. 



190 NOTES. 

The aspiring, and especially the vun, may learn from this passage a 
lesson of great practical value. Compare also g 8, at t^e close. 

XIX. Aliena experimenta, 7^ escperience of otherB, 

Nihil. Ellipsis of agere (which is inserted without MS. authority 
in the common editions). So Gic. Ph'l 1, 2 : Nihil per senatum, 
etc Of. 0. 19 : adkue, note. 

lAberlot 9ervo8qu€. The political prominence of freedmen and 
slaves in ancient governments was the sure sign of an oppressive 
despotism. 

Aseire^ aL accire. To receive into regular service. The reference 
is to the transfer of soldiers from the raw recruits to the legions. 
So W. followed by Dr., R., and W. The next clause implies that he 
took care to receive into the service none but the best men {optimum 
quemque)j whom he deemed trustworthy (Jidiesimum) just in propoT' 
Hon as they were good. This use of two superlatives mutually re- 
lated to each other, the former with quitque, is frequent in Latin, 
and resembles the English use of two comparatives : the better, the 
more trustworthy. Cf. Z. 710, b ; also note, 8 : promptiseimut guie- 
que, 

JJese^Mt = punire. A sense peculiar to the later Latin. Cic. 
and Caes. use pereequi. For a similar use of the word in the ex- 
pression of a similar sentiment, see Suet. JuL 6Y : Delicta neque 
observabat omnia neque pro modo exsequebatur. Ckmipare our 
word execute. And mark the sentiment, as a maxim in the science 
of government. 

Severitatem eommodare, W, with Dr. and R. make this an ex- 
ample of zeugma. And in its ordinary acceptation (i e. in the sense 
to give) the word eommodare certainly applies only to vemam, and 
not to eeveritatem. But eommodare in its primary signification means 
to adapt ; and in this sense it suits both of its adjuncts : He adcqited 
(awarded) pardon to small offences^ severe punishment to great ones. 
So Wr. For the series of infiniti res, cf. notes, 6 : nosci, etc. ; G. SO : 
pra^)onerej etc. 

Nee poenar-contentus esse. Nor was he always content with pun- 
ishmenty Ind o/tener with repentance. Mere punishment irithout ref- 
ormation did not satisfy him; reformation without punishment 
satisfied him better. See Dod. in loc. Here, too, some have called 
in the aid of zeugma. 

Auctionem. AL exactionem. The former is the reading of the 



i 



AGRICOLA. 191 

greater part of the MSS. and the later German editions. AttcHanem 
trihutorum refers to the increased tribute exacted by Vesp. Cf. Sue- 
ton. Yesp. 16: auxisse tributa provinciis, nonnullis et dupdecuse. 

Munerum. Dutiesy burdens, — Circumcisis, Cf. note, 2 : expul- 
sis, etc., and 1 1 : amissa virtute. 

Namque-cogehafdur, The best version we can give of this ob- 
scure passage is as follows : For they were compelled in mockery to 
sU by the dosed granaries and to buy com needlessly (beyond what 
was necessary, cf. note on tiUro^ G. 28, when they had enough of 
their own) and to sell U at a fated pries (prescribed by the purchasers). 
It has been made a question whether the granaries of the Britons 
or those of the Romans are here meant. Dod., Dr., and R. advocate 
the former opinion ; Walch, Wr., Or., and Rit. the latter. Accord- 
ing to the former view, the Britons were often obliged to buy com 
of the Romans, because they were forbidden to use their own, to 
supply themselves and their families ; according to the latter, because 
they were required (as explained below) to carry their contributions 
to a quarter so distant from their own granaries, that they were fain 
to buy the com rather at some nearer warehouse of the Romans. 
The Belling at a fixed price is equally intelligible on either supposi- 
tion. Or., following the best MSS., reads ludere preCio, which Rit. has 
amended into coUudere preiio, UUro may well enough be rendered 
moreover or evm, thus giving emphasis to emere. 

Devoriia Uifierum, By-roads^ explained by avia, as longinquitas 
is by remofla. The object of requiring the people to convey their 
contributions to such distant and inconvenient points was to compel 
them to buy of the Romans, or to pay almost any sum of money to 
avoid compliance. The reader of Cic. will remember in illustration 
of this whole passage the various arts to which Yerres is said to 
have had recourse to enrich himself at the expense of the people of 
his province (Cic. in Yer. 8, 72, and 82), such as refusing to accept 
the contributions they brought, obliging them to buy of him at his 
own price, requiring them to carry supplies to points most distant 
and difficult of access, ui vecturae difficultate ad quam vdleni aestimo' 
iionem perveuirent, 

OmnibuSy sc. et incolis et militibus ; paucis, sc. praefectis aut 
publicanis. Dr. 

Donec-fierd. The subj. here denotes a purpose or object in 
view, and therefore follows douec according to the /ule. H. 619, II. 2 ; 



192 NOTES. 

A. and G. 828; Z. 675. Tacitus, however, always expresses a re- 
peated past action after donee hj the imp. sab. Cf. note, 87 : aifec- 
tavere; H. 1, 18,86. 

XX. Staiim, Emphatic, like €vbvs. Cf. Thncjd. 2, 47: roS 
^4po»s cu3^f h^oikivou : at the very beginning of summer. So in 

§8. 

Iidoleranita^ al tolerantia, but without MS. authority. Ineuria 
is negligence, IntoUranHa is insufferable arrogtmce, eeveriig, in a 
word, intolerance. So Cic. : snperbia atque intolerantia. 

Quae-4imebaiur. And no wonder, since vbi nlUudinem faciunt, 
paean appelknt, SO. 

JfulhUj aL militum. Mtdbu in the recent editions. MuUus = 
frequens, cf. Sal Jug. 84 : mnltus ac ferox instare. — ModeMHamr-du- 
jeetoe. These words are antithetic, though one is abstract and the 
other concrete. The whole clause may be literally rendered thus ; 
ever preeeni in the line of march, he commended good order {discipline) ; 
the disorderly lie restrained, 

Popularctur, sc. A. Q^ominus^ that not = btti: hut he ravaged 
their country by unexpected invasions, 

Irritamenta, Inducements, — Pads, An^, to or for peace. 

Ex aequo egerant^ lit had acted (lired) on an equality, I e. had 
maintained their independence^ cf. His. 4, 64 : aut ex aequo agetis aut 
aliis imperitabitis. 

Iram posuere, Cf. Hor. Ars Poet. : et iram coUigit ac ponit 
temere. See also G. 27 : ponunt dolorem, etc. 

Ui-iransierit, The clause is obscure. The best that can be 
made of it is this : they were encompassed by forts and garrisons irith 
so much skiU and care thai no part of Britain hitherto new went over 
(to the enemy) with impunity (literally unattacked). For the mean- 
ing of nova^ cf. 22. For transierit, cf. transition H. 2, 99 ; 8, 61 ; and 
Freund, sub v. This is Walther's interpretation. If, with Emesti, 
Dr., and some others, we might suppose a sie^ ita^ or torn, to be 
understood with illacessila, we might obtain perhaps a better sense, 
viz. earns over (to the Romans) with so Httls annoyance (from the 
enemy). In the last edition a meaning was attached to transient 
(remained^ sc. unattacked), for which I now find no sufficient author- 
ity. Among the many amendments which have been suggested, the 
easiest and best is that of Susius, followed by Wexius, Diibner, Or., 
and Rit, yiz. placmg lOacessita iransOt at the beginning of the next 

i 



AGBIGOLA. 193 

chapter. But this does violence not only to MS. authority, but to 
Latia usage in making the adverb ut^ %o a«, ox, follow tanta^ In such 
a coDuectiony t«< must be a conjunction = w ihai^ that. See Freund 
sub V. For thep^r/. subj, cf. note, 18 : crediderint, 

Frci^idiis eoHellisgue, Gordon, in his Itinerarium Septentrionale, 
found more remains of Roman works in that part of Britain here re- 
ferred to than in any other portion of the island. It will be of 
some assistance in preserving the chronology to remember that the 
events of this 20th chapter occurred 19 A. D., the year of the erup. 
tion of Vesuvius, which destroyed Hereulaneum and Pompc^ Yes^ 
pasian died in June of the same summer. 

XXL Ui-aMteueteerent. In order that they miff hi become habiiuaUd^ 
etc. — In beHa/acUes, Easily inclined to tpare, Cf. Ann. 14, 4 :/nciU 
adgaudia, AL in bdlo^ bdlo^ and m beUum, — OHo. See note, 11 : 
otio. — Privatim^ As a private individual ; pubticCj by public author* 
iiy^ and of course from the public treasury, cf. note, G. 89 : publico. 
— Jam vero. Moreover, c£ G. 14, note. 

AnUferre, Wr. takes this word in its primary sen^e = bear be- 
fore, i. e. carry beyond : he carried {advanced^ the native talents of 
the Britons beyond the leaminff of the Oavls, But there is no author- 
ity for such a use of the word, when followed by the ace. and dat. 
It is doubtless used in its more ordint^ry sense; and the preference 
which A. expressed for the genius of the Britons over the learning 
of the Oatds stimulated them to greater exertions. It is 9omewhat 
curious to observe thus early that mutual emulation and jealousy 
which has marked the whole history of Britain and Fri^nce. — Toya, 
Cf, note on togatoSf 9, 

Ut-concvpiscerent, Ut=so that, denoting a consequence. The 
verb here denotes a continued or habitual state of mind. Hence, the 
imp, subj. Cf. note, 18 : crediderit, 

Diseessum, sc a patrum moribus ad vitia varia. Dr. . 

Delenimenta = ilia, quibus animi leniuniur. Dr. Charms^ 
blandishments, Cf. H. 1, 11, The word is not found ia Cie, or 
Caes. 

Humanitas, Civilization, refotemenl. Compare the professor- 
ships of Auf?kini7y in European Unlversltiefl. 

Pars servitutis. For the sentiment, cf. His. 4, 64 : voluptatibus, 
quibus Romani plus adversus subjectos quam armis valent Cum 
£= while, althouyh. Hence the subj. 



194 NOTES. 

XXIL TerUtt^-annus, Third campaign^ A, D. 80. The Colos- 
seum was finished this year. 

Tan(nnn. So all the MSS. and recent critical editions. The 
Frith of Tay has been generally supposed to be meant, hence the 
reading has been changed to Taum in many editions. — Naiionihrn, 
Here synonymous with gentet; sometimes less comprehensiTe, cf. 
note, G. 2. 

Padione ae fuga, AL ant fuga, but without authority. There 
are but two distinct clauses marked by ofui-avi : either taken by tu- 
tavlt or abandoned by capitulation and flight, 

Namr-firmahantur. This clause assigns a reason why the Ro- 
mans were able to make frequent sorties {crebrae emptionea), viz. 
supplies of provisions so abundant as to be proof against blockade. 

Jforaa obHdionis, A protracted iiege, or blockade, 

Annuie eopiis. SupplieB for a year. This is the primary sig- 
nification of annuvs ; that of our word annwU is secondary. 

Intrepidor-praendio = hibema quieta ac tuta ab hostibus. Fac. 
and For. — IrriHs, baffled. Seldom applied to persou9 by prose 
writers. Cf. H. 4, 82. 

Fensare. R. remarks a peculiar fondness in T. for the use of 
the simple Terb instead of the compound, e. g. missa for omissa, 
sistens for resistens, flammare for inflammare, etc. So here penaare 
= compensare, Cf. 12 : trahuniur, note. 

Avtdutj sc. laudis = per aviditatem laudis et gloriae : A. never 
in hie eagemeaa/or glory arrogated to himedf the honor of the achieve- 
ments of others. — 8eii-seu. Every onCy whether centurion or prae/eei 
(commander of a legion, cf. note, H. 1, 82), wm sure to hctve in him 
an impartial toilnese to his deeds. 

AeerbtOTy cf. note on durius^ 16. — Apud quosdam = a quibus- 
dam. 

Secretum et silentium. Reserve and silence. So W. and Ey. 
But R. and Dr. : private interviews (to be summoned to which by 
some commanders was alarming), and neglect of the usual salutations 
in pubUe (which was also often a token of displeasure on the part of 
a superior officer). The former is the more simple and obvious, 
though it roust be confessed that the latter is favored by the usus 
loquendi of T., in regard especially to secretum, cf. 89 ; Ann. 8, 8, 
where seereto is opposed to palam ; and His. 4, 49 : incertum, quo- 
nlam seereto eorum nemo adfuit. 



AGRICOLA. . 198 

XXin. Qftarta aeatas, A. D. 81. The Emperor Titus died in 
September of this year. Obiinendis, Securing powession of, — Pa^ 
tereiur^ so. terminum inveniri. — In ipsa Brit, In the yery nalurt 
or structure of the island, as described in the sequel. See Or. 
in loc. 

Clota et Bodoiria. Frith of Clyde and Frith of Forth. 

JRevectae^ L e. the natural current being driyen back by the tide 
from the sea on either side. Angwto-tpatio, It is now cut across 
by a ship canaL 

Propiar nnm = peninsula on the south side of the friths, cf. 
note on sinus, 6. 1, and 29. Sinw refers particularly to the curved 
border on this tide the estuaries. This border (whereyer the friths 
were so narrow as to require it), as well as the narrow isthmus, was 
occupied and secured (tenebcUur) by garrisons. 

XXIV. Nave prima, Tkefirei Roman thip thai ever visited thote 
shores. So Br., Dr., etc. The foremost ship^ sc. A. himself, followed 
by others in a line. So Bitter, Wr., and some others understand it 
of a yoyage from Jiome, where they suppose hira to haye passed the 
winter, and whence he crossed oyer to Britain by the earliest vessel 
in the spring. W. and R. make prima equivalent to an adv., and 
render : crossing over for the Jlrst time by ship. Or. also makes 
prima = turn primum, 

Copiis. Here troops with their equipments =foreeSf cf. 8: ma- 
joribus copiis. — Medio sita^ lying between, not midway between. £. 
— Jn spem-formidinem. More with the hope of invading Ireland 
than through fear of invasion by the Irish. — Valentissimam partem^ 
viz. Gaul, Spain, and Britain. 

Miscwrit, The subj. here denotes the aim or purpose of the 
projector : it would have done CO in his view, 

Invicem = an adj. mutudt. — Nostri maris. The Mediterranean. 

IHfferunt r in melius. The authorities differ greatly as ta the 
reading, the pointing, and the mterpretation of this passage. Some 
copies omit in. Others insert nee before it. Some place the pause 
before in meHtts, others after. Some read differt, others differunt, 
Nee in melitis would perhaps give the better sense. But the reading 
is purely conjectural. I have given that which, on the whole, seems 
to rest on the best authority, and to make the best sense. The 
sense is r i?ie soU, climate, etc., do not differ much from those of 
Britain, But that the harbors and entrances to the country are better 



1S6 NOTES. 

(lit. differ for the better y differre in mdiwi\ i» ascertained through, the 
medium of the merchants wJi/o resort thither for trade {for Ireland had 
not yet, like Britain, been explored by a Roman army),. So Wr. and 
Dod. On in melius^ see note H. 1, 18. Or. and Rit make the com- 
parison thus : the harbors and entrances are better known than the 
soil, climate, etc. The common interpretation is : the harbors, etc., 
of Ireland are better known than those of Britain. But neither of 
these interpretations accounts for the position of melius; and the 
last is in itself utterly incredible. 

JSac eOf sc. A. Pass, and Dr. understand it of the Irish chief, and 
infer that T. had been in Brit But A. is the subject of the next 
sentence, without the repetition of his name, as it would haye been 
repeated if this sentence referred to another. 

XXV. Amplexus. Some supply bdh^ as in 17 : bello amplexuis. 
But better: embracing in his plan of operaiionSf i, o. extending his 
Operations to those tribes. 

Hostilis excrcitus, Al. hostili exercitu. But IiostiUs cxerciius in 
the MSS. and earliest editions. — Infesta is here active : ho^le inroads 
of the enemt/'s forces. 

In partem virium. For, h e. as a part of his force. 

Impdieretur, was borne on with rapid and resistless power. 

Pro^fimda-^versa. Cf. note, 6 : tVkinia honoris. 

JUixti copiis A huHJ&a. Uniting their stores and their pUasureSy 
i. e. their respective means of entertainment For mixti^ cf. 4 : lo- 
cum-mixtum. For copiis in this sense, 22 : annuls c^is. For the 
other sense, viz. forces, 24 : copiis, note. 

JRjie-^ne = on this side-on that, Gt note, 6. 14 : iUumr4llam, 
— Vidus. Al. auctus. 

Clauderetur. H. 618, 11. ; A. and G. 812. 

Ad manus et arma. Ang. to arms. 

Oppugnasse depends on fama. Their preparations were great 
Rumor as usual (tUi mos, etc.) represented them still greater ; for the 
rumor went abroad that the Caledonians had commenced offensive 
operations {oppugnasse ultm). — Castdla adorii is the means by which 
they metum addiderant, i. e. hcd inspired euldiiional fear. 

Fellerentur. Oratio obliqua. H. 624 ; A. and G. 886. 

Pluribiu eupninibtu. In several divisions. Accordingly it is 
added : diviso et ipse^ A. himself also, i. e. as well as the Britons, 
having divided^ etc 



AGRICOLA. 197 

Agmen (from ago), properly a body of men (m the march.— JESeer- 
eitus^ under military drill (exerceo). 

XXYI. Quod iU)iy etc. Wlien this was knoion^ etc. Latin writers, 
as well as Greek, generally link their sentences, chapters, etc., more 
closely together than English. Hence we are often obliged to ren- 
der their relative by our demonstrative. See Z. 808 ; H. 463. UU^ 
here adv. of time, as in 20, 38, et passim. 

Maxime invalidam. The ninth legion had been wellnigh de- 
stroyed IB the insurrection under Boadicea. The new recruits would, 
of course, be less reliable. 

Ceriabant Not jf^i^^ with the enemy, but vied with each other. 
So below : utroque-certante. Hence followed by de gloria, not pro 
gloria, which some would substitute for it : secure for (in regard to) 
safety^ they vied voith each ether in respect !• (or tn) glory. With pro 
salute^ cf. His. 4, 68 : pro me securior. 

Erupere, Sallied forth^ sc. from the camp. 

Utroque exercUu, Each of the two Roman armies. 

Quod, Cf. 12, note. — DebeUatunif lit. the war would have been 
fought out, i. e. ended. 

XXVIL Cujus refers to victoria in the previous section (cf. quod 
2^f note) : inspirited by the consciousness and the glory of this victory, 

Modo cauti. Compare the sentiment with 26: specie pruden- 
tium, etc. 

Arte-rati, al. arte usos rati by conjecture. But T. is fond of such 
ellipses : 27te Britons, thinking it was not by superior bravery, but 
hy favoring circumstances (on the part of the Romans) and the skill 
of their commander (sc. that they had been defeated). Bit. reads 
superati, 

Utrimque. Both the Romans and the Britons; the Romans ex- 
cited by their victory, the Britons by their coetibus ac sacrificiis. 

J^iseessum, They separated, viz. after the battle and at the close 
of the campaign. 

XXYIII. Cohors Usipiorum, See same story, Dio Cass. 66, 20. 

Adactis, Forced on board, — Remigante = gubernante, to avoid 
sameness, with gvhematoribus, Br. R. supposes that, having but 
one pilot left, only the vessel on which he sailed was rowed, while 
the others were towed by it ; and this rowing under his direction is 
ascribed to him. Some MSS. and many editions read remigranie^ 
which some translate : making his escape, and others connect with 



198 NOTES. 

irUerfeeiiif and suppose that he also was slain in trying to bring hack 
his boat to shore. Whether we read remiganU or remigrante, the 
signification of either Is unusuaL 

J^aevehebafUur, Sailed along the coast (in sight of land). 

Mox, etc. The reading of this line seems to be hopelessly cor- 
rupt. Ulrichs reads : Mox ad aquam atque utilia raptanda egressi, 
etc. 

Jnapiae is goyemed by eo, which is the old dat = to such a de- 
gree. — Ad extremum = at last, 

Veseerentur followed by the ace H. 421, N. 4 ; Z. 466. For tho 
imp. subj. cf. note, 21 : tU-concupiseerent 

AmmU-navibua, This is regarded by some as proof that all the 
steersmen were slain or escaped. Dr. answers that it may refer only 
to the two ships that were without steersmen. 

Suevia. A people of Northern Germany (G. 38, seq.), whither, 
after haying circumnayigated Britain, the Usipii came. — Mox, wbse- 
fueniiy^ some haying escaped the Sueyl 

Per eommerda. In trade, cf. same in 89. 

Noetram ripam. The Gallic bank of the Rhine, which was the 
border of the Roman Empire, cf. G. passim. 

Quo^-^ndteiumr-illustramL Whom the account of so wonderful 
an adyenture rendered illustrious. The rule would require the subj. 
H. 608, N. 8, 2); Z. 661. 

XXIX. Initio aestaiie, i. e. in the beginning of the next summer 
(the Yth campaign, cf. 25 : aestaie, qua sexium, etc.), as the whole 
history shows. See especially proximo anno, 84. Hence the pro- 
priety of commencing a new section here. The common editions be- 
gin it below : Igiiur, etc. 

PUrique, Cf. note on it, 1. — Foriititn virorum, IfilUarg men, 

Ambiiiose, with affected foriiiude, stoically, — Jiurwue = contra, on 
the contrary, showing the antith. between amhitioee and per lamenta, 
— Per lamenta, cf. 6 : per caritatem. — Igiiur, cf. 18, note. 

Qua^facera = ut ea faceret. H. 497, 1. ; A. and G. 817 ; Z. 667. 

In^ertmn is explained hj plurihM locis. Render: general alarm, 
— Expediio = sine impedimentis, armis solis instructo. Fac and For. 
— Montem Grampium. Now Grampian hills, 

Crudasenectus, Cf. Virg. Aen. 6, 804 : sed cruda deo yiridisque 
senectus. Crudus is rarely found in this sense except in the poets. 
Crudus properly = bloody (cruor, cruidus); henoe the successiye 



AGBIOOLA. 199 

Bignifications, raw, unripe, fresh, yigorous.— >9iia deeora = praemia 
ob viiiutem bellicam accepta. E. Any and all b<u^e9 of distinetum^ 
especially in arms, Wr., Or., and Dod. 

XXX. Cauaas belli. Explained by univeni aervihUis eapertei 
below, to be the defence of their liberties. In like manner, nostram 
neoeatitatem is explained by mdlae ultra terrae: there is no retreat 
for us, eto.'^Animita, Canfidenee. 

Proelium-^irma, T. has a passion for^tr< of words, especially 
nouns, of kindred ngnifieaiion. See examples in Index to Histories ; 
and in this chapter, spem ae aubaidium, reeeaaua ae mhim, cbaequium 
aemodeaUam, 

Fricrea jmgnae, sc in which the Caledonians took no part. — 
Puffnaa is here, by a figure, put for the eombaiafUa themselves, who 
are represented as looking to the Caledonians, as a kind of corps de 
reserve, or last resource. 

Jo. For that reaaon. The best things are always kept guarded 
and oonaealed in the penetralia. There may also be a reference to 
A fact stated by Caesar (B. 6. 5, 12), that the inhabitants of the in- 
terior were aborigines, while those on the coast were immigrants. 

Terrarumr~extremoa, The remoteat of men and Uut of freem/m,-^ 
Reeeaaua^-famae, Our very remoteneaa and ohaeurUy, This is the 
most common and perhaps the most simple translation, making 
ainua famae = seclusion in respect to fame. Perhaps, howerer, it 
accords as well with the usual signification of the words, and better 
with the connection and spirit of the speech, to take ainua famae in 
the sense rdreai of glory ^ or ghrioua retreat. So Wr. His inter- 
pretation of the passage and its connection is as follows : our very 
remoteneaa and our gUnioua retreat have guarded ua till thia day. 
But now thefartheat extremity of Brit, ia laid open (i. e. pur retreat 
is no longer a safeguard) ; and everything ia eateemed great (i. e. this 
safeguard also is removed — ^the Romans in our midst no longer mag- 
nify our strength). Rit encloses the clause in brackets, as a gloss. 
He renders ainua famae^ boaom of fame, fame being personified as a 
goddess. R., Dr., Or. make famae dative after defendit = has k^ 
back from fame, 

Sed wuUajam^ etc. But now all the above grounds of confidence 
—our remoteness, our glory, our greatness magnified by the imagi- 
nation of our enemies, from the very fact that we were unknown to 
them— oil these are removed ; we have none behind us to fall back 



200 NOTES. 

upon, as our countrymen in former battles hare leaned upon us — 
and we are reduced to the necessity of self-defence and self-reliance. 
The sed seems to be antithetic to the whole as far bacic as prioret 
jniffnae ; whereas nunc is opposed only to the clause which imme- 
diately precedes it, and constitutes an antithesis within an antith- 
esis. 

Infeslioreay sc. quam fluctus et saxa. 

EffugertB, Cf. note, 6. 19: wm invmerU; also satiaverii just 
below. 

M mare. JEH = aho, Cf. note, 6. 11. 

Ope$ atque inopiam, Abs. for cone = rich and poor nations. 

Faint nominibuB is by some connected with rapere. But better 
with appeUant, Tkey call thinffs by false namee^ yiz, plunder ^ empire ; 
and desofationj peace, 

XXXL Annoe = annonam, ffearly produeef cf. G. 14 : expectare 
annum. So often in the poets. — Infrummhun, For eupplies. The 
reading of this clause is much disputed. The text follows that of 
W. and R., and is approved by Freund. For the meaning of egerunt, 
cf. praedam egenerunt, H. B, 88. 

SUme-emunUndis = yiis per silvas et paludes muniendis. £. 

Semel, Once for all, G. 19. — Emit, ec. tributis peodendis ;/NUk7tf, 
sc. frumento praebendo. E. 

Portof, guibtis exereendU, W. and Dr. explain this of collecting 
reyenue at the ports J. e. farming them), a thing unknown to the 
early Britons ; Wr. of rowing, servile labor. Why not refer it to the 
wmgtmdwn or improvemetit of harbors f By rendering exereendia, 
vMrkmg, improving, we make it applicable alike to harbors, mmes, 
and fields. — Reeervemur, Snbj. in a relative clause denoting a pur* 
pose. H. 49t, I ; A. and G. 817 ; Z. 567. 

Brigantee. This is the reading of the manuscripts, which were 
amended to read Trinobantea, to correspond with the statement of 
the Annals xiv. 81. It is possible that the Brigantes are mentioned 
here as living farther north, and better known to the Caledonians. 

Potuere. Observe the md., where we use the potential. It is 
especially frequent with possum, debeo, etc. Z. 618 and 619. 

Nonne implies an affirmative answer. Z. 862 ; H. 861, 1, N. 2 ; 
A. and G. 210, c. 

Jn pocmtenHam, a1. in praesentiam. The general idea is essen- 
tlally the same with either reading. Non in praesentiam = not to 



AGRICOLA. 201 

oMotn cur freedom for (he preeerU fnertfy, Kon in poenUentiam = 
not abotU to obtain our freedom merely to regret it, i. e. in such a 
manner as the Brigantes, who forthwith lost it by their eoeordla, 

XXXII. Nisi si = nisi forte, cf. note, 6. 2 : nisi si patria. 
Pudet dicCu. The supine after jmdet is found only here. Quin- 

tilian, however, has pudendum dietu. Cf. Or. in loc. ; and Z. 441, 
443. 

Commendenty etc. Although they give up their Uood to (I e. shed 
U in support of) a foreign tyrant, — Tamen is antithetic to licet: al^ 
though they give, yet longer enemies, than slaves (of Rome). 

Metus-est, It is fear and terror (sc. that keep them in subjec- 
tion), weaJc bonds of affection, 

Bemoveris-dcsicrint, Fut. {>erf. Cf. note, 0. 28 : indulseris, 

NuUa-^ut alia. Some of the Roman soldiers had lost all attach' 
ment to country, abd could not be said to have any country ; others 
had one, but it was not Britain — it was far away. 

Ne terreat. The third person of the imperative is for the most 
part avoided in ordinary language ; and the pres. subj. is used in its 
stead. Z. 629, note. 

Nostras manus, i. e. those ready to join us and aid our arms, vias. 
(as he goes on to say) the Oauls and (Germans, as well as the Britons 
now ui the Roman ranks. — Tamquam =just as (tam-quam), Ddd. 
renders. Just as certainly as. 

Vacua, Destitute of soURers, — Senum, sc. veterani et emeriti. 
Cf. note, 16. A^ra = disaffected, Cf. H. 2, 86. 

Hie dux, etc. Here a general, here an army (sc. the Roman, awaits 
you) ; ihere tributes, mines, etc. (and you must conquer the former 
or endure the latter — ^these are your only alternatives). 

In hoc eampo est. Depends on this battie-Jidd, T. has laid out 
all his strength on this speech. It can hardly be matched for mar- 
tial force and sententious brevity. It breathes, as it should in the 
mouth of a Briton, an Indomitable spirit of liberty, and reminds us, 
in many features, of the concentrated and fiery eloquence which has 
so often roused our American Indians to defend their altars and re- 
venge their wrongs. 

XXXIII. Ui harbaris maris, Al. et barbari moris. But com- 
pare 89 : ut Domitiano moris erat ; His. 1, 16 : ut moris est. Supply 
etf here: as is the custdm of (lit to) barbarians. Z. 448 ; H. 402 ; 
A. and G. 214, c 



202 KOTE& 

Agmina^ sc. oonspiciebantar.— iVoctcmt is the means by which 
the gleam of armor was brought into view. 

^008, so. Britannoram. The Baman army was still within the 
camp, ot mummenUs eoereiium, below. 

Coereiiwn = quo coerceri potest The part used in the sense of 
a yerbai So monstraiWf G. 81, which, Freund says, is Tacitean. 
The pert part pass, with negative prefix in often takes tills sense. 
Z. 828. Ct note, His. 6, 1 : inexhaiutum^ 

Odamu anntu. This was Agrioola^s teventh gummer in Britain. 
Bee note, 29 : initio aestaUs, But it being now later in the season 
than when he entered Britain, he was now entering on his eighth 
year. Of. Bit. in loo. 

VtrtuU^BomamL By the valor mid favoring ofupiees of the J3»- 
man Empire. War was formerly carried on auspioiis Fopidi Rom. 
But after Augustus, auspioiis Jmperatorie or Imperii Bom. 

ExpedUioniJbue-prodiM, These words denote the Ume of poeni- 
tuU (t» or during so many, etc.). — Patieniia and Udbore are abL after 
apae. 

Terminos. Aoo. after egreesi (H. 872) : having traneeended the 
ImiU. Cf. Z. 881 

Fama^ rumore. Synonyms. Also eaetrie^ armia. Ct note, 80. 

Vctck-aperto, Tour vowa and your valor now have free aeope (are 
in the open field), cf. note 1 : in aperto. 

In frontem. Antith. to fugientibtu. Hence = progredxentibns. 

JSodie, To^y, L e. tn our present cirewnaianeee of proeperiiy, 
Wr. 

Neo-fuerit, Nor toiU it have been inglorious^ sc. when the thing 
shall have been done^ and men shall look back upon our achiere- 
ments. The fut perfl is appropriate to such a conception. 

Naturae fine, Cf. note, 6. 46: illue usque nahtra, 

XXXIY. Sortarer, Literally, / toould be exhorting you^ The 
use of the unperf. subj. in hypothetical sentences, where we should 
use a plup. (I would have exhorted you), is frequent both in Greek 
and Latin, even when it denotes a complete past action, cf. Z. 525. 
When the action is not complete, as here, the Latin form is at once 
more lively and more exact than the £ng^8h••— iVoximo anno. This 
same expression may signify either the next year or the last year. 
Here of course : the last year^ referriog to the battle deaoribed ia 26^ 
cf. also note, 29: Inido aestatis. 



AGBICOLA. 203 

Decora, Deeds of ghry, 

Farto nodia, Cf. Yirg. Aen. 9, 897 : fraude noctis. 

Contra ruere. Rusk forth to medy penetrarUihw^ etc. R. and 
Wr. take ruere for perf. 8d pL instead of rtterufUy since T. uses the 
form in ere much more than that in erurU, Rit. makes it inf. after 
iolet understood, or rather implied in peUurUury which = pelii 9oUtU. 

Qttoa-qiiod, Whom^ eu to the fact that you have at Un^h found 
{U is not because) they have taJcen a stand, but they have been overtaken, 
Cf. Wr. and Or. in loc. On dtprehensi, cf. note, 7. On quod= as to 
this, that, see examples in Freund, or in any Lexicon. 

Novissimae^estigiis, The extremity of their circumstances, and 
their bodies (motionless) vnih terror have brought them to a stand for 
battle on this spot, etc. One MS. reads novissime and omits aciem, 
which reading is followed in the common editions. 

JExiremo metu is to be closely connected with corpora. For the 
sense of dejizere, cf. Ann. 13, 5 : pavore defixis. 

.EderetU, Subj. Cf. H. 497, 1. ; A. and G. 817; Z. 566, a. 

Transigite cum expeditionibus = finite expeditiones. Dr. Cf. 6. 
19 : cum spe-transigitur, note. 

Quinquaginta annis. So many years, it might be said to be in 
round numbers, though actually somewhat less than fifty years, since 
the dominion of Rome was first established in Britain under the 
Emperor Claudius. Cf. 18, supra. — ^The speech of A. is not equal 
to that of Galgacus. He hud not so good a cause. He could not 
appeal to the sacred principles of Justice and liberty, to the love of 
home and household gods. But he makes the best of a bad cause. 
The speech is worthy of a Roman commander, and touches with 
masterly skill all those chords in a Roman soldier's breast, that were 
never touched in vain. 

XXXY. M = both. Both while he was speaking and after he 
had ceased, the soldiers manifested their ardor, etc. 

Instinetos, Cf. note, 16 : instinct!. 

Aciem Jirmarent =: aciem firmam facerent, of which use there are 
examples not only in T., but in Liv. Dr. The auxiliary foot formed 
or made up (not merely strengthened) the centre, — Affunderentur, 
Were attached to, — Pro vaUo, On the rampart ; properly on the fore- 
part of it. Cf. note, H. 1, 29. 

Jngen»~decus. In app. with legiones-stetere. It was especially 
glorious if he could gain the victory without loss to his best troops. 
14 



204 NOTES. 

BeOmUi, bc Agrioolae. AL bdlandi. 

8i pdierentur. If the irregular troops efundd he repuML 

In epeeiem, GC in soam famam, 8, and in Jactationem, 6. 

Aeqw>, Supply consisteret to correspond with tnmrgerH, Zeag. 
ma. CC note, 18 : in aequnm. 

J/ediMi eampi. The intervming parte of the plain, sc. between 
the two armies. — Covinariue is found only in T. CovinarH = the 
esaedarii of Caesar. GoTinos erat cnrros Belgarum, a qnibns eum 
Britanni acceperant. Dr. 

Pedee, Nom. sing, in app. with subject ofeonstitU, 

XXXYI. Ingentibus gladiie, etc. So below: parva eetUa^ etc. 
The small shield and broad sword of the Highlanders. 

Donec-eohortahu eet, Gf. note, 6. 87: affectavere. — Batavorum 
cokartee, Al. tree-eohortes. But the number is not specified in the 
best MSS. In the Histories, eight cohorts of Batayians are often 
mentioned as constituting the auxiliaries of the 14th legion, which 
was now in Britain. See Kit. in loc. 

Ad mueronee. The Britons were accustomed to fight with the 
edge of the swoitl, and cut and hew the enemy. The Romans, on 
the contrary, made use of the point. Of course, in a close engage- 
ment, they would have greatiy the adyantage. Br. — Ad manue. 
The opposite of eminue, i. e. a close engagement. The same thing is 
expressed below by eomplezum armorum. 

In aperto pugnam. Literally a fight in the open field, t e. a 
regular pitched batHe, which, with its compact masses, would be less 
fayorable to the large swords of the Britons than a battle on ground 
uncleared of thickets and forests. AL in arlo, 

Miecere^ferire, etc. A series of inC denoting a rapid succession 
of events, et note, 6 : noscere-nosci ; 6. 80 : praeponere. 

JSquitum turmae, sc. Britannorum. The word turmae is appli- 
cable to such a cavalry as theirs, cf. Ann. 14, 84 : Britannorum co- 
piae passim per caterras et turmae ezsultabant Br., Ey., and others 
here understand it of the Roman cavalry. But R., Dr., and Wr. 
apply it to the Britons, and with reason, as we shall see below, and 
as we might infer indeed from its close connection with eomnarii, 
for the eovinarii were certainly Britons. 

PedUum prodio, hoetium agmin^tu. These also both refer to 
the BrUone. The eovinarii were interspersed among their own in- 
fimtry, and, as the Romans advanced, became entangled with them. 



AGRICOLA. 205 

This is disputed. But the small number of Romans slain in the 
whole battle is alone enough to show that their cavalry was not 
routed, nor their infantry broken in upon by the chariots of the 
enemy. Moreover, how could T. properly use the word hostium of 
his own countrymen f 

Mimmeque^ etc. This is one passage, among a few in T., which 
is so manifestly corrupt that no sense can be made of it as it stands 
in the MSS. The reading given in the text is the simplest of all the 
conjectural readings that have been proposed. It is that of Br. and 
K, and is followed by the common editions. Cavalry took a large 
part in the battle. But the battle wore little the aspect of an eques- 
trian fight ; for the Britons, after maintaining their position with 
difficulty for some time, were at length swept away by the bodies 
(the mere uncontrolled bodies) of the horses — ^in short, the riders had 
no control over horses or chariots, which rushed on without drivers 
obliquely athwart, or directly through the lines, as their fears sever- 
ally impelled them ; all which was in marked contrast to a Romanes 
idea of a regular battle of cavalry. 

XXXVII. VacHi, Jf)reefrom apprehension, 

Ni. Cf. note, 4 : ni. — SubOa belli. Unexpected emergencies aris- 
ing in the course of the battle. Cf. 6 : inania honoris, 

Orande et airoz spectaculum, etc. See a similar description in 
Sal. Jug. 101. The series of infinitives and the omission of the con- 
nectives {asyndeton) make the succession of events very rapid and 
animated. Compare the famous vent, vidi, vici, of Caesar. 

Prout-erat, According to their different natural disposition, i. e. 
the timid, thongh armed, turned their backs before inferior numbers / 
tahile the brave, though unarmed, met death in the face, 

Praestare terga is an expression found only in T. 

JSt aliguando, etc. M = ae tamen. And yet (notwithstanding 
the flight of crowds and the passive death of some, as above) sorne^ 
times to the conquered also there was anger and bravery. The lan- 
guage is Virgilian, cf. Aen. 2, 367. 

Quod, Cf. note, 12. — M frequens^fduciam ford. Had not A,, 
who was everywhere present, caused some strong and lightly equipped 
cohorts to encompass the ground, whUe part of the cavalry, having 
dismounted, made their way through the thickets, and part on horse- 
back scoured the open woods, some disaster would have proceeded 
from this excess of confidence. Ey. 



206 NOTKa 

XXXym. Gaudh praedaque laeia, Cf. note, 0. 1i dboadhor- 
tamina. Observe also the Juxtaposition of temjpettaU and fama in 
this same chapter. 

Sqwrare^ sc. oonsilia, L e. they aomeHmea act in concert^ aometimei 
provide only for their individucU eofdy, 

IHffnarum. Cf. note, G. 7: pignora. — Saeviw^, Laid ffidcnt 
hande. "This picture of rage and despair, of tenderness, fury, 
and the tumult of contending passions, has all the fine touches 
of a master who has studied human nature." Mur.— iSaereft' = 
desertl 

Uhi, When, cf. 26. Its direct influence extends to nequibat, 
and with its clause it expresses the retaon why A. drew off his forces 
into the country of the Boresti. — Spargi heUmn = diversis locis, yd 
diviso exerdtu, yel vagando bellum geri. E. 

Seeundor-fama, Favored by the v>eather and the yhry of their patt 
achievemenU (lit. the weather and fame foUcwing them, ueunda = 
eequundd), 

Truttdeneem portum. Some port, now unknown, probably near 
the mouth of the Tay or the Forth. Uhde qualifies leeto. £. With 
redierat a corresponding adv. denoting whither is to be supplied : 
whence it had set sail, and whither, after having surveyed all the 
nearest coast of Britain, it had now returned. Nad returned, i. e. 
prior to enteriny the port ; the action of redierat was prior to that of 
tenuit. Hence plup. Froximo, nearest, so. to the scene of Agricola^s 
operations, i. e. the whole northern coast from the Forth to the 
Clyde and back agun. This was all that was necessary to prove 
Britain to be an island (cf. chap. lOX the southern coast having 
been previously explored. 

XXXIX. Actum, AL auctum, a conjecture! of Lipsins. Actum 
= treated of, reported, — Moris erat, H. 402 ; A. and G. 214, c ; 
Z. 448, N. 1. 

Fahum'4riumphtim, He had returned without so much as see- 
ing the enemy (Dio Cass. 67, 4) ; and yet he bought slaves, dressed 
them in German style, had their hair stained red^G. 4 : rutUae comae) 
and left long, so as to resemble (Germans, and then marched in tri- 
umph into Rome with his train of pretended captives ! Caligula had 
done the same before him. Suet. Calig. 47. 

Formarentur, Subj. in a relative clause denoting a purpose 
{quorum = ut eorum). H. 497, L ; A. and G. 817 ; Z. 667. 



i 



AGRICOLA. 207 

Studior-ctda, Lawyers and politicians, all public men, had been 
gagged and silenced by Domitian. 

Alius, Another than the Emperor. — Oecuparet = pre-^>ceupyy so 
as to rob him of it. 

Uteumque, Somehow, possibly, perhaps. Other things perhaps 
were mors easily eoncecUed ; hut the merit of a good commander was an 
imperial prerogative, 

Quodque-satialtu, And what was a proof of some cruel purpose^ 
wholly absorbed in his retirement (where he never plotted anything 
but mischief, and where in early life he is said to have amused hun- 
self with killing flies, Suet. Dom. 3). Cf. PUn. Panegyr. 48 : nee. 
unquam ex solitudine su& prodeimtem, nisi ut solitudinem faceret 
The whole passage in Pliny is a graphic picture of the same tyrant, 
the workings of whose heart are here so laid bare by the pen of 
Pliny*8 friend, Tacitus. Secreto-saiiatus may also be translated: 
satisfied with his own secret^ i. e. keeping to himself his cherished 
hatred and jealousy. — Zanguesceret. Subj. after donee, Cf. note, G. 
87: affeetavere. 

Reponere odium. See lexicon under repono for this phrase. 

Impetus-exercUus, Until (he freshness of his glory and his popu- 
larity with the army should gradually decline, 

Miam turn obtinebat^ i, e. he was still in possession of the govern^- 
menty and of course in command of the army, in Britain. 

XL. Triumpha/ia omamenta. Not a real triumph, which, from 
the reign of Augustus, was conceded only to the Emperor or the 
princes of the Lnperial Family; but triumphal insignia, such as 
the corona^ laurea^ toga praetexta^ tunica palnuUa^ sella curulis, etc 
Dr. 

Jllustris staiuae. Called laureata^ Ann. 4, 23 ; triumphaliSf His. 
1,79. 

Quidquid datur. Besides the omamenta above mentioned, sacri- 
fices and thanksgivings were offered in the name of the victorious 
commander. Dr. 

Addique, AL additque. Addique is the reading of the MSS. 
and old editions. And it suits better the genius cf Dom. ; he did 
not express the opinionem himself for it was not his real intention, 
but he ordered some one to put it in circulation as if from him, that 
he might have the credit of it and yet not be bound by it Destu 
nariy sc. by Domitian. 



208 KOTES. 

JfaforUmi raerwatam, Majorihit = fStastnoribxa. Syria was 
tiie riehest pro^Dce in the empire, and the praefectship of it the 
most honorable office. 

JSk wearttutrihu* mhuiiariU. One o/kUprufoie tecretarieg or eon- 
JUtmHei mgeniM. 

CodiaBoe. Under the Emperors this word is used to denote an 
imperial letter or diploma. Properly a billet, dimintttiTe of eodex^ 
tablet (= etoidoL^ trunk of a tree). 

SjfTia de^baiur. Syria was one of the provinces that were at the 
disposal of the Emperor. 

Ez ingenio prineipie, Jk aecordanee with (cf. er, 0. 7) the (dis- 
simnlating) genive or poKey o/DamiHam. The design, if not real, 
at least imputed to him, was to withdraw Agricola from his proyince 
and his troops at all erents, by the offer of the best province in the 
empire if need be ; but that object having been secored by Agricola's 
Toluntary retirement, the offer, and even the ordinary civilities of 
life, especially official life, were deemed nnnecessary. Compare this 
with the concluding sentence of the preceding chapter. 

CeUbritaU el frtquenHa. Hendiadjs: Bg the numher ofdistiii' 
guUhed men «b/^ might go oui to meet him (and escort him into the 
city). 

Officio = salutadone. Dr. — Brevi oeeulo, lit a hasty hits = cold 
and formal salutation. The kiss was a common mode of salutation 
among the Romans, in the age of the Emperors. See Becker's 
Callus, p. 64. 

Turbae servientium. The usual and characteristic associates, as 
well as attendants of Domitian. A severe cut, though quite inci- 
dental and very concise. 

Oliosos. Antith. to mUitare. Men in civil life, cf. note on o/to, 
11. 

Otium atadt, Augere otium = sequi altissimum otium. Dr. 

Penitus = inwardly, i e. sincerely, teaJoutly, So R. But Dr. = 
prorsus, omnino, yalde. — Citltu modims. Simple in dress, cf. note 
on euUus, O. 6. — Comitatus, passive, so used by Cic. also. — Uno aui 
aUero. One or two. 

Per ambitionem =z ex vitae splendore et numeroso oomltatu. Br. 
Cf. note on amhiHo, G. 27. 

Quaererent^nterpretarenttir. Many inquired (with wonder) into 
the rqmtation (of a man so unassuming), and few explained or undet' 



I 



AGBIOOLA. 209 

itood (the trae reason of his humble maimer of life). IrtterpreiareiV' 
/ur, not famam but the facts above mentioned, and the necessity A. 
was under of living as he did. — Vuo aspedoque. On ueinghim and 
directing their (Utention particularly to him, 

XLL Crimen = public aeeutaium. — Querda ziiprumte complainL 
— Prineeps^ gloria^ genxM, Supply, as a predicate, eauaa periculi ; 
these were the causes that put A.'s life in Jeopardy. 

Militarei viri = duces. So Gorbulo is called, Ann. 16, 26. 

Mqmgnati et eapti, Defeaied and taken captive, For. and Fac. 
Properly expugnare is said of a fortress or city. But ^mroXiopicciirin 
Greek is used in the same way, of persons. Compare expugnaiie 
praetidiisy 16, note. The wars particularly referred to are those 
against Decebalus, leader of the Dacians, which lasted four years and 
in which Moesia also was invaded by the Dacians, and several Roman 
armies with their commanders were lost (Suet Dom. 6) ; and that of 
the Pannonian legions against the German tribes of the Marcomani 
and the Quadi (Dion, 67, 1). 

Sibemi9Hiuhiiatumf L e. the enemy not only met them on the 
river-banks, which formed the borders of the empire, but attacked 
the winter quarters of their troops, and threatened to take away the 
territory they had already acquired. 

I\meribuif sc. militarium viroram. — Cladibutf so. cohortium. Dr. 

Amore et fide. Out of affection and fidelUg (sc to their imperial 
master).— Jfo/i^tto^tf et livore. Out of envy and haired (sc. towards 
A.). 

Pronum deterioribue. Inclined to the vforae meaeurety or, it may 
be, to the worse advieen. 

In ipeam-^igebatur = invito gloria aucta, simulque pemicies ac- 
celerata. W. 

XLIL Adas et Afrieae, He drew lots, vihich he should have, 
bath being put into the Xot^^^Proeonrndatuin, See H. 1, 49, note, on 
proconsul. A. had already been consul, 9. 

Sortireiur, In which he wotUd, or euch that he must, obtain by 
lot, eto. Cf. H. 503, I. ; A. and G. 819 ; Z. 558. The oldest of the 
men of consular rank drew lots for these two most important prov- 
inces which were in charge of the Senate, Asia and Africa. 

Occiso Civica. Gf. Suet. Dom. 10 : oomplures seoatores, et in 
his aliquot consutares, interemit, ex quibua Civicam Cerealem in {pto 
Ariae proeonsulaiu. 



210 NOTES- 

Nee AgrieoUu-exemfhim. A warning was not wanting to A. (to 
EToid the dangerous post) ; nor a precedent to Dom. (for disposing of 
A. in the same way if he accepted the office). 

Mruene esset. Subj. Of. H. 629, 1. ; A. and 6. 884 ; Z. 562.— 
InUrrogarent, H. 497, L ; A. and 6. 817 ; Z. 667. 

Inr-excumlione. In urging his request (before Dom.) to be excused, 

Faraius simulaHotie, Al. simulationl Ikimished with deceU^ 
armed, as it were, with hypoerisg. 

In arrogantiam eomposUus, Assuming a proud demtanor, 

BenefieU invidiam lit. the odium of such a kindness = so odious a 
favor. The idea is, he did not blush to let A. return thanks for a 
signal injury, as if it were a real kindness. " A refinement of cruel- 
ty not unfirequently practised by the worst Roman Emperors.** Ky. 
The only peculiarity in the case of Dom. was the unblushing impu- 
dence with which he perpetrated the wrong, cf. 45. See a fine com- 
mentary on this passage in Sen. de Benef. 4, 17 : Quis est, qui non 
beneficus videri velit ? qui non inter scelera et injurias opinionem 
bonitatis aflfectet? yelit quoque Us videri benefieium dedissSy quos 
laesit t gratias itaque agi sibi <A his, quos afflixercy paiiuniur. 

Solarium, Properly salt-money, i. e. a small allowance to the 
soldiers for the purchase of salt. Cf. clavarium, H. 8, 50, note. 
But after Augustus, official ptLj^salarif. In earlier times the gOTcm- 
ment simply arranged that the provincial officers should be furnished 
with all necessaries. Augustus introduced a system of regular 
salaries. 

Ne-emisse, That he might not appear to have purchased a com- 
pliance with his virtual proIUbUion (viz. of A.*8 accepting the procon- 
sulship). 

Proprium humani, etc. Mark the sentiment. 

IrrevocabUior, More implacable. Found in this sense only in 
T. Cf. Bot Lex. Tac 

lUiciia. Unlawful, i. e. forbidden by the powers that be. Ex- 
plained by contumacia and inani jaetaHone libertatis aboTO. T. is 
animadverting upon the conduct of certain stoics and republicans, 
who obtruded their opinions upon those in power, and coveted the 
glory of martyrdom. 

JEkh-excedere. Reach the same height of distinction. JSb, old dat 
Cf. eo inopiae 28, note. Exeedere, lit come out to, arrive at, C£ 
YaL Max. 6, 6, 4 : ad summum imperii fastigium excessU, 



AGRIOOLA. , 211 

F«r abrupta. Through abrnpt and dangm^ug paths. Ey. 

AmbiHoaa morUy L e. morte ultro adita captandae gloriae causa 
apnd posteros. For. and Fac. 

XLIIL XiMftMMtM, tfflicHvey is stronger than iritiis, bocL 

VtUgw, The lower classes, the iffnorarU and indoUnt rabUe,^^ 
Popuku. The common people, tradesmerij meeharUce, and the like. 
Hence aliud agens, which implies that they were too busy with 
something else of a private nature to give much attention to public 
affairs or the concerns of their neighbors. — PoptUtu and vtdgus are 
brought together in a similar way, DiaL de Olar. Orat. 7 : Vulgus 
quoque imperitum et tunicatus hie populus, etc. 

NobU-auaim, lahmUd not dare to affirm thai we (the frienda of 
A.) found any conclusive proof that he was poisoned.— Ceferum. 
But. This implies that the circumstantial evidence, which he goes 
on to specify, convinced the writer and his friends, as well ad the 
public, that poison administered by direction of Dom. was really the 
means of hastening A. out of the world. Dion Cassius expressly 
affirms that he was poisoned, 66, 20. 

Pnneipatus. The imperial government in general, i. e. former 
Emperors. * 

Momenta ipsa defideniis. Each auccemve riage of Me decline, 
Ipea is omitted in the common editions. But it rests on good au- 
thority, and it adds to the significance of the clause : the very moments, 
as it were, were reported to Dom. 

Per dispositos eursores. Dom. appears not to have been at Rome 
at this time, but in the Alban Villa (cf. 46), or somewhere else. 

Constabat, That was an admitted point, about which there was 
entire agreement {con and sto), 

Animo vtUtuque. Hendtadys : he wore in his countenance an ez- 
pression of heartfelt grief 

Securus odii. Now that A. was dead, Dom. had nothing to fear 
in regard to the object of his hatred^ or the greUification of his hate. 
Odii. Gen. of the respect.'— Qui-dissimularet. Qui = talis, ut, 
hence the subj. H. 603, 1. ; A. and G. 319 ; 7u 668. 

Zeeto testamento. When A.^s will was read. 

Honore judicioque. As if a mark of honor and esteem. E. says 
judicio honorifico. — Piissimae, devoted, affectionate. 

Malum principem. It was customary for rich men at Rome, who 
were anxious to secure any of thdr property to their hdrs, to be- 



212 Koras. 

qoeftih ft part of tlicir etUtes to had €mpef9 r 9 in order lo i 
remainder Ironi their rapacity. 

Thia and aereral preeeding aectiona preacnt a moat grapiiie omU 
Une of the life and tinu$ of Dom., the more to be prized, became Ae 
foll/iMfonr, which T. doabtleaa drew of him in the Hiatoriea, ia loat^ 
The Hiatoriea and the Annala are a portrait-gallery foil of aneh pie- 
tnrea, drawn to the life. 

XLIT. NatuB-^xeetmL The datea aarigned for A.'8 birth and 
death do not agree with the age aacribed to him. They may be har- 
monized in cither of two ways, each of whicb baa ita adroeatea: by 
reading prinmm inatead of Urthsm^ or, whidi ia perfaapa a more 
probable amendmcat^ aince it only altera the rdatire poeition of the 
two characters, by reading LIV. inatead of LYL 

Quod fi. And ii^ now if. — HahUmiL Ponontd i^pearanee^ cf. 
0.5. 

DeteiiUorquamoMimior, WeU pro p o rUo nod^raOur IhanUdL B« 

NihU mohu. NoQwngio intpire fear inkiM eoamUnamee. Antitb. 
to gratior-wpertTat: kindnen oftjeprenum rathor prevailed, 80 Or. 
and R. For thia aenae of mohu^ wee note, G. 2 : ob metnm. Ddd. 
distinguishes between vuUm and ortt, maldng the former refer more 
to the ejfei (as if from voho^ the rolling of the eye), to which it be- 
longs to expreaa anger and fieroeneea ; the latter to the month, which 
ia more ezpresaiTe of liindneaa. 

Medio-aelaiii, We should hardly say so of a man dying at 66. 
Bot in Dial, de Clar. Orat, T. apeaks of 120 yeara, as uniue hominio 



M vera bona. T. has here in mmd the distinction made by phi- 
losophers, particularly the Stoics, between the Tirtnea, which th^ 
called the only real good^ and the gifts of fortune, whicb they de- 
clared to be indifferentd— JB^-«f, 6o<&-an<f, marks the distinction more 
strongly. 

Impleverai, Had enjoyed to Ihe full, 

Connulari, Having attained to the rank of conrul (tlie summit of 
a Roman's ambition), and having been honored with (Humphal intig- 
nia, AL consularibus. But eonmdari baa the better authority, and 
makes the better sense. 

Opibue-eoniigerant, Great riehe» he did not desire ; a retpeettMo 
property it toae hit good fortune to poeteesy cf. 6 : medio rationis atque 
abundantiae. Al. non contigerant. But considerable proper^ ia 



AGRICOLA. 213 

implied in the circumstances attending big will, 43, also in his not 
asking the usual salary, 42. Dion Cass, says, however (66, 20), that 
A. spent his last days in want, as well as in disgrace. For another 
explanation oi gaitdehaty cf. note, 6. 6. 

Quod-itminabatur. Quod is omitted in the common editions. 
But it is found in the MSS. And it may be explained on the princi- 
ple of Zeugma, by supplying with durare and videre a verb implied 
in ffrande tolatium ttUU, thus : ihxmgh {ticuti) it would have been a 
great gratifieation to A. to behold the dawn of this auepicioua age and 
see Trajan Emperor^ of which he expreseed in my hearing a tort of 
prophetic anticipation and detire, get (iia), etc. Dion Cassius affirms 
(69, 12) that by auguries the eleyation of Trajan to the throne was 
foretold as early as A. U. C. 844, i. e. two years before the death of A. 
The reference to Tngan here, as in 8, marks clearly the date of the 
composition, cfl note, S : augeatque Tnganus. 

Spiramenta, BreaUdng-speUs^ L e. intervals to recover and take 
breath in. The word is found only in poetry and post-Augustan 
prose, and, in the expressive sense in which it is here used, only in 
Ammian. Marc. 29, 1. See Or. and Freund. 

Vdul urto ietu. The commentators illustrate the force of this 
expression by reference to Caligula's wish (Yid. Sen. de Ira. S, 19) 
that the Roman people had but one neck, ut scelera sua in unwn 
ietum et unum diem cogeret. 

XLV. Non. vidii. Did not see, as he would have done had he 
lived a few years longer. This pa&sage resembles Cic. de Orat. 8, 2, 
8, too closely to be mere coincidence. Imitator tamen, id quod uni 
Tacito contigit, auctore suo praestantior. Bit. 

Consularium. Rhen. collects from Suet, the names of several 
victims of Dom.'s displeasure, who had been consuls. 

Feminarum. Pliny has preserved the names of several of this 
list — Gratilla, wife of Rusticus, Arria, wife of Thrasea, Fannia, 
daughter of Thrasea and betrothed to Helvidius. Their husbands 
will be remembered as having been mentioned in 1 and 2. 

Cams Melius, An infamous mformer, cfl Plin. Epist ^7, 19 ; Juv. 
1,86; Mart. 12,26,6. 

Censihatur, Was honored^ ironice. Censeri est aestimari, sive 
existimationem consequi. Dr. 

Una-victoria, He had occasioned the death of but one innocent 
victim.— ^dAtttf. Up to the death of A., cf. G. 88 : adhuc, note. 



214 NOTES. 

Albanam areeri, A fayorite retreat of Dom. (situated at the 
foot of the Alban Mount, about seventeen miles from Rome), where 
he sometimes conyened the Senate, and held his court with its troop 
of informers, cf. note, 48 : cursores. Bit. in loc. suggests that by 
the use of areem instead of ptdaUumy T. means to represent Domi- 
tian as shutting himself up, like many tyrants, in a fortified castle, 
and thence sending forth the emissaries of his Jealousy and cruelty. 

SentefUia, His voice, his sentiment expressed in coundl before 
Bom.— /n/ra Albanam areem, L e. prwatdy^ nU puhUdy^ as after- 
wards at Rome. 

MttaaUnL Fuit inter principea adulatores et delatores. Dr. Ct 
Plin. Epist 4, 22 ; Juy. 4, 113, seq. 

MaM9a Bebitu, Primus inter pares of Domitian's tools. He began 
his career under Yesp., cf. His. 4, 50. He was afterwards impeached 
and condemned at the instance of the province of Baetica, Pliny and 
Senecio advocates for the impeachment, Plin. Epist 7, 88 ; 8, 4 ; 6, 
29. — Jam turn. At that very lime on trial, not merely already at that 
time. Cf. Hand's Tursel. 8, 118. 

Nostra, sc. of the Senate, of which T. was a member, though 
abroad at the time. Helvidius was arrested in the eenaie houae, cf. 
Plia £p. 9, 18. This was Helvidius the «m, who was put to death 
by Dom. (Suet. 10), as his father was by Vesp. (Suet. 15). 

Vuas. Al. divisus. Visue = species, adspectus, Wr. — FerfitdiL 
Zeugma. Understand in the first clause hMrrore perftidU (Dr.) or 
probro afilecit (R.) : ihe tpectade of Mauricus and Rueticua (hurried 
away, the one to exile, the other to death) filled w teith horror; we 
were stained by the innocent blood of Senecio, Of Rusticus and Sene- 
cio, see 2, note. Of Mauricus, see Plin. £p. 4, 22 : quo viro nihil 
firmius, nihil verius. Also Plin. Ep. 8, 11. 

Videre, sc Domitianum. — Aspiciy sc. a Domitiano. For differ- 
ence in the signification in these words, cf. 40 : viso aspectoque, 
note. 

Suspiria-^uhscribereniur, When our sighs (of sympathy with 
the condemned) were registered against us (by spies and informers, as 
a ground of accusation before the Emperor). 

Jhtbor. Redness, referring to the complexion of Dom., which 
was such as to conceal a blush, cf. Suet. Dom. 18 : vultu ruboris 
pleno. 

Opportunilaie mortis. An expression of Cic., in the similar 



I 



AGRICOLA. 215 

passage above cited (de Oral. 8, 2, 8), touching the death of 
Crassus. 

Fro virili portitme, lit for one man^s share, referring primarily to 
pecnniarj assessments. Here : for thy part — so far as thou toast 
concerned. A, died with a calmness which would scarcely admit of 
the supposition that he felt himself to be a rictim of poison and im- 
perial jealousy. 

Mliae^ve efta. The apostrophe is here dropped to be resumed 
at oplime parentum. So the MSS. For they read ejus here and 
omissus est below. Rhenanus omitted ejus^ and wrote es for est ; and 
he has been followed in the common editions since. 

ConSmomA, By the circumstance, or by virtue of our long ab- 
sence. T. and his wife had parted with A. four years before his 
death, and had been absent from Rome ever since, where or why 
does not appear. 

Superfuere, Cf. superest, G. 6, note. 

XL VI. Sapientibus, Cf. sapientiae professorihus, 2, note. — Te 
immortixlibus latuUbus. I feel constmned to recur to the reading of 
Lipsius and Ritter ; it is so much more spirited than ^vam temporalu 
bus. Potius manifestly should refer back to. lufferi and piangu The 
comparison contained in the more common reading is uncalled for in 
the connection, and of little significance in itself. The MSS. read 
temporalibus laudUnts, without qttamy and this may be more easily 
resolved into te irnmortaUbus^ than quam can be supplied. — Similu 
tudine, Al. aemulatione. For such a use of similitudo, cf. Cic. Tusc. 
Quaest. 1, 46, 110: quorum (sa Curii, Fabricii, Scipionum, etc.), 
similitudinem siliquam qui arripuerit, etc. 

Decoremus, Ennius (dted by Cic. Tusc. Q. 1, 49, 117, and de 
Senect. 20, 78) uses the same word in expressing the same senti- 
ment: nemo me lacrumis decoret nee funera fletu faxit. Cf. also 
G. 26. 

Formam. This makes the sense so much better (than /amam) 
that E., Dr., Wr., R., and most others have adopted it against the 
authority of the MSS., cf. forma meniiSy below, and Cic. passiia. 

Iniereedendum, To be prohibited. Properly said of a veto inter' 
posed by the Tribunes ; then of any prohibition. — Non quia = not 
that, is characteristic of late writers. It is followed by the subj. 
H. 616, 2 ; Z. 687, and note H. 1, 16. 

Manetf mansurumque est, CI YelL Paterc. 2, 66, 6 : vivit, vivefe- 



216 NOTEa 

que per omnem saecnlonxm memoriam. The peiiphrastio form 
{mansurum ed) differs, however, from the future (man^U), as our is 
to remain from foiQ remain. See H. 466, N. ; Z. 498. 

Ohlivio ohruetf sc. for want of a historiaxi, earent quia vote taero, 
cf. Hor. Od. 4, 9, 26, seq. Bj muUos veterum, T. means many an- 
cients of real worth. So vdui implies. A. is to be immortalized 
through his biographer. This is implied in narratue et traditus. 
Ancient authors thought it not improper to express a calm con- 
sciousness of merit, and a proud confidence of immortality. T. is 
▼ery modest and delicate in the manner of intimating his ezpecta- 
tions. But the sentiment of these last words is substantially the 
same with the line of Horace : Exe^ monumentum acre perennius. 
The whole peroration of this Biography is one of singular beauty and 
moral elevation. Pathetic, yet calm, rich in noble sentiments, and 
animated by the purest and loftiest spirit, it is a fit topstone to that 
monument, in respect to which T. felt so well-founded an assurance, 
which still manet mangurumque eat in animit hominum^ in aetemitaie 
temporumy fama rerum. There is scarcely an educated youth in 
Christendom who is not as familiar with the name of Agricola as 
with that of JBneas and Ulysses. And the only reason why we 
know anything of those heroes is the genius of their respective biogr 
raphers. There had been other Agricolas before the age of Trajan, 
as there had been other heroes like iEneas, and other wandering 
sages like Ulysses, before the war of Troy. But they found no 
Tacitus, Virgil, and Homer to record their adventurous and virtuous 
deeds. It is the prerogative of eminent writers to confer immortal- 
ity ; and although Alexander would prefer to be Achilles rather than 
Homer, we should have known little of his achievements had he not 
encouraged scholars as well as warriors, and rewarded genius no leai 
than valor. 



THB BHD. 



2%e grammatieal references %n this ecUHon of (he Germama and 
Agricola of Taeiiui are to the " Standard^' (Sevieum of 1881) 
ediium of ffarkneet^t Latin Grammar^ ha for the convenience 
of etudenUy who may have the prevtoue edition, we have inserted 
ihis taJble, giving the corresponding sections in both editions, 

GEHMAKIA. 

Oaf. LMollietclomeiiter,ete 619,2,27.3. 522, n.l. 

II. Credlderim. 48«, L N. 1 436,1.8. 

Terra adochebantnr. 680, IL 1 704, L 2. 

Vooentur 61fi| U. N 520, U. 

Tocarentur. 624 581. 

III. Haecquoque 660,1X1 602, IIL 

rV. Propriam-slmlleiiL 891, IL 4 891,2,4. 

V. NegaTerlnt 529, L 526. 

VI. Ne . . .quldem 669, IIL 2 602, UL% 

' Xm. Buffectnram probaverit 520, L 2 528,11. 

Emineat 611,1 611,11. 

XIV. Posste 460,1, N. 2 460,2,1). 

XV. Venatibua, per otlum 686,1V 704, IIL 

Ament 617 618, L 

XVL Ne . . . quldem 669, IIL 2 602, IIL 2* 

Domam-spatio 884, IL 2 884, ILL 

XVIIL Comatnr 497,1 600. 

XX. Tanqnam 624; 618, II 681; 508. 

XXVIL Conmiigraverlnt 629, I , 626. 

XXVUL Quo minus 497, IL 2 499. 

Igitnr 669, III 602, IIL 

Cum 617 618, L 

XXIX. Flerent 600,1 600, 2. 

XXXIL Alveo 424 429. 

XXXV. Quanquam 616, IIL N. 1, 8) 616, L «; 

Quique-tueri 600,1 601, L 

Utagant 601,11 490. 

XXXVI. Fulssent 616,111 616, tt 

XXXVIL Gastra ac spatla 686, IIL 2 704, IL 2. 

XLIIL Quo magia pudent 497, IL 2 497. 

Paaca campeatrixim 897,8 896, 111.2,8). 

Insederunt 872 871, 4. 

XUV. In oidlnem 486,1 



218 GRAMMATICAL R£FERENCEa 

AOmCOLA. 

Gat. L Fidadim momm STB^ I. K.l 

IL Laodatl essent. 521, IL 2 618, IL 

Ne ooeoRwet 497,11 490. 

in. Tarnen 410, IV 410, 6. 

IV. Senatorli ordinis 896, V 402, IIL 

Barae castltotls 898,1 897, 1. 

Locnm-mixtain 680, IV 704, IIL 

V. Injactattonem 48S,I 

VL Ne sensiBset fi07, N.7; 498, IL 608,% 2); 492,1. 

EL Subtmtatem 616,11 681. 

Minus trieDoimn 417, H". 2 417, 8. 

XL Ut qaoe 517,8 619, 8. 

XIL Expnlaa slnt 524 581. 

ZIIL Iqjiuicta imperii manen.... 686, U.l 704, L 2. 

Niftilwent 896, V 896, IV. 

XIV. Quaereretur 497,1 600. 

XV. Eeceaaiflset 624 681. 

Nere pavescerent. 628,111 629. 

ZVm. Qqibiu erat 887,N.8 887, 8. 

Crediderint 495, VI; 490 482,2; 480. 

XIX. Donee fieret 519, n.2 522, U. 

XXV. Clauderetur 618,11 606. 

Pellerentur 624 629. 

XXVHL Veaoerentur. 421, N.4 419,4. 

Qttos indicium llhiatravit. . . .608, N. 8, 2; 601, L 2. 

XXIX Quae Ikoerot 497,1 600. 

XXXL Beaenremup..... ...497,1 600. 

NoDDe 861,1, N. 2 846, ILl,^ 

XXXUI. m bariMria moria 402 402, L 

Tenninoa 872 871, 4. 

XXXrV. Ederetia 497,1 600. 

XXXIX. Moria erat 402 402,1. 

Formarentor 497,1 600. 

XLII. SorttTOtar 606,1 601, L 

Itamaneeaaet '. 529,1 625. 

Interrograrent 497,1 500. 

XLIIL Qui diaaimolant. 608,1 601, L 

XL VX. Ken quia. 516,2 620, a 

Muaarumeat. 466, N 28L 



An otlior references are the Bame in both editiooB» 



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v'c r". -litj '^y-Bufc -eL^U-i.*.^ .. C^i*«_^,»^- 



/pA fo '■-' ''•X^ ^*- ' ' '' • 



-:/^yu^4C^ ' ^ht- ^U<^^^ /«Uw€v^-«a-^y; 



•<7e^tijCZ^ , 



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