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Successful German-Americans 
and Their Descendants 



To the memory of the late 


who, a steadfast and loyal American, remained 
true to German ideals, and devoted his life to the 
betterment of his adopted country, never forget 
ting or belittling the gifts he had received from 
the land of his birth, 

thin work IB 





THIS work is intended to be a record of all that 
Germans have accomplished in the United States 
a record of honest endeavor, energy, perseverance, 
strength and achievement. It shall, in addition, show 
the part that the American citizen of German blood has 
taken in the making of these United States, in peace 
and war, on the battlefield as well as in the counting 
house, the workshop and laboratory, in the realm of 
science and education or in the long fight that was neces 
sary to extend civilization and culture over a continent. 

It contains a history of German immigration in the 
United States from the first settlements to the present 
day, showing what the Germans were who left the 
fatherland, why they came, and what they did in their 
new country. Every incident throwing light upon the 
work done by the German element has been made use 
of to give a complete, though concise, and impartial re 
cital of its activity, and a description of the influence it 
has exerted upon the development of the Union. 

In the second part the biographies of many Americans 
of German nativity or descent are given. History is 
not complete if it chronicles only the deeds of the few 
who in times of strife and combat rise above the surface; 
it must tell us of the many who have fought and suc 
ceeded. The value of so large and important a part of the 
American people as the German immigrants and their 
descendants can be fully understood only if it is shown 
how many of them have been successful, and how 
they have, by long and earnest travail, risen to unusual 




Introduction 5 

History of German Immigration in the United States - - - 7-42 

A Martyr to Liberty -- ---11 

The Pennsylvania Germans - 13 

The Germans During the Revolution 18 

From the Revolution to the Year 1848 - 25 

The Forty-Eighters - - 28 

The Civil War and the Years Following It - 32 

From the Franco-German War to the Present Day - 34 

Conclusion 39 

The Percentage of German Blood in the American People 41 

Successful German-Americans and Their Descendants 43 



According to the last Census there were living 
in the United States in 1900 not less than 
2,669,164 persons born in the German Empire. 
Within the few years passed since then, no great 
change can have taken place, for the number of 
German immigrants has probably not been much 
larger than the decrease of the German-Amer 
ican population by death or the return of Ger 
mans to the Fatherland. There is, however, no 
doubt but that the number of Germans living 
in the United States is considerably larger than 
the figures given above, for the Census, in de 
termining nationality, does not take into account 
race but political divisions, and calls only those 
persons Germans who have been born within 
the borders of the German Empire. Several 
hundred thousand immigrants who have come 
from Switzerland, Austria and the Baltic prov 
inces of Russia, and who are thorough Germans 
in race, tradition and customs, are not classed as 
such by the Census. It is, therefore a very con 
servative estimate if we assume that the num 
ber of Germans living in the United States ex 
ceeds three millions. But even then we cannot 
estimate the strength of the German element and 
the influence it exerts, correctly, because we must 
take into consideration the descendants of the 
immigrants, in whom, although moderated by 
American influences, German ideas and ways of 
thinking are more or less preserved. Here sta 
tistics cannot help us, for while the Census Bu 
reau has given us a number of tables showing 
how many native-born Americans had German 
fathers, mothers, or both, this information, val 
uable as it is, does not tell us how many of 
these descendants may be called German-Amer 
icans in the sense that they have retained some 
of the valuable traits of their ancestors. How 
quickly complete Americanization destroys even 
the last vestige of the German origin depends 
upon innumerable circumstances, and it happens 
frequently that children who were born in 
Germany and brought to America in early youth 
lose all distinguishing traits before they grow up, 
and retain nothing that betrays their origin, 
while on the other hand, many families remain 
German in disposition and certain ways of think 

ing for three and even four generations. Where, 
for instance, the knowledge of the German lan 
guage is cultivated, and the children are made 
acquainted with German literature, the German 
influence upon the mind becomes strong enough 
to be traced and in turn exerted even after all 
connection with the Fatherland has long ceased. 
Taking all these factors into account, and con 
sidering all manifestations of German origin 
as, for instance, the numbers of societies which 
are either composed of Germans and their de 
scendants in the first generation, or which, al 
though outwardly American, pursue objects and 
ideals essentially German and viewing the 
strength of movements based upon German ideas, 
the conclusion does not appear extravagant that 
the so-called German-American element comprises 
nearly ten per cent of the population of the Uni 
ted States. The percentage of German blood in 
the American people is undoubtedly much larger; 
careful and conservative investigators have placed 
it as high as twenty-five per cent. 

It goes without saying that so large a part of 
the total population of the country must neces 
sarily have exerted considerable influence upon 
the formation of the character of the American 
people. Whether this influence has always been 
used in the right way and with the full strength 
it possessed is an open question and has been 
doubted by many, especially by Germans with 
scant knowledge of American conditions. The 
United States would long have been a German 
country and the English language would have 
disappeared if pen and printing ink could have 
accomplished it. Extravagant love of race or 
country and unreasoning enthusiasm based upon 
impractical hopes and dreams are, however, not 
sufficient to bring about tangible results and do 
not qualify their possessors to sit in judgment 
upon the work accomplished by Germans in 
America. To do this a thorough knowledge of 
the history of the country, of its institutions and 
evolution, as well as of the German immigra 
tion since its beginning is required. In another 
chapter the attempt will be made to show what 
Germans could accomplish here, and what they 
have done, but before this is undertaken a short 


but exhaustive sketch of the history of German 
immigration will be given. 

There is, unfortunately, no complete history 
of German immigration in existence. A number 
of works have been written dealing with single 
states or treating short periods. But sufficient 
material is at hand to show how widely the qual 
ity of the immigrants differed in the several 
periods during which Germans arrived here in 
large numbers, and how far apart these periods 
were. A careful examination of all known facts 
will not only show what the Germans brought to 
America but also whether they made full use of 
the opportunities extended to them. And it may 
be stated right here that the result cannot fail 
to raise the popular estimate of the value of the 
German immigrant. 

The first traces of the German immigration 
extend back to the settlement of Manhattan 
Island by the Dutch. Peter Minuit or Minnewit, 
who was appointed director-general of New Neth 
erlands by the Amsterdam Chamber of Com 
merce and purchased Manhattan Island from the 
Indians for sixty guilders, came from Wesel and 
was therefore a German. Among the colonists 
who arrived here during the first half of the 
Seventeenth Century were many Germans, prin 
cipally from the lower Rhine, from Geldern, 
Westphalia, Friesland and Ditmarschen. Ger 
many and Holland were at that time neither po 
litically nor economically as sharply separated as 
now. The Dutch language was closely related to 
the dialects spoken in the neighboring provinces 
of Germany and its difference from them be 
came more marked much later through the in 
fluence of the Flemish. German immigration 
was not confined to the districts named, however, 
for many carue from Holstein, Hesse, Thuringia, 
Swabia, the Hanse cities and from Switzerland. 
These colonists could exert no influence whatever 
upon the development of the new country. They 
were not numerous enough, consisted mainly of 
laborers and mechanics, and possessed probably 
very little education. They soon lost their iden 
tity, changed their names to make them sound 
Dutch, and disappeared completely among the 
Hollanders. Every trace of them would be lost 
if shipowners in Amsterdam had not kept and 
preserved the lists of the passengers they for 
warded to America. 

A few years later an attempt was made to 
found a German colony in Delaware, near the 
present site of the city of Wilmington. It is 
true that this settlement was founded by the 
Swedish Government and called New Sweden, 
but incontrovertible proofs show that the colo 
nists came almost without exception from Pom- 

erania and Western Prussia, German provinces 
temporarily occupied by the Swedes. The leader 
of the first expedition was the same Peter Minne 
wit who had bought New Netherlands from the 
Indians and had later left the Dutch service. 
The treaty through which he acquired the neces 
sary land for his new enterprise was written in 
Low-German or Plattdeutsch. Minnewit arrived 
in the spring of 1638 and succeeded in taking the 
fur trade on the Delaware away from the Dutch. 
Three years later he disappeared, but whether 
he died or returned to Europe remains a mystery. 
His successor was the Swedish officer, Johann 
Printz, Edler von Buchau, another German and 
a scion of a well known German family which 
still exists. While he ruled New Sweden the 
quarrels between this colony and the Dutch of 
New Netherland began, because the thrifty 
Hollanders wanted a monopoly of the fur trade 
and did not intend to divide it with others. Printz 
returned soon to Europe and was followed by 
another German, Johann Resingh of Elbing. In 
the meantime the Thirty Years War had ended, 
Sweden was too weak to assist the distant colony 
and when, in September, 1655, Peter Stuyvesant 
appeared with a strong force before the Swedish 
fortifications, Resingh was forced to surrender. 
He was permitted to return to Sweden with his 
troops, but many of the colonists were killed or 
robbed of all their possessions. The few who 
were allowed to remain had to swear allegiance 
to the Dutch Government. The second attempt 
to form a German colony in America had thus 
ended in complete disaster and did not even leave 
traces of the work done. 

But soon a mighty stream of German immi 
grants began to flow. For almost one hundred 
years they came to seek homes, liberty and peace. 
Not always in such masses as during the first 
half of the Eighteenth Century, and sometimes 
interrupted, but sHll continuous and steady 
enough to markXn epoch in the history of the 
country. And/the Germans who arrived here 
during that time were in the main so much alike 
and the motives which caused them to leave their 
Fatherland were so similar, and at the same time 
so different, from the causes of later movements 
of the same kind, that this one must be treated 
by itself and may be designated as the religious 
period of German immigration. 

The Thirty Years War had ended. Its rav 
ages had well nigh destroyed the German nation 
jind changed a flourishing country into a desert. 
Towns and villages were in ruins, horses and cat 
tle had all but disappeared. Worse than this : 
the spirit of the people, hunted, persecuted, robbed 
and murdered without interruption for thirty 

years, was utterly broken. The burgher, once so 
proud and active, had become weak and timid. 
Only masters and serfs were left. The people 
had neither strength nor courage to fight for the 
rights that had been taken away by the soldier 
who rode through the land and took what he 
wanted. Germany was divided into small prin 
cipalities without number, ruled by princes who 
claimed to be set up by the grace of God, and 
who considered the land and the people as their 
own personal property. The very meaning of 
freedom and liberty had become unknown ; noth 
ing but constraint was visible, in trade, in the ex 
ercise of the religious creed and even in domestic 
life. The long and bloody war had prevented the 
extinction of Protestantism but it had not brought 
religious liberty. The people were powerless 
against the oppression practised on all sides. 
Their only hope was in flight from unbearable 
conditions. And now began the remarkable spec 
tacle that whole congregations and communities 
set out on the long and weary march to the At 
lantic Ocean where ships were waiting to carry 
them to other shores. Led by their ministers 
and teachers, singing psalms and hymns, they 
marched thus, carrying their women and chil 
dren on heavy wagons drawn by the strongest 
of the men, through Germany and Holland, fol 
lowed and persecuted by the Government until 
they had crossed the border. And down the river 
Rhine floated large boats and barges carrying the 
population of whole villages with their belongings. 

Not all these emigrants left their homes be 
cause they were prevented from exercising their 
religion. Even at that time agents of ship 
owners traveled through Germany, notably along 
the Rhine, in the Palatinate and in Swabia, try 
ing to persuade people to emigrate to America. 
They were lavish in their promises and held out 
hopes that could never be realized, and they found 
many followers. Want and poverty and the 
seeming impossibility of ever improving the con 
ditions surrounding them drove many away. The 
terrible winter of 1708-9, when the birds froze 
in the air in their flight and the wine in the casks, 
and when almost all the vineyards in the Palati 
nate were destroyed, caused the emigration of 
many thousands. The devastation of the Palat 
inate by the French under General Melac, of 
which the ruins of the castle at Heidelberg still 
remain as a memento, induced many others to 
cross the ocean. But the desire to escape oppresT 
sion and constant want and to find civic and re^S 
ligious liberty were the general causes of this 
mighty movement of many thousands of people ; 
and gave to it the peculiar character it possesses. ] 

The first large body of which authentic reports 

are in existence consisted of farmers from Alsa- 
tia and the Palatinate. They arrived in 1677 and 
settled along the W_ajlkill River, where they 
founded the still flourishing town of New Paltz. 
They were followed by a number of Huguenots 
and to this day most of the family names of the 
district in question show the German or French 
origin. In 1709 came sixty-one families from the 
Palatinate under the guidance of their pastor, 
Josua von Kocherthal, and founded Newburg. 
They were the advance guard of the many thou 
sands already moving towards the land of prom 
ise. Kocherthal was a man of great energy and 
skill ; he succeeded in settling nearly three hun 
dred families on both banks of the Hudson. 
Hunterstown, Kingsbury, Annsbury, Haysbury, 
Rhinebeck, Newtown, Georgetown, Elizabethtown, 
Kingston and Esopus were founded by him. These 
colonists were at -first treated with great respect 
by the English authorities. They received as much 
land as they needed and the settlement at New- 
burg was given five hundred acres to support 
the Protestant Church. But as soon as the poor 
Germans had changed the wild forest into well- 
tilled fields and blooming gardens the English 
and the Dutch sought means to deprive them of 
the fruits of their labor. They succeeded in 
many cases and the greater part of the German 
settlers on the Hudson lost courage finally and 
went to Pennsylvania where large numbers of 
their countrymen had taken undisturbed posses 
sion of extended tracts of land. In 1747 the 
Protestant Church at Newburg was taken away 
from the remaining Germans by force. 

The greatest body to leave at the same time 
started in the spring of 1709, after the hard win 
ter that has been mentioned. They went through 
Holland to England and the governments of both 
countries were practically helpless when this vast 
army descended upon them. A large camp was 
formed near London and this is said to have con 
tained fifteen thousand people at one time. For 
a while it excited the curiosity of the Londoners 
and the Court visited it repeatedly. But it was 
impossible to feed this mass and means had to 
be found to disperse it. Almost all the Catho 
lics were returned to their homes. Nearly four 
thousand were sent to Ireland where they re 
tained their customs for over a century but final 
ly disappeared. Between six hundred and seven 
hundred were sent to North Carolina where they 
were swallowed up by the English-speaking popu 
lation, although traces of them can still be found 
in the names of towns and families. Many of 
the young men were drafted into the army, and 
several thousand succumbed to the privations they 
had to undergo. Of three thousand that went 

to New York eight hundred died during the 
journey. Several hundred remained in New York, 
the rest, probably two thousand, were given land 
on both banks of the Hudson, a few miles south 
of Catskill. This was a distinct breach of the 
promises made to them by the English Govern 
ment which had set aside for them the fertile 
district on the Schoharie and the Mohawk rivers. 
When in their camp near London, the Germans 
had met several Mohawk chiefs who had invited 
them to settle among them, and the crown had 
granted the necessary permission. But when the 
colonists arrived at New York Governor Robert 
Hunter decided that they ought to be made to 
repay the expenses their support and transporta 
tion had caused, and in order to accomplish this 
he sent them to the pine forests of the Hudson 
to make pitch until their debt was liquidated. 
The enterprise failed completely. The poor Ger 
mans were without tools or implements and had 
not even the most necessary means of subsistence. 
Hunter did not furnish them with the promised 
rations, took away their rifles, because he re 
mained in constant fear that they would go away, 
and thus made it impossible for them to hunt 
game. Their children were taken away from them 
and apprenticed to Englishmen in New York, and 
two years elapsed before the first crop could be 
gathered. In their despair the settlers revolted 
against their oppressors but were quickly sub 
dued by British troops. But the man to meet the 
emergency arose. Johann Konrad Weiser, who, 
as one of the leaders of the settlers, had incurred 
the special disfavor of Governor Hunter, and 
whose children had been taken away from him, 
persuaded about one hundred of the more enter 
prising spirits to follow him to the Schoharie. 
They set out in the winter of 1712, in deep snow, 
pursued by soldiers, and arrived at their desti 
nation after suffering terrible hardships. When 
they arrived among the friendly Indians they 
were well nigh starved and exhausted, and in ad 
dition they were greeted by a formal order from 
Hunter to return forthwith to their camp on the 
Hudson. But the Indians offered to protect them 
and the Governor did not have enough troops to 
risk a war with the Mohawks. The new set 
tlement flourished, and Weiser s little band was 
soon joined by many of those who had remained 
behind. Before many years had passed a string 
of villages dotted the shores of the Schoharie 
and of the Mohawk but the troubles of the Ger 

mans were not ended. The English and Dutch 
colonists looked upon the independent farmers 
who tilled their own land with envy and hatred. 
They wanted to own the land and rent it out to 
tenants working it. A feudal state with the aris 
tocracy possessing all the land was their ideal. 
They attacked the crown titles of the Germans 
and constant quarrels were the consequence. 
Weiser went to London to get justice, but failed, 
was captured by pirates and sold into slavery. 
Years later he returned, an old man, but not 
broken in spirit. Rather than submit to the de 
mands of the English and Dutch landholders he 
decided to move his tents again. In 1723 he 
started out as the leader of thirty-three families, 
taking their women and children with them. 
Guided by Indians they followed the Schoharie 
into the mountains till they reached the head 
waters of the Susquehanna. Down this river they 
went to the mouth of the Swatara and then along 
its shores to the region that is now Berks County, 
Pa. Here they found at last the peace they had 
been looking for so long. They were given the 
land they needed, and not far from where large 
numbers of their countrymen had already settled. 
Their trials were ended. What they accomplished 
in Berks County will be told when the settlement 
of Pennsylvania by the Germans is described, but 
it must be mentioned here that they would never 
have succeeded in their search if they had not 
made friends of the Indians. Weiser and his son, 
Konrad, were just in all their transactions with 
the savages, treated them kindly and were not 
only never molested but frequently assisted by 
them when they needed help. They retained their 
influence over them until they died. Konrad 
Weiser became justice of the peace, colonel in the 
militia and official interpreter for the government 
of Pennsylvania, for he spoke the languages of 
all the tribes in the territory east of the Missis 
sippi. His services were constantly required for 
negotiations with the Indians. His daughter mar 
ried the Rev. Heinrich Melchior Miihlenberg, who 
had come to America in 1742, and her two sons, 
General Peter Miihlenberg and Friedrich August, 
president of the Pennsylvania convention which 
ratified the Constitution of the United States, and 
first speaker of the House of Representatives un 
der Washington s administrations, played import 
ant parts in the establishment of the independence 
of the United States of America. 



We must interrupt our narrative here to give 
the history of a man who may rightly be called 
the first martyr to liberty on American soil. His 
memory should be preserved and he deserves a 
place in this history, not so much because he was 
a German, but because it seems to have been for 
gotten that he died in a righteous cause. Even 
in the text-books used in American schools he is 
often called a rebel, and the impression prevails 
that his execution was the natural consequence of 
disloyal acts. Nothing could be farther from the 

Jacob Leisler was born in the neighborhood of 
Frankfurt-on-the-Main as the son of poor peas 
ants. He was hardly more than a boy when he 
emigrated to the Netherlands and entered the 
service of a merchant as apprentice. In 1660 he 
came to New Amsterdam to engage in the fur 
trade on his own account. Shrewd, frugal, care 
ful and yet enterprising, he soon prospered. His 
business became very large and compelled him to 
make frequent trips to Europe. On one of these 
journeys he was captured by pirates and sold into 
slavery but regained his liberty by paying a large 
ransom. In the meantime England had taken 
possession of the colony and changed its name to 
New York. During the reign of Charles II and 
of James II the governors and other high officials 
sent from England joined hands with the landed 
proprietors in the hope of founding an aristocracy- 
that could rule the other inhabitants after the 
manner of the feudal system existing in Europe. 
The favorites of the King who had received 
grants of large tracts of land did not sell any of 
it but rented it to those wishing to cultivate the 
soil. The population became divided into two 
parts, the aristocrats and the common citizens 
who were preyed upon in every conceivable man 
ner. The merchants naturally became the lead 
ers of the people and Leisler was foremost among 
the defenders of equal rights and justice for all. 
He was kind of heart and possessed unlimited 
courage. When Governor Sir Edward Andros at 
tempted to deprive the colonists of the privileges 
granted to them, Leisler protested and was thrown 
into prison. His friends desired to give bail to 
release him, but he would not permit it. He said 
that by furnishing bail he would recognize the 
authority of the governor to arrest him, and this 
he did not want to do. He remained in jail until 
Andros had to set him free. This action increased 
his prestige with the people immensely. From his 

many charitable deeds one may be selected. Many 
of the Huguenots who came to America had been 
compelled to flee from France without money or 
other means of subsistence. They were as a rule 
sold to the highest bidder who had to pay their 
passage and in this way acquired the right to 
work these serfs for that is what they were in 
fact until he considered that they had repaid 
his outlay. Leisler happened to be at the wharf 
when one of these ships arrived. He felt deep 
pity for the unfortunate passengers who were well 
educated and had evidently been brought up in 
comparative luxury. Before the usual auction 
began, he paid the passage money for all of them 
and sent them to a tract of land he owned on 
Long Island Sound. There they founded a vil 
lage and called it New Rochelle. 

When William of Orange became King of Eng 
land the Governor of New York and his aristo 
cratic friends tried to suppress the news. The 
people, however, soon heard of the change and 
naturally hailed it with delight. As the officials 
continued their rule of oppression a riot broke out 
on June 2, 1689. Jacob Leisler as the commander 
of the militia was forced to take charge. He 
compelled Governor Nicholson to deliver into his 
hands the fort and the treasury. A Committee of 
Safety was organized with Leisler at the head. 
On June 22 the inhabitants formally took the oath 
of allegiance to William and Mary. Later on 
Leisler was appointed Governor of New York. 
But his administration was not successful because 
the aristocracy did not recognize his authority 
and tried to place obstacles in his way. When the 
war with France broke out he was unable to de 
fend the colony, partly because the English gen 
erals did not consider themselves bound to act in 
harmony with him, partly because he did not 
possess the knowledge required for operations of 
this kind. The reverses he suffered made it easy 
for his enemies to gain the ear of the King, and 
Leisler was deposed two years after he had taken 

In Leisler s place General Sloughter had been 
appointed, a man of loose habits and addicted to 
drinking. Sloughter was in no hurry to come to 
New York because he liked the hospitality ex 
tended to him by the landed proprietors whose 
plantations he passed on his way from the South. 
He sent a Captain Ingoldsby ahead to take pos 
session of the colony, but Leisler declined to de 
liver the fort and the treasury because Ingoldsby 


could not produce any written order or authority 
from Sloughter. This was the opportunity for 
which Leisler s enemies had been waiting. In spite 
of the fact that the former governor treated In- 
goldsby with great courtesy and immediately gave 
up everything to Sloughter when the latter finally 
arrived, they complained that Leisler had wilfully 
resisted the commands of the King. Sloughter 
appointed a special court consisting of four of 
his own officers and four civilians, all enemies of 
Leisler, to sit in judgment upon the late Governor 
and his son-in-law. The composition of the court 
was so manifestly unfair that the accused and 
practically the whole population, with the excep 
tion of the aristocratic element, protested, but 
Sloughter would not listen to them. As was to 
be expected, Leisler and his son-in-law, Milbourne, 
were found guilty of high treason and were con 
demned to death by hanging. But even Sloughter 
hesitated to sign this severe decree, and Leisler s 
enemies had to arrange a banquet in order to 
make the Governor drunk, in which condition it 
was an easy matter to make him sign anything. 
They did not want to run the risk of a mitigation 
of the sentence after Sloughter had become sober 
and consequently their victims were executed on 
the morning of the following day while Sloughter 
was still asleep. The scene was dramatic in the 
highest degree. On the scaffold Milbourne faced 
the instigator of this brutal act, the same Robert 
Livingston who, in later years, became the op 
pressor of the Palatines, and called out to him : 
"Robert Livingston, for this deed you will have 
to answer before the judgment throne of Al 
mighty God." Leisler remained quiet and com 
posed; in a few words he stated that he had done 
nothing but his duty, and then said to the sheriff : 
"I am ready." At this moment dark clouds hid 
the sun, a terrific storm arose and the rain came 
down in torrents. The immense crowd that had 
assembled around the gallows began to cry and 
to pray, and loud condemnations against the Gov 
ernor and the aristocracy were heard from all 
sides. As soon as Leisler was dead the people 
fairly stormed the gallows and cut off his hair 
and his clothes ; they were divided into bits and 
these preserved as relics of the first martyr to 
liberty on American soil. Four years later the 
English Parliament reversed the judgment pro 
nounced by Sloughter s court. Lord Bellamount, 
later Governor of New York, stated, after a care 
ful examination of the papers : "These men were 
murdered, cruelly murdered." Leisler s son re 
ceived an indemnity of one thousand pounds from 
the crown. But it was too late, two of the no 
blest men that ever lived in the colony had been 
killed and could not be brought back to life. Jus 

tice requires it, however, to keep in mind that 
Jacob Leisler was not a rebel, but a patriot and 
hero, and wherever we find a statement that does 
not agree with these facts it should be corrected. 
It may be mentioned here that it was a German, 
too, who first defended the right to a free press. 
Johann Peter Zenger had come to New York in 
1710 as a boy and had been apprenticed to William 
Bradford, a printer. He was a very intelligent 
and ambitious young man and won his employer s 
confidence to such a degree that he became his 
partner. But Bradford was a champion of the 
aristocracy and defended it in his paper, the New 
York Gazette, while Zenger took the side of the 
common people. They parted, and Zenger founded 
the Weekly Journal. He did not hesitate to at 
tack Governor Cosby when he, in order to 
strengthen his party, went beyond the limits of 
his authority. As repeated warnings could not 
swerve Zenger from doing what he considered 
his right and duty, Cosby had him arrested and 
kept him in prison for nearly nine months. All 
efforts of Zenger s friends to procure a regular 
trial for him seemed to be in vain, but finally 
the Governor yielded to the determined stand 
taken by the people s party. Zenger was brought 
to trial in 1735 and his friends secured for him 
the services of one of the most brilliant advocates 
of the day, A. Hamilton of Philadelphia. The 
defence proved that every statement made by the 
Weekly Journal had been true, and the prose 
cution attempted to show that the press had no 
right to criticise the government under any cir 
cumstances. In a grand speech that has become 
a classic and was widely and with great effect 
quoted when fifty years later the fight for a free 
press was successfully waged in England, Ham 
ilton plucked this claim to pieces, and the jury 
acquitted Zenger immediately after the court had 
made its charge. He was taken home by a 
throng that was wild with delight, and a few 
days later the aldermen of the city presented him 
with a golden snuffbox. The bold attempt to 
muzzle the press had been successfully baffled 
by a citizen of German birth. These two 
incidents indicate, what can be shown with the 
help of many facts beyond confutation, that all 
through the colonial days the Germans were 
always arrayed on the side of the people and 
liberty, and that it must be ascribed to them to 
a large extent if all attempts to transplant the 
European feudal system to America and to per 
petuate a class with special privileges and the 
right to govern the masses, were frustrated. 
From the earliest days they have stood firmly 
against oppression and never faltered when the 
liberties of the people had to be defended. It 


will be shown how they were among the first 
to take up arms during the war of the revolution. 
They knew from bitter experience what oppres 

sion meant, and they were not willing to allow 
themselves to be robbed of the choicest fruit of 
all their sacrifices, liberty. 


We must now retrace our steps because the 
German immigration in Pennsylvania must be 
treated as a distinct and separate chapter, and 
has not been touched upon in order to furnish 
a consecutive narrative of the fate of the Ger 
mans following the first settlers on Manhattan 
Island. The Pennsylvania Germans, or as they 
are generally called, the Pennsylvania Dutch, 
came in such numbers and kept so closely togeth 
er for almost a century, preserving even to this 
day many of their customs and their language, 
though their speech has been corrupted by the 
adoption of English words and the change of 
German expressions where they sounded similar 
to those used by Americans, that they must be 
looked upon as a group different from all the 
others. Their importance to the United States 
may be judged from the fact that at the begin 
ning of the revolutionary war at least 100,000 
Germans had settled in Pennsylvania, but it will 
be shown here that they exerted a strong influ 
ence not by their numbers alone but also by other 
and more valuable qualities. 

The causes which drove these masses from 
their homes were the same that have been ex 
plained at length in the first chapter. The misery 
caused by the Thirty Years War and by the 
tyranny of the princess after peace had been 
concluded, together with the failure of crops, 
but above all religious persecution, were the mov 
ing forces. The emigration to Pennsylvania 
differs from other similar movements, however, in 
one important particular, inasmuch as it was 
started by one man, William Penn. He had be 
come a Quaker missionary and as such visited 
several places in Germany where small numbers 
of Quakers existed or where similar sects had been 
founded that might be converted to the creed 
he followed. His eyes were turned towards 
America where he hoped to find freedom of wor 
ship for his followers. In Frankfurt-on-the- 
Main he succeeded in forming a society with the 
object of buying a tract of land in America and 
emigrating thither. The opportunity for execu 
ting his plans came when Charles II, in pay 
ment of a debt of sixteen thousand pounds the 
crown owed to Penn s father, gave the son the 
vast tract between the colonies of New Jersey 

and Delaware. Penn immediately resolved to 
found a state in which religious as well as po 
litical freedom should be granted to every inhab 
itant. He called it a "Holy Experiment." In 
pamphlets printed in English and German he 
called attention to his plans. One of these fell 
into the hands of Franz Daniel Pastorius, a 
young law student, who was acquainted with sev 
eral members of the society Penn had founded 
at Frankfurt. He became so enthusiastic that 
he decided to emigrate. His friends were not 
ready to join him, but he found a number of 
Mennonites and Quakers at Kriegsheim and Cre- 
feld who were willing to follow him. Pasto 
rius set out almost immediately, arriving at Phil 
adelphia on August 16, 1683, where he was 
warmly welcomed by Penn. The ship Concord, 
frequently, and with good reason, called the 
> German Mayflower, landed the first thirteen Ger 
man families on October 6, 1683, and this day 
marks the real beginning of German immigra 
tion into the United States, and is to this day 
celebrated as "German Day." The little band 
settled near Philadelphia and founded German- 
town, not without trials and hardships, for most 
of the men had been weavers and were not used 
to the hard work awaiting them. They succeeded, 
however, and after about fifty more families had 
followed them the tract of land heretofore held 
in common was divided. In 1691 Germantown 
was made a city and the number of inhabitants 
had increased to such an extent that a number 
of them could devote themselves to the indus 
tries they had learned in their youth. Soon Ger 
mantown became known for the excellence of the 
linen and knit goods its inhabitants manufac 
tured. Thus the Germans laid the foundation of 
one of the most important industries of the 
United States long before Americans thought 
of producing at home anything but the plainer 
and coarser fabrics, and while all superior goods 
were imported from England. 

The fame of Pennsylvania soon spread all 
over Germany. The country where every one 
could follow his religious convictions and where 
nobody was persecuted, punished or banished for 
belonging to any church not recognized by the 
government and only the Catholic, the Lutheran 


and the Reformed Church were officially sanc 
tioned seemed indeed like the promised land. 
The sufferings the German people had undergone 
had created in this nation, so much given to in 
trospective contemplation, a deep religious feel 
ing which was not satisfied but rather offended 
by the dogmatic strictness of the established 
churches. New sects sprang up almost every day, 
every one attempting, in its own particular way, 
to restore the true teachings of the Savior ac 
cording to the ideas of the founders. Some of 
them found their peace in the most remarkable 
and sometimes strange forms of worship but all 
were imbued with that deep religious feeling 
which has found expression in the word pietism. 
They all sent colonies to America. The first 
were the Mystics, who arrived in 1694 under 
the leadership of Johann Kelpius, and settled 
on the banks of the Wissahickon. Their com 
munity did not last long, and the last survivor, 
Conrad Beissel, became the founder of the 
Ephrata community. Large numbers of Men- 
nonites followed them ; the founders of German- 
town were German Mennonites but members of 
this sect did not arrive in large numbers until 
after some of the Swiss cantons expelled them 
in 1710 on account of their refusal to bear arms. 
The "Tunker" or Dunkards, the Schwenkfelders, 
the Pietists and other sects followed. The Mo 
ravians had originally settled in Georgia but 
came to Pennsylvania in 1738 because they had 
been asked to take up arms in the war between 
England and Spain. They differed from other 
sects because they were not content with prac 
tising their religion but devoted themselves to 
educational and missionary work. Their work 
among the Indians was especially successful. 
They did not alone preach to the savages but 
they taught them how to work and proved at 
that early day what many people will not believe 
even now : that the Indian can be brought to till 
the soil and to learn a trade. Their work in this 
direction was not destined to last. The English 
could never be prevailed upon to look at the 
Indian as a brother, and considered his advance 
ment a danger to civilization ; the High Church 
clergy was incensed at the number of Indians 
who joined the Moravians, and the traders hated 
the missionaries because they would not allow 
them to sell brandy to their charges. The Mo 
ravians were driven out of New York and Penn 
sylvania and founded flourishing settlements in 
the primeval forests of Ohio. Here their Indian 
pupils, surrounded by fertile fields and orchards, 
increased in number from year to year, buried 
the tomahawk and lived in peace and plenty until, 
in 1782, a band of backwoodsmen, under the 

leadership of David Williamson, set upon them 
and with almost incredible cruelty annihilated 
them. The unarmed Indians were allowed to as 
semble in two houses where they took leave of 
each other, prayed and sang hymns in the Ger 
man tongue until the last one had been mur 
dered in cold blood. Only two boys, who had 
been fortunate enough to find secure hiding places, 
escaped. The villages and the work of the Mo 
ravian missionaries, extending over many years, 
were wiped out of existence within a few hours. 
To defend this awful deed some historians have 
claimed that the Indians and their teachers were 
a danger to the white population because they 
allowed hostile savages to dwell near white set 
tlements under the guise of peaceful converts. 
Nothing can be found to substantiate this claim, 
and as far as the missionaries are concerned we 
have abundant proof that they were always ready 
to sacrifice themselves for the welfare of their 
white brothers. In 1758 one of them, Christian 
Friedrich Post, traveled from Fort Duquesne 
through the wilderness to the camps of the In 
dians whom France tried to make allies in her 
war upon the English colonies. He succeeded 
in winning them away from the French and 
thereby probably saved the day for England. His 
diary is still in existence and shows what ter 
rible dangers he underwent in order to serve his 

A word must be said as to the trials and trib 
ulations these immigrants had to pass through 
before they could begin to found new homes for 
themselves. We have already described how they 
reached the coast of the Atlantic. There they 
were literally packed into sailing vessels which 
were in no way prepared for carrying human 
beings. As a rule they were not even sufficiently 
provisioned, and when the trip lasted longer than 
the captain had anticipated the passengers had 
to live on the rats and mice they caught. Caspar 
Wintar tells us of such a journey during which 
one hundred and fifty passengers died from fever 
and starvation. Mittelberger, who published an 
account of his voyage to America, says that 
thirty-two children died and were buried in the 
ocean. Ship fever was so prevalent that it was 
called "Palatine Fever" and was looked upon as 
a peculiar sickness to which German immigrants 
were victims. Nobody thought of disinfecting 
the ships, and smallpox broke out again and 
again on the same vessel, which continued to 
carry immigrants in spite of this. But nothing 
could break the spirit of those sturdy men and 
women who were imbued with the deepest re 
ligious feeling. In the hour of danger and 
amidst all the horrors they would assemble and 


sing their hymns or pray to the good Lord to 
deliver them, having an unbounded faith in His 
will and kindness. Their firm belief that they 
were in His hands helped them to endure all 

For many of them the hardships were not 
ended when they had reached the new country. 
As soon as emigration increased to such an ex 
tent that the carrying of passengers became a 
profitable business, shipowners sent agents to 
Germany and Switzerland promising free passage 
to America. Many availed themselves of this 
seemingly liberal offer. Others who could have 
paid were induced to spend their money before 
embarking, and were then carried free. But 
when they reached America they were sold to 
people needing help and had to work for them 
until their passage money was paid. Children 
whose parents died during the voyage were sold 
into virtual slavery and the property of any pas 
senger who died was taken possession of by the 
captain. These abuses lasted until long after 
the Revolution. It has been said that the custom 
of selling passengers to work for their passage 
was not wholly bad, that it was certainly not 
looked upon as a disgrace, that it helped many 
to come here who would otherwise have been 
compelled to remain in misery, and that this 
semi-serfdom gave the immigrants an opportun 
ity to acquire a knowledge of their new sur 
roundings before they were compelled to strike 
out for themselves. There is some truth in this 
but it must not be forgotten that a great many of 
the immigrants were of good education and not 
used to work as menials, and that frequently the 
different members of a family were sold to dif 
ferent parties living widely apart. In this way 
parents and children, brothers and sisters, and 
even husband and wife, were sometimes separated 
forever. It must, however, be said that the im 
migrants sold for service were as a rule treated 
fairly well, protected by the law and furnished 
with an outfit when their time had expired. Still 
the system was cruel, and not much more can be 
said for it than that it might have been worse 

These immigrants were by no means unedu 
cated and ignorant as has been supposed by many 
writers. The vital fact must be kept in view 
that most of them did not go to America in 
order to improve their material welfare alone. 
This was one of the motives but by no means 
the strongest. They yearned for religious free 
dom, for freedom of thought, and nobody cares 
for this whose mind has not been awakened. 
Since the Reformation it had become the general 
custom in Protestant Germany to unite religion 

and education. Hardly a village was without a 
teacher and there were few children who did not 
learn how to read and write. Many of the im 
migrants were quite well educated and there was 
even a sprinkling of what might be called learned 
men among them. Their leaders had almost 
without exception received a university education. 
It stands to reason that they would not have gone 
to America with a horde of utterly ignorant 
people, nor would they have been selected as 
leaders by them. Daniel Pastorius, Josua von 
Kocherthal, Johann Kelpius, Heinrich Bernhard 
Koster, Daniel Falckner and others were men 
of the very highest attainments. Additional 
proof is furnished by the fact that the German 
settlers sent to Germany for their preachers 
when the original leaders had died. They wanted 
men of intelligence and learning to lead them, 
and they could not get them in America because 
there the schools had not progressed far enough. 
It was quite natural that they looked upon their 
ministers as the intellectual leaders because their 
whole life was centered in religious thought and 
they could not imagine any other way of satis 
fying their thirst for knowledge. In this man 
ner many eminent men came to America as 
preachers and teachers and the German parochial 
schools were soon readily acknowledged as su 
perior to the English. Among these men was 
Heinrich Melchior Miihlenberg. He had studied 
at Goettingen and Halle and came to America 
in 1742 where he soon became the organizer of 
the Lutheran Church. Within a few years he 
had united the different congregations and cre 
ated an organization that has lasted to this day. 
What Miihlenberg did for the Lutherans, Mi 
chael Schlatter accomplished for the Reformed 
Church. The leader of the Moravians, Count 
Zinzendorf, failed, however, when he came to 
America, in 1741, with the intention of carrying 
out his plan of uniting all the different sects in 
one Protestant Church. Numerous others came 
but not enough to satisfy the colonists for in 
examining the documents of the time we hear 
continually that more ministers and teachers were 

It is true that the German settlers bitterly op 
posed the establishment of the free common 
schools but this does not prove, as some writers 
have claimed, that they were hostile to education. 
On the contrary, they saw clearly that their own 
schools were better than the first common schools 
established, and for this reason wanted to retain 
the former. They also desired very much that 
their children should learn the language of their 
parents. Above all, however, it was their deep 
religious feeling which made it practically im- 


possible for them to permit their children to 
attend a school in which either religion was not 
taught at all, or where different creeds were 
treated with equal respect. They believed firmly 
that the child belonged first to God, then to its 
parents and then to the state. The fight was a 
bitter and a long one but it was finally won by 
the common schools, and it is significant that 
the governor of Pennsylvania who succeeded in 
having the system adopted was a German, George 
Wolf. That the Pennsylvania Germans were 
not opposed to education as such is best shown 
by the fact that the state they helped to 
found contains more high schools than most of 
the others, and that many of these institutions 
were founded by Germans. These people were 
very pious but by no means narrow-minded fan 
atics. The different sects often clashed on re 
ligious questions but they never carried their 
differences so far as to persecute those who be 
lieved differently. They admitted every man s 
right to hold and preach his particular religious 
convictions. While witches were burnt and 
Quakers executed in New England the Pennsyl 
vania Germans, though divided into many sects, 
lived together in peace and practised toleration. 
They had themselves suffered too much and the 
true Christian spirit had taken possession of them 
too fully to allow them to harm others who did 
not try to harm them, but simply had chosen a 
different road to reach the same goal. Their 
beneficial influence upon the development of the 
religious life and the relations between church 
and state, as well as between the different sects, 
cannot be overestimated. 

It has already been mentioned that the Penn 
sylvania Germans were as solicitous for their 
mental as for their material welfare. It was only 
natural that above all they wanted books treat 
ing the religious side of life, for the whole trend 
of their mind tended to keep them away from 
worldly things and from literature of a worldly 
kind. Besides, they could not have kept up a 
connection with the Fatherland close enough to 
keep them informed of the literary activity go 
ing on there. Consequently hymn and prayer 
books were the first which the German printers 
published. Not they alone, for American print 
ers, among them the great Benjamin Franklin, 
issued books and newspapers printed in the Ger 
man language. In fact, Franklin published not 
only the first German books printed in America, 
but also the first newspaper of which, however, 
only a few numbers appeared. This was in 1732 
and up to that time only small pamphlets and 
leaflets had been printed. But to Christoph Saur 
belongs the credit of having founded the first 

printing house that used German type. He came 
to America in 1724 and first tried farming in 
Lancaster County but did not succeed. In 1738 
he imported a printing-press and type from Ger 
many and established a business in Germantown 
that soon reached large dimensions. His first 
publication was the "High-German-American Al- 
manach," which appeared regularly until 1778. 
Many other publications followed, mostly hymn 
.and prayer books but also quite a number of 
historical works, English and German school 
books and political pamphlets. On August 20, 
!739, he published the first number of the first 
German newspaper on American soil (the abor 
tive attempt on Franklin s part deserves no con 
sideration). The paper was at first published 
monthly, then semi-monthly, and finally weekly. 
It had a very large circulation for those days 
and exerted great influence. Saur s greatest 
work, however, was the printing of the first 
Bible on American soil. Not the first German 
Bible, but the first Bible of any kind, for the 
first Bible in the English language was not 
printed in America until forty years later. Saur s 
enterprise was really gigantic, for the type, 
specially cast for this work, had to be imported 
from Germany, and the facilities at Saur s dis 
posal were of a very limited kind. In addition, 
it was a great question whether the undertaking 
would pay, for the expenses were very large. But 
Saur succeeded, the Bible appeared in 1742, had 
a large sale and several editions had to be 
printed. The paper was furnished by another 
Pennsylvania German, William Rittenhouse, who 
had built the first paper mill in America. From 
now on German printing houses and newspapers 
increased rapidly; in 1753 Franklin stated that 
of the six printing houses in the province two 
were German, two English and the other two 
half English and half German. Of the news 
papers founded in that period several are still 
in existence. 

But it is as a farmer that the Pennsylvania 
German excelled. He did not, like his American 
brother of different origin, continually try to 
make new conquests, ready to give up the home 
for the hope of finding a better one farther west. 
He loved the soil as he loved his family. When 
he had found the spot that suited him he stayed 
and cultivated it until he had changed the pri 
meval forest into a veritable garden spot. The 
be"st soil in Pennsylvania for farming purposes 
is limestone and almost every acre of this soil 
is still in the hands of the descendants of Ger 
man settlers. They farmed not for one harvest 
but forever, they did not dream of leaving the 
homestead after the first strength of the soil 

had been exhausted. They carefully burned the 
trees they had felled to clear the land as well as 
the stumps and roots, and did not let them rot 
like other settlers ; in this way they enriched the 
soil and saved their ploughs. They introduced 
irrigation and treated their horses so well that 
they could do twice the work other farmers 
made them do. They built large and substan 
tial barns, known to this day as "Swisser Barns," 
and they erected comfortable stone houses. The 
Pennsylvania farmer introduced horticulture and 
truck farming in America, and it is not sur 
prising that he prospered and increased. From 
the neighborhood of Germantown the Germans 
spread over Montgomery, Berks and Lancaster 
counties; they crossed the Susquehanna and set 
tled York and Cumberland. Northampton, Dau 
phin, Lehigh, Lebanon, Centre and Adams fol 
lowed. Under Jost Hite they advanced into the 
Shenandoah valley and founded Frederick, Rock- 
ingham, Shenandoah and other counties in Vir 
ginia. Others went to Ohio. Everywhere the 
Pennsylvania German became the pioneer of civ 
ilization who cleared the forest and prepared the 
soil for the masses that were to follow him. 

At the beginning of the Revolution there were 
at least one hundred thousand Germans or chil 
dren of German parents in Pennsylvania. John 
Fiske estimates that the descendants of the Eng 
lish who emigrated to New England before 1640, 
number about fifteen millions. According to this 
estimate, there must be at the least five million 
descendants of the Pennsylvania Germans in the 
United States. There are certainly two millions 
of them in Pennsylvania alone. The others have 
spread all over the country. They are difficult 
to trace because their names have been changed 
long ago, in many cases so much that the orig 
inal can hardly be discovered. It is comparatively 
easy to detect the German origin in Wanamaker, 
Pennypacker, Custer, Beaver, Hartranft, Keifer, 
Rodenbough, etc., but it becomes more difficult 
when the name has undergone several transfor 
mations, as for instance Krehbiel to Krehbill, 
Grebill, Grabill and finally Graybill, or Krumm- 
bein to Krumbine and Grumbine, or Schnaebele 
to Snavely, Gebhard to Capehart, Herbach to 
Harbaugh or Gnege to Keneagy, and it is almost 
impossible to trace the descent if the names have 
been translated like Froehlich into Gay, or Klein 
into Little or Small. The radical changes have 
mostly been made by those families who went to 
other states ; of those remaining in Pennsylvania 
the larger part has retained names which show the 
German root and can be traced with comparative 
ease, except of course where the name has been 
translated into English. 

Nowhere else have the Germans remained to 
gether in such compact masses as in Pennsyl 

vania, and nowhere else can, therefore, their in 
fluence upon the formation of the character of 
the American people be better observed. They 
still retain their characteristics to a marked de 
gree, the peculiar forms of the religious life, the 
habits and even the physical appearance of their 
forebears. Their language is still different from 
that of other parts of the population ; it is a 
composite of English and German words and 
forms, foreign to either and yet in many re 
spects akin to both. It is wonderful how these 
people have preserved, at least in part, the lan 
guage of their ancestors who settled in Pennsyl 
vania more than two centuries ago, for they did 
not receive any additions to speak of which 
might have kept the memories of the Fatherland 
and its language green and fresh. Most of the 
immigration from the same districts that came 
in later periods remained in the cities or went 
to the West and Northwest. We find likewise the 
traits that distinguished the first settlers still in 
existence ; the strong desire for independence and 
the almost stubborn resistance against every fan 
cied or real attempt to encroach upon their rights, 
the untiring industry, strongly marked honesty, 
frugality and the inclination to take life seriously. 
All these qualities have produced a conserva 
tism which has frequently caused the statement 
that the Pennsylvania Germans were obstinate 
and self-willed but which withal has exerted a 
very beneficial influence. It has kept them and 
their offspring upon their farms and perhaps re 
tarded the development of the region they in 
habited in a certain sense ; at least their cities 
have not grown as rapidly as those of the West, 
but on the other hand the soil their ancestors 
conquered has not been given up and left 
unfilled because the young men became restless 
and went away to more distant regions, as has 
been the case in New England. The compact 
mass of the Germans in Pennsylvania still forms 
a reservoir from which the American people 
draw strength and conservatism, and it is still a 
great factor in the equalization of the many 
qualities brought here by immigrants from widely 
differing countries. The statement is justified 
that the often ridiculed and sometimes despised 
Pennsylvania Dutchman has been one of the 
most valuable factors in the development of the 
mighty republic that has arisen on the North 
American continent, and he deserves the fullest 
appreciation and gratitude. 

While the bulk of the German immigration of 
the period under consideration went to Pennsyl 
vania and New York, it must not be supposed 
that these states alone received settlers from Ger 
many. All through the South we find German 
names in old records and deeds. According to 
the Colonial Records of Virginia, a number of 


the victims of the massacre of March 22, 1622. 
led by Chief Opechancanough, were undoubtedly 
Germans. We know that .the Salzburgers set 
tled in Georgia in 1734 and that a large body of 
immigrants from Switzerland arrived in South 
Carolina in 1732. About the same time German 
Valley and Friesburg were founded in New 
Jersey and a German Roman-Catholic Church ex 
isted in Maryland in 1758. Even in New England 

we find German settlements, for in 1740 Waldo- 
borough in Maine was founded and about ten 
years later Leydensdorf in the same state, its 
name indicating the sufferings the immigrants 
had to undergo. But, as has been stated, most 
of these groups have entirely disappeared among 
the English population, and none of them dif 
fered enough from the great mass that settled 
in Pennsylvania to deserve separate treatment. 


We have seen that during colonial times the 
Germans were always found on the side of the 
common people and sturdily opposed all at 
tempts of the aristocratic element to curtail the 
liberties granted by the crown, but they were 
always loyal to the Government. In the war 
against the French and the Indians the French 
had counted on the assistance of the Germans, 
especially of those in the Mohawk valley who 
had been so cruelly treated by the English, but 
they remained true to their Government. They 
had to pay dearly for it, for in November, 1757, 
a party of Frenchmen and Indians, under Captain 
Belletre, appeared, burned all the houses and 
barns, killed or maimed the cattle, massacred the 
settlers, their women and children and carried 
many of them into captivity. In the following 
spring the attack was repeated, but in the mean 
time the settlers had erected a fort and defended 
their lives successfully under the leadership of 
Nicolaus Herckheimer, of whom we will hear 
more later on. Their houses were, however, 
again burned to the ground. The Germans in 
Pennsylvania furnished many volunteers for the 
war. Of the officers of the provincial militia 
more than one-third were Germans. Conrad 
Weiser, the younger, commanded a battalion of 
whom two-thirds were Germans, and Nicholas 
Wetterholt s regiment was composed of his 
countrymen entirely. Another regiment, com 
manded by General Bouquet, a Swiss whose real 
name was Straus, consisted entirely of German 
officers and men. But there is no doubt that the 
necessity of defending life and home against a 
cruel and unrelenting foe had as much influence 
upon the position taken by the Germans as loy 
alty. They had no love for the English, nor 
had they any cause for it. Outside of Pennsyl 
vania they had been badly treated wherever they 
settled, the promises made to them had been 
broken, and the attempts to deprive them of their 
liberty as well as of the fruits of their industry 

had never ceased. So the great movement for 
liberty and for independence found them in a 
receptive mood and fully prepared. 

Another factor must be taken into considera 
tion. The German immigrants and their children 
still loved their Fatherland. They had left it 
to escape oppression, persecution and tyranny, 
but in their hearts lived the wish to see the 
Fatherland delivered from the conditions that 
made the German people so miserable. To see 
the great German Empire restored to its old 
power and importance was a dream they cher 
ished. When they heard of the deeds of Fred 
erick the Great of Prussia, when they read how 
he had taken a firm stand for religious liberty 
and had vanquished the princes and princelings 
who had oppressed them, their hearts went out 
to him. He became immensely popular all 
through the German colonies. Taverns bearing 
his name were found in almost every village 
where Germans lived and his portrait had a place 
in every dwelling. They saw in him the great 
liberator, the unrelenting foe of oppression in 
every form, as indeed many Americans of his 
time did. They took inspiration from him and 
his deeds, and their yearning for freedom, their 
readiness to fight and if need be to die for it be 
came stronger as they followed his triumphant 
career. Taking it all in all, no part of the popu 
lation of the colonies was more ready for the 
Revolution and for the complete separation of the 
colonies from England, than the Germans. 

When the call to arms was sounded the Ger 
mans were ready. They had long prepared for it 
and drilled in every township. Pastor Helmuth 
of the Lutheran Church at Lancaster writes on 
February 25, 1775, that the whole country was 
ready for war, that every man was armed and 
that the enthusiasm was indescribable. Even the 
Quakers and Mennonites, whose creed forbade 
them to bear arms, came forward and renounced 
their creed in this time of great emergency. It 


is a significant fact that the first company of 
militia to arrive at Cambridge in 1775, after the 
battle of Lexington, came from York County, 
Pa., and was composed entirely of Pennsylvania 
Germans. The commander was Captain Henry 
Miller and the company had marched five hun 
dred miles to reach its destination. But Penn 
sylvania did not stand alone ; from Georgia to th& 
Mohawk valley every German settlement sent its 
young men to fight for liberty. One of the most 
dramatic incidents was furnished by Johann 
Peter Miihlenberg, the eldest son of Heinrich 
Melchior Miihlenberg, who has been mentioned 
as the organizer of the German Lutheran Church 
in America. Johann Peter had been sent to Ger 
many to study theology but his fiery temperament 
chafed under the restrictions placed upon him. 
He ran away from the seminary at Halle where 
he had been sent by his father and apprenticed 
himself to a merchant at Liibeck. This life did 
not suit him any better and he listened willingly 
to the promises of fame and glory held out by 
one of the many English recruiting officers who 
plied their questionable trade in Germany. He 
became a private in a regiment of dragoons and 
soon earned the sobriquet "Devil Pete" by his 
recklessness and daring. But his regiment was 
sent to America and his father purchased his 
release. Johann Peter seemed to have quieted 
down ; at least he finished his studies, passed the 
examinations and became pastor of the German 
Lutheran Church at Woodstock, Va. But the 
change was only apparent and probably executed 
more to please the father than from inclination. 
The young minister spent more time in the for 
ests and on the mountains hunting game than 
at church work and became a firm friend of 
George Washington and Patrick Henry. When 
the movement for independence began he entered 
into it with heart and soul and served as presi 
dent of the Council of Safety and as member of 
the convention at Williamsburg which elected 
delegates for the first Continental Congress. Fi 
nally, in January, 1776, he assembled his congre 
gation and from the chancel told them that the 
time had arrived when every citizen must serve 
his country to the best of his ability; that he be 
lieved he could do more in the field than in the 
church, and that for this reason he had accepted a 
commission as colonel to raise a German regiment 
and asked all men who could bear arms to fol 
low him. With these words he threw off his 
priestly gown and stood before the congregation 
in full regimentals. He then left the chancel, 
took a position in front of the church doors and 
gave orders to sound the drums and swear in 
recruits. Lieutenant-colonel Baumann and Ma 

jor Helffenstein stood at his side. A tremendous 
wave of enthusiasm swept over the multitude; 
fathers who were too old to go to the war 
pushed their sons forward and wives their hus 
bands and before the day closed three hundred 
men had enlisted. A few days later Miihlen 
berg had a regiment of four hundred and fifty 
men, more than most regiments numbered. He 
did splendid service in Virginia, the Carolinas, 
Georgia, in the battles of the Brandywine and 
Germantown. At the end of the war he was 
made a major-general and served as vice-pres 
ident of the Executive Council of Pennsylvania, 
did valiant work to induce the Pennsylvania Leg 
islature to ratify the Federal Constitution, be 
came a member of Congress, United States sen 
ator and later, until his death in 1802, internal 
revenue collector at Philadelphia. 

How great the enthusiasm was among the Ger 
mans is shown by an incident of almost hu 
morous aspect. At Reading three companies of 
militia had been formed who drilled diligently. 
The old men of the town did not want to be 
left behind and formed another company to 
which nobody under forty years of age was ad 
mitted. The commander was ninety-seven years 
old, had served forty years in the Prussian army 
and taken part in seventeen battles. The drum 
mer was eighty-four years old. Whether this 
troop ever saw active service is not known. The 
German butchers guild of Philadelphia passed 
resolutions demanding independence for the colo 
nies in 1774 before the question whether the 
colonies should separate from England had been 
decided in the affirmative. A splendid figure, 
worthy of being remembered, was the baker, 
Christoph Ludwig, at Philadelphia. He had been 
born in 1720 at Giessen in Germany and had 
learned his trade from his father. When he 
was seventeen he enlisted and fought with the 
Austrians against the Turks and later under the 
great Frederick against the Austrians. Then he 
became a sailor and passed several years of his 
life in the East Indies. In 1754 he settled in 
Philadelphia, started a bakery and amassed con 
siderable wealth. When the Revolution broke 
out he was fifty-five years old, but he threw 
himself into the movement with the ardor of a 
young man. He served on almost all the Revo 
lutionary committees and when the convention 
of 1776 proposed a popular subscription in order 
to raise money for the purchase of arms, and 
when there was hesitation as to the advisability 
of such a step, Ludwig arose in his seat and 
said: "Mr. President, I am only a poor baker, 
but I am willing to start the list with two hun 
dred pounds sterling." This action ensured the 


success of the undertaking. On May 5, 1777, Lud- 
wig was appointed baker-in-chief for the army. 
As such he shpwed his honesty by pledging him 
self to furnish one hundred and thirty-five 
pounds of bread for every hundred pounds of 
flour, while his predecessors had given only one 
hundred pounds of bread. The army inspectors 
had not known, though the bakers probably 
knew, that the weight of the moisture contained 
in the bread must be deducted. Washington ap 
preciated Ludwig s services highly and never 
failed to receive him when he came to Philadel 
phia; in fact, the lowly baker was repeatedly in 
vited to the great man s table. 

One of the most heroic figures of the war of 
the Revolution was Nicolaus Herckheimer, who 
has already been mentioned as the leader of the 
German settlers in the Mohawk valley during 
the French War. These settlements formed the 
frontier between New York and the Indian ter 
ritory and a wall which protected the white in 
habitants of the colony against the attacks of 
the savages. The English authorities did not 
take great pains to help the settlers in their 
fights with the Indians, in fact they let them shift 
for themselves as we have seen. The Germans 
of the valley of the Mohawk, therefore, formed 
four companies of riflemen who had to hold 
themselves ready at all times to defend the set 
tlements against the Indians. Herckheimer was 
their commander. When the Revolution broke out 
the whole population of that section hailed it 
with delight and offered to serve against the 
English Government. Herckheimer was appointed 
commander of the militia of western New York 
with the title of brigadier-general, by the con 
vention which had taken charge of the colony. 
At first it did not seem as if Herckheimer would 
have to do much more than protect the border 
against Indian raids, but it developed soon that 
he was destined to play a very important role in 
the war for liberty. 

In the summer of 1777 General Bourgoyne 
started from Canada with a large army to reach 
New York by way of Lake Champlain and Lake 
George. At the same time Admiral Howe was in 
and around New York with another large army. 
The presumption was natural that an attempt 
would be made to unite these two armies. Now 
Washington knew very well that he could never 
succeed if he did not prevent the union of the 
British forces, not only in this case but during 
the entire war. All his manceuvers and the 
selection of all his positions and winter camps 
were always done with one object in view : to 
be able at any time to strike at an enemy advan 
cing against the line of the upper Hudson, 

whether he came from the seacoast or from Can 
ada. He was well aware of the fact that his 
cause was lost if two hostile armies operating 
from those points could unite and thus divide 
the colonies into two halves unable to communi 
cate with each other. This was exactly what 
Bourgoyne had planned and Washington ex 
pected. Neither could know that Howe would 
leave New York and go to Philadelphia instead 
of pushing north to join Bourgoyne. But both 
knew that the question whether the army coming 
from Canada could reach the valley of the lower 
Hudson might decide the war. Washington had 
sent his best generals and troops to stop Bour- 
goyne s advance, but the Englishman had so far 
overcome all resistance. He had reached Fort 
Edward and waited there for news from Howe. 
When this failed to arrive he determined to ad 
vance as soon as his right wing under General 
St. Leger would reach him. St. Leger had started 
from Montreal and, landing at Oswego, had 
reached the portage from Lake Oneida to the 
Mohawk and thereby the direct and easy road 
to Albany. Had he been allowed to continue his 
march he would have protected Bourgoyne s right 
flank successfully, at the same time threatening 
the left flank of the American army. But at 
the upper Mohawk Fort Stanwix had been 
erected and this was held by seven hundred 
Americans under Colonel Gansevoort. At the 
beginning of August St. Leger appeared before 
the fort with seven hundred regulars and over 
one thousand Indians led by Chief Josef Brant. 
He asked Gansevoort to surrender but the 
American refused, he and his men knowing the 
importance of holding their position as long as 
possible. The very next day they received the 
welcome news that Herckheimer with the Ger 
man militia was on the way to succor them. He 
had collected his force of four battalions, all to 
gether eight hundred men, as soon as he had 
heard of St. Leger s approach. On the evening 
of August fifth, he reached the point where the 
Oriska joins the Mohawk River and the 
present village of Oriskany is situated. 
From here he sent messengers to Fort 
Stanwix and decided to advance as soon 
as he knew that Gansevoort could sup 
port him by a simultaneous attack upon the ene 
my. This prudent and wise determination did, 
not, however, please the younger and less expe 
rienced element among his command. They 
wanted to attack in the early morning regard 
less of the dangers connected with a fight against 
large numbers and in a dense forest where the 
enemy could not be seen. Herckheimer resisted 
their urging as long as he could, but when some 


of the rashest among them said he had become 
afraid of the Indians in his old age, he reluct 
antly consented to the advance. Events unfor 
tunately proved that his judgment had been cor 
rect. After the long and slim column had en 
tered the forest on a narrow path it was sud 
denly beset on all sides by the Indians assisted 
by a detachment of regulars. Herckheimer or 
dered his men to hide behind the trees and suc 
ceeded in getting them together in some kind 
of order. A short hand-to-hand fight convinced 
the Indians that victory could not be won as 
easily as they had believed. Herckheimer was 
wounded by a shot through the knee that shat 
tered his leg. He ordered his men to place him 
on a saddle under a large tree and from this 
position encouraged them and gave his orders as 
if nothing had happened to him. About noon a 
thunderstorm with a heavy fall of rain inter 
rupted the bloody work for some time and gave 
Herckheimer the opportunity to place his men in 
a large circle and close together. He also gave 
orders that two men should be behind each tree 
because the Indians had waited until a volunteer 
had fired his rifle when they jumped on him and 
scalped him. His men obeyed him willingly now. 
Late in the afternoon heavy firing was heard 
from the direction of Fort Stanwix. The gar 
rison had made a sortie and was on its way to 
join Herckheimer. The enemy, already discour 
aged by the strong resistance of the Germans, 
fled precipitately. The day was won and Herck- 
heimer s judgment was vindicated. But a high 
price had been paid. Two hundred of the militia 
men were either dead or so severely wounded 
that they could not be removed. Many more had 
been captured by the Indians. Whole families 
were wiped out. Nine members of the Schell 
family were left on the battlefield, two of the 
Wohlleben, several Kast, Demuth, Hess, Kau- 
mann, Vetter, Orendorff, etc. Herckheimer him 
self lived but a few days longer; he did receive 
the congratulations General Schuyler sent him 
but died soon after. The city of Herkimer was 
named after him and the state of New York 
erected a monument in his honor. He had ren 
dered the American cause a service, the value 
of which can hardly be estimated high enough. 
Oriskany was the first successful engagement in 
the efforts to resist the advance of Bourgoyne; 
Herckheimer s victory discouraged the British 
troops and the Indians who left their allies in 
large numbers, and made it possible for Gates 
to advance against Bourgoyne without running 
the danger of being attacked in flank and rear. 
The surrender at Saratoga would have been im 
possible without the victory of Oriskany; it is 

even a question whether Bourgoyne could have 
been prevented from reaching New York. Wash 
ington himself said that Herckheimer brought 
about a change in the situation in the northwest 
when it seemed hopelessly dark, and when every 
quality of leadership seemed to be absent. And 
he added : "General Herckheimer served and gave 
his life to his country because he loved it, and 
not because he desired preferment, fame or 

The most prominent German in the War of the 
Revolution was, without question, Friedrich Wil- 
helm von Steuben. We are, indeed, justified 
when we say that his services to Washington and 
the American cause were of greater importance 
and value than those of any other foreigner 
serving in the American army, not excepting 
General Lafayette. As an individual Steuben did 
far better and more valuable work than the 
Frenchman, whose importance was based on the 
fact that he represented a whole nation and 
brought the aid and enormously valuable assist 
ance of the French Government. Lafayette be 
came the exponent of all that France did for 
the United States, and upon him were showered 
the expressions of the gratitude the. American 
people justly felt for his country. A dashing 
figure, of undaunted courage, though lacking in 
experience, with many amiable traits which were 
more prominent than during the later years of 
his life, he fully deserved the love and admira 
tion extended to him. But for the practical 
services he rendered as an individual we look 
in vain in the annals of the great struggle. Steu 
ben played an entirely different part. He had 
very little opportunity to show his ability as a 
general in the field, he did not look for glory 
or admiration but worked hard and unceasingly 
and found contentment and happiness in strict 
and unremitting devotion to duty. Thus it came 
about, as it is always in this world, that La 
fayette became a popular hero and received in 
numerable proofs of the appreciation felt for him 
while Steuben had to wait many years before 
Congress gave him a pension sufficient to pass 
his remaining years in peace and comfort, and 
is all but forgotten by the American people. 

Friedrich Wilbelm August von Steuben was 
the son of an officer who had served in the Rus 
sian and the Prussian armies. Hardly seventeen 
years old, the son entered the army of the Great 
Frederick in 1847, soon after the close of the sec 
ond war with Austria. When the Seven Years 
War broke out, Steuben was first lieutenant, and 
took part in the battles of Prague and Rossbach. 
During the year 1758 he served as volunteer in 
General von Mayr s Free Corps, one of those 


detachments which were so frequent in former 
wars. They did not belong to the regular army, 
acted independently and were meant to harass 
the enemy in his flank and rear by appearing sud 
denly at the most unexpected places and disap 
pearing again as quickly. After the death of his 
commander he was appointed adjutant-general to 
General von Huelsen, took part in the battles of 
Kunersdorf and Liegnitz and the operations 
against the Russians, was taken prisoner by them 
but soon set free. The close of the war found 
him an aide-de-camp to the King and quarter 
master-general of the army. For a time he had 
commanded a regiment but the King was forced 
to economize after peace had been declared and, 
like many other officers, Steuben was reduced to 
the rank of captain. This and other reasons 
which have never been fully explained, induced 
him to resign his commission, although the King 
had given him many proofs of his favor. Dur 
ing the next ten years Steuben served as court 
marshal to the Prince of Hohenzollern-Hechin- 
gen and after that for three years in a similar 
capacity to the Margrave of Baden. But his 
ambition could not be satisfied by the quiet life 
at one of the many small German courts. He 
traveled extensively and made repeated efforts to 
procure a commission in the Austrian army. In 
this he did not succeed and made up his mind 
to go to England. On his way there he visited 
Paris and did not want to let the occasion pass 
without calling on an old friend, the French 
minister of war, Count St. Germain. The Count 
immediately tried to persuade him to go to 
America and join the Colonial army. After much 
hesitation which was justified, for Paris was 
full of French and other officers who had gone 
to America with letters of recommendation and 
even promises from the American agents, but 
had been refused commissions and had returned 
penniless Steuben decided to follow St. Ger 
main s advice, in spite of the fact that the Amer 
ican agents, Deane and Franklin, refused to pay 
even his traveling expenses. Franklin said he 
would try to induce Congress to give to Steuben 
a large tract of land, but this promise seemed so 
vague that Steuben declined it and preferred to 
offer his services without stipulating any reward. 
After his arrival at Boston he wrote letters to 
the Congress and to General Washington in 
which he said that he had given up all his offices 
and his income in order to gain the honor, if 
need be with his blood, to become one of the de 
fenders of liberty. He asked for commissions 
for himself and his companions, but stated ex 
pressly that he expected no reward of any kind 

until he had shown by his services that he had 
earned it. 

He arrived at an opportune moment. Wash 
ington was in camp at Valley Forge with an 
army that lacked practically everything neces 
sary for active warfare. It was the darkest 
time of the whole war. The American army had 
neither sufficient clothing, nor ammunition, nor 
provisions. It had dwindled to five thousand 
men, many of whom were sick, insufficiently clad 
or without arms. The discipline was lax and 
there was nothing like uniformity in drill and 
tactics. Each colonel drilled his regiment in the 
way he found best, and quite a number of them 
possessed little or no knowledge of military 
science. After a few conversations with Steuben, 
Washington was convinced that he had found in 
him the man for the hour. He ordered him to 
take temporary charge of the duties of the in 
spector-general, a very wise move, because it did 
not arouse the natural jealousy of the American 
officers which a permanent appointment would 
have done. Steuben took charge immediately, 
drew up rules and regulations and a complete 
military code, and compelled the regimental com 
manders to interest themselves in their men. He 
not only supervised the drill, but formed a corps 
of one hundred and twenty men under the pre 
text that a special bodyguard for the general-in- 
chief was necessary. This corps he drilled in 
person and its proficiency soon aroused the am 
bition of every colonel to show equal results with 
his men. This was exactly what Steuben had 
intended and expected. In his diary he describes 
at length the methods he pursued and one can 
not withhold the greatest admiration from the 
man who, without any knowledge of the con 
ditions and the language of the country, immedi 
ately perceived how he had to proceed, what 
parts of the European systems could be adopted 
and how this army, officers as well as men, had 
to be handled in order to make it a homogene 
ous and effective body that could meet the well- 
drilled Britishers in compact formation on their 
own ground. 

The results of Steuben s work were seen 
quickly. On April 30, 1778, a little more than 
six weeks after the German had begun to drill 
the army, Washington asked Congress to give 
him a commission. In his letter he said : "It 
would be an injustice if I were to continue leav 
ing the services of Baron von Steuben unmen- 
tioned. His ability and his military accomplish 
ments, as well as the untiring energy which he 
has shown since he entered our service, compel 
me to state that he is a distinct gain for our 
army, and I recommend him to the special at- 


tention of Congress." Steuben was accordingly 
appointed major-general and inspector-general of 
the army. 

But the great test was yet to come; the question 
had to be decided how Steuben s reforms would 
influence the action of the troops under the fire 
of the enemy. He had not long to wait. On May 
20, 1778, Lafayette had made a demonstration 
against the enemy and advanced a little too far. 
When Washington saw that Lafayette was in 
danger of being cut off he gave orders to ad 
vance in force. Within less than fifteen minutes 
the whole army was in position. This was a 
feat never before thought even possible. Steu 
ben s work had accomplished it. But a still bet 
ter demonstration of the value of his services 
was soon to be given. On June twenty-eighth the 
battle of Monmouth was fought. Although most of 
his generals, especially Charles Lee, advised 
against it, Washington decided to attack the 
British army under Clinton. He alone was con 
fident that his army was now in a condition to 
cope with a well-drilled and disciplined body of 
troops. The result vindicated his conviction. 
When the advance guard under Lee had been 
repulsed and its retreat began to assume the pro 
portions of a complete rout, Washington ordered 
Steuben to collect the fleeing soldiers and to re 
store them to order. Not only did Steuben suc 
ceed in this but all the other troops remained 
firm and were not in the least influenced by the 
spectacle Lee s detachment offered. This would 
not have been possible before the army had been 
reorganized by Steuben; the fleeing advance 
guard would have carried the others along and 
the engagement would have been lost. Washing 
ton acknowledged freely that the credit for the 
victory at Monmouth had to be ascribed to Steu 
ben, in spite of the fact that the German had 
not been actively engaged in the battle itself. 
Even Alexander Hamilton, not a friend of Gen 
eral Steuben at that time, declared that he had 
been greatly surprised by the ease with which 
the fleeing regiments were re-formed and the 
others kept in good order, and added that at that 
moment only he had grasped the value of disci 
pline and military training. One year later an 
other illustration of the excellence of Steuben s 
methods was furnished, when the American 
troops stormed Stony Point at the point of the 
bayonet without firing a single shot. When he 
began his work, the bayonet was looked upon 
with contempt by the Americans; like all insuf 
ficiently drilled troops they wanted to shoot as 
soon as they saw the enemy. He had taught 
them to remain cool and collected under the 

enemy s fire, and after Stony Point they acknowl 
edged freely that his views were right. 

We cannot follow General Steuben s career 
during the entire war. He served as inspector- 
general, as chief of the general staff and for 
some time in the South. He was in command 
in the trenches before Yorktown when Corn- 
wallis offered to surrender. During all these 
years he had worked hard and used what time 
he could spare to perfecting the rules and regu 
lations for the organization of the American 
army in war and peace. It was Steuben who first 
proposed the foundation of a military academy 
and when Congress erected the academy at West 
Point his plans were used to a great extent. 
When General Lincoln resigned as Secretary of 
War in 1783 nobody doubted that Steuben would 
be appointed his successor. His ability as well 
as his unselfish devotion to his new country had 
been sufficiently proven. But Congress selected 
General Knox who, though brave and an able 
commander, had never shown any special fitness 
for this office, on the absurd plea that so im 
portant a place should not be given to a man 
not born in America. A few months later Steu 
ben resigned his commission, and the thanks of 
Congress were voted to him, coupled with the 
promise that his valuable services would be fit 
tingly rewarded. Congress also gave him a 
sword. This he received three years later, but 
he had to wait seven years before the pension 
promised to him was granted, in spite of the 
fact that Washington and others urged Congress 
to action. All of Steuben s efforts to get at least 
an accounting and reimbursement for the sums 
he had expended out of his own pocket were 
unsuccessful. For years he had to live in bitter 
poverty, in a cheap boarding house in New York, 
and without the assistance of some personal 
friends he might have starved. In 1790 Con 
gress was at last induced to grant him a pension 
of $2,500 per annum. Several states had given 
him tracts of land, among them New Jersey, 
which offered him the confiscated possessions of 
a Tory named John Zabriskie. When, however, 
Steuben heard that Zabriskie was penniless, he 
transferred the gift to him. He accepted a quar 
ter section of sixteen thousand acres from the 
state of New York near Utica. Here he erected 
a modest house, gave some of his land to for 
mer officers and rented another part to colonists. 
Giving considerable attention to agriculture, he 
lived there during the summer and passed his 
winters in New York City. He died on No 
vember 28, 1794. The cities of Albany and New 
York had made him an honorary citizen and he 


had been appointed a regent of the University 
of the State of New York. 

Another German served as general in Wash 
ington s army, Johann Kalb, or, as he called 
himself, Baron Jean de Kalb. But he was more 
of a Frenchman than a German. He had been 
born in Germany, it is true, but emigrated to 
France when hardly more than a boy. His work 
as waiter did not please him and he decided to 
enlist, but as he did not care to serve as private 
he assumed the predicate of nobility and secured 
a commission as lieutenant in the regiment Low- 
endal. De Kalb was a good soldier and fought 
in all the campaigns of the French army from 
1743 to 1763. He then resigned and married the 
daughter of a wealthy merchant. He must have 
enjoyed the confidence of the French Government 
to a high degree for when the first news arrived 
that the British colonies in America were dis 
satisfied with, and might revolt against, English 
rule, de Kalb was sent to America to inves 
tigate the situation. On his return he reported 
that things were not ripe yet, but would be in 
a few years. When the Revolution broke out de 
Kalb went to America in the company of La 
fayette. He was made a major-general and ren 
dered valuable services. After heroic efforts 
to save the troops under his command from an 
nihilation by an enemy many times stronger, he 
was killed in the battle of Camden, S.C., on 
August 16, 1780. 

This narrative would not be complete without 
mention of a picturesque figure that has become 
immortal under the name of Molly Pitcher. It 
seems almost an irony of fate that great gen 
erals should have been forgotten because they 
were not born on American soil, while this sim 
ple woman, also of German birth, is still re 
membered, and this only because the name the 
soldiers gave her induced people to believe that 
she was an American. Her real name was Maria 
Ludwig and she was in the service of Dr. Irvine 
of Philadelphia. When she left his service she 
married Wilhelm Heiss. He enlisted in the ar 
tillery when Dr. Irvine became colonel of the 
Second Pennsylvania Infantry. His wife went 
with him, cooked for the soldiers, nursed the 
sick and the wounded, and, during the frequent 
engagements, carried water to the firing line in 
a large pitcher. In this way she earned the 
name under which history knows her. In the 
battle of Monmouth the battery to which Heiss 
belonged suffered severely from the British fire. 
Most of the men, including Molly s husband, had 
been wounded and the rest showed signs of 
weakening. Thereupon the courageous woman 
sprang forward, grasped the rammer and started 

to load a gun. The spirits of the soldiers re 
vived at this spectacle, they gave three cheers 
for Molly Pitcher, redoubled their efforts and 
forced the British to retire. It is reported that 
Heiss, whose wounds were not serious, was made 
a sergeant by Washington on the spot. 

Two more names must be mentioned, not of 
warriors, but of men whose services were of 
great value to the young nation in the hour of 
its greatest need. One of them is Friedrich 
August Miihlenberg, a brother of the Reverend 
and General Johann Peter. He was also a min 
ister of the gospel, but soon exchanged the chan 
cel for the political platform. Of commanding 
ability, he was a member of the Continental Con 
gress, president of the Pennsylvania convention 
which ratified the Constitution of the United 
States, Speaker of the Pennsylvania Legislature, 
and Speaker of the first and second United States 
Congress under Washington s administration. The 
other is Michael Hillegass, who was treasurer 
of the Continental Congress. 

Enough has been said to show that the Ger 
mans did their full part and perhaps more to 
win independence for this country. They did 
then, as always afterward, prove their loyalty 
and devotion, their trustworthiness and their 
right to receive full and complete justice. If 
this was not, and is not now, given to them, 
they do not complain but find solace in the con 
sciousness that they are doing their duty and do 
not require praise from others. 

The history of this period would not be com 
plete if we did not mention the Hessians, as the 
German troops fighting with the British army 
were generally called in America. They were 
by no means all Hessians but came from several 
of the small German principalities. It would be 
entirely wrong to draw from their presence the 
conclusion that the German people were in sym 
pathy with England. These troops were sold by 
their rulers for cash, and compelled to fight for 
a cause which did not interest them in the least. 
They had no choice, and even the princes who 
sold them cannot be called allies of Great Britain. 
They were simply heartless tyrants who gave 
their helpless subjects to the highest bidder. If 
the American colonies had been willing and able 
to pay a better price there is no doubt that the 
Hessians would have been sold to them. These 
soldiers interest us because a goodly number of 
them remained in America after peace had been 
concluded. They were loyal and fought bravely 
whenever called upon, but naturally felt no en 
thusiasm. When they were captured by the Amer 
icans they considered that their duty was done 
and did not need very close watching as a rule. 


Many of the prisoners were given into the cus 
tody of German farmers for whom they worked 
willingly and with whom they felt quite at home. 
There were so many of them that at one time 
the Congress seriously considered the advisa 
bility of forming a regiment composed of Hes 
sians, for quite a number had taken such a liking 
to their new-found friends that they were willing 
to take up arms for them. The project was, 
however, abandoned. But when peace came not 
all the Hessians who had been brought to Amer 

ica returned. According to very conservative es 
timates at least five thousand of them remained. 
Some of them had intermarried with the families 
of German settlers, others had become used to 
the new country, and many did not care to go 
back to conditions that had become distasteful 
to them after they had learned to appreciate re 
ligious and political liberty. They settled mostly 
among the Germans in Pennsylvania, Xew York 
and the neighboring states. No distinct traces 
of them have remained. 


After the Revolution a period set in during 
which comparatively few Germans came to the 
United States. The French revolution and the 
Napoleonic wars acted as preventatives to emi 
gration. This may appear contradictory at the 
first glance because, as a rule, troublous times 
are apt to drive people to seek new homes. It 
is, however, quite natural. The events that led 
to the French revolution filled the German people 
with a new hope. The belief that absolutism, re 
strictions and serfdom would be done away with, 
became general. Why go to foreign shores if 
the happiness that might be found there was al 
most certain to arrive at home? And after the 
long wars had broken out the state needed every 
able bodied citizen at home, while at the same 
time the ports of the Continent of Europe were 
closed to navigation and the seas were no longer 
highways of commerce, but the scene of never- 
ending strife between France and England, mak 
ing it difficult and perilous for merchant vessels 
to cross the ocean. It is true that German im 
migration never ceased completely, but it was not 
numerous enough to make a strong impression 
nor even to strengthen the already existing Ger 
man settlements sufficiently to prevent their 
Americanization by slow but sure steps. Thus 
for nearly forty years the German element in the 
United States remained stationary as far as the 
number of newcomers was concerned. 

But the Germans remained by no means idle. 
They continued to spread in the way we have 
indicated and carried their characteristics into 
new regions. They took part in the conquest of 
the great western territory that had been pur 
chased from the French Government. There 
were, in fact, many Germans among the bold 
spirits who forced their way through primeval 
forest and over pathless mountains with the firm 
purpose to extend the frontier of the colonies 

farther toward the setting sun. Their names 
have been forgotten, with few exceptions, but it 
is known that the large majority of the settlers 
who followed in the footsteps of the conquerors 
and advanced along the banks of the Ohio River, 
making Kentucky, Ohio and Indiana habitable, 
were of German blood. They also did a large 
share of the winning of Tennessee. Here, as 
everywhere, and at all times, the German settler 
did the real work. He did not look for fame 
or glory, he did not seek adventures and the 
spoils of war and the chase, but he cleared the 
soil and tilled it until it was changed into fer 
tile fields and gardens. Valuable as the pio 
neer s work was, his methods could never have 
opened the land to civilization. His log cabin 
served him more as a place of retreat in times 
of need than as a permanent home, while the 
German immediately began to produce and to 
improve, preparing the country for peaceful and 
permanent habitation by the millions who were 
to follow soon. All during this period the Ger 
man proved his value for the land of his adop 
tion and never ceased to be one of the most im 
portant factors in its development. 

The Napoleonic wars had hardly ended when 
the immigration from Germany began to increase 
again. The great bulk consisted, as before, of 
peasants who came to find new homes on virgin 
soil. But withal a great change was discernible, 
for there arrived also a large number of men of 
the highest accomplishments and education, not 
as leaders of the masses or with them, but on 
their own accord. Again it was persecution that 
drove them from the Fatherland. They had to 
go because they had been foolish enough to be 
lieve that the German people did not rise against 
the great Napoleon for the sole reason of re 
placing their princes and princelings upon the 
thrones the conqueror had taken away from them. 


They had really believed that these princes owed 
some little gratitude to the people and should 
recognize the fact that they should be given some 
part in the government. They were mistaken ; 
the princes were determined to continue their rule 
of absolutism, and persecuted relentlessly every 
body who dared to disagree with them. Thus po 
litical persecution, in place of the religious per 
secution of former years, drove untold thousands 
of the very best and ablest Germans across the 
Atlantic. These political refugees gave the Ger- 

, man immigration, beginning about 1818, its pecu 
liar character ; the movement lasted until well in 
to the second half of the Nineteenth Century, but 
may be divided into two periods, the first one 
extending until the German revolution of 1848, 
during which it was rather limited as to num 
bers, and the second one comprising the arrival 

. of the revolutionists in large masses. There is 
another distinction which has not been taken note 
of by historians generally. The Germans arriv 
ing after the revolutionary movement had failed 
were united by one distinct idea that had already 
been transformed into action. Their object may 
be called visionary, unclear and premature, but 
it had crystallized in the desire to unite the Ger 
man nation under a liberal, preferably a repub 
lican government. Between the Napoleonic wars 
and the revolution Germany passed through a 
period of romanticism which filled a large part 
of the youth of the German people with an in 
distinct longing for something, the nature of 
which they did not understand and really did 
not wish to know. Thus many came to America 
who were searching for things unknown and had 
no other reason to expect that they would find 
them here but that they did not know anything 
of the country. Among them was the poet, Ni- 
kolaus Lenau, who expected to find in America 
not only human perfection but everything else he 
was yearning for. He returned to Europe after 
a short stay, disappointed and embittered. Many 
others were not so fortunate, and thousands who 
did not know why they had left their homes 
perished in misery. In the same category be 
long, though different in character, the differ 
ent attempts to found colonies of German no 
blemen who were planned to bring to life again 
the conditions under which knighthood flourished 
in the Middle Ages. They came to nothing, 

though some led to the establishment of im 
portant German settlements, as New Braunfels 
in Texas. The romanticism has exercised no in 
fluence upon the American people, and this could 
not have been expected because its exponents did 
neither find a fertile soil nor were they strong 
enough to make converts to their ideas. In this 

respect the year 1848 forms a dividing line, be 
cause by that time the aimless dreaming had 
been replaced by a frequently extravagant and 
highly imaginative but withal healthy idealism, 
which strove for concrete objects. 

It is our main purpose, however, to trace the 
influence that has been exerted by German im 
migrants upon the development of the American 
people. And this influence was quite strong dur 
ing the period under consideration by the 
political refugees. Liberal ideas had not yet 
taken root in the masses of the German people 
which were busy healing the wounds the long 
wars had left behind through hard work. The 
universities were then, as always, the centers 
from which the spirit of liberty began to spread 
over the country. The princes and their hirelings 
knew this and persecuted relentlessly professors 
and students who were suspected of liberal lean 
ings. Thousands of the noblest and best spirits 
were compelled to flee in order to escape im 
prisonment or death. For the first time men 
who had already won renown in the field of let 
ters and in science or who had prepared them 
selves for such careers came to America in large 
numbers. Their influence made itself felt. The 
German press which had survived the long inter 
val but showed few signs of high ideals and 
rather catered to mediocrity, entered upon a new 
period of healthful activity. Bookstores were es 
tablished where the newest and best German 
books could be bought. New schools were 
founded and old ones remodeled. In short, the 
new German immigration did not longer place its 
material welfare at the head of its desires and 
did not satisfy its hunger for spiritual nourish 
ment with what religion could give but it culti 
vated the sciences, letters, music and the fine 
arts. Of the large number of eminent men who 
emigrated during this period only a few can be 
mentioned, and if their prominence is unques 
tioned, they were but typical of the many who 
cannot be named here. 

The best known of all of them is Franz Lieber, 
born in 1798 at Berlin. Hardly more than a 
boy he fought against Napoleon at Ligny and 
Waterloo and later studied law. The active part 
he took in the movement for political liberty 
caused his banishment from Prussia, and after 
a short stay at Jena he went to Greece to take 
part in the war for freedom. There he found 
so little of the spirit he had expected that he 
returned to Prussia, where he was immediately 
arrested and thrown into prison. His relatives 
succeeded after a while in procuring his release, 
but he was ordered to leave Germany. After 
a few years in England, where he eked out a 


miserable existence with literary work, he came 
to America in 1827. Here he started a swim 
ming school and later on translated a German 
encyclopaedia into English. This occupation 
brought him into contact with many prominent 
men. His gifts and his knowledge were soon 
universally recognized. When Girard College in 
Philadelphia was founded the German Lieber 
was chosen to prepare the course of instruction. 
In 1835 he was called to the University of South 
Carolina as Professor of History and Internation 
al Law. There he remained until 1851. He left 
because he could not and would not remain 
quiet in the conflict that began to separate the 
North and the South. It was well known that 
Lieber was bitterly opposed to slavery, but he 
might have retained his position if he had kept 
quiet. His conscience did not allow this, and 
on July 4, 1851, he delivered his celebrated "Ad 
dress on Secession" which has become a classic. 
He was immediately discharged and went to 
New York. After a few years of rest he be 
came Professor of History, International Law 
and Political Economy at Columbia College. At 
the outbreak of the Civil War Lieber was too 
old to fight, but placed his services at the dis 
posal of President Lincoln. In many speeches 
and pamphlets he argued for the cause. Fol 
lowing the wish of General Halleck he prepared 
the manual for the conduct of the army in-fa-mes... 
of war, and during the entire war he was con 
stantly consulted by the President on questions 
of international law and the laws of war. He 
was recognized as an authority on such ques 
tions by the whole world and several of his 
books have become standard works, especially 
those on "Political Ethics" and on "Civil Liberty 
and Self-Government." 

Karl Follen was not as fortunate as Lieber. 
He also had taken part in the wars against the 
French Emperor, had studied and later taught 
law at German universities. Of an inflammable 
temperament, with almost fanatical love for lib 
erty, he threw himself into the agitation for 
political freedom with all the ardor of a born 
poet. His songs and his speeches aroused the 
enthusiasm of teachers and students. When the 
Russian Kotzebue was killed by the German 
student Sand, the fact that Follen belonged to 
the same society as the murderer gave the Gov 
ernment the welcome opportunity to order the 
arrest of the young professor. He fled in time, 
for in the event of his capture he would have 
been condemned to death. In Switzerland he 
found a refuge but only for a short space of 
time, for the German Government demanded his 
extradition. Follen fled to America in 1824 and 

was fortunate enough to meet Lafayette, with 
whom he had become acquainted in Paris. 
Through his assistance he secured employment 
as teacher of German at Harvard University. 
Pollen s individuality made a deep impression ; 
before many months had elapsed he was sur 
rounded by a large circle of admirers, composed 
not of students alone, but of men who repre 
sented all that was best and highest in the life 
of the nation. Before the term for which he had 
been engaged was ended Follen in the mean 
time had secured complete mastership of the 
English language a chair as Professor of the 
German Language and Literature was created for 
him. But his love of liberty drove him away 
as it had done once before. The movement for 
the abolition of slavery could not leave a Follen 
uninterested. With fiery eloquence did he rep 
resent the Anti-Slavery Society before the Mas 
sachusetts Legislature and on other occasions. 
But the time was not ripe for the sentiments he 
so ably preached, and when the term of his pro 
fessorship had elapsed he was not reappointed. 
Follen now became a minister of the Unitarian 
church to which he belonged, but died, at the be 
ginning of a splendid career in his new field, 
at the burning of the steamship Lexington in 
1840, twice a martyr for liberty and freedom of 
thought and speech. 

Dr. ,J$art Beck had come to America with 
Follen and for the same reasons. He first taught 
school at Northampton, N.H., established a school 
at Philipstown and finally was called to Harvard 
as Professor of Latin. There he remained for 
more than twenty years. Friedrich August Sei- 
densticker and his son Oswald came in 1845, 
when the father, after having been kept in prison 
for many years, was pardoned on condition 
that he would leave Germany. Oswald Seiden- 
sticker became one of the most valuable his 
torians of the German-Americans. Beginning 
with 1833 quite a number of Germans with 
similar antecedents settled in the neighborhood 
of Belleville in Illinois. They tried farming and 
succeeded in a measure, some more and some 
less. Unused to the spectacle of seeing men of 
superior education engage in this occupation, the 
people called them "Latin Farmers." Quite a 
number of them distinguished themselves. Georg 
Bunsen introduced the Pestalozzi system of edu 
cation into the United States; Julius Hilgard 
became Chief of the United States Coast Survey 
and his brother Eugene, Professor of Chemistry 
in the Smithsonian Institute. Both were acknowl 
edged authorities in their respective fields. The 
creator of the Bureau of the Coast Survey and 


its first superintendent was another German, 
Ferdinand Rudolph Hassler. 

There were in fact many practical men among 
those who came here before 1848. The great 
Johann August Roebling had left Germany to 
join a communistic colony, but soon became tired 
of it and took up his profession as engineer. 
He built the bridges over the Monongahela at 
Pittsburg, over the Niagara, the bridge connect 
ing Cincinnati with Covington and the Brook 
lyn Bridge. During this period Germans entered 
the ranks of the great American merchants and 
bankers. Johann Jakob Astor, the son of a poor 
butcher at Waldorf near Heidelberg, became one 
of the richest men of the country and was the 
first one to hoist the American flag at the shore 
of the Pacific Ocean, at Astoria. The second 
time the Stars and Stripes were raised over the 
coast of the Pacific, a German was again re 

sponsible for it, Johann August Sutter, born in 
Baden in 1803, and he succeeded in winning the 
territory he had taken possession of for the 
United States, while Astor had failed. August 
Belmont came to New York in 1837 from Frank 
furt. Many other commercial enterprises were 
started by Germans, and not a few of them are 
still in existence. In fact, in every branch of 
human activity the German immigrants began 
to appear in the front rank. 

This list could be extended for many pages. 
It will, however, suffice as proof of the claims 
made for the German immigration during this 
period. No other country has sent to the United 
States so many men of high attainments at one 
and the same time, and when they were so much 
needed. They repaid freely with their work and 
their knowledge the hospitality extended to them 
when their own Fatherland drove them away. 


During the first three decades of the Nine 
teenth Century the number of German immi 
grants seldom exceeded one thousand within any 
one year. When the July revolution had broken 
out in Paris in 1830, the stream began to flow 
with new strength. The German liberals had 
been encouraged by this event to double their 
efforts for a constitutional government, while at 
the same time their rulers were frightened by it 
and concluded to put down the liberal movement 
with renewed vigor. The number of those who 
were forced into exile steadily increased. Thus, 
between 1830 and 1840 over 15,000 Germans came 
to the United States every year, and in the next 
decade, the annual average of German immigra 
tion, rose to 43,000 souls. The arrival of the 
Forty-eighters, as those were called, who had to 
leave the Fatherland because they had taken part 
in or sympathized with the German revolution 
ary movement of 1848-49, did not begin until 
the latter year and reached its height somewhat 
later still, because most of them lingered for 
some time in Switzerland, France and England, 
in the vain hope that the fight would be taken 
up again. 

The immigration that came in consequence of 
the German revolution was in many respects dif 
ferent from that which had immediately pre 
ceded it. While prior to 1848, as has been 
pointed out, the liberal movement in Germany 
was practically confined to the educated classes, 
it had now spread, especially in Baden, the Pala 

tinate and Rhenish Prussia, to the body of the 
people. Consequently the refugees were no long 
er almost without exception men of high at 
tainments and superior abilities, as had been the 
case before. These classes still formed a large 
percentage, but with them came small shopkeepers, 
artisans, farmers and even laborers. The Forty- 
eighters showed a high average intelligence but 
were not, as has sometimes been supposed, with 
out exception highly educated. Quite a number 
of them, in fact, were lacking in the experience, 
knowledge and judgment required to fully under 
stand the ideas they had been fighting for. These 
frequently showed an exaggerated belief in their 
own importance, and were apt to cover their 
inability to defend their position by sustained 
argument with an aggressiveness sometimes verg 
ing on intolerant and intolerable fanaticism. They 
did considerable harm for a time. For while 
the leaders whose names had become known to 
the American people even before they arrived 
were received with open arms and showed them 
selves worthy of the appreciation extended to 
them, many of the rank and file repulsed the sym 
pathy felt for their cause by word and action. 
The idea had taken possession of them that in 
order to be truthful, the common usages of or- 
diriSry politeness must be dropped, and for the 
same reason they believed themselves bound to 
give expression to their own opinions without 
regard to the feelings of others and without being 
called upon. Thus, for instance, many of the 


newcomers, who were almost without exception 
atheists, or as they preferred to call themselves, 
freethinkers, considered it their duty to ridicule 
all believers and to attack churches and ministers, 
as well as worshippers as narrowminded and 
unprogressive fools. Such behavior, coupled with 
an almost studied unconventionality of apparel 
brought about a revulsion in the American mind, 
and the German revolutionists were no longer 
looked upon as martyrs of liberty to be wel 
comed to the shores of the only free country on 
the face of the globe, but rather as a danger to 
a country whose people were imbued with deep 
religious feeling and, it must be said, were at 
that time rather provincial in their views on the 
larger questions which had come to the front in 
Europe. There can be no doubt that such ac 
tions formed one of the contributing causes to 
the knownothing movement which swept over the 
country during the Fifties. While indefensible 
in itself, it was, to some extent, a reaction against 
the position taken by a part of the German rev 
olutionists whkh caused the latent nativism al 
ways in existence to break out in agitation of 
an unreasonable and most deplorable kind. This 
feeling was intensified by the fact that quite a 
number of the German immigrants for quite a 
while considered this country only in the light of 
a temporary home. They were waiting for a 
new revolution in Germany and continued to 
dream of the establishment of the great German 
republic, which would call them back to the 
Fatherland. In the meantime, they shifted for 
themselves as best they could, with a firm belief 
in their own superiority, which they never hesi 
tated to express, and with very little regard for 
the feelings of the people whose hospitality and 
protection they were enjoying. 

All these defects disappeared quickly, however. 
Even the most ardent spirits made their peace 
with the new conditions surrounding them and 
settled down to work. They became most valu 
able citizens of the republic, as soon as their hon 
est, but under the circumstances, purposeless en 
thusiasm had changed into the sober endeavor 
to secure an existence by hard work and industry. 
Many of them, it is true, did not succeed, be 
cause their training had not fitted them for the 
combat that was before them. Comparatively 
few were fortunate enough to continue in the 
professions they had followed before they emi 
grated, and quite a number were compelled to 
enter occupations which they would have con 
sidered far beneath them only a few years before. 
But they tried hard, and the great majority ac 
complished finally what they had set out to do. 

For the United States this immigration was of 

the greatest benefit. For we must not forget 
that the man who is ready to sacrifice his all 
for an idea is always superior to those who are 
willing to suffer oppression and tyranny as long 
as they are allowed to earn a scanty living. Thus 
even those who were not highly educated and 
who came from the ranks of the artisans and 
laborers were the best of their kind. They were 
filled with the same spirit that had made the 
colonies free and independent. They had been 
fighting for liberty without counting the odds 
which were overwhelmingly against them. With 
all their faults they fitted into the institutions 
they found here and they became excellent 
Americans as soon as the natural opposition to 
unaccustomed surroundings had worn off. And 
they brought certain traits which were still rare 
in this new country, born in strife and inhab 
ited by a people that had been compelled to use 
its best gifts in the struggle for existence and 
material welfare. These Germans were idealists 
to a man ; they were filled with a deep love for 
the beautiful in nature, in the arts and in liter 
ature. They saw in music not only a pleasant 
amusement which permitted them to spend a few 
hours agreeably now and then, but the means 
of elevating the soul. They exerted a softening 
influence upon the American character, hardened 
in the incessant fight with nature and the ele 
ments. They strengthened by their teachings and 
example the conviction that there was something 
higher in the life of man than the effort to 
amass riches, and they showed to those among 
whom they had settled that life had a beautiful 
side to it and that no harm could come to the 
soul by enjoying it. Above all, they proved that 
the correct policy in everything was moderation, 
and that all excesses were harmful, whether in 
the direction of self-denial or indulgence. They 
simply could not live without at least a taste of 
the beautiful, and wherever they settled they 
founded societies for the pursuance of higher 
objects, especially singing societies, which have 
^spread and improved to such a degree that they 
form an important and valuable factor in the 
life of the nation at present. They laid the 
foundation for the development of athletics in 
this country through the numerous "Turner" so 
cieties, the first of which had been founded by 
Karl Follen, and which now sprang up every 
where. There were quite a number of poets and 
writers of more than average ability among the 
revolutionists, and the standard of the German- 
American press rose quickly. The desire for a 
higher life, so strong among these men, did not 
only influence the German part of tne population, 


but also the native Americans wherever they 
came in contact with the immigrants. 

Considering all circumstances, it did not take 
so very long to bring about a readjustment. The 
Germans lost much of the roughness which, after 
all, was only external, adopted American ways 
and customs and became a homogeneous part of 
the American people, while the Americans 
learned to overlook the traits that at first had 
repulsed them, and began to appreciate the many 
good and valuable qualities their new friends 
possessed. The mutual appreciation was hastened 
by political developments. Up to the arrival of 
the Fortyeighters the Germans had been Dem 
ocrats almost to a man. The Democratic party 
had attracted them on account of its greater 
liberality towards foreigners and its freedom 
from nativistic tendencies. When the great 
struggle for the abolition of slavery commenced, 
the German revolutionists threw themselves into 

1 it with the same ardor with which they had 
fought for liberty in the Fatherland. It was 
sufficient for them that the liberty of human be 
ings was at stake, and their idealistic views of 
life left them no choice. The active part they 
took during the political campaigns which ended 
in the election of Abraham Lincoln brought them 
nearer to their fellow-citizens of American birth, 
especially as they succeeded in winning over the 
great body of German voters to the new Repub 
lican party. The task was a difficult one and 
not quite free from dangers, for it must not be 
forgotten that the Germans were almost fanatics 

, in their adherence to the Democratic party at 
that time, and that they felt deep resentment 
against their own countrymen who tried to lead 
them away from their political moorings although 
they were comparatively recent arrivals and cer 
tainly did not possess the same knowledge of 
American institutions and the same experience 
as those who had already lived many years in 
the United States. But the work was accom 
plished and the Fortyeighters swung the German 
vote in Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Iowa, 
Missouri and other western states, as well as in 
Pennsylvania for the Republican party and the 
Union. It must be mentioned here that the west 
ern states named had been largely settled by Ger 
mans, not by revolutionists alone, but by many 
farmers who had come in the wake of the refu 
gees. Wisconsin, especially, was overwhelmingly 
German and the same was true of whole dis 
tricts in Indiana, Illinois, Ohio and Iowa, while 
in cities like St. Louis, Cincinnati and Indianapo 
lis the German element formed a large percent 
age of the inhabitants. 

It is, of course, impossible to give anything 

like a complete list of the men who came to 
America in consequence of the German revo 
lution and reached eminence in one field of hu 
man activity or another. We must confine our 
selves to the most prominent among them. At 
the head of the list stands, of course, Carl 
Schurz, the great orator, author and statesman. 
His career would have been a brilliant one, even 
if a native American had reached the same 
heights. How much more admiration do we owe 
to him when we consider that this man came to 
America without knowing the language and the 
customs of the country, and in spite of these 
drawbacks within a few years was counted among 
the ablest men of the nation ! Schurz had hardly 
taken his citizen papers when he was made the 
candidate of his party for the lieutenant-gover 
norship of Wisconsin, and took part in the coun 
cils of the party as one whose advice was to be 
listened to and heeded. It was his influence more 
than that of any other single man that induced 
the Germans of the West to enlist in the cam 
paign against slavery. After the election of Lin 
coln he was appointed minister to Spain and ren 
dered a great service to the country which is not 
as generally known as it deserves. His obser 
vations in Europe prompted him to inform Pres 
ident Lincoln that the only way to prevent suc 
cessfully the recognition of the Confederacy by 
the western European powers, notably England 
and France, was the declaration of the American 
Government that it waged war for the abolition 
of slavery. It is well known that the Govern 
ment for a long time hesitated to do this for 
many reasons, chiefly because the effect of such 
action upon the Democrats in the Xorth and 
upon the border states was feared. Schurz s 
earnest appeal hastened the adoption of the only 
policy which could have prevented the strength 
ening of the Confederacy to the danger point. He 
served with distinction in the Civil War and 
as United States senator for Missouri, and was 
Secretary of the Interior under Hayes. The most 
important work in which he engaged and to which 
he consecrated almost his whole life consisted 
in the relentless and unremitting fight against 
the spoils system and for the establishment of 
the merit system, generally known as Civil Ser 
vice Reform. For many years the president of 
the National Civil Service Reform Association, he 
gave his full strength to this work. He saw 
clearly that the spoils system was a cancerous 
growth which was slowly but surely destroying 
the very life blood of the nation, and that with 
out its abolishment the public morals would be 
hopelessly corrupted, not to mention the impos 
sibility of ever securing a decent administration. 


The work he has done in this direction is not 
yet fully appreciated, but some day the services 
of Carl Schurz for the country he loved so much 
will be recognized. As an orator he belongs in 
the front rank, and few, if any, Americans of 
his epoch have surpassed him. His literary activ 
ity was abundant, and his essay on Abraham Lin 
coln as well as his life of Henry Clay in the 
American Statesmen s Series have become class 
ics. He was the finest type of the Fortyeighter, 
always ready to fight, and if needs be to die, for 
his convictions; never hesitating to defend them, 
whatever the consequences might be for him; 
the born idealist to whom wrong of any kind 
was abhorrent, and who lived in the firm belief 
that no good could come from any other mode 
of life than the steadfast pursuit of the highest 
ideals. Always ready to suffer defeat in the 
conviction that right must triumph ultimately, he 
never compromised on points which he considered 
of vital importance in order to gain a temporary 
success. He was so imbued with idealism of the 
very best kind that his influence alone would have 
been sufficient to prove the immense benefits 
America derived from the German revolution 
ists, but there were many like him, though not 
quite so able and not of so farreaching import 

Oswald Ottendorfer was another of the men 
of this period who may justly be called great. 
Several reasons may be assigned for the fact 
that he did not attain the same prominence as 
Schurz. Although a Unionist in the critical 
epoch of the republic, he was a Democrat of 
firm convictions and could never bring himself to 
look upon the Republican party otherwise than 
as the propagator of theories dangerous to the 
continuance and life of the institutions forming 
the foundation of the Union. While he, like 
most Germans, did not hesitate to take a firm 
stand against his own party whenever it suc 
cumbed to influences which, to his mind, were 
wrong and dangerous, he lived and died a firm 
adherer to the doctrines of the Democracy. Un 
der the circumstances it was natural that political 
preferment was not for him, because the party 
of which he counted himself a member was out 
of power during the largest part of his life. In 
addition Oswald Ottendorfer had become the 
editor of a great newspaper, the New Yorker 
Staats-Zcitung, which position compelled him to 
devote a large part of his time and activity to 
his business. All this might not have prevented 
his acceptance of political honors if his health 
had not been such that he had to husband his 
strength very carefully. It is difficult to esti 
mate what this man would have accomplished if 

he had been stronger in a physical sense and if 
conditions had been more fortunate. By no 
means must the inference be drawn from these 
remarks that Oswald Ottendorfer did not par 
ticipate in public affairs ; on the contrary, he was 
for many years a power in his party as well as 
in the independent element that esteems the wel 
fare of the country higher than that of the party, 
and even during his last years, when he was al 
most constantly confined to his room, his ad 
vice was eagerly sought by men standing high 
in the nation. And while he and Schurz differed 
radically in temperament, Ottendorfer was as 
much an idealist as the former. Every move 
ment that promised to improve the conditions 
under which his fellow beings were living, or of 
the public morals, whether it emanated from his 
political friends or opponents, was certain of 
his earnest support. Like Schurz, he was a 
mighty power for good in the life of the nation. 
Hans Kudlich, the liberator of the Austrian 
peasants, arrived in the early fifties. As a young 
man he had been elected a member of the first 
Austrian parliament, and as such moved the abol 
ishment of the mediaeval laws which compelled 
the servants to work for the owners of large es 
tates without receiving pay, thus making them 
virtual serfs of the nobility. These laws had 
long been abolished in other parts of Germany 
but had remained in full force in Austria. While 
Hans Kudlich modestly declined to take the 
credit for this great reform and tried to arouse 
the impression that a mere accident made him 
take the step which any other member might 
just as well have taken, it is nevertheless a fact 
that he, himself the son of a peasant, and there 
fore a daily witness of the wrongs perpetrated, 
was, from the beginning of his public career, 
filled with the desire to free the sufferers from 
injustice. Great changes like this one are indeed 
not brought about by single men; when the time 
is ripe for them it requires only action at the 
right moment to complete them, but they are 
often delayed because an opportunity is lost. The 
man who acts when he knows that the right mo 
ment has arrived, and who thereby achieves the 
result wished for is justly entitled to all the 
credit attached to the deed. History has recorded 
the fact that Hans Kudlich freed the Austrian 
peasants from serfdom, and nothing, not even 
his own modesty, can take this away from him. 
And it was not only compassion with the suf 
fering servants that caused Kudlich to act, but 
his deep love for freedom and for humanity. 
With all his enthusiasm for the cause of liberty 
he threw himself into the revolutionary movement, 
was condemned to death and fled to America, 

where he established himself as a practising phy 
sician but engaged with the vigor he had dis 
played before in every cause that made for lib 
erty and equality and for the happiness of man 

There were others who reached political prom 
inence, in those times always a proof of moral 
and mental superiority. Gustav Koerner, who has 
written a very valuable history of the German 
immigration before 1848, was elected lieutenant- 
governor of Illinois, Jakob Mueller held the same 
office in Ohio, Nikolaus Rusch in Iowa and Ed 
ward Salomon in Wisconsin. Quite a number of 
Germans served in the state legislatures and in 
Congress. The most valuable services were ren 
dered, however, in the field of letters and on the 
battle-field. It has already been mentioned that 
after the arrival of the German revolutionists the 
German-American press began to spread and to 
improve. This was quite natural, for among the 
immigrants were many who could use the pen 
better than any other way to earn a livelihood, 
and the great mass of the Germans were used to 
reading. We have referred to the New Yorker 
Staats-Zeitung founded by Jacob Uhl and ex 
panded into the greatest German paper by Oswald 
Ottendorfer. Hermann Raster, after a stay of 
several years in New York, did the same service 
for the Illinois Staats-Zeitung in Chicago, making 
it the best and most influential German paper in 
the West. Schurz founded the Abendpost in 
Detroit, and later, with William Pretorius. 

brought the Wcstliche Post in St. Louis to a high 
state of success. William Daenzer did the same 
for the Anseiger des West ens in the same city. 
Friedrich Hassaurek, a man of rare gifts, founded 
the H oclnvac liter ; P. V. Deuster edited the Sec- 
bote in Milwaukee for many years. Before them 
Eduard Schaeffer had founded the Nationalzei- 
tung dcr Deutschen, Daniel C. L. Lehmus had 
edited with success Die alte und die neue Welt, 
and Heinrich Rodter had started the Volksblatt 
in Cincinnati. From this time on, and under 
the guidance of men of ability, the German press 
in America became an important factor in the 
life of the American nation. It confined itself 
no longer to entertaining its readers and giving 
them the news they wanted to hear, but it dis 
cussed American political problems in an in 
structive way and strove to explain to the newly 
arrived immigrant American institutions and cus 
toms. With few exceptions these newspapers 
were edited in a more independent spirit than the 
American papers. While they supported one of 
the two parties, they never went so far as to 
defend every one of its acts. They were always 
ready to criticize when this seemed necessary, 
and the blind partisanship that knows no reason 
ing was quite foreign to them. They were thus 
able to educate by encouraging the reader to 
judge for himself, and they did this work thor 
oughly. It has been continued to the present 
day by men of equal devotion to principle and, 
in many cases, of similar ability. 


The full story of what the Forty-eighters did 
for the United States has not been told because 
one chapter, and by no means the least important 
one, has to do with the Civil War. In recount 
ing the part the Germans took in this struggle 
there will be occasion to complete the story. But 
before we mention the deeds of the adopted citi 
zens let us glance at the behavior of the descend 
ants of those Germans who came more than a 
century before the North and the South met on 
the battle-field. We remember how promptly the 
Pennsylvania Germans had responded to the call 
to arms when the Revolution broke out and how 
a company of Germans from York -County was 
the first troop to reach Washington after the 
battle of Lexington. The spirit of the fathers 
lived in the children, for when Abraham Lincoln 
needed protection in 1861 the first regiment to 
reach Washington was composed of five com 

panies from Reading, Allentown, Pottsville and 
Lewiston, almost entirely composed of the de 
scendants of the German patriots of Revolutionary 
days. Of the eight thousand soldiers furnished 
by Berks County, Pa., during the Civil War, fully 
eighty per cent bore German names. As about 
nine-tenths of the inhabitants were of German 
descent, and many families had anglicized their 
names, there is no doubt that the descendants of 
the German immigrants of former times fur 
nished their full ratio of fighters for the Union. 
It was the same all through Pennsylvania, and 
in fact throughout the North. 

The Americans of German birth responded in 
^the same way. They and their sons formed whole 
regiments and came to the front. From New 
York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania in the East, 
from Illinois, Indiana, Wisconsin, Ohio, Iowa and 
Michigan they marched forth, ready to die in 


order to save the country they had learned to love, 
from destruction. And the old Fortyeighters were 
in the lead everywhere. They became regimental 
commanders and generals, for most of them were 
versed in tactics and had fought before. The 
greatest of them all was the gallant Franz Sigel, 
who had led the revolutionary army in Baden and 
since then had taught school in the United States. 
At the outbreak of hostilities he was instrumental 
in saving Missouri to the Union cause. He and 
some others organized the German Turners of St. 
Louis into a regiment and offered their services 
to Frank Blair. Their example was quickly fol 
lowed by others, and it is an historical fact that 
without the German troops thus quickly gotten 
ready the attempt of the secessionists to take pos 
session of St. Louis would have been successful. 
Sigel then took the field and prevented the Con 
federate general Price from invading Missouri. 
After having shown his ability in several small en 
gagements he decided the battle at Pea Ridge, 
the first real success the Union side achieved. He 
was made a corps commander and was the only 
general who held his position against the on 
slaught of the enemy in the second battle of Bull 
Run. When the Union army was compelled to 
retreat Sigel covefed the movement and kept the 
pursuing enemy at bay. He was undoubtedly a 
general of exceptional ability but had little 
opportunity to show it. It cannot be left unsaid 
that the "German" was not much liked by many of 
the other commanders, and that he was repeatedly 
ordered to make attacks when the troops under 
his command were entirely insufficient. His fail 
ure in such cases was successfully used to keep 
him from getting the commands he was entitled 
to. Personally Sigel was one of the most lovable 
of men, filled with a vast store of knowledge, 
an idealist of the first flower, and of a modest 
and retiring nature. 

All the Germans who reached the rank of gen 
eral in the Civil War cannot be mentioned but 
to show how numerous they were the most im 
portant shall be named. Besides Sigel the follow 
ing were made major-generals : Carl Schurz, who 
fought at Chattanooga and Gettysburg and com 
manded a corps at Chancellorsville; Joseph Peter 
Osterhaus, who took part in the campaigns of 
Vicksburg. Chattanooga, Atlanta and Savannah ; 
Julius Stahel, who distinguished himself at Shi- 
loh ; August Kautz, one of the most daring cavalry 
leaders on the Union side; Gottfried Weitzel, who 
commanded on the James River and led the first 
troops into Richmond, and Friedrich Salomo, who 
had charge of Arkansas. Of brigadier-generals, 
Adolph Englemann was killed at Shiloh ; August 
Willich saved Kentucky by his victory at Bowling 

Green; Ludwig Blenker saved the Union army 
from complete destruction after the first battle 
of Bull Run ; Friedrich Hecker, Carl Eberhard 
Salomo, August Moor, Hugo Wangelin and 
Adolph von Steinwehr served with distinction ; 
Alexander Schimmelpfennig was the first to enter 
Charleston, Heinrich Bohlen fell on the Rappa- 
hannock, and Max Weber was killed at Antietam 
at the very moment when he was ready to break 
through the enemy s center, an advantage that 
would have routed the Confederates but was lost 
through the death of the leader. 

Not Germans alone who lived in the United 
States at the outbreak of the war fought for the 
Union. Untold thousands came over the ocean 
to join the ranks. It is true that many of them 
were adventurers who did not care very much 
what cause they fought for, but even these ren 
dered valuable help and became good and loyal 
American citizens after peace had been restored. 
Many others came because they felt a deep sym 
pathy with the cause, as was natural, for the Ger 
man people took a very decided stand for the 
North. The Union had no truer and stancher 
friend than Germany, and this fact was so well 
known that the recognition of the Confederacy by 
France and England was delayed until it became 
impossible by the position of the Prussian Gov 
ernment. Two reasons may be found for this, 
one of a practical nature, and the other a more 
idealistic one. There were already several millions 
of Germans living in the United States and the 
vast majority of them was in the northern states; 
many of them were Democrats in politics, but all 
were Unionists. The German people naturally 
took sides with that section in which almost all 
their friends and relations lived. But not less 
strong was the feeling that the North fought 
for humanity and for that liberty that is dear 
to every sentimental German heart. For though 
the statement may appear strange and almost 
ridiculous to Americans, it is nevertheless a fact 
that the vast majority of the German people, 
though monarchists at home and always ready 
to submit to the will of the Government, at 
heart loves liberty and is always ready to assist 
other peoples to gain freedom. More Germans 
have volunteered and died in the wars other 
nations have waged for freedom than in fights 
against oppression at home. This is one of the 
reasons why Germans so quickly learn to love 
American institutions. 

It may be mentioned here that there were a 
few Germans who took a prominent part in the 
Civil War on the other side. They were with 
out exception Unionists at heart and opposed 
to secession, but felt constrained to follow their 


states when the Confederacy was established. 
Among them was General Johann Andreas Wag- 
ener, who defended Charleston against the Union 
army. Karl Gustav Memminger became secre 
tary of the treasury of the Confederate Govern 

We have seen that over ninety-five thousand 
German immigrants had annually come to the 
United States between 1850 and 1860. In the 
following decade the average was nearly as high, 
reaching eighty-two thousand. Thus not much 
less than two millions of Germans came within 
twenty years. Most of them were farmers, and 
they spread all over the West and the North 
west. The German element in the western 
states, which we have repeatedly mentioned, be 
came more numerous and much stronger. Many 
immigrants went farther west and when the 
great overland railroads had been completed they 
swarmed to the Pacific Coast. Oregon and 
Washington were largely peopled by Germans 
who, like their forerunners nearly two hundred 
years before them, introduced horticulture in that 
region so well adapted to this purpose, and there 
by laid the foundation for one of the greatest 
industries of the present day. 

But other elements arrived in ever larger num 
bers. Germany began to emerge slowly from 
the conditions under which it had suffered since 
the Napoleonic wars. Although the people them 
selves were perhaps not fully aware of it, the 
trend towards national unity and greatness be 
came apparent. It still required a violent con 
vulsion to bring it about, but it was in the air 
and the German people became more active, self- 
reliant and enterprising, and also more practical. 
The immigrants who were highly educated were 
no longer composed of those who had been per 
secuted, who had failed for some reason or other 
or who were dissatisfied with their surroundings, 
but among them were many who knew that 
America offered them better opportunities for 

the use of the knowledge they had acquired, and 
who emigrated for this reason alone. In the 
United States progress had been rapid, and the 
sciences and arts were receiving the attention 
they deserved. Commerce between the two 
countries was increasing rapidly. The number 
of German merchants and bankers grew and 
their enterprises became more and more im 
portant. While German universities were at 
tended by American students, German professors 
and teachers came to America. For the Amer 
ican had also gone through an awakening and 
learned the lesson that practical knowledge ac 
quired in the course of every-day work is not 
sufficient to solve the great problems of mod 
ern life. He saw the need of the higher edu 
cation based upon the sum of the experience 
gathered by others. He began to build up gi 
gantic industries and perceived that the rule o 
thumb worked well enough where every man pro 
duced his own necessities or those of his imme 
diate neighbors, but that more was required for 
large enterprises. The money he needed for his 
railroads and other enterprises had been readily 
furnished by foreigners, and a large part of it 
by Germans, and the goods he wanted could 
easily be bought. But now that he desired to 
make them at home he was compelled to look 
for men who had been specially educated for 
producing them. The American began to found 
schools and colleges that would in time produce 
what he wanted, but he could not wait for them. 
In looking around he found that Germany, above 
all other countries, was in position to supply what 
he needed, and he made quick use of it. But 
the arrival of large numbers of graduates of 
German universities and technical colleges really 
belongs in the next chapter, even though it be 
gan about this time, as likewise the immigra 
tion of trained minds of other professions in 
large numbers. 


Immediately after the war with France, Ger 
man immigration rose to very large figures. Over 
four hundred thousand Germans arrived in 1871, 
1872 and 1873. It then fell off, but increased to 
proportions heretofore unknown in 1880, for be 
tween that year and 1892 nearly two millions 
came. Since then the German immigration has 
fallen off, and during the last few years has been 
almost insignificant. The reasons for this and 

the probable future of German immigration to 
America will be touched upon further on. 

The immigration during the period following 
the Franco-Prussian War and the creation of 
tlTe German Empire differed in many respects 
from that of earlier times. The years between 
i860 and 1870 had already foreshadowed the 
change, but though the German had begun to 
acquire a larger fund of self-reliance and of jus- 


tifiable confidence in his own worth, he did not 
yet call himself a German outside of the borders 
of the Fatherland. Germany was still a geo 
graphical name only, and while numerous forces 
were making towards unity, the inhabitants of 
all the large and small principalities were first 
of all subjects of their rulers, and in a political 
sense no Germany or German people existed. The 
governments of other countries did not know 
German subjects, and German ambassadors or 
German passports which would protect the trav 
eler in foreign countries did not exist. The 
German going abroad was a Prussian, Bavarian, 
Hessian, etc., and only as such could he claim 
protection or the rights accorded to foreigners 
outside of the jurisdiction of their home govern 
ment. The creation of the empire changed all 
this, and for the first time the German citizen 
felt that he belonged to Germany and not to a 
small part of it, and that behind him stood the 
officials and the full strength of a mighty em 
pire. And inasmuch as this new empire had 
been born out of a tremendous demonstration of 
strength and of unity of feeling and purpose, it 
immediately became a power, recognized and re 
spected by all other nations, and at the same time 
endowed its own citizens, for the first time in 
centuries, with unlimited confidence in their own 
strength as well as in the present power arid the 
future of their own country. The effect upon 
the German character was immediate and mani 
fested itself at home in the increase of enter 
prise, in commercial and industrial life, and 
abroad in greater readiness to demand the rec 
ognition a citizen of a world power is entitled to. 
This showed in the German immigration during 
the last third of the Nineteenth Century which, 
not only on account of its numerical strength, 
but also for the reasons givgn, became more im 
portant and aggressive, produced greater results 
and exerted a larger influence upon the develop 
ment of the American people, than the German 
element in the United States had ever done be 

Another factor must not be overlooked. Prac 
tically all the Germans that came to this country 
during this period had served in the army, and 
many had seen active service in one or several 
wars. Americans, who are naturally and rightly 
averse to a standing army and compulsory mili 
tary service, frequently overlook the fact that 
this institution has large educational advantages. 
It teaches a man to measure his own powers and 
to use them correctly, to overcome defects in 
character and temperament, and also many vir 
tues that are of great value in every walk of life. 
To use a short but very apt phrase : a very few 

years of service under strict discipline gives to 
a man the opportunity to find himself. The best 
proof that this is fully recognized by the German 
people is the fact that the number of young men 
who emigrate in order to evade military service 
is steadily growing less and has become almost 
insignificant, while formerly it was very large. 
In Germany more than in any oiher country, the 
profession of the soldier is surrounded with a 
dignity and gives a standing that produces pride 
and self-consciousness qualities which may 
sometimes be developed excessively but are nev 
ertheless of great value. 

In short, the time had gone by when the Ger 
man immigrants arriving in America were flee 
ing from one kind of persecution or another. 
They came with the firm conviction in their 
hearts that they not only received but also gave 
something. Their aims were no longer confined 
to the wish to find peace, protection and liberty, 
they wanted to reap the fruit of the gifts and 
the labor which they placed at the disposal of 
their new country. There were perhaps not so 
many idealists among them who were ready to 
sacrifice themselves for the benefit of mankind 
without the slightest hope of reward, but they 
were all filled with the healthy idealism which 
does not lose sight of the practical side of life. 
The great materialistic wave of thought which 
swept over the civilized world at the end of 
the last century had already begun to exercise 
its influence. Even in Germany, the home of 
the idealistic dreamer, materialism was advancing 
with steady steps. This is not the place to dis 
cuss the relative values of the two theories of 
life, but it is necessary to mention which bne 
was the dominating one at the different periods 
in order to explain the difference between the 
character 4 of the immigration at various times. It 
may be said in addition that the trend towards 
the materialistic conception of life was greatly 
strengthened, if indeed not caused, by the ex 
ample the United States furnished, for their 
unparalleled success in the direction of material 
progress caused many to overlook the fact that 
the American people possessed a large fund of 
idealism. In Germany, where for generations 
pure and almost transcendental idealism had been 
accepted as the highest aim, materialistic ten 
dencies were naturally softened and could not 
change the character of the people completely. 
They rather produced a blending of the two the 
ories which was followed by the happiest conse 
quences until they became too dominant to leave 
the idealistic spirit undefiled. One of the first 
and most important consequences of the change 
consisted in the effort to make science of prac- 


tical service. Germany, with her magnificent edu 
cational system and her clear perception of the 
value of thorough knowledge, was the first 
country to erect commercial, industrial and tech 
nical schools and colleges where the pupils were 
not only instructed in the ways of doing things, 
as in the so-called manual training schools, nor 
in abstract science, but where both methods were 
combined. Soon Germany trained large num 
bers of young men in every branch of human 
knowledge after scientific methods, and the grad 
uate of a commercial or technical high school 
combined the practical with the theoretical knowl 
edge to such a degree that very little practise 
was necessary to make his services far more val 
uable than those of his competitors in other coun 
tries. Germany began to supply a large part of 
the world with civil engineers, with chemists, ar 
chitects, etc. German merchants were found in 
every important trading place on the globe, and 
even German clerks invaded other countries, es 
pecially England, where attempts were made to 
prevent their employment, which, however, was 
unsuccessful as their worth was undisputed. This 
union of scientific methods and research with 
the experience gleaned from actual and practical 
work showed in a development of the industrial 
life such as the world had never before witnessed, 
for it included the transformation of a whole 
people which had, as a whole, not unjustly been 
accused of being addicted to impractical dream 
ing, and of an inherent inability to produce re 
sults, into a hard-headed, practical and enter 
prising people with a clear perception of the 
usefulness and value of every deed and act. 

Of such mould were the German immigrants 
of latter days. They fitted better into the indus 
trial life of the nation than their forerunners. 
They could immediately assist in the development 
of the natural resources of the country then un 
der way. There were many among them who, 
like their forebears, tilled the soil and conquered 
the wilderness, being the instruments that added 
state after state to the nation ; all of them brought 
the peculiar virtues with them which have long 
been recognized as essentially German ; all of 
them were furthermore imbued with that touch 
of idealism that has been so valuable an admix 
ture to the American spirit, and many helped to 
build up the industries which quickly grew to 
dimensions beyond the dreams of the most fertile 
imagination. In every field of human activity 
the brain and the brawn of the German became 
an important factor, in some it predominated 
and was the moving force. 

It is impossible to go into details but a few 
of the most important facts must be mentioned. 

No less an authority than Andrew Carnegie has 
stated that the American iron and steel industry 
could never have reached its present develop 
ment without the assistance of the German en 
gineer who can be found in every office prepar 
ing plans and devising means for the work to 
be performed. There is hardly an industrial en 
terprise, a large railroad company or a munici 
pality in the United States on whose staff of 
engineers are not Germans. As soon as the 
American manufacturer grasped the fact that 
chemistry was a valuable aid and could save him 
enormous amounts of labor and money, as well 
as insure the uniform quality of his product, he 
turned to the German chemist who is now found 
almost everywhere in the United States, not only 
in the manufactories of chemicals, but wherever 
his knowledge can be used to advantage. When 
the glass-making industry emerged from the 
primitive state during which only the cheap quali 
ties were manufactured here, Germans were 
brought to America to do the work and to in 
struct Americans. In the textile industries the 
manufacture of silks and woolens is still largely 
in the hands of Germans. It is a well known 
fact that the introduction of beer, which bids fair 
to become the national beverage and has done so 
much to promote moderation by reducing the con 
sumption of strong liquor is entirely due to Ger 
mans and that this enormous industry is still al 
most entirely in their hands. It is hardly neces 
sary to state that the manufacture of pianos in 
this country owes its development mainly to Ger 
man immigrants and their descendants. One has 
only to follow the advertisements in order to 
be convinced of the fact that this vast industry 
may even at this late day be called a German one, 
though of course most of the founders of the 
great firms engaged in it have died. The piano 
manufacturers played an especially important role 
in the development of the country because they, 
or at least many of them, were instrumental in 
bringing European artists to America and raising 
the taste for and the appreciation of high-class 
music to the present level. The claim is justi 
fied that without their help the musical art in 
the United States would be far bejow the high 
standard it has reached. To this we will refer 
again when we speak of the influence German 
immigration has exerted upon the musical life 
of the American people. In going over the lists 
Of the lithographers producing work of highly 
artistic quality few American names will be 
found, most of the establishments of this kind are 
still managed by Germans or their descendants. 
This list could be extended indefinitely, but these 
few examples will suffice to show what the Ger- 


mans have done for America in this direction. 

It was the same in commercial and financial 
life. The German banking houses have grown in 
number and importance until at the present day 
no transaction of great magnitude can be com 
pleted without their aid. Many of the insurance 
companies have been founded by and are still en 
tirely managed by Germans. A German-American 
invented the first practical and to this day the 
best typesetting machine. In the import and ex 
port trade of the United States more Germans 
are engaged than men of any other nationality, 
Americans not excepted. One of the great over 
land railroad routes was planned and constructed 
by a German, Henry Villard, who later on was 
instrumental in securing a firm basis for the de 
velopment of the electrical companies of the 

Leaving business and the more practical pur 
suits alone, we find that the first exponent of 
political caricature, or cartooning, as the Amer 
ican prefers to call it, was the German Thomas 
Nast, while another German, Joseph Keppler, de 
veloped and improved upon the somewhat crude 
though always effective methods of his predeces 
sor. These two men may be called the origina 
tors of this art in the United States, and among 
those now active in this line there are many Ger 
mans, the most eminent being, without doubt, 
Henry Mayer, who combines American wit with 
German artistic feeling and French grace. Of 
artists, the German immigration has given to 
America many shining lights. Emanuel Leutze 
should be known to every American, for one of 
his great paintings, "Washington Crossing the 
Delaware," has been reproduced innumerable 
times and is found in many American house 
holds. He painted the mural paintings in the 
new wing of the capitol, erected in the fifties. 
One of these, "Westward the Star of Empire Takes 
its Way," is almost as well known as the one 
mentioned above. Albert Bierstadt became one 
of the greatest of all American landscape paint 
ers, and some of his works, most of which were 
of colossal dimensions, found the fullest appre 
ciation and admiration in Europe. His paintings 
of the scenery of the Rocky Mountains and the 
Sierra Nevada are unsurpassed. Henry Schrey- 
vogel, born in New York, but of German par 
entage, is best known by his painting, "My 
Bunkie." Among the many sculptors of renown 
who came from Germany, Karl Bitter deserves 
the first place. 

During this period the American institutions 
of learning extended their field of usefulness con 
stantly, and it was but natural that they came 
into closer contact with the German universities. 

Without debate the fact was conceded that Ger 
many was still the home of the exact sciences 
and the best source to draw from whenever 
knowledge of and instruction in the way of ac 
quiring it was needed. Thus a steady stream of 
German teachers began to flow to these shores 
until there was hardly a university or college 
without German professors on its staff. Their in 
fluence is all the larger as it is exerted upon the 
American youth at a time when the mind is still 
plastic and ready to receive and retain impres 
sions. Of the learned professions that of medi 
cine has given to the United States most. Ger 
man physicians of exceptional ability came to 
America from the beginning of the Nineteenth 
Century, but their numbers grew to great propor 
tions after the Franco-Prussian War until they 
formed a large percentage of all the physicians 
in the United States. The great progress made 
in medical science is, to a large extent, due to 
their example and their efforts to elevate the 
profession to which they belonged. 

In the field of music the German has played a 
more important part than in any other. It may 
almost be said that the history of music in Amer 
ica, from the moment when music ceased to be 
more than a pastime with which people were will 
ing to while away a few hours agreeably, is a 
German history. As soon as the American be 
came musical, that is as soon as he began to 
perceive that beautiful music is art of the high 
est kind and elevates the soul, in making it re 
spond to the most exquisite sensations and lifting 
it above all wordly things, the German composer 
and musician came to the front. 

It is well known that the Germans are a mu 
sical people. They had already produced com 
posers of note when they began to come to 
America. At that time it was hardly thought of 
in England that music was one of the fine arts. 
The English colonists brought little or no knowl 
edge of music to America ; the Puritans discour 
aged it even, and considered all music, except the 
singing of psalms and hymns, sinful. Among the 
German immigrants there were, no doubt, many 
who would even now be called good musicians, 
but no record exists of them. They did their 
share in increasing the appreciation of good music 
but they did not accomplish much until the first 
decades of the Nineteenth Century had passed. 
From that time on we can trace the progress of 
music in America. The beginning was not easy. 
If one desires to know how much or rather how 
little the American people at that time under 
stood of music one has only to read the criti 
cisms that appeared in the newspapers when the 
first artists of note were brought over and gave 


concerts. Some of the passages are so naive as 
to be almost touching. It seems that the critics 
and the audience, too, of course were much 
more interested in the rapidity with which a pian 
ist moved his fingers or the power with which 
he worked the pedals than in the sounds he pro 
duced. We read of one artist who had charmed 
the whole world that his playing showed that he 
had devoted considerable time to the study of 
harmony. In short, these criticisms show an ig 
norance of music that could hardly be found to 
day in a border town. It had to be overcome, 
and it speaks volumes for the great gifts the 
American people possesses that within half a cen 
tury it had emerged from such deep ignorance 
and was fairly on the way that leads to the 
complete mastering of one of the highest and most 
beautiful arts. The part that the Germans played 
in this evolution cannot be described here at 
length, but the facts that can be given will be 
sufficient to make good the claim that in this field 
they did by far the largest part of the work. 

We find the first traces of systematic efforts to 
bring serious music before the public in 1838 
when Daniel Schlesinger, a German musician of 
great gifts, became the conductor of the Concor- 
dia of New York, a society devoted to the cul 
ture of vocal and instrumental music. Almost at 
the same time, in 1839, another German named 
Schmidt organized a similar society in Boston. 
These first sparks kindled the sacred flames and 
in 1842 the New York Philharmonic Society was 
formed, which still exists and to which not only 
the city of its birth but the whole country owes 
a great debt of gratitude. Among its conductors 
were men like Theodore Eisfeld, who must also 
be remembered as the founder of a quartet that 
rendered chamber music ; Carl Bergmann, who 
later on was active in the opera field ; Henry C. 
Timm, Adolph Neuendorf, Theodore Thomas, 
Anton Seidl and many other Germans. At the 
birth of the Philharmonic Society, twenty-two of 
its fifty-four members were Germans ; in 1900, out 
of ninety-four members eighty-nine were either 
born in Germany or children of German immi 
grants. Not much later Eisfeld formed the New 
York Harmonic Society, which was devoted main 
ly to the production of oratorios. In 1850 the 
celebrated Germania Orchestra came from Ger 
many and traveled all over the country with im 
mense success, awaking everywhere the taste for 
good music. Many of its members remained in 
America when the orchestra was dissolved. The 
West did not remain behind. In 1850 Hans Ba- 
latka formed the Musikverein in Milwaukee. He 
was one of the pioneers of music in the western 
states and did much for the advancement of the 

art. After years of fruitful work in Milwaukee 
he founded and took charge of the Chicago Sym 
phony Society. In St. Louis the Polyhymnia was 
founded in 1845 by Dr. Johann Georg Wessel- 
hoeft, and the Philharmonic Society by Edward 
Sobolewsky in 1859. The Cecilia Society of Cin 
cinnati was started about the same time. The 
mightiest warrior of them all in the fight for the 
recognition of good music was Theodore Thomas, 
who did not know what defeat meant and was 
ever ready to begin again when disaster had 
overtaken him. After he left New York he took 
charge of the Chicago orchestra and to him more 
than to any other single man America is indebted 
for the musical festivals now held from time 
to time in many cities. He was the creator of 
the great Cincinnati Musical Festival and was 
indefatigable in his efforts to make Americans 
acquainted with the works of the modern com 
posers. It may fairly be said that he forced the 
public to like and appreciate what he knew was 
good in his art, and the fact that such works did 
not please his audiences at the start never made 
him swerve from his path. Many German singers 
and musicians of great renown came to the Uni 
ted States as visitors and assisted in spreading 
artistic feeling. 

The movement was greatly helped by the Ger 
man singing societies. They had existed on a 
small scale for some time, but they became large 
and influential when the German immigration in 
creased in the middle of the last century, and 
contained a much larger percentage of educated 
men and women. They were soon to be found 
in every place where Germans had settled. They 
combined into federations which held singing fes 
tivals at regular intervals in different cities. At 
such occasions Americans did not only hear good 
music but also learned how serious work can be 
combined with innocent enjoyment. In this way 
these societies became important educational fac 
tors. Many of them earned a national reputation, 
especially the German Liederkranz and the Arion 
of New York, the Germania and the Apollo Mu 
sical Club of Chicago, the Orpheus of Buffalo 
and the Junge Mannerchor of Philadelphia. Sev 
eral of them added to their usefulness by engaging 
as conductors Germans of exceptional ability and 
assisting them in their efforts to get a foothold 
in wider fields. Among the men who began their 
career in America as conductors of German sing- 
Jng societies and afterward became leaders of 
large orchestras were Hans Balatka, Leopold 
Damrosch and Frank van der Stucken. Others, 
like Carl Bergmann and Carl Anschutz, devoted 
part of their time to singing societies. 

In the field of opera the Germans in America 



have always stood for progress and it is due to 
their efforts that the works of the modern mas 
ters became known to the American people. In 
1850 Max Maretzek produced Weber s "Frei- 
schutz," and in 1856 Beethoven s "Fidelio." Carl 
Bergmann gave the first performance of a Wag 
ner opera when, on April 4, 1859, he produced 
"Tannhauser." On this occasion the Arion So 
ciety of Xew York furnished the chorus. Carl 
Anschutz was the leader of the Strakosch and of 
the Ullmann opera companies, the latter giving 
for the first time in the United States opera in 
German with Carl Formes and Madame Fabbri. 
In 1877 Adolph Neuendorf produced "Lohengrin" 
and "Walkuere" and the Pappenheim Opera 
followed one year later with "Rienzi" and 
the "Flying Dutchman." But the man who put 
German opera on a firm footing in the United 
States was Dr. Leopold Damrosch. He had been 
the conductor of the Arion Society and had 
founded the Oratorio Society in 1873, and when, 
in 1884, Italian opera had failed again to satisfy 
the New Yorkers, he organized a German opera 
company, brought a number of the best German 
singers to this country and gave the first per 
formances of Wagner s works in America that 
were worthy of the great master. Unfortunately, 
he died before his first season was over, but the 
work was continued by Anton Seidl, who for 
many years remained the greatest interpreter of 
German operatic and orchestral music in the Uni 
ted States. Since the day when Leopold Dam 
rosch first lifted his baton in the Metropolitan 
Opera House in New York the best works of the 
modern composers have been produced on the 
American operatic stage by the foremost singers 
of the world, and the times are past forever 
when the old Italian opera alone satisfied the 
American public. Without losing the faculty of 
appreciating what is beautiful in the music of the 

past, it has learned to understand and to love 
the best and highest in the music of the present 
and the future. And this is true not only of 
opera but of every other kind of music. 

From this short sketch it will be seen that we 
have not claimed too much when we said that the 
Germans taught the Americans to look upon music 
as more than a mere pastime to while away a few 
hours. They deserve the largest part of the credit 
if the United States has become a musical coun 
try, if refined taste and good judgment as well as 
full comprehension of the art of music and its 
aims have spread to an extent nobody would have 
dreamed of half a century ago. Anybody who 
doubts this may easily convince himself of the 
truth. Any history of music in the United States, 
any newspaper and even the programs of musical 
events will show that to this day Germans and 
their descendants preponderate in the musical life 
of the nation. They are found in overwhelming 
numbers among the singers and the musicians, the 
leaders and the virtuosos, the musical agents and 
the impresarios, and even among the teachers and 
the musical critics. Without them the demand for 
good music, now so strong in the United States, 
could not be filled, and would, in fact, never have 
been created. There can be no dispute over this 
question if the facts are known, and it must not 
be forgotten that only of late music has become a 
calling in which others than a few great singers 
and virtuosos may reasonably expect to reap large 
material gain. Most of the men whom we have 
named and the great host that cannot be men 
tioned here, worked incessantly and gave their 
full strength without receiving more than a 
meager reward. Many of them were, in fact, con 
tinuously in sore straits, and it was the love for 
their art and the unbounded enthusiasm that is 
ready to bring every sacrifice for an ideal which 
kept them at their work. 


In order to do full justice to the Germans who 
have settled in the United States it is necessary 
to consider the difficulties which they had to 
overcome before they could fairly start on the 

_pad to success. Most of them did not know the 
language of the country which they had chosen 

-as the field of their activity. Practically none of 
them were acquainted with its political institutions 
beyond knowing that they gave to every citizen 
the right to participate in the government and to 
every inhabitant, whether a citizen or not, the 

fullest privilege to use his ability in any direction 
he might choose. Even the general views of the^ 
people in regard to the way of living and the 
social customs were foreign to them. All this 
they had to learn, and this could not be done 
without constant disappointments, for they did not 
always meet with kindness. On the contrary, they- 
had to overcome hostility from many quarters 
which frequently made itself felt in attempts to 
ridicule their speech and customs, sometimes took 
the form of contemptuous treatment, and in not 


a few cases led to brutal attacks. Naturally sen 
sitive to criticism and slights, whether intended 
or not, the Germans suffered greatly under this 
treatment, but to their credit it must be said that 
they did not hold the American people responsible 
but understood that the acts they had just cause 
to complain of were committed by a small and 
narrow-minded minority. Neither their apprecia 
tion for the new conditions surrounding them nor 
their endeavors to prepare themselves for Amer 
ican citizenship was lessened by the unpleasant ex 
periences they had to undergo. With rare excep 
tions they took the oath of allegiance as soon 
as the law permitted it and fulfilled their duties 
as citizens with exceptional regard for the wel 
fare of the country as they saw it. This was nat 
ural, for they did not gain American citizenship 
like the native American who receives it without 
effort on his part. They, on the contrary, had 
to pay dearly for it. They had left home and 
Fatherland and parted from relatives and friends 
in order to serve their new country and they con 
sequently held in much higher esteem what was 
acquired under difficulties and sometimes hard 
ships than the man is apt to do who has but to 
stretch out his hand to grasp the ripe fruit. They 
were, and are to this day, proud of their suffrage, 
and in using it follow their convictions and con 
science more closely than the average American. 
Party ties sit lightly upon them and they do not 
follow blindly leaders who cannot convince them 
of the disinterestedness of their motives. Their 
independence and their disinclination to submit 
to dictation or to subordinate their opinions to the 
will of others are some of the reasons why the 
German-Americans have not exerted more influ 
ence upon political organizations. That compara 
tively few Germans have reached high political 
positions is easily explained by the fact that for 
most of them the English language remains, after 
all, a foreign tongue, and that the German is 
not attracted by so hazardous a venture as the 
embarking in the game of American politics may 
justly be called. The influence of the German 
upon the course of politics has, however, been 
very great, and in the main beneficial. The very 
fact that the so-called German vote always re 
mained an uncertain quantity and in many states 
and cities held the balance of power has caused the 
professional politicians in almost every important 
campaign to be more careful than they would 
have been if they had known that the German- 
American voters would follow the party regard 
less of principles and consequences. 

The Germans in the United States have fre 
quently been criticized because they associate 
among themselves and do not mingle freely with 

Americans. In considering this statement we must 
first of all strongly emphasize the fact that the 
American citizens of German birth or descent 
never act in concert when American questions 
are to be decided, that is questions which involve 
the interests of the American people as a whole. 
It is almost impossible to unite the German vote 
on purely political questions. It will sometimes be 
cast almost solidly for one side or the other but 
this is only the case when questions are to be de 
cided that, on account of their ethical or moral 
importance, appeal strongly to the German mind, 
or when efforts are made to deprive a part of the 
population of the right to live in the way it has 
been accustomed to because a few fanatics desire 
to compel everybody else to accept their teach 
ings. When Germans come together to discuss 
political questions they do so because many of 
them desire to hear arguments in their mother 
tongue, not being able to master them completely 
if delivered in English. They not only have the 
right to do this, but it is to the interest of the 
whole country when means are found to instruct 
every citizen, no matter where he has been born, 
until he understands fully all questions in the de 
cision of which he must participate. 

It is quite true that in social life the German- 
American population keeps very much to itself. 
The reasons for this are obvious. The German 
immigrant has no relatives or friends among the 
native element. He has left behind him the asso 
ciations formed during his youth, which, for the 
man who remains in the country of his birth, of 
themselves create a constantly widening and 
changing circle of acquaintances. The German in 
America must seek new friends and has to begin 
life all over again in this respect. Everything 
American is strange to him, the customs, the lan 
guage and the people themselves. Quite naturally 
he associates with his own countrymen with whom 
he can converse freely and who have the same 
tastes. After he has become used to his sur 
roundings and conquered the homesickness that 
arises now and then he begins to associate with 
Americans, but as a rule to a limited extent only 
unless he is so situated that he finds no other con 
genial society. His preference for his own coun 
trymen is not caused by hostility to native Amer 
icans, but solely by the fact that the tastes and 
customs of the two elements differ widely. Their 
ways of amusing and entertaining themselves and 
others are not the same, and they follow different 
rules even in eating and drinking. Aside from 
that part of the population which has become cos 
mopolitan in its ways of living, the German does 
not derive full satisfaction from the exclusive in 
tercourse with Americans, and the American can- 


not get used to German ways. This involves no 
reproach upon either but is a natural condition. 
If the complete Americanization of the German 
immigrant is somewhat retarded by it, this may 
be called a distinct benefit for the country. The 
many valuable traits of the German can only be 
preserved and made a part of the character of 
the American people if assimilation does not pro 
ceed too quickly. They would be weakened and 
perhaps lost altogether if the immigrant dropped 
everything he has brought with him immediately 
after his arrival. The amalgamation comes quick 
ly enough, for the first generation born on Amer 
ican soil is already thoroughly American in the 
full sense of the word, and in the second genera 
tion the German origin of the family is as a rule 
little more than a tradition. 

If the Germans have, at least to a large extent, 
their own and separate social life, they are in 
every other way an inseparable part of the Amer 
ican nation. Their loyalty to the country they 
have chosen and to its institutions is unquestioned 
and has been proven on every occasion. In peace 
and in war they have worked and fought with the 
same ardor and enthusiasm as the native Amer 
icans. On every battle-field of every war that 
has been fought for the republic, German blood 
has flowed freely. They have done their full share 
in the upbuilding of this great country, in the 
conquest of a whole continent and the change of 
a vast wilderness into a land inhabited by mil 
lions and producing wealth beyond the dreams 
of avarice. In commerce and industry, in sci 
ence and art, in every endeavor that makes for 
progress and improvement their influence has 
been potential and of the greatest benefit. They 
have made a lasting impression upon the char 
acter of the American people, softening many 
of its harsh traits, strengthening others that were 
insufficiently developed, and contributing some 
of the most valuable qualities which have en 
abled this great nation, composed of so many 
different elements, to rise to the heights it oc 
cupies at present. And while they continue to 
love and cherish the Fatherland that has given 
them so much, they are proud of their Amer 
ican citizenship, and their whole strength is de 
voted to the greatness and happiness of the only 

country they now recognize as their own, the 
United States of America. 

If at times German immigration has been 
called harmful by some, the American people as 
a whole have always recognized its great value, 
and do, perhaps, appreciate it now more than 
ever and to such an extent that they look with 
regret upon its decline during the last ten years. 
The time may come when a new infusion of 
German blood into the American body politic 
may even appear highly desirable. It is by no 
means impossible that this may happen at any 
time. The tide of immigration rises and falls 
periodically, and for all who would rather see 
children of the Teutonic race settle upon the 
land still unoccupied the following words of 
the greatest German-American, the late Carl 
Schurz, spoken at a banquet given in his honor 
only a few years before his death, may bring 
encouragement. He said : 

"There has been a great deal of talk of late 
that the German element is in a state of decline 
because immigration has decreased, the old gen 
eration is dying off, and the children of the Ger 
man immigrants are getting completely Amer 
icanized. The fact is that since I came to this 
country the German element has been several 
times in the same condition of seeming decline 
but has always recovered through increased im 
migration of highly desirable kind in regard to 
numbers, character and vitality. This immigra 
tion is dependent upon political and economical 
conditions which are subject to constant changes. 
The present decline may, therefore, soon change 
into a new and healthy revival." 

The time may arrive when doubt is permissi 
ble whether the United States is in need of 
further immigration or not. There is no doubt 
possible that as long as there is work and room 
for immigrants, and as long as there is work to 
be done that can only be accomplished with the 
help of immigrants, it is highly desirable that 
as large a proportion as possible of the addition 
to the population be of the Germanic races. The 
history of the country proves that they have done 
more for its development than all the others. 
Therefore, let us hope that Carl Schurz s 
prophecy may be fulfilled before it is too late. 


In order to ascertain what influence German 
immigration has exercised upon the character of 
the American people it is at least useful to find 
out what percentage of the inhabitants of the 
United States have German blood in their veins. 
The figures given here have been collected by 

Mr. Emil Mannhardt, secretary of the German- 
American Historical Society of Chicago, and a 
historian of undoubted ability. Mr. Mannhardt 
has been very conservative in his estimates, and 
has taken the lowest figures given by different 
authorities for the German element whenever 


authoritative statements were not obtainable. The 
conclusions he has reached will surprise those 
who still believe that the United States is in 
habited principally by the descendants of the so- 
called Anglo-Saxon race, but their correctness 
cannot be doubted. They are given here with 
the conviction that the researches of which they 
are the result were carefully and conservatively 
made, and with the knowledge that the informa 
tion underlying the following table is correct and 
has been used with all necessary caution. 

Mr. Mannhardt divides the population of the 
United States according to the Census of 1900 
into three groups : 

A. The descendants of the inhabitants of the 

United States before the year 1830. 

B. The immigrants that arrived in the United 

States during the Nineteenth Century and 
their children. 

C. The grandchildren and further descendants of 

the immigration of the Nineteenth Cen 
He arrives at the following result : 

1. Americans, that is that part of the 

population which had been so thor 
oughly assimilated in 1830 that its 
origin could not be ascertained. ... 12,713,036 

2. Anglo-Saxons 

A. 6,806,383 

B. 4,242,882 

C. 1,069,375 

3. Germans 

A. 12,046,919 

B. 8,714,233 

4. Scandinavians 


B. 2,223,345 
C- 515,555 




5. Dutch and Belgians 


B. 246,280 

C. 50,010 

2o6 2QO 

6. Germans mixed with other Germanic races 


B. 22,376 

C. 29,942 


7. Celts and Welsh 

B. 5,225,161 

C. 2,850,182 

8. Latin Races 


B. 1,860,966 

C. 261,536 

9. Slavs 


10. Semites 


11. Hungarians and Finns 


12. Germans mixed with other, 


B. With Celts 

With Latin races 
With Slavs 
With Hungarians 

13. All others 




not Germanic 




From these figures the following conclusions 
may be drawn : 

1. The German element forms at present the 
largest part of the population of the United 

2. The German element is twice as large as 
the Anglo-Saxon and more numerous than the 
Anglo-Saxon and the American together. 

3. The Anglo-Saxon and the American ele 
ment together form thirty-seven per cent of the 
entire population; the Teutonic element (Ger 
mans, Scandinavians and Dutch) forty-three per 

4. The entire part of the population that may 
be designated as of Germanic origin together 
with the American element comprises fifty-three 
and one-half millions or eighty per cent of the 
white inhabitants of the country. 

And these conclusions lead to the others : 

1. The claim that the American people is pre 
eminently an English or Anglo-Saxon people is 
without foundation in fact. 

2. An immigration of at least forty millions 
of non-Germanic people is necessary in order 
to overcome the preponderance of the Germanic 

element in the United States. 






CARL SCHURZ was born March 2, 1829, in 
the village of Liblar, near Cologne; in 1840 he 
entered the Catholic Gymnasium of Cologne, and 
in 1846 proceeded to the University of Bonn with 
the intention of studying philosophy and his 
tory. Like many other ardent and generous- 
minded young students, he fell under the influ 
ence of Professor Johann Gottfried Kinkel. 
Kinkel was a poet, an orator, an idealist, a man 
fitted by nature to arouse the enthusiasm of 
youth, and ready, when occasion called, to at 
test his faith by his works. He threw himself 
unreservedly into the revolutionary movement 
of 1848, and served as a private among the in 
surgents in the spring of 1849. Schurz, follow 
ing the example of his friend and teacher, served 
as adjutant of General Tiedemann, and, when the 
latter surrendered the fortress of Rastadt with 
forty-five hundred revolutionary troops on July 
21, 1849, he made an almost miraculous escape 
from it through the sewer connecting with the 
Rhine, and fled to Switzerland. In the following 
summer he returned to Berlin, under an as 
sumed name, for the purpose of liberating Kin 
kel, who had been taken prisoner, tried for 
treason, and sentenced to imprisonment for life. 
With the aid of wealthy sympathizers, this daring 
and romantic project was carried to a successful 
conclusion in November, 1850, and created a sen 
sation throughout Europe. Friedrich Spielhagen, 
the popular novelist, born in the same year as 
Schurz, and his fellow-student and friend at 
Bonn, has embalmed this adventure as a stirring 
episode in his book "Die von Hohenstein," in 
which Schurz figures as Wolfgang von Hohen 
stein, and Kinkel as Dr. Miinzer. In fact, a 
more remarkable instance of self-sacrifice and 
heroism for friendship s sake has seldom been 
recorded, and it demonstrated the singular no 
bility of Schurz s character. Schurz and Kinkel 
escaped on a Mecklenburg vessel to Leith in 
Scotland. Of the latter we may here take leave, 
merely mentioning that, after a five years resi 
dence in this country, he held a professorship 
at a girls school in London, where he also es 
tablished a German newspaper, Hermann, in 1866 
accepted a call to the Polytechnikum in Zurich, 

and died there on November 15, 1882. Schurz 
spent about two years in London and Paris, sup 
porting himself by giving music lessons and by 
acting as correspondent of. German newspapers. 
In July, 1852, he majed Ma rgjaret Meyer, the 
daughter of a well-^iown Hanljurg merchant. 
The match was a romantic one^Bie acquaintance 
being traceable to the fame of Schurz s exploit in 
liberating Kinkel, and was the beginning of a 
long and happy union, broken only by the death 
of the wife in March, 1876. In September, 1852, 
Schurz crossed the ocean and took up his abode 
in Philadelphia, where he remained for three 
years, removing then to Watertown, Wis. He 
attached himself at once to the newly formed Re 
publican party, and in the following year, 1856, 
made German speeches which contributed so 
materially to carrying Wisconsin for Fremont 
by a majority of more than thirteen thousand 
votes, that in 1857, although he had but just be 
come a citizen, he was nominated Republican can 
didate for lieutenant-governor, and came within 
one hundred and seven votes of an election. Two 
years later he was offered the same nomination 
and declined it. His first^English speech, made 
in 1858, during the senatorial contest in Illinois 
between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Doug 
las, attracted general attention, and was widely 
circulated under the title of "The Irrepressible 
Conflict." In the following year he began the 
practise of the law in Milwaukee. On a lecturing 
tour through New England he made a decided 
impression by attacking the ideas and policy of 
Douglas, and by opposing a proposed Constitu 
tional amendment directed against naturalized cit 
izens. The latter subject he again brought before 
the National Republican Convention of May, 
1860, which he attended as chairman of the Wis 
consin delegation, and which, upon his motion, in 
corporated in the fourteenth paragraph of the 
party platform a declaration unequivocally pledg 
ing the Republican party against all legislation by 
which the existing political rights of immigrants 
could be impaired or abridged. Moreover, he 
supported George William Curtis in his success 
ful appeal for the insertion in the platform of 
the sentiments of the Declaration of Independ- 



ence, which had been denied to Mr. Giddings. Al 
though he steadily cast the vote of his whole del 
egation for William H. Seward, Schurz was ap 
pointed a member of the committee to notify 
Lincoln of his nomination; a member of the 
National Republican Committee, consisting of one 
representative from each state; and also a mem 
ber of the Executive Committee, which then con 
sisted of only seven members. During the ensu 
ing canvass he made many brilliant speeches in 
German and in English, which were an important 
factor in bringing about the election of Lincoln, 
who, after his inauguration, recognized the valu 
able services of Schurz by appointing him United 
States minister to Spain. Schurz presented his 
credentials to Queen Isabella on July 16, 1861, 
but in December resigned his post, and, after a 
brief visit to his native land, returned to his 
adopted country in January, 1862, to take ser 
vice in the Union Army. He was commissioned 
brigadier-general in April, and on June seventeenth 
took command of a division in the corps of General 
Franz Sigel, participating in the second battle of 
Bull Run (August twenty-ninth and thirtieth). 
He was appointed major-general on March 14, 
1863, and on May second commanded a division 
of General Oliver O. Howard s Eleventh Army 
Corps, at the battle of Chancellorsville. With the 
same corps he participated in the battles of Get 
tysburg and Chattanooga, and served under 
Sherman in the Georgia campaigns. The sur 
render of General Johnston to General Sherman 
on April 26, 1865, terminated the war; and 
Schurz, having obtained leave of absence, pro 
ceeded at once to Washington and resigned his 
commission as general. His resignation was filed 
May fifth, and was the first one received by the 
War Department, with the sole exception of Gen 
eral Sigel s, which was filed May fourth. In the 
summer of 1865 Schurz was commissioned by 
President Johnson to make a tour of the South 
ern States and prepare a report on their condi 
tion and the state of public sentiment. He made 
a careful and conscientious study of the subject, 
and embodied the result of his investigations in 
a candid and judicial-minded report, in which he 
recommended that before readmitting the rebel 
lious states to full political rights a Congressional 
committee be sent there to make a thorough sur 
vey of the ground and suggest appropriate legis 
lation. In the winter of 1865-66 Schurz was 
Washington correspondent of the New York 
Tribune; in 1866 he went to Detroit and became 
editor of the Detroit Post; in 1867 he removed to 
St. Louis to become editor and, with Emil Pre- 
torius, joint proprietor of the Westlichc Post. 
At this time he made a journey to Europe, and 

was received in Germany with distinguished con 
sideration; in an interview with Bismarck the 
latter requested him to give a history of his 
Kinkel exploit, and, after listening to the account 
with great interest, remarked that he thought in 
Schurz s place he would have acted in the same 
way. Having been appointed temporary chair 
man of the Republican Convention of May, 1868, 
which nominated General Grant, Schurz was in 
strumental in inserting in the platform a reso 
lution recommending a general amnesty. Even 
during the war, and while in active service in 
the field, Schurz had not intermitted his activity 
as a political orator, but had occasionally taken 
leave of absence when it seemed necessary to 
rouse public sentiment to support the Adminis 
tration, and in 1864 had made some notable 
speeches in the second Lincoln canvass. As a 
matter of course he was one of the most ef 
fective speakers in the campaign of 1868, which 
resulted in the first election of Grant. On Janu 
ary 19, 1869, the Legislature of Missouri elected 
him senator, and he took his seat at the special 
session beginning March fourth, being the first 
German-born citizen who had ever been a mem 
ber of the upper house of Congress. The career 
of Carl Schurz in the Senate would have been 
sufficiently remarkable if regarded merely as a 
demonstration of his great gifts as a parliamen 
tary orator and of his readiness as a debater. He 
was not only the most effective speaker in the 
Republican party, but the greatest orator who has 
appeared in Congress in our generation. Unlike 
many of his most distinguished colleagues, he 
never resorted to inflated or bombastic rhetoric, 
and never stooped to any of the well-worn arti 
fices with which demagogues from time imme 
morial have been wont to tickle the ears of the 
mob. As was truly said of him, he always spoke 
as a rational man to rational men ; he was al 
ways sure of his subject and always full of it, 
and the natural consequence was that he always 
had something to say that was worthy of serious 
attention even from those who might differ from 
him in opinion. His unusual natural gifts for 
oratory he had sedulously cultivated by a diligent 
study of the best models, with the remarkable 
result that although he had arrived at man s es 
tate before acquiring a practical acquaintance with 
our language, his English style very rarely, and 
even then only very slightly, betrayed his foreign 
birth and education ; and in acquiring so perfect 
a" command of a foreign idiom he had never in 
any degree forfeited his mastery of his native 
tongue. To his other qualities he added a quick 
wit and a biting sarcasm, which could cut very 
deep without ever overstepping the bounds of 




parliamentary decorum, and which made him for 
midable both in attack and in defense. In fine, 
we might say, speaking on Bacon s hint, that he 
was at once a full man, a ready man, and an 
exact man. But he has a better claim than that 
to the respect of the American people. It is 
Bacon, again, who tells us that "talk is but a 
tinkling cymbal where there is no love," and 
Schurz s greatness as an orator lies in this, that 
he not only spoke as a rational man to rational 
men, but as a man of heart and of conscience, 
who judges other men by himself, and feels that 
his best hold is in appealing to the better nature 
of his hearers. What he said of Sumner in his 
unsurpassed eulogy of the Massachusetts sena 
tor, that "he stands as the most pronounced 
idealist among the public men of America," might 
with equal truth be said of himself. The course 
of events has taken his part in nearly all the 
controversies which put him at odds with his 
party in the Senate. He was in advance of public 
sentiment, not so much by reason of any su 
perior foresight or political sagacity, as because 
of his fidelity to his ideals, and his conviction 
that, in the long run, truth was bound to prevail. 
He was the original Independent in politics, and 
the whole political faith of the Independent can 
be educed from his utterances. He was a warm 
advocate of civil service reform, of tariff reform, 
of currency reform, at a time when the friends 
of any kind of reform were few and far be 
tween, and had nothing to expect from either 
party but obloquy and sneers. Perhaps the great 
est practical service he rendered at this time was 
in his unwavering advocacy of correct principles 
on the currency question. He was almost the 
only public man who never made any concession 
on this point to ignorant public clamor, and his 
mastery of the subject was equal to the honesty 
and courage with which he stood for the right. 
The two speeches against inflation and in favor 
of a return to specie payments which he made 
in the Senate on January 14 and February 
24, 1874, were models of sound doctrine. Of 
the second of them Professor Bonamy Price of 
Oxford, certainly a sober-minded and competent 
critic, said that it was the ablest speech ever 
made on banking in any parliament, that its range 
and solidity were wonderful, and that it offered 
a body of detailed doctrine which almost through 
out will bear the test of the closest examination. 
Any adequate account of Schurz s course in the 
Senate will confirm the judgment of William M. 
Evarts that Schurz had presented, under adverse 
circumstances, an instance of an elevated Amer 
ican statesman, and the opinion of James Rus 
sell Lowell, who thought his loss to the Senate 

a national misfortune. The complimentary dinner 
at which the sentiments just quoted found ex 
pression was given to Schurz on April 27, 1875, 
to mark the regret which honest men of all par 
ties felt at his retirement from the Senate, at his 
being (in the words of one of them) "exiled from 
one party by his independence and principles, and 
repelled by the other apparently because it is too 
ignorant to recognize his value in public life." 
It was certainly an unusual tribute to be tendered 
to a man whose public life was apparently closed, 
and it found an appropriate echo on the following 
day in a banquet and serenade given by Germans, 
and a few weeks later in another banquet given 
to him in Berlin by Americans and attended by 
many Germans of distinction. But a more sig 
nal vindication awaited him on his return from 
Europe. Although he had broken with and de 
fied the Republican party by taking sides against 
it in the Louisiana question, in the matter of 
the Ku-Klux laws, in advocating a general am 
nesty; although he had opposed the Administra 
tion in the San Domingo discussion, in the de 
bates on the sale of arms to France, and on 
abuses in the New York Custom House ; al 
though he had originated the Liberal Republican 
movement in Missouri in 1870, and had thereby 
given the first impetus to the current of inde 
pendence in politics which has since swept the 
country ; although he had presided over the Lib 
eral convention of May, 1872, which nominated 
Horace Greeley for the Presidency and had ad 
vocated (with much reluctance, it is true) the 
election of Greeley ; although he had done all 
these things, and many others that equally demon 
strated how little amenable he was to the ordi 
nary canons of party discipline, and how much 
he placed the cause above the party in spite of 
all this, no sooner had he returned home, than 
he was appealed to by the Ohio Republican Com 
mittee to stump that state in favor of Hayes and 
honest money, as against Allen and inflation. 
Within a week he was in harness, and resumed, 
with all his wonted boldness and brilliancy, the 
good fight against financial folly, quackery, and 
knavishness which he had fought in the Senate, 
and which he was to fight over again for many 
years to come. It was to his valiant efforts more 
than to those of any other one man that the 
victory then achieved was due. In the presiden 
tial election in the following year he once more 
cast in his lot with the Republican party, believ 
ing, as did many other Independents, that sound 
currency and civil service reform were, on the 
whole, safer with Hayes and his following than 
with the Democratic supporters of Tilden. There 
was an impression abroad that he had received 


positive pledges from Hayes that civil service re 
form would be carried out in good faith. At all 
events he threw himself into the canvass with 
his customary energy, and his appointment by. 
Hayes to the secretaryship of the interior was 
only a just recognition of the importance of his 
services, and at the same time a partial redemp 
tion of the pledge, if a pledge there was, in re 
gard to civil service reform, of which it was on 
all sides admitted that Schurz was a sincere and 
ardent advocate. So well was this understood by 
the enemies of the reform that, while his nomi 
nation was pending, they spread a report that 
his confirmation would be opposed by some Re 
publicans from a "dispassionate belief" that he 
did not possess business experience and admin 
istrative ability enough for the proper discharge 
of the multifarious duties of the office. The du 
ties of the office were, indeed, multifarious, but 
Schurz was soon to convince the country that an 
idealist can be a very practical man in any busi 
ness which is compatible with honesty, industry, 
intelligence, and courage. He was confirmed 
on March eleventh, and before a week had ex 
pired he assured the clerks that no removals 
would be made except for cause, unless the force 
had to be reduced, in which case the least com 
petent would be removed; that no promotions 
would be made except for merit, and that, as 
there were no vacancies, no recommendations to 
office would be entertained. This was not empty 
declamation, for Schurz did not even bring a new 
private secretary with him. On April sixth he 
promulgated an order providing for the investi 
gation and practical determination of questions 
connected with appointments, removals, and pro 
motions by means of a board of inquiry com 
posed of three clerks of the highest class; and 
his subsequent actions demonstrated that there 
was no sham about this measure, but that it was 
meant in sober earnest. The reform of the ser 
vice, however, was but a small part of the work. 
The new Secretary, in violation of all precedent, 
made up his mina, to master personally the busi 
ness of his office, which included the management 
of the Indian service, with an army of officers, a 
quarter of a million of Indians, and their land 
reservations ; the Pension Office, the Patent 
Office, the census, the public lands the geological 
and geographical surveys, the transactions with 
the land grant railroads, and numerous other 
matters. He worked from nine till six, and some 
times late at night, and made the most of his time 
by devoting to business the hours which most 
of his predecessors had sacrificed to politics and 
wire-pulling. As a natural consequence, he un 
earthed numerous abuses which previous secre 

taries had known nothing about, and probably 
did not want to know about. He found the ser 
vice in a deplorable condition, particularly the 
Indian Bureau. The Secretary of the Interior, 
and even the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 
were kept in ignorance of what was going on, 
and contractors and Indian agents were allowed 
full swing. As fast as Schurz could fasten the 
responsibility for wrongdoing or negligence or 
even mere carelessness, he made changes and 
removals right and left, regardless, as he had 
ever been, of the enemies he made. His efforts 
to check the timber thieves brought him into con 
flict with powerful corporations, and with his 
old Republican antagonists in the Senate ; while 
his intelligent and well-considered Indian policy 
was attacked not only by a noisy company of 
traders, who had a vested interest in corruption, 
but by army officers on the one hand, and by well- 
meaning, sentimental philanthropists on the other. 
All of these foes he faced undismayed, and did 
not allow clamor or vituperation to swerve him 
from what he considered the straight path of 
duty. He put an end to the swindling of Indians 
by agents who were appointed to protect them, 
and in four years gave the wards of the nation 
a better start towards civilization than they had 
ever had before. During his term of office the 
agricultural products raised by them were doubled. 
In his first annual report he outlined an Indian 
policy, the chief points of which were : the main 
tenance of good faith with the tribes ; the dis 
couragement of hunting; the concentration of 
tribes dependent on hunting within reservations ; 
their conversion to agriculture and stock-raising; 
the establishment of schools and of agency farms ; 
together with many other similar measures which 
suggested themselves to a humane, conscientious, 
and highly educated official, who had taken pains 
to master the subject, and was no respecter of 
persons or of unreasoning prejudices. In other 
departments, he displayed the same capacity for 
practical business. During four years he recov 
ered and paid into the Treasury almost as much 
money for timber depredations as had been col 
lected in twenty-two years before, and he was 
the first to demonstrate the ability of the Pacific 
railway companies to establish a sinking fund for 
the payment of their indebtedness to the Gov 
ernment. Without going more into detail, it will 
be seen that in his official career as a Cabinet 
minister Schurz was as great a contrast to the 
ordinary politican as he was during his term in 
the Senate. Instead of laboring for his own 
aggrandizement, and striving to build up a party 
of personal adherents, on whose cooperation he 
could count through thick and thin ; instead of 



.^SRARY ~ 

ulHt jl 

3F JJ 




currying favor with men of influence by con 
niving at abuses which helped the party; instead 
of using his official power to reward his friends 
and intimidate his enemies; instead of resorting 
to any such devices which are but too familiar in 
our politics, he was a veritable tribune of the 
people, always ready to use his great abilities to 
promote the public welfare, and for the further 
ance of good government. Apart from the spe 
cific services which he rendered as legislator, as 
administrator of a public trust, as a popular ora 
tor, in procuring the enactment of salutary laws, 
in preventing the passage of bad ones, in purify 
ing the civil service and purging it of scandals, 
in promoting public economy and justice, in com 
bating financial heresies and educating public 
sentiment apart from all this, which would suf 
fice to give him a strong claim on the national 
gratitude, he has a still stronger claim to ad 
miration and respect, in that, in a time of great 
corruption and demoralization, he was found 
faithful among the faithless; faithful, that is, to 
a high ideal of public duty and private morality. 
His life will ever be a shining example to the 
rising generation, the hope of mankind, showing 
them that it is still possible for a man to achieve 
great honors and high station without bartering 
away his soul for a mess of pottage. It is his 
unblemished character more than his brilliant 
talents that will secure him a place in American 
history. Returning to private life, when his term 
of office had expired, and making his home in 
New York, Schurz became one of the editors of 
the Evening Post, when that journal changed own 
ership in July, 1881, and retained the position un 
til December 9, 1883. In 1884. he took a promi 
nent part in the Independent movement, which 
was called into being as a revolt against ten 
dencies in the Republican party that represented 
the antipodes of everything he stood for. He 
had himself contributed materially by example 
and by precept to creating the public feeling 
which made such a movement possible, and he 
contributed no less to its culmination in the elec 
tion of Grover Cleveland, with whom he had, in 
deed, much in common. The leisure afforded him 
by his release from public duties he employed 
to good purpose in writing his "Life of Henry 
Clay," which appeared in 1887, and at once secured 
him a high rank as a man of letters. It was 
widely recognized as the best life of Clay, and 
the best work of the series in which it was pub 
lished. Its value consists not only in the correct 
ness of its style and in its readableness, but large 
ly in its quality as a contribution to political his 
tory by one whose own political experience gave 
him a peculiar insight into the period he de 

scribed. This work, together with his contribu 
tions to periodicals, notably his Atlantic Monthly 
article on Abraham Lincoln, will insure him a 
secure place among American authors. Repeat 
edly chosen president of the National Civil Ser 
vice Reform Association, his speeches and activi 
ties in that behalf were notable. He was also 
connected with various large business enterprises, 
in which his capacity no less than his integrity 
gained him the esteem of his associates ; but he 
was too honest and unmercenary, in a money- 
getting age, to enrich himself. His quiet re 
fusal to accept the large sum which admiring 
German-Americans offered him was characteris 
tic of the man. In the elections of 1888 and 1892 
he again effectively supported Cleveland, although 
in the latter year his health did not permit him 
to take as active a part as he had been accus 
tomed to do. His latest literary effort was de 
voted to his autobiography, now in course of 
publication. Mr. Bryce has expressed surprise 
at the want of influence upon American politics of 
the great German infusion, and it is certain 
that no one of the refugees of 48 attained any 
thing like the distinction of Carl Schurz, or had 
either so conspicuous or so happy a share in re 
paying his debt to his adopted country. As a 
whole, it may be said of the Germans as of the 
Irish, that, deceived by the name of "Democracy," 
they cast their weight at least during the years 
of moral agitation against the anti-slavery party. 
In this particular Schurz shines by contrast, since 
he at once saw things as they were, and divined 
the essential unity between the Slave Power and 
the despots of the Old World. He differed again 
from many of his countrymen in making a com 
plete surrender to his new nationality, desiring 
and aiming to be only a high-minded American 
citizen. Unlike his noble compatriot , Friedrich 
Kapp, he was not tempted by the conquest of 
German unity to return to his Fatherland. In 
the end, he came to think in English rather than 
in German, though both languages were constantly 
on his lips. In the multifariousness of his talent 
and his experiences in public and in private life, it 
was not to be expected that he should be equally 
surpassing. His military career was certainly 
less brilliant, though not less creditable, than his 
civilian. As a journalist, too, he was less suc 
cessful than as an orator, and in fact, the world 
has seldom seen these two functions combined 
(in the first order) in the same person. The 
speaker s rhetoric is opposed to the directness 
and terseness demanded of the daily writer for 
the press, and as a speaker, it is to be observed 
that Schurz was accustomed to elaborate his 
weightier deliverances by a careful preparation 


in his closet. The journalist has no time for this, 
and pays the penalty in an ephemeral fame. It 
would be unjust to close this imperfect appreci 
ation without a word as to Carl Schurz s private 
character, which was both pure and amiable in 
a singular degree. He was very companionable, 
very warm and kindhearted, most affectionate in 
his family relations ; passionately fond of music ; 
absolutely simple and unaffected in his manner, 
and happy to escape from the observation of the 
world and the exactions of society to be at home 
with his books and engaged in literary pursuits. 
Like Lowell and like Curtis, he learned that the 
possession of these virtues, superadded to abun 
dant examples of public spirit, patriotism, and 
self-abnegation, was no security against the most 
vulgar and odious aspersions on the part of his 
political adversaries. Yet the fullest appreciation 
came, too. His seventieth birthday was celebrated 
not only in private by his friends but publicly by 
the Chamber of Commerce. Caricature was so 
busy with his fine head and tall figure that few 
public characters were more recognizable on the 
street ; but art will yet be worthily employed in 
a reverential monument to his memory. He died 
in New York City on May 14, 1906. 

DR. HANS KUDLICH. Had it not been for 
the downfall of the German and Austrian revolu 
tionary movement in 1848, this country would 
not, in all probabilities, have gained the subject 
of this sketch for one of her most distinguished 
countrymen who, during that eventful period, came 
to this country with a host of fellow subjects. 
The life of Dr. Kudlich has been set forth many 
times as an example to those who desire to re 
main true to their ideals, no matter how alone 
they might stand in their own convictions ; and 
again it proves that notwithstanding the difficul 
ties encountered upon the thoroughfares to a use 
ful career, that enviable height can only be sur 
mounted by those who possess the sterling quali 
ties of the doctor. He was born in Lobenstein, 
Austria, October 25, 1823, and received a thorough 
education in the Gymnasium College of Troppau, 
Austria. He attended this institution for six 
years, in which time he mastered the Latin and 
Greek languages. After his graduation from the 
Gymnasium, he went to Vienna, where he took a 
course in law, and which he continued up to 
1848, when the revolution broke forth. His 
patriotism asserted itself immediately, and he 
offered his services for the uplifting of his fellow 
countrymen and the cause he was in sympathy 
with. During an encounter with the Imperial 
troops in March of the above year, and which 
terminated victoriously for the revolutionist?, he 

was wounded, but after being nursed back to 
life again, he was elected to the Congress which 
was called by the Emperor, under pressure from 
the party he represented. A constitution was 
framed by that Congress for the realm, and the 
provision that was most important and enduring 
was fathered by young Kudlich. The abolition 
of tithes paid by the peasants to the land owners, 
and of the robat, was championed by him. The 
peasants had been required to work without pay 
three days per week upon the lands of the lords. 
Most of the good work accomplished by the Con 
gress was swept away when the counter revolution 
occurred, but the restoration of tithes and the 
robat was not undertaken by the Emperor and 
to this day the Austrian peasants are exempt from 
those taxes. This great public service rendered 
by Dr. Kudlich has made his name dear to mil 
lions of Austrian peasants. It was during the 
memorable siege of the Emperor s troops under 
Prince Windischgratz that Dr. Kudlich effected a 
miraculous escape and endeavored to organize an 
army among the peasantry with which to raise 
the siege, but after many futile efforts his plans 
miscarried. He then joined General Siegel s rev 
olutionary army in the southern part of Germany, 
and when it met with disaster he fled into the 
interior of Switzerland. His extradition was 
sought by Austria, but Switzerland merely re 
quested him to withdraw from the country. From 
Switzerland Dr. Kudlich went to Paris, and in 
1853 came to the United States, settling in Green- 
point and later in Williamsburg. One year later 
he removed to Hoboken, N.J., where he has since 
resided, enjoying a large and lucrative practise 
of his profession. His home is located at No. 506 
Hudson Street, where he is surrounded by all that 
culture and taste can desire. It was during his 
exile in Switzerland that Dr. Kudlich first pur 
sued the study of medicine and his course was 
concluded in the University of Zurich, graduating 
therefrom in 1853 with the highest honors. After 
taking up his residence in Hoboken, it was not 
long before his skill as a practitioner was ob 
served and the practise he established grew rap 
idly; up to the time of his retirement from ac 
tivity his was undoubtedly the largest in the city. 
During the year of 1853 he married Miss Louise 
Vogt, daughter of William Vogt, a distinguished 
professor in the University of Bern, in Switzer 
land. Dr. Kudlich became associated with the 
r anti-slavery movement shortly after his arrival 
in this country, and was one of the most ardent 
supporters. He was a trustee of the Bank of 
Savings of Hoboken for many years, and was one 
of the founders of the Hoboken Academy. For 
many years he was the president of the German 






Club. He is also a member of the Society of 
German Physicians of New York and also the 
Hudson Medical District Society of Physicians. 
Nine children were born to Dr. and Mrs. Kud- 
lich, of whom seven are living. Their son, Will 
iam T., is one of Hoboken s leading physicians; 
Paul F., who is temporarily in music, and Her 
man C., who was a former city magistrate by 
Mayor Strong in 1895 and who resides in New 
York; Hans V., who resides in Dedham, Mass., 
and is engaged in business there. While abroad 
with his family in 1872 he visited Austria and 
received many expressions, both public and pri 
vate, of the great affection entertained for him 
by his countrymen in appreciation of his valued 
services rendered during the revolution of 1848. 
Notwithstanding his advanced years, he takes a 
keen interest in matters pertaining to the better 
ment of German conditions in America, and his 
advice upon the social and economic questions 
is regarded as authoritative. 

GUSTAV H. SCHWAB is the grandson of the 
well known German poet, Gustav Schwab. His 
father, the son of the German poet, took up a 
mercantile career and after spending six years 
in the office of H. H. Meier & Co. in Bremen, took 
passage for New York in 1844, where he first 
established the firm of Wichelhausen, Recknagel 
& Schwab, and in 1858 entered the firm of Oel- 
richs & Co. On his mother s side Gustav H. 
Schwab is a descendant of the early German set 
tlers in this country. One of his ancestors, Con 
rad Weiser, entered the country in 1710 with a 
large number of German emigrants from the 
Palatinate. Conrad Weiser was then a young 
man and became thoroughly acquainted with the 
Indians, learning their language and living with 
them for a number of years. He was instru 
mental in negotiating many treaties between the 
colonies of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 
Virginia and North Carolina and the Indians. 
His daughter married the Rev. Henry Melchior 
Miihlenberg, one of the patriarchs of the Luther 
an Church, whose daughter married Dr. John 
Christopher Kunze, a professor in Columbia Uni 
versity and pastor of one of the German churches 
in New York. The daughter of Dr. Kunze mar 
ried Caspar Meier, the founder of the firm of 
Caspar Meier & Co., in 1798, which firm after 
wards assumed the style of Oelrichs & Co. as, 
after the death of Caspar Meier, the laws of the 
state of New York did not permit the use of 
the name of Caspar Meier. A daughter of Cas 
par Meier married Lawrence Henry von Post, 
of an old Bremen family, who became a member 
of the firm of Caspar Meier & Co. early in the 

last century, and Gustav Schwab, the father of 
Gustav H. Schwab, married the daughter of Law 
rence Henry von Post. Gustav H. Schwab was 
born on May 30, 1851, on the banks of the Hud 
son at the foot of One Hundred and Nineteenth 
Street, where his great-grandfather had built a 
house in 1807, now obliterated by the Riverside 
Drive. He received his early education at the 
hands of a private tutor, and in his fourteenth 
year was sent to the Gymnasium at Stuttgart, 
Germany, where he remained four years under 
the care of his uncle, Professor Christoph Schwab, 
another son of the poet. Having chosen a mer 
cantile profession, Gustav H. Schwab in his 
eighteenth year was sent to Bremen, where he 
entered the office of H. H. Meier & Co., founded 
by the brother of Caspar Meier in 1805, and 
spent four years as a clerk in this business, after 
having spent a year in the office of the North 
German Lloyd in Bremen. He then went to 
Liverpool, where he remained for half a year for 
the purpose of becoming acquainted with English 
business methods, and in the fall of 1873 returned 
to his native city, New York, where he entered 
the office of his father s firm, Oelrichs & Co., and 
took charge of the agency of the North German 
Lloyd, which was in the hands of the firm of 
Oelrichs & Co. On July I, 1876, he became a 
member of the firm of Oelrichs & Co., and has 
continued active in the management of the firm s 
affairs, especially devoting his attention to the 
steamship business until the present day. Early 
in his career Gustav H. Schwab devoted much of 
his time and leisure to public affairs and in 1890 
was instrumental in forming the so-called "Peo 
ple s Municipal League" that nominated Mr. 
Frank M. Scott for mayor. Although unsuc 
cessful, the movement demonstrated a wide-spread 
public sentiment in favor of the separation of 
municipal affairs from national and state poli 
tics, and in 1894 Gustav H. Schwab took an 
active interest in the formation of the Committee 
of Seventy, the chairman of which was Mr. Jo 
seph Larocque, which nominated and finally 
elected Mr. William L. Strong as mayor of the 
city of New York as a protest against the mis- 
government of the city by Tammany Hall. In 
later movements Gustav H. Schwab took a prom 
inent part in the campaigns of the reform party 
of the city of New York, in the formation of 
the Citizens Union, and in the election of Mr. 
Seth Low as mayor. Gustav H. Schwab has 
also been active in his Assembly District, the 
Twenty-seventh Assembly District of New York, 
and in the election of local candidates in that dis 
trict. In questions of national concern Gustav H. 
Schwab took a prominent part in the sound money 


movement undertaken by the Chamber of Com 
merce of the state of New York, and in the ef 
forts to secure a revision of the tariff laws and 
the introduction of reciprocal trade arrange 
ments with foreign countries. On the death of 
his father in 1888, who was a member of the 
Committee on Foreign Commerce and the Reve 
nue Laws of the Chamber of Commerce of the 
state of New York, Gustav H. Schwab was elected 
a member of this committee in his place, and a 
few years thereafter was made chairman of this 
important committee. He has taken and still 
takes an active interest in the deliberations of the 
Chamber of Commerce of the state of New 
York. Gustav H. Schwab also took the place of 
his father on the Board of Directors of the Mer 
chants National Bank, of which his father was a 
director, and was also elected, and is now, a di 
rector of the United States Trust Company. He 
is also a member of the Board of Directors of 
the Atlantic Mutual Insurance Company. Gustav 
H. Schwab is chairman of the Canal Committee 
of the New York Produce Exchange and took a 
prominent and active part as chairman of the 
Canal Improvement State Committee, formed by 
New York and Buffalo business interests, in the 
long campaign for the enlargement and improve 
ment of the Erie Canal, which, after several years 
of hard work, resulted in the adoption by the 
people of the state of New York of the so-called 
"One Thousand Ton Barge Canal" plan, for which 
the expenditure of $101,000,000 was authorized by 
the people. In common with a large majority of 
the business men of New York, he considered the 
future supremacy of the state and city of New 
York to be bound up with the modernization of 
the Erie Canal, to which the state of New York 
owes her present position among her sister states. 
As chairman of the New York Committee of the 
American Reciprocal Tariff League, Gustav H. 
Schwab is interested in the agitation for recip 
rocal trade agreements between the United States 
and foreign nations as a necessary condition for 
the continued extension and growth of the for 
eign trade of the United States. In charitable 
work it should be added that Gustav H. Schwab 
was formerly a director of the Juvenile Asylum and 
is still a member of the Board of Directors of 
St. John s Guild. He was also for fourteen years 
president of the German Society of the city of 
New York, and is still a director of that society, 
which was founded by his great-great-grandfather, 
Professor John Christopher Kunze, with other 
Germans, in the year 1787. 

JACOB HENRY SCHIFF, banker and capi 
talist, was born at Frankfurt-on-the-Main, Ger 

many, on January 10, 1847, as the son of Moses 
and Clara Schiff. He was educated in the schools 
of his native city and entered the employ of a 
commercial firm after completing his education. 
At the age of eighteen, he decided to emigrate to 
America, and came to New York City, where he 
engaged in the banking and brokerage business. 
Operating on a modest scale at the beginning, his 
ability to grasp intricate financial problems and 
his skill in solving them, as well as his quick per 
ception of opportunities, were soon recognized by 
the men who at that time controlled the financial 
markets of the country. His advice was sought 
more and more, his judgment was relied upon 
by larger numbers from day to day, and his in 
fluence in financial circles grew constantly both 
in America and Europe, until he had become 
one of the central figures in almost every large 
transaction that took place. He rose rapidly and 
is now the head of the large banking house of 
Kuhn, Loeb & Co., a director of the National City 
Bank, Western Union Telegraph Co., Bond & 
Mortgage Guarantee Co., Morton Trust Co., Title 
Guarantee & Trust Co., and many other financial 
corporation?. Occupying a commanding position 
in the financial world, Mr. Schiff is also widely 
known through his almost boundless charity and 
his generous contributions to educational insti 
tutions. He follows the best traditions of his 
race by devoting a large proportion of his income 
to benevolent purposes. It has been stated and 
never contradicted or even doubted, that no ap 
peal to Mr. Schiff on behalf of a deserving cause 
ever meets with a refusal to aid. He is one of 
the founders and president of the Montefiore 
Home for Chronic Invalids, founder of the Jew 
ish Theological Seminary of New York, of the 
Nurses Settlement, and a liberal contributor to 
practically every Jewish and non-sectarian charity 
of New York City. A handsome stone fountain 
with bronze ornaments which stands on Rutgers 
Square and bears the simple inscription : "Pre 
sented to the City of New York, 1895," is a gift 
from Mr. Schiff, the name of the donor remaining 
unknown for several years, until revealed by ac 
cident. He presented to Harvard University the 
first Semitic Museum established in America and 
devoted to Semitic studies in 1903, and is chair 
man of the Semitic Committee of the university. 
Mr. Schiff is a former vice-president of the New 
York Chamber of Commerce, member of the Met 
ropolitan Museum of Art, the Museum of Nat- 
^ural History, the American Fine Arts Associa 
tion, and of many other communal and altruistic 
societies. He has also taken a deep interest in 
public affairs, and has been identified with prac 
tically every movement inaugurated to improve 




the administration of the city and state. Mr. Schiff 
was married on May 6, 1875, to Miss Theresa 
Loeb, daughter of Solomon Loeb, his senior part 
ner in business, and has two children. 

JOSEPH SELIGMAN, banker and capitalist, 
was born at Bayersdorf, in Bavaria, on Septem 
ber 22, 1819, as the oldest of eight brothers, all 
of whom became active partners in the banking 
house founded by him. He received a superior 
education and studied medicine at the University 
of Erlangen in his native country. After gradu 
ating he devoted some time to theological studies, 
but neither of the two professions satisfied his 
active mind which yearned for a larger field where 
knowledge and intelligence of high order could 
be made the basis of far-reaching operations. His . 
university life had broadened his mind and kindled 
the love for freedom in his heart. Germany was 
at that time undergoing a period of political 
reaction, and Mr. Seligman decided to emigrate 
to America at the age of seventeen. Soon after 
his arrival he accepted a position with Asa Packer 
of Pennsylvania, who was then beginning busi 
ness as a contractor. Young Seligman was em 
ployed as cashier but removed to Greensborough, 
Ala., after attaining his majority, and started in 
business on his own account. His success in 
duced his brothers to follow him and Jesse and 
Henry established themselves in Watertown, N.Y., 
in the furnishing goods business. In 1848 Mr. 
Seligman, who had been very successful and had 
accumulated considerable capital, decided to trans 
fer his operations to New York City and commu 
nicated his intention to his brothers to whom 
the narrow limits imposed upon business activity 
in a small town had also become irksome. In the 
meantime the other brothers had come to Amer 
ica, and the eight Seligmans united their re 
sources and established an importing house in 
New York City which, under the able leadership 
of Joseph, prospered from the start, and in such 
a remarkable degree that at the beginning of 
the Civil War it was one of the largest and 
wealthiest in the city. Mr. Seligman s active 
mind clearly perceived that the United States 
Government would have to engage in immense 
financial operations to carry on the war, and that 
consequently the banking business offered enor 
mous opportunities. His brothers coincided in 
his views and determined to give up the import 
ing business, transferring their united capital to 
a banking house. This they organized under the 
firm name of J. & W. Seligman & Co. With the 
large amount of capital at their disposal, they 
could not only engage in extensive operations but 
also provide for an ample reserve for any con 

tingency. The master mind of Joseph Seligman 
directed the vast operations with such success that 
the business expanded rapidly and branch houses 
had to be founded in London, Frankfurt and 
Paris, as well as in the larger cities of the Uni 
ted States. The parent house in New York was 
presided over by Joseph, assisted by Jesse and 
James. -Leopold and Isaac took charge of the 
London house, William became resident partner in 
Paris, and Henry and Abraham resident partners 
in Frankfurt. In 1872 a branch house was es 
tablished in San Francisco under the supervision 
of Joseph, but was later on merged in the Anglo- 
Californian Bank, which, however, retained its 
connection with the Seligmans. During the dark 
days of the Civil War Mr. Seligman was ever 
loyal to the Government and proved a mountain 
of strength for the Union. Through his influ 
ence mainly a market for United States bonds 
was found in Germany and the sympathy of the 
German people strengthened. The London house 
was made the authorized depository for the State 
and Naval Departments, and it was Mr. Selig 
man who formulated the plan under which a 
syndicate took up the 5-20 bonds which the Gov 
ernment in 1870-1872 concluded to refund, thus 
becoming as prominently connected with the re 
funding of the national debt as he had been with 
the issue of the bonds. When it was decided to 
resume specie payments the Seligmans were in 
strumental in assisting the Government, and the 
house took $20,000,000 of the $150,000,000 loan 
issued by the Government in 1879. Secretary Sher 
man of the Treasury and Secretary Thompson of 
the Navy publicly acknowledged their indebted 
ness to Mr. Seligman for his assistance in crit 
ical monetary crises in their Departments. Since 
1876 the house has been connected with every 
important syndicate. Mr. Seligman evinced all 
his life an honest and fatherly solicitude for the 
welfare of his brothers, possessing in a high de 
gree the devotion of his race to family ties. His 
home life was charming. He was intensely patri 
otic, a member and vice-president of the Union 
League Club, a warm personal friend of General 
Grant and a member of the famous Committee 
of Seventy. He also served on the Rapid Transit 
Commission which gave to New York its elevated 
railroads, and was connected with almost all the 
great railroad enterprises which connected the 
Atlantic with the Pacific and did so much for the 
development of the country. Mr. Seligman was 
of an extremely charitable disposition and a friend 
of the poor in the fullest sense "of the word. His 
name was connected with almost all the great 
charities carried on in New York, and he took 
great interest in the Ethical Culture Society, of 


which he and Professor Adler were the leading 
spirits. Without question the best known and 
one of the most prominent and popular Hebrews 
of the city, he gave large sums for benevolent 
purposes without asking whom they would benefit 
as long as they were worthy of support. He be 
queathed one hundred thousand dollars for phil 
anthropic purposes to such societies and institu 
tions as his executors would select, and provided 
that no distinction should be made on account 
of religion or race. His wishes were carefully 
carried out, but this large amount was but a 
trifle compared to the sums he gave away during 
his lifetime. He died suddenly at New Orleans on 
Sunday, April 25, 1880, while visiting his daughter. 

ISAAC N. SELIGMAN, banker, was born on 
Staten Island, N.Y., on July 10, 1856, as the son 
of Joseph Seligman, the founder of the well 
known banking firm of J. & W. Seligman & 
Co. He received his first education in Europe, 
but returned in 1866 and entered Columbia Gram 
mar School at the age of ten, graduating with 
honors in 1876, the Centennial year, from Colum 
bia College. While in college, he was president 
of his class and took a lively interest in sports, 
being a member of the famous eight-oared crew 
which won the race on Saratoga Lake in 1874, de 
feating Harvard, Yale and nine other crews. Dur 
ing the years 1877 and 1878 he was connected 
with the New Orleans branch of the firm of J. & 
W. Seligman & Co., and in 1879 was admitted to 
partnership in the New York house. This firm was 
prominently identified with establishing the cred 
it of the United States Government both at home 
and abroad, with placing the bonds issued by the 
American Government under President Grant, 
and with the resumption of specie payments under 
President Hayes and Secretary of the Treasury 
Sherman. Mr. Seligman is now, since the death 
of his uncle, Jesse Seligman, the head of the 
well known banking firm. In 1883 he married 
Miss Guta Loeb, daughter of Mr. Solomon Loeb 
of the banking house of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. He 
has always maintained his connection with Colum 
bia College, has been president of the Columbia 
Boat Club for several years and one of the prom 
inent members of the Alumni Association. Presi 
dent Seth Low appointed him as one of the com 
mittee to raise funds for the new site of Colum 
bia University. He is identified with almost every 
charitable organization in New York City. He 
has taken great interest in every movement de 
signed to improve the city administration, and it 
may be truly said that every cause worthy of be 
ing supported by good and patriotic citizens, 
whether of a political or administrative charac 

ter, or in the interest of humanity at large, has 
found a liberal contributor and earnest co-worker 
in Mr. Seligman. His position in the front rank 
of public-spirited citizens of this republic is 
universally recognized and undisputed. His great 
activity and the confidence he enjoys is shown by 
the numerous positions of trust and honor he oc 
cupies. Mr. Seligman is a trustee of the Munich 
Fire Reinsurance Co., Rossia Fire Reinsurance Co., 
United States Savings Bank, United Hebrew 
Charities, Manhattan State Hospital (appointed 
by Governor Morton and reappointed by Gover 
nor Higgins), of the New York Oratorio Society, 
Soldiers and Sailors Home Protective Associa 
tion, Legal Aid Society, American Institution of 
Social Service, McKinley Memorial Association, 
Fairmount College in Wichita, New York Sym 
phony Society and of the Solomon and Betty Loeb 
Convalescent Home ; trustee and treasurer of the 
St. John s Guild, the Hudson-Fulton Celebration 
Committee, Carl Schurz Memorial Committee; 
treasurer and director of the City and Suburban 
Homes Company ; trustee and chairman of the 
Finance Committee of the City Club ; treasurer 
of the Citizens Union since the Low campaign ; 
treasurer of the Carl Schurz Columbia University 
Memorial Fund; chairman of the Finance Com 
mittee and trustee of the National Child Labor 
Committee, treasurer and chairman of the An 
drew H. Green Memorial Committee, vice-presi 
dent of the Economic Association, treasurer and 
member of the Executive Committee of the Cele 
bration of the two hundred and fiftieth anniver 
sary of the Jewish Settlement in New York City, 
chairman and trustee of the Endowment of the 
Chair at Columbia University of Social Ethics, 
director of the Academy of Design, General Grant 
Tomb Committee, Finance Committee of the Canal 
Association of Greater New York, and a member 
of the Committee on National Conference of 
Charities and Correction, of the Committee of 
the Columbia University Memorial Hall, of the 
Advisory Board of the Republican National Com 
mittee, the New York Historical Society, Cham 
ber of Commerce and of its Executive Commit 
tee on Taxation, the Executive Committee of the 
Civic Federation, of the Committee of Nine on 
Police Investigation, Citizens Union Committee 
of Fifty, Executive Committee of the Great Na 
tional Association for Advancement of Science, 
Art and Education, chairman of the Special Com 
mittee on Commerce and Education appointed by 
the New York Chamber of Commerce, and a 
member of the University Club, Lotus Club, Arts 
Club, Mid-Day Club, City Club, Lawyers Club, 
New York Athletic Club, Union League and the 
Merchants Association. 




The choice of Brooklyn as the place in which 
to make their home in America, by the par 
ents of ex-Mayor Charles A. Schieren, when 
they came to this country in 1856, gave to 
the city one of its foremost citizens. He was 
born at Xeuss, Rhenish-Prussia, February 28, 
1842. His education was begun in the schools 
of his native town and continued in the public 
schools of his adopted city. He was for sev 
eral years engaged in the cigar manufacturing 
business with his father and in 1864 accepted a 
position in the leather belting house of Philip 
F. Pasquay of New York. Upon the death of 
Mr. Pasquay in the following year, he was made 
manager of the concern, where he remained for 
three years. Having saved a moderate capital 
from his earnings, he then embarked in business 
for himself, and from that small beginning has 
grown one of the largest and best equipped es 
tablishments of its kind in the world. The 
growth of the business was rapid and constant 
from the start, and its continued prosperity has 
been directly due to the keen business foresight 
and executive ability of Mr. Schieren, who, 
during the forty years of its existence, has given 
it his close personal attention. He has also 
made a number of inventions which aided sub 
stantially in the upbuilding of this great in 
dustry. Among his inventions may be mentioned 
the "Electric Belt" (which was coated to pro 
tect the leather), the "American Joint Leather 
Link Belt," and the "Perforated Belt." As de 
mands increased and conditions changed, the 
output of his factories has been changed and 
amplified, until the matter of supplying the 
market with just what is needed has been re 
duced to an exact art, and his brand has been 
made famous by the constant reliability of the 
goods produced. It was found necessary many 
years ago to establish branch houses in the lead 
ing cities of the country, and now such houses 
are maintained in Boston, Philadelphia, Pitts- 
burg, Chicago and Denver, also in Hamburg, Ger 
many, while a large lace leather tannery has 
been operated in Brooklyn since about 1880. But 
probably the most noteworthy extension of facili 
ties was the establishment of the Dixie Tan 
neries in Bristol, Tenn., in 1893. This plant and 
its adjunct, the Holston Extract Company, cov 
ers thirty-one acres, and has a capacity of over 
one hundred thousand hides a year. Here, as in 
all the other departments of this vast business, 
are employed all the best methods and processes 
known to the leather and belt making arts. Some 
of these methods are the latest results of sci 
entific experiments, and some are the time-hon 

ored methods which have stood the test of gen 
erations. A notable instance of this is the re 
tention of the old process of vat tanning with 
rock oak bark, which requires four months to 
produce a perfectly tanned hide. Mr. Schieren 
is still the active head of the company which 
bears his name. He is also president of the Ger- 
mania Savings Bank of Brooklyn, a trustee of 
the Brooklyn Trust Company, a director of the 
Nassau National Bank, a trustee of the Ger- 
mania Life Insurance Company, and a trustee of 
the Aachen & Munich Fire Insurance Company. 
He has been prominently connected with the 
Leather Association of New York since its or 
ganization, and one of the founders and members 
of the National Association of Manufacturers 
is a member of its Executive Committee, and 
was formerly its treasurer. He is a recognized 
authority on the subject of leather and belting, 
and his remarks in interview or in public speak 
ing are highly valued. He wrote "The Uses 
and Abuses of Belting," "Transmission of Pow 
er by Belt," "History of Leather and Belting," 
"From Tannery to Dynamo," which he presented 
before the National Electric Light Association 
in 1888, and the Technical Society of New York, 
and which were subsequently published in the 
trade journals. While the foregoing would seem 
sufficient to fully occupy him, Mr. Schieren 
has always found time to take an active inter 
est in public affairs. He was a member of the 
famous "Wide Awakes," in 1860, who did such 
splendid work toward securing the election of 
Abraham Lincoln to the presidency, and since 
that time has been an ardent advocate of the 
principles of the Republican party. He took a 
leading part in the reorganization of the party 
in Brooklyn upon the election district association 
plan, which finally led to the overthrow of Dem 
ocratic sway in the city. In 1893 he was nomi 
nated by his party for the office of mayor of 
Brooklyn and was elected by an overwhelming 
majority of thirty-three thousand votes. The 
campaign was conducted along the line of anti- 
machine rule, and was one of the first of its 
kind in the country to result in success. Mr. 
Schieren has a national reputation as a reformer 
in politics, but his work has been toward secur 
ing purity in politics, rather than in support of 
so-called "Reform" movements which usually ac 
complish a little more than to thwart the people as 
a whole in their real choice of public officials. His 
term as mayor was signalized by the straight 
forward business methods employed, and the 
large number of important public improvements 
which were planned and executed. During his 
term of office Wallabout Market was remodeled 


from an unsightly, inconvenient mass of wooden 
buildings, to a substantial, picturesque, and valu 
able market, having twice its former capacity. 
Through his influence and energetic advocacy the 
bill was passed by the Legislature in 1895 au 
thorizing the construction of the Williamsburg 
Bridge, the initial plans were made and the work 
started. By the addition of five new parks, Mr. 
Schieren s administration more than doubled the 
area of the parks of the city of Brooklyn. The 
largest of these, Forest Park, comprises five hun 
dred and thirty-six acres, is noted for its ele 
vation, natural beauty, and fine view of both 
the ocean and Long Island Sound. Dyker 
Meadow Park, containing one hundred and fifty 
acres, is also of great importance, as it em 
braces several thousand feet of ocean front. Final 
plans were adopted and riparian rights secured 
for the Shore Driveway, which, when completed, 
will be one of the finest in the world. He also 
was one of the founders of the Brooklyn Mu 
seum and laid the corner-stone during his admin 
istration as mayor for this magnificent building 
on the Park Slope. It is an instance worthy of 
note, that during his occupancy of the mayor 
alty he devoted his entire time to the duties of 
his office. He declined a renomination, retiring 
from office with the city in splendid financial con 
dition. Since then he has received unsought ap 
pointments to several positions of honor and re 
sponsibility. The late and greatly lamented Pres 
ident McKinley, of whom he was a close personal 
friend, appointed him a member of the Cuban 
Relief Committee, of which he was treasurer. He 
was chairman of the New York State Commerce 
Commission, appointed by Governor Black, which 
urged the enlargement of the Erie Canal, and 
was largely instrumental in passing the Barge 
Canal referendum by a tremendous majority of 
nearly two hundred and forty-five thousand votes ; 
also a member of the Greater New York Char 
ter Revision Commission, appointed by Gover 
nor Roosevelt. He is now president of the 
Brooklyn Academy of Music, for the building of 
which a million dollars has been raised. For 
many years, and during his term as mayor, Mr. 
Schieren advocated the consolidation of New 
York and Brooklyn, and his influence aided 
greatly in finally securing its enactment. Mr. 
Schieren is a member of the Church of the Re 
deemer, English Lutheran, and is probably the 
most prominent lay member of that denomina 
tion in the United States. He is not only a lib 
eral supporter of his own church, but has given 
financial aid in the building of new churches and 
the extension of religious work all over the coun 
try. His beneficence in this direction has even 

crossed the ocean, the new chancel stained-glass 
windows in the Lutheran Cathedral in Xeuss, Ger 
many, in which he was baptized, being of his do 
nation. He also presented to the cathedral in 
Speyer-on-the-Rhine the colossal bronze statue 
of Martin Luther, the base of which was given 
by other German-Americans. He aided in the 
erection of the Luther statue in Washington and 
was a member of the committee which erected 
the Beecher and Stranahan statues in Brooklyn. 
He is a trustee of the Young Men s Christian As 
sociation, the Young Women s Christian Associ 
ation, and was for several years a trustee of the 
Sunday School Union, the Union for Christian 
Work and the Society for the Prevention of 
Cruelty to Children. He has been for many years 
a member of the Union League Club of Manhat 
tan and the Hamilton Club of Brooklyn. Mr. 
Schieren was married in 1865 to Miss Louise 
Bramm, a daughter of George W. Bramm of 
Brooklyn, and has four children : Charles A. 
Schieren, Jr., Miss Ida May Schieren, George Ar 
thur Schieren and Harrie Victor Schieren. 
Charles A. Schieren is a representative of the 
large portion of the population of the United 
States which has been furnished by the German 
Empire, and he is one of which his native and his 
adopted country may well be proud. Brilliantly 
successful in all his undertakings, public-spirited, 
clean-charactered, and ever ready to support by 
his means and influence any enterprise which has 
for its purpose the betterment and welfare of the 
community of which he has been an honored 
member for half a century, he is a splendid speci 
men of the highest type of American citizenship. 

WILLIAM WICKE, president of the William 
Wicke Ribbon Company, was born at Neue- 
miihle, near Hessen Cassel, Germany, on June 
4, 1840. He attended the public schools at Cas 
sel until 1855, at which time he emigrated to 
America, arriving in New York on August second 
of that year. His object in coming to this coun 
try at such an early age was to assist his brother, 
George Wicke, who had established a good busi 
ness in manufacturing cigar boxes. After mas 
tering that trade and when he was twenty-one 
years old, a copartnership was formed June 4, 
1861, under the firm name of George Wicke and 
"Brother, which was continued until 1872; on ac 
count of illness, George retired from business, 
William continuing under the firm name of Will 
iam Wicke & Company. In 1882 Mr. Wicke built 
an extensive factory on First Avenue, between 
Thirty-first and Thirty-second Streets and East 
River, on a plot covering twenty-two city lots. It 
was the largest establishment of its kind in the 






world. In this factory he introduced silk-weav 
ing, manufacturing cigar ribbons, bindings for 
underwear, blankets and ladies dresses. He also 
began the importation from Cuba and Mexico of 
cedar and mahogany in logs. The mahogany he 
disposed of to furniture manufacturers; the cedar 
being converted into veneers at his own mills, this 
product being largely utilized by himself for the 
manufacture of cigar boxes. His surplus stock 
was disposed of to other cigar box manufactur 
ers. In 1891 he incorporated his extensive busi 
ness under the name of the William Wicke Com 
pany. A branch house employing one hundred 
hands was opened at Tampa, Fla., for the manu 
facture of cigar boxes. In 1899 the company 
purchased seventy city lots at Glendale, Brooklyn, 
where an immense factory, giving employment to 
three hundred people, was built for the manufac 
ture of silk ribbons and bindings. On January 
30, 1901, the New York City factory, where six 
hundred hands were employed, was totally de 
stroyed by fire. The company decided not to 
rebuild but to devote their attention to the Brook 
lyn plant. The box factory at Tampa was also 
disposed of. The Brooklyn establishment contains 
the most modern machinery and improvements. 
After the destruction of the Xew York City 
plant the corporate name of the concern was 
changed to its present one William Wicke Rib 
bon Company. In cigar boxes alone the company 
turns out every ten hours a day s work thirty- 
four thousand completed cigar boxes. The main 
business and executive offices are located at No. 
36 East Twenty-second Street, Xew York City. 
The company s output is marketed throughout 
the United States, but principally in Xew York 
City. The officers of the company are William 
Wicke, Sr., president ; George H. Wicke, vice- 
president, and William Wicke, Jr., secretary. On 
February 6, 1868, Mr. Wicke married Miss Louise 
Margaret Linder of Weissenburg, Elsas. Six 
children have been born to the union, viz. : Louise 
Margaret, George Henry, William, Jr., Carl 
Wicke, Anna and Henry, the two latter having 
died in infancy. Carl Wicke, the younge c t son, 
is at present a student of Columbia Law School. 
In politics Mr. Wicke is Independent. He is a 
member of a large number of social, benevolent 
and other organizations, prominent among them 
are the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to 
Animals, American Museum of Xatural History, 
Legal Aid Society, Association for the Protection 
of the Adirondacks, German Society, Citizens 
Union, American Scenic and Hi toric Preserva 
tion Society, Young Men s Chr stian Association, 
New York Academy of Sciences, Vereinigten 
Deutschen Gesellschaften der Stadt Xew York, 

Linnaean Society of New York, Prison Associ 
ation, Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute, 
Xew York Botanical Garden, German Lieder- 
kranz, Germanistic Society of America, Arion So 
ciety, Students Club, Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, Jung Arion, National Municipal League and 
also a member of numerous other charitable in 
stitutions. Mr. Wicke is a self-made man in 
everything that the term implies. His success in 
life is due entirely to his indomitable courage, fine 
business principles and conscientious scruples. For 
his years he is a splendid type of vigorous man 
hood and of a most pleasing personality. He en 
joys a large social and commercial acquaintance 
and is universally esteemed. He is a large holder 
of Xew York City, as well as outside realty. Un 
der his guidance Mr. Wicke s sons have acquired 
the practical methods he has so well mastered, for 
the continuation of the extensive business when 
he shall have laid aside the mantle of commercial 

MAX AMS_. One of the many examples of 
indomitable courage and perseverance that is so 
prevalent in the German race, and to which this 
country owes much of its international promi 
nence, is shown in the subject of this sketch. Born 
in Waldkirch, Baden, Germany, Xovember 2, 
1844, he received a liberal education in the public 
schools of his place of nativity, graduating there 
from at an early age. It seems that the future 
of Mr. Ams was decided upon shortly after leav 
ing school, when fourteen, for he chose commer 
cialism at the start. Beginning as a clerk in a 
general store located at Freiburg, a distance of 
twenty miles from Waldkirch, he laid the foun 
dation of a most remarkable career. His clerk 
ship ended when he was nineteen years of age, 
after occupying a place as bookkeeper and trav 
eler in Pforzheim for three years, and during 
that time his capabilities had been developed to 
such a degree that a trip to the United States 
was decided upon, and he came to this country 
determined to make a name for himself. He went 
to Detroit, Chicago and Milwaukee, but returned 
to X T ew York, after an absence of six months, and 
started the nucleus of his present enormous en 
terprise. It was only after the hardest kind of 
endeavor, close application, and the honorable 
methods he pursued, together with the high es 
teem he attained, and in which he is now held, 
that his name has been brought into such prom 
inence, that the company he heads is internation 
ally preeminent. In 1873 he engaged in the man 
ufacture and packing of fine groceries, operating 
along wholesale lines. In 1892 he organized the 
Marser Manufacturing Company, of which he is 


the president. The company maintain an exten 
sive plant at Mt. Vernon, N.Y., where sterling 
silver ware is manufactured, giving employment 
to over five hundred skilled workmen. The stores 
and showrooms are located on Fifth Avenue and 
Thirty-first Street, New York City, where the 
product is disposed of at wholesale and retail. In 
1902 he organized the Max Ams Machine Com 
pany, which he heads. Mr. Ams is a director of 
the American Encaustic Tiling Company and has 
served in that capacity for the past twenty years. 
He was a director of the Riverside Bank for ten 
years, but his multifarious duties compelled him 
to resign that post. In 1903 he organized the 
Max Ams Beef and Fish Company, of which he 
is its executive, and besides these interests he is 
a stockholder in various corporations. He is a 
member of the Arion Society and is affiliated 
with several societies and fraternal bodies. Mr. 
Ams was united in marriage on February 8, 1866, 
to Miss Louisa Stoltz (now deceased), and to 
this union were born eight children, four of whom 
have died. Those living are : Carl M., Fred L., 
Emil A. and Louisa Theresa, now Mrs. C. B. 
Smith of Boston, Mass. Mr. Ams has given his 
sons the benefit of his early training and is now 
rewarded by being ably assisted by them in his 
various enterprises, thus relieving him of many 
heavy burdens ; he is nevertheless seen regularly 
at his office every day and gives much of his 
time in further developing his large interests. 
Once a year he goes abroad for recreation and 
keeps in touch with all things of international 
importance ; is a great reader, and has a finely 
equipped library. 

JAMES SPEYER, banker and capitalist, was 
born in New York City, in 1861, the descendant 
of an old family of Frankfort-on-the-Main, 
known for centuries for the broad spirit of phil 
anthropy it has manifested and for its well-di 
rected efforts in aiding those in need and in bet 
tering the condition of the poor, as well as on 
account of the distinguished and prominent posi 
tion it occupied in the commercial world. While 
the name of Spire, Spira or Speier appears in the 
chron- cles of Frankfort-on-the-Main as early as 
the middle of the Fourteenth Century, the first 
member of the Speyer family concerning whom 
accurate data is obtainable, and of whom Mr. 
James Speyer is a direct descendant, was Michael 
Speyer, who died in 1686. An interesting illus 
tration of the standing of the family, even as far 
back as 1792, is found in the fact that when in 
that year the French General Custine brought 
three leading citizens of Frankfort to Mainz, as 
hostages for the payment of a war indemnity 

levied by Napoleon I on the city of Frankfort, one 
of them was the imperial court banker, Isaac 
Michael Speyer. An uncle of Mr. James Speyer, 
Philip Speyer, established the Speyer firm in New 
York in 1837. He was joined by his brother, 
Gustavus Speyer, the father of James Speyer, in 
1845. I 1 J 878 the firm name became Speyer & 
Co. After receiving his education in Frankfort- 
on-the-Main, Mr. Speyer at the age of twenty-two 
began his business career in his father s banking 
house in that city. He then went to Paris and 
London, and in 1885 returned to New York, 
where he has since resided and is now the senior 
partner of the well known banking house of 
Speyer & Co., as well as a partner in the Frank 
fort, London and Amsterdam houses. Mr. Speyer 
enjoys a high reputation in the world of finance, 
and Speyer & Co. have been connected with 
many of the most important financial underta 
kings in relation to American railroads, and have 
acted as fiscal agents for the Mexican and Cuban 
Governments, etc. He is a director and trustee 
in the following corporations : Baltimore & Ohio 
Railroad Co., Bank of the Manhattan Company, 
Central Trust Company of New York, Citizens 
Savings & Trust Co. of Cleveland, Ohio, General 
Chemical Company, German Savings Bank, Gi- 
rard Trust Company of Philadelphia, Guarantee 
Trust Company of New York, Lackawanna Steel 
Company, Maryland Trust Company of Baltimore, 
North British & Mercantile Insurance Co., Rock 
Island Company, Title Guarantee & Trust Co., 
Union Trust Company and Underground Electric 
Railways Company of London, Limited. He is 
also vice-president and director of the Societe Fi- 
nanciere Franco-Americaine. He has taken a 
deep interest in public affairs as an independent 
and non-partisan citizen, especially in municipal 
campaigns. He was vice-president and treasurer of 
the German-American Cleveland League in the 
Cleveland campaign of 1892, an active member of 
the Executive Committee of the Committee of 
Seventy, and a charter member of the Citizens 
Union. In 1896 he was appointed a member of 
the Board of Education by Mayor William L. 
Strong. He was a supporter of Mr. McKinley 
both in 1896 and 1900, and i< an ardent sup 
porter of President Roosevelt. He is active in 
charitable and educational affairs, and in fact in 
all movements which tend for the betterment of 
social conditions in general. Mr. Speyer was 
one of the founders and is now president of the 
Provident Loan Society. He is treasurer of the 
University Settlement Society and of the Peo 
ple s Symphony Concerts and is connected with 
a number of other similar philanthropic efforts, 
among them being trustee of Teachers College, 










Hospital Saturday and Sunday Association, Isa 
bella Heimath and the Mount Sinai Hospital. 
His charity knows no difference of race, creed 
or color. He has given large sums for educa 
tional purposes, as for instance the building of 
the Speyer School, and was also the creator of the 
Theodore Roosevelt professorship at the Univer 
sity of Berlin. Although not a clubman, Mr. 
Speyer is a member of the City, Manhattan, 
Players, Racquet, Reform, Lawyers, Lotos, Whist, 
City Midday, New York Yacht clubs and the 
Deutscher Verein. In November, 1897, Mr. Speyer 
married Ellin L. Prince (Mrs. John A. Lowery), 
daughter of the late John Dyneley Prince, who 
also takes an active part in charitable and philan 
thropic work in New York. 

OTTO H. KAHN, banker and capitalist, was 
born at Mannheim in Germany on February 21, 
1867. His father was a banker at Mannheim, 
alderman of the city and knighted by the Grand 
Duke of Baden. His mother was Miss Eber- 
stadt of Worms, the daughter of the mayor of 
that city. Mr. Kahn was one of eight children, of 
whom several have distinguished themselves in 
various lines. His brother, Robert, is a composer 
of note and professor in the Royal Conserva 
tory at Berlin ; another brother, Franz, has se 
cured a reputation as a jurist of great ability. 
Mr. Kahn was educated in the gymnasium at 
Mannheim and after graduating attended lectures 
at Karlsruhe for three years. After finishing 
his education he entered the service of the London 
branch of the Deutsche Bank, where he remained 
for five years, rising from one position to another 
and acting during the last year as manager. In 
1893 he came to New York and entered the em 
ploy of Speyer & Co., bankers. Since 1896 he 
has been a partner in the banking house of Kuhn, 
Loeb & Co. Mr. Kahn is not only widely known 
as an able and prominent financier but also 
through his connection with the arts and litera 
ture. He is deeply interested in all matters con 
nected with the higher life. As a director of 
the Metropolitan Opera House he has been es 
pecially active and was instrumental in securing 
a new management when the present head of the 
enterprise decided to retire. It may, in fact, be 
said, that Mr. Kahn was the moving force that 
solved the difficulties arising from the situation, 
and placed opera in New York upon a new and 
satisfactory basis. He is also one of the found 
ers and the most active promoters of the New 
Theater, an institution that is intended to present 
to America a theater similar to the famous "The 
atre Frangais" in Paris. To Mr. Kahn s inde 
fatigable activity, combined with practical busi 

ness sense and literary knowledge of high charac 
ter the fact is largely due that this enterprise was 
successfully launched, and that the city of New 
York will soon have a playhouse where the best 
classical and modern plays will be presented in a 
perfect way by a stock company, and where art 
in its highest sense will be fostered with the help 
of a school for dramatic art, an endowment fund, 
a pension fund for actors, and other institutions 
in keeping with the altruistic purpose of the enter 
prise. In this as in other similar undertakings 
Mr. Kahn is moved solely by the desire to foster 
art and artistic ideals in the interest of the whole 
people and mankind in general." He is very fond 
of gentlemanly sports, such as riding, golfing, 
automobiling, yachting and coaching. An expert 
driver himself, he is often seen tooling his splen 
did four-in-hand and has taken several ribbons in 
contests at horse shows. Mr. Kahn lives during 
six months of the year at Morristown, N.J., 
spends two months at his summer home on Up 
per Saranac Lake in the Adirondacks and the re 
mainder at his town house in Sixty-eighth Street, 
New York City. He is a member of the Eastern 
Yacht Club, Lotos, City, St. Andrews Golf, Mor 
ristown Field, Lawyers and City Midday clubs 
and of the Chamber of Commerce. He is also 
a large contributor to practically every charity 
worthy of support. On January 8, 1896, Mr. 
Kahn was married to Miss Addie Wolff, daugh 
ter of one of the partners of the firm of Kuhn, 
Loeb & Co., and has four children : Maud Emily, 
Margaret Dorothy, Gilbert Wolff and Roger 
Wolff Kahn. 

HUGO WESEXDONCK was born at Elber- 
feld, in Germany, on April 24, 1817, and received 
his education in the Gymnasium of his native 
city. After graduating, he studied law at the 
University of Bonn and later in Berlin, where 
he served as one year s volunteer in the Royal 
Rifles. Passing through all his examinations 
with great success, he worked for four years 
with the District Court at Elberfeld and finally 
established himself as attorney at Diisseldorf. 
His knowledge of the law and his ability as an 
advocate, rapidly brought him renown, and he 
was engaged in some of the most important cases 
of the period, among them the litigation of a 
large railroad company for the right of way, 
and the divorce suit of Countess Hatzfeld, known 
as the friend of Ferdinand Lassalle. The stir 
ring times that preceded the revolution of 1848, 
when the German people rose to secure the liber 
ties so long promised but denied them, found the 
young lawyer in the front rank of the movement. 
He was elected to the Prussian House of Rep- 


resentatives and to the German Parliament, 
which assembled at Frankfurt-on-the-Main, and 
was intended to formulate a constitution for the 
new German Empire. This body was forced to 
dissolve, its meeting place being surrounded by 
troops, and some of its members, Mr. Wesen- 
donck among them, decided to continue their de 
liberations at Stuttgart. Here their meetings 
were again prevented by force and the leaders 
were indicted for high treason. Mr. Wesendonck 
fled to Switzerland and later to Paris, but was 
tried in his absence and condemned to death. Af 
ter a short sojourn in France, he emigrated to 
the United States and engaged in commercial 
pursuits in Philadelphia and New York City, the 
practise of law not appealing to him. But the 
real work of his life, with which his name will 
ever be connected, and which is a monument to 
his enterprise and sagacity, began in 1860, when 
he founded, together with his friend, Friedrich 
Schwendler, the Germania Life Insurance Com 
pany. Mr. Wesendonck believed that an inst tu- 
tion managed by Germans and conducted on Ger 
man principles of strictest honesty and economy, 
was not only necessary, but would be eminently 
successful, and the future proved that he was 
right. The Germania Life was organized as a 
mutual company and some of the most prominent 
citizens of the city acted as directors, among 
them the mayor, the Prussian Consul and many 
bankers and merchants. The new company felt 
its way carefully and preferred a slow but sure 
growth to large and quick results accomplished 
by unsafe methods. Its business soon spread 
over the whole United States and was extended, 
in 1868, to Europe. Its headquarters are now in 
its own building at No. 20 Nassau Street, New 
York, and the European business is conducted 
from their offices at Behrenstrasse 12, Berlin. In 
addition, the company owns a fine building in St. 
Paul, Minn. While its growth has been very 
successful, it has continued to follow the sound 
and conservative principles laid down by its 
founder, and was one of the few companies that 
weathered the insurance investigation in 1906 
without the discovery of a single flaw in man 
agement or policy. Mr. Wesendonck belonged 
to that group of "Fortyeighters" that brought so 
much idealism and love for beauty in every field 
of human endeavor to this country. His early 
life had been passed at Dusseldorf, when that 
city was the home of many artists of note, and 
his home had been the gathering place for many 
men of genius. He continued these traditions in 
his new country, and every enterprise that was 
started, to increase the taste for art, the love 
for the beautiful and the uplifting of the people, 

found in him a generous contributor. His name 
was connected with every movement in the in 
terest of the German population, as well as the 
whole people from the time he landed on these 
shores until his life work was completed. His 
wife, whom he married in 1844 and who died be 
fore him in 1889, ably assisted him and was the 
first president of the Women s Auxiliary of the 
German Hospital, when this institution was 
founded. Mr. Wesendonck died on December 
19, 1900, and left two sons and one daughter. 

HENRY IDEN. What one may achieve by 
strict observance of concentrated purpose is bril 
liantly illustrated in the career of one of New 
York s oldest and highest esteemed commercial 
men, Henry Iden, who was always proud of the 
fact that he was of German nativity. He was 
born at Duvenstedt on November i, 1823. The 
village free school furnished his rudimentary ed 
ucation, in fact it was the only tuition he ever 
boasted of, and during this period he lost no op 
portunity to make the very best of the instruc 
tion the institution offered. He was about four 
teen years old when he sought employment and 
acting upon the first impulse his mind dictated, he 
turned his attention to the trade of wood-carving. 
Finding this work congenial, he exerted all his 
energies to master every detail, and at the age of 
twenty-six he completed his apprenticeship and 
came to this country. He settled on Baxter 
Street, at that time a rather substantial residen 
tial section, and for a year or more pursued his 
chosen vocation with an earnestness that was 
characteristic. It was not long thereafter that 
his enterprising spirit asserted itself. The reali 
zation of his early ambition was materialized 
when in 1854 he started in business on his own 
account and established a thoroughly equipped 
six-story furniture house at, 194-196 Hester 
Street, New York City, at that time the best 
building in that neighborhood. It was here he 
manufactured and sold his product. For seven 
teen years he operated this business and was very 
successful. In 1865 his mind turned toward a 
different channel, that of chandelier manufactur 
ing. This was his first and only change during 
his whole business career, and it was a change 
for the better. He realized this, after having 
looked over the new field and found it would be 
far more remunerative than the former. He im 
mediately remodeled his building, the birthplace 
of his second enterprise, and installed everything 
his new venture would require, and again started 
with greater determination to realize his idea of 
a successful commercial life. Every year his 
industry gained gradual strength and the day 







finally came when a change of quarters was 
found necessary. It was in 1887 that Mr. Iden 
constructed the present building at Xos. 42 to 50 
University Place, and realizing the importance of 
a modern equipped plant, he spared no expense to 
make the new commercial home complete through 
out. At the time of construction, this building 
was one of the largest, in that section of New 
York, and, like the old Stewart Building, wa, s 
an object of great interest to those visiting this 
city. To-day this building is a landmark of old 
New York, but containing everything modern 
for the manufacture of chandeliers, etc., and en 
joying a patronage that extends all over this 
country. All the employees, through the excep 
tional relationship that existed and still exists be 
tween them and their employer, take a personal 
interest in furthering the prosperity of the com 
pany. On July 2, 1849, Mr. Iden married Mus 
Christine Greve of Germany. Three children 
were born to this union, two sons and one daugh 
ter, of whom Henry, Jr., is the sole survivor. 
On October 25, 1854, Mr. Iden was made an 
American citizen and began at once to take 
a great interest in the affairs of his adopted 
country. In politics he was a stanch Democratic 
supporter and his affiliation with that party con 
tinued up to the time of his demise. He served 
in the Fifth New York State Militia and wa- 
honorably discharged August 12, 1862. Mr. Iden 
was a director of the old Third Avenue railroad 
company for many years and a director of the 
Union Square Bank, now the Corn Exchange 
Bank. He was not a club man, his leisure mo 
ments being spent quietly at home with his fam 
ily. He was a member of the Presbyterian 
Church. Mr. Iden was always the personifica 
tion of energy. He was always busy, work and 
hard work was his plea?ure. He always breathed 
good will and suggested mental, moral and physi 
cal wholesomeness ; he had a dignity of manner 
and carriage that commanded respect and atten 
tion and the ability to make people feel at ease 
was one of his greatest charm?. He was gener 
ous to a fault and his philanthropy was known 
to many deserving charities. Mr. Iden passed 
away at his home in Mount Vernon in 1903 and 
the vast interests he had built was left to the 
able administration of his son, Henry, Jr., who 
possesses many of his father s noble character 
istics. The employees of Iden & Company, after 
the death of Mr. Iden, adopted resolutions of 
sympathy and presented them to his son, one of 
many tributes to a man of genuine sterling quali 

HENRY SIEGEL, merchant, was born at 
Eubigsheim, in Germany, on March 17, 1852, 
as the son of Lazarus, burgomaster of the town, 
and Zerlina Siegel. He received his education in 
the schools of his birthplace, but came to Amer 
ica when but fifteen years of age and attended 
the night schools in Washington, D.C., to com 
plete his education. Immediately after his arrival 
in this country, young Siegel found employment 
in a clothing store in Washington at a salary of 
three dollars and a half per week. Full of am 
bition and determination to succeed, he devoted 
himself to his duties with such energy that he 
rose rapidly, and at the end of four years had 
been advanced to fifteen dollars weekly. In 1871 
he went to work for his brothers who had estab 
lished a store at Parkersburg, Pa., and five years 
later, in 1876, removed to Chicago to start on his 
own account. He established the firm of Siegel, 
Hartsfeld & Co., cloak manufacturers, which was 
later on changed to Siegel Bros. While very suc 
cessful in this venture, the real rise of Mr. Siegel 
began when he started, in 1889, in conjunction 
with Frank H. Cooper, a department store under 
the firm name of Siegel, Cooper & Co. This has 
been said to have been the first real modern de 
partment store, and whether this is correct or 
not, the fact remains that the new firm intro 
duced methods heretofore unknown, and rapidly 
became one of the great retail trading centers of 
the country. The business grew to such large 
proportions that the firm soon needed more com 
modious quarters and erected the "Big Store" at 
State and Van Buren Streets, which was occu 
pied in 1889. While this would have been suf 
ficient for an ordinary man, Mr. Siegel s tre 
mendous activity needed larger fields and in 1896 
another "Big Store" was erected in New York, at 
the corner of Sixth Avenue and Eighteenth Street, 
which revolutionized the retail business of the 
metropolis and forced other long-established con 
cerns to change their methods completely. Some 
years later Mr. Siegel retired from the Siege!- 
Cooper Co. and purchased the old house of Simp 
son, Crawford & Co., reorganizing the business 
completely and building up a large retail trade. In 
1904 he opened his Fourteenth Street store, on 
the old Macy site at the corner of Fourteenth 
Street and Sixth Avenue, and in 1905 he added 
the Henry Siegel Co. of Boston to his chain of 
retail stores. Mr. Siegel himself ascribes his 
success to hard work and persistency, but this is 
a rather modest statement. He is full of new 
ideas and constantly adds methods heretofore un 
known. He is in constant touch with every de 
partment and watches every development with the 
utmost care. As a characteristic illustration the 


fact may be mentioned that Mr. Siegel did away 
with the old method under which advertisements 
were written up by special writers from infor 
mation furnished by the heads of the different de 
partments. Mr. Siegel held correctly that nobody 
could write a really good advertisement without 
having seen the merchandise and having formed 
an opinion as to its qualities. He, therefore, in 
sists that the advertisement writers must exam 
ine the goods about which they are asked to write. 
A remarkable memory and the rare faculty of 
assembling a multitude of facts in his mind with 
out ever getting them tangled have assisted this 
prince among retail merchants to carry on and 
bring to success business operations of a mag 
nitude that is truly appalling to the ordinary mind. 
His ideal is to buy and distribute merchandise 
so economically that it may bring things hereto 
fore unattainable to the family of average means 
within the reach of all. And while this implies 
the reduction of expenses to the lowest possible 
figure, Mr. Siegel understands fully that one of 
the greatest dangers to a business of this kind lies 
in the attempt to save in the compensation of 
the employees. For their welfare he is most so 
licitous, and always ready to device new means 
to help them. He furnishes them with free med 
ical attention, and with good and nourishing food 
at less than cost, and he assists their relief asso 
ciations, savings banks, etc. Above all, he is 
constantly on the watch to find men and women 
who have earned the right to promotion and who, 
with a little help, may be started on the road to 
success. His solicitude in this direction may be 
surely designated as one of the reasons for his 
own success. Mr. Siegel was married twice, in 
1885 to Miss Julia Rosenbaum of Chicago, who 
died in 1886, and on April 25, 1898, to Mrs. Marie 
Vaughan Wilde, the well known authoress. 

cotton and coffee merchant, with extensive offices 
located in the New York Cotton Exchange Build 
ing, is a native of Bremen, Germany. For the 
past forty-two years Mr. Mohr has been a resident 
of New York City, where he has long been pop 
ular in the select German circles. He is a mem 
ber and president of the German Club, the most 
exclusive of its kind in the country; he is also 
a member of the New York Cotton Exchange, 
the New York Coffee Exchange, a director of the 
Mutual Alliance Trust Company and several other 
minor organizations. In 1875 Mr. Mohr married 
Miss Clothilde Klein; the union has been blessed 
with two children, one deceased and a daughter 
now married. Mr. Mohr has never been active in 
political life, nor has he ever desired or sought 

public office. He is a gentleman of high culture 
and resides in a handsome apartment at No. 450 
West End Avenue, New York City. 

ERNST THALMANN, banker, was born in 
the Rhenish Palatinate, Germany, on June 19, 
1851, and received his education at Mannheim. He 
came to America when seventeen years of age and 
engaged in the banking business, where his ability 
and wide knowledge of men and affairs soon se 
cured for him a prominent position. As head of 
the well known banking house, Ladenburg, Thal- 
mann & Co., Mr. Thalmann has been identified 
with many of the most important financial trans 
actions both here and abroad. He is chairman of 
the Board of Directors of the North American 
Exploration Co., Limited; vice-president and di 
rector of the Birmingham & Atlantic Railroad 
and the United States & Hayti Telegraph & Cable 
Co. ; trustee in the United States for the Frank 
fort Transport, Glass & Accident Insurance Co., 
and the Munich Reinsurance Co. ; trustee of the 
Aachen & Munich Fire Insurance Co., the Ba 
varian Mortgage & Exchange Bank of Munich, 
New York Trust Co. ; director of the Alliance 
Realty Co., Century Realty Co., De La Vergne 
Machine Co., Lawyers Mortgage Co., Mercantile 
National Bank, Mortgage Bond Co., Omaha Water 
Co., United Railroads Co. of San Francisco, 
Seaboard Air Line Railway, Realty Finance Co., 
Richmond Trust & Safe Deposit Co., United Rail 
ways Investment Co. of San Francisco, and the 
Van Norden Trust Co. Mr. Thalmann was mar 
ried in December, 1881, to Miss Michaelis and 
has two children, Edward E. and Paul Thalmann. 

LOUIS WINDMULLER, merchant, financier 
and author, was born in Westphalia, Germany, 
and received his education at Miinster in a gym 
nasium founded by Charlemagne. He came to 
the United States in 1853 and ever since has been 
a resident of New York City. Mr. Windmuller 
achieved business success and associated himself 
with financial institutions. He took part in 
founding the Title-Guarantee & Trust Co., the 
German-American Insurance Co., the German Al 
liance Insurance Co., the Maiden Lane Savings 
Bank, the Maiden Lane Safe Deposit Co., the 
South Manhattan Realty Co. and the Bond & 
Mortgage Guarantee Co. Most of these institu 
tions he continues to serve as director ; he is 
president of the Maiden Lane Savings Bank. 
Mr. Windmuller has taken a deep interest in 
public affairs, especially in the advocacy of a 
sound currency, a purely revenue tariff and civil 
service reform. He has written many magazine 
and newspaper articles on these subjects and 


stands high as an authority on financial and 
economical questions. Amongst other magazine 
articles which have commanded attention are 
"History of Encyclopedias" and "Pleasures of 
City Pedestrians" in the Review of Reviews; 
"The Art of Drinking" and "A Plea for Parks" 
in the Forum; "Food That Fails to Feed" and 
"Disposal of the Dead" in the North American 
Review. He has written articles for the Out 
look, Harper s Weekly and numerous daily pa 
pers. Practically every movement for public im 
provements of one kind or another has found in 
him an enthusiastic and indefatigable supporter. 
Of the many associations with which he is identi 
fied the following may be named : the Cham 
ber of Commerce, in which he was chairman of 
the Committee on Internal Trade and Improve 
ments, the Executive Committee for the im 
provement of the state canals, as member of 
which he worked successfully for the amendment 
of the Constitution, which made that improve 
ment possible; the Business Men s Relief Com 
mittee and the Board of Trade, in which he is a 
managing director. He is also interested in a 
number of charitable institutions, being treas 
urer and director of the Legal Aid Society, which 
furnishes gratuitous advice to the ignorant 
needy without regard to nationality. Of his ser 
vices in behalf of charity his efforts for the ben 
efit of the German Hospital Fair in 1888 de 
serve especial mention. In connection with this 
affair Mr. Windmuller arranged a collection of 
paintings and a souvenir containing autobio 
graphical contributions from the best American 
and German authors. He is known as an art 
connoisseur and collector of paintings and books. 
He was also treasurer of a fund for the erection 
of a monument to Goethe and vice-president of 
the Heine Monument Society. Mr. Windmuller 
is connected with many clubs, among them the 
Merchants, German, Lotos, Underwriters, New 
York Athletic and Arion, the Metropolitan Mu 
seum of Art, the Germanistic and the New York 
Historical Society, of which he is a life mem 
ber. Few of the German merchants in New York 
City have been so closely identified with the life 
of the nation during the last fifty years, in all 
of its manifestations, in politics as well as in 
the development of the arts, literature and char 
itable undertakings of every kind. 

LUDWIG NISSEN, merchant, was born at 
Husum, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, on De 
cember 2, 1855. He is descended, on his father s 
side, from the great Danish statesman, George 
Nicolaus von Nissen, and on his mother s side 
from the old noble family of von Dawartzky. 

Mr. Nissen was educated in the common schools 
of his native town and afterwards became a clerk 
in the Imperial Court. Recognizing that the op 
portunities for advancement were very limited 
and could not satisfy his ambition, he emigrated 
to the United States and arrived here in 1872 
with two dollars and a half in his possession. 
But the determination to succeed was in him, he 
accepted the first position that was offered to 
him, and worked for four months in a barber 
shop as porter and bootblack. He then worked 
as dishwasher in a hotel on Dey Street, where 
his ability was recognized by the proprietor, who 
made him first a waiter, then bookkeeper and 
finally cashier. Mr. Nissen then sought and 
found a clerkship in a factory but the firm failed 
and he lost his position. He had saved some 
money and decided to go into business for him 
self, but the next five years brought him nothing 
but a varied though withal valuable experience. 
He tried the butcher business for a while with 
out succeeding, started a restaurant and eold it 
again, invested the proceeds, five thousand dol 
lars, in the wholesale wine business and lost it 
all within nine months, being in debt for one 
thousand dollars in addition. This did not dis 
courage him. He made the acquaintance of a 
diamond cutter, who carried on a small shop, but, 
like himself, had more debts than assets. Mr. 
Nissen went into partnership with him, under 
the firm name of Schilling & Nissen, and quick 
ly mastered the details of the business. He was 
so successful in selling the goods his partner 
manufactured that the firm soon prospered. Its 
name was later changed to Ludwig Nissen & 
Co., and the firm drifted from diamond setting 
to diamond importing. Five years after the 
partnership had been formed Mr. Nissen bought 
out his partner and formed a new partner 
ship, the firm name remaining the same. The 
house is now one of the best known and most 
prominent in its line, in spite of the fact that it 
is comparatively young. Mr. Nissen s energy has 
by no means been confined to his business. He 
has taken an active interest in public affairs, his 
intelligent treatment of public questions and his 
strong character making a deep impression upon 
all who have come in contact with him. He has 
been identified with almost every movement in 
augurated for the general welfare and the bet 
terment of conditions in municipal affairs as 
well as the government of the state and nation. 
Many honors have been offered to him, some of 
which he was compelled to decline, bearing tes 
timony to his high standing in the community and 
the appreciation of his character and services 
by his fellow citizens. He has been president of 


the New York Jewelers Association, the Manu 
facturers Association of New York and the 
Brooklyn League. He is vice-president of the 
Oriental Bank, a trustee of the Dime Savings 
Bank of Brooklyn and of Adelphi College, a di 
rector of the Board of Trade and Transportation, 
First National Bank of Jamaica and Guardian 
Trust Co., and member of the Chamber of Com 
merce of New York. In 1892 he was chairman 
of the committee representing the jewelry trade 
which went to Albany to obtain a larger appro 
priation for the World s Fair exhibit of the Em 
pire State, the other members being C. L. Tif 
fany and Joseph Fahys. He served as member 
and treasurer of the Brooklyn Commission to 
the Tennessee Centennial Exposition at Nash 
ville in 1897, and was appointed a member of the 
Jury of Awards in the Department of Commerce 
and Manufactures. In 1898 Governor Black ap 
pointed him one of the commissioners of the 
state of New York to the Paris Exposition of 
1900, and he was later elected treasurer. He is 
also one of the incorporators and trustees of the 
Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission by the 
act of the Legislature of New York. His polit 
ical activity has been pronounced. He served on 
the Brooklyn Citizens Committee of Fifty, or 
ganized for the establishment of non-partisanship 
in municipal affairs, in 1897, and was nominated 
for the office of president of the Council of 
Greater New York, but declined. In 1898 he 
took an active part in the formation of the Brook 
lyn League, designed to protect the interests of 
Brooklyn under the new charter. On his return 
from Europe in 1900 he was met by his friends 
on a special chartered tug and given a reception 
at the Brooklyn Club, being strongly urged to 
accept a nomination for Congress, but declined. 
In the same year and in 1901 he took a lively 
part in the events which led to the fusion of 
the elements opposed to Tammany, and was of 
fered the nomination as controller ; his name was 
also presented to the conference committee as r 
suitable choice for mayor, but he refused to ac 
cept either office. He also refused an appoint 
ment offered to him by Mayor Wuster of Brook 
lyn in 1896, to become a member of his cabinet 
but accepted the position of member of the Civil 
Service Commission. When, in 1903, Mayor 
Low offered to make him chairman of the 
Brooklyn Change of Grade Commission, he like 
wise declined. On the other hand his growth 
in purely business matters has been constant, 
for, when, as a result of the revelations made 
during the life insurance companies investigations 
a few years ago, the Equitable Life Assurance 
Society concluded to do some house-cleaning and 

undergo a thorough reorganization, he was 
elected one of its new directors. The public 
functions at which Mr. Nissen has presided, or 
in which he took an important part, are innu 
merable. In addition he has never ceased to 
work for the advancement of his own trade ; in 
1896, he delivered a lecture on "Gems and Jew 
els" before the Manufacturers Association of 
Kings and Queens Counties, which was published 
in the Jewelers Circular and widely copied in 
France, Germany and England as well as in this 
country. No better illustration of the oppor 
tunities this country extends to a man of high 
character, ambition and intelligence can be fur 
nished than the remarkable career of Ludwig 
Nissen, who landed in New York less than forty 
years ago practically penniless, and who is now 
not only a citizen of high standing and repute in 
consequence of his material success, but who has 
left his impress upon many of the most important 
events in the history of his new country, and 
whose counsel and assistance are eagerly sought 
by the best element among native Americans. 

HENRY HEIDE, manufacturer, was born at 
Obermarsberg in Westphalia, Germany, on Oc 
tober 24, 1846, and received his education in the 
elementary school of his birthplace. He came 
to America in 1866 and established himself as 
manufacturer of confectionery and almond paste. 
Starting on a small scale, his plant is now one of 
the largest in its line in the United States, and 
his goods are known and sold all over this coun 
try, Canada, Europe and Australia. A man of 
striking personal appearance and of genial dis 
position, Mr. Heide is one of the most widely 
known and generally esteemed Germans of New 
York City. His business, grown to large pro 
portions, is a monument to his enterprise, indus 
try and intelligence. He is a member of the 
Church of the Holy Sacrament, German Lieder- 
kranz, Arion, the Catholic and Chemist clubs. 
Mr. Heide married on January 28, 1873, Miss 
Mary Jaeger and has eight children. 

ADAM WEBER, architect, builder and manu 
facturer, was born at Bechtheim, near Worms-on- 
; the-Rhine, in the Grand Duchy of Hessen- 
Darmstadt, in 1825. He received his education 
in the schools of his native city and was appren 
ticed at an early age to his father, who was an 
architect and builder. When he reached his ma 
jority, the qualities which were to make him one 
of the prominent figures in the city of New York 
and, in fact, in the United States, manifested 
themselves. He felt that the opportunities he 
longed for would be denied to him in the nar- 










row circle of a small German town; and he de 
cided to emigrate to America. In 1847 he sailed 
from Liverpool in the full-rigged ship Columbus, 
then making her maiden voyage, and landed at 
the Battery wharf with a small supply of money, 
but full of ambition and determination. He 
found employment with a local architect and 
builder, and the thorough training he had re 
ceived, together with exceptional intelligence, 
quickly made him a valuable assistant. Hardly 
two years had elapsed when Mr. Weber decided 
to strike out for himself, fully convinced that 
he would succeed. In this he was not mistaken, 
for the knowledge and rectitude of the young 
builder were immediately appreciated. The con 
tracts he received were large and numerous, and 
he built all the sugar refinery houses that were 
erected and operated by the Havemeyer family in 
Xew York, Brooklyn and Jersey City. In 1854 
he erected for Mrs. Anna Uhl the first building 
the Xew Yorker Staats-Zeitung occupied, at No. 
224 William Street, and three years later he 
built the second home for the Staats-Zeitung at 
Xo. 17 Chatham Street, the site of which is now 
occupied by the Manhattan terminal of the 
Brooklyn Bridge. In the meantime Mr. Weber 
had become interested in the manufacture of 
firebrick and erected the first large firebrick fac 
tory in the United States, in partnership with 
Mr. Balthasar B. Kreischer, the firm name being 
Kreischer & Weber. This concern was dissolved 
in 1857, and the succeeding firm of Maurer & 
Weber constructed the largest firebrick factory 
in the country at that time in New York City, 
on East Fifteenth and Sixteenth Streets, be 
tween Avenues B and C. It covered an entire 
block and the plant included one of the largest 
chimneys in the city. It stands erect to-day and 
is familiarly known as the Weber landmark, a 
point of guidance to many thousands of navi 
gators of the East River, who took their reck 
onings from it to steer clear of the dangerous 
rocks that lined the shores of its turbulent tides. 
But his ever active mind was not satisfied with 
what he had accomplished, and always looked 
out for new fields to conquer. In 1858 his in 
timate knowledge of fireclays and their refrac 
toriness brought forth the idea of constructing 
a clay retort to supersede the iron type of re 
torts then almost universally used in gas works. 
Innumerable objections were raised when he first 
promulgated his theory, but he overcame them 
all and succeeded "beyond his greatest expecta 
tions. Within a few years Mr. Weber s retorts 
were adopted by practically all the gas works in 
America and Europe, and the returns from their 
sales made the man who had arrived almost pen 

niless a little more than ten years before, a wealthy 
man. Many other inventions followed; Mr. 
Weber patented a number of forms of design in 
bench work and furnace construction, among 
them the Weber half-depth and full-depth recu 
perative systems. He personally installed the 
bench work in the generating houses of the New 
York Gas Company, the Manhattan Gas Co., the 
Metropolitan Gas Light Co., the Mutual Gas 
Light Co., the Municipal Gas Co. and the Knick 
erbocker Gas Co. In fact, wherever gas works 
construction was under way, Mr. Weber s name 
was almost sure to be connected with it, and to 
enumerate the places of his activity would re 
quire the naming of almost every city of im 
portance in the United States. His fame ex 
tended far over the boundaries of the country, 
Cuba, South America, Mexico, and even far-away 
China and Japan used his inventions. In addi 
tion, he invented an advanced lime process for 
the elimination of carbonic acid from gas, and 
it may be said without fear of contradiction that 
Mr. Weber revolutionized the methods of man 
ufacturing gas. In 1890 he partly retired from 
active business, for in that year the corporation 
of Adam Weber s Sons was formed which car 
ried on the business of the great factories con 
structed by the founder in the town of Weber, 
Middlesex County, N.J., known everywhere as a 
model establishment and surrounded by hamlets, 
also laid out and owned by Mr. Weber, which 
shelter hundreds of workmen. The oldest son, 
Oscar B. Weber, who, unfortunately, died sud 
denly in September, 1904, became president, and 
the second son, Albert J., vice-president of the 
corporation. Adam Weber was preeminently a 
man of resourcefulness, hard work and success. 
Practical knowledge, acquired by observation and 
study, was most happily associated in him with 
the ardent desire to overcome obstacles and 
solve problems that makes the inventor. To few 
men has come success so widely appreciated and 
so free from envy as to him, for the question 
never arose whether it was deserved. A lover 
and connoisseur of good music, widely traveled 
and well read, w th a refined taste for art, his 
influence worked ever for the best. One of the 
pioneers among the Germans of New York City, 
not one of the thousands who left the fatherland 
to seek success in the new country, has brought 
greater honor upon his native and his adopted 
country. He was a member of the American Gas 
Light Association and the Pacific Coast Gas As 
sociation ; the American Engineers Club, German 
Liederkranz, Arion, Lotos and Manhattan clubs ; 
a founder of the German Society, member of the 
former Palette Club; a director of the Ger- 


mania, German Exchange, Union Square and 
Corn Exchange Bank, the Trust Company of 
America, the Independent Ice Co. and one of 
the largest shareholders of the Consolidated Gas 
Co. He was also a noted Mason and Past 
Grand Master of Trinity Lodge No. 12, with 
which Mr. Weber contributed were legion. He 
tury. The benevolent and charitable societies to 
which Mr. Weber contributed were legion. He 
took an active interest in public affairs, and dur 
ing his long connection with the Board of Edu 
cation it was his persistence and zeal that se 
cured the introduction of the teaching of German 
in the public schools of New York. For his work 
in this connection he received a letter of thanks 
from Emperor William I, and a decoration of 
high order. He was captain of the Engineer 
Corps of the militia from 1852 to 1860, and 
served in the Fifth Infantry during the War of 
the Rebellion. His home was filled with art 
treasures and he was happiest when he could 
assemble his numberless friends within its hos 
pitable walls where they had the opportunity to 
listen to the greatest and best singers and musi 
cians. A stanch Democrat, he could on occasion 
forsake his party when it traveled roads which 
he considered dangerous. Mr. Weber died De 
cember 22, 1906. He was married on April 12, 
1858, to Miss Catherine Elizabeth Kreischer, 
daughter of the late Balthasar B. Kreischer of 
Kreischerville, S.I., who, together with four chil 
dren, Lina A., Mathilde E., Charles C. and Al 
bert J., and a grandchild, Frances L., survive 
him. The large attendance at the funeral and the 
innumerable letters and despatches of condolence 
from all parts of the world formed a testimonial 
of the great esteem felt for him wherever he 
was known. He certainly was a man of men, 
grand in more than one respect, and in him dwelt 
strength and resourcefulness, beautifully tem 
pered by that charity which assists without inflict 
ing regret, and to his home and its treasures he 
was a guardian animated solely by the spirit that 
moves those whose loving care is the great light 
of their lives. 

CAPTAIN J. B. GREENHUT What energy, 
intelligence and perseverance may accomplish is 
illustrated in the life of Captain J. B. Greenhut, 
now one of the leading merchants in the Uni 
ted States. Born in the town of Bischof-Teinitz 
in Bohemia on February 28, 1843, his parents 
brought him to America in 1852 and settled in 
Chicago. Young Greenhut had to go out into 
the world early, like so many of those who in 
later years have rerched prominence. He learned 
the trade of a tin and coppersmith thoroughly 

and was employed in quite a number of im 
portant establishments, the last one being the 
shops of the Mobile & Ohio Railroad in Mobile, 
Ala. The genius slumbering in the boy mani 
fested itself early; he was not satisfied with 
doing the work laid out for him, but made sev 
eral valuable inventions, among them a new 
style of roof for railroad cars which is still in 
use. Extensive travels and a sojourn of two 
years in the South had brought him face to 
face with the great question of the day, the 
evils of slavery. Already on the road to success, 
though not yet out of his teens, the idealism he 
had brought with him did not let him pursue 
the course that might have brought material suc 
cess quickly. When Abraham Lincoln, after the 
fall of Fort Sumter, issued his first call for vol 
unteers, young Greenhut concluded at once that 
it was his duty to fight for humanity and the 
preservation of the Union. On April 17, 1861, 
he enlisted as a private in Company A, Twelfth 
Illinois Volunteers, his being the second name 
on the enlistment rolls in the big city of Chicago. 
And he did not propose to play at being a sol 
dier. As soon as his term of three months was 
ended, he enlisted anew for three years and was 
made drill sergeant of his company. He served 
under General Grant and was severely wounded 
in the arm at the storming of Fort Donelson. 
This compelled him to take his honorable dis 
charge, but not for long, for his wound had hard 
ly been healed when he went to the front again, 
this time as captain of Company K, Eighty-sec 
ond Illinois Volunteers. His regiment was com 
manded by that old German revolutionist, Col 
onel Frederick Hecker, and assigned to the 
division of General Carl Schurz, then in Vir 
ginia. Here the youthful captain saw some 
severe fighting. He was in all the battles of 
the Army of the Potomac in 1862 and 1863, in 
cluding Fredericksburg, the unfortunate affair 
at Chancellorsville, where the German troops 
saved the Federal Army, and Gettysburg. Soon 
after his regiment was transferred to the West 
to relieve General Rosecrans and Colonel Hecker 
was given the commmand of a brigade in 
Schurz s division, whereupon he selected the 
young and brave captain as his clr ef of staff. As 
such he kept close to the enemy. After the mid 
night battle at the Wauhatchee, near Chattanoo 
ga, he engaged in all the fights in that neigh 
borhood, the taking of Missionary Ridge and 
Lookout Mountain, the "Battle Above the 
Clouds," as it has been called, and in the cam 
paign to relieve General Burnside at Knoxville, 
Tenn. In 1864, when the war neared its end 
Colonel Hecker had some disagreement with his 










superiors and resigned. The faithful chief of 
his staff considered it his duty to follow his 
commander. Mr. Greenhut returned to his first 
love and occupied himself with the invention of 
a number of mechanical devices. Many of them 
were valuable and successful, especially an auto 
matic twine-binder for reaping machines, which 
was adopted by the McCormick Reaper Co., and 
is still in use. But this field was too small for 
the enterprising and restless young man; he did 
his duty as a citizen and took part in the efforts 
to improve the administration of the city of 
Chicago. An appointment to the important of 
fice of deputy county clerk for Cook County 
was the well merited reward. However, the fer 
tile mind turned to larger fields. In 1869 he en 
gaged in the distilling business and conducted it 
with unprecedented success until 1895. Assisted 
by his practical experience, he saw at once where 
savings and improvements could be introduced, 
and erected the largest distillery in the world 
at Peoria, 111. The Distilling and Cattle Feed 
ing Co., organized in 1887 with a capital of thir 
ty-five millions of dollars, was the child of his 
brain. This company, comprising practically all 
the large distilleries in the country, had been 
planned by Mr. Greenhut with the greatest care 
and foresight, and became the forerunner of 
many similar consolidations, none of which, how 
ever, proved more successful. Still there was an 
immense amount of work connected with his 
management, and while its founder was in the 
flower of manhood and in the fullest possession 
of his strength and faculties, he looked around 
for a more peaceful occupation. This he found 
in the East, where, in 1896, he bought an inter 
est in the Siegel-Cooper Company, which had 
undertaken to build the largest department store 
in Xew York. He acquired the control of this 
business in 1901 and became its president, while 
his son, B. J. Greenhut, was made secretary and 
treasurer. In 1906 he bought the site and store 
formerly occupied by B. Altman & Co., a new 
and modern building, and opened this in the 
fall of 1907 as a department store conducted on 
the lines which had brought success to Mr. Alt 
man. The lad who started out to carve his own 
fortunes with no assistance than his strength 
of purpose, the gifts his Creator had bestowed 
upon him and the teachings of devoted parents, 
became a master of men and took part in the 
shaping of the destiny of his country in peace 
and war. A life full of hard work and honest 
endeavor but also rich in the fruits that fall to 
those who justly succeed, is that of Captain J. B. 
Greenhut. Mr. Greenhut was married in 1866 
to Miss Clara Wolfner at Chicago, and their 

union was blessed with four children, of whom 
one daughter, Fannie, and two sons, B. J. and 
X. W., are living. He retains his residence at 
Peoria, where he spends much of his time, for 
his large interests in and around the city in 
which he laid the foundation for his fortune re 
quire his constant supervision. 

MARC EIDLITZ. The American has unlim 
ited admiration for the self-made man the man 
who achieves success by his own effort through 
strength of character and indomitable power of 
will. But in judging men who have come to 
the front the American is apt to overlook the 
fact that the foreigner who arrives at these 
shores without a knowledge of the language and 
the customs of the people, who has no friends 
or relatives to guide him and who must, there 
fore, blaze his own path in a wilderness, has a 
much heavier task to accomplish than any na 
tive. If such a man not only succeeds but be 
comes a leader in his chosen field, all honor 
is due him. A man of this kind was Marc 
Eidlitz, one of America s foremost builders. He 
was born in Prague, the capital of Bohemia, on 
January 31, 1826. After attending the common 
schools it became necessary for him to earn his 
own living and he secured employment in a mer 
cantile establishment. In 1847 his father died and 
the young man immediately departed for Amer 
ica to find the larger sphere for which he felt 
himself fitted. His courage and purpose was 
shown by his decision to acquire all the details 
in connection with the best work and he began 
by apprenticing himself to a mason builder for 
a term of four years. The full weight of this 
step can only be appreciated when it is kept in 
mind that young Eidlitz had already reached his 
majority and had never done manual labor. Such 
was his zeal and so energetically did he apply 
himself to his self-appointed task, supplementing 
his daily toil by work during the evening hours, 
that before the expiration of his term of ap 
prenticeship, he was given a position as foreman 
in charge of a building. A few years later, in 
1854, he started in business for himself with a 
capital of ten dollars. But he was by this time 
well known and his integrity and reliability 
brought him many new friends. In 1857, when 
barely thirty-one years old, he was selected to 
build the Broadway Tabernacle, for a long time 
one of the largest churches in Xew York. The 
stonework for this building was brought from 
the quarries and actually cut at the site. Shortly 
afterwards he erected the Lord & Taylor Build 
ing on Grand Street, for a generation one of the 
landmarks of the city ; Steinway Half on Four- 


teenth Street, which for many years was the 
principal concert hall of this city. His reputa 
tion was now firmly established and the city he 
had made his home soon became filled with the 
fruits of his labor. Among the more important 
buildings he built are : The German Hospital, 
Presbyterian Hospital, St. Vincent s Hospital, St. 
Francis Hospital, Baldwin Pavilion of the Wo 
men s Hospital, Home of the Sisters of Bon Se- 
cours, German Dispensary and Library, Isabella 
Heimath, Metropolitan Opera House, Eden Mu- 
see, part of Astor Library, Seamen s Bank for 
Savings, Gallatin Bank, Temple Emanuel, Ger 
man Club, Manhattan Storage and Warehouse, 
stores for Arnold, Constable & Co., Lord & Tay 
lor, Le Boutillier Brothers, residences of J. Pier- 
pont Morgan, Adrian Iselin, Jr., Ogden Goelet, 
Robert L. Stuart, Charles Moran, Peter Doelger 
and many others. But the enormous respon 
sibilities and the concentration required by his 
business did not fully absorb the energies of 
Marc Eidlitz. He became a pathfinder in yet 
another direction, for he was instrumental in 
forming the National Association of Builders, 
an organization intended to give stability to the 
Building Trades in uniting those engaged in them 
and by adjusting disputes by arbitration. Mr. 
Eidlitz was, up to the time of his death, the 
president of the Building Trades Club of New 
York City, and a director as well as chairman 
of the General Committee of the National Asso 
ciation. In 1873 he was elected a director of the 
Germania Bank, and in 1888 he became its pres 
ident, holding this position until his death. His 
manifold and arduous duties did not prevent him 
from taking active interest in many enterprises 
of a charitable or philanthropic character. He 
contributed to every worthy object that was laid 
before him and showed especial interest in edu 
cational matters, never forgetting the hardships 
of his early youth, and for this reason ever ready 
to assist young men who were similarly situated. 
When he passed away, on April 15, 1892, this 
man, who, through his own efforts, had devel 
oped from a friendless boy into a successful man 
with a national reputation, left innumerable 
friends and admirers. His name is perpetuated 
by the work he has done and which is being con 
tinued by his sons, Otto Marc and Robert James, 
who were his associates. 

GEORGE EHRET, brewer, was born at Hof- 
weier, near Offenburg, in Baden, on April 6, 
1835, and received his education in the public 
schools of his birthplace. At the age of four 
teen he was apprenticed to his father, a thriv 
ing cooper at Hofweier. Here he worked for 

several years until he had mastered his trade, but 
during all that time tried to induce his father to 
allow him to learn the brewing business which 
seemed even to so young a man more promising. 
Finally his wish prevailed and he was placed as 
an apprentice into a brewery at Offenburg. He 
quickly acquired a thorough knowledge of his 
new trade and, after the custom of those times, 
started out to perfect himself by working in 
other breweries. The first stop was made at 
Heidelberg, and after that young Ehret worked 
for some time at Mannheim. Convinced by the 
reports of a cousin that he would find a larger 
field and greater opportunities in America, he de 
cided to emigrate to the United States and ar 
rived in New York on November 20, 1857. He 
found no difficulty in securing employment, and 
worked at first for the firm of Romell & Co., 
and later on in the Anton Hiipfel brewery. 
Within the short space of three years he had 
risen to the responsible position of foreman and 
brewmaster. But even this rapid advancement 
did not satisfy a man of the ambition, knowledge 
and force of character like Mr. Ehret. His aim 
was to become independent and in 1866 he started 
his own brewery in the neighborhood of Hell- 
gate, from which it was given the name Hell- 
gate Brewery. Mr. Ehret had himself selected 
the spot which was at that time far up-town 
and removed from the built-up portion of the 
city, and there were many who looked upon the 
location as unwise, but he knew what he was 
doing, for he had found there what proved to 
be of the greatest value, namely water of the 
quality needed for his purposes. The growth of 
the new firm was astonishing and it soon dis 
tanced all competitors, in spite of some serious 
setbacks, as for instance a disastrous fire in 1870. 
The enormous establishment produces now close 
to eight hundred thousand barrels yearly, em 
ploys over five hundred men and uses over two 
hundred drays, thirty of which are electric 
trucks. It is equipped with the best and most 
modern machinery, for Mr. Ehret is one of those 
men who seem to be able to look clearly into 
the future and is ready to adopt every improve 
ment as soon as its value is proven. When the 
brewing industry, which had long been carried on 
on rather primitive lines, was revolutionized by 
The introduction of modern business methods, Mr. 
Ehret was one of the first to reorganize his es 
tablishment. Personally, Mr. Ehret is quiet and 
unassuming and his great modesty prevents him 
from taking the position in public life which his 
achievements and his immense popularity enti 
tle him to. He prefers to distribute the large 
sums he devotes to charity and other underta- 










kings for the general welfare, in a quiet way, and 
is averse to notoriety in every respect. A great 
lover of music and a musician himself since his 
childhood days, he finds recreation in listening 
to the very best the art has produced, and his 
highly refined taste is well known to music lov 
ers. In 1866 Mr. Ehret married Miss Anna 
Hasslocher, who died in 1899 and left him nine 
children, of whom the two sons, George, Jr., 
and Louis, take an active part in the manage 
ment of his brewery. 

ALBERT FRANK. The career of Mr. Albert 
Frank is remarkable in more ways than one, 
though it may be summed up in the statement 
that it was the natural career of a truly remark 
able man. He was born in Breslau, the capital 
of the Prussian province of Silesia, in 1831, but 
received his education at Berlin, whither his par 
ents had removed soon after his birth. When 
hardly more than a boy, Albert Frank left his 
home to enter the employ of Baron Felleisen, 
the head of the banking-house of Felleisen & Co., 
bankers to the Russian Crown at St. Petersburg. 
In his capacity as secretary to Baron Felleisen, 
he came in contact with many prominent people, 
traveled extensively and had the opportunity to 
use a pronounced gift of acquiring foreign lan 
guages. While still a young man, he had a good 
knowledge of Latin, Greek and Hebrew, and 
spoke eight modern languages fluently. His love 
for art had been kindled in his home, where he 
had been surrounded by everything that culture 
and refinement could procure. In his new field 
this trait of his character grew stronger and ex 
panded and when he, several years later, joined 
his uncle in the publishing business at Paris, the 
art treasures 6f the French capital found in him 
an appreciative and critical admirer. But among 
all the arts music appealed to him most, and an 
unerring taste combined with deep feeling for 
the beautiful made him a master in judging and of 
enjoying whatever was brought forth. Towards 
the enf of the sixties Albert Frank came to New 
York and established himself as a banker and 
gold broker. But he soon abandoned this field 
to enter a new one, or, more correctly, to cre 
ate an entirely new business. His thorough 
knowledge of the banking and of the publishing 
business led him to perceive that financial ad 
vertising was done without system, and he set 
about to introduce reforms beneficial to the ad 
vertiser as well as to the press. His firm, oper 
ating under various names as the partners 
changed but best known by the last and still ex 
isting one of Albert Frank & Co., was much more 
than an advertising agency. It acted as adviser 

and general publicity agent for the advertisers 
and kept in close touch and almost familiar re 
lations with all the great newspapers. This is 
best proven by the fact that the press of the 
whole country, separately and through its vari 
ous organizations, at the news of his death has 
tened to assure the surviving relatives of the 
high esteem in which Mr. Frank had been held, 
and the deep regret felt at his departure. He 
did more than any one man to raise the stand 
ard of the advertising agent ; an advertisement 
given out by Albert Frank & Co. was not only 
taken everywhere without question but was in the 
nature of a certificate of respectability for the 
newspaper printing it. No wonder that the firm 
was immensely successful, and that its reputation 
became world-wide. Albert Frank was thus a 
self-made man in the highest sense of the word. 
He succeeded not only through his own efforts 
and by the intelligent use of the education he had 
received in school and in early life, but also by 
creating something entirely new and hitherto not 
thought of. He perceived that there existed a 
necessity for a new way of handling financial 
advertisements, and he conceived the methods 
that could bring about a change. He put them 
into practise and the success was the fruit of his 
genius. He therefore stands before us, as far as 
his business activity is concerned, as one of the 
best and noble st representatives of the multitudes 
who have come from Germany to help make this 
country greater and better. But aside from this 
he was a most remarkable man. His appearance 
was striking, almost commanding, but softened 
by an air of refinement and a warmth that re 
vealed the man of the world in the very best 
sense of the word ; the man who would be at 
home anywhere and would be recognized as ex 
ceptional wherever he went. The friendly glow 
of his eye did not belie the heart, for Albert 
Frank was full of charity and always ready to 
help. He did not belong to many clubs, but to a 
large number of charitable organizations. His 
tastes were rather domestic; the company of his 
daughters who had lost their mother early, a 
good book or a discussion of an interesting sub 
ject with a few friends of similar erudition 
gave him happiness. He was an extensive reader 
and hardly a book appeared in any of the im 
portant modern languages that he did not at least 
examine. His knowledge of the literature of 
the civilized countries was marvelous but sur 
passed by his familiarity with musical works of 
every description. He knew the scores of whole 
operas by heart and was a regular attendant at 
every musical event of importance. He left three 
daughters, all happily married, and his business 


is being continued by his son-in-law, Mr. James 
Rascovar. It is not surprising that after his 
sudden death, on August 19, 1901, regret was 
universal and the family was overwhelmed with 
signs of esteem and affection to such an extent 
that they felt as if the loss had not been their 
own alone but of the whole people. Few men 
who never held official position have been hon 
ored by their contemporaries as Albert Frank 

LEONARD A. GIEGERICH, jurist, was born 
in Bavaria on March 20, 1855. He came to New 
York City with his parents when he was one year 
old and received his education in the village 
school of Woodstock, Conn., and in the public 
and parochial schools of New York City. He 
studied law and engaged in the practise of his 
profession, after being admitted to the Bar in 
1877. From his early youth he had taken a lively 
interest in public affairs and politics, making 
many friends who admired his straightforward 
way, his unimpeachable honesty and his genial 
disposition. He was elected member of assembly 
in 1886 and made such a splendid record that it 
was warmly approved by the Reform Club. He 
took a leading part in the struggle for personal 
liberty, which won for him the good will of all 
German-Americans. He refused all free railroad 
passes and insisted upon paying his fare to and 
from the capitol at Albany. President Cleveland 
appointed him as collector of internal revenues in 
July, 1887, in which capacity he served until 
March, 1890, when he was appointed by Gover 
nor Hill as a justice of the City Court for the 
term expiring December 31, 1890. Before retiring 
from the Bench, he had been elected County 
Clerk, but gave up that position after less than 
one year s service in consequence of his appoint 
ment as judge of the Court of Common Pleas 
by Governor Hill. He was elected to a full term 
in 1892 on the nomination of all parties. This 
court was merged in the Supreme Court in Jan 
uary, 1896. Ever since which time he has served 
as a justice of the latter court, he having been 
reelected in 1906 on the nomination of all parties 
including the lawyers nomination. He was a 
delegate to the constitutional convention of New 
York State of 1894. Justice Giegerich has 
the confidence and respect of the Bar. His 
high character led to his* appointment by the 
Appellate Division, at the request of counsel 
for both sides, to pass upon a large num 
ber of contested ballots in the memorable election 
of 1905, when William R. Hearst was a candidate 
for mayor again=t Colonel George B. McClellan. 
Although the title of the office of mayor and 

eight thousand ballots cast for William Travers 
Jerome for district attorney hinged upon his 
decision, his rulings were regarded as eminently 
fair by all concerned and were therefore never 
appealed from. Judge Giegerich enjoys a large 
and well deserved popularity among the German- 
Americans of New York, who look upon him as 
one of the best representatives of their race, in 
character, achievements and ability. He is a 
member of the Arion, German Press Club, Fi 
delia Gesang Verein, Catholic Club, Catholic 
Benevolent Legion, Knights of Columbus, St. 
Francis Xavier Sodality, New York Historical 
Society, Manhattan College Alumni Society, Tam 
many Society, honorary member of the New 
York State Bar Association and has received 
the honorary degree of LL.D. from Manhattan 
College. He was married on September 6, 1887, 
to Miss Louise M. Boll, and has two sons, Leon 
ard A., Jr., and Arthur N. 

HUGO REISINGER, merchant, was born at 
Wiesbaden in Germany on January 29, 1856, as 
the youngest of six children. His father was a 
man of superior attainment 1 -, doctor of philoso 
phy, and had taken an active part in the Hungarian 
revolution of 1848, acting for some time as sec 
retary to Ludwig Kossuth. He had settled at 
Wiesbaden and become proprietor and editor of 
the Mittel-Rheinischc Zeitnng, the oldest daily pa 
per of that city. Young Reisinger received his 
education at the gymnasium of his birthplace and 
engaged in mercantile business after leaving 
school at the age of sixteen. Ten years later, 
having received a thorough business education 
and being established in business for some time, 
he went to America as representative of the fa 
mous Siemens Glass Works at Dresden. Arriving 
here in January, 1884, he traveled all over the Uni 
ted States and Canada several times in order to 
introduce the goods, and met with such signal suc 
cess that in 1886 he established his present general 
importing and exporting business, which devel 
oped into one of the largest in the United States. 
Since 1886 Mr. Reisinger has lived in New York 
City, spending four months of every year in 
Europe in the interest of his business and for 
^recreation. He is a man of many accomplish 
ments and widely known as an art connoisseur 
and collector. While fully appreciating the beauty 
and worth of the old masters and recognizing the 
fact that true art cannot be bounded by geo 
graphical or national lines, Mr. Reisinger has de 
voted himself to introduce German art into this 
country and to secure for it the position it de 
serves. With this purpose in view, he has writ 
ten a number of newspaper and magazine articles 













and carried on an agitation that promises to bear 
fruit in the near future. He owns the largest and 
most complete collection of modern German 
paintings in the United States, as well as the best 
and most valuable in an artistic sense, and he is 
arranging for an exhibition of German art in 
America which is intended to arouse an interest 
in the work of German artists heretofore sadly 
lacking. Mr. Reisinger has founded a yearly prize 
in Berlin for German art, known as the Hugo 
Reisinger prize, and is acknowledged to be an 
expert judge of paintings. He is very fond of 
outdoor sports, a golf player of no mean ability, 
a noted whip, frequently tooling his splendidly 
appointed four-in-hand through the park, and a 
fine rider. Mounted on his favorite horse and 
accompanied by his two sons, who are as accom 
plished horsemen as the father, the little caval 
cade attracts much attention by its dashing ap 
pearance and soldierly bearing. Mr. Reisinger is 
a member of St. James Lutheran Church, the 
Deutsche Verein, Garden City Golf Club, Subur 
ban Riding and Driving Club, National Arts Club, 
Metropolitan Museum and an officer in various 
corporations. He was appointed honorary com 
missioner to Europe by President Francis of the 
World s Fair at St. Louis in 1904, and was dec 
orated by the German Emperor in recognition of 
his services with the Royal Order of the Prus 
sian Crown. On February 10, 1890, Mr. Reisin 
ger was married to Miss Edmee Busch of St. 
Louis and has two sons, the oldest one, a lad of 
sixteen, being of a serious and studious bend of 
mind, is now preparing to enter Harvard Univer 
sity for the study of law. 

WILLIAM DEMUTH, merchant, was born at 
Rimbach, Odenwald, Germany, Xovember i, 1835. 
He received his early education in Darmstadt and 
as a poor boy of sixteen years came to America 
and settled in Xew York City, where he has re 
sided ever since. His extraordinary ambition and 
his intelligence showed itself in his youth, and 
he soon established what is now and has been for 
years pa c t, the largest manufactory of pipes and 
smokers articles. His progressive and inventive 
talent remodeled the entire industry, and his in 
ventions are to-day universally adopted by all the 
manufacturers of pipes. Aside from his devotion 
to his business, he also found time to cultivate 
his artistic taste which he happily applied in a 
commercial sense. This he showed repeatedly in 
his highly rewarded effort in exhibiting the finest 
specimen of the art of pipe manufacturing at all 
important exhibitions, such as Philadelphia, Paris 
and Chicago, showing in each one something new 
and individual. Everv one will remember the 

unique display in the Paris Exposition, amongst 
which was a highly artistic group of meerschaum 
pipes, successfully portraying all the presidents 
from Washington down. Mr. Demuth received 
for his exhibit the well-deserved gold medal, a 
triumph of the ambition and energy of the New 
World against the accumulated knowledge and 
experience of the Old. Politically, Mr. Demuth 
has always affiliated with the Republican party. 
He has never desired nor held any public office. 
He is a member of the most important benevolent 
and educational societies, as well as hospitals too 
numerous to summarize. He is also a member of 
the Chamber of Commerce, the Civil Service Re 
form Association and life member of the Amer 
ican Museum of Natural History, which, through 
his liberal contribution, is enabled to exhibit to 
the public a most unique collection of antiquities 
of pipes found in the Old Country. Mr. Demuth, 
in October, 1861, married Harriet Laurent, the 
living children being Louis, Edgar and Aimee. 
Mr. Demuth is a man of unusual intelligence, is 
full of public spirit, charitable, genial and as pop 
ular amongst his friends as he is strong, practical 
and true in his commercial relations. 

HERMAN A. METZ, merchant and manufac 
turer, was born in New York City on October 
19, 1867. His career is one of the most remark 
able among German-Americans and their de 
scendants. Compelled to go to work while still 
attending school, at the age of thirty-two he was 
the head and sole proprietor of a large business 
concern which he had entered as office boy when 
fourteen years old. Mr. Metz received his edu 
cation in the public and in private schools in 
New York, and in 1881 entered the employ of 
Schulze, Berg & Koechl, manufacturers of drugs 
and chemicals, as office boy. Full of ambition, 
the boy perceived immediately that his education 
was not sufficient to allow him to rise as quickly 
as he desired, and he devoted his evenings to 
the study of chemistry at Cooper Union. Having 
finished his course, he entered the laboratory of 
the firm, was traveling salesman and Boston 
agent for two years, and became vice-president 
and treasurer of Victor Koechl & Co., incorpo 
rated, in 1894. Five years later he purchased the 
interest of Victor Koechl and became the presi 
dent of the concern. Since then the business has 
not only continually increased, but Mr. Metz has 
become interested in many other enterprises of 
importance. His vitality and ability to dispose 
of work is truly stupendous, and in spite of the 
large extent and great variety of his business 
interests he has found time to devote himself to 
public affairs to a degree in itself remarkable. 


Mr. Metz has been a delegate to a number of 
Democratic state conventions, and to the na 
tional convention at Indianapolis in 1896, mem 
ber of the Brooklyn Board of Education for sev 
eral years, and of the county, general, executive 
and state committees of the Democratic party. 
In November, 1905, he was elected controller of 
the city of New York and has as such redoubled 
his activity in every direction. He is a member 
of the Reform, Chemists , Crescent Athletic, Ger- 
mania, Riding and Driving, National Civic and 
Brooklyn Democratic clubs, of the German Lied- 
erkranz, Arion, German Hospital societies of 
New York and Brooklyn, Brooklyn Institute of 
Arts and Sciences, American Museum of Nat 
ural History, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 
Chamber of Commerce, Board of Trade and 
Transportation, Manufacturers Association and 
the Society of Chemical Industry of London. Mr. 
Metz served on the committees on import and 
appraisement and for the revision of the customs 
administration of the Merchants Association, is 
captain in the Thirteenth Regiment, N.Y.S.N.G., 
and a Mason of Commonwealth Lodge 409, Jeru 
salem Chapter No. 8, Adelphic Council No. 7, 
Palestine Commandery No. 18, Mecca Temple of 
the Mystic Shrine, and Thirty-second Degree 
Mason New York Consistory. 

JOHN EICHLER, brewer, was born at Roth- 
enburg in Bavaria on October 20, 1829, and edu 
cated in the schools of his native city. After 
leaving school, he entered the brewery of Wolff 
& Ott at Rothenburg, where he served his ap 
prenticeship. He then found employment in the 
Wertheim Brewery at Baden and later in the 
Hasenhaide Brewery at Berlin. Having studied 
the business thoroughly and mastered every de 
tail of his profession, Mr. Eichler, who at that 
time already was considered an expert in his 
field, decided to look for wider opportunities 
than the fatherland, with its many barriers for 
men who desired to rise by their own efforts, af 
forded. He sailed for America and arrived at 
New York in 1853, at the age of twenty-four, 
finding employment almost immediately as brew- 
master in the Franz Ruppert, or Turtle Bay 
Brewery. For an enterprising spirit like Mr. 
Eichler this was, of course, but a period of tran 
sition ; he saved his money, studied the new con 
ditions surrounding him and worked industriously 
until the opportunity he had been waiting for 
offered itself. In 1861 his ambition was realized 
and he went into business on his own account 
with Mr. Solman as partner. Within a few 
years he bought out his partner and purchased 
the Kolb Brewery which was located on the pres 

ent site of the plant of the John Eichler Brew 
ing Co., at Third Avenue and One Hundred and 
Sixty-ninth Street. The brewery Mr. Eichler 
acquired was small and lacked all improvements, 
the business being carried on in a desultory way, 
and it required all the indomitable energy of the 
new proprietor to develop it. His financial re 
sources were limited, but with restless energy 
he went to work and turned his splendid facul 
ties to account. From the start he had resolved 
to use his full strength and not to rest until he 
had succeeded. This he accomplished. His ster 
ling integrity, his thorough knowledge of his 
profession and his ability were speedily recog 
nized, and willing hands came forward to furnish 
the means that were necessary. It was a long 
and uphill fight, for Mr. Eichler was never sat 
isfied with what he accomplished until his ideal 
was reached. He kept on improving and enlar 
ging the plant, and every new invention was sure 
to be tried and if it stood the test to be adopted 
in his brewery. But the deserved reward finally 
came and the day arrived when the John Eichler 
Brewing Company s plant was conceded to be 
one of the best equipped in the United States, and 
its owner could proudly look upon his achieve 
ments with the satisfying knowledge that he had 
done what he set out to do. When Mr. Eichler s 
health began to fail in 1888, he consented to the 
organization of a stock company with himself as 
president, Jacob Siegel, as vice-president and 
treasurer, Louis J. Heintz as secretary and John 
C. Heintz as trustee for the stockholders. When, 
in 1890, the grippe made its first appearance in 
New York, Mr. Eichler was one of its first vic 
tims, and while he recovered from the attack, 
he never regained his health completely. His 
originally robust constitution, which had with 
stood the tremendous activity during many years 
of incessant labor, was severely shaken, and death 
claimed him on August 4, 1892, while he was on a 
visit at Gollheim, in the Rhenish Palatinate. His 
brother-in-law, Mr. Jacob Siegel, went to Ger 
many and brought back the remains, which were 
interred in the family burial plot in Woodlawn 
Cemetery. Mr. Eichler was married in 1857 to 
Miss Mary Siegel of Gollheim, who proved a 
valuable helpmate and adviser in building up one 
of the largest business enterprises in New York 
City, and remained constantly at his bedside dur 
ing his illness. He was a member of a large 
number of social and benevolent organizations, 
among them the United States Brewers Associa 
tion, Brewers Board of Trade of New York and 
Vicinity, Brewers Exchange, New York Produce 
Exchange, German Society, German Liederkranz, 
Arion, Beethoven Miinnerchor, Eichenkranz, 










Freimaurer Sangerbund, Schnorer Club, Morris- 
ania Sangerbund, Harmonic Singing Society, New 
York Independent Schuetzen Corps, Morrisania 
Schuetzen Corps, Rheinpfalzer Mannerchor, Five 
O Clock Club of Morrisania, and a Mason of 
Wieland Lodge and Ivy Chapter. John Eichler s 
life and achievements form a lasting monument 
to the qualities of the man, and an illustration of 
what unfailing industry, sterling integrity and 
firmness of purpose may accomplish. 

LOUIS J. HEINTZ (deceased), whose name, 
character and services are still frequently recalled 
throughout the Bronx (New York City), which 
he championed and whose favorite son he was, 
shows plainly how deep and lasting the impress 
was he made. He was only thirty when he died; 
he was rich and might have taken life at ease; but 
he was enterprising, aggressive and public-spirited 
and threw himself, instead, into the work of up 
building and developing the community in which 
his lot was cast. From one of the numerous 
obituaries published at the time of his death, 
March 12, 1893, we take the following account 
of his life : He was born in Manhattan, at Fifty- 
fourth Street, near Tenth Avenue. His father 
died when he was a boy and after his school 
days were over he entered the brewery of his 
uncle and thoroughly mastered the business. He 
was secretary and treasurer of the John Eichler 
Brewing Company and married the daughter of 
the brewer, Ebling. He was president of the 
Brewers Board of Trade of New York and 
vicinity and was identified with other important 
interests. It was, however, in his public career 
that he cut the most distinguished figure. His 
admirers still hold that, as a man of the people, 
he would have risen, had he lived, to high po 
litical station. Until he came to the front mis- 
government had been very much the lot of the 
"Annexed District." He it was who succeeded, 
after much opposition at Albany, in getting 
through an act providing a separate board of im 
provements for the district. Under this statute 
the district obtained the power to have its own 
department of street improvement. Toward the 
expense incidental to the passage of this bill he 
contributed out of his own pocket liberally. This 
action in behalf of the taxpayers of the Twen 
ty-third and Twenty-fourth Wards was appre 
ciated. He was selected as the proper man him 
self to put the law in motion and was nominated, 
accordingly, as the first street commissioner, was 
endorsed by the Taxpayers Association, the coun- 
ty Democracy and the Republicans, and trium 
phantly elected. His administration of which it 
was said that, in the discharge of his duty, he did 
more even than the public could reasonably ex 
pect was interrupted by his sudden taking off. 

His death was due primarily to a cold contracted 
during a trip to Washington for the Cleveland 
inaugural ceremonies. He was taken down while 
in the capital, and was brought home for treat 
ment. An operation for appendicitis performed 
upon him was unsuccessful and he failed to re 
cover from the effects of it. He was a member 
of many organizations. He founded the famous 
Schnorer Club and was its president five terms. 
He belonged to the Produce Exchange, the Cen 
tral Turn Verein, the Lexington Democratic Club, 
the Harmonic Singing Society, the Morrisania 
Liedertafel, the Arion, the German Press Club 
and many more. He is buried in Woodlawn. Re 
membering his devotion to their interests, the 
people of the Bronx still mourn his loss. Some 
day, perhaps, they will give him a public memo 
rial for certainly he well deserves it. 

ADOLPH G. HUPFEL, brewer, was born in 
Orange County, N.Y., receiving his educa 
tion in the public and private schools, coming to 
New York City in 1854. By political affiliation 
he is a Democrat, but has never held or sought a 
political office. The Hupfel Brewery, of which 
he is the head, is numbered among the pioneer 
brewing industries which have made Bronx 
Borough noted. The buildings occupied by this 
establishment have stood so long on St. Ann s 
Avenue and One Hundred and Sixty-first Street, 
that they have become known as landmarks in the 
Bronx. Among the organizations of which Mr. 
Hupfel is an active member, may be mentioned 
the New York Produce Exchange, Brewers 
Board of Trade, of which he is the ex-presi 
dent ; Associated Brewers ; ex-trustee and ex-treas 
urer State Brewers and Maltsters ; ex-director of 
the Union Railway, North Side Board of Trade, 
New York Botanical Society, Wieland Lodge 
No. 714, F. & A.M., Freundschaft Lodge No. 4, 
Improved Order of the Knights of Pythias, Mel- 
rose Turn Verein, Arion Liedertafel, Central 
Turn Verein, German Hospital, Deutsche Gesell- 
schaft, Terrace Bowling Club, Manhattan Club, 
Democratic and Schnorer clubs. On May 13, 
1873, he married Miss Magdalen Kuntz, to whom 
four children have been born, viz. : Catherine G., 
Adolph G., Jr., Antoinette G. and Otto G., all of 
whom are living. 

brewer, was born in New York City on December 
12, 1842, as the son of German parents. Educa 
ted in Public School No. 49 in East Thirty-sev 
enth Street, he engaged in the brewing business, 
which he has carried on with success. Having 
studied his trade both here and in Germany, Mr. 
Hupfel was able to introduce new methods when 
ever they stood the test he knew how to apply arid 


to bring his plant up to the highest grade of effi 
ciency. He has been closely identified with every 
movement designed to improve the conditions 
under which the brewing business is carried on, 
and with every effort to lift it upon a higher level. 
Public-spirited and charitable, he is a regular 
contributor to a large number of associations de 
voted to the public welfare. Fond of healthy 
sports and social diversions, Mr. Hupfel is de 
servedly popular and has a large circle of friends. 
He is a member of the Arion and Jung-Arion 
Societies, the German Liederkranz and its Bach 
elor Circle, Fessler Lodge No. 576 F. & A.M., 
Beethoven Maennerchor, Tammany Hall, Ter 
race Bowling Club, Xew York Athletic Club, Red 
Bank Yacht Club, Rumson Polo Club, Automobile 
Club of America, founder of the Original Brew 
ers and Coopers K.U.V., Metropolitan Museum 
of Art, Isabella Heimath, Wartburg Orphans 
Farm School, German Society, German Hospital, 
Charity Organization, Xew York Zoological So 
ciety, American Forestry Association, Presbyte 
rian Hospital, St. Mark s Hospital, Xew York 
Skin and Cancer Hospital, St. John s Guild, Xew 
York Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to 
Children, Xew York Society for the Prevention 
of Cruelty to Animals and the Society for Im 
proving the Condition of the Poor. On May 19, 
1868, he married Miss Anna Lebkuchner and 
had five children : Anna G., Anton C. G., prac 
tical brewer ; Adolph G., mechanical engineer, and 
Christian G., lawyer, who are associated in busi 
ness with their father; and Frederick G., who 
died in infancy. 

DAVID MAYER, president of the David May 
er Brewing Co., was born at Bodenheim on the 
Rhein on January 8, 1827. He received his edu 
cation at the gymnasium of Mainz, where he grad 
uated and entered upon the study of medicine 
at the University of Giesen. At the outbreak of 
the revolution of 1848-1849 in the Palatinate and 
the Grand Duchy of Baden, Mr. Mayer, who was 
imbued with the love for freedom, joined the 
Students and Turners Legion and fought under 
General Mieroslawski. The revolutionists were 
routed at Kirchheimbolanden, where they met a 
superior force of regulars of the Prussian army, 
while they were insufficiently organized and 
armed. After the battle Mr. Mayer went to Ba 
den and fought under General Franz Sigle in sev 
eral engagements, retreating with the revolution 
ary army to Switzerland, where his regiment was 
disbanded. He then, like so many of his com 
patriots, fled to America, the land of liberty and 
freedom, and worked for a time as laborer on 
the Erie Railroad, then being constructed. Un 

accustomed to manual labor, he was forced to 
seek other ways of supporting himself and bought 
a small stock of merchandise, traveling through 
the country as a peddler. This venture did not 
appeal to him and after a few weeks he returned 
to New York, where he found employment in a 
high school as teacher of languages, which posi 
tion he filled with success and distinction until 
the Hungarian patriot, Louis Kossuth, arrived in 
America. Mr. Mayer joined the agitation started 
to secure recognition of the independence of 
Hungary, which, however, proved a failure. He 
thereupon decided to secure a thorough knowl 
edge of the country where he had decided to re 
main and went South. Here he established him 
self in commercial business and met with decided 
success. In 1860 he married Miss Bernhardt of 
Xew York, who has been his faithful companion 
and loving helpmate in adversity as well as in 
happiness. Seven children, four sons, one of 
whom died while on duty on the Peninsula and 
three daughters, were born of the union. When 
the Civil War broke out, Mr. Mayer threw in his 
lot with the Confederacy, and served as com 
missioned officer of the Albany Guards, Fourth 
Regiment of Georgia. A severe illness com 
pelled him to resign his commission and he took 
his family to X T ew York, leaving behind him all 
he had amassed in many years of hard work and 
devotion to his business. At his arrival in New 
York he was practically without means, but his 
spirit was not broken, his ability unimpaired and 
his sterling integrity known to a large circle of 
friends. He started again in business on his own 
account but later on became a partner in the Clif 
ton Brewery on Stafen Island which his brother 
had established. When this establishment was 
destroyed by fire in 1879, Mr. Mayer reestablished 
the business in the upper part of the city and 
since that time has been at the head of the David 
Mayer Brewing Co. in the borough of the Bronx. 
Mr. Mayer is in the fullest and best sense of the 
word a self-made man, having achieved success 
by hard work, indomitable energy and upright, 
correct business methods. Of dignified bearing, 
he is a German of the old school which is rapidly 
disappearing, but has done so much for this 
country by faithful devotion to ideals and un 
swerving honesty. He is of benevolent disposi 
tion, ready to assist those who are in need of 
and deserve help, and very charitable in an unos 
tentatious way, preferring to give quietly instead 
of proclaiming to the world the good he does. Mr. 
Mayer is a member of many educational, philan 
thropic, literary and charitable societies and one 
of the few surviving members of the Association 
of German Patriots of 1848-49. 





I- 1. OR r AN KRUG. 







WILLIAM PETER, the founder and presi 
dent of the William Peter Brewing Company, 
was born at Achern, Baden, Germany, March 16, 
1832. The schools of his native town furnished 
his early education and he graduated from same 
at an early age. His studies were concluded at 
the Moravian Brother s Institute of Koenigsfeld, 
Baden, after having taken a two years course. At 
the age of sixteen young Peter entered upon the 
field of brewing, which, at that time was in its 
infancy compared to the great industry of to-day. 
Apprenticing himself under a brother-in-law, he 
learned the trade thoroughly and continued in this 
capacity for two and one-half years. So indus 
triously had he applied himself during his ap 
prenticeship, his qualifications were such that as 
sured him the foundation he had endeavored to 
attain. He came to this country in 1850 with 
his parents and settled in Xew York City. The 
trade he had chosen offered better opportunities 
here and he found little difficulty in procuring 
employment. For four years he worked in vari 
ous breweries. In 1854 he made his first trip 
to Cincinnati, Ohio, and was employed there in 
the same capacity until 1857, when he returned to 
the East. At the age of twenty-eight he estab 
lished a business of his own in the we c tern sec 
tion of the city and conducted it in a small way 
with an output of but two and three-quarter bar 
rels per day. In 1862 he purchased property at 
Union Hill, X.J., and during the same year he 
erected a small plant that had a daily capacity of 
twelve barrels. After a copartnership of one 
year, he sold his entire interest to his partner 
and during the year of 1864 he accepted a posi 
tion as foreman of the Fausel Brewing Com 
pany of Union Hill, where he remained until 
the spring of 1865. He again engaged in busi 
ness for himself during that year, erecting a 
brewery having a daily capacity of seventy bar 
rels. From 1866 to 1868 the firm was known as 
Peter and Brock and later as Peter and Hexamer, 
but it was not until 1870 that Mr. Peter became 
sole proprietor, and the first real progress that 
was made, and which has terminated so success 
fully, commenced that year. The facilities and 
capacity of the plant were greatly enlarged and 
whenever anything new appeared in the line of 
brewing that meant advancement, Mr. Peter imme 
diately installed same. Like all large enterprises, its 
growth was gradual and each year marked a step 
forward. To-day this imposing plant, with its 
modern fire-proof buildings, machinery and meth 
ods, stands as a monument to the memory of its 
founder. The annual output is over one hundred 
and twenty-five thousand barrels and a yearly ca 
pacity of five hundred thousand. Eighty hands are 

employed throughout the various departments. The 
firm s main office, which is located on Hudson 
Avenue, was erected in 1900 and is a credit to 
Union Hill. Classical in architecture, built of 
marble and brick and containing appointments of 
richness and convenience. Directly opposite is the 
residence of Mr. Peter, one of the handsomest in 
Union Hill, and where he has resided for twenty- 
two years. Mr. Peter incorporated his brewing 
interests on May i, 1890, and the concern became 
known as The William Peter Brewing Company ; 
the stock is held by Mr. Peter s own immediate 
family. The officers of the company are : Will 
iam Peter, president; William Peter, Jr., vice- 
president; Emil Peter, secretary; William Braun- 
stein, treasurer; August Peter, assistant secretary 
and treasurer, and Charles Peter, manager. All of 
Mr. Peter s sons have received a careful commercial 
training and the efficient way in which they trans 
act their official and other duties is characteristic 
of the father. In 1859 Mr. Peter was united in 
marriage to Miss Magdaline Jaeger of Bavaria, 
Germany; six children were born to this union. 
Mrs. Peter died in 1868. Later Mr. Peter again 
married, this time a Mrs. Caroline Ohlenschlager 
(nee Apply) of Zurich, Switzerland, who died 
in 1900. Two children were born to this mar 
riage. In 1902 Mr. Peter married Miss Sophia 
Vogel of Carlsruhe, Baden. Mr. Peter is a great 
lover of art and music. He goes abroad once a 
year and always finds the time to portray the 
beautiful scenery in Switzerland and Germany in 
oil. His home contains many creditable works of 
his own. 

JACOB RUPPERT, brewer, was born in Xew 
York City on March 4, 1842, as the son of Ger 
man parents, and received his education in the 
public and private schools of his birthplace. At 
an early age he engaged in the restaurant busi 
ness and later on started a brewery, being one of 
the pioneers of this industry in the United States. 
While the conditions favored the growth of his 
enterprise, it was his business ability, his fore 
sight and thorough knowledge which made his 
brewery one of the largest in this section of the 
country. It has been enlarged from time to 
time and equipped with the most modern appli 
ances, for Mr. Ruppert was always ready to in 
troduce new methods as soon as their value had 
been proven. From small beginnings his inter 
ests have grown to very large proportions, and 
he is now interested in a number of other enter 
prises. A Democrat in politics, Mr. Ruppert has 
served as presidential elector for the state of 
X T ew York on the Democratic ticket, but has re 
fused all other offers of public office. He is a 


member of the Arion and the German Lieder- 
kranz and of a large number of hospital and 
other benevolent societies. In 1864 Mr. Ruppert 
married Miss Anna Gillig. Six children were 
born to him, of whom four, Jacob, Jr., Anna 
Schalk, George and Amanda Sellick, are living. 

HEINRICH CONRIED, impresario, was born 
at Bielitz, Austria, on September 13, 1855. He 
was educated by private tutors and graduated 
from Schottenfeld College in 1869. Following 
the wish of his father, he learned the trade of a 
weaver, but having a natural and profound fond 
ness for the stage, he decided to follow that pro 
fession and made his debut at the Imperial Court 
Theatre at Vienna on February 23, 1873. His 
advancement was rapid and he had already at 
tained high rank in his new calling when he ac 
cepted in 1878 a call from the United States and 
became stage manager at the Germania Theater 
in New York City. As stage manager and as 
actor his success was pronounced, and in the 
following year he made a triumphant tour of the 
German theaters in the United States as a star. 
For some time he was connected with the Thalia 
Theater in New York, where he acquired well 
deserved fame by magnificent productions of 
modern plays and comic operas. He then formed 
a connection with the New York Casino and 
later organized the Conried Opera Company 
which gave performances all over the United 
States with great artistic and financial success. 
In 1892 Mr. Conried became proprietor and 
manager of the Irving Place Theater in New 
York which he devoted exclusively to German 
drama. This institution he raised to great dis 
tinction not only through the engagement of 
some of the foremost German actors, but also 
through the great care which he bestowed upon 
the production of modern and classical plays. The 
Irving Place was soon known as a model theater 
and its fame spread far beyond the German- 
speaking population. There Mr. Conried intro 
duced to the American public such artists as 
Sonnenthal, Mitterwurzer, Barnay-Schratt, 
Gallmeyer, Knoack, Agnes Sorma and many oth 
ers and produced the works of modern authors 
like Hauptmann, Ibsen, Voss, Sudermann and 
Fulda, together with many classical plays. For" 
more than a decade Mr. Conried devoted a large 
part of his energies to the elevation of the Amer 
ican stage, being firmly convinced that the uni 
versity, the church and the stage form the three 
great universities and has given performances 
at Yale, Harvard and other institutions of learn 
ing, bearing all the expenses. A memorable event 
was the production of Goethe s "Iphigenie" at 

Harvard University, the entire receipts being de 
voted by Mr. Conried to the fund for the es 
tablishment of the new German Museum at Cam 
bridge. In 1904 Mr. Conried took charge of the 
Metropolitan Opera House, and the artistic as 
well as the financial success of this institution 
under his leadership is too well known to re 
quire extended recapitulation. In 1908, at the 
close of an unusually successful season, he de 
sired to retire from this position because he 
needed rest and desired to devote himself 
entirely to the new National Theater where 
he expects to realize his plans as to what the 
perfect stage should be. He is an indefati 
gable worker. During his short career he 
has staged over one thousand plays and 
crossed the ocean nearly one hundred times in 
the interests of his enterprises. In spite of his 
arduous labors he has found time to deliver lec 
tures on the drama at Yale, Harvard and Colum 
bia universities and the University of Pennsyl 
vania. He has received the degree of M.A. from 
Pennsylvania, Harvard and Columbia and nu 
merous decorations from European monarchs, 
and has been made a Knight of the Order of the 
Iron Crown by the Emperor of Austria-Hun 
gary, Knight of the Order of the Royal Crown 
by the Emperor of Germany. The King of 
Italy conferred upon him the rank of Cavaliere, 
raising him to the nobility. Mr. Conried was 
married in 1884 to Augusta, daughter of E. M. 
Sperlin, and has one son, Richard Conried. 

C. F. ACKERMANN, retired, and residing at 
No. 86 Pierrepont Street, Brooklyn, was born at 
Dessau, Anhalr, Germany, April 5, 1835. He 
attended the Gymnasium school of his native 
city until he reached the age of fifteen years, at 
which time he went to Bremen, whre he obtained 
a position with an export and importing house, 
with whom he remained for a period of four 
years. On September 16, 1854, when at the age 
of nineteen, he landed in America, locating at 
Brooklyn, N.Y., and after holding various mer 
cantile positions in New York he, on January I, 
1859, established the importing and export firm 
of Meissner, Ackermann & Company, which grew 
in time to be the most extensive in the petroleum 
export trade in the country. In 1861 Mr. Ack 
ermann soon after the discovery of petroleum 
his firm made their first shipment, which grew 
from year to year to very large proportions and 
shipped this commodity to all parts of the world. 
In 1800 Mr. Ackermann retired from active busi 
ness life, leaving behind him an unblemished 
reputation throughout the commercial world. He 
enjoys an extensive acquaintance both in this 










country and Europe. He is a member of the 
Germania Club of Brooklyn, and was reared in 
the Lutheran Church. Mr. Ackermann was one 
of the founders and is a charter member of the 
German-American Insurance Company of New 
York and has been a director of it ever since 
it was organized. He was joined in wedlock on 
February 7, 1860, with Miss Henrietta Marie 
Wilckens, daughter of Dr. J. Frederick Wilckens, 
at one time a prominent physician of Xew York 
City. They have seven living children. 

RUDOLPH J. SCHAEFER, brewer and mer 
chant, was born in New York City on February 
21, 1863. He received his education in the pub 
lic and in private schools of his birthplace, and 
passed through a business college. After leaving 
school, he became interested in the F. & M. Schae- 
fer Brewing Company, of which his father had been 
one of the founders, and soon took an active part 
in the management. He is now vice-president of 
this concern and president of the Schaefer (Real 
ty) Company, and also a director in several other 
industrial corporations. Mr. Schaefer has taken 
a very active part in all movements inaugurated 
for the welfare of the industry in which he is en 
gaged and is president of the Lager Beer Brew 
ers Board of Trade of New York and Vicinity, 
vice-president of the Associated Brewers of New 
York and Vicinity and treasurer of the New 
York State and the United States Brewers Asso 
ciations. He is a member of the American Brew 
ing Institute and has devoted much time and 
study to the modern development of the brewing 
industry, introducing new methods into his es 
tablishment as soon as they had stood the test of 
careful investigation. Of an active and lively dis 
position, Mr. Schaefer is fond of all manly sports, 
such as riding, driving, skating, billiards, yacht 
ing, rowing and swimming, and is a member of 
the New York Athletic Club, the National Asso 
ciation of Amateur Billiard Players, trustee of 
the Larchmont Yacht Club and member of several 
other yacht clubs. He served as vice-president of 
the German Liederkranz and is a member of the 
Lambs Club. In addition, he is interested in a 
number of charitable organizations and others 
working for the public good ; a trustee of the 
German Hospital and Dispensary, chairman of 
the Brewers Auxiliary of the Hospital Saturday 
and Sunday Association, life member of the So 
ciety for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, 
member of the German Society, the Isabella Hei- 
math, the Metropolitan Museum of Art and many 
other societies. He is a Lutheran and a Demo 
crat in local, but generally a Republican in na 
tional affairs. Mr. Schaefer was married on Oc 

tober 15, 1890, to Miss Frederica V. Beck and 
has three children, F. M. Emile, Edmee Eloise, 
and Rudolph J., Jr. 

HUGO SOHMER, manufacturer, was born at 
Dunningen, near Rottweil, in the Black Forest in 
Wuerttemberg, in 1846. His father was a physi 
cian and left nothing undone to give the boy a 
good education. At an early age Mr. Sohmer 
developed an unusual talent and love for music 
and while still a child attended every concert in 
the old city of Rottweil and in Stuttgart, the 
capital of Wuerttemberg, thus preparing himself, 
without knowing it, for the career he was to fol 
low in later years. When he was sixteen years 
old, the boy decided to emigrate to America. The 
Wanderlust, which drives so many Germans into 
foreign countries, had taken hold of him and he 
heard so many wonderful stories about America 
that he was determined to see the land with whose 
riches his imagination was filled. He arrived in 
1863 and found work in the piano factory of 
Schuetze & Ludolff. The ardent desire for knowl 
edge which the father had planted in the boy s 
heart, and the ambition to rise gave him the 
strength to overcome all obstacles. He used his 
evenings to increase his knowledge of music 
through private lessons, at times suffering severe 
privations because his earnings were small and 
he was alone in the world, his father having died. 
In 1868 Mr. Sohmer had earned enough money 
to go to Europe, where he visited all the important 
piano factories in order to increase his knowledge 
of the business he had decided to embrace. At 
Vienna he made the acquaintance of Mr. Josef 
Kuder, a practical piano maker, and associated 
himself with him and several other experts in the 
same line under the firm name of Sohmer & Co. 
The new factory was started in 1872 at the cor 
ner of Third Avenue and Fourteenth Street with 
limited means and could produce but two or three 
pianos a week during the first year. But the fact 
that nothing but the very best material was used, 
and not a single instrument was allowed to leave 
the workshop that was not mechanically and ar 
tistically perfect quickly established the reputation 
of the new firm. After three years it became nec 
essary to enlarge the factory considerably, and in 
1886 a new factory was built at Astoria, which is 
equipped with all modern improvements and 
known as a model establishment. The Sohmer 
piano has found its way in many thousands of 
homes, is used by the best and greatest artists, 
and agencies of the firm have been established in 
almost every city in the United States. Mr. Soh- 
mer s success has been pronounced, and is re 
markable not only because it started from the 


smallest beginnings imaginable, but also for the 
reason that it has not changed him in the least. 
Widely known, he is as modest and unassuming 
as at the beginning of his career, full of devo 
tion to his duty and to his family, a member of 
many social organization?, but fond of home 
life, a large contributor to a multitude of chari 
ties, and a lover of good music who not only sel 
dom misses a good concert or opera, but is always 
ready to assist gifted pupils and artists lacking 
the means for a musical education. 

OTTO WISSXER, manufacturer, was born 
near Giessen in Hessen, Germany, on March 2., 
1853, and received his education in the Real-Gym 
nasium at Giessen, evincing special interest for 
languages and becoming proficient in Latin, Greek, 
English and French. At the age of sixteen, Mr. 
Wissner came to the United States and found em 
ployment in various piano factories, learning the 
business thoroughly and from the bottom up. In 
1878 he started his own factory in Brooklyn and 
while he had to begin on a small scale, so much 
care was taken in the selection of the material 
and the construction of the instruments, that the 
Wiesner piano quick y secured recognition among 
artists and the public at large. The factory and 
the salesrooms had to lie enlarged and agencies 
were established in all the important cities of the 
United States. Mr. Wissner frequently traveled 
through the country and became widely known as a 
man of sterling integrity and unusual ability and 
as a manufacturer whose knowledge of his busi 
ness and enterprise had rapidly brought him into 
the front rank of American industrial and artistic 
life. Artists like the late Anton Seidl, Emil Paur, 
Lillian Nordica, Julie Rives-King, Jan Kubelik 
and many others used his pianos and became his 
friends. Mr. Wisi-ner took a lively interest in 
musical affairs, and was always ready to assist 
the German organizations devoted to the mission 
of awakening and strengthening the love and ap 
preciation for good music in America. In 1900 
he was appointed by the United Singers of Brook 
lyn a member of a committee of three to transmit 
the German Emperor the thanks of the singers 
for the silver trophy Emperor William had given 
as a prize for the singing festival held at Brook 
lyn, and to present copies of the songs which had 
been rendered at the competition for it. The dele 
gation was graciously received by Emperor Will 
iam and treated with much distinction. Mr. Wiss 
ner is an Independent in politics and lives in 
Brooklyn, but spends much of his time at his 
beautiful summer home, The Westerly, in Nas 
sau County. He is a member of the German 
Lutheran Church, the German Liederkranz, 

Brooklyn Arion, Saengerbund, Royal Arcanum, 
and a Mason, also a director of the Mechanics 
Bank and trustee of the Germania Savings Bank. 
In 1881 Mr. Wissner was married to Miss Katie 
Leckerling and has six children, four daughters 
and two sons, who now manage his factory. 

EDWARD LAUTERBACH, whose brilliant 
career as a lawyer and politician has made his 
one of the most familiar names in New York, 
was born in New York City on August 12, 1844. 
His education was begun in the public schools 
and continued in the College of the City of New 
York, from which institution he was graduated 
with honors in 1864. He worked hard in school 
and college, as one to whom study was a privi 
lege rather than a drudgery, and as soon as he 
received his degree entered upon a course of 
law in the offices of Townsend, Dyett & Morri 
son. After his admission to the Bar he became 
a member of this firm, which was then reor 
ganized under the name of Morrison, Lauter- 
bach & Spingarn. The death of Mr. Spingarn 
terminated the partnership and Mr. Lauterbach 
formed his present connection with the firm of 
Hoadly, Lauterbach & Johnson. Individually, 
the firm is an unusually strong one, and is well 
known throughout the country. Mr. Lauterbach 
has made an exhaustive study of the statutes 
relating to corporate bodies, and has a high 
standing at the Bar as a specialist in this depart 
ment of practise. He has successfully conducted 
a large number of important litigations involv 
ing intricate points of law, and has a wide repu 
tation for being able to settle large cases outside 
the courts. In addition to his other practise, Mr. 
Lauterbach is a prominent figure in railroad cir 
cles as an organizer. He was instrumental in 
bringing about the consolidation of the Union 
and Brooklyn elevated roads, and the creation 
of the Consolidated Telegraph and Electrical 
subway, and was concerned in the reorganiza 
tion of many railroads. He was counsel for and 
a director of a number of street surface rail 
roads, among others the Third Avenue system. 
Mr. Lauterbach has always been a Republican 
and has taken as active a part in state and local 
politics as the absorbing nature of his profession 
~would permit. For some years he was chairman 
of the Republican County Committee of New 
York and was associated with Chauncey M. De- 
pew, Thomas C. Platt, Frank S. Witherbee and 
Frank Hiscock in the advisory committee of the 
Republican State Committee. In the Republican 
National Convention, held at St. Louis in 1896, 
he was a delegate at large from New York, 
was the member from New York of the com- 

I 29 






mittee on resolutions, and was one of the sub 
committee of nine appointed to draft the plat 
form, the financial plank of which presented the 
greatest issue that had been before the Amer 
ican people for many years. Mr. Lauterbach 
was one of the three delegates at large from 
the city of New York to the Constitutional Con 
vention, which met in June, 1894. He was made 
chairman of the committee on public charities, 
an appointment which was considered highly ap 
propriate, as he has been very prominent in all 
philanthropic and benevolent work, and is con 
nected officially with many charitable organiza 
tions. The cause of education has a sympathetic 
and practical friend in Mr. Lauterbach, who has 
done much in various ways for its advancement. 
Mr. Lauterbach is married and has four children. 
The oldest, a son, was educated for his father s 
profession and was admitted to the Bar at the 
age of twenty-one. The other three are daugh 
ters. Mrs. Lauterbach has for years been a 
conspicuous figure in New York society, not only 
in its brilliancy and pleasure-seeking, but also in 
its beneficent activities. She became interested 
in the Consumers League, and did much to se 
cure legislation for the benefit of women em 
ployed in factories. She has been interested in 
the movement for woman suffrage, the Prizon 
Guild and many other enterprises for the im 
provement of social, industrial and educational 

was born at Charleston, S.C., on the seventeenth 
day of March, 1836. He is the son of Isaac and 
Babetta Dittenhoefer. His father, a native of 
Germany, emigrated to the United States in 1836, 
arriving in the city of Baltimore. He then moved 
to Charleston, S.C., and subsequently to the city 
of New York, where he became a successful 
merchant and a man of great local influence ; his 
mother was also a native of Germany. His par 
ents were married in Baltimore. He acquired 
his early education in the public schools of the 
city of New York and later attended Columbia 
College Grammar School, then situated in Mur 
ray Street, and in 1852 he entered Columbia Col 
lege, which was then situated in College Place; 
and Charles King was its president. During his 
college course he was especially distinguished 
for his proficiency in Latin and Greek ; the fa 
mous Dr. Charles Anthon, the professor of 
Latin, called him "Ultima Thule." After grad 
uation and in 1857 he entered the law office of 
Benedict & Boardman. At that time John E. 
Parsons, the celebrated lawyer, was managing- 
clerk in the same office. At the age of twenty- 

one he was admitted to the Bar. His active 
connection with the Republican party, then form 
ing, began about the same time. Though his 
friends and relatives urged him to join the Dem 
ocratic party, which was then in supreme control 
in the city of New York, his strong convictions 
that slavery was a crime and should be rooted 
out influenced him not to follow their advice. At 
that time New York City was virtually a pro- 
slavery city, and during the draft riots at the 
breaking out of the Civil War, he was notified 
by the rioters to leave the city, which he declined 
to do. In 1858 he was nominated by the Repub 
lican party for justice of the Marine (now City) 
Court, but the party being in a hopeless minor 
ity, his election was impossible. In 1864 he was 
elected one of the presidential electors for the 
state of New York, and as such he had the great 
honor to cast his vote in the Electoral College 
for Abraham Lincoln, with whom he became in 
timate and who, during his term, offered Mr. 
Dittenhoefer the appointment of United States 
judge for the district of South Carolina, his 
native state. He declined the appointment as he 
was unwilling to abandon the large practise he 
had secured in the city of New York. In 1862 
Governor Fenton appointed him to fill the va 
cancy caused by the death of Judge Florence 
McCarthy and he gave his entire salary during 
the whole term to Judge McCarthy s widow, who 
was in want. This act of kindness and gener 
osity has been characteristic of his life. At the 
expiration of the term he declined a renomina- 
tion, to enable him to devote himself to his large 
and lucrative practise. In 1876 he was a dele 
gate to the National Republican Convention in 
Cincinnati, which nominated General Hayes for 
president, and for eight weeks stumped without 
compensation in the states of Ohio and Indiana. 
For twelve consecutive years he was chair 
man of the German Republican Central Commit 
tee of New York and has always effectively 
served his party as an influential factor in its 
councils and as an effective campaigner. Judge 
Dittenhoefer stands in the front rank of the New 
York Bar and as a lawyer has secured a distin 
guished reputation. While his services have been 
required in every branch of the legal profession, 
he has been conspicuous in litigations relating to 
the law of the stage, being recognized as an au 
thority on that branch of the law. He procured 
the incorporation of the Actors Fund of Amer 
ica, the great theatrical charity, and has served 
as its counsel without compensation. It was 
largely through his efforts that the law giving 
the license fees collected from theaters to the 
Society for the Reformation of Juvenile Delin- 


quents was repealed. This stamped the theater 
as the nursery of criminals and its repeal was 
recognized as a great advance. In recognition of 
these services he was presented with a testimonial 
and, together with ex-President Cleveland, Dr. 
Houghton and other distinguished men, was 
elected an honorary member. He also secured, 
at the instance of the American Dramatists Club, 
the amendment of the copyright law making it a 
crime to steal the production of one s brain, as 
it always was a crime to steal tangible property. 
He has also been distinguished in many commer 
cial and corporation cases and has been frequent 
ly retained in important criminal cases. Early in 
the seventies he was appointed by the Board of 
Aldermen of the city of New York as one of 
its counsel to represent them when they were in 
dicted for granting permits to encumber the 
streets with newspaper stands in violation of the 
charter and he succeeded in quashing the indict 
ment. He made a telling point when he a<ked 
the court to mark the newsboy, whose stand was 
the subject of controversy, as Exhibit A. He 
was counsel for the old excise commissioners, 
Dr. Merkle and Richard Morrison, when they 
were indicted for an infraction of the law, and 
succeeded in obtaining their acquittal. When 
their successors, Commissioners Meakin, Fitzpat- 
rick and Koch, were subsequently indicted, he 
was their leading counsel and after three years 
of litigation the indictments were dismissed on 
a motion made by Judge Dittenhoefer. In 1896 
as one of the counsel for Elverton A. Chapman 
of the well known banking firm of Moore & 
Schley and a number of newspaper correspond 
ents who were prosecuted in Washington for re 
fusing to answer questions of the United States 
Senate Committee investigating the sugar tariff 
scandal, Judge Dittenhoefer was conspicuous 
and successful, gaining a notable victory of 
great value for the liberty of the press. He was 
counsel for the defendants in what are known as 
the Japanese Silk Fraud Cases, instituted by the 
United States. These were vigorously prosecu 
ted and attracted great attention all over the 
world. He succeeded in freeing his client. He 
was counsel for the Metropolitan Opera Com 
pany in the attempt on the part of the widow of 
the famous master, Richard Wagner, to secure 
an injunction to restrain the performance of 
"Parsifal." One of the arguments made by Mrs. 
Wagner s counsel was that Richard Wagner 
left the wish on his death-bed that "Parsifal" 
should not be performed anywhere else than at 
Beyreuth, and that said wish should be piously 
respected. In reply Judge Dittenhoefer asked : 
"Suppose Shakespeare had left the dying wish 

that Hamlet should not be produced anywhere 
else than at Stratford-on-the-Avon, would it be 
right to deprive the world of the pleasure and in 
struction to be derived from listening to that un- 
equaled work on the stage?" He was counsel for 
the captain and directors who were indicted in 
connection with the burning of the General 570- 
cum, on which over nine hundred lives were lost. 
He is now one of the counsel of the Lincoln 
National Bank, of which General James, a mem 
ber of President Garfield s Cabinet, is president, 
and of many other corporations. An amusing 
incident in Judge Dittenhoefer s career occurred 
a few years after he was admitted to the bar. A 
German by the name of David retained him to 
defend him. He had been charged with pur 
chasing a quantity of clothing on false representa 
tions. When the case came on for trial it was 
the sixteenth on the day calendar. Every case 
ahead of his having answered ready on the first 
call, Judge Dittenhoefer left the court with in 
structions to be sent for should, by any chance, 
his case be reached. In less than an hour, the 
calendar having broken down, his presence was 
demanded. When he arrived the jury had already 
been empaneled. Being quite near-sighted he 
could not find his client and requested his young 
man to look for him, who quickly reported that 
he was sitting on his own jury. After much dif 
ficulty the judge, who felt inclined to punish him 
for contempt of court, allowed him to go. The 
judge then asked him how on earth he got on 
the jury. He answered: "Didn t I have to $ro? 
The clerk called my name." His name was in 
the wheel with a hundred others and by a strange 
coincidence when his case was called by the trial 
judge his own name was turned out among the 
twelve to act as juryman. Judge Dittenhoefer 
then asked him how he could have the cheek to 
sit on his own jury. His answer was : "Veil, 
who knows more about dis case den I do?" The 
judge said that he was not a rascal but merely 
a fool who did not know any better. Judge Dit 
tenhoefer married in the city of New York in 
1858 a Miss Englehart of Cleveland, Ohio, and 
has five children. One of them, his son, Irving 
Meade Dittenhoefer, is IT S partner, and a mem 
ber of the firm of Dittenhoefer, Gerber & James. 

CHARLES A. STADLER was born at Ger- 
mersheim in the Bavarian Palat : nate on July 15, 
1848. He came to America in 1851 with his par 
ents and received his education in St. Nicholas s 
Parochial School, the public schools and in De La 
Salle Institute. After graduating, Mr. Stadler 
engaged in the brewing industry and subsequently 
in the grain trade and eventually established 







OF ~ 






himself as a maltster. The development of the 
brewing industry and the change to modern 
methods which almost revolutionized that trade 
during the latter part of the last century was 
foreseen early by Mr. Stadler and made use of 
in every possible way. He clearly perceived the 
ways and means with the help of which he could 
get to and keep at the front, and was soon recog 
nized as one of the ablest men in his line. Of a 
genial disposition, warm-hearted and ever ready 
to help those in need, it is but natural that he has 
a host of friends and that his popularity is not 
confined to his business associates. A Democrat, 
and from his early youth interested in public af 
fairs, political honors were offered to him re 
peatedly. He served as inspector of schools, as 
state senator from 1888 to 1892, as delegate to 
the Constitutional Convention and as a member 
of the State Democratic Executive Committee, 
and only his determination to devote his time to 
his business affairs prevented his election to 
higher offices. He had by this time interested 
himself in various enterprises and is now presi 
dent of the American Malting Company and of 
the Sebastian Wagon Company, vice-president 
and treasurer of the Sicilian Asphalt Company, 
vice-president of the Nineteenth Ward Bank and 
a director of the Germania Bank, member of the 
Produce Exchange of New York and of the 
Boards of Trade of Chicago and Buffalo. Fond 
of good and congenial societies, he is a member 
of many clubs, among them the Manhattan, Dem 
ocratic, Army and Navy and New York Ath 
letic ; the Geographical Society, German Society, 
German Liederkranz, Arion and many other pub 
lic and charitable organizations. He is major 
commanding the Old Guard. Mr. Stadler was 
married twice : in 1866 to Miss Josephine Conte s , 
who died in 1885, and on June 21, 1888, to Miss 
Pauline Roesicke of Brooklyn, and has five 

A. B. HEINE, merchant. Almost prophetic 
were the words of the distinguished lyric poet 
and namesake, Heine : "When you speak of the 
best of men, you must include him." A. B. Heine 
is indeed one of the best merchants of the age, 
combining at once the highest qualities of the old 
conservative school with the most advanced, far- 
reaching, most courageous methods known to 
that division of commerce of which he became a 
master mind. Liberated in his early life anfl 
business career from all the limitations which 
are so often the real impediment to genuine suc- 
ce r s, he soon made a mark quite equal to the 
foremost men in the business which to-day ranks 
second to none in magnitude, in volume, in 

wealth and progress. As an organizer of men 
and affairs it was only natural that his work 
should be crowned by that magnificent world in 
dustry bearing his name. No merchant has 
proven more versatility, more originality in 
thought and action, no importer has made a 
clearer record, has been a truer friend of right 
and justice and a better advocate of correct 
business ethics and established sounder princi 
ples, both in that branch of the Government ex 
ecuting the customs laws, than has A. B. Heine. 
His voice was always heard in the forum when 
the Treasurer of the United States listened to the 
just complaints of the importing merchant; while 
his triumphs, his victories over dark and doubtful 
ways and means never inflated his mind in con 
nection with the normal discharge of his duties 
to the trade and the individual. It is always rec 
ognized that as a leader in all movements for 
the betterment of commerce, A. B. Heine takes 
no back seat; he is nothing if not first, foremost, 
true and strong. As a perfect harmonious mani 
festation of these virtues stands that monument, 
"that city on the hills" of which both hemi 
spheres speak in loud terms of praise and won 
der; the largest industrial combination in em 
broideries and kindred produces. 

CHARLES PFIZER, manufacturer, was born 
at Ludwigsburg in Wuerttemberg, Germany, on 
March 22, 1824. He received a very thorough 
education in the schools of his native town, which 
furnished him with an excellent foundation so 
that he was able, in later years, to build upon it 
a rich fund of knowledge, although he never at 
tended a college or other high institution of learn 
ing. After leaving school, Mr. Pfizer served an 
apprenticeship in a drug and paint house at Mann 
heim for several years. Having learned the 
business completely, he secured a position as con 
fidential clerk with a large exporting firm at 
Rotterdam, Holland, where he had occasion to 
extend his knowledge and to develop the quali 
ties that were the reasons for his success in later 
years. In 1849 a business depression set in, 
partly in consequence of the political upheavals 
in Germany, and as all Europe suffered from 
these conditions, Mr. Pfizer decided to emigrate 
to America. Here, in a wider field, where his 
ability was not confined by narrow limits and tra 
dition, he established himself in Williamsburg, 
then part of Brooklyn, as a manufacturer of 
chemicals, with an office on Beekman Street, in 
partnership with his brother-in-law, Charles F. 
Erhart. The firm rapidly acquired a reputation 
for the quality of their goods, for fair dealing 
and strict integrity, and the business grew from 


year to year. Mr. Pfizer s knowledge of his 
trade was so complete, his education having given 
him the opportunity to master every detail, and 
he was so eager to take advantage of every new 
discovery in his line that his firm soon became 
known as one of the most important and largest 
in its line, the factory in Brooklyn occupying 
some thirty-four city lots. In 1870 the business 
moved to No. 81 Maiden Lane where it is still 
carried on with a branch office in Chicago. Mr. 
Erhart died in 1891 and Mr. Pfizer retired from 
active business in 1900, when the concern was in 
corporated and is now in the hands of his two 
sons, Charles, Jr., and Emile Pfizer, and his 
nephew, William H. Erhart. Mr. Pfizer was a 
Republican in politics but never held public office 
though taking a warm interest in public affairs, 
and being widely known as a man of correct 
and sober judgment, reliable and worthy of es 
teem and admiration. His long life has been a 
splendid illustration of the possibilities offered by 
this country to the German who brings ambition, 
intelligence and firm purpose to these shores, as 
well as of the great value of German emigration 
to the United States. Mr. Pfizer was married in 
1859 to Miss Anna Hausch and has five children, 
three sons and two daughters, viz. : Charles, Gus- 
tave, Emile, Helen and Alice, all of whom are 
living. Mr. Pfizer s death occurred October 19, 
1905. He was a member of the Germania Club 
of Brooklyn, of the Brooklyn Riding and Driving 
Club and of the Downtown Association of New 
York City. 

MICHAEL C. GROSS, lawyer, was born in 
New York City on February 18, 1838, as the 
son of German parents. He was educated in 
private schools in New York and studied law. 
After being admitted to the Bar he practised his 
profession in New York City and became rapidly 
known. Soon after reaching his majority he 
was elected a member of the Board of Council- 
men from the Fifth Senatorial District and re 
peatedly reelected, serving in this capacity from 
1861 until 1864. He had taken an active part in 
politics as a Democrat and displaying unusual 
ability as an orator, as well as lawyer, it was 
natural that he was selected to fill a judicial 
office. Elected in November, 1865, he served as^~ 
Justice of the Marine Court the present City 
Court from 1865 until January I, 1876. Since 
then he has devoted himself to the practise of his 
profession. Although born in America, Justice 
Gross has always kept in close touch with Ger 
man-Americans, and with everything worthy of 
admiration and emulation produced by the coun 
try which gave birth to his parents. Every move 

ment tending to increase the knowledge of and 
appreciation for the achievements on the part of 
the German race in the realms of the arts, the 
sciences and literature has found in him a 
willing and enthusiastic supporter. He married 
in June, 1866, and is a member of the German 
Liederkranz, German Society, German Hospital 
Association and German Club. 

JOHN LOUIS SCHAEFER, merchant and 
banker, was born in New York City on August 
4, 1867, the son of German parents, and educated 
in the public schools and the evening high schools 
of his birthplace. On leaving school, he entered 
the employ of a mercantile house and rose so 
rapidly that he was vice-president and director 
of the world-famed firm, the Wm. R. Grace 
Company, commission merchants and South 
American bankers, before he was forty. He is 
also a director of the Hamilton Bank Note Co., of 
the New York & Pacific Steamship Co., the Cuban 
American Fertilizer Co., the Nitrate Agencies 
Co. and of the Advisory Board of the Corn Ex 
change Bank. Mr. Schaefer has taken a warm 
interest in the affairs of the Lutheran Church, 
with which he has been connected all his life, 
and is a trustee of St. Lucas Evangelical Luth 
eran Church and the Wartburg Orphan Asylum. 
He was one of the organizers and founders of 
the Luther League movement in the United States. 
Under the will of the late William R. Grace, the 
founder of the firm that bears his name, Mr. 
Schaefer is trustee and treasurer of the Grace 
Institute for Girls. A Democrat in politics, he 
has never taken an active part in partisan strife, 
and is a member of the New York Athletic Club, 
Mariners Club and the Maritime Exchange. Mr. 
Schaefer was married in 1896 to Miss Susan 
Karsch and has four children, Bernhard J., Louis, 
Jr., Kathryn C. and Susan Grace. 

AUGUST MIETZ, one of New York s fore 
most manufacturers of marine and other types 
of engines, was born in the picturesque town of 
Wilsnack, Province of Brandenburg, Prussia, De 
cember i, 1834, ar >d like many of those who ap 
pear in this volume, obtained his early and only 
schooling in the native town. Apprenticing him 
self in 1849 to a machinist, he learned that trade 
thoroughly ; the foundation of the successful 
career ahead of him being laid by the close ap 
plication which characterizes the German race. 
His aptitude fitted him for the vocation he had 
chosen at an early age, being only nineteen when 
he sought employment in Berlin. After six years 
of diligent work, three as a mechanic and later 
three years as foreman, which strengthened the 










confidence in himself and prepared him for his 
immigration to the United States in 1859. He 
came here determined to succeed, remaining one 
year in New York, prior to his settling in the 
southern part of this country. He was not long 
in finding what he came for, a permanency in a 
city which afforded better opportunities. When 
the Civil War began, he moved back to New York 
City (1861), found employment as a machinist, 
then later as a contractor with the Aetna Sewing 
Machine Company and in 1874 opened an iron 
foundry and machine shop at No. 87 to 91 Eliza 
beth Street, which was for years a necessity in 
that section of the city. Notwithstanding the suc 
cess he attained, his ambition had not been 
achieved. He saw the importance of enlarging 
his interests, and not long thereafter purchased 
the adjoining property with the intention of erect 
ing a modern plant for manufacturing purposes. 
His plans were carried out, and when his new 
building (at that time) at No. 128 to 132 Mott 
Street and connecting with the original foundry 
in Elizabeth Street was completed, his efforts 
were rewarded by great success on a much larger 
scale. In 1894 an opportunity presented itself to 
Mr. Mietz and, realizing the possibilities it prom 
ised, acted upon the suggestion that has since 
placed him at the head of engine manufacturers. 
In the above year Mr. C. W. Weiss, a native of 
Germany, and Mr. Mietz took out various joint 
patents on engines and they made an agreement 
together whereby Mr. Mietz, with the capital and 
equipped plant, took up the manufacture and sale 
of engines, giving them the name of the Mietz & 
Weiss engines. Mr. Weiss has charge of this 
department, with the result that Mr. Mietz to 
day has become a factor as a manufacturer of 
engines which are patented in the United States 
and principal foreign countries, and exported to 
all parts of the world; over thirty thousand horse 
power in operation. A new adjoining building 
was found necessary, and same was erected, 
making it one of the largest of its kind in the 
city. Having a frontage of one hundred and fifty 
feet on Mott Street, it runs through to Elizabeth, 
connecting the foundry. Mr. Mietz has spared 
no expense in the installation of modern ma 
chinery for manufacturing purposes and to-day 
his name has become widely known through the 
stationary and marine, gas, oil and alcohol engines 
for which he finds an unlimited market. Gov 
ernment bids have been awarded with the results 
as specified. Awards of the highest character, 
presented by the superior juries of the Paris, Pan- 
American, Charleston and the Louisiana Purchase 
exhibitions, are treasured by Mr. Mietz as tes 
timonials of his workmanship. In his private life 

Mr. Mietz is a lover of the home circle. He be 
longs to but few organizations, being a member 
of the Arion and Eichenkranz, a patron of the 
German Hospital and subscriber to various chari 
ties, and has devoted a great portion of his spare 
time to study and the advancement of his indus 
try. He has been president of the American 
Carbonate Company, manufacturing liquid car 
bonate acid gas, the plant being erected at Nine 
teenth Street, between First Avenue and Avenue 
A, for the past twenty-two years, and owns over 
three-quarters of the capital stock. This company, 
having a frontage of two hundred feet on Nine 
teenth Street and running through to Eighteenth 
Street, is to-day the largest of its kind in this 
country, covering twelve city lots. He was the 
founder of this enterprise, but the active man 
agement of the company he has entrusted to Mr. 
Emil Rueff, his son-in-law. Mr. Mietz is a wor 
shiper at the German Lutheran Church. On 
June 5, 1861, he married Miss Maria Lenz. Five 
children were born to them, two boys and three 
girls. One daughter, Mrs. Emil Rueff, survives. 
Mr. Mietz s personality is such that one never 
leaves him without a deep impression of his ster 
ling qualities. His life has been one of honest 
endeavor and the enterprise that stands as a mon 
ument to his genius represents what a man can 
accomplish with a strength of purpose. 

CHARLES C. CLAUSEN, brewer, was born 
in New York City on January 7, 1844, as the 
son of German parents. He received his educa 
tion in the schools of his birthplace and entered 
the business founded by his father after gradu 
ating. When the great change from old-fash 
ioned to new and modern methods became nec 
essary in the brewing industry, Mr. Clausen was 
one of the first to see the importance of the 
movement and devoted his whole energy to bring 
it about in the establishment in which he was in 
terested. The immediate success following this 
upheaval, as it may justly be called, was a splen 
did testimonial to his ability and foresightedness. 
Although born in America,, Mr. Clausen has taken 
a deep and active interest in the life and af 
fairs of the German-American population, assist 
ing in every movement inaugurated by them and 
worthy of success. His help and advice have been 
as readily given as eagerly sought. As an exam 
ple of the American citizen of German descent 
who retains the love and admiration for all that 
is great and good in the history and the character 
of the German race, and is anxious to increase 
the influence of German immigration upon the 
slowly-forming character of the American people, 
Mr. Clausen stands in the front rank. In poli- 


tics a Democrat, he is a member of the Arion 
Society, the German Liederkranz and the Lu 
theran Church. He was married on June 13, 
1872, to Miss Henriette F. Knoche and has three 

WILLIAM SOHMER. Of the old German 
towns whose sons have won marked recognition 
and distinction in this country, the historic Wuert- 
tenburg is important as the ancestral environ 
ment of William Sohmer. May 26, 1852, wit 
nessed the day of his birth, following which not 
less than five years elapsed before his parents 
embarked with him to New York. With a public 
school education supplemented by a thorough busi 
ness college course, as a foundation, Mr. Sohmer, 
at an early age, entered the insurance field, which 
at that time was in the early stage of its devel 
opment. After remaining a few years in the ser 
vice of a prominent fire insurance company, Mr. 
Sohmer resigned the position of manager to es 
tablish himself independently in the Metropolitan 
Bank Building at Nos. I and 3 Third Avenue, 
where his offices have been located ever since. His 
unbounded enthusiasm and energy, coupled with 
the telling advantages of business sagacity and 
concentration of purpose, produced the natural re 
sult of instantaneous recognition and to-day the 
name of William Sohmer is synonymous with 
the modern systematization and expan c ion of the 
insurance business in this city. The characteristic 
enterprise and compelling personality of Mr. 
Sohmer attracted unconscious attention on all 
sides and it was with a sense of confident grati 
fication that his friends hailed his association with 
political and governmental institutions. In 1889 
the representation of the Tenth District was con 
fided to him and so conscientious was his fulfil 
ment of the trust that increasing majorities con 
ferred two reelections upon him. Mr. Sohmer 
next appeared before the public as candidate for 
sheriff on the Democratic ticket and although it 
was an adverse election for the entire ticket, no 
little significance lies in the fact that he led all 
his associate candidates by eight thousand votes. 
In i$95 he was elected register, again running far 
ahead of his ticket and at the expiration of his 
term was prominently mentioned as the Demo 
cratic mayoralty candidate for the ensuing elec 
tion. While the choice of the convention did not 
devolve upon him, he was nominated and trium 
phantly elected as county clerk by a majority of 
over seventy thousand votes. Mr. Sohmer s 
clean-cut career serves to exemplify the aphorism 
that it is but consistent honesty and steadfast 
ness of purpose that can stand the test of time. 
Highly honored in the rolls of Democracy and 

Tammany Hall, the office of Sachem has been 
dignified with his incumbency and as chairman of 
the Executive Committee and Committee on Or 
ganization and as a member of the Democratic 
State Committee, he served his party faithfully 
and with distinction. Mr. Sohmer is at present 
serving the state in the Senate and because of 
his varied and unlimited experience, and his pecu 
liar adaptability to the functions of a legislator, is 
a forceful and interesting figure in that body. The 
artless simplicity and inherent frankness that go 
to make up Mr. Sohmer s individuality assert his 
respect in the social world. He is a member of 
the New York Athletic Club, the Catholic Club, 
the Arion, Liederkranz, Eichenkranz, New Yorker 
Turn Verein, Beethoven Maennerchor, the Ger 
man-American Schuetzen Club and the National 
Democratic Club. He has a brother in this city 
who is in the piano business. To those publicists 
who are watching for the finest result of assimi 
lated citizenship in this country, William Sohmer 
has, by force of his own magnetic personality, ex 
ercised an attention that ranks him high among 
the successful German-Americans whose standing 
has so contributed to the moulding of a true 
American nationality. 

was born at Paderborn in Westphalia on Sep 
tember 26, 1844, and received his education in 
the High School and the Gymnasium at Mtin- 
ster, Westphalia. After various positions in the 
leather business he entered the firm of R. Nea- 
mann & Co. and established with his present 
partner the manufacturing concern of fine fancy 
leathers in Newark, NJ. In 1888 the firm, find 
ing better inducements as regards location and 
commerce, erected their present large works in 
Hoboken. Mr. Heilemeyer has been the man 
aging partner at the works from the start and 
still gives the greatest part of his time to their 
supervision. The goods produced by the firm are 
known far and wide, and its success is not sur 
prising if it is borne in mind that thorough 
knowledge of the business in all its branches, 
strict integrity, enterprise and an unusual or 
ganizing and executive ability are combined in 
the person of one of its members. Mr. Heite- 
weyer is one of those men who appear to be sur 
charged with energy, hardly ever resting and 
observing with a keen eye whatever is important 
or of value. This valuable gift of recognizing 
the importance of every detail, or, on the other 
hand, every defect almost before it manifests 
itself, together with the ability to decide quick 
ly what must be done, is one of his most 
marked characteristics. Mr . Heitemeyer has 


traveled widely and is fond of social diversions. 
He is a member of the German Verein, Ger 
man Liederkranz and Arion of New York and 
of the German Club of Hoboken and a director 
of the Trust Company of New Jersey. On July 
8, 1874, he was married to Miss Mathilde Wege- 
ner. Of his three children the son, Robert, is a 
partner in the father s firm; one daughter, El- 
frida, married Count Tareggi, and Elizabeth 
lives with her parents. 

WILLIAM KEUFFEL, manufacturer, was 
born at Walbeck, Germany, on July 19, 1838. 
He received his education in the public and pri 
vate schools of his birthplace. At the age of 
fifteen he left school and became an apprentice 
in a general merchandise store where he re 
mained for four years, receiving a severe but 
thorough mercantile and business training, which 
fitted him for the successful career of later 
years. He then entered the employ of a large 
hardware house in Hanover, Germany, from 
where, several years later, he went to Birming 
ham, England. In 1866 he came to the United 
States where, in 1867, he founded, together with 
his friend, Hermann Esser, the firm of Keuf- 
fel & Esser, now so well known. Drafting was 
at that time in its infancy in this country and it 
was Mr. Keuffel s foresight which appreciated 
its coming importance accompanying the phe 
nomenal development of American manufactur 
ing and engineering enterprise. To supply all 
the requirements, in office and field, of the sur 
veyor, engineer, architect and draftsman and 
make a specialty of this business was the pur 
pose of the new firm and Mr. Keuffel can well 
be called the pioneer of this line, because, up to 
the founding of his firm, drafting supplies had 
not been carried exclusively by any house in the 
United States. The business, beginning in a 
very small way, was successful from the start 
and already three year? later the firm published 
its first catalogue of drawing and surveying in 
struments which has become a s.andard. Forty 
years of labor and progress see Mr. Keuffel at 
the head of the largest house in its line in the 
world. His factories at Hoboken are one of 
the landmarks of that city and cover over five 
and one-half acres floor space. The main store 
at 127 Fulton Street, New York, is a model es 
tablishment, where every requisite of the engi 
neer and draftsman can be found and where un 
usual facilities are afforded for examining and 
testing the many delicate instruments of pre- 
ci^ion included in this line. Similar stores are 
maintained at Chicago, St. Louis and San Fran 
cisco, but the reputation of Keuffel & Esser 

goods is not confined to the United States, but is 
recognized over the inhabited world. The busi 
ness which Mr. Keuffel established forty years 
ago, when only he and his partner comprised the 
entire force, employs to-day close to one thousand 
people. The great success which Mr. Keuffel 
has attained in building up a business of such 
magnitude and standing is due to his untiring 
energy, his far: eeing understanding of the needs 
and the possibilities of his business, his indomita 
ble will to overcome obstacles and his enthusi 
asm which enabled him to call forth the best 
efforts of those working with and under him. 
His personality was so far above the average 
that those who met him could not help recogniz 
ing it. Mr. Keuffel has been a resident of Ho 
boken almost from the day he landed in Amer 
ica and has taken a great deal of interest in 
public and social affairs in Xew York and Ho 
boken, being a member of many prominent or 
ganizations. He has, however, never entered 
politics. For many years he was the president 
of the Hoboken Academy, the well known Ger 
man-American school, and later on he was much 
interested in the Manual Training School, of 
which he was a trustee for a number of years. 
He is also a member of the Advisory Board of 
the German Hospital and Dispensary. Mr. Keuf 
fel has a fine summer residence at Elka Park 
of which association he is honorary president. 
On December 26, 1871, he married Miss Bertha 
Schneeberger of St. Louis. He has four chil 

a native of the United States and the son of a 
Frenchman who was brought to America by his 
father at an early age, Charles Vincent Fornes 
attributes a large part of his success in life to 
the influence of his mother, who came from Ba 
den, Germany, and whose family name was 
Krumholz. Mr. Fornes was born on his father s 
farm in Erie County, X.Y., in 1848, as the sev 
enth of nine children. When he was four years 
old the father, who had in the meantime re 
moved to Xiagara County, died and the widow 
had a hard struggle to keep the homestead and 
bring up the children. Until he went to school 
at the age of six, Charles V. Fornes spoke Ger 
man only and had to learn English before he 
could play with his schoolmates. He was an ex 
ceptionally bright and diligent scholar and when 
he had to give up attending the summer term be 
cause his help was needed on the farm, he used 
the little money he could earn from time to time 
to buy books which he studied during the win 
ter. He soon was able to earn enough money to 


pay his way through Lockport Academy from 
which he graduated when sixteen years old. The 
principal of this institution, B. M. Reynolds, was 
so much taken with the bright young man that 
he taught him Latin and Greek privately and 
offered to pay his expenses through Yale College. 
But Mr. Fornes s mother had become an invalid 
and needed his assistance and the dutiful son 
gave up the opportunity to enter upon a scientific 
career. He accepted a clerkship in the office of a 
grain dealer in Buffalo during the season of navi 
gation and in the winter took charge of a dis 
trict school in Erie County. His work there 
caused the superintendent of public schools of 
Buffalo to offer him a principalship, which Mr. 
Fornes accepted and held for three years. He 
then decided to devote himself entirely to mer 
cantile pursuits and entered a wholesale cloth 
house as cashier and bookkeeper. Eight years 
later he formed the firm of Dahlmann & Fornes, 
which, in 1877, removed to New York and soon 
assumed the name of C. V. Fornes & Co. These 
are the milestones in a career which began hum 
bly but through untiring industry, sterling honesty 
and a keen grasp for public affairs was destined 
to round out beautifully. In 1889 Mr. Fornes 
was elected president of the Catholic Club and 
held this position until 1894. During this time 
the beautiful club-house on Central Park South 
was erected. He was a member of the committee 
of one hundred that had charge of the Columbus 
Centennial Celebration. In 1891 he was elected 
a trustee of the Emigrant Industrial Savings 
Bank, and since 1896 he has been the treasurer 
of the Catholic Protectory. He is also a di 
rector of the City Trust Co., which he helped to 
organize. In 1901 Mr. Fornes was elected presi 
dent of the Board of Aldermen, which position 
required him to act as mayor of the city of New 
York during the absence of the mayor. The tact 
and ability he displayed during his term of of 
fice brought about his reelection two years later. 
Mr. Fornes received the nomination for Congress 
of the Eleventh Congressional District and was 
elected to that body in 1906 by a large vote. 

LOUIS F. HAFFEN was born on November 
6, 1854, in the old village of Melrose, town of 
Morrisania, now part of the borough of the 
Bronx. His father was born in Germany in 1814 
and had come to America in 1832, while his 
mother, a descendant of an Irish father and a 
Scotch mother, was born in Ireland in 1823 and 
came to America in 1840. The father settled 
originally on a farm outside of Williamsburg, 
L.I., but moved to Melrose early in 1851. Mr. 
Haffen received his first education in the village 

school of Melrose, where instruction in English 
and German was given, and from 1866-1868 in 
Melrose Public School. He attended St. John s 
College at Fordham from 1868 until 1869, and 
Niagara University at Suspension Bridge, N.Y., 
until 1871, returning to St. John s College until 
he graduated in 1875. He then entered the 
School of Mines, now School of Sciences, of 
Columbia University, and studied civil engineer- L-- 
ing, graduating in 1879. He received the de 
grees of A.B., A.M. and LL.D. from Fordham 
University and of C.E. from Columbia Univer 
sity. After the completion of his studies Mr. Haf 
fen engaged in the private practise of his pro 
fession as civil engineer and city surveyor for 
several years, but in 1882 decided to study and 
practise civil and mining engineering in the Far 
West. Returning to New York in 1883, he was L 
appointed engineer in the Department of Public 
Parks and served as such until 1893, when he 
was promoted to the position of engineer in 
charge and superintendent of the new parks of 
the Twenty-third and Twenty-fourth Wards, city 
of New York and adjoining in Westchester Coun- . 
ty. In 1893 he was elected commissioner of street 
improvements for the Twenty-third and Twenty- 
fourth Wards, now the borough of the Bronx, 
and reelected until the creation of the Greater 
City of New York, when he was elected the first 
president of the borough of the Bronx, This 
office he has held ever since, having been elected 
six times in succession to the highest office in 
the gift of the people of his territory. For ten 
years he has been the Democratic leader in the 
Bronx and he has seen how the district in which 
he was born grew from a collection of hamlets 
and villages to a city of nearly four hundred 
thousand inhabitants. Mr. Haffen was married 
in February, 1886, to Miss Caroline Kurz, who 
gave him nine children, eight boys and one girl, 
of whom six are living. 

JACOB WEIDMANN of Paterson, N.J., was 
born at Thalweil in the Canton of Zurich in 
Switzerland, on May 22, 1845. He was educated 
in the public schools of his birthplace and ap 
prenticed to a dyer when sixteen years old. He 
learned his trade thoroughly, being naturally am 
bitious, and therefore not satisfied with master 
ing the mere routine of the calling which he had 
selected. The knowledge he thus acquired made 
it easy for him to secure employment when, in 
1867, he came to America. He settled in South 
Manchester, Conn., and was employed in the dye 
ing plant of the large silk manufactory of Cheney 
Bros, from 1867 until 1872. In that year the 
plan he had always cherished and never lost sight 






of, to make himself independent, ripened and 
was successfully executed. Mr. Weidmann 
started a dyeing establishment in Paterson at the 
corner of Patenon and Ellison Streets. While 
large enough for that period, it was almost insig 
nificant when compared with his present gigantic 
plant. It covered eight city lots and employed 
between one hundred and two hundred work 
ing men. The capacity was from two thousand 
to two thousand five hundred pounds daily and 
the water was procured from the city with the 
exception of one artesian well. But the work 
done was of such superior quality and the in 
tegrity and reliability of the proprietor became 
so quickly known and appreciated that a larger 
establishment was needed. The present plant 
was started in 1886 and covers now forty-three 
and one-half acres of ground. It is the largest 
dyeing establishment in the world, employs four 
teen hundred hands and can handle from ten 
thousand to twelve thousand pounds of raw ma 
terial every day. The question of procuring 
water in abundance, and of the right quality was 
of course of the greatest importance. Mr. Weid 
mann had artesian wells drilled along the river 
bank opposite the plant and the growth of the 
business can best be indicated by the fact that 
while as late as 1896 fourteen of these wells 
were sufficient, the work now requires fifty-six 
of them, drilled to a depth of four hundred feet 
and furnishing every twenty-four hours about 
ten million gallons of fine clear spring water 
splendidly adapted for dyeing even when the 
most delicate shades are used. The operations 
of Mr. Weidmann s firm extend all over the Uni 
ted States, and the plant is, as has been stated, 
the largest of its kind in the world. From what 
has been said it will be understood as a matter 
of course that Mr. Weidmann is much more than 
a dyer. He combines with a thorough knowledge 
of the technique of his business an exceptional 
gift for organization, for systematizing labor and 
methods in such a degree that large operations 
of a multifarious character can be carried on 
simultaneously without interfering with each 
other or causing confusion. The whole gigantic 
establishment is run so smoothly that delays 
which might interfere with the work to be done 
are practically unknown and as good as impos 
sible, thanks to the genius of Mr. Weidmann 
for organization. Another trait of this remark 
able man is his endeavor to make his employees 
feel that he takes great interest in them, and his 
success in doing this. He is ever watchful that 
they are well treated, and leaves nothing undone 
that can increase the comfort and the happiness 
of those whose work shows that they deserve con 

sideration. His efforts in this direction are great 
ly facilitated by his personality, for a man of 
more winning ways, with the engaging courtesy 
of a gentleman of the old school, can hardly be 
found. To this we must add a vigor and spright- 
liness seldom met with in a man of Mr. Weid 
mann s years, and it will be understood at once 
that his great success was the natural outcome 
of his qualities" Mr. Weidmann is a Repub 
lican in politics, a member of the Union League 
Club and third vice-president of the American 
Silk Association. He married in 1870 Miss 
Ellenor C. Cheney and has one daughter, Esther. 

THEODORE SUTRO, lawyer, was born at 
Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle), Prussia, on March 14, 
1845, youngest son of Emanuel and Rosa (War- 
endorff) Sutro. His father, a large cloth man 
ufacturer and a man of literary and artistic 
taste, died in 1847, and three years later Mrs. 
Rosa Sutro emigrated with her seven sons and 
four daughters to the United States in order 
to find a better field for their future, the revolu 
tion of 1848 having disturbed business affairs 
and prospects in Germany. She was a woman of 
rare beauty, intelligence and strength of char 
acter, and educated her children with great care. 
Theodore Sutro received his education at the 
City College of Baltimore, where the family had 
located, at Phillips Academy, Exeter, X.H., at 
Harvard College, where he graduated with high 
honors in 1871, receiving the degree of A.B., 
and at Columbia Law School, New York City, 
where he graduated with the degree of LL.B. in 
1874, and in the same year was admitted to the 
Bar and commenced the practise of law. In 1878 
he was admitted to the Bar of the United States 
Supreme Court. While at Harvard, although he 
stood so high in his cla r s that he was elected 
a member of the Phi Beta Kappa Fraternity, 
Mr. Sutro paid his own expenses in an unpre 
cedented manner. At the close of his freshman 
year, he interrupted his studies for three years 
and accepted employment in a large importing 
house in Baltimore, after which he returned to 
college to complete his studies but at the same 
time established a commission business in Bos 
ton, the profits of which paid his expenses at 
Harvard and for the rest of his law studies. Af 
ter he had commenced to practise, Mr. Sutro gave 
this business to one of his former employers who 
had met with financial reverses. His practise 
was successful from the start; he devoted him 
self mainly to the interests of corporations and 
mercantile houses, at first alone, and later as 
member of a law firm to which ex-Governor Ed 
ward Salomon of Wisconsin also belonged and 


which represented the German and Austrian Gov 
ernments as well as many German institutions in 
New York City. In 1887 he saved the interests 
of the Sutro Tunnel Co. for the stockholders 
who were threatened with foreclosure, and the 
able manner in which he managed the litigation 
and reorganization of the company brought him 
much renown. In 1895 ne accepted an appoint 
ment as tax commissioner by Mayor Strong, and 
served in this capacity for three years, his great 
experience as a lawyer proving of much value 
to the department. Since then he has been en 
gaged in many complex tax and other litigations. 
A Democrat in politics, he has been identified 
with almost every movement for the betterment 
of existing conditions, followed the late Oswald 
Ottendorfer as president of the German-Amer 
ican Reform Union and was a member of the 
Sound Money National Democratic Convention 
in 1896, and of the National Democracy and the 
State Democracy. Mr. Sutro is known as a pow 
erful and convincing orator and has also writ 
ten many poems and a number of essays and 
pamphlets on questions of taxation, corporation 
law, medical jurisprudence, mining, sociology, 
politics, as well as general literature. In 1904 
some of his occasional letters and poems ad 
dressed to his wife were gathered by her in a 
volume under the title of "Milestones on Life s 
Pathway," and which, though privately printed, 
attracted wide attention. He is also a musician 
and a connoisseur of art and in 1905 a critical 
and historical work from his pen, entitled "Thir 
teen Chapters of American History, Represented 
by the Edward Moran Series of Thirteen His 
torical Marine Paintings," elicited most favora 
ble comment. Mr. Sutro is connected with nu 
merous clubs and scientific, literary, civic and 
other organizations, in most of which he has held 
important positions. He has been president of 
the Society of Medical Jurisprudence, is a mem 
ber of the City and State Bar Associations and 
the American Bar Association, of which latter he 
is chairman of the Committee on Taxation ; the 
International Law Association, the National Tax 
Association, the American Political Science As 
sociation, Phi Beta Kappa Fraternity, Columbia 
University Alumni, the Phillips Exeter Acade 
my Alumni, Harvard, Reform, German, Lieder- 
kranz, Patria and Drawing-Room clubs ; a fouiT- 
der of the Signet Club of Harvard University, 
member of the Folk Lore Society, Genealogical 
and Biographical Society, West End Association ; 
was vice-president of the United Real Estate 
Owners Associations; is pre c ident of the United 
German Societies; president of the German- 
American Alliance of New York State ; director 

of the German Language Society, Association 
of German Authors in America, German Social 
Scientific Society and a member of the German- 
American School Association ; was vice-president 
of the Hundred Year Club; president of the 
Legal and Medical Aid Society ; president of the 
Association for Public Duty; member of the 
Metropolitan Museum of Art, Society for the 
Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Oratorio Soci 
ety, Association for Improving the Condition of 
the Poor and the National Health League. Mr. 
Sutro has been especially active in all matters 
of interest and benefit to the German-American 
population of this country, and has served on 
many occasions as their representative. On Oc 
tober i, 1884, Mr. Sutro was married to Miss 
Florence Edith Clinton, a descendant of the well 
known Clinton family of colonial times. Mrs. 
Sutro was a most beautiful woman of singular 
gifts and accomplishments in all the higher 
fields of human activity, and her home was a 
center of attraction to distinguished men and 
women in all walks of life. She died, much too 
early, when scarce forty-one, on April 27, 1906. 

CARL LENTZ, lawyer, was born at Bam- 
berg in Bavaria on July I, 1845. After attend 
ing the schools at Jena and Wiesbaden in Ger 
many and receiving a good education, he came to 
America when little more than a boy, and on his 
sixteenth birthday enlisted for the Civil War. 
From July i, 1861, until mustered out in Decem 
ber, 1864, he saw almost continual service, was 
commissioned first lieutenant in May, 1864, and 
severely wounded at the battle of Cedar Creek 
on October 19, 1864, losing his right arm. After 
having received his honorable discharge, Mr. 
Lentz continued his studies at the Columbian Uni 
versity at Waslv ngton. D.C.. passing through the 
law school of this institution and graduating in 
1873. He settled in Newark, N.J., and engaged 
in the general practise of his profession with 
great and lasting success. A Republican in poli 
tics, he took an active part in public affairs and 
served as chairman of the Republican County 
Committee of Essex County from 1892 to 1906. 
He was also president of the State Board of Tax 
ation of New Jersey. Mr. Lentz has always taken 
a lively interest in movements either inaugurated 
by citizens of German birth or descent, or likely 
to increase their welfare and influence. Himself 
a German by birth, he has never hesitated to ex 
ert himself in the interest of his countrymen 
when his assistance could be of benefit. He has 
been for some time the president of the North 
eastern Saengerbund, an association composed 
of the German singing societies in all the states 






between Lake Erie and Chesapeake Bay. In this 
capacity Air. Lentz has displayed great tact and 
diplomacy, and thereby maintained the harmony 
so necessary to the success of an association of 
this kind. He is a member of the German Lu 
theran Church and was married on October 11, 
1876, to Miss Huldah E. Wildrick. One daugh 
ter, Mrs. Wilhelmine Lentz Bailey, and one son, 
Carl Wildrick Lentz, are the fruits of this union. 

RICHARD A. FINN was born in Oelze in 
Thuringia, Germany, on February 21, 1856, and 
received his education in the public school of his 
birthplace until he came to America, when four 
teen years of age. Here he attended public school 
for about one year in order to acquire a knowl 
edge of the English language and then took a 
course in a business college. In 1873 Mr. Finn 
secured a position with the New Jersey Life In 
surance Company which failed in 1877, when he 
was appointed a clerk in the controller s office. 
In 1881 the chief clerk and cashier of this office 
absconded, after having embezzled a large 
amount of money, and Mr. Finn was selected 
to replace him. Since then he has held these po 
sitions under all the successive controllers of the 
city of Newark, whether Republicans or Demo 
crats, and has in that time handled more than 
two hundred millions of dollars. Although com 
ing in contact with all kinds of people in his 
daily work, Mr. Finn has remained true to the 
traditions he brought with him to this country 
and, while a patriotic American and a faithful 
official of an American city, has not lost his love 
for German customs, nor his pride in German 
achievement. All his children were educated in 
German schools of Newark and speak and write 
the language of the Fatherland perfectly. He 
seeks his social diversions mainly among his 
German compatriots, and is a member of the 
Aurora and Germania Singing Societies, the 
Newark Turn Verein, German Diogenes Lodge 
F. & A. M., and of many other social and benev 
olent organizations. Mr. Finn is also secretary 
of two building and loan associations and treas 
urer of Mt. Washington Lodge K. & L. of 
Honor. He takes a lively interest in all German 
affairs and is esteemed as a tower of strength in 
all movements affecting the German-Americans, 
as well as on account of the honor his career 
and character have conferred upon his country 
men in their new home. 

AUGUST GOERTZ, merchant and manufac 
turer, was born in Ohligswald near Solingen in 
Rhenish Prussia on September 23, 1846. He re 
ceived his education in the schools of his native 

city and graduated from the high school when 
seventeen years old. Like practically the whole 
population of the district in which he grew up, 
his father was engaged in the business of manu 
facturing cutlery and fine metal goods. As soon 
as the son had left school, he entered the father s 
factory and learned the business from the bot 
tom up and as thoroughly as is the custom where 
whole families have followed the same calling 
for generations, and wholesome pride in the fame 
of the goods produced is fully developed. Young 
Goertz learned rapidly, but when he reached his 
majority, he followed the example of so many 
young men to whom the narrow confines of a 
small city and the conditions surrounding them 
became irksome and emigrated to America in 
1867. He settled at Newark, N.J., and readily 
found employment, for his skill was indeed ex 
traordinary. While he had every reason to be 
contented, his ambition to be independent never 
left him and in 1881 he decided to strike out for 
himself. With two intimate friends he formed 
the firm of August Goertz & Co., and began 
manufacturing fancy metal goods in a factory 
on New Jersey Railroad Avenue. The business 
prospered from the start and the small plant soon 
proved to be insufficient. In 1885 the firm erected 
a new factory on Morris Avenue, which since 
then has been repeatedly enlarged. There more 
than three hundred working men are kept busy 
all the year and improved machinery is constantly 
added to increase the output. As a business man 
and manufacturer Mr. Goertz is widely known 
and the enviable reputation he has acquired shows 
what integrity, persistence and sagacity can ac- 
compli?h when combined with a thorough knowl 
edge of business. At the same time Mr. Goertz- 
has taken a great interest in public affairs and 
devoted much time to the German-American 
school on Beacon Street. He is a Republican but 
has never taken an active part in politics. A 
great lover of music, it was natural that he joined, 
soon after his arrival in Newark, one of the Ger 
man singing societies, the Phoenix, as whose 
president he served for twelve years. He 
is a member of the Arion, the Germania and 
the Harmonic, as well as of several other socie 
ties. Whenever the Germans of Newark under 
took a larger task than usual, Mr. Goertz was 
ready with aid and advice. During the great 
National Singing Festival of 1891 he acted as 
chairman of the reception and prize commit 
tees, and at the more recent festival of 1906 he 
was unanimously elected president and succeeded 
in conducting this immense and difficult enter 
prise with so much skill and tact that not a 
breath of dissatisfaction was raised. He is one 


of the many Germans who came to this country 
with not much more than a noble character, a 
thorough knowledge of his business, and the firm 
determination to succeed, and who have achieved 
what they set out to do. Mr. Goertz is vice- 
president of the West Side Trust Company, a 
member of the Chamber of Commerce and mem 
ber of the Board of Directors of the German 
Hospital. He was married twice; on January 3, 
1872, to Miss Catherine Larouette, and on June 
6, 1901, to Mrs. Minnie Noll (nee Dietz). His 
first wife gave him three children, Frieda, Paula 
and Fred, and Walter and Herbert are the fruits 
of his second union. 

BENEDICT PRIETH, journalist, was born at 
Graun in the Austrian Tyrol on January 7, 1827. 
He received a very superior education at the uni 
versities of Innsbruck, Graz and Vienna, where 
he studied law and received the degree of LL.D. 
A man of great knowledge and high attainments, 
he preferred the career of a newspaper editor to 
the practise of law, and settled in Newark, N.J., 
in 1857, founding the New Jersey Frcic Zeitung, 
whose editor he remained until his death in 1879. 
His influence soon extended over the whole state 
and even beyond its boundaries, and his counsel 
was eagerly sought by men interested in public 
affairs. A Republican in politics and always 
ready to fight for the principles he advocated, 
never wavering in his devotion to the cause he 
had embraced after carefully examining its right 
eousness, he never accepted public office, although 
he could easily have secured it. Mr. Prieth did 
not only assist his countrymen, the German- 
Americans of his state, in every way possible, 
but he was of great value to them as a repre 
sentative, his exceptional attainments winning for 
him the esteem and admiration of the whole com 
munity, thus increasing the influence of the ele 
ment with which he was identified. He was un 
doubtedly one of the best and most powerful 
journalists German immigration has given to the 
United States, and his devotion to his ideals was 
instrumental in improving the tone of public dis 
cussion and of everything in which he took an 
interest. He lived to see the paper to which he 
had devoted his life s work become a powerful 
institution. Married in 1860 to Miss Theodora- 
Sautermeister, he left five children, Benedict and 
Edwin Prieth, Mrs. Henry Thielen, Mrs. Charles 
A. Feick and Mrs. Lothar W. Faber. 

JOHN B. OELKERS, manufacturer, was born 
at Algermissen near Hildesheim, Province Han 
over in Germany, on December 17, 1846, and re 
ceived his education in the parochial school of 

his birthplace and later in a private school where 
students of the Gymnasium Josephinum in Hil 
desheim, who prepare themselves for a career as 
teachers, give instruction. At an early age he 
learned the trade of damask weaving from his 
father and was later on apprenticed to the mer 
cantile house of Ferdinand Meyer & Co. in 
Braunschweig, where he had to attend a com 
mercial school twice a week. Having thus re 
ceived a thorough education in every sense of 
the word, Mr. Oelkers decided to emigrate to 
America, where he arrived in 1864, not yet 
eighteen years of age. Not afraid of hard work, 
he turned to what he could find, and was em 
ployed for some time in an iron foundry. In 
1868 he formed a partnership with his friend, 
Christian Deppe, and established a factory for 
variety wood work and ivory articles. When 
celluloid was discovered and the use of this ma- 
-terial became general, the firm, with clear per 
ception of the possibilities, discontinued the mak 
ing of ivory articles and used henceforth cel 
luloid. Mr. Oelkers has been very successful 
in his business, using his knowledge to great ad 
vantage and quickly establishing a reputation for 
honesty and reliability, but has found time to 
devote a considerable part of his energies to pub 
lic affairs. A Democrat in politics, he served for 
many years as treasurer of the Democratic Com 
mittee of Essex County, but resigned when Will 
iam J. Bryan was nominated in 1896, and joined 
the Gold Democrats, attending the convention at 
Indianapolis that nominated Palmer and Buck- 
ner, as a delegate. He has been a member of the 
Board of Education of the city of Newark for 
seven years and in 1904 was appointed member 
of the Board of Fire Commissioners. Mr. Oel 
kers belongs to many benevolent and social or 
ganizations and is very active in German af 
fairs, serving as first vice-president of the United 
Singers of Newark for seventeen years, and as a 
director of the Northeastern Saengerbund for 
twelve years. He is one of the most prominent 
figures in German Catholic circles and has de 
voted much time and energy to their affairs, fill 
ing the office of state president of the German 
Catholic Associations of New Jersey. For the 
last five years he has been president of the Ger 
man Catholic Central Federation of the United 
States, an association extending over all the 
states of the Union and composed of close on to 
one hundred and twenty thousand members. Mr. 
Oelkers was married twice : to Miss Mary Helene 
Schmitt, born in Newark as the daughter of Ger 
man parents, who gave him six children, of 
whom two boys and one daughter are alive, and 
after her death to Miss Elizabeth Mary Jackes, 






also born in America of German parents, whose 
seven children, five boys and two girls, are liv 
ing. At his home in Newark, Mr. Oelkers is 
respected and looked up to by the people of all 
classes and nationalities, regardless of their de 
scent or religious belief. Although a positive 
and consistent Catholic, he is thoroughly liberal 
in his views and actions where others are con 
cerned, conceding to everybody the right of full 
freedom in his convictions and opinions. No bet 
ter proof of his popularity and the esteem he 
enjoys can be cited than the fact that he was 
elected a member of the Board of Education 
three times in succession with steadily increas 
ing majorities in a district where hardly ten per 
cent of the voters are Catholics. 

HENRY EGGERS, merchant, was born in the 
province of Hanover in Germany on December 
31, 1850, and educated in the schools of his birth 
place, supplementing his education by a course 
in the evening schools of New York City, where 
he graduated. At the age of seventeen, Mr. Eg- 
gers decided to seek his fortunes in America and 
landed in New York on August 13, 1868. He 
found employment as bookkeeper in the whole 
sale grocery house conducted by John H. Brett- 
mann and remained there until 1872, when he ac 
cepted a position as office manager with Mahnken 
& Morsehouse, likewise wholesale grocers, being 
promoted after a short time to the position of 
sales manager. After a few years he decided 
to make himself independent and on April i, 1879, 
started in the wholesale grocery business under 
the firm name of Mohlman & Eggers, this being 
changed on May I, 1884, to Henry Eggers & Co. 
The business grew rapidly to large proportions 
and has for many years amounted to several 
millions a year. This is due principally to Mr. 
Eggers s intimate knowledge of, and to his con 
stant devotion to, the business. He declined all 
offers to become interested in banks or other en 
terprises, believing that a director should really 
direct, and knowing full well that he could not 
spare the time to watch other affairs without 
neglecting his own interests. Mr. Eggers is a 
gentleman of the old school and believes in the 
strictest kind of honesty. His maxim, that six 
teen ounces and not a particle less make a pound, 
governs all his transactions, and nothing can 
swerve him from the path of duty. He is just as 
firmly convinced that a man can only succeed if 
he does not allow other interests to interfere with 
his work. True to this belief, he does not spend 
much time in clubs or society, but devotes al 
most every hour he can spare from his business 
to his family, where he is the beloved head of a 

charming and contented circle. His charity is as 
unostentatious as extended and while he is a 
member of and contributor to many hospital and 
other charitable associations, hardly a day passes 
without some person or some worthy cause re 
ceiving substantial aid from him. Air. Eggers is 
a member of Grace German Lutheran Church, 
the Arion Society, the Columbia Yacht Club and 
the Produce Exchange. He was married on Feb 
ruary 12, 1885, to Miss Hermenia Schmidt and 
has six children, Hedwig, Henry who is associ 
ated with his father in business, Hermine, Her 
man, Helen and Elsie. 

HANS HOHNER, merchant and manufac 
turer, was born at Trossingen in Wuerttemberg 
on April 25, 1870. His father, Matthias Hohner, 
born at Trossingen on December 12, 1833, was a 
clockmaker by trade, manufacturing his clocks 
during the winter and traveling during the spring 
and summer through Southern Germany and 
Austria in order to sell them. The hardships he 
encountered and the small profit he realized from 
this method of earning his living induced him to 
look out for something more promising. He was 
in the habit of carrying a few harmonicas or 
mouth-organs with his stock of clocks, and found 
that they were more easily disposed of. Slowly 
the conviction grew in him that he could do 
a much larger and more profitable business by 
devoting himself entirely to harmonicas if he 
could only procure them more cheaply by manu 
facturing them on a larger scale. He put his 
idea into practise in 1857 when he ceased making 
clocks and started manufacturing harmonicas ex 
clusively. His facilities were naturally limited 
but he found it very simple to produce the neces 
sary tools, owing to his skill as a mechanic. Up 
to that time the making of harmonicas had been 
treated as a secret, but Mr. Hohner took a 
broader view of the matter and took into his 
employ everybody who wished to learn the trade. 
The sequel proved that he was right, for the 
business started in so humble a way has assumed 
gigantic proportions, and has changed the little 
village of Trossingen, where formerly only a few 
clockmakers carried on a small and unimportant 
industry, into a busy industrial center. From the 
very beginning Mr. Hohner followed two princi 
ples strictly : Firstly, that all goods turned out 
by his factory must be perfect and first class in 
every respect, and secondly, that the process of 
manufacturing must be simplified to increase the 
rapidity of the output, and to reduce the cost. 
One of the first improvements he introduced con 
sisted in cutting the metal plates from large 
sheets, instead of casting them singly as jiad been 


the custom. He also had his name stamped upon 
every instrument that left the factory, and the 
excellence of his goods is best proved by the 
fact that in 1866, less than ten years after he had 
started his factory, part of a shipment of har 
monicas was rejected by an American buyer be 
cause, probably in consequence of an oversight, 
the name of the manufacturer had not been 
stamped upon the instruments. The buyer de 
clared that harmonicas without the name Hohner 
were unsalable. In 1880 a new large factory 
was erected at Trossingen, and the first steam 
plant in that village installed. Later on branch 
factories were built in several of the neighbor 
ing villages and the establishment of Frederick 
Hotz in Knittlingen in Saxony, which is reputed 
to have been the first harmonica factory in the 
world, was purchased. All the branches were 
equipped with modern and labor-saving ma 
chinery. In September, 1900, Mr. Matthias Hoh 
ner retired from active business, after forty-three 
years of unceasing work. He placed the estab 
lishment in the hands of his five sons, Jacob, 
Matthias, Jr., Andreas, Hans and William, who 
have continued it on the same lines. A concep 
tion of its growth may be formed from the fact 
that it was started in 1857 with one working man 
and turned out six hundred and fifty harmonicas 
in the first year, while in 1907 it employed two 
thousand and fifty hands and produced nearly 
seven million instruments, besides one hundred 
and fifty thousand accordeons, the manufacture 
of which was begun in 1903 in a factory especially 
erected for this purpose. Matthias Hohner, the 
founder of the firm which now enjoys a world 
wide reputation, died on December n, 1902, be 
loved and mourned by all who knew him. He 
was a member of the Chamber of Commerce and 
a trustee of the National Association of Musi 
cal Instrument Makers, mayor of his native city 
for six years and member of the Board of Coun 
cil for thirty years. The nomination for sena 
tor offered to him by the National Liberal Par 
ty of Germany he had declined. In the mean 
time branch offices had been erected in New 
York, London, Toronto, Warsaw and Vienna. 
The fourth son of the founder, Hans Hohner, 
took charge of the New York office, the most 
important of all, for America had from the start 
taken a large part of the output. His headquar 
ters were at first at 354 Broadway, but were moved 
to 475 Broadway after the building mentioned had 
been destroyed by fire. Mr. Hans Hohner was 
educated in the schools of his native city and 
the High School of Commerce at Stuttgart, where 
he graduated with honors. Since 1890 he has, 
with short interruptions, been a re ident of 

New York City and succeeded not only in con 
tinually extending the business of the firm but 
also in making many warm friends. He was mar 
ried in 1893 to Miss Caroline H. Birk, and is a 
member of the Arion Society. 

of those Germans who have achieved success in 
America entirely by their own efforts, and who 
have surmounted obstacles which only excep 
tional qualities can deal with. He was born at 
Pirmasens in the Rhenish Palatinate on October 
I, 1841, and came to America in January, 1852, 
after having attended the schools of his native 
city for a few years. His parents settled in 
Third Street, near Avenue A, New York City, 
and the boy was sent to Public School No. 13 in 
Houston Street. When he was thirteen years old 
his mother died, and he went to East Cambridge 
for one year to learn the art of wood carving. 
Returning from school, he worked for four 
years at making gilt mouldings, and was for a 
while associated with his stepfather in the deco 
rating business. At the outbreak of the Civil 
War, young Wehrum, hardly nineteen years old, 
enlisted at Fort Warren in the Twelfth Massa 
chusetts Infantry, commanded by Colonel Flet 
cher Webster, the only son of the great Daniel 
Webster, who had outlived the father. After 
the two months for which he originally enlisted 
had expired he reenlisted and took part in every 
campaign of his regiment until he was mustered 
out with the rank of captain in July, 1864. Dur 
ing that time he saw a great deal of active ser 
vice and participated in thirty-three battles. At 
Antietam he was severely wounded but rejoined 
his command as soon as he could leave the hos 
pital, and was commissioned adjutant on account 
of his soldierly qualities and high order of in 
telligence. He was again wounded at Gettysburg 
but took part in the campaigns under General 
Grant until mustered out. The value of his ser 
vices is eloquently attested by the following sen 
tence, added by his colonel to his discharge: "In 
character a brave and excellent officer, distin 
guished for energetic attention to his duties in 
camp or field, always reliable, always at his post 
of duty." The young captain for he was only 
twenty-three years old returned to New York 
and entered the employ of a firm dealing in lum 
ber, some years later known as C. W. Allcott 
& Co. Here, too, he was "always reliable, al 
ways at his post of duty," and rose from step to 
step, until eight years later he was admitted to 
partnership. Under his management the firm 
grew to be one of the largest in its line in the 
city, and Mr. Wehrum amassed a fortune large 










enough to permit him to retire in 1889. This 
did not mean to him that he should live out his 
life in idleness but he had now the time and 
opportunity to devote himself to matters that 
had always appealed to him. He became a stu 
dent of the Civil War and wrote a number of 
monographs dealing with different events and 
phases. Among them are a sketch treating the 
beginning of the war, an exhaustive study of the 
great battles, separate papers on the battles of 
Antietam, Gettysburg, Chancellorsville, the Wil 
derness and Spottsylvania Court House, a treatise 
covering the actions of the Army of the Poto 
mac after Gettysburg and a sketch of the end 
of the war, including personal reminiscences. 
Many of these papers were read before organiza 
tions of veterans and other associations, and in 
a series of lectures in the Normal College of the 
City of New York Mr. Wehrum went over the 
same ground before large and enthusiastic audi 
ences. While never active in politics and de 
cidedly independent in the treatment of all public 
questions, Mr. Wehrum was appointed a com 
missioner of education by Mayor Grant in 1891. 
In this capacity he made a brilliant record. He 
devoted practically his whole time to the dis 
charge of his duties and displayed such syste 
matic and practical activity that he was soon rec 
ognized as one of the ablest members of the 
board. He fought with energy and insistence for 
the continuation of instruction in the German lan 
guage in the public schools which was threat 
ened by some of the authorities on the ground 
that the knowledge of more than one language is 
of the greatest benefit and an important educa 
tional factor, and that in a city with so large a 
population speaking German it was a matter of 
course that this language should be selected. He 
took the initiative in the movement to secure 
pensions for teachers who were compelled to re 
tire on account of advanced age, and to his ef 
forts the success of this mea c ure was due. When 
the bill finally passed the Legislature Governor 
Flower expressed his admiration to Commis 
sioner Wehrum for the energy with which he 
had pu r hed it until it became a law. He was re- 
appointed by Mayor Strong but resigned before 
the expiration of his term in October, 1896, on 
account of ill health, to the great regret of all 
friends of the public schools. Mr. Wehrum was 
married on May 26, 1868, to Miss Elizabeth 
Schumacher of Buffalo, who died on November 
2 5, 1905, and left him seven children, six sons 
and one daughter. He was a member of the 
Twelfth Regiment Massachusetts Association, 
Reno Post G.A.R., St. John s Guild, German Hos- 
pital Association, German Society, Presbyterian 

Hospital, Metropolitan Mmeum of Art, Amer 
ican Museum of Natural History and the Loyal 
League, also a Mason of Eastern Star Lodge No. 
227 and Empire Chapter No. 170. His death oc 
curred March n, 1908. 

turer, was born at Striegau in Silesia, Germany, 
on November 13, 1843, and came to America with 
his parents in 1848, when five years old. He re 
ceived his education in a country school and later 
in Dr. Dulon s German-American Academy, one 
of the first German-American schools in this 
country and justly celebrated for its excellence. 
After graduation he studied mechanical engi 
neering at Cooper Institute at night, while ap 
prenticed to the firm of A. & F. Brown at the 
age of sixteen, to learn the trade of machinist. 
When the war broke out, young Reichhelm s en 
thusiasm induced him to run away from home 
and to enlist in the Third Missouri Infantry on 
September 5, 1861. He rapidly gained promotion 
and was advanced from grade to grade, until he 
received a commission as lieutenant in the Fifty- 
first United States Colored Infantry, being ap 
pointed regimental adjutant and mustered out on 
June 16, 1866, with the rank of captain. Mr. 
Reichhelm saw hard and severe service and took 
part in twenty-three battle?, among them Pea 
Ridge and the taking of Vicksburg. He was 
wounded several times and repeatedly commended 
for bravery upon the battlefield, at Pea ridge, 
Arkansas Post, Chickasaw Bluffs and the assault 
upon Vicksburg on May 22, 1863. After re 
turning from the war Mr. Reichhelm was em 
ployed as a clerk until 1873, when he established 
himself in the business of manufacturing and sell 
ing mechanics tools. In 1876 the firm of E. P. 
Reichhelm & Co. was founded and began busi 
ness at 65 Nassau Street, and in 1886 Mr. Reich- 
helm organized the American Gas Furnace Com 
pany, of which he is president, and which is en 
gaged in utilizing several of his inventions for 
the better use of gas in mechanical heating proc 
esses. The plant of this concern is located at 
Elizabeth, N.J., and employs many skilled me 
chanics. The system of heating invented by Mr. 
Reichhelm has been adopted by many of the sci 
entific departments of the United States Gov 
ernment, especially by the Bureau of Standards, 
the Mints and the Arsenals. It is al?o exten 
sively used by scientific schools and colleges, 
among them Columbia University, Stevens Insti 
tute, University of Minnesota, McGill University 
of Montreal, Cornell University and many oth 
ers. It has found its way abroad and is in use 
in the British Mint, the British Arsenal, the Im- 


perial German Gun Factory at Spandau and in 
the plants of large private concerns like Siemens 
& Halske of Berlin. The company has dealings 
with practically all the large firms in this line in 
the United States, as the Westinghouse Com 
pany, the General Electric Co., U.S. Steel Cor 
poration and many others. Mr. Reichhelm has 
received many medals and awards in recognition 
of the value of this system of heating, among 
them the John Scott Legacy medal of the Frank 
lin Institute of Philadelphia, several medals from 
the American Institute and a number of exposi 
tion prizes. In 1900 Mr. Reichhelm established 
the American-Swiss File & Tool Company at 
Elizabeth, N.J., for the purpose of making only 
the finest grade of files which, up to that time, 
had been exclusively supplied by Swiss file ma 
kers who alone were able to turn out the finer 
grades. This new enterprise was based upon a 
wide experience of treating steel under heat, and 
a long series of experiments, lasting over four 
years, but evolving new methods in making files 
which resulted in the production of the best files 
in the world. This was quickly recognized, and 
at the St. Louis Exposition in 1904 Mr. Reich- 
helm received the first prize, a gold medal, for 
the files he exhibited. Mr. Reichhelm is a re- 
ident of Hudson County, N.J., is an independent 
Republican and takes an active interest in all 
movements for good government and the better 
ment of existing conditions. He is president of 
the Park Commission of Bayonne, a member of 
the Masonic Fraternity, Loyal Legion, Cooper 
Union Alumni Association, G.A.R. Post Geo. 
H. Thomas No. 29 of New Jersey, the Arion 
Society, Schubert Glee Club and Cosmos Club 
of Jersey City. Mr. Reichhelm attends the First 
Reformed Church of Bayonne. Of his five chil 
dren, three are alive : two sons who are associ 
ated in business with the father, and one unmar 
ried daughter. Mr. Reichhelm takes an occasional 
trip to Europe, but likes most to spend his leisure 
time in reading and studying. His favorite sub 
ject is political economy, and he finds great 
pleasure in evolving inventions and designing new 
methods that tend to improve the products of 
his factories, which enjoy the reputation of be 
ing the best of their kind. 

LEOPOLD STERN, manufacturer and im 
porter and senior member of the firm of Stern 
Brothers & Company, was born at Monzingen, 
Germany. Thirty-seven years ago Mr. Stern 
came to New York, where he has resided con 
tinuously ever since. He has always taken great 
interest in public affairs. In 1901 he was ap 
pointed by Governor Roosevelt a commissioner 

to the Pan-American Exposition at Buffalo. He 
has always been identified with the Republican 
party and in 1896 was a McKinley elector; he 
is a trustee of Bellevue and allied hospitals ; a 
director of Market and Fulton National Bank, 
the Great Eastern Casualty Company; as well as 
a trustee and director in a number of other in 
stitutions. Mr. Stern is a member of the Freund- 
schaft and Republican clubs ; a member of the 
Chamber of Commerce, also a member and trus 
tee of Temple Beth El. He married in 1883 and 
has two sons, Nathan J. and J. Ernest. Mr. Stern 
is a man of unassuming manners, of an agreeable 
personality and is charitable to a marked degree. 

JACOB WOLFGANG MACK, merchant, was 
born at Fiirth in Bavaria on February 25, 1845, 
and educated in the schools of his native city. He 
came to New York in 1863 and subsequently en 
gaged in the machinery business with pronounced 
success. Mr. Mack has taken a lively interest in 
public affairs and in almost every movement in 
augurated to reform the administration of the 
city. His zeal in this direction has brought him 
a wide acquaintance, and his assistance has been 
as eagerly sought as readily given. He is of 
studious disposition, fond of literature and ex 
ceptionally well read, and an accomplished lin 
guist, having studied and learned almost all im 
portant languages, some of them during the time 
he could spare from his business. His accom 
plishments, and the attention he had paid to 
educational matters, led to his appointment as 
commissioner of education. He served two terms 
in this capacity and was one of those to whom 
the city of New York is indebted for the i" ro- 
duction of modern methods in its public schools 
and the extension of the whole educational sys 
tem. Mr. Mack is a member of the Harmonic, 
German Liederkranz, National Arts, City Re 
form, Lawyers and Century Country clubs, the 
Chamber of Commerce, Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, Museum of Natural History, Geographical 
Society and many other social and scientific as 
sociations, as well as vice-president of the Society 
for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. 

JOHN MARTIN OTTO. Among those who 
have been instrumental in the progressiveness 
of Williamsburg, New York City, the subject 
of this sketch has been foremost in his support, 
not only in an industrial way, but has devoted 
considerable time and energy to all matters per 
taining to the development and welfare of that 
section of Greater New York in which he resides. 
Mr. Otto was born at Thalheim, Wuerttemberg, 
Germany, November 18, 1843, where he received 










his early education, and only schooling, in the 
German public institutions, which have always 
been noted for their thoroughness. He entered 
upon his life s work at an early age, taking up 
the trade of cornice manufacturing, sheet iron 
working, etc. He was an apprentice in that line 
for three years and every spare moment was 
utilized for profiting himself in the vocation he 
had chosen. It was not until 1860 that Mr. Otto 
decided to come to this country and establish a 
business for himself, but the undertaking was not 
accomplished until 1865, when he founded his 
present establishment, which is located at Xo. 46 
Maujer Street, Brooklyn. It was not long be 
fore his personality brought him many friends 
and his business interests grew rapidly. When 
the Civil War broke out he was one of the first 
to offer his services; he enlisted and saw active 
service throughout the entire campaign. He was 
honorably discharged from service. It was im 
mediately thereafter that he began devoting his 
entire time and attention to the establishing of 
his present business. In 1872 he received patents 
on "Otto s Iron Surface Coolers and Swimmers," 
which, in 1876, received the highest award at 
the World s Exhibition at Philadelphia, and are 
the only ones so honored. These coolers of which 
he is the sole manufacturer and patentee, have 
many advantages over all other surface coolers. 
Formerly it was an often repeated complaint that 
surface coolers always leaked and could only be 
kept tight by a great expenditure of time and 
money. By using these improved and patented 
surface coolers, all these difficulties are overcome. 
One great improvement consists in the arrange 
ment of T-irons under the joints, between the 
several sheets of iron, which constitute the bot 
tom of said pan, in such a manner that by such 
T-irons the bottom is strengthened and the edges 
of the sheets of iron are prevented from bulging 
up, thereby producing a flat and even bottom, 
which is a great desideratum in cooling pans. The 
rim of the pan is formed by bending the extreme 
edges of the outer sheets upward to the desired 
height, and said rim is strengthened by angle- 
irons, which are riveted to it, extending through 
out its entire length and width. By means of 
these T-irons the joints between the several 
sheets are rendered tight and perfectly flat, the 
sheets being effectually prevented from bulging 
up, so that a cooling pan is obtained which is 
superior in strength and durability to cooling 
pans as heretofore constructed, and in which the 
operation of cooling can be carried on with ease 
and facility. The swimmers, as made by Mr. 
Otto, were in use for some years in many 
of the large breweries in New York, Brooklyn, 

Newark, Boston, Union Hill, Staten Island, etc. 
These swimmers are made out of XXXX tin, 
are easy to handle and so formed that they need 
no special weights to keep them in proper posi 
tion. They are no doubt the best, most dura 
ble, practicable and cheapest swimmers that are 
manufactured. Their form also gives them the 
advantage above all others, that they balance 
themselves and do not sink. Throughout his long 
and successful career he has always been held in 
the highest esteem by his fellow citizens and 
through honest endeavor and hard work he has 
built up one of Brooklyn s largest enterprises. In 
politics he has always been a stanch Republican; 
his first vote was cast for Abraham Lincoln in 
1864. Aside from exercising his franchise right, 
Mr. Otto has never aspired to hold any public 
office ; he has always contributed liberally to the 
Republican cause in the securing of good gov 
ernment. Mr. Otto is identified with many fra 
ternal and social orders ; most prominent among 
them are Mansfield Post of Brooklyn, Coper 
nicus Lodge No. 545, Masonic Order, a member 
and trustee of Williamsburg Masonic Board of 
Relief; a director of the German Savings Bank 
of Brooklyn, Arion Singing Society and of the 
German Lutheran Church. It was during the 
early part of his business life that he met Miss 
Agnes Roehr and on the eleventh of November, 
1866, they were married. To this union have been 
born four children : three sons, Martin, Frederick, 
Carl L., living, and a son and one daughter now 
deceased. Mr. Otto has given his sons a very 
careful training for their life work, with a thor 
ough education. He has been rewarded by seeing 
them develop into successful business men. Carl 
studied architecture at Columbia College and com 
pleted his profession in the Paris Ecole des Beaux 
Arts, from which he graduated. Upon his return 
to this country he opened offices at 130 Fulton 
Street, New York City, and has since then been 
identified with many important architectural en 
terprises. He has constructed several large 
churches in Brooklyn, the German Presbyterian, 
corner Bushwick Avenue and Ralph Street, Ger 
man Baptist Church, corner Evergreen and Wood 
bine Streets, and several others, and he gives 
every promise of becoming one of the best in his 
chosen profession. 

CHARLES ENGELHARD, merchant and 
manufacturer, was born at Hanau-on-the-Main, 
on March 8, 1867. His father was Julius Engel 
hard, a diamond merchant at Hanau, who died 
in 1897. His mother, who is still living, was Su- 
sanne Holzmann, daughter of Philip Holzmarm, 
the founder of the firm of Philip Holzmann & 


Co. at Frankfort, one of the largest building and 
engineering concerns in the world. Mr. Engel 
hard received his first education at the Realschule 
of his native city, but was, on account of delicate 
health, entrusted to the care of the Reverend 
Seeger at Seckmauern in the Odenwald, where 
he was given private instruction. He completed 
his education at the Bender Institute at Wein- 
heim in Baden and passed the examination secur 
ing the right for one year s voluntary service in 
the Army. After graduation, Mr. Engelhard 
worked as apprentice in the banking-house of A. 
Mumm & Co. at Frankfort-on-the-Main for two 
and one-half years, when he went to London 
where he was employed as clerk for two years. 
He then returned to Hanau, assisting his father 
in his business until in 1891 he came to America 
and established himself in New York as the 
representative of W. C. Heraeus, platinum works, 
at Hanau. This is one of the largest establish 
ments of its kind and known all over the world. 
One of the members of the firm is the brother- 
in-law of Mr. Engelhard. His activity is by no 
means confined to this branch. Under the firm 
name of Charles Engelhard, Mr. Engelhard does 
a large importing business on IT S own account, and 
is the president of the American Platinum Works 
at Newark, N.J., a director of Baker & Co., Inc., 
and president of the Hanovia Chemical & Mfg. 
Co. of the same city ; director and treasurer of 
the Glorieux Smelting & Refining Works of 
Irvington, N.J., and director of the American 
Electric Furnace Co. of New York City. Mr. 
Engelhard is a member of the German Club, Ger 
man Liederkranz, German Society, Legal Aid 
Society, Chemists Club, American Chemical So 
ciety, German Hospital Society, St. Marks Hos 
pital Society, New York Diet Kitchen Association 
and many other benevolent organizations, and 
belongs to the Dutch Reformed Church. His 
paternal grandfather was the last teacher of the 
Dutch Reformed School of the Huguenot set 
tlement at Hanau-on-the-Main. On April 18, 
1900, Mr. Engelhard was married to Miss Emy 
Canthal, eldest daughter of Commercienrath Can- 
thai of Hanau. 

EMIL WELTE, importer and manufacturer, 
was born at Voehrenbach in the Black Forest m 
Baden on April 20, 1841. He received his early 
education in the schools of his birthplace and 
learned the trade of making orchestrions in the 
factory of his father, attending at the same time 
the Gewerbeschule. A further musical instruc 
tion followed by Hof Kappell, Meistex Joseph 
Straus in Karlsruhe rrT~rTafmonick of instrumen- 
tation. The father, Michael Welte, had been 

educated by an uncle who was secretary to Bishop 
von Wesenberg but had been transferred to a 
small town on account of his liberal political 
views. Mr. Welte s uncle was a man of superior 
attainments and instructed the nephew in music, 
physics, natural history, mathematics, etc. At 
that time the industry of making musical clocks 
striking chimes at every quarter of an hour was 
carried on extensively in the Black Forest and 
young Welte used his knowledge in improving 
the rather primitive product by enlarging the 
scale and inserting two or more stops for the 
pipes. In 1845 he received an order from one 
of the traders who visited the district once a 
year to buy clocks, for as complete a musical 
clock as he could make. He worked on this in 
strument for three years and succeeded in pro 
ducing something entirely new, imitating all the 
different instruments of a complete orchestra, in 
cluding the bass drum, snare drum and the tri 
angle and playing Beethoven s symphonies as well 
as overtures, opera selections, marches and dan 
ces. The instrument was exhibited in 1849 under 
the protectorate of Prince Fuerstenberg and met 
with enormous success, the press calling it an or 
chestrion, which designation has remained. Mi 
chael Welte continued to improve his invention 
and orders increased, but for a long time orches 
trions were built only when ordered and practi 
cally all the orders came from foreign countries. 
In 1865 it became necessary to send a representa 
tive to the United States and the oldest son, Emil 
Welte, was selected. He opened a store and 
showroom on Fifth Avenue and soon did a 
thriving business. When he found that the 
wooden cylinders could not withstand the change 
of climate, he invented the pneumatic action 
worked by paper rolls in 1878 to 1883 for which 
he secured patents and which have since then 
been successfully employed with other instru 
ments. A complete orchestrion represents all the 
instruments of an orchestra from the deepest 
note of the contra basso to the highest note of 
the piccolo. Six hundred labia pipes represent 
the full string quartette, the flute and piccolo, 
trombone, bassoon, trumpet, English horn, clario 
nets and oboes represented by one hundred and 
seventy reed pipes, and by the combination with 
the labia pipes, the character and the individu 
ality of the orchestral instruments are repre 
sented in a most realistic manner. Besides these, 
all the other instruments perform in perfect pre 
cision, and in harmony, piano and forte as re 
quired. The orchestrion music rolls reproduce 
practically every piece of music played by an or 
chestra. The sale of these instruments has in 
creased immensely and many of the crowned 










heads of Europe and other continents, as well as 
men of the highest standing in every country of 
the globe have bought them. Mr. Emil Welte is a 
member of the German Liederkranz. In 1871 he 
married Miss Emma E. Foerstner of Norwich, 
Conn. His son, Carl M-, is associated in business 
with the father and both associated with M. 
Welte and Soehne in Feiburg, Baden. 

GEORGE C. DRESSEL, manufacturer, was 
born in 1828 at Frankfurt-on-the-Main and re 
ceived his education in the schools of his native 
city. When he reached his majority, Mr. Dressel 
decided to find a larger sphere of activity and 
emigrated to America, where he arrived in 1849. 
He had taken passage on a sailing vessel, the day 
of elegant and fast steamers not yet having ar 
rived, and the trip was connected with consid 
erable hardship. But the young man came full 
of hope and energy and with the firm resolve to 
succeed. He entered the employ of the New 
York Central & Hudson River Railroad, after 
working for some time as mechanic, and remained 
with them for eighteen years in the capacity of 
expert mechanic. In 1881 he resigned his posi 
tion and entered into partnership with his young 
est son, Frederick W. Dressel, under the firm 
name of George C. Dressel & Co. A small fac 
tory was erected on the north side of One Hun 
dred and Seventy-third Street which still stands 
and forms not only an interesting landmark but 
also shows how small the beginning of the pres 
ent immense plant was. The firm started by man 
ufacturing a practical lunch satchel for railroad 
men and mechanics. The manufacture of signal 
lamps was later begun and this venture met with 
such success that the manufacture of lunch boxes 
was discontinued and the entire time and energy 
devoted to making and improving all kinds of 
lamps used in railroading. The eldest son, Charles 
H. Dressel, became a member of the firm in 1892, 
and the original establishment proved too small. 
A tract of land on Park, then Vanderbilt, Av 
enue was acquired in 1893 and the present fac 
tory erected in the following year. The new 
plant was equipped with the best and most mod 
ern machinery that could be secured and the firm 
began to further extend its field by the manu 
facture of locomotive headlights. All the mem 
bers of the firm being experts in mechanics 
and of an inventive turn of mind, they constantly 
made improvements and secured patents which 
proved of great value. Many of the articles man 
ufactured by the concern have been accepted as 
standard by the largest railroads in the United 
States. On January 15, 1895, the firm was in 
corporated under the laws of the state of New 

York under the name of the Dressel Railway 
Lamp Works, with George C. Dressel as presi 
dent, Frederick W. Dressel as vice-president and 
Charles H. Dressel as secretary. When Mr. George 
C. Dressel died on July 3, 1899, after an illness 
extending over a number of years, Frederick W. 
Dressel was elected president and Charles H. 
Dressel vice-president, in which capacity they still 
serve. The products of the firm have been sold 
and are used all over the United States and Can 
ada, and in recent years they have also been sold 
to Mexico, Cuba, South America, China and 
Japan. The continual growth of the demand for 
the goods made by the firm led to plans for an 
other increase of the plant and the addition of 
new products, such as electrical goods, navy lan 
terns, automobile lamps, etc. The large factory 
is run in a most systematical way, which makes it 
a model establishment. The basement is used as 
a storeroom for the material. On the first floor 
we find the machine shop, press room, packing 
and shipping departments and offices. The lighter 
grades of work, such as spinning, assembling and 
japanning, are done on the second floor, while 
the third floor is entirely used for the manufac 
ture of locomotive headlights, with the exception 
of some space occupied by the buffing, plating 
and polishing departments. Each department is 
practically independent, being managed by a fore 
man who is responsible to the firm direct, every 
item of expense being charged to the department 
requiring the outlay. In the same way salaries 
and running expenses are divided. In this way 
the management knows at all times how the sep 
arate departments are conducted, while at the 
same time the different foremen are compelled 
to use their knowledge and ability in the inter 
est of the business to the fullest extent. Sev 
eral years ago the firm added its own foundry 
and tinning plant to the factory, enabling it to 
construct every part of their product except 
steel, glass and sheet metals. The magnitude of 
the operations may be understood from the fact 
that while every railroad lamp serves practically 
the same purpose, almost every railroad has some 
system that cannot or is not used by others. Thus 
the styles and colors of the lenses alone are very 
numerous and complicate what otherwise would 
be a comparatively simple operation. The main 
office is located in the factory building but it 
has been found necessary to establish another 
office in the business part of the city and branches 
in Chicago and Atlanta. 

FREDERICK JOSEPH, president of the New 
York Butchers Dressed Meat Company, was born- 
January 31, 1851, at Reichelsheim, Darmstadt,. 


where he received his primary education in the 
local schools. Later, Mr. Joseph took a three 
years course of study in the Boys Seminary at 
Pfungstadt und Michelstadt. At the age of four 
teen he went to Frankfurt, where he remained 
for one year, after which he returned to his na 
tive place and engaged in business pursuits with 
his father, a gentleman who was widely and 
favorably known in that section of Germany as 
one of the largest owners and buyers of cattle, 
and with whom he remained until he was sev 
enteen years of age. It was under the careful 
business tuition of the elder Jo.eph (the father 
of the subject of this sketch) that he obtained 
valuable knowledge of many of the details which 
so practically fitted him in his subsequent career 
after coming to America which occurred in 1869. 
When he arrived he had but limited capital. 
After remaining a few months in New York 
City he went West, locating at Chicago, 111., 
where he obtained a position as bookkeeper and 
manager in a brewery of that city, and where 
he only remained for a period of one year (1870- 
1871). In the latter named year he went to At 
tica, Ind., where he remained intermittently until 
1877. During the greater portion of the time 
between 1871 and 1878, however, Mr. Joseph 
spent in travel throughout the Far West section 
of the United States, and along the great cattle 
ranges where he obtained practical details of 
the cattle and live stock business, adding it to 
his already great storehouse of knowledge. Dur 
ing this period he made Chicago his headquarters, 
but transacted the greater portion of his busi 
ness in New York City. In the early part of 
1878 Mr. Joseph located permanently at New 
York City, residing in East Fifty-first Street. On 
February twenty-fourth of that year, when at the 
age of twenty-seven, he married Miss Fannie 
Schwarzchild, daughter of the late Joseph 
Schwarzchild, Esq., who was the founder of the 
great packing-house of that name, and of which 
he was the head up to the time of his retirement 
in 1885. At that time Mr. Joseph assumed the 
active duties of Mr. Schwarzchild, which con 
tinued until the winter of 1907, at which time he 
resigned, he having filled the po ition of vice- 
president of the company from the time of its 
incorporation up to the above year. The close 
family and business relations from this source 
also enabled Mr. Joseph to still further increase 
his knowledge of the dressed beef and provision 
business, which, coupled with his own practical 
ideas, is in a great measure responsible for the 
splendid success he has made of his commercial 
life. For twenty-nine years Mi. Joseph, repre 
senting his large interests in the Schwarzchild 

and Sulzberger Company, distinguished himself 
as the practical man of the concern. His great 
business sagacity and foresight were splendid 
assets which enabled the house to extend its op 
erations and multiply its output. His name 
then, as to-day, stands a synonym of all that is 
authoritative in the packing industry of this 
country and Europe. On May I, 1907, Mr. Joseph 
was elected president of the New York Butchers 
Dressed Meat Company. Since his election to 
the presidency of the company, its output and 
sales have tripled. Judging from the past career 
of its president, coupled with his great executive 
ability, it is safe to assert that within a period 
of a few years, this concern will be one of the 
most extensive of its kind in this country. Mr. 
and Mrs. Joseph have five children living, viz. : 
Moses Henry, Leo, Hugo, Adele, now Mrs. Leon 
ard B. Shoenfeld of New York City, and Beat 
rice. Mrs. Joseph s father, the late Joseph 
Schwarzchild, Esq., was active in the German 
Revolution of 1848 and was a warm friend of 
the late Carl Schurz. Mr. Joseph is not a club 
man but is one of the splendid characters which 
a clo e home life moulds. He is fond of travel 
and for the past thirty years has made an an 
nual tour of Europe. During his long associ 
ation in the commercial world he has made many 
friends whose numbers are legion. His stand 
ing for probity and integrity is a fact where- 
ever he is known. He ha? always been a man of 
large charities giving without any ostentation. 

member of that class of energetic men who are 
engaged in mercantile life in this city and who 
constitute such an important factor in Brooklyn s 
commercial importance, is Mr. Hermann Wisch- 
mann. Like many others who have built up large 
business interests here, Mr. Wischmann is an 
adopted citizen of this country, having been 
born August 18, 1831, in the Kingdom of Han 
over, now a part of Prussia. His father was a 
farmer, living near the Baltic sea-coast, who gave 
his son the educational advantages which were 
afforded by the village school as conducted un 
der the well known and thorough German sys 
tem. The lad lived quietly at home until he was 
seventeen years of age, never having traveled far 
or seen a city. Two brothers had preceded him 
to America and their letters awoke in him the 
desire to leave the quiet farm life, to see some 
thing of the world and to try his fortunes in the 
United States. He accordingly took passage for 
America, arriving in New York, as so many oth 
ers have done, poor in purse, but rich in hope, 
ambition and energy. His stay in the city ex- 






tended over three years, during which time he 
was employed as clerk in the grocery business. 
Then came an opportunity to invest in an under 
taking which promised well, and he put his sav 
ings in the New York Submarine Wrecking 
Company, an organization which was formed for 
the purpose of raising sunken vessels. The 
company did not succeed and recovered neither 
sunken vessels nor sunken capital, so Mr. Wisch- 
mann lost his all and was forced to begin again 
at the bottom of the ladder. Notwithstanding 
the ebb of his fortune, he took unto himself a 
wife, whose acquaintance he had made in South 
Brooklyn while duck hunting in the bay. Casting 
about for something to do, he remarked upon 
the crowds of people daily passing over Fulton 
Ferry and reached the conclusion that a dining 
saloon on the Brooklyn side, near the ferry, 
would be remunerative. He, therefore, opened 
such an establishment at Xo. 25 Fulton Street, 
beginning in an humble way, but gradually en 
larging his accommodations as he was able. At 
the end of six years he had accumulated some 
capital, and what was better, hand won the con 
fidence and esteem of all who knew him. An 
advantageous offer was made him, at this time, 
to go into the coffee trade as clerk in Waring s 
house, where he remained four years, giving such 
satisfaction that a share in the business as part 
ner was offered him, of which offer he availed 
himself. The firm relations existed for ten 
years, when he decided to start in business for 
himself, having acquired the necessary experience 
and some capital. He bought and rebuilt the 
stand at No. 78 Fulton Street with Mr. Ho- 
horst as his partner, who only remained for only 
a year, however. By close attention to his busi 
ness and good management, Mr. Wischmann was 
able to increase his operations year by year, add 
ing to his place of business, putting in a steam 
engine and requisite machinery, until the small 
store of a few years since has become a large 
wholesale establishment dealing in coffees, teas 
and spices, employing a number of men and 
horses and turning out many thousands of dol 
lars worth of manufactured products annually. 
Early in his business life he adopted the motto 
"Pay as you go," which has proved as advan 
tageous in his case as it universally does. No 
man achieves success in mercantile life by acci 
dent or accumulates property without faithful, 
persistent labor. The winner, while many are 
losers, must combine industry, enterprise and in 
telligence with business tact; at the same time 
he must be known to men to be honest and re 
liable in his dealings. These qualities distin 
guish Mr. Wischmann and have brought him not 

only wealth but also the esteem of men for his 
integrity and manhood. His interest in the affairs 
of the city leads him to favor those measures 
that would tend to the public good and to oppose 
strongly all forms of dishonesty in municipal 
matters, though he takes no part in politics be 
yond voting, and that the Republican ticket gen 
erally. He is fond of reading and is well posted 
on the current events of the day. Affable in man 
ner, his courtesy is genuine, springing from a 
kind heart that does much in charity towards re 
lieving the misfortunes of others. His church 
connections are with the German Lutheran 
Church in Henry Street, Brooklyn, of which or 
ganization he has been treasurer for many years. 
Always fond of society, he has been a member 
of several social organizations and a military 
company ; he is also a member of Joppa Lodge 
of Free Masons, is vice-president of the Borough 
Bank of Brooklyn and a director of the Kings 
County Bank. His time is still mostly devoted 
to his large business interests, which he over 
sees for himself, although receiving the assist 
ance of a young partner in carrying out the de 
tails. Mr. Wischmann is to be congratulated 
upon having won by his own exertions a suc 
cessful career and a good name, both among busi 
ness men and in society at large. 

Bremen, Germany, on February 14, 1839, and 
received his education in the schools of his native 
city, graduating from the high school in 1854 at 
the age of fifteen. Soon after leaving school he 
emigrated to America and found employment as 
errand boy with an exporting house. Here he 
stayed for two years but left as soon as he had 
become sufficiently familiar with American condi 
tions to see his way for advancement. In 1858 
he joined the firm of Battelle & Renwick, man 
ufacturers of chemicals, at 163 Front Street, New 
York City, and rapidly worked his way up. The 
splendid education he had received, the ambition 
which filled the heart of the young man and his 
unswerving attention to duty brought him quickly 
to the front. He was admitted to partnership in 
1887 and when, in 1902, the firm which had been 
founded in 1840 was incorporated, Mr. Steenken 
was elected a director and president of the com 
pany. In the meantime he had become inter 
ested in numerous other enterprises and is now 
president and director of the National Sulphur 
Co. of New York, a director of the New York 
Tanning Co. and the Argentine Quebrecks Co. ; 
president and director of the Croton Chemical 
Co. of New York; trustee of the Germania Sav 
ings Bank of Brooklyn ; member of the Chamber 


of Commerce, New York, and the Down Town 
Association. He has been a resident of Brooklyn 
since 1866 and for twenty-five years was treas 
urer of St. Luke s Evangelical Lutheran Church 
on Washington Avenue in that borough. On De 
cember 13, 1866, Mr. Steenken was married to 
Miss A. M. Bischoff of Charleston, S.C., who 
died in October, 1891, and left him seven children, 
viz. : five sons and two daughters : Albert Daniel, 
John Godfrey, Jr., Edgar Herman, George Will 
iam, Elsie, Anna, Martha and Francis Lewis. 
Edgar Herman is secretary of the Croton 
Chemical Co. ; George William assistant secre 
tary of Battelle & Renwick. His daughter, Elsie, 
is married to Christian E. Grandeman of Brook 
lyn and the youngest son, Francis Lewis, a stu 
dent at Harvard College since 1905. John God 
frey, Jr., died in 1895 in his twenty-fifth year. As 
one of the substantial business men of New York, 
whose rise has been as rapid as well deserved, 
and as a public spirited citizen, Mr. Steenken has 
brought honor and credit upon his Fatherland 
as well as the country he adopted when he came 
to America, and he may be classed among the best 
exponents of the valuable qualities which Ger 
man immigration has contributed to the people 
that have grown up on the new continent. 

ROBERT VOM CLEFF, deceased, founder of 
the house of vom Cleff & Company, was born at 
Cronenberg, near Solingen, Germany, January 
29, 1847. He came to America in 1867 and for 
several years was employed in the New York 
German Consulate. In 1873 he founded the busi 
ness of which he has always been the head, it 
being incorporated under the present style in 
1902, he becoming its president. The business of 
the house has always been the manufacture and 
importation of general hardware, such as pliers, 
nippers, surgical instruments, jewelers tools, pocket 
cutlery and kindred lines, drawn principally from 
Germany and France. Mr. vom Cleff was edu 
cated at the public schools of Cronenberg, gradu 
ating therefrom at the age of fourteen years. He 
was an apprentice in the cutlery trade up to the 
age of seventeen years. After arriving in the 
United States he settled at Hoboken, N.J., where 
he remained until 1869, at which time he re 
moved to Jersey City Heights. In 1873 he en 
gaged in business on his own account at No. 105 
Duane Street, New York City. In politics Mr. 
vom Cleff was a Republican. At one time he was 
elected a member of the Board of Education in 
Jersey City, but on account of illness was unable 
to accept the office. He was one of the found 
ers of the German-American School of Jersey 
City. He was a member of the German Luth 

eran Church, the German Club of Hoboken, the 
Hardware Club, New York City; the Arion Sing 
ing Societies of both New York and Jersey City; 
he was for many years district deputy in the Ma 
sonic fraternity and later a member of the Grand 
Lodge of New Jersey. An association that was 
dear to him was his connection with the German- 
American School of Jersey City, he having served 
as president of the board of trustees for many 
years. He was also a member of the Deutsche 
Gesellschaft, a noted German organization of 
New York City. On April 13, 1871, he married 
Miss Celine W. Oppitz, daughter of William Op- 
pitz of Jersey City, who was a native of Bo 
hemia, but who came to America in 1848. Three 
children blessed the union of Mr. and Mrs. vom 
Cleff, viz. : Celine, who married Dr. Louis H. A. 
Schneider of New York City ; Robert and Clara 
B. The death of Mr. vom Cleff occurred on 
Friday, September 13, 1907, at Watkins, N.Y. He 
was buried from his home in Jersey City on the 
eighteenth of the same month, mourned by a 
large circle of friends and relatives. Mr. vom 
Cleff was a big-hearted, whole-souled gentleman, 
a generous and most considerate employer. He 
was a man of high character, capable, thoroughly 
honest and of unquestioned integrity. He is sur 
vived by a widow, two daughters and a son. The 
affairs of the house he founded are still being 
carried on as usual. 

ADOLPH LANKERING, manufacturer, was 
born at Verden, Germany, on January 9, 1851, 
and received his education in the public schools 
of his native city. After serving in various mu 
nicipal and government offices he entered the 
Prussian army at the age of eighteen. During 
the Franco- Prussian war he was assistant in 
the commissary department and later on placed 
in charge of a responsible position in the army 
mail service. At the end of his term of enlist 
ment he was honorably discharged with especial 
recognition of his services, and with a diploma 
which entitled him to the appointment as pay 
master. He preferred, however, to return to 
civil life and secured employment as assistant 
controller with the Rhenish Railway Company at 
Cologne and later on as private secretary and 
tiead bookkeeper with one of the largest banking 
institutions of that city. In 1875 he decided to 
visit Chicago, where his married sisters lived, 
and after a stay of several months, made up his 
mind to remain in America, inviting his brothers, 
George and Fred, to join him. Later he en 
tered the firm of Sandhagen & Co., tobacco deal 
ers, as partner. Frequent trips to the East in 
the interest of his business induced him to sever 










his connection with the Chicago firm and he es 
tablished himself with his brothers at Hoboken 
in the cigar manufacturing and jobbing business. 
Mr. Lankering has been extremely successful in 
his undertakings, owing to his wide experience, 
his hard work and sound business sense, and his 
sterling integrity. His many good qualities were 
promptly recognized and his popularity grew all 
the more rapid as he showed warm and intelli 
gent interest in public affairs. A Democrat in 
politics, he was appointed police commissioner 
in 1900 and elected mayor of the city of Hoboken 
in 1902. The same traits that had brought him 
success in his business were instrumental in 
making his administration so satisfactory to the 
citizens of Hoboken that at the end of his term 
he was reelected with an increased majority. Mr. 
Lankering is very active in social affairs. He is 
a member of almost all the singing societies of 
Hudson County, the German Club of Hoboken 
and many other social organizations. He has re 
peatedly served as president of the Hoboken 
Quartet Club and as master of Hudson Lodge, 
F. & A.M., now holding office in the Grand Lodge. 
The Alliance of German Societies of Hudson 
County made him their president since 1906. 
In this capacity he has rendered excellent ser 
vice in defense of personal liberty and in the agi 
tation against intolerance and fanaticism. The 
defeat of proposed legislation to establish local 
option and final prohibition of the sale of intox 
icating beverages in the state of New Jersey is 
greatly due to his activity in organizing the Ger 
man element throughout the state and in arousing 
general sentiment against such laws. In 1883 
Mr. Lankering married Miss Louise Tistedt, the 
daughter of one of the earliest and best known 
settlers of Milwaukee. They have one son. 


was born June 27, 1849, at Erlangen in Bavaria 
and received his education at the gymnasium and 
university of his native city. In 1869, when nine 
teen years of age, he came to America and set 
tled in Los Angeles, where he rose rapidly in the 
business with which he associated himself. Al 
though his future on the Coast was assured, he ac 
cepted the invitation of his brother, Mr. Edward 
Drakenfeld, who had in 1869 established himself 
with Mr. John Marsching, under the firm name of 
J. Marsching & Co., in the business of importing 
mineral colors and bronze powders in Xew York, 
to enter the house with the view of learning the 
business and purchasing his brother s interest, 
which plan was duly consummated in 1886. In 
1893 he bought out the interest of Mr. J. Mar 
sching. The business, now known as B. F. Dra 

kenfeld & Co., has been located at 27 Park Place, 
Xew York, for over thirty years, and has 
branches in Chicago and East Liverpool, Ohio. It 
gives employment to over one hundred hands and 
is the largest and best equipped in its lines in the 
United States, in fact it is the largest mineral 
color house in the world. Mr. Drakenfeld is a 
member of the German Liederkranz, the Arion, 
the Technological Society, Museum of Xatural 
History, Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Ger 
man Lutheran Church, also a number of charita 
ble and benevolent societies and is a Mason and 
an Elk. He married, on Xovember 10, 1875, Miss 
Elizabeth E. Bettis of California and has two 
children, Bernard Ferdinand, Jr., who is associ 
ated with him in business, and a daughter, the 
wife of Mr. E. O. Beyer of Xeuss, Hesslein & 
Co., Xew York. 

HEXRY EXDEMAXX, importer, was born at 
Dortmund in Westphalia on February 10, 1865. 
He received his education in the public schools 
and the gymnasium at Dortmund and came to 
America in 1884, when nineteen years old. He 
succeeded in finding employment in Philadelphia 
at five dollars per week, but came to X r ew York 
three years later and engaged as a clerk with 
the firm of F. W. Biining & Co., china and glass 
importers, becoming a partner after a few years. 
When Mr. Biining retired in 1894 the present 
firm of Endemann & Churchill was established. 
He has been very successful and while his start 
in this country was not made under very aus 
picious circumstances, the severe training he re 
ceived gave him the experience which, when com 
bined with intelligence of a high order, unfailing 
energy and strict integrity, always brings ulti 
mate success. His business standing naturally 
led to an extension of his activities and inter 
ests, and he is a director of the Aetna Xational 
Bank and of the Consumers Brewing Co. of 
Brooklyn at Woodside. An independent Demo 
crat in politics, who, like so many Germans, will 
not hesitate to vote against his party when he 
conceives such action to be necessary for the good 
of the whole country. Mr. Endemann is also a 
member of the Arion, the German Liederkranz, 
the Xew York Athletic Club and the German So 
ciety. He was married on X T ovember 29, 1892, 
to Miss Louise Lindenmeyr, daughter of the late 
John Lindenmeyr, the founder of the well known 
paper-house, Henry Lindenmeyr & Sons, and has 
one son, Henry William. 

ufacturer, was born at Gera in Thuringia on 
February 5, 1839. He attended the public sc 


of his native city and at the age of fourteen was 
apprenticed to a furrier. He learned the business 
thoroughly, as was the custom in those days, and 
when he decided to leave for wider fields he knew 
more about his trade than many a manufacturer 
of the present time knows after many years. 
For several years he traveled in Germany, work 
ing at his trade here and there, and always in 
creasing his stock of knowledge. When he had 
reached his majority his mind was made up that 
he would seek a field where natural ability, am 
bition and intense desire to rise quickly were not 
hampered by narrow and antiquated restrictions, 
and where the man was judged alone by what he 
accomplished. He set sail for America and ar 
rived here in 1860. For a man of his stamp it 
was not difficult to secure employment, but this 
did not satisfy him. Slowly he felt his way and 
husbanded his resources until he was able to es 
tablish himself in business on his own account. 
The sequel proved that the confidence in his abil 
ity was well founded, for he prospered from the 
start and the rapid increase of his business made 
it imperative to enlarge the facilities steadily until 
he settled at his present place at 35 West Thirty- 
first Street. A lover of nature, he moved his 
residence to Verona, in the Orange Mountains, in 
1865, where he has lived ever Fince. A Republi 
can of independent mind, he never engaged ac 
tively in politics and did not care for public office 
although his standing in the community had be 
come such that he could have secured it easily. 
But when he had to send his eight children to 
school, the inborn desire of the German to secure 
a good education for his family induced him to 
accept the position of school trustee at his place 
of residence and he served in this capacity for ten 
years, winning the deserved approval of the resi 
dents of Verona for his devotion to duty and 
the intelligence which marked his official acts. 
Mr. Hornfeck was married on February 5, 1866, 
to Miss Anna Kathrine Cimiotti, a native of Vi 
enna, and has four sons and four daughters, one 
of whom is married to W. H. Loftus, superinten 
dent of the Clark O.N.T. thread works. Arriving 
in this country with empty hands, he has suc 
ceeded beyond his own expectations and furnishes 
a splendid illustration of what the German may 
achieve in Free America if endowed with nat 
ural gifts and a noble character. Mr. Hornfeck 
is a member of the Arion Society. 

the Schwarzchild and Sulzberger Company, was 
born in the Grand Duchy of Baden sixty-five 
years ago. In 1863, while a young man, Mr. 
Sulzbereer came to America, locating in New 

York City, where he has resided ever since. His 
family consists of eight boys and four girls, four 
of the sons being now actively engaged in busi 
ness of the corporation of Schwarzchild and 
Sulzberger Company. Mr. Sulzberger has always 
been a liberal contributor to numerous religious 
and charitable organizations. He has never taken 
any active interest in politics. The corporation 
of Schwarzchild and Sulzberger Company, of 
which Mr. Sulzberger is the head, saw its begin 
ning in 1853. On the date above mentioned, the 
slaughtering of fifty cattle weekly was consid 
ered a large business and compared to the pres 
ent output of about fifteen thousand cattle per 
week, together with the handling of thousands of 
sheep, lambs and hogs, fhows the progress and 
growth of the company. Schwarzchild & Sulz 
berger Company, more familiarly known as the 
"S. & S. Co.," may be truly classed as one of 
the pioneers in the handling of refrigerated 
dressed beef, and is now conceded to be one of 
the packing powers of the world, which is due 
in a great measure to the high standard of its 
goods and strict business principles. During the 
early history the business was carried on as a 
firm, of which the partners were Mr. Joseph 
Schwarzchild and Mr. Ferdinand Sulzberger, the 
latter being president of the present corporation. 
It early demonstrated itself to the firm that in 
connection with the slaughtering of cattle, the 
success of an abattoir business depended largely 
on the most advantageous handling and utiliz 
ing of by-products which had been given little 
and careless attention by the old-time slaughter 
ers, particularly the fats. The adoption of new ma 
chinery and ideas backed by the energy and ex 
perience of the firm resulted in placing on the 
market the famous "Harrison Brand" of oleo 
oil, which soon found favor on the domestic 
and European markets, and to-day is conceded 
the leading brand, with a world-famed demand 
and reputation." In 1888, on account of increased 
European business, Mr. Sulzberger went abroad 
for the general promoting of their foreign inter 
ests. In 1892 the rapid increase of domestic 
and export business having outgrown the ca 
pacity of the New York plant, the firm saw the 
advantages of an additional plant in the West and 
negotiated the purchase of a corporation, at that 
time known as the Phoenix Packing Company, 
having a plant located at Kansas City, Mo., with 
a few distributing branches in the East, and a re 
frigerator car line, known as the Cold Blast 
Transportation Company. Enlargements of the 
plant to several times its original capacity, with 
added modern machinery and facilities, immedi 
ately followed. After purchasing the western 






interests, the New York plant gradually increased 
the output of Kosher killed cattle for the sup 
ply of Greater Xew York, as an equivalent for 
volume transferred to Kansas City for export 
and general branch distribution. On May 10, 
1893, there was filed with the secretary of state 
in Albany, N.Y., a charter of incorporation known 
as the Schwarzchild & Sulzberger Company, 
which is the corporation of to-day. Branch 
houses were rapidly established throughout the 
country and the export business was materially 
increased. The "S. & S. Co. s" success and 
growth again demonstrated the further enlarge 
ment of plant requirements, and in 1900 it was 
decided to build the famous Chicago plant, con 
ceded to be the finest in the world, which, with 
that at Kansas City, gave the company the ad 
vantage of being located on two of the leading 
cattle markets of the country, Kansas City and 
Chicago. With modern plants, an increased re 
frigerator car line, and a complete equipment of 
live stock cars for transporting its cattle to New 
York, it put the company in an advantageous po 
sition to compete for the general business of this 
country and Europe second to none. The present 
officers of the company are Ferdinand Sulzber 
ger, president ; M. J. Sulzberger, first vice-presi 
dent and treasurer; J. N. Sulzberger, second vice- 
president and secretary; G. F. Sulzberger, third 

GEORGE GILLIG was born at Zeuln, on the 
river Main, Oberfranken, Bavaria, on October 
9, 18097 At the age of twenty he became a jour 
neyman brewer and for seven years and until 
1836 worked as such in different cities in Ger 
many. In the fall of that year he entered the 
Bavarian Army and, serving three years, was hon 
orably discharged. Shortly thereafter he came to 
America, located in New York City and in 1840 
established himself in business in a brewery oc 
cupying the present site of the Vanderbilt man 
sion on Fifth Avenue, between Fifty nd Fifty- 
first Streets. Subsequently he built and operated 
a brewery at Thirtieth Street and Lexington Av 
enue and later on, in 1843, one in Third Street 
between Avenues A and B. During the following 
year and in the last mentioned plant he enjoyed 
\ the distinction of being the first one to brew 
lager beer, as we know it to-day, in New York 
City, the product of all the brewers prior to 
that time being what was known as "small beer." 
Mr. Gillig was at this time also the owner of 
breweries at Staten Island and Williamsburg. He 
sold the former to a Mr. Bischoff and the latter 
to a Mr. Hamm. In 1853 he sold the Third 
Street brewery to Mr. Joseph Doelger and took 

possession of a newly erected one between Forty- 
fifth and Forty-sixth Streets, and First and Sec 
ond Avenues. This he conducted until his death 
in 1862. His estate continued the business for 
some years and then leased it to the firm of 
Gillig & Oppermann, composed of Mr. Gillig s 
son, John George, and Frederick Oppermann, Jr. 
Mr. Gillig was married in 1841, and at his death 
left him surviving four children, one son and 
three daughters : John George, above mentioned, 
and who is widely known through his connec-* 
tion with the business of his brother-in-law, Ja 
cob Ruppert, the well-known brewer of Xew 
York City; Anna, the wife of said Ruppert; Cor 
nelia K., widow of Dr. B. A. Mylius, and now 
residing in Berlin, Germany, and Amanda B., the 
wife of John A. Douglas. 

JOHN GEORGE GILLIG was born at Xew 
York City on January 8, 1852, the son of Ger 
man parents who lived at that time in Third 
Street, between Avenues A and B. He received 
his early education in the public schools of Xew 
York and in Fordham College and was sent to 
Bamberg, Germany, to complete his course of 
study. After graduating, he entered the em 
ploy of a produce merchant at Bamberg and re 
mained with him for one year. At the age of 
eighteen Mr. Gillig returned to Xew York and 
accepted the position as assistant receiving teller 
with the Germania Bank, resigning it in order 
to take a position with his brother-in-law, Mr. 
Jacob Ruppert, the well known brewer. Here he 
stayed for one year, and in the latter part of 
1872 joined the firm of Gillig & Oppermann, brew 
ers. In 1877 he decided to sell his interest in 
the brewery and returned to Mr. Ruppert as fi 
nancial and general manager, in which capacity 
he is still active. Mr. Gillig is widely and fav 
orably known not only in the brewing industry 
but also far beyond its limits as an active and 
energetic man of business with a reputation for 
far-sightedness and strict integrity, endowed with 
qualities of head and heart which have se 
cured him a large host of friends and admirers. 
A Democrat in politics, he has never sought nor 
held public office, but confined his activity in this 
direction to the prompt and conscientious dis 
charge of his dutes as a citizen. He is a member 
of the Arion Society, the Terrace Bowling Club, 
which he helped to organize in 1870 and of which 
he is treasurer since 1877 , the New York Pro 
duce Exchange, Red Bank Yacht Club, and of a 
great number of other social, benevolent and 
charitable associations, as well as a Mason, be 
ing a member of Trinity Lodge No. 12 F. & A. 
M. On January 28, 1874, Mr. Gillig was married 


to Miss Catherine E. Oppermann and has four 
children: George J., Anna M., Mrs. Jacob Siegel 
and Mrs. John F. Betz, 3d, of Philadelphia. 

ADOLPH C. HOTTENROTH, lawyer, was 
born on May 9, 1869, in the city of New York as 
the son of German parents. Receiving his first 
education in the public schools of what was then 
known as the annexed district and now as the 
Bronx, he was graduated from the College of 
the City of New York with the class of 88 and 
from the Law School of the University of the 
City of New York with the class of 90. Simul 
taneously with starting in the practise of his pro 
fession, Mr. Hottenroth took an exceptionally 
active interest in public affairs. It may indeed be 
said that hardly another private citizen has bat 
tled with equal fervor and persistence for the 
welfare of the people and especially the section 
in which he grew up and now makes his home, 
the Bronx. Elected a member of the constitu 
tional convention in 1894 by the citizens of New 
York, Putnam and Westchester Counties, he led 
the debate on the canal improvement, framed the 
minority report and secured the adoption of the 
constitutional amendment which received the larg 
est number of votes of any, and made possible 
the improvement of the canals now under way. 
With equal determination and success he fought 
for the protection of Niagara against the threat 
ening destruction. From 1898 to 1892 he served 
as member of the City Council, having been 
elected by the people of the Bronx by a substan 
tial majority. Since 1904 he has been president of 
the Taxpayers Alliance of the Bronx, the rep 
resentatives of over thirty property owners asso 
ciations having chosen him for this important 
position. He has been indefatigable in working 
for needed improvements, as increased rapid 
transit facilities for the Bronx, the five cent fare 
bill and many other important matters. He insti 
tuted and conducted to a successful conclusion 
against the most strenuous oppo c ition the liti 
gation which compelled the Manhattan Elevated 
Railway Company to give continuous service to 
and through the Bronx for a five cent fare. His 
victory was a notable one, being achieved singly 
against a formidable array of the most able coun 
sel backed up with the immense wealth of that 
corporation. The result of its enforcement was 
to usher in an era of growth and prosperity in 
the Bronx, the like of which was never witnessed 
in any other community. Mr. Hottenroth has an 
immense circle of friends and is a member of 
many clubs, among them the Arion Society, the 
Bar Associations of the State of New York and 
the Bronx, the Automobile Club of America and 

the Auto Club of the Bronx, the American Acad 
emy of Political and Social Science, Bedford Park 
Property Association, Beethoven Maennerchor, 
City College Alumni Association, Fordham Club, 
Jefferson Club, Lawyers Site Purchasing Com 
pany, Melrose Turn Verein, National Geograph 
ical Society, National Democratic Club, North 
End Democratic Club, New York University 
Alumni Association, Schnorer Club, Tallapoosa 
Club, Taxpayers Alliance, Twenty-third Ward 
Property Owners Association, Tammany Soci 
ety, West Morrisania Club, Kingston Club and 
is a Mason of Strict Observance Lodge. Mr. 
Hottenroth is a director in a large number of cor 
porations, including the United States Award 
and Assessment Company, Map and Abstract 
Company, Sandrock Realty Company and others. 
He was married on April 28, 1900, to Miss Ma 
mie A. Schmidt and has four children, two sons 
and two daughters. 

HERMAN JOSEPH, jurist, was born in New 
York City September 10, 1858. He received his 
education in the public schools of the city, at 
tending the old Allen Street School No. 42 and 
graduating at an early age. Later he finished his 
education at New York University, graduating 
from that institution in 1878. After leaving school 
he entered the law office of Abraham Hershfield 
and during this time he devotee! himself so closely 
to the study of law and showed such aptitude for 
his chosen profession that he acquired not only 
a wide knowledge but also a deep insight unusual 
for one of his years. After being admitted to the 
Bar in 1878 immediately opened offices of his 
own at No. 293 Broadway and engaged in general 
practise. His success was assured from the start 
and his ability, as well as his profound learning, 
were recognized by an ever-widening circle. The 
growth of his clientele compelled him to engage 
larger offices at 287 Broadway and he began to 
take a deep interest in politics and educational 
affairs. When, in 1898, Judge McKeon resigned 
his position as justice of the Municipal Court, 
Mayor Von Wyck appointed Mr. Joseph to fill 
the vacancy. In November of the same year he 
was elected for the remaining two years of the 
term and reelected for the full term of ten years 
in 1900. On the Bench Judge Joseph has earned 
a reputation for the dignity with which he pre 
sides in a court that has not always had the for 
tune to be conducted by men of his ability. He 
has decided many questions of far-reaching im 
portance and the rapidity and penetration with 
which he disposes of cases, the never-failing fair 
ness to both parties, the correct interpretation of 
the law and the reputation he has acquired for 










the clearness and precision of his decisions are 
but the natural outcome of deep study combined 
with superior intelligence and sterling character. 
His success has been rapid but it may safely be 
said that it has surprised none of his friends who 
knew the qualities of the man, and that his friends 
by no means believe that he has arrived at the 
end of his career, fitted as he is for splendid 
work in a much larger sphere of action. His keen 
interest in educational affairs was shown at a 
remarkably early age. After finishing his common 
school education he edited a journal that dealt 
with evening school matters, and in this his 
ability asserted itself. He advocated many im 
provements in the public school system and in 
1873 (age fourteen years) he read an essay, pre 
pared by himself, at Steinway Hall under the aus 
pices of the late J. F. Wright, who was princi 
pal of Christie Street School, advocating the in 
struction of modern languages in the New York 
public schools. Judge Joseph is fond of litera 
ture and arts and visits Europe every year to 
find the relaxation he needs after his strenuous 
work. He is a member of the Arion, Progress 
Club, Montefiore Home, Mt. Sinai Hospital, of 
the board of governors of the Democratic Club, 
Tammany Hall and the regular Democratic Gen 
eral Committee, the Elks, Eagles, a Mason and 
belongs to a large number of other social and 
charitable organizations. In politics he is a 
Democrat. Judge Joseph was married in 1881 to 
Miss Sarah Kurzman and has one daughter, Rose. 

HERMAN L. TIMKEN (deceased), a former 
mayor of Hoboken, N.J., was born at Lilienthal, 
Hanover, Germany, April 2, 1830. His father 
served with distinction as a soldier in the English 
Army under Wellington, also in the German Ar 
my under Bliicher and was roadmaster of his 
district. After a service himself of seven years 
in the Hanovarian Army, Mr. Timken was pro 
moted to the rank of sergeant. After severing 
his connections with his regiment in 1857, he came 
to the United States, settling at New York City, 
where he secured a position working at his trade, 
that of a wood carver and turner. Later he aban 
doned this class of work, engaging in the flour 
business on his own account. Two years after 
his arrival in this country, in 1859, he married 
Miss Betty Kotzenberg of Hoboken, N.J., and 
during the same year became a resident of that 
city. A short time thereafter Mr. Timken be 
gan laying the foundation of what grew to be an 
extensive flour and feed business by establishing 
the firm of Krone and Timken in New York City. 
Two years later, after an honorable career, the 
firm was dissolved, Mr. Timken continuing with 

Mr. S. M. Rohdenburg, trading under the firm 
name of Timken & Rohdenburg. In 1870 Mr. 
Timken purchased the interest of his partner in 
the business and continued alone until 1876, at 
which time he began a copartnership with Mr. H. 
Jacobsen, conducting the business on a more ex 
tensive scale both in New York City and Hobo 
ken, N.J. Four years later in 1880 another dis 
solution occurred, Mr. Timken succeeding to firm 
business in New York, and Mr. Jacobsen to 
that in Hoboken. In 1885 Mr. Timken removed 
his business to the latter city and in 1800 Mr. 
August Hanniball, a son-in-law, confidential clerk 
and adviser, became his partner ; a year later he 
retired from active business, leaving his son, J. 
Henry Timken, and Mr. Hanniball to conduct the 
affairs under the firm name of Timken & Han 
niball. Later Mr. Hanniball succeeded to the 
entire business which he now conducts and which, 
to-day, is the most extensive of its kind in Hudson 
County, N.J. Besides ably conducting these in 
terests, Mr. Hanniball is the president of one of 
the largest wholesale bakery establishments in 
New York City. He is widely known as a gen 
tleman of honorable reputation, as well as being 
possessed of large commercial acumen. During 
his lifetime, Mr. Timken was a man who took a 
deep interest in all public affairs connected with 
the city of his adoption. Not being a politician, 
as the term is largely understood in the present 
day, his motives were based upon a higher plane, 
always having uppermost in his mind everything 
that would in any way promote the interests of 
the people. He very properly became known far 
and wide as the "Reform Mayor" of Hoboken. 
His first publ ; c office was that of councilman hav 
ing been elected to that position from the Third 
Ward in 1869. He was reelected the following 
two years. After a temporary retirement on his 
part for several years, he removed to the Second 
Ward, and in 1880 was returned as a member 
of that district. In 1883 Air. Timken was elected 
mayor of Hoboken, serving for three consecutive 
terms, each administration being able, dignified 
and honest. During his several administrations of 
the office he largely reduced the tax rate. He 
strongly favored the creation of the present paid 
fire department but was opposed in this effort. 
In 1891 he received the nomination for sheriff of 
Hudson County from the Jeffersonian Democracy 
but withdrew from the contest later. In the same 
year he was a member of the Board of Tax Com 
missioners, it being the last political office he ever 
held. Mr. Timken was one of the organizers of 
Company D, first battalion of the old Second 
Regiment, in which he served as captain. He 
formerly served for some years as major of 


the Fifth Regiment, N.G.S.N.Y. He was vice- 
president and one of the organizers of the Sec 
ond National Bank of Hoboken ; was the first 
president of the American District Telegraph 
Company of that city. In matters relating to the 
improvement of the city, Mr. Timken erected the 
first French type of flat houses in Hoboken at 
the corner of Sixth and River Streets. Myers 
Hotel, the finest in Hoboken, was also built by 
him and belongs to his son, J. H. Timken. He 
was a member and past master of Hudson Lodge, 
F. & A. M., the German and Hoboken Quartet 
clubs, a director of the United States Shuetzen 
Park Association and a member of the New York 
Produce Exchange. On July 22, 1892, Mr. Tim- 
ken s death occurred. He is survived by his wife 
and five children, viz. : J. H. Timken, H. L. Tim- 
ken, Alfred Timken, Bertha Hanniball and W. H. 
A. Timken. The death of Mr. Timken removed 
from Hoboken one of her most honored citizens, 
a loving father and husband and a man of un 
tarnished reputation. No man can leave a higher 
or better heritage to those who come after. 

CHARLES F. SCHIRMER was born at Min- 
den, Westphalia, Germany, on March 19, 1834, 
and received his education in the public schools 
of his native city. His father intended to let him 
study engineering, and he had already begun pre 
paring himself for this profession when family 
reverses interfered and the boy of fifteen was 
compelled to abandon the career originally laid 
out for him and to learn a trade. He selected the 
upholstering trade and finished his apprenticeship 
when eighteen years old. While the instruction 
given to him had been very thorough, for at that 
time an apprentice was not permitted to follow 
his trade unless he had proven that he had mas 
tered it, young Schirmer traveled for over a year 
through Europe to see and learn more. Thus 
equipped, he came to America in 1853, settling 
at 181 Third Avenue, where he established an up 
holstery business. His confidence that the knowl 
edge of his trade he had acquired by hard work 
and intelligent devotion to his duties would bring 
him success in the wider field that America of 
fered was not misplaced. Here, where no re 
strictions and antiquated laws stood in the way, 
and where the faculties of the able and ambitious 
young upholsterer could freely unfold them 
selves, he experienced a rapid and well-de c erved 
rise. Mr. Schirmer is a Democrat, but has never 
taken an active part in politics nor held public 
office. He belongs to the Lutheran Church and has 
been a member of the Arion Club since 1878. He 
was married in 1857 to Miss Elizabeth Hilsdorf 
of Germany and has one son, Charles J., Jr., who 

served in the Twenty-second Regiment and man 
ages business which now bears the name of 
Charles F. Schirmer & Son. 

HENRY A. C. ANDERSON, physician, son 
of a Danish father and a German mother, was 
born in Hamburg, Germany, on August 2, 1841. 
He received his elementary education in the 
schools of his native city, but his parents having 
died, he was sent, when hardly twelve years of 
age, to American relatives in New York City, 
who had him attend the old Greenwich Street 
School. Having no opportunity to speak or hear 
German spoken, he almost forgot the little Ger 
man he knew when he arrived here. In 1857 he 
came to Yorkville at that time a village, and 
found employment as office boy wiih the Third 
Avenue Railroad Company. Some years later 
he entered the present Bellevue University to 
study medicine, but his patriotism caused him to 
enlist as private in Company C, One Hundred and 
Twenty-seventh Regiment, N.Y.S. Volunteers, in 
August, 1862. After serving in the ranks for 
three months, the surgeon of the regiment had 
him detailed as his secretary. After the One 
Hundred and Twenty-seventh Regiment was or 
dered to Folly Island, just outside of Charles 
ton Harbor, with part of the old Eleventh Army 
Corps, Anderson attracted the attention of the 
chief medical officer who induced him to accept 
the position of hospital steward of the depart 
ment. While on leave to New York, his regi 
ment was sent to Beaufort, S.C., and on his 
arrival there he was assigned to duty in the 
military hospital of that town. Young Anderson 
was perhaps the first man who saw the Blue and 
the Gray shake hands. At the hospital were sev 
eral wounded Confederate officers, prisoners of 
war, who had been sent there for treatment, and 
not one of them ever complained that he was 
treated less kindly than the Union patients. Among 
them was Colonel Montague of Charleston, who 
hobbled about on crutches, a true Southern gentle 
man in the fullest sense. On a sunny afternoon 
a Union general, accompanied by a lady, called at 
the hospital and inquired if a Colonel Montague 
was a patient at the hospital and on receiving an 
affirmative reply, requested that the Colonel be 
called and he was asked to come to the office. He 
"had hardly stepped in when the lady rushed at 
him and throwing her arms around his neck, with 
a kiss said : "My darling brother." Then the 
two men, one in blue and the other in gray, shook 
hands General Robert Anderson of Fort Sum- 
ter fame and Colonel Montague of Charleston. 
Mrs. Anderson and Colonel Montague were sis 
ter and brother. After the war Anderson re- 






turned to the college and in due time received 
the degree of doctor in medicine. He built up 
a large practise in Yorkville, which secured for 
him not only a large income but also a well-de 
served reputation. However, his professional ac 
tivity, extensive as it was, did not suffice for 
his surplus energy and his almost restless tem 
perament. He was a loyal and patriotic Amer 
ican citizen, but he loved German speech and 
song, German literature and art and entered Ger 
man circles to become more proficient. Soon 
after he recognized the fact that the Ameri 
cans of German birth did not occupy the posi 
tion to which their intelligence and honesty justly 
entitled them, especially in public life, he conse 
quently devoted a large part of his time, energy 
and fortune to bring about better results. It 
may well be said that for the last twenty years 
Dr. Anderson was a leader in every movement in 
augurated to increase the influence of our Ger 
man-American citizens for liberal government 
and honesty in politics. He is now serving his 
twelfth term as president of the Central Turn 
Verein and is virtually the founder of the Uni 
ted German Societies of the city of New York, 
of which he was unanimously elected president in 
1892. He served in this capacity for two terms 
and his reelection was prevented only by his re 
fusal to sanction the changing of their consti 
tution, which limited the term of service of the 
president to two terms. Independent in politics, 
he has unceasingly labored for the best interests 
of the public. He is at present honorary presi 
dent of the United German Societies president 
of the Central Turn Verein, a member of the 
State, County and Greater New York Medical 
Societies, the Society of Medical Jurisprudence, 
the Manhattan Clinical and Manhattan Medical 
Societies, the Arion, Yorkville Maennerchor, As- 
chenbroedel and Pomuchelskopp Verein, the Vet 
eran Legion of the Civil War and Bunting Lodge 
No. 655. He served six years as United States 
pension examiner under Cleveland and McKin- 
ley. On December i, 1903, Mayor McClellan 
offered him the appointment of commissioner of 
Bronx parks, but he declined to accept the honor. 
Dr. Anderson was married in 1874 to Miss Nan 
nie Lungershausen of Thueringen, Germany, and 
has four children, two boys and two girls. 

was born at Neuentempel, near Berlin, Ger 
many, on June 24, 1856, and received his early 
education in Germany. He came to America with 
his parents when quite young and completed his 
education in this country, studying medicine and 
graduating with the degree of doctor of medi 

cine from the University of New York in 1879. 
Since then he has been a practising physician in 
New York City, limiting his practise to gynae 
cology, in which branch of his profession he has 
become widely known and is acknowledged as an 
authority. He is professor of gynaecology in 
the New York Post Graduate School of the Uni 
versity of New York, attending gynaecological 
surgeon to several hospitals, and consulting gynae 
cologist to others. Dr. Boldt was formerly chair 
man of the section of obstetrics and diseases of 
women of the New York Academy of Medicine 
and president of the New York Obstetrical So 
ciety and the German Medical Society. A man 
of wide learning, devoted to his profession, a 
diligent student and fond of good literature, Dr. 
Boldt is a member of a number of the leading 
national and international societies devoted to 
his special line of practise and of the German 
Liederkranz. On August 20, 1891, he married 
Miss Hedwig Krueger and has one son, Hermann 
Johannes, Jr. 

surgeon, was born at Munich in Bavaria on Sep 
tember 5, 1863, as the ?on of Hermann Kiliani, a 
justice of the Royal Supreme Court, and his 
wife, Caroline K. Faulstich. He was educated 
at the gymnasium at Augsburg, graduating in 
1881, and studied medicine at the universities of 
Munich, Halle and Leipzic, where he received 
his degree as doctor of medicine in 1888. A year 
before, on August 12, 1887, he had married Miss 
Lillian Bayard Taylor at Friedrichsroda in Ger 
many. Dr. Kiliani served as surgeon in the Third 
Royal Bavarian Artillery Regiment in 1890 in 
Munich. He came to New York in 1891 and 
has since practised his profession with pro 
nounced success, quickly taking rank as one of 
the leading surgeons of the city. Since 1900 he 
has acted as surgeon to the Imperial German 
Consulate General. He is a fellow of the Acad 
emy of Medicine, the New York County Medical 
Society, a member of the German Medical Soci 
ety, the Medico-Surgical Society, the Physicians 
Mutual Aid Association, the New York Surgi 
cal Society and the Surgical Society of Berlin, 
and surgeon to the German Hospital. Dr. Kiliani 
is a constant contributor to medical journals 
and encyclopedias and the author of "Diagnosis, 
1905, W ii." He is a Knight of the Bavarian 
Order of St. Michael and the Prussian Order 
of the Red Eagle. With a large practise and fre 
quently being called into consultation in serious 
cases, devoted to his profession and constantly 
eager to increase his knowledge which rests upon 
an exceptionally firm foundation acquired in 


many years of study at the best German univer 
sities, Dr. Kiliani has little leisure left and be 
longs to but two clubs, the German and the New 
York Athletic. 

FLORIAN KRUG, physician, was born at 
Mainz, Germany, on December 12, 1858. He was 
educated in the high school of his native city 
and, after graduating, studied medicine at the 
universities of Freiburg, Marburg, Goettingen, 
Heidelberg, Vienna, Budapest and Paris. After 
completing his studies and having received the 
degree of doctor of medicine, he acted as assist 
ant to Privy Councilor Professor Dr. Hegar in 
Freiburg, Germany, at that time one of the most 
eminent gynaecologists in the world. In 1884 Dr. 
Krug came to New York and began practising his 
profession, confining himself more and more to 
his special field, that of gynaecology. The large 
experience he had secured during the years of 
study and work in some of the most renowned 
clinics in Europe, and a genial disposition com 
bined with authoritative firmness, rapidly secured 
for him a splendid reputation among patients as 
well as physicians. Before many years he was uni 
versally recognized as an authority in the field 
he had selected, and as one of the leading gynae 
cologists of the country. He has acted as at 
tending gynaecologist to the German Hospital of 
New York for over twenty years and when the 
new Mount Sinai Hospital was erected he was 
appointed gynaecologist to that institution also. 
He is not only one of the most successful among 
the present generation of German physicians in 
America, but has brought great credit and hon 
or to German knowledge and science in the Uni 
ted States. Dr. Krug is a member of the Ger 
man Club, German Liederkranz, New York Ath 
letic Club and of various other social and sport 
ing organizations and a fellow of practically all 
the prominent medical societies in the United 
States and abroad. 

LOUIS HAUPT, physician, was born in New 
York City on January 7, 1851, as the son of 
German parents. He received his education in 
the public schools of this city, where he gradu 
ated and afterwards studied in Miami Univer 
sity at Oxford, Ohio, a literary college, the Med 
ical College of Louisville, Ky., and the Medical 
College of New York University. Having com 
pleted his studies and received the degree of 
doctor of medicine, he engaged in the general 
practise of his profession in New York. Of 
studious habits and well read in the classics as 
well as in modern English and German literature, 
Dr. Haupt took a great interest in educational 

matters and served for several years as school 
trustee and is now a member of the board of 
education where his ripe knowledge of conditions 
and extended experience have been of the greatest 
value for the public schools of his native city. Dr. 
Haupt is a Republican in politics, a member of 
the Arion Society, New York Botanical Garden, 
New York Zoological Garden, American Museum 
of Natural History, American Geographical Soci 
ety and Metropolitan Museum of Art and of the 
County, State, American and German Medical 

physician, was born in New York City March 4, 
1854. He removed to Newark, N.J., with his 
parents when a child, and afterward resided 
there. His father and mother both died before 
he was eleven years old and he was left the 
second in age of six surviving children to rely 
entirely on his own exertions after that time, as 
well as to assist his younger brothers and sisters. 
He attended the old Twelfth Ward German and 
English school, which was founded by his father 
in 1859, the public school of the same ward, and 
the Newark High School, earning his own living 
while in attendance on the latter. After leaving 
the high school in his senior year, he began his 
business life at the age of nineteen, in a gro 
cery store. In two years he had saved enough 
money to warrant him in entering Bellevue Hos 
pital Medical College, New York, and he was 
graduated from that institution in the class of 
1878. He at once commenced the practise of his 
profession in Newark and there built up a large 
and lucrative business, also establishing his 
youngest brother in the same profession. He has 
for many years been a member of the board of 
health of the city, entering it in 1883 ; two years 
later he became its president and has continued 
as such till the present date. His zeal and ef 
ficiency while a member of this board are most 
commendable. While devoted to his profes 
sion, Dr. Herold has always taken a great inter 
est in public affairs. In politics he has been a 
pronounced Republican and very popular with 
his party. He was an alternate delegate-at-large 
from the state of New Jersey to the national Re 
publican convention of 1888, which nominated 
General Harrison for President, and a district 
delegate from Newark to the national conventions 
of 1892 and 1904. He is emeritus surgeon to St. 
Michael s Hospital and a member of the Essex 
County Medical Society. He was for fourteen 
years connected with the National Guard as sur 
geon of the Fifth Regiment, from which position 
he was placed on the retired list when, on the 






reorganization of the First Brigade, N.G.S.N.J., 
that regiment was disbanded. He is treasurer 
of the Order of Military Surgeons of Xew Jer 
sey. He is also president of the Security Build 
ing and Loan Association, and belongs to the 
Masonic fraternity, Knights of Pythias, Benev 
olent Order of Elks, and numerous other organi 
zations and societies. He was married November 
6, 1882, to Louisa, daughter of Thomas Kurfess 
of Newark, N.J. His home is one of the most 
hospitable in the city, where he entertains a large 
circle of friends. 

SIGMUND LUSTGARTEN, physician and 
specialist on skin diseases, was born at Vienna, 
Austria, December 19, 1857, and he was edu 
cated at the University of that place. He came 
to New York City in 1889, where he has since 
resided. Dr. Lustgarten held the chair as lec 
turer on dermatology at the Univer c ity of Vi 
enna ; he fills the same position at Mount Sinai 
Hospital and at Montefiore Home, New York 
City. He is author of a number of scientific 
communications and is correspondent member of 
Foreign Medical Societies of Paris and Vienna. 
In politics he is independent, having never sought 
any public office. He married Beatrice Davis of 
Montreal in 1891. 

RUDOLF C. R. DENIG, physician, was born 
at Frankenthal in Germany on December 8, 1867, 
a? the son of Hippolyte and Elisabeth M. (Dalle- 
mand) Denig and received his early education in 
the gymnasium at Neustadt in the Palatinate, 
graduating in 1886. He studied medicine at the 
universities of Heidelberg, Munich, Berlin and 
Wuerzbnrg, where he received the degree of doc 
tor of medicine, and later continued his studies 
in Vienna, London and Paris. Soon after be 
ginning his studies, he had made a specialty of 
ophthalmic surgery, became assistant and in 
structor at the University Eye Clinic in Wuerz- 
burg and became rapidly known through his pro 
ficiency and knowledge in this field of medical 
science. His rising fame as an ophthalmologist 
caused Dr. Herman Knapp, the founder of the 
New York Ophthalmic and Aural Institute, to 
induce him to come to America as his assistant. 
Dr. Denig arrived in New York City in 1896 and 
immediately took a place in the front rank of 
physicians engaged in work similar to his own. 
He is an acknowledged authority in his chosen 
field and a large private practise together with 
extensive work in hospitals and other institutions 
furnishes proof of the esteem in which he is held 
by his colleagues as well as the public. He is 
ophthalmic surgeon to the German Hospital and 

Dispensary and employs most of his time not 
taken up by his arduous duties to study and 
writing. Dr. Denig has written many essays and 
articles on ophthalmic subjects, is a regular col 
laborator of the Zeitschrift fur Augenheilkunde 
in Berlin, and is now publishing a book on eye 
surgery which will appear in 1909. He is a fel 
low of the New York Academy of Medicine, a 
member of the New York State and County Med 
ical Associations, the German Medical Society, 
the Heidelberg Ophthalmic Society and a number 
of other medical, social and charitable organiza 
tions. Dr. Denig resides at 56 East Fifty-eighth 
Street, New York City, and is unmarried. 

LOUIS ANTON EWALD, physician and sur 
geon, was born at Hammelburg in Bavaria on 
June 13, 1871, as the son of Frederick G. and 
Catherine Ewald. He was educated at the gym 
nasium at Munnerstadt and after graduating, 
studied at the universities of Wurzburg, Berlin, 
Munich and Greifswald. In addition to the study 
of medicine, he devoted himself to geography and 
geology, securing a more than ordinary knowledge 
of these subjects. He completed his studies in 
1896 and received the degree of doctor of medi 
cine from the University of Wurzburg. In 1897 
he came to the United States where his father 
had settled and established himself in the prac 
tise of his profession in New York City. His 
rise was rapid and having made a specialty of 
gynaecology, he soon was recognized as an au 
thority in this branch of medicine. He was ap 
pointed gynaecologist to the German Hospital and 
Dispensary in 1901 and professor of medicine to 
Fordham University in 1907. He is a member of 
many medical societies and clubs, the Catholic 
Club, and the German Liederkranz. Dr. Ewald is 
one of the best and most favorably known of 
the younger German physicians in New York and 
his career has been as remarkable as brilliant. 
Practically all the time not required by his large 
practise he devotes to the study of his profes ion 
and other scientific subjects in which he is inter 

CARL OTTO PETERS, merchant, was born 
at Brunswick, Germany, where he received his 
education in the schools of his native city. He 
engaged in mercantile business and came to Amer 
ica when quite young in years as the representa 
tive of several of the largest and most favorably 
known wine houses in Germany and France. For 
fifty years he carried on the business of im 
porting wines with pronounced success and gained 
an enviable reputation for himself and the quality 
of his goods all over the country. Mr. Peters 


was a member of the German Club, German Lied- 
erkranz, Arion, Manhattan Club, Jockey and Lo 
tos clubs and of a large number of benevolent 
and charitable organizations. He was married in 
August, 1861, to Miss Lizzie Liebrich and has two 
children, Mrs. Louise Offelm.eyer and Conrad L. 
Peters, who is associated with him in his busi 

RUDOLF HELWIG, importer, was born at 
Mannheim, Germany, on June 13, 1864. The foun 
dation of his education was laid in the public 
schools of his native city. After passing through 
them he entered Leeds College in Yorkshire, Eng 
land, where he studied commercial chemistry and 
dyeing, graduating in 1889. During the next 
four years he was employed in England by a large 
firm and gained the reputation of being an au 
thority in his profession. In October, 1893, he 
came to America and established himself in the 
business of importing highgrade wood pulp. The 
fact that he was an expert chemisT~and^conse- 
quently a judge of what was needed in special 
lines of the paper trade, helped him greatly and 
before long he occupied a commanding position 
in the branch he had selected as the field of his 
activity. He now imports annually about twenty 
thousand tons of the highest grades of sulphite 
pulp used for fine writing and bond papers, and 
supplies manufacturers all over the country, it 
being well known that he handles only the best 
qualities. An independent in politics, Mr. Hel- 
wig has never taken an active part in partisan 
strife but confined himself to doing his duty as a 
citizen according to his convictions. He was mar 
ried on December 7, 1895, to Miss Anna M. Stad- 
ler and has two children. A member of the Arion 
and the German Liederkranz, he devotes more 
time to outdoor sports than to social amusements 
and belongs to the Wa-Wa-Yanda Fishing Club 
of Fire Island and to a number of country clubs 
where he can indulge his ardent love for nature 
and all the pastimes a true sportsman cherishes. 

was born in 1862 at Ems in Hesse-Nassau, Ger 
many, and received his education in the Real- 
Gymnasium at Wiesbaden where he graduated. 
He gained his commercial experience in Cologne, 
Berlin and other commercial centers of Germany. 
In 1887 he established himself in business in New 
York as importer of mineral waters, and so 
successfully introduced the Rhens water an al 
kaline table water from Rhens-on-the-Rhine that 
it is to-day one of the best known and most 
popular mineral waters in the United States. He 

is also the general agent for the Royal Prussian 
mineral springs of Ems and Schwalbach and for 
the mineral waters of the spa Wildungen of Wai- 
deck. During the Louisiana Purchase Exposi 
tion at St. Louis he acted as the business repre 
sentative of the mineral springs owned by the 
Prussian Government. Mr. von der Bruck was 
married in 1895. He is a member of the Arion, 
German Liederkranz, Eichenkranz, Beethoven, 
German Press Club, the German Writers Asso 
ciation and other social, literary and benevolent or 
ganizations, and is also a Mason. While retaining 
all his affection for his native land, he has become 
a loyal and devoted American citizen. 

ALBERT E. KLEINERT, building contractor, 
was born on the Island Ruegen, Germany, on 
June 14, 1862. He was educated by private tu 
tors under the supervision of his father, who him 
self was a school teacher and a man of wide and 
unusual attainments. He planted in the boy s mind 
the desire for knowledge and higher culture. Mr. 
Kleinert, after passing an examination practically 
and theoretically as a master builder, came to 
America in 1882 and settled in Connecticut where 
he remained until 1884, when he removed to 
Brooklyn. Here he engaged in the building busi 
ness and soon began to take large contracts, rap 
idly establishing a reputation for good and relia 
ble workmanship which, naturally, increased his 
trade until his operations were carried on on a 
large scale. From the beginning he has evinced 
a deep interest in public affairs and organized the 
Central & Smith Street Board of Trade and also 
joined and became active in the Prospect Heights 
Board of Trade, thus joining several movements 
whose object was the improvement of public ad 
ministration and morals. In fact, Mr. Kleinert 
soon came to be looked upon as a man whose 
assistance was of great value and whose readi 
ness to assist fearlessly every effort for better 
ment in the community led to his appointment by 
the borough president to the advisory committee 
of one hundred. He also received his appoint 
ment by the mayor of New York City as a mem 
ber of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commis 
sion. He is an Independent Democrat in politics 
and used all his efforts to bring his fellow Ger- 
man- American citizens to the foremost position 
they should hold in this community. His services 
as a member and officer of the United German 
Singers of Brooklyn were instrumental in the 
bringing about of numerous concerts being given 
in the public parks, devoting a larger part of his 
energies to this work and encouraging his associ 
ates with work and deed whenever called upon. 






As president of the Brooklyn Saengerbund Society 
for five consecutive years, he was instrumental in 
bringing the same to the foremost position of any- 
kindred organization financially and socially. As 
a member of the German Hospital Association, 
he served one term on the board of trustees. On 
March 18, 1888, he married Miss Emma Lousinger 
and has five children. Mr. Kleinert is a member of 
the following organizations : Kings County Demo 
cratic Club, Brooklyn Lodge of Elks, Indepen 
dent Order of Odd Fellows, Free Masons and 
Mystic Shriners, Brooklyn Turn Verein, Municipal 
Art Society of New York, the Brooklyn League 
and Allied Board of Trade and Tax Payers 

PAUL LICHTENSTEIX, banker, was born at 
Frankfort-on-the-Main, and engaged in the bank 
ing business after receiving a superior education. 
In 1868 he emigrated to America, settling in New 
York, where he has since been connected with 
some of the largest banking houses in the coun 
try. He is a member of the board of trustees of 
the German Society of the city of New York, of 
the Deutsche Vere n, the Brooklyn Germania 
and the Crescent Athletic Club. In politics a 
Republican, he is independent in his actions, and 
supported Grover Cleveland for the presidency. 
Mr. Lichtenstein takes a warm interest in all 
matters relating to the arts and fine 1 terature, 
and is known for h s judgment and refined taste. 
On August 28, 1872, he married Miss Clara Kapp, 
the daughter of the well known lawyer, historian 
and later on member of the German Reichstag, 
Friedrich Kapp. Of their three children, Julie 
Louise and Friedr ch L. Lichtenstein died in in 
fancy, while Alfred F. Lichtenstein survives. 

geon and author, born Hanover, Germany, No 
vember 22, 1871. Graduated in medicine from 
Long Island College Hospital 1893. First came 
to Flatbush as a visiting interne in March, 1893, 
at Kings County Hospital, ending his term in 
1894, when he took up service at the Kingston 
Avenue Contagious Disease Hospital during the 
epidemic of smallpox. The same year traveled 
through Mexico and on his return to Brooklyn 
settled into private practise early in 1895. One 
of the first X-ray investigators in the United 
States. Lecturer in electro-therapeutics and asso 
ciate editor Electrical Age, 1897-1902. Radio 
grapher to M.E. Hospital, Brooklyn. Settled 
permanently in Flatbush in 1899. Inventor : ra 
diometer, Kolle X-ray coil and switching devices, 
dentaskiascope, oesophameter, folding fluoroscope, 
X-ray printing process, Kolle focus tube, direct- 

reading X-ray meter and many instruments used 
in plastic surgery, etc. Author: "The Recent 
Roentgen Discovery, 1896"; "The X-Rays, Their 
Production and Application," 1896; Medico-Sur 
gical Radiography," 1898; "Pen Lyrics," 1902; 
"Olaf," a scientific novel, 1903; "The Grown Ba 
by Book," 1903; "Lisps and Lilts," 1905; "Fifty 
and One Tales of Modern Fairyland," 1906 ; "Ax 
el and Valborg," 1907; "Subcutaneous Hydrocar 
bon Protheses," 1908; also many papers on X- 
rays and kindred scientific subjects, child s verse 
and contributions to the daily press. Residence : 
The Japanese House, 131 Buckingham Road, Flat- 
bush. Office: 18-20 West Twenty-fifth Street, 
New York City. 

ADOLPH ROTHBARTH, merchant, was born 
at Frankfort-on-the-Main on May 20, 1860, and 
received his education in the high school of his 
native city. After leaving school he entered the 
old house of Rothbarth & Co., which had been 
founded by his grandfather, Phillip Rothbarth, in 
1835 an d is now carried on by the third genera 
tion of the same family. The firm was and is 
now one of the largest importers and exporters 
of hops and Mr. Rothbarth became an expert on 
this article. At the age of twenty-two he started 
for America with the intention of establishing a 
branch office of Rothbarth & Co. He was en 
tirely alone and left to his own resources, with 
.only such letters of recommendation as the son 
of an old established and well known house can 
command. With characteristic pluck he opened 
his office and set out to do business, relying on 
his thorough knowledge of the goods he intended 
to deal in, and determined to succeed. Like his 
grandfather and his father before him, he pros 
pered and steadily increased his operations until 
he was in the front rank of his line of trade. His 
fairness, his reliability, his expert knowledge of 
hops which made his judgment the final arbiter 
of many a dispute, and his amiability gave him a 
standing in the community worthy of the name 
he bears. In every way he upheld the traditions 
of the family and of the firm to which he suc 
ceeded. Mr. Rothbarth is a member of the Ger 
man Liederkranz and finds his relaxation in bowl 
ing, fishing and other sports of similar nature. He 
is connected with practically every charitable or 
ganization in the city of any consequence and 
worthy of support and takes an active interest 
in many of them in an official capacity. 

New York City on November 8, 1869, the son 
of German parents, and received his education in 
the public schools and the College of the City of 


New York. He left the college to become a book 
keeper and later studied law while still acting as 
bookkeeper and cashier for the German-Amer 
ican Real Estate Title Guarantee Company, of 
which he was later elected secretary and treas 
urer, having served in this capacity for over 
twelve years. He is interested and affiliated with 
many other concerns through investments or offi 
cial relations. He holds considerable real estate 
in Manhattan and Brooklyn and his property 
claims much of his attention, but the greatest part 
of his time is probably given to his financial in 
terests in connection with the Greater New York 
Savings Bank, of which he has been president 
since its organization and whose success and stand 
ing are essentially due to his efforts. The bank 
was organized on March 27, 1897, and opened 
for business on May third of the same year. The 
institution is located at the corner of Fifth Av 
enue and Twelfth Street in Brooklyn and is the 
only bank in the district. The necessity for such 
an institution to, and its great value for, the 
neighborhood have been attested by the prosperity 
it has enjoyed from the start. The career of Mr. 
Obermayer illustrates most forcibly the oppor 
tunities which America affords to her citizens, 
recognizing their merits and rewarding their ef 
forts with success. While connected with many 
extensive and important business interests, his 
efforts toward advancing the municipal interests 
of Brooklyn are so incessant and wisely directed 
and therefore so generally recognized that they 
cannot be considered as of secondary importance 
when viewing his career of signal usefulness. 
While the interest he has taken in practical poli 
tics has claimed much of his time, and while his 
stalwart Republicanism on national and state 
issues has been exceedingly valuable to his 
party, his services in that direction must neces 
sarily be considered as less important than those 
of much greater value rendered to the community 
as a whole through public spirit, progressiveness 
and liberality. He is yet a young man but has 
left the impress of a forcible individuality upon 
business, social and political life wherever his ac 
tivity has been aroused. In 1892 Mr. Ober 
mayer was married to Miss Ida Bell Sabin, a 
daughter of William E. Sabin. He is identified 
with a number of fraternal and religious move 
ments, including the Royal Arcanum, all Masonic 
bodies, Chapters Commandery and I. O. Hepta- 
sophs. He was president of the League of Ameri 
can Wheelmen in the United States, a member of 
the Crescent Athletic Club, Automobile Club of 
America, Twelfth Assembly District Republican 
Club, Boston Bicycle Club, Good Roads Associa 
tion; trustee South Brooklyn Board of Trade, 

Brooklyn League, Prospect Heights Citizens As 
sociation, the Twelfth Street Reformed Church; 
chairman of the advisory committee of the Brook 
lyn Nursery and Infants Hospital; president Nar- 
ragansett Furnishing Co. ; director Home Title In 
surance Co. ; director Fifth Avenue Branch Me 
chanics Bank; Bibliophile Society of Boston. He 
keeps well informed on the issues of the day, giv 
ing loyal support to the principles in which he be 
lieves. Wherever Mr. Obermayer is known, he is 
held in the highest regard on account of his ster 
ling integrity and his fidelity to principle. 

JULIUS W. BRUNN, merchant, was born at 
Hamburg on May 22, 1833, and died at 430 Grand 
Avenue, Brooklyn, on December 30, 1907. He 
was educated in private schools in his native city. 
In 1854 he emigrated to America and entered the 
employ of a mercantile house. His energy and 
ambition led him to seek for wider fields and in 
1857 he established himself in the importing 
business on his own account. He was successful 
from the start and on August 3, 1858, he formed 
the firm of Hagemeyer & Brunn, which rapidly 
became one of the most important houses in the 
line in which it was engaged, and is still doing 
business with undiminished prestige. Mr. Brunn 
was always a strong Republican and counted 
many eminent men, like President Grant and 
Henry Ward Beecher, among his intimate friends. 
He took a very active part in local affairs and 
devoted a large part of his energies to furthering 
public improvements in Brooklyn and to the amel 
ioration of conditions, especially in the govern 
ment and the administration of the city. He was 
a member of the German Club, the German Lieder- 
kranz of New York City, the Germania Club and 
the Lincoln Club of Brooklyn. He was also a di 
rector of the German Savings Bank. Mr. Brunn 
was married in Europe on December 15, 1857, to 
Miss Charlotte Elizabeth Going. Five children, 
Constantin, Armin, Lincoln, Freda and Use, sur 
vive him. Mrs. Brunn died at her summer home, 
Liskeveen Farm, South Woodstock, Conn., on 
July 31, 1904. 

HEXRY W. BAHREXBURG, a man of af 
fairs, was born at Hoboken, N.J., December 13, 
^871, where he attended the public schools. Mr. 
Bahrenburg is a son of the late John Henry Bah- 
renburg, a splendid type of the self-made Ger 
man, who died in 1889 and who, when a boy of 
twelve years of age, left his native town of Fis- 
cherhader, near Bremen, Germany, in 1838, and 
emigrated to America. In 1869 he established 
what is now the well known wholesale produce 
and commission house of J. H. Bahrenburg, 








1 F 









Brother & Company, located at Nos. 103 and 105 
Murray Street, Xew York City. The concern is 
to-day one of the largest, as well as one of the 
most reliable of its kind in the country. On 
June 30, 1889, Mr. Bahrenburg died at his home 
in Hoboken, leaving a widow and three daugh 
ters and three sons and mourned by a large circle 
of friends. During his lifetime he set a high 
standard for the German citizen; he was genial 
toward all and correct in principle and practise, 
both in business and social life, with an instinct 
ive love of what was right, and an equally de 
termined antipathy to all that was mean and 
wrong. Henry W. Bahrenburg, the subject of 
this sketch, is well known in the financial and 
commercial world of New York City and Hobo- 
ken. He is a member of the old firm of J. H. 
Bahrenburg, Brother & Company of Xew York; 
is president of the Mountain Ice Company of New 
Jersey, president of the New York and New Jer 
sey Produce Company ; he is also interested in sev 
eral banking institutions of Hudson County, N.J. 
In politics he is a Republican. He has never sought 
nor desired to hold public office, his time being 
fully occupied with his extensive private business 
interests. On January 24, 1893, Mr. Bahrenburg 
married Miss Jessie A. Gahagan, daughter of 
the late James C. Gahagan, Esq., who was born 
at London, England, in 1845. He came to Amer 
ica with his parents when he was a lad of six 
years of age, and has been an honored and es 
teemed citizen of Hoboken since 1865. Two chil 
dren have been born to the union : Charles Alfred 
and Frank Dudley, both of whom are living. Mr. 
Bahrenburg resides at Summit, N.J., where he has 
a beautiful home over which his wife faithfully 
discharges her duties as a charming ho tess. Mr. 
Bahrenburg is a man possessed of agreeable and 
pleasing manners, a feature he displays in com 
mercial as well as in his social walks of life. Al 
though a strict disciplinarian, by his kindly dis 
position, he commands the esteem of his em 
ployees and his perseverance, integrity and abil 
ity to organize and execute have secured him a 
high position in the business world. 

FRANK GASS. In public life and the busi 
ness affairs of this city there is no more repre 
sentative or progressive German-American than 
Frank Gass, register of the county of New York 
and one of the leading Democrats of the borough 
of the Bronx. Mr. Gass was elected to the high 
office he now holds in the fall of 1905, after a 
heated contest, receiving the largest vote of any 
candidate on the Democratic ticket. Since as 
suming his present responsible position he has 
initiated many improvements that have won the 

approval of the lawyers and real estate men of 
this county. Register Gass has been prominent 
in Democratic politics for over twenty years. For 
many years he held the office of town assessor 
of the old town of Westchester. After annexa 
tion he was elected as the first alderman from 
that section of the greater city. For four con 
secutive terms he was a member of the board, 
each term being elected by increased majorities. 
Because of his personal popularity it was always 
considered a hopeless task for any one to run 
against Mr. Gass. Nearly twenty-five years ago 
Mr. Gass removed from Harlem to Unionport, 
where he has since resided. He immediately es 
tablished himself in the real estate business and 
to-day is the recognized authority on real estate 
in his section. No one ever thinks of consum 
mating a real estate transaction east of the Bronx 
River without first consulting Register Gass. Dur 
ing his membership in the board of aldermen he 
was on all the important committees but concen 
trated his efforts mainly on securing rapid transit 
and other public improvements for the Borough 
of the Bronx. No recent improvement in the 
Bronx has been secured without the active co-op 
eration of Mr. Gass. Mr. Gass is noted for his 
modest and unassuming work as a practical phil 
anthropist. He is a member of many social and 
charitable societies and his practical support is 
always sought when meritorious charitable proj 
ects are undertaken. He was one of the founders 
of the Odd Fellows Home in Unionport, which 
is a model of its kind. For many years he was 
a trustee of that institution and was active in its 
management. He is still deeply interested in the 
work of the Home. He is a member of the Chip- 
pewa Democratic Club, treasurer of the Tam 
many Hall General Committee of the annexed dis 
trict, prominent in the Westchester Maennerchor 
and other German societies and he is also high up 
in the councils of the Masonic order. Register 
Gass was born in Bavaria June 9, 1852, and was 
educated in the primary and high schools of his 
native country. He came to this country in 1872 
and settled in what was then known as the old 
town of Melrose. He became apprenticed to a 
painter and after learning his trade moved to 
Harlem and established himself in business. By 
thrift and perseverance he soon made his mark 
and in a remarkably short time accumulated a 
prosperous business. In 1880 he decided to retire 
from the painting trade and moved to his present 
home in Unionport whither many of his friends 
had preceded him. Although a young man he 
soon became prominent in the politics of the old 
town of Westchester which was shown by his 
election as assessor. He has for years been prom- 


inent in the public eye and is noted for his pro 
bity and high civic and moral ideas. He is mar 
ried and with his wife is active and prominent in 
the social life of Unionport. 

lyn s foremost citizens, was born April 27, 1831, 
at Hanover, Ottendorf, Germany, and like many 
other successful men who began life in an hum 
ble way, received his education in the local public 
schools of his native place. This period was 
brief, for he was only fourteen when he left his 
school to begin his fight for a future. Seeing 
nothing in the way of a business opening, he pro 
cured employment upon a farm and for years 
he did the hardest kind of work. The desire for 
something more congenial whereby better oppor 
tunities might be realized, prompted him to come 
to this country in 1851. His first position, on 
arrival, was that of a porter in Stuart s sugar 
house. He remained in that place for only two 
months, but the little experience he secured and 
from which he made great use, convinced him 
that the grocery trade was what he desired. The 
next position he took was with a grocery house 
in the lower part of New York City; in this 
new field he worked hard to gather all the neces 
sary details that would warrant him in embarking 
in the business on his own account. One more 
change for the better, and in the latter place he 
remained for two years. At the end of that time 
he had saved some money, but had gained more 
experience. After having resided in New York 
for fourteen years, he moved to Brooklyn in 1868 
and settled at the corner of Park Avenue and 
Cumberland Street. It was there he realized his 
dream, for he conducted one of the finest gro 
cery establishments in that part of Brooklyn 
which he established with a cash capital of only 
eighty dollars. Each year his business grew, 
and in 1882 he retired from active life, having 
achieved not only commercial success but the 
esteem of all who had come in contact with him. 
Politically, Mr. Rappenhagen has always been in 
dependent. He never sought any public office. 
Nearly nineteen years of his life have been given 
to military service. In 1860 he joined the State 
Militia and from the rank of private he rose to 
that of first lieutenant, in which capacity he 
served with great dignity for twelve years. It 
was not until 1872 that he reached the height 
that was more suited to his personality; he was 
made a major of the Fifteenth Battalion of 
Brooklyn and held this command for six and 
one-half years. On May 12, 1854, Mr. Rappen 
hagen married Miss Anna Katrina. No children 
were born to the union. He is a member of sev 

eral organizations, viz. : Trustee of the Home of 
Immigration, trustee of Orphan Asylum at Mt. 
Vernon, N.Y. ; first vice-president of the Ger- 
mania Savings Bank of Brooklyn, a member of 
the German Hospital and the German Saenger- 

JULIUS STRAUSS, builder and real estate 
operator as well as a man of affairs, was born in 
New York City December i, 1862. He obtained 
a thorough education in the public schools, after 
which he entered commercial fields at an early 
age. For the past twenty years he has been a 
resident of Brooklyn, where he is largely inter 
ested in real estate and building operations. Mr. 
Strauss is considered one of the best authorities 
on real estate values in the Greater City of New 
York. He is the treasurer of the Edgar Im 
provement Company, whose extensive offices are 
located at No. 12 Court Street, Brooklyn. The 
company figure among the most important real 
estate and building corporations in New York as 
developers and builders. Mr. Strauss is on the 
board of directors of Unity Church, Hebrew Or 
phan Asylum, Long Island Safe Deposit Co., 
Training School of Jewish Hospital and is vice- 
president of the Citizens Trust Co. He married 
Miss Tillie Michel December i, 1897. Mr. and 
Mrs. Strauss are prominently identified with 
Brooklyn social life and have a large number of 
warm personal friends. 

/ leather merchant, was born March 20, 1845, at 
Assamstadt, Baden. He was carefully educated 
in the public schools and later was given private 
instruction in Latin and French preparatory to 
entering the Boys Seminary at Freiberg. It was 
the intention of Mr. Waldenberger to study the 
ology, but after some application to the profession 
he decided his inclinations ran toward a com 
mercial career, which he later adopted. In 1866 
he came to America, locating in New York City, 
where he has resided ever since. The first four 
years of his life in New York were spent in the 
tea and grocery lines. He then obtained a position 
as German correspondent for the Guardian Mu 
tual Life Insurance Company, 251 Broadway, 
_which he successfully filled for four years. His 
next occupation was that of bookkeeper in the 
leather, upper and shoe finding house of Henry 
Arthin, Nos. 84 and 86 Gold Street, with whom 
he remained five years. In 1878 Mr. Walden 
berger engaged in that line of business on his own 
account. He achieved great success and on Sep 
tember i, 1907, retired from active commercial 
life. Mr. Waldenberger is a member of the Arion 













Singing Society, the Houseowners Association 
of the Twelfth and Nineteenth Wards. For eight 
years (1868 to 1876) he was a member of the 
Eleventh Regiment, National Guard, State of New 
York. On October 10, 18/4, Mr. Waldenberger 
married Miss Magdalena Bang. Ten children 
were born to the union, six cf whom are living 
and four deceased. The living children are : 
Charles, Emmilie, Dora, Emil, George, Alfred. 
Tho c e who are deceased are Mary, Magdalena, 
Gretchen and Herman. Aside from the various 
social organizations he is affiliated with, he finds 
much time to spend with his family. His suc 
cess in life has been acquired only through the 
hardest trials and hardships, and now at the age 
of sixty-two he can lay aside the cares of a busy 
life and feel that he has really succeeded. 

PHILIP HEXAMER, one of Hoboken s old 
est and highest esteemed citizens, was born Octo 
ber 27, 1830, at Meisenheim, Germany, and most 
of his early youth was spent around his native 
town. He received his only education at Meisen 
heim, and that period was very brief as he left 
school at the age of fourteen years. He did odd 
chores on his father s farm for several years and 
his early hardships were rather severe. He was 
about twenty-one years of age when he decided to 
come to America and face the world upon his 
own responsibilities and reached New York City 
in the latter part of 1855. After a brief residence 
in New York, he moved to Hoboken, NJ. He 
engaged in the bakery business and in a short 
time he established two stores. He continued in 
this line up to the early sixties, when he bought 
an interest in a riding academy originally es 
tablished by the Stevens family. Mr. Hexamer 
joined forces with William Walter and under 
their able management the venture was crowned 
with success. Later on his labors were directed in 
a different channel. He engaged in the brewing 
business and for some time the firm was known 
as Peter & Hexamer. A few years, however, 
brought him back to his former business. He 
did not reestablish his riding academy until his 
return from Europe in 1873. This academy, the 
best in Hoboken at that time, occupied the pres 
ent site of St. Mary s Catholic Church on Willow 
Avenue and Fourth Street. Up to the time of its 
discontinuance, it was the headquarters of the 
followers of equestrian sports. In politics Mr. 
Hexamer was an Independent. He never aspired 
to any public office. In the early sixties he was 
one of the enthusiastic organizers as well as one 
of the officers of a mounted volunteer military 
troop which rendered valuable service to the city 
of Hoboken during the early riots and other dis 

turbances of those days. Mr. Hexamer was not 
a club man. His only affiliation was with the 
Masonic order, Hudson Lodge. He attended the 
German Lutheran Church. On January 18, 1857, \ 
he married Miss Anna Peter of Achery, Baden, 
Germany, and to this union were born two chil- 1 
dren, one of whom died in infancy. Mr. Hexa 
mer died at his residence in Hoboken on June i, 
1902, and was mourned by a host of friends who 
remembered him as a loyal citizen, whose natural 
modesty, affability, and honorable business meth 
ods left a lasting impression upon those who had 
the good fortune of his acquaintance. His son, 
Alexander Philip, was born in Hoboken on Octo- \ 
ber 29, 1857, and has taken up the reins where his 
father left them and to-day is conducting the 
finest and best equipped riding academy in Hobo 
ken. He possesses many of his father s admira 
ble qualities, and is one of Hoboken s best citi 
zens, taking an active interest in city affairs. He 
is a director of the Trust Company of New Jer 
sey, People s Savings Deposit and Trust Company, 
Bergen Lafayette Trust Company, Colonial Life 
Insurance Company of America, Hudson County 
Gas Company and belongs to the German Club 
of Hoboken and the German Riding Club of 

4 N 

born in New York City on May 23, 1867, and 
received his education in the public schools and the 
College of the City of New York. He studied 
law at the University of New York and received 
the degree of L.L.B. After being admitted to 
the bar, he engaged in the practise of his pro 
fession in New York. Mr. Strasbourger has taken 
a warm interest in public affairs and served as 
tax commissioner under Mayors Low and Mc- 
Clellan. He was first vice-president of the New 
York Republican County Committee from 1904 
to 1905, and a member of the Republican State 
Committee. Mr. Strasbourger is a member of the 
Republican Club, the Bar Associations of New 
York City an3 the state of New York; trustee of 
the Hebrew Orphan Asylum and the Sydenham 
Hospital, a thirty-second degree Mason and mem 
ber of many other social and benevolent organiza 
tions. In 1903 he married Miss May Blanche 
Gayner and has two children. 

ADOLPH W. ENGLER, merchant, was born 
at Braunschweig, Germany, on September 23, 
1824, and received his education in the Real- 
Gymnasium of his native city. After his gradua 
tion, Mr. Engler engaged in commercial pursuits 
and came to America at the age of twenty-six 
years, settling at Baltimore and connecting him- 


self with the leaf tobacco trade. On July I, 1863, 
he founded a branch house of the Baltimore firm 
of F. L. Brauns & Co., in New York City, under 
the name of Kremelberg & Co., which, under his 
management, soon became one of the leading ex 
porting houses f leaf tobacco. Mr. Engler is an 
independent Democrat in politics and was for 
twenty-eight years trustee and secretary of the 
English Lutheran Church of the Holy Trinity, of 
which he is still a member. He also has the dis 
tinction of being one of the oldest living members 
of the Deutsche Verein, Chamber of Commerce 
and New York Produce Exchange. Mr. Engler 
has been married twice: in November, 1858, to 
Miss Julia E. Spilcker, who died in March, 1873, 
and in April, 1875, to Miss Elizabeth F. Brauns, 
who died in November, 1906, both of Baltimore. 
Six children were born to him: William S., 
Adolph, Jr., Henry R., Ferdinand B., Minna F., 
married to J. W. Lieb, Jr., and Julia E. 

JOHN GEORGE GRILL, merchant, was born 
at Hanau on the Main on September 24, 1865. He 
received a superior education at the Gymnasium 
of his native city and the Hoffmann Institute at 
St. Goarshausen. After graduation Mr. Grill 
left school and served as one year s volunteer in 
the Ninety-seventh Regiment of Infantry from 
1884 to 1885. He then engaged in business in 
France and Spain but was sent by his Paris house 
to America in 1888 and was successful from the 
start. Full of energy and of genial disposition, 
possessing the gift of making friends quickly and 
endowed with decided business ability, Mr. Grill 
seemed to be cut out for the profession he se 
lected, that of writing insurance in all its branches. 
He joined H. F. Poggenburg & Co., one of the 
largest and best known firms in this line, and was 
admitted to partnership after a few years. In 
addition, he is treasurer of the firm of H. S. Le- 
clercq & Co., manufacturers of and dealers in pa 
per. Mr. Grill is widely known and a member of 
many clubs and societies, among them the New 
York Athletic Club, German Liederkranz, Arion, 
Melrose, Turn Verein, Masonic Club, German 
Hospital Association, German Society and Fritz 
Renter Altenheim. He is a Mason of Kane Lodge 
No. 454. He was married on January 20, 1891, 
to Miss Louise Poggenburg and has a family of 
seven children, three boy 3 and four girls. He is 
a worthy representative of the younger genera 
tion of Germans who have come to America and 
displayed the same splendid qualities which made 
their forerunners such valuable citizens of the 
Union, though more practical and with a firmer 
grasp of the realities of life, and he bids fair 
to be a power in the community before many 

years have gone. In politics Mr. Grill is an in 
dependent Democrat. 

JOHN P. WINDOLPH was born in Prussia 
on June 30, 1844, and educated in the public 
schools. After learning the trade of a gilder, he 
came to America at the age of sixteen years. In 
New York he soon found work at his trade and 
completed his education in the evening schools. In 
1861, when hardly seventeen years old, he enlisted 
in the Seventh New York Volunteers, Company 
D, and served until mustered out in 1863. During 
this time he was continually at the front and took 
part in many engagements, notably in Virginia 
and in the "Seven Days Battle" under Colonel 
George von Schack. After his term of enlist 
ment had expired, he reenlisted in the Second 
New Jersey Cavalry and served until the end of 
the war in 1865. When mustered out, he returned 
to New York and worked at his trade on his own 
account. From 1869 until 1884 he was engaged 
in the hotel business, operating the Utah House 
at Twenty-fifth Street and Eighth Avenue. He 
had always taken a lively interest in public af 
fairs and politics and gained many friends by his 
genial disposition and his readiness to help others 
who needed assistance. His election to the As 
sembly in 1884 was the natural outcome of his 
activity in this direction. He was reelected in 
1885 but declined a third nomination which was 
offered to him. In the meantime he had retired 
from the hotel business and devoted himself to 
extensive dealings in real estate, in which he has 
been very successful. Following the urgent wishes 
of his friends, he accepted the Republican nomi 
nation for alderman for the Fifteenth District in 
1893 and was elected with a plurality of five hun 
dred votes in a district which normally gives the 
Democratic candidate a majority of over twenty- 
five hundred. In the fall of 1894 he was elected 
vice-president of the Board of Aldermen and 
served as such for three years. At the end of his 
term he was appointed aqueduct commissioner for 
the city of New York and still holds this office. 
He has been the Republican leader of the Eleventh 
Assembly District for over ten years. Mr. Win- 
dolph is a member of many clubs and has been 
active in all of them. Among them are the Re 
publican Club, West Side Republican Club, Union 
Republican Club of the Bronx and the Ninth and 
Fifteenth Assembly District clubs. He is a di 
rector of the Arion Society and was for four 
years president of the Heinebund, at the present 
time serving as vice-president. As a Mason, he 
is a member of Metropolitan Lodge, Washington 
Chapter and York Commandery, and the Veterans 
associations he belongs to are James C. Rice Post, 










No. 29 G.A.R., and the Veterans Organization of 
the Seventh New York Volunteers. Mr. Windolph 
is also a director of the West Side Bank. If 
the fact is taken into consideration that John P. 
Windolph came to America with nothing but the 
knowledge of a trade and such natural gifts as 
had been bestowed upon him, and that even his 
education had to be completed after his arrival 
and while he was already earning his bread by 
the work of his hands, the fact that he did achieve 
success not only as far as the possession of world 
ly goods is concerned, but also by securing the es 
teem and friendship of all who came in contact 
with him, and that substantial honors were given 
to him, easily proves that he belongs among the 
American citizens of German birth who deserve to 
be placed in the front rank. He married Miss 
Eva Appell of New York City and has six chil 
dren : August, Arthur, Louisa, Emilie, Emma and 

HERMANN HEGENER, merchant, was born 
at Brussels, Belgium, as the son of German par 
ents, and received his education in the Gymnasi 
um of his birthplace. He engaged in mercantile 
business and came to New York in 1886, taking 
charge of the foreign correspondence of a large 
commission house. Having secured the necessary 
familiarity with the American market, Mr. Hege- 
ner decided to make himself independent, and 
went to Europe to secure agencies for high class 
goods suitable for export to America. He was 
successful in obtaining the agency of one of the 
largest and best known lace houses in Brussels 
and operated for a time in conjunction with a 
commission house. In 1896 he started under his 
own name and has since then carried on the busi 
ness of importing real lace and other similar 
lines with marked success. He spends four or 
five months of every year in Europe and must be 
counted among the most noticeable and prominent 
of the younger generation of German merchants 
in New York. He was married in January, 1888, 
to Miss Rosa Hofmann of Leipzig. 

OTTO GERDAU, merchant, was born at Ham 
burg, Germany, in the year 1852. After com 
pleting his education at the Johanneum and ser 
ving an apprenticeship with a large mercantile 
firm in his native city, he went, in 1871, to Lon 
don for the well known ivory firm of Heine Ad. 
Meyer of Hamburg-. One year later, in 1872, he 
decided to come to America and, arriving in New 
York, he established himself as importer and com 
mission merchant under the firm name of Otto 
Gerdau, which, in 1906, was changed to the Otto 
Gerdau Co. Air. Gerdau does not believe in "All 

work and no play makes Jack a dull boy," but 
rather that youth and work should go together 
and his untiring application to his business is the 
cause -that it is to-day one of the largest in its 
line. Mr. Gerdau is fond of yachting and a 
member of the German Verein. In 1894 he mar 
ried Miss Clara Ehlermann of St. Louis. 

JOSEPH FREY, manufacturer, was born at 
Altdorf in Baden, Germany, on November 6, 
1854. He came to America with his parents when 
a boy and received his education in the parochial 
and public schools of New York City. After 
leaving school, Mr. Frey engaged in commercial 
pursuits and finally established himself as a man 
ufacturer of supplies for artificial flowers, in 
which line he has met with decided success. Be 
ing gifted with great musical talent and an un 
usually fine voice, he studied singing and became 
well known as a church singer. He is a member 
of Mater Dolorosa Parish in Pitt Street, New 
York City, and has given much of his time and 
energy to church matters, especially devoting him 
self to the interests of German Catholics. Mr. 
Frey is president of the County Federation of 
German Catholics, member of the Katholische 
Saengerbund, of the Catholic Club, the executive 
boards of the New York State Federation of 
Catholic Societies and the German Roman-Catho 
lic Central Federation of North America, St. Jo 
seph s Benevolent Society, Fidelia Singing Soci 
ety, Annunciation Council 71 C.B.L., and the 
German Liederkranz ; also a corporate member 
of the "Leo Haus" for the protection of German- 
Catholic emigrants. He is an independent Demo 
crat in politics but has never held public office. On 
October 16, 1883, Mr. Frey married Miss Anna 
Ziegler of New York City. His oldest son, Dr. 
Jo- eph L. Frey, is a graduate of Georgetown 
University and a practising physician ; the other 
children are Elizabeth, Leander A., Anna M. and 
Maximilian Herbert Frey. 

HUGO H. RITTERBUSCH, lawyer, was born 
in New York City on September 26, 1862, as the 
son of William Ritterbusch, born at Brunswick, 
Germany, and his wife, Elise, nee Kohler, who 
came from Hesse in Germany. Mr. Ritterbusch 
was educated in Public School No. 58 from which 
he graduated in 1877; he took the classical course 
in the College of the City of New York and grad 
uated in 1882 with the degree of bachelor of arts. 
He studied law in Columbia University Law 
School, graduating in 1887 with the degree of 
bachelor of laws, and was admitted to the Bar of 
the state of New York in 1888 and to the United 
States Courts in 1899. From 1883 until 1888 he 


was instructor in mathematics at Stevens High 
School in Hoboken, N.J., and since that time he 
has been a practising lawyer in the city of Xew 
York. He is a Democrat in politics and a member 
of the general committee of Tammany Hall. Mr. 
Ritterbusch has been a resident of New York City 
all his life, but passes a few months of every 
year at his country residence at Central Valley 
in Orange County, N.Y., where he indulges in his 
favorite pastime of outdoor sports, especially fish 
ing, for he is known as an expert fly fisherman. 
He has taken an active interest in many of the 
movements inaugurated for the public welfare, 
especially for the promotion of German art and 
music, and the preservation of German social 
customs, as well as in public demonstrations for 
the general welfare. Mr. Ritterbusch never held 
public office, but is president of the Heinebund 
Singing Society, an ex-president and member of 
the board of directors of the West Side Mutual 
Building, Loan and Savings Association ; secre 
tary and counsel for the Central Valley Land Im 
provement Co. ; member of the Arion Society and 
for several years one of its directors, a member 
of the Columbia University and College of the 
City of New York Alumni Associations, a dele 
gate to the United Real E?tate Owners Associ 
ation, and counsel and director of a number of 
commercial enterprises. During the great Na 
tional Singing Festival in 1894 he served on the 
board of directors and as chairman of the press 
and printing committee. Mr. Ritterbusch mar 
ried Miss Annie L. Maack. 

CARL EMIL SEITZ, merchant and treasurer 
of the Arabol Manufacturing Company, born in 
St. Gall, Switzerland, August 20, 1843, obtained 
his education at the St. Gall Commercial School, 
the Academy of Sciences, Geneva, Switzerland ; 
the School of Dr. Clayton Palmer Barnet, near 
London, and the evening courses of the Ecole des 
Arts et Metiers, Paris. He also attended the 
Central Military School for Artillery Officers at 
Thun, Switzerland, and was breveted lieutenant 
of artillery in 1863. After having occupied cleri 
cal positions in prominent business houses in St. 
Gall and Paris, he came to America in 1866. In 
1870 he became junior partner in the old well- 
established and mo t respectable German firm, 
C. F. Dambmann & Co., importers of silks, dry 
goods and woolens, with a branch house at Lyons, 
France, representing some of the most promi 
nent German, French and Swiss manufacturers. 
C. F. Dambmann & Co. was the first German 
import house which, in 1870, took up the sale of 
domestic dry goods for account of American 
manufacturers against cash advances, Mr. Seitz 

taking in one million dollars worth of such ac 
counts during the absence of the partner, C. F. A. 
Dambmann, locked up in Lyons in consequence 
of the French War when the French manager and 
clerks resigned in order to avoid the insults of 
their countrymen for serving a German employer. 
Mr. Dambmann was safe and unmolested as an 
American citizen and intimate friend of the Amer 
ican Consul-general Osterhaus. To-day domestic 
goods are said to form the bulk of the business of 
the big German dry goods importers. The firm of 
C. F. Dambmann & Co. was dissolved in 1897 
for reasons which would form an interesting 
chapter of reading in a book entitled "The Curse 
of a Protective Tariff." Mr. Seitz then traveled 
for several years in this country and Europe. 
Still too young to remain inactive, in 1882 he be 
came a member of the firm of Seitz & Gould (suc 
cessors to one of the oldest firms in the china 
trade, Cary & Co.), as importers of teas and ex 
porters of American produce, grain, rosin and 
petroleum. By the well known Standard Oil tac 
tics playing false to almost every house distribut 
ing their oil in foreign countries, a loss of forty- 
thousand dollars was sustained in two weeks. Such 
lessons were too discouraging and finding besides 
the tea and produce commission business too spec 
ulative, unsafe and unpromising, Mr. Seitz with 
drew. In 1889, with Messrs. Jungbluth and 
Weingaertner, experienced drug importers, the 
Arabol Manufacturing Co. was formed in order 
to exploit an invention for making artificial gum 
arabic, a promising enterprise in view of the 
Soudan being closed on account of the war with 
the Mahdi. However, dextrine knocked out the 
head of artificial and natural gum arabic. Al 
though expectations in this direction were frus 
trated, principally owing to Mr. Weingaertner s 
untiring study and energy about two hundred new 
articles were created in the line of vegetable glues 
and adhesives for pasting and sizing silks, cottons, 
woolens, paper, straw, walls, etc., such articles 
finding a ready sale in America and many foreign 
countries. Mr. Seitz is a Free Trader and in 
politics an Independent, so-called Mugwump. At 
one time he was trustee of the German-American 
School of the Nineteenth Ward and for several 
years vice-president of the German Hospital. He 
is still a member of the German Liederkranz and 
the Arion Singing Societies, the Metropolitan Mu 
seum of Art, New York Swiss Club, German Hos 
pital and Dispensary, Deutsche Gesellschaft, To- 
rey Botanical Club, National Geographical Soci 
ety, American Society for the Advancement of 
Science, New York Produce Exchange, Swiss 
Benevolent Society, Smith Infirmary and Citi 
zens Union. On October 14, 1869, Mr. Seitz 










married Miss Anna Margaretha Clausen. Four 
children have been born, viz. : Carl Arthur, now 
doctor of chemistry; Oscar Roland, now vice- 
president of the German Liederkranz; Walther 
Robert and Ida Carolina. 

born at Oberlungwitz, Saxony, on February 24, 

1845, where he obtained an education at the vil 
lage school. In 1865 he came to America, locating 
in New York City, where he has continued to 
reside ever since. From 1865 to 1869, however, he 
served in the United States Regular Army and 
was stationed most of the time in Texas. Mr. 
Goepel is a Republican in politics ; he has never 
held any political office, nor has he desired to. 
He is a prominent member of the Liederkranz 
German Society. In 1872 he married Miss Clara 
Heeser, who died in 1879. On August 24, 1879, 
he married Miss Heeser, sister of his first wife, 
of New York City. They have nine living chil 
dren and one deceased. Mr. Goepel is a man who 
is popular both in commercial and social walks 
of life. Mr. Goepel died suddenly on December 
5, 1907, and was mourned by a host of friends. 

JOHN RIEFE, president of the Consumers 
Brewing Company of New York, Limited, was 
born at Gestemunde, Germany, on September 9, 

1846, where he obtained an education in the local 
schools. At the age of fifteen, he was employed 
as an apprentice by a merchant, with whom he 
remained for four years. He then went to 
Bremen, where he became connected with a dry- 
goods house, with which he remained for three 
years. In 1866, Mr. Riefe came to America and 
settled in New York City. When he arrived in 
this country, he was unable to speak the English 
language. He secured a clerkship with a grocery 
concern and, after several years of hard work 
and steady application, he saved enough money 
to embark in business on his own account. He 
opened a grocery store in Hoboken, N.J., which 
he conducted for nine years. He then returned 
to New York and became associated with the 
Clausen & Price Brewing Company as a collector 
for that concern. Being possessed of great am 
bitions and endowed with a strong force of char 
acter, Mr. Riefe was soon promoted to the posi 
tion of secretary and treasurer of the company. 
His knowledge of the brewing process qualified 
him as an expert in 1890. With the co 
operation of Mr. H. H. Hingslage, Mr. 
Diedrich Knabe, Mr. William P. Rinckhoff and 
Mr. Henry L. Meyer, Mr. Riefe organized 
the Consumers Brewing Company of New York, 
Limited, and he was then afforded a better oppor 

tunity to exercise his talents and develop his ex 
ceptional qualities. He was elected vice-presi 
dent of the new corporation and, after the death 
of Mr. Herman Hingslage, the president, in 
1900, Mr. Riefe became the executive head 
of the company and still continues as such. 
Beginning with a comparatively small plant, the 
Consumers Brewing Company of New York, 
Limited, is to-day one of the largest cooperative 
brewing concerns of its kind in the United States, 
and supplies an annual demand of more than 
225,000 barrels of beer. Its vast interests are 
far-reaching and the magnitude of its product 
marks the company as one of the foremost con 
cerns in the brewing industry. One hundred and 
twenty men are constantly employed by this en 
terprising corporation. To the able administration 
of Mr. Riefe, the company owes much of its great 
success. Being a man of the old school, whose 
business principles are the same as those which he 
employs in his private life, viz., a kind disposition, 
being rigidly honorable and charitable to a degree, 
he is held in the highest esteem by all in every 
walk of life. Mr. Riefe is honorary president of 
the gigantic Plattdeutsche Volksfest Verein, hon 
orary president of the Fritz Reuter Altenheim 
(Old People s Home), ex-president of Club Vege- 
sack, ex-president of Amt. Hagener Club, member 
of the Arion Society, member of the Herman 
Lodge, F. & A. M., and also member of the Luth 
eran Church, as well as being associated with 
many other German societies. He was united in 
marriage with Miss Gretchen Horstmann, to 
whom five daughters and two sons have been born. 

MAX F. ABBfi, president of the Abbe Engi 
neering Co., was born at Berlin, Germany, where 
he received a fairly good education and was em 
ployed most of his time in the coal business. In 
1886 he came to the United States. In the fol 
lowing years of hard struggle he occupied vari 
ous positions, took up the study of machinery, 
especially machinery for grinding and pulverizing 
purposes. After making several inventions he es 
tablished himself in business in 1897 and has made 
a success of it. Mr. Abbe s numerous inventions 
are patented all over the world. The machines 
manufactured by his concern are bought by mine 
owners, cement works, sugar refineries, chemical 
works, porcelain works and other different indus 
tries and are also used in laboratories. The labo- 
atories of nearly all the universities and col 
leges in the United States adopted machines made 
by his firm under patents secured by Mr. Abbe, 
who has thus protected more than thirty of his 
own inventions. The officers of the Abbe Engi 
neering Co. are Max F. Abbe, Lina Abbe and 


Paul O. Abbe. A Democrat in politics, Mr. Abbe 
is a member of the Arion Society and the Amer 
ican Institute of Mining Engineers. He was mar 
ried on December 3, 1877, to Miss Lina Buenger 
and has one son, Paul O. Abbe, who is engaged 
in business with his father. 

Cuxhaven, Hamburg, Germany, on November 24, 
1846, where he obtained an education in the local 
schools. In 1860, at the age of fourteen years, 
he came to the United States and settled in New 
York. He then obtained a position as clerk in a 
grocery store, at a salary of three dollars per 
month. He has been actively engaged in busi 
ness ever since. In 1868, after several years of 
hard work and steady application, he had enough 
money to start a business of his own and opened 
a grocery store in Harlem. In 1868, he also 
joined the Fifth Regiment, of the National Guard 
of the state of New York and rose from a priv 
ate to the rank of captain of Company H of said 
regiment, but upon his election as captain, for 
business reasons, he resigned from the National 
Guard. After continuing in the grocery business 
for some years, he sold his place in Harlem and 
ventured into the liquor business, opening a liquor 
store at Forty-sixth Street and Tenth Avenue 
and while there he did a prosperous business. 
1883-87-88-90, he represented the Seventeenth As 
sembly District in the city of New York in the 
Board of Aldermen, having been elected on the 
Democratic ticket. While a member of the 
Board of Aldermen, he was chairman of the 
Railroad Committee. He was vice-chairman of 
the Democratic Club in his district for about 
twenty-five years, but retired from active politics 
in 1906, to devote all of his time to business. In 
1890, he joined with John Riefe, H. H. Hings- 
lage, Diedrich Knabe and Henry L. Meyer in the 
organization of the Consumers Brewing Company 
of New York, Ltd., one of the largest co-oper 
ative brewing companies in the country, of which 
he was elected secretary, and in 1907 he was 
elected both secretary and treasurer of said 
company. In 1896, together with F. H. Kastens, 
E. Lang, Louis Struever and Luer Immen, he 
organized the Artificial Ice Company, of which 
he was elected president. This company has one 
of the largest ice plants in the City of New York. 
In 1902, together with F. H. Kastens, E. Lang 
and Julius Rinckhoff, he organized the American 
Distilled Water Company. In 1900, he was one 
of the directors and organizers of The United 
National Bank of New York City, which bank in 
1905 was merged into the Hudson Trust Com 
pany, of which company he is a director and a 

member of the Executive Committee. Mr. Rinck 
hoff resides at 457 West Forty-seventh Street 
New York City, and he has a beautiful summer 
home at Monsey, Rockland Co., N.Y. He is a 
member of the Arion Society, Herman Lodge 268, 
F. & A. M., a member of the Fritz Reuter Alten- 
heim (Old Peoples Home), the Plattdeutsche 
Volksfest Verein and the National Democratic 
Club, as well as a member of other German so 
cieties. Mr. Rinckhoff was united in marriage 
with Miss Mina Offermann on October 12, 1873, 
and five children have been born to the union ; 
four daughters and one son. 

CHARLES F. HOLM, lawyer, was born on 
March 8, 1862, at New York City as the son of 
German parents who had emigrated to the United 
States. He received his first education at Dr. 
Medler s private school in Brooklyn, and from 
1871 until 1878 attended the Realschule in the 
city of Schwerin, Germany. Returning to the 
United States, he studied law at the Columbia 
Law School and received the degree of LL.B. 
when he graduated in June, 1882. In the same 
year he was admitted to the Bar of New York 
State and two years later to practise in the Uni 
ted States Courts. Immediately after the com 
pletion of his studies Mr. Holm engaged in the 
practise of his profession and devoted himself 
principally to commercial and corporation law. 
He is a member of the firm of Holm, Whitlock 
& Scarff and has organized a large number of 
cooperative enterprises of German retailers, 
among them in 1889 the Consumers Brewing 
Co. of New York, in 1898 the Excelsior Brewing 
Co., United Wine and Trading Co. and the Amer 
ican Exchange Cigar Co., and in later years 
the Ferd. Munch Brewing Co., United Na 
tional Bank, Hudson Trust Co., Kick Baking Co., 
Consumers Pie Baking Co., and many similar 
corporations of a cooperative character, all of 
which have been very successful, paying good 
dividends and whose stockholders number in the 
aggregate several thousand retailers with assets 
running into the millions. Mr. Holm remains 
counsel for all these cooperative companies ; he 
has probably created more of them than any 
other lawyer, and while this fact speaks for his 
great popularity and the esteem in which he is 
held by the Germans of New York City, the 
further fact that all these concerns are prosper 
ous and have stood the test of actual experience, 
speaks volumes for the knowledge and ability of 
their organizer. He has also incorporated the 
Plattdeutsche Volksfest Verein of New York, the 
Fritz Reuter Altenheim and many other socie 
ties. Mr. Holm is a Republican in politics, but 






has never aspired to or held public office. He is 
vice-president of the Hudson Trust Co. and held 
the same position in the United National Bank. 
Until 1905 he served in the militia and was cap 
tain of Company C of the Fourteenth Regiment. 
He is a Mason of Herman Lodge and of the 
Thirty-second Degree Aurora Grata Lodge, as 
well as of the Riding and Driving Club. Mr. 
Holm was married twice : to Miss Carolina Mar- 
tiensen, who gave him two children, Una and 
Ion C., and after her death to Miss Grace Boies, 
also the mother of two children, Tertia and 
Grace Holm. 

Newark on February 22, 1855, as the son of 
Henry Haussling who had come to America from 
Deidesheim in Bavaria in 1848. While the elder 
Haussling had not taken an active part in the 
revolutionary movement, his brother had taken 
up arms for liberty and fought in several en 
gagements with Carl Schurz. The reaction fol 
lowing the collapse of the revolution drove Henry 
Haussling from home and fatherland. He set 
tled at Newark and founded the mineral water 
business which is still flourishing and at present 
conducted by his son. Jacob Haussling received 
his education in St. Mary s Parochial School, the 
Grammar School of the second ward, and finally 
in a business college. When he had finished his 
studies, he was apprenticed to a marble polisher, 
but soon tired of the narrow confines of his 
home circle and decided to grow up with the 
West, following the advice of Horace Greeley. 
Hardly sixteen years old, he went to Chicago, 
which was emerging from the ruin the big fire 
had wrought, but did not remain long. Return 
ing to Newark, he took charge of his father s 
business and succeeded in developing it beyond 
his fondest expectations. When he started, a 
one horse wagon was sufficient to serve all cus 
tomers, but ere many years had passed, a regular 
wagon park was needed. Mr. Haussling also en 
gaged in the business of manufacturing soda wa 
ter fountains, which business was sold to an in 
corporated company. The manufacture of min 
eral waters is still conducted by himself and un 
der his name. It has grown to be one of the 
largest in its line in the state of New Jersey. 
While Mr. Haussling did not seek for political 
honors, it was but natural that a man of his well 
known energy and character should be put for 
ward by his many friends when the citizens of 
Newark looked for men to represent them. A 
straight Democrat, he was repeatedly compelled 
to take nominations for offices when the chances 
for victory were slight, but such was his popu 

larity that in 1900 he was elected Sheriff by a 
majority of over three thousand votes. In 1906 
he was elected Mayor of his native city after 
a campaign of unusual bitterness, during which 
the friends of liberty and toleration rallied 
around him without regard to party. Mayor 
Haussling married Miss Ellen Elligott of New 
ark and has two sons and two daughters, be 
sides five grandchildren. 

HON. CHARLES G. F. WAHLE, city mag 
istrate and a lawyer of great ability, was born 
at New York City March 24, 1866. His father 
was Carl G. F. Wahle, a veteran of the Civil 
War, well known in German veteran circles in 
New York City. He attended the public schools, 
the College of the City of New York and the 
University Law School. He read law in the 
office of Frederick H. Betts, at one time a part 
ner of former Secretary of the Navy William 
C. Whitney, and was later admitted to the Bar. 
In 1890 Mayor Grant appointed him school in 
spector for the Fifth Inspection District of the 
city of New York. He led the first fight for 
the introduction of electric lighting in the schools 
of his district in the city of New York, succeed 
ing in calling to his assistance such men as 
Charles F. Chandler, the late Professor Morton 
of the Stevens Institute of Technology, Profes 
sor Cross of the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology of Boston, Professor Freeman of 
Washington and others. In 1891 he was ap 
pointed one of the commissioners of accounts of 
the city of New York by Mayor Grant, the sal 
ary of the office being five thousand dollars ; he 
was at that time just twenty-five years of age and 
so far as the records of the city of New York 
show, was the youngest man who was ever the 
executive head of one of the municipal depart 
ments of the city of New York. He was re- 
appointed to the office by Mayor Gilroy. During 
his incumbency of the office of commissioner of 
accounts he conducted a public investigation into 
the accounts and methods of the Park Depart 
ment and succeeded in exposing a corrupt system 
of management in various branches of the park 
system, which resulted in the enforced resigna 
tion of many of the superintendents, and the 
flight from the city of the chief gardener. The 
reforms which have since been instituted in the 
Park Department are the result of that admin 
istration. He was the secretary of the commit 
tee having in charge the Columbian celebration 
in the city of New York and was appointed by 
Mayor Gilroy a member of the committee to 
represent the city at the Manhattan Day celebra 
tion at the Chicago celebration. He is a mern- 


her of the Bar Association of the city of New 
York, the Society of Medical Jurisprudence, 
Tammany Society and Anawanda Club. He is 
chairman of the executive committee of the Ger 
man Democracy of the city of New York and 
has had charge of several vigorous political 
campaigns among Germans in the city of New 
York. He is also a member of the Liederkranz, 
of which organization he has been one of the 
board of directors and a trustee ; of the German 
Press Club, of which organization he was for 
many years the chairman of the finance commit 
tee; the German Scientific Society of New York 
and other German charitable and social organi 
zations. He was one of the counsel who suc 
cessfully appeared for the executive committee 
of Tammany Hall in its fight to exclude William 
S. Devery from that body, is vice-chairman of 
the executive committee of Tammany Hall, 
one of the vice-presidents of the general commit 
tee of Tammany Hall for the Thirty-fifth As 
sembly District, and one of the vice-presidents of 
the Jefferson Tammany Club of the Thirty-fifth 
Assembly District. In addition to this, in mat 
ters local to the Bronx section of the city of 
New York, he is a member of the Schnorer Club, 
North Side Board of Trade, Bar Association of 
the Bronx, a vestryman of the Protestant Epis 
copal Church of the Holy Faith, president of the 
General Church Club of the Protestant Episco 
pal Church in the Bronx and is a member of 
other organizations. Mr. Wahle was married to 
Miss Florence Katherine Budd of Sag Harbor, 
who, with their four children, occupy a handsome 
home at 1239 Franklin Avenue, Bronx, New 
York City. On the first of May, 1905, he was 
appointed a city magistrate of the city of New 
York for the First Division. He has served as 
president of the board of city magistrates and 
as such filled the position with great skill and 
dignity. As an orator, Mr. Wahle has few equals 
anywhere in the state of New York. 

ENDEMANN, Ph.D., chemist, was born at Ful- 
da in Hessen, Germany, on April 4, 1842, and re 
ceived his early education in the College and 
Polytechnical Institute at Kassel, the capital city 
of Hessen. After graduating he studied at the 
University of Giessen in 1860 and 61 and at Mar 
burg from 1861 to 1864. Successfully passing 
through the examinations which entitled him to 
apply for the degree of doctor of philosophy, he 
accepted a position as tutor at the Polytechnic In 
stitute at Stuttgart, Wuerttemberg, where he suc 
ceeded in elaborating his dissertation "Die sauren 
und neutralen Aether der schwefligen Saure," 

which brought him his degree as doctor of phil 
osophy on April 4, 1866. He found his position 
at Stuttgart as uncongenial as had been the case 
with his predecessors, and resigned at the end 
of the winter term of 1866-67 in order to go to 
the United States. A few days after his arrival 
he succeeded in securing the position as private 
assistant to Professor Charles F. Chandler of 
the School of Mines, Columbia College, and a 
similar position with Professor Jay of Columbia 
College. Two years later he resigned these posi 
tions and accepted the place of assistant chemist 
in the Health Department of the city of New 
York, where he remained until 1879, when he es 
tablished the laboratory for analyses and investi 
gations which is still in existence in the lower 
business portion of New York City. The inves 
tigations carried on by Dr. Endemann during the 
long years of his practise in New York cover a 
very large field. In the analytical branch of his 
activity he has examined all kinds of food and 
drink. He demonstrated beyond a doubt that 
the self-purification of river waters by direct 
oxydation of sewage, notwithstanding a genera] 
belief therein, is practically non-existent. During 
the ten years of his service in the health depart 
ment he furnished valuable assistance to the 
coroners of New York and neighboring cities in 
cases of suspected poisoning. Physiological ex 
aminations and others relating to the effective 
ness of disinfectants and antiseptics were made 
by him for the city of New York and the Federal 
Government, and he appeared frequently in the 
pursuance of such cases before legislative com 
mittees at Albany and congressional committees 
at Washington. The largest part of his time was 
naturally spent in the field of applied chemistry, 
such as the manufacture of artificial stone, the 
tanning, bleaching and dyeing of leather, the in 
vestigation of and experiments with asphalt, gum 
resins, paper and paper stock, drugs, fats and 
oils, including the refining of them, the preserva 
tion of food and in many other directions, the re 
sults of which were published in numerous es 
says scattered through about twenty different 
periodicals. In connection with these investiga 
tions upward of fifty patents were obtained which 
are almost all in the hands of Dr. Endemann s 
clients. He also edited and published an Eng 
lish edition of "Gerber on Milk," and edited sev 
eral of the first volumes of the Journal of the 
American Chemical Society. To this organiza 
tion the best years of his life were given, Dr. 
Endemann serving for many years as director, 
member of the committee on papers and publica 
tions and as editor. The first practical impulse 
for the formation of this society was given by 






him, and with the assistance of Dr. J. Walz, a 
small number of chemists was interested, but 
the original plan of forming a small local soci 
ety was soon superseded by Professor Charles F. 
Chandler s idea of forming a national organiza 
tion. Calls sent out met with a response suffi 
cient to make this possible, though during the 
first ten years of its existence the society was 
greatly hindered in its prosperity and efficiency 
by the opposition of many enemies who only 
gradually came to see its usefulness and value. 
Dr. Endemann has frequently appeared in the 
courts as expert, notably in cases referring to 
artificial dyes, the manufacture of paper pulp and 
paper, and the utilization of wastes. He is an 
original member of the Society of Chemical In 
dustry and the American Chemical Society, a 
member of the German Technological Club of 
New York, the German Chemical Society of Ber 
lin and the Verein Deutscher Chemiker. Dr. 
Endemann married, on November 27, 1869, Ma 
ria Elisabeth, daughter of J. J. Miller, and had 
seven children, of whom six are living: Eleonora 
L. Grimes, Hermann K., Gertrude, Fred W., 
Clara and Elsa. 

JACOB LANGELOTH, merchant, was born 

at Mannheim, Germany, where he received his 
education at the Gymnasium, graduating there 
from at the age of sixteen years. Before com 
ing to the United States, Mr. Langeloth entered 
mercantile life at his native place in 1867. In 
1873 he went to London, England, where he re 
mained until 1881. He then located at Frank- 
furt-on-Main where he became assistant manager 
of the Metallgesellschaft. In 1887 he came to 
America, locating at New York City, where he 
has continued to reside ever since. After his 
arrival in New York he established the American 
Metal Company, limited, an extensive concern 
of which he is president. Mr. Langeloth is a 
director of the Corn Exchange Bank, a mem 
ber of the German Club, the New York Yacht 
Club, the Midday Club, the Downtown Club and 
other organizations. He is intimately connected 
with copper, lead, spelter, etc., mining and smelt 
ing industries in this country, as well as Mex 
ico and Canada and among others is president of 
the Granby Consolidated Mining, Smelting & 
Power Co. of British Columbia~and vice-presi 
dent of the Balbach Smelting & Refining Co. of 
Newark, NJ. He is widely known as an emi 
nently successful business man of exceptional 
ability. Cultured and refined in his taste, he is 
universally esteemed for his superior qualities 
and gifts. Although disinclined to take a lead 
ing part in public functions, he must be counted 

as one of the leading German merchants of New 
York City, on account of his success as well as 
his character. 

LOUIS W. HRABA, manufacturer of fine 
leather goods, such as wallets, pocket-books, trav 
eling bags, tourist outfits, mounted in gold and 
silver, etc., etc., with offices and salesrooms lo 
cated at 29 East Nineteenth Street, New York 
City, was born at Vienna, Austria, in 1853. At 
the unusual age of sixteen he graduated from the 
Gymnasium, a thorough institution of that city. 
Shortly after his graduation he came to the Uni 
ted States. In 1872 he located in Hoboken, NJ., 
where he at present resides and where he is held 
in the highest esteem socially, publicly and com 
mercially. After arriving in this country, al 
though only a boy, he possessed more than the 
usual grit for one of his years at that time; he 
obtained a position with the leather goods firm 
of Messrs. Enninger & Co., with whom he remain 
ed for a short time. After being identified with 
other houses in a similar line, in 1879 Mr. Hraba 
embarked in business on his own account and 
made it a special point to produce the finest leath 
er goods on the American soil. He has been 
successful in his undertaking and has won the 
name and reputation in the American as well 
as Vienna, Paris, Berlin and London markets 
to stand alone without any near approach, as 
the maker of the finest and most artistic leather 
goods that human skill can produce. His busi 
ness continued to grow rapidly and in order to 
keep apace with the times, Mr. Hraba removed 
to his present splendid and commodious quar 
ters, No. 29 East Nineteenth Street. Mr. Hraba 
in 1876 married a Miss Bruetsch, an estimable 
lady of Hoboken. They reside at No. 623 Bloom- 
field Street in that city. One of the pleasing 
features Mr. Hraba possesses is that his success 
ful business career has never destroyed his great 
simplicity. In his social and commercial walks 
in life he possesses none of those snobbish char 
acteristics which so often spoil the successful 
man of business. 

AUGUSTUS G. MILLER, contractor and 
manufacturer, was born at Marktbreit, near 
Wuerzburg, in Bavaria, on July 14, 1869. He 
received his early education in the schools of 
Wuerzburg and attended St. Nicholas Parochial 
School in New York City for two years, having 
emigrated to America with his parents when still 
a boy. Mr. Miller engaged in business when quite 
young and became the pioneer of the Miller sys 
tem of sectional shelving used now by many 
thousands of commercial and manufacturing con- 


cerns in the city of New York and beyond its 
limits. He has always taken a very deep inter 
est in public affairs of all kinds and served for 
seventeen years in the militia. From 1889 to 
1895 he was a member of the Eighth Regiment, 
was then transferred to the Seventy-first, took 
his discharge and reenlisted in the First Signal 
Corps, serving until 1905. During the Spanish- 
American War he did his duty with his regi 
ment at Camp Townsend and was later on trans 
ferred to the armory for recruiting service. He 
is commodore of the U.S. Volunteer Life Sav 
ing Corps, District No. 2, an organization which 
is indebted to Mr. Miller s indefatigable zeal in 
its behalf for a large part of its success. His 
principal work has been in connection with 
needed improvements in the Bronx where he 
lives. He is president of the United East Bronx 
Improvement Associations, an alliance of all the 
important taxpayers associations east of the 
Bronx River. In this capacity he has figured 
conspicuously in connection with all improve 
ments in the district known as Chester. Care 
fully studying conditions before forming an 
opinion, his judgment is universally admitted to 
be impartial and correct, and it may be said, 
without fear of contradiction, that he has been 
identified with every public improvement in his 
section as one of the prime movers. He fathered 
and accomplished the construction of the two 
large trunk sewers for Westchester and Union- 
port at a cost of $2,500,000, the extension of the 
subway along Westchester Avenue, the extension 
of Tremont Avenue east of the Bronx and many 
other public works of great value. In addition, 
he led the fight against the poor service given to 
his district by the Union Railway Company and 
forced them, with the assistance of the State 
Railroad Commission, to furnish larger and 
more frequent cars. Mr. Miller was married on 
December 20, 1898, to Miss Clara Lohbauer, 
daughter of the well known park proprietor of 
Westchester. He organized the Morris Yacht 
Club, is a Mason of Harmony Lodge No. 199 
and belongs to a number of political organiza 
tions. In local politics he is a Democrat but a 
Republican in national affairs. 

ANTHONY J. VOLK, son of Jacob and Rosa 
Volk, was born at Hoboken on November 21, 
1865. He received his education in the Hoboken 
Academy and later in the public schools of his 
native city. After graduating, he engaged in 
the undertaking business and soon established 
himself on his own account. He has been very 
successful and has taken a lively interest in 
public affairs. A Republican in politics, he was 

elected coroner for Hudson County in Novem 
ber, 1903, by a majority of nearly fifteen hundred 
votes in the ordinarily Democratic city of Hobo- 
ken, carrying his county by almost six thousand 
votes. Mr. Volk remains true to the traditions 
of the country where his parents were born, and 
while a loyal American citizen, is ever ready to 
lend his aid to every movement in the interest 
of the German-American element. Of genial 
disposition and fond of social diversions, his 
friends are very numerous, and his popularity is 
proven by his success in business as well as poli 
tics. He is a member of the German Evangelical 
Church at Sixth and Garden Streets, Hoboken, 
Hoboken Board of Trade, the Independent and 
City and Hoboken Schuetzen Corps, Lyra Sing 
ing Society, Turn Verein, Gehrder Freundschafts 
Bund, secretary and treasurer of the Hudson 
Consumers Ice Co., the Undertakers Association 
of his state and county, Hoboken Lodge 74, Elks, 
Royal Arcanum, K. & L. of H., K. of II., D.O.H., 
a prominent Odd Fellow and a Mason of Hud 
son Lodge 71, as well as a member of many 
other social organizations too numerous to men 
tion. Mr. Volk was married in September, 1888, 
to Miss Annie M. Kaiser and has three children, 
Florence M. A., Anthony J. Jr., and Anna M. M. 

GEORGE M. HEUMAN, lawyer, was born 
in New York City on September 21, 1876. He 
attended Public School No. 18 and took the re 
gents examination in order to study law. While 
clerk in the law offices of E. B. & W. J. Amend 
he took a course of one year at Columbia Uni 
versity and continued his studies in the New 
York Law School, receiving the Academic Di 
ploma from the University of the State of New 
York. He was admitted to the Bar in 1900 and 
is now in general practise at 290 Broadway. Mr. 
Heuman is very fond of music. He began studying 
the piano at the age of seven and later devoted 
himself to the organ, this instrument appealing 
to him especially. He studied for some time 
under S. Austen Pearce, formerly organist of 
St. Paul s Church in London, England, and was 
organist and choirmaster of St. Ann s and St. 
Matthew s churches in Brooklyn. He is a mem- 
j)er of the Catholic Church and finds his social 
recreation in the Arion Club. On November 16, 
1904, he married Miss Veronica D. Burgart. 

BENNO LEWINSON, lawyer, was born at 
Buk, Germany, on September 27, 1854, and re 
ceived his preparatory education in the Louisen- 
stadtische Gymnasium in Berlin. In 1866 he 
came to America, entered the College of the City 






of New York and received the degree of M.S. 
after graduating with the class of 73 ; and in 
1877 the degree of LL.B. from the law school 
of Columbia University. He has been a resident 
of New York City since his arrival in this coun 
try and practised his profession since finishing 
his studies. He is a Democrat in politics, a 
trustee of the College of the City of New York, 
trustee of the New York Law Institute, one of 
the "Judaeans," president of the Columbia Club, 
a director of Temple Beth-El Club, a veteran in 
the German Liederkranz, a member of the Phi 
Beta Kappa and of many other organizations. He 
married on October 6, 1881, Miss Fanny Ber 
liner and has four daughters. 

BENJAMIN L. BRANDNER, lawyer, was 
born in New York City on August 13, 1868, the 
son of German parents. He received his educa 
tion in Public School No. 35 and studied law in 
Columbia University. Being admitted to the 
Bar, Mr. Brandner engaged in the general prac 
tise of his profession and met with immediate 
success. He is widely and favorably known for 
his social qualities as well as on account of the 
position he has made for himself as a lawyer. 
Though born in America, he may justly be called 
a German-American in the best sense of the 
word, because he is a worthy representative of 
that element which appreciates fully all that is 
good and valuable in the German character, and 
is anxious to preserve these traits as long as 
possible in order to strengthen their influence 
upon the character of the American people. In 
politics Mr. Brandner is a Democrat, and he is 
a member of the Arion Society, Tammany Hall 
and the Anawanda Club. 

OTTO KEMPXER was born in Austria July 
5, 1858, and came to America with his parents 
in 1867. He was educated in the public schools 
and the Cooper Institute. At first he taught 
school and in 1884 he was made principal of the 
Freie Deutsche Schule, a school which was 
founded in New York City by the German revo 
lutionists of 1848. Mr. Kempner did not remain 
long at the profession of teacher and was ad 
mitted to the Bar after a course of legal study 
at the New York University. When scarcely six 
teen years old, Mr. Kempner manifested his in 
terest in public questions by appearing as a 
speaker in the presidential campaign of 1876. 
Following the example of Carl Schurz, he advo 
cated the election of the Democratic presidential 
candidate, Samuel J. Tilden. He took an active 
interest in politics since that memorable cam 
paign. In 1892 Mr. Kempner was elected to the 

State Legislature from the Tenth District of 
New York City, which was then inhabited al 
most exclusively by Germans. He sprang into 
prominence at one bound at the very opening of 
the legislative session by a vigorous attack on the 
prevailing boss system in the Democratic party 
of the state of New York. The occasion for 
his speech was the attempt of the bosses to dic 
tate the election of Edward Murphy, Jr., to the 
United States Senate over the opposition of 
President-elect Grover Cleveland. That first ad 
dress won for Mr. Kempner a wide reputation 
for independence and oratorical ability. During 
the remainder of the session Mr. Kempner main 
tained a bitter fight against the debasing condi 
tions existing in the Democratic party of New 
York. The forces of Tammany Hall were all 
arrayed against his reelection, and defeated him 
in 1893, but the following year he again entered 
the field for the Assembly and was successfully 
elected. He made a splendid record during his 
second term. Mr. Kempner soon became known 
as a leader among those German-Americans who 
stood for good government and were opposed 
to Tammany misrule. In 1893 he published his 
pamphlet on the "Life of Boss Croker," the 
notorious Tammany chieftain, which book con 
tributed largely to Croker s overthrow. In 1894 
the Committee of Seventy nominated Mr. Kemp 
ner for sheriff of New York on the Fusion ticket, 
but he declined to accept the honor. In 1900 
he was made commissioner of public works of 
Brooklyn by Borough President Swanstrom and 
made a successful administrator. Mr. Kempner 
married in 1883 and has three children. His 
two sons are graduates of Harvard College, the 
elder of whom, Clarence Kempner, is likewise 
a lawyer. 

FRANK H. CORDTS, president of the 
Frank Cordts Furniture Co., the largest retail 
establishment of its kind in Hoboken, N.J., was 
born at Schulau, Holstein, Germany, December 
20, 1863. He obtained his education in the Biir- 
gerschule of his native city. His father being 
a seafaring man, young Cordts had an early long 
ing for travel on the ocean blue. After a year 
of service in the employ of the Hamburg-American 
Line, he was honorably discharged at the New 
York office of the company. About twenty-seven 
years ago he landed in Hoboken. He immediate 
ly procured employment in a grocery store where 
he attended strictly to his duties. Deciding to 
go in business for himself, he next started a 
bread route. Some six months later an oppor 
tunity offered itself and Mr. Cordts became the 
proprietor of a small furniture store at old No. 


76 Washington Street, and through constant at 
tention, increased trade to such an extent that a 
few years later he erected the building at in 
Washington Street, a store and four floors, which 
he occupied solely for the sale of furniture and 
floor coverings. Prosperity continued and eleven 
years ago the magnificent emporium at the cor 
ner of Second and Washington Streets was erect 
ed, a large six-story structure. It is to-day the 
most modern, as well as the largest house of its 
kind on the Hoboken side of the Hudson River 
and stands as a monument of honest and 
straightforward dealings. On May 25, 1900, the 
Frank Cordts Furniture Co. was incorporated 
under the laws of the state of New Jersey with 
a paid-up capital of $100,000. Mr. Frank H. 
Cordts is president of the company and Mr. 
Adolph F. W. Matthiessen, born at Oldesloe, 
Holstein, Germany, April 13, 1869, is secretary 
of the concern. Trade of the Cordts Company is 
not confined to New Jersey alone ; almost daily 
the wagons of the company travel the full length 
of Manhattan Island and Brooklyn. At the age 
of twenty-one Mr. Cordts married Miss Kate 
Schmitt ; four children, viz. : Adam, the oldest 
son, who died recently ; Frank, Jr., Eva and 
Henry, blessed the union. Mr. Cordts has been 
a member of the German Evangelical Church of 
Sixth and Garden Streets for over twenty-five 
years. He was made a deacon some twenty years 
ago and is acting in that capacity to-day. Being 
a man fond of society he is a member of Hudson 
Lodge No. 71, F. & A.M.; Hoboken Lodge of 
Elks, No. 74; Royal Arcanum, No. 99; K. of P., 
Garfield Lodge, No. 27; Plattdeut?cher Volksfest 
Verein of New York, Board of Directors Fritz 
Reuter Altenheim Gesellschaft; New York 
Schuetzen Corps ; Hoboken Independent Schuet- 
zen Corps and other organizations. He is very 
fond of horses, horseback riding being his special 
hobby. He has been a member of the Germania 
Riding Club of Hoboken for many years and 
at the present time is president of the club. Be 
ing congenial and affable in his manners and pos 
sessing strict business principles, has made Mr. 
Cordts many friends as well as the foremost mer 
chant of Hoboken. He is a self-made man in 
the truest sense of the word. 

HERMANN KOCH was born in beautiful 
Thuringia, Germany, in 1861, as the son of the 
prosperous farmer, Friedrich Koch, and his wife, 
Sophie. He received his first education at the 
public school of his home village, Obersdorf, 
and then attended a secondary school (Mittel- 
schule) at Sangerhausen. At the age of fifteen 
he entered a preparatory school and in 1882 he 

graduated from the Royal Teachers Seminary 
of the old city of Eisleben. After teaching school 
for a while Mr. Koch went out in search of a 
broader field for his activities to the United 
States and settled in New York City- in 1884. 
He chose the business career and by energetical 
study of the English language and by close at 
tention to business he soon worked his way up; 
for a number of years he was manager of a 
wholesale importing house. In the meanwhile 
Hermann Koch had chosen Long Island City, in 
the Borough of Queens, New York City, as the 
place of his abode. Since 1905 Mr. Koch has 
been established in the real estate and insurance 
business, with offices at No. 507 Broadway, Long 
Island City. His close study of conditions of the 
realty market and his thorough knowledge of 
values in Queens have given Mr. Koch the repu 
tation of one of the most successful appraisers 
of real estate in Queens, whose advice is eagerly 
sought by investors in that section of the Greater 
City; his strict honesty and unswerving integrity 
have secured for him the confidence of a rap 
idly growing clientage. While Hermann Koch has 
shown profound interest in the promotion of the 
German language, German song and German 
social ideals in this land of his adoption, he has 
at all times impressed his German friends with 
the utmost necessity of acquiring the English 
language and becoming good and useful Amer 
ican citizens. Although Mr. Koch cherishes a 
warm spot in his heart for the "Vaterland," and 
although he expresses his affection for his old 
love on proper occasions, yet he is an ardent ad 
mirer of the democratic institutions of this 
country and he hails his great "Landsmann" Carl 
Schurz, as a model American citizen. Hermann 
Koch was instrumental in organizing the United 
German Singing Societies of Long Island City in 
1899; he was their president for five years and 
he has been one of the directors of the "Nord 
Ostliche Sangerbund" ever since his home or 
ganization became a member of this great and 
influential "Bund." As speaker of the Long 
Island City Turn Verein, he has been very active 
in the cause of that branch of athletics which is 
so dear to the German heart ; his earnest endeav 
or to interest young Americans in these scien 
tific physical exercises has been successful. But 
Hermann Koch has not only been an important 
factor in German-American life in Queens, he 
has also been recognized as one of Queens Coun 
ty s most public spirited citizens ; always mani 
festing a deep interest in the advancement and 
welfare of the community, the progress of pub 
lic improvement and the rapid development of 
that borough. As a member of local school 






board, District No. 42, for two years, Mr. Koch 
will be remembered for his undying efforts to 
secure proper recognition for the needs and 
wants of the public school system of Queens. The 
erection of a number of new school buildings in 
Long Island City is traced back to his initia 
tive and energetical work. A Democrat in po 
litical faith, his unswerving integrity was so 
highly appreciated by his fellow townspeople that 
he was nominated and elected alderman of the 
Sixty-seventh District in 1903 by a very large 
majority. His record in that office is a credit to 
himself and to his party; he was a true repre 
sentative of all the people, he was progressive 
and always stood for the best interests of all 
his constituents, irrespective of party. With his 
extensive commercial pursuits and his deep in 
terest in public affairs, he is strictly a home-man 
and devotes all of his spare time to the comfort 
and advancement of his family. His happy 
union with Emma Herrmann has been blessed 
with two sons. Heinrich, the oldest son, is 
about to take up the study of law at Cornell 
University; Alfred, thirteen years of age, is a 
pupil of one of the public schools of Long Island 
City. Mr. Koch is a member of Advance Lodge, 
F. & A. M. ; Enterprise Lodge, No. 228, K. of 
P. ; Long Island City Lodge, I.O.O.F. ; Sunswick 
Council, Royal Arcanum ; Queensborough Lodge, 
No. 878, B.P.O. Elks, also of a number of social 
and political organizations. 

GUSTAV HAUSER, manufacturer, was born 
in Vienna, Austria, on June 2, 1843, and edu 
cated in the public schools of his native city. 
After leaving school, Mr. Hauser engaged in 
the hotel business and was assistant manager or 
manager of several of the largest hotels in Ger 
many, among them Meisels Hotel in Vienna, 
Caspers Hotel in Bremen, Streits Hotel in Ham 
burg and Gumprechts Wholesale Hungarian 
Wine House in Hanover. He came to America 
in 1870 and entered the cigar business, starting 
in 1872 the well known and still flourishing 
Phenix Cigar Factory at Hoboken. His activity 
and his genial disposition won him a host of 
friends and brought not only success to his en 
terprise but also made him one of the most pop 
ular Germans of Hoboken. He took an active 
interest in public affairs and was appointed cat 
tle inspector under President Cleveland s admin 
istration, which office he held from 1892 until 

1896. Mayor Stanton appointed him fire com 
missioner of the city of Hoboken, in which ca 
pacity he served with distinction from 1892 to 

1897. In 1901 he was a member of the com 
mittee of fifteen appointed to receive the first 

vessel of the German Lloyd that reached Ho 
boken after the great fire of 1900 had destroyed 
the docks. Mr. Hauser went aboard the steamer 
in the lower bay and was warmly welcomed and 
entertained by the captain, escorting the ship 
until she reached her dock. In recognition of 
the courtesies extended, the Committee of Fif 
teen gave a reception in honor of the captain 
and the officers of the ship at Meyers Hotel, 
which was largely attended. He is a member of 
the Hoboken Board of Trade and the Lyra Sing 
ing Society and a Mason of Hoboken Lodge No. 
35. On November 30, 1871, Mr. Hauser was 
married to Miss Marie Segger of Konigslutter in 
Braunschweig, Germany. He had six children, 
four sons who are employed in his cigar factory 
and two daughters who are teachers in the Ho 
boken public schools. Air. Hauser is one of the 
most public-spirited citizens in Hoboken. He is 
always ready to give substantial assistance to 
every movement that has a tendency to promote 
public welfare. Once his word is pledged it re 
mains inviolate. 

HENRY L. SCHMIDT, manufacturer, was 
born at Burg on the German island of Fehmarn 
in 1857. He received a thorough education in 
the schools of the city of Pinneburg in Holstein 
and entered the employ of a firm of manufac 
turing druggists at Altoona in 1872 as office boy. 
His good qualities were fully appreciated and he 
rose rapidly until he filled an important position 
of trust. With this firm he remained until 1880 
and in 1882 emigrated to America, settling in 
Hoboken, where he has resided ever since. Al 
most immediately he secured a position with 
Charles Cooper & Co., manufacturers of chemi 
cals at Newark, and the first firm in America 
to manufacture liquid carbonic acid gas for com 
mercial purposes. Here he remained for ten 
years as confidential man. On April i, 1892, Mr. 
Schmidt associated himself with Carl Puck, a 
manufacturer of mineral water at 114 Hudson 
Street, Hoboken, and remained a member of the 
firm of Carl Puck & Co. until 1896, when he 
bought the interest of his partner and from then 
on carried on the business alone. Besides man 
ufacturing mineral water, he deals in beer and 
ale drawing outfits and supplies and in liquid car 
bonic acid gas. His trade grew so rapidly that 
the new factory which he had Tmilt at 114 Hud 
son Street became too small and in 1899 he re 
moved to the premises at 510 and 512 Fourth 
Street which he had purchased and fitted up as a 
modern bottling establishment, said to be the most 
spacious and best appointed factory of its kind 
in the state. of New Jersey. He has taken a great 


interest in all questions concerning his trade and 
was elected treasurer of the Hudson County Bot 
tlers Protective Association in 1892, which posi 
tion he still holds. In 1898 he was elected treas 
urer of the American Bottlers Protective Asso 
ciation. He has held this office since then with 
out interruption, being reelected at every national 
convention of the association, a convincing proof 
of the high regard in which he is held by the 
representatives of his trade. In addition he is 
a member of the executive committee of the as 
sociation, president of the Beer Pump Jobbers 
Association of Greater New York and director 
of the American Bottlers Publishing Co. In 
1900 Mr. Schmidt was offered the nomination as 
water commissioner of the city of Hoboken and 
elected by a large majority. When his term ex 
pired in 1905 he was renominated and again 
elected. He has been president of the board of 
water commissioners for four consecutive terms. 
On October 31, 1885, he married Miss Johanna C. 
Paust of Hoboken, who has given him five chil 
dren, one son and four daughters. Mrs. Schmidt 
has, with her husband, attended every bottlers 
convention for the past ten years. He occupies 
an enviable position as a business man and a pub 
lic-spirited citizen on account of his integrity 
and his readiness to work for the public good, as 
well as in social circles, where he is known as a 
genial companion and a patriotic American who 
has not forgotten the love for the country of his 
birth; in short, a model German- American. He 
belongs to many societies, among them the Ho 
boken Quartette Club and the Fritz Reuter Alten- 
heim Association, to Advance Lodge 24 of 
Ancient United Order of Workmen, B.P.O.E. 
Lodge 74, Herman Lodge 268 New York, and 
Hudson County Court, 3342, I.O.O.F. 

OTTO WESSELL, manufacturer, was born 
at Bramstedt, Holstein, Germany, in 1845. When 
he was two years old his parents emigrated to 
America and settled in Chicago. In 1850 they 
returned to Germany with him and remained 
there for three years, when they again crossed 
the Atlantic and settled in New York City. As 
soon as young Otto was old enough, he was ap 
prenticed to Mr. Landers, a cabinet-maker in 
Clark Street, but after a short while learned the- 
piano trade and became an employee in the fac 
tory of Steinway & Sons. Here his exceptional 
skill as an artisan, his quick perception and un 
faltering devotion to his duties soon attracted the 
attention of his employers and he rose rapidly to 
a position of trust and importance. But Mr. 
Wessell was too ambitious to remain long an em 
ployee and soon started with two friends the 

firm of Wessell, Nickel & Gross, manufacturers 
of piano actions. They began on a very modest 
scale, but with the firm determination to produce 
only the highest grade of goods and thereby se 
cure a reputation for superior work. This policy 
has been kept up to the present day and formed 
the foundation for the great and rapid success of 
the enterprise. Each member of the firm contrib 
uted his part to the success. Mr. Wessell had 
entire and absolute charge of the business de 
partment and the finances. Mr. Wessell often 
took delight, in later years, to tell his friends how 
in those early days he personally delivered the 
actions to their customers, and what a great day 
it was when they engaged their first porter and 
how later on a horse and wagon were bought 
and new machinery installed. In this connec 
tion it must be pointed out that the firm has nev 
er hesitated to introduce the latest and most im 
proved machinery whenever it appeared advis 
able in order to improve or enlarge the produc 
tion. As the firm grew in importance, the time 
and attention of Mr. Wessell were more and more 
devoted to visits to customers in the leading 
cities of the country. The business of the firm 
continued to grow until its products were known 
everywhere. Convincing proof of the keen in 
sight into the future possessed by the partners 
is furnished by the fact that they foresaw the 
future popularity of the upright piano as early as 
1875, when the firm issued a circular to the 
trade of which they ever afterward were justly 
proud, and which contained the following lines : 
"We beg to inform our customers in the trade 
that we are now, and have been since 1874, en 
gaged in making grand repetition and upright 
piano actions. As was predicted, the demand for 
the upright piano has had a steady increase and 
it will be the popular instrument in America, as 
it is and has been in Europe for many years." 
There is no question that the firm gave a great 
impetus to the introduction of upright pianos by 
making actions of the best quality and continually 
pushing them forward. Mr. Wessell was an in 
defatigable worker and his ambition to be always 
in the lead did not allow him to take much rest, 
but his efforts were crowned with success, for 
he reached high rank in his field and the boy 
who had begun life with not much more than his 
iron determination to arrive at the top, became a 
large manufacturer, esteemed by everybody with 
whom he came in contact and looked up to by 
thousands. His friends included men in all con 
ditions of rank in the musical industries and in 
business, commercial and financial circles, and 
his strength of character as well as his pro 
nounced individuality, attracted recognition and 






compelled admiration. He died on May 25, 1899, 
at his residence in New York City and left a 
widow and two sons, Arthur, who is a practising 
lawyer of prominence, and Fernando, who, dur 
ing the life of his father, received a thorough 
training in the factories of the firm and studied 
the science of making piano actions in every de 
tail. He is now in charge of the plant and the 
business of the firm is still continuing on the 
upward grade. 

ARTHUR L. WESSELL, secretary of the 
house of Wessell, Nickel & Gross, was born at 
New York City January 7, 1875. He was care 
fully educated at the public schools, Columbia 
Grammar School, Columbia College and the New 
York Law School. In 1899 he wa s admitted to 
the Bar, but has never followed the legal pro 
fession for a livelihood, preferring to devote his 
entire attention to the business of the extensive 
corporation with which he is connected. Mr. 
Wessell is a Republican in politics, but has never 
taken an active part in matters appertaining 
thereto, other than exercising his right of fran 
chise. He is a member of the New York Ath 
letic Club, the West Side Republican Club, Ger 
man Liederkranz and Columbia University Club. 
On September 25, 1905, he married Miss Edith 
Richards, to whom two children have been born, 
Benjamin and Edith. Mr. Wessell is a fine type 
of young America. He possesses a keen and ana 
lytical mind and his work has proven of marked 
value to the company of which he is the secretary. 

FERNANDO A. WESSELL, treasurer of the 
Wessell, Nickel & Gross Company, is a native 
of New York City, having been born in this city 
January 5, 1877. His education was obtained at 
the public schools. After leaving school he im 
mediately connected himself with the piano forte 
action house of. Wessell, Nickel & Gross and 
rapidly rose to the position he now holds. He is a 
member of the crack Seventh Regiment, N.G.S. 
N.Y., of the German Liederkranz and New York 
Athletic Club. Politically, he is a Republican, 
but has never held any public office. He mar 
ried Miss Elsie Cavalli on September 17, 1899, to 
whom one child has been born, Fernando Ar 
thur. Mr. Wessell has inherited that genius 
which has made the name so famous in the piano 
action industry and is devoted to his work for 
the development of the house with which he is 
so prominently connected. He possesses a ster 
ling character and has made a strong impress 
on the trade. 


SAMUEL WEIL, manufacturer, was born at 
Emmendingen in Baden, Germany, on April 24, 

1846. He was educated in the schools of his 
birthplace and came to America when only fifteen 
years old. Here he began in the way which has 
led so many able, ambitious and energetic men 
to success, making full use of the opportunities 
offered by American institutions. Systematically 
and persistently, though slowly at first, he forged 
ahead, until he was in the position to establish 
himself as a manufacturer of paste and sizing, 
building up a large and lucrative*"business and 
making for himself a reputation as an enterpris 
ing business man of sterling integrity. With 
larger means at his command and a surprisingly 
large fund of energy, he branched out and be 
came interested in financial enterprises and real 
estate operations. By this time his standing in 
the community had become such that his advice 
and help were eagerly sought by many and posi 
tions of honor were offered to him which he will 
ingly accepted, discharging his duties in a way 
calculated to still increase the esteem of his 
friends and fellow-citizens. He was president of 
the Temple Israel and is a director of the United 
Hebrew Charities, the Chatham National Bank, 
the Coal and Iron National Bank, the Mount 
Vernon Trust Co., the United Shoe Machinery 
Co. ; vice-president of the Hudson Realty Co., 
the Lexington Realty Co. and the Vinyah Park 
Realty Co. In a few decades the boy who landed 
in America with little more than the firm purpose 
to succeed and the strength that a good educa 
tion, a splendid character and an iron determina 
tion furnish, had become an influential citizen 
whose readiness to assist whenever called upon 
has brought him a host of friends and admirers. 
Mr. Weil was married on May 23, 1875, to Miss 
Ray Schulhofer and has three daughters and 
one son. 

JOHN MOSER of Brooklyn, N.Y., president 
of the Frank Brewing Company of Evergreen, 
L.I., is a member of the Brooklyn Arion Soci 
ety, the Hanover and Hamilton clubs, a director 
of the Broadway Bank, the German Savings 
Bank and the Academy of Music (Brooklyn, 

AUGUST P. WAGENER. There is not a 
member of the Bar who could more justly at 
tribute his success to his own unaided efforts 
than can August P. Wagener of 51 Chambers 
Street, New York City. His career has been 
eventful, prosperous and remarkably successful. 
Through his energy, industry and zeal he has 
risen to the foremost ranks of the Bar of New 
York City. His fame has been heralded abroad 
through this and other countries by the extraordi- 


nary attention that has been paid in the New 
York dailies to some of his many remarkable 
cases. The literal story of how Mr. Wagener 
made his way would form not only the basis of a 
novel but the book itself. It could not fail to 
stimulate any reader capable of conceiving ambi 
tion, to courageous, persevering, determined ac 
tion. August P. Wagener was born in Germany 
April 7, 1850, of German parentage and of a 
good family. An inheritance of $100,000 from 
his grandfather in Prussia, that he should have 
shared, was misspent by another and at the age 
of eleven years he determined to take care of 
himself and left home. In 1862 he came to New 
York, at the age of fifteen he enlisted in the 
old Twelfth Regiment Infantry, United States 
Regulars, where he served nine months, being a , 
stanch Republican and anxious to fight for the 
Union. After the war he managed the business 
of an importer of musical instruments, and event 
ually, about the year 1868, began the study of law 
and was admitted to practice by the Supreme 
Court of New York at the December term 
of the year 1870, since which time he has been 
in active practise in this city, a period 
of over thirty-six years. In preparing himself 
and his studies, he became temporarily blind 
studying with night classes at Cooper Union 
Institute. His affliction retarded his course, but 
could not alter his purpose. His practise has 
covered all cases imaginable, criminal as well as 
civil. His experience as a lawyer bordered on the 
marvelous and the history of his thirty-six years 
of practise would fill volumes. In 1887 he created 
a wide-spread sensation by proving that men and 
women were illegally held in the insane asylums ; 
he liberated about forty alleged insane persons. 
Most of these were without money, and all they 
could pay were their humble thanks ; he returned 
fathers to their children, husbands to their wives 
and wives to their husbands and children, many 
sad scenes, tears, anguish and agony did he wit 
ness and the expense of many of these cases he 
paid out of his own pocket. The whole press of 
New York came to his assistance and highly com 
mended him for his charitable acts and deeds. In 
October, 1887, the released persons gave him a 
public serenade and presented him with a reso 
lution, the stand of which was made by one of "~ 
the released alleged insane men who had been 
confined on Ward s Island for seventeen years, 
and who, on being released, found his wife and 
some of his children dead and buried, but still 
found several of them alive. This stand and set 
of resolutions is held in high esteem by him. As 
a lawyer concerning associations, clubs and lodges, 
he is considered one of the very best, having 

hundreds of cases in which he created either new 
law or raised novel and unique questions ; he is 
not only considered an expert in this line of busi 
ness, but has assisted many a widow to get her 
dues and also has pushed many associations out 
of existence that were not on a safe footing. 
During the year 1878 he defended forty-three 
different men, at different times, in the Criminal 
Branch of the United States Circuit Court, New 
York, before juries, and succeeded in having 
forty men, charged with counterfeiting or pass 
ing counterfeit money, acquitted of the other 
three; one was pardoned, one served six months 
and one two years. A remarkable case tried by 
him was the case brought by the Countess Ma 
rie de Pruschoff, the wife of a Russian Prince, 
to recover a painting by Murillo, known as 
"The Flagellation of Christ," valued at one 
hundred and fifty thousand dollars, which she 
had brought to this country from Paris, where 
she had been the sensation of her time. This pic 
ture had been taken from a Spanish Convent 
when the French occupied Spain, and it had come 
into the hands of the Countess in Paris. This 
case created wide-spread sensation. In the year 
1882 he brought a writ of habeas corpus on be 
half of Savillar Downing to recover her child; 
Mrs. Downing claiming that she had, as she sup 
posed, buried her child, but years afterwards dis 
covered and claimed a child known as Carlo 
Wilson as her own and disinterring the buried 
child, discovered that it was not her own but a 
different and older child. The entire press of 
the country had for many months reported this 
case and were occupied by it. The cases against 
a number of usurers who charged two hundred 
to three hundred per cent on loans on furniture 
to poor people were another sensation, he win 
ning over three hundred of these cases for the 
poor victims of Shylock money lenders on chattel 
mortgages, which were declared illegal by the 
courts and most of the usurers he drove out of 
the business. The habeas corpus case of Carl 
Werner, whom he had brought from Sing Sing 
Staters Prison to this city, and in which he ex 
posed to the public the cruelty practised on pris 
oners in the prison, viz. : the dark cell, hanging 
up of prisoners in handcuffs, flogging and de 
priving them of eating, etc. In the Congressional 
investigation of 1888 in this city he exposed the 
contract system of bringing musicians to America 
under contract to play in street bands and to be 
returned to Germany at the end of contract and 
the bringing over of criminals ; as a result laws 
have been enacted prohibiting their being im 
ported. He also represented the New York City 
street bands, so imported, before the Board of 






Aldermen investigation and succeeded in having 
ordinances passed prohibiting the playing of 
bands in the streets of New York. An 
other sensation was created at the time that 
the Chicago anarchists, who were to be hung for 
the killing of the police at the Hay -Market in 
Chicago, 111., when he produced the confession 
of a firebug then in State s Prison at Sing 
Sing, claiming that a person not arrested or con 
victed had thrown the bomb; that the men con 
victed were innocent. The entire press of the 
United States backed up this sensation and were 
kept busy by it for weeks after that. In 1886 
he was the Republican candidate for Congress in 
the Ninth Congressional District in New York, 
running against S. S. Cox (Sunset Cox), and al 
though only four days in the field was only de 
feated by a very small majority. As a soldier, 
in addition to being a private in the Twelfth 
Regiment Regulars, as aforesaid, he served in 
the old Fifth Regiment as a private, in the Fifty- 
fifth Regiment as a lieutenant, and in the Elev 
enth Regiment, National Guards of the state of 
New York, as adjutant. The New York press 
has at different times given his cases unlimited 
space, the Herald giving the Downing case a 
page ; on other cases the Sun bestowed a page 
and the Commercial Advertiser bestowed a page 
at the time of its special number in describing 
this career worthy to be copied; the New York 
Journal long afterwards gave a whole front page 
to the Chicago anarchistic matter. 

JOHN BORKEL. Of the many men that have 
settled on the hospitable shores of this great 
and free country, few have achieved success and 
distinction in the same amount of time in his line 
of business, as a metal worker, as Mr. John Bor- 
kel, whose place of business is located on the 
corner of Houston and Mulberry Streets in this 
city. After receiving his education in Germany 
he sailed for this country, way back in the 503, 
arriving here laden with ambition and a determi 
nation to succeed; to-day he can boast of being 
very comfortable, and can proudly point to a 
record of honesty, integrity and usefulness. Mr. 
Borkel was born February 14, 1844, in the beau 
tiful city of Alzey, Germany, and was educated 
at the Gymnasium, from which he graduated in 
1858. On his arrival here, during the same year, 
Mr. Borkel engaged as a metal worker in the 
large shipyards and right after the war, when 
ship-building ceased in New York, he turned 
his attention to making metal cornices. As such 
he became foreman for Messrs. Connelly & Wil 
son at No. 46 Rose Street, this being one of 
the most prominent firms in that line in those 

days. In 1868 he succeeded the above firm, hav 
ing worked his way up to the highest position on 
account of his ability, an achievement that any 
man might be proud of on account of the high 
standing of the firm. From the time he became 
the possessor of the firm s cornice works he great 
ly improved the mode of manufacturing cornice 
and other ornamental work, and introduced prin 
cipally copper for ornamentation of first-class res 
idences, warehouses and churches. The copper 
and bronze work on the Vanderbilt buildings, Fif 
ty-first Street and Fifth Avenue and Fifty- 
fourth Street and Fifth Avenue, the large mer 
cantile buildings corner Waverly Place and 
Broadway, and Nineteenth Street and Fourth 
Avenue, also the Germania Bank Buildings are 
a few of the places in this large city that contain 
samples of his original designs in copper work. 
His good work became known and talked about 
all over the country, and to-day the John Bor 
kel concern is one of the best known in the trade. 
And the concern that was started in a modest 
way in 1835, stands out alone for its good work 
and straightforward business methods. The Lor- 
illard estate and the Horace S. Ely estate, and 
many of the large trust companies are a few of 
the names he carries on his books and whose 
work he has done for the past thirty-nine years. 
In politics Mr. Borkel has always been a stanch 
Republican. He was president of the town com 
mittee at Rutherford, N.J., for two years. He 
is a member of Neptune Lodge No. 317, F. & 
A.M. ; a member of the Arion and Beethoven 
Singing Societies ; a director of St. George Me 
chanical School and of the Mechanics and 
Tradesmen s Association. He has served on 
many committees of various organizations. Mr. 
Borkel has two children; George and Elizabeth. 
He worships with his family at the Lutheran 

JOHN STENECK, banker, was born at Ham- 
bergen in the province of Hanover, Germany, on 
May 24, 1846, and received his education in the 
town school of his birthplace. He went into busi 
ness at an early age and came to America in 
1866, settling at Hoboken. Here he established 
himself as banker and steamship agent as mem 
ber of the firm of Meyer & Steneck, and met 
with decided- success. His reputation as a finan 
cier of more than ordinary ability, sterling integ 
rity and foresightedness grew constantly, and 
many offers were made to him to take an inter 
est in other financial institutions. He is now a 
director of the First National Bank and the Ho 
boken Bank for Savings at Hoboken, N.J. An 
independent Democrat in politics, he has never 


aspired to public office, although his standing in 
the community is such that he could easily se 
cure political preferment. Mr. Steneck is a 
member of the Lutheran Church, the German 
Club of Hoboken and a Mason. On August 22, 
1876, he was married to Miss Emma Schmittmann 
and had six children, of whom four are living. 

BERNARD KARSCH, the well-known jeweler 
of Eighth Avenue, is a New Yorker by birth and 
was born in William Street of German parents, 
October 26, 1843. He was educated in the pub 
lic schools of this city and has always resided 
here. His father, John Karsch, was prominent 
in German circles for many years and conducted 
a dry goods business on Eighth Avenue, near 
Thirty-sixth Street. He was born in Rohrbach, 
Rhein Pfalz, Germany, February 3, 1816, and em- 
migrated to America in 1839, landing in New 
York City, where he began his career as a tailor, 
working hard and saving his earnings until he 
had accumulated enough capital to start in 
business for himself. He opened a tailoring es 
tablishment on Eighth Avenue, which he con 
ducted for several years, and then went into the 
dry goods business, becoming one of the success 
ful men in that line of trade. Like the Astors 
and other early settlers he began to invest in 
real estate. His first purchase was a lot on Eighth 
Avenue, near Thirty-sixth Street, for which he 
paid, in 1849, seventeen hundred dollars, and built 
a house costing three thousand dollars. The same 
property sold two years ago for forty-five thou 
sand dollars, which shows the increase of values 
in New York and the money that has been made 
in real estate by our early residents. Mr. Karsch 
was a devout Lutheran and was one of the 
founders of St. Luke s Lutheran Church on West 
Forty-second Street, being also a trustee up to 
the time of his death, which occurred in Janu 
ary, 1890. He was charitable and kind to all 
who needed assistance and gave liberally of his 
fortune to the Lutheran Church and orphan asy 
lum. He was a type of the old school of success 
ful upright merchants who are rapidly passing 
away. In 1843 he married Miss Barbara Kirsch- 
mann of Schillerdorf, near Strassburg, Alsace. 
The union was blessed with a family of six sons, 
one of which died in infancy; the remaining five 
boys are all well at present and residing in New 
York. Their names are : Bernard, Edward, John 
M., Henry and George. All these sons became 
successful business men in New York City. The 
subject of this biographical sketch is a worthy 
son of a worthy sire. Early in life he entered 
as an apprentice the old, well-known jewelry 
house of Ball, Black & Company which was situ 

ated in those days at the corner of Broadway and 
Prince Street, where he remained for several 
years ; he completed his apprenticeship as a 
watch-maker and later became a journeyman in 
a Maiden Lane jewelry establishment. In 1869, 
with the very modest capital of three hundred 
dollars, he started in the jewelry business on his 
own account at 635 Eighth Avenue, where he was 
successful and where he remained for twenty-five 
years. Many years ago he bought the property 
at 641 Eighth Avenue, corner Forty-first Street, 
intending some day to remove his business there 
and make the place his future home, which he 
did in 1894. His establishment is one of the 
finest retail jewelry houses in New York City. 
Mr. Karsch retired from active business during 
the year 1907, his two sons becoming his 
successors. For many years Mr. Karsch has 
been held in high esteem by his business asso 
ciates and has for a long time filled the respon 
sible position of treasurer of the Jewelers Alli 
ance and is also a member of the executive board 
of the Jewelers League. He is a trustee of the 
Franklin Savings Bank and is a member of the 
advisory board of the Corn Exchange Bank 
(Forty-second Street branch). He is a promi 
nent member of the Liederkranz Society, is also 
a member of Copestone Lodge No. 641, F. & 
A.M. In 1867 he was united in marriage to Miss 
Kathrine Alheit of New York. The union has 
been blessed with six children, three of whom 
are deceased; the living children are Frederick 
W. and John H., who have succeeded him in busi 
ness, and his only daughter, Susan, who is the 
wife of J. Louis Schaefer, vice-president and 
treasurer of the famous house of William R. 
Grace & Company. Mr. Karsch retires from ac 
tive business cares in splendid health and spirits 
and carries with him the confidence and esteem 
of his old business associates as well as a large 
circle of personal friends, both in this country 
and Europe. 

PHILIP J. SCHMIDT, who represents the 
Thirty-third District of New York County in the 
New York State Assembly, is a son of German 
parents who came to America in the early fifties. 
He was born in the city of New York in the 
y^ar 1870, where he received his education in the 
public schools, graduating at the age of fourteen 
years. He then sought and obtained employment 
with a mercantile concern, by which he was em 
ployed for about three years. In the latter part 
of 1887 he engaged in the general insurance bro 
kerage business as a clerk, in which position he 
remained until August i, 1892, when he entered 
the employ of William Sohmer in the same line 






of business and with whom he remained until 
the end of April, 1899. At this time came the 
formation of the firm of William Sohmer, Jr., & 
Co., of which he was made a junior member. Mr. 
Schmidt has devoted a great deal of study to the 
social problems of the day and took a great deal 
of interest in local politics from the time that he 
reached his majority. Consequently he became 
popular in social and political circles and was 
nominated by the Democratic party and the In 
dependence League jointly, in 1906, to represent 
his locality in the State Assembly. Mr. Schmidt 
was elected, receiving 7,013 votes, against 2,047 
for his opponent. Speaker Wadsworth, early in 
the session of 1907, appointed Assemblyman 
Schmidt a member of the following committees : 
Insurance, fisheries and game. During his first 
term the young assemblyman introduced and se 
cured the passage of some important changes in 
the charter of the city of New York which have 
worked a great benefit to the municipality. 

CHARLES FROEB, merchant, was born at 
Waechtersbach in Hessen-Xassau, Germany, on 
November 27, 1857, and received his education in 
the schools of his birthplace and of Frankfurt- 
on-the-Main, where he graduated in 1871. He 
came to America with his parents when still in 
his teens and settled first in New York City and 
later in Brooklyn. Here he supplemented the 
education he had received in his native country 
by attending the evening schools. He started in 
business at an early age as clerk in a wholesale 
liquor house in Murray Street, New York City, 
where he remained until 1883. By that time he 
had fully mastered the business and felt confident 
of his ability to attain success by his own efforts. 
He had already acquired a reputation by his 
thorough knowledge of his trade and his strict 
integrity, and when he decided to begin business 
on his own account, his success seemed assured. 
Indomitable energy and ambition enabled him to 
come to the front rapidly and his firm does at 
present, after twenty-five years of existence, a 
yearly business of over three-quarter million dol 
lars. He took great care to educate his sons to 
follow in his footsteps and to become good busi 
ness men and they now assist him in the manage 
ment of the concern that has assumed such large 
dimensions. Mr. Froeb is well and favorably 
known as a man who has become thoroughly 
Americanized in the best sense of the word, but 
retains a deep-rooted love for the Fatherland, 
and appreciation for the many qualities which 
have made German immigration of such great 
value to this country. In every movement car 
ried on by German organizations to preserve the 

German language, to foster the love for and 
knowledge of music, and to spread the interest 
in the physical and mental welfare of the peo 
ple, he has taken an active and prominent part. 
A public-spirited citizen, who never hesitates 
to come to the front with advice and assistance 
when important questions are at issue, his popu 
larity and influence are deservedly large. A 
Democrat in politics, Mr. Froeb has never ac 
cepted public office, although important positions 
were repeatedly offered to him, but followed the 
call of his party when, in 1908, he was selected 
as one of the electors-at-large for the state of 
New York. He is one of those Germans whose 
success so forcibly illustrates the opportunities 
furnished by this country to the man whose char 
acter and ability, coupled with firm determination 
and restless ambition, raise him to the highest 
point no matter how difficult the start may be. 
He is a member of the Brooklyn Arion, of which 
he was president for several terms ; the Brook 
lyn Turn Verein and the Hanover Club; a trus 
tee and second vice-president of the German Sav 
ings Bank of Brooklyn, a director of the Man 
ufacturers National Bank of Brooklyn and pres 
ident of the Froeb Company of 66 Broad Street, 
New York City. In December, 1880, Mr. Froeb 
was married to Miss Alma Kirchuebel of Brook 
lyn and had five sons, of whom Augustus C., 
Charles, Jr., Frank and Herman are alive. 

GEORGE H. STEIL, merchant, mayor of the 
city of Hoboken, was born at Hoboken, N.J., 
on March 29, 1861, as the son of German par 
ents. He received his education in the public 
schools and under private tutors and graduated 
at the early age of fifteen, whereupon he imme 
diately engaged in mercantile business. His force 
ful character and unusual ability carried him rap 
idly to the front, and simultaneously with the 
growth of his business interests his influence 
and popularity increased. Of a genial disposi 
tion, of sterling integrity and strict but fair in 
his business dealings, and at the same time fond 
of social diversions, Mr. Steil was ere long one 
of the best and most favorably known citizens of 
Hoboken. As president of the Nehr Sanitary 
Bed Association, vice-president of the Hoboken 
and New Jersey Crematory and representative of 
the Consumers Park Brewing Co., his business 
activity was extensive and became constantly 
more profitable. It did not, however, suffice for 
the energy and vitality of a man like Mr. Steil, 
and with the patriotic desire to do his full duty 
as a citizen, he took an active part in the discus 
sion of public affairs. His many excellent quali 
fications were quickly recognized and in 1893 he 


was elected a member of the Board of Educa 
tion which was followed by his election to the 
City Council, where he served for ten years as 
representative of the Fifth Ward, three years as 
a chairman of the body. In 1905 he was elected 
mayor of Hoboken on the Democratic ticket by a 
majority of over one thousand votes and reelect- 
ed on the citizen ticket in 1907, his majority be 
ing almost twice as large. Mr. Steil is president 
of the Free Public Library and of the Police 
Board and a member of the Hoboken Cemetery 
Board and Industrial School Board. He be 
longs to many social, political and fraternal soci 
eties, among them Euclid Lodge 136, F. & A.M., 
Hoboken Lodge of Elks No. 74, Royal Arcanum 
99, Order of Eagles, Atlantic Boat Club, Ger- 
mania Riding Club, Friday Night Club, Remsen 
Club, Robert Davis Association of Jersey City 
and Bruenning Bowling Club, and is president of 
the Consumers Park Bowling Club. Mr. Steil 
married Miss Margaret Sanderson Daniels of 
New Orleans in September, 1889, and has three 

HENRY FELDMANN was born at Butzbach 
in the Grand Duchy of Hesse on February 12, 
1842. He received a first class education in the 
excellent public schools and private academy of 
his birthplace. He also learned the trade of a 
baker from his father, but as he was always an 
ambitious student, he had soon mastered the 
French and English languages thoroughly, also 
stenography, so that he was engaged by a lawyer s 
firm in Giessen to put down the court proceedings 
in stenography. In order to perfect himself in 
his profession, he followed the custom of that 
time and wandered through Germany, France and 
Switzerland. He arrived in America January 14, 
1868. Here Mr. Feldmann found employment 
with General Franz Siegel, who was New York 
manager of the Great Western Life Insurance 
Company, acting as his agent and private secre 
tary. Before a year had passed, Mr. Feldmann 
had secured the agency of a fire insurance com 
pany, and started in business for himself. Since 
1878 he has been branch manager of the Royal 
Insurance Company under the firm name of Hen 
ry Feldmann & Son, at 103 Second Avenue, and 
lately added a new branch office at One Hundred 
and Forty-ninth Street and Third Avenue, Bronx. 
He is widely known in German circles partly 
through his activity in the insurance business, in 
no less degree through his participation in social 
life, above all, however, in his endeavor to spread 
and advance the German language, German ideals 
and German education. Mr. Feldmann is a mem 
ber of the Arion and Beethooven Singing Societies 

and of several bowling clubs; honorary president 
of the United Bowling Clubs of New York and 
honorary member of the Federation of Bowling 
Clubs of Germany and of the Bowling Clubs of 
Berlin. Bowling is his hobby and he arranged 
the excursions of American Bowlers to the Ger 
man Bowling Tournaments at Hanover in 1891 
and at Solingen in 1904. It may be said, too, that 
he has taken an active interest in every movement 
inaugurated by the German-Americans of this city 
and vicinity to further and uphold a good cause 
and is treasurer of the German Peace Society of 
New York and holds the position of first vice- 
president of the United German Societies of New 
York. On November 19, 1869, Mr. and Mrs. Feld 
mann, who had known each other from infancy, 
were married and their happy family life was 
blessed with ten children; seven are alive, one 
son, who is associated in business with his father, 
and six daughters, of whom five are married. Al 
though Mr. Feldmann has been so successful 
financially and socially, he is happiest when he can 
assemble his children and grandchildren around 
his table and preside at the family gathering, com 
posed of twenty-two persons. 

JOHN REISENWEBER was born in Brook 
lyn on October 7, 1851, as the son of German 
parents who had emigrated to America. When 
he was three years old his parents removed to 
New York City and sent the boy to Public School 
No. 17 in West Forty-seventh Street, where he 
received his education. After leaving school, Mr. 
Reisenweber engaged in the liquor and restaurant 
business and conducted it so successfully that the 
modest establishment on Eighth Avenue near the 
Columbus Circle under his hands grew into one 
of the showplaces of the city. A shrewd business 
man and a genial host, he made good use of the 
opportunities arising from the growth of the city, 
increased his facilities, improved the establish 
ment from year to year, and finally erected a 
magnificent building where a few decades ago a 
one-story structure had been sufficient for the 
accommodation of his guests. His case is one of 
those where the ascent to a position of import 
ance in the community has been visible to all who 
followed his career. Strict and fair in his deal 
ings, endowed with sound judgment and an un 
usually large fund of common sense, charitable 
and always ready to help where assistance is 
needed, Mr. Reisenweber has retained the same 
amiable and unassuming traits which character 
ized him at the beginning of his career. His pop 
ularity in the neighborhood where he has lived 
practically all his life is well known and he might 
have secured almost any public office in the gift 






of the people if he had been so inclined. He 
steadfastly refused all offers of this kind, but has 
always taken much interest in public affairs and 
politics, serving as the Republican leader of his 
district for many years and using his power for 
the benefit of his constituents. In 1898 he be 
came president of the Excelsior Brewing Com 
pany and devoted much time and energy to the 
development of this enterprise, having found an 
able and trustworthy assistant and manager of 
the hotel in the person of his son-in-law, Mr. 
Fischer. Mr. Reisenweber is a member of the 
West Side Republican Club, the New York Ath 
letic Club, the Arion and the German Liederkranz. 
He married on December 19, 1871, Miss Freder- 
ica Braun. Of his five children, Mrs. Emma R. 
Fischer and Mrs. Elizabeth R. Saltzsieder are 
living, while John Reisenweber, Mrs. Barbara R. 
Fischer and Theresa Reisenweber are dead. 

RUDOLPH OSCAR KRAUSE, druggist, was 
born at Bromberg in Germany on February 8, 
1860, and educated in the Real gymnasium of his 
native city. He served as one year s volunteer 
in the Twenty-first Regiment of Infantry and 
learned the drug trade, studying the profession 
of a pharmacist with such success that he passed 
the state examination with high honors. The 
field for the practise of his profession in Ger 
many being limited, because the Government pro 
hibits the establishment of pharmacies beyond a 
fixed number, he came to America in 1881, set 
tling in New York. His success was rapid, for 
besides mastering his profession to the fullest 
extent, he has the happy gift of making friends 
quickly. Mr. Krause takes a deep interest in lit 
erature and the arts, is exceptionally well read 
and devotes a considerable part of his time to the 
study of educational questions. He is a mem 
ber of the local school board of the Tenth Dis 
trict and has made a splendid record in this ca 
pacity. For three years he was president of the 
New York Consolidated Drug Company, and is 
a member of the German Apothecaries Associ 
ation, as well as a Mason of Solon Lodge. He 
married on July 14, 1881, Miss Olga Stuber and 
has six children. 

CARL BERGER, superintendent of buildings 
for the borough of Queens, New York City, also 
a skilled architect by profession, is a native of 
Germany, having been born there on September 
27, 1869. Leaving the Fatherland while a young 
man, he came to America, locating at Jersey 
City, N.J., where he obtained his primary edu 
cation in the public schools and graduating from 
the high school of that city with high honors. 

Later he took up a course of study at the Evening 
High School in New York City. After leaving 
school, Mr. Berger decided to make architecture 
his life profession; placing himself under capa 
ble tutors and by diligent application he soon 
ranked among the foremost in his line. Having 
a thorough knowledge of everything pertaining 
thereto, the selection of him for the position he 
now fills was a wise one. Prior to his appoint 
ment to the office of superintendent of buildings, 
Mr. Berger, from 1902 to 1906, was inspector of 
tenements and plan examiner in the Tenement 
House Department. He stood first in a list of 
over twelve hundred applicants admitted to ex 
amination. In conducting the affairs connected 
with the administration of his office, civility and 
courteous treatment are factors which are a part 
of Mr. Berger s everyday life. Those who know 
and speak of him have nothing but good words 
to sound his praise. Mr. Berger is a consistent 
Democrat in politics and is a member of the 
Second Ward Democratic Organization. He is 
also a member of Mechanics Lodge, F. & A.M. 
of Brooklyn. He has resided in the borough of 
Queens, New York City, since 1894. His reputa 
tion as a public and private citizen is and has 
always been above reproach. He is largely a 
self-made man and one whom not only German- 
Americans are proud to acknowledge, but fellow 
men of the country of his adoption as well. 

was born at Brooklyn, N.Y., October i, 1859, the 
second son of William Stuhr, who was for many 
years a member of the Board of Freeholders of 
Hudson County, N.J. His parents, removing to 
Hoboken the following year, he received his early 
education at the Hoboken Academy and subse 
quently studied four years in Europe. On his re 
turn he entered the University of New York and 
was graduated therefrom with the degree of 
LL.B. in 1879. He was admitted to the Bar of 
New Jersey as attorney November 7, 1880, and 
as counselor three years later. Mr. Stuhr was 
appointed Corporation Counsel of the city of 
Hoboken in 1883 and reappointed the following 
year. In May, 1888, he was appointed Assistant 
Counsel to the Board of Freeholders of Hudson 
County and upon completing the work in hand, 
resigned September first of that year, believing 
the further continuance of that office unneces 
sary and a useless expense to the county. He 
then devoted himself to his law practise. His 
genial disposition, together with his ability and 
success, made him hosts of friends and he was 
not permitted to live long in retirement. In June, 
1889, he was elected chairman of the Jeffersonian 


Democracy of Hudson County and in the fall of 
that year was nominated by them for State Sen 
ator of the county; his nomination was also en 
dorsed by the Republican party. After a bitter 
contest, the regular Democratic candidate, Ed 
ward F. McDonald, was declared elected and took 
his seat at the organization of the Senate of New 
Jersey in January, 1890. Mr. Stuhr contested 
the seat, and being successful was awarded the 
same by vote of the Senate, and he held it during 
the remainder of the term. As a result of the 
testimony taken at the time more than fifty elec 
tion officers were indicted by the Grand Jury, 
and of that number forty were tried and convict 
ed. In 1891 the Democrats, gaining control of 
the Senate, unseated Senator Stuhr. Mr. Stuhr 
was married on February 18, 1886, to Marietta, 
daughter of Thomas Miller, Esq., president of 
the New York Cement Company, and who resides 
at Flushing, L.I. His wife was also a near rela 
tive of General Pettigrew, who was at one time 
governor of South Carolina. Mr. Stuhr is iden 
tified with a number of social, fraternal and be 
nevolent societies in New Jersey. 

ROBERT F. WAGNER, lawyer, was born in 
Germany on June 8, 1878, and came to America 
with his parents when nine years of age. He re 
ceived his education in the public schools and 
earned enough money by selling newspapers to 
support himself until he entered the College of 
the City of New York, where he paid his way by 
tutoring until he finished his course as the orator 
of the class of 1898. He studied law at the New 
York Law School, graduating in 1900. Here 
again he won renown as the best debater in the 
class. Since then Mr. Wagner has been engaged 
in the practise of law and has rapidly risen to 
the front, being entrusted with many large and 
important cases. A Democrat in politics, he has 
been elected three times to the Assembly with 
large majorities. His record as a legislator is 
especially fine and he was identified with many of 
the most important measures passed during his 
term. He was active and instrumental in securing 
the support of his party for the investigation of 
the railroads in New York City, and the Public 
Utilities bill. His efforts to secure the passage 
of a bill fixing a five-cent fare to Coney Island 
on all street railroads have been unceasing and 
no setback or defeat could discourage or induce 
him to discontinue his fight for this measure. Mr. 
Wagner is called the father of this bill and the 
energy with which he has pushed it and relent 
lessly fought its foes has won for him the es 
teem of his associates as well as of the people at 
large. He is a member of the Algonquin and 

Democratic clubs, German Liederkranz, Arion, 
the Order of Elks and of many other social, char 
itable and benevolent associations. 

HERMAN RIXGE was born at Metropolitan, 
N.Y. He received his rudimentary education in 
the public schools and was graduated from the 
Boys High School, Brooklyn, with high honors. 
Mr. Ringe has practically resided in the Borough 
of Queens, New York City, his entire life, where 
he is popular and enjoys a wide acquaintance. 
Prior to his engaging in the public affairs of his 
borough, he was for many years a successful 
operator in the real estate and building world. 
Early in life he espoused the principles of the 
Democratic party, of which he has always been 
an ardent supporter, and in whose councils he 
stands high. He has held a number of prominent 
positions under the borough government of 
Queens, prominent among which are secretary 
of the borough, chief clerk in the highway de 
partment, the latter position of which he is at 
present the incumbent. He is chief of the 
Newtown Fire Department, a member of the 
Second Ward Democratic Association, of the 
Foresters, Royal Arcanum, Elks, Eagles and of 
F. & A.M., Kismet Temple. Mr. Ringe was uni 
ted in marriage on March 5, 1896, to Miss Carrie 
M. Keller; the children born to the union are 
Herman, Jr., and Lester C., both of whom are 
living. Mr. Ringe is a man of wide experience, 
possessing an unimpeachable reputation and has 
the confidence and esteem of the entire commu 
nity in which he resides. 

CARL ORDEMANN, deceased, was born at 
Hanover, Germany, April 19, 1854, where he at 
tended school, obtaining his rudimentary edu 
cation. He completed his studies under the 
tutorship of his father, who was a well known 
educator of Hanover, as well as a principal in 
the local public schools. After securing his edu 
cation and serving his time in the army, young 
Ordemann decided to go out into the world to 
earn his livelihood. He went to Bremen where 
he obtained a clerkship, and at the age of twen 
ty-five years he came to America and settled at 
New York City, where he resided up to the time 
"of his death. His first position obtained in New 
York was in a grocery store. He saved money 
and rapidly acquired a good knowledge of the 
English language. Later, he opened a wholesale 
and retail liquor store on his own account in 
which he met with great success. After conduct 
ing stores in various sections of New York City, 
he retired from active business in 1890. Mr. 
Ordemann was a member of the Lutheran 






Church, the Masonic Order, the Liederkranz, 
the Friday Bowling Club and the Liquor Deal 
ers Association. On March 14, 1875, he was 
united in marriage with Miss Frederica Metz- 
ner, daughter of Carl Metzner of Hanover, Ger 
many. One child, a daughter, Dorothy, was born 
to the union. Mr. Ordemann was a man who 
was fond of travel, art, literature and athletics, 
pastimes in which his wife also heartily joined 
him. He, with his family, annually made tours 
of Europe. Mr. Ordemann was extremely fond 
of horse-back riding, a form of exercise in which 
both he and his wife took much pleasure. He 
was a man of great force of character, modest 
and retiring in disposition. He had friends 
whose numbers were legion, and to whom he al 
ways remained true. His death occurred in 
1906, he being survived by his widow and daugh 
ter, who still reside in the beautiful home pre 
pared by Mr. Ordemann at No. 169 West Eighty- 
fifth Street, New York City. \- 

JONAS WEIL. Among the citizens of New 
York who devote a large part of their time and 
means to practical philanthropy, few are better 
known, and none stands higher, than Jonas 
Weil, senior member of the real estate firm of 
Weil & Mayer. His gifts are so large, numer 
ous and well bestowed that he may be justly 
called one of the greatest benefactors of his time. 
Mr. Weil was born at Emmendingen in Baden, 
Germany, and came to America in 1861. His 
father, Ephraim Weil, who was highly respected 
in the community for his integrity, religious fer 
vor and splendid character, had given the son a 
good education, and firmly planted in his mind 
the principles he believed in and practised with 
so much fidelity. Young Weil first engaged in 
packing and live stock business and subsequently 
in real estate operations. Applying to his busi 
ness life the teachings he had received in his 
youth, he quickly won the esteem and confidence 
of all he came in contact with, and prospered 
steadily. And as soon as his means permitted it, 
he began to contribute large sums to charities of 
all kinds. With increasing prosperity his dona 
tions grew in size and number, and to-day there 
is practically no deserving charity in this city 
and even beyond its confines whose list of donors 
does not contain the name of Jonas Weil. All 
he asks is that the object is worthy and in the 
interest of the needy and the thought never arises 
in him to make a difference between Jew or 
Christian. Every year he sends large sums to 
the mayor of his native town and to the president 
of the Jewish congregation at Emmendingen. 
He has received innumerable resolutions of 

thanks, executed with much skill, and was made 
an honorary citizen of Emmendingen. To per 
petuate the memory of his father, he erected a 
temple in East Sixty-seventh Street, between Lex 
ington and Third Avenues which bears his name 
and is one of the finest edifices of its kind in New 
York. With this place of worship a Hebrew free 
school is connected, seating about two hundred 
and fifty pupils, many of them poor, but all well 
taken care of. It has become the center around 
which the Jewish orthodox movements in the 
upper part of the city gravitate. Some time ago 
Mr. Weil contributed, together with his brother, 
Samuel Weil, and his brother-in-law, Ferdinand 
Sulzberger, a considerable part of the money 
required for the foundation of an orphan asylum 
in Baden. His highest ambition and fondest 
hopes have been realized in the founding of the 
Lebanon Hospital in New York City, for which 
he contributed an initial donation of ten thousand 
dollars in money, as well as land valued at fifteen 
thousand dollars, upon which the training school 
for nurses has been erected. This building is 
known as one of the finest of its kind, is equipped 
with the most modern improvements science has 
invented, and contains forty-five rooms, a large 
hall for lectures and other accommodations. In 
addition Mr. Weil devotes his undivided atten 
tion and energy to soliciting outside aid for the 
welfare and maintenance of the institution which 
has become a life work with him and of which 
he is the president. He is also president of the 
Zichren Ephraim Temple. His home in East 
Seventy-fifth Street, near Madison Avenue, con 
tains many treasures of the kind appealing to the 
highly cultured mind and is the center of an ideal 
family life. Mr. Weil s two sons, Benjamin J., 
and Lewis V., follow in the footsteps of the 
father, both being successful business men of 
exceptonal ability and deeply interested in char 
itable work. 

GERHARD H. MENNEN (deceased) was 
born at Vegesack, near Bremen, on July 13, 1856, 
and received his early education in the Latin 
school and Gymnasium of Bremen. He left 
school when fifteen years of age and one year 
later (1872) came to the United States with his 
parents. His knowledge of the English language 
was limited, but he was not long in finding em 
ployment. He held odd positions in New York 
City and Hoboken, N.J., during the first year in 
this country. When at the age of seventeen he 
obtained a position with a New York druggist. 
This was the beginning of his subsequent career. 
The evening hours were devoted to diligent study 
along the lines he had mapped out for himself, 


and his efforts were rewarded on February 3, 
1875, when he received h : s diploma and was grad 
uated from the College of Pharmacy. Mr. Men- 
nen then entered the employ of a retail drug 
gist at Newark, N.J., and later was associated 
with Albert Brandt of the same city. In Feb 
ruary, 1879, he established a retail pharmacy of 
his own at Newark. His genius now asserted 
itself. The business prospered and Mr. Mennen 
used his gifts and opportunities to the fullest 
extent. Devoting himself strictly to his business, 
he used every moment of leisure to experiments, 
and long before he became famous through the 
talcum powder business which assumed such gi 
gantic proportions, he placed on the market in 
1880 the celebrated "Mennen Corn Killer" that 
quickly became popular on account of its effi 
ciency and is to-day considered one of the best 
remedies for the purpose it was intended for. 
The enterprise to which he owes his fortune, 
however, is the manufacture of talcum powder 
which grew from a very small beginning in 1890 
to the enormous industry of to-day. After many 
investigations and experiments, Mr. Mennen was 
convinced that the powder compounded from his 
own formula had reached a grade of perfection 
higher than any similar article on the market, and 
he introduced it to the trade, first in Newark, 
where it was manufactured, and gradually extend 
ing the sale all over the civilized world. This was 
not accomplished at once, for Mr. Mennen was 
careful to convince himself first of the merits of 
his powder, in which he indeed firmly believed, 
but which he decided to test thoroughly by 
watching the demand following the first sales. 
As soon as the facts had proven that the public 
not only appreciated the quality of the article 
but that the powder answered the most rigid 
requirements, Mr. Mennen began to advertise 
on a large scale. He became one of the largest 
advertisers in the country, and at the time of 
his death in 1902 his advertising account amount 
ed annually to over $250,000. To-day it is pro 
portionately greater. In street cars, in the cars 
of the elevated and other railroads, steamships, 
stations, newspapers and magazines, in fact in 
every place where people could see it, the words 
that are now known in every household : "Men- 
nen s Talcum Powder" were displayed. In an * 
article of the National Advertiser it was stated 
that he was not only one of the most skillful 
but also one of the most successful advertisers 
in the country. Wherever he saw an opportunity 
to extend his business, he acted with promptness 
and liberality, and his advertisements not only 
appeared in medical, fashion, musical and the 
atrical publications and all the modern maga 

zines, but also in every conceivable periodical. 
And when he believed that results would follow, 
the price did not affect him, as long as it ap 
peared to be in proportion to the returns. He has 
been known to pay as much as four thousand 
dollars for one page. His ideas can best be un 
derstood by referring to his own words : "My 
advertising bills amount to over $13,000 a week 
and are steadily increasing; but my business is 
also increasing. This was a fact; the volume of 
business transacted by him grew with every year 
of his life, and in the year preceding his death 
it was larger than ever before. The talcum pow 
der was used by the United States Government 
during the Spanish War. It was used at the 
military posts and hospitals in this country and 
sent to Cuba, Porto Rico and the Philippines. 
To-day the company enjoy this patronage. Mr. 
Mennen was a member of many social organi 
zations, was a Mason, and in politics a Repub 
lican, but never radical in his opinions. Always 
broad and liberal in his views, progressive and 
enterprising, he remained to his end, although 
possessing a fortune exceeding a million dollars, 
the same earnest, straightforward, simple man he 
had been when struggling for a modest living. He 
was one of the men who, in this age of large 
fortunes built up by exceptional intellectual en 
ergy, persistence and courage, qualified to take 
charge of enormous enterprises, assuming the 
responsibilities and labors of leaders in their vo 
cations. No man in this country can be called 
self-made with greater right than Mr. Mennen, 
who not only achieved a great personal success, 
but also founded an enormous industry giving 
sustenance to many, by his genius and his irresis 
tible energy. He was esteemed and loved by all 
who came in contact with him, and his death, 
which occurred on February 3, 1902, was an irre 
parable loss to the community. Mr. Mennen was 
married on August 27, 1882, to Miss Elma C. 
Korb of Newark, N.J., and left, besides his 
widow, a son, William G., and a daughter, Elma 
C. R. The business was first incorporated on 
October 15, 1892, and reincorporated February 
18, 1902, with Mrs. Mennen as president and 
treasurer ; John J. Korb, Jr., vice-president and 
assistant treasurer, and Charles F. Klippert, sec 
retary. Mrs. Mennen s efforts regarding the 
education of her son to cope with the enormous 
enterprise which was founded by the subject of 
this sketch have been fully rewarded. Having 
been given every opportunity to fit himself for 
the continuance of his father s fame, he was 
graduated with honors from Cornell University 
June 18, 1908. 


OTTO G. FOELKER, lawyer, was born on 
December 29, 1875, at Mainz, Germany, and 
received his first education in the public 
schools of his native city. At the age of thir 
teen he left school and came to the United 
States, engaging in the bakery business at 
Troy, N.Y., at the same time attending the 
public schools. In December, 1895, Mr. Foel- 
ker came to New York City, where he again 
engaged in the bakery business, but one year 
later decided to fit himself for a profession 
that offered greater rewards to his ability. He 
accepted a clerkship with the German Legal 
Aid Society in 1896 and attended the evening 
schools. Later he took a one year s course in 
the New York Law School to fit himself for 
the Bar. At the end of the course of study he 
passed the examination and was admitted to 
the Bar in January, 1898. In the meantime 
Mr. Foelker had made many friends and his 
ability, as well as his unswerving devotion to 
principle, had given him an enviable standing 
in the district where he lived. A Republican in 
politics, he was elected to the Assembly from 
the Fifth District in 1904 and again in 1905, 
and in the following year to the Senate from 
the Fourth Senatorial District. His record as 
a legislator is exceptionally fine. He did not 
confine himself to his duties as occasion re 
quired but quickly became one of the active 
factors shaping the course of the legislature. 
Mr. Foelker was the first to introduce a res 
olution demanding an investigation of the 
insurance companies at the special session in 
1905, and while his resolution was at first 
turned down, it was, a few days later, however, 
introduced by another member and passed in 
consequence of an emergency message sent 
in by Governor Higgins. Senator Foelker 
took an active and important part in the in 
vestigation, and furthermore distinguished 
himself by the independent stand he has 
taken in the efforts to prevent the several 
power companies using Niagara Falls from 
abusing the rights granted to them, and from 
extending their operations to the detriment of 
this wonderful work of nature. When Gov 
ernor Hughes desired to stop gambling at the 
race tracks, the Senate divided evenly on the 
bills proposed to execute the Governor s 
wishes, and the measures would have been 
lost if Senator Foelker had not gone to Albany 
to cast the deciding vote in spite of the fact 
that he had not quite recovered from a severe 
operation and his physicians considered the 
voyage dangerous in the extreme. In this, as 
in other cases, he has shown a devotion to 

public duty far above the usual average. Fol 
lowing is a letter from the Governor express 
ing his sentiments regarding the Senator s at 
titude in connection with the anti-race track 
bill: "My Dear Senator I desire to express 
my appreciation of your heroic action in com 
ing to the Senate this morning. Your courage 
ous performance of duty at so grave a risk de 
serves the highest praise and will long be 
pointed to as a fine illustration of fidelity and 
patriotic devotion to the interests of the state. 
I trust that you will not suffer any ill effects 
and that you will soon be restored to your full 
health and vigor. With assurance of my high 
esteem and best wishes, I am, faithfully yours, 
Charles E. Hughes." Senator Foelker lives in 
Brooklyn and is a member of the following 
clubs: Republican, Sixth Assembly District, 
Union League, Hanover, Kings County Repub 
lican, Invincible, Congress, Seward and Rens- 
selear County Society, as well as of the 
Knights of Pythias, Royal Arcanum and the 
Y.M.C.A. He was married twice: first to Miss 
Katharine Jordan and after her death to Miss 
Nettie Bodenstein. 

CARL WALTHER, Ph.D., D.D., was born 
on August 28, 1794, at Hof, near Bayreuth in 
Germany, and received his early education in 
the schools of his native city and of Plauen in 
Saxony. After graduating, he entered the Uni 
versity of Leipsic in 1813, but his studies were 
soon interrupted, for all Germany had risen 
against the French who, under Napoleon I, had 
ruled the country with an iron hand for almost 
a decade. The German people at last decided 
to throw off the yoke of the oppressor, and 
young Walther took an active part in the fight 
for liberty. When peace was concluded, in 1814, 
he entered the University of Jena, studied philolo 
gy and theology, and received the degree of Ph.D. 
and D.D. in 1817. In the same year he received 
a call as assistant pastor from a church at Ham 
burg, but soon after was elected minister for 
Uelzen in the Kingdom of Hannover. Here he 
remained for nearly thirty years, marrying Wil- 
helmina Schuster of Uelzen and devoting himself 
to the care of his parish as well as to extensive 
studies. In 1834 he was appointed superintendent 
of all the churches in the districts of Hardegen, 
Uelzen and Goettingen by the Hannover- 
ian Government. But though he had grown 
in years and wisdom, his love for civic liberty 
and his belief in the right of the people to gov 
ern themselves, had not cooled, and with the in 
crease of reactionary tendencies on the part of the 
government and the growth of the demand for 


freedom on the part of the people, he found him 
self in opposition to his superiors. While not 
espousing the cause of the revolutionists, he free 
ly acknowledged his belief in constitutional gov 
ernment and the necessity to do away with ab 
solutism. As a consequence he was transferred 
to a pastorate at Winsen, near Hamburg, but 
this did not have the desired effect. He would 
not, and in fact could not, suppress his desire to 
express his opinions, the conflict with the gov 
ernment increased and finally forced him to re 
sign his charge. In 1850 he decided to emigrate 
to the United States, a martyr for liberty like 
so many others who came to America at that 
time. Mr. Walther accepted a pastorate in Jer 
sey City in 1851, but was called to Amherst near 
Buffalo one year later, and in 1853 went to Pitts- 
burg, Pa., to take charge of St. Trinity Church. 
Here he found the peace his soul had been long 
ing for, and here he celebrated in 1867 the golden 
anniversary of his service in the ministry of the 
Lutheran Church. He died at Pittsburg, Pa., in 
April, 1868. His son, Waldemar A. Walther, 
born at Uelzen in Hannover on March 3, 1833, 
came to America with his father. He had been 
carefully educated by private tutors, and entered 
active business life immediately after his arrival. 
He identified himself with the paper industry and 
in 1859 founded the firm of Walther & Co., 
erecting his first factory for the production of 
paper specialties and coated papers in Brooklyn, 
N.Y., in 1861. His business increased rapidly 
and up to the time of his death, on January 10, 
1898, he was active in managing and extending it, 
until it occupied a leading position in the branch 
of industry to which it was devoted. It is now 
carried on by his sons, F. O. and C. F. Walther, 
who were carefully trained by their father to fol 
low in his footsteps, and have succeeded not only 
in continuing the business, but have greatly en 
larged it. Mr. Waldemar A. Walther was mar 
ried in 1863 to Miss Emma Marquering. 

HENRY P. GOLDSCHMIDT, banker, was 
born on September 15, 1843, at Frankfort-on-the- 
Main, where his family history dates back be 
yond the Sixteenth Century, and received his 
education in the Realschule of his native city. 
Graduating at the age of sixteen, he entered the 
employ of a banking house and studied the busi 
ness from the ground up. In 1866 Mr. Gold- 
schmidt was called to New York by the leading 
German banking house of Ballin & Sander in the 
capacity of confidential clerk with power of at 
torney. When the firm was changed to Eugene 
S. Ballin & Co., he was admitted to partnership 
and remained with the concern until 1879. In 

the latter part of that year he established him 
self in business on his own account, and had as 
associate Mr. Henry Budge. This partnership 
continued until 1883, when he founded his present 
banking house, under the firm name of H. P. 
Goldschmidt & Co. Mr. Goldschmidt as well as 
the firms with which he has been connected have 
always enjoyed a distinction for absolute integ 
rity and reliability, keeping free from alliances 
and operations which might even in the most re 
mote sense be called doubtful. Of strong char 
acter and a very independent turn of mind, Mr. 
Goldschmidt s inclinations have, to a certain ex 
tent, made him averse to affiliations which pre 
vent the free development and manifestation of 
individuality. A lover and connoisseur of art, 
music and literature, his refined taste is well 
known and his judgment generally accepted. His 
city residence at 20 East Sixty-fourth Street, as 
well as his handsome villa at South Elberon, N.J., 
furnish proof of a highly cultivated taste, and 
the faculty of using ample means to gratify the 
recognition and appreciation of the beautiful. 
On March 23, 1862, Mr. Goldschmidt was mar 
ried to Miss Georgette Woodleaf. 

ISAAC GOLDMANN was born at Gunder- 
sheim in Rhenish Hesse in Germany and received 
his education in the schools of his birthplace. At 
an early age he was apprenticed to a printer at 
Alzey and rapidly acquired as thorough a knowl- 


edge of his chosen profession as his opportuni 
ties made possible. But the limitations of a small 
city were too narrow for his ambition and enter 
prising spirit, and in 1867 he emigrated to Amer 
ica, settling in New York, where for nine years 
he worked in some of the largest printing estab 
lishments of the metropolis. His ambition never 
lessened and he studied with open eyes and ever 


wakeful intelligence the methods of his employ 
ers. In 1876 he felt that the time had come to 
realize his fondest dream, to make himself inde 
pendent and strike out on his own account. He 
established a printing office at No. 16 North 
William Street and quickly gained an enviable 
reputation for prompt and accurate work. The 
business grew from the start, larger quarters 
soon became necessary, until he installed his 
present plant in the large building at the corner 
of William and Frankfort Streets. The present 
plant is one of the largest and best equipped in 
the city. In 1900 Mr. Goldmann incorporated 
his business under the firm name of the Isaac 
Goldmann Company, .in order to perpetuate its 
existence if he should ever desire to retire. He 
is now assisted in his large and still growing 
activity by his sons and nephews but remains 
the head and principal factor of the concern 
which is especially noteworthy on account of the 
cordial relations existing between the firm and 
the employees, now numbering over one hundred. 

HENRY WOLFSOHN, impressario, was born in 
Germany and came to the United States in his 
early youth, settling in New York, where he re 
ceived his education in the New York Free Acad 
emy. An unusual gift for music, combined with 
rare judgment and an extraordinary faculty of 
discerning the powers of artists as well as the 
taste of the music loving public, led him into the 
business of arranging concerts and tours of musi 
cal celebrities. During the twenty years which 
he has devoted to this field of activity, Mr. 
Wolfsohn has introduced to the American public 
a host of artists who either had already acquired 
prominence in Europe or who, under his guid 
ance, became later on stars of the first magnitude. 
He has had on his books at one time or another 
almost every musical artist of note, as well as 
many of the best known musical organizations. 
His judgment is universally accepted as sound 
and reliable, and his advice is eagerly sought by 
all who are interested in musical affairs. Inde 
pendent in politics, Mr. Wolfsohn has never held, 
or aspired to public office. He is a member of 
the German Liederkranz and of many benevolent 
institutions. On April 22, 1876, Mr. Wolfsohn 
married Miss Paula Kesker of Louisville, Ky. 
Of their two daughters, one died in early youth, 
and the other is married to Mr. George Hammer- 
schlag, a manufacturer of paper. V 

CARL BECK, surgeon, was born at Neckar- 
gemuend, Germany, April 4, 1856, the son of 
Wilhelm and Sophia (Hohler) Beck. He was 
educated at the institution of his grand-uncle, 
Rev. August Hohler, and at the Gymnasium of 

Heidelberg. He was a student at the universities 
of Heidelberg, Berlin, and Jena, and was gradu 
ated from the latter university in 1879 with the 
degree of M.D. Dr. Beck married Hedwig S., 
daughter of Chief Justice Friedrich Heinrich von 
Loeser. He came to the United States in Febru 
ary, 1882. He is president and visiting surgeon 
of St. Mark s Hospital; also visiting surgeon to 
the German Poliklinik, president of Surgeons 
New York Post-Graduate Medical School and 
Hospital, president of Union of Old German Stu 
dents of America, president of Society of Medical 
Jurisprudence, first vice-president of American 
Therapeutic Society; he has published a Manual 
on Surgical Asepsis (1895), Text Book on Frac 
tures (1900, Saunders & Co., London and Phila 
delphia), Die Rontgenstrahlen im Dienste der Chir- 
urgie (Seitz & Schauer, Munich), Rontgen Ray 
Diagnosis and Therapy (Appleton & Co., New 
York), Rontgenlehre (L. Simion Nf). Dr. Beck 
resides at 37 East Thirty-first Street, New York 

WILLY MEYER, physician and surgeon, was 
born in Minden, Westphalia, Germany, July 24, 
1858. He became a student at the University 
of Bonn (Germany) from where he was gradu 
ated with honors, receiving his degree of M.D. 
After the completion of his course at the Uni 
versity, Dr. Meyer was made Assistant Surgeon 
at the Bonn Clinic, a position he held from 1881 
to 1884, under Professors Busch, Madelung and 
Trendelenburg. In 1884 he came to America, 
locating at New York City. He was Professor 
of Clinical Surgery at the Woman s Medical 
College, New York, from 1886 to 1893. He has 
been Instructor and Professor of Surgery at 
the New York Post Graduate Medical School 
and Hospital since 1887; has been Attending Sur 
geon to the German Hospital since 1887, and is 
Consulting Surgeon to the New York Skin and 
Cancer Hospital and to the New York Infirmary. 
Dr. Meyer was the first to introduce in the 
United States (1887) Cystoscopy, and Bottini s 
operation in 1897. He has devised the radical 
operation for carcinoma of the breast. He has 
published many articles on appendicitis, diseases 
of the urinary organs, etc. Lately he has helped 
in solving the problems of intrathoracic surgery, 
devising for this purpose new operations and ap 
paratus, the latter in connection with his brother, 
Julius Meyer, an engineer. He is a Fellow of 
the American Surgical and of the American Medi 
cal Association and a member of many local 
medical organizations. Dr. Meyer married Miss 
Lilly O. Maass April 29, 1885. He resides at 
No. 700 Madison Avenue, New York City. 


FELIX NORDEMAN, M.D., deceased, a 
prominent New York physician, and surgeon, 
was born at Berne, Switzerland, in 1830. He 
was graduated from the university of that city 
in 1853, and was intimately connected with the 
German patriots of 1848, some of whom were 
fellow-students. As a ship surgeon, he landed 
at New York City in 1853, never to return to 
his native country. His career as a successful 
practitioner and Pediatric Specialist was an 
arduous one he never took a week s vacation 
during his professional life. Dr. Nordeman 
will always be remembered by the Deutsche 
Medicinische Gesellschaft, which owes its 
existence to his exertions. This society was 
founded in 1860, and chartered in 1867; it has 
a membership of four hundred German physi 
cians, with honorary and corresponding mem 
bers in Germany and Austria. In recognition 
of his services, the society elected Dr. Norde 
man an honorary member, he having held the 
position of presiding officer at various times 
and at a banquet held in his honor presented 
him with a gold-headed cane. He was still 
in active practice when he died, September 15, 
1907, mourned by a host of friends, patients 
and fellow practitioners. 

DR. S. ADOLPHUS KNOPF, Professor of 
Phthisiotherapy at the New York Post-Graduate 
Medical School and Hospital (University of the 
State of New York), the son of Adolphus and 
Namma Knopf, was born at Halle on the River 
Saale, in Germany, November 27, 1857. He re 
ceived his preliminary education in the high 
schools of his native city and in New York. His 
college courses included those of the University 
of Southern California; Bellevue and New York 
University medical colleges, and the University 
of Paris, France. He made special studies in 
Philology; Physical Diagnosis; Tuberculosis 
Pathology and Tuberculosis Therapy; Tubercu 
losis in Prisons ; Tenement-house problems ; Con 
struction and Equipment of Tuberculosis Sana 
toria. Prior to passing his Doctor thesis in 
Paris "Les Sanatoria, Traitement et Prophylaxie 
de la Phtisie Pulmonaire," Dr. Knopf visited san 
atoria, special and general hospitals in America, 
Germany, France, Greece, Italy, Switzerland, 
Austria, Roumania, England, etc. As official 
delegate he visited the Tuberculosis Congresses 
at London in 1901 and at Paris in 1905 ; also the 
International Prison Congress at Budapest in 
1905. In 1891 and 1895 Dr. Knopf visited the 
Clinics of Professor von Leyden at Berlin and 
Professor von Schroetter at Vienna. From early 
childhood Dr. Knopf had desired to become a 

physician. The death of his parents, and the 
immigration of his elder sister and brother, forced 
him to interrupt his preliminary education, 
which he resumed, after having followed his 
relatives to America. He soon gained foothold 
in the United States. He was engaged for a 
number of years in various pursuits until he 
had earned enough money to complete his pre 
liminary education and begin his medical studies. 
He attended the University of Southern Cali 
fornia and served one year as interne in the 
Los Angeles County Hospital. He took his final 
degree as Doctor of Medicine at the University 
and Bellevue Medical College of New York in 
1888. In 1890 Dr. Knopf matriculated at the 
Paris University, and after obtaining his equiva 
lent of Bachelor of Arts and Sciences, at the 
Sorbonne, entered the Medical School, where in 
1895 he obtained the degree of Doctor of Medi 
cine for sustaining his doctor thesis on Sanatoria 
for Tuberculosis, for which he received the men 
tion "extremement satisfait." Between the years 
of 1891 and 1895, during his medical studies at 
Paris, Dr. Knopf was attached to the Clinics 
of Internal Medicine of Professor Petain (L Ho- 
pital de la Charite) ; to the Surgical Clinic of 
Professor Tillaux (Hotel Dieu) ; to the Obstet 
rical Clinic of Professor Tarnier (rue D Assas) ; 
and the Clinic for Diseases of Children of Pro 
fessor Grancher (L Hopital des Enfants malades). 
Following his graduation at the University of 
Paris, he served as assistant to Geheimrath Dr. 
Dettweiler at the Falkenstein Sanatorium in 
Germany. In 1896 he returned to the United 
States and did special tuberculosis work in Bel 
levue Hospital under Professor Biggs, and some 
research work in the Health Department s Labra- 
tory. In 1897 he became attending physician to 
the Lung Department of the New York Throat 
and Nose Hospital. In 1899 he founded, with 
eleven other physicians, the first Tuberculosis 
Committee of New York, which affiliated with 
the Charity Organization Society. In 1903 he 
became visiting hospital physician of the Health 
Department of the City of New York, and in 
1904 associate director of the Clinic for Pul 
monary Diseases. In the same year he called a 
meeting for the formation of the National As 
sociation for the Study and Prevention of Tuber 
culosis, of which he became one of the directors. 
In 1908 Dr. Knopf was made lecturer of the 
State Department of Health, and in the same 
year the New York Post-Graduate Medical 
School and Hospital created a chair of Modern 
Phthisiotherapy, which he was called to fill as 
first professor and head of the Tuberculosis De 
partment of the institution. Dr. Knopf is active 






in Masonic work ; he is a Thirty-second degree 
Mason, a member of Crescent Lodge No. 402, 
F. & A. M. and a member of the Consistory of 
New York City. In 1903 he was instrumental in 
starting a fund for the establishment of a sana 
torium for consumptive Masons and their fami 
lies. He has devoted the greater part of his life 
to anti-tuberculosis propaganda, and has often 
helped to establish sanatoria, hospitals, and dis 
pensaries for the consumptive poor, and open air 
schools for tuberculosis and predisposed children. 
Upon invitation. Dr. Knopf has lectured on tu 
berculosis and public hygiene in nearly every 
state of the Union, before legislative bodies, 
schools of medicine, medical associations, anti- 
tuberculosis societies, teachers and men s and 
women s clubs. Dr. Knopf is a consulting phy 
sician in pulmonary diseases ; associate director 
of the Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases of the 
City of New York ; visiting physician to the 
Riverside Hospital Sanatorium of the Health 
Department and consulting physician to the Sana 
toria of St. Gabriels, Binghamton, N.Y., and 
Scranton, Pa. The following honors and dis 
tinctions have been conferred upon Dr. Knopf : 
Laureate of the Academy of Medicine of Paris 
in 1895 ; of the College of Physicians and Sur 
geons of Philadelphia in 1898; of the Internation 
al Congress to Combat Tuberculosis as a disease 
of the Masses in Berlin 1900; of the Institute of 
France, 1901 ; of the Louisiana Purchase Exposi 
tion in 1904; Honorary fellow Maine Academy 
of Medicine and Science; Honorary director of 
the Gaylord Farm Sanatorium ; Honorary vice- 
president of the British Congress on Tuberculo 
sis ; Honorary Vice-president de 1 Association 
des Medecins de la langue francaise de 1 Ameri- 
que du Nord; Honorary fellow of the Sociedad 
Cientifico "Antonio Alzata" of Mexico; Honor 
ary member of the New Jersey State Medical 
Association ; Member of Committee of One Hun 
dred on National Health ; Chairman of the Com 
mittee on the Relief of the Sick Poor (State 
Conference of Charities) ; Vice-president of the 
Pennsylvania Society for the Prevention of Tu 
berculosis; Vice-president of the American 
Academy of Medicine ; Vice-president of the 
Sociological Section of the International Tuber 
culosis Congress in Washington, 1908. He is a 
member of the following societies and associa 
tions : New York County Medical Society ; So 
ciety of Medical Jurisprudence ; German Medical 
Society of the City of New York; Tuberculosis 
Committee of the Charity Organization Society, 
New York ; National Association for the Study 
and Prevention of Tuberculosis ; National Asso 
ciation for the Study and Education of 

exceptional Children ; American Medical As 
sociation ; American Association for the Ad 
vancement of Science; Societe d Hygiene, 
Paris ; International Anti-tuberculosis Associ 
ation ; Charter member of the New York Pro 
bation Association; Member of the City Club 
and Unitarian Club of New York, Fellow of the 
New York Academy of Medicine and the Ameri 
can Academy of Medicine. Dr. Knopf is author 
of the following books and contributions to en 
cyclopedias : "Les Sanatoria, etc;" Thesis for the 
doctorate, Paris, 1895 ; "Pulmonary Tuberculosis, 
Its Modern Prophylaxis and the Treatment in 
Special Institutions and at Home ;" Alvarenga 
Prize Essay, Philadelphia, 1899; "Les Sanatoria, 
Traitement et Prophylaxie de la Phtisie Pulmon- 
aire," Paris, 1900; "Die Tuberkulose als Volks- 
krankheit und deren Bekiimpfung" ; Kongress 
Preisschrift, Berlin 1900; "Tuberculosis as a dis 
ease of the Masses and how to Combat it" ; 
Six American editions from 1900 to 1909, New 
York; Translations of this have appeared in the 
Arabic, Brazilian, Bulgarian, Chinese (two edi 
tions), Dutch, English, Finnish, French, Hebrew, 
Hungarian, Icelandic, Italian (two editions), 
Japanese, Mexican, Norwegian, Polish, Russian, 
Servian, Siberian, Swedish and Turkish lan 
guages between 1900 and 1909. Articles on "Tu 
berculosis in the Twentieth Century Practice 
of Medicine, New York, 1900; Volume XX and 
Volume XXL." Article on Tuberculosis in Nel 
son s Encyclopedia; "Public Measures in the 
Prophylaxis of Tuberculosis ;" Contribution to 
the American Treatise on Tuberculosis; New 
York, 1909; "Tuberculosis, A Preventable and 
Curable Disease." Some of the more important 
articles written by Professor Knopf are the fol 
lowing: "Dress Reform and Its Relation to 
Medicine"; Southern California Practitioner, 
August, 1889. "Les Sanatoria des Phtisiques 
sont-ils un danger pour le voisinage"; Revue de 
la Tuberculose, December, 1895, (in English in the 
Medical Record, October, 1896). "Ein neues bin- 
aurales Stethoskop mit Armamentarium fur voll- 
standige Auskultatien und Perkussion" ; Zeitschr, 
f. Krankenpflege, March, 1898." Die Friiherken- 
nung der Tuberkulose"; Zeitschr. f. Tuberk., u. 
Heilst. Bd. I, H. 2. "Tenements and Tuberculo 
sis"; Journal of the American Medical Associa 
tion, May 12, 1900. "Tuberculosis in Prisons 
and Reformatories"; Medical Record, March 2, 
1901. "Official and Private Phthisiophobia" ; 
Medical Record, January 11, 1902. "The Tuber 
culosis Problem in the United States"; North 
American Review, February, 1899. "The Exclu 
sion of Non-pauper Tuberculous Immigrants"; 
Zeitschrift fur Tubercuose, Board Hi, Heft 3, 


1902. "Allure generale de la luttle centre la 
Tuberculose aux Etats Unis"; La Lutte Anti- 
tuberculeuse, August, 1901. "Respiratory Exer 
cises in Pulmonary Diseases," Johns Hopkins 
Bulletin, September, 1901 ;" A Few Thoughts on 
the Medical and Social Aspects of Tuberculosis, 
etc.," Contribution to Professor von Leyden s 
Festschrift, Berlin, May, 1902; "The Family 
Physician of the Past, Present, and Future," 
Bulletin of the American Academy of Medicine, 
February, 1903 ; "The Masonic Sanatorium," 
Masonic Standard, March 14, 1903. "A Plea for 
Justice to the Consumptive;" Medical Record, 
January 2, 1904. "Hermann Brehmer and the 
Semi-Centennial Celebration of Brehmer s Sana 
torium," New York Medical Journal, July 2, 1904. 
"The Modern Tuberculosis Dispensary," Medical 
Record, July 23, 1904; "Every Man s Duty Re 
garding Tuberculosis," World s Work, October, 
1904; "Women s Duty Towards the Health of 
the Nation," New York Medical Journal, No 
vember 5, 1904; "Geheimrath Dr. Dettweiler, 
Eulogy pronounced at the Occasion of the First 
Anniversary of his Death ;" Medical Record, 
January 28, 1905 ; "Consumptive Heroes," Colo 
rado Medical Journal, September, 1904; "The 
Marriage of the Tuberculous and the Size of the 
Family in Their Bearing on the Tuberculosis 
Problem," American Medicine, January 6, 1906; 
"Early Clinical Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tu 
berculosis," Journal of the Medical Society of 
New Jersey, November, 1905 ; "Le Sanatorium 
pour Tuberculeux ; sa mission medicale et so- 
ciale;" Zcitschr. Tub., Board, viii, Ht. 4, 1906; 
appeared also in German in Tuberculosis, Janu 
ary, 1906 (in English in Neiv York Medical 
Journal, October 21, 1905) ; "Medicine and 
Law in Relation to the Alcohol, Venereal Dis 
ease and the Tuberculosis Problems," Medi 
cal Record, June 2, 1906; "Maxims for the 
Selection of Climates in Pulmonary, Laryngeal 
and Bone Tuberculosis," New York Medical 
Journal, July 28, 1906. "Tuberculosis a Social 
Disease," Johns Hopkins Bulletin, December, 

1906. "A Plea for Cremation," Journal of the 
American Medical Association, January 26, 

1907. "A Plea for More Sanatoria for the 
Consumptive Poor in all Stages of the Dis-^ 
ease," New York Medical Journal, July 11, 

1908. "The Popular Lecture in the Crusade 
Against Tuberculosis," Tuberculosis Congress, 
1908. "L Adaptation a domicile du Traitement 
des Tuberculeux tel qu en le preconise dans les 
sanatoria;" L Union Medicale du Canada, De 
cember, 1908 (appeared in English in Zeitschr. 
F. Tuberculosis Board XIII, Ht. 4, 1908). "The 
Responsibility of the Family Physician Toward 

Tuberculosis," New York Medical Journal, Jan 
uary 2, 1909. "Overcoming the Predisposition 
to Tuberculosis and the Danger from Infection 
During Childhood," Pediatrics, December, 1908. 
"Die moderne Tuberkulose Bekampfung vom 
sozial-medizinischen Standpunkte betrachtet," 
New Yorker Medizininche Monatsschrift, De 
cember, 1908, and in Tuberculosis, Berlin, July, 
1909. "The Prevention of Tuberculosis in its 
Relation to Life Insurance," Medical Examiner, 
August, 1909. The Hopeful Outlook of the 
Tuberculosis Problem, Journal of Outdoor Life, 
August, 1909. 

JOHN C. JUHRING, merchant, was born 
in New York City, the son of John C. and 
Lena (Stuke) Juhring. His father was a real 
estate operator during the period from Octo 
ber 6, 1860, to 1875, and at the time of his 
death resided in Lincoln Place (Wilson Street), 
Brooklyn, E.D. John C. Juhring the younger 
received his education in the public schools 
and later entered, after a preparatory course, 
Mount Washington Collegiate Institute, from 
which he graduated. In September, 1873, he 
entered the employ of Francis H. Leggett & 
Co. Before the year had passed, he had been 
made a bookkeeper, then cashier, a little later 
assistant-buyer, and finally general buyer in 
charge of several departments. Not long after 
this he was given a share in the profits, and 
in 1892 he was admitted to partnership. When, 
in 1892, the firm was changed into a corpora 
tion, Mr. Juhring was made vice-president and 
secretary. In exactly twenty years the boy 
who had begun on the lowest rung of the 
ladder had risen to prominence, not alone 
through his ability, but because he had devel 
oped from the start a pride in the business, 
its growth and development, and readily re 
sponded to every wish of his employers, never 
considering his own comfort or desires. Mr. 
Jnhring s activity was by no means limited to 
the confines of his business. He is one of 
the charter members of the Merchants Asso 
ciation of New York, and at its first meeting, 
in 1897, was elected vice-president of the or 
ganization and held the position for five con 
secutive terms. Imbued with an unusual de 
gree of civic pride, he became one of its most 
active members and worked unceasingly for 
its development. Soon after the organization 
of the association he succeeded in adding to 
the membership roll one hundred and fifty 
representative firms. His pride in the city of 
his birth has continually prompted him to ad 
vance its interests and its welfare. He is in- 






defatigable in setting forth the advantages of 
New York City as a trading center, and he 
is so thoroughly identified with its business 
interests, that his views on this point are 
worth preserving. He said on a recent occa 
sion: "The reasons for New York s great pre 
dominance are numerous. It is the focal point 
of commerce, manufactures and distribution. 
There are, of course, other great centers, but 
they cannot become the great focal points 
upon which the great currents of international 
trade converge. The commerce of a nation is 
its interchange of commodities with other na 
tions, and because we can and do furnish vast 
quantities of food products as well as manu 
factured goods to other nations, and must in 
turn buy tea, coffee, spices and innumerable 
other necessities that foreign countries pro 
duce, naturally there must always be great 
trade currents setting to and from our shores. 
New York is the main port of entry for the 
whole country, and therefore the greatest dis 
tributing center. Hence the principal steam 
ship lines converge here to a greater extent 
than in any other port on this continent. It 
is this concentration that has made New York 
the great center that it is, and so soon to be 
the metropolis of the world. It is also sig 
nificant that more than seventy per cent of 
the merchandise that the United States im 
ports for business purposes passes through the 
port of New York, and it follows as a logical 
sequence that these goods can be procured 
here to better advantage than in any other 
market. These are a few of the reasons for 
New York s commercial supremacy, and they 
indicate why the metropolis towers above all 
other American cities." On February 15, 1905, 
Mr. Juhring received a unique compliment. 
The Ezvning Mail, in a department called 
"Men of Affairs," published a picture showing 
Mr. Juhring standing in front of Francis H. 
Leggett & Co. s establishment, welcoming out- 
of-town merchants and introducing them to 
Father Knickerbocker. Under Mr. Juhring s 
portrait the words were printed: "The Pro 
moter of Gotham s Advantages." The incident 
thus graphically described consisted in Mr. 
Juhring s success to induce, through his un 
tiring efforts during the buying season, two 
thousand merchants from San Francisco, Phil 
adelphia, St. Louis, Chicago, Washington and 
many other cities to visit New York as the 
guests of Francis H. Leggett & Co. They 
were royally entertained during their stay, 
first at a luncheon given in the King Street 
manufacturing plant of the firm, and afterward 

on the deck of a large steam yacht from where 
they had an opportunity to view the wharves, 
warehouses and skyscrapers. Many of these 
merchants had not been in New York in many 
years, but the impression made upon them 
was so profound that they became convinced 
that their interests would best be served by 
buying their supplies in this city, where every 
thing is found in greater variety and at more 
advantageous terms than anywhere else. Mr. 
Juhring s efforts were, therefore, crowned with 
success, and the whole city benefited by them. 
One of the leading newspapers said of him: 
"If all Gothamites had Mr. Juhring s public 
spirit and marked energy New York would be 
the best-advertised city in the world." It is 
but natural that Mr. Juhring s executive abil 
ity and general business qualifications led to 
his selection for many positions of trust. He 
is a director of the Coal & Iron National Bank 
of New York City and a member of the ex 
ecutive board; a trustee of the Citizens Sav 
ings Bank, besides being connected with other 
large interests. In politics, he is a Repub 
lican, but of independent views. He is a mem 
ber of the Merchants Club, enjoys a game of 
golf, and is fond of horseback riding and other 
outdoor recreations. Mr. Juhring was married 
on October 19, 1901, at the Hotel Majestic in 
New York City, to Miss Frances Bryant 
Fisher. They have one son, John C., 3d, now 
in his seventh year. The following words, 
quoted by one who knows him intimately, will 
best describe Mr. Juhring: "He possesses a 
pleasing personality and a wonderful capacity 
for detail. He combines perseverance with 
persistency and great tenacity of purpose to 
accomplish results. His motto is: Keep on 
keeping on. He is self-contained, courteous 
in his manner, somewhat reserved, but 
straightforward, and well liked for his fair 
dealing." He resides at No. 311 West Eighty- 
sixth Street, New York City. 

WILLIAM MERTENS, retired banker, re 
siding at No. 112 South Mountain Avenue, 
Montclair, N.J., was born at Bremen, Germany, 
July 13, 1833. His was a high school education, 
received at his native city. At the age of seven 
teen he graduated and apprenticed himself to a 
wholesale drug firm, where he remained for 
four years. When twenty years of age he came 
to America and entered the banking firm of 
Louis von Hoffman & Co., established in 1850 
and then located in the old Post Building, New 
York City. His position was that of a clerk. 
At that time there were forty employees ahead 


of him in line for promotion. Through the ill 
ness of some and the departure to Europe of 
others, he was quickly advanced, filling various 
positions of importance, studying all the while 
the systems of banking, with but one purpose in 
view, that of becoming a partner in the firm. In 
1857 Mr. Mertens was given power of attorney 
by the firm, and during the year 1859 the first 
realization of his ambition was achieved when 
he was made a partner through the retirement 
of Alfonze, Oscar, and Richard von Hoffman. 
Later, Mr. Mertens became a partner of Baron 
L. A. von Hoffmann, being admitted free, with 
others, to the Exchange Board, and given full 
membership upon payment of one thousand dol 
lars. In 1888 Mr. Mertens took in as a partner 
F. M. Thierot, taking in others at a later date. 
He is now chief partner of the firm, although not 
active, he having rounded out a successful career 
in banking up to the time of his practical re 
tirement in 1904. His firm ranks with the largest 
banking houses of the country, and does a large 
correspondence business throughout the world. 
The London representatives are R. Raphael & 
Sons. During the Civil War his firm was one 
of the largest dealers in bonds and securities of 
all kinds in the country. It is worthy of mention 
here that he detected the Gold Certificate for 
geries of Mr. Ketchum, saving losses to his firm, 
to his friends, Messrs. Eugene Ballin & Co., 
Marcus and Balfour and others. Ketchum was 
in Sing Sing for ten years. At one time 
Mr. Mertens was a resident of Staten Island, but 
remained there for only a brief period. He re 
moved to Brooklyn in 1854. He has resided at 
Montclair, N.J., for five years, where he has a 
fine estate of over ten acres. Here he has sur 
rounded himself with all the luxuries of refined 
home life, and possesses a wealth of art treasures 
as well as other collections from all over the 
world. During the past twenty-five years he 
has found the time to take an annual trip to 
Europe, not only for pleasure, but to keep in close 
touch with market conditions. Mr. Martens is 
an ex-member of the German Liederkranz and 
Arion Societies ; of the New York Athletic Club ; 
an ex-member of the German Club ; also a mem 
ber of the Downtown Club. He worships at 
the Dutch Reformed Church. In politics he has 
always been identified with the Republican party, 
but never active, nor has he ever sought public 

born at Cassel, Germany, November 30, 1866, the 
son of Friedrich and Marie (Espe) Dippel. His 
father was a manufacturer. Andreas Dippel was 

educated in the high school of his native town, 
where he was graduated in 1882. Entering the 
employ of the banking house of Mauer & Plaut 
at Cassel in 1882, he continued in that occupa 
tion for five years, acquiring the rudiments of a 
sound business and financial education. In the 
meanwhile he began the study of the voice under 
Mme. Zottmayr, a famous singer of the Royal 
Court Theater at Cassel. Having decided to 
enter upon a musical career he left his home in 
1887, going to Berlin, Milan and Vienna, where 
he continued his studies with such masters as 
Professor Julius Hey, Alberto Leoni and Johann 
Ress. This extensive musical training, added to 
his proficiency in four different languages, en 
abled him to sing all the leading tenor parts in 
Italian, French and German operas with equal 
success. In 1887 he secured an engagement at 
the Stadt-Theater in Bremen, and made his debut 
in September of the same year as the Steersman 
in "The Flying Dutchman." While his engage 
ment at this theater lasted until 1892, he was 
granted leave of absence during the season of 
1890-91, to sing at the Metropolitan Opera House 
in New York. His American debut was made 
on November 26, 1900, in Franchetti s "Asrael," 
under the conductorship of Anton Seidl. Upon 
the termination of his Bremen engagement he 
visited the United States for a concert tour, dur 
ing which he sang under the eminent conductors, 
Anton Seidl, Arthur Nikisch and Theodore 
Thomas. Returning to Germany he sang at the 
Stadt-Theater in Breslau during the season of 
1892-93, and from 1893 to 1898 he was a member 
of the Imperial court opera in Vienna. In 1898 
Mr. Dippel returned to New York, where he 
resumed his connection with the Metropolitan 
Opera Co., then under the management of Mau 
rice Grau, of which he has been a permanent 
member to the present time. As such he has 
taken part in all the transcontinental tours of 
the company, and these, together with his own 
concert tours, have procured him an enviable 
reputation throughout the United States. Dur 
ing four seasons Mr. Dippel has filled engage 
ments at the Royal Opera, Covent Garden, Lon 
don; at the Imperial Opera, St. Petersburg; at 
the Royal Opera, Munich, and at the Bayreuth 
Festivals, his unequivocally favorable reception 
at all of these places serving to make his fame 
international. Mr. Dippel possesses a resonant 
tenor voice of excellent timbre, large compass 
and of a quality that at once appeals to the 
most intimate feelings. His intonation and enun 
ciation are singularly perfect, and his brilliant 
training and finished art enable him to interpret 
with equal felicity works of a widely diversified 








character. To his superb vocal equipment Mr. 
Dippel adds an admirable stage presence, splendid 
dramatic power and a fine imagination, all com 
bining to give his personation an artistic finish 
rarely found upon the operatic stage. Not the 
least important feature of Mr: Dippel s work 
is his great versatility. His operatic repertoire 
comprises nearly 150 different parts in works of 
the German school from Mozart to Wagner : the 
Italian, from Donizetti to Puccini, as well as 
the works of the great masters of France. In 
addition to this he has a repertoire of over sixty 
oratorios. Perhaps the most distinctive work of 
Mr. Dippel has been done as a singer of Wag- 
nerian roles. His impersonation of all of the 
great master s heroes are familiar and favorite 
figures to the American public, and particularly 
his Siegfried both in "Siegfried" and "Gotter- 
dammerung" has aroused the enthusiastic com 
ment of the press of two continents. In Feb 
ruary, 1908, the board of directors of the Metro 
politan Opera Company, in recognition of his 
wide knowledge of operatic affairs both here and 
abroad, and of his keen business ability, ap 
pointed Mr. Dippel to the important post of ad 
ministrative manager at the Metropolitan Opera 
House. In this capacity the destinies of the 
greatest institution of its kind in America are 
largely confided to his hands and many impor 
tant reforms have resulted from his initiative. 
Mr. Dippel was married at Norderney, Germany, 
August 23, 1890, to Anita Lenau. 

HENRY SCHREITER comes from the old 
German family, whose ancient title, Reichs- 
ritter von Schwarzenfeld, originated in the 
"Holy Schwabenland." He was born at Frei- 
waldau, Austrian Silesia, August 12, 1856. At 
first educated by private tutors, he later entered 
the Military Preparatory School and the 
Academy of Wiener Neustadt, from which he 
graduated as lieutenant in the corps of engi 
neers. He subsequently took special courses 
in mechanical engineering in the Polytechnicum 
and in law at the Vienna University. After 
seven years of active military service, Mr. 
Schreiter concluded that civil life offered more 
substantial rewards, and came to the United 
States in the spring of 1881 in the service of 
some European investors in connection with 
irrigation projects for the reclaiming of arid 
plains in the West, particularly in Wyoming 
and Idaho. This work occupied him until 
March, 1883. After investing the proceeds of 
his share in the undertaking in a section of the 
land in Wyoming, Mr. Schreiter found employ 
ment in western Pennsylvania designing and 

superintending the erection of cupola and coke 
ovens, and from there he came, in the fall of 
1885, after a few months sojourn in Washing 
ton, D.C., to New York City. Here he worked 
as draughtsman and writer on technical sub 
jects, while studying English law and political 
institutions in the School of Political Science 
and the Law School of the then "Columbia 
College," now Columbia University of New 
York, preparing himself for admission to the 
Bar. He became a citizen of the United States 
October 12, 1886, and a year later was admitted 
to the Bar in the Federal Courts and in the 
United States Patent Office at Washington, 
D.C. He planned to settle in Philadelphia or 
Pittsburg, where he had then many friends, 
but important business considerations decided 
him for starting in the city of New York, 
where he began the general practice of law, 
for his .own account, in November, 1889. In 
this Mr. Schreiter devoted his attention main 
ly to patent and trade-mark cases, wherein 
he was able to utilize his knowledge of tech 
nical subjects. By his diligence and faithful 
attention to the best interests of his clients, 
Mr. Schreiter became one of the "successful" 
lawyers of our community. He is now the 
senior member of the firm of Schreiter & 
Mathews, attorneys and counsellors-at-law, 
located at 20 Nassau Street, New York City, 
and also president of the New York Asbestos 
Manufacturing Company, No. 80 John Street, 
New York City; president and treasurer of the 
Ravenswood Paper Mill Company, Ravens- 
wood, Borough of Queens, and president of 
the Queens Borough Board of Trade. His 
connection with the New York Asbestos Man 
ufacturing Co. dates from 1893, in which year 
he was appointed secretary of the board of 
directors, having for some time previously 
acted as attorney and counsel for the company. 
Later Mr. Schreiter was elected a director, and 
in 1902 president of the company. He partici 
pated in the organization of the Ravenswood 
Paper Mill Co.. and in 1905 was elected its 
president and treasurer. As both mills are 
located in the Queens Borough, Mr. Schreiter 
was invited to join the Queens Borough Board 
of Trade, and in the fall of 1907 was elected 
president of the board. Though through these 
connections he was drawn more into public 
and political affairs, Mr. Schreiter does not 
aspire to hold any political office. He consid 
ers it a bounden duty to his clients and to the 
stockholders of the corporations to devote all 
his time and energies to his own law practice 
and to the management of the affairs of the 


corporations wherein he is interested. Mr. 
Schreiter resides in the Park section on the 
West Side of Manhattan, going for the summer 
season to his seashore home in Avon-by-the- 
Sea, NJ. Mr. Schreiter is of the home-staying 
class of men, and only the Metropolitan Opera 
House and the Carnegie Hall draw him regu 
larly from his own fireside for one or two 
nights during the week. He was married Sep 
tember 14, 1894, to Miss Harriet A. Baker of 
Fulton, N.Y. Two children, Ruth Harriett, 
born November 25, 1895, and Elsa Adele, Feb 
ruary 18, 1901, both living, are as fond of 
aquatic sports and the sea as their father, and 
equally earnest and diligent in work. 

RUDOLPH HERING, hydraulic and sani 
tary engineer, was born in Philadelphia, Pa., 
February 26, 1847, being a son of Dr. Constan- 
tin and Theresa (Buchheim) Hering. He re 
ceived a thorough education at the public 
schools of Philadelphia, and later entered the 
Royal Polytechnic College in Dresden, Ger 
many, graduating therefrom in 1867, receiving 
the degree of C.E. From 1872 to 1880 Mr. 
Hering was assistant City Engineer of Phila 
delphia. In 1881 he was commissioned by the 
United States National Board of Health to 
report on the sewerage works of Europe; was 
afterward constructing and consulting engineer 
for water supply and sewerage works in the 
United States, Canada and South America, in 
cluding Boston, New York City, Philadelphia, 
Baltimore, Washington, Chicago, San Fran 
cisco, Buffalo, Cleveland, Columbus, Indianap 
olis, Atlanta, Montgomery, New Orleans, Los 
Angeles, Tacoma, Victoria, Ottawa, Toronto, 
and many other smaller cities. Since 1891 Mr. 
Hering has been a member of the firm of 
Hering & Fuller, consulting engineers and san 
itary experts. In 1906 he received the honor 
ary degree of Doctor of Science from the Uni 
versity of Pennsylvania. He is a member and 
was vice-president of the American Society of 
Civil Engineers; a member of the Canadian 
Society of Civil Engineers, Institution of Civil 
Engineers of Great Britain, Boston Society of 
Civil Engineers, Franklin Institute of Phila 
delphia, Western Society of Civil Engineers, 
American Water Works Association, American 
Public Health Association, Verein Deutscher 
Ingenieure of Berlin, and of the Century Club, 
New York City, an honorary member of New 
England Water Works Association, and fel 
low of the American Academy of Sciences. 
Mr. Hering was president of the Philadelphia 
Engineers Club. He has been married twice; 

his first marriage, to Miss Fannie Field Greg 
ory, occurred in 1873; two children were the 
issue of this union, Oswald C., born in 1874, 
and Ardo, born in 1880. His second marriage, 
to Miss Hermine Buchheim, occurred in 1894; 
the children of this union are: Dorothea, born 
in 1895; Paul E., born in 1898; and Margaret, 
born in 1902. Mr. Hering resides at No. 40 
Lloyd Place, Montclair, NJ. The offices of 
his firm are at No. 170 Broadway, New York 

chant, was born of German parents on May 
17, 1844, at New Brunswick, N.J., and educated 
in public and private schools. At the age of 
fifteen he began his business career with the 
dry goods firm of J. W. Page & Co., of New 
York City, and remained with them until 1861, 
when he secured a position with a banking and 
brokerage house in Wall Street. Later on, he 
was for a time in the leather business and in 
the South American trade, until he entered 
the employ of the Singer Sewing Machine Co. 
Here he rose rapidly, mastering the vast busi 
ness of this great corporation so thoroughly, 
and gaining the confidence of the directors to 
such an extent, that a little more than ten 
years ago he was elected secretary, and has 
served in that capacity ever since. Mr. Har- 
denbergh is so thoroughly devoted to his du 
ties, and the interests he has in charge are so 
extensive, that the time he can use for recrea 
tion is naturally limited. He is, however, fond 
of yachting, being a member of the New York 
Yacht Club and the Larchmont Yacht Club. 
He attends the Dutch Reformed Church. In 
politics, Mr. Hardenbergh is an independent, 
following his own judgment, and not bound 
by party ties. He was married, on April 15, 
1879, to Miss Louise Finch, and has two sons, 
Ambrose and Thomas E., Jr., and one daugh 
ter, Hildegarde. 

BERNARD G. AMEND, wholesale drug mer 
chant, was born in Hessen-Darmstadt, Germany, 
in 1821, and after receiving his preliminary edu 
cation in the schools of his native country, 
studied chemistry at the Polytechnic School. He 
graduated after passing through the prescribed 
courses, laying the foundation for the thorough 
mastery of this branch of human knowledge 
that has distinguished him during his whole 
career. After leaving school he held several 
positions with prominent drug houses in Ger 
many, but decided to emigrate to America in 
order to find a larger field for the knowledge he 







had acquired and the ability he possessed. He 
arrived in New York City on July 10, 1848, after 
a passage of fifty-three days in a sailing vessel, 
and settled immediately in the same district that 
has remained his home for sixty years. He 
found employment with Dr. William H. Milnor. 
who had established a pharmacy at the corner 
of Eighteenth Street and Third Avenue, in order 
to supply his patients with pure drugs. Mr. 
Amend took charge of the store, while Dr. 
Milnor devoted his time to the practice of medi 
cine. In 1851 Mr. Amend, together with Mr. 
Louis Gail, purchased the business, and it was 
conducted under the firm name of Gail & Amend 
until 1856, when Mr. Gail withdrew in order to 
engage in the manufacture of chemicals. At 
the invitation of Mr. Amend, a former school 
mate of his, Charles Eirner, now joined him and 
the firm of Eimer & Amend was formed. The 
firm name was retained, even after Mr. Eimer 
had retired in 1883 and the concern had been 
incorporated with Bernard G. Amend as presi 
dent, and his sons, Otto P., Robert F. and 
Charles A. L., as well as his nephew, Edward 
B. Amend, as directors. Later Mr. August 
Eimer, a nephew of Mr. Amend s old partner, 
became a director, and the present officers are : 
Bernard G. Amend, president ; August Eimer, 
vice-president ; Robert F. Amend, treasurer, and 
Otto P. Amend, secretary. The partnership con 
tract with Mr. Eimer had been a verbal one, 
based entirely upon mutual confidence, and no 
written document was ever necessary between 
the two men, who worked in harmony for the 
advancement of their business. This grew stead 
ily, not only in volume, but also by the addition 
of new lines. The retail store slowly developed 
into a small jobbing concern; then drugs were 
imported, and a wholesale branch established. 
The firm was among the first to import crude 
drugs and specialties from Germany, high grade 
chemicals and Norwegian cod-liver oil. Follow 
ing a suggestion from members of the old Acad 
emy of Science, Eimer & Amend began to im 
port laboratory glassware and other chemical 
and physical apparatus and supplies. This branch 
grew so rapidly that the two adjoining buildings 
on Third Avenue were added to find room for 
it, and the firm was soon known as the most 
important in this line. In 1886 the old buildings 
were torn down and a seven-story fireproof 
structure erected in their place, with a frontage 
of seventy-four feet on Third Avenue and eighty 
feet on Eighteenth Street. Even this building 
proved insufficient, and an extension of twenty 
feet was added in 1896, another with a frontage 
of twenty-three feet in 1899, and later on an 

other annex ten stories in height. The concern 
has now a floor space of one hundred thousand 
square feet. It is known all over the world, 
and the trade is everywhere aware of the fact 
that all the rarer drugs which are not frequently 
called for and, therefore, not kept in stock by 
many concerns, can always be procured from 
Eimer & Amend. Mr. Bernard G. Amend has 
been a prominent figure in the city of New York 
for sixty years, and is known throughout the 
country for his knowledge, enterprise and many 
other qualities. A Republican in politics, but he 
has never aspired to public office. He is a 
member of the Lutheran Church, the Chemical 
Society of New York, the American Museum of 
Natural History, the Bronx Botanical Gardens, 
the New York Academy of Sciences (for forty 
years), and many other scientific, benevolent and 
social organizations. He was married in 1855 
to Miss Bertha Schenck, who died in 1903, and 
who bore him four children : Otto P., Robert F., 
Maria, now Mrs. August Eimer, and Lincoln, 
who is dead. 

OTTO P. AMEND, manufacturing chemist, 
was born on February 3, 1858, in New York 
City, in a house which stood on the site where 
his business is still carried on, at 205 Third 
Avenue. He received his education in a private 
school and the public schools, attended the School 
of Mines, Columbia College, class of 79, and 
studied chemistry at Wuerzburg and Zuerich, where 
he graduated in 1882. Returning to New York, 
he entered the firm of Eimer & Amend which 
his father had founded in 1851, under the firm 
name of Gail & Amend, and which had been 
changed later to Eimer & Amend. Since 1897 
it has been a corporation and known all over the 
world, with connections wherever the white man 
has penetrated. It buys as well as sells in al 
most every known country on the face of the 
globe, and deals not only with individuals, but 
with governments and officials, boards of health, 
and others. When joining the firm, Mr. Otto 
P. Amend had to start at the lowest rung of 
the ladder, and was not advanced until he could 
show to the satisfaction of his father and uncle 
that he had learned all that was to be known. 
In this way he acquired a complete mastery of 
all the details connected with a business concern 
of such magnitude and world-wide ramifications, 
and became finally fully prepared to take his 
place in the management. Mr. Amend has been 
a resident of New York City all his life. He 
is an independent in politics, but has never as 
pired to public office or taken an active part in 
party politics. He is a member of the Arion 


Society, the Chemists Club and the Chemical 
Society. Mr. Amend married Miss Elinor 
Ramsperger, and has three children : one son, 
Carl G., who studied chemistry at Columbia, 
taking the post-graduate course, and being grad 
uated in 1908, and two daughters, Ottilie and 

AUGUST EIMER, pharmacist and manu 
facturing chemist, was born at Darmstadt, 
Germany, on November 10, 1853, and received 
his first education in a private school. He 
then attended the government school at his 
birthplace, and finally studied pharmacy and 
chemistry at the Polytechnic School at Zurich, 
Switzerland, graduating at the age of nine 
teen. While studying he served as an ap 
prentice in a pharmacy for three years, in 
order to master thoroughly the practical side 
of his profession. In 1873 Mr. Eimer came 
to the United States and joined the firm of 
Eimer & Amend, Mr. C. Eimer being his 
uncle. .Here he started from the bottom, 
familiarizing himself with every detail of the 
business which had sprung from a small be 
ginning to such large dimensions. He estab 
lished the department for the sale of chemical 
apparatus, which grew so rapidly that shortly 
after its inauguration a whole building had to 
be devoted to this branch of the business 
alone. It became quickly known that any and 
every kind of chemical apparatus, in fact, any 
thing needed in the laboratory, could be pro 
cured from Eimer & Amend; the firm either 
manufactures or keeps in stock whatever is 
known in this line. Together with Geo. F. 
Seward, James Turner Morehead and A. 
Neresheimer, Mr. Eimer formed, in 1898, a 
company with the object of making rare met 
als by electricity, furnishing, for instance, 
chromium metal to the Carnegie, the Bethle 
hem, and the Midvale Steel companies for the 
manufacture of material for steel armor for 
the new Navy. The advantage by this process 
has brought the cost of chromium down to 
twenty-five cents per pound formerly several 
hundred dollars per pound. This company 
had two plants and sold out after a success 
ful career extending over ten years. Mr.- 
Eimer was one of the pioneers in electro 
metallurgy, and blazed the way which since 
then many have followed. Mr. Eimer is fond 
of healthful amusements and recreation. He 
is a member of the Lutheran Church, and a 
Republican in politics; also a member of the 
Arion Society and the German Liederkranz, 
as well as of the Chemists Club. He was 

married, on September 19, 1877, to Miss Mary 
S. Amend, and has four children : A. O., who 
is with the National City Bank; Walter R. 
and Carl, students at Columbia University, 
and Miss Elsa Eimer. Ever since coming to 
New York, Mr. Eimer has lived in the imme 
diate vicinity of his business, and resides at 
present at 30 Irving Place. 

WALTHER LUTTGEN, banker, was born 
at Solingen, Rhenish Prussia, Germany, on 
January 7, 1839, and received his education in 
public and private schools, partly in Europe and 
partly in America. He came to the United 
States in September, 1854, and almost imme 
diately after leaving school entered the bank 
ing house of August Belmont & Co. as junior 
clerk. This was in November, 1859, and how 
thoroughly he gained the good-will of his em 
ployers by his devotion to the interests he was 
intrusted with, showing at the same time that 
he deserved unlimited confidence, is best 
proven by the fact that four years later, at the 
age of twenty-four, Mr. Liittgen was appoint 
ed one of the procurationists, giving him the 
right to sign the firm s name. He continued 
to rise steadily, and greater responsibility was 
placed upon his shoulders, but he always re 
sponded cheerfully. Having such a complete 
mastership of the large interests and opera 
tions of the firm, in 1880 he was admitted to 
partnership with the elder August Belmont, 
the founder of the house, and after his death 
with his son, August Belmont, the two con 
stituting the firm of August Belmont & Co. 
Mr. Liittgen is a Democrat in politics, but has 
never held or sought public office, with the ex 
ception of small local offices in the rural com 
munities in which he lived, and where a highly 
developed sense of civic duty prompted him 
to devote himself to the betterment of public 
affairs. He has taken much interest in yacht 
ing, and is a member of the New York Yacht 
Club, Seawanhaka, Atlantic, and Columbia 
Yacht clubs, also of the Deutsche Verein, 
Lawyers Club, Downtown Club, Railway Club, 
and formerly of the Arion Society, besides 
many other social and charitable organizations. 
As a director of the Illinois Central Railroad, 
he has taken an active part in the management 
of that corporation. Mr. Liittgen was mar 
ried, on May 23, 1866, to Miss Amelia Victoria 
Bremcyer, and has one daughter, Florence 
Amelia, while another, Gertrude Marion, is 
dead. He is without question one of those 
German-Americans who are held in universal 
esteem, and whose success has been the result 







of their own sterling qualities; for this reason 
he is acknowledged by all as the natural out 
come of a most fortunate combination of su 
perior gifts and an exceptionally fine char 

AUGUST HEIDRITTER (deceased), lumber 
merchant, and founder of the largest lumber es 
tablishment at Elizabeth, N. J., was a son of 
Deidrich Heidritter, who for many years was a 
member of the Hamburg Senate. The Heidrit- 
ters trace their ancestry back to an early period, 
and the branch that settled at Hamburg was 
only a part of a family whose standing was the 
best among the old German houses in that sec 
tion of the country. There the subject of this 
sketch was born February 3, 1820, and no ex 
pense was spared by his father to equip him 
with an education such as all Germans possess 
when properly educated. He attended private 
schools, graduating at the age of seventeen, a pro 
ficient scholar in every way ; he spoke French 
fluenty. His father being a cabinet maker and 
lumber merchant, decided that his son should 
take up that trade, and he was trained accord 
ingly. After having spent three years in this 
way, he planned a trip to Brazil, South America, 
for business purposes ; on the way to that coun 
try he stopped at New York. During his so 
journ in that city his father died and his South 
American trip was abandoned. Mr. Heidritter 
then decided to remain in New York, but before 
settling permanently he traveled through the 
states studying conditions and mastering the 
language. Upon his return to Xew York he 
engaged in the cabinet making business. He was 
only twenty-two years of age at that time ; owing 
to the new conditions, under which he was seek 
ing success, this first venture was a failure. He 
then entered the employ of John J. Meeks, New 
York City, as cabinet maker, and remained in 
this position up to the age of thirty-five. Dur 
ing that period he spent his time to good ad 
vantage, saving money and looking about. His 
next venture was a general store at Elizabeth, 
N.J. This marked the beginning of a most suc 
cessful career. He continued his store business 
until the founding of his lumber house in 1860. 
He associated with him in business as a part 
ner Jacobez B. Cooley, which was continued until 
1867. Mr. Heidritter was constantly enlarging 
his interests, and at the time of his death in 1893 
his house had the distinction of being one of 
the largest of its kind in the country. Through 
his strict adherence to high business ideals all 
his trade came unsolicited. The reputation he 
had built up was synonymous to honor. In poli 

tics, Mr. Heidritter was a Democrat. He was 
a man of a retiring disposition and modest tastes. 
He worshiped at the German Lutheran Church, 
and was not affiliated with any clubs or societies. 
He was united in marriage to Miss Hannah 
Bertram, of Hanover, Germany. The following 
children have blessed the union : Louisa, who be 
came Mrs. Roth (deceased) ; Hannah (Mrs. 
Walters), Mary A., (Mrs. Bickel) ; Isabella, 
(Mrs. Poppengo) ; Frederick L., and August, 
Jr. All reside at Elizabeth, N.J. 

chant, eldest son of the late August Heidritter, 
Sr., was born January 25, 1851, at Elizabeth, N.J. , 
and it was there he attended the public schools 
and Pingry Institute. He entered his father s 
employ in 1867, and by close application mast 
ered all the details pertaining to the lumber trade. 
His business education was of a practical char 
acter, and it was not long before he had reached 
the top of the enterprise, which his father 
founded in 1860. After the death of his father 
the responsibilities connected with the business 
were taken up by Mr. Frederick Heidritter and 
a partnership between himself and his brother 
August was consummated shortly thereafter. The 
personalities of both men made such an impres 
sion that their interests grew year by year. They 
have found it necessary to curtail many of their 
operations and confine themselves to their local 
plant, where over one hundred and fifty men are 
given employment. They own five four-masted 
schooners, carrying from seven hundred, to fif 
teen hundred tons each. The Heidritters at one 
time operated seven saw mills and owned over 
two hundred and twenty-five square miles of 
timber lands at Quebec, Canada. They had mills 
in Kentucky, Arkansas, Florida and Quebec. 
However, all these interests have been elimin 
ated and to-day the Heidritter Brothers estab 
lishment has reached the acme of success, after 
having been founded by August Heidritter, Sr., 
along lines of principle that characterized the 
men of olden days. The subject of this sketch 
has always been a stanch Cleveland Democrat. 
He always takes a keen interest in all matters 
of a local character, and at one time he was 
nominated for mayor of Elizabeth, the citi 
zens realizing the character and worth of 
the man. The opposing party, however, was 
too strong. Mr. Heidritter is president of the 
Elizabethport Banking Company; a director of 
the National State Bank, and a director of the 
Elizabethtown Water Company. He has been 
a trustee for several years of the Pingry Schools ; 
and is also one of the Elizabeth General Hos- 


pital managers. On December 16, 1880, he mar 
ried Miss Anna R. Stratemeyer. 

AUGUST HEIDRITTER, JR., is a prominent 
lumber merchant, residing at Elizabeth, N.J., 
where he was born March 23, 1856. He is the 
second son of the late August Heidritter, who 
for many years was one of the leading lumber 
men of the country. The subject of this sketch 
received part of his education in the public 
schools of Elizabeth and graduated from the 
Pingry School at the age of eighteen. His father 
had built up a large and lucrative business by 
that time, and it was under his careful train 
ing that August was fitted for the responsibilities 
that came later in life. Mr. Heidritter, Sr., was 
a genuine type of the old school, and believed 
that successful careers could only be rounded 
out by close application and a thorough knowl 
edge of a chosen vocation. It was under these 
conditions that his sons were trained, and since 
the time of his death, in 1893, the large inter 
ests he had established during his life time have 
been ably administrated by the two surviving 
sons. At the age of 21 years Mr. Heidritter be 
came a partner, and has continued as such up to 
the present time. He has contributed greatly to 
the success the firm is enjoying to-day. Mr. 
Heidritter is not a club man, giving a greater 
portion of his leisure moments to his business 
interests. He is a member of the United States 
Lumberman s Association; the Building Mater 
ial Club of Newark, N.J., and a director of the 
Elizabethport Bank ; on July 8, 1909, he was 
elected vice-president of the last-named institu 
tion. On May 28, 1879, Mr. Heidritter was 
united in marriage to Miss Hannah Binger. One 
daugher, now Mrs. Louisa Wolff, has blessed 
the union. 

HERMAN SIMON, silk manufacturer, with a 
plant of great magnitude located at Union Hill, 
N.J., and a larger one at Easton, Pa., was born 
at Frankfort-on-Main, April 29, 1850. His early 
education was received in his native city and 
completed at Hassel s Institute ; he took an ex 
tended course at the Royal Weaving School, lo 
cated at Mulheim-on-Rhine. Here he received 
the knowledge that so ably fitted him for his 
subsequent career, that of a silk manufacturer. 
He came to this country in 1868, and after sev 
eral connections in his line of trade, engaged in 
manufacturing on his own account with his 
brother Robert. The two plants owned stand as 
monuments to the energy that has always char 
acterized him. Mr. Simon is a resident of Eas 
ton, Pa., and is affiliated with the Republican 

Party. He was one of the Presidential electors 
during the election of 1908, representing the 
Twenty-sixth Congressional District of Pennsyl 
vania. Aside from his gigantic business inter 
ests, Mr. Simon finds time to identify himself 
with the Episcopal Church. He is a thirty-second 
Degree Mason ; a member of the German Club 
of Hoboken, the Deutcher Verein of New York, 
Metropolitan Museum of Art, Arkwright Club, 
and the Pomfret Club of Easton, Pa. 

ROBERT SIMON, deceased, formerly a silk 
manufacturer, was born at Frankfort-on-Main, 
November 9, 1852. He received a careful edu 
cation at Hassel s Institute, a celebrated schoo = 
of his native city, and at the Royal School of 
Weaving at Mulheim-on-Rhine. In 1870 Mr. 
Simon came to America, where he continued to 
reside up to the time of his death, in 1901. 
He was for many years associated with his 
brother, Herman Simon, engaged in the manu 
facture of silk, with extensive plants located at 
Union Hill, N.J., and Easton, Pa. During his 
life time Mr. Simon was always affiliated with the 
Republican Party. He was a member of the 
German Reformed Church, but never took any 
interest in club life. He contributed liberally to 
all charitable causes, and was a man greatly be 
loved by all who enjoyed his acquaintance. 

gust 5, 1868, in the city of New York, of which 
he has been a life-long resident. His father, 
Joseph Koelble, was for many years the Ver- 
trauensmarin in charge of Catholic Germans 
arriving at Castle Garden. Mr. Koelble re 
ceived his early education at the parochial 
school of the Most Holy Redeemer, and in 
1885 was graduated from Canisius College, 
conducted at Buffalo, N.Y., by the Jesuit 
Fathers, with the degree of A.B. He then 
took up newspaper work, being employed as 
a reporter and correspondent for various New 
York dailies. While attached to an evening 
newspaper he attended the evening class of the 
New York Law School, from which he was 
graduated in 1897 at the head of his class, and 
with the degree of LL.B. Admitted to the Bar 
the same year, he has since been actively en 
gaged in the practice of law, except for a 
three months service as a war correspondent 
in Cuba during the Spanish-American War of 
1898. In 1903 Mr. Koelble was appointed pri 
vate secretary to Mr. Justice Amend of tho 
Supreme Court. He has been very active in 
organizations; among those to which he be 
longs are the Catholic Club, Arion, New York- 



OF -. 






County Lawyers Association, St. Francis 
Xavier Alumni Sodality, Caecilien Gesang Ver- 
ein, Fidelia Gesang Verein, Katholischer Saen- 
gerbund, Catholic Benevolent Legion, Knights 
of Columbus and St. Joseph s Society. In 
1906 Mr. Koelble was elected first vice-presi 
dent of the American Federation of Catholic 
Societies, and in that year represented that 
body and the German Catholic Central Verein 
of North America, the national organization 
of German-speaking Catholics, at the Katho- 
liken Tag (or Congress of the Catholics of 
Germany) at Essen, Germany. His father at 
Bamberg in 1868 was the first American to 
represent the Catholic Germans of this coun 
try at a Katholiken Tag, and Mr. Koelble had 
the distinction of representing all the Catholic 
Americans at such a congress. In 1907 Mr. 
Koelble took the initiative in organizing the 
New York State Federation of Catholic So 
cieties and was its first president. That same 
year, as would be expected of one of his Ger 
man origin, he represented the New York 
County Federation of Catholic Societies be 
fore the Board of Aldermen, and warmly ad 
vocated the passage of the so-called Doull 
ordinance which was designed to conform the 
Sunday laws to the needs of a cosmopolitan 
community like New York. In politics Mr. 
Koelble is a Democrat, but he actively sup 
ported Governor Hughes in his efforts to sup 
press racetrack gambling, advocating the meas 
ure incorporating the Republican Governor s 
views before a joint committee of the Legis 
lature in 1908, as the representative of both 
the New York County Federation of Catholic 
Societies and the Federation of Churches and 
Christian Organizations in New York City, 
being the first Catholic in the history of the 
State to represent Protestant bodies in a pub 
lic capacity. In 1"908 Mr. Koelble relinquished 
active interest in all other organizations, to 
devote his entire energy to the formation and 
development of the German American Cit 
izens League of the State of New York. As 
expressed by Mr. Koelble, who has been the 
president of the League since its organization 
in May, 1908, the League is timely and neces 
sary, as it is the first organization of large 
potentiality which is not limited in its mem 
bership to German-speaking Americans of Ger 
man origin, but which is designed to bring the 
German-speaking and the non-German-speak 
ing German-Americans together, and by their 
united efforts in fields of activity, not confined 
to such as affect German-Americans directly, 
to widen the German-American influence. The 

League expects particularly to attract such of 
the younger German-Americans as no longer 
speak the German language or so imperfectly 
that they not only keep aloof from so-called 
German organizations, but are fast losing, if 
they have not already lost, their German- 
American sympathies. Mr. Koelble has often 
publicly declared that for such loss those of 
the German-Americans who were so exclu 
sively German as to repel rather than to con 
ciliate the younger German-Americans, must 
bear a large responsibility, and that another 
cause of such defection was the failure of the 


German-Americans, as a body, to achieve that 
distinction or acquire that influence in the 
community at large worthy of their character 
and ability, and which would have aroused in 
the younger German-American a sense of pride 
in his German origin, and a willingness and 
desire no less to have a part in German-Amer 
ican activities than a share in the power and 
prestige resulting therefrom. Accordingly, 
while the German language is preferred as 
the official language of the League, and its use 
and cultivation is one of the cardinal purposes 
of the organization, the English language is 
otherwise of equal rank with the German. 
This it is expected will clear the way for the 
non-German-speaking German-Americans to 
affiliate with an organization in which they 
can take an active interest without possessing 



great familiarity with the German language, 
and through such affiliation, though the lan 
guage of their fathers be lost to them, they 
will still remain a part of the German-Amer 
ican element and retain their sympathy with 
German-American ideals and aspirations. The 
founders of the League recognize that the 
public activities of the German-Americans 
were, in the past, circumscribed by their lack 
of mastery of the language of the country, 
but they believe now that this condition has 
been largely remedied a proper appreciation 
of the duties of good citizenship should arouse 
in the German-Americans a greater interest in 
public matters than they are credited with hav 
ing displayed in years past. They believe that 
the citizen of German origin is at least as well 
qualified to discharge public responsibilities as 
the native born or the citizen of any other 
nationality and that the unwillingness or ap 
parent inability of German-Americans to se 
cure their just share of public honors tends 
greatly to lessen their influence and their pres 
tige. Hence the dominating paragraph of the 
declaration of principles of the German- 
American Citizens League is the following: 
"To stimulate citizens of German origin to en 
large their activities in public affairs, and to 
secure in the administration thereof a repre 
sentation commensurate with their numbers, 
character, and ability." Mr. Koelble on June 
29, 1907, married Edna Mary O Connor, the 
daughter of William O Connor, of Wellsboro, 

PHILIP DIEHL, mechanical and electrical 
engineer, was born in January, 1847, at Dalsheim, 
Rhine Hession, Germany. His preliminary edu 
cation was begun at Dalsheim, and he was gradu 
ated from the Technical School at Darmstadt. 
In 1869 he came to America, and for the past 
thirty-four years has resided at Elizabeth, N.J. 
In politics he is a Republican, but has never 
sought or held a public office. He is a charter 
member of the Electrical Engineering and mem 
ber of the New York Electrical societies. In 
1873 Mr. Diehl married Miss Emilie Loos, to 
whom one daughter, now Mrs. Clara Keppler, 
was born. 

EDWARD HORNBOSTEL, merchant and 
banker, was born on July 1, 1841, in Lauen- 
burg, the descendant of one of the oldest 
families of that country, whose lineage can be 
traced back for five hundred years. Mr. Horn- 
bostel received his education at the gymna 
sium, and graduated at the early age of six 

teen. In 1857 he decided to emigrate to the 
United States, and engaged in commercial 
business, later on becoming connected with 
the banking and brokerage business in the 
Wall Street district, with which he was iden 
tified until his death. Soon after his arrival 
he took up his residence in Brooklyn, where 
he had a large acquaintance, being a member 
of the Lutheran Church, and finding social 
diversion in the Germania Club. He was a 
member of the New York Stock Exchange for 
twenty-five years, and of the Consolidated 
Stock Exchange from 1894. A Democrat in 
politics, he never held or aspired for public 
office, but limited himself to taking an inter 
est in public affairs as a citizen who had the 
welfare of his country at heart. Mr. Horn- 
bostel was married, in September, 1866, to 
Miss Johanna Cassebeer. His eldest son, 
Henry F. Hornbostel, is one of the foremost 
architects of New York City, with an office 
in William Street, whose business activity ex 
tends over a large part of the United States, 
and who is connected with some of the largest 
enterprises in his line. Another son, E. H. 
Hornbostel, is connected with the Germania 
Life Insurance Company, and the third is 
serving with the United States Artillery in 
the Philippine Islands. One daughter, Marie, 
is living with her family. 

PAUL C. SCHNITZLER, lawyer, was born 
at Mannheim, in Baden, and received his edu 
cation at the gymnasium at Karlsruhe. After 
graduating he studied law at the universities 
of Heidelberg and Leipsic, receiving the degree 
of LL.D. from the faculty of the last-named 
institution. He was soon after admitted to the 
Bar in Germany, and later appointed Amtsrich- 
ter at Lahr in Baden. In 1893 Dr. Schnitzler 
decided to emigrate to America, and settled 
in New York City, where he was admitted to 
the Bar of the State of New York as soon as 
he had become an American citizen, in 189_8. 
Since then he has been engaged in active prac 
tice, and is known as an authority on German 
law, international law, and especially on all 
questions arising out of the difference between 
the laws of the United States and the German 
Empire. He has written a treatise on Ameri 
can law in the German language, which was 
published under the title: "Wegweiser fur den 
Rechtsverkehr zwischen Deutschland und den 
Vereinigten Staaten," by Otto Liebmann of 
Berlin, and has reached a second edition. It 
is considered a standard work on the subject. 
In spite of his large practice and the heavy 







demands made upon him by his activity in this 
direction, and although a close student of 
everything worthy of attention in the realm of 
literature and art, Dr. Schnitzler finds time for 
social diversion. He is a member of the New 
York Bar Association, the German Club, Ger 
man Liederkranz, New York Athletic Club, 
and many other social and charitable organiza 
tions, including the Deutsch-Amerikanische 
Schulverein, of which he is treasurer. 

now and then that enough of unusual interest 
and action can be found to make the life of any 
one prominent above the restless surging of the 
present age. But some there are who, catching 
the first flood of the tide of our modern life, 
have so well understood its direction and so in 
dustriously and successfully kept abreast of it, 
that they fairly epitomize the movement and 
become it s exponents. To such a life the sub 
ject of this sketch introduces us. For several 
generations the ancestry of Warren T. Diefen- 
dorf were inhabitants of Schoharie and Mont 
gomery counties. He was born at Sharon 
Springs, N.Y., March 8, 1860. His business 
career began as clerk in a dry goods store at 
Fort Plain, N.Y. By untiring industry and strict 
attention to business, he soon became an equal 
partner, the firm being then known as Cook & 
Diefendorf. At the early age of twenty-three, 
he organized the Garment Manufacturing Co., 
whose product was well known throughout the 
United States. In 1887 he disposed of his varied 
interests and entered, unreservedly and free, the 
life insurance field, as a special representative of 
the Mutual Life Insurance Company of New 
York. In that capacity he traveled in several 
states east of the Mississippi River, and since 
1889 has been manager of the Brooklyn and 
Long Island agency of this well-known company. 
Mr. Diefendorf has long been a prominent mem 
ber of the Methodist Episcopal Church, toward 
the maintenance of which he has contributed 
very liberally. He is at present a director of 
the Borough Bank of Brooklyn, the Kings 
County Mortgage Co., the Country Investing Co. 
of New York, the Navahoe Realty Co. of New 
York, and the Island Cities Real Estate Co., of 
Brooklyn. He is a thirty-second degree Mason, 
a Knight of Pythias, and a member of the 
Brooklyn League. He is also a member of the 
Riding and Driving, Brooklyn and Crescent Ath 
letic clubs of Brooklyn, the Economic Club of 
New York, and the Men s, Mt. Vernon, N.Y. 
On January 25, 1887, he married Miss Louisa 
Edwards Slocumb. They have three children 

living, Mabel S. Diefendorf, Warren Edwin 
Diefendorf, and Edith Louisa Diefendorf. 

JOSEPH KUDER, piano manufacturer, was 
born in Austria, April 26, 1831. His early edu 
cation was obtained in the public schools and 
the gymnasium. He was graduated from the 
latter institution at the age of fourteen years. 
After leaving school he apprenticed himself 
to a manufacturer of pianos at Vienna. The 
apprenticeship lasted for five years. From 
1845 to 1850 his services were sought by sev 
eral piano concerns of Vienna. During the 
latter part of 1854 Mr. Kuder came to New 
York City, where he obtained a position in 
the house of Messrs. Steinway & Sons. After 
filling several similar positions with other 
piano manufacturers, in 1872 he entered into a 
copartnership with Hugo Sohmer, Esq., with 
whom pleasant business relations have ever 
since existed. Mr. Kuder is a member of the 
Arion Singing Society and several other social 
organizations. He is independent in politics. 
In June, 1866, he married a Miss Greigrich, a 
native of Austria, to whom one daughter, now 
Mrs. B. Ziegler, was born. 

HON. WILLIAM SULZER, Congressman, 
was born at Elizabeth, N.J., March 18, 1863. 
Of German extraction, as his name indicates, 
Mr. Sulzer is an American in every fiber, and 
few men of his years and opportunities have 
won their spurs more brilliantly than he. His 
father, Thomas Sulzer, compelled to flee from 
Germany for active participation in the Revo 
lutionary struggles of 1848, landed in New York 
three years later, married here, and William 
was born March 18, 1863. He was educated 
in the public schools and at Columbia College, 
and was admitted to the bar as soon as he 
attained his majority. He quickly achieved 
distinction in his profession and as a. political 
orator. He stumped the states of New York, 
New Jersey and Connecticut for the Demo 
cratic National Committee in 1884 and 1888. 
In 1889 Mr. Sulzer was elected to the State 
Legislature, where his force and merit speedily 
found recognition. Not even the most impla 
cable foe of Tammany Hall ever aspersed his 
integrity, his generosity or his ability, and 
when the Democrats captured a majority of the 
Assembly in 1893, nobody was surprised to see 
him installed by the unanimous vote of his 
party colleagues in the Speaker s chair, the 
youngest man to whom such an honor had 
been accorded. That he was a conspicuous, 
fair and competent presiding officer was con- 


ceded by opponents as well as friends. He was 
always courteous, impartial and courageous. 
He has always been the champion of the 
masses and a constant and consistent friend 
of organized labor. To his clear vision and 
energy the State of New York is indebted for 
the passage of the laws providing for the state 
care of the insane, the anti-Pinkerton police 
bill, prohibiting net fishing in Jamaica Bay, 
abolishing the sweating system in the manu 
facture of clothing, establishing the women s 
reformatory, ventilating and lighting the New 
York Central Railroad tunnel in the city of 
New York, codifying the quarantine statutes 
and the military statutes, organizing free eve 
ning lectures for workingmen and working- 
women, wiping out the last vestige of imprison 
ment for debt, guaranteeing freedom of wor 
ship, providing for the Columbian celebration 
in the City of New York, and providing for the 
constitutional convention and many others 
equally vital to the liberty and comfort of the 
people, especially in the larger cities of. the 
State of New York. As a straightforward, 
conscientious champion of Jeffersonian De 
mocracy, Mr. Sulzer was elected to the Fifty- 
fourth Congress, in November, 1894, being one 
of the decimated band of Democrats who sur 
vived the tremendous tidal wave of that year. 
As a Member of Congress he has met the ex 
pectations of his friends, and made a splendid 
record of usefulness and activity in the greater 
arena of the National Legislature. He was a 
warm friend of the Cuban insurgents and 
championed their cause in several eloquent 
speeches in the House. He has always been 
found on the side of the people, and is an 
ardent supporter of all measures for the ameli 
oration and benefit of the wage earners of the 
country. He stands for equal rights to all, 
special privileges to none. He was a delegate 
to the Democratic National Convention at 
Chicago, and was a firm supporter of William 
J. Bryan for the nomination, and his eloquent 
advocate for President in the Presidential can 
vass. In 1906 he came very near receiving the 
nomination for Governor at the Buffalo State 
Convention, and was the real choice of the 
masses of the people for that office. He was 
reelected to the Fifty-fifth Congress by three 
times the majority he received in his previous 
race, and has always run ahead of his ticket. 
He is loyal, truthful, manly and honest, and 
one of the most useful Members in Congress 
from the great Empire State of New York. 
Mr. Sulzer stands over six feet in height and 
carries his weight of 185 pounds with the 

graceful ease of a trained athlete. He is too 
busy and too abstemious a man to accumulate 
useless tissue. Enviably successful in his law 
practice, he is irresistibly drawn to the arena 
of politics, where giants are the contestants. 
He is an effective and popular orator and one 
of the most active Members of the House. He 
is a prominent member of the New York Press 
Club and several other social organizations in 
the City of New York. During his terms in 
Congress he has worked hard for all measures 
in the interest of organized labor and the wage 
earners all over the country know him to be 
their friend, and are deeply grateful for what 
he has accomplished for them. During the last 
session of Congress Mr. Sulzer introduced the 
measure in which the laboring men of this 
country are so deeply interested, viz., the bill 
creating a Department of Labor, with a Secre 
tary of Labor having a seat in the Cabinet. 
This bill makes the first scientific classification 
of labor ever attempted in this country. He 
also introduced a bill creating a Department 
of Commerce. The secretary of this depart 
ment, according to the terms of the measure, 
will be given the power to regulate and control 
the corporations and trusts of the country 
doing an interstate and foreign commerce 
business. Mr. Sulzer was the earliest and the 
most earnest champion of "Cuba Libre." He 
introduced the first resolution sympathizing 
with the Cubans and the first granting bellig 
erent rights to the Cubans, also the first favor 
ing the independence of the Cubans, and the 
first declaring war against Spain. In a similar 
manner Mr. Sulzer was known and recognized 
as the champion of the Boers in Congress. He 
introduced a number of resolutions of sympa 
thy with the Boers and denounced the conduct 
of the war by the British. He is also known 
as the author of the resolution providing for 
an amendment of the Constitution of the 
United States so that United States senators 
must be elected by the people. Mr. Sulzer is 
the ranking Democratic member of the Com 
mittee on Military Affairs and Patents, and his 
committee work has been so important that it 
has attracted the attention of all the members 
fff the House. He has been an earnest advo 
cate of the measures favored by the letter 
carriers, and has introduced into every Con 
gress bills to increase and graduate their sal 
aries. Among the measures introduced by Mr. 
Sulzer may be mentioned that obliging the 
Government to pay the prevailing rate of 
wages and the bill making eight hours a legal 
workday. He also introduced the measure 







known as the anti-injunction bill. Only re 
cently a measure introduced by him providing 
for an appropriation to light the Statue of 
Liberty in New York Harbor was defeated by 
the Republicans by a narrow majority, and 
every Republican member of Congress who 
voted in favor of extinguishing Liberty s light 
is now regretting it in view of the day of 
reckoning that is coming when they face the 
people this fall. So great was the popular de 
mand for the maintenance of this light that 
President Roosevelt was obliged to take action 
after the Sulzer measure had been defeated in 
the House by Republican votes. Mr. Roose 
velt ordered the Secretary of War to provide 
the funds for the light from the monies of the 
War Department. Some men are born great, 
others have greatness thrust upon them, while 
some attain greatness by their own indefatiga 
ble efforts and their strict adherence to princi 
ple. It is to the latter class that William 
Sulzer belongs, whose loyalty to his friends, 
and whose recognized honesty and ability as a 
champion of the poor and oppressed has made 
his name a household word in America. It 
would take a small library to enumerate the 
many bills offered by him to ameliorate the 
conditions of labor, but suffice it to say that, 
with no exception, there is not a Representa 
tive in Congress who has fought so many 
battles in the face of strong opposition for the 
various bodies of organized labor as William 
Sulzer. When we add to this enviable record 
his manly fight for Liberty, for the Boers, for 
Cuban freedom, his bitter denunciation of the 
trusts, and his emphatic demand for the en 
forcement of the laws to check their rapacity, 
we but faintly outline the reasons why his 
constituents are so proud of him, and why if 
he is not selected for some higher position 
within their gift, they will undoubtedly return 
him to the one he so ably and eloquently fills, 
with credit to himself, his party and his con 
stituents. Mr. Sulzer is the friend of the plain 
people, and every toiler in the land owes him 
a debt of gratitude which never can be paid for 
all that he has done to ameliorate their 

WILLIAM B. A. JURGENS, merchant. 
The name of Jurgens has become prominently 
associated with the commercial interests of 
Greater New York, where the subject of this 
review has built up an extensive business 
through the development of his opportunities 
and straightforwardness in dealing. A native 
of Germany, he was born in the village of 

Ludingworth, in the province of Hanover, Au 
gust 26, 1838, and is a son of John Christian 
and Margarette (Wiebold) Jurgens, who had 
three children that reached years of maturity. 
This worthy couple were devout Christians of 
the Lutheran faith, and were respected and 
esteemed by all who knew them. In his early 
manhood the father learned the shoemaker s 
trade, which he mastered, becoming an expert 
workman. He died at the age of sixty-five 
years, and his wife departed this life in the 
fifty-third year of her age. In the schools of 
his native town, William B. A. Jurgens ac 
quired his elementary education, and under 
his father s direction he learned the shoe 
maker s trade. When in his twenty-sixth year, 
with laudable ambition and a desire to im 
prove his opportunities in life, he decided to 
seek his fortune in America, and accordingly 
embarked from Bremen Haven, landing at 
New York City on August 12, 1864, after a 
long and tedious voyage of seventy-two days. 
Having but limited capital, he at once sought 
employment, procuring a position as clerk in 
a grocery store in the Sixteenth Ward of 
Brooklyn, at the corner of Johnson and Bush- 
wick Avenues. With but twenty-five dollars 
remaining upon his arrival in this country, it 
behooved him to husband his income, and 
after three years of industrious effort, supple 
mented by economy, he was enabled to begin 
business on his own account. He then pur 
chased his employer s stock and fixtures at 
Boerum and Humbolt Streets, giving a verbal 
promise to pay for the same. By his perse 
verance and thrift, he was soon enabled to 
liquidate the obligation, and two years later 
added to his store a wholesale department. 
In this feature of the establishment he soon 
met with a marked degree of success, and in 
1873 purchased the building he then occupied. 
His patronage rapidly increased in volume, 
and it was soon found necessary to secure 
larger facilities, so that he made additions 
from time to time up to 1891, when the volume 
of his trade necessitated more extensive quar 
ters, and he removed his store to a spacious 
building in the Wallabout Market, at the cor 
ner of Flushing Avenue and Ryerson Street. 
This building was destroyed by fire December 
17, 1892, but Mr. Jurgens immediately after 
ward erected the large and commodious build 
ing which he now occupies, anad since that 
time he has cared for a trade amounting an 
nually to more than three million dollars. All 
this is the result of unflagging industry, good 
judgment and straightforward business meth- 


ods, and his life record is a splendid proof of 
what may be accomplished in this land where 
effort and opportunities are open to all, and 
where prosperity rewards earnest purpose and 
indefatigable labor. Mr. Jurgens is a man of 
domestic tastes, and finds his greatest happi 
ness in his home, which is pleasantly located 
at No. 924 Bushwick Avenue, Brooklyn, N.Y. 
He was married October 12, 1867, to Miss 
Christine Sophie Rhode, who was born August 
4, 1846, and is a daughter of Peter H. and 
Catherine Rebecca (Knopp) Rhode, both of 
whom were born in the Province of Hanover, 
Germany, in the village of Ahlienworth, where 
also occurred the birth of Mrs. Jurgens. 
Unto our subject and his wife were born ten 
children, of whom the following reached years 
of maturity: Herman P. C., who died Novem 
ber 12, 1898, at the age of 17 years; Josephine 
Auguste, who was married to Herbert Ricker 
of Brooklyn, and died April 5, 1896, at the 
age of 24 years, leaving one child, Gladys 
Josephine; William H. C., who married Laura 
C. Bogel, and died November 1, 1900, at the 
age of 27 years, leaving a son, William B. A., 
named in honor of his grandfather; Sophie 
M. R., the wife of Charles H. Bogel of Brook 
lyn; and Maria R., now married to John S. 
Bauer, M.D., 984 Bushwick Avenue. Mr. Jur 
gens is a member of the Lutheran Church, 
and has been a willing contributor to all char 
itable enterprises in his neighborhood and to 
all movements for the general good. His life 
record is in every way commendable and 
worthy of emulation. 

CHARLES SCHNEIDER (expert investiga 
tor). The law s delays, of which we hear so 
much in these days, would be greater and more 
aggravating were it not for the superb and spec 
ialized labors of the members of a profession 
whose daily and marvelous achievements are 
little known to the general public. The private 
detective of high character, of ability and in 
tegrity, is the power behind the legal throne. His 
genius supplies the lawyer s eloquence ; his evi 
dence reveals the truth to judge and jury; he is, 
in brief, the right hand of justice. In the front 
rank of those who have placed this profession 
in the position to which it is rightfully entitled 
is Mr. Charles Schneider, who, while to-day but 
thirty-three years of age, has already achieved 
a distinction second to none in the American 
metropolis or in the famous detective forces of 
London and Paris. Mr. Schneider was born at 
No. 436 East Seventeenth Street, New York City, 
on August 7, 1876, and his home life has ever 

been associated with that section of the metro 
polis having Stuyvesant Square as its heart. In 
this historic and picturesque region of the great 
city his ancestors for generations were merchants 
and property owners. On both sides he is of 
German descent, tracing his German ancestry 
back to four generations. His parents (both 
living), are Charles A., born at New York, Octo 
ber 19, 1845, and Henrietta (Falkenmayer) 
Schneider, born at New York, July 21, 1852. 
His father was the inventor and manufacturer 
of felt wick. The grandfather of the subject of 
this sketch was of old German stock and was 
known as "Traugott Lebreght Schneider" (Trust 
worthy Livelong Schneider). He was born in 
Saxony, Germany, October 4, 1809. When he 
settled in New York City, he established the 
largest hat manufacturing plant at that time, at 
No. 436 East Seventeenth Street. During the 
war he made military hats for the troops of New 
York. Mr. Schneider was united in marriage to 
Miss Henrietta Hartmann, who was born at 
Kanton Bern, Switzerland, November 13, 1818 
and died June 24, 1897. At the time of Mr. 
Schneider s death, April 17, 1874, New York 
City turned out in force to honor his memory. 
He was affiliated with the Free Masons, No. 82 
and the Odd Fellows. Both bodies were strongly 
represented at this funeral, one of the largest ever 
held in the city. On the maternal side, the 
parents were of the same German stock of 
good standing. The father, Ferdinand Falken 
mayer, was born in 1816 at Langewinkel Duke 
dom, Nassau, Germany, and for many years was 
Director (Mayor) of Saline, Theodorsalle Kre- 
winach, Germany, where he met and married 
Nannette Egert, born at Saline, Germany, Octo 
ber 18, 1822 and died September 30, 1889. When 
Mr. Falkenmayer settled in New York he es 
tablished a cabinet factory before the war at No. 
175 Suffolk Street. At the conclusion of the 
war, he opened a factory on Nineteenth Street, 
between Avenue A and First Avenue. Through 
out the campaign he served as first-sergeant, 
41st Regiment, N.Y. Company K, and received 
his discharge papers June 16, 1862. He died Au 
gust 23, 1873, in his fifty-seventh year, in New 
^York City. The educational training of the 
subject of this review was received at Grammar 
School No. 19, in East Fourteenth Street from 
which he graduated at fourteen years of age, 
later attending the Packard Business College. 
He also attended the Thirtieth Street Evening 
High School. While attending Public School, 
he took a course at the German Turn Verein, 
located in East Fourth Street and there he stud 
ied the German language and other subjects. He 


concluded his educational course by attending 
the ornamental drawing class at Cooper Union. 
He received a diploma from this institution and 
honorable mention for the Advancement of 
Science and Art in Ornamental Drawing, Term 
of 1892, 1893, and 1894. His business career had 
its conception in the employ of Tiffany and Com 
pany, at that time located in Union Square, 
where he received a weekly salary of one dollar 
and fifty cents while learning the gold and sil 
versmith s trade at the factory in Prince Street, 
and in their various departments he obtained a 
knowledge of men and of human nature that 
was later of great value to him in his chosen 
profession. He received a diploma from Tiffany 
and Company as an apprentice for gold and sil 
versmith work covering four years and six 
months, dated August 8, 1896. In 1900 he as 
sociated himself as an investigator with the late 
Detective Sergeant Charles Heidelberg and short 
ly thereafter he established himself independently, 
founding the Commercial Detective Bureau at 
No. 206 Broadway. The success of this insti 
tution was immediate, its growth in scope and 
importance rapid, and three years later it was 
occupying its present admirable quarters in the 
Lords Court Building at No. 27 William Street, 
On the twenty-fifth of April. 1908, Mr. Schnei 
der was married at St. George s Church, in 
Stuyvesant Square, to Miss Adeline M. King, 
who was born in Norwich, N.Y. Their home is 
in the Gramercy Court Apartments at Xo. 152 
East Twenty-second Street. He is a member 
of St. George s Church and of the St. George s 
Men s Club and was one of the charter members 
of the Columbia Athletic Club. He is promi 
nent in the councils of the Republican party, and 
in 1905 was inspector of election for the Third 
Election District of the Eighteenth Assembly 
District, and this year was made a member of 
the Twelfth Assembly District Committee. In 
the business men s parade, previous to the last 
National election, he was one of the personal 
aids of Edward A. Drake, president of the Busi 
ness Men s Republican Association, and as a 
member of the Secret Service was also ap 
pointed one of the guards to the present Vice- 
President of the United States, and has received 
letters from Vice-President Sherman thanking 
him for his many courtesies extended upon that 
occasion. Mr. Schneider is a hard working, ac 
tive member of the executive committee of the 
Business Men s Republican Association. Mr. 
Schneider is the chief factor in the important 
part now played by the detective in Wall Street 
affairs. Of the life of that famous financial 
region he has become a vital and a permanent 

part. For this particular work Air. Schneider 
has organized a special department and has as 
signed to it his keenest and best trained men. 
His "operatives" practically control the high 
est grade work of the Wall Street district, in 
cluding that of the great corporation lawyers. 
He and his expert "shadows" have had their 
genius, knowledge and experience drawn upon in- 
connection with almost all the great corporate 
creations, consolidations, railroad or industrial 
mergers. The entrance of the detective into 
present day financial affairs is a matter of com 
paratively recent occurrence, but Mr. Schneider 
has already firmly established himself as the 
leader of this new feature in the business af 
fairs of men who deal in millions as the aver 
age mortal deals in modest dollars and cents. 
He has surrounded himself by operatives to 
whom he has imparted his own clearheadedness, 
patience and persistence and these men he has 
divided into groups, each of which has been de 
veloped along special lines. But, of course, the 
financial world is but one of many with which 
Mr. Schneider is thoroughly in touch. Civil, 
legal and commercial investigations are handled 
in a masterly manner by his Bureau. It shadows 
known criminals, it reveals the habits of those 
suspected. The Commercial Protective Patrol, 
which is a branch of the Bureau, safeguards 
property by the service of private watchmen, and 
it even supplies guides and companions for the 
stranger in New York. Its value in the crush 
at a public ceremony, a fashionable wedding or 
the funeral of an eminent citizen is, perhaps, 
little known, but it is inestimable, for its opera 
tives know by sight every one of importance in 
financial, business, professional and social circles 
as well as all the dangerous elements in the un 
der-world of a great city. Mr. Schneider is a 
power in a profession that has become a neces 
sity to modern life. He carries on his extensive 
business by making the first appointment with 
a client by letter only. This he has found more 
satisfactory than the telephone or personal call. 
Mr. Schneider s first dollar was earned selling 
newspapers. Then he pumped the organ in St. 
Mark s Church every Sunday for fifty cents, 
and made a little extra money running errands 
for the neighbors. He also assisted in his fa 
ther s wick factory during the leisure moments 
of his public school days. 

FERDINAND THUN, manufacturer, was 
born in Barmen, Rhenish Prussia, Germany, Feb 
ruary 14, 1866. Here he received a good educa 
tion at the Industrial High School and entered a 
business career in 1883, devoting his time and 


attention to the various lines of textile manu 
facturing for which the city of Barmen is fam 
ous. In September, 1886, he came to the United 
States and located near Reading, Pa., working 
for several years in the office of the Stony Creek 
Woolen Mills, the senior partner of which, Mr. 
Louis Kraemer, was a boyhood friend of his 
father s in Germany. From 1888 to 1889 he spent 
his time in his native city, in order to equip him 
self more thoroughly in the practical knowledge 
of the textile trade. Coming back to America, 
he occupied a position as superintendent of one 
of the leading braid manufacturing establish 
ments in New York City, until, in 1892, he de 
cided to engage in business for himself and to 
locate in Reading. With Henry Janssen, who 
was an expert machinist, also from Barmen, he 
established the firm of Thun & Janssen and en 
gaged in the manufacture of braiding machines. 
This business was afterward incorporated as 
the Textile Machine Works, and is now located 
in Wyomissing, a suburb of Reading, and has 
grown to be one of the important industries of 
that community. Mr. Thun is also president of 
the Berkshire Knitting Mills, which he was in 
strumental in organizing, and treasurer of The 
Narrow Fabric Company. All of these three 
concerns are located in Wyomissing, and em 
ploy together over 800 hands. Mr. Thun is a 
member of the Reading Board of Trade, Ameri 
can Manufacturers Association, The Hosiery 
Manufacturers Association and the Braid Manu 
facturers Association. He is also a member of 
The American Academy of Political and Social 
Science, and is interested in all questions of 
political and social economy. Formerly president 
of the Reading branch of the German-Ameri 
can Alliance, he was one of the charter mem 
bers of this association and was one of the dele 
gates at the organization meeting in Philadelphia. 
In politics, he is a Republican and holds the of 
fice of President of the Borough of Wyomissing. 
He is a member of the German Lutheran Church. 
On May 20, 1896, he married Miss Anna M. 
Grebe. Six children have been born, viz., Anna, 
Margaret, Wilma, Hildegarde, Ferdinand, Jr., 
and Louis R. 

HENRY K. JANSSEN, manufacturer, presi 
dent of the Textile Machinery Works, vice-presi 
dent of Berkshire Knitting Mills and vice-presi 
dent of Narrow Fabric Company, of Reading, 
Pa., was born at Barmen, Rhine Province. Ger 
many, February 8, 1866, where he was educated 
in the public schools. Imbued with a desire to see 
the world, he came to America, and in 1892 lo 
cated at Reading, Pa., where, he, with Ferdinand 

Thun, became engaged in the machine business 
and later in various other lines of industries, 
which to-day are among the most important in 
the list of Reading manufacturing concerns, and 
which furnish employment to an army of wage 
earners. Mr. Janssen, like his associate in busi 
ness, is a self-made man. He is a strong sup 
porter of the principles as interpreted by the 
Republican party, and is a member of the Board 
of Councilmen of the Borough of Wyomissing, 
Pa. He with his family worship at the Ger 
man Lutheran Church. He was joined in wed 
lock September 27, 1890, to Miss Minnie. Raeker. 
Three children, Harry, Minnie and Helen were 
born to the union. 

MAX DAVID STEUER was born in Homono, 
Austria, in September, 1871, and was brought bv 
his parents to this city when not quite seven years 
of age. Here he entered Grammar School No. 
22, and upon the family s removal to another part 
of the city he continued his studies at Grammar 
School No. 15. From the latter he was gradu 
ated in 1885. Immediately thereafter he matricu 
lated at the College of the City of New York, 
which has recently moved into its superb new 
home, deserting the old-time building on Twenty - 
third Street. During his sophomore year Mr. 
Steuer s family met with reverses. Giving up his 
scholastic career, he entered the general post- 
office and for two years and two months was 
connected with the foreign mail department. At 
the end of that period he tendered his resigna 
tion to the Hon. Cornelius Van Cott, the post 
master, who in response, wrote him a letter ex 
pressing regret at the severance of his association 
with the service and the hope that he would have 
a useful and successful life. That hope has been 
amply fulfilled. On the day of his resignation 
he entered the Columbia Law School and was 
graduated therefrom in June, 1893, being one of 
the prize men of his class. Upon his admission 
to the bar he entered upon a legal career that has 
been conspicuously brilliant in both honor and 
financial returns. He has frequently been mentioned 
for Judge of the Supreme Court and District 
Attorney of New York County. His ambition, 
however, is not in either direction. He is con 
tent with his large practice and an ample compe 
tence. Mr. Steuer is married. His bride was 
Miss Bertha Popkin. They have three children, 
A. Seth, Ethel and Constance. Their city resi 
dence is at 55 West Eighty-eighth Street, and 
they also have a country home on Read Lane at 
Far Rockaway. Mr. Steuer is a member of the 
noted Temple Emanu-El of New York and his 
name is on the rosters of the Progress, Railroad 






and Tamarora clubs. He is prominently asso 
ciated as member, patron or dcnor with practically 
every charity in the state. From the time of his 
admission to the bar he has given his time almost 
entirely to civil business and it is probable that 
he has tried more jury cases than any other prac 
titioner at the Bar. He has been associated with 
a few criminal trials, the most recent being his 
defence of Raymond Hitchcock. Mr. Steuer, 
whose offices are at 115 Broadway, has been from 
the time he reached legal age, an American citizen. 
Here, throughout practically all his career, his 
work has been mainly that of a counsel the try 
ing of cases for other law firms. The leaders 
of these in Xew York and throughout the nation 
he has represented, have given him a professional 
standing second to none. 

ISAAC FROMME was born in New York 
City August 4, 1854, and after being graduated 
from Grammar School No. 20 in Chrystie 
Street, in 1869, entered the College of the 
City of New York, whence he was graduated 
in 1874, with the degree of A.B. Then deter 
mining on adopting the legal profession, he 
entered Columbia Law School, and at the 
same time served in the office of a law firm 
in the city, thus acquiring at once a knowl 
edge of the theoretical and practical details of 
his chosen profession. He completed his 
studies at Columbia in May, 1876, with the 
degree of LL.B., and at once entered his pro 
fession, in which, from the first day, he has 
been successful. He now, after thirty-three 
years of active business, enjoys a large and 
lucrative practice and numbers among his 
clients the largest business and mercantile 
houses in the city, including large real estate 
interests. Mr. Fromme was elected Register 
of the County of Xew York on November 6, 
1897, and assumed the duties of his office on 
January 1, 1898. His predecessor was ham 
pered by the Reform Administration in the 
discharge of the duties of his office. When 
he went into office there were 6,000 unrecorded 
deeds and mortgages and 3,500 satisfaction 
pieces. Mr. Fromme at once set about having 
these papers recorded in a very short time, 
thus enabling him to keep up with the daily 
work of the office, returning papers left for 
record within twenty-four hours. Register 
Fromme made the office adapt itself to the 
convenience of the lawyers and real estate 
men who do business with it. He adopted the 
system of typewriting all papers left for re 
cording. As a result of his labor, Mr. Fromme 
daily received congratulatory letters from dis- 

tinguished lawyers and others interested in 
the affairs of the Register s Office. This was 
effectively voiced in an editorial in The Record 
and Guide of February 5, 1898, which said: 
"Real estate men and lawyers are already com 
menting with satisfaction upon the adminis 
tration of the new Register, Mr. Isaac Fromme. 
He has in great measure reorganized the de 
partment, in addition to establishing a much 
higher standard of requirement for his force 
than hitherto prevailed. We are able to vouch 
for the fact that now, for the first time within 
our knowledge of thirty years, the work of the 
office is completely finished every day so that 
nothing is carried over. This is a great con 
venience for lawyers and others. It proves 
what was stated in these columns when Mr. 
Fromme was nominated that the Register s 
Office can only be conducted by some one 
intimately acquainted, as Mr. Fromme is, with 
the requirements of the legal and real estate 
professions." Mr. Fromme is one of the good 
results of the late election. He established a 
system whereby anyone having business with 
the office could examine the records at any 
hour of the day or night, Sundays and holi 
days included. Mr. Fromme is the son of 
Louis and Ernestine (Freudenberger) Fromme. 
His father was born in Lippe-Detmold, and his 
mother in Auglethurm Nah Tauberbischofs- 
heim, Baden. On May 11, 1879, he married 
Sophie Abraham; to them were born the fol 
lowing children: Miriam, born 1881 (died 
1885); Murray B., born 1884; Estelle, born 
1886; Walter, born 1890; Elsie, born 1892; 
Warren V., born 1897. He organized the Con 
sumers Hygiene Ice Company, Koster & Bial s 
Music Hall, New York Butchers Dressed 
Meat Company; is attorney for Hugh O Neill, 
Union Square Bank, William H. Lyon & Co., 
etc. Was director of the Real Estate and 
Auction Room, Limited, and its secretary for 
four terms, or until the corporation was dis 
solved. Member executive committee of Tam 
many Hall, 1898-1901. Represented Seventh 
Congressional District as delegate to the Na 
tional Convention of 1900; Master of Hope 
Lodge No. 244, F. & A. M., 1888, and trustee 
of same for over twenty years; District Dep 
uty Grand Master 1897-1898, Grand Marshal 
1898-1899; Commissioner of Appeals 1900-1903; 
Grand Lodge State of Xew York; member of 
the four Scottish Rite bodies and the Mystic 
Shrine; member of Congregation Rodeph Sho- 
lom; president of Zion Lodge Independent 
Order B nai Brith; member Independent Or 
der Free Sons of Israel; governor Home for 


Aged Hebrews, Yonkers, N.Y.; member New 
York County Lawyers Association, Alumni 
College of the City of New York, represent 
ing class 1874 City College Club; member 
Progress National Democratic Club. 

AARON BUCHSBAUM was born in Wyers, 
Bavaria, June 1, 1854. He was the third son of 
Marem B. and Bertha Goldstein Buchsbaum. He 
acquired his education at the local public school, 
and at the age of thirteen years was compelled to 
start out to earn his own living. When sixteen 
years old he took passage for the United States 
on the steamer Limcric, of the Inman Line. He 
left his native country in the regular way, having 
obtained a passport for the United States. Mr. 
Buchsbaum selected passage on the steamer 
named because it was two dollars cheaper than 
any steamer that left the old country at that time. 
After a three weeks passage he landed in New 
York City, his intention being to go to Cincin 
nati; but he was stranded here and obliged to 
seek employment. Subsequently he obtained a 
position on the country estate of a prominent 
dry goods man. The duties of his new employ 
ment entailed the care of the cattle, horses and 
other live stock and general gardening, to all of 
which Mr. Buchsbaum was accustomed in the 
old country. While employed in this position 
Mr. Buchsbaum acquired a knowledge of Eng 
lish, studying at nights after his day s hard work. 
The next job he obtained was in Elizabethtown, 
N.J., in a meat market. All that was required 
of him was to kill cattle, sheep and other live 
stock, and after this work was finished to manu 
facture sausage. His duties employed his time 
from three o clock in the morning until nine 
o clock at night, and he performed most severe 
work. After a great struggle Mr. Buchsbaum 
came to New York with the little money he had 
saved and finally opened a small meat market on 
Thirty-second Street, between Ninth and Tenth 
Avenues. The neighborhood was one of the 
worst in the city, being part of what was known 
as Hell s Kitchen. On many occasions Mr. 
Buchsbaum was obliged to defend himself from 
the numerous attacks of the ruffians that infested 
the neighborhood, and not until he established 
his reputation as a man of courage and a fighter 
did these ruffians cease molesting him. On Jan 
uary 21, 1877, Mr. Buchsbaum married Karoline 
Strauss, a young lady twenty-one years old, who 
hailed from Rothenkirgen, Kurhessen, Germany, 
near the place of his birth. The property on 
which Mr. Buchsbaum carried on his first busi 
ness venture has since been acquired by the 
Pennsylvania Railroad terminus. In 1877 Mr. 

Buchsbaum started another market on Ninth Ave 
nue, between Twenty-ninth and Thirtieth Streets, 
and in 1879 opened another market at the corner 
of Thirty-ninth Street and Ninth Avenue. This 
market would have been a failure but for the 
hard work, industry and well-directed efforts of 
Mr. Buchsbaum, who turned it into the largest 
retail meat market in New York City, being 
obliged to keep open day and night. This won 
derful change was accomplished by the fair deal 
ings, strict integrity and conscientiousness of Mr. 
Buchsbaum ; his market is a feature of the West 
Side. Mr. Buchsbaum in 1885 started another 
market on Ninth Avenue, between Fiftieth and 
Fifty-first Streets. In the course of a few years 
the business became so extensive that (in 1890) 
he bought still another building one block below. 
This was the start of his largest place of busi 
ness, and has since grown to such proportions 
that he has been obliged to acquire more build 
ings. Up to the present time it is considered one 
of the largest meat markets in the city. In 1903 
Mr. Buchsbaum erected a handsome market, with 
all up-to-date improvements, on Amsterdam Ave 
nue, between Sixty-seventh and Sixty-eighth 
Streets, for the purpose of catering to the retail 
trade exclusively. This establishment is a model 
one, containing all modern sanitary improvements, 
no expense being spared in equipping same so as 
to make it the model retail market it is. In 1905 
Mr. Buchsbaum incorporated his business under 
the name of the Aaron Buchsbaum Company, 
and associated with himself his two sons, Morris 
A. Buchsbaum, who is vice-president and treas 
urer, and Abraham Buchsbaum, who is secretary. 
In 1902 Mr. Buchsbaum, after many years of 
hard labor, became affiliated with some of the 
most prominent retail and wholesale butchers in 
the city, and incorporated the New York Butchers 
Dressed Meat Company. This concern was com 
posed of retail and wholesale butchers not con 
nected with the trust. Mr. Buchsbaum insisted 
that the plant be constructed with the view of 
having all up-to-date sanitary improvements, and 
so well did he conduct the affairs that in the 
attack made by the United States Government 
against the unsanitary condition of the abattoirs 
throughout the United States, the New York 
Butchers Dressed Meat Company stood out so 
well that President Roosevelt, in a special mes 
sage to Congress, held up the New York Butchers 
Dressed Meat Company as a model abattoir for 
all packing houses in the United States. The 
time and energy required by Mr. Buchsbaum was 
so great that it interfered with his personal busi 
ness, and ne was obliged, about a year ago, to 
transfer his interests in the abattoir to other 




hands. He was obliged to, and did chiefly, shoul 
der the entire financial conduct of said abattoir, 
and through his efforts he, with his associates, 
retired from the business with great credit. It 
can be said without gainsaying that he is the 
most practical meat and cattle man in the United 
States, having been engaged in every stage of 
the meat business from his boyhood. Being an 
indefatigable worker, a man of powerful frame, 
and enjoying good health, he understands all the 
different ramifications of the business. An un 
tiring worker, honest in all his transactions, a 
man of keen business sagacity, all of which 
helped him to bring himself from the direst 
poverty to a most comfortable competency. Mr. 
Buchsbaum was the first man who ever handled 
Western dressed beef in the city of Xew York. 
He was also the first man in Xew York who 
recognized the good qualities of Western dressed 
beef, and being the first to champion the com 
modity, met with a great deal of opposition and 
prejudice, all of which, however, was overcome 
by his steadfastness and the confidence that the 
people in the neighborhood had in his business 
dealings. Mr. Buchsbaum is one of the men 
who believe in progress and keeping abreast with 
the times and improvements. He was the inau- 
gurator of the reinforced concrete vats for cur 
ing meat. Mr. Buchsbaum also appreciates the 
value of real estate on Manhattan Island, and 
has made large sums of money dealing in New 
York City property. He maintains the opinion 
that real estate values in New York City will 
never go lower than what they are to-day. 
There may, he thinks, be a slight recession, 
but temporary only, and thereafter property 
will steadily advance. He is a great lover 
of nature, kind and gentle in his disposition, 
devoted to his family, and very charitable 
besides, not letting, in his philanthropic work, 
the right hand know what the left hand doeth. 
He is also connected with the following institu 
tions : German Hospital and Dispensary, Lebanon 
Hospital, Yorkville Dispensary and Hospital, 
Mt. Sinai Hospital, Hebrew Sheltering Guardian 
Society of New York (life member), Home for 
Aged and Infirm Hebrews, United Hebrew Char 
ities, Montefiori Home, New York Association 
for Improving the Condition of the Poor, New 
York Kindergarten Association, Young Men s 
Hebrew Association, Chananah Lodge, Naphtali 
Lodge, Congregation Shaaray Tefila. Besides, 
Mr. Buchsbaum is a member of numerous asso 
ciations, among them the New York Produce 
Exchange and Mt. Neboh Lodge, F. & A. M. 
The family of Mr. and Mrs. Buchsbaum consists 
of six children, three boys and three girls, as 

follows, the date of birth, marriage and issues 
being given: Morris Aaron Buchsbaum, born 
December 6, 1877 ; Lillian Cans Buchsbaum, born 
June 10, 1879, marriage October 2, 1901; issue, 
Arnold Cans Buchsbaum, born July 22, 1905; 
Hannah Buchsbaum Hydeman, born November 

25, 1879, marriage February 21, 1901 ; Edwin 
McMasters Hydeman, born January 7, 1870; 
Bertha Buchsbaum Bandler, born March 25, 
1883; Professor Samuel Willis Bandler, born 
July 24, 1870. marriage December 20, 1904; issue, 
David Buchsbaum Bandler, born January 26, 
1906; Abraham Buchsbaum, born September 6, 
1884; Gertrude Bertha Kaufherr, born Novem 
ber 20, 1889, engaged; Lillian Buchsbaum Korn, 
born October 29, 1888, marriage February 25, 
1909; Walter Cowan Korn, born February 8, 
1883 ; Lawrence Manning Buchsbaum, born June 

26, 1897. 

PETER BARBEY, deceased, was born at 
Dierbach, Canton of Bergzabern, Bavaria, No 
vember 6, 1825. During his life Mr. Barbey 
was engaged in the brewing business, and founded 
the firm which still bears his name. At the age 
of fourteen years he entered his uncle s brewery 
in his native place, and after working there for 
three years made the usual tour of Germany to 
enlarge his knowledge of the business. He thus 
spent four years, extending his practical inves 
tigations into France and Switzerland. At the 
age of twenty-one he returned to his Bavarian 
home, subsequently serving four years as a mem 
ber of a cavalry regiment. Mr. Barbey then emi 
grated to America, locating at Philadelphia, 
where he followed his trade for two and a half 
years. There he worked in the establishments of 
Dittmer & Butz and Engel & Wolf; subsequently 
he removed to Reading, Pa., entering the employ 
of the late Frederick Lauer. In 1859 he formed 
a partnership with Abraham Paeltzer / the firm of 
Barbey & Paeltzer conducting the business for 
about two years. Mr. Barbey then became sole 
proprietor of the plant, and thus conducted the 
business until 1880, when he admitted his son as 
a partner, the style of the firm becoming soon 
afterward Peter Barbey & Son. The present 
plant, at the corner of West Elm and Gordon 
Streets, was erected in 1869. The founder of the 
business continued to be actively engaged in it 
up to the time of his death, which occurred in 
Reading, Pa., on February 15, 1897. His son, 
John Barbey, is now the owner of the business. 
In politics, Mr. Barbey was a Democrat. He 
was a member of the Lutheran Church and a 
prominent member of various financial institu 
tions also a past master of Teutonia Lodge, 


No. 367, F. & A. M. He married Miss Rosina 
Kunz, to whom two children were born, John 
Barbey being the only survivor. 

JOHN WEILER was born at Essingen, 
Oberant, Aalen Wurttenberg, Germany, on 
April 17, 1852. He was educated in the com 
mon schools of that place, and afterward at 
tended the high schools of Essingen and 
Stuttgart. After graduating from the high 
schools, Mr. Weiler was employed in the post- 
office at Stuttgart, until he came to this coun 
try, in 1872. It was at this time that Mr. 
Weiler entered the employment of William 
Rosenthal, who was at that time the editor 


and proprietor of the Reading Post, a daily 
German newspaper published in the city of 
Reading, Pa. He entered the employ of Mr. 
Rosenthal as a collector. Then he became a 
reporter, afterward editor, and finally, after 
twenty-five years, in which time Mr. Weiler 
made plain that he was not only a man of 
high education, but also of ability and ambi 
tion, he became the general manager, and had 
general supervision over the entire establish 
ment. In June, 1908, Mr. Weiler purchased 
from William Rosenthal the entire Reading 
Post Printing House, which consists of the 
following : The Reading Post, one of the few 
daily German newspapers of inland towns of 
the country, which was established in 1868, 
came into the hands of Mr. Weiler when he 

made the purchase, and the following an 
nouncement has appeared at the head of its 
first column for many years : "The Reading 
Post is the oldest German daily newspaper in 
the State of Pennsylvania, outside of Philadel 
phia and Pittsburg. Its circulation extends to 
all classes of the German population, by whom 
it is regarded as the acknowledged public 
medium of communication." The Biene (The 
Bee) is a German weekly paper, published by 
the Reading Post Printing House for over 
thirty years. The Bicne has been very busy 
collecting entertaining and instructive reading 
matter for the numerous subscribers, and for 
the past five years the paper has been enlarged 
to a sixteen-sheet publication. There is also 
a large paper published in the interest of the 
German Order of Harngari, entitled The 
Deutsche Eiche, which has a very fair number 
of subscribers. The paper is published weekly 
by Mr. Weiler, and has been before the Order 
of Harngari since 1870. There is, as well, a 
job printing department connected with the 
business, which does a considerable amount of 
work. This department has had the honor and 
distinction of holding the contract for the 
printing of the City of Reading for a period of 
over fifteen consecutive years. Mr. Weiler has 
been a resident of the city of Reading for over 
thirty-five years, and is a member of all the 
German societies of this city, as well as a past 
master of Teutonia Lodge, No. 367, F. & A. M. ; 
also a member of St. John Lutheran Church. 
On December 20, 1873, Mr. Weiler took for his 
wife Louise Hansen, and this union was blessed 
with eight children, of which three sons sur 
vive. Mrs. Weiler died in November, 1907, and 
left the following sons: Philip A. Weiler, who 
is proprietor of the Keystone Electric Co., 
located in this city; George F., an electrical 
engineer of high standing, and Harry H., who 
is connected with his father in the field of 
newspaperdom and will in future years, no 
doubt, continue The Reading Post Printing 
House. Mr. Weiler was also a member of the 
Reading Press Club, and served several terms 
as its president; also a member of the Inter 
national League of Press Clubs. 

ALFRED FREUNDLICH, physician, residing 
at No. 120 East Seventeenth Street, New York 
City, is the son of Joseph and Johanna Freund- 
lich. On March 29, 1871, he was born at Gaen- 
serndorf, Austria, where his preliminary edu 
cation was obtained in the local public schools ; 
he was graduated at the age of ten. He en 
tered the Gymnasium and pursued an eight- 






year course. At eighteen years of age he en 
tered the Vienna University and completed a 
five and a half year-course of study. He was 
graduated from this latter institution at the age 
of twenty-four with the degree of M.D. After 
his graduation he served a half year in the 
army, and a half year as a practicing physician. 
He served as an interne at the Imperial and 
Royal General Hospital in Vienna for four years. 
Dr. Freundlich came to New York City in 1900, 
locating at No. 197 Second Avenue. He re 
turned to Austria in 1901 on account of his 
wife being ill. He returned to New York City 
during the latter part of that year and resumed 
the practice of medicine. His has been a rapid 
success owing to his thorough knowledge of 
the profession. He has lectured extensively up 
on diseases among workingmen and much good 
has been derived from his lectures. Dr. Freund 
lich became a citizen of the United States in 
1906, and has since been affiliated with the Soc 
ialist Party. He is a member of the Verein 
Dutcher Alter, the East Side Physicians As 
sociation, the Socialist Party, and an ex-mem 
ber of the Mount Sinai Hospital, New York 
City. On May 20, 1897, he married Miss Ste- 
fanie Geiringer of Bruenn, Austria. One child, 
Pauline, has blessed the union. 

WILLIAM BALSER, a retired physician, and 
residing at 224 East Fifteenth Street, New York 
City, was born at Deidesheim, Palatinate of Ba 
varia, Germany, on November 21, 1837. When 
he was very young his parents moved to Neu- 
stadt, where he attended school until he came 
with his parents to the United States, in 1847, 
and settled at New York City. Here he attended 
a public school (old No. 36 in East Ninth Street), 
and then helped his father, who was a physician 
and druggist, in his drug store ; when old enough, 
he started to study medicine. A three year 
course at the New York Medical College, from 
which he received his degree of M.D., fitted him 
thoroughly for that profession. In 1861, after 
closing the drug store at the call for volunteers, 
he joined the Twenty-ninth New York Volunteer 
Regiment, and up to 1863 saw active service in 
all the important engagements of the war. He 
was taken prisoner on May 4, 1863. From 1863 
to 1866 he was assistant-surgeon at Hilton Head 
in the United States General Hospital. He saw 
active service at Chancellorsville, and took part 
in the two battles at Bull Run. Upon his retire 
ment from the Army at the close of the war in 
1866, he returned to New York City, where he 
resumed the practice of medicine. His has been 
an active career; during his long professional 

services in New York his work, always of a most 
conscientious nature, has left a lasting impression. 
The friends he has made are legion in numbers 
and to-day he is enjoying a quiet and peaceful 
life with his wife and daughters. Dr. Balser has 
given much of his time to many of the medical 
societies throughout the city. To-day he is iden 
tified with the German Medical Society, Academy 
of Medicine, County Medical Society, and the 
German Hospital. Mr. Balser has been a member 
of Koltes Post No. 32 G.A.R. since 1867, as well 
as Post Surgeon since that year. For twenty-one 
years he was secretary of the Board of Phar- 


macy of New York City, and up to the time the 
board was dissolved. He is a life member of the 
College of Pharmacy and an honorary member 
of the German Apothecaries Society of New 
York. He has been a member of the German 
Hospital and Dispensary for over thirty-five 
years ; is an honorary member of the Dispensary 
now, and visiting physician. He was a member 
of the board of trustees of that institution for 
a^number of years, also secretary of that body. 
Dr. Balser is a mason, being a member of Polar 
Star Lodge No. 245. He is also a member of 
the German Liederkranz, and a worshipper at 
the German Lutheran Church. He is identified 
with the Carl Schurz Memorial Society. On June 
30, 1863, he was united in marriage to Miss 
Louisa Klein. Two daughters blessed the union, 
namely. Anna, who is unmarried, and Elise, now 







Mrs. Oscar Goldmann, of Xew York City. In 
politics, Dr. Balser is a staunch Republican, both 
local and national. 

FREDERICK REXKEX, merchant, a son of 
Wilhelm and Caroline Renken, was born at 
Bremerhaven, Germany, April 4, 1857, being 
descended from a family with old and honor 
able traditions, some of whose members were 
a minister, a physician and a land-owner. His 
father, whose birthplace was Friesland, ab 
solved with honors the Gymnasium at Aurich 
and when a young man came to Bremerhaven, 
soon after it had been founded. He grew up 
with the city and in time became a well-to-do 
merchant and ship owner, was also Director 
of the Bremer Bank Verein of Bremen. His 
knowledge of mercantile affairs was extraordi 
nary, he also was quite a linguist and gen 
erally a man of wide acnnaintance and much 
influence. He died in 1894 at the advanced 
age of eighty-two years. Frederick Renken, 
the subject of this sketch, received a splen 
did education, first at the high school, from 
which he was graduated at the age of eighteen, 
and subsequently he was placed under private tu 
tors. He entered the service of a large forward 
ing firm at Bremen, with whom he remained fully 
three years, after which he absolved his year in 
the army as volunteer, at the end of which term 
he qualified for further promotion to the rank 
of an officer of the reserve. At the age of twen 
ty-two he came to America, well equipped with 
funds and an excellent education ; he was imme 
diately engaged by the well-known shipping firm 
of Theodore Ruger & Co., at New York City, 
with whom he remained for five years. After 
spending one year at Philadelphia in the capacity 
of agent and branch manager of this firm, Mr. 
Renken took a well-earned vacation of four 
months, visiting his old home in Germany. On 
his return to America he was reengaged by his 
firm with whom he remained for another year, 
resigning to accept a more advantageous offer 
from the great champagne and wine importing 
house of Frederick de Bary & Co.. of Xo. 60 
Warren Street, Xew York City. After a con 
nection of five years he was given power of at 
torney by the firm and later became the junior 
partner. Since January 1, 1910, Mr. Renken is the 
only resident partner, having exclusive control 
of the business for the United States and Cana 
da. The house is now one of the largest of its 
kind and is known throughout the civilized world. 
Mr. Renken is a man independent in politics ; 
he has never sought or desired political office, his 
entire time and interest being devoted to his busi 

ness and its further development if such is pos 
sible. He is a man of retiring disposition, a hard 
worker as well as a typical German of fine man 
ner and education; he has a legion of friends. 
On April 17, 1894, he married Miss Lillie Ruger 
of Brooklyn. They have two children, Hilda, 
aged fifteen, and Carla, aged twelve years. Mr. 
Renken resides at Xo. 307 Sterling Place, one of 
the most exclusive sections of Brooklyn. He is 
a member of the Montauk Club, Brooklyn Ger- 
mania. Kings County Democratic Club, the 
Brooklyn Democratic Club, also the Deutscher 
Verein, Germanistic Society, Liederkranz Soci 
ety, the German Society and the German Hos 
pital of Xew York City. 

JACOB KAUFMAXX, specialist, residing at 
Xo. 52 East Fifty-eighth Street, Xew York City, 
was born at Cologne, Germany, on May 30, 
1860. The subject of this sketch received a care 
ful education at the German primary schools and 
at the Gymnasium in Cologne. In 1880 he en 
tered the University of Bonn, where he began his 
first studies in medicine, following higher courses 
at the Universities of Wurtzburg and Strass 
burg, and from the last-named University received 
his degree of M.D. in 1885. After spending several 
months as an assistant of Dr. Dettweiler in his 
Tuberculosis Sanatorium at Falkenstein, he re 
turned to Cologne for the summer to serve the 
first portion of his military service. In the fall 
of 1885 he entered the University Clinic of the 
late Professor Adolph Kussmaul at Strassburg, 
where he worked as an assistant and later as 
first assistant from 1885 to 1888. He was also 
during the same time assistant to Professor Kuhn 
at the University Clinic for the diseases of the 
ear. In April, 1888, Dr. Kaufmann reported at 
Berlin for the second portion of his military 
service. During this period he filled the position 
of surgeon in the Second Artillery Regiment of 
the Guard, three months of which time he was at 
tached to the surgical wards of the Military Hos 
pital. The following winter (1888- 89) was devo 
ted to post-graduate courses in medicine at Berlin, 
and after spending again six weeks military service 
at Strassburg, followed by promotion as military 
surgeon, he then made his home at Berlin, where 
he was engaged in private practise, being also con 
nected with various dispensaries and laboratories 
and at the same time chief of a dispensary for 
gastro-intestinal diseases. Impressions gained on 
visiting America in 1893 are the cause of his 
decision to locate in X ew York. Once more 
returning to Strassburg, he passed three months 
devoted to scientific work specializing on the 
stomach in the laboratory of Professor Xaunyn, 


and then sailed for New York City, arriving 
there December 21, 1894. After passing the 
state medical examinations the following Febru 
ary, he began his practise in New York as inter 
nist with special reference to diseases of nu 
trition. From the beginning he has been con 
nected with the German Hospital and Dispensary, 
first as attending physician of the dispensary for 
internal diseases, and later (1903) to the present 
time, attending physician to the hospital. Dr. 
Kaufmann is a recognized, high authority on 
diseases of the digestive organs and on diseases 
of nutrition in general. He has contributed to 
medical literature a large number of important 
papers, among which might be mentioned : 

1885 "Bosartige, Allgemeine, Neurotische Der 

1886 "Ein Fall von gekreutzter centraler 

1888 Ueber die Einwirkung Priessnitz scher 
Einwickelungen auf den Blutdruck bei crou- 
poser Pneumonic und bei diffuser Nephritis." 

1890 "Zwei Falle geheilter pernicioser Anamie, 
nebst Bemerkungen zur Diagnose und Therapie 
dieser Krankheit." 

1891 "Die Behandlung der Tuberculose in- 
nerer Organe nach Koch." 

1895 "Beitrag zur Bacteriologie der Magen- 

1895 "Ueber den diagnostischen Werth der 

1896 "Motor Disturbances of the Stomach." 

1901 "Zur Frage des Magensaftflusses und der 
Krampfzustande bei chronischem Magengesch- 

1902 Adolph Kussmaul. 

1903 "Gallstones and Gastric Hyperacidity." 

1903 "Zur Frage der quantitative!! Pepsinbes- 
timmung nach Mette." 

1904 "Remarks on Gastrosuccorrhea and Te 
tanic Attacks occurring with Chronic Ulcer of the 
Stomach." (Also published in German.) 

1905 "Case of Peptic Ulcer after Gastro-En- 
terostomy Causing Gastrocolic and Jejune-colic 
Fistulae, and of Spontaneous Closure of Gastro- 
Enteroanastomosis." (Also published in the 
German language.) 

1905 "The so-called Atypical Forms of Gastric 

1905 "Diagnosis of Gall-Stones Diseases." 

1907 "Diagnose der Dickdarmcarcinome." 

1907 "Zur Diagnose der Basedowschen Krank 

1907 "Gastrointestinal Disturbances in Influen 

1908 "Lack of Gastric Mucus (Amyxorrhoea 

Gastrica) and its relation to Hyperacidity and 
Gastric Ulcer." (Also published in German.) 

1908 "Wie lange kann bei Verdacht auf Ileus 
mit der Operation gewartet werden ?" 

1909 "Diagnose des chronischen Magengesch- 

1909 "Chronische Appendizitis." 

1909 "Zur Behandlung der Blutungen beim 
Chronischen Magengeschwuer." (Also published 
in English.) 

1909 "Gastro-intestinal Auto-intoxication." 
Dr. Kaufmann is a member of the New York 
State Medical Society; American Medical Asso 
ciation, American Gastro-Enterological Associa 
tion, the New York Academy of Medicine, the 
Harvey Society, Greater New York Medical As 
sociation, German Medical Society, Society of 
German Physicians, Eastern Medical Society, 
American Association for the Advancement of 
Science. In July, 1909, he became associate in 
Columbia University in Clinical Medicine, and on 
November first of that year he was made pro 
fessor of clinical medicine. In the social walks 
of life Dr. Kaufmann s friends are legion in 
numbers. There are few men in New York who 
are more widely and favorably known. Clear 
headed as a physician, he has the friendship of 
the better members of his profession. He is a 
member of the Liederkranz Singing Society and 
of the German Society of New York. Dr. 
Kaufmann is unmarried. He usually spends his 
summer vacations in Europe. 

and general attorney in the United States of 
America for the Rossia Insurance Co., of St. 
Petersburg, and the Prussian Life Insurance Co., 
of Berlin, Germany, with offices at No. 84 Will 
iam Street, New York City, was born in Han 
over, Germany, January 25, 1870, being the son 
of Carl August and Cathinka (Giitersloh) Stur- 
hahn of Hanovarian and Welf ancestry. The 
family name in Hanover is Sturhahn von Baren- 
kempen. The subject of this sketch received a 
careful collegiate education in Germany. Im 
mediately after his graduation he entered the in 
surance business, which he made a practical study 
of under the excellent supervision of his father, 
who had mastered all the intricate details. After 
having been connected with foreign insurance 
companies at Berlin, Hamburg and London, Mr. 
Sturhahn came to America, locating at New York 
City, where he is now the head of the two com 
panies mentioned in the foregoing of this sketch. 
In the insurance world Mr. Sturhahn is regarded 
as one of the highest authorities as well as one 
who has mastered every detail connected there- 


with either to a great or minor degree. He is a 
member of the Lawyers Club, the Deutscher 
Verein, Liederkranz Society, the Downtown As 
sociation, Wykagyl Country Club, Scarsdale Golf 
Club, all of New York, and the Union League 
Club of Chicago. Mr. Sturhahn s marriage to 
Miss Maie Xunes Carvalho of New York City oc 
curred in 1901 ; two sons have been born to the 
union, Herbert Carl and Edward Marshall Stur- 

OTTO MAIER, Ph.G., M.D., was born on 
November 3, 1865, at Boettingen, Kingdom of 
Wurtemburg, Germany, being a son of Carl and 
Henrietta (Wiedershaim) Maier, his father being 
a clergyman of eminence. Otto Maier, the sub- 


ject of this sketch, received his primary educa 
tion at a public school in his place of nativity, 
and later he was placed under private tutorship 
for the study of Latin. After completing his 
course in the latter he came to America, locating 
at New York City, where he has resided ever 
since. After arriving in New York he took up 
pharmaceutical studies, entering the New York 
College of Pharmacy, from whence he was grad 
uated in 1885 with the degree of Ph.G. For ten 
years he was engaged in the drug business. Dur 
ing this period he decided to become a physician. 
In 1888 he entered Bellevue Hospital Medical 
College (now a part of New York University) 
and in 1891 he received his degree of M.D. The 
following three years he was assistant attending 

physician in the outdoor department of Bellevue 
Hospital. He was for four years connected with 
the New York Board of Health as medical sani 
tary inspector. Since 1898 Dr. Maier has been 
instructor in diseases of children at New York 
Post Graduate Medical School and Hospital. He 
is attending gynecologist to St. Mark s Hospital 
and physician to Throat, Nose and Lung Hos 
pital. He is a member of the American, New 
York State and New York County Medical As 
sociations : the German and New York County 
Medical Societies; also a member of the Sanitary 
and Moral Phrophylaxis Society, Eastern Medi 
cal Society of Medical Jurisprudence and of the 
Physicians Mutual Aid Association of New York. 
On October 26, 1898, Dr. Maier married Miss Di 
ana Caille, to whom two children have been born, 
Dorothy and Herbert. Dr. Maier resides at No. 
104 West Eighty-sixth Street, one of the most 
exclusive sections in New York City. He also 
maintains an office at No. 212 East Eighteenth 
Street. Dr. Maier is a man of conservative views 
and one whose opinions are held in high repute 
by his fellow practitioners. 

CARL F. KREMER, physician, was born in 
Westphalia, Germany, July 21, 1841, being a son 
of Christian and Elizabeth (von Dersoh) Kremer. 


His father was a widely known economist, and a 
musical director of note. The ancestors of his 
family came from Hessen to Westphalia which 
has been the family seat for the past century. 


The subject of this sketch obtained his education 
in the primary schools of his native place, after 
which he entered the Gymnasium at Brilon and 
Arnsberg. His final course was at the Univer 
sity of Bonn and Greifswald from which he was 
graduated with honors. After completing his 
education, the first occupation he followed was 
that of choleraarzt, in Pommern in 1866. In 1867 
he came to America locating at New York City 
where he ever since has been engaged in the 
practice of medicine. Dr. Kremer has been visit 
ing physician to the German Hospital since 1881. 
He has for many years been a member of the 
Liederkranz German Singing Society of New 
York. Dr. Kremer has twice been married. His 
first wife died in 1905. In 1907 he again mar 
ried; he has no children. As a practitioner of 
medicine, a promoter of charitable and benevo 
lent causes. Dr. Kremer stands high in the es 
teem of the people. 

RUDOLF EICKEMEYER, inventor and manu 
facturer, was born on October 18, 1831. at Alten- 
bamberg in the Rhenish Palatinate. His father 
was an official in the forestry department and the 
son received his first education in the village school 
of his birthplace. The boy s intelligent and active 
mind induced the father to send him to the Real- 
schule in Kaiserslautern, and later to the Poly- 
technical Institute at Darmstadt. Here he devel 
oped a decided inclination for the study of engi 
neering and its branches and was counted among 
the best students, but his school career was cut 
short when the revolution broke out in 1848. To 
gether with his school friend Georg Osterheld, 
young Eickemeyer joined the revolutionists and 
fought under General Franz Sigel and August 
Willich in the Palatinate and Baden. The two 
friends were finally captured but were pardoned 
on account of their youth. They decided, how 
ever, to leave the fatherland after their hopes for 
its political regeneration had been shattered, and 
to seek a home in the country where liberty was 
no idle dream. Arriving in New York, young 
Eickemeyer found work on the Erie Railroad, 
then under construction. In 1851 he went to Buf 
falo and secured employment with the Buffalo 
Steam Engine Works, a concern which produced 
the first mowing machines made in the state of 
New York. These were really years of hard and 
earnest study for Mr. Eickemeyer, who made 
use of his time to acquire a knowledge of ma 
chinery and American methods of making it. In 
1854 he had saved sufficient money to establish, 
together with his friend Osterheld, a repair shop 
at Yonkers, N.Y., where they soon had a large 
clientele among the many hat factories and other 

manufacturing establishments. But promising as 
this field was, it did not satisfy Mr. Eickemeyer s 
ambition and genius. He soon began constructing 
machines to replace hand labor, and succeeded. 
His inventive genius revolutionized the whole hat 
industry and made his firm famous throughout 
the world. Their hat making machines were used 
everywhere in America and even exported to Eu 
rope, Australia and South America. Mr. Eicke 
meyer s active mind was, however, always search 
ing for new fields. He invented a driving mech 
anism for mowing machines of such superiority 
that thousands of these machines were sold all 
over the world. When the first steps were taken 
to use electricity as power, he studied the problem 
and perfected a dynamo that was one of the first 
to practically answer all requirements. In addi 
tion, he constructed motors for elevators and 
street cars which brought him deserved recogni 
tion as one of the foremost of our country s elec 
trical engineers, and abundant financial reward. 
While busy with his inventions and the manage 
ment of his constantly increasing business inter 
ests, Mr. Eickemeyer devoted much time to pub 
lic matters. For nearly thirty years he was a 
member of the Board of Education of Yonkers, 
and many improvements in the management of 
the schools were due to his initiative. He also 
served as a member and president of the Board 
of Water Commissioners, and as a member of the 
Board of Health. He was also a Director in the 
First National Bank. He never lost interest in 
the efforts of his countrymen who endeavored to 
preserve German customs in their new country, 
and was an active member of the Yonkers Teu- 
tonia for many years. He married, in 1856, Miss 
Mary T. Tarbell of Dover, Me. Six children, 
were the result of the union. Mr. Eickemeyer died 
on January 27, 1905, at Washington, D.C., while 
on his way South to spend the winter. The many 
testimonials from scientific, political and other 
associations as well as by individuals prove the 
high esteem in which he was held, and the promi 
nent position he had attained in the land which he 
entered with nothing but intelligence, sterling hon 
esty, untiring industry and a determination to be 
of value in the community in which he lived. 

F. W. R. ESCHMANN, manufacturing chem 
ist, son of F. W. and Marion Eschmann, was 
born on May 27, 1854, at Buckeburg, Principality 
of Schaumburg-Lippe, Germany. The family 
originated in Switzerland, but emigrated to Ger 
many many years ago, the father of the subject 
now living a retired merchant in Hanover. In 
his boyhood days the subject of this sketch at 
tended the common schools of his native place 

from the 

. tra .i ly Riuloif Eickcineyer, 7r, 


Photo, by Davis & Eickemeyer, New Vo 







until the age of fourteen. He then entered the 
gymnasium and at the age of seventeen he was 
graduated therefrom. Possessing unusual grit, 
assurance and stamina for one of his years, he 
alone, immediately emigrated to America with 
only enough funds to carry him hence. He loca 
ted at Washington, Mo., where he obtained a 
position in a drug store. It was then he began 
to map a course for his future ; his leisure mo 
ments were devoted to close application and study 
in mastering the details connected with that busi 
ness. At the age of twenty, and after a service 
of three years spent in the drug store at Wash 
ington, he went to Louisville, Ky., whe.e he took 
the state board pharmaceutical examinations, 
which he successfully passed, receiving a very 
high percentage. Obtaining a position as regis 
tered pharmacist in a drug store at Louisville, 
four months were spent when his first real op 
portunity presented itself; he was offered a po 
sition by the late Emil Scheffer ("a Forty-eight- 
er"), who at that time was one of the leading 
chemists of the country. Still in pursuit of 
knowledge, Mr. Eschmann took up the study of 
botany, which he added to his curriculum. So 
quickly did he master this science, that on occa 
sions when Dr. Scheffer visited Europe, he was 
in position to take the latter s place, giving in 
struction to classes devoted to that study. Mr. 
Eschmann remained with Dr. Scheffer from 
April 1, 1875, to November, 1879. During this 
entire period, he took only one vacation, occa 
sioned by taking a trip to Europe to visit his 
parents, with whom he remained for five months. 
In 1879 he severed his pleasant business relations 
with his employer and friend to accept a position 
at Xew York City with the New York Pharma- 
cal Association, of which he is to-day the execu 
tive head. During the past thirty years of his 
connection with this company, Mr. Eschmann has 
worked unceasingly to develop its growth. In 
1896 he was elected treasurer. In 1890 helped 
to organize the Arlington Chemical Co., and in 
1895 the Palisade Manufacturing Co., both of 
which he is also the president. The three con 
cerns are under his immediate supervision at 
Yonkers, where they have extensive laboratories 
and where the products are manufactured for 
the markets of the world; the most important 
output being Phosphagon, Hemaboloids and Bo- 
rolyptol, Mr. Eschmann s own compounds. 
Owing to the constant drain upon his time in con 
nection with his large business interests, Mr. 
Eschmann has but little leisure to devote to social 
matters and finds it impossible to keep up club 
memberships, many of which he is an ex-member. 
His favorite pastime and game is golf, in which 

he enjoys the reputation of being somewhat of 
an expert. He contributes liberally to charity 
and hospital work and is chairman of the execu 
tive committee of St. John s Riverside Hospital. 
He is also chairman of the executive committee 
and vice-president of the Tuberculosis Hospital 
at Yonkers, of which he was one of the incor- 
porators. He is chairman of the Sanitary League 
of Yonkers; is one of the governors of the 
Yonkers Choral Society ; a member and governor 
of the Saegkill Golf Club; and of the First 
Presbyterian Church of Yonkers. He is also 
greatly interested in settlement work, as well as 
that of botanical research, the latter he soon ex 
pects to resume. On April 11, 1883, Mr. Esch 
mann was joined in holy wedlock to Miss Beline 
Engelhard of Kentucky ; two children have been 
born to the union, a daughter, now Mrs. William 
Cowley Russell, Jr., of Xew York City, and a 
son, Edgar A., now a student at Hobart, who is 
shaping his future course toward a journalistic 
career. Mr. Eschmann has recently sold his pala 
tial residence overlooking the Hudson at Yon 
kers and is temporarily residing at Xew York 
City. He anticipates in the near future to again 
take up his permanent residence at Yonkers, 
where his large interests are located. 

FERDIXAXD S. M. BLUX, importer and ex 
porter, son of Michael Moses Blun, was born at 
Worms-en-Rhein, April 4, 1843, where the family 
name figured prominently for many years. The 
subject of this sketch received a good high 
school education, graduating at the age of four 
teen years. He began his business career in the 
mercantile establishment owned and conducted 
by his father and with whom he remained for 
iix years. When twenty years of age, he came 
to America and located in Xew York City, ob 
taining a clerical position with a large commis 
sion and manufacturing house just two days after 
he had reached the American shore and after 
eighteen months employment was admitted as a 
partner of the firm. This was not due to fortuit 
ous circumstances, but to his indomitable will, 
perseverance and business sagacity. He is a man 
of good judgment, rare executive ability and un 
impeachable integrity. He is president and di 
rector of the Ansonia Osborne & Cheexman Com 
pany ; treasurer and director of Marble Hill Real 
Estate Company; a director of R. A. Tuttle 
Company ; president and director of St. Lawrence 
Steel and Wire Company ; president and director 
of Schnell Stay Works; treasurer and director of 
the Union Fabric Company, and a director of the 
Connecticut Clasp Company. The greater portion 
of Mr. Blun s career has been almost entirely de- 


voted to business and he has given little time to 
outside matters that generally stimulate those of 
lesser activities. He is affiliated with but one 
social organization, the Freundschaft Society of 
New York City. Now in his sixty-eighth year, 
and in vigorous health, he is enjoying the quiet 
of his home surroundings with his family. In 
politics Mr. Blun is nationally a Republican but 
locally, an Independent. He has never sought 
any political office, having only exercised his 
franchise right. On January 18, 1886, Mr. Blun 
was united in marriage to Miss Rosa R. Rom- 
berg, of New York City. Two children have 
been born to the union, F. Melville, and Anita R., 
the former having recently graduated from 
Princeton University and is now taking a textile 
course in the Philadelphia Textile Art School. 
His daughter is pursuing her studies under a 
private tutor. 

most energetic and successful practitioners at the 
Bar, a marked representation of a thorough going 
New Yorker, was born in New York City, Feb 
ruary 18, 1873, and was educated at one of its 
most famous Grammar Schools, No. 22, from 
which he was graduated in 1887 as Valedictorian 
of his class. When only eight years of age young 
Grossman contributed, in both prose and poetry, 
to Scholars Companion and Treasure Trove, and 
at the age of ten edited the only school paper 
then published. He afterwards became a news 
paper reporter and journalist, and engaged in 
puzzleistic work, conceiving and solving puzzles, 
which, at that time formed a prominent part of 
newspaper work. At the age of seventeen, while 
still an enthusiastic amateur journalist, he edited 
a publication called The Arena before the maga 
zine of that name was established ; and at that 
time he was elected president of the Empire 
State Amateur Press Association. At the age of 
eighteen, Mr. Grossman passed examinations as 
public school teacher, and taught in the Grammar 
School from which he had been graduated four 
years previously. In this pursuit he saved enough 
money to take up the study of law, which he fol 
lowed up at the University of the City of New 
York, from which he was graduated in 1894, 
again as Valedictorian of his class, delivering his 
oration on "The Lawyer in a Republic" before 
six thousand people at Carnegie Music Hall. At 
this period he also joined the New York Press 
Club, and later became a life member. Mr. Gross 
man passed his Bar examinations before he was 
graduated from the Law School, and when only 
twenty-one years of age, having practised law for 
but six months, was offered an appointment as 

Assistant District Attorney by District Attorney 
John R. Fellows, which he declined, preferring a 
partnership with Honorable Frederick B. House 
in the firm of House, Grossman & Vorhaus a 
law combination which was successful from the 
start, and which has been engaged in many 
famous cases, both civil and criminal. Although 
a distinctively civil and commercial lawyer, Mr. 
Grossman has tried a great many criminal cases, 
and has the distinction of never having had a 
conviction in any case he has ever tried alone or 
as senior counsel. Mr. Grossman has been presi 
dent of the A. M. Lee Literary Society; the 
Whittier Debating Club ; the Addison Literary 
Society ; and the Hawthorne Debating Club. He 
was a member of the famous Cooper Union De 
bating Club and Goldey Literary Society. He 
organized the Literary League, the first congress 
of literary societies. Mr. Grossman is a member 
of many literary and journalistic, legal, political 
and fraternal organizations, including the Na 
tional Amateur Press Association ; the Empire 
State Amateur Press Association ; the Amateur 
Associated Press ; the Fossils ; the Eastern Puz 
zlers League ; Alumni of Grammar School No 
22, New York City; Alumni of the University of 
the City of New York ; the Dwight Alumni ; the 
New York County Lawyers Association ; the 
American Single Tax League ; the Society of 
Medical Jurisprudence ; the Seminole Club ; the 
Harlem Democratic Club ; the National Democra 
tic Club ; the Tammany Society ; the New York 
Press Club ; the German Press Club ; the West 
End Club ; the Columbia Club ; the Progress Club ; 
the Freundschaft Verein (Friendship Club) ; the 
Economic Club ; the Masonic Club ; the City 
Athletic Club ; the Harmony Club ; the Sunrise 
Club and the Lawyers Club. Mr. Grossman is 
a member of State s Rights Lodge (Indepen 
dent Order of Odd Fellows) ; Justinian Lodge 
(Knights of Pythias), of which he was Chancellor 
Commander; Chancellor Kent Council (National 
Union), of which he was Speaker; Centennial 
Lodge (Free and Accepted Masons), of which 
he was Master ; a thirty-second degree Mason, a 
member of the Mystic Shrine (Meca Temple) ; 
was formerly Past District Deputy Grand Chan 
cellor and Representative to the Grand Lodge in 
the Knights of Phythias, and a member of the 
Uniform Rank; of Jessel Lodge (Order of B nai 
Brith) and a member of New York Lodge, Num 
ber One of the Benevolent and Protective Order 
of Elks. He is a director of the Yorkville Dis 
pensary and Hospital, of the Young Men s 
Hebrew Association, of the Kenmore Estate, and 
of the First Mortgage Title and Insurance Com 
pany of New Jersey. He is prominent in chari- 


table and philanthropic organizations of every 
creed and denomination, taking a particularly ac 
tive interest as member or director in Mount 
Sinai Hospital, Beth Israel Hospital, Yorkville 
Dispensary and Hospital, Philanthropic Hospital, 
Lawyers Auxiliary of Hospital Association, Mon- 
tefiore Home, the Home for Aged and Infirm 
Hebrews, the Hebrew Orphan Asylum, the He 
brew Sheltering Guardian Society, the Young 
Men s Hebrew Association, the United Hebrew 
Charities, the Hebrew Technical School for Girls, 
the Educational Alliance, the Jewish Protectory 
Association, the Jewish Publication Society of 
America, the Brightside Nursery, the Jacob Riis 
Settlement, the People s University Extension So 
ciety and the International Sunshine Society. Mr. 
Grossman was married on June 28, 1900, to Miss 
Lillian Viola Berliner, of New York City. They 
have two children, Ethel B. and William B. Gross 
man. Mr. Grossman is a man of great legal acu 
men, which, combined with his remarkable ora 
torical powers, makes him irresistible as an advo 
cate before a jury. Quick in debate, ready at 
reasoning, apt in expressing himself, possessed 
of a pleasant voice, he is not only one of the very 
ablest, but one of the most successful, general 
practitioners in the country. He is a man of en 
gaging personality, possessed of a fine presence, 
and is a most eloquent and powerful orator. Mr. 
Grossman combines strict accuracy, promptness, 
thoroughness, executive ability, conservative judg 
ment, mastery of details, commercial, financial 
and legal erudition to a greater degree, probably, 
than any other man living. He introduced a valu 
able innovation in the law profession by depart 
mentalizing every branch of law and installing 
an elaborate system, so that no details so vital 
and important in law are lost sight of. The 
striking characteristics with which one is most 
impressed in this gifted an accomplished lawyer 
are those very qualities which are most valuable 
to the successful lawyer viz., his legal intuitive 
powers by which he quickly and unerringly ana 
lyzes the facts of a case, and as readily applies 
the law thereto. His advice, is, therefore, often 
sought by other lawyers in intricate cases. His 
consultations with his clients are far superior to 
the ordinary. He is radically opposed to litiga 
tion, which is usually protracted and expensive, 
and believes in settling, always considering his 
clients interests above his own and adjusting 
cases which would be more remunerative to him 
self, if they were allowed to go to trial. He di 
rects perhaps, the largest legal staff in the coun 
try forty-two able men guiding the administra 
tive as well as the legal force. Each department 
the Real Estate, Corporation, Surrogate s, Bank 

ruptcy, Negligence, Insurance and Collections 
has its executive head, who is an expert in his 
line, specializing in that particular department of 
legal activity. Unlike the average lawyer, he is 
a commercial as well as a legal genius, and would 
probably have been successful in any other field, 
if he had not chosen law. Mr. Grossman has al 
ways shown great interest in young men, en 
couraging them to enter the law and has often 
helped the deserving to realize their ambitions in 
law. He is deeply interested in all charities, re 
gardless of race or creed, and patronizes nearly 
every charitable institution in New York. He is 
a polished gentleman of the highest culture and 
refinement, courteous to all. The great reputa 
tion he has made as a lawyer has been justly 

ISAAC LEOPOLD RICE was born February 
22, 1850, in the old German Town of Wachen- 
heim, in the Rhenish Palatinate, Bavaria. His 
father was Maier Rice, a native of Franconia; 
his mother, Fanny Sohn, a native of Feuden- 
heim in the Grand Duchy of Baden. His par 
ents came to America when he was only six years 
old, the father settling first in Boston, then in 
Philadelphia, next in Milwaukee, and once again 
in Philadelphia, where he established himself as 
a teacher of languages. The subject of this 
sketch was educated at the public schools, and 
took a course of two years in the Central High 
School of Philadelphia. When only sixteen years 
old he started off to see the world, with his pas 
sage paid and $40 in his pocket. He supported 
himself in Europe for three years, teaching in 
Paris and London. He returned to this country 
in 1869, and then set about seriously to save 
enough money to give himself a sufficient com 
petency for the study of law and the time re 
quired to obtain a practice. H made a study of 
music, conceiving a new philosophy which was 
published by the Appletons in 1874, under the 
title of "What is Music ?" Six years later he 
published another essay entitled "How the Geo 
metrical Lines Had Their Counterpart in Music"; 
thus establishing his original theory, both essays 
being republished by the Humboldt Library of 
Science under the former title "What is Music?" 
In 1880. after a two years course, Mr. Rice grad 
uated from the Law School of Columbia College 
with distinguished honors. He carried off the 
two public law prizes, for Constitutional Law 
and International Law, and, in 1882, he was ap 
pointed lecturer on the Bibliography of the Poli 
tical Sciences at the School of Political Science 
at Columbia. He resigned in 1883 to take up 
the practice of the law, but in 1884 he returned 


to his Alma Mater as instructor in the Law 
School of Columbia University, where he gave a 
course of lectures on the History of the Courts 
of England and this country. His practice at 
this time became so large that in 1886 he re 
signed from the University and devoted himself 
exclusively to railroad law. In 1883 he was elect 
ed a member of the Association of the Bar of the 
City of New York. Among Mr. Rice s early legal 
triumphs is his fight for the bondholders of the 
Brooklyn Elevated Railroad Company, at which 
time he re-organized the corporation by means of 
voluntary subscriptions, an assessment having 
been previously levied so that it was impossible 
to raise any further funds in that manner. He 
pursued the same course in the case of the Texas 
& St. Louis, now the St. Louis & Southwestern 
Railway. He then became counsel of the Reor 
ganization Committee of the Texas & Pacific Rail 
road, counsel and director of the Richmond Ter 
minal and Richmond & Danville & East Tennessee 
systems and counsel of the Georgia Central Rail 
way & Banking Company, properties which now 
constitute the Southern Railroad. In the mean 
time Mr. Rice contributed a number of articles on 
social, logical and political subjects, principally 
to the North American Review, The Century and 
The Forum, the last named of which he founded 
in 1885 and of which he continues to-day to be 
president. In 1889 he retired for a time with the 
intention of devoting himself entirely to the study 
of Political Economy, but soon returned to ac 
tive life as Chairman of the syndicate which con 
trolled the shares of the Philadelphia & Reading 
Railway Company. In 1892 he became the foreign 
representative of that company in London, where 
at the same time he advocated a change in the or 
ganization of the company by means of the cre 
ation of a new company, which he called The 
Reading Company. It is under this company that 
the Reading Railroad and Coal Companies were 
.actually reorganized after their difficulties in 1893 
and under which to-day they are enjoying great 
prosperity. In 1893 he first interested himself in 
electrical matters and established the electrical 
storage battery industry as president of the Elec 
tric Storage Battery Company. He was also the 
father of the automobile industry in the United 
States by founding the Electric Vehicle Company, 
which first manufactured automobiles on a large 
scale. In 1899 he founded the Electric Boat Com 
pany, of which he is still president, and through 
that company he became the father of the Sub 
marine industry, which is now recognized among 
all the nations of the world, but which at the time 
that the Electric Boat Company was founded was 
considered, in the language of a German paper, 

a mere phantasmagoria." The traveling public 
is also indebted to him, as he was founder of the 
railway electric lighting industry, and particularly 
that now universally recognized phase of it which 
obtains the light through the motion of the wheels. 
In the chemical field, Mr. Rice was also an in 
novator by the organization of the Casein Com 
pany of America, which first made it possible to 
introduce new and important uses from the solids 
of milk. Mr. Rice is connected with the follow 
ing companies : President and director, Electric 
Boat Company, Holland Torpedo Boat Company, 
Electric Launch Company, Industrial Oxygen 
Company, Car Lighting & Power Company, Rail 
way & Stationary Refrigerating Company, Inter 
national Trade Development Company, National 
Torpedo Company, Forum Publishing Company, 
Lindstrom Brake Company, Consolidated Railway 
Electric Lighting & Equipment Company ; presi 
dent, treasurer and director, Casein Company of 
America, Casein Manufacturing Company, Na 
tional Milk Sugar Company, Dry Milk Company, 
Rosemary Creamery Company, The Water Paint 
Company of America; director, Societe Fran- 
qaise de Sousmarins of Paris, France, Buckeye 
Rubber Company; chair, Board of Directors, Con 
solidated Rubber Tire Company (Kelly- Spring 
field Tire). In 1884 Mr. Rice married Julia Hyne- 
man Barnett and he has a family of four daughters 
and two sons. His wife is famous throughout the 
world as organizer of the Society for the Suppres 
sion of Unnecessary Noise, and is also the origina 
tor of the Sane and Safe Fourth of July. He 
belongs to the Lawyers, Automobile, Harmonic, 
Lotos and City Lunch clubs ; the Association of 
the Bar of the City of New York, the City Liberal 
Club of London; The Japan Society; The Peace 
Society ; Municipal Art Society ; St. George s 
Chess Club of London; the Rice Chess Club and 
the Manhattan Chess Club of New York, of 
which he is ex-president; the Brooklyn Chess 
Club and the Rice Chess Club of Newark, of 
which latter clubs he is an honorary member. He 
is ex-president of the New York State Chess As 
sociation. He is an ardent lover of chess and 
has invented an opening known as the Rice Gam 
bit, which has made him known in chess circles 
throughout the globe. He has given a number of 
"trophies to the various chess clubs and leagues, 
notable among which is a handsome silver trophy 
for the International Universities Chess Match, 
which is contested by cable annually, for England 
on the part of Oxford and Cambridge, and for 
America on the part of Columbia, Harvard, Yale, 
Princeton, Cornell, Pennsylvania and Brown. Be 
cause of his marked scientific and literary ability, 


Mr. Rice received the degree of LL.D. in June, 
1902, from Bates College. 

owner and real estate operator, with offices at 
No. 149 Broadway, New York City, was born at 
Hastings-on-Hudson February 14, 1868. He is a 
son of Theodore Christian Heinrichs who was 


born February 17, 1843, in Prussia and came to 
America in 1865 settling at Hastings-on-Hudson, 
and who was engaged in business at Yonkers 
until 1894, at which time he retired. He is de 
scended from an old family of high standing 
which traces back to 1670. Theodore Richard 
Heinrichs was educated at the public schools in 
Yonkers, graduating therefrom in 1883; later he 
took a course of studies under private tutors 
and thereafter entered a business college. It 
was his early intention of adapting the legal 
profession. With that in view he entered the 
law office of the late Allen Taylor with whom he 
remained for four years. After three years 
spent in the West traveling he returned to Yon- 
yers where he established a general real estate 
and insurance business, and later engaged in 
large building operations in which he was unus 
ually successful. In politics Mr. Heinrichs is a 
Democrat, is a leading factor in Westchester 
County political affairs, having been for seven 
years, secretary and executive member of the 
Democratic organization of Yonkers, and has 
satisfactorily filled the position as chairman of 
the Board of Assessors. He is president of 

the Amsterdam Securities Company, Secretary 
of the Guanajuato Mining and Milling Com 
pany, Secretary of the Progress Association, 
Secretary of the Yonkers Chamber of Com 
merce, Secretary of the Board of Fire Under 
writers of the City of Yonkers; a member of the 
City Club ; Elks ; Eagles ; Royal Arcanum ; Mod 
ern Woodmen of America ; member of the Or 
der of Harugari ; Yonkers Turn Verein ; and 
of the Yonkers Teutonia. He married Miss 
Emma, daughter of John P. and Anna Eisen- 
hut, of Yonkers, September 17, 1890. Eight 
children have been born, all of whom are living, 
namely, Lillian Irene; Edna Sophia; Wilbur 
Carl; Hazel Marie; Inna Anna; Celeste Clara; 
Martha Elizabeth ; and Ruth. 

MAX LOEWEXTHAL, manufacturer and 
merchant, was born March 28, 1862, at Schwerin, 
in the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. 


Son of Joseph Loewenthal, grain merchant of 
that place, and one of a family of nine children. 
He obtained his business training in Hamburg, 
from 1879 to 1884. In 1884 he came to America 


and located in Chicago, where he remained till 
1887. In that year he went to Amsterdam, Hol 
land, and after a brief mercantile career in that 
city, he came to the city of New York, where he 
established himself in business and has since re 
mained. He was a pioneer in the rubber reclaim 
ing industry and the founder of the U.S. Rubber 
Reclaiming Works, of which he is the president 
and a director. This concern, under his guid 
ance, has developed from a modest beginning to 
be the largest producer of reclaimed rubber in 
the world, having an annual output of fifteen 
thousand tons. Its mill is at Buffalo, N.Y., with 
offices in the city of New York He started on 
his career without any resources other than his 
energy and business capacity. He has contribu 
ted, in no small degree, in making his compa 
triots the predominant factors in American citi 
zenship, and in building up the philanthropic, in 
dustrial and commercial life of this country. Be 
sides being a director of other industrial, and 
commercial corporations, and of educational in 
stitutions, he contributes generously of his efforts 
and resources to charities, and is a director in 
many organizations of that character. He is a 
member of the Harmonic Club of the city of 
New York. In 1893 he married Helen, daughter 
of the late Doctor Alexander Kohut of the city 
of New York, a noted preacher and orientalist 
and scholar of international fame. Of this mar 
riage he has two daughters. 

EMIL LOEB was born in Rhenish Bavaria in 
1863. After leaving school he started in business 
at Mannheim, Germany, in which he continued 
for two years. In 1881 he came to the United 
States, locating at St. Louis, Mo., where he ob 
tained a position with a lace and embroidery import 
ing house; the following year Mr. Loeb removed 
to New York City. In 1888, while on a visit to 
Birmingham, Ala. (and after investigating the 
natural resources of that district), he became 
convinced of the fact that that city would become 
one of the great steel and iron centers of the 
United States ; he determined to settle there, and 
on January 1, 1889, he founded the firm of Love- 
man, Joseph & Loeb, which has since become the 
largest mercantile firm in Alabama. In 1902 Mr. 
Loeb became one of the incorporators of Blum 
Brothers, Philadelphia, of which corporation he is 
vice-president; he is vice-president and treasurer 
of Loveman, Joseph & Loeb ; a director of Amer 
ican Cities Railway and Light Co., which com 
pany operates the street railways, gas and elec 
tric light companies in Birmingham and other 
large Southern cities. Mr. Loeb is a member of 
the German Society and many charitable socie 

ties in New York. In 1897 he married Miss 
Blanche, daughter of M. H. Pulaski, a pioneer 
embroidery importer and manufacturer. Two 
children have been born to the union, a son, 
Louis M., and a daughter, Madeleine H. Loeb. 
Mr. Loeb has always been possessed of great 
public spirit. He helped to raise funds to erect 
the first cotton mill and the first steel plant in 
the Birmingham, Ala., district. 

SAMUEL H. KUNSTLICH, counselor at law, 
was born in the province of Galicia, Austria, 
October 18, 1878. He is the second son of Dr. 
Alexander and Amelia (Spath) Kiinstlich, who 


came to America in 1884. settling at Newark, 
N.J., where Samuel attended the public schools 
and graduated from the High School. Having 
decided upon the legal profession as a befit 
ting calling for his future course of life, he en 
tered the law department of the New York Uni 
versity, and later graduated from the New York 
Law School, in which latter institution he re 
ceived his degree of LL.B. Believing in the 
-.adage of the "survival of the fittest" and that 
his opportunities would have a wider scope, he 
removed his office to New York City, now being 
located at No. 256 Broadway. This theory he 
has proven, for to-day he ranks among the first 
of the younger men in the legal profession of 
the metropolis. In politics, Mr. Kiinstlich is a 
Democrat, but not a partisan. In national and 
state matters he adheres to the principles of his 







party, but in local affairs he does not draw the 
lines so closely. He resides with his wife and 
family at No, 69 Sherman Avenue, Passaic, XJ. 
In the social life of that city Mr. and Airs. 
Ktinstlich have always been leading factors. His 
father, Dr. Alexander Kiinstlich, who also re 
sided at Passaic, was one of the leading medi 
cal practitioners of that place. He is Past Dis 
trict Deputy Grand Patriarch of the I.O.O.F., 
also member of Masonic Fraternity. 

HEXRY P. C. von MINDEX was born Xo- 
vember 4, 1856, at Ovelgone, Oldenburg, Ger 
many, being a son of Burchard and Marie von 


Minden, the former having been an artist of 
considerable merit and reputation. For some 
generations back, the von Minden family have 
come from Oldenburg. The subject of this 
sketch was educated at Bremerhaven, Germany. 
After leaving school he embarked for America, 
locating at Galveston, Texas. After arriving in 
Texas he began his new career as a farmer and 
a cowboy, a vocation he continued at for some 
time. He subsequently removed to Hoboken, 
X.J., where he became a grocer s clerk. Through 

out his life, Mr. von Minden has been a success 
ful man. He is president of the United Wine & 
Trading Co., located at Xos. 321 and 323 West 
Thirteenth Street, Xew York, wholesale dealers 
in wines and liquors, and is one of the largest 
concerns of its kind in the country; he is also 
the proprietor of the Patulla Restaurant at Xos. 
125 and 127 Grand Street, Xew York, one of the 
famous down-town resorts known to all of the 
prominent business men. Mr. von Minden was 
a member of the Board of Aldermen in 1888, 
having been identified with the Xew York Coun 
ty Democracy organization. He has for many 
years been prominent in Masonic and other fra 
ternal organizations. For three years he was 
Master of his Lodge, and was Grand Represen 
tative to the Grand Lodge at Xew Mexico (F.&A. 
M.) ; he is a member of Beethoven Mannerchoir; 
president and a member of Oldenburger Verein, 
a position he has held for three terms ; a mem 
ber of Knights Templars; Xorthern Jurisdiction 
Scottish Rites; Shrine; Elks; Knights of Pythias; 
and the Evangelical Lutheran Church. He has 
been captain of the Xew York Schuetzen Corps; 
was chairman of the German-American Schuetzen 
Corps to Hamburg (Germany) in 1909 to 16th 
Bundes Schiessen. Mr. von Minden organized the 
United Wine & Trading Company, was vice-presi 
dent of the United Xational Bank (now Hudson 
Trust Co.). He has retired since then from the 
active affairs of that institution. On Xovember 
25, 1878 he married at X ewark, X.J., Miss Era- 
minda Kammel. Mr. von Minden is one of the 
self-made type of Germans whose success is due 
only to his hard work, indomitable will and per 
severance coupled with that high sense of honor 
and fair dealing toward his fellow men. He is 
one of the best known Germans in Xew York 
as well as one of the most respected. His friends 
are legion in numbers. 

PETER JOSEPH GROLL, one of the best- 
known, as well as one of the most popular, men 
of German extraction, was born at Xew York 
City February 13, 1873, where he received a 
thorough education in the public schools. Mr. 
Groll has always resided in Xew York, and for 
many years has been in business at Xo. 145- 
147 East Fifty-third Street, where he conducts 
a popular cafe, with which is connected one of 
the finest bowling alleys to be found in Greater 
Xew York. Other portions of his building are 
devoted to public halls and lodge rooms where 
over one hundred societies, etc., assemble. Aside 
from his cafe business, Mr. Groll is an ex 
tensive operator in real estate. In politics he 
has always been a Democrat of the Jefferson- 


ian type, and has on a number of occasions 
been requested to accept a nomination for public 
office which would have been equivalent to elec 
tion. He has always steadfastly refused such 
honors, but is an indefatigable worker in the 
interests of his party. In social organizations 
and benevolent orders he is a prominent figure 
and a member of Tecumseh Lodge, No. 487, 
F. & A. M., of which he is Worshipful Master; 
Empire Chapter Xo. 170, R.A.M.; Columbian 
Council, No. 1, R. & M. S. M. ; Ivanhoe Com- 
mandery, No. 36, K.T., of which he is Emi 
nent Commander ; the Templar Knights Com 
manders ; New York Consistory, A.A.S.R., N. 
M.J.; Mecca Temple, A.A.O.X.M.S. ; Azim Grot 
to, No. 7, M.O.V.P.E.R.; The Masonic Club; 
The Square Club; New York Maennerchor and 
Eichenkranz Singing societies; Benevolent Or 
ders of Buffaloes and Elks ; Tammany Club of 
Sixteenth Assembly District; Mohican Club; 
Wyandott Club ; Tough Club ; Germania Stamm 
Lodge, O.R.M.; Holly Lodge, K. of P.; En 
terprise Lodge, I.O.O.F. Mr. Groll has been 
twice married, his first wife was Miss Agnes 
Gunther, stepdaughter of P. Kohler, the well- 
known New York brewer, whom he married 
January 19, 1897, and who died in 1902. To 
this union two children were born, Gladys and 
Joseph. His present wife, whom he married in 
1904, was Miss Lucy Gladding Decker, step 
daughter of John Weber of Baumgarten & Co. 
and niece of C. Bauer and Jacob Doll, the lat 
ter a prominent piano manufacturer in the 
Borough of the Bronx. Mr. Groll is a man 
possessed of fine, sterling traits and one whose 
friends number in the thousands. His success 
in the business and social world is entirely due 
to the high interpretation he holds for honor 
able dealing and strict integrity. He belongs 
to that class of high-minded men whose word is 
always their bond. 

erator, with offices at No. 776 Broad Street, 
Newark, N.J., was born on March 5, 1861, at 
Beuthen, Salicia, Germany. He is the son of 
Heyman and Thresa Leschziner, the former hav 
ing been engaged in mercantile pursuits at Beu 
then. The subject of this sketch attended the 
common schools of his native place, from which 
he was graduated at the age of twelve. Later 
he entered a technical and trade school. After 
leaving school, young Leschziner s career was of 
a varied character. At the age of thirty-nine he 
engaged in mercantile pursuits, and in 1880 came 
to America and settled at Philadelphia, where 
he entered the employ of John Wanamaker as 

a window dresser and in which he had become 
recognized as an expert. While thus engaged 
he also found time enough to take up the study 
of dentistry. Later on he decided to abandon 
that line of work and gave up the thought of 
leading a professional life. He went to New 
York, where he followed his old avocation, and 
in which he became famous in the metropolis. 
From 1885 to 1894 he was associated with Lieb- 
mann Brothers Dry Goods Company of Brook 
lyn (now Frederick Loeser & Co.). In 1894 Mr. 
Leschziner removed to Newark, N.J., where he 
established a permanent home for himself. From 
that year until 1900 he was associated with the 
firm of L. T. Paut & Co. In the latter year 
he resigned his position and engaged in real es 
tate operations. For the past ten years he has 
been regarded as the leading expert in all mat 
ters relating to that intricate field. He has been 
one of the largest developers of Newark realty 
and has been associated with many of the larger 
operations that has, and is, making that city one 
of the leading ones of the country. Mr. Lesch 
ziner has never taken much interest in politics 
or social organizations; he is a Republican in 
his affiliations. The only society with which 
he is in any way identified is the Ethical Cul 
ture Society of New York. On June 1, 1887, 
he married Miss Frances Bodenwieser, daughter 
of Mr. and Mrs. August Bodenwieser of West 
Orange, N.J. Mr. Leschziner s charities are dis 
tributed in his own way, thus avoiding publicity 
which he so greatly dislikes. He prefers to give 
without the world knowing of his acts. He is one 
of Newark s first citizens and has always devoted 
his efforts along lines that have had a tendency to 
promote the progress and welfare of the whole 
city. He represents that splendid type of men 
which every locality feels honored to call its own. 

clerk, New York County, a son of William 
Francis and Margretha Schneider, was born in 
New York City November 24, 1864. His father 
was engaged in real estate operations until 1880, 
at which time he entered political life, first as a 
deputy sheriff, then for twenty years as an in 
spector in the Finance Department of the city 
of New York. He, his father and grandfather 
were natives of Osthoven, Germany, where the 
latter held a political position. The grandfather 
on the mother s side of the subject of this 
sketch was for many years the postmaster of 
Waldmichelbach, Germany. William Francis 
Schneider, the subject of this sketch, received his 
education at the public schools and the College 
of the City of New York. In 1881 he entered the 






employ of the H. B. Claflin Company, where he 
gradually rose in position until 1896, at which 
time he became assistant chief accountant in that 
corporation, a position he held until he resigned 
to form the co-partnership of M. M. Smith & 
Co., in 1902, manufacturers of dresses, which 


firm has been singularly successful from the 
beginning. Mr. Schneider s political life began 
in 1897, when he was elected alderman of the 
old Thirty-second Assembly District. He was re- 
elected in 1899 as a member of Tammany Hall. 
In 1901 he joined the anti-Tammany movement 
and since then he has constantly opposed that 
organization. He took a prominent part in the 
Fusion movement in 1909, was nominated and 
elected to the office of County Clerk of New 
York County, receiving- thirty-four thousand plu 
rality, which was a very strong endorsement as 
to his fitness for the position, as well as a tes 
timony to his popularity. Mr. Schneider is a 
member of the Royal Arcanum, the Arion Singing 
Society, and the Harlem Board of Commerce. 
He is a trustee of the Commonwealth Savings 
Bank of New York. Mr. Schneider was united 

in marriage with Miss Anna, daughter of the 
late Judge Bellesheim of Mount Vernon, N.Y. 
Their children are: William Francis, Jr., Rus 
sell Schneider, and a grandchild, William Fran 
cis Schneider, 3d. 

HUGO J. MISCHO, furrier, with offices at 
No. 29 West Thirty-second Street, New York 
City, a son of Joseph and Ottilie Mischo, was 
born at Rogaiers, Province of Posen, Germany, 
February 23, 1859. His father was for many 
years a prosperous shoe merchant of that place 
and was the descendant of a family whose an 
cestors bore an old and honorable name. Hugo 
was educated in the common schools of his na 
tive place, from which he was graduated at the 
age of fourteen. He then entered a trades school 
where he acquired watchmaking, and where he 
spent four years. At the age of eighteen, with 
a full knowledge of his trade, with much self- 
reliance and less money, he, alone, sailed for 
America, going direct to Alabama, where he fol 
lowed his calling for a period of two years. At 
the age of twenty he removed to New York 
City, where he accepted a clerkship in the fur 


house of an uncle, Mr. Herman Mischo, located 
at No. 438 Broome Street. He entered upon his 
new duties with his usual determination to suc 
ceed and on account of merit only, rapidly ad 
vanced to the position of first clerk, book-keeper, 
and, later, manager of the entire business. After 


some years, his uncle decided to retire from busi 
ness. Young Mischo decided to forge ahead. 
He opened an establishment on his own account 
in Bond Street, beginning in a small way. Later 
he took in a partner, who died shortly after 
ward leaving Mr. Mischo again alone to solve his 
future. Another partnership was formed, but 
lasted for only a short time before a dissolution 
occurred. In 1893 he associated with him Mr. 
Charles Miller as a partner. The relations have 
successfully continued ever since. The concern 
ranks among the most important of the fur in 
dustry in New York, a reputation gained only 
after the greatest efforts in the past of Mr. 
Mischo. The patrons of the firm are among the 
best houses in the country. They also do an ex 
tensive importing business. Mr. Mischo con 
ducts branches in Paris, London, and Leipzig. 
His name is always synonymous to quality of 
the first class. During the St. Louis Exposition in 
1904 the firm was awarded a gold medal for art in 
the manufacture of furs. In politics Mr. Mischo is 
a Republican, but has newer aspired to hold office, 
although the opportunities have been many. His 
time has been entirely devoted to his extensive 
business affairs. He is not a member of any club 
or social organization other than the Roman Cath 
olic Church. On May 29, 1881, he married Eliz 
abeth, daughter of Mr. John and Mary Giefers 
of New York City. Eight children, all of whom 
are living, have been born to the union, viz : John 
H., who is associated with his father in busi 
ness ; Hugo J., Jr., engaged in the fur business 
at Chicago as an expert cutter; Gertrude M., 
Walter Otto, Herbert A., Amanda M., Clara T., 
and Theodore Henry. One of the pleasant 
memories in the life of Mr. Mischo and one 
which he cherishes as a remembrance, is an 
autograph letter he received from former Pres 
ident Roosevelt with that of an engraving of 
himself, shortly before the expiration of his 
last official term of office. The letter was writ 
ten by the former President upon his having re 
ceived a photograph of Mr. Mischo s family 
showing the entire group. The President s reply 
congratulated him upon the number and fine ap 
pearance of his interesting children. The career 
of Mr. Mischo is a good illustration of what a 
German youth can attain through perseverance, 
pluck and energy. His home at No. 262 Bed 
ford Park Boulevard, is one of the handsomest 
in that section of New York City. He has re 
sided in the Borough of the Bronx for more 
than twenty years and is one of the most re 
spected as well as one of the most substantial 

MOSES ZIMMERMANN, the subject of this 
sketch, was born on the nineteenth day of April, 
1848, in the town of Ober-Semen, Ober-Heseen, 
Germany. He attended the rural school there 
until he reached the age of eighteen, when he 
decided to go to America and seek his fortune. 
On his arrival at his destination, New York 


City, he procured employment in a small butcher 
shop at a salary of eight dollars per month, when 
his energy and integrity soon made itself felt 
and he rapidly mastered all the details of the 
meat business. In 1871, by hard work and fru 
gality, he had saved sufficient money to em 
bark in business for himself, which he did in a 
modest way at 318 East Houston Street, New 
York, as a dealer in meats, sausages, etc. It 
-was at this time that he started the manufactory 
of the famous Vienna sausage, known the world 
over. His energy and fair dealing with his 
customers again asserted itself and gradually 
his business increased until it reached the large 
figures of $500,000 per annum. In the meantime 
his quarters had become much too small and he 
purchased the three adjoining lots on which he 


erected one of the most up-to-date plants in the 
United States. To this he has added a large 
beef house and refrigerating plant, as well as an 
ice and electric plant. By 1902 his business had 
increased so rapidly that he formed the corpo 
ration of M. Zimmermann Co. and the present 
sales of this concern amount to about $3,000,000 
per year. Their trade-mark is known from 
Maine to California, and in many parts of 
Europe. Branches have been established in East 
Third Street, Xew York; Boston, Mass., and 
Philadelphia, Pa. The company own a large 
stable in East Third Street, fitted up in the most 
modern manner, where are housed the horses, 
trucks, automobiles, etc., used in their business. 
Mr. Zimmermann is noted for his many chari 
table acts and is a member of the Rudolph 
Scholene Congregation, where he is a trustee, 
and other prominent associations. He was mar 
ried on December 31, 1871, to Miss Kate Daube, 
a daughter of a well-known German Jewish 
rabbi. Six children have been born to them, 
three of whom are living, a daughter and two 
sons, the latter are now passing through their 
business education with him, preparatory to tak 
ing an active and financial interest in the busi 
ness. Mr. Zimmermann owns the real estate on 
which the company s plant is located and other 
valuable real estate, all of which he has ac 
quired by his personal efforts and as the re 
ward for his honesty and fair dealing with his 
fellow man. 

No. 257 South Xinth Street, Brooklyn, was born 
at Mecklenburg, Germany, June 6, 1840, and came 
to America as a sailor in 1856 in the German 
Merchant Service and thereafter made many 
ocean trips from Xew York until twenty-eight 
years old. Mr. Xahmmacher received his edu 
cation at the public schools and gymnasium, taking 
a one year course in navigation for first officer 
at the age of twenty-two. After abandoning the 
sea, he resided in Pittsburg, Pa., for a period 
of fifteen years, being in charge of a wholesale 
liquor establishment owned by his sister. In 
1884 he removed to Brooklyn, where he engaged 
in manufacturing furs, etc., and in which he con 
tinued until 1893, suffering several financial 
losses. In politics Mr. Xahmmacher has always 
been a stanch Democrat, but has always declined 
offers to hold any public office. For the past 
seventeen years he has been the agent and dis 
tributer of Moerlein s Cincinnati beer throughout 
Greater New York City, and enjoys the reputa 
tion of being the largest, as well as one of the 
most successful, representatives that well-known 

concern has ever had business relations with. 
Mr. Xahmmacher is a member of the German 
Lutheran Church; Hanover Club; Arion Society; 
Merchants Club; Brooklyn Skat Eastern District 
Turn Verein ; and has been a member of many 
other clubs and societies. On October 19, 1877, 
in Pittsburg, Pa., he married Miss Aliena Heeren. 
They have two living children, Charles H., who 


is engaged in his father s office at Xo. 527 West 
Twenty-ninth Street, Xew York City, and Alfred, 
who conducts a decorating establishment. In 
1850. when Carl Schurz made his escape from 
Germany to Scotland, he sailed in a ship owned 
by Ernest Brockelman, an uncle of Mr. Xahm 
macher, and whose house in Germany Mr. Schurz 
was concealed for several days. Mr. Xahm 
macher is one of those splendid type of Ger 
mans of the old school and who are fast disap 
pearing. While always retaining an affection 
for the Fatherland, he is one of those Germans 
who feels his first duty is to the land of his 
adoption and to which he has become loyally 

WILLIAM RAPP, son of David and Anna 
(Koenig) Rapp, was born at Wiiertemberg, Ger 
many, in 1832. His father was an extensive 
land-owner and employed about twenty hands to 
operate his estate. His birthplace was Gamer- 
ingen (Germany). During the Revolution in 
1848 he was Mayor of Belsend. William Rapp, 
the subject of this sketch, began his education 


in a private school at Belsend, where he studied 
French and Swiss. When he was fourteen 
years of age he went to Basl-en-Rhine and de 
voted himself to mission work for one year. 
His first business position was that of a baker, 
which he secured at Myon, Switzerland, and at 
which he worked for a period of six years. He 
then enlisted in the French army and was sent 
to Algiers for duty. After serving for some time 
he was honorably discharged from the service 
on account of disability. He returned to his old 
home, where he remained until 1871, at which 
time he emigrated to America, locating at Xew 
York City, where he immediately engaged in 
the bakery business on Ninth Avenue between 
Fifty-eighth and Fifty-ninth Street. After con 
ducting this business for five years he sold out 
and engaged in the constructing and building 
line, a business he has followed ever since. Mr. 
Rapp has never been actively engaged in politics. 
He has been a citizen of four countries, Ger 
many, France, Switzerland and America. By 
close application to business, hard work and 
honorable dealing, he has accumulated a com 
fortable competency and is the owner of consid 
erable real estate in Xew York. He has al 
ways been interested in Free Masonry and is 
a Thirty-third Degree Mason. Mr. Rapp has 
twice been married; his first wife, whom he 
married in Switzerland, was Miss Julia Goy. 
Three children were born to the union, viz : 
David, Anna and Felix. His present wife was 
Miss Mary Most, to whom two children were 
born, both of whom are now deceased. Mr. 
Rapp, although past the three-score and ten 
period, is still hale and hearty ; he is actively 
engaged in business as a builder, real estate 
operator and merchandise broker, with offices at 
No. 230 East One Hundred and Tenth Street, 
Xew York City. 

EDWARD WALDSTEIX, son of Samuel and 
Raechel Waldstein, was born in Bohemia, Austria, 
in the year 1866. His father was engaged in the 
wholesale leather, trade and was very successful 
as a business man, having a high standing both 
financially and socially. Before coming to Amer 
ica fifteen years ago, Mr. Waldstein was en 
gaged in business with his father. After arriv 
ing in New York he engaged in the importing and 
exporting of merchandise which he conducted 
successfully, after which he retired for several 
years. He is to soon again engage in a similar 
business on Broadway in the dry goods section. 
Mr. Waldstein married Miss Henrietta Gold- 
berger of X T ew York City in 1894. They have an 
adopted son. 

DAVID BLAXK, real estate operator, a son 
of Ziegmann and Leah Blank, was born in 
Kieshinef, Russia, in 1871. His father was a 
merchant and removed to Berlin, Germany, when 
David was one year of age. Mr. Blank began 
his commercial life without much capital, but 
being endowed with a great amount of grit and 
perseverance, he soon pushed to the front and is 
to-day counted as one of the substantial as well 
as one of the most successful men in his line of 
business. His standing for integrity, fair deal 
ing and honesty is of the highest character and 
he enjoys the confidence of all who know him. 
He has never engaged in politics, nor has he ever 
desired to hold any public office. In 1896 Mr. 
Blank married Miss Rosa Rubenstein. They have 
one child, named Louie. Mr. Blank s business 
office is located at Xo. 130 Essex Street, Xew 
York City, where he is to be usually found en 
grossed in his large real estate operations. Al 
though always a very busy man, he is courte 
ous and considerate to all who make a demand 
upon his time. 

SAMUEL ROLLER, son of Wolf and Helen 
Roller, was born April 5, 1859 at Leipsic, Ger 
many. His father fought in the Franco-Prus 
sian War and held the rank of Major of 29th 
Regiment. He won the medal of the Iron Cross 
for bravery. After serving his army course he 
returned to civil life and engaged in the whole 
sale fur business. Samuel, the subject of this 
sketch, received his education at Leipsic. After 
leaving school he engaged in the same business 
his father had established. In 1879 he disposed 
of his interests for two hundred and fifty thou 
sand dollars, after which he came to America 
and settled in X T ew York City where he has ever 
since remained. He has for some years lived in 
retirement and at present resides in the Borough 
of Brooklyn, Xew York City. Mr. Roller has 
never had any political aspirations nor has he 
ever sought or held any public office. In 1882 
he married Miss Sarah Ballehaus of X ew York 
City. Mr. Koller is very fond of out-door life, 
his principal sport being that of horseback rid 
ing. His standing in both social and commercial 
walks of life is of the highest character, and he 
has a large circle of friends among all classes. 

ERXEST KREMER, son of Carl and Ida 
Kremer, was born December 2, 1874, at Bar 
men, Rhineland, Germany. His father was a 
well-known wholesale produce dealer, his early 
ancestors being silk weavers and came from a 
village called Beyenburg. When a boy, Ernest 
attended the local public school and later the 


Catholic parochial school of his native place, 
where he studied English and French, in addi 
tion to that of his native language. When he 
was eleven years old he came to the United 
States, and located in Xew York, where he ob 
tained a position in a grocery store in West 
Forty-first Street, owned by an Englishman who 
paid him four dollars a week besides boarding 
him. The hours were long, but Ernest, being 
of an ambitious turn of mind, did not object; he 
was soon promoted, and through many subse 
quent promotions became first clerk in the es 
tablishment. After spending some years in the 
grocery line, he decided to engage in the liquor 
business. He obtained a position at Xo. 23 Will 
iam Street as a bar boy ; he remained in this 
position for five and one-half years. Later he 
held responsible positions at the Hotel Metro- 
pole, Holland House, Waldorf-Astoria, the Bel- 
more and other prominent hotels. In 1907 Mr. 
Kremer decided to engage in business for him 
self. He purchased his present business at Xo. 
233 East Thirty-eighth Street, which he has 
successfully conducted ever since, with the ex 
ception of a short space of time, which on ac 
count of illness and too much prosperity, he was 
compelled to give up his cafe, and for the time 
entered the employ of an uncle as a machinist 
in the shops of the Frederick Brust & Hedderick 
Company, now retired. After regaining his 
health, Mr. Kremer again resumed his old busi 
ness, which to-day is in a most prosperous con 
dition. He is a prominent member of Beethoven 
Manner Choir; Badisher, V.F.V. ; Hourvisfisher, 
V. Trunchels Rapp ; Columbian Pleasure Club, 
and the Altenbrucher Verein. In Xovember, 
1904, Mr. Kremer married Miss Elsie Groth to 
whom one son has been born, Ernest, Jr. Mr. 
Kremer is one of the best known German- 
Americans on the upper east side and is a 
typical self-made man. His establishment is the 
meeting place of a number of social and frater 
nal organizations, the building being splendidly 
adapted for such purposes. 

HEXRY SZUSSKY, builder and real estate 
operator, son of Henry R., and Sarah (Edel- 
stein) Szussky, was born in Bohemia, Austria, 
where he worked with his father until 1898, at 
which time he came to the United States and 
located in Xew York City. Mr. Szussky organ 
ized the Manhattan Trading Company, whose 
business was that of exporting and importing 
merchandise. The concern was recently burned 
out, the company incurring a total loss, not hav 
ing any insurance. After his loss he became iden 
tified with the Suburban Construction Company 

of Xo. 16 Court Street, Brooklyn, where he is 
now located. On May 2, 1900, he married Miss 
Rebecca Weiss, they have no children. Mr. and 
Mrs. Szussky resides at Xo. 741 Tinton Avenue, 

CHARLES O. LAXZER, builder, son of Will 
iam and Priscilla Lanzer, was born at Denver, 
Col., September 4, 1873. His father was a well- 
known builder and contractor in that place and 
was a very successful business man. Mr. Lan 
zer, the subject of this sketch, came to Xew York 
City in 1900 where he engaged in the moving 
picture film business. After successfully conduct 
ing it for seven years, in 1907 he disposed of his 
interests and became interested in building and 
the development of real estate. He is now inter 
ested in the William J. Xixon Company of Xo. 
481 Flatbush Avenue, Brooklyn. In May, 1902, 
Mr. Lanzer married Miss Hattie F. Fisher of 
Xew York City. They reside at Xo. 167 West 
Thirty-fourth Street, Xew York City. 

chemist, and a son of Julius von Baur-Breiten- 
feld, whose family traces back for more than 
three hundred years in Wiirttemberg and Bavaria, 
was born in Tutzing, Bavaria, Germany, June 
23, 1869. He began his preliminary education at 
the public schools and later entered the Gymna 
sium (high school) at Aschaffenburg anad Mu 
nich ; he graduated in 1887 and entered the Uni 
versity of Erlangen and Munich, studying chem 
istry until 1892 where he graduated with high 
honors with a degree of Doctor of Philosophy. 
From 1892 to 1897 he filled the position of chem 
ist and bacteriologist with Dr. Prior, on the 
Vom Kgl. Bay. Staate subv. Versuchsstation fuer 
Brauerei und Maelzerei at X uremberg. Dr. von 
Baur-Breitenfeld established in 1897 the Scien 
tific Station for brewing and malting, and Brew 
ers Academy at Grimme, Saxonia, Germany, 
which is still being conducted. In 1899, he ac 
cepted the position as director of a brewery in 
Radeberg, Saxonia, which he held until 1901, 
at which time he became assistant manager and 
instructor in the United States Brewers Acad 
emy, Xew York City. From 1904 to 1906 he 
was director of the Scientific Station for Pure 
Products, X T ew York. During the same year he 
established himself as consulting chemist, and in 
October, 1909, he purchased the splendidly 
equipped laboratory of the late Dr. Endemann, 
then located at Xo. 116 Broad Street, but now 
at 23 William Street, Xew York City. Dr. von 
Baur-Breitenfeld has successfully edited several 
publications, prominent among which were the 


American B reiver; Pure Products, and a maga 
zine published at Grimme, Germany. He is a 
Mason, being a member of Zschokke Lodge No. 
202 ; the Verein ehemaliger deutscher Studenten 


of New York City, and the Chemical Society of 
Germany. In January, 1895, he married Miss 
Babette Trentz, to whom four children have 
been born, viz. : Ludwig, Anna, Emmy and Jo 
hanna. Dr. von Baur-Breitenfeld is a cultivated 
gentleman of courteous manners, and ranks 
among the most learned chemists of this country 
and Europe. 

dealer (retired), residing at No. 101 West 
Eighty-ninth Street, New York City, and son 
of John Henry and Margaret (Hagemann) 
Wehrenberg, was born at Gehrde, Hanover, 
Germany, September 20, 1847. His education 
was received at the public schools and at the 
age of fourteen he was graduated and worked 
on his mother s farm until he was seventeen. 
His parents were of good German stock. 
Being determined to make a success of his 

career, he emigrated to New York, coming 
over on the old steamship Bremen in 1865. 
He was then eighteen years of age, and landed 
in this city. He lived with a friend at No. 27 
Roosevelt Street, and obtained a position in a 
local grocery store as a clerk, working con 
scientiously for two years. He was engaged 
in the liquor business at No. 72 Cliff Street for 
three years and a half. In September, 1870, he 
opened his first liquor establishment on Cath 
erine Street, and sold same at a profit on April 
26, 1883. Between 1870 and 1883 he operated a 
liquor house, also a confectionery store, at No. 
770 Third Avenue. On May 9, 1883, he went to 
Germany for one year, and in the spring of 
1884 he opened an establishment at the corner 
of Murray and Greenwich streets. He con 
ducted this place for eight years, and sold out 
in 1894. On March 31, 1892, he bought a liquor 
store at 406 West Street, New York City, and 
conducted business here for nine years. Up 
to this period his success was such that he 
retired from active life in 1900 to enjoy 
the fruits of his labors. During his early 
business career he made many friends. Mr. 
Wehrenberg has been a member of the Platt- 
deutsche Volks Fest Verein since its organi 
zation, and treasurer for six years. He was 
one of the organizers of the Fritz Renter 
Altenheim, Schutzen Park, Union Hill, N. J., 
and treasurer from its inception. His moral 
and financial support have been solicited from 
many sources. In 1871 he was a member of 
the Eleventh Regiment, National Guard of New 
York, and from the rank of private was pro 
moted to first-lieutenant, serving his full term, 
and being honorably discharged by Governor 
Tilden in 1876. In politics he is a staunch 
Democrat, but has never aspired to public 
office. He was captain of New York Schutzen 
Corps, and ably served as such for many years. 
He is one of the original organizers of the 
Gehrde Freundschaftbund, and has been its 
treasurer for three years. He is a director of 
the Consumers Brewing Company of New 
York City, and one of the five organizers. He 
has been vice-president of this brewery for the 
past ten years. Mr. Wehrenberg has been 
married twice. He was married on September 
25, 1872, to Miss Adelaid Vosbrinck. No chil 
dren were born to the union. On April 26, 
1892, he was united in marriage to Mrs. Eliza 
beth (Landwehr) Bertram, who had one son by 
her first marriage, H. H. Bertram. In 1890 
Mr. Wehrenberg, as captain of the New York 
Schutzen Corps, took the forty-seven members 
of that bodv in full uniform to Berlin on 



August twenty-sixth, where they visited the 
Emperor. All were received with great honor. 
Mr. Wehrenberg has been enjoying an annual 
trip to Europe for the past ten years and takes 
a keen interest in all matters pertaining to the 
betterment of his adopted country. 

GUSTAV vox GLAHN, wholesale and re 
tail liquor dealer, located at Xo. 1 Columbus 
Avenue, New York City, is the son of Her 
man and Dorothy (Tietjen) von Glahn. He 
was iborn at Wollingst, Germany, January 11, 
1860, and educated at the public schools of his 
native town, where he was graduated at the 
age of fourteen years. He did the hardest 
kind of work for three years on a farm not 
far from his birthplace. At the age of seven 
teen he came to America, after having saved 
one hundred dollars, and settled at Xew York 
City, where he obtained a position as a grocery 
clerk. He could speak English fluently, as 
his father, who was a school teacher, instructed 
him in the language before he left school. He 
remained in the capacity of grocery clerk for 
four and a half years. At the age of twenty- 
one he opened a grocery store on his own ac 
count at Xo. 135 Elizabeth Street, and three 
years later he turned the store into a liquor 
establishment, which he sold in 1884. He then 
purchased a store at the corner of Grand and 
Crosby Street, and there operated a lucrative 
business for three years. In 1887 he opened 
other stores. In 1892 he opened his present 
large quarters at Xo. 1 Columbus Avenue. 
He also has a fine cafe at Xo. 110 Liberty 
Street, Xew York City. To-day he is enjoy 
ing the income from four successful establish 
ments in this city, each one representing an 
expenditure of energy and hard work. Mr. 
von Glahn is a member of Herman Lodge 
Xo. 268, F. & A. M.; a member of the Benev 
olent Order of Elks Lodge, Xo. 1 ; treasurer 
of the Liquor Dealers Association; a Knight 
of Honor, and an Odd Fellow. He is a direc 
tor of the Consumers Brewing Company of 
X ew York City; also a director of the Franco- 
American Baking Company. On June 15, 
1887, he was united in marriage to Miss Hen 
rietta Schweckendick of X T ew York City, who 
died on September 29, 1902, greatly mourned 
by her husband and a large circle of friends. 
The three children, Lillian, Herman, and Mad- 
aline, also died, thus leaving Mr. von Glahn 
alone. He gives much of his leisure moments 
to horseback riding. He is a man of many 
friends, notwithstanding his retiring disposi 
tion and modest tastes. 

WILLIAM ENGELMANN. The subject of 
this review, like many of his fellow-countrymen, 
through adversity in early life have overcome 
the obstacles of their environment and have 
achieved success in various ways. So it was 
with Mr. Engelmann, son of Henry and Char 
lotte Engelmann, born November 9, 1852, at 
Usseln, near Waldeck, Germany. He attended 
the public free school there until his four 
teenth year. This was the extent of his pre 
liminary education, but his close association 
with the outer world later on created a de 
sire to broaden himself. After the toilsome 
position of a shepherd boy, and later that of 
a farm hand, he emigrated to America in 1869, 
and settled in Xew York City. At the age of 
seventeen he entered the grocery business and 
remained in that line of work for three years. 
He then entered the liquor business, and after 
several years experience he entered into part 
nership with Henry Huscher. In 1885 Mr. 
Huscher retired and Mr. Engelmann purchased 
his interests. After several years of earnest 
endeavor and accumulation of what money he 
could lay aside, he opened an establishment, in 
1893, at Xo. 110 Pearl Street, Xew York City. 
He was now the possessor of two valuable 
parcels of property (having purchased his for 
mer store, Xo. 114 Pearl Street, which he con 
tinued to operate up to 1893) ; the income from 
same was judiciously invested to promote his 
new enterprise, which promised much from 
the beginning. No expense was spared to 
make this store one of the show-places of 
that section of the city, and owing to Mr. 
Engelmann s method of conducting business 
he has gathered a patronage worthy of his 
perseverance. On March 26, 1882, he was 
united in marriage to Miss Katherine Leeuw, 
and to this union were born eight children, 
four of whom are now living, namely: Wil- 
helmina, Charlotte, Elsie, and William. Mr. 
Engelmann, realizing his early struggles for 
a liberal education, and having succeeded in 
securing the footing he so long desired, gave 
his children the best educational advantages 
offered in this country, and all were carefully 
trained. Being a home man in every sense, 
Mr. Engelmann purchased a splendid resi 
dence at Xo. 105 Prospect Park West, Brook 
lyn, X.Y., for his interesting family, and here 
he has resided for one year, surrounded by 
all the comforts necessary for proper develop 
ment. He is identified with the German 
Lutheran Church, is a Mason, Herman Lodge 
Xo. 268, and a member of the United Work 
men. He is a director of The Consumers 


Brewing Company of Xew York City, and the 
Consumers Brewing Company of Brooklyn. 
In politics, Mr. Engclmann is independent in 
his views, and has never aspired to office. 
Now having rounded out a career of activity 
for over forty years, he has been rewarded 
not only by material success, but the knowl 
edge that he is esteemed by all who know him. 
Being the possessor of a rare personality, his 
generosity has left deep impressions in vari 
ous ways. 

GUSTAV OBERLAENDER, secretary and 
treasurer of the Berkshire Knitting Mills, lo 
cated at Wyomissing, a suburb of Reading, 
Pennsylvania, is a native of Germany. He 
came to New York in 1888, obtained employ 
ment and worked until 1896, going then to 
Indianapolis, Indiana, where he engaged in 
business on his own account. After a series of 
hard struggles and vicissitudes he succeeded 
in his undertaking, and in 1906 he disposed of 
his interests at Indianapolis. He then asso 
ciated himself with Messrs. Ferdinand Thun 
and Henry Janssen, friends of his boyhood 
days, and established the Berkshire Knitting 
Mills. The plant is one of the largest of its 
kind in the state of Pennsylvania and furnishes 
steady employment to more than three hun 
dred hands. Originally the business was 
launched on rather a small scale, and in the 
short period of three years it has grown to its 
present magnitude. In the near future the 
company will greatly enlarge its plant, so that 
eventually it will be necessary to employ from 
six to seven hundred people. Mr. Oberlaender 
is a self-made man in the fullest sense ; he 
enjoys a wide acquaintance throughout the 
country, and in his own locality is counted 
among the leading citizens. He is an im 
portant factor in all movements for the better 
ment of local conditions. 

merchant and seventh son of Claus Hinrich and 
Anna Margaretha (nee Ficken) Intemann, was 
born at Everson, Hanover, Germany, October 25, 
1848, his father being a farm owner. Mr. In 
temann received his preliminary education in the 
schools of his native place, was an orphan at ten 
years old and at the age of twelve years and six 
months he came to America, where he attended 
St. John s Evangelical Lutheran Church Parish 
School until 1863, then under the direction of 

Peter W. Moeller, then superintendent. After 
completing his education he in the same year en 
tered the confectionery trade as an apprentice 
and in 1869 started in that business on his own 
account. In 1886 he took charge of the United 
Confectioners Association, 43 Jay Street, now the 
United Confectioners Supply Company, located at 
Xo. 561 Greenwich Street, Xew York City, of 
which company he is now the president and gen 
eral manager. In 1900 Mr. Intemann organized 
the Confectioners Manufacturing Company of 
No. 112-118 Bank Street, manufacturers of Hy 
gienic Ice, of which he is also the president. He 
is closely identified with several benevolent or 
ganizations, is of high standing with the Free 
Masons, among which he has held high offices of 
trust, which, in consequence of said services he 
was elected to honorary membership to seven 
lodges working in the German language in Man 
hattan, Brooklyn and Richmond boroughs, New 
York City. Mr. Intemann was for several years 
president of the German Branch of the Y.M.C.A., 
formerly at Xos. 140 and 142 Second Avenue, but 
now out of existence. He was for many years 
engaged in the manufacturing and retail confec 
tionery business at 51 and 53 Sixth Avenue, X ew 
York City, which he conducted up to the time of 
his being made president of the corporations with 
which he is now connected. Aside from his 
manufacturing interests Mr. Intemann is chair 
man of the Allied Underwriters at Xew York and 
Chicago Lloyds. He has never held any political 
office, but was instrumental in having laws en 
acted for the benefit of the confectionery busi 
ness as well as for the public in general. He is 
a prominent member of St. John s Evangelical 
Lutheran Church, president of the Board of Trus 
tees ; United Brothers Lodge Xo. 356 F. & A.M.; 
General Society of Mechanics and Tradesmen ; 
Confectioners and Ice Cream Manufacturers 
Protective Association ; Orphan Asylum ; the 
Home for the Aged and a number of other in 
stitutions. On September 6, 1869, Mr. Intemann 
was married to Miss Catharine Margaretha Lange 
to whom eight children have been born, viz : 
Mary Margaretha, Caroline Wilhelmina, Ernst A. 
G. Jr., Charles Lewis Henry, Alfred Christopher, 
Agnes Henrietta, Florence Dorothea and Fred 
erick William. Mr. Intemann was elected honor 
ary member of the following Masonic lodges : 
German Union Xo. 54; Pythagoras Lodge X T o. 86; 
Goethe Lodge, Xo. 629 ; Beethoven Lodge, Xo. 
661 ; Allemania Lodge, No. 740 ; Klopstock Lodge, 
Xo. 760 and Solon Lodge, Xo. 771. 


Portraits and Biographical Sketches 



Abbe, Max F ." 

Ackermann, C. F - 

Amend, Bernard G 290 

Amend, Otto P 290 

Ams, Max Ill 

Anderson, Henry A. C 108 


Bahrenburg, Henry VV 

Balser, William 324 

Barbey, Peter 323 

Baruch, Emanuel 120 

Beck, Carl 

Berger, Carl 270 

Blank, David 

Blun, Ferdinand S. M 334 

Boldt, Hermann Johannes 107 

Borkel, John 214 

Brandner, Benjamin L 

Brunn, Julius \V 

Buchsbaum, Aaron 319 


Clausen, Charles C. 

Conreid, Heinrich 163 

Cordts, Frank II 219 


Demuth, William 151 

Dennig, Rudolph C. R 214 

Diefendorf, Warren T 304 

Diehl, Philip 301 

Dippel, Johann Andreas 285 

Dittenhoefer, Abram Jesse 79 

Drakenfeld, Bernard Ferdinand 188 

Dressel, George C 137 

Eggers, Henry 156 

Ehret, George 135 

Eichler, John 175 

Eickemeyer, Rudolph 331 

Eidlitz, Marc 106 

Eiiner, August 293 

Endemann, Henry 

Endemann, Samuel Theodor Hermann Karl 

Engelhard, Charles 196 

Engelmann, William 344 

Engler, Adolph W 

Eschmann, F. W. R 332 

Ewald, Louis Anton 202 


Feldmann. Henry 

Finn. Richard A 143 

Foelker, Otto G. 

Fornes, Charles Vincent ^ 

Frank, Albert 191 

Freundlich, Alfred 302 

Frey, Joseph 253 

Froeb, Charles 

Fromme, Isaac 316 



Gass, Frank 

Gerdau. Otto 

Gieeerich. Leonard A 14^ 

Gillig, George 

Gillig. John George : 

Goepel," Carl Frederick 172 

Goertz, August 2^ 

Goldmann. Isaac 

Goldschmidt. Henry P 

Greenhut, Cantain T. B 

Grill. John George 

Groll, Peter Tosenh 348 

Gross, Michael C Pn 

Grossman, Moses Henry 33/ 


122 ** 













Haffen, Louis F 185 

Haffen (Died), Mathias 355 

Haffen (Pres.), John 355 

Haffen, Jr. (Treas.), Mathias 355 

Ilaffen (Sec y), John M. 355 

Hardenbergh, Thomas Eddy 289 

Haupt, Louis 

Hauser, Gustav 231 

Haussling, Hon. Jacob 222 

Hegner, Hermann 

Heide, Henry 83 

Heidritter, August 

Heidritter, August, Jr 298 

Ileidritter, Frederick L 298 

Heine, A. B 74 

Heinrichs, Theodore Richard 341 

Heintz, Louis J. 186 

Heitemeyer, Theodore Clemens 102 

Helwig, Rudolph 

Hering, Rudolph 286 

Herold, Herman Christian Henry ... 138 

Heuman, George M 

Hexamer, Philip 262 

Hohner, Hans > 

Ilohner, Matthius 

Holm. Charles F 227 

Hornbostel, Edward 

Hornfeck, Hermann Heinrich 

Hottenroth, Adolph C 1 65 

Hraba. Louis W 

Hupfi-1, Adolph G 

Hupfel, John Christian Glaser 171 


Iden, Henry 

Intemann. Ernst August George 


Janssen, Henry K 182 

Joseph, Frederick 160 

Joseph, Herman 1 77 

tuhring, lohn C 

Jurgens, William B. A 310 


Kahn, Otto H 67 

Karsch, Bernard 221 

Kaufmann, M.D., Jacob 325 

Kempner, Otto 

Keuffel, William 101 

Kiliani, Otto George Theobald 

Kleinert, Albert E 249 

Knopf, Dr. S. Adolphus 

Koch. Hermann 

Koeble. Alphonse G 299 

Kolle, Frederick Strang 

Koller. Samuel 

Krause. Rudolph Oscar 

Kremer, M.D., Carl F 329 

Kremer, Ernest 

Knur, Florian 

Kuder. Joseph 

Kud ich, Dr. Hans 44 

Kiinstlich, Samuel II J4 - 


Laneeloth, Jacob \ 

Lankering, Adolph 

Lanzer, Charles O ~ 

Lauterbach, Edward 

Lentz. Carl 2 

Leschziner, Siegfried 347 

Lewinson. Benno 

Lichtenstein, Paul 

Loeb. E-nil 333 

Loewenthal, Max - 541 

T.-ist^arten. Sternum! ~ 

Liittgen. W r alther ^94 
















Mack, Jacob Wolfgang 213 168 

Maier, Ph.G., M.D., Otto 329 329 

Mayer, David 159 116 

Mennen, Gerhard II 271 

Mertens, William 282 283 

Metz, Herman A 88 109 

Meyer, Willy 277 275 

Mietz, August 136 140 

Miller, August G. 220 243 

Mischo, Hugo J 349 349 

Mohr, Justin Fred k William 93 82 

Moser, John 255 

Nahmmacker, Charles F 351 351 

Nissen, Ludwig 118 85 

Nordeman M. D., Felix 278 276 


Oberlaender, Gustav 257 358 

Obermayer, Charles J 245 211 

Oelkers, John B. . .". 126 158 

Ordemann, Carl 232 268 

Otto, John Martin 112 168 

Peter, William 170 121 

Peters, Carl Otto 214 207 

Pfizer, Charles 73 139 

Prieth, Benedict 125 158 


Rapp, William 351 

Rappenhagen, Peter H 213 21 8 

Reichhelm, Edward Paul 201 167 

Reisenweber, John 228 264 

Reisinger, Hugo 147 104 

Renken, Frederick 326 327 

Rice, Isaac Leopold 339 

Riefe, John 225 235 

Rinckhoff, William P 226 236 

Ringe, Herman 268 

Ritterbusch, Hugo H 266 229 

Rothbarth, Adolph 96 211 

Ruppert, Jacob 176 121 

Schaefer, John Louis 152 140 

Schaefer, Rudolph J 78 127 

Sehieren, Hon. Charles Adolph 59 65 

Schiff, Jacob Henry 51 58 

Schirmer, Charles F 200 

Schmidt, Henry L 222 251 

Schmidt, Philip J 242 260 

Schneider, Charles 258 312 

Schneider, William Francis 349 346 

Schnitzler, Paul C 302 300 

Schreiter, Henry 285 287 

Schurz, Carl 2 A3- 

Schwab. Gustav H 47 57 

Seitz, Carl Emil 265 230 

Seligman, Isaac N 56 62 

Seligman, Joseph 55 61 



Siegel, Henry 105 

Simon, Herman 307 

Simon, Robert 308 

Sohmer, Hugo 164 

Sohmer, William 241 

Speyer, James 63 

Stadler, Charles A 206 

Steenken, lohn Godfrey 195 

Steil, George H 222 

Steneck, John 261 

Stern, Leopold 90 

Steuer, Max David 315 

Strasbourger, Samuel 

Strauss, Julius 246 

Stuhr, William Sebastian 72 

Sturhahn, Carl Fritz H. F 

Sulzberger, Ferdinand 197 

Sulzer, Hon. William 293 

Sutro, Theodore 192-213 

Szussky, Henry 

Thalman, Ernst 87 

Thun, Ferdinand 

Timken, Herman L 254 


Yolk, Anthony J. 216 

Vom Cleff, Robert 

Von Baur-Breitenfeld, Karl 3^4 

Yon Der Bruck, Charles 

Yon Glahn, Gustav 343 

Yon Minden, Henry P. C 34.1 



Wagner, August P 

Wagner, Robert F 

Wahle, Hon. Charles G. F 209 

Waldenberger, Emil Y 238 

Waldstein, Edward 

Walther, Carl 68 

Walther, Waldemar A 

Weber, Adam \\ 

Wehrenberg, George H 343 

Wehrum. Charles Christian 205 

Weidemann, Jacob J-4 

Weil, Jonas f 

Weil, "Samuel 132 

Weiler, Tohn A ^- 

Welte, Emil 21 3 

Wesendonck, Hutro ^ 

Wessell, Arthur L 234 

Wessell, Fernando A 237 

Wessell, Otto 233 

Wicke. William 

Windmuller, Louis ~~ 

Windolph. John P ] 8/ 

Wischmann. Hermann 

Wissner, Otto !9 

Wolfsohn, Henry 


Zimmermann, Moses 350 













TO* 202 Main Library 








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