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Full text of "The German immigration into Pennsylvania through the port of Philadelphia from 1700 to 1775 : part II: The Redemptioners"

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Presented to the 


by the 



- s 




*fc. f | 


<3erman ITmmigration 


Ubrougb tbe port of pbilaoelpbia, 
1700 to 1775. 


ZIbe IRebemptioners. 





Ex-Secretary and ex-President of The Pennsylvania-German Society, Secretary of the %, 

Lancaster County Historical Society, Author of " The Three Earls," " The . fc ,., . -, 
German Exodus to England in 1 709," " The Palatine and Quaker fj r ,j*?-4c ** 

as Commonwealth-Builders," etc., etc. ^ 






Copyrighted 1900, by 

Edition, 250 Copies. 


Preface 7-8 


Our Sources of Information Relative to the German 
Immigration, and where they are Defective or Alto- 
gether Absenf . Extensive Character of the Immigra- 
tion not Realized in the Beginning 9-15 


Causes Leading to the Migration to Pennsylvania. 
Penn Favorably Known in Germany. Descriptive Ac- 
counts of the Province Published in many Languages 
and widely Circulated 16-22 


Penn's own Description of his Province, in which its 
Advantages and Attractions are Fully and Minutely set 
forth for the Benefit of Intending Immigrants .... 23-33 


Efforts to Secure Colonists Successful. Alarm Cre- 
ated by their great Numbers from Germany. System 
of Registration Adopted. Arrival of many Ships. 
Their Names, Numbers and Places of Departure . . . 34-56 


The Voyage across the Ocean. Discomforts and 
Privations Attending it. Insufficient Room. Deficient 
Supplies of Food and Drink. Unsanitary Conditions 

and Excessive Mortality 57~7 


iv Table of Contents. 


Pennsylvania the Favorite Home of German Immi- 
grants. What Occurred in Massachusetts. The Ger- 
mans Especially Adapted to the Requirements of Penn's 
Province. Bishop Berkeley's Prevision 7 I- 77 


Glance at the Quarrels Between the Proprietary Gov- 
ernors and the Provincial Assembly. It was not the 
Political Golden Age to "which we Sometimes Refer 
with so much Pride and Pleasure 7890 


Early Demand of the Germans for Naturalization. 
Request Denied, but granted Later. How they Spread 
all over the Land and Became the Shield and Bulwark 
of the Quakers by Guarding the Frontiers against the 
Indians 9198 


The German Population of Pennsylvania as Estimated 
by various Writers at various Epochs. Often mere 
Guesses. Better means of Reaching close Results now. 
Some Sources of Increase not Generally Considered . 99108 


Their Detractors and Their Friends. What both Par- 
ties have said. The Great Philosopher Franklin Mis- 
taken. How the Passing Years have Brought along 
their Vindication 109117 


The Germans as Farmers. Answer to a Recent His- 
torian who Asserts They, although a Race of Farmers, 
did not take the Same Enjoyment in Agricultural Pur- 
suits as the Scotch-Irish and Others ! 118-140 

Table of Contents. v 


Who and What they Were. A Condition born of 
Necessity Beyond the Sea and Transferred to Amer- 
ica. The Several Kinds of Bond Servants. A Strik- 
ing Feature in the History of Pennsylvania .... 143-150 


Bond Servants a Universal Custom of the Times. 
Brought from.Great Britain and taken to all the Middle 
Colonies. Synopsis of Colonial Legislation on Inden- 
tured Servants . 151-171 


Origin and Meaning of the Term " Redemptioner." 
Narrative of Gottlieb Mittelberger who, after Residing 
in Pennsylvania four years, Returned to the Fatherland 
and by Request wrote a full Account of the Voyage 
Across the Sea and the Redemptioner Traffic . . 172187 


The " Newlanders " or Soul-Sellers. Men who made 
a Business of Sending Redemptioners to Pennsylva- 
nia. How their Nefarious Traffic was Carried on in 
the Fatherland. Letters from Pastor Muhlenberg and 
Others 188-200 


The Testimony of the Newspapers Concerning the 
Traffic in Redemptioners in the Eighteenth Century. 
A Mere Article-of Merchandise in the Market, and sold 
to the first Bidder 201-218 

vi Table of Contents. 


Redemptioners or Indentured Servants not all Ger- 
mans. Ireland, Scotland and England Contributed 
large numbers to carry on the work of Commonwealth- 
Building 219-239 


Christopher Saur's Letters to Governor Morris, Plead- 
ing for Just Legislation looking to the Protection of 
German Immigrants in General and the German Re- 
demptioners in Particular 240-257 


The Mortality of Immigrants on Shipboard. Organ- 
ization of the German Society, and its good Work. 
Lands Assigned to Redemptioners at the end of their 
Service on easy Terms 258-275 


The Traffic in Redemptioners in the Neighboring 
Colonies. Men Kidnapped in London and Deported. 
Prisoners of War sent to America in Cromwell's time 
and sold into Bondage 276-293 


Argument to show the Redemptioner System was not 
wholly Evil. That much Good came out of it. That 
in some Particulars it was Preferable t6 the Unre- 
warded Toil in the Fatherland 294317 


1. Portrait of Author Frontispiece. 

2. Gustavus Adolphus Facing page 14 

3. William Pnn " " 30 

4. Menno Simon " " 46 

5. Domestic Industries Tow Reel Spun Flax ... " " 64 

6. Glassware made at Manheim, 1768-1774 " " 716' 

7. Provincial Head Gear Domestic Utensils " " 88 

8. German Household Utensils .... " " 100 

9. Benjamin Franklin " " no 

10. Pennsylvania-German Farm Life " " 122 

11. Oldest House in Lancaster County " " 135 

12. Domestic Utensils, etc " " 146 

13. Pennsylvania-German Enterprise " " 159 

14. Baron Stiegel Stove Plate . " " 179 

15. Witmer's Bridge, across Conestoga River .... " " 191 

16. Milk Cellar Drying Shed " " 202 

17. Primitive Cider Mill " " 214 

18. Provincial Kitchen Outfit " " 230 

19. Rifle Barrel Factory " 245 

20. Henry Keppele " " 264 

21. The Community Cider Mill " " 298 

22. Franklin College " lf 312 




1. HeadPiece 7 

2. Seal of Pennsylvania-German 

Society 7 

3. Head Piece 9 

4. Initial of Pennsylvania-Ger- 

man Society 9 

5. Arms of Sweden 12 

6. Autograph of Gustavus Adol- 

phus 14 

7. Arms of the Holy Roman Em- 

pire 15 

8. Head Piece 16 

9. Anns of the Printers' Guild . 16 

10. Arms of Penn 19 

11. Old Style Fat Lamp 22 

12. Head Piece 23 

13. Palatine Architecture .... 23 

14. Penn 's " Brief Account ". . . 25 

15. Tail Piece 33 

16. Head Piece 34 

17. Palatine Building 34 

18. Penn's "Letter to Society of 

Traders " 37 

19. Great Seal of the Province . . 38 

20. A Frontier German Hamlet . 44 

21. Budd's Account of Pennsyl- 

vania 49 

22. Old-Time Pennsylvania Cra- 

dle 56 

23. Head Piece 57 

24. Early Farmer's Home .... 57 

25. Cornelius Bom's Account . . 61 

26. Old-Fashioned "Dutch Oven" 70 

27. HeadPiece 71 

28. Specimen of German Archi- 

tecture 71 

29. Francis Daniel Pastorius' 

Tracts . 73 

30. HeadPiece 78 















Old Hip-roofed House .... 78 
Melchior Adam Pastorius' 

Booklet 85 

Skimmer and Musstopf ... 90 

HeadPiece 91 

Arms of Holland, A.D. 1694 . 91 
Conestoga Team and Wagon . 95 

Head Piece 99 

Coat-of-Arms 99 

Gabriel Thomas' Pennsylva- 
nia 103 

Head Piece 109 

Fatherland Cathedral . . . .109 
Falckner's Continuation of 

Thomas 113 

Specimen of Early Pottery . .117 
Early Pennsylvania Home- 
stead 118 

Seal of the City of Pennsyl- 
vania 118 

Primitive Lantern 124 

Early Settlers and their Visi- 
tors 128 

Ox Yoke and Flail 132 

Early Pennsylvania Printing 

Press 136 

Arms of Great Britain . . . .140 

Head Piece 143 

Insignia of Pennsylvania-Ger- 
man Society 143 

A Pioneer's Cabin 148 

Head Piece 151 

Seal of William Penn . . . .151 
Gabriel Thomas' Map of Penn- 
sylvania 155 

Peasants and Costumes of the 

Palatinate 162 

London Coffee House 168 

Early Pennsylvania Pottery . . 171 


Illustrations in Text. 



60. Head Piece 172 

61. Initial Pennsylvania-German 

Society 172 

62. Castle in the Palatinate . . . .178 

63. Straw Bread Basket 183 

64. Tail Piece 187 

65. Head Piece 188 

66. Seal of Germantown 188 

67. Autograph Entry of Pastor 

Muhlenberg 193 

68. Title Page Kalm's Travels. . . 197 

69. lesser Seal of Province .... 198 

70. Head Piece 201 

71. Arms of Rotterdam 201 

72. Autograph of Christopher Saur 204 

73. Facsimile Title of Saur's 

Paper 207 

74. Bread Tray, Knife and Scorer 210 

75. Roach Trap, Biigeleisen, etc. . 218 

76. Head Piece 219 

77. An Ephrata Symbol 219 

78. Irish Redemptioner's Certifi- 

cate 224 

79. Cloister Building, at Ephrata . 228 

80. Seal of the Ephrata Brethren . 233 

81. Redemptioner's Certificate . . 236 

82. Razor Case, Razor and lancet 238 

83. Arms of the City of I/5ndon. . 239 

84. Street Scene in Old German- 

town 240 

85. Seal of William Penn 240 

86. Signature of Francis Daniel 

Pastorius 244 

87. Early Coffee Mill 246 

88. Currency of Revolutionary 

Period 249 

89. Currency of Revolutionary 

Period 250 

90. Clock of the Provincial Period 253 

91. An old Germantown Land- 

mark 257 


92. Old Robert's Mill, near Ger- 

mantown 258 

93. Arms of the Palatinate . . . 258 

94. Smaller Seal of Germantown . 261 

95. Tar Bucket of Olden Days . . 263 

96. Seal of the German Society of 

Pennsylvania 265 

97. Map of the Palatinate 267 

98. Gourd Seine Float 270 

99. Penn's " Some Account " 

Tract 274 

100. Ross Coat-of-Arms 275 

101. Old Market Square, German- 

town 276 

102. Old Time Wooden I^antern . . 276 

103. Governor Markham's Auto- 

graph 278 

104. Redemptioners offered for 

Sale 280 

105. Dutch Boy offered for Sale . . 281 

106. Blue Anchor Tavern 284 

107. Immigrants on the St. Michael 287 

108. Passenger Ship of 1750 .... 290 

109. Autograph of Conrad Weiser . 292 

no. TailPiece 293 

in. De la Plaine House, German- 
town 294 

112. Franklin Coat-of-Arms .... 294 

113. Ephrata Display Type . . . . 295 

114. Celebrated Almanac Cover . . 297 

115. Provincial Barber's Basin . . 301 

116. Facsimile of Trappe Records 303 

117. The Pioneers' Foe 306 

118. A Custom in the Father- 

land 310 

119. Plockhoy's Description of 

Pennsylvania 311 

120. The Morris House in German- 

town 315 

121. The Diffenderffer Wappen . . 317 

122. The End 330 


HE story of the German immi- 
gration to Pennsylvania in the 
1 7th and i8th centuries, and since, 
forms one of the most interesting and 
notable chapters in the history of the 
colonization of the New World. For 
many decades its importance and 
significance was not recognized or 
understood even by those who formed 
part and parcel of it. It is only within a recent period 
that it has received the attention it deserves. During the 
past few years a dozen books on this and germane sub- 
jects have been written and published and several more 
will be issued before the year's close. 

Perhaps the main factor in directing attention to this 
needed work was the organization of the Pennsylvania- 
German Society in 1891. The enterprise of a few en- 
thusiastic men resulted in arousing an interest in the sub- 
ject unknown before. Their action met with a hearty 
response from Pennsylvanians of German descent in all 


8 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

parts of the country, and while to-day it may not stand 
first in actual membership, the Society is certainly far in 
advance of every similar organization in the land in the 
amount of excellent work it has done towards carrying out 
the purposes of its organization, and in placing the Ger- 
man element in the colonization of Pennsylvania in its 
proper light before the world. Its contributions to the 
literature of the subject have received recognition and 
praise on two continents. The " Slumbering Giant," as 
the German element in Pennsylvania has been aptly called, 
has at last been aroused to a consciousness of his might 
and importance, his birthright and inheritance, and mani- 
fests a determination to assert his claims to the same. 

The question of the German influence in the physical, 
political and intellectual upbuilding of this Commonwealth 
is of special interest to those of German ancestry. It has 
not yet been fully worked out but the present day is radiant 
with promise. The following chapters are offered as pre- 
senting some of the " lights and shadows" accompanying 
this immigration least familiar to the general reader. 

It affords me much pleasure and satisfaction to make 
grateful acknowledgment to Julius F. Sachse, Esq., for 
the excellent original illustrations he has prepared to ac- 
company this volume ; they not only add much to its at- 
tractiveness, but have, in addition, an historical value all 
their own. 

F. R. D. 

LANCASTER, October, 1900. 



" I hear the tread of pioneers, 

Of nations yet to be ; 
The first low wash of waves where soon 
Shall roll a human sea. 

" The rudiments of empire here, 

Are plastic yet and warm ; 
The chaos of a mighty world 
Is rounding into form." 


'T must be conceded that the 
materials, both written and 
traditional, along many lines of the 
history of the Commonwealth of 
Pennsylvania are abundant and, 
for the most part, thoroughly re- 
liable. Its founder was himself a 
university man, ready with tongue 
and pen, and the writer of many 

pamphlets, and his selection of agents, assistants and 
advisers proves him to have had a natural preference for 
cultured and scholarly men to aid him in carrying out 
his views for the advancement of his province. His 


io The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

selection of the youthful but scholarly Logan, for more 
than a generation his tried and trusty Secretary, Griffith 
Owen, Samuel Carpenter and others, seems to show the 
importance he attached to having men of culture about 
him to forward his wise and enlightened schemes of gov- 
ernment and commonwealth-building. It was in a large 
measure due to these men, along with himself, that the 
mass of written material at the command of the diligent 
historian of to-day is so full and so accessible. 

Then, too, time has dealt kindly with our early records. 
Much has undoubtedly been lost or destroyed, or, mayhap, 
is still buried in unsuspected and neglected depositories ; 
but that which has disappeared or failed to appear must 
of necessity be only a fractional part of the whole. We 
have no reason to believe that any material of supreme 
importance to a reasonably full record of our provincial 
period any lost books of Livy, so to speak has per- 
ished from our annals. The chain of evidence along most 
lines of investigation is as complete and unbroken as we 
have a right to expect. It is not to be expected that there 
should not be a hiatus here and there, something to be 
wished for, something that seems to be needed along a 
stretch of time covering more than two hundred years of 
the fortunes, the trials and triumphs of the most conglom- 
erate people that ever built up a free and independent State 
in modern times. But we may congratulate ourselves that 
our records, even back to our beginnings, are so full, and 
that with them as faithful guides we can sit down and build 
up anew upon the printed page the continuous story of the 
men who laid deep and strong the civil, social, religious 
and political foundations of Pennsylvania. 

And yet there is one chapter, and that a very important 
one, from which we turn with regret, because while it 

Family Records Lacking. n 

deeply concerns all men of German, Swiss and Huguenot 
ancestry, it is the one most needed to throw light on the 
arrival of the first comers, the men who came here from 
the Rhine provinces during the first quarter of the eight- 
eenth century. Of the many thousands that found their 
way across the broad Atlantic to Pennsylvania during that 
period, only a small portion brought written records with 
them, or took measures to prepare and preserve them after 
their arrival. The more highly educated did not neglect 
this obligation to posterity. Still others brought with them 
that most precious of all their household treasures, the heavy, 
oak-lidded German Bible, wherein the Old World pastor 
had with scrupulous care recorded the brief life and death 
record of the family. Most precious heirlooms are these 
household treasures to-day to the few so fortunate as to 
have them. But an infinitely greater number, descendants 
of those who had not the learning of the schools and who 
were incapable of preparing such memorials for them- 
selves, left no such records for their descendants to fall 
back upon, and the latter have in consequence been left to 
sail about upon the broad sea of doubt and uncertainty, 
unable to obtain their bearings or find their moorings. 

It is here that the historiographer of the " Immigration 
of the Germans through the port of Philadelphia " finds 
himself confronted with almost insuperable difficulties. 
During the period between 1683 an< ^ I 7 2 7> tne landmarks 
that could and should guide him are not to be found. 
They have not been obliterated ; they were never erected, 
and the perplexed chronicler sails to and fro over that un- 
known and uncharted sea of our provincial history, vainly 
endeavoring to pick up and preserve the flotsam which ac- 
cident, rather than design, may have cast into his pathway. 
No wonder that to-day ten thousand men and women of 

12 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

German ancestry are tireless in their search for the floating 
threads, the missing links that are needed to bind them to 
the unknown kindred in the Fatherland, but which in 
many instances have seemingly been lost forever. 

When the first German settlers came to Pennsylvania, 
and in what numbers, and under what circumstances, are 
questions more easily asked than answered. Besides, it 
would perhaps be more interesting than profitable, for they 
left no permanent settlements, left no impress upon the 
future of the Province and may therefore be dismissed 

with a mere allusion. The settle- 
ments planted by Gustavus Adol- 
phus and his illustrious minister 
Oxensteirna on the Delaware in 
1638, and later, although under 
the auspices of the Swedish king, 
contained a large infusion of Ger- 
mans, to whom unusual induce- 
ments were offered. The second 
Governor of that little colony, 
Johannes Printz, was a Hols- 
teiner, and brought with him a 
considerable number of Pommer- 
anian families. These facts are 
ample to establish the presence of German settlers in Penn- 
sylvania long before Pastorius led his colony of Crefelders 
to Germantown. Even as these pages are running through 
the press a letter has been found in Germany, through the 
efforts of a member of the Pennsylvania-German Society, 
written from Germantown itself by one of the Op den 
Graeff brothers, dated February 12, 1684, in which the 
presence of a German Reformed congregation in that lo- 

1 Julius F. Sachse, Esq. 


The Germantoivn Colony. i 

cality is announced at the time when the Pastorius colony 
was established. Who these were, whence they came, 
how long they had been there, and kindred questions 
may perhaps never be revealed, but the general subject 
is nevertheless a most interesting one. 

The story of the first strictly German settlement in 
Pennsylvania, and of the men and women who composed 
it, has recently been so fully and so ably written as to 
leave nothing further to be desired. 2 Owing to circum- 
stances which it is not necessary to recount in this place, 
the existing records were ample to prepare the story of the 
beginnings* of that mighty Teutonic wave of immigration 
which, commencing with that colony of less than two 
score members in 1683, continued to come in an ever-in- 
creasing volume until it has outgrown and in a measure 
displaced some of the other nationalities which preceded it, 
and which was destined eventually to outnumber all the 
rest, a preeminence it has never lost, but which is to-day 
as marked and lasting as at any previous period in our 
history. Well have the results of the past two hundred 
years fulfilled the promise of that earlier day when Francis 
Daniel Pastorius and his earnest compatriots established 
their thriving settlement upon the verdant slopes of Ger- 

At the beginning of the German immigration, the won- 
derful dimensions it was destined to attain in the course of 
time seem not to have dawned upon anyone either in the 
Old World or the New. It was of gradual growth and it 
was not until nearly two score years after the founding of 
the Province that even an organized effort was made to 

2 See the splendid contribution to the Provincial history of Pennsylvania, 
The Settlement of Germantown, by JUDGE SAMUEL W. PENNYPACKER, pub- 
lished in Volume IX. of the Proceedings of the Pennsylvania-German Society. 

14 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

take an account of the names and numbers of the Germans 
who landed on these shores. But although fear then did 
what should have been done from the beginning, the records 
made were far from complete. We have the names of most 
of the new comers, know the names of most of the vessels 
that brought them over, and in some instances the ages of 
the immigrants, but what to-day seems almost as essential 
as either of these, we cannot tell in the majority of cases 
the locality whence they came. They came from every 
portion of the German Empire ; many from Switzerland ; 
others were of French extraction, but who had for a gen- 
eration or more been radicated in the cantons of Switzer- 


land or in the Netherlands, whence, after acquiring the 
language of those countries, they finally made their way to 
the shores of the Delaware. In many instances family 
traditions preserved through after generations the precise 
name of the Old World home. Fortunate indeed are those 
who brought with them authenticating documents covering 
the birthplace, ancestry, age and other valuable items of 
family history. But the number of such is comparatively 
small when compared with the entire number of arrivals. 
How gratefully would such information be appreciated to- 



(BORN DEC. 9. 1 59* : DIED MOV. 16, 1632.) 


> /'* 

' ;-* of th* G 
'Ugh fear 
-.tiling, the n 

Wo- hjive the names of most 
imes oi mo*i of the vessels 
some instances the agc^ 
' HdNSins alrn.-^t a essential 
-. ibe H- r cases 

They v. A r?u> -ery 

; many from 8wiUerla 

vho had for a gen- 

ierlands, whence, after 
".i.ntries, they 

.inc oc 
ifce number of * 
d with the ent'tt- 




(BORN DEC. 9. 159*; DIED NOV. 16. 1632.) 


Our Annals Defective. 15 

day by the thousands of German ancestry, who in their 
search for information covering these and other points find 
that their ancestors were among the ten or the fifty of the 
same name who came to America in the eighteenth cen- 
tury, but which they were or whence they came must ever 
remain a sealed book to them. Right here is where our 
historical annals are most defective. There should have 
been a complete registration from the beginning. Lacking 
that, ten thousand men and women of German lineage are 
to-day vainly longing for the information which in all hu- 
man probability will ever remain irrecoverable. 




"There is nothing that solidifies and strengthens a nation like the reading 
of the nation's own history, whether that history is recorded or embodied in 
customs, institutions and monuments." 

HLTHOUGH the causes re- 
sponsible for the German 
immigration to Pennsylvania are 
to-day well understood, it will 
nevertheless be in order to refer to 
them briefly at the outset of this 
narrative. They were various and 
concurrent. There was a spirit of 
unrest and dissatisfaction through- 
out Europe and especially in Ger- 
many. That continent had been 
almost continuously torn by devastating wars for a hundred 
years previously. Destruction and desolation had been car- 
ried into millions of homes, In almost every kingdom and 
principality the tramp of the invader had been heard, and 
wherever he appeared ruin followed in his tracks by day, 


Colonial Enterprise Begins. 17 

and his incendiary torch marked his course by night. The 
peasant was no more considered in this clash of arms than 
the cattle in his fields. Like them he was valued only for 
what he was worth to his lord and master, whoever that 
might be. He was pressed into the ranks whenever his 
services were needed, while his substance was seized and 
converted to the public use. To eke out a scanty existence 
where the fates had located him without hope of betterment 
or material progression seemed the aim and end of his being. 
To rise from the plane of life to which he was born was 
a blessing vouchsafed to few. Generations of oppression 
and penury nad in too many cases dwarfed the humanity 
within his soul, and he could only in exceptional cases 
look forward to anything better or higher. 

But as the night of oppression and wrong was nearing 
its zenith, the light of a new and a better day was break- 
ing. The fateful voyage of Columbus changed the fate 
and fortunes of two continents. It cleared the way for 
the era of maritime adventure which followed it at once. 
Western Europe arose and from the Iberian to the Scandi- 
navian peninsulas the nations embarked upon a career of 
colonial enterprise. The marvellous tales told by the 
Genoese sailor of the new lands beyond the great ocean 
spread throughout the nations even more rapidly than the 
Fiery Cross among the ancient Highlanders of Scotland, 
and each one entered upon the game of seizing whatsoever 
it could of the spoils that seemed to await the earliest 
comer. England, Spain, Th*e Netherlands, Sweden and 
France at once entered upon the work of seizure and divi- 

What a boundless field for enterprise, adventure and 
wealth was thus opened up to the cupidity of nations and 
of individuals, and how quickly they availed themselves of 

1 8 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

the opportunity ! Colonists are needed to found colonies 
and at once every available agency was employed to make 
these new lands profitable to their new owners. Government 
companies were chartered, expeditions were authorized, 
princely land grants were made to individuals and each 
and all of these offered inducements to the lower ranks in 
life, the husbandmen, the mechanics and men of all work 
to enlist themselves in these new enterprises. Of course the 
most attractive inducements were held out to set this spirit 
of emigration in motion. The allurements of the pro- 
moter of the present day hardly surpass, in their false at- 
tractiveness, the fairy tales held up before the starving 
millions of the Old World by the Land Companies and 
other schemers whose interests lay in the numbers they 
could induce to cross the Atlantic and till their lands and 
thus make them valuable. 

It would require pages to tell this part of my subject in 
all its fullness. The printing press, that greatest of all 
the agents in the world's civilization, was already held at 
its true value. The prospectus of to-day, it is true, was 
not yet known, but in its stead the booklet was equally 
effective. Scores of small pamphlets of from ten to one 
hundred or more pages each were written, printed and scat- 
tered throughout almost every country in Europe. 3 


To William Penn, and especially to his trusted agent 
Benjamin Furly, must be credited the honor of diverting by 
far the largest part of the German emigration to America, 

3 In Volume VII. of the Proceedings of the Pennsylvania-German Society 
will be found the titles of more than two score of these booklets, all direct- 
ing attention to the Province of Pennsylvania. A few of the more important 
ones will be found in this volume. 

Penn in Germany. 

to his own Province. This fact has in recent years been 
so clearly demonstrated as to receive universal recognition. 
A chain of fortuitous circumstances seems to have been 
forged in the Divine workshop linking a series of events 
that finally culminated in the most remarkable, as it is also 
the most interesting, migration of a people from one country 
to another, although separated by thousands of miles of 
watery waste, which the world has ever seen. 

Allusion has already been made to the crushed, oppressed 
and povert}r-stricken character of the peasantry in certain 
parts of Germany, notably in the Rhine provinces, com- 
monly known as the Palatinate. Religious persecutions 
were carried out against them even more relentlessly than 
the red hand of domestic and foreign wars. To a people 
ready to sacrifice and suffer 
all for conscience sake, the 
persecution by creed was as 
unbearable as that which de- 
spoiled them of their homes 
and their substance. Among 
these people thus affected, 
carne in the year 1671 and 
again in 1677, a man of 
humble yet stately mien, one 
who preached the doctrines 
of peace and good will to 
men. He too had passed 
through the tribulations of 
sake. He could enter into 


persecution for conscience 
the true inwardness of the 
men of the Palatinate, condole, soothe and encourage. 
It was William Penn, the Quaker, whose religious tenets 
they found in comparison differed little from those held 
by the followers of Menno Simon, which was in itself a 

2O The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

strong bond of sympathy. Penn's heart went out to these 
resolute but amiable people. Still another bond, one of 
kinship, drew them to him. His mother, Margaret Jasper, 
was a Dutch woman and it has been alleged that Penn 
spoke and wrote in Dutch and in German also, although 
this is not certain. There are few stronger ties than those 
of language and this, perhaps, was not wanting. 

At the period of his travels through Germany, Penn had 
not yet acquired the ownership of Pennsylvania ; it came 
four years after his last visit. Naturally, one of the first 
things he undertook was to secure colonists for his newly- 
acquired province. The attention of Englishmen prior to 
that period had been directed to New England, to Mary- 
land, Virginia, and the young colonies to the south of her. 
The Quakers, it is true, rallied around him and they were 
his earliest adherents, and his was for a time a Qjiaker 
colony. But Penn was a man of broad and enlightened 
views. He cared little to what nationality his people be- 
longed provided they were otherwise desirable. Nor creed 
nor birth nor color was excluded from the laws he formu- 
lated in i682. 4 

A recent writer has referred to the influence exercised 
by the personality of Penn upon the Germans in the Rhine 
provinces in these words : "To all of them the news in 
1681 that the tall young Englishman who four years before 
had passed through the Rhine country, preaching a doc- 
trine of religious life not very different from that of Men no 
Simon, was now the proprietor in America of a vast re- 
gion greater than all Bavaria, Wurtemburg and Baden 
together and that he had invited them to come and live 
there, without wars and persecutions, under laws which 

4 JOHN RUSSELL YOUNG'S Memorial History of Philadelphia, Vol. I., p. 

Sale of Land Begins. 21 

they should share in making such news must indeed have 
roused and stirred many a discouraged peasant house- 
hold." 5 

An earlier author wrote : "It has ever been the policy 
of our government (Pennsylvania), before and since the 
Revolution, and the disposition of our people to receive all 
sober emigrants with open arms, and to give them imme- 
diately the free exercise of their trades and occupations, 
and of their religion." 6 

It was this liberal spirit that at once induced him to turn 
towards his erstwhile friends in Germany. They, next to 
his own Qjiaker friends in England, were nearest his heart, 
and accordingly we find that among his first efforts to se- 
cure colonists were those directed towards Germany. He 
made them acquainted with his territory in America. He 
appointed agents to procure emigrants. Benjamin Furly, 


an English Separatist, was perhaps the principal and most 
active of these and to him a large measure of credit is due 
for giving direction to the rising tide of Teutonic immigra- 
tion. As early as March 10, 1682, he had sold several 
5,ooo-acre tracts of land to merchants of Crefeld. This, it 
will be seen, was before Penn had himself visited his 
princely domain. In 1683 the elder Pastorius, as agent for 
a number of German friends, bought 25,000 acres, and on 
these the town of Germantown was soon after located. 
That was the beginning, and thenceforward many 

5 JOHN RUSSELL YOUNG'S Memorial History of Philadelphia, Vol. I., p. 62. 

6 TENCH COXE, A View of the United States of America, p. 74. 

22 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

other agencies were at work to increase the number of 
German immigrants. The Frankfort Land Company did 
its utmost to attract settlers to its lands. Such colonists as 
were already here wrote home attrac- 
tive accounts of the new home they 
had found in the forests of Pennsyl- 
vania. No one, however, was more 
industriously engaged in this work 
than Penn himself. As early as 1681 
he issued a pamphlet giving infor- 
mation concerning his province to 
such as wished "to transport them- 
selves or servants into those parts." 
German and Dutch translations were 
also printed and scattered broadcast 
through the Low Countries and Ger- 
many. In 1682 he sent out in Eng- 
lish and German his Brief Account 
of the Province of Pennsylvania. 
Another description of his province 
was issued in English, Dutch, Ger- 

(Blackbird) domestic fat man and French in 1684. But his 
lamp, on stand. were not t h e only pamphlets sent out. 
Thomas Budd published an account in English in 1685 5 
Cornelius Bom one in Dutch in the same year ; Dr. Moore 
one in English in 1687 ; the elder Pastorius one in Ger- 
man in 1692 ; Gabriel Thomas' well-known Account came 
out in English and German in 1698 and had an excellent 
effect, as had also Daniel Falkner's Curiouse Information, 
published in Frankfort and Leipzig in I7O2. 7 

7 The above are only a small portion of this early Pennsylvania literature. 
Fac-simile title pages of the above will be found in various places throughout 
this volume. For fuller details see JULIUS F. SACHSE'S Fatherland, Volume 
VII., Proceedings of the Pennsylvania-German Society. 




" Bald zienen sie im femen Westen 

Des leichten Bretterhauses Wafld ; 

Bald reicht sie miiden braunen Gasten, 

Voll frischen Trunkes, cure Hand. 

" Wie wird das Bild der alten Tage 

Durch cure Traume glanzend weh'n ! 
Gleich einer Stillen, frommen Sage 
Wird es euch vor der Seele steh'n." 


'N the preceding chapter 
reference has been made 
to some of the early litera- 
ture sent out by Penn and 
others concerning Pennsyl- 
vania. None is more attract- 
ive and interesting than the 
one entitled gi Jm%r Account 
of % |)ro0inte of ^ennsglbania anb 
its Inhabitants. Jor % ^atisfartion 
of those that are (Qbbtntttms) anb 
inclintb to be so, written by Penn 
himself and published in 
1685. ^ is fuU 7 et concise 
and, as will be seen, very fairly represents the actual con- 


24 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

dition of things as they existed in the Province at that 
time. As I know of no better account, I have reproduced 
it almost in its entirety. There can be no manner of doubt 
that, scattered throughout Central and Western Europe in 
various languages, it was a mighty factor in directing im- 
migration from the Fatherland towards Pennsylvania. 


1. The EARTH, by God's blessing, has more than an- 
swered our expectation ; the poorest places in our Judg- 
ment producing large Crops of Garden Stuff and Grain. 
And though our Ground has not generally the symptoms 
of the fat Necks that lie upon Salt Waters in Provinces 
Southern of us, our Grain is thought to Excell and our 
Crops to be as large. We have had the mark of the good 
Ground amongst us from Thirty to Sixty fold of English 

2. The Land requires less seed : Three fecks of Wheat 
sow an acre, a Bushel at most, and some have had the in- 
crease I have mention'd. 

3. Upon Tryal we find that the Corn and Roots that 
grow in England thrive very well there, as Wheat, Barley, 
Rye, Oats, Buck- Wheat, Pease, Beans, Cabbages, Turnips, 
Carrots, Parsnups, Collefloivers, Asparagus, Onions, Char- 
lots, Garlick, and Irish Potatoes; we have also the Span- 
ish and very good RICE, which do not grow here. 

4. Our low lands are excellent for Rape and Hemp and 
Flax. A Tryal has been made, and of the two last there 
is a considerable quantity Dress'd Yearly. 

5. The Weeds of our Woods feed our Cattle to the 
Market as well as Dary. I have seen fat Bullocks 
brought thence to Market before Mid Summer. Our 
Swamps or Marshes yield us course Hay for the Winter. 

Penrfs "Brief Account" 25 

A brief Account of the 

flpttme <>f ^emtfptoani a. 

Lately Granted by the 


Under the GREAT 

Seal of England, 




Heirs and Affigns. 

Since (by the good Providence of Cod, and the Favour of the King) * 
Country in Amcnc* Is fallen to my Lot, I thought it not lefs my 
Duty, 'then my Honed Intereft, to give fomc publick notice of It to 
the. World, "that thofc of our. own or other Nations, that arc inclined 
toTranfport Thcmfclvcs or Families beyond (he Seas, may find ano- 
ther Country added to their Choice; 'that if they (hall happen to like 
the Place. Conditions; and Government, (fo far as the prcfent Infancy of things 
win allow us any profpcftj they may, if they plea Cc, fix with me in the Pro* 
tinee, icKeafjerdefcrited. 

I. TJe KtNC^S 'Tttkto ^Z$tnnjtefore~ftt%riiMeA it. 
It is the "Jm CtKtmm, or La of Nations, that what' ever Wafte, or uncul- 
ted Country, is the DiTcoVery of any Prince, it is the" tight of that Prince, that 
was at the Charge of the Difovcry : Now this- JVw/'we. is a Member of thc 
part of Amtnc*) which the King of Englandt Anccftors have been at the Charge 
of Difcovcring, and which they and he have taken great care to prcferve tnl 

/ II. William 

TITI,E-PAGE OF PENN'S Brief Account, 1682. 

26 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

6. English GRASS SEED takes well, which will give 
us fatting Hay in time. Of this I made an Experiment in 
my own Court Yard, upon sand that was dug out of my 
Cellar, with seed that had lain in a Cask open to the 
weather two Winters and a Summer ; I caus'd it to be soun 
in the beginning of the month called April, and a fortnight 
before Midsummer it was fit to Mow. It grew very thick : 
But I ordered it to be fed, being in the nature of a Grass 
Platt, on purpose to see if the roots lay firm : And though 
it had been meer sand, cast out of the Cellar but a Year 
before, the seed took such Root and held the earth so fast, 
and fastened itself so well in the Earth, that it held fast 
and fed like old English Ground. I mention this, to con- 
fute the Objections that lie against those Parts, as that, 
first, English Grass would not grow ; next, not enough to 
mow ; and lastly, not firm enough to feed, from the Levity 
of the Mould. 

7. All sorts of English fruits that have been tryed take 
mighty -well for the time : The Peach, Excellent on 
standers, and in great quantities : They sun dry them, 
and lay them up in lofts, as we do roots here, and stew 
them with Meat in Winter time. Mus Mellons and Water 
Mellons are raised there, with as little care as Pumpkins 
in England. The Vine especially, prevails, which grows 
everywhere ; and upon experience of some French People 

from Rochel and the Isle of Rhee, GOOD WINE may be 
made there, especially when the Earth and Stem are 
fin'd and civiliz'd by culture. We hope that good skill in 
our most Southern Parts will yield us several of the 
Straights Commodities, especially Oyle, Dates, Figs, Al- 
monds, Raisins and Currans. 

Fishes of Pennsylvania. 27 


1. Mighty WHALES roll upon the Coast, near the 
Mouth of the Bay of Dele-ware. Eleven caught and workt 
into Oyl one Season. We justly hope a considerable profit 
by a Whalery; they being so numerous and the Shore 
so suitable. 

2. STURGEON play continually in our Rivers in Summer : 
And though the way of cureing them be not generally 
known, yet by a Reciept I had of one Collins, that related 
to the Company of the Royal Fishery, I did so well pre- 
serve some, that I had them good here three months of the 
Summer, and brought some of the same so for England. 

3. ALLOES, as they call them in France, the Jews Allice, 
and our Ignorants, Shads are excellent Fish, and of the 
bigness of our largest Carp : They are so Plentiful, that 
Captain Smyth's Overseer at the Skulkil, drew 600 and 
odd at one Draught ; 300 is no wonder ; 100 familiarly. 
They are excellent Pickeled or Smok'd, as well as boyld 
fresh : They are caught by nets only. 

4. ROCK are somewhat rounder and longer, also a 
whiter fish, little inferior in relish to our Mallet. We have 
them almost in the like plenty. These are often Barrelled 
like Cod, and not much inferior for their spending. Of both 
these the Inhabitants increase their Winter Store : These 
are caught by Nets, Hooks and Speers. * * * 

There are abundance of lesser fish to be caught of pleas- 
ure, but they gint not cost, as those I have mentioned, 
neither in Magnitude nor Number, except the Herring, 
which swarm in such Shoales that it is hardly Credible ; 
in little Creeks they almost shovel them up in their 
tubs. There is the Catfish or Flathead, Lampry, Eale, 
Trout, Perch, black and -white Smelt, Stinfish, etc. : also 
Oysters, Cockles, Cunks, Crabs, Mussles, Mannanoses. 

<$ >&" \ 

N i r 'i 
fe* .". 

30 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

benefit of the publick. Now as there are abundance of 
these people in many parts of Europe, extreamly desirous 
of going to America; so the way of helping them thither, 
or when there, and the return thereof to the Disbursers, 
will prove what I say to be true." 

Then follow his several schemes for the settlement of 
immigrants upon his lands. The amount of lands to be 
allotted to each family ; the improvements that will be 
built for them, the stock and farming tools that will be 
supplied, even their seed for the first year's harvest ; this 
is followed by the easy terms upon which payment may be 
made, this for those who have the means to transport them- 
selves thither, but no more. Still another plan provides 
for such as are destitute of any resources. To each family 
of such 100 acres are allotted, with 15 in hand before 
starting to provide adequately for the journey. 

All in all, as we read over this scheme of colonization 
it appeals to our hearts and better natures as the wisest as 
well as most generous that had ever appeared among men. 
Plato's Republic, and Sir Thomas More's Utopia present 
nothing with all their wealth of ideal beneficence more 
striking than this practical, every-day humanitarianism of 
William Penn. 

While it was possible for ships to reach and leave Phila- 
delphia during every month in the year, save occasionally 
during the inclement season of mid-winter, the late winter 
and autumn months were generally chosen for the depar- 
ture from Europe. We accordingly find the ship arrivals 
were most numerous in early spring and late in the fall. 
April and May, September, October and November wit- 
nessed the largest influx of immigrants during the year. 


30 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania* 

benefit of the puhbdk* Now as there are abundance of 
these people in m:nn *>**t* <rf Europe, extreamly desirous 
of going to Antrim . *z *1* way of helping them thither., 
or whets there. sn<i wtofsi thereof to the Dismirtan** 

will prove what I say to he true." 

Then follow his several schemes for the settlement of 

immigrants upon his lands. The amount of lands to be 

allotted to enrh family; the improvements that will be 

s #tock and farming tools that will be 

tor th nt year'* harvest ; this 

'*!* a.t>*wbif3i p7i&diie maybe 

^ji** *-su> Jsvc the jtfsn^fc u- ? *hpm- 

H .-? rbsthe? . but t*C' KK^re. Still another plan provides 

u* aiuch a.- arc dttititute of any resources. To each family 

of such 100 acres are allotted, with 15 in hand before 

starting to provide adequately for the journey. 

All in all, as we read over this scheme of colonization 

it appeals to our hearts and better natures as the wisest as 

well as most generous that had ever appeared among men. 

lato's Republic, and Sir Thomas- More's Utopia present 

hi|f v-^h all their wealth of ideal beneficence more 

irig ib ihi* practical, everyday humanitarianism of 

W^iitam Fenn. 

While it was possible for ships to reach and leave Phila- 
delphia during every month in the year, gave occasionally 
during the inclement season of mid-whiter, the late whiter 
and autumn months were generally chosen for the *ii;par- 
ture from Europe. We accordingly find the ship art 
were most numerous in early spring and late in d>/ 
April and May, September, October and November wit- 
nessed the largest influx of immigrants during the } r ear. 


Seasons and Length of Voyage. 31 

Of such moment was this matter that Penn himself devotes 
a chapter in one of his various pamphlets, addressed to 
such as were casting their eyes across the Atlantic, to the 
proper season for the experiment. I quote what he says 
on this subject : 



"i. Tho Ships go hence at all times of the Year, it must 
be acknowledged, that to go so as to arrive at Spring or 
Fall, is best. For the Summer may be of the hottest, for 
fresh Commer%, and in the Winter, the wind that prevails, 
is the North West, and that blows off the Coast, so that 
sometimes it is difficult to enter the Capes. 

"2. I propose, therefore, that Ships go hence (from Eu- 
rope) about the middle of the moneths call'd February and 
August^ which allowing two months for passage reaches in 
time enough to plant in the Spring such things as are 
carried hence to plant, and in the Fall to get a small Cot- 
tage, and clear some Land against next Spring. I have 
made a discovery of about a hundred Miles West, and find 
those back Lands richer in Soyl, Woods and Fountains, 
than that by Deleware ; especially upon the Susquehanna 

"3. I must confess I prefer the Fall to come thither, as 
believing it more healthy to be followed with Winter than 
Summer ; tho, through the great goodness and mercy of 
God we have had an extraordinary portion of health, for 
so new and numerous a Colony, notwithstanding we have 
not been so regular in time. 

" 4. The Passage is not to be set by any man ; for Ships 
will be quicker and slower, some have been four months, 
and some but one and as often. Generally between six 

32 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

and nine -weeks. One year, of four and twenty Sayl, I 
think, there was not three above nine, and there was one 
or two under six weeks in the passage. 

' ' 5 . To render it more healthy, it is good to keep as much 
upon Deck as may be ; for the Air helps against the offen- 
sive smells of a Crowd, and a close f lace. Also to Scrape 
often the Cabbins, under the Beds ; and either carry store 
of Rue and Wormwood; and some Rosemary, or often 
sprinkle Vinegar about the Cabbin. Pitch burnt, is not 
amiss sometimes against faintness and infectious scents. I 
speak my experience for the benefit and direction that may 
need it." 8 

The very minuteness with which every detail is given in- 
dicates the desire to leave no room for misunderstandings. 
He was anxious that there should be no cause for com- 
plaint. ' His very frankness must have convinced his read- 
ers and won them. All this became apparent to the new 
immigrant and this was no doubt one of the principal reasons 
why the reports sent back to Germany were almost univer- 
sally favorable, and proved instrumental in keeping up the 
immigration movement so many years. 

Peter Kalm, the Swedish botanist and traveller, who 
visited America in 1748, bears strong evidence to the fact 
that the large immigration of Germans was in a great 
measure due to the solicitation of those already here. He 
says : " The Germans wrote to their relatives and friends 
and advised them to come to America ; not to New York 
where the government had shown itself to be unjust. This 
advice had so much influence that the Germans who after- 
wards went in great numbers to North America constantly 
avoided New York, and always went to Philadelphia. It 

8 See PENN'S Bjfurtber Bccount of tbe province of Pennsylvania ano its Improve- 
ments, for tbe satisfaction of tbose tbat are adventurers ano inclined to be 00. 

Pennsylvania the Farming Colony. 33 

sometimes happened that they were forced to go on board 
such ships as were bound for New York, but they were 
scarcely got on shore before they hastened to Pennsyl- 
vania, in sight of all the inhabitants of New York." 9 

The historian Proud, writing in 1798, says that " William 
Penn, both in Person and writing, published in Germany ', 
first gave them information that there was liberty of con- 
science in Pennsylvania, and that everyone might live there 
without molestation. Some of them about the year 1698, 
others in 1706, 1709 and 1711, partly for conscience sake, 
and partly for their temporal interests, removed thither, 
where they say they found their expectations fully an- 
swered, enjoying liberty of conscience according to their 
desire, with the benefits of a plentiful country. With this 
they acquainted their friends in Germany ; in consequence 
of which many of them in the year 1717, etc., removed to 
Pennsylvania." 10 

Another of our historians explicitly states that "from 
the writings and discourses of William Penn during his 
German travels they (the Germans) obtained a knowledge 
of Pennsylvania. Some of them removed to the Province 
in 1683, others in 1706-1709 and 1711. Their reports in- 
duced many to follow them in 

9 KALM'S Travels in North America, p. 270. 

10 PROUD'S History of Pennsylvania, Vol. II., pp. 344-345. 

11 GORDON'S History of Pennsylvania, p. 573. 



" Vaterland ! theurer Freund, lebt wohl ! 
In dem es nach der Fremde soil : 
Ein anderes I^and, cine and're Iuft 
Die uns mit Ernst entgegen ruft ; 
Kommt, kommt, hier solt ihr ruhig seyn 
Ungestort, frei von leibes Pein." 

" O Sprecht ! warum zogt ihr von dannen ? 

Das Neckarthal hat Wein und Korn ; 
Der Schwarzwald steht voll finstrer Tannen ? 
Im Spessart klingt des Alplers Horn. ' ' 

HILE the various mea- 
sures put into opera- 
tion by the proprietor to secure 
colonists were at once active 
and persistent, the results for 
a time were unimportant so far 
as immigration from Germany 
was concerned. The Crefeld 
colony under Francis Daniel 
Pastorius began its settlement 
at Germantown in 1683. The 
accessions to that early body 
were not numerous during the remainder of the seventeenth 


Early Colony of Mennonztes. 35 

century. Still, a few came each year. Johannes Kelpius 
with his band of 40 pietists appears to have been among 
the first to arrive after the Cref elders ; he came in 1694. 
Daniel ^Falkner brought additions in 1704. "In 1708 
1709-1710 to 1720 thousands of them emigrated. From 
1720 to 1725 the number increased and settled principally 
in Montgomery, Berks and Lancaster counties. In 1719 
Jonathan Dickinson wrote, ' we are daily expecting ships 
from London which bring over Palatines, in number about 
six or seven thousand. We had a parcel who came out 
about five years ago, who purchased land about sixty 
miles west of Philadelphia, and proved quiet and indus- 
trious.'" 12 

This latter colony evidently refers to the little band of 
Mennonites, perhaps I should say Swiss-Huguenots, who 
came over in 1708 or 1709 and located themselves in the 
Pequea Valley, Lancaster county, forming the first settle- 
ment of Europeans within that County. 13 Some members 
of that colony almost immediately returned to Germany to 
bring over relatives and friends, and between the years 
1711 and 1717, and for some years later there were large 
accessions to the colony. It was one of the most substan- 
tial and successful settlements ever made in Pennsylvania. 
Even then, as in later years, most of the colonists came 
from the Palatinate, which sent forth her children from her 
burned cities and devastated fields, theirf aces turned towards 
the land of promise. Just how many Germans landed at 
the port of Philadelphia prior to the passage of the regis- 
try law of 1727. is unknown, but the number was undoubt- 
edly large as may be inferred from the quotation above from 

12 RUPP'S Thirty Thousand Names, p. 10. 

13 "Im Jahr 1709 Kamen etliche familien vender Pfalz welche von den 
vertriebenen Schweizern abstamnten und liessen sich nieder in Lancaster 
county." BENJAMIN EBY'S Geschichte der Mennoniten, p. 151. 

36 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

Jonathan Dickinson. It was not until 1707 however that 
Germans in considerable numbers began arriving. From 
that time onward the number increased from year to year, 
and ten years later began to attract the attended of the 
Provincial Government. 

The country seemed to be filling up with Germans, and 
as a result of the alarm that was caused thereby, Gover- 
nor William Keith soon after his arrival, on September 
7, 1717, observed to the Provincial Council sitting at Phil- 
adelphia " that great numbers of foreigners from Ger- 
many, strangers to our Languages and Constitutions, hav- 
ing lately been imported into this Province daily dispersed 
themselves immediately after Landing, without producing 
any Certificates, from whence they came or what they 
were ; and as they seemed to have first Landed in Britain, 
and afterwards to have left it Without any License from the 
Government, or so much as their Knowledge, so in the 
same manner they behaved here, without making the 
least application to himself or to any of the magistrates ; 
That as this Practice might be of very dangerous Conse- 
quence, since by the same method any number of foreigners 
from any nation whatever, as well Enemys as friends, 
might throw themselves upon us : The Governor, there- 
fore, thought it requisite that this matter should be Con- 
sidered, & 'tis ordered thereupon, that all the masters of 
vessels who have lately imported any of these fforeigners 
be summoned to appear at this Board, to Render an acct. 
of the number and Characters of the Passengers respec- 
tively from Britain ; That all those who are already Landed 
be required by a Proclamation, to be issued for that pur- 
pose, to Repair within the space of one month to some 
Magistrate, particularly to the Recorder of this City (Phil- 
adelphia), to take such Oaths appointed by Law as are 

One of Penn's Publications. 37 


P R O V I N Z 


fdmtlicgrr ftetwm 




Free Society of Traders. 

38 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

necessary to give assurances of their being well affected to 
his Majesty and his Government ; But because some of 
these foreigners are said to be Menonists, who cannot for 
Conscience sake take any Oaths, that those persons be ad- 
mitted upon their giving any Equivalent assurances in their 
own way and manner, & that the Naval Officer of this 
Port be required not to admit any inward bound vessell to 
an Entry, until the master shall first give an exact List of 
all their passengers imported by them." u 

The Provincial Council perhaps never did an act that so 
much deserves the thanks and the gratitude of those of Ger- 
man descent in the State of Pennsylvania to-day as in em- 
bodying the foregoing views 
in an Act of the Assembly 
a few years later. It re- 
sulted in the registration of 
the many thousands of Ger- 
man and other immigrants, 
and these ship masters' lists 
as we find them to-day in the 
Colonial Records, Rupp's 
Thirty Thousand Names, 
and Volume XVII. of the 
Second Series of Pennsylva- 
nia Archives are a priceless 
treasure, a veritable store- 
house to which thousands of people of German ancestry 
have gone to find information concerning the names, ages 
and time of arrival of their ancestors. Never was a gov- 
ernment scare so productive of good results. 

The order was immediately acted upon. At the next 
meeting of the Council on September 9, 1717, Capt. Rich- 



14 Colonial Records : First Series, Vol. III., p. 29. 

Acting on the Governor's Suggestion. 39 

mond, Capt. Tower and Capt. Eyers waited upon the 
Board with the lists of the Palatines they had brought over 
from London, by which it appeared the first had carried 
one hundred and sixty-four, the second ninety-one and the 
last one hundred and eight. 

There is no evidence however, that I am aware of, that 
anything further was immediately done towards carrying 
out the order passed in 1717. The minutes of the Council 
are silent on the subject for ten full years. 

On September 14, 1727, again acting on the Governor's 
suggestion, a resolution was adopted by the Provincial 
Council holding shipmasters to a strict accountability and 
ordering an examination into the matter of bringing aliens 
into the Province. Here is the Resolution : " That the 
masters of vessels importing Germans and others from the 
continent of Europe, shall be examined whether they have 
leave granted to them by the Court of Great Britain for the 
importation of these foreigners, and that a List be taken of 
all these people, their several occupations, and the place 
from whence they came, and shall be further examined 
touching their intentions in coming hither; and that a writ- 
ing be drawn up for them to sign, declaring their allegiance 
and subjection to the King of Great Britain, and fidelity to 
the Proprietary of this Province, and that they will demean 
themselves peaceably towards all his Majesty's subjects, 
and observe and conform to the Laws of England and the 
Government of Pennsylvania." 15 The arrival of a ship 
load of German immigrants on September 21, 1727, ap- 
pears to have recalled to the Council the action it had de- 
cided upon ten years before. At a meeting held on Sep- 
tember 21, 1727, the following appears on the minutes: 

" A Paper being drawn up to be signed by those Pala- 

15 Colonial Records: First Series, Vol. III., p. 283. 

40 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

tines, who should come into this Province with an Inten- 
tion to settle therein, pursuant to the order of this Board, 
was this day presented, read & approved, & is in these 
Words : 

" We Subscribers, Natives and late Inhabitants of the 
Palatinate upon the Rhine & Places adjacent, having 
transported ourselves and Families into this Province of 
Pennsylvania, a Colony subject to the Crown of Great 
Britain, in hopes and Expectation of finding a Retreat 
& peaceful Settlement therein, Do Solemnly promise & 
Engage, that We will be faithful & bear true Allegiance 
OND, and his Successors Kings of Great Britain, and will 
be f aithf ull to the Proprietor of this Province ; And that we 
will demean ourselves peaceably to all His said Majesties 
Subjects, and strictly observe & conform to the Laws of 
England and this Province, to the utmost of our Power and 
best of our understanding." 

A signed list was then presented to the Board, on which 
were the names of one hundred and nine Palatines, who, 
with their families, numbered about four hundred persons, 
who had just arrived at the port of Philadelphia, on the 
ship William and Sarah, William Hill, Master, from Rot- 
terdam, but last from Dover, England. Captain Hill was 
asked whether he had a license from any Court in Great 
Britain to bring these people into the Province and what 
their intentions were in coming here. He replied that 
he had no other authority than the ordinary ship clear- 
ance, and that he believed the immigrants designed to 
settle in the Province. After this the persons who had 
come over on the William and Sarah were then called be- 
fore the Board, and "did repeat & subscribe the fore- 
going Declaration." 

Passenger Lists Perhaps Incomplete. 41 

As a matter of interest the names of this earliest impor- 
tation of Germans under the new regulations are here 
given. The list is the forerunner of hundreds more which 
were placed on record during the following fifty years. It 
has been doubted whether the lists preserved in the State 
archives at Harrisburg are complete. At all events some 
years are missing. The war with France put a stop to 
nearly all this traffic, so that between 1756 and 1763 only 
one or two arrivals of immigrant ships are recorded ; in 
1745 none at all. 

The result of that action was that thereafter lists were 
regularly made by the masters of ships bringing passengers 
to this country, which lists are still preserved in the archives 
of the State, at Harrisburg. Sometimes triplicate lists 
were prepared. These were submitted to the Provincial 
authorities for their satisfaction and guidance, and also be- 
came of service when contracts between these people and 
those who hired or bought them were made. 16 

There are good reasons for believing that the ships lists 
as we find them in Rupp, in Volume XVII. of the Second 
Series of Pennsylvania Archives, and of course in the Co- 
lonial Records from which they were mainly compiled, 
are in some cases defective, in that they do not in every 
instance give the full list of those who came. To what 
extent these omissions have been carried, it is impossible 
to say from our present knowledge of the subject, but it is 
possible that later investigations in Germany and Switzer- 
land may bring fuller lists to light. 17 

16 RUPP'S Thirty Thousand Names, p. 40. 

17 That indefatigable and successful searcher into the early ecclestiastical 
and secular history of Provincial Pennsylvania, Professor W. J. Hinke, during 
his researches in Europe, found, as we learn from a recent article contributed to 
Notes and Queries, a pamphlet printed in Zurich, in 1735, called The Limp- 
ing Messenger from Carolina, or the Description of a journey from Zurich 

42 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

I. D. Rupp makes the following remarks concerning 
these triple lists : 

"The master's or captain's lists contain the names of 
all male passengers above the age of sixteen, and some of 
them, the names of all the passengers. If any had died, 
or were sick on the arrival of the ship, they are marked 

" Another list contains all the names of males above the 
age of sixteen, who were made to repeat and subscribe the 
Declaration of allegiance, with their own hands, if they 
could write, if they could not the name was written by a 
clerk, and the qualified person made his mark. 

* 4 The third list is an autograph duplicate of the second 
one, signed in the same way, and is preserved in book 
form." 18 




Hans Jerrick Swaess, Hans Mich le Siell, 

Benedice Strome, Jacob Josi, 

Hans Jerrick Shoemaker, Daniel Levan, 

Hans Martain Shoemaker, Andr w Simmerman, 

Hans Mich le Pagman, Hans Jerrick Wigler, 

Johan Ilabaraker, Johan Wester, 

Hieromnius Milder, Hans Adam Milder, 

Henericus Bell, Henrick Mayer, 

Hans Seri Seigler, Jacob Gons, 

to Rotterdam, by Ludwig Weber, from Wallisellen, in which is given a list of 
the Swiss emigrants to Pennsylvania on the ship Mercury. This list contains 
a number of names not given in Rupp's list or that of Vol. XVII. of the Ar- 
chives. Better still, it gives the .name of the place from which each one of 
the colonists went. These colonists left Zurich in October, 1734, and reached 
Philadelphia May 29, 1735, having been more than six months on the way. 
18 RUPP'S Thirty Thousand Names, p. 40. 

Immigrants on the Ship William and Sarah. 43 

Sebastian Vink, 
Jacob Swicker, 
Hans Bernard Wolf, 
Ann Floren, 
Hans Jacob Ekinan, 
Hendrick Wiltier, 
Jacob Pause, 
Hans Jerrick Wolf, 
Hans Jerrick Bowman, 
Hans Jerig Anspag, 
Christ' Milder, 
Patrick Sprigler, 
Job Tob Servea's, 
Johannes Eckman, 
Christ Layhengyger, 
Andrew Haltspan, 
Hans Jerrick Schaub, 
Christian Snyder, 
Johannes Bartelme, 
Johannes Diibendoffer, 
Joseph Aelbraght, 
Jacob Meyer, 
Johannes Bait, 
Christopher Walter, 
Hans Adam Stall, 
Hans Martin Wilder, 
Hans Jerig Arldnold, 
Hans Jerig Reder, 
Hendrick Gonger, 
Hans Jerig Roldebas, 
Christopher Wittmer, 
Clement Eirn, 
Johannes Mich le Peepell, 
Philip Siegler, 
Rudolph Wilkes, 
Abraham Farn, 

Hans Mart n Levisbergn, 
Jan. Hend n Scaub, 
Abraham Beni, 
Frederick Hiligas, 
Sebastian Creek, 
Alex. Diebenderf, 
Johan Will m May, 
Casper Springier, 
Michael Peitley, 
Jno. Barne Levinstey, 
Johannes Jlon, 
Hans Mich le Weider, 
Leonard Seldonrick, 
Will m Turgens, 
Will m Tleer, 
Anspel Anspag, 
Adam Henrick, 
Ulrich Sieere, 
Junicus Meyer, 
Hans Jor* Glergelf, 
Steven Frederick, 
Philip Feruser, 
Hans Filkcysinger, 
Hans Jerrick Hoy, 
And w Saltsgerrer, 
Jacob Wilder, 
Johannis Stromf, 
Philip Swyger, 
Elias Meyer 
Martin Brill, 
Peter Leyts, 
Johanes Hen dk Gyger, 
Johannes Berret, 
Jacob Swartz, 
Hans Mich 1 Phauts, 
Bastiaen Smith, 

44 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

Tobias Frye, 
Jacob Mast, 
Nicholas Adams, 
Johanes Leyb, 
Conrad Miller, 
Ulrich Hertsell, 
Hans Jerick Guyger, 
Hans Jerig Viegle, 
Hans Jerig Cramen, 

Albert Swope, 
Diederick Rolde, 
Hans Adam Biender, 
Hendrick Hartman, 
Philip Jacob Reylender, 
Ernest Roede, 
Philip Roedeall, 
Hans Jerig Milder, 
Uldrick Staffon. 

While this German immigration was considerable in 
some years prior to 1727, it was irregular and seemingly 
spasmodic. Apparently it was gathering strength and 
courage for the half century of irrepressible exodus which 
was to follow. In the fall of 1727, five ships laden with 
German immigrants reached the wharves of Philadelphia. 
It was no doubt these numerous arrivals that alarmed the 


Provincial government anew and led to the imposition of the 
40-shillings head tax on all aliens. From that time on the 
record of arrivals is almost continuous, and although there 
are several short breaks in it, we are enabled, nevertheless, 

Arrivals from IJ2J to 7775. 


to get a fairly accurate idea of its extent and also of the 
manner in which it was carried out. 





The following is the number of immigrant ships that 
reached the port of Philadelphia in the period between 
1727 and 1775, both years inclusive, of which records have 
been preserved. 











I 759--- 







, none 


A 2 

I74 1 ? . 










1 7^i . 


. cr 


. 4. 











/ v t" 






. c; 



17^1 . 









/D V 


' O 

. 7 

1 j 















. o 

1 74O . . , 







1 74-1 . 





174-2 . 







In all, 321 ships in 44 years: 43 in the first ten years, 
67 in the second ten, 121 in the third decade, and 88 dur- 
ing the last eighteen years. 

From the foregoing table it will be observed that the tide 
of immigration ebbed and flowed by years and periods. 
Sometimes these variations can be accounted for and then 

46 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

again they appear inexplicable. It is reasonable to sup- 
pose the 4O-shillings law was responsible to some extent 
for this fluctuating immigration, as so onerous a head tax 
as $10 would be likely to exercise a restraining effect on 
the poorest class which was already compelled to endure 
severe financial strains. It may be that some other cause, 
the nature of which has not come down to us, was operative 
in producing this result. At the same time it is well to re- 
member there seems to have been a natural ebb and flow in 
the numbers without any plausible reason for the same. 
The 1,240 arrivals in 1727 were succeeded by 152 fam- 
ilies numbering only 390 in 1728, and by only 243 in 1729. 19 
An improvement began in 1730, when the number increased 
to 458, and they were succeeded by 631 in 1731. In 1732, 
no fewer than 2,093 were landed; that was high-water 
mark for a number of years, but in 1738 the number ran up 
to 3,115. The numbers then proceed with considerable 
regularity until 1745, when no ship with immigrants was 
registered. Whether none arrived or whether the records 
have been lost or mislaid I do not know ; most likely the 
latter, as we are in possession of no information that might 
suggest a cause for this stoppage. Besides, there were no 
other years without arrivals until 1757 ; during that and the 
succeeding three years immigration ceased entirely. That 
was due to the breaking out of hostilities between Great 
Britain and France, which, as a matter of course, also in- 
volved the colonies of the two powers on this continent, 
and which became known in America as the French and 
Indian War ; the Six Nations having united their fortunes 
with France and her important colony of Canada. All 

19 During the year 1729, there were of English and Welsh passengers and 
servants, 267, Scotch servants 43, Irish passengers and servants 1,155, Palatine 
(alien, or 40 shilling) passengers 243 ; by way of Newcastle, chiefly passen- 
gers and servants from Ireland, 4,500. HUGH'S Historical Account, p. 163. 


46 The German Jmntigr&tion into Pennsylvania. 

again they appear inexplicable. It is reasonable t- 
pose the ^-shillings law was responsible to some extent 
for this fluctuating immigration, as so onerous a head lax 
as $10 would be likely to exercise a restraining e 
the poorest daas vvhkh was already compelled to er 
severe financial trai&$. It may be that some other ca> 
the nature .of which h&a uot co*n? <<o\\ n to us, was.operative 
in producing thi>. rroti'i. A? -Hn* $afyn* time it is well to re- 
member there seem* i,t> it b*t**i A afttttral ebb and flow in 
the numbers without r*uy pl&utftbfc r*raton for the same. 
The 1,240 arrivals in 1727 were *u< vN?ded by 152 fam- 
ilies numbering only 300 is ^7-^ ^'^d fcy. '."' : in I729. 19 

An improvement hegafttn r . > : 
to 458, and they w#rc - ^v 
no fewer than 2^*$ ! 
mark for a nusjibw ^ f y^\n ; bus i 
to 3,115 Thfe nlMft^m hfi proceed with consider 
regularity until 1745, when fto ship with immigrants waa 
registered. Whether none arrived or whether the records 
have been lost or mislaid I do not know; most likely the 
latter, as we are in possession of no information that might 
suggest a cause for this stoppage. Besides, there were no 
other years without arrivals until 1757 ; during i the 

succeeding three yeai's immigration ceased c;wirely. That 
was due to the breaking out oi i. jreat 

Britain and France, which, as a man*-: oJ . also in- 

volved the colonies of the two power* ^ -ntinent, 

and which became known in Am rench and 

Indian War ; the Six Nations having united their fortunes 
with France and her important colony of Canada. All 

** Dvrbqr tl year 1729, tfcere were of English and^Velah passengers and 
servants, 267. Scotch servants 43, Irish passengers and servants 1,155, Palatine 
(alien, or 40 shilling) psen$f*r8 243 ; by way of Newcastle, chiefly passen- 
gers and servants froto Ireland, 4,500. HUGH'S Historical Account, p. 163. 


The Arrivals in a Single Year. 47 

manner of hostile French sea craft swept the Atlantic, 
depredating on English commerce, and however desirous 
Germans may have been to come to America, the danger 
of capture by the enemy's ships was a contingency that had 
to be considered. 

After peace was concluded the tide once more began 
coming in a very steady stream until 1773, when it reached 
the highest point attained since 1754, and from which time 
it gradually dwindled until it no longer remained so promi- 
nent and distinctive a feature in the colonization of the 
State and Nation. 

As throwing much light on the general question, as well 
as a matter of interest and curiosity, I here give the names 
of the ships, the dates of their arrival and the number of 
persons who came on them, during the period of a single 
year that of 1738 : 


Name of Ship. Date of Arrival. No. of Passengers. 

Catharine July 2 7 J 5 

Winter Galley Sept. 5 252 

Glasgow Sept. 9 349 

Two Sisters Sept. 9 no 

Robert and Oliver Sept. n 320 

Queen Elizabeth Sept. 16 300 

Thistle Sept. 19 300 

Nancy and Friendship Sept. 20 187 

Nancy Sept. 20 150 

Fox Oct. 12 95 

Davy Oct. 25 180 

Saint Andrew Oct. 27 300 

Bilender Thistle, Oct. 28 152 

Elizabeth Oct. 30 95 

Charming Nancy Nov. 9 200 

Enterprise Dec. 6 1 20 

48 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

Very frequently two ships came into port on the same 
day. On September 3, 1739, and again on September 16, 
1751, and September 27, 1752, three of these vessels sailed 
into port. The latter year is noted for its double arrivals, 
there having been two on the 22d of September, two on 
the 23d and three on the 27th. September 30, 1754, beat 
all records, no fewer than four immigrant ships having come 
into the port of Philadelphia on that day. 

From 1737 to 1746, sixty-seven ships arrived bringing 
nearly fifteen thousand Germans, nearly all of whom sailed 
from Rotterdam. Of the first 100 ships that came with 
immigrants, four came in the month of May, one in June, 
one in July, fourteen in August, fifty in September, nine- 
teen in October, five in November, four in December, and 
one each in January and February the latter doubtless 
delayed by contrary winds or storms beyond their usual 
times. Among that 100 were seventy different ships. 
Some made a regular business of this kind of traffic and 
came a number of times. The Samuel has six voyages to 
her credit; the Saint Andrew four, the Royal Judith five 
and the Friendship five. Many names continue on the 
lists for many years. Some of these craft were called 
vessels, others ranked as ships, while there were still others 
known as " snows," " brigantines," " pinks," " brigs " and 
" billenders," names apparently applied to small craft, and 
which nomenclature, in part at least, is no longer current 
among ship-builders and sea-faring men. 

The size of the ships on which these immigrants reached 
Pennsylvania, varied very considerably. A list of sixteen 
which I have found gives the smallest as 63 feet long over 
the gun deck, 20 feet n inches breadth of beam and 9 feet 
7J^ inches as the depth of hold, with a tonnage of io8f 
tons ; and the largest 99 feet 8 inches as length of deck, 

Sudd's Tract on Pennsylvania. 49 

good Order EftMtJheel 

1 N 

pennfilvania &New-Jerfey 


Being a true Accounrof the Country ^ 

With its Produce and Commodities there made. 

And the great Improvements that maybe made by 
means of ^Ublicfc S>tQje4)OUfe# for^emp, flap and 
jUtmttUClOtl) 5 alfo, the Advantages of a ^Ublicte 
S>ri)00l, the Profits of a ^Ubrteipffianfe, and the Proba- 
bility of its arifing, ifthofe direftions here laid down are 
followed. With the advantages of publick <Kianatic& 

Likewife, ftveral other tilings needful to be.underftcod by 
thofe that are or do intend to be concerned in* planting ia 
the latd Countries. 

All which is laid down very plai^ in this fmall Treatife ; it 

Jbeing cade to beunderftood by any ordinary Capacity* To 
which the Koufer is referred for his further fatis&ftion. 

Thomas <Bud(t 

Prmted ia the Year i 6 


50 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

26 feet 5 inches as breadth of beam and a tonnage of 
tons. The average tonnage of the sixteen was 178 tons. 

In some years the immigrants were nearly all from the 
Palatinate. Then again Wurtembergers, Hannoverians, 
Saxons and Alsatians came, flocking by themselves, doubt- 
less because, coming from the same locality, they desired 
to settle together after their arrival. At still other times 
the immigrants on a ship were composed of the subjects of 
half a dozen German rulers. 

The principal port of embarkation was Rotterdam, and 
thence to Cowes, on the Isle of Wight. Sometimes ships 
would load up in London, but generally with small num- 
bers. Among the other points of departure were Rotter- 
dam and Leith ; Rotterdam and Deal ; Rotterdam and 
Plymouth, Rotterdam and Portsmouth ; Hamburg and 
Cowes ; Amsterdam and Cowes, and other places. In 
1770 three ships arrived from Lisbon, Portugal, with 
mostly Germans, but a few of other nationalities. In 
October, 1774, * ne sn ip s Polly and Peggy, arrived from 
Lisbon, bringing an entire cargo of Portuguese, Spaniards 
or French. 

I quote the following from a prominent historian as 
pertinent to the question of numbers. 

" In the summer of 1749 twenty-five sail of large ships 
arrived with German passengers alone ; which brought 
about twelve thousand souls, some of the ships about six 
hundred each ; and in several other years nearly the same 
number of these people arrived annually ; and in some 
years near as many from Ireland. By an exact account of 
all the ships and passengers annually which have arrived 
at Philadelphia, with Germans alone, nearly from the first 
settlement of the Province till about the year 1776, when 
their importation ceased, the number of the latter appears 

Proud 's Estimates Incorrect. 5 1 

to be about thirty-nine thousand; and their internal in- 
crease has been very great. The Germans sought estates 
in this country, where industry and parsimony are the chief 
requisites to procure them." 20 

This statement is self-contradictory. In the first place, 
very few of the ships brought 600 passengers. That seems 
to have been about the extreme limit that came on any one 
vessel at a time. Only the very largest ships could carry 
that number. The smaller craft, and they were far more 
numerous than the large ones, carried less than half as 
many. Taking the records for a period of ten years, I 
find that the aVerage carried by the nearly 70 ships that 
arrived during that period to have been about 300 each. 
Even that seems a large number when the average size of 
the ships less than 200 tons is considered. Then, again, 
if we take the number of recorded immigrant ships dur- 
ing the period mentioned by Proud, and allow them an 
average of only 200 passengers each, we get as a result 
nearly twice the total number of German immigrants as 
given by him. Besides, we are aware from many other 
sources that his is an underestimate as to totals, very much 
too low, in fact, as will be shown later on. 

There was very little German immigration during the 
years immediately following the close of the Revolutionary 
War. The British Consul at Philadelphia puts the number 
of arrivals between 1783 and 1789 r. 1,893 or only about 
315 each year, on an average. In the latter named year, 
out of 2,176 arrivals only 114 were Germans. 

But the action already taken did not wholly allay the fears 
of the Proprietary government. Those fears were supple- 
mented by instructions from the British ministry, and two 
years after the Legislation already recorded, the impolitic 

a PROUD's History of Pennsylvania, Vol. II., pp. 273-274. 

52 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

Act of the Assembly, laying a head Ifcx upon all aliens who 
should come into the Province, was consummated. 

Gordon intimates that " a regard to revenue may have 
assisted this determination, as many thousands of Germans 
were expected in the ensuing year. In justice to the Ger- 
mans, it should be told, that this law was enacted in the 
face of a report of a committee of the House, containing 
satisfactory evidence of their good conduct.'* 21 

Here is the report alluded to in the foregoing paragraph : 
"The Palatines who had been imported directly into the 
Province, had purchased and honestly paid for their lands, 
had conducted themselves respectfully towards the govern- 
ment, paid their taxes readily, and were a sober and hon- 
est people in their religious and civil duties. Yet some 
who have come by the way of New York and elsewhere, 
had seated themselves on lands of the Proprietaries and 
others, and refused to yield obedience to the governments." 

The latter allusion refers to the colony which came 
down the Susquehanna in 1729, under the leadership of 
John Conrad Weiser, the younger, and settled in the Tul- 
pehocken region of Berks county. The persistence of 
the Germans in adhering to their mother tongue was per- 
haps the principal reason for this uneasiness ; besides, 
they generally managed to settle near each other, so that 
communities composed almost exclusively of Germans 
grew up in many places. 

As few acts of the Assembly at that early day have re- 
ceived more comment than the one laying a head tax on 
aliens, the law is here quoted. The word "Germans" is not 
found in the law, but as there were few other aliens besides 
these, at that time, the Germans were the persons against 
whom the statute was aimed. 

21 GORDON'S History of Pennsylvania , pp. 207-208. 

The Forty-Shillings Head Tax. 53 



PASSED MAY 10, 1729. 

"Whereas an act of general assembly of this province 
was made in the eighth year of the reign of the late King 
George for preventing the importation of persons convicted 
of heinous crimes, and, whereas, it appears necessary that 
a further provision be made to discourage the great impor- 
tation and coming in of numbers of foreigners and of lewd, 
idle and ill-affected persons into this province, as well 
from parts beyond the seas as from the neighboring colo- 
nies, by reason whereof not only the quiet and safety of 
the peaceable people of this province is very much en- 
dangered, but great numbers of the persons so imported 
and coming into this government, either through age, im- 
potency or idleness, have become a heavy burden and 
charge upon the inhabitants of this province and is daily 
increasing. For remedy whereof : 

"Be it enacted by the Honorable Patrick Gordon, Es- 
quire, Lieutenant Governor of the Province of Pennsyl- 
vania, &., by and with the advice and consent of the 
freemen of the said Province in General Assembly met, 
and by the authority of the same, That all persons being 
aliens born out of the allegiance of the King of Great 
Britain and being of the age of sixteen years or upwards 
shall within the space of forty-eight hours after their being 
imported or coming into this province by land or water, 
go before some judge or justice of the peace of the said 
province or before the mayor or recorder of the city of 
Philadelphia for the time being and there take the oaths 
appointed to be taken instead of the oath of allegiance and 
supremacy, and shall also take the oath of adjuration, for 

54 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

which each person shall pay to the person administering 
the said oaths the sum of twelve pence and no more. And 
if any such alien (being of the age aforesaid) shall refuse 
or neglect to take the oaths aforesaid, it shall and may be 
lawful to and for any judge, justice of the peace or other 
magistrate of this government forthwith to cause such per- 
son or persons to be brought before them, (and) oblige 
them to give security for their good behavior and appear- 
ance at the next court of general quarter-sessions of the 
peace to be held for the city or country where such magis- 
trate resides. 


44 Be it enacted by the authority aforesaid, That every 
person being an alien born out of the allegiance of the 
King of Great Britain and being imported or coming into 
this province by land or water shall pay the duty of forty 
shillings for the uses of this act hereinafter mentioned. 

" And that all masters of vessels, merchants and others 
who shall import or bring into any port or place within 
this province any Irish servant or passenger upon redemp- 
tion, or on condition of paying for his or her passage upon 
or after their arrival in the plantations, shall pay for every 
such Irish servant or passenger upon redemption as afore- 
said the sum of twenty shillings." 22 

The foregoing includes only a portion of the first and 
second sections of the Act, which runs to six sections in all. 
The other sections allude to a number of other things, such 
as the carrying out of the law, and the penalties imposed 
for non-compliance. In section third occurs this clause, 
which throws some light upon the methods employed by 
ship-captains and importers to smuggle objectionable per- 
sons into the province without a compliance with the laws : 

22 The Statutes at Large of Pennsylvania, Vol. IV., pp. 135-140. 

Fraudulent Importation of Convicts. 55 

" And whereas it hath been a practice for masters of ves- 
sels, merchants and others trading into this province, with 
intent to avoid complying with the payment of the duties 
and giving the securities required in the cases of convicts 
by the aforesaid act of assembly, to land their servants in 
some of the adjacent governments, which servants and con- 
victs have afterwards been secretly brought into this prov- 

I have found in Watson a case which was one of the 
many that caused the insertion of the last quoted par- 
agraph in this Act. He copies the following paragraph 
from the Pennsylvania Gazette: " An errant cheat de- 
tected at Annapolis ! A vessel arrived there, bringing 
sixty-six indentures, signed by the Mayor of Dublin, and 
twenty-two ivigs, of such a make as if they were intended 
for no other use than to set out the convicts when they 
should get on shore." ** It was a clever ruse to get into the 
country a lot of convicts by means of fraudulent papers and 
other devices, and dispose of them as honest servants. 

It will be observed that the foregoing Act also takes full 
cognizance of the importation of persons for sale, of re- 
demptioners, the practice being already so general, not 
alone as to Germans, but also to Englishmen, Irishmen, 
Scotch and Welsh, a fact that is rarely alluded to by 
writers when discussing this subject. In another chapter 
this fact will be more fully examined and additional testi- 
mony offered, although this allusion to the practice in the 
Act of the Assembly puts the matter so plainly as to admit 
of no dispute. 

Prior to 1741 all the Germans who came to Pennsyl- 
vania were called Palatines on the ship lists, irrespective 
of the place of their nativity. Subsequent to that time, 

" WATSON'S Annals of Philadelphia, Vol. II., pp. 266-267. 

56 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

however, the terms "Foreigners" " inhabitants of the 
Palatinate and places adjacent" were applied to them. 
Still later, after 1754, the German principalities from 
which they came are not mentioned. 24 

24 See note by Rupp in DR. RUSH'S Manners and Customs of tht German 
Inhabitants of Pennsylvania, p. 6. 


With sacking bottom and top cords, showing how the infant was tied in. 



" Borne far away beyond the ocean's roar, 
He found his Fatherland upon this shore ; 
And every drop of ardent blood that ran 
Through his great heart was true American." 

" Lasst hoch die Heimath leben ! 
Nehmt all' ein Glas zur Hand ! 
Nicht Jeder hat ein I^iebchen, 
Doch Jeder ein Vaterland." 

<^^HE uncertainties attend- 
^^ ing the length of the 
voyages often entailed great 
hardships and misery upon 
the immigrants. The ships 
were crowded with passengers 
beyond their proper roomage, 
as Mittelberger and others re- 
late. As I have shown else- 
where chests and other prop- 
erty which should have come 
with the voyagers, were left 
behind so that more human freight could be put on board. 


58 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

These latter consequently often took up a part of the space 
that should have been given to provisions and water. 
When the voyages were prolonged a very common oc- 
currence the food ran short in a corresponding degree, 
and not that only, but deteriorated to an extent that often 
rendered it uneatable, save in cases of dire necessity. Low 
fares were the rule and that of course also meant provisions 
of the cheapest kind, and as few of them as the captain of 
the vessel could keep his passengers alive on, and he was 
not always over-particular concerning the latter. As it was 
with the food so it was with the water supply. The allow- 
ance of the latter, never over-abundant, nearly always ran 
short, when the supply was of course curtailed to the pas- 
sengers. Passing vessels were often stopped to secure 
fresh supplies both of water and food, and pastor Muhlen- 
burg relates how passing showers were sometimes made to 
yield their contributions. 

In this connection it deserves to be mentioned that in 
those days little or no regard was paid to sanitation on 
board ships. They were not constructed with such ends in 
view but to secure the largest amount of room for the least 
expenditure of money. In fact, these things were very 
poorly understood at that time. Therefore, with insuffi- 
cient and often unwholesome food, short water supplies 
that were unfit to drink, and the crowded condition of the 
vessels into the bargain, we need feel no surprise at the 
dreadful mortality that so often occurred on board. We 
are well aware to-day that typhoid fever is very generally 
the result of the use of contaminated water, and that the 
demand for greater and purer water supplies is the unceas- 
ing cry from all large and small communities. Need we 
wonder that under the stress of all these unhappy concur- 
rent conditions on shipboard, the mortality in many in- 
stances was frightful? 

The Victims of Deception. 59 

Under conditions of discouragement, robbery, wrong, 
deception and contumely that almost exceed the limits of 
human credulity, these poor but enthusiastic people con- 
tinued to make their way to America. The story of their 
treatment and sufferings while on shipboard equals all the 
horrors we have been told of the " middle passage." On 
shore the land shark in the shape of the broker and mer- 
chant awaited their arrival to finish the work of spoli- 
ation if the ship captain had not already completed it. It 
was but little these helpless sons of toil had, but in their 
huge wooden chests were stored a few heirlooms, gener- 
ations old sometimes ; the few household treasures their 
scant earnings had enabled them to accumulate, and which, 
until now they had tried to keep together. These at once 
became the objects of English covetousness, and too often 
became the reward of English cupidity. We can scarcely 
realize the dismal tale, but it comes to us from so many 
sources, official and otherwise, that we can only read, pity 
and believe. Herein at least the world has grown better. 
If such things are still practiced, it is done secretly ; openly 
they have ceased to vex the earth with their detestable in- 

Expatriation is usually a severe trial to the men of all 
nations, and perhaps to none so much so as to those of 
the Teutonic race. They are steady and constant by 
nature. Their affection even from days of childhood for 
their native soil is deep-rooted, while their love and 
reverence for home and fatherland is strong and abiding. 
Yet in this exodus to the New World all these deep-seated 
sentiments gave way under new feelings and impulses. 
They migrated to escape from the contracted and un- 
favorable conditions of their home environment, which 
were unbearable. That these people should venture their 

60 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

all in a quest for rest and comfort in a new and strange 
land, marks an era in the migrations of the human family. 

The German immigrants seem to have been regarded as 
legitimate game by nearly all the men who in any manner 
were brought into relations with them. We must, of 
course, believe that there was some honesty among the 
men who had control of this traffic for so many years, but 
truth compels us to say that such men were not the rule 
but its exceptions. They had no more interest in these 
incoming aliens than what they might make out of them, 
legitimately or otherwise. In this they were greatly aided 
by the fact that the Germans were unacquainted with the 
English language, and therefore prevented from defend- 
ing their rights when they were assailed. Furthermore, 
honest themselves, they were prone to put trust and confi- 
dence in others. Here they committed a grievous mistake. 
They were dealing with men in whom all the ordinary in- 
stincts of humanity save that of cupidity appear to have 
been almost entirely absent. What show could the trustful 
German, fresh from the fields of the Fatherland, have 
against men who seemingly lived only to defraud? 

A memorial letter written by a well-known Philadelphia 
clergyman in 1774 to tne then Govenor, gives us an insight 
into the frauds perpetrated on these people. 


"To the Honorable John Penn, Esq!, Govenor and 
Commander in Chief of the Province of Pennsylvania, &c. 

" The Memorial of Lewis Weiss, most respectfully 

"That altho' in the Bill now before your Honor, < to 
prevent infectious Disease being brought into this Province/ 
great care and Tenderness is shewn for the unhappy sick 

Bom's Account of Pennsylvania. 61 

Miffive van 


Gcfchrevcn ui t de Stadt 


In de Pfovintie van 


Leggcnde op d'Ooftzyde vandc 
Znyd Rcvicr van Nieuw Fle4crUnd. 

Verhalende de groote Voortgtnk 

vande fclvc Provintie. 

l^occ bp ftomt 

DC Geuiygenis van 


van Aflifterdam. 

IUtj:4aoi gedivkt , by Pietcr var 
Wijnbruggc, in dc Lccuweflraec. t & \ 


62 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

and of curing them if possible, yet there seems something 
very material that might be added by the Goodness and 
Humanity of the Legislative Body of this Province in order 
to enlarge the Benefit of an act that is partly intended to 
relieve the poor, the sick, and the Stranger, to wit, the 
Custody and preservation of their Property shipped on 
board of such sickly vessel. 

" May it please your Honor to put a Benevolent Construc- 
tion on this your Memoralist's humble application by him 
made (indeed not only on behalf of his Countrymen, the 
Germans, but) for all unfortunate Strangers taking refuge 
in your blessed Province. And for as much as he has these 
nineteen years of his Residence here lent his ear to their 
numerous Complaints ; he begs Leave to explain the Sub- 
stance thereof in as concise a manner as he is able to con- 
tract in Words so extensive a Subject. 

" Passengers having Goods of any value on board of the 
same Ship in which they transport themselves hardly ever 
take Bills of Lading for such Goods, the Merchants, Cap- 
tains, or their Subordinates persuading them that it could 
do them no Good but rather involve them into Difficulties at 
their arrival. If they leave any Goods in the Stores of the 
Freighter of such vessel they will now & then take a little 
Note * that the Merchant has such Chests, Casks, Bales, 
&c., and under takes to send it by next Vessel free of 
Freight, &.,' to the person who deposited such Goods 
with him. The Passenger puts the note in his Pocket 
Book, he has also the Invoice of his Goods, and his 
Money he has sowed up in his old Rags or in a Belt about 
his Waist. But in the voyage he or his Wife or some of 
his Family, or all of them grow sick. Then the plunder 
upon the sick or dead begin, and if the old ones recover 
or small Children survive the goods are gone, and the 

Pastor Weiss' Memorial. 63 

proofs that they had any are lost. The Captains never re- 
ported to any public officer how many passengers he took 
in at the Port from whence he sailed, or how many died 
on the voyage, never any manifest of the Goods belonging 
to passengers is produced. But in short hardly any vessel 
with Palatine Passengers has arrived in the Port of Phila- 
delphia but there has been Clamours and Complaints heard 
of Stealing & pilfering the Goods of the Sick & of the 
dead. And if your Honour will be pleased to inquire of 
the Register General, whether within the space of twenty- 
five years or since the passing of the Act 23. Geo. 2, in- 
titled * An Act for the prohibiting of German & other 
Passengers in too great Numbers in any one Vessel,' any 
considerable Number of Inventories of Goods & Effects of 
Persons who died in their Passage hither or soon after 
have been exhibited into that Office, you will find that the 
practice is otherwise than the Law. 

" Upon the whole your Memorialist humbly apprehends 
that if sick Passengers shall by Virtue of the Bill now 
before your Honour be landed & nursed at the Province 
Island and their Chests and other Goods go up to Phila- 
delphia, it will require a particular Provision of what shall 
be done for the preservation of their Goods on board. 

" L. WEISS. 

"Philad a , Jan. 19. 1774." 

In some instances these German immigrants have re- 
corded in writings which are still accessible the story of 
their sufferings and their wrongs. We have a case of this 
in the record of the voyage of the ship Love and Unity , 
than which no vessel was perhaps ever more unaptly 
named. This ship under the command of Captain Lobb, 
sailed from Rotterdam for Philadelphia in May, 1731, 

64 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

with more than one hundred and fifty Palatines. Instead 
of going to Philadelphia, these people, or rather the sur- 
vivors, were landed on the island of Martha's Vineyard, 
off the southern coast of Massachusetts. Of their num- 
ber, only thirty-four reached Philadelphia in May, 1732. M 
In a letter written by Johannes Gohr, Jacob Diffebach, 
Jonas Daner, Jacob Kuntz and Samuel Schwachhamer, 
dated February, 1732, to the Rev. Michael Weiss, a Ger- 
man Reformed minister in Philadelphia, they say among 
other things : " Captain Lobb, a wicked murderer of souls, 
thought to starve us, not having provided provisions 
enough, according to agreement ; and thus got possession 
of our goods ; for during the voyage of the last eight 
weeks, five persons were only allowed one pint of coarse 
meal per day, and a quart of water to each person. 
We were twenty-four weeks coming from Rotterdam to 
Martha's Vineyard. There were at first more than one 
hundred and fifty persons more than one hundred 
perished. * * * To keep from starving, we had to eat 
rats and mice. We paid from eight pence to two shillings 
for a mouse ; four pence for a quart of water. * * * In one 
night several persons miserably perished and were thrown 
naked overboard ; no sand was allowed to be used to sink 
the bodies but they floated. We paid for a loaf of Indian 
corn eight shillings. Our misery was so great that we often 
begged the captain to put us on land that we might buy pro- 
visions. He put us off from day to day for eight weeks, 
until at last it pleased Almighty God, to send us a sloop, 
which brought us to Home's Hole, Martha's Vineyard. 
* * * Had he detained four days longer every one of us 
would have famished ; for none had it in his power to hand 
another a drop of water. * * * All our chests were broken 

25 * Philadelphia Gazette, May 18, 1732. 

64 The German 

with more than one huftdr^l 


of going to Philadelphia th*-w> ---4 ,>,> .1. 


vivors, were landed on the t*lau4 of M 

oil the southern co*t /,f Massachusetts, oi i 

Bathed Philadelphia in May, 17 
itten by Johannes Gohr, Jacob L>;< 

' Kunte and Samuel Schwachhar 
, i)'J2, to the Rev. Michael Weiss, a Ger- 
Reformed minister in Philadelphia, they say among 
things : Captain Lobb, a wicked murderer of souls, 
>ught to starve us, not having provided provisions 
ugh, according to agreement; and 'thu* gr>t possession 
our goods; ior during the voyage of the last eic^ht 
ive persons were only flowed one pint of coarse 
day, and a quatt water to each person. 
were twenty-four weekx coming from Rotterdam to 
iartba's Vineyard. There were a? firt mor than one 
hundred and fifty personsmore that ot<r 
writhed. To keep from starving^ Wc ii^j ^ ftat 

N and mice, We paid from eight pewfr to f- 
lor a mouse ; four pence for a quart .-.| * .^ :f * * 
"night several persons miierablv ^ymket- ; ., 
naked overlxiard ; no sand was a^K*^ 
the b>dic^ hut they floated/ W, ; , ,, . ; 
corn eight shHiings. Oarmiam* fl f; ^ n 

begged thtt captain to put a^ in, . uv pro- 

viifi^ Heputusori imfn4^ to .1 . ?, rf Hght weeks, 
until at last it plea.^d A:n4ght' v*!.-*.!. tt? >^mi u> u sloop 
which brought us to Houses iioj* Vineyard* 

Had he detained jfour d*ys bt^r every one of us 
e famished ; for none had it in his power to hand 
drop of water. * AH our chests were broken 


A Pathetic Tale of Suffering and Wrong. 65 

open. * * * The captain constrained us to -pay the whole 
freight of the dead and living, as if he had landed us at 
Philadelphia, and we agreed in writing to do so, not under- 
standing what we signed ; but we are not able to comply, 
for if we are to pay for the dead, we should have taken 
the goods of the dead; but in discharging the vessel, we 
found that most of their chests were broken open and 

"The captain however, has determined, that we shall 
pay him in three weeks ; we, therefore, desire you to in- 
stantly assist us as much as is in your power. For if we 
have to pay, the wicked captain will make us all beggars. 
* * * We would have sent two or three men with this 
letter, but none of us is yet able to stir, for we are weak 
and feeble ; but as soon as there shall be two or three of 
us able to travel they will follow." 26 

The whole history of American colonization may con- 
fidently be challenged to present so pathetic and sorrowful 
a tale. The voyage of the "Mayflower" has been told 
and retold in song and story. It is the entire stock in 
trade of certain writers. If I remember it aright its one 
hundred and two Puritans were all landed after a voyage 
of sixty-five days duration. Not a death from any cause, 
certainly none from starvation. Yet that voyage is extolled 
as the one beyond all others where the courage, fortitude 
and endurance of colonists were tried to their utmost. If 
the student of American colonization wishes to learn 
where humanity's sorest trial on this continent occurred, 
he must turn to the German immigration to Pennsylvania 
in the eighteenth century. 

In this instance the deception and rascality perpetrated 

26 Gentleman's Magazine, Vol. II., April, 1732, p. 727. 

66 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

on these poor people became the subject of official investi- 
gation. 27 

The sequel to this tale of oppression and suffering is 
not the least interesting part of the story. It appears that 
several of these wretched German immigrants had charged 
Captain Lobb with killing several of their countrymen by 
his brutal treatment. Such an accusation could hardly 

27 The particulars of this case, contributed to the Pennsylvania Maga- 
zine of History and Biography, Vol. XXI., pp. 124-125, by Mr. ANDREW 
M. DAVIS, as taken from the "Journal of the House of Massachusetts," are as 
follows .- " December 29, //j/. 

"A Petition sign'd Philip Bongarden, in the Name and behalf of sundry poor 
distressed Palatines, now at Martha's Vineyard, within this Province (Massa- 
chusetts), setting forth, That they were lately brought into said Martha's Vine" 
yard from Rotterdam, in the Ship Loving Unity, Jacob I^obb Commander, with 
whom they entered into a written Agreement at Rotterdam aforesaid (a Copy 
of which said Agreement was therewith exhibited, translated into English}. 
That the said Captain had in a most barberous manner dealt with the Petitioners 
in their voyage : praying that the Court would Order that the said Capt. Lobb 
maybe obliged to answer for the Injuries, Wrongs and Abuses by him done and 
offered as herein mentioned ; as also, that he may be obliged to comply with 
his Contract, for the transporting of the Petitiones and their Goods to Phila- 
delphia, and that they may meet with such other Relief as shall be agreeable to 
Justice. (Brought down this Afternoon by Ebenezer Burrel Esq ;) Pass 'd in 
Council, viz. In Council, December 29, 1731. Read and Voted, That His Ex. 
cellency be desired to issue out a Special Warrant for citing the before men- 
tioned Jacob I,obb to appear before the Governour and Council to answer to the 
Complaint ; and that in the meantime the Goods and Effects of the Palatines, 
brought on the ship Loving Unity 'be secured at Martha's Vineyard, and the 
said Ship stopped in one of the Harbours there, till the Order of the Governour 
and Council thereupon ; and that any two of his Majesty's Justices of the Peace 
in Dukes County, be directed to take care that two or three of the principal 
Persons of the Palatines be sent up to attend the Governour and Council, to 
support this Complaint ; and that they likewise examine some of the Seamen 
on Oath, upon this Affair and send up their Examinations to the Secretary. 
Sent down for concurrence. Read. 

" Ordered, That the Treasurer of this Province, be and hereby is directed 
to supply the Select- Men of Edgartown with the Sum of Two Hundred 
Pounds, to be disposed of, according to their best Discretion, for the Relief and 
Comfort of the Palatines, lately brought into Martha's Vineyard; The Treas- 
urer to account therefore, in his next Accompt of Disbursements 

Sent up for Concurrence. 

" December 30. The Order of Council on the Palatines Petition entered Yes- 

Accusers Sent to Jail. 67 

be passed over in silence, so he haled his accusers into the 
Massachusetts courts, and after a prolonged trial, the cap- 
tain was not only acquitted of the charge but the witnesses 
against him were saddled with the costs of the trial and 
sent to jail until they were paid. The Philadetyhische 
Zeitung of 1732 has an account of the proceedings. 28 

terday, Read again, and after a Debate, the House passed a Non-Concurrence 
thereon, and 

11 Ordered, That William Sherley Esq ; be desired to be of Council to Mr. 
Philip Bongarden, and assist him in seeking Relief for the Palatines (in whose 
behalf he appears) in the legal and customary Way in such cases. 

Sent up for Concurrence. 

" December 31. Thomas Palmer Esq ; brought down from the Honorable 
Board, the Order of the 2Qth Instant for an Allowance to the Palatines pass'd 
in Council viz. In Council Dec. 31, 1731. Read and Concurred ; with the 

"Sent down for Concurrence. Read and Concurred." 

28 Nachdemauf anstifftungundeingebungverschiedener Persohnen, welche 
den Kapitain des Schiffs " L,iebe und Einigkeit," Jacob I<obb, mit grosser 
Barbarey gegen gewisse Pfaltzer in seinem Schiffe auf ihrer Passage von 
Holland zu Martha's Vineyard, beleget haben, die Ehrsame Richter des 
Koeniglichen Obergerichts gut gefunden haben denselben zu verpflichten 
dass er vor dem Obergerichte von Rechts-sachen, &c welches den vierdten 
Dienstag im Mertz letzthin zu Barnstable vor die County von Barnstable 
gehalten worden, erscheinen, und dasjeinge so von des Konigs wegen gegen 
ihn eingebracht werden mochte, beantworten solle ; da er dann diesem folge 
erscheinen, und wegen Zweyer unter Schiedenen Beschuldigungen des mords 
von der grossen jury dieser County gegen ihn gefunden, examinirt worden 
und nach einem 6 stunden lang gewahretem Wortwechsel die Kline Jury in, 
urtheil geschwint einbrachten als unschuldig von der erstem anklage, und 
wenig minuten hernach ein gleiches wegen der andern beschuldigung. N. B. 
Es wurde bey der examinirung observiret, dass das elend so diesen Passagie- 
ren begegnet, nicht von einer gewinnsiichtigen begierde des Capitains, oder 
vorsetzlichen Intention die Reise zu verlangern hergekommen, sondern die 
lange derselben miiste, wie aus dem Tag-register des Capitains, und der 
Eydlichen aussage aller Matrosen erhellerte, dem contraierem Winde und der 
Wind-stille zugeschrieben werden : Und konten die Gezeugen von des Konigs 
seiten den Capitain mit keiner einzigen ausiibung einer Hartigkeit wahrend 
der reise belegen. Weswegen der Capitain sich zu rechtfertigen gut gefunden, 
seinen verletzten caracter offentlich zu defendiren ; insonderheit in ansehung 
der falschen und schandlichen advertissementen, welche sind publiciret wor- 
den denselben zu beflecken und die gemiither des volcks mit vorurtheilen ge- 
gen ihn einzunehmen ehe er examinirt worden und sich selbst rechtmassig 
befreyen konte. Weiters ist er nun darauf aus, diejenigen gerichtlich zu ver- 

68 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

The foregoing action on the part of Massachusetts had 
its counterpart ^Pennsylvania in January, 1796. A ship 
arrived in Philadelphia in the fall of 1795 with a large 
number of French immigrants, many of whom were women 
and children. On January I3th of the first named year, the 
Legislature passed an Act appropriating $1,500 for their re- 
lief, and two hundred and twenty persons were thus aided. 29 

In addition to this Martha's Vineyard episode, there is 
still another New England Palatine story, less fully au- 
thenticated, but of the truth of the main details there seems 
to be no question. As the story goes, a number of Pala- 
tine immigrants were either shipwrecked or landed under 
very destitute circumstances on Block Island towards the 
middle of the eighteenth century. No record of the oc- 

folgen, welche ihn so boshaftig verleumdet und einen Process verursachet ha- 
ben, der nach untersuchung gantz ohne grand gefunden worden. 

See article on the first German newspaper published in America. Pro- 
ceedings of the Pennsylvania-German Society, Vol. X., pp. 41-46. 

29 " To THOMAS MIFFLIN : Governor of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. 

"The Commissioners appointed by the act of the legislature, dated the i$th 
of January, 1796, to afford relief to certain distressed French Emigrants ; Re- 
port that they have endeavoured to fulfil the benevolent views of the Legisla- 
ture, by personally distributing the sum of fifteen hundred Dollars, granted for 
that purpose, in money, wood, clothing and other necessaries to about two hun- 
dred and twenty necessitous French People, as by the annexed Schedule ; many 
of whom were old, and some of them lame, blind, sick, or otherwise unable to 
support themselves. 

" It was a very seasonable relief to them during the last winter, and spring, 
for which many of them have expressed their gratitude, on leaving the Conti- 
nent to return to their own country. Others remain, endeavouring to habituate 
themselves to our language, customs and modes of life ; of whom a number 
will, we hope in future be able to gain an honest livelihood, with but little 
assistance ; yet some worthy Individuals will probably continue entirely de- 
pendent upon the aid of charity. 

" Signed in Philadelphia, the 5th day of November, 1796. 


Whittier's Ship "Palatine." 69 

curence has been preserved so far as is known ; tradition 
only has dealt with it, and that says many of these people 
were landed there and that some of them perished. Some 
of the survivors got away from the island. A woman who 
remained is reported to have married a negro. 

The name of the vessel is said to have been the Palatine, 
but perhaps that is a mere supposition, the result of con- 
founding it with the country whence these unfortunates 
came. The fancy of the poet has been called in to lend 
attractiveness to the tale, and Whittier tells a weird story 
about the ship Palatine in his " Tent on the Beach." Lis- 
ten to his melodious verse : 

" And old men mending their nets of twine, 
Talk together of dream and sign, 
Talk of the lost ship Palatine. 

*' The ship that a hundred years before, 
Freighted deep with its goodly store, 
In the gales of the equinox went ashore. 

" Into the teeth of death she sped : 
(May God forgive the hands that fed 
The false lights over the rocky head ! ) 

" And then, with ghastly shimmer and shine 
Over the rocks and the seething brine, 
They burned the wreck of the Palatine. 

u And still on many a moonless night, 
From Kingston head and from Montauk light, 
The spectre kindles and burns in sight. 


" And the wise Sound skippers, though skies be fine, 
Reef their sails when they see the sign 
Of the blazing wreck of the Palatine." 

70 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

It has been conjectured that this ship was one which, 
although destined for Pennsylvania, was nevertheless di- 
verted from her course by the captain, as was frequently 
done for improper purposes, and that the disaster, whatever 
its character, was the result of ignorance of the coast on 
his part. 

This was placed upon the hearth and live coals and ashes heaped over it. 



"It is a peculiarly noble work rescuing from oblivion those who deserve 
immortality, and extending their renown at the same time that we advance 
our own." 

"Those who take no pride in the achievements of their ancestors, near or 
remote, are not likely to accomplish much that will be remembered with 
pride by their descendants." 

>ROM the time of the 
arrival of the first reg- 
ular German colony at Ger- 
mantown down until 1776, 
and later, Pennsylvania was 
the most favored of all the 
countries in America, by the 
German immigrants. There 
were two all-sufficient rea- 
sons for this. First was the 
liberal government of Penn's 
Province, and second the 
illiberal spirit which greeted 
them everywhere else. To 
this may be added still an- 
other, the character of the 

72 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

soil, so well adapted to the needs of an agricultural people 
such as a majority of these colonists were. Then, too, as 
the earliest settlers found plenty and contentment under 
liberal laws, they were not slow in keeping their friends and 
relatives in the old home beyond the sea informed of all that 
had happened to them. These favorable accounts for in 
nearly every case they were favorable turned the incom- 
ing tide in the same direction. Naturally, these people 
desired to go where their friends and kindred were, or if 
neither of these had preceded them, then where their fel- 
low countrymen were, where the German language was 
spoken and where the manners and customs of the Father- 
land met them on every hand. 

Came they with modest wealth or came they steeped in 
poverty as so many were, they could at least expect a wel- 
come, nor was it often that this was not accorded in the 
fullest possible measure. There have been preserved in 
many families, and they are still told among their descend- 
ants, pleasant tales of welcome to new arrivals by those 
who were already on the spot and comfortably fixed. The 
nearest neighbors to the new squatter may have lived five 
or ten miles awa}i, but they quickly gathered about the 
new comer and aided him in the construction of his humble 
log dwelling, and in putting out such grain and vegetables 
as the season would allow. Often a cow and other domestic 
animals were bestowed by a well-to-do neighbor, and in 
this way the early hardships and needs were relieved 
until the settler was in a measure prepared to take care of 
himself and family. Could these charitable and neigh- 
borly deeds be looked for from men of alien races and 
tongues? No, but the German heart beat true, and never 
made a nobler record than that which was recorded to its 
credit in the wilds of Pennsylvania nigh two hundred years 

Pastor 'tus* Useful Tracts. 73 




Saft&omm Viiis 
T. Deomnium Poniificum Statutrs 
II. OeConCiliorum Decifionibus 
V. De Epifcors &c Patriarchis Conftan% 

.XJcii Titter p^pte (BefeQ-. gi 

$u onfrantmepd 


iu baucn ^S 





@run5 Qnqckgtcn /, unD nun mit gutcttt 
Succefs aufcjeljenben @tabt: 


TITI.B-PAGE OF PASTORIUS' /^bwr Useful Tracts 

74 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

ago. It was, therefore, not mere chance that directed this, 
the most remarkable migration of the last century. It 
followed along lines that we can easily understand to-day, 
and wherever else credit may be due, it is undeniable 
that the first impulse came from William Penn himself, 
and that as a law giver, a commonwealth builder and as a 
MAN, he clearly stands before us as the grandest character 
that ever landed upon the shores of the New World. 

A single life measures but a span in the life of a nation, 
therefore it was not given to William Penn to witness the 
splendor of his success in commonwealth building. He 
died long before his scheme of German immigration 
reached even the promise of its later development. But yet 
it was granted to him to enjoy something of the satisfaction 
and pride that comes to the man of great plans and ideas, 
when even the limited present projects its brightness into 
the coming years, filling the future with its radiance. 
Well could he exclaim, with true modesty, and with honest 
exultation: "I must without vanity, say, I have led the 
greatest colony into America that ever any man did upon a 
private credit, and the most prosperous beginnings that 
ever were in it, are to be found among us." 30 With the eye 
of faith he 

" Dipt into the future far as human eye could see; 
Saw the vision of the world, and all the wonder that would be." 

William Penn in Pennsylvania and the Governors of 
New York and other nearby States were not the only per- 
sons who made efforts to secure these immigrants. During 
the first half of the eighteenth century some of the large 
landed proprietors in the New England colonies were intent 
on the same game. They sent agents across the Atlantic, 

30 Penn to Lord Halifax, in WATSON'S Annals of Pennsylvania, p. 19. 

German Love of Country Life. 75 

who fairly flooded the Palatinate and other German prov- 
inces with hand-bills and other documents to encourage im- 
migration into that region. Nor were their efforts unsuc- 
cessful. A number of small colonies were persuaded to 
come over, and they were settled along the bleak seacoast. 
But the unkindly climate, added to the sterility of the soil, 
and in some cases also fraudulent titles to their lands, soon 
had the effect of driving them away, they finding more 
congenial homes in the Middle and Southern Colonies. 

It cannot be gainsaid that the Germans were preemi- 
nently such settlers as the Province of Pennsylvania needed. 
From the earliest times they lived in the forests and culti- 
vated the soil. One of the greatest of the Latin historians 
has told us that none of the German nations lived in 
cities, " or even allow contiguous settlements. They dwelt 
scattered and separate, as a spring, a meadow or a grove 
might chance to invite them. Their villages are laid out in 
rows of adjoining buildings, but every one surrounds his 
house with a vacant space, either by way of security 
against fire, or through ignorance of the art of building. 
For indeed they are unacquainted with the use of mortar and 
tiles and for every purpose employ rude misshapen timber 
fashioned with no regard to pleasing the eye." 31 Caesar 
speaks to the same purpose, and says, "they think it the 
greatest honor to a nation to have as wide an extent of va- 
cant land around their dominions as possible." 82 

An eminent German historian has said that the overplus 
population of Germany has ever emigrated ; in ancient 
times for the purpose of conquering foreign powers ; in 
modern times for that of serving under them. In the days 
of German heroism, her conquering hordes spread towards 

31 TACITUS, Germania, C. 16. 
33 CESAR, Bell. Gall., IV., 3. 

76 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

the west and south. During the Middle Ages her mail- 
clad warriors took an easterly direction and overran the 
Slavonian countries. In modern times, her political and 
religous refugees have emigrated in scarcely less consider- 
able numbers to countries far more distant, but in the 
humble garb of artificers and beggars, the Farias of the 
world. Her ancient warriors gained undying fame and 
long maintained the influence and the rule of Germany in 
foreign lands. Her modern emigrants have quitted their 
native country unnoted, and as early as the second genera- 
tion intermixed with the people among whom they settled. 
Hundreds of thousands of Germans have in this manner 
aided in aggrandizing the British colonies, while Germany 
has derived no benefit from the emigration of her sons. 
The industry and honesty for which the German workmen 
are remarkable caused some Englishmen to enter into a 
speculation to procure their services as white slaves. The 
greatest encouragement was accordingly given by them to 
emigration from Germany. 33 

Early in the eighteenth century one of the most distin- 
guished of the sons of Ireland came to the New World. He 
had all the culture of the schools. There were few depart- 
ments of learning that were unfamiliar to him. Best of all, 
his heart was full of love for the human race, for he caught 
his inspiration in the same school that gave the world men 
like Locke and Penn and Hampden. He came here full of 
high hopes and the most exalted ambition. Unfortunately, 
his schemes for the uplifting of the American people, from 
the Red Man in his forest home to the refined dweller 
in the cities, were not realized, and George Berkeley re- 
turned to Europe, eventually to receive a bishopric he did 
not covet. But the heart of the gentle prelate turned with 

33 MENZEL'S History of Germany, Chap. CCLXXIV. 

76 The German Immigration im* 

the west and south. During *l ie Middle Ages her mail- 
clad warriors took an easterly direction and overrun the 
Slavonian countries. In modem times, her political and 
religou.1 refugees have emigrated in scarcely less consider- 
nbera countries far more distant, but in the 
of artificers and beggars, the Farias of the 
vrtrriors gained undying fame and 
'he influence and the rule of Germany in 
=vii emigrants have quitted their 
* *Mriy as the second genera- 
among whom they settled. 
an* have in this manner 
:>*iic.*, while Germany 
etfttgrjitiof) of her sons. 
ctt the German workmen 
iiscd some Englishmen to enter info a 
n tr -procure mtir services as white siave*. The 
*oo.*rdingJy given by them to 

one of the most distin- 

?Jlv f.-arn* to the New World. He 

ire of the 8chcx>Ls. There were few depart- 

.taniing that were unfamiliar to him. Best of all, 

*<>* full of love for the human race, for he caught 

inspiration in the same school that gave* the world men 

kt and I'cnn and Hampden. He ^amt iiew full of 

.wt exalted ambition ( .nfwtiiiiately, 

hia scheme* ir>> -i;?ung of the Amencn jv*t>ple, from 

the Red Man hi* fw* hoo% to the reftried dweller 

in the cities, we* i**<f, mtd (George Berkeley re- 

'"""ope, )t4bopric he did 

But the heart oi ri?v g^Mle piemtt turned with 

Qf Germany, Ch*p. 

Bishop Berkeley's Prevision. 77 

an unquenchable and ever-living love to the green fields, 
the prosperous villages, and to the happy men who dwelt in 
America. Through the mists of the future he thought he 
saw what was destined to transpire in that land of his 
affection in the years that were still to come, and when the 
spirit of prophecy came upon him, he wrote words that 
have come down to us, their music reverberating through 
the corridors of time. 

" In happy climes, the seat of innocence, 

Where nature guides, and virtue rules ; 
Where /nen shall not impose for truth and sense 
The pedantry of courts and schools : 

" There shall be sung another golden age, 

The rise of empire and of arts, 
The good and great inspiring epic rage 
The wisest heads and noblest hearts. 

u Not such as Europe breeds in her decay ; 

Such as she bred when fresh and young, 
When heavenly flame did animate her clay, 
By future poets shall be sung. 

" Westward the cause of empire takes its way. 

The first four acts already past, 
A fifth shall close the drama with the day. 
Time's noblest offspring is the last." 

Is it too much to say to-day that the hopes of William Penn 
and the prophetic visions of the poet-Bishop have already 
had their realization? Is not Pennsylvania at this very 
hour the grandest colony ever founded in the New World. 
Which surpasses her? Which equals her? Does she not 
stand peerless, an empire Republic, largely the result of 
this German immigration? 



" In Deutsche Bichenforste, 
Auf Berge, hoch tmd griin 
Zu frischen Au'n der Donau 
Zog mich das Heimweh bin." 

" Wie wird es in den fremden Waldern 
Euch nach der Heimathberge griin, 
Nach Deutschlands gelben Weizenfeldem, 
Nach seinen Rebenhtigeln ziehn." 

H GREAT deal is said 
and read in these latter 
days of the golden age of 
our provincial times. The 
present generation is told to 
refer to that idyllic period as 
a time and when the golden 
rule was the reigning law 
among men, to contrast it 
with the spirit of legislative 
strife, contention and corruption which we are told hold 


Early Provincial Jfyiarrels. 79 

sway to-day. The myth has done duty for many a year 
and those who are content to take things at second hand, 
accept and believe it. But that golden colonial period de- 
rives its fine reputation from the glamor the passing genera- 
tions of men have thrown upon it. Let the student care- 
fully study the Colonial Records and the First Series of 
Pennsylvania Archives, and he will have his mind promptly 
disabused of these pleasing ideas. The trouble began even 
before the death of Penn and it was continued between 
nearly all the succeeding Governors and the Assemblies 
until the Proprietary rights were extinguished by the Rev- 
olution. No, Quarrels between the legislative and execu- 
tive departments of our fair Province of Pennsylvania were 
a constantly recurring affair, and often were anything but 
beneficial to the inhabitants. 

This fact is recalled now to exemplify a case where it 
resulted in the neglect to do a very necessary thing, which 
both the Governor and the Assembly seemed anxious to do, 
but which through their obstinacy and recriminations, was 
long delayed. The need of a hospital or lazaretto for the 
reception of immigrants and others who came to Philadel- 
phia 'on pest-infected vessels, was recognized long before 
action was taken to establish one. Not only did the Ger- 
man residents of Philadelphia urge it, but English sub- 
jects also. In 1738 the influence brought to bear on Gov- 
ernor Thomas was so strong that at a Council meeting held 
on January 2d of the above mentioned year, he made an 
address, in which among other things he highly compli- 
mented the German immigrants and declared the progress 
and prosperity of the Province was largely due to their in- 
dustry and thrift. He further said: "The condition, in- 
deed, of such as arrived here lately has given a very just 
alarm ; but had you been provided with a Pest House or 

8o The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

Hospital, in a proper Situation, the Evils which have been 
apprehended might, under God, have been entirely pre- 
vented. The Law to Prevent Sickly Vessels from coming 
into this Government, has been strictly put in Execution by 
me. A Physician has been appointed to visit those Vessels, 
and the Masters obliged to land such of the Passengers as 
were sick, at a distance from the City, and to convey them 
at their own Expence, to Houses in the Country convenient 
for their Reception. More could not have been done with- 
out inhumanly exposing great Numbers to perish on board 
the Ships that brought them. This accident, I cannot 
doubt, will induce you to make a Provision against the like 
for the future." 34 

Owing, however, to the causes just alluded to, the As- 
sembly ignored the Governor's suggestion about providing 
a hospital for sick immigrants, and the records make no 
further mention of the matter until the 26th of January, 
1741, when the Governor laid before the Council the fol- 
lowing address or message which he said he had sent to 
the General Assembly, viz : 

" Gentlemen : 

" Several of the most substantial Germans now In- 
habitants of this Province, have joined in a petition to me, 
setting forth in Substance, That for want of a Convenient 
House for the reception of such of their Countrymen as, 
on their Arrival here, laboured under Diseases Contracted 
in a long Voyage, they were obliged to continue on board 
the Ships which brought them, where they could not get 
either Attendance or Conveniences suitable to their Condi- 
tion, from whence many have lost their Lives ; And pray- 
ing that I would recommend to the Assembly the Erecting 

34 Colonial Records, Vol. IV., p. 315. 

Governor Thomas' Message. 81 

of a proper Building at the public Expence, not only to ac- 
commodate such as shall arrive hereafter under the same 
Circumstances, but to prevent the future Importation of 
Diseases into this City, which has more than once felt the 
fatal Effects of them. 

" The numbers of People which I observed came into 
this Province from Ireland & Germany, pointed out to me 
the necessity of an Hospital or Pest House, soon after my 
arrival here; (August, 1738.) and in 1738 I recommended 
it to the Assembly of that year, -who seemed so far from 
disapproving itj that they gave me hopes of building one 
so soon as the Circumstances of the Province should 
admit. I very heartily wish for the sake of such ffamilys, 
Inhabitants of this City, as suffered in the late Mortality 
by the Loss of some who were their Chief Support, and 
will therefore feel it for Years to come, and on account of 
the Irish & German Strangers, that it had indeed been 
done as soon as the Circumstances of the Province did 
admit of it. But as it can profit nothing to bewail Evils 
past, I hope you will now make the proper Use of them by 
doing all in your Power to Prevent the like for the time to 

44 1 am not insensible that some look with jealous Eyes 
upon the yearly concourse of Germans to this Province, 
but the Parliament of Great Britain see it in a different 
Light, and have therefore given great Encouragement by 
a late Act to all such foreign Protestants as shall settle in 
his Majesty's Dominions; And indeed every Man who 
well Considers this Matter must allow that every indus- 
trious Laborer from Europe, is a real addition to the wealth 
of this Province, and that the Labor of every foreigner 
in particular is almost so much clear Gain to our Mother 

82 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

" I hope I need not take up more of your or my own 
Time to convince you that what is now again recommended 
is both for the interest of the Province and the Health of 
this City. Evils felt are the most convincing Arguments. 
I shall only add, that as Christians and as Men, we are 
obliged to make a Charitable Provision for the sick 
Stranger, and not by Confining him to a Ship, inhumanly 
expose him to fresh Miserys when he hopes that his Suf- 
ferings are soon to be mitigated. Nothing but the build- 
ing an Hospital or Pest House in a proper situation can, in 
my Opinion, be a suitable Charity or an Effectual security 
for the future, more especially as the Country people are 
grown so apprehensive of the Disease that they will not 
be persuaded to admit the infected into their Houses." 

To the foregoing message, every word of which was 
true, the Assembly returned the following answer : 

" A Message to the Governor from the House of Rep- 

66 May it please the Governor : 

"As great numbers of People from Ireland & Ger- 
many are yearly imported into this Province, some of 
whom have been affected with Malignant & Dangerous 
Distempers, it is Evident to Us that a convenient House to 
accommodate such as shall hereafter arrive under the like 
Circumstances, may be of great Use to them, and a means 
to prevent the spreading of infectious Distempers among 
Us, the Effects of which the City of Philadelphia has 
lately felt, altho' we think a due Execution of the Laws 
might in part have prevented them. How this failure hap- 
pened, at whose Door it ought to lye, and the Means of 
preventing it for the future, we shall take another Occa- 

The Assembly Makes Answer. 83 

sion to Consider, and therefore we wave further Notice 
of it here. 

"When the Governor was pleased to recommend the 
Building an Hospital or Pest-house to the Assembly in 
the Year 1738, it was thought too great an undertaking 
for the Circumstances we were then in ; and if it be Con- 
sidered that the Province hath since been at great and un- 
usual Expences, we think it may justly be said that the 
State of the Public Treasure neither at present nor at any 
time since the year 1738 hath been in a much better Con- 
dition for such an Undertaking than it was at that time. 
Nevertheless, as it will not only be Charitable to Strangers 
who may hereafter come among us in the distressed Cir- 
cumstances before mentioned, but also of benefit to the in- 
habitants of this Province, we are therefore determined to 
take this Matter into Consideration, and to direct a plan to 
be proposed and an Estimate made of the Money which 
would be requisite for the Building and yearly maintenance 
of such an Hospital, to be laid before Us at our next Sit- 
ting. In the mean Time, as it is a Matter of Consider- 
able Importance, we may have the Opportunity of Know- 
ing more generally the Minds of our Constituents, and it 
will give such of them as shall think it fit an Opportunity 
of applying to us touching the necessity of such a Build- 
ing, and the Manner of doing it which may render it most 
useful & least burthensome to the Province ; And on the 
whole we may the better be enabled to judge of the part 
it will become Us to act in the Affair. 

" Who they are that look with jealous Eyes on the Ger- 
mans the Governor has not been pleased to inform Us, 
nor do we know ; Nothing of the kind can justly be at- 
tributed to Us, or any preceeding Assembly to our knowl- 
edge ; On the Contrary, the Legislature of this Province, 

84 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

before the late Provision made in the Parliament of Great 
Britian, have generally, on application made to them, ad- 
mitted the Germans to partake of the Privileges enjoyed 
by the King's natural born Subjects here, and as we look 
upon the protestant part of them in general to be Laborius, 
Industrious people, we shall cheerfully perform what may 
reasonably be expected from Us for the benefit of those al- 
ready among Us, and such who may hereafter be imported. 
" Signed by Order of the House. 

' ' John Kinsey, 

It will readily be seen that the foregoing reply is so much 
petty quibbling, intended to excuse the non-performance 
of a duty, for neglect of which there really was no excuse. 
But Governor Thomas was a good politician, had as good 
a command of the English language as the members of the 
Legislature, and above all had the right side of the ques- 
tion. He promptly sent that body a rejoinder on the fol- 
lowing day, January 8th, in the following words : 

"Gentlemen : 

" I am not a little pleased to find by your Message of 
Yesterday, that you agree to the necessity of building a 
Pest House for the reception of Sick strangers, and to pre- 
vent the Spreading of infectious Diseases they may happen 
to have Contracted in their Voyage hither, and I cannot 
allow myself to doubt of your taking a speedy & proper 
Means for the Completion of so charitable a Work. 

"Whilst the German petitioners complain that many 
have lost their Lives by being confined to the ships, you 
express your Dissatisfaction that the Laws have not been 
Executed ; that is, I suppose, that sick passengers were not 
confined to the Ships. A former Assembly however, com- 

Pastoriuf Tract on Pennsylvania. 85 



unt> ttrtbrbafftigen Utfadxn tbtecfo 
fmDccadenjunt) Sr&acmungS- 

5tttett[ gtaubTBfttbigw Documents 

55tiefflicben UtfunDen ( ber fgo (ebentxn liebm 

SgurgerfcDajfe / tint) &o ^acbfotttmen / su guR8 

9?act>r ic^O alfo jufammen getragcrt / imD in 

Ben 2)rucf gegeben 


Melchiorem Adamum Paftorium, 
Altccn &urgetmiftern unt Obcc^ic^' 



and Pennsylvania. 

86 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

posed of many of the same Members with the present, after 
the very same Measures taken as to me, were pleased to 
tell me in their address * That they had a grateful sense of 
my Care in putting in Execution the Law for preventing 
Sickly vessels from coming into this Government ' But all 
I say or do now must be wrong. The Resolutions of the 
last Assembly on this Matter sufficiently explain to me 
what is meant by ' taking another occasion to consider at 
whose Door the late sickness in Philadelphia ought to lie.' 
I shall be glad to see your attempt to justify what was in- 
sinuated & assumed in those Resolves ; Accusations & 
Complaints are no new things to me, but thanks to my In- 
tegrity they have been so far from doing me a prejudice 
that they have shown me to his Majesty & his Ministers in 
a Light more advantageous than I could otherwise have 
expected ; ffor this favor tho' not designed as such, Gen- 
tlemen, I thank you. 

" If I do not strictly adhere to form in imputing to you 
what was done by the two preceeding Assembly's I hope 
you will excuse me, for as you are nine in ten of you the 
same Members, I do not know how to separate your actions 
from your Persons. 

"I cannot but differ with you (which I am sorry is too 
often the Case) in the State of the Public Treasury 
since 1738, for the Public accounts in my Opinion Show 
that the Province has at no point of Time since been 
unable to Erect the proposed Building ; you have, I con- 
fess, been at some unusual Expence, but I cannot call it 
great as you do, since 1,500 out of the 2,500 said to be 
Expended has been stopt out of my support. I know of 
no other call Upon the Province since for an Unusual Ex- 
pence. If you have generously and out of Compassion 
for the Sufferings of your Subjects in Britain remitted 

The Governor's Rejoinder. 87 

3,000 to your Agent for their Relief, I conclude you were 
well able to Spare it, And that otherwise you would not 
have done it. 

" Either the Memory of some of your Body who were 
members in 1738, must have failed them very much; or 
their Sentiments of the Importation of foreigners are, for 
very Substantial Reasons, much alter'd ; ffor, not to dwell 
upon a small Instance of the assembly's Displeasure to 
me at that Time for saying a little too much of the Indus- 
try of the Germans, I refer you to the Minutes for the As- 
sembly's address to the Proprietor in 1738, to convince you 
that what I said of their having been looked upon with 
Jealous Eyes by some, was not altogether without founda- 
tion. What follows may be found in that address : 

" And this House will, in a proper Time, readily join 
with the Governor in any Act that may be judged neces- 
sary, as well for protecting the property of the Proprietors 
and others from such unjust Intrusions for the future and 
for the preservation of the peace of the Government, as 
for Guarding against the Dangers which may arise from 
the great & frequent Importation of fforeigners." 35 

It is not necessary to follow this quarrel between the 
Governor and the Assembly any further. Suffice it to say 
that eight days later the Assembly replied to the last quoted 
communication of the Governor in a screed nearly thrice 
as long, in which an attempt is made to traverse the latter's 
very effective and convincing homethrusts. 

It appears that a Dr. Groeme had for many years, more 
than twenty, by appointment of an earlier Governor and 
the consent of the Provincial Council, visited unhealthy 
vessels. About this time he presented a bill reading as 

35 From the Minutes of the Provincial Council, in Colonial Records, Vol. IV., 
PP. 570-571. 

88 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

follows: " To going on Board Visiting & reporting to 
his Honour, the Governor, the State and Condition as to 
Sickness & Health of six Palatine vessels, and one with 
Negroes from South Carolina, at a Pistole each, 9. i6s." 
Of course the Assembly found fault : there was no expla- 
nation of the service rendered ; the names of the ships 
were not given, there was no evidence they were infected ; 
so the House would not approve the bill. It turned up 
again in the following year accompanied by another bill 
for 8. 8s., but without the desired explanations. Finally 
he was allowed 10 in payment of both. After that he 
refused to serve any longer, and Dr. Lachany and some 
other doctors, no doubt moved by professional etiquette, 
also refused to act in this capacity, and the result was an- 
other war of words between the Governor and his unman- 
ageable Assembly. The latter body drew up and passed 
a series of resolutions, the first one of which read as fol- 
lows : " That for the Governor & Council to draw in 
Question, arrange & Censure the proceedings of the 
Representatives of the ffreemen of this Province in As- 
sembly met, after the Adjournment of such Assembly, is 
assuming to themselves a power the Law hath not intrusted 
them with, is illegal, unwarrantable, a high breach of their 
Privileges, and of Dangerous Example.", 36 With the dis- 
charge of this Parthian shot we shall leave these belig- 
erents, who kept up their quarrels for a long time after 
with all their original impetuosity. 

The outcome of this quarrel was, however, that in 1742, 
Fisher's Island was purchased for the sum of 1,700 by a 
Committee who were to hold the estate in trust. This 
island contained three hundred and forty-two acres, and 
was situated near the junction of the Schuylkill with the 

36 Colonial Records, Vol. IV., p. 523. 



follows: -To to 

88 The German 

follows: - 

his Honour, -W, ofittw* M 

SicW* H<: vt ^d$, and on* tmh 

Negr'*^ M H R rwtole' each, 9, i6a." 

>emn!v found fault : there was no expia- 
te rendered; the names of the ships 
u there was no evidence they were infected; 
louse would not approve the hill. It turned up 
< the following year accompanied by another bill 
but without the desired explanations. Finally 
10 in payment of both. After that he 
any longer, and Dr. Lachany and some 
) doubt moved by professional . etiquette, 
--.t to act in this capacity, and the result was an- 
*a\ o; words between th? Governor ami his unm$ti- 
K<C .VHscrr.bly. The latter body drew up ami pa**ts 
: o.f resolutions, the rlrat om> ot which ruad M .fol 
That for the Governor & Council to draw, in 
range Oc Censure the proceedings of the 
i the f freemen ot this Province in As- 
fier the Adjournment of such Assembly, is 
ives a power the Law hath Dot intruded 
illegal, unwarrantable, a high breach of their 
ieg^ >i longerons ExampJe.'V 3 * With the clis- 

*Hrti'ii3.n shot we shall leave these belig- 
kept up their quarrels for a long time after 
lucit original impetuosity. 

'M 'i-itc,>fn>-t! of chist ^udrrel was, however, tfeat in 1742, 
Fv4u?f>jA;'iuil ^^ piirchiuwd lor tht? ^m oi i<>o bv 

was s iaACe.1 m&: the justice 'L*e 'llwjththe 

36 Colonist #*&tf4s , Vol. IV., p. 




Fisher's Island Bought. 89 

Delaware, on the southwest side of the Schuylkill, near its 
mouth. The name Fisher's Island was taken from the 
man who owned it. The named was changed to Province 
Island, and later to State Island. There were some build- 
ings on it at the time and these were utilized as hospitals. 
Fines were imposed upon any one harboring a person 
who had been ordered to the Island. In January, 1750, 
the Assembly appropriated 1,000 to erect a pest house. 37 

Sometimes when the passengers on an arriving ship 
were afflicted with a severe disorder, they were not per- 
mitted to land,^but were compelled to remain on board the 
close quarters of the infected vessel, a practice which it 
may be supposed did not contribute much to their speedy 
restoration to health. 38 

Under date of October 27, 1738, Lloyd Zachary and 
Th. Bond, physicians, presented a certificate to the colonial 
council to the following effect: " We have carefully ex- 
amined the state of health of the marines and passengers 
on board of the ship St. Andrew, Captain Steadman, from 
Rotterdam, and found a great number laboring under a 
malignant, eruptive fever, and are of the opinion, they can- 
not, for some time, be landed in town without the danger 
of infecting the inhabitants." 

Again: "The foreigners, in number 49, imported in 
the ship Francis and Elizabeth, Captain Beach, being 

37 WATSON'S Annals of Philadelphia, Vol. III., p. 333. 

"The crowded condition of emigrant ships both from Germany and Ireland 
had frequently received the attention of the legislature. The landing of the 
sick was forbidden, but for a long time no adequate provision was made for 
their care. But in 1741 an island of 342 acres, subsequently called Province 
Island, lying at the confluence of the Schuylkill with the Delaware, was pur- 
chased and a lazaretto established, where such were landed. * * * Strange to 
say, no provision was made for their support. The expense was chargeable to 
the importers and ship captains, who had their recourse against the effects of 
the immigrants." GORDON'S History of Pennsylvania, pp. 237-238. 

38 Colonial Records, Vol. IV., p. 306. 

90 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

sickly, were not permitted to be landed. Likewise the 
foreigners, in number 53, imported in the ship Rachel, 
Captain Armstrong, were so sickly that it was thought 
dangerous to suffer them to land altogether ; whereupon 
the sick were ordered to be separated from the well, and 
such as recovered, with the well were to be qualified oc- 
casionally." 39 

39 Colonial Records, Vol. V., p. 410. 




"From Delaware's and Schuylkill's gleam, 

Away where Susquehanna twines, 
And out o'er Allegheny's stream 
In places distant fell their lines." 

By river and by fountain, 

Where'er they touched this strand ; 
In wood and vale and mountain, 

They found a fatherland. 

A. D. 1694. 

HS has already been stated 
the great and persistent 
influx of Germans alarmed 
the Provincial Assembly, 
which at that early period 
was composed almost exclu- 
sively of British born sub- 
jects. Several efforts to se- 
cure naturalization met with 
much coldness. Their in- 

dustry and abstention from politics were well known, but 

92 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

failed to remove the existing jealousy. As early as 1721, 
Palatines, who had long been residents in the Province, 
applied for the privileges of naturalization, but their claims 
were quietly ignored until 1724, when permission was 
granted to bring in a bill, conditionally however, that each 
applicant should obtain from a justice of the peace a cer- 
tificate of the value of their property and the nature of their 
religious faith. 

A bill carrying the foregoing provisions was passed and 
laid before the Governor in 1725, but was returned by him 
without his approval, on the ground that in a country 
where English law and liberty prevailed, a scrutiny into 
the private conversation and faith of the citizens, and es- 
pecially into the value of their estates was a measure at 
once unjust in its character and establishing a dangerous 
precedent. The House yielded to the Governor's reason- 
ing and the bill was withdrawn. But the Palatines became 
more urgent for the privileges of citizenship as they saw a 
disposition on the part of the authorities to defer their re- 
quest, doubtless apprehending that sinister motives con- 
trolled the action of the Assembly. 

In 1729 the question was once more brought up and the 
following bill was introduced. It was passed on October 
14, 1729, and received the assent of Governor Gordon : 

Whereas, By encouragement given by the Honorable 
William Penn, Esq., late Proprietary and Governor of the 
province of Pennsylvania, and by permission of his Maj- 
esty, King George the First, of blessed memory, and his 
predecessors, Kings and Queens of England, &c., divers 
Protestants, who were subjects to the Emperor of Ger- 
many, a Prince in amity with the Crown of Great Britain, 
transported themselves and estates into the Province of 
Pennsylvania, between the years one thousand seven hun- 

Gov. Gordon Advises Naturalization. 93 

dred and eighteen ; and since they came hither have con- 
tributed very much to the enlargement of the British Em- 
pire, and to the raising and improving sundry commodi- 
ties fit for the markets of Europe, and have always behaved 
themselves religiously and peaceably, and have paid a due 
regard to the laws and Government of this province ; 
And whereas, many of said persons, to wit, Martin 
Meylin, Hans Graaf and others, all of Lancaster county, 
in the said province, in demonstration of their affection 
and zeal for his present Majesty's person and Government, 
qualified themselves by taking the qualification, and sub- 
scribing the declaration directed to be taken and subscribed 
by the several acts of parliament, made for the security 
of his Majesty's person and Government, and for prevent- 
ing the dangers which may happen by Popish Recusants, 
&c., and thereupon have humbly signified to the Governor 
and Representatives of the freemen of this province, in 
General Assembly, that they have purchased and do hold 
lands of the proprietary, and others, his Majesty's subjects 
within this province, and have likewise represented their 
great desire of being made partakers of those privileges 
which the natural born subjects of Great Britain do enjoy 
within this province ; and it being just and reasonable, 
that those persons who have bona fide purchased lands, 
and who have given such testimony of their affection and 
obedience to the Crown of Great Britain should as well be 
secured in the enjoyment of their estates, as encouraged 
in their laudable affection and zeal for the English consti- 
tution : 

Be it enacted by the Hon. Patrick Gordon, Esq., Lieu- 
tenant Governor of the province of Pennsylvania, &c., by 
and with the advice and consent of the freemen of the said 
province, in General Assembly met, and by the authority 

94 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

of the same, that (here follow the names of one hundred 
and five heads of German families) all of Lancaster county, 
be, and shall be to all intents and purposes deemed, taken 
and esteemed, His Majesty's natural born subjects of this 
province of Pennsylvania, as if they, and each of them had 
been born within the said province ; and shall and may, 
and everyone of them shall and may, within this province, 
take, receive, enjoy, and be entitled to all rights, privi- 
leges and advantages of natural born subjects, as fully, 
to all intents and constructions and purposes, whatsoever, 
as any of His Majesty's natural born subjects of this prov- 
ince, can, do, or ought to enjoy, by virtue of their being 
His Majesty's natural born subjects of His Majesty's said 
province of Pennsylvania." 40 

From this time forward long lists of persons, mostly Ger- 
mans, however, were presented to the Assembly, asking 
that the petitioners be granted the privileges of naturaliza- 
tion and citizenship. As we are nowhere informed that 
these hard-working, industrious citizens anywhere turned 
in and kicked the Quaker law makers out of their places 
of honor and profit, it may be taken for granted they did 
all they promised in their oaths of naturalization. When 
the troublesome times of the Revolution came along none 
were stauncher in their support of the Independence of the 

From the following endorsement which appears on the 
copy of an act passed by the General Assembly, sitting 
from October 14, 1738, until its adjournment on May i, 
1739, naturalizing a large number of Germans, I infer 
there must have been a charge for naturalization and that 
considerable revenue was derived from this source : 41 

40 Statutes at Large of Pennsylvania, Vol. IV., pp. 147-150. 
41 J. I. MOMBERT'S History of Lancaster County, pp. 424-426. 

Dispersion of the Immigrants. 


PHILADEL'Y, the i8th of September. 
Then received of Abraham Witmer the sum of one 
pound and two shillings (and one pound before) which is 
in full for his Naturalization. I say received by me. 

Christian Grassold, 


It was customary to take the immigrants upon disembar- 
kation to the Court House in Philadelphia to be qualified, 
but this practice was varied. Sometimes this ceremony oc- 
curred at the office of the Mayor, and again at the office of 
some attorney, ho doubt authorized for that purpose. 42 

The names of the incoming Palatines were published in 
the Colonial Records from September 21, 1727, until Au- 
gust 30, 1736, when the practice was discontinued. 


It is interesting to follow these people after reaching 
Pennsylvania. The little colony of 33 persons who planted 


themselves at Germantown under the headship of Francis 
Daniel Pastorius, in 1683, was slowly augmented during 
the following two decades. But by 1702, as Judge Penny- 

42 See note in RUPP'S Thirty Thousand Names, p. 47. 

96 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

packer tells us, they began to penetrate into the regions 
beyond their own limited domain. The acquisition of land 
seems ever to have been a prominent characteristic with the 
Germans, and it may be said to continue to this very hour. 
Even then the spirit of speculation was rife among them. 
Their early cleared farms had become valuable. There 
were always those who, having money, preferred to buy 
farms from which the heavy timber had been cleared and 
on which good buildings were erected. The prices for 
wild lands were so reasonable that men were tempted to 
sell their early holdings and, with the aid of their sturdy 
sons and daughters, to enter upon and conquer new lands 

in the interior. 


Then, too, the inflowing tide became so strong that there 
were no longer lands near the older settlements to be 
taken up, and they were perforce compelled to move far 
into the backwoods. Lancaster County, Berks County, 
Lebanon County, York and Dauphin, Schuylkill, Lehigh 
and Northampton all heard the tread of the invading hosts. 

One characteristic of these German immigrants deserves 
especial mention. While many of them were handicrafts- 
men, by far the greater number were bauern farmers 
and to this calling they at once betook themselves. In- 
deed, the first thing upon* their arrival in Philadelphia was 
to find out the nearest route to the unsettled lands of the 
Proprietary, and thither they betook. themselves at the ear- 
liest possible moment. The backwoods had no terrors for 
them. As a race of tillers of the soil, they were well aware 
that the character of the timber was an indication of the 
nature of the ground on which it stood. They were not 
afraid to work. The felling of the trees and the clearing 
of the land neither intimidated nor deterred them from 
locating where these impediments to farming were great- 

The Frontiers Defended by Germans. 97 

est. The fatness of the land they knew was greatest 
where trees were largest and stood thickest. The mightiest 
forests fell at the resounding blows of the woodman's axe, 
even as the arch enemy of mankind shrunk at the potent 
thrust of IthuriaFs spear. Their presence was manifested 
in every fertile valley. Wherever a cool spring burst from 
the earth, on every green hillside and in the depths of the 
forest, their modest homes appeared. The traditional pol- 
icy of the Proprietary Government also pushed them to 
the frontiers the places of danger. Let the truth be told, 
even as history is to-day writing it. It is the boast of the 
historian that sp mild and generous was the dealing of the 
Quaker with the aborigines that "not a drop of Quaker 
blood was ever shed by an Indian." 43 Shall I tell why? 
It was because the belt of Quaker settlement was enclosed 
in a circumference described by a radius of fifty miles 
from Penn's city on the Delaware. Beyond that point 
came the sturdy Germans, the Reformed, the Lutherans, 
the Dunkers, the Mennonites and the Moravians, whose 
settlements effectually prevented the savages from spilling 
Quaker blood. Instead, the tomahawk and scalping knife 
found sheath in the bodies of the sturdy children of the 
Palatinate. Let the sacrificed lives of more than three 
hundred men, women and children from the Rhine country, 
who fell along the Blue Mountains between 1754 and 1763, 
give the true answer to the Quaker boast. 44 

There were many entire settlements throughout eastern 
Pennsylvania as early as 1750 where no language but the 
German was heard. They went to the north, the south, 
and to the west. Soon they reached the Appalachian 
chain of mountains, climbed its wooded sides and de- 

43 BANCROFT'S United States, Vol. II., p. 383. 

44 RUPP'S Thirty Thousand Names, p. 17. 

98 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

bouched into the wild regions beyond until the Ohio was 
in sight. But on, still on, went that resistless army of 
Commonwealth-builders. To-day they are spread over the 
fairest and most fertile lands of the great West. Ohio, In- 
diana, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska and other states, 
the entire continent in fact, count among the best of their 
citizens the men who went out of Pennsylvania with 
Luther's bible in their hands and the language of Schiller 
and Goethe upon their lips. Wherever they went their 
fervent but unobtrusive piety went with them. As early 
as 1750 there were already forty well-established German 
Reformed and thirty Lutheran congregations in Pennsyl- 
vania. 45 Of the minor church organizations, or rather of 
those who had no such organizations, "the sect people," 
like the Mennonites, the Dunkers, Schwenkf elders and 
many more, we cannot speak. In the aggregate they 
were very numerous and in their quiet way brought credit 
on their country and on their lineage, wherever they located 
themselves ; and all that was said of them at that early 
period attaches to them to-day. 

45 OSWALD SEIDENSTICKER'S Bilder aus der Deutsch-pennsylvanischen 
Geschichte, Vol. II., p. 254. 





"Ay, call it holy ground, 

The soil where first they trod ; 
They left unstained what there they found 
Freedom to worship God." 

O mighty oaks centennial, 

On field and fell that stand ; 
Keep watch and ward perennial 

Above that faithful band. 

OW many Germans came to 
Pennsylvania during the 
eighteenth century? That query 
will probably occur to many read- 
ers, because it is one of the most 
interesting of all the questions con- 
nected with this subject. In the 
absence of direct and indisputable 
evidence every effort to solve the 
problem must of necessity be in 
the nature of an approximation, or 
if you will, only a guess. A score of writers have tried 


ioo The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

their hands at the problem, and their guesses are as various 
as the writers themselves. In fact, these estimates are 
hopelessly discordant and some of them are here given 
that the reader may understand the situation and exercise 
his own judgment in the matter from the evidence that has 
been laid before him in the course of this narration. 

Sypher, for example, says "in 1727, nearly 50,000 per- 
sons, mostly Germans, had found a new home in Pennsyl- 
vania," 46 which I venture to think exaggerates the number 
at that time so far as the Germans are concerned. Dr. 
Charles J. Stille has estimated the population of the State 
in 1740, at 100,000, and he adds, "of the inhabitants of 
the Province one-fourth or one-fifth were Quakers, about 
one-half Germans and the rest emigrants from the North 
of Ireland." 47 Governor Thomas, who ought to be good 
authority, expressed the opinion that in 1747 the population 
numbered 120,000 of which three-fifths or 72,000 were 
Germans. I find an estimate in the Colonial Records , on 
what authority is not stated, which gives the population at 
220,000 in 1747 of which it is said 100,000 were Germans. 
In 1763, a Committee of which Benjamin Franklin was 
chairman, reported to Parliament that 30,000 laborers, ser- 
vants and redemptioners had come into the Province 
within twenty years and yet "the price of labor had not 
diminished." 48 This is an interesting fact and is conclu- 
sive evidence that nothing was so much needed in the 
growing Province in those early days as men who knew 
how to work and were willing to do so. In 1776 Dr. 
Franklin's estimate was 160,000 colonists of whom one- 
third or 53,000 were Germans, one-third Quakers and the 

46 SYPHER'S History of Pennsylvania, p. 73. 

47 STILLE'S Life and Times of John Dickinson, pp. 46-47. 

48 GORDON'S History of Pennsylvania, p. 273. 

TOO The German fmm^r^i.*^it *#?& P? 

their hands at ihe pri)bJm, aitd fheir guesses arc <*9 various 
as the wriieis the:u*e?v*.H, In fact, these estimates are 
hopelesslv t v *or<im and some of them are here given 
that th? may ucuteiatami the situation and exercise 

his own jutiginen* ; n ihe matter from the evidence that has 
bt;tt./re him in the course of this narration. 

?her tor example, says "in 1727, nearly 50,000 per- 
sons, mostly Germans,, had found a new home in Pennsyl- 
vania," ' B which I venture to think exaggerates the number 
at that time so far as the Germans are concerned. Dr. 
Charles J. Stille" has estimated the popubuon of the State 
in 1/40, at 100,000, and he adds, "of the inhabitants of 
the Province one-fourth or one-fifth were Quakers, about 
one-half Germans and the rest emigrants from the North 
oi Ireland.'" Governor Thomas, who ought to h* 
authority, expressed the opinion that in 1747 the population 
numbered 120,000 of which three- fifth? or 72,000 were 
Germans. I find an estimate in the Colonial Records, on 
what authority is uot stated, which gives the population at 
220,000 in 1747 of which it is said 100,000 were Germans. 
In 1763, a Committee of which Benjamin Franklin was 
chairman, reported to Parliament that 30,000 laborers, ser- 
vants and redemptioners had come into the Pro* 
within twenty years and yet "the price of labor had not 
diminished." 4 * This is an interesting fact and is corclu- 

vidcnce that nothing was so much neecU'rf m th 

g-rufc.' Province in those early days as men who knew 

W* were willing to do so. In 1776 Dr. 

t ; '5*< was 160,000 colonists of whom one- 

- *,**/<" Gtrroans, one-third Quaker* and the 

f StrHfex i / ' --*. i>-~73- 

4 7 Sri VLi. ' fe I. iff 3? ?' -'.^txf -/ r VA iHi'kiitso*, |>p, 46-47. 

O aj ct 

"- Q 

2- o _. 

z z: 

g > H 




tO Q 

ttJ z 
O o 

Q g u 


Estimates of the German Population. 101 

rest of other nationalities. Michael Schlatter, the eminent 
missionary and organizer in the Reformed Church, in 
1751 gave 190,000 as the total population of Pennsyl- 
vania, of whom one-third or 63,000 were Germans. 

Proud, the historian, who ought to be a very competent 
authority, estimated the entire population of Pennsylvania 
in 1770 at 250,000, with the Germans as one-third of that 
number or 83,000. Menzel, in his history of Germany, 
informs us that from 1770 to 1791, twenty-four immigrant 
ships arrived annually at Philadelphia, without reckoning 
those that landecj in other harbors. 49 This is a wholesale 
exaggeration of the actual facts. This statement indicates 
the arrival of more than 500 ships during the 21 years 
mentioned. We know that is more than the total recorded 
number from 1727 to 1791. From 1771 until 1775 there 

were only 47 arrivals. There were hardly any German T^ 

arrivals during the Revolutionary War, and comparatively 
few from 1783 until 1790. We know there were only 114 
in the year 1789. It is easy for historians to fall into error 
when they draw on their fancy for their facts. According 
to Ebeling, the German inhabitants of Pennsylvania num- 
bered 144,660 in the year I79O. 50 Seidensticker gives the 
inhabitants of the Province in 1752 at 190,000, of which 
he says about 90,000 were Germans. The Lutherans in 
1731 are supposed to have numbered about 17,000 and the 
German Reformed i5,ooo. 51 In 1742 the number of Ger- 
mans was given at 100,000 by Hirsching. 52 Rev. J. B. 
Rieger estimated the number of Germans in the Province 
in 1733 at 15,000. In the notes to the Hallische Nach- 

49 MENZEL's History of Germany, Vol. III., Chap. CCLXXIV. 
50 EBELING, Beschreibung der Erde, Abtheilung, Pennsylvanien. 

81 OSWALD SEIDENSTICKER, Geschichte der Deutschen Gesellschaft von 
Pennsylvanien, S. 18. 

82 HIRSCHING, Histor. Literar. Handbuch VII., 230. 

IO2 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

richten, we find this: " If we estimate the Germans of 
Pennsylvania, at the middle of the eighteenth century, at 
from 70,000 to 80,000, we shall not be far out of the 
way." M 

Franz Loher, in his Geschichte und Zustdnde der 
Deutschen in Amerika, has some interesting remarks on 
this subject. 54 

Amid this multiplicity of estimates the writer of to-day 
is reluctant to enter the field with some of his own. The 
observant men who lived here between 1725 and 1775, 
should certainly have been more capable of forming an 
accurate estimate than those who came a century or more 
after them. But it is evident that many made mere 
guesses, without actual knowledge, and their views are, 
therefore, without special value. The tendency in almost 
every case was to exaggerate. But to-day we know 
with tolerable accuracy the number of ships that reached 
Philadelphia, and have the ship lists. We know, too, 

** Hallischc Nachrichten, Vol. I., p. 463. 

54 I,6her says : " There was hardly a single year between 1720 and 1727 that 
a large number of ships bearing German immigrants did not arrive in Phila- 
delphia, and even greater numbers came between 1730 and 1742 (Hallische 
Nachrichten, 665-668). Already in 1742, the number of Germans in Pennsyl- 
vania was estimated at 100,000 (HIRSCHING'S History of Literature}. Eight 
years later (1750) it was thought the number was well nigh 230,000. Still other 
estimates give the number in 1732 at 30,000, and in 1763 at 280,000 (Grahame 
History of Pennsylvania, Vol. II., p. 514. Holmes', Vol. I., 554; II., 142). 
Philadelphia had in 1749 six English and four German Churches. * *" * From 
1740 on, thousands of Germans landed in Philadelphia every fall. In 1749 
alone 25 ships reached that port with 7,049 ; others say 12,000 (Hallische Nach- 
richten ,369. Grahame, Vol. II., p. 201). During the following three years, 
1750, 51, 52, also came 6,000 (Hall. Nachrichten, 369. Grahame, II., 201). 
It is said that in 1759 alone, 22,000 came from Baden, the Palatinate and 
Wirtenberg (Mittelberger, p. 25). In the terrible famine years of 1771 and 
1772 came the greatest number, but, in the succeeding four years, from 20 to 
24 ships reached Philadelphia with German immigrants (Halle Nachrichten, 
I2 5> 735) 682). In 1771 and 1772, 484 persons left Canton Basel for America 
(Mittelberger, p. 26)." 

Pennsylvania and New Jersey Described. 103 

AR Hiftoc4*nd Geogtap&eaV Account 



O F 




the Richrtefs of the Soil, the Sweetnefs of the Situation 
(he Wholdpmneft of the Air. the Navigable Rivers, and 
others, the prodigipusEncreate-of Corn, the flouri thing 
Condition of fhe City of PhzlaJe/pbta* with the ftateiy 
Buildings, and other Improvements there. The ftrange 
Creatures, uJMr.B*4ft**F*/ktJ'. #nd Fotvts, withtfV 
feveral forts of Miner ols^ Purjtixg Waters, *n& Stones* 
latel difcovered The Natives. Jborcgmes, their La 
Laws, and Culomt ; The 

wredt* and JEngiJh, with the namber of 

its Inhabitant ; Asalfo a Touch open George 

QfK&itm , hi his fecond Change fince he left the 

With &JMap of -both Countries* 


Whorefidfed there 1 about Fifteen Yeati 

Loynlon, Printed fpr^ and Sold by ^A 
Qtk.Oxon Arn*^ WarwiA-bttiCi ,i' 


104 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

that many were here when the registry law went into op- 
eration and who go to swell the whole number ; that in 
addition, others came from New York prior to 1700. 

In the year 1738 sixteen immigrant ships reached port, 
bringing from 15 to 349 each, or a total of 3,115. The 
average per ship was about 200. It is reasonable to sup- 
pose that was also a fair average for previous and succeed- 
ing years. Between 1727 and 1750, the latter year and 
that of 1745 when there were no arrivals not included, 
there were 134 arrivals of ships of all sizes. Allowing 
these an average of 200 each, we get as a result 26,800 
souls, or an average of about 1,220 annually. As has 
elsewhere been stated the number of arrivals in 1732 was 
2,093, and in 1738, 3,257. In 1728, 1729 and 1730 the 
arrivals were 390, 243 and 458 respectively, which, of 
course, counter-balance such big years as 1732 and 1738. 

We are in the dark as to the ship arrivals between 1714 
and 1727, but the accounts are agreed the number was 
considerable. I am inclined to accept the Rev. Rieger's 
estimate of 15,000 in 1727, instead of in 1733, where he 
places it. That number added to estimated arrivals be- 
tween 1727 and 1749, Dotn years included, gives us in 
round numbers about 42,000 in 1750, to which must be 
added the natural increase which was, perhaps, 5,000 
more, or a total German population of 47,000 souls in the 
Province in 1750. Between 1750 and 1775, both years 
inclusive (but not counting 1757, '58, '59 and '60, during 
which there were no arrivals) we have a total of 196 
ships in 21 years, which reckoned at the average of 200 
to each vessel gives us 39,000 arrivals or rather less than 
an average of 1,900 yearly. This added to our previous 
estimate for 1750 gives us with the natural increase fully 
90,000 Germans in the Province when the Revolutionary 

German Soldiers ivho Remained. 105 

war broke out. Indeed, I am inclined to believe the num- 
ber was nearer 100,000 than 90,000, for these early Ger- t 
mans were noted for their large families. There is, how- 
ever, considerable unanimity in one particular among most 
of the authorities, and that is that the Germans at any and 
every period between 1730 and 1790 constituted about one- 
third of the total population. This statement is unques- 
tionably correct as we approach the years nearest the 
Revolutionary period. The English Quakers and the 
Welsh had not been coming over in any considerable 
number, arfd the same may, perhaps, be said of the 
Scotch-Irish. The Germans formed the bulk of the immi- 
grants and necessarily increased their numerical ratio to 
the total population of the Province which, according to 
the first census in 1790, was 434,373. Accepting the ratio 
of one-third being Germans, we get 144,791 as the Ger- 
man population at that period. 

There is still another large increase in the German 
population of Pennsylvania prior to 1790 which writers 
do not reckon with, but which must not be left out of our 
estimates. It is those German soldiers who remained in 
the State at the close of the Revolutionary War. The 
number of these men who were sent to America and 
fought under the banner of George III., was, according 
to the best authorities, 29, 867. M Of that number, 17,313 
returned to Europe in the autumn of 1783. The number 
that did not return was 12,554. These have been ac- 
counted for as follows : 

Killed and died of wounds i , 200 

Died of illness and accident 6,354 

Deserted 5?ooo 

Total 1 2,554 

66 KAPP'S Soldatcnhandel, 2d edition, p. 209 ; SCHLOZER'S Stats- Anzeigen, 
VI., pp. 521-522. 

106 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

Here we have five thousand men, most of whom re- 
mained scattered among their countrymen throughout 
Pennsylvania. The few hundred who perhaps settled in 
other states were more than made up by those German 
soldiers who, by agreement with the several German 
States, enlisted in the English regiments, some of which 
had recruiting stations at various places along the Rhine, 
and who were not counted in the financial adjustment of 
accounts between Great Britain and the German Princes, 
nor compelled to return to Europe. 56 

It is well known that during the first quarter of the nine- 
teenth century the German immigration to this State was 
well sustained so that probably the Germans and their de- 
scendants have pretty nearly kept up the percentage of 
population accorded them by general consent so long as 
one hundred and fifty years ago. 

The opinion seems to prevail very generally that in 1700 
all the Germans in Pennsylvania were those who were 
gathered at the Germantown settlement, along the Wis- 
sahickon and immediately around Philadelphia. Rupp 
expressly states that there were only about 200 families of 
Germans in the Province in 1700. I do not coincide with 
that view. The colonists which Sweden had begun to 
send to the Delaware as early as 1638, were not composed 
of Swedes and Finns only ; special privileges were of- 
fered to Germans and these, too, came along. 

An examination of the Colonial History of New 
York and O'Callagan's Documentary History of New 
York, shows that a number of settlements had been 
planted on the Delaware by the City of Amsterdam. 
Colonies of Mennonites are mentioned as having settled 
in New York prior to 1657. In a report on the State of 

56 See LOWELL'S Hessians, pp. 21-300. 

Mennonite Immigration from New York. 107 

Religion in New Tork, dated August 5, 1657, addressed 
to the Classis of Amsterdam, I find this : " At Gravesend, 
on Long Island, there are Mennonists * * * yea they 
for the most part reject infant baptism, the Sabbath, the 
office of preacher and the teachers of God's word, saying 
that through these have come all sorts of contention into 
the world. Whenever they meet together one or the other 
reads something for them." 57 I also find that Governor 
Fletcher, of New York, wrote in 1693 that " more families 
are daily removing for Pennsylvania and Connecticut to be 
eased from faxes and detachments." 58 The Rev. John 
Miller writes in 1696 that "the burdens of the Province 
(N. Y.) have made two or three hundred families forsake 
it and remove to Pennsylvania, and Maryland chiefly." 59 

Here we are told of the migration of as many German 
families from New York to Pennsylvania prior to 1693, 
as are credited to all Pennsylvania in the year 1700. I 
regret that time has not allowed me to examine more fully 
the documents here mentioned. There are a great num- 
ber of references in them to Mennonites in New York, and 
as these disappeared from that colony at an early date, 
there seems to be abundant reason for believing that they 
nearly all found their way into Pennsylvania, swelling the 
German population to no inconsiderable extent. We un- 
doubtedly have here a factor which must be reckoned 
with in any summary we may make of the early population 
of Pennsylvania. 

I am therefore not ready to accept the generally believed 
statement that the colony of Crefelders who settled at Ger- 
mantown in 1683 were the only Germans around Philadel- 
phia at that time. The evidence is scattering but none the 

67 Documentary History of New York, Vol. III., p. 69. 
58 Colonial History of New York, Vol. IV., p. 55. 
*>fbtd., Vol. IV., p. 183. 


io8 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

less direct. Watson tells us that one Warner had settled 
at William Grove, two miles beyond the city limits as early 
as 1658. Also that Jurian Hartsfelder took up 350 acres 
of land in March, 1676, nearly six years before Penn's ar- 
rival. 60 Pennypacker says he was " a stray Dutchman or 
German, who had been a deputy Sheriff under Andross in 
1676." ' Rupp tells us that one Heinrich Frey had reached 
Philadelphia two years before Penn's arrival, and a certain 
Plattenbach somewhat later. 62 There was a large general 
immigration in 1682, about 30 ships having arrived with 
settlers. 63 We can no more divest ourselves of the belief 
that there were many Germans among these than we can that 
there were many Germans among the Swedes and Finns 
who first came fifty years earlier, because we know Gustavus 
Adolphus asked the Protestant German princes to allow their 
subjects to join his own subjects in forming the Swedish set- 
tlements on the Delaware. Johannes Printz, who succeeded 
Peter Minnewit as Governor, was a German, a Holsteiner, 
and he brought with him fifty-four German families, mostly 
from Pomerania. 64 It is a very logical supposition that 
these were only a portion of the Germans who planted them- 
selves along the Delaware at various times between 1638 
and 1682. When therefore Rupp tells us that there were 
only about 200 German families in Pennsylvania in 1700, 
I cannot accept his statement, because I cannot escape the 
conclusion from all the evidence accessible, that those figures 
should be increased several hundred per cent. Neither do 
I doubt that in the fullness of time an abundance of con- 
firmatory evidence of this view will be forthcoming. 

60 WATSON'S Annals of Philadelphia, Vol. I., p. u. 

61 PENNYPACKER'S Settlement of Germantown, p. 19. 

62 RTJPP'S History of Berks and Lebanon Counties, p. 90. 

63 PROUD'S History of Pennsylvania, Vol. I., p. 220. 

64 IRITIS P. HENNINGHAUSEN, Esq., The First German Immigrants to 
North America, p. 20. 




" Vergessen soil die Feindschaft Sein 

Vergessen dann das Schwert ; 
Wir wollen uns wie Briider freu'n 
Uns freun an einem Heerd." 



will hardly be ques- 
tioned, I suppose, that 
Benjamin Franklin was the 
greatest American of the 
Revolutionary era. He cer- 
tainly was from a political 
point of view. Coming into 
the Province in 1723 and 
dying in the State in 1790, 
his residence here covers al- 
most three-quarters of a cen- 
tury. He literally grew up 
with the Province, saw it in 
almost every phase of its ca- 
reer, from its earliest struggles until the strong Common- 
wealth was established, let us hope for all time. The 
proprietary period was by no means an ideal one. The 
student of that early time is confronted on almost every 

( 109) 

no The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

page of our history by the quarrels and disputes between 
the Governors of the Province and the Provincial Assem- 
blies. The former in standing up for the rights of the 
Penn heirs, and the latter jealous of the rights and inter- 
ests of the people, presented a condition of turbulence 
hardly equalled in any of the American colonies. 

Franklin was on the spot when the great German immi- 
gration set in. He saw it all and could hardly help under- 
standing it. He could not avoid coming in contact with these 
people. He did, in fact, come into very close and profitable 
relations with them. For years he owned and conducted the 
best equipped printing establishment in the Province, if not 
in the entire country. This brought him into very close 
business relations with the Germans, for there were many 
men of high culture among them, who wrote learned books 
which Franklin printed for them at his establishment. Had 
he understood the Germans better he might have appre- 
ciated this more. At all events he seems to have misunder- 
stood them, and through that misunderstanding to have 
done them a great wrong. It may not have been willful, 
but it was, nevertheless, inexcusable. 

Other men prominent in affairs, Secretary Logan and 
some of the early Governors, have had their fling at the 
German colonists, but they also in time paid ample testi- 
mony to their excellent qualities. But from none of them 
came so severe a blow as from Dr. Franklin. Under date 
of May 9, 1753, he wrote a letter to his friend Peter Col- 
linson, in which he speaks thus unkindly of these people, 
the very bone and sinew of the great State that was to be : 

" I am perfectly of your mind, that measures of great 
temper are necessary touching the Germans, and I am not 
without apprehensions, that, through their indiscretion, or 
ours, or both, great disorders may one day arise among us. 




<T* ^aarrel* nd dispute* henv*** 
ami the Provincial A0m- 
'^.*fi# up for the rights of the 
- . > *tou* of the rights arid iriter- 
xsa a condition of turbulence 
cijufi.*i*ti tn ^*iy ot tiie American colonies. 

spot when the i^reat German immi- 

grati< &w u all and could hardly help under- 

t^ng in Contact with these 

k#r and profitable 

"v-i* ->r. Juried the 

he understood &** G*- 

ciated this more. Ai nH $f--**?*fU 5s'- 

stood th*rrn, ar*ii i.^te*te fM? *fei:,.^^ ,i. 

niony to -hf-ir - 

came so severe a b-kw a$ frc^rt !>\ 

cf My 9, 1753, he wrote a ietttr to jvi m*^. F(er Col- 

ht^ft^^, -r< wh-ich he speaks rbus unkindly of thews people, 

Ws*. ind inew a* f^e igfeai State- tlijit was to be : 

tly of voii* -:mtuli $uii c -t great 

^jf tkr (jr^rmiui*, -tod T am not 

-H, ret ion, or 

:ir:;^e among us. 



Franklin's Unjust Tirade. in 


Those who came hither are generally the most stupid of their 
own nation, and as ignorance is often attended with great 
credulity, when knavery would mislead it, and with suspi- 
cion when honesty would set it right ; and, few of the Eng- 
lish understand the German language, and so cannot ad- 
dress them either from the press or pulpit, it is almost 
impossible to remove any prejudices they may entertain. 
Their clergy have very little influence on the people, who 
seem to take pleasure in abusing and discharging the min- 
ister on every trivial occasion. Not being used to liberty, 
they know not how to make modest use of it. * * * They 
are under no restraint from ecclesiastical government ; they 
behave, however, submissively enough at present to the 
civil government, which I wish they may continue to do, 
for I remember when they modestly declined intermeddling 
with our elections j but now they come in droves and carry 
all before them, except in one or two counties. 

" Few of their children in the country know English. 
They import many books from Germany, and of the six 
printing houses in the Province, two are entirely Ger- 
man, two half German, half English, and but two are en- 
tirely English. They have one German newspaper, and 
one-half German Advertisements intended to be general, 
are now printed in Dutch (German) and English. The 
signs in our streets (Philadelphia) have inscriptions in both 
languages, and some places only in German. They begin, 
of late, to make all their bonds and other legal instruments 
in their own language, which (though I think it ought not 
to be), are allowed in our courts, where the German busi- 
ness so increases, that there is continued need of interpre- 
ters, and I suppose in a few years, they will also be neces- 
sary in the Assembly, to tell one-half of our legislators, 
what the other half says. In short, unless the stream of 

1 12 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

importation could be turned from this to other colonies, as 
you very judiciously propose, they will soon outnumber us, 
that all the advantages we will have, will in my opinion, 
be not able to preserve our language, and even our gov- 
ernment will become precarious." 65 

The wisest mortals are sometimes short-sighted and Dr. 
Franklin must be allowed a place in that category. His 
letter is unsound throughout. First he calls them stupid 
and ignorant; later he admits they import many books. 
If so ignorant and stupid what did they want with so many 
books? If so steeped in mental darkness, how is it that 
there were more German newspapers printed in the Prov-, 
ince at that very hour than in English? The generally 
shrewd philosopher, patriot and statesman involved him- 
self in contradictions such as not even the " stupid" Ger- 
mans would have done. I may even go further and say, 
that at the time Dr. Franklin's letter was written there 
were many 'Germans in Pennsylvania incomparably su- 
perior to him in the learning of the schools. He does not 
appear to have thought of that. Perhaps he did not know 
it could not comprehend it. 

Well-nigh one hundred and fifty years have come and 
gone since his unjust tirade against the German colonists. 
Not one of the fears that seemed to have possessed his soul 
has been realized. It is true the Quaker no longer gov- 
erns the land. He went to the rear as the Germans came 
to the front and assumed control of the Government. They 
became the dominant race, and they are so to-day. They 
did no violence to the laws ; they upheld them and enforced 
them. They have made the State the grandest of all the 
forty-five. Dr. Franklin lived to see how idle his predic- 
tions were, and even he recanted. 

65 SPARK'S Works of Franklin, Vol. VII., pp. 71-73. 

Falckner's Continuation of Gabriel Thomas. 113 



fn Dcttcn (Ettfc(&tdn$ift 


n (Jc^ tattenb : 

Situation, un5 gru*tBarf eft be0 

luffe. Sie 2(njal)l bevev bi^ero aebauten tdbte. 

x^te icltjame Crttfrnti an 2()icrcn/ C 
2)ie ^^^ ^eftjefleine JDereQ 
denolcfrepra(5en/ Dl 
Die cr/tm (KvfiWc&cn 



in Penfylvaaia 195* 

u/f vorgeleate Stagca oo 

*ancffiirt imb 

3u fintcn bc 

FAI,CKNER'S Continuation OF GABRIEL THOMAS' Account. 

H4 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

There were a number of others whose views coincided 
with those of Franklin, at least in some particulars. On 
the other hand there were those who spoke and wrote as 
decidedly in their behalf. Among these was the historian 
Macaulay, who ca*lls them " Honest, laborious men, who 
had once been thriving burghers of Mannheim and Heidel- 
berg, or who had cultivated the vine on the banks of the 
Neckar and Rhine. Their ingenuity and their diligence 
* could not fail to enrich any land which should afford them 
an asylum." 

Against the jaundiced views of Dr. Franklin I set those 
of a man of our own times, one who from his public 
position and his superior opportunities for forming correct 
views of the early German immigrants is eminently entitled 
to be heard on this question. I mean Dr. James P. Wicker- 
sham, for nearly fifteen years Superintendent of Public 
Instruction in Pennsylvania. Of Quaker descent, he was 
nevertheless broad-minded and liberal, and did not strive to 
close his eyes to the good qualities of the early Germans, 
with whose descendants he became so intimately connected 
and acquainted. He says: " Pennsylvania as a land of 
promise became known in Holland, Germany and Switzer- 
land. * * * But it was not long until numbers of the op- 
pressed inhabitants of nearly all parts of Germany and 
Switzerland, and especially of districts along the Rhine, 
began to seek homes, with wives, children and all they 
possessed, in the wilds of Pennsylvania. Among them 
were members of a dozen different religious denominations, 
large and small. They all came with the common object 
of bettering their condition in life, and securing homes in a 
country where they could enjoy unmolested the right to 
worship God as their consciences dictated. In Penn- 
sylvania, if nowhere else, they knew they would secure 

Their Love of Learning Vindicated. 115 

civil and religious liberty. Some of them were very poor, 
even coming without sufficient money to pay the expenses 
of their passage, but others were well to do, bought land, 
built houses, and soon by patient industry had about them 
the comforts to which they had been accustomed. The Ger- 
man immigrants were mostly farmers, but among them 
there was a smaller proportion of different kinds of me- 
chanics. They brought few books with them, b'ut nearly 
every individual possessed a Bible and a Prayer or Hymn- 
book, and many had in addition a Catechism or a Confes- 
sion of Faith.* These were the treasures that could not be 
left behind, and they are still preserved as heirlooms in 
hundreds of old German families. 

" When they came in bodies, they were usually accom- 
panied by a clergyman or a schoolmaster, or both. They 
were not highly educated as a class, but among them 
were some good scholars, and few could be found who 
were not able to read. The impression has prevailed that 
they were grossly ignorant ; it is unjust ; those who make 
the charge either do not take the pains to understand, or 
wish to misrepresent them. Their average intelligence 
compared favorably with that of contemporary American 
colonists of other nationalities. If they did not keep pace 
with others in subsequent years, their backwardness is 
easily accounted for by their living for the most part on 
farms, frequently many miles separated, and extending 
over large sections of country ; their division into many 
religious denominations, among which there was little 
unity ; their inability, scattered and broken as they were, 
to support ministers and schoolmasters, or even to secure 
the advantages of an organized community ; their use of 
a language which in a measure isolated them from the 
neighboring settlers, and shut them out from the social, 

n6 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

political and business currents that gave life to the com- 
munities around them ; their unacquaintance with the 
proper forms of local self-government, and the habit 
brought with them, in all public concerns, of deferring to 
some outside or higher authority ; and above all, per- 
haps, their quiet, confiding disposition, quite in contrast 
with the ways of some of the more aggressive, self-assert- 
ing classes of people with whom they were brought in 
competition. * * * 

6 'Although invited to settle in Pennsylvania, the Ger- 
mans, arriving in such large numbers and spreading over 
the country so rapidly, seem to have created a fear on the 
part of other settlers and of the provincial authorities that 
they would form an unruly element in society, and eventu- 
ally work the overthrow of the government, or assume 
possession of it, as their countrymen had done long before 
in England. Laws restraining their immigration were 
passed, and the alarm disturbed even such well-balanced 
minds as those of Logan and Franklin. It is almost need- 
less to add now that such a fear was groundless and arose 
wholly out of the political and sectarian prejudices of the 
day. On the contrary, it is only just to say that to all 
that has gone to build up Pennsylvania, to enlarge her 
wealth, to develop her resources, to increase her prosperity, 
to educate her people, to give her good government from 
the first, the German element of the population has con- 
tributed its full share. Better citizens cannot be found in 
any nation on the face of the globe." 66 

No truer tribute was ever paid the German immigrants 
than this one, before the Assembly on January 2, 1738, by 
Lieutenant-Governor George Thomas when urging the es- 

66 JAMES PYLE WICKERSHAM, U,. D., A History of Education in Pennsyl- 
vania, pp. 122-124. 

Governor Thomas' Tribtite. 


tablishment of a hospital for sick arrivals : " This Province 
has been for some years the Asylum of the distressed 
Protestants of the Palatinate, and other parts of Germany, 
and I believe it may with truth be said that the present 
flourishing condition of it is in a great measure owing to 
the industry of these People ; and should any discourage- 
ment divert them from coming hither, it may well be 
apprehended that the value of your Lands will fall, and 
your Advances to wealth be much slower; for it is not 
altogether the goodness of the Soil, but the Number and 
Industry of tlie People that make a flourishing Colony." 67 

^Colonial Records, Vol. IV., p. 315. 




" Oft did the harvest to their sickle yield, 

Their furrow oft the stubborn glebe has broke ; 
How jocund did they drive their teams afield ! 
How bow'd the woods beneath their sturdy stroke ! " 

" Und der Vater mit frohem Blick, 
Von des Hauses weitschauendem Giebel 
Uberzahlet sein bliihend Gliick, 
Siehet der Pfosten ragende Baume, 
Und der Scheunen gefiillte Raume, 
Undjdie Speicher, vom Segen gebogen 
Und des Kornes bewegte Wogen." 

'HIS chapter is supplemen- 
tary. It had no place 
in the original plan of the 
writer. It has been called 
forth by a brief sentence found in a recently published his- 
tory of Pennsylvania, and is the last written chapter of this 
book written long after the rest. While not germane to 
the general title, it yet deserves a place here inasmuch as 


An Erroneous Statement. 119 

it strikes at one of the innumerable errors and misrepre- 
sentations concerning the early German population of 
Pennsylvania which crowd the pages of some recent 
writers. These errors, I am persuaded, are more the re- 
sult of ignorance than of design, but they are errors never- 
theless, and should be killed at their birth. That is the 
only plan known to me to keep down the abundant crop of 
ignorance which springs up as often as writers draw on 
their imagination for their facts. It is rarely, however, 
that anything so gross as the blunder to which I shall refer 
appears in print, as genuine history. 

I was much surprised to find in a recently issued history 
of Pennsylvania, the following surprising statement : " The 
Germans perhaps were less given to the enjoyment of agri- 
culture than the Scotch-Irish and other settlers, yet in their 
own way they enjoyed existence, etc.*' 68 By no conceivable 
possibility is such a statement likely to be accepted by any 
one who has actual knowledge of the German immigration 
into this or any other country in America. It shows such 
a superficial acquaintance with the subject discussed as to 
carry its own condemnation with it. Yet, lest future 
writers of our history be lured into making similar state- 
ments, I shall take it upon myself to adduce such proof in 
contradiction of the statement quoted, as will, I believe, set 
the question at rest effectually and permanently. 

I think it will be conceded, as a general proposition, that 
men in all civilized countries follow those pursuits to which 
they are best adapted and most inclined, whether for profit 
or enjoyment. It is true that when Roman civilization 
first came into contact with the Germanic tribes, the latter 
were more given to war and the chase than to agriculture. 

68 ALBERT BOLLBS, Ph.D., U,.D., Pennsylvania, Province and State, Vol. 
II., p. 161. 

I2O The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

But even then they grew corn and lived largely upon the 
products of the field. In time they became agriculturists 
and for hundreds of years parts of Germany have been 
among the best cultivated portions of Europe, even as they 
are to-day. In the seventeenth century, the Palatinate 
and the Rhine provinces generally were the garden of 
Europe. They hold the same rank at this very hour. 
Other pursuits were followed, it is true, but outside the 
cities the prevailing pursuit was agriculture. The German 
immigration to Pennsylvania was very largely from the 
Palatinate, not only in its early stages, but subsequently. 

Lying before me are lists of those who reached London 
during the great German Exodus in 1709, on their way to 
America. One of these gives the pursuits of the 2,928 
adult males; of that entire number 1,838 were farmers, 
while the remaining 1,073 were classified under 24 other 
distinct mechanical and other professions. Another list 
containing 1,593 had 1,083 farmers and 510 men trained to 
26 other pursuits ; more than 67 per cent, of the entire 
number were farmers. 

I think it is entirely within bounds to say that 75 per 
cent, of the German colonists in Pennsylvania were agri- 
culturists. The first thing they did was to take up land, 
generally in the legally prescribed way, but sometimes 
irregularly. Nine-tenths of them went into the country, 
that is beyond the immediate bounds of Philadelphia, and 
most of them took to farming. In fact there was nothing 
else for them to get at for many years. Even most of 
those who had mechanical trades were compelled to take 
to farming because there was not much of a demand for 
bakers, glass-blowers, millers, engravers, and some other 
classes of handicraftsmen. 

Look at the counties settled principally by these people 

Germans Now Possess the Land. 121 

Lancaster, Berks, Lebanon, York, Lehigh and North- 
ampton. They comprise to-day the great agricultural re- 
gion of the Commonwealth, and the men who are doing 
the farming'on their fertile acres are the lineal descendants 
three, four or five generations removed from the first farmer 
immigrants. It was in every instance the agriculturists 
that pushed and were pushed to the outskirts of civilization. 
Did they go there for the profit and enjoyment they had in 
farming or for the fun of the thing, as we are asked to in- 
fer? What is more, they were the best and most success- 
ful farmers Pennsylvania had during the eighteenth century, 
just as they are the best and most successful farmers in 
United States to-day, and yet we are deliberately and the 
gravely informed they did not enjoy agriculture as much as 
the Scotch-Irish and other settlers ! What is the record? 
Where are all the Scotch-Irish farmers to-day? Why are 
they not on the ancestral acres as the Germans are? Cum- 
berland county was settled mainly by Scotch-Irish. In 
Northampton county there were many Irish and Scotch- 
Irish. Three-fourths of all the land in both these agri- 
cultural counties are to-day tilled -by Pennsylvania-Ger- 
mans. There are several townships in Lancaster county 
once largely occupied by Scotch-Irish of the best class. 
One can ride through them an entire day now without find- 
ing one farm tilled by an Ulster Irishman. Nine-tenths 
of the farmers in eastern Pennsylvania to-day are descend- 
ants of the men who, we are gravely informed, did not 
find the same enjoyment in agriculture as the Scotch-Irish, 
Welsh, English and others. If such an array of facts, 
susceptible of verification by any one who cares to make 
the test, is not deemed sufficient, I will produce further 
evidence from contemporary sources to fortify the position 
here taken. 

122 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

The most eminent medical man in Pennsylvania, if not 
in the United States during the last century, was Dr. Ben- 
jamin Rush. In the course of a very busy life he found 
time to write and publish a little volume dealing with the 
Germans of this State and especially with the German 
farmers. 69 I will be pardoned if I quote numerous passages 
from this book, written by one who had a thorough per- 
sonal knowledge of all he tells us. 

44 The principal part of them were farmers. * * * I 
shall begin this account of the German inhabitants of 
Pennsylvania by describing the manners of the German 
farmers. The Germans, taken as a body, especially as 
farmers, are not only industrious and frugal, but skillful 
cultivators of the earth. I shall enumerate a few partic- 
ulars in which they differ from most of the other farmers 
of Pennsylvania. In settling a tract of land, they always 
provide large and suitable accommodation for their horses 
and cattle, before they lay out much money in building a 
house for themselves. * * * The first dwelling house upon 
this farm is small and built of logs. It generally lasts the 
lifetime of the first settler of a tract of land ; and hence, 
they have a paying, that ' a son should always begin his 
improvements where his father left off,' that is by build- 
ing a large and convenient stone house. 

" They always prefer good land, or that land on which 
there is a large quantity of meadow land. From an atten- 
tion to the cultivation of grass, they often double the value 
of an old farm in a few years, and grow rich on farms, on 
which their predecessors of whom they purchased them 
had nearly starved. They prefer purchasing farms with 
improvements to settling on a new tract of land. 

69 BENJAMIN RUSH, M.D., An Account of the Manners of the German 
Inhabitants of Pennsylvania. Written in 1789. 


< o 

122 The German trnmiryi 

The most emmem medical ^^r, {<- J't-nr \s not 

in the United ->Mte* iKuing Hu* la*t century, *-< ? *; 
jamin Rush. Jn the tijurae oi a v,*ry busy lite He: f^v:ni 
time lo ftfitt Hw1 publish A little volume dealing HUI th^ 
.State and t*f*eci^lly with the Genan 
tarmty ! will be p-irdoned if 1 quote numerous passages 
r)ii> this book, written by one who had a thorough per- 
sortai knowledge of ai! he tells us.. 

The principal part ot them w-^re farmers. * * * I 

^nraan inhabitants of 

5 of the German 

. body, especially as 

only foulustrioaa and irug-il, but skillful 

cuitivatorg A thf ^arth I ^hail enumerate a few partic- 

ular.- in which they difJer from rn<>8t of the other farmers 

of Pennsylvania, T settling a tract of land* they a!--. 

provide 1-^rgt 1 and suitable accommodation for their horse* 

and cattle, l^f^r* 1 they .lay out much money in building a 

house for themselves- The tirst dwelling house upon 

this farm is small dti 1 buih of logs. It generally lasts the 

lifetime of the first .settler of a tract of land ; and hence, 

they have a paying, that * a son should always begin h"s 

improvements where his father left off,' that is by build- 

\Jif. ;* Urge and convenient *tone houne 

1 ''n.ry always prefe: g-xKi i^r>d, jr >.h: m?>^ on which 

i a large qiiantitv s 1 > : '-- yi ^n ^ttcn- 

j.*v> tt the cuUiVfUJo )' ^r^^ *>**\ . v,^*>* tije value 

J ,-. t\ >% * -- - 'Hi 

had ;t-Ariv star\tird, . fanns with 

improvem^nta to well, 

6> BKNjAJiN RtsH, M.D , /f '> ^j" M**ers of the German 

Inhabitants of Pen **-.-/< ?VHH ia W*v.i.r- .^ /^. 


< o 

Customs of Early Immigrants. 123 

" In clearing new land, they do not girdle or belt the trees 
simply, and leave them to perish in the ground, as is the 
custom of their English or Irish neighbors ; but they 
generally cut them down and burn them. In destroying 
underwood and bushes, they generally grub them out of 
the ground, by which means a field is as fit for cultivation 
the second year after it is cleared as it is in twenty years 
afterwards. The advantages of this mode of clearing, 
consists in the immediate product of the field, and in the 
greater facility with which it is ploughed, harrowed and 
reaped. The expense of repairing a plow, which is often 
broken, is greater than the extraordinary expense of grub- 
bing the same field completely, in clearing. 

"They feed their horses and cows well, of which they 
keep only a small number, in such a manner that the 
former perform twice the labor of those horses, and the 
latter yield twice the quantity of milk of those cows, that 
are less plentifully fed. There is great economy in this 
practice, especially in a country where so much of the 
labor of the farmer is necessary to support his domestic 
animals. A German horse is known in every part of the 
State ; indeed, the horse seems * to feel with his lord, the 
pleasure and the pride ' of his extraordinary size or fat. 

" The fences of a German farm are generally high and 
well built, so that his fields seldom suffer from the inroads 
of his own or his neighbors' horses, cattle, hogs or sheep. 

"The German farmers are great economists in their wood. 
Hence they burn it only in stoves, in which they consume 
but a fourth or fifth of what is commonly burnt in ordinary 
open fireplaces ; besides their horses are saved by means 
of this economy, from that immense labor of hauling 
wood in the middle of winter, which frequently unfits the 
horses of their (Scotch) neighbors for the toils of the en- 

124 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

suing spring. Their houses are, moreover, rendered so 
comfortable, at all times, by large close stoves, that twice 
the business is done by every branch of the family, in 
knitting, spinning and mending of farming utensils, that 
is done in houses where every member in the family crowds 
near a common fireplace, or shivers at a distance from it, 
with hands and fingers that move, by reason of the cold, 
with only half their usual quickness. They discover 
economy in the preservation and increase of their wood, 
in several other ways. They sometimes defend it, by high 
fences, from their cattle ; by which means the young forest 
trees are*suffered to grow, to replace 
those that are cut down for the neces- 
sary use of the farm. 

" They keep their horses and cattle 
as warm as possible, in winter, by 
which means they save a great deal 
of their hay and grain, for these ani- 
mals when cold, eat much more than 
when in a more comfortable situa- 

"The German farmers live frug- 
ally in their families, with respect to 
diet, furniture, and apparel. They 
sell their most profitable grain, which 
is wheat, and eat that which is less 
profitable, that is rye, or Indian corn. 
The profit to a farmer, from this sin- 
gle article of economy, is equal, in 
the course of a life-time, to the price 
of a farm for one of his children. 
"The German farmers have large or profitable gardens 
near their houses. These contain little else but useful 


Industry of German House-wives. 125 

vegetables. Pennsylvania is indebted to the Germans for 
the principal part of her knowledge in horticulture. There 
was a time when turnips and cabbage were the principal 
vegetables that were used in diet by the citizens of Phila- 
delphia. This will not surprise those persons who know that 
the first settlers in Pennsylvania left England while horticul- 
ture was in its infancy in that country. Since the settle- 
ment of a number of German gardens in the neighborhood 
of Philadelphia, the tables of all classes of citizens have 
been covered with a variety of vegetables in every season 
of the year, 'and to the use of these vegetables in diet may 
be ascribed the general exemption of the citizens of Phila- 
delphia from diseases of the skin. 

"The Germans seldom hire men to work upon their 
farms. The feebleness of that authority which masters 
possess over their hired servants is such that their wages 
are seldom procured from their labor, except in harvest 
when they work in the presence of their masters. 70 The 
wives and daughters of the German farmers frequently for- 
sake for a while their dairy and spinning wheel, and join 
their husbands and brothers in the labor of cutting down, 
collecting and bringing home the fruits of the fields and 
orchards. The work of the gardens is generally done by 
the women of the family. 

" A large strong wagon, the ship of inland commerce, 
covered with linen cloth, is an essential part of the fur- 
niture of a German farm. In this wagon, drawn by four 

70 1 avail myself at this place of the liberty to state that one of the 
main reasons why the Scotch-Irish were not so successful as farmers as the 
Germans, was because their lands were mainly cultivated by negroes as in- 
dentured servants. They did not care for farm work, and the consequence was 
the farms did not care for them, and in the end they sold their improved lands 
to the Germans who under a better system had been successful in accumulat- 
ing the money to pay for them. They then went into politics and trade, 
where they succeeded better. 

126 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

or five horses of a peculiar breed they convey to market, 
over the roughest roads from 2,000 to 3,000 pounds weight 
of the produce of their farms. In the months of September 
and October, it is no uncommon thing, on the Lancaster 
and Reading roads, to meet in one day fifty or one hun- 
dred of these wagons, on their way to Philadelphia, most 
of which belong to German farmers. 71 

"The favorable influence of agriculture, as conducted by 
the Germans, in extending human happiness, is manifested 
by the joy they express upon the birth of a child. No 
dread of poverty, nor distrust of Providence, from an in- 
creasing family, depresses the spirit of these industrious 
and frugal people. Upon the birth of a son, they exult in 
the gift of a plowman or a waggoner ; and upon the birth 
of a daughter, they rejoice in the addition of another spin- 
ster or milk -maid to the family. 

" The Germans set a great value upon patrimonial prop- 
erty. This useful principle in human nature prevents 
much folly and vice in young people. It moreover leads 
to lasting and extensive advantages, in the improvement 
of a farm ; for what inducements can be stronger in a 
parent to plant an orchard, to preserve forest trees or to 
build a commodious house than the idea that they will all 
be possessed by a succession of generations who shall in- 
herit his blood and name. 

"From the history that has been given of the German 
agriculture, it will hardly be necessary to add that a 
German farm may be distinguished from the farms of the 

71 These were the famous Conestoga wagons and the equally famous Con- 
estoga horses, whose fame is as enduring as that of the Commonwealth itself. 

" Die entfernsten, besonders deutschen I^andleute, kommen mit grossen, 
mit mancherlei Proviant beladenen bedeckten Wagen auf denen sie zugleich 
ihren eigenen Mundvorrath und Futter fur ihre Pferde mitbringen, und darauf 
iibernachten." SCHOEPF'S Reise durch Pennsylvanien, 1783, p. 165. 

Other Evidence Introduced. 127 

other citizens of the State, by the superior size of their barns, 
the plain but compact form of their houses, the height of 
their inclosures, the extent of their orchards, the fertility 
of their fields, the luxuriance of their meadows, and a 
general appearance of plenty and neatness in everything 
that belongs to them." 

I think the eminent professor of the University of Penn- 
sylvania, of 1789, writing with a thorough knowledge of 
the German agriculture of his time, may be fairly set 
against the professor in the same great school, writing in 
the year i^oo, whose statement concerning them is so at 
variance with the facts, so incorrect and misleading, that 
the inference is irresistible that he wrote without a due 
examination of the question. 

But we need not rely on Dr. Rush alone for evidence 
that the Germans were the best farmers in the State, that 
they were given to enjoyment in agricultural pursuits 
and that their descendants are to this day keeping up the 
reputation of their ancestors on the ancestral acres. The 
evidence is so manifold and so conclusive that I almost feel 
like making an apology for introducing it. 

Watson, the annalist, says the best lands in Lancaster 
county, and deemed, in general, the finest farms in the 
State, are those possessed by the German families." 72 

Another writer says this : 

44 The Germans wisely chose some of the best land in 
the State, where they soon made themselves comfortable, 
and next grew quietly rich. * * * The German popula- 
tion of Pennsylvania, naturally increasing, and augmented 
by continual accessions from the Fatherland, has since 
spread over a large portion of the State, still inheriting the 

72 WATSON'S Annals of Philadelphia, Vol. II., p. 148. 

128 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

economy and prudent foresight of their ancestors, and gen- 
erally establishing themselves on the most fertile soils." 73 

Bancroft, in speaking of the German immigrants to this 
country, says: "The Germans, especially of the borders 
of the Rhine, thronged to America in such numbers, that 
in course of a century, preserving their line of rural life,) 
they appropriated much of the very best land from the 
Mohawk to the valley of Virginia." 74 


Rupp bears this testimony : " The Germans were prin- 
cipally farmers. They depended more upon themselves 
than upon others. They wielded the mattock, the axe and 
the maul, and by the power of brawny arms, rooted up 
the grubs, removed the saplings, felled the majestic oaks, 

73 CHARLES B. TREGO, A Geography of Pennsylvania, p. 89. 

74 BANCROFT'S United States, Vol. X., pp. 83-84. 

Superiority of German Farmers. 129 

laid low the towering hickory ; prostrated, where they 
grew, the walnut, poplar, chestnut cleaved such as suited 
for the purpose, into rails for fences persevered untiringly 
until the forest was changed into arable fields." 75 

"The Germans," says Proud, "seem more adapted to 
agriculture and improvements of a wilderness ; and the 
Irish for trade. The Germans soon get estates in this 
country, where industry and economy are the chief requi- 
sites to procure them." 76 

In the fall of 1856, the Philadelphia Ledger , in reply to 
some stupid strictures in a New York journal, said : "No 
one familiar with the German farmers of Pennsylvania, 
need be told that this (the article referred to) is a stupid 
and ignorant libel. Its author has either never travelled 
through our State, or has maliciously misrepresented what 
he saw. So far from our German farmers being on a level 
with the serfs of a hundred and fifty years ago, they are 
vastly in advance of contemporary German or French 
farmers, or even of English farmers of similar means. 
On this point we need go no further for authority than to 
Mr. Munch, who though hostile in politics to our German 
farmers in general, was forced, during his tour through 
Pennsylvania, to admit their sterling worth. Mr. Munch 
is an experienced and practical agriculturist, so that his 
judgment on such a question is worth that of a score of 
visionary, ill-informed, prejudiced, disappointed dema- 
gogues. After eulogizing the picturesque natural features 
of the landscape of our German counties, praising the ex- 
cellent taste which has preserved the woods on the hill- 
sides, and extolling the appearance of the farms, this gen- 
tleman adds significantly that he found the population of 

75 RUPP'S Thirty Thousand Names, p. n. 

76 PROUD'S History of Pennsylvania, Vol. II., p. 274. 

130 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

* a genial, solid and respectable stamp, enviably circum- 
stanced in comparison with the European farmer, and very 
far his superior in intelligence and morals.' * * * In many 
particulars, the German farmers surpass even the people 
of New England, who, of late, have put in a claim, it 
would seem to be the ne -plus ultra in all things. The 
German farmers understand, or if they do not understand, 
they observe the laws of health, better than even the rural 
population of Massachusetts ; and the result is that they 
are really the finest race of men, physically, to be found 
within the borders of the United States. * * * To be 
plain, if some of our' crochetty, one-ideaed, dyspeptic, 
thin, cadaverous, New England brethren would emigrate 
to our German counties ; follow, for a generation or two, 
the open-air life of our German farmers ; and last of all 
marry into our vigorous, anti-hypochondriacal German 
families, they would soon cease to die by such scores of 
consumption, to complain that there were no longer any 
healthy women left, and to amuse sensible people with 
such silly vagaries of Pantheism, or a thousand and one 
intellectual vagaries which are born of their abnormal 
physical condition." 77 

Still another quotation will be allowed me: "Latterly 
much has been heard of an ' endless chain,' used in a finan- 
cial sense. There is an endless chain of another kind in 
existence among the substantial Germans in the German 
counties of this State. While many of New England's 
sons have sold or abandoned their ancient acres and 
sought new homes in other States, the lands of these first 
Palatine emigrants still remain in the possession of their 
descendants, held by ancient indentures, supplemented by 

77 Quoted by RUPP in his RUSH'S Manners and Customs of the Pennsyl- 
vania Germans. 

The Best Farmers in America. 131 

an endless chain of fresh titles from father to son, reach- 
ing backward to the original patents from Penn." 78 
One of our most eminent historians remarks : 
"A still larger number of these German exiles found 
refuge in Pennsylvania, to which colony also many were 
carried as indentured servants. * * * It was this immigra- 
tion which first introduced into America compact bodies of 
German settlers, and along with them the dogmas and 
worship of the German Lutheran and German Reformed 
churches. Constantly supplied with new recruits, and oc- 
cupying contiguous tracts of territory, the immigrants 
preserved and have transmitted to our day, especially in 
Pennsylvania, the German language and German manners. 
Their industry was remarkable ; they took care to settle 
on fertile lands, and they soon became distinguished as 
the best farmers in America." 79 

A traveller who passed through the Shenandoah Valley 
during the French and Indian War writes as follows : " The 
low grounds upon the banks of the Shenandoah River are 
very rich and fertile. They are chiefly settled by Ger- 
mans (and Pennsylvania-Germans at that, who went there 
prior to 1748), who gain a sufficient livelihood by raising 
stock for the troops, and sending butter down into the 
lower parts of the country. I could not but reflect with 
pleasure on the situation of these people, and I think, if 
there is such a thing as happiness in this life, they enjoy 
it. Far from the bustle of the world, they live in the most 
delightful climate and richest soil imaginable. They are 

7 'F. R. DIFFENDERFFER, The Palatine and Quaker as Commonwealth 
Builders, pp. 29-30. 

The writer has himself, in the fifth generation ploughed and planted, hoed 
and harvested upon the original tract patented to his great-great-grandsire, by 
the Penn heirs, in 1734. 

7 HILDRBTH'S History of the United States, First Series, Vol. II., p. 264. 

132 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

everywhere surrounded with beautiful prospects and sylvan 
scenes ; lofty mountains and transparent streams, falls of 
water, rich valleys and majestic woods, the whole inter- 
spersed with an infinite variety of flowering shrubs consti- 
tute the landscapes surrounding them. They are subject 
to few diseases, are generally robust and live in perfect 
liberty. They know no wants, and are acquainted with 
but few vices. Their inexperience of the elegancies of life 
precludes any regret that they have not the means of enjoy- 
ing them ; but they possess what many princes would give 


half their dominions for health, contentment, and tran- 
quility of mind." 80 

Dr. Oswald Seidensticker, while living, an honored 
professor in the University of Pennsylvania, and who has, 
perhaps, given the German immigration into Pennsylvania 
as much careful and intelligent study as any one else, has 
this to say of them as farmers: " Often as the Germans 

HOWE'S Historical Collections of Virginia, p. 468. 

Their Industry and Piety. 133 

have been spoken of contemptuously in certain matters, 
that was not valid when urged against them as farmers. 
The very sight of their farms is sufficient to tell that they 
are well and carefully managed, providing blessed and 
happy homes. Their knowledge of properly preparing 
the soil, of growing fine cattle, and of erecting proper 
buildings, and their manner of life led the eminent Dr. 
Rush to study their character and habits and in his book 
to encourage others to imitate their example." 81 

Still another and a recent author writes thus: "In all 
they did, the*y were moved thereto by one great, irresistible 
desire, and that was the love of home. * * * Now that 
they had found this " home," they were content to abide 
on it and to make of it a very garden spot and horn of 
plenty for the Province. * * * Because the Germans were 
truly in earnest did they persevere until they have spread 
abroad over the entire land, supplementing their less stable 
brethren of other nationalities. Before even the break of 
day, during the heat of the noontide sun they toiled on, 
and until its rays had disappeared beneath the western 
horizon, when darkness made work impossible, and then 
they sought their needed rest in slumber, but not before 
each little family had gathered about its altar to sing their 
hymns of praise and invoke the same Divine blessing upon 
their future undertaking which had been showered upon 
their past. 

" Other settlers have likewise toiled and struggled, but 
it may well be asked what other settlers can show an equal 
result to these Palatine immigrants within the same length 
of time. Hardly had a decade of time elapsed, when r 
on all sides, were to be seen flourishing farms, with fields 

11 OSWALD SEIDENSTICKER, Bilder aus der Deutsch-pennsylvanischen 
Geschichte, Vol. II., p. 255. 

134 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

of waving grain, orchards laden with fruit, and pastures 
filled with well-conditioned domestic animals. The tem- 
porary log house has given place to a two-story stone 
structure, a most durable, commodious and comfortable 
home ; in place of the shedding, hurriedly erected, now 
stands the great red barn, upon its stone base, and with its 
overhanging frame superstructure bursting with plenty ; 
and everywhere are scattered the many little adjuncts of 
prosperity and comfort. How well the fathers then built 
is evidenced by the existence of scores of these buildings, 
still homelike and inviting as of old." 82 

A recent writer, in discussing some changes that have 
taken place, how German virility and race-tenacity have 
resulted in the elimination of some peoples and the sub- 
stitution of themselves, humorously but truly remarks : 
"Perm attempted to engraft on his English stock other 
scions, trusting to the virility of his masterful race to pre- 
serve the English type, but the strong German sap has 
outworn them all in Lancaster county. The descendants 
of the early English who own acres of land, here to-day 
are becoming rare. The children of the Scotch-Irish by 
a kind of natural selection have quit farming and taken to 
politics and business, and their ancient acres are covered 
with the big red barns that betoken another kindred. The 
Welshman has been lost in the shuffle, and the Quaker is 
marrying the Dutch girl in self defense. So reads the 
record at the close of the nineteenth century. It has 
taken almost two hundred years to get there. But * by 
their fruits ye shall know them.' " M 

" REV. M. H. RICHARDS, D.D., Proceedings and Addresses of the Penn- 
sylvania-German Society, Vol. IX., pp. 413-414. 

* 3 I5. K. MARTIN, Esq., Proceedings and Addresses of the Pennsylvania- 
German Society \ Vol. VIII. , p. 13. 


Other Nationalities have Disappeared. 

Although ; j videno i intly disproves 

the absurd > e German colonists found 

enjoyment in at \n other nationalities, the -panel 

of witnesses s exhausted and the testimony 

could b ne. Most of it is from con- 

tern deals with the question as it 

one hundred and fifty years ago. 
>ng-gone time and look at the situa- 

y hour. 

Accompany me for a brief interval 

to L , as typical a Pennsylvania region to- 

* one hundred and fifty years ago. Its earliest 

rmans and Swiss Huguenots. They were 

They bought lands, settled on them, farmed 

id their descendants in the fourth and fifth genera- 

are engaged in the same enjoyable pursuit to-day. 

also came into the county: Quakers, Scotch- 

. but to-day nineteen twentieths of the more 

;)s in the county are owned and cultivated 

f the early German settlers. The town- 

shit . 

tion- .0*4 txcliuHvely 

by t! i^rni in 

ry *r. v/nll known, runs more to 

grants brought their old- 

there are to-day many subs tan - 

ng hoM sad barns standing: all over the earliest 

of the State, whose well-laid walls have bid defiance to the 

tvty and a half, and even more, and are to-day in such a state of 

ic pucit<; another century or two of life. So far as is known 

ih* structure shown on the opposite page is the oldest house 

Lancaster county. The legend 17 C. H.-H. R. 19, 

latone forming part of the wall, tells the story of its building 

: ), by the K .m Herr, a ministei of the Men 

i he country from the Palatinate, in 1709. The house 
ancaster Ci. 

Other Nationalities have Disappeared. 135 

Although the foregoing evidence abundantly disproves 
the absurd statement that the German colonists found less 
enjoyment in agriculture than other nationalities, the panel 
of witnesses is by no means exhausted and the testimony 
could be expanded into a volume. Most of it is from con- 
temporaneous sources and deals with the question as it 
stood one hundred or one hundred and fifty years ago. 
Let us turn from that long-gone time and look at the situa- 
tion as we find it at this very hour. 

I invite the reader to accompany me for a brief interval 
to Lancaster county, as typical a Pennsylvania region to- 
day as it was one hundred and fifty years ago. Its earliest 
settlers were Germans and Swiss Huguenots. They were 
agriculturists. They bought lands, settled on them, farmed 
them, and their descendants in the fourth and fifth genera- 
tions are engaged in the same enjoyable pursuit to-day. 
Other men also came into the county : Quakers, Scotch- 
Irish and Welsh, but to-day nineteen twentieths of the more 
than 10,000 farms in the county are owned and cultivated 
by the descendants of the early German settlers. The town- 
ships of East and West Donegal, Conoy, Mt. Joy and por- 
tions of West Hempfield were settled almost exclusively 
by the Scotch-Irish. To-day there is not a single farm in 

84 The country architecture of Germany as is well known, runs more to 
durability than ornamentation. The German immigrants brought their old- 
world building ideas with them. The result is there are to-day many substan- 
tial stone structures, dwelling houses and barns standing all over the earliest 
settled portions of the State, whose well-laid walls have bid defiance to the 
storms of a century and a half, and even more, and are to-day in such a state of 
preservation as to promise another century or two of life. So far as is known 
with certainty, the structure shown on the opposite page is the oldest house 
still standing, erected in I,ancaster county. The legend 17 C. H.-H. R. 19, 
carved on a sandstone forming part of the wall, tells the story of its building 
It was erected in 1719, by the Rev. Christian Herr, a ministei of the Mennonite 
church, who came into the country from the Palatinate, in 1709. The house 
stands several miles south of Lancaster city. 

136 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

any of those districts owned and farmed by a Scotch-Irish- 
man ! In this instance at least, it was " the other fellow " 
and not the German farmer that did not find enjoyment in 
his vocation. In the townships of Fulton and Little Brit- 
ain the settlers were almost exclusively Scotch-Irish ; these 
have maintained themselves more stubbornly on the an- 
cestral acres, but in recent years an invasion of German 
farmers has been steadily encroaching on their ancient do- 
main, and the fate that has befallen the Donegals seems 
to be awaiting them also. 

Let the man or men, if there be more than one who 
does not believe the German pioneers had pleasure, en- 
joyment and content on their broad acres, go into that 
same county of Lancaster and look the landscape over. 
He will find a territory of unsurpassed fertility another 
evidence of the sound agricultural judgment of these peo- 
ple yielding as abundantly to-day 
as when it was virgin, two centuries 
ago. It has enriched every gen- 
eration of those who have owned it. 
There have, of course, been some 
failures, but the record on the whole, 
stands unchallenged. Pride of own- 
ership went hand in hand with agri- 
cultural skill. The land was treated 
even as their cattle were, carefully 
and plentifully. The result is there 
are no deserted farms and ruined farmhouses, as may be 
seen all over New England. Even at the present depre- 
ciated prices for real estate, the farms still sell at $200 and 
more per acre. Look at the great barns in which their 
crops are stored and their cattle housed ! Large as they 
are they are generally inadequate to contain the farm prod- 



The Homes of Comfort and Luxury. 137 

ucts, and a dozen grain and hay ricks are built elsewhere 
on the farm until the grain can be threshed. Nor is the 
barn the only building besides the dwelling house, on the 
farm ; sheds, stables, and other outhouses are scattered 
around until the farmer's home resembles a hamlet in 
itself. All the modern farm machinery, and that too of 
the best possible type, is there ; cunning devices of many 
kinds that rob labor of half its terrors. 

The farmer's house is generally a model of a farmhouse. 
There are some that have all the best modern accessories 
steam heat, gas, electric bells, cemented cellars, and simi- 
lar improvements. Within, there is not only comfort but 
luxury fine furniture, pictures, costly carpets, imported 
crockery, generally an organ and often a piano. There 
are books, magazines and newspapers, and much else. 
The son, and often the sons, have their individual teams, 
and they use them too. No farmer's outfit in these days is 
complete without a fine vehicle or two. It may safely be 
said that there is no spot encompassed by the four seas 
that hem in this North American continent, nay, none be- 
neath the blue canopy that overspreads the entire earth, 
where the agriculturist is better educated, more intelligent 
in his calling, better fed and clothed and enjoys so many 
of the luxuries of life as the Lancaster county families in 
the year of grace, 1900. Go and look at him where he 
is ; sit at his table and see the fullness thereof, and you will 
then be able to give a fitting answer to the calumny, born 
of ignorance, that says the German colonists in Pennsyl- 
vania did not, and inferentially do not, find that enjoy- 
ment in agricultural pursuits as the races whose farms 
they have bought and now own and cultivate. 

One paragraph more will be pardoned : the theme is an 
attractive one and I leave it with reluctance. To under- 

138 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

stand fully what these Germans have done for themselves 
and for the county of Lancaster a few figures may be in- 
troduced. Being official, and on record they will be ac- 
cepted. Lancaster county is not one of the large counties 
of the State or Nation, but it is the richest so far as its agri- 
cultural wealth and products are concerned of all the three 
thousand or more within all the States and Territories. For 
a quarter of a century it has stood at the head of them all 
in the money value of its agricultural products. The cen- 
sus of 1890 gives them at $7,657,790. Her nearest com- 
petitor does not come within a million and a half dollars of 
equalling it. The assessors' lists for 1899 g* ve tne value 
of her real estate, at the usual low estimate, at $86,796,064 
and of her horses and cattle at $1,958,802. Her citizens 
report $20,802,634 at interest: the real amount is three 
times that sum. To give even a more condensed idea of 
what these farmers, who took such little enjoyment in their 
chosen pursuit, have done to make their county rich, it 
may be stated that there are at the present moment on this 
little area of 973 square miles, 26 National Banks, with an 
aggregate capital of $3,750,000, and deposits aggregating 
$7,000,000 ; also 3 Trust companies, with large assets, and 
7 Building and Loan Associations, controlling large sums 
of money. 

It is aggravating that it should be necessary at this late 
day to be compelled to enter into a discussion of this sub- 
ject. But we cannot forget that all the opprobrium and 
misrepresentation that has been cast upon the Germans of 
Pennsylvania has long been borne without a protest. The 
chief offenders during the present century are men who 
have had no intimate acquaintance with the characteristics 
of the men whom they falsely deride and abuse. New 
England has contributed even more than her quota to the 

Germans the Earliest Abolitionists. 139 

number of these defamers. Their scurrilous falsehoods 
have so long gone unchallenged that some have accepted 
them as truths and reiterated them with all their original 
fervency. The day for that has gone. The faults and 
shortcomings of the German pioneers and their descendants 
were many and obvious. I do not seek to extenuate 
them in the slightest degree, but I do assert and the 
authorities to prove it are legion that with all their short- 
comings, they were the peers of any race of men that set 
its feet upon the Western Hemisphere, and that in every 
qualification that goes to the making of the highest class of 
citizenship, they stand at the very forefront to-day. 

They brought with them none of the vindictive bigotry 
that burnt witches and swung Quakers from the scaffold. 
They at once made their own the doctrines of the broad- 
minded Penn, that religious and political tolerance were 
among the natural and inalienable rights of men. The 
subjects of kings and princes in Europe, they left king- 
craft behind them and proclaimed the evangel of free- 
dom in their new home. Let it not be forgotten through 
all the years, that these people, whom a few historians and a 
host of inconsequent minor scribblers have denounced and 
derided as indifferent boors, were nevertheless the first 
men on the continent of America to denounce the wrong of 
human slavery and petition for its abolition ; yea, a cen- 
tury before the sensitive soul of New England even took 
thought of the subject, while it was still selling Indians 
and Quakers into West Indian slavery and only forty years 
after the great celebrity of Massachusetts, Governor Win- 
throp, disposed of slaves in his will. 

The age of the defamer has not gone by, and most prob- 
ably never will. Like the liar and the thief he will main- 
tain his footing among men even unto the end. The men 

140 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

who have assailed the good name of the German immi- 
grants to Pennsylvania are, however, in a fair way to die 
out. The truth confronts their falsehoods at every stage 
and the latter are borne down in the contest. Even now 
their numbers are growing fewer and their idle gossip no 
longer receives credence as history. The Commonwealth 
of Pennsylvania, the greatest and grandest of all the mem- 
bers in the Brotherhood of States, confronts them and con- 
futes their idle tattle, born of misapprehension and igno- 
rance, and here I may safely leave them. 






" Haz gala, Sancho, de la humilidad de tu linage, y no te desprecies de decir 
que vienes de labradores ; por que viendo que no te corres, ninguno se pondrd 

" Und wenn wir dankbar auch ermessen, 

Was uns das neue Heim beschied, 
So konnen wir doch nie Vergessen 
Der alten Heimath, Wort und I<ied." 


'HE history of the Germanic im- 
migration to the Province of 
Pennsylvania naturally divides itself 
into two well-defined parts or chap- 
ters. Of one of these, dealing with 
the arrival and dispersion of these 
people, I have endeavored to write 
with that fullness and exactitude 
which the importance of the sub- 
ject deserves, in the earlier part of 
this work. The other, which re- 
mains to be taken up, will deal 
with that portion of these people 
whose means were scant even at 
the outset of their journey, and wholly inadequate to 


144 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

bear the strain of a long and tedious sea voyage. Who 
arrived virtually penniless and dependent; who had not 
been able to pay for their passage across the ocean, 
and who, upon their arrival, were compelled to barter or 
sell their personal services for a stated period of time, at a 
stipulated price, and under prescribed legal regulations, to 
such of their fellowmen as stood in need of their labor, 
and who were willing to discharge the debts they had been 
compelled to incur through their desire to reach this prom- 
ised land, this modern Eden, a new Canaan in a new 

The inflowing tide of German immigrants to the Prov- 
ince of Pennsylvania, through the port of Philadelphia, 
is not secondary in importance to the coming of William 
Penn himself and the establishment of his Government on 
the banks of the Delaware. Considered in its historic 
bearings, it is not only one of the most noteworthy events 
associated with the colonization of America, but is besides 
invested with a more special interest, all its own, of which 
I shall attempt to give the more important details. 

The first Germans to come to America, as colonists in 
Pennsylvania, were, as a rule, well to do. Nearly all of 
them in the beginning of that mighty exodus had sufficient 
means to pay all the charges incurred in going down the 
Rhine to the sea, and enough besides to meet the expenses 
for carrying them across the ocean, and yet have some left 
when they arrived to pay for part or all of the lands they 
took up. 85 The large tracts taken up by the colony at Ger- 
mantown and at Conestoga are all-sufficient evidences of 
this. And this continued to be the rule until about I7I7, 86 

85 FRANZ IxiHER, Geschichte und Zustandcn der Deutschen in America, 
p. 80. 

86 AlsoRupp. 

Pennsylvania the Land of Promise. 145 

and perhaps later, when the great exodus from the Palati- 
nate set in. Then the real race to reach the New World 
began. The poorer classes had not been unobservant of 
what was going on. If America was a place where the 
rich could become richer still, surely it must be a place 
where the poor also might better themselves. At all events, 
nothing could be lost by going, because they had the 
merest pittance to begin with. Besides, all the accounts 
were favorable. Those already in Pennsylvania sent back 
glowing descriptions of the ease with which land could be 
acquired, the productiveness of the soil, the abundance of 
food, the freedom from taxation and the equality of all men 
before the law to their natural rights and their religious 

Such arguments were irresistible to men whose fathers 
and themselves had felt all the pangs that poverty, perse- 
cution and wrong can bring upon the citizen. The desire 
to flee from the land of oppression to the land of promise 
became paramount, and to attain their wish, no hardship 
was too great, no sacrifice too costly. Unable to raise the 
sum necessary to bring them here, they sold their few 
meager belongings, and with the proceeds were enabled to 
reach a seaport. Once there, they found plenty of men 
ready to send them across the Atlantic. The terms were 
hard. They knew they would be, but long before they 
reached the western Patmos, the "Insel Pennsylvanien " 
as it was frequently written in those days, they often rea- 
lized what kind of a trap it was into which they had fallen. 
What they suffered on the voyage, how they were mal- 
treated, and how many of them died, forms perhaps the 
most pathetic picture in the history of American coloniza- 
tion, not excepting that drawn by Las Casas three hundred 
and fifty years ago, nor the later one limned in Longfel- 
low's Evangeline. 

146 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

The evidence concerning the manner in which this im- 
migration was aroused, fostered and carried on, is cumu- 
lative rather than diverse, and there is a close resemblance 
in the many narratives I have examined. It is true, the 
same series of facts presented themselves to every investi- 
gator and the result is a somewhat tedious sameness in the 
various accounts. Once the facts were put on record they 
became public property and the latest writer simply fol- 
lowed those who had preceded him. So graphic, how- 
ever, are some of these accounts that I have deemed it a 
matter of interest to give several of them, those of Mittel- 
berger, Pastor Muhlenberg and Christoph Saur at some 
length. Their testimony, coming from both sides of the 
ocean, and from men personally familiar with all the cir- 
cumstances they describe, has never been challenged and 
has accordingly become part and parcel of the history of 
German immigration into America. 

The persons without means, who availed themselves of 
the facilities offered them by shipmasters to come to this 
country, were called " Redemptioners " by their contem- 
poraries, and down even to our own times. It deserves to 
be stated, however, that this term does not appear in the 
indentures entered into between themselves and those by 
whom their obligations were discharged and to whom they 
sold their personal services for a term of years. Neither 
is the term to be found in any of the legislative acts of the 
period. Such persons, whatever their nationality many 
came from British lands were called indentured or bond 
servants, and those terms were invariably applied to them. 
As such they were known in all the Acts of the Assembly 
of the Province of Pennsylvania and those of the three 
lower counties, New Castle, Kent and Sussex. It was the 
common term prevailing in the mother country and natur- 







* sHAumc nuo. 

5 POWDER wr rvrr 50* 

ft fISC I. HMD STAftC 

146 The German /*?>/;/* ; --< ;,>- 

The evidence concerning *h ?r*auner in which 
migration was aroused, fostered and carried on, t,s <. 
lative rather than diverse, and there is a close resei 
in the many narrative'? f have examined. It is tr 
same **err^ ot facts presented themselves to 'even 
gator and th<> result it a somewhat tedious sameness ii. 
*>unts. Once the tacts were put on record 
property- and the latest writer simph 
?we? fte>e **-., h*i.'i pivv oded hirr; So graphic, how- 
*msat' * tH?*.*e accoonta that I have deemed it a 

m, those of Mittel- 

iuhlcnbftrg ami Christoph Saur at some 
"ht'ir .u-iiiMitony. corning from both sides of the 
ace-fen, diid fxa te pcr^^nally familiar with all the cir- 
cumUirice they dencribe, b5 m*v^i ^^ n rhii?U:i?jed and 
has accordingly become pttrt iiwi jn^ oi '.h InMnry of 
German im ; :n*. . 

The p^rjwin^ 
the facility 
country weit: ^:ii> < 
poraries, and *i 

btf stated, bo%\*-ve/ t ifcwv thtt ^ 1 -. 
indentures entered nti ^j v< < , 
whom their obligtktioas :?> A< 
told their personal sen 
\9 the term to be found ;> ^rv 
period. Su%:h per?- 

came froir Br"^ : . .j.yuis- *<?m^ d 

servants, and tho^c ter*## wu*^ them. 

As such they were kr v- ts ^! th Assembly 

of the Province of the three 

lower counties, Nev* v nt and Sut-t-x. It was the 

common term prev ; ihe mother > ^ *.ry and natur- 













Various Classes of Immigrants. 147 

ally followed them to this. It is found in Penn's Condi- 
tions and Concessions issued while he was still in England, 
in 1 68 1, and was reiterated many times subsequently. 

But while we must distinguish between the men who 
had money to transport themselves and their families to 
Pennsylvania, and those who came under conditions to 
sell their services until their obligations were repaid, we 
must not lose sight of a broad distinction between some of 
these indentured immigrants. They may very appro- 
priately be divided into two classes. The first was com- 
posed of persons who were honest men and good citizens ; 
men who came here of their own volition, who had under- 
gone many trials at home, some because of their religion and 
most of them because of the hard conditions of life they were 
compelled to face from youth to old age. Political changes 
were of frequent occurrence and each one was generally 
accompanied by fresh exactions on the part of the new 
ruler. After the demands of the tax gatherer had been 
met, about the only things that were left were visions of 
fresh exactions and possible starvation. Such people were 
excusable for contracting terms of temporary servitude in 
a distant land to encountering an unending repetition of 
their former intolerable state. Their action was at least 

But the other class was a widely different one. They 
did not come to America because of any special desire on 
their part to do so. On the contrary they would doubtless 
have preferred to remain in the land of their birth had they 
had a voice or a choice in the matter. They were crim- 
inals and felons, the scum of the population, which the 
mother country dumped upon her new Province in order 
to rid herself of the most objectionable portion of her crim- 
inal classes. The very jails were emptied of their in- 

148 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

mates and the latter sent to her colonies, North and South. 
This action was naturally resented by the honest and in- 
dustrious colonists of Pennsylvania, and as early as 1722 
the Provincial Assembly attempted to prevent the coming 
of these people by imposing a tax upon every criminal 
landed in the Province, and in addition made the ship- 
owner responsible for the future good conduct of his pas- 
sengers. But nothing could keep them out and the early 
criminal record of Pennsylvania is no doubt largely made 
up from this class of her population. It is probably owing 
to the dual classes of these indentured servants or redemp- 
tioners, that much of the obloquy, which some persons, 
ignorant of the circumstances, have visited upon this class 
of our colonists, is owing. Ignorance has been the prolific 
mother of many of the silly and untruthful accusations 
that have from time to time been trumped up against the 
German colonists of Pennsylvania. 

They differed wholly from the Germans who came to 
better their condition and frequently against the protests 

of the potentates under whose 
rule they were living. They 
were, indeed, the very flower 
of the German peasantry, and 
Europe boasted of no better 
citizens. They were men of 
robust frame, hardy consti- 
tution, inured to toil and 
accustomed to earn their liv- 
ing with their hands Men 

A PIONEBR'S CABIN. Wh ** ^ SO11 f ^ NCW 

World as if it was their right- 
ful inheritance, and able to help themselves. They fought 
the battle of civilization in the depths and solitudes of the 

The Victims of Sharpers Continually. 149 

wilderness. There they established the equality of man 
in place of hereditary privileges. They were born com. 
monwealth-builders, and their handiwork in Pennsylvania 
is one of the marvels of modern colonization. 

Under conditions of discouragement, deceit and con- 
tumely, of wrong and robbery that almost exceed the limits 
of human belief, these poor people continued to come over 
to the land of promise. The story of their treatment on 
shipboard equals all the horrors of the " middle passage" 
during the African slave traffic, while here, land sharks in 
the shape of the commission merchant and money broker, 
stood ready upon their arrival to complete the work of 
spoliation and plunder. It was little that many of these 
forlorn sons of toil had. In their wooden chests heir- 
looms that were sometimes generations old were gathered, 
and the few remaining household treasures they had been 
able to save out of the wreck of their fortunes, small 
though the latter were. These at once attracted the cu- 
pidity of the thieves who lay in waiting for their prey. 
Thousands of them found themselves possessed only of 
their lives and their strong arms when they stepped on the 
Philadelphia wharfs, wherewith to begin anew the battle 
of life, the struggle for existence. But handicapped as 
they were, they faced adverse fate with stout hearts and 
fulfilled their contracts with their purchasers and masters 
as faithfully as if their efforts were directed to keep alive 
their own hearth-fires or to support their wives and chil- 

To all the foregoing, separately and collectively, must 
be added the sufferings and numerous deaths from small- 
pox, dysentery, poor nutrition, and worst of all the fatal 
ship-fever, resulting from the contaminated water and 
other causes. The literature of that time, the few news- 

150 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

papers, the letters of those who made the voyage and were 
not only witnesses but actual sufferers, and the books 
and pamphlets that were written and printed, bear ample 
testimony to the horrible scenes and sufferings that only 
too often came upon the overcrowded immigrant ships. It 
is not a pleasant duty to enter into some of the details that 
have come down to us. The pen assumes the disagree- 
able task only because the truth and the requirements of 
history demand it. It is only another, although perhaps 
the most sorrowful, of all the episodes that attended the 
colonization of Pennsylvania. It may perhaps be truth- 
fully said that in the first instance the practice had its 
origin in laudable and benevolent motives. Those who 
lent it their assistance in the beginning, at that time hardly 
conceived the extent the hegira was to assume or the depth 
of the misery it was to entail. Fraud and deception had 
their origin in opportunity ; some men are quick to spring 
from good to evil when it pays, and the occasion offers 
itself. So I apprehend it was in this case. 

I have tried to collect and arrange the evidence still ob- 
tainable and present it in these pages as best I could. 
Every writer of our local or general history has dealt with 
the question in a summary way, rather than otherwise. 
The story is broken into many fragments, and these are 
scattered through hundreds of volumes, without anything 
approaching completeness or regularity of detail in any. 
In the fullness of time, no doubt, some one with love and 
leisure for the work will address himself to the task and 
write the story of the REDEMPTIONERS with the philosophic 
spirit and the amplitude it deserves. Meanwhile the fol- 
lowing chapters are offered as a substitute until something 
better comes along. 



" Such were to take these lands by toil 

To till these generous breadths and fair, 
Turning this Pennsylvania soil 
To fruitful gardens everywhere." 

11 Kommt zu uns frei von Groll und Trug 

Und est das Freundschafts mohl, 
Wir haben hier der Hiitten g'nug 
Und Lander ohne Zahl." 

was not a little 
rivalry among the vari- 
ous English colonies planted 
along the Atlantic seaboard 
of America, in their race for 
wealth, progress and com- 
mercial supremacy. Into 
that competition, Pennsyl- 
vania, although the young- 
est of all the English set- 
tlements, entered with as 
much ambition and ardor as the people to the north and 
south of her. Penn was a Quaker, and a man of sincere 


152 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

convictions and unquestioned piety, but we cannot shut 
our eyes to the fact that he united a very liberal share of 
worldly shrewdness with his colonization schemes. In 
fact, the competition in material progress and advance- 
ment in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was 
quite as sharp between what are to-day called the Thir- 
teen Colonies as it is to-day. The older settlements had 
the advantage of age and experience, and this naturally 
compelled the newer ones to redouble their efforts to over- 
take them in the race for advancement and to surpass 
them if possible. 

In some particulars they endeavored to work out their 
destinies along similar lines. They copied from each other 
when they thought such imitations would prove advan- 
tageous not blindly, but always with an eye to the main 
chance. When Lord Baltimore found that his older neigh- 
bor Virginia was increasing her population and her wealth 
by the extensive importation of male and female servants 
from the mother country under indentures that meant years 
of servitude, and under conditions not wholly dissimilar to 
her negro slave traffic, he at once availed himself of the 
Virginia idea, and ship-loads of these people came from 
Ireland, Scotland and even England herself. 

It can hardly be questioned that the authorities in Penn- 
sylvania, took the same view of the case, and early in the 
history of the Province introduced, or at least connived at 
the system. At all events the fact remains that Penn's 
government had hardly got under way, before indentured 
servants became a feature in the civil life of the community. 
Here, as elsewhere, labor was scarce, and here, perhaps 
more than anywhere else, extra labor was required to cut 
down the forests, clear the land and keep abreast of the 
march of civilization that was moving forward on all sides 
of the new settlement. 

Legislation Concerning Indentured Servants. 153 

All this is to be inferred from the number of these sold 
and purchased servants that were brought into Pennsyl- 
vania, and from the legislation that was enacted in conse- 
quence. That legislation grew out of the necessities of the 
traffic in these people and consequently reflects its succes- 
sive stages. It must be borne in mind, however, that 
while it had even in its earlier stages all the characteristics 
that marked it during its most flourishing period, from 
1730 to 1770, it had not the same name. The men and 
women who were sent over here from Ireland and Scot- 
land, or who came voluntarily under contracts to render 
personal service for their passage money, board and any 
other expenses that might be incurred, were always called 
" servants " or " indentured servants" by the laws of the 
Province. The word " redemptioner " belongs to a later 
period and was of more recent coinage, and this fact must 
not be lost sight of, although in reality there was no ma- 
terial difference recognized either by statutory enactments 
or by custom, between the two. The word " redemp- 
tioner " does not occur in the Pennsylvania Statutes at 

4 'We may with propriety," says Gordon, " notice here 
another class of the people who were not freemen. Many 
valuable individuals were imported into the province as 
servants, who in consideration of the payment of their pas- 
ages and other stipulations, contracted to serve for a defi- 
nite period. This class was a favorite of the law. Pro- 
vision was made by the laws agreed on in England for 
recording the names, times and wages of servants ; mas- 
ters were allowed to take up lands for their use, and the 
servants themselves, after the expiration of their service, 
were permitted to become land-holders on easy terms ; they 
were provided with sufficient clothing and implements of 

154 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

labor ; they could not be sold out of the Province without 
their consent, and, in case of marriage, husband and wife 
could not be parted. On the other hand, due care was 
taken to preserve the rights of the master. Many of the 
German and Irish settlers were of this class, from whom 
have sprung some of the most reputable and wealthy in- 
habitants of the Province." 87 

In speaking of servants about the year 1740, Watson 
says : " The other kind were those who were free after a 
time. Many came from England, Germany and other 
countries who could not pay their passage, who were sold 
on their arrival for so many years, at about three to four 
pounds Pennsylvania currency per annum, as would pay 
their passage : generally fourteen pounds for four years' 
service would cover their passage money. Those who 
were too old to serve would sell their children in the same 
way. Some -would sell themselves to get a knowledge of 
the country before starting in the world. The purchaser 
could resell them for the unexpired time. The purchaser 
also had to give them a suit of clothes at the expiration of 
the time." 88 

I propose to offer a brief resume of the various legisla- 
tive enactments bearing on this class of immigrants to show 
the status held by them, and also the precautions that were 
from time to time taken by the law-making power for their 

While the condition of this large class was in innumer- 
able cases to be commiserated, the fact nevertheless re- 
mains that the Legislature threw over them the aegis of its 
protection, and in so far as it could, tried to deal fairly 
with them. Their rights were as scrupulously guarded as 

87 GORDON'S History of Pennsylvania, pp. 555-556. 

88 WATSON'S Annals of Philadelphia, Vol. III., p. 469. 

An Old Map of Pennsylvania. 


156 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

those of their masters. It deserves also to be remembered 
that no fault was found with the system of buying these 
servants and holding them to their service until their obli- 
gations were discharged. That was a recognized custom 
of the period, already in existence both north and south 
of Pennsylvania, and universally acquiesced in. Nobody 
thought it wrong. People entered into these obligations 
of their own free will. There was no compulsion. The 
great wrongs grew out of the practices under which it was 
carried on. As these developed and were brought to the 
attention of the Legislature, numerous laws were passed to 
better guard the rights of the deceived and defrauded im- 
migrants. But the laws could not reach the infamous 
Newlander beyond the sea, and he took good care to keep 
the broad Atlantic between himself and his outraged vic- 

The Provincial Government did not do all perhaps it 
should or even might have done looking to the protection 
of these people. It is important that we keep before us a 
clear idea of the spirit of those days. It was very dif- 
erent from what we find to-day. Public sentiment leaned 
towards severity rather than towards charity. The laws 
dealt more severely with crime, and were often pushed to 
the verge of inhumanity. Take for example, the laws 
against creditors. In 1705 the first insolvent law in the 
Province was passed, and it has justly been said that it 
" was formulated in sterner justice than is consistent with 
human frailty." When the property of a debtor was in- 
sufficient to discharge his debts, the law compelled him 
to make good the deficiency by personal servitude in 
case his creditors demanded it, and there were always those 
who did. Single men not more than fifty-three years 
old could be sold for a period of not more than seven years, 

Quarrel Between the Governor and Assembly. 157 

but married men under forty-six could be held for a period 
not exceeding five years. A milder law was enacted to 
supersede the above one in 1730, but so many creditors 
abused its provisions, that satisfaction by servitude was 
engrafted upon it in a supplemental clause. 89 

There were, too, often quarrels and bickerings between 
the Governors and the members of the Assembly. The 
one tried to thwart the wishes and will of the other. When, 
for example, the Legislature in 1755 drew up a bill on 
this very subject of the better protection of German immi- 
grants, especially to prevent the breaking open of their 
chests and the theft of their goods, Governor Thomas cut 
out this very matter and returned the rest with his ap- 
proval. There seems to have been a reason for his action, 
and the Assembly in a sharp reply told him, in so many 
words, that some of his own political household were 
regularly engaged in these robberies, and that was no 
doubt why he refused to do this act of simple justice. No 
doubt they knew what they were talking about. 

Many of the English and Welsh settlers who came to 
Pennsylvania within twenty years after it was founded 
brought indentured servants with them. To hold such 
people was evidently an old English custom, and at the 
very outset of his proprietary career, provision was made 
by Penn for the welfare of these people on regaining their 
freedom. No sooner had Penn obtained the royal charter 
to his province than he issued a long and tedious docu- 
ment for the enlightenment of " those of our own and 
other nations that are inclined to transport themselves or 
families beyond the seas." On July u, 1682, while still 
in England he issued a series of " conditions or conces- 
sions," running to twenty separate paragraphs or articles, 

89 GORDON'S History of Pennsylvania, pp. 218-219. 

158 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 


for the government of the relations between himself and 
his province and those who should purchase lands from 
him and settle here. The seventh of these conditions reads 
as follows : " That for every Fifty acres that shall be al- 
lotted to a servants, at the end of his service, his Quitrent 
shall be two shillings per annum, and the master or owner 
of the servant, when he shall take up the other Fifty acres, 
his Quit-rent shall be Four shillings by the year, or if the 
master of the servant (by reason in the Indentures he is so 
obliged to do) allot to the Servant Fifty acres in his own 
division, the said master shall have on demand allotted him 
from the Governor, the One hundred acres, at the chief 
rent of six shillings per annum." 90 

"The more wealthy of the Scotch emigrants (to New 
Jersey) were noted for the accompaniment of a numerous 
retinue of servants and dependents, arid, in some instances 
they incurred the expense of transporting whole families 
of poor laborers whom they established on their lands for a 
term of years, and endowed with a competent stock, re- 
ceiving in return one half of the agricultural produce." 91 

From the first, large numbers of these servants came to 
Pennsylvania. Claypole says, writing on Oct. i, 1682, 
" above fifty servants belonging to the Society are going 
away in a great ship for Pennsylvania." 92 

The foregoing establishes the existence of this species of 
servitude before the founding of Pennsylvania. It also 
shows that in order to give these people a fair start in life 
the terms on which they could secure lands from the Pro- 
prietary were more favorable than those accorded to their 
masters themselves. 

90 HAZZARD'S Annals, pp. 505-513. 

91 GRAHAME'S United States, Vol. II., p. 295. 

92 HAZZARD'S Annals of Pennsylvania from i6og to 1682, p. 593. 




> o 

B; o 

< K. 


Laws Affecting Servants. 159 

I find the word ** servant," evidently used in the MM* 
already indic.3J*d. in many acts of the General Assembly* 
It occur* ;n * ln-w prohibiting work on the " First day of 
the week, atfkil the Lord's Day," passed Nov. 27, 1700." 
Also ? ;riw passed on the same day and year,* 4 

d at the same time with reference 
* * UttftUittTi^ their masters or mistresses.* 6 A 
- iijtcted on the same day of the aforementioned 
. that " if any 4 servant' or servants shall pro- 
to be married without consent of his or her 
mistress, -(he or she) shall for such, their offense, 
f tbem serve their respective masters or mistresses, 
or*- whole year after the time of their service (by inden- 
ture, law, or custom) is expired ; and if any person being 
free shall marry with a servant as aforesaid, he or she so 
marrying shall pay to the master or mistress of the servant, 
if for a man twelve pounds; if a woman, six pounds or 
one year's service ; and the servant so being married shall 
abide with ht* or her master or mistress according to in- 
denture or custom, and one year after as aforesaid." In 
still another law passed on the same day and same year, 
designed tr rsidbsj| -uHiwr revciine*, it is provided, " that 
no person that ha* beru a bod \v indenture or 

otherwise in this government, shall be aled the above four 
shillings per head until he has been free from his servitude 
At space of one year." 

An excellent law concerning servants was passed by the 

- j ral Assembly, met at Newcastle, in the Lower Coun- 

Vlay, 1700. It appears to be the model after which 

at Large of Pennsylvania, Vol. II., p. 4. 

II., p. 6. 
'.II., p. 13. 

Laws Affecting Servants. 159 

I find the word " servant," evidently used in the sense 
already indicated, in many acts of the General Assembly. 
It occurs in a law prohibiting work on the " First day of 
the week, called the Lord's Day," passed Nov. 27, 1700. 93 
Also in another law passed on the same day and year, 94 
and in still another passed at the same time with reference 
to " servants " assaulting their masters or mistresses. 95 A 
fourth law enacted on the same day of the aforementioned 
year provides that " if any ' servant' or servants shall pro- 
cure themselves to be married without consent of his or her 
master or mistress, (he or she) shall for such, their offense, 
each of them serve their respective masters or mistresses, 
one whole year after the time of their service (by inden- 
ture, law, or custom) is expired ; and if any person being 
free shall marry with a servant as aforesaid, he or she so 
marrying shall pay to the master or mistress of the servant, 
if for a man twelve pounds; if a woman, six pounds or 
one year's service ; and the servant so being married shall 
abide with his or her master or mistress according to in- 
denture or custom, and one year after as aforesaid." 96 In 
still another law passed on the same day and same year, 
designed for raising county revenues, it is provided, " that 
no person that has been a bond servant by indenture or 
otherwise in this government, shall be rated the above four 
shillings per head until he has been free from his servitude 
the space of one year." m 

An excellent law concerning servants was passed by the 
General Assembly, met at Newcastle, in the Lower Coun- 
ties, in May, 1700. It appears to be the model after which 

9S Statutes at Large of Pennsylvania, Vol. II., p. 4. 
"fbtd., Vol. II., p. 6. 
M /Wrf., Vol. II., p. 13. 
/**., Vol. II., p. 22. 
ol. II., p. 35. 

160 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

later legislation was largely formulated, and is therefore 
quoted : 


" For the just Encouragements of Servants in the Dis- 
charge of their Duty, and the Prevention of their Desert- 
ing their masters or Owners Services, Be It Enacted by 
the Proprietary and Governor, by and with the Advice and 
Consent of the Freemen of this Province and Territories, 
in General Assembly met, and by the authority of the 
same, that no Servant, bound to serve his or her Time in 
this Province or Counties annexed, shall be sold or dis- 
posed of to any person residing in any other Province or 
Government, without the Consent of the said Servant and 
two Justices of the Peace of the said County wherein he 
lives or is sold, under the Penalty of Ten Pounds, to be 
forfeited by the Seller. 

"AND BE IT FURTHER ENACTED, That no Servant shall 
be assigned over to another person by any in this Province 
or Territories, but in the presence of one Justice of the 
Peace of the County, under the Penalty of Ten Pounds; 
which Penalty, with all others in the Act expressed, shall 
be levied by Distress and Sale of Goods of the Party 

" AND BE IT ENACTED, by the authority aforesaid, that 
every Servant that shall faithfully serve four years, or 
more, shall, at the expiration of their Servitude have a Dis- 
charge, and shall be duly Cloathed with two compleat suits 
of Apparel, whereof one shall be new, and shall also be 
furnished with one new Ax, one Grubbing-hoe, and one 
Weeding-hoe ; at the Charge of their Master or Mistress. 

"And for the Prevention of Servants quitting their Mas- 

Latvs Affecting Indentured Servants. 161 

ters service, BE IT ENACTED by the authority aforesaid, 
that if any Servant shall absent him or herself from the 
Service of their Master or Owner for the space of one Day 
or more, without Leave first obtained for the same, every 
such Servant shall for every such Days absence be obliged 
to serve five days after the Expiration of his or her Time, 
and shall further make such Satisfaction to his or her 
Master or Owner, for the Damages and charges sustained 
by such Absence, as the respective County Court shall see 
meet, who shall order as well the Time to be served, as 
other Recompence for Damages sustained. 

"And whoever shall Apprehend or take up any run- 
away Servant and shall bring him or her to the Sheriff of 
the County, such Person shall for every such Servant, if 
taken up within ten miles of the Servants Abode, receive 
Ten Shillings Reward of the said Sheriff ; who is hereby re- 
quired to pay the same, and forthwith to send notice to the 
Master or Owner, of whom he shall receive Ten Shillings, 
Prison fees upon Delivery of the said Servant, together 
with all other Disbursements and reasonable Charges for 
and upon the same. 

"And to prevent the clandestine employment of other 
Mens Servants, BE IT ENACTED, by the authority afore- 
said, That whosoever shall conceal any Servant of this 
Province or Territories or entertain him or her twenty-four 
hours, without his or her Master's or Owners Knowledge 
and Consent, and shall not within the said time give an Ac- 
count thereof to some Justice of the Peace of the County, 
every such Person shall forfeit Twenty Shillings for every 
Day's Concealment. And in case the said Justice of the 
Peace shall not, within twenty-four Hours after complaint 
made to him, issue his Warrant, directly to the next Con- 
stable, for apprehending and seizing the said Servant, and 

162 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

commit him or her to the Custody of the Sheriff of the 
County, such Justice shall for every such Offence forfeit 
FIVE POUNDS. And the Sheriff shall by the first Oppor- 
tunity after he has received the said Servant, send notice 
thereof to his or her Master or Owner : and the said 

<Z -" -' Jf^ 


Sheriff neglecting or omitting in any case to give Notice 
to the Master or Owner of the Servant being in his Custody 
as aforesaid, shall forfeit Five Shillings for every Day's 

Laws Affecting Bond Servants. 163 

neglect after an Opportunity has offered; to be proved 
against him before the County Court, and to be there ad- 

" AND for the more effectual Discouragement of Servants 
embezzling their Masters' or Owners goods, BE IT EN- 
ACTED, by the Authority aforesaid, that whosoever shall 
clandestinely deal or traffick with any Servant white or 
black, for any Kind of goods or Merchandises, without 
Leave or Order from his or her Master or Owner, plainly 
signified or appearing, shall forfeit treble the value of such 
goods to the* Owner ; and the Servant, if a white, shall 
make Satisfaction to his or her Master or Owner by Servi- 
tude, after the expiration of his or her Time, to double the 
Value of the said Goods ; and if the Servant be a black, he 
or she shall be severely whipt in the most Publick Place 
of the Township where the Offence was comitted." 98 

An act for the better regulation of servants in the Prov- 
ince and Territories, and for the just encouragement of 
servants in the discharge of their duties, also passed on 
November 27, 1700, throws so much light on this " ser- 
vant " question that I give an abridgment of it. It pro- 
vides that no servant bound to serve a certain time, shall 
be sold or disposed of to anyone residing in any other prov- 
ince or government, without his consent and that of two 
justices of the peace of the county where the servant re- 
sides, under a ten-pound penalty by the seller. No ser- 
vant is to be sold or assigned to another person in the 
Province unless in the presence of a justice, under a ten- 
pound penalty. 

98 Charters and Acts of the Assembly of the Province of Pennsylvania. 
Printed by PETER MILLER & COMPANY, Phil. M.D.C.C.IXII., Vol. I., pp. 
5 and 6 of Section II. 

See also GALLOWAY'S Laws of Pennsylvania, C. 49, p. 7. 

164 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

Sec. III. of this law is so important that I quote it entire. 
"And be it enacted by the authority aforesaid, That 
every Servant that shall faithfully serve four years or 
more, shall, at the expiration of their servitude, have a 
discharge, and shall be duly clothed with two complete 
suits of apparel, whereof one shall be new ; and shall also 
be furnished with one new axe, one grubbing hoe and one 
"weeding hoe at the charge of their master or mistress." 
Other sections provide that servants who absent themselves 
from their service for one day without permission, shall for 
every such day, serve five days longer at the expiration of 
their time, and besides make satisfaction for all damage 
the master may have sustained by such absence. Persons 
apprehending runaway servants and taking them to the 
sheriff shall receive ten shillings for the same or twenty 
shillings when the runaway is taken more than ten miles 
from his master's abode. Persons concealing servants 
without the master's knowledge, or entertaining them 
twenty-four hours and who shall not notify either the mas- 
ter or a justice of the peace, shall be fined twenty shillings 
for every day's concealment. The final clause in the act 
provided that whosoever should clandestinely deal or traffic 
with any servant for any kind of goods or merchandize, 
without leave or order from the master, shall forfeit treble 
the value of the goods to the master ; and the servant, if 
white, shall make reparation to his or her master or owner, 
by servitude after the expiration of his or her time, to 
'double the value of the said goods." 

On October 18, 1701, the law of November 27, 1700, 
^regulating the marriages of servants as already quoted, 
was reenacted. 

It seems that sometimes " bought servants" left their 

99 Statutes at Large of Pennsylvania, Vol. II., pp. 54-56. 

Servants Enlisting as Soldiers. 165 

masters, greatly to the damage of the latter, and enlisted in 
the Queen's service over in New Jersey. In consequence 
of this hardship, an act was passed by the Assembly on 
August 10, 1711, providing that " any master who shall 
prove that a servant belonging to him has enlisted in the 
Queen's service since a certain date without the approval 
of his master or mistress, shall receive for every month's 
unexpired service of such servant, the sum of ten shillings, 
and the full sum which the unexpired time of servitude 
shall at that rate amount to, the entire sum not to exceed 
twenty pound's however. The master or mistress shall 
deliver up the covenant or indenture of such servant and 
assign thereon their right to such servant's services." 

In an act regulating fees to be charged by public offi- 
cials, passed on May 28, 1715, a shilling is allowed "for 
writing the assignment of a servant and signing it." 100 On 
August 24, 1717, an act for levying taxes passed the As- 
sembly and among its other provisions was one requiring 
the constables in the several districts of the Province to 
carefully register the number of bound servants that are 
held. 101 A similar law was reenacted on February 22,1717- 
1718, but servants not out of their servitude six months are 
exempted. 102 A licensing act passed on the 26th day of 
August, 1721, prohibits the sale of rum, brandy and other 
spirits to be drunk by servants and others in companies 
near the place of sale ; nor shall such servants be trusted 
or entertained, if warned by the master or mistress of the 
same; and any one arresting a servant for a debt con- 
tracted in this way, such actions shall abate, and the ser- 
vant or his master or mistress may plead the act in bar. 10 * 

100 Statutes at Large of Pennsylvania, Vol. III., p. 100. 
., pp. 250-251. 
., p. 181. 
., p. 129. 

1 66 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

Under an act passed May 5, 1722, a duty was imposed on 
persons convicted of heinous crimes who should be im- 
ported into the Province. The law recites that many per- 
sons trading here had, for purposes of gain, imported and 
sold as servants for a term of years, persons convicted of 
crimes, who soon ran away, leaving their masters' service, 
to the great loss of persons thus buying them. The law 
inflicted a penalty of five pounds on any shipmaster who 
should bring such a convict into the Province to be paid 
before the servant was landed and be in addition held bound 
in the sum of fifty pounds for the good behavior of such 
convicted person, for the period of one year. Examina- 
tions were to be made of suspected persons by justices of 
the peace, and if any were brought and disposed of without 
complying with the law, twenty pounds fine was to be levied 
on the offender. All servants under the age of twelve 
years were exempted from the provisions of the law. 104 

This brings the legislation of the Province down to the 
period when the German immigration began to assume 
large proportions, and the importation and selling of the 
same appears to have taken its rise. During all that 
period the word " Servant " was used ; that of " Redemp- 
tioner " never, nor at any time thereafter in legal enact- 
ments, so far as I am aware. 

Under the law, all contracts between redemptioners and 
their purchasers were required to be registered by officials 
designated for that purpose. It would be of much interest 
if these complete records were still in existence, but as they 
have not been discovered thus far, this is hardly to be 
hoped for now. The Historical Society of Pennsylvania 
has two volumes of such records. The title of the books 
is German Redemptioners^ from 1785 to 1804. That 

** Statutes at Large of Pennsylvania, Vol. III., pp. 264-268. 

Example From Record Book. 167 

period included three volumes, but the second one is miss- 
ing. The books are in manuscript, folio in size, and the 
first one contains 409 pages. The third volume is smaller, 
only 130 pages, and the date runs from 1817 to 1831. 
Perhaps we have in this latter date the period when the 
traffic in these indentured people ceased. The smallness 
of the volume shows how few were recorded during the 
long period from 1817 to 1831. The books have a written 

As a sample of the general character of this registry, the 
following entry from Volume I., page 57, is given : 

" Maria Magdalina Shaffer assigned by John Fromberg, 
to serve Peter Muhlenberg, Esq. of Montgomery county 
State of Pennsylvania, the remainder of her indentures, 
recorded page 14. consideration 6." 

" Maria Magdalena Shaffer bound herself to John From- 
berg, of the city of Philadelphia, merchant, to serve him 
three years and six monchs : to have customary freedom 

All the other records follow the same general style. 

The conditions under which British bond servants were 
brought to this country may be seen by the following in- 
denture copied from the volume noted above. In this case, 
however, the document was in shape of a printed form, 
with names and dates filled in. It was the only one found 
in the book. 

"This Indenture Made the i3th Day of May, in the 
year of our Lord, 1784, Alex r Beard of Broughshane, in 
the Co. of Antrim, Tayler, by consent of his father on the 
one Part, and John Dickey of Callybarthey in the said 
county, Gentleman, of the other Part, Witnesbv.ui that the 
said Alexander Beard, doth hereby covenant, promise and 

1 68 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

Copy of a Redemptioner's Indenture. 169 

grant to and with the said John Dickey his Executors* 
Administrators and Assigns, from the Day of the Date 
hereof, until the first and next arrival at Philadelphia, in* 
America, and after for and during the Term of Three 
years to serve in such Service and Employment as the said 
John Dickey or his assigns shall there employ him accord- 
ing to the Custom of the Country in the like kind. In 
consideration whereof the said John Dickey doth hereby 
covenant and grant to and with the said Alexander Beard 
to pay for his Passage and to find and allow him Meat, 
Drink, Apparel and Lodging with other Necessaries, dur- 

105 The London Coffee House was the most celebrated establishment of its 
kind ever opened in Philadelphia. The original building was erected in 1702 
by Charles Reed. It was first used as a " Coffee House " in 1754 by William 
Bradford, the famous provincial printer. Bradford's petition for a license 
reads as follows : " Having been advised to keep a Coffee House for the bene- 
fit of merchants and traders, and as some people may at times be desirous to 
be furnished with other liquors besides coffee, your petitioner apprehends it is 
necessary to have the Govenor's license." 

The house (still standing) is at the southwest corner of Front and Market 
streets. It became the resort of everybody of consequence in the city and of 
all the prominent people who visited Philadelphia. It was the focus of all the 
news that was going on. The Governor, and merchants of every degree, went 
there at stated times to drink their coffee, learn the news and gossip. There 
was a covered shed connected with it, vendues of all kinds were regularly 
held, and often auctions of negro slaves, men, women and children were held 
there. Some of the more memorable events in the history of the city occurred 
on the spot. The Stamp Act papers, which were seized wherever they could 
be found, were burned there. The ship captain who first brought news of tht 
repeal of the Stamp Act, was wined and dined there. In 1774, the effigies of 
Governor Hutchinson, of Massachusetts, and of Alexander Wederburn were 
burnt because of their insults to Dr. Franklin. The Declaration of Independ- 
ence was read there by John Nixon, after which the Royal Arms were torn 
down from the Court House, carried there and burned. There General Thomp- 
son had a personal altercation with Justice McKean, leading to a challenge by 
the former, which was declined by the latter, because to accept it would be to 
violate the laws he was sworn to maintain. Even the Common Council pro- 
ceedings are frequently dated at the " Coffee House." It is alluded to by all 
writers of the period as the place of general meeting when any event of impor- 
tance, foreign or domestic, was to the fore. (WATSON'S A nnals of Philadelphia* 
Vol. I., p. 203; III., p. 203.) 

170 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

ing the said Term and at the End of the said Term to pay 
unto him the usual Allowance, according to the Custom of 
the country in the like kind. In Witness whereof the Par- 
ties above Mentioned to these indentures have interchange- 
ably put their Hands and Seals, the Day and Year first 
above written. 

" Signed, Sealed and Delivered 
" in the presence of 



Just when this business came to a close I have not been 
able definitely to ascertain. 106 That it died out gradually is 
hardly to be doubted. A more enlightened sentiment 
among the American people, and the still more important 
fact that the migrating " fever" had about run its course 
among the poorer classes, for a time, were no doubt the 
most important factors towards bringing this about. 

So far as I have been able to learn, no Redemptioners 
were brought into Lancaster county after 1811. In that 
year Mr. Abram Peters, a prominent farmer of the county, 
while hauling wheat to the mills on the Brandywine, near 
Wilmington, stopped at Chester to buy a small German 
girl, his wife needing the services of such a person. He 
secured an orphan girl named " Kitty," at the price of $25. 
The mother had died at sea, leaving Kitty and her sister 
to be disposed of as Redemptioners. The master of the 
ship desired to sell the sisters to one person, that they 
might not be separated, and offered the two for $40. Mr. 
Peters, having no use for two, declined to take them both, 
but he promised to find a purchaser for the other sister at 

106 From a document quoted elsewhere, it would seem the traffic reached its 
close about the year 1831. 

Story of a Redemptioner . 


$15, if possible. On his way home he met a Quaker 
gentleman and his wife. The latter wished to buy Kitty. 
Peters declined to part with her but told them of the other 
sister still at Chester. The old Quaker at once went to 
that place and bought her. The two purchasers had ex- 
changed addresses and promised to keep the two sisters in 
correspondence with each other. Both girls found kind 
mistresses and good homes, corresponded and visited each 
other regularly. Kitty finally married a wealthy German, 
a baker named Kolb, of Philadelphia. 107 

107 1 am indebted to S. M. Sener, Esq., for the facts of the above narrative. 




" Amerika, O neues Heimath land ! 

Du Land der Freiheit, Land voll Licht und Wonne ! 
Sei uns gegriisst du gastlich holder Strand, 
Sei uns gegriisst du goldene Freiheits-Sonne." 

" They came, oft wronged beneath the mast, 

Or, when escaped the dreaded wave, 
How many wept their loved ones cast 
For burial, in an ocean grave." 

HE term Redemptioner had 
its origin in a peculiar sys- 
tem of voluntary servitude, rec- 
ognized by law and by custom, 
under which a freedman entered 
into a contract with another person, to serve the latter for 
a stipulated time and at a stipulated price, for moneys paid 


Two Kinds of JRedempttoners. 173 

to him or for his benefit, before the service was entered 
upon. Through the fulfillment of this contract apprentice- 
ship or servitude, the servitor was said to redeem himself, 
hence the name of REDEMPTIONER given to those who en- 
tered into such agreements. 

There were two kinds of Redemptioners, and the dis- 
tinction should be borne in mind. The first were the so- 
called " indentured servants" who made specific contracts 
before setting sail, to serve a term of years to masters ; the 
second, known sometimes as "free willers," were without 
money, but anxious to emigrate, therefore agreed with the 
ship-masters to sell themselves and their families on 
their arrival, for the captain's advantage, and thus repay 
the cost of their transportation. 108 

The historian Gordon very clearly and fully sets forth the 
character of still another class of immigrants. He says : 
"A part of the emigration to the Colonies was composed 
of servants, who were of two classes. The first and larger, 
poor and oppressed in the land of their nativity, sometimes 
the victims of political changes, or religious intolerance, 
submitted to a temporary servitude, as the price of freedom, 
plenty and peace. The second, vagrants and felons, the 
dregs of the British populace, were cast by the mother 
country upon her colonies, with the most selfish disregard 
of the feelings she outraged. From this moral pestilence 
the first settlers shrunk with horror. In 1682 the Pennsyl- 
vania Council proposed to prohibit the introduction of con- 
victs, but the evil was then prospective to them only, and 
no law was enacted. But an act was now passed (1722), 
which, though not prohibitory in terms, was such in effect. 
A duty of five pounds was imposed upon every convicted 
felon brought into the Province, and the importer was re- 

108 MELLICK'S Story of an Old Farm, p. 149. 

174 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

quired to give surety for the good behavior of the convict 
for one year ; and to render these provisions effectual, the 
owner or master was bound under a penalty of twenty 
pounds, to render, on oath, or affirmation, within twenty- 
four hours after the arrival of the vessel, an account to the 
collector of the names of the servants and passengers. 
But such account was not required when bond was given 
conditioned for the reexportation of such servants within 
six months." 109 

The earliest direct reference to this traffic in German 
Redemptioners which I have found, appears in the work 
of Eickhoff no who cites a letter written in 1728 by several 
persons at that time, which fully bears out the existence of 
the trade in German Redemptioners at that period. The 
letter states that two persons, Oswald Siegfried and Peter 
Siegfried had informed them (the writers) for the second 
time from the city of Amsterdam, that there was a certain 
broker in that city, who would carry emigrants to Penn- 
sylvania, even when they were unable to pay for their pas- 
sage, if they could manage to scrape together only half the 
passage money ; and those who had nothing at all, if they 
were in a condition to perform manual labor when they 

109 GORDON'S History of Pennsylvania, p. 189. 

110 " Das diese art der Passagierbeforderung etwa im Jahr 1728 ihren Anfang 
nahm, laszt sich nach einem Schreiben von Heinrich Kundig, Michael Kra- 
biel und David Kauf mann an ihre mennonitischen Glaubensgenossen in Am- 
sterdam (Marz 1738) vermuthen, worin Jene erzohlen, sie batten Allen von 
der Auswanderung nach Pennsylvanian abgerathen, welche kein Geld batten, 
um die Uberfahrt selbst zu bezahlen, oder Freunde in Pennsylvanien, die dies 
thaten. ' Nun hat uns aber Oswald Siegfried und Peter Siegfried zum 2 mal 
aus Amsterdam geschreiben, dass einer gewissen Kauffman in Amsterdam 
habe, der de leit nach Benselfania fiihren wil, wenn sie schon die Fracht 
nicht haben, wenn sie nur durch einander die halbe Fracht ausmachen Kon- 
nen; wenn auch leit seien, die nichts haben, wenn sie nur im Stant seien, dass 
sie arbeiten Konnen, werden auch mit genommen. Missen davor arbeiten, 
bis sie 7K Bischtolen abverdient haben.' " 

Gottlieb Mittelberger's Narrative. 175 

arrived. They would be obliged to labor upon their arri- 
val until their passage money amounting to 7^ pistoles 
(about $30) had been earned. 111 

In my attempt to make this sketch as complete as possi- 
ble, I have carefully examined all the sources of informa- 
tion that were accessible or of which I was cognizant. 
Many writers have touched upon the Redemptioners with 
more or less fullness but it was a German visitor to Penn- 
sylvania to whom we are indebted for the fullest, and as I 
believe a most trustworthy account of the man-traffic which 
this is an attempt to describe. I refer to the little volume 
written by Gottlieb Mittelberger. 112 Without any attempt 
at fine writing he tells what he saw and had personal 
knowledge of. His narrative, in addition to bearing inher- 
ent evidences of reliability, is further fortified and sup- 
ported by the concurrent testimony of numerous other 
writers. In fact, his veracity has never been questioned 
so far as I am aware, and the student of this period of our 
history will of necessity have to go to him when the era 
under review is discussed. He declares at the outset that 
he " carefully inquired into the condition of the country; 
and what I describe here, I have partly experienced myself, 
and partly heard from trustworthy people who were familiar 
with the circumstances." 

Mittelberger was a native of Wurtemburg. He came to 
this country in 1750 and returned to Germany in 1754. 
He was an organist and came over in charge of an organ 
which was intended for Philadelphia. He served as the 

111 ANTON EICKHOFF, In Der Neuen Heimath, p. 142. 

112 " Gottlieb Mittelberger's Reisc nach Pennsylvanicn imjahre 1750 und 
Ruckreise nach Teutschland im Jahr 1754. Enthaltend nicht nur cine Be- 
schreibung des Landes nach seinem gegenwdrtigen Zustande, sondern auch 
cine ausfuhrliche Nachricht von den ungluck seligen und betrubten Umstdn- 
den der mcisten Teutschen, die in dieses Landgezogen sind und dahin ziehen. 
Frankfurt und Leipzig 1756." 

176 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

organist of the Augustus Church at the Trappe, and as a 
schoolmaster during his nearly four years' stay in Penn- 
sylvania. His services in both capacities were so highly 
appreciated that, when he left, the church authorities gave 
him a most flattering testimonial. 113 

The account which Gottlieb Mittelberger gives of his 
voyage to Pennsylvania and of his return to Germany 
four years later is the fullest known to me of a complete 
trip from the heart of the Fatherland to the sea, the voy- 
age across the ocean, the trials and sufferings of that 
eventful period and the further events that waited on such 
as came penniless and dependent and who had already in 
Holland entered into contracts to serve some master until 
all their passage charges and the food they had consumed 
were paid for. 

Mittelberger did not come as a Redemptioner ; his was 
a business trip ; he pursued his profession of organist for 
four years and then returned to Germany. But, as was 
most natural in a man of his kind and tender nature, he 
thoroughly sympathized with his poor countrymen in their 
time of adversity, and, being in daily touch with them and 
all that was going on in Philadelphia, no man was better 
acquainted with the wrongs put upon them and of the trials 
they were compelled to encounter. He was moved by all 
this, and by the appeals of his Philadelphia acquaintances, 
to tell the story of what he had seen and heard, upon his 
return to Germany, and out of the promise he then made 
we have his book. 

It must always be borne in mind that Mittelberger's aim 
was to dissuade his countrymen from emigrating, and that 

113 A most excellent translation of this book has recently been made by Mr. 
Carl Theo. Eben, and published by John Jos. McVey, of Philadelphia, who has 
kindly permitted me to make use of the translation for my present purposes. 

Mittelberger's Narrative. 177 

he puts the worst construction on the evils to be met and 
encountered possible, as if it was necessary to make his 
statements even worse than the reality ! 

There are some few minor inaccuracies in it, and occa- 
sionally a statement he had from hearsay is exaggerated, 
but there are no intentional errors, and the general truth- 
fulness of his narrative is unquestioned. He was not 
friendly to this immigration of his countrymen. It is true, 
he gives a most flattering account of the fertility and pro- 
ductiveness of the country and of the ease with which a 
living can be* made there, but when he deals with the long 
voyage, the unpleasant events connected with it, its fatali- 
ties and losses, he is anxious that the people shall remain 
at home, and he says he believes they will after they have 
read what he has written, because such a journey with 
most involves a loss of property, liberty and peace ; with 
some a loss of life and even of the salvation of their souls, 
this latter because of the lack of religious opportunities in 
the new home. 


" This journey from the Palatinate to Pennsylvania," he 
says, "lasts from the beginning of May until the end of 
October, fully half a year, amid such hardships as no one 
is able to describe adequately. The cause is because the 
Rhine boats from Heilbronn to Holland have to pass by 
36 custom houses, at all of which the ships are examined, 
which is done when it suits the convenience of the custom- 
house officials. In the meantime, the ships with the people 
are detained long, so that the passengers have to spend 
much money. The trip down the Rhine alone lasts four, 
five and even six weeks. 

" When the ships and the people reach Holland, they 

178 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

are detained there likewise five or six weeks. Because 
things are very dear there, the poor people have to spend 
nearly all they have during that time. * * * Both in 
Rotterdam and Amsterdam the people are packed densely, 


like herrings, so to say, in the large sea vessels. One 
person receives a place scarcely two feet wide and six feet 
long in the beadstead, while many a ship carries four to six 
hundred souls ; not to mention the innumerable implements, 
tools, provisions, water barrels and other things which like- 
wise occupy much space. 

" On account of contrary winds it sometimes takes the 
ships two, three and four weeks to make the trip from 
Holland to Cowes (on the isle of Weight, on the South 
coast of England). But when the wind is good they get 




.- rg er j s Narrative. i 79 

therein eigfc 4tf or tooner. Every thing is examined 
at the cKstim: iiotti* mnd the duties paid, and ships are 
sometime/ '-. eight, ten and fourteen days before 

their c; ^ipieted. During this delay, every one 

. -...- 

which had been reserved for the 

>-jt passengers, finding themselves 

^till greater need of them, 

ri have for the last time weighed their 
* , the real misery begins, for from there 
i$e* they have good winds must often sail eight, 
twelve weeks before they reach Philadelphia, 
the best wind the voyage lasts seven weeks. 
ing the voyage there is on board these ships terri- 
ble misery, stench, fumes, horror, vomiting, many kinds 
: cknesses, fever, dysentery, headache, heat, constipa- 
boils, scurvy, cancer mouth-rot and the like, all of 
which come from old and sharply salted food and meat, also 
from very bad and foul water so that many die miserably. 
. **-Add to thin, want of provisions, hunger, thirst, cold, 
t, dampness .>*, 

ther with oth^r ?r >ubk* iuch as iu^ - ; , *nound so 
tifully, especially o tick . >hat the\ r can be 

scraped off the body. The misery reaches the climax 
when a gale rages for two or three days and nights, so 
that every one believes that the ship will go to the bottom 
with all the human beings on board. * * * 

" Among the healthy, impatience sometimes grows so 

great and cruel that one curses the other or himself, and 

of his birth, and sometimes come near killing each 

other. Misery and malice join each other, so that they 

cheat and rob one another. One always reproaches the 




Mittelberger's Narrative. 179 

there in eight days or sooner. Every thing is examined 
at the custom house and the duties paid, and ships are 
sometimes detained eight, ten and fourteen days before 
their cargoes are completed. During this delay every one 
is compelled to spend his last money and to consume the 
little stock of provisions which had been reserved for the 
ocean voyage ; so that most passengers, finding themselves 
on the ocean where they are in still greater need of them, 
suffer greatly from hunger and want. 

" When the ships have for the last time weighed their 
anchors at Cotoes, the real misery begins, for from there 
the ships, unless they have good winds must often sail eight, 
nine, ten or twelve weeks before they reach Philadelphia. 
But with the best wind the voyage lasts seven weeks. 

" During the voyage there is on board these ships terri- 
ble misery, stench, fumes, horror, vomiting, many kinds 
of sicknesses, fever, dysentery, headache, heat, constipa- 
tion, boils, scurvy, cancer mouth-rot and the like, all of 
which come from old and sharply salted food and meat, also 
from very bad and foul water so that many die miserably. 

"Add to this, want of provisions, hunger, thirst, cold, 
heat, dampness, anxiety, want, afflictions and lamentations, 
together with other troubles such as lice which abound so 
plentifully, especially on sick people, that they can be 
scraped off the body. The misery reaches the climax 
when a gale rages for two or three days and nights, so 
that every one believes that the ship will go to the bottom 
with all the human beings on board. * * * 

"Among the healthy, impatience sometimes grows so 
great and cruel that one curses the other or himself, and 
the day of his birth, and sometimes come near killing each 
other. Misery and malice join each other, so that they 
cheat and rob one another. One always reproaches the 

180 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania, 

other for persuading him to undertake the journey. Fre- 
quently children cry out against their parents, husbands 
against their wives and wives against their husbands, 
brothers and sisters, friends and acquaintances against each 
other. But most against the soul-traffickers, (the New- 

" Many sigh and cry : < Oh, that I were at home again, 
and if I had to lie in my pig sty ! ' Or they say : * O God, 
if I only had a piece of good bread, or a good fresh drop 
of water.' Many people whimper, and sigh and cry 
piteously for their homes ; most of them get homesick. 
Many hundred people necessarily die and perish in such 
misery, and must be cast into the sea, which drives their 
relatives, or those who persuaded them to undertake the 
journey, to such despair that it is almost impossible to 
pacify and console them. In a word, the sighing and cry- 
ing and lamenting on board the ship continues night and 
day, so as to cause the hearts even of the most hardened 
to bleed when they hear it. * * * 

" Children from one to seven years rarely survive the 
voyage ; and many a time parents are compelled to see 
their children miserably suffer and die from hunger, thirst 
and sickness, and then see them cast into the water. I 
witnessed such misery in no less than thirty-two children 
in our ship, all of whom were thrown into the sea. * * * 

11 Often a father is separated by death from his wife and 
children,. or mothers from their little children, or even both 
parents from their children ; and sometimes entire families 
die in quick succession ; so that often many dead persons 
lie in the berths besides the living ones, especially when 
contagious diseases have broken out on the ship. * * * 
That most of the people get sick is not surprising, be- 
cause, in addition to all other trials and hardships, warm 

Mittelberger^s Narrative. 181 

food is served only three times a week, the rations being 
very poor and very small. These meals can hardly be 
eaten on account of being so unclean. The water which 
is served out on the ships is often very black, thick and 
full of worms, so that one cannot drink it without loathing, 
even with the greatest thirst. O surely, one would often give 
much money at sea for a piece of good bread, or a drink of 
good water, if it could only be had. I myself experienced 
that sufficiently, I am sorry to say. Toward the end we 
were compelled to eat the ship's biscuit which had been 
spoiled long ago ; though in a whole biscuit there was 
scarcely a piece the size of a dollar that had not been full 
of red worms and spiders nests. Great hunger and thirst 
force us to eat and drink everything ; but many do so at 
the risk of their lives. * * * 

" At length, when after a long and tedious voyage, the 
ships come in sight of land, so that the promontories can 
be seen, which the people were so eager and anxious to 
see, all creep from below to the deck to see the land from 
afar, and they weep for joy, and pray and sing, thanking 
and praising God. The sight of the land makes the 
people on board the ship, especially the sick and the half 
dead, alive again, so that their hearts leap within them ; 
they shout and rejoice, and are content to bear their misery 
in patience, in the hope that they may soon reach the land 
in safety. But alas ! 

" When the ships have landed at Philadelphia after their 
long voyage no one is permitted to leave them except those 
who pay for their passage or can give good security ; the 
others who cannot pay must remain on board the ships till 
they are purchased, and are released from the ships by 
their purchasers. The sick always fare the worst, for the 
healthy are naturally preferred and purchased first ; and 

182 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

so the sick and wretched must often remain on board in 
front of the city for two or three weeks, and frequently 
die, whereas many a one if he could pay his debt and was 
permitted to leave the ship immediately, might recover. 

4 * Before I describe how this traffic in human flesh is 
conducted, I must mention how much the journey to Penn- 
sylvania costs. A person over ten years pays for the pas- 
sage from Rotterdam to Philadelphia, 10. Children from 
five to ten years pay half price, 5. All children under 
five years are free. For these prices the passengers are 
conveyed to Philadelphia, and as long as they are at sea pro- 
vided with food, though with very poor food, as has been 

4 'But this is only the sea passage; the other costs on 
land, from home to Rotterdam, including the passage on 
the Rhine, are at least $35, no matter how economically 
one may live. No account is here made of extraordinary 
contingencies. I may safely assert that with the greatest 
economy, many passengers have spent $176 from home to 

" The sale of human beings in the market on board the 
ship is carried on thus : Every day Englishmen, Dutch- 
men and high German people come from the city of Phila- 
delphia and other places, some from a great distance, say 
sixty, ninety, and one hundred and twenty miles away, 
and go on board the newly arrived ship that has brought 
and offers for sale passengers from Europe, and select 
among the healthy persons such as they deem suitable for 
their business, and bargain with them how long they will 
serve for their passage money, for which most of them 
are still in debt. When they have come to an agreement, 
it happens that adult persons bind themselves in writing to 
serve three, four, five or six years for the amount due by 

Mittelberger's Narrative. 


them, according to their age and strength. But very 
young people, from ten to fifteen years, must serve until 
they are twenty-one years old. 

" Many persons must sell and trade away their children 
like so many head of cattle ; for if their children take the 
debt upon themselves, the 
parents can leave the ship 
free and unrestrained ; but 
as the parents often do not 
know where and to what 
people their* children are 
going, it often happens 
that such parents and chil- 
dren, after leaving the 
ship do not see each other 
again for years, perhaps 
no more in all their lives. 

" When people arrive 
who cannot make them- 
selves free, but have children under five years of age, they 
cannot free themselves by them ; for such children must be 
given to somebody without compensation to be brought up, 
and they must serve for their bringing up till they are twenty- 
one years old. Children from five to ten years, who pay 
half price for their passage, must likewise serve for it until 
they are twenty-one years old ; they cannot, therefore, re- 
deem their parents by taking the debt of the latter upon 
themselves. But children above ten years can take part of 
their parents' debts upon themselves. 

" A woman must stand for her husband if he arrives 
sick, and in like manner a man for his sick wife, and take 
the debt upon herself or himself, and thus serve five or six 
years not alone for his or her own debt, but also for that of 


184 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

the sick husband or wife. But if both are sick, such persons 
are sent from the ship to the hospital, but not until it ap- 
pears probable that they will find no purchasers. As soon 
as they are well again they must serve for their passage, 
or pay if they have means. 

44 It often happens that whole families, husband, wife 
and children, are separated by being sold to different pur- 
chasers, especially when they have not paid any part of 
their passage money. 

" When a husband or wife has died at sea, after the ship 
has completed more than half her trip, the survivor must 
pay or serve not only for himself or herself, but also for 
the deceased. 114 

" When both parents died after the voyage was more than 
half completed, their children, especially when they are 
young and have nothing to pawn or pay, must stand for 
their own and their parents' passage, and serve till they are 
twenty-one years old. When one has served his or her 
term, he or she is entitled to a new suit of clothes at part- 
ing and if it has been so stipulated, a man gets in addition 
a horse and a woman a cow. 

" When a servant has an opportunity to marry in this 
country, he or she must pay for each year he or she would 
still have to serve, 5 or 6. But many a one who has 
thus purchased and paid for his bride, has subsequently 
repented of his bargain, so that he would gladly have re- 
turned his dear ware and lost his money in addition. 

" If a servant in this country runs away from his master 
who has treated him harshly, he cannot get far. Good 
provision has been made for such cases so that a runaway 
is soon recovered. He who de'tains or returns a deserter 
receives a good reward. 

114 I^ess than half the voyage having been made when a passenger died, 
there was no claim for passage money. 

Good Condition of Some Ships. 185 

" If such a runaway has been away from his master a 
single day, he must serve an entire week for it ; if absent 
a week, then a month, and for a month, half a year. But 
if the master does not care to keep the runaway when he 
gets him back, he may sell him for as many years as he 
has still to serve." 

It must not be supposed that the scenes and events 
described in the foregoing quotations from Mittelberger 
were everyday occurrences, at least so far as the suffer- 
ings, sickness and deaths at sea are concerned. They did 
occur, but he takes especial pains to represent everything 
at its worst. Many a ship came over in good condition, 
with no unusual sickness on board, and under the charge 
of humane ship captains. But so far as the sale and dis- 
posal of the passengers upon their arrival was concerned, 
that was an unvarying affair. It was, however, just what 
many of these people were aware of, and may be said to 
have bargained for, before they stepped on shipboard to 
come here, and they had only themselves to blame for the 
after-misery it entailed. It is not to be doubted that by 
far the greater number of these people were misled and 
deceived by the* Newlanders, and were ill prepared for 
the voyage besides, so that only disappointment, with many 
of the miseries rehearsed by Mittelberger, were realized by 
them on the voyage and when they arrived. 

The following passage from Loher is interesting : 
"The Germans, who for so many years were hired out 
to pay costs of transportation, are called * Servants ' 
(Knechte) or Redemptioners (Kauflinge). When they 
serve with English people, their language soon becomes 
one of mixed English and German. (A notable proof of 
this fact is supplied by Pastor Brunholtz, of the Lutheran 

186 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

Church, who recorded the following in his diary: " On 
March 25, 1745, a man called on me and requested me to 
go to Chester, and preach to the Germans there. * * * 
On the morning of June 30 I went to Chester, which is 
about 16 miles from Philadelphia. The Germans here, 
who for the most part are * servants,' as they are called, 
employed by English people, and so speaking a mixture 
of German and English." 115 ) In the country they are usually 
well treated and cared for, especially when good for- 
tune so wills it that they become inmates of a German 
household. If one of the latter secures an entire family, 
the man is generally occupied in field labor, and also 
carries on his trade if he has one, sometimes on his own 
account and at others on that of his master. It was 
allowed him to have a few head of cattle. The wife was 
generally a housemaid and a caretaker of children, while 
her own little ones were assigned to all kinds of light work. 
The servitude finally came to an end when the boy reached 
the age of 21 and the girl that of 18 years. They might 
not get married without the consent of their masters. A 
runaway was compelled to serve an additional week for 
each day's absence and six months for each week's ab- 
sence, and could, what was otherwise unlawful, be sold to 
another person for the period of his unexpired service. 

"When the term of service was over, a thrifty servant 
had saved quite a sum and secured a home for himself, for 
land was cheap. 116 Perhaps more than one-third of the 
original German immigrants and their descendants who 
are so well-to-do now, began life in this humble way. 
Their sons were already notable persons at the time 
of the Revolution. An Act of Parliament passed in 1756, 

115 MANN'S Hallische Nachrichten, Eng. Ed., p. 162. 

116 He could take up fifty acres of land at a nominal rent . 

Franz Loher Rioted. 187 

allowed servants, with the consent of their masters, to be- 
come soldiers. Many of these immigrants who brought 
considerable amounts of gold with them, hired themselves 
for a time until they should become acquainted with the 
country and people. The German and English-Irish Re- 
demptioners came mostly to Pennsylvania ; the English to 
Virginia, and the statistics of that State show that annually 
about 1,500 Redemptioners arrived there. In later times 
the service of these people became still more liberal. I have 
spoken to many householders and schoolmasters who were 
told by their fathers how they had been persuaded to come 
to America, but who, after serving half a year of their time, 
ran away. It was difficult to find a runaway from the set- 
tlements in the depths of the forest." 117 

117 LOHER'S Die Deutschen in Amerika, p. 82. 




" Yet here sits peace ; and rest sits here. 

These wide-boughed oaks, they house wise men 
The student and the sage austere ; 

And men of wondrous thought and ken. 
Here men of God in holy guise 

Invoke the peace of Paradise." 


this influx 
of persons willing 
to sell their personal ser- 
vices to pay the expenses 
of their transportation had 
been long in operation, 
the possibilities of turning 
it to profitable account 
were considered by sea- 
faring and other men, but 
more especially by a class 
of sharpers who, having 


* Practices of the Neivlanders. 189 

come to this country with a full knowledge of the desire of 
so many of their countrymen in Germany also to migrate, 
availed themselves of that fact, and of the circumstances 
surrounding it, to make money out of it. 

These man-traffickers or Seelen-Hendler, as the elder 
Saur denominated them, were known to the Dutch as 
" Zeilverkoopers," that is, soul-sellers, but among the 
Germans themselves more generally as Newlanders. 
These pestiferous fellows associated and entered into 
agreements ^with sea captains, merchants and ship owners 
to handle this immigrant traffic. They were almost with- 
out exception persons who had left their country for their 
country's good, had come to Pennsylvania as mere adven- 
turers and, after taking in the situation thoroughly, adopted 
schemes of rascality whereby they might defraud their 
more honest and unsuspecting countrymen. 

Of themselves they could not carry out their nefarious 
plans, but wherever such rogues are found still others will 
be ready to aid and abet them in their schemes. These 
base coparceners were found in ship masters, ship owners 
and commission merchants, on both sides of the Atlantic. 
The Newlanders went up and down the Rhine and the ad- 
jacent country, well dressed, pretending to be prosperous 
merchants in Philadelphia, and used all their powers of 
persuasion to induce the humble peasantry to dispose of 
their small belongings and embark for the land of 
promise. 118 They commonly received a commission of 
seven dollars per head for every immigrant they could 
bring to the ship owner for embarcation, and a free pas- 
sage for the Newlander himself besides. When two, three, 

118 " Many Newlanders boast that they are rich merchants in Pennsylvania, 
that they sail in their own ships, and own houses in Germantown. Others 
are dressed in costly clothes, wearing wigs and ruffles to make an imposing 
appearance." SAUR'S German paper, October 16, 1749. 

190 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

four and five hundred souls embarked on a single vessel, 
it will readily be seen what a profitable business it was 
that these scoundrels were engaged in. Being so lucra- 
tive, it is little wonder that so many followed it. We are 
told that in the year 1749 a l ne upwards of one hundred 
and thirty were engaged in it. 119 Sometimes, however, 
these precious scoundrels got their deserts. Here and there 
a German prince was to be found who was well acquainted 
with the nefarious character of these men, and the disrepu- 
table business they were engaged in. They retained an 
affection for their subjects even though the latter were leav- 
ing the Fatherland by hundreds and thousands. When, 
therefore, these Newlanders made themselves especially 
obnoxious some of them were seized, imprisoned and put 
to hauling dirt on the streets and other menial occupations. 120 


Pastor H. M. Muhlenberg, who was ever solicitous for 
the well-being of his misguided and maltreated country- 
men, as was to be expected, also pays his respects to these 
Newlanders. In a letter written to a friend in Halle, in 
1763, he says concerning them : "I cannot forbear mak- 
ing some remarks touching Neivlanders^ in order to caution 
our German countrymen. I do not speak of such as re- 
turn to Germany for their patrimony, or to collect money 
for others, who reside here, and who sometimes use the 

119 Es sind dieses Jahr, 130 Neulaender drussen. CHRISTOPHER SAUR'S 
Pennsylvania Berichte, September 16, 1749. 

120 So haben verschiedene Herrn im Reiche beschlossen dass die boese Neu- 
laender, oder seelen-verkaeufer, anhalten und verhindern wollen dass ihre 
unter thanen sollen aus ihren Reiche nicht gekauft werden von den Rotter- 
darner Kaufleuten. Zu dem ende haben die Herrn im Reiche etliche solcher 
Neulaender in Gefaengnisse gesetzt in schul-karren geschlossen und dreck 
fahren lassen. SAUR'S Pennsylvania Berichte, December i, 1754. 


Pastot Muhfenberg's Narrative, 

money collect^ - hase merchandise, which tbry 

in our markr**. Thi* is a lawful transaction. * * * IB 

spe; .iers I mean such as are not dtlptwt 

i'*> "-, honestly. I mean those who so'Ucrt 

powt*; ?y to collect money in Germany for others, 

* o.<* to collect for themselves who are a 

. th* service of others urging upon Ger- 

r?>rii} upon them, by means fair or foul, 

\r?it f and immigrate to the New 

$<$ u*uai course pursued by them is, first *o 

iiatance of merchants in Holland, 
receive free passage, also a stipulated tia of 
*rr every family or unmarried person, they cati 
on to leave their homes for Holland. To accoir?- 
their mission successfully, they resort to various arti- 
fices. As a studied prelude to the tragedy, they appear 
gorgeously attired, make an imposing display with their 
watches, using every means to create the impression ths*. 
they are persons of immense wealth. 

'* Thus the credulous are often deceived hee*m< Anx- 
ious to erm<rr-m ; -irjd live in s r" .'--.{i.-r " : ^ ^ v 
as Pennsylvania. By thoff- pfaa.*)b*' >*? and 
glowing description* of A***erkn u ' ^jreation is made 
that in Pennsylvania the Elyian n'eJds are to be found 
that every desirable vei ^ rows spontaneously ; hills 
and mountains are pregnant with unalloyed gold and sil- 

1J1 Witmer's Bridge, one of the oldest and moat picturesque of the stone 
bridges in Pennsylvania, spans the Conestoga river a short distance beyond the 
aits of Lancaster city. A safe crossing over this stream was rmtcb 
iccommodate the great volume of traffic carried on between I'hi la- 
interior of the State. Its erection is due to the energy and en- 
*rnon of German descent, Mr. Abraham Witmer. who 
;ae task of construction in 1799, and cotn- 
brtd^i i in a perfect state of preservation to-day and 

Pastor Muhlenbergs Narrative. 191 

money collected to purchase merchandise, which they sell 
in our markets. This is a lawful transaction. * * * In 
speaking of the Newlanders I mean such as are not disposed 
to support themselves honestly. I mean those who solicit 
powers of attorney to collect money in Germany for others, 
they having none to collect for themselves who are a 
the same time in the service of others urging upon Ger- 
mans, till they prevail upon them, by means fair or foul, 
to forsake their Vaterland and immigrate to the New 
World. The usual course pursued by them is, first to 
seek the acquaintance of merchants in Holland, from 
whom they receive free passage, also a stipulated sum of 
money, for every family or unmarried person, they can 
prevail on to leave their homes for Holland. To accom- 
plish their mission successfully, they resort to various arti- 
fices. As a studied prelude to the tragedy, they appear 
gorgeously attired, make an imposing display with their 
watches, using every means to create the impression that 
they are persons of immense wealth. 

" Thus the credulous are often deceived, become anx- 
ious to emigrate and live in so prosperous and rich a country 
as Pennsylvania. By these plausible representations and 
glowing descriptions of America, the impression is made 
that in Pennsylvania the Elysian fields are to be found 
that every desirable vegetable grows spontaneously ; hills 
and mountains are pregnant with unalloyed gold and sil- 

121 Witmer's Bridge, one of the oldest and most picturesque of the stone 
bridges in Pennsylvania, spans the Conestoga river a short distance beyond the 
eastern limits of Lancaster city. A safe crossing over this stream was much 
needed to accommodate the great volume of traffic carried on between Phila- 
delphia and the interior of the State. Its erection is due to the energy and en- 
terprise of a single person of German descent, Mr. Abraham Witmer, who 
with his own resources undertook the task of construction in 1799, and com- 
pleted it in 1800. The bridge is in a perfect state of preservation to-day and 
accommodates a heavy business traffic. 

192 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

ver ; that the fountains gush copious and ceaseless streams 
of milk and honey. The Newlanders aver that in Penn- 
sylvania the menial servant becomes the independent lord ; 
the spinster the perfect lady ; the laborious husband soon 
plays nobleman at ease ; the plodding care-worn peasant 
and the toiling mechanic are created Lord Barons. * * * 
Many are naturally disposed to improve their temporal 
condition, consequently they desire to live in such a country. 
In Europe the country is overburdened with people the 
labor of the poorer class is not in demand the taxes are 
enormous the service to the lords of the manor intoler- 
able. Under such circumstances, the Newlander easily 
prevails with many to leave their hearths and homes. In 
haste the Germans convert their effects into money, hon- 
estly pay their debts, if they have any. The balance of 
the money is placed into the hands of the Newlander for 
safe keeping. Finally they enter upon their exodus from 
home. The expenses of the Rhine passage are charged 
to their account. On their arrival in Holland, if detained 
there, Dutch merchants advance the poorer classes some 
money, which is added to the bill for contingencies. The 
several sums with a poll tax 122 and ocean fare, swell the 
amount enormously. Before immigrants embark they 
must sign articles of agreement written in English, and 
the Newlanders persuade the people that they are their im- 
partial friends to see that they have justice done them. 
The more human freight the ship captains can crowd into 
a ship the more profitable it is for them, if they do not die 
on the way, otherwise they may lose by it. For that reason 
the ships are kept clean and all kinds of precautions are 
taken to keep the passengers in good health, and to bring 
them to market in good condition. In former years they 

122 This is an allusion to the tax levied on foreigners. 

Pastor Muhlenberg's Narrative. 


were not so careful, and allowed many to die. When pa- 
rents died on ship board leaving children behind them the 
captains and Newlanders acted as guardians of the chil- 
dren, and took what property was left by the parents so 
that when the children reached the shore, they were sold to 
pay their and their parents' passage money. Children un- 

tfof* V~r7l-vt*Mv^+jr 



der six are gratuitously disposed of. The chests and 
goods of the deceased are sold ; the money thus realized 
squares the account. Such heaven-abhorrent deception, 
led to the formation of an association in Philadelphia to 
assist as far as was possible, and protect them in their 
right. So soon as the ships in Holland are fully freighted 
they set sail. The hardships that must be encountered are 
made lighter through the sweet hope that they speedily 
reach the new world and attain their longed for Paradise. 
" Finally the ship reaches Philadelphia, where mer- 
chants and ship owners receive the bills of freight and 
articles of agreement subscribed by the immigrants. Be- 
fore debarking, passengers are examined by a medical 

194 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

officer, whether they are free from contagious diseases. 
If all is right the immigrants are marched to the Court 
House to take the oath of fealty to the King of Great 
Britain; after which they are taken back to the. ship. 
Public notice is then given that German passengers will be 
sold for their freight. Those having means to pay are 
allowed to leave the vessel. To the less fortunate unbe- 
mittelte without means, the ship is a mart. Purchasers 
make their selections, agree afterwards with their preempted 
servants for a stipulated period of service. Young and 
unmarried persons of both sexes are sold first and their 
future condition depends much on their master's disposition, 
situation and rank in society. Married people, widows, and 
the infirm are dull sale. If they have children these are 
sold, and the parents' fare charged to the children's ac- 
count, and the children are consequently obliged to serve 
a longer time. Children are in this way not infrequently 
separated forever from their parents. Some children are 
sold to English masters and in this way forget their mother 
tongue. By having their children sold, parents are allowed 
to leave the ship. Still, their condition is unenviable ; they 
are destitute, poorly clad, the infirmities of age often 
weighing them down, making them appear as if they had 
emerged from a sepulchre. 

" Many of them are compelled through their poverty, 
to beg their bread from door to door from their German 
countrymen. The English usually close their doors against 
them, through fear of infectious diseases. These things 
cause one's heart to bleed, to see and hear fellow mortals, 
who had been persuaded to leave a Christian country, la- 
menting, weeping, wringing their hands in sad despair, 
because of their misery, and the dispersion of their chil- 
dren. Little did the parents anticipate such things. 

Neivlanders and Sub- Agents. 195 

" Some having become exasperated beyond measure, in- 
voke the angry elements of heaven and conjure up the 
denizens of hell, to crush to atoms the Newlanders, mer- 
chants in Holland and ship owners who so grossly deceived 
them. As those cannot hear the denunciations of their 
victims, they are of course not moved to compassion. 
Many of the Newlanders, who both hear and see these 
things, only laugh at their victims, giving them the taunting 
comfort which the priests of old gave to Judas Iscariot 
4 what is that to us, see thou to it.' The children of poor 
parents, if kept in hardship, learning that because of the 
non-sale of father or mother they have to serve the longer, 
often became incensed, yea even embittered against their 
own parents." 123 

The immigrants that met with the readiest sale and 
brought the highest prices were mechanics and laboring 
men. That was the kind of labor most in demand both in 
city and country. Of course, when these conditions were 
united with good health and youth, or early middle age, 
the servant was not long in finding a purchaser and master. 
Old men and women were not desired, because their days 
of greatest usefulness were behind them. 

There were Newlanders who had still other men or 
agents under them, engaged in this nefarious practice. 
Dr. Ernest Otto Hopp, of Germany, in his book on this 
German slavery in this country, tells of one Heerbrand 
who achieved unusual notoriety as a procurer of ignorant 
Germans for America. He had a considerable number of 
men in his pay who were continually procuring victims, 
kidnapping beggars and vagrants who had no connections, 
paying two florins for every one delivered to him. He 
was also a ship captain and is said to have alone brought 
six hundred of these people to America. 

*Hallische Nachrichten, pp. 997-1012. 

196 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

Ship captains had a lien on their passengers until the 
ships' charges were paid, and Professor Kalm in his travels 
tells that when he reached Philadelphia in September, 
1748, on the ship Mary, upon going on shore with the 
captain, the latter turned to his mate and charged him 
" not to let any one of the twenty-three Germans and their 
families go out of the vessel unless he paid for his passage, 
or some one else did it for him." 124 

Gottlieb Mittelberger also pays his respects to these ras- 
cals in his usual vigorous and off-hand manner. After 
saying that the large emigration to America is due to the 
persuasions and deceptions practiced by the Newlanders, 
he says : 

4 * These men-thieves inveigle people of every rank and 
profession, among them many soldiers, scholars, artists 
and mechanics. They rob the princes and lords of their 
subjects and take them to Rotterdam or Amsterdam to be 
sold there. They receive there from their merchants for 
every person of ten years and over 3 florins or a ducat ; 
whereas the merchants get in Philadelphia 60, 70 or 80 
florins for such a person, in proportion as said person has 
incurred more or less debts during the voyage. When 
such a Newlander has collected a ' transport/ and if it 
does not suit him to accompany them to America, he stays 
behind, passes the winter in Holland or elsewhere; in the 
spring he again obtains money in advance for emigrants 
from his merchants, goes to Germany again, pretending 
that he had come from Pennsylvania with the intention of 
purchasing all sorts of merchandise which he was going to 
take there. 

"Frequently these Newlanders say that they had re- 
ceived powers of attorney from some countrymen or from 

124 PETER KALM'S Travels in America. 

Kalrrfs Book on North America. 197 




Academiens 0efaHniniJi 



*&&&. WiiSS^lw 

^onflt weuifa 2Btcnffap^Academien. 

Tom, tt 




198 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

the authorities of Pennsylvania to obtain legacies or in- 
heritances for these countrymen ; and that they would avail 
themselves of this good and sure opportunity to take their 
friends, brothers or sisters, or even their parents with them ; 
and it has often happened that such old people followed 
them, trusting to the persuasion of these Newlanders that 
they would be better provided for. 

66 Such old people they seek to get away with them in 
order to entice other people to follow them. Thus they 
have seduced many away who said if such and such rela- 
tives of theirs went to America, they would risk it too. 
These men-thieves resort to various tricks, never forgetting 
to display their money before the poor people, but which 
is nothing else but a bait from Holland, and accursed blood- 

"When these men-thieves persuade persons of rank, 
such as nobles, learned or skilled people who cannot pay 
their passage and cannot give secu- 
rity, these are treated just like ordi- 
nary poor people, and must remain 
on board the ship till some one 
comes and buys them from the cap- 
tain, and when they are released at 
last from the ship, they must serve 
their lords and masters, by whom 
SEAI, OF PROVINCE they have been bought, like com- 
(Used by Supreme Court). mon day _ laborers . Thdr rank> 

skill and learning avail them nothing, for here none but 
laborers and mechanics are wanted. But the worst is that 
such people, who are not accustomed to work, are treated 
to blows and cuffs, like cattle, till they have learned the 
hard work. Many a one, on finding himself thus shame- 
fully deceived by the Newlanders, has shortened his own 


Mittelberger Denounces Newlanders. 199 

life, or has given way to despair, so that he could not be 
helped, or has run away, only to fare worse afterwards 
than before. 

" It often happens that the merchants in Holland make 
a secret contract with their captains and the Newlanders, 
to the effect that the latter must take the ships with their 
human freight to another place in America, and not to 
Pennsylvania where these people want to go, if they think 
they can elsewhere find a better market for them. Many 
a one who has a good friend or acquaintance, or a relative 
in Pennsylvania to whose helping care he has trusted, finds 
himself thus grievously disappointed in consequence of 
such infamous deception, being separated from friends 
whom he will never see again in this or in that country. 
Thus emigrants are compelled in Holland to submit to 
the wind and to the captain's will, because they cannot 
know at sea where the ship is steered to. But all this is 
the fault of the Newlander and of some unscrupulous 
dealers in human flesh in Holland. 

" Many people who go to Philadelphia, entrust their 
money, which they have brought with them from their 
homes, to these Newlanders, but these thieves often re- 
main in Holland with the money, or sail from there with 
another ship to another English colony, so that the poor 
defrauded people, when they reach the country, have no 
other choice but to serve or sell their children, if they 
have any, only to get away from the ship. 

4 'The following remarkable case may serve as an ex- 
ample. In 1753 a noble lady, N. V., came with her two 
half grown daughters and a young son to Philadelphia. 
On the trip down the Rhine she entrusted more than i ,000 
rix-dollars to a Newlander who was well known to her. 
But when the ship on which the lady had taken passage, 

2OO The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

started from Holland, this villain remained behind with the 
money ; in consequence of which the lady found herself in 
such want and distress that her two daughters were com- 
pelled to serve. In the following spring this poor lady 
sent her son to Holland to search for the embezzler of her 
money, but at the time of my departure, in 1754, nothing 
had as yet been heard of him, and it was even rumored 
that the young gentleman had died during his voyage." 125 
It is not easy to tell of all the hardships, indignities and 
injustices that were practiced upon these people, not always, 
it is true, but often. Many to whom they were indentured 
were wholly unscrupulous, and intent upon getting every- 
thing possible out of them, no matter what the terms of the 
indentures were. When possible such papers were treated 
as if they did not exist. They were kept beyond the time 
of service agreed upon. They were not sent to school ac- 
cording to promise, and although both German and Eng- 
lish were to be taught them, only the latter language was 
employed. Sometimes they were restrained from attend- 
ing church. Hard masters there were who often treated 
them cruelly, requiring labor at their hands which they were 
not bound to perform. The avarice of the masters fre- 
quently kept them from providing the necessary sustenance 
and clothing for their helpless servants. 126 

125 MITTELBERGER'S Reise nach Pennsylvanian, pp. 38-41. 

i26 Di e Berschwerungen armer Knecht sind mannichf altig. Of t'wollen die 
Meister ihre verbundenen Knecht iiber die zeit behalten. Oft versagen sie 
ihnen den in Fall, dass sie als Kinder verbunden wurden, mit ausgehalte- 
nen unterricht. Oft geben sie denselben nur im Englischen wenn er auch 
im Deutschen ausgedungen war. Oft halten sie sie von ihrem Gottesdienste 
zurreck. Oft behandeln sie dieselben mit Wuth und Grans amkeit. Oft 
weisen sie ihnen Arbeit an dazu sie nicht verpflichtet waren. Oft ver- 
bietet ihnen der Geiz den gehoerigen unterhalt und Kleidtmg zurechen." 
PROF. KUNZE'S Rede vor der Deutschen Gesellschaft zu Philadelphia, 1782. 




" Ein armer Wand'rer bin ich hier, 

Und oftmals Schwer die Noth ; 
Oft weh und einsam ist es mir 

Denn Wieb und Kind sind tod ! 
So singe ich das Trauerlied 

Und Sehnsucht driick't mich sehr, 
Und in mei'm Hertz schlaft Weib und Kind, 

Wie Perlen tief i'm Meer ! " 

Redemptioners never had a 
more sincere, able or faithful 
friend than Christopher Saur the 
elder, the famous Germantown printer 
and publisher. He was one of the 
most prominent of all the Germans 
in the Province during many years. 
A godly man, his heart was alive to 
the wrongs and indignities that were 
heaped upon so many of his unfor- 
tunate countrymen. His presence in or near the city of 
Philadelphia made him acquainted from day to day with 
what was going on among these unfortunate people. As 
the publisher of a German newspaper, he took occasion to 



2O2 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

keep this human traffic and everything connected with it 
before the public in the columns of his paper, Der Hoch 
Deutsche Pennsylvanische Berichte. Almost every number 
during the seasons of arrival, had paragraphs relating to 
the coming of vessels, the condition of the immigrants, their 
treatment, their wrongs and of much else which he no doubt 
hoped would have a salutary effect upon the public con- 
science, and in that way lead to the amelioration of the hard 
conditions under which they voyaged and their treatment 
upon their arrival. 

Not only as throwing much light on various phases of 
the Redemptioner traffic, but also as showing Saur's un- 
wearied assiduity in stirring up the public to better the con- 
dition of the German Redemptioner immigrants, a series 
of extracts from his newspaper are here given, and also 
some from The American Weekly Mercury, an English 
newspaper. 127 

From The American Weekly Mercury, Philadelphia, 
September i, 1720 : 

" On the 30 (arrived) the ship Laurel John Coppel, from 
Leverpool and Cork with 240 odd Palatinate Passengers 
come here to settle." 

The above is the earliest record of any ship carrying 
Palatines I have met. Additional interest attaches to its 
arrival as it is most probably the vessel on which the well- 
known clergyman, Rev. J. Ph. Boehm, came to this coun- 
try, August 30, 1720. 

The first public notice of the Redemptioner traffic that 

127 1 am under many obligations to my learned and courteous antiquarian 
friend, Prof. W. J. Hinke, of the Ursinus School of Theology, for valuable 
aid along this line of my researches. 


nLR c 



2O2 The German. ImmtgrQitvn a#.v 

keep this human iritf&c md werything conn-. h it 

before the public ;* ffcu. coHvinrA^ of Uis pape- 
Deutsche /-V* *$;;/* *<**/*/.** Bf.rickie* Almost e\ . 
during thr < * M arrival, had paragraphs relating to 

the COR*'- : &* condition of the immigrants, 

*&* a.ttd of much else which he no doubt 
i ^ *>!.utHry effect upon the public con- 
!**-; l^ttd to the amelioration of the hard 
they voyaged and their treatment 

Not only a tbrtwmg t&uch light ou various phases of 
the RedeaipUontr frafe* but &1K> .i showing Saur's un- 
wearied <iM;duity Ui Htirriiig up the puhlic to better the con- 
dition of the Genrur. Rede-mptioeer immigrants, a series 
oi extracts <r'<m his n^wftpaper are here pvea* and also 
from 7'^<? American Wttkh M*r-'*** " 

From 7%^ American Weekly Mt.?;--fy f I 
September i, 1720 : 

'* On the 30 (arrived) the ship Laurd John Copp 
Leverpool and Cork with 24.0 odd Palatinate /!MI>? 
come here to settle," 

The above is the earliest record of any ship carrying 
Palatines I have met. Additional interest attache* t& ft* 
arrival as it is most probabJ y the vessei on which the v 
known clergyman, Rev. J. Ph. Boehm, came to this coun- 
try, August 30, 1720. 

The nrst public js^ske of the Redemptioner traffic that 

127 1 am under flMHtf ttei A-.n-'d *nd conrtou9 antiquarian 

friend, Prof. W. J. i; 'be rmnu School of Theology, for valuable 

aid along this line of my rttearche 




Testimony of the Early Press. 203 

I have found is in The American Weekly Mercury ', pub- 
lished in' Philadelphia in 1722 ; it reads as follows : 

" Thomas Denham to his good country friends adviseth : 
That he has some likely servants to dispose of. One hun- 
dred Palatines for five years, at 10 a head." 

From The American Weekly Mercury, November 7, 

* ' Those Palatines who have hitherto neglected to pay for 
their passages in the ship James Goodwill, are to take 
notice that if they do not pay me on board of the said 
ship, or to Charles Reid of Philadelphia the sum from 
them respectively due, the 2Oth day of this Instant No- 
vember, they will be proceeded against according to Law 
by David Crocket." 

From The American Weekly Mercury, November 7, 

" Just arrived from London, in the ship Borden, William 
Harbert, Commander, a parcel of young likely men ser- 
vants, consisting of Husbandmen, Joyners, Shoemakers, 
Weavers, Smiths, Brick-makers, Bricklayers, Sawyers, 
Taylers, Stay-Makers, Butchers, Chair makers, and sev- 
eral other trades, and are to be sold very reasonable either 
for ready money, wheat Bread, or Flour, by Edward 
Hoone, in Philadelphia." 

As the above ship is not listed among those enumerated 
in Rupp's Thirty Thousand Names nor among those in Vol. 
XVII. of the second series of Pennsylvania Archives it is 
most probable that they were Irish, Scotch and English im- 
migrants who, as has already been stated, were compelled 
to pass through all the conditions of servitude imposed 
upon the Germans, and who came under like impoverished 
circumstances, but not to be registered. 

204 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

From The American Weekly Mercury, February 18, 

" Lately arrived from London, a parcel of very likely 
English Servants, men and women, several of the men 
Tradesmen; to be sold reasonable and Time allowed for 
payment. By Charles Read of Philadelphia, or Capt. John 
Ball, on board his ship, at Anthony Millkinsorts Wharf" 

From The American Weekly Mercury, May 22, 1729 : 
66 There is just arrived from Scotland, a parcel of choice 
Scotch Servants; Taylors, Weavers, Shoemakers and 
ploughmen, some for five and others for seven years ; Im- 
ported by James Coults, they are on board a sloop lying 
opposite to the Market Street Wharf, where there is a boat 
constantly attending to carry any one on board that wants 
to see them. 

" N. B. The said James Coults is to be spoke with, at 
Andrew Bradford's, at the sign of the Bible, in Second 

From The American Weekly Mercury, May 22, 1729: 

44 Just arrived from London in the ship Providence, Capt. 

Jonathan Clarke, a parcel of very likely servants, most 

Tradesmen, to be sold on reasonable Terms ; the ship now 
lies at Mr. Lawrence's Wharf, where either the Master or 
the said Lawrence are to be spoke with." 

From The American Weekly Mercury, August 28, 1729. 

"Lately arrived from Plymouth in the ship John and 

Anne, Thomas Warcut, Master, a parcel of likely servants 

Testimony of the Early Press. 205 

on board the said ship, to be sold reasonable for money or 
country produce ; credit given if required. 

" The above named ship is now lying at William Fish- 
bourn^ s Wharf and will be ready to sail for Plymouth in 
three weeks after." 

From The Pennsylvania Gazette, June, 1742 : 
"To be sold. A likely Servant Woman, having three 
years and a half to serve. She is a good spinner." 

From Der Hoch Deutsche Pennsylvanische Berichte, 
Philadelphia, February 16, 1745 : 

" We have heard of the ship Argyle, Captain Stettman, 
from Rotterdam for Philadelphia, with Germans. It was 
one hundred hours distant from England when it met two 
Spanish war ships which put the Captain and some passen- 
gers on a Holland ship by which they were put on shore in 
England. Another ship, the H. Andra, Captain Braum, 
bound for Philadelphia with 300 Germans, who reached 
Charleston, Carolina ; some of the passengers have arrived 
in Philadelphia who each had still three doubloons to pay ; 
others reached New York who had money and some of these 
are still expected here. It seems that while the ship is 
again being loaded it is convenient for them to journey 
here. These people say the Captain offered in case they 
would sign a new contract, he would convey them to 
Charleston within four days ; but in case they refused then 
they must travel eight weeks more to Philadelphia. But 
if they insist in going direct to that city he would let them 
go hungry, he not having enough food to feed them. 

" Still another ship with Germans bound for Philadelphia, 
was already in the Delaware but went back and entered 
the Susquehanna and so reached Maryland where the ship 
will again be loaded. 

206 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

44 Another ship reached Philadelphia with 400 Germans 
and it is said not many over 50 remain alive. They re- 
ceived their bread ration every two weeks and many ate 
in 4, 5 and 6 days what should have done them 15 days. 
And when they get no cooked food for 8 days their bread 
was all so much the sooner ; and when they had to wait 3 
days over the three weeks, those without money became 
enfeebled, and those who had money could get plenty of 
flour from the captain, at three pence sterling per pound 
and a quart bottle of wine for seven thalers. A certain 
man whose wife was nearly famished bought every day 
meal and wine for her and their children, thus kept them 
alive : another man who had eaten all his week's bread 
asked the captain for a little bread, but in vain. He then 
came to the captain and requested the latter to throw them 
overboard at once rather than allow them to die by inches. 
He brought his meal sack to the captain and asked him to 
put a small quantity into it : the captain took the bag, put 
in some sand and stones and returned it to the man. The 
latter shed some tears, laid down and died, together with 
his wife. The living had as much to pay as before for the 
bread that should have been given to the dead. When 
such people have no Christian love or mercy on each other, 
we may well ask if there is no justice in this bepraised 
land, and we will be answered, Yes, but he who does not 
know the road thither, must pay dearly for his experience. 
After having fasted long, no man is ready to bell the cat. 
Should Cain return to earth in our time and interview a 
good lawyer, with gold enough, he would be able to prove 
he had not even seen Abel." 

From The Pennsylvania Berichte, May 16, 1748 : 

" Robert and Amos Strettle, of Philadelphia, announce 

Saur's German Newspaper. 


208 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

that their contracts with their debtors expire on June 30, 
and all the Germans who came to Philadelphia from Rot- 
terdam on their ship and have not paid their passage money 
will be legally proceeded against unless they pay by that 

From The Pennsylvania Berichte, Philadelphia, August 
i, 1749: 

"A letter has been received in Germantown, written in 
the beginning of August, 1749, in Virginia, in which two 
potters say they sailed from Rotterdam for Philadelphia. 
Their company contracted with the Captain of the ship to 
pay ten doubloons for their passage, but he deceived them 
and carried them all to Virginia, and sold them for five 
years. They ask whether there is no help for them, as 
they never entered into such a contract. It appears the 
ship belonged to the Captain and was not consigned to any 
agent in Philadelphia." 

From The Pennsylv ania Berichte^ Germantown, Novem- 
ber 16, 1749 : 

"The ships on which so many persons had put their 
chests, and which were so long in coming over, arrived on 
the 9 and n of the present month in Philadelphia. We 
hear that many of these chests were broken open. It is 
customary that when a ship captain receives goods and 
wares for delivery, he must turn them over to the owner 
as he receives them when the freight is paid, and what is 
lacking must be made good by him. But the Germans 
pay and must pay when their chests are robbed or when 
famished with hunger, even though their contracts are ex- 
pressly to the contrary." 

From The Pennsylvania Berichte, December i, 1749: 
" It is well known that after ships arrive in Philadelphia 

Testimony of the Early Press. 209 

with Newlanders, there is always a new crop of spurious 
twenty-shilling Philadelphia bills in circulation, dated 
August 10, 1739." 

From The Pennsylvania Berichte, Germantown, July 
16, 1750: 

" During the past summer AbrahanVBar, of Madedeche, 
took with him on his trip to Rotterdam, two beggar boys 
who bound themselves to serve seven years for their pas- 
sage money. When they reached here they learned that 
they could not be made to serve longer than 4 years or 
until the age of 21 years." 

From The Pennsylvania Berichte^ No. 123, August 16, 

" Six ships with Irish servants have arrived at Phila- 
delphia, and two ships with German Newcomers. Some 
say 1 8 more are on their way here ; others say 24 and still 
others 10,000 persons." 

From The Pennsylvania Berichte, Germantown, De- 
cember 16, 1750 : 

" Capt. Hasselwood has arrived from Holland with the 
latest ship that brought Germans. It is the fourteenth that 
has come laden with Germans this year. 4,317 have regis- 
tered in the Court House. (The last one mutinied against 
the captain and all the chests of the salesmen and them- 
selves are under arrest.) Besides these, 1,000 servants and 
passengers arrived from Ireland and England." 

From The Pennsylvania Berichte^ Germantown, June 
16, 1752: 

" On the 5th of the present month a ship with a few Ger- 

2io The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

mans reached Philadelphia. It is a year since they left 
Germany and they were five months in reaching the Dela- 
ware, which being frozen, they sailed for the island of 
Antiqua in the West Indies. They suffered much from lack 

of food and from scurvy, 
from which many died, 
among the latter being the 
captain himself. Out of 200 
passengers only 19 sur- 
vived, besidesthe helmsman 
and two sailors. It is said 
they were Suabians and it 
became a second nature to 
them to use an oath to every 
second word, and they 
wished to each other that 
thunder and lightning 
would strike them. The 
kind of religion these people 
have is not known, but they 
use a hundred thousand 
cuss words." 


From The Pennsylvania Berichte, Boston, September 

25, 1752: 

" On last Tuesday a ship arrived from Holland with 300 
Germans, men, women and children. Some of them will 
settle in Germantown, and the rest in the eastern part of 
the Province. There were 40 births on board during the 
voyage, Among the mechanics and artists were a great 
many glass workers, and a factory will be established for 
them as soon as possible." 

From The Pennsylvania Berichte, New York, October 
16, 1752: 

Immigrants Tricked by Newlanders. 211 

" During the past week came Captain Pikeman with 

From The Pennsylvania Berichte, October 16, 1752 : 
"From a letter received from Charleston, South Caro- 
lina, we learn that a vessel reached that harbor after a 
voyage of 18 weeks* duration. The people were all suf- 
fering from hunger and thirst. Another vessel that came 
from Rotterdam by way of Liverpool, also arrived with a 
cargo of Palatines, all of whom were fresh and well. 
When the Captains are stingy and save the money that 
should be used in buying provisions, the poor passengers 
die of starvation, while their friends must pay for their 
deaths. If however the Captains are liberal and buy suf- 
ficient food, then it is just to pay for the food." 

From The Pennsylvania Berichte^ Germantown, Decem- 
ber i, 1752 : 

"While tyrannical Sea Captains for many years past 
kept the poor German immigrants in such a plight, that 
many of them died, the Government of the Province 
passed a law that when the newly arrived Germans made 
complaint hereafter, that they were not allowed the room 
on shipboard that was contracted for, nor the food agreed 
upon, the Captain should pay a fine of ten pounds. But 
nevertheless we hear that although the poor people almost 
died of hunger : when they reached the river Delaware 
they were informed by the Newlanders that visitors would 
arrive and would ask them whether they had room enough, 
and sufficient to eat, then they should all exclaim Yes ! 
yes ! but if they complained, they would not be allowed 
to land under four weeks' time. When the passengers 
are therefore tired of the sea and ship and of the want 



212 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

of food, all who were able to do so called out, Yes ! yes. 
If they complained after they landed, concerning a lack 
of food and space, then there was no help for them. The 
tyrannical captains would rather spend a hundred pounds 
among Newlanders and visitors than a thousand pounds 
in fines." 

From The Pennsylvania Berichte, March i, 1753 : 
" Captain Hyman Thompson, being about to return to 
Europe, all those who came over on his Ship, and are still 
indebted to him, are notified that the accounts have been 
placed in the hands of Mrs. Carl and Alexander Stedmann. 
If they do not come forward promptly they will be legally 
proceeded against and put into the costs." 

From The Pennsylvania Berichte, September 16, 1755 : 
" Many Redemptioners having joined the army 'in Phila- 
delphia, they will again be delivered to their former mas- 
ters. They are sharply questioned whether they are 
servants, but when they declare they are not, when they 
really are, they are whipped." 

From The Pennsylvania Berichte, Germantown, Feb- 
ruary 16, 1756 : 

" We have heard during the past fall that a ship with 
Germans was driven on the coast of France and many were 
drowned. The rest were taken to England and sent over 
in a merchant vessel to this country, and it is known that 
they were five months on the sea, when the ship sprung 
a leak which could not be found, compelling all on board 
to labor at the pumps for seven days and nights. At last 
they were overtaken by a ship bound for Charleston, when 
the Captain of the latter took off sixteen families with the 

Sales of German Redemptioners. 213 

necessary provisions and nothing else, soon after which the 
ship went down while the rescued ones reached Carolina." 

From The Pennsylvania Berichte, Philadelphia, August 
16, 1756: 

" A ship having arrived from Ireland with servants, some 
artisans, those interested can call on Thomas Gardens, at 
Mr. ParnelPs wharf, or on the Captain Nathanael Ambler 
on the ship. They are Irish.'* 

From The fennsy Ivania Staatsbote, November 9, 1764: 

" To-day the ship Boston, Captain Mathem Carr, ar- 
rived from Rotterdam, with several hundred Germans. 
Among them are all kinds of mechanics, day laborers and 
young people, men as well as women, and boys and girls. 
All those who desire to procure such servants are requested 
to call on David Rundle, on Front Street." 

From The Pennsylvania Staatsbote, December 14, 


"To be sold. A Dutch Apprentice lad, who has five 
years and three months to serve ; he has been brought up 
to the tailor's business. Can work well." 

From The Pennsylvania Staatsbote, January 18, 1774: 

" There are still 50 or 60 German persons newly arrived 
from Germany. They can be found with the widow Kri- 
derin, at the sign of the Golden Swan. Among them are 
two Schoolmasters, Mechanics, Farmers, also young chil- 
dren as well as boys and girls. They are desirous of serv- 
ing for their passage money." 

214 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

From The Pennsylvania Staatsbote, April 25, 1785 : 
" For sale, a bound German maid-servant. She is a 
strong, fresh and sound person, and is not sold because of 
any defect, but only because she is unsuited to the work 
she is engaged in. She understands all kinds of farm labor, 
is very affable and suitable for a hotel. She still has five 
years to serve." 

Not only farmers and mechanics were among these 
people, but students and schoolmasters also came into this 
work-market. Pastor Kunze tells us that he himself had 
this experience : A student who arrived was secured, and 
with his help a Latin school was started. 128 In 1793 the 
elders of the Lutheran and Reformed church at Ham- 
burg, Berks county, secured a schoolmaster, John Fried- 
rich Schock, who served them three years and four 
months, in consideration of having his passage money 
paid, and receiving the customary outfit (gebrauchlichen 
Freiheits Kleidung) at the end of his term of service. 

As an example of the manner in which the arrivals of 
ships bringing German passengers whose passage money 
was unpaid, was brought to public attention, I quote the 
following announcement from Bradford's Journal for 
September 29, 1773 : 


"Just arrived in the ship Britannia, James Peter, 
Master. A number of healthy GERMAN PASSENGERS, 
chiefly young people, whose freights are to be paid to 
Joshua Fisher and Sons, or to the Master on board the 
Ship lying off the draw-bridge." 

*Hallischc Nachrichten, p. 1477. 

cc: ;/ 
c ^ 

214 Tfte Germ&n ftxm< 

Prom Tht 

"For salt, , 

strong, fre<*h 4: .f* * not nld K** 

\w ,J.' -. . - %- _ . *. : 

any defe^, ^nsuited to the work 

! -al) kinds of farm labor, 
ibr a hotel She still has five 

^!H*#*ei were among these 

*Iq came into this 

m -$M\ he himself had 

this expewr- ^^ WS|fe secured, and 

with his hdp A ? r n ^^ thc 

elders of th^ L^fe.rafc *.t; lt'*i<*^^ . ..** Ham* 

burg, Berk*?' cotufty. ?*<. aired a. sc-^-*#r4?^*> 
rich Schock, who wtTcd. theui ihr.p /^^.* 
months , in v oom^emicHi oi having hi* f^t&*g* ; 
paid, and receiving thc customary outfit (gebrauchlichen 
Freiheits Kleidung) at th end of his term of service. 

As an example of the manner in which the arrivals of 
ships bringing German passengers whose pas&agt moaey 
way unpaid, was brought to public attention, I quote thi 
following announcement from Bradford's Journal for 
September 29, 1773 : 


Just arrived in the ship Britannia, James Peter, 

A number of healthy GERMAN PASSENGERS, 

chiefly young people, whose freights are to be paid to 

Joshua Fisher and Sous, or to thc Master on board the 

Ship lying off the draw-bridge, 1 

p . 

c => 

U- u 


Charges Against Immigrants. 215 

From Rupp's collection of names I find this ship had 
reached Philadelphia eleven days before the advertisement 
appeared in the newspaper. A reasonable inference is 
that at that particular time the Redemptioner market was 
not as brisk as it might have been, and that special efforts 
were necessary to work off the human cargo. 

The above-named firm seems to have been largely en- 
gaged in the business of bringing over German immi- 

Here is a partial list of the passengers on the already 
named ship Britannia , prepared in the office of Messrs. 
Joshua Fisher & Sons, showing the amount of the passage 
money due by each, as well as some additional expenses in- 
curred by them on the voyage, most probably for provi- 
sions, which were never over-abundant and generally in- 

Andreas Keym ...................................................... 26.7 

Lena Bekker, his wife ............................................ 22.2 

Expense 16 days ................................................... . 1.12 


Hendrick Soueau .................................................. 20.15 

Dorothea, his wife ................................................ 20.11 

Expenses .............................................................. 1.12 


John Frederick Camerloo ........................................ 23.15 

Anna, his wife ...................................................... 22.1 

Expenses .............................................................. 1.12 

Simon Martz ........................................................ 

Ann, his wife ....................................................... 

Anna Margaretta, daughter ........................ ............. 

^Expenses .............................................................. 2.8 

216 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

Augustinus Hess .................................... \ .............. 19.1 

Maria, wife .......................................................... 18.19 

Anna Margtta daughter .......................................... 19.4 

Expenses ........................................................ ..... 2.8 

Jacob Schottj 

Anna, wife j " 

Expenses ............................................................. 1.12 


Christopher Schever ) 
Anna, wife j 

1. 12 

5I.I 9 

John George Kunkell ^ 
Anna, wife v 

Catherina, daughter j 
Expenses .............................................................. 3.4 

Jacob Steyheler ..................................................... 19.19 

Catharina, wife .................................................... 17-18 

Expenses ............................................................. 1.12 

Bernard Schmit 

Margaretta, wife 

Turgen, son 

Catharina, daughter 

Expenses .......................... , ................................... 3.4 

Andreas Otto ") 

Sophi, wife J " 

Expenses .............................................................. 1.12 

John Danl. Roth ) 
Anna, wife J 

Expenses .............................................................. 1.12 


Charges Against Immigrants. 217 

Jacob Wanner ) 

Maria wife J 

Expensse ........................................................ ..... 1.12 


Daniel Specs ) 
Anna, wife } 
Expenses ............................................................... 1.12 


Christian Habert ) 

Anna Maria, wife J 
Expenses ............................................................... 1.12 

Expenses ............................................................... 1.12 

Andreas Kirch "^ 

Anna Maria, wife > .............................................. ^44-9 

Maria Elizabeth J 

Expenses ................................................................ 2.8 

Jacob Twytser j 

Johanna Barbara, wife j ' ' 

Expenses ............................................................... 1.12 

Com ad Foltz "^ 

Susanna, wife > .................... . ............................. 51. 

Maria, daughter 3 

Expenses .............................................................. 2.8 

William Schwartz ) c 6 * 

Anna Maria, wife ) ' 35- 1 

Expenses 1.12 

Christian Nell 20. 

Expenses .16 


2i8 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

Johann Jeremiah Snell 24.19 

Expenses 1 6 


Gerrett Beneng6 23.11 

Expenses .16 


Anty. Guerin 21. 3.6 

Expenses .16. 


Pierie Mullott 21. 

Expenses 1 6 


Gertuna Vogelsand 129 17.18 



129 The original of the foregoing interesting document is among the manu- 
script collections of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Rupp, in his 
Thirty Thousand Names, gives the names of the passengers on the Britannia, 
but not all of them. This list gives additional ones. 




" Be this my home till some fair star 

Stoops earthward and shall beckon me ; 
For surely Godland lies not far 

From these green heights and this great sea, 
My friend, my lover, trend this way 
Not far along lies Arcady." 

HILE, of course, un- 
der the general title 
of Redemptioners, I have ref- 
erence mainly to those of Ger- 
man birth, these people were 
composed of nearly every 
other nationality that contri- 
buted material to the upbuild- 
ing of the American com- 
monwealths. Such being the 
case, and while, when we 
find reference to indentured 
servants and Redemptioners 
in many authors, the refer- 
ence, where no direct distinction is made, is to Germans. I 
have deemed it quite germane to the subject to devote a few 



22O The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

paragraphs to those of other nationalities, to the Irish, who, 
after the Germans, were the most numerous, the English, 
the Scotch and the Welsh. There was no legal distinction 
between any of them prior to the registry law of 1727. 
The Germans only were required to take the oath of alle- 
giance, that not being required of the others who were al- 
ready subjects of the British crown. 

Furthermore, in the early days of the history of Pennsyl- 
vania and the three Lower Counties of New Castle, Kent 
and Sussex, many of the indentured servants came over as 
already such, having been either in the service of well-to- 
do roasters at home, or, having been taken into such ser- 
vice there to supply the needed labor on the lands which 
their masters had already bought from the Proprietary. 
Once here, all the other conditions were applicable to them 
as to those from foreign countries. They received the same 
outfit upon the completion of their term of service, and were 
equally entitled to take up fifty acres of land at a nominal 
annual rental. 

Such being the state of the case, the indentured servants, 
whatever their nationality, naturally fall into the same 
category and may be considered together. A further 
reason for so doing is found in the fact that those writers 
who have dealt with the general question, have given their 
attention almost exclusively to those who came from Ger- 
many, while the rest have barely received mention and in 
most cases have been passed by without any reference 

So greatly was the value of colonists regarded by Penn, 
that when he prepared his frame of laws in England, in 
1682, a section was given to the manner in which these 
persons should be registered, treated and otherwise cared 
for- Special advantages were offered to such as should 

Servants Sent to Care for Property. 221 

bring along servants. Both the master and the servant 
were entitled to fifty acres of land upon the conclusion of 
the latter's term of service, upon special conditions. The 
servant under the conditions imposed was not necessarily 
a menial. His standing might be as good as his master's 
and some were sent here to take charge of the property of 
owners who remained behind. William Penn himself sent 
over about a score of such indentured servants, the list of 
which is still extant. 

The result was that during the first decade or two after 
Penn's acquisition of the Province, a large number of these 
people were brought over. Evidently, all who could bring 
servants did so. Either the arrivals were not all registered 
as the law provided, or else the registry books have been 
lost. James Claypole was appointed register in 1686 and 
a registry book in his handwriting is still extant, covering 
a period of about three years, which in a measure reveals 
the extent to which these indentured servants were brought 
into the Province at that time. A few extracts are here 
quoted from the book. 

" Came in the ship Endeavour of London. George 
Thorp Mf Richard Hough, of Maxfield in Cheshire hus- 
bandman, (Servants) Fran. Hough, Jam: Sutton, Tho. 
Woodhouse, Mary Woodhouse. 

" In ditto shipp : Fran : Stanfield & Grace his wife late 
of Garton in Cheshire Husbandman, (children) Jam : Mary, 
Sarah, Eliz : Grace (and) Hannah Stanfield. (Servants) 
Dan : Browne, Theo : Maxsey, Isa : Broohesby, Rob. 
Sidbotham, John Smith, Rob* Bryan, W m Rudway, Tho. 

"John Maddock, in ditto shipp. Servants, George 
Phillips Ralph Duckard. 

" The Providence of Scarborough Rob* Hopper Mf Grif- 

222 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

fith Owen & his wife Sarah and their sone Rob* & 2 daugh- 
ters Sarah & Elenor & 7 servants named Thos. Armes, 
John Ball 4 years, Robert Lort for 8 years, Alexander 
Edwards ; Jeane, Bridget & Eliza Watts 3 years. 

" Henry Baker & Margaret his wife & their Daughters 
Rachell, Rebecca, Phebey & Hester and Nathan & Samuel 
their sones. Mary Becket & 10 servts named John Slidell 
for 4 years, Hen : Slidell 4 ye rs , James Yeates 5 ye", Jno 
Hurst 4 ye, Tho : ffisher 4 ye rs , John Steadman 4 years, 
Thos. Candy for Joseph Feoror 4 ye, Deborah Booth 4 
yrs. Joshua Lert 4 years. 

"The Bristoll Merchant John Stephens Commander 
Arrived here the io th of 9 th Month 1685. 

" The passengers names are as followeth viz : 

" Jasper Farmer ', Senior ', his Family (names given). 
"Jasper Farmer Junior's family (names given). 

" Their Servants are as followeth viz. : 
" loone Daly, Philip Mayow and Helen his wife, John 
Mayow, John Whitloe, Nicholas Whitloe, George Fisher, 
Arthur Smith, Thomas Alferry, Henry Wells, Robert 
Wilkinson, Elizabeth Mayow, Martha Mayow, Sara Burke, 
Shebe Orevan, Andrew Walbridge. 
" In the Lion of Leverpoole. 

"Joseph Fisher & Elizabeth Fisher his wife late of Stillor- 
gin near Dublin in Ireland, Yeoman, born in Elton in Ches- 
ire in old England. (Children) Moses, Joseph, Mary, and 
Marth Fisher. 

Servants Time to Payment in Acres of 

Serve. Money. I^nd. 

Edward Lancaster 4 4.10 50 

W. Robertson 4 50 

Ed. Doyle 4 50 

BenrCilft .... 4 50 

Redemptioners in Delaware. 223 

e Time to Payment in Acres of 

Serve. Money. 

Tho: Tearewood .......... 4 50 

Robert Kilcarth ............. 8 50 

Peter Long .................. 2 6. 50 

Phill Packer ................. 4 50 

Wm. Conduit ............... 4 3. 50 

Mary Toole .................. 4 3. 50 

Elez: Johnson .............. 4 50" 


The Duke of York made provision for the holding of 
indentured servants in his Colony of Delaware, in 1676. 
Under the law of September 22d of that year servants were 
not permitted to give or sell any commodity whatever 
during their term of service. All were compelled to work 
at their callings the whole day, with intervals for food 
and rest. Runaways could be seized and brought back. 
If cruelly treated by master or mistress, servants could 
lodge complaint, and if lamed or an eye struck out, they 
were to be at once freed and due recompense made. If, 
however, servants complained against their owners with- 
out cause, or were unable to prove their case, they were 
" enjoyned to serve three Months time extraordinary 
(Gratis) for every such ondue Complaint." No servants 
except slaves could be assigned over to other masters " by 
themselves, Executors or Administrators for above the 
Space of one year, unless for good reasons offered." 
Finally the law said, " All Servants who have served Dilli- 
gently ; and faithfully to the benefit of their Masters or 
Dames five or Seaven yeares, shall not be Sent empty away, 
and if any have proved unfaithful or negligent in their 
Service, notwithstanding the good usage of their Masters, 

130 /Vwa. Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. VIII., pp. 328-335. 


224 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

M 8 =3 ** 3 .* S " * 

^ gptifaaf -s-s g 


_ _ G ^ 4J 

SvfiW g^g-g 


"^ e ' g.2- g 

About Irish Redemptioners. 225 

they shall not be dismist till they have made satisfaction 
according to the Judgment of the Constable and Overseers 
of the parish where they dwell." 131 


Almost every writer who has dealt with the Provincial 
period of our history has had something to say about this 
servant slavery among the German immigrants, and yet it 
is rare to find allusions to the Irish servants who either 
came voluntarily or were sent over, who were also disposed 
of in precisely the same way, and who were as eminently 
deserving of the name of " Redemptioners " as any pas- 
sengers that ever came from the Rhine country. The 
only distinction I have been able to find between the Ger- 
man and Irish trade is that those who came from the Ger- 
man provinces, while for the most part poor and needy, 
were nevertheless honest peasants and handicraftsmen, 
who were not expatriated for any crimes, but who volun- 
tarily forsook their homes to better themselves in Pennsyl- 
vania ; while, on the other hand, those who came from 
Ireland did but rarely come of their own free will, were 
not honorable and industrious members of the body politic, 
but on the contrary, were largely composed of the criminal 
classes whom it was deemed desirable to get out of the 
country, and who were hurried on ship-board by any and 
every expedient that would accomplish that purpose. 

The fact that they were called " Servants " by those who 
shipped them here, and by those who purchased or hired 
them, instead of " Redemptioners," as in the case of the 
Germans, has no significance whatever. The process in 
both cases was precisely alike. The further fact that 
fewer of these "Servants" came from Ireland than Ger- 

181 Duke of York's Book of Laws, 1676-1682, pp. 37-38. 

226 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

many, and the additional one that they were already 
citizens of Great Britain and, therefore, not so likely to 
attract attention, has apparently kept their coming and their 
conditional servitude out of general sight. 

This sending of jailbirds and promiscuous malefactors 
was not a new idea when put into practice in Pennsylvania. 

Irish indentured servants had the reputation of being 
incorrigible runaways. 132 Franklin's Pennsylvania Ga- 
zette in almost every issue for many years contained ad- 
vertisements about runaway servants. 


" Conditional servitude under indentures or covenants, 
had from the first existed in Virginia. The servant stood 
to his master in the relation of a debtor, bound to discharge 
the costs of emigration by the entire employment of his 
powers for the benefit of his creditor. Oppression early 
ensued : men who had been transported into Virginia at 
an expense of eight or ten pounds, were sometimes sold 
for forty, fifty, or even threescore pounds. The supply 
of white servants became a regular business ; and a class 
of men, nic-named ' spirits, 'used to delude young persons, 
servants and idlers, into embarking for America, as to a 
land of spontaneous plenty. White servants came to be 
a usual article of traffic. They were sold in England to 
be transported, and in Virginia were resold to the highest 
bidder ; like negroes, they were to be purchased on ship- 
board, as ifien buy horses at a fair. In 1672, the average 
price in the colonies, where five years of service were due, 
was about ten pounds ; while a negro was worth twenty or 
twenty-five pounds. So usual was this manner of dealing 
in Englishmen, that not the Scots 'only, who were taken 

132 JOHN RUSSELL YOUNG'S Memorial History of Philadelphia. 

Redemptioncrs Enlisted as Soldiers. 227 

on the battlefield of Dunbar, were sent into involuntary 
servitude in New England, but the royalist prisoners of 
the battle of Worcester ; and the leaders in the insurrec- 
tion of Penruddoc, in spite of the remonstrances of Ha- 
selrig and Henry Vane, were shipped to America. At 
the corresponding period, in Ireland the crowded exporta- 
tion of Irish Catholics was a frequent event, and was 
attended by aggravations hardly inferior to the atrocities 
of the African slave trade. In 1685, when nearly a thou- 
sand of the prisoners, condemned for participating in the 
insurrection of Monmouth, were sentenced to transporta- 
tion, men of influence at court, with rival importunity, 
scrambled for the convicted insurgents as a merchantable 
commodity." 133 

It is a curious fact that during the administration of 
Governor Thomas, 17401747, the enlisting of indentured 
or bought servants Redemptioners as soldiers, was per- 
mitted to be put into execution, England being then at war 
with Spain. It was an innovation and injurious to many. 
John Wright, an old and most worthy Lancaster county 
magistrate and member of the Assembly having denounced 
the practice, was dismissed from his office. Proud says : 
" The number of bought and indentured servants who were 
thus taken from their masters, as appears by the printed 
votes in the Assembly, were about 276, whose masters 
were compensated by the Assembly for their loss sus- 
tained thereby, to the amount of about 2,588. " 1S4 


While it appears there were agents in England and Ire- 
land engaged in the business of hunting up immigrants for 

133 BANCROFT'S History of the United States. Boston Ed., 10 vols. Vol. 
I. PP- 175-176. 

" 4 PROUD'S History of Pennsylvania, Vol. II., p. 220. 

228 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

sale and service in Pennsylvania, and that these dealers in 
human poverty were as base and unscrupulous as the New- 
landers who zigzagged across Germany on the same mis- 
sion, it is nevertheless an established fact that it was an 
authorized business, recognized by law as well as sanc- 
tioned by custom, and that a number of honorable men, of 
excellent standing in their respective communities on both 
sides of the water were engaged in this servant traffic, for 
servants these people were called and not redemptioners. 


Mr. Benjamin Marshall was a Philadelphia merchant, 
shipper and importer. His father was the celebrated 
diarist Chistopher Marshall, of Revolutionary memory, a 
born Irishman, but a true and unswerving supporter of the 
patriot cause. I present several letters written by Benja- 
min Marshall to his business correspondents in Ireland, 
which throw much light on this part of my subject and are 
of genuine historical value. The first one is as follows : 

" Philadelphia, November 9, 1765. 
44 To Barney Egan : 

" Should thee have a mind (to send) a Vessel this 
Way, about 100 Men and Boys Servants with as many 
passengers as could be got, so as to be here by the Middle 

No Women JRedemptzoners Wanted. 229 

or Latter end of May, I think might answer well. Stout, 
able Laboring men & Tradesmen out of the Country with 
Young Boys & Lads answers best. Women are so 
troublesome (that) it would be best to send few or none, as 
there is often so many Drawbacks on them. This I men- 
tion should thee have any intention of sending a Vessel this 
way for any thing." 

Mr. Marshall was seemingly desirous that a ship-load of 
Irish Servants should be consigned to his house in the 
spring of 17^; so to make sure of it he wrote another 
letter on the same day to another Irish correspondent as 
follows : 

" Philadelphia, November 9, 1765. 

" To Thomas Murphy : 

" The chief articles that answer here from Ireland 
which can be brought are Linnens, (which ought to go to 
Liverpool to receive the Bounty) Beef, Butter, Men, 
Women & Boys Servants the less Women the better as 
they are very troublesome, and the best time for Servants 
is about the month of May." 

A year later Mr. Marshall again writes to the correspon- 
dent first named, the following letter : 

" Philadelphia, June 7th, 1766. 
" To Barney Egan, Esq. : 

" Irish servants will be very dull such numbers have 
already arrived from Different parts & many more expected, 
that I believe it will be over done, especially as several 
Dutch vessels are expected here, which will always com- 
mand the Market. Captain Power I believe has near sold 
all his, he being pretty early." 135 

136 Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. XX., pp. 210- 

230 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

The fact is, this traffic was profitable all around. We 
have seen how the agent made it pay in securing the im- 
migrants ; how the ship masters coined money out of it in 
a number of ways, most of which were disreputable, and, 
finally, how even respectable merchants on this side of the 
water were prompt to take a hand in disposing of these 
cargoes of human beings for the money that was in the 
business : for when has money failed to carry the day? 

I have found in a very long letter written in October, 
1725, by Robert Parke, from Chester township in Dela- 
ware county, to Mary Valentine, in Ireland, the following 
interesting passage, which throws much light on the sub- 
ject of indentured servants : the writer recommended that 
his old friend might indenture some of his children if he had 
not sufficient means to pay all the passage money. 

" I desire thee may tell my old friend Samuel Thornton 
that he could give so much Credit to my words & find 
no Iffs nor ands in my Letter that in Plain terms he could 
not do better than Come here, for both his & his wife's 
trade are very good here, the best way for him to do is to 
pay what money he Can Conveniently Spare at that Side 
& Engage himself to Pay the rest at this side & when 
he Comes here if he Can get no friend to lay down the 
money for him, when it Comes to the worst, he may hire 
out 2 or 3 Children & I wod have him Cloath his family 
as well as his Small Ability will allow, thee may tell him 
what things are proper to bring with him both for his Sea 
Store & for his Use in this Country. I wod have him 
Procure 3 or 4 Lusty Servants & Agree to pay their 
passage at this Side he might sell 2 & pay the others 
passage with the money. * * * " 136 

138 Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. V., p. 357. 

230 The German 


The fact is* thla 
have seen h^rvv tiir %$* 
migrants ? 

a number vf 

17-iS, bv 
ware county* t< 
interesting paj*a*g*. 
ject oi 

e ail arou&ci. We 
< p;*y in securing the im- 

isu" >in<?d money out of it in 
were disreputable, and, 
men nan IB on this side of the 
a hand In disposing of these 
tor the money that was in the 
rj<*y failed to carry the day? 
-^ letter written in October, 
heater township in Dela- 
>j Ireland, the following 
- K. light on the sub- 
"commended that 
} enii ht had 

that he could gi v ^ ->o much Ctv^t d 

no Tffs.nor ands in my Letter that in Plain terms he could 
not do better than Come here* for both his & his wife's 
trade are very good here, the best way for him to do is to 
pay what money he Can Conveniently Spare at that Side 
Engage himself to Pay the rest at this side when 
he Comes here if he Can get no friend to Jay <k*wn tbe 
money for him, when it Comes to the. we*!**: : 2*r auty.faiflft 
out 2 or 3 Children & I wod have him Cfc#*tt> "ii- iamily 
fis well as his Small Ability will allow, thee may tell him 
what things are proper to bring with him both tor his Sea 
Store & for his Use in this Country, f wo*i have him 
Pr>cir 3 or ^ Lusty Servants & A g *>-.. & pay their 
passage at thi* Sid he might sell ? ..t pay the others 
passage wkh the money, ' 



O "J 


The Business Pronounced Lucrative. 231 

The following letters from the then British Consul in 
Philadelphia, are of exceeding interest. They show not 
only that this traffic was still active at the time they were 
written, but give actual figures indicating that while the ar- 
rival of German Redemptioners had greatly declined, those 
from Ireland were pouring in more numerously than ever. 

" Philadelphia, September 22, 1789. 
" To the Duke of Leeds : 

***** Few indentured servants have arrived since 
the Peace 'till the present year, In the course of which 
many hundreds have arrived in the Delaware from Ireland 
alone and more are expected. Some have been imported 
into Maryland but not in so great a proportion as into Penn- 
sylvania. The trade is a lucrative one and will be pursued 
eagerly unless proper obstacles are thrown in the way 
which I humbly presume may be done upon principles 
perfectly consistent with the (English) constitution ; hav- 
ing in view so humane a purpose as the providing for the 
convenience and comfort of the unwary emigrants so often 
seduced from their country by the force of artful and false 
suggestions. * * * They pass the term of their servitude 
and when that expires they for the most part continue 
laborers for years in the neighborhood where they have 
served, having no immediate means to enable them to set- 
tle lands 137 or to enable them to migrate to a distant coun- 
try ; the mere temporary loss of labor of this description 
of people is an object of great consequence to any country, 
but when it is considered that few of them ever return to 
their native land, the importance of their loss is immensely 
aggravated. <(R 

137 This is a mistake ; they could take up fifty acres of land, as has al- 
ready been stated, at a rent of one cent per acre, annually, if they so desired. 

232 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

" Philadelphia, November 10, 1789. 

" To the Duke of Leeds : 

* * * 'pj ie m ig ra tion hither since the Peace, ^ 
Lord, have been much greater from Ireland than from all 
other parts of Europe. Of 25,716 passengers (Redemp- 
tioners and Servants) imported into Pennsylvania since the 
Peace, 1,893 only were Germans, the rest consisting of 
Irish and some few Scotch. Of these (2,176) imported dur- 
ing the present year, 114 only were Germans. An almost 
total stop has been lately put to the migration hither from 
the Palatinate and other parts of Germany, so that the few 
who now come hither from that country, get into Holland 
by stealth and embark at Amsterdam and Rotterdam, 
and these are very ordinary people. * * * As to the con- 
dition and treatment of these people, many were crowded 
into small vessels destitute of proper room and accommo- 
dations, and abridged of the proper allowance of food. 
They suffered greatly and contagious diseases were often 
introduced into the Province by them. The terms, too, of 
paying the passage money were frequently departed from : 
passengers who embarked as Redemptioners were hurried 
from on ship board before the limited time for their re- 
demption was expired, and before their friends could 
have notice of their arrival to interpose their relief and 
rescue them from servitude." 13 * 

Phenias Bond was the British Consul at Philadelphia 
during 1787-1788 and 1789. He was born in Philadel- 
phia in 1749 anc ^ was ^6 son ^ -^ r ' Phineas Bond and 
Wilhelmina Moore, and a nephew of the distinguished Dr. 
Thomas Bond, of the University of Pennsylvania. His 
royalistic tendencies during the Revolution resulted in his 

138 Annual Report of the American Historical Association, 1896, Vol. I., 
pp. 619-620. 

Secretary Logan Gives His Views. 


arrest as a public enemy, but he was subsequently released 
on parole. From his private and public stations he was 
certainly acquainted with the situation. 139 

James Logan did not look with a kindly eye on the 
arrival of any nationality save Englishmen. This dislike 
seems to have extended to the 
Irish, albeit he himself was 
Irish born. In the Logan 
MSS are found frequent al- 
lusions expressive of this 
frame of mirfd. In 1725 he 
says : " There are so many as 
one hundred thousand acres 
of land, possessed by per- 
sons, (including Germans), 
who resolutely set down and 
improved it without any right 
to it," and he is much at a loss 
to determine how to dispossess them. In 1729 he expresses 
himself as glad to find that Parliament is about to take 
measures to prevent the too free immigration to this coun- 
try. In that year the twenty-shilling tax on every servant 
arriving was laid but even that was evaded by the captain 
of a ship arriving from Dublin, who landed one hun- 
dred convicts and papists at Burlington, thus escaping the 
tax. It looks, he says, as if Ireland is to send all her in- 
habitants hither, for last week not less than six ships ar- 
rived, and every day two or three arrive also. The com- 
mon fear is, that if they continue to come, they will make 
themselves proprietors of the province. It is strange, he 
says, that they thus crowd where they are not wanted. 


139 1 am indebted to S. M. Sener, Esq., for having drawn my attention to 
the above valuable letters. 

234 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

But, besides, convicts are imported thither. 140 The Indians 
themselves were alarmed at the swarms of strangers, and 
he was afraid of a breach between them, for the Irish were 
very rough to them. 

In 1730 he returns to the same subject and complains 
of the Scotch-Irish, " who were acting in a very disorderly 
manner and possessing themselves of Conestoga Manor, 
fifteen thousand acres, being the best land in Lancaster 
county. In doing this by force, they alleged that it was 
against the laws of God and nature, that so much land 
should be idle, while so many Christians wanted it to labor 
on, and to raise their bread." m 

There can be no doubt that some of these German and 
Irish immigrants gave the Proprietary a great deal of trou- 
ble. They availed themselves of all the advantages they 
were able to secure and very often concerned themselves 
very little whether they complied with the laws of the 
Province or not. Secretary Logan more than once refers 
to this matter in his correspondence. In a letter to John 
Penn, dated November 25, 1727, he says: 

" We have many thousands of foreigners, mostly Pala- 
tinates, so called, already in y e Countrey, of whom nearly 
1,500 came in this last summer; many of them are a sur- 
ley people, divers Papists amongst them, & y e men gen- 
erally well arm'd. We have from the North of Ireland, 
great numbers yearly, 8 or 9 Ships this last ffall dis- 
charged at Newcastle. Both these sorts sitt frequently 
down on any spott of vacant Land they can find, without 
asking questions ; the last Palatines say there will be 

140 One Augustus Gun, of Cork, advertised in the Philadelphia papers that 
he had powers from the Mayor of Cork, for many years to procure servants for 
America. (RUPP'S History of Berks and Lebanon Counties, p. 115.) 

141 Quoted by RUPP in his History of Berks and Lebanon Counties, pp. 

Germans Pushed to the Frontiers. 235 

twice the number next year, & ye Irish say y e same of 
their People ; last week one of these latter (y* Irish) ap- 
plied to me, in the name of 400, as he said, who depended 
all on me, for directions where they should settle. They 
say the Proprietor invited People to come & settle his 
Countrey, that they are come for that end, & must live ; 
both they and the Palatines pretend they would buy, but 
not one in twenty has anything to pay with." 142 

In 1729, John, Thomas and Richard Penn wrote to 
Logan as follows concerning this vexed question : 

"As to the Palatines, you have often taken notice of to 
us, wee apprehend have Lately arrived in greater Quan- 
tities than may be consistent with the welfare of the Coun- 
try, and therefore, applied ourselves to our Councill to 
find a proper way to prevent it, the result of which was, 
that an act of assembly should be got or endeavoured 
at, and sent us over immediately, when we would take 
sufficient Care to get it approved by the King. 143 With this 
resolution we acquainted the Govenour, by Cap* String- 
fellow, to Maryland, the 25 th Feb ry , a Duplicate of which 
we have since sent by another shipp, both w ch times we 
also enclos'd Letters for thee ; but as to any other people 
coming over who are the subjects of the British Crown, 
we can't Conceive it anyways practicable to prohibit it: 
but supposing they are natives of Ireland & Roman Cath- 
olicks, they ought not to settle till they have taken the 
proper Oaths to the King, & Promis'd Obedience to the 
Laws of the Country, and, indeed, we Can't Conceive it 
unreasonable that if they are Inclinable to settle, THEY 

142 Pennsylvania Archives: Second Series, Vol. VII., pp. 96-97. 

148 All laws passed by the Provincial Assembly were subject to the approval 
of the Crown. Frequently action on them was delayed for long periods, and 
sometimes they were not acted on at all. 

236 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

This INDENTURE Witneffeth that 

doth Voluntarily put ;~_felf Servant 7 

to ferve the faid 
and his Afiigns,for anddunng'theiuTl Space, Tune and Term 
of ^^ Yeats from the fuft Day of the faid ^r^d 
arrival in, >$a^W*^> 1 in the United States of AMERICA, 
during^ whicri Time or Tefrh the laid Matter or his Affigns {hall 
and will find and fupply the faid v>>u-* tvith f ufficierit 

Meat, Dank; Apparel, Lodging and all other necfcflafies befitting 
fuch a Ser|ajttj and at the end and expiration of laid Teim, the 
laid **&**- to be made, Free, and receive 

according to the Cnftora of the Country. Provided neverthejefs, 
and thefe Prefents are on this, Condition, that if ^the fai ^>^- 

r> (hall nsy the laid <?S+f ^^ 

or his AfignS &* ^2L^^>e?^y^^^a5^^<^ Days after 
^^LatiLtal v'i^lHallbe ^Frie^ndtiMLaliO'filiiid^riture and every 
Claufe therein, abiolutely Yoid and of no pett. ' Ta .Wtqefc 
Whereof the faid Parties 'ha%Keretmto ihtercnangeabl/ put their 
liatids and Seals the /0^ Day of ^^ in the 
Ycaf bf o Lord, One TrJouland Seven ftundred and Eighty 

itf the PrefeflCc of the Right 

&&**** ^^ 

^y?^ V 


Prices Paid for Indenttired Servants. 237 

OTHER settlements, as we had mentioned before in rela- 
tion to the Palatines; but we must desire Care may be 
taken that they are not suffered to settle towards Mary- 
land, on any account." 144 

Just as the Ubii, a German tribe was moved to the banks 
of the Rhine by the Romans, that they might serve as a 
guard and outpost against invaders, 145 so did the Govern- 
ment of Penn also try to settle them on the frontiers as 
a guard against the incursions of the Red men. 

Further light is thrown on this interesting question by an 
original manuscript in the collection of the Historical So- 
ciety of Pennsylvania. It is " A List of Serv ts Indented 
on Board the Pennsylvania Packet Capt. Peter Osborne for 
Philadelphia the 15 th day of March, 1775. Coming from 
a British port, it is of course not mentioned by Rupp nor 
in Volume XVII. of the second series of State Archives. 
It gives a list of thirty-seven names of tradesmen, evidently 
all English, Scotch or Irish, with the amount due the ship 
owner and the sums for which they were sold, as well as 
the names of the buyers. This list is too long to be given 
here, but we will quote a few items : 

Benj. Boswell, Baker, 






John Haynes, Hair Dresser, 






John Thomas, Smith, 






William Avery, Taylor, 

1 1 





W m Edwards, Painter, 






W? Chase, Cordwainer, 





I 9 . 

James Vanlone, Watchfinisher, 





W- Longwood, Groom, 






Geo. Warren, Labourer, 





2 4 . 

John Longan, Husbandman, 





I 9 . 

W m Mitchell, Stone Mason, 






144 Pennsylvania Archives: Second Series, 

Vol. VII., 

pp. I3I-I32. 

145 TACITUS, Germania, C. 28. 

238 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

We here get a glimpse at the sums these servants were sold 
for, and find that in a majority of cases the amount was less 
than the cost incurred by their passage across the ocean. 

Just how this traffic was 
profitable to the ship- 
master or the broker, is 
not evident from the 
meager revelations fur- 
nished by the paper it- 
self. The explanation 
probably is that there 
was a large profit on the 
extra charges always 
set against each immi- 
grant, and that a reduc- 
tion of a few pounds 
could well be made on 
each one sold and still 
leave a handsome sur- 
plus on the investment. 
From other sources we 
learn that when a pas- 
senger died, leaving no 
relative behind to look after his possessions, his chest and 
a great oaken chest was the almost invariable accompani- 
ment of the German immigrant was seized by the ship- 
master and all its contents appropriated. Even when 
young children were left by the deceased, their rights were 
often ignored and whatever of value there may have been 
was confiscated in the rough, sailor-like fashion of the 
times, without the slightest regard for the rights of these 
unprotected and helpless ones. The heart often sinks at 
the recital of these inhuman proceedings practiced because 
there were none to protest or defend. 


Prosperity of Some Rcdcmptioncrs. 


It deserves to be stated that many who came here and 
were well to do, bringing their servants along, often lost 
the standing in the community they at first held. They 
were unable to maintain their old social standing against 
the democratic spirit which even then prevailed, and in 
many instances their humble servitors, the Redemptioners, 
taught to labor in the stern school of adversity, prospered, 
and in the second and third generations, by their thrift and 
industry, took the places once held by their old masters. 





" They, wandering here, made barren forests bloom, 
And the new soil a happier robe assume : 
They planned no schemes that virtue disapproves. 
They robbed no Indian of his native groves, 
But, just to all, beheld their tribes increase, 
Did what they could to bind the world in peace, 
And, far retreating from a selfish band, 
Bade Freedom flourish in this foreign land." 

did not confine his efforts 
for rendering aid to his coun- 
trymen to the columns of his 
wide-awake newspaper. Nor 
did he confine his energy and 
activity to words alone. He 
went among the newly arrived 
Redemptioners and rendered 
whatever material assistance 
was in his power. In certain 
cases he gave money to relieve 
their necessities ; in others he 


Saur's First Letter to Gov. Morris. 241 

saw that they were cared for when such care was required, 
and in still others, the sick and starving wretches were taken 
to his own home and those of his friends to be cared for 
and nursed back to health there. If they died, he saw that 
they received Christian burial. 

But, while ever on the alert to render assistance of this 
practical kind, he was at work in still other ways, his efforts 
all being directed towards the end so near his loyal Ger- 
man nature. His name will always be revered by Penn- 
sylvania-Germans for his unselfish work in the interest of 
his countrymen, and the two letters in their behalf, ad- 
dressed to Governor Morris, alone constitute a monument 
to his memory as enduring as brass or the pyramids of 
Egypt. They are here given in grateful memory of his 
excellent service in the cause of humanity. 




" Germantown, Pa., March i5th, 1755. 
" Honored and Beloved Sir : 

11 Confidence in your wisdom and clemency made me 
so free as to write this letter to you. I would not have it 
that anybody should know of these private lines, otherwise 
it would have become me to get a hand able to write in a 
proper manner and style to a person as your station re- 

"It is now thirty years since I came to this Province, out of 
a country where no liberty of conscience was, nor humanity 
reigned in the house of my then country lord, and where 
all the people are owned with their bodies to the lord there, 
and are obliged to work for him six days in every week, 
viz. : three days with a horse, and three days with a hoe, 

242 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

shovel or spade ; or if he cannot come himself, he must 
send somebody in his place. And when I came to this 
Province and found everything to the contrary from where 
I came from, I wrote largely to all my friends and ac- 
quaintances of the civil and religious liberty, privileges, 
etc. and of the goodness I have heard and seen, and my 
letters were printed and reprinted and provoked many a 
thousand people to come to this Province, and many 
thanked the Lord for it, and desired their friends also to 
come here. 

" Stfme years the price was five pistoles per head freight, 
and the merchants and the captains crowded for passen- 
gers, finding more profit by passengers than by goods, etc. 

" But the love for great gain caused Steadman to lodge 
the poor passengers like herrings, and as too many had 
not room between decks, he kept abundance of them upon 
deck ; and sailing to the Southward, where the people 
were at once out of their climate, and for the want of 
water and room, became sick and died very fast, in such 
a manner that in one year no less than two thousand 
were buried in the seas and in Philadelphia. Steadman 
at that time bought a license in Holland that no captain 
or merchant could load any as long as he had not 
two thousand loaded. This murderous trade made my 
heart ache, especially, when I heard that there was more 
profit by their death than by carrying them alive. I 
thought of my provoking letters being partly the cause of 
so many people's deaths. I wrote to the magistrate at Rot- 
terdam, and immediately the "Afonopolium" was taken 
from John Steadman. 

" Our Legislature was also petitioned, and a law was 
made as good as it is, but was never executed. Mr. 
Spofford, an old, poor captain, was made overseer for the 

New Overseers Suggested. 243 

vessels that came loaded with passengers, whose salary 
came to from $200 to $300 a year, for concealing the fact 
that sometimes the poor people had but twelve inches place 
and not half bread nor water. Spofford died and our As- 
sembly chose one Mr. Trotter who left every ship slip, al- 
though he knew that a great many people had no room at 
all, except in the long boat, where every man perished. 
There were so many complaints that many in Philadelphia 
and almost all in Germantown signed a petition that our 
Assembly might give that office to one Thomas Say, an 
English mefchant, at Philadelphia, of whom we have the 
confidence that he would take no bribe for concealing what 
the poor people suffered ; or if they will not turn Mr. 
Trotter out of office, to give him as assistant one Daniel 
Mackinett, a shopkeeper in Philadelphia, who speaks 
Dutch and English, who might speak with the people in 
their language, but in vain, except they have done what I 
know not. 

" Among other grievances the Germans suffer is one viz : 
that the ignorant Germans agree fairly with merchants at 
Holland for seven pistoles and a half 146 ; when they come to 
Philadelphia the merchants make them pay what they 
please, and take at least nine pistoles. The poor people 
on board are prisoners. They durst not go ashore, or have 
their chests delivered, except they allow in a bond or pay 
what they owe not ; and when they go into the country, 
they loudly complain there, that no justice is to be had for 
poor strangers. They show their agreements, wherein is 
fairly mentioned that they are to pay seven pistoles and a 
half to Isaac and Zacharay Hoke, at Rotterdam, or their 
order at Philadelphia, etc. This is so much practiced, 

146 SAUR here means the price for carrying immigrants from Rotterdam to 




244 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

that of at least 2,000 or 3,000 pounds in each year the 
country is wronged. It was much desired that among 
wholesome laws, such a one may be made that when ves- 
sels arrive, a commissioner might be appointed to inspect 
their and agreement and judge if 7^ pistoles make not 
seven and a half. Some of the Assemblymen were asked 
whether there was no remedy? They answered, 'The 
law is such that what is above forty shillings must be decided 
at court, and every one must make his own cause appear 

good and stand a trial.' A very poor comfort for two or 
three thousand wronged people, to live at the discretion of 
their merchants. They so long to go ashore, and fill once 
their belly, that they submit and pay what is demanded ; 
and some are sighing, some are cursing, and some believe 
that their case differs very little from such as fall into the 
hands of highwaymen who present a pistol upon their 
breast and are desired to give whatever the highwaymen 
pleaseth; and who can hinder them thinking so? I, my- 
self, thought a commission could be ordered in only such 
cases, but I observed that our assembly has more a mind 
to prevent the importation of such passengers than to do 
justice to them ; and seeing that your honor is not of 
the same mind, and intends to alter the said bill, I find my- 
self obliged to let your Honor know the main points, with- 
out which nothing will be done to the purpose. 

" I was surprised to see the title of the bill, which, in my 
opinion, is not the will of the crown, nor of the proprietors ; 
neither is it the will of the Lord, who gives an open way 
that the poor and distressed, the afflicted, and any people 

Evil Conduct of Ship Captains. 245 

may come to a place where there is room for them ; and if 
th,ere is r\> rcxx more, there is land enough in our 

neighborhood, c'ight or nine counties of Dutch 

where many out of Pennsyi- 
'O- Methtnks it will be proper to let 

be done them. The order of 

tHe Lord if -i the poor and fatherless; do 

> aHicted And needy, deliver the poor and 
T; < - -,-s out of the land of the wicked.' 


are certainly a servant of the Lord our 

vv you are willing to do what lies in 

am ready to think, that as you left the 

..ncillors, ypu will not be so fully informed 

vorst of the grievances, as one of them has a great 

; e of the interest. If these are not looked particularly 

into, that which is the most complained of viz: that the 

captains often hurry them avsy without an agreement, or 

the agreement . ..-. = , it 3 fair agreement is 

written, sigr 's^il not be performed, and \they 

must pay whatever they please ; and when the people's 

chests are put in stores until they go and fetch money by 

their friends, and pay for what they agreed upon, and 

much more, and demand their chest,- they will find it 

opened and plundered of part or all ; or the chest is not 

11 to be found wherefore they have paid, and no justice 

m, because they have no English tongue, and no 

r o to law with such as they are ; and that we 

n officer as will, or can speak with the 

!,-r i-.'Mit'valing their griev- 

ch an one, as it 

I, that * a man may get security a 
' i 

ft E 


9 *= 

1 1 

> ? 

z: oj 


5 * 
I r 

5 ^ 

Evil Conduct of Ship Captains. 245 

may come to a place where there is room for them ; and if 
there is no room for any more, there is land enough in our 
neighborhood, as there are eight or nine counties of Dutch 
(German) people in Virginia, where many out of Pennsyl- 
vania are removed to. Methinks it will be proper to let 
them come, and let justice be done them. The order of 
the Lord is such : < Defend the poor and fatherless ; do 
justice to the afflicted and needy, deliver the poor and 
needy, and rid them out of the land of the wicked/ 
Ps. 82. 

" Beloved sir, you are certainly a servant of the Lord our 
God, and I do believe you are willing to do what lies in 
your power ; but I am ready to think, that as you left the 
bill to your councillors, ypu will not be so fully informed 
of the worst of the grievances, as one of them has a great 
share of the interest. If these are not looked particularly 
into, that which is the most complained of viz : that the 
captains often hurry them away without an agreement, or 
the agreement is not signed, or, if a fair agreement is 
written, signed or sealed, it will not be performed, and they 
must pay whatever they please ; and when the people's 
chests are put in stores until they go and fetch money by 
their friends, and pay for what they agreed upon, and 
much more, and demand their chest, they will find it 
opened and plundered of part or all ; or the chest is not 
at all to be found wherefore they have paid, and no justice 
for them, because they have no English tongue, and no 
money to go to law with such as they are ; and that we 
have no such an officer as will, or can speak with the 
people but will rather take pay for concealing their griev- 
ances and who will speak to such an one, as it stands? 

" The law is, that * a man may get security as good as he 
can.' But when merchants BIND some other people to- 

246 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

gether, whose families were obliged to die, and who are 
famished for want, and as a prisoner at the vessel is re- 
tained and forced to bind himself one for two or three, 
who are greatly indebted and who, perhaps, pays his own 
debt while the others can't he is freed to go out of the 

country, and will go 
rather than go to 
prison ; and if poor 
widows are bound 
for others much in 
debt, who will marry 
such a one? Must 
she not go sorrowful 
most of her lifetime ? 
" Formerly, our 
Assembly has bought 
a house on an island 
in the river Dela- 
ware, where healthy 
people will soon become sick. This house might do very 
well in contagious distempers, but if a place were allowed on 
a healthy, dry ground where, by a collection, the Germans 
might build a house, with convenient places, and stoves for 
winter, etc. ; it would be better for the people in common 
sickness where their friends might attend them and take 
care of them. They would do better than to perish under 
the merciless hands of these merchants ; for life is sweet. 
" Beloved sir, I am old and infirm, bending with my staff 
to the grave, and will be gone by and by, and hope that 
your Honor will not take it amiss to have recommended to 
you the helpless. We beg and desire in our prayers that 
the Lord may protect you from all evil, and from all en- 
croachments, and if we do the like unto them that are in 


The Assembly and Governor at Odds. 247 

poor condition and danger, we may expect the Lord will 
do so to us accordingly ; but, if we do to the contrary, how 
can we expect the Lord's protection over us? For He 
promises to measure to us as we do measure. 

" I conclude with a hearty desire that the Lord will give 
your Honor wisdom and patience, that your administration 
may be blessed, and in His time give you the reward of a 
good, true and faithful servant, and I remain your humble 

"Christoph Saur, 
" Printer in Germantown." 

For some reason, Governor Morris, who was on bad 
terms with the House, did not regard the proposed bill 
favorably although he had recommended such a meas- 
ure himself in a message to the House on December I2th 
of the previous year. 147 This angered the Assembly who 
sent him a sharp message on May 15, 1755, part of which 
is here given. " * * * The grevious Calamities we were 
then threatened with, the melancholy Spectacle of the 
Distress of so many of our Fellow Creatures perishing 
for Want of Change of Apparel, Room, and other nec- 
essaries on board their Ships, and after being landed 
among Us the extreme Danger of the Benevolent and 
the Charitable exposed them to in approaching those un- 
happy Sufferers, together with the Governor's own Recom- 
mendation, gave Us Reason to hope that he might be at 
Liberty and that his own Inclinations would have induced 
him to have passed such a Bill as might prevent the like 
for the future, but we are under the greatest Concern to 
find Ourselves disappointed in these our reasonable Ex- 

141 Colonial Records, Vol. VI., p. 190. 

248 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

6 By our Charters and the Laws of this Province the 
whole Legislative Power is vested in the Governor and the 
Representatives of the People; and as we know of no 
other Negative upon our Bills but what the Governor him- 
self has, we could wish he had been pleased to exercise 
his own Judgment upon this our Bill without referring the 
Consideration of it to a Committee of his Council most of 
them Such, as We are informed, who are or have lately 
been concerned in the Importations > the Abuses of which 
this bill -was designed to regulate and redress. 

" The German Importations were at first and for a con- 
siderable Time of such as were Families of Substance and 
industrious, sober, People, who constantly brought with 
them their Chests and Apparel and other Necessaries for 
so long a voyage. But these we apprehend have for some 
time past been shipped on board other vessels in order to 
leave more Room for crowding their unhappy Passengers 
in greater Numbers, and to secure the Freights of such as 
might perish during the voyage, which experience has 
convinced us must be the Case of very many where such 
Numbers (as have been lately imported in each Vessel) are 
crowded together without Change of Raiment or any other 
Means of Keeping themselves sweet and clean. But this 
Provision the Governor has been pleased to throw out of 
our Bill ; and yet we think it so essentially necessary that 
the Want of it must necessarily poisen the Air those un- 
happy Passengers breathe on Shipboard, and spread* it 
wherever they land to infect the Country which receives 
them, especially as the Governor has likewise altered the 
Provision We had made by the Advice of the Physicians 
for accommodating them with more Room and Air upon 
their Arrival here. 

"We have reason to believe that the Importations of 

Currency of the Revolutionary Period. 249 

250 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 



tF^^frg c %^ i 7lT kij **! i *Tv^J6r a * a>> "r M fTSBrr^pf -^iT? fJK 
Priirted by HALL and SEL-8 

LER8. 1778. 

Assembly's Answer to the Governor. 251 

Germans have been for some Time composed of a great 
Mixture of the Refuse of their People and that the very 
Gaols have contributed to the Supplies We are burdened 
with. But as there are many of more Substance and better 
Character, We thought it reasonable to hinder the Importer 
from obliging such as had no connections with one another 
to become jointly bound for their respective Freights or 
Passages ; but the Governor has thought fit to alter this 
also in such a manner as to elude the good Purposes in- 
tended by the.Act, by which means those who are of more 
Substance are involved in the Contracts and Debts of 
Others, and the Merchants secured at the Expence of the 
Country where they are necessitated and do become very 
frequently Beggars from Door to Door, to the great Injury 
of the Inhabitants, and the Increase and Propogation of 
the Distempers they have brought among us. Many who 
have indented themselves for the Payment of their Pas- 
sages have frequently been afflicted with such frequent and 
loathesome Diseases at the time as have rendered them alto- 
gether unfit for the Services they had contracted to perform, 
for which we had provided a remedy by the Bill ; but the 
Governor has thought fit to strike it out and leave Us ex- 
posed to this grevious Imposition without a Remedy," etc. 

It was this action on the part of the Governor Morris 
that called out Christopher Saur's second letter, which is 
also given. 

Two months later this staunch and steady friend of his 
countrymen, whose wrongs were daily brought under his 
notice, again wrote to Governor Morris on this subject, as 
follows : 

" Germantown, Pa., May 12, 1755. 
'< Honored and Beloved Sir: 

"Although I do believe with sincerity, that you have 

252 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

at this time serious and troublesome business enough, 
nevertheless, my confidence in your wisdom makes me 
to write the following defective lines, whereby I desire not 
so much as a farthing of profit for myself. 

" When I heard last that the Assembly adjourned, I was 
desirous to know what was done concerning the Dutch bill 
and was told that your Honor have consented to all points, 
except that the German passengers need not have their 
chests along with them ; and because you was busy with 
more needful business, it was not ended. I was sorry for 
it, and thought, either your Honor has not good counsel- 
lers or you cant think of the consequences, otherwise you 
could not insist on this point. Therefore I hope you will 
not take it amiss to be informed of the case, and of some 
of the consequences, viz. : The crown of England found 
it profitable to peopling the American colonies ; and for 
the encouragement thereof, the coming and transportation 
of German Protestants was indulged, and orders were 
given to the officers at the customhouses in the parts of 
England, not to be sharp with the vessels of German pas- 
sengers knowing that the populating of the British col- 
onies will, in time become, profit more than the trifles of 
duty at the customhouses would import in the present time. 
This the merchants and importers experienced. 

" They filled the vessels with passengers and as much of 
the merchant's goods as they thought fit, and left the pas- 
sengers' chests &c behind, and sometimes they loaded 
vessels wholly with Palatines' chests. But the poor people 
depended upon their chests^ wherein was some provision, 
such as they were used to, as dried-apples, pears, plums, 
mustard, medicines, vinegar, brandy, gammons, butter, 
clothing, shirts and other necessary linens, money and 
whatever they brought with them ; and when their chests 

Saur's Second Letter. 


were left behind, or were shipped in some other vessel they 
had lack of nourishment. When not sufficient provision 
was shipped for the passengers, and they had nothing 
themselves, they famished and died. When they arrived 
alive, they had no money to buy bread, 
nor anything to sell. If they would spare 
clothes, they had no clothes nor shirt to 
strip themselves, nor were they able to 
cleanse themselves of lice and nastiness. 
If they were taken into houses, trusting 
on their effects and money, when it 
comes, it was either left behind, or rob- 
bed and plundered by the sailors behind 
or in the vessels. If such a vessel ar- 
rived before them, it was searched by 
the merchants' boys, &c., and their best 
effects all taken out, and no remedy for 
it, and this last mentioned practice, that 
people's chests are opened and their best 
effects taken out, is not only a practice 
this twenty five, twenty, ten or five 
years, or sometime only; but it is the 
common custom and daily complaints 
the week last past; when a pious man, 
living with me, had his chest broken open 
and three fine shirts and a flute taken out. 
The lock was broken to pieces and the 
lid of the chest split with iron and 
chisels. Such, my dear Sir, is the case, 
and if your honor will countenance the 
mentioned practices, the consequences 
will be, that the vessels with passengers will be filled with 
merchant's goods, wine, &c., as much as possible, and at 

254 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

the King's custom they will call it passengers' drink, and 
necessaries for the people, then household goods, &c. , which 
will be called free of duty. And if they please to load the 
vessels only with chests of passengers and what lies under 
them, that will be called also free of duty at the custom- 
houses; and as there are no owners of the chests with 
them, and no bill of loading is ever given, nor will be 
given, the chests will be freely opened and plundered by 
the sailors and others, and what is left will be searched 
in the stores by the merchants' boys and their friends and 
acquaintances. Thus, by the consequence, the King will 
be cheated, and the smugglers and store boys will be glad 
of your upholding and encouraging this, their profitable 
business ; but the poor sufferers will sigh or carry a re- 
venge in their bosoms, according as they are godly or un- 
godly, that such thievery and robbery is maintained. 

"If such a merchant should lose thirty, forty, fifty or 
ten thousand pounds, he may have some yet to spend and 
to spare, and has friends, but if a poor man's chest is left 
behind, or plundered either at sea or in the stores he has 
lost all he has. If a rich man's store, or house, or chest 
is broken open and robbed or plundered there is abundance 
of noise about it; but if 1,000 poor men's property is taken 
from them, in the manner mentioned, there is not a word to 
be said. 

"If I were ordered to print advertisements of people 
who lost their chests, by leaving them behind against their 
will, or whose chests were opened and plundered at sea, 
when they were sent after them in other vessels, or whose 
were opened and plundered in the stores of Philadel- 
phia should come and receive their value for it, (not four 
fold) but only single or half ; your honor would be wondering 
of a swarm from more than two or three thousand people. 

Saur Pleads with the Governor. 255 

But as such is not to be expected, it must be referred to 
the decision of the great, great, long, long day, where 
certainly an impartial judgment will be seen, and the last 
farthing must be paid, whereas in this present time, such 
poor sufferers has, and will have no better answer than is 
commonly given : ' Can you prove who has opened and 
stolen out of your chest?' or * Have you a bill of load- 
ing ? ' this has been the practice by some of the merchants 
of Philadelphia, and if it must continue longer, the Lord 
our God must compare that city to her sister Sodom, as he 
said : * Behold this was the iniquity of Sodom : pride, 
fullness of bread and abundance of idleness was in her. 
Neither did she strengthen the hand of the poor and needy 
(Ezekiel, 16 : 40) but rather weakened the hand of the 

poor and needy' (18 : 2)." 


In a postscript, as if he could not write too often or too 
forcibly of the wrongs of these poor people, he adds, con- 
veying a threat : 

"The Lord bless our good King and all his faithful 
ministers, and your Honor, and protect the city of Phila- 
delphia and country from all incursions and attempts of 
enemies. But if you should insist against a remedy for 
the poor Germans' grievances although no remedy is to 
be had for that which is past and an attempt of enemies 
should ensue before the city of Philadelphia, you will cer- 
tainly find the Germans faithful to the English nation ; as 
you might have seen how industrious they are to serve the 
King and government, for the protection of their sub- 
stance, life and liberties. But, as there are many and 
many thousands who have suffered injustice of their mer- 
chants at Philadelphia, it would not be prudent to call on 
them all for assistance, as there are certainly many wicked 

256 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

among the Germans ; which, if they should find them- 
selves overpowered by the French, I would not be bound 
for their behaviour, that they would not make reprisals on 
them that picked their chests and forced them to pay what 
they owed not ! and hindered yet the remedy for others. 
No ! if they were all Englishmen who suffered so much, I 
would much less be bound for their good behaviour. 

* * Pray sir do not look upon this as a trifle ; for there are 
many Germans, who have been wealthy people are many 
Germans, who have lost sixty, eighty, one, two, three, 
four hundred to a thousand pounds' worth, by leaving their 
chests behind, or were deprived and robbed in the stores, 
of their substance, and are obliged now to live poor, with 
grief. If you do scruple the truth of this assertion, let 
them be called in the newspaper, with hopes for reme- 
dies, and your Honor will believe me ; but if the Dutch 
(German) nation should hear that no regard is for them, 
and no justice to be obtained, it will be utterly in vain to 
offer them free schools especially as they are to be reg- 
ulated and inspected by one who is not respected in all 
this Province. 

" I hope your Honor will pardon my scribbling ; as it has 
no other aim than a needful redressing of the multitude of 
grievances of the poor people, and for the preserving of 
their lives and property, and that the Germans may be ad- 
hered to the friendship of the English nation, and for se- 
curing the honor of your Excellency, and not for a farthing 
for your humble servant. 

" Christopher Saur, 

" Printer of Germantown." 

It will be noted that both the Assembly and Saur averred 
that some of the members of the Governor's Council were 
engaged in this most disreputable business, and it may be 

Humanity of Christopher Saur. 


that the influence of these interested persons was at the 
bottom of his rejection of the measures proposed to remedy 
these evils. On the day following the delivery of the 
message of the House to the Governor, the latter replied 
with equal acerbity. He briefly gives his reasons for his 
action in the matter, but they are lame and unsatisfactory, 
strengthening the belief that he was trying to take care of 
his friends. 

It is said of the elder Christopher Saur that " on learn- 
ing from time to time that a vessel containing passengers 
had arrived in Philadelphia from Germany, he and his 
neighbors gathered vehicles and hastened to the landing 
place, whence those of the newcomers who were ill, were 
taken to his house, which for the time being was turned 
into a hospital, and there they were treated medically, 
nursed and supported by him until they became convales- 
cent and able to earn their own living." 148 

148 CHARLES G. SAUER'S Address at Memorial Services at the Church of 
the Brethren, at Germantown, January i, 1899. 





"Er ward in engen Koje Kalt, 
Kam nie zuriick zum Port. 
Man hat ihn auf ein Brett geschnallt, 
Und warf ihn iiber Bord." 

" Dem bieten grane Kltern noch 
Zum letztenmal die Hand ; 
Den Koser Bruder, Schwester, Freund ; 
Und alles schweigt, und alles weint, 
Todtbloss von uns gewandt." 

*fFN a general way, the 
II mortality among the 
immigrants resulting from 
the crowded condition of the 
ships, the bad character of 
the provisions and water 
and frequently from the 
scant supply of the same, 
the length of the voyage 
and other causes, has al- 


149 xhe arms, or wappen, of the Palatinate is an imposing piece of heraldic 
art sufficient, one would think, to do hon or to a land a thousand times the size 


ailing Death Rate Among Immigrants. 259 

ready been alluded to. But it is only when we come down 
to an actual presentation of the records that have reached 
our day, that we get a correct idea of the appalling char- 
acter of the death rate upon which the German settlements 
in Pennsylvania were built. Doubtless something beyond 
the ordinary was seen in the migration from Europe to 
other portions of the American continent, but as that migra- 
tion was more circumscribed in its numbers and the ra- 
pidity of its inflow, so also was the death rate attending it 
on a minor scale. It is surprising that the reality, as it be- 
came known in the Fatherland, did not hold back the mul- 
titudes anxious to come over. Perhaps the ebb and flow, 
as we now know it, greater in some years, and then again 
greatly diminished in others, may be accounted for by the 
fears that came upon the intending immigrants as letters 
from friends gradually drifted back to the old home. Some 

. of the Palatinate. Even the shield of Achilles, as pictured by Homer, was not 
more elaborate or picturesque. Its manifold armorial divisions arose out of the 
numerous changes and acquisitions to the original fief. I subjoin a descrip- 
tion of it in German, without venturing on a translation. 

Das Kurpfalsichen wappen bestehet aus zusam mengebrunden ovalrunden 
Schilden. Der i . ist quadrirt mit einem Mittelschilde, welcher im Schwartzen 
Felde einem goldenen rothgeprouren I^owen, wegen der Pfaltz am Rhein hat. 
Das i. Quartier des Haupt-Schilders ist von Silber und Blau, Schraggeweckt, 
wegen Baiern ; in 2. goldenen ist ein Schwazer gekrarter 1,6 we, wegen Julich : 
im 3. bauen ein silbernes Schildchen, aus dem 8. goldene Stabe im Kreis gesetzt, 
heroorgehen, wegen Cleve ; im 4. silbernen is ein rother 1^6'we, mit einer 
blauen Krone, wegen Berg. Der 2. Hauptschild ist quergetheilt. In der abern 
Halfte, in goldenem Felde, ist vorn ein Schwarzer Querbalken, wegen der 
Grafschaft Mors ; hintem im blauen, 3. goldene Kreuzchen, iiber einem drey- 
fachen griinen Htigel, wegen Bergen op Zoom. Die untere Halfte ist 3 mal 
in die Lange getheilt. Im vordersten silbernen Felde ist ein Blauer I^owe, 
wegen Veldenz ; im mittlern goldenen ein von Silber und Roth, zu 4. Reihen 
geschackter Querbalken, wegen der Graffschaft Mark, im hintersten silbernen 
sind 3 rothe Sparren, wegen Ravensburg. Der 3te rothe Hauptschild enthalt 
den goldenen Reichsapfel, wegen des Erztruchsestenamts. Diese 3. Haupts- 
childe werden von dem Kurhute bedeckt, und von der Kelte des St. Georgen 
und St. Hubertordens und des goldenen Bliesses umgeben ; und von 2. 

260 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

of them must have been of a character to daunt the courage 
of even the stout-hearted dwellers along the Rhine. We 
only know that these people continued to pour into the 
province for more than a century in spite of all the draw- 
backs that were presenting themselves during all that time. 

Although the first large colony of German immigrants 
to cross the ocean, and that suffered excessive losses on 
the voyage, did not come to Pennsylvania, it nevertheless 
deserves special mention here, because it was the largest 
single body of colonists that ever reached America, and 
because many of its members eventually found their way 
into the valleys of the Swatara and Tulpeh ocken. It was 
the colony sent to the State of New York at the request 
of Governor Hunter, who happened to be in England 
when the great German Exodus to London occurred, in 
1709. Even the members of this early colony were re- 
demptioners, in fact if not in name. They contracted to 
repay the British government the expenses incurred in 
sending them over. They were called " Servants to the 
Crown." After they had discharged their obligations, 
they were to receive five pounds each and every family 
forty acres of land. 

Three thousand and more of these people were em- 
barked in midwinter for New York. The exact date is 
unknown. It was probably some time during the month of 
January, 1710. The diarist Luttrell says, under date of De- 
cember 28, 1709, " Colonel Hunter designs, next week to 
embark for his government at New York, and most of the 
Palatines remaining here goe with him to people that col- 
ony." Conrad Weiser, who was among them, wrote at a 
late period of his life that "About Christmas-day (1709) 
we embarked, and ten ship loads with about 4,000 souls 
were sent to America." Weiser was a lad of thirteen 

Governor Hunter's Colonists. 261 

years at the time, and wrote from recollection many years 
after. As he was wrong in the number who set sail, so 
he no doubt was as to the time of embarcation. These 
3,000 persons of both sexes and all ages were crowded 
into ten ships. No official register of them is known. The 
vessels were small and as about 300 persons were crowded 
into each one, the voyage was a dreary one. By the middle 
of June seven of the ships had made land ; the latest did 
not arrive until near the close of July a five months' 
voyage, and ne, the Herbert, did not come at all, hav- 
ing been cast asjiore on Long Island and lost. The deaths 
during the voyage were " above 470," writes Governor 
Hunter, but other authorities place them at a far higher 
number. Conrad Weiser, in his old age 
and without actual data for his estimate, 
places the loss at 1,700, which is much 
too high. The best authorities place 
the number at 859, showing a mortality 
of more than 25 per cent. Boehme 
states that " Of some families neither 
parents nor children survive." Eighty SEAI < OF GERMAN- 

. , ,. , , , . TOWN. 

are said to have died on a single ship, 
with most of the living ill. It deserves also to be stated 
that the children of these maltreated immigrants were by 
order of Governor Hunter apprenticed among the colonists, 
which act was bitterly resented by the parents. It was one 
of the first of the long series of wrongs that befell them. 
It was no doubt the sorrowful experience of these ten ship- 
loads of Germans that thereafter turned all the immigrants 
towards Pennsylvania. But one more ship with Palatines 
went to New York, and that was in 1772. It is even pos- 
sible this ship was carried out of its course and made port 
at New York instead of Philadelphia. 

262 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

Christopls|r Saur in his first letter to Governor Morris 
asserts that in a single year two thousand German immi- 
grants found ocean burial while on their way to Pennsyl- 

Caspar Wistar wrote in 1732 : " Last year a ship was 
twenty-four weeks at sea, and of the 150 passengers on 
board thereof, more than 100 died of hunger and privation, 
and the survivors were imprisoned and compelled to pay 
the entire passage-money for themselves and the deceased. 
In this year 10 ships arrived in Philadelphia with 5,000 
passengers. One ship was seventeen weeks at sea and 
about 60 passengers thereof died." 

Christopher Saur in 1758 estimated that 2,000 of the 
passengers on the fifteen ships that arrived that year, died 
during the voyage. 

Johann Heinrich Keppele, who afterwards became the 
first president of the German Society of Pennsylvania, says 
in his diary that of the 312^ passengers on board the ship 
in which he came over, 250 died during the voyage. 

But it must not be supposed that all ships carrying immi- 
grants encountered the appalling losses we have mentioned. 
In 1748 I find this in Saur's paper: " Seven ships loaded 
with German immigrants left Rotterdam ; of these three 
have arrived in Philadelphia, making the passage from 
port to port in 31 days, all fresh and well so^ far as 'we 
know. They were also humanely treated on the voyage." 

A ship that left Europe in December, 1738, with 400 
Palatines, was wrecked on the coast of Block Island. All 
save 105 had previously died and fifteen of those who 
landed also died after landing, making a loss of seventy- 
seven per cent. 

A vessel that reached the port of Philadelphia in 1745, 
landed only 50 survivors out of a total of 400 souls that 

Mortality on Ship-board. 


had sailed away from Europe. In this case starvation was 
the principal cause of the appalling mortality. 

In 1754, the sexton of the Stranger's Burying Ground in 
Philadelphia, testified under oath that he had buried 253 
Palatines up to November I4th, to which " six or eight more 
should be added." It 
seems the diseases con- 
tracted on ship-board 
followed them long 
after they reached Phil- 
adelphia. 150 

In February, 1745, 
Saur said in his news- 
paper : " Another ship 
arrived in Philadelphia 
with Germans. It is 
said she left port with 
400 souls and that there 
are now not many more 
than 50 left alive." 

"On the 26th of 
December, 1738* a ship A N oij> TAR BUCKET, SUCH AS WAS AI,- 
of three hundred tons WAYS CARRIED BY THE CONE- 
was wrecked on Block 

Island, near the coast of the State of Rhode Island. This 
ship sailed from Rotterdam in August, 1738, last from 
Cowes, England. John Wanton, the Governor of Rhode 
Island, sent Mr. Peter Bouse, and others, from Newport, 
to Block Island, to see how matters were. On the ipth of 
January, 1739, they returned to Newport, R. I., reporting 
that the ship was commanded by Capt. Geo. Long, that 
he died on the inward passage, and that the mate then took 

Colonial Records, Vol. VI., p. 173. 

264 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania.. 

charge of the ship which had sailed from Rotterdam with 
400 Palatines, destined for Philadelphia, that an exceed- 
ingly malignant fever and flux had prevailed among them, 
only 105 landing at Block Island, and that by death the 
number had been further reduced to 90. The chief reason 
alleged for this great mortality was the bad condition of the 
water taken in at Rotterdam. It was filled in casks that 
before had contained white and red wine. The greater 
part of the goods of the Palatines was lost." 151 

It may be stated in this connection that the ship Welcome, 
on which Penn came over in the fall of 1683, was of 300 
tons. The small-pox broke out on board and proved fatal 
to nearly one-third of those on board. 152 

Despite all the efforts made by private individuals, and 
the various enactments of the Provincial Assembly, effec- 
tual and permanent relief was not destined to come in that 
way. It was not until a united, influential and determined 
body of men formed themselves into a corporation and set 
to work at the task before them with a will, that the dawn 
at last began to break. It was on Christmas day in 1764 
that a number of the most influential German residents in 
Philadelphia met in the Lutheran School House, on Cherry 
street and organized the " German Society of Pennsyl- 
vania." It was legally incorporated on September 20, 
1787, but it did not wait for that legal recognition to begin 
its work. Its first president was Johann Heinrich Kep- 
pele, an opulent and influential merchant of Philadelphia. 
His efficiency in conducting the affairs of the Society was 
so clearly recognized that he was annually reelected to the 
Presidency for a period of seventeen years. 

161 Pennsylvania Gazette, Februarys, 1739. 

162 WATSON'S Annals of Philadelphia, Vol. I., p. 15. 


INTO re 

264 The German Immigr*t*&* info Pennsyh&nia. 

charge of the ship which li***l Bailed from Rotterdam with 
400 Palatines, destined for 1 iUndclphia, that an 
ingly malignant le*< r **K! flaw had prevailed among f 
only 105 landing * ' Block Inland, and that by death the 
number had been farther reduced to 90. The chief reason 
alleged for '.his $r^i mortality was the bad condition of the 
water taket) VM at Rotterdam, It was filled in casks tha* 
bafor^ hfc4 c'>ptjnia?<! w-riite and red wrne. The greater 
.part of the g\*>d* ot tlc Palatines was lost." 151 

Dsttftft jn this connection that the ship Welcome, 
c*m# over in the fall of 1683, was of 300 
tons. Tb<* sin&i 1 

to nearly or> >se on hoard. w 

all tfse ei^offti m*ck ; 
the variouft enactineiits oi the tfcc- 

tual and permanent relief was not i&etiuel tu 
wa} 7 . It was not until a united, influential and determined 
body of men formed themselves into a corporation and set 
to vvofk at the ta*k before them with a will, that the dawn 
at iasi began to break. It was on Christmas day in 1764 
that a number of the most influential German resi. 
Philadelphia met in the Lutheran School House, on 
#tret and organized the * German Society of Pennsyl- 
vania." It was legally incorporated on September 20, 
1787, but it did not wait for that legal recognition to begin 
its work, its first president was Johann Heinrich Kep- 
pele, an opulent and influential merchant of Philadelphia. 
His efficiency in conducting the affairs of the Society was 
so clearly recognised that he was annually reflected to the 
Presidency for a pertod oi eviitcefi years, 

161 Pennsylvania ( 

162 WATSON'S Annaf. - : t> < 



The Society Actively at Work. 


No time was lost in beginning the work mapped out, to 
do away with the manifold abuses that attended the immi- 
gration of Germans, to succor the sick and to lend sub- 
stantial aid to the needy and deserving. The Assembly 
was at once taken in hand and certain reforms demanded. 
The matter came up before that body on January n, 1765, 
and an act in nine sections, prepared by the Society, was 
laid before it, in which the rights of immigrants were pro- 
vided for while on the sea, and safeguarded after their 
landing. Objections were at once 
made by prominent merchants who 
had previously driven a very profit- 
able trade in Redemptioners, and 
who saw in the passage of the pro- 
posed act an end to their iniquitous 
but profitable traffic ; but it was en- 
acted into a law despite their pro- 
tests. Governor John Penn, how- 
ever, refused to sign the act because 
it was presented to him on the last 
day of the session. It has been sus- 
pected that his principal reason was that he was unwilling 
to give offense to his many influential English friends 
whose revenues it was certain would be interfered with. 

But the German Society meant business and was not to 
be turned down by a single rebuff, from whatever source. 
During the following summer another bill was brought 
forward, modifying the former one in some particulars. 
This one was also passed and this time the Governor's sig- 
nature was added, May 18, 1765. All immigrants who 
had complaints to make were invited to present them to the 
Society, which in turn became the champion of these op- 
pressed people. In 1785 it succeeded in procuring legis- 




266 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

lation providing for the establishment of a Bureau of Reg- 
istration, and the appointment of an official who could 
speak both the German and English languages. Previ- 
ously the newcomers had been haled before the Mayors 
of the city, to take the necessary oaths ; yet Seidensticker 
tells us that from 1700 to 1800 there were only two Mayors 
of Philadelphia who could speak the German language. 
For a time, this active and unceasing energy put an end to 
the most serious complaints, but later they again came to 
the front, and in 1818 still another act, and a more strict 
and exacting one, was passed, after which these long-con- 
tinued wrongs finally disappeared. 

The Society was of much assistance in a financial way 
to the needy immigrants, aiding thousands to better their 
condition, and on the whole did an untold amount of good. 
It solicited outside contributions but most of the money ex- 
pended was contributed by the members themselves. It 
supplied bread, meat and other good and fresh food to the 
needy ones, but sometimes the need was even greater than 
the Society's means would allow. It sent the sick to spe- 
cial houses and appealed to the authorities whenever an 
injustice was brought to its notice. But the Society fre- 
quently had its own troubles with those whom it tried to 
succor. Its generous deeds sometimes failed to satisfy the 
wishes and expectations of the newcomers. They looked 
for more. They expected that the Society would also 
clear the rough land for them and hand it over to them 
according to the terms of their contracts with the Newland- 
ers, which was of course an impossibility. Some also in- 
sisted that the Society should buy their time, clothe and 
keep all the old, poor, infirm and sick, and give them a 
decent burial when dead. 153 

153 See MUHLENBERG'S letter in Hallische Nachrichten, p. 998. 

An Old Map of the Palatinate. 



"MaJfestab 1:1.8OO.OOO 


268 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

Able men presided over the destinies of the Society. 
The elder Muhlenberg took a warm interest in it and had 
advised its organization in the Hallische Nachrichten. Two 
of his sons were among its presidents ; General Peter 
Muhlenberg in 1788 and also from 1801 to 1807 and his 
brother Frederick Augustus Muhlenberg from 1789 to 
1797, at the same time that he was serving as Speaker of 
the Federal House of Representatives. The Society has 
continued its good work down to our own time. It has not 
only a fine Society Hall, but an excellent library and a 
very considerable endowment. 

Friedrich Kapp gives a single example out of the hun- 
dreds of cases in which the German Society interfered in 
the interests of persons and families and saw justice done 
them. It is the case of one George Martin, who, for him- 
self, his wife and five children, two of whom were under 
five years of age and who under the regular custom should 
be counted as one full freight, contracted with the captain 
of the ship Minerva to be carried to Pennsylvania for the 
sum of 9 per head, or 54 for all charges. He advanced 
forty guilders in Rotterdam, or about $16.66. Martin 
died on the passage across the ocean. When the rest of 
the family reached Philadelphia, the three eldest sons were 
each sold by the captain to five years' service for 30, or 
90 in all ; the remaining two children under five years of 
age were disposed of for 10 for the two, in all 100 to 
pay the 58 agreed upon in the contract. But that was not 
all ; the forty-six-year-old widow was also sold to five years 
of servitude for 22. The Society secured the widow's 
release, but she made no objection to the children paying 
the passage money in the manner indicated. 154 

At the present hour steamship companies are doing 

154 FRIEDRICH KAPP, Die Deutschen im Staate New York, p. 219. 

Land for Redemptioners. 269 

just what the individual ship owners did one hundred and 
fifty years ago. They have their regular agents in Italy, 
Austria, Germany and Poland, who are painting the old 
pictures over again, holding up the old attractions and, 
often in ways far from reputable, securing emigrants to 
fill their coffers. In this way we can easily account for 
the 500,000 persons who have come to this country during 
the present year. Before the Chinese exclusion law was 
passed, thousands of those people were brought here by 
syndicates and their services sold to those who would have 
them. The Padrone system which prevails among the 
Italian immigrants of the poorer classes is also little else 
than a revival of the old-time methods that prevailed in the 
goodly Province of Pennsylvania during the period under 
consideration. As practiced now it is shorn of its worst 
features by the humanity of the times, but the underlying 
principles are not widely different. 


At some time, and somewhere, either by written page or 
verbal declaration, it was decreed that bond servants should 
receive at the expiration of their term of service, fifty acres 
of land from the Proprietary Government at the exceed- 
ingly low annual quit rent of two shillings, or about one 
cent per acre. Nothing in the various regulations and 
laws prescribed for the government of the Province was 
more generous and wise than that. It was designed to 
give the newly freed man an opportunity with every other 
immigrant to get a good start in life. It cast behind what 
the man had previously been and recognized him as a 
free man, entitled to all the rights and privileges of full 
citizenship. His quit rent was to be only one-half that 

270 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

which his former master was required to pay. In short, 
the fullest opportunity was given him to repair his fortunes 
if his industry and thrift so inclined him. 

But all my researches to trace the origin of this practice 
of bestowing these fifty acres of land upon bond servants, 
have been unavailing. There are many allusions to it 
scattered throughout the laws regulating the affairs of the 
Province, as well as among more recent writers, but it is 
always alluded to as an already existing law. The original 
decree or place of record is nowhere revealed. For in- 

stance, in Penn's "Conditions 
and Concessions" the seventh 
section reads as follows : * ' That 
for every Fifty Acres that shall 
be allotted to a Servant at the 
End of his] Service, his Quitrent 
shall be Two Shillings fer An- 
num, and the Master or Owner 
of the Servant, when he shall 
take up the other Fifty Acres, 
his Quitrent shall be Four Shil- 
lings by the Year, or if the 
Master of the Servant (by rea- 
son in the Indentures he is so 
obliged to do) allot out to the 

GOURD FOR SEINE FI,OAT. Servant Fifty Acreg fo hig 

Division, the said Master shall have on Demand allotted to 
him from the Governor, the One Hundred Acres at the 
chief Rent of Six Shillings fer Annum" 155 Grahame 

155 Certain Conditions and Concessions agreed upon by William Penn, Pro- 
prietary and Governor of the Province of Pennsylvania, and those who are the 
Adventurers and Purchasers in the same Province, the Eleventh of July, One 
Thousand Six Hundred and Eighty One." 

Conditions to Renters. 271 

makes an emphatic declaration about such a law in a para- 
graph discussing this very article in the " Conditions and 
Concessions." 156 

Benjamin Furley, the English Quaker and a life-long 
friend of Penn, whose principal agent he was for the sale 
of lands in the newly acquired Province, in a letter to a 
friend sets forth under date of March 6, 1684, certain ex- 
planations concerning the conditions granted to settlers. 
Among other ^things he has a paragraph relative to 


" To those who have enough money to pay the expense 
of their passage as well for themselves as for their wives, 
children, and servants, but upon their arrival have no more 
money with which to buy lands, the Governor gives full 
liberty for themselves, their wives, children and servants 
who are not under the age of sixteen years, whether male 
or female, each to take fifty acres at an annual rent in per- 
petuity of an English dernier for each acre, which is less 
than a Dutch sol. It will be rented to them and to their 
children in perpetuity the same as if they had bought the 
said land. For the children and servants after the term of 
their service will have expired, in order to encourage them 
to serve faithfully their fathers and masters, the Governor 
gives them full liberty for themselves and their heirs in per- 
petuity, to take for each 50 acres, paying only a little an- 
nual rent of two English shillings (Escalins) for 50 acres, 
which is less than a farthing for each acre. And they and 

188 " To the constitutional frame was appended a code of 40 conditional 
laws. Among: them it proclaimed that the rank and rights of freemen of the 
Province should accrue to all purchasers of a hundred acres of land : to all ser- 
vants or bondsmen who at the expiration of their engagements should culti- 
vate the quota of land (50 acres) allotted to them by law. " (GRAHAME'S History 
of Pennsylvania, pp. 333-334.) 

272 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

their fathers and masters will be regarded as true citizens. 
They will have the right of suffrage not only for the elec- 
tion of Magistrates of the place where they live but also 
for that of the members of the Council of the Province and 
the General Assembly, which two bodies joined with the 
Governor are the Sovereignty, and what is much more 
they may be chosen to exercise some office, if the commu- 
nity of the place where they live considers them capable 
of it, no matter what their nationality or religion." 157 

It will be seen from the foregoing that these 50 acres of 
land which were allotted to Redemptioners at the conclu- 
sion of their term of service, were not an absolute gift or 
donation by the Proprietors, as so many writers seem to 
think, but were rented to them on more reasonable terms 
than to their masters. I have nowhere found whether 
other equally favorable concessions were made when the 
Redemptioner purchased his 50 acres outright or when he 
after a while preferred exclusive ownership in preference 
to the payment of quit-rent. Doubtless, in the latter case, 
he came in on the same footing as any other original pur- 
chaser. A recent history ventures upon the following ex- 
planation : "The land secured by settlers and servants 
who had worked out their term of years, was granted in 
fee under favor which came directly or indirectly from the 
crown." 158 To the average reader that must appear like an 
explanation that does not explain, and is incorrect in addi- 
tion. The regulation did not convey an absolute title to 
land. It was granted under a reservation and not in fee 
simple. Every student knows that all the laws passed in 
the Province were subject to revision by the crown, and 

157 See article by Judge S. W. PENNYPACKER in Pennsylvania Magazine of 
History and Biography, Vol. VI., pp. 320-321. 

168 SCHARF & WESTCOTT'S History of Philadelphia, Vol. I., p. 134. 

Lands Given to Redemptioners. 273 

therefore whatever law or custom, to be legal, must have 
received the royal assent. What is much more to the point 
is when and where that concession to indentured servants 
was first proclaimed and put upon record. It seems un- 
reasonable that there was no legal authorization of the 


Long after the foregoing remarks and speculations con- 
cerning the time and place where the custom of allowing 
indentured servitors to take up 50 acres of land at a nom- 
inal quit-rent had been written, and after the chapter in 
which they appear had been printed, I had the good for- 
tune to find the authorization that had so long eluded my 

On March 4, 1681, King Charles signed the document 
which gave to William Penn the Province of Pennsylvania. 
Very soon thereafter Penn wrote an account of his new 
possessions from the best information he then had- It was 
printed in a folio pamphlet of ten pages, entitled : " Some 
AMERICA ; Lately Granted under the Great Seal of 
ENGLAND to WILLIAM PENN, ETC. Together -with 
Priviledges and Powers necessary to the well-governing 
thereof. Made -publickfor the Information of such as are 
or may be disposed to Transport themselves or Servants into 
those Parts. London : Printed^ and Sold by Benjamin 
Clark Bookseller in George-Yard Lombard-Street, 1681" 
The title of the tract in fac-simile will be found on page 

In this scarce and valuable little tract Penn sets forth the 
" Conditions " under which he was disposed to colonize 
his new Province. Condition No. III. reads as follows : 

274 Tke German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 






I N 


Lately Granted under the Great Seal 

o F 


T O 

William Perm, &c. 

Together with Priviledges and Powers necef- 
fary to the well-governing thereof. 

Made publick for the Information of fuch as are or may be 

difpofed co Tranfport themfelves or Servants 

into thofe Parts. 

LONDON: Printed, and Sold by toenjdmin CM 
Bookiellei in Georgejfard Lombard^re ct } ~ v6 8 1 , 


Fifty Acres Allotted to Each Servant. 


" My conditions will relate to three sorts of people : ist. 
Those that will buy : 2dly. Those that take up land upon 
rent: 3dly. Servants. To the first, the shares I sell shall 
be certain as to number of acres ; that is to say, every one 
shall contain five thousand acres, free from any Indian in- 
cumbrance, the price a hundred pounds and for the quit- 
rent but one English shilling or the value of it yearly for 
a hundred acres ; and the said quit-rent not to begin to be 
paid till 1684. To the second sort, that take upland upon 
rent, they shall have liberty so to do paying yearly one 
penny per acre, not exceeding two hundred acres. To 
the third sort, to wit, servants that are carried over, fifty 
acres shall be allowed to the master for every head, AND 


EXPIRED. And because some engaged with me that may 
not be disposed to go, it were very advisable for every 
three adventurers to send an overseer with their servants, 
which would well pay the cost." 





" God's blessing on the Fatherland, 

And all beneath her dome ; 
And also on the newer land 
We now have made our home." 

Bin dichter Kreis von I^ieben steh t, 
Ihr Briider, um uns her ; 
Uns Kniipft so manches theuere Band 
An unser deutsches Vaterland, 
Drum fallt der Abschied schwer." 

HILE my discussion 
of this question has 
special reference to the Pro- 
vince of Pennsylvania, the 
trade had so ramified into the 
neighboring regions to the 
south of us, that a brief glance 
at what prevailed there will 
assist us in understanding the situation at our own doors. 
In fact we may be said to have taken it from them, because 



Servant Laws in Maryland. 277 

it prevailed there many years before it developed in Penn- 
sylvania. It prevailed in Virginia from an early period, 
and when Lord Baltimore established his government in 
his new Province of Maryland, he was prompt to recognize 
the same system in order to more rapidly secure colonists. 
In the beginning the term of service there was fixed at five 
years. In 1638 the Maryland Assembly passed an act 
reducing it to four years, which remained in force until 
1715, when it was amended by fixing the period of service 
for servants *above the age of twenty-five years, at five 
years ; those between the age of eighteen and twenty-five 
years, at six years ; those between fifteen and eighteen at 
seven years, while all below fifteen years were compelled 
to remain with their masters until they reached the age of 
twenty-two years. 159 

Servants in Maryland were from the first placed under 
the protection of the law, which no doubt threw many 
safeguards around them, preventing impositions in many 
cases, and securing them justice from hard and inhuman 
masters. Either by law or by custom the practice grew 
up of rewarding these servants at the expiration of their 
time of service, as we find in 1637 one of these servants 
entitled to " one cap or hat, one new cloth or frieze suit, 
one shirt, one pair of shoes and stockings, one axe, one 
broad and one narrow hoe, fifty acres of land and three 
barrels of corn " out of the estate of his deceased master. 160 
There, as in Pennsylvania, the way to preferment was 
open to man and master alike. There as here many of 
these Redemptioners became in time prosperous, promi- 
nent people. No stigma was attached to this temporary ser- 

189 Louis P. HENNIGHAUSEN, The Redemptioners and the German Society 
of Maryland, pp. 1-2. 

160 Louis P. HENNIGHAUSEN, Case quoted irom Maryland Archives, 1637. 

278 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 


vitude, and intermarriages between masters and their female 
servants were not infrequent, nor between servants and 
members of the master's household. But these people 
could not select their masters. They were compelled to 
serve those who paid the sums due the ship captain or ship 
owner. Indeed their lot was often during its duration actu- 
ally harder than that of the negro slaves, for it was to the 
owner's interests to take care of his slaves, who were his 
all their lives, while the indentured servants remained with 
him for a few years only. There were consequently as 
many complaints there as in Pennsylvania. 

We must not lose sight of the fact, however, that for 
many years these Redemptioners were almost exclusively 
of English and Irish birth. It was not so easy to deal 
with them as with foreigners. They sent their complaints 
to England, and measures were taken there to prevent the 
abuses complained of. The press even took up the refrain 
and the letters sent home appeared in the newspapers, ac- 

companied by warnings against entering into these con- 
tracts. It was not until the institution was in full career in 
Penn's province that it began there. The first Germans 
who reached Maryland in considerable numbers were such 
as migrated out of Pennsylvania. Lancaster county lay 
on the Maryland border, and the migrating instinct soon 
took them to Baltimore, Harford, Frederick and the western 
counties. As these people made themselves homes and be- 
came prosperous, they needed labor for their fields and 
naturally enough preferred their own countrymen. The 


r<**r0 into Pennsylvania. 

n masters and their ft 
v^ueist, nor between servants and 
<r;Mi*rg household. But these people 
:3k- iiisj masters. They were compelled to 
.1 the sums clue the ship captain br ship 
!*:d ts<Mr lot was often during its duration actu- 
5 'at of the negro -slaves, for it was to the 
H to lake care of his slaves, who were his 
mle the indentured servants remained with 
* vew years only. There were consequently as 
ornplaints there as in Pennsylvania. 
rijiitfi not i - ^ght of the fact, however, that for 
:*-:ar.s the?*: Kedemptkmers were almost exclusively 
i Irish birth. It was not so easy to deal 
'iu:i; as with .foreigners. They sent their complaints 
h. -gU?: j, and measures were taken there to prevent the 
'usplnined of. The press even took up the refrain 
nd ?hc U-'teis ^eat home appeared in the newspapers, ac- 

imanied hv vartungs against entering into thes* 

ft was not until the institution was in fuii 

s's provin, e that it tyegan there. The fifgC Germans 

-tvacticd Maryland in considerable numbers were such 

^^raied t>vi( of Pennsylvania. Lancaster county lay 

.Maryland border, and the migrating instinct soon 

*-m to Baltimore, Harford, Frederick and the western 

As these people made themselves homes and be- 

\>r ,*r^rous, they needed labor for their fields and 

tHWiiUv tnottfh preferred iheir <>wn countrymen. The 


Redemftioners in Maryland. 279 

Newlanders, however, were just as willing to send their 
ship-loads of human freight to Baltimore as to Philadelphia, 
and it was not long before ships began to arrive in the 
former port even as they were doing at the latter. 

While Pennsylvania, in 1765, at the instigation of the 
German Society newly formed in the State, passed laws 
for the protection of these immigrants, nothing of the kind 
was done in Maryland until a long time afterwards. The 
Maryland newspapers of the period teem with notices of 
the arrivals of immigrant ships and offerings for sale of 
the passengers, just as did those of Philadelphia. Here 
are a few examples : 

From the Baltimore American , February 8, 1817 


"The Dutch ship Jungfrau Johanna, Capt. H. H. 
Bleeker, has arrived off Annapolis, from Amsterdam with 
a number of passengers, principally farmers ' and me- 
chanics of all sorts, and several fine young boys and girls, 
whose time will be disposed of. Mr. Bolte, ship broker 
of Baltimore, will attend on board at Annapolis, to whom 
those who wish to supply themselves with good servants, 
will please apply; also to Capt. Bleeker on board." 

Two weeks later this appeared in the same paper : 

" That a few entire families are still on board \hzjokanna 
to be hired." 

Here is another : 

" A German Redemptioner, for the term of two years. 

280 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

He is a stout, healthy man, and well acquainted with farm- 
ing, wagon driving and the management of horses. For 
further particulars apply to 

" C. R. GREEN, Auctioneer." 


foil remain 

from Amfierdam, about 
whom are, 

Servant girls, gardeners^ fcMcli*v tnatons, 
tugar bakere, bread bakery t flu>en>aker, x.filve* 
Inuib, I leather drefler, l tobacconift, i pafiry 
cooky and fome a little acquainted with waiting 
on families, as veil as farming and tending bodes, 
&c They Ere all in good .health. Any pprfbn, 
defirouB of being accommodated in the above 
branch ea will pleae fyeedtly to apply tu 

Captain JOHN .BOWLES, 
in the ftreaovefT Feil^-Pointj^ 
Who ojferj fot 6W^ 
So Ucn-boond Water Calks 
* cheft elegant Fowling Pieces, .finalfc and dja- 
nJe barrelled 

l ( 5ooo Dotch Brick, and 
Sundry '{nips Provilbn^., 
uty 24.- 

On April nth we have this : 


"Absconded from the Subscriber on Sunday, the 5th 
inst., a German Redemptioner, who arrived here in 
November last, by name Maurice Schumacher, about 30 
years of age, 5 feet 9 inches, well proportioned, good 
countenance, but rather pale in complexion, short hair, 
has a very genteel suit of clothes, by trade a cabinet 
maker, but has been employed by me in the making of 
brushes. He is a good German scholar, understands 

Price of a German Boy. 


French and Latin, an excel- 
lent workman, speaks Eng- 
lish imperfectly. $30 Re- 
ward if lodged in jail. 
44 Jos. M. Stapleton, 

44 Brush Maker, 
44 139 Baltimore Street." 

On March ^d a reward is 
offered for the capture of a 
German Redemptioner, a 
tailor who took French leave 
from Washington. 

On March nth a reward 
of $30 is offered for the 
capture of a German Re- 
demptioner, a bricklayer. 

As late as April yth of the 
same year, 1817, I find our 
old friend, the Johanna, 
which, arriving on Febru- 
ary 8th, had not yet dis- 
posed of her living cargo, as 
the following advertisement 
shows : 



44 The Dutch ship Johan- 
na, Captain H. H. Bleeker, 
has arrived before this City, 
and lies now in the cove of 
Wiegman's Wharf ; there 
are on board, desirous of 

282 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

binding themselves, for their passage, the following single 
men : Two capital blacksmiths, a rope maker, a carrier, a 
smart apothecary, a tailor, a good man to cook, several 
young men as waiters, etc. Among those with families are 
gardeners, weavers, a stonemason, a miller, a baker, a 
sugar baker, farmers and other professions, etc." 

Two months in port and not all sold yet ! 

One more extract from the Baltimore American and I 
am done. It is this, in the issue of February 7, 1817, a 
winter of extraordinary severity in that latitude : 

" A ship with upward of 300 German men, women and 
children has arrived off Annapolis, where she is detained 
by ice. These people have been fifteen weeks on board 
and are short of provisions. Upon making the Capes, 
their bedding having become filthy, was thrown overboard. 
They are now actually perishing from the cold and want 
of provisions." 

No bedding, few provisions, with the thermometer rang- 
ing from five degrees above to four below zero. Surely 
the Maryland Redemptioner was tasting all the miseries 
of servitude, as his Pennsylvania brother had done for 
three-quarters of a century previously. 

In answer to a strong newspaper appeal made by a 
German descendant, a meeting of Germans and descend- 
ants of Germans was called on February 13, 1817, to form 
a society to protect and assist, so far as was possible, the 
German immigrants. That action resulted in the forma- 
tion of the German Society of Maryland. The member- 
ship was composed of the best and most prominent men in 
the State, and it at once went to work with an energy and 
determination that promised good results. The captain of 
the Johanna was prosecuted for illegal practices and for 
appropriating to his own use the effects of dead passengers. 
The sick on board were sent to hospitals. 

The German Society of Maryland. 283 

In 1818 the Society was instrumental in securing the 
passage of an act by the Maryland Assembly consisting 
of numerous sections in which provision was made to do 
away with the evils which had hitherto prevailed in the 
importation, sale and treatment of Redemptioners of Ger- 
man and Swiss ancestry. Every one of the disgraceful 
practices which formerly obtained was done away with. 
The Society^ took care that this excellent law was strictly 
enforced and in a few years the bringing over of Redemp- 
tioners became so unprofitable that the very name disap- 
peared from the records. Upon one occasion it was in 
March, 1819 a ship, the Vrouiu Elizabeth , reached Balti- 
more with a number of immigrants, who before embarking 
had subscribed to the usual conditions. But when they 
reached this country, they refused to comply with their 
agreements. The officers of the Society refused to coun- 
tenance this action and wrote them a letter in which they 
said that as the Captain of the ship had treated* them with 
the utmost kindness, they must comply with their con- 
tracts and that the Society would not countenance their 
attempt to evade their honest obligations. Herein the So- 
ciety manifested its desire to deal fairly with Shipmasters as 
well as with the poor people they brought over. 161 

It deserves to be stated that, in addition to the large num- 
ber of Germans who went to Maryland from Pennsylvania, 
there was also considerable immigration into that State 
through the port of Annapolis. From the entries at that 
city we learn the fact that from 1752 to 1755, 1,060 Ger- 
man immigrants arrived there ; in 1752, 150 ; in 1753, 460 ; 
and in 1755, 450. They are spoken of as Palatines. 162 

161 1 desire to express my acknowledgment for many of the foregoing 
facts relating to the Redemptioners of Maryland, to the excellent little work 
of INCUTS P. HENNIGHAUSEN, Esq., to which I have already referred. 

162 Publications of the Society for the History of the Germans in Mary- 
land, for 1890-1891, pp. 18-19. 

284 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

Condition of Red emotion ers in Maryland. 285 

" No public records were kept of the contracts entered 
into abroad by the Redemptioners (of Maryland) nor of the 
time of the expiration of their service. The Redemptioners 
were not furnished with duplicates of their contracts. They 
could be, and sometimes were, mortgaged, hired out for a 
shorter period, sold and transferred like chattel by their 
masters. (Maryland Archives^ 1637-50, pp. 132-486.) 
The Redermptioners, belonging to the poor and most of 
them to the ignorant class, it is apparent that under these 
circumstances were at a great disadvantage against rapa- 
cious masters, who kept them in servitude after the expira- 
tion of their true contract time, claiming their services for a 
longer period. 

" As the number of slaves increased in the colony, and 
labor became despised, the Redemptioner lost caste and 
the respect which is accorded to working people in non- 
slave-holding communities. He was in many respects 
treated like the black slave. He could neither purchase 
nor sell anything without the permission of the master. If 

163 One of the historical buildings of early Philadelphia was "The Blue 
Anchor Tavern." It was built at the confluence of Dock Creek with the Dela- 
ware. This creek was formed by several springs leading out of the swampy 
ground near its mouth. The tavern was built by George Griest. It stood on 
what is now the southwest corner of South and Ninth streets. The river bank 
in front of it was low and sandy and elsewhere high and precipitous. Penn 
left the ship Welcome on which he had come over, at Upland, now Chester, 
and came up the river in a boat, landing at " The Blue Anchor." Tradition as- 
signs to it the honor of being the first house built in Philadelphia. It was small 
in size, having fronts on both Front and Dock streets, with ceilings 8# feet 
high. While it looked like a brick house it in reality was framed of wood with 
bricks filled in. The tavern, from its favored locality, was a noted place for 
business. All small vessels made their landing there. There was a public 
ferry across Dock Creek at the tavern, Dock Creek being then navigable for 
small craft. Griest, the first landlord, was a Quaker, as were his successors, 
Reese Price, Peter Howard and Benjamin Humphries. Proud says the house 
was not quite finished at the time of Penn's arrival in November, 1682. I^ater 
the tavern went by the name of " The Boatswain and Call." It was torn down 
in 1828. (See WATSON'S Annals of Philadelphia.) 

286 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

caught ten miles away from home, without the written per- 
mission of his master, he was liable to be taken up as a run- 
away and severely punished. The person who harbored a 
runaway was fined 500 pounds of tobacco for each twenty- 
four hours, and to be whipped if unable to pay the fine. 
There was a standing reward of 200 pounds of tobacco for 
capturing runaways, and the Indians received for every 
captured runaway they turned in a * match coat.' For 
every day's absence from work ten days were added to his 
time of servitude. The master had a right to whip his Re- 
demptioner for any real or imaginary offense, which must 
have been a very difficult matter to determine, for offenses 
may be multiplied. The laws also provided for his pro- 
tection. For excessively cruel punishment the master could 
be fined and the Redemptioner set free. I presume in most 
cases this was only effective when the Redemptioner had 
influential friends who would take up his case." 164 


New York had a similar system, although, owing to the 
fact that the many large landed estates owned by the Pa- 
troons, were worked by free tenant farmers, the number of 
white indentured servants was not nearly so great as in 
Pennsylvania. The character of this labor was, however, 
the same as in Pennsylvania and Maryland. They con- 
sisted of convicts sent from England and Ireland, of the 
miserably poor who '.were kidnapped and sold into servi- 
tude, and of Redemptioners who were disposed of on their 
arrival, as in Pennsylvania, to pay the cost of transporta- 
tion and other expenses. 165 It is elsewhere stated in these 

164 Louis P. HENNIGHAUSEN, The Redemptioners, pp. 5-6. 

165 See JOHN FISKE'S Dutch and Quaker Colonies in America, Vol. II., p. 

at- '* 

? *cmuan&> 


Worry -f- 



288 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

pages that many of the children of parents who died on 
the ten ships that brought over the more than three thou- 
sand Germans to New York in 1710, were bound out to ser- 
vitude by the Government authorities. 

The State of New York also legislated on this perplex- 
ing question, as may be seen by the following : 

" AND WHEREAS, the emigration of poor persons from 
Europe hath greatly conduced to the settlement of this 
State, while a Colony; AND WHEREAS, doubts have arisen 
tending to the discouragement of further importations of 
such poor persons ; therefore be it further enacted, by the 
authority aforesaid that every contract already made or 
hereafter to be made by any infant or other person coming 
from beyond the sea, executed in the presence of two wit- 
nesses and acknowledged by the servant, before any 
Mayor, Recorder, Alderman or Justice of the Peace, shall 
bind the party entering into the same, for such term and 
for such services as shall be therein specified : And that 
every assignment of the same executed before two credible 
witnesses shall be effectual to transfer the same contract 
for the residue of the term therein mentioned. But that 
no contract shall bind any infant longer than his or her ar- 
rival to the full age of twenty-one years ; excepting such 
as are % or shall be bound in order to raise money for the 
payment of their passages, who may be bound until the 
age of twenty -four years, provided the term of such service 
shall not exceed four years in the whole. " 166 


The early Virginia colonists were a class, who came not 
to work themselves, but to live on the labor of others. 

lee tf ew Y or k Laws, Chapter 15. "An act concerning apprentices and Ser- 
vants." Passed February 6, 1788. 

Redemption er Life in Virginia. 289 

This required the aid of servile labor. Negro labor was at 
first resorted to. That was in 1619, but as the demand 
was greater than the supply, other sources had to be found. 
Convicted criminals were sent from the mother country in 
large numbers. But other means were also resorted J:o. 
Men, boys and girls were kidnapped in the streets of Lon- 
don, hurried on ship-board and sent to the new colony, 
where they were indentured as servants for a term of years. 
The usual term of service was four years but this was only 
too frequently prolonged beyond that period for trivial of- 
fenses. Fiske says " their lives were in theory protected 
by law, but when an indentured servant came to his death 
from prolonged ill usage or from excessive punishment, or 
even from sudden violence, it was not easy to get a verdict 
against the master. In those days of frequent flogging, the 
lash was inflicted upon the indentured servant with scarcely 
less compunction than upon the purchased slave." 167 But 
the majority of the indentured white servants of Vir- 
ginia, like those of Pennsylvania, were honest, well- 
behaved persons, who like the latter sold themselves into 
temporary servitude to pay the charges of transportation. 
The purchaser paid the ship master with the then coin of 
the colony, tobacco, and received his servant. There as 
in Pennsylvania they were known as Redemptioners, and 
like those in this State numbered many of excellent char- 
acter. There was no let up in this importation of convicts 
and servants until it was terminated by the Revolutionary 
War. It has been variously estimated that the number of 
involuntary immigrants sent to America from Great Britain 
between 1717 and 1775 was 10,000 and during the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries 50,000. 168 Probably a ma- 

167 JOHN FISKE'S Old Virginia and her Neighbours, Vol. I., p. 177. 

168 American Historical Review, II., p. 25. See also the Penny Cyclopedia, 
Vol. XXV., p. 138. 

290 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

jority of these reached Virginia. The latter colony re- 
ceived more Redemptioners than any of the other colonies 
during the seventeeth century, but in the eighteenth, Penn- 
sylvania was the more favored province. 

There were still another class of servants who were sent 
to America who deserve to be mentioned in this connec- 
tion. They were prisoners of war, men who were cap- 
tured by Cromwell at Dunbar and Worcester. Some of 

From a Contemporary Drawing. 

these were sent to Virginia. After the restoration of the 
Stuart dynasty, so many non-conformists were sold into 
servitude in Virginia as to lead to an insurrection in 1663, 

Redem-ptioners Sent to New Jersey. 291 

followed by legislation designed to keep all convicts out of 
the colony. 169 

Of the services rendered to the colony of Virginia by 
these indentured servants it has been said they were " the 
main pillar of the industrial fabric, and performed the most 
honorable work in establishing and sustaining it." 17 

In Virginia, as in Pennsylvania, many of these Redemp- 
tioners rose to be persons of wealth and importance in the 
Common wealth,* and occasionally became members of the 
House of Burgesses. At the same time it deserves to be 
very distinctly stated that the general character of the Re- 
demptioners in Virginia was by no means equal to that of 
the Germans who came to Pennsylvania ; nor was any- 
thing else to be expected considering the classes from 
whom so many sprung. 


Mellick informs us that the laws of New Jersey were 
about like those of Pennsylvania in relation to tne Re- 
demptioners. Contiguous as the two were, with only the 
Delaware river between, this was tc be expected. In 
Section 5, of the Colonial Entry Book of that State, oc- 
curs the following : 

44 The waies of obtayning these servants have beene 
usually by employing a sorte of men and women who 
make it theire profession to tempt or gaine poore or idle 
persons to goe to the Plantations and having persuaded or 
deceived them on Shipp board they receive a reward from 
the person who employed them." 

169 FiSKE's Old Virginia and her Neighbours, Vol. II., pp. 184-185. 

170 BRUCE'S Economic History of Virginia, Vol. I., p. 609. 

"Many of the early settlers of Virginia reached that colony as servants, 
doomed according to the severe laws of that age, to temporary bondage. Some 
of them, even, were convicts." (BANCROFT'S History of tht United Stales, 
Vol. II., p. 191.) 

292 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

In New Jersey, under the laws, white servants could not 
be compelled to serve more than four years if sold or bound 
after attaining the age of seventeen years. Young chil- 
dren were held until they attained their majority. When 
the term of service expired the redemptioner received two 
suits of clothing, one falling axe, one good hoe and seven 
bushels of corn. The master was not allowed to inflict 
corporeal punishment upon his bond servant, but he could 
bring the case to the attention of a civil magistrate. 

It is a noteworthy fact that the most popular novel pub- 
lished in the United States in the year 1899 has a Redemp- 
tioner for its hero, and for the most part the scene of the 
novel is laid in New Jersey. Another work of fiction, al- 
most equal to the previous one mentioned in popularity, 
deals with a Redemptioner hero in Virginia. 171 

The colony South Carolina also received some of this 
Redemptioner immigration, and pretty nearly the same 

conditions and terms for taking them there, and holding 
them in bondage, prevailed as elsewhere. 

Joshua Kocherthal in his little pamphlet, published in 
Frankfort in 1709, in which he strives to divert German 
emigration from Pennsylvania to South Carolina, says in 
his ninth chapter that " Special arrangements have to be 
made with the Captain for each half grown child. Per- 
ons too poor to pay, sometimes find proprietors willing to 
advance the funds, in return for which they serve the latter 
for some time in Carolina. The period of service, in time 

171 FORD'S Janice Meredith and JOHNSTON'S To Have and to Hold. 

KochenthaVs Invitation to Carolina. 


of peace, is from two to three years, but when the fare is 
higher (he states it to be from five to six pounds sterling, 
but the cost of a convoy and other expenses, raise it to 
seven and eight pounds for every adult), the time is neces- 
sarily longer." 172 He adds in an appendix that " an im- 
migrant to Pennsylvania must have the ready money with 
which to prepay his passage, while for one going to Caro- 
lina, this is not necessary." 

172 F U U an d Circumstantial Report Concerning the Renowned District of 
Carolina in British America, 1709. 

See also DR. JACOBS' German Emigration to America, pp. 39-40. 




" O, Rivers, with your beauty time-defying, 
Flowing along our peaceful shores to-day, 
Be glad you fostered them the heroes lying 
Deep in the silent clay. 

" Be jubilant ye Hill-tops old and hoary 
Proud that their feet have trod your rocky 

ways ; 
Rej oice, ye Vales, for they have brought you 

And ever during praise." 


hundred and fifty years 
are but a short period in 
the history of the human race. 
In the early ages of the world 
that number of years would come 
and go and at their close men thought and did and felt 
about as at their beginning. Habits and morals were not as 
now, things that change almost as regularly and frequently 

( 2 94) 

This Traffic a Custom of the Age. 


as the earth's revolutions around the sun. But times have 
undergone a wonderful transformation during the past cen- 
tury and a-half. So far away is 1730 in its customs and 
manner of thought, that we hardly realize that it was the 
time in which our great-grandfathers lived, and yet in some 
things we seem as far removed from those days as we are 
from the biblical patriarchs who lived and died upon the 
Judean hills, thousands of years ago. 

This maivtraffic, which I have attempted to describe in 
these pages, did not at that time create the general ab- 
horrence with which we now regard it. It was a matter 
of e very-day business in every community. It had the 


endorsement, so far as we may judge from the records 
and the spirit of that time, of the majority of the com- 
munity. It was recognized as a legitimate business by 

296 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

the laws of the land. It was in full accord with the com- 
mon life of the people. Even Sauer, Mittelberger, 
Muhlenberg and the other worthies of that period who 
have been referred to and liberally quoted, did not arraign 
the system itself, but the numberless and almost nameless 
abuses it called forth. It was the injustice, the hardships, 
the rascality, misrepresentations, methods of transporta- 
tion, the crowded condition of the ships, the hunger and 
starvation, the sufferings, the general horrors by which it 
was accompanied, that called forth their protests. Never, 
since men have gone down to the sea in ships, have such 
sufferings and iniquities been known. Only men dead 
to all the better instincts of our human nature could have 
been guilty of the barbarities practiced upon thee inno- 
cent, helpless victims of man's inhumanity to man. 

Even as I read them to-day, I cannot understand why 
these men did not arise in their might and their wrath, 
smite their oppressors, and cast them into the sea, even as 
their own dead were thrown into the kindly waters, un- 
knelled, uncoffined and unknown. They were many and 
their oppressors few ; smarting under the deceptions and 
wrongs practiced upon them, their forbearance seems al- 
most inexplicable. Here, too, the spirit of the age played 
its part. It was an age of loyalty to lord and master. To 
them the doctrine of jure divino was not a mere abstrac- 
tion. It was one of the overmastering principles of their 
lives. They were respecters of authority, and to an ex- 
tent that for half a century and more led to their disadvan- 
tage. For once the divine precept of obedience to author- 
ity worked to their undoing. 

We fail to understand how these poor people should have 
consented to all this unutterable injustice and wrong-doing 
for several generations. If the immigrant of 1728 was 

The Father of His Country. 


unaware of what was in store for him, the same cannot be 
said of those who came in 1750 and thereafter. The At- 

: et>nicft M> grancig 


173 The above cut is a fac-simile of the cover on an almanac Der Gantz 
Neue Berbesserte Nord-A mericanische Calender. A uf das iffyste Jahr u. f. 
w. Berfertigt von David Rittenhaus, ^published at I^ancaster, Pa., by Francis 

298 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

lantic was wide, but not so wide that letters could not reach 
the relatives and friends who were still in the old home. 
We know many of them wrote and told the horrors that had 
been encountered. It is true, as is elsewhere recounted, 
that the Newlanders even stole the letters from America, 
when they could, to prevent the dismal tales they told from 
becoming known to those for whom they were intended ; 
but that, doubtless, was an infrequent occurrence, and pos- 
sible only on favorable occasions. Why then did these 
people persist in coming, five and six thousand yearly, for 
lengthy periods ? The question is difficult to answer, per- 
haps, and yet I venture upon an explanation. 

Why do thousands of gold-seekers and other adventurers 
brave all the hardships of Alaskan winters to find fortunes in 
the Klondike? Everybody knows that not one in a score 
of them is successful, and yet the hegira thitherward is as 
active to-day as when that wealth-fever first set the gold- 
seekers in motion. We hear and know some are success- 
ful. The rest hope they may be. All who came to Amer- 
ica did not score failures. Not all were penniless and 
needy. Those who were able to make a fair start were 
successful far beyond anything they could ever have at- 
tained in their old homes. The virgin lands were rich 
almost beyond description. In that the booklets of Penn, 
Pastorius, Thomas and others did not exaggerate. The sit- 
uation in this particular was not overdrawn, and the lands 
were cheap. It is true there was hard labor and plenty of 
it before the settler. But he was a German, strong of will 

Bailey. It possesses especial historical interest from the fact that the winged 
allegorical figure of Fame, seen in the upper part, holds in one of her hands a 
medallion portrait of Washington, while in the other she has a horn, from 
which a blast is blown with the legend Des Landes Vater. This is the first 
recorded instance where the designation of "Father of his Country" was 
given to Washington. 



298 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

lantic was wide, but not so wide that letters could not reach 
the relatives and friend* who were still in the old home. 
We know many of theio wrote .ind told the horrors that had 
been encountered. It is true, as is elsewhere recounted, 
that the Newiandera even stole fht letters from America, 
when they could, to prevent ihe dismal tales they told from 
becoming known t<* tho* .m they were intended ; 

hut that, doubtless. |tri4. occurrence, and pos- 

?ibie onK on iw. ; *M>nt, Why then did these 

people pev- vv^i;^ r- atari &\ ;houviml yearly, for 

ii-jfclt *o answer, per- 
h*rw, a x*pfoiiatfk>*. 

.** ^u>t-#k*r* a^dou'vr adventurers 
sf Abakan H ;nter* to mi<l fortunes in 
Everybody knows that not one in a score 
ot them is successful, and yet the hegira thitherward is as 
active to-day as when that wealth-fever first set the gold- 
seekers in motion. We hear and know some are success- 
ful. The rent hope they may be. All who came to Amer- 
ka did nor score failures. Not all were penniless and 
Those who were able to make a fair start were 
successful far beyond anything they could ever have at- 
tained in their old homes. The virgin lands were rich 
almost beyond description. In that the booklets of Penn, 
Paatorius, Thomas and others did not exaggerate. The sit- 
uation in thi> particular was not overdrawn, and the lands 
were cheap. H h true there was hard labor and plenty of 
it before the settler. But he was a German, strong of will 

Bailey. It possesses especial historical uiter**t from the fact that the winged 
allegorical figure of Fame, seen in the upptr {Nit, holds in one of her hands a 
medallion portrait of Washington, while i the other she has a horn, from 
which a blast is blown with the legend /tef Landes Vater. This is the first 
rtcorded instance where the designation of "Father of his Country" was 
given to Washington. 



z: <o 

U_ o_ 

2: " 

< 2 

UJ t 

o ^ 

<C u 

5 - 




Plenty in the New Home. 299 

and limb, inured to toil and not afraid to labor every day 
in the year except Sundays, if the situation required such 
service. The seasons were on his side and he saw houses 
and lands, such as he never dreamed of owning, belong- 
ing to him, yielding him an abundant support and provid- 
ing an inheritance for those whom he should leave behind 

Another important condition of life came to the front 
with these people, to which most of them perhaps had been 
strangers in the old home. It was the question of food. 
Not only did the soil yield its abundant harvests, but the 
fields and the woods made no mean additions to their 
larder. Game of many kinds was at their command. 
Fur and feather and fin may almost be said to have been 
as much the product of their farms as wheat and corn and 
potatoes. Meat could be on their tables daily if they so 
desired. Mittelberger is very explicit on this point. He 
says: "Provisions are cheap in Pennsylvania. The 
people live well, especially on all sorts of grain, which 
thrives very well, because the soil is wild and fat. They 
have good cattle, fast horses and many bees. The sheep 
which are larger than the German ones, have generally 
two lambs a year. Hogs and poultry, especially turkeys 
are raised by almost everybody. Every evening many a 
tree is so full of chickens that the boughs bend beneath 
them. Even in the humblest and poorest houses in this 
country there is no meal without meat, and no one eats 
the bread without the butter or cheese, although the bread 
is as good as with us. On account of the extensive stock 
raising, meat is very cheap : one can buy the best beef for 
three kreuzers a pound." 174 He tells of poultry and eggs, 
fish, turtles, venison, wild pigeons, and other foods ; not 

1 74 MITTELBERGER'S Rcise nach Pennsylvanian imjahr 1754, pp. 64-65. 

300 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

to mention nuts, grapes and other fruits that were to be had 
in every woods for the gathering. 

All these things were well known in the Fatherland. 
Every letter spoke of them. Such flattering tales had 
their effect. They came for the most part to men and 
women whose lines in life were hard and drawn. The 
struggle for existence there was all those words imply. 
Nowhere in Europe was it harder. It was a from-hand- 
to-mouth life. The food was often scant, and not of the 
best at that. As these letters and the various descriptions 
of Penn's wonderful land which were everywhere distrib- 
uted by the Newlanders were read around the fireside dur- 
ing the bleak winters, and the ever-present scant larder 
forced itself upon the mind, there could be but one result. 

The overmastering instinct of the race to better its con- 
dition came upon them. There are many causes that lead 
men to seek new homes, in distant lands, but there is one 
that overtops all the rest. It is the desire to better their 
worldly condition, the hope of material advancement, in 
short, it is better bread and more of it that lies at the source 
of nearly all the migrations of the human family. The 
love of gain, the desire for property and the accumulation 
of wealth was the great underlying principle of all coloni- 
zation on the American continent. It was this all-power- 
ful motive that crowded out all else, and led these people 
to brave all dangers, known and unknown, to reach this 
western Eden. So long as distress and danger and diffi- 
culties are in the dim distance, we fail to give them due 
consideration. It is only when they become a present 
reality, a source of trial and sorrow, that we realize the 
true condition of things. 

These people were ready to encounter the obstacles they 
knew were to be met. Perhaps they underestimated their 

Only Denunciations for the Traffic. 


importance and character. That was something which 
could not be guarded against. At all events, their fears 
were cast behind them and that hope which springs eternal 
in the human breast held sway, and spurred them to take 
the leap in the dark which many lived to regret, and which 
thousands regretted while dying. No sadder tale can ever 
be told. It has become an imperishable page in the his- 
tory of the Germans of Pennsylvania ; one that the historian 
reluctantly deals with, so 
full of sorrow and heart- 
break is it. 

So abominable and in- 
human were the dealings 
of the Newianders, ship- 
masters, ship-owners and 
most of the commission 
merchants with these help- 
less immigrants, and so 
sad and sorrowful the fate 
of many of them, that the 
wrath of the reader is also 
aroused and the denunci- 
ation has become universal, 
by them all, and the worst are of course chosen for expo- 
sure ; the same tale of starvation and pestilence and death 
is rehearsed so that we almost insensibly reach the conclu- 
sion that from the beginning until the end, there was one 
long, continuous cloud over the horizon of these people, un- 
relieved by a single rift and un-illumined by a single ray. 

Almost every writer whom I have consulted has written 
only in terms of unqualified condemnation of the evils that 
arose, out of the system of bonded servants. There is 
however one noteworthy exception. 


The same incidents are told 

302 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

Elder Johannes Naas, who, next to Alexander Mack, was 
the most celebrated and influential member of the Taufer or 
Brethren church in Germany, came to this country in 
1733. Shortly after his arrival he wrote a long letter to his 
son, Jacob Wilhelm Naas, who was living in Switzerland at 
the time, in which all the incidents and circumstances of 
his voyage are minutely detailed. The letter is well worth 
reading by every one who has an interest in the events I 
have been trying to depict. Want of space prevents its 
appearance here in its entirety. The concluding portion 
bears directly on the case of the Redemptioners, and con- 
trary to the customary practice, the writer regards that 
question favorably, rather than otherwise, for which reason 
I quote that part of his letter. 


" Now that we have safely arrived in this land and have 
been met by our own people in great love and friendship 
all the rest has been forgotten (the mishaps and hardships 
of the voyage) in a moment, so to speak, for the sake of 
the great joy we had in one another. This hardship has 
lasted about nineteen weeks ; then it was over, wherefore 
be all the glory to the Highest : Amen, yea ; Amen ! 

" For it does not rue us to have come here, and I wish 
with all my heart that you and your children could be with 
us ; however, it cannot be and I must not urge you as the 
journey is so troublesome for people who are not able to 
patiently submit to everything, but often in the best there 
are restless minds, but if I could with the good will of God 
do for you children all, I assure you that I would not hesi- 
tate to take the trip once more upon me for your sake ; 
not because one gets one's living in this land in idleness ! 
Oh ! no ; this country requires diligent people, in what- 

304 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

ever trade they may be but then they can make a good 
living. There are, however, many people here, who are 
not particularly successful ; as it seems that if some people 
were in Paradise it would go badly with them. Some are 
to be blamed for it themselves ; for when they come to this 
country and see the beautiful plantations ; the number of 
fine cattle ; and abundance in everything ; and, knowing 
that they only just have come here too, then they want to 
have it like that at once, and will not listen to any advice 
but take large tracts of land with debts, borrow cattle and 
so forth. These must toil miserably until they get indepen- 
dent. Well, what shall I say, so it is in the world, where 
always one is better off than the other. If a person wants 
to be contented here, with food and shelter, he can under 
the blessing of God and with diligent hands get plenty of 
it. Our people are well off ; but some have* more abun- 
dance than others, yet nobody is in want. What I heard 
concerning the people who do not have the money for the 
passage, surprised me greatly, how it goes with the young, 
strong people and artisans, how quickly all were gone, 
bricklayers, carpenters, and whatever trades they might 
have. Also old people who have grown children and who 
understand nothing but farm labor, then the child takes two 
freights (fare for two) upon itself, its own and that of the 
father or of the mother four years, and during that time it 
has all the clothing that is needed and in the end an en- 
tirely new outfit from head to foot, a horse or cow with a 
calf. Small children often pay one freight and a half 
until they are twenty-one years old. The people are 
obliged to have them taught writing and reading, and in 
the end to give them new clothes and present them with 
a horse or cow. 

11 There are few houses to be found in city or country 

TIVO Sides to Every Narrative. 305 

where the people are at all well off, that do not have one 
or two such children in them. The matter is made legal 
at the city hall with great earnestness. There parents 
and children often will be separated 10, n, 12, 13, 14, 15, 
16, 17, 18, 19, 20 hours (in distance), and for many young 
people it is very good that they cannot pay their own freight. 
These will sooner be provided for than those who have 
paid theirs and they can have their bread with others and 
soon learn the ways of the country. 

11 1 will make an end of this and wish patience to whom- 
soever reads this. God be with you all. Amen. 175 

" Johannes Naas." 

This is an extreme view, and not wholly a just one. 
The facts as they stand recorded in the works of historians 
and the letters of private individuals' are true, and they 
must always be accepted as such. At the same time it 
must be admitted they present us with but one side of the 
story. Is there no other side to their picture? There are, 
admittedly, two sides to every narrative? Is this one of 
the German immigration and the indenturing of many in- 
dividuals as servants for a term of years an exception? It 
would, indeed, be an anomalous case if it were so. But it is 
not. Men like Christoph Saur and Pastor Muhjenberg and 
Gottlieb Mittelberger embarked in this cause to right a great 
existing wrong, one that was daily occurring before their 
own eyes, and with which they were almost hourly made 
acquainted. It was a crime almost without a parallel in its 
atrocity, practiced against their countrymen and it may be, 
their own kith and kin. They were tireless in their efforts 

175 The complete letter from which the above extract is taken may be found 
in Dr. M. G. BRUMBAUGH'S recently published History of the German Bap- 
tist Brethren, pp. 108-123 a valuable addition to the early religious history of 

306 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

to strike it down. They left no stone unturned, nothing 
undone that would do away with this crime against hu- 
manity. They showed it up at its worst to arouse the 
better part of our human nature against the evil, believing, 
and most truly, that in this way it could most quickly be 
driven out of existence. If they saw a brighter side to the 
question it was not for them to reveal it. It was the wrong 
against which their blows were directed. The better and 
brighter side needed no defense and, therefore, none was 
made for it. 


And there was a brighter side just as certainly as there 
was a dark one. That must, indeed, be an evil's crown 
of evil that is wholly and unspeakably bad and totally 
without redeeming features. 

Let us, for a while, turn this gloomy picture to the wall 
and see whether we can discover something better on the 
other side. Let us bear in mind, in the first place, that 
while many plunged heedlessly into the pitfalls laid by the 
soulless soul-brokers, there were must have been thou- 

No Expectations in the Fatherland. 307 

sands of others who were not ignorant of what a servant 
for a term of years meant. Why did these eager thou- 
sands hurry from their homes in the Fatherland to such a 
fate -here? We know full well how it was with a majority 
of them there. Born in poverty, unable to rise above the 
station of hewers of wood and drawers of water, they were 
doomed to lives of unceasing toil, with the hope of better- 
ing their condition as remote as the distant and unheeding 
stars. What had even the fertile valleys of the Rhine to 
offer these men? Nothing, and well they knew it. Surely 
things could not be worse for them in America, and in 
this we must all agree. 

It was a voluntary action on their part. They knew the 
consequences ojp their step. They were aware that a ship- 
owner would not carry them three thousand miles across 
the broad ocean and feed them on the way for nothing, 
merely out of charity. Men do not give valuable things to 
every comer for nothing. They knew this indebtedness 
must be repaid when they reached this country by some one 
for they could not do it themselves. But whoever as- 
sumed the temporary burden, they knew that in the end 
their own strong arms must make payment. It cannot be 
doubted the trials of the voyage were more severe than was 
anticipated. For that, perhaps, they were not prepared. 
A healthy young man who may never have known a day's 
sickness in his life, little thinks the plague will smite him on 
ship-board ; and it was the foul diseases disseminated by 
personal contact that more than decimated so many hope- 
ful ship companies that sailed out of Rotterdam. It will 
hardly be contended that the men coming to Pennsylvania 
under such conditions looked forward to anything but a 
life of work until time wiped out the score that had been 
marked up against them. 

308 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

It is true we read of " Servants" or " Redemptioners " 
who fell into the hands of hard taskmasters. No doubt 
this was the case. It has been the case since the days of 
Pharaoh and will continue to be while masters and servants 
exist upon the earth, and that, most probably, will be until 
the end of time. 

But that was not the rule. I cannot bring myself to 
believe that they were not mostly exceptional cases. 176 It 
was natural that Germans already in the country and in need 
of help on their farms, or in whatever occupation they may 
have been engaged, should have preferred their own coun- 
trymen. The Germans hold together : it is one of their 
characteristics, and always has been. The employer pre- 
ferred one who spoke his own language : who can doubt 
that? That he preferred one from his own dorf or locality is 
also certain. When such came together it could not have 
been difficult to strike a bargain. And having thus made 
their engagement, will it be doubted that the faithful service 
of the Redemptioner, anxious to free himself and his wife 
and perhaps his children also, was not appreciated by the 
master, his own countryman, and perhaps even an acquaint- 
ance? To doubt kind treatment from the buyer to the 
bought, under these conditions is to impugn German honor, 
German kindness, and that German sense of right which 
we know is always true to eternal instincts. We have 
reason to know that as a rule the existing conditions worked 
well. It was also the servitor's privilege to find another 
master when the one he had was not to his liking. 

176 These indentured servants were not badly treated either by the Swedes 
or the Friends. Their usual term of service was four years, and they received 
a grant of land, generally fifty acres, at the expiration of the term. The system 
was originally contrived in Maryland in order to increase the labor of the 
province, and many of the bond servants were persons of good character, but 
without means, who sold their services for four or five years in order to secure 
a passage across the ocean to the new land of promise." (SCHARF & WKST- 
COTT'S History of Philadelphia, Vol. I., p. 134.) 

The Incentives to Industry. 309 

If these men were poor, they were nevertheless honor- 
able. It was their bounden duty to comply with their con- 
tracts. Nothing could be gained by shirking their duties, 
save trouble. Every one was certain that the day of deliv- 
erance would come, when he in turn would be an indepen- 
dent land-owner and entitled to all the rights of citizenship 
enjoyed by any one. He saw around him, men of standing 
and character in the community, who had stood on the low- 
est rung of the social ladder where he himself was then 
standing. They had attained their position by fulfilling 
their engagements faithfully. They were an example and 
their successful careers were an incentive to all who knew 
them, to also do as they had done. The laws of the Prov- 
ince made no> distinction between him and those above him. 
He could aspire to anything or any place anyone else had 
attained. In addition to that, they lent him a helping hand 
when the hour of his freedom arrived and gave him lands, if 
he wanted them, on the most favorable terms. There was 
every incentive for a " Redemptioner " to make a man of 
himself if he had the will and ability to do so. And why 
should he not strive towards that end ? His hour, the hour 
so long awaited, had come at last; the prize he had set out 
to reach was now within his grasp ; the day of fruition was 
at hand. He had worked hard, but he had done that in the 
Fatherland also, done it on scanty rations and without any 
hope of rising or in any way bettering his position. He 
had passed that point in his new home. He was a free 
man. The three, four, or five years had rolled away 
quickly and he was now master of the situation. 

And what had others done? They had become the 
owners in fee simple of estates that ranged from a hundred 
to a thousand acres of the best and brightest lands the sun 
shines on to-day. They had become the owners of estates, 

310 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

which in Germany would have entitled them to the highest 
consideration. In all but name, they had in reality become 
what the Newlander had promised. Nowhere in all North 


America was such prosperity seen. It had taken years of 
honest toil to accomplish this, but it had been done and 
now the independent owner could sit down, literally as well 
as figuratively, under his own vine and roof tree with the 
world's abundance of good things about him. 

With such encouragement the " Redeemed " no longer 
the " Redemptioner" had but to go to work for himself 
as earnestly as he had done for him who had taken him 
into his family. Generally he was a man in the vigor of 
life, with many years of good work still in him. There 
was still ample time to go ahead and improve his condition. 
Released from the indenture that had held him, with his 

The First Pennsylvania Author. 311 

earlier ambition to improve still strong within him, his lot 
was a hundred fold better and more promising than it had 

Kort en klaer ontwerp , 

Een onderling Accoort , 

o M 
S>cn arbepD / onrtift en raoepe- 


Een otiderlingeCompagtiie ofte 

Volck-plantiog(onder deprotechcvandcH: Mo: 
Heeren State n Generael der vereenigde Neder-Jaa- 
cien^en by fonder onder her gunftiggefag vande 

Achtbare Magifiraten der Scad Amltelre* 
dam) aen de Zuyc-revier in Nieu-ne- 
der-iand op te rechtenj Beftaende io 


Zee-varende Per/onen, 

jilderbandc noodige AmbacbtsJuytten, ai Mecjlcrs 

vangoedckonften en u>etenfcbappcn. 

jfetennenfte op fie too? recfjeen batt Dare 

toc^Dm faljgi tjirc na tiolgt) tot dim epnot uwlcent. 

t'Samen gcflelc 

i>r titter CorntHfr. Plockhoy van Zicrck-tee, worbemfeheoentnfa* 
Lief -lubbers v* Niiu-ncder-lanj.- 

Containing a Scheme for Settlement on the Delaware. 177 

177 There is, perhaps, no book or tract relating to the history of Pennsylvania 
that has greater interest for the student of the early history of the State than 
the little book whose title-page is given in fac-simile above. It is the first de- 
scription of the country written by one living there at the time, and who died 

312 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

been in his old home. He felt it and he fell to work to 
make the most of it. German industry and German thrift 
still accompanied him. The greedy ship-master and the 
avaricious broker could not rob him of these. With them 
and the ready assistance that was ever forthcoming on the 
part of the old master and nearby acquaintances, he started 
out on his independent career. 

The result is well known. He prospered as he deserved 
to do. His cattle multiplied and the soil failed not to pour 
forth its abundance. The days of adversity passed away. 
The era of prosperity took their place, and his early hopes 
and aspirations were realized. That was the career of 
thousands. Even though some had in earlier days en- 
countered unspeakable evils, was not this rich fruition of 
later years infinitely better than anything that could have 
fallen to their lot in Germany? There they were not 
bound to a master by indentures, but necessity compelled 
them to serve him nevertheless from boyhood until inca- 
pacitated by age, when the poorhouse received their worn- 
out frames. He was a servant all his life without any rec- 
ompense at its close, while his food in the meantime was 

within its borders after spending most of his life there. The man was Peter 
Cornelius Plockhoy, a Dutchman who led a colony of Mennonites to Pennsyl- 
vania at an unknown period and settled at the Hoorn Kill, several miles below 
Philadelphia. After having been in existence only a few years, Governor Carr, 
of New York, sent an expedition up the Delaware, which broke up and dis- 
persed the little colony. What became of Plockhoy, the founder and leader, 
there are no records to tell. He, however, wrote and had printed at Amster- 
dam, in the Dutch language, in 1662, the little tract bearing his name, in which 
he gives a history of his colony and its people. With the dispersion of his 
little colony, Plockhoy also disappeared, and it was not until 1694, when aged, 
blind and destitute, he, with his wife, reached the Mennonite settlement at 
Germantown, where kind and willing friends built him a house, planted him a 
garden, and where he died. There is not a more pathetic story connected with 
the history of our State than this one of poor Plockhoy. His little tract is of 
excessive rarity, the only copy in Pennsylvania being in the library of Judge 
Pennypacker, of Philadelphia. 

See Proceedings of the Pennsylvania- German Society, Vol. II., p. 34. 

been in his <4d ^m# H? t^t* a *a<J he fell to work to 

make th# i*try and German thrift 

still fttxGFipfefe? -Jv ship-master and the 

avaricious of these. With them 

and ?*'.! **MW ever forthcoming on the 

par: ct ifcv c:* j H" acquaintances, he started 

f if prospered as he deserved 

urui t*u- soil failed not to pour 

r ? *e days of adversity passed away. 

ok iheir place, nd his early hopes 

-d. That was the career of 

. *ome had in earlier days en- 

rU **as not this rich fruition of 

; s -n anything that could have 

i ifen*;*ay ? ere hot 

hou-t; tv a .**** M ina*ff>r;;re^, but n^i; mpelled 

them to 3<TV i ?irv*;rlhs-..-4*s* from boyhood until inca- 
pacitateil by agf , when the poorhouse received their worn- 
out frame* aa a servant all his life without any rec- 
ompense at its close, while his food in the meantime was 

within it* bor<5* r* after *.* i.vhj&g moat of his life there. The man was Peter 
OoTo^litis Flo* khov A DjHc.-hii**tt who led a colony of Mennonites to Pennsyl- 
r-4*j'.:i t su nokno^rn p- ic-^ .*ri<* ^tfted at th Hoorn Kill, several miles below 
A. Aftr-r o fxiJrtcnce only a few year < Carr, 

.-! N*w York. eri n . rt:n<tii ..; up thi T^Jaware, which br^ >i di- 

p vr-o tfcc littl.- cclco.T ; ,Vh* became of Plockhoy, the founder and leader, 

4&ui ; r :.'; ;-o- V. 'ukfiem**. c f^69 th im'e t name, in which 

lie ^- \ . 5rt u.-;- .>f hat colon j -'^ s ;^ v,, . r,j^ .With the dispersion of his 

.V*uu V *ufe K "* hcd the Mfnnoiute settlement at 

GerflMunraw *Henr ki^-i %>! i .'. ?-..v *t : -d> built him a house, planted him a 

garden, and wlirtt: frt i *; more pathetic story connected with 

the histoTy f ,vu S^a:v ^av* tHw <<? *4 i?or Plockhoy. His little tract is of 

excessive -^r.^ : k * being in the library of Judge 

See Pro^er-s* .. ^ * Society, Vol. II., p. 34. 

Fame and Fortune Awaited Many. 313 

that of the poor laborer, poor in kind and scant in quantity. 
Surely, we cannot contrast such an existence with that 
passed by his fellow laborer, Redemptioner though he was, 
in the welcoming breezes of Pennsylvania. 

Thousands of them achieved both fame and fortune. 
Often, if he was a good man and true, he married his 
quondam owner's daughter, and with her got back part of 
the riches his years of honorable servitude had helped to 
create. Among his own countrymen he lost no caste by 
reason of his service. Why should he? In the world 
around him one-half his fellows were working as hard as 
he to repay borrowed money or to pay for lands or other 
valuables they had purchased. He too was paying a debt 
voluntarily incurred and there was no disgrace attached 
to it. 

Our early history is filled with the story of Redemp- 
tioners who grew rich by their honest toil and left honor- 
able names to their descendants. I have at this moment 
an autobiographical sketch lying before me, written by one 
of these people. He came to the town where I was born, 
and for nearly half a century lived within easy speaking 
distance of my own home. He was well educated. He 
was honest and faithful. The community honored him 
with public office, while his enterprise, energy and thrift 
brought him a large estate. He founded a family and his 
descendants to-day are honorable and honored, the wealth- 
iest people in the community. 178 These are things we 

178 So few Redemptioners, so far as I have ascertained, left records of their 
careers, that I am tempted to throw in the form of a note a part of what the 
one spoken of above says of himself. After telling of his birth at Diedelsheim, 
in the Palatinate, on January 16, 1750, he proceeds to relate that his father was 
a Lutheran clergyman and his mother the daughter of another also ; who the 
sponsors at his baptism were, all of which were furnished to him by his pas- 
tor when he left Germany. He then says : 

" My beloved father died in the year , at the age of 57 : my beloved 

314 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

must not forget in passing judgment upon this man traffic. 
Common fairness demands it. It rescued thousands from 
lives of poorly requited toil and placed them where their 
labor met with its proper reward. Instead of remaining 
hewers of wood and drawers of water until life's close, 
they were placed in conditions where the results of their 

mother departed this life in the year 1760. Even in my tender youth, no expense 
and pains were spared upon my education by my parents. My father had me 
not only attend church and hear the word of God, but also diligently attend 
school. I was also sent to a Latin school from my 6th to my i3th year, that 
with this and an acquaintance with other necessary branches of knowledge, I 
might the better get along in the world. For the parental love and faithful- 
ness I experienced, may the great God reward my parents before the throne of 
the Lamb in Heaven. 

" After my father found me qualified to renew my baptismal covenant by a 
public profession of my faith, I was confirmed in the I3th year of my age, and 
received for the first time the Lord's Supper. Soon after I expressed my wish 
to learn the mercantile profession, to which my father gave his consent. I 
then served a four years apprenticeship in the city of Stuttgart with Mr. Barn- 
hard Fredk. Behruger. After this I went to Heidelberg where I was in the 
employ of John W. Godelman for two years. From thence I went to Manitz 
and entered the celebrated house of John George Gontzinger. 

" In order to learn more of the world and to improve my fortune, I resolved 
to travel to Holland, with the hope of finding employment in some large com 
merical house. My undertaking was unsuccessful, and this contributed to my 
coming to America, for as I saw no prospect of getting employment in Holland 
and did not wish to return to my native land, the way to America was prepared. 
I crossed the ocean in the ship Minerva, Capt. Arnold, and landed in Phila- 
delphia on Sept. 20, 1771. I had to content myself with the circumstances in 
which I then was, and with the ways of the country, which it is true, were not 
very agreeable. I was under the necessity of hiring myself to Benjamin 
Davids, an inn-keeper, for three years and nine months. My situation was 
unpleasant, for my employment did not correspond with that to which I had 
been accustomed from my youth, in my fatherland. In the course of nine 
months my hard service ended, for with the aid of good friends, I found means 
in a becoming wfiy to leave Davids, for the employ of Messrs. Miles & Wistar, 
where I remained three years and six months." 

The foregoing narrative shows how difficult it was, even at that early day, to 
secure honorable, remunerative employment in the Fatherland. Here was a 
young man, well born, well nurtured, of good education, trained to business, 
and yet after serving four years at service in a mercantile house, could find no 
employment either in his own land or in Holland. As a last resort he came to 
America. His career answers my argument affirmatively that, despite his three 
years and nine months of unwelcome service, it was the best thing he could do- 
It is very certain that he never regretted it. 

One's Birthplace a Pleasant Memory. 315 

work went to reward themselves. Not one of all tKis vast 
multitude, could their views have been ascertained, would 
have preferred the old hum-drum life of the Fatherland 
with its many trials and few rewards to the newer life, the 
freer air, the more generous living and less oppressive bur- 
dens they found in the pleasant land of Pennsylvania. 


Where Washington lived in 1793. 

At this distant day we can hardly realize all the un- 
toward circumstances and conditions that fell into the lives 
of these sons of the Fatherland these children of misfor- 
tune and of want. It has been said man must be born 
somewhere ; it is true, &nd wherever that somewhere may 
be, that spot, though it be the bleakest on all the earth, 
will live in his memory forever, and cost him many a pang 
ere he becomes reconciled to new conditions. 

To leave home and friends and country is a trial under 

316 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. 

even the most favorable circumstances. To leave them, 
penniless, with the future all doubt and uncertainty, but with 
a full knowledge that a life of toil, hard and unremitting, 
with perhaps nothing better at the end of it, is as dreary 
a prospect as can shadow any life. 

Thousands of them, after spending many years in freeing 
themselves and their loved ones from the clutches of the 
taskmaster, had to begin life anew on their own account, 
in the silence and gloom of the forest. Here their remain- 
ing years were passed, generally with abundance crowning 
their declining years. They had at last homes and fire- 
side comforts to leave to those who came after them. The 
worst for them was now over. True, they had at last at- 
tained their early hopes, but how much in mind and person 
had to be endured before the period of fruition arrived. 
How often in their hours of deepest sadness and gloom 
the memories of the earlier days in the old home must have 
forced themselves with overpowering strength upon these 
sons of sorrow ! Only men and women deeply imbued 
with the consolations of religion could have survived it all 
without following the advice of the Hebrew prophet's wife, 
to curse God and die. 

Out of those olden forests, out of those, homes in the 
valleys and mountain recesses emerged men imbued with 
the same spirit of freedom and independence that has 
marked the men of German ancestry during the long ages 
that have come and gone since Tacitus portrayed their 
sturdy virtues in his imperishable pages. Centuries of 
suffering as well as centuries of s'uccess were needed to 
build and mould the German character into what we find 
it to-day. The crown has come after the cross. Wrong 
and sorrow and toil were theirs, but through them all they 
were true to their lineage, and now, when another century 

They Fought a Good Fight. 


and a-half has come and gone, the proudest eulogium we 
can pass upon them and their work is the one we could 
wish succeeding generations may pronounce upon us : 
they fought a good fight, they kept the faith. 

" We leave their memory to the hearts that love them ; 

Their sacrifice shall still remembered be ; 
The very clouds shall pause in pride above them 
Who, though in bonds, were free." 


ACT, regulating sale of servants, 
163 ; regulating discharge of 
servants, 164 ; regulating the con- 
cealment of servants, 164 ; regu- 
lating fees charged by public offi- 
cials, 165 ; regulating importation 
of criminal servants, 166. 

Action of Massachusetts legisla- 
ture, 66. 

Acts relative to Provincial servants, 
160, 161, 162, 163. 

Agriculturists, well educated, 137. 

All immigrants at first called Pala- 
tines, 55. 

Ambler, Capt. Nathaniel, 206. 

American Historical Association, 

American Weekly Mercury, 202, 
203, 204. 

Amsterdam, experience of immi- 
grants in, 178. 

An age of loyalty to rulers and law, 

Annapolis, 279, 282 ; immigration 
through port of, 283. 

Antigua, island of, 210. 

Application for naturalization in 
1721, 92. 

Appropriation of ^1,000 for pest- 
house, in 1750, 89. 

Argyle, the ship, 205. 

Arms, of Sweden, 12 ; of Holy 
Roman Empire, 15 ; of the 
Printers' Guild, 16 ; of William 
Penn, 19 ; of George Ross, 273. 

Armstrong, Captain of ship Rachel, 


Arrivals of ships in 44 years, 45. 
Asking the Governor's Assistance, 8. 
Asylum for distressed Protestants 

of the Palatinate, 117. 
Attempted explanation of Immigra- 

tion, 298. 
Author's estimate of the German 

population, 102. 
Autobiography of F. S., a Redemp- 

tion er became a citizen of stand- 

ing and fortune, 314. 
Average tonnage of immigrant 

ships, 50. 


ALMANAC, cover of, 


Baltimore American quoted, 279- 

Baltimore, Lord, derives ideas for 
his colony from Virginia, 152. 

Bancroft's History quoted, 97, 127, 
227, 289, 291. 

Bar, Abraham, mentioned, 209. 

Beach, Captain, of the Ship Francis 
and Elizabeth, 89. 

Berichte, Saur's German news- 
paper, 202, 206, 207, 208, 209, 

210, 211, 212, 213. 

Berkeley, Bishop, in America and 

his prophetic vision, 77. 
Berks county spoken of, 96. 
Best time for making voyage, 30. 
Bill for visiting infected vessels, 88. 


General Index. 


Bill of Naturalization passed in 

1729. 92. 

Bleeker, Capt. H. H., mentioned, 

Blue Anchor Tavern, sketch of, 284. 

Blue Mountains, murders along 
them by the Indians, 97. 

Bolte, Mr., ship broker, 279. 

Bom, Cornelius, his tract on Penn- 
sylvania spoken of, 22. 

Bond, Dr. Thomas, Port Physician 
presents certificate, 89; letter 
from, 232. 

Bongarden, Philip, mentioned, 67. 

Bradford' s Journal quoted, 214. 

Bristol Merchant, the ship, 222. 

Britannia, the ship, 214-215. 

British Consul, letter from, 231. 

Bruce's History of Virginia quoted, 

Brumbaugh, M. G., History of the 
German Brethren mentioned, 305. 

Budd, Thomas, his history of Penn- 
sylvania and New Jersey, 49 ; his 
booklet on Pennsylvania, 22. 

Bureau of Registration secured by 
legal enactment, 266. 

pAPTAINS of ships never reported 

v> number of dead passengers, 63. 

Carolina spoken of, 212. 

Carpenter, Samuel, 10. 

Case of the ship Love and Unity, 63. 
% Catholics from Ireland sold, 227. 

Causes of immigration well under- 
stood now, 1 6 ; hope of bettering 
their condition, 300; conditions 
of life hard in the Fatherland, 300; 
abundance of food, 299 ; provisions 
cheap, meat plenty and game of 
all kinds on hand, 299. 

Certificates, Redemptioners', 222, 

Changes in a century, 294. 
Charleston, S. C, spoken of, 212. 
Chests of immigrants robbed, 62 ; 

left behind intentionally, 252 ; 

broken open, 253. 
Children allowed to assume parents' 

debts, 183 ; apprenticed in New 

York, 261 ; kidnapped in London, 

Chinese exclusion law referred to, 

Classis of Amsterdam written to, 


Claypole, James, appointed Regis- 
ter, 221. 

Cloister Building, the Saal, 228. 
Collinson, Peter, letter written to 

him by Franklin, no. 
Colonial Entry Book, 291. 
Colonial History of New York 

quoted, 106. 
Colonial Records of Pennsylvania, 

quoted, 38, 80, 87, 88, 89, 90, 95, 

117, 247, 263. 
Colonists needed, 18. 
Columbus mentioned, 17. 
Conestoga Manor spoken of, 234 ; 

settled by well-to-do Germans, 

144 ; farmers' teams and wagons, 


Conoy township settled by Scotch- 
Irish, 135. 
Convicts sent over by the mayor of 

Dublin, 55. 
Cost of journey to Pennsylvania, 

Cowes, Leith, Deal and London 

points of departure for ships, 50. 
Coxe, Tench, mentioned, 21. 
Crefeld Colony, 34. 
Crefelders settle at German town, 

12 ; not the only Germans around 

Philadelphia, 107. 


General Index. 

Cromwell's prisoners sent to Amer- 
ica and sold as Redemptioners, 121. 

Cumberland county settled by 
Scotch-Irish, 121. 

DANGERS in wait for early set- 
tlers, 306. 

Dauphin county receives settlers, 94. 

Deficient food and drink, 57. 

Delaware, Penn's government on 
banks of, 144. 

Desire for lands, 96. 

Dickinson, Jonathan, letter by, 35. 

Discomforts of voyage, 57. 

Diseases contracted on voyage, 259, 
260, 261, 262. 

Dislike of New York, 32. 

Dissension over laws concerning Re- 
demptioners, 157. 

Donegal township settled by Scotch- 
Irish, 135. 

Diibendorffer, John and Alexander, 
arrive, 43. 

Dunbar, Cromwell at, 290. 

Dutch and German probably spoken 
by Penn, 18. 

T^ARLIEST Germans left no per- 

L' niancnt settlements, 12. 

Early provincial records reason- 
ably complete, 10. 

Ebb and flow of immigration, 46. 

Ebeling estimates German popula- 
tion of Pennsylvania, 101. 

Eby, Benjamin, history quoted, 35. 

Efforts, to establish a hospital in 
Philadelphia in 1738, 79; of im- 
migrants to secure naturalization, 

Egan, Barney, letter to, by Charles 
Marshall, 228. 

Eickhoff, earliest reference to traffic 
in Redemptioners, 174. 

Eickhoff, Anton, quoted, 175. 

Embarkation of 3,000 Germans for 
New York, 260. 

Endeavor, name of ship, 221. 

Endless chain, as applied to Ger- 
man land titles, 130. 

English as Redemptioners, 220. 

Ephrata community, mystic seal of, 


Errors in regard to German popu- 
lation, 119. 

Every writer condemns traffic in 
Redemptioners, 301. 

Excessive mortality on shipboard, 


Exodus, German, to England men- 
tioned, 260. 

Extent of German immigration not 
realized at first, 13. 

Extract from Franklin's German 
paper, 67. 

Eyers, Capt., mentioned, 39. 

"CAC-SIMILE of title of Penn's 

A letters to the Society of Free 
traders, 37 ; also of Brief Account, 
25 ; of Trappe Records, 303. 

Falkner, Daniel, arrives in 1700, 22 ; 
his " Curiouse Information " 
Tract, 22; his continuation of 
Thomas' book, 113. 

Families separated by sale, 184. 

Favorable accounts sent home con- 
cerning Pennsylvania, 35, 242. 

Few German arrivals between 1783- 

1789, 5i. 

Fiery Cross of the Highlands spoken 
of, 17. 

Fifty acres of land allotted to Re- 
demptioners, 269, 270, 271, 272, 

273, 274- 

Fifty thousand convicts sent to 
America, 289. 

General Index. 


First book written in Pennsylvania 
about Pennsylvania, 311. 

First German settlers in Penn- 
sylvania, 13. 

Fisher, Joshua & Sons mentioned, 
214, 215. 

Fisher's Island purchased for a 
quarantine station and hospital 
in 1742, for ^1,700, 88 ; name 
changed to Province Island and 
later to State Island, 89. 

Fiske, John, historian, quoted, 289. 

Five ship-loads of Germans arrive 
in 1727, 44- 

Fletcher, Governor, quoted, 107. 

Formation of the German Society of 
Pennsylvania in 1764, 266. 

Forty shillings, head tax on aliens, 

Frankfort Land Company, 21. 

Franklin, Dr., alarmed by great 
German immigration speaks ill of 
them, 109, 116; makes estimate 
of the German population of the 
Province, ico. 

Frederick county, Md., spoken of, 

Freiheits Kleidung, 214. 

French and Indian War stops immi- 
gration, 41-46. 

French immigrants arrive in Penn- 
sylvania, 66; action of the Legisla- 
ture to support them, 66. 

Frey, Heinrich, here before Penn, 

Fulton township still farmed by 
Scotch-Irish, 136. 

Furley, Benjamin, Penn's agent, de- 
serving of honor, 18 ; sells lands 
for Penn, 21, 271. 

Further estimates of the German 
population of Pennsylvania, 98, 
99, ioo, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106. 

pENTLEMAN'S Magazine quot- 

M ed,6 5 . 

German immigration a notable 
chapter in the History of Pennsyl- 
vania, 7 ; element called a " Slum- 
bering Giant," 8; Bibles spoken 
of, II ; Reformed community in 
1664, 12, 13 ; near to Penn, 21 ; 
and Dutch translations of Penn's 
tracts, 22 ; arrivals at New York ; 
advise their friends to come over, 
32 ; called foreigners after 1741, 
56 ; immigration not the result of 
chance, 74 ; addicted to country 
and agricultural life, 75 ; ever a 
race of colonists, 76 ; petitioners 
complain, 84 ; a race of farmers, 
96 ; located on the frontiers, as 
protection against Indians, 97 ; 
lives sacrificed in the French and 
Indian War, 97 ; enter Ohio, In- 
diana, Illinois, Kansas and the en- 
tire Great West, 98 ; Reformed 
numbers in 1731, 101 ; noted for 
large families, 102 ; soldiers re- 
mained in Pennsylvania, 106 ; mis- 
understood by Franklin, no; 
newspapers in 1753, in; immi- 
grants brought Bibles, prayer- 
books and catechisms, 115; defer- 
ence to authority, 116 ; the con- 
fiding disposition, 116; feared as 
an unruly element, 116; mostly 
farmers, 115-118 ; isolated by their 
language, 115 ; division into nu- 
merous religious sects, 115 ; some 
highly educated, 115; charge of 
being no lovers of agriculture, 119 ; 
summary of pursuits, 120 ; their 
improvement of farm lands, 122 ; 
methods of clearing lands, 123, 
124 ; care of domestic animals, 123, 
124; cultivation of vegetables, 125 ; 


General Index. 

mode of conveying produce to 
market, 125, 126 ; ideas regarding 
patrimony, 126; habits of thought, 
127 ; introduction of German Re- 
formed and Lutheran churches, 
131 ; beautiful natural surround- 
ings, 132 ; their love of home, 133 ; 
their trust in the Divine blessing, 
133 ; their race virility, 134 ; oppo- 
sition to slavery, 139 ; in Virginia, 
245 ; persons of substance, 248 ; 
begging in streets, 251 ; afflicted 
with diseases, 251 ; loyal to the 
English crown, 255 ; exodus to 
England mentioned, 260 ; Society 
of Pennsylvania mentioned, 262 ; 
Society formed, 264 ; rewards of- 
fered for runaway Redemptioners, 
280 ; Society of Maryland, 282 ; 
they hold together, 308 ; their jus- 
tice and kindntss, 308 ; character 
moulded by sufferings, 316. 

Germanic races mostly agricultur- 
ists, 120. 

Germantown settled in 1683, 13; col- 
onized by well-to-do immigrants, 
144 ; slavery augmented, 145. 

Golden Swan mentioned, 213. 

Gordon, Governor Patrick, and his 
law, 53, 93. 

Gordon, the historian, quoted, 33, 
34, 52, 89 ; estimate of number of 
Germans, 100 ; describes the Re- 
demptioners, 153. 

Graaf, Hans, and others naturalized, 


Graeme, Dr., mentioned, 87. 

Grahame, the historian, on condi- 
tions and concessions, 271. 

Guesses at the number of Germans 
in Pennsylvania, ico. 

Gun, Augustus, advertises servants, 

Gustavus Adolphus, King of Swe- 
den, solicits German colonists, 108. 

mentioned, 102, 266. 

Hamburg, Berks county, 214. 

Hampden, John, mentioned, 76. 

Harford county, Maryland, 278. 

Hartsfelder, Julian, here in 1676, 

Hasselwood, Captain, 209. 

Head Tax, a means of revenue, 

Heavy arrivals in 1732 and 1738, 

Hennighausen, L. P., 108, 277, 283. 

Hersching estimates number of Ger- 
man immigrants, 101. 

Hessian soldiers augment popula- 
tion, 105. 

Hill, Captain, before the Board, 40. 

Hinke, Prof. W. J.'s valuable find, 
41, 202. 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 


Hoke, Isaac and Zachary, men- 
tioned, 243. 

Holland to Cowes, trip from, 178. 

Hopp, Dr. Ernest Otto, his book on 
newlanders, 195. 

Horrors of the middle passage, 59. 

Hospital erected in 1750 at a cost of 
^1,000, 89. 

Hospital, established, 246. 

How to preserve health on ship- 
board, 32. 

Hugh's Historical Account, 46. 

Huguenots and Swiss, mentioned, 

Humanity's sorest trial in the Colo- 
nies, 65. 

Hunter, Governor, of New York, 

General Index. 


T MMIGRANTS, whence they came, 

* 14 ; lists preserved at Harrisburg, 
41 ; at first called Palatines, 55 ; 
regarded as legitimate game, 60 ; 
an addition to the wealth of a 
country, 81 ; not permitted to land 
when ill, 89; desire naturaliza- 
tion, 91 ; qualified at Court House, 
95 ; their hardships while cross- 
ing the ocean, 179, 180 ; become 
Revolutionary soldiers, 187; re- 
specters of authority, 296. 

Immigration, irregular prior to 
1727, 44; of Germans from New 
York, 107 ; profitable to the 
crown, 252. 

Imposition on passengers, 62. 

Indentured servants of great value 
to Virginia, 291. 

Indians alarmed at number of immi- 
grants, 234. 

Industry of the people, 117. 

Injustice from merchants, 255. 

Insel Pennsylvanien, the western 
Patmos, 145. 

Insolvent law in Province of Penn- 
sylvania, 156. 

In some years all immigrants from 
the Palatinate, 50. 

Irish and German immigrants afflict- 
ed with dangerous distempers, 82. 

Irish, as Redemptioners, 220, 225 ; 
Catholics exported and sold, 227. 

Irish servants mentioned, 54 ; taxed 
20 shillings, 54. 

Island for hospital bought, 246. 

JANICE MEREDITH, referred to, 

Jasper, Margaret, Penn's mother, 20. 
Jealousy of the Germans, spoken of, 


Johanna, name of ship, 282. 

Jungfrau, Johanna, a Dutch ship, 

KALM, PETER, traveler and 
botanist, 32, 194. 

Kapp, Friedrich, 268; Soldaten- 
handel quoted, 105. 

Keith, Governor, calls attention to 
immigration of Germans, 36. 

Kelpius, Johannes, comes with 40 
followers, 35. 

Kent, county of, 220. 

Keppele, Johann Heinrich, 262. 

King Charles, referred to, 273. 

Kinsey, John, Speaker of the Legis- 
lature, 84. 

Kocherthal, Joshua, quoted, 292. 

Kunze, Pastor, 214. 

LANCASTER county mentioned, 
94, 96 ; formerly occupied by 

Scotch-Irish, 121 ; typical German 

county, 135 ; richness of the soil, 

136; richest agricultural county in 

the United States, 234. 
Land Companies seeking colonists, 

Lands provided for Redemptioners, 

269 ; granted to settlers, 272 ; 

to renters, 275 ; to servants, 275. 
Landmarks between 1683 and 1727 

scarce, n. 

Large arrival of Germans in 1707, 36. 
Large number of German churches, 


Las Casas mentioned, 145. 
Laws restraining immigration, 116. 
Lebanon county spoken of, 96. 
Ledger, Philadelphia, on German 

immigrants, 129. 

Leeds, Duke of, letter to, 231, 232. 
Legislation growing out of human 

traffic, 153. 


General Index. 

Legislature admits need of hospital, 

Lehigh county receives German 

immigrants, 96. 

Length of ocean voyage, 31, 32. 
Liberty of conscience announced by 

Penn, 33. 
Lists of passengers exacted from 

ship captains, 38; in triplicate, 

41 ; probably not complete in 

every instance, 41. 
Little Britain township mentioned, 

Little encouragement to Germans 

in New England and the South, 


Little immigration following Revo- 
lutionary War, 51. 
Liverpool, 211. 
Lobb, Captain, maltreatment of 

immigrants, 66. 
Locke, John, mentioned, 76. 
Logan, James, mentioned, 10; 

speaks ill of the Germans, 1 10 ; 

alarmed at extent of immigration, 

116, 233, 234. 

Loher, Franz, estimate of popula- 
tion, 102 ; his account of Redemp- 

tioners, 144, 185. 
Longfellow's Evangeline referred 

to, 145- 
Lord Baltimore gets ideas from 

Virginia, 152. 

Lowell's Hessians quoted, 156. 
Lutheran churches in Pennsylvania 

in 1750, 98. 

Lutherans, number of in 1731, 101. 
Luttrell, the diarist, quoted, 260. 

MACAULAY'S tribute to the Ger- 
man immigrants, 114. 
Many books imported from Ger- 
many, in. 

Margaret Jasper, Penn's mother, 20. 

Market Square at Germantown, 276. 

Markham, Governor, signature of, 

Marshall, Benjamin, 228, 229. 

Marshall, Christopher, 228. 

Martha's Vineyard, tragedy, 65. 

Martin George's case, 268. 

Maryland spoken of, 237, 277 ; As- 
sembly of, 277, 283 ; archives 
quoted from, 285. 

Mechanical trades, 120. 

Mechanics enumerated, 237. 

Mellick on New Jersey Redemp- 
tioners, 291 ; on the laws of New 
Jersey, 291. 

Menno Simon, reference to, 19, 

Mennonites excused from taking 
oaths, 38 ; in New York, 107. 

Menzel's History of Germany, quot- 
ed, 76, 101. 

Merchants in the Redemptioner traf- 
fic, 265. 

Message of Governor Thomas about 
hospitals, 80. 

Meylin, Martin, and others natural- 
ized, 93. 

Mifflin, Governor Thomas, report 
to, in 1796, 68. 

Miller, Rev. John, writes about 
Mennonites, 107. 

Minerva, ship, trouble with immi- 
grants, 268. 

Minnewit, Peter, mentioned, 108. 

Mittelberger, Gottlieb, mentioned, 
57, 146 ; renders best account of 
human traffic, 175 ; remains four 
years in Pennsylvania, 176; re- 
counts wrongs endured, 176 ; op- 
poses immigration, 177 ; narrative 
quoted, 177 ; pays his respects to 
the newlanders, 196. 

General Index. 


Modern farmhouses, improvements 
in, 137 ; farm machinery, 137. 

Mombert's, Rev. J. I., history quot- 
ed, 94. 

Monmouth insurrection mentioned, 

Moore, Dr., mentioned, 22. 

More than 200 German families in 
Pennsylvania in 1700, 108. 

Morris, Governor, Saur's letter to, 
241, 247, 251. 

Mortality among immigrants, 258. 

Mount Joy township settled by 
Scotch-Irish, 135. 

Muhlenberg, Frederick Augustus, 

Muhlenberg, General Peter, 268. 

Muhlenberg, Pastor H. M., men- 
tioned, his account of the new- 
landers, 190-266. 

Murphy, Thomas, letter to, 229. 

NAAS, Elder Johannes, 302 ; he 
defends the system, 302 ; tells 
his experiences, 304. 

Names of immigrants on ship Will- 
iam and Sarah, 42 ; of ships that 
came in 1738, 47 ; of different 
sea-craft, 48 ; of Fisher's Island, 
89 ; of Palatines published in Co- 
lonial Records from 1727 until 
1736, 95- 

National banks in Lancaster county, 

Natural increase in population, 102. 

New arrivals assisted by those al- 
ready here, 72. 

New England settlers compared 
with German ones, 130. 

New Jersey's laws for Redemption- 
ers, 292. 

Newcastle, arrivals at, in 1729, 46 ; 
county of, 220. 

Newcomers compelled to go to the 
frontiers, 96. 

Newlanders defined, 189 ; their in- 
iquitous methods, 189-194 ; guilty 
of robbery, 199 ; steal letters, 

New York Germans come to Penn- 
sylvania, 52 ; her large colony, 
260 ; the system in, 286 ; legisla- 
tion concerning Redemptioners, 

Nineteen ships arrive in a single 
year, 46. 

No arrivals in 1745, 46. 

No caste lost by being Redemp- 
tioners, 313. 

No disgrace attached to this servi- 
tude, 313 ; no distinctions under 
the laws, 309; no language but 
German spoken in some sections, 


Non-conformists sold as Redemp- 
tioners, 290. 

Northampton county mentioned, 

Nowhere else in America was such 
prosperity seen, 310. 

Number of the German immigrants, 
99 ; to each ship, 102 ; of invol- 
untary immigrants, 289. 

quoted, 106. 

One hundred and fifty year, ago not 
a golden age politically, 79. 

Op den Graeff brothers spoken of, 

Oppression of the peasantry in 
Germany, 17. 

Other colonies try to secure immi- 
grants, 74. 

Owen, Griffith, spoken of, 10. 

Oxenstierna, Axel, mentioned, 12. 


General Index. 

PALATINATE, persecutions in, 

1 19 ; the garden of Europe, 

Palatines spoken of, 67 ; promise al- 
legiance to Great Britain, 40, 211, 
335, 237, 283. 

Palmer, Thomas, mentioned 67. 

Pamphlets descriptive of Pennsyl- 
vania, 18. 

Parke, Robert, letter by, quoted, 

Passengers who arrived in 1738, 47. 

Passenger ship of the period, 290. 

Pastorius, Francis Daniel, 12, 34, 95. 

Pastorius, Melchior Adam, 22 ; his 
pamphlets, 85. 

Pathetic letter from maltreated 
passengers, 64. 

Patroons, owners of large estates, 

Penn's selection of scholarly men, 
9 ; a man of culture, 9 ; favorably 
known in Germany, 16, 18 ; his 
" Brief Account," 22 ; " Further 
Account," 23-32 ; his truthful- 
ness, 32 ; Government alarmed, 
36 ; grandest character that ever 
came to America, 74, 76 ; his 
worldly shrewdness, 152; sanc- 
tions servitude, 152 ; allots lands 
to Redemptioners, 158 ; his appre- 
ciation of colonists, 220-221 ; his 
"Conditions and Concessions," 
270-273; his "Some Account," 

Penn, Governor John, letter to, 60, 
234 ; refuses to sign law favorable 
to German immigrants, 265. 

Pennsylvania Archives, 38, 203, 
235, 237. 

Pennsylvania Berichle, Saur's news- 
paper, 202, 205, 206, 208, 209, 210, 
211,212; Staatsbote, 213; Gazette, 

214; Magazine of History and Bi- 
ography, 223, 229-230. 

Pennsylvania, descriptive accounts 
of, circulated, 16 ; always most 
favored by immigrants, 71 ; the 
greatest of all the Provinces, 77, 
78 ; built up and developed by 
Germans, 116 ; Germans her most 
successful farmers, 121 ; her best 
counties to-day in German hands, 

Pennsylvania Gazelle, 55, 64, 264. 

Pennsylvania-German Society a fac- 
tor in stimulating research, 7 ; 
quoted, 68 ; seal of, 9. 

Pennypacker, Judge S. W., referred 
to, 13, 95, 108. 

Pequea colonists sent over for 
their friends, 35. 

Persons of German ancestry search- 
ing for records, n. 

Pest-house building recommended, 

Pestilence prevails in Philadelphia 

in 1740, 83. 
Philadelphia, vicinity of, favored by 

Germans, 120; Ledger, 1856, de- 
fends German immigrants, 129 ; 

immigration through port of, 144; 

had only two mayors who could 

speak German, 264. 
Philadelphische Zeilung's account 

of the Massachusetts episode, 66. 
Pioneer German hamlet, 44. 
Plockhoy, Christopher, 311, 312. 
Prefatory note, 7, 8. 
Prices paid for Redemptioners, 238. 
Principal places of embarcation, 

Priutz, Governor Johannes, 12 ; a 

German, 108. 
Prisoners taken inEngland sold, 226; 

of war sold as Redemptioners, 290. 

General Index. 


Prosperity of Redemption ers, 136, 

137, 138. 
Proud's History quoted, 33, 51, 108, 

129, 227. 
Provincial Assembly defends itself, 


Provincial Council, records of, 87. 
Provision made for English, Irish 

and Welsh indentured servants, 

157; lands given Redemptioners 

on easy terms, 269. 

QUAKERS spoken of, 19, 20, 21. 
Quarrels between the early 
Governors and the Legisla- 
tures, 78. 
Quit-rents paid by renters, 275. 

RAIN caught from passing show- 
ers, 58. 

Rations served on ship-board, 181. 

Records, Colonial, 38, 39, 80, 89, 90, 

Redemptioners accused of illiter- 
acy by Franklin, in ; name not 
mentioned in Acts of Assembly, 
146 ; term defined, 146 ; origin 
of term, 172 ; two classes, 173 ; 
two kinds of, 147 ; better class de- 
scribed, 148 ; evils which befell 
them on arrival, 149, 150; word 
does not occur in Statutes at Large, 
153; indentures, copies of, 167, 236; 
annual influx of, 187 ; reduced to 
desperation by ill-treatment, 198 ; 
injustice from masters, 200, 212, 
215 ; not always Germans, 219 ; in 
Delaware, 223 ; Irish, 225 ; in Vir- 
ginia, 226 ; spoken of, 272, 277 ; of 
English and Irish birth, 278; of 
Swiss ancestry, 283 ; sometimes 
treated like slaves, 285, 286 ; paid 
for with tobacco, 289 ; known in 
New York, 289 ; rise to eminence 

in Virginia, 291 ; valuable as col- 
onists, 291 ; traffic an every-day 
business, 295; had the sanction of 
the times, 295 ; only its abuses ar- 
raigned, 296 ; the traffic an im- 
perishable page in Pennsylvania 
history, 301 ; many doomed to life- 
long poverty in Germany, 307; 
hewers of wood and drawers of 
water, 307 ; in the hands of task- 
masters, 308 ; poor but honorable, 
309 ; grew rich by honest toil, 313 ; 
sustained by the consolations of 
religion, 316; true to their lineage, 
316 ; left broad acres to their de- 
scendants 129, 314 ; they fought a 
good fight, they kept the faith,3i7. 

Reformed Churches in Pennsylva- 
nia in 1750, 98. 

Region of the Ohio penetrated by 
Germans, 97. 

Registration an excellent step, 38 ; 
of contracts between master and 
man, 166. 

Reiger, Rev. J. B., makes estimate 
of the number of Germans, 101. 

Rejoinder of Gov. Thomas to As- 
sembly, 84. 

Religious tolerance of German set- 
tlers, 139. 

Renters had right of suffrage, 272 ; 
of fifty acres, 271. 

Revenue defrauded, 254. 

Rhine Provinces spoken of, n. 

Rivalry among English colonies, 

Roman civilization in contact with 

Germanic tribes, 119. 
Rotterdam, 208, 211. 
Rupp's 30,000 Names, 35, 38, 56, 97, 

128, 203, 214, 234. 
Rush, Dr. Benjamin, his book, 56, 

122, 127. 


General Index. 

SAAL, the, at Ephrata, 228. 
Sachse, Julius F., illustrations 
of, referred to, 8, 12 ; Father- 
land spoken of, 22. 
Sale of immigrants on ship-board, 


Sauer, Charles G., quoted, 257. 
Saur, Christoph, 146, 201, 240, 241 ; 
letters to Governor Morris, 243, 
247, 251, 256, 257, 262, 263. 
Say, Thomas, proposed as overseer, 


Scharf & Westcott's History quoted 

Schuylkill county settled, 96. 

Scotch indentured servants, 55. 

Scotch-Irish, their pursuits com- 
pared with those of the Germans, 
118 ; their elimination from farms, 
136; emigrants accompanied by 
servants and dependents, 158 ; as 
Redemptioners, 220. 

Seal of Pennsylvania-German Soci- 
ety, 9; of Ephrata community, 233. 

Sect, people spoken of, Mennonites, 
Dunkers and Schwenkfelders, 98. 

Seidensticker, Dr. Oswald, 98; esti- 
mates German population, 101, 
132, 266. 

Sener, S. M., mentioned, 233. 

Servant, the word as understood in 
acts of Assembly, 159 ; rewarded 
at expiration of term of service, 
277 ; in Maryland, 277. 

Settlement in Berks, Montgomery 
and Lancaster counties, 35. 

Settlement of Germantown in 1683, 


Settlers needed in Pennsylvania, 75. 

Shenandoah Valley settled by Ger- 
mans, 131. 

Ship-captains, brokers and mer- 
chants all engaged in the work of 

spoliation, 59 ; ship-load arrives 
in Massachusetts, 64 ; ship Her- 
bert lost, 261 ; ship agents at the 
present time, 269 ; ship-masters 
advertisement, 279-280. 

Ship-masters held to account, 39. 

Ship Mercury mentioned, 42 ; Sam- 
uel makes six voyages, 48. 

Ship William and Sarah, 40. 

Shipping lists perhaps incomplete, 

Shortcomings of German settlers, 


Sick immigrants' case before the 
Assembly, 80; not permitted to 
land, 90. 

Six hundred passengers 'on one 
ship, 51. 

Six . Nations, Indians, unite with 
France, 46. 

Size of ships carrying immigrants, 
48 ; average size 200 tons, 51. 

Small immigration by other nation- 
alities, 105. 

Small-pox on ship Welcome, 264. 

Some Germans were Franklin's su- 
periors in scholarship, 112. 

Sources of information, 9. 

South Carolina Redemptioners, 292. 

Spark's Life of Franklin cited, 112. 

Spofford, Dr., made overseer, 242. 

Statutes at Large of Pennsylvania 
quoted, 54, 94. 

Steadman, Captain, of the St. An- 
drew, 89, 242. 

Stilld's, Chas. J., estimate of German 
population, 100. 

Story of the ship Palatine, wrecked 
off Block Island, 68. 

Story of Redemptioners treated by 
local historians, 150. 

Stranger's bury ing-ground spoken 
of, 263. 

General Index. 


Stuart dynasty, restoration of, 290. 

Successful settlement in Lancaster 
county, 35. 

Supplies nearly always deficient, 58. 

Sussex, county of, 220. 

Swabians mentioned, 210. 

Swatara, valley of the, 260. 

Swedes and Friends treated Re- 
.demptioners kindly, 308. 

Swedish colonies partly composed of 
Germans, 106. 

Swiss and Huguenot settlers re- 
ferred to, II ; Colony of, in the 
Pequea valley in 1709, 34. 

Sypher, J. R., estimate of number 
of German immigrants, 100. 

System concerning servants in New 
York, 286. . 

'TVABLE of ships with German im- 
migrants, 45. 
Tacitus quoted, 237. 
Teutonic race constant by nature, 


The Assembly's reply to Governor 
Thomas, 82. 

The bright side of the Redemptioner 
traffic, 306. 

The Father of his Country, 297. 

The food question, 299. 

The forty-shilling law quoted, 53. 

Their memories remain with their 
descendants, 317. 

Thomas', Gabriel, account alluded 
to, 22 ; his account quoted, 103. 

Thomas, Governor, quarrel with the 
Provincial Legislature, 79 ; his re- 
joinder, 84, 86 ; his salary with- 
held, 86 ; scores the Legislature, 
87, 227. 

Timbered country preferred by Ger- 
mans, 96. 

"To Have and to Hold," 292. 

Tract of the Elder Pastorius, 73. 

Traditional policy of Penn's Gov- 
ernment, 97. 

Trappe Records, extract from, 309. 

Treatment on ship-board, 59. 

Tribute to Germans by Governor 
Thomas, 116. 

Tulpehocken Valley settled by Ger- 
mans from New York in 1729, 

Two mayors only in 100 years who 
could speak German, 264. 

Two sides to every picture, 305. 

Two, three and four ships arrive on 
the same day, 48. 

UNABLE to defend their rights, 

University of Philadelphia, 232. 
Unsanitary condition of ships, 57. 

VALUE of farm lands, 136. 
Vane, Sir Henry, protests, 227. 

Vessel shipwrecked with 400 Pala- 
tines on board, 262. 

Virginia, Redemptioners in, 226, 
277 ; the traffic in that State, 288 ; 
number of immigrants to, 289 ; 
and her neighbors, 289-291 ; voy- 
age across the ocean, 57. 

Voyage of the Mayflower shows no 
deaths from starvation, 65. 

Vrouw Elizabeth, ship, 283. 

WANTON, Governor of Rhode 
Island, action in a case of 
shipwreck, 263. 
Warner, an early settle/, 108. 
Watson, the annalist, referred to, 
55, 89, 108, 127, 264; defines 
indentured servants, 154. 
Weiser, John Conrad, and his colony 
in 1729, 260, 261. 


General Index. 

Weiss, Rev. Lewis, memorial of, 60. 
Welsh, indentured servants, 55 ; as 

Redemptioners, 220. 
West Hempfield township, settled 

by Scotch-Irish, 135. 
Where our annals are most defective, 


Whittier, quoted, 9, 69. 

Why no Quaker blood was shed by 
Indians, 97. 

Wickersham, James P., bears testi- 
mony to the excellence of the Ger- 
man settlers, 114. 

Wiegman's wharf, 281. 

Wistar, Casper, letter quoted, 262. 

Worcester, prisoners taken there 
sold, 290. 

Written records brought by few, 

Wrongs of immigrants stated, 62. 

Wurtembergers, Hannoverians, Al- 
satians and Saxons, came almost 
exclusively in some years, 50. 

COUNTY spoken of, 96. 

Young, John Russell, reference to, 

L* clines the appointment of hos- 
pital surgeon, 88 ; presents cer- 
tificate, 89. 









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